Ancient Egyptian Technology , Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt

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International Journal of Science and Engineering

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ISSN: 2454 - 2016

Galal Ali Hassaan

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part X: Pottery Industry (Middle to New Kingdoms) Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

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[email protected]

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Abstract— This research paper explores the development of mechanical engineering in terms of the development of the pottery industry during the era from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom. The development of the pottery design and decoration is traced with samples of pottery ware are presented and analyzed. The decoration technique of the pottery ware during the period from the Middle to the New Kingdoms is investigated with samples. Different kinds of pottery ware are outlined with description of their main parts. Keywords— Mechanical engineering history, ancient Egypt, pottery industry, Middle Kingdom to New Kingdom.

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I. I. INTRODUCTION Pottery industry reflects a large portion of domestic ware used during the daily life in ancient Egypt. Because ancient Egyptians were so generous, the invented too many types of pottery ware suitable for various applications. During the predynastic periods they produced two-colors pottery through burning, decorated pottery through painting and innovative product-designs. Part IX of this series of research papers presented the pottery industry up to the Old Kingdom, and here in Part X, the era from the Middle Kingdom to the Late Period is covered.

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Williams (1992) studied the pottery in the New Kingdom: its manufacture, classification and its shape [1]. McGovern (1997) studied the wine in Egypt during the New Kingdom, a period of remarkable international's and cultural development as he said. He presented some designs of the pottery amphoras and flasks used to store the Egyptian wine. He analyzed the fabrics of the exterior and interior surfaces of the amphoras as affected by the firing during its production [2]. Spencer (2006) announced that the amount of the Late Period Egyptian Pottery from Noukratis in museum collection is small. He also stated that the Egyptian wares could not match the attractiveness and interest of the fine Greek pottery that covered the site. He analyzed some pottery including dishes, bowls, cups and vessels in some museums including the British Museum [3]. Wodzinska (2007) made a provisional assessment of the potters from the survey at Tell el-Retaba indicating that most of the recorded vessels were from Late New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period. Few shreds were associated with the Late Period and probably one from the Ptolmic Age. She showed that the Late New Kingdom – Third Intermediate pots were either uncoated or had a white/pinkish slip [4].

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Marcus et. Al. (2008) studied the Egyptian pottery during the Middle Kingdom in Tel Ifshar. They presented and discussed the material in stratignaphic order and classified the pottery fabrics according to the 'Vienna System' [5]. Budka (2009) studied a case study of blue painted pottery at three Upper Egyptian sites essentially an inquiry into contexts and material during the New Kingdom. He studied three case studies of pottery from Elephantine, South Abedos and Umm el-Qaab [6]. Wodzinska (2010) investigated the Egyptian pottery during Naqada III, Old Kingdom, First Intermediate Period and Middle Kingdom. She studied the pottery material , manufacture, surface treatment and types. She presented colored photos for pottery from the time periods she studied [7]. Rzepka et. Al. (2011) studied the houses and some findings in Tel el-Retaba in the north-east of Egypt during the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period. Among the findings were pottery and ceramic ware from the 18th, 19th dynasties and the Thirs Intermediate Period [8].

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Brietak and Kopetzky (2012) investigated some pottery ware from the Middle Kingdom to New Kingdom in Northern Sinai, Tell el-Daba and Kerma [9]. Panagiotou (2014) in her research for a Ph.D. degree put some questions and tried to answer them in the course of her thesis: How much ?, When ?, Where ? and Why ?. She explored the characteristics of pottery and the changes in it during the second millennium BC in the eastern

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Mediterranean including: Egypt, Southern Levant, Northern Levant, Cyprus and Aegean [10]. Hassaan (2016) studied the pottery industry in ancient Egypt during the periods from Badarian of the Predynastic to the Old Kingdom. He presented samples of the available Egyptian pottery around the world allocated to the periods under study. He performed some analysis illustrating some of the characteristics, location (if known), origin (if known), decoration and manufacture [11].

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II. MIDDLE KINGDOM The Middle Kingdom covers the 11th and 12th dynasties during the time span from 2000 to 1700 BC [12]. Some of the pottery samples from the Middle Kingdom and their characteristics are presented below: - Fig.1 shows a pottery jar from early Middle Kingdom (11th dynasty, about 2000 BC) located in Petrie Museum of UK [13]. The jar has an ovoid body, short neck, medium mouth, round rim and slight-flat base. It has only one handle, one color without any type of decoration. - Fig.2 shows a tall pottery vase from early Middle Kingdom (11th dynasty) located in the Petrie Museum [14]. It has an ovoid body, medium neck, shallow mouth, wide round rim, and medium flat base. The outside surface is polished and has one color without any decoration. The neck and base are integrated smoothly with the body.

Fig.1 Pottery jar from early Middle Kingdom [13].

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Fig.3 shows a unique model from the early Middle Kingdom (11th dynasty) at Sedment (belongs now to Bani-Sweif Governorate) and displayed in Petrie Museum [15]. This is a unique design invented by the Egyptians in Upper Egypt. The pottery stand supports five pottery jars or pots. Because pottery are relatively porous, they leak liquids in it specially water. Therefore, I think that the objective of this pottery stand is to reserve leaked water and collects it in one container. The 6th hole in the front is in a level below that of the jars resting on the stand. Thus, most properly it is for discharging the stand or maintaining the water level at an assigned level. Another models of pottery jars from the 11th dynasty is shown in Fig.4. They are from the tomb of Aashait at Der el-Bahri of Egypt and now displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY [16]. The body is ovoid, the neck is short, the rim is round and the base is round. It has no handles and without any decorations. Most probably they storage jars.

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Fig.2 Tall vase from early Middle Kingdom [14].

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Fig.3 Multi-jars stand [15].

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Fig.4 Jars from tomb of Aashait (11th dynasty) [16].

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Now, we move to some pottery samples from the 12 th dynasty. Fig.5 shows a number of pottery jars and bowls from the tomb of Queen Weret II from the pyramid complex of King Senwosret III (the 5th King of the 12th dynasty of the Middle Kingdom) [17]. There are three jars and two bowls displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The three jars have different designs. The bowls have same design but of different capacity. All the units have a flat base and no decoration. The polishing degree varies from unit to another.

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Fig.5 Queen Weret II pottery ware [17].

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A model from the 12th dynasty has a unique design and color. It is a white jar shown in Fig.6 and located in Petrie Museum [18]. It has an ovoid body, short small diameter neck, flat-side tall rim and round base. The body is decorated by geometrical shapes which is uncommon in this period. A large collection of pottery ware from the tomb of lady Senebtisi at Lisht during the rein of King Amenemhat III of the 12th dynasty is shown in Fig.7 as displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Fine Art [19]. The jars have different designs and three levels of length. The dishes have one design and one size. All the pottery ware are shown in Fig.7 not decorated.

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Fig.6 White jar from 12th dynasty [18].

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Fig.7 Pottery collection from tomb of lady Seebtisi of the 12 th dynasty [19].

Decorated pottery from the 12th dynasty: Fig.8 shows three different decoration schemes. The scheme in (a) depends on scratching the external surface of the pot (the top half of the body) . The scheme in (b) consists of a zigzag line bounded by two straight lines on the external surface of the pot in its top half. The decoration scheme in (c) depends or corrugating the body of the pot over the whole body. The three models have one color and located in Petrie Museum [20], [21], [22]. In the 12th dynasty, they decorated some of their pottery plates internally. Fig.9 shows two plates decorated internally by scratching the internal surface (or using a special mold) by scenes for plants and nearly straight lines

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(a) or by parallel curves with free space filled by parallel crossed-straight lines [23], [24]. They are displayed in the Petrie Museum.

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(a) Spherical decorated pot [20]. (b) Ovoid decorated pot [21]. (c) Corrugated pot [22]. Fig.8 Decorated pots from the 12th dynasty.

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(a) With parallel lines [23] (b) With parallel curves [24]. Fig.9 Decorated plates from the 12th dynasty.

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III. SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD This period of the Egyptian history covers the 13th to 17th dynasty during the interval from 1802 to 1550 BC [25]. During this period, North Egypt was invaded by Hyksos coming from Palestine and hence, this is expected to reflect on the pottery industry in this region during the period of the 2nd Intermediate Period [26]. Here are samples of pottery production during this period: - Fig.10 (a) shows a classical pottery plate without any decoration displayed in the Petrie Museum [27]. It has nor decorations ,the base has a medium dimension and the body has uniform accurate dimensions. A unique design of a pottery bowl is shown in Fig.10 (b) [28]. The rim is squeezed from 4 sides to form 4 spouts without any decoration. Another un-decorated bowl design is shown in Fig.10 (c) [29]. It has a conical body, double-conical rim and a medium base. A white ovoid jar is shown in Fig.10 (d) [30]. It has a narrow-short neck, medium mouth, round rim and flat small base.

(a) Pottery plate [27]

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(b) Pottery spouted bowl [28]

(c) Long bowl [29]

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The impact of the Hyksos invasion to Egypt on the pottery industry is illustrated from models found in the Tell el-Yahudyah district and displayed in the Petrie Museum. Fig.11 (a) shows a black pottery jar with an ovoid body, medium neck, round rim, single hand between the rim and body and medium base. A similar model is shown in Fig.11 (b) but with double conical body with decoration through crossed straight lines.

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(d) White ovoid jar [30]. Fig.10 Plate and bowl from the 2nd Intermediate Period.

(a) Black jar [31] (b) Double conical jar [32] Fig.11 Jars from Tell el-Yahudyah. A unique model from Upper Egypt at Thebes is from tomb B23 of the 17th dynasty is shown in Fig.12 and displayed in Petrie Museum [33]. It is a vessel taking of a design simulating a duck with body decoration in the form of duck-feathering and one handle in the top. The vessel mouth is narrow located near the duck-head and the rim is flat. This design a pure ancient Egypt design and not affected by the Hyksos culture who were in Lower Egypt.

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Fig.12 Duck-vessel from the 17th dynasty [33].

Pottery decoration in the 2nd Intermediate Period: The pottery decoration experienced in the Middle Kingdom continued to take place during the 2 nd Intermediate Period. Samples of the decorated pottery ware are shown in Fig.13. In Fig.13 (a), the pottery technician used scratched-plants scene on the internal surface of the plate. In Fig.13 (b) he used external figures (may be for snakes) arranged on the rim of the pottery ware. In Fig.13 (c) he decorated the jar through corrugating its body. In Fig.13 (d) the designer went back to one of the decoration techniques used in the Predynastic period using the

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(c) Corrugated body jar [36] Fig.13 Pottery decoration from 2nd Intermediate Period.

(d) 2-colors jar [37]

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(a) Decorated plate fragment [34]. (b) Decorated fragment [35]

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firing technique to produce two colors [11]. Other decoration schemes are depicted in the pottery ware shown in Figs.11 (b) and 12.

IV. NEW KINGDOM th The new kingdom includes the 18 to 20 dynasties covering a time span from 1570 to 1069 BC [38]. This one of the richest and strongest periods in the Egyptian old history. Therefore, we expect to see a highly developed pottery industry during this kingdom. It is well known that the 18th dynasty of ancient Egypt was the richest one over the whole old history of Egypt. Wonderful pottery ware from the 18 th dynasty reflect this historical fact. Extensive novel decorations of the pottery ware took place during this rich dynasty as illustrated below: 18th dynasty: - Fig.14 (a) shows a pottery jar from the palace of Pharaoh Amenhotep III, the 9 th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty [39]. The jar has an ovoid body, medium neck, round rim and round base. It has 2 big handles. It is decorated by an animal head at the neck and painting scenes in 2 colors covering about 60 % of the body, the neck, rim and handles. Another model of the decorated pottery of the 18th dynasty is shown in Fig.14 (b) from the rein of Pharaoh Akhenaten, the 10th pharaoh of the 18th dynasty [39]. The design is similar to that shown in Fig.14 (a) but it has no handles and the surface of red color is highly shining. The decoration bands are narrow and cover about 50 % of the body. Another example of decorated pottery using multi-color painting is shown in Fig.14 (c) from rein of Pharaoh Akhenaten [40]. It has a decorating bands with scenes for lotus and papyrus plants and geometrical shapes. There is a wide decorating band on the body plus one more narrow decorating band. The neck is also decorated. The bands are outlined by black straight lines. There is a red straight line on the neck.

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(a) Jar from Amenhotep III palace [39]

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(b) Jar from rein of Akhenaten [39]

(c) Jar from rein of Akhenaten [40]

Fig.14 Decorated pottery ware.

Now , we move to the rein of the young rich Pharaoh Tutankhamun, the 13th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty. The whole world knows the high technological treasures of Pharaoh Tut [41]. Fig.15 shows a water colored jar for Pharaoh Tut [42]. The body is ovoid, the neck is long, the mouth is wide decreasing gradually to the neck diameter, the rim is round and the base is round. It is decorated by 2

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Finally, a model from the tomb of Pharaoh Horemheb, the last Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty is shown in Fig.16 [43]. It has a complex body design, narrow mouth, short neck, ,flat base and a vertical sprout. It has external decoration most probably through painting.

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Fig.15 Colored water jar of Pharaoh Tut [42]

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colors: red color for 3 areas on the body, neck and rim-neck transition and light blue in 2 bands on the body and neck.

Fig.16 Jar from the tomb of Horemheb [43].

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Now, we present a fantastic sample of the wonderful pottery vessels of the 18th dynasty. It is a long necked decorated vessel found at Abydos, shown in Fig.17 and displayed in the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston [44]. Its body is ovoid, its neck is cylindrical and long, its lip is conical, its base is flat. The body is extensively decorated with multi-colors-scenes within parallel bands in the top half of the body. The rim is decorated by plant scenes and the neck is decorated by 3 parallel lines near its top end. Mrs. Peterson says that this unit was modeled around a core and not by throw [44].

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Fig.17 Long-necked vessel [44].

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Fig.18 Painted jar from 18th dynasty [45].

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Another model of painted pottery from the late 18 th dynasty is shown in Fig.18 [45]. It has an ovoid body, no neck, small rim, medium mouth and round base. It is painted over about 60 % of its body using plant-scenes set between bands varying in width. The painting is in a light blue color. The last three models from the 18th dynasty are shown in Fig.19. The model of Fig.19 (a) is for a duck vessel [46]. The mouth of the vessel is near the duck neck, it has an abnormal rim, medium neck, ovoid body, handles at the front end. It is decorated by engravings on the vessel body. The second model shown in Fig.19 (b) is for a decorated bowl from the 18 th dynasty [47]. The decoration was applied by painting by white and blue colors and takes geometrical shapes. The shapes are extensive and requires high technology to design, draw and apply with very accurate manner. The wonderful and high quality jar of the great Architecture Engineer Kha is shown in Fig.19 (c) [48]. It has a double conical body, long-wide neck, two vertical medium handles, flat medium base. The neck is decorated by scenes including the Horus eye and the top half of the body is decorated by geometrical shapes within vertical parallel bands with very accurate dimensions. The two handles are also decorated along their circumference. All the decorations are using the painting techniques with multiple colors.

(a) Duck vessel [46]

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(b) Decorated bowl [47]

(c) Decorated jar of Kha [48]

Fig.19 Duck vessel, decorated bowl and jar from the 18th dynasty. th

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19 dynasty: - A wonderful sample of a colored-pottery jar from the tomb of Sennedjem, the official of excavation and decoration of the royal tombs in the rein of Pharaohs Seti I and Ramses II is shown in Fig.20 [49]. The body is double conical, the neck is conical , the mouth is wide, the rim is round and the base is round. The decoration is performed by painting and covers completely the neck and partially the body. The neck decorations take the form of multi-colors bands and the body decorations take the shape of necklaces originated at the neck bottom boundary. It has 2 small handles at about 45 degrees from the horizontal direction. Another decorated model from the tomb of Sennedjem is shown in Fig.21 [50]. This model is similar to that in Fig.20 except its neck which is cylindrical and its handles which are nearly vertical. The neck cored decoration which has two bands similar to that on the body, new decoration patterns on the middle band on the neck and on the body. The wonderful aspect here is the colored painted decoration of the two models that still keeping their attraction and fixed colors over thousands of years. This illustrates how the chemical engineering knowledge of those people was highly sophisticated and persistent.

Fig.20 Colored jar of Sennedjem [49].

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Fig.21 Colored jar of Sennedjem [50]

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A third pottery model from the 19th dynasty is shown in Fig.22 (a) [51]. It was designed and produced as a funerary jar. It has a rough surface, conical body no neck, flat wide base and large round rim. It has a lid of output diameter matching the rim outside diameter and an inside diameter matching the jar moth. It is labeled in a colored vertical band with inscriptions of the dead person. A fourth model from the 19th dynasty is for double conical jar with lid shown in Fig. 22 (b) [52]. The lid is spherical and has an animal at its top to catch the lid from it. It is decorated on its body by different scenes through painting.

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(a) Funerary pottery jar [51]. (b) Double-conical jar with lid [52]. Fig.22 Funerary jars from 19th dynasty.

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A last pottery model from the 19th dynasty is shown in Fig.23 [53]. It has a conical body, no neck, no handles, round lip and flat base. The mouth diameter is slightly greater than the base diameter. It is has one color and decorated by an engraved lady head picture.

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Fig.23 Wide mouth jar from the 19th dynasty [53].

V. CONCLUSIONS The development of the pottery industry during the Egyptian Middle to New Kingdoms was investigated. Good improvement in pottery design and decoration was achieved during the New Kingdom. A unique multi-jars stand was designed in the 11th dynasty of the Middle Kingdom. Polished royal pottery ware from the 12th dynasty were designed and produced having various shapes. Un-colored pottery decoration took place in the 12 th dynasty. A unique design for a spouted bowl by squeezing the bowl top edge was applied in the Second Intermediate Period. White pottery jars appeared in the 12th dynasty and the Second Intermediate Period. Black pottery jars appeared in the Second Intermediate Period. A duck-shaped design of a pottery vessel was applied in the 17 th dynasty. Internal and external decorations of some pottery ware using the scratching technique appeared in the Second Intermediate Period. In the New Kingdom, extensive decoration of pottery ware took place in the rein of Amenhotep III, Akhenaten and Tutankhamun.

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The designed and produced long-necked vessels in the 18th dynasty with wonderful multi-colors paintings which could sustain the environmental effects for thousands of years up to now. They designed and produced vessels simulating birds and bowls of extensive muti-colors decoration in the 18th dynasty. Wonderful painted multi-colors jars appeared in the 19th dynasty in the Tomb of the high official Sennedjem with hands of different orientation. They used pottery jars with lids for funerary purposes with simple external decoration. REFERENCES

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BIOGRAPHY

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Galal Ali Hassaan Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.

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Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. Published more than 170 research papers in international journals and conferences. Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Justice of the International Journal of Computer Techniques. Member of the Editorial Board of some international journals including the EPH Journal. Reviewer in some international journals. Scholars interested in the authors publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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ISSN: 2454 - 2016

Vol. 2 Issue 4 April 2016 Paper 1

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wjert, 2016, Vol. 2, Issue 3, 01 -12

ISSN 2454-695X

World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology WJERT SJIF Impact Factor: 3.419

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Review Article

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART XI:

PERIODS)

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Prof. Dr. Galal Ali Hassaan*

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POTTERY INDUSTRY (THIRD INTERMEDIATE AND LATE

Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt.

Article Revised on 16/03/2016

ABSTRACT *Corresponding Author Prof. Dr. Galal Ali

Article Accepted on 07/04/2016

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Article Received on 25/02/2016

This is the 11th research paper exploring the development of Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt. The pottery industry

Emeritus Professor,

provided the ancient Egypt community with objects required for daily

Department of Mechanical

life since more than 6000 years ago. The pottery ware carry

Design & Production,

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Hassaan

information about the ancient Egypt people along the different ages.

Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt.

This is the third research paper exploring the development of the

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pottery industry in ancient Egypt during the Third Intermediate and the

Late Periods. The paper shows how the outstanding technological level of this industry in the New Kingdom is deteriorated during those periods. The characteristics of the pottery ware during those periods are presented by analyzing some pottery designs available in the

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literature.

KEYWORDS: History of mechanical engineering, ancient Egypt, pottery industry, Third

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Intermediate Period, Late Period. INTRODUCTION The ancient Egyptians used the River-Nile mud as a raw material to produce pottery ware required for their daily life and for funerary purposes. They could produce pottery ware either

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manually or using the potter's wheel. Their products appeared with very high mechanical technology in adjusting the dimensions, designing the product and decorating it. Their pottery

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products are filling the museums around the world indicating the sophistication and attraction

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of their pottery products.

Fay, 2000 analysed a largely unpublished ceramic material from Dakhla Oasis of Egypt. This

work covered a thousand years of Egyptian pottery from the eighth century BC to the late

second century AC. He studied the technical characteristics of the vessels to describe the ancient pottery practices.[1] Aston and Aston, 2003 investigated the Late Period Bes vases and

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attempted to produce a firm chronological typology for Egyptian Bes vases. They studied vessels from funerary contexts, town sites and cemetery sites.[2] Wodzinska, 2007 studied the

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pottery from the survey at Tell el-Retaba where most of recorded vessels were dated from the Late New kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period. She concluded that those vessels were either uncoated or had a white / pinkish slip with few red-slipped vessels found.[3] Rzepka et. Al., 2011 studied the results of the Polish-Slovak Archaeological Mission 2009-2010 in Tell el-Retaba 35 km west of Ismailiya. They displayed some findings of the mission including

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storing jars, ovens, industrial zone, pottery scraper, ceramic vessels from the Third Intermediate and Late Periods, cups from the Third Intermediate Period, large storing jars from Third Intermediate period and amphorae used as coffins for children.[4] Bealby, 2015

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reported about the Second Annual Birmingham Egyptology Symposium helt at the University of Birmingham on the 20th February 2015. She declared that a wide number of topics were presented in the symposium including finds such as pottery.[5] Hassaan, 2016 investigated the

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development of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through studying the pottery industry during the periods from Predynastic to the Old Kingdom[6] and from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom.[7] He presented some of the pottery models from the studied periods clarifying their design characteristics and decoration technique (if decorated). Third Intermediate Period

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The Third Intermediate Period covers the 21st to the 25th dynasties.[8] Anna Wodzinska stated that pottery ware during this period was manufactured mostly using the potter's wheel except for course plates and bread trays which were manually produced.[9] We start presenting the

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pottery of the Third Intermediate Period by what is known as Bes vessel which appeared in this period. A model of Bes vessels from the 22nd dynasty is shown in Fig.1 which is in display in Petrie Museum of UK.[10] It has an ovaloid body, medium mouth, medium neck, flanged-rim and small flat base. It has one dark-orange color and its body is decorated by an

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engraved image for the ancient Egyptian deity, Bes.[11]

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Fig.1 Bes vessel from the 22nd dynasty.[10]

Another model of pottery jars is a tall jar from the 25th dynasty found in Thebes and displayed in Petrie Museum and shown in Fig. 2.[12] The body is cylindrical with slight shrinkage at the middle, the mouth is medium, there is no neck, the rim is round and the base

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is round. It has a dark-orange color without any decorations.

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Fig. 2 Pottery tall jar from the 25th dynasty.[12]

Four other samples of pottery ware from the 3rd Intermediate Egyptian Period are shown in Fig.3 where all of them are displayed in Petrie Museum.[10] There is variation in color, but all

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of them have unique color without any decoration. The bowl in (b) has four handles, the jar in (d) has two handles while the other jars in (a) and (c) most probably have no handles. The moth is large in design (a), medium in design (c) and small in design (d). The body is ovaloid

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in design (a), conical in designs (b) and (d) and round (spherical) in design (c). The base is

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small flat in designs (a), (b) and (d) and round in design (c). The rim is vertical in designs (b),

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(c) and (d) and flashing out in design (a).

Fig. 3 Pottery ware from the 3rd Intermediate Period.[10] Two more models of different designs are shown in Fig.4 which displayed in Petrie Museum.[11] The jar in (a) has a long neck while that in (b) has a short neck. The mouth is

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narrow in both designs. The handles are extremely large in design (a) and has a medium size in design (b). The body is round in both designs, The rim is large and flashing out in design (b) The base is a point in both designs. Both are not decorated. Color is light-salmon4 in

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design (a) and sandi-brown in (b).[12]

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Fig.4 Pottery jars from Gurob and Thebes.[11]

The latest model from the 3rd Intermediate Period (25th dynasty) is found in Tomb B at ElKhokha of Thebes. It is shown in Fig.5 which is a line diagram drawn by the authors.[13] It is a neckless jar with average mouth, ovaloid body, round rim and having two small handles

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near the rim. It is clear from the drawing that it is decorated horizontal circles and bands.

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Fig. 5 Pottery jar from the 25th dynasty.[13] Late Period

The Late Period of the Ancient Egyptian history covers the dynasties from 26 th to 31st.[14] No advancement is expected in the pottery industry during this period also. We will see through the examples presented of the pottery ware during this period if there is any development

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occurred. Fig. 5 (a) shows a pottery brown jar from the late period displayed in the Petrie Museum of UK.[15] It has a medium mouth, short neck, round rim, double conical bode and round base. The surface is rough and has no decorations and it has no handles. Another model of pottery orange jars of the late period is shown in Fig. 5 (b).[16] It has a narrow mouth, small

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neck, round rim, ovaloid body and a flat small base. It has no handles nor any decoration. Fig. 5 (c) shows a dark-brown bowl found at Suwa and belongs to the Late Period of ancient Egypt and displayed in Petrie Museum.[17] It has an open mouth (150% of its height), small

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decoration.

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flashing out neck, ovaloid body and flat base, The surfaces are polished and there is no

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(a) Brown jar.[15]

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(b) Orange jar.[16]

(c) Dark-brown bowl.[17]

Fig. 5 Two jars and a bowl from the Late Period.

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Another design of pottery bowls is shown in Fig.6 (a) which is found at Suwa of Egypt and located in Petrie Museum.[18] It has a vertical round rim, hemi-spherical body and medium

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flat base. There is no handles nor any decoration. A different design pottery jar is shown in

Fig.6 (b) which is found at Giza of Egypt and displayed in Petrie Museum.[19] It has a wide mouth of diameter little bit more than the body diameter, round flashing out rim, cylindrical

tall body, round base and two medium handles near the rim. It has no decorations and the

surface is rough. Another model of the tall jars from Giza also is shown in Fig.6 (c).[20] This

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tall jar is similar to that in Fig.6 (b) except its mouth which is medium (about 45% of its

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maximum body diameter, its body is semi-ovaloid and it has no handles.

(b) Tall jar with 2 handles.[19]

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(a) Light-brown bowl.[18]

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(c) Tall jar without Handles.[20] Fig.6 Bowl and tall jars from Late Period.

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Another pottery model of pottery jars from Qurna of Egypt is shown in Fig.7 (a) and

displayed in Petrie Museum.[21] It has a large round rim, double conical body, small flat base

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and no handles nor decorations. Another model is shown in Fig.7 (b) for a medium length jar from Defenneh of Egypt and displayed in Petrie Museum.[22] It has a medium mouth (about

40% of the maximum diameter), round short rim, un-symmetric double conical body, large

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flat base, two medium handles, no decoration and rough surface.

(a) Large rim jar.[21]

(b) Small rim jar.[22]

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Fig. 7 Large and small rim jars.

Models of pottery jars with different designs are shown in Fig.8. Fig.8 (a) is a line diagram for an decorated slender jar.[23] It has a medium mouth, neck of two levels one of them is swallowing and the other is almost straight. The body nearly ovaloid and the base is round. It has no handles. Another design is shown in Fig.8 (b) for a single handle undecorated jar.[24]

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It has a medium mouth, round-short rim, medium straight neck, ovaloid body and flatmedium base. Another jar model is shown in Fig.8 (c).[25] It has a wide mouth, round rim, short neck, ovaloid body and large-flat base. It has no handles and decorated by horizontal

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bands over about 50% of the body. It has 4 painted bands changing sequence with 3 parallel

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lines bands.

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(b) Single handed jar.[24]

(c) Decorated jar.[25]

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(a) Slender jar.[23]

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Fig.8 Jars with different designs from Late Period.

One more model of decorated pottery jars from the Late Kingdom is shown in Fig.9 (a).[26] It has a medium mouth, flat-inclined rim, small conical neck, semi-ovaloid body and round

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base. It has painted decorations on the top 40% of the body. There is plants decoration in the

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top decoration band near the neck. It has no handles.

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(a) Decorated jar with round base.[26]

(b) Pland decorated jar.[27]

Fig.9 Decorated handless-jars.

A pottery flask from the Late Period is shown in Fig.10 (a).[28] It has a small mouth, medium

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neck, round rim, cylindrical body with spherical ends and a point base. It has 2 medium handles between the neck and body. Another design of decorated pottery jars is shown in Fig.11.[29] It has a medium mouth, medium neck, round rim, semi-ovaloid body and small-flat base. One of the handles is decorated by dark-color bands and the top part of the body is

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decorated by 2 dark-color bands and intermediate band with probably plant scenes.

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Fig.10 Double handled pottery flask.[28]

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Fig.11 Decorated 2 handles jar.[29] The last models of pottery industry in the Late Egyptian Period is for bowls. Fig.12 (a) shows a decorated bowl.[30] It has a round rim flashed outside, a complex shaped body with conical

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nature in the middle and a medium ring base. It has no handles and decorated by 3 bands of a dark color near its top. Another model is shown in Fig.12 (b) which is a spouted bowl.[31] It has a round rim, semi-ovaloid body and a ring base. It has no handles and without any decorations. It has a small orifice feeding the spout and the spot top level is above the rim

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level.

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(a) Decorated bowl.[30]

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(b) Spouted bowl.[31]

Fig.12 Decorated and spouted bowls.

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CONCLUSION -

Development of the pottery industry during the Third Intermediate and the Late Periods

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of the Ancient Egyptian History was investigated.

The political weakness of Egypt in those periods was reflected on the development of the pottery industry.

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The pottery industry was deteriorated from its glory in the New Kingdom to a very low technological level.

What is called Bes vessels were appeared in the Third Intermediate Period. The image of

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Bes was inscribed on the vessel-body.

Pottery ware appeared in those two periods were classical in design except some changes in the body design.

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They designed jars without handles, with one handle and with two handles in those periods.

Most pottery bowls were without handles or spouts.

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Some pottery bowl designs with four handles and one spout appeared during those

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periods. -

Painting decoration of some pottery ware appeared in a very simple way compared to that

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in the New Kingdom. It covered the whole body, 50% of the body, 40% of the body, only the top part of the body and one handle or through bands near the body top. -

Design of a pottery flask took place during the Late Period with two handles between the

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neck and body. -

They designed tall jars with or without handles and without any decorations.

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They could produce pottery ware with plain brown, orange and dark-brown colors.

REFERENCES

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1. Patten, S. (2000), "Pottery from Late Period to the early Roman Period from Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt", Ph. D. Thesis, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. 2. Aston, D. and Aston, B. (2003), "The dating of the Late Period Bes vases", Proceedings

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of the 1990 Pottery Symposium at the University of California, Berkely, 95-113. 3. Wodzinska, A. (2007), "Tell el-Retaba ceramic survey", Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean, 19: 152-159.

4. Rzepka, S. et. Al. (2011), "New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period in Tell el-

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Retaba", International Journal for Egyptian Archaeology Related Disciplines, 21: 129-184.

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5. Bealby, M. (2015), "Report on Nationality, authority and individuality in ancient Egypt",

Second Annual Birmingham Egyptology Symposium, University of Birmingham, 20th

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February.

6. Hassaan, G. A. (2016), "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part IX: Pottery industry (Prydynastic to Old Kingdom)", International Journal of Engineering and Techniques (Under Publication).

7. Hassaan, G. A. (2016), "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part X: Pottery

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industry (Middle to New Kingdoms)", International Journal of Science and Engineering

8. Wikipedia

(2015),

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(Under Publication). "Third

International

Period

of

Egypt",

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Intermediate_Period_of_Egypt.

9. Wodzinska, A. (2010) "A manual of Egyptian pottery, Volume 3: Second Intermediate Period – Late Period", Ancient Egypt Research Associates, Inc., 193. S.

(2014),



"Ceramics

art

or

science?".

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10. Jones,

http://www.ceramicsartorscience.co.uk/EicBookUserFiles/Ceramics%20%20Art%20or%20Science%20-%20Dr.%20Stan%20Jones.pdf. 11. Wodzinsks (2010), Plates 9.1 and 9.2.

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12. Color Hex (2016), "Color names", www.color-hex.com/color-names.html. 13. Schreiber, G. and Vasaros, Z. (2005), "A Theban tomb of the Late Period at El-Khokha", Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hung, 56: 1-27. (2016),

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14. Wikipedia

"Late

Period

of

Egypt",

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Period_of_ancient_Egypt. 15. University

College

London,

"Late

period

pottery",

www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-

static/ave/detail/details/index_no_login.php?objectid=UC__19269__&accesscheck=%2F museums-static%2Fave%2Fdetail%2Fdetails%2Findex.php. Egyptian

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16. Global

Museum,

"Jug

with

a

spherical

body",

www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/record.aspx?id=6488. 17. University

College

London,

"Bowl",

www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-

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static/ave/detail/details/index_no_login.php?objectid=UC__19279__&accesscheck=%2F museums-static%2Fave%2Fdetail%2Fdetails%2Findex.php.

18. University

College

London,

"Dish,

Museum

number

UC

19272",

www.ucl.ac.uk/museumsstatic/ave/detail/details/index_no_login.php?objectid=UC__192

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72__&accesscheck=%2Fmuseums-static%2Fave%2Fdetail%2Fdetails%2Findex.php.

19. Wodzinsks (2010), Plates 12.1.

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20. Wodzinsks (2010), Plates 12.3. 21. Wodzinsks (2010), Plates 14.1.

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22. Wodzinsks (2010), Plates 14.4. 23. Patten (2000), vol.II, Model CS15 14h. 24. Patten (2000), vol.II, Model CS5 2y. 25. Patten (2000), vol.II, Model CS2 2hh. 26. Patten (2000), vol.II, Model CS9 k.

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27. Patten (2000), vol.II, Model SS1 0e.

29. Patten (2000), vol.II, Model CS2 2jj. 30. Patten (2000), vol.II, Model CS5 2v. 31. Patten (2000), vol.II, Model CS7 2l.

Prof. Dr. Galal Ali Hassaan 

Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control.

Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974.



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BIOGRAPHY

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28. Patten (2000), vol.II, Model TS4 Dd.

Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK

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under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. 

Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.



Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. Published more than 170 research papers in international journals and conferences.



Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and

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Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Justice of International Journal of Computer Techniques.



Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including the

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WJERT journal.



Reviewer in some international journals.



Scholars interested in the author’s publications can visit:

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http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XII: Stone Cutting Galal Ali Hassaan

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Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt [email protected] Amenhotep III [3]. Lavigne (2006) stated that the ancient Abstract— This paper presents the 12th part of a series of Egyptians had very high level of knowledge about working research papers aiming at studying the development of out and geometry. The purpose of her study was to understand mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt. It presents the the technical methods used throughout the Egyptian history techniques and technology used by ancient Egyptians to cut giving more care to collect more information about tools and hard stones and produce very complex artifacts. The ancient tool marks [4]. Egyptians used stone saws, drills and lathe turning and invented Storemyr et. al. (2007) presented the quarry landscapes instrumentation to generate flat surfaces with accuracy better than 0.005 mm and measure dimensions from 1.3 mm to 10 km. project for addressing the importance of ancient quarry landscapes and raising the awareness for the urgent need for Index Terms— Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, protecting such sites. Their work analyzed the condition and stone cutting, stone sawing. drilling and turning, stone surface legal status of the known ancient quarries in Egypt and the flattening, filleting of stone mating surfaces, dimensions threats facing them [5]. Loggia (2009) analyzed 17 tombs at measurement. Saqqara from the first dynasty and 25 tomb from Helwan from the first and second dynasties. She mentioned the robustness I. INTRODUCTION of walls construction standing up over a given height and Ancient Egyptians had the technology and highly qualified man-power to cut hard stones as they cut a piece of cheese. length. She stated also that the design of roofs showed that the They could do this from thousands of years ago while ancient Egyptians constructed them with a thorough nowadays people with the facilities of the 21st century are understanding of stone and temper materials behavior under imposed loads [6]. Saraydar (2012) discussed the Egyptian unable to achieve what they achieved with their primitive drilling/boring device dated to the third dynasty. He tools. In this research paper in this series about the mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, we try to understand how they demonstrated a flint and wood replica of the Egyptian drill could hard rocks like granite and produce very heavy capable of rapid unidirectional rotation and effective in drilling two types of stone, limestone and alabaster. He products. showed that when the drill fitted with crescent-shaped bit, the Gorelick and Gwinnett (1983) studied the drilling process drill operated with one hand with minimum effort [7]. of stone in ancient Egypt. They started their article saying that Ayad (2014) presented a study of the drilling tools and neither wall paintings, nor textual information , nor excavated stone vessels fragments of Heit el-Ghurab during the rein of material has provided complete answers as to how drilling Kings Khafre and Mankaure. He compared the finds with was done !!. They presented the words of F. Petrie and A. similar parallels of the same time period [8]. Heldal and Locus in this aspect. They concluded that a functional Storymer (2015) presented features found in five Egyptian analysis of the drilling of a granite sarcophagus lid from the quarries and discussed them on a background of rock old kingdom has produced some preliminary insights into the speculative technology used and set the procedure used by properties and quarrying techniques. They suggested that the ancient Egyptians to drill hard rocks using abrasives or a use of fire in stone quarrying reached a highly sophisticated lubricant such as olive oil [1]. Klemm and Klemm (2001) level during the New Kingdom [9].

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discussed the petrography, occurrence and main applications of the eleven most popular stone types used in ancient Egypt. They referred to the 42 m length obelisk south of Aswan and how it was cut out of the rock on three sides using stone tools [2]. Nishimoto, Yoshimura and Kondo (2002) stated that large stone blocks appear to have been extracted from quarry at Qurna during the rein of Amenhotep III for his temple in Western Thebes. They feel that the hieratic inscriptions they presented are the first recorded quantifying the successive daily work output of building activity during the rein of

II. CUTTING QUARRY STONES The ancient Egyptians cut quarry stones in an optimal way leading to preserving stones and using them in their great projects such as pyramids, temples and tombs. Before talking about tools using in stone cutting, I present some samples of stone cutting from different periods in the ancient Egypt history. - Fig.1 shows rectangular marks in Aswan granite quarry [10]. The mountain face is almost vertical and the two

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rectangular holes are identical and exact.

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Fig.4 Cutting basalt block [12].

Fig.1 Quarry mark at Aswan [10].

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- Fig.5 shows how basalt was cut in the east side of the Great pyramid using a large diameter circular saw [12]. The face is exactly flat

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- Fig.2 shows a contoured cut granite block from Giza Plateau in the open south of the Great Pyramid [11]. The block has a cylindrical contour at a part of its outside surface which is very accurate without distortion. Mr. Dunn announced that on checking the accuracy of the contoured surface, he found that the surface was extremely precise [11].

Fig.5 Cutting basalt by circular saw [12].

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- Fig.6 shows straight cuts of the hard rock basalt using a rock saw in the basalt paving stones of the Great Pyramid at Giza [14]. The cuts are straight, clean with smooth with parallel sides without traces of walking or wobbling [14].

Fig.2 Contoured granite block [11].

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- Fig.3 shows how old Egyptians applied the filleting design technique to granite blocks [11]. A vertical flat surface is met with a cylindrical part of a granite block. They filleted the mating surface in a very precise way. Mr. Dunn measured the radius of the fillet in many location and found it 11.1 mm [11].

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Fig.6 Straight cuts of basalt using stone saw [14].

Fig.3 Filleting corners of granite mating surfaces [11].

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- Fig.4 shows a saw cut of a basalt block located in the east of the Great Pyramid at Giza [12]. The accuracy of the cut makes one imagine that even though the basalt is a hard rock [13], they are cutting it as if it is a block of

- Fig.7 shows the casing granite stones of the Menkaure's Pyramid at Giza [15]. They are cut from Aswan quarry and transferred to the pyramid site at Giza. Looking at the stone blocks we can see and feel how they are accurately cut. They have three distinct geometrical shapes: rectangle, trapezoid and semi-trapezoid. They have almost the same height such that one can imagine that they adjusted them using laser beam !!. The gap between the blocks is uniform and has relatively small value indicating the accuracy of the cutting and finishing of the mating surfaces.

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Fig.7 Casing stones of Menkaure's Pyramid [15]. Those great people could cut hard rocks producing very accurate smooth surfaces with tools designed specially for this purpose from more than 4500 years ago. Just to weigh their outstanding achievements in this aspect we compare we present sample of stone cutting in the 21st century at Egypt also. - Fig.8 shows a recent highway cut in an Egyptian limestone site. It is clear how the cut with the modern facilities is rough and uneven.

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- Fig.10 shows a wall engraved scene from a tomb in Saqqara from the Late Old Kingdom [7]. The drilling operation in this process is performed through two actions. A rotational action of the drilling tool performed by a crank in the hand of the labor, and an axial force performed by tow counterweights located symmetrically around the vertical centerline of the drill. This design in this very early stage (2613 – 2494 BC) is an excellent engineering design and application since it reduces the effort of the labor and allows the application of large forces outside the capability of the human being.

Fig.10 Hole drilling in the 4th Dynasty [7].

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- Fig.11 shows two labors working in a stone ware workshop from the Old Kingdom [7]. The two labors are performing the drilling process while they are setting down. The setting style differs from one labor to the others. The common features are having a straight back to avoid any harm effects on their backs. The left labor is boring a large stone bowl holding the drill shaft by his left hand and rotating the drill crank by his right hand.

Fig.8 Highway cut in a limestone site [16].

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- Fig.9 shown another model of a way cut in a hard rock site [17]. The quality of the cut is very clear from the photo of Fig.9 and depicts the greatness of the old Egyptians.

Fig.9 Road cut in a hard rock site [17].

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III. STONE DRILLING

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The production of stone vessels requires special drills to remove stone materials efficiently with accurate dimensions. From engineering point of view, this is not an easy task since rocks differ in hardness from type to another. First of all, we will answer the question: Have the ancient Egyptians known stone drills ?. The answer is 'yes' which is proved through the following scenes:

Fig.11 Stone drilling in a stone ware workshop [7]. The right labor is drilling a tall stone vase. He is holding the vase with his right hand and rotating the drill by his left hand. Both are using counterweights to generate the required axial forces. - Fig.12 shows some details of the boring drill shown in Fig.10 and 11 [18]. It consists of driving shaft a, crankshaft d, forcing weights e secured to the driving shaft by a robe, fork b and cutting bit c [18]. This design is capable of hollowing up vessels of variable inside diameter through changing the cutting bit size.

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Fig.15 Short and long-boring drills [21].

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- Fig.13 shows a modified boring drill for the design of Fig.12 applied in the 18th dynasty of the New Kingdom as depicted in the tomb of Rikh-mi-Re at Thebes [19].

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Fig.12 Details of the boring drill [18].

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Another type of stone drills used in boring holes is the tube drill. How did archaeologists known his. Artifacts left by ancient Egyptians in tombs and operation sites strengthen this engineering fact. This conclusion is realized from the following findings: - Fig.16 shows an unfinished 70 mm travertine stone vessel located in Petrie Museum and marked with red paint for coring with drill, possibly from the 6th dynasty [22]. This is a real good mechanical engineering methodology since marking the hole leads to accurate positioning of the vessel interior.

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Fig.16 Marking the hole for drilling [22].

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Fig.13 Modified boring drill at the 18th dynasty [19].

- The hole is drilled using a tube drill producing a cylindrical core as shown in the unfinished vase from the 4th dynasty located in Petrie Museum and shown in Fig.17 [22].

- The cutting tip of the boring drill took different shapes. Fig.14 (a) shows an 8-shape quartzite boring tip from the 1st dynasty fount at Abydos and Fig.14 (b) shows a crescent flint from the Old Kingdom [20].

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Fig.14 Boring bits from 1st dynasty and Old Kingdom [20]. - They designed boring drills for settling labors (shortshaft drill) and boring drills for standing labors (long-shaft drill) as illustrated in Fig.15 [21].

(a) Short-shaft boring drill (18th dynasty)

Fig.17 Hole drilled by a tube drill [22]. - The ancient Egyptians invented the tube drill to produce stone tubes and generate vessel internal cylindrical holes. Fig.18 (a) shows a granite core cut by a tube drill in the 4th dynasty and located in Petrie Museum [22]. In Fig.18 (b) a basalt tube is cut by a tube drill in the 4th dynasty and located in Petrie Museum [22]. The thickness of the tube is not uniforms meaning that the cut was performed with certain eccentricity.

(b) Long-shaft boring drill (26th dynasty) All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARMATE

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(a) Granite core cut by a tube drill

Fig.20 Dead-weights forced tube drill [24].

Fig.18 Core and rube cut in the 4th dynasty [22].

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- The tube drill of the ancient Egyptians is reconstructed by Denys Stocks in 1993 using a cupper tube cutting bit and a driving bow as shown in Fig.19 [23].

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(b) Basalt tube cut by a tube drill.

- The procedure for producing a stone vessel is shown in Fig.21 [22]. The external surface is generated using copper chisels for soft stones or hard stone bounders for hard rocks (stage 1 in Fig.21). The vessel hole location at the neck is marked as shown in Fig.16. Tube drill with increasing copper tube bits is used to generate the internal bore of minimum diameter required by the vessel design (steps 2 and 3). Now a straight bore is cut in the vessel and the cores are removed (step 4). Now, the weight-forced boring drill of Fig 12 of increasing bit length to produce the internal cavity of the vessel (steps 5 to 8).

Fig.21 Procedure for producing a stone vessel [22].

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- A model of stone vessels produced by the above technique is shown in Fig.22 from the Middle Kingtom found in one of the pyramids in Mazghuneh and its cross-section is located in the Manchester Museum [22].

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Fig.19 Tube drill constructed by Stocks [23]. - Another model of the stone tube drill was constructed by Stock based on using the copper tube bit and forced by two forcing weights as shown in Fig.20 [24]. It gains its rotational motion using a crank connected to the driving shaft as in the boring drill of Fig.12.

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Fig.22 Stone vessel produced by drilling [22]. IV. STONE SAWING Physical evidences indicate that the ancient Egyptians have used the saw in cutting hard stones. Samples of those evidences are as follows: - Fig.23 shows a basalt stone in the paving layer in the east of the Great pyramid of the 4th dynasty [22]. The cut is clean, straight and perfect.

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Fig.23 Paving basalt stone near the Great Pyramid [22].

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- Petrie, the famous archaeological professor of University College London stated that the builders of Giza pyramids had a sophisticated set of tools at their disposal [23]. Fig.24 shows a fine saw cut of basalt stone using a copper saw [23]. The cuts are perfect and surprising. This a hard stone saw cut. How great were those ancient Egyptians !!.

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Fig.26 Granite block in the Serapeum temple [26]. This giant box has the dimensions of 3.96 m length x 3.35 m height x 2.286 m width and its mass is 90 ton of granite (body and lid) [26]. Engineer C. Dunn wrote the following comments of the Serapeum granite boxes [27]:

Fig.24 Basalt saw cutting [23].

o They are 20 boxes. o They were quarried at Aswan over 500 miles away and installed in arched crypts recessed into the walls of the labyrinth of underground tunnels. o Surface was exactly flat as measured by a precision straight edge of accuracy to 0.005 mm. o All the corners of the base are filleted. o The inside surfaces are flat vertically and horizontally. o The surfaces are square and parallel to each other. o Inside surfaces have high degree of accuracy compared to surfaces of plates in modern manufacturing facilities !. o Higher levels of technology were used by the ancient Egyptians. - What is interesting about the level of technology gained by ancient Egyptians is the thinking of Engineer C. Dunn to re-manufacture the Serapeum granite box in one of the modern stone workshops in USA. He discussed with Mr. E. Leither of Tru-Stone Corporation the technical feasibility of creating several artifacts including the granite box in the Serapeum Temple at Saqqara. Mr. Leither final last comments were as follows [28]: "My company did not have the equipment and capabilities to produces the boxes in this manner. My company would create the box in 5 pieces, ship them to the customer and bolt them on site".

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- Another important application on stone sawing is from the Great Pyramid at Giza. Fig.25 shows the granite sarcophagus in the Great Pyramid at Giza which has 2.278 m length [24]. This lengthy granite box was cut by a stone saw [14]. William Petrie set the stone saw dimensions of the ancient Egyptians as thickness in the range 0.762 mm to 5.08 mm and length up to 2.438 m [25].

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Fig.25 Granite coffer in the Great Pyramid [24].

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- The last example is a granite box in the rock tunnels at the temple of the Serapeum at Saqqara. It is shown in Fig.26 as drawn by engineer Christopher Dunn [26].

V. STONE LATHE TURNING It is well known that the ancient Egyptians used a All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARMATE

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surfaces.

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Fig.28 Carvers using chisels and mallets [33].

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woodturning lathe and recorded this in a tomb relief in the 3rd century BD [29]. However, stone (specially hard stones) is completely different than wood (soft material). Now, we will discuss the evidences of using the ancient Egyptians the technology of lathe turning in producing stone artifacts. - The archaeologist W. Petrie commented that the lathe appears to have been as familiar an instrument in the fourth dynasty, as it is in the modern workshops. The diorite bowls and vases of the Old Kingdom are frequently met with, and show great technical skill. One piece found at Gizeh, shows that the method employed was true turning [30]. - The technologist C. Dunn wrote that while browsing through the Cairo Museum, he found evidence of lathe turning on a large scale. A sarcophagus lid had distinctive marks of lathe turning [31]. - In the Cairo museum and in other museums around the world there are examples of stone ware that were found in and around the step pyramid at Saqqara (built by King Zoser of the 3rd dynasty). Fig.27 shows one of those stone ware produced by lathe turning. It shows the unmistakable tool marks of a lathe manufactured item [32]. It is a multi-cavity stone plate located at the Egyptian Museum. It has a complex design and required relatively high level mechanical technology to produce without breaking the stone flanges bounding the cavities.

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(a) Old Kingdom chisel. (b) Middle Kingdom chisel. Fig.29 Chisels from Old and Middle Kingdoms [34].

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Another chisel designs are shown in Fig.30 from the New Kingdom which are located in Petrie Museum [34]. Both have flat tip. The design in (b) has a tip as wide as about 175 % of the average stem diameter. This increases the efficiency of the chisel during the flattening process of the soft rock.

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Fig.27 Stone plate from the 3rd dynasty [32]. VI. MISCLANEOUS TOOLS

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Besides the main tools discussed (drills, saws and lathes), they some other miscellaneous tools in their stoneware manufacturing. Here are some of those tools: - Chisels: They used chisels to cope with soft stones such as limestone. Fig.28 shows a scene in the tomb of Ankmahor in Saqqara dated to the First Intermediate Period for carvers producing a statue using chisels and mallets [33]. Large number of actual ancient Egypt chisels are available in the world museums. Fig.29 shows two chisels one from the Old Kingdom (a) and one from the Middle Kingdom (b) [34]. Both are located in Petrie Museum. The design in Fig.28 (a) has a sharp tip suitable for producing holes or engravings in the stone block. The design in Fig.28 (b) has a flat tip suitable for flattening surfaces of producing flat

(a) (b) Fig.30 Chisels from the New Kingdom [34]. - Mallets: The old Egyptians used mallets in conjunction with chisels to generate soft stone surfaces. A mallet is a hammer-like tool with a head commonly of wood [35]. Fig.31 shows one of the designs of the mallets from the Old Kingdom of Egypt [36]. The hitting surface is irregular to prevent slipping over the chisel during hitting. There are two depressions on the hitting surface plus number of small halls. Its handle takes a conical shape for better security in the labor's hand.

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Fig.34 Stone hammer from the rein of Amenemhat I [36].

Fig.35 Stone polishing using pounders [22].

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Fig.32 Mallet from the New Kingdom [37].

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Another mallet design from the 18th dynasty of the New Kingdom is shown in Fig.32 [37]. It has one depression all-over the circumference. Its handle is smooth and completely cylindrical. The body is rough to prevent slipping over the chisel head.

- Stone pounders: A pounder is a heavy tool of stone or iron that is used to grind and mix material against a slab of stone [38]. They used stone pounders to polish stoneware as depicted from the scene shown in Fig.35 from the tomb of Vizier Rekhmire' at Thebes during the 18th dynasty [22]. There are three sculptors doing the job under the supervision of a foreman. This one of the reasons of their success in performing works looking as miracles.

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Fig.31 Mallet from the Old Kingdom [36].

Fig.36 shows two stone pounders, one from the first dynasty in (a) located in the Heckscher Museum of Art of NY and manufactured from pink breccias and has a flat base and smooth spherical body[39]. The other pounder in (b) is from the Old Kingdom and exhibited in Michael Carlos Museum [40]. It has a flat base and a hemispherical body to ease holding it by hands without harming the labors.

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- Stone hammers: They used stone hammers to deal with hard rocks as depicted from the scene shown in Fig.33 for two sculptors dressing a statue [37]. Fig.34 shows an actual complete stone hammer located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and returns to the age of King Amenemhat I (the 1st King of the 12th dynasty) [36].

(a) From the 1st dynasty [39]. (b) From the Old Kingdom [40]. Fig.36 Granite hammers

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Fig.33 Stone hammer in use [37]. - Geometrical measurements and adjustment: The ancient Egyptians were able to measure and adjust accurately dimensions through some primitive instruments. They used measurement scales for the river line level from the rein of King Djer (the 3rd King of the first dynasty). They used the royal cubit from the era of the Old Kingdom during the rein of King Zoser (the founder of the 3rd dynasty) [41]. Those generous people designed and used scales for measuring linear dimensions from few mms to as long as 10 km [42]. Fig.37 shows a typical ancient Egyptian cubit located All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARMATE

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Torino of Italy[47] .

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in the Petrie Museum [42]. Another wonderful royal cubit model displaced in the Louvre Museum of Paris is shown in Fig.38 [43]. It has 7 large divisions, each divided into 4 subdivisions, each divided into 14 divisions. With the royal cubit length of 523 mm, the resolution of this cubit is 1.33 mm.

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Fig.39 Protractor of architect Kha of the 18th dynasty [47]. Fig.37 Ancient Egyptian cubit [42].

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Fig.37 Royal cubit at Louvre Museum [43].

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Another important tool used in adjusting the flatness of stone surfaces is the boning rods. Its use is authorized by a scene from the tomb of Rekhmire, the vizier of Pharaoh Thotmose III of the 18th dynasty shown in Fig.40 [36]. A typical boning rods device located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art of NY found in the Hatshepsut temple at Deir el-Bahari (18th dynasty) is shown in Fig.41 [36]..

Fig.40 Sculptors working with boning rods [36].

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Furthermore, they have designed set squares and plumps to adjust corners , horizontal and vertical surfaces. Fig.38 shows a set of such instrumentation from the tomb of Sennedjem the high official responsible for the excavation and decoration of the nearby royal tombs in the reins of Seti I and Ramsis II of the 19th dynasty [44], [45]. (a) is a set square graduated from both sides. It adjusts exactly a 90 degrees angle and measures distance in two perpendicular directions. (b) is a set square – plump for adjusting horizontal surfaces. (c) is a plump for adjusting vertical surfaces.

Fig.41 Boning rods from the 18th dynasty [36].

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(a) (b) (c) Fig.38 Adjusting corners and surfaces in the 19th dynasty [44].

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Regarding mating surfaces with angles other than the 90 degrees, the architect Kha, who was the overseer of works in Deir El-Medina in the mid- 18th dynasty during the rein of Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III [46] invented a protractor found in his tomb. The protractor is shown in Fig.39 as displayed in the Egyptian Museum at

VII. CONCLUSION - The paper tried to trace some features of stone cutting processes in ancient Egypt. - It presented samples of ancient Egyptian cutting of granite and basalt hard stones. - It discussed the ability of ancient Egyptians to produce accurately contoured granite blocks. - It presented samples of producing corner filleting of stone mating surfaces of hard stones.

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[14] “Stone saws”, www.theglobateducationproject.org/egypt/articles/hrdfacts.bh p [15] “The third pyramid, Giza”, http://world-pyramids.com/en/world-pyramids/africa/egypt-pyramids/ giza-plateau/third-pyramid-giza.html#.VwTEkPl97IU

REFERENCES

L. Gorelik and A. Gwinnett, “Ancient Egyptian quarries- an illustrated overview”, Geological Survey of Norway Special Publication, vol.25, issue 3, pp.40-48, 1983. [2] D. Klemm and R. Klemm, “The building stones of ancient Egypt a gift of its geology”, African Earth Sciences, vol.33, pp.631-642, 2001. [3] S. Nishimoto, S. Yoshimura and J. Kondo, “Hieratic inscriptions from the quarry of Qurna: an interim report”, British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan, vol.1, pp.20-31, 2002. [4] O. Lavigne, “Tool marks and construction in ancient Tanis”, Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Construction History, Queen’s College, Cambridge University, 29th March-2nd April, vol.2, pp.1883-1900, 2006. [5] P. Storemyr et. al., “Risk assessment and monitoring of ancient Egyptian quarry landscapes”, Quarryscapes Report, INCO-CT-2005-015416- Project: Quarryscapes., December 2007. [6] A. La Loggia, “Egyptian engineering in early dynasties period: The sites of Saqqara and Helwan”, British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan, vol.13, pp.175-196, 2009. [7] S. Saraydar, “The Egyptian drill, a unique dual mode device”, Ethnoarchaeology, vol.4, issue 1, pp.37-52, 2012. [8] E. Ayad, “Drilling look and stone vessels of Heit el-Ghurab”, Master of Arts Thesis, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology and Egyptology, The Americal University in Cairo, December 2014. [9] T. Heldal and P. Storemyr, “Fire on the rocks: Heat as an agent in ancient Egyptian hard stone quarrying”, in Engineering geology for society and territory, Edited by G. Lollino et. al., Springer International Publishing, vol.5,, 2015. [10] C. Dunn, “Advanced machining in ancient Egypt, Page 1”, www.theglobal educationproject.org/egypt/articles/cdunn-1.bhp [11] C. Dunn, page 8.. [12] C. Dunn, “Prehistoric machined artifacts”, http://gizapower.com/pma/index.htm [13] K. Carr, “What is basalt ?”, http://quatr.us/geology/rocks/ingeous/basalt.htm

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[16] https://www.google.com.eg/search?q=%D8%B7%D8%B1%D 9%8A%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D8%A7%D9 %87%D8%B1%D8%A9+%D8%A7%D8%B3%D9%8A%D9 %88%D8%B7+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D8%AD%D8 %B1%D8%A7%D9%88%D9%8A+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8 %B4%D8%B1%D9%82%D9%8A&espv=2&biw=1366&bih= 677&tbm=isch&imgil=bDmeEJyy5QWKnM%253A%253BV gxSjWsXZigIvM%253Bhttp%25253A%25252F%25252Fassi utdotcom.blogspot.com%25252F2011%25252F01%25252Fbl og-post_828.html&source=iu&pf=m&fir=bDmeEJyy5QWKn M%253A%252CVgxSjWsXZigIvM%252C_&usg=__4IG0Prt Mf_6CXBu1HiWPufecEsI%3D&dpr=1&ved=0ahUKEwjFmt SumPfLAhWLWxQKHaP-AOYQyjcIXw&ei=KIYDV8XmFIu 3UaP9g7AO#imgrc=syN0-8s85tPrNM%3A [17] http://cdn.timesofisrael.com/uploads/2015/07/F140611ZEL10 1-e1435901645926.jpg [18] “Egyptian stone vases – the smoking gun in the advanced technology debate”, http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread903566/pg1 [19] D. Stocks, “Stone working technology in Ancient Egypt”, Routledge, p.146, 2003. [20] D. Stocks, p.139. [21] D. Stocks, p.147. [22] A. Solenhofen, “Ancient Egyptians stoneworking tools and methods”, http://www.oocities.org/unforbidden_geology/ancient_egyptia n_stone_vase_making.html [23] D. Stocks, “p.151. [24] R. Richards, “What was the purpose of the granite coffer ?”, www.rickrichards.com/egypt/Egypt7_coffer.html [25] W. Petrie, “Pyramids and temples of Gizeh”, Histories and Mysteries of Man Ltd., London, p.75, 1990. [26] C. Dunn, “Advanced machining in ancient Egypt, http://www.gizapower.com/Advanced/Advanced%20Machinin g.html [27] C. Dunn, “Adaptation from lost technologies of ancient Egypt: Advanced engineering in the temples of the Pharaohs”, www.gizapower.com/LoTeAnArticle.htm [28] C. Dunn, “Advanced machining in ancient Egypt, Page 8”, www.theglobaleducationproject.org/egypt/articles/cdunn-8.ph p [29] “A brief history of woodturning”, www.turningtools.co.uk/history2/history-turning2.htm/ [30] The Global Education Project, “Mechanical methods- Petrie comments”, www.theglobaleducationproject.org/egypt/articles/petrie.php [31] C. Dunn, “Advanced machining in ancient Egypt, Page 2”, www.theglobaleducationproject.org/egypt/articles/cdunn-2.php [32] The Global Education Project, “Lathe turned stone”, www.theglobaleducationproject.org/egypt/articles/hrdfact3.php [33] F. Lohner, “Cutting granite with bronze or iron tools ?”, www. www.cheops-pyramide.ch/khufu-pyramid/stone-cutting.html, 2006. [34] University College London, “Chisels”, www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/tools/chisel.html, 2002. [35] D. Harper, “Online dictionary”, www.dictionary.com/browse/mallet , 2010. [36] D. Arnold, “Building in Egypt, Pharaonic stone masonry”, Oxford University Press, Chapter VI, 1991. [37] A. Solenhofen, “Rock properties and their importance to stoneworking ….by ancient Egyptians”, www.oocities.org/unforbidden_geology/rock_properties.htm , 2003. [38] “Primary meaning of pounder”, www.vocabolary.com/dictionary/pounder , 2016. [39] “An Egyptian stone polisher, early dynastic period”, www.sandsoftimmedc.com/products/es1309

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- They used sawing, drilling and lathe turning processing to cut hard stones. - They invented two types of stone drilling equipment, one for hole and the other for tube stone cutting starting from the Old Kingdom. - They used stone saws of length up to 2.4 m and thickness up to 5.1 mm. - They could cut granite boxes up to 90 ton mass and 3.96 m length having surface flatness better than 0.005 mm located in the Serapeum of Saqqara. - An American stone corporation announced that it did not have the equipment and capability to produce the Saqqara granite boxes. - They used stone turning machines to produce very complex stoneware. - They used scales for dimensions measurement since the 3rd dynasty. They could design dimension measurement devices to measure dimensions from 1.3 mm to 10 km. - They invented instruments to measure and adjust right and other angles and adjust flatness of surfaces in both horizontal and vertical directions.

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[40]

“An Egyptian stone pounder from Giza, Old Kingdom”, www.sandsoftimmedc.com/products/ex1501 [41] Wikipedia, “Cubit”, www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/cubit , 2016. [42] University College, London, “Measuring length in ancient Egypt”, www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/weights/lenght.html, 2002. [43] World-wide Flood, “References for cubits from around the world”, http://worldwideflood.com/ark/noahs_cubit/cubit_references.htm [44] Pinterest, www.pinterest.com/pin/518476975831588143/ [45] Wikipedia, “Sennedjim”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sennedjim , 2016. [46] Wikipedia, “TT8”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TT8 , 2016. [47] A. Spravigna, “The architect Kha’s protractor”, Archaeogate, vol.28, 4 pages, 2011.

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• Published more than 170 research papers in international journals and conferences. • Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. • Chief Justice of International Journal of Computer Techniques. • Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including IJARMATE. • Reviewer in some international journals. • Scholars interested in the author's publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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BIOGRAPHY

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Galal Ali Hassaan: • Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. • Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. • Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. • Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. • Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering.

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 April 2016

Galal Ali Hassaan

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XIII: Stone Vessels (Predynastic to Old Kingdom Periods)

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Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

amphora, fish flask, bag-shaped jar, spouted dish and monkey jar [3].

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ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to investigate the development of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through its stone vessels industry. This study covers the time

Mallory (2000) stated that the origin of predynastic basalt vessels was Northern Egypt, and during the first dynasty the rulers gained control over the basalt vessel industry. She prepared a catalogue of basalt vessels covering 583 vessels [4]. Bevan (2004) studied the role of Egyptian stone vessels as an important piece of evidence of early cultural contact in the Aegean. He addressed the thorny issue of Predynastic – Old Kingdom vessels found unstratified or much later Bronze Age Aegean contexts [5]. Raffaele (2005) stated that as early as the Badarian and Naqada I cultures of Middle and Upper Egypt, stone vessels started to be deposited in certain tombs. These vessels were used to contain costly substances such as perfumes, unguents, oils , beverages and food [6].

Keywords –Mechanical engineering history,

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period from the Predynastic Period to the Old Kingdom Period. The features and innovation of the available stone vessels in those periods are investigated. The material, dimensions, location and shape are stated wherever possible.

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stone vessels industry in ancient Egypt, Predynastic to Old Kingdom periods.

INTRODUCTION

The ancient Egyptians required using vessels for their daily life and funeral purposes. The rock-raw material is available in too many locations in Egypt. Thus, the Egyptian man thought to use those free materials to manufacture his vessels from very early times. Because he was an ingenious human being he could produce stone vessels of wonderful designs and from both soft and hard stones.

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Limme (2008) presented the Belgian archaeological research in Elkab district 15 km North to Edfu and opposite to Kom el-Ahmar. Among the findings was a number of calcite vessels from Naqada III cemetery [7]. Harrel and Storemyr (2009) stated that over 200 quarries discovered in the Nile Valley and Eastern desert (with some in the Western desert) covering about 3500 years from Late Predynastic to Late Roman Periods. Among some artifacts produced from those quarries are three anorthosite gneiss vessels and three travertine jars located in the Louvre Museum of Paris [8]. Pommerening, Marinova and Hendrickx (2010) studied the association of the water-lily with architect and art in ancient Egypt. They stated that large quantity of different types of objects during the Middle and New Kingdoms were decorated with water-lilies. They presented some vessels of stone and faience from the early dynastic period bassed fully on the water lily. The ancient Egyptians produced stone vessels with different colors through using different stones representing the colors of the plant [9].

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Lilyquist (1995) studied the Egyptian stone vessels from the time of Kian to the time of Thutmosis IV. She presented the vessels functions, provenance, source, features and catalogue items from 15th to 18th dynasties [1]. McGovern et. Al. (1997) studied the beginning of winemaking and viniculture in ancient near east and Egypt. They presented samples of wine jars from Iran and Egypt including stone vessels [2]. Newman (1998) stated that many ceramic and stone vessels found in museums were originally made to hold organic materials such as foodstuffs, cosmetics and perfumes. He took vessel samples from the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston, the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY including duck flask, pot with monkeys, two monkeys jar, 14

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume22 April 2016 Abdel Kader and Mohammed (2013) stated that - Fig.2 shows a basalt jar manufactured ancient Egyptians used a lot of stones for their life during Naqada I Period (4400-3500 BC) like: limestone, sandstone, granite and alabaster. and located in the Louvre Museum of They showed that alabaster vessels belonging to the Paris. [15]. It has an open mouth, round fist and second dynasties in Atfiyah Museum Store small rim, ovoid long body (280 mm exposed to deterioration factors in the burial and length), medium flat base with medium exposure environment such as pressure, foot and two small handles cut with the temperature, humidity and salts. The alabaster vessels were conserved at the restoration laboratory body. in Atfiyah Museum Store by cleaning, consolidation, assembling and completion [10]. Ayad (2014) presented an overview for the different stone vessel typologies. He outlined a catalog for Heit el-Ghurab stone vessels covering bowls, jars, miniature vessels and body part fragments [11]. Bonadies (2014) reviewd some soft stone vessels at the Louvre Museum in Paris. She outlined the links existed between these soft stone vessels and the ceramic production of SyroPalestinian and Levantine area [12]. Hassaan (2016) studied the techniques used by ancient Egyptians to cut stones for artifacts production including vessels. He presented the use of stone sawing, drilling and turning in the cutting process. He also presented other tools used in stone cutting by the ancient Egyptians and led to very accurate Fig.2 Basalt jar from Naqada I [15]. cuts and dimensions [13]. -

PREDYNASTIC STONE VESSELS

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The ancient Egyptians in a very early period could manufacture stone vessels from different stone materials. Here are some examples: - Fig.1 shows a jar manufactured from breccias stone by the Badarians of ancient Egypt (5000-4000 BC) [14]. It is located in Brooklyn Museum and has a maximum diameter of 185 mm. It has wide mouth, flat rim, semi-spherical body and two semi-cylindrical handles for purpose of hanging. It is self decorated by the colors strands of the stone itself and it is clear that it was polished.

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Fig.3 Tall basalt jar from Naqada I [15]. -

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Another model of basalt jars from Naqada I is shown in Fig.3 [15]. The design is different than that in Fig.2 of the same period. The rim is wide and flashing out, the body is almost cylindrical with little curvature near the base and lengthy (428 mm), there is a swallow near the top for hanging and the base is round.

Fig.1 Badarian breccias jar [14].

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A new design of a travertine vessel manufactured during the Naqada II Period (3500-3200 BC) is shown in Fig.4 and located in Petrie Museum of UK [15]. It simulates a pig and has a wide mouth with rim flashing inside, ovoid body, large flat base and holes for hanging.

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Another wonderful model from the Naqada III Period is shown in Fig.7 which is a cosmetic vessel taking the form of a frog and located in the British Museum [17]. The mouth is medium, the neck is short, the body is hemi-spherical, the rim flashing out, the base is the four legs of the frog and it has two hanging handles integrated with the body. The colors are natural and the surface is polished.

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A second model from Naqada II is a porphyritic stone vessel shown in Fig.5 [16]. It has a medium mouth with small round rim, ovoid body, flat medium base and two small handles cut with the body. The surface is completely polished.

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Fig.6 Theriomorphic vessel from Naqada III [15].

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Fig.4 Travertine vessel from Naqada II [15].

Fig.7 Breccia frog-vessel from Naqada III [17].

Fig.5 Porphyritic stone vessel from Naqada II [16]. -

Now, we move to the Naqada III Period (3200-3000 BC) where we have a number of fantastic models of stone vessels. Fig.6 shows a duck-shaped theriomorphic vessel located in the British Museum [15]. It has a small mouth, wide flat rim, gradually size-changing body simulating the duck, round base and two small handles for hanging. The vessel is naturally colored and neatly polished.

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The last model from Naqada III is a limestone jar displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown in Fig.8 [18]. It has a medium mouth, flat rim flashed outside, small neck, ovoid body, medium flat base and two small handles for hanging. It seems that it is decorated by painting and engraving the outside body surface and using about three colors.

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Fig.8 Limestone jar from Naqada III [18].

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A third strange and amazing tri-lobed disc manufactured from a very fragile and delicate schist stone located in the Egyptian Museum is shown in Fig.11 [22].

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Fig.10 Small cavity alabaster bowl from the 1 st dynasty [21].

EARLY-DYNASTIC STONE VESSELS

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The early dynastic period covers the first and second dynasties of ancient Egypt from 3100 to 2686 BC [19]. The wonderful design and manufacturing technology of stone vessels in the Predynastic Period continued to appear in the Early Dynastic Period of the ancient Egyptian history as illustrated in the following examples: - Fig.9 shown an alabaster bowl from the first dynasty [20]. It has a round vertical rim and medium flat base. It is naturally decorated by the colored layers of the alabaster itself. -

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Fig.11 Schist lobed disc from the 1st dynasty [22]. This strange unit has a 610 mm diameter and 106 mm height [22]. It has three lobes bent vertically and had a curved triangular shape. It has a tube shaft in the center and a rind at the circumference. If it is a metallic unit we would say how they could manufacture it 5000 years ago. But how they do this using a fragile and delicate stone ?. It is a mysterious work from the old Egyptians. Egyptologists have paid good effort to know the application of this unit. Some of their opinions: It is a car steering wheel, it is a flamed oil lamp, it is for a religious purpose [22]. As a mechanical engineer, I add to the suggestions of the Egyptologists that this unit may be a rotor for a certain type of centrifugal pumps. The tube in the center is to connect the driving shaft. Extensive analysis and/or experiments are required to prove this conclusion.

Fig.9 An alabaster bowl from the 1st dynasty [20]. Fig.10 shows another alabaster bowl of completely different design than that in Fig.9 [21]. It has a small cavity in the middle, wide round rim with recess in its middle. It has a unique orange color. The cavity is filleted as it meets the rim.

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Now we move to the second dynasty of the Early Dynastic Period and present a spherical jar manufactured from andesite porphyry and displayed in the British Museum. It is shown in Fig.12 [15]. It has

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We have more wonderful vessels from the Early Dynastic Period with dynasty not exactly assigned. Fig.13 shows an andesite porphyry jar [23] . It has an ovoid body, medium mouth, round rim, medium flat base. The decoration is natural and it is highly polished.

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume22 April 2016 a 100 mm height, a medium mouth, rim, large flat base and manufactured from spherical body, flat round rim, point base alabaster. and two gold small handles for hanging. The design of the handles is unique. A semi-tubular piece is integrated with a semi-flat plate rounded to take the shape of the jar body at the place of fixation. The handles are secured to the body using an adhesive since the gold can not be soldered to a rock. No body knows how they could invest this adhesive to survive for thousands of years. Another important point in the manufacturing of this jar is its Fig.14 Concave alabaster vessel [24]. stability. With a point base, to have a stable jar with point base, its centre of - One more wonderful model reflecting the mass has to be exactly above the point high technology used in ancient Egypt to contact which very difficult to maintain, produce stone vessels is displayed in the but the ancient Egyptians did it. Egyptian Museum of Cairo and shown in Fig.15 [25]. They produced this amazing unit from schist which is a hard stone [26]. It has wide mouth, concave body and small flat base. They could carve the body either manual of mechanically using lathe turning [13] to get perfectly a homogeneous concave surface with thickness decreasing to a thickness of a piece of paper at the tip [25].. Fig.12 Porphyry Jar from the 2nd dynasty [15].

Fig.15 Schist tall vase from I-II dynasties [25].

Fig.13 Andesite porphyry jar [23].

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Another model of stone vessels having a different design is shown in Fig.14 [24]. It has a concave body, wide mouth, round 18 www.ijresonline.com

One more model from the late Early Dynastic Period / Early Old Kingdom is shown in Fig.16 [27]. It is manufactured from alabaster and has a medium mouth, medium neck, round flaring rim, ovoid

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume22 April 2016 body, medium base filleted with the body color, round rim, medium flat base with and a strip single handle between the jar internal recess near the bottom leading to rim and its shoulder. It is polished and the the base. decoration is natural through the stone itself.

Fig.16 Alabaster jar with a single handle [27]. A last model from the I-III dynasties is a miniature granite Kohl pot which is a collection of the Czech diplomat Stanislav Kovar and shown in Fig.17 [28]. It has a 60 mm height, small mouth, semispherical body, round flanged rim, short neck and medium flat base. The question is that how can they control their available machines to produce such small objects using the hard granite ?.

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Another bowl manufactured from calcite and has more complex shape than the bowl of Fig.18 and displayed in the British Museum is shown in Fig.19 [31]. It has a round narrowing rim to prevent liquid splashes, convex body and medium flat base. It is polished and has natural colors of the calcite..

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Fig.18 Travertine bowl from the 3rd dynasty [30].

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Another wonderful model from the 3rd dynasty is a metasiltstone bowl having 380 mm diameter and displayed in the Egyptian Museum and shown in Fig.20 [32]..The rim is corrugated forming five lobes and five spouts. The rim is round, the base is flat and marked internally by a neat engraved circle. This design is very difficult to produce using rock raw material, but they have done it.

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Fig.17 Miniature granite kohl pot [28].

Fig.19 Calcite bowl from the 3rd dynasty [31].

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OLD KINGDOM STONE VESSELS

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The Old Kingdom covers the 3rd to 6th dynasties over the time span from 2686 to 2181 BC [29]. This is the Kingdom of the Pyramids builders, the builders of the huge stone structures, but what is about their small structural objects ? .. What is about their stone vessels ?. Here is the answer. - Fig.18 shows a travertine bowl from the 3rd dynasty displayed in the Ashmolean Museum of Oxford, UK [30]. It has one

Fig.20 Metasiltstone bowl from the 3 rd dynasty [32]. 19

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume22 April 2016 rd The last model from the 3 dynasty is a bowl of the design presented in Fig.20 of semi-cylindrical 300 mm long vessel from the 3rd dynasty displayed in Phoebe Saqqara , manufactured from alabaster and Apperson Hearst Museum of shown in Fig.21 [33]. It has round rim Anthropology, University of California at flourished outside, wide mouth, slightly Berkeley and shown in Fig.23 [35]. The parabolic body and a medium flat base. technique of bending the rim to take the There is no decoration except the natural five lobe shapes producing 5 uniform decorations of the alabaster stone itself. spouts is mysterious. This nowadays can be done to this accuracy only by CNC machine (if available for stone manufacturing). But, the old Egyptians could produce the very accurate uniform and difficult surfaces shown in Fig,23 using a stone material !!.

Fig.21 Alabaster vessel from the 3rd dynasty [33].

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Now, we move to the 4th dynasty (2613-2494 BC) to examine the development of the vessels stone industry during it. This is illustrated through a number of stone vessels models available in the world-museums: - Fig.22 shows a wonderful spouted bowl displayed in the Cleveland Museum of Art, OH, USA and manufactured from anorthosite gneiss [34]. It has a vertical rim of diameter less that the maximum bowl diameter. The design prevents splashing of liquids inside the bowl. The spout is taking a U shape and its top edge is in the level of the maximum diameter of the bowl at its top. It has a hemi-spherical body and a flat base. The surfaces are neatly polished and the decoration is natural through the stone construction itself.

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Fig.23 Geneiss bowl from the 4th dynasty [35].

Now, we move to the 5th dynasty of the Old Kingdom (2494-2345 BC), we have a number of stone vessels highlighting the situation of the stone vessels technology in the Old Kingdom. - Fig.25 shows an alabaster har from the 5th dynasty during the rein of King Djedkare Isesi (2388-2356 BC) [37]. It has a wide moth with round lib flourished outside

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One more stone vessels model from the 4th dynasty has less quality regarding its surface finish. It is displayed in the Museum of Fine Art of Boston and shown in Fig.24 [36]. The mouth is small, the rim is a narrowing one and the base is flat. The body is almost hemi-spherical with medium flat base.

Fig.24 Stone bowl from the 4th dynasty [36].

Fig.22 Spouted bowl from the 4th dynasty [34]. -

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Another wonderful model from the 4th dynasty is a 200 mm diameter geneiss 20

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume22 April 2016 with a flange, semi-conical body, flat base with large fillet between the base and jar body.

Fig.25 Alabaster jar from the 5th dynasty [37].

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A second model of stone vessels in the 5th dynasty is a stone bowl displayed in the National Museum in Prague and shown in Fig.26 [38]. It has a wide mouth, round rim and a spherical sector body. It is polished and the decoration is natural through the structure of the bowl material.

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Now, we move to the last dynasty of the Old Kingdom, dynasty 6 (2345-2181 BC). We have good number of models oriented to this dynasty as illustrated below. - Fig.28 shows a 145 mm height alabaster jubilee vessel of King Pepi I of the 6th dynasty located in the Walters Art Museum of USA [40]. The vessel has a wide mouth, round rim flourished outside, conical body, flat base flourished outside for better stability and filleted with the body with a large fillet.

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Fig.27 (b) Inscriptions of King Unas vase.

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Fig.26 Stone bowl from the 5th dynasty [38]. - The last model from the 5th dynasty is an alabaster vase belonging to King Unas and displayed in the Louvre Museum of Paris and shown in Fig.27 (a) [39]. The vase has a small mouth, round rim flourished outside, short neck, spherical body and medium flat base. It has inscriptions of the upper half of the body as zoomed in Fig. 27 (b) including the Cartouche of the King .

Fig.28 Alabaster jubilee vessel of King Pepi I [40].

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Fig.27 (a) Alabaster vase of King Unas [39].

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The second model from the 6 th dynasty is an alabaster spouted jar shown in Fig.29 [41]. It has a wide mouth, round rim, ovoid body, medium flat base and a spout in the top 40 % of the body. The spout has a V shaped output orifice while its body has a U-shape. This may be to restrict the flow rate through the spout and give it a specific flow shape.

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Fig.31 (a) King Pepi I alabaster jar [43].

Fig.31 (b) Jar inscriptions. Fig.29 Alabaster spouted jar from the 6th dynasty [41].

The manufacturing of stone vessels in the periods from the Predynastic to Old Kingdom of ancient Egype was investigated. This investigation covered stone vessels from Badarian, Naqada I, Naqada II and Naqada III Periods. In the era of Ramses VI of the 20 th They could produced highly sophisticated stone jars during the Predynastic Period using limestone, travertine, basalt, breccias and porphyrtic stones. They could produce vessels simulating birds such as a duck and animals such as frog and pig. They designed their stone vessels with the feature of hanging possibility using small handles or holes in the body from the Predynastic Period. Natural decoration took place through the structure of the stone itself and high and accurate degree of polishing even for the small parts of the vessel. During the Early Dynastic Period (1st and 2nd dynasties), they produced stone vessels using alabaster, schist, porphyry and granite. Wonderful stone vessels with excellent design and production appeared during the Early Dynastic Period including a strange 3-lobed schist disc of unknown function. In the 2nd dynasty, they succeeded to produce a stable porphyry spherical jar with point base and gold handles adhered to the jar stone body. It was a mysterious engineering work. In the Early Dynastic Period, they produced stone vessels without handles, with one handle and with two handles. In this period they had the mechanical technology to produce a schist vase of a parabolic body with a very small thickness at the mouth (paper thickness )

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Fig.30 Alabaster inverted jar from the 6th dynasty [42]. One more model from the rein of King Pepi I, the 3rd King of the 6th dynasty is an alabaster jar located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art which is shown in Fig.31 (a) [ 43]. It has a medium mouth, round rim, short straight neck, rounded shoulder, semi-conical body and a medium flat base. It is not decorated but inscribed on the shoulder by inscriptions zoomed in Fig.32 (b). The inscriptions are neatly carved on the jar shoulder including the King Cartouche.

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CONCLUSION

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The third model from the 6th dynasty is an alabaster inverted jar located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art of NY and shown in Fig.30 [42]. It has a medium mouth, round rim , ovoid body with large fillet with a flat small base. It has no decoration and the surface is polished.

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Archives of the Photorammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, vol.15, issue 5(W2), 2013, 501-504. [11] E. Ayad, Drilling tools and stone vessels of Heit elGhurab, The Degree of Master of Arts, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology and Egyptology, The American University in Cairo, December 2014. [12] L. Bonadies, Stone jars in the Mediterranean of first millennium BC, The Crossroads II, or There and Back Again, Charles University, Brague, September 15-18, 2014, 21 pages. [13] G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XII: Stone cutting, International Journal of Advanced Research in Management, Archeticture, Technology and Engineering, vol.2, issue 4, 2016, Accepted for Publication. [14] Curator Scorner, Endlessly engaging ancient Egypt, www.coratorscomer.com/2015/12/endlessly-engaging-ancientegypt.html , 2015. [15] A. Solenhofen, Ancient Egyptian stoneworking tools and methods, www.oocities.org/unforbidden_geology/ancient_egyptian_stone _vase_making.html , 2002. [16] Pinterest, Egyptian porphyritic stone vessel, www.pinterest.com/pin/171559067028359111/ [17] British Museum, Cosmetic vessel, www.britishmuseum.org/ research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?object Id=152726&partId=1 [18] Pinterest, An Egyptian nummulitic limestone jar, www.pinterest.com/ pin/493144227921793955/ [19] Wikipedia, Early Dynastic Period (Egypt), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early-Dynastic_Period_(Egypt) , 2016. [20] Pinterest, An alabaster bowl, www.pinterest.com/pin/171559067026841805/ [21] Pinterest, An Egyptian alabaster bowl early dynastic period, www.pinterest.com/pin/436919601324878198/ [22] The mysterious Egyptian tri-lobed disc, 58int.com/phile/page52.htm/ [23] A. Arsenyeva, An Egyptian andesite porphyry jar, www.pintirest.com/pin/380554237236864816/ [24] Sothebys, An alabaster vessel, 1st / 2nd dynasty, www.sothebys.com/ it/auctions/ecatalogue/2008/antiquitiesn08452/lot.100.html , 2008.

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without failure of the vase manufacturing !!. In the 3rd dynasty, they has the mechanical machinery and technology to manufacture stone vessels having corrugated rim providing five spouts !!. During the Old Kingdom, the had the skill and technology to produce miniature cosmetic pots from hard granite as small as 60 mm height. They produced stone vessels in the Old Kingdom with straight, flaring and narrowing rims. In the 4th dynasty, they produced onepiece spouted bowls with spouts having U shape (open channel flow rate). They used different designs in the 4th dynasty to control liquid splashing from stone bowls. Wonderful corrugated-rim-bowls with five spouts were also produced in the 4th dynasty. In the 5th dynasty, they used engraved inscriptions on royal stonewares. In the 5th dynasty, royal stoneware carried engraved inscriptions with black color survived for thousands of years. Spouted stone jars continued to appear in the 6th dynasty with spout modification. Inverted jar design appeared during the 6 th dynasty of the Old Kingdom.

REFERENCES

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[1] C. Lilyquist, Egyptian stone vessels: Kian through Thutmosis IV, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, 1995. [2] P. McGovern, U. Hartung, V. Badler, D. Glusker and L. Exner, The beginnings of wine making and viniculture in the ancient near east and Egypt, Expedition, vol.39, issue 1, 1997, 321. [3] R. Newman, Organic residues from Egyptian blue anhydrite duck flasks and other anhydtite vessels, Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol.33, 1998, 49-55. [4] L. Mallory, Predynastic and first dynasty Egyptian basalt vessels, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, University of Toronto, Canada, 2000. [5] A. Bevan Emerging civilized values ? The consumption and imitation of Egyptian stone vessels in EMIIMMI Crete and wider eastern Mediterranean context, In Emergence of civilization revised, by J. Barrett and P. Halstead (Editors), Oxbow, Oxford, UK, 2004, 107-126. [6] F. Raffaele, Stone vessels in early dynastic Egypt, Cahiers Caribeens d'Egyptologie, No. 7-8, 2005, 12 pages. [7] L. Limme, Elkab, 1937-2007: seventy years of Belgian archaeological research, British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan, vol.9, 2008, 15-50. [8] J. Harrel and P. Storemyr, Ancient Egyptian quarries- an illustrated review, Geological Survey of Norway Special Publication, vol.12, 2009, 7-50. [9] T. Pommerening, E. Marinova and S. Hendrickx, The early dynastic origin of the water-lily motif, Chronique d'Egypte, vol.85, 2010, 14-40. [10] R. Abdel Kader and S. Mohammed, The restoration and conservation of Egyptian alabaster vessels from the early

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[25] The Global Education Project, Lathe turned stone housewares, www.theglobaleducationproject.org/egypt/articles/hidfacts.php [26] Flexible Learning, Schist, http://flexiblelearning.auckland.ac.nz/rocks_minerals/rocks/schi st.html [27] B. Bryant, An Egyptian alabaster handled jug, www.pinterest.com/pin/542442348930750/ [28] Live Auctioneers, An Egyptian early dynastic granite kohl vessel, www.liveauctioneers.com/item/42633426_egyptian-earlydynastic-granite-kohl-vessel [29] Wikipedia, Old Kingdom of Egypt, http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Kingdom_of _Egypt , 2016. rd [30] 3 dynasty travertine bowl from El-Reqaqna, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:3rd_Dynasty_travertin e_bowl_from_El-Reqaqna.jpg [31] Aldokkan, Calcite bowl, 3rd dynasty, www.aldokkan.com/photos/british_museum/13_british_museum .jpg 2 [32] S. Politin, Slate dish 1 Metasiltstone ornamental bowl, www..pinterest.com/pin/364580532311784071/ [33] Antiquities Bibalex, Cylinderical-shaped vessel, http://antiquities.bibalex.org/Collection/Detail.aspx?lang=en&a =696

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume22 April 2016 [34] Bridge Man Images, Spouted bowl, Published more than 170 research papers http://www.bridgemanimages.com/fr/asset/500029/egyptianin international journals and 4th-dynasty-c-2613-2498-bc/spouted-bowl-c-3573-2454-bcconferences. anorthosite-gneiss Author of books on Experimental Systems [35] Almendron, Bowl with turned-in section of rim, Control, Experimental Vibrations and www.almendron.com/artehistoria/arte/culturas/egyptian-art-inEvolution of Mechanical Engineering. age-of-the-pyramids/catalogue-fourth-dynasty/8/ Chief Justice of International Journal of [36] M. Morales, Squat shouldered jar 4th dynasty, Computer Techniques. www.pinterest.com/pin/420664421418398075/ Member of the Editorial Board of a [37] Dexter, An Egyptian alabaster jar, dynasty 5, number of International Journals including www.pinterest.com/pin/469289223649702429/ IJRES.. [38] Commons Wikipedia, Stone bowls, Egypt 2510-2365 BC, Reviewer in some international journals. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stone_bowls,_Egypt,_ Scholars interested in the authors 2510-2365_BC,_151450.jpg publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal [39] Pinterest, Vase on behalf of King Unas, 5 th dynasty, www.pinterest.com/pin/573786808747538284/ [40] Commons Wikipedia, Egyptian jubilee vessel of Pepi I, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Egyptian__Jubilee_Vessel_of_Pepi_I_-_Walters_4128.jpg

[42] D. Mason, Libation jar: Old Kingdom, www.pinterest.com/pin/439382507372694182/

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[41] B. Bryant, An Egypt alabaster jar, dynasty VI, www.pinterest.com/pin/542402348842009171/

[43] Dexter, Jar of Pepi I, Period: Old Kingdom, www.pinterest.com/pin/469289223645754747/

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BIOGRAPHY

Galal Ali Hassaan:

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Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering.

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XIV: Stone Vessels (Middle Kingdom to Third Intermediate Period)

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Galal Ali Hassaan

Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Abstract:

and conservation of Egyptian alabaster vessels in Atfiyah Museum Store. They found that the burial and exposure environment had a severe effect on the coherence of the Egyptian alabaster physical structure causing the collapsing and weakness of the alabaster [5]. Nielsen (2014) investigated the fabric and stylistic parallels of an ovoid bottle from the New Kingdom.in the National Museums Liverpool. He suggested the function of the vessel on the basis of context, parallels and shape [6]. Prevalet and Morero (2015) declared that goldworking, stone vessels industry and the production of faience objects flourished mostly in Crete, Egypt and Levant. They showed that the growth of trade and contacts between the Aegean and the Orient during the second and first millennia BC supported the spread of ideas and finished objects [7]. Hassaan (2016) presented the techniques and technology used by ancient Egyptians to cut hard stones and produce very complex artifacts. He studied how the ancient Egyptians could produce flate stone surfaces with accuracy better than 0.005 mm and measure dimensions as small as 1.3 mm [8]. Hassaan (2016) investigated the development of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through its stone vessels industry. His study covered the time span from Predynastic to Old Kingdom Periods. He investigated the features and innovation of some of the available stone vessels from those periods [9].

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INTRODUCTION Stone vessels are one of the amazing industries in ancient Egypt. They could master completely all types of rocks available in Egypt such as schist and granite. The had the mechanical engineering technology to produce awkward products not only in their times, but even in present days with the highly sophisticated machinery available. Englelbach (1915) presented the excavations at Riqqeh starting in December 1912 and Memphis started in 1913. He presented the stone vases found in graves related to 12th and 18th dynasties [1]. Lilyquist (1995) documented shapes, materials and inscriptions for stone vessels from royal tombs from 15th to mid-18th dynasties. He proposed a cataloque arranged in two parts: medium to large jars and smaller containers [2]. Andrews and Van Dijk (2006, Editors) presented stone vessels from the Predynastic Periods, Early Dynastic Period, Old Kingdom, and New Kingdom. This was within the exhibition of the Egyptian collection of Arnold Meijer whose catalogue was written by an international team of specialists [3]. Bevan (2012) summarized the shapes, materials and decorative pre-occupation that characterise stone vessel traditions in different parts of the eastern Mediterranean during the Bronze and very early Iron Age [4]. Abdel-Kader and Mohammed (2013) presented a case study for the restoration

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The paper investigates the development of the stone vessels industry in Ancient Egypt during the periods from the Middle Kingdom to Third Intermediate Period. The paper presents samples of the stone vessels during those periods and tries to analyze each sample showing its characteristics and location if known. The design of each stone vessel is outlined and the decoration (if any) is investigated. The development aspects of the stone vessels industry is investigated highlighting the innovations of the designs and their manufacturing. The maximum development of stone vessels in the 18th dynasty is outlined with example models from the rein of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. Keywords — Mechanical engineering history, Ancient Egypt, stone vessels, Middle Kingdom to 3 rd Intermediate Period.

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A wonderful stone vessel for cosmetic applications was manufactured from obsidian in the rein of King Amenemhat III, 1918-1884 BC of the 12th dynasty located in the Cleveland Museum of Art is shown in Fig.4 [14]. It has a wide mouth, flared round flanged rim, convex body and flat flared base. What is new in this design is inlaying the rim and base with gold sheet for the first time in the Egyptian stone vessels history. Gold handles ndles we used before in the second dynasty [9].

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The Middle Kingdom comprised rised the 11th and 12th dynasties of ancient Egypt and extended from 2000 to 1700 BC [10]. Most of the models available belongs to the 12th wealthy dynasty. Here are samples of stone vessels manufactured during the Middle Kingdom: - Fig.1 shows an alabaster jar manufactured during the Middle Kingdom of 210 mm height [11]. It has a wide mouth, no neck, round rim, curved shoulder, conical body body, medium flat base and two small handles at the shoulder. The decoration is natural through the alabaster stone itself and the outer surface is polished

A different stone vessel model from the 12th dynasty is a 47 mm height K Kohl pot manufactured from breccia and shown in Fig.3 [13].It ].It has a small mouth, round flared rim, short neck, rounded shoulder, semi-ovoid semi body, flat flared base and natural breccia colours with surface polishing.

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Fig.1 Alabaster jar from the Middle Kingdom [11].

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The ancient Egyptians used limestone in producing some of their vessels as shown in Fig.2 which is located in Petrie Museum of UK[12].

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Fig.2 Limestone vase from the Middle Kingdom [12].

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Fig.3 Breccia Kohl ohl pot from the 12th dynasty [13].

Fig.4 Obsidian cosmetic vessel from the 12th dynasty [14]. - Another high quality royal Kohl pot manufactured from obsidian belonging to princess Sithathoryunet from the 12th Dynasty, reign of King Senwosret II is shown in Fig.5 [15]. It has a wide mouth, flat flared flanged

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rim, round shoulder, convex body, medium flat base and flat lid. The lid, rim and base are shielded by gold sheets in a neat and accurate manner.

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NEW KINGDOM Another cosmetic pot manufactured from an III. th The New Kingdom covers the 18th through 20th anhydrite stone during the 12 dynasty is dynasties over the time span 1570 – 1069 BC shown in Fig.6 [16]. It has a wide mouth, [18]. This period of the Egyptian history had flared round rim, convex body, flared flat strong Pharaohs, strong economic and wide base flat round lid with round rim. It has one territories of the Egyptian Empire. Therefore, we colour and the surface is polished. are expected to see the reflection of this political situation on the technology of stone vessels production. Most of the models of stone vessels available relate to the 18th dynasty. This is logical because it was the most wealthy dynasty during this period.

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Fig.5 Obsidian Kohl pot of Sithathoryunet [15].

Fig.7 Anhydrite cosmetic vessel from the 12th dynasty [17].

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Another model of Kohl vessels manufactured from anhydrite is shown in Fig.7 [17]. It has a wide mouth, flanged rim, concave body, medium flat base and a three-stages unique lid. The first and last stage of the lid are flat while the medium one is concave. The surface is highly polished.

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Fig.6 Anhydrite cosmetic pot from the 12th dynasty [16].

Fig.8 shows a 383 mm height canopic jar manufactured from alabaster and belongs to the elder daughter of Pharaoh Akhenaten of the 18th dynasty [19]. The jar has medium mouth, round shoulder, conical body, medium flat base. It has a lid taking the shape of the deceased.

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Fig.8 Alabaster canopic jar of Akhenaten daughter [19]. http://www.ijetjournal.org

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Another model from the 18th dynasty is a calcite jug from the rein of Pharaoh Thutmose III is shown in Fig.11 [22]. The jug has a good mechanical design and production. It starts with a medium mouth with a flared round rim, a long cylindrical neck, ovoid body, medium flared flat base and a single large handle. The applied technology is high because of the complexity of the design and the good finishing of the product.

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Another model of canopic jars was manufactured from lime stone and highly decorated is shown in Fig.9 [20]. It has a wide mouth, an ovoid body, a small flat base and an accurately produced lid having the shape of Anubis. It is clear that they have painted the lime stone with a light brown colour while the lid is painted by a dark brown. A part of the body is divided into a number of vertical bands in which ancient Egypt text is written using the hieroglyphic script.

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Fig.11 Calcite jug from the 18th dynasty [22]. A different calcite model from the same rein of Pharaoh Thutmose III is located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art of NY and shown in Fig.12 [23]. It has a medium mouth, flanged flared round rim, cylindrical long neck, ovoid body, small flat base and a flad disc lid. The lid and rim are decorated by a gold band and the surfaces are highly polished.

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Another application of stone vessels is an alabaster vessel having a 454 mm diameter and 331 mm height manufactured during the 18th dynasty is shown in Fig.10 [21]. It has a mouth of the body diameter, round rim , cylindrical body flanged at the middle and a flat base of the body diameter. There is an internal recess facing the external flange.

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Fig.9 Limestone canopic jar from the 18th dynasty [20].

Fig.12 Calcite bottle from the 18th dynasty {23].

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Fig.10 454 mm alabaster vessel from the 18th dynasty [21].

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Another design of tall jars practiced in the 18th dynasty is manufactured from the

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Egyptian alabaster er and shown in Fig.13 [24]. It has a medium mouth, round rim, long concave neck, ovoid body and big flat base. It is decorated by high polishing and 3 bands on the neck from Egyptian faience.

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Fig.15 Steatite vase from dynasty 18 [26,27].

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Another model belongs to Pharaoh Thutmose III of the 18th dynasty which is an a Anhydrite jar having wide mouth and neck located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.14 [25]. The rim is round and inlaid by gold sheet, the neck is wide and has a medium length, the body is ovoid, the base is flat at the end of cylindrical foot.

Another model of stone vessels of the 18th dynasty is again from the rein of Pharaoh Thutmose III found in his three foreign wives tomb and located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art is shown in Fig.16 [28]. It is manufactured from travertine, its lid from limestone, its height is 235 mm, its maximum diameter is 175 mm and its lid is 57 mm diameter [28].. It has small mouth, flanged round rim, short neck, round shoulder , conical body and medium flat base. The shoulder is inscribed by the Pharaoh cartouche.

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Fig.13 Alabaster tall jar from dynasty 18 [24].

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Fig.14 Anhydrite jar from the 18th dynasty [25]. Another model of a stone vase from the rein of Pharaoh Amenhotep III (about 1400 BC) of the 18th dynasty is displayed splayed in Petrie Museum and shown in Fig.15 [26]. It is manufactured from grey steatite [27]. It has wide mouth, flanged round rim, medium length neck, ovoid body, small flat base, two vertical medium handles at the vase shoulder. The vase was highly polished shed and had one black colour.

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Fig.16 Travertine jar from the 18th dynasty [28]. -

Another application of the alabaster stone is a goblet manufactured during the rein of Pharaoh Thutmose III and set in the tomb of his three foreign wives. It is displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art of NY and shown in Fig.17 [29]. It has a flared rim, ri concave body, convex transition to the base neck, concave base neck and a medium flat base. The rim is decorated by a gold ring, the body is highly polished and the body is inscribed by the Pharaoh cartouche.

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Before we move to the rein of Pharaoh Tutankhamun, we take one more model from the rein of his father Pharaoh Akhenaten. It is a travertine perfume bottle located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.18 [30]. It has a small mouth, short neck, ovoid body, concave base-neck neck and a large flat base. The body is designed to simulate a closing flower with decorated base at the base-neck. neck. It has a large flange lid with concave holding stem. It is decorated by a a figure of a princess incess holding the bottle body and inlayed with carnelian, obsidian, gold and colored glass. The princess figure is zoomed in Fig.18.

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Fig.17 Alabaster goblet from the 18th dynasty [29].

Now we present some stone vessels for the wealthy young Pharaoh Tutankhamun. Fig.19 Fig.1 shows a wonderful and highly appreciated mechanical design of an alabaster vase of Pharaoh Tut located in the Egyptian Museum of Cairo [31]. ]. It has a medium mouth, flared round ound rim, long neck, ovoid body, conical base-neck neck and a large flat base. The neck carries the head of Hathor, the body is inscribed by two beasts pertaining to God, the conical base is inscribed by the Pharaoh protocol. The base is supported by two symbolss of 'ankh' one from each side of the conical base neck. The top part including the neck and body is supported by smoothly changing curved strands bounding plant flowers. All this complex structure was carved from a single piece of alabaster stone [31]. This is a marvellous mechanical engineering work. If one draws a vertical centreline for the vase, he will find that it is exactly symmetric as if it was cut using a modern CNC machine !!.

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Fig.19 Alabaster vase of Tutankhamun [31]. -

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Fig.18 Travertine perfume bottle from the 18th dynasty [30].

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Another high quality stone vessel from the tomb of Pharaoh Tut is an alabaster vase of a unique design as shown in Fig.20 [32]. It has a narrow mouth, flared flanged rim, very long neck, conical body, large flat base. The vase has a complex design since it is consisted of two parts cemented to each other [33]. The name of the Pharaoh and his wife is inscribed

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on a large portion of the vase body. The body and a flat base with round flange. It has structure around the neck and body consists two big handles between the neck and of lily and papyrus stems with smooth curved shoulder. The finishing is not good. profiles. Each ach side is hold by a girl wearing a crown from lily and papyrus clusters [33]. The sides of the structure represent a symbol for the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. The base is an alabaster table supporting the alabaster vase. It is decorated by two vultures wearing the Atef Crown and holding the cartouche of the Young Pharaoh Tut. It is a wonderful piece of fantastic design and production from an Egyptian rock with the 14th century BC Egyptian Mechanucal Technology. Fig.21 Alabaster Kohl pot from the 19th dynasty [34].

Fig.22 Alabaster jar from the 19th dynasty [35].

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Fig.20 Pharaoh Tut alabaster vase [32,33]. Now we move to the next dynasty, the 19th dynasty. We have two models to present from this dynasty: The first is an alabaster Kohl pot produced during the 19th dynasty about 1200 BC and shown in Fig.21 [34]. It has a small sm mouth, small neck, flared-flanged flanged-round rim, ovoid body and a flat flanged base. It has a disc round lid.

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Another model from the 19th dynasty is an alabaster jar from rein of Pharaoh Merneptah [35]. It has a wide mouth, round rim, cylindrical neck half alf the jar length, ovoid

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Now, we present some models with undefined dynasty , but referred to the New Kingdom. Such models are sold by tomb-robberies tomb inside Egypt. Fig.23 shows a stone kohl vessel taking the shape of a fish and belongs to the New Kingdom dom (18th – 20th dynasties) [36]. The mouth is small and inclined making about 30 degrees with the horizontal direction. The body is decorated by the fish peel , the tail and the fins with multi colours. The base is a flatted bottom fin of the fish.

Fig.23 Kohl vessel from 18th t 20th dynasties [36].

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Fig.24 Obsidian jar from 18th-20th dynasties [37].

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Fig.26 shows an alabaster jar from the third intermediate period [40]. ]. It has a wide mouth, flared round rim, medium cylindrical rim, ovoid body, round base and two medium handles at the jar shoulder.

Fig.26 Alabaster jar from 3rd Intermediate Period [40]. -

Another model from this period is an obsidian vase manufactured during the 22nd – 23rd dynasties of the 3rd Intermediate Period and shown in Fig.27 [41]. ]. It has a narrow mouth, flared round rim (gold shielded), no neck, parabolic body and small round base. The surface is highly polished.

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IV. THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD This period includes the ancient Egypt Dynasties from the 21st to the 25th and extends over the time span from 1070 to 664 BC [38]. During this period, the Egyptian state became to weakenn and divide between Upper and Lower Egypt. We will see through the models of stone vessels if this political situation affects the stone vessels industry or not. - Fig.25 shows a travertine canopic jar for king Nesibanebdjedet from the 21st dynasty displayedd in the Metropolitan Museum of Art [39]. It has a wide moth, round rim, ovoid body large flat base. The body is inscribed by the Pharaoh data.

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This is the last model from the New Kingdom (18th – 20th dynasties) which is a highly polished obsidian black jar shown in Fig.24 [37]. It has an117 mm height, medium mouth, flared round rim, short ort neck, round shoulder, conical body, concave base ending with a large flat base. The dimensions and manufacturing technique are perfect reflecting the high mechanical technology level of the ancient Egyptians in the New Kingdom.

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Fig.25 Canopic jar from the 21st dynasty [39].

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Fig.27 Obsidian vase from 22nd-23 - rd dynasties [41]. V. CONCLUSIONS The development of the stone vessels industry practiced in the Predynastic Period continued during the succeeded periods of the ancient Egypt History. . Stone vessel models manufactured in the Middle Kingdom showed that they used limestone, alabaster, breccias, obsidian and anhydrite as raw materials. materials They designed and manufactured manufact some of the Middle Kingdom stone vessels with lids.

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REFERENCES

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1. R. Engelbach, "Riqqah and Memphis VI", British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Research Account, 1915. 2. C. Lilyquist, "Egyptian stone vessels: Khian through Tuthmoses IV", The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, 1995. 3. C. Andrews and J. Dijk, "Objects for eternity", Verlag Philipp Von Zabem, Maienz, 2006. 4. A. Bevan, "Wood-worked and metal-shocked: softstone vessels in the bronze and early iron age eastern Mediterranean", In C. Phillips and St. Simpson (Editors), "Softstone in Arabia and Iran", Archaeo Press, 2012.

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5. R. Abdel-Kader and S. Mohammed, "The restoration and conservation of Egyptian alabaster vessels from the early era in Atfiyah Museum Store – Helwan – Egypt", International Archive of the Photogrammetry,Remote Sensing and Spacial Information Sciences, vol.15, issue 5/W2, pp.501-504, 2013 . 6. N. Nielsen, "Some notes on a New Kingdom ovoid bottle in the Liverpool World Museum", The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol.100, 2014. 7. R. Prevalet and E. Morero, "Technological transfers of luxury craftsmanship between Crete and the Orient during the Bronze Age", Le Blog (Hypotheses), 6 fevrier 2015. 8. G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XII: Stone cutting", International Journal of Advanced Research in Management, Architecture, Technology and Engineering, vol.2, issue 4, 11 pages, 2016 (Accepted for Publication). 9. G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XIII: Stone vessels (Predynastic to Old Kingdom)", International Journal of Recent Engineering Research, vol.19, pp.14-24, 2016. 10. Wikipedia, "Middle Kingdom of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Kingdom_of_Egypt , 2016. 11. B. Bryant, "An Egyptian alabaster jar, Middle Kingdom", www.pinterest.com/pin/542402348847425955/ 12. University College London, "Limestone hes-vase", www.ucl.ac.uk/ museumsstatic/ave/detail/details/index_no_login.php?objectid=UC __45755__&accesscheck=%2Fmuseumsstatic%2Fave%2Fdetail%2Fdetails%2Findex.php 13. Royal Athena, "Egyptian Middle Kingdom breccias kohl vase", www.royalathena.com/ PAGES/EgyptianCatalog/Stone/BLN104JE.html 14. J. Claudio, "Cosmotic vessel, Middle Kingdom", www.pinterest.com/pin/563512972096290587/ 15. T. Causey, "An Egyptian anhydrite cosmetic jar", www.pinterest.com/pin/420664421418525754/

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The lids has various designs and sometimes decorated by gold bands. They inlaid some of the Middle Kingdom stone vessels by gold ar rim and base. The revolution of the stone vessels industry was completed in the 18th dynasty of the New Kingdom. During the New Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians used limestone, alabaster, calcite, anhydrite, travertine and obsidian in manufacturing their stone vessels. Wonderful designs took place in the 18th dynasty specially during the rein of the young Pharaoh Tutankhamun. . During the 18th dynasty they could produce stone vessels with complex supporting structure from a single piece of stone and bearing number of important symbols in the ancient Egypt dailylife. They decorated some of the 18th dynasty stone vesels by girl-figures using other materials such as carnelian, gold and glass. They inscribed some of the New Kingdom stone vessels by inscriptions displaying the Pharaoh personal data. They decorated some of the New Kingdom stone vessels using gold and faience bands. Excellent design and production of stone vessels continued up to the 20th dynasty of the New Kingdom. In the Third Intermediate Period, they used alabaster, travertine and obsidian in producing their stone vessels. They inscribed some of the 3rd Intermediate Period stone vessels, highly polished them and used gold-band decoration.

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16. Pinterest, "An Egyptian anhydrite cosmetic jar and lid", www.pinterest.com/pin/552042866793844790/ 17. Pinterest, "An Egyptian anhydrite kohl vessel", www.pinterest.com/pin/562175965964051319/ www.pinterest.com/pin/405886985139679545/ 18. Wikipedia, "New Kingdom of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Kingdom_of_Egypt , 2016. 19. Tour Egypt, "The Egyptian Museum, Amarna canopic jar", www.touregypt.net/egyptmuseum/egyptian_museumP6.ht m 20. Pinterest, "Carved brown limestone canopic jar 18th dynasty", www.pinterest.com/pin/405886985137996538/ 21. Alamy, "Egyptian 18th dynasty alabaster vessel", www.alamy.com/ stock-photo-egyptian-18th-dynastyalabaster-vessel-90849755.html

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Galal Ali Hassaan Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. Published more than 170 research papers in international journals and conferences. Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Justice of the International Journal of Computer Techniques. Member of the Editorial Board of some international journals. Reviewer in some international journals. Scholars interested in the authors publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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22. Josephine, "A calcite jug, 18th dynasty, rein of Tuthmosis III", www. Pinterest.com/pin/493144227923880990/ 23. Josephine, "Bottle and lid naming Thutmose III, 18th dynasty", www.pinterest.com/pin/493144227920681838/ 24. Famous Pharaohs, "Alabaster flask", , www.phamouspharaohs.blogspot.com.eg2014/12/tutankha men-treasures-part-4.html 25. Metropolitan Museum of Art, "Wide-necked jar and lid naming Thutmose III", http://metmuseum.org/art/ collection/search/547632/ 26. University College London, "Sedment tomb 136", www.ucl.ac.uk/museumsstatic/digitalegypt/sedment/archive/uc16559.gif. 27. Flicker, "UC16559: Two handles vase in grey steatite", www.flicker.com/photod/hairyhippy/8206340560 28. Metropolitan Museum of Art, "Inscribed shoulder jar with cartouche of Thutmose III", http://metmuseum.org/art/ collection/search/547629 29. Pinterest, "Goblet, Egyptian alabaster, gold, Upper Egypt", www. pinterest.com/pin/404761085238633382/ 30. Metropolitan Museum of Art, "Perfume bottle in the shape of a hes-vase inlaid with the figure of a princess", http://metmuseum.org/art/ collection/search/543992 31. Pinterest, "Unquent vase from the tomb of Tutankhamun", www.pinterest.com/pin/383720830726210347/ 32. A. Hegab, "Alabaster perfume vase from King Tut tomb", www.pinterest.com/pin/405886985140733382/ 33. Tour Egypt, "Alabaster perfume vase, www.touregypt.net/museum/tut126.htm 34. Alamy, "Lidded limestone container for eye paint, 19th dynasty", www.alamy.com/stock-photo-lidded-limestonecontainer-for-eyepaint-ancient-egyptian-19th-dynasty60240831.html 35. Sothebys, "An alabaster jar, probably period of Merneptah", www.sothebys.com/en/auctions/ecatalogue/2007/antiquitie s-n08373/lot.106.lotnum.html 36. Pinterest, "Egyptian stone kohl vessel in the form of a fish", www.pinterest.com/pin/386535580491347663/ 37. A. Hegab, "An Egyptian obsidian alabastron, New Kingdom", www. pinterest.com/pin/405886985140189573/ 38. Wikipedia, "Third Intermediate Period of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Intermediate_Period_o f_Egypt , 2016. 39. Metropolitan Museum of Art, "Canopic jar inscribed for king Nesibanebdjedet", ", http://metmuseum.org/art/ collection/search/553732 40. B. Brayant, "An Egyptian alabaster jar, 1200-700 BC", www. pinterest.com/pin/542402348842009619/ 41. Pinterest, "An Egyptian obsidian torpedo vase, 3rd Intermediate Period", www. pinterest.com/pin/491244271826708473/

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume26 August 2016

Galal Ali Hassaan

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XV: Faience Industry (Middle Kingdom to Third Intermediate Period)

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Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the development of faience industry in the Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt. Samples of the faience vessels in those periods are presented and investigated looking for their characteristics. Shape, elements and decoration of each vessel are outlined. The design of the decoration scenes is investigated for type, decorated surface and decoration scenes. Also, the location of the vessels in the world museums is assigned (if known).

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faience was mostly blue-green and black. In the beginning of the New Kingdom new colors were added including yellow, white and dark blue [3]. Griffiths (2006) investigated some of the faience vessel fragments discovered during the 2005 excavations at the College sites in Siden. He examined them by non-destructive variable pressure scanning electron microscopy and associated energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The purpose of his work was to improve understanding of the materials and techniques used to manufacture the faience vessels [4].

Keywords – Mechanical engineering history, ancient Egypt, faience industry, Middle Kingdom to New Third Intermediate Period.

Rehren (2008) outlined that faience and glass were made in ancient Egypt using a relatively pure silica source and plant ash as flux. He showed that the application of different techniques to the same raw materials, particularly in faience production, resulted in systematic and significantly different products [5]. Nicholson (2009) described the Egyptian faience and its raw materials and how the ancient Egyptians referred to it depending on its reflective quality like the shiny surfaces of the semi-precious stones. He discussed the coloring and firing at temperature up to 1000 oC [6]. Quirke and Tajeddin (2010) discussed faience production in the 14th century BC at Egypt and its potential for reconsidering the specific trajectories of archetype to prototype and the distribution of the prototype [7]. Stevens (2013) investigated some of the artifacts found during the excavations at the south tombs cemetery. Those included a faience Bes pendant, faience bowl, faience fish pendant and faience finger-ring with papyrus design [8].

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I. INTRODUCTION The ancient Egyptians have known faience since more than 5000 years ago. They have known its formulation and processing techniques leading to wonderful shining products keeping their characteristics for thousands of years. The ancient faience products reflect the level and development of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt. This is the fifteenth research paper in a series aiming at exploring the role of the ancient Egyptians in evolution of mechanical engineering during the history of the mankind.

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Friedman (1998) outlined that about 200 Egyptian faience works are found in 30 public and private collections in US and Europe. He stated that they represent some of Egypt's finest small-scale masterpieces from Late Predynastic to Roman Periods [1]. Riccardelli, Mass and Thornton (2002) studied the Egyptian faience inlay techniques by characterizing the properties of standard reproductions. They made visual comparison between cross-sections of replicated inlays and example of broken ancient Egyptian faience inlays [2]. Hardwick et. Al. (2003) pointed out that in the earlier periods of the ancient Egyptian history

Lo (2014) defined the Egyptian faience as a red colored earthenware decorated with glaze containing tin oxides. She stated that the faience production in ancient Egypt spanned over 5000 years from the Predynastic to the Late Periods. She 1

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume26 August 2016 presented some faience products used by ancient Egyptians such as decorated bowl, funerary figures (shaptis), scarab amulet, figurine of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and cup. She explained the glazing techniques used by the ancient Egyptians [9]. Sparavigna (2015) showed how faience was produced and discussed some methods used for its analysis. She presented faience bowls blue-glazed and decorated located in the Egyptian Museum of Fig.2 Faience feeding bowl from the 12th/13th Turin and the Aegyptisches Museum und dynasties [1]. Another faience model from the Middle Papyrussammling of Berlin and faience shaptis of Kingdom is a cosmetic pot with lid located in the Pharaoh Seti I of the 19th century located in the Pen Museum of UK and shown in Fig.3 [12]. It has Egyptian Museum of Turin. She presented also a blue color, disc-lid with light blue color, wide faience scarab amulets and seals from the New mouth, round rim, small neck, semi-conical bode Kingdom located in the Egyptian Museum of Turin and a medium flat base. Both pot and lid are [10]. decorated by geometric shaped using black color. The neck has a yellow color. II. MIDDLE KINGDOM The Middle Kingdom covers the 11th and 12th dynasties during the time span from 2000 to 1700 BC [11]. Some of the faience vessels from the Middle Kingdom and their characteristics are presented below: - Fig.1 shows a faience pot stand of a man named Hekeku from the 12th dynasty located in the Fig.3 Faience cosmetic pot from the Middle Ashmolean Museum of UK [3]. The stand has a Kingdom [12]. thick round rim, concave body and a flat flared - A faience plate manufactured during the base. The body is inscripted using a black color Middle Kingdom and displayed in the Pen inside a uniform band exactly in the middle of the Museum is shown in Fig.4 [12]. It has a blue color and has perfect circular mouth and stand. complex decorations in black representing plants and geometric shapes.

Fig.1 Faience pot stand from the 12th dynasty [3].

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Fig.2 shows a 35 mm height faience feeding bowl from the 12th / 13th dynasties of the Middle Kingdom and located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art of NY [1]. The bowl has a blue color and decorated by black inscriptions of various animals between wide bands on its body. It has a wide mouth, narrowing round rim, ovoid body, small spout with round feeding orifice and a round base.

Fig.4 Faience plate from the Middle Kingdom [12]. -

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The last model from the Middle Kingdom is a faience bowl with black painted rim shown in Fig.5 [13]. It has a large mouth of maximum bowl diameter painted in black, flat rim, hemispherical body and point base. It is not clear if the bowl is supported by a stand or it has a perfect stability to stand over its point base as practiced before in a stone vessel from the second dynasty of ancient Egypt [14].

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume26 August 2016 BC) shown in Fig.7 (a) [24]. It has a blue color, wide mouth, round rim and extensive decorations in black paintings. The decorations are geometric shapes in the center and lotus scenes on most of the internal surface as clear in the zoomed view of Fig.7 (b).

Fig.5 Faience bowl with painted rim [13]. NEW KINGDOM

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The new kingdom includes the 18th to 20th dynasties covering a time span from 1570 to 1069 BC [38]. This one of the richest and strongest periods in the Egyptian old history. We have seen the great development of mechanical engineering during the New Kingdom, especially the 18th dynasty through studying the industries of furniture {16], pectorals jewellery [17], necklaces jewellery [18], bracelets jewellery [19], Royal Crowns and Headdresses [20], finger-rings [21], and pottery [22]. This means that the mechanical engineering has reached its peak development during the New Kingdom. The question now is: Does this cover also the faience industry? This is what we are going to investigate through the faience vessels models presented below: 18th dynasty: - Fig.6 shows a faience vessel from Akhmim belongs to the early 18th dynasty and displayed in Brooklyn Museum of NY [23].

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(a) Bowl

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(b) Decoration Fig.7 Faience bowl of Hatshepsut[24].

Here, we present a 175 mm length faience cup from the rein of Pharaoh Thutmose III, the 6 th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty located in the Museum of Fine Arts at NY and shown in Fig.8 [25]. It has a round top, flat rim, semiconical body, small flat base and one handle between the rim and cup-shoulder. The cup is decorated by black triangles underneath the rim and spiral shapes in black color at about 40 % of the height from the cup-top.

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Fig.8 Faience cup from the rein of Thutmose III [25]. - The next model is a faience funerary vessel from the tomb of Pharaoh Thutmose IV, the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1400-1390 BC) shown in Fig.9 [26]. The vessel is manufactured from a blue faience and decorated by black paintings. It has a medium mouth, round shoulder, slightly concaved conical body and a large flat base. It has a conical lid of the same color and material. The decorations covers the whole seen surfaces of

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(a) Vessel (b) Decoration Fig.6 Faience vessel from early 18th dynasty [23]. The vessel has a blue color and decorated by black paintings for geometric shapes and plant scenes as zoomed in Fig.6 (b). We have another faience bowl model from the rein of Hatshepsut–Thutmose III (1479–1458

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume26 August 2016 the vessel. The lid is decorated by plant scenes, in Fig.11 [28]. It has a small mouth, flared the shoulder is decorated by geometric shapes round rim, small neck, semi-cylindrical and probably plant leaves. The body is body and a large flat base. It has a blue decorated by different designed scenes in dark color except for the rim which is a vertical bands including the Pharaoh light blue. It has three convex rings just cartouche, fruits and ancient Egyptian after the neck. The body is decorated by symbols. The decorations are extensive and its scenes in black painting including the black color could sustain for thousands of Pharaoh cartouche. years without fading.

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Fig.11 Faience kohl tube of Thutmose IV [28]. -

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Fig.9 Funerary vessel of Thutmose IV [26]. Another model from the rein of Pharaoh Thutmose IV is a faience tall jar of bag-shape located in the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston and shown in Fig.10 (a) [27]. It has a medium mouth, flared round rim, slightly concaved cylindrical neck. Ovoid body and small flat base. The decorations of the blue faience jar are zoomed in fig.10 (b), (c) and (d) for the neck, upper part of the body and its lower part respectively. The decorations are painted in black for geometrical shapes (on the neck and bottom) and lotus flowers and buds on the top part of the body.

Now, we move to the rein of Pharaoh Amenhotep III, the 9th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty. The model we present her is well manufactured faience vessel displayed in the Walters Art Museum of Baltimore and shown in Fig.12 (a) [29]. It has a small mouth, round flared-flanged rim, small cylindrical neck, compound body of conical top and convex bottom and a large flat base. It has a very dark blue and decoration concentrated at the vessel body and represents three cartouches housed in a rectangular frame and belong to the Pharaoh and his Queen Tiye. The inscriptions are in light blue. The other model is manufactured from an orange faience and displayed in the Louvre Museum of Paris [1]. It has similar design to that in Fig.12 (a) except having a decorated lid, wider neck and almost ovoid body. It has the inscriptions on its body of the Pharaoh and Queen cartouches.

(c) (d) Fig.10 Faience tall jar from rein of Thutmose IV [27].

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(a) [29] (b) [1] Fig.12 Faience vessels of Amenhotep III [29], [1]. - We are still with the production of faience vessels in the 18th dynasty. The Egyptians were so clever in designing paints of natural scenes

The last model from the rein of Pharaoh Thutmose IV is a kohl tube found in his tomb in the valley of the kings and shown 4

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume26 August 2016 and scenes of human beings representing flare round rim, medium cylindrical neck, cultures of the society. A model following this ovoid body and flad medium base. The whole conclusion is displayed in the National vessel is decorated on its external surface by Museum of Antiquities of Leiden and shown black painting representing lotus flowers. The in Fig.13 [30]. It is manufactured from a blue triangles at the body boundary with the neck faience and has corrugated rim in a unique belong to the actual bud at its bottom. design. It is decorated by a painting scene with a black paint. The scene is for a musician lady setting on a bellows in a garden and playing a lute and a baboon behind her. The scene fills completely the interior surface of the vessel.

Fig.15 Faience vessel with lotus bud shape [33]. The last model of faience vessels from the 18th dynasty is a nice well-decorated bowl displayed in the Walters Art Museum and shown in Fig.16 (a) [34]. It is manufactured from a blue faience and decorated by a black paint on the whole interior surface. The decoration scene represents two fishes holding lotus flowers and buds in their mouth. The scene is drawn inside a circular boundary from the plant leaves. Another fish and locus decoration scene is shown in Fig.16 (b) [35]. The scene is painted in black color and consists of four fishes inside a central circle perfectly drawn and between the internal circle and an outside circular frame of hatched lines there are four flowers separated by four groups of leaves. The decoration is completely symmetric about the x-y axes of the bowl at its geometric center.

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Fig.13 Faience vessel with female lute player scene [30]. Another model of faience vessels based in its decoration on natural scenes is displayed in Louvre Museum and shown in Fig.14 (a) [31]. The scene is a black painting depending on the water lily of the River Nile. The whole interior surface is full with the scene taking the form of a five wings star exactly in the middle of the vessel. Another model decorated in its external surface is displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and its bottom view is shown in Fig.14 (b) [32]. It is manufactured in the 18th dynasty from blue faience, the base is small flat and has a small neck. The decorations are based on interchanging symmetric geometric shapes in a very accurate manner and applied by a black paint.

(a) Water lily scene [31]. (b) Lotus scene [32]. Fig.14 Faience vessel with plants scenes. A unique model of faience vessels is one simulating a lotus bud and has 159 mm length shown in Fig.15 [33]. It has a medium mouth,

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume26 August 2016 Kingdom is a cup taking the form of a lotus flower displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.18 [37]. The cup has a flared rim, parabolic body, Inverted parabolic base-neck and a flat base. The cup body simulates a lotus flower representing its decoration in a unique blue color. A second model from the 19th dynasty is a marsh bowl displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.19 [38]. It has a blue color and decorated in its interior by black paint around a small circle in the middle. The is probably for plant leaves emerging from the (b) Design 2 [35]. circle at the middle up to the bowl Fig.16 Faience bowl with fish and lotus scene. circumference. Another model is an offering cup of Pharaoh Seti I, the second Pharaoh of 18th / 19th dynasties: the 19th dynasty which is shown in Fig.20 [39]. It has a blue-green glaze with flare rim, semi- Missing data of some artifacts especially their conical body and a flat base. exact date is due to obtaining those artifacts through the sellers of the robbery criminal works inside and outside Egypt. Official excavations help in relating any artifact to its location and historical period. Otherwise, the data are missed. Here, we present some faience vessels related to the 18th/19th dynasties. Fig.17 shows a faience vessel with Bes image decoration displayed in the Ashmolean Museum of Oxford [36]. The vessel has a small mouth, flared round rim, medium neck, spherical body, round base and two thin-big handles between the rim and shoulder. The Fig.18 Cup from the 19th dynasty [37]. whole body is decorated. Bes is drawn winged and carrying a symbol in each hand including the eye symbol in its left hand and the ankh symbol is drawn between his head and hands. Other complex drawing exist on the whole body.

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Fig.19 Bowl from the 19th dynasty [38].

Fig.17 Faience vessel with Bes image based scene [36]. Fig.20 Offering cup of Seti I [39] .

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19th and 20th dynasties: - The first model of faience vessels manufactured in the 19th dynasty of the New

Now, we move to the 20th dynasty where we have a faience offering cup for Pharaoh Ramses III, the second Pharaoh of the 20th dynasty and shown in 6

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume26 August 2016 Fig.21 [40]. It has a corrugated rim, semi-conical body and flat base. It is decorated by scenes in black color painting including the cartouche of the Pharaoh. Another model of offering cups is a royal offering cup from the 20th dynasty and shown in Fig.22 [41]. It has a flare rim, semi-conical body and a flat base. It is decorated by the Pharaoh cartouche and a line of ancient Egypt text.

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Fig.23 Chalice from the 22nd dynasty [42].

Fig.24 Loti form cup from the 22nd dynasty [43]. The cup in Fig.24 is designed in a similar way to that in Fig.23 with variation in the decoration scenes. It is decorated by complex scenes produced through the mold design representing plants, animals and human being.

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Fig.22 Royal offering cup [41].

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Fig.21 Offering cup of Ramses III [40].

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IV. THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD The Third Intermediate Period covers the dynasties from the 21st to the 25th over a time span from 1070 to 664 BC [42]. We have models of faience vessels from both 22nd and 25th dynasties of the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

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22nd Dynasty: - Fig.23 shows a faience chalice from the 22nd dynasty displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art [42]. It has concave body, medium baseneck and a flat circular base. The whole surface of the chalice is decorated externally by lotus plant units and some human-figures. Another model is for a loti form cup displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.24 [43].

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A third model of faience vessels manufactured in the Third Intermediate Period is a faience bowl belonging to the 25th dynasty displayed in Brooklyn Museum of NY and shown in Fig.25 [44]. The vessel has small round rim, parabolic body and a small round base. It is decorated by four bulls and scenes of the lotus plant over the whole body. The last model presented here is a blue faience vase in the form of a baboon displayed in the Ashmolean Museum of Oxford and shown in Fig.26 [45]. It takes the shape of a setting baboon with a wide mouth on the head, round flare rim and a large flat base.

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[3] Fig.25 4 bulls vessel from the 25th dynasty [44].

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[4]

REFERENCES F. Friedman, "Gifts of the Nile: Ancient Egyptian faience", The International Review of Ancient Art & Technology, vol.9, issue 3, pp.8-17, 1998, C. Riccardelli, J. Mass and J. Thornton, "Egyptian faience: a process for obtaining detail and clarity by refiring", Material Research Society Symposium, vol.712, pp. .7.1-II.7.26, 2002.. T. Hardwick, J. McKenzie, A. Reyes, C. Riggs, A. Shortland and H. Whitehouse, "Sackler gallery of Egyptian Techniques: Egypt from the 1st Dynasty to the Byzantine Period", The Ashmolean Museum, 2003. D. Giffiths, "Analysis of Egyptian faience vessel fragments excavated in Sidon in 2005", Archaeology and History in the Lebanon, vol.24, pp.129-137, 2006. T. Rehren, "A review of factors affecting the composition of early Egyptian glass and faience: alkali and alkali earth oxides", Journal of Archaeological Science, vol.35, pp.1345-1354, 2008. P. Nicholson, "Faience technology", in W. Wendrich (Editor), "UCLA encyclopedia of Egyptology", Los Angeles, pp.1-11, March 2009. S. Quirke and Z. Tajeddin, "Mechanical reproduction in the age of the artwork, faience and 5000 moulds from 14th century BC Egypt", SAGE Publications, vol.9, issue 3, pp.341-362, 2010. A. Stevens, "From life to the afterlife: burial goods at the South tombs cemetery", Horizon, issue 13, pp.2-3, Summer 2013. P. Lo, "The history and production of Egyptian faience", History of Technology, SCIE 44, 11 pages, October 2014. A. Sparavigna, "Ancient technologies: The Egyptian sintered-quartz ceramics", Philica, Article Number 426, 10 pages, November 2015. Wikipedia, "Middle kingdom of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Kingdom_of_Egypt , 2016. J. Wegner, "Hidden treasurers: Abydos in the basement", Expedition, pp.43-51, Spring 2014. M. Bommas, "Blue faience bowls and social practice: New light on the use and function", www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/connections/Es says/MBommas.aspx , 2016. G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XIII: Stone vessels (Predynastic to Old Kingdom Periods)", International Journal of Recent Engineering Science, vol.19, pp.14-24, April 2016. Wikipedia, "New Kingdom of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Kingdom_of_Egypt , 2016. G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part I: Furniture industry ", International Journal of Advancement in Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Science, vol.3, issue 1, pp.95121, 2016. G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part II: Jewellery industry (Pectorals)", International Journal of Recent Engineering Science, vol.19, pp.25-32, January 2016. G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part III: Jewellery industry (Necklaces)",, International Journal of Engineering and Techniques, vol.2, issue 1 pp.59-67, 2016.

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume26 August 2016 - Most of the faience vessels were handless, but some appeared handled.

[5]

[6]

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[7]

[8]

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Fig.26 Faience vase from the 25 dynasty [45].

[9]

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[12] [13]

[14]

[15] [16]

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[11]

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[10]

The paper studied the development of the faience industry in ancient Egypt during the Middle Kingdom to the Third Intermediate Periods. Most of the faience vessels during those periods were decorated by natural scenes either internally or externally. Scene-design of the faience vessels used images for animals, human beings, geometric shapes or fish. In some decorations, they combined geometric shapes with flowers. Production quality and decoration scenes reached their top technology during the 18 th dynasty of the New Kingdom. They manufactured some of the funerary vessels from faience and decorated both vessel and lid externally. They used images of some plants available in Egypt such as lotus and water lily. They used also, within their decoration schemes, some of the ancient Egypt symbols such as the 'eye' and 'ankh'. They designed some of their faience vessels to take the shape of 'bag', 'tube', 'lotus bud' , 'lotus flower' and 'baboon'.

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CONCLUSION

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[17]

[18]

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[22]

[23] [24] [25] [26]

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fourbulls”,https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollect ion/objects/3835/Faience_Vessel_with_Procession_of_F our_Bulls [45] Ashmolean Museum, “Molded faience vase”,www.ashmoleanprints.com/image/453754/mouldedfaience-vase-in-the-form-of-the-goddess-taweret

BIOGRAPHY

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[21]

Egypt, Part IV: Jewellery industry (Bracelets)", International Journal of Science and Engineering, vol.2, issue 2, pp.16-30, 2016. G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part V: Jewellery (Royal crowns and headdresses up to the 18th dynasty)", World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, vol.2, issue 2, pp.1-25, 2016. G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part VII: Jewellery (Finger-rings up to the 18th dynasty)", International Journal of Advanced Research in Management, Archeticture, Technology and Engineering, vol.2, issue 4, pp.98-105, 2016. G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part X: Pottery industry (Middle Kingdom to New Kingdom)", International Journal of Science and Engineering, vol.2, issue 4, pp.7-18, 2016. Commons Wikimedia, “Nun vessel - Egypt”, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nun_Vessel_E gypt_reportedly_Akhmem_New_Kingdom_early_18.jpg M. De, “Bowl with lotuses, Egyptian”, www.pinterest.com/pin/313633561530802285/ C. Roehrig (Editor), “Hatshepsut from Queen to Pharaoh”, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, 2005. C. Thornton, “Blue faience Nemset jar with flaring rim”, www.pinterest.com/pin/42291683978980601/

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume26 August 2016 [19] G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient [44] Brooklyn Museum, “Faience vessel with procession of

[27] J. Marie, “Tall, bag-shaped jar with flaring rim”,

Galal Ali Hassaan:

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www.pinterest.com/pin/554294666613833451/

[28] A. Hegab, “Faience tube for eye kohl, dynasty 18",

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www.pinterest.com/pin/40588698514071001/ [29] Wikipedia, "Egyptian faience", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_faience , 2016. [30] J. Anderson, “Death, the great equalizer”, http://blog.britishmuseum.org/category/exhibitions/ancie nt-lives-new-discoveries/ [31] C. Decamps, “Water lily faience vessel”, http://nga.gov.au/journey/noflash/details/bowl.cfm [32] A. Dalton, “Marsh bowl-blue faience with lotus motifs”, www.pinterest.com/pin/556687203921230426/ [33] D. Ortakales, “An Egyptian faience lotus vessel”, www.pinterest.com/pin/33003009741927540/ [34] Walters Art Museum, “Bowl with fish and lotuses”, http://art.thewalters.com/detail/1216/bowl-ewith-fishand-lotuses/ [35] Pinterest, "Bowls, New Kingdom, 18th dynasty", www.pinterest.com/pin/341569952966596964/ [36] Aldokkan, “Faience vessel decorated with a figure of Bes”,www.aldokkan.con/photos/ashmolean/23_ashmole an.jpg [37] O. Bessonova, “Ancient Egyptian faience cup in the form of a blue lotus”, www.pinterest.com/pin/463518986624742346/ [38] M. De, “Marsh bowl, period: dynasty 19”, www.pinterest.com/pin/313633561530802238/ [39] “An Egyptian blue –green faience offering cup for Seti I”, http://www.sandsoftimedc.com/products/ef1552 [40] Artemission, “Faience royal offering cup, 20th dynasty”,www.artemission.com/View/ItemDetails.aspx?It emNumber-25.24 [41] Wikipedia, “Third Intermediate Period of Egypt”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Intermediate_Period_of _Egypt , 2016. [42] R. Menna, “Chalice, Third Intermediate Period, dynasty 22”, www.pinterest.com/pin/354799276863796471/ [43] M. Moore, “Egyptian faience loti form cup, 22nd dynasty”,www.pinterest.com/pin/297589487853833702/

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Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. Published more than 180 research papers in international journals and conferences. Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Justice of International Journal of Computer Techniques. Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including IJRES.. Reviewer in some international journals. Scholars interested in the authors publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

wjert, 2016, Vol. 2, Issue 4, 01 -15

Review Article

ISSN 2454-695X

World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology WJERT SJIF Impact Factor: 3.419

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART XVI: GLASS INDUSTRY (MIDDLE AND NEW KINGDOMS)

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Prof. Dr. Galal Ali Hassaan*

Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering,

Article Received on 14/03/2016

*Corresponding Author

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Cairo University, Egypt.

Article Revised on 04/04/2016

ABSTRACT

Article Accepted on 24/04/2016

This is the 16th research paper exploring the development of

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt. The paper investigates the

Emeritus Professor,

production of glass vessels in ancient Egypt during the Middle and

Department of Mechanical

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Prof. Dr. Galal Ali

New Kingdoms presenting and analyzing samples of this production. It

Design & Production,

Cairo University, Egypt.

traces the materials used in global, the units of each vessel and its

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Faculty of Engineering,

decoration in details. It concentrates on exploring the beauty, excellence and innovation of design, production and decoration. It

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highlights the ancient Egyptian dynasty that could master the glass vessels production and could provide the highest technology in production and decoration. KEYWORDS: History of mechanical engineering, ancient Egypt , glass industry, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom.

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INTRODUCTION

Glass vessels are one of the advanced and sophisticated industries practiced by ancient Egyptians. They could produce glass vessels starting from the Middle Kingdom that had

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outstanding and difficult design and decorated by various scenes of muti-colors and covering the whole vessel. Mc Govern, Fleming and Swann, 1993 outlined that the Egyptians appear to have controlled the silicate industry including the preparation and supply of raw materials and glass and

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faience vessels imported to Palestine from Egypt.[1] Lilyquist and Brill, 1996 announced that

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they discovered that the Metropolitan Museum objects from the tomb of the three wives of Thutmose III in the Wadi Al-Qirud at Luxor had a glass lotiform vessel and two other glass

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vessels. They started a collaborative project at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the

Coring Museum of Glass to build a corpus of early dated glasses.[2] Rehren, 2000 demonstrated that possible two independent melting temperature indicators were correlated, suggesting a factual relationship between melting temperature and melt composition. He used

this evidence to develop a 'partial batch melting model'.[3] Grossmann, 2002 showed that

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through pieces in the Yale collection, it was possible to nearly, the full range of

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technological, stylistic and functional development in the history of glass from its early development in the Bronze Age into late antiquity.[4] Rehren, 2008 argued that there are strong and systematic shifts between plant ash composition and the resulting glass. His work aimed to explore the various factors to raise awareness of the issues involved and to stimulate further research.[5] Nicholson, 2011 outlined that glass in ancient Egypt appeared in the New

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Kingdom (!). He outlined the production techniques in ancient Egypt as forming the vessel around a friable core and the casting of glass in moulds to make solid objects. [6] Hunt, 2012 outlined that the fish was widely considered as a symbol of regeneration and reproductive strength. He presented a the decoration of the tilapia fish glass vessel used as a cosmetic

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bottle manufactured during the rein of Akhenaten of the 18th dynasty.[7] Kikugawa, Abe, Nakamura and Nakai, 2014 applied non-destructive X-ray analyses to

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ancient Egyptian copper-red glass artefacts to investigate the colouring mechanism of the glass and relationship between colouring mechanism and chemical composition. They suggested that the colouring mechanism of copper-red glass changed from crystalline-CU2O colouring to metallic-Cu nano-cluster colouring in ancient Egypt glass production.[8] Klein, 2015 stated that glass was first created in Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt 4500 years ago. He

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outlined also that the glass core-forming process for bead-making was Egyptian and the metal blow pipe was Roman.[9] Bohstrom, 2016 declared that cobalt glass beads found in Scandinavia Bronze Age tombs reveal trade connections between Egyptians and

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Mesopotamia 3400 years ago. He said that the analysis showed that the blue beads buried with women in Denmark were originated from the same glass workshop in Amarna during

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the rein of King Tutankhamun.[10]

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Medium Kingdom

The Medium Kingdom Period covers the 11st to the 12th dynasties over the time period from

displayed in Liverpool Museum of UK. Some of them are presented. -

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2000 to 1700 BC.[11] There are few examples available for some glass vessels from this era

Fig.1 shows a glass vessel manufactured from a dark blue glass and decorated by trails of

yellow and pale blue with two handles one of them broken.[12] It has a medium mouth,

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round flaring rim, medium neck, ovoid body and small flat base.

Fig.1 Glass vessel from the Middle Kingdom.[12] -

The second model is a glass amphora with lid and two handles shown in Fig.2.[13] It is

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manufactured from a dark blue glass and decorated by wavy trails of yellow, green and pale blue colors over its body. It has a medium mouth, round flaring yellow rim, medium undecorated neck except one trail going around its bottom, two undecorated handles

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between the shoulder and middle of the neck, ovoid body and flat base. The lid has a

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round handle and fits exactly inside the rim.

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Fig.2 Glass amphora from the Middle Kingdom.[13]

Third model from the Medium Kingdom is a small amphora decorated fully on its outside

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surface, manufactured from dark blue and white glass and shown in Fig.3.[13] It has a medium mouth, round flaring rim, relatively long neck, ovoid body and medium flat base.

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It has two large handles between its shoulders and the flaring rim. The whole surface is

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decorated by complex scenes including wavy trails.

Fig.3 Small glass amphora from the Middle Kingdom.[13] -

The fourth model is a glass handless vase shown in Fig.4.[14] It has a medium mouth,

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round flaring rim, concave long neck and ovoid body. The vase is manufactured from a

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yellow glass and decorated in dark-green feathers or plants and wavy trails.

Fig.4 Glass vase from the Middle Kingdom.[14]

The last model from the Medium Kingdom is a glass jug with spout as shown in Fig.5.[15]

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It has a small mouth, rim integrated with a spout simulating a Hun head [zoomed in Fig.15 (b), short neck, ovoid body and a large single handle between the shoulder and

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rim. It is manufactured from dark blue glass and the top half of the body is decorated by wavy trails of yellow and pale blue colors. It seems that the handle has an elliptical crosssection with decreasing dimensions from its beginning at the shoulder to its end at the

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(b) Spout

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Fig.5 Glass jug from the Middle Kingdom.[15]

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New Kingdom

The New Kingdom Period covers the 18st to the 20th dynasties over the time period from 1570 to 1069 BC.[16] The production technology had a high standard level during the wealthy Egyptian 18th dynasty of the New Kingdom regarding the manufacturing of pottery vessels[17], stone vessels[18] and faience vessels.[19] Through our presentation of glass vessels

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design and production during the New Kingdom we will see how the ancient Egyptians were pioneers also in glass vessels manufacturing. 18th Dynasty

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We start by models related to Pharaoh Thutmose III, the 6th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (1479-1425 BC), Pharaoh Amenhotep III, the 9th pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (1388-1350 BC) and Pharaoh Akhenaten, the 10th pharaoh of the same dynasty (1351-1334 BC). Fig.6 shows a glass chalice belongs to Pharaoh Thutmose III, the 6th Pharaoh of the 18th

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dynasty displayed in the Harrow School of London.[20] The chalice is manufactured from a pale-blue glass, has a round rim, conical body, parabolic transition to the base-neck and

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a flaring-flat-round base. It is decorated by wavy trails in yellow and dark-blue colours.

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Fig.6 Glass chalice of Pharaoh Thutmose III. [20]

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Fig.7 shows a handless glass jar from the palace of Pharaoh Amenhotep III in Thebes.[20] It is manufactured from a dark blue glass and has a wide mouth, round flaring rim with V-

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notch acting as a spout, long neck, spherical body, conical base-neck and a flat flaring base. The whole external surface is decorated by complex scenes in white, pale blue and

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yellow colours.

Fig.7 Glass jug of Pharaoh Amentotep III.[21] -

Another model from the rein of Pharaoh Amenhotep III is a four-handled glass vessel

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Displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown in Fig.8.[22] This is one of the mysterious ancient Egyptians mechanical engineering technology indicating very high sophistication in Art and Engineering. One does not know how could the ancient Egyptians

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produce this amazing piece using the technology of 3350 years ago ?. I sent electronic mails to two professors in UK specialized in Glass Science and two glass factories in USA asking about the possibility of producing a prototype of those glass vessels nowadays. I am still waiting their reply. The vessel has a small mouth, round flaring rim, average neck, stretched ovoid body, small base-neck and a flaring round flat base. It has four dark-blue small handles

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at the vessel shoulder. The decoration is extensive and marvellous. It is manufactured from dark-blue glass, the rim is decorated by a red band with parallel inclined hatching in white. The neck is decorated by wavy trails in pale-blue, white and red colours. The body is

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decorated between two wide white-bands with wavy trails in pale-blue, white and red

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colours. The base rim is decorated by parallel inclined white hatching.

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Fig.8 4-handled glass jug of Pharaoh Amentotep III.[22]

Now we move to the rein of Pharaoh Akhenaten, the 10th Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty and

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present two glass vessels models. Fig.9 shows a 175 mm spindle glass bottle displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.[23] It is manufactured from pale-blue, has a round flaring rim, medium mouth, ling cylindrical neck, stretched ovoid body, flaring flat base with round rim. It has a single large elliptical cross-sectional handle between the bottle shoulder and the end of the top fourth of the neck. The rim is in dark blue, the base is in white, the neck and body

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are fully decorated by wavy trails in dark-blue, white and pale-blue. The handle is decorated

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by straight trails in dark and pale-blue.

Fig.9 Spindle bottle from the rein of Akhenaten.[23]

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The second model from the rein of Pharaoh Akhenaten is a two-handled vessel displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.10.[24] It has a medium mouth,

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flaring round rim, medium neck, spherical body and a medium flat base. It has two 180 degrees medium handles between the vessel shoulder and middle of the neck. It is manufactured from a pale-blue glass. The rim is decorated by white inclined hatching, the

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neck is decorated by wavy trails in white, dark-blue and pale-blue. The body is decorated between two combination of dark-blue, yellow and white bands with feathers or plant

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stems (with leaves) in white, pale blue and dark-blue.

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Fig.10 2 handled vessel from the rein of Akhenaten.[24]

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Now, we leave the royal reins to models from the 18th dynasty, but not related to any of the Pharaohs of this dynasty. -

Fig.11 shows a handless-glass vessel from the 18th dynasty.[25] It is manufactured from dark blue glass. It has a medium mouth, round flaring flat rim, small neck rounded to an ovoid body, rounded to a small base neck, rounded to a round flaring flat base. The rim is

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decorated by a parallel inclined thick hatching lines, the neck is decorated by pale-blue wavy trails, the body is extensively decorated by wavy trails in yellow, dark-blue and pale

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blue in a very complex scene.

Fig.11 handless-vessel from the 18th dynasty.[25]

The next model is a wonderful glass cosmetic vessel displayed in the British Museum and

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shown in Fig.12.[26] It simulates a River Nile Tilapia. It is manufactured from dark-blue glass. The fish head is decorated by an orange mouth and gills and white and black eyes. The body is decorated by peels of white, pale-blue and orange colors. The fins are

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decorated by yellow, orange and dark-blue trails. The tail is decorated by orange, yellow, white and dark-blue thick trails.

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Another model from the 18th dynasty is a glass vessel with two handles displayed in the

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Fig.12 Fish-shape cosmetic vessel from the 18th dynasty.[26]

Walters Art Museum at Baltimore, USA and shown in Fig.13.[27] It has a medium mouth, flaring round rim, medium cylindrical neck, dual-conical body with short shoulder, and medium flat base and two small handles at the middle of the vessel. It is manufactured from white glass and decorated at its rim, its neck and its top part of the body. The

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decorations are by wavy frails of brown, pale-blue, and white colors. The two handles are

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in dark-blue.

Fig.13: Glass vessel with 2 handles from the 18th dynasty.[27]

The next model from the great 18th dynasty is a miniature glass vase of 60 mm height and

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46 mm maximum diameter shown in Fig.14.[28] It has a wide mouth, round rim, long neck, ovoid body, short base-neck and flat flaring base. Most probably, it is manufactured

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from dark-blue glass. The rim is decorated by yellow parallel-inclined hatchings, the neck and body are decorated by wave trails in yellow, dark blue and pale-blue colors and the base had yellow and dark-blue trails. The base neck and most of the base are in pale blue. There is a dark-blue band on the body shoulder hatched by parallel curves. One can

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ask himself: how could those generous engineers and technicians design and produce all those details in only 60 mm glass object ?.

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Fig.14: Miniature glass vase from the 18th dynasty.[28]

Another model of glassware from the 18th dynasty is a glass vessel of wonderful decoration and coloring shown in Fig.15.[29] It is manufactured from a brown glass, has a medium mouth, round rim, long neck, ovoid body and a flaring flat base. It has a single handle between the neck and the shoulder of the vessel. The rim is decorated by white

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parallel-inclined hatching, the neck is decorated by wavy trails in yellow and white colors, the body is decorated by a pale-blue band on the top part of the body and wavy trails on the bottom 60 % of the body in yellow, white and brown colors. The base is

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decorated by an orange band.

Fig. 15: Glass vessel from the 18th dynasty.[29]

19th/ 20th Dynasties

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As expected, the wealthy 18th dynasty had the major models of wonderful glass vessels. However, we still have some models from the 19th / 20th dynasties: -

Fig.16 shows a handless glass vase displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.[30] It has a small mouth, flaring round rim, long neck, double parabolic body and a small flat

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base. It is manufactured from pale-blue glass and decorated only on its neck. The

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decorations are zoomed in Fig.16 (b). It is decorated by scenes arranged in vertical

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columns including feathers in orange, dark-blue and pale-blue colours.

(b) Zoomed neck

Fig.16: Glass vase from the 19 / 20th dynasties.[30] -

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(a) Vase

The second model is a glass bottle from the 19th dynasty displayed in Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.17.[31] It has a small mouth, round rim, small neck, spherical body, point base and two medium handles between the neck top and the shoulder of the bottle. It is manufactured from dark-blue glass. The rim is orange, the

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body is decorated by three thin bands in yellow and wavy trails over about 60 % of the body in pale-blue and orange colors in an interchanging pattern. The handles are not decorated. The neck as zoomed in Fig.17 (b) is decorated by colored feathers in vertical

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columns in pale-blue, orange and dark-blue colors.

(a) Bottle

(b) Zoomed neck

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Fig.17: Glass bottle from the 19th / 20th dynasties.[31]

The last model from the 19-20 dynasties is a 92 mm length kohl tube displayed in the

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Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.18.[32] It simulates a papyrus stem that is used in a large-scale production of temple-columns.[33] It is manufactured from a darkblue glass and has a flaring round rim filleted to the cylindrical body and a flat base. It is decorated by 4 hands below the rim two in pale-blue and two in orange colors, a set of

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vertical lined from the first band up to the rim and a set of wavy trails on the bottom 40 % of the body in pale-blue and orange (or yellow) colors.

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Fig.18 92 mm glass kohl tube from the 19th - 20th dynasties.[32] CONCLUSION

The production of glass vessels was investigated during the Middle and New Kingdoms

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of ancient Egypt. -

Ancient Egyptians could produce colored glass vessels since the Middle Kingdom.

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They developed white, dark-blue, pale-blue, green, yellow and orange glass colours.

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The manufactured glass vessels without handles, with one handle, with two handles and

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with four handles. -

They designed glass vessels with and without lid.

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They decorated their glass vessels partially or completely on the external surface in a very highly sophisticated and professional manner.

Their decorations took the shape of wavy trails, feathers, plant-stems, hatching lines and

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curves and straight bands. -

They could manufacture a decorated glass jug with hen-head-spout in the Middle

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Kingdom.

They manufactured coloured glass cups for Pharaoh Thutmose III (more than 3440 years ago) of the 18th dynasty.

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Wonderful designs, production and decoration of glass vases appeared in the 18 th dynasty of the New Kingdom.

Amazing models of glass vessels were manufactured for Pharaoh Amenhotep III (more

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than 3365 years ago) and Pharaoh Akhenaten (more than 3350 years ago) of the 18th dynasty.

They designed vessels without neck, with short, medium and with long necks.

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There were great variety in the design of the vessel base. They designed glass vessels

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with point base, round base, small flat base and flaring-flat base, necked base, base

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without neck, decorated base and undecorated base.

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They could produce cosmetic vessels in the New Kingdom simulating fish and papyrus plant. The fish-shaped vessel was marvellous in design, production and decoration.

The body of the glass vessels manufactured in ancient Egypt during the Medium and New

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Kingdoms took the shape of ovoid, double conical, spherical and cylindrical. -

There was a great variety in the location of the vessel handles: on the neck, on the body, on the neck and shoulder and on the shoulder.

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REFERENCES

1. Mc Govern, P, Fleming, S. and Swann, C., "Glass and faience production and importation

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in the late New Kingdom", Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 1993; 290/291, May, 1-27.

2. Lilyquist, C. and Brill, R., "A collaborative study of early glass working in Egypt c. 1500 BC", Annales du Be Congres de Histoire du Verre, Lochem, the Netherlands, AIHV, 1996; 1-9.

Science, 2000; 27: 1225-1234.

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3. Rehren, T., "Rationales in old world base glass compositions", Journal of Archaeological

4. Grossmann, R., "Ancient glass: A guide to the Yale collection", Yale University Art

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Gallery., 2002.

5. Rehren, Th., "A review of factors affecting the composition of early Egyptian glasses and faience: alkali and alkali earth oxides", Journal of Archaeological Science, 2008; 35:

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1345-1354.

6. Nicholson, P. "Glassworking, use and discard", In Wendrich, W. (Editor), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles., 2011. 7. Hunt, P., "Tilapia fish bottle, el Amarna, glass, British Museum, 18th dynasty", Electrom Magazine, 29th September, 2012.

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8. Kikugawa, T., Abe, Y., Nakamura, A. and Nakai, I., "Investigation of coloring mechanism of ancient Egyptian copper-red glass and consideration of the manufacturing process", Bunseki Kagaku, 2014; 63(1): 31-40.

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9. Klein, J., "Additive manufacturing of optically transparent glass", M.Sc. Thesis, MIT, September. 2015.

10. Bohstrom, P. "Beads found in 3400 year-old Nordic graves were made by King Tut's glassmaker", Haaretz, 2016; 11th May.

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11. Wikipedia

(2016),

"Middle

Kingdom

of

Egypt",

http://en.wikipedia.org/Middle_Kingdom_of_Egypt .

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12. Global Egyptian Museum, "Glass vessel", www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/record. aspx?id=4238 Egyptian

Museum,

"Glass

amphora",

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13. Global

record.aspx?id=4238 14. Global

Egyptian

Museum,

"Glass

vase",

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Museum,

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jug",

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record.aspx?id=4238 15. Global

Egyptian

(2016),

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Kingdom

of

Egypt",

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16. Wikipedia

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record.aspx?id=4238

http://en.wikipedia.org/New_Kingdom_of_Egypt

17. Hassaan, G. A., "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part X: Pottery industry (Middle and New Kingdoms)", International Journal of Science and Engineering, 2016; 2(4): 7-18.

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18. Hassaan, G. A., "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XIV: Stone vessels (Middle Kingdom to Third Intermediate Period)", International Journal of Engineering and Techniques, Accepted for Publication., 2016.

19. Hassaan, G. A., "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XV: Faience industry

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(Middle Kingdom to Third Intermediate Period)", International Journal of Science and Engineering, Under Publication., 2016.

20. Nicholson, P. "Glass vessels from the rein of Thutmose III", Journal of Glass Studies,

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2006; 48: 11-21.

21. Nakamura, A. "Glass jar", http://za.pinterest.com/pin/480477853975495279/ 22. Metropolitan Museum, "Glass jar", www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/548484 23. Metropolitan Museum, "Spindle ", www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/548484 24. Kazaz,

"Ancient

Egyptian

art,

vessel,

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18",

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http://2a.pinterest.com/pin/5657647719204331/ 25. Nakamura,

A.,

"Glass

vessel,

New

Kingdom,

dynasty

18",

www.pinterest.com/pin/480477853975484168/

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26. British Museum, "Vessel",

http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/

collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=117648&partId=1&searchText=amarna&page=2 1

27. Wikipedia,

"Glass

vessel

with

handles-Walters4731.jpg",

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https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Egyptian_-_Glass_Vessel_with_Handles__Walters_4731.jpg

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28. Nakamura, A., "Glass vase", www.pinterest.com/pin/480477853975484145/ 29. Nakamura, A., "Glassware", www.pinterest.com/pin/480477853975484160/ "Vase,

dynasty

19

or

19

or

www.pinterest.com/pin/458522805789559630/ 31. Quemereus,

"Bottle,

dynasty

www.pinterest.com/pin/458522805792838955/ "Kohl

tube,

dynasty

www.pinterest.com/pin/469218854896970923/ "Illustrated

glass",

19-20,

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glass",

columns",

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33. Buffaloah,

glass",

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32. Cariann,

20,

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30. Quemereus,

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Hassaan.

www.buffaloah.com/a/archsty/egypt/columns/col.htm/ BIOGRAPHY Prof. Dr. Galal Ali Hassaan 

Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic



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Control.

Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974.

Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK

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under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.



Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism

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Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. 

Published more than 180 research papers in international journals and conferences.



Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Justice of International Journal of Computer Techniques.



Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including the

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WJERT journal.

Reviewer in some international journals.



Scholars interested in the author’s publications can visit:

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http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management, Architecture, Technology and Engineering (IJARMATE) Vol. II, Issue XII, December 2016

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XIX: Textile Industry Galal Ali Hassaan Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt [email protected]

Index Terms— Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, textile industry.

I. INTRODUCTION

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This is the 19th paper in a scientific research aiming at presenting a deep insight into the history of mechanical engineering during one of the greatest civilizations in the world, the ancient Egyptians civilization. The papers handles wide range of various industries in ancient Egypt to explore the materials, techniques and technologies used by those great people in times without computers or internet. Roth (1913) studied the ancient Egyptian looms in a separate chapter of his book published in 1913. He discussed the horizontal looms presenting wall scenes from a Beni Hasan tomb of vizier Daga (11th Dynasty), physical model from Bani Hasan, scene from the tomb of Tehuti-hoteb (12th Dynasty). He also presented scene of a vertical loom from the tomb of Nefer-hotep at Thebes (18th Dynasty) [1]. Crowfoot (1931) displayed spinning techniques in ancient Egypt through scenes from the tombs of Baqt (6th Dynasty) and Khety son of Baqt at Bani Hasan and grasped spindle from tomb 104 at Thebes (18th Dynasty). He also presented a weaving model tomb 575 at Bani Hasan (11th – 12th Dynasties) displayed in Liverpool Museum and another model for spinning and waving from tomb of Mehenkwetre (11th Dynasty) at Thebes plus images from tombs of Daga (11th Dynasty) and Tehuti-hoteb (12th Dynasty). Nicholson and Shaw (2000) edited an extensive work for the study of materials and technology in ancient Egypt. Their work included a complete chapter about 'textiles' written by Mr. G. Eastwood. He presented a model of a spinning and weaving workshop from the Middle Kingdom and scenes from Middle and New Kingdoms [3]. Anderson (2011) announced that excavations since 1995 at the Predynastic settlement of el-Mahasna produced tools associated with textile production. He presented data on the discovered objects together with the assemblage of awls and needles

manufactured from bone and copper [4]. Abdel-Kareem (2012) presented a brief historical information about natural dyes in different historical periods in Egypt. He presented the dye according their alphabetical names in his research paper [5]. Pritchard (2014) stated that at least 16 woven patterned textiles of the polymita type were recovered during the excavations of the Egypt Exploration Fund at Anticoupolis in 1913-1914. He described the fragments and placed them within a dated framework and elaborated on their use [6]. Strand (2015) stated that the horizontal loom was considered to be the oldest loop type came from Badari (Predynastic of Egypt) and the earlier representation of the two-beam loom occurred in Egypt during the final part of the 2nd millennium BC (i.e. during the Middle Kingdom) [7]. Gromer (2016) wrote a book about the art of prehistoric textile making. He included sections about: raw materials (plant and animal fibers), flax and wool preparation, tools found for fiber preparation, yarn spinning, weaving techniques, dying, pattern designs, fabric finishing, sewing and tailoring [8].

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Abstract— The textile industry in ancient Egypt is one of the oldest industries transferred through the generations from the Predynastic era to present days. This paper discusses all aspects related to linen production from material selection to the final weaving process. It presents samples of ancient Egypt linen and use and focuses on technologies used for yarn preparation, spinning and weaving. It handles also the features of the ancient Egyptian linen and compares its fineness of its texture with a modern linen.

II. THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN LINEN The ancient Egyptians knew linen for more than 6500 years because simply fragments of ancient Egyptian cloth were dated 4500 BC such that Egypt was known as the 'land of linen' [9]. They were brilliant in selecting proper material for a specific purpose as we have seen in their furniture industry [10], jewellery industry [11]. Pottery industry [12], stone vessels [13] and glass industry [14]. Their selection of flax as a raw material for their linen was because it has some outstanding characteristics: - The flax produces a beautiful linen such that from over 5000 years ago they named it 'woven moonlight' [15]. This is a very scientific expression meaning that their yarns are similar to the moonlight rays, i.e. very thin and pure. - The linen fibre is very absorbent and garments made of it are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot weather [16]. - They succeeded to produce high quality linen superior to any other and exported it to Arabia and India [17]. - They produced linen with a fine texture for pharaohs and noblemen [18]. - Having the ability to produce long-life linen capable of withstanding severe underground environments without air or light (Fig.1 shows linens from the 18th dynasty survived more than 3300 years) [19].

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- Fine and accurate texture from about 5000 years. There is an existing evidence of a mummy linen from the 1st dynasty existing in the British Museum. To assess its fineness, they make microscopic investigation of its linen and compared with a modern linen recently woven. The result is shown in Fig.4 [15]. The top sector in the 1st dynasty and modern linen is zoomed and shown in Fig.4 (c). Having a deep insight into both we find the ancient Egyptian texture is much coherent than the modern one and it is similar to a beehive. This may give an answer of a question: how could the Egyptian lined survive for thousands of years in a difficult environment ?.

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- The linen had the ability to be dyed using different colors. The ancient Egyptians succeeded to dye the linen since the 1st dynasty [19]. Fig.2 shows a wall scene of Pharaoh Ramses III, the 2nd Pharaoh of the 20th dynasty in the tomb of Amenherkhepshef wearing a wonderful multicolors dress [20].

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Fig.1 Linen from the 18th dynasty [19].

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Fig.2 Ramses III in a multi-color dress [20]. - Some of the linen designs had an outstanding characteristics from point of view of pattern and shape. For example, Fig.3 shows the 5 m long linen sash of Pharaoh Ramses III of the 20th dynasty displayed in the World Museum at Liverpool [21], [22]. The width decreases gradually from 127 to 48 mm over the five m length. This decrease is not observable in Fig.3 (a) because the rate of decrease is about 16 mm per m length. A section of the sash is zoomed in Fig.3 (b) to highlight the decoration of the sash. It has a very complex pattern that one cannot imagine how they woven it 3100 years ago ?. The sash is colored as shown in Fig.3 (c) [22].

Fig.3 Ramses III sash [21], [22].

Fig.4 First dynasty and modern linens [15]. III. ANCIENT EGYPTIAN LINEN USE Because linen was manufactured from the flax plant available in Egypt, they used it in too many applications required for their daily life. Some of those applications are: - Bag manufacturing: Fig.5 shows a bag manufactured from linen during the Middle Kingdom-Early New Kingdom and displayed in the Egyptian Textile Museum at Cairo [23]. It seems that the bag is

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Museum of the University College London [26]. The cords and knots are very fine, strong and homogeneous without any sign of degradation due to aging.

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relatively large and there is no dimension scale beside it to help the researcher to assign its dimensions. On the other hand, I don't know what are the other objects set on the bag. It is possible that those objects were inside the bag when it was extracted from Tomb MMA 812 at Thebes.

Fig.8 Fishing nets from Middle Kingdoms [26].

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- Bed cover manufacturing: Because they are modernized people, they produced beds and heavy linen cover such as that shown in Fig.6, produced during the 4th Dynasty and displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art [24]. It has fringes at the ends and not dyed.

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Fig.5 Linen bag [23].

- Linen dresses: They used linen to produce different fashions of male and female dresses. Fig.9 shows two models of ladies dress: (a) is a long netted dress from the 4th Dynasty [27] and (b) is a short dress from the 6th Dynasty [28] both displayed in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston. The first model is produced more than 4500 years in the time of King Khufu and has an impressive design. The pattern in the top is different than that in the bottom and it has a gradual very accurate profile around the body. Besides, it is still existing !!.

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Fig.6 Linen bed cover from the 4th Dynasty [24]. - Sling manufacturing: They produced linen sling for purpose of hunting of birds and small animals. Fig.7 shows a model of a sling produced during the 3rd Intermediate Period and displayed in the Petrie Museum [25]. Its main part has a diamond shape connected at two of its terminals on the main centreline to two cords. The diamond is zoomed in Fig.7 (b). The zoomed section shows how it is accurately woven and the sides are trimmed without any defects and how it was survived for more than 2800 years in a severe environment.

Fig.9 Ladies dress from 4th and 6th Dynasties. - Mummy wrappings: The ancient Egyptians used linen in the mummification process of their dead. Two samples are presented here from the 11th Dynasty (Middle Kingdom) and the 18th Dynasty (New Kingdom). Both are produced from fine linen and have fringes. Both wrappings are displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of art at NY and labeled indicating the date of weaving [sample in (b)] as shown in Fig.10 [29], [30]. This is the top technology in authorizing production items known to the Egyptians from more than 4000 years..

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Fig.7 Linen sling from the 3rd Intermediate Period [25]. Fig.10 Mummy wrappings from 11th and 18th Dynasties.

- Linen fishing net: Fi.8 shows an actual existing fishing net fragment found at Lahun manufactured during the Middle Kingdom and displayed in Petrie

- Body mummification: Mummification was practiced in Egypt from the 1st Dynasty (2920-2770 B.C)

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Fig.11 Mummification of a human body in ancient Egypt [31].

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- linen bandage for Pharaoh Tutankhamun mummification in the 18th dynasty. It has a 1.65 m length and 60 mm width and displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art [33].

The genius ancient Egyptians new that flax is the plant suitable for their linen production. Therefore, they planned for cultivating wide areas. Both men and women cooperated in harvesting the crop as illustrated in the coloured scene shown in Fig.15 from the Tomb of Sennedjem, the high official responsible for the excavation and decoration of the nearby royal tombs at Deir el-Medina of Thebes during the Pharaohs Seti I and Ramses II of the 19th Dynasty [36], [37]. The scene authorizes the harvesting process, the cooperation of the wife with her husband through both drawing and writing.

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where it required mountains of linen for bandage [31]. The mummification process consumes 100's of meters of linen strips around the dead body as shown in Fig.11 [32]. Fig.12 shows a

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Fig.15 Flax harvesting in Sennedjem Tomb [37].

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After the flax is cut, it is tied into bundles and carried away to the store as shown in the Tomb scene of Fig.16 [38].

Fig.12 Linen bandage for Tutankhamun [33].

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- Mummy shrouds: Beside mummification of high-rank people in ancient Egypt, they used a linen shroud to put the dead inside it. Fig.13 shows a linen shroud dated to 1000 BC (21st Dynasty) and displayed in the Vatican Museum of Rome [34]. Fig.13 Linen shroud from the 21st Dynasty [34]. - Linen sail: Because it was a great empire, they produced different types of boats and ships for their economical activities. They used course-linen sails to drive the ships using wind energy. Fig.14 shows a model of an Egyptian ship dated to 2500 BS (during the 4th Dynasty) and displayed in the Deutsches Museum of Germany [35].

V. FLAX RIPPLING

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As a preparation process for the flax, it is rippled in a specially designed device to clear the seeds away from the plant as shown in the wall scene shown in Fig.17 [39]. The scene shows a young worker carrying bundle of flax and an old worker using the rippling device to perform the rippling process. The writing on the wall registers an interesting dialogue between the old and young worker. The old worker is saying: 'Even if you bring me 11009 (sheaves), I shall ripple them all'. The young worker is replying: 'Hurry up and stop talking' [39].

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Fig.16 Tying flax into bundles and moving to stores [38].

Fig.14 Ship model from the 4st Dynasty [35]. IV. FLAX CULTIVATION All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARMATE

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Middle Kingdom [42]. The worker is standing and spinning the spindle using his both hands. - Fig.20 (b) shows a spinning women from Tomb of Thutnefer, overseer of the treasury in the mid-Dynasty 18 of the New Kingdom [43].

Fig.17 Process of flax rippling [39].

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Fig.20 The spinning process in ancient Egypt. - They practice spinning in the Middle Kingdom while standing as depicted in the scenes of the Tomb of Thuthotep from the 12th Dynasty at Deir el-Bersha as shown in Fig.21 [44]. Two women are performing spinning while standing. The front woman is using her right hand to spin the spindle while holing the yarn with her left hand. The back women is spinning with her right hand and her right leg while holding the yarn with her left hand.

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VI. FLAX BEATING Next to the rippling process comes the beating process to extract the flax fibers through beating the rippled plant using a hand-bat. Fig.18 shows a typical bat displayed in the Petrie Museum [40].

Fig.18 Bat for flax beating [40].

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Another beating technique stated by Nicholson and Shaw was by using two sticks hold by hand and practiced in the Middle and New Kingdoms [41]. Fig.19 shows a lady using this technique as registered in the Tomb of Dagi from the Middle Kingdom [41]. The lady is holding the sticks by her left hand and pulling the flax-stems by her right hand.

Fig.21 Spinning process during the 12th Dynasty [44].

Fig.19 Flax beating using two sticks [41].

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VII. YARN SPINNING The next process after releasing the flax fibres is preparing the yarn through spinning. Most often, the ancient Egyptian women and men were responsible for this process as authorized by tomb scenes and weaving models as follows: - Fig.20 (a) shows a spinning worker from Tomb of Khety, a nomarch during the 11th dynasty of the

- They authorized the spinning process using workshop models for linen production. One of those models of spinning and weaving was found in Meketre Tomb, chancellor and high steward during the reign of Mentuhotep II, Mentuhotep III and perhaps Amenemhat I, during the 11th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom [45,46]. The model is displayed in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.22 [47]. The workers are all ladies, some of them spinning and the some others are

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weaving using horizontal looms. One of them is moving the linen for storage. Wonderful administration technology from ancient Egypt to authorize industrial activities using wooden models.

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- Bone spindles: They used bone to produce spindles capable to survive thousands of years. Fig.26 shows a set of Spindle whorl, Period: New Kingdom, Ramesside 19th – 20th Dynasties, from Memphite Region, Lisht North, Cemetery, MMA 1913-1914 and displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art [51].

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Fig.22 Weaving model from Meketre Tomb of the 11th Dynasty [47]. They used different types of spindles for yarn spinning as follows: - Cylindrical wooden spindles: Fig.23 shows 7 wooden cylindrical spindles from the Middle Kingdom found at Lahun and displayed in Petrie Museum [48]. All the spindles have wide flange and short axles (the axles may be broken during excavations.

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Fig.25 Pottery spinning bowl from the Middle Kingdom [50].

Fig.23 Wooden cylindrical spindles from the Middle Kingdom [48].

- Double whorls spindle: They used double whorls spindles in the New Kingdom as that shown in Fig.27 from the 19th-20th Dynasties and displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art [52]. From dynamics point of view, this design will increase the inertia of the spindle and hence is capable of storing more mechanical energy required for the spinning process.

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- Conical wooden spindles: Fig.24 shows two conical wooden spindles Top: New Kingdom type with conical whorl found at Gurob and dating to approximately 1450 BC (18th Dynasty). Bottom: from the Middle Kingdom site of Gurob and dating to approximately 1880 BC (12th Dynasty) [49].

Fig.26 Bone spindles from the New Kingdom [51].

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Fig.24 Wooden conical spindles from 12th and 18th Dynasties [49].

Fig.27 Double whorls spindle from the New Kingdom [52].

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- Pottery spinning bowl: They used pottery in producing spinning bowls of the form shown in Fig.25 from the Middle Kingdom, about 2025-1750 BC displayed in Petrie Museum [50].

VIII. YARN WEAVING Now, they have yarns ready for weaving to produce linen of varying qualities. To do this they used mechanical looms of various designs as illustrated below:

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- The horizontal loop continued to produced lines through the dynastic periods. Here a weaving workshop model from Meketre Tomb of the 11th Dynasty displayed in the Egyptian Museum and shown in Fig.29 [54]. The model presents a complete weaving workshops with two horizontal looms with all the operating and supporting staff.

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Fig.28 Dish from Naqada I with waving scene [53].

second type of ancient Egypt looms where its level is above the knees of the operator. The scene shows two horizontal looms with each operator preparing the yarns before starting waving. The setting man at the left most probably is the superintendent supervising the work and recording the weaving process output. This is one of the shining features of the ancient Egyptian civilization and the top administration activity in the total management process of their industrial works.

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- Ground horizontal loom: They used horizontal looms from an early era as the time of Naqada I (4400-3500 BC) as authorized through a scene in a dish found in 1924 in Badari and located in the Petrie Museum. The dish is manufactured from pottery and shown in Fig.28 [53]. It has an elliptic shape, shining surface and scene on its interior surface.

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Fig.31 Raised horizontal loom from the 19th Dynasty [56].

Fig.29 Weaving workshop from the 11th Dynasty [54].

- They started using vertical looms in 1700 BC (during the 13th Dynasty) [57] for the production of large cloths and tapestry [58]. Fig.32 shows a weaving workshop as a scene in the Tomb of Nefer-Ronpet, the superintendent of weavers at Thebes [59]. This is the third type of the ancient Egypt looms. The workshop consists of three vertical looms with the operator settling and working. The setting man in the left may be the superintendent observing the work and giving his instructions to the three operators.

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- Also, from the 12th Dynasty we have weaving scenes in the Tomb of Chnem-hotep, presenting linen weaving using a ground horizontal loom as shown in Fig.30 [55]. Two setting ladies operate the loom.

Fig.32 Vertical loom from the 19th Dynasty [59].

Fig.30 Ground horizontal loom from the 12th dynasty [55].

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- During the 19th Dynasty of the New Kingdom, scenes from the Tomb of Nefer-Ronpet, the superintendent of weavers at Thebes depicted the use of raised horizontal loom as shown in Fig.31 [56]. This is the

IX. WEAVING ACCESSORIES The ancient Egyptians used some accessories facilitating the weaving process in a successful manner. From those accessories: - Loom weight: Fig.33 shows a loom weight from the Middle Kingdom displayed in Petrie Museum [60].

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Fig.33 Loom weight from Middle Kingdom [60]. -

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- Warp spacer: Fig.34 shows a warp spacer from Gurob of ancient Egypt used to set a 6 mm space between yarns and displaced in Manchester Museum [61].

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Fig.34 Warp spacer from Gurob [61].

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- Heddle jack: Fig.35 shows a set of heddle jacks fount at Lahun of Egypt belonging to the Middle Kingdom and displayed in Petrie Museum [62].

Fig.35 Heddle jacks from Middle Kingdom [62].

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- Other components: Some other components were used with the horizontal loom as shown in Fig.36 from a model from the Middle Kingdom including: shuttle, heddle jack and lease rod [39].

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REFERENCES

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X. CONCLUSIONS The evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the study of the textile industry was investigated. The characteristics of the ancient Egyptian linen were presented giving an explanation of the reason for the ancient Egyptians to select flax as a raw material for their garments. Samples of the ancient Egypt linen were presented either as through wall scenes or as real samples survived for thousands of years in the world museums. They could produce linen with colored and very complex pattern during the 2oth Dynasty. They had the technology to produce very fine and accurate texture from more than 5000 years which was comparable or even better than a modern linen. Their linen texture simulated a beehive of a very coherent nature. They produced linen for clothing, bags, bed covers, slings, fishing nets, mummy wrappings, body mummification, mummy shrouds and sails. They cultivated wide areas of lands by flax required for their linen and oil production and both man and woman cooperated in harvesting the crop. They set a procedure based on experience for preparing the flax for linen production including: harvesting, tying in bundles, transferring bundles to stores, rippling, beating, yarn spinning and yarn weaving. They used different types of spinning devices including: cylindrical wooden spindles, conical wooden spindles, pottery spinning bowls, bone spindles and double whorls spindles. They new the ground horizontal loom from the time of Naqada I ( more than 6000 years ago). They authorized the weaving process through wooden models for weaving workshops during the 11th and 12th Dynasties. They used the raised horizontal loom in the 19th Dynasty through a scene from the Tomb of Nefer-Ronpet, the superintendent of weavers at Thebes. They new the vertical loom since the 13th Dynasty and its use was authorized in the 19th Dynasty. - Some accessories required to complete the weaving process were presented.

[1] W. Smith , "Country life in ancient Egypt", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1994. [2] W. Smith , "Ancient Egypt", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1960.

Fig.36 Loom model accessories from Middle Kingdom [39].

[3] K. Newman , "Social archaeology, social relations and archaeological materials: social power as depicted in the wall art in the tombs of the Pharaoh's tomb builders, Deir el-Madina, Egypt, XVIII-XX Dynasties", Master of Arts Thesis, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, April 1997.

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[7] A. Gomez, "The personnel of Khonsu during the Third Intermediate Period: A prosopographicical study of the 21st Dynasty", Ph.D. Thesis, Autonomous University of Madrid, April 2015. [8] G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XX: Men clothing (Early Dynasties to Middle Kingdom), World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 2(4), pp.1-17, 2016. [9] G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXI: Men clothing (New Kingdom to Late Period), International Journal of Engineering and Techniques, 2(4), pp.36-45, 2016. [10] Wikipedia, "Prehistoric egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_Egypt , 2016. [11] Pinterest, "Ancient Badari figure of a woman", www.pinterest.com/pin/317785317438805521/

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[13] Brooklyn Museum, "Female figure", www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/4225 [14] V. Pafundi, "Clay made figurine, Naqada II", www.pinterest.com/pin/470204017327567628/

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[12] E. Holomek, "Bone figurine with lapis lazuli eys",

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[6] B. Bryan , "Hatschepsut and cultic revelries in the New Kingdom", Proceedings of the Thebes Workshop, The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Chicago, 2010.

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[5] A. Olivier , "Social status of elite women of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt: A comparison of artistic features", Master of Arts Thesis, University of South Africa, June 2008.

[28] Art and Archaeology, "The dwarf Seneb and his family", www.art-archaeology.com/egypt/egy61.html [29] Smith, Plate 28, 1954. [30] Wikipedia, "Middle Kingdom of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Kingdom_of_Egypt , 2016. [31] British Museum, "Temple relief", www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_deta ils.aspx?objectId=120364&partId=1 [32] Wikipedia (2016), "Kawit (queen)", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kawit_(queen) [33] Osiris Net, "A dance in Antefoqer Tomb", www.osirisnet.net/popupImage.php?img=/tombes/nobles/antefoqer/photo/a ntefoqer_wiki_01.jpg&sw=1366&sh=768&wo=0&so=85 [34] Osiris Net, "Working women", www.osirisnet.net/popupImage.php?img=/tombes/nobles/antefoqer/photo/a ntefoqer_mpd_008.jpg&sw=1366&sh=768&wo=0&so=85 [35] Metropolitan Museum, "Estate figure", www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544210 [36] Wikipedia, "Sennedjem", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sennedjem , 2016. [37] Egyptology, "Petrie summer lecture", www.egyptology-uk.com/Bloomsbury/news_archive.htm , 2011. [38] History on the Net, "The Egyptians – farming", www.historyonthenet.com/egyptians/farming.htm , 2014. [39] Reshafim, "Flax", www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/flax.htm [40] R. Stigler, "Bat for beating flax", www.pinterest.com/pin/507992032939327345/ [41] P. Nicholson and I. Shaw, p.271. [42] P. Nicholson and I. Shaw, p.273, Fig.11.4 (a). [43] P. Nicholson and I. Shaw, p.273, Fig.11.4 (b). [44] P. Nicholson and I. Shaw, p.273, Fig.11.4 (d). [45] Wikipedia, "Meketre", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meketre , 2016. [46] Eternal Egypt, "Meketre's weaving and textile workshop", http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/HomeServlet?ee_w ebsite_action_key=action.display.element.about.text&story_id=&module_i d=&language_id=1&element_id=60676 [47] Visit Egypt Land, "Meketre's weaving and textile workshop", http://www.visitegyptland.com/showe-id-3940-Meketre-s-Weaving-and-Te xtile-WorkshopIn-this-model-from-the-collection-of-Meketre--which-show s-.htm [48] E. Ciccarlli, "Spindle whorls", www.pintirest.com/pin/512284526341285541/ [49] G. Green, "Three wood splindle whorls from Egypt", www.pintirest.com/pin/186125397076180533/ [50] S. Heinreksdottir, "Spinary bowl UC66397", www.pintirest.com/pin/32369691041977115/ [51] Metropolitan Museum of Art, "Spindle whorl", www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/568337 [52] Pentirest, "Spindle with two whorls", www.pinterest.com/wiki/512284526341285698/ [53] University College London, "Badari Tomb 3802", www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/badari/tomb3802/index.html [54] Experience Ancient Egypt, "Ancient Egyptian clothing", www.experience-ancient-egypt-egypt.com/ancient-egyptian-culture/ancient -egyptian-jobs/ancient-egyptian-clothing [55] H. Roth, "Ancient Egyptian and Greek Looms", Library of Alexandria, p.3, 1913. [56] H. Roth, Fig.16A. [57] Sakkara Caroet, "Textile and carpets in Egypt", www.sakkaracarpet.com/about-us.htm , 2005. [58] M. Wisniowski, "Ancient Egyptian dress", http://artquill.blogspot.com.eg/2015/08/ancient-egyptian-dress-wearable-ar t.html [59] H. Roth, Fig.16B.

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[4] G. Tassie , "The social and ritual contextualization of ancient Egyptians hair and hairstyles from the Predynastic to the end of the Old Kingdom", Ph.D. Thesis, University College London, January, 2008.

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[15] Wikipedia, "Early Dynastic Period (Egypt)", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Dynastic_Period_(Egypt) , 2016. [16] G. Tassie, p.144, 2008. [17] Wikipedia, "Old Kingdom of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Kingdom_of_Egypt , 2016. [18] University College London, "Saqqara mastaba of Kha-baw-Sokar", www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/saqqara/khabausokar/chapel2. html [19] H. Gordon, "Menkaure and his Queen, Dynasty IV", www.pinterest.com/pin/381046818445775552/

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[20] P. Vanderzwet, "The Queen's of Egypt's 4th Dynasty", www.touregypt.net/featurestories/fourthqueens.htm [21] Almendro, "The fourth Dynasty", www.almendro.com/ artehistoria/arte/culturas/egyptian-art-in-age-of-the-pyramids/the-human-i mage-in-old-kingdom-nonroyal-reliefs/3/ [22] Flawless Logic, "Egyptian great Pharaohs and lowly slaves", http://love.flowlesslogic.com/Titans/hwr8.htm [23] CrystaLinks, "Fifth Dynasty of Egypt, Menkauhor", www.crystalinks.com/dynasty5.html [24] Ancient Egypt, "Painted limestone statue of Ptahkhenuwy and his wife", www.ancient-egypt.co.uk/boston/pages/boston_03_2006%20536%2001.ht m [25] X. Meyers, "Ancient egypr: Raherka and his wife", http://es.pinterest.com/pin/491103534348228228/ [26] B. Mertz, "Daily life in ancient Egypt", http:// emhotep.net/2013/02/25/em-hotep-digest/em-hotep-digest-vol-02-no-07-da ily-life-in-ancient-egypt/ [27] N. Nirk, "Seated pair statue (Bau and Baru), Dynasty 5", www.pinterest.com/pin/3777394874764700/

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[60] S. Jones, "Ceramics-Art or science", pp.187-418, http://www.ceramicsartorscience.co.uk/eicbooks/bookpage.php?eicbookide nt=caoslive&eicbookpage=187 [61] H. Roth, Fig.23. [62] University College London, "Textile production and clothing", www.ucl.ac.uk/museums-static/digitalegypt/textile/tools.html .

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Galal Ali Hassaan: • Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. • Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. • Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. • Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. • Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. • Published more than 200 research papers in international journals and conferences. • Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. • Chief Justice of the International Journal of Computer Techniques. • Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including IJARMATE. • Reviewer in some international journals. • Scholars interested in the author's publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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BIOGRAPHY

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 January 2016

Galal Ali Hassaan

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part II: Jewellery Industry (Pectorals) Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

He presented some scenes, maps and photos of real artefacts and names and duration of all the Eold Egyptian Pharaohs [4]. Hardwick et. Al. (2003) presented a gallery of ancient Egyptian antiques in the Ashmolean Museum. Readers could search items of interest such as object types, materials, names and historical periods [5]. Bard (2007) introduced the archaeology of ancient Egypt to the world in a well prepared book published in 2007. It is clear from his book that she is an honest lover to the ancient Egyptian civilization. She said that Egypt's monumental tombs and temples decorated with reliefs and hieroglyphs have been the source of awe and admiration for millennia. She studied the hieroglyphs, language and pharanotic chronology, the the environmental background of pharaonic civilization, the Egyptian prehistory, the rise of complex society and early civilization, the old kingdom, other kingdoms up to the GrecoRoman period. She supported her book with too many illustrations from tombs and temples [6]. Troale, Guerra and Maley (2009) presented a technological study of items of Egyptian Jewellery from the collections of the National Museum Scotland including a pendant from the 19th century BC, objects from the 16th century BC, finger rings from the 14th century BC, and pendants from the 13th century BC. Thir study illustrated the ancient Egyptian goldsmith's skills in working with wires, granulation and joining techniques [7]. Harrell (2012) defined the gemstones of ancient Egypt including rocks, minerals and biogenic materials used for jewellery, furnature and sculpture. He declared that ancient Egyptians used at least 38 gemstone varieties [8]. Haynes (2013) studied in details the symbolism in ancient Egypt. He investigated using the ancient Egyptians the insects as a sumbolism specially the butterfly. He analysed some scenes , amulets and bracklets with butterfly images [9]. Petrina (2014) discussed pieces of jewellery from ancient Egypt like a chain from Taposiris Magna, a chain from Abuqir Bay, a net-shaped necklace from Assiut and bracelets from Fayum [10]. McCarthy (2015) outlined the exhibit opening of the Metropolitan Museum of Art covering four centuries between the old and new Kingdoms (2030-1650 BC) known as the Middle Kingdom.

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ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to investigate the evolution of the pectorals industry in ancient Egypt. Ancient Egyptians used pectorals for centuries starting from the 3rd dynasty to the 22nd dynasty. They used various non-metallic and some metallic materials in producing wonderful pectorals. The paper shows those pectorals were used by Pharaohs, high officials and even by the public. Keywords –Mechanical

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INTRODUCTION

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engineering history, Jewellery industry in ancient Egypt, Pectorals industry

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Jewellery industry is one of the outstanding industries of ancient Egypt. This industry was so sophisticated such all the world museums are harrying up in obtaining as much as they can from the ancient Egyptian jewellery through thieves of the antiques locally and internationally. In this second part of this series of research papers I present the jewellery industry in ancient Egypt as a trial to highlight the history in mechanical engineering through the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt. Smith (1960) studied some aspects of the ancient Egyptian art starting from the predynastic period and up to the late period. He presented some artefacts available in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston with detailed analysis and comments [1]. Scott (1964) studied the Egyptian jewellery available in the Metropolitan Museum of Art including jewellery from the predynastic period, 6 th dynasty, 11th dynasty, 12th dynasty, 18th dynasty late period and Roman period [2]. James (1972) declared that ancient Egyptians appreciated using gold in in industry and art. He said that objects or parts of objects were found in Egyptian tombs from the 1st dynasty made fully or partially from gold. He presented a scene showing old Egyptians melting, casting and working of gold [3]. Bunson (2002) wrote a chronological encyclopaedia about ancient Egypt. He included names of individuals, tombs, temples and places.

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 January2016 This covered the pectoral of Princess Sithathor He is wearing a pectoral on his chest and both (Pharaoh's daughter), pectorals, crowned bracelets sitting on their bed while his wife is playing the of Pharaoh Amnemhat III of the 12th dynasty [11]. harp. Another example from the old kingdom is shown in II. PECTORALS FROM EARLIER Fig.3 Priestess Meretites and singer Kahai [14] DYNASTIES . They lived during the 5th dynasty and Kahai was a The wear of pectorals appeared during the third singer in the pharaoh palace [..]. Both of them are dynasty (2683-2613 BC) during the rein of Pharaoh wearing a pectoral on their top chest near the neck. Djoser. Fig.1 shows engineer Amhotep who designed the Djose pyramid in Saqqara wearing a pectoral having seven parallel curved rows with three different colors [12].

Fig.3 Priestess Meretites and singer Kahai [14].

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As a physical model Fig.4 shows a faience pectoral from the 9th dynasty of the first intermediate period (2181-2055 BC) [15].

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Fig.1 Amhotep pectoral at 3rd dynasty [12].

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From the old kingdom (2780-2263 BC), Fig.2 shows a scene for Nobel Mereruka and his wife. He was a Chief Justice and Vizier in the 5th dynasty [13.

Fig.4 Faience pectoral from the 9th dynasty [15].

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The ancient Egyptians continued using the pectorals during the middle kingdom (2055-1650 BC). Fig.5 shows a scene for an Egyptian man setting on a chair and holding his son on his legs. The man is wearing a pectoral [16].

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Fig.2 Scene for Noble Mereruka and his wife [13].

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Fig.7 Pectoral of Wah from the 12th dynasty [18].

Gold pectoral appeared in the 17th dynasty, the last dynasty in the second intermediate period of ancient Egypt. One of such pectorals is shown in Fig.8 which consists of four rows, each row combines too many gold rings threaded on a core of fiber [19].

Fig.5 Scene from the middle kingdom [16].

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A physical model from 12th dynasty of the middle kingdom is shown in Fig.6 from the rein of Pharaoh Amenemhat III. The model reflects the high level of pectoral design and production. It is mainly manufactured from non-metallic materials with golden falcon heads at the pectoral ends. A counterpoise is used behind the neck to keep it in position. It is consisted of 7 parallel rows of three different colors and has 100 mm width [17].

Fig.8 Pectoral from the 17th dynasty [19].

Fig.6 Pectoral from the 12th dynasty [17].

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Another example from the middle kingdom is that of Wah from the rein of king Amnemhat I of the 12th dynasty. Fig.7 shows the pectoral which is produced from faience of two levels of one color [18].

NEW KINGDOM PECTORALS

The new kingdom was established after the second intermediate period by the great victory of King Ahmose I who conquered the Hyksos and established dynasty 18 the fist dynasty in the new kingdom. 27

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 January2016 The faience pectoral continued to exist with wonderful designs and production skills in the 18 th dynasty of the new kingdom. A sample is shown in Fig.9 where the faience took four different colors and beads of different size form four curved rows [20].

Fig.11 Pectoral of Pharaoh Tutankhamun [22].

From Pharaohs to some nobles of the 18th dynasty. Nakht, one of the officials of the 18th dynasty. His tomb number TT52 in Theba allocate too beautiful scans for his activities. Fig.12(a) shows Nakht and his wife presenting offerings and Fig. 12(b) shows Nakht supervising the agriculture process personally [23].

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Fig.9 Faience pectoral from the 18th dynasty [20].

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The golden age in the 18th dynasty was so clear during the rein of Pharaoh Akhnaten. Fig.10 shows a vulture pectoral of the pharaoh found on his mummy [21]. It simulates the strong bird, the vulture spreading his wings around the neck of the pharaoh.

Fig.12 (a) Nakht presenting offerings [23].

Fig.10 Vulture pectoral of Pharaoh Akhnaten [21].

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Pectoral was also a main endorsement part for the handsome Pharaoh Tutankhamun the son of Akhnaten. Fig.11 shown a complete statue at the Egyptian Museum of Pharaoh Tut wearing a big pectoral covering most of his shoulders [22]. It consists of five main parallel curved rows with six narrows ros of different design.

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Fig.14 Ladies wearing pendants from the 18th dynasty [25]. Also low level people used pendants for adorsment. Fig.15 shows a blind singer playing harp from the tomb of Noble Nakht [26]. He is wearing a 2 colours pendant of moderate width.

Fig.12 (b) Nakht supervising the agriculture process [23].

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Another example from the tombs of nobles is for Menna who was a scribe and overseer of Pharaohs Thutmos IV and Amonhetep III of the 18 th dynasty. Fig.13 shows a scene from his tomb number TT69 at Thebes of Luxor [24]. He is fishing and hunting birds using a boat in the river Nile. He is wearing a wide pendant.

Fig.15 Blind singer playing harp in 18th dynasty [26].

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Now, we move to the 19th dynasty, the dynasty of Ramseses. Fig.16 shows a scene for Great Pharaoh Ramses II of the 19th dynasty on a limestone medium from Abydos [27]. His pendant looks to be of three parallel curved rows and of two colours.

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Fig.13 Menna fishing and hunting [24].

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Also ladies of the 18th dynasty as wives and daughters of high officials have worn pendants. Fig.14 shows a coloured scene of Egyptian ladies in one of the tombs [25]. The pendants have similar design for all the ladies and of a medium width.

Fig.16 Ramses II of the 19th dynasty [27]. 29 www.ijresonline.com

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 January2016 th Also, the nobles of the 19 dynasty worn pectorals occupation periods of ancient Egypt, Fig.19 shows as shown in the scene of the Commander Userhat a typical mask for Pharaoh Amenemope of the 21 st who served in the rein of Pharaohs Ramses I and dynasty during the 3rd intermediate period [30]. The Seti I. Fig.17 shows Userhat and his wife receiving mask represents the Pharaoh in his official dress offerings from their lovers [28]. His pectoral is a wearing a wide pectoral of about 12 curved parallel wide multicolor one. rows.

Fig.17 Userhat and his wife of the 19th dynasty [28].

Fig.19 Mask of Pharaoh Amenemope of the 21 st dynasty [30].

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The same transition continued in the 20th dynasty where we see in Fig.18 Pharaoh Ramses III the second pharaoh of the dynasty wearing a pendant in one of his scenes [29].

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Furthermore, the pectoral continued to appear during the third intermediate period of the Egyptian ancient history. Fig.20 shows a wide pectoral worn by Queen Karomama, the wife of Pharaoh Osorkon II of the 22nd dynasty [31].

Fig.20 Canopic jar of Queen Karomama of the 22 nd dynasty [31].

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Fig.18 Ramses III of the 20 dynasty [29].

IV.

3RD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD PECTORALS

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Going ahead in the evolution of the ancient Egyptian pectorals even during the weak

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CONCLUSION

Ancient Egyptians established marvelous jewellery industry.

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 January2016 http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/artoverview.htm The synthesis of a 6 bar – 1 slider planar [17] The Egyptian Museum, Egypt collar of Neferuptah, They could establish a variety of http://www.touregypt.net/egyptmuseum/egyptian_museumr6.ht adornment products using a variety of m materials. [18] www.ancientdigger.com/2013/02/the-history-andmeaning-of-ancient.html They designed and produced pectorals of [19] https://www.pinterest.com/5150jojw/ancient-egyptiandifferent configurations. jewelry/ They used semi-precious, faience and gold [20] Faience floral collar of the late XVIIIth Dynasty in pectorals production. www.ancientdigger.com/2013/02/the-history-and-meaning-ofancient.html They initiated using pectorals since the 3rd [21] http://prophecyseeker.proboards.com/thread/533/mummydynasty. tomb-kv55-king-akhenaten Male, female, Pharaohs, nobles and people [22] https://www.pinterest.com/bysharen/egypt/ wore pectorals of different sophistication. [23] TT52 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TT52 [24] Egypt: The private tomb of Menna on the west bank at Wide golden pectorals were designed and Luxor,http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/mennat.htm produced for Pharaohs. [25] http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-women-with-flowersFantastic multi-colored pectorals were and-lotus-18th-dynasty-17632607.html produced from faience in the 18th dynasty. [26] Egypt picture – Scene from the tomb of Nakht, http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/picture07112005.h Pectorals simulating predatory birds were tm produced in the 18th dynasty for Pharaohs [27] Relief of Ramses II indicating power and wealth. https://www.pinterest.com/BurnsCoGallery/ancientegypt/? Pharaohs and Nobles wore pectorals up to utm_campaign=bprecs&e_t=153b18047613440280da7fa8 bfff041e&utm_content=414190565669085329&utm_sour the 22nd dynasty. ce=31&utm_term=3&utm_medium=2004 [28] J. Dunn, The private tomb of Userhat on the west bank at Luxor, http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/userhatt.htm [29] Ramses III sea people, https://www.pinterest.com/BurnsCoGallery/ancientegypt/?utm_ campaign=bprecs&e_t=153b18047613440280da7fa8bfff0 41e&utm_content=414190565669085329&utm_source=3 1&utm_term=3&utm_medium=2004 [30] Mask of Amenemope 1001 – 992 BC, 21st Dynasty http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_to pic;f=15;t=004629;p=5

REFERENCES W Smith, Ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, 1960. [2] N. Scott, Egyptian jewelry, Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, vol.22, issue7, 1964, 223-234. [3] T. James, Gold technology in ancient Egypt, Gold Bulletin vol.5, issue 2, June 1972, 36-42. [4] M. Bunson, Encyclopedia of ancient Egypt, Facts On File Inc., 2002. [5] T. Hardwick, J. McKenzie, A. Reyer, C. Riggs, A. Shortland and H. Whitehouse, Sackler gallery of Egyptian antiquities, The Ashmolian Museum, 2003. [6] K. Bard, An introduction to the archaeology of ancient Egypt, Blackwell Publishing, 2007. [7] L. Troalen, M. Guerra and J. Manley, Technological study of gold jewellery pieces dating from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom in Egypt, Archeo Sciences, vol.33, 2009, 111-119. [8] J. Harrell, Gemstones, UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 11/10/2012, 1-23. [9] D. Haynes, The symbolism and significance of the butterfly in ancient Egypt, M. Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa, 2013. [10] Y. Petrina, Jewellery from late antique Egypt, British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan, vol.21, 2014, 31-34. [11] C. McCarthy, Magical amulets jewelry from ancient Egypt at the Met, http://thejewelryloupe.com/magicalamulets-jewelry-from-ancient-egypt-at-the-met/ , 29th September 2015. [12]https://www.pinterest.com/BurnsCoGallery/ancientegypt/?u tm_campaign=bprecs&e_t=153b18047613440280da7fa8b fff041e&utm_content=414190565669085329&utm_sourc e=31&utm_term=3&utm_medium=2004 [13] http://teachmiddleeast.lib.uchicago.edu/historicalperspectives/the-question-of-identity/before-islamegypt/image-resource-bank/image-09.html

BIOGRAPHY

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[1]

Prof. Galal Ali Hassaan:

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Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism

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[14]Pyramid-Age Love Revealed in Vivid Color in Egyptian Tomb, http://www.crystalinks.com/egyptnews.html Live Science November 15, 2013 [15] Personal adornment, http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/crowns/jewellery.htm [16] J. Dunn, An introduction to the Egyptian art,

31 www.ijresonline.com

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 January2016 Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. Published more than 100 research papers in international journals and conferences. Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Justice of International Journal of Computer Techniques. Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including IJRES.. Reviewer in some international journals. Scholars interested in the authors publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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wjert, 2016, Vol. 2, Issue 5, 01 -17.

Review Article

ISSN 2454-695X

World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology WJERT SJIF Impact Factor: 3.419

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART XX:

MEN CLOTHING (EARLY DYNASTIES TO MIDDLE KINGDOM)

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Prof. Dr. Galal Ali Hassaan*

Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering,

Article Received on 11/06/2016

*Corresponding Author

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Cairo University, Egypt.

Article Revised on 01/07/2016

ABSTRACT

Article Accepted on 21/07/2016

This is the 20th research paper exploring the evolution of Mechanical

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Engineering in Ancient Egypt. The paper investigates men clothing in

Emeritus Professor,

ancient Egypt during the Early Dynastic, Old Kingdom and Middle

Department of Mechanical

Kingdom. It explores the different types of men-dressing during those

Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt.

periods and establishing some of their characteristics. The use of dress among normal people, noblemen and Royal persons is investigated.

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Design & Production,

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Prof. Dr. Galal Ali

The use of three types of men-dressing is traced during the studied

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periods: the Schenti, the Corselet and the Robe.

KEYWORDS: History of mechanical engineering, ancient Egypt, men clothing, early Dynastic, Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom. INTRODUCTION

The ancient Egyptians built one of the greatest ancient civilizations and lived a simple daily

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life, but could establish a great empire based on knowledge and experience. This is the 20th research paper in a series aiming at exploring the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the different activities of their wonderful civilization. In the previous

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part of this series, we discussed the linen industry and we have seen how they good produce high quality linen as better or even much better than the modern linen. This paper handles using linen in producing men clothing in the ancient Egyptian society.

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Smith, 1954 presented a group of pictures to convey something of intimate human side of Egyptian country life as well as the artistic achievement of a great civilization. He presented

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some figures from which the researcher can take an idea about men dressing in ancient

Egypt.[1] Butner, 2007 studied the Egyptian conceptions of foreigners during the Middle

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Kingdom (2055-1650 BC). Through her study and presentation of some ancient Egyptian

scenes, some information evolves about men and women dressing in this period.[2] Tassie, 2008 studied the social and ritual contextualisation of ancient Egypt hair and hairstyles from

the Predynastic to the end of the Old Kingdom. The illustrations presented in his work carried

a lot of information about the dressing in ancient Egypt during those periods.[3] Olivier, 2008

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presented artefacts to investigate the role of elite women in events, practices and rituals. Her

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work provided information about dressing in ancient Egypt through the scenes and statues presented.[4] Turner, 2012 in his research work for his Ph.D. program presented a lot of artefact materials that one can extract useful information about men dressing in ancient Egypt.[5] Wilm, 2014 presented an explanation for some of the ancient Egyptian dress for both men and women. She presented also some of the modern Egyptian dress and trends.[6]

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Schuette, 2015 evaluated how ancient Egypt was represented in trade books. She reported misrepresentations that were found to be present within the data pool. Some data about dress in ancient Egypt can be extracted from some of the photos she presented.[7] Wikipedia, 2016 presented an article about King Mentuhotep II, the 5th King of the 11th Dynasty. The scene.[8]

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Early Dynastic

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presented a scene for the King wearing the Corselet dress and wearing a skirt in another

The Early Dynastic Period covers the 1st and 2th dynasties over the time period from 3100 to 2686 BC.[9] We have a number or men dressing examples from both 1st and 2nd Dynasties presented as follows. -

Fig.1 shows King Narmer of the 1st Dynasty from his Palette displayed in the Egyptian

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Museum of Cairo.[10] The king is wearing a short skirt (Schemti) while smiting the head of

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one of Egypt's enemies.

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Fig 1: King Narmer in his Palette.[10]

The second example is for a scene on an invory box belonging to King Narmer of the 1st

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Dynasty and shown in Fig.2.[11]

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Fig 2: Invory box of King Narmer.[11] The third men-dressing example is from the 2nd Dynasty where we see a statue for King

Khasekhem, the last king of the 2nd dynasty as displayed in the Ashmolean Museum of and shown in Fig.3.[12] His dress is a robe wrapped around his body from his neck to near his feet

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as depicted in another photo presented in an article by Jimmy Dunn.[13]

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Fig 3: Statue of King Khasekhem from the 2nd Dynasty.[12] 3

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Summary

During the Early Dynastic Period, the ancient Egyptians new the short, medium and long

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skirt (Schenti) and the robe. Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom comprised the 3rd to 6th Dynasties over a time span from 2686 to 2181 BC.[14] The dress features of this period are explained through the recorded men-dresses as

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follows.

The first example in this period is from The 3rd Dynasty through a standing statue for a

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non-royal person called Sepa from the rein of King Djoser as displayed in the Louvre

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Museum of Paris.[15] He is wearing a medium skirt with waste belt.

Fig 4: Statue of Sepa from the 3rd Dynasty.[15] Another example from Late 3rd Dynasty is a relief for a person called Aa-akhti displayed

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in the Louvre Museum and shown in Fig.5 (a).[15]a It seems that Aa-akhti is wearing a long skirt (Schenti) of length down to below the knee. The long Schenti was worn also by the great Architect Imhotep - chief vizier of King Djoser and Architect of the step pyramid at Saqqara.

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His statue is displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art of NY and shown in Fig.5 (b).[15]b

Fig.5(a) Aa-akhti of the 3rd Dynasty.[15]a

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Fig.5(b) Imhotep of the 3rd Dynasty.[15]b 4

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Now, we move to the 4th Dynasty where we have an men-dress example for prince Ka-

wab, the elder son of King Khufu, the builder of the Great pyramid at Giza while returning

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from a day's fowling and shown in Fig.6.[16] The prince is wearing a medium skirt with a belt

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around his waste to fix the skirt in position.

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Fig 6: Prince Ka-wab from the 4th Dynasty.[16] - Another model of men-dress in the 4th Dynasty is for King Mankaure through his statue in

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the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston which is shown in Fig.7.[17] The king is wearing a short Schenti with belt and tail from the front. The Schenti is lined by a slightly non-parallel lines while the tail has exactly horizontal lines.

- One more example of men-dressing is depicted from Prince Rahotep statue (son of King

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Senefru) displayed in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.8.[18] The Prince is

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wearing a plain medium Schenti without belt.

Fig 7: King Menkaure from the 4th Dynasty.[17] Fig 8: Rahotep statue from the 4th Dynasty.[18]

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Going to the 5th Dynasty we have three examples of men dressing: The first one belongs

to Penmeru through his group statue displayed in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and

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shown in Fig.9.[19] He is wearing a medium-plain-white Schenti without belt. The second

example is depicted from a colored scene of the high official Ti from his Mastaba at Sakkara and shown in Fig.10.[20] He is wearing a plain-white Schenti with belt and front trapezoid tail. The third example is for ship builders registered in the Ti Tomb as a large colored scene and

shown in Fig.11.[21] The work is going on under complete supervision to maintain the usual

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high quality production of this historical era of the Egyptian history. All the workers and

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supervisors worn medium-plain Schenti, most probably without belt.

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Fig 9: Penmeru statue from the 5th Dynasty.[19] Fig 10: Ti scene from the 5th Dynasty.[20]

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Fig 11: Ship builders in Ti Tomb of the 5th Dynasty.[21]

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_ Now, we go to the last dynasty of the Old Kingdom, the 6th Dynasty where we visit the Mastaba Tomb of Kagemni, the Chief Justice and Vizier in the first years of the reign of Teti,

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first King of the 6th Dynasty. Fig.12 shows a scene from Kagemni Mastaba for hippopotamus

hunting using a boat.[22] The three men are wearing a very little linen since they are so busy

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in the hunting process using a number of their hunting devices.

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Fig 12: A hunting scene from the Tomb of Kagemni.[22] Another example of men dressing in the 6th Dynasty is shown in Fig.13 through a statue

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for Tjeteti, an overseer during the rein of King Pepi II as displayed in the Metropolitan

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Museum of Art.[23] He is wearing a long Schenti with large trapezoidal front tail.

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Fig 13: Overseer Tjeteti of the 6th Dynasty.[23]

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One more example of men dressing in the 6th Dynasty is depicted from the Tomb of

Vizier Mereruka. It is a colored wall scene about three fish men in operation and shown in

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Fig.14.[24] The three men are wearing a sleeveless upper-body dress with one asymmetric

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strand on the left shoulder called 'Corselet'.[6]

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Fig 14: Fish men in operation in the Tomb of Vizier Mereruka.[24] Summary

During the Old Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians continued to wear the short, medium and

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long skirt (Schenti) with and without belt and tail. Workmen wore medium size Schenti and Schenti's with very little linen. Fish men wore the Corselet.

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Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom covers the 11th and 12th Dynasties of ancient Egypt over a time span from 2000 to 1700 BC.[25] The evolution of men clothing in the ancient Egypt societies is traced through the following illustrations from both dynasties of the Middle Kingdom. -

Fig.15 shows a wooden model for a bakery and brewery activity from early 11 th Dynasty

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displayed in the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston.[26] The only man in the working team of the bakery is wearing a long Schenti without belt. Another wooden model from the 11th Dynasty is shown in Fig.16 and displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art of NY.[27] The workers

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are wearing a unified uniform of a medium Schenti and one man in the left patrician (my be

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the work superintendent) is wearing a Robe.

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Fig 16: Bakery from the 11th Dynasty.[27]

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Fig 15: Bakery from early 11th Dynasty.[26]

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Another example for men-dressing in the 11th Dynasty is for the King Mentuhotep II, the

5th King of the Dynasty which is displayed in the Egyptian Museum of Cairo and shown in

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Fig.17.[28] The King wears a Robe completely around his body.

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Fig 17: Mentuhotep II of the 11th Dynasty.[28]

- The last example from the 11th Dynasty is a funerary statue displayed in the Gulbenkian Museum of Lisbon, Portugal and shown in Fig.18.[29] The man is wearing a medium Schenti

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with a triangular opening in the front and without belt.

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Fig 18: Funerary statue from the 11th Dynasty.[29]

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Now, we move to the wealthy dynasty of the Middle Kingdom, the 12th Dynasty. The mendressing models during this dynasty are illustrated by the following artifacts.

The first example is from a wooden model of two hunters from the 12th Dynasty

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displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.19.[30] One hunter is wearing

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a medium Corselet and the other (to the left) is wearing a long Coselet.

Fig 19: Hunters from the 12th Dynasty.[30] -

The second example is extracted from a boat model from the 12th Dynasty displayed in

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the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.20.[31] The whole crew is wearing long

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Schenti and one in the cabinet wearing a sleeveless shirt.

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Fig 20: Boat model from the 12th Dynasty.[31]

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The third example is from a model for offering bearers from the 12th Dynasty displayed in

the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.21.[32] The two men in the front of the

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model are wearing a Corselet and a Schenti respectively.

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Fig 21: Offering bearers model from the 12th Dynasty.[32]

The fourth example is from brick manufacturing in the 12th Dynasty. Fig.22 shows a

wooden model for five brick makers cooperating in producing bricks.[33] The five men are

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wearing a unified dress which is a medium Schenti.

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Fig 22: Brick makers model from the 12th Dynasty.[33] A fifth example is for a wooden statue of a guardian displayed in the Metropolitan

Museum and shown in Fig.23.[34] The man is wearing a medium Schenti without belt or front

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tail.

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Fig 23: Guardian statue from the 12th Dynasty.[34] 11

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The same style of the medium Schenti shown in Fig.23 was used not only by normal

ancient Egyptians, but also by their kings. Fig.24 shows a statue for King Senwosret I, the 2 nd

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King of the 12th Dynasty wearing the same dress as the guardian in Fig.23.[35] It seems that

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the King Schenti has a belt, but without front tail.

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Fig. 24: King Senwosret I statue from the 12th Dynasty.[35] The Schenti continued to be used by Egyptian Kings of the 12th Dynasty. Fig.25 shows

King Senusret III, the 5th King, wearing a long Schenti as displayed in the British

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Museum[36],[37] The King is wearing a long Schenti with parallel inclined lines around a

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central front tail. It is secured in position using a belt.

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Fig 25: King Senwosret III statue from the 12th Dynasty.[36] 12

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We have another model for an extremely long Schenti from th 12th dynasty worn by

displayed in the Neues Museum of Berlin and shown

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in Fig.25.[38] It has no belt nor a front tail or any decorations.

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King Amenemhet III, the 6th King

Fig 26: King Amenemhet III statue from the 12th Dynasty.[38] -

The last example from the 12th Dynasty is for its 7th King, Amenemhet IV through his

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statue shown in Fig.27.[39] The King is wearing a medium Schenti with belt and decorations

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with parallel lines inclined in reversing directions.

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Fig 27: King Amenemhet IV statue from the 12th Dynasty.[39]

SUMMARY

During the Middle Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians continued to wear medium and long skirt

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(Schenti) with and without belt and tail. Workmen wore medium and long Schenti. Kings wore also medium and long Schenti with and without decorations.

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CONCLUSION -

The paper investigated men clothing in ancient Egypt during the era from the Early

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Dynastic to the Middle Kingdom..

During the Early Dynastic Period, the ancient Egyptians wore a short, medium and long Schenti beside the Robe.

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During the Old Kingdom they continued wearing the short, medium and long Schenti

with and without belt and front tail. During this period, workmen wore medium Schenti

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and special Schenti with very little linen depending on the nature of their work. Some workmen wore the Corselet during the Old and Medium Kingdoms.

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During the Middle Kingdom, they continued wearing the medium and long Schenti with

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and without belt and front tail. -

Workmen of the Middle Kingdom wore medium and long Schenti.

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Kings of the Middle Kingdom wore also medium and long Schenti with and without

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decorations (linen patterns). They decorated the Schenti for Kings through using lined linen with parallel and nonparallel lines patterns.

The front tail of one of the Kings of the 4th Dynasty was decorated by a pattern consisting of horizontal lines.

REFERENCES

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1. Smith, W.(1954), "Country life in ancient Egypt", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 2. Butner, A.(2007), "The rhetoric and the reality: Egyptian conceptions of foreigners during the Middle Kingdom", College Scholars Thesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 3. Tassie, G. (2008), "The social and ritual contextualization of ancient Egyptian hair and hairstyles from the Protodynastic to the end of the Old Kingdom", Ph.D. Thesis,

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Institution of Archaeology, University College London, January. 4. Olivier, A.(2008), "Social status of elite women of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt: A comparison of artistic features", Master of Arts Thesis, University of South Africa, June.

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5. Turner, P. (2012), "Seth- A misrepresented god in the ancient Egyptian pantheon", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Manchester, Faculty of Life Sciences.

6. Wilm, M. (2014), "Ancient Egypt, Module 1". 7. Schuette, L. (2015), "Researching the historical representations of ancient Egypt in trade

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books", M.Sc. Thesis, The Graduate School, Eastern Illinois University.

8. Wikipedia (2016), "Mentuhotep II", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mentuhotep_II , May.

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9. Wikipedia (2016), "Early Dynastic Period (Egypt)", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Dynastic_Period_(Egypt)

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10. Magruder, KV. (2008), "Ancient Egypt: Introduction", http://kvmagruder.net/hsci/03-Egypt-Aegean/Introduction 11. Tassie (2008), Fig.48.

12. Wikipedia (2016), "Khasekhemwy", www. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khasekhemwy

www.touregypt.net/featurestories/khasekhem.htm

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14. Wikipedia (2016), "Old Kingdom of Egypt",

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13. Dunn, J. "Khasekhem of Egypt, 2nd Dynasty",

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Kingdom_of_Egypt 15. a Almendron, "Catalogue: Third Dynasty",

www.almandron.com/arthistoria/arte/culturas/egyptian-art-in-age-of-thepyramids/catalogue-third-dynasty/

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b Memari, H. "Imhotep", www.pinterest.com/pin/3377768447236515/ 16. Smith (1954), Plate 11.

17. Museum of Fine Arts, "King Menkaure", www.mfa.org/collections/object/kingmenkaure-the-goodness-hathor-and-the-deified-hare-nome-138424.

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18. Global Egyptian Museum, "Seated statue of Rahotep and Nofret", www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/detail.aspx?id=14847 19. Museum of Fine Arts, "Psudo-group statue of Penmeru",

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www.mfa.org/collection/object/pseudo-group-statue-of-penmeru-140414 20. World 4, "Ancient Egyptian costumes", http://world4.eu/ancient-egyptian-costume/ 21. World History, "Private tombs in the 5th and 6th Dynasties", www.worldhistory.biz/ancient-history/54985-6-11-an-expanding-bureaucracy-privatetombs-in-the-5th-and-6th-dynasties.html

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22. Osirisnet, "The mastaba tomb of Kagemni", www.orsirisnet.net/mastabas/kagemni/e_kagemni_02.htm 23. Suarez, M., "Statue of Tjeteti", www.pinterest.com/pin/477311260485671394/

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24. Wikipedia (2016), "Mereruka", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mereruka 25. Wikipedia (2016), "Middle Kingdom of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Kingdom_of_Egypt

26. Museum of Fine Arts, "Model of a bakery and brewery",

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www.mfa.org/collections/object/model-of-a-bakery-and-brewery-143960

27. Buzard, K., "A funerary model of a bakery and brewery",

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www.pinterest.com/pin/501729214711354160/

28. Wayne, D., "Statue of Methutep II", www.pinterest.com/pin/40358648097090/

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29. Wikipedia, Common (2006), "Funerary statue of a man",

http://commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:11th_Dynasty_Egyptian_funerary_statue_(Gulbe n.pinterest.com/pin/480477853975484160/

30. Josephina, "Hunters", www.pinterest.com/pin/49314422929578629/ 31. Gallasch, R. "Travelling boat rowing dynasty 12", ,

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www.pinterest.com/pin/3025924726245481/

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32. Metropolitan Museum of Art, "Model for procession of offering bearers", www.mitmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544125 33. Smith (1954), plate 38.

34. Metropolitan Museum of Art, "Guardian figure",

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35. Zwan, K. "Wooden statue of Senwosret I", www.pinterest.com/pin/28281205157521378/ 36. Dunn, J., "Senusret III, the 5th King of the 12th Dynasty", www.touregypt.net/featurestories/senusret3.htm

37. Wikipedia, (2016), "Senusret", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senusret_III

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38. Funky Stock, "12 Dynasty Egyptian statue of King Amenemhet III www.funkystock.photoseller.com/image/10000iwwmlH0oto1c 39. Grepol Free, "Amenemhat IV",

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http://greoal.free.fr/english/img_sesostris/amenemhat4.jpg BIOGRAPHY

Galal Ali Hassaan 

Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic



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Control.

Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974.

Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK

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under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby.



Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.



Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations, Mechanism Synthesis and

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History of Mechanical Engineering.



Published more than 180 research papers in international journals and conferences.

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World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology

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Hassaan.

Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Justice of International Journal of Computer Techniques.



Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including the

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WJERT journal. Reviewer in some international journals.



Scholars interested in the author’s publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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www.wjert.org

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Galal Ali Hassaan

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Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XXII: Women Clothing (Predynastic to Middle Kingdom)

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ABSTRACT: The evolution of the women clothing industry in ancient Egypt during the Predynastic

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to Middle Kingdom Period is investigated. Examples are presented of women clothing referred to a specific period in terms of a specific culture or Dynasty. Known information are presented to define clearly the artifact and its location with analysis of each dress type. Women clothing for Queens, Nobles and Normal people is outlined for deep investigation of the subject under study. KEYWORDS:Mechanical engineering history, ancient Egypt, women clothing, Predynastic to Middle Kingdom

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I. INTRODUCTION Ancient Egyptians built a great civilization continued to thousands of years and left buildings and products could survive for thousands of years withstanding severe environments. Textile industry is one of the great industries in ancient Egypt indicating the glory of this marvelous civilization. This is the 22nd part of a series of research papers aiming at exploring the role of mechanical engineering in building the ancient Egypt civilization. Smith (1954) wrote a book about country life in ancient Egypt presenting large number of illustrations such as tomb reliefs, statues, artifacts, coffins, jewellery, models of sailing boats, and stelas. His illustrations carried some information s about women clothing in ancient Egypt during different historical eras [1]. Smith (1960) in his book about ancient egypt presented illustrations starting from the Predynastic Period to the New Kingdom. The illustrations he presented from the temple of the Great Pyramid, Statue of King Mycerinus and his Queen, Goddness Hathor, Pen-meru family, Ptah-khenuwy and his wife, stela from First Intermediate Period, procession model from Bersheh, lady statue from New Kingdom. Those illustrations carried useful information about women-dressing in ancient Egypt [2]. Newman (1997) in her research study for the Master of Arts presented some illustrations from ancient Egypt scenes for both men and women carrying information about women clothing during the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt [3]. Tassie (2008) performed research for her Ph.D. degree from University College London on the social and ritual contextualization of ancient Egyptian hair and hairstyles from Protodynastic to the end of the Old Kingdom. He presented illustrations on Hathor from Seti I tomb, dancers and musicians, Queen Kawit of the 11th Dynasty, statue of lady Meritites, Overseer of the House of Hairdressing in the 5th Dynasty, Queen Kawit sarcophagus, some Predynastic figurines from Naqada I and II Periods, woman statue from the 1st Dynasty, figurine from Abydos, reliefs from 3rd Dynasty. All the illustrations introduce data on female dressing during those periods [4]. Olivier (2008) studied the social status of elite women of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt within the requirements of her Master of Arts. She presented illustrations for Queen Ahmose, Seneb and his family, a dancer, Great Harris papyrus, the bird lady, Neithhotep relief, Menkaure and his wife, Rahotep and Nofret, Queen Kemsit, Queen of Amenhotep III, Princess Kawit, Queen KhenemetNefer-Hedjet, Queen Nofret, Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye, Akhenaten and his family, Nefertiti statue, Nebamun and his family, banquet scene from Nebamun tomb, Hatschepsut statue, relief of Hatschepsut and Thutmose III in the Karnak, Priestess Hathor statue, scene of Sennefer and his wife, Nefertitie in her chariot, Queen Ahotep statue, Queen Ahmose-Nefertari statue, scene of AhmoseNefertari, Queen Ahmose relief, Thutmose IV and his mother statue, Queen Tiye statue, Akhenaten and Nefertiti statue, Tutankhamun and his wife scene, Tuya statue, Nefertari scene, stela of Ramses II and his second wife, Wife of Ramses III, Merytamun statue, scene of Tawosret, Ramses III and his wives. Her illustrations carried a lot of information about women clothing in the New Kingdom [5].

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II. PREDYNASTIC PERIOD

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Bryan (2010) presented illustrations from Tomb of Pahery at Elkab, Hathor at Hatschepsut chapel, Horemhab and his wife, musicians in Horemhab Tomb and banqueting scene from Neferhotep Tomb [6]. Gomez (2015), in her Ph.D. research study, presented illustrations for Herihor's 3rd daughter Vignette from a funerary papyrus including an offering woman [7]. Hassaan (2016) studied the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the presentation of men clothing in the ancient Egyptian society during a time span from Early Dynastic to Late Period. He investigated the different clothing styles used by normal people, Nobles and Pharaohs [8,9].

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The predynastic era of ancient Egypt differs from Lower to Upper Egypt. In Upper Egypt, the important predynastic cultures are: Badarian (4400-400 BC), Naqada I (400-3500 BC), Naqada II (3500-3200 BC) and Naqada III (3200-3000 BC) [10]. The examples of women clothing during this 1400 years period are very limited. We are goint to present three examples from Badari, Naqada I and Naqada II of Upper Egypt.

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Fig.1 shows an ivory figure from Badari (about 4000 BC) displayed in the British Museum of UK [11]. It is for a woman wearing an underwear (panty). Her panty is decorated by horizontal fabric lines. Fig.2 shows a second example of women clothing from Naqada I which is a bone figurine which is a Memorial Art Gallery Collection [12]. This woman is also wearing a panty of a style different that of the Badarian woman. It is decorated by perforations and has much less height than the Badarian.

Fig.1 Badarian woman [11]. Fig.2 Naqada I woman [12]. The 3 example of women clothing in the predynastic era of Egypt is from Naqada II. It is the first appearance of the Schenti dress worn by women in ancient Egypt. Fig.3 shows a woman figurine from Naqada II displayed in the Brooklyn Museum of NY [13]. She is wearing a long white Schenti down to her feet. As a characteristic of this Schenti design, it has a tight design around the body and profiled to suit the body with minimum diameter at the feet. The last example from this era is again from Naqada II for a female figurine displayed also in Brooklyn Museum and shown in Fig.4 [14]. The design of this Schenti is different than that in Fig.3. It has a minimum diameter at the waist, then remains straight for about 60 % of its length, then increases near its end to a maximum at the feet.

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Fig.4 Naqada II woman [14].

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Fig.3 Naqada II woman [13].

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III. EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD The Early Dynastic Period covers both the 1st and 2nd Dynasties over the time span from 3100 to 2686 BC [15]. There no enough sources for women dress during this period of the ancient Egyptian history. However, I found one illustration in Tassie Ph.D. research work for a woman statue from the 1st Dynasty of ancient Egypt displayed in the British Museum and shown in Fig.5 [16]. The lady is wearing a long tunic dress with full sleeves and carries a child on her back. This is the fist time for a women full dress to appear after the panty and Schenti of the Predynastic Period.

Fig.5 Woman statue from the 1st Dynasty [16].

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IV. OLD KINGDOM The Old Kingdom covers the Dynasties from 3 rd to 6th over the time span from 2686 to 2181 BC [17]. .The evolution of women clothing in this period is studied by investigating the women clothing in each Dynasty as follows: Dynasty 3:

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Fig.6 shows a scene from the chapel of Hathor-Neferhotepes wife of Kha-baw-Sokar, the high official in the 3rd Dynasty in his Saqqara Mastaba [18]. She is appearing in two sub-scenes

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wearing different styles of the Calasiris dress. The model in the left is a standard tight-long Calasiris, while the other one in the right is a modified trouser-like-tight Calasiris.

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Dynasty 4:

Fig.6 Scene from the chapel of Hathor-Neferhotepes [18]. This is the Dynasty of pyramids builders and we expect to have good examples of women clothing during this period as will be illustrated below:

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Fig.7 shows a statue of King Menkaure, the 6th King of the 4th Dynasty and his wife standing in the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston [19]. The statue reflects the love and sympathy of the King and his wife. She is standing very close to him holding his waist by her right hand and his left arm by her left hand. The Queen is wearing a full tight dress down to near her feet. The artist did not give any details about the top part of the dress and its sleeves as clear from the zoomed top part of the Queen in Fig.6.

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Fig.6 Statue of King Menkaure and his wife [19].

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Fig.7 shows a wall relief for Queen Hetepheres II, the wife of King Djedefra the 3rd King of the 4th Dynasty in her daughter's Tomb [20]. The Queen is wearing a full-tight-white-full sleeves dress with V-design over the chest. The dress has a triangular shape over the two shoulders giving a unique design appearing for the first time in the ancient Egyptian history.

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Fig.8 shows a relief for Khufu-khaf, Prince and Vizier in the 4th Dynasty and his wife Nefret-khau [21]. Hes wife is wearing a modified-tight Kalasiris with two legs.

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Fig.7 Scene of Queen Hetepheres II of the 4th Dynasty [20].

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Fig.8 Khufu-khaf and his wife of the 4th Dynasty [21]. Fig.9 shows a relief in the mastaba of Khufu-khaf, Prince and Vizier in the 4th Dynasty for a woman (may be his wife) [20]. She is wearing a tight Corselet and putting a Sash on her left shoulder.

Fig.9 Woman in the Tomb of Khufu-khaf of the 4th Dynasty [20].

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The last example from the 4th Dynasty is for a Noble lady through her wonderful statue shown in Fig.10 [22]. She is wearing a white-V-necked-sleeveless dress. The statue reflects the skill of the ancient Egyptian sculptor, the beauty of the ancient Egyptian woman and their fine relish.

Fig.10 Noble lady from the 4th Dynasty [22]. Dynasty 5:

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Fig.11 shows a statue for the wife of King Mekauhor, the 7th King of the 5th Dynasty [23]. Her dress is full, tight and long down to half her leg. The top part of her dress is not clear as illustrated in her zoomed bust in Fig.11.

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Fig.11 Wife of King Mekauhor of the 5th Dynasty [23].

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Fig.12 shows a pair statue for Ptahkhenuwy, the Assistant Inspector of the Palace Attendants in the 5th Dynasty and his beloved wife as displayed in the ………. [24]. His wife is wearing a tightsleeveless-long dress down to near her feet with V-design at the neck.

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Another women dress example is depicted from the pair statue of Rahenka, the Inspector of Scribes during the 5th Dynasty and his wife shown in Fig.13 [25]. His wife is wearing a tight dress similar to that of the Noble lady of Fig.10 and Ptahkhenuwy wife of Fig.12.

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Fig.12 Ptahkhenuwy and his wife from the 5th Dynasty [24].

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Fig.13 Rahenka and his wife from the 5th Dynasty [25]. Fig.14 shows a statue of Penmeru, priest and director of the dining hall at the end of the 5th Dynasty and his family as displayed in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston [26]. His wife is wearing a whilelong dress down to near her feet.

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Fig.14 Penmeru and his wife from the 5th Dynasty [26]. Fig.15 shows a pair statue of Bau and his wife Baru from the 5 th Dynasty [27]. She is wearing a white-tight-sleeveless-V-necked dress

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Fig.15 Bau and his wife Baru from the 5th Dynasty [27]. Dynasty 6:

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Fig.16 shows a group statue for dwarf Seneb, head of the royal textile works under King Pepi II in the 6th Dynasty and his family as displayed in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo [28]. She is wearing a full-Tight-long dress. The top part of the dress has no clear details.

Fig.16 Seneb and his family from the 6th Dynasty [28].

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Fig.17 shows a part of a stela from Saqqara dated to 2200 BC (6 th Dynasty) [29]. This part shows a working woman carrying a basket on her head and holding a goat through a rope around its neck. She is wearing a full-long dress down to her feet with small sleeves as clear in her zoomed bust.

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Fig.17 Saqqara working woman from the 6th Dynasty [29].

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V. MIDDLE KINGDOM The Middle Kingdom covers the Dynasties 11th and 12th over the time span from 2000 to 1700 BC [30]. .The evolution of women clothing in this period is studied by investigating the women clothing in each Dynasty as follows:

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Dynasty 11:

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The first example of women clothing in the 11th Dynasty belongs to Queen Kemsit, the minor wife of King Mentuhotep, the 5th King of the 11th Dynasty through a temple relief fragment cut by Egyptian artifacts robberies and transferred to the British Museum. The colored relief of Queen Kemsit is shown in Fig.18 [31]. The Queen is wearing a long-tight-white Calasiris.

Fig.18 Queen Kemsit of the 11th Dynasty [31].

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The second example of women clothing in the 11 th Dynasty belongs to Queen Kawit, another minor wife of King Mentuhotep, the 5th King of the 11th Dynasty through a scene on her sarcophagus as shown in Fig.19 [32].The Queen in the scene is having her breakfast while setting for hair cutting. All of them are wearing long dress. Top details are not clear in the scene.

Fig.19 Queen Kawit of the 11th Dynasty [32].

Dynasty 12:

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We have three examples of women clothing in the 12 th Dynasty depicted from Tomb scenes and statues as follows:

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Fig.20 shows a 8-ladies dancing team from the Tomb of Antefoqer, governor of Thebes and Visier of King Amenemhat I, the first King of the 12th Dynasty [33]. Four of the dancers are wearing a short Schenti (two from each side) and three beside each other wearing a long Schenti down to their knees.

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Fig.20 Dancing team from the 12th Dynasty [33].

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Fig.21 shows a wall scene for 3-ladies working in making bread from the Tomb of Antefoqer, governor of Thebes. The lady in the left is preparing the dough and wearing a Corselet while the other two ladies are putting the dough in the mould and wearing either a long Schenti or a Corselet.

Fig.21 Working ladies from the 12th Dynasty [34].

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The last example of women clothing in the 12 th Dynasty is depicted from a wonderful wood statue for an offering bearer from Tomb of Meketra during the rein of King Amenemhat I displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.22 [35]. She is wearing a colored-tight-long Calasiris down to her feet. The zoomed upper part in Fig.22 shows a 2 thick straps of her dress.

Fig.22 Offering bearer from the 12th Dynasty [35].

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VI. CONCLUSION The women clothing during the Predynastic to Middle Kingdom periods of ancient Egypt was investigated. The ancient Egyptian women in Badari and Naqada I of the Predynastic Period wore a minimum clothing in the form of Panties. During Naqada II, they wore long Schenti of different designs. They wore long Tonics since the 1st Dynasty. Long women dresses continued to take place during the 4th, 5th, 6th , 11th and 12th Dynasties. Wearing a Calasiris appeared in the ancient Egyptian society in the 3 rd Dynasty and continued up to the Middle Kingdom. Modified Calasiris with trouser-like design appeared in the 3rd Dynasty. Queens of the 4th Dynasty wore full dresses with long sleeves. Noble wives wore modified Calasiris in the 4th Dynasty. Some women put a sash on their left Shoulder in the 4th Dynasty. Some women wore V-necked-sleeveless dress in the 4th and 5th Dynasties. A Corselet was in use by working women during the 12th Dynasty. Long and short Schenti continued to appear in the 12 th Dynasty by females working in some professions.

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REFERENCES [1] A.Gomez (2015), "The personnel of Khonsu during the Third Intermediate Period: A prosopographicical study of the 21st Dynasty", Ph.D. Thesis, Autonomous University of Madrid, April. [2] A.Olivier (2008), "Social status of elite women of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt: A comparison of artistic features", Master of Arts Thesis, University of South Africa, June. [3] Almendro, "The fourth Dynasty", www.almendro.com/ artehistoria/arte/culturas/egyptian-art-in-age-of-thepyramids/the-human-image-in-old-kingdom-nonroyal-reliefs/3/ [4] Ancient Egypt, "Painted limestone statue of Ptahkhenuwy and his wife", www.ancientegypt.co.uk/boston/pages/boston_03_2006%20536%2001.htm [5] Art and Archaeology, "The dwarf Seneb and his family", www.art-archaeology.com/egypt/egy61.html [6] B. Mertz, "Daily life in ancient Egypt", http:// emhotep.net/2013/02/25/em-hotep-digest/em-hotep-digest-vol-02-no07-daily-life-in-ancient-egypt/ [7] B.Bryan (2010), "Hatschepsut and cultic revelries in the New Kingdom", Proceedings of the Thebes Workshop, The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Chicago. [8] British Museum, "Temple relief", www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=120364&partId=1 [9] Brooklyn Museum, "Female figure", www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/4225 [10] CrystaLinks, "Fifth Dynasty of Egypt, Menkauhor", www.crystalinks.com/dynasty5.html [11] E. Holomek, "Bone figurine with lapis lazuli eys", www.pinterest.com/pin/379709812307115940/ [12] Flawless Logic, "Egyptian great Pharaohs and lowly slaves", http://love.flowlesslogic.com/Titans/hwr8.htm [13] G. Tassie (2008), "The social and ritual contextualization of ancient Egyptians hair and hairstyles from the Predynastic to the end of the Old Kingdom", Ph.D. Thesis, University College London, January. [14] G. Tassie (2008), p.144. [15] G.A. Hassaan (2016), "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XX: Men clothing (Early Dynasties to Middle Kingdom), World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 2(4), Accepted for Publication. [16] G.A. Hassaan (2016), "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXI: Men clothing (New Kingdom to Late Period), International Journal of Engineering and Techniques, 2(4), 36-45. [17] H. Gordon, "Menkaure and his Queen, Dynasty IV", [18] K. Newman (1997), "Social archaeology, social relations and archaeological materials: social power as depicted in the wall art in the tombs of the Pharaoh's tomb builders, Deir el-Madina, Egypt, XVIII-XX Dynasties", Master of Arts Thesis, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, April. [19] Metropolitan Museum, "Estate figure", www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544210 [20] N. Nirk, "Seated pair statue (Bau and Baru), Dynasty 5", [21] Osiris Net, "A dance in Antefoqer Tomb", www.osirisnet.net/popupImage.php?img=/tombes/nobles/antefoqer/photo/antefoqer_wiki_01.jpg&sw=1366&sh=768 &wo=0&so=85 [22] Osiris Net, "Working women", [23] P. Vanderzwet, "The Queen's of Egypt's 4th Dynasty", www.touregypt.net/featurestories/fourthqueens.htm [24] Pinterest, "Ancient Badari figure of a woman", www.pinterest.com/pin/317785317438805521/

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[25] Smith (1954), Plate 28. [26] University College London, "Saqqara mastaba of Kha-baw-Sokar", www.ucl.ac.uk/museumsstatic/digitalegypt/saqqara/khabausokar/chapel2.html [27] V. Pafundi, "Clay made figurine, Naqada II", www.pinterest.com/pin/470204017327567628/ [28] W. Smith (1954), "Country life in ancient Egypt", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. [29] W. Smith (1960), "Ancient Egypt", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. [30] Wikipedia (2016), "Early Dynastic Period (Egypt)", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Dynastic_Period_(Egypt) [31] Wikipedia (2016), "Kawit (queen)", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kawit_(queen) [32] Wikipedia (2016), "Middle Kingdom of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Kingdom_of_Egypt [33] Wikipedia (2016), "Old Kingdom of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Kingdom_of_Egypt [34] Wikipedia (2016), "Prehistoric egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_Egypt [35] www.osirisnet.net/popupImage.php?img=/tombes/nobles/antefoqer/photo/antefoqer_mpd_008.jpg&sw=1366&sh=76 8&wo=0&so=85 [36] www.pinterest.com/pin/3777394874764700/ [37] www.pinterest.com/pin/381046818445775552/ [38] X. Meyers, "Ancient egypr: Raherka and his wife", http://es.pinterest.com/pin/491103534348228228/

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management, Architecture, Technology and Engineering (IJARMATE) Vol. 2, Issue 8, August 2016

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XXIV: Women Clothing in 19th and 20th Dynasties Galal Ali Hassaan

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Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt [email protected] carrying some information about Royal women Clothing in Abstract— The evolution of women clothing in both 19th and those periods [4]. 20th Dynasties of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt is Wikipedia (2016) presented a brief history of Queen investigated. The available archaeological sources is scanned Nefertari, the Great Royal Wife of Ramses II of the 19th for useful information about women clothing during this era. Dynasty, Queen Meritamen, Great Royal Wife of Ramses II Two women classifications is studied, mainly the Royal and th after the death of his first wife Nefertari and Princess Noble women. The different types of women clothing in the 19 Henuttawy, daughter of Ramses II and Nefertari. The scenes and 20th Dynasties in Egypt are studied with many available examples. about Queens and princess carried good information about Royal clothing in the 19th Dynasty [5-7]. Wikipedia (2016) Index Terms— Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, presented a brief history for Queens Tiye and Tyti of the 20th women clothing, 19th and 20th Dynasties. Dynasty including a scene for Queen Tiye [8,9]. Hassaan (2016) investigated the evolution of women clothing during I. INTRODUCTION the periods from Predynastic to the 18th Dynasty extracting The ancient Egyptians succeeded to build very wonderful the women clothing types and characteristics from all civilization using high technology that could produce mini available resources of the ancient Egyptian history [10,11]. and micro products of sophisticated characteristics that a specialist does not know how they could produce such II. WOMEN CLOTHING IN THE 19TH DYNASTY products thousands of years ago. One of the fascinating The 19th Dynasty covers a time span from 1292 to 1187 BC industries of the ancient Egyptians is the clothing industry. and ruled by eight Pharaohs including one Lady Pharaoh [12]. This is the seventh research paper trying to follow the The ladies of the 19th Dynasty according to the available data evolution of clothing in ancient Egypt since the Predynastic to can be classified into three categories: Royal women, Noble the New Kingdom periods. women and Normal women. Newman (1997) presented illustrations in her Master of Arts research program from Sennedjem Tomb, from sculpter Royal women: Ipy Tomb, from foreman Anherkhau Tomb all from the 19th The first Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty is Ramses I who built Dynasty [1]. Olivier (2008) in her research for the Master of his Temple at Abydos. The first illustration of royal women is Arts from the University of South Africa presented colored for the Great Wife of Ramses I from his Temple at Abydos. th scene from the Great Harris Papyrus for Ramses III of the 20 - Fig.1 shows a relief from Ramses I Temple showing the Dynasty with a Royal woman wearing a Calasiris, statue of Pharaoh and his wife Sitre as displayed, unfortunately, th Enehy, priestess of Hatur during the 19 Dynasty, statue of in the Metropolitan Museum of Art of NY [13]. The th Tuya, mother of Ramses II of the 19 Dynasty, scene of Queen is wearing a full-modified Tunic. Nefertari, Great wife of Ramses II, statue showing Ramses II with his second wife Isetnofret, statue of Queen Merytamun, the third wife of Ramses II, colored scene of Tawosret, secondary wife of Pharaoh Setty II of the 19th Dynasty, and a colored scene showing the wives of Pharaoh Ramses III of the 20th Dynasty [2]. Dunn (2012) investigated the Tomb of Amenherkhepshef, one of the sons of Pharaoh Ramses III, the second Pharaoh of the 20th Dynasty in the valley of the Queens at Thebes. He presented colored scenes from the Tomb for the prince, his father and some Deities. The Deities scenes carried some information about women clothing in the 20th Dynasty [3]. Seson (2010) presented some scenes and Fig.1 Queen Sitre [13]. statues from the New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period

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- The second example of Royal women clothing in the 19th Dynasty is for Queen Nefertari, the Great Royal wife of Pharaoh Ramses II, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty. It is a colored-wall scene displayed in her Tomb at the Valley of The Queens at Thebes and shown in Fig.2 [5]. The Queen is in a worshiping position and wearing a half-sleeved Tunic with brown belt on her waist.

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Fig.4 Queen Meritamun in her Tomb [15].

Fig.2 Scene of Queen Nefertari [5].

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- Another wonderful image for Queen Meritamun is depicted from her cedar coffin displayed in the Egyptian Museum and shown in Fig.5 [16]. The coffin simulates the Queen with full-sleeved decorated Tunic. The decorations take the design of a beehive in its top part.

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- Another more detailed scene for Queen Nefertiti is depicted in a papyrus and shown in Fig.3 with Isis [14]. The Queen is wearing a full-tight-white Tunic with half-sleeved colored Robe down to her feet. A colored belt holds the Robe at the waist. Isis is probably wearing a full-colored-tight Calasiris.

Fig.5 Coffin of Queen Meritamun [16].

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- The next clothing example is for Tuya, the mother of Pharaoh Ramses II as depicted from her granite statue displayed in the Vatican Museum and shown in Fig.6 [17]. She is wearing a full-sleeved Tunic.

Fig.3 Queen Nefertari with Isis [14].

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- The 3rd example of Royal women clothing in the 19th Dynasty is from the Tomb of Queen Meritamun, the Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Ramses II after his first Wife Nefertari. Fig.4 shows a colored scene for her in her Tomb [15]. She is wearing a full Tunic with transparent Robe. Fig.6 Statue of Tuya mother of Ramses II [17].

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- The next Royal clothing model is for Queen Isetnofret, one of the Great Royal Wives of Pharaoh Ramses II and mother of Merneptah, the 4th Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty [18]. A colored wall relief for the Queen and Pharaoh Ramses II before Khnum is shown in Fig.7 [19]. She is wearing a full-tight-white Calasiris.

Fig.7 Queen Isetnofret before Khnum [19].

Noble Women: - The first clothing example for noble women is from the Tomb of Pashedu in Deir el-Medina during the reign of the great Pharaoh Ramses II. It is a colored scene shown in Fig.10 [22]. The three girls in the scene are wearing identical full-loose-half_sleeved Tunic. It is possible for this clothing to be a Robe or the top part to be a Cap above the Tunic.

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- One more example from the reign of the Great Pharaoh Ramses II is for his daughter Princess Henuttawy, from his Great Royal Wife Nefertari. It is a scene in the Temple of Abu Simbel shown in Fig.8 [20]. The princess is in a worshipping position and wearing a modified half-sleeved Tunic and a transparent Robe over it.

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Fig.9 Pharaoh Tawosret wife of Seti II [21].

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Fig.10 Colored scene from Pashedu Tomb [22].

Fig.8 Princess Henuttawy in Abu Simbel [20].

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- The last example of Royal women clothing in the 19th Dynasty returns to Queen Tawosret, the Secondary Wife of Pharaoh Seti II, the 5th Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty and the last Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty. Fig.9 shows a scene in the Temple of Abu Simbel [21]. Pharaoh Tawosret is wearing a full-half_sleeved Tunic with a belt on her waist.

- The second clothing example for noble ladies belongs to the wife of Neferrenpet, the scribe of the treasury in the Amun-Ra domain during Pharaoh Ramses II. One of the colored scenes in the Tomb of Neferrenpet is shown in Fig.11 with his wife Mutenwia [23]. His wife is wearing a full-loose-transparent Calasiris.

Fig.11 Colored scene from Neferrenpet Tomb [23]. All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARMATE

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- The third clothing example belongs to the wife of Ipuy, a Sculpture during the reign of Pharaoh Ramses II. A colored scene from his Tomb at Deir el-Medina is shown in Fig.12 [24]. The scene is very neat with very wonderful set of colors showing Ipuy and his wife setting and receiving offerings from their guests. Ipuy's wife is wearing a full-loose Tunic, while her guest lady is wearing a Robe open from the front side.

Fig.12 Sculptor Ipuy and his wife [24].

- The last example of Noble women clothing in the 19th Dynasty is from the Tomb of Ramses I, the founder of the 19th Dynasty. It is for Deity Maat shown in Fig.15 [27]. She is wearing a tight-white Corselet down to her feet.

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- One more Noble from the reign of Ramses II is the Sculptor Nakhtamun. A colored scene from his Tomb is shown in Fig.13 [25]. It is for his mother with Deity Maat of the ancient Egyptians. She is wearing a full-loose- lined-sleeved Robe. Maat is wearing a Calasiris with belt of tie ends down to her knees.

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Fig.14 Priestess Enehy statue [26].

Fig.13 Nakhtamun mother with Maat [25].

Normal Women: - In all the periods of the ancient Egyptian history, the woman took a positive action in helping the society to build a strong economical status. The first example here is from the Tomb of Sennedjem, an artisan in the reign of Pharaohs Seti I and Ramses II. Fig.16 shows a wonderful colored scene from his Tomb at Deir el-Medina for a farmer and his wife during the plowing and sowing process [28]. The farmer-wife is sowing the seeds while wearing a full-loose-half_sleeved_while Tunic down to her feet.

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- The next example from the 19th Dynasty Ladies Nobles belongs to Priestess Enehy of Hathor. It is depicted from her setting statue displayed in the Walters Art Gallery at Baltimore, USA and shown in Fig.14 [26]. She is wearing a full-half_sleeved Tunic down to her feet.

Fig.15 Deity Maat in Ramses I Tomb [27].

Fig.16 Plowing and sowing scene [28]. All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARMATE

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- The second example of clothing of normal women in the 19th Dynasty is from the Tomb of Ipy, the sculptor in the reign of Ramses II which is shown in Fig.17 [29]. She is holding a duck in her left hand and wearing a full-loose-half_sleeved –decorated Tunic.

Fig.19 Queen Tiye wife of Ramses III [32].

Fig.17 Girl from the Tomb of Ipy [29]. III. WOMEN CLOTHING IN THE 20TH DYNASTY

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The 20th Dynasty extended from 1187 to 1064 BC and ruled by nine Pharaohs [30]. The clothing resources for this dynasty is limited, but we will try to present some available example divided into the three categories presented in the 19th Dynasty.

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- The 3rd Royal-clothing example is again from the reign of the strong Pharaoh Ramses III of the 20th Dynasty. It belongs to some of his wives as depicted in the colored scene shown in Fig.20 [33]. They are wearing tightmodified Tunic with loose Robe above it.

Fig.20 Wives of Ramses III [33].

- The 4th Royal-clothing example returns to Queen Duatentopet, the wife of Pharaoh Ramses IV and mother of Pharaoh Ramses V as depicted from the Tomb scene shown in Fig.21 [34]. The Queen is setting before an offering table and wearing a tight half-sleeved Tunic with Robe above it.

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Royal Women: - Fig.18 shows a colored scene for the 2nd Pharaoh of the 20th Dynasty, Pharaoh Ramses III before the Triad of Thebes as displayed in the British Museum in the longest know papyrus (Great Harris Papyrus) [31]. The Royal woman behind him is one of his wives. She is wearing a tight-red Calasiris and holding a symbol in each hand.

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Fig.18 Ramses III in the Great Harris Papyrus [31].

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- The 2nd Royal Clothing example is for Queen Tiye a secondary wife of Pharaoh Ramses III as depicted in a Tomb wall scene in the Valley of the Queens and shown in Fig.19 [32]. The Queen is a worshiping position presenting offerings by her both hands. The is wearing a modified Tunic with Robe over it.

Fig.21 Queen Duatentopet wife of Ramses IV [34]. - The last Royal clothing example from the 20th Dynasty belongs to Queen Tyti, wife of Pharaoh Ramses X, the 9th Pharaoh of the 20th Dynasty as depicted in the colored scene shown in Fig.22 [4]. The Queen is in a

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worshiping position and wearing a half_sleeved white Tunic with brown lines decorating it.

Fig.24 Ramses III with Deity Isis [36].

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Noble Women: - The first example of Noble women clothing in the 20th Dynasty returns to the wife of Foreman Anherkhau who worked during the reign of Ramses III and Ramses IV, Pharaohs of the 20th Dynasty. Fig.23 shows a colored scene from his Tomb at Deir el-Medina at Luxor [35]. His wife is wearing a full-white-loose-half_sleeved Tunic.

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Fig.22 Queen Tyti wife of Ramses X [4].

- The last example is for a Deity in the Temple of Ramses III at Medinet-Habou of Thebes. It is a colored scene shown in Fig/25 [37]. She is wearing probably a modified Calasiris. The zoomed top part shown in Fig.25 shows a blue ring around the neck. This my be connected to the rest of the tight dress through thin cords not clear in the figure or from the sides.

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Fig.25 Deity from the Temple of Ramses III [37].

IV. CONCLUSION

Fig.23 Anherkhau and his wife [35].

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- The 2nd example of Noble clothing in the 20th Dynasty belongs to Deity Isis and how the ancient Egyptians look at her in the 20th Dynasty. Fig.24 shows a colored scene in the Tomb of Amenherkhepshef in the Valley of the Queens, one of Pharaoh Ramses III sons showing Ramses III with Isis [36]. The artist drew Isis holding the left hand of the Pharaoh while he salutes her by his right hand, and she salutes him by her left hand. Isis is wearing a long red Calasiris and a blue belt with long tie ends.

- The evolution of women clothing in the 19th and 20th Dynasties of ancient Egypt was investigated. - The women society was divided into Royal, Noble and Normal women. - There was no evidence of Normal women clothing in the 19th and 20th Dynasties. - Examples of Royal and Noble women in both Dynasties were presented. - Clothing types depicted from Tombs and Temples scenes and statues from various museums were analyzed. - The Royal women of the 19th Dynasty wore: Modified Tunic, half_sleeved Tunic with belt, full Tunic + transparent Robe, full-sleeved Tunic, full-tight

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REFERENCES

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K. Newman, "Social archaeology, social relations and archaeological materials, social power as depicted in the wall art in the Tomb of the Pharaoh's Tomb-builders, Deir el-Medina, Egypt, XVIII-XX Dynasties", Master of Arts Thesis, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, August, 1997. A. Olivier, Social status of elite women of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt: A comparison of artistic features", Master of Arts Thesis, University of South Africa, 2008. J. Dunn, “The Tomb of Amenherkheshef in the Valley of the Queens”, www.touregypt.net/feturestories/Amrnherkhepshef.htm , 2012. S. Sesen, "House of the adoratrice, Part 1: The God's wife and the Divine Adoratrice", http://emhotep.net/2010/08/28/periods/new-kingdom/house-of -the-adoratrice-part-1-the-god%E2%80%99s-wife-and-the-div ine-adoratrice/ , 2010. Wikipedia, "Nefertari", http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Nefertari , 2016. Wikipedia, "Meritamen", http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Meritamen , 2016. Wikipedia, "Henuttawy (19th Dynasty", http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Henuttawy_(19th_dynasty) , 2016. Wikipedia, "Tiye (20th Dynasty)", http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiye_(20th_dynasty) , 2016. Wikipedia, "Tyti", http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyti , 2016. G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient egypt, Part XXII: Women clothing (Predynastic to Middle Kingdom)", International Journal of Recent Innovation in Engineering and Research, (Accepted for Publication), 2016... G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient egypt, Part XXIII: Women clothing in the 18th Dynasty", World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, (Accepted for Publication), 2016. Wikipedia, “Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/nineteenth_dynasty_of_egypt , 2016. Sites Google, “Sitre, wife of Ramesses I”, http://sites.google.com/site/historyofancientegyot/queens-of-eg ypt/queen-sitre A. Sera, “Queen Nefertari”, www.pinterest.com/pin/418975571561795653/

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[17] D. Macch (Editor), "Vatican museums – Gregorian Egyptian museum", www.romapedia.com.eg/2015/01/vatican-museums-gregorianegyptian_28.htm , 2015. [18] Wikipedia, "Isetnofret", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/isetnofret , 2016. [19] Euler SLU, “Queen Isetnofret”, www.euler.slu.edu/egyptianhtml/kings%20and%20Queens/Ise tnofret.html , 2007. [20] Wikipedia, "Henuttawy (19th Dynasty)", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henuttawy_(19th_dynasty) , 2016. [21] Objibwa, "Ancient Egypt: Twosret, female Pharaoh", www.dailykos.com/story/2011/1/9/934659/ , 2011. [22] R. Krieter, "Ancient Egyptian clothing: real and ideal", http://thetorah.com/ancient-egyptian-clothing-real-and-ideal/ [23] Osiris Net, "Couple before a large offering construct", www.osirisnet.net/popupImage.php?img=/tombes/nobles/neferrenpet17 8/photo/nfrrnpt_tb118.jpg&sw=1366&sh=768&wo=0&so=85 . [24] A. Osman, "Ipuy and wife", www.pinterest.com/pin/3987797419885131447/ [25] Osiris Net, "Nakhtamon TT 335", www.osirisnet.net/tombs/artisans/nakhtamon335/e-nakhtamon 335_05.htm [26] A. Olivier, p.130. [27] Osiris Net, "Tomb of Ramses I", http://www.osirisnet.net/popupImage.php?img=/tombes/pharaons/ramse s1/photo/ramses1_unidia-bs_35671.jpg&sw=1366&sh=768&wo=0&so =85 [28] Osiris Net, "Deir el-Medina, Tomb TT1, Sennedjem", www.osirisnet.net/tombs/artisans/sennedjem/e_sennedjem1_01.htm / [29] Alamy, "Young girl with duck, tomb of Ipy", www.alamy.com/stock-photo-young-girl-with-duck-tomb-of-ipy-sculptor-e ra-of-ramesses-ii-1292-26985931.html [30] Wikipedia, "Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt", http://wikipedia.org/wiki/twentieth_dynasty_of_egypt , 2016. [31] British Museum, "The Great Harris Papyrus", http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object _details.aspx?objectId=114376&partId=1 [32] Wikipedia, "Tiye (20th Dynasty)", http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiye_(20th_dynasty), 2016. [33] A. Olivier, p.183. [34] Wikipedia, "Duatentopet", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duatentopet , 2016. [35] J. Dunn, "The Tomb of Foreman Inherkhau", www.touregypt.net/featurestories/interkhau.htm [36] J. Dunn, "Amenherkhepshef in the Valley of Queens", www.touregypt.net/featurestories/Amenherkhepshef.htm , 2012. [37] Alamy, "Temple of Ramses III Egyptian deity", www.alamy.com/stock-photo-temple-of-ramses-iii-egyptian-deity-relief-ne w-kingdom-1550-1069-bc-30499007.html

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Calasiris, modified half_sleeved Tunic + transparent Robe and full-half_sleeved Tunic with belt on the waist. - The Noble women of the 19th Dynasty wore: Full-loose-half_sleeved Tunic, fullloose -transparent Calasiris, full-loose Tunic, Robe, Calasiris with belt, full-half_sleeved Tunic, tight-while Corselet, full-loose-half_sleeved Tunic and full-loose-half_sleeved-decorated Tunic. - The Royal women in the 20th Dynasty wore: Tight-red Calasiris, modified Tunic + Robe, tight-modified Tunic + Robe, tight-half_sleeved Tunic + Robe and half_sleeved white Tunic with brown lines as decoration. - The Noble women of the 20th Dynasty wore: full-loose-half_sleeved Tunic, long-red Calasiris + blue belt with long tie ends and modified Calasiris.

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[15] Wikipedia, “QV68”, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QV68 , 2015. [16] L. Phillips, “Egyptian Queen Meritamun's cedar coffin”, www.pinterest.com/pin/574912708660777513/

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BIOGRAPHY

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Galal Ali Hassaan: • Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. • Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. • Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. • Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. • Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. • Published more than 180 research papers in international journals and conferences. • Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. • Chief Justice of International Journal of Computer Techniques.

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• Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including IJARMATE. • Reviewer in some international journals. • Scholars interested in the author's publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

OPEN ACCESS

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XXV: Models Industry (Boats, Ploughing, Grain Grinding, Bakery and Brewery)

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International Journal of Engineering and Techniques - Volume 2 Issue 5, Sep – Oct 2016

Galal Ali Hassaan

Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Abstract:

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The paper investigates the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the study of models industry during the Predynastic and Pharaonic Periods. It covers models for boats, ploughing, grain grinding, bakery and brewery. The time span of each model application is assigned through the different dynasties or time periods for the Predynastic era. The gender of the labors participated in each activity is assigned.

INTRODUCTION Modelling is one of the features extensively applied in recent civilization. However, ancient Egyptians may be the first nation to adopt physical modelling of activities, humans, animals, birds, houses, tools and human accessories thousands of years ago. They authorized they daily life activities through models manufactured from wood and other materials and kept them inside their Tombs. Those models were a store of a lot of technical information about science and technology in ancient Egypt. Reisner (1913) stated that during the early part of the 6th Dynasty, statuettes of servants performing their usual functions were placed in the serdab (statue chamber) along with the statues of the owner and his family. Models of boats of various sorts were found in the serdab were usually of wood [1]. Vinson (1987) presented some of the boat models from Badary, Naqada, 1st Dynasty and Old Kingdom. He studied how the ancient Egyptians represented boats in their Tomba and Temples. He examined also what is called 'boat burial' and 'funerary boats' [2]. Tooley (1989) traced the

development of wooden model corpus from the Old Kingdom. She studied in details model granaries, funerary and pilgrimage model boats and model offering-bearers [3]. Teeter (2003) in her book about ancient Egypt through the treasures collected in the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago presented some useful information about models in ancient Egypt. She presented a very clear photo for a wooden model for a workshop from the 1st Intermediate Period (9th and 10th Dynasties before 2025 BC). The workshop was for baking, brewing and slaughtering. She presented a bronze model for a composite deity from the Late Period (26th to 31st Dynasties before 332 BC) with front face of Abunis and its back for a falcon [4]. Allen (2004) strengthened the statement of Swain (1995) that the use of models and miniature vessels and models of all sorts was common throughout pharaonic history from the earliest periods onward [5]. She presented samples of miniature vessel models from the 4th Dynasty and from the Middle Kingdom [6]. Bard (2007) wrote a wonderful book about the archaeology of ancient Egypt with too many illustrations. Among her illustrations a wooden model of a bakery/brewery workshop from the 12th Dynasty [7]. Brooker (2009) in his Master of Philosophy thesis presented ancient Egyptian model for houses constructed using pottery during the 9th

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Keywords — Mechanical engineering history, Ancient Egypt, model industry, boat models, ploughing models, grinding models, bakery models, brewery models.

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The 1st boat model is from Naqada II, one of the Predynastic Perio Periods of ancient Egypt (3300 BC). It takes the shape of a crocodile and carries 3 mumiform figures as shown in Fig.1 [14]. The ancient Egyptian designer was a mechanical engineering expert. First, the crocodiles lives with him in the water resourses of Egypt. Second he learned from the swimming characteristics of the crocodile that the surfaces have to be smoothly profiled. This what we see in the model body profile of Fig.1 more that 5300 years ago. How great was those people.

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and 12 Dynasties of the 1st Intermediate Period and Middle Kingdom [8]. Kroenke (2010) stated in her Ph.D. Thesis that the collection of tomb models from Naga ed-Deir Deir was significant because it was extensive and spanned the major phases of model production from Late Old Kingdom to Late Middle Kingdom. She presented a detailed analysis of tomb models in each phase of production represented at Naga ed-Deir.. She presented a complete chapter in her thesis about tomb models from Naga ed ed-Deir with corpus of tomb models and locations of the collection [9]. Vinson (2013) indicated that ancient Egyptians used boats for general transportation, travel, military use, religious/ceremonial use and fishing. He presented scenes for boats from different eras starting from Late Predynastic Period to New Kingdom [10]. Smith (2014) outlined that ushabti was an ancient Egyptian practice from the Middle Kingdom to end of the Pharaonic araonic Period. He synthesized data from Leiden Museum's catalog of ushabtis to explore some trends about material, time period, provenience and inscription [11]. Hagseth (2015) outlined that cattle boats of the Pharaonic Period appeared in the reliefs of the elite Tombs during the Middle and New Kingdoms. In her Master of Arts thesis, she presented a boat model from the 12th Dynasty [12]. Wikipedia (2016) stated that wooden tomb models were in Egyptian funerary custom throughout the Middle Kingdom and the models represented the work of servants, farmers and other skilled craftsmen, armies and religious rituals. According to Wikipedia, the best known models came from the Tomb of the Chancellor Meketre [13]. th

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Fig.1 Crocodile boat model from Naqada II [14].

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II. BOAT MODELS Egypt has a specific geographic characteristics. chara The River Nile crosses the country from its upper boundaries with Sudan to its lower boundaries with the Mediterranean Sea. Also it has the Red Sea in the East and the Mediterranean at the North. This made the ancient Egyptian keen to build boa boats and ships suitable for both Nile and Sea for civilian, military and religious purposes.. We are going to trace the design of the ancient Egyptian boats through the different dynasties. .

The 2nd boat model from the Predynastic Period is from Naqada II/Naqada III (3500(3500 3000 BC) shown in Fig.2 [15]. The boat is manufactured from pottery and has streamed surfaces and sharp front to reduce water resistance to the motion of the boat.

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Fig.2 Boat model from Naqada II/III [15]. -

The 3rd boat model is from the End of the Old Kingdom, from the 6th Dynasty. It is a rowing boat with crew and two steering

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posts as shown in Fig.3 [16]. The model has a unique design. It has a big ratio of height/length. ight/length. It has an extremely long front pole. What does this mean from navigation point of view ?. An answer from specialists is required.

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A 6th example is again from the 11th Dynasty. It is wooden fishing boat boats models found in Meketre Tomb and in display in the Egyptian Museum of Cairo and shown in Fig.6 [19]. They are a set of four boat models. The fishing net is between the first two boats and the boats are equipped with a full crew driving the boats and fishing. Each boat has an ovoid duck and the surfaces are filleted to smooth the sailing of the boat and provide high degree of safety during operation.

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The 4th boat model is from the Tomb of Herishefhotep in Abusir during the 9th /10th [17]. This boat Dynasties and shown in Fig.4 [1 model was for sailing in the River Nile and probable manufactured from papyrus. It has a pilot in the front of the boat and a crew at both sides of the boat. There is a cabinet at the end. The body takes the shape of an ovoid with extended cylindrical ends from both sides.

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Fig.3 Boat model from the 6 Dynasty [16]. th

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Fig.5 Transport boat from the 11th Dynasty [18].

The 5th boat model is from the 11th Dynasty. It is a transport boat shown in Fig.5 Fig. [18]. It has a decorated cabinet near its end end, a pilot, a crew and a steering oar at its end. The travellers set inside the cabin and goods on the boat deck.

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Fig.4 Boat model from the 9th/10th Dynasties [17].

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Fig.6 Fishing boats from Meketre Tomb [19]. -

The 7th boat model is from the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom. It is a wooden funerary boat model in display in the Metropolitan Museum of NY and shown in Fig.7 [20]. The boat is painted and has a cabinet centred on the deck and carries the dead person. The boat has five figures representing the pilot, 3 persons looking after

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Now, we jump to the 18th Dynasty, one the most wealthy Dynasties of the ancient Egyptian history. The model is from the Tomb of Pharaoh Amenhotep II, the 7th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty and shown in Fig.10 [23].

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the dead and one steering sailor. There is a large steering oar at the end of the boat and the surfaces are ideal for sailing purposes purposes.

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The 8th boat model is a river boat from the reign of King Amenemhat I of the 12th Dynasty. It is a model of a transportation boat driven by ten rowing oars, 5 from each side and one steering oar at the he end. The pilot is in the front and the rowing and steering staff are all in working positions. A coloured cabinet is set near the end of the boat to balance with the driving crew.

Another model from the 18th Dynasty belongs to the young Pharaoh Tutankhamun, the 13th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty. It is manufactured from alabaster labaster and displayed in the Egyptian Museum of Cairo and shown in Fig.11 [24]. The front and back ends of the boat model take the form of an gazelle and there is a shrine of 4 pillars and a roof in the middle of the boat duck with 2 persons at both ends of the shrine. All cut from rock alabaster. The model is decorated by multimulti colours could survive for more that 3300 years. This piece is an indication of the high mechanical technology practiced by the ancient Egyptians.

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Fig.10 Boat model from Tomb of Amenhotep II of the 18th Dynasty [23].

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Fig.7 Wooden boat from Dynasty 12 [20].

Fig.8 Boat model from Amenemhat I reign [21].

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The 9th model is for a funerary boat from the 12th Dynasty displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of art and shown in Fig.9 [22]. The boat model has 2 rowing ors and 2 steering oars, full crew, cabinet with a specially profiled roof and may be a sail (not clear in the picture).

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Fig.9 Funerary boat model from Dynasty 12 [22].

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Fig.11 Boat model from Tomb of Tutankhamun of the 18th Dynasty [24].

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The 2nd ploughing model is from the 11th / 12th Dynasties displayed in the British Museum of UK as shown in Fig.14 [27]. The plough is powered by two oxen's and guided by the farmer. There is no overseer as in the model of Fig.13.

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The last boat model is for a warship from the 20th Dynasty during the reign of Pharaoh Ramses III, the 2nd Pharaoh of the 20th Dynasty. The model is shown in Fig.12 [25]. The model was built without crew. It is powered by 24 rowing oars, one steering oar and a linen sail. The warship is multicoloured , has smooth ovoid profile and a long pole from the front end.

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Fig.14 Field ploughing from the 11th/12th Dynasties [27].

Fig.12 Warship model from the 20th Dynasty [25]. PLOUGHING MODELS Ploughing is an agriculture process required to prepare the land for the new crop. Because the ancient Egyptian was a successful agricultural man he gave all his attention to all activities related to the agriculture process including ploughing. - The 1st ploughing model is from Late 11th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom displayed in the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston and shown in Fig.13 [26]. The farmer is using a wooden plougher powered by two oxen's under the supervision of an overseer.

The 3rd ploughing model is from the 13th Dynasty of the Second Intermediate Period and shown in Fig.15 [28]. The design of the ploughing edge in this model is different than those in Figs.13 and 14. In the present design of the 13th Dynasty the plougher has two cutting edges and there are 4 labour pins, 2 from each side to suit the height of the farmer.

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Fig.15 Field ploughing from the 13th Dynasty [28].

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Fig.13 Field ploughing from the 11th Dynasty [26].

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IV. GRANARY MODELS As an agricultural country, the ancient Egyptians now have a huge amount of grains specially wheat which they need all-over the year to produce bread. Therefore, they need means for wheat storage. From here, came the

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The 3rd granary model is from the 6th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom. It is a wooden granary model in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.18 [31]. The mechanical engineer of the 6th Dynasty designed the discharge doors of those silos to be sliding doors in the bottom of the silos. Of course this gives excellent control on the flow ratee of the grains out of the silos.

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idea of designing and building different differen types of granary silos under the full control of the government as will be illustrated in the following models they left in their tombs: - The first granary model is from the 1st Dynasty from Abydos and it is in display in the Petrie Museum of UK and shown in Fig.16 [29]. The silo is loaded from its top and discharged from its bottom through a door not shown in the Fig.16.

Fig.18 Five domed granary model from the 6th Dynasty [31]. ].

Fig.16 Granary model from the 1st Dynasty Dynast [29].

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The 2nd model is from the 4th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom found in El-Kap Mastaba. It is in display in the Ashmolean Museum of UK and shown in Fig.17 [30]. It consists of 12 domed silos arranged in two rows with cover on each silo top opening. There is a little flange in the bottom to help getting better stability for each silo and the surfaces have different diameters fillets (wonderful mechanical engineering design).

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The 4th granary model is from the 11th/12th Dynasties of the Medium Kingdom. It is in display in the Metropolitan Museum of NY and shown in Fig.19 [32]. It has a parallelogram structure with main entry door from the front. It is of the closed closedcompartment design. There are two porters transferring the grain sacks to the granary through stairs, one scribe recording the input/output data of the granary, one overseer o beside the scribe at the roof surface of the gallery. The discharge doors of the gallery are from the bottom in the open open-air compartment.

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Fig.17 Granary model from the 4th Dynast Dynasty [30].

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Fig.19 Granary model from the 11th/12th Dynasties [32].

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V. GRAIN GRINDING MODELS The ancient Egyptians didn't have mills to grind their grains, but they depended on the mainpower to do this job using simple mechanism designed specially for this purpose as will be illustrated in the following models: - Fig.22 shown a limestone model for a lady grinding grain from the 5th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom [35]. The grinder is a two-elements mechanism, one stationary (frame) and one movable by the two hands of the grinder in a reciprocating rectilinear motion. The position of the grinding lady applies the body weight on the moving element to ease grinding with minimum hand-effort.

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The 5th granary model is from the 12th Dynasty. It is in display in the Metropolitan Museum of art and shown in Fig.20 [33]. It is of the open-compartment design. The porters go up using stairs and pour their graincontainers into the storage compartment. The main door of the granary opens to a scribes office where a good number of scribes record the input/output of the granary in a very successful administration system to reserve the wealth of the country and fight any corruption.

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Fig.20 Granary model from the 12th Dynasty [33].

Fig.22 Grinding woman from the 5th Dynasty [35].

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The last granary model is from the reign of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of the 18th Dynasty. It is in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.21 [34]. Its door is in the left and internally it has more than 10 internal compartments, may be for storing different grains. The partitions height is almost half the outside walls of the model.

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The second grinding model is from the 9th – 11th Dynasties Period and shown in Fig.23 [36]. In this model the woman applies more forces by her hands independent of her body weight and the stationary part of the grinder has stoppers at its end to increase the efficiency of the grinding process.

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Fig.21 Granary model from the 18th Dynasty [34].

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Fig.23 Grinding woman from the 9th/11th Dynasties [36].

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bread. The model is in display at the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston [39].

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The 3rd grinding model is a wooden model from the 11th Dynasty in display at the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum in San Jose, California and shown in Fig.24 24 [37]. In this model, te woman depends on her top part weight to apply the grinding force and the fixed element of the grinder has a roughened surface to increase the efficiency of the grinding process.

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Fig.26 Woman from the 5th Dynasty tending fire [39].

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The 4th grinding model is a wooden model from the 12th Dynasty in display in Haifa of Palestine and shown in Fig.25 [38]. The moving element is hemi-cylindrical cylindrical and the body exerts the required grinding force.

The 2nd model is from the 10th Dynasty for a team working in producing bread. It is in display in the Egyptian Museum at Turin, Italy and shown in Fig.27 [40]. The team consists of four members dealing with all the activities of bread production.

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Fig.24 Grinding woman from the 11th Dynasty [37].

Fig.25 Grinding woman from the 12th Dynasty [38].

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VI. BAKERY MODELS Now, the ancient woman has prepared the flower required to produce the bread which was and still a gain food item for the Egyptians in all all-over their history. Here, are some of the available bakery models: - Making bread requiress heat energy source. Fig.26 shows a woman from the 5th Dynasty tending fire as an important step in producing

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Fig.27 Men making bread from the 10th Dynasty [40]. -

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The 3rd bakery model is a wooden models group from the 11th Dynasty for three groups of people producing bread and looking after two cows as displayed in the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston and shown in Fig.28 [41]. The 4th bakery model is from Meketre Tomb of the 12th Dynasty for a group of two men and two women cooperating in producing the bread and shown in Fig.29 [42]. The two ladies are preparing the dough. One of the men is setting in front of the closed oven, while the other man is setting the final touch

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The last bakery model is from the 21st Dynasty for a bakery and brewery team of four men and four ladies working in preparing food and beer as shown in Fig.30 [43].

Fig.31 Brewery model from the 6th Dynasty [45].

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Fig.28 Bakery model from the 11th Dynasty [41].

Fig.29 Bakery model from the 12th Dynasty [42].

Fig.31 shows two men from the 6th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom preparing beer and storing it in specially designed jars [45]. The setting man is filling the jars with beer and sealing them. The model is coloured with at least four colours: black, white, light brown and dark brown. They used dark brown for the jars lids to differentiate it from the jar body and direct the user directly to the location of opening the jar. Such jars are labelled by the name of its owner are indicated by jars of King Aha I of the 1st Dynasty [44].

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on the dough and it seems that he is wearing gloves in both hands.

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The 2nd brewery model is from the First Intermediate Period (7th – 9th Dynasties) from the Tomb of Wadjet-hotep hotep (2150-2050 (2150 B.C.). The model is shown in Fig.32 [46]. This is a model for a compleat team for bread and beer making with all the devices required to complete the two manufacturing processes.

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Fig.30 Bakery and brewery model from the 21st Dynasty [43].

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VII. BREWERY MODELS Ancient Egyptians manufactured bee and wine from early times of the dynastic periods for two purposes: drink by wealthy people in replacement of the contaminated River Nile water and for medical purposes [44]. Here are some models of brewery covering a his historic era from the 6th Dynasty up to the 12th Dynasty:

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Fig.32 Brewery model from the 1st Intermediate Period [46].

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The 3rd brewery model is for a lady from the 9th Dynasty of the First Intermediate Period brewing beer as shown in Fig.33 [47]. The model clarifies the role of the ancient Egyptian model in the society and her participation in the national economy of the state.

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Fig.35 Brewery model from the 12th Dynasty [49].

Fig.33 Brewery model from the 9th Dynasty [47]. The 4 brewery model is for a big factory for producing beer in the 11th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom. The model is in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.34 [48]. The model is produced from wood and has two rows of working men, one standing row and one setting row, 3 men in the front in a 3rd row and an overseer to the extreme left of the model supervising the whole work. The model is coloured showing the dress of the operating crew.

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VIII. CONCLUSIONS The mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt was investigated through the model industry representing some activities in the ancient Egyptian society society. Boat models were investigated in a historical era from Naqada II to the 20th Dynasty. They manufactured models for civil and military boats and ships. The models reflected various design schools scho for different purposes such as transportation, fishing, amusement, funerary and war. war Boat models with and without oars, with and without sails were produced. produced Ploughing models were manufactured during the 11th to 13th Dynasties. Dynasties Great attention was paid to the granaries since Egypt was basically an agricultural state from the very old history. history They designed and produced granary models starting from the 1st Dynasty and continued up to the 18th Dynasty. Dynasty Both closed and open granary models were designed. Thee granary process was under complete and accurate accounting through scribes and supervision through overseers.. overseers. They designed cylindrical silos and parallelogram-shaped shaped granaries. granaries They used covers for cylindrical silos to preserve the grains and reduce losses and bottom doors to discharge the grain grain. They invented sliding doors to control the discharge of the grain flow out of the granary.

Fig.34 Brewery model from the 11th Dynasty [48]. The last brewery model is from the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom and in display in the Metropolitan Museum of NY and shown in Fig.35 [49]. The model is from Meketre Tomb and consists of three men workers preparing and storing beer in two jars of them is already sealed.

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REFERENCES

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1. M. Reisner, "Models of ships and boats", Imprimerie de L' Institut Francais, Le Caire, 1913. 2. S. Vinson, "Boats of Egypt before the Old Kingdom", Master of Arts Thesis, Graduate College of Texas A & M University, August 1987. 3. A. Tooley, "Middle Kingdom burial customs: A study of wooden models and related material", Ph. D. Thesis, University of Liverpool, UK, 1989.. 4. E. Teeter, "Ancient Egypt: Treasures from the collection of the Oriental Institute University of Chicago", The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2003. 5. S. Swain, "The use of model objects as Predynastic Egyptian grave goods: An ancient origin for a dynastic tradition", in S. Cambell and A. Green (Editors), "The archaeology of death in the ancient near east", Oxford, pp.35-37, 1995. 6. S. Allen, Miniature and model vessels in ancient Egypt", Proceedings of the Conference on th Old Kingdom Art and Archaeology, Prague, May 31- June 4, 2004.

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7. K. Bard, "An introduction to the archaeology of ancient Egypt", Blackwell Publishers, 2007. 8. M. Brooker, "Anew approach of identifying the function of the elevated beds at Deir el-Medina", Master of Philosophy Thesis, University of Birmingham, UK, June 2009. 9. K. Kroenke, "The provincial cemeteries of Naga ed-Deir: A comparison study of tomb models dating from the Late Old Kingdom to the Late Middle Kingdom", Ph. D. Thesis, Near Eastern Studies, Graduate Division, University of California, Berkeley, USA, 2010. 10. S. Vinson, "Boats (use of)", UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, pp.1-13, September 2013. 11. D. Smith, "Ushabtis: Towards a modern understanding", Conference Paper, April 2014, www.researchgate.net/publication/273131095 12. M. Hagseth, "Nilotic livestock transport in ancient Egypt", Master of Arts Thesis, Texas A & M University, December 2015. 13. Wikipedia, "Wooden tomb model", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/wooden_tomb_mode , 2016. 14. Getty Images, "Ancient Egyptian crocodile-shaped model of boat", /www.gettyimages.com/photos/naqadaii?excludenudity=true&mediatype=photography&phrase =naqada%20ii&sort=mostpopular 15. Archaic Wonder, "Egyptian painted pottery model boat", http://archaicwonder.tumblr.com/post/134551811712/egy ptian-painted-pottery-model-boat-predynastic , 2016 16. Getty Images, "A model of a rowing boat with crew and two steering posts", www.gettyimages.ae/detail/news-photo/model-of-arowing-boat-with-crew-and-two-steering-posts-the-newsphoto/152199713 ,1980 17. C. Zsofia, " Ancient Egyptian boat model from the Tomb of Herishefhotep ", www.pinterest.com/pin/315181673902113132/

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Work in the granaries was allocated only to men labors and overseers. Grain grinding to produce flour required for the bread industry was a job allocated the ancient Egyptian woman. Models for women grinding grains using two elements grinders (mechanisms) were authorized starting from the 5th up to the 12th Dynasties. Ancient Egyptian women took position during the grinding process helped them to exert grinding forces based only on their body weight (top part). Sample of bakery models appeared in the Tombs of the 5th Dynasty and continued up to the 21st Dynasty. Both men and women cooperated in producing bread for their society. Ancient Egyptians had a brewery industry for beer and wine production for drinking and medical purposes. They authorized the brewery industry through models found in the Tombs of the 6th to 12th Dynasties. Both men and women participated in the brewery industry. They stored they production of beer and wine in sealed and labeled jars.

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18. B. Kopeyh, "Model of a transport boat with portable cabin", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/269301252696625248/ 19. Alamy, " Wooden model depicting fishing boats from the tomb of Meketre", http://www.alamy.com/stockphoto-wooden-model-depicting-fishing-boats-from-thetomb-of-meketre-60326603.html . 20. V. Boyer, "Model boat of Ukhhotep", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/573434965035536814/ Ancient Egypt, "Model of River boat, http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/metropolitan/pages/boat%201.htm 21. Ancient Egypt, "Model of River boat", www.ancientegypt.co.uk/metropolitan/pages/boat%201.htm 22. Flick River, "Funeral boat sailing Dynasty 12", www.flickriver.com/photos/mharrsch/1311984945/ 23. Newsok, "King Tut exhibit in Dallas", http://newsok.com/gallery/500926/pictures/564761 24. Lug, "Alabaster boat model", www.pinterest.com/pin/350928995935995615/

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46. L. Dove, "Breadmaking and beermaking in the Tomb of Wadjet-hotep", http://history.howstuffworks.com/historicalevents/discover-beer.htm 47. Alamy, "Brewing beer: Egyptian tomb model", http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-brewing-beeregyptian-tomb-model-9th-dynasty-c2160-bc-frommeketra-57292424.html 48. British Museum, "Wooden model from 2000 BC", http://britishmuseum.tumblr.com/post/120430273022/thiswooden-model-from-2000-bc-depicts-an-ancient , 2015 49. Metropolitan Museum, "Model bakery and brewery from the Tomb of Meketre", http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/20.3.12/

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25. O. Alecto, "3D model 12th century BC Egyptian Ramses III warship", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/347621664969762787/ 26. M. Whitefield, "Model scenr of worker ploughing a field", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/475903885596888151/ 27. British Museum, "Wooden model of man ploughing with oxen", http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/themes/farming/be asts_of_burden.aspx . 28. Alamy, "13th Dynasty Egyptian tomb model of farming scene", http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-13th-dynastyegyptian-tomb-model-of-a-farming-scene-1991-1783-bc90845912.html 29. Reshafim, "Funerary objects", http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/funerary_practices/fu nerary_objects.htm 30. A. Tooley, "Egyptian models and scenes", Shire Egyptology Series, , p.37, 1995. 31. A. Tooley, p.36, 1995. 32. K. Mary, "Model of a granary with scribe and overseer", www.pinterest.com/pin/428545720765990893/ . 33. Metropolitan Museum, "Model of a granary with scribes", www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/545281 . 34. A. Tooley, p.40, 1995. 35. S. Mieke, "Limestone figure of a woman grinding grain, Old Kingdom", https://br.pinterest.com/pin/230457705904736489/ 36. "Model of a woman grinding grain", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/420664421418167428/ 37. Wikipedia, "Model of a woman grinding grain", https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Model_of_a_wo man_grinding_grain_REM.JPG 38. V. Patton, "Servant grinding corn, wood, 12th Dynasty", www.pinterest.com/pin/420664421414805856/ 39. J. Annlansberry, "Woman tending a fire", www.joanannlansberry.com/fotoart/mfa/bakermfa.html 40. Getty Images, "Egypt, Gebelein, bread preparation from Ini Tomb", http://www.gettyimages.com/detail/photo/italyturin-museo-egizio-egyptian-art-high-res-stockphotography/96502939 41. Em Hotep, "Daily life in ancient Egypt", Em Hotep http://emhotep.net/2013/02/25/em-hotep-digest/em-hotepdigest-vol-02-no-07-daily-life-in-ancient-egypt/ 42. Ancient Foods, "Bakers and brewers from Meketre's model bakery", https://ancientfoods.wordpress.com/2010/06/21/bakersand-brewers-from-meketres-model-bakery/, 2010. 43. G. Shaw, "The afterlife of ancient Egypt", http://www.historytoday.com/garry-shaw/afterlife-ancientegypt , 2016. 44. C. Seawright, "Ancient Egyptian alcohol: beer, wine", http://www.thekeep.org/~kunoichi/kunoichi/themestream/e gypt_alcohol.html#.V8Rl04R97IU , 2001 45. Szwajcar, "Model depicting the preparation of bread and beer, 6 dynasty", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/399976010636357292/

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Galal Ali Hassaan  Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control.  Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974.  Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby.  Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.  Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering.  Published more than 190 research papers in international journals and conferences.  Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering.  Chief Justice of the International Journal of Computer Techniques.

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 

Member of the Editorial Board of some international journals including IJET. Reviewer in some international journals. Scholars interested in the authors publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

OPEN ACCESS

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International Journal of Computer Techniques -– Volume 3 Issue 4, July - Aug 2016

Galal Ali Hassaan

(Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt)

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt: Part XVII: Ladies Headdress in the Old, Middle Kingdoms, Third Intermediate and Late Periods

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This research paper explores the role of Mechanical Engineering in the design and production of ladies Headdresses during the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, Third Intermediate and Late Periods of ancient Egypt. The paper shows how ancient Egypt royal and normal ladies loves headdresses as a fashion and the different designs practiced by them through painting scenes, statues and sarcophaguses. The high technology in design and production is highlighted in the models of ladies headdresses presented in the paper from the studied periods from the Old Kingdom to the Late Period except the 18 th dynasty which will be covered in a separate research paper. Keywords — Mechanical engineering history, ancient Egypt, ladies headdress, Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, Third Intermediate Period, Late Period.

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----------------------------------------************************ ---------------------------------Nefertiti, wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten of the 18th I. INTRODUCTION dynasty. She brought to light the gender rules of the This is the 17th research paper in a series of kingship and how Hatshepsut and Nefertiti research paper aiming at exploring the history of constructed female king identities [3]. mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt and its Tassie (2008) studied the hairstyles of the ancient role in establishing one of the greatest civilizations Egyptians in the Protodynastic, Early dynastic, Old in the ancient world. The paper investigates the Kingdom up to the 18th dynasty. She presented tradition of ancient Egyptian ladies in wearing statues and tomb scenes from the different eras headdress as a fashion continued in all the historical illustrating the hairstyles [4]. Olivier (2008) studied periods of ancient Egypt. a representational artistic works as visual evidence Assmann (1996) presented some models of busts for the social, political, religious and economic and full statues of ancient Egyptians like Nefertiti lifestyles of the ancient Egyptian elite. She analysed bust from Amarna and the statue of the wife of many artistic works such as tomb and palace wall Nakhtmin of the 18th dynasty [1]. Pendergast and scenes, statues, obelisks and personnel artefacts for Hermsen (2004) studied the fashion, costume and evidence for the roles of elite women in events, culture in the ancient world including ancient Egypt practices and rituals at the time of creating the and starting from the prehistoric life. The included a objects [5]. section about the headwear in all the eras they Basson (2012) investigated the relationship studied. In a section about Egyptian clothing, they between women in ancient Egypt and Hathor referred to the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun and through art and artefacts. He outlined that Egyptian scenes from undefined tombs [2]. Hilliard (2006) women not only experienced religion , but also studied the visual representations of Pharaoh lived religion. He presented samples of women with Hatshepsut and her influences on images of Queen

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various ranks in the ancient Egyptian society [6]. Markham (2014) explored clothing as an identity markers in the 2nd – 3rd centuries by examining the role of dress in Late antiquity. He analysed religious identity in buried by examining the material evidence from al-Fayoum, Fayoum, Egypt area [7]. II. OLD KINGDOM The Old Kingdom includes the 3rd to 6th Egyptian dynasties extending from 2686 to 2181 BC [8]. We have samples of ladied headdress from the 3rd, 4th and 5th dynasties presented as follows:

The last model from the Old Kingdom is a wooden bust for Ka-Aper Aper wife from the 5th dynasty displayed in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.3 [11]. Its design is similar to that of Nofret in Fig.2, however it has two decorating lines at its ends.

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Fig.1 shows the top part of a statue for Nesa, the wife of priest Sepa of the 3rd dynasty displayed in the Louvre Museum of Paris [9]. The headdress of Nesa covers her head and goes down to her shoulders. It is decorated at the end by two black lines and it is a dark-brown headdress.

Fig. 2 Statue of Nofret from the 4th dynasty [10].

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Fig. 3 Statue of the wife of Ka'Aper Aper from the 5th dynasty [11].

Fig. 1 Statue of Nesa from the 3 dynasty [9]. rd

The second model relates to Nofret, the wife of prince Rahotep of the 4th dynasty which is displayed in the Egyptian Museum and its top part is shown in Fig.2 [10]. It displays a side view of Nofret displaying the natural beauty of the ancient Egyptian woman woman. The headdress is worn above the normal hair appearing on the forehead and kept in position using a diadem. It consists of too many parallel trails without any decorations.

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III. MIDDLE KINGDOM The Middle Kingdom comprised the 11th and 12th dynasties of ancient Egypt extending over the time span from 2000 to 1700 BC [12]. We have three headdress examples from the Middle Kingdom presented as follows: - The first model of the Middle Kingdom headdresses belongs to Queen Kawit, the lower ranking wife of King Mentuhotep II of the 11th dynasty from a relief from her tomb and shown in Fig.4 [13]. Her headdress has a horizontal parallel trails without any decorations. ations. It is short up to only the end of the neck.

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Fig. 6 Serving woman from the 12th dynasty [15].

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Another model of headdresses is from the 12th dynasty. It belongs to a woman from the rein of King Amenemhet I through her statue found during the Metropolitan Museum of Art excavations in 1907 and shown in Fig.5 [14]. Her headdress is relatively long up to her shoulders shoulders, wide near its end and decorated by yellow pins or beads. It is decorated also by yellow bands near the forehead.

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Fig. 4 Relief of Queen Kawit from the 11th dynasty [13].

IV. THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD The Third Intermediate Period covers the dynasties from the 21st to the 25th and extends over the time span from 1070 to 664 BC [16]. The models available in this era are from Sarcophagus lids in the 21st and 22nd dynasties as follows: - Fig.7 shows the top part of a sarcophagus lid from the 21st dynasty and displayed in the Egyptian an Museum at Cairo [16].. It simulated the body of the woman with her normal dressing. The headdress has a long style up to the bottom end of her chest and decorated by a coloured red cap with extensive scens and two bands near its ends.

Fig. 5 Woman from the 12th dynasty [14].

A second model from the 12th dynasty is a statue of a serving women standing in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY with her top is shown in Fig.6 [15]. Her headdress is green, long,, narrow at its ends and has no decorations.

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The second model from this period is from the lid of a sarcophagus of Tabakmut from the 21st dynasty and displayed in the Cleveland Museum of Art [17]. The headdress of Tabakmut is long and decorated by motifs in its front band, parallel trails on its two sides and coloured bands at its ends.

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Fig.7 Woman sarcophagus from the 21st dynasty [16].

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displayed in the Oriental Institute of Chicago Museum of the University of Chicago and shown in Fig.11 [19]. Her headdress is a classical design of the 21st dynasty but has a very wonderful wonderf decorations in about five colours and decoration bands over the whole area of the headdress.

Fig.8 Tabakmut sarcophagus from the 21st dynasty [17]. [1

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A third model is shown in Fig.9 for a sarcophagus lid of Tanakhtnettahat from the 21st dynasty displayed in the Michael C. Carlos Museum [18]. The design of this headdress is similar to that in Fig.7 from the same dynasty except the decoration bands near it ends which consist of four parallel thin bands separated by dark borders.

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Fig. 11 Mereamun sarcophagus from the 22nd dynasty [19].

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LATE PERIOD

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Fig. 9 Tanakhtnettahat sarcophagus from the 21st dynasty [17].

The Late Period of the ancient Egyptian history covers the dynasties from the 26th to the 31st over a time span from 672 to 332 BC [20]. We have three models of ladies headdress presented as follows: - Fig.12 shows the top part of a coffin led of Heresenes from the 26th dynasty displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY [21]. The headdress design is from the same design school of the Third Intermediate Period except its decoration near the ends of the chest. It is decorated in this area by crossing g lines forming a set of rhombus shapes.

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Now, we move to the 22nd dynasty where we have two example examples of ladies headdress. Fig.10 shows a sarcophagus lid of Nesperennub from the 22nd dynasty displayed in British Museum of UK U [18]. Her headdress ess design is from the same design school of Fig.7 except the decoration bands at the ends of the headdress where they are located at its ends and painted in yellow.

Fig. 10 Nesperennub sarcophagus from the 22nd dynasty [18].

The last model from the 22nd dynasty is for the singer-priestess Meresamun which is

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dynasty [21]. [

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The last model from the Late Period is a sarcophagus of Lady Kaahapy from the Late Period displayed in the Louvre Museum of Paris and shown in Fig.15 Fig.1 [24]. Lady Kaahapy is wearing a wonderful headdress of the long style decorated by symmetric scenes over the whole area of the headdress in three colours.

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The second model is a silver statue for a royal woman from the rein of Necho II II, the th second Pharaoh of the 26 dynasty displayed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.13 [22]. It is a cap headdress covering only the head and decorated by its pattern and a sleeve band on the forehead.

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Fig.14 Statue of Isis nursing Horus , Late Period [2 [23].

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Fig. 12 Heresenes coffin from the 26

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Fig.15 5 Sarcophagus of Lady Kaahapy, Late Period [14].

The third model is a statue for Isis nursing Horus and located in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.14 [23]. Her headdress is long up to her shoulders and decorated by a vulture on its top down to the end of her face and rectangular gular pattern in interchanging position as in building with bricks.

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Fig.13 Statue of a royal lady from the 26th dynasty [22].

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CONCLUSIONS The mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt was investigated through the design and production of ladies headdress during the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, Third Intermediate and Late Periods. High ranking ancient Egyptian ladies used to wear headdress as a traditional fashion.. fashion. The use of headdress in ancient Egypt was authorised through statues, tomb scenes, temple scenes and sarcophaguses. Not only high ranking ladies worn headdress, but also some low ranking ladies.. ladies. Wearing the headdress by ladies was documented since the Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt. Headdress appeared in the Old Kingdom since the third dynasty and continued to appear in the fourth and fifth dynasties with wit

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[11] Art, "Bust of Ka' Aper's wife, wooden statue from mastaba", www.art.com/products/p28105133742-sai8574162/bust-of-ka-aper-s-wife-wooden-statue-frommastaba.htm [12] Wikipedia, "Middle Kingdom of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Kingdom_of_Egypt , 2016. [13] Wikipedia, "Kawit (queen)", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kawit_(queen) , 2016. [14] Oahspe, "Head of a female wooden statue", http://oahspestandardedition.com/OSAC/Exodus6.htm [15] Wikipedia, "Third Intermediate Period of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Intermediate_Period_of_Egy

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Kingdom_of_Egypt , 2016. Alamy, "Ancient Egyptian statue of Nesa", http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-ancient-egytianstatues-of-nesa-wife-of-sepa-priest-old-kingdom-3rd89914605.html?pv=1&stamp=2&imageid=BA982ADACD13-4DBF-8E03[10] Khan Academy, "Egyptian Art", https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient-artcivilizations/egypt-art/beginners-guide-egypt/a/egyptian-art [9]

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designs ranging from short to long headdresses without decorations and through statues.. Using ladies headdreses continued in the Middle Kingdom through tomb reliefs (11th dynasty) and statues (12th dynasty). Decoration of ladied headdresses took place in the 12th dynasty of the Middle Kingdom and continued through the rest of the ancient Egypt Periods up to the Late Period.. Short and long designs of the headdress continued also to appear in the Middle Kingdom and the Late Period. Long ladies headdresses were dominant in the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt. Wonderful decorations took place during the Third Intermediate and Late Periods. All the headdress designs in the Third Intermediate Period were authorized through sarcophagus manufacturing. Patterned and multi-coloured headdresses were known th the ancient Egyptians during the Third Intermediate and Late Periods.

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[16] A. Sparks, "Sarcophagus cover of a woman", www.pinterest.com/pin/547398529681160667/

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[17] M. Paul, "Inner coffin of Tabakmut, dynasty 21", www.pinterest.com/pin/457678380859455177/ REFERENCES [18] Pinterest, "Mummy of Nesperennub", www.pinterest.com/pin/526850856379864322/ [1] J. Assmann, "Preservation and presentation of self in ancient Egyptian portraitures" In P. Manuelian (Editor), [19] T. Loyd, "Egyptian singer-priestess Meresamun", www.pinterest.com/pin/102597697736387981/ "Studies in honors of William Kelly Simpson, Volume I", [20] Wikipedia, "Late Period of ancient Egypt", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1996. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Period_of_ancient_Egypt, [2] S. Pendergast and S. Hernosen, "Fashion, costume and 2016. culture, Volume 1: The ancient world", Thomson Gale, [21] K. Earnshaw, "Coffin of Heresenes, dynasty 26", 2004 www.pinterest.com/pin/512566001316714310/ [3] K. Hilliard, "Images of a genderd Kingship: Visual [22] H. Bleuer, "Silver statue of a royal woman with the representation of Hatshepsut and her influence on cartouches of Necho II on her arms", Nefertiti", Master of Arts, University of North Texas, www.pinterest.com/pin/44976712766530367/ August 2006. [23] C. Holland, "Statue of Isis nursing Horus, Late Period", [4] G. Tassie, "The social and ritual contextualization of www.pinterest.com/pin/305963368416645609/ ancient Egypt on hair and hairstyles from the [24] Alamy, "Sarcophagus of lady Kaahapy, Late Period", Protodynastic to the end of the Old Kingdom", Ph.D. www.alamy.com/stock-photo-sarcophagus-of-ladyThesis, Institution of Archaeology, University College kaahapy-25th-26th-dynasty-c-715-525-bc-late-periodLondon, 2008. 26950071.html [5] A. Olivier, "Social status of elite moman of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt: A comparison of artistic features", Master of Art Thesis, University of South Africa, June 2008. [6] D. Basson, "The goodness Hathor and the the women of ancient Egypt", MPhil Thesis, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, March 2012. [7] A. Markham, "Dressing the part:early Christian identity North Africa, 100-200 CE", Bacheler of Arts Thesis, Faculty of the University of Utah, USA, December 2014. [8] Wikipedia, "Old Kingdom of Egypt",

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BIOGRAPHY

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Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. Published more than 180 research papers in international journals and conferences. Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Justice of International Journal of Computer Techniques. Reviewer in some international journals. Scholars interested in the author’s publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume28 October 2016

Galal Ali Hassaan

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XXVIII: Wooden Coffins Industry Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

construction, decoration techniques and use of Tamarix wood in ancient Egypt [4] Grajetzki (2006) investigated a coffin model of Teti from the Second Intermediate Period and in display in the British Museum . It is a wooden decorated coffin having a box and a lid. He studied all the inscriptions on the model and its various dimensions [5]. Coony (2007) presented a contextual approach to Egyptian funerary materialism. She considered a case study of funerary material, particularly coffins of the Ramesside Period and the 21st Dynasty. She stated that funerary objects, especially coffins were multfunctional, holding social economic and ideological meanings [6]. Lacovara (2007) studied fragment of 'rishi' type coffin extracted in Giza and in display now in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and dated to the early 18th Dynasty [7]. Cooney (2012) worked on Theban 21st Dynasty coffins in museums with Egyptian collections: Italy including the Museo Egizio in Turin, the Museo Archaeologico in Florence, the Vatican collections in Rome and the Museo dell' Accademia in Cortona. She examined more than 35 coffin sets and concluded that some coffins seem to have been used two or three times [8] Bartos (2014) showed through the analysis of the excavated coffins from Tomb TT65 at Sheikh Abdel-Gurna examples of the reuse of the originally 18th Dynasty tomb during the whole Third Intermediate Period [9]. Bettum (2014) demonstrated the use of the 'nesting principle' in in various contexts and explored the implications of nesting to coffin decoration, funerary rituals and the mythical environment of the Netherworld [10]. Mann (2015) studied four coffin sets from Bab elGasus cache of Egypt and now belonging to the collection of the Rijks Museum in Leiden . He looked for the construction techniques used, materials used, signature of the production workshop or artist and the features of the coffins [11]. Dodson (2015) stated that collection in the Medalhavsmuseet included coffins covering two millennia from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the Potelmaic Period . During this time span, coffins transformed from simple decorated boxes to elaborately painted cases taking the shape

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ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to investigate the development of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through wooden coffins industry in the dynastic periods. This study

engineering wooden coffins, dynastic periods.

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INTRODUCTION

history,

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Keywords –Mechanical

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covers the design and manufacturing of wooden coffins in dynasties from the 2nd up to the 27th dynasties showing the type and characteristics of each coffin. The decoration and inscriptions of the wooden coffins in the different ages were highlighted.

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Ancient Egyptians experienced an outstanding mechanical engineering technology accumulated through thousands of years. The ancient Egyptian mechanical technology left amazing products and establishments survived for thousands of years. This is the 28th part in a research papers series aiming at exploring the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt. It handles one of the fascinating products of ancient Egypt, the wooden coffin as a funerary product. Johnson , Head and Green (1995) described the conservation of an ancient Egyptian polychrome wooden coffin dated 960-900 BC. They presented a qualitative analysis of the selection of materials from the coffin [1]. El-Hadidi (1998) stated that preserving the wood as it represents one of the main archaeological and antiquity items that ere left behind over the different historical eras. The aim of her research study was to find and apply suitable conservation techniques for two wooden coffins at the Egyptian Museum at the Faculty of Archaeology of Cairo University [2]. The Education Division of the National Gallery of Art at Washington (2002) issued a volume about the treasures of ancient egypt. This volume included describing the coffin of Isis-em-akhbit and sarcophagus of Khonsu [3]. Andelkovic and Amoros (2005) studied the construction and wood identification of Nesmin coffin from the early Ptolemaic Period. They analysed the coffin lid, trough, tenon and peg. They discussed the coffin

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covers from the 7th Dynasty to the 9th Dynasty over the time span from 2181 to 2055 BC [17]. We have two examples of wooden coffins in this period detailed as follows: - Fig.3 shows wooden coffin of Menkabu (2140204BC) from the 9th - 10th Dynasties as displayed in the Fine Museum of Art at Boston [18]. It is of the classical coffin design practiced in the Old Kingdom with flat cover. The wood is covers by stucco and painted in brown with a longitudinal band including the inscriptions and two eyes under the right corner of the band. The inscriptions are neat and colored. The two eyes represent a crying human looking to the future coming in the afterlife. The coffin length is 1.95 m.

of the mummy with a series nested within each other (in some cases) [12].

EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD

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The 18th dynasty had pioneers in all aspects of This period covers the 1st and 2nd Dynasties over the time span 3100-2686 BC [13]. According to the University College London, elite burial of ancient Egyptians during the Early Dynastic Period was in wooden coffins such that shown in Fig.1 [14]. The trough takes the shape of a parallelogram and the lid has a domed shape and flat sides at its ends. The trough surface is not flat and there no clear decoration or inscriptions.

Fig.3 Coffin of Menkabu from the 9th -10th Dynasties [18].

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Fig.1 Coffin from the Early Dynasties Period [14].

OLD KINGDOM

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The Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt covers the 3 rd to 6th Dynasties over a time span from 2686 to 2181 BC [15]. According to the University College London, the box type coffin continued to be in use up to the end of the Old Kingdom [16]. In the 6th Dynasty, a standard box-type coffin was developed with two eyes symbol and one line of inscriptions as shown in Fig.2 from Tomb 421 at Sedment of Egypt [16].

Fig.4 Coffin of Ipi-ha-ishutef from the 9th -10th Dynasties [19].

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The First Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt

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The Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt covers the 11th and 12th Dynasties during a time span from 2000 to 1700BC [20]. The development of wooden coffins during this rich period will be illustrated through the presentation of six coffins from both dynasties 11 and 12. - The first example of wooden coffins from the Middle Kingdom is for a child called

Fig.2 Coffin from the 6th Dynasty [16].

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The second example from the First Intermediate Period is a wooden coffin of the Commander and Scribe Ipi-ha-ishutef (2064 BC) found at Saqqara and in display in the Oriental Institute Museum at Chicago and shown in Fig.4 [19]. It is of the parallelogram design . The two eyes little bit below the inscriptions band, closer to the vertical centerline of the coffin.

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Myt from the 11th Dynasty (2051-2030 BC) during the reign of King Mentuhotep II in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown in Fig.5 [21]. It is of the standard parallelogram type with flat lid, horizontal band for inscriptions and two eyes sign under the left end of the band. The inscriptions and eyes sign are written with light-blue painting. The coffin length is 1.95 m.

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Fig.7 Coffin of Nakht-ankh from the 12th Dynasty [23]. -

Fig.5 Coffin of Myt from the 11th Dynasty [21]. The second example of wooden coffins is from late 11th Dynasty-early 12th Dynasty (2010-1961 BC) belongs to Djehutynakht, , in display in the Museum of Fine Arts and shown in Fig.6 [22]. It is of the standard parallelogram type manufactured from cedar and extensively decorated through painting by scenes from the book of dead and other scene for the deceased.

Fig.8 Coffin of Senbi from the 12th Dynasty [24]. -

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The fourth example is a painted wooden coffin from the 12th Dynasty (1981-1802 BC) belongs to Senbi, in display in the Cleveland Museum of Art and shown in Fig.8 [24]. It is similar to that of Nakhtankh in Fig.7. It has a flat lid and may be manufactured in the same workshop produced Nakht-ankh coffin.

Fig.6 Coffin of Djehutynakht from the 11 th-12th Dynasties [22]. The third example is a coffin from the 12th Dynasty for Nakht-ankh found at BeniHassan, in display in the Liverpool Museum at UK and shown in Fig.7 [23]. Again, it is of the standard parallelogram type with flat cover (not shown in Fig.7), inscriptions in a horizontal band all around the trough near its end and in vertical bands from the horizontal band to the bottom of the coffin. The two eyes are in the standard position assigned in the previous designs.

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Fig.9 Coffin of Khnumhotep from the 12th-13th Dynasties [25].

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The fifth example of wooden coffins in the Middle Kingdom is from the Late 12th Dynasty-Early 13th Dynasty (1940-1760 BC) for Khnumhotep in display in the National Museums Scotland and shown in Fig.9 [25]. This is a new coffin type taking the shape of a human (the decease). It is painted white with three lateral bands, longitudinal band and a head. The head simulates the decease during his life.

VI.

SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

The Second Intermediate Period covers the ancient Egyptian Dynasties from the 13th to the 17th Dynasties over a time span from 1802 to 1550 BC 3

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[26]. The development of wooden coffins through this intermediate period is investigated through the presentation of four coffins from the 13 th and 17th Dynasties. - Fig.10 shows a wooden coffin from the 13th Dynasty for Nakhtkhnum (1802-1640 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art [27]. It is of the parallelogram design, painted and extensively decorated by symbols and inscriptions in horizontal and vertical bands.

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Fig.12 Coffin of Nebkheperre Intef from the 17th Dynasty [29].

Fig.10 Coffin of Nakhtkhnum from the 13th Dynasty [27].

The second example of wooden coffins in the Second Intermediate Period is for Hekaib-Hapy from the 13th Dynasty (1640-1550 BC) found at Thebes, in display in the Metropolitan Museum and shown in Fig.11 [28]. It is of the parallelogram design as this of Nakhtkhnum of Fig.10 but with less decoration inscriptions.

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The last example is a wooden coffin from the Late 17th Dynasty Early 18th Dynasty (1580-1479 BC) for Puhorsenbu which is in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.13 [30]. The coffin is a wonderful artifact manufactured from wood, covered by a layer of stucco, then painted to simulate the decease in a wonderful way seeming that it is a photographic shot taken by a digital camera. However, they did not have this technology but they had their own 3500 years old technology which produced articles still amazing the whole world till now.

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Fig.11 Coffin of Hekaib-Hapy from the 13th Dynasty [28].

The third example is from the 17th Dynasty for the King Nebkheperre Intef of Thebes during the period 1571-1560 BC in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.12 [29]. It is of the humanshape design appeared in the end of the 12th Dynasty. It is manufactured from wood and layer of gesso which was painted.

Fig.13 Coffin of Puhorsenbu from the 17 th – 18th Dynasties [30].

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NEW KINGDOM

The New Kingdom of ancient Egypt covers the Dynasties from the 18Tth to the 20th over a time span from 1570 to 1069 BC [31]. The New Kingdom is the richest and strongest period in the ancient Egyptian history. It is expected to find 4

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outstanding wooden coffin designs in the three dynasties of the New Kingdom compared with other ones. - The first example of wooden coffins in the New Kingdom is from the 18th Dynasty. It is the outer coffin of Queen Ahmose Merit-Amun, wife of Pharaoh Amenhotep I, the second Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty. The coffin is in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.14 [32]. The coffin is a wonderful piece of artifacts manufactured from cedar, inlayed and painted with colors simulating the Queen holding a symbol in each hand while her both hands are on her chest. It is of the human-shape type emerged in the end of the 12th Dynasty. The details of the Queen face are amazing displaying the serious look and strong character of the Queen.

Fig.15 Middle coffin of Yuya from the 18 th Dynasty [33].

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The third example from the 18th Dynasty is a wooden coffin lid for Ladi Teti, the Servant of the Great Place at Thebes (1580-1479 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum and shown in Fig.16 [34]. The lid takes the shape of Teti wearing a headdress of alternate yellow and black bands, putting her hands on her chest, inscriptions in a vertical bounded band and wearing a Tunic dress decorated by bird wings. The artist simulated Teti as a serious Egyptian Ladi.

Fig.16 Coffin of Teti from the 18th Dynasty [34].

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Fig.14 Outer coffin of Queen Ahmose-Meritamun from the 18th Dynasty [32]. The second example is for the middle coffin of Yuya, a courtier during the 18th Dynasty in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.15 [33]. The three nested coffins of Yuya were of the human-shape design. Even Yuya was just a courtier, his coffins show how rich he was. The coffin in hand is manufactured from wood, coated by stucco, painted, decorated by gold and silver foils and inlaid with colored glass. The headdress is inlaid by alternate bands of gold and silver, the hands are covered by gold foil holding a symbol in each hand [33].

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The fourth example of wooden coffins in the New Kingdom is from the 19th th Dynasty. It is for Khonsu, the son of Sennedjem (artist worked in the decorations of the Royal Tombs during the reign of Pharaohs Seti I and Ramses II). The nested coffins of Khonsu were found in the Tomb of his father Sennedjem and in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.17 [35]. Khonsu had two nested coffins, the outer of them is shown in Fig.17. It is of the classical human-shaped one emerged in the end of the 12th Dynasty. It is decorated by alternate colors in yellow and black for his headdress and scenes for some gods and goodness of ancient and for himself with his wife. It is produced from wood, gesso, paints and varnish and has 2 m length [35].

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Fig.17 Outer coffin of Khonsu from the 19 th Dynasty [35].

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The fifth example is again from the 19th Dynasty which is an outer coffin found in the Tomb of Sennedjim (may be for Sennedjem himself) shown in Fig.18 [36]. The coffin is a master part in the art of the ancient Egyptians. It is highly decorated through very accurate design and production of the Sennedjem-shaped coffin. His headdress is elaborately decorated through its colors and scenes, his ornament and dress. He is holding a symbol in each hand. His face reflects ho serious he was.

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The last example from the New Kingdom is again from Late 20th Dynasty and in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.21 [39]. It is of the human-shape design, painted and decorated from both inside and outside and has a 1.91 m length. It is decorated by funerary scenes and the decorations are so neat and clear and have too many details specially on both surfaces. The artist did not show the hands of the decease.

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Dynasty [37]. The seventh example of wooden coffins in the New Kingdom is from the 20th Dynasty. It belongs to Panehsy, the Viceroy of Kush during the reign of Pharaoh Ramses XI in display in the National Museum of Antiquities at Leiden (Holland) and shown in Fig.20 [38]. Again, this is one of the wonderful wooden coffins manufactured during the reign of the last Pharaoh of the 20th Dynasty (1107-1078 BC).It is of the human-shape design and fully painted and decorated with scenes and inscriptions.

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume28 October 2016

Fig.18 Outer coffin of Sennedjem from the 19 th Dynasty [36].

The sixth example of wooden coffins in the New Kingdom is an outer coffin for Lady Henutmehyt from the 19th Dynasty, found in Thebes, in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.19 [37]. Her coffin is produced from wood covered by gold leaf and decorated by scenes, inscriptions and symbols. She is not holding any symbols in her hands, but extending her fingers and putting her hands on her chest. Her headdress is long and decorated by yellow bands and scenes. The details of her face show that she may be of a relation with Sennedjem (Fig.18). The coffin length is 1.87 m.

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Fig.20 Coffin of Panehsy from the 20th Dynasty [38].

Fig.21 Coffin from Late 20th Dynasty [39].

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The Third Intermediate Period covers the Dynasties from 21st to 25th over a time span from 1070 to 664 BC [40]. The development of wooden coffins during this historical period of Egypt is investigated through the presentation of 8 coffins as follows: - Fig.22 shows a wooden coffin for the priest Amun Nes-pa-neb-imakh (1000-970 BC) from Thebes during the 21st Dynasty in display in the National Museum of Denmark [41]. The coffin is of the humanshape type and simulates the decease with full decoration of the coffin through

Fig.19 Coffin of Henutmehyt from the 19th

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THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume28 October 2016 Dynasty (800 BC) for priest Nespernnub in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.25 [44]. The coffin is of the human-type and fully decorated with scenes and symbols in very shining colors showing too many details. The artist did not show the hands of the decease.

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scenes of various designs and colors.

The second example is from Late 21st Dynasty (1000-945 BC) and belongs to Henettawy, a singer of Amun-Re in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.23 [42]. It is of the human-type and simulates the singer with full decoration with funeral scenes with multi-colors. It is manufactured from wood, coated by a layer of gesso, painted, then a layer of varnish was applied. The coffin length is 1.91 m. The artist didnt show the hands of the decease.

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Fig.25 Coffin of Nespernnub from the 22nd Dynasty [44]. -

The fifth example is from the period 760660BC (23rd -25th Dynasties) for Nesmutaatneru in display in the Museum of Fine Arts and shown in Fig.26 [45]. The coffin is of the human-type and slightly decorated through inscriptions in two longitudinal adjacent bands. Again, the artist did not show the hands of the decease.

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Fig.22 Coffin of Amun Nes-pa-neb-imakh from the 21st Dynasty [41].

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The third example is a wooden coffin for a child from Late 21st Dynasty- Early 22nd Dynasty (1070-712 BC) displayed in a sale at NY in 4th June 2008 for 18750 US$ and shown in Fig.24 [43]. It is of the human-type, manufactured from wood, gesso and paints. It is fully decorated by various scenes and inscriptions in two columns. The coffin length is 1.14 m and the face is for an old man. The artist did not show the hands of the decease.

The sixth example is an inner coffin from the 25th Dynasty for priest Hor (700-680 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.27 [46]. It is from the same design school of human-shaped wooden coffins extensively decorated by funerary scenes with multi-colors paints. The artist did not show the hands of the decease.

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Fig.23 Coffin of singer Henettawy from Late 21 Dynasty [42].

Fig.26 Coffin of Nesmutaatneru from the 23 rd -25th Dynasties [45].

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Fig.27 Inner coffin of Hor from the 25 th Dynasty [46].

Fig.24 Coffin of a child from 21st – 22nd Dynasties [43].

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The fourth example is from the 22nd 7 www.ijresonline.com

The seventh example from the Third Intermediate Period is from the 25th / 26th Dynasties which is an inner coffin for

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume28 October 2016 Died Mut (715-525 BC) in display in the North Carolina Museum of Art and shown in Fig.28 [47]. It is of the human-type design and extensively decorated all over the surface of the coffin.

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Fig.28 Inner coffin of Died Mut from the 25 th / 26th Dynasties [47]. The last example is an outer coffin of Tabakenkhonsu from the 25th Dynasty (680-670 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.29 [48]. It is manufactured from wood, layer of gesso, then painted. The coffin is of the parallelogram type with domed lid. It is decorated by repeated scene of a deity and scenes in vertical adjacent bands.

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The second example from the Late Period is a painted coffin from the 26th Dynasty (664-525 BC) in display in the Australian Museum and shown in Fig.31 [51]. The coffin is of the parallelogram type and decorated by scenes representing the decease with a number of ancient Egypt deities.

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Fig.30 Coffin of Thothirdes from the 26 th Dynasty [50].

Fig.31 Coffin from the 26th Dynasty [51].

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Fig.29 Outer coffin of Tabakenkhonso from the 25th Dynasty [48].

IX.

LATE PERIOD

The Late Period of the ancient Egypt history covers the dynasties from the 26th to the 31st Dynasties over a time span from 664 to 332 BC [49]. We have three coffin examples from this period from the 26th and 27th Dynasties. - Fig.30 shows a coffin of Thothirdes from the 26th Dynasty (died between 768 and 545 BC) and in display in the Brooklyn Museum [50]. It follows the same coffin design school in the Third Intermediate Period where it takes a human-shape, decorated by scenes covering the whole surface and no hands emerging from the body.

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Fig.32 Coffin from the 26th -27th Dynasties [52]. X. -

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The last example is a wonderful wooden coffin from the 26th – 27th Dynasties (525343 BC) in display in the Michael Carlos Museum, Emory University, Atlanta and shown in Fig.32 [52]. Again, the coffin is of the human-shape design with wonderful decorations over a layer of plaster covering the wood. It is decorated by scenes of some deities and inscriptions in five horizontal adjacent bands.

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CONCLUSION

This paper investigated the evolution of Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt during the dynastic periods through the design and manufacturing of wooden coffins. The wooden coffins appeared in ancient Egypt since the Early Dynastic Period..

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REFERENCES [1]

C. Johnson, K. Head and L. Green, The conservation of a polychrome Egyptian coffin Studies in Conservation, vol. 40, issue 2,pp. 73-81, 1995. N. El-Hadidi, Treatment and conservation of woodapplication as two coffins at the Egyptian Museum of the Faculty of Archaeology- Cairo University, MA Thesis, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, Egypt, 1998. Education Division, Family guide to treasures of ancient Egypt, Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 2002. B. Andelkov and M. Amoros, The coffin of Nesmin construction and wood identification, Journal of Srbian Archaeological Society, vol.21, pp.349-364, 2005. W. Grajetzki, The Second Intermediate Period model coffin of Teti in the British Museum, BMSAES, issue 5,

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2006 www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/bmsaes/issue5/Grajetzki.ht mlwww.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/bmsaes/issue5/Grajetzki. html . K. Cooney, The functional materialism of death in ancient Egypt: A case study of funerary materials from the Ramesside Period, in Das Heilige und dre ware, M. Fitzenreiter, Ed., London, 2007, pp.273-299. P. Lacovara, A Rishi coffin from Giza and the development of the type of mummy case, in The Archaeology and Art of Ancient Egypt, Z. Hawas and J. Richards, Ed., Publication du Conceil Supreme des Antiquites de L' Egypte, vol.II, 2007, pp.33-38. K. Kooney, Reuse of Theban 21st Dynasty funerary arts: A case study of coffins in Italian collections, The 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt, 28th April 2012. F. Bartos, An example of rare 22nd Dynasty cartonnage type and some reused 21st Dynasty yellow coffin fragments from TT65, in Ancient Egyptian coffins craft traditions and functionality, The Annual Egyptology Colloquium, British Museum, 28-2July, 2014.-A. Bettum, The principle of nesting in elite burials and religious art, in Ancient Egyptian coffins craft traditions and functionality, The Annual Egyptology Colloquium, British Museum, 28-2July, 2014.-L. Mann, The Leiden coffins of Bab el-Gasus: An archaeometric study, Master Thesis, Faculty of Archaeology, University of Leiden, August 2015. JA. Dodson, Ancient Egyptian coffins: The Medelhavsmuseet collection, National Museums of World Culture, 2015. Wikipedia, Early dynastic period (Egypt), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Dynastic_Period_(Egy pt) , 2016. University College London, Burial customs in the Early Dynastic Period, http://www.ucl.ac.uk/museumsstatic/digitalegypt/burialcustoms/earlydynastic.html , 2001. Wikipedia, Old Kingdom of Egypt, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Kingdom_of_Egypt , 2016. University College London, Burial customsCoffins in in the Old Kingdom, http://www.ucl.ac.uk/museumsstatic/digitalegypt/burialcustoms/coffinsok.html , 2001. . Wikipedia, First Intermediate Period of Egypt, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Intermediate_Period_of _Egypt , 2016. Museumof Fine Arts, Coffin of Menqabu, http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/coffin-of-menqabu130624 Oriental Institute Museum, Behind the scene of the Oriental Institute MuseumEgyptian coffin conservation project, https://oi.uchicago.edu/museum-exhibits/btscoffin-conservation-project Wikipedia, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Kingdom_of_Egypt , 2016. Metropolitan Museum, Outer coffin of the child Myt, http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/545320 Art Tattler, Front side panel of outer coffin of Djehutynakht, http://arttattler.com/archivetomb10a.html Kemet, Sacofagu de Nakhtankh, http://kemetupuaut.blogspot.com.eg/2012/02/sarcofago-denakhtankh.html B. Whoops, Coffin of Senbi, http://www.pinterest.com/pin/491244271829081274/ B. Whoops, Coffin of Khnumhotep, Egypt, http://www.pinterest.com/ pin/491244271829081270/ Wikipedia, Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Intermediate_Period _of_Egypt , 2016.

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They designed and manufactured wooden coffins in two main shapes: parallelogram design and human-shaped design. The parallelogram design starting from the Old Kingdom had a flat lid, inscriptions within a horizontal band near the top of its trough and two eyes symbol under the inscription band towards its left edge. Those characteristics continued in the First Intermediate Period, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period. More inscription bands were added in the Middle Kingdom, Second Intermediate and Third Intermediate Periods. Scenes from the 'Book of Dead' were added to wooden coffins during the Middle Kingdom. Human-shape wooden coffins appeared during the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom simulating the decease. The human-shape design of wooden coffins continued during the Second Intermediate Period, New Kingdom, Third Intermediate Period and Late Period. Extensive decorations of the human-shape coffins appeared from the New Kingdom onwards. Decoration of the inner surfaces of the wooden coffin appeared in the New Kingdom. Regarding the hands of the decease, two design took place: coffin with the two hands on each other on the chest and coffin without any hands appearing. The ancient Egyptians designed nested coffins to burry their deceases (up to three nested coffins). During the 18th Dynasty they produced wonderful coffins inlayed by gold and silver foils and semi-precious stones. The coated the wooden coffin by gesso and used multi-colors paints and varnish to generate their coffin-decoration.

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Ed Galal Ali Hassaan:

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Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. Published more than 190 research papers in international journals and conferences. Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Justice of International Journal of Computer Techniques. Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including IJRES.. Reviewer in some international journals. Scholars interested in the authors publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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BIOGRAPHY

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Metropolitan Museum, Coffin of NakhtKhnum, http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544326 Metropolitan Museum, Coffin of Hetaib-Hapy, http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/555882 C. Coletrain, Nebkheperre Intef's wooden Rishi coffin Pharaoh of Egypt, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/322007442078366965/ Metropolitan Museum, Rishi coffin of Puhorsenbu , http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/548510 Wikipedia, New Kingdom of Egypt, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Kingdom_of_Egypt , 2016. Quizlet, Coffin of Queen Ahmose Merit-Amun, https://quizlet.com/39410959/indianasickle-art-of-egyptmid-term-flash-cards/ Anubis 4,Yuya's second and inner coffin, http://anubis4_2000.tripod.com/SpecialExhibits/YuyaTuy u.htm H. Thomas, Egyptian woman, rishi coffin lid, 1580147BC, http://www.pinterest.com/pin/529735974897269609/ Metropolitan Museum, Khonsu's anthropoid coffins, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/86.1.1,.2/ , 2016. Madi, Outer Coffin, Tomb of Sennedjem, Deir el Medina , http://www.pinterest.com/pin/314337248967120600 Mountain Soft Travel, British Museum top 16 Henutmehyt gilded outer coffin, http://www.mountainsoftravelphotos.com/England%20%20London/London/British%20Museum%20Top%2020/s lides/British%20Museum%20Top%2020%2016%20Henut mehyt%20Gilded%20Outer%20Coffin.html , 2006. M. Cuevas, Egypt-Panehsy viceroy of Kush during the reign of Ramses XI, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/258534834836662683/ Metropolitan Museum, Box of an anthropoid coffin, http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/552634 , 2016 Wikipedia, Third Intermediate Period of Egypt, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Intermediate_Period_of _Egypt , 2016. R. Casas, Coffin of priest Amun Nes-pa-neb-imakh, http://www.pinterest.com/pin/10133167888464617/ Metropolitan Museum, Coffin set of the singer of AmunRe, Henettawy, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/worksof-art/25.3.182-184/ Virtual Artifacts, An Egyptian painted wood child sarcophagus, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/373658100310078536/ E. Zhao, Mummy of Nesperennub in cartonnage case, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/309692911857865584/ A. Laurel, Middle coffin of Nesmutaatneru, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/395964992221834521/ Google, Inner coffin of the priest Hor, http://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/innercoffin-of-the-priest-hor/fAGI4lh00tjliA J.Makovics, Inner coffin of Djed Mut, 715-525 BC, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/139541288427836027/ Metropolitan Museum, Outer coffin of Tabakenkhonsu, www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/551128 , 2016. Wikipedia, Late Period of ancient Egypt, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Period_of_ancient_Egy pt , 2016. Brooklyn Museum, Coffin of Thothirdes, http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/4 170 Australian Museum, Ancient Egyptian painted coffin, http://australianmuseum.net.au/image/ancient-egyptianpainted-coffin , 2009. M. Williams, Shadow of the sphinx coffin, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/467741111268640514/

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management, Architecture, Technology and Engineering (IJARMATE) Vol. 2, Issue 10, October 2016

Galal Ali Hassaan

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Egypt Part XXIX X: Sarcophagus Industry

Pharaoh Merenptah from the 19th Dynasty, Pharaoh Ramses III from the 20th Dynasty and Pawenhatef from the Late Period [7]. Wikipedia (2016) wrote an article about 'sarcophagus' and defined it as a box-like box funeral receptacle for a corpse most commonly carved in stone [8]. Hassaan (2016) investigated the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the development of wooden coffins in dynastic Egypt up to the 27th Dynasty [9].

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Abstract— The evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt is investigated through the sarcophagus industry during the dynastic periods of ancient Egypt. Examples of sarcophagi industry from the 4th to the 30th Dynasties are presented and analyzed. Sarcophagii types, materials, location and features are traced. The capability of ancient Egyptians in carving hard rocks was outlined through the sarcophagi industry.

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Emeritus Professor, Professor Department of Mechanical design & Production, Production Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt [email protected]

Index Terms— Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, sarcophagus industry, dynastic periods.

II. SARCOPHAGI OF THE OLD KINGDOM The Old Kingdom comprises from the 3rd Dynasty to the 6th Dynasty cover a time span from 2686 to 2181 BC [10]. [10] The evolution of the sarcophagus industry during the Old Kingdom is investigated through a number of models presented as follows: - The first sarcophagus example from the Old Kingdom belongs to Kaiemneferetfrom the 4th Dynasty (2700-220BC) 220BC) in display in the Roemer and Pelizaeus Museum at Germany and shown in Fig.1 [11]. It is of the rectangular prism type and it was manufactured from rose granite for both lid and trough. The lid has two shoulders at its both ends and a domed surface in between. There is no n inscription but the decorations take the form of letter i all around carved on the external walls.

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I. INTRODUCTION

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The ancient Egyptians had an outstanding role in the evolution of mechanical engineering during the man-kind man history. This the 29 part of a series of research papers aiming at exploring the role of ancient Egyptians in building strong technology in many aspects of mechanical engineering. This part deals with the production of sarcophagus for funerary purposes in ancient Egypt. Sharpe (1864) described the alabaster sarcophagus of King Oimenepthah (Seti I) of the 19th Dynasty. He presented the numerious inscriptions and scenes on the sarcophagus walls [1]. Al-Sadeek (1984) studied the history of Necropolis at Gizah, the Tomb of Thery and analyzed the scenes from Thery Tomb within the 26th Dynasty. She presented the lid of Pakap sarcophagus displayed in the British Museum, the sarcophagus of Ptahhotep displayed in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford [2]. In the six-grade grade curriculum material (2010) , the Los Angles Country Museum of Artpresented Art a sarcophagus dated to the middle dle of the 21st Dynasty (1000-968 968 BC). In this time high priests of Amun at Thebes ruled Egypt where a number of changes took place in the funerary customs [3]. Mallinckrodt (20113) investigated an ancient Egyptian anthropoid sarcophagus lid in the collection collecti of the San Diago Museum of Man. She presented a technical Fig.1 Sarcophagus of Kaiemneferet from the 4th Dynasty analysis for the materials and methods of manufacturing [4]. [11]. Abdelaal and Mahmoud (2014) examined a wooden sarcophagus found in Saqarra excavation dating to the Late - The second example is for King Menkaure, the 6th Period to Greco-Roman Period. They used multiple King of the 4th Dynasty . This sarcophagus was analytical and examination techniques examining the manufactured from basalt decorated by niches in a structure of the sarcophagus [5]. Camacho (2014) examined wonderful design. It was lost in the Mediterranean factors influencing the positioning, dominance and sea during its shipping from King Menkaure orientation of Isis and Nephthys on coffins and sarcophagi. pyramid to the British Museum in 1838. A line She presented some ome sarcophagi such as sarcophagus of diagram for King Menkaure sarcophagus sarcophag is shown Pharaoh Ramses II and sarcophjagus of Amenhotep III [6]. in Fig.2 [12]. It is of the rectangular prism type Reems (2015) in her Ph.D. thesis presented sarcophagi for All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARMATE 1 14

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area with the ground.

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design with too-many many decorations. The sarcophagus takes the form of an ancient Egyptian shrine in three colors.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management, Architecture, Technology and Engineering (IJARMATE) Vol. 2, Issue 10, October 2016

Fig.5 Sarcophagus ophagus of Duaenra [15].

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Fig.2 Sarcophagus of King Menkaure [12].

III. SARCOPHAGI OF THE MIDDLE KINGDOM The third example is a sarcophagus for Mindjedef Mindje from the 4th Dynasty (2520-2472 2472 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown in Fig.3 [13]. It is of the rectangular prism type with flat lid all manufactured from granite. Its length is 2.36m.

The Middle Kingdom includes the 11th and 12th Dynasties over a time span from 2000 to 1700 BC [16] . The development of sarcophagi during this period is investigated through the following examples: - Fig.6 shows the sarcophagus of Queen Ashait, wife of King Mentuhotep II , the 5th King of the 11th Dynasty as displayed in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo [17]. It is manufactured from limestone, decorated by carved scenes for the Queen.

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The fourth example is a sarcophagus for King Unas, the 9th King of the 5th Dynasty in display in his pyramid at Saqqara of Egypt and shown in Fig.4 [14]. It is of the rectangular prism type design manufactured from black basalt. It is not clear if it has any decorations or inscriptions.

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Fig.3 Sarcophagus arcophagus of Mindjedef Mindje from 4th Dynasty [13].

Fig.4 Sarcophagus of King Unas from 5th Dynasty [14].

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The 2nd example is for Queen Kawit, low ranking wife of King Mentuhotep ep II in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.7 [18]. The stone sarcophagus of the Queen was decorated by a large number of scenes and inscriptions for the Queen and some domestic activities from the daily life of the ancient Egyptians.

Fig.7 Sarcophagus of Queen Kawit [18].

The last example of sarcophagi in the Old Kingdom - The third example of sarcophagi of the Middle belongs to Duaenra displayed in the Egyptian Kingdom is from the 12th Dynasty for King Museum at Turin and shown in Fig.5 [15]. It is Amenemhat III, the 5th King of the 12th Dynasty manufactured from pink granite and has the (1961-1917 BC) shown in Fig.8 [19]. There is no classical rectangular prism type with surface enough data about the sarcophagus except its shape. inclination near the ground providing less contact All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARMATE 2 15

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Fig.6 Sarcophagus of Queen Ashait [17].

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Fig.10 Sarcophagus of Tutankhamun of the 18th Dynasty [22].

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The New Kingdom of ancient Egypt includes the 18th to 20th Dynasties over a time span from 1570 to 1069 BC [20]. We have examples of the New Kingdom sarcophagi from the 18th, 19th and 20th Dynasties presented as follows: - Fig.9 shows a sarcophagus produced in the reign of Pharaoh Hatshepsut, the 5th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1473-1458 1458 BC) for her father Thutmose I, the 3rd Pharaoh of the same dynasty and in display now in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston [21]. It is of the rectangular prism type,, has a flat lid and decorated decor by inscriptions and scenes carved on its surface. Its length is 2.25 m and its weight is 2.72 ton.

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IV. SARCOPHAGI OF THE NEW KINGDOM

The third example is from the 19th Dynasty which belongs to Pahemnetier, the High Priest of Ptah in Memphis during the reign of Pharaoh Ramses II. His sarcophagus is in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.11 [23]. This is the first stone sarcophagus appearing in the ancient anci history taking the shape of a human. The lid is designed taking the shape of the decease with his hands on his chest exactly as was in the designs of the wooden coffin appeared during the end of the 12th Dynasty [9]. This design is much complex and difficult dif than that in the wooden design because of the difference in the mechanical properties of both types.

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Fig.8 Sarcophagus of King Amenemhat III [19]. It is of the rectangular prism type and its lid has domed external surface and two shoulders at its longitudinal ends.

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Fig.12 Sarcophagus of Seyau from the 19th Dynasty [24].

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Fig.9 Sarcophagus of Thutmose I of the 18th Dynasty [21]. The second example is again from the 18th Dynasty and belongs to Pharaoh Tutankhamun shown in Fig.10 [22]. It is of the rectangular prism type with flat cover. The trough was cut from brown quartzite while the lid was cut from pink granite [22]. The trough is decorated by fine inscriptions and scenes sc carved on the surfaces while four of the ancient Egyptian goodness are carved on the corners spreading their wings to protect the Pharaoh.

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The fourth example is again from the 19th Dynasty belonging to Setau, the Viceroy of Kush in the second half of Ramses II reign. Its lid is in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.12 [24].

The fifth example is also from the 19th Dynasty belonging to Pharaoh Merenptah, the 4th Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty (1224--1214 BC). It is in display in the Valley of the Kings at Luxor of Egypt and shown in Fig.13 [25]. It is manufactured from red granite and has a lid having the shape of the Pharaoh putting his hands on his chest. Even though the granite is a very hard rock, the ancient Egyptian artist could cut a very smooth and accurate contours on the lid.

Fig.13 Sarcophagus of Merenptah from the 19th Dynasty [25].

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The six example is from the 20th Dynasty belonging to

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Pharaoh Ramses III (1473-1458 1458 BC). His sarcophagus is in display in the Louvre Museum and shown in Fig.14 [26]. It is manufactured from red granite and decorated on the whole external surface with inscriptionss and scenes of various designs. It is of the rectangular prism type and the he corners are filleted with large radius fillets and the short sides includes the cartouche of the Pharaoh and one of the Goodness spreading her wings.

The second example belongs to Pharaoh Shoshenq III, the six Pharaoh of the 22nd Dynasty. It is in display in his tomb at Tanis (Egypt) and shown in Fig.16 [29]. It was of the rectangular prism type and shown without lid. It is decorated by text from the 'Book of dead'. dead'

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Fig.15b Inscriptions on Psusennes I sarcophagus [28].

Fig.14 Sarcophagus of Ramses III from the 20th Dynasty [26].

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V. SARCOPHAGUI OF THE THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

Fig.16 Sarcophagus of Shoshenq III from the 22nd Dynasty [29].

VI. SARCOPHAGUI OF THE LATE PERIOD

The late period of Egypt includes dynasties from the 26th to the 31st over a time span from 664 to 332 BC [30]. We have four examples of sarcophagi of the Late Period of Egypt presented as follows: - Fig.17 shows a sarcophagus of Psamtic-Seneb, Psamtic a High Official in the 26th Dynasty (664-525) (664 which is a gigt of Walter Chrysler [31]. It has a human-shape, manufactured from grey Schist and decorated by text written in parallel horizontal columns. Its length is 2.184 m.

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The Third Intermediate Period includes from the 21st to the 25th Dynasties of ancient Egypt over a time span from 1070 to 664 BC [27]. The sarcophagi industry during this period is investigated through two sarcophasi from the 21st and 22nd Dynasties: - The first example belongs to Pharaoh Psusennes I, the fourth Pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty. It is in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.15a Fig.15 [28]. It is of the human-shape shape type with its cover taking the shape of the Pharaoh with his hands on his chest. It is manufactured from granite and the lower band of the lid and the whole external surface of the trough is full with inscriptions criptions and scenes. A part of the sarcophagus inscriptions is zoomed in Fig.15b showing the cartouche of the Pharaoh [28].

Fig.17 Sarcophagus of Psamtic-Seneb Psamtic from the 26th Dynasty [31]. ].

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Fig.15a Sarcophagus of Psusennes I from the 21st Dynasty [28].

The third example is again from the 26th Dynasty and belongs to the General Kheperra (570-526 (570 BC). It in display in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and shown in Fig.18 [32]. It has a human-shape and

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The ancient Egyptians used limestone, granite, schist, basalt and greywacke in manufacturing their sarcophagi. Even though, some of the rock are very hard, the ancient Egyptians could carve them and produce very difficult designs either in the rectangular prism or the human-shaped shaped types of sarcophagi. Contours were so smooth and shining through very accurate carving, ng, dimensioning and polishing. Most of the human-shaped shaped sarcophagi were as if they are produced by modern CNC machines and not manual using primitive tools.

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The fourth example is a sarcophagus from the 30th Dynasty belonging to Wennefer (380-332 (380 BC). It is in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown in Fig.19 [33]. It has a rectangular prism type with lid having stadium prism and a trapezoid prism above the stadium one. It is manufactured from granite and has an overall length of 2.58 m.

[1] [2] [3]

[4]

S. Sharpe, "The The alabaster sarcophagus of Oimenepthah", Oimenepthah Longman, London, 1864. W. El-Sadeek, Sadeek, "Twenty six dynasty, Necropis at Gizeh", Beitrage Zur Agyptologie,, Band 5, Wien, 1984. Curriculum Materials, “Living Living a virtuous life, the afterlife and the honoring of ancestors", in 'the art of the ancient world'”, Los Angeles Country Museum seum of Art, Art 2010. C. Mallinkrodt, "Identification Identification of ancient and modern reuse in a Ptolemaic child sarcophagus", sarcophagus ANAGPIC Conference, Los Angeles, California, 26 pages, 24th April 2013. S. Abdelaal and N. Mahmoud, Mahmoud "A technical examination and the identification ation of the wood, pigments, grounds and binder of an ancient Egyptian sarcophagus", sarcophagus International Journal of Conservation Science,, vol.5, issue 2, pp.177-188, pp.177 2014. K. Camacho, "Head Head or foot, right or left: Analyzing the position of Isis and Nephthys on coffins and sarcophagi from Old Kingdom through Ptolemaic-Roman Ptolemaic Periods", Master of Arts Thesis,, The American University in Cairo, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, May 2014. D. Reems, "The The Egyptian ouroboros: An iconological and theoretical study", Ph.D. Thesis, Thesis Near Eastern Languages and Cultures 0595UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, 2015. Wikipedia, "Sarcophagus", ", http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarcophagus , 2016. G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical cal engineering in ancient egypt, Part XXVIII: Wooden coffins industry", industry International Journal of Recent Engineering Research, Research (Accepted for Publication), 2016. Wikipedia, "Old Old Kingdom of Egypt", Egypt http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Kingdom_of_egypthttp://en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Kingdom_of_egypt , 2016. Wikipedia, "Sarcophagus Sarcophagus of Kaiemnofret Kaiemnofret" , https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Private_Tombs _at_Giza#/media/File:Sarcophagus_of_Kaiemnofret.jpghttps:// #/media/File:Sarcophagus_of_Kaiemnofret.jpghttps:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Private_Tombs_at_Gi za#/media/File:Sarcophagus_of_Kaiemnofret.jpg El-Shahed, "King King Menkaure sarcophagus" sarcophagus , http://www.pinterest.com/pin/416020084303034388/www.pint erest.com/pin/416020084303034388/ Metropolitan Museum, "Sarcophagus Sarcophagus of Mindjedef" Mindjedef , http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/552235http:// www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/552235 Wikipedia, "Unas" , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unashttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Unas , 2016 G. Orti, "Sarcophagus of Duaenti", www.alamy.com/stock-photo photo-sarcophagus-of-duaenra-old-kin gdom-egyptian-pink-granite granite-26946639.html www.pinterest.com/pin/574912708660777513/ Wikipedia, "Middle Kingdom ", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/middle_kingdom , 2016.

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Fig.18 Sarcophagus of Kheperra from the 26th Dynasty [32].

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produced from greywacke with text in horizontal columns around the front horizontal centerline. ce Its length is 2.26 m.

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Fig.19 Sarcophagus of Wennefer from the 30th Dynasty [33].

VII. CONCLUSION

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[8] [9]

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The evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt was investigated through the study of the [11] sarcophagus industry in ancient Egypt. Egypt The manufacturing of sarcophagi in ancient Egypt during the dynastic period from the 4th to the 30th Dynasties was studied. [12] Rectangular prism sarcophagi were designed and manufactured since the 4th Dynasty. Dynasty [13] Flat lid with dome and shoulders was designed since th the 4 Dynasty. [14] The humanity missed the sarcophagus of King th Menkaure of the 4 Dynasty which was lost in the sea during shipping to UK. [15] The rectangular prism design of the sarcophagus trough continued to appear during the 5th, 12th, 18th, 22nd and 30th Dynasties. [16] The human-shaped shaped sarcophagus started to be designed and manufactured in the 19th Dynasty. It [17] L. Ambrose, "Limestone sarcophagus of Ashait", continued to appear during the 21st and 26th www.pinterest.com/pin/1109012 www.pinterest.com/pin/110901209549330452/ Dynasties. All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARMATE

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[22] Egyking, "King Tut sarcophagus", http://en.paperblog.com/king-tut-sarcophagus-735552/ [23] Wikipedia, "Pahemnetjer", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pahemnetjer [24] Wikipedia, "Setau", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Setau , 2016



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Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. Published more than 190 research papers in international journals and conferences. Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Justice of the International Journal of Computer Techniques. Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including IJARMATE. Reviewer in some international journals. Scholars interested in the author's publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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[25] P. Sternberg, "Sarcophagus of Merenptah", www.pinterest.com/pin/467670742526635172/ [26] Y. Fitzell, "Red granite sarcophagus of Ramses III", www.pinterest.com/pin/269793833903462900/ [27] Wikipedia, "Third Intermediate Period of Egypt", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Intermediate_Period_of_Egypt , 2016. [28] Ancient Egypt, "Granite sarcophagus of Psusennes I", www.ancient-egypt.co.uk/cairo%20museum/cm,%20gold/pages/Dynasty% 2021%20Psusennes%20I%20sarcophagus%203.htm , 2014. [29] Getty Images, "Sarcophagus of Shoshenq III", www.gettyimages.fr/detail/photo/sarcophagus-of-shoshenq-iii-tomb-of-sho shenq-iii-tanis-egypt-photo/639561117 [30] Wikipedia, "Late Period of ancient egypt", http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Period_of_ancient_egypt , 2016. [31] Chrysler, "Sarcophagus of Psamtik-Seneb", www.chrysler.org/ajax/load-artwork/14 [32] Museum of Fine Arts, "Lid of sarcophagus of General Kheperra", www.mfa.org/collections/object/lid-of-the-sarcophagus-of-general-kheperr a-147319 [33] Metropolitan Museum of Art, "Sarcophagus of Wennefer", www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/551899



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Fine Art America, "From the sarcophagus of Queen Kawit", http://fineartamerica.com/featured/queen-kawit-at-her-toilet-fr om-the-sarcophagus-of-queen-kawit-egyptian-11th-dynasty.ht ml [19] Wikipedia, “Sarcophagus of Amenemhat III”, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Sarcophagi_of_ the_12th_dynasty_of_Egypt#/media/File:AmenemhatIII-dahch our-sarcophage.jpg , 2007. [20] Wikipedia, "New Kingdom of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Kingdom_of_Egypt, 2016. [21] Museum of Fine Arts, "Ancient Egypt: Sarcophagus of Queen Hatshepsut recut for her father", www.mfa.org/collections/object/sarcophagus-of-queen-hatshepsut-r ecut-for-her-father-thutmose-i-box-130720

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BIOGRAPHY

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Galal Ali Hassaan: • Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. • Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. • Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. • Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. All Rights Reserved © 2016 IJARMATE

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part III: Jewellery Industry (Necklaces) Galal Ali Hassaan

Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Abstract:

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This is the third paper in a series of research papers exploring the history of mechanical engineering during the Ancient Egypt era. The industry of necklaces in Ancient Egypt is investigated over seven periods of Ancient Egypt History from Predynastic to Late Period. The paper presents samples of necklaces from the seven periods and tries to analyze each sample showing its materials and location if known. The various designs of necklaces are outlined showing the characteristics of each design. Keywords — Mechanical engineering history, Ancient Egypt, jewellery industry, necklaces, production materials.

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His gallery included a necklace from the 12th dynasty [4]. Tate et. Al. (2009) examined a 17th I. INTRODUCTION dynasty gold necklace by optical microscopy, XThe evolution of mechanical engineering goes radiography, air-path X-ray fluorescence and protoe through different civilizations of the human beings induced X-ray analysis. They summarized their over centuries. This is a trial to point how the findings and proposed the method of manufacture mechanical engineering is developed starting from [5]. very old civilizations. Since the Ancient Egyptian Civilization is one of the oldest civilizations leaving evidence of its glory up to now, this series of II. PREDYNASTIC PERIOD research papers are devoted to the role of The predynastic period covers the timeline 5500 mechanical engineering in production of different – 3100 BC [6]. The first sample of Ancient things required during the daily life of the ancient Egyptian necklaces is from Badarian (4400 – 3800 Egyptians. BC) and located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Smith (1960) briefed the history of Ancient Egypt It is shown in Fig.1 [7]. from Predynastic to the Late Period. He presented some features of each period through the available scenes and artefacts including necklaces [1]. Scott (1972) studied the Egyptian jewellery covering periods from predynastic to the 19th dynasty. He included some necklaces from predynastic period, 18th dynasty and 19th dynasty [2]. Pinch (1994) studied different aspects regarding magic in Ancient Egypt. He presented samples of necklaces in Ancient Egypt starting from the predynastic period where they added amulets to the necklaces and from the Middle Kingdom [3]. Hardwick et. Al. (2003) presented a gallery for Fig.1 Necklace from Badarian [7]. the Egyptian antiques in the Ashmolean Museum.

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It is composed of a 8 beads of different sizes and design. Another necklace sample was produced in 4000 BC with beads manufactured from shell, coral, bone, invory and glazed steatite. A collection of necklaces produced in the predynastic period is shown in Fig.2 [8].

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Fig.4 Predynastic necklace 4000 BC [9].

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The last model in this period returns to 3200 BC. Fig.5 shown two necklaces from late predynastic found in a tomb in Gerza south of Egypt [10]. The Fig.2 Predynastic necklaces 4000 BC [8]. necklaces have beads manufactured from lapis The five necklaces shown in Fig.2 have different lazuli, carnelian, agate and gold. Separate beads manufactured from iron of different size are also designs. shown in Fig.5 (2000 years befor Egypt's iron age). Another example of necklaces of the Ancient Egyptians was produced about 4000 BC and produced from shell, coral, bone, invory and glazed steatite. The necklace is shown in Fig.3 [9]. It is consisted of a large number of small beads with three amulets at the middle on the chest including a hippo in the centre. Fig.5 Predynastic necklaces 3200 BC [10].

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III. OLD KINGDOM It looks that the great pharaohs of this period had paid all their attention to building the great structures such as pyramids and statues. I could not find enough samples of necklaces from this period. It seems that its a continuation of the predynastic and early dynasties. Fig.6 shows a necklace from the 4th dynasty located in the FitzWiliam Museum [11]. It has 3 long faience beads, round carnelian bead, 2 bone or shell beads, 2 dual conical green

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faience beads. All beads are separated by small ring two ends of the necklace. The complexity of the faience beads [11]. design is clear and the high technology of units production and necklace assembly is dominant. Another different design model from the 12th dynasty is shown in Fig.8 [13].

Fig.6 Necklace from the 4th dynasty [11].

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IV. MIDDLE KINGDOM Fig.8 Faience necklace from 12th dynasty [13]. Well designed and accurately produced necklaces with excellent use of available and new materials The beads have graduating diameter from appeared during this period of Ancient Egypt smallest at the end to largest in the middle and are history. Fig.7 shows a necklace for Queen Khnumit produced from faience. The beads are spaced by from the 12th dynasty is shown in Fig.7 [12]. thin carnelian beads. An outstanding and fantastic model of necklaces of this period is that of Sathathor the daughter of Pharaoh Senwosrt II of the 12th dynasty. The necklace is shown in Fig.9 [14]. It has beads manufactured from carnelian of different colours and sizes. The long beads are separated by small blue ball beads. There is a pendant in the front presenting 2 falcons holding the Pharaoh cartouche.

Fig.7 Necklace of queen Khnumit of the 12th dynasty [11].

Fig.9 Necklace of Sathathor from 12th dynasty [14].

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The are a series of 10 amulets on either sides of the central symbol Ankh (Ancient Egyptian Symbol). The amulets are located between 2 columns of golden beads. The amulets are manufactured from gold and semiprecious stones: carnelian, turquoise and lapis lazuli. There are 60 pendants joined to the outer beads row. The necklace is fastened using two falcon heads at the

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Fig.10 Electrum necklace ecklace from the middle kingdom[15].

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The last example from the middle kingdom is a unique necklace manufactured from the gold-silver gold alloy (electrum). Fig.10 shows the electrum necklace [15]. Its length is 154 mm and it is located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

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Fig.12 17th dynasty necklace [5]. VI.

NEW KINGDOM The new kingdom is the greet kingdom in Ancient Egypt and it is expected to demonstrate a large collection of its necklaces either for the Pharaohs, Nobles of public.

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V. SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD This is one of the weakness periods in the Ancient Egyptian history. Even though we have some samples of necklaces in this historical period between 1780 to 1546 BC. Fig.11 a long necklace from Thebes of Upper Egypt [16]. It is manufactured from garnet, gold, silver, carnelian, blue faience and turquoise. Itss length is 340 mm and is located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

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Fig.13 shows a necklace of faience beads and carnelian amulet from the 18th dynasty [17]. The necklace was donated to the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology by William Petrie in 1923.

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Fig.11 Long necklace from the 2nd intermediate period [16].

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Another necklace model from the 17th dynasty is shown in Fig.12 [5]. It consists of a large number of Fig.13 Faience necklace from 18th dynasty [17]. thin gold rings. There is one strand at the back split into 4 strands in the front. It is located in the The beads are gradually increasing in size from National Museum Scotland. back to front without spacing beads. Another faience beads necklace is shown in Fig.14 [18]. It has 2 strands with long dual dual-conical beads and short ball spacers. The strands are connected near the necklace fasteni fastening device. The

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20 beads from both sides of the fastener have almost no spacer beads. The last three carnelian beads are separated from each other and from the main carnelian bead by three or four gold beads. The gold beads are completely symmetric.

Fig.16 Carnelian and gold beads necklace [20].

The ancient Egyptians in the new kingdom were innovative in thinking and jewellery design. The used insects and animals to decorate their necklaces. For example they used fly as a main unit in producing the necklace shown in Fig.17 [21]. There 38 gold fly pendants separated by two small ball bead. There is a fastener at each end of the necklace

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A multiple materials necklace from the 18th dynasty is shown in Fig.15 [19]. It has a big pendant in the front centre and a single strand beads ended with a number of blue cords at the back of the necklace not to harm the user. It is manufactured from faience, copper alloy, glass, agate, carnelian, lapis lazuli and turquoise.

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Fig.14 Two strands necklace from the 18th dynasty [18].

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outer strand has aqua beads with two spacers one yellow and one aqua. The inner strand has dark blue beads and aqua single spacers.

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Fig.15 Multiple materials necklace from the 18th dynasty [19].

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More sophistication in necklaces industry appeared in this period. This is illustrated in the sample shown in Fig.16 which was found in Zawyet el-alaryan of Egypt [20]. The beads are manufactured from carnelian and gold. The carnelian beads increases gradually in size from the end at back to the front centre. The biggest bead is at the centre and has a dual-conical shape. The first

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Fig.17 Gold fly necklace [21].

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From the 19th dynasty we have a golden necklace of Queen Tausret, the last Pharaoh of the 19th dynasty. Her golden necklace is shown in Fig.20 [23].

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Here, a sample of using the designer both insects and animals as important symbols in designing 18th dynasty necklaces. The designer used a scarab and two monkeys in the pendant of one of Pharaoh Tutankhamun necklaces. It is shown in Fig.18 [22].

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Fig.20 Gold necklace of queen Tausret [23].

Fig.18 Pendant necklace of Pharaoh Tut [22].

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It is manufactured from gold and a number of semiprecious stones. The scarab carries a ball representing the sun and the monkeys carry a crescent representing the moon and enclosing the sun. The have used also plants in decorating their necklaces and indicating the wealth of Egypt. For example they used a gold date-shaped pendants in a necklace from the 18th dynasty as shown in Fig.19 [20].

It is consisted of 80 gold spherical beads and 26 gold pendants having a plant shape. It is located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

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THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD In the third intermediate period classical materials such as faience and semiprecious stones were in use by the Egyptian jewellery engineers and technicians. A sample of necklaces in this period is shown in Fig.21 [24]. It has one strand at the back with large number of small semiprecious stone beads, split into two strands of same size beads and faience amulet in the front middle of the necklace. It is located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

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Fig.19 Gold necklace with date-shaped pendants [20]. It is composed of about 68 gold pendent of date shape spaced by spherical beads. There are 20 spherical beads at the end around the fastener.

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Fig.21 Semiprecious stone necklace [24]. Necklaces of Pharaohs have gold with semiprecious stones as materials used in necklace

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production. For example, Fig.22 shows a necklace for Pharaoh Psusannes I of the 21st dynasty [25]. It is consisted of two strands ending at the back at the fastener. The outer strand composes 24 spherical lapis lazuli beads and one spherical gold bead. The inlet strand composes 22 bead and one gold bead.

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Fig.24 Necklace from the 22nd dynasty [27].

Fig.22 Pharaoh Psusennes I necklace [25].

VII. LATE PERIOD We have two necklace models from the 26th dynasty of the Late Period. The first model is shown in Fig.25 and consists of one strand shaped in two loops [28]. The disc beads are manufactured from faience and joint at the back by silver clasps. Its lengtj is 482 mm and it is a collection of Simonian Family of Switzerland.

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A sophisticated necklace model for Pharaoh Pasussennes I is shown in Fig.23. It weighs more than six kg and manufactured from gold, lapis lazuli and agate [26]. It consists of five golden strands gathered together by a clasp taking the form of the Pharaoh cartouche. From the clasp comes down 14 pendants taking the form of a palm. It is available in the Egyptian Museum.

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It has small red jasper spherical beads separated by pendants and gold amulets of various shapes. The pendants and amulets take the form of lotus flowers, tawerets, Hathor head, fly bird and falkon [27].

Fig.23 Gold necklace of Psussennse I [26].

Fig.25 Two loops necklace of the 26th dynasty [28].

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The last example of necklaces in the 3rd The other model is also from the 26th dynasty. intermediate period is from the 22nd dynasty is It is shown in Fig.26 [28]. shown in Fig.24 [27].

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They used pendants and amulets within the construction of the necklace for decoration and religious purposes. The pendants took the shape of insect, birds and animals. In most of the designs, they used spacer beads to separate the main beads of the necklace. Some of their designs of necklaces were attractive and fantastic and remains suitable for reproduction in all over the world.

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REFERENCES

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VIII. CONCLUSIONS The paper presented necklaces industry in Ancient Egypt. Samples of necklaces from the predynastic, old kingdom, middle kingdom, second intermediate period, new kingdom, third intermediate period and late kingdom were presented. The ancient Egyptians produced necklaces with beads, pendants and amulets from bones, shells, ivory, steatite, iron, semiprecious stones, silver and gold. They designed necklaces with number of strands from one to six. They could produced necklaces of up to 6.3 kg mass. They used beads of various configurations: disc, cylindrical, spherical and dual conical.

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The design is completely different than that in Fig.25. The necklace consists of a single beadedstrand at the back of the user. The, six strands are joint to the single strand with a conical ring. The beads are of the tubular type and have different colours. Its length is 458 mm and it a collection of Simonian Family of Switzerland.

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Fig.26 Six strands necklace of the 26th dynasty [28].

1. W. Smith, “Ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Art, Boston", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1960 . 2. N. Scott, "Egypt jewelry", Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, vol.5, issue 2, pp.223-234, June 1972. 3. G. Pinch, "Magic in Ancient Egypt", British Museum Press, 1994. 4. T. Hardwick et. Al., "Sackler gallery of Egyptian antiquities from 1st dynasty to Byzantine period", The Ashmolean Museum, 2003. 5. J. Tate, K. Eremin, L. Troalen, M. Guerra, E. Goring and B. Manley, "The 17th dynasty gold necklace from Qurneh, Egypt", Archeo Sciences, vol.33, pp.121-128,2009. 6. E. Teeter (Editor), "Before the pyramids", Oriental Institute Museum Publications, Chicago, 2011. 7. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/340514421803219131/ 8. N. Scott, p.225. 9. G. Pinch, p.10. 10. D. Chow, "Ancient Egyptian jewlry came from outer space", August 2013, http://www.livescience.com/38995-egyptian-beadsmade-from-meteorites.html 11. https://books.google.com.eg/books?id=mxAZpKooYwC&pg=PA308&lpg=PA308&dq=old+kingdom+nec klace+egypt&source=bl&ots=ZnDOH5qSs&sig=YjXa7Zra64b3j9c1GpciH1zJ9WU&hl=ar&sa= X&ved=0ahUKEwjvgePnucTKAhUMExoKHeYWBeI 4ChDoAQg_MAU#v=onepage&q=old%20kingdom%2 0necklace%20egypt&f=false 12. "About necklace of Princess Khnumit", http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/H omeServlet?ee_website_action_key=action.display.element &story_id=&module_id=&element_id=1335&language_id =1&text=text 13. " An Egyptian carnelian and faience bead necklace, Middle Kingdom, c.2000 BC - 1700 BC", http://www.sandsoftimedc.com/products/ej117 14. “The pectoral of Sat-Hathor”, http://egyptianhistory.libsyn.com/webpage/category/ge neral/page/2/size/10 15. http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collectiononline/search/552388

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Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. Published 10’s of research papers in international journals and conferences. Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Justice of the International Journal of Computer Techniques. Member of the Editorial Board of some international journals. Reviewer in some international journals. Scholars interested in the authors publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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17. D. Ng, "The Petrie gift in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology", Bulletin of the University of Michigan Museums of Art and Archaeology, vol.17, 2007. 18. https://www.pinterest.com/ThLapidary/egypt-newkingdom-1550-1069-bce/ 19. " Menat necklace from Malqata", http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collectiononline/search/544509 20. https://www.pinterest.com/ThLapidary/egypt-newkingdom-1550-1069-bce/ 21. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/475903885599958763/ 22. https://www.pinterest.com/hirotagood36/ancient-egypttut-objects/ 23. " Necklace in Gold Filagree of Queen Tausret", http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collectiononline/search/544769 24. "Necklace with Bastet pendant", http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collectiononline/search/552596 25. " Egyptian Museum - Necklace of Psusennes The First", https://www.pinterest.com/Josephinadjm/ae21st-dynasty-psusennes-i/ 26. "‫ي‬ ‫ا ول‬ ‫دة‬ 21 ‫ة‬ ‫ا‬ ", https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid= 376830529160169&id=266948683481688 27. " An Egyptian red jasper and gold necklace", http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/ancient-artantiquities/an-egyptian-red-jasper-and-gold-necklace5859340-details.aspx



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16. " Circlet necklace", http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collectiononline/search/552182

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BIOGRAPHY

Galal Ali Hassaan

ISSN: 2395-1303

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Galal Ali Hassaan

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XXX: Mummy Masks Industry

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Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

Abstract— The ancient Egyptians started to manufacture mummy masks from the Old Kingdom onward. The

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development of mummy masks in ancient Egypt is investigated during a time span from Old Kingdom to Late Period. Samples of mummy masks during each period are presented and described pointing out their material and present location if known. The characteristics of each design are outlined showing the sophistication and glory of mechanical engineering during this era of the human being in general.

Keywords— Mechanical engineering; Ancient Egypt; Masks industry.

I. INTRODUCTION This is the 30 paper in a scientific research aiming at presenting a deep insight into the history of mechanical engineering during one of the greatest civilizations in the world, the ancient Egyptians civilization. The paper handles one of the funerary practices practiced by ancient Egyptians during the Dynastic Periods of their history. That is the masks industry. Furlonger (1998) considered the uses of the mask in ritual and theatre. She referred to masks used in death and burial with examples from Egyptian and Roman death masks including the mask of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of the 18th Egyptian Dynasty [1]. Bard (2007) wrote a book about the archaeology of ancient Egypt covering historical periods from Predynastic to Greco-Roman Periods. One of the illustratons she presented was the mask of Pharaoh Tutankhamun [2]. Pancaldo and Aboe (2010) described the ancient Egyptian cartonnage as a material made from layers of linen and papyrus coated with gesso, then painted and used for mask production and other funerary activities. They stated that cartonnage was used in Egypt in the Middle Kingdom, Third Intermediate, Ptolemaic and Roman Periods. They presented some mummy masks in display in Petrie Museum of UK from Middle Kingdom, Ptolemaic and Roman Periods [3].

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Fernandez (2014) stated that the Egyptian funerary masks are important as an element by means of which evidences regarding the identity of their holders can be traced. He presented a number of masks in display in the National Museum of Antiquities at Leiden [4]. Wikipedia (2016) wrote an article about Pharaoh Tutankhamun golden mask in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo. They described its journey from the Pharaoh's tomb to the Egyptian Museum [5].

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II. THE OLD KINGDOM The Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt comprises from the 3rd to the 6th Dynasties over a time span from 2686 to 2181 BC [6]. There is a mummy mask of a man produced in the Old Kingdom from plaster in display in the Brooklyn Museum at NY and shown in Fig.1 [7]. The ancient Egyptian plaster is manufactured from calcium carbonate with clays, sand, and small amounts of anhydrite [8]. The mask is very primitive compared to the elaborated designed practiced in the other coming periods.

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Fig.1 Mummy mask from the Old Kingdom [7]. III.

FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

The second example of mummy masks from the First Intermediate Period is from Sedment of Egypt. They are two mummy masks of unknown material and location shown in Fig.3 [11]. The two masks may be one for a man (to the left) and one for a woman (to the right). The man has a headdress and pectoral, while the woman had only a pectoral and minor effects on her head. The unknown identity and provenance of the masks may be for the un-authorized excavations by tombs robbery going on day and night in Egypt !!.

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The First Intermediate Period of Egypt ancient history comprises the 7th to 9th Dynasties over a time period from 2181 to 2055 BC [9]. Some of the mummy masks judging the evolution of masks industry in the First Intermediate Period of Egypt are presented below: - Fig.2 shows a mummy mask for Priest Henchef-Hotep who served in the temple of King Niuserre at Abusir (2216-2025 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum of the University of Leipzig of Germany [10]. The mask was most probably manufactured from cartonnage extensively coloured showing the details of the face of the priest and his headdress and pectoral. The priest had a moustache and a short beard with a long front-tip. This is the first elaborated design of a mummy mask during the dynastic periods of ancient Egypt produced more than 4100 years ago.

Fig.2 Mummy mask of Herishef-Hotep from First Intermediate Period [10].

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Fig.3 Two mummy masks from the First Intermediate Period [11]. Page 140

IV.

MIDDLE KINGDOM

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The second example of mummy masks from the Middle Kingdom is from Late 11th/Early 12th Dynasties for a a High Official (2000-1980 BC) shown in Fig.5 [14]. It is of the same design school as that in Fig.4 but with elaborated coloured pectoral.

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The Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt comprises the 11th and 12th Dynasties over a time span from 2000 to 1700 BC [12]. We have four examples of mummy masks from the Middle Kingdom outlining the evolution of masks industry during this period. - The first example is for a prince from the 11th Dynasty fount at Asuit of Egypt and shown in Fig.4 [13]. The mask is manufactured from cartonnage painted to demonstrate the prince face, Nemes headdress, diadem and pectoral. The prince had a moustache and a short beard like too many Egyptians nowadays.

Fig.4 Mummy mask of a prince from the 11th Dynasty [13].

The third example from the Middle Kingdom is for an unknown lady in display in the Brooklyn Museum of NY and shown in Fig.6 [15]. It is manufactured from cartonnage and coloured to simulate the lady face nicely and accurately showing her coloured headdress.

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Fig.5 Mummy mask of a High Official from the 11th/12th Dynasties [14].

The fourth and last example of mummy masks during the Middle Kingdom is for an unknown man shown in Fig.7 [16]. It is of the same design stile of the other examples of the same period. Again, a lot of data are missing because most probably those artefacts are sold by tombs robberies. The moustache and beard demonstrates the fable of the Asiatic Hyksos effect on the art during the Middle Kingdom [16].

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Fig.7 Mummy mask of a man from the Middle Kingdom [15].

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Fig.6 Mummy mask of a lady from the Middle Kingdom [15].

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V. SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD This period comprises the ancient Egyptian Dynasties from 13th to 17th over a time span from 1802 to 1550 BC [16]. There is one example of mummy masks during this period of ancient Egypt history. It is for Queen Satdjehuty, wife of King Seqenenre Tao of the 17th Dynasty and mother of Princess Ahmose [17]. The mask is in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.8 [18]. It is manufactured from cartonnage and decorated by gold leafs on her face, headdress and necklace [19].

Fig.8 Mummy mask of Queen Satdjehuty from the 17th Dynasty [18].

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VI. NEW KINGDOM The new kingdom of ancient Egypt comprises the Dynasties from the 18th to the 20th over a time span from 1069 to 1570 BC [20]. This is the most powerful and wealthy period in

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Egypt ancient History. Therefore, we expect great development of the mummy masks industry during this period as will be illustrated in the following presentations: 18th Dynasty: - Fig.8 shows a mummy mask of a young woman from the 18th Dynasty (1570-1300 BC) displayed by the Virtual Egyptian Museum [21]. It is manufactured from cartonnage and has an overall height of 0.66 m. The mask presents the woman having a serious pose, wide eyes and wearing a Nemes headdress.

The second example of mummy masks of the 18th Dynasty is for a man (1550-1295 BC) shown in Fig.10 [22]. It has a neat design with very quite face, nice Nemes headdress and elaborated multi-coloured pectoral. The painting is still excellent and shining after more than 3300 years.

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Fig.9 Mummy mask of a woman from the 18th Dynasty [21].

Fig.10 Mummy mask of a man from the 18th Dynasty [22].

The third mummy mask example is for Hatnefer , mother of Senmut the State Official during the rein of Pharaoh Hatshepsut who lived dring the reign of Pharaoh Thutmose II, the 4th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1492-1473 BC). It is in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown in Fig.11. It is manufactured from cartonnage, gold leafs, alabaster, obsidian and ebony. [23].

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The fourth example of mummy masks in the 18th Dynasty is manufactured from incrusted wood and in display in the Louvre Museum at Paris and shown in Fig.12 [24]. Even, the mask is manufactured from a brittle material such as wood, the ancient Egyptian artist could simulate the decease face accurately and indicatively. The mask is coloured with brown-yellow, blue and black paints.

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Fig.11 Mummy mask of Hatnefer from the 18th Dynasty [23].

Fig.12 Wood mummy mask of a woman from The 18th Dynasty [24].

The fifth mummy mask example is for Merit, wife of the architect Kha who was in service during the reigns of Pharaohs Tuthmosis III, Amenhotep II, Tuthmosis IV and Amenhotep III (1479-1388 BC). Her mask is in display in the Egyptian Museum at Turin and shown in Fig.13 [25] , [26]. It is manufactured from linen cartonnage stuccoed and covered with gold leaf and inlaid with semi-precious stones and glass [27]. The sixth example is for Courtier Yuya (1390 BC) father of Queen Tiye the Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Amenhotep III in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.14 [28]. It is manufactured from gilded cartonnage [29] where gold leafs are used to cover the cartonnage and semi-precious stones may be used to make the eyes and the eyebrows.

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Fig.13 Mummy mask of Merit from the 18th Dynasty [26].

The seventh example of mummy masks in the 18th Dynasty belongs to Tuya, wife of Yuya, singer of Hathor, mother of Queen Tiye and grandmother of Pharaoh Akhenaten. Her mummy mask is in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.15 [30]. It is manufactured from gilded catonnage and highly decorated through its Nemes headdress and pectoral using vitreous pastes, gold leaf and alabaster [31].

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Fig.14 Mummy mask of Courtier Yuya [28].

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The last example from the 18th Dynasty belongs to the young Pharaoh Tutankhamun, the 13th Pharaoh. His mask represents the top technology in the production of mummy masks. It is in display in the Egyptian Museum of Cairo and shown in Fig.16 [32]. It has an overall mass of 10 kg and overall height of 0.54 m. It is manufactured mainly from gold inlaid with semi-precious stones and coloured glass paste. The eyes are produced from obsidian and quartz. The artist showed the Pharaoh with long beard and wearing his Nemes headdress with cobra and vulture on its front, large pectoral

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and holding the crook and flail symbols in his hands [33]. The decorations of all the elements of the mask are extremely marvellous indicating the high technology of ancient Egyptians in this mechanical engineering aspect without computers or CNC machines.

Fig.15 Mummy mask of Tuya [30].

Fig.16 Tutankhamun mask [32].

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19th Dynasty: - The first example of mummy masks during the 19th Dynasty is for a Queen from the rein of Pharaoh Ramses II about 1200 BC shown in Fig.17 [34]. It is manufactured from wood and the yellow colour may indicate that it is gilded by gold leafs. It shows the Queen wearing an elaborated headdress of various carved decorations. - The second example is a mummy mask for Karnefernefer from the 19th Dynasty (1295-1187 BC) in display in the St Louis Art Museum at Missouri and shown in Fig.18 [35]. It has an elaborated design manufactured from plaster, linen, resin, glass, wood, gold, and pigment. The mask shows its owner wearing a decorated Nemes headdress and a well decorated pectoral.

Fig.17 Mummy mask of a Queen from the 19th Dynasty [34].

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Fig.18 Mummy mask of a lady from the 19th Dynasty [35].

The third example from the 19th Dynasty is a wooden mummy mask from the period 1295-1187 BC shown in Fig.19 [36]. It is manufactured from wood showing the man

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with a thin long beard and wearing a cap headdress of elaborated decorations of various colours. The main items in the decoration scheme are three large lotus blossoms suspended upside down from the first fillet just above the horizontal striations [36]. The decease face is wonderfully and accurately carved on wood as if it is produced by a CNC cutting machine. The fourth and last example from the 19th Dynasty is for a noble man manufactured from a painted wood in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.20 [37]. He is wearing a Nemes headdress of various decorations.

Fig.19 Mummy mask of a man from the 19th Dynasty [36].

Fig.20 Mummy mask of a lady from the 19th Dynasty [37].

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20th Dynasty: - We have two example of mummy masks of the 20th Dynasty. The first one is a wooden mask from the end of the dynasty from the collection of Charles Pankaw (USA) shown in Fig.21 [38]. - The second example is a mummy mask from the 19th Dynasty in display in the Fitzwilliam Museum at UK and shown in Fig.22 [39].

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Fig.21 Mummy mask of a man from the 20th Dynasty [38].

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VII.

Fig.22 Mummy mask of a lady from the 20th Dynasty [39].

THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

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The Third Intermediate Period covers the Dynasties from the 21st to the 25th over a time span from 1070 to 664 BC [40]. The development of mummy masks during this period is investigated through the following illustrations:

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21st Dynasty: - Fig.23 shows the mummy mask of Pharaoh Psusennes I, the 4th Pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo [41]. It is manufactured from solid gold (either by carving or casting .. more research is required in this aspect). The Pharaoh is displayed with long thin beard, Nemes headdress and large pectoral. - The second example from the 21st Dynasty is for Pharaoh Amenemope, the 5th Pharaoh of the dynasty. His mask is shown in Fig.24 which is manufactured from bronze inlaid by gold leaf [42]. Both Pharaohs Psusennes and Amenemope are wearing the Nemes headdress with more decoration schemes for Psusennes. He is displayed without beard and with small pectoral relative to that of Psusennes.

Fig.23 Mummy mask of Psusennes I from the 21st Dynasty [41].

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The third example of mummy masks in the 21st Dynasty is for a Queen displayed by the Virtual Egyptian Museum and shown in Fig.25 [43]. It is manufactured from a gilded cartonnage and extensively decorated by different scenes on her long Nemes headdress and extremely large pectoral. The fourth example is a mummy mask for General Wendjebauendjed, General and High Priest during the reign of Pharaoh Psussence I in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.26 [44]. It is manufactured from gold and has a wonderful clear appearance of this important high official man.

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Fig.24 Mummy mask of Amenemope from the 21st Dynasty [42].

Fig.25 Mummy mask of a Queen

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Fig.26 Mummy mask of Wendjebauendjed Page 147

from the 21st Dynasty [43].

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from the 21st Dynasty [44].

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22 Dynasty: - Fig.27 shows the gold funerary mask of Pharaoh Shoshenq II, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 22nd Dynasty (887-552 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo [45]. It is manufactured from thick gold sheet through hammering with glass paste for eyes and eyebrows with overall length of 260 mm [46]. - The second example of mummy masks in the 22nd Dynasty is wooden mummy mask from Early 22nd Dynasty (1075-716 BC) shown in Fig.28 [47]. The wood is carved to take the shape of the decease wearing a cap headdress.

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Fig.27 Mummy mask of Shoshenq II from the 22nd Dynasty [45].

Fig.28 Wooden mummy mask from the 21st Dynasty [47].

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25th Dynasty: - Fig.29 shows a wooden mummy mask from Late 25th Dynasty (750-600 BC) [48]. The decease is wearing a cap headdress with eyes and eyebrows outlined using a black paste. This mask has an overall length of 332 mm and was sold in sale 9438 at NY in December 2015 for 1.45 million US $ [48]. - The last example from Early 25th Dynasty is again a wooden mummy mask shown in Fig.30 [49]. The decease is wearing a cap headdress with horizontal bands. This mask was sold in 2013 for 52500 US $ [49].

Fig.29 Wooden mummy mask from the 25th Dynasty [48].

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Fig.30 Wooden mummy mask from Late 25th Dynasty [49]. Page 148

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VIII. LATE PERIOD The Late Period comprises the 26th to 31st Dynasties of ancient Egypt over a time span from 664 to 332 BC [50]. The development of the the mummy masks industry during this period will be investigated through the study of six masks as follows: - Fig.31 shows a wooden mummy mask from the 26th Dynasty of Egypt (664-525 BC) sold in a sale in NY for 36000 US $ [51]. Its overall length is 476 mm and its eyes and eyebrows are inlaid using bronze [51]. - The second example of mummy masks in the Late Period is a faience beaded mummy mask in display in Liverpool Museum of UK and shown in Fig.32 [52]. It is assembled from red, black, green and yellow beads and has an overall length of 285 mm. This is the first time for the ancient Egyptians to use faience beads in producing mummy masks. Much better faience beads mask from the same period is shown in Fig.33 [53]. It is manufactured from green, white and black beads producing a clear view for the decease face. - The third example is a golden mummy mask from the Late Period (712-332 BC) in display in the National Museum of Warsaw and shown in Fig.34 [54]. The gold leafs are supported by plaster on canvas and the overall length of the mask is 280 mm. The mask shows the decease wearing a Nemes headdress and a pectoral.

Fig.32 Faience beads mummy mask from Late Period [52].

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Fig.31 Wooden mummy mask from the 26th Dynasty [51].

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Fig.33 Faience beaded mummy mask From Late Period [53].

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Fig.34 Golden mummy mask from Late Period [54].

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The fourth example is a gilt cartonnage mummy mask with estimated sale price in 2014 of 1877 to 2500 US $ which is shown in Fig.35 [55]. The cartonnage is covered by gesso then decorated by gilding. The decease is shown wearing a Nemes headdress decorated by yellow thin strips. The overall length is 340 mm. The last example is a silver gilt mask from the 30th Dynasty (380-343 BC) in display in the Colouste Gulbenkian Museum at Lisbon, Portugal shown in Fig.36 [56]. The mask shows the decease wearing a Nemes headdress without any decorations.

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Fig.35 Gilt cartonnage mummy mask From Late Period [55].

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The evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the study of the mummy masks industry was investigated. The characteristics of the ancient Egyptian mummy masks were presented . Samples of the ancient Egypt mummy masks were presented from the collections of national and international museums and also through some of them sold in sales in USA and UK. The study covered ancient Egyptian historical periods from the Old Kingdom to the Late Period. The first use of mummy masks appeared during the Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt. Elaborated designs of mummy masks started to appear during the First Intermediate Period more than 4100 years ago. They used plaster in manufacturing mummy masks in the Old Kingdom. They used cartonnage in manufacturing mummy masks in the First Intermediate Period. They produced mummy masks representing male Egyptians with moustache and beard only during the Middle Kingdom. They continued to use cartonnage during the Middle Kingdom, Second Intermediate Period, New Kingdom and Late Period.

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CONCLUSIONS

Fig.34 Silver gilt mummy mask from Late Period [56].

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Mummy masks with pectorals were designed and produced starting from the First Intermediate Period and continued up to the Late Period. Gilded mummy masks with gold leafs started to appear from the 17th Dynasty onwards and continued up to the 22nd Dynasty. They used semi-precious stones in decorating some of their mummy masks. They used various materials in manufacturing their mummy masks such as: plaster, cartonnage, wood, gold, silver, bronze and faience. Wood mummy masks started in the 18th Dynasty and continued through the 19th, 20th, 22nd, 25th and 30th Dynasties. They used bronze in producing mummy masks during the 21st Dynasty. Mummy masks were designed with Cap and Nemes headdresses. They used faience beads during the Late Period to produce some of their mummy masks. They used silver gilt during the Late Period in the same time of using gold gilt.

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REFERENCES [1] R. Furlonger, “Masks and metamorphosis”, M. A. Thesis, Durham University, 1998. [2] K. Bard, "An introduction to the archaeology of ancient Egypt", Blackwell Publishing, 2007. [3] S. Pancaldov and G. Aboe, "Mummy masks: cartonnage conservation", Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, July 2010. [4] J. Fernandez, "Identity, death and faces: A special approach to the analysis of the Graeeco-Roman funerary masks from Rijksmuseum van Oudhene", Faculty of Humanity, University of Leiden, August 2014. [5] Wikipedia, "Tutankhamun mask", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tutankhamun%27s_mask , 2016. [6] Wikipedia, "Old Kingdom of Egypt", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Kingdom_of_Egypt , 2016. [7] Brooklyn Museum, "Mummy mask of a man", http://the-foundobject.com/publishedprojects.html , 2012 [8] Paul Getty Trust, "Egyptian plasters research", http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/newsletters/28_2/gcinews5.ht ml [9] Wikipedia, "First Intermediate Period of Egypt", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Intermediate_Period_of_Egypt , 2016. [10] Ancient Egypt, "Mummy mask of Herishef-Hotep", http://www.ancient-egyptpriests.com/AE-Life-english.htm. [11] M. Mohjeh, "Sedment, two mummy masks, First Intermediate Period", www.pinterest.com/pin/315040936416691674/ [12] Wikipedia, "Middle Kingdom of Egypt", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Kingdom_of_Egypt , 2016. [13] A. Bari, "Mummy mask of cartonnage of a prince of the 11th Dynasty", www.pinterest.com/pin/498914464950939668/ [14] M. Fernandez, "Cartonnage mummy mask of High Egyptian Official, Middle Kingdom", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/354799276864941276/ [15] Wikipedia, "Ancient Egyptian funerary practices", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egyptian_funerary_practices www.ijaetmas.com

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[16] Wikipedia, "Second Intermediate Period of Egypt", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Intermediate_Period_of_Egypt , 2016. [17] Wikipedia, "Satdjehuty", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satedjehuty , 2016. Culture [18] Culture Cristal, "Mummy mask of Satdjehuty", http://culturalinstitute.britishmuseum.org/asset-viewer/mummy-mask-ofsatdjehuty/CwGdSHemeVXzQA?hl=en [19] British Museum, "Mummy mask", http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx ?objectId=6415&partId=1 [20] Wikipedia, "New Kingdom of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_KIngdom_of_Egypt , 2016. [21] Virtual Egyptian Museum, "Mummy mask of a young woman, Dynasty 18", http://www.virtual-egyptian-museum.org/Collection/FullVisit/Collection.FullVisitJFR.html?../Content/PLA.VL.00559.html&0 [22] Getty Images, "A mummy mask of a man", http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/newsphoto/mummy-mask-of-a-man-wearing-an-elaborate-collar-and-a-heavy-newsphoto/152201692#mummy-mask-of-a-man-wearing-an-elaborate-collar-and-a-heavywig-with-picture-id152201692 [23] Metropolitan Museum, "Funerary mask of Hatnefer", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/545147 [24] J. Dose, "Ancient Egyptian funerary mask, incrusted wood", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/574912708663602556/ [25] M. Fernandez, "Funerary mask of Merit, wife of Kha", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/354799276867615650/ [26] Alamy, "Mask of Merit", Fernandez, "Funerary mask of Merit, wife of Kha", http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-italy-piedmont-turin-egyptian-museum-mask-ofmerit-18th-dynasty-1479-47577225.html [27] Flicker, "Merit's funerary mask", www.flickr.com/photos/amberinsea/9076446422 [28] Wikipedia, "Yuya", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuya , 2016. [29] Wikipedia, "Mummy mask of Yuya.jpg", https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mummy_mask_of_Yuya.jpg , 2016. [30] Wikipedia, "Tjuya", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tjuya , 2016. [31] M. Ferandez, "Burial mask of Tuya", www.pinterest.com/pin/354799276864879588/ [32] Wikipedia, "Tutankhamun's mask", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tutankdamun%27s_Mask , 2016. [33] History Embalmed, "King Tut mask", www.historyembalmed.org/tomb-of-king-tut/king-tutmask.htmhttps://www.ag.ndsu.edu/agnic/flax/textile%20ancient%20egypt.htm [34] Solarey, "Egyptian mummy mask for a Queen from the 19th Dynasty", http://solarey.net/egyptian-mummy-mask-of-a-queen/ [35] SCA Egypt, "Mask of Karnefernefer", www.scaegypt.org/eng/RST_005Kanefernefer.htm [36] Art from Ancient Land, "Egyptian painted wooden mummy mask", www.artfromancientlands.com/EgyptianMummyMaskX0333.html [37] A. Bari, "19th Dynasty ancient Egyptians wooden mummy mask", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/498914464951495230/ [38] C. Horsley, "A polychromed wood face mask", http://www.thecityreview.com/f04sant1.html www.ijaetmas.com

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BIOGRAPHY

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[39] L. Romano, "Face from a coffin", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/415105290636632434/ [40] Wikipedia, "Third Intermediate Period of Egypt", http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Intermediate_Period_of_Egypt , 2016. [41] Akhet Technology, "Psusennes", http://www.akhet.co.uk/klpsusen.htm [42] J. Dunn, "Funerary and other masks of ancient Egypt", www.touregypt.net/featurestories/masks.htm [43] Virtual Egyptian Museum, "Gilded mummy mask of a Queen", www.virtual-egyptian-museum.org/Collection/FullVisit/Collection.FullVisitJFR.html?../Content/PLA.XL.00638.html&0 [44] L. Podolsky, "Gold mummy mask of Wendjebauendjed", www.pinterest.com/pin/291678513343389865/ [45] M. Zyl, "Gold funerary mask of Shoshenq II", https://uk.pinterest.com/pin/404690716497915631/ [46] Global Egyptian Museum, "Funerary mask of Shoshenq the second", www.thecityreview.com/f15sant.html [47] M. Sufiya, "Egyptian wooden mummy mask", www.pinterest.com/pin/575053446146625889/ [48] The City Review, "Antiques, Sotheby's New York", www.thecityreview.com/f15sant.html , 2015. [49] Sothebys, "An Egyptian polychrome wood mummy mask", www.sothebys.com/en/auctions/ecatalogue/lot.16.html/2013/antiquities-n09056 , 2013. [50] Wikipedia, "Late Period of ancient Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Period_of_ancient_Egypt , 2016. [51] The City Review, "Antiques", http://www.thecityreview.com/f06sant.html [52] Global Egyptian Museum, "The head of a mummy, wearing a faience bead mask", www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/detail.aspx?id=3005 [53] Z. Batki, "Egyptian faience beaded mummy mask, Late Period", www.pinterest.com/pin/459930180674312857/ [54] Wikimedia, "Late Period mummy mask", https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Late_Period_Mummy_mask.jpg [55] The Sale Room, "Egyptian gilt cartonnage mummy mask, Late Period", https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-us/auction-catalogues/timeline-auctionslimited/catalogue-id-srtime10014/lot-78a791c6-6792-4d92-8a99-a431009de4f4 [56] Alamy, "Silver gilt mummy mask", www.alamy.com/stock-photo-silver-gilt-mummymask-late-period-ancient-egypt-c380-343-bc-artist-28346996.html

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Galal Ali Hassaan:  Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control.  Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974.  Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby.  Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.  Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering.  Published more than 190 research papers in international journals and conferences.  Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering.  Chief Justice of the International Journal of Computer Techniques.  Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including IJAETMAS.  Reviewer in some international journals.  Scholars interested in the author's publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Egypt Part XXXII II: Human Wooden Statues (New Kingdom and Late Period) Galal Ali Hassaan

Emeritus Professor Professor, Department of Mechanical design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt [email protected]

Index Terms— Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, wooden statues industry, New Kingdom, Late Period. Period

I. INTRODUCTION st

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II. WOODEN STATUES IN THE 18TH DYNASTY

The 18th Dynasty of ancient Egypt is one of the most wealthy Dynasties in the ancient history of Egypt and covers a time span from 1570 to 1293 BC [9]. ]. The evoluti evolution of the wooden statues industry during the 18th Dynasty is investigated through a number of examples presented as follows: - The first example of wooden statues in the 18th Dynasty is for Lady Nay (1550-1295 1295 BC) in display in Louvre Museum at Paris and shown in Fig.1 [[10]. It is manufactured from gilded wood and shows the lady wearing a full Tunic, a decorated headdress and a wide pectoral on her chest. She is holding a bundle of flowers in her left hand as clear in the zoomed image.

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This is the 31 researchh paper in a series aiming at exploring the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the different activities of their wonderful civilization. The ancient Egyptians used different materials for the production of their human statues such as wood, ivory, clay, pottery, faience, brass, bronze and stone. This paper concentrates only on wooden statues over the ancient history of Egypt from Predynastic to the 13th Dynasty of the Second Intermediate Period. Dunham (1958) presented a series of lectures on the history of the Egyptian Department and the excavations in Egypt of the Harvard-Boston Boston Expedition given in the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston. He presented some wooden statues from the 18th Dynasty [1]. Smith (1960 1960) wrote a book about ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts covering a time span from Predynastic to Late Periods. He presented sculpture figures from mud, clay, ivory and pottery from the Predynastic Period. He presented a wooden dwarf from the New Kingdom [2].. Harvey (1991/1992) reassessed a wooden statue in the Walters Art Gallery and assigned it to the Middle Kingdom instead of the New Kingdom. Her work was based on comparisons with similar statues in other collections [3]. Smythe (2008) presented a work published by the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiques about 25 years of cooperation between Egyptians and Australians in the field of Egyptology. Among his coloured presentations was a painted wood statue for Ptah-Osiris with 330 mm length from the 26th Dynasty of the Late Period [4].

Harvey (2009) stated that wood was a widely used material for sculpture in ancient Egypt from the earliest times. She presented wooden statues for guardian statue from tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of the 18th Dynasty, head of Queen Tiye from the 18th Dynasty and two statues for Isis and Nephthys from the Late Period [5]. El--Sherbiny (2015) in her M. Sc. Thesis established a dendrockronological record for ancient Egypt through the analysis of ancient Egyptian artefacts identifying the main types of wood resources with the highest dendrockronological potential for ancient Egypt Periods. Among the wooden artefacts she studied was the statue of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of the 18th Dynasty [6]. Hassaan (2016) in his investigation vestigation of men clothing in ancient Egypt during the New Kingdom and Late Period presented the wooden statue of architect Kha of the 18th Dynasty [7]. Hassaan (2016) investigated the evolution of the wooden statues industry during the time span from the Predynastic to the 13th Dynasty of ancient Egypt [8].

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Abstract— The evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt is investigated through the wooden statues industry during the 18th Dynasty and Late Period eriod of ancient Egypt. Examples of wooden statues from the 18th, 19th and 20th Dynasties besides some examples from the Late Period are presented and analyzed. Materials, location and features are traced. The capability of ancient Egyptians in producing wooden statues with elaborated characteristics is highlighted. highlighted

Fig.1 Wooden statue of Ladi Nay from the 18th Dynasty [1 [10]. -

The second example is for Tuya (or Thuya), The Priestess and mother of Queen Tiye during the reign

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his dress.

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of Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1391-1353 (1391 BC) in display in the Louvre Museum and shown in i Fig.2 [11]. It is of the rectangular prism type design with too-many many decorations. The sarcophagus takes the form of an ancient Egyptian shrine in three colors. It is of the same design school of that of Ladi Nay in Fig.1, except the headdress is much elaborated through its pattern and she is holding (may be) one of the ancient Egyptian symbols in her left hand as clear from the zoomed image in Fig.2.

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Fig.4 Wooden statue of Priest Amenhotep [13].

Fig.2 Wooden statue of Tuya [11]

The third example is a wooden statue for Lady Tuty from the 18th Dynasty (1390-1352 1352 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum at NY and shown in Fig.3 [12]. It is manufactured from wood and gold leaf, showing the lady wearing a full tunic, elaborated headdress, perfume cone on hear headdress, two gold discs decorating her headdress. She is not holding anything in her left hand set on her waist. waist

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The fifth example is a wooden torso statue for Pharaoh Tutankhamun amun (1332 (1332-1322 BC) in display in the Field Museum of National History at Chicago and shown in Fig.5 [14]. The Pharaoh is shown wearing the blue crown while his body is necked. The length of the torso is 735 mm.

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Fig.3 Statue of Lady Tuty from the 18th Dynasty[12].

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The last example of wooden statues in the 18th Dynasty is again for Pharaoh Tutankhamun in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.5 [15]. It is manufactured from gilded wood and shown the Pharaoh standing, wearing the Red Crown, holding a long stick in his left hand and a short squaree stick in his right hand.

The fourth example is for the High Priest Amenhotep during the reign of Pharaoh Hatshepsut (1479-1458 BC) in display in the Pus Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts at Moscow and shown in Fig.4 [13]. This is a wonderful design and wood carving showing the Priest with an image as if it is taken by a modern digital camera. He is wearing a Corselet with necked head with inscriptions on the front of

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Fig.5 Wooden Torso of Tutank Tutankhamun [14].

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Fig.8 Wooden statue of Vizier Neferrenpet [18].

III. WOODEN STATUES IN THE 19TH DYNASTY

The third and last example of wooden statues in the 19th Dynasty of Egypt is for Kha Khaemtore from Thebes (1255-1214 1214 BC) in display in the RMO Museum at Leiden and shown in Fig.9 [19]. 19]. It is very similar to that of Neferrenpet in Fig.8 except he is holding a thick stick with a ram head at his left side.

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The 19th Dynasty covers a time span from 1292 to 1187 BC [16] . The development of wooden statues during this dynasty is investigated through the following three examples: - Fig.7 shows a wooden standing statue for Pharaoh Ramses I (1318 BC) in display in the British Museum [17]. It is manufactured from limestone, one, decorated by carved scenes for the Queen. The carver shows the Pharaoh wearing a short Schenti, Nemes and holding a stick in his left hand.

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Fig.6 Wooden statue of Tutankhamun [15].

Fig.7 Wooden statue of Ramses I [17].

IV. WOODEN STATUES IN THE 20TH DYNASTY The 20th Dynasty of ancient Egypt covers a time span from 1187-1064 BC [20]. We have two examples of wooden statues from the 20th Dynast Dynasty presented as follows: - Fig.10 shows a wooden statue from the tomb of Pharaoh Ramses IX (1126-1108 1108 BC) in display in the British sh Museum and shown in Fig.10 [21]. It shows the Pharaoh wearing a short Schenti and a Nemes headdress.

The second example from the 19th Dynasty is for Neferrenpet, the Vizier and High Priest from the reign of Pharaohs Ramses II to Seti II in display in the Louvre Museum and shown in Fig.8 [18]. It shown the Vizier wearing a patterned Nemes and has wide eyes and thin nose. He seems looking far away to the future of Egypt.

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Fig.9 Wooden statue of Khaemtore [19].

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Fig.10 Wooden statue from the tomb of Ramses IX [21].

Fig.12 Ka wooden statue from the 26th Dynasty [24].

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The second example is a Ptah Ptah-Seter-Osiris statue from the Late Period (664-342 342 BC) manufactured from stuccoed,, painted wood and gilded face from the collection of Bruno Wectz and shown in Fig.13 [25]. It has a design similar to that in Fig.12 except the decorations of the dress are completely different.

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The second and last example of wooden statues in the 20th Dynasty is for Osiris in the form of a standing man from Thebes (1170 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.11 [22]. The carver shows Osiris wearing the White Crown of Egypt, full sleeved dress, pectoral and holding his two hands. hands

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Fig.11 Wooden Osiris statue from the 20th Dynasty [22].

V. WOODEN STATUES IN THE LATE PERIOD

Fig.13 Ptah-Seter-Osiris Osiris statue from the Late Period [25].

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The third and last example of wooden statues in the Late Period of ancient Egypt belongs to a female harpist (664-332 332 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.14 [26] . This is a wonderful piece representing the top technology ogy in wood carving in ancient Egypt because of its difficult details details. The harpist is wearing a modified Tunic, Khat headdress, playing on the harp using both hands. The beauty of the woman is one of the features of the statue statue.

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The Late Period includes from the 226th to the 31st Dynasties of ancient Egypt over a time span from 664 to 332 BC [23]. The wooden statues industry during this period is investigated through three examples from the Period 664 to 332 BC: - The first example is a wooden statue known as Ka statue from the 26th Dynasty (664-525 525 BC) from the collection of Vicomtesse Dalton , displayed by the Virtual Egyptian Museum and shown in Fig.12 Fig.1 [24]. It shows a man in the shape of a mummy with his hands under his fully covering cloth, wearing a long Nemes headdress, longg thin beard and his dress is fully decorated.

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Thesis, The Graduate College, The University of Arizona Arizona, 2015. [7] G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXI: Men clothing (New Kingdom to Late Period) Period)", International Journal of Engineering and Techniques Techniques, vol.2, issue 4, pp.36-45, 2016. [8] G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXXI: Human wooden statues (Predynastic Predynastic to 13th Dynasty)", World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, (Under Publication), 2016. [9] Wikipedia, "Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt Egypt", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighteenth_Dynasty_of_Egypt , 2016. [10] Wikipedia, "Sarcophagus Sarcophagus of Kaiemnofret Kaiemnofret" , https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Private_Tombs ommons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Private_Tombs _at_Giza#/media/File:Sarcophagus_of_Kaiemnofret.jpghttps:// commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Private_Tombs_at_Gi za#/media/File:Sarcophagus_of_Kaiemnofret.jpg [11] K. Ekatherine, "Wooden statue of Tuya (Thuya)" , https://www.pinterest.com/pin/318489004881622484/

VI. CONCLUSION The evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt was investigated through the study of the wooden statues industry during the New Kingdom and Late Period of ancient Egypt. Wooden statues for full-dressed dressed ladies were carved during the 18th Dynasty with elaborated headdress and continued up to the 26th Dynasty of the Late Period. They designed wooden statues for men with Khat, Red Crown and Nemes through the New Kingdom. Kingdom The produced men statues with Schenti, Corselet and full-dress dress during the New Kingdom. Kingdom Elaborated wooden statues designs appeared during the Late Period of ancient Egypt. Statues with naked head continued to appear in the 18th Dynasty. The ancient Egyptians produced wooden statues for some of their Gods during the 20th Dynasty and Late Period. They produced wooden statues with elaborated decorations during the 18th Dynasty, 20th Dynasty and Late Period.

[13] R. Gort, "Statuettes of the High Priest Amenhotep, 18th Dynasty ", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/535787686903385677/ [14] U. Cristen,, "Painted wood torso of Tutankhamun", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/525091637780826586/ https://www.pinterest.com/pin/525091637780826586/. [15] Art Scope, "Tutankhamun and the golden age of the pharaohs", http://www.artscope.net/VAREVIEWS/tutankhamun1106.sht ml [16] Wikipedia, "Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt", Egypt https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nineteenth_Dynasty_of_Eg https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nineteenth_Dynasty_of_Egypt , 2016. [17] British Museum, "Wooden standing figure of Ramses I", http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/colle ction_object_details.aspx?objectId=111456&partId=1 [18] A. Bari, "Wood statue of Neferrenpet", www.pinterest.com/pin/498914464951619307/ [19] B. Lewis, "Khaemtore, Thebes 1255 BC", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/341358846727277727/ [20] Wikipedia, "Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt Egypt", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twentieth_Dynasty_of_Egypt wentieth_Dynasty_of_Egypt , 2016. [21] Google, "Wood statue from the tomb of Ramses IX", https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/wooden https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/beta/asset/wooden-st atue-from-the-tomb-of-ramesses-ix/1gFcKd0JdARmtw?hl=en ix/1gFcKd0JdARmtw?hl=en &ms=%7B%22x%22%3A0.5%2C%2 &ms=%7B%22x%22%3A0.5%2C%22y%22%3A0.5%2C%22 z%22%3A8.0554603050274%2C%22size%22%3A%7B%22 width%22%3A4.636163067205755%2C%22height%22%3A1. 237501554662304%7D%7D [22] E. Hunsaker, "Wooden statue of Osiris, 20th Dynasty", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/461900505509039179/ ://www.pinterest.com/pin/461900505509039179/ [23] Wikipedia, "Late Period of Egypt",, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Period_of_Egypt , 2016. [24] Virtual Egyptian Museum, " Large wooden Ka statue, Dynasty 26", http://www.virtual-egyptian-museum.org/Collection/FullVisit/ museum.org/Collection/FullVisit/ Collection.FullVisit-JFR.html?../Content/WOD.VL.00657.htm JFR.html?../Content/WOD.VL.00657.htm l&0 [25] Sales Room, "Ptah-Seker-Osiris Osiris statue", https://www.the-saleroom.com/en-gb/auction gb/auction-catalogues/isa-au ctionata-auktionen-ag/catalogue-id--srauctionat10008/lot-92f1b 280-acd4-431f-980b-a40100d384ee a40100d384ee [26] D. Vanick, "Ancient Egyptian painted ainted wooden figure of a female harpist", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/403564816591212793/

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Fig.14 Wooden statue of a harpist from the Late Period [26].

[12] Brooklyn Museum, "Standing statuette of Lady Tuty" , https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/3607 w.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/3607

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REFERENCES [1]

[2]

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[3]

D. Dunham, "The The Egyptian Department and its excavations", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1958. W. Smith, "Ancient Ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Boston 1960. J. Harvey, “A A Late Middle Kingdom wooden statue from Assiut in the Walters Art Gallery", The Journal of The Walters Art Gallery, vol.49/50, pp.1-6, 1991/1992. J. Smythe (Editor), "Catalogue Catalogue of the special exhibition in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo", Supreme Council of Antiques, Egypt, 2008. J. Harvey, "Wooden statuary", UCLA Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia November, 2009. H. El-Shebiny, "Studies in Dendro-Egyptology: Egyptology: The laboratory of Tree-ring ring research Egyptian wooden collection collection", M.Sc.

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[4]

[5] [6]

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Galal Ali Hassaan: • Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. • Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. • Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. • Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. • Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. • Published more than 200 research papers in international journals and conferences. • Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. • Chief Justice of the International Journal of Computer Techniques. • Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including IJARMATE. • Reviewer in some international journals. • Scholars interested in the author's publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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BIOGRAPHY

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume30 December 2016

Galal Ali Hassaan

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XXXIII: Stone Statues Industry (Predynastic to Old Kingdom)

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Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

from Middle 12th Dynasty, red granite statue of King Sebek-hetep III from the 13th Dynasty, black granite statue of Herald of Thebes Sebek-en-sau-ef from the 13th Dynasty and dark granite statue of Sebek-hetep VIII from 13th Dynasty [1]. Steindorff (1951studied and analysed a royal head from ancient Egypt carved from diorite and belonged to the 6th Dynasty [2]. Smith (1960) Smith (1960) wrote a book about ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston. Among his presentations a head of a Prince from the Old Kingdom and a head for his wife, a head for Treasurer Nofer from the 4th Dynasty, painted limestone bust of Prince Ankh-haf of the 4th Dynasty alabaster face of King Khafre from the 4 th Dynasty, group statue of King Mankaure and his Queen, alabaster statue of King Mankaure, Statue of Khuner son of Mankaure as a scribe and other statues from the 5th and 12th Dynasties [3]. Andelkovic and Fischer (1975) discussed the objects hold in the fisted hands of male ancient Egyptians statues. He presented the case of Msi and Snnw pair statue and statue of Mmi-Sibw and his wife [4] Roth (2002) in her study about servant statues in Old Kingdom serdabs presented some statues for a serving statue from Giza mastaba 2088, double serving statue for two women from the same mastaba and an inscribed serving statue from tomb of Nikauhathor and her husband at Giza [5]. Teeter (2003) wrote a book about treasures from the collection of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. She presented selections from the Early Dynastic, Old Kingdom, First Intermediate Period, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom, Third Intermediate Period, Late Period and Ptolemaic and Roman Periods. Among her presentations : a granite statue from 4th/5th Dynasties, statue for Nucau-inpu and his wife from the Old Kingdom, two statues for a male and female harpist from the Old Kingdom and Statue of Men-Khafet-Ka and his wife from the 5th Dynasty [6]. Bard (2007) wrote a book about the archaeology of ancient Egypt starting from the Predynastic Period up to GrecoRoman Period. Among her presentations was the statue of Rahotep and Nefert from the 4th Dynasty,

ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to

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investigate the development of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the production of stone statues. This study covers the

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design and manufacturing of stone statues from the Predynastic Period (Naqada II) to the end of the Old Kingdom showing the type and characteristics of each statue. The decoration, inscriptions and beauty aspects of each statue were highlighted. Keywords –Mechanical

engineering history, stone statues, Predynastic to Old Kingdom Periods.

I.

INTRODUCTION

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Ancient Egyptians pioneered and mastered cutting and shaping stone for building their tombs, temples, pyramids and manufacturing products including different sized stone statues. The stone statues of the ancient Egyptians fill now almost all the National and International Museums around the World. Some of the National Museums in Europe called themselves 'The Egyptian Museum' such as the Egyptian Museum at Turin of Italy and the Egyptian Museum at Berlin. Such museums house a lot of stone statues of the ancient Egyptians. Aldred (1950) wrote a book about the Middle Kingdom art in ancient Egypt. She presented the alabaster statue of Chanceller Mesehti from Late First Intermediate Period, limestone statue of Steward Merl from the 11th Dynasty, sandstone statue of King Menthu-Hetep from the 11th Dynasty, limestone statue of King Senusret I from Early 12th Dynasty, limestone head of King Mentuhetep II, red granite statue of King Amenem-het I from Early 12th Dynasty, basalt turso of King Senusret I, block granite statue of Lady Sennuy from Early 12th Dynasty, dark grey granite statue of King Senusret I, dark granite statue of Steward of Lower Egypt Khti from Middle 12 th Dynasty, black basalt statue of Ameny from Late 12th Dynasty, dark granite statue of Treasurer Hetep from Middle 12th Dynasty, limestone statue of Treasurer SI-Hator from Middle 12th Dynasty, black and grey granite statue of King Senusret II

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 December2016 statue of King Mankure and his Queen from the 4 th Dynasty, limestone bust of Prince Ankh-haf from the 4th Dynasty and statue of King Mentuhotep II from the 11th Dynasty [7]. Tassie (2008) in her Ph.D. study about social and ritual contextualisation of ancient Egypt hair and hairstyles presented a statue for Lady Meretites, the Overseer of the hairdressing and her son Khenu and the statue of Ty from the 5th Dynasty, statue of Redjit from the 2nd Dynasty, limestone head of a King from Early Dynastic, limestone statue of Nesa and Sepa from the 3rd Dynasty and statue of Netjerikhet in the step pyramid comple from the 3 rd [8] Lancie (2010) in a research article about ancient Egyptian religion and art presented a diorite statue for King Khafre and greywacke statue of King Menkaure and his Queen from the 4th Dynasty [9]. Brooklyn Museum (2011) in an article about Egyptian treasures from the Brooklyn Museum presented the limestone statue of the Granary Irukapth from the 5th Dynasty [10]. Flentye (2015) established the interrelationships between 4th Dynasty royal and non-royal statuary from the Giza Necropolis. The author discussed how royal statuary influenced the elite programs in the Western and Eastern cemeteries at Giza [11]. Wikipedia (2016) wrote an article about block statue emerged in the Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt and continued to be produced up to the Late Period. As examples they presented block statues of official Senwosret from the 12th Dynasty [12].

The second example is a basalt statue from Naqada II (3250 BC) in display in the Ashmolean Museom st Oxford and shown in Fig.2 [15]. The statue has an overall height of 390 mm and is carved from basalt and shows the man standing. The statue shows the man standing, cutting his hair and wearing a veil of a triangular shape on his neck and down to his waist. The elements of the face are carved professionally even it is a hard rock, but Egyptians could carve it more than 5260 years ago.

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Fig.1 Limestone figurine from Naqada II [14].

PREDYNASTIC PERIOD

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The predynastic period is that before the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt, i.e. before 3100 BC [13]. There are two examples of stone statues during this period: - The first example is a limestone figurine from Naqada II (3500-3200 BC) in display in the British Museum shown in Fig.1 [14]. Most probably this is a statue for a woman with cut hair as clear in the zoomed view in Fig.1.

Fig.2 Statue of a man from Naqada II [15]. The third example is a limestone figurine for a seated woman from Late Naqada II (3450-3300 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown in Fig.3 [16]. It has a 198 mm height and was decorated by woman hair and some paintings on her body. The proportions of the body are not logical and face elements were not professionally carved.

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Fig.3 Limestone statue from Late Naqada II [16]. 6 www.ijresonline.com

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 December2016 of Upper Egypt. This may be the first time for a III. EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD King appearing with the White Crown. - The third example from this period is a The Early Dynastic Period of ancient Egypt covers st nd granite statue for Priest Redjit from the 2nd the 1 and 2 Dynasties over a time span from Dynasty in display in the Egyptian 3100 to 2686 BC [17]. We have four examples of Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.6 [20]. stone statues defining the development of stone The designer showed the Priest putting his statues in ancient Egypt during its first and second two palms on his knees. He is wearing a Dynasties: Khat headdress, This may be the first time - The first example is a small lapis lazuli the ancient Egyptians used the hard rock statue carved during the 1st Dynasty (2900 granite to produced some of their statues. BC) and shown in Fig.4 [18]. There is a confusion about the gender of this statue. Is it a man or a woman ? .. The zoomed image in Fig.4 illustrates this confusion. The head says it is a man wearing a decorated cap, while the bust says it is for a woman. He/she is putting his/her right hand on the left hand on the chest as Muslims do in their prayer.

Fig.6 Granite statue of Redjit from 2 nd Dynasty [20].

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Fig.4 Lapis lazuli statue from the 1 Dynasty [18].

The second example is a statue for King Khasekhmwy, the last King of the 2nd Dynasty (died 2686 BC) in display in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford and shown in Fig.5 [19].

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Fig.5 King Khasekhmwy statue from the 2nd Dynasty [19]. The King is wearing a cloak and the White Crown

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OLD KINGDOM

The Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt covers from the 3rd Dynasty to the 6th Dynasty over the time span from 2686 to 2181 BC [21]. We have good examples of stone statues produced during this period detailed as follows: 3rd Dynasty: - Fig.7 shows a limestone statue for King Djoser, first King of the 3rd Dynasty (2670 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo[22]. The King is wearing a fulldress and a Nemes headdress. He is setting and putting his right hand on his chest and his left hand on his left leg. The carver showd the King with a thin long beard as clear in the zoomed image in Fig.7.

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The second example is from near the End of the 3rd Dynasty and the Early 4th Dynasty. It is a lime stone for Prince Rahotep and his wife Nofret in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.8 [23]. This is one the most wonderful stone statues generated in this early stage. The prince had a small hair, moustache and small beard. He is wearing

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Fig.9 Limestone scribe statue from the 4th Dynasty [24]. The second example is a limestone group statue for Priest Neferherenptah (25892566 BC) and his family in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fif.10 [25]. The statue designer showed the Priest striding, his wife setting and his children setting. The priest and his sum are wearing a Khat headdress, short Schenti and a pectoral. His wife and daughter are wearing a long Tunic, and the wife is also wearing a pectoral. The limestone was painted bu a number of colors including brown, yellow and black.

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 December2016 a short white Schenti and a necklace. His wife Nofret was shown with her normal hair with a colored diadem on it, wearing a long Tunic and a colored pectoral. Both statues shows the details of the face in a very accurate manner as it is taken by a digital camera of nowadays.

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Fig.7 Limestone statue of King Djoser [22].

Fig.10 Limestone statue of Neferherenptah from the 4th Dynasty [25].

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Fig.8 Limestone statue of Rahotep & Nofret [23].

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4th Dynasty: - The first example from the 4th Dynasty is a limestone statue for a seated scribe found in Saqqara of Egypt, in display in the Louvre Museum and shown in Fig.5 [24]. It shows the scribe wearing a short Schenti, putting his two hands on his legs in a position ready for writing. The zoomed image of the scribe shows him with his normal short hair and a serious facial pose.

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The third example from the 4th Dynasty is a pair limestone statue for Memi and Sabu (2570-2465 BC) from the 4th Dynasty in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.11 [26]. Memi is wearing a short Schenti and a Khat headdress while his wife Sabu is wearing a long Tunic and has a normal hair. The statue shows them in a sentimental position with her right hand holding his waist.

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 December2016

The fourth example is a red-quartzite head for King Djedefre, the 3rd King of the 4th Dynasty (2566-2558 BC) in display in the Louvre Museum and shown in Fig.12 [27]. The quartzite is a hard and tough stone [28]. Even though, the ancient Egyptians from more than 4560 years could carve it with the King face details shown in Fig.12 and even his Nemes headdress which ha a comples shape and a lot of curved surfaces.

Fig.13 Diorite statue of King Khafre from the 4th Dynasty [29].

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The sixth example is a limestone statue for Prince Ankhhat, Vizier and Overseer of Works for King Khafre (2558-2532 BC) in display in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and shown in Fig.14 [31]. The Prince is shown necked with his hair cut. The limestone is painted to simulate the body of the Prince.

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Fig.11 Limestone statue of Memi and Sabu from the 4th Dynasty [26].

Fig.15 Limestone statue of Prince Aukhhaf from the 4th Dynasty [31].

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Fig.12 Quartzite head of King Djedefre from the 4th Dynasty [27]. The fifth example is a diorite statue for King Khafre, the 4th King of the 4th Dynasty in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.13 [29]. The designer shows the King setting on a chair wearing a short Schenti and a Nemes headdress and putting his hands on his legs. The statue overall height is 1.675 m. The ancient Egyptians could carve it from diorite even though diorite is an extremely hard stone and difficult to carve [30].

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The seventh example is a green-schist statue for King Mankaure, the 6th King of the 4th Dynasty (2548-2532 BC) with Hator and Cyropolite in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.16 [32]. The King is wearing a short Schenti and the White Crown of Upper Egypt. Hator and Cyropolite are wearing a long Tunic and their crowns.

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 December2016 shows the King wearing a short Schenti with front tail and belt, wearing the Nemes headdress and having a thing long beard. His wife is wearing a long Tunic, holding the King waist by her right hand and putting her left hand on his left hand in a very indicative sympathetic position

Fig.16 Schist statue of King Mankaure, Hator and Cyropolite from the 4th Dynasty [32]. The eighth example is an alabaster statue for King Menkaure, the 6th King of the 4th Dynasty (2532-2503 BC) in display in the Museum of Fine Art at Boston and shown in Fig.17 [33]. The overall height of the statue is 2.53 m The carver showed the King setting , wearing a short Schenti, a Nemes headdress, his two hands are on his legs and holding an object in his right hand. The face shows the King as a serious man with thin long beard.

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Fig.18 Greywacke statue of King Mankaure and his Queen from the 4th Dynasty [33].

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5th Dynasty: - The first example of stone statues produced in the 4th Dynasty of ancient Egypt is for King Userkaf, the founder of the 5th Dynasty (2494-2487 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.19 [34]. It is carved from the hard stone greywacke and then polished. The King is wearing the modius crown.

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Fig.17 Alabaster statue of King Mankaure from the 4th Dynasty [33].

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The last example from the 4th Dynasty is again for King Menkaure and his Queen. The statue is carved from the hard stone 'greywacke' in display in the Museum of Fine Arts and shown in Fig.18 [34]. It has an overall height of 1.3843 m. The statue

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Fig.19 Greywacke statue of King Userkaf from the 5th Dynasty [34]. The second example is a limestone statue for a Scribe (2491-2345 BC) located in the

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 December2016 Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Arts at Boston and shown in Fig.22 [37]. Fig.20 [35]. The statue shows the Scribe The carver showed them playing music setting and wearing a short Schenti, Khat and wearing a short Schenti and a small headdress, pectoral and holding the cap headdress. Their pose of the face writing paper on his legs. The statue was depicts the emotion of the musician when carved in a very professional way showing playing music. the details of the Scribe face and his headdress as if it was taken by a digital camera not carved. They were the ancient Egyptian artists.

Fig.22 Limestone statue of 2 Musicians from the 5 th Dynasty [37].

The third example is a Gneiss statue for King Sahure, the 2nd King of the 5th Dynasty in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.21 [36]. The King is setting, putting his hands on his legs, wearing a Schenti and holding an object in his right hand. He has a thin long beard wearing a decorated Nemes headdress. Even though gneiss is one of the hardest stones, the Egyptian artist could carve it and produce the utmost quality and accuracy shown in Fig.21.

The fifth example is a limestone pair statue of Ptahkhenuwy and his wife (24652323 BC) in display in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and shown in Fig.23 [38]. The statue shows Ptahkhenuwy and his wife standing in a very sympathetic position. He is wearing a short Schenti , Khat headdress and a pectoral. His wife is wearing a long Tunic, pectoral and bracelet.

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Fig.20 Limestone statue of a Scribe from the 5th Dynasty [35].

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Fig.23 Limestone statue of Ptahkhenuwy and his wife from the 5th Dynasty [38]. - The sixth example is a limestone group statue of Penmeru (2465-2323 BC) in display in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and shown in Fig.24 [39]. The

Fig.21 Gneiss statue of King Sahure from the 5th Dynasty [36]. The fourth example is a limestone statue for a Musician from the 5th Dynasty (2477 BC) in display in the Museum of Fine 11

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 December2016 statue shows Penmeru (in the middle) and in the right side wearing a short Schentim a Khat headdress and (may be) holding an object in his hands. His wife is shown in a sympathetic position putting her right hand arount her husband waiste and her left hand extended vertically. She is wearing a long Tunic with her normal hair. The statue shows their children (boy and girl) standing beside their legs. The frame in which the statues are located is inscribed inside a band-frame.

Fig.25 Limestone statue of Nykara from Late 5th Dynasty [40]. The eighth example is a limestone pair statue of Nenkheftka and his wife (2350 BC) in display in the Walters Art Museum at Baltimore and shown in Fig.26 [42]. The carver shoed Nenkheftka wearing a decorated Schenti with a belt and a decorated Khat headdress as cleared in the zoomed view in the same figure. His wife is wearing a long Tunic and a headdress as clear in her zoomed image. The overall height is 545 mm [43].

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The seventh example is a limestone statue Nykara and his family from Late 5th Dynasty (2455-2350 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum at NY and shown in Fig.25 [40]. The designer showed Nykara setting on a chair, his wife standing at his left and his daughter standing at his right side. He is wearing a short Schenti and a decorated Khat headdress. His wife is wearing a long Tunic and a decorated headdress as clear from the view of her head shown in Fig.25 [41]. His daughter is completely necked.

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Fig.24 Limestone group statue of Penmeru from the 5th Dynasty [39].

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Fig.26 Pair statue of Nenkheftka from Late 5th Dynasty [42]. 6th Dynasty: - The first example is a limestone pair statue for Raherka (Inspector of Scribes) and his wife (2350 BC) very close to the beginning of the 6th Dynasty in display in the Louvre Museum and shown in Fig.27 [43]. The designer showed Raherks wearing a short decorated Schenti with 12

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 December2016 belt, a Khat headdress and holding a cylindrical bar in each palm. His wife is wearing a long Tunic with her normal hair and in a very sympathetic position with her husband (holding his waist with her right and left hands and her body is almost 50 % behind his body.

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Fig.28 Statue of King Teti from the 6th Dynasty [44].

Fig.27 Raherka and his wife 2350 BC [43].

Fig.29 Statue of King Pepi I from the 6th Dynasty [45]. - The fourth example is a limestone head for Nekheby (2323-2150 BC) in display in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and shown in Fig.30 [46]. He is shown wearing a decorated Khat headdress and his face elements are well carved showing all the details even a light moustache.

The third example is an alabaster statue for King Pepi I, the 3rd King of the 6th Dynasty (2331-2287 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum and shown in Fig.29 [45]. The designer showed the King setting on a tall-back chair with Horus standing on the the top edge of the chair. The King is putting his hands on his chest, holding two objects in his palms and wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt.

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The second example is a granite statue for King Teti, the founder of the 6th Dynasty (2345-2333 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.28 [44]. The designer showed the King standing, wearing a short Schenti with belt and a front tail and the White Crown of Upper Egypt. He presented carefully the strong body of the King.

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Fig.30 Limestone head of Nekhebu from the 6 th Dynasty [46]. 13 www.ijresonline.com

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 December2016 The fifth example is a kneeling statue from the reign of King Pepi II, the 5 th King of the 6th Dynasty (2278-2184 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.31 [47]. He is wearing a short Schenti and a Khat headdress and looking sharply to the future history of Egypt.

Fig.33 Statue of Nefer-Hetepes from the 6th Dynasty [49]

Fig.31 Kneeling statue from the 6th Dynasty [47].

The sixth example is a limestone statue for a servant grinding corn (2200 BC) in display in the Kunsthistorsches Museum at Vienna, Austria and shown in Fig.32 [48]. This one of the difficult statues to carve because of the too many details due to the position taken by the servant. However, because limestone is a soft stone it was easy for the ancient Egyptian carver to generate it with its too many details.

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The seventh example is limestone statue for Nefer-hekepes in display in the Pelizaeus Museum at Hildesheim, Germany and shown in Fig.33 [49]. The designer showed her wearing a white sleeveless Tunic with a long V-cut on her chest, a pectoral and a headdress as clear in the zoomed image in Fig.33..

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Fig.34 Statue of Path-Shepse from the 6th Dynasty [50]

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Fig.32 Statue of a servant from the 6th Dynasty [48].

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The eighth example is for Scribe PathShepse from the 6th Dynasty shown in Fig.34 [50]. He is taking the standard position of Scribes, wearing a short Schenti and a Khat headdress with serious pose as clear from his zoomed view. A lot of data are missing, definitely because its un-legal existence in some hands through artifacts robbery.

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CONCLUSION This paper investigated the evolution of Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt during the Predynastic to Old Kingdom periods through the design and production of stone statues. Ancient Egyptians produced limestone and basalt statues since the age of Naqada II. During the Early Dynastic Period the produced stone statues using lapis lazuli (1st Dynasty) and granite (2nd Dynasty). Stone statues for men with Cap and Khat headdress started to appear during the 1 st Dynasty.

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REFERENCES

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 December2016 London, January 2008. Stone statues with White Crown of Upper [9] D. Lancie, Death is not the end: Ancient Egyptian religion Egypt started to appear from the 2nd and art, Dynasty. www.writing.ucsb.edu/sites/secure.lsit.../2010_De%20Lan Stone statues with the Nemes headdress cie.pdf , 2010. [10] Brooklyn Museum, To live forever: Egyptian treasures started to appear from the 3rd Dynasty. from the Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn Museum, NY, Setting stone statues for Scribes started to 2011. th appear in the 4 Dynasty. [11] L. Flentye, Royal and non-royal statues of the fourth Pair and group stone statues started to dynasty from the Giza Necropolis, in a conference on 'Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2015', Prague, 22-26 June appear in the End of the 3rd Dynasty. 2015. The ancient Egyptians succeeded to use [12] Wikipedia, Block statue, stones with different levels of hardness: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_statue , 2016. [13] Wikipedia, Prehistoric Egypt, They used low hardness stone such as https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_Egypt , 2016. alabaster. [14] B. Demarsin, Limestone figurine: Naqada II, They used medium hardness stones such as https://www.pinterest.com/pin/526499012667047909/ schist and limestone. [15] Alamy, Statuette as 'MacGregor man', http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-statuette-known-asThey used high hardness stones such as macgregor-man-after-the-rev-60318449.html granite, diorite, greywacke and gneiss. [16] Metropolitan Museum, Figuring of a seated woman, They painted limestone producing colored www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/547202 statues simulating the human body. [17] Wikipedia, Early Dynastic Period (Egypt), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Dynastic_Period_(Egy The stone statues of the ancient Egyptians pt) , 2016. showed their men wearing short Schentis , [18] M. Marzena, Figurka kobiety: lopis lazuli,, their woman wearing long Tunics and their www.pinterest.com/pin/534028468289610869/ children necked. [19] Wikipedia, Khasekhemwy, Limestone statues with pectorals for men https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khasekhemwy , 2016. and women appeared starting from the 5th [20] J. Dunn, Hotepsekhemwy, the 1st King of Egypt's 2nd Dynasty.. Dynasty, Stone statues for women wearing headdress http://m.touregypt.net/featurestories/hotepsekhemwy.htm [21] Wikipedia, Old Kingdom of Egypt, appeared starting from the 5th Dynasty. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Kingdom_of_Egypt , State statues for musicians appeared in the 2016. 5th Dynasty and for beer makers appeared in [22] L. Ambrose, King Djoser, 2670 BC,, the 6th Dynasty.. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/110901209549644387/ [23] Ancient Egypt, Rahotep and Nofret, , Both setting and standing stone statues http://www.ancient-egypt.org/who-is-who/r/rahotep-andappeared in the Predynastic Period and nofret.html continued through different periods. [24] M. Levendig, Seated scribe (2620-2500 BC), Louvre A stone statue with kneeing position Museum, http://rijksmuseumamsterdam.blogspot.com.eg/2012/09/an appeared in the 6th Dynasty. onymous-seated-scribe-26202500-bc.html , 2012 Wonderful stone statues showing the [25] J. Baloney, The family of Neferherenptah, amazing know-how of this industry using https://www.pinterest.com/pin/502503270895005166/ hard stones were a characteristic of the [26] Metropolitan Museum, The Royal Acquaintances Memi and Sabu , Egyptian Civilization during the Old www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/543899 Kingdom..

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume19 December2016 [35] A. Hegab, Scribe: fifth Dynasty of Egypt, , Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics https://www.pinterest.com/pin/405886985140083049/ and Automatic Control. Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo [36] Metropolitan Museum, King Sahure , http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/18.2.4/ University in 1970 and 1974. Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford [37] M. Fernandez, limestone servant statue from Old University, UK under the supervision of Kingdom, Late Prof. John Parnaby. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/354799276865453177/ Now with the Faculty of Engineering, [38] Museum of Fine Arts, Pair statue of Ptahkhenuwy and his Cairo University, EGYPT. wife, http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/pair-statueResearch on Automatic Control, of-ptahkhenuwy-and-his-wife-137139 , 2016 Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism [39] Museum of Fine Arts, Pseudo-group statue of Penmeru, Synthesis and History of Mechanical www.mfa.org/collections/object/pseudo-group-statue-ofEngineering. penmeru-140414 , 2016 Published more than 200 research papers in international journals and [40] C. Klosowski, Statue of Nykara and his family, conferences. www.pinterest.com/pin/438186238721770560/ [41] C. Schrammen, Detail painted limestone statue of Nykara Author of books on Experimental Systems and his family, Control, Experimental Vibrations and www.pinterest.com/pin/541065342706286590/ Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. [42] M. Clees, Statue group of Nenkheftka and his wife, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/544091198703043195/ Chief Justice of International Journal of [43] I. Achamizo, Statue of Raherka (inspector of scribes) and Computer Techniques. of his wife, Member of the Editorial Board of a https://www.pinterest.com/pin/565624034421749582/ number of International Journals including [44] Commons Wikimedia, Statue of King Teti, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Statue_of_Teti_ IJRES.. Quibell_Saqqara_1.jpg Reviewer in some international journals. [45] T. Geeseregion, Seated statue of Pepi I with Horus Falcon, Scholars interested in the authors www.pinterest.com/pin/541980136380884490/ [46] Ancient Peoples, Limestone head of Nekhebu, publications can visit: https://ancientpeoples.tumblr.com/post/67293818535/lime http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

[48]

Global Egyptian Museum, Servant grinding corn, www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/detail.aspx?id=5489

[49]

Shari, Nefer-Hetepes, 6th www.pinterest.com/pin/466404105139448225/

[50]

M. Fernandez, The Scribe Path-Shepse, 6th Dynasty, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/354799276865646813/

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XXXIV: Stone Statues Industry (11th to 17th Dynasties)

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Galal Ali Hassaan

Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Abstract:

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This paper is the 34th research paper in a series investigating the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt. It tries to achieve this purpose through investigating the production of ancient Egyptians stone statues during the era from the 11th to the 17th Dynasties. Each stone statue is presented chronically with present location if known and with engineering analysis showing its creativity. The stones used in producing the statues are assigned. Keywords — Mechanical engineering, ancient Egypt; stone statues; 11th to 17th Dynasties.

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I. INTRODUCTION Ancient Egyptians produced wonderful stone statues for their Kings, Officials and even servants to authorise their role and existence in the ancient Egyptian society. They mastered this industry and left statues from different types of stones with sizes ranging from miniature to huge and located them in Tombs and Temples. This is the second paper in this aspect where the first paper covered stone statues from Naqada II to the Old Kingdom. Alerd (1950) in his book about the Middle Kingdom art in ancient Egypt presented stone statues from the 11th, 12th and 13th Dynasties most of them from the 12th Dynasty [1]. Smith (1960) in his book about ancient Egyptians as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston presented some stone statues such as the granite head of Lady Sennuwy from the 12th Dynasty, Statue of Senostris III from the 12th Dynasty and the statue of Amenhotep III and head of Tutankhamun from the 18th Dynasty [2]. Watts (1998) in his resources for educators about the art of the ancient Egyptians presented the limestone head of Pharaoh Tutankhamun wearing the Blue Crown from the 18th Dynasty, the grandiosite setting statue of Pharaoh Horemheb and his wife from Late 18th Dynasty , the limestone statue Yuny and his wife from Early 18th Dynasty and a Gneiss sphinx of

King Senwosret III from the 12th Dynasty [3]. Teeter, Alexander and Greuel (2001) in their work about art of the Mediterranean world presented the granite head of an official from the 13th Dynasty and the basalt stattue of Shebenbu from the 26th Dynasty [4]. Magdolen (2002) studied the existence of two fragments of a statue in the City Museum Bratislava. He discussed some of the conclusions presented by Mr. Josef Hudec in his paper presented in the 8th International Congress of Egyptologists in Cairo [5]. Teeter (2003) in her book about the treasures from the collections of the Oriental Institute of Chicago presented selections First Intermediate Period, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom, Third Intermediate Period, Late Period and Ptolmaic-Roman Periods. Among her presentations are statue from the 18th Dynasty, quartzite statue of Pharaoh Tutankhamun from the 18th Dynasty and a limestone statue of a Priest from the 22nd – 25th Dynasties Period [6]. Bard (2007) in her book about the archaeology of ancient Egypt presented a statue for King Mentuhotep II from the 11th Dynasty [7]. Sadikoglu (2007) in her book about the ancient Egyptian art influences on modern time through history presented stone statues from the Karnak Temple at Luxor, statue of Priest Imhotep, statue of Queen Hatshepsut at Amun Temple, sphinx statue of a king, statues of Memmon at Thebes, statue of Myretamun, daughter

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Fig.1 Limestone statue of Meri from the 11th Dynasty [14]. ]. The second example of stone statues in the 11th Dynasty is for King Mentuhotep II, the 5th King of the dynasty ((2061-2010 BC). It is carved from sandstone, has a height of 2.53 m, in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.2 [15]. The King is standing wearing a short Schenti, a cloak and a Modius Crown. He is putting both hands crossed on his chest with holded palm. The third example is again for King Mentuhotep II which is a painted limestone statue in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.3 [16]. The King here is shown setting wearing a white cloak and the Red Crown of Lower Egypt. Here also he is holding his hands while crossed on his chest. The fourth example of stone statues in the Middle Kingdom is a quartzite statue for Sealer Nemtihotep from the 12th Dynasty (1981-1802 1802 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum, of 0.765 m height and shown in Fig.4 [17]. The Sealer is shown wearing a long Schenti, cloak rapped around his hands and a decorated NemesNemes like headdress. Even though the quartzite stone is one of the hardest ardest rocks, ancient Egyptians could carve it to the accuracy and high quality shown in Fig.4.

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of Pharaoh Ramses II, stattue of Pinudjem, Priest of Amun Temple, block statue of Amun-Re Re in Karnak, bust of Pharaoh Akhenaten, statue of Seneb and his family, statue of Thutmose IV and his wife, statue of Amenhotep III and his wife and statue of Ramses II and his wife Nefertari in Hator Temple [8]. Brooklyn Museum (2011) arranged an exhibition for over 120 collections of its Egyptian treasures. The collections included statues and covered a time span from 3650 BC to 365 CE [9]. Pienoski (2016) in her Master of Arts thesis about he historical evolution of the Cleveland Museum of Art's Egyptian collectiob presented a number of stone statues ues such as the statue of Pharaoh Amenhotep III from the 18th Dynasty [10]. Wikipedia (2016) wrote an article about block statues emerged in the Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt and continued to the Late Period. As an example they presented the block statue of Official Senwosret from the 12th Dynasty [11]. Hassaan (2016) investigated the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through studying study the industry of stone statues during the time span from Naqada II to the Old Kingdom Periods. He presented ted a large number of stone statues including singe, pair and group statues for classes from Pharaohs to servants. He outlined the characteristics of each statue [12].

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II. MIDDLE KINGDOM The Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt includes the 11th and 12th Dynasties es over a time span from 2050 to 1800 BC [13]. Stone statues have achieved great development during the Old Kingdom [12]. Here, we will show how this industry was developed during the Middle Kingdom through a number of presentations from both 11th and 12th Dynasties: - Fig.1 shows a limestone statue for Steward Meri (2124-1981 1981 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY [14]. The designer showed Meri setting and putting both arms crossed on his chest, wearing a short Schenti and a nicely decorated Khat headdress and having a light moustache as clear in the zoomed view in Fig.1.

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Fig.3 Limestone statue of Mentuhotep II [16].

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Fig.2 Sandstone statue of Mentuhotep II [15]

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Nemtihotep and putting his two hands on his legs holding an object by the right ri palm and extending the fingers of the left hand.

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Fig.5 Statue of Sehetepibreankh from the 12thDynasty [18]. -

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The fifth example is a limestone statue for Steward Sehetepibreankh from the 12th Dynasty (1919-1885 1885 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum,, having an 0.945 m height and shown in Fig.5 [18]. The designer showed the Steward setting, wearing a short Schenti, decorated Nemes headdress similar to this in Fig.4 for Sealer

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Fig.4 Statue of Sealer Nemtihotep from the 12th Dynasty [17].

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The sixth example is a granite statue for King Senusret III (1870 (1870-1831 BC), the 5th th King of the 12 Dynasty in display in the Brooklyn Museum at NY and shown in Fig.6 [19]. The designer showed the King wearing a short decorated Schenti and a Nemes headdress, putting his hands on his legs in a pose similar to that shown in Fig.5. The seventh example is a red granite head for King Senusret III in display in Luxor Museum and shown in Fig.7 [20]. The King is shown wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt. The eighth example is granodiorite statue for King Amenemhat III, the 6th King of the 12th Dynasty in display in the Claveland Museum of Art having an 0.512 m height and shown in Fig.8 8 [21]. The designer showed the King standing with his hands extending downward and wearing a

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III.

SECOND INTERMEDIATE NTERMEDIATE PERIOD The Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt covers the 13th to 17th Dynasties over a time span from 1802 to 1550 BC [23]. The examples of stone statues available from this period are all from the 13th Dynasty presented as follows: - The first example is a diabase, diabase 0.35 m height statue for King Neferhotep I, the 25th King of the 13th Dynasty in display in the Archaeological Museum of Bolognat, Italy and shown in Fig.10 [24 24]. Even though the diabase is one of the hardest stone, the ancient Egyptian carver mastered maste carving it and produced a setting statue for the King with his hands on his legs, wearing a short Schenti and a Nemes Crown. The statue is shining meaning it was well polished.

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The last example of stone statues produced during the Middle Kingdom is a quartzite block statue for Senwosret-Senebefny Senebefny from Late 12th Dynasty (1836-1759 1759 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum and shown in Fig.9 [22]. The designer showed the owner of the statue setting on the ground and putting both hands on his legs under a cloak and wearing a Khat headdress while his wife is standing in front of his legs.

Fig.7 Head of Senusret III From 12th Dynasty [20]

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Fig.6 Statue of Senusret III From 12th Dynasty [19]

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decorated short Schenti, a belt and a decorated Nemes headdress.

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Fig.10 Statue of King Neferhotep I from the 13th ]. Dynasty [24]. -

The second example is a diorite statue for King Sobekhotep IV (1732-1720 (1732 BC), the 27th King of the 13th Dynasty in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.11 [25]. The designer using a hard stone produced a wonderful statue for the King wearing the standard short Schenti with belt and tail wearing a decorated Nemes headdress and putting his two hands on his thighs.

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The third example is a granite statue for King Sobekhotep V, the 28th King of the 13th Dynasty in display in the Neues Museum at Berlin and shown in Fig.12 [26].

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Fig.11 Statue of King Sobekhotep IV from the 13th Dynasty [25].

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The designer shoed the King kneeling, wearing the standard short Schenti with belt and tail and wearing a nicely decorated Nemes headdress as clear from his zoomed view. - The fourth example is a statue for King Mentuhotep of Upper Egypt (1585 BC) from the 16th Dynasty of Thebes in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.13 [27]. The King is wearing a standard fashion of the Kings ings since the Old Kingdom. The Schenti is short and decorated with belt and front tail, the Nemes headdress is decorated and his hands are extending downwards and holding an object.

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The fifth and last example from the 2nd Intermediate Period is a limestone statue of Siamun (1580-1550 1550 BC) from the 17th Dynasty in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.14 Fig.1 [28]. The designer showed him setting on a backless chair, wearing a short Schenti and a decorated Khat headdress as clear in the zoomed view in Fig.14.

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Fig.13 Statue of King Mentuhotep from the 16th Dynasty [27]. ].

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Fig.12 Statue of King Sobekhotep V from the 13th Dynasty [26].

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Some statues appeared with the owner holding an ointment jar in his hand. hand All the Royal Nemes were decorated and carrying the Copra icon on its front front-top end.

REFERENCES

C. Aldred, Middle Kingdom art in ancient egypt 2300 23001590 BC, AlecTiranti Ltd, London, 1950. 2. W. Smith, Ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Boston 1960. 3. E. Watts, The art of ancient egypt: a resource for educators, 1998. 4. E. Teeter, K. Alexander and M. Greuel, Art of the ancient Mediterranean world, The he Art Institute of Chicago Chicago, 2001. 5. D. Magdolen, Two fragments of an ancient Egyptian statue in the City Museum Bratislava, Asial and African Studies, vol.11, issue 2, pp.147-160 160, 2002. 6. E. Teeter, Ancient egypt: Treasures from the collection of the Oriental Institute of Chicago, Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2003. 7. K. Bard, An introduction to the archaeology of ancient egypt, Blackwell Publishing, 2007. 2007 8. P. Sadikoglu, Ancient Egyptian art influences on modern time through history, Boyut Publisher, isher, Istanbul, 2007. 9. Brookyn Museum, To live forever: Egyptian treasures from the Brooklyn Museum, Exhibition from June 11 to September 4, 2011, www.nevadaart.org/exihibition/towww.nevadaart.o live-forever-from-the-Brooklyn-museum/ museum/ , 2014. 10. C. Pienoski, Pyramids of lake Erie: The historical evolution of the Cleveland Museum of Art's Egyptian collection, Master of Arts Thesis, M. A. Kent State University, 2016. 11. Wikipedia, Block statue, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_statue , 2016. 12. G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical engineering in ancient egypt, Part XXXIII: Stone statues industry (Predynastic to Old Kingdom), International ternational Journal of Recent Engineering Science, vol.19, December 2016 (Accepted for Publication). egypt 13. Wikipedia, Middle Kingdom of ancient egypt, www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Kingdom_of_Egypt , 2016. 14. Metropolitan Museum, Statue of the Steward Meri seated, http://metmuseum.org/exhibitions/view?exhibitionId=%7 rg/exhibitions/view?exhibitionId=%7 B36bfd863-bd71-4d58-b1b2f3f865084dbb%7D&oid=591338 , 2016 15. Alchetron, Mentuhotep II, http://alchetron.com/Mentuhotep-II II-947975-W , 2016. easures from the Egyptian Museum, 16. R. Dunlap, A new treasures Cairo, http://ronalddunlapphotography.net/a-fewhttp://ronalddunlapphotography.net/a treasures-from-the-egyptian-museum museum-cairo-egypt 17. R. Casas, Statue of the Sealer Nemtihotep seated, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/10133167889442939/ Metropolitan

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CONCLUSIONS Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in producing stone statues. They authorized the history of Kings, high officials and lower-rank rank people through stone statues set in Temples and Tombs. During the 11th to 17th Dynasties of ancient Egypt they used a number of Egyptia Egyptian stones in carving their statues such as: limestone, sandstone, quartzite, granite, granodiorite, diabase and diorite diorite. The ancient Egyptians could carve statues using very hard stones such as: granite, grani diabase and quartzite. The ancient Egyptians during the era under study designed stone statues in different positions such as: setting on chairs statues, setting on the ground status, standing statues and kneeling statues. The statue arms took different differen positions such as: Extending vertically with opened palm in standing statues, holding objects in each palm, crossing arms on the chest in setting on chair statues and holding the knees by both hands in block statues statues. The designer was keen to present the statue owner with his favourable headdress including: Khat, Modius, Red Crown, Nemes, Nemes-like like and White Crown Crown. The men dressing through this era as depicted by the stone statues presented was the short Schenti, either plain or decorated.. decorated.

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Fig.14 Limestone statue of Siamun from the 17th Dynasty [28].

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senusret_III , 2016

 20. N. Cassano, Senusret III, 12th Dynasty,

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/473018767089863152/

21. Cleveland Museum, Statue of Amenemhat III,



https://www.clevelandart.org/art/1960.56

22. L. Morales, Block statue of Senwosret-Senebefny, Middle Kingdom,

26. 27.

28.

   

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https://www.pinterest.com/pin/420664421418186656/ Wikipedia, Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Intermediate_Perio d_of_Egypt , 2016. Bologna Museum, Statue of Neferhotep I,, http://www.museibologna.it/archeologicoen/percorsi/662 87/id/75337/oggetto/74877/ Dreams Time, Statue of Sobekhotep IV seated at Metropolitan Museum of Art, https://www.dreamstime.com/editorial-photo-statuekhaneferre-sobekhotep-iv-seated-metropolitan-museumart-manhattan-new-york-ny-dioritic-gabbo-egypt-thdynasty-image64553756 E. Emmanuel, Granite statue of Sobekhotep V, www.pinterest.com/pin/508273507927021440/ Wikipedia, History of ancient egypt, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Ancient_Egypy , 2016. Metropolitan Museum, Statue of Siamun, http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/558083

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19. Wikipedia, Wikipedia, Senusret III,

Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. Published more than 190 research papers in international journals and conferences. Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Justice of the International Journal of Computer Techniques. Member of the Editorial Board of some international journals including IJET. Reviewer in some international journals. Scholars interested in the authors publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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Metropolitan Museum, Seated statue of the Steward Sehetepibreankh, http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/573446

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Galal Ali Hassaan  Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control.  Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974.

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wjert, 2017, Vol. 3, Issue 1, 01 -15

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World Journal ofResearch Engineeringand Research and Technology Journal of Engineering Technology

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Hassaan. World

Original Article

SJIF Impact Factor: 3.419

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART XXXV: HUMAN STONE STATUES IN THE 18TH DYNASTY

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Prof. Dr. Galal Ali Hassaan* Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering,

Article Received on 11/11/2016

*Corresponding Author

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Cairo University, Egypt.

Article Revised on 30/11/2016

ABSTRACT

Article Accepted on 21/12/2016

This is the 35th research paper exploring the evolution of Mechanical

Hassaan

Engineering in Ancient Egypt. The paper investigates the production of

Emeritus Professor,

human stone statues in ancient Egypt during the 18th Dynasty. The

Department of Mechanical

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Prof. Dr. Galal Ali

design of the stone statues, the used stones, date and present location

Design & Production,

Cairo University, Egypt.

are investigated. The clothing and headdress of the statues is

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Faculty of Engineering,

highlighted and the beauty aspects associated with the statues are clarified. The analysis outlined the degree of sophistication of the used

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mechanical technology producing amazing stone statues of even high hardness level. KEYWORDS: History of mechanical engineering, ancient Egypt, human stone statues, 18th Dynasty.

INTRODUCTION

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This is the 35th research paper in a series aiming at exploring the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the different activities of their wonderful civilization. The ancient Egyptians used different stones for the production of their human stone statues of

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different hardness levels ranging from soft to very hard and could produce wonderful statues for their people from all ranks. This paper concentrates only on stone statues produced during the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BC).

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Blackman, 1923 wrote a book about 'Luxor and its Temples'. He presented some stone statues such as Nefretri statue in the Temple of Luxor, statue of a wife of Ramses II standing beside

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his colossal statue, statues in the Ramsesseum Temple, Amenhotep III colossal statue at Thebes.[1] Bull, 1943 investigated a quartzite head of Pharaoh Ramses II in the Metropolitan

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Museum of Art. He presented a fragment of a granite statue of Ramses II in the same

museum. This fragment showed the Pharaoh wearing a long and well decorated Schenti.[2] Smith, 1960 in his book about ancient Egyptian as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts at

Boston presented the statue of Amenhotep III and a head for Pharaoh Tutankhamun from the

18th Dynasty.[3] Mohammed, 1980 studied the reconstruction of the great temple of Abu-

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Simbel completed in September 1968. Among his presentations about the work was a stone

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statue for Ramses II from the courtyard of the temple.[4] Teeter, 2003 in her book about ancient Egyptian treasures from the collection of the Oriental Institute of Chicago presented a statue from the 18th Dynasty, a quartzite statue of Pharaoh Tutankhamun from the 18th Dynasty and a priest statue from the 22nd-25th Dynasties.[5] Bloxam, 2005 explored the answer of some questions about how ancient Egyptians quarried the massive rocks required

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for their statues, pyramids and other structures and whom did this task. She presented the gneiss statue of King Khafra of the 4th Dynasty and a scene for transporting a statue from the Hatnub travertine quarries.[6]

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Bloxam, 2010 in an article about quarrying and mining for stone presented a gneiss statues for King Khafra from the 4th Dynasty and an Osiride statue from the New Kingdom lying in Aswan granite quarries.[7] Auenmules, 2014 discussed the notion 'distributed personhood'

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concerning the investigation of temple statues regarding viziers and mayors of the New Kingdom. He showed that the location of temple statues of viziers and mayors oscillated in area of tension between supra-regional territoriality and local provenance.[8] Laboury, 2014 tried to answer the question: how and why did Hatshepsut invent his image of her royal power ?. For comparison, he presented the statue head of Hatshepsut, Thutmose I, Thutmose

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II, Thutmose III, four setting statues of Hatshepsut and faces of Hatshepsut's Osiride colossi.[9] Wikipedia, 2016 in an article discussed the colossi of Memnon which is a massive stone statue for Pharaoh Amenhotep III of the 18th Dynasty. They showed that the two statues

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in the Theban Necropolis are made of sandstone blocks and the length of each of them is 18 m and its weight is about 720 ton and they have 15 m apart.[10] Hassaan, 2016 investigated the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the stone statues industry during the periods from Predynastic to the 17th Dynasty Periods. He analysed a large number

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of human stone statues showing their characteristics.[11,12]

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Hassaan. The 18th Dynasty

The 18th Dynasty of ancient Egypt is one of the richest Dynasties and had an outstanding

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achievements in mechanical engineering. We expect to see these achievements also reflected on the human stone statues industry as will be illustrated through the following presentations: -

The first example of human stone statues is a limestone head for Pharaoh Ahmose I, the

founder of the 18th Dynasty (1549-1514 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown in Fig.1.[13] The head height is 0.56 m and the Pharaoh is shown

The second example is for Pharaoh Amenhotep I, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty

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wearing the White Crown of the Upper Egypt with the Cobra on its front.

(1524-1503 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.2.[14] The designer showed the Pharaoh standing, wearing a white cloak and the Double Crown of Upper and Lower Egypt and putting both hands crossed on his chest. The coloring of the crown

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means that the statue was produced using Limestone.

Fig.1 Statue of Ahmose I.[13]

The third example is an 0.71 m height sandstone head for Pharoah Thutmose I, the 3rd

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Fig.2 Statue of Amenhotep I.[14]

Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1503-1493 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.3.[15] The Pharaoh is shown wearing the Modius Crown with the cobra on its front. The fourth example is a gabbro seated statue of Iahmes, the Chief of the Granaries of

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Amun (1480 BC) in display in the State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich, Germany and shown in Fig.4.[16] The designer showed him wearing a long cloak, a Khat headdress and

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putting his left hand on his chest and his right hand on his abdomen.

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Fig.3 Statue of Thutmose I.[15] -

Fig.4 Statue of Iahmes.[16]

The fifth example is a limestone seated statue of Pharaoh Hatshepsut, the 5th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown in Fig.5.[17] The designer showed Hatshepsut in the form of a male Pharaoh wearing a short

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Schenti and the Nemes headdress with the cobra on its front as shown in the zoomed view

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of Fig.5. She is putting both palms on her thighs.

Fig.5 Seating statue of Hatshepsut.[17] -

Fig.6 Statue of Thutmose III.[18]

The sixth example is a limestone bust for Pharaoh Thutmose III, the 6th Pharaoh of the

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18th Dynasty (1479-1425 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.6.[18] The Pharaoh is shown having a thin long beard and wearing a decorated Nemes headdress with cobra on its front. The details of his face were carved with high profession. The Nemes appears with three different colors with vertical and horizontal

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decoration bands.

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The seventh example is a granite kneeling statue of Senenmut, the High Stewatd of

Pharaoh Hatshepsut (1475 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum and shown in

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Fig.7.[19] Senenmut is shown wearing a decorated Khat headdress and holding between his fingers a cobra wearing a Crown. -

The eighth example is a red quartzite block statue of Teti, the Viceroy of Kush (1475 BC)

in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.8.[20] The designer showed Teti setting on the ground and crossing his hands on his knees and holding a flower in his right hand

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and wearing a decorated Khat headdress. He is wearing a necklace with an ankh amulet

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and his dress is full of inscriptions even on his both palms. Even though quartzite is one of the hardest Egyptian stones, the carver could show all the details characterizing Teti's

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block statue.

Fig.7 Kneeling statue of Senenmut.[19] -

Fig.8 Statue of Teti.[20]

The 9th example is a granite kneeing statue of Pharaoh Hatshepsut in display in the

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Metropolitan Museum and shown in Fig.9.[21] The designer shoed Pharaoh Hatshepsut wearing a Nemes Headdress with Cobra on its front and having a fictitious long thin beard as some of the other male-Pharaohs did. She is holding a big ball between her palms in front of

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a Djed sign.

The 10th example is a granite kneeling statue of Pharaoh Amenhotep II, the 7th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1425-1398 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Turin and shown in Fig.10.[22] The Pharaoh is shown kneeling, wearing a short Schenti with belt and front tail and a decorated Nemes headdress with cobra in the front and has a thin long beard. He is holding

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an ointment container in each palm. The carver showed the Pharaoh having a strong body.

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Fig.9 Kneeling statue of Hatshepsut.[21] -

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Fig.10 Kneeling statue of Amenhotep II.[22]

The eleventh example is a painted limestone pair statue of Nebsen and his wife (1400-

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1352 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum with 0.4 m height and shown in Fig.11.[23] Both weared a long Schenti with inscriptions on its front, Nebsen and his wife are wearing a decorated headdress and putting a pectoral around their neck. They are in an

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intimate position as a married spouse. He is putting his left hand behind his wife while she is putting her right hand behind him. -

The twelfth example is a sandstone statue of Priest Amenhotep (1400 BC) in display in

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the Risd Museum at Providence, USA and shown in Fig.12.[24] The designer showed the Priest Amenhotep wearing a decorated Khat headdress. Even though the sandstone is one of the hardest stones, the carver could show the face in a very accurate way showing the

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Priest smiling and optimistic.

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Fig.11 Statue of Nebsen & wife.[23] -

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Fig.12 Statue of Amenhotep.[24]

The thirteenth example is a head of Thutmose IV, the 8th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty

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(1398-1388 BC) in display in the Louvre Museum and shown in Fig.13.[25] The Pharaoh is shown wearing a decorated Blue Crown. Its stone type is not defined !. -

The fourteenth example is also for Pharaoh Thutmose IV which a granite statue in display

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in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo shown in Fig.14.[26] The Pharaoh is shown here wearing

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a decorated Khat headdress with a cobra on its front.

Fig.14 Statue of Thutmose IV.[26]

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Fig.13 Statue head of Thutmose IV.[25]

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The fifteenth example is a colossal red granite head of Amenhotep III, the 9th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1388-1350 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.15.[27] The head length is 2.9 m and the Pharaoh was shown wearing the Double

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Crown of ancient Egypt with the cobra sign on its front. The carver could produce this

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wonderful huge piece with very clear details of the Pharaoh face using one of the hardest stones in Egypt, the granite.

The sixteenth example is a colossal quartzite head of Pharaoh Amenhotep III in display in

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the British Museum and shown in Fig.16.[28] The Pharaoh is shown wearing a Modius

Crown with cobra on its front end The head height is 1.17 m and it is carved with very

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high professional manner since quartzite is one of the hardest stone.

Fig.15 Granite head of Amenhotep III.[27] -

Fig.16 Quartzite head of Thutmose IV.[28]

The seventeenth example is a pair setting statue for Pharaoh Amenhotep III and Queen

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Tiye in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo.[29] The Pharaoh is wearing a short Schenti and a Nemes headdress with cobra on its front and putting both hands on his thighs. The Queen is wearing a headdress with a Crown on it, a long Tung and putting her

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right hand behind her husband and the left hand on her thigh.

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Fig.17 Pair statue of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye.[29] 8

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The eighteenth example is a sandstone statue of Akhenaten, the 10th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1351-1334 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in

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Fig.18.[30] The Pharaoh is wearing a well decorated short Schenti with belt, holding a crook and flail in his hands, with both arms crossed on his chest, wearing a Khat

headdress with cobra on its front , a Double Crown on it and having a thin long beard. The height of the statue is 3.96 m. -

The nineteenth example is limestone bust of Queen Nefertiti, the Great Royal Wife of

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Pharaoh Akhenaten in display in the Neues Museum at Berlin and shown in Fig.19.[31]

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The Queen is shown wearing a pectoral and decorated Modius Crown with a symbol on its front. This may be the most wonderful piece generated in the 18th Dynasty. The carver could simulate the face of the Queen in a way that one can imagine that it is taken by a digital camera and not a carved piece. This high technology due to the accuracy of the carving process and the sophistication of the painting process with paints could sustain

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for more than 3300 years.

Fig.18 Sandstone statue of Akhenaten.[30]

The twentieth example is a pair statue for Pharaoh Akhenaten and his wife Nefertite

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Fig.19 Limestone bust of Nefertiti.[31]

(1345-1337 BC) in display in the Louvre Museum and shown in Fig.20.[32] The Pharaoh is wearing a short Schenti, a wide pectoral and a Blue Crown. The Queen is wearing a long Tunic, a wide pectoral and a Modius Crown. The designer showed them striding and

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holding hands. The panel behind the statue is used to authorize the Pharaoh and his wife through inscriptions in two vertical columns as clear in the Back view of Fig.20.’

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Front view

Back view

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Fig.20 Pair statue of Akhenaten and Nefertiti.[32]

The twentieth one example is a limestone block statue for Ay, a powerful man during the reign of Pharaoh Tutankhamun (1332-1323 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum and shown in Fig.21.[33] The designer showed Ay setting on the ground and holding his knees

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by his arms, wearing a long Schenti and a Khat headdress. The front of the statue is completely inscribed. The height of the statue is 0.47 m.[33] -

The twentieth two example is colossal statue for Tutankhamun, the 13th Pharaoh of the

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18th Dynasty in display in the Oriental Institute Museum, Chicago and shown in Fig.22.[34] This is a colossal statue having a 5 m height showing the young Pharaoh striding, wearing a short Schenti, decorated Nemes headdress with cobra in its front and a

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Double Crown as shown in the zoomed view of Fig.22. The designer showed the Pharaoh

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with a thin long beard.

Fig.21 Limestone block statue of Ay.[33]

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Fig.22 Colossal statue of Tutankhamun.[34] 10

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The last example is a limestone-pair-setting statue of Horemheb and one of his wives, the

15th and last Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1319-1292 BC) in display in the British

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Museum and shown in Fig.23.[35] The designer showed the pharaoh wearing a decoratedmedium Schenti, a half-sleeved shirt and a decorated Khat headdress. The Pharaoh is

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putting his left hand on the hand of his wife and holding an object by his right palm.

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Fig.23 Pair limestone statue of Horemheb and his wife.[35] CONCLUSION -

The production of stone statues in the 18th Dynasty of ancient Egypt was investigated.

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Stone statues were one of the products that could sustain the environmental effects and stay shining and wonderful filling most of the International Museums.. . The ancient Egyptians of the 18th Dynasty produced stone statues for Pharaohs: Ahmose

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I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten, Tutankhamun and Horembeb. The stone statues of the Pharaohs showed them wearing the standard Crowns and

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Headdresses such as: The White Crown, the Double Crown, the Modius Crown, the Nemes headdress, the Blue Crown, the Khat headdress, the Khat + Double Crown and the Nemes headdress + the Double Crown. The Egyptians of the 18th Dynasty designed and produced stone statues in different

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positions such as: standing, striding, setting, kneeling and blocking.

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They generated stone statues for persons holding objects in their hands such as: crook, flail, ointment jar, ball and Djed sign.

Most of the men stone statues produced in the 18th Dynasty showed them wearing a short

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Schenti. -

Some of the men and women stone statues showed the owner wearing a pectoral.

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Pair stone statues of couples were common in the 18th Dynasty either for Royal or Highrank people.

The ancient Egyptians of the 18th Dynasty succeeded to produce colossal stone statues up

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to 5 m height. The head of one of its Pharaohs reached 2.9 m height.

They produced stone statues using: limestone, sandstone, gabbro, granite and red quartzite.

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The statue-examples presented showe the women wearing either a Crown (Royal wives) or a headdress (elite women).

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REFERENCES

1. Blackman, A. (1923), "Luxor and its temples" A. C. Black, London. 2. Bull, L. (1943), "Fragment of a statue of Ramesses II", The Metropolitan Museum of Art

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Bulletin, Vol.1, No.7, pp.219-222.

3. Smith, W, (1960), "Ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

pp.5-16.

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4. Mohammed, S. (1980), "Victory in Nubia: Egypt", The Unesco Courier, February-March,

5. Teeter, E. (2003), "Ancient Egypt treasures from the collection of the Oriental Institute of Chicago", The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. 6. Bloxam, E. (2005), "Who were the Pharaohs' quarry men ?", Archaeology International,

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Vol.9, pp.23-27.

7. Bloxam, E. (2010), "Quarrying and mining (stone)", UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Vol.1089, No.1, December, pp.1-15.

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8. Auenmules, J. (2014), "Temple statues of New Kingdom viziers and mayors in territories context – distribution versus localism", Current Research in Egyptology XV, University College London, April 9-12,

9. Laboury, D. (2014), "How and why did Hatshepsut invent the image of her royal power

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?", Occasional Proceedings of the Theban Workshop: Creativity and Innovation in the Rein of Hatshepsut, The University of Chicago..

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10. Wikipedia (2016), "Colossi of Memnon", http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossi_of_Memnon

11. Hassaan, G. A. (2016), "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXXIII: Stone

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statues (Predynastic to Old Kingdom", International Journal of Recent Engineering Science, Vol.30, December, pp.5-16.

12. Hassaan, G. A. (2016), "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXXIV: Stone

statues (11th to 17th Dynasties", International Journal of Engineering and Techniques, Vol.2, Issue 6, November-December (Under Publication).

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13. Metropolitan Museum (2006), "Head of Ahmose I", www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-

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of-art/2006.270/ 14. Alamy, "Statue of Amenhotep I – British Museum",

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statue-of-amenhotep-i-british-museum-london-47542633.html

15. British Museum, " Head from a monumental statue of King Thutmose I", http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?

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objectId=111462&partId=1&object=20170&sortBy=imageName&page=1 16. Amin, O. (2015), "Statue of Iahmes" , http://www.ancient.eu/image/3405/ 17. Metropolitan

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III",

https://br.pinterest.com/pin/411516484675705361/ 19. Wikipedia (2016), "Senenmut", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senenmut S.,

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20. Volpe,

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Kush",

www.pinterest.com/pin/398146423278605012/ 21. Ewart, N., "Joint reign of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III, New Kingdom", www.pinterest.com/pin/57350595227855238/ 22. Cartwright, M. (2014), "Amenhotep II", http://www.ancient.eu/image/3391/ A.,

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Treasury",

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Amenhotep",

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25. Wikipedia, "Thutmose IV", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thutmose_IV 26. Britannica, "Ancient Egypt",

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Kingdom-1938-c-1630-bc-and-the-Second-Intermediate-period-c-1630-1540-

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bc#ref306750

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27. Wikipedia

(2016),

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Colossal

red

granite

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Amenhotep

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossal_red_granite_statue_of_Amenhotep_III (2016),

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quartzite

statue

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Amenhotep

III",

III",

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28. Wikipedia

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossal_quartzite_statue_of_Amenhotep_III 29. Pinterest,

"Amenhotep

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&

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Cairo

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",

30. Kruse, S., "Akhenaten", www.pinterest.com/pin/534521049508173481/

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31. Wikipedia (2016), "Nefertiti bust", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nefertiti_Bust

33. Brooklyn

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Ay",

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36. British Museum, " Limestone statue of Horemheb and one of his wives ", http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?

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BIOGRAPHY

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objectId=117632&partId=1

Galal Ali Hassaan 

Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control.



Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970



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and 1974.

Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.

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 

Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations, Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. Published more than 200 research papers in international journals and conferences.



Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and

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Evolution of Mechanical Engineering.

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Hassaan. 

Chief Justice of International Journal of Computer Techniques.



Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including the



Reviewer in some international journals.



Scholars interested in the author’s publications can visit:

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http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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WJERT journal.

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International Journal Of Advancement In Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Science (IJAETMAS) ISSN: 2349-3224 || www.ijaetmas.com || Volume 03 - Issue 12 || December - 2016 || PP. 106-116

Galal Ali Hassaan

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XXXVI: Human Stone Statues in the 19th and 20th Dynasties Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

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Abstract— The ancient Egyptians continued to produce human stone statues during the 19th and 20th Dynasties. The

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types and design of those statues is investigated showing their characteristics and features. The stone type, statue height and present location are all outlined if available. Colossal human statues in the 19th Dynasty are highlighted. The dress and headdress types are outlined for each statue .

Keywords— Mechanical engineering; Ancient Egypt; Human stone statues, 19th and 20th Dynasties, colossal statues .

I. INTRODUCTION This is the 36 paper in a scientific research aiming at presenting a deep insight into the history of mechanical engineering during one of the greatest civilizations in the world, the ancient Egyptians civilization. The paper handles one of important industries practiced by ancient Egyptians during the Dynastic Periods of their history. The ancient Egyptian stone statues are filling all the Museums in all around the world indicating the unbelieved mechanical technology used in producing such statues. Magdolen (2002) investigated two fragments of an ancient Egyptian statue in the City Museum Bratislava. He compared the mouth of some 18th Dynasty Pharaohs from their statues and come to a conclusion that fragment VEIII indicates that perhaps it may be for Pharaoh Thutmose III [1]. Sadikoglu (2007) in her book about ancient Egyptian art and its influence on modern time through history presented some statues at the entrance of Karnak Temple at Luxor, a Pharaoh bust, statues of Hatshepsut in Amun Temple, statues of Memnon at Thebes, statue of Merytamun from the 19th Dynasty, a colossal statue of Pinudjem, Priest of Amun Temple at Thebes from the 21st Dynasty, a block statue of Amun-Re in Karnak, statues of Ramses II and his wife Nefertari in Hathor Temple and Ramses II statues in his temple at Abu-Simbel [2]. Olivier (2008) in her Master of Arts Thesis presented a number of illustrations including stone statues for Pharaoh Ramses II of the 19th Dynasty in his temple at Abu-Simbel, statue of Priestess of Hathor Enehy from the 19th Dynasty and a broken colossal statue of Ramses II at Tanis. She presented also a statue for Queen Tuya wife of Pharaoh Seti I of the 19th Dynasty, a statue for Queen Nefertari wife of Ramses II, the colossal statues of Ramses II and Nefertari in the small temple at Abu-Simbel, colossal statue of Merytamun, daughter of Ramses II and Queen Nefertari at Akhmim [3].

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Sullivan (2010) in an article about the development of the Karnak Temple presented some stone statues in Pylon II of the temple and in Khonsu Temple of Ramses III of the 20th Dynasty, a sphinx stattue on the road between Karnak and Luxor Temple and sphinx statues in the way outside Pylon I of Karnak Temple [4]. Green (2012) discussed the results of suthor's survey of representations of Queens and Goddesses of the 19th Dynasty and implications for the use of the double uraeus versus uraeus-vulture combination in certain media and/or contexts [5]. Iskander (2012) presented the work undertaken during the 20112012 season by the joint expedition to the Temple of Ramses II at Abydos. He included a description of identifying, collecting and cataloguing fragments of the granite colossal statue of Ramses II [6]. www.ijaetmas.com

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Dorman, Garnet and James (2016) studied the Egyptian art and architecture including statues produced during the Dynastic Periods of the first three millennia BCE in Egypt and Nubia. They presented some of the colossal statues of Ramses II in the entrance of Luxor Temple, his colossal statues in his temple at Abu-Simbel and the colossi of Memnon at Madinat Habu in Thebes [7]. Hassaan (2016) investigated the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through his study of the human statues industry. He outlined different aspects of this industry during the Predynastic to Old Kingdom [8], from the 11th to the 17th Dynasties [9] and during the 18th Dynasty [10].

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II. THE 19TH DYNASTY The 19th Dynasty of ancient Egypt expands over a time period from 1292 to 1189 BC rule by eight Pharaohs starting by Ramses I and ending by Twosret [11]. The 19th Dynasty is the Dynasty of colossal statues as a feature of its stone statues. Here, I present examples of the stone statues of this great dynasty: - The first example is stone head of Pharaoh Ramses I (1292-1290 BC), the founder of the 19th Dynasty in display in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and shown in Fig.1 [12]. The Pharaoh is wearing a decorated Khat headdress. - The second example is an alabaster statue for Seti I (1290-1279 BC), the second Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.2 [13]. This is a striding statue of the Pharaoh, wearing a short Shenti with front tail and holding an object in each hand. The headdress is missing and the nose is broken.

Fig.1 Head of Ramses I [12].

The third example is a granite statue for Queen Tuya, the wife of Pharaoh Seti I (1290-1279 BC) in display in the Vatican Museum and shown in Fig.3 [14]. The designer showed the Queen wearing a decorated headdress, crown, wide pectoral and putting her left hand on her chest and holding an object. The decorations of her headdress and crown are shown in the zoomed view in Fig.3. The carver could generate those complex decorations using of the hardest stones, granite with an accuracy may be possible now using CNC machines.

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Fig.2 Statue of Seti I [13].

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The fourth example is a 2-coloured granite upper-part of Ramses II state, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty in display in the British Museum, weighing 7.25 ton and shown in Fig.4 [15]. The designer showed the Pharaoh wearing a Nemes headdress with Cobra on its front and a Crown above it with a thin long beard. The details of the face are wonderful as if it was generated by a computer showing the beauty of the Pharaoh when he was young.

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The fifth example is a 2.44 m setting statue for Pharaoh Ramses II in display in The University of Pennsylvania Museum and shown in Fig.5 [16]. The designer showed the Pharaoh wearing a short Schenti, a decorated Nemes with cobra on its front, putting his hands on his thighs and his chair is full of inscriptions. The nose is broken as indicated in the zoomed view in Fig.5. The sixth example is a colossal striding statue for Pharaoh Ramses II in the Luxor Temple and shown in Fig.6 [17]. The Pharaoh was shown wearing a short Schenti with front tail, a Nemes headdress with Cobra on its front, holding an object in each hand with thin long beard. Unfortunately, the stone type and height are not identified !.

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Fig.4 Statue of Ramses II [15].

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Fig.3 Statue of Queen Tuya [14].

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Fig.5 Statue of Ramses II [16].

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Fig.6 Statue of Ramses II [17].

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The seventh example is a 1.94 m height black granite setting statue for Pharaoh Ramses II in display in the Turin Museum of Italy and shown in Fig.7 [18]. This is may be one of the best statues of the Great Pharaoh Ramses II of the 19 th Dynasty. The designer showed the Pharaoh wearing a long inscribed Schenti, the Blue Crown with Cobra on its front, holding a Crook in his right hand and an object in his left hand. The Pharaoh is shown wearing a sandal in his feet. The details of the face and the decorations of the Blue Crown are shown in the zoomed view in Fig.7. The carver was so professional to carve granite and produce the very high quality depicted in the zoomed view.

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Fig.7 Statue of Ramses II [18].

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The eighth example is a colossal statue for Pharaoh Ramses II standing in the Giza Plateau and shown in Fig.8 [19]. The statue has an 11m height and an 83 ton weight. The designer showed the Pharaoh wearing a short Schenti with front tail, a Nemes headdress and a Double Crown over the headdress, holding an object in its vertical straight hands and may be a double Cobra in front of the Crown as depicted in the zoomed view of Fig.8. The ninth example is again a colossal statue for Ramses II in the entrance of his Temple at Abu-Simbel and shown in Fig.9 [20]. Four colossal statues were cut in the rocks of Pharaoh Ramses II Temple at Abu-Simbel. The estimated height is about 5.25 m and the weight is unknown. The Pharaoh was shown wearing short Schenti, a Nemes headdress and probably a Double Crown with Cobra on its front and putting his two hands on his thighs. The tenth example is a stone group statue for Scribe Ptahmai and his family (12501200 BC) in display in the Neues Museum at Berlin and shown in Fig.10 [21]. The designer showed the Scribe and his two wives setting on a sofa with his daughter standing between him and her mother. He is shown wearing a long Schenti, pectoral and putting his hands on his thighs. Both wives are wearing a long Tunic, decorated headdress and putting one hand on her thigh and holding his waist with the other hand. The wives had a headdress with elaborated decoration as shown in the zoomed view of his wife at his right.

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The eleventh example is a limestone statue of one of Ramses II daughters in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.11 [22]. The princess is wearing a coloured-long Tung, well decorated headdress with two Cobra on its front and a Crown with Cobra on all its circumference. The statue was carved and painted with extreme sophistication and technology leading to a product sustaining for more than 3200 years.

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Fig.9 Statues of Ramses II [20].

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Fig.8 Statue of Ramses II [19].

Fig.10 Group statue of Ptahmai [21].

The twelfth example is a sandstone statue for Khaemwaset, one of the sons of Pharaoh Ramses II in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.12 [23]. The designer showed the Prince wearing a short Schenti, a decorated Khat headdress and holding two long bars, one bar per hand. The thirteenth example is a granite statue for Merneptah, the fourth Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty (1213-1203 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.13[24]. The Pharaoh is shown wearing a short Schenti with front tail, a decorated Nemes with one Cobra on its front and a Double Crown on it as clear in the zoomed view of Fig.13.

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Fig.11 Statues of Ramses II daughter [22].

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Fig.12 Statue of Khaemwaset [23].

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The fourteenth example is a striding statue for Seti II, the 5th Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty (1203-1197 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Turin, Italy and shown in Fig.14 [25]. The Pharaoh is shown wearing short Schenti with belt and front tail, a decorated Khat headdress with Cobra on its front and holding an object in each hand. The stone type nor the dimensions are not available. The fifteenth example is a replica statue of Pharaoh Seti II in display in the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum at California and shown in Fig.15 [26]. The designer showed the Pharaoh kneeing, wearing a short Schenti, a Nemes headdress with Cobra on its front and holding a shrine to be presented to Amun. Here, the designer did not show the Pharaoh with thin long beard as in the design of Fig.14.

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Fig.13 Statue of Merneptah [24].

Fig.14 Statue of Seti II [25].

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Fig.15 Statue of Merneptah [26].

The last example from the 19th Dynasty is painted quartzite head for Amenmesse, the 6th Pharaoh (1201-1198 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum at NY and shown in Fig.16 [27]. The Pharaoh was shown wearing the Blue Crown of ancient Egypt with a Cobra on its front.

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Fig.16 Statue of Amenmesse [27]. THE 20TH DYNASTY

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The 20th Dynasty of ancient Egypt covers a time span from1189 to 1077 BC ruled by 10 Pharaohs starting by Setnakhte and ending by Ramses XI [28]. Some of the human stone judging the evolution of stone statues industry in the New Kingdom of Egypt are presented below: - Fig.17 shows a basalt statue of Ramses III, the 2nd Pharaoh of the 20th Dynasty (11861156 BC) in display in the Rockefeller Museum at East Jerusalem [29]. The Pharaoh was shown wearing a decorated Nemes headdress. - The second example is a granite striding statue for Pharaoh Ramses III in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.18 [30]. The Pharaoh is shown wearing a long Schenti, a decorated Nemes with a Cobra on its front and holding a Royal Bar by its left hand while his right is extending downwards. Even though the granite is one of the hardest stone, the carver could produce this wonderful piece with too many details and build-in decorations in the Schenti, headdress and bar.

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Fig.17 Statue of Ramses III [29].

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Fig.18 Striding statue of Ramses III [30]. The third example is a kneeling mudstone statue for Ramses IV, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 20th Dynasty (1155-1149 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.19 [31]. The designer showed the Pharaoh as an old man wearing a short Schenti with front tail, decorated Nemes headdress with front Cobra and holding two ointment jars, one per palm. The fourth example is a granodiorite statue of the High Priest Ramessesnakht during the rein of Pharaoh Ramses IV (1155-1149 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.20 [32]. The designer showed the Priest as a Scribe in a writing position with a paper on his thighs and a pen in his right hand. He is wearing a special headdress.

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Fig.19 Kneeling statue of Ramses IV [31].

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The fourth example is a statue for Ramses V, the 4th Pharaoh of the 20th Dynasty in display in the Egyptian Museum and shown in Fig.21 [33]. He is wearing a short Schenti with front tail, Nemes headdress and a Double Crown over the headdress. He is holding an object using his both hands. The last example is a granite statue for Ramses VI, the 5th Pharaoh of the 20th Dynasty in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.22 [34].

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Fig.20 Statue of Priest Ramessesnakht [32].

Fig.21 Statue of Ramses V [33].

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Fig.22 Statue of Ramses VI [34]. Page 113

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CONCLUSIONS

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REFERENCES D. Magdolen, “Two fragments of an ancient Egyptian statue in the City Museum Bratislava ”, Asian and African Studies, vol.11, issue 2, pp.147-160, 2002. P. Sadikoglu, "Ancient Egyptian art influence on modern time through history", Boyut Publisher, 2007. A. Olivier, "Social statues of elite women of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt: A comparison of artistic features", Master of Arts Thesis, University of South Africa, June 2008. E. Sullivan, "The development of the Temple of Karnak", Digital Karnak, Los Angeles, http://dlib.etc.ucla.edu/projects/Karnak , 2010.. L. Green, "Diagnostic use of the uraeus combination by Queen and Goddesses in the 19th Dynasty", The 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt, April 27-29, 2012. S. Iskander, "2011-2012 New York University Epigraphic and conservation expedition to the Temple of Ramses II at Abydos", The 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt, April 27-29, 2012.

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The evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the study of the human stone statues industry during the 19th and 20th Dynasties was investigated. The characteristics of the ancient Egyptian human stone statues were presented . Samples of the ancient Egypt human stone statues were presented from the collections of national and international museums. The study covered ancient Egyptian historical periods during the 19th and 20th Dynasties. The Khat headdress continued to appear in both 19th and 20th Dynasties. Short Schenti with front tail was the common Royal dress during both 19th and 20th Dynasties. The Nemes headdress with or without Cobra on its front was the common Royal headdress in both dynasties. Blue Crown was in use during the 19th Dynasty. The Double Crown was in used during both 19th and 20th Dynasties. Singe or double Cobra were used with some headdresses and Crowns. Some Pharaohs appeared in their statues with thin long beard. Royal and Elite women appeared in both dynasties with nicely decorated headdresses. In a unique appearance one Pharaoh from the 20th Dynasty appeared smiting the head of his enemy. The ancient Egyptians of the 19th and 20th Dynasties designed and carved stone statues is setting, striding and kneeing positions. They used granite, alabaster, sandstone, mudstone, basalt, quartzite and granodiorite in producing their human stone statues during the 19th and 20th Dynasties

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The designer showed the Pharaoh wearing a short decorated Schenti, a decorated Khat, a Crown above the Khat headdress. The Pharaoh is in a striding fighting position holding a military axe in his right palm and an enemy hair in his left palm as clear in the zoomed view of Fig.22.

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[7] P. Dorman, T. Garnet and H. James, "Egyptian art and architecture", www.britannic.com/art/Egyptian-art , 2016. [8] G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXXIII: Stone statues industry (Predynastic to Old Kingdom)", International Journal of Recent Engineering Science, vol.30, pp.5-16, December 2016. [9] G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXXIV: Stone statues industry (11th to 17th Dynasties)", International Journal of Engineering and Techniques, vol.2, issue 6, 2016 (Under Publication). [10] G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXXV: Human stone statues in the 18th Dynasty", World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 2016 (Accepted for Publication). [11] Wikipedia, "Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nineteenth_dynasty_of_Egypt , , 2016 [12] Wikipedia, "Ramesses I", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramesses I , 2016. [13] A. Shaffary, "Striding statue of Seti I, Dynasty 19", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/210754457536953091/ [14] J. Cromb, "Queen Tuya, wife of Pharaoh Seti I of Egypt and mother of Ramesses II", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/465911523924331261/ [15] British Museum, "Statue of Ramses II, the younger Memnon",

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[16] J. Wagner, "Seated statue of Ramesses II", http://www.penn.museum/blog/collection/125th-anniversary-object-of-the-day/seatedstatue-of-ramesses-ii-object-of-the-day-113/, 2012. [17] Sophy 1, "Luxor statue of Ramses II", http://www.sophyl.com/aegypten/017-luxorstatue-ramses-2.html [18] The Heretic Pharaoh, "The best known stattue of Ramses II at the Turin Museum", http://thehereticpharaoh.tumblr.com/post/48646268136/the-best-known-statue-oframses-ii-at-the-turin [19] Alamy, "Ramses square, the colossal statue of Ramses II", http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-egypt-cairo-ramses-square-the-colossal-statue-oframses-ii-48072420.html , 2016. [20] Ingpeace Project, "Four colossal statues of Ramesess II", http://ingpeaceproject.com/2015/11/ , 2015. [21] A. Clark, "Ptahmai with his wife Hatshepsut and his daughter", www.pinterest.com/pin/3523363708308391260/

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[22] Artres, "Statue of Ramesses II's daughter, 19th Dynasty", http://www.artres.com/C.aspx?VP3=ViewBox_VPage&VBID=2UN365NZODLYX&IT =ZoomImageTemplate01_VForm&IID=2UN39YWE80R&PN=37&CT=Search&SF=0 [23] Catja, "Sandstone conglomerate statue of Khaemwaset", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/517280707171650745/ [24] Art & Archaeology, "Colossus of Merneptah", http://www.art-andarchaeology.com/egypt/egy51.html [25] A. Burnett, "Statue of King Seti II from the Egyptian Museum of Turin", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/176062666655508529/ [26] Wikipedia, "A replica statue of Seti II holding a shrine to Amun", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seti_II www.ijaetmas.com

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[27] Metropolitan Museum, "Head of King Amenmesse wearing the Blue Crown", http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/34.2.2/ [28] Wikipedia, "Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twentieth_Dynasty_of_Egypt , 2016. [29] Alamy, " Statue of Ramses III from Beth Shean" , http://www.alamy.com/stock-photostatue-of-ramses-iii-from-beth-shean-1184-1153-bc-basalt-on-display-86312071.html [30] R. Brewer, "Striding statue of Ramses III as a standard bearer of Amun", https://fr.pinterest.com/pin/380835712222292079/ [31] British Museum, " Kneeling mudstone figure of Ramses IV", http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details/colle ction_image_gallery.aspx?partid=1&assetid=22761003&objectid=177337 [32] World History, " High Priest Ramessesnakht as scribe, reign of Ramesses IV", http://www.worldhistory.biz/ancient-history/55038-9-nineteenth-twentiethdynasties.html , 2015. [33] Cfeetk, " Striding statue of Ramesses V ", www.cfeetk.cnrs.fr/karnak/?ck=262&hl=ar [34] World History, " Ramesses VI smiting Libyan enemy", http://www.worldhistory.biz/ancient-history/55038-9-nineteenth-twentiethdynasties.html , 2015.

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BIOGRAPHY

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Galal Ali Hassaan:  Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control.  Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974.  Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby.  Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.  Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering.  Published more than 200 research papers in international journals and conferences.  Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering.  Chief Justice of the International Journal of Computer Techniques.  Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including IJAETMAS.  Reviewer in some International Journals.  Scholars interested in the author's publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XXXVII: Human Stone Statues Industry (Third Intermediate and Late Periods) Galal Ali Hassaan

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Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Udjahorresnet (519-510 BC) [4] Wikipedia (2016) wrote two articles about Pharaohs Shabata (721-707 BC) and Taharqa (690664 BC) of the 25th Dynasty. They presented a stone head and a broken statue for Pharaoh Shabaka in display in the Louvre Museum at Paris. For Pharaoh Taharqa, they presented a granite sphinx from Kawa in Sudan, a kneeling statue offering jars to Falcon-God Hemen and a Shabti for him [5,6]. Hassaan (2016,2017) investigated the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through studying the industry of the human stone statues in periods extending from the Predynastic down to the 20th Dynasty. He presents too many examples of human stone statues from each period focusing on the mechanical characteristics of each statue [7-10].

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ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to investigate the development of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the production of human stone statues during the Third Intermediate and Late Periods. This study covers

Keywords –Mechanical

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the design and production of stone statues from the 21st to the 31st Dynasties showing the type and characteristics of each statue. The decoration, inscriptions and beauty aspects of each statue were highlighted. engineering history, stone statues, Third Intermediate Period, Late Period.

INTRODUCTION

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Ancient Egyptians built a great stone industry for statues in all sizes and using various stones available naturally in Egypt. They master cutting and carving even very hard stones with hand tools and produced statues very fine in design and production. This is the last part in this aspect presenting the production of human stone statues in the 3rd Intermediate and Late Periods of the ancient Egyptian history. Lutz (1930) presented 65 statues and statuettes from Old Kingdom to the Graeco-Roman Periods. His presentation included statues from Egyptian Late Period [1]. Teeter (2003) in her book about ancient Egypt presented some stone statues from the 3rd Intermediate Period including a statue for the Priest of Hathor from the 22nd / 23rd Dynasties. She presented also statues from the Late Period including a statue for Amun from the 26 th Dynasty [2]. Bard (2007) in her book about the archaeology of ancient Egypt presented a number of statues from different historical periods including the 3rd Intermediate Period. She presented a stone statue for Pharaoh Taharqa, the 5th Pharaoh of the 25th Dynasty [3]. Colburn (2014) in his Ph.D. Thesis presented a number of stone statues from the Late Period of Egypt. She presented a greywacke statue for Horwedja (521-486 BC), a schist statue for Ptahhotep (500-475 BC) and a basalt statue for

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THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

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The Third Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt extends over the time period from 1070 to 664 BC and comprises the Dynasties from the 21st to the 25th [11]. We have examples of human stone statues during this period from the 21st, 22nd and 25th Dynasties presented as follows: The 21st Dynasty: - The first example is a setting statue of Psusennes I, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty (1047-1001BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.1 [12]. Why two statues ?. Is he the Pharaoh and his wife ?.. Is it a twin statue for the Pharaoh ? .. No one knows. If the figure in the left of the page is for the Pharaoh, then he is wearing a Nemes headdress and has a long beard as clear in the zoomed image of Fig.1.

Fig.1 Setting statue of Pasusennes I [12]. 1

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume31 January 2017 The Pharaoh is wearing a long decorated Schenti basalt block statue for Sau-Hor from Tanis of and a Nemes headdress. Unfortunately, there is no ancient Egypt (1075-944 BC) shown in Fig.4 label beside the statue saying anything !!. The [15]. This is a continuation of the block statue details of the face are not clear. appeared before in the 12th Dynasty [8]. The designer shoed Sau-Hor wearing a long Robe The second example is a broken stone statue inscribed in two columns in the front just for Osarkon the Ender, the 5th Pharaoh (992above each feet. He is wearing a decorated 986 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Khat headdress and there is a small figure Cairo (?) and shown in Fig.2 [13]. The between his feet. Pharaoh is wearing a decorated Nemes with Cobra on its front.

Fig.4 Block statue of Sau-Hor [15].

Fig.2 Statue of Osarkon the Elder [13].

The 22nd Dynasty:

The third example is a setting statue of Psusennes II, the 6th Pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty (967-943 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.3 [14]. The designer showed the Pharaoh wearing a decorated short Schenti, putting both hands on his chest and holding the Crook and Flail symbols in both palms.

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The first example from the 22nd Dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period is a basalt block statue for Nes-Ba-Neb-Dedet (946-736 BC) in display in the Walters Art Museum at Baltimore, USA and shown in Fig.5 [16]. The designer showed the statue owner rapped in his robe and wearing a decorated Khat. The front of his Robe is fully inscribed. All the surfaces are filleted as great mechanical engineering tradition in ancient Egypt.

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Fig.3 Setting statue of Pasusennes II [14].

The last example from the 21st Dynasty is a

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Fig.5 Block statue of Nes-Ba-Neb-Dedet [16]. The second example is sphinx statue Shoshenq I, the 1st Pharaoh of the 22nd Dynasty (943-922 BC) in display in the Louvre Museum of Paris

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume31 January 2017 and shown in Fig.6 [17]. The statue carries inscriptions for three Pharaohs from 12 th , 19th and 22nd Dynasties. It shows the Pharaoh wearing a Nemes headdress with Cobra on its front and having a thing long beard.

Fig.8 Standing statue of Shoshenq II [19].

The 23rd Dynasty: - There is one example from the 23rd Dynasty. It is a Greywacke block statue fro Hor (775 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Berlin and shown in Fig.9 [20]. It is a continuation of the block-statues types emerged during the 12th Dynasty. Even though greywacke is one of the hardest stones, the carver could carve it perfectly with very clear elements for the face and perfectly rounded corners as depicted in the zoomed view. Hor is wearing a Khat and his robe is inscribed by two deities. .

Fig.6 Sphinx statue of Shoshenq I [17]. The third example from this dynasty is a basalt block statue for Prince Nimlot (910-896 BC) in display in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, and shown in Fig.7 [18]. It has a height of 0.775 m The front of the Prince robe is fully inscribed and he is wearing a Khat headdress..

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The fourth example is a standing statue for Shoshenq II, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 22nd Dynasty ((887-885 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.8 [19]. The designer showed the Pharaoh standing, wearing a long Schenti with long decorated front tail, a Nemes headdress, a pectoral and holding objects in both hands. As clear from the zoomed image in Fig.8, this is a high class carved piece with very attractive features of the face showing how the ancient Egyptians mastered the carving art.

Fig.9 Block statue of Hor (23rd Dynasty) [20]. The 25th Dynasty: - The 1st example of stone human statues produced during the 25th Dynasty is a schist block statue for Hor son of Ankhkhonsu (770712 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.10 [21]. It has an 0.51 m height. The statue owner is wearing a Khat and an inscribed robe. There is a vital

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Fig.7 Block statue of Prince Nimlot [18].

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume31 January 2017 difference in this block-statue designed compared with all the previous designs. That is the two hands are emerging out of the robe and how he is putting the right hand over the left hand on his knees.

Fig.12 Standing statue of Shepenwepet [23].

Fig.10 Block statue of Hor (25th Dynasty) [21].

The 2 example is a standing statue for Khonsuiraa (760-660 BC) in display in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and shown in Fig.11 [22]. It is carved from a black stone and hs an 0.435 m height. The owner is shown wearing a medium Schenti with belt and a tight cap headdress. He is holding an object in each hand.

The 4th example of human stone statues in the 25th Dynasty is a setting statue for Harwa (710 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.13 [24]. Harwa was shown holding two figures and having a necked head.

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Fig.11 Standing statue of Khonsuiraa [22]. The 3rd example is again a standing statue of Princess Shepenwepet II, daughter of Piye, the 1t Pharaoh of the 25th Dynasty (752-721 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.12 [23]. She is wearing a long Tunic, twofeather Crown with a Cobra on its front and holding an object in each palm.

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Fig.13 Setting statue of Harwa [24].

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The 5th example is a statue for Shebitku, the 4th Pharaoh of the 25th Dynasty (707690 BC) in display in the Nubian Museum at Aswan and shown in Fig.14(a) [25]. There is no information about the stone nor the dimensions nor the design of the whole statue. Another statue for the same Pharaoh is shown in Fig.14 (b) [26]. There is no information about the statue stone, present location or dimensions. The Pharaoh is shown wearing the standard Nemes headdress with a Cobra on its front.

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume31 January 2017 Pharaoh in display in the Sudan National Museum and shown in Fig.16 [28]. The designer showed the Pharaoh wearing the Double Crown of ancient Egypt with Cobra on its front and having a thin long beard.

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The 6 example is a granite sphinx statue for Taharqa, the 4th Pharaoh of the 25th Dynasty (690-664 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.15 [27]. The Pharaoh is wearing a Khat with two Cobra on its front. The height of the statue is 0.406 m and the face was carved professionally even though granite is one of the hardest stones. The 7th example is again for Pharaoh Taharqa.

The 8th example is a granodiorite block statue for Padimahes (680-650 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum at NY and shown in Fig.17 [29]. It has a height of 0.463 m and shows the owner wearing a Khat headdress, and an inscribed robe from the front. The hands are crossed on the knee similar to the design presented in Fig.10.

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Fig.16 Taharqa standing statue [28].

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(b) Fig.14 Statue of Pharaoh Shebitku [25,26].

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Fig.15 Statue of Pharaoh Taharqa [27]. The 7th example is again for Pharaoh Taharqa which is a standing statue for the

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Fig.17 Block statue of Padimahes [29]. The 9th and last example is a statue head for Tantamani, the last Pharaoh of the 25th

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume31 January 2017 Dynasty (664-656 BC) in display in the in Figs.10 and 17 and wearing a Khat headdress. Ashmolean Museum of Oxford and shown The front surface of the robe is fully inscribed as in Fig.18 [30]. The designer showed the clear in the zoomed image of Fig.19. Pharaoh wearing the Double-Feather Crown with very clear details of his face. - The 2nd example is a basalt block statue Unfortunately, the stone type is not for Harsomtusemhat (664-610 BC) assigned. holding the sesheshet sistrum in display in the Lower Egypt Archaeology Museum at Madrid and shown in Fig.20 [33]. The height of the statue is 0.435 m and the designer showed the owner wearing a short Schenti (the legs are necked), a Khat headdress with hands above his knees. .

Fig.18 Statue of Pharaoh Tantamani [30].

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THE LATE PERIOD

The Late Period of ancient Egypt covers Dynasties from the 26th to the 31st over the time span from 664 to 3321 BC [31]. We have examples of human stone statues produced during the 26th, 29th and 30th Dynasties detailed as follows: The 26th Dynasty: - The 1st example is for the Army General Pa-Di-Chahdedet who was in service during the reign of Psamtic I, the 1st Pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty (664-610 BC)in display in the Louvre Museum and shown in Fig.19 [32].

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The 3rd example is a greywacke block statue for Paakhref (664-525 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.21 [34]. The designer showed the owner in the old classical design with both hands on the knee under the robe, wearing a Khat headdress with a symbol in the front without any inscriptions.

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Fig.20 Block statue of Harsomtusemhat [33].

Fig.21 Block statue of Paakhref[34].

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Fig.19 Block statue of Pa-Di-Chahdedet [32]. The designer showed the Army General putting both hands on his knees in a position similar to that

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The 4th example is a granodiorite kneeling

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume31 January 2017 statue for Nespaqashuty, the Vizier of and it is of the design started in the 25th Pharaoh Psamtiik I (664-610BC) in Dynasty (Fig.10) with inscriptions on the display in the British Museum and shown whole front surface. in Fig.22 [35]. The designer showed the Vizier kneeling, holding an object by both hands, wearing a medium Schenti and a Khat headdress.

Fig.24 Block statue of Shebenhor [37].

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Fig.22 Kneeling statue of Nespaqashuty [35].

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The 5th example is a limestone block statue for Djedbastetiufankh (664-600 BC) in display in the Cleveland Museum of Art, USA and shown in Fig.23 [36]. The designer showed the owner wrapped in his robe with both hands on his knees under the robe with fingers emerging out of the robe. The zoomed image of the face shows that the designer showed a problem with the eyes of the owner. This indicates the truth of both designer and carver in the ancient Egyptian society.

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The 7th example is a block statue for PaAnkh-Ra, a Ship Master in the 26th Dynasty (650-633 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum and shown in Fig.25 [38]. The design of this block statue is similar to that shown in Fig.20 where the owner wears a short or medium Schenti and the legs and hand are appearing. There is a figure for an ancient Egypt deity between his legs. He is wearing a Khat headdress.

Fig.25 Block statue of Pa-Ankh-Ra [38].

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Fig.23 Block statue of Djedbastefiufankh [36].

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The 6th example is a basalt block statue for Shebenhor (664-525 BC) in display in the Art Institute of Chicago and shown in Fig.24 [37]. The statue height is 0.28 m 7 www.ijresonline.com

The 8th example is statue for Padiaset (600-525 BC) of height 0.286 m sold in a sail in London for 136900 £ and shown in Fig.26 [39]. The designer showed the owner standing and holding a deity in front of him. The height of the statue is 0.286 m, wearing a long Schenti and a Khat headdress. The zoomed image depicts the professional carving of the statue where the face shows the serious pose of the owner.

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Fig.26 Standing statue of Padiaset [39]. The 9th example is a stone head for Apries, the 4th Pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty (589570 BC) shown in Fig.27 [40]. The designer showed the Pharaoh wearing a Cap with a symbol on its front. The head was professionally carved even though the stone type nor the location are known !!.

Fig.28 Head of Pharaoh Amasis II [41].

The 29th Dynasty: -

The 1st example from the 29th Dynasty of the Late Period is a sphinx statue of Nepherites I, the first Pharaoh of the 29th Dynasty in display in the Louvre Museum at Paris and shown in Fig.29 [42]. The stone type is not defined and the surfaces are smooth and shining through good polishing.

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Fig.27 Head of Pharaoh Apries [40].

The 10th and last example from the 26th Dynasty is again a stone head for Amasis II, the 5th Pharaoh of the Dynasty (570526 BC) in display in the Neues Museum at Berlin and shown in Fig.28 [41]. The designer showed the Pharaoh wearing a decorated Nemes headdress with a symbol on its front.

Fig.29 Sphinx statue of Pharaoh Nepherites I [42].

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The 30th Dynasty: - The 1st example from the 30th Dynasty is a schist head for Wesirwer, the Priest of Mont (380-342 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum and shown in Fig.30 [43]. The designer showed the Priest with hair completely cut and without any headdress. The details of his face depicts very high professionalism in carving his statue. The face elements look as if it is captured using a digital camera and not manually carved by an ancient Egyptian 8

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume31 January 2017 shown wearing a Cap with a symbol on its front.

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stone carver.

Fig.30 Head of Priest Wesirwer [43]. The 2nd example is a granodiorite block statue for Ankh-Pekhred (380-340 BC) in display in the Walters Art Museum and shown in Fig.31 [44]. It is of the block statues type presented before in Figs.10, 17, 19, 20, 24 and 25. The owner is wearing an undecorated Khat headdress, having a short thin beard and the front surface of his robe is fully inscribed in rows. Even though the diorite is one of the hardest stoned, the carver could generate the face elements with very high profession as clear in the zoomed image of the owner face in Fig.31.

Fig.32 Head of Pharaoh Nectanebo II [45].

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The 31st Dynasty: - The only example of stone statues available is a granite statue for a man in Persian costume in display in the Brooklyn Museum and shown in Fig.33 [46]. The height of the statue is 0.79 m and the man is shown wearing a Khat headdress and a Persian cloth.

Fig.31 Block statue of Ankh-Pekhred [44].

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Fig.33 Statue of a man in Persian costume [46].

The 3rd and last example is a granodiorite head for Nectanebo II, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 30th Dynasty (360-343 BC) in display in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and shown in Fig.32 [45]. The Pharaoh is 9 www.ijresonline.com

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This paper investigated the evolution of Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the design and production of human stone statues during the Third Intermediate and Late Periods. The ancient Egyptians produced setting, standing, sphinx and block statues during the Third Intermediate Period. The produced standing, kneeling, sphinx and block statues during the Late Period. They designed stone statues with Khat, Cap, Nemes, Double Crown and Two-feather Crown during the Third Intermediate Period. They designed stone statues with Khat, Nemes and Cap headdress during the Late Period. Block stone statues were produced extensively during both periods. Stone statues with robe, sort, medium and long Schenti were produced in both periods. Stone types used during both periods: Basalt, greywacke, schist, granite, granodiorite and limestone. The designer of block statues presented three different designed of block statues during both periods: The classical design appeared in the 12th Dynasty. A modified design with both hands emerging out of the robe above the knees. Both hands and legs appearing in the statue. There was a relatively lack of information about the stone statues of both periods relative to the other periods of the ancient Egypt history.

REFERENCES

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Part XXXV: Human stone statues in the 18 th Dynasty, World Journal of Engineering Research, vol.3, issue 1, pp.1-15, 2017. [10] G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXXVI: Stone statues industry in the 19th and 20th Dynasties, International Journal of Advancement in Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Science, vol.3, issue 12, pp.106-116, 2016. [11] Wikipedia, Third Intermediate Period of Egypt, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Intermediate_Period_of _Egypt , 2016. [12] Ancient Egypt, Statue of King Pasusennes I, 21 st Dynasty,, http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/cairo%20museum/cm,%20burials/pages/egpyt ian_museum_cairo_2072.htm , 2014 [13] Crystalinks, Twenty first dynasty of Egypt, , http://www.crystalinks.com/dynasty21.html [14] Wikipedia, Pasusennes II, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pasusennes_II , 2016. [15] Stonefinder, An Egyptian basalt block statue of Sau-Hor, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/137641332332816390/ [16] Walters Museum of Fine Arts, Block statue of Nes-BaNeb-Dedet, , http://art.thewalters.org/detail/17566/block-statue-of-nes-baneb-dedet-2/ [17] G. Wood, Museum piece 3-A23, https://egyptianaemporium.wordpress.com/2012/07/13/ museum-piece-3-a23/ , 2012. [18] Global Egyptian Museum, Block statue of Prince Nimlot, http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/detail.aspx?id=5 122 [19] Wikipedia, Shoshenq C, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shoshenq_C ,2016. [20] Wikipedia, Block statue of Hor, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_statue#/media/File:B lock_statue_of_Hor_%C3%84gyptisches_Museum_Berlin.j pg [21] N. Kuran, Block statue of Hor, son of Ankhkhonsu, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/345792077621591274/ [22] Museum of Fine Arts, Statue of Khonsuiraa, http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/statue-ofkhonsuiraa-36498 [23] Sites Google, Shepenwepet II , https://sites.google.com/site/historyofancientegypt/god-swife-of-amun/shepenwepet-ii [24] A. Hegab, Statue of Harwa holding two figures, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/405886985139159375/ [25] Commons Wikipedia, Shebitku statue (Nubian Museum), https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Shebitku%E2% 80%99s_statue_(Nubian_Museum).jpg , 2012 [26] A. Appling, Pharaoh Shebitku – 25th Dynasty , https://www.pinterest.com/pin/442056519644000579/ [27] British Museum, Granite sphinx of Taharqa, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/ collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=116211&partId=1 [28] Getty Images, Taharqa pictures and images, http://www.gettyimages.com.au/photos/taharqa?exclud enudity=true&mediatype=photography&phrase=taharqa &sort=mostpopular , 2017. [29] J. Martines, Block statue of Padimahes, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/205476801721183572/ [30] H. Ollenmann, Statue inscribed with the name of Tantamani , https://www.flickr.com/photos/menesje/19288859158 [31] Wikipedia, Late Period of ancient Egypt , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_Period_of_ancient_Egy pt , 2016. [32] Global Egyptian Museum, Statue of Mankaure, Hator and Cyropolite, http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/detail.aspx?id=1 4994

CONCLUSION

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[1] H. Lutz, Egyptian statues and statuettes in the Museum of Archaeology of the University of California, Leipzig, J. Hinrichs' SCHE Buchhandlung, 1930. [2] E. Teeter, Ancient Egypt: Treasures from the collection of the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2003. [3] K. Bard, An introduction to the archaeology of ancient Egypt, Blackwell Publishing, 2007. [4] H. Colburn, The archaeology of achaemenidrule in Egypt, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, 2014. [5] Wikipedia, Shabaka, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shabaka , 2016. [6] Wikipedia, Taharqa, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taharqa , 2016. [7] G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXXIII: Stone statues industry (Predynastic to Old Kingdom), International Journal Recent Engineering Science, vol.30, pp.5-16, December 2016. [8] G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXXIV: Stone statues industry (11th to 17th Dynasties), International Journal of Engineering and Techniques, vol.2, issue 6, pp.171-177, 2016. [9] G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt,

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[45]

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amasis_II , 2016 Wikipedia, Nepherites I, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepherites_I , 2016 Brooklyn Museum, Head of Wesirwer, Priest of Montu, https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/object s/3615 Walters Art Museum, Block statue of Ankh-Pekhred, http://art.thewalters.org/detail/33974/block-statue-ofankh-pekhred/ Museum of Fine Arts, Head of Nectanebo II, http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/head-ofnectanebo-ii-272158 Brooklyn Museum, Egyptian man in a Persian Costume , https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/object s/3807

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES), ISSN: 2349-7157, volume31 January 2017 [33] Alamy, Block ststue of Harsomtusemhat (664-610 BC) , Research on Automatic Control, http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-block-statue-ofMechanical Vibrations , Mechanism harsomtusemhat-664-610-bc-sitting-on-a-socle-withSynthesis and History of Mechanical 76680993.html , 2017. [34] Tour Egypt, Statue of Engineering. Paakhref, http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/picture0510200 Published more than 200 research papers 5.htm in international journals and [35] A. Shaffery, Statue of Nespaqashuty, Southern Vizier. conferences. Dynasty 26 , Author of books on Experimental Systems https://www.pinterest.com/pin/210754457536954264/ [36] Tojo, Block statue of Djedbastetiufankh, Control, Experimental Vibrations and https://www.pinterest.com/pin/392165080026946387/ Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. [37] Isaw, Block stattue of Shebenhor, Chief Justice of the International Journal http://isaw.nyu.edu/exhibitions/wgre/highlights/blockof Computer Techniques. statue-of-shebenhor [38] K. Fesenko, Block statue of Pa-Ankh-Ra, ship master, Member of the Editorial Board of a Late Period, number of International Journals including https://www.pinterest.com/pin/111604896994673922/ IJRES.. [39] Bonhams, An Egyptian dark green stone statue of Padiaset Reviewer in some international journals. , https://www.bonhams.com/auctions/21928/lot/193/ [40] Revolvy, Apries, Scholars interested in the authors https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Osorkon publications can visit: %20the%20Elder http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal [41] Wikipedia, Amasis II,

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BIOGRAPHY

Galal Ali Hassaan:

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Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. 11 www.ijresonline.com

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RESEARCH ARTICLE

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XXXVIII: Nonstone, Non-wooden Human Statues Industry Galal Ali Hassaan

Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Abstract:

Predynastic Periods, ivory and lapis lazuli figurines from Hierakonpolis, ivory figurine from Abydos and ivory figurines from the 1st Dynasty [3]. Koehler (2010) presented a number of clay and ivory figurines from the Prehistory Periods of ancient Egypt [4]. Sourouzian (2010) in his book chapter about the Old Kingdom sculpture presented the ivory statuette of King Khufu of the 4th Dynasty, two copper statues of King Pepi I of the 6th Dynasty [5]. Gravett (2011) in her Ph. D. Thesis about the analysis of selected Egyptian bronze artifacts in the National Cultural History Museum stated that the museum collections included five bronze figures for Osiris. She analysed in details a large gilded bronze statue of Osiris from the 12th Dynasty [6]. Wikipedia (2015) wrote an article about bone carving clarifying its use in the Prehistoric era of ancient Egypt where many venus figurines were carved from bone [7]. Hassaan (2016,2017) studied the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through investigating the industry of human wooden statues during the Predynastic to Late Periods [8,9] and the human stone statues industry from Predynastic to Late Periods [10-14]. Wikipedia (2017) wrote an article about women in ancient Egypt and presented a bronze statue for a woman from the 22nd Dynasty in display in the Egyptian Museum at Berlin [15].

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I. INTRODUCTION Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in resource planning and using all available raw materials in their domestic and engineering applications. This research paper focuses on this fact in the industry of human statues using non-stone, non-wooden materials during a history span from Predynastic to Late Period. Smith (1960) in his book about ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston presented small statuettes produced during the Predynastic Periods from mud, clay and ivory. He presented also an ivory statue for King Menkaure of the 4th Dynasty, faience shawabties for Pharaoh Thutmose IV of the 18th Dynasty [1]. Branchi (1989) in his research paper about the Egyptian metal statuary during the Third Intermediate Period presented a hollow cast statue, a hollow-cast bronze statue for Pharaoh Osarkon I of the 21st Dynasty, a hollow-cast bronze with gold inlay for Amun, a hollow-cast bronze statue for a Queen from the 25th Dynasty, a Kushite female bronze figure from the 25th Dynasty, all in display in the Brooklyn Museum at NY [2]. Tassie (2008) in her Ph. D. Thesis about the social and ritual contexualisation of an Egyptian hair and hairstyle presented a copper statue for King Pepi I of the 6th Dynasty, ivory and clay figurines from the

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This paper is the 38th research paper in a series investigating the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt. It tries to achieve this purpose through investigating the production of ancient Egyptians non-stone, non-wooden statues during the era from Predynastic to Late Period. Each stone statue is presented chronically with present location if known and with engineering analysis showing its creativity. The presentation is classified according to the material used in producing the statues. Keywords — Mechanical engineering, ancient Egypt; non-stone; non-wooden statues

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II. BONE HUMAN STATUES Bone was the first raw material available easily for the ancient Egyptian to produce some of his needs including statuettes. The ancient Egyptian succeeded to carve bone from more than 5600 years. Here are some examples of his of his bone statuettes produced ed during th era of Naqada I (4000-3600 BC): - Fig.1 shows a figurine of a woman carved from bone during Naqada I of the Predynastic Period (4000-3500 BC) and in display in the British Museum at London [16]. Its height is 110 mm and the designer showed the lady ady putting both hands on her waist, wearing a headdress with painted horizontal bands, wearing a decorated panty and wearing a lapis lazuli eye glasses !! as clear in the zoomed view in Fig.1.

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Fig.2 Bone figurine from Naqada 1 [17]. III.

IVORY HUMAN STATUES

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Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephant's) and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing [18]. Ancient Egyptians knew ivory from very early times. They used it in producing figurines from more than 6000 years. Here are some examples of using ivory in producing statuettes and statues up to the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt.

Fig.1 Bone figurine from Naqada 1 [16]. The second example of bone statues is a woman figurine from Naqada 1 in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.2 [17]. [1 The designer showed the lady standing and her hands are both set vertically. She has no hair nor headdress and wearing only a decorated panty. The left hand and part of the face are broken.

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The first example is an ivory figurine for a woman and her child from Badari culture (4400-4000 BC) in display in the Neues Museum at Berlin and shown in Fig.3 [1 [19]. Even though, ivory has a moderate hardness, the carver could produce the many details for a standing lady carrying a child with primitive tools more than 6000 years ago. The lady was shown holding her child by her left hand on his waist and her righ hand on his left leg. The second example is an ivory statuette for King Khufu, the second Pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty (2589-2566 2566 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.4 [20]. The height of the statuette is 75 mm and the King was shown wearing a Modius Crown. The carver within the small

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BC) credited to De Agostini and shown in Fig.6 [22]. The designer showed the woman standing, wearing a medium length Tunic and a long decorated (painted) headdress. One f the hands is extending downward, while the other is on her chest underneath the Tunic.

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Fig.3 Ivory figurine from Badari [19].

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space available able of the statuette could carve the King face with very high professionalism.

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Fig.5 Figure of a boy from the 6th Dynasty [21].

Fig.4 Ivory statuette of King Khufu [20].

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The third example is a young boy figure of 142 mm height from the 6th Dynasty (2345 (23452181 BC) credited to De Agostini Agostin and shown in Fig.5 [21]. The carver showed the boy striding, completely necked and putting one of his fingers on his mouth. The statuette was nicely carved with very smooth surfaces and wonderful details. The hair, eyes and eyebrows were painted. The fourth example is an ivory statue for a female from the Old Kingdom (2686-2181 (2686

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Fig.6 Statue of a woman from the 6th Dynasty [22]. -

The fifth example is a painted ivory statuette of a nude girl from the 18th Dynasty (15431292 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum of New York and shown in Fig.7 [23]. The designer showed the girl striding with her right hand extending downward and her left hand on her chest. She is completely necked and putting something on her er head, may be a perfume cone or something else. The face and body are

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Fig.8 Statuette of a nude girl from the 18th/19th Dynasties [24 24].

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IV.

FAIENCE HUMAN STATUES

Fig.7 Statuette of a nude girl from the 18th Dynasty [23]. The sixth example is a 105 mm ivory statuette for a nude girl from the 18th/19th Dynasties credited to De Aqostini and shown in Fig.8 [24]. The designer again showed the girl completely necked except a nicely decorated headdress. The zoomed image depicts the beauty of the girl face. The carving of the whole state is more than wonderful and one can imagine it was carved using modern CNC machines. In the same time it reflects the glory of the 18th and 19th Dynasties of ancient Egypt.

Fig.9 Faience sphinx of Amenhotep enhotep III [26]. -

The second example is a 70 mm faience statuette of a Priest from the 18th Dynasty (1479-1458 1458 BC) shown in Fig.10 [27].

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The first example is a faience sphinx for Amenhotep III, the 9th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1391-1353 1353 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.9 [26]. The designer showed the Pharaoh wearing a Nemes headdress with Cobra on its front with thin tall beard and holding two offering pots in both hands.

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Faience iss the conventional name for fine tin-glazed pottery on a delicate pale buff earthenware body [25]. The ancient Egyptians knew faience ce and produced some products from it including statuettes as will be illustrated in the following examples from the New and Late Periods:

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Fig.12 Female faience statue from the 26th Dynasty [29]. It seems that the faience statue is for an old Roy Royal woman because the designer shoed here wearing a Crown above the long headdress. She is also wearing bracelets on her arm and wrist.

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V. TERRACOTTA HUMAN STATUES Terracotta is a clay-based based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous [30]. As a local easily obtained raw material, ancient Egyptians used terracotta in producing some of their statues since very early times (more ore than 5400 years). We have two examples of using this material in human statues production:

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Fig.10 Faience statuette of a Priest [27]. It takes the shape of classical stone block statues appeared during the 12th Dynasty and continued up to the Late Period [8,14]. It is of the design of putting both arms over the knees above the Schenti. The Priest is wearing a Khat headdress. This small statuette has an estimated sale price of $ 1000010000 15000 [27]. - The third example is a female figurine from the New Kingdom (1550-1077 1077 BC) in display in the Louvre Museum at Paris and shown in Fig.11 [28]. The designer showed the woman standing with both hands extending downward. He used a black colour to identify the short hair of the woman, her eyes, eyebrows, two necklaces, panty and decorations on hair waist and legs.

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The first example is a 292 mm female figurine from Naqada II (3500 (3500-3400 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum and shown in Fig.13 13 [31]. The designer showed the lady wearing a painted long Schenti down to her feet and raising her hands.

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Fig.11 Faience figurine from New Kingdom [28]. The fourth example is a female statue from the 26th Dynasty found within the funerary objects of six tombs excavated in the west bank of the River Nile near Aswan [29].

Fig.13 Female figurine from Naqada II [31]. -

The second example is a mourner woman from the 18th Dynasty in display in the Louvre Museum um and shown in Fig.14 [32].

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The designer showed the lady putting her right hand on her head with clear sadness signs on her face. She has a black hair and a black scarf around her neck.

Fig.16 Copper statue of King Pepi I [35].

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The third example is a 152 mm height copper kneeling statue of King Pepi I in display in the Brooklyn Museum and shown in Fig.17 [36]. The designer showed the King wearing a short Schenti with front tail and a decorated Nemes Headdress and offering two pots, one in each palm. The designer succeeded to produce the copper statue with different colors for the Schenti, the Nemes, the eyess and the eyebrows. This artefact indicates how the pioneer engineers could master using copper in constructing statuettes from more than 5000 years.

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The ancient Egyptians new copper from times starting from 4000 BC (during Naqada I Period) [33]. The copper statues available belongs to King Pepi I, the 3rd King of the 6th Dynasty and are presented as follows: - The first example is a small copper statue of the King found inside a life life-size copper statue. The statue is shown in Fig.15 [34]. The statue is hollow and the King was shown striding wearing a short Schenti and a Cap headdress as clear in the zoomed image of Fig.15. 15. The design and production p of the statue is more than excellent.

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The second example is a life-size life copper statue for King Pepi I in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.16 [35]. The designer showed the King striding, wearing a small Schenti and a Cap headdress and holding a long bar by his left palm and an object in his right palm. The eye is inlaid by limestone ne and obsidian.

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Fig.14 Mourner woman from the 18th Dynasty [32].

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Fig.15 Small copper statue of King Pepi I [34].

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Fig.19 Bronze statue of Seti I [38].

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The ancient Egyptians have known the bronze material as an alloy replacing the copper material to improve its mechanical properties since 270 2700 BC during the Old Kingdom [33]. Bronze statues appeared during the New Kingdom, Third Intermediate and Late Periods as will be illustrated by the following examples of bronze statues: - The first example is a bronze statue for Meryetmut from the 18th Dynast Dynasty in display in the Louvre Museum and shown in Fig18 Fig [37]. She designer could decorate the whole statue showing the woman wearing an elaborated half-sleeved sleeved Tunic, decorated headdress and a wide pectorals pectorals. Her face is painted black and she is raising her forearms f to the level of his waist.

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The third example is a 152 mm height statue for Imhotep, a Vizier izier and Architect of King Djoser manufactured from bronze during the 23rd Dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period (773-769 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.20 [39]. The designer showed him setting, putting his hands on his thighs, wearing a long Schenti and a Cap headdress as clear in the zoomed image. Both statuette and seat are from bronze indicating indi how the old Egyptians could master the technology of bronze casting from more than 2750 years.

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Fig.17 Kneeling neeling copper statue of King Pepi I [36].

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Fig.18 Bronze statue of Meryetmut [3 [37]. The second example is a bronze statue for Seti I, the 2nd Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty (1290-1279 1279 BC) from Memphis of Lower Egypt in display in the Metropolitan Museum and shown in Fig.19 [38]. The designer showed the Pharaoh striding, having a thin long beard, wearing a decorated short Schenti and a compound headdress with a Cobra on its front.

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precious-metal-inlaid Schenti with front tail and a decorated Nemes headdress with Cobra on its front. Again, the statue reflects the top technology of manufacturing bronze statues in the 26th Dynasty.

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The fourth example is a kneeling bronze statue for Necho II, the 2nd Pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty of ancient Egypt (610 (610-595 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum and shown in Fig.21 [40]. The designer showed the Pharaoh kneeling with both hands about 100 mm above his thighs, wearing a short decorated Schenti and a decorated Nemes headdress with Cobra on its front. This statue represents the top quality in using bronze in producing statues. There are too many details complicating the statue design, but the ancient cient Egyptians did it with high production quality may be available nowadays only using Computerized machines !!.

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Fig.20 Bronze statue of Imhotep [39]. -

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Fig.22 Bronze statue of Amasis II [41]. [41]

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The sixth example is a bronze statue of a woman from the 26th Dynasty, reign of Pharaoh Necho II in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.23 [42]. The designer showed the woman relatively necked with only a decorated headdress and a wide pectoral, putting her left hand on her right breast and her right hand extending fully with straight fingers. Even though, this is a metallic material not a stone or wood, the designer tried all his best to show the beauty of the woman. .

Fig.21 Bronze statue of Necho II [40]. The fifth example is a 110 mm height bronze statuette for Amasis II, the 5th Pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty (570 570-526 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.22 [41]. The designer showed the Pharaoh kneeling and holding an offering pot in each hand, wearing a short

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VIII. GOLD HUMAN STATUES The ancient Egyptians new gold mining from more than 6000 years and gold artefacts were discovered dated to about 3500 BC [43], ], i.e. to the end of Naqada I. We have examples of golden statues from the golden age of the New Kingdom presented as follows: - The first example is a two golden statue statuettes for Tutankhamun, the 13th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1332-1323 1323 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.24 [44]. The mechanical designers showed the Pharaoh striding, holding a Crook in his left hand, wearing a Schenti with long belt, a sandal and a Crown. One of the statuettes with the Upper-Egypt Egypt-Crown (to the left) and the other with th the Lower LowerEgypt-Crown Crown (to the right) with Cobra on the front of the Crown. The eyes and eyebrows may be outlined by precious or semi-precious stones.

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Fig.23 Bronze statue of a woman from the 26th Dynasty [42].

The second example is again a for the rich Pharaoh Tutankhamun.. It is a two life life-size gold statues for the Pharaoh in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.25 [45]. Here, the designer showed the Pharaoh having a dark blue skin may be through using semi-precious stones (or even painting), wearing a Schenti with trapezoidal belt, wearing a Khat in the left statue and a Nemes in the righ statue with Cobra on the front of each of them and holding a mace in his right hand and a spear in his left hand. The Pharaoh is wearing also a wide pectoral, a necklace and bracelets on his arm and wrest.

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The third example is a golden statue for Queen Tuya,, wife of Pharaoh Seti I and mother of the Great Pharaoh Ramses II of the 19th Dynasty in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.26 [46]. The designer reflected the wealth of the Royal and strong family of the 19th Dynasty. The Queen is wearing aring an elaborated headdress decorated from inside and outside, a wealthy wide pectorals and a coloured Tunic. The multi colours in the statue means that the designer used precious or semi semiprecious stones besides the gold in producing this valuable statue. statu

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Fig.24 Gold statuettes of Pharaoh Tut [44].

Fig.25 Gold statuettes of Pharaoh Tut [45].

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Fig.25 Gold statue of Queen Tuya [46]. The fourth example is a 175 mm height golden statue for Amun produced during the 22nd Dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period (945-712 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.26 [47]. The designer shown Amun wearing a medium Schenti, a Modius Crown, having a long thin beard, holding a sickle in his right hand and the ankh in his extending left hand. The old Egyptian Egyptians had the mechanical technology to manufacture this complex-man-full-size size statue from gold either using metal-sheet sheet pressing or metal casting more than 2700 years !.

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The first example is a silver statue for a Royal woman with the Cartouche Cartou of Neco II, the 2nd Pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty (610595 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.27 [48]. The designer showed the woman wearing a decorated Cap headdress and a pectoral. The Cartouche of the Pharaoh is clear on her right hand in the zoomed image of Fig.27. The technique used needs more close investigation to see if it was a silver-casting silver process or a pressing process.

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Fig.26 Gold statue of Amun [47].

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The second example is a 240 mm goldgold plated silver figure for Amun-Ra Amun from the 26th Dynasty in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.28 [49]. The designer showed Amun-Ra Amun striding while holding a short stick in his left hand and an object bject in his right hand, wearing a short Schenti, wide pectoral and a Double-reed Double Crown. The silver statue is plated by gold leafs at the Crown, pectoral and Schenti.

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IX. SILVER HUMAN STATUES The ancient Egyptians used silver as a raw material to produce human statues during the 26th Dynasty of the Late Period (664-525 BC). We have two example authorizing this fact:

Fig.27 Silver statue of a woman from the 26th Dynasty [48].

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Fig.28 Silver figure of Amun-Ra from the 26th Dynasty [49].

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since the time of Naqada II (more than 5400 years ago). A figurine from this period authorized using the long Schenti as as a ladies dress from this early time. The statues designers and technicians succeeded to translate the human feeling and character to their statues. Regarding metals as raw materials mat for the statues industry, they used copper, bronze, gold and silver. They produced valuable gold statues in small size and life size. They achieved production of very complex designs using copper, bronze and gold. Metallic statues were produced in standing, striding, kneeling and setting positions. They used semi-precious precious stones to act as functional parts in their designs. They could generate wonderful statue designs through decoration and inlay.

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X. CONCLUSIONS - Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in REFERENCES producing all types of human statues statues. 1. W. Smith, Ancient egypt as represented in the Museum of - They used most available-reasonable available Fine Arts, Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1960.. 1960. materials around them to produce statues 2. R. Bianchi, Egyptian statuarry of the Third Intermediate sustained environmental nvironmental effects for Period (1070-656 656 BC), Symposium on Small Bronze and thousands of years. Sculpiture from the Ancient World, The J. Paul Getty Museum, California, 16-19 19 March, 1989. 1989.. - They could carve animal bone and produce nice figurines since Naqada I of the 3. G. Tassie, The social and ritual contextualisation of ancient Egyptian hair and hairstyle from the Predynastic Period. Protodynastic to the end of the Old Kingdom, Ph.D. - Most of their women figurines in the Thesis, University College London, Institute of Predynastic Period appeared with panty. Archaeology, January 2008. - They could produce complex figurines using 4. E. Koehler, Prehistory in A. Lloyd (Editor), A companion to ancient egypt, Wiley-Blackwell, Blackwell, pp.25 pp.25-47, 2010 ivory since the Badari culture (more tthan 5. H. Sourouzian, Old Kingdom sculpiture, in A. Lloyd 6000 years). (Editor), A companion to ancient egypt, Wiley-Blackwell, Wiley - They carved an ivory statuette for King pp.853-881, 2010 Khufu of the 4th Dynasty. 6. V. Gravett, A critical analysis of selected Egyptian bronze artefacts in the National Cultural History Museum, - They continued to use ivory in the Master of Arts Thesis, University of South Africa, statuettes industry through the 6th, 18th and th February 2011. 19 Dynasties of ancient Egypt. 7. Wikipedia, Bone carving, - They produced wonderful sphinx from blue http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_Carving, http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_Carving 2015. faience during the 18th Dynasty Dynasty, block 8. G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical engineering in ancient egypt, Part XXXI: Human wooden stone statues (Predynastic to statuette and standing figurine during the 13th Dynasty), World Journal of Engineering Research New Kingdom and up to the 26th Dynasty of and Technology, vol.2, issue 6, pp.109-124, pp.109 2016. the Late Period. 9. G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical engineering in ancient egypt, - The ancient Egyptians used terracotta as a Part XXXII: Human wooden stone statues (New Kingdom raw material for the human-statues statues industry

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http://www.gettyimages.com/detail/photo/figure-ofyoung-boy-painted-ivory-statue-high-res-stockphotography/185737085 Getty Images, Female figure, ivory statue, Old Kingdom, http://www.gettyimages.com/detail/photo/female-figureivory-statue-from-abu-rawash-high-res-stockphotography/185734928 , 2017 C. Marsh, Painted ivory statuette of a nude girl, 18th Dynasty, https://uk.pinterest.com/pin/213076626100258241/ Getty Images, Female nude statue in ivory, 18th-19th Dynasty, http://www.gettyimages.com/detail/photo/female-nudestatue-in-ivory-height-10-5-cm-high-res-stockphotography/185736707 , 2017 Wikipedia, Faience, www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faience , 2016, Bible History, Sphinx of Amenhotep III, Dynasty 18, http://www.biblehistory.com/ancient_art/met/egypt/Sphinx_of_Amenhote p_III.html , 2001

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terracotta , 2017. Brooklyn Museum, Female figure, https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects /4225 32. U. Merete, Egyptian terracotta statue of a mourner, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/372250725420084054/ 33. A. Ead, History of science in egypt, IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, vol.19, issue 1, pp.94-97, 2014. 31.

Ancient Egypt, Small copper statue of Pepi I, http://www.ancient-egypt.org/history/old-kingdom/6thdynasty/pepi-i/statuary-of-pepi-i/small-copper-statue-ofpepi.html , 2014 World History, Royal sculpture, http://www.worldhistory.biz/ancient-history/63071-5royal-sculpture.html Brooklyn Museum, Kneeling statuette of Pepi I, https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects /3448 Venica Clay Artists, Ancient Egyptian Art, http://www.veniceclayartists.com/ancient-egyptian-artand-pottery/ Virtual Egyptian Museum, Bronze of King Seti I, Dynasty 19, https://www.virtual-egyptianmuseum.org/Collection/FullVisit/Collection.FullVisitJFR.html?../Content/MET.LL.00853.html&0 , 2004. Virtual Egyptian Museum, Imhotep, Vizier and Architect of King Djoser, https://www.virtual-egyptianmuseum.org/Collection/FullVisit/Collection.FullVisitJFR.html?../Content/MET.LL.00106.html&0 , 2004. F. Fardusun, Kneeling bronze statueof Necho II, Late Period, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/432978951658872645/ Metropolitan Museum, Kneeling statuette of King Amasis, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/148900331400512725/ Venice Clay Artists, Bronze statuette of a woman, Late Period, http://www.veniceclayartists.com/ancientegyptian-art-and-pottery/ D. Klemm, R. Klemm and A. Murr, Gold of the Pharaohs: 6000 years of gold mining in egypt and Nubia, African Earth Sciences, vol.33, pp.643-659, 2001. G. Herren, Golden statuettes of King Tutankhamun, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/211458144982646406/ R. Seaman, Statues of Tutankhamun, http://www.richardseaman.com/Travel/Egypt/Cairo/Museum/Tutankhamun/ Statues/ Dream Stima, Golden statue of Queen Tuya, https://www.dreamstime.com/editorial-stock-photoqueen-tuya-golden-statue-egyptian-museum-cairo-egypt-

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Live Aucctioneers, Ancient Egyptian faience statue of Priests, https://new.liveauctioneers.com/item/32001746_ancientegyptian-faience-statue-of-priests 28. Warboar Word Press, Tattooing in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, https://warboar.wordpress.com/2013/10/02/sss/ , 2013 29. Ancient Origins, Six tombs containing mummies belonging to elite figures of 26th Dynasty unearthed in Egypt, http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-historyarchaeology/six-tombs-containing-mummies-belongingelite-figures-26th-dynasty-020387 , 2016 27.

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and Late Period), International Journal of Advanced Research in Management, Architecture, Technology and Engineering, vol.2, issue 11, pp.1-6, 2016. G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical engineering in ancient egypt, Part XXXIII: Stone statues industry (Predynastic to Old Kingdom), International Journal of Recent Engineering Science, vol.30, pp.5-16, December 2016. G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical engineering in ancient egypt, Part XXXIV: Stone statues industry (11th to 17th Dynasties), International Journal of Engineering and Techniques, vol.2, issue 6, pp.171-177, 2016. G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical engineering in ancient egypt, Part XXXV: Human stone statues in the 18th Dynasty, World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, vol.3, issue 1, pp.1-15, 2017. G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical engineering in ancient egypt, Part XXXVI: Human stone statues in the 19th and 20th Dynasties, International Journal of Advancement in Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Science, vol.3, issue 12, pp.106-116, 2016. G. A. Hassaan, Mechanical engineering in ancient egypt, Part XXXVII: Human stone statues (Third Intermediate and Late Periods), International Journal of Recent Engineering Science, vol.31, pp.1-11, January 2017. Wikipedia, Women in ancient egypt, www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_ancient__Egypt , 2017. Archaic Wonder, Naqada bone figure of a woman, http://archaicwonder.tumblr.com/post/111511992118/naq ada-bone-figure-of-a-woman-upper-egypt-early , 2016 K. Prible, Female figure in carved bone, Naqada I, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/295900637997159035/ Wikipedia, Ivory, www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivory , 2017. E. Stephens, Woman and child figurine, Badari culture, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/321163017155167035/ Ancient Egypt, Ivory statuette of Kheops, http://www.ancient-egypt.org/history/old-kingdom/4thdynasty/kheops/kheops-statuary/ivory-statuette-ofkheops.html , 2016

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was-wife-pharaoh-seti-i-mother-tia-ramessesimage65149788 47. Metropolitan Museum, Statue of Amun, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/26.7.1412/ 48. H. Caner, Silver statue of a Royal woman, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/343540277803983515/ 49. British Museum, Gold-plated silver figure of Amun-Ra, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online /collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=154939&partId =1

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Galal Ali Hassaan  Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control.  Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974.  Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby.  Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.  Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering.  Published more than 200 research papers in international journals and conferences.  Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering.  Chief Justice of the International Journal of Computer Techniques.  Member of the Editorial Board of some international journals including IJET.  Reviewer in some international journals.

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BIOGRAPHY

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part XXXIX: Statues of Cats, Dogs and Lions

Galal Ali Hassaan

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Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt (Emeritus Professor)

ABSTRACT

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The evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt is investigated in this research paper through studying the production of statues of cats, dogs and lions. Examples from historical eras between Predynastic and Late Periods are presented, analysed and aspects of quality and innovation are outlined in each one. Material, dynasty, main dimension (if known) and present location are also outlined to complete the information about each animal artefact. Keywords: Mechanical engineering, ancient Egypt, cat statues, dog statues, lion statues

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INTRODUCTION

Ancient Egyptians produced statuettes and figurines for some of their animals since the Predynastic Periods. They used a variety of raw materials available in their lands and could produced items ranging from very small size to life size as will be investigated in the present study as indication of the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt.

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Capart (1905) in his book about primitive art in ancient Egypt presented a number of animal figurines . This included: Palettes in the form of lion, fish, hippopotami and tortoises, mace head in the form of tortoise, vases in the form of animals, furniture feet in the form of bull legs, flint figurines in the form of antelope, goat and sheep, clay and granite figurines of hippopotami, figurines of lions, dogs, baboons and monkeys, cattles, bull head amulets, double bull head amulet and a pottery figurine of a lion [1]. Smith (1960) in his book about ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston presented a number of animal figurines including animals in the form of slate palettes, a pottery and faience hippopotamus, ivory inlay from Kerma in the form of animals, wooden panther from the tomb of Pharaohs Thutmose IV and Tutankhamun [2]. Fischer (1968) studied the ancient Egyptian presentation of turtles. He presented a number of turtle statuettes from different historical eras besides a number of objects based in its shape on turtle configuration [3]. Arnold (1995) in his extensive study on Egyptian bestiary presented a large number of animal statues and statuettes of the ancient Egyptians. He presented a gazelle statue from the 18 th Dynasty, a three deben weight in the shape of a gazelle from the 18th Dynasty, an antelope head from the 27th Dynasty, an ibex from the 18th Dynasty, head of a jackal from the Late Period, lion from early dynastic, double leopard head from the 12th Dynasty, jerboas from Middle Kingdom, genet ftom the Late Period, turtles from the Old Kingdom, 12th and 26th Dynasties, a dish in the form of bolti fish from the 18th Dynasty, cat from the Late Period, cobra head from 18th Dynasty, cattle from the 12th Dynasty, bull's legs from Early Dunastic, apis bull from Late Period, horse and mouse from 18th Dynasty, hunting and crouching dog from 18th Dynasty, vessel in the form of a monkey and a monkey from the 6th Dynasty. Ambers et. Al. (2008) studied the technical investigation of the Gayer-Anderson cat which was one of the best known objects in the collections of the British Museum Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan. The cat statue was a life-size cast copper from the Late Period (600 BC). They presented different views for the cat and presented another view for another cat from Louvre Museum with eye inlays. Stevens (2009) in her article in the UCLA Encyclopaedia of Egyptology presented a number of figurines of animals from the Third Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt. Strandberg (2009) in her Ph. D. Thesis investigated the image and meaning of the gazelle in the ancient Egyptian art. She International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology V5 ● I2 ● February 2017

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presented a gazelle statue from the 18th Dynasty standing on a wooden base representing a desert ground [7]. Lankaster (2012) in his Ph. D. Thesis about Predynastic and Pharaonic era rock art in Egypt's central Eastern desert presented an evidence that ancient Egyptians hunted hippopotamus since the Predynastic Period. He outlined that elephant and giraffe were represented in Naqada I pottery and ibex was found in Predynastic contexts. Dogs were recorded on pottery since Naqada I and II and on palettes and knife handle in Naqada III [8].

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Breivik (2013) in her Master of Art Thesis about burial customs in Upper Egypt , Lower Nubia and Sinai desert presented samples of figurines used for this purpose. This included figurine of a clay hippo from Naqada II in the Ashmolean Museum, clay animals figurines from Amrah [9]. Bollen (2015) in her book about excavating the Near East through the tombs, tells and temples presented a number of statuettes of animals: ivory lion's head from the 9th-7th century BC [10]. Wing (2015) in his Master Thesis in Archaeology on Predynastic Egyptian presentations of animals presented a number of figurines from the Predynastic Period of Egypt. He presented a hippo in the form of a vessel and bead, a clay hippo from Naqada II, canid figurine, bull head amulet from Naqada, hippo comb handle, gazelle knife handle from Naqada II and a hippo amulet from Badari [11]. Wikipedia (2016) wrote an article about hunting, fishing and animals in ancient Egypt. They stated that some animals such as elephants, rhinoceros and hippopotamus lived in different parts of ancient Egypt [12]. Wikipedia (2017) wrote an article about cats in ancient Egypt. They presented a bronze statue of a cat, a lion-headed woman from the Late Period and a seated cat in display in Walters Art Museum [13].

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CATS STATUETTES AND STATUES

According to Hene Springer, cat was demonstrated in Egypt probably around 2000 BC [14] (i.e. during the 11th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom). We are going to present samples of the appreciation of cats in the ancient Egyptian society through statuettes during historical periods from the 12 th Dynasty to the Late Period. The examples may present statuettes for cats or applications in the form of cats such as vessels or amulets.

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 The first example is a cosmetic alabaster jar in the shape of a cat from Early 12 th Dynasty (1990-1900 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown in Figure 1 [15]. The design is really complex since it simulates the whole cat in a setting position with her front legs extended. The height of the cat is 140 mm, the eyes are inlaid with quartz crystal and the whole body is painted

Figure1. Cosmetic jar in the shape of a cat from the 12th Dynasty [15].

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 The second example is a faience crouching cat from the 17th Dynasty of the Second Intermediate Period (1500 BC) sold in the Christie's Sale on 26-27 October 2004 at London for 65725 US$ and shown in Figure 2 [16]. The length of the statuette is 55 mm and the designer showed the cat setting on her four legs and raising her middle part to take a dome shape. The price paid for this artefact shows how the world if fond of the ancient Egyptian Technology. They paid 1195 US$/mm of the cat length. Definitely it came out from Egypt with few dollars while Egypt is suffering from shortage of dollars.

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Figure2. Faience crouching cat from the 17th Dynasty [16].

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 The third example is a wooden toy cat with bronze teeth and moving jaws from the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BC) in display in British Museum and shown in Figure 3 [17]. The designer showed the cat standing, One of the cat-jaws is movable around a revolute joint and driven by a cord pulled externally as shown in the zoomed image of the head in Fig.3 through a small hole on the cat head. This is one of the measures of the ancient Egyptian science in the field of applied mechanics.

Figure3. Wooden toy cat from the New Kingdom [17].

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 The fourth example is a bronze figurine with inlaid gold from the 21st to 26th Dynasties (1081-525 BC) in display in the Los Angles Country Museum of Art shown in Figure 4 [18].

Figure4. Bronze cat figurine from the 21st-26th Dynasties [18].

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 This is an example on the high technology of the ancient Egyptians in the field of metal casting. Even though, the melting point of bronze is 1675 oC, they could produce the heat energy required to melt it and the machine elements required to cast it in a very complex

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mould to produce the complex item of Fig.4 integrated with its base. It is decorated by gold traces and a Horus eye symbol on its chest. This inlay requires very high technology level to apply it to sustain time and environmental effects for thousands of years !!.

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 The fifth example is a miniature carnelian cat decorating a golden-finger ring from the Third Intermediate Period (1070-1213 BC) in display in the British Museum shown in Figure 5 [17]. Even though carnelian is one of the hardest stones (semi=precious), ancient Egyptians could control its carving process to produce this miniature product with base of the same stone and fixtures with the ring wire through a revolute joint required to produce a swivel finger ring.

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Figure5. Carnelian cat figurine from the 3rd Intermediate Period [17].

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 The sixth example is a hollow cast bronze cat statue with gold-leaf eyes from the 22nd Dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period (945-712 BC) in display in the Penn Museum at Birmingham and shown in Figure 6 [19]. The designer showed the cat setting with front hands extending vertically and having a thick moustache and serious look with gold eyes. It is a colossal statue since its height is 0.56 m. The statue reflects the high mechanical technology used in casting this product more than 2730 years ago.

Figure6. Casted bronze cat statue from the 22nd Dynasty [19].

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 The seventh example is a 102 mm hollow cast bronze cat head from the Late Period (664-332 BC) sold in a sale in London on 26th April 2012 for 60270 US$ (690 US$/mm) and shown in Figure 7 [20]. Again, this unit was produced using a metal casting process. The details of the cat head complicated the mould design reflecting the high-level of both designers and casting technicians.

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Figure7. Casted bronze cat head from Late Period [20].

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 He eighth example is a setting bronze cat from the Late Period (after 600 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Figure8 [17]. The designer showed the cat wearing a silver necklace around her neck, gold ring in her nose and scarab on her head. The base under the cat took the shape of a U letter with the hands between the edges of the base. Definitely this and the jewellery will complicate the mould design, but for ancient Egyptians nothing is impossible. It is possible to add the jewellery later after casting and finishing the cat body.

Figure8. Casted bronze cat from Late Period [17].

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 The ninth example is a casted bronze model of a setting cat with gold inlay from the 26th Dynasty (600 BC) in display in the Louvre Museum at Paris and shown in Figure 9 [21].

Figure9. Casted bronze cat from the 26th Dynasty [21].

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DOGS STATUETTES AND STATUES

Ancient Egyptians authorized the existence of the dog animal in their societies through statuettes and statues since the Predynastic Period and through the New Kingdom. Here are some examples of their presentation to dogs starting by Naqada I of the Predynastic Period:

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 The first example is an ivory dog from Naqada I (4000 BC) in display in the Ashmolean Museum and shown in Figure 10 [22].

Figure10. Ivory dog from Naqada I [22].

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 The second example is again an ivory containers for cosmetics taking the shape of dogs from the Naqada I/Naqada II culture (3900-3300 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Turin and shown in Figure 11 [23]. The design is primitive and the designer tried to show the eyes properly through painting. The location of the container hole is not clear in the view of Figure11.

Figure11. Ivory dogs from Naqada I/Naqada II [23].

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 The third example is an ivory dog amulet from the 11th Dynasty (2110-2030 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Figure 12 [24]. Still the design and quality are primitive.

Figure12. Ivory dog from the 11th Dynasty [24].

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 The fourth example is a faience figurine of a dog from the 12th Dynasty during the reign of King Senwosret I (1971-1926 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Figure 13 [25]. The dog length is only 53 mm and has all its details shown in the figure and produced using the casting process. This is an elaborated design and production compared with the other models presented in figures 10, 11 and 12.

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Figure13. Faience dog from the 12th Dynasty [25].

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 The fifth example is a cosmetic spoon in the shape of a dog from the 18th Dynasty (1550-1295 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.14 [26]. The spoon length is 97 mm and is carved from bone with the dog head acting as a handle. This is a creative design since bone has a medium hardness and is a little brittle making it difficult to carve and produce a complex shape like that in Figure 14 and produce the details of the dog face and legs. Even though the designer showed the dog putting his right front log on his left front one and his chin over his left front leg.

Figure14. Bone dog spoon from the 18th Dynasty [26].

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 The sixth example is an ivory mechanical hunting dog from the 18th Dynasty, reign of the Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1390-1353 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Figure 15. The dog length is 180 mm and opens and closes his mouth using a lever under his chest. This is an outstanding example of the elaborated level of the carving process during the 18th Dynasty and the role of mechanical engineering in supporting the design of such dynamic products. The designer used revolute joints and a lever in designing this dog.

Figure15. Ivory hunting dog from the 18th Dynasty [27].

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 The seventh example is bronze figurine of a dog with an ivory fish in its mouth from Late 18th Dynasty (1350 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Figure 16 [28]. It is not clear what is on the rear back of the dog. The dog and the base are integrated with each other and the mould designer has to consider this which complicated the design which is already complex because of the details of the dog face, front legs, back legs and what is on his back, besides he has to make the mouse open a little bit to attach the ivory fish later.

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Figure16. Bronze dog from Late 18th Dynasty [28].

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LIONS STATUES

Lions are wild animals characterized by ultimate strength. Therefore, even though they don't live in Egypt, ancient Egyptians appreciated their strength and translated this appreciation to statues starting from the Predynastic Period and up to the 30th Dynasty. Here, we present some of the lion examples over the different historical eras of ancient Egypt:

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 The first example is a pottery lion from Naqada III (3200-3000 BC) in display in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford and shown in Figure 17 [29]. The ancient Egyptian could produce this good artefact using the River Nile mud from more than 5000 years and it is still shining and the line face elements indicating the strength of the lion.

Figure17. Pottery lion from Naqada III [29].

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 The second example is a 120 mm height quartz lion from the Early Dynastic Period (1st and 2nd Dynasties) (3000-2700 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Figure 18 [30]. The work is primitive and not attractive. However, it shows the lion relaxing with right front leg on left front leg and its chin on its right front leg. The carver could produce smooth surfaces of the lion even though quarts is one of the hardest stones.

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 The third example is a 2.01 m length granite lion from the Old Kingdom, 4th-5th Dynasties (2575-2450 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Figure 19 [31]. The quality of the product is much better than that of the lion of the Early Dynastic Period. This is simply because the carvers of this period have great proficiency in carving hard stones such as granite which was clear in carving human statues [32]. The details of the lion face and his body are much better than that in Figure 18.

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Figure18. Quartz lion from the Early Dynastic [30].

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Figure19. Granite lion from the 4th-5th Dynastic [31].

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 The fourth example is a terracotta statue of a seated lion from the 6th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom (2250 BC) in display in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford and shown in Figure 20 [33]. The design of this lion statue is similar to that of Naqada III (Figure 17) but with better finishing producing shining surfaces.

Figure20. Setting lion from the 6th Dynastic [33].

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 The fifth example is a diorite head of a line female from the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom during the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1388-1350 BC) sold in a sale in NY on 12th December 2013 for 4197000 US$ !! and shown in Figure 21 [34]. The head length is 355 mm and the details of the face are carved professionally with very smooth surfaces.

Figure21. Diorite lion head from the 18th Dynasty [34].

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 The sixth example is a 2.16 m length granite lion statue of Pharaoh Amenhotep III of the 18th Dynasty in display in the British Museum and shown in Figure 22 [35]. The top technology in all production engineering aspects is achieved in this wealthy dynasty, Dynasty 18. Using the hard granite stone, the carver could produce this wonderful piece reflecting the actual horrible pose of the lion as shown in the zoomed image of the lion's head in Figure 22.

Figure22. Granite lion from the 18th Dynasty [35].

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 The seventh example is a granite lion statue of Nectanebo I, the first Pharaoh of the 30th Dynasty of the Late Period (380-362 BC) in display in the Vatican Museum at Rome and shown in Figure 23 [36]. This is again a wonderful design and carving using granite, one of the hardest stones and producing very difficult position for the lion putting its left front leg on the right one and his tail on the vertical side of the granite base which is inscribed by the Cartouche of the Pharaoh.

Figure23. Granite lion from the 30th Dynasty [36].

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 The eighth and last example of line statues from ancient Egypt is a wooden furniture leg taking the shape of a lion from the Late Period (664-332BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Figure 24 [37]. The lion is shown setting on a Lotus flower looking straight in its eyes level. Its pose is clarified in the zoomed image of its face and what is amazing is its age. It is more than 2350 years and still withstanding the deterioration factors associated with wood products.

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Figure24. Wooden lion as a furniture leg from the Late Period [36]. International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology V5 ● I2 ● February 2017

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CONCLUSION

 The evolution of mechanical engineering during the ancient Egypt history was investigated in this research paper through the production of cats, dogs and lions statues.

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 The ancient Egyptians produced cat statues and applications documented from the 12 th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom.  They produced an alabaster jar in the shape of a cat during the 12th Dynasty.

 They used different materials for cat statues production including: alabaster (during the 12 th Dynasty), faience and wood (during the 17th Dynasty), bronze (during the 21t to 30th Dynasties) and carnelian (during the Third Intermediate Period).

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 They produced dog statues starting from the time of Naqada I of the Predynastic Period.

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 Materials used in dog statues production were: ivory (during Naqada I, Naqada II, 11 th Dynasty and 18th Dynasty), bone ( during the 18th Dynasty) and bronze (during the 18th Dynasty).  They produced a mechanical hunting dog statue during the 18th Dynasty capable of opening and closing his mouth using an external lever.  They invented a cosmetic spoon in the shape of a dog using bone during the 18th Dynasty.  They started producing lion statues during Naqada III of the Predynastic Period.

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 Materials used in producing lion statues were: pottery (during Naqada III), quartz (during Early Dynastic Period), granite (during the Old Kingdom, 18th Dynasty and 30th Dynasty), diorite (during the 18th Dynasty), terracotta (during the 6th Dynasty) and wood (during the Late Period).  They produced granite lion statues in the 18th Dynasty having more than two meters length.

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 Wonderful lion stone statues were produced during the 18th and 30th Dynasties.  One of the applications of lion statues was furniture legs during the Late Period.

REFERENCES

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[1] J. Capart, "Primitive art in Egypt", H. Grevel & Co., London, 1905. [2] W. Smith, "Ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1960. [3] H. Fisher, Ancient Egyptian Presentations of turtles", The Metropolitan Museum of Art Papers, Paper 13, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1968. [4] D. Arnold, "An Egyptian Bestiary", The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, pp.7-64, Spring 1995. [5] J. Ambers, et. al., "A new look at an old cat: a technical investigation of the Gayer-Anderson cat", The British Museum Technical Research Bulletin, vol.2, issue 1, pp.1-12, 2008. [6] A. Stevens, "Domestic religious practices", UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 1010, version 1, December 2009. [7] A. Strandberg, "The gazelle in ancient Egypt art:image and meaning", Ph. D. Thesis, Uppsala University, October 2009. [8] F. Lankester, "Predynastic and Pharaonic era rock art in egypt's Central Eastern desert: Distribution, dating and interpretation", Ph. D. Thesis in Archaeology, Durham University, 2012. [9] K. Breivik, "Comparative analysis of early bronze age burials", M. A. Thesis in Archaeology, Bergen University, May 2013. [10] E. Bollen, "Tombs, tells and temples: excavating the Near East", Sydney University Museums, 2015. [11] G. Wing, "Predynastic Egyptian representations of animals: The journey from nature to art and beyond", Master of Archaeology, University of Durham, 2015. International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology V5 ● I2 ● February 2017

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[12] Wikipedia, "Hunting, fishing and animals in ancient Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hunting_fishing_and_animals_in_ancient_egypt , 2016. [13] Wikipedia, "Cats in ancient Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cats_in_ancient_egypt. , 2017. [14] H. Springer, "The cat in ancient Egypt, Tour Egypt", http://www.touregypt.net/egypt-info/ magazine-mag04012001-magf1.htm , 2017. [15] Metropolitan Museum, "Cosmetic jar in the shape of a cat", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/ collection/search/544039?utm_source=pinterest&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=cats , 2017. [16] Christies, "An Egyptian green faience figure of a crouching cat", http://www.christies.com/ lotfinder/lot/an-egyptian-green-faience-figure-of-a-4364399-details.aspx?intObjectID=4364399 , 2017. [17] Little House Cats, "British Museum cats", http://www.littlehouseofcats.com/cats-in-art/museumcats/british-museum-cats/ , 2011. [18] L. Bennet, "Figurine of Bastet as a cat", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/525795325230060794/ [19] Pen Museum, "Hollow cast bronze statue of a seated cat", https://www.penn.museum/ collections/object/267502 , 2017. [20] Stone Finder, "An Egyptian bronze cat head, Late Period", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/ 137641332334597692/ [21] J. Jasminka, "An ancient Egyptian figurine of a cat", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/ 8233211792698400/ [22] Alamy, "Ivory carving of a dog, ancient Egyptian", http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-ivorycarving-of-a-dog-ancient-egyptian-predynastic-period-c4000-bc-28349197.html [23] Alamy, "Containers for cosmetics in ivory, Predynastic Period" , http://www.alamy.com/stockphoto-italy-piedmont-turin-egyptian-museum-new-staging-containers-for-cosmetics80522880.html [24] Metropolitan Museum, "Dog amulet", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/5458 56?rpp=30&pg=2&rndkey=20160111&ao=on&ft=*&where=Africa&pos=52 [25] Metropolitan Museum, "Figurine of a dog", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/ 555715#!#fullscreen, 2017. [26] Metropolitan Museum, "Cosmetic dish in the shape of a dog", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/ collection/search/545210?utm_source=pinterest&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=dogs , 2017. [27] Metropolitan Museum of Art, "Mechanical dog", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/ collection/ search/544519?img=3 , 2017. [28] P. Bystricky, "Figure of a dog with fish in mouth", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/43888992 6167615969/ [29] J. Bodsworth, "Egyptian pottery lion", https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ancient_ Egyptian_pottery_lion.JPG , 2007.Arnold, 1995, p.17. [30] Metropolitan Museum, "Recumbent lion", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/ 549541 [31] G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXXIII: Stone statues industry (Predynastic to Old Kingdom)", International Journal of Recent Engineering Science, vol.30, pp.5-16, December 2016. [32] M. Fernandez, "Statue of a seated lion from Old Kingdom", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/ 354799276872013639/ [33] Sothebys, "An Egyptian diorite head of goddess Sekhmet, 18th Dynasty", http://www.sothebys. com/en/auctions/ecatalogue/2013/antiquities-n09056/lot.9.html , 2017. [34] British Museum, "The Prudhoe lions", http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_ online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=117626&partId=1 47

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[35] Alamy, "One of two granite recumbent lions made for Pharaoh Nectanebo I", http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-one-of-two-granite-recumbent-lion-statues-made-for-thepharaoh-nectanebo-50699637.html [36] D. Taylor, "Lion furniture leg, Late Period", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/42066442141 6546097/

AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHY Galal Ali Hassaan, 

Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control.

 Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974.

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 Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.

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 Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby.  Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations, Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering.  Published more than 190 research papers in international journals and conferences.  Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering.

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 Chief Justice of the International Journal of Computer Techniques.  Member of the Editorial Board of some international journals including IJEERT.  Reviewer in some international journals.

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 Scholars interested in the authors publications can visit:

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part IV: Jewellery Industry (Bracelets)

Emeritus Professor, Mechanical Design & Production Department. Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

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[email protected]

Abstract— This is the 4th research paper in a series of papers aiming at investigating the history and

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development of mechanical engineering in Ancient Egypt. The paper presents the development of bracelets industry during the ancient Egypt history from predynastic to late period. Samples of their scenes and bracelet products are presented. The paper highlights the deterioration of the bracelets industry in the intermediate periods of the ancient Egypt history and the impact of the strongest dynasties on the quality and sophistication of it. Keywords— Mechanical engineering history, Ancient Egypt, jewellery industry, bracelets.

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I. INTRODUCTION Ancient Egyptians had sophisticated levels of Mechanical Engineering Technology. They used this technology in the production of small and giant units astonished the modern world and sustained the environmental conditions and survived for thousands of years. The aim of this series of research papers is to highlight the Ancient Egyptian efforts in establishing engineering aspects helped them in selecting proper materials and processing means for their outstanding products.. Scott (1972) studied the Egyptian jewellery covering a period from predynastic to 19 th dynasty. She presented some bracelets from 11th and 12th dynasties [1]. Fischer (2000) presented some scenes from old kingdom reflecting the women situation in Ancient Egypt. The scenes showed husbands and wives (or mothers) wearing necklaces and bracelets [2]. Hardwick et. Al. (2003) presented a gallery for the Egyptian antiques in the Ashmolean Museum from the 1st dynasty to the Byzantine period. Their presentation covered two bracelets from the 7th – 8th dynasties of the first intermediate period [3]. Teeter (2011) presented 120 objects in the Oriental Institute Museum of the University of Chicago exhibit telling the story of the emergence of the Egyptian civilization from the earliest beginning (4000-2600 BC). This included a shell bracelet from the 1st dynasty [4].

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II. THE PREDYNASTIC PERIOD The bracelets industry started in a very early time line in the Ancient Egyptian history. It started before 3500 BC. The Ancient Egyptians used raw materials available in their hands and can have accepted mechanical properties such as bone and tortoise shell. Fig.1 shows a bone bracelet produced during the period 3850-2960 BC. This model is existing in the Metropolitan Museum of Art [5]. Another model manufactured from tortoise shell and belongs to the predynastic period is located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art of USA [6] and another model is located in Petrie Museum of UK [7]. The shell bracelet of Petrie Museum is show in Fig.2 [7]. Both models in Figs.1 and 2 are manufactured from one stock without joint or fastener.

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Fig.1 Bone bracelet from predynastic Egypt [5].

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Fig.2 Shell bracelet from predynastic Egypt [6].

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III. THE EARLY DYNASTIES From the beginning of the dynastic periods, the design and production start to gain certain level of sophistication through material selection and shape. Fig.3 shows four models of such bracelets which belong to Pharaoh Djer the third Pharaoh of the first dynasty [8]. They are constructed of multi-colours beads manufactured from lapis lazuli, turquoise, amethyst and gold. The beads themselves have different shapes. Each bracelet is jointed by clasps at the ends. They have number of strands ranging from one to three.

Fig.3 Bracelets of Pharaoh Djer of the 1st dynasty [8].

Fig.4 A scene from the old kingdom [10].

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IV. THE OLD KINGDOM The old kingdom of Ancient Egypt comprised the densities,3,4, 5 and 6 [9]. Men and ladies used bracelets in one or two hands as clear from Fig.4 [10]. The scene is for the metalworker of the royal ornaments Werkashe and his mother [10].

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Fig.5 Scene from the 5th dynasty [11].

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The ancient Egyptians of the old kingdom used semi-precious stones to decorate metallic bracelets. This technique is illustrated by the two bracelets of Queen Hetepheres I of the 4th dynasty (rein of Pharaoh Snefro). The models are shown in Fig.6 [12]. They are manufactured from silver decorated by turquoise, lapis lazuli and carnelian. The decoration takes the shape of a butterfly and a number of scarabs from both sides.

Fig.6 Bracelets of Queen Hetepheres I of the 4th dynasty [12].

(a) (b) Fig.7 Princess Khnumit of the 4th dynasty bracelets [13].

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A different design style depending on semiprecious stones beads is shown in Fig.7 [13]. The two models shown in Fig.7 belong to Princess Khnumit of the 4 th dynasty.

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ISSN: 2454 - 2016 The model in Fig7 (a) uses long cylindrical beads forming 10 parallel horizontal strands with 5 colours. The model in Fig.7 (b) uses small semi-circular beads in about 20 horizontal strands with 4 colours.

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V. THE FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD The first intermediate period of the ancient Egypt history covers the dynasties 7, 8 and 9 [9]. As a documentation mean by the ancient Egyptian, we see fishing men from the 8 th or 9th dynasty wearing a bracelet only in one hand as shown in Fig.8 [14].

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Fig.8 Fishing scene from the 8 th or 9th dynasty [14].

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Even though this historical period was one of the weak periods of ancient Egyptians, gold bracelets were manufactured also during this period. Fig.9 shows two pure gold bracelets without clasp or joints and casted as one part [15]. They are found in Tomb number 7762 of a child [15]. Another gold model of a bracelet from the 8th dynasty is shown in Fig.10 [16]. It looks that the design and finishing of the bracelet in Fig.10 is better than those in Fig.9.

Fig.9 Two bracelets from 7th - 8th dynasties [15].

Fig.10 Bracelet from the 8th dynasty [16].

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VI. THE MIDDLE KINGDOM The middle kingdom covers both dynasties 11 and 12 [9]. The ancient Egyptians continued wearing bracelets for ornament as we can see in the stela of the steward Mentuwoser during the rein of Pharaoh Senwosret I of the 12h dynasty. The stela is shown in Fig.11 and it is available in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY [17].

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Fig.11 Stela of steward Mentuwoser of the 12 th dynasty [17].

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The undecorated works continued to appear in the middle kingdom (2055 – 1650 BC). A sample of undecorated bracelet from the 11th dynasty is shown in Fig.12 [18]. It is manufactured from gold and has no joints or clasp and the surface is smooth and filleted from all sides not to harm its user (high level product design technology). Its diameter is 63.5 mm.

Fig.12 Undecorated gold bracelet from the 11th dynasty [18].

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The middle kingdom comprises of the most wealthy dynasties of ancient Egypt, the 12the dynasty. Fig.13 shows a bracelet of a unique design. It is consisted two gold parallel bangles joined together by gold and silver amulets taking the shape of turtle, hare, snake baboon, falcon and some ancient Egyptian symbols [19]. This bracelet is existing in the British Museum.

Fig.13 Uniquely designed middle kingdom bracelet [19].

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Another unique design of multiple materials bracelets is shown in Fig.14. It belongs to Princess Sithathor, the daughter of Pharaoh Senusret II of the 12 th dynasty [20]. The bracelet has a flexible design composed of about 40 parallel strands of beads. It has about 5 different colours such that the colours appear in vertical colour bands. It has a big gold clasp.

Fig.14 Flexible wide bracelet of Sathathor [20].

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Another design of the flexible bracelets is shown in Fig.15 [21]. It is consists of three groups of bead strands. Each group consists of 10 parallel bead strands. Each strand comprises 7 beads. There is a clasp at its ends. It is manufactured from silver, green faience, blue paste and carnelian. It is located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Fig.15 Bracelet from late 12th – early 13th dynasties [21].

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Another model of flexible bracelets from the 12th dynasty is shown in Fig.16 for Princess Sithathor [22]. It has only two strands of ball-beads. Each strand composes 33 beads, 5 of them in the middle is manufactured from gold. The othe beads are manufactured from turquoise and carnelian. There is an amulet in the middle. The bracelet is joined by a clasp at the ends.

Fig.16 Two strands flexible bracelets from 12th dynasty [22].

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It consists of a rotating crank 2 (replacing the gear in Fig.1), slider at A, oscillating link 4, coupler 5 and an output slider at C. Therefore, it is a 6-bar mechanism having a unit degree of freedom allowing it to be driven through its crank OA. The output is taken through its second slider at C. VII.

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SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

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ISSN: 2454 - 2016 This is the second weak period in the ancient Egyptian history which covered dynasties from the 13th to the 17 [9]. The model presented here reflects this weakness. It is manufactured from shell and produced in the 15 th dynasty. The model is shown in Fig.17 [23]. It is consisted of 21 flat pieces joined together by sewing at the ends forming one flexible strand. There are two pieces at the end acting as a clasp to join the bracelet ends together. Even the length of the bracelet pieces is not uniform. The bracelet is located in the Royal Ontario Museum of Toronto, Canada.

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Fig.17 Flexible bracelet from the 2nd intermediate period [23].

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VIII. THE NEW KINGDOM The new kingdom of Ancient Egypt comprised the densities,18, 19 and 20 [9]. It is one of the strongest and wealthy kingdoms of ancient Egypt. This appears in the coloured scenes drawn and inscribed in this strong kingdom and through the actual units of bracelets put in the tombs. For example Fig.18 shown 3 young girls exchanging perfumes and smelling aromatic plants. The scene is a coloured painting in the tomb of Nakht, one of the Nobles of the 18th dynasty [24]. The three girls wear bracelets in both hands.

Fig.18 Coloured scene from Nakht tomb [24].

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Another example is from the tomb of Queen Nefertari (wife of Pharaoh Ramses II of the 19th dynasty). Fig.19 shown the queen worshipping and wearing bracelets in both hands [25].

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Fig.19 Coloured scene from tomb of Queen Nefertari [25].

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Moving to the actual bracelets of the new kingdom, we find a fantastic design and manufacturing of Queen Ahhotep, mother of Phaaoh Ahmos I shown in Fig.20 [26]. It is a bracelet constructed from 18 strands (to the left) and 30 strands (to the right) of uniform beads. In the right design, each five strands construct a band. Each band is decorated by right angle triangles of a specific colour different than that of the other bands. The bracelet is manufactured from gold, lapis lazuli, carnelian and turquoise. In the left design , the bands are vertical 7 bands each band is from either gold or a semi-precious stone. A gold clasp is used to close the bracelet with the name of Pharaoh Ahmos inscribed on it.

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Fig.20 Bracelet of Queen Ahhotep of 18th dynasty [26]. . Another bracelet model is from the rein of Pharaoh Thutmose III of the 18th dynasty. This model is shown in Fig.21 [27]. It is of the solid type consisting of two parts hinged in the middle and joined by a clasp at its end. It was found in the tomb of the 3 foreign wives of Pharaoh Thotmose III. It was manufactured from gold, carnelian, turquoise and glass. The Pharaoh cartouche is engraved from inside, while the bracelet is decorated from outside by semi-precious stones in vertical parallel columns.

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Fig.21 Bracelet of the 3 wives of Thotmose III [27].

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Another wonderful model from the 18th dynasty from the rein of Pharaoh Thutmose III is shown in Fig.22 [27]. 14 row of dual-conical beads. The number of beads per row ranges from 3 to 15. It is manufactured from Gold, carnelian, lapis lazuli and turquoise glass. It is decorated by three cats in the centre of the bracelet manufactured from gold and a semi-precious stone. This nice bracelet is located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, USA !!.

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Fig.22 Bracelets from the 18th dynasty [27].

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One more model for 18th dynasty bracelets belong to Pharaoh Tutankhamun. It is manufactured from heavy gold and turquoise [27]. It is decorated by engravings on the outside and inside surfaces of the bracelet. It is located in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo.

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Fig.23 Bracelet of Pharaoh Tutankhamun [27].

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The last model is from the 19th dynasty and it belongs to the Pharaoh Ramsess II. Fig.22 shows a pair of gold bracelet for Ramses II located in the Egyptian Museum [28]. The bracelet designer decorated each bracelet by two ducks holding a piece of a semi-precious stone piece on their back. Engraved decorations are used to decorate the outside surface of the bracelet and the duck.

Fig.22 Bracelets pair for Pharaoh Ramses II of the 19th dynasty [28].

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IX. THE THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD This period covers the dynasties from 21 to 25 [9]. The tradition of using bracelets continued during this period with almost same sophistication and interest. We can see this through wall paintings and real objects left in the ancient Egyptian tombs. Fig.23 show a scene for Herihor, the Egyptian Army Officer and High Priest of

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Amun Tembe at Thebe during the rein of Pharaoh Ramses XI of the 21st dynasty [29]. He looks worshipping and wearing braclets in both hands.

Fig.23 Scene of Herihor wearing bracelets [29].

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As physical actual model of the bracelets of this period, we see in Fig.24 a bracelet manufactured from gold and semi-precious stones from the 21st dynasty [27]. The decoration of the bracelet is wonderful. Semi-precious stones are used to produces thick objects such as flowers, baboon, Pharaoh cartouch on the outside surface of the bracelet. This bracelet is under presentation in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo.

Fig.23 Bracelet from the 21st dynasty [27].

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Another model belonging to Pharaoh Psusennes I of the 21 st dynasty is shown in Fig.24 [27]. They have two different designs. Both are manufactured from gold inlaid by lapis lazuli, carnelian and green feldspar. The left one is a one piece rigid bracelet while the right one is coposed of two rigid pieces higed to each other and joined at the end by a clasp.

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Fig.24 Two bracelets of Pharaoh Psusennes I of the 21 st dynasty [27].

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A bracelet from the 22nd dynasty belonging to Pharaoh Sheshonq II is shown in Fig.25 [30]. It is manufactured from gold and simulating lotus flowers holding a scarab in its middle. The scarab is carved from lapis lazuli and acts as a clasp.

Fig.25 Bracelet of Pharaoh Sheshonq II of the 22 nd dynasty [30].

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A bracelet model from the 23rd dynasty belongs to Queen Kama. It is shown in Fig.26 [31]. It is extensively decorated by ancient Egypt symbols engraved on the outer surface of the bracelet.

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Fig.25 Bracelet of Queen Kama of the 23rd dynasty [31].

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From the last dynasty of this period, the 25th dynasty we have the bracelet model shown in Fig.26 [32]. It is manufactured from gold decorated by engravings and semi-precious stones providing about three different colours. The whole outer surface of the bracelet is decorated.

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ISSN: 2454 - 2016 Fig.26 Bracelet from the 25th dynasty [32].

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X. LATE PERIOD This period of the ancient Egyptian history covers the dynasties 26 to 31 [9]. Egypt lost its glory by the occupation of its territories from all sides, the north, south, west and east. This reflects to the development of the bracelets industry. One sample of bracelets produced during this historical period is shown in Fig.27 [33]. It is manufactured from limestone with eight scarabs distributed over the outer surface.

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Fig.27 Limestone bracelet from the 26th dynasty [33]. Another model of bracelts manufactured in the 26 th dynasty from Bronze is shown in Fig.28 [34]. From engineering point of view, the design is not successful either from material selection point of view or from product design point of view. One may think that this is not a bracelet, but it may be something else.

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Fig.28 Bronze bracelet from the 26th dynasty [34].

Fig.29 Bronze bracelet from the 27th dynasty [32].

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We have a better model from the 27th dynasty shown in Fig.29 [32].. It is manufactured from gold and has a circular cross-section. It is decorated by engravings representing a face of a woman and other shapes on the whole surface.

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XI. CONCLUSIONS Ancient Egyptians manufactured bracelets for the ornamental use since the predynastic period. During the predynastic period they used bone and tortoise shell in producing bracelets. Bracelets of the predynastic Egyptians had a very accurate internal circular profile. Bracelets with beads appeared in the ancient Egyptian society starting from the first dynasty. They produced single and multi-strands flexible bracelets in the first dynasty. Scenes of men and women wearing bracelets appeared starting from the old kingdom. Gold solid bracelets appeared in the fourth dynasty. Bracelets with up to 20 strands of multi-colored beads appeared in the fourth dynasty. Solid gold bracelets continued to appear in the 7th , 8th, 11th and 12th dynasties. Flexible bracelets with up to 40 strands of beads appeared in the 12 th dynasty. The art of bracelet manufacturing was deteriorated during the second intermediate period of the ancient Egypt history. More development of the bracelet industry occurred during the new kingdom specially in the 18 th dynasty. Hinged two-parts bracelets appeared in the 18th dynasty. Flexible bracelets of novel designs appeared in the 18 th dynasty. The designers and technicians of ancient Egypt bracelets applied various techniques for bracelet decoration using semi-precious stones and colored pastes. Different designs were applied in the 19th dynasty of the new kingdom. Fantastic decoration of bracelets appeared during the 21 st dynasty. Gold and semi-precious materials continued to be used in the bracelets industry during the 22 nd to 25th dynasties. The art of bracelets design and production was highly deteriorated in the late period such that they used limestone and bronze in producing bracelets.

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REFERENCES

N. Scott, "Egyptian jewelry", Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, vol.5, issue 2, pp.223-234, 1972. [2] H. Fischer, "Egyptian women of the old kingdom", The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, 2000. [3] T. Hardwick wt. al., "Sackler gallery of Egyptian antiquities", The Ashmolean Museum, 2003. [4] E. Teeter (Editor), "Before the pyramids; the origin of Egyptian civilization", Oriental Institute Museum Publications, University of Chicago, 2011. [5] "Bone bracelet", http://ancientpeoples.tumblr.com/post/119957131514/bone-bracelet-c38502960-bc-pre-dynastic-egypt [6] "Tortoise shell bracelet", http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/547129 [7] "Animal products: Tortoise shell", http://reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/animal_products/index.html ."1st dynasty', http://www.narmer.pl/dyn/01en.htm [8] "History of ancient Egypt", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_ancient_Egypt [9] Fischer, p.7. [10] Fischer, p.12. [11] "Ancient Egyptian jewelry", https://www.pinterest.com/explore/ancient-egyptian-jewelry/ [12] " Bracelet of Princess Khnumit", http://www.gettyimages.com/detail/photo/bracelet-of-princess-khnumit-19291897-bc-high-res-stock-photography/500057035 [13] Fischer, p.13. [14] Hardwick, p.23. [15] "Bracelets", http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/crowns/jewellery.htm [16] A. Oppenheim, "Food and feasts in middle kingdom Egypt", http://www.metmuseum.org/about-the-museum/now-at-the-met/2015/food-andfeasts-in-middle-kingdom-egypt [17] Scott, p.228.

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[18] http://ancientpeoples.tumblr.com/post/30112302515/gold-bangle-with-goldand-silver-amulets-egypt [19] https://www.pinterest.com/pin/426505027191019092/ [20] " http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/571608 [21] Scott, p.229. [22] " Bracelet, Egypt, Second Intermediate Period", https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bracelet,_Egypt,_Second_Intermediat e_Period,_c._1600_BC_-_Royal_Ontario_Museum_-_DSC09750.JPG [23] "Wall paintings of ancient Egypt – 8", http://historylink101.com/n/egypt_1/pic_wall_paintings_8.htm [24] "Ancient Egyptian art", http://www.ducksters.com/history/art/ancient_egyptian_art.php [25] " Bead Bracelets of Queen Ahhotep", http://www.touregypt.net/egyptmuseum/egyptian_museumm3.htm [26] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_ancient_Egypt [27] https://www.pinterest.com/pin/327566572868440212/ [28] "Herihor", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herihor [29] "Jewelry/ornaments in the Pharaonic era", http://egyptianjewelry.8m.com/photo_4.html [30] https://www.pinterest.com/pin/460000549412073013/ [31] https://www.pinterest.com/pin/449093394063330655/ [32] https://www.pinterest.com/pin/354799276864546387/ [34] http://www.sadighgallery.com/Ancient-Bracelets_p_38631.html

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BIOGRAPHY

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Galal Ali Hassaan Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering.

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Published over 150 research papers in international journals and conferences. Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Justice of International Journal of Computer Techniques. Member of the Editorial Board of some international journals including the International Journal of Science and Engineering. Reviewer in some international journals. Scholars interested in the author’s publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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International Journal Of Advancement In Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Science (IJAETMAS) ISSN: 2349-3224 || www.ijaetmas.com || Volume 04 - Issue 02 || February-2017 || PP. 40-53

Galal Ali Hassaan

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part 40: Statues of Jackal, Hippopotamus and Crocodile

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Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

Abstract— The ancient Egyptians produced statues for jackal, hippopotamus and crocodile since 4400 BC and

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continued in this production down to 30 BC. They produced statues for those animals not only as animals but also as domestic applications such as amulets, boats, spoons, combs, masks, vessels decoration, balance-weight and jar lids. The designs and materials used are investigated with analysis of each item for dimensions , beauty aspects and present location (if known) .

Keywords— Mechanical engineering; Ancient Egypt; jackal statues, hippopotamus statues, crocodile statues.

I. INTRODUCTION This is the 40 paper in a scientific research aiming at presenting a deep insight into the history of mechanical engineering during one of the greatest civilizations in the world, the ancient Egyptians civilization. The paper handles the production of jackal, hippopotamus, crocodile and gazelle during the Predynastic and Dynastic Periods of the ancient Egypt history. The outcome of this presentation shows how the ancient Egyptians appreciated a large number of animals lived among then in Egypt. Capart (1905) in his book about primitive art in Egypt presented statues for hippopotami [1]. Smith (1960) in his book about ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston presented an Amration pottery hippopotamus, a faience hippopotamus [2]. Arnold (1995) in his study on Egyptian bestiary presented a gazelle statue from the 18th Dynasty, a three deken weight in the shape of a gazelle from the 18th Dynasty, a jackal head from the Late Period and a hippopotamus statue from Middle Kingdom [3]. Stevens (2009) in her article in the UCLA Encyclopaedia of Egyptology presented a number of figurines of animals from the Third Intermediate Period [4]. Strandberg (2009) in her Ph. D. Thesis investigated the image and meaning of the gazelle in ancient Egypt art. She presented a gazelle statue from the 18th Dynasty standing on a wooden base representing a desert ground [5]. Brevik (2013) in her Master of Art Thesis presented examples of figurines including a clay figurine for hippopotamus from Naqada II and clay animal figurines from Amrah [6]. Wing (2015) in his Master Thesis in Archaeology presented a number of figurines from the Predynastic era of ancient Egypt including hippopotamus in the form of a vessel and a bead, a clay hippopotamus comb handle, a gazelle knife handle from Naqada II, a hippopotamus amulet from the Badarian Period [7]. Wikipedia (2016) Wrote an article on hunting, fishing and animals in ancient Egypt. They declared that the hippopotamus lived in different parts of ancient Egypt [8]. Hassaan (2017) investigated the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through his study of the statues production of the cats, dogs and lions animals in ancient Egypt. He covered a time span from Predynastic to Late Period and presented a large number of examples analysing most of them showing the innovation in each product[9].

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The second example is a jackal as a lid for a canopic jar from the 18th Dynasty (15501295 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown in Fig.2 [12]. The whole canopic jar was produced from limestone and its lid was designed in the shape of a jackal for sake of protection according to their belief.

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II. JACKAL STATUES The ancient Egyptians new the jackal from early times and authorized its existence among them through a number of statues extending from Predynastic to Late Periods as follows: - The first example is a state jackal statue from Naqada III (3200-3000 BC) in display in the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley and shown in Fig.1 [10]. The designer showed the jackal striding. One may ask himself: why ancient Egyptians selected the state rock ?. First of all it has low hardness (2.5-4.0 on Moh's scale), produces articles having light weight (2.65-2.80 specific gravity) and it is resistant to weather impact [11]. This shows how ancient Egyptian engineers and technicians were so genius since more than 5000 years.

Fig.1 Jackal statue from Naqada III [10].

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The third example is a wooden spoon with jackal handle from the 18th Dynasty (15391292 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum and shown in Fig.4 [13]. This is a creative mechanical design where the jackal is shown extending its body and holding the spool bowl by its front legs and moth. The handle was carved smoothly not to harm the user. The fourth example is a jackal statue from tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun (1332-1323 BC) of the 18th Dynasty in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.4 [14]. The designer showed the jackal in a guarding position and used materials reflecting the wealth of the Pharaoh and the strength of Egypt in this period.

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Fig.2 Jackal head from the 18th Dynasty [12].

Fig.3 Wooden spoon with jackal handle [13].

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Fig.4 Jackal statue of Pharaoh Tut [14]. Page 41

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The fifth example is an alabaster 410 mm head of a jackal as a lid for the canopic jar of Psusennes I, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty (1047-1041 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.5 [15,16]. This is a valuable artefact piece decorated by a Cobra on the head of the jackal and inlaid by gold leaf and another blue and brown strips my be through coating or inlay by semi-precious stones !!. The eyes and eyebrows were marked in black. The sixth example is a wooden 515 mm statue from the 25th-26th Dynasties (747-525 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.6 [17]. The designer showed the jackal in a guarding position relaxing and concentrating in the area in its front. It is possible that it was constructed from two pieces and joint at the neck together.

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Fig.5 Jackal lid from the 21st Dynasty [15,16]. Fig.6 Jackal statue from 25-26 Dynasties [17].

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The seventh example is a ceramic jackal mask from the 26th Dynasty (600 BC) in display in the Roemer und Pelizaeus Museum at Hildesheim of Germany and shown in Fig.7 [18]. It has multi levels of brown colour with decorations in the form of parallel curves on the shoulders. The eighth example is a limestone canopic jar in the form of a jackal from the Late Period (664-332 BC) in display in the Indianapolis Museum of Art and shown in Fig.8 [19]. The height of the jar is 317.5 mm and the surfaces are rounded and smooth not to harm the user. The quality of the jackal is less than that of Fig.7 in the same period.

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Fig.7 Jackal mask from the 26st Dynasty [18]. Fig.8 Canopic jar from the 26th Dynasty [19]. www.ijaetmas.com

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The ninth and last example is a limestone recumbent jackal found in Saqqara of Egypt from the Late Period in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.9 [20]. Its design is similar to than in Fig.6 except it was carved from one piece of limestone.

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Fig.9 Limestone jackal from the Late Period [20].

HIPPOPOTAMUS STATUES

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The ancient Egyptians new the Hippopotamus since the Badarian Culture (4400-4000 BC) as recorded by beads and vessels in the shape of hippos. This recording of hippos continued to the Late Period of ancient Egypt with concentration of hippo's production during the Middle Kingdom as will be illustrated in the following examples: - The first example is an ivory vessel in the shape of a hippopotamus from the Badarian Period (4400-4000 BC) found in the Mostagedda grave 3522 and shown in Fig.10 [21]. This product is more than 6000 years old and has creative mechanical engineering ideas: (i) Even though ivory is an easy scratched material, to carve it to produce a cavity of a vessel in the shape of a hippo is not easy and required high degree of profession. (ii) If we interpret the view in the left of Fig.10 that there are two openings for the vessel, then this may be the first time in the engineering history to have people using the ventilation principle in the design of vessels. (iii) The ancient mechanical engineering designer used the L-shaped elements on the hippo back to help in carrying the vessel.

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Fig.10 Ivory vessel from Badarian Period [21]. Page 43

The second example is an ivory comb with hippopotamus handle from Naqada I Period of ancient Egypt (3900-3500 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.11 [22]. Because it was a civilized nation, they used combs to take care of their hair and select proper materials for this purpose not to harm the user. They new how to apply mechanical engineering in such domestic applications. The hippo was carved as an integral part with the comb showing all its details as clear in the zoomed image in Fig.11.

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Fig.11 Ivory comb from Naqada I Period [22].

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The third example is a clay hippopotamus from Naqada II of ancient Egypt (35003200 BC) in display in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford and shown in Fig.12 [23]. The designer showed the hippo standing and opening its mouth. This artefact was found in a grave. The purpose in not known. It may be for funerary purposes such as protection (as their belief) or it is an storage application with the hippo mouth as the opening. The fourth example is an alabaster hippopotamus from the Early Dynastic (1st and 2nd Dynasties, 3100-2686 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.13 [24]. The designer shoed this hippo standing in an equilibrium position by adjusting its levels with the ground and closing its mouth and carved from one piece of Egyptian alabaster.

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Fig.12 Clay hippo from Naqada II Period [23].

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Fig.13 Alabaster hippo from Early Dynastic [24].

The fifth example is a hippopotamus statue from the 11th Dynasty of the Medium Kingdom (2130-1991 BC) in display in the Seattle Art Museum at Washington and

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shown in Fig.14 [25]. The material and dimensions are not assigned. The hippo is standing and having a decorated cover sheet on his back with marked eyes. The sixth example is a 125 mm length faience hippopotamus from the 12th Dynasty (1981-1802 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.15 [26]. The designer showed the hippo setting on his back legs, opening his mouth and decorated the whole body with geometric shapes.

Fig.14 Hippo from the 11th Dynasty [25].

The seventh example a faience hippopotamus from the Middle Kingdom (2050-1800 BC) in display in the Saint Louis Art Museum at Missouri and shown in Fig.16 [27]. The designer showed the hippo standing, looking forward and closing its mouth. The eighth example is a 203 mm length faience hippopotamus from the Second Intermediate Period (1802-1550 BC) in display in the Risd Museum at Rhode Island, USA and shown in Fig.17 [28]. The designer showed the hippo standing, closing its mouth with head in a lower relative position than that of the hippo of Fig.16. Tho whole body was decorated by black-painted plant scenes.

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Fig.15 Faience hippo from the 12th Dynasty [26].

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Fig.16 Faience hippo from Middle Kingdom [27]. Fig.17 Faience hippo from the 2nd Intermediate

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Period [28].

The ninth example is a hematite balance 62.1 gram weight in the form of a hippopotamus head from the 18th Dynasty in display in the Cleveland Museum of Art and shown in Fig.18 [29]. Even though, hematite has a medium hardness, the ancient Egyptian carver could produce a wonderful piece of balance weight having smooth surfaces completely filleted not to harm the user. It is much better in quality that some of the present weight manufactured in some of the Third-World Countries. Great appreciation the mechanical engineering of ancient Egypt. The tenth and last example is a 140 mm height alabaster hippopotamus head from the 18th Dynasty, reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1388-1350 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.19 [30]. The details of the hippo head in this figure are not clear enough for proper analysis. However, the surfaces were

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well rounded which was a remarkable feature of most of the ancient Egypt artefacts indicating an excellent engineering tradition.

Fig.18 Hematite weight from the 18th Dynasty [29]. Fig.19 Alabaster hippo head from the 18th

Dynasty [30].

CROCODILES STATUES

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Crocodiles lived in the River Nile from very old times and the ancient Egyptians traces its life among them and practice its strength and power. Therefore, they authorized its existence through scenes, figurines and statues from as early as the Period of Naqada I (4000-3500 BC). This appreciation continued in almost all the Predynastic and Dynastic Periods as will be illustrated in the following presentations: - The first example is a clay bowl from Naqada I (4000 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.20 [31]. The bowl is decorated by while intersecting line forming inclined patterns and crocodile models set parallel to the inclined patterns. Each crocodile is either formed manually from clay and set in position on the bowl when it is still soft or later on through a proper adhesive. - The second example is a model of a 99 mm height terracotta boat in the shape of a crocodile from Naqada II (3300 BC) shown in Fig.21 [32]. The location of the boat now is not assigned. This peace of more than 5300 years old has an innovative design simulating the crocodile with head and body streamed not to resist the motion of the boat in the River Nile. The driver with three other objects are in the boat.

Fig.20 Clay bowl from Naqada I [31].

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Fig.21 Terracotta model of a boat in the shape

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The third example is a 105 mm greywacke spoon with crocodile shaped handle from Early Dynastic Period (3100-2686 BC) found in Tell-el-Farkha of Egypt and shown in Fig.22 [33]. Even though greywacke is one of the hardest stone , the ancient Egyptian could set this complex design and carve it professionally more than 4700 years ago. The presentation way indicates that this unit is outside Egypt.

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Fig.22 Greywacke spoon with a crocodile handle from the Early Dynastic Period [33]. The fourth example is a crocodile statue of undefined materials or dimensions from the 12th Dynasty (1991-1802 BC) in display in the State Museum of Egyptian Art at Munich and shown in Fig.23 [34]. The designer succeeded to show the details of the crocodile skin and head as depicted in the zoomed image of its head.

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The fifth example is a statue of a crocodile shown in the shape of a man found in the temple of Amnemhat III, the 6th King of the 12th Dynasty and in display in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford and shown in Fig.24 [34]. The material and dimensions are not assigned. However it seems from Fig.24 that it was a colossal statue. It was nicely carved showing its mouth ears and eyes. The sixth example is a 94 mm wooden figurine of a crocodile amulet from the 12th/13th Dynasties period (1887-1640 BC) fount at El-lahun of Fayyoum in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.25 [35]. The crocodile was shown complete in a sleeping position. The designer succeeded to select the proper type of wood to resist deterioration with time. This unit is more than 3650 years old.

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Fig.23 Crocodile statue from the 12th Dynasty [34].

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Fig.24 Crocodile-man statue from the

Fig.25 Crocodile amulet from 12th/13th Dynasties [35]

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The seventh example is a granite crocodile statue from the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BC) in display in the Ancient Egypt Museum at Luxor and shown in Fig.26 [36]. The crocodile is one of the difficult animals to model because of its rough skin. Even though the ancient Egyptian carver succeeded to carve it using one of the hardest stones, the granite. The crocodile was shown in this design either standing or striding. The dimensions are not assigned !!.

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Fig.26 Granite crocodile statue from the New Kingdom [36]. The eighth example is a steatite 32 mm length crocodile amulet from the Third Intermediate Period (1070-736 BC) in display in the Walters Art Museum at Baltimore and shown in Fig.27 [37]. Because steatite is relatively a soft stone, the carver could carve easily all the details of the crocodile amulet even its tails set beside it not to take a large space and make the amulet as compact as possible. The designer put a wedge under the head of the crocodile to strengthen this part an avoid giving it the shape of a cantilever with tin tip and avoid harming the user. Great mechanical engineering technology more than 2680 years old.

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Fig.27 Steatite crocodile amulet from the 3rd Intermediate Period [37]. The ninth example is a carnelian 38 mm crocodile amulet from the 21st Dynasty (1077-943 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.28 [38]. In only 38 mm length, the carver could produce a complete crocodile figurine showing all the external details including its irregular skin as clear in the zoomed image of the crocodile.

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Fig.28 Carnelian crocodile amulet from Late 21st Dynasty [38]. The tenth example is a crocodile amulet in the shape of a standing man from the 26th26th -29th Dynasties of the Late Period (664-380 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.29 [39]. It is manufactured from green faience and the head is of a crocodile with open mouth. Even, the source is saying it is a crocodile head, but I have some doubt this since the crocodile mouth is much thinner than this one. Here come the role of the archaeological experts and the Egyptian government to preserve its heritage against robbery and provide accurate documentation for each artefact.

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The eleventh example is a dark-blue-glass crocodile head used an inlay from the 30th Dynasty-Ptolemaic Period (380-30 BC) in display in the Walters Art Museum at Baltimore and shown in Fig.30 [40]. This is a wonderful piece from glass technology depicting the high technology in ancient Egypt even during its latest dynastic period where it became weak and occupied by Greek and then by Romans. The crocodile head is really marvellous with very smooth rounded surfaces and white marks defining its teeth. The twelfth and last example is a 130 mm steatite crocodile from Late Period (664-30 BC) in display in the Liverpool Museum at UK and shown in Fig.31 [41]. The designer showed the crocodile standing or striding and succeeded to show its rough skin

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Fig.29 Faience crocodile in a man shape from 26st – 29th Dynasties [39].

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Fig.30 Dark-blue glass crocodile head [40].

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Fig.31 A steatite crocodile from the Late Period [41].

CONCLUSIONS

The evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the study of the statues industry of jackals, hippopotami and crocodiles during the Predynastic to Late Periods was investigated. They started producing jackals since Naqada III down to the Late Period..

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The ancient Egyptians produced jackal figurines and statues in a full-shape or partially as canopic jar lids, spool handle and as a mask. They produced jackals using: wood, state, limestone and alabaster materials. They used multiple materials in jackal production during the reign of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. They produced hippopotamus statues from Badarian Culture up to the time of the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom. They used: clay, faience, ivory, alabaster and hematite as materials for hippo production. The designed hippopotamus statues with closed or open mouth and with external decoration when produced from faience. They covered the back of a hippo statue using a decorated cover sheet from the 11th Dynasty. Some of the hippo-statues applications were: vessel, comb handle, and a balance weight. They started producing crocodile statues since the time of Naqada I and continued down to 30 BC. They designed crocodile statues for different purposes such as: external decoration of bowls, boat model, spoon handle, amulets, man with a crocodile head and inlay. Materials used in the crocodile production were: clay, wood, terracotta, greywacke, granite, steatite, carnelian, faience and glass.

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REFERENCES

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[1] J. Capart, "Primitive art in Egypt", H. Grevel & Co., London, 1905. [2] W. Smith, "Ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1960.

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[3] D. Arnold, "An Egyptian Bestiary", The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, pp.7-64, Spring 1995. [4] A. Stevens, "Domestic religious practices", UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 1010, version 1, December 2009. [5] A. Strandberg, "The gazelle in ancient Egypt art:image and meaning", Ph. D. Thesis, Uppsala University, October 2009.

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[6] K. Breivik, "Comparative analysis of early bronze age burials", M. A. Thesis in Archaeology, Bergen University, May 2013. [7] G. Wing, "Predynastic Egyptian representations of animals: The journey from nature to art and beyond", Master of Archaeology, University of Durham, 2015.

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[8] Wikipedia, "Hunting, fishing and animals in ancient Egypt", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hunting_fishing_and_animals_in_ancient_egypt , 2016.

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[9] G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXXIx: statues of cats, dogs and lions", International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Techniques, 2017 (Under Publication). [10] G. Jong, "Statue of a jackal, Naqada III", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/434808538997552645/ [11] Indian Stones, "Slate", http://www.indian-stones.com/about-stones/slate.html www.ijaetmas.com

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[12] Metropolitan Museum, "Canopic jar wich jackal lid", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/558244 , 2017. [13] Brooklyn Museum, "Spoon with jackal handle", https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/4065

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[14] Egypto Travel, "Anubis from Tutankhamun's tomb", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/490822059363398648/ [15] Getty Images, "Head of jackal with Uraeus as head ornament", http://www.gettyimages.fr/detail/photo/head-of-jackal-symbol-of-god-anubis-withuraeus-as-head-ornament-photo/479644061 , 2017. [16] Tour Egypt, Canopic jar from the tomb of Psusennes", http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/picture07142003.htm , 2017. Iisongyang [17] Iisongyang, "Figure of a jackal", http://lisongyang.weebly.com/africa-the-art-of-acontinent.html

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[18] K. Bishop, "Rare ceramic Anubis mask from 600 BC", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/7810999326534173/ JMA IMA [19] IMA Museum, "Canopic jar in the form of a jackal", http://collection.imamuseum.org/artwork/31795/ [20] S. Evans, "Recumbent jackal, Saqqara Dynasty 26-30", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/169940585909372654/ [21] Wing 2015, p.94. [22] G. Gulley, "Comb with hippopotamus", https://www.flickr.com/photos/ggnyc/1772375841/in/album-72157600743299021/ [23] Breivik , 2013, p.80. [24] A. Accebbi, Hipppotamus, Early Dynastic Period, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/71987294014754255/ [25] J. Smith, Hippopotamus, Egyptian probably 2130-1991 BC, https://www.pinterest.com/pin/156218680801529951/ [26] Metropolitan Museum, Roaring hippopotamus, http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/view?exhibitionId=%7B36BFD863-BD714D58-B1B2F3F865084DBB%7D&oid=591295&pkgids=331&pg=3&rpp=60&pos=175&ft=* , 2017. [27] Nicole, "Hippopotamus, Egyptian Middle Kingdom", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/18507048445179262/ [28] Risd Museum, Egyptian hippopotamus , 2040-1638 BC, faience", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/560979697311120413/ [29] C. Edwards, "Weight in the form of a hippopotamus head" https://www.pinterest.com/pin/543598617500236695/ [30] Ancient Peoples, "Alabaster head of hippopotamus statue", https://ancientpeoples.tumblr.com/post/84132398074/alabaster-head-of-hippopotamusstatue-14cm-high [31] Cairo Museum, "Prehistoric pieces", https://egyptwinter2014.wordpress.com/2015/02/06/cairo-museum-predynastic-pieces/

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[32] Getty Images, "Ancient Egyptian crocodile shaped terracotta model of a boot, http://www.gettyimages.com/detail/photo/ancient-egyptian-crocodile-shaped-high-resstock-photography/117195521, 2017. [33] K. Ciatowicz, "The Early Dynastic administrative-cultic centre at Tell-el-Farkha", British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan, vol.13, pp.83-123, 2009. [34] Wikipedia, "Sobek", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sobek, 2017. [35] Metropolitan Museum, "Crocodile figurine", http://metmuseum.org/exhibitions/view?exhibitionId=%7B36BFD863-BD71-4D58B1B2-F3F865084DBB%7D&oid=591356&pg=3&rpp=20&pos=172&ft=* [36] Getty Images, "Crocodile, granite statue, New Kingdom", http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/crocodile-granite-statue-egyptiancivilisation-new-kingdom-news-photo/475599283#crocodile-granite-statue-egyptiancivilisation-new-kingdom-luxor-picture-id475599283 , 2010. [37] Wikipedia, "Egyptian amulet with crocodile, Walters 4224", https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Egyptian_-_Amulet_with_a_Crocodile_God__Walters_4224_-_Right.jpg [38] Metropolitan Museum, "Bracelet with a crocodile amulet", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/548269, 2017. [39] C. Reilly, "The figure of Taweret as an amulet in the Metropolitan Museum of Art collection", https://www.inquiriesjournal.com/articles/556/taweret-an-untraditionalegyptian-goddess, 2017. [40] Louise , "Glass crocodile inlay, Egyptian, Late Period", https://pt.pinterest.com/pin/436215913890221316/ [41] Liverpool Museum, Finely worked crocodile carved from black steatite", http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/wml/collections/antiquities/ancient-egypt/item296095.aspx , 2017.

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BIOGRAPHY

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Galal Ali Hassaan:  Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control.  Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974.  Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby.  Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.  Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering.  Published more than 200 research papers in international journals and conferences.  Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering.  Chief Editor of the International Journal of Computer Techniques.

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 

Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including IJAETMAS. Reviewer in some International Journals. Scholars interested in the author's publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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Original Article

wjert, 2017, Vol. 3, Issue 2, 105 -118

World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology

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Galal.

ISSN 2454-695X

SJIF Impact Factor: 4.326

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WJERT

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 41: STATUES OF GAZELLE, BABOON AND HEDGEHOG

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Prof. Dr. Galal Ali Hassaan* Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design and Production, Faculty of

Article Received on 22/01/2017

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Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt. Article Revised on 12/02/2017

ABSTRACT *Corresponding Author Prof. Dr. Galal Ali

Article Accepted on 05/03/2017

This is the 41st research paper exploring the evolution of Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt. The paper investigates the production of

Emeritus Professor,

gazelle, baboon and hedgehog statues in ancient Egypt during the

Department of Mechanical

Predynastic and Dynastic Periods. The design of gazelle, baboon and

Design and Production,

hedgehog statues, the used materials, date and present location are

Cairo University, Egypt.

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Faculty of Engineering,

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Hassaan

investigated. The analysis outlined the degree of sophistication of the used mechanical technology producing amazing statues using different

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materials available in the ancient Egyptian society.

KEYWORDS: History of mechanical engineering, ancient Egypt, gazelle, baboon and hedgehog statues, Predynastic and Dynastic Periods. INTRODUCTION

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This is the 42nd research paper in a series aiming at exploring the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the different activities of their wonderful civilization. The ancient Egyptians created a wonderful industry for statues of different sizes using

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different materials for human beings, animals and birds. Smith, 1960 in his book about ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston presented an Amration pottery hippopotamus, a faience hippopotamus.[1] Arnold ,

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1995 in his study on Egyptian bestiary presented a gazelle statue from the 18 th Dynasty, a three deken weight in the shape of a gazelle from the 18th Dynasty, a jackal head from the

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Late Period and a hippopotamus statue from Middle Kingdom.[2] Stanley, 2008 in his study about snakes stated that the ancient Egyptians had many representations of snakes in their

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religious manifestations.[3] Strandberg (2009) in her Ph. D. Thesis investigated the image and

meaning of the gazelle in ancient Egypt art. She presented a gazelle statue from the 18th Dynasty standing on a wooden base representing a desert ground.[4] Hunt, 2012 presented a description of the tilebia fish from the New Kingdom in display in the British Museum. It is a cosmetic bottle in the shape of a fish from the Amarna Period during the reign of Pharaoh

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Akhenaten. He clarified that this piece is one of the most striking pieces within the British

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Museum collection of iconic glass objects created by high technology.[5] Wing, 2015 in his Master Thesis in Archaeology presented a number of figurines from the Predynastic era of ancient Egypt including a gazelle knife handle from Naqada II.[6]

Reemes, 2015 in her Ph.D. Thesis about the Egyptian ouroboros presented a number of statues, figurines and applications including the right jamb of a doorway in the Djoser

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funerary complex at Saqqara showing a guardian snake, a miniature limestone 108 mm gameboard from the Predynastic Period, a 52 mm diameter lapis lazuli amulet in the form of a coiled snake from the Predynastic Period and a 380 mm alabaster game-board from the Old

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Kingdom in the shape of a coiled snake.[7] Tour Egypt, 2017 wrote an article about glass industry in ancient Egypt and said that the first glass of Egypt returns to the Neolithic Badarian Culture. Among the glass products they presented was the glass bottle in the shape

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of a 145 mm fish from the 18th Dynasty from El-Amarna.[8] Wikipedia, 2017 wrote an article about the ancient Egyptian deities. They presenting a statue for a setting baboon from Late Predynastic.[9] Hassaan (2017) investigated the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through his study of the statues production of the cats, dogs and lions animals in ancient Egypt[10] and statues of jackals, hippopotami and crocodiles.[11] He covered a time

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span from 4400 to 30 BC. Gazelle Statues

The gazelle lived in Egypt and the ancient Egyptians authorized its existence through a

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number of activities including the statues production as will be illustrated through the following presentations from the Predynastic and New Kingdom Periods: -

The first example of gazelle statues and figurines is an ivory knife handle from Naqada II

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of the Egyptian Predynastic Period (3500-3200 BC) from Abu Zaidan in display in the Brooklyn Museum of Art at NY. There are large number of animals carved on the handle.

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Among those animals is the gazelle shown in Fig.1.[12] This authorizes the existence of gazelle in Egypt from more than 5200 years.

The second example is a calcite gazelle from the Eastern Nile Delta during the

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Predynastic Period which is an artifact in the State Collection of Egyptian Art at Germany and shown in Fig.2.[13] This is a complete statue for the gazelle in a setting position and turning its head to its right. Its body is decorated by engraved patterns and the eyes are

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Fig. 2: Calcite gazelle from Naqada II.[13]

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Fig. 1: Knife handle from Naqada II.[12]

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marked as shown in the zoomed image of the head and the ears are perforated.

The third example is an ivory gazelle on a wooden base from Thebes during the 18th Dynasty (1543-1292 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown

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in Fig.3.[14] The designer showed the gazelle striding on a base simulating the desert with some plants painted on it. The eyes, nose and hooves are marked in black. -

The fourth example is a three deben bronze-balance-weight in the shape of a gazelle from

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the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1388-1350 BC), the 9th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.4.[15] The gazelle was casted in a very smooth mold to produce a smooth weight with filleted surfaces not to harm the used (very high level casting technology and outstanding mechanical

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engineering thinking and design application since more than 3300 years ago).

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Fig. 3: Ivory gazelle statue from 18th Dynasty.[14]

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Fig. 4: Bronze gazelle weight from 18th Dynasty.[15] Baboon Statues

The ancient Egyptians had a great love and respect for baboons and authorized their existence among them through many ways including baboon-statues since the first Dynasty down to the Late Period as will be illustrated in the following presentations:

The first example is an alabaster statue for a baboon from the 1st Dynasty, reign of King

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Narmer (3100 BC) in display in the Altes Museum at Berlin and shown in Fig.5.[16] The 5100 years old designer showed the baboon setting and putting his both hands between his legs. The material nor dimensions are not assigned.

The second example is an alabaster vessel in the shape of a monkey from the 6th Dynasty

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of the Old Kingdom during the reign of King Pepi I (2331-2287 BC) having a height 137 mm and in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.6.[17] The

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monkey is inscribed on its left hand and the vessel has its inlet in the head of the monkey while holding its baby using both hands and the baby surrounding his mother by both hands. Very intimate position of the monkey and his baby. This is an example on the

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generosity of the ancient Egyptian mechanical designers.

Fig. 5: Baboon statue from the 1st Dynasty.[16]

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Fig. 6: Monkey shaped vessel from the 6th Dynasty.[17]

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The third example is a 60 mm blue faience baboon amulet from the 18th Dynasty (1570-

1298 BC) displayed as an item in the Lord Kitchener's collection and shown in Fig.7.[18]

Fig. 7: Faience baboon amulet from the

Fig. 8: Faience vessel-monkey from the 18th Dynasty.[17]

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18th Dynasty.[18]

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The baboon in this small dimension was shown playing music.

The opening of the vessel is from its top and the designer showed the monkey setting and putting his right hand on its right knee and eating using its left hand. The fifth example is a 153 mm alabaster baboon-headed stopper for a canopic jar from

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the 19th Dynasty, sold in a sale for 11,128 US$ and shown in Fig.9.[19] The design of the stopper is perfect as the monkey head is ideal in holding the stopper and setting it easily

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of the jar plus it is heavy enough to preserve what is inside the canopic jar. The sixth example is a seated monkey amulet from the 19th Dynasty shown in Fig.10.[20] Most of the data about the artifact is missing such as material, dimensions, location, etc. This may be because of the criminal robbery operations inside Egypt. The designer

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showed the monkey setting and putting its right hand on its face.

Fig. 9: Alabaster baboon stopper from the

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[19]

19 Dynasty.

Fig. 10: Amulet-monkey from the 19th Dynasty.[20] 109

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The seventh example is a black granite seated baboon manufactured during the reign of

Pharaoh Ramses II, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty (1297-1213 BC) in display in the

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Manchester Museum at UK and shown in Fig.11.[21] The designer showed the baboon

having a white hair on its head and shoulders. Thus, the baboon has two distinct colors, black and white. The black color is due to using the black granite. But, what is about the white color ? Is it a paint ?.. Is it another layer using different rock such as an alabaster ?.. The archaeologists have to give an answer ?..

The eighth example is a 40 mm turquoise glazed cosmetic pot model with monkey acting

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as a hand from the Third Intermediate Period (1550-702 BC) sold in a sale in 1 May 2013 at London for 3894 US$ and shown in Fig.12.[22] Here is an innovative idea from the mechanical engineering designer to make the pot handle as a monkey. This is not an easy engineering problem since this may create an unbalance problem and the put may fall

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down.

Fig. 11: Granite baboon from the 19th Dynasty.[21]

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Fig. 12: Turquoise glazed cosmetic pot from 3rd Intermediate Period.[22]

The ninth example is a green faience baboon-amulet of 48 mm height from the Late

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Period presented in a saleroom in 19th November 2014 with a starting price of 400 US$ and shown in Fig.13.[23] The designer showed the baboon setting and putting both hands on its knees. High level integrated decorations are practiced in this amulet as depicted in

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the zoomed image of Fig.13.

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The tenth example is a 79.4 mm green faience figurine of a baboon from the Late Period (664-525 BC) sold in a December 2002 sale for 107,550 US$ and shown in Fig.14.[24] It has a similar style of the baboon in Fig.13 but with less decorations and depicting a

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different baboon type.

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Fig. 14: Faience baboon from the Late

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Fig. 13: Faience baboon-amulet from [23]

Period.[24]

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the Late Period.

The eleventh and last example is an 88 mm faience baboon from the 26th Dynasty (664525 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.15.[25] This is another wonderful piece produced from faience illustrating the capability of the ancient Egyptian mechanical engineer to use the available cheap raw material to produce items

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with high accuracy and with high level of decorations as depicted in the zoomed image of

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Fig.14.

Fig. 14: Faience baboon from the 26th Dynasty.[25]

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Hedgehog Statues

The ancient Egyptians appreciated the hedgehog animal and used it as a symbol of rebirth.[26] Examples of their production of statues and applications for the hedgehog appeared in the

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12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom and continued down to the Late Period. Here are some of the examples: -

The first example is a pottery vessel in the shape of a hedgehog from Abydos during the 12th Dynasty (1908-1896 BC) in display in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford and shown

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in Fig.15.[27] The designer designed the vessel taking the shape of a standing hedgehog

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with a small diameter mouth and a decorated body by a plant branch. It has a perfectly spherical body, a conical nose and circular eyes marked in black.

The second example is a blue porcelain hedgehog from the 12th Dynasty (1991-1802 BC)

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in display in the Egyptian Museum at Berlin and shown in Fig.16.[28] The designer showed the hedgehog standing and having two blue-color levels for his skin, head and

legs. He succeeded to simulate its irregular skin through the too many spines on its back

[27]

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Fig. 16: Porcelain hedgehog from the

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Fig.15: Hedgehog vessel from the 12th

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and show its ears.

12th Dynasty.[28]

The third example is a hedgehog statue from the Late 12th Dynasty – Early 13th Dynasty

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(1938-1700 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum and shown in Fig.17.[29] The material nor the dimensions did not register. It seems that it may be produced from faience or porcelain. The design is similar to that in Fig.16 except the colors in Fig.16 is

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much better and the intensity of the spines in the design in Fig.17 is less than that in Fig.16. This model was shown standing on an ovoid base and the eyes were marked in black. -

The fourth example is a blue faience hedgehog from Abydos during the 18th Dynasty (1567-1320 BC) shown in Fig.18.[30] This design is similar to that in Fig.16 with some

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differences in the skin and head.

Fig.17 Hedgehog from the 12th/13th

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Fig.18 Blue faience hedgehog from the 18th Dynasty [30]. 112

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The fifth example is a hedgehog from the reign of Amenhotep III, the 9th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1391-1353 BC) in display in the Cleveland Museum of Art at Cleveland

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and shown in Fig.19.[31] The designer designed this professionally produced unit using

two levels of the brown color of unquoted material. He showed the hedgehog standing on a base and eating. He didn't use any colors for the spines or the eyes. -

The sixth example is a 25.4 mm hedgehog for Seti I, the 2nd Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty (1290-1279 BC) . It was in loan to the Michael Carlos Museum of the Emory University

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from 2005-2015 and shown in Fig.20.[32] The designer showed it setting on a ovoid base

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and eating. The quality is not as good as that of the 18th Dynasty shown in Fig.19.

Dynasty.

Fig. 20: Hedgehog for Seti I from the 19th Dynasty.[32]

The seventh example is a 16 mm faience amulet with the shape of a hedgehog from the

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[31]

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Fig. 19: Hedgehog from the 18th

Late Period (664-332 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.21.[33] The designer designed the amulet as a jar taking the shape of a hedgehog with small rimmed-opening and a handle. He showed the hedgehog setting on an ovoid base, simulated its back with different patterns and showed its eyes in black. This is a high

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technology model of the faience products in the Late Period. The eighth and last example is a faience amulet in the shape of a hedgehog in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.22.[34] The designer showed the hedgehog setting on a U-shaped base and looking forward. I doubt that this is an amulet

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because simple no hole to hang it from. I think it is (may be) a figurine.

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Fig. 21: Faience hedgehog amulet from

the Late Period.[34]

CONCLUSION -

The production of gazelle, baboon and hedgehog statues and figurines in ancient Egypt was investigated.

The ancient Egyptians registered gazelle since the time of Naqada II of the Predynastic

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-

Fig. 22: Faience hedgehog amulet

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the Late Period.[33]

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Period.

They designed and produced calcite gazelle since Naqada II.

-

They designed ivory and bronze gazelle statues during the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom.

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-

They designed a balance weight in the 18th Dynasty in the shape of a gazelle taking outstanding design precautions.

They represented baboons in statues form since the 1st Dynasty down to the Late Period.

-

They produced an alabaster baboon during the reign of King Narmer of the 1st Dynasty.

-

They produced an alabaster jar taking the shape of a baboon in the 6th Dynasty of the Old

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-

Kingdom. -

They produced faience amulets in the shape of a baboon and monkey-shaped vessel

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during the 18th Dynasty.

In the 19th Dynasty of the New Kingdom they designed an alabaster baboon-headed stopper for canopic jars.

Baboon-shaped amulets continued to appear in the 19th Dynasty.

-

They used black granite in the 19th Dynasty to produce baboon statue during the reign of

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-

Pharaoh Ramses II.

-

During the Third Intermediate Period, they used the baboon as a handle for a turquoise-

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glazed pot.

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-

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Faience figurines and amulets of baboon shape continued to appear during the Late Period.

Models of hedgehog statues appeared starting from the 12th Dynasty of the Middle

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-

Kingdom and continued down to the Late Period. -

They produced wonderful applications simulating the hedgehog such as pottery vessel and faience amulets.

-

Outstanding designs of hedgehog statues appeared in the 18th Dynasty and the Late

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F

Period.

REFERENCES

1. Smith, W. "Ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts" Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1960.

2. Arnold, D. "An Egyptian bestiary", The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, Spring,

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4. Strandberg, A. "The gazelle in ancient Egyptian art: Image and meaning", Ph. D. Thesis,

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5. Hunt, P. (2012), "Ancient Egyptian Tilapia Fish", Electrum Magazine, September, 7 pages.

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10. Hassaan, G. A., "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXXIX: Statues of cats, dogs and lions", International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and

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reconsidered", Proceedings of the International Conference "Origins of the State: Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt", Peeters Publishers, 2004; 823-836. 13. Getty

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high-res-stock-photography/185735673. gazelle

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JFR.html?../Content/FAI.SS.00339.html

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CN/lotfinder/lot_details/?intobjectid=1894284 A.,

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http://www.bonhams.com/auctions/20668/lot/299/ 23. Saler Room, (2014), "A Thoth baboon amulet, green faience, Egypt", https://www.thesaleroom.com/en-gb/auction-catalogues/cahn-auktionen-ag/catalogue-id-srcah10000/lot-

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ce968f1c-eaac-44ea-9912-a3fd009c4146

24. The Fake Busters, (2010), "Carved blue-green faience figure of a baboon", http://www.thefakebusters.com/statues/real%20statues%20-stone3-.htm

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guys.html a

hedgehog,

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/490188740665576946/ 28. Dorofeyeva,

Y.,

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blue

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/490188740665576954/ L.,

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https://www.pinterest.com/pin/135530270006719301/ 30. De,

hedgehog",

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29. Williams,

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Dynasty",

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/313633561530165824/ 31. Ribeiro,

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32. Pinterest,

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19th

Dynasty",

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/520376931922376294/ 33. Nystrom,

T.,

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BIOGRAPHY

Prof. Dr. Galal Ali Hassaan 

Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control.

Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970

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and 1974.



Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK

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under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. 

Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.



Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism

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Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering.



Published more than 200 research papers in international journals and conferences.

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Galal.

Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Editor of the International Journal of Computer Techniques.



Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including the

Ed



WJERT journal. Reviewer in some international journals.



Scholars interested in the author’s publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Management, Architecture, Technology and Engineering (IJARMATE) Vol. 3, Issue 3, March 2017

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part 42: Statues of Bull, Ibex, Ram and Snake Galal Ali Hassaan

Index Terms— Mechanical engineering history, ancient Egypt, bull-ibex- ram- snake statues.

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I. INTRODUCTION The ancient Egyptians had outstanding sympathy and appreciation to some animals such that they took them as deities. This action was authorized through paintings and sculptures through a long time of the ancient Egyptian history. This research paper is going to focus only on statues of bull, ibex, ram and snake. Wassell (1991) in her Ph.D. Thesis about ancient Egypt fauna studied animals in ancient Egypt including sheep, goats, cattle, fish and birds [1]. Arnold (1995) in her research paper about Egyptian bestiary presented an antelope head from the 27th Dynasty, a faience ibex from the 18th Dynasty, an ibex from Late 18th Dynasty, dish in the shape of a fish from the 18th Dynasty, faience cobra head from Late 18th Dynasty, bull's leg from Early Dynastic and ivory bull from Late Period [2]. Conway (1998) in her book about animal magic outlines the position of bull in ancient Egypt and how it was related to Ptah and Osiris. About ram, she said that the sacred ram of Mendes was believed to embody the essences of Ra, Sheperes and Shu. About cobra, she said that the cobra image is known from the pictures of the ancient Egyptian crown where it was set over the forehead of the Pharaoh [3]. Collins (2002) in his book about history of the animal world in the ancient Near East studied the animals in the Egyptian art and hieroglyphs, in the Egyptian literature, in the Egyptian religion and the culture use of animals. He presented a complete chapter about animals in the Egyptian Art and hieroglyphs written by Patrick Houlihan [4]. Hardwick et. Al. (2003) presented a sackler gallery of the Egyptian antiquities in the Ashmolean Museum from the First Dynasty to the Byzantine Period. They presented a cosmotic spoon in the shape of a fish, an Apis bull from the 26th Dynasty and a sacred bull from the Late Period [5]. Kalof

(2007) in her book about animals in human history presented some artifacts from the 5000 BC to 500 AC Period. This presentation included a bull's head from 2800 BC, a man carrying a calf from 575 BC and a horse statue from 140 BC [6]. Guichard (2015), the curator of an exhibition held during the period 5th December 2014 to 9th March 2015 presented some of the ancient Egyptian artifacts displayed in the exhibition. This presentation included: comb with ibex hand from the 18th Dynasty, ibex statue from the Late Period, frog figurine from the New Kingdom, ram's head from the 18th Dynasty, bull statue from the Late Period and a bull palette from Naqada II [7]. Seawright (2017) wrote an article about animals and gods in ancient Egypt. She stated that according to the belief of the ancient Egyptians, they considered some animals as deities such as baboon, cat, cattle, cobra, crocodile, frog, hippopotamus, ibis, jackal, lion, pig, ram, snake and turtle [8]. Hassaan (2017) in his series of research papers about mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt presented a study about some animals statues and figurines in ancient Egypt such as: cats, dogs and lions [9], jackal, hippopotamus and crocodile [10] , gazelle, baboon and hedgehog [11].

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Abstract— The production of statues and figurines for pull, ibex, ram and snake in ancient Egypt is investigated in the paper. Examples of each animal production is presented showing material, dimensions and present location if known. The impact of each example on the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt is outlined . Sophisticated technologies applied in the production of the presented examples are stated.

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Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt [email protected]

II. BULL STATUES The ancient Egyptians registered their intimate relationship with bulls in the form of figurines and statues since an early time through the time of Naqada I followed by most of the Dynastic Periods up to the Late Period of the ancient Egypt history. Here are some of the examples: - The first example is an ivory comb with a bull handle from the time of Naqada I (4000-3500 BC) in display in the Louvre Museum at Paris and shown in Fig.1 [12]. This is a wonderful mechanical design of ancient Egyptians from more than 5500 years ago. All the surfaces are smooth and well filleted not to harm the user. Also, the horns make a loop with the bull body forming a ring to hang the comb. The dimensions are not given !!.

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Fig.4 Bull head amulet from 2nd Dynasty [15].

Fig.5 Field ploughing from Middle Kingdom [16].

- The sixth example is a carnelian double headed bull amulet from Early 18th Dynasty in display in the Liverpool Museum at UK and shown in Fig.6 [17]. The designer marked the bull eyes in black. He used two heads to maintain keep the bull in a horizontal balance during use by maintain its balance around its center of mass. This is an innovative ancient Egyptian design from more than 3400 years. - The seventh example is a bronze bull's head weight of 2 deben (181.4 g) from the 18th Dynasty (1550-1391 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.7 [18]. This is a wonderful outstanding artifact produced by bronze casting in the 18th Dynasty. The finishing is perfect and the details of the face are very clear. The eyes may be inlaid. The flat horizontal neck-surface maintains the weight stable in a horizontal position.

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Fig.1 Ivory comb from Naqada I [12]. - The second example is an ivory bull's leg from the 1st Dynasty (2960-2770 BC) of 170 mm height in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown in Fig.2 [13]. This furniture leg may be for a bed or a chair. The designer simulated the bull's leg because he known that this design may carry a load of at least 1500 N which is more than enough for any bed where the factor of safety will be above 3. The simulated bull leg has a long roughened hoof , longitudinal veins and a pin for joining with the furniture frame. - The third example is an ivory furniture leg in the shape of a bull's leg from the Early Dynastic Period (3100-2686 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.3 [14]. This design shows short roughened hoof, veins and bigger pin for joining with the furniture frame. In this design the mechanical engineer from more than 4700 years set this elaborated design for the leg to reduce the loading stresses in the leg compared with the design in Fig.2.

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Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and shown in Fig.5 [16]. The mechanical designer of the model used two bulls to increase the productivity of the ploughing process and one worker supporting the plough stem while one agriculture supervisor is supervising the ploughing process. This was one of the features of the ancient Egyptian civilization that helped them to build wonderful and successful civilization for thousands of years.

Fig.2 Furniture leg from 1st Dynasty [13].

Fig.3 Furniture leg from Early Dynastic [14].

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- The fourth example is a bull head amulet from the 2nd Dynasty (2750-2649 BC) having a 32mm length in display in the Museum of Fine Art at Boston and shown in Fig.4 [15]. The eyes are marked in black as two concentric circles, the horns are shown as discs and the neck is recessed to hang the amulet. - The fifth example is a wooden model for field ploughing using two bulls (or oxens) from the Middle Kingdom (2010-1961 BC) in display in the

Fig.6 Double bull head amulet from 18th Dynasty [17].

Fig.7 Bull head weight from the 18th Dynasty [18].

- The eighth example is a 115 mm length bronze bull statue from the 26th Dynasty (664-525 BC) sold in a Christies Sale in 25th October 2012 at London for 22,151 US$ and shown in Fig.8 [19]. The designer showed the bull striding and could use the casting technology in ancient Egypt to produce such

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- The 10th example is a 108 mm long wooden figurine of a bull from the Late Period (664-343 BC) sold by Christies in a Sale at NY on 5th June 1014 for 7500 US$ and shown in Fig.10 [21]. The designer showed the bull standing on a base . Because wood is relatively a week material, the designer used an innovative design idea to strengthen his product using a mechanical web underneath the bull between its body and the base. This was from about 2500 years ago. How great was the ancient Egyptian mechanical engineers. The hole in the bull's neck means that this artifact may be a large amulet in the form of necklace. - The 11th and last example is a 178 mm height bronze bull from the Late Period (664-332 BC) in display in the Walters Art Museum and shown in Fig.11 [22]. This design has the same features as those in the designs presented in Figs.8 and 9.

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Fig.8 Bronze bull statue from Fig.9 Bronze bull statue from the 26th Dynasty [19]. the 26th Dynasty [20].

- The first example is a 12 mm length faience figurine of an ibex from the 18th Dynasty (1550-1300 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.12 [24]. The ancient Egyptian shaped this miniature figurine (12 mm length) either manually or using a mould. He could show all the ibex setting ibex in this very small space including the eyes, mouth, ears and horns. - The second example is a 25.4 mm height quartz ibex figurine from reign of Amenhotep III, the 9th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1388-1350 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.13 [24]. The designer showed the ibex setting and succeeded to give the head and back different color than the other parts of the ibex.

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complex shape with the head details (horns, ears, eyes etc.). - The ninth example is a 205 mm height bronze bull from the 26th Dynasty (600 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.9 [20]. The bull is shown carrying a solar disc between its horns, striding over a thick base. Again, this is a good example on the bronze casting technology during the Late Period of ancient Egypt.

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Fig.12 Faience ibex figurine from the 18th Dynasty [24]

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Fig.10 Wooden bull statue Fig.11 Bronze bull figurine from Late Period [21]. from Late Period [22].

III. IBEX STATUES

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Ancient Egyptians used the ibex as a symbol for strength and grace [23]. Its authority through statutory was authorized during a limited period from the 18th to the 21st Dynasties as depicted by the following nine examples:

Fig.13 Quartz ibex figurine from the 18th Dynasty [24].

- The third example is a wooden comb with ibex handle from the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep III of the 18th Dynasty in display in Louvre Museum at Paris and shown in Fig.14 [25]. This is a wonderful artifact where the ancient Egyptian designer was succeeded to: select a proper material could sustain the environmental effects for more than 3350 years, simulate a beautiful ibex as a handle of the comb, set the ibex in a position giving enough height to catch easily the comb, smooth all the surfaces including the pins tips not to harm the user and set the comb pins on a circle-sector profile. The carving process of the wood was more than wonderful. - The fourth example is an alabaster ibex of Tutankhamun, the 13th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1332-1319 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.15 [26]. This is a wonderful piece from the treasures of the young Pharaoh Tut. It was nicely carved from the alabaster stone, could show the details of the horn, ears, eyes, mouth, tail and hoofs. The horn, ears, eyes, mouth and hoofs are all shown in black color through inlay. The designer showed the ibex setting on a base and it seems that this is a jar or vase with its inlet-hole in the middle of the ibex-back. The cartouche of the king was inlaid on the shoulder of the ibex.

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Fig.14 Comb with ibex handle from the 18th Dynasty [25]

Fig.15 Alabaster ibex statue from the 18th Dynasty [26].

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- The fifth example is blue ibex head from the 18th Dynasty in display in the Museum of Fine Art at Boston and shown in Fig.16 [27]. Most probably, this is a faience product and may be subjected to conservation leaving the different color tracing on the head and neck. - The sixth example is a 320 mm height bronze ibex head casted in 1000 BC during the 21st Dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period in display in the Neues Museum at Berlin and shown in Fig.17 [28]. The eyes are inlaid in two colors (after casting or through the casting process). This is a difficult piece to cast because of the too many details of the horns, ears, beard and rough surfaces of the horns and neck. But the ancient mechanical engineers did it with their available casting technology.

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following examples: - The first example is a 158 mm height bronze ram head from the Third Intermediate Period (1070-664 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.18 [30]. There is an inlay around the eyes and the designed could show a small beard under the ram's chin. - The second example is Ram's head amulet from Memphis during the 25th Dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period (775-653 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum and shown in Fig.19 [31]. The ram head was carved from jasper and other black material. Then designer shoed the ram with long horns and with two cobra on its forehead. The surface of the head is very smooth and shining.

Fig.19 Jasper ram's head from the 25th Dynasty [31].

- The third example is a golden ram's head from the 25th Dynasty (770-657 BC) of 42 mm height in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.20 [32]. The designer showed the two horns turned behind the ears taking the shape of a question mark and one cobra on the forehead of the ram. The horns are corrugated and the cobra is exactly in between. Definitely this piece was manufactured using the casting process. To build a mold for such a complex design, it is not something easy. However the ancient Egyptian Engineer did it more than 2660 years ago. - The fourth example is a wooden ram's head from the 25th Dynasty (760-660 BC) in display in the Museum of Fine Art at Boston and shown in Fig.21[33].

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Fig.18 Ram's head from the 3rd Intermediate Period [30]

Fig.16 Blue ibex head from the 18th Dynasty [27]

Fig.17 Bronze ibex head from the 21st Dynasty [28].

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IV. RAM STATUES The ancient Egyptians appreciated the ram animal to the extend to worship from as early the Predynastic Period [29]. Statues manifesting this appreciation are concentrated in the Third Intermediate and Late Periods as depicted in the

Fig.20 Golden ram's head from The 25th Dynasty [32]

Fig.21 Wooden ram's head from the 25th Dynasty [33].

This example reflects the intelligence of the ancient Egyptian artist depicting his ability to use cheap material (here wood) to produce difficult pieces with high quality and sustaining the environmental effects for thousands of years.

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following examples starting from Naqada II of the Predynastic Period to the 21st Dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period: - The first example is a clay snake figurine from Naqada II (4000-3500BC) shown in Fig.24 [37]. The ancient Egyptian designer made a disc-shaped base to support three snake figurines. One of them is absent. Its location indicates the design philosophy of the designer to produce the three snakes separately and then assemble them on the base. Outstanding design philosophy of the Egyptian mechanical engineer from more than 5500 years ago. Unfortunately, a lot of data about the unit are missing. Most probably, it is not located in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo. It may be in display in Petrie Museum at UK !!.

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- The fifth example is a granite ram statue protecting Taharqa, the 4th Pharaoh of the 25th Dynasty (690-664 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.22 [34]. The designer showed the ram setting on all its legs with Pharaoh Taharga between its front legs and under its chin as a symbol for protection (as they believed). Using the hard stone granite the ancient Egyptian carver could produce such a complex design easily including the Pharaoh statue. The dimensions are not given !.

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Fig.22 Granite ram's statue protecting Taharqa [34].

Fig.24 Clay snake figurine from Naqada II [37]. - The second example is a cobra figurines in the step pyramid at Saqqara of Egypt build by the architecture Engineer Imhotep for King Zoser, the founder of the 3rd Dynasty (2667-2648 BC) shown in Fig.25 [38]. On this side of a specially prepared structure, Imhotep showed six cobra-stone statues raising their heads and looking forward marking clearly their eyes as if they are ready to protect the site of the King's pyramid.

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- The sixth example is a 145 mm clay ram's head from the 27th Dynasty of the Late Period (500 BC) and shown in Fig.23 [35]. This another example of using available cheap raw materials in manufacturing magnificent products such this one having all the details of the ram' head in a highly professional manner.

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Fig.23 Clay ram's head from the 27th Dynasty [35].

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V. SNAKE STATUES The ancient Egyptians used the cobra from the earliest records as the patron and protector of the country, all the other deities and pharaohs (as they believed) [36]. The had a great appreciation to the snake through using its figurines and statues in different ways as will be illustrated in the

Fig.25 Cobra statues near the step pyramid of Zoser [38].

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The Pharaoh statue was carved from red granite and has a 1.03 m height. He is wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt with cobra on the forehead of the crown. - The seventh example is a head of Amenhotep III, the 9th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1388-1350 BC) in display in the Neues Museum at Berlin and shown in Fig.30 [44]. The Pharaoh is wearing the Nemes headdress and the Double Crown of Egypt with the cobra in the middle of the Nemes forehead. - The eighth example is a 4 m height sandstone colossal statue for Akhenaten, the 10th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1351-1334 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.31 [45]. The designer showed the Pharaoh wearing a Khat and the Double Crown of Egypt with cobra on middle of the Pharaoh forehead above the Khat.

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- The third example is a cobra figurine on the forehead of King Mentuhotep II, the 5th King of the 11th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom in Deir el-Bahri of Egypt shown in Fig.26 [39]. This is a painted wall carving in the King's temple with the cobra exactly in the middle of the King's forehead. - The fourth example is a statue of Neferhotep I. the 25th King of the 13th Dynasty of the Second Intermediate Period in display in the Archaeological Museum of Bologna, Italy and shown in Fig.27 [40, 41]. It was carved from the relatively hard stone, microgaaro and has a height of 350 mm [41]. The King is wearing the Nemes headdress with the cobra in the middle of his forehead.

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Fig.30 Statue of Amenhotep III Fig.31 Akhenaten statue from the 18th Dynasty [44] from 18th Dynasty [45]. - The ninth example is a guardian Ka statue of Tutankhamun, the 13th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1332-1323 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.32 [46]. The designer showed the Pharaoh wearing a Nemes headdress with a big cobra on his forehead above the Nemes. - The tenth example isa colossal statue for Meritamen, daughter and Great Royal Wife of Ramses II, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty (1297-1213 BC) in display in Akhmim of Egypt and shown in Fig.33 [47]. This is a unique design utilizing the cobra in the Queen's Crown. The designer filled the whole collar of the crown with cobras over the whole circumference adjacent each other with small gap between them.

Fig.26 King Mentuhotep II Fig.27 King Neferhotep I from From 11th Dynasty [39] from 13th Dynasty [40].

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- The fifth example is a 90 mm height bronze cobra figurine from Thebes of ancient Egypt manufactured during the 17th Dynasty of the Second Intermediate Period (1640-1600 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.28 [42]. This is another good example on the high technology of bronze casting in ancient Egypt. The head is looking forward and the tail is in its back and making a loop. - The sixth example is a statue for Amenhotep II, the 7th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom (1425-1398 BC) in display in Kimbell Art Museum at Texas and shown in Fig.29 [43].

Fig.28 Bronze cobra from the 17th Dynasty [42]

Fig.29 Amenhotep II statue from 18th Dynasty [43].

Fig.32 Statue of Tutankhamun

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Fig.33 Meritamen statue 18

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- They produced snake figurines since the time of Naqada II. - They produced colossal cobra statues in the pyramid complex of King Zoser of the 3rd Dynasty. - Since the Middle Kingdom most Kings and Pharaohs used the cobra as a protecting symbol set on their forehead above the headdress or crown. - This action was practiced by Mentuhotep II (11th Dynasty), Neferhotep I (13th Dynasty), Amenhotep II (18th Dynasty), Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Tutankhamun (18th Dynasty), Seti II (19th Dynasty) and Psusennes I (21st Dynasty). REFERENCES

[1] B. A. Wassell, "Ancient Egyptian fauna: a lexicographical study", Ph. D. Thesis, School of Oriental Studies, University of Durham, 1991. [2] D. Arnold, "An Egyptian bestiary", The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, pp.7-64, Spring 1995. [3] D. Conway, "Animal Magick", Llewellyn Publications, USA, 1998. [4] B. Collins (Editor), "A history of the animal world in ancient Near East", Brill, Leiden, 2002. [5] T. Hardwick et. al., "Sackler gallery of Egyptian antiquities: Egypt from the First Dynasty to the Byzantine Period", The Ashmolean Museum, 2003. [6] L. Kalof, "Looking at animals in human history", Reaktion Books Ltd, UK, 2007. [7] H. Guichard, "Animals and Pharaohs: The anilam kingdom in ancient Egypt", Exhebition: 5 December 2014 – 9 March 2015, Louvre Museum. [8] C. Seawright, "Animals and Gods in ancient Egypt", Tour Egypt, http://www.touregypr.net/featurestories/animalgods.htm , 2017. [9] G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical Engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXXIX: Statues of cats, dogs and lions", International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, vol.5, issue 2, pp.36-48, 2017. [10] G. A. Hassaan, "Mechanical Engineering in ancient Egypt, Part 40: Statues of jackal, hippopotamus and crocodile", International Journal of Advancement in Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Science, vol.4, issue 2, pp.40-53, 2017. [11] "Mechanical Engineering in ancient Egypt, Part 41: Statues of gazelle, baboon and hedgehog", World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, vol.3, issue 3, Accepted for Publication, 2017. [12] Wikipedia, "Comb with bull", https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Egypte_louvr e_313.jpg. , 2017. [13] Metropolitan Museum, "Furniture leg in shape of bull's leg", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/59119 4 , 2017. [14] Alamy, "Bull leg for a bed or a chair, ivory, Early Dynastic Period", http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-egypt-cairo-egyptia n-museum-bull-leg-for-a-bed-or-a-chair-ivory-early-11 8852136.html

VI. CONCLUSION

Fig.35 Psusennes I mask from 21st Dynasty [49].

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Fig.34 Statue of Seti II from the 19th Dynasty [48]

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from the 18th Dynasty [46] from 19th Dynasty [47]. - The eleventh example is a statue for Seti II, the 5th Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty (1203-1197 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Turin and shown in Fig.34 [48]. The Pharaoh was shown wearing a Khat and one of the Crowns of ancient Egypt. The cobra was located in its classical position on the forehead of the Pharaoh over the Khat. - The twelfth example is a golden mask for Psusennes I, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty (1001-992 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.35 [49]. The designer showed the Pharaoh wearing a Nemes headdress with cobra on his forehead above the headdress.

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- The production of bull, ibex, ram and snake in ancient Egypt was investigated. - This investigation covered a time span from Naqada I of the Predynastic Period to the 21st Dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period. - The ancient Egyptians simulated some products to thake the shape of a bull since very early times. This included a comb handle (Naqada I), a furniture leg (Early Dynastic) and amulets (2nd Dynasty). They produced ploughing models powered by bulls during the Middle Kingdom. - They invented a double-bull-head amulets and a bull-head weight in the 18th Dynasty - They produced bronze bull statues during the 18th, 19th and 22nd Dynasties. - They produced wooden bull statues during the Late Period. - They could produce a miniature figurines of a faience and quartz ibex in the 18th Dynasty. - They produced wonderful alabaster ibex for Pharaoh Tutankhamun during the 18th Dynasty. - They casted a complex bronze ibex head in the 21st Dynasty. - They produced ram's heads and full ram statues during the Third Intermediate and Late Periods.

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[37] Strange History, "Clay snake figurine, Naqada II", http://www.strangehistory.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/ 2013/07/clay-snake-figurine-nagada-ii.jpg , 2013. [38] Un-wall Papers, "Cobra figures and the step pyramid, Saqqara, Egypt", http://unwallpapers.com/cobra-figures-and-the-step-pyr amid-saqqara-egypt/ , 2014. [39] Arnold, p.43. [40] Wikipedia, "Neferhotep I", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neferhotep_I , 2016. [41] Musei Bologna, "Statue of Neferhotep I", http://www.museibologna.it/archeologicoen/percorsi/66 287/id/75337/oggetto/74877/ [42] V. Froese, "Bronze cobra, Dynasty 17", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/465559680209304657/ [43] Kimbell Art, "Portrait statue of Pharaoh Amenhotep II", https://www.kimbellart.org/collection-object/portrait-sta tue-pharaoh-amenhotep-ii , 2016. [44] G. Grue, "Head from a statue of King Amenhotep III", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/253609022742311631/ [45] The World in your Hands, "The Egyptian Museum in Cairo", http://theworldinyourhandsss.blogspot.com.eg/2014/12/ the-egyptian-museum-in-cairo-egypt.html , 2014. [46] C. Colin, "King Tutankhamun, guardian Ka statue", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/526287906436637574/ [47] D. Elhard, "Colossal Meritamen statue, Akhmim, Egypt", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/186336503307913799/ [48] M. Miccoli, "Sculpture of Seti II, Torino, Museo Egizio", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/479774166532332034/ [49] R. Casas, "Perfil of the mask of Psussence I", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/10133167885158498/

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[15] Museum of Fine Art, "Amulet of a bull's head", http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/amulet-of-a-bulls -head-139688 , 2017. [16] M. Whitfield, "Model of workers ploughing a field, Middle Kingdom", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/475903885596888151/ [17] Liverpool Liverpool Museums, "Carnelian double headed bull amulet", http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/wml/collections/a ntiquities/ancient-egypt/item-295930.aspx , 2017. [18] Monteprama Blogspot, "Bull's head weight of 2 Deben", http://monteprama.blogspot.com.eg/2014/01/pesi-bestia li.html [19] Christies, "An Egyptian Apis bull, Late Period", http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/ancient-art-antiquitie s/an-egyptian-bronze-apis-bull-late-period-5609494-det ails.aspx , 2017. [20] Bible History, "Bronze figure of Apis, the sacred bull", http://www.bible-history.com/archaeology/egypt/apis-th e-bull-god.html [21] Christies, "An Egyptian Wood Apis bull", http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/Lot/an-egyptian-woo d-apis-bull-late-period-5800534-details.aspx , 2017. [22] The Walters, "Apis bull of Memphis", http://art.thewalters.org/detail/17422/apis-bull-of-memp his/ [23] Answers, "What are the significances of ibex in ancient Egypt ?", http://www.answers.com/Q/What_was_the_significance _of_ibex_in_ancient_Egypt?#slide=3 [24] Arnold, p.13, 1995. [25] Egyptology, "Delicate wooden comb", http://egiptologia.com/la-silla-de-los-ibices-en-reverenc ia-de-la-tumba-de-yuya-y-tuya/ , 2016. [26] D. Phillips, "Alabaster statue of an ibex from Tutankhamun's tomb", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/20336635793094175/ [27] A. Hegab, "Egyptian blue ibex, 18th Dynasty", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/405886985151303468/ [28] History 2701 Wikia, "Egyptian ibex head", http://history2701.wikia.com/wiki/Egyptian_Ibex_Head [29] J. Dunn, "The ram in ancient Egypt", http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/ram.htm , 2017. [30] Metropolitan Museum, "Ram head for attachment", http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/45.2.9/ , 2017. [31] Ipernity, "Ram's head in the Brooklyn Museum", http://www.ipernity.com/doc/laurieannie/24352213 , 2010. [32] A. Grasso, "Ram's head amulet. 25th Dynasty", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/517139969692061379/ [33] A. Hegab, "Wooden ram's head, 25th Dynasty", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/405886985151437601/ [34] Kids Britannica, "Statue of Amen in the form of a ram protecting Taharqa", http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/art-136269/A-grani te-statue-of-Amon-in-the-form-of-a-ram-protecting-taha rqa [35] Sergey, "A large ram's head, grey-brown clay, 500 BC", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/477733472953914064/ [36] Wikipedia, "Serpent (symbolism)", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serpent_(symbolism) , 2017.

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BIOGRAPHY

Galal Ali Hassaan: • Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. • Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. • Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. • Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.

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• Chief Editor of the International Journal of Computer Techniques. • Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including IJARMATE. • Reviewer in some international journals. • Scholars interested in the author's publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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• Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. • Published more than 200 research papers in international journals and conferences. • Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering.

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Original Article

wjert, 2017, Vol. 3, Issue 3, 22 -39.

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World Journal ofResearch Engineeringand Research and Technology Journal of Engineering Technology WJERT SJIF Impact Factor: 4.326

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Galal. World

ISSN 2454-695X

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 44: STATUES OF ELEPHANT, COW AND FISH

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Dr. Prof. Galal Ali Hassaan* Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering,

Article Received on 02/06/2017

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Cairo University, Egypt.

Article Revised on 23/06/2017

ABSTRACT *Corresponding Author Dr. Prof. Galal Ali

Article Accepted on 14/07/2017

The objective of this paper is to investigate the development of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the production of

Emeritus Professor,

elephant, cow and fish statues. This study covers the design and

Department of Mechanical

production of statues and figurines from the Predynastic down to the

Design & Production,

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Hassaan

Cairo University, Egypt.

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Late Periods of ancient Egypt. The innovations in design and

Faculty of Engineering,

production of the analyzed statues are highlighted. KEYWORDS: Mechanical engineering history, ancient Egypt,

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Elephant statues, cow statues, fish statues. INTRODUCTION

This is the last paper in a series of research papers presenting the animal statues production in the ancient Egyptian society. I presents the statues and figurines of three animals: elephant,

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cow and fish. The three animals are presented according to size not according to the date of their existence in ancient Egypt. Then the statues and figurines are presented according to sequence.

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Anson, 1932 in his book about fishermen and fishing ways presented a chapter about fishermen of ancient Egypt, Palestine, Greece and Rome. He outlined that fish had been the normal food for those lived on the Nile banks or in its neighbourhoods. He added that the life of the Egyptian fishermen was reconstructed through the paintings in the Egyptian tombs.[1]

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Velde, 1991 in his paper about some Egyptian deities and their priggishness outlined that it

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seems that the pig was a symbol to use as a representation of a god or goddess. He stated that the pig never reached the status of cat, dog and geese and there was no pig mummies were

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found in Egypt.[2] Adams, 1998 in her paper about a discovery of a Predynastic elephant

burial at Hierakonpolis of Egypt announced through excavations in the large settlement of Hierakonpolis the discovery of a 5700 years old elephant burial during the time of Naqada I.[3] Lobbon and Liedekerke, 2000 in their paper about elephants in ancient Egypt and Nubia

examined the presence of elephants in the ancient Nile valley where they were hunted and

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distributed to Egypt. Their study aimed at illuminating some of the deep roots of the human-

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elephant relations.[4]

Mohammed, 2010 in his thesis about the marshes in ancient Egypt highlighted the most important birds, fishes and animals lived at marshes environments of Egypt during the Old Kingdom. He focused on products, industries and foods of plants, birds and fishes living in marshes and their role in supporting the ancient Egyptian economy.[5] Basson, 2012 in his M.

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Phil. Thesis about the Goddess Hathor and the women of ancient Egypt presented Hathor in the form of a woman statue, a cow statue and as a capital.[6] Rehren and Pernike, 2014 in their paper about the nature and origin of the metal work from Tel el-Farkha presented copper fish-

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hooks and harpoons dated to the Late 4th millennium having one, two and three barbs.[7] Hagseth, 2015 in his thesis about Nilotic livestock transport in ancient Egypt studied the etymology of the cattle in ancient Egypt. He showed cattle transport boats from Old and New

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Kingdoms.[8] Phillipps et. Al., 2016 based on assessment of faunal material from Fayum demonstrated the significance of fish above other species for all early to mid- Holocene occupations with the presence of wild ungulates in the earliest faunal deposits.[9] Wikipedia, 2017 wrote an article about history of fishing pointing out that it is an ancient practice dated to at least 40,000 years. They presented a fishing hook made of bone and stated that ancient

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Egyptians used reed boats for fishing and used harpoons, hooks, lines, nets and baskets in the fishing operation.[10] Hassaan, 2017 investigated the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through studying the industry of the animal statues in periods extending from

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the Predynastic down to the Late Period. He presented many examples of statues and figurines for cat, dog and lion.[11] jackal, hippopotamus and crocodile.[12] gazelle, baboon and hedgehog.[13] bull, ibex, ram and snake.[14] and horse, leopard, turtle and frog.[15] Elephant Statues

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Elephants were living in ancient Egypt during the Predynastic Period because of the

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sufficient rain, but in the Dynastic Periods, the climate became drier and the elephants moved

south.[16] According to Barbara Adams, excavations in Hierakonpolis of Egypt led to the

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discovery of a 5700 years old elephant burial (Naqada I Period).[3] We have a number of examples of elephant palette, amulet and statue most of which are during the Predynastic Periods of ancient Egypt: -

The first example is a 139.7 mm length greywacke elephant shaped palette from Naqada I

/ Naqada II (3650 – 3300 BC) shown in Fig.1.[16] The two eyes of the elephant are shown

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The present location of this palette is not identified!.

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as an all-through hole, while there is another hole in the elephant back to hang the palette.

The second example is a 100 mm greywacke elephant-palette from Naqada I/Naqada II Period (3800-3300 BC) in display in the Pushkin State Museum at Russia and shown in Fig.2

[17]

. The eyes are engraved in its head and a hanging hole is drilled in a specially

prepared hole-support (Early mechanical engineering tradition indicating the broad

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thinking of the ancient Egyptian mechanical engineer).

Fig. 1: 139.7 mm Palette from Naqada I/II.[16]

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Fig. 2: 100 mm Palette from Naqada

I/II.[17]

The third example is a 22.2 mm ivory amulet in the shape of an elephant head from

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Naqada I/Naqada II (3650-3300 BC) shown in Fig.3.[16] The two eyes are inlaid in two different colors and the two tusks are turned internally towards the face front. -

The fourth example is a 35 mm height serpentine amulet in the shape of an elephant head

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from Naqada II (3500-3300 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.4.[18] The eyes are inlaid in two colors and the tusks are turned internally closer to

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the eyes of the elephant.

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Fig. 3: Ivory amulet from Naqada I/II.[16] Fig. 4: Serpentine amulet from Naqada II.[18] The fifth and last example is a granite elephant statue existing in the Elephantine island of Aswan shown in Fig.5.[19] The designer showed the elephant standing on a two levels

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stand in an open area. The dimensions nor the historical period are not identified.

Cow Statues

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Fig. 5: Granite elephant statue from Aswan.[19]

Cow as a cattle member appeared in ancient Egypt since the 8 th Millennium BC in the Fayum region.[20] The cow was one of the oldest sacred animals in ancient Egypt. The cow Goddess

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was called Hathor meaning the house of Horus. She was illustrated by a flint model of as cow head and horns dated to the Predynastic Period and in display in the British Museum.[21] Examples incorporating cow from ancient Egypt will be presented coving a time span from

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the 1st to the 26th Dynasties: -

The 1st example is a 0.635 m siltstone palette for King Narmer, the founder of the 1st Dynasty (3000-2920 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.6.[22] The palette is headed by two figurines of Hathor cow, then carved scenes for the

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King smashing the head of Egypt's enemies. Even though siltstone is one of relatively hardest stones, the ancient Egyptian carver could carve it professionally and produce

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wonderful clear scenes from both sides of the palette without breaking it (about 5000 years ago).

The second example is a 1.73 m length cattle inspection painted-wood-model from the

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tomb of Meketre, the chancellor and high Steward during the reign of King Mentuhotep II

(2061-2010 BC) and King Mentuhotep III (2010-1998 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo shown in Fig.7.[23] Because ancient Egypt was a great empire, they left

such authorizing registration of some important economical activities. It represents the

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canceller and high steward Meketre inspecting the cattle wealth in his state with complete

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team of scribes, supervisors and workers. Such artifacts illustrate the strength sides of the

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ancient Egyptian economy.

Fig.6: Palette of King Narmer of the 1st Dynasty.[22] Fig.7: Cattle model from the 11th Dynasty.[23]

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The third example is an 0.47 m length carved and painted wood model of birthing cow from the 11th Dynasty (2000 BC) in display in the Royal Ontario Museum of Canada and shown in Fig.8.[24] The 4020 years old model is a wonderful piece in design and

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production. Two workers are looking after the birthing process. One man with the cow mother and the other with the cow baby. The coloring is more than fantastic. -

The fourth example is wooden model of a cattle stable from the tomb of Meketre dated to

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the reign of Amenemhat I, the 1st King of the 12th Dynasty (1981-1975 BC) having a dimensions of 0.725x0.57x0.285 m and shown in Fig.9.[25] The stable model is a registration for the industrial engineering in the ancient Egyptian society. I consists of two partitions. Each partition houses a number of cows with separate door (clear only in one

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of the partitions when the door is open and the workers are servicing the cows. The other cows are eating without any disturbance. How great they were !!.

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Fig. 9: Cattle stable from the 12th Dynasty.[25]

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Fig. 8: Birthing cow from the 11th Dynasty.[24]

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The fifth example is a stone Hathor statue in the Hathor chapel at temple of Thutmose III, the 6th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1479-1425 BC) at Deir el-Bahri of Luxor shown in Fig.10.[26] The designer showed the cow striding and protecting the Pharaoh by its head

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and body.

The sixth example is a 0.355 m height calcite head of a cow statue from Deir el-Bahri (1450 BC) during the 18 th Dynasty in display in the British Museum and shown in

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Fig.11.[27] The cow head was carved professionally and laid by laps lazuli. The seventh example is a wooden cow head from the tomb of Amenhotep II, the 7 th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1425-1398 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo

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and shown in Fig.12.[28] The designer shoed the cow with short horns and used inlay for the eyes, eyebrows and horns. The wood was carved and painted to give the wonderful pose of the cow depicted in Fig.12. -

The eighth example is a gilded and stuccoed wood funerary bed in the shape of two sacred cows from tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun (1332-1323 BC) from the 18th Dynasty

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in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.13a.[29] Each side represented a sacred cow with a complete head having two horns and a solar disc between them, a body, one front and rear leg and a curved tail. The bed is decorated by geometric shapes repeated in contours on the cow face , body and legs. A part of such decoration is

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illustrated in the zoomed image shown in Fig.13b.[30]

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Fig. 11: Calcite cow head from the 18th Dynasty.[27]

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Fig. 10: Hathor chapel from the 18th Dynasty.[26]

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Fig. 12: Wooden cow head from the 18th Dynasty.[28] Fig. 13: A Sacred cow-bed from the 18th Dynasty.[29]

Fig. 13: b Face of the sacred cow of Tut's funerary bed.[30]

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The ninth example is a gilded Hathor head from the tomb of Tutankhamun of the 18 th

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dynasty in display in Luxor Museum and shown in Fig..14.[31] The eyes are inlaid by lapis lazuli and the long curved horns are manufactured from copper while the face, ears and

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part of the neck are gilded by gold. This mechanical design is very complex because of its

3D-nature and the corrugations in the ears and in the horns. The designer use four

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different materials in producing this wonderful unit: wood, copper, gold and lapis lazuli,

All the head elements are assembled in a way to live for thousands of years without possibility of disassembly. It is the distinct caliber of the ancient Egyptian engineer and technician.

The tenth and last example is schist statue for Hathor from the tomb of Psammetic III, the

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6th Pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty (526-525 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo

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and shown in Fig.15.[32]

Fig. 14: Cow head from Tut's tomb.[31]

Fig. 15: Cow statue from the 26th Dynasty.[32]

This is a very delicate complete statue for the Hathor cow carved from schist and

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professionally polished to give the very shining surface shown in Fig.15 with a very complex details for the face including a disk-feather-cobra crown between the long-curved-horns of the cow.

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Fish Statues

Ancient Egyptians used different techniques for fishing: fish traps during the Predynastic Period, line and hook during the Old Kingdom and metal hooks with barbs during the 12th Dynasty.[33] Others see that the spear, net, line and rod appeared in ancient Egypt around

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3500 BC.[34] Sample examples of fish representation in ancient Egypt during periods from

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Naqada II to Third Intermediate Period will be presented here through statues and figurines: -

The first example is 105 mm length greywacke palette in the shape of a fish from Naqada

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II / 1st Dynasty (3500-2950 BC) in display in the Cleveland Museum of Art and shown in

Fig.16 [35]. The contours of the 5000 years old palette were perfectly rounded even the tail following the well-established mechanical engineering traditions of surface filleting not to harm the user. The circular hole in the top-middle is for hanging. The designer used the eyes to provide an all-through hole.

The second example is a slate cosmetic dish in the shape of a tilapia fish from Naqada III

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(3000 BC) in display in the Kunst Historishen Museum at Wien and shown in Fig.17.[36] The designer used a round pool in the body of the fish for cosmetic use and rounded all the surfaces. He made the tail as a mean to hold the dish since in this application

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providing holes is not reasonable as was the case in the palette application of Fig.16.

Fig. 16: Fish-Palette from Naqada II/1st Dynasty.[35]

The third example is an 83 mm length greywacke cosmetic dish in the shape of a fish

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Fig. 17: Fish-dish from Naqada III.[36]

produced in two parts during the time of Naqada III / 1 st Dynasty (3000-2800 BC) in display in the Brooklyn Museum at NY and shown in Fig.17.[37] The fish is inlaid with shell and black paste. The designer used guide pins in the lower part and holes (probably) in the upper part to assemble the two parts of the dish. It is not clear from the view if the

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black spot on the tail is a revolute joint for the two dish-parts or it is something else. The fourth example is an electrum fish-amulet from the 12th Dynasty in display (19381759 BC) in display in the Penn Museum and shown in Fig.18.[38] The material nor the

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dimensions are not assigned. It is hanged using a ring (or hook) set in the fish mouth. The designer tried to display the details of the fish head, fins and tail which is split into two

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parts taking the V-shape.

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Fig. 17: Fish-dish from Naqada III / 1st Dynasty.[37]

The fifth example is a gold fish amulet inlaid by green faience and a gemstone from the

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Fig. 18: Fish-amulet from the 12th Dynasty.[38]

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12th Dynasty in display in the Walters Art Museum at Baltimore and shown in Fig.19.[39] It is of the same type of fish simulated in Fig.18 except its decorations has exceptionally higher level and technology. It is inlaid by green faience, turquoise, carnelian, lapis lazuli and a black stone

[39]

. This is a master piece indicating the high production technology

gained during the 12th Dynasty more than 3800 years ago.

The sixth example is a gold fish amulet from the 12 th Dynasty (1991-1802 MC) in display

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in the British Museum and shown in Fig.20.[40] The designer used a green stone as the body of the fish and used gold sheet as a frame for the body and for all the fins and head.

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He used exceptionally large tail and top fin.

Fig. 19: Gold-fish-amulet from the 12th Dynasty.[39]

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Fig. 20: Gold-fish-amulet from the 12th Dynasty.[40]

The seventh example is a 21 mm length turquoise pendant from Late 12 th / Early 13th

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Dynasties (1878-1749 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum and shown in Fig.21.[41] The designer used the turquoise stone as a material for the fish body, gold as a material for the tail and fins and may be a third material for the frame surrounding the body and the integrated hook with it to hang the fish as an amulet or pendant. The eighth example is a gold fish amulet from the 11 th - 14th Dynasties (2030-1650 BC)

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in display in the National Museum of Scotland and shown in Fig.22. [42] This type of fish

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is similar to that in Fig.18, but the designer used gold as the main material and stone inlay

for the eyes. He showed professionally all the details of the fish body, tail, fins and head.

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This piece can be considered as a master piece in gold applications in ancient Egypt.

Fig. 21: Fish-amulet from the 12th -13th Dynasties.[41] Fig. 22: Fish-amulet from the 11th -14th Dynasties.[42]

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The ninth example is a wooden fish showing the cartouche of Intef VII, the 14 th King of the 17th Dynasty (1580-1550 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.23.[43] It is of the Tilapia fish which is relatively difficult to simulate because of its

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skin-peel and colors. The designer could professionally generate all the fish peels, tail, fins and head. The zoomed image in Fig.23 shows the King Cartouche as carved by the

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fish producer.

Fig. 23: Wood fish from the 17th Dynasty [43].

The tenth example is a faience fish from the 18 th Dynasty (1391-1335 BC) in display in

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Fig. 24: Faience fish from the 18th Dynasty.[44]

the RISD Museum at Rhode Island, USA and shown in Fig.24. [44] Even though, the designer selected a cheaper raw material for his fish-product, however he could use four different colors to produce a wonderful artifact which is a Tilapia fish. He used a different

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technique to present the peels of the fish skin while the designer of the same fish in Fig.23 selected more complex technique to present the fish-peel very close to reality.

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The eleventh example is a glass bottle in the shape of a Tilapia fish from the 18 th Dynasty (1390-1336 BC) in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.25.[45] This is the top

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technology in glass production not only in the New Kingdom but also up to now !!. The

production of the fish bottle is marvelous since there too many patterns with different colors (I counted four colors). This makes the high standard product design of this unit

very difficult to bring it to reality. While I was working in part XVI of this series about glass industry

[46]

I wrote to three international professors one from Glass Science, and

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one from Glass Technology and the third a former Ministry of Industry. Simply I sent to

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them a photo for a glass product from ancient Egypt of a similar quality to that one shown in Fig.25. I asked them: Is it possible to produce this product now ? and how much a prototype will cost ? .. Unfortunately, the first two professors replied that it is not their specialization. The third (minster of industry said: it is secret !!). The door is still open for the Egyptologists to answer such questions: How could the ancient Egyptians produce

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such a fantastic piece more than 2350 years with their technological facilities ?. The twelfth example a 181 mm length glazed steatite cosmetic dish in the shape of a Tilapia fish from the reign of Thutmose III, the 6th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.26.[47] This stone fish is very similar

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to that of the wooden design of Fig.23 except the cartouche which carries the name of the

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Pharaoh (Thutmose III). The pool of the dish is from the other side.

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Fig. 25: Glass fish-bottle from the 18th Dynasty.[45]

Fig. 26: Steatite fish-dish from the 18th Dynasty.[47]

The thirteenth example is a spoon in the shape of a fish from the New Kingdom (15431064 BC) in display in the Kunst Historishen Museum at Wien and shown in Fig.27. [48]

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The dimensions and the material are not assigned. This design can serve as a dish or spoon. The designer designed the fish tail ti act as a handle for the spoon by adjusting its dimensions to suit this purpose. The pool of the spoon was perfectly rounded from all sides with fillets at the tip not to harm the user (well admired mechanical engineering

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tradition in ancient Egypt).

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The fourteenth example is a 17 mm length faience fish-amulet from the New Kingdom / Third Intermediate Period (1550-664 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum and

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shown in Fig.28.[49] The designer used a simple cheap material for this production.

However, he succeeded to maintain the completely rounded surfaces and the shape of the

Fig. 27: Fish-spoon from the New Kingdom.[48]

Fig. 28: Fish-amulet from the NK / 3rd IP.[49]

The fifteenth example is a bronze sacred fish statue with a Crown of Isis from the 26 th

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fish in only 17 mm length.

Dynasty of the Late Period (664-525 BC) in display in the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and shown in Fig.29.[50] The designer shoed the fish standing on a parallelogram-base on two fins and the tail to be stable. He used glass to inlay the fish and give it better

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appearance than if he used bronze alone. Definitely the ancient Egyptian mechanical

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design had the technology to perform this inlay and keep it for more than 2680 years.

Fig. 29: Fish-statue from the 26th Dynasty.[50]

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CONCLUSION -

This paper investigated the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the production of statues and figurines for elephant, cow and fish. The study covered a time span from Predynastic to Late Period.

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The ancient Egyptians authorized the elephant in the form of palettes and amulets

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production since Naqada I.

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They used greywacke, ivory, serpentine and granite in producing their elephant-based pieces and statues.

They started producing cow figurines since the 1st Dynasty within the palette of King Narmer.

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They produced complete models for cattles during the Middle Kingdom including cattle inspection, birthing and caring in specially produced stables.

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The ancient Egyptians worshiped the cow and built special chapels for it during the 18 th

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Dynasty.

They produced cow heads representing Hathor during the 18th Dynasty.

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They produced complete statues for the cow during the 18 th and 26th Dynasties.

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They used painted wood, gilded wood, siltstone, calcite and schist in producing their cow

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statues and figurines. -

They appreciated the existence of fish around them from two directions and across their

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lands through the River Nile through simulating a number of fish types -

They manufactured some products taking the shape of Egyptian fish such as: palette during Naqada II / 1st Dynasty, cosmetic dish during Naqada III, amulets during 12 th Dynasty, fish figurines during the 17th Dynasty, bottle during the 18th Dynasty, cosmetic

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dish in the 18th Dynasty, spoon during the New Kingdom and a sacred fish with Isis Crown during the 26th Dynasty. -

In producing those fish-based statues and figurines they used a number of local raw

electrum. -

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materials such as: wood, faience, glass slate, greywacke, turquoise, steatite, gold and

They succeeded to simulate the Tilapia fish using various materials including glass and represented its skin-peel with wide range of precision.

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REFERENCES

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Egyptology, Turin, 1st – 8th September, 1991; 404-405. 3. Adams, B. "Discovery of a Predynastic elephant burial at Hierakonpolis, Egypt", Archaeology International, 1998; 2: 46-50.

4. Lobban, R. and Liedekerke, V. "Elephants in ancient Egypt and Nubia", A

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Multidisciplinary Journal of the Interactions of People and Animals, 2000; 13(4): 232244.

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5. Mohammed, A. M. "The marshes in ancient Egypt since the End of the Old Kingdom and the End of the New Kingdom", Thesis, Faculty of Art, Alexandria University, 2010.

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6. Basson, D. "The Godess Hathor and the women of ancient Egypt", M. Phil. Thesis, The University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, March, 2012.

7. Rehren, T. and Pernika, E. "First data on the nature and origin of the metal work from Tell el-Farkha" in Maczynska, A. (Editor), "The Nile Delta as a center of cultural

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interactions between Upper Egypt and the Southern Levant in the 4 th millennium BC",

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8. Hagseth, M. "Nilotic livestock transport in ancient Egypt, Master of Art" Thesis, Texas A

9. Phillipps, R. et. al. "Lake level change, lake edge basins and the paleoenvironment of the Fayum North Shore, Egypt, during the Early to Mid- Holocene", Open Quarternnary, 2016; 2(2): 1-12.

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10. Wikipedia "History of fishing", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_fishing, 2017. 11. Hassaan, G. A. "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XXXIX: Statues of cats, dogs and lions", International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, 2017; 5(2): 36-48.

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12. Hassaan, G. A. "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part 40: Statues of jackal, hippopotamus and crocodile", International Journal of Advancement in Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Science, 2017; 4(2): 40-53.

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13. Hassaan, G. A. "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part 41: Statues of gazelle, baboon and hedgehog", World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 2017; 3(2): 105-118.

14. Hassaan, G. A. "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part 42: Statues bull, ibex, ram and snake", International Journal of Advanced Research in Management, Architecture,

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Technology and Engineering, 2017; 3(3): 13-21. 15. Hassaan, G. A. "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part 43: horse, leopard, turtle and frog, International Journal of Engineering and Techniques, 2017; 3(2): 43-53.

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16. Sultan, A. "The fantastical fauna of early Egyptian", 2012. http://altoonsultan.blogspot.com.eg/2012/07/the-fantastical-fauna-of-early-egyptian.html.

17. Arts Museum "Elephant-shaped palette, Predynastic Period", 2017. http://www.artsmuseum.ru/data/fonds/ancient_east/1_1_a/0001_1000/4680_paletka_slon/index.php?lang

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=en&coll=9406.

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18. Metropolitan Museum "Amulet in the form of an elephant", http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/59.101.1/ , 2017.

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/111604896997109521/ 20. Wikipedia "Ancient Egyptian cattle", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egyptian_cattle , 2017.

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19. Fesenke, K. "Hathor chapel at Temple of Thutmose III at Deir el-Bahri",

228.

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22. Khan Academy "Palette of King Narmer", 2017.

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21. Budge, E. "From fetish to God in ancient Egypt", Daves Publications Inc., NY, 1988;

https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient-art-civilizations/egypt-art/predynasticold-kingdom/a/palette-of-king-narmer.

23. Odyssseya Adventures, "The tomb of Meketre: model of a cattle inspection", http://www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/thebes/article_meketre.htm.

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24. Amun Ra Egyptology "Funerary model of cow giving birth", 2014. https://amun-raegyptology.blogspot.com.eg/2014/06/museum-pieces-funerary-model-of-cow.html. 25. Metropolitan Museum "Model cattle stable from the tomb of Meketre", 2017. http://metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544254?rpp=20&pg=1&ft=model&pos=17.

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26. Fesenko, K., "Hathor chapel at Temple of Thutmose III at Deir el-Bahri", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/111604896997109521/. 27. British Museum, "Figure",

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http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx? objectId=163037&partId=1.

28. Sjoden, M., "Wooden sculpture from the tomb of Amenhotep II". https://www.pinterest.com/pin/112519690661175456/. 29. Getty Images, Funerary bed in the form of the sacred cow from tomb of Tutankhamun,

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http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/mehetweret.htm , 2017. 30. Seawright, C. "Mehit-Werel, celestial cow", 2017. http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/mehetweret.htm.

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31. Ancient Egypt, "Mehit-Weret (cow goddess of the sky)", http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/luxor_museum/index_4.htm.

32. Laurendet, A. "Statue of Hathor from the tomb of Psammetic III, Saqqara", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/799740846298987659/.

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33. Reshafim "Fishing, hunting and fowling", 2010. http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/fishing_and_hunting.htm.

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34. Mentarium, A., "The history of fishing", http://www.alimentarium.org/fr/node/5636. 35. Cleveland Art, "Palette in the form of a fish",

36. Gibson, C., "Slate cosmetics dish in the form of a tilapia fish". https://de.pinterest.com/pin/53198839321749623/. 37. Brooklyn Museum, "Cosmetic dish in the form of a fish", https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/4066.

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http://www.clevelandart.org/art/1989.32?f[0]=object_location:Gallery%20107.

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https://www.tumblr.com/search/egyptian%20amulet.

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38. Tumblr, "Electrum fish-shaped amulet dating to Middle Kingdom",

39. Walters Museum, "Nile catfish pendant" , http://art.thewalters.org/detail/3522/tilapia-fish/ 40. Ponoba, K., "Egyptian amulet, a gold fish pendant",

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/475129829419933291/. 41. Metropolitan Museum "Fish pendant", 2017.

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http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/546742. 42. Shamanka, M. "Egyptian gold-fish pendant".

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/494481234066608375/.

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43. Ancient Egypt "Carved wooden fish showing the cartouche of Intef VII". 2014.

egypt.co.uk/cairo%20museum/cm,%20artefacts/pages/egpytian_museum_cairo_1001.htm 44. Greening, J. "Faience fish amulet, 1391-1335 BC, 18th Dynasty".

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https://www.pinterest.com/pin/AcaCA_miTB2BvicOp5bD8SoLVc4LaLOjeJHn5WwvunB2vo6dR251EE/. 45. Ryan, N. "Glass bottle shaped like a fish". https://www.pinterest.com/pin/499758889870583790/. 46. Hassaan, G. A. "Mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt, Part XVI: Glass industry

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(Middle and New Kingdoms)", World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 2016; 2(4): 1-15.

47. Metropolitan Museum "Cosmetic dish in the shape of a bolti fish", 2017.

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http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/547764.

48. Hegab, A., "Spoon in the shape of a Tilapia fish". https://www.pinterest.com/pin/405886985149936495/ .

49. Art Ancient "Ancient Egyptian faience fish amulet", 2017.

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http://www.artancient.com/antiquities-for-sale/cultures/egyptian-antiquities-forsale/ancient-egyptian-faience-fish-amulet-1550-bc.html.

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50. VMFA Museum, "Sacred fish with a crown of Isis".

BIOGRAPHY Galal Ali Hassaan

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https://vmfa.museum/collections/art/sacred-fish-crown-isis/ .



Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control.



Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and

Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby.

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1974.

Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.



Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism



Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering.



Published more than 220 research papers in international journals and



Conferences.



Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and

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Evolution of Mechanical Engineering.

Chief Editor of the International Journal of Computer Techniques.



Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals including WJERT.



Reviewer in some international journals.



Scholars interested in the authors publications can visit.

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International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology Volume 5, Issue 3, March 2017, PP 39-48 ISSN 2349-4395 (Print) & ISSN 2349-4409 (Online)

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part 45: Birds Statues (Falcon and Vulture) Galal Ali Hassaan

(Emeritus Professor), Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo

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University, Giza, Egypt

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ABSTRACT

The evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt is investigated in this research paper through studying the production of statues and figurines of falcons and vultures. Examples from historical eras between Predynastic and Late Periods are presented, analysed and aspects of quality and innovation are outlined in each one. Material, dynasty, main dimension (if known) and present location are also outlined to complete the information about each statue or figurine. Keywords: Mechanical engineering, ancient Egypt, falcon statues, vulture statues

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INTRODUCTION

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This is the 45th paper in a scientific research aiming at presenting a deep insight into the history of mechanical engineering during the ancient Egyptian civilization. The paper handles the production of falcon and vulture statues and figurines during the Predynastic and Dynastic Periods of the ancient Egypt history. This work depicts the insight of ancient Egyptians to birds lived among them and how they authorized its existence through statuettes and figurines.

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Smith (1960) in his book about ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston presented a number of bird figurines including ducks from the Middle Kingdom, gold ibis from the New Kingdom and a wooden spoon in the shape of a duck and lady from the New Kingdom [1]. Smith (1994) in his book about the country life in ancient Egypt presented a number of bird figurines including a small ibis, eagle, ostrich and a setting statue for Horus from the 12 th Dynasty [2]. Arnold (1995) in his study on Egyptian bestiary presented a number of bird statuettes including a perfume vessel in the shape of two trussed ducks from the Middle Kingdom, cosmetic vessels in the shape of ducks from the 18th Dynasty, Thoth statue from the Ptolemaic Period, falcon from the 30th Dynasty and swallow from the Ptolemaic Period [3]. Fay (1998) in her paper about Egyptian duck flasks studied a number of duck-shaped flasks in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The author presented flasks in the form of a pair of plucked ducks from the 17th Dynasty, flasks in the form of plucked ducks from the 18th dynasty, duck-shaped dish from the 18th Dynasty and 200 mm duckling flask from the 17th Dynasty [4].

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Redpoll (2008) posted an article about the bird Gods of ancient Egypt. He stated that the ancient Egyptians personified many of their major Gods as birds. He outlined some of the bird Gods such as: Horus (as falcon/hawk), Geb (goose), Ba (heron), Maat (ostrich) and Nekhbet (vulture) [5]. Sniper (2009) posted an article about the sacred bird of Egypt. He traced the attitude of ancient Egyptians towards the ibis and how they, even, mummified and placed it in the royal tombs [6]. Lesuer (2012) in his book about birds in ancient Egypt presented a wooden-painted statuette for a Ba-bird from the Late Period located in the Oriental Institute Museum of the University of Chicago [7]. Janek (2013) studied the existence of three kinds of ibis species in ancient Egypt. He presented material evidence for the existence of each kind in Egypt [8]. Janak (2014) studied the Ba-bird which was counted among the most important Egyptian religious concepts. He investigated how the Ba was depicted in ancient Egypt and how they used it as a hieroglyphic sign [9]. International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology V5 ● I3 ● March 2017

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Van Hilten (2015) pointed out that analysing the mummified animals and birds recovered from ancient Egyptian tombs helps researchers to understand better their role in the ancient Egyptian society as religious offerings. He analyzed the mummy's last meal of a bird [10]. Seawright (2017) wrote an article in Tour Egypt about animals and Gods of ancient Egypt. She presented the falcon/hawk (as Horus), goose (as Geb), ibis (as Thoth), ostrich (as Maat) and vulture (as Nekhbet) [11].

FALCON STATUETTES AND STATUES

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Ancient Egyptians had a great appreciation to the falcon since very early times from Predynastic to the end of the Dynastic Periods and even through the Ptolemaic Period. Examples are presented here about authorizing the falcon bird in ancient Egypt through figurines, statuettes and statues:

The first example is a 13 mm length amazonite falcon amulet from Naqada I/Naqada II (36503300 BC) in display in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and shown in Figure 1 [12]. The design is primitive, however, it has a very important characteristic of the ancient Egyptian designs. That is rounding all the surfaces not to harm the user. The ancient Egyptian designer new this characteristic from more than 5300 years before all the recent nations.



The second example is a 72 mm quartzite falcon figurine from Naqada III/1st Dynasty (3300-2900 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown in Fig.2 [13]. Again, the design is primitive, the eyes location is engraved and all the surfaces are perfectly rounded.

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Figure1. Falcon amulet from Naqada I/II [12].

Figure2. Falcon figurine from Naqada III/1st Dynasty[13].

The third example is a golden falcon statue of Queen Hetepheres from the 4th Dynasty of the Old Kingdom (2600 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.3 [14]. From now, started the sophisticated designs of the birds indicating the development of the production technology and the wealth of the Kings during the Old Kingdom, the builders of the pyramids. The falcon is shown spreading its wings with clearly identified feathers. The falcon is looking to its right side and holding the chin sign between its fingers. This is a master piece indicating the level of mechanical engineering technology more than 4600 years ago.



The fourth example is a 375 mm height golden falcon head from the 6th Dynasty (2323-2150 BC) found in Horus Temple at Nekhen and in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.4 [15]. This is a high quality piece produced professionally from gold and the eyes were simulated accurately using obsidian. The designer showed the falcon wearing a two-feathers crown with cobra on its front and a necklace.



The fifth example is falcon figurines in a necklace for Princess Sithathor during the reign of Senwosret II (1887-1878 BC), the 4th King of the 12th Dynasty in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.5 [16]. The pectoral was manufactured from gold and inlaid with turquoise, lapis lazuli, carnelian and garnet. The main items in the design are the two falcons. The necklace is completely symmetric about a vertical axis through its centroid. Each falcon carries a solar disc on its head, holding a shen symbol by the its right claws and supporting the shrine of the Princess by its left leg. There is an Ankh symbol and a cobra between each falcon and the Cartouche of the Pharaoh.

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The sixth example is a faience falcon amulet from the 12th Dynasty (1991-1783 BC) in display in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and shown in Fig.6 [17]. The falcon was shown standing with eye marked in black. At least two colours were used in producing the falcon. International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology V5 ● I3 ● March 2017

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Figure4. Falcon head from 6th Dynasty[15].

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Figure3. Falcon statue from 4th Dynasty [14].

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Galal Ali Hassaan “Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part 45: Birds Statues (Falcon and Vulture)”

Figure5. Falcon necklace from 12th Dynasty [16].

Figure6. Falcon from 12th Dynasty[17].

The seventh example is a 250 mm diameter pectoral of Senebtisi from Late 12th Dynasty – Early 13th Dynasty (1850-1775 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.7 [18]. The pectoral was manufactured from gold, faience, carnelian and turquoise. The designer used two falcon heads manufactured from gilded plaster as a buckle.



The eighth example is an 87 mm height falcon statuette wearing a Double Crown from the 12th Dynasty – 17th Dynasty Periods (1850-1550 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.8 [19]. It was produced using electrum and plaster. The mechanical designer shoed the falcon as a symbol for the unified Egypt through putting the Double Crown of Unified Egypt on the head of the falcon.

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Figure7. Pectoral from 12th Dynasty [18].

The ninth example is a 65 mm height ceramic female figurine with a falcon head from the Second Intermediate Period (1640-1532 BC) from LACMA collections and shown in Fig.9 [20]. It is probable that the designer wanted to say through this design that this is a powerful woman and she is under the protection of Horus.

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Figure8. Falcon from 12th Dynasty [19].

The tenth example is a canopic jar with lid taking the shape of a falcon from the New Kingdom (1570-1085 BC) shown in Fig.10 [21]. No dimensions, material or present location are given !!.

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Figure9. Female with falcon head [20].

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The designer used an ovoid shape for the jar including its led and used its body as a medium hieroglyphic inscriptions in symmetric columns while the falcon is rising its head towards the sky.

Figure10. Canopic jar from New Kingdom [21].

The eleventh example is a falcon pectoral for Tutankhamun, the 13th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1332-1323 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.11 [22]. Here, we are in the 18th Dynasty, the dynasty of wealth and high mechanical technology. This master piece represents the falcon spreading its wings in a curvature manner, carrying a solar disc on its head and holding a shen sign in its claws. The designer used multi colours through using six different materials: gold, lapis lazuli, carnelian, turquoise, obsidian and glass. This is a very complex design and consists of hundreds of components with assembly technique which is outstanding to survive for more than 3300 years withstanding all the environmental effects.



The twelfth example is a 25 mm height lapis lazuli falcon statuette from the New Kingdom (1450-1185 BC) in display in the Walters Art Museum and shown in Fig.12 [23]. Here the carver used a single stone to produce this statuette showing all its details including its feathers.

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Figure11. Falcon pectoral of Tut [22].

The thirteenth example is a falcon statue from the reign of Amenhotep II, the 7 th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1425-1398 BC) in display in the Busee Royal de Mariemont at Belgium shown in Fig.13 [24]. No details are given about this falcon statue. Probably, it is a colossal statue taken from one of the 18th Dynasty Temples. But, how can this happen ?. A lot of work is required by Egyptologists to clarify all the missing aspects about the ancient Egyptian artefacts.

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Figure12. Falcon from New Kingdom [23].

The fourteenth example is a 2.31 m height granite falcon statue protecting Ramses II as a child from the 19th Dynasty (1290-1224 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.14 [25,26]. This is a highly professionally carved using the hard granite rock. The falcon is depicted in two different colours and the young Ramses II is shown putting his finger in his mouth and in squat setting. All the details of the boy and the falcon were accurately carved with smooth surfaces specially for the boy.

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Figure13. Falcon from 18th Dynasty [24].

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The fifteenth example is a canopic jar with a falcon head lid belonging to Psusennes I, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 21st Dynasty (1047-1001 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.15 [27]. The jar was carved from alabaster while the lid was produced from gilded bronze taking the shape of a falcon head with cobra on its forehead. The sixteenth example is a wooden falcon figurine from the Late Period (760-332 BC) in display in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and shown in Fig.16 [28]. Even though, it was produced from painted wood, it looks wonderful with very clear details of the falcon.

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Figure14. Falcon from New Kingdom [25].

Figure15. Canopic jar from 21st Dynasty [27].

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The seventeenth example is a statue of Taharqa, the 5th Pharaoh of the 25th Dynasty (690-664 BC) presenting offerings to the falcon in display in the Louvre Museum at Paris and shown in Fig.17 [29]. The statuette was produced from bronze and the falcon was gilded by gold leaf. The statuette represents the high casting technology attained in ancient Egypt because of the complexity of the product specially the Pharaoh who was shown kneeling and presenting offerings. I have sent to two specialists in casting and production engineering in Cairo University asking them about the possible production of this unit nowadays. The eighteenth example is a 270 mm bronze falcon statue produced during the Late – Ptolemaic Periods (664-30 BC) sold in a sale for 13,750 US$ in 5 December 2012 at NY and shown in Fig.18 [30]. The falcon was shown standing on a base over a pillar with parallelogram foot and wearing the Double Crown of ancient Egypt. The falcon was professionally casted showing all its details in two colours. This is another example on the high technology attained in ancient Egypt regarding the casting process.

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Figure16. Falcon from New Kingdom [28].

Figure17. Falcon from Late Period [29].

Figure18. Falcon from Late-PtolemaicPeriods [30].

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The nineteenth example is a 130 mm bronze falcon statuette from the 26th Dynasty (664-525 BC) sold in a sale for 75,803 US$ on 26 April 2012 at London and shown in Fig.19 [31]. Again, the designer showed the falcon wearing the Double Crown of ancient Egypt and standing on a base. The designer could show professionally the details of the falcon using probably the casting process. The twentieth and last example is a 0.72 m greywacke falcon statue protecting Nectanebo II, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 30th Dynasty (360-343 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.20 [32]. The designer showed the falcon wearing the Double Crown of Ancient Egypt and holding the Pharaoh between its legs. The carver could professionally carve the statue using a hard stone material (greywacke) showing all the details of the falcon and the standing Pharaoh as clear in the zoomed view.

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VULTURE STATUES

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The ancient Egyptians had a great appreciation for the vulture since the Predynastic Period where they considered it as a deity called Nekhbet and built a shrine for it during Naqada III Period (3200-3100 BC). This appreciation continued up to the New Kingdom where it was put with the cobra within the Pharaoh's Crowns [33]. This appreciation will be demonstrated through statues and figurines for the Middle, Second Intermediate and New Kingdom Periods.  The first example is a vulture jar from the 12th Dynasty (1976-1794 BC) in display in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge and shown in Fig.21 [34]. This is a unique product in which the designer showed two vultures facing each other and spreading their wings around the jar , supporting the jar neck by their beaks and sharing holding a symbol together by their claws. The dimensions and the material are not assigned !. Most probably, this is a stone jar carved with outstanding profession.  The second example is a pectoral for Princess Mereret , daughter of Senusret III, the 5th King of the 12th Dynasty (1878-1839 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.22 [35]. . It was produced from gold, turquoise, carnelian, amethyst and lapis lazuli. The designer used a wonderful shrine holding two lions having a falcon head with Egypt enemies under their feet and supporting the Cartouche of the Pharaoh by one leg for each of them while a vulture in the top is spreading its wings over them and holding a shen symbol in each leg claws.

Figure20. Falcon from 30th Dynasty [32].

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Figure19. Falcon from 26th Dynasty [31].

Figure21. Vulture jar from 12th Dynasty [34].

Figure22. Falcon from 30th Dynasty [35].

 The third example is a 73 mm diameter bracelet of Queen Ahhotep, Great Royal Wife of King Seqenenre Tao (1560-1530 BC) from the 17th Dynasty in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.23 [36]. It is manufactured from gold and inlaid by lapis lazuli, carnelian, 44

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turquoise and glass. This is an outstanding mechanical design outlined by the ancient Egyptian mechanical engineer more than 3540 years ago. The main item in the design is the vulture. The circular band of the bracelet is the vulture wings, the vulture body is decorating the bracelet and giving a symbol for Royalty and strength. The vulture is holding a shen sign in the claws of each leg. The five materials used in the production of the bracelet gave a combination of multi-colours adding beauty to the product and indicating the high technology attained by the ancient Egyptians to produce multi-materials products capable of sustaining the environments for thousands of years.  The fourth example is a Nekhbet necklace for Tutankhamun, the 13th Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty (1332-1323 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum and shown in Fig.24 [37]. We are here in the vicinity of the 18th Dynasty where the high mechanical technology and wonder of the ancient Egyptian products. The mechanical designer used the vulture as the unique element in this necklace. He selected the materials of his product to give the amazing image shown in Fig.24: gold inlaid by lapis lazuli, carnelian, obsidian and glass. The designer bent the vulture wings downward to decrease the width of the necklace pendant. He set the feathers of the wing to increase gradually from the origin of the wing to its tip in blue colour giving more beauty to the necklace. He covered the body and tail with uniform feathers (small size for the body and relatively long feathers for the tail). The vulture is holding two shens and turning its head to its right side.

Figure23. Vulture bracelet from 17th Dynasty [36].

Figure24. Necklace from 18th Dynasty [37].

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 The fifth example is a gilded wooden shield of Pharaoh Tutankhamun of the 18th Dynasty in display in the Egyptian Museum and shown in Fig.25 [38]. The designer showed the Pharaoh as a lion with the head of the Pharaoh wearing the Double Crown of ancient Egypt and trampling two of Egypt enemies by his four feet. He showed two strong birds spreading their wings above the Pharaoh: falcon and vulture.  The sixth example is a diadem with vulture and cobra for Pharaoh Tutankhamun of the 18 th Dynasty in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.26 [39]. It was produced from gold and inlaid by six other materials: obsidian, carnelian, malachite, chakedony, lapis lazuli and glass. The designer put in the front figurines of a vulture and a cobra indicating royalty and power. The body of the diadem was decorated by flowers within two coloured-interchanging borders.

Figure25. Shield from 18th Dynasty [38].

Figure26. Diadem from 18th Dynasty [39].

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 The seventh and last example is a 32 mm width gold vulture amulet from the Third Intermediate Late Periods (1000-300 BC) showed in Fig.27 [40]. The designer showed the vulture spreading its wings and holding a shen in each leg-claws. It was inlaid for the eyes , wings and shen without details for the inlay materials.

Figure27. Amulet from 3rd Intermediate-Late Periods [40].

CONCLUSION

 The evolution of mechanical engineering during the ancient Egypt history was investigated in this research paper through the production of falcon and vulture statues and figurines.

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 The ancient Egyptians produced falcon figurines and applications documented from the time of Naqada I and continued down to the Late Period.

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 They produced a lot of materials in producing and inlaying falcon figurines such as: amazonite, quartzite, alabaster, granite, greywacke, plaster, wood, faience, bronze, gold, turquoise, lapis lazuli, carnelian, garnet, obsidian and glass.  They produced falcon-based units in the form of amulet, figurine, statue, necklace, pectoral, statuette with Double Crown, canopic jar lid and female head.  They used the falcon as a main element in the jewellery industry during the 12th and 18th Dynasties.

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 Vulture figurines started to appear during the 12th Dynasty.  They used the vulture as an item in jar, jewellery and shield production.  They used various materials in the production and inlay of vulture items including: malachite, chakedony, wood, gold, turquoise, carnelian, amethyst, lapis lazuli, obsidian and glass.  They could produce wonderful jewellery based on using falcon and/or vulture as main item during the 12th and 18th Dynasty.

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 Falcon statues continued to appear down to the end of the Late Period.  Vulture-based jewellery continued in production down to the beginning of the Late Period.

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REFERENCES

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[1] W. Smith, "Ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine arts, Boston", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1960. [2] W. Smith, "Country life in ancient Egypt", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1994. [3] D. Arnold, "An Egyptian Bestiary", The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, pp.7-64, Spring 1995. [4] B. Fay, "Egyptian duck flasks of blue anhydrite", Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol.33, pp.2348, 1998. [5] H. Redpoll, "The bird Gods of ancient Egypt", https://hoaryredpoll.wordpress.com/ 2008/06/09/ the-bird-gods-of-ancient-egypt/, October 2009. 46

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[6] S. Sniper, "The sacred bird of Egypt", http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2370607/posts , October 2009. [7] R. Lesuer (Editor), "Between heaven and earch: Birds in ancient Egypt", Oriental Institute Museum Publication 35, 2012. [8] J. Janak, "Northern bald ibis (Akh-bird)", UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 2013. [9] J. Janak, "Saddle-billed stork (Ba-bird)", UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 2014. [10] L. Van Hilten, "Why ancient Egyptians bred birds of prey", Elsevier, 2015. [11] C. Seawright, "Animals and the Gods of ancient Egypt", Tour Egypt, http://www.touregypt.net/ featurestories/animalgods.htm , 2017. [12] Museum of Fine Arts, "Falcon amulet", http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/falcon-amulet347431, 2017. [13] Metropolitan Museum, "Falcon figurine", Metropolitan Museum, "Falcon figurine", http://ww w.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544902 , 2017. [14] Getty Images, "Golden falcon that belongs to Queen Hetepheres I",http://www.gettyimages. com/detail/photo/27th-26th-century-b-c-egyptian-museum-old-high-res-stock-photography/ 96502824 , 2017. [15] J. Alicea, "Horus gold falcon's head with obsidian eyes", https://www.pinterest.se/pin/34325880 2826119597/ [16] Metropolitan Museum, "Necklace of Sithathoryunrt with the name of Senwosret II", http://www. metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/16.1.3/ , 2017. [17] A. Hegab, "Faience amulet of a falcon, 12th Dynasty", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/4058 86985152871998/ [18] Metropolitan Museum, "Broad collar of Senebtisi", http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/ view?exhibitionId=%7B36BFD863-BD71-4D58-B1B2-F3F865084DBB%7D&oid=544168 , 2017. [19] Metropolitan Museum, "Falcon wearing a Double Crown", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/ collection/search/544422?rpp=30&pg=5&ao=on&ft=gold+egypt&pos=131 , 2017. [20] Lacma Collections, "Female fertility figurine", http://collections.lacma.org/node/245045 [21] J. Gentry, "Authentic ancient Egyptian artifacts, canopic jar", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/ 26951297742533578/ [22] Tour Egypt, "Pectoral in the shape of a falcon", http://www.touregypt.net/museum/tutl60.htm 2017. [23] The Walters, "Hawk-falcon", http://art.thewalters.org/detail/23258/hawk-falcon/Wikipedia, "Statue of Horus from the reign of Amenhotep II", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horus#/ media/File:Horus_R01.jpg, 2017. [24] T. Telford, "Colossal statue of Ramses II as a child protected by Horus", https://www.pinterest. com/pin/146578162851234540/ [25] S. Garcia, "Ramses II and Hurun", http://egiptologia.com/ramses-ii-y-hurun/ , 2017. [26] A. Hegab, "Canopic jar belonging to Psusennse I with head of Qebehsenuef", https://www. pinterest.com/pin/405886985146701497/ [27] A. Hegab, "Painted wooden falcon, Late Period", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/4058869851 51626960/ [28] Louvre, "Statuette of Taharqa and falcon", http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/statuettetaharqa-and-falcon-god [29] Christies, , "An Egyptian bronze falcon, Late Period to Ptolemaic Period", http://www.christies. com/lotfinder/ancient-art-antiquities/an-egyptian-bronze-falcon-standard-late-period-5627934details.aspx?from=salesummary&pos=86&intObjectID=5627934&sid=ed54993a-4191-40418ea6-aa9bb0928cdd , 2017. [30] Christies, "An Egyptian bronze Horus falcon", http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/ancient-artantiquities/an-egyptian-bronze-horus-falcon-late-period-5546870-details.aspx?from=salesu mmary&pos=60&intObjectID=5546870&sid=b0d6b37b-a98a-4603-9a05-136914c8ce1a , 2017. International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology V5 ● I3 ● March 2017

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[31] Metropolitan Museum, "Horus protecting King Nectanebo II", http://www.metmuseum.org/ toah/works-of-art/34.2.1/ , 2017. [32] Wikipedia, "Nekhbet", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nekhbet, 2017. [33] A. Hegab, "Vulture jar, Egyptian Middle Kingdom", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/40588698 5140122804/ [34] Tour Egypt, "Pectoral of Mereret", http://www.touregypt.net/egyptmuseum/egyptian_museu mr3.htm , 2017. [35] Egiptologia, "Queen Ahhotep's vulture bangle", http://egiptologia.com/brazalete-del-buitre-dela-reina-ahhotep/ , 2016. [36] A. Hegab, "Pectoral of Nekhbet from the tomb of Tutankhamun", https://www.pinterest.com/ pin/405886985151218472/ [37] T. McManus, "Ceremonial gilded wooden shield from the tomb of King Tutankhamun", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/420664421416361263/ [38] S. Fcitizen, "Inlaid diadem with vulture and cobra", http://sfcitizen.com/blog/2009/06/26/tut-atthe-de-young-know-your-boy-king-1-diadem-with-vulture-and-cobra/ [39] E. Art, "Gold amulet in the form of a vulture", http://elogedelart.canalblog.com/archives/2010/ 04/22/17656460.html

AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHY Galal Ali Hassaan

Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control.

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 Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974.  Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby.

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 Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT.  Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations, Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering.  Published more than 190 research papers in international journals and conferences.

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 Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering.  Chief Editor of the International Journal of Computer Techniques.  Member of the Editorial Board of some international journals including IJEERT.  Reviewer in some international journals.

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Scholars interested in the authors publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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Asia Pacific Journal of Engineering Science and Technology

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Mechanical Engineering in Ancient Egypt, Part 46: Birds Statues (Duck, Ibis and Hen) Galal Ali Hassaan Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT

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(Received 16 July 2017; accepted 17 August 2017; published online 23 August 2017)

ABSTRACT

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The ancient Egyptians produced statuettes for ducks, ibises and hens since the time of Naqada I and Naqada II. They produced statuette and figurines for those birds not only as birds but also as domestic applications such as amulets, jars, spoons, combs and cosmetic boxes. The designs and materials used are investigated with analysis of each item for dimensions, beauty aspects and present location (if known)

1. Introduction

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Keywords: Mechanical engineering; ancient Egypt; duck statues; ibis statues; hen statues

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This is the 46th paper in a scientific research aiming at presenting a deep insight into the history of mechanical engineering during the ancient Egyptians civilization. The paper handles the production of duck, hen and ibis statues and figurines during the Predynastic and Dynastic Periods of the ancient Egypt history. This work depicts the insight of ancient Egyptians to birds lived among them and how they authorized its existence through statuettes and figurines.

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Clark (1955) in his paper about the sacred ibis presented a number of ibis statues and figurines including a faience inlay of the ibis on a perch from Late Period, wooden-bronze white ibis from Ptolemaic Period and faience statuette of Thot with ibis head from Late Period [1]. Smith (1960) in his book about ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston presented a number of bird figurines including ducks from the Middle Kingdom, gold ibis from the New Kingdom and a wooden spoon in the shape of a duck and lady from the New Kingdom [2]. Coltherd (1966) in his paper about the domestic fowl in ancient Egypt outlined that there was no recorded mention of the domestic fowl in ancient Egypt before the Middle Kingdom (2134-1786 BC) [3]. Smith (1994) in his book about the country life in ancient Egypt presented a number of bird figurines including a small ibis [4]. Arnold (1995) in his study on Egyptian bestiary presented a number of bird statuettes including a perfume vessel in the shape *

E-mail address: [email protected]

© 2017 Author(s)

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of two trussed ducks from the Middle Kingdom, cosmetic vessels in the shape of ducks from the 18th Dynasty and Thoth statue from the Ptolemaic Period [5].

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Fay (1998) in her paper about Egyptian duck flasks studied a number of duck-shaped flasks in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The author presented flasks in the form of a pair of plucked ducks from the 17th Dynasty, flasks in the form of plucked ducks from the 18th dynasty, duck-shaped dish from the 18th Dynasty and 200 mm duckling flask from the 17th Dynasty [6]. Gunnarsson (2000) in his book about laying hens in loose housing systems outlined that the domestic fowl was mentioned in a poem inscribed in the tomb of 'Ay' dated to the reign of Akhenaten (1364-1347 BC) [7]. Janek (2013) studied the existence of three kinds of ibis species in ancient Egypt. He presented material evidence for the existence of each kind in Egypt [8]. Seawright (2017) wrote an article in Tour Egypt about animals and Gods of ancient Egypt. She presented a number of claimed Gods including Thoth in the form of an ibis [9]. Wikipedia (2017) wrote an article about 'ibis'. They outlined that ibises were reamed for sacrificial purposes where in the serapeum at Saqqara, archaeologists found the mummies of 1.5 million ibises [10]. 2. Duck statues

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The ancient Egyptians new ducks as a domestic bird from early times and authorized its existence among them through a number of statues and figurines extending from Predynastic to Late Periods as follows:

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 The first example is a duck-shaped pottery vessel from Naqada II (3500 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.1 [11]. The designer used the cheap, local and easy to shape material available in his society, the Nile clay. He decorated the whole vessel using zigzag patterns (may be simulating the water surface in any water channel).  The second example is a schist duck-shaped palette from Naqada II/Naqada III (35003200 BC) in display in the Louvre Museum and shown in Fig.2 [12]. The carver could show the details of s setting duck head, neck, wings and legs professionally more than 5200 years ago.

Fig.1 Duck-bottle from Naqada II [11]

Fig.2 Duck-palette from Naqada II/III [12]

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 The third example is a duck-shaped stone jar from the Naqada III Period (3200-3100 BC) in display in the Oriental Institute Museum of the University of California and shown in Fig.3 [13]. This 5000 years old product has a vital importance since its indicates the high technology of the carving process in this old era and the capability of the ancient Egyptian mechanical technician to select a proper material that gives this wonderful appearance and provide a jar with round hole and flat rim. The tradition of rounding all the surfaces is there not to harm the user. Besides, to carve the cavity inside the duck body is something not easy at all and indicated the high mechanical profession attained in this early period.  The fourth example is a 1.12 m height wooden bearer statue with duck in her hand in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art at NY and shown in Fig.4 [14]. The designer in this outstanding artefact showed the bearer catching the duck by her right hand through its wings. As clear in the zoomed image, the duck was nicely carved and coloured with multi-colours and patterns.  The fifth example is a faience duck figurine from the 12th Dynasty (1991-1802 BC) in display in the Louvre Museum and shown in Fig.5 [15]. The designer used local available materials in the form of 'Egyptian faience' produced using a casting process [16]. The designer could produce a multi-coloured duck with completely round surfaces. The duck looks beautiful and stable in position.  The sixth example is a 20 mm height silver amulet basket with two young ducks figurines on its external surface from Late 12th Dynasty – Early 13th Dynasty (1850-1775 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.6 [17]. The two young ducks are shown facing each other with their beak touching each other. This product indicated the extension of the mechanical technology to silver casting more than 3790 years ago.

Fig.3 Duck-jar from Naqada III [13]

Fig.4 Bearer from the 12th Dynasty [14]

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Fig.5 Duck figurine from the 12th Dynasty [15]

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Fig.6 Bearer from the 12th Dynasty [17]

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 The seventh example is a 54 mm length wooden duck-shaped comb from the 17th – 18th Dynasties (1635-1458 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum and shown in Fig.7 [18]. The ancient Egyptian mechanical designer did not produce classical domestic products for specific objectives, but added to it motifs to increase its beauty and complexity. In the product in hand the designer made the comb-handle in the shape of a duck with motifs taking circular and straight patterns.  The eighth example is an ivory duck-shaped cosmetic box from the New Kingdom (1550-1196 BC) in display in the Walters Art Museum at Baltimore and shown in Fig.8 [19]. This is a master piece in the ancient Egyptian mechanical engineering technology. The designer used the cosmetic box to simulate a duck. The box pool is within the duck body, the box cover is simply the two wings of the duck using a revolute joint for each wing allowing opening the box in two stages. The designer decorated the duck beak, head and wings with various decorating patterns especially the wings.

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Fig.7 Duck-comb from 12th – 13th Dynasties [18]

Fig.8 Duck-box from New Kingdom [19]

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 The ninth example is a ceramic vessel in the shape of a young duck from the 18th Dynasty (1400 BC) in display in the Royal Ontario Museum of Canada and shown in Fig.9 [20]. Both designer and producer could manufacture this complex design from clay and then put it in fire at temperatures up to 800 oC to change it to ceramic [21]. The hole of the vessel has a thin medium length neck with rim, the handles are from the sides near the shoulders of the neck, the beak is little bit above the level of the hole entrance. The spout of the jar is the duck beak.  The tenth example is a 247.7 mm length wooden duck-shaped cosmetic spoon from the 18th Dynasty (1353-1336 BC) sold by Christie in 4 June 1999 (lot 225) and shown in Fig.10 [22]. The unit represents the top mechanical technology in wood carving. The spoon consists of two parts. The spoon handle taking the shape of a lady, the spoon pool taking the shape of duck body (one part) and a spoon cover taking the shape of duck head, neck and the top part of its body (one part). The designer showed the lady extending her hands and supporting the duck body. The body of the duck is decorated by certain motifs and the duck eyes and beak are marked in different colours than the neck. A lot of work took place in carving the woman face with her headdress. All the surfaces are completely rounded following the well established mechanical design tradition in ancient Egypt.

Fig.9 Duck-vessel from 18th Dynasty [20]

Fig.10 Duck-box from New Kingdom [22]

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 The eleventh example is an ivory duck-shaped cosmetic dish from the reign of Akhenaton – Tutankhamun Pharaohs (1353-1327 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.11 [23]. The designer showed the dish in the shape of a trussed duck with cover for the dish-pool. Most properly the designer used a revolute joint to swivel the cover over the pool using two small pins near the end of the cover. Even though the material used was an ivory, however, the designer presented three colours in this unit. He showed the duck turning its neck and head towards the dish cover.  The twelfth example is an ivory duck-shaped cosmetic box from the 19th Dynasty (12921189 BC) and shown in Fig.12 [24]. The dimensions and present location are not assigned. Again, this is a wonderful piece in which the designer used an ovoid cover with revolute joint and a pin for cover holding. The duck is turning its head towards the cover in its middle. The surfaces are rounded and decorated by motifs specially the duck-head

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and body. The cover was perforated by eight circular holes either for decoration or for ventilation (if they are all through). The eyes are marked by a circular band. In general the design and production of the box are more than wonderful.

Fig.11 Duck-dish from 18th Dynasty [23]

Fig.12 Duck-box from 19th Dynasty [24]

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 The thirteenth example is a golden bracelet for Ramses II, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty (1297-1213 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum and shown in Fig.13 [25]. The designer decorated the bracelet by two young ducks beside each other on its top. The used two heads and one body with lapis lazuli duck-back. He showed the ducks turning their heads towards their back. The duck-eyes were marked and the whole surface of the bracelet was decorated by motifs of very fine design and application.  The fourteenth example is a leg of a funerary bed with duck statue from the reign of Shebitka, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 25th Dynasty (721-707 BC) shown in Fig.14 [26]. No more data are given such as material, dimensions and present location !. The bed-leg was decorated by the duck which was designed setting on the foot of the bed-leg looking little bit to its left as shown in the zoomed image of Fig.26.

Fig.13 Duck-bracelet from 19th Dynasty [25]

Fig.14 Bed-leg from 25th Dynasty [26]

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 The fifteenth example is a 78 mm height faience trussed duck-perfume bottle from the 26th Dynasty (664-525 BC) in display in the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston and shown in Fig.15 [27]. The mechanical designer showed the bottle having a medium opening hole with rim and a single handle which is the duck neck. The decoration of the product was simple through a pattern of small objects with different orientation in black color.  The sixteenth example is a bronze duck statue from the Late Period of Ancient Egypt (664-332 BC) and shown in Fig.16 [28]. This is may be a jar taking the shape of a duck because of the flat surface on the top back of the duck which may be the entrance hole.

3. Ibis statues

Fig.16 Duck statue from Late Period [28]

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Fig.15 Duck-bottle from 26th Dynasty [27]

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The ancient Egyptians new the ibis from very old times and authorized this knowledge since the time of Naqada II – Naqada III (more than 5000 years ago). This appreciation was to the extend to consider it as a sacred bird. Here, we present some of the ibis statues:

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 The first example is an ivory vessel in the shape of a 130.2 mm height red breccia ibisshaped vessel from Naqada II – Naqada III (3300-3000 BC) and shown in Fig.15 [29]. The designer showed the vessel in the shape of an ibis with the hole in the centre of the bird back with round rim and used the ibis neck and head as a handle for the vessel. Even though the breccia rock is one of the hardest rocks and it has an uneven fracture [30], the ancient Egyptian carver could produced this product having smooth shining surfaces and keeping the rounded surfaces everywhere more than 5000 years ago.  The second example is a 184 mm length bronze and wood ibis statue from the 25th Dynasty (747-656 BC) sold in London in 26 April 2012 for 83,570 US$ and shown in Fig.18 [31]. This is a sacred ibis manufactured from gilded wood (body) and bronze ( head, neck, tail and legs). The designer showed a bronze statue for one of the 25th Dynasty Pharaohs kneeling and presenting offerings to the ibis.

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Fig.17 Ibis-vessel from Naqada II/III [29]

Fig.18 Ibis statue from 25th Dynasty [31]

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 The third example is a bronze and limestone statue for an ibis from the 26th Dynasty (664-525 BC) in display in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo and shown in Fig.19 [32]. The designer used limestone as a material for the ibis body to avoid using any coloring process and then used bronze to produce the head and legs. Here, the designer and producer could assemble the two different materials in a way to sustain environmental and use effects for thousands of years. This is an outstanding characteristic of mechanical engineering. They manufacture products to survive.  The fourth example is a bronze ibis statue from the 26th Dynasty (664-525 BC) in display in the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and shown in Fig.20 [33]. In this design, the designer used a single material (bronze) casted in a complete striding ibis. He could show the claws of the ibis which certainly will complicate the model design. But he did it proofing the high casting technology in ancient Egypt.

Fig.19 Ibis statue from 26th Dynasty [32]

Fig.20 Ibis statue from 25th Dynasty [33]

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 The fifth example is a 130 mm height bronze ibis statuette with glass paste from the Late Period (664-332 BC) shown in Fig.21 [34]. This design is similar to that in Fig.20. However the designer showed the ibis running and used glass paste to protect the bronze material against rusting and give shining and smooth surfaces. The present location of the statuette is not assigned !.

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Fig.22 Ibis statuette from Late Period [35]

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Fig.21 Ibis statuette from Late Period [34]

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 The sixth example is a calcite-bronze statuette of an ibis from the Late Period (664-332 BC) in display in the National Museums Scotland and shown in Fig.22 [35]. The designer showed the ibis standing and gave its body the while colour through using the calcite material while used the bronze material for the head, neck and legs. The designer succeeded to produce a stable product without any additional external support through selecting proper dimensions for the bird claws. This means that they were acquainted with the static force analysis of rigid bodies.

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 The seventh and last example is a 330 mm height bronze and gilt wood statue of an ibis from the Late Period – Ptolemaic Period (664-30 BC) sold in 25 October 2012 in London for 166,336 US$ and shown in Fig.23 [36]. The designer showed the ibis striding and used a gilt wood to simulate its body and bronze to simulate its head, neck and tail. He used glass to inlay its eyes. o

Fig.23 Ibis from Late Period-Late Ptolemaic Period [36]

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4. Hen statues

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Breed of chicken was originated in ancient Egypt where representations and descriptions of domestic fowl first appeared during the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt [36]. However, hen-

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shaped jars and figurines appeared during the Predynastic Periods (from 4500 BC) as will be illustrated in the following examples:

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 The first example is a 140 mm pottery vessel in the shape of a hen from Naqada I -1st Dynasty (3850-2960 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.25 [38]. The vessel opening is a hole in the top part of the hen with small round rim. The vessel is supported by 3-legs stand. All the surfaces are perfectly rounded following the mechanical design tradition not to harm the user.  The second example is a greywacke palette in the shape of a hen from Pre-Naqada I (4500-4000 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.25 [38]. The designer showed the palette as two hens back-to-back with heads in opposite sides and tails coming together. Even though the material used is one of the hardest stone in Egypt, the ancient Egyptian carver could produce this unit with very smooth surfaces and uniform profiles about a vertical centerline. .

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Fig.24 Vessel from Pre-Naqada I [37]

Fig.25 Palette from Naqada I/1st Dynasty [38]

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 The third example is a 193.7 mm greywacke hen-shaped palette from Naqada I – Naqada II (3650-3300 BC) shown in Fig.26 [39]. The predynastic designer showed the bird standing (the legs are broken). The ancient Egyptian mechanical designer was acquainted by the mechanics of rigid bodies. He has to adjust the dimensions such that the bird is stable in the standing position by making the a vertical axis through the centreline of the bird claws goes through the centre of mass of the bird (otherwise, the bird will not be stable).  The fourth example is a 95.3 mm height limestone jar in the shape of a squatting hen from Naqada II – Naqada III (3300-2900 BC) shown in Fig.27 [40]. The designer used a squatting hen as jar where he put the jar entry hole on the back of the hen with wide neck and small entry and rim. He used shell to make the eyes. This unit is an indication of the high technology of the carving process in ancient Egypt more than 4900 years ago.  The fifth and last example is a greywacke hen figurine from Naqada I – 1st Dynasty (3850-2960 BC) in display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art and shown in Fig.28 [41]. The designer collected the two legs together in a conical shape with flat bottom to make it

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possible to stand on this flat surface. Again, he applied his experience to make the hen stable.

Fig.27 jar from Naqada II/III [40]

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Fig.26 Palette from Naqada I/II [39]

5. Conclusions

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The evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the study of the statues industry of duck, ibis and hen was investigated. The ancient Egyptians started producing duck-based applications since Naqada II (5500 years ago). They manufactured some products taking the shape of a duck such as: vessels, palettes, jars, statuettes, figurines, amulets, combs, cosmetic boxes, cosmetic spoons, cosmetic dishes, bracelets and funerary bed legs. Materials used in producing duck statuettes and applications were: wood, pottery, faience, ivory, schist, bronze, silver and gold. They considered the ibis as a sacred bird and authorized its existence in ancient Egypt since Naqada II-Naqada III Periods. The authorized the ibis through different products such as: vessels, statues and statuettes.

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Fig.27 Hen figurine from Naqada II/1st Dynasty [41]

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The used a number of materials in producing ibis statues and applications such as: wood, breccias, limestone, bronze and glass. They produced hen-shaped applications and figurines such as: jars, vessels, palettes and figurines. They used local materials in producing hen-shaped applications such as: pottery, limestone and greywacke.

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References

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[1] C. Clark, "The sacred ibis", The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, vol.13, pp.181-184, 1955. [2] W. Smith, "Ancient Egypt as represented in the Museum of Fine arts, Boston", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1960.

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[3] J. Coltherd, "The domestic fowl in ancient Egypt", International Journal of Avian Sciences, April 1966. [4] W. Smith, "Country life in ancient Egypt", Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1994. [5] D. Arnold, "An Egyptian Bestiary", The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, pp.7-64, Spring 1995.

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[6] B. Fay, "Egyptian duck flasks of blue anhydrite", Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol.33, pp.23-48, 1998.

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[7] S. Gunnarsson, "Laying hens in loose housing systems", Sweden University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 2000. [8] H. Redpoll, "The bird Gods of ancient Egypt", https://hoaryredpoll.wordpress.com/2008/06/09/the bird-gods-of-ancient-egypt/, October 2009.

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[9] S. Sniper, "The sacred bird of Egypt", http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2370607/posts , October 2009. [10] Wikipedia, "Ibis", http://en.Wikipedia.org/wiki/ibis , 2017.

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[11] Alamy, "Pottery vessel in the form of a duck, ancient Egyptian", http://www.alamy.com/stock-photopottery-vessel-in-the-form-of-a-duck-ancient-egyptian-predynastic-28350637.html, 2017. [12] G. de Jong, "Bird palette, Naqada II-III", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/434808538997563311/.

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[13] University of Chicago, "Duck-shaped stone jar from the Predynastic Period", http://mag.uchicago.edu/arts-humanities/bird-bird. [14] Metropolitan Museum, "Estate figure", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/544210 , 2017. [15] A. Hegab, "Duck figurine, 12th Dynasty", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/405886985149319242/ [16] Wikipedia, "Egyptian faience", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_faience , 2017. [17] M Museum, Amulet of two birds on a neb-basket", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/572267

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[18] Metropolitan Museum, "Amulet of two birds on a neb-basket", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/572267, 2017.

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[19] Metropolitan Museum, "Comb fragment", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/546925, 2017. [20] M. Harrsch, "Cosmetic box shaped like a pintail duck, Egypt New Kingdom", https://www.flickr.com/photos/mharrsch/4122764115/in/photostream/ [21] Wikipedia, "Egyptian ceramic pottery", https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Egyptian_ceramic_pottery1.jpg , 2016. [22] B. Peterson, "What are pottery and ceramics ?", https://www.thespruce.com/what-are-pottery-andceramics-2745954 , 2016. [23] Collector Antiquities, "An Egyptian wooden cosmetic spoon", http://www.collectorantiquities.com/real-or-fake/fake-egyptian/1.html [24] Flicker, "Cosmetic dish in the form of a trussed duck", https://www.flickr.com/photos/antiquitiesproject/5188345909/in/photostream/ [25] V. Sanches, "Egyptian style duck cosmetic box, 13th C BC", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/261701428319721578/ [26] E. Moong, "Bracelets of Ramses II, around 1290 BC", http://www.lafrimeuse.com/en/the-jewelryart-of-the-ancient-egypt/ , 2015. [27] S. Volpe, "Leg from a funerary bed, Nubian Napatan Period", https://www.pinterest.com/pin/398146423286275667/ [28] MFA, "Perfume bottle in the form of a trussed duck, http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/perfume-bottle-in-the-form-of-a-trussed-duck-or-goose164783 , 2017. [29] Getty Images, "Duck bronze statue, Late Period", http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/photo/duckbronze-statue-egyptian-civilization-high-res-stock-photography/185736319 , 2017. [30] A. Sultan, "Ibis-shaped vessel, red breccia", http://altoonsultan.blogspot.com.eg/2012_07_01_archive.html [31] Rocks Compare Nature, "Breccia rock", http://rocks.comparenature.com/en/breccia-rock/model-320 , 2017. [32] Christies, "An Egyptian bronze and wood ibis", http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/ancient-artantiquities/an-egyptian-bronze-and-wood-ibis-coffin-5546868details.aspx?from=salesummary&pos=58&intObjectID=5546868&sid=b0d6b37b-a98a-4603-9a05136914c8ce1a [33] Getty Images, "Bronze and limestone statue of ibis", http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/photo/bronze-and-limestone-statue-of-ibis-thots-high-res-stockphotography/98952530 [34] Collections Acma, "Ibis processional standard, 26th Dynasty", http://collections.lacma.org/node/172017 [35] Getty Images, "Ibis in bronze and glass paste, Late Period", http://www.gettyimages.com/detail/photo/ibis-symbol-of-god-thoth-resting-on-tablet-high-res-stockphotography/185736299 , 2017. [36] National Museums Scotland, "Votive statuette in the form of an ibis", http://www.nms.ac.uk/national-museum-of-scotland/discover-the-museum/new-ancient-egypt-andeast-asia-galleries/ [37] Wikipedia, "Faiyumi", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faiyumi , 2016. Metropolitan Museum, "Vessel in shape of bird",

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BIOGRAPHY

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http://metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/547523?rpp=20&pg=2&rndkey=20140104&ao=on&ft=* &where=Africa&what=Ceramics&pos=26, 2017. [38] Metropolitan Museum, "Palette", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/571010 , 2017. [39] A Sultan, "Guinea fowl-shaped palette, ca. 3650-3300 BC", http://altoonsultan.blogspot.com.eg/search?updated-max=2012-08-13T08:08:00-04:00&maxresults=25&start=20&by-date=false , 2012. [40] A. Sultan , "Jar in the shape of a squatting bird, ca. 3300-2900 BC", http://altoonsultan.blogspot.com.eg/2012_07_01_archive.html , 2012. [41] Metropolitan Museum, Tool-bird shaped", http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/566592

Galal Ali Hassaan:

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Emeritus Professor of System Dynamics and Automatic Control. Has got his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Cairo University in 1970 and 1974. Has got his Ph.D. in 1979 from Bradford University, UK under the supervision of Late Prof. John Parnaby. Now with the Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, EGYPT. Research on Automatic Control, Mechanical Vibrations , Mechanism Synthesis and History of Mechanical Engineering. Published more than 220 research papers in international journals and conferences. Author of books on Experimental Systems Control, Experimental Vibrations and Evolution of Mechanical Engineering. Chief Editor of the International Journal of Computer Techniques. Member of the Editorial Board of a number of International Journals. Reviewer in some International Journals. Scholars interested in the author's publications can visit: http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/galal

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Original Article

wjert, 2017, Vol. 3, Issue 3, 441 -457

World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology

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SJIF Impact Factor: 4.326

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 47: STATUETTES OF SCARABS

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Dr. (Prof.) Galal Ali Hassaan* Emeritus Professor, Department of Mechanical Design and Production, Faculty of

Article Received on 26/03/2017

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Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt. Article Revised on 17/04/2017

ABSTRACT

*Corresponding Author

Article Accepted on 08/05/2017

This is the 47th research paper exploring the evolution of Mechanical

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Engineering in Ancient Egypt. The paper investigates the production of

Emeritus Professor,

scarab statuettes in ancient Egypt during the Predynastic and Dynastic

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Dr. (Prof.) Galal Ali

Department of Mechanical

Periods. The design of scarab statuettes, the used materials, date and

Design and Production,

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present location are investigated. The analysis outlined the degree of

Faculty of Engineering,

sophistication of the used mechanical technology producing amazing

Cairo University, Egypt.

scarab statuettes and applications using different materials available in

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the ancient Egyptian society. KEYWORDS:

History of mechanical engineering, ancient Egypt, scarab statues,

Predynastic and Dynastic Periods. INTRODUCTION

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This is the 47th research paper in a series aiming at exploring the evolution of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the different activities of their wonderful civilization. The ancient Egyptians had a great appreciation for the scarab insect and depicted this

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appreciation in various means including statuettes. Myer, 1894 in his book about scarabs stated that the ancient Egyptians used scarab models as symbol of a new-birth and the future inscriptions related to different periods. He outlined that

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the oldest scarab model carried the name of King Nrb Ka from the 3rd Dynasty made of pottery and glazed a pale green.[1] Hall, 1913 in his catalogue of Egyptian scarabs in the

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British Museum presented in its first volume 2891 Royal Egyptian scarabs, cylinder-seals, sela-amulets on which the names of Kings were carved from 1 st Dynasty to the End of the

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Ptolemies. He announced that the collection of the Royal scarabs was only one fifth of the the

scarab collection in the British Museum.[2] Wassell, 1991 in her Ph. D. Thesis presented a complete chapter about insects in ancient Egypt. She analyzed the existence in ancient Egypt

including scarabeus with detailed presentation of its use and presence in ancient Egyptian

texts.[3] Arnold, 1995 in her paper about the Egyptian bestiary presented some insects from

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Egypt including glazed steatite scarabs from the 12th-13th Dynasties.[4] Cooney and Tyrrell,

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2005 in their research paper about scarabs in the Los Angeles Country Museum of Art (Part I) studied 79 unprovenanced scarabs and scaraboid amulets in the Museum. They presented 48 colored photos for scarabs and scarab-amulets with their number in the Museum Catalogue.[5] King, 2009 in his Ph. D. Thesis presented a useful brief review of insect morphology including mouth parts, types of antennae, wing modifications and abdomen.[6]

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Sparavigna, 2011 in her article about ancient Egyptian seals and scarabs studied the types of scarabs, religious background, historical importance of scarabs, arts in scarabs, Hyksos scarabs and scarabs and symmetries. She outlined that the scarab seal in ancient Egypt was

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not only impression seal, but also an amulet with protecting images and symbols. She presented the use of the scarab in signet-rings and as heart-scarabs without any inscription or ornament .[7] Bendick, 2014 in his Degree of Bachelor of Art Thesis about ancient Egyptian

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oculus outlined that the exacavations of J. Garstang in 1899 revealed amulets including scarab amulets. He presented the photos of some amulets from the cemeteries of Abysos.[8] Wikipedia, 2016 wrote an article about scarabaeus and outlined that the scarab was a popular form of amulets in ancient Egypt.[9]

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Predynastic Period

The mechanical technology emerged in the ancient Egyptian society since the Predynastic Period in the form of wide range of wonderful products sustained for thousands of years. The scarab shaped application presented here is a 115 mm length diorite manual-crusher in the

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form of a scarab from the Naqada II – Naqada III Period (3300-3100 BC) in display in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford and shown in Fig.1.

[10]

Even though diorite is one of the

hardest stones, the carver could produce fully rounded surface according the Mechanical

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Design Technology of the ancient Egyptians. The scarab-shaped surface make it easy to hold

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the crusher without harming the hand while the crushing surface is completely flat having an

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ovoid shape.

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Fig. 1: Hand-crusher from Naqada II-III.[10] The 1st Dynasty

The available scarab model available is a 105 mm length limestone scarab belonging to Narmer, the first King of the 1st Dynasty in display by ebay Co, UK for sale and shown in

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Fig.2.[11] The back of the scarab was decorated by two carved necklaces with scorpion

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amulets and another scenes on the scarab head.

Fig. 2: King Narmer scarab from 1st Dynasty.[11]

The Medium Kingdom

There are a number of scarab-based models from the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom

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(1991-1802 BC) manufactured from different materials as presented below: The first example is a scarab-ring manufactured from gold and inlaid by carnelian and lapis lazuli sold by Christies in a sale on 6th October 2011 at London for 85,140 US$ and

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shown in Fig.3.[12] The swiveling bezel took the shape of a scarab with decorations in three colors corresponding to the use of gold, carnelian and lapis lazuli. Fig.3 shows two views of the ring illustrating the swiveling action about a revolute joint. This is one of the master pieces in the Mechanical Engineering Technology in ancient Egypt and as an

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Egyptian I wonder how the local Egyptian Authority allows such pieces to get out of Egypt through the international mafia of artifacts robbery.

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The second example is a winged scarab from the reign of Senusret II (the 4th King of the 12th Dynasty, 1887-1878 BC) manufactured from electrum inlaid with carnelian, feldspar

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and lapis lazuli in display in the British Museum and shown in Fig.4.[13] Again, this is a wonderful master piece indicating the high level of the Mechanical Technology in the

jewellery industry during the 12th Dynasty. The designer showed the scarab spreading its

wings and holding the son disk over its head holding it using two of its legs and resting

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more than wonderful using at least four different materials.

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on a four colored frame using another two legs. The combination of the five colors is

Fig. 3: Scarab-ring from 12th Dynasty.[12] The Second Intermediate Period

Fig. 4: Winged-scarab from 12th Dynasty.[13]

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The Second Intermediate Period comprised five dynasties from the 13 th to the 17th Dynasties covering a time span from 1802 to 1550 BC.[14] We have a number of scarab models from this period presented as follows according to Dynasties: The first example is a scarab-seal for King Sheshi from the 13th Dynasty of the Second

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Intermediate Period at Lower Egypt in display in the Walters Art Museum at Baltimore and shown in Fig.5.[15] -

The second example is a seal-scarab of Wahibre Ibiau, an Egyptian King of the 13th Dynasty, who reigned ca. 1670 BC in display in Petrie Museum at London and shown in

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Fig.6.[16]

Fig. 5: Scarab-seal from 13th Dynasty.[15]

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Fig. 6: Scarab-seal from 13th Dynasty.[16]

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The third example is a 12.7 mm length steatite seal scarab from the 14 th – 15th Dynasties (1759-1539 BC) on-loan to the Michael Carlos Museum of the Emory University at

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Atlanta and shown in Fig.7.[17] The bottom of the seal is inscribed by a colored-wingedscarab carrying a sun-disk with two legs and one cobra from the left and right side of the

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disk.

Fig. 7: Scarab-seal from 14th-15th Dynasties.[17]

The fourth example is a 20 mm length glazed steatite scarab amulet from the Second

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Intermediate Period, Hyksos Period (1648-1539 BC) in display in the Walters Art Museum and shown in Fig.8.[18] It is decorated on the whole circumference with S-shaped

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interfering patterns bounding a central cartouche.

The fifth example is a 24 mm length steatite scarab seal from the 15th Dynasty (16501550 BC) in display in the Liverpool Museums, UK and shown in Fig.9.[19] It is inscribed

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by three scenes, a crocodile deity and two vases.

Fig. 8: Scarab-amulet from 2nd IP.[18]

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Fig. 9: Scarab-seal from 15th Dynasty.[19]

The sixth example is a scarab seal belonging to King Maaibre Sheshi, the founder of the

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15th Dynasty in display in the Walters Art Museum and shown in Fig.10.[20] The

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inscriptions have limited characters and bounded by an ovoid. The designer used two levels of the brown color, pale and dark brown.

The seventh example is a 125 mm length faience and steatite scarabs from the 16 th

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Dynasty (1600 BC) gift of Mary Goodwin to the Beloit College in display in the Wright Museum and shown in Fig.11.[21] It is not velar if those scarabs are from the seal or heart

type. The center scarab in Fig.11 is carved from steatite, while the other two are

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manufactured from faience.

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Fig.11: Scarab from 16th Dynasty.[21]

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Fig.10: Scarab-seal from 15th Dynasty.[20]

The eighth example is a 38 mm green jasper heart scarab belonging to Sobekemsaf II, the third King of the 17th Dynasty (1590 BC) found at Qurna of Upper Egypt in display in the

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British Museum and shown in Fig.12.[22] The designer housed the jasper scarab in a golden decorated frame supported by a U-shaped golden base decorated by the legs of the scarab and inscribed on all the sides. All the surfaces are rounded following the ancient

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Egyptian design tradition of surface rounding not to harm the user.

Fig.12: Heart scarab from 17th Dynasty.[22]

The New Kingdom

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This is the most powerful and wealthy kingdom where it was distinguished in all aspects of mechanical engineering as depicted in the previous parts of this series. The evolution of

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scarab models industry during this period will be illustrated through a good number of examples starting from the reign of Thutmose II (the 4th P