Application of Intelligent Systems in Multi-modal Information Analytics: Proceedings of the 2020 International Conference on Multi-model Information Analytics (MMIA2020), Volume 1 [1st ed.] 9783030514303, 9783030514310

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Table of contents :
Front Matter ....Pages i-xxxvi
Front Matter ....Pages 1-1
Spectrum Sensing Method in Multi-primary Users Environment (Zhijun Gao, Li Dai, Xin Wang, Languang Zhao, Jianshun Liu)....Pages 3-8
ICT-Based Information Platform Architecture of Maritime Cargo Transportation Supply Chain (Yue Zhao, Changfu Yuan, Jiabao Du, Yi Wang)....Pages 9-15
Under the Background of Digital College Financial Problems Existing in the Informatization Construction and Solving Suggestion (Hongxu Gao)....Pages 16-21
Collaborative Workflow-Based Enterprise Information System (Bin Huang, Qilong Teng, You Tang)....Pages 22-27
E-Commerce Profit Evaluation of Agricultural Products Based on Grey Prediction Algorithm (Shuangying Liu)....Pages 28-33
Customer Segmentation and Management of Online Shops Based on RFM Model (Yulu He, Yanxia Cheng)....Pages 34-41
Digital Service Evaluation System Based on Enterprise Operation Management Mode (Chaohu He, Xiong Qi, Li An)....Pages 42-46
Information Disclosure Violation of Small and Medium-Sized Listed Companies Based on Strauss’ Grounded Theory (Ronghui Xu)....Pages 47-53
Evaluation Modeling Establishment for the Risk Degree of Ship Collision (Hongdan Liu, Yue Sun, Bing Li)....Pages 54-63
Choice of Profit Models for the Transformation and Development of Traditional Industrial Enterprises in the Internet Industry (Shanshan Wu, Xingpei Ji, Rui Tang)....Pages 64-69
Influence of Internet Finance on Commercial Bank Financial Services (Zi Wang)....Pages 70-75
Evaluation of Mixed Ownership Reform Based on Fuzzy Logic (Hualei Zhang, Jian Zhao, Liling Huang, Jing Wang)....Pages 76-83
Development of Cross-Border E-commerce Based on Big Data Analysis (Huanhuan Ma)....Pages 84-89
Methods of Making Courseware for College English Teaching in the Information Age (Lin Zhang, Jianli Guo)....Pages 90-95
Performance Evaluation of Guangdong Province Technology Finance Based on DEA Model (Junfeng Zhao, Xue Deng, Lu Shen, Cuirong Huang, Chuangjie Chen)....Pages 96-104
Traceability System Construction of Agricultural Products Cross-Border E-commerce Logistics from the Perspective of Blockchain Technology (Yulin Luo, Chao Xie)....Pages 105-111
Express Delivery Services Customer Satisfaction Based on PLS_SEM (Huali Cai, Xuemei Wei, Fang Wu, Yanjun Gu, Ning Zhang)....Pages 112-116
Expectation to the Accounting Personnel Under the Information Background (Xiuqing Wang)....Pages 117-122
Brand Strategy Management of Agricultural Products Based on Information Age (Chunming Liu)....Pages 123-129
A Brief Analysis of the Innovation of International Trade Methods Based on Network Economy (Yushu Ding)....Pages 130-136
Financial Management Teaching Mode Based on MOOC Under the Background of Informatization (Zhe Wang)....Pages 137-142
Supply Chain Financing Strategy in Sports Industry Based on Game Theory (Shujuan Li)....Pages 143-149
Risk Evaluation of Project Bidding Based on TOPSIS Model (Wanfeng Liu, Yiqiong Gao, Tiecheng Yan, Lixiang Cao)....Pages 150-157
The Chain Operation Model of Private Kindergartens in Shanxi Based on Optimal Dynamic Programming (Zhaojun Pang)....Pages 158-163
Internal Control of Enterprise Finance Based on SQL Database and Countermeasures (Bingxiang Li, Rui Tao, Meng Li)....Pages 164-168
Financial Sustainable Growth of SUNING Based on the Network Economy Service Platform (Yige Ma)....Pages 169-174
Logistics Transfer Center Planning Based on Internet of Things Technology (Hongzhen Zhang, Guibin Zhang, Xiaohua Cai)....Pages 175-182
Consumers’ Purchasing Intention of Regional Brand on E-commerce Platform (Jing Xu, Zhiling Tian)....Pages 183-189
Review of Studies on the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) for Urban Infrastructure Projects in China (Justin Wouagabe, Du Juan)....Pages 190-197
Front Matter ....Pages 199-199
Interaction Mode of “Digital Museum” on the Terminal of Digital Mobile Media (Hongjiang Liu)....Pages 201-207
English Teaching at College in Virtual Environment Based on Visualization Platform (Lijun Deng, Tao Wang)....Pages 208-216
Network-Based College English Multimedia Teaching Model (Qian Yang)....Pages 217-223
Visual Module R&D of the Intelligent Grabbing System of WIFI Module (Shufang Ma, Jiang Wu, Shuangben Jiao, Bin Xue)....Pages 224-231
The Design of Modern Shouzhou Kiln Porcelain from the Perspective of Internet (Gang Liu, Wei Jiang)....Pages 232-237
Teaching Activity Design Based on the Discipline Key Competence of IT in Secondary Vocational School (Penglong Zhang, Yongsheng Zhang, Lining Liu, Wenqian Sun)....Pages 238-245
The Local University Based on Web Service Technology Finance Internal Control System Optimization Research (Caiping Qin)....Pages 246-251
Teaching Activity Model of “PHP Website Development Technology” Course Reform Under the Background of Wisdom Education (Rongxia Wang, Baiqiang Gan)....Pages 252-257
The Application of Computer Network Technology in the Sharing of Enterprise Financial Files (Lingjun Zhu)....Pages 258-263
Analysis of Influencing Factors and Countermeasures of Computer Network Security (Yanli Liu, Meng Cui)....Pages 264-271
Computer Network Technology-Based College English Oral Course Design (Jie Huang, Juan Yi)....Pages 272-277
Functional Requirements of FPS Mobile Games Users Based on KANO Model (Xiyuan Wang, Danping Chen, Ting Fu)....Pages 278-284
Assumption of Load Balancing and Multithreading Algorithm in Cloud Environment (Zhuo Li, Lili Ma, You Tang)....Pages 285-290
Research and Design of School’s SOA Architecture Based on UDDI (Yong Chen, Yue Yang)....Pages 291-297
Application of Mixed Teaching Mode Under “Rain Classroom” Information Technology (Jun Luo, Yulan Yu)....Pages 298-304
Design and Development of Self Built Database of University Library Based on Cloud Computing (Ziqi Jia)....Pages 305-311
Exploration and Reflection on the Construction of University Archives Management System Under the Background of Information Technology (Yan Sun)....Pages 312-318
Cloud Computing with Heavy CNC Machine Tools (Juan Shao)....Pages 319-325
Application of Modern Information Technology in Course Teaching in Universities (Ying Li, Jinliang Wang)....Pages 326-331
Measurement of the Relevance of Energy Internet Industry Based on Co-integration Model (Shanshan Wu, Rui Tang)....Pages 332-338
The Application of FIRD Book Positioning Technology in Intelligent Library (Yu Zhao)....Pages 339-346
Blended Teaching Mode of Intermediate Financial Accounting Course Under the Background of “Internet +” (Libin Xie)....Pages 347-352
Migration and Integration Strategy of Virtual Machines in Cloud Data Center Based on HPGA (Zhenxiang He)....Pages 353-360
Analysis and Comparison of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks (Binbin Yu)....Pages 361-367
Analysis of Cross-Cultural Communication from the Angle of Ecological Information Construction (Rui Dai)....Pages 368-373
Shoot Rate in Basketball Game Based on Metal Sensor (Xi Li)....Pages 374-382
College English Teaching System Based on Resource Library and Network Support Platform (Shasha Zeng)....Pages 383-390
Communication Network Transmission Optimization Algorithm (Hongchang Liu, Yizhao Liu, Chi Zhang, Yang Zheng)....Pages 391-399
Distribution Network Planning and Design Supported by PSO-AFSA Hybrid Optimization Algorithm (Chao Xun, Jieyun Zheng, Keyao Lin, Tingting Lin, Fen Xiao)....Pages 400-407
Security and Privacy of 5G Intelligent Subway Network (Zheng Zhang)....Pages 408-414
Research of College Online Teaching System Based on Cloud Computing (Chang Liu, Xiaoyu Ge)....Pages 415-421
Front Matter ....Pages 423-423
Application Research of the New Mode of “Blockchain + Higher Education” (Zhenxing Ge, Ying Hu)....Pages 425-430
Design and Implementation of Online Art Education Software Under the Background of Education Informationization 2.0 (Changcheng Cui)....Pages 431-437
Exploration of Interactive Urban Sculpture Based on Augmented Reality (Shukui Song, Yushan Zhong)....Pages 438-443
A Mean-Continuous Fuzzy Random Entropy Portfolio Model with Fuzzy Random Returns (Quande Sun, Junfeng Zhao, Xue Deng, Yingxian Lin)....Pages 444-450
Restructure of Data Mining Based Delicacy Management Platform for College Students (Weihong Chen)....Pages 451-454
Application and Development of Music Production Technology in the New Media Environment (Wei Wang)....Pages 455-460
Clothing Display Method Based on VR Technology (HuiJuan Lai, Sungwon Lee)....Pages 461-466
Text Classification Model for Public Opinion Management in Colleges and Universities Based on Improved CNN (Wenliang Luo, Jiaqiong Gao)....Pages 467-472
Comprehensive Teaching Mode Based on Blockchain (Qiang Huang, Xingjing Mao, Mantao Wang, Xinhui Feng)....Pages 473-478
Evaluation Strategy of Teacher Professional Development in Applied Universities Based on BP Neural Network (Guohua Fu)....Pages 479-486
Augmented Reality Technology Key Technologies Research (Hejia Li, Xilong Chen, Fushan Yao, Fei Gao, Jiuchao Li, Kai Yang et al.)....Pages 487-493
Application Research of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality (Hejia Li, Yao Zhao, Fei Gao, Yun Li, Chao Tu, Kai Yang et al.)....Pages 494-499
Word Frequency Analysis and Intelligent Word Recognition in Chinese Literature Based on Neighborhood Analysis (Chunhua Liu)....Pages 500-506
A New Representation of Plane Composition in Computer Graphics Software Aided Design (Dongmei Zhang)....Pages 507-513
Optimization of Maintenance Strategy for Deteriorated Parts Based on Markov Chain (Li Jiuchao, Liang Zhou, Qi Ou)....Pages 514-520
Digital Technology-Based Pedagogy for Interpreting (Hui Ye)....Pages 521-527
The Virtual Restoration of Worship Scene on Circular Mound Altar (LeiFang Chu)....Pages 528-534
Problems and Strategies of Financial Accounting Informationization of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Based on Artificial Intelligence (Xingdong Zhang, Hua Cai)....Pages 535-540
Deep Integration of Mixed Teaching and Interactive Media Under Information Technology (Caihong Chen)....Pages 541-546
Influence of “Corpus Data Driven Learning + Learning Driven Data” Mode on ESP Writing Under the Background of Artificial Intelligence (Zheqian Su, Miao Liu, Man Jiang, Yongwei Shang)....Pages 547-552
The Applied Research of Teaching Reform of Computer Major Using Virtual Reality Technology to Promote (Wei Sai)....Pages 553-557
Application and Development Trend of Blockchain in the Financial Field (Danni Zhao)....Pages 558-564
Ideological Education Under the 3D Virtual Scene Applied Research in Organizational Behavior Course (He Yu, Qinglan Luo)....Pages 565-571
Virtual Reality Real-Time Communication System (Jia Fu)....Pages 572-582
Prediction Method of Basketball Players’ Shooting Rate Based on Quantum Search Algorithm (Zheng Yang)....Pages 583-592
Algorithm of Ground Stability Correction for High Difficulty Movements of Competitive (Mingming Gong)....Pages 593-601
Application Research and Analysis of College Pole Dance Teaching Based on Virtual Reality Technology (Hongbo Yu)....Pages 602-610
Dual Discriminator Generative Adversarial Networks and Their Application in Detecting Nests Built in Catenary (Zeyu Lian)....Pages 611-617
Professional Development of College Teachers in the Era of Artificial Intelligence: Role Rebuilding and Development Path (Yinjia Miao, Yi Yao)....Pages 618-626
Supplier Evaluation and Selection Based on BP Neural Network (Jinting Wang)....Pages 627-634
Study on Water Quality Prediction of Fuxian Lake Based on Elman Network (Shengping Zhao, Quan Wang, Jingrui Li)....Pages 635-640
Front Matter ....Pages 641-641
Adaptive Online Learning Model Based on Big Data (Guoping Lei, Xiuying Luo, Sen Yang, Ke Xiao)....Pages 643-649
TCM Prescription Compatibility Based on Improved Association Rules Algorithm (Mengnan Li, Xiaoqiang Ren)....Pages 650-656
Feature Analysis of Chinese Drama Based on Big Data Analysis (Chunhua Liu)....Pages 657-663
Voltage Unbalance Factors of Doubly-Fed Wind Generator Based on Big Data Analysis (Na Wang, Lei Wang)....Pages 664-669
Cultural and Creative Design Service of Faw Red Flag Car Based on Big Data Analysis Is Integrated with Automobile Industry (Jingyi Chen)....Pages 670-676
The C-E Translation of Passive Structure in Tourist Texts Based on Corpus Technology (Dan Shen, Huifang Liu)....Pages 677-682
The Influence of Chinese Traditional Culture in the Process of Teaching and Education Based on Big Data Analysis (Jianqiang Li)....Pages 683-688
The Problems and Countermeasures of University Financial-Management in the Era of Big-Data (Xiaoyan Ma)....Pages 689-694
Construction of Churn Customer Analysis System for Telecom Companies Based on Big Data (Li Wei, Hui Xie)....Pages 695-701
Application of Big Data Technology in National Emergency Management System (Yongmei Tao)....Pages 702-707
Vehicle Refueling Behavior Model Based on Spatio-Temporal Big Data Monitoring Platform (Wenbin Wang)....Pages 708-713
Construction of Information Auditing Curriculum for Auditing Major in Big Data Era (Renzao Lin)....Pages 714-719
Big Data Technology in Construction Management Informationization in Complex Environment (Ping Liu)....Pages 720-724
Higher Vocational Teaching Management System Based on Big Data (Shuyu Shi)....Pages 725-730
Influencing Factors of College Students’ Entrepreneurship Based on Big Data Analysis (Heng Zhang)....Pages 731-736
Discussion on the Application of Computer Technology in the New Media Era (Xiaona Li)....Pages 737-742
Evaluation of Scientific and Technological Innovation Capability in Guangzhou Based on Cross-Efficiency DEA (Xue Deng, Ying Liang, Luyao Feng, Chuangjie Chen, Junfeng Zhao)....Pages 743-751
Computer Security Vulnerabilities and Preventive Measures (Binbin Jiang)....Pages 752-759
Tolerance of the General Public to Homosexuality Based on Big Data Analysis (Pengnian Jin, Xiao Wan)....Pages 760-766
Heterogeneous Network Security Monitoring and Association Algorithm for Big Data (Zhenqi Liu, Yangchun Gao, Deqiang Shao)....Pages 767-772
Commodity Trading Platform Based on Big Data Analysis (Zhiqiang Cai, Jiaai Zhang)....Pages 773-780
Transformation and Upgrading of Fresh E-Commerce Mode Based on Big Data Conception (Ping Yang, Jing Wang, Liqin Hu)....Pages 781-787
Back Matter ....Pages 789-791
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Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing 1233

Vijayan Sugumaran Zheng Xu Huiyu Zhou   Editors

Application of Intelligent Systems in Multi-modal Information Analytics Proceedings of the 2020 International Conference on Multi-model Information Analytics (MMIA2020), Volume 1

Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing Volume 1233

Series Editor Janusz Kacprzyk, Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland Advisory Editors Nikhil R. Pal, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India Rafael Bello Perez, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Computing, Universidad Central de Las Villas, Santa Clara, Cuba Emilio S. Corchado, University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain Hani Hagras, School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Colchester, UK László T. Kóczy, Department of Automation, Széchenyi István University, Gyor, Hungary Vladik Kreinovich, Department of Computer Science, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA Chin-Teng Lin, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Jie Lu, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Patricia Melin, Graduate Program of Computer Science, Tijuana Institute of Technology, Tijuana, Mexico Nadia Nedjah, Department of Electronics Engineering, University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Ngoc Thanh Nguyen , Faculty of Computer Science and Management, Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław, Poland Jun Wang, Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong

The series “Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing” contains publications on theory, applications, and design methods of Intelligent Systems and Intelligent Computing. Virtually all disciplines such as engineering, natural sciences, computer and information science, ICT, economics, business, e-commerce, environment, healthcare, life science are covered. The list of topics spans all the areas of modern intelligent systems and computing such as: computational intelligence, soft computing including neural networks, fuzzy systems, evolutionary computing and the fusion of these paradigms, social intelligence, ambient intelligence, computational neuroscience, artificial life, virtual worlds and society, cognitive science and systems, Perception and Vision, DNA and immune based systems, self-organizing and adaptive systems, e-Learning and teaching, human-centered and human-centric computing, recommender systems, intelligent control, robotics and mechatronics including human-machine teaming, knowledge-based paradigms, learning paradigms, machine ethics, intelligent data analysis, knowledge management, intelligent agents, intelligent decision making and support, intelligent network security, trust management, interactive entertainment, Web intelligence and multimedia. The publications within “Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing” are primarily proceedings of important conferences, symposia and congresses. They cover significant recent developments in the field, both of a foundational and applicable character. An important characteristic feature of the series is the short publication time and world-wide distribution. This permits a rapid and broad dissemination of research results. ** Indexing: The books of this series are submitted to ISI Proceedings, EI-Compendex, DBLP, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and Springerlink **

More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/11156

Vijayan Sugumaran Zheng Xu Huiyu Zhou •



Editors

Application of Intelligent Systems in Multi-modal Information Analytics Proceedings of the 2020 International Conference on Multi-model Information Analytics (MMIA2020), Volume 1

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Editors Vijayan Sugumaran Department of Decision and Information Sciences, and Center for Data Science and Big Data Analytics Oakland University, School of Business Administration Rochester, MI, USA

Zheng Xu Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences Shanghai, China

Huiyu Zhou Department of Informatics University of Leicester Leicester, UK

ISSN 2194-5357 ISSN 2194-5365 (electronic) Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing ISBN 978-3-030-51430-3 ISBN 978-3-030-51431-0 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0 © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland

Foreword

We are living in the era of data deluge. The world of big data exhibits a rich and complex set of cross-media contents, such as text, image, video, audio, and graphics. So far, great research efforts have been dedicated separately to big data processing and cross-media mining, with well-grounded theoretical underpinnings and great practical success. However, studies jointly considering cross-media big data analytics are relatively sparse. This research gap needs our further attention, since it will benefit a variety of real-world applications. Despite its significance and value, it is non-trivial to analyze cross-media big data due to their heterogeneity, large-scale volume, increasing size, unstructured nature, correlations, and noise. Multi-modal information systems, which can be treated as the most significant breakthrough in the past 10 years, have greatly impacted the methodologies utilized in computer vision and achieved terrific progress in both academia and industry. The 2020 International Conference on Multi-modal Information Analytics (MMIA), building on the previous successes in Shenyang, China (2019), is proud to be in the 2nd consecutive conference year. The conference would not have been possible without the contributions of the authors. We sincerely thank all the authors for their valuable contributions. We would like to express our thanks to Professor Vijayan Sugumaran, Oakland University; Professor Xiao Wei, Shanghai University; and Shunxiang Zhang, Anhui University of Science and Technology, for being the keynote speakers at the conference. We thank the Steering Committee, General Chairs, Program Committee Chairs, Organizing Chairs, and Workshop Chairs for their hard work. The local organizers’ and the students’ help are also highly appreciated. Our special thanks are due also to Editor Dr. Thomas Ditzinger for publishing the proceedings in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing of Springer.

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Organization

General Chairs Tharam Dillon

La Trobe University, Australia

Program Chairs Huiyu Zhou Vijayan Sugumaran Zheng Xu

Queen’s University Belfast, UK Oakland University, USA Shanghai University, China

Publication Chairs Juan Du Junyu Xuan

Shanghai University, China University of Technology Sydney, Australia

Publicity Chairs Shunxiang Zhang Neil. Y. Yen

Anhui University of Science and Technology, China University of Aizu, Japan

Local Organizing Chairs Daxu Wang Ruifu Zhang

Changzhou Institute of Mechatronic Technology, China Changzhou Institute of Mechatronic Technology, China

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Organization

Program Committee Members William Bradley Glisson George Grispos Abdullah Azfar Aniello Castiglione Florin Pop Ben Martini Wei Wang Neil Yen Meng Yu Shunxiang Zhang Guangli Zhu Tao Liao Xiaobo Yin Xiangfeng Luo Xiao Wei Huan Du Zhiguo Yan Rick Church Tom Cova Susan Cutter Zhiming Ding Yong Ge T. V. Geetha Danhuai Guo Jeng-Neng Hwang Jianping Fang Jianhui Li Yi Liu Foluso Ladeinde Kuien Liu Feng Lu

Ricardo J. Soares Magalhaes D. Manjula Alan Murray

University of South Alabama, USA University of Limerick, Ireland KPMG Sydney, Australia Università di Salerno, Italy University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania University of South Australia, Australia The University of Texas at San Antonio, USA University of Aizu, Japan The University of Texas at San Antonio, USA Anhui University of Science & Technology, China Anhui University of Science & Technology, China Anhui University of Science & Technology, China Anhui University of Science & Technology, China Shanghai University, China Shainghai University, China Shanghai University, China Fudan University, China UC Santa Barbara, USA University of Utah, USA University of South Carolina, USA Beijing University of Technology, China University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA Anna University, India Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China University of Washington, USA University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Tsinghua University, China SUNY Korea, Incheon, South Korea Pivotal Inc, USA Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China University of Queensland, Australia Anna University, India Drexel University, USA

Organization

S. Murugan Yasuhide Okuyama S. Padmavathi Latha Parameswaran S. Suresh Wei Xu Chaowei Phil Yang Enwu Yin Hengshu Zhu Morshed Chowdhury Min Hu Gang Luo Juan Chen Qigang Liu

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Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, India University of Kitakyushu, Japan Amrita University, India Amrita University, India SRM University, India Renmin University of China, China George Mason University, USA China CDC, USA Baidu Inc., China Deakin University, Australia Shanghai University, China Shanghai University, China Shanghai University, China Shanghai University, China

Welcome Message

We are living in the era of data deluge. The world of big data exhibits a rich and complex set of cross-media contents, such as text, image, video, audio, and graphics. So far, great research efforts have been dedicated separately to big data processing and cross-media mining, with well-grounded theoretical underpinnings and great practical success. However, studies jointly considering cross-media big data analytics are relatively sparse. This research gap needs our further attention, since it will benefit a variety of real-world applications. Despite its significance and value, it is non-trivial to analyze cross-media big data due to their heterogeneity, large-scale volume, increasing size, unstructured nature, correlations, and noise. Multi-modal information systems, which can be treated as the most significant breakthrough in the past 10 years, have greatly impacted the methodologies utilized in computer vision and achieved terrific progress in both academia and industry. The 2020 International Conference on Multi-modal Information Analytics (MMIA), building on the previous successes in Shenyang, China (2019), is proud to be in the 2nd consecutive conference year. We are organizing the 2020 MMIA Conference at Changzhou organized by Changzhou Institute of Mechatronic Technology, China. It will feature a technical program of refereed papers selected by the International Program Committee, keynote address.

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Conference Venue Shangri-La Hotel, Changzhou

Shangri-La Hotel, Changzhou, is located in the Changzhou Wujin High-Tech Industrial Development Zone, adjacent to the Yanjiang Expressway exit, close to the flooded city of Spring Park and Yancheng Soo. Joyland is only 20 minutes away, and the China Dinosaurs Park is only 25 minutes away. The hotel has some of Changzhou’s restaurants, for example: Shang Palace, Café long, Lobby Lounge, WJ Bar, and Nishimura. The journey from Changzhou International Airport to Shangri-La Hotel, Changzhou, takes approximately 45 minutes. The hotel is accessible from the airport by taxi and limousine. Taxis are metered. Starting fares are at RMB 9 for the first 3 kilometers, and RMB 1.8 per kilometer thereafter. Taxis can be hired for a day, and the fare is negotiable. A surcharge applies after 11 pm, making the rate approximately 40% higher. The hotel can be booked at https://www.shangri-la.com/changzhou/shangrila/ Address: 2 Xihu Road, Wujin Hi-Tech Industrial Park, Changzhou, 213164, China Phone: (86 519) 6889 8888 E-mail: [email protected]

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Conference Venue

https://cn.bing.com/maps?FORM=Z9LH4

Conference Program at a Glance

Wednesday, June 17, 2020, Shangri-La Hotel, Changzhou 14:00-22:00 Registration Thursday, June 18, 2020 9:00-10:00 Opening ceremony 10:00-10:40 Keynote 1: Vijayan Sugumaran 10:40-11:00 Coffee break 11:00-11:40 Keynote 2: Xiao Wei 12:00-14:20 Lunch time & break 14:20-15:00 Keynote 3: Shunxiang Zhang 15:00-15:20 Coffee break 16:00-17:30 Short paper posters 19:00 Banquet/awards Friday, June 19, 2020 8:20-12:20 Session 1 Session 2 Session 3 12:40-14:00 Lunch time & break 14:20-18:20 Session 4 Session 5 Session 6 Session 7 19:00 Closing

1st floor lobby Tianmu Lake, 3rd floor Tianmu Lake, 3rd floor Tianmu Lake, 3rd floor Buffet, 1st floor Tianmu Lake, 3rd floor Baiheting, 3rd floor Tianmu, Lake 3rd floor Yizhouge, 3rd floor Hongmei, 3rd floor Zijing, 3rd floor Buffet, 1st floor Yizhouge, 3rd floor Hongmei, 3rd floor Zijing, 3rd floor Jurentang, 3rd floor

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MMIA 2020 Keynotes

Understanding Differentiated Internet Use in Older Adults Vijayan Sugumaran Professor of Management Information Systems and Chair of the Department of Decision and Information Sciences at Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, USA.

Vijayan Sugumaran is Professor of Management Information Systems and Chair of the Department of Decision and Information Sciences at Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, USA. He is also Co-Director of the Center for Data Science and Big Data Analytics at Oakland University. He received his Ph.D. in information technology from George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA. His research interests are in the areas of big data management and analytics, ontologies and semantic web, and intelligent agent and multi-agent systems. He has published over 200 peer-reviewed articles in journals, conferences, and books. He has edited twelve books and serves on the Editorial Board of eight journals. He has published in top-tier journals such as Information Systems Research, ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Communications of the ACM, IEEE Transactions on Big Data, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, IEEE Transactions on Education, and IEEE Software. He is Editor in Chief of the International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies. He is Chair of the Intelligent Agent and Multi-Agent Systems mini-track for Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS 1999–2020). He has served as Program Chair for the 14th Workshop on E-Business (WeB2015), the International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems (NLDB 2008, NLDB 2013, NLDB 2016, and NLDB 2019),

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the 29th Australasian Conference on Information Systems (ACIS 2018), the 14th Annual Conference of Midwest Association for Information Systems, 2019, and the 5th IEEE International Conference on Big Data Service and Applications, 2019. He also regularly serves as Program Committee Member for numerous national and international conferences.

Concept Evolution Analysis Based on the Dissipative Structure of Concept Semantic Space Professor Xiao Wei Shanghai University, China

Xiao Wei received his BS degree in computer application technology from Shandong University, China. Now, he is Professor at Shanghai University, China. Concurrently, he is a visiting scholar at City University of Hong Kong. His main research interests include web mining, semantic search, and e-learning.

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Micro-blog Topic Recommendation Based on Knowledge Flow and User Selection Professor Shunxiang Zhang Anhui University of Science and Technology, China

Shunxiang Zhang received his Ph.D. degree from the School of Computing Engineering and Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai, in 2012. He is Professor at Anhui University of Science and Technology, China. His current research interests include web mining, semantic search, and complex network.

Oral Presentation Instruction 1 Timing: a maximum of 10 minutes total, including speaking time and discussion. Please make sure your presentation is well timed. Please keep in mind that the program is full and that the speaker after you would like their allocated time available to them. 2 You can use CD or USB flash drive (memory stick), and make sure you scanned viruses in your own computer. Each speaker is required to meet her/his session chair in the corresponding session rooms 10 minutes before the session starts and copy the slide file (PPT or PDF) to the computer. 3 It is suggested that you e-mail a copy of your presentation to your personal inbox as a backup. If for some reason the files cannot be accessed from your flash drive, you will be able to download them to the computer from your e-mail. 4 Please note that each session room will be equipped with a LCD projector, screen, point device, microphone, and a laptop with general presentation software such as

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Microsoft PowerPoint and Adobe Reader. Please make sure that your files are compatible and readable with our operation system by using commonly used fonts and symbols. If you plan to use your own computer, please try the connection and make sure it works before your presentation. 5 Movies: If your PowerPoint files contain movies, please make sure that they are well formatted and connected to the main files.

Short Paper Presentation Instruction 1. Maximum poster size is 0.8 meter wide by 1 meter high. 2. Posters are required to be condensed and attractive. The characters should be large enough so that they are visible from 1 meter apart. 3. Please note that during your short paper session, the author should stay by your short paper to explain and discuss your paper with visiting delegates.

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About Changzhou Vocational Institute of Mechatronic Technology

Changzhou Vocational Institute of Mechatronic Technology is a provincial public full-time higher vocational college. Founded in 1963, it was formerly known as Changzhou Mechanical Vocational School. In 2002, the school was independently upgraded to a higher vocational college and is affiliated to the Education Department of Jiangsu Province. In 2010, the school became a national model (backbone) vocational college; in 2018, the school became a high-level vocational college construction unit in Jiangsu Province. The school covers an area of 942 acres and a building area of over 300,000 square meters. There are more than 11,000 full-time students (nearly 400 international students) and more than 700 teaching and administrative staff.

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About Changzhou Vocational Institute of Mechatronic Technology

Changzhou Vocational Institute of Mechatronic Technology is rooted in the industry and serves the locality. It has formed a professional structure with “equipment manufacturing industry as the core and manufacturing service specialty as the support”, and has opened more than 40 majors. The school has 9 secondary schools (School of Mechanical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, School of Mold Technology, School of Vehicle Engineering, School of Rail Transit, School of Information Engineering, School of Economics and Management, School of Creative Design, School of International Education), 3 Departments ( The Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Professional Foundations, the Ministry of Physical Education) and 14 teaching departments including the Marxist College and the College of Continuing Education.

Contents

Part I: Multi-modal Informatics for Business and Management Applications Spectrum Sensing Method in Multi-primary Users Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zhijun Gao, Li Dai, Xin Wang, Languang Zhao, and Jianshun Liu

3

ICT-Based Information Platform Architecture of Maritime Cargo Transportation Supply Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yue Zhao, Changfu Yuan, Jiabao Du, and Yi Wang

9

Under the Background of Digital College Financial Problems Existing in the Informatization Construction and Solving Suggestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hongxu Gao Collaborative Workflow-Based Enterprise Information System . . . . . . . Bin Huang, Qilong Teng, and You Tang

16 22

E-Commerce Profit Evaluation of Agricultural Products Based on Grey Prediction Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shuangying Liu

28

Customer Segmentation and Management of Online Shops Based on RFM Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yulu He and Yanxia Cheng

34

Digital Service Evaluation System Based on Enterprise Operation Management Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chaohu He, Xiong Qi, and Li An

42

Information Disclosure Violation of Small and Medium-Sized Listed Companies Based on Strauss’ Grounded Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ronghui Xu

47

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Contents

Evaluation Modeling Establishment for the Risk Degree of Ship Collision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hongdan Liu, Yue Sun, and Bing Li

54

Choice of Profit Models for the Transformation and Development of Traditional Industrial Enterprises in the Internet Industry . . . . . . . . Shanshan Wu, Xingpei Ji, and Rui Tang

64

Influence of Internet Finance on Commercial Bank Financial Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zi Wang

70

Evaluation of Mixed Ownership Reform Based on Fuzzy Logic . . . . . . Hualei Zhang, Jian Zhao, Liling Huang, and Jing Wang

76

Development of Cross-Border E-commerce Based on Big Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Huanhuan Ma

84

Methods of Making Courseware for College English Teaching in the Information Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lin Zhang and Jianli Guo

90

Performance Evaluation of Guangdong Province Technology Finance Based on DEA Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Junfeng Zhao, Xue Deng, Lu Shen, Cuirong Huang, and Chuangjie Chen

96

Traceability System Construction of Agricultural Products Cross-Border E-commerce Logistics from the Perspective of Blockchain Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Yulin Luo and Chao Xie Express Delivery Services Customer Satisfaction Based on PLS_SEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Huali Cai, Xuemei Wei, Fang Wu, Yanjun Gu, and Ning Zhang Expectation to the Accounting Personnel Under the Information Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Xiuqing Wang Brand Strategy Management of Agricultural Products Based on Information Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Chunming Liu A Brief Analysis of the Innovation of International Trade Methods Based on Network Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Yushu Ding

Contents

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Financial Management Teaching Mode Based on MOOC Under the Background of Informatization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Zhe Wang Supply Chain Financing Strategy in Sports Industry Based on Game Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Shujuan Li Risk Evaluation of Project Bidding Based on TOPSIS Model . . . . . . . . 150 Wanfeng Liu, Yiqiong Gao, Tiecheng Yan, and Lixiang Cao The Chain Operation Model of Private Kindergartens in Shanxi Based on Optimal Dynamic Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Zhaojun Pang Internal Control of Enterprise Finance Based on SQL Database and Countermeasures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Bingxiang Li, Rui Tao, and Meng Li Financial Sustainable Growth of SUNING Based on the Network Economy Service Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Yige Ma Logistics Transfer Center Planning Based on Internet of Things Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Hongzhen Zhang, Guibin Zhang, and Xiaohua Cai Consumers’ Purchasing Intention of Regional Brand on E-commerce Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Jing Xu and Zhiling Tian Review of Studies on the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) for Urban Infrastructure Projects in China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Justin Wouagabe and Du Juan Part II: Mobile and Cloud Technologies and Multi-modal Systems Interaction Mode of “Digital Museum” on the Terminal of Digital Mobile Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Hongjiang Liu English Teaching at College in Virtual Environment Based on Visualization Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Lijun Deng and Tao Wang Network-Based College English Multimedia Teaching Model . . . . . . . . 217 Qian Yang Visual Module R&D of the Intelligent Grabbing System of WIFI Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Shufang Ma, Jiang Wu, Shuangben Jiao, and Bin Xue

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Contents

The Design of Modern Shouzhou Kiln Porcelain from the Perspective of Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Gang Liu and Wei Jiang Teaching Activity Design Based on the Discipline Key Competence of IT in Secondary Vocational School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Penglong Zhang, Yongsheng Zhang, Lining Liu, and Wenqian Sun The Local University Based on Web Service Technology Finance Internal Control System Optimization Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Caiping Qin Teaching Activity Model of “PHP Website Development Technology” Course Reform Under the Background of Wisdom Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Rongxia Wang and Baiqiang Gan The Application of Computer Network Technology in the Sharing of Enterprise Financial Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Lingjun Zhu Analysis of Influencing Factors and Countermeasures of Computer Network Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Yanli Liu and Meng Cui Computer Network Technology-Based College English Oral Course Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Jie Huang and Juan Yi Functional Requirements of FPS Mobile Games Users Based on KANO Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Xiyuan Wang, Danping Chen, and Ting Fu Assumption of Load Balancing and Multithreading Algorithm in Cloud Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Zhuo Li, Lili Ma, and You Tang Research and Design of School’s SOA Architecture Based on UDDI . . . 291 Yong Chen and Yue Yang Application of Mixed Teaching Mode Under “Rain Classroom” Information Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 Jun Luo and Yulan Yu Design and Development of Self Built Database of University Library Based on Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Ziqi Jia Exploration and Reflection on the Construction of University Archives Management System Under the Background of Information Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Yan Sun

Contents

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Cloud Computing with Heavy CNC Machine Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Juan Shao Application of Modern Information Technology in Course Teaching in Universities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Ying Li and Jinliang Wang Measurement of the Relevance of Energy Internet Industry Based on Co-integration Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 Shanshan Wu and Rui Tang The Application of FIRD Book Positioning Technology in Intelligent Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 Yu Zhao Blended Teaching Mode of Intermediate Financial Accounting Course Under the Background of “Internet +” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 Libin Xie Migration and Integration Strategy of Virtual Machines in Cloud Data Center Based on HPGA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Zhenxiang He Analysis and Comparison of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 Binbin Yu Analysis of Cross-Cultural Communication from the Angle of Ecological Information Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Rui Dai Shoot Rate in Basketball Game Based on Metal Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 Xi Li College English Teaching System Based on Resource Library and Network Support Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Shasha Zeng Communication Network Transmission Optimization Algorithm . . . . . . 391 Hongchang Liu, Yizhao Liu, Chi Zhang, and Yang Zheng Distribution Network Planning and Design Supported by PSO-AFSA Hybrid Optimization Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 Chao Xun, Jieyun Zheng, Keyao Lin, Tingting Lin, and Fen Xiao Security and Privacy of 5G Intelligent Subway Network . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 Zheng Zhang Research of College Online Teaching System Based on Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 Chang Liu and Xiaoyu Ge

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Contents

Part III: AI, VR, Blockchain Applications and Innovations Application Research of the New Mode of “Blockchain + Higher Education” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 Zhenxing Ge and Ying Hu Design and Implementation of Online Art Education Software Under the Background of Education Informationization 2.0 . . . . . . . . . 431 Changcheng Cui Exploration of Interactive Urban Sculpture Based on Augmented Reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438 Shukui Song and Yushan Zhong A Mean-Continuous Fuzzy Random Entropy Portfolio Model with Fuzzy Random Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 Quande Sun, Junfeng Zhao, Xue Deng, and Yingxian Lin Restructure of Data Mining Based Delicacy Management Platform for College Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 Weihong Chen Application and Development of Music Production Technology in the New Media Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 Wei Wang Clothing Display Method Based on VR Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 HuiJuan Lai and Sungwon Lee Text Classification Model for Public Opinion Management in Colleges and Universities Based on Improved CNN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 Wenliang Luo and Jiaqiong Gao Comprehensive Teaching Mode Based on Blockchain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 Qiang Huang, Xingjing Mao, Mantao Wang, and Xinhui Feng Evaluation Strategy of Teacher Professional Development in Applied Universities Based on BP Neural Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 Guohua Fu Augmented Reality Technology Key Technologies Research . . . . . . . . . 487 Hejia Li, Xilong Chen, Fushan Yao, Fei Gao, Jiuchao Li, Kai Yang, and Zhao Jin Application Research of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality . . . . . . 494 Hejia Li, Yao Zhao, Fei Gao, Yun Li, Chao Tu, Kai Yang, Zhao Jin, and Xinchun Huang Word Frequency Analysis and Intelligent Word Recognition in Chinese Literature Based on Neighborhood Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500 Chunhua Liu

Contents

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A New Representation of Plane Composition in Computer Graphics Software Aided Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 Dongmei Zhang Optimization of Maintenance Strategy for Deteriorated Parts Based on Markov Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 Li Jiuchao, Liang Zhou, and Qi Ou Digital Technology-Based Pedagogy for Interpreting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 Hui Ye The Virtual Restoration of Worship Scene on Circular Mound Altar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 LeiFang Chu Problems and Strategies of Financial Accounting Informationization of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Based on Artificial Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 Xingdong Zhang and Hua Cai Deep Integration of Mixed Teaching and Interactive Media Under Information Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 Caihong Chen Influence of “Corpus Data Driven Learning + Learning Driven Data” Mode on ESP Writing Under the Background of Artificial Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547 Zheqian Su, Miao Liu, Man Jiang, and Yongwei Shang The Applied Research of Teaching Reform of Computer Major Using Virtual Reality Technology to Promote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 Wei Sai Application and Development Trend of Blockchain in the Financial Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558 Danni Zhao Ideological Education Under the 3D Virtual Scene Applied Research in Organizational Behavior Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565 He Yu and Qinglan Luo Virtual Reality Real-Time Communication System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 Jia Fu Prediction Method of Basketball Players’ Shooting Rate Based on Quantum Search Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583 Zheng Yang Algorithm of Ground Stability Correction for High Difficulty Movements of Competitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593 Mingming Gong

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Contents

Application Research and Analysis of College Pole Dance Teaching Based on Virtual Reality Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602 Hongbo Yu Dual Discriminator Generative Adversarial Networks and Their Application in Detecting Nests Built in Catenary . . . . . . . . . . 611 Zeyu Lian Professional Development of College Teachers in the Era of Artificial Intelligence: Role Rebuilding and Development Path . . . . . 618 Yinjia Miao and Yi Yao Supplier Evaluation and Selection Based on BP Neural Network . . . . . 627 Jinting Wang Study on Water Quality Prediction of Fuxian Lake Based on Elman Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635 Shengping Zhao, Quan Wang, and Jingrui Li Part IV: Multi-modal Informatics and Big Data Adaptive Online Learning Model Based on Big Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 Guoping Lei, Xiuying Luo, Sen Yang, and Ke Xiao TCM Prescription Compatibility Based on Improved Association Rules Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650 Mengnan Li and Xiaoqiang Ren Feature Analysis of Chinese Drama Based on Big Data Analysis . . . . . . 657 Chunhua Liu Voltage Unbalance Factors of Doubly-Fed Wind Generator Based on Big Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664 Na Wang and Lei Wang Cultural and Creative Design Service of Faw Red Flag Car Based on Big Data Analysis Is Integrated with Automobile Industry . . . 670 Jingyi Chen The C-E Translation of Passive Structure in Tourist Texts Based on Corpus Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677 Dan Shen and Huifang Liu The Influence of Chinese Traditional Culture in the Process of Teaching and Education Based on Big Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 683 Jianqiang Li The Problems and Countermeasures of University Financial-Management in the Era of Big-Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 689 Xiaoyan Ma

Contents

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Construction of Churn Customer Analysis System for Telecom Companies Based on Big Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695 Li Wei and Hui Xie Application of Big Data Technology in National Emergency Management System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702 Yongmei Tao Vehicle Refueling Behavior Model Based on Spatio-Temporal Big Data Monitoring Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708 Wenbin Wang Construction of Information Auditing Curriculum for Auditing Major in Big Data Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714 Renzao Lin Big Data Technology in Construction Management Informationization in Complex Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720 Ping Liu Higher Vocational Teaching Management System Based on Big Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725 Shuyu Shi Influencing Factors of College Students’ Entrepreneurship Based on Big Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731 Heng Zhang Discussion on the Application of Computer Technology in the New Media Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737 Xiaona Li Evaluation of Scientific and Technological Innovation Capability in Guangzhou Based on Cross-Efficiency DEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 743 Xue Deng, Ying Liang, Luyao Feng, Chuangjie Chen, and Junfeng Zhao Computer Security Vulnerabilities and Preventive Measures . . . . . . . . . 752 Binbin Jiang Tolerance of the General Public to Homosexuality Based on Big Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760 Pengnian Jin and Xiao Wan Heterogeneous Network Security Monitoring and Association Algorithm for Big Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767 Zhenqi Liu, Yangchun Gao, and Deqiang Shao Commodity Trading Platform Based on Big Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 773 Zhiqiang Cai and Jiaai Zhang

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Transformation and Upgrading of Fresh E-Commerce Mode Based on Big Data Conception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781 Ping Yang, Jing Wang, and Liqin Hu Author Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789

Part I: Multi-modal Informatics for Business and Management Applications

Spectrum Sensing Method in Multi-primary Users Environment Zhijun Gao, Li Dai, Xin Wang(&), Languang Zhao, and Jianshun Liu Information and Control Engineering Faculty, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China {gzj,wangx7988}@sjzu.edu.cn, [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract. Aiming at the problem of time-varying channel and perceptual delay in multi-primary users environment, a spectrum sensing method in multiprimary users environment is proposed. The method combines the primary user state, fading channel gain and unknown perceptual delay, estimates the fading channel gain by the maximum a posteriori probability criterion, and introduces it into the perceptual delay particle filter estimation process, and estimates the primary user state. The result is corrected to give a final estimate. The simulation results show that the proposed method eliminates the uncertainty of the received signal information and improves the correct detection probability of the method to a certain extent in multi-primary users environment. Keywords: Multi-primary users  Spectrum sensing  Channel gain  Perceived delay  Single point detection

1 Introduction As the demand for wireless communication users increases, the problem of low spectrum utilization becomes more and more prominent [1], cognitive radio technology can better solve this problem [2] and spectrum sensing is the focus of development of cognitive radio technology [3]. In practice, most of the existing multi-primary users perception methods have certain information uncertainty, which leads to a decrease in perceptual accuracy in the actual estimation process. In [4], which adopts the channel fading factor. Modeling is performed to describe the characteristics of primary user (PU) states and channel fading factor migration over time. In [5] proposes a joint estimation method based on Kalman filter for carrier frequency offset and channel fading information. In [6] introduces the estimation of channel delay based on the literature [5]. This method can improve the accuracy of statistical characteristics to a certain extent, but does not give an effective time delay estimation method and lacks dynamic adaptability. This paper proposes a spectrum sensing method in a multi-primary users environment for the above problems. By estimating the fading channel gain, it is introduced into the perceptual delay estimation, and then the primary user state estimation is obtained. This method makes full use of prior information and improves the accuracy of spectrum sensing. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 3–8, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_1

4

Z. Gao et al.

2 System Model Defining the state of PUj in the target spectrum at slot n as xj;n 2 f0; 1g, let xj;n ¼ 0 denotes the PUj is inactive state at slot n, xj;n ¼ 1 denotes the PUj at slot n is active state. Set up two PUs in our sensing model, there are three states in this situation: H0 indicates that both PUs are inactive; H1 indicates that PU1 is active and PU2 is inactive; H2 indicates that PU1 is inactive and PU2 is active [7]. Defining the perceived delay as tn , we sample M times during the sensing period, that is tn 2 ½0; M. In one sensing period, the front tn samples contain only the noise signal, the latter M  tn samples contain both the PU signal and the noise signal [8]. The observed signal of SU is defined as the sum of the energy of the M sampled signals in a sensing period, and the channel noise z obeys Gaussian white noise with mean 0 and variance r2 . 8 M P > > ðz1;n;m þ z2;n;m Þ2 H0 > > > m¼1 > > < P tn M P z21;n;m þ ða1;n x1;n þ z1;n;m Þ2 yn ¼ > m¼1 m¼tn þ 1 > > > tn M > P P > 2 > z2;n;m þ ða2;n x2;n þ z2;n;m Þ2 : m¼1

m¼tn þ 1

H1

ð1Þ

H2

3 Multi-primary Users Estimation Algorithm 3.1

Estimation of Channel Gain

We first make a pre-estimation. It is assumed that the received signal is generated by the minimum gain and the signal is sampled [9]. Then, according to the sampling signal energy and the minimum gain of the fading channel, a threshold is set. If the signal energy is above the threshold, it is determined that the frequency band is occupied, otherwise, it is inactive. There are multiple slots in the coherence time, which can be divided into the first slot and the non-first slot and can be distinguished by a residual function. According to the above two steps, four situations can be obtained. When x ¼ 0 and the first slot, the gain can be calculated by Markov chain transition probability; When x ¼ 0 and the non-first slot, the state of the previous time slot can be used to indicate the current slot; When x ¼ 1 and the first slot, the estimation of the gain in current slot can be achieved by the MAP criterion [10]; When x ¼ 1 and the non-first slot, the gain can be estimated from cumulative observations over coherent time.

Spectrum Sensing Method in Multi-primary Users Environment

3.2

5

Joint Estimation Algorithm

1) Prediction Defining PU active at both slot n and n + 1 is survival probability, PU inactive at slot n but active at slot n + 1 is birth probability. The PU active probability is expressed as qj;njn1 ¼ pb;j;n ð1  qj;n1jn1 Þ þ ps;j;n qj;n1jn1

ð2Þ

Where pb;j;n and ps;j;n respectively represent the dynamic birth probability and dynamic survival probability of the primary user at slot n [11]. ps;1;n ¼ pH1 !H1  q1;n1jn1  ð1  q2;n1jn1 Þ

ð3Þ

ps;2;n ¼ pH2 !H2  ð1  q1;n1jn1 Þ  q2;n1jn1

ð4Þ

pb;1;n ¼ pH0 !H1  ð1  q1;n1jn1 Þð1  q2;n1jn1 Þ þ pH2 !H1  ð1  q1;n1jn1 Þq2;n1jn1

ð5Þ

pb;2;n ¼ pH0 !H2  ð1  q1;n1jn1 Þð1  q2;n1jn1 Þ þ pH1 !H2  q1;n1jn1 ð1  q2;n1jn1 Þ

ð6Þ ðiÞ

Suppose the state of particle i at slot n-1 is expressed as tj;n1jn1 . The survival particle and the birth particle weight prediction expressions are respectively as ðiÞ

ps;j;n qj;n1jn1 ðiÞ ej;n1 ; i ¼ 1; 2;    ; N qj;njn1

ð7Þ

pb;j;n ð1  qj;n1jn1 Þ 1 ; i ¼ 1; 2;    ; N þ B qj;njn1 B

ð8Þ

ej;njn1 ¼ ðiÞ

ej;njn1 ¼

2) Update It can be approximated that the likelihood function obeys a normal distribution. When both PU1 and PU2 inactive, the mean and variance of likelihood function  p yn jxj;n ¼ 0 is l0 ¼ Mr2 and r20 ¼ 2Mr4 ; when PU1 or PU2 active, the parameter of   ðiÞ a2j;n and r2j ¼ 2Mr4 þ likelihood function p yn jxj;n ¼ 1 is lj ¼ Mr2 þ ðM  tj;njn1 Þ^ ðiÞ

4ðM  tj;njn1 Þ^a2j;n r2 . Then we can obtain the likelihood probability by the likelihood NP þ B p y jx ¼0 ð n j;n Þ ðiÞ function and particle weights as Ij;n ¼ p y jx ¼1 ej;njn1 . i¼1 ð n j;n Þ

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Use the above formula to update the PU active probability and the particle weights qj;njn ¼

Ij;n qj;njn1 1  qj;njn1 þ Ij;n qj;njn1

ð9Þ

  ðiÞ 0ðiÞ ej;njn ¼ p yn jxj;n ¼ 1 ej;njn1

ð10Þ ðiÞ

ðiÞ

After normalization and resampling, we can obtain that tj;njn , ej;njn , i ¼ 1; 2;    N. 3) Estimation The primary user active probability is compared with the decision threshold k. If qj;njn \k, the PU is judged to inactive; if qj;njn  k, the PU is judged to active. When both PUs active, the judgment result is corrected by comparing the magnitudes of q1;njn and q2;njn . If q1;njn [ q2;njn , PU1 is considered as active and PU2 is considered as inactive, otherwise, the same is true.

4 Simulation The spectrum sensing performance is mainly measured by the false alarm probability and the missed detection probability. In this simulation, we consider the effect of the maximum Doppler shift on the sensing performance of the fading channel. Sampling 100 times in the sensing period and the maximum Doppler frequency shift is set to 0.02, 0.05, and 0.1. The result of spectrum sensing is shown in Fig. 1, which shows that the correct detection probability increases with the increase of SNR. At the same time, as the maximum Doppler shift increases, the channel variation accelerates and the corresponding detection performance also decreases. We also consider the impact of perceived delay range on detection performance. Sampling 100 times in the sensing period and the range of perceived delay Rt is set to 20, 50, and 80 respectively. The result of spectrum sensing on the target spectrum is shown in Fig. 2, since the sampling signal contains both noise signal and primary user signal, the smaller delay range, the more information is obtained (Fig. 3).

Spectrum Sensing Method in Multi-primary Users Environment

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Fig. 1. Detection performance under different maximum Doppler shifts

Fig. 2. Detection performance under different perceptual delay ranges

Fig. 3. Comparison of detection performance between different algorithms

Finally, compare the detection performance of this algorithm with other existing algorithms. The algorithm considers the relationship between gain and delay, which greatly eliminates the information uncertainty of the sampled signal. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is better than its comparison algorithm.

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5 Conclusions This paper proposes a spectrum sensing method in a multi-primary users environment. The primary user state estimate is obtained by estimating the fading channel gain and the unknown perceived delay. By analyzing the correct detection probability under different channel states and different perceptual delays, the validity and accuracy of the spectrum sensing in the multi-primary user environment are verified. The simulation results show that the proposed method improves the spectrum sensing performance of multi-primary users while ensuring real-time performance. Acknowledgment. This work was supported by National Natural Science Fund (Grant No. 61473066), Liaoning Province Natural Science Fund (Grant No. 20170540752), Liaoning Province Doctor Startup Fund (Grant No. 20170520444) and the Support Foundation of Shenyang Jianzhu University (Grant No. 2017034) respectively.

References 1. Zhang, Z., Zhang, W., Zeadally, S.: Cognitive radio spectrum sensing framework based on multi agent architecture for 5G networks. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 22(6), 34–39 (2015) 2. Budaraju, S., Bhagyaveni, M.: A novel energy detection scheme based on channel state estimation for cooperative spectrum sensing. Comput. Electr. Eng. 57, 176–185 (2017) 3. Liu, Y., Liang, J., Xiao, N.: Spectrum sensing method based on past channel sensing information. J. Commun. 38(8), 118–130 (2017) 4. Li, B., Zhao, C., Sun, M.: Spectrum sensing for cognitive radios in time-variant flat-fading channels: a joint estimation approach. IEEE Trans. Commun. 62(8), 2665–2680 (2014) 5. Simon, E., Ros, L., Hijazi, H.: Joint carrier frequency offset and fast time-varying channel estimation for MIMO-OFDM systems. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 60(3), 955–965 (2011) 6. Dong, Z., Xu, Z., Zhang, S.: Carrier frequency offset and channel joint estimating algorithm for OFDM system base on PF. J. Beijing Univ. Posts Telecommun. 37(22), 48–51 (2014) 7. Sun, D., Xu, R.: Research of two kinds of rayleigh fading channel model. Electron. Measur. Technol. 40(8), 23–26 (2018) 8. Solé-Ribalta, A., De Domenico, M., Gómez, S., Arenas, A.: Random walk centrality in interconnected multilayer networks. Phys. D: Nonlinear Phenom. 323–324(1), 73–79 (2016) 9. Huang, H., Yuan, C.: Cooperative spectrum sensing over generalized fading channels based on energy detection. China Commun. 15(5), 128–137 (2018) 10. Repetti, A., Pereyra, M., Wiaux, Y.: Scalable Bayesian uncertainty quantification in imaging inverse problems via convex optimization. SIAM J. Imaging Sci. 12(1), 87–118 (2019) 11. Saha, S., Özkan, E., Gustafsson, F.: Marginalized particle filters for Bayesian estimation of Gaussian noise parameters. In: 2010 13th International Conference on Information Fusion, pp. 1–8 (2010)

ICT-Based Information Platform Architecture of Maritime Cargo Transportation Supply Chain Yue Zhao(&), Changfu Yuan, Jiabao Du, and Yi Wang Jiangsu Maritime Institute, Nanjing, China [email protected]

Abstract. With the continuous development of network economy, information technology has promoted the development of related enterprises, especially in the transport of maritime cargo has undergone a great change. In the transportation of goods by sea, the traditional supply chain has been unable to adapt to the rapid development of the information economy and has been gradually eliminated. The ict-based maritime cargo transport supply chain emerges as The Times require, greatly enhancing the long-term benefits of the transport industry. At present, ICT technology has become the main technical support of modern maritime cargo transportation supply chain and the core factor of the whole supply chain operation. However, there are still a series of problems in the ictbased maritime cargo transport supply chain, the most important of which is the problem of information exchange in the supply chain. The purpose of this paper is to study the ict-based information platform architecture of maritime cargo transportation supply chain. This article first to the ICT technology and the related concepts of the supply chain of carriage of goods by sea are reviewed, and on the basis of factor analysis algorithm for functional analysis of supply chain information platform for experiment of carriage of goods by sea, on the basis of the information platform for design, finally testing platform operation, proves the scientific nature and reliability of the platform. Keywords: ICT technology  Transport supply chain  Information platform Factor analysis



1 Introduction With the continuous development of the current economy, the logistics industry is rising rapidly. Marine transportation has the main characteristics of large volume of transportation and low transportation cost, so it has become the first choice for product transportation of most enterprises. The supply chain of maritime cargo transportation is closely related to the efficiency and safety of maritime transportation and the development of maritime transportation. Traditional maritime supply chain has been difficult to adapt to the development of maritime transport, in the process of application there are a series of problems. The ict-based maritime cargo transport supply chain emerges as The Times require, greatly enhancing the long-term benefits of the transport industry. The ict-based maritime cargo transportation supply chain caters to the current © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 9–15, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_2

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development trend of transportation informatization, and can realize the integration, transmission and sharing of relevant information of maritime cargo transportation, promoting the close connection between transportation links. With the continuous maturity of ICT technology, its application in the transportation industry is also gradually deepened. At present, scholars at home and abroad have conducted a series of studies on the transport supply chain, which mainly focus on specific information service platforms, application and construction of information platforms, but the construction of these information platforms does not take into account the problem of comprehensive coordination among various links [1, 2]. Generally speaking, this research field is mainly divided into two parts. The first part is the research on the integration of ICT and supply chain collaborative management; the second part is the research on supply chain collaborative technology based on ICT [3, 4]. At home and abroad, the researches on the information platform of supply chain of maritime cargo transport mainly focus on one part and fail to consider the overall problem of supply chain. In terms of ICT technology, the research on the framework of information platform of supply chain of maritime cargo transportation is even less. From this perspective, there is still a large room for improvement in this aspect of research [5, 6]. At the same time, we must realize that there are still a series of problems in the current ict-based maritime cargo transportation supply chain establishment process, the most important of which is the problem of information exchange between various links of the supply chain. Therefore, it is particularly important to study the information platform architecture of maritime cargo transportation supply chain. Blank in order to make up for this theory, based on the research focus on the whole process of the supply chain development, first of all, ICT technology and the related concepts of the supply chain of carriage of goods by sea are reviewed, and the factor analysis algorithm is conducted on the basis of function analysis of supply chain information platform for experiment of carriage of goods by sea, on the basis of the information platform for design, finally, the platform run test, proves the scientific nature and reliability of the platform [7, 8]. On the one hand, it promotes the scientific framework of information platform of maritime cargo transportation supply chain; On the other hand, it provides a certain theoretical basis for future relevant studies [9].

2 Overview of Key Technologies of Information Platform Architecture of Maritime Cargo Transportation Supply Chain 2.1

Overview of ICT Technology and Maritime Cargo Transport Supply Chain

ICT technology is information exchange technology, which is relatively complex and mainly used in the processing of various information technologies. Led by network information technology, ICT is an information communication technology system composed of barcode information technology, GIS, RFID, computer technology and distributed processing technology [10, 11]. Bar code technology can convert

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information into coherent characters or Numbers and other forms, in essence, is a bar code symbol recognition system. GIS technology can process and analyze spatial data by virtue of network information, so as to establish a geospatial database and accurately track and monitor the routes of maritime cargo transportation [12, 13]. PFID technology is an automatic identification technology, which can automatically identify the transported goods, transport personnel and related transport equipment in different states for a long distance [14]. Computer technology provides ICT system with the support of software system and server, realizes the effective integration of information resources, and enables the effective connection between information to form a complete information network. The distributed processing technology can optimize and upgrade the computing resources, which can greatly improve the efficiency of the system. The most critical is that ICT technology can guarantee the security of information data to the maximum extent [15]. In general, ICT technology makes information data effectively connected, makes data processing convenient and flexible, and realizes effective data mining. The supply chain of maritime cargo transportation is the result of the rapid development of modern transportation mode. The supply chain takes ship as the main carrier of cargo transportation. Through the way of information exchange, the comprehensive penetration of the transportation process is realized. The establishment of this supply chain realizes the organic connection among suppliers, shipping enterprises and end customers, realizes the whole process management of cargo transportation, and penetrates into every link of maritime transportation. 2.2

Factor Analysis Algorithm

Factor analysis is to find out a few random variables that can contain all other variables by studying the relationship existing in the relationship between a number of variables. We call these variables factors. The starting point of factor analysis is to replace most information of the original variables with less independent factor variables. The specific formula is as follows: X1 ¼ a11 F1 þ a12 F2 þ . . . þ a1m Fm X2 ¼ a21 F1 þ a22 F2 þ . . . þ a2m Fm ... Xp ¼ ap1 F1 þ ap2 F2 þ . . . þ apm Fm

ð1Þ

The purpose of factor analysis is to describe the covariance relationship of multiple variables reflecting things with several potential random variables that cannot be directly observed. Since there is a certain correlation between each variable, the measured variable can be converted into a few unrelated comprehensive indicators to reflect various information in the comprehensive variable. Factor analysis is used to analyze the architecture of the information platform, that is, among many variables required by the platform architecture, comprehensive variables are found as the final factor by means of operation.

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The calculation step of factor analysis method is to obtain N samples by means of data collection, and there are A total of p indicators reflecting the characteristics of each sample. The collected data can be represented by matrix A, where the specific calculation formula of A is as follows: n P ay  1p ay i¼1 A ¼ sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi n n P P 1 1 ða  ay Þ2 y p p i¼1

ð2Þ

i¼1

3 Function Analysis Experiment of Information Platform of Maritime Cargo Transportation Supply Chain To realize the information platform of supply chain of maritime cargo transportation, the related functions of the platform must be deeply analyzed. On the basis of referring to a large number of data, this paper analyzes and experiments the main functions of the information platform of the supply chain of maritime cargo transportation by means of the factor analysis algorithm, which mainly includes the analysis of business function demand, the analysis of platform function demand and the analysis of non-function demand. The business function is related to the production and operation of the Marine transportation industry, and is the core of the whole platform function. The business function analysis mainly includes the operation management function, the information service function and the information collection function. The analysis of platform functional requirements mainly includes a series of functional requirements such as directory management, metadata management, monitoring and security. Nonfunctional analysis includes performance, extensibility, concurrency, flexibility, and reliability analysis. This paper analyzes the functions of the information platform from the process of the maritime cargo supply chain. Compared with other studies that only focus on the needs of a certain link of the supply chain, this paper considers the functional requirements of the whole supply chain process.

4 Discuss 4.1

Design of Information Platform for Supply Chain of Maritime Cargo Transportation

(1) Overall structure Based on the above functional analysis experiments on the information platform of the maritime cargo transport supply chain, the overall framework of the information platform is divided into the following aspects. Through data processing to grasp the needs of different users, to achieve good services for users; The second part is the customer management part, which is mainly used to deal with the basic information of

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users of the platform and realize the maintenance and management of user information. The third part is information service, whose main function is to provide platform users with information inquiry, information consultation and other services; The fourth part is the maritime transport management part, the function of this part is to track the whole process of maritime logistics management, to ensure the safety of cargo transport; The fifth is the logistics product management part, the main function of this part is the design of transportation software products. In addition, it also includes value-added service management, support service management and other additional aspects, which shall not be repeated here. (2) Logical architecture As mentioned above, the supply chain information platform is based on network information technology and constructed by cloud computing. Therefore, based on the three-tier service architecture model of cloud computing, this paper proposes the logical structure of the information platform of maritime cargo transportation supply chain, which mainly includes the following aspects: infrastructure layer, virtual resource layer, cloud platform service layer and software service layer. The infrastructure layer is mainly used for the management of maritime transport facilities to ensure the normal operation of facilities; The virtual resource layer USES cloud computing as the main means to realize the effective storage and management of data. The platform service layer covers a wide range of contents, including not only the bottom service resources but also the upper application software services. The logical framework ensures the sharing and exchange of information in the transport of goods by sea. (3) Technical architecture On the basis of cloud computing, the technical framework of the information platform of maritime cargo transport supply chain is divided into the following four parts: cloud service management, service, security management and resource technology. Cloud service management technology can realize the scheduling and combination of service resources. Cloud security management includes security authentication, login, desktop and access management, which can realize the security protection of data. 4.2

Operation Test of Information Platform of Maritime Cargo Transportation Supply Chain

After the platform design is completed, in order to ensure the smooth operation of the platform, the platform must be tested. Through the running test of the platform, various problems existing in the actual operation of the platform can be found out. The test content mainly includes two important parts: module test and integration test. The specific test results are shown in Fig. 1 and Table 1.

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14000

12000 11921

12000

99.34%

10000

8000 7899

8000

6000 5925

6000

98.75%

4000

98.74%

2000 0

Out of bounds status test

Attendance positioning test

99.40% 99.30% 99.20% 99.10% 99.00% 98.90% 98.80% 98.70% 98.60% 98.50% 98.40%

Broadcast reminder test

Total number of tests (times) Number of successes (times) Fig. 1. Information platform integration test data

Table 1. Test data of information platform module Test content System to enter Function module Integration testing System to enter Function module Integration testing

Total number of tests (times) 8000 15000

Number of successes (times) 7967 14837

Success rate (%) 99.59 98.91

5000

4932

98.64

8000 15000

7916 14891

98.95 99.27

5000

4889

97.78

From the data in Table 1 and Fig. 1, it can be found that the information platform of maritime cargo transportation supply chain has achieved a good effect in the operation process, especially in the core data of the system, the success rate is as high as 99.59%, close to 100%. This shows that the information platform of maritime cargo transport supply chain runs smoothly and is a system that can stand the test.

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5 Conclusion The construction of information platform of supply chain of maritime cargo transport is related to the future development of maritime cargo transport. The construction of information platform can manage and exchange various transport information, which is an effective way to realize transport management and improve the efficiency of maritime transportation. At present, the application of ICT technology in the construction of supply chain platform of maritime transport is becoming more and more mature, but at the same time, a series of problems also appear, which must cause us to pay enough attention and realize the scientific framework of supply chain information platform on the basis of solving problems.

References 1. Yeo, C.A.: Land and sea transportation in imperial Italy. Trans. Proc. Am. Philol. Assoc. 77 (13), 221–244 (2017) 2. Laine, J.T., Vepslinen, A.P.J.: Economies of speed in sea transportation. Int. J. Phys. Distrib. & Logist. Manag. 24(8), 33–41 (2017) 3. Endresen, Y.: Emission from international sea transportation and environmental impact. J. Geophys. Res. 108(17), 4560 (2017) 4. Nishibe, T.: Progress of the industry and occupational health: sea transportation. Sangyō Igaku Jpn. J. Ind. Health 21(8), 110–114 (2018) 5. Weintrit, A.: TransNav: international journal on marine navigation and safety of sea transportation. Maritime Saf. 22(15), 117 (2017) 6. Dalsøren, S.B., Endresen, Ã., Isaksen, I.S.A.: Environmental impacts of the expected increase in sea transportation, with a particular focus on oil and gas scenarios for Norway and northwest Russia. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112(32), 125–127 (2017) 7. Nslund, B.: Combined sea and land transportation. J. Oper. Res. Soc. 21(1), 47–59 (2017) 8. Brokking, P., Crona, J.S., Eriksson, I.-M.: SEA in Swedish transportation policy-making and planning - Political ambitions and practice. Environ. Policy & Governance 14(2), 94–104 (2018) 9. Faturachman, D., Mustafa, S.: Performance of safety sea transportation. Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci. 57(16), 368–372 (2017) 10. Searcy, T.: Bridging islands and calming seas: a material flow management approach to sustainable sea transportation for Fiji”s lower southern Lau islands. Mar. Policy 83(5), 221– 229 (2017) 11. Roth, A.E.: Shaping the economic future sea transportation. Proc. Acad. Polit. Sci. 21(2), 4– 16 (2017) 12. Wisnu, W., Setyo, H.Y., Faisal, S.: Strength analysis and sea-fastening design of container crane structure for heavy lifting sea transportation. Appl. Mech. Mater. 74(15), 147–154 (2017) 13. Br barus, M.d., Asyrafy, H., Nababan, E.: Routing and scheduling optimization model of sea transportation. IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 30(5):121 (2017) 14. Xie, X.: An integrated sea–land transportation system model and its theory. Transp. Res. Part C Emerg. Technol. 17(4), 394–411 (2019) 15. Ning, R., Xiang, L.I., Zhi-xue, L.I.U.: Optimization model of dry bulk feright in Yangtze River based on river-sea transportation mode and investment constraint. J. Traffic & Transp. Eng. 17(5), 124–129 (2017)

Under the Background of Digital College Financial Problems Existing in the Informatization Construction and Solving Suggestion Hongxu Gao(&) Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China [email protected] Abstract. The final development of universities will inevitably move towards the stage of digital management. As an important part of the university construction, the result of the university financial information (FI) construction will directly affect the overall construction of the university digital campus. Under the current background of digitization, the construction of financial informatization in colleges and universities (CAU) is faced with a series of difficulties and challenges, such as many financial work data, difficulties in FI processing and low working efficiency of financial personnel. Based on the brief analysis of the concept of the digital and financial informatization construction, on the basis of using the algorithm for the current problems of the construction of the college finance informationization carried on the thorough analysis, and combined with the actual situation of financial informatization, puts forward the relevant solution, can promote the rapid implementation of college finance informationization, for future related research provides a theoretical basis. Keywords: Digital background  Financial informatization construction  FI construction algorithm

 University

1 Introduction With the progress of network technology and scientific level, China has entered the digital information era is an inevitable result of the construction of CAU [1]. Under the background of digitization, higher requirements are put forward for the construction of CAU. FI construction in CAU is the premise and foundation of realizing modernization and information management in CAU [2, 3]. It is of great significance to strive to realize the construction of financial informatization in CAU, which is embodied in various aspects. In particular, it improves the use efficiency of funds in CAU to the greatest extent, and shows a important role in promoting the development of college education [4, 5]. However, the management of financial department has been unable to Funded Project of Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of Southwest Minzu University. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 16–21, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_3

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keep up with the pace of information development. At present, there are still many problems that cannot be ignored in the construction of financial informatization in CAU in China, which hinder the construction progress of digital campus. Therefore, it is necessary to speed up the solution [6]. Realizing the construction of financial informatization in CAU is an important guarantee for improving the efficiency of financial work in CAU, realizing the reasonable allocation of resources in CAU, and realizing the modernization of financial management as soon as possible [7, 8]. Domestic and foreign scholars have also conducted many studies on the informatization construction of CAU, some of which are based on the construction of accounting informatization, and some of which also put forward methods and strategies to build a financial informatization platform according to relevant actual conditions. These studies also play a significant role in promoting the construction of financial informatization [9, 10]. In order to fill this theoretical gap, based on a brief analysis of the concepts of digitization and FI construction, this paper makes an in-depth analysis of the current problems of FI construction in CAU with the help of relevant algorithms, and proposes relevant solutions based on the actual situation of FI construction.

2 Method 2.1

Digitalization Concept

Digital is by means of the relevant network information technology, and through setting up special program management, on the basis of the data as a whole to realize the management, to information construction of CAU financial offers a variety of ways, for the construction of university financial platform to provide more advanced intelligent means, made more scientific and accurate FI construction in universities. Digitalization has a very large application space. 2.2

FI Construction Algorithm

The construction algorithm of FI refers to the specific classification results of FI of CAU after centralized correlation, classification and processing of relevant financial data. In order to realize the construction of FI, correlation of financial data is the most important prerequisite. Among them, the lowest financial gap value is represented by target data, and set as, the specific calculation formula is as follows: d2 ðkÞ = ½z  ^zðk þ 1=kÞS1 ðk + 1Þ½z  ^zðk + 1=kÞ

ð1Þ

Where, z represents the maximum gap of financial data, and S represents the overall set of financial data. Then, the terminal feedback of FI is carried out with the help of kalman filter algorithm, and the standard FI value is compared with the feedback, so that the financial state variable can be updated constantly. This algorithm can quickly process and calculate the financial state variables of complex financial data. The specific formula is as follows:

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Xk = Fk=k1 Xk1 + Tk1 Uk1



ð2Þ

Where, Xk/k−1 represents the state vector and detection vector under the k data set; Fk/k−1 is the state transition matrix. Uk is the interference data at the moment k; Tk is the control moment of the system.

3 Experiment In order to test the accuracy of FI construction algorithm, three different groups of university financial data are selected for relevant simulation experiments. At the same time with the help of MATLAB software to obtain financial target data, to achieve the in-depth analysis of the target financial data. The first step is to associate and centralize the data. Accurate centralization and correlation of financial data of CAU is an important prerequisite for constructing financial informatization, and effective centralization and feedback of financial informatization data are provided. Then the data information with the smallest difference in FI is the required target information, namely d2(k), whose function is to realize the synchronous update of target information. The second step is to make a detailed selection and classification of financial data. With the help of formula (2), the terminal financial feedback information is screened and classified, the standard FI value and the feedback FI value are comprehensively compared and analyzed, the state variable of FI is calculated synchronously, and the estimated value of the required financial data is calculated. The third step is to track the financial target data. Main detection index is the FI of the target data information, can use the terminal feedback information FI database of relevant FI, in the case of known financial regional data, the characteristics of FI platform by searching for FI matching, the needed information extraction and audit.

4 Discuss 4.1

Experimental Results

Through the above experiments and relevant calculations, we can draw the conclusion that at present, the financial informatization construction of CAU in China has not achieved the ideal effect and needs to be further improved. This conclusion comes from the analysis of specific experimental data. Specific experimental data are shown in Table 1 and Fig. 1. The data in the chart is the result of the author’s experiment. 4.2

Problems Existing in Financial Informatization Construction of CAU

From the data in Fig. 1, we can see that compared with the traditional financial construction, the financial informatization construction has greatly improved the accuracy of financial calculation and work efficiency, but it has not reached the ideal effect, which is caused by various problems existing in the current financial informatization

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Table 1. Key factor data of financial construction Traditional

Real information construction 71.62% 42.68%

Ideal information construction 91.87% 86.54%

Data security 54.16% Proportion of high-quality 21.78% personnel Financial data connection 17.67% 52.17% 89.69% *Data came from the in-depth analysis of financial data in the experiment

100.00% 80.00% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00%

86.85%

71.54%

65.20%

65.17%

42.39% 25.87%

Traditional Financial Platform

Real Information Financial Platform

Efficiency

Ideal Financial Information Platform

Accuracy Rate

Fig. 1. Comparison of financial work under different financial platforms

construction of CAU in China. Through the analysis of Table 1, we find that the current problems of FI construction in CAU are mainly manifested in three aspects: data security, high-quality professionals and the connectivity of financial data. First of all, the level of informatization of financial staff in CAU in China is relatively low, and they are not proficient in the operation of informatization, which greatly hinders the construction of financial informatization. Secondly, the data security of financial informatization is low and needs to be further improved. At present, China’s network information operation environment still has a great threat, a variety of computer viruses will affect the security of financial data; Finally, at present, the connection between FI and data is not close enough and there is no unified sharing platform. 4.3

Suggestions and Strategies for Financial Informatization Construction in CAU

(1) Further improve the FI management mechanism With the rapid change of digital background, there is a great incompatibility between the former FI management mechanism and the current FI construction. Therefore, must carry on the thorough consummation to the FI management mechanism. FI management mechanism should be consistent with the development trend of the current digital

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background and have strong operability. Therefore, the new management mechanism can be combined with the effective classification and arrangement of financial files, so that financial data can be effectively used. When perfecting the FI management mechanism, we must pay attention to the scientific nature of methods. (2) Improve the comprehensive quality of financial staff in CAU The construction of financial informatization in CAU has put forward higher requirements for relevant financial staff. The quality of financial staff must be able to keep up with the pace of financial informatization construction. This requires the relevant financial personnel not only to have profound financial theoretical knowledge, but also to be able to operate and apply information technology skillfully, and to be particularly familiar with the operation of relevant financial software, to the maximum extent to adapt to the needs of information construction. For this reason, CAU should conduct irregular professional training and assessment for financial staff, urge financial staff to focus on learning, and apply the theoretical knowledge learned in practical financial work as soon as possible. And reference to the opinions of financial personnel on FI construction for a reasonable adjustment.

5 Conclusion Under the background of digitization, the construction of Fiization in CAU needs longterm efforts and has extremely high complexity. Therefore must be carried out on the problems existing in the current FI construction in-depth analysis, and with the current effective combination of the actual development of the FI construction, on the basis of reasonable solution Suggestions, making financial construction of CAU on the maximum achieve a scientific and accurate, only then can achieve faster college financial informatization construction. Acknowledgements. Project No.: 82003031.

References 1. Jin, F., Yan-yong, S.: Brief introduction of financial informatization construction for enterprise group. Comput. Netw. 33(17), 562–567 (2017) 2. Yong, Z., Shan, L.: Business school, financial development, technical innovation and the construction of smart cities: an informatization development perspective. J. Financ. Econ. 12 (5): 343–347 (2017) 3. Bao-lin, L., Tong-jian, Z.: The research of green financial construction and industrial structure adjustment in Hebei province. J. Guizhou Commer. Coll. 19(11), 279–282 (2017) 4. Hu, Q., Du, J., Li, R.: Study on the model of financial centralized management in the largescale construction enterprises. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 31(15), 439 (2018) 5. Olubimbola, O., Aina, O.: Financial performance of locally-owned construction firms in south-western Nigeria. J. Financ. Manag. Prop. Constr. 23(1), 100–104 (2018) 6. Halawa, W.S., Abdelalim, A.M.K., Elrashed, I.A.: . Financial evaluation program for construction projects at the pre-investment phase in developing countries: a case study. Int. J. Proj. Manag. 31(6): 912–923 (2017)

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7. Xin, S., Pei-xin, W.: Relationship between environmental performance and financial performance of China listed construction company. J. Eng. Manag. 19(8), 551–556 (2017) 8. Wu, S.Z.: Based on computer network security in fiization construction of colleges and universities. Adv. Mater. Res. 24(3), 989–994 (2017) 9. Yan, Q.: Studies on regional green credit financial ecological environment construction. J. Jilin Financ. Res. 8(1), 154–155 (2017) 10. Chen, J.-H.: Developing SFNN models to predict financial distress of construction companies. Expert Syst. Appl. 39(1), 823–827 (2017)

Collaborative Workflow-Based Enterprise Information System Bin Huang1,2, Qilong Teng3, and You Tang1,2(&) 1

Electrical and Information Engineering College, JiLin Agricultural Science and Technology University, Jilin 132101, China [email protected] 2 Smart Agricultural Engineering Research Center of Jilin Province, Jilin 132101, China 3 Electronic Information Engineering, Jilin Petrochemical Engineering Efficiency, Jilin, China

Abstract. Based on the study of collaborative workflow technology, this paper analyzes the characteristics of enterprise supply chain management system, studies its requirements for workflow management system, and designs a workflow management system for enterprise supply chain management system integration platform. Keywords: Collaboration Design

 Workflow  Enterprise information system 

1 Workflow Organization Model in Collaborative Work Environment Workflow management system is based on workflow model, which contains all the information of workflow system execution and is the computerized representation of business process [1]. A good workflow model should not only have strong description ability, but also have the property of loose coupling, that is, keep a loose coupling relationship with other systems [2]. The organizational model is responsible for defining the organizational form of people in the enterprise, which provides a flexible structure that ADAPTS to different enterprises and different organizational structures within the enterprise. Among various modeling methods, the application of organization-driven modeling method is relatively mature [3]. It refers to the existing organizational model in the enterprise, and the organizational entity needed in workflow management system needs to refer to the entity of the organizational model in the enterprise. The application of organization-driven modeling can be independent of external constraints and can meet various application requirements of enterprises, effectively realize the separation of workflow model and organization model, so as to improve the adaptability of the system [4]. This paper adopts the organization-driven modeling method. The organization model class diagram is shown in Fig. 1.

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 22–27, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_4

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Fig. 1. Organize the model class diagram.

2 Supply Chain Collaborative Workflow Management System 2.1

System Logic Structure

The logical structure of the supply chain collaborative workflow management system is shown in Fig. 2. The main functions of workflow management system include: 1) Workflow definition tool. Provide users with a means to analyze and model the actual business process, form a formal description of the business process that can be processed by computer, and start the functional development stage of workflow [5]. 2) Workflow execution service. Execution service is the core part of workflow, which is logically divided into five interfaces: Workflow client module interface, process definition module interface, callable function service interface, monitor and manage workflow tool interface, and interface to connect with other workflow systems. 3) Application. Each application needs to be responsible for the execution of a subprocess of the workflow, or for the completion of a task. Depending on the workflow state, the workflow engine invokes an application to execute the workflow [6]. In this system, an application is provided to an activity after completing registry registration as a resource. 4) Workflow client application. The worklist library is accessed based on the worklist access interface, and the workflow engine is able to assign work to the worklist library, which is then accessed by the user [7]. 5) Process and task monitoring tools. Monitor and manage the status of process instances in the workflow management system, and collect and record information about what happened during process execution [8].

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Fig. 2. Logical structure of supply chain collaborative workflow management system

6) Workflow executes the internal logical structure of the service [9]. Organization management implements the maintenance and management of organizational model data such as organization and staff setting in the supply chain system, and provides task assignment information to the process. 2.2

System Function Description

Workflow management system based on collaborative workflow, its main function is to realize the office automation of material supply, better meet the requirements of automation and information office between various departments, and complete some daily administrative affairs. Specific functions include: 1) Data communication mainly refers to the normal circulation of office documents and the mail transmission of office staff. 2) Information sharing, maintenance, management and query of department data with main indicators. 3) Daily management, mainly referring to the management of personal affairs, administrative affairs, archives, and organizational personnel. 4) Workflow automation, complete the perfect connection of a specific business. According to the actual characteristics of collaborative workflow of supply chain of a group, the system divides modules according to functions. The system can be divided into 8 main functional modules, including: inventory management, coding

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management, inbound and outbound management, red flush return management, plan management, cost adjustment, statistical report and system management. The system function structure is shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. System function structure diagram.

2.3

System Relational Database Model

The storage of business process instances is done through the process table and the process ID table. Process table is responsible for the business process instance of the main information storage, is the main table; The process ID table is the process ID of the business process instance stored from the table. The process table and the process ID table are associated by the field FGUID in the process table and the field FFLOWGUID in the process ID table. 2.4

Realization of Functional Modules

Create the business database in the sales module, design the structure of three database relational tables to meet the needs of sales reports. The three relationship tables are: external customer information table, external sales secondary table and external sales master table. Among them, the external sales slave table and the external sales master table construct the relationship between the master and slave tables by using the sequence number attribute of sales receipts. The header information is stored in the master table, while the detailed information of receipts is stored in the latter table. In addition, the relationship between the external customer information table and the external sales master table is constructed according to the encoding attribute of the external customer to store the external customer information. The specific implementation process is as follows: 1) First create the database needed to store, and then add Dataset to the database. This dataset is a database table component provided by the development system, in which field properties are explicitly displayed, such as lookup computed fields or expression fields. Finally, the input form interface was designed.

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2) Complete the design of functional form, which can be implemented through DatasetBroker, FuncBroker and other data set agent components, and then reference and design the data set and form. 3) Design of external sales audit form. At this time, define the audit process according to the application data set agent component. When the auditor receives the task information, he/she will open the function module form, check the form submitted by the operator last time, and then review the form information. If the audit is passed, he/she will submit the order, and the data of the database will be updated automatically.

3 Conclusion With the rapid development of modern science and technology, the fierce competition between enterprises began to gradually change to win-win cooperation [10]. In this paper, the design of information system based on workflow system, is to use the analysis of synergy mode, the research work under the environment of workflow management system, able to provide enterprises with more than one user to coexist, distributed collaborative work system, so as to shorten product development cycle, improve production efficiency, improve the management level of enterprise’s comprehensive strength and modernization. Acknowledgements. This work is supported in part by the PhD startup Foundation Project of JiLin Agricultural Science and Technology University on 2018 and the Digital Agriculture key discipline of JiLin province Foundation.

References 1. Qu, Y.: An integrated framework of enterprise information systems in smart manufacturing system via business process reengineering. ProQuest 233, 2210–2224 (2019) 2. Zacharewicz, G., Diallo, S., Ducq, Y., Agostinho, C., Jardim-Goncalves, R., Bazoun, H., Wang, Z., Doumeingts, G.: Model-based approaches for interoperability of next generation enterprise information systems: state of the art and future challenges. IseB 15, 229–256 (2017) 3. Ma, X.: Practice exploration on informatization construction and system planning of large state-owned enterprises. China Informatization, 55–58 (2019) 4. Arunachalan, B., Diamond, S., Szigeti, S., Chevalier, F., Stevens, A., Ghaden, M., Talaie, B., Reffly, D.: Designing portable solutions to support collaborative workflow in long-term care: A five point strategy. Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design (CSCWD). Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 18th International Conference on (2013) 5. Gu, Y., Chen, S.: Innovation of government governance mode based on e-government – analysis of collaborative governance mechanism. The 2010 annual meeting of Chinese society of administrative management and the seminar on “innovation in government management”, pp. 1209–1224 (2010)

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6. Gorg, S., Bergmann, R., Gessinger, S.: Real-time collaboration and experience reuse for cloud-based workflow management systems. IEEE (2013) https://doi.org/10.1109/CBI.2013. 63 7. Knuplesch, D., Reichert, M., Pryss, R., Fdhila, W., Rinderle-Ma, S.: Ensuring compliance of distributed and collaborative workflows. IEEE (2013) 8. Harianja, K., Anwar, R.: Successful information communication technology system on enterprise resources planning implementation: A case study of metal-work industries in Indonesia. Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on Organizational Innovation (ICOI 2019) (2019). https://doi.org/10.2991/icoi-19.2019.82 9. Yan, X.: Design and implementation of information database management system for Coal Machinery Enterprise. Proceedings of the 2018 3rd International Workshop on Materials Engineering and Computer Sciences (IWMECS 2018) (2018). https://doi.org/10.2991/ iwmecs-18.2018.122 10. Gvozdev, V., Kirillov, K.: Information support for the management of the efficiency of enterprise information service systems. Proceedings of the 7th Scientific Conference on Information Technologies for Intelligent Decision Making Support (ITIDS 2019) (2019). https://doi.org/10.2991/itids-19.2019.5

E-Commerce Profit Evaluation of Agricultural Products Based on Grey Prediction Algorithm Shuangying Liu(&) Jilin Engineering Normal University, Changchun 130052, China [email protected]

Abstract. In the present society, we have gradually begun to use computer technology for the study of the development of agriculture and research. We also began to use computers for research on the computational studies of ecommerce profitability evaluation for agricultural products. Through computer computing research, it will be more convenient and fast to analyze and research the profitability of agricultural products in e-commerce. This paper uses the grey forecasting algorithm to evaluate the profitability of e-commerce in agricultural products. It is one of the directions for the above problems, and it has gradually achieved good results. Through our testing of the algorithm, we find that the algorithm is highly reliable in the calculation and use of this paper. Keywords: Grey prediction algorithm Profitability evaluation

 Agricultural products E-commerce 

1 Introduction With the advent of our current social information age, all walks of life are moving their work closer to the information age. Computer technology has become an indispensable tool for work research in all fields at this stage. Computer algorithms have also been gradually used by us for their powerful computational analysis capabilities (Zeng et al. 2017) [1]. In addition, the e-commerce of agricultural products is gradually developing. However, our research on e-commerce profitability evaluation of agricultural products is relatively backward. At present, there is not a good calculation tool for this aspect, which leads to our profitability of agricultural products in e-commerce. The lack of analysis and research data for the situation makes it difficult to make a correct judgment on our next development strategy (Liu et al. 2016) [2]. This has greatly increased the difficulty of our work and has also hindered the development and progress of ecommerce in agricultural products (Vani et al. 2016) [3]. In this paper, the research on the calculation of grey forecasting algorithm is firstly based on the analysis of the calculation form of the algorithm. Through the understanding of the calculation form of the grey forecasting algorithm, the calculation entry point for using the algorithm in e-commerce profit evaluation of agricultural products can be founded (Lim et al. 2016) [4]. Then we have to analyze the calculation steps of the algorithm and prepare for the establishment of our next calculation model. Then, we can optimize the calculation formula of the algorithm and the calculation formula of the gray prediction algorithm, and then we begin to build the calculation model of our © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 28–33, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_5

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calculation. Finally, we need to test and study the algorithm. We test the algorithm to prove the feasibility of our optimized algorithm (Li et al. 2016) [5]. Through our calculation of the grey prediction algorithm, we have helped our analysis of ecommerce profit evaluation (Barion et al. 2016) [6].

2 Related Work The computational research of the grey prediction algorithm is a modern computer computing theory proposed by American scholars in the last century (Liu et al. 2017) [7]. For the computational research of the algorithm, we have just begun to mainly use the gray prediction algorithm for the study of some models and computational predictions. Gradually we began to expand the calculation range and the computational field of the algorithm. Western scholars have extended the computational research of grey prediction algorithms to computational evaluations in the current stage of work with their powerful computer technology and scientific calculation concepts. Of course, the main computational function of the algorithm is also the prediction function. In fact, this evaluation function is only an extension of the prediction function. Research in this area has been thoroughly studied by foreign scholars (Sun et al. 2016) [8]. Domestic research on grey forecasting algorithms began in the 1990s. The economic exchanges and academic exchanges between China and other countries in the world have become increasingly close (Wang et al 2016) [9]. The research on the calculation of the grey prediction algorithm was introduced into our country from the beginning and the end of the era, and gradually carried forward. The grey prediction algorithm is widely used in medical agriculture in China, etc. (Trinh et al 2017) [10]. At the same time, our country’s calculation of the grey prediction algorithm is not weaker than that of foreign studies. We have also developed a set of our own computational analysis theory for our domestic calculations. This paper’s computational research is based on this research.

3 Methodology 3.1

Basic Calculation Theory of Grey Prediction Algorithm

The two tests are not consistent. Normally, we use the Push method for the first test. For the second test we usually use Pull. In this case, if we pass our second test and find that the failure of the first test is successful in the second test, we also say that this message is valid. This detection process we can use a map to display. The simple execution process of the detection process is shown in Fig. 1. 3.2

Research on Calculation Formula and Mathematical Model of Grey Prediction Algorithm

The above studies have improved the GM(1,1) model from different perspectives and achieved good results in practical applications. However, from the previous literature,

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Fig. 1. Detection process simple implementation process

there are very few literatures on the grey action in the optimization model. The gray action is also an important factor affecting the prediction accuracy of the model. It reflects the relationship between data changes. In the traditional GM (1,1) model, the gray action is a constant constant. With the change of time and space, the gray action will change instead of static, so the prediction accuracy of the model will be certain influenced. In addition, the disturbance of the external impact disturbance is also a key factor affecting the accuracy of the GM (1,1) model. In the late 1980s, Professor Liu Sifeng proposed a very effective data processing method for the problem of model failure that often occurs in the prediction process, that is sequence operator. It can be used to sort the original data subjected to impact perturbation by using buffer operators, and then seek its own internal change law, so as to make it possible to avoid randomness in stability and eliminate the interference of impact disturbance items. Therefore, how to construct an effective buffer operator is of great significance to improve the accuracy of the GM(1,1) model. For the calculation accuracy of the model we have divided into four levels, the main level of division we use the following Table 1 to display. Table 1. Model accuracy Model accuracy grade Level 1 (good) Level 2 (qualified) Level 3 (barely) Level 4 (failed)

Post test difference 0.95 < p 0.8 < p < 0.95 0.70 < p < 0.80 p < 0.7

Probability of small errors C < 0.35 0.35 < C < 0.5 0.5 < C < 0.65 0.65 < C

Then according to our machine selection needs, we also need to use the computer model to calculate and study the mathematical calculation model we established above. Figure 2 below shows the computational process diagram of the computer model we established.

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Fig. 2. We set up the computer model calculation process

4 Result Analysis and Discussion The average value of the final error is even more obvious. The average error of the optimized algorithm has reached 1.73%. However, the calculation error of our optimized grey prediction algorithm is only 0.55%. This greatly improves the computational accuracy of our algorithm. In addition, we have also tested the entire calculation accuracy of the algorithm and displayed our test results in the form of pictures. The comparison of the accuracy of the test results is shown in Fig. 3 below.

Fig. 3. Comparison of the test results of the entire calculation accuracy

By comparing the data in the above figure, we can know that we passed a set of experiments and gradually increased the amount of calculation of the algorithm to simulate the calculation accuracy of the algorithm. Then, through the computer’s collection of data, it shows the accuracy of the two algorithms as the amount of computation increases. For data analysis, it can be seen that the accuracy of traditional

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algorithms decreases as our calculation projects increase. From the beginning of 100%, when the calculation item reaches 10,000, the accuracy of calculation is reduced to less than 60%, which completely does not meet our calculation requirements. However, for our optimized algorithm, the accuracy of our algorithm has been stable at about 95% before 10,000 calculation items. However, when the calculation of our entire algorithm exceeds 10,000, the accuracy of the calculation has decreased significantly. This shows that our optimized grey prediction algorithm is in line with our calculation requirements. Therefore, the computational accuracy requirements of our optimized algorithm have been satisfied. The calculation accuracy and calculation time also need to be tested.

5 Conclusion With the continuous development of science and technology, the application of information technology has become the primary goal of our current industry transformation. The same is true for agriculture. This paper uses the grey forecasting algorithm to analyze and calculate the profitability of agricultural products e-commerce is a transformation direction. The use of advanced computer algorithms and computer technology for computational analysis not only greatly saves time but also greatly increases the accuracy of calculations. Through testing the grey prediction algorithm, we find that the calculation accuracy after the optimization of the algorithm is extremely high, and the calculation accuracy under 10000 calculation items can be stable at more than 95%, but the calculation accuracy of the traditional algorithm has dropped below 60%. In addition, we have also shortened the calculation time of the algorithm to half of the traditional algorithm and it reached our optimization goal. This makes it a computer algorithm suitable for e-commerce profit evaluation of agricultural products. Acknowledgements. Jilin provincial department of education “13th five-year” social science project “research on cross-border e-commerce development strategy of jilin province agricultural products export from the perspective of ‘One Belt And One Road’ (JJKH20190777SK)”; Research project of jilin normal university of engineering and technology “research on restricting factors and coping strategies of rural e-commerce development in jilin province (XYB201831)”.

References 1. Zeng, B., Liu, S.: A self-adaptive intelligence gray prediction model with the optimal fractional order accumulating operator and its application. Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 40, 7843–7857 (2017) 2. Liu, X., Fine, J.P., Chen, Z., et al.: Prediction of the 20-year incidence of diabetes in older Chinese: application of the competing risk method in a longitudinal study. Medicine 95(40), 5057 (2016) 3. Vani, R., Sangeetha, M.: A new hybrid search algorithm with novel cross-diagonal-hexagon search video coding algorithm for block motion estimation. Wirel. Pers. Commun. 88(2), 211–222 (2016)

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4. Lim, H., Gray, P., Xie, L., et al.: Improved genome-scale multi-target virtual screening via a novel collaborative filtering approach to cold-start problem. Sci. Rep. 6, 38860 (2016) 5. Li, W., Lu, C., Liu, S.: The research on electric load forecasting based on nonlinear gray bernoulli model optimized by cosine operator and particle swarm optimization. J. Intell. Fuzzy Syst. 30(6), 3665–3673 (2016) 6. Barion, G., Mosca, G., Vamerali, T.: Estimation of cotyledon isoflavone abundance by a gray luminance-based model in variously hilum-colored soybean varieties. J. Sci. Food Agric. 96(12), 4126–4134 (2016) 7. Liu, H.F., Ren, C., Zheng, Z.T., et al.: Study of a gray genetic BP neural network model in fault monitoring and a diagnosis system for dam safety. Int. J. Geo-Inf. 7(1), 4 (2017) 8. Sun, X., Sun, W., Wang, J., et al.: Using a Grey–Markov model optimized by Cuckoo search algorithm to forecast the annual foreign tourist arrivals to China. Tour. Manag. 52, 369–379 (2016) 9. Wang, H.T., Wang, T.C.: Application of the grey Lotka-Volterra model to forecast the diffusion and competition analysis of the TV and smartphone industries. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 106, 37–44 (2016) 10. Trinh, H.X.P., Tran, T.T.: An analyzing case: numbers of Taiwanese students and their expenditures by using grey system theory to forecast. Int. J. Adv. Appl. Sci. 4(9), 35–45 (2017)

Customer Segmentation and Management of Online Shops Based on RFM Model Yulu He and Yanxia Cheng(&) School of management, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China [email protected]

Abstract. Based on the RFM model, this study adopts k-means clustering method to cluster users with similar purchasing behaviors. Then according to the differences in the buying behavior of each group of customers, customers are divided into different types. Then, this study innovatively adopts a special objective customer value weight calculation method to obtain the customer value calculation weight that matches the specific enterprise. Finally, the customer value of each group was calculated, and corresponding customer relationship management recommendations were given. Keywords: Customer segmentation

 Customer value  RFM model

1 Introduction For the enterprise, the customer is always the core resource of the enterprise. The most important thing in customer relationship management is to classify customers. Enterprises need to tailor services to different customers based on the value of different types of customers for precision marketing. If the company wants to have a better development, it must break the traditional business methods and analyze customer data. Enterprises need to extract hidden, previously unknown, but potentially important information from a large amount of noisy, fuzzy, and random data, so as to effectively and timely segment and identify customers. In the era of big data, especially e-commerce companies facing hundreds of millions of customer groups, they need to effectively manage their customers. Use cluster analysis technology in customer segmentation to analyze and mine the value hidden in customer information. Divide customers into similar customer groups and evaluate customer value to achieve efficient and differentiated customer relationship management and precision marketing. A large number of scholars have done a lot of research on enterprise customer segmentation and management. Based on previous studies, this study uses a Taobao store as an example to segment specific customers and use specific weight calculation methods to calculate customer values, which provides a reference for other companies to conduct customer management.

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 34–41, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_6

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2 Literature Review From the perspective of customers, Zeithaml (1988) believes that customer value is the difference between the price paid by customers and the perceived value [1]; Porter (1997) believes that customer value is the price that customers are willing to pay for the company’s products or services [2]. From a corporate perspective, Philip Kotler (1973) believes that customer value is the profit that customers can bring to the enterprise [3]; Walter (2001) believes that the research focus of customer value is its non-monetary value [4]. The customer value of this study refers to the customer value from the perspective of the enterprise. Customer segmentation was first proposed by American scholar Wendell (1956) in the 1950s under the background of different customer needs and limited enterprise resources [5]. Subsequently, Frank (1973) found that different customer segmentation measures could bring higher profits to enterprises according to different markets and different customers [6]. Gelin Chu (2014) believes that customer segmentation is to classify customers with different values for each type of customer based on customer value [7]. The RFM model proposed by the American Database Marketing Institute is the most classic model for customer value calculation and customer segmentation, including three variables of R(Recency), F(Frequency) and M(Monetary). The values of R, F and M can be easily extracted from the transaction data between customers and enterprises. The RFM model customer classification is shown in Table 1. This paper intends to use the RFM model to segment customers and then calculate customer value. Table 1. RFM model customer classification table The customer type R F Important value customers " " Important recall customers # " Important development customers " # Important retention customers # # Potential customers " " New customers " # General maintenance customers # " Lost customers # # Note: " :above average # :below average

M " " " " # # # #

3 Data Collection and Preprocessing 3.1

Data Collection

Through the taobao seller center, this study obtained 2857 order data from an online store from October 2017 to April 2018. The order data is simply processed, including deleting irrelevant information, deleting exception information, coding the customer,

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and calculating the RFM value. After processing, 1165 pieces of customer data are obtained. The data example is shown in Table 2. Table 2. Customer data example Customer code R F M C0001 8 15 2402.4

3.2

Data Preprocessing

Data normalization is a basic work of data mining [8]. Different indicators often have different dimensions, and the differences between the values may be significant. Failure to process may affect the results of data analysis. In order to eliminate the impact of the differences in the dimensions and ranges of the indicators, the data needs to be standardized. The data index is scaled according to the ratio, so that it falls into a specific area for the comprehensive analysis. In this study, the minimum-maximum normalization method was adopted to process the data [8]. Perform a linear transformation of the original data to map the data to the interval [0, 1]. The conversion formula is as follows: X0 ¼

XMAX  X XMAX  XMIN

ð1Þ

XMAX is the maximum value of sample data. XMIN is the minimum value of sample data. XMAX  XMIN is the range. Deviation normalization preserves the relationship existing in the original sample data and is a simple method to eliminate the dimension and data value range. Applied to the RFM model is: R0 ¼

RMAX  R RMAX  RMIN

ð2Þ

F FMAX

ð3Þ

M  MMIN MMAX  MMIN

ð4Þ

F0 ¼ M0 ¼

The normalized customer data example is shown in Table 3.

Table 3. Customer standardized data example Customer code R′ F′ M′ C0001 0.9591 1.0000 0.6769

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4 Data Analysis and Results 4.1

K-means Cluster Analysis

K-means algorithm is a simple and easy cluster analysis algorithm. In this study, kmeans clustering algorithm was used to group customers with similar purchasing behaviors into a group. The number of clusters K = 12 was selected to analyze customer data. Divide customer data into 12 groups. Then calculate the average of the R, F, and M values for each group of customers, and compare them with the total R, F, and M averages to define each type of customer. The results are shown in Table 4. Table 4. Customer classification type Customer group number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

 R

 F

 M

Comparing results R"F"M" R#F"M" R#F#M# R"F"M" R"F"M" R#F#M# R#F"M" R"F#M# R#F"M" R"F"M" R"F"M" R#F#M#

0.9591 1.0000 0.6769 0.6199 0.8667 0.9118 0.1750 0.0667 0.0371 0.9070 0.2252 0.1239 0.9181 0.6000 0.9901 0.4151 0.0753 0.0378 0.6211 0.1833 0.1346 0.9044 0.0809 0.0366 0.5380 0.6000 0.5431 0.9393 0.5750 0.4854 0.9074 0.3569 0.2327 0.6464 0.0704 0.0140  ¼ 0:6982 F  ¼ 0:1035 M  ¼ 0:0472 Note: The total average: R

4.2

The number of customers 1 1 25 82 2 93 52 239 1 8 34 627

Customer Value Analysis

4.2.1 Weight Determination According to the RFM model, the customer value calculation formula used in this study is: CLV ¼ iR þ jF þ kM i þ j þ k ¼ 1

ð5Þ

In the original RFM model, R, F, and M were equally important to customer value, so they were given the same weight. Miglautsch (2000) thinks that the indexes R, F, and M should be assigned different weights [9]. Tsai and Chiu (2004) believe that the sum of the weights of the three variables R, F, and M should be equal to 1 [10]. In subsequent studies, more scholars choose to use the analytic hierarchy process to determine the weights of R, F, and M [11, 12]. This study proposes an easy-to-use weight determination method that matches the specific enterprise. The sum of the weights of R, F and M is 1. Assume that the weights i, j, and k all retain one decimal

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place. Then there are 36 possibilities for the values of i, j and k according to the exhaustive method. The data of March, February and January were selected as the validation set, and the data of the remaining months were used as the test set. Test the possible weights in order, calculate the customer value of the test set according to the customer value calculation formula (5) and arrange them in descending order to divide the customers into 8 categories. The first 1/8 is the first type, the second 1/8 is the second type, and so on, the first type of customers are the highest value customers, and the number of customers is n. For the validation set samples, they are sorted in descending order according to their total amount M, and customers are also divided into 8 categories. The first 1/8 is the first category, the second 1/8 is the second category, and so on. The first category of customers is the customer with the highest purchase amount. Compare the first type test set customers with the first type verification set customers, and observe that there are m first type test set customers that belong to the first type verification set customers. m/n is the ratio of high-value customers to high-purchase customers. For merchants, the most valuable customers they want are those that generate higher volumes of purchases. Therefore, the weights determined in this study should make m/n as large as possible. Add the test results of the three groups, and the results are shown in Table 5. Finally, I = 0.2, j = 0.3 and k = 0.5. Table 5. Verification set result Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

m/n 0.4719 0.3799 0.4308 0.4553 0.3995 0.4636 0.3799 0.3930 0.3930

Number 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

m/n 0.4471 0.3995 0.4833 0.3716 0.4209 0.4028 0.3995 0.3995 0.4177

Number 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

m/n 0.3929 0.4011 0.4783 0.4783 0.3799 0.4111 0.5029 0.3897 0.4931

Number 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

m/n 0.3799 0.4307 0.4307 0.4223 0.4094 0.3929 0.4357 0.3799 0.4011

4.2.2 Customer Value Calculation In this study, customers of a taobao store were divided into 12 categories through kmeans clustering. These 12 types of customers are calculated through formula (5) to calculate the CLV value, as shown in Table 6. The value score of important value customers and important recalled customers is higher, while the value score of new customers and lost customers is lower, which is consistent with the actual situation.

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Table 6. Classified customer value The customer type Important value customers R"F"M" Important recall customers R#F"M" New customers R"F#M# Lost customers R#F#M#

4.3

Customer group number 5 1 10 11 4 2 9 7 8

12 6 3

 R

 F

 M

CLV

0.9181 0.9591 0.9393 0.9074 0.9070 0.6199 0.5380 0.6211

0.6000 1.0000 0.5750 0.3569 0.2252 0.8667 0.6000 0.1833

0.9901 0.6769 0.4854 0.2327 0.1239 0.9118 0.5431 0.1346

0.8587 0.8303 0.6031 0.4049 0.3109 0.8399 0.5592 0.2465

0.9044 0.0809 0.0366 0.2235

Value Number of ranking customers per group 1 2 3 1 4 8 6 34 7 82 2 1 5 1 8 52

Number of customers per type 127

54

9

239

239

0.6464 0.0704 0.0140 0.1574 10 0.4151 0.0753 0.0378 0.1245 11 0.1750 0.0667 0.0371 0.0736 12

627 93 25

745

Customer Classification Results

Important value customer type, including 5 groups of customers, a total of 127 customers, accounting for 10.9% of the total number of customers. This kind of customers buy more recently, buy more frequently and consume more. Important recall customers types, including 3 groups of customers, a total of 54 customers, accounting for 4.7% of the total number of customers. This kind of customer purchase time is far away, purchase frequency is high, consumption amount is big. New customers type, including 1 group of customers, a total of 239 customers, accounting for 20.5% of the total number of customers. This kind of customers buy more recently, buy less frequently and consume less. Lost customers type, including 3 groups of customers, with a total of 745 customers, accounting for 63.9% of the total number of customers. This kind of customers buy more recently, buy less frequently and consume less.

5 Customer Management Advice Through the previous analysis, the customers of a taobao store are divided into four categories: important value customers, important recall customers, new customers and lost customers. Each type of customer is composed of multiple groups of customers. There are also value differences between groups. Management priorities can be made for each group of customer value. Important value customers is the customer with the highest value to the enterprise. They are the main source of corporate profits and have high customer loyalty. In dealing with such customers, enterprises should pay attention to maintaining and

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maintaining the relationship with their customers. Communicate effectively with them to understand customer needs. Prioritize delivery for them. Provide them with customized products and services. Arrange the best staff. Offer them flexible payment terms. Important recall customers value of the enterprise is relatively high. Such customers may well have been important value customers for the enterprise. Because the enterprise customer relationship management is not appropriate, resulting in the customer for a long time not to patronize the enterprise. The enterprise should try its best to win back such customers, and cannot let such customers flow into the hands of competing enterprises. To redeem and retain this class of customers by providing them with a product or service that delivers more value than expected. New customers have done business with the enterprise in the near future, but the frequency and total amount of purchase are low. Their relationship with the enterprise is in the period of investigation or formation. They have great development potential. Companies can attract customers to stay by offering them high-quality products, valuable information, coupons and quality services. Keep customers happy, keep them buying, make them more valuable customers. Lost customers is the least valuable for the enterprise. Most of them just bought a cheap product from a company a long time ago. Companies don’t need to spend too much time and energy with these types of customers. According to the actual situation, the enterprise can selectively redeem customers. Acknowledgements. This work was supported National Social Science Fund: Research on Repetitive Purchase User Identification Based on Light Review and RFM Dual Perspectives (No. 20162s0079); Independent Innovation Project: Emotional Quantitative Research on Light Reviews of Online Users (No. 2017VI016).

References 1. Zeithaml, V.A.: Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence. J. Mark. 52(3), 2–22 (1988) 2. Porter, M.E.: Competitive advantage. J. Bus. Ind. Mark. 25(4), 88–102 (1997) 3. Kotler, P.: Marketing management: analysis, planning and control. J. Mark. 37(1), 5–8 (1973) 4. Walter, A., Ritter, T., Gemünden, H.G.: Value creation in buyer-seller relationships: theoretical considerations and empirical results from a supplier’s perspective. Ind. Mark. Manag. 30(4), 365–377 (2001) 5. Smith, W.R.: Product Differentiation and market segmentation as alternative marketing strategies. J. Mark. 11(7), 3–8 (1956) 6. Frank, R.D., Alpert, M.I., Massy, W.F.: Market segmentation. J. Mark. 37(2), 119 (1973) 7. Chu, G.: Research on telecom customer segmentation based on clustering model. Stat. Decis. (8), 176–179 (2014). (in Chinese) 8. Torgo, L., Li, H., Chen, D., Wu, L.: Data mining and R language. Comput. Educ. (9), 102 (2013). (in Chinese) 9. Miglautsch, J.R.: Thoughts on RFM scoring. J. Database Mark. Customer Strategy Manag. 8 (1), 67–72 (2000)

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10. Tsai, C.Y., Chiu, C.C.: A purchase-based market segmentation methodology. Expert Syst. Appl. 27(2), 265–276 (2004) 11. Lin, S., Xiao, X.: RFM-based telecommunication customer market segmentation method closure. J. Harbin Inst. Technol. 3(5), 758–760 (2005). (in Chinese) 12. Bao, Z., Zhao, Y., Zhao, Y., Hu, X., Gao, F.: Baidu takeaway customer segmentation based on RFA model and cluster analysis. Comput. Sci. 45(S2), 436–438 (2018). (in Chinese)

Digital Service Evaluation System Based on Enterprise Operation Management Mode Chaohu He, Xiong Qi(&), and Li An School of Economics and Management, Yunnan Technology and Business University, Kunming, Yunnan, China [email protected]

Abstract. Traditional enterprise service evaluation is a complete and logical system, and the feedback on enterprise service evaluation is not deep enough, so it has a very adverse impact on enterprise operation management and enterprise development. The purpose of this paper is to establish a digital service evaluation system which is beneficial to the development of enterprises on the basis of enterprise operation and management mode and combined with digital background. This paper firstly gives an overview of enterprise operation management and digital service evaluation, and determines the main index system of digital service evaluation system by means of data fusion algorithm. On this basis, the construction of digital service evaluation system is realized, and the reliability of the system is tested. The experimental results of this paper show that the establishment of digital service evaluation system based on enterprise operation management mode is beneficial to the further development of enterprises, and the operation of the system is completely reliable. Keywords: Enterprise operation  Management mode services  Digital fusion algorithm

 Evaluation of digital

1 Introduction Service evaluation is a reflection of customers’ satisfaction with the enterprise, a key link of enterprise management and operation, and related to the survival and development of the enterprise. In order to ensure the further development of the enterprise, it is necessary to attach importance to the enterprise service evaluation to continuously improve the enterprise competitiveness. Under the current digital background, the service evaluation of enterprises is faced with a series of problems, among which the most important one is the data processing of service evaluation. Therefore, it is particularly important to establish a scientific digital service evaluation system based on the characteristics of enterprise operation and management mode and combining with the digital background. Enterprise service is an important component of enterprise management, providing satisfactory services to enterprise customers, constantly improving the quality of scientific evaluation services, so as to realize the improvement of enterprise service, which plays a key role in the normal operation of enterprises [1, 2]. Through consulting a large number of research materials, we found that these studies are mainly focused on © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 42–46, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_7

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one aspect of service evaluation, and have not yet formed a comprehensive and complete analysis of service evaluation, nor built a complete system of enterprise service evaluation [3, 4]. Moreover, the combination of these studies and digital background is rare, so the research on digital service evaluation system needs to be further enhanced. From this point of view, the research on digital service evaluation system based on enterprise operation and management mode still has a great room for improvement [5, 6]. In order to promote the deepening of the study, improve the relevant theory research, this paper firstly, to assess the enterprise operation and management and digital service related overview, and with the help of the data fusion algorithm, the main index system to determine the evaluation system of digital services, on the basis of the implementation of the building, the evaluation system of digital services and has carried on the experiment to the operation of the system reliability testing [7, 8]. This paper aims to establish a digital service evaluation system through relevant studies, realize the scientific operation management of enterprises, and further promote the continuous development of enterprises and the improvement of competitiveness [9]. The experimental results of this paper show that the establishment of digital service evaluation system based on enterprise operation management mode is beneficial to the further development of enterprises, and the operation of the system is completely reliable. This study not only promotes the scientific construction of the digital evaluation system, but also lays a certain theoretical foundation for future related researches [10].

2 Method 2.1

Overview of Enterprise Operation Management and Digital Service Evaluation

The good application of management is closely related to the development and survival of the enterprise, and is closely related to the market operation of the enterprise [11]. Enterprise operation and management mode refers to the enterprise management method system established by enterprises according to their own characteristics and market conditions. There are huge differences in the operation and management mode among different enterprises. Scientific enterprise operation mode can create huge economic benefits for enterprises and promote the further improvement of enterprise development level. 2.2

Digital Fusion Algorithm

If the number of digital nodes participating in the fusion increases, the accuracy of the final fusion result will be higher. In the process of digital fusion, data loss will occur, which will affect the calculation results. The specific calculation formula of data loss rate is as follows:

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1  n2 n1

ð1Þ

Where, k represents the probability of data loss, and n1 represents the number of data output by the digital node. N2 represents the amount of data actually received by the digital node. In data transmission, the data loss rate is inversely proportional to the accuracy of the calculation results. The specific calculation formula is as follows: q¼

n m

k ð1  kÞ 1

ð2Þ

Where, q represents the expected value of accurate results in numerical analysis, lambda represents the fusion factor, k represents the probability of data loss, and n and m represent the actual amount of data received and the amount of data received by the network in an ideal state.

3 Test Experiment of Digital Service Evaluation System The first step is to determine the test method. Use Load Runner, Nomon and other tools to detect and monitor the corresponding practice of digital service evaluation system and the use of resources. In the process of testing, the performance test program should be independently compiled to ensure that the test program can adapt to a large number of numerical analysis; After the completion of the test, the different system performance of the production environment and the test environment were compared to draw a more accurate conclusion. The second step is to determine the test tool; The test tool must be able to realize the comprehensive detection of system performance, and be able to directly generate the experimental test data chart after the completion of detection, providing convenience for the result analysis. After a comprehensive comparison of several test tools, this paper selected Mercury Load Runner 9.5 as the test tool for system test experiment. The third step is the preparation of test report. After the completion of the test, I wrote the test report by analyzing the experimental results, which mainly included the test purpose, test method, test process, expected results and actual test results. The test report is a summary of the test experiment of digital service evaluation system.

4 Discuss 4.1

Architecture and Implementation of Digital Service Evaluation System

(1) The overall architecture of the digital service evaluation system The digital evaluation service system consists of different parts, mainly including the following parts: the object of service evaluation, the specific index of service

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evaluation, the specific analysis of service evaluation and the relevant service interface, and also includes some related functional design. The functional design of the system is to comprehensively describe the operation and management process of the enterprise from the perspectives of business functions, processes and participants. System function design includes several modules, the most important of which are the following modules, which are object management function module, index repair function module, plan making function module, evaluation program execution function module and service evaluation function module. (2) Database design The database is the core of the digital service evaluation system. The data volume of service evaluation is huge and the data types are diverse, including index information, plan information, user information, score information and evaluation result information. In order to realize the rapid processing of various and complex data, it is necessary to establish the special database of the evaluation system. Finally, oracle LLG database system is selected as the database of digital service evaluation system. 4.2

Testing of Digital Service Evaluation System

In order to ensure the stability of the system in practice, the digital service evaluation system must be tested in all aspects, and the response time, resource occupancy and other performance indicators of the system should be tested. Through the experimental test, it can be found that the digital service evaluation system has good performance in all aspects and can maintain the stability of the system in practical application. The specific experimental data are shown in Table 1 and Fig. 1. The data in the chart are the results of the author’s experimental arrangement.

Table 1. Test results of digital service evaluation system Service evaluation scheme 90% Max Mean Minimum Concurrent response response response response time number of time(s) time(s) time(s) (s) users 20 0.322 0.432 0.794 0.572 40 0.322 0.476 1.212 0.71 * Data came from the in-depth analysis of financial data in the experiment

CPU (100%) 3.2% 6.1%

From the data in Table 1, we can find that the digital service evaluation system has achieved a good effect in the operation process, which indicates that the information platform of maritime cargo transportation supply chain runs smoothly and can stand the test. However, from the data in Fig. 1, we can find that the operation effect of the digital service evaluation system is still some distance from the ideal effect, and it needs to constantly improve the system performance.

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80.00%

64.21%

57.34%

60.00%

35.79%

34.57%

40.00% 20.00% 0.00%

Development Speed Real Effect

Development Effect Ideal Effect

Fig. 1. Development of digital service evaluation system

5 Conclusion As the service evaluation management to improve the status in the enterprise operation management and the development of digital enterprise service evaluation has gradually from artificial record to digital networks, however, the current building evaluation system of digital services also faces a series of problems, to the enterprise operation management and development caused the adverse impact, so how to establish scientific evaluation system of digital services, has become a significant research subject.

References 1. Lixin, X., Danxia, S., Zhongyi, W.: Evaluation index system of consumer satisfaction for digital library knowledge service in the network environment. Libr. J. 34(3), 117 (2018) 2. Yingying, L., Juan, W., Chunhou, Z.: The construction of digital resources service evaluation index system in university libraries. J. Intell. 12(5), 167–172 (2017) 3. Chen, J., Shi, Y., Shi, S.: Noise analysis of digital ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation system. Int. J. Press. Vessel. Pip. 76(9), 619–630 (2017) 4. Xie, B.Y., Zhao, D.C.: Study online course evaluation system. Appl. Mech. Mater. 35(2), 2187–2190 (2017) 5. Vance, W.M.: Real-time digital signal processing evaluation system. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 8 (1), 79 (2017) 6. Arnold, B., Eisenberg, H., Borger, D.: Digital video angiography system evaluation. Appl Radiol 10(6), 81–90 (2017) 7. Chu, Y.: Implementation of the university e-service platform based on user satisfaction of digital service evaluation system. Comput. Telecommun. 15(9), 142–145 (2017) 8. Liuying, Y., Xiaoling, H.: Dynamic joint management of enterprise operation: establishment of theoretic framework. Manag. Rev. 32(15), 541 (2018) 9. Li, G.R., Wang, Z.L., Wang, Y.X.: Production operation management research of mixed private cloud enterprise. Appl. Mech. Mater. 19(10), 635–637 (2017) 10. Gou, H., Huang, B., Liu, W.: A framework for virtual enterprise operation management. Comput. Ind. 50(3), 333–352 (2017) 11. Peng, Z., Yingying, H.: Analysis of competitive intelligence operation mechanism for enterprise management innovation. Inf. Doc. Serv. 33(5), 13–18 (2017)

Information Disclosure Violation of Small and Medium-Sized Listed Companies Based on Strauss’ Grounded Theory Ronghui Xu(&) Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China [email protected]

Abstract. In the security market of our country, the event of the illegal disclosure of accounting information happens from time to time. These illegal disclosures not only hurt the interests of investors, make investors lose confidence in the securities market, and are not conducive to building a good image of listed companies in our country. It is a serious obstacle to the healthy and sustainable developed China’s stock market. How to ensure the standardization of accounting information announce of public companies and resolve the quantity problems of accounting information announce will be of great significance to important stakeholders. This article carries on the statistical analysis to the administrative punishment decision written by the China Securities Regulatory Commission from 2018 to September 2019, selects certain sample, carries on the classified statistical analysis to the information illegal disclosure behavior of the small and medium-sized board public company, based on analysis of data obtained from the investigation and puts forward corresponding governance policies, which is conducive to perfecting the information disclosure system in our country. To ensure that small and medium-sized public companies disclose accurate and complete information, curb the frequent occurrence of related irregularities [1–3]. Keywords: Small and Medium-Sized enterprises Strauss grounded theory

 Disclosure information 

1 Introduction At present, China’s economic development has entered the “middle-income trap”, and SMEs, as the source of innovation and development, are the key factor to break the trap. Your country to resolve the financial problems of small and medium-sized enterprises, financing problems, introduced the plate of the stock market, launched in Shenzhen stock exchange from 2004 to 2019, the number of public companies has reached 940, small and medium-sized plate of start not only benefit from the vast number of enterprises, and the internal management and development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) innovation specification model. However, China’s listed SMEs have serious information disclosure problems, so we should find out the problems and overcome the existing problems. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 47–53, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_8

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For information disclosure research, foreign scholars in recent years, mainly from the industrial point of view of information disclosing and relationship between the upstream and downstream to small and medium-sized enterprises, the main representative is Stekelorum, R. (2018) points out that the enterprises, such as financial data on corporate social responsibility disclosure more can accelerate the construction of SMEs ability, the resulting impact on upstream and downstream benign. Domestic scholars mainly embarks from the two factors both inside and outside the SMEs financial disclosure of related issues, with a river (2017) for SMEs financial report information disclosure of profound and comprehensive discussion from the perspective of internal and external two tells the story of our country SMEs to disclose the problem, the main internal false problem is outstanding, the exterior was realized for the regulatory system is imperfect and the caliber inconsistent use main body caused by the disclosure of error is not comprehensive and disclosure. Although the research on SMEs’ information disclosure is gradually deepened, the existing problems are generally analyzed from a quantitative perspective, and few are considered from a qualitative perspective [3, 4]. From the perspective of grounded theory, this paper explores the problems existing in the disclosing information of public SMEs in China and puts forward corresponding solutions to make up for quantitative deficiencies.

2 Technical Route This paper adopts grounded Theory Research Paradigm and follows Strauss’ analysis path, and adopts the following research route: (1) Through the official website of China Securities Regulatory Commission to obtain information, and collect information about China’s SMEs that are listed on the illegal disclosing (conceptualization process); (2) Following Strauss’ approach to the acquisition of new conceptual categories, analyzing the conceptualized data, from the analysis, the specific categories and their respective proportions of the illegal disclosure of SMEs that are listed (open decoding process) are extracted; (3) Sum up the different small category again, extract the large category category and the proportion of each category on the macro level of the illegal disclosure behavior of SMEs that are listed in our country (the main axis decoding process); (4) Remove the secondary category and retain the “core” category (selective decoding process); (5) Taking each category as the influence factor of the illegal disclosure behavior of SMEs that are listed in our country, we can get the category, weight and order of each influence factor on different levels. To construct the system of influencing factors of illegal disclosing of public companies (grounded theory); (6) Apply the obtained theory to explain and understand the illegal disclosure behavior of SMEs [3].

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3 Data Acquisition The sample of this study is from 154 administrative punishment books published on the official website of China Securities Regulatory Commission from 2018 to September 2019. This article has eliminated penalties that do not fall under the category of illegal disclosure of information, as well as penalties for executives of a range of intermediaries and listed companies, including Accounting networks and associations, law firms, securities firms, asset appraisal firms, and media organizations Finally, 124 small and medium-sized public companies were selected as the data sample. Here’s how it works: 1. On the official website of the China Securities Regulatory Commission, focus on the module of administrative punishment letters, targeting the source: SMEs that have engaged in illegal disclosure. 2. The study is aimed at the study of the illegal disclosure behavior of SMEs that are listed, so manual screening of the punishment that does not belong to the illegal disclosure behavior. In addition, sanctions against Accounting networks and associations, law firms, securities firms and other intermediaries have also been screened. 3. To ensure the correctness of the search results, this study also manually eliminated the punishment for the senior management of SMEs that are listed.

4 Data Categorization 4.1

Preliminary Categorization

The initial categorization process is shown in Table 1 (left-to-right), including the open decoding process and the spindle decoding process. Based on the basic data, the open decoding process simply classifies the similar sentences in 124 SMEs that are listed, which reflects the specific concept categories of information disclosure violations of small and medium-sized board-listed companies in China. The results of open decoding show that the problems of information disclosure of SMEs that are listed are relatively concentrated. According to this, the process of spindle decoding is classified into two steps: First, the spindle decoding result 1 is obtained by the low microscopic categorization on the basis of open decoding, and then the spindle decoding result 1 is reintegrated. At a higher macroscopic level, the main axis decoding result 2 is obtained. After decoding the principal axis, the illegal information disclosure of SMEs that are listed in our country can be summarized into 7 small categories at the micro level, and 3 large categories at the macro level. The category names, the specific conceptualization of the subcategories, the relation of the subcategories to the subcategories, and the proportion of sentences in each category are shown in Table 1 [5–8].

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Table 1. The preliminary categorical results of information disclosing violation behavior of SMEs that are listed Open decoding results

Spindle decoding result 1

Failure to disclose shareholders’ shareholding, share transfer, entrustment, over-proportion reduction, to limit the transfer period, etc. Failure to disclose external guarantee, major debt transfer, major investment, huge loan and bank deposit pledge, etc. Open decoding results

Change in shareholding 16.75%

Failure to disclose the initial public offering prospectus, the fund flow part in the periodic report, the asset purchase and disposal matters, etc. Failure to disclose related party transactions, major lawsuits, major contracts, agreements, major changes in the progress of major matters, major policy changes, etc. Disclosure of false assets, profits, costs, revenues, costs, expenses, etc. Disclosure of false correlation information, interim report, actual controller, research and development, etc. Failure to disclose the cooperation agreement, transfer of funds, equity transfer, guarantee and major investment in time, etc. Insider trading, short-term trading, etc.

4.2

Foreign guarantee, investment and loan 10.99% Spindle decoding result 1

The investment, occupation and use of funds 7.85%

Spindle decoding result 2 Incomplete disclosure 38.74% Incomplete disclosure 38.74% Spindle decoding result 2 Incomplete disclosure 38.74%

Other questions 3.14%

Financial data 19.90% Other questions 8.90%

Major items 23.56%

Other questions 8.90%

Untrue disclosure 28.80%

Unseasonal disclosure 23.56% Other questions 8.90%

Late Categorization

Later categorization is a selective decoding process in which the secondary category is eliminated and the core category is retained. If we eliminate the “other problems” at the micro level in Table 1 and the “other categories” at the macro level, then the illegal disclosure of information in our country will be concentrated into five small categories at the micro level At the macro level, it focuses on three categories and five subcategories, which reserve 79.06% of all the problems of information disclosure, and the three sub-categories cover 91.10% of the total sample size.

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5 Construct an Impact Factor System See Table 2. Table 2. The factors affecting information disclosure of public companies in China Research problems

SMEs board listed companies information disclosure behavior

Factors and their weights at them acro level

At the micro level Small factors

P1: Incomplete disclosure

X1: Change in shareholding X2: Foreign guarantee, investment and loan X3: The investment, occupation and use of funds X4: Financial data

P2: Untrue disclosure P3: Unseasonal disclosure

X5: Major items

The weights (%) 16.75

Rank

10.99

4

7.85

5

19.90

2

23.56

1

3

6 Conclusion Applying grounded theory, the results show that: 1. The frequency of incomplete information disclosure in illegal disclosure is 38.74%, which accounts for the largest proportion in the macro-level, indicating that the frequency of incomplete disclosure behavior of SMEs that are listed is the highest. And unreasonable reduction, increase and guarantee behavior accounted for 90% of them. It shows that the disclosure of related party transactions, which can affect financial results and operating conditions, is not comprehensive and complete. The reason is likely to be disclosure of the integrity of the information is more difficult to verify, the company used this way is not easy to be found. 2. The mainly mislead investors’ judgment and decision-making by falsifying financial data and disclosing accounting information, especially false profits. Adopt all kinds of non-conforming accounting treatment methods and policies to achieve asset inflation, debt reduction, income overstatement, cost reduction, and ultimately achieve the purpose of overstatement profit. Listed companies may also disclose some other false information, such as false actual controller, false agreement and so on to mislead investors, which will eventually damage the interests of investors. About 80% of SMEs fail to disclose relevant agreements and matters in time, and nearly one quarter fail to disclose relevant agreements and matters in time. The failure to disclose the guarantee matters in time accounts for 60% of the total, which shows that the

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financing guarantee of SMEs is a serious problem, the formal guarantee procedures are complicated, the liquidity is weak, and the informal guarantee is expensive, but it has a stronger Operability than time cost or liquidity. Short-term trading accounts for 90% of the total in other categories. Short-term trading not only makes the company’s production and operation more volatile, but also misleads investors’ judgment. For outside the company does not understand the high-level decision-making information of investors with great unfairness. And although the legal requirements of short-term trading is more stringent, but the higher profits in the case of high-level officials will be to play a marginal way to bear a higher risk, so the legal requirements of short-term trading need to be further improved.

7 Relevant Suggestions and Measures 7.1

Raising the Cost of Breaking the Law

One of the important reasons is that the illegal cost is too low. When the illegal cost is more than the illegal benefit, the illegal information disclosure can be effectively restrained. The CSRC should strengthen the punishment of listed companies in violation of regulations from the aspects of law, administration and public opinion, and increase the cost of violation. From the legal point of view, at present, most of the penalties for listed companies’ information disclosure violations are administrative penalties, rarely involving criminal penalties and civil penalties, and the amount of penalties is relatively small, not a deterrent. Relevant departments should increase the amount of penalties, extend the market entry period, and strengthen the penalties. In addition, we should constantly improve and add a wealth of punishment measures. For example, we can set up special securities court and Securities Arbitration institution, enlarge the limit of criminal punishment and raise the legal term of freedom penalty, perfect the civil compensation liability, and establish the relevant clear stipulation of civil liability in the securities law. From the aspect of public opinion, the illegal disclosure of information for SMEs, the adverse social impact is not enough, not enough to curb violations, resulting in some companies repeatedly in violation of the law. Relevant departments can use the power of public opinion to curb violations. For example, create a credit record of all listed companies and their directors, senior managers and intermediaries. For the small and medium-sized listed companies that have violated the rules and regulations, they can restrict their market rights and relax their market rights for the companies with good reputation. And the integrity of the public records, so that it from the company’s individual behavior to expand market behavior, so that the impact of illegal behavior to expand financing, sales and other links. 7.2

Raising the Level of Regulation of External Institutions

1. Improve government regulation First, the CSRC should constantly monitor the market environment to improve the information disclosure system and standards. Second, law enforcement personnel need

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to analyze specific issues to improve their ability that can understand and apply laws and regulations Flexible application of laws and regulations in handling relevant cases. Third, the law enforcement process open to the public, facilitate public supervision, improve the rationality of case handling. 2. Raise the level of Certified Public Accountant and enforce discipline First, we should strengthen the assessment of the professional competence of the Certified Public Accountant, especially for the emerging industries, we should strengthen the professional training of the Certified Public Accountant. Second, the Certified Public Accountant’s work ethic should be improved, and penalties for Certified Public Accountant violations should be increased. In this way, we can ensure the independence of their practice and the standardization [9, 10]. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by 20172s0054 and 195203003.

References 1. Corbin, J.: Grounded theory. J. Positive Psychol. 12(3), 301–302 (2017) 2. Wiesche, M., Jurisch, M.C., Yetton, P.W., Krcmar, H.: Grounded theory methodology in information systems research. MIS Q. 41(3), 687–695 (2017) 3. Kim, J.E.: Changes in Strauss & Corbin’s grounded theory. J. Korean Acad. Nursing. 49(5), 505–514 (2019) 4. Stekelorum, R., Laguir, I., Elbaz, J.: CSR disclosure and sustainable supplier management: a small to medium-sized enterprises perspective. Appl. Econ. 50(46), 5017–5030 (2018) 5. Sadeh, F., Kacker, M.: Quality signaling through ex-ante voluntary information disclosure in entrepreneurial networks: evidence from franchising. Small Bus. Econ. 50(4), 729–748 (2018) 6. Zhao, M., Dong, C.: Quality disclosure strategies for small business enterprises in a competitive marketplace. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 270(1), 218–229 (2018) 7. Li, H., Shi, X.W.: Discriminatory information disclosure. Am. Econ. Rev. 107(11), 3373– 3379 (2017) 8. Dutta, S., Nezlobin, A.: Information disclosure, firm growth, and the cost of capital. J. Finan. Econ. 123(2), 420–426 (2017) 9. Cheung, A., Hu, W.: Information disclosure guality: correlation versus precision. Account. Finance 59(2), 1050–1051 (2019) 10. Kaymak, T., Bektas, E.: Corporate social responsibility and governance: information disclosure in multinational corporations. Corp. Soc. Responsib. Environ. Manag. 24(6), 562–565 (2017)

Evaluation Modeling Establishment for the Risk Degree of Ship Collision Hongdan Liu, Yue Sun(&), and Bing Li College of Automation, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China [email protected], {576194000,libing}@hrbeu.edu.cn

Abstract. Aim to solve the problem that the qualitative and quantitative the influencing factors of ship navigation safety is to be difficult to merger analysis, due to the large amount of calculation and complicated realization process of ship collision risk model, the strategy of risk degree of ship collision evaluation based on the cloud model theory is introduced, the data of cloud model of DCPA (Distance to closed point of approach), TCPA (Time to closest point of approach) and CRI (Collision Risk Level) is formed to reasoning risk degree of ship collision based on double conditional single rule generator. According to the different ship encounter situation, the order is sorted on the collision risk degree between own and target ship by the cloud modeling inference mechanism. Thus, the availability and feasibility of this algorithm are verified in ship collision risk modeling. The establishment of this model enables the crew members to determine the key collision avoidance objects in time, to reduce or avoid the occurrence of collision accidents at the source. Keywords: Risk degree of ship collision  Distance to closed point of approach  Time to closest point of approach  Cloud model theory  Double condition single rule generator

1 Introduction Maritime navigation urgently needs to improve the automatic collision avoidance decision-making system of maritime navigation, and the core part of navigation system is to study the degree of collision risk of ships, which can reduce the collision of ships, is important for the safety of maritime navigation [1]. For ship collision preventation, many complex problems are required to take into overall consideration. The existing methods for ship collision risk evaluation, including process failure mode and effects analysis (PFMEA), gray relational decision-making, fuzzy theory and fuzzy comprehensive assessment etc. [2–5], don’t have ability to merger analysis of the qualitative and quantitative the influencing factors of ship navigation safety. Which leads to the large amount of calculation, complicated realization and the accuracy of the evaluation results decreased. A new decision-making method named as cloud model theory was first proposed by Academician Li Deyi [6, 7]. The cloud model theory is suitable to solve the problem © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 54–63, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_9

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of ship collision risk evaluation due to takes both consideration to the fuzziness and randomness at the same time, and realizes the combination and transition of qualitative and quantitative descriptions. Based on “DCPA” and “TCPA” [8], ship collision risk degree model with two-dimensional multi-rule cloud model is proposed, in order to increase the accuracy and effectiveness of the collision risk degree modeling.

2 Conditional Single Rule Cloud Generator and Its Algorithmic Implementation Cloud generator is an crucial junction for inference of cloud model, and also a model that can realize the inter-conversion between quantitative and qualitative concepts. Cloud generator can be divided into three types: forward cloud generator, backward cloud generator and conditional cloud generator, and conditional cloud generator can be divided into two types: X conditional cloud generator and Y conditional cloud generator. The mufti-condition single rule generator is consist of many antecedent cloud generators and one consequent cloud generator, which are expressed as “If A1, A2, … An, then B”. According to the design needs, the two-condition single rule generator is introduced here because two influencing factors are needed to reason the model. As shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Double condition single rule generator

The structure chart of the double condition single rule generator is constituted by two antecedent cloud generators and one consequent cloud generator, which is expressed as “If A1 and A2, then B”. Where, ðExA1 ; EnA1 ; HeA1 ; ExA2 ; EnA2 ; HeA2 Þ represent the membership cloud characteristic value of two-dimensional qualitative concept A1 and A2, ðExB ; EnB ; HeB Þ is the subordinate cloud eigenvalue of the consequent qualitative concept B, CGA is the X conditional cloud generator and CGB is the Y conditional cloud generator. If input xA1 and xA2 stimulation qualitative regulation antecedent cloud generator CGA, then CGA can be random output ðxA1 ; xA2 ; lÞ, and it will be the input of CGB, and then CGB will output random cloud drop dropðxB ; lÞ. The implementation procedure is input: membership cloud eigenvalues ðExA1 ; ExA2 ; EnA1 ; EnA2 ; HeA1 ; HeA2 Þ and quantitative values ðxA1 ; xA2 Þ of the two-

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dimensional qualitative concepts A1 and A2. The membership cloud characteristic value of the consequent qualitative concept B is ðExB ; EnB ; HeB Þ; Output: the quantitative value of consequent qualitative concept xB is that met with the certainty degree l. (1) According to the input cloud drop characteristic value, En is expectation, He is standard deviation, and En0i is generated as the random number: En0A1 ¼ normðEnA1 ; HeA1 Þ

ð1Þ

(2) According to the input cloud drop characteristic value, EnA2 is expectation, HeA2 is standard deviation and En0A2 is generated as the random number: En0A2 ¼ normðEnA2 ; HeA2 Þ

ð2Þ

(3) Calculated certainty degree l: l¼e



ðxA1 ExA1 Þ2 ðxA2 ExA2 Þ2  2ðEn0 Þ2 2ðEn0 Þ2 A1 A2

ð3Þ

(4) According to the input cloud drop characteristic value, EnB is expectation, HeB is standard deviation, En0B is generated as the random number: En0B ¼ normðEnB ; HeB Þ

ð4Þ

(5) If xA1 and xA2 activate the rising edges of their cloud models, respectively, then the input value xB also activates the rising edges of cloud model of B, the formula is expressed as following: If xA1  ExA1 ; xA2  ExA2 ; then xB ¼ ExB  En0B

pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 ln l;

(6) If xA1 and xA2 activate the rising edges of their cloud models, respectively, then the input value xB also activates the rising edges of cloud model of B, the formula is expressed as following: If xA1 [ ExA1 ; xA2 [ ExA2 ; then xB ¼ ExB þ En0B

pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 ln l;

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(7) If xA1 activates cloud model rising edge of A1 , then l1 is generated as the certainty degree. If xA2 activates cloud model decreasing edge of A2 , l2 is generated as certainty degree. The input value xB is relation with l1 and l2 . The formula is expressed as following:

If xA1  ExA1 ; xA2 [ ExA2 ; then l1 ¼ e l2 ¼ e



ðxA2 ExA2 Þ2

ð

2 En0 A2

Þ ; x ¼ Ex þ En0 B2 B B 2



ðxA1 ExA1 Þ2

ð

2 En0 A1

Þ ; x ¼ Ex  En0 B1 B B 2

pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 ln l1 ;

pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 ln l2 ; xB ¼ ðxB1 l1 þ xB2 l2 Þ=ðl1 þ l2 Þ;

(8) If xA1 activates cloud model rising edge of A1 , then l1 is generated as the certainty degree. If xA2 activates cloud model decreasing edge of A2 , l2 is generated as certainty degree. The input value xB is relation with l1 and l2 . The formula is expressed as following:

If xA1 [ ExA1 ; xA2  ExA2 ; then l1 ¼ e l2 ¼ e



ðxA2 ExA2 Þ2

ð

2 En0 A2

Þ ; x ¼ Ex  En0 B2 B B 2



ðxA1 ExA1 Þ2

ð

2 En0 A1

Þ ; x ¼ Ex þ En0 B1 B B 2

pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 ln l1 ;

pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 ln l2 ; xB ¼ ðxB1 l1 þ xB2 l2 Þ=ðl1 þ l2 Þ:

3 Cloud Model Ship Collision Risk Degree Modeling Qualitative language variables described in ship collision risk degree can be transformed the qualitative concept of cloud object expression by cloud model inference mechanism. The specific expression can be achieved by the multi-rule cloud generator map constructed. In the view of this paper, there are 2 variables input in the ship collision risk degree constructed. There are different permutation and combination with different ship collision risk degree between 2 variables input. Combining with the theory of the double condition multi-rule cloud generator, the inference mechanism of ship collision risk degree cloud model is shown in Fig. 2. Among of them, “DCPA” is expressed as M, “TCPA” is expressed as N, “ship collision risk degree CRI” is expressed as Q, CG-A represents the two-dimension X condition cloud generator between “DCPA” and “TCPA”, which the characteristic value of membership cloud is ðExM ; EnM ; HeM ; ExN ; EnN ; HeN Þ, and CG-B represents the one dimension Y cloud generator of “ship collision risk degree”, which the characteristic value of membership cloud is ðExQ ; EnQ ; HeQ Þ. The input variables of ship collision risk degree cloud model are shortest encounter distance M and shortest encounter time N, output variables are the ship collision risk degree Q. According to the research on the “Rule”, the thinking ways of mate of the

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Fig. 2. Ship collision risk degree cloud model theory inference

deck, that is to say, the concepts of nature language is divided based on the cloud model by sea density, coastal and open water. Thus, the 3 numeral characteristics of cloud model input and output variables are decided; the concepts of output and input variables in CRI cloud model are divided, the m inference rules are built in CRI cloud model, and uncertain inference rule base is generated. The inference mechanism of CRI cloud model collision risk degree is: UðM; N Þ ! Q Among of them, U represents the inference mechanism of cloud model, M and N are input variables, and Q is output variables. If a group of specific Min. encounter distance and Min. encounter time is input, that is, ðM; N Þ, the anteater generator will be stimulated separately by different rules, certainty degree li value is generated randomly, these values will reflect the degree of activation the relevant qualitative rules. li will stimulate CG-B to generate a random group of cloud drop dropðQi ; li Þ, which reflect that when the certainty degree is li , the ship collision risk degree is Qi . Finally, these cloud drops are fused into one cloud drop through geometric operation, that is, the corresponding output of the group ðM; N Þ is Q. The establishment of model shows the relationship between the ship collision risk degree and the Min. encounter distance and the Min. encounter time. The establishment of model shows the relationship between the ship collision risk degree with the DCPA and TCPA, which can show the uncertainty of the ship collision risk degree in the process of ship sailing. Therefore, in different encounter work conditions, only by changing input the course parameter value of our ship and target ship, the change of ship collision risk degree can be reflected. The whole mechanism explains the process that uncertainty is transformed from the input variables to output variables. Therefore, the modeling of ship collision risk degree is realization based on uncertainty and fuzziness of cloud model theory.

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Based on the inference mechanism established by cloud model and the concepts of DCPA, TCPA and CRI, qualitative concepts are obtained from the constructed ship collision risk database. The constructed rule generator is on the basis of X condition cloud generator and Y condition cloud generator, and the inference database generated by the qualitative inference rule is realization. When inputting a particular group of value, based on the transmission of cloud model inference mechanism, the uncertainty and fuzziness of input variables can be transformed to the output variables well. The inference block diagram of ship collision risk degree based on cloud model is seen as Fig. 3.

Activate the cloud with largest certainty degree

Input DCPA

Input TCPA

DCPA cloud model

TCPA cloud model

Activate the cloud with second largest certainty degree

Activate the cloud with largest certainty degree

Activate the cloud with second largest certainty degree

Calculate joint certainty degree

Largest certainty degree

Second largest certainty degree

Two Rules for the Activation of Maximum and Sub-Maximum Degrees of Certainty

Access rule base

Activate the concept of ship collision risk degree

Four cloud drop are produced

The expectation and entropy of virtual cloud are calculated by the outermost cloud drop

The expectation of virtual cloud regard as the output of ship collision risk degree

Fig. 3. Inference gram of cloud model

Due to the uncertainty involved in the inference process, it can be described as that when the same group of data is multiple input, the output results are also not fixed. As seen in Fig. 4, when the given Min. encounter distance and Min. encounter time is a group of precise input value ðM; N Þ, each qualitative concepts of the cloud rule antecedent will be activated by that input value, respectively. The activation degree of li corresponds to the largest and second largest certainty clouds, respectively. Due to 2

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Fig. 4. Curve chart of ship collision risk degree change with the distance on encounter

input variables will generate 4 clouds, the calculation is carried out by these 4 clouds together with degree of certainty and the maximum joint certainty degree and second joint certainty degree ðl1 ; l2 Þ will be taken. The 2 qualitative rules are corresponding activation. The cloud drop ðQ1 ; l1 Þ and ðQ2 ; l2 Þ in the outermost will be taken. The, the ship collision risk degree Q is calculation by geometric method. The output result Q is expressed by Eq. (5): Q¼

Q1

pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 lnðl2 Þ þ Q2 2 lnðl1 Þ pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 2 lnðl1 Þ þ 2 lnðl2 Þ

ð5Þ

Since the above counting process is only the result of one operation, based on the inference procedure of cloud model, it is involved into the generation of multiple random process. For the same input, some differences are existed in the inference operation results in every time, and it is the feature of cloud model uncertainty. In actual application, in order to solve this issue, the inference process carry out circular process with the limited time. Then, the output results generated by limited time calculation carry out average value operation to be the final CRI output of ship collision risk degree.

4 Cloud Model Ship Collision Risk Degree Simulated Analysis The situation of ship encounter is divided by angel. According to the “Rule” there are 3 situations of ship encounter: meeting, cross and overtaking [9, 10]. The discussion and analysis is done in difference encounter situations. Under the condition of unchanged the other navigation parameters, simulation test is carried out in the condition of encounter between the own ship and target ship, only by changing the ship azimuth angle. According to the process output result, the change of risk degree is observation. The relevant navigation parameters of our ship and target ship are input, as following: let, our ship speed is 14 kn, ship 1 speed is 7 kn, ship 2 speed is 14 kn, ship 3 speed is 21 kn and ship 4 speed is 28 kn. Under the difference encounter situation, the

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relationship that the ship collision risk degree changes with the distance is shown, as following: (1) On encounter, the relationship that ship collision risk degree change with distance is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. On encounter, ship collision risk degree value table Distance D Ship 1 Ship 2 Ship 3 Ship 4 0 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 2 0.7646 0.7923 0.8689 0.9121 4 0.5523 0.6008 0.6887 0.7356 6 0.4688 0.5133 0.5621 0.6093 8 0.4265 0.4803 0.5136 0.5637

According to the data in Table 1, on encounter, relative distance D of two ships is abscissa and the collision risk degree CRI is ordinate, the curve that on encounter, ship collision risk degree changes with distance is drawn, as shown in Fig. 4. (2) If the orientation is 30°, the relation of ship collision risk degree change with distance, as seen in Table 2. Table 2. If the orientation is 30°, the value table of ship collision risk degree Distance D Ship 1 Ship 2 Ship 3 Ship 4 0 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 2 0.7646 0.7923 0.8689 0.9121 4 0.5523 0.6008 0.6887 0.7356 6 0.4688 0.5133 0.5621 0.6093 8 0.4265 0.4803 0.5136 0.5637

According to the data in Table 2, abscissa is the relative distance D between 2 ships, and longitudinal coordinate is the ship collision risk degree CRI. When draw orientation is 30°, curve chart of ship collision risk degree change with distance, as seen in Fig. 5.

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Fig. 5. If the orientation is 30°, curve chart of ship collision risk degree change with distance

5 Conclusion This paper constitutes the ship collision risk degree model based on cloud model theory by combination the fuzziness with uncertainty of cloud model, which realizes the rank of ship collision risk under multi-ship encounter work conditions, the time is reduces that decide the key collision preventation objects and sequence decision-making in the process of ship collision prevention. It is beneficial to make the right judgment timely for mate of the deck. The accident can be reduced or avoided from the source. This design proposed in this paper will be effectively to perfect the ship collision avoidance system, decrease the number of ship collision accident caused by the human factors, and further accelerate the development of ship collision prevention system with smarter and more automate. Acknowledgment. It is appreciated that this research is supported by Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities 3072019CF0406, 3072019CF0407.

References 1. Zareei, M.R., Iranmanesh, M.: Optimal risk-based maintenance planning of ship hull structure. J. Mar. Sci. Appl. 17(4), 603–624 (2018) 2. Kim, K.I., Lee, K.M.: Ship encounter risk evaluation for coastal areas with holistic maritime traffic data analysis. 2nd Int. Conf. Adv. Sci. Inf. Technol. 23, 9565–9569 (2017) 3. Stavrou, D.I., Ventikos, N.P.: A novel approach in risk evaluation for ship-to-ship (STS) transfer of cargo using process failure mode and effects analysis (PFMEA). J. Risk Res. 19(7), 1–21 (2016) 4. LiuSheng, L.: Application of grey relational decision-making on determination of ship collision risk degree. Revista Tecnica de la Facultad de Ingenierria University Del Zulia 39 (3), 359–365 (2016) 5. Wen, X.U., Jiang-qiang, H.U., Jian-chuan, Y.I.N., Ke, L.I.: Composite evaluation of ship collision resk index based on fuzzy theory. Ship Sci. Technol. 39(7), 78–84 (2017) 6. Omotosho, T.V., et al.: Performance and evaluation of eight cloud models on earth—space path for a tropical station. In: Space Science and Communication for Sustainability, pp. 23– 35. Springer, Singapore (2018)

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7. Deyi, L., Haijun, M., Xuemei, S.: Membership clouds and membership cloud generators. J. Comput. Res. Dev. 6, 15–20 (1995) 8. Szlapczynski, R., Szlapczynska, J.: An analysis of domain-based ship collision risk parameters. Ocean Eng. 126(11), 47–56 (2016) 9. Liu, H., Liu, S., Zhang, L.: Study and simulation on intelligent multi-ship collision avoidance strategy. J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 13, 194–210 (2016) 10. Liu, H., Deng, R., Zhang, L.: The application research for ship collision avoidance with hybrid optimization algorithm. IEEE Int. Conf. Inf. Autom. 8, 760–767 (2017)

Choice of Profit Models for the Transformation and Development of Traditional Industrial Enterprises in the Internet Industry Shanshan Wu1(&), Xingpei Ji1, and Rui Tang2 1

State Grid Energy Research Institute Co., Ltd., Beijing, China [email protected] 2 Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin, China

Abstract. This article sorts out the profit model set by combing the profit models of the main industry fields and their specific content, and provides specific case analysis. It mainly focuses on three types of “Internet plus” emerging industries, namely cloud computing services, industrial smart manufacturing services and new retail, and proposes profit model selection and related scenario analysis suitable for the transformation and upgrading of traditional industrial enterprises and innovative business models. Keywords: Profit models Scenario analysis

 Traditional industrial enterprises  Internet plus 

1 Introduction The profit model is a business structure and operation structure for the purpose of profit established by the company in the business process [1]. The business structure mainly refers to the business content and its space-time structure such as the transaction object, transaction content, transaction scale, transaction method, and transaction channel selected by the outside. The operation structure refers to the R&D, procurement, production, marketing, management and other business content and its space-time structure within the enterprise in order to meet the needs of the business structure [2]. The former directly reflects the efficiency of enterprise resource allocation, while the latter reflects the efficiency of enterprise resource allocation. The purpose of this article is to sort out the profit models and their specific content in the main industry fields, extract the profit model sets, and provide specific case studies for the reference. The profit model of the e-commerce industry includes sales model, application sharing model, function subscription model, consulting service model, cooperative business model, advertising model, search bidding model, membership model, financial services, and online and offline integration model. The sales model includes the B2C, B2B, and C2C models, which mainly refer to the model in which companies obtain profits by selling tangible and intangible goods. Application sharing model refers to helping customers complete transactions or achieve a certain purpose, and then collect commissions or divide customers’ income according to a certain percentage. Functional subscriptions include platform subscriptions, software subscriptions and information © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 64–69, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_10

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subscriptions, and refer to profit models in which companies provide users with information, resources, and services and charge a certain fee [3]. Consulting services refer to the provision of analytical guidance services and fees to customers based on their resources. Cooperative operation refers to a profit model in which enterprises reduce costs and obtain greater profits by joining together. The advertising model is a profit model common to all e-commerce platforms, that is, to obtain profits by selling advertising spaces through advertising agencies or self-sale [4]. The search auction mode refers to a customer purchasing a keyword through the auction mode and obtaining a fixed ranking of the search results for that keyword within a certain period of time. Membership mode means that after paying a specified amount of membership fees, consumers can enjoy the information content, download services, and ad-free services provided on the website. Financial services refer to the financing of loans, payment and repayment of services based on the platform to obtain profits. The onlineoffline integration mode refers to a model in which enterprises organically combine offline physical stores with online stores to achieve resource communication and information interconnection to improve corporate performance [5]. The profit model based on the industrial Internet platform includes resource sharing model, professional service model, consulting service model, function subscription model, application sharing model, financial service model, sales model [6], etc. Due to the professionalism and complexity of the industrial Internet platform, the current industrial model still focuses on traditional industrial methods and enterprise users, and more emphasis on personalized services for specific scenarios [7]. Therefore, profit models such as professional services, consulting services, and feature subscriptions are mainly used. Other models are also actively being explored. Among them, the resource sharing mode includes the informatization of production management, and the electronic informatization of procurement planning, production planning, sales resources and logistics resources. The infrastructure is shared with other enterprises in the form of lease, which reduces the production cost of the enterprise and increases profits. Professional services refer to platform-based system integration services and are the most important profit means for current industrial Internet platform companies. Consulting services refer to the analysis of data gathered on its platform to provide clients with analytical services to guide business development. Functional subscriptions include subscriptions to IT resources, industrial software services, functional component, industrial SaaS and hosted services in the field of asset operation and maintenance or energy consumption optimization. Application sharing refers to the fee-sharing model of service applications provided by application development stores. Due to the small scale of the current application store, this model has just begun. But as the market matures, it may also become a new platform for profit in the future. A sales model is a model that earns profits by trading products, capabilities or knowledge. In terms of industrial product transactions, some industrial Internet platforms rely on their agglomeration of industrial chain resources to provide industrial product transaction services. Such services are similar to commodity transactions on e-commerce platforms, and are currently more common. Financial services mainly use the data collected by the platform to portray corporate portraits and provide profitable models of financial services for enterprises, which mainly includes data plus insurance, data plus credit, and data plus leasing.

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This article focuses on the three types of “Internet plus” emerging industries: cloud computing services, industrial smart manufacturing services and new retail. It proposes profit model selection and related scenario analysis suitable for the transformation and upgrading of traditional industrial enterprises and innovative business models.

2 Cloud Computing Service Traditional enterprises can rely on their own advantages to make full use of hardware resources such as infrastructure to expand the cloud computing service industry. The profit model can adopt the existing mainstream cloud service provider profit model: IaaS model (infrastructure service model), PaaS model (platform service model), SaaS model (software service model). It can also rely on the advantages of enterprises in micro data, and adopt the DaaS (data service) profit model. Among them: IaaS model: Provide customers with services such as virtualized elastic computing resources, storage resources, and network resource security protection [8]. By charging fees based on time, demand and traffic, IaaS is the most basic profit model of the cloud computing industry and is the main source of profit for cloud computing. PaaS model: Provide users with services for application software development, testing, deployment and operation environment. Because the company has weak technology and personnel accumulation in this field, it needs joint development with external companies, and the profit margin is average. SaaS model: The software service model is a profit model that uses the Internet as a carrier and a browser as an interactive method to transfer server-side program software to remote users to provide software services [9]. It mainly relies on earning software spreads as a source of profit and has a large profit margin. DaaS model: Based on the company’s power data resources, it provides customers with decision-making consulting services such as power data credit, power meteorological services and macroeconomic situation research by providing management consulting and technical services to customers [10]. Scenario 1: Office on the cloud Use company’s original plant or production site to build an edge computing center, cooperate with cloud computing center to form a cloud-side collaborative architecture. Through enterprises and office on the cloud, customers can accelerate the realization of digital, network and intelligent transformation, reduce the cost of information development and construction, facilitate access to the office anytime, anywhere. Scenario 2: Computing resource lease The company can provide flexible computing services to meet the computing needs of customers such as startups and small and micro enterprises. Customers can expand or reduce computing resources in real time, reduce software and hardware procurement costs, and simplify IT operations and maintenance (Fig. 1).

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Fig. 1. Computing resource leasing scenario

3 Industrial Intelligent Manufacturing Services Traditional large enterprises developing industrial intelligent manufacturing industries can rely on the experience and advantages in equipment manufacturing, informatization, and the Internet to help other enterprises achieve transformation and upgrading. It can also learn from profit model of existing industrial Internet companies, develop applications for users, tap data value. Internet of things access mode: Utilize the company’s construction experience and technology in the ubiquitous electric power IoT to provide manufacturing enterprise customers with hardware and software services such as equipment IoT access, and obtain profits by charging service fees. Feature subscription mode: Based on the industrial Internet platform, it provides customers with subscriptions to application software, and charges fees based on application modules and traffic, such as general functional components: big data analysis and machine learning. The profit model has the characteristics of one-time development and reusability, and has a large profit margin. Personalized customization mode: Because manufacturing enterprises have very different application scenarios, companies can rely on industrial units to obtain profits through customized delivery or introduce external companies and charge fees through cooperative operations. Transaction sharing mode: Through convergence of the platform, business information is pushed to the companies on both sides of supply and demand to realize connection between enterprises, users and enterprises. The company can obtain profits by charging transaction service fees. Scenario 1: Production energy consumption optimization In actual production, the enterprise can install intelligent sensing terminals for other manufacturing enterprises, analyze the operating conditions of the equipment and production efficiency by monitoring the energy consumption of each piece of equipment. For the production link with high energy consumption, a corresponding system solution is proposed to save the production energy cost of the enterprise. Scenario 2: Device health diagnosis By adding intelligent sensors to production equipment, real-time collection and analysis of equipment operating data, status data, and vibration data, build equipment health diagnostic models, and send them to the cloud / edge computing center for comprehensive diagnosis. This can effectively reduce the frequency of invalid repairs, reduce labor and material costs, and save business operating costs (Fig. 2).

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Fig. 2. Equipment health diagnosis scenario

4 New Retail Services According to the above, the new retail has more profit models to choose, but this article mainly discusses the transformation and upgrading of traditional industrial enterprises and the expansion of new retail. Therefore, it has the following three characteristics compared to ordinary retail: First, rely on existing hardware or software to support other businesses in retail business; Second, rely on the advantages of the main business to provide retail for related goods and services; the third is to focus on the new retail model, innovate “online plus offline” product services, and change from a product supplier to an integrated service provider. Combining these characteristics, the profit models of traditional industrial enterprises for developing new retail mainly include channel leasing, earning spreads, and O2O. Among them: Channel lease model: Assessing the operating rights of offline resources such as factories and warehouses, and conducting external leasing or establishing joint ventures with external companies as equity investments, can carry out related businesses without investment, but value-added space is limited. Earn spread model: Provide relevant products for the company’s offline resource radiant population. According to the nature of different products, clarify the scope of radiation and customer positioning, and mainly rely on earning commodity price differences as a source of profit. Under this model, a large amount of investment is not required, but a more detailed market survey is required to determine a specific investment plan. O2O model: Relying on the existing platform and customer service team of the enterprise, through big data analysis, it provides customers with “online plus offline” products and services, and opens “last mile” of services. This can also help the retail to transform and upgrade, and create a new retail format that demands lead to supply. The model doesn’t need a lot of investment, but personnel responsibilities are faced with major adjustments and large profit margins. Scenario 1: “Online plus Offline” retail A power grid company relies on its existing platform to provide users with pre-sale consultation on power equipment based on data such as electricity consumption behaviors and equipment energy operation. And combined with e-commerce platform channel resources and localized service teams, it provides online users with on-site

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installation or maintenance services, and realizes one-stop services such as consulting, procurement, and installation of electrical equipment. Scenario 2: Power station retail Relying on the channel advantages of electric vehicle charging and replacing stations, a charging operator provides customers with food and entertainment, travel information, electric vehicle maintenance, car washing and beauty products and services, and builds an electric vehicle charging and replacement ecosystem, using the unique attributes of longer charging and replacing time, according to customer needs, site locations, and space resources, etc. Acknowledgements. This article is supported by 2018 Science and Technology Project of State Grid Corporation of China (Research and Application of Quantitative Evolution Model of New Energy Industry Format Development Based on New Consumption Pattern, No. SGHE0000KXJS1800549).

References 1. Juejin, Z.: Analysis and innovation of China construction machinery agent profit model. Today’s Constr. Mach. (08), 90–93 (2009) 2. Yuanyuan, C.: Analysis of profit model and its application in aircraft subcontracting projects. Decis. Inf. (Mid-Term) (2) (2015) 3. Juxiang, H., Yihong, M.: Survey and analysis of profit model of domestic mobile phone reading service. Libr. Inf. Serv. 56(06), 140–144+148 (2012) 4. He, L., Fuyi, F.: Analysis of E-commerce profit model. Chin. Manag. Inf. 18(20), 137–138 (2015) 5. Liang, W., Hongyan, Y.: Interactive integration of online and offline enterprises in the “Internet plus” background: motivations, models and development trends. Enterp. Econ. (2), 138–144 6. Industrial Internet Industry Alliance: Industrial Internet platform white paper. http://www. miit.gov.cn/n973401/n5993937/n5993968/c6002326/content.html (2017). 1 Apr 2018 7. Yan, L.: Constraints and promotion strategies for the development of the industrial Internet platform. Reform (10), 35–44 (2019) 8. Ruyi, X.: Design and implementation of virtual computing resource management framework in IaaS cloud platform. Dissertation, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (2015) 9. Espadas, J., Molina, A., Jiménez, G., et al.: A tenant-based resource allocation model for scaling software-as-a-service applications over cloud computing infrastructures. Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst. 29(1) (2013) 10. Baolong, Y.: Research on software service model based on cloud computing. Dissertation, Beijing Jiaotong University (2012)

Influence of Internet Finance on Commercial Bank Financial Services Zi Wang(&) Department of Economics and Management, Zhixing College of Hubei University, Wuhan, China [email protected] Abstract. At the background of the current concept “Internet+”, the development of Internet financial products, such as Yu’E Bao, has profoundly affected people’s behavior and also affected the traditional commercial bank financial management business. On the one hand, Internet financial products have diverted the customers of commercial banks with their advantages such as low purchase thresholds, high returns, and high liquidity. On the other hand, they have encouraged commercial banks to change their operating concepts and innovate their products. This paper combines empirical analysis to find that Internet finance and traditional financial services have developed in a balanced manner in the long run, and the positive influence plays a dominant role. Finally, based on this empirical conclusion, we recommend commercial banks build a customercentric business model, diversify their financial products and service functions, pay attention to big data and cooperate with Internet financial companies. Keywords: Internet finance

 Commercial bank  “Internet+”  Yu’E Bao

1 Introduction As vigorous development of Internet economy, the internet already has a profound impact on the behavior of people in China. After 2010, some internet companies brought big data, cloud computing and other internet technologies into the financial industry, and then continuously produced new internet financial products which breaking the traditional monopoly of commercial banks on financial products. With the advancement of financial business online, Internet finance has become an important trend for future financial development. Internet finance products also emerge in an endless stream, mainly including three major types of products: Yu’e Bao internet financial services, P2P internet financial products, and insurance internet financial products. In 2013, Alipay Co., Ltd. Tianhong Fund launched Chinese first direct sales Internet fund which named Yu’e Bao. Yu’e Bao has innovated in many ways, so the funds transferred by customers to Yu’ebao exceeded 10 billion yuan during the short launch period which aroused the attention of the financial sector and society. At present, Internet Finance has already become a “double-edged sword” with the background of “Internet + Finance”. It brings convenient capital management and operation methods to investors, it also has the superiority of low purchase threshold, high yield and high liquidity at the same time, which has impacted the traditional financial services. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 70–75, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_11

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Based on the background analysis and business processes above, this paper try to conduct a comprehensive review of Yu’e Bao’s influence on traditional finance, and give advices about strengthen the core competitiveness of banks’ e-commerce, implement big data measures for commercial banks.

2 Literature Review There are two types of literature studies this issue: literature on internet finance and commercial banks financial services. Lin L. et al. [5] claimed internet finance has made the boundaries among financial institutions unclear, thereby competition increased which accelerated the progress of financial industry. John Hawkins and Setsuya Sato [9] believed continuous integration of internet technology apply on the financial field contributed to internet finance. Franklin A. [2] insisted Internet finance make traditional financial institutions nonintermediary. Domestic research on Internet finance started later compared with foreign studies. Sun Ran [8] believes internet financial product is a new type of service combining internet technology and traditional financial services together. Tony Cherin [10] maintains that personal financial service is a commercial bank systematically evaluate investors’ personal financial status and other indicators in order to conduct financial planning activities. Most foreign scholars [7] have suggested commercial banks should improve the quality of their services, focus on customers’ demand. Haitao Z. and Zhiming H. [4] proposed that traditional commercial banks should attach importance to the structure and type of their financial products. Hanno Beck [3] believes that Internet finance has both negative and positive effects on traditional finance such as commercial banks service, but negative effects are greater than positive effects Manuchehr Shahrokhi [6] believes that Internet finance has a positive impact on commercial banks. Chen L. [1] also believes that commercial banks should make full use of Internet information technologies. Qicong Z. (2018) holds the view that Internet finance and traditional financial institutions will become rival, and their cooperation will outweigh competition. This paper try to focus on the competition and cooperation between commercial banks and Internet finance, discuss how traditional banks should learn advantages.

3 Development Status 3.1

Development Status of Yu’E Bao

Yu’E Bao is the first large-scale and representative Internet financial product, Therefore, it is selected as the representative. It has won people’s favor because of its simplicity, convenience, low investment threshold, and high returns. In the first quarter report released by Tianhong Fund in 2017, the net asset value of its balance had reached 11432 trillion yuan, and the operating profit i was as high as 8.7 billion yuan. According to Tianhong Fund report, retail deposits and settlement reserves are the most considerable part of Yu’E Bao, accounting for 64.33% of the fund’s total assets.

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3.2

Development Status of Traditional Bank Property Management Product Business

Commercial banks have also made many adjustments to the threat posed by Yu’E Bao, established many new wealth management products with higher returns, and the number of bank wealth management products has been increasing. From the launch of Yu’E Bao in 2013–2019, overall scale of bank wealth management has shown an upward trend (Table 1). Table 1. Total remaining balance of commercial bank financial products (trillion yuan) Year

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

Total balance amount 15.02 23.5 29.05 29.54 22.04 22.18

Stateowned bank 6.47 8.67 9.43 9.97 8.51 8.13

Jointstock bank 5.67 9.91 12.25 11.95 8.8 9.08

City commercial bank 1.7 3.07 4.4 4.72 3.64 3.85

Foreign capital bank 0.39 0.29 0.33 0.37 0.1 0.09

Rural financial institution 0.46 0.91 1.64 1.57 0.95 0.99

4 Mechanism Internet financial products has two effects on traditional banks financial services. One side, it weakened the intermediary function and shunted off the financial business of some traditional banks. On the other side, it also stimulated commercial banks to change their business ideas and innovate the new financial service model. Affected by Internet information technology, commercial banks’ financial business has weaken their dependence on outlets, thereby reducing their operating costs and labor costs, and the integration of information technology such as big data has also improved the efficiency of commercial banks’ business processing. According to negative influence, after the appearance of Internet financial products, traditional banks’ monopoly position has been weakened. The operation pattern of third-party financial management platforms is simple and convenient, with low purchase thresholds and high flexibility, which not only meets the customer’s income needs, but also meets their financial management needs. Therefore, customers will turn to third-party payment platforms to purchase wealth management products.

5 Theoretical Model From the above theoretical analysis, it is concluded that Internet financial products have brought both positive and negative effects to the financial service of commercial banks. Internet financial products have made fierce competition among personal wealth management products of banks, the loss of customers in the bank deposit business and financial service which changed the operating model of commercial banks financial

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service, such as promoting the emergence and development of direct banking. Besides, the rapid development of Internet wealth management products has prompted commercial banks to vigorously innovate financial service; it has also caused commercial banks to shift some of their work to larger long-tail customers, thereby creating greater profits. We select appropriate data indicators for empirical analysis, and verify the specific impact of Internet financial products on commercial banks financial service through a combination of the previous theoretical basis and empirical analysis. 5.1

Model Indicators

The first thing we’re going to analyze is internet financial service product indicators. Since the empirical analysis in this article is from a limited viewpoint, and Yu’e Bao occupies a tremendous proportion in Internet financing in a narrow sense, we choose the balance of Alibaba, which has the first significance in China and has the largest market share in Internet finance business Bao’s fund size represents the proxy variable for empirical analysis of narrow Internet financial products (IFS). This paper uses the remaining balance (BFS) of wealth management products of banking financial institutions in the annual reports of China’s banking wealth management outlet as proxy indicator of the wealth management service of commercial banks. 5.2

Model LNBFS = aLNIFS þ b

ð5:1Þ

We use Yu’E Bao Net asset data represents the scale of funds for narrow Internet wealth management products. The data comes from fund supermarkets, while the data on commercial banks’ financial service comes from the annual report of China’s banking industry wealth management market. For the time interval, quarterly data from 2014 to 2019 after the establishment of Yu’E Bao was selected. In this paper, during the empirical inspection process, natural logarithmic processing is performed on the relevant data of traditional banks and Yu’E Bao, which are represented by LNIFS and LNBFS, respectively, and data are processed using Stata software.

6 Conclusion and Suggestion 6.1

Empirical Result

Based on the above-mentioned multi-step empirical processes, in the long run, it shows a equilibrium relationship between Yu’E Bao wealth management products and Table 2. Empirical result of model 5.1 LNBFS Coef. Std. Err. t P > |t| LNIFS .4554763 .1261155 3.61 0.002 _cons 3.110977 .0499104 62.33 0.000

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commercial bank financial service. According to Table 2, P valued 0 means the positive impact is the main influence. This empirical test result is consistent with the theoretical impact described above. On the one hand, newly-developing internet financial service has shunted and took the preemption point of commercial banks’ market using their unique advantages such as low purchase thresholds, high returns, and high liquidity. On the other hand, it also have a certain positive influence on the growth and development of traditional financial products, and prompt traditional commercial banks to take advantage of Internet information skill. 6.2

Coping Strategies of Commercial Banks

(1) Create a customer-centric business model Personal deposits service of ordinary users were transferred from traditional banks to internet finance. Therefore, the first step of commercial bank is to change its mindset, paying particular attention to ordinary individual users, vigorously improving service levels. (2) Diversification of financial product and service functions Save money and services by summarizing existing benefits, create multi-functional and multi-directional fund supervision services for customers and personal repositories, make use of rich cooperative trade relationships and strong information technology processing capabilities to live for more depositors. Provide economical, practical and personalized financial solutions and services to enhance customer loyalty. (3) Pay attention to big data Traditional banks should use experience about data mining and applications of Internet finance companies in to promote the integration of existing data systems, improve the comprehensive processing capabilities of multiple types of information, and make full use of their unique advantages. (4) Cooperation with Internet financial enterprises Commercial banks and Internet finance have their own merits, their business models are worth learning from each other. The loss of existing customers will affect the Internet financing of commercial banks, but in the future, they will be able to establish win-win cooperation with Internet financial companies, change the past competition and respond to the situation.

References 1. Chen, L.: From Fintech to Finlife: the case of Fintech development in China. China Econ. J. 9(3), 225–239 (2016) 2. Franklin, A., James, M., Philip, S.: E-Finance: an introduction. Financ. Serv. Res. 25, 5−27 (2002) 3. Hanno, B.: Banking is essential, banks are not. The future of financial intermediation in the age of the Internet. Netnomics 3, 7−22 (2001) 4. Zhiming, H., Haitao, Z.: Research on the personal financial product innovation of Chinese commercial banks. China Manag. Informationization 2, 88–89 (2018)

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5. Lin, L., Geng, X., Whinston, A.: A new perspective to finance and competition and challenges for financial institutions in the internet area. Electron. Financ.: New Perspect. Challs. 13−25 (2001) 6. Manuchehr, S.: E-Finance: status, innovations, resources, and future challenges. Manag. Financ. 34(6), 365–398 (2008) 7. Nasri, W., Charfeddine, L.: Factors affecting the adoption of internet banking in Tunisia: an integration theory of acceptance model and theory of planned behavior. J. High Technol. Manag. Res. 23(2), 1–14 (2012) 8. Sun, R.: Opportunities and challenges of commercial banks’ Internet finance management. New Financ. 8, 36–42 (2015) 9. Setsuya, S., John, H.: Electronic finance: An overview of the issues. Electron. Financ. New Perspect. Challs. 11(7), 1−12 (2001) 10. Tony, C.: Personal financial planning: Theory and practices. J. Econ. Perspect. 9 (2006)

Evaluation of Mixed Ownership Reform Based on Fuzzy Logic Hualei Zhang1, Jian Zhao1, Liling Huang2(&), and Jing Wang2 1

2

State Grid Energy Research Institute Company Limited, Changping, Beijing 102209, China North China Electric Power University, Changping, Beijing 102206, China [email protected]

Abstract. With the rapid development of the information age, information technology has been widely practiced in various industries. Mixed ownership reform (MOR) is an important breakthrough in the state-owned enterprises (SOE) reform. Driven by the survival needs of enterprises, the effect evaluation of SOE reform has become an important topic in the field of MOR. Based on the characteristics and case analysis of MOR of SOEs, this paper constructs a comprehensive evaluation index system for the effectiveness of MOR of stateowned enterprises. Then the index weight is calculated through the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Finally, the effectiveness of the MOR is evaluated in combination with the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method (FCE). The results show that the MOR of the enterprise has a good effect. Keywords: Mixed-ownership reform system

 Effectiveness evaluation  Indicator

1 Introduction Information technology has penetrated into various industries, and with its obvious advantages such as fast, efficient, and convenient, it has brought new opportunities for the development of industries. The guidelines on deepening the reform of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) (NO. 22 [2015]) put forward clear opinions on promoting the SOEs reform by category and developing a mixed ownership economy. Since then, other related policy documents were issued, which put forward more ways to promote the SOEs reform from the perspective of policies. However, due to the wide scope and intensive reforms and the lack of actual mixed reform experience of large enterprises, it is difficult to advance the reform process. The evaluation of the mixed ownership reform (MOR) of SOEs is of great significance in clarifying the MOR process of SOEs and grasping the direction of MOR. As for the MOR of SOEs, existing researches mainly focus on the ownership structure [1–4]. In terms of effectiveness evaluation, there are few studies on effectiveness evaluation of MOR, and most of them evaluate MOR from the perspective of performance [5–9]. The effectiveness evaluation of MOR has not yet formed a system. Khan et al. [9] studied how the reduction of state-owned shares affected the social responsibility performance of listed companies. Under the background of increasingly © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 76–83, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_12

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mature information technology, Taishan lee et al. [10]. constructed a fuzzy evaluation model of enhanced network learning system by means of fuzzy membership function. How to evaluate the effect of MOR of SOEs accurately and comprehensively is a key problem to be studied at present stage. In response to the above problems, how to establish a scientific and feasible evaluation index system for the effectiveness of MOR, evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of the MOR, find out problems in the reform process, and provide an important basis for judging the SOE MOR process. Therefore, this paper puts forward the AHP-FCE evaluation method based on fuzzy logic, and evaluates the effect of MOR of a certain enterprise with the help of expert scoring.

2 Evaluation Index System Construction There exist many influencing factors in the process of MOR, and a scientific evaluation of its reform effectiveness requires the establishment of a comprehensive index system. Therefore, to reasonably evaluate the effectiveness of MOR, the establishment of an evaluation index system must consider both the motivation and possible effects of MOR, and the main factors that affect the effectiveness of MOR. The establishment of an enterprise performance evaluation index system for the reform of mixed ownership should fully consider the improvement of social responsibility, business performance, vitality of the operating mechanism, and governance structure after the reform. Follow the principle of index selection, this paper reference relevant literature, and through the analysis of the typical case of MOR. From the four dimensions of corporate social responsibility, corporate operating performance, corporate operating mechanism vitality, and corporate governance structure, 63 indicators including the first, second and third levels are set up to construct an indicator system to evaluate the effect of promoting MOR. The specific indicators are as follows: (1) Social responsibility refers to the obligations undertaken by enterprises to solve social needs and other problems in order to safeguard the interests of the country and the people while seeking development through reform. As a SOE, in the process of implementing the MOR, in addition to stimulating the creativity of SOEs, improving market competitiveness, and promoting enterprises to become stronger, better and bigger, they also shoulder the social responsibility of SOEs. The fulfillment of corporate responsibility is an important dimension to evaluate the effect of MOR. This dimension is divided into economic responsibility and other responsibilities. Six third-level indicators are set. (2) SOEs carry out MOR, cross-shareholding and mutual integration with other ownership economies, injecting fresh blood into SOEs, introducing market mechanisms, and thereby improving the overall efficiency of SOEs. Operating performance is the way of survival and development of an enterprise. The purpose of reform is to seek better development. Therefore, this article considers the company’s operating performance when evaluating the effectiveness of the company’s MOR business, including 4 second-level indicators and 14 third-level indicators. (3) Stimulating the vitality of SOEs is an important goal of the MOR. Through the involvement of other capital and the “catfish effect” of the capital market, the vitality of SOEs can be effectively stimulated. Whether the MOR is effective is

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also reflected in whether it stimulates the vitality of SOEs. This paper considers the vitality of enterprise management mechanism, including decision-making mechanism, investment mechanism, incentive mechanism, evaluation mechanism four aspects. And there are 9 third-level indicators. (4) Further improvement of the governance structure is an inevitable requirement for deepening the reform of SOEs. SOEs need to establish a corporate governance structure with clear rights and responsibilities, and realize the transformation from corporate governance mode to company governance mode. Corporate governance capacity needs to be further improved. Therefore, this paper takes corporate governance structure as another dimension to evaluate the effectiveness of MOR. The connotation of corporate governance includes two levels: corporate governance structure and corporate governance mechanism. To measure the effectiveness of MOR at the corporate governance level, we set six second-level indicators and 14 third-level indicators in this dimension (Table 1). Table 1. The evaluation index system for enterprises to promote MOR First-level indicators (weights)

Second-level indicators (weights)

A1 Corporate social responsibility (0.3849)

B1 Economic C1 Rate of preservation and responsibility (0.8333) appreciation of state-owned assets (0.4286) C2 Rate of return on investment of state-owned capital (0.4286) C3 Rate of tax on assets (0.1429) B2 Other C4 Proportion of environmental responsibilities investment (0.6376) (0.1667) C5 Contribution rate of employment (0.2578) C6 Ratio of public welfare contributions (0.1046) B3 Debt repayment C7 Asset-liability ratio (0.7509) ability (0.1292) C8 Current ratio (0.2491) B4 Profitability C9 Profit rate of main business (0.3893) (0.2491) C10 Return ratio on assets (0.7509) B5 Operating ability C11 Turnover ratio of current assets (0.3034) (0.0779) C12 Capital turnover efficiency (0.1996) C13 Cost growth (0.5229) C14 Efficiency of asset allocation (0.1996) B6 Development C15 Net profit growth rate (0.3344) ability (0.1782) C16 Growth rate of net assets (0.1508) C17 EVA (0.3344) C18 The enterprise scale (0.0601) C19 Business diversification (0.0601) C20 Market expansion ability (0.0601)

A2 Corporate operating performance (0.3849)

Third-level indicators (weights)

Combined weights 0.1375

0.1375 0.0458 0.0409 0.0165 0.0067 0.0373 0.0124 0.0373 0.1125 0.0091 0.0233 0.0611 0.0233 0.0229 0.0103 0.0229 0.0041 0.0041 0.0041

(continued)

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Table 1. (continued) First-level indicators (weights)

Second-level indicators (weights)

A3 Vitality of corporate operating mechanism (0.1428)

B7 Decision-making mechanism (0.2239)

A4 Corporate governance structure (0.0876)

Third-level indicators (weights)

C21 Efficiency of administrative decision-making (0.7509) C22 Scientific and democratic decision-making (0.2491) B8 Investment C23 Technology research and mechanism (0.2239) development investment proportion (0.7509) C24 Diversified investment subject (0.2491) B9 Incentive C25 Equity incentive (0.1996) mechanism (0.4670) C26 Employee shareholding (0.1996) C27 Performance pay (0.6008) B10 Evaluation C28 Market-oriented salary mechanism (0.0852) distribution (0.2491) C29 Perfection of reward and punishment mechanism (0.7509) B11 Legal governance C30 Proportion of outside directors structure (0.2346) (0.3755) C31 Ratio of external supervisors (0.1245) C32 Ratio of professional managers (0.3755) C33 General meeting of shareholders (0.1245) B12 Equity mixing C34 Shareholding ratio of non-state degree (0.4547) capital (0.5000) C35 Shareholding ratio of state capital (0.5000) B13 Strategy control C36 Strategic compatibility (1.0000) (0.1127) B14 Risk control C37 Market risk (0.2491) (0.1127) C38 Credit risk (0.7509) B15 Internal C39 Internal checks and balances supervision (0.6376) mechanism (0.0529) C40 Management supervisionn (0.2578) C41 Democratic supervision (0.1046) B16 Information C42 Major information disclosure disclosure (0.0324) (0.7509) C43 Social supervision (0.2491)

Combined weights 0.024 0.008 0.024

0.008 0.0133 0.0133 0.0401 0.003 0.0091 0.0077 0.0026 0.0077 0.0026 0.0199 0.0199 0.0099 0.0025 0.0074 0.003 0.0012 0.0005 0.0021 0.0007

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3 Effectiveness Evaluation Model of MOR Based on AHPFCE 3.1

Index Weight Determination Method

The effectiveness evaluation of MOR is a target evaluation that is influenced by many factors, and the weights of various indicators need to be determined. In this paper, AHP is applied to determine the indicator weights. Firstly, we establish a hierarchical structure model, then use a 1–9 reciprocity scale to indicate the comparison of the importance of the indicators to build a judgment matrix, and finally check the consistency of the judgment matrix and obtain the index weight. The calculation of index weight and consistency test are shown in Eqs. 1–6. The 0 square root method is applied to calculate the geometric mean line by line Wi : 0

Wi ¼

p ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi n ai1 ai2  ain

ð1Þ

0

W Wi ¼ n i P 0 Wi

ð2Þ

i¼1

n P

ki ¼ i¼1

aij Wj ð3Þ

Wi n P

ki

kmax ¼ i¼1 n CI ¼

ð4Þ

kmax  n n1

ð5Þ

CI RI

ð6Þ

CR ¼

RI can be find in other literature. If CR < 0.1, the judgment matrix passed the consistency check. If it fails, the judgment matrix score needs to be adjusted until it is able to pass the consistency check. The judgment matrices of order 1 and order 2 automatically satisfy the consistency, so there is no need to check their consistency. 3.2

Evaluation Model Based on FCE

(1) Determination of evaluation index set and grade set Suppose there are n evaluation indexes and m reviews, The evaluation index set is Xj ¼ fX1 ; X2 ;    ; Xn g, evaluation level set is Yk ¼ fY1 ; Y2 ;    ; Ym g. (2) Construction of membership matrix

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Any evaluation index Xj constructs a membership vector Zj ðj ¼ 1; 2;    ; nÞ for it. Assuming zjk is the membership of Xj under Yk , then Zj ¼ ðzj1 ; zj2 ;    ; zjm Þ. Therefore, a membership matrix composed of all the evaluation indexes shown below can be obtained. 2

m P

z11 6 z21 6 Z ¼ Z1 Z2 ;    ; Zn ÞT ¼ 6 .. 4 .

z12 z22 .. .

zn1

zn2

3    z1m    z2m 7 7 .. 7 .. . 5 .    znm

ð7Þ

Where zjk represents the probability of Xj under Yk . So there is 0  zjk  1 and zjk ¼ 1 ðj ¼ 1; 2;    ; nÞ.

k¼1

(3) Final evaluation model 2

z11 6 z21 6 E¼W  Z ¼ ðW1 ; W2 ;    ; Wn Þ  6 .. 4 .

z12 z22 .. .

zn1

zn2

  .. . 

3 z1m z2m 7 7 .. 7 ¼ ðe1 ; e2 ;    ; em Þ . 5 znm ð8Þ

In general,

m P

ek ¼1. Otherwise, the final evaluation results should be normalized to

k¼1

meet this condition. The final evaluation result is the evaluation grade Yk corresponding to the maximum value in all ek .

4 Empirical Analysis 4.1

Determine Indicator Weights

Combined with the expert opinions, the judgment matrix was constructed from the arithmetic mean value of the expert scores in the questionnaire, and the feature vector was calculated, that is, the weight of the influencing factor evaluation index. Then each judgment matrix is checked for consistency (Table 2). After the consistency test, the consistency ratio of this judgment matrix is 0.0076 < 0.1. Similarly, the judgment matrix and feature vector of criterion layer and factor layer can be calculated according to the above formula, and the final weight of each index can be obtained. Finally, the combined weights are calculated, and the final results can be seen in Table 1.

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4.2

A1 1 1 1/3 1/4

A2 1 1 1/3 1/4

A3 3 3 1 1/2

A4 4 4 2 1

The feature vector 0.3849 0.3849 0.1428 0.0876

Evaluation Results

On the basis of the previous section, the effectiveness of the MOR of an enterprise is evaluated. The evaluation level set is = {excellent(E), good(G), medium(M), poor(P), terrible(T)}, and the membership matrix of the evaluated enterprise is obtained based on the survey. Due to the large number of indicators, in order to be more intuitive and convenient, this paper uses a table to represent the obtained membership matrix (Table 3).

Table 3. Membership matrix value Level C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15

E 0.2 0.2 0 0 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0

G 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.8 0 0 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.5 0

M 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.2

P 0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0 0.2 0 0.5 0.3 0 0.1 0 0 0 0.5

T 0 0 0 0.1 0 0 0 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3

C16 C17 C18 C19 C20 C21 C22 C23 C24 C25 C26 C27 C28 C29 C30

E 0.5 0.1 0 1 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.3 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2

G 0.3 0.4 0.8 0 0.5 0 0 0.4 0.4 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.4

M 0.2 0.4 0.2 0 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.4

P 0 0.1 0 0 0 0.3 0.2 0 0 0.6 0.7 0 0.1 0.1 0

T 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

C31 C32 C33 C34 C35 C36 C37 C38 C39 C40 C41 C42 C43 C42 C43

E 0.1 0 0.2 0 0 0.1 0 0.4 0 0 0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0

G 0.3 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0 0.3 0 0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0

M 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.4

P 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4

T 0.1 0.2 0 0 0 0 0.2 0 0.1 0.2 0 0 0 0.1 0.2

From formula (8), we can obtain E ¼ W  Z ¼ ð0:123; 0:385; 0:362; 0:104; 0:027Þ. As shown in the calculation results, the maximum membership degree is 0.385, and the corresponding evaluation level is “good”. Therefore, the MOR of the enterprise has achieved good results.

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5 Conclusions On the basis of the literature review and case analysis, we combines the objectives of MOR to build an index system for evaluating the effectiveness of MOR, and finally uses AHP to obtain the indicators’ weight. The calculation results show that among the four first-level indicators, corporate social responsibility and business performance have a greater weight, which is consistent with the goal of SOE reform. Finally, this paper combined fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to do the evaluation of the effectiveness of the MOR, and the results show that the MOR of the enterprise has a good effect. Although the principle of index selection was followed in the selection of indicators, because the effectiveness evaluation of MOR in SOEs is a complex systematic project, the evaluation index system constructed in this paper is difficult to achieve perfection, and it is still a preliminary exploration of the evaluation of the effectiveness of MOR. In the future, in the process of implementing MOR, we need to continuously improve based on actual conditions. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the State Grid Corporation of China science and technology project “Research on the company’s mixed ownership reform method, scheme and effectiveness evaluation”.

References 1. Lai, L., Tam, H.: Corporate governance, ownership structure and managing earnings to meet critical thresholds among Chinese listed firms. Rev. Quant. Financ. Acc. 48(3), 789–818 (2017) 2. Abramov, A., Radygin, A., Chemova, M.: State-owned enterprises in the Russian market: Ownership structure and their role in the economy. Russ. Joumal Econ. 3(1), 1–23 (2017) 3. Kouame, W., Tapsoba, S.: Structural reforms and firms’ productivity. Evidence from developing countries. World Dev. 113, 157–171 (2019) 4. Lin, L.W.: Reforming China’s state-owned enterprises: from structure to people. China Q. 229, 107–129 (2017) 5. Sharma, A., Jadi, D.M., Ward, D.: Evaluating financial performance of insurance companies using rating transition matrices. J. Econ. Asymmetries 18, e00102 (2018) 6. Li, L., McMurray, A., Sy, M., et al.: Corporate ownership, efficiency and performance under state capitalism: Evidence from China. J. Policy Model. 40(4), 747–766 (2018) 7. Ma, S., Li, W., Yan, S.: The Impact of Mixed Ownership Reform on Enterprise Performance–An Empirical Study Based on A-Share Listing Corporation in China. International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management. Springer, Cham, 2017: 670–679 8. Zhou, B., Peng, M., Tan, Y., et al.: Dynamic panel threshold model-based analysis on equity restriction and enterprise performance in China. Sustainability 11(22), 6489 (2019) 9. Khan, F.U., Zhang, J., Usman, M., et al.: Ownership Reduction in state-owned enterprises and corporate social responsibility: Perspective from secondary privatization in China. Sustainability 11(4), 1008 (2019) 10. Lee, T.S., Wang, C.H., Yu, C.M.: Fuzzy evaluation model for enhancing E-learning systems. Mathematics 7(10), 918 (2019)

Development of Cross-Border E-commerce Based on Big Data Analysis Huanhuan Ma(&) Department of Economics and Management, ZhiXing College of Hubei University, Hubei 430080, China [email protected]

Abstract. With deepening of economic globalization process, the increasing trade between countries, the development of cross-border e-business has been widely concerned. Hubei Province’s cross-border e-business has also integrated into the rapid development process, but there are still some problems. To explore the e-commerce in Hubei Province, here applies big-data method to massive cross-border e-business data. Through the comprehensive evaluation of six sub industries of cross-border e-commerce, the results show that the scores of sellers and cross-border payment are 85 and 80 respectively, which are at a high level, while the comprehensive scores of international logistics are the lowest. The transportation speed, security and service attitude of international logistics affect consumers’ consumption mentality. Finally, the corresponding solutions are given. Keywords: Cross-border e-commerce evaluation  International logistics

 Big-data analysis  Industrial

1 Introduction Under the further globalization of economic, the degree of integration of the global economy is increasing. China’s implementation of the “one belt and one way” strategy and the social and economic activities of other countries have been increasing, coupled with the rapid development of the Internet at present [1]. These have elevated the development of e-commerce across the border. However, with the quick growth of e-business across the border, there are also a lot of questions to be solved [2]. As a big economic province, it is of great significance to study the growth of e-business across the border in Hubei Province. At the field of e-business across the border, a lot of specialists have done research and got great results. In [3], to upgrade business activities e-business across the border, the author uses Kansei Engineering to satisfy customers’ emotional and emotional perception of services and products, and analyzes online content through text mining technology. In [4], the author uses social-network method to probe the features of 59 ebusiness guidelines issued by the government from January in 2013 to July in 2018. The sustainable guideline framework of cross e-business is put forward from policy service content, regulatory objectives and measures. In [5], above the grey-analytichierarchy process, the author analyzes the pros and cons of the present cross e-business © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 84–89, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_13

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logistics-mode, and points out the factors that affect the selection of its logistics mode. In [6], considering that there are great differences between overseas sales and domestic sales, the adjustment of strategy has been bothering managers. The author analyzes the launching tactics of cross-border e-business market through the subject modeling of consumer comments. The above research shows that the growth of e-commerce across the border involves many aspects, including logistics, after-sales and other links. In different periods and locations, the growth of e-business across the border is different. This is also the problem of poor general applicability of the above research. During the operation procedure, e-business across the border will generate so many transactions and other data. If we can use data analysis technology to study the growth of e-business across the border in Hubei Province, we will expect to achieve better results. Big data analysis technology has the ability to handle with massive-data, and this method is also used in many fields. In [7], writers take advantage of big-data analysis technology to evaluate the operation state of distribution transformer, and realizes the organic combination of various methods for the overall operation state of transformer by using multi-source data. In [8], the writer combines big-data analysis technology with fog-computing to sustain the overall of a lot of base station and services in the future-smart city. In [9], the writer used big-data analysis technology in the diagnosis of nervous system diseases, which improved the consistency of diagnosis, increased the success rate of treatment, saved lives, and reduced the cost and time. In [10], the writer used big-data analysis to assess the risk of railway failure, effectively alleviated the risk of train delay and reduced the maintenance cost. In conclusion, bigdata method has got remarkable results during massive data processing, so it can be used in the research of cross-border e-commerce development in Hubei Province. In view of the development bottleneck of e-business across the border, here puts forward a research on the development of e-business across the border in Hubei Province based on big data analysis. Through the procedure and analysis of massive-data, we can understand the development of e-commerce in the whole region, to supply consult for the growth of related e-business.

2 Method 2.1

Overview the E-Business Across the Border in Hubei Province

In recent years, the development momentum of e-business in Hubei Province has improved significantly. On the basis of the report of China’s e-business growth index, the comprehensive index of e-business growth in Hubei Province has risen from 14.16 in 2014 to 24.64 in 2018, ranking 11 in all, up 4 places. It is the mainstay province of ecommerce development in China. Hubei Province has obvious transportation advantages and is in the position of commercial logistics center in China. Take Optics Valley of Wuhan as an example. This core area has a high degree of completeness in the ecommerce system, such as talents, comprehensive bonded area, R&D, etc. In terms of its application, some companies set up e-commerce companies through internal forces and rely on e-commerce platform to open up foreign markets. Of course, there are still some enterprises, taking into account the company’s development and financial factors,

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under the assist of Alibaba Group’s e-business terrace to actively expand overseas potential markets. 2.2

Data Preprocessing

The growth of e-business data is massive. Before big-data analysis, it has to preprocess e-commerce data to facilitate the subsequent analysis. So data preprocessing is needed. There are many problems to be solved in data preprocessing, such as processing abnormal data, changing data attributes, processing missing data, data discretization, etc. The processing of missing data can be divided into two types. When the distance between sample attributes is measurable, the average value of attributes is used for interpolation; when the distance between sample attributes is not measurable, the mode of effective value of attributes is used for interpolation. Data standardization operation is also indispensable, which can avoid the influence of different attributes of samples with different magnitude. 2.3

E-commerce Development Analysis Method on the Basis of Big-Data Analysis

First of all, build the evaluation system of e-business across the border industry competitiveness. The first level indicators include production factors, market demand, supporting industries, industry competition and cooperation. Production factors include labor force (cross-border e-commerce labor population/total labor population), capital (cross-border e-commerce project financing amount), technology development (R & D investment, number of effective patents). Market demand factors include total import and export trade, total online retail, per capita online consumption, etc. Supporting industries include logistics, cross-border third-party payment-platform, ebusiness scale, etc. Industry competition and cooperation include the number of crosscommerce enterprises, the number of industrial parks, etc. The score coefficient matrix of common factors is calculated by SPSS, and the score expression of each factor after rotation is obtained Fj ¼

i X

Xn kjn

ð1Þ

n¼1

In the above formula, Fj is score of the j-th factor, Xn is the standardized value of the n-th variable, and kjn is score coefficient of the j-th factor in the n-th variable. According to the scores of each factor, further calculate the comprehensive scores of cross-border e-commerce industry competitiveness, as follows: F ¼ F1  w1 þ F2  w2 þ F3  w3

ð2Þ

In the above formula, F is the comprehensive score, w is the respective weight, i.e. the variance contribution rate of each factor.

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3 Experiment The data source of here comes from the report of China’s e-business development index and relevant-data of the National Bureau of statistics. Firstly, preprocess the cross border e-business data of Hubei Province, filter out the unreasonable data and fill in the missing data, so as to avoid the influence of the unreasonable data on the final analysis results. Then through SPSS and other statistical software data analysis, get the experimental results of the growth of e-business across the border in Hubei Province, and visual display. Based on the visualization results, combined with the expert opinions among the field of e-business, the corresponding suggestions are given.

4 Results Result 1: Industrial development E-business across the border is not just about selling commodity. E-business across the border relate to a lot of aspects, including sellers, intellectual property rights, logistics, cross-border payment, cross-border service software, e-commerce training, etc. This thesis applies the method to compute the comprehensive scores of various industries in e-business across the border in Hubei Province to measure the level of industrial growth. The comprehensive scores of related industries are shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Comprehensive scores of e-commerce related industries

From Fig. 1, the scores of e-business across the border related industries in Hubei Province are different. The scores of sellers and cross-border payment are 85 and 80, respectively, at a high level. But the scores of intellectual property and logistics industry are only 62.3 and 60.1 respectively. High quality goods and convenient payment methods have effectively helped the development of cross-commerce in Hubei

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Province. However, intellectual property is a weak link in cross-commerce in Hubei Province. In global trade, we must take care of the issue of intellectual property, otherwise it is likely to be severely punished for infringement and other issues, and the consequences will be unimaginable. The lowest score of logistics industry is. Result 2: Factors influencing consumers’ Evaluation on international logistics of ebusiness across the border To further analyze the reasons for the lowest score of the logistics industry, this paper investigates the evaluation of visiting consumers on international logistics providers to explore the shortcomings of international logistics in e-commerce. The main factors that affect consumers’ evaluation of logistics include logistics speed, logistics service attitude, price, safety, packaging integrity, etc. In the data investigated, the proportion of each factor is shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Proportion of factors influencing consumers’ evaluation of e-commerce international logistics

International logistics is a considerable part of e-business across the border. In the survey of consumers in Hubei Province, it is found that the top three factors influencing the evaluation of logistics are transportation speed, safety and service attitude, accounting for 39.05%, 26.67% and 16.19% respectively. Combined with result 1, the comprehensive score of logistics industry is the lowest. It is found that due to the improvement of living standards and the good economic foundation, the current stage of e-business across the border consumer explosive growth. Nevertheless, the corresponding cross border logistics transportation system is not perfect, and the transportation time is relatively long. In terms of security, as express delivery needs to be circulated for many times, cross-border express delivery loss incidents occur from time to time. Service attitude should also be paid attention to in the logistics industry. If the experience of express delivery is poor, consumers may reduce the consumption of ebusiness across the border. Therefore, we should pay attention to the experience of

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international logistics in the hearts of users, so as to play a fundamental role in the growth of e-business across the border.

5 Conclusions This thesis analyzes the questions of e-business across the border in Hubei Province through big data analysis method, and gives corresponding suggestions. The growth of e-business across the border is supposed to be combined with its own needs to build a macro development strategy and cultivate core competitiveness. Simultaneously, we should take the advantages of international logistics to elevate the growth of e-business across the border in Hubei Province.

References 1. Liu, W.: “Belt and Road”: Leading inclusive globalization. Proc. Chin. Acad. Sci. 32(4), 331–339 (2017) 2. Chao, W., Xianyu, B., Jun, X., Fei, W.: Research on cross-border e-commerce trade chain and alliance chain based on blockchain technology. Mod. Electron. Technol. 41(21), 169– 172 (2018) 3. Hsiao, Y.H., Chen, M.C., Liao, W.C.: Logistics service design for cross-border e-commerce using Kansei engineering with text-mining-based online content analysis. Telematics Inform. 34(4), 284–302 (2017) 4. Su, W., Wang, Y., Qian, L., Zeng, S., Baležentis, T., Streimikiene, D.: Creating a sustainable policy framework for cross-border e-commerce in China. Sustainability 11(4), 943 (2019) 5. Su, L., Xu, N.: Research on logistics mode selection under the background of cross-border ecommerce based on grey analytic hierarchy process. Int. J. u- e-Serv. Sci. Technol. 9(12), 387–396 (2016) 6. Wang, F., Yang, Y., Tso, G.K., Li, Y.: Analysis of launch strategy in cross-border ecommerce market via topic modeling of consumer reviews. Electron. Commer. Res. 19(4), 863–884 (2019) 7. Youqiang, Z., Lingfeng, K., Wanxing, S., Jinli, W., Ying, L., Qipeng, S.: Big data analysis method for operation status evaluation of distribution transformers. Power Syst. Technol. 40 (3), 768–773 (2016) 8. Tang, B., Chen, Z., Hefferman, G., Pei, S., Wei, T., He, H., Yang, Q.: Incorporating intelligence in fog computing for big data analysis in smart cities. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform. 13(5), 2140–2150 (2017) 9. Siuly, S., Zhang, Y.: Medical big data: neurological diseases diagnosis through medical data analysis. Data Sci. Eng. 1(2), 54–64 (2016) 10. Jamshidi, A., Faghih-Roohi, S., Hajizadeh, S., Núñez, A., Babuska, R., Dollevoet, R., De Schutter, B.: A big data analysis approach for rail failure risk assessment. Risk Anal. 37 (8), 1495–1507 (2017)

Methods of Making Courseware for College English Teaching in the Information Age Lin Zhang and Jianli Guo(&) Department of Foreign Language Teaching, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130117, Jilin, China [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract. Today’s era has entered the information age, this is a new stage in the development of human society. Information technology is based on computer technology, electronic digital technology and other advanced technology. In the information society, people are more and more closely connected, and their own knowledge reserve has become the subject of interpersonal competition. Compared with the previous material and monetary resources, knowledge resources are becoming more and more important. The purpose of this study is to put forward some basic views on the reform of college English teaching methods in the information age and to explore the feasibility and problems to be solved in the application of three-screen courseware in English teaching. The main research methods of this paper are: literature research, investigation and comparative research. The research results show that the three-screen courseware is more suitable for classroom teaching and more acceptable to students than the traditional courseware. In college English teaching, we can make more use of the three-screen courseware technology, innovate classroom education means, better serve students and improve teaching quality. Keywords: Information age  Three-screen courseware  Application strategy  Courseware making

1 Introduction In the information age, the channels for students to obtain information and knowledge have been greatly expanded. They can not only obtain knowledge through teachers’ traditional resources such as blackboards, textbooks, books, newspapers and publications. In addition, relevant knowledge can be acquired through new methods, such as computers and other electronic products and networks. So. In the past, the limitations of the traditional teaching model, which relies on blackboard and blackboard writing, teacher lectures and student memoirs, have been highlighted. Based on the above background, this paper first elaborated and analyzed the research status of “three-screen” courseware in various fields [1]. Secondly, by comparing with other auxiliary teaching technology, “three screens” courseware in teaching is particularly important, especially for the feasibility of college English teaching were studied, after determine the teaching application value, combined with college English teaching scenario, the “three screens” courseware, and will complete the “three © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 90–95, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_14

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screens” courseware applied in the high school English teaching activity, further discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the “three screens” courseware and practical prospects [2–4]. Through theoretical research, courseware making, teaching design discussion, teaching practice feasibility analysis and teaching application strategy research, this paper innovatively verified the excellent performance and powerful potential of “threescreen” courseware in college English teaching [5, 6]. The “three-screen” courseware can significantly improve students’ autonomous learning ability to be applied in college English teaching, make college English teaching more modern and informationized, improve teachers’ level of informationized teaching, reduce education costs, optimize education structure to meet the requirements and the development trend of new curriculum reform [7, 8]. Therefore, teachers should not be limited to textbooks and courseware, but should be expanded to transfer relevant background knowledge and relevant information from Internet, newspapers and other resources to students [9]. For some teaching contents, relevant pictures and audio-visual materials can be added in the courseware to improve students’ interest in learning [10]. There is no doubt that this lively teaching method can arouse students’ learning enthusiasm more obviously than the traditional boring teaching method [11].

2 Method 2.1

Three-Screen Courseware

In the process of education and teaching, the use of multimedia courseware not only improves the teaching efficiency, but also profoundly affects the teaching philosophy of the majority of educators and promotes the smooth implementation of the new curriculum reform. Under the background of English teaching informationization, it is an inevitable trend of The Times to combine multimedia computer-aided teaching technology to further explore more effective teaching methods. As a new auxiliary teaching technology, “three screens” has attracted more and more attention in the field of education because of its simplicity and convenience [12]. The biggest advantage of three-screen courseware is high sharing degree and convenient scene reproduction. How to share the three-screen courseware to those who need it is the premise for teachers to improve the content and teaching methods of the three-screen courseware. There are many effective ways to create three-screen courseware. One is to set up a server to upload the completed courseware to the server for others to download. The server takes the subject as the unit, sets different levels of folders, and stores three screens of courseware properly. In addition, a cloud platform can be built to upload the three-screen courseware to the cloud platform for others to download and learn. 2.2

Research Methods

This paper USES the literature research method to retrieve the academic papers on “three screen courseware” of cnki. Then compare the search results and analyze the

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application of three-screen courseware in English teaching at home and abroad. The subjects of the questionnaire were students in grades 1–3 of a university. The design of the questionnaire includes three aspects: the questionnaire for college English teachers, the questionnaire for students in grades 1–3, and the questionnaire for college English three-screen courseware. It mainly relies on online questionnaires to collect data. Through different teaching objects and teaching time, this paper compares the application limitation factors and application effect of “three screens” courseware, and studies the influence of the above factors on the teaching effect of “three screens” courseware.

3 Experiment Firstly, this paper expounds and analyzes the research status of “three screens” courseware in various fields. Secondly, through the comparison with other auxiliary teaching technologies, the feasibility of “three-screen” courseware in the field of teaching, especially in the field of college English teaching is studied. After determining its teaching application value, combined with the actual situation of high school English teaching, the “three screen” courseware was made and applied to college English teaching activities. The advantages and disadvantages of “three screens” courseware are further discussed, and its actual development prospect is prospected. At the same time, through the assessment and analysis of students’ classroom situation and teaching effect, this paper gradually discusses the application strategy of “three screens” courseware as an auxiliary teaching tool in college English teaching.

4 Discussion 4.1

Experimental Investigation Results

In this survey, 867 questionnaires were issued and 842 were recovered, among which 783 were valid. In the questionnaires that we collected. 85% are very interested in the “interested in English subjects” option, 10% are generally interested, and 5% are not interested. The specific interest in learning English subjects is shown in Fig. 1 below. According to the questionnaire study, we found that students are more likely to ask teachers to change the way of teaching and apply new science and technology in class teaching. The specific survey results are shown in Table 1 below. 4.2

Application Strategies of Three-Screen Courseware in High School English Teaching

1. Strengthening communication and information technology In learning activities, students can freely choose and obtain knowledge contents through a variety of channels. Within the prescribed time, students are completely immersed in the sea of knowledge and information and meet the learning requirements according to the predetermined teaching objectives. This inevitably requires English

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Results of a survey on students' interest in English 5% 10%

85% Strong interest in

Interest in general

Disinterest

Fig. 1. Survey results of students’ interest in English subjects Table 1. Survey results of support for classroom reform Questionnaire categories

Total number of issued

The teacher questionnaire Questionnaire categories

50

The student questionnaire

630

Total number of issued

The total number of recycling 50

Recovery

Effective rate

Support rate

100%

98%

96.37%

The total number of recycling 620

Recovery

Effective rate

Support rate

98.40%

97.60%

94.73%

teachers to communicate with more people, improve their information technology ability, in order to more convenient contact and use multimedia for English teaching. By strengthening English teachers’ understanding of information technology and related products, the application efficiency and quality of English three-screen courseware can be improved, which is the technical guarantee for making English three-screen courseware suitable for teaching. Concentrate the content of the textbook and teach students according to their aptitude. When English teachers use the threescreen courseware, if the courseware is made, the teaching is half done. Therefore, attention should be paid to compress the content of the textbook and make the appropriate three-screen courseware. At the same time, it should be easy for students to accept. 2. Courseware content is closely related to teaching content Attention should be paid to the four requirements of “listening, speaking, reading and writing” in English. Close contact with the text, the students’ thoughts guide to the classroom, the teacher to students arrange extracurricular teaching tasks, to adapt to the

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acceptance of middle school students. Not too professional, too complicated, too deep. At the beginning, the more concise the extracurricular tasks, the better, so that students can easily complete, so as to stimulate students’ interest in learning, improve the enthusiasm of learning; After learning for a while, you can add relevant tasks appropriately. Encourage students to study independently and think positively.

5 Conclusion Knowledge display courseware display should not be separated from the classroom teaching content, and each student’s learning ability and understanding ability should be fully considered; An effective feedback check and encouragement strategy should be established to improve the efficiency of display courseware teaching. It is embodied in mobilizing students’ enthusiasm for learning, enabling students to learn independently and improving students’ self-learning ability. Therefore, teachers should not be limited to textbooks and courseware. It should expand the form and content of the Internet, newspapers and other resources related background knowledge and relevant information to students. For some teaching contents, relevant pictures and audio-visual materials can be added in the courseware to improve students’ interest in learning. There is no doubt that this lively teaching method can arouse students’ learning enthusiasm more obviously than the traditional boring teaching method.

References 1. Mishra, A.R., Kumari, R., Sharma, D.K.: Intuitionistic fuzzy divergence measure-based multi-criteria decision-making method. Neural Comput. & Appl. 5(1), 1–16 (2017) 2. Peng, H-G., Wang, J-Q.: A multicriteria group decision-making method based on the normal cloud model with Zadeh’s z-numbers. IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst. 346(139), 41–42 (2018) 3. Zhou, S., Xuanhua, X., Zhou, Y.: A large group decision-making method based on fuzzy preference relation. Int. J. Inf. Technol. & Decis. Mak. 4(16), 3–4 (2017) 4. Liu, P., Khan, Q., Ye, J.: Group decision-making method under hesitant interval neutrosophic uncertain Linguistic environment. Int. J. Fuzzy Syst. 20(3), 1–17 (2018) 5. Chang, W., Yuan, X., Yalong, W.: Decision-making method based on mixed integer linear programming and rough set: A case study of diesel engine quality and assembly clearance data. Sustain. 11(35), 90–91 (2019) 6. Liu, Y.: Teaching method of visual C++ programming course based on professional background. J. Geomat.S 42(5), 122–126 (2017) 7. Wang, C.-Y., Chen, S.-M.: A new multiple attribute decision making method based on linear programming methodology and novel score function and novel accuracy function of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. Inf. Sci. 893(452), 9024–9031 (2018) 8. Lepore, A., Palumbo, B., Castagliola, P.: A note on Decision making method for product acceptance based on process capability indices Cpk and Cpmk. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 267(1), 19–21 (2017) 9. Nava, M.B., Catanuto, G. Rocco, N.: A decision-making method for breast augmentation based on 25 years of practice. Arch. Plast. Surg. 45(2), 32–33 (2018)

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10. Ibrahim, M., Mustafa, I, Sadiq, M.: A group decision-making method for selecting cloud computing service model. Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. & Appl. 9(1), 449–456 (2018) 11. Lin, M., Wang, H., Zeshui, X.: TODIM-based multi-criteria decision-making method with hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets. Artif. Intell. Rev. 5(4), 4–6 (2019) 12. Yang, W., Pang, Y., Shi, J.: Linguistic hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy decision-making method based on VIKOR. Neural Comput. Appl. 29(12), 613–626 (2018)

Performance Evaluation of Guangdong Province Technology Finance Based on DEA Model Junfeng Zhao1(&), Xue Deng2, Lu Shen3, Cuirong Huang2, and Chuangjie Chen2 1

School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guangdong Polytechnic of Industry and Commerce, Guangzhou 510510, Guangdong, China [email protected] 2 School of Mathematics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong, China 3 Business School, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China

Abstract. Finance is the lifeblood of economy. The progress of technology promotes vigorous development of economy, while the growth of technology industry depends on advancement of finance. Based on several principles of index selection, this paper reasonably selects indexes and conducts factor analysis to meet the input-output index requirements of DEA model. The CCRDEA model and BCC-DEA model are constructed to analyze the combined efficiency of technology and finance in Guangdong Province and all prefecturelevel cities in Guangdong Province. This paper puts forward relevant policy suggestions to promote the development of technology and finance and scientific and technological innovation in Guangdong Province. It also suggests that Guangdong Province formulate its own development strategy for technology and finance with Guangdong characteristics, broaden financing channels and strengthen audit supervision over the use of scientific and technological funds. Keywords: Technology finance

 Index system  Factor analysis  DEA

1 Introduction Science and technology can not only greatly promote social change and economic progress, but also lead to social and economic stagnation. This paper takes Guangdong Province as instance, uses DEA method to measure the combination efficiency of input and output of technology finance. We establish evaluation index system, which is targeted at Guangdong Province, and prefecture-level cities in Guangdong Province. DEA model was proposed by Charnes et al. [1]. In 1978, after that, DEA model gradually entered the field of vision of researchers. Du et al. [2] measure the inputoutput efficiency of provinces and cities in China accurately, which was analyzed the BCC model in the Three-stage DEA model. Jiang et al. [3] used DEA model made a deep analysis in Guangdong Province. Zhu et al. [4], took Anhui Province as an example, used DEA model and cluster analysis method to make empirical analysis on © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 96–104, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_15

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the city appearance and environmental sanitation. Cong et al. [5] analyzed the efficiency of comprehensive environmental protection input-output in Heilongjiang Province. Han [6] by using DEA model, based on the statistics of Qingdao and China main cities. Saeed [7] estimate pure technical and scale efficiency for Gulf Cooperation Council banks. Super efficiency DEA model is a new model proposed by Anderson and Peterson [8]. Xu et al. [9] establish the input-output evaluation index system of agricultural informatization. Zhang [10] analyzed 30 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, with the foundation of super efficiency DEA model.

2 Index Selection This paper selects indicators and studies them from two dimensions. The indicator systems are as follows (Tables 1 and 2): Table 1. Technology finance performance indicator system of Guangdong province Input

Financial investment Personnel input

Output

Patent output High-tech product Technological achievements

Local financial technology appropriation, R&D development funds, R&D development funds accounted for the province’s GDP Number of people engaged in R&D activities per 10,000 population, R&D personnel full-time equivalent Patent applications, patent grants Output of high-tech products, and its corresponding export value The number of national technological progress awards, the provincial technological awards, the number of technological papers in our province collected by major foreign search tools, and the number of papers published in domestic technological journals

Table 2. Technology finance performance indicator system of prefecture-level cities in Guangdong province Input

Output

Financial investment Personnel input Patent output

Technology market output

Local financial technology appropriation, and its proportion in total local fiscal expenditure, R&D development expenditure, and its proportion in the province’s GDP R&D personnel full-time equivalent Patent application acceptance, invention patent acceptance, patent application authorization, invention patent application authorization Number of contracts concluded, contract amount

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At present, a large number of indicators have been selected. Final index system must be satisfied the requirements of DEA model, thus, in this paper, factor analysis is used to reduce the dimension of the selected index.

3 Construction of CCR-DEA and BCC-DEA Models 3.1

CCR Model

Assume that among n DMUs, any DMU has m different inputs and s different outputs. For each DMUj , it is possible to generate a set based on the axiomatic assumptions of invalidity, convexity, taper and minimality: T ¼ fðX; YÞj

n X

Xj kj  Xi

j¼1

n X

Yj kj  0; j ¼ 1; 2; . . .; ng

ð1Þ

j¼1

The CCR model as shown below: 8 m s X X >  > min½h  eð s þ srþ Þ > i > > > i¼1 r¼1 > > > n > X > > < s:t: xij kj þ s i ¼ hxij0 ; i 2 ð1; 2; . . .; mÞ > > > > > > > > > > > > :

j¼1 n X

ð2Þ

Yrj kj  srþ ¼ hyrj0 ; r 2 ð1; 2; . . .; sÞ

j¼1 þ h; kj ; s i sr [ 0; j ¼ 1; 2; . . .; n

þ Among them, s i ; si are relaxation variables, xij0 is i-th input of the j0 -th DMU, and yrj0 is the r-th output of the j0 -th DMU.

3.2

BCC Model

The emergence of imperfect competition and changes in relevant national policies will make it difficult for enterprises to operate at the optimal scale, BCC model is one of the DEA model with variable returns to scale is generated.

Performance Evaluation of Guangdong Province Technology Finance

8 m s X X >  > min½h  eð s þ srþ Þ > i > > > i¼1 r¼1 > > > n > X > > > s:t: xij kj þ s > i ¼ hxij0 ; i 2 ð1; 2; . . .; mÞ > < j¼1 n X > > > Yrj kj  srþ ¼ hyrj0 ; r 2 ð1; 2; . . .; sÞ > > > > j¼1 > > > > n X > > þ > kj ¼ 1; h; kj ; s > i sr [ 0; j ¼ 1; 2; . . .; n :

99

ð3Þ

j¼1

4 Empirical Analysis 4.1

Data Selection

For Guangdong Province’s own statistical data is mainly based on the Guangdong Science and Technology Statistics Yearbook from 2001 to 2018, and for the provinciallevel cities in Guangdong Province, the data is mainly based on Guangdong Science and Technology Statistics Network. This paper preprocesses all indicator data. Considering that in the data envelope analysis model, performing the same four operations on the same index at the same time does not affect the effectiveness of the decision unit. This paper uses the following formula for regularization: new data value ¼ old data value þ ½jminimum data valuej þ 1

4.2

ð4Þ

Model Analysis

The results are solved by DEAP 2.1 software. Now we make some denotes:mark effective as eff; ineffective as ineff; relative efficiency as re-eff; invariant as inv; increasing as inc; decreasing as dec. The markings are also applied to Tables 3–4. 1. Analysis of CCR Model Results From Fig. 1, the overall efficiency of Guangdong Province in 2000 and 2005–2007 was 1, indicating that the combination performance of technology finance is excellent, the combination efficiency is in a valid state of DEA, and quantitative financial inputs can obtain corresponding technological output; The overall efficiency of 2004, 2008, and 2010 shows that DEA is relatively effective. It requires a bit of financial input and technological output to achieve DEA effectiveness. From 2001 to 2003, 2009, and 2011 to 2017, the overall efficiency was in the DEA inactive state, and minor adjustments could not change this invalid state.

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Year

Overall efficiency

Technical efficiency

Scale efficiency

Technical effectiveness

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Average value

1.000 0.796 0.809 0.880 0.985 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.963 0.896 0.953 0.836 0.808 0.853 0.817 0.770 0.784 0.784 0.885

1.000 0.989 0.982 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.946 1.000 0.967 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.936 0.977 1.000 0.989

1.000 0.805 0.823 0.880 0.985 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.963 0.948 0.953 0.865 0.808 0.853 0.817 0.823 0.803 0.784 0.895

eff re-eff re-eff eff eff eff eff eff eff re-eff eff re-eff eff eff eff re-eff re-eff eff ___

Scale effectiveness eff ineff ineff ineff re-eff eff eff eff re-eff re-eff re-eff ineff ineff ineff ineff ineff ineff ineff ___

Scale reward inv inc inc inc inc inv inv inv dec dec dec dec dec dec dec dec dec dec ___

2. Analysis of BCC Model Results As shown in Fig. 2, in 2000, 2003–2008, 2010, 2012–2014, and 2017, efficiency of pure technical in Guangdong Province was 1. In 2009, 2011, 2015, and 2016, the efficiency of pure technical in Guangdong Province was relatively effective, which means performance was somewhat poor. 1. Analysis of CCR Model Results From Fig. 3, it can be observed that the quantitative financial investment can obtain the corresponding technological output, which means that the combination of technology and finance is in good condition. The overall efficiency of Shaoguan, Jiangmen, Maoming, Zhaoqing, Huizhou, Meizhou, Qingyuan, and Zhongshan is less than 0.9; the overall efficiency of Jieyang and Yunfu is between 0.9 and 1. 2. Analysis of BCC Model Results From Fig. 4, pure technical efficiency of 11 cities was 1, including Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou, Foshan, Zhanjiang, Shanwei, Heyuan, Yangjiang, Dongguan, and Chaozhou. Moreover, there are 18 prefecture-level cities are effective, accounting for 85.71%.

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Table 4. Analysis of the efficiency of technology finance in prefecture-level cities in Guangdong province Comprehensive Pure technical efficiency technical efficiency Guangzhou 1.000 1.000 Shaoguan 0.458 0.562 Shenzhen 1.000 1.000 Zhuhai 1.000 1.000 Shantou 1.000 1.000 Foshan 1.000 1.000 Jiangmen 0.797 0.821 Zhanjiang 1.000 1.000 Maoming 0.934 1.000 Zhaoqing 0.420 0.564 Huizhou 0.927 1.000 Meizhou 0.889 1.000 Shanwei 1.000 1.000 Heyuan 1.000 1.000 Yangjiang 1.000 1.000 Qingyuan 0.923 1.000 Dongguan 1.000 1.000 Zhongshan 0.952 1.000 Chaozhou 1.000 1.000 Jieyang 0.905 1.000 Yunfu 0.954 1.000 Average 0.912 0.950 value

1.05 1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75

Scale Technical Scale efficiency effectiveness effectiveness 1.000 eff eff 0.815 ineff ineff 1.000 eff eff 1.000 eff eff 1.000 eff eff 1.000 eff eff 0.970 ineff re-eff 1.000 eff eff 0.934 eff re-eff 0.745 ineff ineff 0.927 eff re-eff 0.889 eff ineff 1.000 eff eff 1.000 eff eff 1.000 eff eff 0.923 eff re-eff 1.000 eff eff 0.952 eff re-eff 1.000 eff eff 0.905 eff re-eff 0.954 eff re-eff 0.953 ___ ___

Scale reward inv inc inv inv inv inv inc inv inc inc dec inc inv inv inv dec inv dec inv inc inc ___

Overall efficiency average value

Year

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

Overall efficiency

Area

Fig. 1. Overall efficiency and trends in Guangdong province from 2000 to 2017

J. Zhao et al.

1.02 1 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.92 0.9

Technical efficiency average value

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

Technical efficiency

102

Year

Comprehensive technical efficiency

Fig. 2. Technical efficiency and trend of Guangdong province from 2000 to 2017

1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4

Comprehensive technical efficiency average value

Area

Pure Technical Efficiency

Fig. 3. Comprehensive technical efficiency of prefecture-level cities in Guangdong province

1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5

Pure Technical Efficiency average value

Area

Fig. 4. Pure technical efficiency of prefecture-level cities in Guangdong province

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5 Policy Recommendations According to the analysis and comparison mentioned above, it has been pointed out that Guangdong Province has certain deficiencies in the development of technology finance and technology innovation. According to historical data, scale efficiency has remained unchanged for 4 years in 18 years, indicating that the input of the same proportion cannot get the optimal output. For the future economic development, Guangdong Province needs to combine national policies and according to its own conditions to formulate strategies for technology, finance and technology with its own characteristics. In terms of financial investment, we must not only provide an economic foundation for technological research and development, but also expand financing channels, mobilize enterprises, society, and the private sector to pay attention to invest in technological innovation activities. In this way, technology and finance can be efficiently integrated, and the level of technological and financial efficiency and the rate of technological innovation conversion can be improved. Acknowledgements. This research was supported by the “Humanities and Social Sciences Research and Planning Fund of the Ministry of Education of China, No. x2lxY9180090”, “Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, No. 2019A1515011038”, “Soft Science of Guangdong Province, and No. 2018A070712002, 2019A101002118”, “Guangdong Polytechnic of Industry and Commerce Key Special Research, No. GDGM2016-CQ-02”, and “Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China, No. x2lxC2180170”. The authors are highly grateful to the referees and editor in-chief for their very helpful comments.

References 1. Charnes, A., Cooper, W.W., Rhodes, E.: Measuring the efficiency of decision making units. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 2(6), 429–444 (1978) 2. Du, J.M., Liang, L., Lu, H.: Research on the efficiency of regional science and technology finance in China based on three-stage DEA model. Financ. Econ. Res. 06, 84–93 (2016) 3. Yong, J., Xiaoxu, Y., Zuojing, L., Saihua, D.: Analysis of the relative efficiency of inputoutput of science and technology finance based on DEA Model—Taking Guangdong Province as an example. Sci. Technol. Manag. Res. 3, 69–74 (2017) 4. Zhu, J.M., Guo, J., Liu, C.: Evaluation of Anhui city appearance and environmental sanitation based on DEA and cluster analysis. J. Chang. Norm. Univ. 6, 118–123 (2019) 5. Cong, H.Y., Chen H.M.: Study on the relative efficiency of regional environmental protection investment based on DEA model—Taking Heilongjiang Province as an example. Bus. Econ. 6, 6–7 + 57 (2019) 6. Min, H., Na, W.: Research on the efficiency of the combination of technology and finance in Qingdao Based on DEA analysis. Henan Sci. 11, 226–231 (2015) 7. Saeed, A.-M.: An examination of technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies in GCC banking. Am. J Financ. & Account. 1(2), 152–166 (2018) 8. Andersen, P., Petersen, N.C.: A procedure for ranking efficient units in data envelopment analysis. Manage. Sci. 39(10), 1261–1264 (1993)

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9. Xu, H., Wang, L., Wang, H., Wang, S.Q.: Efficiency evaluation of agricultural informatization based on CCR and super-efficiency DEA model. International Conference on Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture. CCTA, 240–246 (2014) 10. Zhang, M.L.: Efficiency evaluation of financial support for technological innovation in China based on super efficiency DEA and Malmquist index method. Financ. Dev. Res. 6, 18–25 (2015)

Traceability System Construction of Agricultural Products Cross-Border E-commerce Logistics from the Perspective of Blockchain Technology Yulin Luo1 and Chao Xie2(&) 1 2

Business School, Wuchang University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China School of Management, Wuhan Donghu University, Wuhan, Hubei, China [email protected]

Abstract. In view of the traceability problem in the cross-border e-commerce logistics of agricultural products, this paper studies the blockchain technology. According to the common mode of cross-border e-commerce of agricultural products, it expounds the application of blockchain technology to each link of the cross-border logistics of agricultural products. Especially in the encryption part, using the algorithm research similar to the Byzantine general problem, fully embodies the characteristics of blockchain technology decentralization, security transparency, rules, traceability. Keywords: Blockchain Agricultural products

 Traceability system  Cross border e-commerce 

1 Introduction In recent years, thanks to the popularity of mobile Internet and smart phones, crossborder e-commerce and express logistics are developing rapidly [1]. However, behind the great achievements of cross-border e-commerce logistics industry, there are also a series of worrying and long-term pain points, such as user information disclosure, information island, information authenticity and cross-border e-commerce settlement procedures [2]. These bottlenecks restrict the further development of cross-border ecommerce logistics, which affect the industry’s improvement of quality and efficiency, transformation and upgrading from the perspectives of consumer experience, data management, warehousing and transportation, logistics finance and other dimensions. With the rapid development of the new generation of information technology represented by blockchain, as well as the maturity of IOT, cloud computing, big data and other related technologies, e-commerce logistics is expected to reconstruct its operation mechanism under the power of science and technology, and develop towards decentralization, security transparency, traceability and expansion, so as to greatly reduce transaction costs, improve security and improve economic operation efficiency [3].

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 105–111, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_16

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2 Characteristics of Blockchain in the Construction of CrossBorder E-commerce Logistics Traceability System for Agricultural Products Blockchain, as the underlying technology supporting bitcoin, uses distributed shared ledger and point-to-point transmission technology to support the flow of bitcoin digital assets in the decentralized network [4]. After years of development, blockchain has become a comprehensive system based on P2P network, asymmetric encryption, hash function, Merkle tree, chain structure, timestamp, consensus mechanism and other key technologies (as shown in Fig. 1).

Application Layer

DAPP(Logistics, E-commerce, Supply chain, Finance, Health)

Contract Layer

Contract container

Incentive Layer Common View Layer Network Layer

Issuing mechanism POW P2P network Block data

Data Layer

Hash function

Excitation mechanism

POS

DPOS

PBFT

Communication mechanism

Verification mechanism

Digital signature Asymmetric encryption

Chain structure Merkle tree

Fig. 1. Blockchain technology architecture

3 Blockchain Approach to the Construction of Cross-Border E-commerce Logistics Traceability System for Agricultural Products In a moving line of cross-border logistics of agricultural products, this paper simply divides the moving line into three parts. From agricultural suppliers to distributors, and finally consumers [5]. Due to the cross-border e-commerce of agricultural products, there are many problems, such as time and space problems, inventory piling problems. Therefore, this paper considers a common cross-border e-commerce mode of agricultural products, that is, foreign supplier a supplies to domestic distributor B through international logistics company C, while domestic agricultural product distributor B sells products to domestic consumer e through domestic logistics company D. Since agricultural product distributor B does not sell all the goods at one time after purchasing, it is usually stored in the bonded warehouse f in the customs supervision area,

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and the transactions between consumers and distributors usually go through e-commerce platform G. Therefore, the e-commerce mode considered in this paper is shown in Fig. 2. Bonded warehouse F Storage

Supplier A

International logistics company C Transport

DIstributor B

Domestic logistics company D Transport

Consumer E

Electronic business platform G Transaction

Fig. 2. E-commerce mode

In the module design of blockchain, the application layer can realize the interaction with users. By building the network layer of the blockchain and introducing the consensus mechanism, the transaction information in the blockchain is open and transparent, which cannot be cheated or tampered with. Within the blockchain network, all nodes are distributed [6]. In the cross-border logistics of agricultural products, the nodes controlled by agricultural suppliers, distributors, consumers and the logistics companies that are in transit are all distributed network features. In the past, after problems such as quality, safety and loss of products, it is more difficult to trace the root of the defects of products. Therefore, based on blockchain technology, this paper makes a reasonable planning for cross-border logistics moving line system [7]. 3.1

Front End of Cross-Border E-commerce Logistics Traceability System for Agricultural Products

Generally, if foreign products want to enter China, the person in charge of the goods needs to declare to the Customs within 14 days from the date of declaration of the means of transport. In order to ensure that the agricultural products entering our country are not fakes, this paper makes anti-counterfeiting records based on blockchain technology [8]. The account book of blockchain will be recorded when the certificate of agricultural products is issued. The first record will include the country of origin, place of origin, date of production, and date of delivery of the product certificate. If the domestic distributor B of agricultural products has not yet placed an order with the foreign supplier a, the warehousing information of the agricultural products stored in the foreign warehouse shall be recorded in the block. When domestic distributor B places an order, foreign supplier a also needs to record the time of product delivery in the block. In addition, all entry information from foreign agricultural product supplier a to domestic bonded warehouse f shall be filled in the blockchain account book and cannot be changed. When the products are transported to bonded warehouse F, the distributor

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Warehousing time, Repository information

The order has been placed

Outgoing time

+

No

ord

er

of agricultural products shall record the warehousing time and location information of agricultural products into the blockchain ledger. See Fig. 3 for details.

Country of origin, Date of manufacture, Product qualification certificate

The order has been placed

International logistics company C Distributor B Bonded warehouse F

Warehousing time, Repository information

Fig. 3. Block information record of agricultural product supplier a to distributor B

Each node of the blockchain is responsible for finding and verifying the workload of the agricultural product transaction information between each two transaction nodes, ensuring that the transaction information in the vast majority of the certification nodes remains the final consistency and reach a consensus, and after the final confirmation is correct, it is saved in the blockchain. Therefore, only when the next customer’s agricultural product order information data arrives, can the smart contract continue to unlock the blockchain for the next block ledger data recording. 3.2

Back End of Cross-Border E-commerce Logistics Traceability System for Agricultural Products

In China, consumer e purchases agricultural products from distributor B through ecommerce platform G. At this time, when the agricultural products are delivered from the bonded warehouse F, the corresponding delivery time is recorded on the block. When the domestic logistics company D is loading, the information of the logistics company and the corresponding consumer pick-up information such as address and telephone should be recorded in detail in the block. The transaction between the distributor B and the consumer e is usually conducted in the e-commerce network platform g. in order to ensure that the information of @@consumer e’s agricultural products is not recognized by outsiders and the agricultural products are lost, the corresponding asymmetric encryption algorithm technology of blockchain should be embedded in the e-commerce platform G. How to make encryption technology in the case of no trust consensus participating nodes (that is, in cross-border e-commerce logistics, there is no trust condition between the two sides of the transaction), so that more than half of the cross-border logistics nodes in the transaction can agree to the progress of the node data, and store it in each node according to the specific distributed structure of the node data [9]. The problem can be formalized into a mathematical expression similar to the Byzantine general problem: In the blockchain system, the set of all agricultural cross-border logistics nodes is represented by X; the single agricultural cross-border logistics node is represented by

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PX; all transaction data is represented by P; consensus agricultural cross-border logistics node set is represented by W; then the number of each agricultural crossborder logistics node is f0; 1;    ; jWj  1g; single agricultural cross-border Logistics node is represented by CN; data storage logistics node set is represented by c; The cross-border logistics point of a single agricultural product is represented by DT. Each agricultural cross-border logistics node PX in X sends a transaction P, which is transmitted to the consensus node set W of agricultural cross-border logistics through P2P network. Because there is not a central logistics node (i.e. the blockchain mentioned above is not centralized) and the logistics consensus nodes do not trust each other, in order to reach a consensus, the nodes must exchange information and verify each other [10]. If the transaction data sent by consensus node CNi in the cross-border e-commerce logistics dynamic line of agricultural products to other logistics nodes is Pi , the logistics node receives the transaction vector VTðT1 ; T2 ;    ; Ti Þ sent by other logistics nodes, and the module jVT j  jWj  1 of the vector, our goal is to design a function f and algorithm p, so that T ¼ f ðT0 ; T1 ;    Ti Þ 

Store Discard

pðTÞ ¼ true pðTÞ ¼ false

ð1Þ ð2Þ

In this case, the final consensus result obtained by the function consensus node is equal to the original transaction information. If a transaction is recognized by most nodes in the cross-border logistics moving line of agricultural products, the algorithm result is true, otherwise it is false and the current transaction is abandoned. However, if the consensus node in the cross-border logistics of agricultural products has malicious nodes, deliberately tampering with the transaction data will cause the problem of “double consumption”. Therefore, this paper divides the consensus nodes in the cross-border logistics of agricultural products into three categories, namely, w1 , w2 , wev , the first two are benign nodes, the second one is malicious nodes. If the transaction vector of w1 received wev is VT2!1 and the transaction vector of wev received is VTev!1 , our function f and algorithm p must meet the following conditions: 

VT2!1 ¼ f ðVT2!1 ; VTev!1 Þ Store

VTev!1 6¼ True

ð3Þ

Node CNi can identify which transactions are illegal and which transactions are legal without a central node, and store the legal transactions in the blockchain database as the execution result of the number of lines, while the illegal transactions cannot be executed at any time. Through the above algorithm, we know that the asymmetric encryption technology can make the transaction recognized by most nodes in the cross-border e-commerce logistics moving line of agricultural products and then recorded, thus ensuring the security of information transmission [11].

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In addition, the algorithm can also be embedded in the e-commerce platform g, through which the public key of consumer e is obtained and the express delivery information is encrypted and sent to consumer E. When the agricultural products arrive, consumer e can use the private key to unlock through the platform, thus ensuring the security of agricultural product information transmission.

4 Conclusions Blockchain technology is bringing significant innovation to all walks of life. It originates from fast virtual payment and serves for virtual transaction of network ecommerce, which is the most appropriate evaluation of blockchain. With the rapid development of cross-border e-commerce, blockchain technology will create a new ecological environment for cross-border e-commerce logistics with its characteristics. Although in the field of logistics, blockchain technology has broad prospects. However, because blockchain technology is still in the early stage of development, it is more applied in the financial field than logistics. Therefore, when logistics managers make decisions, they should carefully consider that blockchain technology is both a challenge and an opportunity. In the application of blockchain technology to the traceability of cross-border e-commerce logistics of agricultural products, this paper hopes to make a contribution with a small force. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the grants from Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Centre of Agricultural E-commerce (Wuhan Donghu University research [2019] No. 17 Document) and Youth Foundation WuHan Donghu University in 2019 “Research on Traceability System Construction of Quality and Safety of E-commerce Agricultural Products from the Perspective of Blockchain”.

References 1. Feng, X., Wang, Z.: Blockchain and e-commerce logistics reconstruction. China’s Natl. Cond. Natl. Strength 11, 9–12 (2019). (in Chinese) 2. Chen, S.: Discussion on the development path of cross-border e-commerce logistics in China from the perspective of blockchain. Financ. Econ. 16, 119–121 (2019). (in Chinese) 3. Wei, H., Chang, R., Rui, C.: The symbiotic development of rural e-commerce and logistics from the perspective of blockchain technology. Bus. Econ. Res. 6, 118–121 (2019). (in Chinese) 4. Sun, B., He, L.: Countermeasures for the development of cross-border e-commerce logistics based on blockchain technology-taking the comprehensive cross-border e-commerce pilot area of Jinpu new area in Dalian as an example. Intelligence 4, 226–228 (2019). (in Chinese) 5. Li, T., Yan, Z.: Application of blockchain technology in e-commerce logistics industry. Logist. Eng. Manag. 40(5), 73–74 (2018). (in Chinese) 6. Chen, Y., Bellavitis, C.: Blockchain disruption and decentralized finance: the rise of decentralized business models. J. Bus. Ventur. Insights 13, 15–23 (2020) 7. Venkatesh, V.G., Kang, K., Wang, B., Zhong, R.Y., Zhang, A.: System architecture for blockchain based transparency of supply Chain social sustainability. Robot. Comput.-Integr. Manuf. 63, 38–53 (2020)

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8. Van Cutsem, O., Ho Dac, D., Boudou, P., Kayal, M.: Cooperative energy management of a community of smart-buildings: a blockchain approach. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 117, 108–113 (2020) 9. Cheng, Z., Liu, S.: Petri net modeling and analysis of e-commerce cold chain traceability system in blockchain. Enterp. Econ. 1, 48–55 (2020). (in Chinese) 10. Wu, J.: Research on supply chain management of autonomous fresh food e-commerce based on blockchain technology. J. Dali Univ. 5(1), 123–128 (2020). (in Chinese) 11. Xi, T.: Analysis of the third party logistics operation mode of cross-border e-commerce. Mod. Salt Chem. Ind. 47(1), 96–97 (2020). (in Chinese)

Express Delivery Services Customer Satisfaction Based on PLS_SEM Huali Cai1, Xuemei Wei2(&), Fang Wu1, Yanjun Gu1, and Ning Zhang1 1

2

Quality Research Branch, China National Institute of Standardization, Beijing, China National Science Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China [email protected]

Abstract. China has grown into the fastest growing and most dynamic emerging express delivery market in the world. The paper puts forward a PLS_SEM method to calculate the customer satisfaction of the express delivery companies. Through an investigation in 50 cities, the authors conclude that company’s brand and service quality are key influence factors in consumer satisfaction. Company CC gets the best customer satisfaction, while BB and FF get the lowest result. Customers prefer the product integrity, ease of ordering, overall image and scope of delivery. They give the worst experience in the service characteristics. Keywords: Consumer satisfaction

 Express delivery services  PLS_SEM

1 Introduction China has grown into the fastest growing and most dynamic emerging express delivery market in the world. The volume of parcel deliveries exceeds the sum of developed countries such as the US, Japan and Europe, contributing more than 50% to the growth of the global express delivery industry. In 2019, China’s express delivery enterprises completed 63.52 billion pieces of business, up 25.3 percent year-on-year. Business revenue totaled 749.78 billion yuan, up 24.2 percent year-on-year. However, the quality of express delivery is not matched with the rapid scale growth. Therefore, this paper tries to master the service quality by the way of customer satisfaction in express delivery industry. PLS_SEM method was used to evaluate customer satisfaction. Some scholars have carried out relevant studies in the past. Li Xiao-Ping analyzed the influence of online stores on the quality of express delivery service from the aspect of customer satisfaction [1]. Kujiraoka Tokuhiro proposed a method to decompose review data and extract topics to identify delivery-related expressions [2]. Liu Shujun’s goal was to use the Kano model to find out what factors influence consumers’ satisfaction with the “last mile” service [3]. Wang Yunrui established an evaluation model of express customer satisfaction, which included 1 first grade index, 6 s grade indices, 15 third grade indices [4]. The classification algorithm based on decision tree theory and probability model were used to evaluate customer satisfaction [5]. Lucini Filipe R. used text mining to mine online customer reviews to find out the dimensions of airline © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 112–116, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_17

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customer satisfaction [6]. Leong Lai-Ying combined SERVPERF with semi-artificial neural network predictive analysis method to provide a new perspective [7]. Li Yike constructed an evaluation model of customer satisfaction and calculated customer satisfaction with questionnaire survey combined with analytic hierarchy process [8]. Liu Xiaohong proposed an e-commerce CSI model based on fuzzy technology and a method to calculate CSI [9]. Sangkon Park applied the theory of behavioral economics to evaluate aspects related to tourist satisfaction and overall city impression [10]. However, different from the above studies, this paper proposed a PLS_SEM based method to evaluate customer satisfaction service industry.

2 Customer Satisfaction Model To be first, a PLS_SEM model is built, which is show in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. PLS_SEM conceptual model

Where, circle and rectangle represent latent variables and observation variables respectively. The arrows indicate the relationship of influence and the direction of influence. And the PLS method is shown as follows: g ¼ Bg þ Cn þ f

ð1Þ

In the model, g and n represent endogenous and exogenous latent variables respectively. B is the correlation between endogenous potential variables; C is the relationship between two kinds of latent variables; f represents the unexplained factor.

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Then, the following mathematical equation is obtained: X ¼ Kx n þ d

ð2Þ

Y ¼ Ky g þ e

ð3Þ

Where, X and Y are vectors composed of exogenous index and endogenous index; Kx reflects the relationship and Ky reflects the interaction between different variables. The customer satisfaction model of express delivery services was built based on the SEM, which has been proved effective (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Customer satisfaction model

The model consists of six structural variables, which are brand image, expected quality, perceived quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty.

3 Results We investigated 6 companies (the names were substituted for privacy by AA, BB…). We collected questionnaires from 50 cities in China, and each company got about 250 valid questionnaires. Then, the customer satisfaction model and PLS_SEM were used to calculate, and the results of the potential variables were shown in Table 1.

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Table 1. The results of the 6 companies Latent variables

Overall Influence coefficient Brand image 75.75 0.70 Expected quality 76.73 0.25 Perceived quality 76.69 0.63 Perceived value 74.61 0.07 Customer Satisfaction 76.37 Customer loyalty 77.92

AA

BB

CC

DD

EE

FF

75.98 76.67 77.30 75.55 76.55 77.56

75.95 75.75 76.35 73.55 75.82 77.29

76.66 77.48 77.67 75.32 77.54 80.13

74.74 75.79 75.78 73.41 75.88 77.35

75.82 77.59 76.78 74.70 76.55 77.74

75.28 77.14 76.34 75.16 75.82 77.42

As can be seen from Table 1, brand and service quality have a significant impact on consumer satisfaction. In the six companies, the overall impact coefficient of brand image and perceived quality is 0.70 and 0.63, respectively. Expected quality and perceived value are not important to the customer, with an impact coefficient of 0.25 and 0.07, respectively. So more and more customers pay attention to brand and service quality, they pay less attention to the price. Through the calculated results, company CC gets the best customer satisfaction score, which indicates CC is the favorite express company. Company BB and FF get the lowest result, which means customer didn’t have good experience. From the Table 2, several key observable variables results are shown. Through all the variables, the product integrity, ease of ordering, overall image and scope of delivery get the higher result. However, customers don’t like the service characteristics. Maybe all the companies provide homogeneous services, which should be paid more attention. We can also see the result of each company on each variable, which can be taken as the important data for management decision support. Table 2. Several observable variables results Observable variables Overall Influence coefficient Overall image 77.20 0.37 Service characteristic 74.15 0.33 On time situation 76.46 0.08 Product integrity 77.84 0.08 Business scope 75.76 0.08 Service attitude 75.89 0.08 Distribution program 75.78 0.08 Ease of ordering 77.60 0.08 Scope of delivery 76.80 0.07

AA

BB

CC

DD

EE

FF

78.00 73.87 77.27 78.70 76.80 75.54 76.12 77.79 77.70

76.89 74.72 75.79 76.60 75.57 74.76 75.88 77.14 78.24

77.16 76.08 77.64 79.19 75.81 77.75 77.88 78.24 75.90

76.24 73.14 75.94 76.78 73.82 75.52 74.36 77.03 76.47

78.63 73.02 76.25 77.95 76.91 76.05 75.64 77.82 76.50

76.29 74.09 75.85 77.81 75.66 75.75 74.80 77.57 75.97

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4 Conclusion Based on PLS_SEM, we built a customer satisfaction model of express service and calculated the result of 6 companies. We found that brand and service quality are key factors in consumer satisfaction. Company CC gets the best customer satisfaction, while BB and FF get the lowest result. Customers prefer the product integrity, ease of ordering, overall image and scope of delivery. They give the worst experience in the service characteristics. All companies can taken the results as the important data for management decision support. Acknowledgments. This work is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China under Grants No. 2017YFF0206504, the National Social Science Fund Major Project (Research on Quality Governance System and Policy to Promote High Quality Development), No. 18ZDA079.

References 1. Xiao-Ping, L., Mei-Lu, L.: Service quality of online shops and express impact on customer satisfaction - Under E-commerce environment. In: 11th International Conference on Service Systems and Service Management, ICSSSM, 2014 2. Kujiraoka, T., Fumiaki, S., Syohei, I.: Extraction of customer satisfaction topics regarding product delivery using non-negative matrix factorization. In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, pp. 225–229 (2017) 3. Liu, S., Li, Y., Huang, J., Zhao, X.: Understanding the consumer satisfaction of the “lastmile” delivery of E-business services. FIP Adv. Inf. Commun. Technol. 546, 411–418 (2019) 4. Wang, Y.: Establish the evaluation model of express customer satisfaction. Energy Educ. Sci. Technol. Part A: Energy Sci. Res. 32(6), 6149–6156 (2014) 5. Nicolini, G., Salini, S.: Customer satisfaction in the airline industry: The case of British airways. Qual. Reliab. Eng. Int. 22(5), 581–589 (2006) 6. Lucini, F.R., Tonetto, L.M., Fogliatto, F.S., Anzanello Michel, J.: Text mining approach to explore dimensions of airline customer satisfaction using online customer reviews. J. Air Transp. Manag. 83, 1–12 (2020) 7. Leong, L.-Y., Hew, T.-S., Lee, V.-H., Ooi, K.-B.: An SEM-artificial-neural-network analysis of the relationships between SERVPERF, customer satisfaction and loyalty among low-cost and full-service airline. Expert. Syst. Appl. 42(19), 6620–6634 (2015) 8. Li, Y.-K., Xiong, Y.: The customer satisfaction assessment research of YTO Express Wuchang Branch. In: International Conference on Management and Service Science, MASS, 2011 9. Liu, X., Zeng, X., Xu, Y., Koehl, L.: A fuzzy model of customer satisfaction index in ecommerce. Math. Comput. Simul. 77(5–6), 512–521 (2008) 10. Sangkon, P., Sowon, H., Taehun, L., Minji, J.: Two factor model of consumer satisfaction: International tourism research. Tour. Manag. 67, 82–88 (2018)

Expectation to the Accounting Personnel Under the Information Background Xiuqing Wang(&) Fuzhou University of International Studies and Trade, Fuzhou, China [email protected]

Abstract. Along with rapid development of the new science and technology such as information technology, Internet of things, big data, artificial intelligence, mobile Internet, cloud computing, and the block chain, audit talents are facing the profound changes and challenges. The traditional audit talents is not capable for the Internet and large data under the current background. The supply and demand contradiction in the audit industry is increasingly outstanding. This paper is going to use the questionnaire survey, to investigate the talent demand of audit employers and the current situation of talent training in colleges and universities. It is going to set up some suggestion from the perspective of service quality gap model. Keywords: Big Data

 Audit Talent Expectation  5GAP Model

1 Introduction With the integration of big data, information and other elements in audit work, the professional competence requirements of audit talents have endured great changes [1]. Information age is driving the transformation of educational form and school form [2]. At present, the main contradiction is that it is difficult for a large number of audit graduates to find a job, but the audit employers feel qualified, professional audit personnel overall supply is insufficient or the degree of specialization is not enough [3]. There is a big gap between the quality of audit talents cultivated by colleges and universities and the expectation of employers. This paper analyzes the gap 1 in the 5GAP model by means of data collation and questionnaire survey from the perspective of employers and universities, and puts forward some Suggestions to bridge the gap [4].

2 The Survey and Analysis Based on the 5GAP Model 2.1

Design of Service Quality Gap Model for Training Audit Talents in Colleges and Universities

As shown in Fig. 1, the core gap in the model is the gap between talent expectation (ES) and employee perception (PS) services in the audit industry, namely the gap 5 in the figure. To cover this gap, it is necessary to close the other four gaps: Gap 1—do not © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 117–122, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_18

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understand the expectations of the employer, that is, the information asymmetry gap; Gap 2—failure to select the right talent training program and training standards; Gap 3 —the cultivated talents fails to meet the expected standards; Gap 4—talent transfer and external commitment do not match.

Fig. 1. Service quality gap model of cultivating audit talents in colleges and universities (5GAP model)

2.2

Research Design

The paper will compare and analyze the gap between universities and employers in the expectation of audit talents through questionnaires. This questionnaire was conducted anonymously. A total of 300 questionnaires were issued by universities, and 279 valid questionnaires were recovered, which was in line with the research needs. 200 copies of questionnaires were sent to the employer, including accounting firm partners, annual audit project manager, special audit project manager, general auditors, staff of some local audit institutions and staff of some enterprise internal audit departments. A total of 154 copies of valid questionnaires were collected. 2.3 2.3.1

Gap Analysis

Gap Analysis in the Evaluation of the Importance of Profession Competence As shown in Fig. 2, both sides believe that audit professional competence is the most important and indispensable component. But combined with statistical analysis, it is found that employ company bear high importance towards the practical ability than colleges and universities, with more than 13% higher. This should be the refinement of daily audit project division and each person is responsible for the work area relatively fixed and familiar with. In daily auditing work, a lot of work is repetitive, the value evaluation tends to prefer the skilled people that have worked in specific module. They think practical operation ability is the final result of knowledge transformation [5].

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Respondents in colleges and universities have received comprehensive training in professional basic knowledge and other relevant knowledge, but lack of experience in audit practice, since they believe that relevant theoretical knowledge is the most important. This survey also reveals that college educators are separated from the actual status of audit work to some extent, and their teaching tends to be more theoretical than practical, so students tend to have high expectations and low capabilities in real work.

Fig. 2. Evaluation of the importance of professional competence

2.3.2 Difference Analysis in the Evaluation of the Information Thinking As shown in Fig. 3, the cognitive gap analysis of the importance of information-based thinking is obviously considered much more important from the perspective of the employer. The reason may be that the employer is in the front line of the market competition, and it is much more sensitive to the changes in the industry brought by big data and information in recent years. Most of the audit objects have realized ERP management [6], and it is believed that ERP management ability and big data thinking are the basic requirements and inevitable trend of development [7]. However, colleges and universities think that computer is only general knowledge, and the purpose of teaching and learning is mainly to pass the computer rank examination, and they do not pay special attention to the computer knowledge the students have mastered, and whether their capabilities can match the needs of the auditing industry and the degree of learning is enough. 2.3.3 Gap Analysis in the Evaluation of the Information Efficiency As shown in Fig. 4, about the information efficiency, many people in colleges and universities think it is not very important, while over 87% of employers consider that it is of high importance. There is a huge gap between them in this survey project. To conclude, the employer believes that information, computer-aided audit can greatly improve the efficiency of the audit [8], so that the computer is one of the necessary work ability [9]; Computer aided audit and information system audit are the inevitable trend of future audit in information society [10], those who bear this capability can take the work.

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Fig. 3. Evaluation of information thinking

Fig. 4. Evaluation of information efficiency

3 Conclusion and Suggestion 3.1

Conclusion

Both sides stands close to the professional ability and the importance of development of cognitive, while they bear certain gap in the information thinking and the information efficiency of the importance of cognitive. This caused the information asymmetry in the demand for audit talents. This also directly cause of colleges and universities in cultivating talents in the practical work of audit professional competence is not enough, leading to the talent supply and demand contradiction; This kind of

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training deviation also results in some of the gaudy audit talent, lack of willingness to down-to-earth. The professional quality that needs accumulated work is also the reason that caused the asymmetry phenomenon in the graduated university. 3.2

Suggestion

3.2.1 Learning from the advanced experience of foreign audit education and international standards, combining with the employment situation of the domestic audit industry, and in the means of policy guidance, the academic research on audit education is continuously deepened, and the research results are popularized and applied to the guidance of audit practice. We should change the habit of focusing on theoretical research of audit education only and encourage the research on the system and practice of audit education. 3.2.2 Make full use of the Internet and big data information that can brought high value. Construct the audit professional human resource management platform and then apply the results of big data in demand in the formulation of strategy and scheme and through the platform, with colleges and universities, the auditees, regulators and other stakeholders of information sharing and resource sharing, targeted training audit talents. 3.2.3 Expand interdisciplinary courses and rebuild the curriculum system. Increase the proportion of class hours of strategic management, organizational behavior, innovation management and other courses and improve their assessment requirements. The courses of data structure are added to cultivate students’ knowledge of data structure and enhance their ability of data analysis. Increase the training of computer programming, data mining algorithms, financial decision-making and strategic management knowledge. In the teaching process, a variety of commercial scenes are built, a new big data + cloud computing comprehensive teaching and experimental platform is constructed, so as to improve students’ comprehensive ability, forward-looking and innovative thinking, and enhance their ability to adapt to the new technological environment and market competitiveness. 3.2.4 Highly attention paid to international perspective. In-depth understanding of the current domestic economic development direction, business model change and management model needs, this should be based on understanding the domestic needs and the international requirements. Failures to understand the international needs can not truly comprehend the domestic situation. We have to understand the international differences under the institutional background and key factors, so as to better training local talents in China.

References 1. Frey, C.B., Osborne, M.A.: The future of employment: how susceptible are jobs to computerisation? J. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 114, 254–280 (2017) 2. Richins, G., Stapleton, A., Stratopoulos, T.C., et al.: Big data analytics: opportunity or threat for the accounting profession?. J. Inf. Syst. 31(3), 63–79 (2017)

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3. Dzuranin, A.C., Jones, J.R., Olvera, R.M.: Infusing data analytics into the accounting curriculum: a framework and insights from faculty. J. Account. Educ. 43, 24–39 (2018) 4. Ali, A., Md., Lee, T.H., Mohamad, R., Ojo, M.: Internship and audit expectation gap among undergraduate students in Universiti Utara Malaysia. J. Financ. Report. Account. 6(1): 55– 74 (2008) 5. Crawford, L., Helliar, C., Monk, E.A.: Generic skills in audit education. Account. Educ. 20 (2), 115–131 (2011) 6. Schwertner, K.: Cloud computing as area of modern industry. J. Mod. Account. Audit. 8 (June): 907–913 (2012) 7. McKinney Jr., E., Yoos II, C.J., Snead, K.: The need for ‘skeptical’ accountants in the era of big data. J. Account. Educ. 38, 63–80 (2017) 8. Arsenie-Samoil, M.D.: Cloud accounting. Ovidius Univ. Ann., Econ. Sci. Ser. 2, 782–787 (2011) 9. Carillo, K.D.A.: Let’s stop trying to be ‘sexy’—preparing managers for the(big) data-driven business era. Bus. Process. Manag. J. 3, 598–622 (2017) 10. Mohammadi, S., Mohammadi, A.: Effect of cloud computing in accounting and comparison with the traditional model. Res. J. Financ. Account. 23, 104–114 (2014). (in Chinese)

Brand Strategy Management of Agricultural Products Based on Information Age Chunming Liu(&) College of Business Administration, Jilin Engineering Normal University, Changchun, Jilin, People’s Republic of China [email protected]

Abstract. The industrial structure of agricultural products (AP) is not perfect. If we want to realize the sustainable development of AP, it is not enough to rely on the traditional management methods of farmers and enterprises. To establish brand strategic management for AP is the driving force for sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to study the brand strategic management of AP based on the information age. First of all, using the theoretical products of informatization as the theoretical basis, this paper studies the general relationship between informatization and agricultural product brand, and then through the questionnaire survey and data analysis of 400 citizens, summarizes the problems existing in the construction of agricultural product brand in a university base. The experimental results show that according to the survey of consumers’ satisfaction with the price of AP in a university base, the data collection shows that 43.76% of the consumers are dissatisfied with the price of AP in the base, 32.68% are generally satisfied, 18.5% are satisfied, and only 5.1% are very satisfied. Agricultural enterprises should strengthen cooperation with universities and scientific research institutes, and actively connect with agricultural high-tech projects to accelerate the transformation of agricultural scientific. Keywords: Information theory  Agricultural product brand  Product quality  Agricultural production modernization

1 Introduction China’s per capita national income has been increasing, and consumer demand has been upgrading, which has brought unprecedented business opportunities to the development of domestic AP brands. The level of people’s income has been continuously improved, and the consumption structure has changed significantly [1, 2]. However, there are few famous AP in the market, and the content of scientific is relatively low [3, 4]. The producers, processors and operators of AP lack the concept of agricultural product brand, and the awareness of technological innovation of agricultural product brand is weak [5, 6]. Therefore, let technological innovation enter into the brand strategy of AP, strengthen the brand strategy of AP with scientific and technological innovation, enhance the brand strategy, strengthen the brand quality of AP, and solve the contradictions in the brand strategy of AP [7, 8]. We should implement the © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 123–129, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_19

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leading strategy of scientific and technological innovation, actively purchase new products, new technologies and new equipment, improve the market competitiveness of enterprises, let technological innovation support the brand building of AP, make use of technological innovation to improve the brand strategy of AP, let technological innovation strengthen the marketing of AP, and the government should strengthen the support of technological innovation in the use of AP brands, so as to make technological innovation become new brand strategy of AP plays a greater role [9, 10]. Gustavo A used evolutionary game model to analyze the cooperative behavior of processing enterprises. The results show that: (1) the cooperative behavior of processing enterprises is closely related to the conversion coefficient of cost-benefit, and the conversion coefficient is different. The cooperative behavior of processing enterprises is also closely related to the additional income of free riding behavior, if the additional income is high, It will reduce the enthusiasm of enterprises to maintain quality; 3) with the increase of quality maintenance cost, the cooperative behavior of processing enterprises will appear different evolutionary stable equilibrium. Within different allocation proportion, the behavior decision of production enterprises will often experience the opposite evolutionary game [11]. Brand building plays an increasingly important role in the marketing and competition of modern agricultural industry. WANG Qiang’s research showed that there are some problems in the brand construction of Hainan Tropical characteristic AP, such as low brand awareness, weak core competitiveness, strengthening declaration and neglecting management, and imperfect marketing system. Therefore, we should pay attention to resource integration, develop famous brand products, strengthen technological innovation, and enhance the core competitiveness of enterprises [12, 13]. The innovation of research content, for brand and brand building of AP, most of the research is based on the background of brand. The role of agricultural and forestry colleges and researchers in brand building of AP is not reflected. Based on the actual situation of a university base, relying on a large number of substantial investigation and interview data, this paper explores a new path of brand building of AP in mountainous areas of a province through the promotion of University researchers. The development level of a university base is uneven. Through contact with specific objects, field visits to more than 20 research bases and interviews with more than 150 people, empathy is used to get a lot of descriptive information in chat, which more comprehensively reflects the existing problems in brand building of AP in a university base, and is conducive to researchers to put forward corresponding improvement programs.

2 Proposed Method 2.1

Information Theory

Informatization is an ideal state of high application of information technology and high sharing of information resources, which makes people’s intellectual potential and social material resources fully developed, and rationalizes personal behavior. At the same time, informatization is also a continuous process of IT industry development and it

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diffusion in all sectors of social economy. It is constantly used to transform the traditional economic and social structure into the above ideal state. 2.2

General Relationship Between Informatization and Brand of AP

Informatization and brand of AP are two concepts, but they have an inseparable important relationship. Informatization is organically integrated in the process of brand building of AP. The materiality of agricultural product brand needs the equipment media in each link of agricultural management to produce, and the materiality of informatization is embodied in these equipment media, so as to achieve the integration of informatization and agricultural product brand materiality. 2.3

Combination of Informatization and Brand of AP

In the development of modern agriculture, using modern computer information communication technology, taking the Internet as the carrier, relying on the brand information database of AP, the brand-new information management process of modern agricultural product brand business management, which combines the production and sales of AP, brand identification and brand strategy, is established. The application of technology in the construction of traditional agricultural brand and innovation can reduce the operating cost of agricultural brand development, expand the scope of sales, enhance the connotation of AP, improve the popularity of AP, and make it across the time and space constraints, combat and avoid the duplication and counterfeiting of brands, improve the quality service of brands and the awareness of consumers, and enhance the comprehensive competition of agricultural brands. Informatization promotes the development of brand, and informatization also promotes the development of AP. The effective combination of information technology and brand building of AP can make the brand AP better move to the competitive market.

3 Experiments 3.1

Selection of Respondents

Based on the current situation of brand construction of AP in a university base, this paper investigates the brand awareness, product quality and product pricing satisfaction of AP in the base. The total number of questionnaires was 400, 338 of which were valid. The effective recovery rate was 84.5%. The questionnaire was distributed to teachers and students of Agricultural University, fruit stores, fruit supermarkets, vendors of AP, relevant staff and tourists of the base, etc. The scope of the questionnaire includes two parts: inside and outside the province. In order to enhance the reliability of the sample, we take into account the different age groups and income groups in the questionnaire.

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Investigation Content Design

First of all, with regard to the survey of brand awareness of AP, the core question of the questionnaire is whether you think the market share of AP of a certain brand is very high and whether it is often mentioned. Second, with regard to the survey of agricultural product quality, the main questions involved are “you think the taste and taste of brand AP are very good, and AP have obtained green certification, organic certification and pollution-free certification” Investigators can also choose from 1-3 to agree with this question. 1: Disagree, 2: basically agree, 3: totally agree. Finally, the survey on the satisfaction of pricing of AP mainly involves the following questions: “do you think the pricing of brand AP is consistent with the market pricing, and whether you are satisfied with the pricing of brand AP?” the respondents answered the four levels of this question. 1: Dissatisfied, 2: basically satisfied, 3: satisfied, 4: very satisfied.

4 Discussion 4.1

Improve the Quality of AP by Informatization

If the AP in the base can not receive the timely guidance of Agricultural University researchers in planting, fertilization, pruning and other technical aspects, some farmers will spray the AP in order to promote the sales of AP. After entering the circulation field, the quality and taste of AP will show obvious differences. Coupled with the imperfect monitoring and tracking system of enterprises, the brand image of AP is always facing challenges War. From the perspective of the respondents’ understanding of the quality of AP in the Agricultural University base, consumers have doubts about the quality of AP, and have doubts about whether the AP are certified with “three products and one standard” (green food certification, pollution-free AP certification, organic AP certification and AP geographical indication certification), and the frequency of disapproval is significantly higher than that of approval. The detailed statistical results are shown in Table 1. The brand of AP is the embodiment of green, organic and pollution-free food, which is a complex of high-quality AP. The region should establish a perfect standardized production system of AP. 4.2

Promote the Modernization of Agricultural Production with Informatization

According to the survey of consumers’ satisfaction with the price of AP in the Agricultural University base in the questionnaire, it is found that 43.76%, 32.68%, 18.5% and 5.1% of the residents are not satisfied with the price of AP in the three combined bases. On the whole, consumers think that the price of AP in Agricultural University base is on the high side, which is inconsistent with its pricing position in consumers’ mind. The specific price satisfaction of brand AP is shown in Fig. 1. In the process of sending out the questionnaire, the respondents reflected that the quality of AP in the base is indeed good, such as the crisp taste and good-looking

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Table 1. Questionnaire on the quality of AP in three combined bases Problem

Option

You buy brand AP with good taste

Disagree (1) Basic approval (2) Fully agree (3) Disagree (1) Basic approval (2) Fully agree (3) Disagree (1) Basic approval (2) Fully agree (3) Disagree (1) Basic approval (2) Fully agree (3)

Your brand of AP tastes good

You buy brand AP with high nutritional value

Your purchase of brand AP has passed relevant certification

Frequency number 174 89

Frequency percentage 54.54% 27.89%

56

18.42%

128 106

40.12% 33.22%

85

26.64%

102 156

31.27% 48.90%

61

19.12%

146 109

45.76% 34.16%

64

20.06%

50.00%

43.76%

40.00%

32.68%

30.00% 18.50%

20.00% 10.00%

5.10%

0.00%

Very satisfied

General satisfaction

Basic satisfaction

Dissatisfied

Fig. 1. Respondents’ satisfaction with the price of brand AP

appearance of apples, but compared with other apples on the market, the price is more than twice as high, which is difficult for consumers to accept. There are always reasons for the price of each product. Most of the time, these reasons are not important. How to make consumers believe and accept the price is very important. Consumers’ dissatisfaction with the pricing of AP restricts the growth of the

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base brand consumers of AP, and it is also a key factor that affects the transition of AP from gifts to consumer market. The relevant sales personnel of the base shall pay attention to the price fluctuation of the agricultural product market in time, instead of blindly pursuing high pricing, and formulate the price matching the product cost. The pricing strategy of Fugang brand is not completely suitable for the sales of AP in each base. Enterprises should understand that the pricing strategy of AP is directly related to the market sales of AP. If the product pricing is not reasonable, it will hinder the brand construction of AP to a large extent. Agricultural enterprises should actively connect with agricultural high-tech projects to accelerate the transformation of agricultural scientific and technological achievements, improve the internal quality of AP, and pay attention to the research and development of new products with high-tech content.

5 Conclusions Through the study of AP, this paper laid the foundation for the study of brand building of AP. Based on the theory of brand building of AP and the theory of information technology, and based on the actual situation of Agricultural University base, this paper analyzes the problems of brand building of AP and its influencing factors, and puts forward a series of suggestions to solve the problems. Adhere to the combination of theory and practice, in addition to on-the-spot interview and investigation of Agricultural University base, and the questionnaire survey and data analysis of 400 citizens, summed up the problems of Agricultural University base in brand building of AP.

References 1. Nowacki, M., Nowacka, K., Kloskowski, T.: Are agricultural and natural sources of bioproducts important for modern regenerative medicine? A review. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 24(2), 207–212 (2017) 2. Tang, X.-L.: Research on the personalized product strategy of N brand based on consumer survey. J. Beijing Inst. Cloth. Technol. 38(1), 60–65 (2018) 3. Vahabzadeh, A., Vatanpour, H., Dinarvand, R.: Impact of corporate reputation on brand segmentation strategy: An empirical study from Iranian pharmaceutical companies. Iran. J. Pharm. Sci. 13(1), 87–104 (2017) 4. Puente-Díaz, R.: Using international sport events as part of a brand construction strategy: The case of the destination brand Mexico. Int. J. Sport. Mark. Spons. 19(2), 00–00 (2018) 5. Huertas-García, R., Lengler, J., Consolación-Segura, C.: Co-branding strategy in causerelated advertising: the fit between brand and cause. J. Prod. & Brand. Manag. 26(2), 135– 150 (2017) 6. Ghose, S., Heiman, A., Lowengart, O.: Isolating strategy effectiveness of brands in an emerging market: A choice modeling approach. J. Brand. Manag. 24(2), 1–17 (2017) 7. Abratt, E., Mingione, M.: Corporate identity, strategy and change. J. Brand. Manag. 24(2), 1–11 (2017) 8. Ying, C.: Rewriting in English-Chinese translation of brand names. Babel 63(2), 251–270 (2017)

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9. Hussein, Z., Wahid, N.A.: Game-mediated experience: Does brand exposure changing users’ attitudes? Adv. Sci. Lett. 23(1), 550–553 (2017) 10. Ming. JAC Motors Chairman An Jin: JAC aims to realize brand upgrading. China’s Foreign Trade 2, 26–28 (2017) 11. Mishra, S., Singh, S.N., Fang, X.: Impact of diversity, quality and number of brand alliance partners on the perceived quality of a new brand. J. Prod. & Brand. Manag. 26(2), 159–176 (2017) 12. María, G.A., Mazas, B., Zarza, F.J.: Animal welfare, national identity and social change: Attitudes and opinions of spanish citizens towards bullfighting. J. Agric. & Environ. Ethics 30(1), 809–826 (2017) 13. Qiang, WANG: Agricultural products processing characteristics and quality evaluation. J. Integr. Agric. 17(5), 975–976 (2018)

A Brief Analysis of the Innovation of International Trade Methods Based on Network Economy Yushu Ding(&) College of Trade and Economics, Jilin Engineering Normal University, 3050Kaixuan Street, Changchun, China [email protected]

Abstract. The impact and influence of network economy on international trade is very great, which makes it face powerful development opportunities and challenges. Because of the explosive development of e-commerce has greatly changed the circulation mode of international trade; On the other hand, the extensive resource sharing of network database breaks through the time and space limitation of international trade exchange, and the organic combination of virtual market economy and real market economy not only promotes the prosperity of international trade, but also causes many problems. The purpose of this paper is to change the mode of the world economy from the traditional form to the modern model, make international trade more convenient and quick, and promote the market economy into the tide of network economy. By analyzing the application of network in international trade communication, this paper studies its influence on the development of international trade, and puts forward Suggestions and views on optimizing network technology to promote the development of international trade. The results show that the negative impact of network economy on international economy and trade exists for a long time, which requires the Chinese government and relevant departments to conduct indepth research on this, and then take relevant measures to avoid the negative impact of network economy, and finally realize the purpose of network economy promoting the sound development of China’s market economy. Keywords: Network economy  International trade International economy  New network environment

 Method innovation 

1 Introduction Now, internet technology has been gradually applied to various fields of social production and life, bringing great opportunities for the development of e-commerce. The rapid rise of network economy has also exerted a great influence on the development of traditional international economy and trade [1, 2]. The development of network economy is based on Internet technology. Although network economy plays a positive role in promoting the development of international economy and trade, its disadvantages also bring great challenges to the development of international economy and

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trade. So, how to avoid negative effects as far as possible and promote the stable development of Chinese economy [3, 4]. Under the current economic background, network economy has become an important part of China’s economic development, changing the traditional economic development mode of our country and bringing new vitality to the development of international economy and trade. However, restricted by factors such as network environment, the negative impact of network economy on the development of international economy and trade cannot be ignored [5, 6]. It can be seen from the development trend of e-commerce in recent years that China is increasingly relying on ecommerce, so we should objectively analyze and observe the influence of network economy on the development of international economy and trade [7]. First of all, the network economy provides the convenience for the international economic and trade development, saves the cost; Secondly, the hidden risks of network economy have a negative impact on the development of international economy and trade. In the network economy environment, how to avoid negative effects and promote the healthy development of China’s market economy is an urgent problem to be solved [8, 9]. On the basis of clarifying the specific performance of network economy’s influence on international economic development, this paper puts forward relevant strategic Suggestions on how to better play the role of network economy in promoting international economic development, so as to promote the sustainable, stable and healthy international economic development. As a modern economic form based on computer network platform, network economy makes full use of the characteristics of network interaction, rapid subjects and diversity, providing a smoother and richer channel for the development of economic activities among countries [10, 11]. However, the influence of network economy on international economic development is obviously two-sided. Therefore, while developing network economy, network economy should also be standardized to avoid the deep influence of unstable factors of this economic form on international economic development [12].

2 Method 2.1

Network Economy

Today, represented by modern communication technology with information technology is surprising and unpredictable to tamper with the speed of our survival and ways of life and the tamper with the deep quietly started with the idea of people, and has allowed the thought sprout into root extremely developed, nuclear power in endless seeds or roots in pregnant with new style and way of human existence and life. The traditional concept of survival and life space has changed, the information age has quietly arrived, people are unprepared. The core characteristic of the information age is to break through the limitation of time and space effectively. The traditional spatiotemporal concept in the market is greatly stimulated. Again, the nature of capital is well satisfied; The fulcrum of prosperity is getting bigger. Network economy is a new

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economic form based on computer network (especially Internet) and centered on modern information technology. It not only refers to the rise and rapid growth of information technology industry with computer as the core, but also includes the rise and rapid development of high-tech industry on the basis of modern computer technology, which is more caused by the promotion of high-tech. 2.2

The Formation of a New Environment for International Trade

With its unique advantages, the network economy creates a diversified market environment and market rules for international trade, breaks through the limitations of time and space, and realizes the modernization and new type of international trade. For example, the Internet breaks through the traditional national and regional boundaries, closely connects the world and realizes the concept of global village. The Internet has also freed itself from the shackles of time, enabling international trade to reduce the cost of time. The Internet has turned the world into a “global village”. As a result, geographic distance becomes irrelevant, and the spatial constraints of network-based economic activities are minimized, which greatly promotes the globalization of the whole economy and allocates resources more effectively on a global scale. As a result, interdependence among countries around the world has increased. With the support and promotion of network technology, a new mode of international trade has emerged: e-commerce. In the open network environment, through the Internet, online transactions among merchants, online electronic payment and various business activities, transaction activities, financial activities and related integrated service activities are a new business model.

3 Experiment This paper intends to use the social network analysis method to analyze the evolution of international fresh fruit trade pattern from 2004 to 2018, and then further explore the factors influencing fruit trade. In terms of the selection of countries in the fresh fruit trade network, this paper determined 49 countries on five continents as the target countries of the international fresh fruit trade study according to the GDP ranking of each continent in 2018. Through the United Nations commodity trade statistics database, the data of chapter 08 of the customs HS code of 49 countries from 2004 to 2018 were downloaded to construct the data matrix of 15 bilateral trade from 2004 to 2018, totaling 36,015 original trade data. Since the data value is large and the data volume is huge, the author preprocessed and assigned the data before the study, uniformly divided the original data into 10,000. According to the distribution of the processed trade data, the author assigned the data to a total of 6 intervals of 0–5, including  150 assigned value 5,  50 assigned value 4,  20 assigned value 3,  10 assigned value 2, >assigned value 1, =0 assigned value 0. In this study, the status of international fresh fruit trade network was grasped as a whole, and the development status of each node was investigated from the aspects of

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import and export, and the trade status of individual countries with significant changes and China was analyzed by combining index data. Secondly, in the form of plates, the changes of each country’s plate and each plate are analyzed. The QAP regression analysis method is adopted to analyze the factors influencing international fresh fruit trade by selecting geographical proximity, degree of fruit trade control, level of fruit trade tariff, geographical latitude zone, FTA relationship or not, and per capita GDP.

4 Analysis and Discussion 4.1

Network Density

Density is an indicator that describes the tightness of “relationships” between nodes in a social network, that is, the “actual number of relationships” divided by the “theoretical maximum number of relationships”. The whole interconnected network not only provides various social resources for individuals, but also becomes an important force restricting their development. The expression of the overall network density is: N P

Density ¼ W

i

INandOUT  ðdiW Þ

ð1Þ

NðN  1Þ

Where dW i is the weighted out degree and in degree of node I, and N is the number of nodes. The density of international fresh fruit trade data from 2004 to 2018 can be calculated as shown in Table 1:

Table 1. International fresh fruit trade network density table from 2004 to 2018 Time

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

The density of 0.8172 0.8512 0.8946 0.9188 0.9741 0.9915 1.0021 1.0599 Time 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 The density of 1.0731 1.1318 1.1688 1.1616 1.1922 1.2249 1.1824

Table 1 shows that the network graph of international fresh fruit trade in 2004 and 2018 shows that the number of connections between countries in the network graph has increased significantly compared with that in 2001, indicating that the number of trade relations among participating countries in the international fresh fruit trade network has increased significantly and the connections are more complex. The distance between relevant trading countries has been significantly shortened and the degree of aggregation between countries has been increased, indicating that the dependence between countries in the international fresh fruit trade network has become increasingly close.

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And international fresh fruit trade in 2004–2018 the overall network density increases from 0.817 to 1.182, the density value were 0.365 and 44.69%, of which 2001 international trade overall network density of fresh fruit for a minimum of 0.8172, the 2014 international fresh fruit trade as a whole network density at peak of 1.2249, the subprime crisis of 2007 and 2008 fresh fruit trade between the countries of the financial tsunami did not have much impact, during the international trade network density of fresh fruit to keep rising trend. Through the analysis of network density, it can be accurately seen that the network density of international fresh fruit trade is increasing year by year, and the trade relationship between countries is getting closer. From two perspectives, it can be concluded that the net density of international fresh fruit trade increased year by year from 2004 to 2018, and the fruit trade between participating countries became increasingly close and complicated. 4.2

Intermediate Center Degree of Fresh Fruit Trade in China from 2004 to 2018

As shown in Fig. 1, from the perspective of the value of the middle center, it decreased from 30.12 in 2004 to 27.567 in 2018, down by 2.553 and 8.48%. In 2008 and 2014, the median center value reached the highest point, respectively 36.617 and 39.338. On the whole, the value of China’s intermediate centrality has remained at a relatively stable level for 15 years. From the perspective of international ranking, China has risen from the ninth place in 2001 to the fourth place in 2015, and the overall ranking is on the rise. The best ranking in 2014 and 2017 ranked third. However, individual years, such as 2007, 2010 and 2015, fluctuate significantly. China’s ranking has improved significantly since 2010 and reached the fourth place in 2018. From the perspective of ranking, China has become one of the countries with strong influence in the international fruit trade, but its international position is not stable due to many influencing factors in the trade. From the perspective of the center degree among 2004–2018 in the United States, France, Britain, Germany, Canada, the western developed countries represented by always occupy first place in the international trade network of fresh fruit, controls the whole network, but as China, India, Indonesia, Egypt, Vietnam and other developing countries fruit trade unceasing development, the western developed countries to control the international trade in the network resources of fresh fruit degree of declining, preliminary established dominance is losing.

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45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

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2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Year Fig. 1 The center degree of China’s fresh fruit trade and its ranking change trend from 2004 to 2018

5 Conclusion To sum up, under the background of the Internet, the emergence of the network economy, as a modern economic form based on the computer network platform, makes full use of the characteristics of network interaction, swiftness and diversity of subjects, providing a more smooth and rich channel for the development of economic activities between countries. However, the influence of network economy on international economic development is obviously two-sided. Therefore, while developing the network economy, we should regulate the network economy to avoid the deep influence of the unstable factors of the economic form on the international economic development. The rapid development of network economy has a certain impact on international economy and trade, including positive and negative impacts. To explore the influence of network economy on international economy and trade in the development process, and to adopt targeted methods to regulate the negative influence of network economy on international economy and trade, is conducive to promoting the improvement of China’s economic development level.

References 1. Zhang, J., Qu, X., Sangaiah, A.K.: A study of green development mode and total factor productivity of the food industry based on the industrial internet of things. IEEE Commun. Mag. 56(5), 72–78 (2018) 2. Jiang, X., Guan, D.: The global CO2 emissions growth after international crisis and the role of international trade. Energy Policy 109, 734–746 (2017) 3. Terai, A.: International trade as an engine for sustainable development: the ITFC experience in supporting SMEs. Glob. Policy 8(3), 392–396 (2017)

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4. Mavroidis, P.C., Janow, M.E., Molina Tejeda, M.T.: The regulation of international trade: the GATT and the WTO agreements on trade in goods, volumes 1 and 2. World Trade Rev. 16(4), 766–771 (2017) 5. Hong, S., Oh, S.H., Sim, A.-G.: Imperfect labor mobility and the trickle-down effect in international trade. J. Korea Trade 22(1), 68–83 (2018) 6. Allen, E., Noseworthy, M., Ormsby, M.: Phytosanitary measures to reduce the movement of forest pests with the international trade of wood products. Biol. Invasions 11(9), 1–12 (2017) 7. Lovrić, M., Da Re, R., Vidale, E.: Social network analysis as a tool for the analysis of international trade of wood and non-wood forest products. For. Policy & Econ. 86(4), 45–66 (2018) 8. Andersson, F.N.G.: International trade and carbon emissions: the role of Chinese institutional and policy reforms. J. Environ. Manag. 205(1), 29–39 (2018) 9. Shadikhodjaev, S.: The “regionalism vs multilateralism” issue in international trade law: revisiting the Peru-agricultural products case. Chin. J. Int. Law 16(1), 109–123 (2017) 10. Worsnop, C.Z.: Domestic politics and the WHO’s international health regulations: Explaining the use of trade and travel barriers during disease outbreaks. Rev. Int. Organ. 12(7), 1–31 (2017) 11. Atanasov, V., Nitschka, T.: Firm size, economic risks, and the cross-section of international stock returns. N. Am.n J. Econ. & Financ. 39(2), 110–126 (2017) 12. Lorenz, D.: Die Neue Weltwirtschaftsordnung aus der Sicht der Industriestaatdebatte der Jahrhundertwende (The New International Economic Order as seen by the German “Industriestaat-Debatte” of the turn of the century). Jahrbücher Für Nationalökonomie Und Statistik 192(1), 36–54 (2017)

Financial Management Teaching Mode Based on MOOC Under the Background of Informatization Zhe Wang(&) Fuzhou University of International Studies and Trade, Fuzhou 350202, China [email protected]

Abstract. With the improvement of China’s informatization infrastructure and the widespread popularity of mobile Internet, various new teaching modes such as video public courses and online courses have brought tremendous changes and far-reaching effects to China’s higher education. MOOC is a high-quality online course learning platform in China. It is one of the products of the effectiveness of teaching reform in China. As an emerging teaching method, MOOC not only improves the limitations of traditional teaching models, but also breaks through the constraints of time and space, and achieves the widespread dissemination of high-quality teaching resources to a certain extent. This paper takes the auditing specialty of Fuzhou University of International Studies and Trade as an example, it analyzes the problems related to the teaching reform of financial management courses and proposes corresponding reform ideas from the perspective of MOOC curriculum construction. Keywords: Teaching reform

 Financial management  Teaching mode

1 Basic Overview of MOOC Teaching Mode 1.1

Features of MOOC Teaching Mode

MOOC is an online open course learning platform that has become very popular in China’s higher education sector in recent years [1]. Its goal is to give every student the opportunity to take the best or most popular video courses in China. The evaluation criteria for whether a course is widely recognized is mainly determined by a group of students. Therefore, such courses may come from top Chinese universities, such as Tsinghua University, Peking University; they may also come from ordinary universities, or even private universities, such as the Fuzhou University of International Studies and Trade. As an emerging teaching mode, MOOC mainly has two significant characteristics. First, MOOC is a comprehensive open platform [2]. Anyone can register and study without time and space restrictions, and most courses are free. A few paid courses can be previewed first. In theory, everyone has the opportunity to receive the best teaching resources in China’s universities [3]. Second, MOOC is both timeeffective and interactive. MOOC courses have a set opening time. Students can take classes, do homework and participate in discussion issues during the study time after registration to maximize the learning effect. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 137–142, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_21

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Advantages and Disadvantages of MOOC Teaching Mode

From the perspective of teaching reform and innovation, compared with the traditional teaching mode, MOOC has many advantages [4]. First, modular and streamlined production. Conducive to quickly complete the course design, recording and production processes. Second, the time of a single video is appropriate, which simulates traditional teaching time, and can be paused in the middle, which is conducive to improving the learning effect of students. Third, the cost of course construction is generally low, and it is possible to promote course resources with minimal investment [5]. Fourth, the shared nature makes the best courses available to people around the world. Fifth, the interactive design allows students to communicate with teachers and classmates during their studies. In addition, we also have to find some shortcomings of MOOC in practice. First, modularization leads to a single teaching mode that cannot meet students with special needs. Second, there are fewer digital resource libraries, which is not conducive to cooperation and exchange with other resource platforms. Third, there is no essential difference between the teaching organization form and the traditional teaching mode in a certain sense. They are mainly lectured by teachers, which is not conducive to the cultivation of students’ divergent thinking [6]. Fourth, the completion rate and effectiveness of the students are uneven (Table 1). Table 1. Advantages and disadvantages of MOOC teaching mode Advantages Modular, pipelined production Moderate video time Low course construction costs Shared

Disadvantages Single teaching mode Barren resource pool Old technology Low completion rate

2 Teaching Characteristics and Difficulties of Financial Management Course 2.1

Teaching Features

The financial management course is a core course for management majors such as auditing, accounting, financial management, etc. This course has strong theoretical and social practice. Therefore, it has an indispensable position in the training of professional talents [7]. This article takes the auditing major of Fuzhou University of International Studies and Trade as an example. The textbook has selected the concise version of the textbook of financial management published by Renmin University of China Press. The book is characterized by a reasonable structure and a simple explanation. Financial management course content mainly involves the goals of financial management and the realization of corporate value. The core teaching content includes: time value and risk investment return calculation, financial analysis, enterprise investment and fund management, working capital management and enterprise allocation management. The financial management course is mainly set up in the second

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year of the auditing curriculum, with 4 credits for a total of 64 h. The teaching content includes two modules: theoretical teaching and case teaching. This course involves basic accounting, asset evaluation, advanced mathematics and other knowledge. It requires high computing ability, so students are required to learn the basic courses in advance. 2.2

Teaching Difficulties

Financial management courses are often regarded as obstacles by students because of their various formulas and complexity, and the difficulty of the exams. The reason is that it is difficult for students to understand and master the principles and application methods of financial formulas in a short period of time. It often happens that they can understand it at the ear of a class, and they will not do it after class or exam [8]. For example, in financial management courses, time value is the knowledge that students must first master. Students must grasp the difference between simple interest and compound interest, clarify the relationship between final and present values, and grasp the compound interest and annuity coefficients [9]. However, in the course of teaching, due to factors such as curriculum arrangement and teaching inertia, no matter how the teacher explains and does the questions, most students will only recite formulas to complete the learning of time value hastily. Because of its failure to understand and master the principles of time value related concepts, students will forget knowledge after a period of time, and passive learning for a long time will eventually lead students to gradually lose the fun of learning financial management.

3 Teaching Reform Ideas of Financial Management Based on MOOC 3.1

Curriculum Design and Selection of Curriculum Resources

(1) Course design This course is designed for second-year students majoring in auditing. Teachers in class can set up WeChat groups and other social methods to arrange pre-class tasks, communicate difficult points, and arrange homework assignments before the class begins. The normal sequence is: students first watch the MOOC video and learn the relevant chapter knowledge points, then the teacher answers questions during the class, and finally, arranges review tasks after class to consolidate the knowledge points. Compared with the traditional teaching model, students can exchange learning experiences and share learning experiences in social media such as WeChat groups, and teachers can also participate in discussions within the group appropriately, which indirectly enhances the emotional communication between teachers and students. There are many mathematical formulas in the course of financial management. Students learn relevant knowledge points in advance, and find the difficulties and deficiencies in order to play the best teaching effect in the classroom communication. In this process, students’ autonomy can be maximized, which fully demonstrates the advantages of MOOC.

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Whether the course design of financial management is appropriate is not only related to the effect of teaching interaction, but also whether the subsequent work can be carried out. Because of the reason, the course design is also a key step in the teaching reform of financial management (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. The course design flowchart

(2) Course resource selection In order to ensure that the MOOC curriculum resources are basically matched with the student’s textbooks, and the textbooks are unchanged, after multiple screenings, the course resources can use the financial management courses recorded by East China Jiaotong University. The course is divided into 7 teaching modules and 1 final exam module. The details are as follows: Basic Concepts, Basic Values, Financial Analysis, Fundraising, Investment, Operation, Distribution, and Final Exam. The content of the teaching module is consistent with the content of financial management teaching materials published by Renmin University of China. In addition to the final exam, there are quizzes for each unit. In addition, each unit will have corresponding course discussion topics for students to think and communicate. The choice of curriculum resources and the content are not only related to the quality of the teaching effect, but also to the student’s satisfaction with the classroom and teaching mode. Therefore, the selection of curriculum resources is a very important link in the design of financial management courses. 3.2

Innovative Teaching Methods

Because MOOC teaching and traditional teaching mode are quite different, the combination of MOOC mode and traditional offline teaching is a mixed teaching [10]. Therefore, this model not only has the characteristics of the new teaching model, but also has the characteristics of the traditional teaching method. On the other hand, this model places higher demands on the comprehensive ability of teachers. Specifically, it can be summarized as follows: First, teachers need to update traditional teaching concepts, from the past teacher-led unilateral knowledge transfer model to a learning platform for equal communication and discussion between teachers and students. Not only can students harvest knowledge, but teachers can grow together in the process. Secondly, teachers need to make an overall plan before the lesson begins, and prepare the required teaching resources, class PPT, and issues to be discussed in the class one by one. Finally, teachers can make good use of interactive tools to complete the examination and scoring of homework and case analysis in online and offline classrooms. This method is summarized by teachers as mixed teaching. Innovative teaching methods adapt to the development trend of informatization, but it also greatly increases

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the workload of teachers, and at the same time, the amount of learning tasks for students has increased a lot compared with traditional learning. Students must not only do a good job of pre-class review and knowledge digestion, but also do discussions of offline courses. In addition, financial formulas or related theories should be digested and practiced after each unit. These circumstances undoubtedly put forward higher requirements for students’ self-learning ability, information collection, sorting and analysis ability [11]. 3.3

Construction of the Evaluation System of Teaching Effect Based on MOOC

We can divide the evaluation of teaching effectiveness of MOOC-based financial management courses into unit evaluations and final overall evaluations. Unit evaluation refers to the scoring and evaluation of students from the content, clarity, and satisfaction of teaching results after the completion of each unit course. End-of-term overall evaluation refers to the overall satisfaction of the course at the end of the course. The unit evaluation and the overall evaluation at the end of the period are independent of each other, but are closely related. Unit evaluations can reflect students’ mastery of each unit of study. The overall evaluation can reflect the students’ learning level and teaching satisfaction with the overall knowledge of financial management courses. The two evaluation methods are summarized, sorted and feedbacked, and both can be used as important promoters for teachers to improve and perfect curriculum resources and improve teaching quality.

4 Conclusion The era of the mobile Internet has arrived, and the immutable teaching model no longer exists. The emerging teaching platform represented by MOOC has become an important experimental field for teaching reform in colleges and universities. The financial management course is one of the difficult courses in the management major because of its many mathematical formulas and complicated theories. The introduction of the MOOC platform and the reform of the financial management course teaching model will be an important experiment in the teaching reform process.

References 1. Ma, X.: Research on the innovation of MOOC educational model of humanistic quality course in higher vocational colleges. Lit. Educ. 12, 172–174 (2019). (in Chinese) 2. Jin, Z.: Construction and analysis of collaborative learning network under the background of MOOC. Sci. Technol. Innovation 35, 73–74 (2019). (in Chinese) 3. Duan, N.: On the reform of classroom teaching in colleges and universities based on the idea of MOOC. J. High. Educ. 19, 127–129 (2019). (in Chinese) 4. Yang, X., Fan, L.: Comparative study of Chinese and foreign MOOC from perspectives of internet thinking. Guide Sci. Educ. 22, 134–136 (2018). (in Chinese)

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5. Mo, Y.: Construction of MOOC resources under project-driven mode. Guide Sci. Educ. 12, 24–25 (2018). (in Chinese) 6. Chen, J.: Analysis on the construction of financial accounting course resources under the background of MOOC. Account. Learn. 24, 217–217+219 (2017). (in Chinese) 7. Li, H.: The innovation of traditional accounting classroom under the impact of MOOC. Finance Account. Int. Commer. 9, 52–59 (2019). (in Chinese) 8. Gu, B.: Research on the teaching model of “financial management course” based on MOOC. J. Liaoning Univ. Technol. (Social Science Edition) 9, 27 (2019). (in Chinese) 9. Tian, Y.: A preliminary study on the reform of the teaching model of financial management under the combination of Mu and lessons. Guangxi Qual. Supervision Guide Periodical 8, 60–61 (2019). (in Chinese) 10. Sun, Q.: Visual analysis of domestic MOOC research hotspots. Softw. Guide 18(12), 211– 214 (2019). (in Chinese) 11. Ma, Y., Wang, P., Xie, S., Hu, X., Gong, L.: Construction of teaching quality evaluation system for mobile information-based flipped classroom. Sci. Educ. Article Collects 12, 53– 54 (2019). (in Chinese)

Supply Chain Financing Strategy in Sports Industry Based on Game Theory Shujuan Li1,2(&) 1

School of Economics and Management, Wuhan Sports University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei, China [email protected] 2 Sports Social Science Research Center, Wuhan Sports University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei, China

Abstract. Supply chain financing strategies of sports industry from the perspective of game theory are quantitative analyzed. Traditional financing game model and supply chain financing game model of small and medium-sized enterprises(SMEs) of sports industry are constructed respectively. The bank lending probability and the default probability of SMEs in sports industry under mixed strategy Nash equilibrium are compared in two cases. Research shows that supply chain financing can effectively improve the bank lending probability, while reducing the moral hazard of SMEs in sports industry. Supply chain financing can not only alleviate the financing difficulties of SMEs in sports industry, but also improve the coordination of supply chain, ensure the strategic expansion of core enterprises and realize the long-term development of sports industry. Keywords: Sports industry strategy Nash equilibrium

 Supply chain financing  Game theory  Mixed

1 Introduction Sports industry has been risen to the national strategy and become the focus of capital pursuit recently. A large amount of capital has poured into the market to compete for sports core event resources, and many enterprises are trying to build sports value chain and ecological circle [1, 2]. At present, China’s sports industry is still in its infancy. In 2015, the total scale of China’s sports industry was 1.7 trillion RMB, with an added value of 549.4 billion RMB, accounting for 0.8% of GDP, which is far below the level of 3% in the United States and the global average of 2.1% in the same period. Most sports industry enterprises in China are small in size. They are an indispensable part of sports industry supply chain and often face crises due to shortage of funds. In order to broaden the multi-financing channels, scholars have proposed a series of financing methods, such as bank loans, equity financing, bond financing, venture capital, franchise project financing etc. [3, 4]. However, in reality, most sports enterprises are difficult to achieve financing through these channels [5, 6]. The main reason is that the majority of sports industry enterprises are SMEs. It’s difficult to make a breakthrough in investigating the financing of sports industry from the perspective of © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 143–149, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_22

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traditional finance. As a new financing method, supply chain financing has the characteristics of self-repayment commodity financing and is considered to be more suitable for financing needs of SMEs, and is an effective new method to solve financing difficulties of SMEs [7–9]. At present, the research on financing mode of sports industry is mostly qualitative and less quantitative, and the description of supply chain financing is limited. Therefore, this paper studies the supply chain financing strategy of sports industry from the perspective of interest game, establishes the traditional financing model and supply chain financing model of sports SMEs, compares and analyses the bank lending probability and the default probability of sports SMEs under Nash equilibrium of two modes using quantitative method, and finally gives conclusions and relevant suggestions.

2 Model Description and Hypothesis Supply chain financing has been widely used in automobile, retail and Internet industries. Core enterprises provide bank financing guarantee for SMEs in supply chain, or provide loans for them directly, and establish good strategic cooperation with them to achieve mutual benefit and prosperity of the supply chain. Typical cases are General Motors Automotive Finance Co, WAL-MART, Alibaba and so on [10]. In sports industry, Li-Ning sporting goods Co. Ltd., together with Standard Chartered and Hang Seng Bank, strive for financing and credit lines for upstream and downstream enterprises of the supply chain, and turn into practical financing. Based on this, the paper considers two financing modes to make a comparative analysis, traditional financing mode and supply chain financing mode. Under these two financing modes, after receiving the loan application, bank inspects the qualifications and operating conditions of sports SMEs, measures the repayment willingness and repayment ability of them, and also needs to evaluate the strength and transaction authenticity of core enterprises and supply chain in supply chain financing, and finally chooses to lend or not. Sports SMEs have two kinds of actions: keeping promise or breaching contract. The model assumes the following assumptions: Hypothesis 1: Sports SMEs and bank are fully rational decision-makers, and will make decisions to maximize their own interests under given conditions. Hypothesis 2: The bank’s strategy selection set is {lending, not lending}; the sports SMEs’ strategy selection set is {keeping promise, breaking contract}; the bank’s probability of lending is set to qi, and the probability of not lending is set to 1−qi; the sports SMEs’ probability of breaking contract is pi, and the probability of keeping promise is 1−pi, where i = 1, 2, subscript 1 represents the traditional financing mode of sports industry, subscript 2 represents the supply chain financing mode of sports industry. Hypothesis 3: Assume the bank loan amount is L, the loan interest rate is r0, and the return rate of sports SMEs is r. Hypothesis 4: The government gives some preferential treatment Y to those sports SMEs who keep their promise even if the bank doesn’t lend money for a long time.

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This preferential treatment can be shown in obtaining higher bank credit and simplifying the loan procedures, etc.

3 Construction of Traditional Financing Game Model in Sports Industry In traditional financing game model, sports SMEs apply for loans from bank. After comprehensive evaluation of their credit, qualifications and financial status, bank chooses to lend or not. If bank lends money, sports SMEs need to pay a certain deposit to the bank, which is recorded as B1 (B1 < L). The sports SMEs make the decision of keeping their promise or breaking the contract. When they keep their promise, bank will refund the deposit. When they break the contract, bank will confiscate it. If sports SMEs fail to repay bank loans on time, their reputation will be damaged. In this paper, the intangible loss is recorded as S1. The mixed strategy of bank is (q1, 1−q1) and that of sports SMEs is (p1, 1−p1). According to analysis of the game process, the income matrix of sports SMEs and bank under different strategies in traditional financing mode is shown in Table 1. This game model is a problem of two-person-two-strategy model and Nash equilibrium of mixed strategy can be solved by equivalence method. Table 1. Traditional financing game model Sports SMEs Keeping promise 1−p1 Breaking contract p1

3.1

Bank Not lending 1−q1 Lending q1 Lðr  r0 Þ; Lr0 Y; 0 L þ Lr  B1  S1 ; L  Lr0 þ B1 0; 0

Bank Strategy Analysis

There are two strategies for bank: lending or not. When bank adopts lending strategies, the expected utility function of banks is UL ¼ ð1  p1 ÞLr0 þ p1 ðL  Lr0 þ B1 Þ. When bank refuses to lend, its expected utility function is UN ¼ 0.Given the mixed strategy of sports SMEs r1 ¼ ðp1 ; 1  p1 Þ, the expected utility of bank lending is equal to that of not lending: p1 ¼

3.2

Lr0 ð0\p1  1Þ 2Lr0 þ L  B1

ð1Þ

Strategic Analysis of Small and Medium-Sized Sports Enterprises

Sports SMEs have two strategies of keeping their promises and breaking their contracts. When they keep their promises, the expected utility function is Uk ¼ q1 ðLr  Lr0 Þ þ ð1  q1 ÞY. When sports SMEs breaking the contracts, the expected utility function is UB ¼ q1 ðLr þ L  B1  S1 Þ.

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Given the mixed strategy of bank r2 ¼ ðq1 ; 1  q1 Þ, the expected utility of keeping promise and breaking contract of sports SMEs is equal, it makes q1 ¼ YS1 þ LrY0 þ LB1 . Because of 0\q1  1,meet the condition of L  B1  S1 þ Lr0  0.

4 Construction of Game Model of Supply Chain Financing in Sports Industry Under the mode of supply chain financing, based on real transaction background and multi-year cooperation partnership, the core enterprises of sports industry actively provide credit guarantee for sports SMEs to obtain bank financing. The deposit paid by sports SMEs to core enterprises is set as B2 (B2  B1 ), the deposit paid by sports core enterprises to banks is set as B3 (B3 \L), and the penalty for sports SMEs in breach of contract is S2 (S2  S1 ). It is beneficial both for core enterprises and sports SMEs in supply chain financing. When using supply chain financing and sports SMEs keep their contracts, no matter whether the bank lends or not, sports SMEs can get certain benefits from the good relationship of supply chain, which is recorded as X. In practice, it is a long-term partnership. Core enterprises provide stable and sustained orders or products and services for sports SMEs, and shorten the payment cycle for upstream small and mediumsized suppliers or extend the payment cycle for downstream small and medium-sized distributors, and provide price discounts for sports SMEs. Same with the traditional financing assumption, the government gives some preferential treatment to sports SMEs that have long been trustworthy even if the banks don’t lend money Y(Y  X). The income matrix of sports SMEs and bank under different actions in supply chain financing mode is shown in Table 2. Table 2. Supply chain financing game Sports SMEs Keeping promise 1−p2 Breaking contract p2

4.1

Bank Not lending 1−q2 Lending q2 Lðr  r0 Þ þ X; Lr0 X þ Y; 0 L þ Lr  B2  S2 ; L  Lr0 þ B3 0; 0

Bank Strategy Analysis

Same with traditional financing model, bank also faces two different choices: lending or not. The expected utility functions of bank when it lending or not lending are as follows respectively: UL ¼ ð1  p2 ÞLr0 þ p2 ðL  Lr0 þ B3 Þ

ð2Þ

UN ¼ 0

ð3Þ

0 so p2 ¼ 2Lr0 Lr þ LB3 , meet the conditon of 0\p2  1.

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Strategic Analysis of Small and Medium-Sized Sports Enterprises

In supply chain financing mode, sports SMEs have cooperative relations with core enterprises. In order to ensure the normal and stable operation of the supply chain and avoid the disruption of sports industry supply chain caused by capital chain rupture of sports SMEs, core enterprises are willing to take certain risks to provide credit guarantee for sports SMEs. Sports SMEs have two kinds of decision-making, one is to keep their promise and the other is to break the contract. The expected utility functions are as follows: Uk ¼ q2 ðLr  Lr0 þ X Þ þ ð1  q2 ÞðX þ Y Þ

ð4Þ

UB ¼ q2 ðLr þ L  B2  S2 Þ

ð5Þ

X þY L  B2  S2 þ Y þ Lr0

ð6Þ

It concludes that: q2 ¼

Because of 0\q2  1, it meets the condition of L  B2  S2 þ Lr0  X  0.

5 Comparative Analysis of Two Game Models 5.1

Comparison of Default Probability

By comparing the default probability of sports SMEs under traditional financing mode and supply chain financing mode, we can get the conclusion that the default probability of sports SMEs under the traditional financing mode is higher than that under the supply chain financing mode. p1  p2 ¼

Lr0 ðB1  B3 Þ 0 ð2Lr0 þ L  B1 Þð2Lr0 þ L  B3 Þ

ð7Þ

In supply chain financing mode, the deposit B3 paid by sports SMEs to core enterprises is less than the deposit B1 paid by sports SMEs to bank in traditional financing mode, i.e. B3  B1 . Supply chain financing is established on the basis of real transaction. The core enterprises of sports industry have mastered the real transaction situation of sports SMEs, and have carried out strict credit rating for them. Only on this basis can they guarantee for sports SMEs. In traditional financing mode, bank has asymmetric information about the qualifications and credits of sports SMEs, which inevitably requires sports SMEs pay higher despoit to reduce potential risks, so B3  B1 . Therefore, if supply chain financing is adopted, the default rate of sports SMEs will be less than that of traditional financing, and their moral hazard will be greatly reduced. Supply chain is more effective than bank’s restriction on sports SMEs.

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S. Li

Comparison of Bank Lending Probability

Assume X ¼ aY. Considering that the sports SMEs keep their promise, the revenue X brought by supply chain to sports SMEs is greater than or equal to the policy preference Y given by the government, so a  1. q1  q2 ¼

Y ½B1 þ S1  B2  S2  aðL  B1  S1 þ Lr0 þ Y Þ ðL  B1  S1 þ Lr0 þ Y ÞðLr0 þ L  B2  S2 þ Y Þ

ð8Þ

It concludes that: ① When B 1 þ S1 

L þ B2 þ S2 þ Lr0 þ Y ; q1  q2 ; 2

ð9Þ

② when B1 þ S1 

L þ B2 þ S2 þ Lr0 þ Y B1 þ S1  B2  S2 ; and a  ; q1  q2 2 L  B1  S1 þ Lr0 þ Y ð10Þ

③ when B1 þ S1 

L þ B2 þ S2 þ Lr0 þ Y B1 þ S 1  B2  S 2 ; and 1  a  ; q1  q2 2 L  B1  S1 þ Lr0 þ Y

ð11Þ When certain conditions (① or ②) are met, the probability of bank lending under supply chain financing mode is greater than that under traditional financing mode. When the probability distribution of three cases is equal, the probability of q2  q1 under the supply chain financing mode is 2/3, that is, the probability of bank lending under the supply chain financing mode being greater than or equal to the traditional financing situation is about 66.67%. Although supply chain financing can’t guarantee that the probability of bank lending is greater than that of traditional financing, the possibility of bank lending is greatly increased in supply chain financing.

6 Conclusions Supply chain financing provides a new financing channel for sports SMEs with strong operability. This study shows that compared with the traditional financing mode, the default risk of sports SMEs in supply chain financing mode decreases, and the probability of bank lending increases. Supply chain financing can not only effectively alleviate the financing difficulties of sports SMEs, but also promote the long-term

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strategic synergy between sports SMEs and core enterprises, enhance the overall competitiveness of the supply chain, guarantee the strategic expansion of core enterprises, and realize the value added of enterprises in supply chain. Acknowledgements. This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Education in China(MOE) Project of Humanities and Social Sciences (Project No. 15YJC890015), the Education Department of Hubei Province Project of Humanities and Social Sciences (Project No. 16Q217), and the Wuhan Sports University Foundation for Young Scholars (Project No. 2016QS04).

References 1. Caniato, F., Gelsomino, L., Perego, A., et al.: Does finance solve the supply chain financing problem? Supply Chain. Manag. 21(5), 34–549 (2016) 2. Orbian: Supply chain finance is coming of age. Glob. Financ. 29, 46–47 (2015) 3. Hofmann, E., Johnson, M.: Supply chain finance—some conceptual thoughts reloaded. Int. J. Phys. Distrib. Logist. Manag. 46(4), 1–8 (2016) 4. Wuttkea, D.A., Blome, C., Heese, H.S., et al.: Supply chain finance: optimal introduction and adoption decisions. Int. J. Prod. Econ. 178, 72–81 (2016) 5. Cao, E., Du, L., Ruan, J.: Financing preferences and performance for an emission-dependent supply chain: supplier vs. bank. Int. J. Prod. Econ. 208, 383–399 (2019) 6. Moritz, L.G.: Supply chain finance: applying finance theory to supply chain management to enhance finance in supply chains. Int. J. Logist. Res. Appl. 13, 133–142 (2010) 7. More, D., Basu, P.: Challenges of supply chain finance: a detailed study and a hierarchical model based on the experiences of an Indian firm. Bus. Process. Manag. J. 19, 624–647 (2013) 8. Xu, X., Chen, X., Fu, J., et al.: Supply chain finance: a systematic literature review and bibliometric analysis. Int. J. Prod. Econ. 204, 160–173 (2018) 9. Fritz, M., Canavari, M.: Management of perceived e-business risks in food‐supply networks: e-trust as prerequisite for supply-chain system innovation. Agribus.: Int. J. 24, 355–368 (2008) 10. Gelsomino, L., Mangiaracina, R., Perego, A., et al.: Supply chain finance: a literature review. Int. J. Phys. Distrib. Logist. Manag. 46(4), 348–366 (2016)

Risk Evaluation of Project Bidding Based on TOPSIS Model Wanfeng Liu, Yiqiong Gao(&), Tiecheng Yan, and Lixiang Cao Longdong University, Qingyang 744502, Gansu, China [email protected]

Abstract. Bidding risk refers to the uncertainty in the bidding process, the risk evaluation of the project bidding stage is an important basis for enterprises to make bidding decisions. Based on the analysis of bidding risk of projects, this paper proposes a risk evaluation model for project bidding based on TOPSIS, and uses rough sets theory to determine index weights. The TOPSIS is mainly used in multi-objective decision-making and risk evaluation. The application of this model is beneficial to the risk evaluation and ranking of bidding projects, and provides a more scientific and accurate evaluation method for the bidding decision. The validity of the model is verified by an example. The research results show that Rough-TOPSIS is practical and adaptable to the risk evaluation of bidding for various projects. Keywords: Project bidding

 TOPSIS model  Rough sets  Risk evaluation

1 Introduction There are many problems in the bidding process. Firstly, there is a common phenomenon of information island in the tendering and bidding process. It is difficult for the tender’s needs and objectives to be fairly and effectively transmitted to the bidding units. Secondly, for the calculation of project quantity, both sides of the bidding and tendering have to calculate, which wastes lots of time and affects the speed of bidding and tendering. Moreover, deviations in project quantities and disputes over late visas will increase the risks of both parties. Finally, in the existing tendering and bidding environment, the space that the bidders can play in the construction design is limited. It is difficult to effectively display the construction level of enterprises as well as the objectives, preparation and process of the bidding projects. Through the risk evaluation results of project tendering and bidding, combined with the actual situation, it can effectively guide the high-efficiency and low-cost operation of the project and enhance its application value [1]. Thus, the author intends to pay attention to the risk evaluation of project tendering and bidding from a new perspective, so as to promote this work to achieve the expected results. Many scholars put forward different models and methods for risk evaluation of projects. Bingzhen Geng et al. [2] adopted the asymptotic behavior of tail probability conduct risk analysis on random variables. Some scholars also used analytic hierarchy process (AHP), evidence reasoning method, grey theory, entropy weight method, combination weight method, artificial neural network method to conduct quantitative © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 150–157, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_23

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analysis of bidding risk [3]. The above models and methods need to be improved in terms of the objectivity and effectiveness of evaluation, and the amount of data obtained is large. Manindra Rajak, Krishnendu Shaw [4] proposed a new method of occupational risk evaluation. It includes the combination of fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS based on the hypothetical risk evaluation formula. Taking aluminum profile industry as an example, it shows the applicability of this method. Lanndon A. Ocampo [5] applied fuzzy TOPSIS to risk evaluation of food industry. Based on the collection of historical data, combined with the multi-attribute decision-making of project bidding, this paper adopts the combination of rough sets theory and TOPSIS method, which uses rough sets theory to determine the objective weight of evaluation index. It combines the determined weight with TOPSIS, establishes the risk evaluation model of project tendering and bidding, and adopts RoughTOPSIS model to overcome the shortcomings of previous models such as strong subjectivity and various constraints. The application of this model is beneficial to the risk evaluation and ranking of bidding projects, and provides a more scientific and accurate evaluation method for the bidding decision.

2 Risk Analysis of Project Tendering and Bidding Bidding risk refers to the uncertainty in the bidding process, as well as the uncertainty of project cost, quality and construction period after winning the bid. There are many risk factors in the project. According to the risk, the risk categories faced by the project during the bidding process are classified as shown in Table 1 [6]. Table 1. Risk analysis table Risk categories Enterprise itself Owner Competitor External environment

Analysis of risk factors Enterprise’s own quality; bidding quality Credit rating of the owner; management system; management experience; economic strength; whether the contract is complete or not Number of competitors; strength of competitors Natural environment of the project site; sound degree of policies and regulations; domestic and foreign market economic environment; political stability

3 Determination of Index Weight and Establishment of Risk Evaluation Model for Project Bidding 3.1

Rough Sets Theory

Rough sets was born in 1982 from the paper of Z. Pawlak [7, 8], rough sets is an effective data mining tool for data reasoning and analysis of some imprecise, incomplete, inconsistent information. This paper will use rough sets theory to determine the risk weight.

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The relevant definitions of rough sets theory are as follows: Definition 1: A table of information and knowledge consisting of attributes in the universe of behavior is called an information system, represented by I ¼ \U; Z; V; f [ . Among them, U is a nonempty set, and the set inside is called the universe. And, suppose U has n objects, then U ¼ fx1 ; x2 ;    ; xn g. Z is the set of attributes, and if Z has m attributes, then Z ¼ fz1 ; z2 ;    ; zm g. V is the set of the range of attributes, so then V ¼ fV1 ; V2 ;   ; Vm g. F is a function of information system, expressed as f : U  Z ! V, and f xi ; Aj 2 Vj . Definition 2: For attribute subset R  Z, R is equivalent on U, then A ¼ fU; Rg is called approximate interval. The indistinguishable relationship is defined as: INDðRÞ ¼ fðx; yÞ 2 U  Ujr 2 R; f ðx; aÞ ¼ f ðy; aÞg. Thus, the division of R on the Universe U can be made, which is recorded as U=INDðRÞ, then, attributes can be divided and filtered. Definition 3: P and Q are assumed to be equivalent on U, and the P positive S region of Q is recorded as POSP ðQÞ, which can be defined as: POSP ðQÞ ¼ P ðXÞ. If X2U=P

POSP ðQÞ ¼ POSðprÞ ðQÞ, then Q may or may not be in P, and otherwise, r in P is necessary for Q. Definition 4: If the knowledge base is K ¼ ðU; SÞ, S is a set of equivalence relations on U, then R; Q  S; When INDðRÞ  INDðSÞ, it means that Q depends on R, defined as:   kr ¼ kRðQÞ ¼ jPOSP ðQÞj  POSpjrj ðQÞ=jU j

ð1Þ

Among them, kRðQÞ 2 ½0; 1, k is the degree of knowledge dependence. After deleting a subset of the condition attribute set Z, we can know the degree of influence on the decision attribute D from definition 4 that the difference between the two dependence degrees, namely the importance degree of the attribute, is used to measure. In the project risk evaluation, its knowledge expression system is a decisionfree system because the specific evaluation results are not known in advance. We can determine the index weight of the power-saving project by the importance of the attribute, then: wr ¼ kr =

n X

kr ðr ¼ 1; 2    ; nÞ

ð2Þ

r¼1

3.2

Rough TOPSIS Risk Evaluation Model

Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, referred to as TOPSIS, which is mainly used in multi-objective decision-making and risk evaluation [9]. The process of using Rough-TOPSIS model to evaluate the risk of bidding project is as follows:

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1) Determine the index system of risk evaluation According to the risk factors that affect the bid winning of the project, the index system of tendering and bidding risk evaluation is determined, with n indexes. The evaluation index set can  be expressed as: C ¼ fC1 ; C2 ;    ; Cn g. 2) The decision matrix Cj ðxi Þ mn is constructed according to the evaluation index system C, where Cj ðj ¼ 1; 2;    nÞ and xi ði ¼ 1; 2;    ; mÞ. 3) Normalization of raw data The premise of using TOPSIS to evaluate the tendering and bidding risk of projects is that the changing direction of each index should be consistent [10]. Thus, it is necessary to normalize the raw data so as to achieve the goal of low risk and high return of the project while meeting the benefits and costs. The raw data is normalized to get Zij :, where Zij : is the normalized value of the jth attribute of the ith scheme (i ¼ 1; 2;    ; m; j ¼ 1; 2;    ; n). qij Zij ¼ sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ; i ¼ 1; 2;    ; m; j ¼ 1; 2;    ; n m P q2ij

ð3Þ

i¼1

4) Weighted normalized value of engineering project index The objective weight W and its normalized value Zij are weighted to get the weighted normalized value Pij : Pij ¼ wj  Zij ; i ¼ 1; 2;    ; m; j ¼ 1; 2;    ; n

ð4Þ

5) Calculate its positive and negative ideal solutions Pþ ¼ P ¼



   Cj ; max Zij jj ¼ 1; 2;    ; n ; i



  Cj ; min Zij jj ¼ 1; 2;    ; n

ð5Þ



i

ð6Þ

6) The distance between positive and negative ideal solutions and evaluation schemes Diþ ¼

n X

  wj d Pij ; Pj max ; i ¼ 1; 2;    ; m;

ð7Þ

  wj d Pij ; Pj min ; i ¼ 1; 2;    ; m

ð8Þ

j¼1

D i ¼

n X j¼1

7) Use the following formula to determine the modified closeness ki : of the alternatives

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ki ¼

D i ði ¼ 1; 2;    ; mÞ þ D i

Diþ

ð9Þ

Among them, 0\ ki \1, the closer its value is to 1, the better the scheme is; On the contrary, the closer to 0, the worse the scheme. Then, according to the calculated k value, the risk is ranked in descending order.

4 Case Analysis There are 5 bidding projects available for selection of a construction enterprise. Combined with the enterprise’s own situation and the market situation, a comprehensive analysis is conducted from the project’s technology, economy, environment and other aspects. Rough-TOPSIS model is applied to evaluate the project risk and the project with high economic benefits and low risk is selected as the target. 4.1

Establishing a Risk Index System

Because of the complexity of projects and the particularity of various tendering and bidding environments, there are many risks. Through expert analysis, 6 major risk elements are obtained, which constitute the risk index system for project tendering and bidding, represented as C ¼ fC1 ; C2 ; C3 ; C4 ; C5 ; C6 g. Namely, among them, C1 is the construction cost of the project; C2 is the amount of start-up capital; C3 is the construction technology; C4 is the perfection of the contract; C5 is the degree of competition in the market environment; C6 is the effective construction time of the year. 4.2

Determining Risk Weight

From the historical projects of the enterprise, 10 representative projects with determined risk level are selected. According to the established evaluation index, the corresponding data are collected to establish a discrete simplified table, as shown in Table 2. Through the discrete data in Table 1, according to the indiscernible relationship of rough sets, the decision-making set of project risk and the attribute of index are as follows: U/indðCÞ ¼ ff1g; f2g; f3g; f4g; f5g; f6g; f7g; f8g; f9g; f10gg; U/indðDÞ ¼ ff1; 2; 3; 4g; f5; 6; 7; 8g; f9; 10gg

POSp ðQÞ ¼ f1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10g

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Table 2. Table of discrete historical indexes S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

C1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 3 3

C2 2 1 1 3 2 3 3 2 3 3

C3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1

C4 (6, (6, (6, (6, (6, (6, (6, (6, (3, (3,

7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 4, 4,

8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 6, 6,

9) 9) 9) 9) 9) 9) 9) 9) 7) 7)

C5 (1, (1, (1, (6, (1, (6, (6, (1, (6, (6,

2, 2, 2, 7, 2, 7, 7, 2, 7, 7,

3, 3, 3, 8, 3, 8, 8, 3, 8, 8,

4) 4) 4) 9) 4) 9) 9) 4) 9) 9)

C6 (6, (6, (6, (6, (6, (6, (6, (6, (6, (6,

7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7,

8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8,

9) 9) 9) 9) 9) 9) 9) 9) 9) 9)

D 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3

According to the formula: Kr ¼

    POSp ðQÞ  POSpjrj ðQÞ jU j

;

Kr Wr ¼ P n Kr r¼1

To get the weight of each index: w1 ¼ 0:25; w2 ¼ 0:05; w3 ¼ 0:35; w4 ¼ 0:1; w5 ¼ 0:2; w6 ¼ 0:05

4.3

Project Risk Evaluation

After the quantitative weight of the index is determined, the index data are normalized according to its attribute. The index data after normalization is shown in Table 3.

Table 3. Normalized results of risk index data Scheme C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

(0.012, 0.028, 0.075, 0.15)

(0.05, 0.036, 0.039, 0.044)

1

0.009 0.003 0.141 (0.158, 0.195, 0.232, 0.25)

2

0.006 0.327 0.026 (0.141, 0.168, 0.185, 0.212) (0.058, 0.008, 0.004, 0.007) (0.029, 0.037, 0.047, 0.042)

3

0.012 0.007 0.031 (0.044, 0.071, 0.106, 0.133) (0.002, 0.008, 0.015, 0.012) (0.033, 0.039, 0.044, 0.05)

4

0.032 0.091 0.201 (0.052, 0.089, 0.123, 0.14)

5

0.007 0.204 0.131 (0.071, 0.094, 0.142, 0.168) (0.008, 0.007, 0.009, 0.01)

(0.011, 0.013, 0.023, 0.038) (0.006, 0.011, 0.016, 0.022) (0.014, 0.05, 0.036, 0.061)

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Positive ideal vector: P þ (0.032, 0.091, 0.131, (0.052, 0.089, 0.123, 0.14), (0.071, 0.094, 0.142, 0.168), (0.033, 0.039, 0.044, 0.05)) Negative ideal vector: P (0.007, 0.204, 0.026, (0.044, 0.071, 0.106, 0.133), (0.058, 0.008, 0.004, 0.007), (0.006, 0.011, 0.016, 0.022)) Calculate the distance between the project evaluation scheme and the positive and negative ideal vectors: D þ , D . According to the modified closeness degree k of the scheme, its ideal solution is sorted, as shown in Table 4. Table 4. Distance between evaluation scheme and ideal solution Scheme 1 2 3 4 5

Dþ 0.209 0.072 0.140 0.109 0.183

D 0.033 0.167 0.087 0.177 0.092

k 0.243 0.658 0.478 0.639 0.433

Sorting 5 1 3 2 4

The research results show that the enterprise will select project 2 and 4 from the five alternatives for bidding, which will enable it to achieve the goal of low risk and high return.

5 Conclusion This study takes historical data as the research parameters and adopts rough sets theory to determine the weight of risk evaluation indexes of the project. It builds the risk model for project bidding through TOPSIS. The research results show that the RoughTOPSIS method can overcome the shortcomings of the previous models to a certain degree, and will bring practical guidance to the tendering and bidding work of similar construction enterprises. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by Ministry of Education’s Industry-University Cooperation and Education Project: Reform and Practice of “Teaching Content and Curriculum System of Electronic Bidding Training Course” Based on BIM (201802142020).

References 1. Jie, S.: Training teaching strategy of construction engineering technology based on BIM technology. W. Chin. Qual. Educ. 13, 165–166 (2019) 2. Geng, B., Ji, R., Wang, S.: Tail probability of randomly weighted sums of dependent subexponential random variables with applications to risk theory. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 480 (1), 123389 (2019)

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3. Yu, J., Hu, M., Wang, P.: Evaluation and reliability analysis of network security risk factors based on D-S evidence theory. J. Intell. Fuzzy Syst. 34(2), 861–869 (2018) 4. Rajak, M., Shaw, K.: Evaluation and selection of mobile health (mHealth) applications using AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS. Technol. Soc. 59, 101186 (2019) 5. Ocampo, L.A: Applying fuzzy AHP–TOPSIS technique in identifying the content strategy of sustainable manufacturing for food production. Environ. Dev. Sustain. 21(5), 2225–2251 (2019) 6. Bauld, S.: Unique risks presented during the bidding process. Daily Commercial News 89 (75) (2016) 7. Ma, L., Lu, H.: Six-set approximation theorem of neighborhood related rough sets. Int. J. Approximate Reasoning 115, 180–193 (2019) 8. Raza, M.S., Qamar, U.: A parallel approach to calculate lower and upper approximations in dominance based rough set theory. Appl. Soft Comput. J. 84, 105699 (2019) 9. Chen, W., Fucai, J., et al.: Pilotage environmental risk evaluation of waterways based on entropy weight TOPSIS model. J. Saf. Environ. 16(3), 33–37 (2016) 10. Ghasemi, K., Hamzenejad, M., Meshkini, A.: An analysis of the spatial distribution pattern of social-cultural services and their equitable physical organization using the TOPSIS technique: the case-study of Tehran, Iran. Sustain. Cities Soc. 51, 101708 (2019)

The Chain Operation Model of Private Kindergartens in Shanxi Based on Optimal Dynamic Programming Zhaojun Pang(&) Xi’an Fanyi University, Xi’an 710105, Shaanxi, China [email protected]

Abstract. With the improvement of people’s living standards and increasingly fierce competition for talents, people pay more and more attention to children’s preschool education, parents’ demand for kindergartens is becoming stronger and stronger, the government’s policy support and encouragement of private education is also greatly improved. The purpose of this paper is to make more and more education and training institutions join the early childhood education industry, bring new knowledge and new ideas to the education industry, and further promote the rapid development of private preschool education. This paper USES porter’s five forces model to analyze the industry environment of kindergarten, such as threats from existing competitors, potential competitors, substitutes and product suppliers, and applies SWOT analysis to the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of kindergarten. This paper analyzes the operation mode of private chain kindergarten of xi’an A group in shanxi province with examples, and draws the conclusion that the optimal operation mode of dynamic programming is the best choice under different circumstances. And put forward the kindergarten chain operation mode of the implementation of the operation mode of safeguard measures and implementation strategies, such as strengthening the construction of teachers or strengthening the daily management. Keywords: Chain operation  Optimal dynamic planning kindergartens  Education industry

 Private

1 Introduction For a long time, preschool education in China not only insists on popularization, but also encourages the development of the private sector. Only by giving full play to the maximum role of public parks and private parks can we effectively solve the difficulties and high costs in entering kindergartens. In recent years, the development of preschool education has been very rapid, which has many reasons: first, the national investment in preschool education is gradually increasing, but it is still seriously insufficient, and a large amount of private funds are needed to carry out [1, 2]. In recent years, with the rapid development of economy, more and more non-governmental funds, more and more active forces in running schools. Second, people are attaching more and more © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 158–163, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_24

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importance to preschool education, placing high expectations on it and demanding more and more. As a result, there is a growing demand for school choice. This laid the foundation for the further expansion of the private preschool education market. Third, the government has changed its attitude towards private education, which previously emphasized control, but now emphasizes support, which is embodied in the fact that many support the introduction of private education policies and confirm their firm status in the form of legislation [3–5]. However, with the prosperity and development of private kindergartens, many problems have arisen in some educational institutions in order to survive. First of all, educational institutions do not consider the public welfare of education, but only pursue interests and only run schools for the purpose of making profits. Secondly, due to the lack of supervision, the quality of teachers employed by kindergartens is uneven, and daily management is chaotic. In order to control the cost, many private kindergartens do not want to hire excellent teachers, but hired some unqualified talents, this kind of management chaos is bound to bring quality decline. Three, the number of children seriously overnumbered [6, 7]. In order to increase revenue, many private kindergartens are staffed beyond the scope of school buildings, leading not only to a decline in teaching quality, but also to incalculable safety risks. A large number of such problems in private kindergartens indicate that China’s preschool education market is not standardized, let alone healthy [8].

2 Method 2.1

Optimal Dynamic Programming

Optimal dynamic programming has always been the focus of operations research, optimal control, mobile robot and other disciplines and directions. In the field of kindergarten chain operation mode, optimal dynamic programming is one of the core technologies of kindergarten operation induction system, which requires the system to provide the best operation mode and the best profit mode for travelers in real time and accurately. 2.2

Concept of Private Kindergartens

This paper tries to combine the research practice of other scholars to define private kindergartens by referring to other scholars. Pre-2007 generally defined as kindergartens organized and operated by social organizations and individuals other than state institutions, mainly using non-state financial funds, including kindergartens operated by private enterprises, non-governmental organizations, individuals or other social forces [9]. Nowadays, it is widely recognized that private kindergartens refer to preschool education institutions established by social organizations or individuals or state institutions other than state institutions, and legally established by non-state financial funds to provide formal childcare and education for older children for 3–6 months. Some special training classes and nurseries are not included. In this paper, the concept

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of private kindergarten is defined as: it is undertaken by social organizations or citizens with legal person status other than state institutions, and mainly USES non-state financial education funds to recruit children to the society in accordance with relevant regulations [10].

3 Experiment 3.1

Subjects

This investigation took the private A group chain kindergarten in xi’an, shanxi province as A case. The general park is located in chang’an district, and the sub-park is located in weiyang district villa district, lintong district, gaoling district. These four parks have complete hardware facilities, high-grade decoration and reasonable layout. The indoor environment is not only safe, healthy, bright, warm and beautiful, but also embodies the characteristics of environmental education: products, flowers, grass, scenery. Each campus has five to eight classes, consisting of the bishop and the assistant and a kindergarten teacher, with a student population of 20 to 30. The bishop has more than three years of experience, the teaching assistant has more than one year, the teacher is required to be a junior college graduate, and the nurse teacher must have a high school degree or above. In addition, the company plans to build three more kindergartens, located in lianhu green community, xinxinjiayuan community and yanta juzhou community. 3.2

Experimental Methods

By taking advantage of the opportunity for all teachers in the villa garden of A group’s chain kindergarten to participate in the intensive training during the holidays, 100 questionnaires were issued, 98 were recovered, and 95 were valid. Through the questionnaire survey, the purpose is to understand teachers’ views on kindergartenbased training. The questionnaire is divided into two parts. The first part is a closed multiple-choice question, which mainly includes: (1) the motivation of teachers to participate in kindergarten-based training. (2) contents of kindergarten-based training. (3) kindergarten-based training. (4) guarantee mechanism of kindergarten-based training. (5) the effect of kindergarten-based training. (6) problems existing in kindergarten-based training according to teachers. The second part is an open question, which is “please talk about some Suggestions for your kindergarten training”.

4 Discuss 4.1

Comparison of Diversified Business Models

Diversification refers to the business strategy or growth behavior of operating multiple industries while operating the main business of an enterprise. Diversification can affect

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value at all levels of the company. From the organizational level, diversified operation can not only improve the operational efficiency of the organization, which is mainly caused by the separation of management and control rights, but also lead to more serious agency problems among various departments and levels within the enterprise. From the perspective of resources, diversification can not only improve but also reduce the efficiency of resource utilization due to internal bureaucracy and other reasons. From a cost of capital perspective, diversification not only lowers the cost of capital (mainly because diversification reduces market risk) but also increases the cost of capital, mainly because this business model increases the degree of information asymmetry. Diversification, as an important business strategy, will have a far-reaching impact on the investment and financing decisions of enterprises. Through the implementation of diversification strategy, enterprises can integrate cash flow, thereby reducing internal cash flow volatility, thus greatly reducing financial risk. With the reduction of financial risk, creditors can more accurately predict the future cash flow of enterprises, so they are more willing to provide loans, which greatly improves the debt capacity of enterprises. The disadvantages of diversification are large management workload and high dependence on external environment. Franchise mode, collective mode and diversified mode have advantages and disadvantages. 4.2

Analysis and Discussion

It can be seen from the above survey that the training content of A group chain kindergarten is quite complete, and specific training can be arranged according to the needs of different teachers. Through interviews and data collection, the author listed the above 7 specific training contents and included them in the questionnaire. After statistics, the training frequency was ranked from high to low, and the comparison of the training frequency between “the training content you have attended and the training content you most urgently need” was made. As shown in Fig. 1, the training content that is relatively balanced between the two is “practical problems”. The cumulative frequency of participating in practical problems is 62, and the teacher’s demand for them is 58. There are “professional skills and curriculum reform hot spots” that cannot meet the needs of teachers; There is a big difference between kindergarten and teachers in the recognition of “teachers’ moral education”. Teachers believe that it is not effective, while kindergartens believe that teachers’ high professional ethics must be strengthened regularly. How to make teachers willing to accept “teachers’ moral education” is a problem to be seriously considered in kindergartens.

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Fig. 1. A comparison of the contents of kindergarten-based training and the training contents most urgently needed by teachers

5 Conclusion This paper, taking xi’an group, A private chain kindergarten, for example, through the macroscopic and microscopic environment of early childhood education industry analysis, the paper analyzes the current situation of the industry, development prospects and trends, which in its product positioning, at various stages of development and strategic management to provide advice, and provide some effective Suggestions and methods, so as to make the brand stronger position in A competitive market. Acknowledgement. This work was financially supported by Xi’an Fanyi College, Research project of preschool education in Shaanxi Province: Monitoring Research on balanced development of preschool education in Shaanxi Province, item No.: YBKT1814.

References 1. Abd El-Lateef Abou-Hatab, M.F., Megali, R.M.: Teachers as partners in the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among kindergarten children. Middle East Curr. Psychiatry 23(4), 175–178 (2016) 2. Anderson, S., Phillips, D.: Is Pre-K classroom quality associated with kindergarten and middle-school academic skills? Dev. Psychol. 53(6), 1063–1078 (2017) 3. Purtle, J., Langellier, B., Lê-Scherban, F.: A case study of the philadelphia sugar-sweetened beverage tax policymaking process: implications for policy development and advocacy. J. Public Health Manage. Pract. (1), 1 (2017) 4. Rosentrater, C., Finlayson, T.L., Peddecord, K.M.: Effects of California Assembly Bill 2109 in low vaccination rate counties: are we looking at the right variables? J. Public Health Manage. Pract. 24(2) (2017)

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5. Garwood, J.D., Vernon-Feagans, L.: Classroom management affects literacy development of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Except. Child. 83(2), 123–142 (2017) 6. Keam, G., Cook, K., Sinclair, S.: A qualitative study of the role of playgroups in building community capacity. Health Promot. J. Australia 29(1), 65–71 (2018) 7. Pope, M.: Preventing weight gain in children who are school age and African-American. Pediatr. Phys. Ther. 28(2), 1 (2016) 8. Crosnoe, R., Ansari, A., Purtell, K.M.: Latin American immigration, maternal education, and approaches to managing children’s schooling in the United States. J. Marriage Fam. 78(1), 60–74 (2016) 9. Wang, D., Mu, C.-X., Liu, D.-R.: Data-driven nonlinear near-optimal regulation based on iterative neural dynamic programming. Acta Automatica Sinica 43(3), 366–375 (2017) 10. Sari, M.R.A.: Optimal blood glucose level control using dynamic programming based on minimal Bergman model. J. Phys. Conf. 974(1), 012036 (2018)

Internal Control of Enterprise Finance Based on SQL Database and Countermeasures Bingxiang Li(&), Rui Tao, and Meng Li Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048, China [email protected]

Abstract. With the advancement of optimization and merge reform in colleges and universities, the same university often includes multiple campuses. The traditional centralized system of educational administration cannot meet the needs of use. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a university educational system based on distributed database. This paper made full use of the platform’s powerful data management capabilities through the university educational administration system, especially for multi-campus and multi-university colleges. At the same time, the optimization of the distributed database query process and the optimization algorithm of the data distribution scheme in the research process have effectively improved the efficiency and have certain theoretical value. Keywords: SQL database finance  Internal control

 Colleges and universities  Administrative

1 Introduction The educational administration information system in colleges and universities mainly plays an important role in the management of school-related educational information and relies on the basic platform of campus network, and plays an increasing role in the teaching and management application (Jensen CS et al. 2015) [1]. The traditional educational administration information system generally adopts the client server architecture mode or the browser server architecture mode. The centralized management mode is adopted. All the information is stored in a database, and the scale of the college is larger and larger. Many colleges and universities have multiple campuses Today, this model apparently can no longer meet the requirements of improving the efficiency of educational administration (Robb SMC et al. 2015) [2]. The continuous development of information processing technology and network technology has promoted the improvement of work efficiency in various industries (Zhiguang DU. 2015) [3]. As an important part of China’s education and research industry, colleges and universities are developing rapidly in terms of informatization. Almost all colleges and universities have established a campus network system as a basic platform for other informatization application systems (Rodríguez-Muro M. 2015) [4]. Educational management information system is an important part of college information construction (Altman R et al. 2016) [5]. After years of development, the system of teaching administration in colleges and universities has become more mature and there are many © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 164–168, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_25

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related products on the market (Libkin L et al. 2016) [6]. However, with the continuous reform of the system of higher education in our country, many originally independent colleges have been merged into comprehensive universities with large scale and complete disciplines. There are many departments, departments and professions under the system, and many campuses are geographically far apart (Papenbrock T et al. 2015) [7]. The current form poses a challenge to the construction and application of the educational system. There are many problems with the traditional educational management information system (Li H et al. 2015) [8].

2 Related Work Database technology has been used for a long time in educational information management. In the seventies of last century, the reticular database and the hierarchical database have been applied in data management. Since the 1980s, the relational database has gradually become an application (Ferretti L et al. 2015) [9]. In theoretical research, distributed databases involve many research areas (Cheng Y et al. 2015) [10]. Because of the need to consider the data distribution, query optimization, data security issues in the process of distributed database construction, different experts and scholars have conducted in-depth research in different fields and also achieved some research results. At present, distributed database technology is still under continuous development. At present, it is in a difficult and crucial stage of tackling problems, mainly in the aspects of query optimization, information security profile and transaction management issues. In fact, the distributed database for transaction management requirements are relatively high, the corresponding cost is higher. At the same time, in the aspect of security, because the location of each node is transparent, the security of information data is hidden. At the same time, the data in distributed database is transmitted between nodes. In case of virus, the spread of the data is very fast. One of the future development directions of distributed database is to combine the related knowledge in artificial intelligence field. The data objects to be processed by distributed database have increased greatly in both quantity and category. Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology can reduce the dimensionality of real data, data mining and other processing functions. By simulating human thinking, Database system processing power.

3 Methodology College Teaching Management Distributed database platform data processing technology model. The data input function is involved in many subsystems of the system. It is the realization process of the basic energy that the educational system normally uses. The main process is that the user inputs the data through the system manually, the file is read and analyzed automatically, and the Chinese database management system network download and other ways to get the data, and save it to the database. For the set, the data will be saved directly to the database table; and for distributed database systems, you also need to consider the data allocation problem. In the above, we

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designed a data distribution algorithm based on clustering and genetic algorithm in distributed database. In this section, we discuss the implementation and application of data allocation algorithm with practical application. Theoretically, the aspects to be considered in calculating the cost after data allocation include the cost of transaction processing and the cost of data storage. However, the cost of data storage is negligible due to the low data storage cost at present, and only the cost of transaction processing is considered. In the above, we studied the problem of communication cost after clustering. In fact, the data operation needs to be considered in data distribution, including the query cost, the cost of local and remote update. The cost of a local query is calculated as the product of the average search cost within the cluster and the average number of searches for that cluster, multiplied by the data size, as shown in Eq. (1)     CLRsum Tk ; Di ; Cj ¼ CLR Tk ; Di ; Cj  SizeðDi Þ

ð1Þ

For the update operation, there are two types of local update and remote update. For the local update, the update cost is the product of the average update cost and the average update times of the cluster, multiplied by the size of the data, as is shown in formula (2):       CLUsum Tk ; Di ; Cj ¼ CLU Tk ; Di ; Cj  CountU Tk ; Di ; Cj  SizeðDi Þ

ð2Þ

The remote update cost of the data is the sum of the update costs of all the clusters involved in the update. The specific calculation formula is the average local update cost of each cluster, multiplied by the average update times of the cluster, and then multiplied by the update data Fragment size, as shown in Eq. (3): p m X n X   X     CLUsum Tk ; Di ; Cj ¼ CLU Tk ; Di ; Cj  CountU Tk ; Di ; Cj  SizeðDi Þ k¼1 i¼1 j¼1

ð3Þ The cost of remote communication occupies a more important proportion of the data access cost, which is equal to the product of the ratio of data update and the number of updates, multiplied by the communication cost between different clusters, and finally multiplied by the data size, (4) below: p m X n X   X     CRCsum Tk ; Di ; Cj ¼ Urate Tk ; Di ; Cj  CRC Tk ; Di ; Cj  SizeðDi Þ k¼1 i¼1 j¼1

ð4Þ The final access to the data after the allocation of costs as is shown in Eq. (5) below:

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      Cos Tk ; Di ; Cj ¼ CLRsum Tk ; Di ; Cj þ CLUsum Tk ; Di ; Cj     þ CRUsum Tk ; Di ; Cj þ CRCsum Tk ; Di ; Cj

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ð5Þ

The research of distributed database data allocation algorithm based on genetic algorithm is to minimize the cost of data processing. That is to say, minimizing (8) to achieve this goal, we first use the above formula for calculating the cost of communication between sites to separate different sites into a cluster. In educational administration information system, the division of clusters is relatively simple, because the geographical differences between different campuses in schools are more obvious, that is, one campus is divided into one cluster or one faculty is divided into one cluster. Then according to the steps of genetic algorithm, we use Eq. (8) as the fitness function.

4 Result Analysis and Discussion During the testing process, different numbers of data records were randomly generated through simulation software. The data were stored in a centralized database management system and a distributed database management system studied by the subject respectively. The results were compared as shown in Table 1 Shown: Table 1. Distributed database data distribution optimization algorithm contrast implementation Record the number of (million) 1 10 20

Centralized database storage asked (seconds) 0.4 8.5 38.0

Distributed database storage asked (seconds) 0.7 3.1 4.8

5 Conclusion Distributed database system used in various industries in the production and life of society, is the basis for data processing applications. In this paper, centralized management system in multi-campus university teaching system applications exist in the data redundancy, query efficiency is low and so on, the use of distributed database technology to build educational system basic data platform for the program, the use of distributed database reliable High sex, high operating efficiency and other features, to solve the multi-campus college database construction issues. In-depth study of the application of the teaching system is in colleges and universities, the use of My SQL database management system to achieve a concrete realization of a distributed database. Needs analysis is made on the function and performance of the system. The functional, logical, and physical deployment models of the school administration MIS are established, and the data architecture scheme of the system is designed. The main function blocks of the system are concretely realized in the development environment

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by using the Java language. The emphasis is on the data through the realization of the main functions and the support functions of the system for the application of the educational system. Acknowledgement. National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 70872092, No. 7172118); special scientific research fund for doctoral program of Higher Education (No.20136118110008); special fund construction project for key disciplines of universities in Shaanxi Province (No.107-00x902).

References 1. Jensen, C.S., Snodgrass, R.T.: Temporal data management. IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 11(1), 36–44 (2015) 2. Robb, S.M.C., Ross, E., Alvarado, A.A.S.: SmedGD: the Schmidtea mediterranea genome database. Genesis 53(8), 535–546 (2015) 3. Zhiguang, D.U.: Agricultural products E-commerce system. Agric. Netw. Inf. 155(1), 123– 132 (2015) 4. Rodríguez-Muro, M., Rezk, M.: Efficient SPARQL-to-SQL with R2RML mappings. Web Semant. Sci. Serv. Agents World Wide Web 33(3), 141–169 (2015) 5. Altman, R., Gray, J., He, Y.H., et al.: A Calabi-Yau database: threefolds constructed from the Kreuzer-Skarkelist. J. High Energy Phys. 2015(2), 1–50 (2015) 6. Skyline, T., Skyline, T.: Skyline operator. Database 68(1), 421–430 (2016) 7. Libkin, L.: SQL’s three-valued logic and certain answers. Acm Trans. Database Syst. 41(1), 94–109 (2016) 8. Papenbrock, T., Kruse, S., Naumann, F.: Divide & conquer-based inclusion dependency discovery. Proc. VLDB Endow. 8(7), 774–785 (2015) 9. Li, H., Chan, C.Y., Maier, D.: Query from examples: an iterative, data-driven approach to query construction. Proc. VLDB Endow. 8(13), 2158–2169 (2015) 10. Ferretti, L., Pierazzi, F., Colajanni, M., et al.: Scalable architecture for multi-user encrypted SQL operations on cloud database services. IEEE Trans. Cloud Comput. 2(4), 448–458 (2015)

Financial Sustainable Growth of SUNING Based on the Network Economy Service Platform Yige Ma(&) Department of Economics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800, China [email protected] Abstract. Sustainable growth management has received more and more attention today as China’s rapid economic development takes off. From the point of view of the development of many enterprises, too fast or too slow growth rate will cause companies to fall into a financial dilemma. This requires that the development needs of the enterprise are matched with the balance between capital and resources. This article takes SUNING, a listed company, as a case study to study its financial sustainable growth capability in the past six years. The results show that SUNING has not achieved sustained financial growth. Therefore, this article further analyzes the various factors that affect the financial sustainable growth ability of SUNING, draws conclusions and puts forward recommendations, hoping to provide some valuable methods and countermeasures for other enterprises to achieve financial sustainable growth in the future. Keywords: Retail industry  Sustainable development rate  Real growth rate  Driving factors

 Sustainable growth

1 Introduction Nowadays, Fast growth has become the goal orientation that attracts the development of many commercial enterprises. Many managers believe that the faster an enterprise grows, the more its value will increase [1]. From a financial perspective, however, too fast growth may lead to capital chain fracture and bring financial risks, too slow growth may lead to idle capital of enterprises, which requires the development of enterprises to match and coordinate with resources [2]. This paper will combine the data of SUNING, a listed company, to analyze the company’s ability of sustainable financial growth, and discuss the countermeasures and Suggestions for improvement, hoping to provide some reference for the study on sustainable financial growth of other companies in the future.

2 Theoretical Model Financial sustainable growth means the growth rate that can adapt to the growth ratio of shareholders’ equity when increasing liabilities, and ensure that the financial structure of enterprises is not changed and the financial resources of enterprises are not consumed. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 169–174, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_26

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Robert c. Higgins [3], a veteran American financial scientist, was the first to begin a quantitative study of sustainable growth. In 1977, for the first time, he proposed the use of sustainable growth of corporate finance from the perspective of corporate financial management, defined the meaning of sustainable growth rate (SGR), and established a sustainable growth model (SGM). Sustainable growth is the maximum rate at which a company’s sales can grow without depleting its financial resources [4], says Higgins. JamescVan Horne and JohnWatchTowers define sustainable growth as the maximum percentage annual increase in business sales that can be achieved at a given operating, debt and dividend payout ratio [5]. They argue that sustainable growth is the maximum sales growth a business can achieve at these target rates. Based on the static quantitative model, the dynamic model is established for the first time. If the actual sales growth rate is higher than the sustainable growth rate, then the operating, debt and dividend payment ratio may not be sustained, and the enterprise can only increase debt or equity to cope, which may lead to changes in the capital structure of the company, produce negative effects, and even lead to the bankruptcy of the company [6].

3 Research Methodology 3.1

Variable Definition

Since the models of both Higgins and Van Horne are built on the same assumption, their growth rates are very similar. On the basis of reading a large number of literatures and based on past practical experience and research practice, this paper decided to adopt Higgins static sustainable growth model, which is more flexible, simpler and easier to operate, making it more suitable as the theoretical model basis for subsequent data analysis.

Table 1. The variables involved in the Higgins model Variables Net profit margin Total asset turnover Retention ratio Equity Multiplier Real growth rate Sustainable growth rate

Calculate formula Net income/Net revenue Revenue/Average total asset 1 − Dividends/Net income Asset/Equity Net revenue(end)/Net revenue(beg) − 1 Net profit margin  Total asset turnover  Retention ratio  Equity Multiplier

The variables involved in Higgins model and their calculation formulas are shown in Table 1. SGR as a measure of financial sustainable growth ability of enterprises has very important significance. The SGR described in this paper adopts the concept of Higgins model, which refers to the maximum financial growth rate of a company, provided that current operating efficiency and financial policies are maintained. It’s

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actually an equilibrium growth model [7]. When the Higgins model is used to assess the sustainable financial growth ability, the enterprise’s SGR is generally calculated according to a calculation formula in the model, and then the financial sustainable growth ability of the company is judged by comparing the size and difference of the actual growth rate and the SGR of the company. The actual growth rate (ARG) refers to the percentage increase in the company’s sales in the current year relative to the previous year’s sales revenue [8]. 3.2

Sample Selection and Database

In this paper, the following criteria are used to select the case companies: First, based on the industry classification of listed companies in China securities regulatory commission; Second, based on the assumptions of Higgins model; Third, representative in the industry. Accordingly, SUNING was selected as the case company and the period from 2013 to 2018 was taken as the investigation period. The data of the company are derived from the annual financial reports of SUNING in the past six years and financial websites such as sina and yahoo. The required financial ratios are calculated and analyzed by Excel and SPSS. 3.3

Descriptive Analysis

The calculation results of SGR and AGR of SUNING from 2013 to 2018 are shown in Table 2.

Table 2. SGR and AGR for 2013–2018 Year/indicators SGR 2018 15.44% 2017 4.20% 2016 0.09% 2015 1.39% 2014 1.68% 2013 0.01% Mean 3.8% Standard deviation 0.0590

AGR 30.35% 26.48% 9.62% 24.44% 3.45% 7.05% 16.9% 0.1149

What we can see from Table 2 is that the average AGR of SUNING is 16.9%, which is much higher than the average SGR of 3.8%, and the AGR is always higher than the SGR. In 2015 and 2017, AGR show abnormal growth compared with the previous years. Although the AGR after 2015 is similar to the trend of SGR, there are still great differences between the two. Generally speaking, if the AGR of an enterprise deviates from SGR, there are two possibilities [9]. One is that the AGR is lower than the SGR. When evaluating the sustainable financial growth, it is necessary to determine whether it is because of poor profitability and inability to obtain external financing, or because the company does not

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invest enough financial resources to choose to seize investment opportunities. Further explained, if sufficient profit growth is not achieved, the enterprise may lose the confidence of creditors, resulting in creditors no longer lend to the enterprise, and it will be more difficult for the enterprise to obtain external financial resources. At this time, the factors involved in the financial crisis may have been quietly lurking in the internal, urgent need for the enterprise to take measures to improve the status quo to change. If the above situation is not the case and the profit continues to increase, it may be because the enterprise has chosen a more prudent mode of operation and failed to make full use of the resources of the company [10]. On the other hand, the AGR has been higher than the SGR. This situation may be due to the fact that the internal resources of the enterprise are not enough to support the rapid growth of the enterprise at the present stage. In the case of increased profits, in addition to external financing, enterprises can also support the growth of excess part through increased profits [11]. However, when the growth is supported mainly by equity or debt financing, the capital is unstable and the cost is high. Such growth is not sustainable and is unreasonable. Financial sustainable growth rate usually reflects the enterprise in established financial strategy, capital structure, dividend distribution way, the inner motive power of enterprise development [12], such as the AGR and SGR is far from the situation is not reasonable, SUNING’s managers should be caused take seriously. We need to use a more scientific and convincing way to further in-depth research analysis and verification and make this goal realize. 3.4

Correlation Analysis

It is necessary to judge the SGR of SUNING from the perspective of statistics and test if there is a significant difference between the actual growth rate and the sustainable growth rate. In the case of small samples, this paper intends to use Student’s t test. This is because the t-test always suitable for the test with a small number of paired samples (n < 30). The sample size of this paper, n = 6 < 30, belongs to a small sample. After testing the data with the k-s test, the results meet the normal distribution and meet the prerequisites for the t-test of paired samples. The statistic results are shown in Table 3 below.

Table 3. K-S test N

AGR SGR 6 6 Mean 0.168983 0.038017 Normal parametera,b Standard deviation 0.1149308 0.0590051 Most extreme difference Absolute 0.244 0.307 Positive 0.237 0.307 Negative −0.244 −0.260 Statistic test 0.244 0.307 significance (double-tailed) 0.200 0.080 a verify that the distribution is normal; b Calculation based on data.

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Table 4. T-test N Correlation Sig. AGR–SGR 5 .693 .127

Table 4 shows the correlation coefficient of the paired sample T test of sustainable growth rate and actual growth rate is 0.693, P = 0.127 > 0.05, indicating that there is no correlation between the two groups of data.

Table 5. Results of significance test between AGR and SGR Paired difference Mean

Real growth rate–sustainable growth rate

Std. deviation

13.10% 8.54%

t

Df Sig.

Mean of standard error

95% confidence interval Lower Upper

3.49%

4.14% 22.06% 3.76 5

0.013

In Table 5 it has been shown that the significance level P is less than 0.05, which means correlation results was insignificant by AGR and SGR of SUNING from 2013 to 2018. SUNING has not achieved sustainable growth.

4 Conclusions and Suggestions 4.1

Conclusions

Through the comparative analysis of the AGR and the SGR, it can be seen that there is a great deviation in the trend of the two. The actual growth rate of the company is much higher than the sustainable growth rate. Facing the impact of emerging e-commerce companies such as JD, Taobao and Amazon, SUNING, as a representative of traditional retail, strives for transformation. Since 2013, it has also started radical reform, replanning its strategic layout and positioning itself as a comprehensive e-commerce enterprise, with a wide range of businesses from electrical appliances to various household articles. After offline to online and then put forward the development of the integration of online collaborative after a long journey, so lay about a speeding and radical change as a result, too quick to invest funds dispersed and into unfamiliar areas to some extent, restricted the development of main business profit fell sharply, reform the dividend is not released in time, failed to achieve sustainable growth. 4.2

Suggestions

SUNING should grasp the pace of strategic transformation and set progressive financial goals. At the beginning of the reform, suning had some radical financial strategies,

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which led to a sharp decline in the free cash flow of the enterprise. However, in order to achieve the success of the transformation, it must ensure the stable operation while investing funds. Excessive investment will disperse the resources of the enterprise and reduce the utilization efficiency of capital. SUNING should carefully consider and reasonably plan the proportion of each investment field, maintain a sound operation structure, reduce financial risks and avoid financial crisis caused by excessive investment. In recent years, the accounts receivable and inventory of SUNING increased greatly in the process of reform, which reduced the utilization efficiency of working capital and increased the company’s operating risk. SUNING needs to strengthen the control of these funds to ensure that the company can retain enough sustainable and stable cash flow for daily operations.

References 1. Mukherjee, T., Sen, S.S.: Sustainable growth rate and its determinants: A study on some selected companies in India. Glob. Multidiscip. 10 (2018) 2. Rahim, N.: Sustainable growth rate and firm performance: A case study in Malaysia. Int. J. Manag., Innov. & Entrep. Res. 3(2), 48–60 (2017) 3. Solow, R.M.: Sustainability: An economist’s perspective. In: Economics of the Environment: Selected Readings. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham (2019) 4. Arora, L., Kumar, S., Verma, P.: The Anatomy of sustainable growth rate of Indian manufacturing firms. Glob. Bus. Rev. 19(4), 1050–1071 (2018) 5. Pandit, N., Tejani, R.: Sustainable growth rate of textile and apparel segment of the Indian retail sector. Glob. J. Manag. Bus. Res. 11(6) (2011) 6. Memon, M.Z., Channar, Z.A., Obaid, S.: Dynamic relationship among sustainable growth rate, profitability and liquidity of firms: A case study from pharmaceutical sector in Pakistan. J. Bus. Adm. Manag. Sci. (JOBAMS) 1(2), 113–124 (2017) 7. Phillips, M., Anderson, S., Volker, J.: Understanding small private retail firm growth using the sustainable growth model. J. Financ. Account. 3, 1–11 (2010) 8. Radasanu, A.C.: Cash-flow sustainable growth rate models. J. Public Adm., Financ. Law 7, 62–70 (2015) 9. Chazireni, B., Kader, A.: The Impact of CSR on the sustainable growth of wholesale and retail SMEs: The case of eThekwini Municipal region. Expert. J. Bus. Manag. 7(2), 221–229 (2019) 10. Ćorić, G., Katavic, I., Kopecki, D.: Sustainable growth of SMEs in Croatia through development of entrepreneurial skills. Challenges Of Europe, p. 207, 2011 11. Javalgi, R.R.G., Radulovich, L.P., Pendleton, G., Scherer, R.F.: Sustainable competitive advantage of internet firms: a strategic framework and implications for global marketers. Int. Mark. Rev. 22(6), 658–672 (2005) 12. Constantiou, I., Eaton, B., Tuunainen, V.K.: The evolution of a sharing platform into a sustainable business. 2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), pp. 1297–1306. IEEE, January 2016

Logistics Transfer Center Planning Based on Internet of Things Technology Hongzhen Zhang(&), Guibin Zhang, and Xiaohua Cai Hao Jing College of Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 712046, China [email protected]

Abstract. In the logistics system, logistics transshipment is the guarantee to meet the service, but it is also one of the main reasons for logistics costs. The information sharing in the modern logistics system makes it possible for the inventory to be shared and quickly flowed between the level logistics nodes, thereby improving the service level and greatly reducing the total cost of system operation. This article uses RFID radio frequency technology related to the Internet of Things and logistics transfer management system for integration and realization. Use modern logistics technology to optimize its transshipment and distribution process, realize transshipment and distribution information sharing, and improve management efficiency. This article first analyzes the application and development status of RFID technology, its advantages and disadvantages and its working principle, and introduces RFID radio frequency technology into the logistics transfer management system. Aiming at some problems in the current logistics transshipment management, this paper determines the system design goals and the software and hardware composition framework by analyzing the requirements of the implementation of RFID-based logistics logistics transshipment systems. At the same time, the in-depth analysis and research of key technologies such as the implementation process of logistics transfer management, RFID tag readers, and middleware are conducted. In order to improve the intelligent management of transshipment materials, the informatization of distribution management and the intelligent efficiency of enterprise management. Keywords: Internet of Things Transfer strategy

 Logistics transfer  REID technology 

1 Introduction The supply chain is a model that connects suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and retailers to the end users through information flow, logistics, and capital flow, etc. into a whole functional network chain structure [1]. Through effective management, the cost of the supply chain is likely to be reduced to about 35% of the current cost; and inventory is an important part of the supply chain, which refers to all items and resources reserved by an organization. The cost of inventory is in the logistics cost. It accounts for a very high percentage, which is the driving force behind large companies to reduce logistics costs through inventory, and the economic benefits brought by © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 175–182, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_27

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inventory reduction are also very obvious. Therefore, many enterprises want to keep the inventory level as low as possible, or even “zero inventory” in the process of production arrangement and supply chain management [2]. Management concepts such as just-in-time production and lean logistics have also attracted great attention from academic circles and corporate management, and practical applications have also achieved outstanding results [3]. However, as a complex network system, the supply chain system is in an environment where competition and cooperation coexist, and there are a lot of uncertain factors [4]. Supply chain managers have to cope with the needs of customer uncertainty. When encountering large demand fluctuations due to external or internal reasons, how to maintain a certain amount of safety stock and flexible replenishment and transfer strategies are guaranteed services Level, an important condition for reducing system operating costs [5]. Now it has entered the information age, computer technology is widely used in the field of logistics, people have realized the importance of Modern Logistics Transfer Center Planning [6]. With the gradual expansion of the enterprise scale, the increase of product types and the large amount of inventory, the transfer center of many logistics enterprises has not carried out reasonable planning and design, and the space utilization rate is low. In addition, the traditional management methods and means are relatively backward, so it is completely dependent on manual management [7]. For example, in the process of material in and out of warehouse and inventory, data collection and recording mainly adopt manual mode, resulting in low efficiency and high error rate, unable to understand the quantity of products and their distribution in the transfer center in real time, and unable to make statistics of products in real time, and data statistics and audit between transfer centers adopt manual mode, resulting in inaccurate information or false information [8, 9]. The distribution of materials can only be carried out when the stock, state and storage point of materials are accurately mastered. Therefore, the traditional management method can no longer meet the current operation demand, so it is an urgent problem to optimize the storage and distribution operation process and improve the management status [10, 11]. It is necessary to establish an effective information network and computer management information system to manage the transfer of goods, which can realize the sharing of storage and distribution information. It is an important basic management project to continuously improve the intelligence, information, networking and digitalization of the material distribution management of the transfer center, to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises, reduce costs, improve the utilization rate of resources, and promote the rapid development of enterprises [12]. In this paper, the planning system of logistics transfer center based on Internet of things technology is mainly used for the transfer and distribution of materials in logistics enterprises. In the process of material transfer, RFID technology is used to automatically identify and collect material information, which is processed by EPC and ons middleware to generate the warehousing list. The staff can query the material information in real time; in the process of material distribution, various data are used for the required material information The system can record the track, environmental information and location of materials, give out sound and light status indication to the corresponding shelf or storage location of materials, and carry out online monitoring and other related functions in the process of transportation. The system can also set up a

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logistics industry platform in the form of network, which can realize the mutual visit and sharing of logistics enterprises’ transfer, vehicles, personnel and information, greatly improve the management efficiency, and realize the intellectualization, digitalization, networking and informatization of management.

2 Method 2.1

Internet of Things Technology

The technology of Internet of things is simply to realize the Internet of things. At this stage, it is agreed to understand the concept of Internet of things from two aspects. From the technical level, the Internet of things transmits the identified information to the designated information processing center through the intelligent induction identification device installed on the object, so as to realize the interaction between things and people, things and things. From the application level to understand, all objects through a network are linked together to form the Internet of things, while the perfect combination with the Internet, human beings and the physical world for interactive docking, in order to more convenient management of all aspects of life. Among the key technologies in the development of Internet of things, wireless sensor and RFID technology have complementary advantages. RFID technology mainly has advantages in object information recognition, easy to achieve target recognition management, while the key has the advantages of fast read-write speed, strong anti-interference ability and low cost. It focuses on the networking of wireless sensor networks to achieve rapid data transmission, simple installation and deployment, low cost. Powerful combination makes the Internet of things technology has great advantages. RFID and wireless sensor network can be integrated at two different levels. 2.2

RFID System

RFID (radio frequency identification) is a kind of technology that uses non-contact way to identify objects automatically. It uses the antenna to transmit radio frequency signal and electromagnetic information in the space coupling transmission mode to automatically identify the information of space static objects or moving goods. RFID RFID tags contain relevant data information. RFID tags are composed of ID card, IC card and electronic tag. RFID tag is easy to install, and its installation location can be placed in different places according to the needs, mainly for the convenience of reading and writing the data stored in the RFID tag, and completing the identification statistics of the item information. Most of the labels can be pasted on the surface of the object or on the tray, which is easy to be read and written by the reader. The core part of the Internet of things is to realize the automatic identification of goods information, information data upload server sharing and intelligent terminal control by using RFID technology, network technology and big data server. RFID tags store general format information and standard interface information, and transmit the information collected by sensors to the central information management system through wireless network to realize the identification of goods information. Through

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the existing network technology, computer application technology, big data to achieve information exchange, information sharing, automatic management of items. The working process of the system includes the following three steps. (1) Firstly, electronic tags are used to identify the attributes of objects. The information stored in tags includes static and dynamic attributes. (2) The reader reads the attributes of the identification items, sends the acquired data information to the RF conversion module, modulates the data format of the information and transmits it to the network. (3) Finally, the receiving end transfers the information data containing the object to the information processing center through the network after transforming the format. In the RFID system of the Internet of things, each item has a unique RFID code corresponding to it. The detailed information and attributes corresponding to RFID code are stored in the electronic tag of the article. Among them, the property of the goods includes the name, category, date of manufacture, place of production, etc. These data information are finally summarized in the database of the Internet of things information management server. After RFID system reads the contents of electronic tags, the RFID information code read is directly sent to the Internet of things middleware; the middleware server transforms the data and transmits it to the data center through the Internet. After the data center receives the query instruction sent by the Internet of things interpretation server, it looks up the data information matching the identification code according to the rules, which is similar to the server parsing function in the Internet Yes, guide the middleware server to the Internet of things information publishing server to read the detailed information of the item; after receiving the query information of the middleware, the information publishing server will send the detailed data information of the item to the middleware, so as to send back the detailed information corresponding to the item.

3 Experiment Step 1: Firstly, it mainly analyzes the current planning situation of domestic and foreign logistics transfer center, improves the existing problems in China’s logistics transfer, puts forward the transformation scheme of logistics transfer center based on Internet of things RFID radio frequency technology, and designs the research content and organization structure of this paper. Then, the application of logistics transfer center is analyzed. According to the requirements of the system, the whole software and hardware scheme is designed. It focuses on the analysis and research of RFID transfer center process application. Step 2: Then it introduces the technology of Internet of things, the technology structure of Internet of things, the technology of perception and identification, and deeply studies RFID technology, and analyzes the system structure, working principle and application characteristics. Finally, the paper summarizes the logistics center and logistics transfer information technology, analyzes its advantages and disadvantages, and provides technical support for the better construction of RFID Logistics Transfer

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Center planning. At the same time, based on RFID technology, the design of logistics transfer center system: firstly, the minimum system of single chip microcomputer is introduced, and the temperature and humidity measuring circuit, display circuit, key alarm circuit in the design are explained. At the same time, RFID system design, EPC middleware, ons middleware. Analyze and design the software flow of the logistics transfer system and the distribution management system. Step 3: Finally, this paper will discuss and compare the impact of three different strategies on the overall average expected total cost of the system: preventive transshipment, emergency full inventory sharing transshipment and control inventory transshipment. At the same time, when there are supply capacity constraints and transshipment strategy, for replenishment decision of periodic observation limited period inventory problem, we will observe whether there is a structure of interval ordering strategy. At the same time This paper studies the structural characteristics of transit decision-making.

4 Discuss 4.1

Analysis of Experimental Results

In the stage of system testing, the transit logistics center uses the key indicators of system realization to evaluate the operation performance of RFID based logistics transit system, that is, the key evaluation indicators and their effects achieved after using the system are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Comparison of data analysis of RFID warehouse management system

Cargo transfer speed Cargo throughput Error rate Labor costs Transit Center Management Cost

Traditional management system 70T/H 800T/H 5.3% 120 thousand 50 thousand

RFID transfer management system 100T/H 1000T/H 4.5% 50 thousand 30 thousand

Using the same method to test the location label, the results are almost the same. It shows that the location of the label, the temperature and humidity environment and other factors have some influence on the data of the acquisition system. This system can basically identify and read and write pallet labels and location labels accurately, which meets the company’s functional requirements for collecting logistics and transportation information. For the order decision under the control of inventory transfer strategy, the cost of comparing the full inventory sharing strategy is shown in Fig. 1.

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Fig. 1. Comparison of the total cost of controlling inventory transfer with full inventory sharing and controlling inventory transfer strategies

Compared with the total inventory sharing strategy, the control inventory transfer strategy optimizes the cost target. However, in the first phase, the cost reduction is less, and the two ways of ordering are the same, that is to say, in the single phase or shortterm problems, the effect of the two transfer strategies is similar. In the long run, the control of inventory transfer strategy has little effect on the cost target optimization of two systems with the same cost structure, the same demand distribution and little change. 4.2

Design and Analysis of Logistics Transfer Center Planning System

The purpose of the design of the logistics transfer center system based on the Internet of things technology is to build an intelligent network logistics transfer system. This system can realize the automatic tracking and goods management of the whole process of products from warehousing to transfer, and complete the implementation of automatic data processing and updating, and ensure the accuracy of data. Therefore, to put the whole transfer under the control of the management system, the basic idea of system design is: (1) In the whole transfer operation area, the identification equipment and covered wireless network are laid, so that the logistics transfer operation data can be transmitted in time. (2) When the articles are put into storage, electronic labels shall be pasted on the whole pallet, box or large package articles which are easy to install labels. When operating in the warehouse, the operator can determine whether the operation is correct according to the information on the label, and can also provide convenience for the operator to select the driving route. It should be noted that in the design of goods label, it should be considered that the label can be reused, so that the label can also be reused after the goods are out of the warehouse. (3) Electronic labels shall also be attached to each fixed storage location in transit, which are called storage location labels. The function of this kind of label is

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similar to that of goods label. On the one hand, it is convenient for operators to judge whether the warehouse operation is correct or not, on the other hand, it is convenient to find the corresponding warehouse location when the goods enter the warehouse. (4) Warehouse operation is inseparable from people and forklifts, so corresponding labels should also be set up. For operators, they can be equipped with handheld wireless data terminals, which can receive operation instructions, confirm the operation position, judge whether the operation goods are accurate and return to the actual operation. For forklift, AGV (automatic guided vehicle) can be used as the platform to install RFID reader, control equipment and wireless communication equipment. Every day, AGV car with reader installed can be used to automatically check the warehouse at the set time and transmit the check results to the system management center.

5 Conclusion The work of this paper includes: through the analysis of the current situation of domestic and foreign logistics transfer planning, according to the problems existing in China’s logistics transfer to improve, put forward the logistics transfer center transformation scheme based on the Internet of things RFID radio frequency technology. This paper introduces the technology of Internet of things, the structure of Internet of things, the technology of perception and identification, and deeply studies RFID technology, and analyzes the system structure, working principle and application characteristics. This paper summarizes the logistics center and logistics transfer information technology, analyzes its advantages and disadvantages, and provides technical support for the better construction of RFID logistics transfer planning and management. Overall analysis of the application of logistics transfer planning and management. According to the requirements of the system, the whole software and hardware scheme is designed. It focuses on the analysis and research of RFID logistics transfer process application. Acknowledgements 1) Project Category: Scientific Research Project of Shaanxi Education Department 2) Project Number: 19JK0154 3) Project Name: Planning of Logistics Transfer Center in Xi Xian New Area Free Trade Zone.

References 1. Razzaque, M.A., Milojevic-Jevric, M., Palade, A.: Middleware for Internet of things: a survey. IEEE Internet Things J. 3(1), 70–95 (2017) 2. Palade, A., Cabrera, C., Li, F.: Middleware for internet of things: an evaluation in a smallscale IoT environment. J. Reliab. Intell. Environ. 4, 1–21 (2018) 3. Cartlidge, E.: The Internet of things: from hype to reality. Opt. Photonics News 28(9), 26 (2017)

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4. Perkel, J.M.: The Internet of things comes to the lab. Nature 542(7639), 125–126 (2017) 5. Akpakwu, G., Silva, B., Hancke, G.P.: A survey on 5G networks for the Internet of things: communication technologies and challenges. IEEE Access 5(12), 3619–3647 (2017) 6. Arias, O., Wurm, J., Hoang, K.: Privacy and security in Internet of things and wearable devices. IEEE Trans. Multi-Scale Comput. Syst. 1(2), 99–109 (2017) 7. Jianbing, N., Zhang K., Lin, X.: Securing Fog computing for internet of things applications: challenges and solutions. IEEE Commun. Surv. & Tutor. PP(99), 1–1 (2017) 8. Pengfei, H., Ning, H., Qiu, T.: Fog computing-based face identification and resolution scheme in Internet of things. IEEE Trans. Industr. Inf. 13(4), 1910–1920 (2017) 9. Zhang, D., Zhao, S., Yang, L.T.: Nextme: localization using cellular traces in internet of things. IEEE Trans. Industr. Inf. 11(2), 302–312 (2017) 10. Lin, X., Bergman, J., Gunnarsson, F.: Positioning for the Internet of things: a 3GPP perspective. IEEE Commun. Mag. 55(12), 179–185 (2017) 11. Yang, G., Zhang, Q., Liang, Y.-C.: Cooperative Ambient Backscatter communications for Green Internet-of-Things. IEEE Internet Things J. 5(2), 1116–1130 (2018) 12. Gomez, C., Arcia-Moret, A., Crowcroft, J.: TCP in the Internet of things: from ostracism to prominence. IEEE Internet Comput. PP(99), 1–1 2018

Consumers’ Purchasing Intention of Regional Brand on E-commerce Platform Jing Xu(&) and Zhiling Tian School of Economics, Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou 730000, China [email protected]

Abstract. Taking the development of Liujiaxia regional brand on e-commerce platform as the breakthrough point, this paper studies the factors that may affect consumers’ willingness to purchase regional brands on e-commerce platforms, and relevant countermeasures are put forward for the development of Liujiaxia regional brand. Keywords: Green development concept in the new stage poverty alleviation  Research on strategy

 E-commerce

1 Introduction On October 18th, 2018, the Department of Commerce of Gansu Province and the Department of Commerce of Yongjing County hosted and released the “Liujiaxia” agricultural product public brand nationwide. This is regarded as the initial stage for the development of Liujiaxia brand. However, domestic and foreign scholars have made some research results on the regional brand and purchase intention respectively, but the literature combining the two is rare [1–5]. In this paper, Liujiaxia was taken as the research example, while the regional brand, the electronic commerce and the purchasing intention were combined with each other, so as to study the influencing factors of regional brands in the e-commerce platforms on the consumers’ purchase intention.

2 Definition of Related Concepts and Theoretical Basis 2.1

Definition of Related Concepts

Regional brand refers to the regional characteristics and the overall image of the region, which is generally expressed as the regional name and industrial name in form, and specifically as the collective trademark and geographical indication. Attitude on brand refers to the consumer’s evaluation of a certain brand. It refers to the different brands of a certain product and their inherent characteristics, and thus a series of related evaluations is formed. These evaluations will affect the consumer’s purchasing behavior or their decision-making. The popularity of the regional brand refers to the measurement over the consumers’ awareness and their understanding of the connotation value of regional brands. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 183–189, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_28

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The origin of a regional brand refers to the place where the company with the brand name is located. It is implied in the origin of a well-known brand, so it is also called “the nationality of the brand”. Whether a regional brand is at a premium depends on consumers’ consumption psychology. For consumers, the more trust they have in the brand, the more willing they are to pay a higher price for that brand. The quality of the regional brand refers to the product quality of a regional brand, which mainly reflects the value of durability, reliability, accuracy and ease of operation of brand products in the region. 2.2

Relevant Theories

Consumer’s specific perception of goods depends on the consumers’ cognition degree. This specific perception of goods will have a critical impact on consumer’s purchasing intention. Purchase intention is a subjective attitude when consumers do shopping, and it is the probability that consumers will purchase specific goods on the premise that their income will not change. Consumers’ purchasing behavior is determined by their purchasing intention, while the forming of such purchasing intention will be influenced by other variables. Consumers’ Purchasing Behavior Theory is usually the behavior of individuals or units to purchase products or services in order to meet the needs of individuals, living or production, which will be affected by various factors [6–10].

3 Empirical Analysis on Consumers’ Purchasing Intention of Regional Brand on E-commerce Platforms 3.1

Descriptive Statistical Analysis

As we could see from the statistical results of the questionnaire, among 254 respondents, 44.9% of them were men, and the rest 55.1% were women; The age of the respondents was mainly between 21 and 35 years old; Among the respondents, 81.1% of them were of Bachelor’s degree, 9.4% of them were of Master’s degree or above, 3.9% of them were of junior college for professional degree, 3.1% of them were of high school degree, and the rest 2.4% were of junior high school degree or below; The proportion of consumers with monthly incomes ranging from 3,000 to 5,000 was 40.9% of all the respondents, the proportion of consumers with monthly incomes for below 3,000 was 37.4% of all the respondents, the proportion of consumers with monthly incomes ranging from 5,000 to 8,000 was 6.3% of all the respondents, the proportion of consumers with monthly incomes ranging from 8,000 to 10,000 was 1.2% of all the respondents, the proportion of consumers with monthly incomes for above 10,000 was 3.1% of all the respondents, while the rest 11% were with no incomes; And with regard to the frequency of the shopping online, the proportion of

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people shopping online for at least once a week was 50.8% of all the respondents, the proportion of people shopping online for at least once a month was 40.2% of all the respondents, the proportion of people shopping online for at least once a quarter was 3.1% of all the respondents, the proportion of people shopping online for at least once in half a year was 2.4% of all the respondents, while the rest 3.5% of all the respondents were shopping online for once a year or even less. 3.2

The Influence of the Awareness on the Regional Brand on Consumers’ Purchasing Intention

Consumers’ understanding of regional brands would have different reactions to the marketing of the brands, which will affect consumers’ purchasing intention. SPSS software was adopted to carry out various analyses below, with the process table omitted. The correlation coefficient between the popularity of the regional brand and consumers’ purchasing intention was 0.722, and the concomitant probability value of statistical test was less than 0.001, which had indicated that there was a positive correlation between the popularity of the brand and the consumers’ purchasing intention. F = 273.867, and the concomitant probability value was q < 0.001, which had indicated that there was a linear regression relationship between the popularity of the regional brand and the purchasing intention, while the regression effect was very significant. t = 16.549, and the concomitant probability value was q < 0.001, which had indicated that the regression coefficient test was significant. This also proved that the popularity of the regional brand had a significant influence on the customers’ purchasing intention. 3.3

The Influence of the Origin of Regional Brand on Consumers’ Purchasing Intention

The correlation coefficient between the origin of the regional brand and consumers’ purchasing intention was 0.544, and the concomitant probability value was less than 0.001, which had indicated that there was a positive correlation between the origin of the regional brand and consumers’ purchasing intention. F = 15.921, and the concomitant probability value was q < 0.001, which had indicated that there was linear regression relationship between the origin of the regional brand and consumers’ purchasing intention, while the regression effect was very significant. t = 11.738, and the concomitant probability value was q < 0.001, which had indicated that the regression coefficient test was significant. This also proved that the origin of the regional brand had a significant influence on the customers’ purchasing intention.

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The Influence of Online Shopping Environment of the Regional Brand on Consumers’ Purchasing Intention

The correlation coefficient between the online shopping environment of the regional brand and consumers’ purchasing intention was 0.490, and the concomitant probability value was less than 0.001, which had indicated that there was a positive correlation between the online shopping environment of the regional brand and consumers’ purchasing intention. F = 79.717, and the concomitant probability value was q < 0.001, which had indicated that there was linear regression relationship between the online shopping environment of the regional brand and consumers’ purchasing intention, while the regression effect was very significant. t = 13.520, and the concomitant probability value was q < 0.001, which had indicated that the regression coefficient test was significant. This also proved that the online shopping environment of the regional brand had a significant influence on the customers’ purchasing intention. 3.5

The Influence of the Premium of the Regional Brand on Consumers’ Purchasing Intention

Among all the respondents, 69.3% of them agreed with the premium on the brand, and the range for accepting the premium was concentrated in 10%–20%, in other words, consumers were willing to buy regional brands within a reasonable range of the premium. The following data analysis was conducted based on a reasonable premium. The correlation coefficient between the premium on the regional brand and consumers’ purchasing intention was 0.407, and the concomitant probability value was less than 0.001, which had indicated that there was positive correlation between the premium on the regional brand and consumers’ purchasing intention. F = 37.599, and the concomitant probability value was q < 0.001, which had indicated that there was a linear regression relationship between the premium on the regional brand and consumers’ purchasing intention, while the regression effect was very significant. t = 7.933, the concomitant probability value was q < 0.001, which had indicated that the regression coefficient test was significant. This also proved that the premium on the regional brand had a significant influence on the customers’ purchasing intention. 3.6

The Influence of the Quality of the Regional Brand on Consumers’ Purchasing Intention

The correlation coefficient between the quality of the regional brand and consumers’ purchasing intention was 0.808, and the concomitant probability value was less than 0.001, which had indicated that there was positive correlation between the quality of the regional brand and consumers’ purchasing intention. F = 475.365, and the concomitant probability value was q < 0.001, which had indicated that there was a linear regression relationship between the quality of the

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regional brand and consumers’ purchasing intention, while the regression effect was very significant. t = 60.088, and the concomitant probability value was q < 0.001, which had indicated that the regression coefficient test was significant. This also proved that the quality of the regional brand had a significant influence on the customers’ purchasing intention.

4 Countermeasures to Improve Consumers’ Willingness to Buy Regional Brands Products 4.1

Countermeasures for the Popularity of the Regional Brand

Firstly, the brand development of agricultural products should be strengthened. As in the construction of Liujiaxia agricultural product brand, the quality of agricultural products must be guaranteed first, and the improvement of farmers’ quality is also the key to ensure the quality of agricultural products. For governments, training courses shall be set up for farmers, the awareness of brand promotion and brand maintenance of Liujiaxia agricultural products shall be strengthened, and the capital investment in leading agricultural products enterprises shall be increased, so as to make them play a demonstration effect in the promotion of agricultural products brands. Secondly, the integrated marketing strategy should be adopted. For governments, the integrated marketing strategy shall be adopted to keep the brand information of Liujiaxia to be consistent with each other in the long term, so that all the brand information will be continuously deepened in the impression of consumers, and a brand association for consumers will be formed; Also, the integration of brand communication activities, such as advertising, promotion, packaging and after-sales service, shall be carried out, so as to make the brand-related information obtained by consumers through different channels consistent with each other, thus the consumers’ cognition on Liujiaxia brand could be strengthened. 4.2

Countermeasures for the Origin of the Regional Brand

The government should strictly control the safety for the product quality. The government must attach great importance to the quality and safety system of Liujiaxia products. Also, the product quality inspection mechanism shall be strengthened, and the corresponding quality control standards shall be implemented, so as to lay an objective foundation for the construction of a sound image for the origin of Liujiaxia brand. The tourism industry should be vigorously developed. Liujiaxia is rich in tourism resources, but its awareness for creating a famous tourism brand is far from enough. The government shall strengthen its macro-management. The preferential policies for tourism development shall be issued and published and a modern tourism development mechanism shall be established. Moreover, the overall planning, promotion and marketing supervision shall be handled in a organized manner.

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Countermeasures for the Purchasing Environment of the Regional Brand

Relevant laws and regulations should be improved so as to create a sound environment for online shopping. For government, various issues that may hinder the development of Liujiaxin regional brand on e-commerce platforms shall be regulated and restricted. The government and local enterprises should improve their capability in providing their vertical websites and one-stop services.Also, through the live mode, consumers interests on Liujiaxia and Liujiaxia brand products could be arouse with a more comprehensive and more truthful understanding. Thus, the transparency on the products could be improved, and the information asymmetry could be reduced, so that the consumers’ trust on Liujiaxia brand could be arouse and developed. 4.4

Countermeasures for Premium on the Regional Brand

Firstly, the quality of the products in Liujiaxia should be improved. Product quality, as a critical force to deal with all problems, is also the key to improve the premium capability of products. Secondly, the expected value of Liujiaxia products in the psychology of consumers should be enhanced. The development of Liujiaxia brand should be emphasized on the core value of the brand, the inner association and cognition of the consumers could be impressed with the unique core value of the brand, and the expected value of consumers on the brand shall be continuously improved, thus the premium capability of Liujiaxia brand could be enhanced. Thirdly, a reasonable premium scheme shall be formulated. The consumers’ acceptance of premium was centered in a certain degree. According to the results from the investigation, the reasonable premium range of Liujiaxia regional brand is currently between 10% and 20%. 4.5

Countermeasures for Quality of the Regional Brand

Firstly, the product quality supervision system shall be strengthened. The Liujiaxia regional brands are mainly concentrated on agricultural products. Advanced testing instruments, such as pesticide residue rapid tester and gas chromatograph, should be equipped for agricultural product quality testing institutions, so as to strictly control the quality of agricultural products; At the same time, industry and commerce, quality inspection and other departments shall actively carry out market inspections to rectify and regulate the market orders of the agricultural products. Secondly, the management of agricultural production areas should be strengthened. The quality of soil, water and atmospheric environment in agricultural product areas should meet the requirements for agricultural product quality and production safety. Also, the environmental safety monitoring of agricultural production areas should be established and improved, and the monitoring stations should be set up in carrying out the safety monitoring and early warning on the safety of the agricultural products.

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Acknowledgments. This research was supported by the open phase of the Key Laboratory for National Information on E-commerce in Universities of Gansu Province (project number: 2018-2).

References 1. Xiuhai, W.: Research on Mechanism of Regional Brand Promoting Regional Economic Development. Lanzhou University, 2 (2007) 2. Zhaopeng, J.: Research on External Factors Affecting Online Consumers’ Purchasing Intention. Zhejiang A&F University, 2–5 (2017) 3. Zhu, G., Ling, Y.: Virtual brand community, word of mouth information and community members conduct: research based on grounded theory. Theory Pract. Finan. Econ. 31(03), 117–120 (2010) 4. Zhang, Q., Zhang, Y., Jia, J.: On the characteristic of the property right of regional band and the government’s Role. China Econ. 08, 52–53 (2003) 5. Xintian, Z.: The Impact of Cybershop Service Quality and Online Shopping Motivation on Customer Satisfaction. Southwest University, 19–41 (2013) 6. Luo, E.: Research on the Influence of Private Brand Marketing Strategy on Consumers’ Willingness to Pay Premium. Southwest University of Finance and Economy, 89–93 (2013) 7. Yin, J.: Research on the Online-Agricultural-Products-Shopping from the Perspective of Consumers’ Shopping Intention. Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, 15–16 (2016) 8. Qin, X.: Discussion on methods of promoting brand premium. World Labor Secur. (Theor. Edn.) 08, 94 (2013) 9. Cheng, J.: Brand strategy based on electronic commerce. Enterp. Reform Manag. 11, 36–38 (2013) 10. Peng, X.: An empirical study on the influence of brand promotion on consumers’ purchase intention in the context of online shopping. Guangxi University 12, 15 (2017)

Review of Studies on the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) for Urban Infrastructure Projects in China Justin Wouagabe1,3 and Du Juan1,2(&) 1

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SILC Business School, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China [email protected] Faculty of Engineering and IT, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia 3 SHU-SUCG Research Centre for Building Industrialization, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China

Abstract. Public Private Partnership (PPP) is an approach adopted to expand the economic value of infrastructure outputs. Many researchers have explored the application of PPP to improve the efficiency of infrastructure delivery. Although interests in reviewing general trends and diverse topics of the PPP literature have increased over the years, there is a lack of a systematic review of the PPP literature from urban infrastructure projects in China. The purpose of this study is to analyze the research status and possible future studies from the viewpoint of urban infrastructure projects in China under public private partnership. The review is conducted by searching related papers from the leading construction management journals, then classifying them into distinct type of urban infrastructure projects applied with PPP in China to facilitate further discussion on significant research topics. The findings show that education and urban development, attracting uneven attention from researchers, meanwhile transportation, water supply finding as the key factor driving the urban infrastructure projects under PPP in China. The outcomes of this study reveal Urban infrastructure under public private partnership still facing some challenges such regional corruption, risk factors and short-term uncertainty, which will be the future research trends. Keywords: Literature review  CiteSpace  Public Private Partnership (PPPs)  China  Urban infrastructure

1 Introduction PPP mode has been widely used in the fields of infrastructure and public services, such as transportation, water and sewage, energy, environment protection, public health, and others which cumulated until September 2016, China had witnessed not fewer than 10471 PPP projects. Previous scholars made some review on PPP projects, however there is few or absent paper on urban infrastructure project under PPP in China, therefore this study

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 190–197, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_29

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aims to analyze the research status of urban infrastructure Project under PPP in China and highlighted the gap for urban infrastructure project under PPP in China. Therefore, the major objective of this paper is to review on urban infrastructure project under the Chinese PPP’s environmental and urban governance industry.

2 Methodology The study is based on lecture review in order to determine the number of publications in each journals, years, and PPP types. Figure 1 divides the research framework into a two-stage process. Literature selection, methodology and literature search of articles relevant to PPP infrastructure projects were conducted in Stage 1, CiteSpace analysis and Conclusions were conducted in Stage 2. The five research steps are as follows:

Fig. 1. Flow of overall research framework

Step 1: Literature research; used an academic database for article search and selection, in order to conduct a comprehensive review on previous researches, an academic databases also used for bibliometric techniques to find the different sources of article search, pre-search is carried out to ensure that the selected academic databases are reasonable and useful for the research. Step 2: The methodology; the acronym ‘PPP’ public private partnership, which is widely and frequently used worldwide, was mentioned in the literature in different forms as per Neto et al. [1]. Step 3: The literature selection; information used in this review of study are; the number of publication per year, publication journal title. Step 4: CiteSpace analysis; in this context some different parameters have been taken in account, such the clustering analysis, and timeline visualization the burst of

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terms and cocited documents. Keywords analysis; clusters from the CiteSpace considered as the keyword in this study, implemented as foundations for classifying research study and provided their interpretations. Step 5: Conclusions; this section displays and explains the findings.

3 Literature Selection The aim of setting a database was to collect all the papers published related to urban infrastructure projects under PPP in China. The approach preferred for this paper was to follow the experience [2] in adopting the ASCE, Emerald, Tandfonline, and Science direct as database. After the identification of all papers for the urban infrastructure project under PPP project in China, a database was created in order to catalog the paper’s information according the following criteria: date of publication, title, authors, journal of publication, research area, main findings, and research topics list of journal and number of papers see Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. The number of papers in sourcing database

Through the analysis of different papers published for the urban infrastructure projects under PPP in China, the leading areas are engineering and public administration which can be called academic research, with 48 and 12 papers, respectively. This outcome is evidence due to the multidisciplinary nature of Urban infrastructure projects under PPP research, involving typically technical contents (engineering) and public policy concerns, given that they are used to develop and manage public services (public administration), but also includes complex financing mechanisms and business models (business and economics). Based on the literature selected, just as the Fig. 3, the number of publications concerning PPP witnessed an increase from 2009 and 2017. The explosive growth of articles occurred in 2013 and peaked in 2017. The increase in the number of PPP studies is related to the increased application of PPP in urban infrastructure projects research in the recent years in China.

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Fig. 3. Number of relevant papers published yearly in the selected journals from 1988 to 2019

4 CiteSpace Analysis 4.1

Implementation Clustering Analysis

This paper mapped a document cocitation network in CiteSpace see Fig. 4. First, the bibliographic data was retrieved from WOS to CiteSpace. Second, the time span was set as 1996–2019 and the time slice length was 23 years. Third, the thresholds of three levels [citation frequency (c), cocitation frequency (cc), and coefficients (ccv)] were set in three time divisions (preceding, middle, and rear) as (2, 2, and 20); (4, 3, and 20); and (4, 3, 20). Besides, the link retaining factor (LRF) and the look back years (LBY) were left as their defaults LRF = 2, LBY = 8, e = 2.0. The network N = 96, link which is E = 216(density = 0.0474) link hybrid network of cocited references on urban infrastructure projects under PPP in China research was constructed and a total of 8 clusters were obtained automatically by spectrum clustering methods in CiteSpace, see Fig. 5.#0-#7 represent the cluster labeling, the color of a link varies depending of node size = tree ring history and toggle. The consistency of each cluster was measured by the silhouette value, which mean 0.442 represents silhouette. In general, the silhouette values of homogeneous clusters tend to be close to 1. The modularity (Q) considered here its 0.5889, measuring the quality of the overall division. And mean silhouette value (0.442), which indicates a high reliability results. Therefore, this paper studied two aspects of each cluster: (1) representative cluster view of the document cocitation network, and (2) active citing documents of each cluster as the timeline view. To comprehensively generalize the common research contents and emphasize the characteristics of each cluster, the combined labels were further summarized by referring to the automatic-generated cluster labels and reviewing representative cited documents and citing documents. Cluster 0 labeled key driver which it’s the concession period. The determination of the concession period (CP) in public-private partnership (PPP) [3]. Cluster 1, displayed that in China, infrastructure partners include both stateowned enterprises and private companies [4]. Cluster 2, labeled construction PPP project; identified the risks of construction PPP projects in China [5].Cluster 3, labeled risk factor assessment of urban infrastructure under PPP [6]. Cluster 4, labeled dynamic framework transfer model; based on the insight into the practice [7]. Cluster 5, labeled infrastructure project, Chinese urban panel data for the period of 2013–2017 [8].

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Fig. 4. Cluster view of the document cocitation network. LRF = link retaining factor; and LBY = look back years

Fig. 5. Timeline view

Cluster 6, labeled the public housing; the result shows that great potential [9] and Cluster 7, labeled the short-term uncertainty, the problem is largely caused by the uncertainties exhibited in the existing models [10]. 4.2

Timeline Visualization

To visualize the development paths of 8 clusters and the citation history of representative documents, a timeline visualization was generated in Fig. 5. Timeline view was analyzed between 2001–2018, the articles [5, 6] correspond to numbers 1 and 2, respectively, and both have a high cocitation frequency. In CiteSpace network mapping, each node size is marked by a series of tree ring history, the citation history of a document can be visualized in terms of the ring’s color and thickness, the variation of a tree ring history color corresponds to the years and author’s name when the cocitation occurred.

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The document with a citation burst indicates an increased attention to this topic. As Fig. 5 shows, the article point out some tree ring history with high were written by (Number 1–2) [5, 6] (Number 6) [10] toggle line shape linked them, which indicate that these studies received considerable attention during a specific period of time and can be considered as the popular topics of PPP research. 4.3

Keywords Analysis

Words review analysis are the clusters labeling of the timeline visualization and considered as the key words for urban infrastructure projects under PPP in China, see Fig. 5; (0) concession period; and (1) regional corruption; (2) construction PPP project; (3) risk factor; (4) dynamic framework transfer model; (5) infrastructure project; (6) public housing; (7)short-term uncertainty. These 8 clusters considered as the keywords in this study, grouped as follows, and their interpretations are illustrated in Table 1.

Table 1. Words review studied applied in the keywords for urban infrastructure Projects under PPP papers Key words 0. Concession period 1. Regional corruption 2. Construction PPP project 3. Risk factor 4. Dynamic framework transfer model 5. Infrastructure project

6. Public housing 7. Short-term uncertainty

4.4

Descriptions It the time that allowed, in order to end an argument or to make a situation less difficult financial regulation. It dishonesty and illegal behaviour by people in posi tions of authority or power in area of a country. It building project which involves a partnership be tween government and public private companies. A factor, such as a habit or an environmental condition that increases risk or susceptibility. Is a basic conceptional process of yield control of data. The basic systems and structures that a country or organization needs might carefully planned piece of work to get information about something, to build something, to improve something etc. in order to work properly, for example roads, railways, banks. Is apartments or houses that are rented to poor people, usually at a low cost, by the government. When generated by assets held for undetermined period.

Bursts of Terms and Cocited Documents

CiteSpace identifies the representative terms, such as regional corruption, and others 6 representive terms occurred in the last 23 years, which indicates that construction PPP project, regional corruption might be the current trends of PPP research.

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Future Research Trend

This study suggested the optimization of mathematical models on the urban infrastructure projects under PPP in China research, However, the analysis showed that the 60 papers can cover the whole urban infrastructure projects under PPP in China research and effectively reflect the recent research status.

5 Conclusions This paper adopted CiteSpace, studied two aspects of each cluster: (1) representative cluster view of the document cocitation network, and (2) active citing documents of each cluster as the timeline view. The time span of the database was extended to the last 23 years, through the visualization of 6492 records extracted from the WOS core collection database, the timeline view of cocitation clusters provided a distinct view to visualize the development path of each cluster and to identify the citation history of the representative documents. The timeline view analysis in the CiteSpace; regional corruption, construction PPP project and public housing considered as the clusters with high tree ring history and which received highest average citations represent the major intellectual turning points and play a bridging role in the evolution of urban infrastructure projects under PPP in China research. Acknowledgements. This study was supported by the Humanities and Social Sciences Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Grant number: 17YJC630021) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant number: 71701121).

References 1. Cui, C., Liu, Y., Hope, A., Wang, J.: Review of studies on the public–private partnerships (PPP) for infrastructure projects. Int. J. Project Manage. (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ijproman.2018.03.004 2. Marsilio, M., Cappellaro, G., Cuccurullo, C .: The intellectual structure of research into PPPs: a bibliometric analysis. Public Manage. Rev. 13, 763–782 (2011). https://doi.org/10. 1080/14719037.2010.539112 3. Ullah, F., Thaheem, M.J., Sepasgozar, S., Forcada, N.: System dynamics model to determine concession period of PPP infrastructure projects: overarching effects of critical success factors. J. Leg. Aff. Dispute Resolut. Eng. Constr. (2018). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE) LA.1943-4170.0000280 4. Wang, H., Ma, L.: Ownership, corruption, and revenue regimes for infrastructure partnerships: evidence from China. Utilities Policy 60 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jup.2019.100942 5. Jiang, X., Lu, K., Liu, Y., Cui, C.: Identifying significant risks and analyzing risk relationship for construction PPP projects in China using integrated FISM-MICMAC approach. Sustainability 11 (2019). https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195206 6. Cui, C., Sun, C., Liu, Y., Jiang, X., Chen, Q.: Determining critical risk factors affecting public-private partnership waste-to-energy incineration projects in China. Energy Sci. Eng. (2019). https://doi.org/10.1002/ese3.577.3

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7. Bao, F., Chen, C., Chan, A., Martek, I., Shrestha, A.: Dynamic framework transfer model for public–private partnerships: lessons from a China water sector case study. Eng. Constr. Architectural Manag. (2018). https://doi.org/10.1108/ECAM-01-2018-0028 8. Wang, L., Zhou, L., Xiong, Y., Yan, D.: Effect of promotion pressure and financial burden on investment in public–private partnership infrastructure projects in China. Asian-Pac. Econ. Lit. 33 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1111/apel.12271 9. Shi, J., Duan, K., Wen, S., Zhang, R.: Investment valuation model of public rental housing PPP project for private sector: a real option perspective. Sustainability 11, 1857 (2019). https://doi.org/10.3390/su11071857 10. Liu, Q., Liao, Z., Guo, Q., Degefu, D.M., Wang, S., Jian, F.: Effects of short-term uncertainties on the revenue estimation of PPP sewage treatment projects. Water (2019). 2073-4441/11/6/1203

Part II: Mobile and Cloud Technologies and Multi-modal Systems

Interaction Mode of “Digital Museum” on the Terminal of Digital Mobile Media Hongjiang Liu(&) Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai, China [email protected]

Abstract. Digital museum uses digital virtual modeling to present an online museum. The paper studies how to realize museum visit through digital media technology. The interactive technology allows people to use VR to closely appreciate the exhibits, and also enables people to interact with the digital museum. The purpose of the digital museum production is to enable people to experience the historical charm of the exhibits without going to the real museum. In the virtual environment, the audience can interact with the exhibits. It can be obtained from the research on this novel technology that the birth of digital museum in mobile media brings benefits for people’s lives, so that people can visit museums at home to learn about relevant historical information. The significance of researching digital museum is to fully understand the benefits brought about by the rapid development of mobile media in the information age. The impact of mobile media on the society in the new era has changed people’s lifestyles. The creation of digital museums is a kind of transformation from reality to virtual environment. People can interact while watching and enjoying, which promotes people’s deep understanding of historical facts. Keywords: Digital museum media

 Virtual reality  Interaction design  Mobile

1 Mobile Interactive Media and Digital Online Display In the era of rapid development, most countries have basically joined the Internet family. In 1994, China finally obtained permission to the Internet, and soon completed all the Chinese networking work. After some Chinese Internets have been listed and achieved great success, China’s Internet ushered in a perfect start. As is known to all, the development of society is inseparable from the progress of science which drives the special products of the times. The media is the medium for people to recognize social news and other physical objects, and the development of mobile media promotes the development of other industries including the digital museum [1–4]. 1.1

Development and Transmission of Digital Mobile Media

Nowadays, everyone likes to use WeChat and similar social software to communicate and maintain relationships with friends. People used to deliver messages to each other © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 201–207, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_30

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with letters and the like that may take many days for the other party to get the information, having low efficiency. With the rapid development of social science and technology, the transmission of the Internet has become increasingly wider. People start to use the network to transmit information to each other, from the initial mailbox to SMS, to QQ, and now to the popular WeChat, all benefiting from the development of mobile media, and people’s social habits have changed in essence. With the development of the Internet, digital information all over the country are massively shared and spread. Chinese Internet has now become the world’s largest network, with the largest number of Internet users in the world and a wide networking area. The rapid development of the network has also promoted the arrival of the digital mobile information age. People can not only access information online through computers, but also can use smart phones to access the Internet and browse the web and news anytime and anywhere. 1.2

Characteristics of Social Media and Social Relations

The main feature of digital mobile media is transmission. The advent of the information age has given everyone the right to express their opinions on the Internet, resulting in that the digital media transmitters are diversified, information are transmitted every second, content of the transmission are massive, and people can get these messages in many ways, so that the channels of transmission will become interactive. The transmission and acceptance of information has made the rhythm of this digital age more rapid, and people’s acceptance degree of new things will gradually become higher. Gradually, these forms of transmission have become personalized, and people can browse through things they are interested in by various forms, such as using a smartphone to listen to their favorite songs, watching their favorite shows and so on. A lot of things can be done with a single smartphone. It is because of the rapid development of the Internet in China that China’s digital media industry has also risen rapidly. Digital mobile media is all-inclusive, involving various walks of life. It has had a huge impact on the people born in 80 s and 90 s, prompting us to further contact with digital mobile media, to gradually make it the mainstream of the media [5–7]. The generation and development of digital mobile media have a growing influence on this society. The information age mentioned above enables people to do a lot of things on the Internet, which can be called the so-called mobile social contact. On the basis of the Internet, people use the mobile network to conduct social activities, such as information acquisition, games and entertainment, interpersonal relationship maintenance, work and learning. The maintenance of this society is now inseparable from the convenience brought by mobile media. Through the real-time transmission and spread of the media, people can get to know numerous news and interesting things happening in the society. The social order can also be maintained through the mobile media. When something that is not very good and has a social impact happens, people would pay attention to and criticize it through Internet-based mobile media, which is conducive for people to discipline themselves and abide by the law of this society, thus achieving a peaceful and harmonious society.

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Mobile social contact in the Internet age is one of its characteristics. Because of the vigorous development of mobility, the pace of this society is gradually accelerating. Through the generation and rapid development of this series of physical objects, people’s society has begun to move toward digitalization, and mobile media have been integrated into the life of the public as well as people’s social activities. Many social contact and entertainment projects are closely related to the rapid development of mobile media. Relying on the vast number of TV program audience, CCTV uses some new mobile media technologies, such as QR code, to enable the audience in front of the TV to interact and communicate with the programs. The audience interacts with the CCTV channel through the network and participates in its communication activities by sweeping the code. This way breaks through the one-way communication mode of traditional TV programs, greatly improving the effect of audience interacting with programs [8–10]. 1.3

Development of Virtual Reality Technology

The term, virtual reality, is not so strange to the public. It is a new technology that can be used to create a virtual world, and is a computer simulation system that allows users to experience virtual fantasy worlds. A computer is applied to generate a fictional simulation environment, and in addition to generating the image and visual perception, it also involves the sense of hearing, touch and some motion perceptions related to gravity. People feel the virtual environment through observing with eyes and raising head, and the action of the hand is input into the computer through the sensor, to touch the object in the virtual world. All these actions are processed by the computer, thereby giving sensory feedback to the user. 1.3.1 Application of Virtual Reality Technology As a product integrating modern science and technology, virtual reality has many advantages in various aspects, including medical field, entertainment projects, interior design, cultural relics, game development and so on. Virtual Reality (VR) is generated through complex and accurate calculations in the computer by comprehensively using the computer’s graphic system and different interface devices such as reality and control. It is a three-dimensional environment that can interact with people, and it provides owners with a new technology with immersive feeling. The design field of interaction design includes defining and designing artificial system, allowing two individuals or multiple individuals to communicate with each other. It is a two-way interaction mode enabling the two parties to work together to achieve the desired purpose of the designer. 1.4

Generation of Digital Museums Under Informatization

The advent of the digital information age has driven various industries in the society. People’s demands for leisure and entertainment have also increased, including the visit

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to museum. After visiting various museums in reality, people may be not so interested in it, so digital museums emerge as the times require. Digital museums have been produced and known to the public with the development of mobile media. It contains a lot of technical aspects, starting with basic computer network technology, and then using 3D image technology and stereo display to restore physical objects. The restoration is inseparable from the relatively new virtual display technology, and to really display in front of people requires interaction technology and various other special effects. The real museum that people usually see is displayed in a three-dimensional form, and then it is transmitted to the Internet for people to visit, so that they can visit the museum they want to go without long-distance travel. Digital museum uses a variety of high-end technologies, such as 3D imaging, network, virtual reality and interactive links. The real museum is copied into the virtual network world in a three-dimensional way, becoming a virtual museum. The development of digital museums requires the model construction of the museum’s environment, which is called 3D modeling. It digitizes the real resources of the real museum, conducts integration, processing and production, and creates a realistic and vivid display environment with a series of multimedia technologies, and historical knowledge and rich materials are added [11, 12]. The emergence of digital museums allows audience to break through the constraints of time and space, and users can watch and experience the exhibits anytime, anywhere; it can vividly restore the colorful resources of museum; it is able to carry out longdistance teaching, appreciation and interaction, owing to the benefits brought by the rapid development of mobile media.

2 Digital Online Museum The traditional museum is moved into the virtual network from reality. Through the vast amount of data, the real exhibits have been digitized into virtual exhibits in the virtual museum, so that the digital museum still has the functions of the physical museum. Thus, the museum is advanced to a new era, the exhibits are shown in digital form, and this digital museum can also interact with the viewers, rising to the digital new era of mobile media. Besides, the public has a great interest in this new visiting mode which would be gradually popularized. The digital museum has a unique sense of novelty and technology. Now there are some famous digital virtual museums in the world, such as the Digital Palace Museum in China and the Digital British Museum in cooperation with Google. 2.1

Development of Digital Museum in China

In China, as the development of society has not yet reached the level of western developed countries, the construction of digital museum started late. It did not begin until the early 1990s, but gradually entered a stage of rapid development. With the rapid construction and development of Chinese society, the achievements in terms of digital museum are magnificent.

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Starting from the simple digitalization of museums, after entering the network and becoming digital, the digital museum began to take shape, and then college digital museum construction project and Chinese digital museum project started, gradually accelerating the pace of development. Many similar digital museums have begun to emerge, such as Beijing Digital Museum of Chinese Medicine, Beijing Digital Museum Platform, Chinese Digital Science Museum, and Digital Museum of Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology. These digital museums and science museums have broken through the constraints of both time and space and provided a wealth of information and resources to the public in a different and unusual way. It has gradually evolved into a new stage for the display of Chinese history and culture, also reflects the flourishing development of this field in China, and will continue to make in-depth progress in the future. 2.1.1 Digital Palace Museum Shi Danqing, a teacher at the Academy of Arts and Design, Tsinghua University and the chief designer of the Digital Museum of the Palace Museum, along with many other members have developed five programs, applied many new technologies and finally designed the “Duanmen Digital Museum” of the Palace Museum after four years of unremitting efforts. As a very successful example of the Digital Museum of China, the Digital Palace Museum brings an unprecedented experience to people. It combines digital media with ancient architecture, vividly depicting the historical changes, past and present life of the Forbidden City. The audience watches the fine projections of the Forbidden City in the central theme experience zone, to learn about different historical periods. The digital imaging and several interactive technologies are used in the collection area of the Palace Museum where viewers can interact with digital paintings. This twoway viewing interaction is more vivid than ordinary physical museums, making the audience have a different feeling toward ancient famous paintings, as if they were the authors of these paintings. It also includes the application of virtual reality technology. In the area of Tianzi Palace, the audience can enter the virtual reality theater, to feel the realistic experience brought by virtual reality technology and carefully watch the spectacular sight of the Forbidden City. Digital imaging and interactive technology make the visit of the Digital Palace Museum very interesting, and the audience and the paintings can interact intimately; and the virtual reality technology makes the audience’s personal experience more real, just like visiting the scene. The Duanmen digital museum of the Palace Museum integrates the achievements of various advanced technologies. The beauty of the Palace Museum is presented to people in digital form. The viewers can not only gain knowledge, but also have a deeper understanding of historical information for various interactions and virtual reality technologies, which is an important manifestation of the rapid development of China’s digital museum.

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Google’s Virtual Museum Project

Google’s virtual museum is to use a variety of new science and technologies to present museums and art galleries in different parts of the world, including classic exhibits and artifacts. This program allows people to visit famous museums all over the world through computers at home, such as exhibits in the British Museum, or to watch and browse some ancient grottoes or relics. High-end technologies are applied to interpret world’s cultural classics and heritage, and to restore the real street scene and environment, and the digital museum combing with corresponding sound is finally presented to the viewers. Designers have designed new solutions and technologies in the Google Cultural Institute. With virtual reality, users can watch a 360° performance. Google’s virtual museum allows museums around the world to be viewed in front of a computer in a virtual form, and enables the audience has a feeling in real museum.

3 Conclusion With the rapid development of the times, people’s ability to accept and experience new things is becoming stronger. Mobile media is the mainstream of modern society, and the birth of new technologies and its integration into people’s lives is the trend of the times. Unlike traditional media, the characteristics of mobile media are clear, such as advantageous portability and mobility, and it can be conducted through mobile phones and other mobile storage devices. Although the development of digital age in China started late, its digital development is equal to the level of some developed countries, and has been integrated into everyday life of people. In the context of people’s lives being closely related to mobile media, new ways of entertainment have also emerged. Through the mutual dissemination of mobile media, people have realized many new technologies, and virtual reality is a good example. This novel immersive technique makes people feel as if they are in the real world. VR art emerges as the times of virtual reality require, and human-computer interaction is realized through VR. In the virtual environment, users interact with objects in the virtual environment through simple gestures and other operational means. The digital museum is also generated in this era of digital informationization. Compared with the traditional physical museum, it integrates various science and technologies, inherits the design concept and purposes of the physical museum and displays physical exhibits in a virtual space through scanning, integrating and processing them, which breaks through the limitations of time and space. When people are at home or other places, they can visit and browse the digital museum through the network and VR devices anytime, and they also can conduct interactive learning, thus enriching the content and activities of museum visits. And the digital museum can also satisfy people’s desire to see the world-famous museums without leaving home, giving people who don’t have time to visit various museums a chance to watch, which is undoubtedly time-saving and convenient. The birth of the digital museum is inseparable from the rapid development of mobile media. In the virtual space, people can understand history, and interact with

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history, and the diversity of interactions breaks through the unidirectional output of the original media, thus realizing two-way interaction between the two parties, which is the advantage that digital museums bring.

References 1. Weizhen, L., Rui, H.: Analysis on the impact of mobile media environment on social time. J. Int. Commun. 3, 84–89 (2010) 2. Dongyan, C.: Research on the social value of mobile media. Mod. Commun. 9, 163–164 (2010) 3. Guoliang, C., Yin, T., Jiang, H.: Application research of digital museum. Comput. Appl. and Softw. 21(5), 50–52 (2004) 4. Qingyi, T., Xiaoqin, Z.: Mobile Phone: Personal Mobile Multimedia. Tsinghua University Press, Beijing (2009) 5. Gang, C.: Creative Communication Management: Marketing Revolution in the Digital Age. China Machine Press, Beijing (2012) 6. Parisi, T.: Learning Virtual Reality: Immersive Experience and Application Development Guide for Desktop, Network and Mobile Devices. Science Press, China (2019) 7. Zheng, X.: Research on Digital Museum. Zhejiang University Press, Hangzhou (2016) 8. Wu, L.: Application of Network Digital Media Technology in Biodiversity Digital Museum. National Defense Industry Press (2013) 9. Decker, J., Yu, Z.: Translation. Technology and Digital Creation. Shanghai Science and Technology Education Press, Shanghai (2016) 10. Beijing Union University.: Digital Museum in the Internet Age. Electronic Industry Press, Beijing (2018) 11. Wing, S.T.: Interactive Thinking. Electronic Industry Press, Beijing (2019) 12. Talbot, K., Wu, J.: Translation. Mobile Revolution. Mechanical Industry Press, China (2017)

English Teaching at College in Virtual Environment Based on Visualization Platform Lijun Deng1(&) and Tao Wang2 1

Aviation Management Department, Xi’an Aeronautical Polytechnic Institute, Xi’an 710089, China [email protected] 2 Internet Information Center, Xi’an Aeronautical University, Xi’an 710067, China

Abstract. An important task of the new round of teaching reform is to change the relatively single teaching mode, make full use of modern information technology, especially network technology, to build a new model of college English teaching based on classroom and computer. This research, from the perspective of metrology, takes the key words of the paper as the research object, and explores the relevant research status of the new round of college English teaching reform in China through visual means, and provides reference for the deepening of college English teaching reform and the formulation of English disciplinary development planning policy. This paper mainly focuses on the visualization of college English teaching research under the network environment. All in all, the development of college English classroom teaching in a network environment not only enriches the content of classroom teaching, but also truly realizes the student teaching structure. It can also continuously enhance students’ enthusiasm for learning and promote the substantial improvement of teaching quality. Out of the role and value of teachers in teaching, but also to promote students to achieve long-term development in the future. Keywords: Visualization platform English  Teaching research

 Virtual environment  University

1 Introduction During college teaching reform, the student-oriented slogan is more and more loud. In the process of college English teaching, the student approach requires all teaching activities to be carried out based on the actual needs of the students, to meet the students, and thus to enhance the students’ ability in all aspects. Therefore, during English teaching at college, we should improve the English basic ability, English application ability and English innovation ability of college students as the teaching purpose. In theory, formative evaluation pays more attention to process than final evaluation, so that it can be evaluated more comprehensively, scientifically, and more comprehensively. One of the reasons is that the formative evaluation subverts the score of a standard test paper in the final evaluation, which determines the evaluation mode © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 208–216, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_31

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of the student’s ability. Instead, it pays more attention to the student’s learning process, considering the learning motivation, learning input, learning method and learning mode, application capabilities and many other aspects. In addition, formative evaluation can also enhance students’ accumulation of English knowledge, thereby improving students’ English application ability and avoiding the excessive influence of intelligence factors in evaluation [1, 2]. The search was conducted under the keyword “network + college English + teaching”. From the CNKI, database and VIP database, 4021 articles, 2106 articles and 2029 articles were obtained. In view of the current non-standard phenomenon in the use of keywords in Chinese academic papers, before using the literature for statistical analysis, it is necessary to first standardize the keywords, including eliminating texts without analysis meaning, merging duplicate texts, filling or deleting features. Missing items, correcting text with obvious errors, etc. For example, the reform of teaching reform, teaching reform, network environment, WEB, internet will be unified into modern information technology; network-assisted college English teaching, multimedia and network-assisted teaching, multimedia-assisted foreign language teaching unified as network-assisted teaching. After processing, 4675 effective papers, 17043 keywords and 3205 unique keywords were finally obtained [3].

2 Methodology The term “visualization” is derived from the English word “Visualization”. It appeared in technical terms in February 1987. Card et al. believe that visualization is the use of computer-supported interactive visual representations to represent abstract data to enhance cognition. Knowledge Visualization is the application representation to promote the dissemination and innovation of group knowledge. The concept map is a graphic method that uses nodes to represent concepts and connect lines to represent conceptual relationships. It was first studied by Professor Joseph D. Novak of Cornell University in the 1960s when studying children’s understanding of subject knowledge. Proposed and applied to teaching, making it a teaching tool. Conceptual-based visualization is the use of visual interaction features of conceptual maps to transform abstract English reading instruction into concrete, visual knowledge modules that enhance students’ advanced thinking skills in English learning [4, 5]. The usual English reading before class is a preparation stage for the teacher. The key to the teacher is to study the teaching outline carefully, to thoroughly understand the teaching materials, and to arrange the teaching content for the students. For the students, it is a preview of the new text. The key to students’ learning is to understand the content of the new lesson to be learned, to know the new lesson, to know the difficulties and to distinguish the content that they understand and do not understand. In this way, the teacher-student interaction before class is mainly based on the used teaching. The experience of learning is an inefficient, untargeted interaction. In the interactive English subject reading teaching mode supported by the concept map, the effective use of the visual function of the concept map and the teaching task before class can promote effective and personalized teaching interaction between teachers and students. Before the class, the teacher organizes students to adopt the cooperative

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Problem I like web-based autonomous learning mode Self-directed learning has improved my interest in English learning Self-directed learning has enhanced my confidence in learning English well Self-directed learning has cultivated my ability to analyse and solve problems Self-directed learning can improve the efficiency of English learning I would like to spend more time and energy studying English in the future

Fully endorses 60%

Endorsed

Uncertain

Oppose

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4%

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learning mode of assigning roles to draw the concept map of the student theme. In the small class teaching, three students volunteered to form a study group and were positioned as the members of the reporter, organizer, and drafter. In this process, the students determine the reading theme according to the reading text, draw the student theme concept map using the concept map software and the Internet, and submit the student theme concept map to the teacher one week before the class. This collaborative learning process encourages students to discuss the text. The discussion process is not limited to words, but also extends to the concept, logic and understanding of the topic of the article. It also encourages students to exert subjective initiative and stimulate participation. Hunting and applying relevant cultural knowledge to create a learning environment for the subsequent development of English culture. The teacher’s feedback on the topic concept map drawn by the 10 student groups can comprehensively judge the level of understanding and difficulty of the chapter analysis of the text, and ensure that the instructional design is suitable for the actual level and needs of the class. The interactive design of the pre-class theme concept map enables the teacher to guide students to conduct purposeful cooperative learning in a visual way. At the same time, the teacher has a better understanding of the student’s situation, such as the student’s The basics of learning, the understanding of the content of the text, and the ability to accept textual logic provide more detailed and clear information for teachers to implement teaching diagnosis [6].

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3 Results and Discussion 3.1

The Virtuality of the Teaching Platform

First of all, we must realize that the use of network technology has improved the quality and effect of teaching. Therefore, it is necessary to pay sufficient attention to network technology in teaching, and continuously apply network technology to college English classroom. In teaching, the capacity of English classroom teaching knowledge is expanded (see Table 1), the environment of teaching become better, the information density of teaching content is improved, and the students’ English level is improved from four aspects: listening, speaking, reading and writing [7]. xi ðt þ 1Þ ¼

n X

aij ðtÞðxj ðtÞ  xi ðtÞÞ

ð1Þ

j¼1

In the network teaching environment, teachers mainly use multimedia teaching equipment to carry out teaching, so teachers must be able to correctly use multimedia teaching software and equipment, and use network technology to complete the preparation of lesson and classroom teaching. Secondly, the development of network technology provides an important impetus for the reform and innovation of college English classroom teaching mode. In the network environment, students can fully feel the meaning and fun of learning English, and can eliminate the students’ resistance to English learning in the past, transforming passive learning into active learning. Network technology provides a rich resource for teachers’ and student learning. To a certain extent, it even replaces the teacher’s role and becomes the primary way to answer doubts for students. The time for classroom teaching is very limited. In order to consolidate and enhance the learning effect, students can independently use network technology to learn in their spare time, and continue to develop good learning habits of personalized learning and independent learning. In the network environment, through the unique human-computer interaction and interactive learning method, teachers and students can carry out more frequent and effective classroom interaction, realize the layering of English teaching, enhance students’ comprehensive learning ability, and also help students. Mastering the use of modern advanced teaching equipment, students can better accept the test of society after they leave the school, and play a very important role in the future development of students [8].

3.2

xðtÞ ¼ AxðtÞ þ BwðtÞ

ð2Þ

zðtÞ ¼ CxðtÞ þ DwðtÞ

ð3Þ

Open Teaching Approach - Data Visualization

The platform is based on the network and is based on the computer 3D model, which can replace the traditional teaching equipment and instruments (such as teaching engine, oscilloscope, signal generator, spectrum analyser, etc.). In the traditional

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physics experiment teaching, the teacher demonstrates through the experimental equipment. Students see that the students did not participate in the experiment, resulting in students’ poor hands-on ability, and the interest in learning is not high, and the teaching effect is not achieved. On the teaching platform, the physical experiment can be simulated through the visualization tool, and it can be virtualized. The physical model interacts and can experience the experiment in an immersive way [9, 10]. minF ð X Þ; X ¼ ðx1 ; x2 ; . . .:xn Þ

ð4Þ

ai  x i  bi

ð5Þ

The concept of virtual experiment was first proposed by Professor Willian Wolf of the University of Virginia in 1989. He described a computerized virtual experiment environment dedicated to building a comprehensive tool and technology. Integrated, networked integration environment. There are many different methods for building a virtual lab. The more practical method is based on the virtual reality technology. It can be developed in a pure software method and can generate real-time artificial virtual environment with three-dimensional information. Entering it, creating a realistic immersive feeling, and real-time manipulation and mutual communication with the environment as in the real world, vivid image, strong sense of reality, relatively low cost, is the development direction of online virtual experiment construction (see Fig. 1) [11, 12].

Fig. 1. Virtual test system

3.3

Further Standardize the Integration of Business Processes and Financial Accounting Processes

There is no tangible laboratory in the virtual experiment, and there is no experimental tool and experimental object in the physical form. The experimental process is mainly the operation of the virtual object. In general, under the existing conditions, there are many experiments that are impossible to do, such as nuclear reaction, and some experiments are not allowed for students to do, such as those involving radioactive

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substances or toxic substances. Using virtual technology, the contradiction between experimental conditions and experimental results can be effectively solved. In experimental teaching, many expensive experiment cannot be popularized due to price restrictions. If virtual technology is used to build a virtual laboratory on a multimedia computer, students can walk into the virtual laboratory. The virtual instrument is operated, and the operation result can be fed back to the student through the meter to judge whether the operation is correct. This type of experiment does not consume equipment, nor is it limited by external conditions such as the site, and can be repeated until satisfactory results are obtained. One of the great advantages of the virtual laboratory is its absolute safety. It will not cause personal accidents due to operational errors. Students and teachers are free to enter the virtual laboratory to operate the instruments and conduct various experiments at any time. It not only provides conditions and technical support for the teaching reform and distance education of experimental courses, but also provides students with more, updated and better instrument virtual laboratories at any time. For example, the School of Modern Distance Education of Beijing Institute of Technology has now composed the semiconductor device, semiconductor physics foundation, PN junction, semiconductor diode, bipolar transistor, FET, basic amplifying circuit, basic amplifying circuit, working principle, and micro-variation of amplifier. All electronic experiments such as equivalent circuits were moved to the virtual laboratory (see Fig. 2) [13].

Fig. 2. CloudLink center

3.4

Auxiliary Tools for Classroom Teaching

In the classroom teaching. A teacher guides a class. It is impossible to ensure that every student can clearly understand the classroom and experimental content. Due to limited teaching time and resources, students cannot repeat the operation multiple times for an experiment. Therefore, this teaching platform can be used as a supplement to classroom teaching. In the spare time, students use the virtual objects on the teaching platform to repeatedly operate experiments to achieve the purpose of learning new things, thus deepening the understanding of knowledge points.

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Since distance education itself is based on the Internet, the application of this teaching platform to distance education has an inherent advantage. At present, the experimental teaching link of distance education cannot be effectively implemented. This teaching platform can make use of the characteristics of data visualization to make up for this weak link in distance education. In traditional education. Students learn knowledge from books and watch the teacher experiment. However, there are still more static web pages and classroom videos in the existing teaching platforms. Students are not interested in this type of teaching. The open virtual teaching platform proposed in this paper. According to the characteristics of the relevant data, an intuitive or imaged two-dimensional graphic or three-dimensional three-dimensional model can be created. For some 3D models, students can also observe from different viewpoints and directly operate them, and the teaching platform itself can directly analyse these operations. Finally, the results of the processing are fed back to the visualization tool. Students can observe changes in the model caused by their own operations. This interesting dynamic interaction allows students to deepen their understanding of book knowledge and experience the joy of learning (see Fig. 3).

Fig. 3. Hierarchical analysis

4 Conclusion From the teaching reform of the college English audio-visual course in the experimental class of one academic year, it is found that the independent study of Guangdong Institute of Petrochemical Technology has the following problems: First, due to the limitation of hardware resources such as the school computer room, only three teachers are currently participating in the class. The proportion of reforms is still less than onetenth of the existing college English teachers, which is not conducive to the promotion of college English education reform in Guangdong Petrochemical College; second, the management of relevant departments is not in place, it is difficult to ensure the stable and efficient operation of the network learning platform. To a certain extent, it has affected the development of teaching reform. Third, students’ cognitive and emotional factors have affected the reform of college English teaching to a certain extent. For

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example, some students do not have good online listening and speaking training on the Internet in order to pass the exam. In addition, some students have poor English foundation and lack of self-confidence. They do not practice listening and speaking in the process of self-learning, but watch movies and play games online. Fourth, teachers are not enough to supervise students’ independent learning. The results of this study initially indicate that autonomous learning based on the network environment is a practical college English teaching model. It not only stimulates students’ interest in learning, enhances students’ confidence, and develops students’ ability to analyse and solve problems, and it can improve students’ learning efficiency. Although some problems are reflected in the teaching experiments, we firmly believe that these problems can be completely solved with the improvement of school teaching conditions and the changes in teachers’ teaching concepts and students’ learning concepts. The reform of college English teaching in Guangdong Institute of Petrochemical Technology is in the stage of exploration. This experiment of this group will lay the foundation for further improving the teaching mode of college English. We will continue to make efforts to build a new contribution to the college English audio-visual teaching model for the Guangdong Institute of Petroleum and Chemical Technology.

References 1. Aleshin, A., Afanasiev, V., Brusentsev, P., et al.: Modern information technology: information visualization, virtual environment, neo-geography, tangible images. Sci. Vis. 5 (4), 56–78 (2013) 2. Edwards, T.: Using social media tools to connect teacher candidates to ELL classrooms. Aims.muohio.edu, vol. 32(9), pp. 27–16 (2013) 3. Feng, G., Huang, Z., Chen, T.: Research and implement of 3D interactive surface cutting based on the visualization toolkit. In: International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Applications, pp. 386–391. Springer International Publishing (2014) 4. Hildebrandt, D.: Service-oriented visualization of 3D environments based on standards and images. In: Joint Workshop of the German Research Training Groups in Computer Science, Algorithmic Synthesis of Reactive and Discrete-Continuous Systems, Algosyn 2010, May 31–June, pp. 197–203. DBLP (2010) 5. Mura, F.L., Corte, F.D., Bordino, R., et al.: Collaborative virtual environments as research and teaching instruments in the field of disaster medicine: the “e-DISTRICT” Simulator. In: International Conference Information Visualization, pp. 892–898. IEEE Computer Society (2017) 6. Neo, K.S.: Web-based 3D virtual environment for information visualization. Nanyang Technol. Univ., pp. 386–391 (2014) 7. Haury, D.L., Nehm, R.H.: The global challenge of genomics education: a path to the future. In: Genomics Applications for the Developing World, pp. 311–333. Springer, New York (2012) 8. Liu, X.Q., Chen, X.: College teaching quality assessment based on group consensus. In: International Conference on Virtual Reality and Visualization, pp. 12–17. IEEE Computer Society (2014) 9. Prabhat, Jr., L.V., Forsberg, A.S., et al.: Virtual reality-based interactive scientific visualization environments. Trends Interact. Vis., pp. 225–250 (2009)

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10. Reis, P.R.J.D., Junior, D.L.G., et al.: Visualization of power systems based on panoramic augmented environments. In: International Conference on Augmented and Virtual Reality, pp. 175–184. Springer, Cham (2014) 11. Qing, L.I., Qi, H.K., Shen, Y.C.: Research on controllable visualization of mine surface plant and development of virtual environment. J. China Univ. Min. & Technol. 9(1), 386–391 (2014) 12. Pino, A.D.: Towards portable visualization and virtual environment applications on distributed memory architectures. In: High-Performance Computing and Networking, vol. 34 (1), pp. 21–29. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg (2016) 13. Zhang, N., Luo, W.H., Liu, Y.C., et al.: Research on marine engineering English environment simulation based on virtual reality technology. Comput. Simul. 39(1), 71–77 (2015)

Network-Based College English Multimedia Teaching Model Qian Yang(&) Chongqing Nanfang Translators College of Sichuan International Studies University, Chongqing, China [email protected]

Abstract. With the rapid development of multimedia network technology, in the college English teaching, the multimedia network teaching mode has gradually replaced the traditional single teaching mode based on teacher teaching. The development of multimedia network technology brings opportunities and challenges to traditional college English teaching, and also provides a good platform for college English multimedia network teaching. Based on the obvious characteristics of virtual reality, digital teaching, distance education and other network eras, this paper proposes a comprehensive college English teaching model based on multimedia network. This attempt has certain enlightenment effect on college English teaching reform. Keywords: Network

 Multimedia  Teaching mode  College English

1 Introduction College English is an important foundation course for higher education [1]. Whether it is to train tens of thousands of high-quality workers who are compatible with the requirements of modernization, or to train tens of thousands of specialized talents, it is inseparable from the cultivation of their foreign language, especially the ability to use English [2]. The arrival of the era of informationization, digitization, and networking has prompted the educational concept and teaching methods to be constantly updated [3]. Especially in recent years, computer networks have incomparable advantages in real-time processing, remote monitoring, resource support, multimedia integration, etc., and have gained more and more attention and recognition from foreign language teaching workers [4]. This has challenged the traditional teaching mode and means of “a chalk, a blackboard, a teacher, and a student”. As far as foreign language teaching is concerned, the overall level is not high, and there are long-term drawbacks of “dumb English”, “more time-consuming, and less effective”. Many students scored fairly well in all kinds of exams, and the scores were very high, but they could not be heard once they communicated with others [5]. This serious high score and low energy phenomenon indicates that foreign language teaching has only trained foreign language candidates for many years instead of the actual application of foreign languages [6]. The reason is that the quality of foreign language learning is not unrelated to the conditions and environment of learning. In other words, the environment of language learning plays a considerable role in the use © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 217–223, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_32

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of foreign languages by learners [7]. Why do students learn English for more than ten years, and the phenomenon of “scorpion English” and “dumb English” is still relatively common? The reason is that it is limited by the locale. There are no or few opportunities to practice listening and speaking, and there is little or no chance of using the language you have learned. Based on the above research status and the existing research work, this paper intends to improve the disadvantages of the traditional college English teaching mode by using the unique characteristics of the multimedia network stereoscopic teaching to explore the teaching mode of college English in the network environment.

2 Research on College English Teaching Model 2.1

Theoretical and Practical Relationship Model

According to this theoretical model, linguistics, psychology, sociology, and anthropology are the real theories, while applied linguistics only plays an intermediary role between teaching and theory. Teachers are practitioners of foreign language teaching [8]. The main difference in this model is which should be the theory and the intermediary discipline, and there is still no conclusion. However, the model incorporates sociology and anthropology at the theoretical and intermediate levels, indicating the environmental factors of foreign language teaching. 2.2

Educational Linguistic Model

The educational linguistic model believes that since educational linguistics is specialized in language teaching, it should be a branch of applied linguistics. The focus of this model is to pay attention to the problems associated with second language and language teaching, which demonstrates the multidimensionality of language teaching [9]. However, this model has caused heated debate in the academic world. The focus of the debate is that since the model takes into account the influence of language use theory and learning theory on foreign language teaching theory, why should we neglect the restrictive role of social needs and the real environment of foreign language teaching. The block diagram of the educational linguistic model is shown in Fig. 1. 2.3

Language Learning, Teaching and Policy Interaction Model

The theoretical model believes that there are usually five variables in foreign language teaching, namely M means method and textbook variable; T means teacher variable or teacher’s work; I means teaching variable or student’s work; S means social cultural variable or Environmental constraints; L indicates learning variables or student behavior. In this model, there are two triangular relationships: the MIT triangle represents the taught variable; the ISL triangle represents the variable [10]. The two triangles are subject to social, political, educational and other factors, so the model has formed a multidisciplinary intersection, depicting the research field and expanding the scope of the educational environment. It can be said that this model makes up for the

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Linguistic theory

General Genneral linguistics linguuistics

Learning theory

Psychology

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Linguistic theory

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Language use theory

Sociolinguistics Educational linguistics

Second language teaching Fig. 1. Educational linguistic model

shortcomings of the previous models, and it is a big leap in consideration of the restrictive role of political and social cultural factors in foreign language teaching [11]. The language learning, teaching and policy interaction patterns are shown in Fig. 2. Government Education policy Language policy

Society

Course s M

T

l

L

Fig. 2. Language learning, teaching and policy interaction model

2.4

Situational and Communicative Teaching Model

Since students need to carry out meaningful learning and drills, they must have the necessary social scenes so that communication can be carried out effectively and achieve the effect of language learning [12]. In view of these principles, the corresponding teaching mode is produced, as shown in Fig. 3.

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Understanding

Teaching and experience

Forming

Language skills

Usimg

Language behavior

Fig. 3. Situational and communicative teaching model

3 College English Network Teaching Conditions and Curriculum Design Realizing the comprehensive teaching of college English multimedia network in the true sense is different from the traditional English teaching. Multimedia teaching using modern network technology should have certain material conditions. At the same time, it also raises higher for teachers who are engaged in college English teaching. First of all, you should have a good network teaching environment. The comprehensive English teaching based on multimedia network is based on multimedia facilities such as multimedia network classrooms. It is a necessary condition for realizing the comprehensive teaching mode of college English. Without this basic condition, multimedia network teaching cannot be discussed. At the same time, the multimedia network classroom should have an interactive operation platform with sound and visual, and the platform should have good openness, allowing teachers to add their own multimedia software and various multimedia network resources downloaded from the Internet. Second, there should be a wealth of multimedia network resources. The most important feature of multimedia resources is interactivity. The important features are digitization and good human-computer interaction capabilities. Multimedia files should include the following: charts and images, still photos, patterns and illustrations, video animations, music and sound, and text. With the rapid development of modern networks and information technology, it not only provides people with three-dimensional space, virtual or virtual reality, but also rapidly forms a network of audio-visual, audiovisual and three-dimensional integration. The continuous multiplication of multimedia network resources provides a rich multimedia resource for the comprehensive teaching of college English multimedia network. Finally, there should be a group of English teachers with good English professional knowledge and a good command of computer and internet technology. In the process of college English teaching, teachers should keep up with the times and update concepts, and gradually master advanced multimedia teaching methods such as information technology, computers and internet. Use the multimedia technology you have mastered to produce open, practical and flexible college English courseware.

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After having the above conditions, aiming at the current college English segmentation teaching mode, the comprehensive teaching mode of college English multimedia network integrating reading, listening, speaking and writing is proposed, which is also the basic of the college English syllabus. The specific implementation process and operation mode of college English comprehensive teaching based on multimedia network are shown in Fig. 4. Teaching material knowledge Other references Internet resources Improve multimedia network courseware Students interact with online platforms and teachers

Multimedia network interactive teaching platform

Students learn through the classroom and find their own shortcomings

Teacher and student selfoperation and evaluation

Monitoring classroom teaching

Teachers use classroom teaching to timely feedback information and modify teaching methods

Teacher's teaching effect and students' knowledge output

Fig. 4. University English network teaching mode diagram

4 The Development Prospects of Online English Teaching Despite the use of multimedia network technology in college English teaching, the practice began. However, with the rapid development of information technology, computer and network technology, the application of multimedia network technology in college English teaching will be widely promoted. With the support of multimedia network technology, the comprehensive teaching mode of college English based on interactive multimedia network not only integrates reading, listening, speaking, writing and translating in college English, but also reproduces through simulation and simulation. The real English learning environment, from different perspectives to train students’ ability to read, listen, speak, write, translate and other practical language applications, this model will show its unique advantages and good development prospects.

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In the teaching method, the college English comprehensive teaching mode based on multimedia network combines the listening and speaking method, the situational method and the communicative teaching method. It constructs an interactive multimedia network platform for teachers by means of modern advanced multimedia network technology. Learning with students provides a good English learning environment. At the same time, it provides the required three-dimensional space, virtual or virtual reality for teaching methods such as listening and speaking, situational law and communicative teaching. In the visual sense, the comprehensive teaching mode of college English based on multimedia network integrates the visual, auditory, sound, image and threedimensional space, which greatly stimulates the students’ sense organs in all directions and fully mobilizes the students’ enthusiasm for learning. At the same time, through the organic combination of reading, listening, speaking, writing and translating in English learning, with the help of the open platform provided by modern multimedia network technology, students can learn English basic knowledge while actually using English communication. The ability has also been greatly improved. Using multimedia network teaching, teachers can not only pass the teaching content to the students, but also grasp the overall learning situation of the students in time, and answer questions and demonstrations. At the same time, multimedia network teaching is not only convenient for students to learn cooperatively, but also for teachers to monitor and join students’ discussion activities. This forms an interactive teaching platform and promotes the effect of teaching. In addition, with the multimedia network, teachers can conduct personalized teaching for different students, thus achieving teaching in accordance with their aptitude and improving teaching efficiency. In the college English multimedia network teaching activities, the teacher is the leader and the student is the subject. Teachers can use the multimedia teaching network to transmit information such as teaching tasks, teaching objectives, and key points and difficulties of teaching content to students in the form of words, images, audio or video, so that students can learn independently and consolidate classroom teaching effects. At the same time, through the multimedia network platform, students can actively search and utilize learning resources according to their own learning interests, basic level, personality characteristics, learning habits, etc., from passive learning recipients to active learning explorers.

5 Conclusion With the rapid development of modern network technology, computers and information technology, multimedia technology will continue to improve. The explosive infiltration and rapid spread of multimedia technology in college English teaching provides an opportunity for college English teaching and also brings challenges. The multimedia-based college English comprehensive teaching model with flexibility, openness, interactivity, mobility and practicality gives students more flexibility in learning initiative and operation. At the same time, this model integrates reading, listening, speaking, writing and translating in English learning, which combines the content and form of English teaching, English grammar learning and practical language

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application, and changes the traditional sense. The structure of college English curriculum is subjectively divided in knowledge, content and practice are out of line, and the form is too single, so that students can learn basic knowledge from practical application and integrate their understanding of English language knowledge in specific operations and practice. It can improve the ability to actually use English communication.

References 1. Xue, G., Lingling, L.: A comparative study on cooperative learning in multimedia and network environment used by English majors between China Mainland and Taiwan. Adv. Lang. & Lit. Stud. 9(1), 127 (2018) 2. Feng, S., Shaozeng, S.: Construction of multifunctional video conversion-based multimedia teaching system for college basketball. Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Learn. (iJET) 13(6), 176 (2018) 3. Xu, X., Li, D., Sun, M., et al.: Research on key technologies of smart campus teaching platform based on 5G network. IEEE Access 9(99), 1 (2019) 4. Huang, C., Zhang, Y., Zhu, C., et al.: Chinese sports basketball teaching tactics training system combined with multimedia interactive model and virtual reality technology. Multimed. Tools Appl. 9(2), 122–130 (2019) 5. Shang, J., Wang, Y., Sun, Y.: Design and implementation of wireless multimedia sensor network node based on FPGA and binocular vision. EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw. 12(1), 163 (2018) 6. Colliot, T., Jamet, É.: Understanding the effects of a teacher video on learning from a multimedia document: an eye-tracking study. Educ. Technol. Res. Dev. 66(6), 1415–1433 (2018) 7. Eva, H., Michaela, H.: Creating performance-oriented multimedia projects as part of an interdisciplinary teaching practice. IEEE Multimed. 25(2), 93–103 (2018) 8. Yang, X., Chen, P., Gao, S., et al.: CSI-based low-duty-cycle wireless multimedia sensor network for security monitoring. Electron. Lett. 54(5), 323–324 (2018) 9. Hu, H., Zhang, H., Yang, Y.: Security risk situation quantification method based on threat prediction for multimedia communication network. Multimed. Tools Appl. 77(16), 21693– 21723 (2018) 10. Zhang, L.: A web-based English teaching module on the administration of electroencephalography-based neurofeedback training for Chinese students. NeuroQuantology 16(5), 55–61 (2018) 11. Jian-Fei, C., Hai-Feng, H.: Empirical study on the factors influencing the web-based teaching effect. Eurasia J. Math., Sci. Technol. Educ. 14(5), 1635–1643 (2018) 12. Su, S.C., Liang, E.: Action research of the multiple intelligence (MI), cooperative learning, and game-based teaching into summer intensive english classes for mixed-level and mixedage students. Univers. J. Educ. Res. 5(11), 1977–1985 (2017)

Visual Module R&D of the Intelligent Grabbing System of WIFI Module Shufang Ma1,2,3, Jiang Wu2,3, Shuangben Jiao2,3, and Bin Xue1,2,3(&) 1

2

Engineering and Technology R&D Center of Mechanical and Electrical in Colleges of Shandong, Qingdao Binhai University, Qingdao 266555, Shandong, People’s Republic of China [email protected] School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao Binhai University, Qingdao 266555, Shandong, People’s Republic of China 3 Qingdao Zhongzhuang Vision Automation System Control Co., Ltd., Qingdao 266555, Shandong, People’s Republic of China

Abstract. WiFi module intelligent grabbing system based on visual guidance is established by taking MV-CH120-10GM industrial camera and Siemens S7200smartPLC as the hardware basis designated to realize identification and positioning grabbing of WiFi module. Hardware selection and imaging processing is studied based on visual module, and visual identity and positioning algorithm is developed by taking VisionPro9.0 as the platform. Meanwhile, logical judgment on imaging processing result is carried out by using the software Vision Studio C#. Besides, visual windows is used for inspecting image and data display. Through experimental verification, it is ultimately indicated that the visual algorithm features higher identification and positioning accuracy and satisfies the requirements of the grabbing system. Keywords: Machine vision grabbing

 Image processing  Positioning  Intelligent

1 Introduction Along with the arrival of strategic implementation of manufactured-in-China 2025, China’s manufacturing industry is developing at a high speed. as deemed as an important transmission medium of the internet, WiFi module, features increasing reduction in product replacement period, increasing production speed. It is necessary to design a positioning grabbing system that can satisfy the intelligent process to solve the existing problem about artificial placement of WiFi module. The accurate positioning of WiFi module is realized machine vision according to the research and development of the visual module in the paper to detect whether WiFi module barcode information exists/or not. If not, the manipulator can be used to remove WiFi module. If yes, it is necessary to read the barcode information correctly and the manipulator can be used for precise placement of WiFi module.

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 224–231, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_33

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2 Overall Design of the Intelligent Grabbing System The whole WiFi inspection and positioning grabbing process is a complete system with the core of visual and control module. As regarded as the subject of inspection and positioning part, visual module mainly processes the collected information and then transmits it to the control system. Meanwhile, the control system completes the control of grabbing, feeding and removal processing according to the corresponding information. Real-time online monitoring of the machine vision can be used to guide the manipulator in accurate grabbing the target objects in malalignment and putting them to the specified location according to the designated direction. The step of reading the barcode information can be added to the grabbing and placement process of the manipulator to realize statistical analysis and storage of the important data and increase the product tracing function [1, 2]. Ultimately, the running condition of the whole system is intuitively displayed through Vision Studio 2013 C# software windows interface design. The flow chart of the system design is as shown in the Fig. 1.

3 Hardware Platform of the Visual Module Visual module is the core port of the grabbing system of WiFi positioning. Dual camera is used for dual positioning in the design. Big angle is changed into the small one through two times’ angular adjustment. The offset is reduced to nearly 0° [3]. One typical visual inspection module contains optical imaging, image acquisition & transmission and image processing and analysis. The whole module cannot be without accessories including light source, optical lens, industrial camera, image acquisition card, image processing hardware platform, image & visual information processing software. The hardware list of the visual module is as shown in the Table 1. Table 1. Hardware list of the visual module Designation Positioning camera Optics lens Surface light source Coaxial light source Light controller

Model MV-CH120-10GM, MV-CE050-30GM MVL-KF3528M-12MP, MVL-MF2520M-5MP FG-THZ220220 FG-FV100 PI48W-24-1

4 Software Development of the Visual Module The visual inspection module is developed based on VisionPro9.0 platform. As a foreign powerful image processing software, VisionPro9.0 possesses multiple development modes and dozens of image processing tools. By virtue of abundant algorithms, it is widely applied into the field of machine vision. Meanwhile, it supports C# selfprogramming and Vision Studio 2013 windows development. Many algorithms are

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applied into the visual inspection module, including checkboard calibration, positioning, circle center fitting and coordinate conversion algorithms. PID structural diagram of the visual algorithm is as shown in the Fig. 2.

Fig. 1. Design flow chart

Fig. 2. PID structural diagram of the visual algorithm

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4.1

227

Calib Checkerboard

CalibCheckerboard is an important link of visual processing. The center location is extracted accurately through image fitting by taking selection characteristic point of CalibCheckerboard as the reference point. The offset resulted from the projection and removed according to the known calibration target template parameters can be used to calculate the conversion, linear or non-linear conversion between the pixel and real unit [4, 5]. The flow chart of CalibCheckerboard is as follows: (1) Input checkerboard diagram. (2) Find the corners of the checkerboard. (3) The internal parameter matrix and distortion coefficient of fisheye lens are obtained. Meanwhile, input the image to be corrected. (4) The two are corrected by the corresponding coordinates before and after lens distortion. (5) The final corrected image is obtained. 4.2

Target Positioning

To extract the edge feature of the target object through visual positioning, the feature is regarded as the benchmark to seek that is similar to it for matching [6, 7], so that the positioning function of the target object is realized. 4.3

Circle Center Fitting

One circle can be fit according to three points through circle center fitting algorithm. The distance from the center of the circle to the point on each edge remains unchanged [8]. Under the circumstance that object cannot be confirmed on the irregular object or center point, one center point can be fit according to other feature points of the object. 4.4

Coordinate Conversion

The target object can be grabbed with the manipulator through nine o’clock coordinate calibration to obtain the coordinate of 12 points by rotating certain angle in the center after reaching the location of nine o’clock along the character Tian. Each point corresponds to the coordinate of one manipulator and pixel [8, 9]. The zooming, aspect ratio, rotation, tilting and translation of the object can be corrected through conversion matrix. The coordinate of pixel can be converted into that of the manipulator. Schematic diagram of nine o’clock calibration is as shown in the Fig. 3.

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Fig. 3. The schematic diagram of nine o’clock calibration

5 Test Result Analysis (1) running of the visual inspection program and restart & shutting down of the windows can be controlled on windows through test in Visual Studio 2013. The image and positioning data will be displayed on the windows in real time. Besides, the parameters of the visual module can be revised on the background. The inspection result map of the windows is as shown in the Fig. 4. (2) ording to multiple patterns of WiFi module, the product model can be loaded and switched by selecting corresponding product model name in lyra menu of the model selection through offline pattern making. The schematic diagram of product conversion is as shown in the Fig. 5. (3) duct model conversion inspection will be completed after transitory visual loading. The schematic diagram of the successful effect of conversion is as shown in the Fig. 6.

Visual Module R&D of the Intelligent Grabbing System

Fig. 4. The inspection result map of the windows

Fig. 5. The schematic diagram of product conversion

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Fig. 6. The schematic diagram of the successful effect of conversion

6 Conclusions While WiFi module grabbing system based on visual guidance improves the production efficiency, enhances visual guidance positioning for the manipulator, improves grabbing accuracy, enhances the flexibility of the production line, reduces the time increased for product conversion, it is designed with feeding and removal systems. Simultaneously, the functions including code inspection and dimension measurement of parts for inspection can be provided through machine vision. Thus, artificial operation is reduced. The statistics and analysis of important information can be displayed intuitively through man-machine interface and C# logic programming.

References 1. Levine, S., Pastor, P., Krizhevsky, A., et al.: Learning hand-eye coordination for robotic grasping with large-scale data collection. Int. J. Robot. Res. (10), (2016) 2. Kumra, S., Kanan, C.: Robotic grasp detection using deep convolutional neural networks. International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. IEEE (2017) 3. Golnabi, H., Asadpour, A.: Design and application of industrial machine vision systems. Robot. Comput.-Integr. Manuf. 23(6), 630–637 (2017)

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4. Jiafa, L.: Research on error analysis and improvement of image measurement kinematic parameters. Computer Science and Electronic Technology International Society 4 (2016) 5. Ruifeng, G., Yanhe, L., Shihe, S., et al.: Research on trajectory planning and kinematic analysis of palletizing robot. Mach. Des. & Manuf. 1, 76–78 (2017) 6. Ulrich, M., Heider, A., Steger, C.: Hand-eye calibration of SCARA robots. Open GermanRussian Worokshop on Pattern Recognition and Image Understanding (2014) 7. Fernandez, E., Crespo, L.S., Mahtani, A., et al.: Learning ROS for robotics programming— second edition. Packt Publishing Ltd., Birmingham (2013) 8. Birdal, T., Ilic, S.: Point pair features based object detection and pose estimation revisited. International Conference on 3d Vision. IEEE, 527–535 (2015) 9. Wang, Y., Zhang, G.L., Lang, H., et al.: A modified image-based visual servo controller with hybrid camera configuration for robust robotic grasping. Robot. & Auton. Syst. 62(10), 1398– 1407 (2014)

The Design of Modern Shouzhou Kiln Porcelain from the Perspective of Internet Gang Liu and Wei Jiang(&) School of Arts, Anhui Xinhua University, Hefei 230088, Anhui, China [email protected]

Abstract. With the rapid popularization and application of the Internet, all kinds of designs are integrated with each other. The design of modern Shouzhou kiln porcelain is one of them. The design of Shouzhou kiln porcelain has obvious practical characteristics, which are mainly manifested in the rich types of implements, fully meeting the needs of daily life; reasonable shape design, highlighting the practical characteristics; thick body, heavy quality, simple, solid and durable; not paying attention to decoration, simple glaze application. The design of Shou Zhou kiln product is practical, light decoration, durable and cheap. It fully accords with the modernist design idea and design requirement, and has the advanced nature of surpassing the times. Keywords: Internet

 Shouzhou kiln porcelain  Modernism design

1 Introduction As a famous kiln in Tang Dynasty, Shouzhou kiln was first seen in Luyu’s tea classic [1], Since then, due to the lack of historical materials and the lack of existing artifacts, it has been in obscurity for a long time. In 1960, Shouzhou kiln site was found in Shangyao Town, tianjia’an District, Huainan City [2], Only then opened the veil of mystery that covered the millennium, and attracted the attention of scholars. Later, with the publication of archaeological discoveries, porcelain wares of Shouzhou kiln were unearthed successively in Gongyi and Anyang of Henan Province, Cixian of Hebei Province, Xiangyin of Hunan Province, Fengcheng and Fuzhou of Jiangxi Province [3]. The production time spans the Sui and Tang Dynasties and lasts for 200 years. The researchers also outlined a basic circulation route of Shouzhou kiln porcelain, along the East-West evolution of the Huaihe River and the North-South trade of the Beijing Hangzhou Grand Canal [4]. It can be seen that the value and significance of Shouzhou kilns in the Tang Dynasty can not be underestimated because of the wide marketing areas and the large number of daily services. Today, the research of Shouzhou kiln porcelain has entered a more in-depth stage, involving kiln site investigation, excavation report, porcelain research, technology testing, protection and inheritance and many other aspects. In this paper, the above issues do not make a detailed statement, from the point of view of modern design to re-examine the significance of Shouzhou kiln porcelain products of the times.

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 232–237, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_34

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2 Design Features of Shouzhou Porcelain 2.1

Rich Types of Utensils Fully Meet the Needs of Daily Life

According to the types of wares unearthed successively, there are bottles, pots, pots, pans, bowls, cups, bowls, bowls, bowls, basins, pillows, etc. (Fig. 1) in addition to a small number of water bowls as stationery, a large number of porcelain wares are to meet the actual needs of daily life. For example, a pot for wine, a pot for storing grain and salting, a plate and bowl for food and drink, a cup for drinking tea, a basin for food and noodles, and a porcelain pillow for sleeping. It basically covers the needs of ordinary people’s daily life.

Fig. 1. Common types of porcelain in Shouzhou kiln

2.2

Reasonable Shape Design and Practical Features

Shouzhou porcelain emphasizes practicability in modeling, not much attention is paid to the decorative effect of modeling. Take the “tie” on China (a button that is carried by hand with a rope on) as an example. There are different types of pots and jars, such as double system, four system and eight system. There are also utensils with no buttons on them. This kind of design is based on the volume and different uses of the objects. Double series pots and jars are generally of moderate size. When full of wine or water, they can be carried by one hand. The porcelain of the fourth series has a large volume. When full of wine and water, the weight of the porcelain can’t be borne by the double series. There is a possibility of fracture, so the design of the fourth series is for the sake of safety. The porcelain of the eighth series generally has a larger body shape, and the strength of the button part is greater. More buttons are needed To undertake, this kind of design conforms to the principle of mechanics and is scientific. Because the smaller utensils are convenient to hold, they do not need to design lifting buttons. Because the larger pots are not often moved, they are placed in a fixed place for a long time, so they do not need to design lifting buttons. (Figure 2) fully reflects the practical color of the design.

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Fig. 2. Design of the lifting button of Shouzhou kiln porcelain

2.3

Thick, Heavy, Simple and Durable

Due to the use of the porcelain clay without washing, Shouzhou kiln porcelain generally has rough texture and thick carcass, which is about 0.8–1 cm. Although heavy porcelain brings a little inconvenience to use, but the most advantage of this kind of porcelain is that it is solid and durable. Compared with the use of beautiful and light utensils by the ancient wealthy class, the ordinary people with poor economic conditions pay more attention to the service life of porcelain. In addition, rough processing technology also means saving the processing cost and production time of products, thus generally reducing the unit price of porcelain, which also saves the cost for ordinary people, so it will be loved by the people. According to the archaeological findings from the north and south of Shouzhou porcelain marketing canal and both sides of Huaihe River, there must be a wide range of consumers in the two hundred years of Tang Dynasty. 2.4

No Attention to Decoration, Simple Glaze Application

Shape and decoration have always been the two acme of Chinese porcelain. Sui and Tang Dynasties is the period of great development of Chinese ceramics. The south is green and the north is white, forming two traditions of Chinese porcelain. Yue Kiln is a model of traditional celadon, Xing kiln is a representative of new white porcelain. In addition to the two important glaze colors, there are black, yellow, flower and other glazes, as well as three colors and winches that decorate a new generation of fashion. The technique of underglaze painting appeared in Changsha kiln, which profoundly influenced the later change of Chinese ceramic decoration style. In this context, the development of Shouzhou kiln porcelain seems to deviate from this trend. In Sui Dynasty, due to the influence of northern celadon system, there once appeared decorative works such as Longshou Pankou pot and piled plastic pot, but the number was extremely rare. After entering the Tang Dynasty, this kind of works disappeared completely, instead of a large number of non decorative products. Even glaze application, which has both practical and decorative technology, is also done casually. In the case of not affecting the use, the glaze on the outside of the porcelain can be painted more casually, not paying attention to the full coverage, so the phenomenon of drop glaze, vertical glaze and oil drop glaze can be seen everywhere. (Figure 3) the rough carcass can be obviously exposed to the eyes of the user. This is a common

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phenomenon of Shouzhou kiln porcelain, which shows the distinctive characteristics of the products of folk kilns: rough form, mainly practical. No matter the early blue glaze, the middle yellow glaze, the late black glaze, and the sauce glaze, the color is not delicate, but gives a simple feeling.

Fig. 3. Flow glaze and drop glaze of Shouzhou porcelain

3 The Value of Porcelain Design of Modern Shouzhou Kiln from the Perspective of Internet As a product of the development of modern information technology, the Internet has changed the development of traditional industries in a short time, making people’s life style changed greatly. On the other hand, from the perspective of Internet, we can see the modern design of Shouzhou kiln porcelain. It’s hard to call Shouzhou kiln a famous kiln in Tang Dynasty. Although Lu Yu, the sage of tea, mentioned it in the book of tea, not for the purpose of praise, but as the opposite of the tea set of Yue Kiln and Xing kiln, talking about the shortcomings of making tea in Shouzhou kiln. After Lu Yu, few people seem to praise the products of Shouzhou kiln. China has always attached great importance to the rarity and rarity of porcelain, and respected its aesthetic and cultural values. Exquisite rare porcelain can be priceless, carefully preserved in the museum’s glass cabinet for the audience to admire and scholars to study. But ordinary porcelain is buried in the ground. For a long time, the fate of Shouzhou kiln is like this. Nowadays, there is no trace of Shouzhou porcelain in all kinds of textbooks that introduce the history of Chinese arts and crafts, which is really not appropriate. In fact, there are not only thousands of ancient Chinese kilns, but also trillions of ceramic products, which have played an immeasurable role in the lives of ordinary people for thousands of years. But our history has never disdained to record the life history and product manufacturing history of these ordinary people. As a result, it has been obscured. Our history of Arts and crafts is also a life history of dignitaries and elites. We only know such noble artifacts as colored pottery, jade, bronze, five famous kilns, Yuan blue and white, pink and enamel. What kind of products do ordinary people use when this kind of porcelain is famous in the world? Since the day of the birth of ceramics, ordinary people have been using the cheapest and most low-end ceramic products, which have been used in the 1980s. During this period, who cares about the daily necessities of ordinary people.

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Design for the masses is the common ideal of a large number of outstanding intellectuals in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century, which has opened the curtain of modern design and changed the history of the design industry serving the powerful for a long time. In his masterpiece decoration and sin, Adolf Luce, one of the pioneers of modern design, sincerely put forward a stand against decoration. He believed that simple geometric form and functional architecture should meet the needs of the masses in the 20th century, rather than advocating tedious decoration. The spirit of design should be democratic, for the masses, rather than for a few powerful people [5]. Then, driven by a large number of modernist design masters such as Gropius, Mies van der Rohe and Corbusier [6], it established the basic norms of modern design: geometric form, functionalism, less decoration, neutral color, economic and practical. And take this as the standard, lead the whole 20th century design activities, provide convenient and decent life for millions of ordinary people. In this view, the design of Shouzhou kiln products is practical, light decoration, solid and durable, and low price, which fully conforms to the design ideas and design requirements of modernism. The concept of serving the common people has indeed advanced in the era. It is a pity that the idea of valuing Tao over utensils is quite strong in ancient Chinese creation design thought [7]. The idea of utensils carrying Tao is deeply rooted, and the idea of valuing spirit over practicality, which hinders the further development of Chinese creation design. Today [8], it is of great significance to reexamine the porcelain products of Shouzhou kiln from the perspective of modern design. The broken porcelain, buried porcelain and a large number of debris piled up in the fields of farmers are probably more valuable than the porcelain displayed in the museum [9]. After all, the real value of Shouzhou porcelain is practical rather than aesthetic [10].

4 Conclusion Function and form (including aesthetics) are always important issues in design discussion. The practicability of design determines that design is not a work of art. The design of ancient Chinese artifacts should abide by this principle. For Shouzhou kiln products, we should also look at this. Therefore, the most important value of Shouzhou kiln porcelain is its practical value, not its aesthetic value. Shouzhou kiln products serve the people’s daily use, and have the significance and value beyond the times. There is no doubt that it has the thought of modern design, or it coincides with the concept of modern design. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by Anhui Province University Youth excellent talents support plan (gxyqZD2016387); Anhui Xinhua university young and middle-aged discipline leader training project (2018xk09); Anhui Xinhua University animation research institute project (yjs201708); university students innovation and entrepreneurship training project (201812216014); Anhui university student innovation and entrepreneurship training project (AH201712216054).

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References 1. In the introduction of tea bowl, it is said: “in Yuezhou, Dingzhou and Wuzhou take the second place; in Yuezhou, Shouzhou and Hongzhou take the second place.” “Yue State porcelain and Qiu porcelain are both green, and green is beneficial to tea. Tea is black and white; Xing state porcelain is white, and tea is red; Shouzhou porcelain is yellow, and tea is purple; Hongzhou porcelain is brown, and tea is black, so it’s not suitable for tea.” Cai Dexin, interpretation of tea classics, pp. 25–25. Agricultural Publishing House, Beijing (1984). (in Chinese) 2. Hu, Y.: A survey of Shouzhou porcelain kiln sites. Cult. Relics (12), 60–66 (1961). (in Chinese) 3. Exhibition picture of “Huaishang kiln fire - Shouzhou kiln porcelain exhibition”, Anhui Museum, May 8, 2019–October 7, 2019. (in Chinese) 4. For relevant documents, please refer to: Wang Y.: Early products of Shouzhou kiln unearthed in Hefei. Cult. Relics (9), 96 (1984). (in Chinese) 5. Yuan, N.: Tomb of Zhang Jing in the third year of emperor kaihuang of Sui Dynasty in Hefei. Cult. Relics (1), 85–92 (1988). (in Chinese) 6. Li, J.: The yellow glaze and mat pattern porcelain potting pot unearthed in Dongping County, Shandong Province. Cult. Relics (7), 96 (1996). (in Chinese) 7. Wang, Q.: Discovery and preliminary study of Tang Dynasty drainage ditch and other relics at Dadongmen street construction site in Yangzhou. Archaeol. Cult. Relics (5), 40–49 (1995). (in Chinese) 8. Yan, H.: Appreciation of Shouzhou kiln porcelain unearthed from the relics of the canal, Shouzhou porcelain yellow - Liuzi canal site in Huaibei. Cult. Relics Apprais. Apprec. (7), 52–55 (2015). (in Chinese) 9. Wang, S.: History of modern design in the world, p. 149. China Youth Press, Beijing (2017). (in Chinese) 10. An analysis of the influence of the pattern of southern and Northern porcelain making on Xiaoyao porcelain. Ceram. Res. (4), 53–55 (2019). (in Chinese)

Teaching Activity Design Based on the Discipline Key Competence of IT in Secondary Vocational School Penglong Zhang1,2, Yongsheng Zhang1,2(&), Lining Liu1,2, and Wenqian Sun1 1

School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong Normal University, Shandong 250358, Jinan, China [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] 2 Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory for Novel Distributed Computer Software Technology, Shandong 250358, Jinan, China

Abstract. This paper, is based on the analysis of secondary vocational students learning of information technology, that’s what we call IT. In response to a new round of curriculum reform emphasizes the key competence, we sum high school IT discipline key competence and vocational education characteristics up to the secondary vocational discipline key competence, and design related teaching activity to change the secondary vocational school IT course “computer application foundation”. So as to improve secondary vocational students’ IT discipline key competence, and to provide the reference for school IT teaching material writing, content design and classroom teaching. Keywords: Discipline key competence  IT  Secondary vocational education  Teaching activity design

1 Introduction The traditional IT teaching in secondary vocational schools is “general education compression” that centered on disciplines. However, with the continuous upgrading of the technical composition of the industrial economy, the requirements of industrial workers’ occupational quality are also rising, and the industrial workers with only cultural knowledge or primary operational skills is increasingly unable to be competent for vocational posts [1]. Now the teaching of IT pays attention to professional features, but it is too narrow to professional view, develop into job skills training goals and don’t attach importance to students’ long-term career development, it obviously against that secondary vocational school students adapted to China’s socialist modernization construction, comprehensive development in moral, intellectual, physical, art and has the comprehensive vocational ability, in the field of production and service of high-quality workers and skilled personnel training goal [2]. How to avoid this tendency, while teaching students knowledge and skills to cultivate their competence and ability to adapt to the information age has become the focus of secondary vocational teaching. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 238–245, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_35

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In field the of Basic education, after a long period of course reform, has formed the general consensus that discipline teaching to “ pursuit of discipline teaching to go beyond simply to impart the knowledge and skills, guide students to have discipline view to understand the world and the analysis question, and to form the discipline consciousness and habit of thinking” [3], ordinary high school curriculum standard compilation “list of ordinary high school discipline key competence “in 2016, promoted the implementation of this agreement. At present, “computer application foundation”, as a compulsory IT course for students in secondary vocational colleges, undertakes the task of cultivating students’ information literacy and application ability of IT in the context of the task, and plays a role in laying the foundation for students’ adaptation to the information society and the development of career informatization [4]. How to optimize the teaching of theoretical knowledge and skills in the course “computer application foundation” and cultivate secondary vocational student’s IT discipline key competence, so as to enable students to apply what they have learned to their professional development is a key issue of secondary vocational IT teaching now.

2 The Teaching Status of IT in Secondary Vocational Schools Now there are two main types of secondary IT course teaching modes, one reason is the low starting point of education in our country, education on the internal resources allocation and regional development imbalances, secondary vocational schools learned from ordinary high school then formed and long-standing traditional pattern of discipline centered (as shown in Figs. 1 and 2), some colleges and universities at present stage IT teaching is given priority to with this model.

Fig. 1. Traditional pattern of discipline centered

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Fig. 2. Four-stage teaching method

The other is that in recent years, Chinese educators and scholars have actively learned from Germany, the United States and other countries with advanced vocational and technical education, introduced a series of new teaching methods such as taskdriven teaching method (as shown in Fig. 3), and made many achievements in stimulating students’ interest in learning and enhancing their practical ability.

Fig. 3. Task-driven teaching method

Traditional teaching cannot guarantee students’ discipline activity and further development in the class, while task-driven approach and other approaches are based on constructivist theories that traditional secondary vocational teachers are unfamiliar. Students in vocational colleges have strong image thinking but weak abstract thinking, the degree of abstraction of steps is very high and not delicate, so such course form is also difficult to promote in the field of vocational education [5]. As to the choice of teaching methods, there is also a long debate in China.

3 The Discipline IT Key Competence in Secondary Vocational The construction of vocational education curriculum needs to consider two factors in particular: first, the requirements and challenges of the development of informatization; second, the characteristics and rules of learning based on work [6]. Therefore, this part

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sorted out and analyzed the content of “computer application foundation” according to the key competence standard of high school IT discipline, so as to form the discipline key competence of secondary vocational IT, overcome the limitations and contradictions of existing secondary vocational IT teaching methods, and carry out better teaching design. 3.1

The Discipline Key Competence of IT in Senior High School

The curriculum standard of IT for ordinary high schools (2017 edition) proposes that the discipline key competence of IT in senior high schools includes information awareness, computational thinking, digital learning and innovation, and information social responsibility, shifting from the focus on basic knowledge education to the cultivation of students’ key competence [7]. 3.2

The Content of “Computer Application Foundation”

“Computer application foundation” can be divided into basic computer knowledge, operating system, words, spreadsheets, presentations, multimedia and network application, each module bears the task to cultivate part of the IT discipline key competence. 3.3

The Discipline Key Competence of IT in Secondary Vocational

In the “computer application foundation” of the secondary vocational school, basic computer knowledge and operating system are responsible for cultivating information awareness, common office software is responsible for cultivating computing thinking, multimedia software and Internet applications can promote digital learning, flexible using of each part in their own life and future work can achieve innovation and assume information society responsibility.

4 Design of Teaching Activity Based on the teaching activity design of cultivating the key competence of IT in secondary vocational school, the teaching activity design refers to the complete “action” activity design sequence including “information, planning, decision-making, implementation, inspection and evaluation” and the six-step action-oriented teaching method including feedback [8]. The teaching design activity design is shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. The flow chart of teaching activity design

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The design of teaching activity is as follows: 4.1

Encourage Students to Think

At the beginning of the course, the teacher guides the students into the teaching situation, and then briefly introduces the application of theoretical knowledge and the course. After the introduction, objective analysis to the student of their reality, flexible selected case and motivate students way, make students realize the significance of IT discipline to profession, then according to the grouping situation before class to communicate within the group, the flexibility to choose at this time and sum up method, finally concludes that group integration scheme. 4.2

Practice and Encounter Problems

After the basis of teacher motivation, students have to work out some feasible plans for professional application of IT. After checking the rationality of these programs, teachers guide students to practice them. In the activity design of practice, it is found that the implementation of the program will require students to be proficient in or master certain aspects of IT. This is the problem that students usually or even later will encounter in their professional development. It is also one of the key qualities that should be truly taught to students in life. 4.3

Seeking Methods for Learning

In this stage, the teacher can guide the direction, students to find the details of knowledge; It is also possible to divide the work properly after group decision making, and to select the best method by consulting books, communicating and discussing, and conducting practical tests. You can even seek experience in similar situations on the Internet with the permission of your teacher to solve problems in practice. 4.4

Project Practice to Accumulate Experience

After the method is selected, the final method is tested to determine whether it can really solve the IT problems in the project as expected. To avoid wasting energy and time of team members. Each method experiment should be integrated into a project implementation book, including time consuming, consumables calculation, effect expectation and various situations encountered in the activity design of practice and countermeasures should be recorded. 4.5

Teachers’ Guidance, Summary and Promotion

At the completion of the practice, teachers observe and test the students’ projects, recognize the achievements of students’ efforts and areas to be developed, so as to have a good idea. By means of synchronous teaching, in addition to common practical operation demonstration, students can also use word or mind map to sort out the activity design, emphasize the details that need to be paid attention to, and inspire the

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areas that need to be improved, so that students can have a comprehensive understanding of the overall practice of the classroom and distinguish the key points and difficulties, so as to grasp the general direction in the follow-up work. Students also need to evaluate their own projects on this basis and complete the next step to improve the discipline integration project plan. 4.6

Assignment of Homework, Teaching and Mutual Assistance

According to the cases proposed by the discipline teachers and the performance of students in class, teachers can assign students similar but characteristic homework. Students should concentrate on applying the knowledge and experience in class to the homework. Teachers must pay attention to the statistics of students’ homework completion effect, so as to provide a basis for judging their own teaching effect.

5 Note To complete the teaching activity design and imparting knowledge, need to teachers and students before class, class and after class are well prepared and work throughout the activity design. This section will analyze the matters needing attention in the development of teaching activity design from three perspectives: teacher preparation before class, student preparation before class and multiple evaluation of student. 5.1

Teachers’ Preparation Before Class

Teachers, students and teaching materials are the three most basic elements of teaching. Different teaching modes also reflect different combinations and applications of teachers, students and teaching materials and their relationship [9]. For the teaching activity design of discipline key competence of IT, teachers’ preparation should start from three aspects: content preparation, teaching preparation and student preparation, for ensuring implementation of teaching. 5.2

Students’ Preparation Before Class

Under the traditional teaching form, students prepare for class in the form of preview of textbooks or review of previously learned content. The single form and the traditional classroom will re-consolidate the content of students’ preview, which will inevitably ignore the preview work over time. On the one hand, the teaching design oriented to the discipline key competence of IT requires students to know and be familiar with the activity design of teachers in advance in order to avoid being at a loss in class, and on the other hand, the case form guides students to mobilize their enthusiasm and initiative.

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Multiple Evaluation of Students

The completion of the course is by no means the end of education. The pure traditional examination paper examination mode is unable to meet the needs of reflecting the real ability of students [10], so it requires the introduction of a wide range of knowledge, a wide range of professional and personalized evaluation methods. At the time of design evaluation methods, on the one hand use traditional paper to examine the theory knowledge and IT to the student, on the other hand make skills assessment through student’s rating daily training record, finally conclude the comprehensive evaluation of students’ learning.

6 Conclusion and Future Development This paper was response to a new round of curriculum reform emphasizes the key competence, summed high school discipline key competence of IT and vocational education characteristics up to the secondary vocational IT discipline key competence and teaching activity design, it also analyzes the matters needing attention in the implementation activity design and provides a paradigm for specific classroom teaching. However, teaching activity design is both a theoretical and practical concept [11], which includes teaching preparation, teaching implementation, teaching effect and reflection. On the basis of teaching activity design, we should also consider other aspects of teaching, so as to provide program support for the cultivation of discipline key competence of IT in secondary vocational schools. Acknowledgements. This research was supported by the Major Science and Technology Innovation Project in Shandong Province of China under Grant No.2018CXGC0702, and supported by the Postgraduate Education Innovation Projects of Shandong Province of China under Grant No.SDYC15042. In addition, the authors would like to thank the reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions.

References 1. Yan, Z., Wu, Q., Xu, C.: Evolution activity and development trend of vocational education curriculum model. Vocat. Educ. Forum 1, 48–55 (2019). (in Chinese) 2. Ministry of Education of The People’s Republic of China: Opinions of Ministry of Education on Deepening Vocational Education Teaching Reform and Comprehensively Improving Talent Training Quality. 2015-7-29 (in Chinese) 3. Lv, L., Han, J., Zhang, X.: Cultivation of discipline key quality: value appeal of curriculum implementation. Curriculum. Teach. Mater. 37(9), 18–23 (2017). (in Chinese) 4. Tan, S.: Secondary vocational education course computer application foundation. Teach. Methods Educ. 18, 87 (2014). (in Chinese) 5. Liu, B., Yan, Z., Wu, Q.: Origin and trend of curriculum development model in vocational education. China Vocat. Tech. Educ. 33, 5–11 (2018). (in Chinese) 6. Zhao, Z.: Development of Curriculum model of vocational education in China. Vocat. Educ. Forum 1, 52–57 (2018). (in Chinese)

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7. Zhang, N., Xia, Y.: Connotation and training practice of key quality of IT in senior high school. China IT Educ. 5, 55–57 (2019). (in Chinese) 8. Cui, L.: Research on the teaching design of “six-step method” of vocational training course based on German action orientation. Hebei Agric. Mach. 4, 50–52 (2019). (in Chinese) 9. Hu, S.: The transformation of Teachers’ teaching methods based on students’ core literacy. Educ. Sci. Forum 20, 12–14 (2016). (in Chinese) 10. Xiao, G., Xiongying, W., Ronghuai, H.: Suggestions on the evaluation of information technology curriculum in senior high school for the core subject literacy. China Audio Vis. Educ. 1, 33–37 (2017). (in Chinese) 11. Kuanning, S.: 40 years of research on teaching design in China. Curriculum. Teach. Mater. Teach. Methods 38(11), 39–45 (2008). (in Chinese)

The Local University Based on Web Service Technology Finance Internal Control System Optimization Research Caiping Qin(&) College of Business Administration, Jilin Engineering Normal University, Changchun, Jilin Province, People’s Republic of China [email protected]

Abstract. In recent years, China has increased its investment in the information industry, and concepts such as Internet and cloud computing continue to attract widespread attention. The rapid development of computer technology resulting from this has brought convenience to management, among which the internal financial control of universities is one of the beneficiaries. In this paper, on the basis of the financial internal control work of local universities, the needs of the analysis, design and implementation of each functional module, to meet the system users of the financial internal control work of various functional requirements. The internal financial control system of local universities based on Web Service can meet the actual needs of daily financial work of universities and effectively improve the work efficiency of the financial department. Keywords: Web Service  Internal financial control system analysis  Relational database

 Demand

1 Introduction With the development of information technology, the application of the internal control system relying on the network communication and database storage technology has gradually developed, making the internal control of transactions more standardized and efficient. China has issued the basic norms of enterprise internal control for related problems, but it does not clearly put forward the requirements of financial internal control management of colleges and universities, and relevant contents still lack some formal and targeted provisions to restrict the financial control of schools. Every enterprise and institution needs an efficient financial management system as a support, but also a more critical link in the whole operation [1], so the realization of financial management efficiency and information is particularly important [2]. The construction of the internal financial management system in colleges and universities can effectively improve the current situation of financial management in colleges and universities, strengthen the standardization of the whole business process, and realize the optimization and upgrading of the business process, which is of great significance to the construction of college informatization [3, 4].

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 246–251, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_36

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In this paper, a local university as the research object, through the analysis of the research object of financial management, financial management division of different users in the company’s financial management in the role of the careful analysis, analysis to assume responsibilities and roles of individual users, users of the system is divided into financial management, financial management department leadership and three types of system administrator, for the three kinds of user demand analysis by means of investigation and research, including functional analysis and functional analysis. Based on the analysis of system work demand, the overall structure design of the system and the design of each functional module of the system are improved.

2 Method 2.1

Web Service

Web service are a service-oriented architecture whose core idea is to think of software as a Service [5]. The architecture of Web services is based on communication between the service provider, service requester, and service broker, where the three roles interact by publishing, discovering, and binding [6]. A Web Service provider is the equivalent of a Web Services provider, which can provide its own products, namely Services, to users. The Web Service requester is the consumer of the Service, that is, the role of the customer. It sends the request to the Web Service provider through SOAP. After receiving the request, the Web Service provider carries out the Service. The Web Service medium, or Service proxy, ACTS as a bridge between the requester and its provider, the Web Service provider, which is responsible for finding the appropriate Web Services provider for the Web Service requester. Figure 1 shows the architecture of the We Service [7–9].

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System Functional Requirements

The analysis of system functional requirements mainly includes the following points: first, user login functional requirements. Financial managers and system administrator users need to log in to use the system to complete their work. Second, system management function requirements. The job responsibilities of the system administrator are: publishing announcement, announcement management, managing system log, managing user information and information maintenance. Third, user information management module functional requirements [10]. Financial management personnel need to fill in personal information, modify and manage user information. Fourth, reimbursement and voucher management function. Fifth, the budget management function. Mainly used to provide financial management personnel with the use of financial purposes, the amount of feedback information, but also can generate a simple financial budget report. Sixth, employee salary management function. It mainly includes salary details inquiry, attendance record and personnel information inquiry.

3 Experiment 3.1

The Internal Financial Control System Architecture Design of Local Universities

The architecture design of university financial internal control system mainly includes two parts: first, system software architecture design. The financial management system based on Web Service technology can be divided into five layers: presentation layer, application layer, application support layer, data layer and infrastructure layer. The five-layer structure division is relatively too fine, so the business application of the financial management system based on Web Service can be divided into three layers from inside to outside, namely the presentation layer, the business logic layer and the data access layer. Such division is more conducive to the development, maintenance, deployment and expansion of the system. Second, system physical architecture design. The financial management system based on Web Service technology designed in this paper adopts B/S mode for development. System administrators and financial managers only need to log in the system through the network by using the browser to complete their respective functional requirements and participate in the financial management of the company. 3.2

Function Module Design of Financial Internal Control System in Local Universities

The essence of colleges and universities is a public institution, and profit is not its ultimate goal. Generally, colleges and universities have unified financial allocation, and their financial internal control involves the economic and business activities of many subordinate units. Therefore, it is necessary to clearly distinguish function modules in the development process of financial internal control system. The function module design of college financial internal control system based on Web Service mainly includes six parts, including user login module, employee salary management module,

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system management module, reimbursement and voucher management module, budget management module and user information management module.

4 Discuss 4.1

Environmental Analysis of Internal Control System in Local Universities

The computer configuration used in this paper is a common personal computer configuration, including computer hardware configuration and the corresponding software configuration of the implementation environment, generally, and the system development environment similar to the configuration, there will not be configuration dissatisfaction with the full financial internal control system operation problem. The internal financial control system of local universities based on Web Service technology has the following software environment: Microsoft Windows 7 as the operating system, SQL SERVER 2008 as the background database, IE 8 as the test browser, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 as the development platform. The specific hardware and software development environment of the system is shown in Table 1 below. Table 1. System development configuration A: System development hardware configuration Hardware name Model and configuration Service time Desktop Dell Whole process Internal Storage 2G Whole process Hard Disk Seagate250G Whole process Network Card 10/100 Mbps Whole process B: System development software configuration Number Software name Version 1 Microsoft Windows 7 2 SQL SERVER 2008 3 IE 8 4 Visual Studio 2010

4.2

Quantity 1 2 1 1 Purpose Operating System Database Support Software Compile

Analysis on the Function Module of Financial Internal Control System in Local Universities

The system user needs to use the corresponding account and password to log in the system, and the system administrator can set the account and password for the new user, so the new user can use the account and password for login module verification, and the verified user will enter the corresponding system interface. The system manager is the highest authority of the system. After logging into the system, the manager can carry out system maintenance, log management, user information management, add, modify or delete the manager and ordinary users. In addition, the system administrator

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can also system users and business management personnel for information management. The reimbursement and voucher management module mainly deals with the addition, modification, deletion and inquiry of voucher information by the financial management personnel of the system, as well as the audit of financial reimbursement voucher by the leaders of the financial department of the university. The function modules included in the financial internal control system of colleges and universities are shown in Fig. 2.

System Management Module

User Login Module

User Information Management Module

Budget Management Module

Reimbursement and Voucher Management Module

System Function Module

Employee Salary Management Module

Fig. 2. System function module

5 Conclusion In this paper, based on the local colleges and universities financial management departments to do financial management work of the actual demand, has developed a financial management system based on Web Service technology, in order to solve local colleges and universities financial management departments leading personnel and financial management in colleges and universities financial, budget, etc. The problems existing in the management of, such as data query and analysis process of heavy and complicated, low efficiency, etc.

References 1. Signell, R.P., Camossi, E.: Technical note: harmonising metocean model data via standard web services within small research groups. Ocean Sci. 12(3), 633–645 (2016) 2. Olwal, T.O., Djouani, K., Kurien, A.M.: A survey of resource management toward 5G radio access networks. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 18(3), 1 (2016) 3. O’Connor, J., McCaughan, D., McDaid, C.: Orthotic management of instability of the knee related to neuromuscular and central nervous system disorders: systematic review, qualitative study, survey and costing analysis. Health Technol. Assess. 20(55), 1–262 (2016)

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4. Bianchini, D., De Antonellis, V., Melchiori, M.: The role of developers’ social relationships in improving service selection. Int. J. Web Inf. Syst. 12(4), 477–503 (2016) 5. Kemény, I., Simon, J., Nagy, Á.: Measuring quality perception in electronic commerce: a possible segmentation in the Hungarian market. Ind. Manag. Data Syst. 116(9), 1946–1966 (2016) 6. Baraković, S., Skorin-Kapov, L.: Survey of research on quality of experience modelling for web browsing. Qual. User Experience 2(1), 6 (2017) 7. Bognar, B., Krumes, I.: Encouraging reflection and critical friendship in pre-service teacher education. Center Educ. Policy Stud. J. 77(7(3)), 87–112 (2017) 8. Cihon, T.M., Cihon, J.H., Bedient, G.M.: Establishing a common vocabulary of key concepts for the effective implementation of applied behavior analysis. Int. Electron. J. Elementary Educ. 9(2), 337–358 (2016) 9. Sarens, G., D’Onza, G.: The perception of financial analysts on risk, risk management, and internal control disclosure: evidence from Belgium and Italy. Int. J. Discl. Gov. 14(2), 1–21 (2016) 10. Wang, C., Yang, P., Ye, C.: Voltage control strategy for three/single phase hybrid multimicrogrid. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 31(4), 1498–1509 (2016)

Teaching Activity Model of “PHP Website Development Technology” Course Reform Under the Background of Wisdom Education Rongxia Wang(&) and Baiqiang Gan Guangzhou Nanyang Polytechnic College, Guangzhou, China [email protected] Abstract. Wisdom classroom is a research hotspot in the context of “Internet +”. Compared with traditional classrooms, it focuses more on the guidance and creativity of teachers, and is committed to promoting students’ active learning. “PHP Website Development Techniques” is a comprehensive course. Students need to have basic knowledge of static web pages, JavaScript scripts, and SQL Server databases. In this article, through my own practice, listening to classes, and conducting research on students, I found that the effect of student learning is not good. It is mainly reflected in too many knowledge points that need to be applied to the past. The knowledge is too complicated. Students can’t start when completing small dynamic websites, Weakening students’ enthusiasm for learning. Based on literature research, questionnaire surveys, classroom observations, and semistructured interviews, this paper studies the relevant computer professional teaching models to understand the current status of teaching after the curriculum reform. Discussed the problems existing in the school’s “PHP Website Development Technology” learning. The causes of the main problems in the teaching process are analyzed and analyzed. This paper points out the problems of students’ low learning interest, unsatisfactory learning attitudes, traditional single teaching methods, and single computer teaching methods in schools in the computer major teaching. It further explains the deepening of the teaching reform of the course of “PHP Website Development Technology” in universities Feasibility and necessity. Keywords: Website development ideas  Teaching reform summary

 Curriculum reform  Teaching reform

1 Introduction The wisdom course of PHP which develops and improves itself through the exchange of information and energy with the outside world. The changes that promote the reform of the PHP course are changes in the content, function, etc. Has a very important role [1]. In particular, school-based curriculum computer technology majors has its own unique background. In this way, we can understand why the motivation of schoolbased curriculum is conducive to improving school-based and initiative, and can effectively guide the significance of school-based curriculum practice [2].

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 252–257, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_37

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Under the background of wisdom education, the course of “PHP Website Development Technology” is widespread in various schools according to its own unique advantages [3]. The biggest advantage of wisdom classroom teaching is that teachers and students can communicate more conveniently [4]. By drawing on the similarities, differences and advantages of self-developed and currently popular SPOC-based online open courses, which has both the characteristics of a learning platform and a knowledge popularization platform [5, 6].Enriched the information dissemination methods of online courses through virtual reality technology to enhance the learning experience. In accordance with teaching concepts such as the characteristics of the new curriculum, and the subject characteristics of the course, you can use various models and technology to improve the teaching quality [7, 8]. This article intends to explore how to deepen the teaching reform of “PHP Website Development Technology” in the new situation. By understanding the current teaching status of computer majors, the main problems and the root causes of the problems, actively explore effective measures for the reform of the course. Understand the teaching status of computer major, and point out the main problems in the course teaching of the course. It further illustrates the feasibility and necessity of deepening the course reform of “PHP Website Development Technology”.

2 Proposed Method 2.1

Wisdom Education

The early exploration of wisdom education was mainly from the perspective of philosophy. The wisdom education of philosophy is mainly focused on the development of human “wisdom” [9]. Wisdom education mainly includes three interrelated and different aspects: the education of rational wisdom, the education of value wisdom, and the education of practical wisdom [10]. 2.2

Course Features and Learning Process of “PHP Website Development Technology”

“PHP Website Development Technology” is a core course for computer network majors, and it is also the basic guarantee for cultivating students’ practical ability, independent learning and sustainable development ability. This course focuses on professionalism and practicality. Features of this course: 1. High comprehensiveness. This type of course requires students to have basic knowledge of computers, such as databases and program development. 2. Strong practicality. In the teaching process, students’ actual development and operation ability are emphasized. 3. Emphasize self-learning ability. The class emphasizes students’ self-learning ability and problem-solving ability, which fully reflects the teaching philosophy of “taking students as the main body and taking teachers as the main body”.

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According to the time sequence of teaching, the teaching process is divided into several stages: 1. Before the course begins, you need to have a basic understanding of the students. After a preliminary understanding of these situations, it is necessary to review and summarize these knowledge while introducing new knowledge. 2. In the basic stage, when introducing dynamic website development technologies, compare various types of dynamic website development technologies focus on introducing development technologies, cooperate with cases. 3. In the comprehensive improvement stage, We can analyze a typical case in detail and introduce it in stages based on content, and finally the introduction and maintenance of the website, students can do it themselves by the analysis modes. 2.3

Extracurricular Tutoring Learning Ideas

Classroom teaching time is limited, and many problems encountered by students during the development process cannot be solved one by one. It is necessary to use teaching aids to register and create teaching resource sites for such courses through the interactive platform of the college’s outstanding courses. Through this website, you can learn about the relevant knowledge of the course, and the teacher can post the course information on the website in time, which makes the communication between teachers and students more convenient and fast. It is an important means of training high-skilled students and an important part of teaching. In summary, when studying a dynamic website development course, students can learn independently and interact with teachers through the information and materials provided on the course website. Teachers use the course website for student assignments and lessons, design scores are effectively managed. It stimulates students’ learning autonomy and innovation ability.

3 Experiments 3.1

Experimental Background

Based on the study of “PHP Website Development Technology” course reform teaching activity model under the background of wisdom education, this school-based course is designed based on the characteristics of the subject. Through comparison, we find the deficiencies of traditional teaching. Learning from each other, students can not only master the knowledge of this course, but also display it on the website through digital multimedia technology, so that in the future teaching process, they can adjust the teaching goals and teaching content, use discussion, The interactive and communication method is used to exchange information between teachers and students, improve students’ learning. Trial Course: “PHP Website Development Techniques”. Significance of the questionnaire: Through the questionnaire survey of students, learn about the effect of using this course as a course design.

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Subject of Experiment

Class observations were made randomly in 2 classes selected from 2017 classmates. They had a general understanding of the teaching status of “PHP Website Development Technology” and grasped the learning situation of computer major students to supplement information not available in questionnaires and interviews. The observation time is 3 weeks. Through classroom observation, it also increases the researchers’ perceptual knowledge, thereby ensuring more accurate data. 3.3

Experimental Collection

Questionnaire survey: A total of 140 questionnaires were issued and 128 were returned, of which 121 were valid. The questionnaire data will be mainly in the form of a fivelevel scale. Interview data: During the interview, use the recording equipment to collect the interview content. After the interview, the relevant information are keeped and analyzed to sort out valid information.

4 Discussion 4.1

Learning PHP to Stimulate Student Interest Is the First Step

If students are interested in PHP courses, they will take the initiative to learn no matter how difficult it is. Students tend to develop bad habits of learning, such as failing to develop a good habit of pre-class review, lack of initiative in learning, excessive dependence on teachers, not develop a sense of autonomous learning, fear of suffering, and so on. This shows how important it is for students to take a course well. The following are the statistical results of the questionnaires based on the students’ learning interests and attitudes shown in Table 1: Table 1. A survey of students’ interest in learning Survey item Answer options Are you interested in learning English A. interested B. Some interests C. Not interested D. Unclear

Statistical results 15% 47% 18% 20%

As can be seen from Table 1, only 15% of students are interested in programming; 18% are not interested; and 20% are not clear at all. If the student’s interest in learning is not strong, then the teacher will be tired in class, because it is well known that “interest is the best teacher. Most of the students’ learning attitude is ordinary, and attitude determines the learning behavior and effort level of the students. Students are the main body of learning plays a leading role in the learning process.

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Strengthen Experimental Guidance

The teaching method of colleges and universities is the key factor. According to the actual situation of students, combined with the existing php textbook content, choose different topics, guide students to discuss, and attract students’ attention. At the same time, in the class, students will be shown the achievements of programming learning and opportunities for improvement, so that students’ interest can be enhanced in this way. The results of the questionnaire survey on the new curriculum reform teaching activity model are shown in Fig. 1:

Fig. 1. Analysis of PHP course development technology course reform teaching course improvement

As shown in Fig. 1, we see that 75% of students think that after this semester of study, you think that the level of study of this course has been greatly improved, 13% of students think that it is slightly improved, and 9% of students think that the improvement is not significant Only 4% of students think there is no change, which shows that the platform has played a great role in learning and improving their own learning level, but it still needs to be improved.

5 Conclusions This research finds out the problems by investigating the current situation of PHP teaching, analyzes the reasons, and puts forward corresponding suggestions and countermeasures based on the teaching. According to the design and development of the course, the digital learning platform was tried out, and the way of interviewing students and the questionnaire of students was selected to conduct a detailed analysis of the use of this platform. During the survey and analysis process Teachers and students’ feedback and suggestions are summarized in detail. First, from the questionnaire survey of students, we can see that the platform has a lot of shortcomings in the interest of curriculum resources and the development of new curriculum, but it is still very large. It is mainly to allow students to actively participate in the process of learning the

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school-based curriculum learning knowledge, which can play a significant role in designing and developing school-based curriculum in a timely manner. Acknowledgement. This is the phased research result of the “XAPI-based wisdom education cloud classroom higher vocational teaching activity model research” (Project No: NY2019CQJGYB-05), “Course Reform of ‘PHP Website Development Technology’ Based on Asynchronous Teaching Mode” (Project No: NY-2019CQJGYB-02) and “Research and practice of informatization teaching of modern apprenticeship courses based on TPACK theory” (Project No: NY-2019CQJGZD-01) from Guangzhou Nanyang Polytechnic College.

References 1. Franklin, F.C., Cheung, M.: Legacy interventions with patients with co-occurring disorders: legacy definitions, life satisfaction, and self-efficacy. Subst. Use Misuse 52(7), 1–10 (2017) 2. Wei, Z., Jiao, L., Jiao, Jiangbo, S.: Interactive visualization of big data in cloud classroom education. China Educ. Informatiz. 31(12), 1–4 (2018) 3. Toom, T.: Happiness and wisdom: Augustine’s early theology of education by Ryan Topping. Thomist Specul. Q. Rev. 79(2), 326–328 (2015) 4. HagitMeishar-Tal. Teachers’ use of Wikipedia with their students. Aust. J. Teach. Educ. 40 (12), 126–140 (2015) 5. Boedy, M.: Deep rhetoric: philosophy, reason, violence, justice, wisdom by James Crosswhite (review). Philos. Rhetor. 49(2), 174–178 (2016) 6. Quach, A., Levine, M.E., Tanaka, T.: Epigenetic clock analysis of diet, exercise, education, and lifestyle factors. Aging 9(2), 419–437 (2017) 7. Podgurski, M.J.: Theorists and techniques: connecting education theories to Lamaze teaching techniques. J. Perinat. Educ. 25(1), 9–17 (2016) 8. Li, W., Liu, Y.: Study on application of classroom teaching video case system based on activity ontology. Res. Audio-V. Educ. 13(5), 71–73 (2019) 9. Hui, Y.: Complexity exploration of classroom teaching activity system. Teach. Educ. Res. 19(1), 58–61 (2017) 10. Natasha Bank, Kanda, W.: Tenant recruitment and support processes in sustainabilityprofiled business incubators. Ind. & High. Educ. 30(4), 267–277 (2016)

The Application of Computer Network Technology in the Sharing of Enterprise Financial Files Lingjun Zhu(&) Qilu Normal University, Jinan 250013, Shandong, China [email protected]

Abstract. Financial Sharing breaks through the boundaries of time and space, and realizes the centralized management and information sharing of enterprise finance. The purpose of this paper is to study the application of computer network technology in enterprise financial file sharing. Firstly, we have a deep understanding of the definition of shared services and financial shared services. Secondly, we have discussed the characteristics of enterprise accounting electronic file management under the financial sharing mode from the aspects of convenience, real-time and efficiency. After studying the cloud computing model and data security architecture, we have established the enterprise financial file sharing information system. The experimental results show that all data blocks of the data file are assumed to be average Stored on different nodes of the same rack, when the number of nodes is 1, the construction of hierarchical hash tree can also be regarded as the file hash tree of data files that hash all data blocks of data files, which is the same as the construction of hierarchical hash tree without. When the data file is deleted, modified and inserted, the construction of hierarchical hash tree is more time-saving than that of unstructured hash tree. Keywords: Financial sharing service  Enterprise accounting electronic file Data security system  Management mode



1 Introduction With the rapid pace of economic globalization, the competition among enterprises is becoming increasingly fierce [1]. Enterprises urgently need to introduce more advanced management mode to expand production scale, reduce operating costs, enhance the competitiveness of enterprises, and strive for rapid development of enterprises [2]. At the same time, under the background of rapid development of information technology, the reform of enterprise management mode has a reliable technical guarantee [3, 4]. Some large multinational companies with strong strength, advanced technology and perfect management system took the lead in introducing the sharing service mode [5, 6]. The introduction of this model can help enterprises to reduce operating costs, improve work efficiency, enhance market competitiveness, and become an effective driving force for enterprise management reform and development [7, 8]. By analyzing © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 258–263, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_38

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and evaluating the relevant business processes within the enterprise, the shared service centers of the professional institutions within the enterprise share the businesses that are regular, repetitive, similar in business types and can be standardized for management and control. They provide unified, standard and fast processing services, simplify business steps, optimize business processes, improve the degree of enterprise standardization, and promote the overall economic efficiency of the enterprise [9, 10]. L. Dong reported on a large company’s social software file sharing service. User created collections of files are related to the increased use of uploaded files, especially from one employee sharing files to another. Employees innovate in using the collection function as an “information administrator,” an urgent primary user role, where one employee creates a named collection of resources that describes the use of other employees. This role presents new work practices and new features [11]. This paper creatively puts forward the new requirements for the management of enterprise accounting archives, that is, to standardize the management system of enterprise accounting archives, to carry out the management of enterprise electronic accounting archives, to deeply tap the information of enterprise accounting archives, and to ensure the information security of enterprise accounting archives. This paper studies the related work of accounting archives management under the financial sharing service mode, understands a series of processes of accounting archives, such as signing in, preliminary examination, scanning quality inspection, archiving, review, and other basic services, such as the storage medium and archiving mode of accounting archives, and has a new understanding of the connotation and function of accounting archives under the financial sharing service mode.

2 Proposed Method 2.1

Shared Services and Financial Shared Services

(1) Shared services Sharing service is the innovation of business management and control activities in the context of globalization, network development and significant growth of business scale. Through analysis and evaluation of relevant business processes within the enterprise, the business with high frequency, repeatability, similarity and standardization can be managed and controlled by sharing service center of professional institutions within the enterprise for unified, standard and fast operation, It is conducive to the simplification and optimization of internal business processes, the unification of standards, and the improvement of the overall operation efficiency and efficiency of the company. (2) Financial Sharing Services Financial / accounting department is the first choice of shared service application in large enterprise groups, mainly because: first, improving the working efficiency of financial / accounting department and improving customer satisfaction are of great

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importance to improving the overall development of enterprise groups and improving operation efficiency; second, financial / accounting department is one of the functional departments with the most cost consumption of enterprises. Through the application of shared service, it can It can reduce the internal consumption cost of the Department, so as to reduce the overall operation cost of the enterprise group; 3. As one of the departments with the highest degree of standardization, the financial / accounting department is easier to share the application of service mode in the enterprise group; 4. The financial / Accounting Department is equipped with more perfect hardware and software facilities, and with the development and improvement of network information technology, it is easier to share the service in the enterprise group Technical requirements. 2.2

Characteristics of Enterprise Accounting Electronic File Management Under Financial Sharing Mode

(1) Convenience Enterprises scan the collected original accounting vouchers through the image management system and upload them to the financial sharing cloud platform. On the cloud platform, enterprises use accounting information systems such as UFIDA, Kingdee and SAP to process the original vouchers to generate electronic accounting vouchers, and then process the electronic accounting vouchers to generate various accounting statements, such as daily cash statements, general ledger, Sub Ledger and multi column Sub Ledger Finally, the balance sheet, profit statement, cash flow statement and other statements are generated. In addition, in the financial sharing mode, the connection mode between the enterprise and the bank changes. (2) Real-time performance The traditional accounting file management mode can’t realize the real-time update of data, but in the financial sharing mode, the original accounting voucher can be scanned and uploaded to the cloud platform, which can generate the accounting electronic voucher and generate various reports in the system, providing services for decisionmaking. Take the expense reimbursement process as an example. First, the expense data generated by employees’ consumption through credit card during business trip can be transferred to the enterprise cloud platform in real time. Secondly, employees select specific modules according to the reimbursement content and fill in according to the reimbursement amount and items; the financial department only needs to check the data on the cloud platform and the reimbursement items filled in by the employees, and if the information is consistent, the data can be delivered to the banking system, and the bank will complete the payment.

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(3) High efficiency Based on the mode of financial sharing, the management of enterprise accounting electronic archives can realize the integration of collection, processing, analysis and utilization of enterprise accounting electronic archives, and the archives management has high efficiency. However, the traditional accounting file management needs a lot of time and energy, such as printing a large number of electronic vouchers. 2.3

Cloud Computing Model and Data Security Architecture

Cloud computing data storage service cluster consists of network, hardware equipment, application software and other aspects; currently, cloud computing providers generally have their own data storage services based on cloud computing. Amazon provides cloud storage service products, common ones are elastic block storage and simple storage services; Amazon provides storage and maintenance services according to user needs, and charges according to usage. IBM’s cloud computing data storage is a typical network storage. IBM’s huge global data center provides users with thoughtful remote data storage. Google’s cloud data services include two categories: the first is to serve specific internal businesses, such as online documents, e-mail services, etc.; the second is that user (user) provides GDrive online storage services. In addition, cloud computing data storage services include azure data center of Microsoft company, Mozy online service of EMC company, global data center of IBM company, etc. Compared with traditional storage, the advantage of cloud computing data storage service is that it can support massive data management and maintenance, and provide multiple types of network online data services. However, the user of cloud computing data storage service is huge, and the service object and network environment are complex, which makes the cloud computing data storage service face many risks. At present, the cloud computing data storage security architecture adopted by the mainstream cloud computing providers only includes CDC (cloud computing data center), user (user) and network communication, and the audit supervision and data security work are completed by the enterprise itself.

3 Discussion 3.1

Time Analysis of Data File Construction

The experiment assumes that all data blocks of the data file are stored in different nodes of the same rack on average. When the number of nodes is 1, the hierarchical hash tree construction can also be regarded as the file hash tree construction of the data file by hashing all data blocks of the data file, which is the same as the file hash tree construction without hierarchical hash tree construction, as shown in Fig. 1.

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1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

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Fig. 1. Reconstruction time comparison under operating conditions

It can be seen from the experimental results that the hierarchical hash tree construction obviously saves time compared with the unstructured hash tree construction when the data files are deleted, modified and inserted; moreover, within a certain range of nodes, the construction time of the hierarchical hash tree will decrease with the increase of nodes. Therefore, the hierarchical hash tree construction algorithm used in this algorithm has obvious advantages over the previous scheme in time cost. Because SHA-1 is used as hash function of data block hash operation in this algorithm, the root node value of each hash tree is 160 bits, that is, 20 bytes. The size of storage space occupied by validation information of data files is determined by the number of nodes and racks distributed by data blocks. In the initialization phase, the CDC (cloud computing data center) temporarily retains the hash value of all data blocks. In the reconstruction phase of dynamic operation hash tree, CDC (cloud computing data center) also temporarily retains the hash value of all data blocks of the server node where the operation data block is located. In the generation stage of response m verification response information, CDC (cloud computing data center) also temporarily retains hash values of all data blocks that need to be verified for nodes, racks or files. All temporarily retained intermediate records will be destroyed with the reconstruction of hash tree and the generation of verification information. 3.2

Comparison Between Enterprise Financial File Sharing and Traditional Financial File Mode

Compared with the traditional financial file model, there is no change in the content, nature and method of financial accounting compared with the traditional financial management, but “the financial sharing model makes the financial management break

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the boundaries of time and space, realizes the concentration and sharing of the company level financial information by the enterprise organization, and establishes the organization, financial working mode, financial working standard and process There are great differences in requirements, efficiency and quality”.

4 Conclusions Driven by economic globalization and the wave of network economy, financial sharing has become an effective mode for many enterprises to improve management mode, carry out management innovation, improve management efficiency and enhance core competitiveness. This paper discusses the verifiability algorithm of data dynamic operation based on hash tree in three basic dynamic operations: file preprocessing, data file verification and data insertion, modification and deletion. Finally, the algorithm is analyzed and evaluated.

References 1. Luo, X., Ren, Y., Hu, J.: Privacy-preserving identity-based file sharing in smart city. Pers. Ubiquit. Comput. 21(5), 1–14 (2017) 2. Jin, J., Luo, J., Li, Y.: COAST: A cooperative storage framework for mobile transparent computing using device-to-device data sharing. IEEE Netw. 32(1), 133–139 (2018) 3. Chen, X., Huang, W., Jin, Y., et al.: Prescription analysis of electroacupuncture for simple obesity based on complex network technique. Chin. Acupunct. Moxibustion 38(3), 331–336 (2018) 4. Chakravarthy, R.A., Palaniswami, S., Sabitha, R.: Cluster header revolving technique to prolong network lifespan in wireless sensor network. J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 14(12), 5863–5871 (2017) 5. Zabri, Z., Nohuddin, P.N.E.: Analyzing network intrusion behavior of packet capture using association rules technique: an initial framework. Adv. Sci. Lett. 24(3), 1628–1632 (2018) 6. Banno, M., Tsujimoto, Y., Kataoka, Y.: Reporting quality of the Delphi technique in reporting guidelines: a protocol for a systematic analysis of the EQUATOR Network Library. BMJ Open 9(4), e024942 (2019) 7. Singh, M., Khilar, P.M.: A range free geometric technique for localization of wireless sensor network (WSN) based on controlled communication range. Wireless Pers. Commun. 94(3), 1–27 (2017) 8. Zarbakhsh, P., Addeh, A.: Breast cancer tumor type recognition using graph feature selection technique and radial basis function neural network with optimal structure. J. Cancer Res. Ther. 14(3), 625 (2018) 9. Sleeba, S.Z., Jose, J., Mini, M.G.: Energy-efficient fault tolerant technique for deflection routers in two-dimensional mesh Network-on-Chips. Iet Comput. Digit. Tech. 12(3), 69–79 (2018) 10. Long, Z.: On-line fault section location and classification technique for low voltage active distribution network. Proc. CSEE 37(9), 2525–2538 (2017) 11. Dong, L., Meng, T., Chen, N.: Optimized scheduling of AC/DC hybrid active distribution network using markov chains and multiple scenarios technique. Autom. Electr. Power Syst. 42(5), 147–153 (2018)

Analysis of Influencing Factors and Countermeasures of Computer Network Security Yanli Liu and Meng Cui(&) Network Information Center, Bin Zhou Medical University, Yantai 264003, China [email protected]

Abstract. Since the new century, with the gradual popularization of computer networks around the world, network security defense methods have become more sophisticated and comprehensive, but they are still unable to defend against increasingly sophisticated and increasingly globalized virus attacks. In the process of network use and promotion, the influence of viruses on the network and hackers’ attacks have become an important factor threatening network security. Especially when people use the Internet to pay funds, remittances and other online financial activities, network security has become a constant topic. Establishing an efficient network security incident response system is of great significance for the network to better play its role. Based on the research of network security monitoring, network attack defense, network data backup and recovery theory and technology, this paper studies the strategy model of network security incident response, and uses relevant theories and methods of software engineering, combined with programming languages, to achieve Related application modules of this model. This article implements a low-cost, high-performance multi-data backup and recovery system that works in conjunction with other security devices and systems in the network. The overall structure and workflow are analyzed and designed to achieve multi-point backup and Fast recovery, efficient synchronization strategy for remote data, etc. The experimental research found that the network security incident response system can effectively reduce the security risk of the internal network, with a security proportion of more than 92%. Keywords: Network security Attack defense

 Computer security  Network data backup 

1 Introduction The application of information network technology represented by the Internet is becoming more and more popular and widespread. The application field has gradually expanded from traditional small business systems to large key business systems, such as party and government department information systems, financial business systems, and enterprise business systems. Network security has become an important issue affecting network efficiency. The openness, internationality and freedom of the Internet, © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 264–271, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_39

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while increasing the degree of freedom of applications, put forward higher requirements for security. This is mainly reflected in: the network technology is completely open, and anyone or any group can learn to master it. Therefore, the damage and attacks facing the network may be multi-faceted, such as attacks on physical transmission lines and attacks on network communication protocols and software. The attack may also be an attack on hardware. Cyber attacks not only come from users on the local network, but also from any computer on the network, which means that cyber security is facing international challenges. This also means that the network did not initially provide users with any technical restrictions. Users can freely access the network and freely use and publish various types of information. The complexity and variability of the network environment and the vulnerability of information systems determine the objective existence of network security threats. Cyber security construction is a major issue involving China’s economic development, social development and national security [1]. The security issues raised in the cyber age involve not only national economic and financial security, but also national defense security, political security, and cultural security. Therefore, it can be said that in the current society, without the guarantee of computer network security, countries and units have no security barriers [2]. At present, the more common Internet security defense measures include firewall technology, antivirus software technology, isolator, and security machine, which are characterized by simpler architecture and deployment, easy use, and do not require excessive human intervention. The virus has better defense and control capabilities. However, these measures also have certain problems. The firewall cannot defend against attacks initiated by the internal network, and various detection technologies have the problem of false negatives and false positives. Moreover, the encrypted data stream is invalid and antivirus the software does not have the ability to resist new attacks. Isolators and secrecy opportunities affect the normal communication flow of the network. The capacity of a single network security product is limited. To achieve dynamic and active protection of the network, different products need to be integrated to form a coordinated attack defense technology. This paper studies the off-site data backup and recovery technology for network data loss accidents. It is mainly to back up important data files to backup databases in different geographical locations through network transmission and network synchronization technology, and then use related monitoring technology to synchronize and compare these backup data with the original data. The system can complete data recovery in a short time. The network security incident response system used in this article has improved network security to over 92%.

2 Proposed Method 2.1

Factors Affecting Network Security

The increasingly serious network information security problem not only causes huge economic losses to enterprises, institutions and users accessing the Internet, but also seriously threatens national security and sovereignty [3]. To avoid network information

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security problems, we must first clearly understand the factors that cause this problem [4, 5]. In summary, there are three main aspects that pose a threat to the network [6]: (1) Virus infection From “worm” viruses to CIH and love viruses, the virus has always been the most direct threat to computer system security. The network also provides a fast path for virus transmission. The virus can be easily downloaded through software through a proxy server and received via email, enters the network, and then attacks the network, causing huge losses [7]. (2) System loopholes and “backdoors” The operating system cannot be 100% flawless. In addition, programmers leave “backdoors” in software [8, 9]. (3) Storage and transmission of privacy and confidential information Confidential information is stored in the network system. When a system is under attack, it can easily be collected. Similarly, when transmitting confidential information, it can be read on any intermediate site because it has to go through multiple external nodes and is difficult to verify [10]. 2.2

Network Security Policy

Security strategy is divided into two aspects: security management strategy and security technology implementation strategy [11]. (1) Management strategy Security systems need people to implement them. Even the best and most reliable system security measures cannot be taken entirely by computer systems. Therefore, a complete security organization and management system must be established [12]. (2) Technical strategy The technical strategy should propose specific measures for network, operating system, database and information sharing authorization. 2.3

Network Security Incident Response Strategy Model

The composition of the cyber security incident response strategy model mainly includes three parts. (1) Attack information recording system It mainly uses attack information recording technology and network security monitoring technology to detect suspicious network data flows and network links, and obtain and save relevant information about cyber attackers. This information can provide a reliable basis for attack defense systems and data backup and recovery systems. It can also play an important role in the analysis and countermeasure research of network attack behavior after the fact.

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(2) Cooperative Attack Defense Technology Mainly based on the information about the attacker’s attack obtained in the attack information recording system, the honeypot technology and system vulnerability scanning technology are integrated into the defense system, and a three-dimensional attack defense system is established to achieve protection against network attack behaviors. And resist. (3) Network data backup and recovery system Its goal is to achieve a low-cost, high-performance multi-data backup and recovery system that works with other security devices and systems in the network.

3 Experiments 3.1

Experimental Environment

Specific deployment based on network security incident response system. Among them, a simulated attack host was established in the user group. Its operating system is Windows XP. The main attack method is vulnerability scanning. The software X-Scan and NMAP are installed. The network security incident response system is installed on the main server, and honeypot technology is deployed in the system, and its operating system is Windows 2000 Server. The hardware system tested for the data backup system includes the main database server and the backup database server, and there is also a client host. The two sets of database servers use Intel’s Zhiqiang processor, the main frequency is 2.66 GHz, the memory is two 4G DDR3 memories, and the hard disk capacity is 1 TB. The client uses a 1BM brand PC. The operating systems installed on both database servers are RedHat Enterprise Edition, the database management system installed on the primary database server is Oracle 10ɡ, and the database management system installed on the backup database server is SQL Server 2008. 3.2

Subjects

In this paper, by constructing an experimental network, using one of the computers on the internal network as the attack host, the internal network is attacked. The results of the attack are analyzed and compared by comparing the two states of the network security incident response system that is not open and the network security incident. 3.3

Experimental Steps

Specific deployment based on network security incident response system. Among them, a simulated attack host was established in the user group. Its operating system is Windows XP. The main attack method is vulnerability scanning. The software X-Scan and NMAP are installed. The network security incident response system is installed on the main server, and honeypot technology is deployed in the system, and its operating system is Windows 2000 Server.

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Secondly, test the data synchronization performance of the data backup system. The test method used is to update the data of any one of the data tables in the database. The updated data records are 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, and then based on the log. The analyzed data synchronization software detects the data in order to detect the response time of the backup database system. Finally, the general performance of the heterogeneous database is tested. The specific method is to update, delete, and add data in the main database system, and then check whether the relevant records in the backup database system have been accurately updated.

4 Discussion 4.1

Test of Data Backup Function

The functional test of the data backup system is mainly to test the accuracy of data synchronization between the main system and the backup system, Data synchronization performance, data synchronization between heterogeneous databases, etc. The test results are as follows: Sync accuracy test. After testing, all the data in the main database system and the backup database system were compared, and the data consistency was 100%. This test result shows that the data backup system has better data. Sync accuracy. Data synchronization performance test. Data synchronization performance test results are shown in Table 1: Table 1. Data synchronization performance test results Updated data (items) 500 1000 2000 Frequency 1 2.0 11.9 50.7 2 2.1 14.5 50.1 3 2.4 12.1 50.6

5000 312.5 327.6 301.4

As can be seen from Table 1 above, when the number of updated data records increases, the time required to synchronize the backup database will increase, and as the number of updated records increases, the required time trend curve will be the steepest, indicating the synchronization performance of the data backup system and Record updated data related. Considering the fact that large-scale data operations rarely occur during actual use, the test results show that the data backup system has better synchronization performance. Database general performance test. Tests have shown that the data operation results in the Oracle database management system in the main database system can be accurately updated to SQL Server 2008 in the backup database system. By comparing the results of the simulated data operations, the synchronization accuracy rate has

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reached 100%, which proves that the data backup system can effectively achieve data conversion and synchronization in heterogeneous databases. 4.2

Intranet Overall Security Test

First, the overall security of the internal network is tested. The test tool used is the Green Alliance Aurora (AURORA) remote security evaluation system of the company. This system can diagnose the security flaws and hidden dangers of the internal network and give tests. Report. Without the network security incident response system turned on, the test results are shown in Fig. 1:

Fig. 1. Results graph of cyber security incident response system

As shown in Fig. 1 above, the test has tested all the effective equipment in the internal network, and the results show that the proportion of “very dangerous” and “relatively dangerous” has reached 50%, and the overall safety level is defined as very dangerous. After the network security incident response system is turned on, the test results are shown in Fig. 1: After the network security incident response system is turned on, the proportions of “very dangerous” and “more dangerous” are reduced to 6% and 3%. The rating is defined as “relatively safe.” The comparison between the two tests shows that the network security incident response system can effectively reduce the security risk of the internal network and improve the security level of the network. 4.3

Service Port Scan Test

During the test, the network security incident response system was not turned on in the first round. The TCP SYN scan was performed using NMAP software (Table 2). After starting the network security incident response strategy system, using NMAP again for TCP SYN scanning, the results obtained are shown in Table 3 below:

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Interesting port on 199.111.111.21: Not shown:1710 closed port Port STAIE SERVIDE 80/tcp open http 139/tcp open netbios-ssn 445/tcp open micrisift-ds 3306/tcp open mtsql MAC Address:00:01:01:00:0B:A1

Table 3. Results of TCP SYN scan by NMAP 2

All 1800 scaned ports on 199.111.111.21 are filtered MAC Address:00:01:01:00:0B:A1

By comparing the above test results, it can be known that when the network security incident response strategy system is not activated, TCP SYN scanning performed by NMAP can obtain the relevant ports and service types on the main server, but NMAP cannot obtain the To the ports on the server and open services, the next attack cannot be performed.

5 Conclusions This article mainly tests the network security incident response system. It mainly tests the system’s overall protection function for the internal network, the system’s ability to detect and defend against external attackers’ malicious detection, and the function and performance of the data backup system. This paper researches the technology of network attack information recording. It mainly uses network security detection technology to detect suspicious network data flows and network links, and obtains and saves information about network attackers. This information can provide a reliable basis for the attack defense subsystem and data backup and recovery subsystem. It plays an important role in the analysis and countermeasures of network attack behaviors after the fact. This paper studies the off-site data backup and recovery technology for network data loss accidents. Its goal is to achieve a low cost, high performance, and other security in the network. The multi-data backup and recovery system where the equipment and the system work together analyzes and designs its overall structure and workflow. The distributed architecture is mainly used to implement the system architecture.

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References 1. Wurzenberger, M., Skopik, F., Settanni, G.: Complex log file synthesis for rapid sandboxbenchmarking of security- and computer network analysis tools. Inf. Syst. 60(C), 13–33 (2016) 2. Wang, Y.: Food information management and security strategy of computer network. Adv. J. Food Sci. Technol. 11(12), 792–794 (2016) 3. Sommestad, T., Sandström, F.: An empirical test of the accuracy of an attack graph analysis tool. Inf. Comput. Secur. 23(5), 516–531 (2015) 4. Shuo, L., Chai, B., Zhang, X.: Collaborative filtering algorithm based on improved nearest neighbors. Comput. Eng. Appl. 39(1), 53–58 (2015) 5. Bisht, N., Ahmad, A., Bisht, S.: Application of feature selection methods and ensembles on network security dataset. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 135(11), 1–5 (2016) 6. Yadav, G., Dalal, S.: Improvisation of network security using encryption technique for big data technology. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 124(11), 27–30 (2015) 7. Hanamsagar, A., Borate, B., Jane, N.: Detection of firewall policy anomalies in real-time distributed network security appliances. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 116(23), 7–13 (2015) 8. Zhang, S., Shi, R., Zhao, Y.: Visual fusion and analysis for multivariate heterogeneous network security data. J. Comput. Appl. 35(5), 1379–1384 (2015) 9. Ma, D.X., Lin, Z.Q., Zhu, F.: Application of matroids on network security. J. Chin. Comput. Syst. 43(3), 292–301 (2015) 10. Parmar, H., Gosai, A.: Analysis and study of network security at transport layer. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 121(13), 35–40 (2015) 11. Liu, Y., Chen, W., Guan, Y.: Identifying high-cardinality hosts from network-wide traffic measurements. IEEE Trans. Dependable Secure Comput. 13(5), 547–558 (2016) 12. Degefa, F.B., Lee, D., Kim, J.: Performance and security enhanced authentication and key agreement protocol for SAE/LTE network. Comput. Netw. 94(C), 145–163 (2015)

Computer Network Technology-Based College English Oral Course Design Jie Huang1(&) and Juan Yi2 1

Institute of Technology, East China Jiaotong University, Jiangxi, China [email protected] 2 Department of Physical Education, Yuzhang Normal University, Jiangxi, China

Abstract. Sports English, as a branch of English for special purpose, has received more and more attention from professionals in the field of theory Based on traditional sports English teaching, this paper designs computer sports oral English course based on computer network technology, integrates computer network technology into college oral English teaching. Using CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database and other electronic resources, computer networks, spoken English teaching, and sports English as keywords to consult relevant research to understand the current status of research at home and abroad. The experimental results provide a theoretical basis. The experimental results show that the significance level of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the sample report of PE English in the experimental group is 0.225, which is greater than 0.05. It can be seen that the teaching effect of college PE oral English based on computer network technology is very obvious. Keywords: Computer network Curriculum design

 College sports  Oral English teaching 

1 Introduction Informationization of English education for sports majors needs to be analyzed from two dimensions. First, informationization of education incorporates computer networkbased knowledge into oral English teaching for sports majors, making students master relevant skills and adapt to society Informatization Second, it integrate computer technology into higher education to create a better learning conditions for students. In college oral English teaching, the auxiliary functions of computer have been widely recognized, and the continuous development of MOOC, micro-learning and multimedia teaching has also urged the reform of college oral English teaching model. How to effectively use a large number of media and network teaching methods, break through traditional teaching mode, and improve English teaching with high efficiency, quality and comprehensiveness has become an urgent problem for English teachers. Starting from the characteristics of multimedia and network teaching, Zou D explores how to effectively use multimedia and network based on the network multimedia English teaching model [1]. By providing students with instructional videos, the opportunity to discuss issues with teachers and other students before class, and the © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 272–277, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_40

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completion of the course, Bing W will become more diverse and useful. Assign tasks in cooperation with others to promote their learning. By solving some practical problems that need to be explored in the future, MOOC-based college English reform can be improved [2, 3]. From the perspective of constructivist theory, Guo analyzed the characteristics of multimedia and network technology and the specific application in college English teaching, and pointed out that the college English teaching model based on the network platform provided a new way for teachers and students to realize selflearning. Selective, interactive teaching, thereby improving the quality of college English teaching and enhancing students’ interest in learning English [4].

2 Proposed Method 2.1

Necessity of Oral English Course Design

The status quo of college PE English teaching in China has been seriously unbalanced for a long time with a low level of overall development in students’ ability, which is seriously out of the requirements of employers. Oral English has become the biggest weakness of Chinese English learners’ English ability and an urgent need to improve [5]. College English teachers have a high degree of consensus on the ability of freshmen who need to improve urgently, and basically all focus on oral skills, as well as communication-related skills such as free expression [6]. At the same time, survey results from employers and employees show that college students who enter the workplace after graduation also urgently need to improve their English skills. With the continuous reform of foreign language courses, oral English courses urgently need to change the traditional model and meet the needs of society. At present, there is a separation between language teaching and curriculum design. Language teaching, whether modern or traditional, is independent of curriculum design. Curriculum design has five aspects of decision-making, implementation, detection and evaluation, research and creation. On the one hand, the research can provide some reference for the development of general oral English courses. On the other hand, it can provide standards and directions for the teaching of oral English courses, counteract the teaching practice of oral English courses, promote the modernization of oral English teaching, and improve the long-term and inefficient nature of oral English courses in China. Objective reality [7, 8]. 2.2

Application of Computer Network Technology in College English Teaching

(1) Enriching teaching content and improve teaching efficiency Computers transmit information quickly with rich information resources. Taking this advantage into English learning, students can acquire knowledge in time, and be trained to think and explore with problem-solving abilities. Moreover, integrating computer networks into English teaching can enable students to conduct relaxed and open communication activities in the classroom. Students can communicate and learn with their classmates according to their English level, hobbies and habits, and make

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common progress [9]. Teachers can also arrange learning tasks on the network. Students can learn on the corresponding website, adjust the learning speed according to their own conditions, and choose learning materials suitable for themselves. This not only enables students to learn, but also stimulates students to learn. Interests have improved their oral English communication skills [10]. (2) Promoting communication between teachers and students In university study, computer English teaching mode provides a link for better communication between teachers and students. Teacher can play English movies and other English materials as well as letting the students speak in English and exchange opinions. While in the traditional teaching, it is difficult for the teacher to set aside special time to exchange opinions with the students. Application of the computer not only saves teachers and students’ time, but also strengthens their communication, making students express their views.

3 Experiments 3.1

Research Object

In this experiment, a total of 50 students in two classes of the first grade of social sports major of Xi’an Institute of Physical Education are used as the research object. Class A uses computer network technology to teach oral English for sports, and class B serves as a reference group. Using CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database and other electronic resources, using computer networks, spoken English teaching, sports English as keywords to consult relevant research literature, to understand the current status of research at home and abroad, to carry out computing-based online sports English teaching experiments and Analysis of the experimental results provides a theoretical basis. In order to ensure the same progress in the oral English teaching of the experimental group and the control group, under the premise that the teaching teachers are unchanged, three months of experimental teaching will be conducted from September 15, 2019 to December 15, 2019. After the experiment, two groups of students were organized to take the PE English test, and SPSS 21.0 software was used to statistically analyze the experimental data.

4 Discussion 4.1

Analysis of Experimental Data

Analysis in Table 1 and Fig. 1 suggests that Kolmogorov-Smirnov test scores for the sample of the control group was 0.032, which indicates the scores of the control group sticking to normal distribution. Based on this hypothesis, the calculated probability is 0.037, indicating that this is a small probability event, so we reject the null hypothesis, and the English test scores of the control group do not obey the normal distribution. The significance level of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test of the English test score report sample in the experimental group is 0.306, which is greater than 0.05. Therefore, we

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accept the null hypothesis, and the English test score of the experimental group follows a normal distribution. Two groups of independent samples, the pre-test data of the experimental group showed a normal distribution, and the pre-test data of the control group showed a non-normal distribution. Therefore, the two groups of independent samples were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. According to the analysis in Table 2, the value of the Mann-Whitney test is 1056.400, and the asymptotic significance (two-sided) is 0.621, which is greater than 0.05. It is a high probability event, so accept the null hypothesis, the English test scores of the experimental group and the control group are comparable. According to the analysis in Table 1, the significance level of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the post-test PE English test in the control group was 0.012, which was less than 0.05. It was assumed that the pre-test PE English test results in the control group obeyed the normal distribution. Based on this hypothesis, the probability that this hypothesis appears is 0.012, which indicates that this is a small probability event, so the original hypothesis should be rejected. The control group of PE English posttest scores did not obey the normal distribution. The significance level of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the sample report of sports English post-test in the experimental group was 0.225, which was greater than 0.05.

Table 1. One-sample tests Group Control group (before testing) Experimental group (before testing) Control group (after testing) Experimental group (after testing)

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

n 25 25 25 25

x  s 63.51 63.34 62.86 77.91

± ± ± ±

17.62 18.68 13.17 18.67

Z 1.326 0.986 1.538 1.059

P 0.032 0.306 0.012 0.225

< > >
2 > 9 > 8 > 6 > 7 > 4 > 5 > 3 Achievement users 1 > 2 > 8 > 9 > 7 > 4 > 6 > 5 > 3 Exploratory users

Priority of nine functional requirements 1>2>9>8>6>4>7>5>3 6>3>8>4>9>2>1>5>7

According to the priority of KANO attributes (M > O > A > I > R), the functional requirements for FPS mobile game users are arranged (Table 2). The results show obvious similarities between different user types and requirements. The functional requirements of the first three types of users demonstrate convergence tendency, indicating that in the mobile game operations, the users pay more attention to the mustbe requirements of customizing the roles and figures, and getting equipment and rewards. In addition, they desire for the teamwork combat forms in mobile games. 2.3

Construction, Research Results and Design Principles of User Functional

This paper uses the hierarchical method to derive and construct the functional requirement model for the FPS mobile game users and proposes the corresponding design principles (Figs. 3 and 4).

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Fig. 3. Functional requirement model for FPS mobile game users

Fig. 4. Interface design principle for FPS mobile games

According to the priority and analysis of the functional requirements of the four types of users, the design principles corresponding to the visual interface, game layout, and interaction pattern are proposed (Figs. 3 and 4). The design of the visual interface should provide the users with rich role dressing and a diversely unified interface [4]. The requirements for the game layout are presented as the simplicity and controllability to the user interface [5]. FPS mobile game users expect the interactive pattern to be inclined toward cooperation and desire for convenience in communication, such as voice interaction (Fig. 5).

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Fig. 5. CATCH mobile game interactive interface design

3 Design Practices of FPS Mobile Games Based on the research results, one “CATCH” capture mobile game is envisioned (the users capture the criminals by playing different roles). The mobile games maintain consistent visual style, game layout, and interactive pattern of the interface. For different users, the login interface is adopted for the users to select the type and match the same type of users [6−8]. Killer users: set up various capturing and captured roles. The shooting light points in the games are more authentic, providing killing rankings and MVP honors lists. Achievement users: more diverse scenario operations and laddered design of task difficulty, providing periodic exploration of different mobile games and setting of various tasks [9, 10]. Social users: “CATCH” aims to make the role play more authentic, and adopts the team communication + single-line microphone call + five-person team mode and designate the captain randomly (transferable) for combat deployment, in order to reduce the game frustration experience caused by different user opinions. Exploratory users: 7 + 8 + 9 (sea + air + land) scenario style is adopted, including seven major sea areas + eight Chinese aviation fields (southeast, northeast, southeast, southwest, northwest) + nine continental landscapes (town, warehouse, jungle, Gobi, grassland, desert, snow, glaciers, and volcanoes), thus providing the users with new scenario options and experiences.

4 Conclusion The key to the development and design process of FPS mobile game products is to correctly understand the functional requirements of users and products. Designers should not only develop products based on user requirements but understand the requirements of different types of users to facilitate the innovative design, adjustment, integration, and optimization of FPS mobile games and their functions.

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References 1. Lei, Y.: On the design of the role-playing mobile game interface. Mod. Commun. (08), 183– 184 (2018). (in Chinese) 2. Chen, M.: Visual expression of “self-experience” in first-person shooting games. Southwest University, 2016. (in Chinese) 3. Cao, C.: Design of role-playing mobile game interface. Comput. Prod. Circ. (02), 154 (2019) 4. Du, G.: Research on optimization of human-computer interface design in mobile games. Packag. Eng. 39(04), 245–250 (2008). (in Chinese) 5. Han, L.: Analysis of the composition of visual art elements in the UI design of mobile games. Art Educ. Res. (16), 72–73 (2018). (in Chinese) 6. Xu, Y.: User experience of interactive interface of mobile games—For female users. Des. (17), 44–46 (26 September 2019). (in Chinese) 7. Huang, M., Zheng, H.: Research on mobile game development based on UI design perspective. Art Gd. View (06), 104–105 (2019). (in Chinese) 8. Yu, S.: Research on the influence of mobile game socialization on interpersonal communication. Media Forum 2(08), 161–162 (2019). (in Chinese) 9. Zhou, L.: Socialization of mobile online games. Shandong University, 2019 10. Gao, G.: Research on the design and implementation of an interactive interface of mobile games. J. Beijing Inst. Graph. Commun. 26(09), 32–35, 53 ( 2018)

Assumption of Load Balancing and Multithreading Algorithm in Cloud Environment Zhuo Li1,2, Lili Ma3, and You Tang1,2(&) 1 Electrical and Information Engineering College, JiLin Agricultural Science and Technology University, Jilin 132101, China 2362039989@qq.com 2 Smart Agricultural Engineering Research Center of Jilin Province, Jilin 132101, China 3 College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071001, China

Abstract. In the cloud environment, the number of requests for user tasks may be large. It will inevitably cause server overload if the system is only deployed on a single server. Therefore, based on the user’s demand for different computing capabilities, the solution of elastic computing is presented in this system. Elastic computing is mainly divided into client and server, where the server is deployed in the same operating system environment as the system, and the client is deployed on any terminal. The server side function includes monitoring the load rate of the current system and the size of the current running files, intelligently analyzing the current number of servers owned, packaging the files to be calculated, sending and receiving files. The client side function includes receiving the file sent by the server, calling the local resource for calculation, and returning the result file after the calculation is completed. At the same time, if only singlethread is called on the server side to calculate, it will inevitably cause waste of server resources. The most effective method is to enable multithreading invocation at the same time under the load balance state, so as to maximize the utilization of server hardware resources. The application of elastic computing provides a cheap and effective way to expand the bandwidth of network devices and servers, increase the throughput, and strengthen the network data processing ability, which can meet the computing requirements of different users. At the same time of minimizing the cost increase, it can better play the role of cloud computing, and raise the flexibility and availability of network. Keywords: Load balancing

 Cloud comput  Multithreading

1 Introduction Load balancing is a kind of computer technology, which is used to distribute load across multiple computers (computer clusters), network connections, CPUs, disk drives, or other resources to optimize resource usage, maximize throughput, minimize response time and avoid overload. It uses multiple server components with load balancing to replace a single component to improve system reliability by increasing © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 285–290, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_42

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redundancy. Load balancing services are usually performed by dedicated software and hardware. The main function is to distribute a large number of jobs reasonably to multiple operating units for execution, which is used to solve the problem of high concurrency and high availability in the Internet architecture [1]. Serial computing is the most simple and intuitive way to solve the computing problem. However, the CPU used in current servers or personal computers has already entered the multi-core era and is fully capable of handling multiple tasks simultaneously. At this point, the computing power of CPU cannot be fully utilized if serial computing is still used. Therefore, when dealing with more complex computing tasks, or facing large amounts of data, we should adopt parallel computing, using multiple threads or even multiple computers to complete the computing tasks together [2].

2 Load Balancing Solution In the high-performance intensive computing environment, users may perform a large number of operations on a certain file, and this kind of operation is bound to occupy a large number of server computing resources. Therefore, the system proposes the following solutions for satisfy users’ different computing power requirements. The system is divided into two parts—client and server [3]. The detailed process of the server and client is as follows. 2.1

Server Process

(1) The server initializes and begins to accept the client’s online request, and accepts the client’s load rate and computing power, and stores them. (2) The server starts to store computing resources and predicts the computing resources of the online server. (3) The user submits the calculation request to the server, which accepts the request and starts to enter the operation mode. (4) The server parses the user’s computing request, predicts the computing resources and computing time required for the current computing request, and matches the matching server. (5) If the Alibaba Cloud API is enabled, the server side will start to create a new server for computing. (6) Packaging and compressing the programs and files to be calculated by the user, increasing the load rate of the selected server in real time [4]. (7) After the client completes the computation, the result file is returned to the server, the server decompresses the result file and stores it in the memory, and simultaneously reduces the load rate of the client in real time. (8) Informing the user that the file calculation is complete. 2.2

Client Process

(1) The client initializes, tests the connectivity of the server, and performs an online request to the server, monitors the current load rate of the server and returns it to the server in real time.

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(2) The client receives the operation request from the server and accepts the compressed file transmitted by the server. (3) Decompressing the compressed file sent from the server, and starting to parse the file content and calling the multi-threaded computing module for operation according to the command. (4) After the operation is completed, the result file is packed and compressed, and returned to the server [5]. (5) If Alibaba Cloud’s API is enabled, the client will shut down the server to recycle resources and perform offline processing.

3 Multithreaded Computing Solution When the client successfully receives the operation request from the server, it will usually only open a single core for operation. However, with the current server’s computing power and core number, it is obviously a waste of server resources to open only a single core [6]. Now the server has at least two core processors, many of which may reach hundreds of cores. Therefore, this article discusses a method to open multithread, so as to maximize the server’s hardware resources [7]. It starts to open the multithreaded module for calculation. The specific multithread flowchart is shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Multithreaded flowchart

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Multithreaded Process

(1) The user starts the software and inputs the calculation speed. (2) The program starts executing and starts intelligent management module. (3) The intelligent management module first assigns a thread as the management thread to monitor and control the thread pool in real time. (4) Management threads start monitors at the same time (5) The management thread starts the monitoring program [8]. (6) Starting file processing module (7) The thread starts reading and preprocessing the file (8) When the thread finishes processing the file, release the thread and return to the fixed thread pool. (9) It will repeat steps 7, 8, 9 if there are still files that have not been processed and there are idle threads in the fixed thread pool. (10) The allocation thread starts to calculate the file if the management thread finds that the file has been processed and there are idle threads in the fixed thread pool. (11) Starting file calculation module. (12) Obtaining the total row number M of the current file and dividing the file into N blocks (N is the number of threads in the fixed thread pool), so that the number to be calculated for each block of each thread is H = M/N lines. Starting calculating the Nth block of the current file. (13) Obtaining the current thread number P (the Nth thread) and dividing H into two blocks. The first block calculates the 1 + (H/2)*(P − 1) line to the (H/2)*P line and the second block calculates the M − (H/2) * P + 1 line to the M − (H/2) * (P − 1) line (ensuring the same amount of computation for each thread) [9]. (14) After calculating the Nth block of the current file, repeat step 14. (15) Release thread. 3.2

Comparison of Time Dimensions Between Multithreading and Non Multithreading

According to the comparison of the above multithread model and the use of the peel correlation coefficient algorithm, it is found that the computing time is shortened rapidly after multithreaded computing. The specific shortening time is shown in the Running time comparison (Table 1). Table 1. Running time comparison Individual number SNP Thread Memory peaking (GB) Run time (min) 2504 1103800 1 10.11 852.21 2504 1103800 4 10.19 206.38 2504 1103800 8 10.21 143.32 2504 1103800 16 10.25 94.55 2504 1103800 32 10.31 57.01 2504 1103800 64 10.42 33.53 2504 1103800 128 10.51 19.72 Test file: ftp://1000genomes.ebi.ac.uk/vol1/ftp/release/20130502/ALL.chr22.phas e3_shapeit2_mvncall_integrated_v5a.20130502.genotypes.vcf.gz

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4 Conclusion At present, most of the load balancing solutions are too large, the configuration is too complicated and not humanized. However, the load balancing solution presented in this paper is simple in configuration, doesn’t need redundant and complex steps, and only needs to distribute the clients on each machine, which can intelligently solve the problem of single server stuck under high performance computing. At the same time, with the combination of the API of cloud servers such as Alibaba Cloud, it does not even need to arrange the client manually for many times, it only needs to arrange the client once and back up the system image simultaneously, so that the temporary server can be opened elastically for calculation [10]. When the operation is over, recycling the file and closing the temporary server to recycle the resource. This load balancing solution provides users with a cheap and effective way to expand the computing power of the server, and at the same time, it does not need too much human intervention in this process. It can meet the computing needs of different users, maximize the role of cloud computing while minimizing the cost increase, and improve the flexibility and availability of the computing system [11]. Acknowledgements. This work is supported in part by the PhD startup Foundation Project of JiLin Agricultural Science and Technology University on 2018 and the Digital Agriculture key discipline of JiLin province Foundation.

References 1. Singh, S.K., Kumar, P.: A load balancing virtual level routing (LBVLR) using mobile mule for large sensor networks. J. Supercomput. 75(11), 7426–7459 (2019) 2. Camacho-Vallejo, J.-F., Nucamendi-Guillén, S., González-Ramírez, R.G.: An optimization framework for the distribution process of a manufacturing company balancing deliverymen workload and customer’s waiting times. Comput. Ind. Eng. 137, 106080 (2019) 3. Vijayakumar, V., Suresh Joseph, K.: Adaptive load balancing schema for efficient data dissemination in vehicular ad-hoc network VANET. Alex. Eng. J. 58, 1157–1166 (2019) 4. Medhat, D., Yousef, A.H., Salama, C.: Cost-aware load balancing for multilingual record linkage using MapReduce. Ain Shams Eng. J. 11, 419–433 (2019) 5. Ling-Hong, H., Wes, L., Radhika, A.S., Saranya, D.A.R., Yuguang, X., Eric, S., Yee, Y.K.: Holistic optimization of an RNA-seq workflow for multi-threaded environments. Bioinformatics 35, 4173–4175 (2019) 6. Asyabi, E., Sharafzadeh, E., SanaeeKohroudi, S., Sharifi, M.: CTS: an operating system CPU scheduler to mitigate tail latency for latency-sensitive multi-threaded applications. J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 133, 232-243 (2019) 7. Peña-Fernández, M., Serrano-Cases, A., Lindoso, A., García-Valderas, M., Entrena, L., Martínez-Álvarez, A., Cuenca-Asensi, S.: Dual-core lockstep enhanced with redundant multithread support and control-flow error detection. Microelectron. Reliab. 100, 113447 (2019) 8. Paola, B., Vedova Gianluca, D., Yuri, P., Marco, P., Raffaella, R.: Multithread multistring Burrows-Wheeler transform and longest common prefix Array. J. Comput. Biol.: J. Comput. Mol. Cell Biol. 26(9), 948–961 (2019)

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9. Kim, T.H., Schaarschmidt, T., Yang, H.J., Kim, Y.K., Chun, K.J., Choi, Y., Chung, H.-T.: Development of an IAEA phase-space dataset for the Leksell Gamma Knife ® Perfexion™ using multi-threaded Geant4 simulations. Phys. Med. 64, 222–229 (2019) 10. Nada Radwan, M.B., Abdelhalim, Ashraf AbdelRaouf.: Implement 3D video call using cloud computing infrastructure. Ain Shams Eng. J. (2019) 11. Wu, X., Wang, H., Wei, D., Shi, M.: ANFIS with natural language processing and grey relational analysis based cloud computing framework for real time energy efficient resource allocation. Comput. Commun. (2019)

Research and Design of School’s SOA Architecture Based on UDDI Yong Chen1(&) and Yue Yang2 1

Human Resources Department, Shenyang Institute of Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning, China 36165008@qq.com 2 School of Information and Control, Shenyang Institute of Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning, China Yangyue801202@163.com

Abstract. In order to realize the digital school, the school’s network is realized information sharing and service sharing by SOA Architecture and WEB Service, and is realized the interface in every department system using UDDI technology. In the paper, the logic architecture of digital school is presented, including the user interface layer, the service control layer, the department service layer, the business logic layer and the data persistence layer. And the UDDI system of school’s network is designed of data management module, user management module, system log, UDDI server, Web manager and UDDI client. In the paper, the process of WEB Service’s publishing and management is analyzed by the sequence program. Keywords: SOA

 UDDI  School’s network  WEB service

1 Introduction Polytechnic school of Shenyang Institute of Technology has turned out to a full-time independent school after gaining the authorization from China’s Ministry of Education in 2004. Now, the school has Machinery and Vehicle College, Economics and Management College, Information and Control College, Art and Communication College, Energy Engineering, as well as many departments of Party Office, Academic Affairs, Student Office, Recruitment and Employment Office, and so on. At present, many schools have several colleges and departments [1], and they have some software in school, in order to convenient the office staff of the digital office. Now, there are many problems, including the different system platform, the different development tools and the different languages. And these systems are designed and developed by the core of departments’ businesses. Because of this, which these systems have perfect functions, these formed one “Information Isolated Island”, unable to effectively realize the sharing of information, and have more difficult to realize the sharing of services [2]. Because of these problems, the implementation of digital campus is very difficult. SOA is the best way to solve these complex problems.

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2 Technology and Knowledge 2.1

Service-Oriented Architecture

Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a component module. It will communicate with the different functional units (called services) of the application through the well defined interfaces and contracts [3]. The interface is defined in a neutral manner, and it should be independent of hardware platform, operating system and programming language of implementation services. This could allow to communicate with various these systems’ services by a uniform and universal way. The concrete realization of the application based on SOA has no fixed mode [4], but the core technique is the Web Service to realize the SOA [5]. Therefore, the typical structure diagram of application system of SOA is used Web Service [6], as shown in Fig. 1.

Service Publication WSDL

Service Description

SOAP

XML-Based Message

HTTP,SMTP

Quality of Service

Service Discovery Management

UDDI

Service Flow

Security

WSFL

Network Protocol

Fig. 1. The typical system structure of SOA

2.2

The Standard of UDDI

On the surface, Web Service is an application, it exposed one or more API [7] by Web accessing to the outside world, and it realized different system platforms, different developed languages, and different developed technologies to communicate between the individual software. Look from the deep level, Web Service is a new Web application branch, it is the application of self-contained, self-described and modular, and it could be described, discovered and invocation in the network. UDDI is one specific way of the currently most popular Web Service registry. UDDI is a broad and open industry standard, and it provided an independent platform method of description, discovery and integration Web Service through the Internet.

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3 The Design of School’s SOA Architecture Based on UDDI 3.1

The Logical Design of SOA

The school’s information system of Polytechnic school of Shenyang Institute of Technology basic implemented by department. But these systems are established as the core of the department’s businesses and relatively independent. Moreover, the implementation platform and language of each system are different. Therefore, interoperability problems have inevitable existence. If systems are called by each other, one way is that the service’s provider the needed data to other users on the persistence layer. However, this may cause the reducing of system’s security. The other way is designed system’s interface to each specific situation. This could guarantee the system’s security, but may separated design interface according to each application. Every interface must be separately maintenance and very cumbersome. Moreover, with the increasing of interfaces’ numbers, the whole system will be more and more complex. It is very confused. However, if the SOA idea is adopted to establish the information system, its architecture is much clearer. Every application system provides Web Service, and Web Service is independent of platform and language. Every system provides or uses services by the Enterprise Service Bus(ESB). In this way, the architecture of the whole system is simple, and maintenance is easy. As the Fig. 1 shows the kind of confusion, the situation became much clear as shown in Fig. 2. Thus, in Polytechnic school of Shenyang Institute of Technology, the idea of SOA could greatly reduce the system’s complexity.

Fig. 2. The new relationship of application systems

The technology of SOA based on component of Web Service, and its built the whole system flexible and efficient. Based on the provided standard Web Service of every department, the whole school information system integrated and shared services between systems, that could be easy to realize in the SOA framework. The realization of the whole system changed from programming as the core to configuration as the core. The design idea of SOA on digital school in Polytechnic school of Shenyang Institute of Technology is that: Defining a university data called structure of school

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information system, that accords with the characteristics of school. Every system will provide the function to others as Web Service, and these Web Services registered in the UDDI system of Polytechnic school of Shenyang Institute of Technology. The users queried the needed Web Service in the UDDI system of Polytechnic school of Shenyang Institute of Technology, required many information of the description of function, the calling location and the calling parameters, and could take these Web Services to apply to the own system. According to the SOA idea, the logic hierarchical architecture on digital school in Polytechnic school of Shenyang Institute of Technology is designed as shown in Fig. 3:

The User Interface Layer The Service Control Layer The Department Service Layer The Business Logic Layer The Data Persistence Layer

Fig. 3. The logic hierarchical architecture on digital school system

The User Interface Layer is the directly communicated local between the application system and system users. The user interface adopted the module design, maybe the application of single version, also maybe the application of Web application based on the browser, or even be the application of mobile terminal program. However, they have a common characteristic that is using Web Service to access the cross system. The purpose of this is to reuse a configurable component and adjustable mode, in order to reduce the building of application system and the complexity of using the user interface. The Service Control Layer is used to process the logic relations of Web Services, including the publication and searching of Web Service, the routing and updating of Web Service, and so on. The Department Service Layer is called to the internal service. The department service is that one application system provides the Web Service to use by other systems. Because, in Polytechnic school of Shenyang Institute of Technology, every application system built by the department as unit. So every system provided the services to be called the department service. The Business Logic Layer is a set of internal data and functions of service’s provider, and it can also be a modular unit, but these modular units can be combined to form a complete function. The services are the business logic extensions. For services’ users, the business logic layer is the actual using place of the outside service, that is to say, calling other service is to complete their functions in the layer.

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The Data Persistence Layer is a place of saving application system’s data. The requirement of system architecture of SOA is cross-platform and cross-application system. For the data of depositing in different position, the data must be like storing in a single database, according to access by certain rights. Originally the distributed backstage data of every application system logically formed a unified data persistence layer. We can call it as “Distributed Data Persistence Layer”. 3.2

The Design of UDDI System

As an important part of SOA architecture, UDDI loaded the main “spine” task of the whole system. Therefore, in the construction of digital school of Polytechnic school of Shenyang Institute of Technology, the realization of UDDI is an important ring. In Polytechnic school of Shenyang Institute of Technology, the register center of UDDI service is based on UDDI v3.0.2. It provides the interface of Web and API. Its core function is definition of data structure, querying and publishing based on the data structure, and many API definitions. The UDDI system of Polytechnic school of Shenyang Institute of Technology includes the following modules, such as Data Management Module, User Management Module, System Log, UDDI Server, Web Manager and UDDI Client. 3.3

The Business Logical Design

In system, the process of the Web Service’s publication and management is as follows: First, the system could judge whether the user is logged in or not. If the user does not login, the user could send the user’s information to the application server by the client of Web Server’s provider. If the system connection fails, the system directly returns, gives the connection failure information and calls to the end. The application server sends the user’s information to the UDDI server [8], UDDI server queries the user and checks the password in the background data source. According to the queried results, the system returns the information, right or wrong. The UDDI server returns the results to the application server. The client of Web Service provider receives the results by the application server. If the validation is passed, the system could land successfully [9]. If the validation has errors [10], the system could login failed and call to the end. When the validation is successful, at the same time, the background data source could return the Web Service list of the user corresponding to the UDDI server. The UDDI server could return the service list to the application server. The application server could return the Web Service list in the form of SOAP messages to the client of Web Service’s provider. According to the returned service list, the Web Service’s provider decides the next step operation (modify and delete service, or create new services), and these operations send to the application server by the SOAP message. According to the received operation, the application server could call the corresponding API to the UDDI server. According to the specific calling situation, the UDDI server accesses the background data source. The background data source returns the operation’s results to the UDDI server. The UDDI server returns the results to the application server. The application server

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returns the results by the SOAP message to the client of Web Service’s provider. The sequence diagram of the process of Web Service publication and management is described as shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. The sequence diagram of the process of Web service publication and management

4 Conclusions In order to realize the digital school, the school’s network is realized by SOA Architecture and WEB Service, and is realized the interface in every department system using UDDI technology. Based on the SOA architecture, the logic architecture of digital school is presented, including the user interface layer, the service control layer, the department service layer, the business logic layer and the data persistence layer. Because the UDDI played a decisive role in the digital school system, the UDDI system is designed according to the UDDI version. In the system, the process of WEB Service’s publishing and management is analyzed by the sequence program of UML. By the design could realize the effective sharing of information and service. In Polytechnic school of Shenyang Institute of Technology, every department and college own their software system. While each system has perfect function, every system formed one “Information Isolated Island”. The digital school system adopts SOA architecture, provides the logic module of digital school system based on SOA, including the user interface layer, the service control layer, the department service layer, the business logic layer and the data persistence layer. Because the UDDI played a decisive role in the digital school system, the UDDI system is designed according to the UDDI v3. The aim of digital school system is to realize the effective sharing of information and service.

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Acknowledgment. Fund Project: Research on Key Technologies of Intelligent Logistics System Based on Multi-Agent (SIT-i5201801).

References 1. IBM. What is Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). http://www-128.ibm.com/ developerworks/webservices/newto/#1 2. Anand, S., Padmanabhuni, S., Ganesh, J.: Perspectives on service oriented architecture. In: Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing (2005) 3. Dang, G., Cheng, Z., Setal, J.: A service-oriented architecture for tele-immersion. In: Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on e-Technology, e-Commerce and e-Service, Hong Kong, China, pp. 649–649 (2005) 4. Gartner Market Investigation. http://www.gartner.com/resources/125800/125868/gartnerspo siti.pdf 5. Gartner SOA Definition. http://www.gartner.com/DisplayDocument?doc_cd=114358 6. Fang, J., Wang, T., Shi, Z., Xie, J.: UML-based workflow modeling. Comput. Eng. Des. 25 (9), 1572–1575 (2004) 7. Zhang, L., Zhao, H.: Research on workflow modeling based on UML activity diagram. Comput. Appl. 23(5), 28–31 (2003) 8. Zhao, H.-J., Sun, Z., Zhang, L.: The method for modeling workflow of UML-based activity diagram. Yantai Norm. Univ. J. (Nat. Sci.) 18(4), 241–246 (2002) 9. Ouyang, Y., Xiong, Z., Hou, Y.: Application research of UML activity diagram in workflow process modeling. Comput. Eng. Des. 25(9), 1479–1481 (2004) 10. Qiu, Z.: UML and Rational Rose 2002 from Introduction to Mastery. Publishing House Electronics Industry, Beijing (2002)

Application of Mixed Teaching Mode Under “Rain Classroom” Information Technology Jun Luo1 and Yulan Yu2(&) 1

School of Management, Guangdong University of Science and Technology, Dongguan 523083, China 2 Department of Psychology, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan 523808, China yuyulan@gdmu.edu.cn

Abstract. After the wave of educational reform of flipping classroom and online learning platform, the educational information technology revolution based on hybrid teaching mode is in full swing. “Rain Classroom” integrates PPT multimedia education technology, MOOC Internet resources and mobile phone Wechat to bring convenience, practicability and operability for teachers and students to carry out teaching reform. At the same time, teaching resources such as MOOC video, PPT courseware, exercises and cases can be shared between teachers and students. Students can study independently, collaboratively and discussively at any time and anywhere before class. Real-time answers in class, interaction between bullet and screen, labeling without understanding and data analysis can effectively digitize face-to-face traditional teaching. Network teaching is a perfect mix. The mixed teaching mode based on “rain classroom” information technology runs through all the teaching links before, during and after class, and embodies “learning-oriented”, which helps to realize self-learning and mutual learning, understanding and internalization of knowledge, practice of knowledge to the application of knowledge. Keywords: Rain classroom Teaching mode

 Mixed teaching  Information technology 

1 Introduction With the reform and research of higher education informationization, online learning platform represented by MOOC has unique advantages such as high-quality “famous school + famous teacher + famous course” resource curriculum, convenient collaborative communication and interaction, but it can never replace classroom teaching which directly communicates with teachers face to face. Under the background of “Internet +”, mixed teaching which combines MOOC, flip class and traditional teaching has become the main teaching mode at present. Mixed teaching mode not only requires teachers to play a leading role in guiding, inspiring, monitoring and controlling in the whole teaching process, but also requires students to have initiative, enthusiasm and creativity in learning. The smooth development and effective implementation of the educational information technology revolution based on the hybrid teaching model has © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 298–304, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_44

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led to a new round of educational and teaching reform [1]. Recently, educational information technology platforms such as “Rain Classroom” led by Tsinghua University, “Classroom School” developed by Peking University and “Cloud Classroom” developed by Netease Company have emerged in China.

2 Discussion on the Direction of Information Technology Reform in Education and Teaching Based on “Rain Classroom” 2.1

Educational Information Technology Platform for Facilitating Teachers’ Teaching and Students’ Learning

For teachers’ teaching and students’ learning, convenience, practicability and operability are the fundamentals of measuring whether educational and teaching information technology platform can be successfully promoted and applied. The “Rain Classroom” led by Tsinghua University is free to use. It integrates PPT multimedia education technology, MOOC Internet resources and mobile phone Wechat to bring convenience for teachers, students and social educators to carry out teaching reform. Secondly, the page design of “Rain Classroom” conforms to the familiar operation menu of modern people, and provides video resources of famous schools at any time. It realizes zero cost of teaching and learning, and has strong practicability [2]. At the same time, teachers can push teaching resources such as courseware, video and exercises to “rain classroom” at any time, while students can learn independently anytime and anywhere through mobile phones, which provides convenience and operability. 2.2

Educational Information Technology Platform to Promote Easy Interaction Between Teachers and Students

Rain Classroom establishes a bridge of communication and interaction between preclass preparation and in-class teaching. First of all, real-time interactive communication between teachers and students can be carried out through the settings of “Rain Classroom” bullet curtain and misunderstanding. In addition, “Rain Classroom” can provide comprehensive and multi-dimensional data interaction support [3]. Individualized reports of students’ learning progress and learning situation, such as courseware preview, homework completion and test completion, are helpful for teachers to quantitatively understand and objectively evaluate students’ learning effect, grasp students’ learning situation, and carry out targeted teaching design and implementation. 2.3

Educational Information Technology Platform for Promoting Students’ Learning Autonomy and Its Effect Evaluation and Feedback

Educational information technology platform needs to strengthen students’ active participation in learning in class and after class, so that students can play the

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consciousness of subject and master in learning. Teachers’ courseware, videos, cases and other teaching information and information are shared in students’ mobile phones at “Rain Classroom” educational information technology platform, and students’ individual views and doubts also can be shared in real-time in “Rain Classroom”. It is easy to promote students’ autonomy in learning. Under the background of rain classroom, classroom roles can change from one to another at any time and it is convenient to adjust the classroom atmosphere, and arouse the autonomy and interest of learning in students [4, 6]. Of course, teachers can push knowledge quizzes, timely adjust the teaching progress according to the results of the tests, and open the voting function of “rain classroom” to understand students’ evaluation of the teaching effect.

3 Research on the Application of Mixed Teaching Model Under “Rain Classroom” Information Technology in Higher Education 3.1

Design of a Mixed Teaching Model Based on “Rain Classroom” Preclass Preview Stage

3.1.1 Analysis of Learning Situation The purpose of requiring students to preview is to prepare for better learning in class. It is an effective way to cultivate students’ self-study ability and independent thinking. However, for some college students in modern, especially for Application-oriented Universities and vocational colleges, learning objectives are not clear, learning motivation and motivation are not strong, autonomous learning initiative is not ideal, and the probability of requiring them to take textbooks for pre-class preview is almost lower. 3.1.2 The Design of Hybrid Teaching Model in Pre-class Preview Stage Based on “Rain Classroom” Tools for preview: The mobile phone with the public number of Rain Classroom has been installed. Students can make rational use of their time to carry out preview before class at any time and anywhere [7, 9]. Preview platform: Class Wechat Group under the Public Number of “Rain Classroom” build collaborative learning, discussion learning and teacher-student instant messaging exchange and transmission learning in classmates before class. How to preview: Watch the video released by Rain Classroom. Preview of reading style can not guarantee the continuity and time for modern college students. Therefore, it is better to use video preview. Teachers need to download the corresponding excellent teaching video resources in advance on the Internet, micro-lessons or MOOC platforms. Of course, teachers can also choose to record a short video explaining knowledge points for students to preview. Mixed teaching methods in pre-class preview stage: firstly, knowledge points are taught by video preview; secondly, for the important knowledge points in the video, embedded selection questions are used to strengthen students’ mastery of the knowledge, so as to enter the next knowledge point of video preview; thirdly, Wechat group

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issues exercises after preview to activate classroom discussion in the “rain classroom” class. Finally, class members spontaneously organize collaborative and discussionbased teaching in Wechat group, and teachers can also participate in learning exchanges between teachers and students after preview if convenient [10]. 3.2

Control of the Mixed Teaching Model in the Teaching Stage of “Rain Classroom”

3.2.1 Analysis and Control of Learning Situation Firstly, when there is no suitable teaching video or the teacher does not produce teaching video in the preview stage of this lesson, it is necessary to produce PPT to teach knowledge points in the lesson. Secondly, the teacher makes statistics and analysis of the relevant data of preview before the lesson, determines the difficulties of teaching in the lesson, optimizes and designs the teaching contents and methods in the lesson. Aimed at the design of the mixed teaching mode, such as understanding the difficulties and internalization of intensive training. 3.2.2 Control of the Mixed Teaching Mode in the Lecture Stage First of all, the mixed teaching of teaching means. With the help of teachers’ charming oral and body language, blackboard books, reference books, textbooks, electronic audio-visual equipment and multimedia network technology (micro-lessons, mulessons), the selection, combination and control of teaching means are carried out. Secondly, the mixed teaching of teaching methods. PPT courseware will be shared under the “rain classroom” to carry out the selection, combination and control of teaching methods such as lecture method, competition teaching method, case discussion method, task-driven method, role-playing method, game participation method and simulation training method. Finally, it is the mixed teaching of teaching technology. Courseware can easily insert video, audio, text, graphics, animation and so on to realize real-time sharing with students’ mobile phone clients under “Rain Classroom”. At the same time, students can not only play curtain or do not understand to tell the teacher, but also read and study independently on the mobile phone directly in the process of teacher’s explanation. They can also flexibly look back at the knowledge points explained by the teacher in front of the PPT courseware on their own mobile phone or combine the knowledge points in the book to deepen their knowledge acquisition. 3.3

Construction of a Hybrid Teaching Model Based on the Discussion and Interaction Phase in Rain Classroom

3.3.1 Analysis of Learning Situation At present, students have become accustomed to passive listening in College classes, and their enthusiasm to participate in discussion and interaction is not high. At this stage, how to arouse students’ interest or enthusiasm in participation is the key to the success of the hybrid teaching model.

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3.3.2 Construction of the Mixed Teaching Mode in the Stage of Discussion and Interaction in Class PPT courseware sharing on students’ mobile phone with the help of “Rain Classroom” is the basis of the hybrid teaching mode of discussion and interaction stage in class. Firstly, with the help of the bullet-screen interaction function of “Rain Classroom” and “Understanding” button, teachers can grasp the students’ learning situation or effect at any time, and organize and explain a certain knowledge point according to the statistical situation. Secondly, after the teacher teaches an important knowledge point, he can set questions for students to answer on the spot. With the help of the mixture of the real-time answers of “Rain Classroom” and the welfare activities of the red envelope, the students can get the encouragement of the red packets quickly and accurately. They can also mix the real-time answers with the competition scores. That is to say, the winning results of each competition can be awarded 5 points to 1 points in the usual scores. The results of students’ participation in real-time questions are immediately collected on teachers’ mobile phones to form statistical data. If the students’ wrong answers are high, teachers will adjust the teaching progress in time, retell and strengthen understanding. The combination of real-time answers and incentives can enhance students’ interest and enthusiasm in learning. Finally, classroom discussion, interaction or answering questions are combined with random roll-call of “Rain Classroom”. Students concentrate on rolling class lists with photos and expect the appearance of lucky stars. This effectively mobilizes students’ classroom attention and joins in class learning, interaction and discussion. 3.4

Construction of Hybrid Teaching Model Based on Knowledge Understanding and Internalization in Rain Classroom

3.4.1 Analysis of Learning Situation The knowledge points learnt by students in school can be regarded as “knowing but not knowing why”. That is to say, the knowledge points learnt are not deep enough to understand and internalize, but can not be derived from the brain when they meet the appropriate application occasions, and can be flexibly applied to the actual needs of society. 3.4.2 The Construction of the Hybrid Teaching Model in the Stage of Knowledge Understanding and Internalization To strengthen the understanding and internalization of the knowledge learnt by students, on the one hand, we should pay attention to students’ independence and subjective consciousness, and strengthen students’ experience and perception. On the other hand, we need to carry out a wide range of heuristic, discussion and participatory mixed teaching mode. Therefore, Mixed participation and experiential teaching methods are necessary, such as appropriate real case scenarios, role-playing and game experience in the PPT courseware of “Rain Classroom”. Students can not only use mobile phone to read and understand, but also flexibly go back and look at the knowledge points explained by teachers in PPT or combine with the knowledge points in textbooks, and gradually establish the relationship between theory and practice in their minds. For some knowledge points, teachers can use the voting link of “Rain

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Classroom” to enhance the interaction of classroom teaching and promote the understanding and internalization of knowledge. 3.5

Shaping of the Hybrid Teaching Model Based on “Rain Classroom” After-Class Exercise and Application Stage

3.5.1 Analysis of Learning Situation Students are basically a two-point life between home and university. After all, they have relatively little contact with the society and less access to professional knowledge points in the social application. 3.5.2 Shaping the Mixed Teaching Model of Exercise and Application After Class Students’ autonomy should be taken into account in the practice and application after class. There is no uniform and standard answer in the design of exercises or applications arranged by teachers after class. Students are required to complete the exercises independently, thoughtfully and creatively according to the knowledge points they need to master. Secondly, using “rain classroom” to build a display platform for students’ application results, teachers and students can comment under the “rain classroom”, which facilitates timely reflection and error correction, and further promotes knowledge internalization and application transfer. At the same time, it can stimulate students’ learning motivation and further enhance their interest in learning.

4 Conclusion “Rain Classroom” integrates PPT, MOOC and Wechat. Teachers can conveniently push MOOC videos, cases and thinking exercises to students’ Wechat before class, so that students can carry out independent preview, collaborative and discussion-based learning at any time and anywhere, and realize the mixed teaching in the pre-class preview stage. In the course, PPT courseware, videos and cases are shared in multimedia and Wechat mobile terminals. Real-time answers, bullet-curtain interaction, ignorance of identification and data analysis are realized for knowledge points. It effectively mixes face-to-face traditional teaching with digital network teaching. The mixed teaching mode based on “rain classroom” information technology ultimately realizes autonomous learning and mutual learning, knowledge internalization, knowledge practice to knowledge application. The success of the application and practice of the hybrid teaching mode based on “rain classroom” information technology depends on the teachers’ daring to face new challenges firstly and attracting students’ active learning and participation from the level of teaching design. Secondly, students are required to attach importance to and be willing to take the initiative to learn. In short, “Rain Classroom” information technology runs through all the teaching links before, during and after class. It is convenient, practical and operable for teachers and students, and is conducive to the smooth development of mixed teaching mode.

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Acknowledgements. The 13th Five-Year Plan of Education Science in Guangdong Province in 2018(2018GXJK060). Educational and Teaching Research Topics of Guangdong Medical University in 2017. “Quality Project” of Guangdong University of Science and Technology in 2019: Research on the Application of Mixed Teaching Mode Based on “Rain Classroom” in Higher Education (CQ2019074).

References 1. Min, D.: Research on the application of “rain classroom” mixed teaching model under the background of “Internet +”. J. Higher Educ. 9, 100–102 (2019). (in Chinese) 2. Xinhui, P. Na, Z., Xue, Y. et al.: Teaching practice of “rain classroom” under the background of mixed teaching. Health Vocat. Educ. 36(14), 69–70 (2018). (in Chinese) 3. Fangzheng, G.: Research on the teaching classroom model in colleges and universities based on Mooc and “rain classroom” under the “Internet +”. J. Anyang Norm. Univ. 5, 126–128 (2018). (in Chinese) 4. Liang, D.: The design and practice of the mixed teaching mode based on “rainy classroom”. J. People’s Public Secur. Univ. China (Natural Science Edition) 2, 105–108. (in Chinese) 5. Yanfang, F., Hao, Y.: The mixed teaching practice and effect analysis of Putonghua phonetics training based on “rain classroom”. China Educ. Informatiz. 19, 68–73 (2018). (in Chinese) 6. Hongxia, W.: Practice of mixed teaching model of “program design basics” based on rain classroom. J. Zhejiang Inst. Water Resour. Hydropower 30(3), 86–90 (2018). (in Chinese) 7. Liping, Z.: Research on mixed teaching mode based on rain classroom. J. Higher Educ. 5, 115–117 (2019). (in Chinese) 8. Jie, Y., Weili, W.: Empirical research on the application of WeChat rain classroom blended learning model in college teaching. High. Educ. Explor. 9, 50–54 (2017). (in Chinese) 9. Hongye, L.: Research on mixed teaching model of university computer course based on micro-class and rain classroom. China Manag. Inf.Ization 22(14), 195–196 (2019). (in Chinese) 10. Rong, L., Jin, Z.: Practice of flipping classroom teaching model based on “rain classroom”. Educ. Teach. Forum 34, 155–156 (2019). (in Chinese)

Design and Development of Self Built Database of University Library Based on Cloud Computing Ziqi Jia(&) Sichuan Vocational and Technical College, Suining, Sichuan, China 110715905@qq.com

Abstract. Cloud computing technology is a series of fusion products of computer technology development to a certain stage, which will bring revolutionary and far-reaching influence to various fields including digital library. The purpose of this paper is to study the design and development of self built database of University Library Based on cloud computing. Firstly, this paper summarizes the concept of the impact of digital resource integration in detail, focusing on the analysis of the technical characteristics and basic structure of cloud computing technology. This paper puts forward the structure of database model, and analyzes the design of self built database system of personalized University Library Based on the demand of users and system performance. According to the requirements of the project development, the experimental results show that in the data integration module, column storage stores and queries the data in columns. Each table consists of a set of page chains, each page chain corresponds to a storage column in the table, and each page chain stores one or more values of the column. HNG index is a combination of b-tree index and bitmap index in the storage. The data is stored in bit mode and sliced vertically according to bit. A large part of data storage can be compressed due to sparsity, and I0 can be reduced. It is suitable for parallel calculation of total and average values. Keywords: University library computing technology

 Database design  Data integration  Cloud

1 Introduction Cloud computing is an important innovation of computer resource disclosure under the business model [1, 2]. Through cloud computing, users will be liberated from the heavy, complex and error prone computer resource management, only paying attention to the business logic [3, 4]. The separation of business logic and computing resources will greatly reduce the complexity of enterprise informatization [5, 6]. More importantly, the service integration and on-demand supply brought by cloud computing will greatly improve the utilization of current computing resources, reduce the energy consumption of services, and effectively solve the problem of computing resources errors. The emergence of electronic database resources has changed the way in which library users obtain information mainly from paper resources. Digital resources, with its © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 305–311, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_45

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unique advantages, are more and more favored by library users. Colleges and universities also began to attach importance to the creation and development of characteristic databases. Although some achievements have been made, there are still many deficiencies. Even some universities are still creating characteristic databases, but they are in a blank stage [7, 8]. Therefore, our university library must further strengthen the construction of characteristic database, which is not only the need to improve the development level of university library, but also the need to enhance the comprehensive strength of University. The combination of university library database and cloud computing is of great practical significance [9, 10]. Ron Babin discusses Google’s and Microsoft’s cloud services for educational institutions, and compares the implementation experience of six Canadian universities. However, while acquisition costs are minimal or nonexistent, faculty, students, and management academics are often reluctant to delegate all their emails, documents, and schedules to a complex, global, for-profit third party. The most important thing for cash strapped university managers is to adopt third-party cloud services and use other internal services carefully to manage privacy issues. Finally, from the internal to the cloud service, the university needs to shift to the cloud aware governance mode sensitive to information privacy and security issues. The results of this study may contribute to a better understanding of the benefits, advantages, risks and challenges of the University’s cloud computing program and serve as an objective source of information for other public sector institutions considering implementing cloud services [11]. Magdalena Jara, taking the Undergraduate Library of a university in Chile as an example, discusses the use mode of print and digital resources from two aspects of discipline and study years. In order to explore this point, we carried out quantitative analysis, including descriptive analysis of contingency table, chi square test, t test and multiple linear regression. The results show that the use of library by college students does not follow a common pattern, but is different in different subjects. The paper also shows that access to digital resources can not replace the use of printing materials [12]. The innovation of this paper lies in the combination of cloud computing, library and public media. As the main source and integration body of resources, the library uses cloud computing theory and technology to integrate various types of mass data on the public media platform, so as to build a public media database and make up for the gap of public media data resources in the collection resources of university library. In the cloud computing environment, the process of resource integration is more complex. It is not only how to store the type and quantity of data, but also how to quickly find the target data in many data.

2 Proposed Method 2.1

Impact of Cloud Computing on Digital Resource Integration

At present, the digital resources of domestic digital libraries are relatively independent and the rate of repeated construction is too high. How to store the digital information resources to realize the real sense of sharing is an urgent problem for experts in the industry to think about. The emergence of cloud computing will change this situation.

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The development of cloud computing is conducive to information sharing. Its fundamental starting point is information fusion, storage and sharing through network services. In the era of cloud computing, the information resources in domestic digital libraries will be aggregated into the “cloud” storage server to realize the comprehensive sharing of various information resources, and then improve the utilization rate of digital libraries. At this time, librarians only need to manage and plan digital resources. With the rapid development of computer network technology, users can get the information resources they want at any time and any place through mobile terminal equipment. 2.2

Database

Database is a collection of information organized in a certain structure on a computerreadable medium. It is the most common form of developing and utilizing information resources. Strictly speaking, it is a collection of interrelated data and storage in a certain way. Database is the oldest form in history. Generally speaking, the electronic resources of library collection are mainly the network CD-ROM ordered or rented by the library and the database purchased and built by the library itself. 2.3

System Requirements Analysis

(1) User demand analysis There are three main objects that the library management system faces: the first kind of system manager, the second kind of library manager and the third kind of reader. Relative to the readers, the most concerned problem is how to find out the books they borrowed more easily. You can check the number of books that have been borrowed, whether there are overdue books, and whether there are books you need in the new book recommendation. As a librarian, the primary need is to understand the collection of books, query the information of readers, the classification of books, and change the information and types of readers. Finally, the system management staff is responsible for the overall statistics and maintenance of all kinds of data, as well as data backup. This operation can ensure the security of all kinds of data. At the same time, it is also necessary to configure the operation environment of the system and set the permissions of different users. (2) Requirement analysis of system performance The development and design of the library management system is to implement the unified management in many aspects, including the realization of reader management, book management, loan management, data maintenance, etc. only to meet the needs of all kinds of users, can it be regarded as a qualified system, and it also requires that the system operation is simple and convenient, easy to learn, and the system performance is good. Therefore, when developing the system, we must first consider the overall performance of the system, which has three aspects: 1) The whole interface is friendly, simple and clear. It can adopt different management forms for different users, human-computer interaction, the simpler the

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interface of the operating system, the better. It can be easily completed only with mouse and barcode scanner. 2) The system runs faster. For the operation of users with different requirements, the system can make fast and accurate response in the shortest time, and has strong data processing ability to avoid the generation of random code. 3) Excellent data security performance. In case of wrong information data, corresponding processing can be made in time, and real-time inspection can be carried out for the user’s operation to display and store the user’s name and operation time. In case of wrong operation mode, the system will not respond. Set the corresponding permissions for each user, which can make the data more confidential and secure.

3 Experiments 3.1

Development Objectives

(1) Digital resource collection and resource integration Through a set of data standards and data exchange standards, the system uses data conversion and integration functions to integrate the “information island” scattered in different regions, different carriers and different formats into a unified subject for unified management. At the same time, through digital resource collection and customization, the system integrates the collected resources and catalogues them uniformly and normatively. The system also provides unified format conversion and index tools, with basic functions such as data upload, category setting, classification and sorting, automatic data verification, directory generation, data statistics, etc., and can add subject words (or keywords) and categories according to the needs of user index functions; users can set entity classification schemes according to actual needs. (2) Digital resources display The all-round display of digital resources is the basic function of digital resources platform. The system provides rich metadata and digital content display of digital resources, realizes the original display and browsing of electronic documents such as e-books and periodicals, as well as the display and playing of multimedia resources such as videos and pictures, and provides good visual access for readers. 3.2

Development Environment

In order to meet the above basic development objectives, this paper chooses the following development environment to complete the system development. 1) 2) 3) 4)

Development language: Java Background development framework: SSH Foreground development framework: jquery Relational database: MySQL

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5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

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Content warehouse: jackrabbit Distributed storage component: fashdfs Video server: red5 Full text search component: Lucene Hardware environment: Lenovo sl410

4 Discussion 4.1

System Logic Structure Design

The main task of logical structure design is to transform conceptual structure model into logical data model, and at the same time, it needs to be optimized. According to the results of system analysis and the characteristics of relational database SQL Server 2019, this system designs six database tables. They are information table, reader information table, book classification table, book borrowing information table, operator information table and inventory information table. Book information table: used to record the details of a book, as shown in Table 1. Table 1 Book information Field meaning Books Book category Title Author Translator Press Publication date Price

Field name ISBN TypeID Bookname Writer Translator Publisher Date Price

Type Varchar Int Varchar Varchar Varchar Varchar Date time Money

Length Is the primary key? Is it not empty? 50 Yes Yes Yes 50 50 50 50 10

Circulation function is the most basic function of the library, among which the operation of borrowing and returning books is the most basic and important. Considering the actual operation of the library, and for the convenience of management and security, the design adopts the method of independent login of sub modules. A separate authentication is required to enter the next sub module. When the user logs in for the first time, he/she needs to fill in the user name and the initial password provided by the system administrator. After entering the system successfully, he/she can change the password, and then he/she can log in according to his/her modified password. Enter the system and enter the user name and password. If it is not entered correctly, a prompt message will be given and it can be rewritten.

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Data Integration Module

After the data filtering, we need to orderly the simplified data according to the classification method. The classification method is to classify readers or users according to their own interests, and then associate them among many interests. For example, readers who are interested in archaeological documents are often interested in history and politics. According to this classification, this kind of subtle connection can be dayized and the viscosity of users can be increased. We need total amount and average value of user behavior data, so columnar storage is more suitable for this kind of data storage. HBase database is a typical columnar database. Column storage stores and queries data in columns. Each table consists of a set of page chains. Each page chain corresponds to a storage column in the table, and each page in the page chain stores one or more values of the column. HNG index is a combination of b-tree index and bitmap index in the storage. The data is stored in bit mode and sliced vertically according to bit. A large part of data storage can be compressed due to sparsity, and I0 can be reduced. It is suitable for parallel calculation of total and average values (Fig. 1).

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4

0.2 0 16bit

8bit

Seven

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Fifteen

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Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of HNG index principle

5 Conclusions This paper analyzes the research results of cloud computing technology in the current industry, introduces the origin of cloud computing, summarizes the concept and definition of cloud computing, more comprehensively introduces the technical principle and basic structure of cloud computing, analyzes the realization form of database and the realization method of self built database, discusses the user demand analysis of system demand analysis and the demand analysis of system performance The design of

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university library is more systematic and theoretical, which provides a certain reference for the theoretical and industrial circles to understand the development of University Library Based on cloud computing.

References 1. Li, M., Dong, X., Liang, H.: A phenome database (NEAUHLFPD) designed and constructed for broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content. Hereditas 39(5), 430–437 (2017) 2. Kleiber, E., Berezkroeker, A.L., Chopey, M., et al.: Making pacific languages discoverable: A project to catalog the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa library pacific collection by indigenous languages. Contem. Pac. 30(1), 110–122 (2018) 3. Filiz, B., Kocyigit, S.L.: Two research on the effect of interior acoustics on the number of user in library architecture: Metu and Atilim University libraries. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 141 (5), 3778–3778 (2017) 4. Almeida, N., Pollack, J.: In bed with the library: A critical exploration of embedded librarianship at the city university of New York. Commun. Inf. Lit. 11(1), 122–146 (2017) 5. Kong, R., Marek, K.: Case study: Dominican university school of information studies and Skokie public library internship partnership. Libr. Trends 66(1), 23–36 (2017) 6. Ihekwoaba, E.C., Okwor, R.N., Mole, A.J.C.: Access provision for Sight Impaired Students (SISs) in Nigerian University Libraries. Libr. Trends 67(3), 516–525 (2019) 7. Swanberg, S.M.: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR). J. Med. Libr. Assoc. Jmla 105(1), 106–107 (2017) 8. Liao, X., Tao, H., Xuegang, G.: Exploring the database of a soil environmental survey using a geo-self-organizing map: A pilot study. J. Geogr. Sci. 29(10), 1610–1624 (2019) 9. Ingegnoli, F., Carmona, L., Castrejon, I.: Systematic review of systemic sclerosis-specific instruments for the EULAR outcome measures library: An evolutional database model of validated patient-reported outcomes. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 46(5), 609 (2017) 10. Xuguang, Z., Lu, Y., Hualong, Y.: Scene-library-based video coding scheme exploiting long-term temporal correlation. J. Electron. Imaging 26(4), 1 (2017) 11. Babin, R.: Cloud computing e-communication services in the university environment. Inf. Syst. Educ. J. 15(1), 55–67 (2017) 12. Jara, M., Clasing, P., González, C.: Patterns of library use by undergraduate students in a Chilean university. Portal Libr. Acad. 17(3), 595–615 (2017)

Exploration and Reflection on the Construction of University Archives Management System Under the Background of Information Technology Yan Sun(&) Jilin Engineering Normal University, Changchun, China 148043418@qq.com

Abstract. Archives management in colleges and universities is closely related to the normal operation of colleges and universities, including many important functions; Not only that, the university archives road involves many aspects, such as teaching, logistics management, scientific research and so on. Generally speaking, the management data of colleges and universities are large and complicated, and the work complexity is relatively high. With the continuous development of information technology, the informatization construction of university archives management is an inevitable trend, which can maximize the comprehensive efficiency of university archives management. On this basis, the construction of university archives management system has become an important part of information construction. The purpose of this paper is to improve the efficiency of management through the in-depth study of university archives management, to build an informationized university archives management system. This paper firstly analyzes the main problems existing in the archives management of colleges and universities under the background of informatization, and then puts forward the specific construction scheme of the archives management system. Finally, it tests the scientificity and feasibility of the system by means of clustering analysis algorithm. The experiments in this paper show that the establishment of the university archives management system under the background of information greatly improves the efficiency of archives management and provides great convenience for the management work. Keywords: Information technology construction  Clustering analysis

 Archives management  System

1 Introduction The information technology and the computer have promoted the profound change of the society and had an important impact on People’s Daily life and work. China has entered the era of information technology rapidly. With the expansion of the scope of influence of information technology, archives management in colleges and universities is also affected. With the help of information technology, it has become an inevitable trend to promote the informatization of archives management in colleges and universities. Archives management plays an important role in the work of colleges and © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 312–318, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_46

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universities, and is also an important standard to measure the overall management level of colleges and universities. The university archives management work involves all aspects of the content, and involves the various periods of archives storage, not only the quantity is large but also the work is difficult, the traditional archives management has been unable to adapt to the complex work needs, therefore in the background of information construction university archives management system has great significance. At present, China has also made some attempts in the construction of university archives management system, but due to lack of experience and other reasons, there are still many problems in the construction of this system [1]. Based on this, people pay more and more attention to the information construction of university archives, how to combine modern information technology and university archives management has become the focus of current research. Through consulting a large number of research materials, it can be found that domestic and foreign scholars have carried out a series of studies in this field. Among them, the information construction of archives management in foreign countries started earlier, most of which are combined with the domestic practice activities to carry out relevant research. In the 1980s, the United States had already started the construction of an information file management system [2, 3]. Compared with foreign countries, the construction of archives management informatization in China started relatively late. At present, the researches in this field mainly focus on the application of digital resources, the integration of information technology and archives management. However, domestic and foreign researches are scattered, and a complete file management system supported by information technology has not been established. Therefore, from this perspective, there is still a huge theoretical gap in the research of this aspect, which requires further research [4, 5]. In order to promote information technology as the support of the rapid construction of university archives system, file management information, improve the efficiency of management, the article first to the main problems of college archives management under the background of informatization are analyzed, and based on this, advances the concrete construction plan of archives management system, and finally with the cluster analysis algorithm to the scientific nature and feasibility of the system test [6, 7]. The testing experiments in this paper show that the system construction scheme proposed by the author is completely feasible, which promotes the comprehensive efficiency of archives management. It not only promotes the scientific development of university management, but also lays a certain theoretical foundation for future related researches [8].

2 Method 2.1

Problems Existing in Archives Management in Colleges and Universities Under the Background of Informatization

The problems in the information management of archives in colleges and universities in China are mainly manifested in the following four aspects: the first is the backward management consciousness and management concept. Advanced management

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awareness adapting to the information background is an important factor to promote the construction of archives management system in colleges and universities, and advanced information archives management awareness plays a facilitating role [9, 10]. However, nowadays, the person in charge of archives management in colleges and universities lacks or even rejects information construction, so the consciousness of information management is relatively indifferent. In addition, most managers lack a correct understanding of the role of management system construction, which hinders the construction of the management system [11]. Second, less capital investment, the system’s related facilities are backward; The construction of university archives management system needs the support of related software and hardware, which needs a lot of funds. However, due to the shortage of funds in many universities, there are even less funds for this aspect, which hinders the process of system construction. Third, there are more cyber threats. Due to the openness of the network itself, it will result in the leakage of archival information, the violation of personal privacy and the confidentiality of the school, which will pose a major threat to the development of the school. Fourth, the workload of archives management, work efficiency is low. As mentioned above, archives management in colleges and universities involves a wide range of work and has a large time span for archives storage. Many of the archives are saved in the form of paper files, which is time-consuming and laborious and difficult to manage [12, 13]. 2.2

Clustering Analysis Algorithm

Cluster analysis algorithm is one of the commonly used algorithms in mass data analysis, which can quickly realize in-depth analysis and classification of required data. This data analysis method is consistent with the complexity of university archives management. Clustering analysis algorithm to breakdown processing, the huge amounts of data on the basis of the data, so as to establish the logical relationship between different file data, archives in colleges and universities in various types of initial data automatically analysis processing, at the same time to the underlying value of the initial data mining effectively, realizing the effective classification of the archives management, thus greatly reduce the difficulty and complexity of university archives management work. The process of university archives management under the clustering analysis algorithm mainly includes the following three aspects: data preparation, clustering and evaluation of archives management results. In essence, the data clustering of university archives management belongs to the grouping expression of similar data. Suppose the rough attribute set is represented by P, and there are m elements in this set, then the final clustering result is 2m−1. P represents a single clustering result, and its attribute set is represented by Si. The specific calculation formula is as follows: Si ¼ SP ðPÞ  SPPi ðPÞ

ð1Þ

Where, SP(P) represents the importance determination function of cluster analysis, and Pi represents the set of attribute sets. When SP(P) = 1, the specific calculation formula of Sp−pi (P) is as follows:

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SPPi ðPÞ ¼

cardPOSSP ðPÞ cardU Si

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ð2Þ

In the above formula, the Si value is directly proportional to the importance of the Pi attribute set. The greater the importance of the attribute set, the greater the impact on the result of the data sample.

3 University Archives Management System Testing Experiment Before the system is officially put into use, the system must be tested. The purpose of this paper is to find and improve the problems and deficiencies in the actual operation of the archives management system, so as to ensure the stability of the system and ensure that the system can achieve the original design goal. In this paper, the experimental object is the archives management system of colleges and universities. Three experimental methods, white box test, black box test and unit test, are selected. The test contents of this paper mainly include the following aspects: overall system function, data change, specific workflow and business rules; In addition, in order to further test the efficiency of the system, this paper compares the information system with the traditional way of file management. After all aspects of the system are tested, data charts are drawn with the help of excel and other drawing tools, so that the test results can be intuitively reflected.

4 Discuss 4.1

Specific Construction of University Archives Management System

(1) Design of system function modules Because of the wide range of file management and the complexity of the management process, the system contains a number of functional modules. According to the overall function of the system, the function modules of the file management system are divided into the following three modules: input module, output module and management module. The main function of the input module is to input the stored information of the files and classify the files according to the information. Output module is mainly the automatic output of the file statistics, such as the number of files, lending situation, and the module also has to urge the file, query the file and copy the file function. Management module involves different extremes of file management and backup, as well as the system administrator and access to the user’s application permissions and other aspects, can achieve a full range of management of files. In addition to these three main modules, the system also has a maintenance module and a help module. (2) Design of system database The database of the archives management system is composed of nine different types of database tables. The second is the archival borrowing record table, the database table is mainly used for the preservation of archival borrowing information; The

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third is the menu information table, which stores and manages the menu number, menu name, superior menu number, link and sequence number. The fourth is the user information table, the table to log in the file system user information storage, to ensure the security of the file. These four kinds of data information tables occupy the main position in the database construction of the system, and the other five kinds of information tables are department information table, audit information table, document information table, document version information table and folder information table, which will not be repeated here. 4.2

System Test Results and Analysis

Through the above system test experiments, and by using the clustering analysis algorithm to calculate the relevant test data, the test results of the system are obtained. The specific test results are shown in Table 1 and Fig. 1. The data in the chart is the results of the author’s experimental arrangement. Table 1. System module test table Name Actual effect Rational effect Composite scores Functions of the system 89.17% 87.99% 96.41 The working process 84.31% 83.32% Data changes 85.19% 84.92% Business rules 84.31% 80.13% Data came from the in-depth analysis of financial data in the experiment

150.00%

100.00% 50.00%

89.73%

87.21%

51.47% 10.54%

0.00% Efficiency Traditional Way

Error

Accuracy

Information System

Fig. 1. Comparison between traditional management mode and information management system

We can see from Table 1 that the actual operation effect of the university archives management system designed in this paper in each functional module exceeds the expected level; According to Fig. 1, we can find that the university archives management system designed based on information technology in this paper has obvious

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advantages over the traditional management mode in terms of efficiency and accuracy. On this basis, we can draw a conclusion: the file management system proposed in this paper has achieved the expected objectives of the design in terms of functions, workflow, data changes and application of business rules, and has reliability.

5 Conclusion It is an inevitable requirement of social development to build a university archives management system with complete functions. Information technology provides important technical support for the construction of university archives management system. University archives are the key source of information for the operation of all kinds of work, so university archives management has an important position. In this paper, the construction of university archives management system has realized the rapid sorting of university archives and realized the socialized development of university archives. However, the establishment of the system is a long-term project, which needs to be adjusted according to the development of The Times and the change of technology. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the conclusion of the 2018 project “Research on the management of students’ Archives in the context of the transformation and development of local universities” of Jilin province’s education science “13th five year plan”, subject number GH180631.

References 1. Guan, Z.: Some problems and countermeasures of electronic file archiving in colleges and universities under the background of informatization. J. Xuzhou Inst. Educ. 23(1), 52–53 (2018) 2. Yang, J.: Analysis on the optimal management strategy of university archives information under the background of digital campus construction. Sci. Technol. Intell. Dev. Econ. 21 (27), 85–86 (2018) 3. Li, L., Zhou, D.: Reflections on archives management in colleges and universities under the background of informatization. Exam. Wkly. 12(32), 16–18 (2019) 4. Zhu, Y.: Investigation and research on archives management of scientific research documents in universities in Beijing. Arch. Res. 3(2), 171 (2019) 5. Chen, M.: On informatization construction of personnel archives management in universities. Shanxi Arch. 13(1), 141–143 (2017) 6. Jing, Z., Ye, L.: On the purpose of constructing scientific research archives management norms—based on the analysis of three existing norms. Arch. Sci. Commun. 14(4), 192–195 (2017) 7. Cao, Z.: Application of information management in college personnel file management. Shanxi Arch. 15(6), 236–238 (2017) 8. Niu, J.: The qualities of archivists under the informatization of archives management. Mod. Distance Educ. Chin. Med. 31(12), 417–419 (2017) 9. Yang, W.: Discussion on the informatization construction of university archives. J. Shaoguan Univ. 33(3), 182 (2017)

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10. Xu, C., Li, H.-P., Luo, X.-X.: Problems and countermeasures in the management of teaching archives in colleges and universities under the background of informatization. China Extern. Educ. 13(12), 11 (2017) 11. Li, T.: Countermeasures of university financial archives management under the background of informatization. China Manag. Informatiz. 14(6), 25–26 (2017) 12. Jie, Y.: Research on the construction of university archives informatization management in the era of education informatization. Knowl. Econ. 13(4), 154–155 (2017) 13. Saffady, W.: A university archives and records management program: some operational guidelines. Coll. & Res. Libr. 35(3), 204–210 (2017)

Cloud Computing with Heavy CNC Machine Tools Juan Shao(&) Liaoning Jianzhu Vocational College Liaoyang, No. 24, Qingnian Street, Liaoyang 111000, Liaoning, China 15640049299@163.com

Abstract. Numerical control technology is the foundation of manufacturing modernization. However, due to the limitation of software and hardware resources, mainstream numerical control systems are increasingly unable to meet users’ increasing demands for intelligent and open functions. In terms of basic theoretical research, cloud computing is mainly based on universities and research institutes. It has made great contributions to the theoretical innovation of cloud computing. The cloud computing industry has a bright future, but compared with developed countries, the scale of China’s cloud computing market still needs to be improved, and it will still need to strive to catch up in the future. Based on the above background, the research content of this article is a heavy-duty CNC machine tool based on cloud computing. This paper first introduces a cloud computing scheduling algorithm based on dynamic substantial path driving and applies it to a CNC machine tool system. The combination of next-generation information technology such as big data is the starting point. Based on the analysis of the mainstream NC system structure at home and abroad, a cloud-based NC system architecture is proposed. Users can access the cloud application center through the CNC system to obtain services. The application center provides general software for the CNC industry. Users can also add their own customized software in the application center. Finally, through experimental simulation, the results prove that the Bayes reliability evaluation method based on the proposed heavy-duty CNC machine tool considering the degree of maintenance is more in line with reality. In addition, it can be seen from the Speedup average analysis that the performance of the proposed algorithm is surpass the algorithms HEFT, HEFT-Lookahead, and CEFT, which is 17.9% better than the algorithm HEFT, 14.5% better than the algorithm HEFT-Lookahead, and 10.2% better than the algorithm CEFT. Keywords: Cloud computing Teliability evaluation

 CNC system  Heavy machine tools 

1 Introduction Although the domestic heavy machine tool industry has made great progress in recent years, it still relies on imports for high-end heavy-duty CNC machine tools. Compared with foreign products, the differences between domestic machine tools in the structure and the use of new technologies are not large. The main gap is reflected in the © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 319–325, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_47

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application of advanced technology and the level of manufacturing processes. The CNC system is the “brain” of numerically-controlled machine tool and one of the important components of CNC machine tools, which determines the function and performance, reliability and cost of numerical control machine tool. Cloud computing is a new service model, which is developed on the basis of dispersed calculate, reseau computing and point to point computing [1]. It can effectively integration various mutually connected memory, calculate, mesh and other resources, and users can acquire it at in season and out of season through the network, use it as needed, and enlarge the serve in the resource pood at in season and out of season [2, 3]. It provides users with the ability to obtain cloud calculate resources on demand like traditional water, electricity, and gas. Cloud computing is a facility, ebusiness on demand, pay according to the times used [4, 5]. Through the network to quickly access to a Shared pool of resources, and only a small amount of management work or little interaction with service providers is required [6, 7]. To provide high reliability (Hi-Rel), high availability (HA), and elastic personalized services at low cost [8, 9]. Its target is to avert users from the intricate potential hardware logic, network protocols, and software architecture, and to use services according to their own needs at any time and any place to solve their own problems [10]. By incorporating cloud calculate into the RAN, C-RAN is considered a promising 5G wireless system architecture. Due to the innovative measures to migrate base band dispose functions to a concentrated cloud base band unit pood, it is expected that CRAN will significantly reduce energy consumption and become a greenness RAN. In addition, with the cloud-based framework, many fresh functions and RAN designs are all set to be merge, which reassignment RAN as a agile RAN. Tang uses cloud computing to form a green and agile C-RAN from two cloud-based attributes: centralize dispose and software definition surroundings. For centralized processing characteristics, Tang includes coordinated multipoint and limited future capacity, multicast, and CSI issues in C-RAN. For a better understanding, through appropriate instance introduces the framework of architectural details. This work is significant for deploy cloud-based cooperation learning solutions in educational institutions. An organization’s decision to removal message technology to cloud computing includes a variety of decisions that must be made to minimize risk and make a slippy and precise interim to cloud computing. The research content of this paper is based on cloud computing of heavy-duty CNC machine tools. It studies the problems existing in single-target scheduling of current workflow tasks. Most current workflow task scheduling models are based on the parallel computing DAG task scheduling model, but in the past, workflow scheduling algorithms used to confirm the scheduling order of workflow tasks before scheduling, which did not reflect the actual scheduling time and execution of workflow tasks during the scheduling process. The impact of the server on the scheduling sequence of subsequent workflow tasks. Based on the research and analysis of the classification, attributes, and feature of machinery instrument equipment resources in the cloud manufacturing industry environment, the needs for modeling and description of machine instrument equipment resources in the cloud manufacturing surroundings are analyzed and summarized.

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2 Proposed Method A cloud calculate system is a computer mesh that obtains required resources and services from user application requests, network environments, and on-demand, easily scalable scheduling methods. The problem of workflow task resource distribution in cloud calculate is the core problem of cloud computing systems. In order to solve the workflow task and resource distribution problems in cloud calculate, we start with the establishment of a scheduling model and transform the cloud calculate system scheduling issue into a DAG model scheduling issue. G = (Q,E,S), the workflow task node set table in which the user’s application request node is adopted Q = {Q1,Q2,…, Qn}, the device resources in the network correspond to the workflow task nodes in the DAG graph The execution server set representative S = {S1,S2,…,Sk}, the set of network communication costs between all workflow task nodes uses E = {eij}(i,j2V),and eij represents the workflow task nodes There is a communication or dependency relationship between i and j. The workflow task node i is the father node of j. All the precursor sets are represented as Pre(i)2V. The workflow task node j is the son node of i and all successors of i are the set of nodes is represented as Succ(i). The accomplish time of the workflow mission node is defined as: EFTðQi ; Sn Þ ¼ ESTðQi ; Sn Þ þ tin

ð1Þ

Other workflow task nodes completed in: EFTðQi ; Sm Þ ¼ ESTðQi ; Sm Þ þ tim

ð2Þ

So the completion time objective equation of all workflow task nodes in the DAG figure is: Makespan ¼ maxðEFTðQexit ; Sm ÞÞ

ð3Þ

Qexit is a odd workflow task node, and the final goal of the dispatch algorithm is to reduce Makespan, which is min(Makespan). The purpose of the scheduling algorithm is to reduce the completion time of the entire workflow task or the execution cost of the entire workflow task. The factors affecting the completion time of the entire workflow are the start time and completion time of the workflow task node, and these two factors are related to each job. The execution time of a workflow task node is related to the communication time between different workflow task nodes. An vital reason that affects the original time and completion time of a workflow task node is the sequencing of the workflow task nodes. This paper proposes the sequencing of the workflow task nodes. Preceding task layer priority tactics and roving substantial route strategy, according to the order of workflow task nodes, choose to make the workflow task node has the earlier start time and completion time of the server as a workflow task node resource server.

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3 Experiments The cloud structure CNC system prototype system is based on 8 CNC machine tools in a comprehensive laboratory workshop of a school of mechanical science and engineering, and 4 servers are used as examples to deploy the cloud CNC system. The server configuration is shown in Table 1. Table 1. Control node configuration Hardware Server host CPU RAM Hard disk Network card Operating system

Model parameters Dell R720 Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2650 128 GB SAS 2T*2 Four gigabit network card interfaces CentOS 6.4

As shown in Table 1, the control node configuration server host selects Dell R720; the CPU selects Intel (R) Xeon (R) CPU E5-2650; the storage selects 128 GB capacity; the hard disk is SAS 2T*2; the network card has 4 gigabit network card interfaces; The operating system is CentOS 6.4. Multi-node deployment to the OpenStack cloud computing platform. After the deployment is complete, the custom-designed Windows 7 system image is registered in Glance, and the CentOS system virtual machine is integrated with a data storage and analysis platform. A corresponding virtual machine can then be created for the CNC. The third-party commercial software Cimatron software is used to model the “toy car” mold. Using this software, you can also generate the corresponding G-code file from the built model. Then use CGTECH VERICUT software to simulate the G code after the post. After the simulation is completed, the G code that meets the requirements can be sent to the local CNC system for processing. At this time, the cloud virtual machine can be regarded as an extension of the function of the local CNC system.. You can also start the upper-level cloud processing directly in the cloud virtual machine.

4 Discussion 4.1

Analysis of Reliability Evaluation Results

Table 2 shows the posterior feature quantities of the mean, variance, and posterior confidence interval of each model parameter.

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Table 2. Model and model parameter estimation results Model Mean parameters a 964.4

variance Posterior confidence interval 5% 99.2 754.4

b

1.597

0.1993

1.237

ηNH

976.8

748.4

109.3

bNH

1.762

1.347

0.4411

P(M = 1) P(M = 2)

0.4255 0.2793 0.5744 0.2795

0.01875 0.04317

Posterior confidence Model prior interval 95% distribution 1120.3 dweib (967.14, 9.04) 1.95 dweib (1.6914, 8.0276) 3200.1 Uniform (0, 5000) 6.545 Uniform (0, 10) 0.9569 1/2 0.9816 1/2

As shown in Table 2, combined with the expression of the reliability feature quantity under the mixed model in the Bayes model averaging method, the target machine tool reliability index considering the degree of maintenance can be obtained. At this time, the reliability index MTBFF is generally called the instantaneous average. Time between failures. When the working time is less than 2000 h, the instantaneous MTBF is maintained at about 900h. After the working time is greater than 6000 h, the instantaneous MTBF is maintained at about 730h. At the same time, in the working time interval (1000, 6000), the instantaneous MTBF decreases. The fastest, after more than 8000 h, the instantaneous MTBF decreases slowly and stabilizes. Further analysis, in theory, when the fault is considered to have reached a completely new state when it was put into the test after repair, the reliability index calculated at this time, that is, the evaluation index under the assumption of complete repair is definitely more than the theoretical real result On the high side. According to the proposed responsibility appraise method of heavy-duty CNC machine tools considering the degree of maintenance, the evaluation results obtained are lower in the stable period than those under full maintenance, plus the detailed demonstration of the credibility of the hybrid model in the previous period. The final conclusion is that the Bayes reliability evaluation method for heavy-duty CNC machine tools on account of the proposed maintenance degree is more in line with reality. 4.2

Algorithm Performance

In order to evaluate the performance of this algorithm, commonly used performance indicators: SLR and Speedup. SLR is a main parameter to measurement the performance of the algorithm. SLR is the proportion of the total processing time Makespan to the critical path length. The value of SLR is greater than 1, the lower the SLR, the better the algorithm performance, but the poorer the algorithm performance. The mean SLR and Speedup of the task graphs of different numbers and sizes are shown in Fig. 1. As shown in Table 1, Speedup is the ratio of the sequential execution time of all workflow assignment nodes to the total execution time.

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7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 100

200

300

400 DDEP

500 CEFT

600 700 800 900 HEFT-Lookahead HEFT

1000

Fig. 1. Relative to the size of the DAG graphics average SLR and average speed

The order perform time is equal to the entire execution time processed by all workflow task nodes on the same processor. Makspan is the task completion time. The smaller the Speedup value, the worse the performance of the algorithm. On the contrary, the better the performance of the algorithm. Scheduling on the same number of resource servers to compare the performance of the algorithm in this chapter. The amount of assignment graph nodes is {100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000}, the number of resource service is 5, [10, 20] is the randomly generated interval of the workflow task node execution time, and [10, 20] is the workflow task node communication time stochastic generated intermittent, [1, 10] is the randomly generated interval of workflow task node out-degree value and in-degree value. The random generator generates DAG graphs and resource servers that meet the requirements of the above parameters according to the input values of the above parameters, in order to check the impact of the size of the task graph on the scheduling algorithm. The DAG graph of the same number of levels is run 100 times, and the average total scheduling time, average vital route length of each task figure, and the average sequential execution time of each task graph on different resource servers are calculated. Then according to formula (4), (5) Calculate the average SLR and Speedup for the randomly generated task graph. It can be seen from the SLR average analysis graph that the algorithm proposed in this paper is superior to the algorithms HEFT, HEFTLookahead, and CEFT, and 25.5% superior to the algorithm HEFT. It is 11.3% exceed the algorithm HEFT-Lookahead and 16.4% better than the algorithm CEFT. It can be seen from the Speedup average analysis graph that the performance of the proposed algorithm is exceed the algorithms HEFT, HEFT-Lookahead, and CEFT, which is 17.9% exceed the algorithm HEFT, 14.5% better than the algorithm HEFT-Lookahead, and 10.2% better than the algorithm CEFT.

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5 Conclusions The workflow task scheduling question in the cloud calculate environment is a matching problem between the workflow task and the cloud resource server in the cloud calculate environment. In recent years, related scholars have proposed many effective and feasible scheduling algorithms for such scheduling problems, but these algorithms determine the scheduling plan of workflow tasks before task scheduling, and ignore the changes in the scheduling environment in the actual scheduling process. The latest technologies such as cloud calculate, industrial Internet, and big data are deeply integrated with the CNC system, and a cloud-based CNC system architecture is proposed. Based on this, the non-strong real-time tasks of the CNC system are moved to the cloud virtual machine to reduce the overhead of the local hardware of the CNC system.

References 1. Wang, Y., Li, J., Wang, H.H.: Cluster and cloud computing framework for scientific metrology in flow control. Clust. Comput. 22(1), 1–10 (2019) 2. Chen, J., Li, K., et al.: A parallel random forest algorithm for big data in a spark cloud computing environment. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 28(4), 919–933 (2017) 3. Cao, Z., Lin, J., Wan, C., et al.: Optimal cloud computing resource allocation for demand side management in smart grid. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 8(4), 1943–1955 (2017) 4. Packer, R.G.: The ethics of cloud computing. Sci. Eng. Ethics 23(1), 21–39 (2017) 5. Shen, J., Zhou, T., Chen, X., Li, J., Susilo, W.: Anonymous and traceable group data sharing in cloud computing. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur. 13(4), 912–925 (2018) 6. Cai, H., Xu, B., Jiang, L., et al.: IoT-based big data storage systems in cloud computing: Perspectives and challenges. IEEE Internet Things J. 4(1), 75–87 (2017) 7. Soofi, A.A., Khan, M.I.: A review on data security in cloud computing. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 96(2), 95–96 (2017) 8. Hashimoto, K., Masuyama, H., Kasahara, S., et al.: Performance analysis of backup-task scheduling with deadline time in cloud computing. J. Ind. Manag. Optim. (JIMO) 11(3), 867–886 (2017) 9. Chase, J., Niyato, D.: Joint optimization of resource provisioning in cloud computing. IEEE Trans. Serv. Comput. 10(3), 396–409 (2017) 10. Quirita, V.A.A., Happ, P.N., Feitosa, R.Q., et al.: A new cloud computing architecture for the classification of remote sensing data. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Obs. & Remote. Sens. 10(2), 409–416 (2017)

Application of Modern Information Technology in Course Teaching in Universities Ying Li(&) and Jinliang Wang Guangdong University of Science and Technology, Dongguan 523083, Guangdong, China 421537246@qq.com

Abstract. Integrating information technology and teaching means is a hot issue in the popularization of information technology. The application of information technology in teaching enriches teaching resources and expands teaching methods, thus making modern education more efficient [1]. As Rain Classroom, Ketangpai, Cloud Space, and other information technologies are used in classroom teaching, a variety of flipped classroom and new teaching modes are springing up constantly, enabling the space of course teaching greatly extended. As for the practical courses, information technology tools can effectively link up and extend the links before, during and after class. However, some problems still need to be explored and improved in practical applications. Keywords: Information technology

 Practical courses  Applied research

1 Introduction The development of modern information technology has boosted the progress of higher education [2], and has also promoted the reform and innovation of classroom teaching means and methods. In today’s informatization society, information technology is a great learning tool that can help students to carry out learning cognition, acquire learning resources, and collaborate, explore and communicate. Therefore, how to use modern information technology to elevate the quality of teaching and improve the effect of classroom teaching has always been a concern of many teaching workers. If teachers can make good use of the information technology, they can get the utmost out of it as a teaching tool to train students’ advanced thinking and improve students’ practical abilities, so as to enhance the teaching effect and improve the quality of talent cultivation. Practice teaching is an effective way to consolidate and deepen students’ theoretical cognition in colleges and universities, as well as an important platform to cultivate high-quality skilled talents. In this case, how to effectively apply information technology for practical course teaching to improve the quality of classroom teaching to create a high-level “golden course”, which is worth pondering by teachers in colleges and universities.

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 326–331, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_48

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2 Analysis of Teaching Characteristics of Practical Courses in Colleges and Universities Compared with the conventional theoretical course teaching, the practical course teaching has the following characteristics: Firstly, the class schedule is more concentrated. The class hours of theoretical courses are distributed throughout the whole semester, usually about 45–72 h. However, practical courses are arranged in a more concentrated manner, usually requiring 20–40 class hours to be completed within 1–2 weeks by adopting the teaching method of the whole-week practical training. Secondly, the learning intensity is greater and the teaching environment is more demanding. Compared with the theoretical courses, the learning tasks of the practical courses are much more difficult, and students are required to have a high degree of participation, and the tasks are usually done in small groups. In addition, the teaching environment of practical courses is quite different from that of theoretical courses. Practical courses on campus are usually arranged in computer room laboratories or functional laboratories. Thirdly, there are higher requirements for teachers. Teachers are required to get students interested in the courses in a short period of time and maintain a high enthusiasm for learning. At the same time, teachers also need to be able to make good use of information teaching tools to assist teaching, otherwise it will be difficult to obtain better teaching effect or guarantee teaching quality within the prescribed time.

3 Analysis on the Application Status of Modern Information Technology in Practical Courses 3.1

Main Information Technologies Applied in Practical Course Teaching

Integrating information technology and teaching means is a hot issue in the popularization of information technology. The wide application of computer and network technology in teaching undoubtedly gives a pair of powerful wings to the education of various schools [3] and becomes an important means for teachers to carry out the reform of the teaching mode. In today’s practical course teaching in colleges and universities, the main information technologies applied include multimedia technology, simulation software teaching technology, interactive classroom management tools (such as Ketangpai, Rain Classroom, and Cloud Class), Internet resources platforms (such as Cloud Space of World University City, and MOOC), and information and communication tools (such as WeChat, QQ, and email). 3.2

Main Application Scenarios of Information Technology in Practical Course Teaching

In the teaching process of practical courses, task-driven and project-based teaching methods are mainly adopted, which basically follow the design ideas of task setting and

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arrangement, and achievement reporting and acceptance. Therefore, in the actual teaching, the main scenarios using information technology include: (1) Arrangement of classroom tasks. Teachers mainly use multimedia technology to explain knowledge and arrange tasks [4–6]. The application of multimedia technology enables knowledge to be expressed in a single form such as text, image, animation, sound, and video, or a combination of several forms, thereby enriching the content of knowledge to stimulate students’ multisensory organs, which is conducive to students’ memory and enhances students’ clues for association, thus improving the effectiveness of classroom teaching. (2) Classroom attendance and classroom testing. In practical course teaching, teachers mainly adopt the interactive management tools, such as Ketangpai, Rain Classroom, and Cloud Class, to check students’ attendance, conduct interactive test of knowledge points in class and complete courses’ online exams [7–9]. As most of the practical courses are conducted in the laboratories, teachers can accomplish smoothly classroom sessions such as attendance and testing with the help of computers and mobile phones. (3) Teacher-student interaction and Q & A after class. In the course of practical teaching, teachers will upload course resources to network technology platforms such as Cloud Space and MOOC space for resource sharing and information exchange. These network platform technologies can not only realize the sharing and timely updating of excellent teaching resources, but also realize the communication between teachers and students. Teachers can make the best of WeChat, QQ, e-mail and other information tools to communicate with students before and after class and answer their questions, which dramatically extends the classroom space. Because practical courses are mainly concentrated in 1–2 weeks, teachers will have less chance to meet with students after the end of courses, so these information technology tools really do well in helping teachers to tutor students after class [10]. (4) Display of student learning outcomes and field practice. In practical courses, students are often required to complete a design or plan according to the task requirements, and produce a PPT to present on the stage. The multimedia technology can help students demonstrate their practical training works, and at the same time can train students to use multimedia related skills. In addition, for some highly operational courses, the corresponding teaching software platforms are required to carry out simulated operations to further improve students’ practical skills. 3.3

Analysis of the Main Problems and Reasons of Applying Information Technology in Practical Course Teaching

In the process of practical course teaching, all teachers adopt information technology to carry out teaching activities to varying degrees, and the classroom effect has been greatly improved. After the application of information technology, although there have been significant reforms and innovations in classroom form, teaching means and

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classroom flexibility, there are still some problems that need to be further improved and perfected. The main problems are as follows: Firstly, some teachers do not pay attention to the study of the nature of courses, and mistakenly believe that the time of practical courses is short, so they completely rely on some modern classroom interaction management tools for class attendance to save time. This attendance system, which fully relies on information technology, can easily result in the indifference of teacher-student relationship, thus affecting the teaching effect and quality of the courses. Once students think that if teachers do not call the roll, it will be difficult to know who they are, so there may be arbitrary absenteeism and other phenomena. Instead, if teachers can properly call the roll for a few times, students will feel warm, but also afraid. After all, with a certain emotional basis and communication, students are more likely to accept what teachers teach. Secondly, some teachers rely too much on teaching software and other teaching tools, and ignore the actual situation of students and carry out one-size-fits-all teaching. Some courses with strong practicality need to use corresponding teaching software for practical teaching and training in the practical training. For example, both e-commerce and marketing majors have opened the course Online Store Opening and Operation Practice, for which most schools have also purchased corresponding teaching software. Therefore, some teachers teach according to the experimental manual of the software, ignoring the actual situation of different majors and different students. When the same course is faced with students from different majors, it should have different emphasis, otherwise it will be difficult to achieve the teaching objectives of student-centered, and student-development-centered, and also difficult to achieve better classroom effect. Thirdly, part of the teaching software loses touch with practice. However, teachers have not adjusted and upgraded the teaching content and tasks accordingly. In the application of teaching software for course teaching, some practical teaching software is purchased earlier or changes too fast in reality, which will lead to the disconnection of software teaching content with reality, and further result in the poor teaching effect.

4 Suggestions on Improving Teaching Quality of Practical Courses by Applying Information Technology 4.1

Pay Attention to the Research on the Nature and Teaching Characteristics of Practical Courses, and Flexibly Apply Information Technology to Carry Out Teaching

In the actual teaching, teachers should carry on sufficient research on the practical courses which undertake, discuss and analyze the nature and teaching characteristics of the practical courses, and then choose the appropriate information technology tool to assist the teaching on this basis. For example, at the beginning of the course, communication tools such as WeChat or QQ are used to establish course communication with students. Secondly, answering questions for students can effectively extend the classroom space. In the course, the network platforms can be used to upload course materials to share with students to facilitate students’ after-class study and homework submission. In addition, some classroom interaction management tools can also be used

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to assist attendance and classroom interaction, so as to improve the quality and efficiency of classroom teaching. 4.2

Keep Pace with the Times and Pay Attention to Improve and Integrate the Teaching Content

In the practical courses for liberal arts majors, if there are no teaching materials or fixed teaching materials for a course, the teaching team of the course is required to design practical training projects according to the characteristics and dynamics of the industry’s demand for talents. For some courses that need to rely on teaching software, teachers are required to make corresponding adjustment and improvement according to the industry dynamics, so as to ensure the effectiveness of the teaching content of practical courses and the development of students. 4.3

Focus on Demonstration and Practice, Fully Reflecting the Ownership Status of Students

The practical courses are set to help students consolidate and deepen their cognition and understanding of theoretical knowledge, and on which basis enhance their professional skills and practical abilities. Therefore, teachers should leave more time for students to practice to understand the knowledge in textbooks and explore knowledge that is not available in textbooks. Most practical courses are opened in the laboratories, which will have corresponding software and hardware available to students, so in the teaching process, students should be encouraged to make full use of existing information technology means and platforms to independently explore and learn, thus allowing them improve their abilities through constant exploration and learning. 4.4

Focus on Feedback and Evaluation

After students complete their tasks, teachers should evaluate their works timely, and evaluate their learning effect by combining teaching content and scoring standard. Students’ questions in class should also be given timely feedback. For questions after class, teachers should make full use of existing network resources and various platforms to answer.

5 Conclusion Integrating modern information technology and teaching methods is currently a hot topic, and it will be a topic worthy of discussion and research by various universities for a long time in the future. In order to improve the course effect and give play to the role of practical courses in talent training, teaching tools and teaching methods of practical courses also need to be constantly reformed and innovated with the change of information technology.

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Acknowledgements. “Quality Project” of Guangdong University of Science and Technology in 2018(NO: CQ2018022)

References 1. Qian, G.: Causes of instrumentalization of information technology education and its application in teaching. China Manag. Inf. Ization 17, 213–214 (2019). (in Chinese) 2. Li, L.: Research on the integration mechanism of modern information technology and higher education. Educ. Mod. 6(71), 189–190 (2019). (in Chinese) 3. Yushi, J.: Exploration on the application of computer network technology in education and teaching. Orient. Enterp. Cult. 5, 88 (2010). (in Chinese) 4. Yan, Y.: Reform and practice of effective teaching mode of computer courses based on modern information technology in higher vocational education. Educ. Mod. 6(71), 105–107 (2019). (in Chinese) 5. Junjie, Z.: Analysis on the application of modern network information technology in college physical education. Inf. Rec. Mater. 20(10), 73–74 (2019). (in Chinese) 6. Jing, Y.: Application of modern information technology in harmony course teaching in colleges and universities. China Natl. Exhib. 5, 28–29 (2019). (in Chinese) 7. Hui, Z.: Research on the application of modern information technology in teaching. Mod. Inf. Technol. 3(18), 98–99 (2019). (in Chinese) 8. Hongmei, Y., Chunlei, H.: Optimization analysis of higher vocational mathematics informationization teaching based on modern information technology. Educ. Mod. 6(73), 275–276 (2019). (in Chinese) 9. Changda, W.: Influence of modern information technology on teaching. Guizhou Ethnic News, 2019-12-11 (B03). (in Chinese) 10. Songtao, W.: Application of information technology in project-based teaching. Appl. IC 36 (12), 50–51 (2019). (in Chinese)

Measurement of the Relevance of Energy Internet Industry Based on Co-integration Model Shanshan Wu1 and Rui Tang2(&) 1

State Grid Energy Research Institute Co., Ltd., Beijing, China 2 Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin, China tr940419@163.com

Abstract. The Internet of Energy is an important starting point for a new round of energy revolution. It will promote the high-quality and sustainable development of various industries. Starting from the five major energy Internet industries, this article explores the impact of five industries: integrated energy services, industrial smart manufacturing services, cloud computing services, smart home services, and new retail services on other industries. Then, the cointegration model is used to quantify the relevance between these five industries and other related industries. In the end, it is found that the integrated energy service industry, new retail service industry, and industrial intelligent manufacturing industry have obvious driving effects on other industries, and range of industries affected by integrated energy service is relatively wide. Keywords: Energy Internet industry relevance

 Co-integration model  Industrial

1 Introduction The degree of industrial relevance refers to the mutual relationship between industries through the supply and demand of products, which is a prerequisite for the existence of each other [1]. This connection is mainly manifested in two aspects: in terms of product supply and demand, the production of any industry and any product will be used for other products or production in other industries as input factors for its production (except the final consumer goods). In terms of industrial technology, the production of one industry requires other industries to provide them with production methods of equivalent technological level [2]. Simultaneously, its development also promotes technological progress of other interconnected industries, pushing the technological level of entire industry to a higher level [3]. This article focuses on the impact of five major energy Internet industries. The co-integration model is used to quantify relevance between the five industries and other industries. The integrated energy service industry mainly uses infrastructure and technologies to provide industrial enterprises, park buildings and individuals with multi-energy coordination, energy efficiency management, vehicle networks and distributed energy and energy storage services [4]. The cloud computing service industry provides high© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 332–338, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_49

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performance, low-cost, low-power computing and data services based on resource aggregation and virtualization, application services and specialization, on-demand supply and convenient use of service models, and provides other enterprises with basic resources sharing, platform services, software services and consulting services [5]. The industrial intelligent manufacturing service industry mainly uses company sensors, smart terminals and other equipment to collect company equipment, products, personnel, raw materials and other data information, and sends it to the company’s edge computing center and cloud computing data center. Provide manufacturing with product quality management, production process optimization, smart supply chain and product customization services. The smart home service industry mainly relies on smart sensing devices, smart power equipment, smart communication devices, professional maintenance teams and account managers and technologies such as “Big Data, Cloud Computing, IoT, Mobile Internet” to connect various household equipment for residents to provide smart life, home energy service, repair and upgrade services [6–8]. Relying on the Internet, the new retail service industry uses advanced technologies to upgrade the production, distribution, and sales processes of goods, thereby reshaping the format structure and ecosystem [9]. And it integrates online services, offline experiences and modern logistics [10]. The calculation of industrial relevance mainly uses econometric methods and R software. First, determine the causal relationship between each industry and the five pillar industries of the energy Internet, filter out the industry with causal relationship, then a co-integration model was constructed to test the quantitative characteristics of causality, and industries with long-term co-integration relationships were found.

2 Model Construction and Analysis In addition to the new retail service industry, the five industries are all industries with relatively short development time. The time range is short, which will have a greater impact on subsequent research. The data is adjusted before the model is constructed. The adjustment method is based on the three industry categories to which each industry belongs, using the quarterly proportion of the corresponding industry to convert it into quarterly data. Due to obvious seasonal factors in the quarterly data, seasonal adjustments are made before the unit root test. First use ADF method to perform unit root test and make a difference until the data is stable to eliminate the instability of the time series. It can be known that a few industries are stable sequences in themselves based on the test results. All industries are stable under the first-order difference. Then the Granger causality test is performed on the smoothly processed data to test the causality between the five industries and other industries. Because this article only focuses on the impact of the five industries on other industries. Therefore, the Granger causality test only needs to pay attention to which industries are the cause of these five industries. Since the variables in the Granger causality test are required to be homogeneous in the same order, each variable is selected to be tested with a lag period. The test results are shown in Table 1.

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Industry

Integrated energy 7.942***(L1)

New retail

Industrial intelligent

Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry 3.431*(L1) and Fishery (Agriculture for short) Extractive Industry 7.893***(L3) Food Industry 7.258***(L3) Manufacture of Textile 6.855***(L3) 3.552*(L2) Apparel Manufacturing Industry 6.786***(L3) 5.857**(L1) Manufacture of Woodworking and product 7.972***(L3) and furniture (Wood Industry for short) Manufacture of Paper Printing, Culture, 8.009***(L3) Education, Sports Goods Petroleum Processing Industries 5.664***(L3) 5.578**(L2) Chemical Industry 6.358***(L3) Pharmaceutical Manufacturing 7.499***(L3) Chemical fiber manufacturing 5.201***(L3) 3.658*(L2) Rubber and Plastics Products Industry 6.865***(L3) Non-metallic Mineral Products Industry 2.966**(L3) 3.152*(L2) Ferrous metal smelting and rolling 4.751**(L3) Non-ferrous metal smelting and rolling 4.319**(L3) 2.657*(L2) Metal Products Industry 8.200***(L3) General and Special Equipment 6.738***(L3) 7.997***(L1) Manufacturing Transportation, electrical and electronic 6.738***(L3) equipment Other industries 6.396***(L3) 3.799*(L1) 8.721***(L2) Production and Supply of Electricity, Gas 5.995***(L3) 5.205**(L1) and Water Construction 7.853***(L3) Wholesale and New Retail Trades 5.306***(L3) —— Transport, Storage and Post 9.172***(L2) 6.796**(L1) Hotels and Catering Services 10.778***(L2) 3.812*(L1) 2.839*(L2) Financial Intermediation 5.437**(L2) Real Estate 11.425***(L2) Other 7.552***(L2) Note: *, **, *** represent significant levels of 10%, 5%, and 1%. L1, L2, and L3 indicate that the first-stage, second-stage and third-stage lag value are significant.

After conducting Granger causality tests, it was found that the smart home industry and cloud computing industry did not find industries with significant Granger results relationships. Considering that the smart home and cloud computing industries are still in their infancy, and the available data is only 4 years, which shows that their development has not yet had a significant impact on other industries. As the scale of

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industries continues to expand, smart home and cloud computing industries may gradually show certain characteristics. From above statistical results, the Granger result of the integrated energy service industry includes all industries, that is, all industries will change due to energy-saving industries change. For industry lag distribution, the first lag is significant in the Agriculture. The second-phase lag is remarkable for Transportation Services, Accommodation and Catering, Finance, Real Estate and other industries. The threephase lag is remarkable for all industries belonging to the secondary industry. New Retail Trades is the Granger Reason for Nine Industries. These nine industries are Agriculture, Manufacture of Clothing and related products, Non-metallic Mineral Products Industry, Non-ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing Industry, General and Special Equipment Manufacturing, Other industries, Production and Supply of Electricity, Transport, Storage and Post and Hotels and Catering Services. Industrial manufacturing is the Granger reason for the five industries. The five industries are Manufacture of Textile, Petroleum Processing Industry, Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, Other industries, and Hotels and Catering Services.

3 Co-integration Model Construction and Analysis The EG-ADF method is used to build a co-integration model. To examine the cointegration relationship between the integrated energy service industry and other industries, model1 is constructed; Model2 is constructed to examine the co-integration between New Retail Trades and other industries; Model3 is constructed to test the cointegration relationship between the industrial intelligent manufacturing industry and other industries. After the unit root test, the lnSUM1, lnSUM2, lnSUM3, lnSE, lnSA, and lnIN are all integrated of order one. The co-integration equation is: d:lnSUM1 ¼ b01 þ b11 d:lnSE þ e þ l

ð1Þ

d:lnSUM2 ¼ b02 þ b12 d:lnSA þ e þ l

ð2Þ

d:lnSUM3 ¼ b03 þ b13 d:lnIN þ e þ l

ð3Þ

Among them, d. means the first order difference. lnSE, lnSA and lnIN indicate integrated energy services, new retail services, and industrial intelligence. lnSUM1, lnSUM2 and lnSUM3 are the sum of the output values of the relevant industries of the above three industries, respectively. e is residual term. From the estimation results, it is known that parameter estimation and overall test of three models are significant. The change of the integrated energy service by 1 unit can drive the backward related industries by 0.81649 unit output values; New Retail Trades changes 1 unit, which can drive backward related industries to change 0.9369 unit; The change of 1 unit of the industrial intelligent manufacturing industry can drive the backward related industries to change 0.9369 unit output values.

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4 Relevance Analysis by Industry The above calculations are the overall relevance of the three industries to all of their backward related industries. The following uses the same method to measure the specific relevance of the backward related industries of these three industries (Table 2). Table 2. Relevance of backward related industries Industry Agriculture Extractive industry Food industry Manufacture of Textile Apparel Manufacturing Industry Wood Industry Paper and Printing Industry Petroleum Processing Industry Chemical Industry Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Chemical fiber manufacturing Rubber and Plastics Products Industry Non-metallic Mineral Products Industry Ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing Industry Non-ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing Industry Metal Products Industry General and Special Equipment Manufacturing Manufacture of Transportation, electrical and electronic equipment Other industries Production and Supply of Electricity, Gas and Water Construction Wholesale and New Retail Trades Transport, Storage and Post Hotels and Catering Services Real Estate

Integrated energy 3.424*** 1.010*** 0.960*** 0.966*** 0.977*** 0.930*** 0.945*** 1.007*** 0.933*** 0.879*** 0.936*** 0.928*** 1.012*** 1.033***

New retail 1.139***

Industrial intelligence

0.597*** 0.975***

0.529*** 0.683***

0.520***

0.914***

0.526***

0.896*** 0.940***

1.061***

0.906*** 0.859*** 1.017*** 0.955*** 0.891*** 0.087*** 0.113*** 0.154***

0.650*** 1.069***

1.067*** 1.000***

0.959***

0.641***

Backward-related industries refer to industries that have a significant driving effect on other industries due to significant changes in the output value of industries. The Granger causality test shows that the backward related industries of the integrated

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energy service industry include almost all industries. Actually, backward related industries are suppliers of raw materials or equipment for integrated energy service industry. As the increase in demand of integrated energy service industry, the demand of its suppliers increases. From the relevance of the backward related industries, the Integrated energy service industry has the strongest exposure to Agriculture. The relevance to industries in the secondary industry is around 1, and the driving force to industries in the tertiary industry is weak. And there are individual industries that have no obvious relationship, such as Financial Intermediation. The backward related industries of the new retail service industry include Agriculture, Apparel Manufacturing Industry, Non-metallic Mineral Products Industry, Non-ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing Industry, General and Special Equipment Manufacturing, Other industries and so on. The industrial intelligent manufacturing industry later related industries include Manufacture of Textile, Petroleum Processing Industry, Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, other industries and Hotels and Catering Services.

5 Conclusions In short, according to Granger’s causality test and analysis of the co-integration model, it can be seen that the integrated energy service industry, new retail service industry, and industrial intelligent manufacturing industry have obvious driving effects on other industries; the range of industries affected by the integrated energy services industry is also relatively wide. However, the Granger causality test of related industries is unsatisfactory in the sense of economic practice. Possibly because the industry being studied has not yet reached a stage where it has a sufficient impact. Subsequent research should focus on improving this aspect and making the results more realistic. Acknowledgements. This article is supported by 2018 Science and Technology Project of State Grid Corporation of China (Research and Application of Quantitative Evolution Model of New Energy Industry Format Development Based on New Consumption Pattern, No. SGHE0000KXJS1800549).

References 1. Li, C.: Research on the input-output correlation measurement and application of China’s industrial structure. J. Shanxi Univ. Financ. Econ. 31(1), 43–48 (2009) 2. Chen, J.: Research category of industrial relevance theory. Invest. Entrep. (1), 138 3. Li, X.: Research on the relevance of pillar industries based on co-integration model-take Heyuan electrical machinery and computer communication manufacturing industry as an example. Beijing Vocat. Coll.E Financ. J. 35 (2), 26–30 + 25 (2019) 4. Wu, Z., Zheng, Y., Yang Z.: Research on the development of comprehensive energy service business. Shanxi Electr. Power (2), 58–61 (2018) 5. Cloud Computing Industry. Data Commun. (5), 52–54 (2012) 6. Chen, G., Wang, T., Lu, C., Wang, Y., Chen, L.: Research on the development of smart home industry in the age of artificial intelligence. Coop. Econ. Sci. Technol. 9, 13–15 (2018)

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7. Yan, Y.: The development status and prospects of smart home driven by Internet of Things. Commun. World 26(2), 216–217 (2019) 8. Guo, G.: On the development of smart home industry in the development process of Internet of Things. Sci-Tech Inf. (23), 484 (2010) 9. Zhao, S., Xu, X.: The meaning, mode and development path of “new retail”. China Circ. Econ. 31(5), 12–20 (2017) 10. Du, R., Jiang, J.: New retail: connotation, development motivation and key issues. Price Theory Pract. 2, 139–141 (2017)

The Application of FIRD Book Positioning Technology in Intelligent Library Yu Zhao(&) Jilin Engineering Normal University, Changchun 130052, Jilin, China zhaoyu1950@126.com

Abstract. With the rapid development of wireless technology in our country, many colleges and universities vigorously build digital intelligent campus, and many advanced science and technology are widely used in digital library. The development of 4G network and wireless technology has changed the behavior and demand of readers. It can not only make full use of mobile information technology, but also improve the efficiency of library operation and promote the development of library modernization. With the great development of economic material, the cultural demand has been greatly enhanced. With the application of Internet and big data, the amount of information has exploded exponentially, which requires the modern library to move towards the intelligent step faster and faster. The use of library should be more people-oriented and enhance personalized service. The technology of FIRD positioning is the basic technology for library to realize automation and improve efficiency. It is an important part of library collection service and Book Circulation application. The purpose of this paper is to explore the research on the application of FIRD book positioning technology in the intelligent library, so as to update the existing model of the library with the application of Internet of things. In this paper, we will use the research method of specific analysis to compare the data and come to a conclusion. The results of this study show that the development and upgrading of intelligent library, integration of human and resource matching, improve the efficiency of library operation, reduce costs. It is urgent to construct a new ecology and scene of Intelligent Library Based on the current development of intelligent library. Keywords: FIRD technology Intelligent library

 Library management  Information service 

1 Introduction The development of modern information technology drives the development of library in the direction of automation, networking and modern information technology [1]. But the collected documents, especially the traditional paper documents, are still the most important way and content of the basic resource system and service of the library. In order to realize the path of library to intelligence, it is essential to actively develop book positioning technology and artificial intelligence application [2, 3]. The application of FIRD book location technology in libraries is an important direction for the development of intelligent books [4]. The book positioning technology has the characteristics © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 339–346, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_50

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of strong anti-interference, high durability and little influence from the surrounding environment, which is worth studying and putting into use [5]. Compared with the traditional barcode technology, FIRD has the advantages of convenience, rapidity, saving labor cost and low error rate, which provides the conditions for libraries to introduce this technology [6]. The university library is rich in collection resources. As the document resource guarantee and service institution of the university, it has always listed the improvement of management level and service quality as the strategic focus of development [7]. University library application FIRD can make the reader service and library management business process become scientific, efficient and intelligent, improve the management level and service level of library collection entity, mining FIRD technology potential, and to analyze the business data, can realize the library management and service of intelligent and humanization [8, 9]. “Smart library” is the development direction of libraries, and university libraries should aim to speed up the establishment of smart libraries that can provide first-class services [10]. From the perspective of perceptual computing, smart library = library + Internet of things + cloud computing + smart devices. FIRD is an important Internet of things perception technology, which can realize the function of tracking, locating and information sharing of target objects by combining with Internet and information communication technology [11, 12]. When FIRD is applied to information services such as libraries, it can reduce the cost of operation and maintenance of libraries, improve management efficiency and service level, and become the cornerstone of moving towards smart libraries [13]. In general, FIRD technology shows a rapid development trend in China, and relevant technical theories have been initially studied. Relevant researches abroad are relatively early, and have been put into library practice in many European and American countries [14]. The application of FIRD technology in libraries usually requires a relatively large investment, but systematic studies on the cost-effectiveness of application are scarce, which to some extent restricts the application and promotion of this technology [15]. For FIRD technology in this paper, with the rapid development of university library’s aims to FIRD actual scenario and the characteristics of application in the library, the relationship between the cost and efficiency of input-output analysis, reasonable judgment and analysis to help decision makers, and realize the efficient utilization of FIRD library whole resource structure optimization, make the university library in the application can be based on cost benefit situation in a timely manner after the corresponding adjustment, achieve the desired effect and good customer satisfaction, promote the university library to realize intelligent management and service goals.

2 Method 2.1

Core Concepts

(1) FIRD technology The technology of FIRD, which was developed at the end of last century, is a kind of technology that can automatically identify the target object and capture the relevant information through the radio frequency signal. The FIRD system consists of three

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parts: electronic tag, reader and application system. According to the power supply mode, there are two types of FIRD Tags: passive tag and the energy is converted from the radio wave provided by the reader. Active electronic tag, built-in battery, the sensing distance is greater than the passive tag, but the service life is shorter, depending on the life of the built-in battery. FIRD electronic tag itself provides limited information, but when it is connected to the rich collection and users that the library has, it will become an intelligent object, acting as a mobile connector of information utilization and information behavior world. The working principle of FIRD technology is realized by electronic tag, reader and system. The books in the library are labeled, and the reader sends a certain frequency of RF signal through the antenna, which is received remotely through the infrared ray, and then sent to the reader by the antenna regulator for reading. The internal system makes a logical judgment on the validity of the label, so that we can understand the readers’ use of the book and their use tendency, and then through the background database system, we can collect, process and remotely transmit the information of the target object. (2) Smart library Intelligent library is a kind of intelligent building formed by the application of intelligent technology in the construction of library. It is the organic combination and innovation of intelligent building and highly automatic digital library. The intelligent library has completely abandoned the operation mode of the traditional library. Get rid of the space and time limit, improve the use efficiency. This is the extension of Internet of things technology in the cultural field. Through cloud computing and artificial intelligence, the library’s intelligent management can be upgraded to better serve readers and reduce the burden of staff. The important significance of intelligent library is that it combines the advantages of Digital Library and the carrier of physical library, promotes it into an invisible existence, breaks people’s understanding of Library solidification, penetrates into the continuous information flow of users and Zhouyuan, and becomes a habit for readers and users to study and research. The construction and use of the library of wisdom pavilion has narrowed the distance between the library and the readers. It doesn’t need any physical devices, but it always exists objectively. For readers and users, in the future, among the numerous information flows, the information provided by the library will be the most authoritative and become the most stable provider of information resources for readers and users. 2.2

Research Methods

First of all, carry out on-the-spot investigation and interview methods, and carry out onthe-spot investigation for domestic enterprises with relatively successful technology, as well as academic exchanges and discussions with relevant experts in this field, so as to fully understand the development trend and market demand of book management technology. Secondly, literature research methods, through a large number of domestic and foreign literature on the book positioning system, analysis and research, real-time tracking of new information, trying to fully grasp the development trend and dynamics of the field of book management technology, on this basis, analysis and evaluation of the future development prospects of the technology-based book positioning system.

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The third comparative research method, through the comparative study of various library management technologies, analyzes the feasibility of the implementation and development of the technology-based Book positioning system. On the basis of the existing theoretical research, this paper analyzes the cost-benefit of the application of word in university library. In order to understand and analyze the cost-benefit and other index factors in a more intuitive, specific and structured way, the method of building cost-benefit analysis model is used to study. The LANDMARC system is a classic indoor positioning system based on. Based on the distance measurement algorithm, the distance is calculated by the propagation model of received signal strength and path loss: PðdÞ ¼ Pr ðd0 Þ þ 10np log

d d0

ð1Þ

Among them, P (d) is the received signal strength value when the distance between the card reader of the signal receiving point and the transmitting point is D, and the unit is dB/MW, Pr ðd0 Þ is the received signal strength value at the reference distance; it is the path attenuation factor, and the range is generally between 2-4. qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi e ¼ ðx  x0 Þ2 þ ðy  yo Þ2

ð2Þ

Where ðx0 ; y0 Þ represents the actual location of the label to be located, and (x, y) represents the coordinate location of the label to be located obtained by the algorithm.

3 Experiment 3.1

Experimental Data Source

In this study, 60 libraries are randomly selected for investigation. These libraries are located in different regions, different universities and different levels of libraries. The selection of these research objects is mainly based on the factors of urban development level, combination of technology application, cooperation at home and abroad, and economic factors. At the same time, a questionnaire survey is conducted among readers of all ages and library staff. The comprehensive consideration of these factors is conducive to the representativeness and typicality of experimental data. 3.2

Experiment Implementation

Through the description of sample characteristics, it can be found that the gender of library staff is basically the same, and the age of readers is mostly under 40 years old. In the process of investigation, it is found that the older staff in the library is basically the reputation staff or the legacy staff in the development process of traditional library, which is very valuable for the development process and suggestions of the library. The education level is roughly evenly distributed among the majority of undergraduate and above types of work, which ensures the average coverage of the sample area, thus

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ensuring the comprehensiveness and accuracy of the following research questions for different types of work. In the transformation stage from traditional library to intelligent library, intelligent equipment will become the key element to reflect the intelligence degree of library. However, there are many problems in the current situation of the use of library intelligent equipment. If we can not improve these problems actively, we will not be able to provide strong technical support for the transformation of university library to intelligent library. This paper analyzes the basic situation of the current library scene, and then according to the five forces theory of the scene, it constructs and analyzes the scene space of the intelligent library from the five elements of wearable mobile devices, positioning system, big data and big data computing, sensors, social networks, and finally constructs the scene model of the intelligent library.

4 Discussion 4.1

Data Visualization

In the questionnaire survey, a total of 100 questionnaires were sent out, 85 of which were recovered, 80 of which were valid, the effective recovery rate was 82%, and the experimental results were valid. The basic information of the respondents is shown in Table 1. Table 1. Distribution of sample characteristics Sample variables Features Frequency Gender Male 42 Female 38 Age 18–28 25 29–50 40 Over 50 years old 15 Education Graduate student 20 Undergraduate 41 Junior college and below 19 Type of work Readers 45 Personnel 35

4.2

Percentage 52.5% 47.5% 31.3% 50% 18.8% 25% 51.3% 23.8% 56.3% 43.8%

Analysis and Discussion

With the advent of 4G era, more and more attention has been paid to personalized use. Without tedious artificial labor, the integration of artificial intelligence can complete all the work. Readers can quickly find the content they need by using book positioning technology, and borrow it by scanning electronic labels. The library uses infrared remote recognition to monitor the lending status of books. When readers return books, they can use the intelligent bookcase identification to return them quickly. This kind of intelligent library can handle many kinds of manual work at the same time, which

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greatly improves the efficiency of work. In the modern library, many libraries have also built the WeChat public number, pushing the library activities in a timely manner, so that readers can enjoy services without leaving home. However, although the current intelligent library basically meets the requirements in hardware equipment, it cannot use such infrastructure to realize the advanced intelligent application of the intelligent library. The initiative and interaction of digital library need to be improved. As shown in Fig. 1, there are more or less problems in the sample library. Some libraries in the process of upgrading do not track and record the users’ whereabouts and behaviors according to the existing positioning equipment after users enter the library and conduct accurate identification. It is mainly manifested in personnel technology, resources, scenarios and services. At the personnel level, the results of the questionnaire reflect that the comprehensive quality of the librarians needs to be improved, and at the same time, the passive service thinking in the past should be changed, and the user-centered active service thinking should be established; at the technical equipment level, the results of the questionnaire reflect that the equipment of the intelligent library should be updated with the times, the connectivity should be strengthened, the hardware development should keep up with the trend, and the development of the software should be convenient and humanized 。 In terms of resources, users’ demand is the manifestation of rich resources, and even can introduce high-tech such as virtual reality.

70% 60% 50% 40%

Satisfied

30%

Commonly

20%

Dissatisfied

10% 0% Network speed

Find convenience

Self service facilities

Fig. 1. Survey of Readers’ satisfaction with information technology in the library.

5 Conclusion As an important step in the construction of intelligent library, the technology of FIRD recognition has changed the original management mode, and is an important part of library collection service and Book Circulation application. In recent years, with the indepth development of Internet of things technology, while strengthening the

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construction of literature resources, the library is also focusing on the construction of digital library, striving to form a collection pattern of paper documents and electronic documents. In recent years, the amount of data that needs to be stored in the library is increasing, the types and forms of information are becoming more and more diverse, and users have higher personalized needs. The technology of FIRD recognition is also used in many other fields. This technology can be effectively applied to stock verification, generating user statistical data, journal control and other fields. The biggest advantage is to reduce Book loss At present, with the popularization of FIRD technology, FIRD system is used in library to replace the traditional management and antitheft system based on bar code technology. It has become an inevitable trend to build a new management mode of automation and intelligence. The application of FIRD optical bar code recognition technology in Library and its application in specific library should be planned and considered properly. As 5G technology is put into use rapidly, the development prospect has certain significance for the intelligent construction and development of intelligent library.

References 1. Lu, C., Wang, Y.: Positioning variation analysis for the sheet metal workpiece with N-2-1 locating scheme. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 89(9–12), 1–15 (2017) 2. Krenz, R.: 5G mobile and wireless communications technology (Osseiran, A. et al; 2016) [book reviews. IEEE Commun. Mag. 55(5), 18–18 (2017) 3. Gloy, Y.-S., Cloppenburg, F., Gries, T.: Integration of the vertical warp stop motion positioning in the model-based self-optimization of the weaving process. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 90(9–12), 1–14 (2017) 4. Daza, L., Misra, S.: Beyond the internet of things: everything interconnected: technology, communications and computing [book review]. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 24(6), 10–11 (2018) 5. Bil, J., Grundeken, M.J., Pawłowski, T.: Self-positioning properties of dedicated bifurcation coronary stent BiOSS LIM® in the eye of 3D optical coherence tomography. Minerva Cardioangiol. 65(2), 193–196 (2017) 6. Duvedi, R.K., Bedi, S., Mann, S.: An efficient multipoint 5-axis tool positioning method for tensor product surfaces. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 97(5), 1–17 (2018) 7. Hsu, K.-Y., DeLaurentis, P., Bitan, Y.: Unintended patient safety risks due to wireless smart infusion pump library update delays. J. Patient Saf. 15(1), 1 (2018) 8. Hodo, E., Bellekens, X., Hamilton, A.: Threat analysis of IoT networks Using Artificial Neural Network Intrusion Detection System. Tetrahedron Lett. 42(39), 6865–6867 (2017) 9. Twiss-Brooks, A.B., Andrade, R., Bass, M.B.: A day in the life of third-year medical students: Using an ethnographic method to understand information seeking and use. J. Med. Libr. Assoc. 105(1), 12–19 (2017) 10. Sawant, S.: Free but authentic mobile dictionaries: pros and cons. Libr. Hi Tech News 34(2), 9–10 (2017) 11. Hoy, M.B.: An introduction to the blockchain and its implications for libraries and medicine. Med. Ref. Serv. Q. 36(3), 273–279 (2017) 12. Wilkes, S.E., Miodownik, M.A.: Materials library collections as tools for interdisciplinary research. Interdiscip. Sci. Rev. 43(1), 3–23 (2018)

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13. Cunha, S.S., Gomes, G.F., Díaz Mendéz, Y.A.: Materials library collections as tools for interdisciplinary research. Interdiscip. Sci. Rev. 43(1), 3–23 (2018) 14. Belafi, Z., Hong, T., Reith, A.: A library of building occupant behaviour models represented in a standardised Schema. Energy Effic. 6(2), 1–15 (2018) 15. Yu, Z., Zhi-Tong, C., Yun, Z.: Tool positioning method for achieving double-point contact in flank milling of a concave surface with a barrel cutter. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 93(5– 8), 1791–1807 (2017)

Blended Teaching Mode of Intermediate Financial Accounting Course Under the Background of “Internet +” Libin Xie(&) Fuzhou University of International Studies and Trade, Fuzhou 350202, China 15179191296@163.com

Abstract. The demand for accounting talents arising from the Internet era has put forward new requirements for the teaching of “Intermediate Financial Accounting” in schools. This paper first elaborates the teaching status of: oldfashioned teaching model, one-sided teaching assessment, thin teaching resources, etc. Therefore, colleges should update the teaching mode of this course. The “Intermediate Financial Accounting” flip classroom based on blended learning is a student-based, task-based learning mode [1]. Teachers can achieve good teaching results by carefully setting questions pre-class, organizing discussions in lessons, and summarizing reflection after school. In the implementation process, the Blended Teaching Mode will still face difficulties, and the corresponding solutions are put forward at the end of the article. Keywords: Intermediate financial accounting classroom

 Blended learning  Flipped

1 Introduction With the rapid development of Internet technology and the vigorous promotion of the national Internet + strategy, society has put forward new requirements for the quality of financial personnel. “Intermediate Financial Accounting” is a core course for financial related majors such as financial management, accounting, auditing, etc. It is also a necessary foundation for students to further study courses such as cost accounting and advanced financial accounting. Therefore, how to effectively meet the social needs of financial personnel has become an important task in the teaching of “Intermediate Financial Accounting” in colleges. It is of great significance to study the construction of the teaching system of “Intermediate Financial Accounting” in colleges, and to innovate the teaching model of this course.

2 Current Situation “Intermediate Financial Accounting” is a typical comprehensive and practical course. The teaching of this course not only allows students to systematically master theoretical knowledge, but also emphasizes the cultivation of students’ practical skills and makes © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 347–352, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_51

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them independent. Ability to solve problems properly in practice. There are some problems in this course. 2.1

Obsolete Teaching Model

The course of “Intermediate Financial Accounting” has a long history, but the teaching mode has not changed much. Most of them are mainly theoretical lectures, students spend most of their time passively receiving. The boring theoretical knowledge leads to the lack of interest in the course. Because of the limited schedule, students can only access fragmented theoretical knowledge, and the teaching effect is not ideal. 2.2

One-Sided Assessment Method

Most teachers evaluate the curriculum mainly from two aspects: the final theoretical examination and the time-based assessment. The final theoretical examination results account for a large proportion. The biggest drawback of this theoretical examinationoriented assessment method is that it makes students recite theoretical knowledge too much and neglects manual operation. Eventually, high test scores and weak practical ability appear, which further deviates from the teaching goals. 2.3

Lack of Teaching Resources

Some teachers only use one textbook when teaching, and they do not provide students with other auxiliary reading books, network resources, etc., which affects the quality of student learning. “Intermediate Financial Accounting” is a highly time-effective course. The accounting standards have changed significantly in recent years. The learning content of the “Intermediate Financial Accounting” course should also keep pace with the times. While there is often a certain time difference between the publication and distribution of teaching material, so other teaching resources with more timeliness are needed.

3 Design of the Teaching Activities The flip-based classroom based on blended learning is a student-based, question-based and task-based learning mode [2]. Teachers carefully set questions before class, organize classroom reviews and discussions, and summarize and reflect after class to achieve good teaching results. “Intermediate Financial Accounting” based on blended learning flips the classroom teaching model, as shown in the following Fig. 1.

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Fig. 1. Flipped classroom teaching mode of Intermediate Financial Accounting based on blended learning

3.1

Pre-class

In the flipped classroom teaching model, the initial acquisition of students’ theoretical knowledge mainly depends on self-study [3]. Therefore, the instructor should prepare and collect relevant learning materials according to the lesson objectives and content of the lesson before the lesson, and preset related questions to arrange the course tasks. Students use extra-curricular time to complete the study of related theoretical knowledge through learning platforms and micro-lecture videos, and initially answer preset questions [4]. According to the characteristics of the students, a study group can be formed on a scale of 3–5 people, so that the learning members can supervise each other and ensure the effect of pre-class learning. 3.2

Lesson

3.2.1 Class Guidance Based on the online learning records of the students on the online platform, the teacher judges in advance the student’s learning tasks to complete the task before class [5]. First of all, teachers should extract representative, teaching-worthy questions. For example, when teaching knowledge points such as “accelerated depreciation of fixed assets”, teachers can ask “What are the cases of accelerated depreciation in real life?” Through the questions in the tutorial, the students’ enthusiasm can be mobilized. Then, enter the Q&A phase. Teachers answer students’ representative questions in the selfstudy session.

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3.2.2 Advanced Tasks The primary learning tasks arranged before the lesson are relatively simple and can usually be completed by self-study. After the teacher answers questions in the class, the students have a better understanding of the knowledge and have a deeper basic knowledge, so the teacher can arrange more advanced and more complex learning tasks, and ask the students to complete the tasks in the class. The whole process requires the participation of all members of the group, active discussions, and on-site Q&A guidance to assist students in completing tasks. 3.2.3 Course Evaluation Each study group will show or explain to the class on the spot after completing the advanced tasks at the prescribed time. Other groups can ask questions or express their opinions. For the theoretical teaching part, the teacher can evaluate by asking questions, while for the case practice teaching part, teachers’ evaluation and the group members’ mutual evaluation can be used to conduct the overall evaluation and propose corresponding amendments. 3.3

After School

3.3.1 Comprehensive Assessment The determination of the assessment method plays a strong role in guiding students’ behavior [6]. For “Intermediate Financial Accounting”, both the final exam and the procedural evaluation are required. The procedural evaluation should also include a comprehensive assessment of students’ online and offline learning. Among them, the procedural assessment part consists of online assessment and offline assessment. The online assessment part needs to comprehensively evaluate students’ online learning, online testing, and online assignment completion. The offline assessment section can comprehensively assess students’ attendance, classroom evaluation, mid-term testing, and so on. 3.3.2 Teaching Reflection Teachers must reflect on the teaching process in a timely manner after completing each course: whether the pre-class teaching resources meet the needs of students’ selflearning, whether the group is reasonable, whether the pre-class tasks are arranged appropriately, whether the answers to the questions in the class have the desired effect, whether the arrangement of advanced tasks can effectively achieve knowledge deepening.

4 Dilemmas and Suggestions for Improvement 4.1

Dilemmas

4.1.1 Require Teachers with Strong Comprehensive Ability Teachers are the designers and controllers of the entire class. Teachers’ understanding of the curriculum plays a vital role in the design and implementation of the curriculum [7]. Blended teaching places higher requirements on the quality of teachers. First,

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teachers are required to have a solid theoretical foundation. “Intermediate Financial Accounting” is a wide-ranging course that requires teachers to be familiar with the knowledge of tax law, financial management, cost accounting and other related courses. In addition, in recent years, accounting standards have been frequently updated, which requires teachers to keep pace with the times and have a solid theoretical foundation. Second, this is a very practical course, and teachers need to have considerable practical experience, so as not to cause a disconnect between theory and practice when teaching. At present, many college teachers have just graduated from college and taught in college. They have not had much practical experience, which directly affects the teaching effect of experimental teaching. Third, blended teaching requires teachers to have a strong ability to operate computers and network platforms. Some old teachers follow the rules of the old, and have a certain resistance to fresh things. 4.1.2 Require Students to Have Strong Learning Autonomy A very important part of the blended teaching mode is to require students to complete the learning of micro-video independently before class [8]. Online teaching is different from traditional classroom teaching. When students do not communicate face-to-face with the teacher before the lesson, learning has already begun. Require students to learn autonomously before class, which requires students to learn autonomously. 4.2

Suggestions for Improvement

4.2.1 Strengthen the Teaching Staff Colleges should formulate various effective mechanisms to strengthen the training of teachers’ comprehensive ability [9]. First, develop regular and irregular training mechanisms. colleges encourage teachers to improve their knowledge through continuing education or pursuing higher education degrees. The school may regularly invite famous teaching teachers and industry experts to carry out lecture training for the teachers in the school to improve the professional ability of the teachers. You can also broaden teachers’ horizons by sending related teachers to visit schools, attend academic conferences, or receive relevant training, so that teachers can master the most advanced academic knowledge. In addition, teachers can improve their practical ability by conducting horizontal topic research with enterprises and internship internships [10]. Finally, colleges can also regularly hold competitions such as lectures and observations to encourage teachers to communicate and learn. 4.2.2 Develop Students’ Autonomy in Learning No matter how good the course design is, if it is not implemented in place, it will only be an argument. If the teacher is the necessary foundation for a good lesson, then the active participation of the students is the highlight of the lesson. Teachers should make full use of the platform’s recording function to supervise students’ online learning time, online assignments, and test completion, and make announcements at intervals. In order to urge students to complete the actual watching of micro-videos as required, some relevant questions can be interspersed in the video playback, and students are required to answer before they can watch the video further, thereby supervising the

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students’ online pre-class learning. When students complete the online learning perfectly, they will be rewarded in time to strive for the internalization of learning behavior into autonomous behavior.

5 Conclusion The practice of this paper proves that the flipped classroom teaching based on blended learning has higher feasibility and good teaching effect in teaching, but there are also some problems. In the course of teaching practice, teachers should continuously reflect on teaching and optimize the design of flipped classroom teaching, so that the flipped classroom teaching mode receives better teaching effects in teaching practice [11].

References 1. Koo, C.L., Demps, E.L., Farris, C., et al.: Impact of flipped classroom design on student performance and perceptions in a pharmacotherapy course. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 80(2), 33– 39 (2016) 2. Porcaro, P.A., Jackson, D.E., Mclaughlin, P.M., et al.: Curriculum design of a flipped classroom to enhance haematology learning. J. Sci. Educ. Technol. 25(3), 345–357 (2016) 3. Wei, W., Tong, Z., Shaochun, Z.: Design and case study on e-learning space based on flipped classroom. J. Distance Educ. 03, 71–77 (2014). (in Chinese) 4. Hu, X., Zhang, H., Song, Y., et al.: Implementation of flipped classroom combined with problem-based learning: an approach to promote learning about hyperthyroidism in the endocrinology internship. BMC Med. Educ. 19(1) (2019). (in Chinese) 5. Handayani, D.P., Sutarno, H., Wihardi, Y.: Design e-learning with flipped learning model to improve layout understanding the concepts basic of the loop control structure. J. Phys: Conf. Ser. 1013(1), 012100 (2018) 6. Lina, W.: Teaching design of “access database technology and application” based on flipped classroom. In: 2018 2nd International Conference on Data Science and Business Analytics (ICDSBA). IEEE Computer Society, 2018. (in Chinese) 7. Slomanson, W.R.: Blended learning: a flipped classroom experiment. J. Legal Educ. 64(1), 93–102 (2014) 8. Zhang, H., Meng, L., Han, X., et al.: Exploration and practice of blended learning in HVAC course based on flipped classroom. In: International Symposium on Educational Technology. IEEE, 2016. (in Chinese) 9. Sirakaya, A.: The effect of a flipped classroom model on academic achievement, selfdirected learning readiness, motivation and retention. Malays. Online J. Educ. Technol. 6, 76–91 (2018) 10. Andrade, M., Coutinho, C.: Implementing flipped classroom in blended learning environments: a proposal based on the cognitive flexibility theory. J. Interact. Learn. Res. 28(2), 109–126 (2017) 11. Liu, H., Huang, Q.: Research on the design of undergraduate teaching process of accounting major based on the overturned classroom—taking “intermediate financial accounting” course teaching as an example. China Univ. Teach. 8 (2015). (in Chinese)

Migration and Integration Strategy of Virtual Machines in Cloud Data Center Based on HPGA Zhenxiang He(&) College of Cyberspace Security, Gansu University of Political Science and Law, Lanzhou, China hzx6198@163.com

Abstract. [Purpose] Server virtualization technology is the basic form for the cloud data center to serve customers. While the cloud data center reduces the SLA violations in the early stage, the increase in the utilization of resources such as virtual machine servers and network equipment and decrease in energy consumption have become an important issue for reduction of operating costs. Therefore, on the background of the cloud data center network based on SDN technology, this paper studies a cloud data center resource utilization and energy consumption optimization strategy through virtual machine migration and integration. [Method] The technology based on SDN is firstly introduced, the approximate optimal solution FFD algorithm for the multidimensional vector bin packing problem is then presented, the Partheno-Genetic Algorithm (PGA) is then recommended, finally a Hybrid Partheno genetic Algorithm (HPGA) based on the both is established and a mathematic model is created. [Results] By combining the advantages of FFD and PGA, this paper improves the utilization of the resources of the entire cloud data center, reduces energy consumption, and prevents the occurrence of computing “hot spots”. [Conclusion] Experiments in CloudSim prove the effectiveness of the algorithm. Compared with FFD and PGA algorithms, it is able to enhance the efficiency of the Data Center effectively, and obtain the optimal solution more quickly, thereby balancing the physical resources of the server.

1 Introduction With the popularity of the Internet and the sharp increase in data, enterprises need to quickly process large-scale data to meet the ever-increasing various forms of user needs [1]. Driven by this demand, the scale of cloud data processing center services is expanding, and the growing size of servers and business has led to a series of new challenges. Despite of the Data Center established by investment of huge financial and material resources, shortage of effective management of server resources has not only reduced the utilization of cloud data center resources, but also caused the increasing equipment energy consumption. As one of the most important technologies in cloud computing, by using the server virtualization technology, server virtualization abstracts server physical resources into a huge resource pool, and realizes the on-demand allocation of resources, thus effectively © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 353–360, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_52

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reducing its energy consumption and saving its operating expenses obviously. With regard to effective improvement of the resource utilization of the Cloud Data Center and reduction of the energy consumption, energy consumption cannot be reduced effectively by shutting down the ports that do not transmit information in the short-term range. However, after management through SDN technology, opening and closing related equipment within the first time can greatly reduce energy consumption by up to 50%. In addition, during the operation of the cloud computing data center, the virtual machine generation and destruction, as well as changing virtual machine load often cause the allocation sparsity of virtual machines and unbalanced use of server resources.

2 SDN and Energy Consumption Optimization 2.1

SDN Network

The structure of the traditional Internet deploys data forwarding and control logic in network devices, and as a result, some new methods cannot be used in time and effectively and cannot be expanded in time. As a new network architecture [2], SDN adopts the structure where network control is separated from data forwarding logic and by deploying special control decisions at the high-level of the network, guides the lower layer of the network to implement data forwarding, effectively making up for the deficiency of the traditional network structure. With good programming ability, this structure is an important technology in the cloud computing environment and makes the Internet intelligent and informationized control become a reality. The application based on it has obtained a lot of achievements. At present, four major SDN genres represented by OpenFlow, Overlay, I2RS, and NFV have occurred in the industry, each of which has its own characteristics, and there are certain differences in their applicability and maturity [3]. In 2009, MIT highly recognized OpenFlow-based SDN technology and promoted the rapid development of SDN and OpenFlow. Therefore, this paper conducts the study using the network structure of OpenFlow-based SDN technology. Facilities in the Data Center are distributed very intensively, leading to more difficulty in its deployment. Cui et al. improved the efficiency of data migration in the Data Center using SDN to monitor the cache information of each device throughout the network [4]. Each device in the Data Center, including the server and the router, can cache information. When the two servers exchange data for the first time, the relevant router will save the information. When the server exchanges data again, the SDN can select the most efficient configuration method according to the saved information, improving the efficiency of data migration [5]. 2.2

Energy Consumption Optimization

There are mainly three parts in Cloud Data Center energy consumption: the energy consumption of network equipment, cooling equipment and servers equipment, as showed in Fig. 1.

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Fig. 1. Energy consumption of Cloud Data Center

3 Optimal Solution for MDVPP 3.1

MDVPP

Each virtual machine in the Cloud Data Center requires multiple physical resources, such as CPU, disk, and network bandwidth. The virtual machine integration problem can be modeled as Multidimensional Vector Bin Packing Problem (MDVPP) [6]. Up to now, scholars have proposed a series of algorithms for calculating approximate optimal solutions, of which the more representative technologies include: heuristic algorithm of First Fit algorithm (FF) or First Fit Decreasing algorithm (FFD) [7], genetic algorithm and other intelligent algorithms. 3.2

Multi-objective Optimization Model

In the optimization process of virtual machine migration, the objective is diversity [8]. Firstly, under the condition of satisfying business requirements, the number of physical machines in operation should be as small as possible. Secondly, due to the standby power consumption, the CPU load of the running physical machine should be as high as possible. Finally, the degradation time of service quality and the occupancy rate of network bandwidth should be as low as possible in the migration process. All of these are related to a core feature, the number of virtual machine migrations, so models can be built around reducing the number of migrations. 3.3

FFD Algorithm

• Input: the volume of n items S1, S2, S3,…, Sn, 0 < Si < 1. • Output: The total number of used boxes m and the corresponding packing scheme index(i). • Step1: Set i = 1, m = 1, and arrange the volume of n items in descending order. • Step2: If i = n+1, go to Step5, otherwise K = 1; • Step3: Put the ith item ai into the Kth box BK. If the total items in the box satisfy, then index(i) = k, m = max{m, k}, and go to Step2; • Step4: k = k+1 to Step3; • Step5: Output the packing number m and packing scheme index(i).

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4 Partheno-Genetic Algorithm PGA 4.1

Genetic Algorithm

Genetic Algorithm is an adaptive global optimization probabilistic search algorithm constructed by simulating the genetic and evolutionary processes of organisms [9]. It was a technology expounded by Holland in the research process and was earliest used for analysis of issues related to the adaptive system. GA is generally divided into several manipulations such as population coding and generation, selection and mutation [10]. The general workflow is shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Workflow of genetic algorithms

4.2

Partheno-Genetic Algorithm

Aiming at the blindness and inefficiency of traditional genetic algorithm in solving grouping problems, Falkenauer et al. proposed Grouping Genetic Algorithm (GGA), and through targeted coding and crossover and mutation operator design, improved the efficiency of the genetic algorithm greatly. However, the grouping genetic algorithm does not fully take into account the number of “boxes” and other related aspects, and can not fully meet the needs of migration and integration of virtual machines in cloud data centers. Li Mao Jun et al. proposed a new method, the Partheno-Genetic Algorithm (PGA), which improved the problem of “premature convergence” of genetic algorithms by gene transposition and inversion [11]. 4.3

Hybrid Partheno-Genetic Algorithm (HPGA)

This paper synthesizes the two ideas of PGA and FFD algorithm, and replaces the selection and mutation operators of genetic algorithm with PGA operator and FFD mutation operator. The concrete steps are shown in Fig. 3.

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Fig. 3. Flowchart Hybrid Partheno-Genetic Algorithm (HPGA)

1. Coding. Genetic algorithm is used for solving the bin packing problem, and the symbolic coding method is often used. A chromosome X is used to represents a bin packing plan. 2. Fitness function. In the genetic algorithm, fitness is an index to analyze and judge the superiority of each individual in the population. In each iteration, individuals with relatively high values of this index are more likely to inherit to the next generation, while individuals with relatively low values are less likely to inherit to the next generation. 3. Generation of initial population. Traditional genetic algorithms usually generate initial population in a random way, but it is difficult to generate feasible solutions satisfying host capacity constraints in the migration and integration of virtual machines. Therefore, in the integration of virtual machine migration, this paper takes the current location of virtual machine as the starting point of iterative optimization. To ensure the diversity of the initial population, FFD mutation operator is used to preprocess the location of the current virtual machine, and N virtual machine allocation schemes are formed, which are regarded as the initial population. 4. Partheno genetic operator. In general, traditional genetic algorithms often use crossover and mutation operators to form new individuals. However, as far as the bin packing problem is concerned, the probability that the traditional genetic algorithm forms an invalid solution is very high, and it is often difficult to obtain an optimal solution. Therefore, in this paper, the Partheno-Genetic Algorithm (PGA) operator is mainly used to replace the crossover and mutation operator to generate new individuals. Specifically, it involves operators such as gene transposition, shifting and inversion. Gene transposition refers to the location of one or more pairs of genes on

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the exchange chromosome. Gene shifting is the sequential forward or backward cyclic shifting of one or more random length segments on a chromosome. Gene inversion is the sequential inversion of genes in some segments of chromosome. Literature conducted a detailed and in-depth discussion on this subject, and proved that the three operators are equivalent to each other, that is, their genetic manipulation functions are consistent [11]. However, the degree of damage to chromosomes caused by them is different, and there are certain differences. Moreover, there is a certain relationship between this difference and the actual problem to be dealt with. The selection of the PGA operator largely determines the performance of this aspect and the level of search capabilities it has. In general, the higher the damage to chromosomes, the stronger the search ability, but the corresponding convergence speed becomes slower. In view of the above reasons, the transposition operator is selected in the study for solving. 5. FFD mutation operator. Check chromosomes to determine whether there are hosts that do not meet the relevant restrictions. If so, set the number of hosts mapped by their virtual machines to 0. If not, choose a physical host according to probability p and set the number of hosts mapped by their virtual machines to 0. Queuing all virtual machines with mapped hosts numbered 0 forms a queue according to the order of resource requirements from high to low. Map the queue to a physical host (not empty and with the smallest number) that meets its resource requirements. If there is no qualified physical host, map the queue to an idle physical host.

5 Partheno-Genetic Algorithm PGA In this paper, we simulate a cloud data center on CouldSim platform. The number of physical servers in the center is PM, and the configuration of these servers is the same. The number of virtual machines configured on these servers is VM. These virtual servers migrate on physical servers according to different migration algorithms. In order to compare the performance of different algorithms, we have tested genetic algorithm (GA), FFD algorithm and the proposed algorithm (HPGA) under the same configuration. In the experiment, the resource requirement of virtual machine only considers CPU and memory, and the CPU and memory resources that physical hosts can provide are set at 1. The CPU and memory requirements of virtual machines are randomly assigned to random physical hosts in the range of [0,0.2]. On the Relevant Parameters of Genetic Algorithms, scale factor t is 0.6, gap of generation is 0.8, and the size of population is 20. All the performance of HPGA algorithm and the FFD algorithm under three different sets of problem scales are compared, as shown in Figs. 4, 5, and 6.

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Fig. 4. Performance comparison of VM 50 and PM 16

Fig. 5. Performance comparison of VM 200 and PM 64

Fig. 6. Performance comparison of VM 500 and PM 256

As shown in Figs. 4, 5, and 6, with the increasing number of physical and virtual machines, HPGA can find an optimum solution, with faster solving speed, obviously reduced number of migrations and significantly reduced number of iterations. As a

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whole, the HPGA algorithm is better than the FFD heuristic algorithm and the GA algorithm in performance, and can effectively improve the virtual machine migration and integration performance.

6 Conclusion In the process of building cloud computing center, reasonable virtual migration strategy can effectively reduce the overall energy consumption. This paper constructs a multiobjective optimization model of virtual migration based on hybrid parthenogenetic algorithm (HPGA). The goal of optimization is to reduce the number of virtual migration in general on the premise of ensuring business operation and reducing energy consumption as much as possible. The simulation experiment results show that the proposed method HPGA has better performance than FFD in virtual machine integration migration. Acknowledgements. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61562002).

References 1. Yuan, H., Bi, J., Li, B.: Workload-aware request routing in cloud data center using softwaredefined networking. J. Syst. Eng. Electron. 26(1), 151–160 (2015) 2. Li, D., Shang, Y., Chen, C.: Software defined green data center network with exclusive routing. In: IEEE INFOCOM (2014) 3. Teixeira, J., Antichi, G., Adami, D., et al.: Datacenter in a box: test your SDN clouddatacenter controller at home. In: Second European Workshop on Software Defined Networks. IEEE Computer Society (2013) 4. Cui, W., Qian, C.: Dual-structure data center multicast using software defined networking. Eprint Arxiv (2014) 5. Banikazemi, M., Olshefski, D., Shaikh, A., et al.: Meridian: an SDN platform for cloud network services. IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(2), 120–127 (2013) 6. Greenberg, A.G., Hamilton, J.R., Maltz, D.A., et al.: The cost of a cloud: research problems in data center networks. ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 39(1), 68–73 (2009) 7. Nicholson, M.: Genetic algorithms and grouping problems. Softw. Pract. Exp. 28(10), 1137– 1138 (2015) 8. Shujun, P., Ximin Z., Daming, H., et al.: Optimization and research of Hadoop platform based on FIFO scheduler. In: International Conference on Measuring Technology & Mechatronics Automation. IEEE (2015) 9. Lei, W., Li, M., Cai, J., Liu, Z.: Research on mobile robot path planning by using improved genetic algorithm. Mech. Sci. Technol. Aerosp. Eng. 28(4), 193–195 (2017) 10. Zhao-min, Z.: Cloud computing load balancing based on improved genetic algorithm. Electron. Des. Eng. 25(4), 42–45 (2017) 11. Chenxi, Z.: Study of optimal sensor placement in bridge monitoring based on improved Partheno-genetic algorithm. Zhejiang university (2015)

Analysis and Comparison of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks Binbin Yu1,2,3(&) 1

3

College of Computer Science and Technology, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China yubb11@mails.jlu.edu.cn 2 College of Computer Science and Technology, Beihua University, Jilin 132013, China Jilin Provincial Department of Education, Key Laboratory of Intelligent Data Analysis and Processing, Jilin 132013, China

Abstract. With the continuous development of wireless sensor technology, wireless network, big data, cloud computing and other new generation of information technology, wireless sensor networks has become a research hotspot in the field of information security and an indispensable part of people’s lives. Wireless sensor networks are extensive applied into agriculture, forestry, military, medical health, urban rail transit and other fields. Energy saving and power consumption reduction are the key technologies to be solved in wireless sensor networks. Wireless Sensor Networks take common perception and acquisition of the information of the objects to be perceived as the main purpose. In the article, firstly, the classical routing protocols for wireless sensor networks are introduced. Secondly, the relevant effective energy-saving routing protocols are analyzed and compared. Finally, the future development trend of this research is prospected. Keywords: Wireless sensor networks protocol

 Energy consumption  Routing

1 Introduction Due to each node of wireless sensor networks has strong ability of collecting information and wireless communication, it has a wide application prospect. Wireless sensor networks have broad application prospects, such as in the forestry, agriculture, military, medical health, smart home, environmental monitoring geology, space exploration and other fields. It makes the outside world more easily perceived and more convenient for our life. Wireless sensor network [1] are composed of many sensor nodes mapped out in the monitoring area. The main purpose is to sense and collect data information of monitoring objects. It can realize data acquisition, quantification, perception fusion, wireless communication [2]. It transmits information to observers through base stations or satellites. As is shown in Fig. 1, wireless sensor networks architecture. Wireless sensor networks [3] are extensive applied into different and more complex domain environments, such as deploying sensor nodes in a laboratory, where each © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 361–367, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_53

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Internet Base station

Nodes

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Fig. 1. Wireless sensor networks architecture

sensor node works together. In this particular monitoring area, data information such as temperature, humidity, graphics, images, audio and video are sensed, collected and transmitted by sensor nodes. Data information is transmitted and processed through wireless communication to base stations, networks and so on, thus forming a selforganizing and self-adaptive system. For example, in smart home, wireless sensor network is applied. In the residential monitoring area, many sensor nodes are deployed to constitute the smart home network system, so as to enhance the safety, comfort and convenience of the home. After wireless sensor network is deployed in the smart home [4], the control of smart home appliances, electric curtains, fire prevention and theft alarm are provided to users. The smart home network can be remotely controlled when the user is not at home. Before users go home, they turn on air-conditioning, TV and so on. According to their own preferences and characteristics, they choose the appropriate air-conditioning temperature and favorite TV programs. Smart home brings us a lot of convenience in our life. One of the characteristics of wireless sensor networks is large-scale network. Wireless sensor networks possess the characteristics of large scale and self-organizing networks. It has the characteristics of a great quantity nodes and high density. The number of nodes is very large, probably tens of thousands or more. Because of the large-scale distinguishing feature of wireless sensor networks, it requires that the software and hardware should be open and fault-tolerant to a certain extent. When wireless sensor networks are relatively open in space, there may be some network security problems. Every node senses and collects data and information, which is easy to be stolen, so as to determine whether there are security problems in wireless sensor networks [5]. In the process, the energy and computing power of each node in wireless sensor networks are limited to some extent. Owing to the energy of each node in the networks is limited, we need to take into consideration the energy consumption and energy balance of each node in the networks. One of the characteristics of wireless sensor networks is that data information is the center and is closely related to various applications. In the meantime, the routing protocol of the networks is data-centric. To a certain extent, according to the demand for data acquisition, data communication mode and so on, it accurately extracts

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the value of an index in a monitoring area. In this process, it does not pay special attention to the data perceived and collected by a node. Wireless sensor networks can be used in environmental monitoring, medical health, smart home, geospatial and other fields. Application environments are very different, so it is necessary to design application-related and environment-compatible routing protocols for different specific environments and special requirements [6].

2 Classical Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks 2.1

Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy Protocol (LEACH)

LEACH [7] is a classical hierarchical routing protocol, which is the solid foundation for the improvement and development of many hierarchical routing protocols. The networks are separated into several clusters by the algorithm and each cluster has many cluster nodes and one cluster head node. Each cluster is a management unit. Cluster head node is the central backbone node in a certain area, while other common nodes are general sensor nodes. By choosing cluster heads randomly, the energy consumption of each node can be balanced, thus prolonging the life cycle of the networks to a certain extent. Cluster head nodes distribute information to each cluster node. These nodes periodically select clusters on the basis of the published information. The cluster node notifies the cluster head node of the perceived data information. Cluster head node fuses perceived data information. To a certain extent, cluster-head nodes can be selected periodically, randomly and adaptively, so that the energy distribution of the networks is more appropriate and uniform. And the energy consumption of the fixed cluster head nodes is further reduced [8]. LEACH protocol uses information fusion technology to reduce traffic. This can ensure effective data transmission to a certain extent. 2.2

Gossiping Protocol

Gossiping protocol [9] is developed on the basis of flooding protocol. Flooding is a traditional flooding routing protocol, which collects and senses data from each node in wireless sensor networks and transfers it to neighboring nodes. Receiving and transmitting cycles go back and forth until the data packet reaches the destination or expires. The flooding protocol has some drawbacks. Nodes in wireless sensor networks obtain many identical data from adjacent nodes at the same time, which results in overlap. The topology of the network does not need to be maintained by the protocol, so it avoids the waste of computing resources. However, overlapping and blind use of information resources may lead to information explosion. Gossiping protocol [10] is an improvement based on Flooding protocol to prevent a node from receiving multiple identical messages from adjacent nodes at the same time. When transmitting information, a node randomly selects an adjacent node. This can avoid overlapping phenomenon to a certain extent and prevent the implosion of information transmission.

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Geographic and Energy-Aware Routing (GEAR)

GEAR protocol [11] is a routing protocol based on energy efficiency and geospatial location, it uses heuristic data transmission mode to transmit data information to the target area of the networks. Data information includes location attributes and other information, so data information spread throughout the networks can be transmitted to the appropriate area. In GEAR protocol [12], for instance, the factors consist of the residual energy of each node in the networks and the distance from the destination node are fully taken into account. In data transmission in target domain, when a node receives a data packet, it is first necessary to check whether or not there are adjacent nodes nearer the target area than it. If so, the closest node to the destination area is chosen as the next hop routing node for data transmission. If all the adjacent nodes are farther away from the target area than the node, the node will be void. If the data packet has arrived at the target area, the data information can be transmitted by recursive geographic transmission and restricted flooding [13]. This compares several classical wireless sensor routing protocols. Although LEACH protocol has good scalability, it is not suitable for deploying large area networks. Its scalability and mobility are good. Gossiping protocol [14] can avoid the problem of data information implosion, but there is little or no structure for operation to solve a series of problems such as blind use of resources. To a certain extent, GEAR can balance the energy consumption and prolong the life cycle of the networks. It can exchange periodic tables. Its scalability and mobility are poor and its cost is high [15].

3 Efficient Energy-Saving Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks 3.1

An Energy Saving Routing Protocol

LEACH protocol has the characteristics of self-adaptation and low energy consumption. It is a classical hierarchical protocol. LEACH avoids the problem of increasing energy consumption in planar wireless sensor networks due to frequent routing exchanges between adjacent nodes. In LEACH, the cluster head node is chosen adaptively and randomly. It broadcasts messages to other neighboring nodes. The other nodes choose which cluster they will join according to the strength of the data information transferred from the cluster head node. LEACH can solve the problem of energy loss in wireless sensor networks to a certain extent and prolong the network lifetime. However, LEACH protocol randomly chooses cluster head nodes, which can easily increase energy consumption and shorten life span of the networks. In [16], the authors improve the LEACH protocol and optimize the location and the quantity of LEACH cluster head nodes to decrease the energy waste and increase the life cycle of the networks. Authors mainly analyze each cluster formed by each virtual network, and use cluster head node to find routing and transmit data information. In this paper, the network is used to distinguish the network, which enables each ordinary node to calculate its own network number according to the data information transmitted

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by the cluster head node and its location information, which is conducive to the clustering process. 3.2

Proposed Non Uniform Clustering Algorithm of Dual Cluster Head (PUDCH)

The key problems to be solved are energy waste and networks lifetime. Cluster head nodes are always working in the wireless sensor. Too many operations such as data compression, information fusion and publishing data and information can cause large energy consumption and reduce network lifetime. According to the above problems, in [17], the authors propose a non-uniform clustering dual-cluster head algorithmPUDCH. It avoids the phenomenon that the excessive work of cluster head nodes leads to the excessive energy consumption and the reduction of the networks lifetime. When choosing cluster head node, the data processing ability and positional information of other nodes need to be fully considered. The network is divided into non-uniform clusters. The secondary cluster head node is determined on the basis of the energy of the cluster node. It takes full account of the each cluster head node, secondary cluster head node and surplus energy of each cluster node, as well as the range from each cluster head node to the manager node, base station and other places. The energy of the secondary cluster head node is lower than that of the primary cluster head node. They complement each other and work together. The primary cluster head node mainly assume responsibility for the data information sensing and acquisition, while the secondary cluster head node is mainly responsible for data information fusion processing and transmission. In this way, the energy waste is reduced and the life span of the networks is extended to a certain extent. Simultaneously, it also reduces the occurrence of data information crashes and other phenomena, and reduces the occurrence of network energy loss to a certain extent. 3.3

An Energy Efficient Clustering Routing Protocol (BCCP)

In BCCP protocol [18], energy balance clustering algorithm makes full use of location information and residual energy of nodes to reduce energy waste. By decreasing energy cost clustering algorithm, the energy cost of intra-cluster and inter-cluster communication can be reduced by using the similarity of sensing data information and sensing types between sensor nodes and adjacent nodes, so as to reduce network energy consumption. BCCP is improved on the basis of LEACH and other protocols. LEACH protocol [19] mainly uses the clustering idea. Each cluster constitutes a local management unit. The cluster head node communicates directly with each cluster node, and the cluster head node controls the activities of the cluster node. Therefore, the network has better adaptability and extensibility. However, LEACH algorithm has many shortcomings, such as when cluster nodes choose to join the cluster, they only judge on the basis of the strength of the received signal. The correlation between nodes is not taken into account in this process. BCCP protocol is divided into energy balance clustering algorithm BCCP-BA and energy reduction clustering algorithm BCCP-ESA. In energy-balanced clustering algorithm BCCP-BA, cluster head nodes are determined in the light of the information

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of energy consumption and location of nodes, so that the time to determine cluster head nodes is short and energy consumption is low. In BCCP-ESA, the algorithm takes full account of the location correlation between nodes, energy consumption of nodes, similarity of data information and other factors, therefore the network energy waste is more balanced and the network lifetime is longer. In energy saving routing protocol, the location and number of LEACH cluster head nodes are optimized, which can effectively decrease network energy waste and extend the life span of the networks. To a certain extent, the PUDCH protocol avoids the phenomena of excessive energy waste and shorter network life caused by overwork of cluster-head nodes. The BCCP protocol decreases the energy cost and extends the life span of the networks by reducing the energy consumption of clustering algorithm and making full use of the similarity of sensor data information and types among sensor nodes.

4 Conclusion With the continuous development of the Internet of Things technology, wireless sensor networks are more closely related to our lives. It is widely used in a variety of complex environments, such as military, agriculture, forestry, intelligent transportation, intelligent logistics, geographic information, medical health, smart home, driverless and other fields. Wireless sensor networks senses and collects the monitoring target data information through a lot of sensor nodes, and calculates and processes the data information through wireless communication, and finally transmits it to users. This paper compares and analyses the classical and low-energy routing protocols, and summarizes the characteristics of these routing protocols. With the continuous development of wireless sensor networks, the wireless sensor networks has a wide range of applications, it is affected by more complex environment and other factors, there are still some problems to be further studied in the future. Effective perception of data information, improving the quality of data information collection, using less energy consumption and less computation to complete data encryption to ensure high reliability of data information transmission, reducing network energy consumption during the transmission process, prolonging the network life cycle and so on, these are the problems that need to be solved. Acknowledgments. This research was supported by the Education and Science Planning Project of Jilin Province (Grant ZD18019).

References 1. Li, P., Dai, J.: A novel energy-saving routing algorithm in WSN. Comput. Eng. Sci. 36(07), 1275–1278 (2014). (in Chinese) 2. Su, S., Zhao, S.: Wireless sensor routing algorithm based on energy balance. Comput. Sci. 45(10), 111–114 (2018). (in Chinese)

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3. Ran, Y., Li, F.: Mobile wireless sensor network routing protocol based on active region. Appl. Res. Comput. 36(11), 1–5 (2019). (in Chinese) 4. Xing, G., Neng, H.: Optimization of smart home system based on wireless sensor network. 3rd International Conference on Human Centered Computing 10745, pp. 265–273 (2018) 5. Li, Z.: Secure Routing for wireless sensor networks research. Comput. Secur. 01, 52–56 (2012). (in Chinese) 6. Li, Z., Jinbao, L.: Multi-path based reliable routing in wireless sensor network. J. Comput. Res. Dev. 48, 171–175 (2011). (in Chinese) 7. Zhao, L., Jiang, Y., Xu, M.: Analysis and comparison of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. Comput. Sci. 36(2), 35–41 (2009). (in Chinese) 8. Xingguo, L., Junfeng, W., Linlin, B.: LEACH protocol and its improved algorithm in wireless sensor network. International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery, pp. 418–422 (2016) 9. Liu, J., Mou S., Morse, A.S., Anderson, B., Yu, C.: Request-based gossiping without deadlocks. Automatica 93, 454–461 (2018) 10. Dimakis, A.G., Kar, S., Moura, J.M.F., Rabbat, M.G., Scaglione, A.: Gossip algorithms for distributed signal processing. Proc. IEEE 98, 1847–1864 (2010) 11. Zeng, K., Ren, K., Lou, W., Moran, P.J.: Energy aware efficient geographic routing in lossy wireless sensor networks with environmental energy supply. Wireless Netw. 15, 39–51 (2009) 12. Li, X., Zhang, L.: Research on GEAR with network coding. International Conference on Communication and Information Systems ICCIS, pp. 208–211 (2018) 13. Maarouf, I.K., Sheltami, T.R.: Simulation-based analysis for GEAR performance optimization. 22nd International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops AINA, pp. 910–915 (2008) 14. Patra, C., Botezatu, N.: Effect of gossiping on some basic wireless sensor network protocols. 21st International Conference on System Theory ICSTCC, pp. 309–314 (2017) 15. Pantazis, N.A., Nikolidakis, S.A., Vergados, D.D.: Energy-efficient routing protocols in wireless sensor networks: a survey. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorrials 15(2), 551–591 (2013) 16. Ye, M.: Research on energy saving routing protocol in wireless sensor networks. Microcomput. Appl. 34(11), 92–94 (2018). (in Chinese) 17. Dai, Z., Yan, C., Wu, Z.: New uneven double cluster head clustering algorithm for WSNPUDCH algorithm. Chin. J. Sens. Actuators 29(12), 1912–1918 (2016) (in Chinese) 18. Wei, L., Jiahong, D., Suling, J., Juhua, P.: Energy efficient clustering routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. J. Beijing Univ. Aeronaut. Astronaut. 45(1), 50–56 (2019). (in Chinese) 19. Singh, S.K., Kumar, P., Singh, J.P.: A survey on successors of LEACH protocol. IEEE Access 5, 4298–4328 (2017)

Analysis of Cross-Cultural Communication from the Angle of Ecological Information Construction Rui Dai Anhui Sanlian University, Hefei 230601, China 1906566671@qq.com Abstract. This paper attempts to analyze and explore the contradictions and conflicts between a culture and a social system in cross-culture communication by applying fundamentals and knowledge of communication ecology. It sorts out and sums up ecological laws in cross-culture communication with interpretation function and thereby proposes the target of building an ecological view in crossculture communication. To explore and analyze cross-culture communication from the perspective of ecology is to study the relation between cross-culture communication activities and social environment at home and abroad by virtue of relevant theories concerning ecology. To cut in the angle of ecology is firstly a new perspective and a consideration to the process and relation of cross-culture communication media, information and cross-culture activities proceeding from the hypothesis of life organism. In mass communication ecology, communication ecology is a cross realm to conduct a comprehensive study of communication together with ecology, economics, sociology and other relevant subjects. Meanwhile, it has shown its unique value on the stage of world culture and formed a new order of open, free, balanced and multiple culture communication. Keywords: Ecology  Cultural ecology  Cross-culture communication  Ecological information construction  Cross-culture communication  Ecological law

1 Introduction By examining the objective of cross-culture communication, cross-culture communication is an inevitable way of globalization; or rather that globalization is an internal dynamic of cross-culture communication [1]. Such a relation cannot be briefly normalized and summarized with verbal logic. However, one thing is clear that the globalization of cross-culture communication is obviously not an ultimate goal [2]. The sustainable existence and sound development are the target [3]. To this end, we shall, from the angle of human’s existence, pay attention if the result of cross-culture communication is to achieve the homogenization of global cultures or maintain the diversity of cultures for different nations on earth [4]. In the natural ecosystem, to meet their needs human constantly transforms environment; environment in turn affects human life [5]. With the enlargement and diversification of the scope of human activities the problem of the relationship between the human and the environment is more and more prominent so the range of modern © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 368–373, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_54

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ecology, has expanded to various kinds of compound ecosystem system including the human society [6, 7]. The population, resources, environment and so on are within ecology research content. So far in the society all kinds of organizations and their living conditions about the human including mass communication activities and mass media management in various phenomena can be studied from ecology view perspective [8]. Especially in the era of information explosion in the 20th century information has become the favorite of the times and it is of great significance to create the ecology of communication in the context of cross-cultural communication and globalization. Rapid changes and wave of propagation environment form the new ring stirring pressure [9]. When pressure is added to the department in the ecosystem level detection, the health of the entire transmission system has appeared dangerous. Reflecting the misconduct is more likely to lead to adverse consequences. The cross-cultural communication should not only study levels of interpersonal communication of different cultural backgrounds and it should be expanded to mass communication level and avoid the study of face-to-face interpersonal cultural factors to promote the dialogue of different cultures between civilizations and decision-making groups and the maintenance of world peace and the harmonious development of the global cultural ecology from the interdisciplinary perspective. Since most of the world’s ecosystems are affected by human activities, the social and economic production systems and ecosystems are interwoven, which actually forms a huge complex system. With the rapid development of social economy and modern industrialization, the problems of natural resources, population, food and environment have become increasingly prominent. The “cultural shift” of ecology has changed many traditional ideas of man and nature. For example, it is recognized that there are natural phenomena in human society such as food chain ecological balance. In the early 1970s the rise of the western ecological movement makes people further realize that all things are contacted so people should keep a harmony with the environment rather than alienation. Therefore ecology is not only academic field of vision ecology is not only an intellectual stupor but in a sense it is also a cosmology, life view, ethics and aesthetics. In general the contemporary communication focuses on the relationship of microscopic process and its spread to working and don’t pay attention to the ecological relationship of the mass communication among the micro, meson and macro system and between the various components of them, no more actively explore the ecological law of interaction between them which leads to the spread of a series of ecological problems: the information explosion, the lack of information, knowledge, aggression, spiritual pollution, ideological crisis, disease information, etc.

2 How Can Cross-Culture Communication Be Explored and Analyzed with an Ecological Vision 2.1

Definition of Ecology Construction for Cross-Culture Communication

Generally speaking, cross-culture communication ecology is numerous connections related to cross-culture information communication and integral cultural environment

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and atmosphere made up by connections. “If we compare communication as a river way, the ecology of communication can be seen as water and the information of communication as fishes. Fishes are swimming in the water which is flowing in the river way. Without river way, no water can stay and no fishes can survive; without water, no fished can survive and no river way can be it; without fishes, water will flow in vain and the river way will be nominal. Therefore, communication is not a dominator of information but a dominator of relation on information. In fact, the ecology of communication is heterogeneous and isomorphic with natural ecology human lives by, so it can be used for reference.” The ecology construction of cross-culture communication has provided a perspective of overall thinking for people to reflect on cultural crisis around the world and offered a new angle and reference for maintaining the existence of cultural ecology and stretching fundamental rule. The ecological outlook of cross-culture communication shall show up the outlook on cultural system of harmony, balance and stability and keep a foothold in traits on environmental system interpreted in ecology. The so-called “cultural ecology” refers to the numerous internal and external elements of the entire global cultural system and an ecological relation resulting from their interaction.” 2.2

Embodiment of Ecological View in Cross-Culture Communication

We compare the global media society to an information jungle. As a matter of fact, the effect of natural law of jungle is really a mixture of natural law and human factors. In the media society, human’s capacity in information has been continuously evolving, but the earth is becoming smaller and smaller and more tribalized once again. The conflict between human’s expansion and environment’s restriction will be inevitable. Such a conflict will be internalized into contradiction and struggle between countries, cultures and organizations, thereby presenting a variety of complicated situations. International relation is an important environmental variable for survival of mass communication media of present age. It is not only a condition and result of international communication, but also a key support for transnational media food chain and food network to spread around the world. As for cultural communication mode in China, what we need to do is to explore and expand the channels of mutual communication and amalgamation, promote the exchange of culture between China and other countries and achieve the harmony but difference in wider fields. To this end, it is of great importance to enhance learning, transform the old mindset, endeavor to improve the communication technology and strengthen the communication result. All our efforts are based on the best communication result as a starting point, which is also an important standard to verify the performance of all our communication efforts. To ensure a good result for our communication, while we are facing the audience of western countries, we need to pay attention to their habits of mind and thereby changing our way of expression. We shall try to adapt to the westerners’ way of expressions which is usually straightforward and self-disclosed rather than simply inferring their arrogance. Naturally, the westerners shall also have a better understanding of the easterners who usually exchange their opinions in an implicit way, adapt to their warm-up process during the exchange, wait in patience till the counterparts integrate themselves into the exchange realm,

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The cultural exchange between the east and the west cannot be simply deemed as a verbal and literal interconnection in language and script, which is only introduced in a form of culture. Instead, both sides shall try to explore the cultural deposits, historical settings, mindsets and customs etc. behind the form. It is a long-term running-in process and also a course of mutual reference and learning. From the perspective of space dimension, due to historic reason and limitation of communication, difference and estrangement have arisen in mutual understanding of cultures. Thus, it will be a long-term and an arduous task to strengthen the bilateral and multilateral information dissemination of cross-culture communication. To keep a low profile, devote ourselves in our work, get along with others in a kind and reasonable manner shall be basic principles we shall adhere to during the cultural exchange with other countries in the world. In the course of intercourse with other cultures in the world, particularly western culture, we shall not accept their slander due to difference in interests and values. It is indispensable to fight in a reasonable, beneficial and restrained manner. Modern media are a powerful tool for promoting the globalization of the modernization process. However, due to historic reason, the singular trend that modernization is equal to western culture has prevailed. In the cross-culture communication, for the purpose to prevent modern media from spreading singular modernization and westernization, it is required to encourage diversity of cultures in different nations of the world, realize coexistence and exchange of multiple cultural system and achieve a coordinated and healthy development of the whole culture ecosystem in the interaction. In the history, no great culture has formed spontaneously under a close condition but developed amid the exchange and impact of multiple cultures. For instance, the western culture was mainly affected by Hellenism and Judaism while Hellenism largely benefited from Egyptians, Therefore, culture diversity must be upheld for keeping a balanced cultural ecosystem and developing the subsystems under the large cultural system. In the world today, besides western culture, there are still a lot of cultures such as Islamic culture, Chinese culture with Confucianism as the core and East Asian cultures in which exuberant vitality is still maintained. Under the trend of modernization, how to keep its original culture and make the original culture adapt to the ecosystem of global cultures on the whole is a challenging issue before us.

3 Building of International Communication Ecology and Its Goals Communication media are indispensable essential elements of modern people and have become the second-layer skin of people. We perceive the public opinion climate of the society and also build the cognitions to reality. A sound media ecology can guide a benign interaction between society and culture. The target for building a cross-culture communication ecology is to establish and improve a cross-culture communication ecology and achieve a balanced cross-culture communication ecology. In the ecology, ecological balance refers to the status of an ecosystem within specific period. Under such a status, the structure and function are relatively stable. The input and output of

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material and energy are close to a balance. To be interfered externally, initial stable status can be restored through natural regulation. Similarly, diversity in information, operation and resource is also a key mark of modern cross-cultural communication. Only in this way can enable people coexisting in the same cultural context to better achieve meaningful share in order to share a culture. At the same time, it can also achieve a meaningful share under the crosscultural context in the interaction between historic development of culture and multiple cultures. The monopoly of both political and economic powers is not a sound crosscultural media ecology, so, it is not helpful to confession of news and development and continuation of world cultures. Advocate the establishment of cultural exchange, present a pluralistic value system of culture and thereby reveal the basic direction of human culture development. The ultimate goal to look at culture communication in an ecological vision is to achieve mutual benefit of culture around the world, enable culture communication to break through the limitations imposed by history. Meanwhile, it has shown its unique value on the stage of world culture and formed a new order of open, free, balanced and diverse culture communication.

4 Conclusion The entire world in which human being are living is a cultural system with multiple cultures coexisting. Each culture has its own unique motive and process of origin, maturity and decline. Besides, any one of cultures has a function of preventing it from be replaced by another culture. The cultures of different countries, nations or groups have different essential features and value orientations and formed a cultural difference with variety and diversity as manifestations. The unbalanced and unequal cultural circulation arisen from cultural difference has integrated the coordination and development between different value systems and life styles and also promoted the transition of different cultures towards homogenization. To a certain extent, the communication globalization brought by cross-culture communication will push forward the mutual recognition and amalgamation of global cultures and be conducive to eliminating the estrangement among human’s cultures and even misunderstanding and hostility. However, in this sense, the decrease and fuzziness in cultural difference are not helpful to the abundance of world culture. Only the vitality of diverse and multiple development of cultures can human continue its everlasting history. Human also needs to achieve a deep recognition to the inevitability and occasionality of cross-culture communication ecology, keep a reverent mindset to nature from spontaneity to consciousness, from international community to nation, from media organizations to individuals, cease or slow down the blind expansion and excessive development and make a plan and effort for gradually improving the crossculture communication ecology. Acknowledgements. Fund Program: The paper is one of the results of the Anhui Provincial Quality Project; Code: 2016MOOC152 and this research is supported by Teaching Quality Project of Anhui Provincial Department Education (project number: 2018MOOC097).

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References 1. Alrheide, D.L.: An Ecology of Communication: Cultural Formats of Control. Aldine De Grllyler, New York (1995) 2. Dozio, E., Feldman, M., Moro, M.-R.: Transmission du traumatisme mère–bébé dans les interactions précoces. Pratiques Psychol. 22(2), 87–103 (2016) 3. Thompson, J.B.: Mass communication and modern culture: contribution to a critical theory of ideology. Sociology 22(3), 359–383 (1988) 4. Liska, J.R., Cronkhile, G.: An Ecological Perspective on Human Communication Theory. Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont (1994) 5. Lum, C.M.: Introduction: the intellectual roots of media ecology. N. J. J. Commun. 8(1), 1– 103 (2000) 6. Yarrow, M.M., Salthe, S.N.: Ecological boundaries in the context of hierarchy theory. BioSystems 92(3), 233–244 (2008) 7. Flinn, M.V.: Culture and the evolution of social learning. Evol. Hum. Behav. 18(1), 23–67 (1997) 8. Norton, W.: Cultural Geography. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York (2000) 9. Prokop, P., Usak, M., Fančovičová, J.: Risk of parasite transmission influences perceived vulnerability to disease and perceived danger of disease-relevant animals. Behav. Proc. 85(1), 52–57 (2010)

Shoot Rate in Basketball Game Based on Metal Sensor Xi Li(&) Physical Education Teaching Department, Wuxi Taihu University, Wuxi 214000, Jiangsu, China tiandiboy2000@163.com

Abstract. In basketball games, the basketball shooting ratio changes with the position of athletes in basketball court, so knowing the best position in basketball court plays a decisive role for the win and loss. This paper mainly researches and designs the basketball shooting ratio at different space points. First, it proposes a radio frequency identification (RFID) spatial location technology based on carrier phase, and designs a RFID reader with the positioning function according to the signal strength of the target label carried by the athletes and the effect on the surrounding label to obtain the real-time position information of the athletes. And then count the shooting ratio of different athletes at different positions in the court. Finally, carry out second processing for these data by MATLAB, and analyze to obtain the best position of the shooting in the court. The result shows that the closer the athletes are from the basket, the greater the shooting ratio. Keywords: Basketball shooting ratio  Radio frequency identification  Spatial orientation  Best shooting speed  Best shooting angle  Best position point

1 Introduction Basketball originated in the United States, which is the core game project of Olympic Games [1]. In the game, the athletes have to consider the shooting ratio of various position points in the court so as to get the chance to get scores as much as possible into the other basket [2]. As athletes move constantly in whole game, so how to get athletes’ real-time space position changes is an urgent problem to be solved. As buildings separate the spread of GPS satellite signals, indoor positioning technology is not perfect [3]. The positioning technologies which are used indoor commonly include ultrasonic positioning technology, infrared positioning technology, Bluetooth positioning technology, wireless LAN positioning technology and radio frequency identification positioning technology [4]. Radio frequency identification technology is widely used due to low cost and high communication efficiency [5]. At present, the researches on radio frequency identification technology at home and abroad mainly focus on the position information obtained from the target label got by using reader to the signal strength of the reference label [6]. In view of the current research situation, this paper proposes a RFID positioning technology based on carrier

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phase change [7], designs and produces RFID reader to study the real-time position of the athletes in the game, so as to analyze and find out the best position in the court.

2 Design of RFID Positioning Reader 2.1

RFID System Composition and Working Mode

RFID is a class of automatic identification technology, which is achieved through radio frequency. Reader and label are two most important parts of an RFID system [8]. The label is attached to the target object and its inside contains a unique code that can be used to identify the object. And its information is read through the reader, and can be modified and written at the same time. Figure 1 is the structure of a standard RFID system.

Data reader

Reader antenna Air interface f RFID label

Computer application system

Fig. 1. Basic structure of RFID system

The basic working mechanism of the RFID system is 1. When the electronic label is in the operating range of the transmitting antenna, it will receive the signal which has a certain frequency and is sent by the reader antenna, then the label is activated; 2. The forward signal which is sent by the reader antenna will be reflected back by the label and the reflected signal will contain the ID information of the label; 3. The reflected signal will be sent to the application system processor after receiving, demodulating and decoding by the reader antenna, and the processor will receive the code and other information to determine the implementation of the instruction [9]. 2.2

RFID Positioning Technology Based on Carrier Phase

Similar to the classical wireless positioning technique, the position of target label in the RFID positioning technique can be determined by measuring the signal’s strength, phase, and propagation time. In this paper, the carrier phase method based on the carrier phase delay is used to calculate the target position, that is, by comparing the

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phase change of the received signal and the transmission signal, the reader positions the target. 2.2.1 Parameters Need to Be Measured by the RFID Position Technology Based on Carrier Phase The measurement parameters of this method include: 1. Signal strength (RSS), the reflection of other objects in the environment to the forward signal sent by the reader antenna will cause a great interference to the RSS which is received finally; 2. arrival time (TOA)/arrival time difference (TDOA), the distance from the label to the reader is proportional to the propagation time of the signal in the air, so the distance from the label to the reader can be calculated by using the triangulation method; 3. arrival phase (POA)/arrival phase difference (PDOA), the signal phase is proportional to its propagation distance, but because the signal itself changes periodically, so the signal propagation distance cannot be directly calculated by using the phase, it should be calculated by using the phase difference. 2.2.2 Measure the Label Reflection Signal Phase The typical UHF RFID system is shown in Fig. 2. It includes the reader and the label. The reader is composed of an oscillator, a transmitter, a circulator and a receiver. The information of the identification object is stored in the chip which is in the label. The reflected signal is modulated by the label chip by changing its own impedance.

Fig. 2. The typical UHF RFID system

Through the phasor space, the phase of the label signal can be calculated, the calculation process is shown in Fig. 3. The transpose power dividers divide the local oscillator signal LO into two orthogonal parts. After the frequency mixing of the two orthogonal signals and the baseband signal, they are filtered by a low pass filter. Thus the two orthogonal signals I (t) and Q (t) form the baseband signal. The state 1 and state 2 of the label impedance correspond to the two points on the IQ plane, that is the phase change is the connection angle of the two points on the IQ plane [10]. That is, W is the

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angle which is changed from comparing the signal reflected by the label with the reader’s local oscillator LO. u ¼ uM  uS ¼ tan1

Q1  Q2 I1  I2

ð1Þ

Fig. 3. Demodulation process of Zero-IF receiver

2.2.3 Determine the Spatial Location of the Target Label Firstly, this paper uses the obtained local oscillator phase change reflected by the target label to list the position equation of the target label from the reader antenna, finally, the position of the target label is calculated from the three interceptors of many antennas (Shown as Fig. 4) [11].

Fig. 4. The method of determining the spatial position of the target label

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Design of the Reader Positioning Prototype

On basis of the above theory, this paper bases on the commercial RF chip to build a programmable RF module’s RFID reader, that is phase measurement system prototype, and the forward signal is generated by RF up converter, is received by RF down converter and is modulated and reflected by label according to the degree of phase change and the obtained distance from the target label to the position of the antenna, and then convert it to IF. The conversion from IF signal to baseband signal is responsible by the FPGA-based IF transceiver. The prototype of RFID reader is shown as Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. The prototype of RFID reader

3 Design of the Experiment 3.1

Experimental Target

The purpose of this article is to calculate the basketball shooting ratio of the basketball players in different spatial positions, through the RFID positioning technology, we can real-time understand the athletes’ position in the court. Therefore, it only needs to count the shooting ratio of the athletes who wear RF labels at different positions as much as possible, then we can get the best position in the basketball court, to provide a reference for the score of the game. However, the factors that affect the basketball shooting ratio, in addition to the position of the athletes, but also relates to the athletes’ initial shooting speed, initial shooting angle and even the psychological state of the athletes and so on. Therefore, in order to get the conclusion of this paper, this paper first uses the Monte Carlo method to find the best shooting angle and velocity at the fixed point, and then finds out the optimal position for the variable (Fig. 6).

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Fig. 6. Basketball shooting model

3.2

Ideal Shooting Model

Regardless of air resistance, the ideal two-dimensional shooting model shown in Fig. 5 [12]. In accordance with the rules of the basketball game, in the standard court, the height of the basket to the ground is 3.05 meters, the diameter is 0.45 meters, the standard basketball diameter is 0.246 meters. Establish space Cartesian coordinate system, the origin of the coordinates is the basketball centre of mass. Z-axis positive direction perpendiculars to the ground up, Y-axis positive parallels to the paper to the right, X-axis positive direction perpendiculars to the paper outwards. The direction of shooting is (a, b), where a is the intersection angle between the direction of the shooting speed and the positive direction of the Z-axis, and b is the intersection angle between the projection of the XOY plane and the positive direction of the X-axis. Therefore, according to the kinematics equation, the kinematic equation of basketball centre of mass in space is shown below.

3.3

x ¼ V0 t sin a cos b

ð2Þ

y ¼ V0 t sin a sin b

ð3Þ

1 z ¼ V0 t cos a  gt2 2

ð4Þ

Basketball Shooting Ratio Calculation

Basketball shooting ratio can be calculated by MATLAB simulation, that is, first randomly generate a set of 1  107 two-dimensional array (a, b), this group of data represents the basketball athlete’s random shooting times in a point to all directions in the court, and assuming that the initial shooting speed of this athlete is V0. And then use MATLAB to calculate the probability of basketball into the basket, so that you can get the best shooting point at different positions and initial shooting speed, but also get the point in which the basketball shooting ratio is larger.

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4 Experiment Result Analysis 4.1

The Best Shooting Speed and Shooting Angle at the Given Point

In order to reduce the system error, this paper uses MATLAB to randomly generate a set of two-dimensional data of 5  107. In order to make the results representative, we should select a typical value, that is, the height of shooting point is 2 meters, which is 6.25 meters from the basket (that is, the distance of international standard three-point line). The result is shown in Fig. 7.

Probability /0.1

2.5

2.0 1.5

1.0 0.5 0.0 8.0

8.2

8.4 8.6 Shooting speed m/s

8.8

9.0

9.2

Fig. 7. The shooting ratio at different speed

It can be seen from Fig. 7, when shooting speed is 8.25 m/s, the maximal basketball shooting ratio is 2.03  104, at this time the range of the corresponding a angle is 35.38°–44.45°. Since the allowable error of shooting is greatest when the shooting angle is in the middle of the above range, it is known that the best shooting angle is approximately 39.56°. And from the figure, it can be known that when the shooting speed is too small (15 m/s), it cannot effectively shoot into the basket. 4.2

The Best Position Point in the Court

In this paper, through the RFID space positioning technology, the shooting ratio of the athletes at the best shooting angle and shooting speed at different points can be obtained. Assuming that the athletes shoot at the best speed and the best angle at different points in the court, the shooting ratio is shown in Fig. 8. From Fig. 8, it can be seen the farther the athletes from the basketball basket, the smaller the shooting ratio is, and the athletes who have the same distance from the basket have the similar basketball shooting ratio. The results of the experiment are in line with our life experience, which also explains the score setting origin of three-pointers, two-pointers and one-pointer, that is the closer the distance is, the smaller the difficulty of basketball into the basket, the lower the score is.

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Fig. 8. The probability distribution map of shooting ratio at different shooting distance

5 Conclusion Based on carrier change’s RFID spatial location technology, using the principle of triangulation, according to the signal phase change reflected by the target label, and based on the commercial RF chip, this paper builds a RFID positioning reader prototype. So as to get the real-time position information of the athletes who change their position constantly in the basketball game. And based on the MATLAB simulation, this paper finds the best shooting angle and initial velocity of the athletes at the fixed point, and finally obtains the shooting ratio at different points in the court when the athletes are in the best state. That is, the closer the distance, the greater the shooting ratio is, but at the same time, it needs to pay attention to the closer, the basket into the basket score is also lower.

References 1. Yunting, L.: The significance of human upper limb: the communication interpretation of basketball in China. J. Sports Sci. 03, 1004–4590 (2014) 2. Shuangwen, W.: Influences of basketball rule transformations on technique and tactics. J. Wuhan Inst. Phys. Educ. 01, 1000–520X (2011) 3. Yi, H., Shanyue, H., Qian, H., Tao, W. et al.: Localization of GPS mobile communication equipment based on Android platform. Laser J. 03, 0253–2743 (2014) 4. Rui, Z., Bang, Z., Zuli, Z., Le, Ma., Jinfei, Y., et al.: Overview of indoor localization techniques and applications. Electron. Sci. Technol. 03, 1007–7820 (2014) 5. Qiang, Ma.: Application of RFID in automatic positioning in logistics warehouses. Logistics Technol. 01, 1005–152X (2013) 6. Liu Peng, L., Tancheng, G.X., et al.: A review of radio frequency identification based indoor localization technology. J. Terahertz Sci. Electron. Inf. Technol. 02, 2095–4980 (2014) 7. Yan, Q.: Research on mine personnel location system based on low frequency radio frequency identification technology. Netw. Secur. Technol. Appl. 05, 1009–6833 (2014) 8. Xiaohong, C., Fuqiang, W., et al.: Study on the influencing factors of radio frequency identification technology adoption in Chinese enterprises. Sci. Res. Manage. 02, 1000–2995 (2013)

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9. Yuanzhe, W., Luhong, M., Hui, L., Jigao, X., et al.: Research and application of RFID location algorithm based on reference tags. J. Commun. 02, 1000–436X (2010) 10. Panpan, Z., Jingbo, S., et al.: Design and implementation of a general Zero-IF RF front-end. Chin. J. Electron 01, 1005–9480 (2016) 11. Huajin, H., Jianxi, Q.: WiFi indoor positioning system design based on the Triangle position algorithm. J. Guangxi Acad. Sci. 01, 1002–7378 (2016) 12. Hongqiang, L.: Analysis of the main influencing factors of basketball shooting ratio. Sci. Technol. Inf. 29, 1001–9960 (2012)

College English Teaching System Based on Resource Library and Network Support Platform Shasha Zeng(&) Chongqing Nanfang Translators College of Sichuan International Studies University, Chongqing, China Shasha_Zeng119@haoxueshu.com

Abstract. The current situation of university English teaching in the modern internet technology environment, the college English teaching environment featuring personalized and interactive learning and active learning. University English teaching is to help students lay a solid language foundation and improve their language use ability, innovation ability, collaboration ability, independence ability, English communication ability, open thinking ability and quality shared with others, so that students can better adapt to society and serve the society. The online teaching platform provides a wide range of learning resources, convenient learning tools and flexible learning strategies for the teaching of college English teachers, and supports teachers’ tutoring and assistance to students. This paper analyzes the current situation of university English teaching mode and related problems, and proposes a strategy based on English education resources library and internet platform to implement English teaching reform practice. Keywords: Teaching resource library English teaching system

 Network support platform  College

1 Introduction The wide application of information technology has promoted the modernization of the university English education system and also raised new challenges [1]. The content and mode of university English education are also constantly improving. The instrumental and applied characteristics of English language are increasingly prominent [2]. The single English talent is no longer suitable for the needs of contemporary social career development. Applying internet technology to English teaching, constructing a student-centered university English online education terrace, and strengthening the cultivation of students’ independent learning mode and independent learning ability have become the key to the reform of university English education [3]. At the same time, it closely combines the characteristics of English majors and gives full play to the unique advantages of English teaching. It plays a greater role and influence in broadening students’ horizons and assisting students in improving their overall quality. Rather than separating English teaching from the profession, it is a “sub-class”, which is a proposition that every college English teaching worker must seriously consider [4]. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021 V. Sugumaran et al. (Eds.): MMIA 2020, AISC 1233, pp. 383–390, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51431-0_56

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A new English teaching system based on education resource library and internet support terrace was constructed to meet the needs of modern English teaching to adapt to international development.

2 Overview of Network Teaching Platform and Theory 2.1

The Basic Concepts and Contents of Teaching Resource Library Teaching

The English education resource library is oriented to the needs of the education industry. On the basis of full investigation, the joint enterprise and industry experts analyze the main English jobs and typical work tasks, and sort out the basic English knowledge, skills and literacy that should be mastered by the position talents. Professional English education standards with educational characteristics [5]. On the basis of university English education and curriculum reform, the teaching standards of college English are used as guidance to strengthen the characteristics of network “teaching”, and the innovative teaching methods with clear structure, close logic and complete system, and highlighting the characteristics of English teaching are integrated into the college English teaching curriculum. In the system [6]. The resource library includes four modules: teacher teaching and research library, student self-learning library, university English interactive terrace and related link library. The teacher teaching resource library consists of a teaching material library, a courseware library and a teacher teaching and research forum [7]. The purpose of the library is to provide teachers with rich teaching materials, which are convenient for teachers to carefully edit teaching software suitable for personalized teaching; university English teachers share and exchange various teaching resources and viewpoints to help teachers continuously improve their own business level. Student self-learning library, which makes full use of multimedia advanced technology to design four parts: college English learning strategy guidance library, special purpose English learning library, movie audiovisual resource library and student online self-learning platform [8]. Teacher-student interactive platform library, which includes university English online chat room, text-based topic discussion platform, bulletin board and college English online guidance terrace. 2.2

The Necessity of Internet Teaching Platform to Assist Classroom Teaching

The internet teaching platform is a good supporting software to assist teachers and students to conduct online interactive teaching activities, expand teaching space, expand the horizons of teachers and students, and realize distance learning. Using the network teaching platform, the teaching content can be expressed in rich forms such as pictures, texts, audio and video, and a large amount of network resources also provide sufficient reserves for the source and update of teaching content. Teaching activities can be conducted at any time and place, and students can flexibly determine the time, content and progress of the study according to their actual situation [9]. Students and

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teachers can also interact in real time through the online platform, which not only solves problems in a timely manner, but also reduces the distance between teachers and students and enhances the feelings of teachers and students. These advantages of the internet teaching make up for the shortcomings such as monotonous content, lack of academic time and neglect of the subjective status of students caused by the traditional teaching mode in college English teaching. In view of this, the application of the network teaching platform is very necessary in college English teaching, and how to combine the network teaching platform with the traditional teaching mode to strengthen the students’ comprehensive ability to use knowledge and innovation in the course of studying college English, become a university The direction of English teaching reform research. Aiming at the characteristics of university English teaching informatization, we will directly build an integrated digital teaching support environment based on the existing educational management system, and establish a internet platform for students and interface interaction (see Table 1), stimulating the interactive design of students and goals, and trigger students. Resource development that interacts with content, promotes the transfer of teaching and student interaction, and guides students and timeinteractive learning management. Table 1. Network teaching support platform system architecture Aims Crosscampus integrated network supports college English teaching system

Implementation characteristics Distinctive professional features

Project support Design method Regular Professional training, curriculum echelon construction construction platform Docking Online teaching General management courseware Educational Administration system Platform Teacher-student Interactive Multimedia collaboration platform teaching standard Safe and stable operation efficiency

2.3

Precision Course Supervision and Audit Platform

Supervise regulatory data feedback

Build content Literature database

System module Management system module

Real-time module custom design Quality teaching resource orientation Independent course public display

Learning tool module

Remote collaboration platform module Hypermedia repository system

The Theoretical Basis for the Establishment of the Resource Pool

Humanistic education is an important educational trend in the modern West. It combines with humanistic psychology to develop a student-centered, humanistic education concept that aims to develop students’ self-potentials and values. The self-learning

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platform in the university English resource library includes a navigation library, an online learning method, and a learning strategy for students’ reference. In addition, the platform also arranges and edits different levels of learning materials for students of different levels according to the needs of students with different English levels and according to the requirements of the syllabus. Students can choose the materials that suit their level according to their actual level for practice and activities. Based on the advantages of the computer, these materials are set to pass the test. Only after passing the test at this level can you enter the next level of study. Cultivating students’ interest in independent learning helps to realize personalized teaching and student self-learning in the true sense.

3 The Analysis of the Present Situation of College English Teaching at the Present Stage 3.1

Monotonous Teaching Methods, Lack of Professional Quality Teachers

The outdated and monotonous teaching methods are common problems in English teaching in China. Under the traditional “cramming” teaching method—the teacher taught, the impact of the students listening to the lectures, many college English teachers in the English teaching, self-study on the above, regardless of whether the students have mastered, completely ignored the students in the classroom teaching the subject position in the middle [10]. They think that as long as they master the teaching materials and related teaching content, they will know nothing about the newer professional knowledge, professional development and teaching methods. What makes teachers can be limited in the classroom, and the teaching methods that can be adopted are also very simple, which leads to lower teaching efficiency. 3.2

Linear Thinking Mode in College English Teaching

Nowadays, linear thinking mode is adopted in university English teaching. The socalled linear thinking mode is a straight, one-way, one-dimensional, lack of change in thinking. Linear thinking patterns, such as writing and reading training in traditional university English teaching, are influenced by the space of manuscript paper and text, and must be performed in time and space and logical order [11]. This model is based on text mode and university English teacher-led teaching mode. college English teachers rely on text to convey “institutionalized English knowledge” to students one-sidedly. At the same time, university English teachers play an authority and leadership role, students respond and obey, and passively accept English knowledge. In many colleges and universities, this kind of theory, light practice, transferability, or “full house” or “cramming” college English teaching methods still dominates. The result is that students lack the motivation for English learning and lack the ability to learn independently.

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4 Analysis of the Relationship Between Network Teaching Platform and College English Teaching The network teaching platform has realized a rich and vivid network language environment for college English teaching. Students learn independently through the teaching network platform, enhance their interest in English and realize interesting learning. According to the analysis of educators, human beings learn a language and learn its grammar and words. It is only a relatively primitive stage. Only by understanding its cultural content is the best way to learn language (see Fig. 1). In the new English learning mode built under the network teaching platform, students can explain the content of English learning through animation, film, music and other parties, which not only helps to understand the knowledge points in the classroom, but also effectively improves students’ English. Interest, master other English knowledge outside the classroom, and expand the knowledge of students [12]. University English teachers should use the characteristics of information technology to actively guide students to use the network support platform for independent English learning, encourage students to participate in English teaching through mutual communication and mutual cooperation, and comprehensively improve their English proficiency. Students interested in the content to create a simulated real-life situation, by allowing students to participate, let students write the form of the scenario script, and play the initiative of the students’ self-learning. In English classroom teaching, teachers should follow the students’ ideas and prepare students for divergent teaching through pre-class materials. Sometimes teachers will introduce some knowledge that is not available in college English textbooks. To cultivate students’ interest can better serve the teaching.

Fig. 1. The relationship between resource library and teaching system

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5 Countermeasures and Measures to Improve the Effectiveness of Network Teaching Platform for College English Learning 5.1

Establishing a Simulation Course for College English Teaching Practice Based on the Network Teaching Platform

The university English practice course is based on the theory of constructivism, and aims to cultivate college students’ English practical ability. The campus life and social life closely related to students are used as the practice simulation theme, and the student-centered situational blending practice activities are carried out. The university English practice teaching simulation course is designed to enable students to gain language practice opportunities in the higher education stage, to achieve the true purpose of language teaching, to enable students to translate language knowledge into language application skills, to help students communicate information in English, and to improve their cultural quality. To meet the needs of the talent market. Teachers make full use of language labs and online platforms to enable students to easily learn English in a simulated practice teaching environment and apply them flexibly. In the teaching of English listening courses, teachers rely on high-quality teaching software to fully interact with students, and transform the traditional college English listening course into a vivid English audio-visual class. If the school conditions permit, the language practice simulation course can be carried out in the language training room. It is fully equipped and the seating arrangement can be adjusted. It is very suitable for group discussion and simulation of real scenes, which helps students to quickly enter the simulated practice class atmosphere and improve the efficiency of student learning. Teachers can arrange the time and length of the practice class independently according to the progress of the regular class. Students dress up before class according to their roles, prepare their own simple props, or use multimedia equipment. Teachers require participants to be generous, natural, and injecting, and language expressions must be blended. Teachers can also set up extracurricular practice teaching sessions to provide students with more opportunities to learn English. The establishment of the university English practice simulation course has established an operational practice platform for students’ language use. Students have a strong interest in learning languages while consolidating and improving the basic knowledge of language. 5.2

Cultivate Students’ Network Self-learning Cognitive Strategy and Realize College English Teaching Reform

University English teachers implement the teaching-related links, realize the new teaching concept centered on students, select the best learning resources from a large number of internet resources, and organize and edit the database. Combine with classroom teaching to implement mixed teaching, and develop students’ basic English listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Elective courses can provide courses covering general English and special purpose English according to students’ needs, to meet the personality development requirements of students’ extracurricular auxiliary learning. Teachers rely on resources to update teaching concepts in real time, but the

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traditional teaching behavior, the concept and education methods are inconsistent, which greatly hinders the development of the mixed learning model and affects the teaching effect. Teachers can build a network social platform learning environment based on their cognitive habits, abilities and interests, and independently design and produce online English learning resources to ensure that students learn the latest and most useful materials. Teachers should give students guidance in a targeted manner, aim to improve the education effect, and at the same time reflect and evaluate the education activities, and find problems and solve them in time. Teachers also need to recognize their important role in online teaching, rather than simply throwing tasks to students to respond to students’ questions in a timely manner, helping students clear learning disabilities. Students learn English on the online platform, which is not only convenient for self-learning, but also for cooperative learning and communication between teachers and students. The internet education platform has become an important way to realize the reform of university English teaching.

6 Conclusion In general, the university English internet education resource terrace is built with rich teaching resources and distinctive curriculum features. Students and teachers can log in to the website. Teachers can conduct online tutoring and on-site guidance for students. Students can use the education resources of the website to learn independently, and realize online learning, online practice, online communication and online testing. Although the resources of the university English online courses are basically complete, they are still not perfect and video courseware and classroom videos need to be further improved. Of course, the university English online teaching terrace can not completely replace the traditional classroom teaching, so it should complement the traditional classroom teaching, combine the characteristics of the two education modes to form a hybrid teaching mode, and break through the traditional single classroom education mode. The university English internet education platform is the extension and expansion of classroom teaching. It is the continuation and improvement of classroom teaching. The organic integration of the two can better improve the education effect.

References 1. Mulders, M.N.: Global measles and rubella laboratory network support for elimination goals, 2010–2015. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep. 65(17), 438 (2016) 2. Caulfield, M.D., Zhu, D.C., Mcauley, J.D., et al.: Individual differences in resting-state functional connectivity with the executive network: Support for a cerebellar role in anxiety vulnerability. Brain Struct. & Funct. 221(6), 3081–3093 (2016) 3. Holmberg, D., Blair, K.L.: Dynamics of perceived social network support for same-sex versus mixed-sex relationships. Pers. Relationships 23(1), 62–83 (2016) 4. Aguirre, E., Lopez-Iturri, P., Azpilicueta, L., et al.: Design and implementation of context aware applications with wireless sensor network support in urban train transportation environments. IEEE Sens. J. 17(1), 169–178 (2017)

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5. Hatzipanagos, S., John, B., Chiu, Y.L.T.: The significance of kinship for medical education: Reflections on the use of a bespoke social network to support learners’ professional identities. Jmir Med. Educ. 2(1), e1 (2016) 6. Mileo, A., Merico, D., Pinardi, S., et al.: A logical approach to home healthcare with intelligent sensor-network support. Comput. J. 53(8), 1257–1276 (2018) 7. Rahmati, A., Shepard, C., Tossell, C.C., et al.: Seamless TCP migration on smartphones without network support. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 13(3), 678–692 (2014) 8. Harris, A.J.L., Hahn, U., Madsen, J.K., et al.: The appeal to expert opinion: Quantitative support for a Bayesian network approach. Cogn. Sci. 40(6), 1496–1533 (2015) 9. Harks, T., Kleinert, I., Klimm, M.: Computing network tolls with support constraints. Netw. 65(3), 262–285 (2015) 10. Huang, C.Y., Ramanathan, P.: Network layer support for gigabit TCP flows in wireless mesh networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 14(10), 2073–2085 (2015) 11. Ilie-Zudor, E., Kemény, Z., Pfeiffer, A., et al.: Decision support solutions for factory and network logistics operations. Int. J. Comput. Integr. Manuf. 30(1), 63–73 (2017) 12. Borg, S., Yi, L.: Chinese college English teachers’ research engagement. Tesol Q. 47(2), 270–299 (2013)

Communication Network Transmission Optimization Algorithm Hongchang Liu(&), Yizhao Liu, Chi Zhang, and Yang Zheng State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Company Information and Communication Company, 300010 Tianjin, China zhongqitianji@163.com

Abstract. To improve the transmission performance of communication networks and reduce the bit error rate, it is necessary to design the transmission channel equalization in communication networks. A link equalization algorithm based on matched filter autocorrelation detection is proposed for wireless sensor networks. According to the characteristics of inter-symbol interference (ISI) of multipath components in wireless sensor network (WSN), the channel model is constructed, and the communication signal of multipath wireless sensor