ANCIENT EGYPTIAN STONE VESSELS


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Stone vessels 1-69
Stone vessels 68-100
Stone vessels 101-150
Stone vessels 151 onwards
Stone vessels Plates.pdf
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ANCIENT EGYPTIAN STONE VESSELS

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STUDIEN ZUR ARCHAOLOGIE UND GESCHICHTE ALTAGYPTENS

BAND 5

Ancient Egyptian Stone Vessels

Materials and Forms

BY

BARBARA G. ASTON

HEIDELBERGER ORIENTVERLAG

.;

Contents

Acknowledgements ............................................................................................... .. IX

List of Figures XI

List of Plates XIII

Abbreviations ....................................................................................................... .. XV

1

Introduction ... .. ... ................... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... .... ... ... ... .. .... ... ... ..

1

2

Materials ........... ... ... ........................... .. ... ... .... ... .. .... ... ... ... ......... ... ..

11

2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.1.8

Igneous Rocks ........................................... ... ...... ........................ ..... Gabbro .......................................................................................... Hornblende Diorite ...................... ............................................. ..... Granodiorite .......................................................... .... ................ .... Granite ......................................................................................... Basalt ........................................................................................... Andesite Porphyry .............. ... ..................... ... ...... ......... ............ ..... Obsidian ........................................................................................ Tuff ..............................................................................................

11

12

13

15

15

18

21

23

26

2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7 2.2.8 2.2.9 2.2.10 2.2.11

Sedimentary Rocks .......................................................................... Siltstone ................................................................... ... ................. Green Conglomerate ..................................................................... Quartzite ...................................................................................... Limestone ..................................................................................... Recrystallized Limestone ............................................. ................. Dolomite ............... , ................................................ ....................... Calcite .......................................................................................... Travertine .................................................................... ................. Alabaster ............ ...... ............... ............ ... ...................................... Anhydrite .............................. ... ........................ .................. ........... Red and White Limestone Breccia ...... ............ .............................

27

28

33

33

35

39

40

42

42

47

51

53

2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 2.3.7

Metamorphic Rocks .......................................................................... Marble .......................................................................................... Brucite .......................................................................................... Serpentine ..................................................................................... Steatite ......... ............... .................................... ..................... ........ Meta-andesite Porphyry and Amphibolite ...................................... Mica Schist .................................................................................. Diorite Gneiss ...............................................................................

54

55

56

56

59

60

61

62

2.4 2.4.1 2.4.1.1 2.4.1.2

Minerals ................................................................... , ... ... ... ... . ........ .. Quartz .......................................................................................... Quartz crystal ............................................................................ Rose quartz .. ... ......... ... ... ... ...... ................................. ... ..............

64

64

64

64

VIII

Contents

2.4.1.3 2.4.1.4 2.4.1.4.1 2.4.1. 4.2 2.4.1.5 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4

Amethyst .................................................................................. . Chalcedony Carnelian ............................................................................... . Agate .................................................................................... .. Chert ...................................................................................... .. Malachite ..................................................................................... . Lapis Lazuli ............................................................................... .. Hematite ..................................................................................... ..

66

67

67

68

69

71

72

73

3

Fonns ........................................................................................... ..

75

3. 1

3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3. 11

3. 12

Predynastic .................................................................................... .. Cylinder Beakers ............................................................................ . Early Dynastic .......... ......................................................... .............. Dynasty 3 .......................................................................... .............. Dynasty 4 ...................... ................................................ ................. Dynasties 5 - 6 .... .................................................................. ........... First Intermediate Period ... ......... ...... ...... ...... ........................ ........... Middle Kingdom .............. .................. ...... ......... ............... ................. Second Intermediate Period ........... ...... ........................... ......... ........ New Kingdom .................................................................................. Third Intermediate Period ........................................................ ........ Late Period - Roman ............................................................... ........

91

99

106

128

132

134

140

141

146

147

159

164

4

Conclusions .............. ,.............................................. '" ......... .. ....... .. 167

3.2

3.3

Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix

A B C D E

Glossary of Geologic Terms ........................................................... . Outline of the Geologic History of Egypt ...................................... .. Shape Terminology ........................................................................ .. List of Thin Sections Studied ........................................................ .. Names of Stones in German and French ......................................... ..

173

177

179

183

185

Bibliography

187

Plates 1-16

197

Acknowledgements This book was originally written as a PhD dissertation for the University of California, Berkeley, completed in April 19B9. Therefore, I wish first to thank my advisors Dr. Cathleen Keller, Dr. Garniss Curtis and Dr. George Dales. I would like to express my thanks to the following individuals for permission to study the stone vessel collections of their respective museums, and for their help and en­ couragement during my visits: Dr. Frank Norick (Lowie Museum of Anthropology, Berke­ ley), Dr. Edward Brovarski, Ms. Sue D'Auria, Dr. Timothy Kendall, Mr. Peter Lacovara, Prof. William Kelly Simpson (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston), Dr. Robert Bianchi (Brook­ lyn Museum), Mr. Mohammed Mohsen (Egyptian Museum, Cairo), Ms. Janine Bourriau (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge), Mr. T. G. H. James, Dr. C. N. Reeves, Dr. A. J. Spencer, Ms. Miriam Stead (British Museum, London), Dr. Ian Freestone, Dr. Andrew Middleton, (British Museum Research Laboratory). Ms. Barbara Adams, Ms. Rosalind Hall, Dr. Geoffrey Martin, Prof. Henry Smith (Petrie Museum, University College, Lon­ don). Dr. Peter Dorman, Dr. Tony Frantz, Dr. Christine Lilyquist (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) and Dr. Helen Whitehouse (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford). In addition, I would like to tender special thanks to Dr. Frank Norick, Dr. Edward Brovarski, Mr. Peter Lacovara, Prof. William Kelly Simpson, Ms. Janine Bourriau, Dr. A. J. Spencer, Mr. T. G. H. James and Ms. Barbara Adams for providing fragments of stone vessels for thin sections. I am grateful to Dr. Helen Whitehouse and Dr. A. J. Spencer for making it possible for me to photograph vessels in their museum collections, and to Mr. Eugene Prince for photographing vessels in the Lowie Museum. The photographs on Plates 4a, 4b, 6b, 6c, 12b, 13b and 16c appear in this volume by courtesy of the British Museum; Plates Sc, 6a, 7a, 7c, Bc, 9a, 12c and 14a are included by courtesy of the Lowie Museum of Anthropology, University of California at Berkeley; Plates Ib, lc, 2c, 3a, 3b, Sa, Sb, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9b, lOa, lOb, 11a, 11b, 12a, 13a, 14b and ISa appear by courtesy of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; Plate ISc appears by courtesy of the Brooks Memorial Art Gallery, Memphis, Tennessee; and Plate 16b appears with the kind permission of Dr. Manfred' Bietak, Director of the Austrian Archaeological Institute, Cairo. My thanks are due to Mr. Ahmed Mansour, former Director General of the Egyptian Geological Survey, for lending the support of his organization to assist my work, and I particularly wish to thank Engineer Refat EI Sirty for his invaluable assisstance during my visits to quarry sites in the Eastern Desert. I gratefully acknowledge the financial assistance of a University of California grad­ uate research grant, Una's Fellowship in History, and a fellowship from the Society of Women Geographers. The resources and assistance provided by the American Research Center in Egypt, and the Netherlands Institute in Cairo were also of great value. Thanks are due to the Canadian Institute in Egypt, and to its directer, Mr. Edwin Brock, for the rental of a Landrover. In addition, I benefited from discussions with Dr. Horst Jaritz of the Swiss Institute in Egypt concerning ancient quarry locations, and from access to the library of the Institute. It is impossible to adequately thank my brother, David Greene, and my father, R. C. Greene, for the advice, encouragement, and practical support they have provided through­ out my work. Through them I have had access to a petrographic microscope, computer, laser printer, and word processing software that greatly facilitated and speeded my work. They have given me the benefit of their geological expertise, though the responsibility for the simplified presentation of geology in these pages - which is aimed at specialists in another discipline is mine alone. David has unstintingly taken time to provide de­ tailed comments and invaluable advice on my work from the first proposals to the final draft. My father has answered endless questions, and has also taken time to read and comment on my work. I also wish to express my appreciation to Walter Greene for his help in dealing with computers, and to my mother for inking map drawings.

x

Acknowledgements

Finally, lowe a particular debt of gratitude to my husband, Dave Aston, for his many contributions to this book, including critiquing the text, preparing bibliography cards, inking vessel drawings and charts, and especially for his patience with the long separa­ tions which the completion of this book entailed.

List of Figures 1.

Mohs' Hardness Scale

..................................................................................

2.

Map of Egypt, Northern Section

..................................................................

6

3.

Map of the Eastern Desert, Southern Section .... ........................... ...............

8

4.

lUGS Classification of Plutonic Rocks

10

5.

Simplified Classification of Plutonic Rocks

12

6.

Map of Aswan ..............................................................................................

17

7.

The Wentworth Scale

27

8.

Predynastic Vessel Forms

9.

Cylinder Beaker Forms

..................................................................................

3

............................................................................

79

................................................................................

80

10.

Early Dynastic Vessel Forms

81

11.

Early Dynastic Vessel Forms

82

12.

Early Dynastic Vessel Forms

13.

Dynasties 3 and 4 Vessel Forms

14.

Dynasties 5 and 6 and First Intermediate Period Vessel Forms

85

15.

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period Vessel Forms .......... ...... ...

86

16.

New Kingdom Vessel Forms

87

17.

New Kingdom Vessel Forms

18.

Third Intermediate Period Vessel Forms

19.

Late Period

20.

Date Range of Cylinder Forms

21.

Time Range of Stones Utilized for Vessels

22.

Shape Terminology ....................................................................................... 181

................................................. , ... ... ..... .......... .................................................................

........................................................................

83

84

88

.................. ......... ...........................

Roman Vessel Forms

89

90

99

170

List of Plates Plate

1

a b

c

Plate

2

a b c

Plate

3

a

b

Plate

4

a b

Plate

5

a b c

Plate

6

a b c

Plate

7

a b c

Plate

8

a b

Hornblende Diorite, Type A, vessel. Cairo Museum, no number visible. Ht. approx. 20 cm Hornblende Diorite, Type B, vessel. Ashmolean 1895.213. Ht. 11.1 cm. Naqada tomb T5, Predynastc SD 50 Hornblende Diorite, Type C, vessel. Ashmolean 1896 -1908 E.129. Ht. 6.7 cm. Hierakonpolis main temple, Naqada III Early Dynastic Granite vessel. Cairo Museum 1.32160, CG 14724. Ht. 54.0 cm. Hiera­ konpolis main temple, inscribed Khasekhem Porphyritic Quartz Monzo-diorite, detail of sphinx. Ismailia Museum. Scale: 1 cm =1.6 cm. Inscribed Ramses II Basalt vessel. Ashmolean 1895.167. Ht. 8.1 cm. Naqada tomb 1257, Pre dynastic SD 42 Andesite Porphyry, Type A, ceremonial macehead. Ashmolean 1896 -1908 E.297. Di. 15.0 cm. Hierakonpolis main temple, Naqada III - Early Dynastic Andesite Porphyry, Type B, vessel. Ashmolean 1895.166. Ht. 13.2 cm. Naqada tomb 1257, Predynastic SD 42 Andesite Porphyry, Type C, vessel. BM 35298. Ht. 17.2 cm. Unprove­ nanced Andesite Porphyry, Type D, vessel. BM 29301. Di. 16.8 cm. Unprove­ nanced Obsidian vessel. Ashmolean 1896 -1908 E.2201. Ht. 5.5 cm. Abydos tomb E234, Second Intermediate Period Purple-striped Tuff vessel fragment. Ashmolean 1896 1908 E.3235. Length 13.6 cm. Abydos tomb Q, Qa(a Tuff vessel. Lowie Museum 6 -132. Di. 22.0 cm. Naga ed-Der tomb 1513, Dyn. 2 Siltstone vessel. Lowie Museum 6 126. Ht. 7.7 cm. Naga ed-Der tomb 1513, Dyn. 2 Green conglomerate, detail of sarcophagus. BM 1147. Scale: 1 cm :: 1.7 cm. Inscribed Nectanebo II. Quartzite vessel. BM 4724. Di. 7.8 cm. Unprovenanced Yellow Limestone, Type A, vessel. Lowie Museum 6 9947. Ht. 3.0 cm. Naga ed-Der no. 521, deposit in surface debris Red/Pink Limestone, Type B, vessel. Ashmolean 1895.176. Ht. 20.4 cm. Naqada tomb 234, Predynastic SD 63 Pink and Yellow Limestone, Type C, vessel. Lowie Museum 6 -10190. Ht. 10.0 cm. Naga ed-Der tomb 587, Dyn. 3 Grey Limestone, Type D, vessel. Ashmolean 1896 -1908 E.2322. Ht. 7.8 cm. Abydos tomb EI0, early Dyn. 18 Black, Shelly Limestone, Type vessel. Ashmolean 1895.154. Ht. 6.6 cm. Naqada tomb 129, Predynastic SD 47 - 63

XIV

Plate

List of Plates

9

c

Indurated Yellow Limestone with Black Veins, Type F, vessel. Lowie Museum 6 823. Di. 20.7 cm. Naga ed-Der tomb 3011, Dyn. 2

a

Recrystallized Limestone vessel. Lowie Museum 6 -10230. Ht. 2.4 cm. Naga ed-Der tomb 599, Dyn. 3 Dolomite vessel. Ashmolean 1895.159. Ht. 9.2 cm. Naqada tomb 66, Early Dynastic

b

Plate 10

a b

Plate 11

a b

Plate 12

a b c

Plate 13

a b c

Plate 14

a b

Plate 15

a b c

Plate 16

a b

c

Travertine vessel. Ashmolean 1895.162. Ht. 6.2 cm. Naqada south town, Pre dynastic Alabaster vessel. Ashmolean 1912.574. Ht. 8.5 cm. Tarkhan tomb 231, Predynastic SD 81 Anhydrite vessel. Ashmolean 1896 -1908 E.2222. Ht. 8.1 cm. Abydos tomb E244, Middle Kingdom Red and White Limestone Breccia vessel. Ashmolean 1896 -1908 E.2794. Ht 10.1 cm. Naqada tomb T5, Pre dynastic SD 50 Serpentine, Type A" vessel. Ashmolean 1896 1908 E.2465. Ht. 7.3 cm. Abydos tomb E178, Dyn. 18 Serpentine, Type B, vessel. BM 4711. Ht. 7.3 cm. Unprovenanced Serpentine, Type C, vessel. Lowie Museum 6 -10434. Ht. 3.9 cm. Naga ed-Der tomb 698, unpublished Steatite vessel. Ashmolean 1896 -1908 E.2175. Ht. 2.6 cm. Abydos tomb E3, Dyn. 12 13 Mica Schist vessel. BM 58139. Length 9.0 cm. Berenice, purchased Agate vessel. Cairo Museum 1.55034. Ht. 7.7 cm. Eastern Desert, Late Period Diorite Gneiss vessel. Lowie Museum 6 -1021. Ht. 8.6 cm. Naga ed-Der tomb 561b, Dyn. 4 Anorthosite Gneiss vessel. Ashmolean 1896 -1908 E.401. Di. 18.2 cm. EI-Kab, mastaba A (Kaimenu), Dyn. 4 Quartz Crystal vessel. Ashmolean 1910.488a. Ht. 8.1 cm. Abydos tomb E21, Dyn. 6 Carnelian vessel. Cairo Museum CG 18777. Ht. 2.7 cm. Dahshur, tomb of Merit, Dyn. 12 Amethyst vessel. Cairo Museum 1.65416. Ht. approx. 9 cm. Saqqara, Step Pyramid, Dyn. 1 2 Lapis Lazuli vessel. Cairo Museum CG 18778. Ht. 3.3 cm. Dahshur, tomb of Merit, Dyn. 12 Hematite vessel. Tell ed-Dab( a no. 2587. Ht. 5.2 cm. Tell ed-Dab(a tomb M/16 no. 3, Second Intermediate Period Malachite vessel. BM 36356. Ht. 5.3 cm. Unprovenanced, Late Predy~ nastic - Early Dynastic

Abbreviations I.

Journals and series

ASAE AV BIE BIFAO BMMA BSAE CGC FIFAO lAIC

Annales du Service des Antiquites de l'Egypte, Cairo Archaologische Veroffentlichungen, Deutsches Archaologisches Institut, Abteilung Kairo, Berlin, Mainz Bulletin de l'Institut d'Egypte, Cairo Bulletin de l'Institut Francyais d'Archeologie Orientale, Cairo Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Research Account Catalogue General des Antiquites egyptiennes du Musee du Caire Fouilles de l'Institut Francyais d'Archeologie Orientale, Cairo Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, Washington,

D. C. lARCE lEA Kemi MDAIK MIFAO MMl OMRO PSBA RecTrav SAK SASAE VA WO

ZAS II.

Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Boston Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, London Kemi. Revue de Philologie et d'Archeologie Egyptiennes et Coptes, Paris Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts, Abteilung Cairo, Berlin, Wiesbaden, Mainz Memoires publies par les Membres de l'Institut Francyais d'Archeo­ logie Orientale du Caire, Cairo The Metropolitan Museum Journal, New York Oudheidkundige Mededeelingen uit het Rijksmuseum van Oudheden te Leiden, Leiden Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, London Recueil de Travaux Relatifs a la Philologie et a l'Archeologie Egyptiennes et Assyriennes, Paris Studien zur Altagyptischen Kultur, Hamburg Supplements aux Annales du Service des Antiquites de l'Egypte, Cahier, Cairo Varia Aegyptiaca, San Antonio Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Institut fi.ir Orientforschung, Veroffentlichungen, Berlin Zeitschrift fi.ir Agyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, Leipzig, Berlin

Books

Abusir Mel. A by. I, II A by. III Aha Amr'/Aby. Anc. Egy. Art Yale AR

MOLLER, Die Archaeologischen Ergebnisse des Vorgeschichtlichen Graberfeldes von Abusir el-Meleq PETRIE, Abydos I and II (1902, 1903) AYRTON, CURRELLY and WEIGALL, Abydos III EMERY, Hor-Aha (1939) RANDALL-MACIVER and MACE, El-Amrah and Abydos SCOTT, Ancient Egyptian Art at Yale BREASTED, Ancient Records of Egypt

XVI

Abbreviations

Archaic Egy.

Archaic Mas.

Archaic Obj.

Arch. Nile Delta

Bad. Civ.

Ba1abish

Ba1at I

Buhen

Cem. Aby. I

Cem. A by. II

Cem. A by. III

Cem. Armant

Cim. Arch.

City Akh. City Akh. City Akh. Con temp.

I

II

III

Pepi II

EMERY, Archaic Egypt (1961) QUffiELL, Archaic Mastabas (1923) QUffiELL, Archaic Objects (1904 - 5) VAN DEN BRINK, The Archaeology of the Nile Delta BRUNTON and CATON-THoMPsoN, The Badarian Civilization WAINWRIGHT, Ba1abish (1920) VALLOGGIA, Ba1at I: Le Mastaba de Medou-Nefer (1986) RANDALL-MACIVER and WOOLLEY, Buhen NAVILLE, The Cemeteries of Abydos 1(1914) PEET, The Cemeteries of Abydos II (1914) PEET and LOAT, The Cemeteries of Abydos III (1914) MOND and MEYERS, Cemeteries of Armant (t 937) MACRAMALLAH, Un Cimetitke Archaique de 1a C1asse Moyenne

du Peup1e a Saqqarah PEET and WOOLLEY, The City of Akhenaten I FRANKFORT and PENDLEBURY, The City of Akhenaten II PENDLEBURY, The City of Akhenaten III JEQUIER, Tombeaux de Particuliers Contemporains de Pepi II (1929)

Dah.1894

Dah.1894-5

Deir Med. 1928

Dend.

Desert Fay.

Diosp.

Edfou 1939

ED Objects

Egy. Gold. Age

Egy. Type Doc.

E1-Arabah

E1Kab

Esna 1905-6

Exp. Notes

Fayum Towns

Five Years

Fou. d'Aby.

Gaza II

Giza I

Giza II

Giz'/Rif.

GT

Gurob

Har.

Hfitshop.

He1./Kaf./Shur.

DE MORGAN, Fouilles DE MORGAN, Foui11es

a Dahchour, mars-juin 1894 (1895) a Dahchour en 1894-1895 (1903)

BRUYERE, Deir e1-M6dineh (1928) PETRIE, Dendereh (1900) CATON-THOMPsoN and GARDINER, The Desert Fayoum PETRIE, Diospolis Parva (1901) MICHALOWSKI, et al., Tell Edfou 1939 SPENCER, Early Dynastic Objects

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Egypt's Golden Age PARCERISA, Egyptian Type Documents GARSTANG, E1-Arabah (1901) QUIBELL, E1 Kab (1898) DOWNES, The Excavations at Esna, 1905-1906 HUME, Explanatory Notes to Accompany the Geological Map of Egypt (1912) GRENFELL and HUNT, Fayum Towns and Their Papyri CARNARVON and CARTER, Five Years Exploration at Thebes AMELINEAU, Nouvelles Fouil1es d'Abydos PETRIE, Ancient Gaza II (1932) REISNER, A History of the Giza Necropolis I (1942) REISNER, A History of the Giza Necropolis II: The Tomb of Hetepheres (t955) PETRIE, Gizeh and Rifeh (1907) EMERY, Great Tombs of the First Dynasty (1949-1958) BRUNTON and ENGELBACH, Gurob ENGELBACH, Harageh (1923) DAVIS, NAVILLE and CARTER, The Tomb of Hatshopsiti1 PETRIE and MACKAY, Heliopolis, Kafr Ammar and Shurafa

..

XVII

Abbreviations

Helwan Hem aka Hesy Hierak. I Hierak. II Horus Sekh. Hyk./Isr. Cit. JUNKER, Giza I Kah./Gur./Haw. Kub.-Nord Kurru Lab./Ger./Maz. Lah./Kah./Gur. Lahun II Lex. Stud. Mah./Bet K. Mat. Matmar Memphis II Mey'/Mem. III Minoan Pottery Mit Rah. 1955 Mon. Aeg. I Most. Myc. Naga I, III Naga II Naga IV Naq. Nauk. I Neferwptah Neit/Apouit Obj. Toil. Origines Osorkon II PE PM PreDMah. Psousennes Pyr. Deg. III Qau/Bad. Qumeh

Royal Excavations at Helwan (1951) EMERY, The Tomb of Hemaka (1938) QUffiELL, The Tomb of Hesy (1913) QUIBELL and PETRIE, Hierakonpolis I QUIBELL and GREEN, Hierakonpolis II GONEIM, Horus Sekhem-khet PETRIE, Hyksos and Israelite Cities (1906) JUNKER, Giza I: Die Mastabas der IV. Dynastie auf dem West­ friedhof (1929) PETRIE, Kahun, Gurob, and Hawara (1890) JUNKER, Bericht iiber die Grabungen ... auf den Friedhofen von El-Kubanieh-Nord (1920) DUNHAM, The Royal Cemeteries of Kush I: El-Kurru (1950) PETRIE, WAINWRIGHT and MACKAY, The Labyrinth, Gerzeh and Mazghuneh PETRIE, Illahun, Kahun and Gurob (1891) PETRIE, BRUNTON and MURRAY, Lahun II HARRIS, Lexicographical Studies in Ancient Egyptian Minerals GARSTANG, Mahasna and Bet Khallaf (1903) LUCAS, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries (1962) BRUNTON, Matmar (1948) PETRIE, Memphis II. The Palace of Apries (1909) PETRIE, MACKAY and WAINWRIGHT, Meydum and Memphis III KEMP and MERRILLEES, Minoan Pottery in Second Millennium Egypt ANTHES, Mit Rahineh 1955 (1959) KAPLONY, Monumenta Aegyptiaca, vol. 1

BRUNTON, Mostagedda and the Tasian Culture (1937)

REISNER, Mycerinus (1931)

REISNER, Naga ed-Der I and III (1908, 1932)

MACE, Naga ed-Der II

LYTHGOE, Naga ed-Der IV

PETRIE and QUIBELL, Naqada and Ballas

PETRIE, Naukratis I (1886)

FARAG and ISKANDER, The Discovery of Neferwptah

JEQUlER, Les Pyramides des Reines Neit et Apouit (1933)

VANDIER D'ABBADIE, Catalogue des objets de toilette egyptiens

DE MORGAN, Recherches sur les Origines de l'Egypte (1897)

MONTET, La Necropole Royale de Tanis I: Osorkon II (1947)

PETRIE, Prehistoric Egypt (1920)

PORTER and Moss, Topographical Bibliography

AYRTON and LOAT, Predynastic Cemetery at El-Mahasna

MONTET, La Necropole Royale de Tanis II: Psousennes (1951)

LAUER, La Pyramide a Degres III: Complements (1936)

BRUNTON, Qau and Badari (1927-1930)

PETRIE, Qurneh (1909)

SAAD,

Abbreviations

XVIII

Req'/Bet K.

GARSTANG, Tombs of the Third Egyptian Dynasty at Reqaqnah

Riq'/Mem. VI RT Sac. Animal Nec. Sahu-re I

and Bet Khallaf(1904) ENGELBACH, Riqqeh and Memphis VI (1915) PETRIE, Royal Tombs (1900-1901) MARTIN, The Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara (1981) BORCHARDT, DasGrabdenkmal des Konigs Sahu-re I: Der Bau (1910)

Saq'/Helwan Scepter I Sed. I Siptah SteingefiiBe Step Pyr. SV Tanis II Tarkh. Tell Yah. Temples Armant Teti Pyr. Cem. Teti Pyr. N. Side Thout. IV Three Prin. Tomb Dev. Tombs Court. Turtles Vallee Rois \Vb.

XIth. Dyn. Temple I Youiya/Thouiyou Zawiyet Z. Mayetin

SAAD,

Royal Excavations at Saqqara and Helwan (1947)

HAYES, The Scepter of Egypt, vol. 1 (1953)

PETRIE and BRUNTON, Sedment I

DAVIS, The Tomb of Siptah

VON BISSING, SteingefiiBe

FIRTH and QUIBELL, The Step Pyramid

PETRIE, Stone and Metal Vases (1937)

PETRIE, Tanis II (1888)

PETRIE, Tarkhan (1913, 1914)

NAVILLE and GRIFFITH, The Mound of the Jew

MONO and MEYERS, Temples of Armant (1940)

FIRTH and GUNN, Teti Pyramid Cemeteries

QUIBELL and HAYTER, Teti Pyramid. North Side

CARTER and NEWBERRY, The Tomb of Thoutmosis IV

WINLOCK, The Treasure of Three Egyptian Princesses

REISNER, The Development of the Egyptian Tomb (1936)

PETRIE, Tombs of the Courtiers and Oxyrhynchos (1925)

FISCHER, Ancient Egyptian Representation of Turtles

DARESSY, Fouilles de le Vallee des Rois (1902)

ERMAN and GRAPOW, Worterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache

NAVILLE, The Xlth Dynasty Temple at Deir el-Bahari 1(1907)

QUIBELL, The Tomb of Youiya and Thouiyou (1908)

DUNHAM, VARILLE,

Zawiyet el-Aryan (1978)

La Tombe de Ni-ankh-Pepi

a Zaouyet el-Mayetin

III. Others Ashmolean BM Cairo Museum cern. DAI Dyn. ED EEF EES FIP Fitzwilliam IFAO

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford British Museum, London Egyptian Museum, Cairo cemetery Deutsches Archaologisches Institut Dynasty Early Dynastic Egypt Exploration Fund Egypt Exploration Society First Intermediate Period Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, England Institute Francyais d'Archeologie Orientale

Abbreviations

KV Lowie Museum LP memo MFA MK MMA Naq. NK OK PreD pyr. SAE SD SIP TIP UC Vienna, Kunst. VT

XIX

Valley of the Kings Lowie Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley Late Period memoir Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Middle Kingdom Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Naqada New Kingdom Old Kingdom Predynastic pyramid Service des Antiquites de l'Egypte Sequence Date Second Intermediate Period Third Intermediate Period University College, London: Petrie Museum Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna Valley Temple

1 Introduction In the identification of ancient Egyptian materials mistakes have frequently been made in the past, and these mistakes are reproduced from one book to another without inquiry or verifi­ cation until many of them have been so often repeated as now to be accepted without question. A. LUCAS 1

LUCAS provided the first systematic scientific identifications of the stones used by the ancient Egyptians for stone vessels (as well as building material, statues, etc.). Previous identifications of stone material were often inaccurate, and, in some cases, tradition and precedent have been substituted for scientific accuracy even to the present day. However, any consideration of the geologic sources of the stone of which objects were made, or of the dates when particular stones were utilized, is dependent on accurate identification of the stone. LUCAS provides a summary of information on the more common stones used by the Egyptians. However, as he is not a petrographer, his identifications are neccesarily generalized, based, as they are, mainly on physical and chemical tests. A more complete catalogue of the stones, incorporating detailed descriptions and more precise identifica­ tions, was clearly desirable. The aims of this study are to accurately identify (with standard geological terminology) the stones used for vessels by the ancient Egyptians, to correlate the material of stone vessels with possible sources by comparison with rock samples from potential quarry sites, and to determine the chronological range of the use of each type of stone. Recent valuable studies of stone vessel typology do not attempt to evaluate the names given to the stone material, but adopt the names suggested by LUCAS (SPENCER, ED Objects), or reproduce whatever name was applied by the original excavator (EL-KHouu). LUCAS is particularly weak on igneous rocks, in part because a thin section is practically a necessity to classify them correctly. Thus it is no surprise that the names of igneous rocks are subject to some of the greatest confusion in the literature. In some cases, one particular kind of rock has been given many different names in different publications and in various museums. Andesite porphyry, for example, has been variously called "porphy­ ry" 2, "porphyritic diorite" 3, and "black and white breccia" 4. In other instances, a single name has been used to describe many different rocks. One such abused term is "porphy­ ry", which has been applied to such diverse rocks as andesite porphyry 5 and hornblende diorite 6. As a general rule, it was necessary for me to reexamine the actual vessels in museum collections to identify the stone, since published identifications of stone are in many cases unreliable. Even the term "alabaster" - which is now generally recognized to have been incorrectly applied to a rock that is actually travertine - has advocates who want to retain the incorrect usage because, they argue, most readers will know what rock is being referred to. On the contrary, the term alabaster is now used to describe both true gypsum alabaster and travertine, and the reader can not be sure which one is applicable to a given vessel without a personal examination of the piece. My own museum research revealed numerous vessels at the Lowie Museum, Cairo Museum, Metropolitan Museum, and Ashmolean Museum which are actually of alabaster, rather than the more common

Preface to first edition of Ancient Egyptian Materials (1926), pp. iv-v. 2 MFA 11.752, 11.1179.

1

3 4 5

6

ED Objects, #216, 218, 233, pp. 36-37, pI. 20. BM 4725, 24416, 29572.

MFA 11.752, 11.1179. MFA 11.405, 11.637, 11.1170, 11.1595.

2

Introduction

travertine 7; all of the alabaster and travertine vessels were indiscriminately labelled "alabaster". The primary method used in this study for making precise identifications and detailed descriptions of rock types was by thin section and petrographic microscope. Forty-three fragments of Egyptian stone vessels for thin sectioning were obtained from the Lowie Museum, Berkeley, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the British Museum, and the Fitz­ william Museum, Cambridge. (In addition, 14 previously prepared thin sections of stone vessel fragments from the British Museum were also examined.) A thin section ideally requires a chip of rock about 1 x 2 in. (27 x 46 mm) of approximately 1/2 in. (1 cm) thickness, although for fine-grained rocks a piece as small as 1 x 114 in. (2.5 x .5 cm) often proves adequate. The rock sample is mounted on a glass slide and ground down to a thickness of .03 mm. The preparation of thin sections is normally done by a commer­ ciallab at a cost of approximately $ 6 each. The thin sections are analyzed by means of a petrographic microscope, which differs from an ordinary microscope in that the slide is viewed by polarized light. Additional lenses allow the thin section to be viewed in cross­ polarized light, or concentrate the light to produce figures reflecting the crystal structure 8. Thin sections are excellent for identifying the major mineral constituents of a rock, the minor accessory minerals, the percentage of each mineral, and the overall texture of the rock. Plutonic rocks {such as granite and diorite}, for example, are classified according to the exact percentages of the minerals (particularly feldspars) which they contain; the quantity and even the identity of many minerals can often be impossible to determine accurately without a thin section. Rocks such as siltstone and tuff, with grains too small to be distinguished by the naked eye, cannot normally be identified from a visual exami­ nation alone, but are readily identifiable in thin section. Serpentine rocks, which are composed alnost entirely of serpentine, can be distinguished by their textures, and by the minor accessory minerals they contain. Certain rocks (such as many limestones) are too fine-grained for accessory minerals or distinctive textures to be identified with the magnification levels available on an optical microscope. Other analytical techniques - including scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and neutron activation analysis - which provide higher magnification, and record the accessory minerals or trace elements present in a rock, have been found useful in differentiating these rocks. MIDDLETON and BRADLEY of the British Museum Research. Laboratory and Department of Conservation, utilizing x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques, have identified factors (including sub-microscopic texture, and the nature and percentage of non-carbonate minerals) which characterize limestones from different regions of Egypt 9. D. and R. KLEMM of the Institut flir Allgemeine und Angewandte Geologie at Munich University and the State Collection of Egyptian Art, Munich, have successfully applied the technique of x-ray fluorescence to match samples of limestone from the Giza pyramids, Step Pyramid (Saqqara), and Hatshepsut temple (Deir el-Bahari) with limestone from nearby

7 Lowie Museum: 6-520, 1028, 1314, 2312, 2371, 6388, 6584, 6876, 7126, 7315, 8025, 9944, 10041, 10264, 10270, 10432, 10425, 11282; Cairo Museum, room U42, case 0, J.44351 and a double vessel (number not visible); MMA 12.181.103 (. five additional vessels from Saqqara tomb 2322); Ashmolean 1912.574. 8 Specifically, a petrographic microscope incorporates a substage polarizing lens so that the thin section is observed in plane polarized light. Many minerals are colorless when so observed, others are colored and show pleochroic effects (i.e. change color as the microscope stage is rotated). Color and pleochroism are distinctive properties which can aid in the identification of a mineral. In addition, the minera1 grains change the direction of polarization of the light, and when the second (above-stage) polarizing lens is inserted, additional effects such as extinction angles and interference colors may be observed. Further information is obtained by the use of a substage condensing lens which produces strongly convergent light; with this lens, a phenomenon known as an interference figure (with properties characteristic of individual minerals) is observed. 9 BRADLEY and MIDDLETON, JAIC 27 (1988), pp. 64-86; MIDDLETON and BRADLEY, Journal of Archaeo­ logical Science 16 (1989), pp. 475-488.

3

Introduction

quarries 10. Finally, the work of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory group, using neutron activation analysis to ascertain the origin of quartzite from the Colossi of Memnon, should be noted 11. However, one drawback of these techniques in relation to thin sections, must be mentioned, and that is their relative cost: while· thin sections are $ 6 each, x-ray diffraction is $ 100, and neutron activation analysis costs $ 600 per sample. For the identification of the stone of intact vessels, which obviously cannot be thin­ sectioned, there are a number of helpful physical and chemical tests that can be applied. Foremost of these is the hardness test, which relates the hardness of a mineral to an established set of mineral values called the "Mohs' hardness scale" (see Fig. 1). Hardness

Hardness

Mineral

1 2 (2.2) 3 (3.5) 4 5 (5.2) (5.5) 6 7 8 9 10

Talc Gypsum

Object for comparison

fingernail Calcite copper penny Fluorite Apatite pocket knife window glass Feldspar Quartz Topaz Corundum Diamond

Fig. 1 Mohs' Hardness Scale

(After DIETRICH and SKINNER, Rocks and Rock Minerals, p. 21.)

tests are normally done with a scapel under the microscope so that no :Q1ore than a few grains of an object are ever displaced. Hydrochloric acid provides a simple method to determine if a particular rock is composed of calcium carbonate (calcite) or not. Both limestone and travertine, for example are essentially pure calcium carbonate. For this test a few microscopic granules of the rock in question are added to a drop of hydrochlo;. ric acid. Pure calcium carbonate (dolomite) will effervesce sluggishly, and other minerals, such as calcium sulphate (gypsum), not at all. A further test which can be used to dis­ tinguish with certainty between limestone and dolomite is the application of the chemical Alizarin Red limestone will stain red, whereas dolomite will be unaffected. The collecting of rock samples from known and potential quarry sites was accom­ plished primarily during the period of January to May 1985. The means of transportation was by Landrover and Toyota Land Cruiser, as many desert sites are approached only by dirt tracks, if any. Only rarely could a site - as was the case with Gebel Ahmar - be reached by paved road. Some quarry sites were visited as day trips from Cairo, including: Widan el-Faras (basalt), Umm es-Sawan (alabaster), Abu Za 256 64 - 256 2 - 64 1-2 V2 1 Vv I;z Vs - V4 1r16 - Irs ¥z.s6 - 1r16 < ¥z.s6

Fragment boulder cobble pebble very coarse sand coarse sand medium sand fine sand very fine sand silt clay

Rock boulder conglomerate or breccia cobble conglomerate or breccia pebble conglomerate or breccia sandstone siltstone claystone, mudstone or shale

Fig. 7 The Wentworth Scale (From DIETRICH and SKINNER, Rocks and Rock Minerals, pp. 181, 189) 132

ANDREW, BIE 21 (1939), pp. 154, 186.

133

P. 2.

134

#399.

#357.

Lowie Museum 6-404 and 6-565, Naga ed-Der cemetery 1500.

BM thin sections E13 and E15 of vessels from Saqqara.

BM 32643.

Ashmolean 1896-1908 E.3234, and E.3235 (Plate 5b).

135 136 137 138 139

28

Materials

Rock fragments of the sizes specified in column one are named in column two; sedi­ mentary rocks composed of fragments of a given size are listed in the third column. Rocks made up of large rounded fragments are termed conglomerates, while those with angular fragments are called breccias. Shale is a rock composed of clay-size particles which splits readily into thin plates parallel to the bedding, in contrast to claystones and mudstones which have a blocky fracture. Sandstones are rocks composed of sand-size particles. A particular variety of sandstone which has greater than 10% of clay matrix is called greywacke. After deposition, the loose sediments are compacted by the weight of overlying sedi­ ment and/or cemented by minerals filling in the spaces between the grains. The process by which sediments are compacted and cemented to form solid rock is called diagenesis, and the distinction between detrital grains (original sediments) and minerals which form as replacements or pore fillings during diagenesis is an important one. The other main category of sedimentary rocks consists of those formed by chemical or biochemical precipitation. These include limestone, travertine, alabaster and chert.

2.2.1

Siltstone

This is a very fine-grained, well indurated, green-grey rock consisting of particles ranging in size from silt (0.004-0.06 mm) to very fine sand (0.06-0.125 mm). The grains are too small to be distinguished with the naked eye and many are too small even to be identified in thin section. The identifiable grains are mostly quartz, with a little feldspar, and a few grains of detrital epidote and muscovite. Compositionally, clay minerals make up a high proportion of the rock but they are not resolvable microscopically. Secondary minerals thich developed during diagenesis include chlorite, muscovite, epidote, and calcite. The overall color of the rock ranges from green to dark grey depending on the amount of green minerals (such as chlorite and celadonite) that are present. The texture is hard and dense, i.e. the rock is well indurated or has been subject to incipient meta­ morphism. There has been considerable difference of opinion as to whether or not this rock should be considered metamorphosed. LUCAS states that "it is a sedimentary and not a metamorphic rock; ... it is greywacke" 140. D. and R. KLEMM on the other hand, conclude that "this rock ... has been metamorphosed with the surrounding rocks and now can be regarded as meta-greywacke" 141. The 1978 Geologic Map of the Qena Quadrangel de­ scribes siltstone from the Hammamat Group as "essentially unmetamorphosed" 142, while the 1981 Geologic Map of Egypt reverses this stand and labels the Hammamat siltstone "slightly metamorphosed" 143. This rock clearly represents a stage which is transitional between high grade diagenesis and low grade metamorphism. Since there is a continuum between the heat and pressure which consolidate a sediment into rock, and the higher heat and pressure of metamorphism which recrystallizes and realigns the minerals, it is problematic how best to categorize this borderline rock. One possibility is to define a new metamorphic facies (a particular Pressure/Temperature environment) covering this transitional range. In 1959, COOMBS et al. described the characteristics of a facies bridging the Pressure/Temperature environment of diagenesis and the lower limit of the greenschist facies. In this facies which they term zeolite - chlorite and white mica develop from the celadonite and clay minerals of the sediments 144. This process is just beginning in the Wadi Hammamat rock; although there has been some recrystallization of clay to chlorite and mica, the rock still retains its clastic texture, with the individual

140

Mat., p. 419.

141 KLEMM, WAGNER, and KLEMM, p. 20. 142 Published by the Egyptian Geological Survey. 143 Ibid. 144 DEER, HOWIE, and ZUSSMAN, vol. 3, p. 157.

!

Sedimentary Rocks

29

sedimentary fragments clearly visible. Therefore, it seems best to classify it as a sedi­ mentary rock. PETRIE called all his fine-grained, green stone vessels "slate" 145, which, unfortunately, is not an appropriate name for this rock. Correctly used, the word slate refers to a metamorphic rock of microcrystalline texture, with a very well developed cleavage which causes it to split readily into thin plates. \\!hile slate may have been used for Predynastic palettes, for which a thin, flat flake of rock was desirable, the tendency of slate to split readily would have been a serious obstacle to its use as a material for stone vessels. MoreQver, none of the so-called "slate" vessels which I have examined exhibit this tenden­ cy at all. A yet more egregious misnommer for siltstone is the term "schist" 146. Schist is the name given to metamorphic rocks which have been recrystallized to a medium to coarse grain size and are dominated by platy minerals which form a distinctive layered structure. The large grain size, interlocking texture of the grains, distinctive layered structure, and dominance of shiny micas, quartz and other metamorphic minerals make schist impossible to confuse with sedimentary rocks 147. LUCAS rightly rejected the name "schist" for the Hammamat siltstone, and instead identified it as "greywacke" 148, following ANDREW 149. However, in modern terminology, greywacke is actually a variety of sandstone if which sand-sized grains are clearly visible to the naked eye. In addition, greywacke contains at least 10% clay matrix, and is usually a poorly sorted mixture of pebbles, sand, silt and clay. This is in marked contrast to the rock used by the ancient Egyptians for stone vessels, which has a fine, even texture, contains no visible sand grains, and is composed primarily of moderately well sorted, silt-sized grains. Confusian has been caused by the fact that the term greywacke has been defined differently by different geologists; ANDREW classes rocks with a grain size as small as 0.025 mm as greywacke 150, whereas, by modern definitions, rocks with grains under 0.0625 mm are siltstone, and with grains under 0.004 mm, mudstones (see the Wentworth Scale, p. 27). Geologists have recorded a range of textures in the rocks of the Hammamat series from mudstone, through sandstone, to conglomerate 151 - but the main ancient quarry, with its concentration of pharaonic inscriptions, lies in what would today be called a siltstone layer. The coarse sandy or pebbly texture of greywacke makes it less suitable than siltstone for small or finely-worked objects, though grey­ wacke could have been used for larger objects such as statues, which lie outside the scope of this study 152. At the other end of the spectrum from coarse sandstones are the claystones/mudstones which are composed of clay-sized particles (grains less than 0.004 mm in size). PETRIE coined the term "durite" to refer to the very fine grained green rock of which some

145

Sv, passim.

See, for example, ED Objects where all siltstone vessels are labeled schist.

It is probably due to Hume that the term schist has often been erroneously applied to this rock. In

his Geology of Egypt vol. 2:1 (p. 263), HUME titles his section on the Hammamat siltstone "Monumental

Quartzose Black or Green Schist of Hammamat", and refers to the rock as "siliceous schist". However,

in his first mention of this "schist", he encloses the word in quotation marks, indicating that he knows it

is not really a schist at all. Furthermore, on p. 260, he notes that the rock is "really a fine-grained

sandstone", on p. 202 he states that it is "undoubtedly a metamorphosed sandstone", and on p. 264 he

says, "There seems little doubt that it originated as an extremely fine-grained angular sand derived

from rocks of acid composition, mixed with clay".

148 Mat., p. 419.

149 BIE 21 (1939), pp. 153-90. 146 147

150

Ibid., p. 175.

151

HUME, Geology vol. 2:1, p. 263; ANDREW, BIE 21 (1939), p. 154; Geologic Map of Egypt.

152 However, siltstone was also used for statuary; I have examined a thin section from a fragmentary Mycerinus statue of bon stone in the MFA, Boston, and found it to be siltstone.

30

Materials

amulets and scarabs were made. In Amulets he first defined durite as "indurated mud or ash, which is of the composition of slate, but without a slaty fracture" 153, and later, in Scarabs and Cylinders redefined it as "a metamorphic volcanic mud, mich like slate in composition, but not in fracture" 154. The earlier definition is nearer the mark, as the stone is not necessarily volcanic, and is better described as "highly indurated" rather than as metamorphic. Since both siltstone and mudstone have grains too small to distin­ guish with the naked eye, it is not clear whether PETRIE's durite is actually a rock com­ posed of clay-size paricles or is simply siltstone. Furthermore, there already exists a specific geologic term for a compact, slightly recrystallized claystone. "Argillite" is the name given to very firmly indurated (I.e. hard and dense) claystones which have been partly recrystallized, but lack slaty cleavage. Of the fourteen samples of bbn stone I have examined in thin section, both from stone vessels and from the Wadi Hammamat quarry, none were of argillite. However, argillite does occur in the Wadi Hammamat in the vicinity of the siltstone quarry 155, and later analysis of objects of bon stone may reveal that some are of argillite. In his excellent discussion of "durite", greywacke and bon stone, SHIAH advocates the adoption of PETRIE's term durite with an extended range of meaning to cover all of the Wadi Hammamat rocks from tuff and greywacke to mudstone 156. However, I cannot agree that this would be a desirable solution. An artificial term such as durite might be satisfactory for archaeologists but it would cause puzzlement if used on museum labels, as it would be inexplicable to anyone with a knowledge of geology. Siltstone was certainly one - and probably the principle one - of the rocks which the Egyptians referred to as bon stone. Of the five objects known to have hieroglyphic inscriptions describing them as made of bbn stone, four have been examined by a geolo­ gist 157, and by the writer. Three of these were determined to be of the Wadi Hammamat siltstone (which ANDREW calls "greywacke"). The first of these objects is a naos of Nectanebo I now in the Cairo Museum 158. ANDREW identified it as "greywacke", and from a personal examination of the piece, I would conclude that it is certainly of silt­ stone. The second and third objects are a pair of obelisks of Nectanebo II in the British Museum (BM 523, 524) - of which a fragment of BM 524 is in Cairo (CG 17030). AN­ DREW examined a thin section of the obelisk stone and determined that they were also of Hammamat "greywacke". Again, my own conclusion is that they are siltstone. The fourth object is the top of a naos of Amasis now in Cairo 159, which ANDREW identified as "psammite gneiss", but which appears to me to be a fine-grained granite. This latter was probably a mistaken use of the word bbn (as argued by SHIAH 160 and HARRIs 161) and possibly represents a deliberate substitution. For bbn stone was one of the most common and perhaps most desirable - stones for naoi, and to name an object as being of bon stone would be sufficient to make it so, for cult purposes 162,

153

(1914), p. 8.

154

(191S), p. 8.

lS5

Argillite = "indurated mudstone": ANDREW, op. cit., pp. lS3~lS4, 175; HUME, Geology vol. 2:1, p. 263. ASAE 41 (1942), pp. 199-20S.

156

GEORGE ANDREW, Geological Department, Egyptian University. His conclusions are reported in LUCAS

and ROWE, ASAE 38 (1938), pp. 154-1SS.

158 CG 70019. ROEDER, Naos (1914), pI. 15, pp. 55-S7.

157

159 160 161

CG 70011. ROEDER, pI. 12a, pp. 38-42. ASAE 41 (1942), pp. 200-202. Lex. Stud" pp. 80-81,

The fifth object is an obelisk in Marseilles, which, as LUCAS puts it, "has not been competently examined" (Mat., p. 240). HARRIS (Lex. Stud., p. 81) lists two more objects which he says bear inscriptions indicating they are of bon stone. However, the text on the statue of Horudja in University College, London does not appear to specify that the statue itself was made of bon stone (LUCAS and RoWE, op. cit., p. 139). 162

31

Sedimentary Rocks

Besides the direct evidence of objects labeled blln stone by the ancient Egyptians, inscriptions in quarry areas are also of primary importance. Seven texts mentioning bon, including four which specifically mention the quarrying of bon stone, occur either on the rock, or on stelae in the Wadi Hammamat 163. The only occurrence elsewhere in Egypt is in the Sehel inscription (the so-called "Famine Stela") at the First Cataract 164. However, the Sehel inscription is Ptolemaic in date, and not all the stones it mentions (e.g. tur­ quoise and lapis lazuli) are actually found in the Aswan area 165. Thus it is clear from the quarry inscriptions alone, that the stone from the main quarry in the Wadi Hammamat (which is siltstone) was known as bon to the ancient Egyptians. The fact that the Wadi Hammamat was called "The Mountain of Bon" 166 may indicate that the quarry source was the primary consideration in applying the name bon, and thus other similar appearing rocks (such as tuff) could also have been called bon if they came from rock strata near the main quarry in the Wadi Hammamat. The ancient Egyptian word bon is the origin of the Greek BALANITHL AreOL, and hence of Latin basanites and English basalt 167. Ironically, in modern usage the word basalt is now applied to a different stone than was the original ancient Egyptian word from which it derives. Unfortunately, the origin of the word basalt - its linguistic deri­ vation from bon - has prompted some writers, including HARRIS 168, to call the Wadi Hammamat siltstone, "basalt". This usage is to be deplored, as confusion with true igneous basalt is inevitable; when HARRIS uses the term "basalt" to refer to siltstone, he occasionally forgets the quotation marks, thus rendering the confusion complete 169. Although siltstone is found in other locations in the Red Sea Hills 170, the principal, if not the only, source exploited by the ancient Egyptians was the Wadi Hammamat. In the neighborhood of the siltstone quarry there are over 250 inscriptions carved into the rock ranging in date from the Early Dynastic Period to Dynasty 30 171 • Trading expeditions went through the Wadi Hammamat as the shortest, and most easily passable route to the Red Sea, and the Egyptians would have become familiar with the rocks to be found there. Quarrying was then sometimes combined with trading expeditions, as for example the expedition of S(ankhare Mentuhotep III, which quarried stone for statues on the return journey from Punt 172. I collected four samples of stone from rock outcrops imme­ diately adjacent to the largest concentration of quarry inscriptions, and made thin sec­ tions of three of the samples. Two were fine siltstone (grains 0.02-0.05 mm) one green and one grey 173, and the other sample was green and slightly coarser (with grains 0.05-0.2 mm) 174. I also examined thin sections of five stone vessels of siltstone 175 and found

163

LUCAS and ROWE, ASAE 38 (1938), pp. 130-146, 155.

164

P. BARGUET, La Stela de la famine

a Sehel, Bibliotheque

d'Etude, no. 24 (Cairo: IFAO, 1953).

165 Ibid., pp. 144-146. The list undoubtedly represents a conventional enumeration of valuable stones which were obtained from the desert or imported, and not neccessarily to be found in the immediate vicinity of Aswan. 166 167 168 169

Cfl = N/W',.1l ~ a or .1l ~ ~ C!l "Bbnw-Mountain" LUCAS and ROWE, op. cit., p. 149. Lex. Stud, p. 79; Pliny, Book 36 XI:58. Ibid., p. 114. Ibid., p. 131.

See the Hammamat Group on the Geologic Map of the Qena Quadrangle and the Geologic Map of the Aswan Quadrangle.

170

Mat., p. 420; COUYAT and MONTET, Les Inscriptions Hieroglyphiques et Hieratiques du Ouadi Hamma­ mat (1913); GOYONS, Nouvelles Inscriptions Rupestres du Wadi Hammamat (1957). Specifically, inscrip­ tions can be dated to: the Early Dynastic Period, and Dynasties 5, 6, 11, 12, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27, and 30. 172 GARDINER, Egypt of the Pharaohs (1961), p. 124. 173 EWH 585-103, EWH 585-106. 174 EWH 585-105. 171

175

BM thin sections E18 and E19; MFA BM-B, Lowie Museum 6-508; Fitzwilliam E.92.1912.

32

Materials

them to be of the same type as the fine siltstone samples from the Wadi Hammamat quarry. The use of siltstone for stone vessels began in the Predynastic at the beginning of the Naqada II Period 176 although it was not at all common until Dynasty 1. The great major­ ity of siltstone vessels were made during the Early Dynastic Period, and they are a characteristic feature of the time. Siltstone vessels comprised almost 20% of the stone vessels recovered from the royal tombs at Abdos 177 and over 30% of the vessels from the tomb of Hemaka (temp. Den) at Saqqara 178. The provincial cemetery of Naga ed-Der contained an astonishing 40% of siltstone vessels in the graves of Dynasty 1, and 26% in those dating to Dynasty 2179. Both the 1st Dynasty Giza mastaba (temp. Djer) and the Dynasty 1 "M Cemetery" at Abydos contained about 20% siltstone vessels, which is approximately the same percentage as the royal tombs 180. REISNER comments that the remarkably large percentage of siltstone at Naga ed-Der was due to unspecified "local conditions" 181. Besides being numerous, the siltstone vessels of the Early Dynastic represent a real flowering of artistic endeavor. Siltstone was used not only for the common bowls and cylindar jars of the time, but also for original and unusual forms unique to the Early Dynastic Period. There are vessels fashioned in the shape of flowers 182 and leaves 183, forms imitating metal vessels 184 and basketry trays 185, and one vessel representing a combip.ation of the hieroglyphs ka and ankh 186. Despite the continuing popularity of siltstone for statues in the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom, and especially in the Late Period, siltstone vessels are rare after the Early Dynastic Period. Datable examples known to me are a dish in the shape of a clam shell, which PETRIE notes is "probably 12th Dynasty" 187, the body of a kohl pot (whose rim and lid are of different stones) of Middle Kingdom shape 188, a dish from Tell el-Yahudiyeh tomb 320 of 26th Dynasty date 189, and a siltstone dish with two lug handles tentatively dated by PETRIE to the Roman Period 190.

176 Ashmolean 1895.212, from Naqada tomb 1899, SD 38; Diosp, p. 19.

Myc., p. 139, called "slate" and "volcanic ash".

Mat., p. 422, called "greywacke (schist)".

179 Myc, p. 140.

180 Ibid., p. 139-140.

181 Ibid., p. 140. Naturally, the poorer tombs had fewer vessels of siltstone or other hard stones, or no

stone vessels at all. REISNER notes that "the proportion of alabaster increases with the poverty of the tombs, so that in the case of the poorest tombs alabaster is used almost exclusively" (Myc., p. 139). 182 Ashmolean 1921.1343, PETRIE, BRUNTON, and MURRAY, Lahun II (1923), pis. 44, 54; BRUNTON, Qau and Badari I (1927), pis. 18, 22. 183 Tomb of Peribsen, AMELI NEAU, Les NouvelJes Fouilles d'Abydos, vol. 4 1897-1898 (1904), pI. 50: 3-6; Cairo Museum 1.71297; EMERY, Archaic Egypt (1961), pI. 38a; Hemaka, pI. 19 :C.

184 LAUER, La pyramide a Degres, vol. 3: Complt~ments (1936), fig. 33, p. 18; Cairo Museum 1.64863,

1.64864, FIRTH and QUI BELL, pI. 104:4, 104B:26.

185 Cairo 1.65418, LAUER, Pyramide vol. 3, p. 10, fig. 14; Cairo 1.71298, Archaic Egypt, pI. 39b; Cairo 1.65419, LAUER, op. cit., p. 10, fig. 17.

186 MMA 19.2.16, HAYES, The Scepter of Egypt, vol. 1 (1953), p. 43, fig. 31; FISCHER, MMJ 5 (1972) in

Ancient Egypt in the Metropolitan Museum Journal: Volumes 1-11 (1968-1976) (1977), pp. 31-49.

187 Sv, #537, pI. 27, p. 9.

188 BM 2637, purchased.

189 Hyk./Isr. Cit., p. 19, pI. 20A.

190 Sv, #977, pI. 38, p. 15.

117 178

Sedimentary Rocks

2.2.2

33

Green Conglomerate

This rock, often referred to as breccia verde antico, is composed of rounded and broken, multi-colored pebbles in a fine-grained green matrix. The pebbles consist pri­ marily of chert, quartz, and quartzite in a great variety of colors (including yellow, brown, green and white), and volcanic rock fragments (chiefly andesite). The varied composition of the pebbles and their roundness indicates that this is a conglomerate (a rock composed of fragments of rock of different origins which have been mixed and rounded during sedimentary transport) rather than a breccia (which has angular fragments). The broken, angular edges present on some of the fragments in this conglomerate suggest that the rock has been sheared by fault action 191. There is only a small amount of matrix present (approx. 1%) with a composition similar to the siltstone described above, i.e. clay minerals, quartz, feldspar, and secondary chlorite and muscovite. An appropriate designa­ tion for this rock is a "polymictic conglomerate" which indicates that it is composed of pebbles of a variety of rock types. This green conglomerate was quarried in the Wadi Hammamat, just west of the main siltstone quarry, on the opposite (north) side of the wadi. The Romans quarried it on a large scale for export 192, and square blocks a meter on a side can still be seen lying in the wadi next to the quarry. Although similar green conglomerates can be found else­ where in the Red Sea Hills, the favorable location of the Wadi Hammamat source ­ along a major route of trade and transportation, and conveniently situated near another major quarry - makes it highly likely that the Wadi Hammamat was also the source of the green conglomerate used during the New Kingdom and Late Period. Despite its overall green color, it seems probable that the Egyptians would have regarded this conglomerate as a different rock from the nearby siltstone, and consequently that it would have had a distinctive name rather than being subsumed under the bbn­ stone label, though what that name might be is not known. The only examples of the use of green conglomerate during pharaonic times known to me are for sarcophagi 193. Although no stone vessels of conglomerate have yet been identified, this green conglomerate is a distinctive and well-known Egyptian rock often discussed in connection with bbn stone and other rocks of the Wadi Hammamat, and deserves mention here.

2.2.3

Quartzite

The quartzite used by the ancient Egyptians is a sedimentary quartzite rather than a metamorphic quartzite; i.e. it is a silica-cemented sandstone which is so well indurated that it fractures indiscriminately across grains and cement. Thin sections of the Gebel Ahmar quartzite show that it was originally a medium to coarse-grained sandstone, composed primarily of sub-angular to sub-rounded grains of quartz 0.25-1 mm in size, with a small number of grains of quartzite and chert. The grains have been strongly cemented by quartz overgrowths which completely fill the interstices between the original grains. The interlocking texture of the grains and the fact that it is composed almost

191 The Italian terms breccia verde antico and breccia verde d'Egitto were coined to describe pieces of green conglomerate found in Italy which had been imported from Egypt by the Romans (RUME, Geology vol. 2: 1, pp. 259-260; ANDREW, BIE 21 (1939), p. 158). As the rock is actually a conglomerate rather than a breccia, the Italian names should be avoided. 192 Mat., p. 408. 193 Two are known: 1) The inner sarcophagus of Ramses VI, identified by the writer from pieces

cleared from the sarcophagus pit in KV 9 by E. BROCK of the Canadian Institute in Egypt. The king's face from the lid of this sarcophagus is in the British Museum (BM 140). 2) The sarcophagus of Nectanebo II, BM 1147, and possibly also pieces (of the lid?) of the same sarcophagus in the Cairo Museum (cf. Mat., p. 408 where the BM sarcophagus is mistakenly attributed to Nectanebo I).

34

Materials

entirely of quartz, make this one of the hardest rocks worked by the ancient Egyptians. A minute percentage of iron oxides coating the grains is responsible for the wide variety of colors: from Gebel Ahmar I collected samples of quartzite of white, pale yellow, dark yellow, brown, red, pink and purple color 194. The KLEMMs prefer to call this rock silici­ fied sandstone in recognition of its sedimentary origin 195. The ancient Egyptian name for Gebel Ahmar was gw dsr which has the same literal meaning as the modem Arabic name: ~I ~ "the red mountain". One of the earliest known terms for quartzite refers to it as lnr n gw dsr "stone of Gebel Ahmar" 196. Another term, lnr n bnwt, derives from the use quartzite was destined for, rather than its source, since bnwt has the primary meaning "millstone" 197 and quarzite was the typical material of millstones 198. Both of these terms are first attested in the early 18th Dynasty, although HARRIS considers it likely that they were in use earlier 199. Alternatively, quartzite may not have been specifically differentiated from sandstone before the New Kingdom, and could have been included under lnr n rwgt "hard stone", the term for sandstone. Beginning in the late 18th Dynasty, quartzite aquired the specific name bln 20o , which was the most common term for it thereafter. HARRIS lists the direct evidence for the identification of these terms with quartzite, including, in addition to the Colossi of Memnon, a pedestal 201 and an altar 202 of quartzite with inscriptions stating them to be of bIn, and a doorway from Heliopolis labeled lnr n bnwt 203. Perhaps the most important of the ancient quartzite quarries was at Gebel Ahmar northeast of Cairo. The quartzite was formed from Oligocene sands and gravels which were cemented by hydrothermal activity associated with basaltic intrusions at the end of the Oligocene. As mentioned above, quartzite was sometimes called lnr n gw dsr "stone of Gebel Ahmar", and Gebel Ahmar was also known as gw n bIn, "the mountain of quartzite" 204. Until recently there were fragmentary ancient inscriptions at the site, but these no longer exist 205. Another large quartzite quarrying area was on the west bank opposite Aswan - at Gebel Gulab and Gebel Tingar. The Aswan quartzite is a locally silicified portion of the Nubian Sandstone. There are ancient quarry roads leading down

I also noted the occurrence at Gebel Ahmar of the distinctive brown pebbly quartzite utilized, for example, for a pillar in the pyramid temple of Pepi II and the small, standing obelisk at Tanis. 195 KLEMM and KLEMM, Die Steine der Pharaonen (1981), p. 25.

194

196 Lex. Stud" p. 76. The varient inr n rwdt nt dw dsr, which includes rwdt, the normal designation for sandstone, seems to indicate that the ancient Egyptians recognized a connection between sandstone and quartzite. This would not be surprising as Gebel Ahmar is merely a heavily silicified portion of a much larger layer of sands and gravels which extends eastward and also includes the petrified forest. 197 Wh. I. 458. 12-14. 198 Lex. Stud" pp. 75-76. 199 Ibid., p. 76.

200 The earliest known occurrence of bin is on the Colossi of Memnon which are stated to be of this material.

201 A truncated oblisk with a cornice on top from which the statue above has been broken away.

NAVILLE, The Mound of the Jew and the City of Onias (1890), p. 70; GAUTHIER, ASAE 23 (1923), pp.

176-182, pIs. 1, 2.

202 VON BERGMANN, RecTrav 12 (1892), pp. 4-6. 203 Cairo Museum J.27488. Lex. Stud, p. 76; SETHE, Die Bau- und Denkmalsteine der Alten Agypter und

ihre Namen (1933), p. 893.

204 Lex. Stud" p.75.

205 Mat., p. 63; BORCHARDT, zAS 47 (1910), p. 161; DARESSY, ASAE 13 (1914), pp. 43-47. No cartouches were

recorded, but both BORCHARDT and DARESSY noted inscriptions which can be dated to Dyn. 19-20 by style.

Sedimentary Rocks

35

from Gebel Gulab toward the Nile 206, ancient inscriptions at Gebel Tingar 207, and an unfinished obelisk of Seti I still lying in the quarry in Gebel Gulab 208. A group from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and D. and R. KLEMM have compared the quartzite from Aswan with that from Gebel Ahmar and found significant points of difference. A petro­ graphic comparison led the LBL group to conclude that the sand grains of the Aswan quartzite were more angular than the rounded to sub-rounded Gebel Ahmar grains, while a neutron activation analysis revealed that the Gebel Ahmar quartzite was higher in iron and cobalt and lower in the trace element Europium than the Aswan quartzite 209. From their own study of thin sections, the KLEMMs concluded that the texture of the silica cement is different between the two - while the intergranular cement of the Gebel Ahmar quartzite had a mosaic testure, the Aswan quartzite cement consisted of quartz overgrowths surrounding the framework grains 210. However, my own thin sections of Gebel Ahmar quartzite exhibited quartz overgrowths rather than an intergranular mosaic texture, which indicates that the texture of the cement is not a valid criterion for distin­ guishing between the two sources. Quartzite was mainly employed for sarcophagi and statues 211, but there is one quartz­ ite vessel recorded from the royal tombs at Abydos 212, and two vessels of the Late Period: the top of a kohl jar in the form of Bes 213, and a shallow mortar with four lugs 214.

2.2.4

Limestone

I have divided the limestones used for stone vessels into six categories, which are. distinguished by color or texture. All are fossiliferous marine limestones, consisting of up to 50% fossils in a matrix of microcrystalline calcite what would in geological termino­ logy be called a biomicrite 215. The fossils range from microscopic foraminifera to nummu­ lites up to 2 cm in diameter. Often the fossils themselves, and/or patches of the micrite matrix, have been replaced by coarsely crystalline calcite (termed spar), which contrasts with the fine-grained matrix. Limestones composed of fairly pure calcium carbonate are white or yellowish (cf. Type A), whereas even a minute amount of a particular impurity can strongly color the stone (cf. Types B-E). The presence of hematite will impart a pinkish or red color

206 HABACHI, "Notes on the Unfinished Obelisk of Aswan and Another Smaller One in Gharb Aswan", in Drevnii Egipet (1960), pp. 225-227 (Gebel Gulab is called Gebel Saman); KLEMM and KLEMM, Steine, p. 44. 207 DE MORGAN, Catalogue des Monuments et Inscriptions de rEgypte Antique vol. I (1894), p. 128; HABACHI, MDAIK 20 (1965), p. 88. HABAcHI discusses a graffito on the west bank depicting Bak and Men, sculptors under Amenhotep III and Akhenaten, who both bear the title "Overseer of Works in the Red Mountain". Men is shown offering to a statue of Amenhotep III. HABAcHI believes that the "Red Moun­ tain" here refers to the quartzite quarries at Aswan, and that the statue represents the Colossi of Memnon and indicates that the Colossi were quarried at Aswan. 208 HABACHI, "Notes on the Unfinished Obelisk ...", pp. 224-231; idem, The Obelisks of Egypt (1977), pp. 32-33, pL 6. He refers to Gebel Gulab as Gebel Saman or Simaan.

209 HEIZER, et aL, Science 182 (1973), pp. 1219-1225; BOWMAN, et al~ Archaeometry 26 (1984), pp. 218-229;

STROSS, et aL, Archaeometry 30 (1988), pp. 109-119.

210 KLEMM and KLEMM, Steine, pp. 25-27, figs. 25, 26. KLEMM, KLEMM, and STECLACI, MDAIK 40 (1984), pp. 207-220.

211 Sarcophagi: Amenemhat III (Hawara pyramid), Thutmosis I (?), Thutmosis II, Hatshepsut, Thutmosis

III, Amenhotep II, Thutmosis IV, and Tutankhamun. Statues: Redjedef (head), Sesostris III, Thutmosis IV,

Senmut, Ptah (Dynasty 19), Caracalla (Roman). Mat., p. 418.

212 Tomb Z of Djet, RT 11, #85. 213 Louvre E.ll065, VANDIER D'ABBADIE, Musee National du Louvre. Departement des Antiquites

Egyptiennes. Catalogue des Objets de Toilette (1972), #168.

214 BM 4724 (Plate 6cl, unprovenanced.

215 DIETRICH and SKINNER, p. 204.

36

Materials

(Types B and C), while in the case of Type D, minute particles of dispersed carbonaceous matter give the limestone a greyish hue, or, as in E, the stone may appear an opaque black. The color can be variable even within the same vessel; for example, Type C limestone is partly pink and partly yellow, and Type E may have patches of black, grey, and, occasionally, brown. Type E is also distinguished by an abundance of large fossil shell fragments, which were recrystallized to coarse white calcite, and contrast sharply with the dark matrix. Type F limestone originates from a very fine lime mud which, when lithified, forms a dense, fine-grained stone that takes a good polish. It is also characterized by dendritic veins and spots of dark magnetite and hematite. PETRIE often called highly-colored limestones "marble", although marble is a strictly textural term for coarse-grained, metamorphosed limestone, and has nothing whatever to do with color. PETRIE's Prehistoric Egypt is a particular offender in this regard, as it identifies fourteen distinctively colored vessels as "marble" (e.g. black and white shelly limestone is called "black and white marble" 216). All of these "marble" vessels I was able to examine in the PETRIE Museum were actually of limestone 217, with one exception, which was of serpentine 218. Of the six types of limestone that I have differentiated, five are quite fine-grained, and only Type C (pink and yellow), is comparatively coarsely crystalline - though it is certainly not metamorphic. Inevitably, PETRIE's erroneous use of the term "marble" led other writers into error. Following the labeling in Prehistoric Egypt, for example, LUCAS lists marble, as well as limestone, among the stones of the Predynastic Period, and is at pains to discuss possible sources of true metamorphic marble in the Eastern Desert 219. He was obviously unaware that PETRIE was using the term marble simply to refer to colored limestones. It should be noted, however, that in The Royal Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties, PETRIE does include his "marbles" in his "colored lime­ stone" category. The most basic ancient Egyptian term for limestone was inr l;lg "white stone" 220. However, this term was usually followed by a more specific modifier, particularly in the New Kingdom when sandstone came into widespread use and was termed inr l;lg n rwgt "hard white stone". Limestone was differentiated by appending the names of locations where limestone was quarried, the two most common expressions being inr l;lg 11 r-]w "white stone of Tura" and inr l;lg n (in "white stone of Tura-Ma

98

110

Dyn.3

C7

~ 112

111

ill

115

~

Dyn. 4

\D

@ 113

133

Fig. 13

Dynasties 3 and 4 Vessel Forms

85

Forms

~

"'~

~

117

118

119

o

v

C? ""

••

~

~

r



~

.. '

121

122

120

vu ..

124

V

125

123

136

0

127

0 0 --

128

138

137

130

134

V

Dyn.5-6

0 139

0 140

V

141

F. I. P.

Fig. 14

Dynasties 5 and 6 and First Intermediate Period Vessel Forms



86

Forms

0 8 0 u •

0 0

~ 0

I

"~ ...

142

135

143

145

144

148

146

155

~

«

150

0

3)

@

151

154

149

156

157

152

M.K.

\J 159

u 160

0

161

S. I. P. Fig. 15

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period Vessel Forms

Forms

87

D [j

162

; 166

163



fill m

196

170

174

•••••

••••



168

167

0

165

•••

~

173

164

00

C)

[)

u

169

1{1



tQ ....

I

m

)

171

172

0 175

180

o D [3 a 177

178

Fig. 16

185

New Kingdom Vessel Forms

187

88

Forms

182

193

192

181

o 194

195

184

183

??

t

197

198

191

11

188

116

190

Fig. 17

199

189

New Kingdom Vessel Forms

89

Forms

a

~

0

n

~

C7

~

204

207

209

202

0

tJ

0

0

210

200

215

216

219

214

0

.'

.'

211

217

218

220

221

Fig. 18

Third Intermediate Period Vessel Forms

Forms

90

o

201

7

223

~-.

:;'

224

226

o 227

230

228

229

Fig. 19

Late Period - Roman Vessel Forms

1

91

Predynastic

3. 1

Predynastic

a

= deep,

bag-shaped

b

= shallow,

symmetrical

Round-bottomed, squat jar with tubular handles and sharp-edged rim symmetrical or bag-shaped Date: Naq. II - Dyn. II Variations: symmetrical/bag-shaped deep (VI = 115-145) / shallow ribbed no handles Shape:

SD 38 Naqada (H4 pI. 8 Naq., p. 35 PEl deep, wide mouth, small SD 45-57 Matmar 3129 (pI. 13: 32 Matmar) deep, bag-shaped SD 55 Naqada 494 (Ashmolean 1895.153) shallow, sym. SD 55-58 Harageh 457 (pI. 46: 2 Har.) SD 66 Diospolis B217 (pI. 9: 1 Diosp.) deep, bag-shaped Neithhotep Naqada (fig. 655, p. 182 Origines II) shallow, bag-shaped Djer Abydos 0 (#131 pI. 49 RT II) shallow, sym. Merneith Abydos Y (#455 pI. 53D RT 11) bag-shaped Den Abydos T (#129 pI. 49 RT II) shallow, sym., ribbed Semerkhet Abydos U (#130 pI. 49 RT II) shallow, sym. Semerkhet Abydos U (#132 pI. 49 RT II) shallow, sym., no handles Qa(a Abydos Q (type #129 p. 45 RT II) shallow, sym., ribbed

o 3

1:3

Shape:

Small (under 10 cm Ht.), flat-bottomed, globular to squat jar with tubular handles and sharp-edged rim Date: Late Naq. II (SD 45-63) Variations: symmetrical/shouldered very squat SD SD SD SD

46 Amrah B88 (H7 pI. 8 Naq., p. 16 Amr'/Aby.) sym., globular

47 Gerzeh 170 (pt. 8: 6 Lab./Ger'/Maz.) sym.

52 Abadiya B378 (Ashmolean E. 1024) sym.

52-53 Badari 3924 (pt. 51: 25 Bad. Civ.) sym.

92 SD SD SD SD

Forms

55-57 Gerzeh 145 (pi. 8: 8 Lab./Ger'/Maz.) very squat 58 Amrah B62 (pi. 8:4 middle right Amr'/Aby.) sym., globular 57-63 Gerzeh 85 (pI. 8: 6 Lab./Ger'/Maz.) sym. 60 Naqada 743 (H41 pI. 8 Naq.) very squat

Shape: Tall, ovoid jar with tubular handles and sharp-edged rim

Date: Early Naq. II - Dyn. 1

Variations: separate rim piece

SD 42 Naqada 1392 (pI. 38: 56 PEl

SD 47 Naqada 1734 (pl. 38: 51 pE)

SD 48 El-Amrah b119 (H27 pI. 8 Naq., p. 19 Amr./Aby.)

SD 50 Naqada T5 (H25, 28, 29 pI. 8, p. 19 Naq.)

SD 50 Naqada 421 (H25 , 29 pI. 8, p. 22 Naq.)

SD 50 El-Amrah b225 (H27 pI. 8 Naq., p. 23 Amr./Aby.)

SD 52 Naqada 1241 (H29 pi. 8, p. 27 Naq.)

SD 55 Abydos E272 (pI. 2: 9 left, pL 3: 6 Cem. Aby. I)

SD 52-57 Matmar 5131 (pL 13: 29 Matmar)

SD 56-57 Harageh 412 (pi. 46: 27 Har.)

SD 57-58 Mostagedda 11751 (pL 42: 14 Most.)

SD 58 EI-Amrah b62 (pI. 8: 4 Amr./Aby., Ashmolean E. 3146)

SD 61 Naqada T16 (pI. 38: 39, p. 55 PE, UC 4356)

SD 62 Naqada 1229 (pL 38: 31 PE, Ashmolean 1895.165) separate rim piece

SD 60-66 Harageh 401 (pI. 46: 25 Har.)

SD 65 Hierakonpolis, painted tomb (H27 pl. 8 Naq., pi. 67 Hierak. II)

SD 69 Naqada 1025 (pL 38: 36 PE, UC 4979)

SD 78-80 Hemamieh 1645 (pI. 51: 16 Bad. Civ.)

Den Abydos T (#125 pi. 48B RT II)

Shape: Date:

Tall, shouldered jar with tubular handles and sharp-edged rim Late Naq. II Dyn. 1

SD 50-52 EI-Amrah b87 (H34 pl. 8 Naq., p. 21 Amr'/Aby.) SD 53-58 Badari 4621, 3700, 3708 (pI. 51: 20, 22 Bad. Civ.)

93

Predynastic

SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD

55-58 Harageh 413 (pI. 46: 32B Har')

57 EI-Amrah b189 (H34, 35 pl. 8 Naq., p. 21 Amr./Aby.)

58 EI-Amrah b224 (H35 pI. 8 Naq., p. 24 Amr./Aby.)

58 El-Amrah b62 (pI. 8: 4 lower right Amr./Aby.)

58-63 Mostagedda 11747 (pl. 42: 5 Most.)

58-63 Gerzeh 93 (pl. 8: 3 Lab./Ger./Maz.)

60 Naqada 743 (H34, 35 pI. 8, p. 27 Naq.)

66 Gerzeh 154 (pl. 39: 107 PE, pi. 8: 3 Lab./Ger./Maz.)

72 Naqada T36 (pl. 39: 93 PE)

78-80 Hemamieh (pl. 51: 16 Bad. Civ.)

79 Matmar 224 (pI. 21: 39 Matmar)

I

o

J 6

a

1:3

7

Shape: Short cylindrical beaker with sharp-edged rim Date: Naq. I Variations: flaring (or concave) (a) / convex (b) Naq. I Mahasna H29 (pI. 21 PreD Mah.) b SD 34 Naqada 1654 (Ashmolean 1895.195) b SD 34 Naqada 1661 (S4c pl. 10 Naq., Ashmolean 1895.203) a SD 34 Naqada 1661 (Ashmolean 1895.192) a SD 33-41 Diospolis B102 (pi. 9: 11 Diosp., Ashmolean E. 3127) b SD 34-39 Naqada 1507 (S4a pI. 10 Naq.) b SD 35-53 El-Amrah a16 (S4c pl. 10 Naq., p. 19 Amr./Aby.) a

8

Shape: Date:

Cylindrical footed beaker Early Naq. II

SD 35-41 Naqada 1417 (S62 pl. 12 Naq.) SD 38 Naqada 1487 (S62 pl. 12 Naq.) SD 38 Diospolis U134 (pi. 9: 18 Diosp.)

1:3

b

1:3

94

Forms

9

1:3

10

1:3

Shape: Convex-sided beaker with flaring rim Date: Predynastic Variations: short / tall * Predynastic Abadiyeh U384 (pI. 9: 13 Diosp.)

11

1:3

Slender, ovoid j ar/beaker with integral handles Shape: Date: Naq. I II Variations: footed flat-bottomed / rounded * Predynastic unprov. (pI. 40: 111 PE) flat-bottomed Before SD 56 El-Amrah a95 (H62 pi. 9 Naq., p. 19 Amr./Aby.) flat-bottomed SD 36 Naqada 1503 (H61 pi. 9 Naq., Ashmolean 1895.186) footed, beaker

95

Predynastic

12

1:3

13

1:3

Shape: Tall, ovoid, footed jar/beaker with integral handles Date: Nag. I - II Variations: globular (Nag. I - early Nag. II) small "button" foot / conical foot * double handles on one side or both sides

SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD

30 Mahasna H30 (pt. 21 PreD Mah.) globular 30-37 Matmar 2644 (pt. 13: 27 Matmar) beaker, small foot 34 Diospolis B56 (pt. 9: 5, 7 Diosp., Ashmolean E. 3135 and E. 3134) 35-37 Badari 3823 (pt. 51: 5 Bad. Civ.) 38 Nagada 271 (H67, H72 pt. 9, p. 21 Naq.) 38 Nagada 271 (H70 pl. 9 Naq., Ashmolean 1895.177) beaker, buton foot 41 Nagada T4 (H71 pl. 9 Naq., Ashmolean 1895.1181) beaker, small foot 42-43 Nagada 1671 (pl. 40: 123 PE) globular, wide mouth 42-43 Hemamieh 1752 (pl. 51: 1 Bad. Civ.) oval in section, button foot 43 EI-Amrah a66 (H70 pl. 9 Naq., p. 17 Amr./Aby.) button foot 47 Nagada 1782 (pl. 40: 119 PE, UC 5607) 48-55 EI-Amrah a19 (H71 pl. 9 Naq., p. 19 Amr./Aby.) button foot 51 Nagada 259 (pl. 40: 120 PE) 51-56 Mahasna H38 (pl. 18 PreD Mah.) button foot 63 Nagada 234 (pl. 40: 129 PE) button foot

Shape: Date: Comment:

Straight-sided tapering beaker with integral handles, footed Late Nag. II Transition from ovoid footed jars of Nag. I - II to tapering beakers of Nag. III - early Dyn. 1

SD 63 (H58 pt. 9 Naq., p. 35 PE)

14

1:3

'" ~--

96

Forms

15

a

1:3

16

b

1:3

Shape: Straight-sided, tapering beakers with integral handles Date: Naq. III Dyn. 1 Variations: prominent handles (b) / handles not prom. (a) SD 56-64574 EI-Amrah b87 (H63b pI. 9 Diosp., p. 21 Amr./Aby.) prom. SD 65 Hierakonpolis, painted tomb (H52 pI. 9 Naq., pI. 67 Hierak. II) not prom. SD 73 Diospolis U135 (pt. 9: 4 Diosp.) prom. SD 77-78 Tarkhan (pt. 27: 71 Tarkh. II) prom. Naq. III Ballas 874 (H52 pi. 9, pI. 5: 34 Naq.) not prom. Naq. III - Dyn. 1 EI-Ahaiwah A226 (fig. 28 p. 43, p. 378 #7 Tomb Dev.) Dyn. 1 (H 4 7, H51 pIs. 8, 9 Naq.) not prom. SD 77-80 Hemamieh 1687 (pI. 20: 53A Qau/Bad. prom. SD 78-79 Abydos, town levels 23, 37 (pI. 27 Aby. prom. Aha Saqqara 3357 (H1 fig. 42: 19 p. 38 Aha) Dyn. 1 EI-Amrah b185 (H63b pl. 9: 4 Diosp., p. 28 Amr./Aby.) prom. Dyn. 1 Abu Roash 508, Cern. 400 (H1 fig. 6: 37 p. 52 KLAsENs, OMRO 40) Qa( a Saqqara 3505 (H1 pI. 35 GT III)

n n

Shape: Date:

Small ovoid/shouldered jar with pointed base

Naq. II - Dyn. 1

SD 55-57 Gerzeh 145 (pI. 8: 14 Lab./Ger'/Maz., Ashmolean 1911. 377)

SD 58-60 Gerzeh 126 (pl. 8: 13 Lab./Ger'/Maz.)

SD 52-63 Gerzeh 123 (pt. 8: 13 Lab./Ger'/Maz.)

SD 52-66 Gerzeh 203 (pt. 8: 13 Lab./Ger'/Maz.)

SD 63 Gerzeh 146 (pi. 8: 12 Lab./Ger'/Maz.)

Dyn. 1 Mesa(eed 948 (fig. 29: 9 p. 147 Myc.)

574 PETRIE dates this tomb to SD SO-52 (PE pI. 51), but considering the date range for other examples of this vessel type, this is unlikely to be correct.

97

Pre dynastic

18

v

1:3

Shape: Flattened ovoid or bag-shaped jar Date: Naq. II - Dyn. 2 Variations: symmetrical (ovoid) / bag-shaped base rounded * / base with distinct ridge (pointed in cross section) no handles SD 38 Naqada 1899 (S72 pl. 12, p. 29 Naq.) sym.

SD 50 Naqada T5 (S71 pl. 12, p. 19 Naq.) sym., pointed

SD 52 Abadiyeh R79 (pI. 40: 136 PEl sym.

SD A52 Naqada 1241 (S72 pI. 12, p. 27 Naq.) sym.

SD 52-58 Harageh 419 (pI. 46: 75 Har.) bag-shaped

SD 57-64 Gerzeh 179 (pI. 40: 135 PEl sym.

SD 78 Abydos B15 (tH33 pl. 49 RT II) sym., pointed, no handles

Naq. III Hierakonpolis, temple, main deposit (pl. 31: 6 Hierak. I) bag-shaped

Khasekhemwy Abydos V (pI. 9: 8 A by. I) sym.

Shape: Ta11, shouldered jar with wavy handles

Date: Late Naq. II - Naq. III

Variations: handles pierced

SD 58-62 Gerzeh 25 (pI. 8: 2 Lab./Ger'/Maz,) handles pierced SD 52-66 Gerzeh 148 (pI. 8: 2 Lab./Ger./Maz.) handles pierced Naq. III Hierakonpolis, temple, main deposit (pI. 33: 4 Hierak. I) handles pierced 19

Shape:

Tall to slender shouldered jar with wavy handles or wavy ridge Date: Naq. III - Dyn. 1 Variations: wavy handles / wavy ridge two snakes (Naq. III)

handles pierced

SD 77 Tarkhan 53 (pl. 39: SOd Tarkh. I) wavy handles, pierced SD 77 Tarkhan 315 (pI. 39: 51c Tarkh. I) wavy ridge SD 78 (type Tarkhan SOL, pl. 6: 3 SV) two snakes SD 78 Tarkhan 1023 (pI. 39: SOL Tarkh. I) wavy handles Naq. III Hierakonpolis, temple, main deposit (pI. 33: 5 Hierak. I) wavy handles, pierced SD 78-79 Abusir el-Meleq 1037 (pIs. 26: 232, 61: 7 Abusir MeJ.) wavy handles, pierced 20 SD 77-80 Hemamieh 1709 (pl. 51: 31 Bad. Civ.) wavy handles, pierced SD 78-80 Hemamieh 1645 (pI. 51: 32 Bad. Civ.) wavy handles, pierced

1:3

98

Forms

Merneith Abydos Y (#483 pI. 53F, #355 pI. 52 RT II) wavy handles, #355 pierced Djet Giza, Mastaba V (fig. 3 p. 104 DARESSY, ASAE 6) wavy handles Den Abu Roash III, Cemetery M (p. 164 MONTET, Kemi 8) wavy ridge, pierced

Shape: Date:

Incised ovoid jar with flaring rim Predynastic

SD 44-60 (probably SD 57-58) Qau 223 (pI. 51: 33 Bad. Civ.) Predynastic unprov. (pI. 42: 220 PEl 21

1:3

22

1:3

23

1:3

24

1:3

Shape: Multiple-tube container Date: Predynastic Variations: 2 tubes I 3 tubes I 5 tubes Naq. III Hierakonpolis, temple, main deposit (pI. 31: 4 Hierak. I) 3 tubes Naq. III Hierakonpolis, temple, main deposit (pI. 31: 3 Hierak. I) 5 tubes SD 78-79 Abusir el-Meleq 58c4 (pIs. 24: 210, 57: 5 Abusir Mel.) 3 tubes, cord bands

Shape: Date:

Bird-shaped vessel Late Naq. II - Naq. III

SD 58 Naqada 89 (S81 pI. 12 Naq., Ashmolean 1895.217) SD 72 Naqada T36 (S80 pI. 12 Naq., UC 5409) Naq. III Hierakonpolis, temple, main deposit (pi. 20: 2 Hierak. I, Fitzwilliam E. 9.1898) Naq. III Hierakonpolis, temple, main deposit (pI. 20: 4 Hierak. I) SD 78-79 Abusir el-Meleq 58c4 (pIs. 24: 208, 57: 18 Abusir Me1.)

Shape: Date:

Frog-shaped vessel

Predynastic

Predynastic Mahasna, settlement (pI. 5 Mah'/Bet K.) Predynastic Naqada 695 (S82 pI. 12 Naq., Ashmolean 1895.216)

Predynastic Naga ed-Der N7304 (fig. 78g, 79a Naga IV)

99

Cylinder Beakers

3.2

Cylinder Beakers

widest point

I

top

high

middle

low bottom

UVUUUUUlJLlTI)J '----v----'

plain

tapering

bulging

~

'-----v----'

flaring

concave

II

footed concave-sided beakers

II

v

straight or concavesided

convex-sided

v

begins

M.K.

Naq. I Naq. II Naq. III Dyn. 1 Dyn.2 Dyn. 3 Dyn.4 ~

Dyn.5-6

Fig. 20

Date Range of Cylinder Forms

Bands

/V"'.. ~

.fVVV\.

!ZZlZZ. ~

"""""'"

..""...

2 wavy ridges wavy ridge incis. wavy line notched band cord left hand cord plain band double cord no band

Naq. III Dyn. 1 (SD 78-81)

Naq. III - Dyn. 1

Dyn.l Naq. III Dyn. 1 (SD 78-80) Dyn. 1-3 + Dyn. 4 Myc., Dyn. 5 Sahure Dyn. 1 (SD 80-81, Djet-Anedjib only) Dyn. 1-3 + Dyn. 4 Myc. Dyn. I (SD 81, Memeith only) Naq. I on Notch below rim

Djet Saqqara 3504 (B5 fig. 103 p. 84 GT II) Den Saqqara 3035 (pi. 35: 31 Hemaka) SD 81 Tarkhan 231 (pi. 9: 60 sV) Qa(a Saqqara 3505 (B4, B5 pl. 34 GT III) Nynetjer Giza (pi. 6B: 95 Giz./Rif.) Khasekhemwy Abydos V (Fig. 33: 2 Fou. d'Aby. II) Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 3016 (fig. 187 p. 101 Type Ibl, 2 Naga 1) Dyn. 3 Zawiyet 500 (AC 11, 13 p. 31 Zawiyet) Dyn. 3 Naga ed-Der 4506 (fig. 94: 3 p. 42, pi. 46d Naga II) Dyn. 4 Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 45: 37 p. 181, fig. 59: 22 p. 187 Myc.)

toO

Forms

Rims

sharp-edged rim

Predynastic

cusp rim, rim with groove below

Early Dynastic

obtuse angle rim, beveled rim

Early Dynastic

rounded rim

Dynasties 1-3

Old Kingdom rims are thin, parallel projecting rims: rounded angled ~

square

Middle Kingdom rims are shorter:

25

c::

rounded

'C\"

angled

1:3

26

Bulging (symmetrical or bulge low) Shape: Naq. I - Dyn. 1 Date: Variations: symmetrical/bulge low SD 33 Naqada 1497 (pI. 41: 172 PE) sym. SD 34 Naqada 1654 (pt. 41: 174 PEl bulge low SD 37 Naqada 288 (pI. 41: 173 PEl bulge low SD 33-41 Diospolis B102 (pt. 9: 8 Diosp., Ashmolean E. 3128) sym. SD 32-46 Diospolis U290 (pI. 9: 12 Diosp.) sym. SD 78 Tarkhan 1681, 1773 (pI. 26: 58k, 58m Tarkh. II) bulge low Djer Saqqara 3471 (A12 fig. 69A p. 130, p. 68 GT I) sym. Djer Saqqara 3504 (A12 fig. 103 p. 84 GT II) sym. Djet Giza, Mastaba V (pI. SA: 18 Giz./Rif.) sym. Merneith Saqqara 3503 (A12 fig. 224 p. 165 GT II) sym. Anedjib Saqqara 3038 (A12 fig. 69A p. 130, p. 93 GT I) sym.

1:3

101

Cylinder Beakers

Shape: Date:

Tapering, convex-sided

Nag. I - Dyn. 1

Nag. I Mahasna R29 (pI. 12: 2 center vessel PreD Mah.)

SD 33-41 Diospolis Bl02 (pI. 9: 9 Diosp., Ashmolean E. 3129)

double rim SD 45 Nagada 1528 (pI. 41: 178 PEl Nag. I-II El-Amrah a95 (pI. 16: 1 Amr'/Aby.) SD 78 Tarkhan 10 (pI. 39: 51p Tarkh. I) Aha Saggara 3357 (El fig. 42: 17 p. 38 Aha) Djer Abydos 0 (#362 pI. 53 RT II)

28 Shape: Date:

1:3

Flaring, straight-sided Nag. I - Dyn. 1

SD 34 Nagada 1661 (Ashmolean 1895.191)

SD 78 Tarkhan 414 (pI. 39: 51r Tarkh. I, pI. 6: 7 sV)

Djer Abydos 0 2 (#337 pI. 51R RT II)

Djet Tarkhan 170 (pI. 41: 56n Tarkh. I)

Memeith Abydos M14 (pI. 44: 51 Aby. 1)

29 Shape: Date:

Plain (vertical sides)

Nag. 111- Dyn. 4

Aha Saggara 3357 (Cl fig. 39: 5 Aha)

Djer Abydos M12 (pI. 42: 5, 6, 14 Aby. I)

Djer Abydos M13 (pI. 43: 10, 11 Aby. I)

Djet Saggara 3504 (Cl fig. 103 p. 84 GT II)

1:3

27

1:3

102

Forms

Djet Giza, Mastaba V (pIs. SA: 17; 5B: 20, 32, 33 Giz./Rif.) Merneith Abydos M17 (pI. 44: 3 Aby. I) Merneith Abydos M19 (pI. 46: 16 Aby. I) Den Saqqara 3506 (Cl pI. 77 GT III) Semerkhet Abydos M25 (pI. 47: 3 A by. I) Qa(a Saqqara 3505 (Cl pI. 35 GT III) Khasekhemwy Abydos V (pI. 10: 26 A by. I) dummy Dyn. 3 Bet Khallaf K2 (pi. 22: 2 Mah./Bet K.) Dyn. 4 Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 45: 25 p. 181 Myc.)

{

\

30 Shape: Date:

1:3

Plain, wide (VI = 75-100)

Naq. III - mid Dyn. 1 (SD 78-79)

Narmer Abydos BS (:1:1:359 pI. 52 RT II) Neithhotep Naqada (#1, 2 fig. 26 Origines II, Cairo J. 31817, CG 11878) Djer Abydos M12 (pI. 42: 7 Aby. I) Djer Abydos 0 (#77 pi. 47B RT II) Merneith Abydos M17 (pI. 44: 14 Aby. I) Merneith Abydos M16 (pI. 45: 12 Aby. I)

J

(

i

r

31 Shape: Date:

Tapering, straight-sided Dyn.1-4

1:3

103

Cylinder Beakers

SD 80 Tarkhan 177 (pI. 39: 52d Tarkh. I)

SD 81 Tarkhan 212 (pI. 41: 60b Tarkh. I)

Anedjib Saqqara 3038 (A13 fig. 69A p. 130, p. 93 GT I)

Qa'a Saqqara 3503 (A13 pl. 34 GT III)

Khasekhemwy Abydos V (pI. 10: 30,31 Aby. I) dummy

Dyn. 3 Bet Khallaf K2 (pI. 27: 3 Mah./Bet K.)

Dyn. 4 Naga ed-Der 530 (fig. 6: 41 p. 40 Naga III)

I

32

1:3

33

1:3

Shape: Concave (symmetrical or tapering) Dyn. 1-4 Date: Variations: symmetrical I tapering SD 79 Tarkhan 111 (pI. 40: 54n Tarkh. I, pI. 6: 11 sV) sym. Djer Saqqara 2171H (pI. 13: 32 Archaic Mas.) sym. Djer Abydos 0 (#364, 365 pl. 53 RT II) sym. Djet Saqqara 3504 (A8 fig. 103 p. 84 GT II) tapering Djet Saqqara 3504 (A18, C8 fig. 103 p. 84 GT II) sym. Djet Giza, Mastaba V (pIs. 5A: 4; 5B: 19, 27, 31 Giz./Rif.) sym. SD 81 Tarkhan 191 (pI. 41: 62h Tarkh. I, pi. 9: 52 SV) sym., dummy SD 81 Tarkhan 231 (pI. 41: 621 Tarkh. I, pi. 9: 60 SV) sym., dummy Memeith Abydos Y (#374 pI. 53 RT II) tapering Den Saqqara 3035 (A8 pI. 34: 26 Hemaka) tapering Qa' a Saqqara 3505 (A29 pI. 34 GT III) sym. Qa' a Saqqara 3505 (A8, A24 pl. 34 GT III) tapering SD 82 Abydos Q21 (#392 pl. 53A RT II) sym. Nynetjer Giza (pI. 6B: 92 Giz'/Rif.) tapering Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 3017 (fig. 189 p. 102, Type Ie 16 and 17 Naga I) sym. Dyn. 3 Naga ed-Der 587 (fig. 3: 8 p. 37 Naga III) tapering Dyn. 3 Bet Khallaf K1 (pI. 13: 9 Mah./Bet K.) sym. Dyn. 3 Zawiyet 500 (AC 1 p. 31 Zawiyet) sym. Dyn. 3 Zawiyet 500 (AC 2, 6 p. 31 Zawiyet) tapering Dyn. 4 Giza, Hetepheres (#1235, 1042 fig. 135 Giza II) sym., tapering Dyn. 4 Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 46: 49-60 p. 181 Myc.) sym. Dyn. 4 Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 46: 43 p. 181 Myc.) tapering

104

Forms

Shape: Footed Date: Dyn. 1-8, New Kingdom Variations: slender - Dyn. 5-6

Djet Saqqara 3504 (A16 fig. 103 p. 84 GT II) Den Saqqara 3506 (CI0 pi. 77 GT III) Qa(a Saqqara 3121 (A16 fig. 69A p. 130, p. 120 GT I) Qa(a Saqqara 3505 (A16 [misnumbered At7] pi. 34 GT III) Khasekhemwy Abydos V (pi. 10: 35 Aby. I) dummy Dyn. 3 Bet Khallaf Kt (pI. 11 Mah./Bet K., fig. 37: 9 p. 165 Myc.) Dyn. 4 Giza, Hetepheres (~H043, 1038 fig. 135 Giza II) Dyn. 4 Khufu - inscribed, unprov. (pi. 11: 93A SV) 34 1:3 Dyn. 5 Mahasna 107 (p. 34: 14 Mah./Bet K.) Dyn. 5 Matmar 3251 (pl. 34: 1 Matmar) Dyn. 5 Matmar 5318 (pi. 38: 3 Matmar) slender Dyn. 5 Qau 1163 (pI. 43 Qau/Bad. I) Dyn. 5 Qau 1150 (pl. 26:17 Qau/Bad. I) Dyn. 6 Pepi II - inscribed, Qau 3202 (pl. 26:28 Qau/Bad. I) Dyn. 6 Saqqara, Mastaba of Isheti (Cairo J. 88600) Dyn. 8 Matmar 583 (pi. 40: 4 Matmar) Amenhotep I Dra Abu Naga (pl. 22: 5, 6 lEA 3) Hatshepsut Deir el-Bahari, foundation deposit (fig. 47 p. 85 Scepter I) Hatshepsut - inscribed, unprov. (pl. 12: 134 SV) Thutmosis III - inscribed, unprov. (pl. 12:138 SV) Thutmosis III - inscribed, Armant, temple foundation deposit (pIs. 23, 40: 17, 41 Temples Armant) Amenhotep II - inscribed, unprov. (pi. 12: 140 SV) Amenhotep III Thebes, KV 46, Yuya and Thuya (CG 51103 pl. 25 Youiya/Thouiyou) dummy

Shape: Date:

Concave to straight-sided beaker with wide foot and rim Dyn.5 11

Dyn. 5 Mahasna 107 (pt. 38: 13 Mah./Bet K.) Dyn. 5-6 Naga ed-Der 568 (fig. 23: 5 p. 57 Naga III) Pepi I - inscribed, unprov. (pI. 11: 93C SV) Pepi I inscribed, unprov. (MMA 27.2.2, fig. 77 p. 127 Scepter I) 35 Pepi II - inscribed, unprov. (MMA 12.182.17) Pepi II inscribed, Abydos, Osiris temenos (pI. 21: 8 Aby. II) Pepi II - inscribed, Balat, Mastaba V of Medou-nefer (pi. 80: 1018 Balat I) Pepi II S. Saqqara MXII, Wazet (fig. 94 p. 83 Con temp. Pepi II) 3 exx. Dyn. 6 Mostagedda 10021 (pI. 66: 2 Most.) Dyn. 10 Diospolis W157 (pI. 29 Diosp.) Dyn. 11 Deir el-Bahari, Queen Kawit (pi. 10: 3 Xlth Dyn. Tem. I) Dyn. 11 Dendereh, Antef Aqer (pI. 22 Dend.)

1:3

105

Cylinder Beakers

36 Shape: Date:

1:3

Concave-sided tapering beaker, under 13 cm ht.

Middle Kingdom

Sesostris II Lahun, Sithathoryunet (pI. 9 Lahun I, fig. 155 p. 243 Scepter I)

Sesostris III Dahshur, Merit (:t~60, 61, 62, 63 pI. 25 Dah. 1895, Cairo CG 18775, 18776,

18772, 18769) Sesostris III Dahshur, Sithathor (fig. 136 p. 63 Dah. 1895) Amenemhat III Dahshur, Nubheteptychrod (fig. 261 p. 110 Dah. 1895) Amenemhat III Hawara, Neferuptah (fig. 26 p. 28 Neferwptah) 10 exx. Amenemhat IV Thebes, Asasif 25, Kernen (pI. 52 Five Years) 4 exx. Dyn. 12 Abydos E30 (pI. 1 El-Arabah) Dyn. 12 Riqqeh 143 (pI. 13: S14-17 Riq'/Mem. \17) Dyn. 12 Riqqeh 144 (pI. 13: S22-26 Riq'/Mem. \17) MK Abydos 416 (fig. 41: 39 p. 126 Minoan Pottery) MK Abydos D167 (pI. 8: 12 left and right Cem. of A by. Ill) MK Esna 153E (fig. 75 p. 99 Esna 1905-6) 10 exx.

1:3

37 Shape: Date:

Concave cylinder "bowl" Early Dynastic

Dyn. 1-2 Saqqara, Step Pyramid, Gallery 7 (pI. 104B: 28 Step pyr.)

.. - - ... 38 Shape: Date:

1:3

Concave cylinder "bowl" with wide foot and rim Dyn. 5 - 11

Dyn. 5 Matmar 3234 (pI. 37: 13 Matmar)

Dyn. 5 Sahure, Abusir pyr. temple (p. 115 fig. 148 center Sahu-re I)

Dyn. 6 Giza 7147B (37-8-6 fig. 138 Giza II)

FIP Harageh 218 (pl. 46: 10 Har.)

106

3. 3

Forms

Early Dynastic

) 39 1:3 Shape: Dish with vertical or sloping sides, concave in profile Date: Dyn. 1-4 Variations: sides vertical * / sloping Dyn. 1 Abu Roash 42, Cern. 1957 (A34 fig. 8: 8 p. 26 KLASENS, OMRO 39)

Dyn. 1 Abu Roash 510, Cern. 400 (A34 fig. 6: 9 p. 52 KLASENS, OMRO 40)

Djer Abydos Z (#48 pi. 47 RT II) sloping

Dyn. 1-2 Abu Roash 833, Cern. 800 (A34 fig. 18: 17 p. 80 KLASENS, OMRO 41)

Peribsen Abydos P (#49 pI. 47 RT II) sloping

Dyn. 2-3 Naga ed-Der 503 (fig. 4: 11 p. 38 Naga III)

Dyn. 4 Reqaqnah 63 (R63v pI. 32 Req./Bet K.)

\____ ,~ --_--------J}

40 Shape: Date:

1:3

Flat-bottomed plate/dish with nearly vertical straight sides

Naq. III - Dyn. 1

SD 78 Abydos B (#296, 297 pI. 51F RT II)

Aha Saqqara 3357 (Q1, Q2, Q3 fig. 44: 26, 27, 28 p. 40 Aha)

Djer Saqqara 3471 (Q1, Q3 fig. 75 p. 139, p. 68 GT I)

Djet Abydos Z (#295, 298 pi. 51 F RT II)

Djet Saqqara 3504 (Q2, Q3 fig. 104 p. 90 GT II)

Djet Giza, Mastaba V (pi. 5D: 84, 90 Giz./Rif.)

Merneith Saqqara 3503 (Q3 fig. 224 p. 165 GT II)

Den Saqqara 3506 (Q3 pI. 77 GT III)

Anedjib Abydos X (#462 pI. 53E RT II) ribbed sides

Shape: Date:

Round-bottomed dish with nearly vertical convex sides Dyn.1-2

Dyn. 1 Saqqara, cemetery near Serapeum (pI. 34: 37 eim. Arch.) Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 1513, 3017, 1514 (fig. 208 p. 111 Type 24 Naga I) Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 3551 (fig. 93: 1 p. 41 Naga II)

107

Early Dynastic

42 Shape: Date:

Round-bottomed bow l with plain rim or slightly incurving Dyn. 1-6

1:3 rim vertical

SD 78-79 Abydos B (#414 pl. 53B RT II)

Djet Saqqara 3504 (T12 fig. 104 p. 90 GT II)

Djet Abydos A (#105 pI. 48 RT II)

Semerkhet Abydos U (#416 pl. 53B RT II)

Qa(a Abydos Q21 (#311 pI. 51F RT II, BM 32675, pl. 10: 23 ED Objects)

Qa( a Saqqara 3505 (T12 pI. 36 GT III)

Peribsen Abydos P (Cairo CG 14445, pI. 57 Archaic Obj.)

Dyn. 4 Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 56: 4, 5 p. 186 Myc.)

Dyn. 6 Saqqara, Pyramid of Neith (fig. 19: i p. 112 JEQUIER, ASAE 34)

~ 43

1:3



Shape: Round-bottomed bowl/dish with plain rim Date: N aq. II - Dyn. 6 Variations: bowl 1 dish

SD 44 Naqada 1702 (pl. 41: 144 PEl dish Aha Saqqara 3357 (T3 fig. 44: 35 p. 40 Aha) dish Djer Saqqara 3471 (T3 fig. 76 p. 142, p. 68 GT I) dish Djet Giza, Mastaba V (pI. 5C: 34 Giz'/Rif.) bowl Djet Saqqara 3504 (T3 fig. 104 p. 90 GT II) dish Memeith Saqqara 3503 (T3 fig. 224 p. 165 GT II) dish Memeith Abydos Y (#61 pl. 47A RT II) dish Qa(a Abydos Q (#143, 144 pl. 49A, #66 pl. 47A, #486, 492 pl. 53G RT II) dish Peribsen Abydos P (#141 pI. 49A RT II) dish Dyn. 2 Sedment 560 (pl. 2: 6 Sed. I) dish, rim B Dyn. 3 Meidum 55 (pI. 24: 1-3 Mey'/Mem. III) dish, 2 bowls, rim BS7S Dyn. 3 Zawiyet 500 (AB 1, 4, 5, 7, 8 p. 30 Zawiyet) dish Dyn. 3 Naga ed-Der 521 (fig. 11: 4 p. 44 Naga III) dish Dyn. 4 Giza, Hetepheres (629/639/684 fig. 145 Giza II) dish Dyn. 4 Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 57: 6, 7, 8 p. 186 Myc.) dish Dyn. 6 Saqqara, Pyramid of Neith (fig. 14: j, g p. 107 JEQUIER, ASAE 34) dish

575

See illustration of vessel #45.

108

Forms

~---

~

----~

44



1:3

Shape: Round-bottomed plate with plain rim Date: Dyn. 1-3 Variations: thin-walled * I thick-walled SD 78-79 Abydos B (#290 pi. 51F RT II) Djer Abydos 0 (#289, 291, 294 pi. 51F RT II) Djet Abydos Z (#292 pi. 51F, #84 pi. 48, #402 pi. 53B RT II) Merneith Abydos Y (#293 pL 51F, #138 pi. 49A RT II) Den Abydos T (#86 pi. 48 RT II) SD 81 Tarkhan 1024 (pi. 32: 6r Tarkh. I) thick Semerkhet Abydos U (#2 pi. 46, #142 pi. 49A RT II) Qa(a Abydos Q (#399, 400 pi. 53B, #485 pl. 53G RT II) #400 thin, others thick SD 82 Tarkhan 24 (pi. 32: 6q Tarkh. I) thick Peribsen Abydos P (#137 thick, 141 thin pi. 49A RT II) Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 1514, 3017 (fig. 210 p. 111 Type 26a Naga I) thick and thin Dyn. 3 Naga ed-Der 4771 (fig. 98: 9 p. 43 Naga II) Dyn. 3 Naga ed-Der 533, 559 (fig. 11: 1, 2 p. 44 Naga III) thick and thin

45

1:3

rim variation B Shape: Convex-sided, flat-bottomed bowl/dish with plain rim Date: Late Naq. II - Dyn. 6, New Kingdom Variations: bowl I dish rim variation B SD 50-61 Harageh 466 (pi. 46: 45 Har.) bowl Ro - inscribed, Hierakonpolis (pi. 41: 146 PEl bowl) SD 78 Tarkhan 1023 (pi. 35: 19d Tarkh. I, pi. 16 sV) bowl SD 78-79 Matmar 211 (pi. 21: 33 Matmar) SD 78-79 Matmar 211, 213 (pi. 21: 27, 28 Matmar) dish Aha Saqqara 3357 (T6 fig. 44: 34 p. 40 Aha) dish Djer Abydos 0 (#491 pi. 53G RT II) bowl Djer Abydos 0 (# 65 pi. 47A RT II) dish Djet Giza, Mastaba V (pi. 5D: 83, 86 Giz./Rif.) bowl Djet Saqqara 3504 (T8 fig. 104 p. 90 GT II) bowl, rim B Djet Abydos Z (#307 pi. 51B RT II) dish Den Abydos 0 (#65 pi. 47A RT II) dish Den Anedjib Saqqara 3111, Sabu (T8 fig. 76 p. 142, p. 103 GT I) bowl, rim B Qa(a Abydos Q (#490 pi. 53G RT II) bowl Qa(a Abydos Q (#24 pi. 46 RT II) dish Qa(a Abydos Q (#486 pi. 53G RT II) dish Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 1513, 3017, 1571 (fig. 204, 207 p. 110-111, Types 20c and d, 22 Naga I) bowl

109

Early Dynastic

Dyn. 2 Sedment 560 (pI. 2: 4, 7, 9 Sed. I) dish, bowls, rim B Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 1514, 1571 (fig. 209 p. 111 Type 25-3 and 4 Naga I) dish Dyn. 3 Zawiyet 500 (AB 6, 13 p. 30 Zawiyet) Dyn. 3 Bet Khallaf K2 (pI. 21: 4, 6, 11 Mah./Bet K.) bowl Dyn. 3 Bet Khallaf Kl (pI. 12: 18, 19 Mah./Bet K.) bowl Dyn. 3 Bet Khallaf K1 (pI. 14: 15-17 Mah./Bet K.) dish Dyn. 3 Reqaqnah R40 (pI. 9: 18, Req'/Bet. K.) bowl, #19 - rim B Dyn. 3 Reqaqnah R40 (pI. 9: 20 Req./Bet. K.) dish Dyn. 3 Saqqara, Hesy (pI. 27: 7 Hesy) bowl, rim B Dyn. 3 Sekhemkhet, Saqqara pyramid (pIs. 43-7 Horus Sekh.) dish Dyn. 4 Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 50: 33 p. 183, fig. 57: 17 p. 186 Myc.) bowl, rim B Dyn. 4 Giza, Hetepheres (fig. 146: 581, 625 Giza II) dish, rim B Dyn. 5 Sahure, Abusir pyr. temple (p. 116 fig. 153 4th row, center Sahu-re I) bowl, rim B Dyn. 5 Sahure, Abusir pyr. temple (p. 116 fig. 153 middle row, left Sahu-re I) dish Dyn. 6 Abydos, Idy (BM 4697) bowl, rim B Dyn. 18 Abydos, Ahmose town (pl. 44: 1 lower Abydos III) dish Thutmosis III Riqqeh (pI. 14: S62 Riq'/Mem. VI) bowl Dyn. 18 Harageh 670 (pI. 48: 103 Har.) bowl Late Dyn. 18 Dyn. 19 Gurob 474 (pI. 27: 24 Gurob) bowl

46

1:3

Shape: Oval bowl!dish w ith plain rim, flat-bo ttomed Date: Naq. II - Dyn. 2 Variations: bowl I dish convex-sided * I straight-sided SD 47-63 Gerzeh 16 (pI. 8: 15 Lab./Ger./Maz.) bowl, rim uneven Djer Saqqara 3471 (X2 fig. 77 p. 144, p. 69 GT I) bowl Djet Saqqara 3504 (Xl fig. 104 p. 90 GT II) bowl, straight-sided Djet Saqqara 3504 (X3 fig. 104 p. 90 GT II) dish

110

Forms

Den - Qa( a Abydos T, U, Q (#22 pL 46 RT II) bowl Dyn. tAbu Roash 311 (X4 fig. 15: 48 p. 42 KLASENS, OMRO 39) bowl Dyn. 1 Abu Roash 431 (Xt fig. 7: 117 p. 53 KLAsENS, OMRO 40) bowl, straight-sided Dyn. 1 Abu Roash 431 (X5 fig. 7: 118 p. 53 KLASENS, OMRO 40) dish Dyn. 1-3 Saqqara Step Pyramid (pL 100: 20 Step Pyr.) dish, straight-sided, flat rim Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 1513, 1605 (fig. 205 p. 110 Type 21 Naga I) bowl

1:3

47

Shape: Straight-sided bowl!dish with plain rim Date: Naq. III - Dyn. 5, New Kingdom Variations: bowl * I dish thick, rounded rim SD 78 Abydos B (#12 pl. 46, #208 pI. 518, #232 pI. 51C RT II) dish Aha Saqqara 3357 (T16 fig. 43: 25 p. 39 Aha) Djer Abydos 0 (#57, 58 pI. 47 A RT II) Djer Saqqara 2185 (pI. 10 Archaic Mas.) Djet Giza, Mastaba V (pl. 5c: 57 Giz./Rif.) Djet Saqqara 3504 (T16 fig. 104 p. 90 GT II) Den Abydos T (#91, 95 pI. 48 RT II) Den Abydos T (#239 pI. 51C RT II) dish SD 81 Tarkhan 61 (pI. 34: 14b Tarkh. I, pI. 18: 270 sV) Semerkhet Abydos U (#17 pI. 46 RT II) Qa(a Abydos Q (#60 pI. 46 RT II) Qa(a Abydos Q (#463 pi. 53E RT II) dish Peribsen Abydos P (#89 pI. 48 RT II) Dyn. 3 Bet Khallaf K1 (pI. 14: 22 Mah'/Bet K.) Dyn. 4 Giza, Hetepheres (fig. 146: 657 Giza II) thick, rounded rim Dyn. 5 Sahure, Abusir pyr. temple (p. 117 fig. 154 left Sahu-re 1) Dyn. 18 Abydos, Ahmose town (pl. 44: 2 lower Aby. III) thick rounded rim

48 Shape: Date:

1:3

Small, straight-sided cup (VI :::: 125-150) Early Dynastic

Djer Saqqara 2185 (pI. 10 Archaic Mas.)

Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 1513 (fig. 204 p. 110 Type 20a1 Naga 1)

Early Dyn. Zawiyet 33 (#1 p. 3 Zawiyet)

Early Dyn. Zawiyet 90 (#2 p. 6 Zawiyet)

111

Early Dynastic

Early Early Early Early

Dyn. Dyn. Dyn. Dyn.

Zawiyet Zawiyet Zawiyet Zawiyet

103 (#21 p. 10 Zawiyet) 108 (#2, 4 p. 12 Zawiyet) 118 (#1 p. 16 Zawiyet) 144 (#14, 16 p. 24 Zawiyet)

,, \

"

49

1:3

Shape: Recurved bowl!dish with plain rim Date: Dyn. 1-2 Variations: bowl * / dish

Neithhotep Naqada (pI. 16: 215 s\I) Djer Abydos 0 (#59 pI. 47A RT II) Djer Saqqara 3471 (V2 fig. 76 p. 142, p. 69 GT I) Djer Abydos M13 (pI. 43: 61 Aby. I) Djer Saqqara 2185 (pI. 10 Archaic Mas.) Djer Saqqara 2185 (pI. 10 Archaic Mas.) dish Djet Saqqara 3504 (Vl, V3 fig 104 p. 90 GT II) dish Djet Giza, Mastaba V (pi. 5c: 59 Giz./Rif.) dish Den Abydos T (#145 pl. 49A RT II) Den Abydos T (#409 pI. 53B RT II) dish Anedjib Abydos X (#420 pI. 53B RT II) Qa(a Abydos Q (#64 pl. 47A RT II) Dyn. 2 Saqqara 2190 (MMA 12.181.163 and 164) Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 3013 (fig. 204 p. 110 Type 20b Naga I) incurved rim

, \

"

50

.. -..... 1:3

Shape: Convex-sided bowl!dish with incurved, plain rim Date: Dyn. 1-3 Variations: bowl * / dish

Djer Saqqara 2171H (pI. 12: 2, 10, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18 Archaic Mas.)

Djer Saqqara 2171H (pI. 12: 28 Archaic Mas.) dish

Djer Abydos 0 (#267 pl. 51E, #251 pI. 51C RT II)

Djet Abydos Z (#198 pI. 51A, #252 pI. 51C RT II)

Djet Abydos Z (#316 pI. 51G, RT II) dish

Djet Giza, Mastaba V (pl. 5D: 62,63, 74, 77,78 Giz./Rif.)

Merneith Abydos Y (#452 pI. 53D RT II)

112

Forms

Den Abydos T (#109, 111 pi. 48A, #214 pI. 51B RT 1I)

Semerkhet Abydos U (#37 pi. 47 RT 1I)

Semerkhet Abydos U (#108 pI. 48A RT II) dish

Qa'a Abydos Q (#36 pI. 47 RT 1I)

Peribsen Abydos P (#28 pi. 47 RT 1I)

Dyn. 3 Zawiyet 500 (AB 14, 44 p. 30 Zawiyet) #14 dish

\;----- 7

51

1:3

Shape:

Convex to straight-sided bowl I dish with incurved, squared rim; flat bottomed Date: Dyn. 1-4 Variations: bowl I dish round bottomed rim rounded Aha Saqqara 3357 (S4 fig. 44: 32 p. 40 Aha) dish Djer Abydos 0 (#197 pI. 51A, #434 pI. 53C RT 1I) bowl Djet Saqqara 3504 (S15 fig. 104 p. 90 GT 1I) Djet Abydos Z (#426 pl. 53C, #437, 438 pI. 53C, #263 pI. 51D RT II) bowl, #263 rim rounded Merneith Abydos Y (#324, 326 pI. 51G RT 1I) bowl, dish Den Abydos T (#111, 116 pI. 48A, #446 pI. 53D RT II) bowl Den Abydos T (#118 pI. 48A, #227 pI. 51B RT 1I) dish Anedjib Saqqara 3038 (S1, S10 dishes; S6, S9 bowls fig. 75 p. 139, p. 93 GT I) Semerkhet Abydos U (#257 pI. 51D, #451 pI. 53D RT 1I) dish Semerkhet Abydos U (#199 pI. 51A, #428, 430 p. 53C RT II) bowl Qa'a Abydos Q (#171, 172 pI. 50A, #256, 259 pi. SiD, #497-8 pi. 53G RT 1I) #171 rim rounded, #498 dish Qa'a Abydos Q (#260 pl. SiD, #500 pi. 53G RT II) dish Qa'a Saqqara 3505 (S18 pI. 35 GT III) dish, round bottomed Nynetjer Giza (pI. 6C: 98 Giz./Rif.) dish, round bottomed Nynetjer Giza (pI. 6C: 100-120 Giz./Rif.) dish Peribsen Abydos P (#173, 175 pI. 50A, #110 pl. 48A, #158, 160 pI. 50 RT II) #110 dish, rest bowls Khasekhemwy Abydos V (pI. 9: 13, 14, 15 Aby. 1) dish, bowls Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 1513, 1514 (fig. 201 p. 108 Type 17a, b Naga I) dish, bowl Dyn. 3 Zawiyet 500 (MFA 11. 2334, .2336, .2343, .2344, .2345 p. 34 Zawiyet) bowl, dish Dyn. 3 Zawiyet 500 (MFA 11. 2334, .2336, .2343, .2344, .2345 p. 34 Zawiyet) bowl, dish Dyn. 3 Zawiyet 500 (AB 22, 24, 27, p. 30; DB 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13 p. 33 Zawiyet) bowl, dish Dyn. 3 Zawiyet 500 (AB 23 p. 30 Zawiyet) dish, round bottomed Dyn. 3 Sekhemkhet, Saqqara pyramid (pI. 38 Horus Sekh.) bowl Dyn. 3 Matmar 604 (pI. 23: 18 Matmar) dish Dyn. 3 Giza, Mastaba T (pI. 6D: 126, 128 bowl, 129-132 dish Giz./Rif.) Dyn. 3 Bet Khallaf K1 (pI. 12: 1-17 Mah./Bet K.) dish, bowl Dyn. 3 Saqqara, Hesy (pI. 27: 4 Hesy) dish

113

Early Dynastic

Dyn. 4 Dyn. 4 dish Dyn. 4 Dyn. 4 Dyn. 4

Snefru - inscribed, El-Kab (Cairo CG 14401, 14402, pI. 55 Archaic Obj.) dish Snefru - inscribed, Abusir, pyr. temple of Sahure (p. 115, fig. 147: 3 Sahu-re I) Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 57: 18-48 p. 186 Myc.) bowl, dish Giza G4640 (fig. 291: 13-12-6 p. 483, pI. 58: b Giza I) dish, round bottomed Naga ed-Der 604 (fig. 15: 12 p. 47 Naga III) dish

~ 52

Shape: Date:

----~

1:3

Convex to straight-sided plate with incurved, squared rim; flat-bottomed Dyn.1-3

Djer Saqqara 3471 (S2 fig. 75 p. 139, p. 68 GT I) Djet Saqqara 3504 (S19 fig. 104 p. 90 GT II) Merneith Saqqara 3503 (S2 fig. 224 p. 165 GT II) Den Saqqara 3035 (S2 pI. 32: 1 Hemaka) Den Abydos T (#113, 115 pI. 48A, #224 pI. 51B RT II) Anedjib Saqqara 3038 (S2 fig. 75 p. 139, p. 93 GT I) Semerkhet Abydos U (#257 pI. 51D, #441 pI. 53C RT II) Qa(a Abydos Q (#431 pI. 53C RT II) Nynetjer Giza (pI. 6C: 100, 104, 111, 114, 120 Giz./Rif.) Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 1571, 1513, 1572 (fig. 202 p. 109 Type XVIII 4, 7, 12 Naga I) Dyn. 3 Saqqara, Hesy (pI. 27: 8 Hesy)

53 Shape: Date:

1:3

Restricted deep bowl/beaker with squared rim (restricted AI = 116 -140, deep bowl VI = 125-135) Dyn.1-3

Aha Saqqara 3357 (01 fig. 45: 42 p. 42 Aha)

Nynetjer Giza (pl. 6B: 96 Giz'/Rif.)

Peribsen Abydos P (#173 pI. 50A RT II)

Dyn. 2-3 Naga ed-Der 531 (fig. 16: 1 p. 48 Naga III)

Dyn. 3 Sekhemkhet, Saqqara pyr. (pI. 38 Horus Sekh.)

114

Forms

~_u7' 1:3

54

1:3

55

straight-sided

convex-sided

Bowl!dish with projecting ledge rim Shape: Date: Dyn. 1 Variations: Straight sides / convex sides bowl * / dish SD 78-9 Abydos B (#88 pI. 48, #53 pI. 47A RT II) straight Aha Saqqara 3357 (R1 fig. 44: 29 p. 40 Aha) straight, dish Djer Abydos M1 (pI. 33; 10 RT II) straight Djer Abydos 0 (#54 pI. 47A, #194 pI. 51A RT II) straight Den Abydos T (#237 pI. 51C, #412 pI. 53B RT II) convex, dish, bowl

\

"

'\ '\

--

/' /'

1;3

56

' - - - - - ­ ../

57

corded

,

• \

'\

....

,.



1:3

58 incurved

59 restricted

Bowl!dish with rounded projecting rim, with groove below Shape: Dyn.1-2 Date: Variations: Not incurved * / incurved (begins SD 80) restricted (VI = 116-140)

bowl * / dish

round-bottomed / flat *

corded / plain *

cord "braided"

knot on cord

multiple cords

Early Dyn. 1 Abydos B16 (#70 pI. 47B RT II) corded Djer Saqqara 2171H (pI. 12: 30 Archaic Mas.) restric., braided cord

1:3

~

115

Early Dynastic

Djer Saqqara 3471 (CCl fig. 77 p. 144, p. 69 GT I) dish, restric. Djer Abydos 0 (#69 pI. 47B RT II) Djet Giza, Mastaba V (pIs. 5C: 53, 5D: 87 Giz./Rif.) incurv. Djet Abydos Z (#71 pI. 47B RT II) dish Djet Saqqara 3504 (BBl fig. 104 p. 90 GT II) restric., round-bottomed Djet Saqqara 3504 (CCl fig. 104 p. 90 GT II) dish, incurv. Merneith Abydos Y (#328 pI. 51G RT II) incurv., 4 cords Den Abydos T (#453 pI. 53D RT II) incurv., cord Semerkhet Abydos U (#121 pI. 48A RT II) dish, restric., round-bottomed Semerkhet Abydos U (#201 pI. 51A, #280 pI. 51E RT II) restric. Qa{a Abydos Q (#276 pI. 51E RT II) incurv. Qa{a Abydos Q (#275 pI. 51E RT II) cord, restric. Qa{a Saqqara 3505 (BBl pI. 36 GT III) restric., round-bottomed Qa{a Saqqara 3505 (CCl pI. 36 GT III) dish, incurv. Dyn. 1 Abu Roash 450 (111 fig. 7:143 p. 53 KLASENS, OMRO 40) cord Dyn. 1-2 Saqqara, Step Pyramid, Gallery 6 (fig. 13 p. 10 Pyr. Deg. III) incurv., cord braided Khasekhemwy Abydos V (pI. 9: 11 A by. I) restric. Khasekhemwy Abydos V (pI. 22: 5 Fou. d'Aby. II; fig. 36: 2 p. 161 Myc.) restric., braided cord wi th square knot Dyn. 2 Naga ed- Der 1513 (fig. 200 p. 107 Type 16 Naga I) incurv.

~ 60

Shape: Date:

1---,,/ 1:3

Straight-sided dish with thick, beveled rim Early Dynastic

SD 81 Tarkhan 219 (pI. 33: 101 Tarkh. I)

Dyn. 1-2 Saqqara, Step Pyramid, Gallery 7 (pI. 104B: 13, 15 Step. Pyr.)

Dyn. 1-3 Saqqara, Step Pyramid (pI. 100: 13 Step. Pyr.)

o 61 Shape: Date:

1:9

Pentagonal bowl/dish with turned-in sections of rim Dyn. 1-6

Dyn. 1 Lahun, Bashkatib 709 (pI. 54: 16 Lahun II, UC 16249)

Dyn. 1-2 Saqqara, Step Pyramid, Gallery 6 (fig. 16 p. 10 Pyr. Deg. III)

116

Forms

Dyn. 2 North Saqqara 1137 (pI. 35b Archaic Egy., Cairo J.71301)

Dyn. 5-6 Giza G1024 (fig. 147, pI. 45a, b Giza II, Lowie Museum 6-19784)

Shape: Date:

Convex-sided beaker with plain rim Late Naq. II - Dyn. 1

SD 46 Naqada 1863 (pI. 41: 151 PE) SD 52-67 Gerzeh 31 (pI. 8: 21 Lab./Ger'/MazJ SD 61 Naqada T16 (pI. 41:149 PE) SD 78 Tarkhan 38, 1023 (pi. 34: 14e, 14t Tarkh. I, pi. 16: 207 S'V) Naq. III Zawiyet 218 (#1 p. 24 Zawiyet) Aha Saqqara 3357 (K3 fig. 45: 39 p. 42 Aha) Djer Saqqara 3471 (K3 fig. 74 p. 137, p. 68 GT I) Memeith Saqqara 3503 (K3 fig. 224 p. 165 OT II) Qa(a Saqqara 3503 (K3 pi. 35 OT 111)

"

63

1:3

Shape: Straight-sided beaker with plain rim Date: Dyn. 1-4 Variations: flat interior base (Dyn. 1-2) / rounded interior (Dyn. 1-4) Neithhotep Naqada (Cairo CG 11921, p. 182 Archaic Obj., p. 178 fig. 604, 605 Origines II) flat into Aha Saqqara 3357 (11 fig. 45: 44 p. 42 Aha) flat into SD 81 Tarkhan 1040 (pi. 34: 14f Tarkh. 1) Semerkhet Abydos U (#19 pI. 46 RT II) flat into Dyn. 1-2 Saqqara, Step Pyramid, Gallery 7 (pl. 104B: 20 Step Pyr.) rounded into Dyn. 2 Khasekhemwy, Abydos V (pi. 4: 8, 9 Fou. d:Aby. II) Dyn. 3 Naga ed-Der 593, 587 (fig. 12: 1, 2 p. 44 Naga III) rounded into Dyn. 3 Reqaqnah R40 (pl. 10: 32 Req'/Bet K.) rounded into Dyn. 3 Sekhemkhet, Saqqara pyr. (pI. 46, 47, 48 Horus Sekh.) Dyn. 3 Bet Khallaf K1 (pI. 14: 21, 23 Mah'/Bet K.) rounded

117

Early Dynastic

Dyn. Dyn. Dyn. Dyn.

3 Matmar 604 (pi. 23: 19 Matmar) rounded into 3 Giza, Mastaba T (pi. 6D: 124 Giz./Rif.) rounded into 3-4 Naga ed-Der 561 (fig. 12: 4 p. 44 Naga III) rounded 4 Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 50: 26-28 p. 183 Myc.) rounded into

64 Shape: Date:

1:3

Sharply concave-sided beaker Dyn. 1-3

Djer Saqqara 2171H (pl. 12: 7 Archaic Mas.)

Djer Saqqara 2185 (pI. 10 Archaic Mas.)

Djer Abydos 0 (#51 pi. 47A RT II, pl. 9: 3 A by. I)

Djer Abydos M1 (pI. 33: 3 RT II)

Djet Saqqara 3504 (13 fig. 104 p. 90 GT II)

Djet Giza, Mastaba V (pI. 5D: 68 Giz./Rif.)

Merneith Abydos Y (#52 pI. 47A RT II)

Merneith Abydos M17 (pI. 44: 1 Aby. I)

Den Saqqara 3035 (13 pl. 35: 37 Hemaka)

Semerkhet Abydos U (#7 pl. 46 RT II)

65

1:3

u

66

Shape: Sharply concave-sided bowl Date: Dyn. 1-3 Variations: projecting ledge rim bowl * / dish Neithhotep Naqada (Cairo CG 11962, pI. 39 Archaic Obj.) Early Dyn. 1 Abydos B16 (#8 pI. 46 RT II) Aha Saqqara 3357 (17 fig. 45: 45, 46 p. 42 Aha) Djer Abydos 0 (#140 pi. 49A, #234 pI. 51C RT II) #140 ledge rim Djer Saqqara 2185 (pI. 10 Archaic Mas.) Djet Abydos Z (#302 pI. 51F, #405 pI. 53B RT II) Djet Saqqara 3504 (113 fig. 104 p. 90 GT II) ledge rim Den Saqqara 3506 (17 pi. 77 RT III) Herneith Saqqara 3507 (17, 113 pl. 112 GT III) 113 - ledge rim Qa< a Saqqara 3505 (V4 pl. 36 GT III) ledge rim, dish Dyn. 1 Tell Ibrahim Awad BB1 (#45 fig. 23 Arch. Nile Delta)

1:3

118

Forms

Dyn. 3 Bet Khallaf K2 (pI. 21: 14 Mah./Bet K.) Dyn. 3 Meidum 55 (pI. 24: 5 Mey'/Mem. Ill)

Shape: Beaker with conical foot Date: Dyn.l Variations: made in two parts cord band above foot Djer Saqqara 3471 (14 fig. 74 p. 137, p. 68 GT 1) two parts Merneith Saqqara 3503 (IIl fig. 224 p. 165 GT II) cord Merneith Saqqara 3507 (116 pI. 112 GT Ill, Cairo J. 91086) two parts Dyn. 1 Tell Ibrahim Awad BBl (t*28 Fig. 21 Arch. Nile Delta) Dyn. 1-2 Helwan 701 (pI. 85, p. 173 Saq'/Helwan)

67

1:3

recurved

convex

Shape: Beaker/deep bowl (VI = 125-135) with groove below rim Date: Early Dynastic Variations: convex / recurved Aha Saqqara 3357 (Ml fig. 45: 43 p. 42 Aha) convex Djet Saqqara 3504 (Ml [erroneously labeled HlJ fig. 104 p. 90 GT II) convex Merneith Saqqara 3503 (Ml fig. 224 p. 165, pI. 53 GT 11) slightly recurved Dyn. 1 Abu Roash 469 (M5 fig. 6: 42 p. 52 KLASENS, OMRO 40) convex Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 1571 (fig. 200 p. 107 Type 14 Naga 1, Lowie Museum 6-369) convex

70

a

1:3

71

b

1:3

Shape: Beaker/deep bowl (VI = 125-175) with recurved sides and wide base Date: Dyn. 2-6 Variations: deep bowl (a) / beaker (b) Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 3017 (fig. 203 p. 109 Type 19 Naga 1) a Dyn. 6 Saqqara, Pyramid of Neith (fig. 14: n, 0 p. 107 JEQUIER, ASAE 34) a, b

,

119

Early Dynastic

Shape: Recurved beaker/bowl with incurved rim Date: Dyn.1 Variations: beaker * / bowl Djer Abydos M1 (pl. 33: 7, 8 RT II) beaker Merneith Abydos M19 (pl. 47: 6 Aby. I) beaker Merneith Abydos M19 (pl. 47: 17 A by. I) bowl Dyn. 1 Saqqara, cemetery near Serapeum (pI. 43: 12 Cim. Arch.)

Shape: Date:

Footed, shouldered jar: Dyn. 1-3

72

1:3

73

1:3

74

1:3

"b5 vase"

Dyn. 1 Abu Roash 343 (Ill fig. 15: 55 p. 42 KLASENS, OMRO 39) Dyn. 1 Djet, Giza, Mastaba V (fig. 3 p. 104 DARESSY, ASAE 6) Dyn. 1 (Den) Abu Roash II, Cemetery M (p. 167 Montet, Kemi 8) Dyn. 1-2 Tarkhan 178 (pi. 38: 31 Tarkh. I) Dyn. 1-2 Tarkhan 1973 (pi. 27: 90 Tarkh. I) Dyn. 2 Khasekhemwy, Abydos V (pi. 16: 3 Pou. d'i'\by. II) Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 3150 (fig. 196 p. 105 Type 10 Naga I, Lowie Museum 6-1069) Dyn. 2 Abu Roash, IFAO 1913 (Cairo J.44335)

Shape: Necked, shouldered jar with conical foot

Date: Dyn. 1-3

Variations: band above foot

Merneith Saqqara 3503 (JJ1 fig. 224 p. 165 GT II) band

Dyn. 2 Abu Roash, IFAO 1913 (Cairo J. 44336)

Dyn. 3 Naga ed-Der 4532 (fig. 104 p. 46 Naga II,

Lowie Museum 6-2317)

120

Forms

75

........

~ 76 1:3

1:3

Shape: Open-spouted bowl!dish Date: Dyn. 1-6 Variations: bowl/dish round bottom / flat * spout open at rim * / rim runs over spout double spout Djet Abydos T (#265 pI. 51D RT II) bowl, rim only Den Abydos M24 (pI. 47: 6 Aby. I) bowl SD 81 Tarkhan 126 (pt. 38: 25c Tarkh. I, Ashmolean 1912.566) dish SD 81 Tarkhan 1018 (pt. 34: 13k Tarkh. I) dish Den Qa'a Saqqara X (Y3, Y4 fig. 77 p. 144, p. 113 GT 1) bowl, Y3 - rim over spout Qa'a Saqqara 3505 (Y4 p. 29 GT III) bowl Dyn. 1 Abu Roash 449 (Y4 fig. 7: 119 p. 53 KLASENS OMRO 40) bowl Dyn. 1 Tell Ibrahim Awad BBl (#50 fig. 23 Arch. Nile Delta) bowl Dyn. 1-2 Saqqara, Step Pyramid, Gallery 7 (pt. 104B: 11 Step pyr.) bowl Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 3551 (fig. 93: 13 p. 41 Naga II) bowl Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 1513, 1571 (fig. 206 p. 110 Type 22b Naga I) dish, bowl Dyn. 3 El-Kab L166 (pt. 10: 19 E1 Kab, fig. 41: 16 p. 171 Myc.) bowl Dyn. 4 Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 59: 8 p. 187 Myc.) bowl Dyn. 5 Sahure, Abusir pyr. temple (p. 118 fig. 162 Sahu-re I) bowl Dyn. 5-6 Naga ed-Der 600,898 (fig. 23: 37,38 p. 57 Naga III) bowl, round bottom Dyn. 6 S. Saqqara MXII, Wazet (fig. 94 p. 83 Con temp. Pepi II) bowl, round bottom

o

77 Shape: Date:

1:3

Short, convex-sided beaker with integral handles Dyn. 1

SD 78 ? Matmar 225 (pt. 21: 29 Matmar) Aha Saqqara 3357 (fig. 45: 49 p. 42 Aha) SD 80 Tarkhan 315 (pt. 43: 72c Tarkh. I) Merneith Abydos M16 (pt. 45: 6 A by. I) SD 81 Tarkhan 61, 100 (pt. 43: 72g, 72f Tarkh. I, pI. 15: 158 SV) Dyn. 1 Abydos, Osiris temenos town (pt. 27: 45 Aby. I) Dyn. 1 Tell Ibrahim Awad BBl (#78 fig. 23 Arch. Nile Delta) round bottom, incompi. hollowed

~

121

Early Dynastic

Shape: Date:

Tall, ovoid jar with tubular handles and blunt rim

Dyn.l

Aha Saqqara 3557 (H2 fig. 42: 20 p. 38 Aha)

Den Saqqara 3036 (H2 fig. 73 p. 136, p. 80 GT I)

SD 81 Tarkhan 269 (pI. 43: 72b Tarkh. 1)

1:6 medium, straight-sided

/

1:6

80 tall

squat

Shape: Shouldered jar with tubular handles and blunt rim; thick-walled Date: Dyn.1-4 Variations: tall I medium I squat convex-sided * I straight-sided handles not hollowed detachable rim (Dyn. 4)

122

Forms

SD 79 Tarkhan 19 (pi. 43: 73h Tarkh. I, pI. 15: 156 sV) squat Memeith Abydos Y (**204, 205 pl. 5lA RT II) tall Den Abydos T (**122 pI. 48B RT II) tall Den Abydos T (**127 pi. 48B RT II) medium, straight-sided Den Saqqara 3036 (H5, H6 fig. 73 p. 136, p. 80 GT I) squat Dyn. 2 Khasekhem - inscribed, Hierakonpolis temple (pI. 36 Hier. I) tall, 2 exx.: handles not hollowed, no handles Dyn. 2 Khasekhemwy, Abydos V (pt. 16: 2 Fou. d:Aby. II poor photo, fig. 34: 6 p. 157 Myc.) tall Dyn. 3 Saqqara, Hesy (pI. 27: 3 Hesy) medium, straight-sided, rim rather sharp Dyn. 3 Bet Khallaf K5 (pt. 27: 3 Mah./Bet K.) squat Dyn. 3-4 Naga ed-Der N561b (fig. 7: 4 p. 41 Naga III) tall Dyn. 4 Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 48: 11 p. 182 Myc.) tall, straight-sided, detachable rim Dyn. 4 Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 48: 14 p. 182 Myc.) tall, handles not hollowed Dyn. 4 Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 48: 20, 21 p. 182 Myc.) tall, **21 detachable rim

82

1:3

83

1:3

Shape: Tall, shouldered to ovoid jar with flat base Date: Naq. III - Dyn. 6 Variations: shouldered * / ovoid cusp rim * / rounded rim SD 78 Abydos B (**278, 283 pI. 51E RT II) SD 80 Tarkhan 187 (pt. 44: 78h, 80c Tarkh. I) SD 80 Tarkhan 80 (pt. 43: 77m Tarkh. I) rounded rim Merneith Abydos Y (**334 pI. 51H RT II) Anedjib Saqqara 3038 (G2 fig. 72 p. 135, p. 93 GT I)

SD 81 Tarkhan 162, 200, 250 (pI. 44: 78h Tarkh. I)

SD 81 Tarkhan 4, 212, 481 (pI. 43: 77q Tarkh. I) rounded rim

SD 81 Tarkhan 1017 (pI. 44: 78c Tarkh. I) ovoid

Qa'a Saqqara 3505, 3500 (G2 pI. 35, pI. 124 GT III)

Qa(a Saqqara 3505 (Gl0 pI. 35 GT III) slender

SD 82 Tarkhan 24 (pl. 43: 77k Tarkh. I)

SD 82 Tarkhan 24 (pI. 44: 78k Tarkh. 1) rounded rim

Khasekhemwy Abydos V (pI. 9: 6, 7 Aby. I)

Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 3031, 3054, 1513 (fig. 196 p. 105 Type IIIb2, 4-6 Naga I)

Dyn. 3 Reqaqnah R40 (pt. 9: 23 Req'/Bet K) ovoid

Dyn. 3 Reqaqnah R40 (pI. 11: 36, 37 Req'/Bet K)

Dyn. 3 Bet Khallaf K4 (pl. 27: 9, 10 Mah./Bet K.) rounded rim

Dyn. 3 Saqqara, Hesy (pI. 27: 12 Hesy)

Dyn. 3 Naga ed-Der 618, 742 (fig. 10: 24, 25 p. 43 Naga III) ovoid, rounded rim

Dyn. 4 Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 49: 1-31 p. 183 Myc.) shouldered and ovoid

~

;

123

Early Dynastic

Dyn. 5 Sahure, Abusir pyr. temple (p. 116 fig. 150 right Sahu-re I)

Dyn. 5-6 Mahasna 349 (pl. 36: 16 Mah./Bet K.)

Dyn. 6 Saqqara, Pyr. of Neith (figs. 8, 9 p. 100 JEQUIER, ASAE 34) rounded rim

84

1:3

85

o

1:3

Shape: Globular to squat shouldered jar with cusp rim Date: Dyn. 1-6 Variations: squat * / globular extremely squat flat base * / rounded base Djer Abydos 0 (#281 pI. 51E, #329 pl. 51H RT II) globular Djet Giza, Mastaba V (pt. 5D: 67 Giz./Rif.) Djet Saqqara 3504 (G13 fig. 104 p. 90 GT II) SD 80 Tarkhan 153, 80 (pt. 44: 81r, 81t Tarkh. I) ext. squat SD 81 Tarkhan 163, 481, 1024, 1038 (pt. 44: 81h Tarkh. I) SD 81 Tarkhan 1012, 1017, 1024, 1027, etc. (pt. 44: 81r Tarkh. I) ext. squat Qa(a Saqqara 3505 (Z9 pI. 36 GT III) ext. squat SD 82 Tarkhan 1039 (pI. 44: 81t Tarkh. 1) ext. squat Khasekhemwy Abydos V (pl. 9: 5, 9, 10 Aby. I) Dyn. 2 Saqqara 2322 (MMA 12.181. 151 and 153) Dyn. 2 Naga ed-Der 3031, 3022 (fig. 196 p. 105 Type VIII2, 3, 4 Naga 1)

Dyn. 3 Naga ed-Der 513, 573, 537 (fig. 8: 4, 5, 6 p. 42 Naga III)

Dyn. 4 Naga ed-Der 627, 579 (fig. 9: 1, 2 p. 42 Naga III)

Dyn. 4 Giza, Mycerinus VT (fig. 51: 4, 6, 16, 32, 70, 71 p. 184; fig. 54: 13, 14 p. 185; fig.

58: 8, 14, 15 p. 187 Myc.) Dyn. 5 Sahure, Abusir pyr. temple (p. 116 fig. 150 center Sahu-re I) Dyn. 5-6 Naga ed-Der 637 (fig. 23: 39 p. 57 Naga III) shouldered, globular Pepi II Balat, Mastaba V of Medou-nefer (pt. 84: 916 Balat I)

e

86

1:3

Shape: Globular to squat shouldered jar, made in two halves Date: Dyn. 2-3 Variations: globular / squat Dyn. Dyn. Dyn. Dyn.

2 2 3 3

Naga ed-Der Sedment 560 Naga ed-Der Naga ed-Der

1571 (fig. 199 p. 106 Type 13 Naga 1) globular (pt. 2: 12, 13 Sed. I) squat 4148, 4771 (fig. 101: 4, 5 p. 44 Naga II) globular 581, 593 (fig. 8: 1, 2 p. 42 Naga III) squat

124

Forms

87 1:9 shouldered

88

1:9 ovoid

Shape: Large, slender ovoid to shouldered jar: "wine jar" Dyn.1-3 Date: Variations: shouldered * / ovoid cord net / 2 cords / 1 cord / no cord * Djet Giza, Mastaba V (fig. 3 p. 104 DARESSY, ASAE 6) 2 bands: 1 at shoulder, 1 above Den Abu Roash XII, Cemetery M (p. 167 Montet, Kemi 8) cord net, ovoid Den - Qa(a Saqqara, Tomb X (EEl fig. 77 p. 144, p. 113 GT I) 2 cords: 1 above shoulder, 1 at base Dyn. 1-2 Saqqara, Step Pyramid, Gallery 6 (pl. 104A: 7 Step Pyr.) cord net Dyn. 2 Khasekhemwy, Abydos V (pl. 15: 2 no cord, p. 245 cord net Fou. d'Aby. II) Dyn. 1-3 Saqqara 2313 (pi. 19: 3 Archaic Mas.) Dyn. 3 Saqqara, Hesy (pi. 27: 11 Hesy) ovoid, cord net

89 Shape: Date:

1:9

Pitcher rim only slightly projecting; tall body Dyn.1-3

125

Early Dynastic

Den - Qa(a Saqqara, Tomb X (DDl fig. 77 p. 144, p. 113 OT I)

Dyn. 1-2 Saqqara, Step Pyramid, Gallery 7 (pl. 104A: 10 Step Pyr.)

Dyn. 1-2 Saqqara, Step Pyramid, Gallery 6 (fig. 1 p. 5 Pyr. Deg. III) rim fairly projecting

Dyn. 1-2 Helwan 701 (pI. 84 Saq./He1wan)

Shape: Tall, ovoid jar with flaring rim, flat base Date: Early Dynastic Variations: made in two parts Narmer - Aha Minshat Abu Omar (fig. 1 p. 52 Kroeper, VA 1: 1-2) 2 parts Djet Giza, Mastaba V (pI. 5C: 56 Oiz./Rif.) 2 parts Merneith Saqqara 3503 (G17 fig. 224 p. 165 OT II) 2 parts, base missing 1:6

90

Shape: Date:

Double vessel of squat jars Early Dynastic

SD 81 Tarkhan 250 (pI. 43: 73d Tarkh. I)

c::J

91

Shape: Date:

1:3

Petaled lotus jar Early Dynastic

Dyn. 1 Lahun 743 (pIs. 44: 4, 54 Lahun II, Ashmolean 1921. 1343) Dyn. 2 North Saqqara, Emery (Cairo J.71299) Late Dyn. 2 - Dyn. 3 Qau 429 (pis. 18: 4, 22 Qau/Bad. I) (Dyn. 2) unprov. (Fitzwilliam 4584.1943)

Shape: Small (under 10 cm) necked jar with ovoid body Date: Naq. III Dyn. 1 Variations: rounded base * / flat base Naq. III Abydos B15 (pi. 9: 2 Aby. I) Naq. III Hierakonpolis, main temple deposit (pI. 31: 2 Hier. 1) SD 78-79 Abusir el-Meleg 58c4 (pIs. 23: 200, 57: 2 Abusir Mel.) Dyn. 1 Neithhotep, Naqada (fig. 625 p. 180 Origines II, Cairo J.31801, CG 11970 and a) flat

1:3

92

93

(J

1:3

126

Forms

Dyn. 1 Neithhotep, Naqada (fig. 627 p. 180 Origines II, Cairo 1.31801, CG 11971) base broken Dyn. 1 Neithhotep, Naqada (fig. 615 p. 179 Origines II, Cairo 1.31800 + base, CG 11966) flat

1:2

94 Shape: Two-part, swivel cosmetic dish Dyn. 1-2 Date: Variations: fish I· bull's head 1 round Dyn. Dyn. Dyn. Dyn. Dyn.

1 Abu Roash M19 (fig. 13: 2 p. 127 KLASENS, OMRO 42) fish, red pigment inside 1 Abu Roash V, Cemetery M (p. 178, pI. 4 Montet Kemi 8) fish 1-2 Abu Roash 815 (fig. 22 p. 93 KLASENS OMRO 41) round, black eye paint inside 2 Naga ed-Der 1571 (pI. 41c Naga I, Lowie Museum 6-363) fish 2 Naga ed-Der 1605 (pI. 41c Naga I, Lowie Museum 6-686) bull's head

95 Shape: Date:

1:3

Vessel in form of papyrus boat

Early Dynastic

Narmer - Aha Minshat Abu Omar (fig. 6 p. 57 Kroeper, VA 1: 1-2) 576

Merneith - Den Abydos Yand T (pi. 9: 4 Aby. I)

Dyn. 1 Abu Roash VIII, Cemetery M (p. 174, pI. 3 Montet, Kemi 8)

576

The above illustration is drawn from this example.

127

Early Dynastic

T)