American Military Shoulder Arms, Volume I: Colonial and Revolutionary War Arms 0826349951, 9780826349958

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Table of contents :
Cover
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction
PART I
012. AMERICAN COLONIAL ARMS HISTORY
.2 Pre-Colonial Period, 1492–1607
.5 First Colonial Period, 1607–1691
.8 Second Colonial Period, 1691–1775
015. IGNITION SYSTEMS OF COLONIAL ARMS
.2 Matchlock
.5 Wheel-Lock
.8 Flintlock Variations
017. COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS
.A The Harquebus
.C Matchlock Muskets
.E Wheel-Lock Muskets
.G British Snaphance Muskets
.I English Lock Muskets
.J Swedish Snaplock Musket
.K Doglock Muskets
.L British 17th-Century and Pre-Land Pattern Flintlock Muskets
.N 18th-Century Colonial Militia Muskets
.P Colonial Fowler-Muskets
.P5 Early 18th-Century Fowler-Musket
.P7 Late 18th-Century Fowler-Muskets
.R Fowling Guns
.R1 17 th-Century Fowlers
.R5 Hudson Valley Fowlers
.R7 New England Fowlers
.R9 Other Fowling Guns
.S French Hunting and Trade Guns
.T French Buccaneer Guns
.V 17th-Century Carbines
.V2 Wheel-Lock Carbine
.V5 English Snaphance Carbine
.V8 Flintlock Carbines
.Y 17th-Century Military Blunderbuss Arms
PART II
027. DEFINITION OF ARMS BY TYPE, SOURCE, AND ORIGIN
.2 Type of Arm
.5 Source of Procurement
.8 Country of Origin
029. PRIVATELY OWNED ARMS PROCURED DURING THE REVOLUTION
031. MUSKETS PROCURED BY AUTHORITY OF A COLONY OR STATE
.2 Committees of Safety
.4 Committee of Safety Muskets
.6 State Contract Muskets
.8 Notes on the Specifications and Procurement of Committee of Safety and State Contract Muskets
035. MUSKETS PROCURED BY AUTHORITY OF THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
.2 Continental Contract Muskets
.5 Continental Use of State Procurement Agencies
.8 Sales of Continental Muskets to Individual States
037. CONTINENTAL ARSENALS AND LABORATORIES
.2 The First Continental Arsenals
.5 The Arsenal and Laboratory at Springfield
.8 The Philadelphia Supply Agencies
039. CONTINENTAL MUSKET PARTS PROCUREMENT
.2 Imported Musket Parts
.5 Musket Parts Fabricated at Continental Facilities
.8 Continental Contract Small Arms Components
041. REVOLUTIONARY WAR REPAIR OF ARMS
.2 Continental Armorers
.4 Continental Factories and Armories
.42 The Continental Gun Factory
.45 The Continental Armory and French Factory
.48 U.S. Armorers
.6 Continental Contract Repair of Arms
.8 Post-Revolutionary War Repair of Arms
043. "US" IDENTIFICATION OF CONTINENTAL MUSKETS
045. AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED MUSKETS OF BRITISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN STATES' PATTERNS
.2 Muskets Containing British Components
.5 Muskets Containing American-Made British Pattern Components
.8 Muskets Containing French Components
.9 Muskets Containing Germanic Components
047. THE AMERICAN LONG RIFLE
048. AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED CARBINES
049. AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED BLUNDERBUSS ARMS
PART III
050. FOREIGN SHOULDER ARMS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
053. ARMS CAPTURED DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
055. FOREIGN DIPLOMACY AND ARMS PROCUREMENT DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
057. FOREIGN ARMS PROCURED BY INDIVIDUAL COLONIES
065. BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS
.A Land Pattern Muskets
.A2 Long Land Pattern (Type I) Musket
.A4 Long Land Pattern (Type II) Musket
.A6 Short Land Pattern Musket
.A62 Short Land Pattern Musket (for Dragoons)
.A66 Short Land New Pattern Musket
.A9 Land Pattern Commercial Sales Muskets
.C Sea Service Musket
.D Marine or Militia Musket
.F Officers' Fusil
.H Flank Company Sergeants' Fusil
.I Light Infantry Fusil
.J Royal Artillery Carbine
.K 1770 Dragoon Carbine
.L 1756 Light Dragoon Carbine
.M Elliot Carbine
.O 18th-Century Horseman's Carbines
.O2 Queen Anne Period Horseman's Carbine
.O7 Horseman's Carbine (from 1757)
.R Military Rifles of the Seven Years' War
.S Military Rifles of the Revolutionary War
.T Ferguson Breechloading Rifle
.V Nock Volley Gun
.X Blunderbuss and Musketoon Arms
.X2 British Late 17th-Century Blunderbuss
.X5 British Early 18th-Century Blunderbuss
.X8 British Military Revolutionary War Period Blunderbuss
.X9 British Quasi-Military 18th-Century Blunderbuss
.Y British Foreign Purchase Arms
070. FRENCH ARMS
.A Introduction
.B Manufacturing Tolerances
.C French Regulation Models and Armories
.C2 The Configuration of French Arms
.C4 Early Naval Muskets
.C6 Alterations of French Regulation Arms
.C8 French Matchlock Muskets
.D 1696 Contract Naval Musket
.E 1696 Contract Grenadier Musket
.F 1716 Contract Naval Musket
.G 1716 Contract Grenadier Musket
.H Model 1717 Muskets
.H1 Model 1717 Infantry Musket
.H2 Model 1717 Rampart Musket
.H5 Model 1717 Dragoon Musket
.I Model 1728 Muskets
.I1 Model 1728 Infantry Musket
.I2 Model 1728 Rampart Musket
.J 1729 Contract Naval Musket
.K 1729 Contract Grenadier Musket
.L Model 1734 Dragoon Musket
.M Model 1734 Cavalry Musketoon
.N Model 1746 Infantry Musket
.O Model 1754 Muskets
.O1 Model 1754 Infantry Musket
.O2 Model 1754 Dragoon Musket
.P Model 1763 Infantry Musket
.Q Model 1766 Infantry Musket
.R Model 1763-1766 Dragoon Muskets
.S Model 1763-1766 Cavalry Musketoons
.T Model 1767 Hussar's Musketoons
.U Model 1770-1771 Infantry Musket
.V Model 1770 Artillery Musket
.W Model 1773 Infantry Musket
.X Model 1774 Infantry Musket
.Y Model 1777 Muskets
.Y1 Model 1777 Infantry Musket
.Y2 Model 1777 Naval Musket
.Y3 Model 1777 Ship, Marine, and Colonial Muskets
.Y5 Model 1777 Dragoon Musket
.Y6 Model 1777 Artillery Musket
.Y8 Model 1777 Cavalry and Ship Musketoons
075. LIÈGE ARMS
.2 American-Assembled/Repaired Arms with Liège Locks
.5 Liège Contract British Short Land New Pattern Muskets
080. DUTCH ARMS
.1 Colonial Period
.3 Revolutionary War Period
.5 Configurations of Dutch Muskets
.52 (Type I) Musket
.55 (Type II) Musket
.58 (Type III) Musket
.59 (Type IV) Musket
085. SPANISH ARMS
.2 Configurations of Spanish Military Arms
.7 Model 1757 Musket
.9 Military Escopeta
090. GERMAN STATES' FORCES IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
.3 Hesse Cassel
.7 Brunswick and Hesse Hanau
092. GERMAN STATES' MUSKETS
.1 German States' Military Small Arms Manufactories
.2 Known German States' Procurement Information
.4 Prussian Regulation Muskets
.42 Model 1713 and Model 1723 Muskets
.44 Model 1723–1740 Musket
.46 Model 1740 Musket
.48 Model 1740–1773 Musket
.6 German States' Prussian-Style Muskets
095. JÄGER RIFLES
.2 Ansbach-Bayreuth Jäger Rifle
.4 Hesse Cassel Jäger Rifle
.6 Heller Jäger Rifle
.9 Peterson Jäger Rifle
APPENDICES
1 BRIEF MILITARY HISTORY OF COLONIAL AMERICA
Pre-Colonial Period, 1492–1607
First Colonial Period, 1607–1691
Second Colonial Period, 1691–1775
2 17TH-CENTURY BRITISH ARMY ORGANIZATION AND LINEAR TACTICS IN EUROPE
3 DATES OF WARS AND MILITARY ACTIONS THAT INVOLVED COLONIAL NORTH AMERICAN ARMED FORCES AND THE ARMED FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES
4 REVOLUTIONARY WAR BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Summary of Events Leading Up to the American Revolution
Brief Chronological Military History of the Revolutionary War
5 SHOULDER ARMS KNOWN IMPORTED DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
6 PERSONNEL IN CHARGE OF SMALL ARMS PROCUREMENT TO 1815
7 CALIBER DESIGNATIONS OF AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS AND AMMUNITION
8 REVOLUTIONARY WAR NAVIES AND PRIVATEERS
Glossary
A
B
C
F
G
H
J
K
L
M
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
Bibliography
Index
A
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C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
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T
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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS VOLUME I

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS VOLUME I

Colonial and Revolutionary War Arms

George D. MoIIer

UNIVERSITY OF NE W MEXICO

PRESS

A L B U Q U E RQU E

© 2011 by George D. Moller. All rights reserved. Published 201L Printed in the United States of America. 16 15 14 13 12 11

1 2 3 4 5 6

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Moller, George D. American military shoulder arms / George D. Moller. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. Reprint. Originally published: 1993. ISBN 978-0-8263-4995-8 (pbk.: alk. paper) — ISBN 978-0-8263-4996-5 (electronic) 1. United States—Armed Forces—Firearms—History. I. Title. UF523.M652011 623.4'40973—dc22

2011009440

CONTENTS xi xiii xvii

Preface Acknowledgments Introduction

PART I 012. .2 .5 .8

AMERICAN COLONIAL ARMS HISTORY Pre-Colonial Period, 1492-1607 First Colonial Period, 1607-1691 Second Colonial Period, 1691-1775

015. .2 .5 .8

IGNITION SYSTEMS OF COLONIAL ARMS Matchlock Wheel-Lock Flintlock Variations

13 13 15 16

017. .A .C .E .G .1 J .K .L .N .P .P5 .P7 .R .Rl .R5 .R7 .R9 .S .T .V .V2

COLONIAL SHOULDER A R M S The Harquebus Matchlock Muskets Wheel-Lock Muskets British Snaphance Muskets English Lock Muskets Swedish Snaplock Musket Doglock Muskets British 17th-Century and Pre-Land Pattern Flintlock Muskets 18th-Century Colonial Militia Muskets Colonial Fowler-Muskets Early 18th-Century Fowler-Musket Late 18th-Century Fowler-Muskets Fowling Guns 17 th-Century Fowlers Hudson Valley Fowlers New England Fowlers Other Fowling Guns French Hunting and Trade Guns French Buccaneer Guns 17th-Century Carbines Wheel-Lock Carbine

26 27 29 38 42 42 44 45 49 57 62 63 64 69 70 72 77 81 85 89 90 91

3 3 4 9

CONTENTS

VI

.V5 .V8 .Y

English Snaphance Carbine Flintlock Carbines 17ttvCentury Military Blunderbuss Arms

92 93 96

PART II 027. .2 .5 .8

DEFINITION OF ARMS BY TYPE, SOURCE, AND ORIGIN Type of Arm Source of Procurement Country of Origin

99 99 101 103

029.

PRIVATELY OWNED ARMS PROCURED DURING THE REVOLUTION

105

MUSKETS PROCURED BY AUTHORITY OF A COLONY OR STATE Committees of Safety Committee of Safety Muskets State Contract Muskets Notes on the Specifications and Procurement of Committee of Safety and State Contract Muskets

108

MUSKETS PROCURED BY AUTHORITY OF THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS Continental Contract Muskets Continental Use of State Procurement Agencies Sales of Continental Muskets to Individual States

131 131 134 135

037. .2 ,5 .8

CONTINENTAL ARSENALS AND LABORATORIES The First Continental Arsenals The Arsenal and Laboratory at Springfield The Philadelphia Supply Agencies

137 137 138 138

039. .2 .5 .8

CONTINENTAL MUSKET PARTS PROCUREMENT Imported Musket Parts Musket Parts Fabricated at Continental Facilities Continental Contract Small Arms Components

141 141 142 143

041. .2 .4 .42 .45 .48 .6 .8

REVOLUTIONARY WAR REPAIR OF ARMS Continental Armorers Continental Factories and Armories The Continental Gun Factory The Continental Armory and French Factory U.S. Armorers Continental Contract Repair of Arms Post-Revolutionary War Repair of Arms

146 147 148 149 150 151 151 153

03L 2 A .6 .8

035. .2 .5 .8

106 106 107 108

CONTENTS

VII

043.

"US" IDENTIFICATION OF CONTINENTAL. MUSKETS

045.

AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED MUSKETS OF BRITISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN STATES' PATTERNS Muskets Containing British Components Muskets Containing American-Made British Pattern Components Muskets Containing French Components Muskets Containing Germanic Components

.2 .5 .8 .9

159

163 164 165 168 173

047.

THE AMERICAN LONG RIFLE

178

048.

AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED CARBINES

187

049.

AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED BLUNDERBUSS ARMS

190

PART III FOREIGN SHOULDER ARMS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

195

053.

ARMS CAPTURED DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

196

055.

FOREIGN DIPLOMACY AND ARMS PROCUREMENT DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

198

057.

FOREIGN ARMS PROCURED BY INDIVIDUAL COLONIES

206

065. .A .A2 .A4 .A6 .A62 .A66 .A9 .C .D .F .H .1 .] .K .L .M .O

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS Land Pattern Muskets Long Land Pattern (Type I) Musket Long Land Pattern (Type II) Musket Short Land Pattern Musket Short Land Pattern Musket (for Dragoons) Short Land New Pattern Musket Land Pattern Commercial Sales Muskets Sea Service Musket Marine or Militia Musket Officers' Fusil Flank Company Sergeants' Fusil Light Infantry Fusil Royal Artillery Carbine 1770 Dragoon Carbine 1756 Light Dragoon Carbine Elliot Carbine IStlvCentury Horseman's Carbines

211 212 215 219 223 224 226 231 235 241 243 246 247 251 256 257 258 260

050.

CONTENTS

VIII

.02 .07 .R .S .T .V .X ,X2 .X5 .X8 .X9 .Y 070.

.A .B .C .C2 .C4 .C6 .C8 .D .E .F .G .H .HI .H2 .H5 .1 .11 .12 J .K .L .M .N .O .01 .02 .P .Q .R ,S .T .U .V

Queen Anne Period Horseman's Carbine Horseman's Carbine (from 1757) Military Rifles of the Seven Years' War Military Rifles of the Revolutionary War Ferguson Breechloading Rifle Nock Volley Gun Blunderbuss and Musketoon Arms British Late 17th-Century Blunderbuss British Early 18th-Century Blunderbuss British Military Revolutionary War Period Blunderbuss British Quasi-Military 18th-Century Blunderbuss British Foreign Purchase Arms

261 264 265 265 268 273 276 278 280 283 285 286

FRENCH ARMS

291 292 292 292 293 294 295 297 297 298 302 303 306 306 309 311 312 312 315 316 319 319 320 323 326 326 330 333 336 340 343 346 348 351

Introduction Manufacturing Tolerances French Regulation Models and Armories The Configuration of French Arms Early Naval Muskets Alterations of French Regulation Arms French Matchlock Muskets 1696 Contract Naval Musket 1696 Contract Grenadier Musket 1716 Contract Naval Musket 1716 Contract Grenadier Musket Model 1717 Muskets Model 1717 Infantry Musket Model 1717 Rampart Musket Model 1717 Dragoon Musket Model 1728 Muskets Model 1728 Infantry Musket Model 1728 Rampart Musket 1729 Contract Naval Musket 1729 Contract Grenadier Musket Model 1734 Dragoon Musket Model 1734 Cavalry Musketoon Model 1746 Infantry Musket Model 1754 Muskets Model 1754 Infantry Musket Model 1754 Dragoon Musket Model 1763 Infantry Musket Model 1766 Infantry Musket Model 1763-1766 Dragoon Muskets Model 1763-1766 Cavalry Musketoons Model 1767 Hussar's Musketoons Model 1770-1771 Infantry Musket Model 1770 Artillery Musket

CONTENTS

.W Model 1773 Infantry Musket .X Model 1774 Infantry Musket .Y Model 1777 Muskets .Yl Model 1777 Infantry Musket .Y2 Model 1777 Naval Musket .Y3 Model 1777 Ship, Marine, and Colonial Muskets .Y5 Model 1777 Dragoon Musket .Y6 Model 1777 Artillery Musket .Y8 Model 1777 Cavalry and Ship Musketoons 075.

.2 .5 080.

.1 .3 .5 .52 .55 .58 .59 085.

.2 .7 .9 090.

LIEGE ARMS

American-Assembled/Repaired Arms with Liege Locks Liege Contract British Short Land New Pattern Muskets DUTCH ARMS

Colonial Period Revolutionary War Period Configurations of Dutch Muskets (Type I) Musket (Type II) Musket (Type III) Musket (Type IV) Musket SPANISH ARMS

Configurations of Spanish Military Arms Model 1757 Musket Military Escopeta GERMAN STATES' FORCES IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

IX

352 355 359 359 362 363 364 366 368

372 374 375 379 379 380 381 382 385 389 392 404 405 406 409

Hesse Cassel Brunswick and Hesse Hanau

413 414 416

092. .1 .2 .4 .42 .44 .46 .48 .6

GERMAN STATES' MUSKETS German States' Military Small Arms Manufactories Known German States' Procurement Information Prussian Regulation Muskets Model 1713 and Model 1723 Muskets Model 1723-1740 Musket Model 1740 Musket Model 1740-1773 Musket German States' Prussian-Style Muskets

418 418 422 425 426 428 429 433 433

095.

JAGER RIFLES

448 451 454

.3 .7

.2 .4

Ansbach-Bayreuth Jager Rifle Hesse Cassel Jager Rifle

CONTENTS

x

,6 .9

Heller Jager Rifle Peterson Jager Rifle

457 459

APPENDICES 1

BRIEF MILITARY HISTORY OF COLONIAL AMERICA Pre-Colonial Period, 1492-1607 First Colonial Period, 1607-1691 Second Colonial Period, 1691-1775

463 463 464 469

2

17TH-CENTURY BRITISH ARMY ORGANIZATION AND LINEAR TACTICS IN EUROPE

474

DATES OF WARS AND MILITARY ACTIONS THAT INVOLVED COLONIAL NORTH AMERICAN ARMED FORCES AND THE ARMED FORCES OF THE UNITED STATES

476

4

REVOLUTIONARY WAR BACKGROUND INFORMATION Summary of Events Leading Up to the American Revolution Brief Chronological Military History of the Revolutionary War

478 478 479

5

SHOULDER ARMS KNOWN IMPORTED DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

484

PERSONNEL IN CHARGE OF SMALL ARMS PROCUREMENT TO 1815

486

CALIBER DESIGNATIONS OF AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS AND AMMUNITION

488

REVOLUTIONARY WAR NAVIES AND PRIVATEERS

490

3

6

7

8

Glossary Bibliography Index

495 499 505

PREFACE In 1956 I made the decision to concentrate my collecting interests in the field of U.S. military shoulder arms. Because of this, I became interested in the published works on the subject and purchased the available books of Claud E. Fuller, James E. Hicks, Arcadi Gluckman, and other authors, as well as magazine articles and original and reprinted ordnance publications, in an attempt to define the various models of arms and learn as much as possible about each. This would enable me to recognize them and to determine their originality should they be offered for sale. Some of the published information was contradictory and seemed incomplete. At times it was at variance with existing examples of the arms. By 1959 I had begun to collect information seriously, with the goal of eventually publishing a book to aid other collectors in the identification of these arms. However, it was not until 1975 that I was able to begin the almost full-time effort that this research required. A three-week trip to the National Archives in Washington, D.C., was undertaken, followed by another three weeks of empirical research at the Springfield Armory Museum in Massachusetts. Before the trip, I had naively hoped that I would find answers to a long list of questions in the National Archives that would provide enough material to write the book. That first three weeks in the National Archives was an eye-opener. During that short period, I located and microfilmed over six thousand pages of information, most of which had never been researched by previous authors in the field. There was such a wealth of interesting related information that it was difficult to focus on the specific areas of study. Information was encountered that raised more questions than were answered, and by the time I left the Archives I knew it was to be only the first of many trips; there was a great deal more to learn about the field before attempting to write about it. During the years that followed, I traveled to eastern states' archives, state and local historical societies, local and national museums, and revisited the National Archives numerous times. By about 19801 was aware that a number of fellow arms students had acquired a great deal of information, usually about specific areas within the field, but had never published it. Unfortunately, several of these people died, and their knowledge was irretrievably lost. Because of this, I decided to begin drafting the information that I had acquired and collated to that time. This early draft began where most students and collectors of U.S. military shoulder arms believe the story started, with the Revolutionary War. As I continued to work with the material, there was the growing realization that I was trying to tell a story from the middle; several important chapters of American history had preceded, which related to the shoulder arms used in the Revolution. Therefore, I began to research American colonial military history and the arms used by the colonists.

XII

PREFACE

In addition to further research in various American archives, I made several trips to European archives and museums to learn more about the shoulder arms sent to North America during the colonial and Revolutionary War period. This volume is the result.

Throughout the several volumes of this book, each major section and its subsections are identified with a number. The whole numbers, to the left of the decimal point, are progressive and represent major sections. The numbers, and sometimes letters, to the right of the decimal point represent varying degrees of subsections, in outline format. For example, section 065. describes British regulation military shoulder arms. Section 065 .A describes British land pattern muskets. Section 065.A2 describes Long Land Pattern muskets, and section 065.A22 describes specifically British Long Land Pattern (Type I) muskets, which were produced until the mid-1750s. Although they were devised originally for reasons of organization and crossreferencing, it is hoped that this system will also facilitate communications between arms students by providing them with a simple, yet specific, reference. GEORGE D. MOLLER LAKEWOOD, COLORADO

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The work of every historian owes a great deal to the efforts of fellow scholars past and present. As Cervantes observed: "Though seemingly the parent, I am in truth only the step-father." A deep debt of gratitude is owed by the author, and by all students of American military shoulder arms, to three authors in particular. First, to Claud E. Fuller, who wrote Springfield Muzzle-Loading Shoulder Arms (1931), BreechLoader in the Service (1933), and The Rifled Musket (1951). Second, to Captain James E. Hicks, who wrote a two-volume work, U.S. Ordnance (1940). Volume I of this work was republished as U.S. Military Firearms in 1956. Finally, to Colonel Arcadi Gluckman, author of United States Muskets, Rifles, and Carbines (1959). Although there were also other early authors who presented excellent information in the field, such as Townsend Whelen, Phillip B. Sharpe, Charles E. Chapel, and L. D. Satterlee, it was the previous three who first defined the field and published vast amounts of information based on archival research and the empirical study of arms. In the past twenty years, there has been an ever-increasing quantity of books published on various subjects within the field of American military shoulder arms. Many of these have also been outstanding and are included in this work's bibliography. The research for this book has been conducted over the past fifteen years in many archives and libraries and in public and private arms collections. The help, guidance, and cooperation of the personnel of the archives and libraries greatly facilitated research there and resulted in the great amount of new information presented in these pages. In particular, I would like to express my appreciation to: Mike Musik, Tim Nenninger, and Dale Floyd in the Navy and Old Army Branch of the U.S. Archives, Washington, D.C.; Mark Jones and Beverly Naylor at the Connecticut State Library; Herr Klingelhofer, Hessisches Staatsarchiv, Marburg, Germany; Bill Milhumme, Massachusetts Archives; Susan Copczynski, Morristown National Historic Park; John E. Shelly and Jonathan Stayer, Pennsylvania State Archives; Bruce Compton, The Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and Elisabeth Aperghis, Service Historique De L'Armee De Terre, Chateau Vincennes, France. A debt of gratitude is also owed to the following for the research material shared with me: Howard Blackmore, Surrey, England; Norm Flayderman, Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Bill Guthman, Westport, Connecticut; Jan Piet Puype, Leger-en Wapenmuseum, Delft, Netherlands; Frank Sellers, Alstead, New Hampshire; Arne Hoff, Copenhagen, Denmark; and Chuck Darling, New Haven, Connecticut.

xiv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanks are also due to the following, who facilitated my empirical research in public collections of arms: Byron Johnson of the Albuquerque Museum, New Mexico; Oberst Dr. Nikolaus of the Armeemuseum, Dresden, Germany; Dr. Ernst Aichner of the Bayerisches Armeemuseum, Ingolstadt, Germany; Howard Blackmore, and more recently Graeme Rimer, of The Armouries, H.M. Tower of London, England; Wolfgang Glage and Dr. Christof Romer of the Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum, Brunswick, Germany; Jay Gaynor of The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Virginia; Ms. Katherine Keene of the Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado; David F. Wood of the Concord Antiquarian Museum, Massachusetts; Mrs. Jane Lape of Fort Ticonderoga, New York; Ms. Ann Belkov of the Chicamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park, Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia; Donald Long of the Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, Greensboro, North Carolina; Dr. Erich Gabriel and Ernst Treibel of the Herresgeschichtliches Museum, Vienna, Austria; Dr. Deiter Schaal of the Historisches Museum, Dresden, Germany; Frau Dr. Alheidis von Rohr of the Historisches Museum am Hohen Ufer, Hanover, Germany; Dr. Bas Kist of the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Holland; Dr. Lena Rangstrom of the Livrustkammeren, Stockholm, Sweden; Helmut Nickel of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; J. P. Reverseau and Colonel Neuville of the Musee de L'Armee, Paris; Claude Gaier of the Musee d'Arms, Liege, Belgium; Maurice Forrissier of the Musee d'Art and d'Industrie, and the Musee d'Manufactures, Saint Etienne, France; Dr. Heinrich Miiller, Dr. Quaas, and Mr. Kolling of the Museum fur Deutsche Geschichte, Berlin, Germany; K. Cory Keeble of the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada; Dr. Schmidtburger of the Museum Schloss Friedrichstein, Bad Wildungen, Germany; Craddock Goins of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; Tom Wallace, William E. Meuse, and Stuart Vogt of the Springfield Armory National Historic Site, Massachusetts; Dr. Arne Hoffe and Dr. Arne Orloff of the T0jusmuseet, Copenhagen, Denmark; Robert Fisch, Mike Moss, and Mike McAfee of the West Point Museum, New York; Elizabeth Browning of the Valley Forge National Historic Park, Pennsylvania; Wolfgang Kramer of the Waffenmuseum, Suhl, Germany; Herbert Houze of the Winchester Museum, Buffalo Bill Historical Center, Cody, Wyoming; Ms. Lisa Compton of the Old Colony Historical Society, Taunton, Massachusetts; John R. Grimes of the Peabody Museum, Salem, Massachusetts; and Eugene Kosche of The Bennington Museum, Bennington, Vermont. Special gratitude goes to the students and collectors of arms, many of whom not only made the arms in their collections available for research but also shared the hospitality of their homes with the author: Peter A. Albee, Jim Altemus, John Echlin, Donald A. Euing, Edward and Helen Flanagan, Jay Forman, Bill Guthman, James D. Lavin, Robert Nittolo, Joseph Puleo, Jr., Henk Visser, W. Keith Neal, Edwin Gewirz, William LaRue, Warren T. Lewis, William Scollard, Harmon Leonard, John Hamilton, Al Thompson, Bill Reisner, Lewis H. Gordon, John F. Bicknell, William C. English, Robert E. Brooker, Jr., Ralph Reid, and John C. McMurray Finally, a very special debt of gratitude is owed to Warren T. Lewis, Anthony D. Darling, Arthur Nehrbass, and Steve Marvin, who spent countless hours reading the manuscript, correcting it, and suggesting changes. Without their

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

xv

help and continued consultations and support, this work could never have been published. There undoubtedly still are numerous errors and omissions in these pages. They are solely the fault of the author, not of the many people who contributed so much time and energy to help get this work ready for publication. G.D.M.

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INTRODUCTION The field of American military shoulder arms includes the muskets, rifles, carbines, musketoons, and blunderbusses used in the field by American armed forces. This volume also briefly describes some of the arms primarily designed for hunting that were used for military purposes, because during the early colonial period, and especially during the Revolutionary War, virtually any firearm that worked was used. It is impossible to understand the military shoulder arms of the 17th and 18th centuries without some knowledge of the military, political, and social background of the period. The circumstances of the arms' production and use are particularly significant. The vast majority of the arms used in North America until the end of the Revolutionary War were imported from Europe or were rebuilt in America from components of European manufacture. Very few arms were wholly of American manufacture. There were no regulation models of shoulder arms in the major European countries until the early 18th century. Prior to this, many governments specified caliber and barrel length, and sometimes a few other details. The basic configurations of the muskets and carbines used by the armed forces were largely determined by custom as interpreted by the makers of those arms. They defy categorization in 20th-century terms. Even many of the regulation arms of the 18th century are difficult to categorize. Sometimes the dates attributed to arms in this text are those of the first recorded reference to the arms. The arms may well have preexisted these dates. Prior to 1689-1691 the American colonists' military use of arms was primarily against Indians and, less often, against foreign colonies. Thereafter, until the Revolutionary War, over one hundred thousand British North American colonists, and many additional thousands of French colonists, saw service in wars between European rulers. Many served outside their colonies, elsewhere in the New World. They were often armed and equipped by the military forces with whom they served. These colonial arms, combined with the British, French, and Spanish arms used during the American Revolution, make the inclusion of the regulation and nonregulation military arms of these European nations an integral part of this work.

REGULATION MODELS AND TYPE DESIGNATIONS Prior to the 18th century, only the caliber and sometimes the barrel length, lock, or other features for military arms were specified in a government's contract with gunmakers. Most countries allowed the regimental commanders to procure

xvin

INTRODUCTION the arms for their own regiments. The configuration of the arms produced was generally in conformity with the accepted contemporary style in that country, as interpreted by the individual arms maker, and could be modified by the regimental commander's whim. Early in the 18th century there was a growing recognition in several European countries that greater uniformity was required in the shoulder arms used by their military and naval forces. To achieve this, a pattern arm was approved by central authority, often by the country's ruler, and all arms procured were to be fabricated after this pattern. In France royal manufactories were established to provide the production control necessary to manufacture large quantities of regulation shoulder arms. The operations of these manufactories were under the control of a governmentappointed inspector. Similar systems were used in several of the German states. In England the Ordnance established ever-increasing control over the private component manufacturers and arms assemblers through a system of proof and inspection during various stages of manufacture. Early British arms were designated in terms of the service in which they were used. As time passed, terms such as "muskets for land service," "muskets for sea service," or "carbines for horse" gave way to "land pattern muskets," "sea service muskets," and "horsemans carbines." In France a year-model designation was added during the 18th century, which gave rise to designations such as "Model 1717 Infantry musket" or "Model 1728 Rampart musket." The year-model usually referred to the year in which the pattern was approved as a regulation model. It should be understood that the use of the term "model" in designating a particular arm presupposes not only the existence of regulation models of arms but also indicates that the particular arm was fabricated in conformity with an officially approved or adopted pattern. Arms that are not the regulation models of a given country are not designated in this text with the word "model." They are usually identified with only the year in which their purchase or contract was authorized. Examples of these are the French 1696 contract naval musket and the 1729 contract grenadier musket. During the course of production of a particular model of arm, changes and modifications were frequently incorporated. Some of these resulted from improving technologies; others resulted from improvements learned from experience with the arms in the field. These changes and modifications within a model were frequently not considered important enough to require the formal adoption of a new model of arm, although they may have resulted in one or more distinguishable variations within the model. In order to identify the specific variations within a particular model of arm, arms students have divided them into "types." This enables arms students to distinguish between the various configurations that may be encountered in a model for the purposes of study and communication. These arms types sometimes refer to various periods of manufacture. However, they usually refer to specific modifications or improvements incorporated into an arm. In this text these modern types are enclosed in parentheses to differentiate them from the arms' official designations, which were contem1

The British used the term "pattern."

INTRODUCTION porary with their use. Examples are the British Long Land Pattern (Type I) musket and the Long Land Pattern (Type II) musket.

NOTES REGARDING MEASUREMENTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS In order to eliminate unnecessary words, the words "long" and "wide" have been deleted from the text unless absolutely necessary for comprehension. In accord with generally accepted practice, arms are described as having the muzzle at the highest, or forward, end; the butt is in the lowest, or rearward, end. Therefore, the upper barrel band is the band nearest the muzzle, and the rear face of the frizzen is the face that is struck by the flint. In order to promote consistency, the specifications presented usually represent measurements made by the author and only occasionally are those reported by others. In rare instances, it was impossible to locate an example of the arm to be described, and specifications were obtained from published sources. The specifications of even regulation models of military shoulder arms made into the second quarter of the 19th century vary from one example to another. Whenever possible, several examples of a particular model or type of arm have been measured, and the specifications given show the usual parameters encountered for most components. Occasionally, these specifications represent a composite of the measurements of a specific component in several different arms. Although there were variations commonly exceeding an inch in many arms made prior to the late 18th century, all measurements have been taken to the nearest one-sixteenth of an inch. It is the fractional definition that can be most commonly used until the end of the 19th century. It is also the smallest fraction that can be measured feasibly by many collectors and students of arms with the usual instruments at their disposal. SPECIFICATIONS Caliber: This is the nominal caliber of the arm and may or may not be closely related to the bore diameter. Although the caliber of an arm is usually denominated in terms of its bore diameter, sometimes the caliber was denominated in terms of the diameter of the ball used, which was usually somewhat smaller. Overall Length: The length of entire arm without bayonet, as read from a measuring tape extending from the muzzle to the butt. This varies slightly from the European system of measuring overall length, which is to stand an arm on its butt next to a wall and measure the arm's height up the wall. Barrel Length: The distance from the muzzle to the flat breech of the barrel. This measurement does not include the barrel tang. Bore Diameter: Whenever possible, bores were measured with an inside micrometer approximately 4" behind the muzzle. Muzzle Extension: The distance the muzzle projects beyond the stock's forend.

xix

xx

INTRODUCTION

Lockplate: The overall length of the plate and its width measured at the widest point, not including an integral pan's fence. The width measurement was usually made immediately behind the pan. Cock: Measured from the bottom of the body to the top of the tang. It does not include the jaw screw, which usually projects above the tang. Pan: The term "faceted" is used to describe pans whose lower and side external surfaces are composed of a series of flats. These pans have sometimes been described as "V-bottomed," or "flattened V-bottomed." Frizzen: The dimensions given are for the rear face (the face facing the butt). Butt Plate: The width measurement is at the widest point. Unless otherwise noted, butt plates are usually retained by a wood screw through the tang and another through the lower part of the rear. Barrel Band Spacing: The specifications given are for the distance from the breech to the rear of the lower band and from the rear-tx>rear of succeeding bands, as measured along the top of the barrel. Barrel Band Retainers: The length given is of the portion of the springs not concealed by the barrel band. Sling Swivels: If a measurement is given, it refers to the horizontal inside diameter of the swivel. Swivel Ring: The diameter is measured from the center of the metal forming the ring, not its outside or inside diameters. Ramrod: It should be noted that the majority of ramrods in arms made before the beginning of the 19th century are not original to the arms containing them, although some may be of the correct style and period. Where a ramrod is known to be a replacement, this is noted in the description. Stock Length: The distance between the butt and the foretip, including the butt plate and forend cap, if the arm is so equipped. Stock Comb: The distance from the butt, including the butt plate, to the nose. The comb height is the vertical measurement from a line projected rearwards along the top of the wrist's profile to the top of the comb's nose. PHOTOGRAPHS One of my frustrations as a beginning collector was that there were no photographs of many arms described by some of the early authors in the field. Some authors, like Major James E. Hicks, used the superb drawings of Andre Jadot to illustrate his work. Those drawings are works of art, and through them Hicks was able to illustrate many components and component relationships that are impossible to photograph. Unfortunately, some more recent authors have also illustrated their books with drawings that, although artistic, sometimes distort the proportions of the arms. Even worse, artistic license was used to create missing components or to replace components not original to the arm with components believed to be correct by the artist. An extreme example of this is one instance where a Waters "flat lock" percussion pistol was drawn as a flintlock, even though this pistol was never made in this ignition system. Even photographs can distort the proportions of arms, depending upon the lens used. In order to minimize this, the majority of illustrations in this work are

INTRODUCTION photos taken by the author using a 35-mm camera equipped with a 50-mm or 55'inm lens. Unfortunately, many photographs had to be taken in less-than-ideal circumstances, with inadequate or poorly located lighting. Many photographs were taken in basements and attics of museums and private homes; others were taken in cramped, dark store rooms or workshops. It is because of these conditions than the quality of too many of the illustrations is lower than I would have liked to present. They do, however, represent the best obtainable under the circumstances. Some of the arms illustrated in this volume are equipped with slings, which are incorrect.

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS VOLUME I

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PART I COLONIAL ARMS

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AMERICAN COLONIAL. ARMS HISTORY

012.

Some historians divide North American history, between Columbus's discovery of the New World and the outbreak of the American Revolution, into three time periods. The pre-colonial period extended from 1492, the year of Columbus's discovery, to 1607, the year the first successful English colony was established. The first colonial period extended from 1607 until about 1691, and the second colonial period extended from 1691 to the Revolutionary War. The pre-colonial period was characterized by numerous explorations by various European powers. These were frequently military in nature. Only Spain was successful in establishing a large colonial population in North America. The first colonial period was characterized by the initial establishment of settlements by other major European powers. These settlements were usually commercial or religious ventures and were administered by commercial companies, which were granted monopoly rights to the territory by means of royal charters. The period was also characterized by frequent battles and skirmishes between settlers and groups of Indians as the settlers encroached on Indian lands and took the available game. During much of this time the white population was outnumbered and was constantly on the defensive. The second colonial period was characterized by the expansion and multiplication of these settlements and their populations. During this period many of the colonies achieved provincial status or at least were administered as provinces. The colonists often fought different enemies under different conditions. In addition to the Indian threat, substantial numbers of colonial militia were raised to fight wars within, and outside of, their colonies. Their enemies were not just the Indians: they were the regular armies and colonial militias of other European powers. During this period, over 107,000 men from Britain's North American colonies alone served under the Union Jack. Additional tens of thousands of French and Spanish colonists also fought for their colonies' rulers.1

PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD, 1492— 16O7

012.2

Because the early Spanish explorations were military in nature, most of the explorers brought suits of plate armor, mail, and helmets. Almost all of these men had swords, although some had pikes or halberds. These polearms were unwieldy in the rough, forested, new world, and were almost useless against an enemy who fought as the American Indian did. The crossbow was the most

A brief military history of colonial America is presented in Appendix 1.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

4

widely used projectile weapon during the early explorations, but most expedi^ tions also had a few matchlock harquebuses, Cortes's 1519 conquest of Mexico included 508 soldiers. Thirty-two of these were crossbowmen, and only twelve were arquebusiers.2 Pizzaro had 177 men in his 1533 conquest of Peru. Twenty were armed with crossbows and only three with firearms. When compared to the light Indian bows, both the crossbow and matchlock were slow to reload and were difficult to use against an enemy who was always changing position. Like the polearms, these were weapons of European linear tactical warfare, where armies faced each other across open ground and charged, or received a charge, en masse. The Indians did not allow the colonists to use linear tactics. They preferred to do battle using the tactics of ambush and surprise attacks. As a result, the Spanish weapons were often inferior in combat to the Indians' bows and stone-tipped weapons. One of the men in De Soto's 1539 expedition in Florida complained: "They never stand still, but are always running and traversing from one place to another; by reason whereof neither crossbow or arcubuse [sic] can aim at them; and before one crossbowman can make one shot, an Indian will discharge three or four arrows; and he seldom misses what he shoots at."3 The crossbow had several advantages over the matchlock musket: it could be used in wet weather, was fairly silent, did not require the continual ignition of a glowing slow match, and was more accurate. Its main disadvantage was probably that it fired only a single projectile. The muskets were commonly loaded with as many as twelve shot. The crossbow was gradually phased out during the 16th century, and the matchlock harquebus became the primary projectile arm by around 1550. However, a few crossbowmen were still included in a return of personnel to the Spanish forts of Saint Augustine and Santa Elena (now in Florida) in the 1570s. The last known reference to the use of crossbows in North America was in a proposal for equipment to be used in the New Mexico expedition of 1596. There are no records of any crossbows actually being included in that expedition's equipment.

FIRST COLONIAL PERIOD, 16O7—1691

012.5

For their protection, the English colonies placed strong emphasis on the military, and almost every able-bodied man was subject to being called up for watch duty or to defend the settlement in case of attack. Although some weapons were held as "public stores" by the colonies, each man was generally required to

2

3

Spanish references to shoulder firearms in the early 16th-century expeditions to the New World often referred to the shoulder arms used as escopetas. They were, however, early forms of the harquebus described later in the text. Quoted by Harold L. Peterson in "Firearms of the Early American Colonists," The American Rifleman (January 1951). Language has been modernized to facilitate readability.

AMERICAN COLONIAL ARMS HISTORY

supply his own weapons and equipment. Because of this, prospective colonists to Virginia in the early 17th century were advised to bring with them: A suit of light armor Sword and belt A "piece" (shoulder arm) of near musket bore, 5' to 5Vz' long Bandoleer for ammunition 20 Ibs of gunpowder and 60 Ibs of shot or lead The colonists who established Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607, primarily brought arms with matchlock ignition and a few arms with mechanical ignition, such as wheel-locks and snaphances.4 The use of some wheel-lock and snaphance arms in this settlement has been verified by archeological evidence. This archeological evidence indicates that the snaphance system was the most common ignition system used at Jamestown. A 1609 report of Captain John Smith included: "300 [matchlock] muskets, snaphances and firelocks, shot, powder and match sufficient." Because the English government had an inherent interest in the success of its colonies, it supplied a large portion of the military equipment used by the colonies. Following the massacre in Virginia in 1622, the following items were sent from the Royal Arsenal in the Tower: 400 300 700 300 1,000 40 400

Bows and 800 sheafs of arrows Arquebuses Calivers Short pistols with firelocks Brown bills Plate coats Shirts and coats of mail

The English long bow was more accurate and faster to reload than the matchlock musket, although it lacked the psychological impact of the smoke, fire, and noise. The Virginia colonists feared that the Indians would be able to improve their own relatively low-powered bows after observing the long bows, so they requested that the long bows from the Tower be unloaded in Bermuda. The colonists wore light armor when on various forms of military duty and when traveling. This armor often consisted of a helmet in conjunction with back and breast plates and thigh armor. Because heavy plate armor inhibited extended travel and fast movement, light armor was preferred. Often a combination of mail armor and a buff leather coat was worn, as it could deflect the stone-tipped weapons of the Indians. 4

5

Although "snaphance" now refers to a specific variation of the flintlock system, it was used in the 17th century to describe any of the flintlock ignition system variations. "Firelock" was a term used after the introduction of firearms with mechanical ignition, such as wheel-locks and the many variations of the flintlock, to distinguish these arms from matchlock arms.

S

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

6

Following the 1622 massacre by the Indians in Virginia, an inventory was made in 1624 and 1625 of the arms, ammunition, and equipment owned by the 940 male and 269 female settlers. This inventory included the following: 20 47 981 55 6 342 260 20 429 1,120 9,657

"Pieces of ordnance" (cannon) Matchlock arms Shoulder arms with mechanical locks (wheel-locks and flintlock variations) Pistols Petronels Armor, complete Coats of mail and headpieces Quilted coats and buff coats Swords Pounds of gunpowder Pounds of shot

The public military stores for 100 men, which the Massachusetts Bay colonists intended to take with them when they sailed from England in 1626, included the following: 80 10 90 6 4 10 4 2 3 100 60 8

Bastard snaphance muskets, 4' barrels, without rests Full matchlock muskets, 4' barrels, with rests Bandoleers for the muskets, each with a bullet bag Long fowling pieces of musket bore, 6l/i' long Long fowling pieces of bastard musket bore, 5Vz' long Horn flasks for the fowling pieces, 1 Ib capacity Barrels of powder for the above arms Partizans for the captain and lieutenant Halberds for sergeants Swords and belts Corsletts, 60 pikes, and 20 half-pikes Assorted cannon, for the fort, also appropriate shot and 8 barrels of gunpowder for them

The matchlock musket of the early 17th-century English military was a heavy, clumsy weapon with a barrel commonly 4' to 4Vz' long. These arms were usually very heavy, and the musketeer used a forked rest as an aid in aiming. In the latter part of the 16th century, the matchlock "caliver" was introduced. This was a somewhat lighter weight shoulder arm, with a smaller diameter bore. At the time the British North American colonies were settled, it is possible that these calivers were referred to there as "bastard muskets." A more complete description of these arms is given later in this text, in the sections describing harquebuses and matchlock muskets. By the late 1630s or early 1640s, most of the English North American colonies had passed laws that specified that each able-bodied man must possess a musket, bandoleer, appropriate powder and bullets, and a sword. These items

AMERICAN COLONIAL ARMS HISTORY

were to be kept ready and were to be brought with the colonist should he be called to duty. In 1645 the Massachusetts General Court passed the following law, which further defined the shoulder arms to be furnished by the colonists subject to military duty:6 It being requisite upon all inhabitants within this jurisdiction should endeavor after such arms as may be most useful for their own and their country's defense, it is therefore ordered that no pieces shall be allowed for service, in trained bands, but such as are either full musket bore, or bastard musket bore at least, and that none should be under 3 feet 9 inches, nor above 4 feet 3 inches in [barrel] length, and that every man shall also have a priming wire, a worm, and scourer, fit for the bore of his musket.

During the first half of the 17th century, both matchlock and mechanical ignition systems (firelocks) were used. In the early years of this period, colonists relied primarily on the matchlock, which had several inherent weaknesses: 1. The "slow match," a loosely twisted flaxen rope that had been soaked in potassium nitrate and dried, had to be kept glowing — a difficult task in inclement weather. 2. The glowing match was visible at night, which clearly indicated to the Indians the number and location of guards on watch in a settlement. 3. The match was normally carried apart from the musket. Before firing, it was placed in its holder on the lock, called a serpentine, and secured by a thumbscrew. The pan cover could be slid open as the weapon was brought up for sighting. These operations required some precious seconds, which a victim of a surprise attack or ambush might not have. As the superiority of the wheel-lock and various flintlock systems became apparent, their use spread rapidly. The wheel-lock and snaphance were the earliest of the mechanical lock systems to be used. They were replaced in the English colonies by the English lock, which was probably the most widely used system during the last half of the 17th century. Archeological research has turned up a number of these locks in excavations in Rhode Island, Massachusetts, central New York State, as well as in Yorktown and Jamestown, Virginia. As early as 1646, the Plymouth colony required that all public arms be equipped with firelocks, although matchlocks could be privately owned. In 1649 the New Haven colony followed suit, and only firelocks were allowed as public arms. In addition, a program for the alteration of matchlock arms to mechanical ignition was undertaken in that colony. Not all colonial militias were armed with firelocks at this time. For example, the wording of the 1664 New York Militia Law clearly indicates that both matchlocks and firelocks were acceptable for militia service.

6

The language has been modernized to facilitate readability.

7

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

8

The true flintlock, described later in this text, was introduced in North America during the second half of the 17th century, and it ultimately replaced all other ignition systems. The terms "snaphance" and "firelock" continued to be used in contemporary documents to describe arms with any variations of the flintlock. There is archeological evidence that the Swedes used matchlock arms and a few arms with a Swedish variation of the flintlock, known as the "snaplock," in their settlements along the lower Delaware between 1638 and 1655. Like the flintlock, some snaplocks have a frizzen that is integral with the pan cover, although others are separate. The snaplock usually has an external mainspring. When the Dutch established their colonies, they were primarily armed with matchlock weapons. There is only a little archeological evidence of wheel-lock arms. During this relatively short colonization period, the snaphance system was introduced in North America. A few of these locks have been found by archaeologists at sites of Dutch settlements. In 1656, the year after the Dutch capture of the lower Delaware from the Swedish, the following military stores were among the supplies sent from Holland to the "South River of New Netherlands": 75 75 75 75 75 2,000 600 400

(Matchlock) muskets Firelocks or snaphances Bandoleers and cartridge boxes Swords and sword belts Hangers and saber belts Pounds of gunpowder Pounds of lead Pounds of musket balls

The Dutch had standardized the bore diameters of their shoulder arms in the early 17th century. Matchlock muskets had 12 gauge (or about .75" diameter) bores, and wheel-lock and flintlock variation muskets had 16 gauge bores. These 16 gauge bores were .662" diameter, and used a .650" (17 gauge) ball. The Spanish relied heavily on the miquelet ignition system, and it was widely used in their settlements and forts in Florida and the Southwest. Very few miquelets were apparently used by the colonists from northern Europe; only a few have been located in excavations of non-Spanish settlements. From about 1718 to 1719, the Spanish used true flintlocks in their regulation muskets, although miquelet locks continued in use in the quasi-military escopetas used in the northern provinces of New Spain (now Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California). The miquelet lock was reintroduced into the production of Spanish regulation shoulder arms in 1784* Little is known of the shoulder arms supplied before 1664 by the French commercial monopoly companies to defend the colonies in New France. Privately procured matchlock muskets probably were used throughout this period. When the French Royal Infantry arrived in Quebec City during the summer of 1665, they were also largely armed with matchlock muskets. The CarignanSalieres Regiment, which served in Canada from 1665 to 1668, was the first infantry regiment entirely armed with flintlock muskets. It has also been reported

AMERICAN COLONIAL ARMS HISTORY

9

that one-fifth of the French Royal Infantry who served in Canada between 1665 and 1671 were ultimately armed with flintlock muskets equipped with plug bayonets. Because these muskets were equipped with bayonets, no pikemen were sent to New France with the musketeers in 1665, although France, like other European powers, used them in armies on the continent. The earliest known use of flintlock muskets in the French regular army was their issue to soldiers assigned to guard artillery at some date prior to 1650. The flintlock was preferred to the matchlock because the lit match posed a hazard in the vicinity of exposed cannon powder. In 1667 grenadiers armed with flintlock muskets were introduced into the French Army at the rate of four or five per infantry company. In 1670 entire companies of grenadiers armed with flintlock muskets were created. The use of flintlock muskets by the remainder of the French infantry was specifically prohibited until 1676, when France began to replace the matchlock muskets in the hands of the infantry. Although officially abolished in the French Army in 1699, matchlock muskets would remain in the hands of some units until well into the 18th century. The existence of carbines in English North American colonies has been noted in earlier documents, but it is not known whether they were privately owned or were brought over as "public arms." In 1656 the Council of Maryland ordered the purchase of the following items in England and their distribution to the various counties in the colony: 140 50 140 400 4,200

Snaphance muskets, of "high caliber" bore, and 24 bullet molds for them Horseman's carbines and 24 bullet molds in carbine caliber Cutlasses and belts Pounds of gunpowder Pounds of shot or lead

In 1673, due to the threat of an Indian uprising, the General Court of Massachusetts authorized a Mr. Hezekiah Usher to purchase "500 new snaphances or firelock muskets" in England. When the Indian uprising, called King Phillip's War, erupted in 1675, the Massachusetts Council of War ordered that all pikemen arm themselves with firearms and all cavalry arm themselves with carbines. Blunderbuss arms were introduced in England early in the 17th century, but the first known mention of them in North America was in a 1678 inventory of the military stores of the Maryland colony, which included 613 muskets, 177 carbines, and one blunderbuss.

SECOND COLONIAL PERIOD, 1691-1775

012.8

As noted under "English Colonies" in Appendix I, over 107,000 men from the British North American colonies served in the British armed forces between 1691 and 1763. They served in the colonial units raised by the Crown to augment the British

to

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

regular army. The colonial units were usually under the command of English officers, who often considered the colonists unreliable in combat. It is true that the American troops lacked discipline by European standards and lacked training in European linear tactics. The American militia system, which had been patterned after its English counterpart, was used to improve the quality of the colonial troops. Both New Jersey and Virginia colonies developed well-disciplined and well-equipped militias. This discipline was important, as linear tactics placed great value on massed firepower, not accuracy. The infantry (or foot) regiments were drilled in mass movement and rapid reloading so that segments of an army could be brought into position and ideally deliver a sustained rate of fire of four shots per minute. The enemy during the second colonial period was not just Indians, but other white men who massed in open fields or behind fortifications. This enemy was often from other European countries. From available information it appears that in the 1690s some of the North American colonial troops supplied their own muskets. Some were also supplied from their colony's public stores or from the British Ordnance Department. From the beginning of the 18th century, British Ordnance supplied almost all of the arms used by the colonial troops raised for British service. When called upon to send arms to the North American colonies, the Board of Ordnance often sent obsolete weapons or arms purchased on the continent that it considered inferior. The newest English-made muskets were conserved for use by the British regular army. As noted in the previous section, matchlock arms had been considered obsolete as military weapons in the British North American colonies since the mid-17th century, and none had been allowed as public arms. Many of the European countries were slower to change over to firelocks. European warfare did not stress the ambush and the surprise attack common in North America, so they were less motivated to change over to the instantly ready mechanical ignition systems. The last matchlock muskets in the hands of the British line regiments were not withdrawn until the reign of Queen Anne (1702-1714). The bayonet was introduced into American military service in the late 17th century. The earliest known specific issue of bayonets to North America was the flintlock muskets with bayonets issued to some of the French Royal Infantry in Canada in 1666. The "plug" bayonet was the earliest form and had been used with military arms in Europe since the 1640s. Its round, tapered handle was inserted into the musket's muzzle. The angular socket bayonet, which had a sleeve that enclosed the muzzle and was secured by a stud on the muzzle, was introduced in North America around 1700. In 1694 the Maryland Council of War ordered a quantity of arms from England. Included in this order were 100 grenadiers' fusils and "Bayonets fit for the bore of these fusees." The earliest known reference to angular socket bayonets in North America was just seven years later. In 1701 the Massachusetts General Court ordered that the Boston regiment be furnished with a "goose-necked bayonet, with a socket, instead of a sword or cutlass." Angular socket bayonets were universally used in the colonial militias by the early 1740s. Angular socket bayonets superseded plug bayonets in the various French North American

AMERICAN COLONIAL ARMS HISTORY

colonies as follows: Placentia in 1708, Louisiana in 1716, and the remainder of French Canada in 17 2 L The advent of the bayonet simplified the military maneuvers of the European armies' linear tactics by eliminating pikemen. Previously, one-third to one-half of the men in a given infantry unit had been pikemen. The elimination of the pikemen from military formations substantially increased the fire power of a given unit without increasing its total number of men. The free companies, who served in North America as the sole French infantry from the 1680s to 1755, were armed with muskets procured by the Ministry de la Marine (navy). It is believed that many were armed with matchlock muskets when they first arrived in the early 1680s. The matchlocks were quickly replaced with flintlock muskets in all of the free companies, except those in Placentia. The free companies there did not receive flintlock muskets until just before 1700. By this time, the flintlock musket procured by "La Marine" was the 1697 navy musket. Descriptions of this and subsequent models of French regulation flintlock arms are in the Revolutionary War import arms sections of this text. The British maintained a number of arsenals in the North American colonies from which to supply the colonial militia and the regular army troops who served in the colonies. A 1702 inventory of the military stores in Fort William Henry, included the following: Armory: 134 Slung pieces 485 New firelocks 258 Old firelocks 127 Matchlocks 5 Carbines 125 Bayonets Great Room: 189 Firelocks or carbines for dragoons 6 Brass blunderbusses New Store Room: 147 Firearms, some broken and others without locks 29 Musket barrels 30 Locks for guns That same year the British sent the following arms from the Tower to arm 1,000 foot (infantry) and 400 horse (cavalry) troops in Virginia: 1,000 7 o

Snaphance muskets

European linear tactics are described in Appendix 2. This is not the fort with the same name built in 1755 at the south end of Lake George in upper New York. The inventory was made at a fort erected by the Dutch in 1615 at the present site of the U.S. Customs House at the foot of Broadway in New York City. The English succeeded to the fort when they took over the Dutch colony in 1664.

11

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

12

1,000 400 400 400 1,000 400

Cartridge boxes Carbines Belts with swivels for carbines Pairs of pistols with (saddle) holsters Swords and waist belts, for foot Swords and shoulder belts, for horse

Throughout much of the 18th century, the British sent tens of thousands of regulation arms to the North American colonies to arm the colonial troops. Additional thousands of muskets were also sent to arm loyalist forces during the American Revolution. Furthermore, many royal governors purchased arms in England for their colonies' defense. An example of this is the items supplied to the governor of Maryland Colony between 1694 and 1699 by Isaac Miller, who was identified as an armorer for the colony, but who is believed to have been a merchant or agent in the procurement of these arms in England:9 20 20 56 18 150 16

Muskets with good strong English-fashioned locks with 3 back catches Carbines of high caliber bore, 3'2" long with belts, bars and swivels Fusees with round locks, walnut tree stocks with straps at 17 shillings Carbines with walnut tree stocks and round locks [total] £13/10/0 Fusees, hand mortars, hand grenades, gun powder Bayonets at 18 pence each

Miller also supplied pistols, powder, accoutrements, and tools to the governor. During the Seven Years' War (1754-1763), the British issued obsolete English-made regulation muskets and muskets purchased in Holland to the British North American colonial regiments. In 1754 the ordnance stores of Sir Edward Braddock included 1,000 Dutch muskets with wood ramrods and 1,000 Long Land Pattern muskets with single-bridle locks and wood ramrods to be issued to the 2,000 new recruits of the Fiftieth (Shirley's) and Fifty-first (Pepperell's) regiments raised in North America. Also in 1754, 3,000 Dutch muskets were sent to the governor of North Carolina. In 1756, 500 Dutch muskets were sent to Georgia. (Additional information regarding these Dutch muskets is in Section 065.40 In 1756,3,741 Long Land Pattern muskets, believed to have had single-bridle locks and wood ramrods, were sent to the Royal American Regiment. The Royal American Regiment was originally raised as the Sixty-second, but was later renumbered as the Sixtieth Regiment. The muskets were considered to be unfit for regular British line regiments. (Information on and description of the regulation British shoulder arms used in North America are in the "British Military Shoulder Arms" section of this work.)

Q

James B. Whisker, "The Gunsmith's Trade," The Gun Report (March 1992), 50. Language has been modernized for readability.

IGNITION SYSTEMS OF COLONIAL ARMS

MATCHLOCK

015.

015.2

The matchlock system takes its name from the "slow match" used to ignite the priming powder. Because the hand cannon, which was ignited by a hot wire or glowing ember, required the shooter to remain in some proximity to a fire, the invention of the slow match provided the shooter with a degree of mobility not previously possible. This match is usually a length of loosely twisted flaxen rope that has been soaked in a potassium nitrate solution and dried. Once lit, the end of the match glows like a cigarette. The nitrate assures a hot, red ember. The slow match is placed in the lock's match holder, or "serpentine," prior to firing, and the pivoting pan cover is opened, exposing the priming powder. Pulling the trigger causes the glowing end of the match to be rotated rearwards and downwards until it ignites the priming powder. Early matchlocks, from about 1520 to the mid-17th century, usually had flat-surfaced, generally rectangular-shaped lockplates with squared corners. The pan was attached to the barrel and was not a component of the lock. The lock has a long lever inside, which extends from the trigger at the rear to the serpentine at the front. This lever pivots on a screw through its middle and is connected by linkage to the serpentine. A simple flat spring bears on the lever to keep its front end upwards. Pulling the trigger pivots the front end downwards and rotates the serpentine's head rearwards and downwards. The lockplates of matchlocks made from about 1660 often had convex surfaces. The plates also usually had rounded front profiles and rear profiles that

Plate 015.2-A Matchlock of Suhl-made musket, circa 1602. Note the simple, square-ended flat plate typical of early locks. The pan is attached to the barrel, not the lock.

14

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 105.2-B Interior of the Suhl musket's matchlock. The trigger exerts an upwards motion on the rear of the long lever, which pivots the front end downwards. The connecting link causes the serpentine's head to rotate rearwards and downwards.

Plate 015.2-C Lock of a French matchlock musket, circa 16801700. The front profile of the convex-surfaced plate is rounded, and its rear profile terminaes in an extended point. The pan assembly is integral with the plate. English military locks of this period were very similar in configuration.

Plate 015.2-D Interior of the French matchlock, With the exception of the snap matchlock introduced in England, there was little change in the matchlock's internal mechanism during the 17th century. The pan assembly's integral attachment stud is along the plate's upper edge.

IGNITION SYSTEMS OF COLONIAL ARMS

15

ended in a projecting point. The pan of the late matchlock was screwed or welded to the lockplate. The internal mechanism remained basically the same as the early matchlock. From 1662 to 1664 the British Ordnance procured limited numbers of matchlock muskets with sliding pan covers connected by linkage to the internal lever. This linkage slid the cover forward as the trigger was pulled, eliminating the necessity of manually opening the pan cover. Late in the matchlock period, a lock called the "snap matchlock" was introduced. This lock differed from previous locks in that it did not have linkage between the trigger and the serpentine. The serpentine of the snap matchlock was spring actuated. It was retained in its forward, cocked position against the tension of the spring by a sear that was disengaged by pulling the trigger. This was similar to contemporary wheel-lock or flintlock variation locks.

WHEEL-LOCK

015.5

The wheel-lock has been assigned both German and Italian origin. Its first known military use was reportedly in the siege of Parma in 1521. There is no information regarding its use in the German states until a number of years later. It was introduced into Holland and probably the other northwestern European countries around 1550. Early documents referred to wheel-lock arms, and those with subsequent ignition systems utilizing a flint, as "firelocks." Although it was introduced prior to the exploration and settlement of North America, the wheel-lock's military use was limited. This was due to a number of reasons: (1) because the cost of the wheel-lock was significantly higher than the matchlock's, its use in relatively low-cost military arms was limited by the military budgets of most European countries; (2) it is a complex mechanical system, which would be difficult to keep in repair in colonial settlements; and (3) the advent of the lower-priced, simpler, flintlock variation systems occurred shortly after the initial North American settlement period, and these systems were more suitable to the needs

Plate 015.5-AFrench wheel-lock, with external wheel mechanism, attributed to manufacture in the early 17th century. The external wheel is held in position on the square lug through its center by the pan at the top and by a small oval bridle at the bottom. The cock's head, which holds the iron pyrites necessary for ignition, is under downwards pressure from the "V" spring at the front of the plate, against the upper surface of the sliding pan cover. When the trigger is pulled the pan cover slides forward, and the pyrites bear directly on the edge of the rotating wheel. (United States Military Academy Museum Collection.)

16

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 015.5-B Interior of a wheellock. A rearwards pressure by the trigger on the small round lever visible between the upper and lower leaves of the mainspring causes the sear to withdraw from the wheel, enabling it to rotate. The rotation of the internal tumbler pushes the pan cover's link (visible beneath the bridle) forward of the tumbler and slides the pan cover forward, exposing the wheel's upper edge and priming powder in the pan.

of the colonial militias. The wheel-lock's military usage was generally limited to the handguns and carbines used by cavalry, because firing a matchlock from horseback was almost impossible. A hardened steel wheel with a grooved, serrated circumference is mounted on the lock plate. The use of a special wrench or spanner allows the wheel to be wound about three-fourths of a revolution against the tension of an internal "V"-shaped mainspring. A horizontal sear engages a notch or hole in the inside surface of the wheel when it is fully rotated, securing it. The upper edge of the wheel projects into the bottom of the pan. The spark that causes the ignition of the priming powder is generated by this wheel rotating against a piece of iron pyrite, similar to the function of a cigarette lighter. Prior to firing, the pyrite holder is lowered to the top of the pan cover, where it is retained by the tension of an external spring. Pulling the trigger disengages the horizontal sear from the wheel, allowing it to rotate. Connecting linkage slides the pan cover forward, and the pyrite is brought to bear directly on the exposed upper edge of the rotating wheel. The scraping action of the rotating wheel's edge against the pyrite causes tiny, white-hot slivers, which are seen as sparks that ignite the priming powder. Early wheel-locks usually had an externally mounted wheel Later wheellocks usually had internally mounted wheels. Archeological evidence indicates that both types were used in the North American colonies.

FLINTLOCK VARIATIONS

015.8

In all of the flintlock variations the flint stone was held in the jaws of the "cock," which pivoted forward under the tension of a spring to strike the steel "frizzen." This action of flint striking or scraping steel caused tiny, white-hot slivers of steel, seen as sparks, to fly from the frizzen and ignite the priming powder in the pan.

IGNITION SYSTEMS OF COLONIAL ARMS

When the wheel-lock ignition system was introduced, it was often described as a "firelock," to distinguish it from the matchlock. When the later ignition systems, which use a flint stone, were introduced, they were all referred to in England as "snaphance." In this text all mechanical ignition systems made subsequent to the wheel-lock that use a flint stone to generate the sparks required to ignite the powder are described as "flintlock variations/' Until about 1712 the British Ordnance continued to refer to any of these flintlock variation systems as "snaphances." The term "firelock" continued to be used in the North American colonies when referring to any of the flintlock variations until after the American Revolution. It is believed that one of the reasons that the flintlock variations rapidly gained popularity in Britain and western continental Europe was the ample supply of good quality flints, especially in England and France. However, the German states continued to use the wheel-lock system, because the best quality pyrites were available there. The snaphance ignition system made its appearance shortly after the wheellock and spread throughout most of Europe. After its introduction into Holland, Britain, Spain, Sweden, and some other countries, it was improved upon. As time passed, the locks incorporating these improvements began exhibiting regional variations. Regional styling must be considered when seeking an exact definition of each of the flintlock variation ignition systems. The distinctions between the several flintlock variation locks are easily blurred if only the mechanical features are contrasted when defining each of them, because the improvements in the different regions often paralleled each other. There are a number of arms students who feel that the term "snaphance" should continue to be used to describe all of the flintlock variation ignition systems that were used prior to the appearance of the "true," or "French," flintlock. However, this is an overgeneralization because it fails to discriminate between the localized improvements on the snaphance system. The continued use of "snaphance" would be more regressive than definitive. This text will follow the recent lead of Arne Hoffe, who defined the snaphance as having a frizzen separate from the pan cover. It will also adhere to the most widely accepted definition of the "true" flintlock, which was established by Torsten Lenk and is presented later in this section. The most commonly encountered variations of mechanical locks that used a flint to generate a spark to ignite the priming powder are: snaphance lock, miquelet lock, English lock, snaplock, doglock, and the "true" or "French" flintlock. All of these locks directly or indirectly evolved from the snaphance. As time passed, each evolved further as improvements were made in the sear mechanism or in the configurations of other lock components, always with the goal of achieving a more durable lock with more dependable ignition. Also described here are a number of variations in some of these locks that evolved in parts of Europe. It is important to note that the names applied to most of these flintlock variations are modern. These terms have been applied by students of arms in order to define the ignition system variations more precisely.

17

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

18

Plate 015.81-A Snaphance lock. This lock is part of a musket that has been reconstructed by personnel at the United States Military Academy to demonstrate the configuration of these arms, as no surviving original examples are known. The frizzen is separate from the sliding pan cover, which is similar to those described for wheel-locks. The front of the cock rests against a buffer held by two screws to the plate. A rectangular hole is visible behind the cock. The sear passes through this hole to engage the "tail" at the rear of the cock when the cock is brought to the full-cock position. (United States Military Academy Museum Collection.)

SNAPHANCE

015.81

Although "snaphance" was used in British Ordnance records to describe any of the flintlock variations, in this text it refers to a specific ignition system that uses a flint and whose salient feature is that the pan cover is separate from the frizzen. This narrow definition of the ignition system was first used in an 1829 article by Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick and has been used by a number of writers since. The snaphance is a direct development from the wheel-lock. Like the wheel-lock, the snaphance lock has a horizontally acting sear and a horizontally sliding pan cover. After priming the pan, its cover is manually slid rearwards, closing it. The separate frizzen is then rotated rearwards. When the trigger is pulled, releasing the cock, internal linkage slides the pan cover forward, exposing the priming powder. As the cock pivots forward, the flint scrapes down the frizzen's face, causing sparks to fall into the exposed priming powder, igniting it. The internal linkage that slides the pan cover forward includes a push rod attached to a projection on the tumbler. Early snaphance locks have upward projections at the end of the upper leaf of the mainspring as guides for these rods. Later locks have projections downwards from the pan's inner surface, which guide the push rod. Snaphance locks have a horizontal sear that passes through the lockplate and engages an extension on the rear of the cock to hold the cock in full-cock position. They were also equipped with an external "buffer" screwed to the lockplate, which prevented the cock from pivoting forward past a pre-set point. The first references to snaphance locks are in Swedish and Italian records and date from 1547. Arne Hoff believes this system originated in the "borderland between France and Germany" (Alsace-Lorraine). Some others believe that it may have originated in France. The earliest reference to the use of the snaphance in England was in 1580, and the snaphance remained in use there for the first half of the 17th century. It would continue to be used around the Mediterranean for a number of years

Ignition Systems Of Colonial Arms

19

thereafter, Snaphances are listed among the first weapons brought to Virginia in 1607. Based on the archeological record, it was the most commonly used firearms ignition system at Jamestown. The earliest known British Ordnance procurement of muskets with snaphance locks was in 1601. However, surviving examples of British military snaphance muskets are virtually nonexistent. The reason for this was the introduction of the English lock circa 1650 and the subsquent alteration of British and American snaphance arms to this system. The Dutch appear to have continued to use the snaphance, modifying it primarily in configuration. The Dutch version of the snaphance lock most closely resembles the locks most commonly found on 18th- and 19th-century Arabian muskets, or “Kybil Jesails.” A secondary sear was probably introduced circa 1600 in snaphances fabricated in Italy. This horizontally acting secondary sear provided a “safety,” or half-cock, position. Miquelet Lock

015.83

The term “miquelet” was not used to describe this system during its period of use. Miquelet came into common usage during the 19th century. Dating from the 17th century, this lock was referred to in Spain as the patilla and was often referred to as the “Spanish lock” in other parts of Europe. The miquelet’s primary use in North America was in the Spanish colonies. Very few miquelet locks were used in the North American colonies of other major European powers. The earliest forms of the miquelet appear to have evolved from the Italian form of the snaphance as early as 1580. It had fully evolved by circa 1610. Several variations of this lock evolved in Spain. The most common form had external main and frizzen springs and two horizontally acting sears, which engaged the cock by protruding through the lockplate. Most locks had a separate frizzen spring. Other locks used the mainspring’s short upper leaf as the frizzen spring. Plate 015.83-A Late miquelet lock. This lock, from a Spanish Model 1789 infantry musket, has the improvement of a flash shield added to the outer edge of the pan. The cock has an external semicircular sear lug at the front. This engages the circular halfcock sear, visible just below the mainspring’s upper leaf, or the flat full-cock sear, whose end is visible above this leaf. Note that the external mainspring’s leaf exerts an upwards pressure on the tail at the rear of the cock and that the frizzen spring is separate. The frizzens of some miquelet locks are held in the closed position by pressure of the upper leaf of the mainspring. (John C. McMurray Collection.)

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. l

20

Another variation was the lock made primarily in Madrid from about 1700 to 1800, which differed from other forms of the miquelet in that it was equipped with an internal mainspring and a separate, external frizzen spring. These locks, sometimes referred to as "Madrid" locks, also had the two horizontally acting sears for the full-cock and half-cock positions. In all miquelet locks the frizzen is integral with the pan cover, and the sear functions horizontally. The combined frizzen and pan cover eliminated the separate operations of closing the pan and pivoting the frizzen rearwards. It also eliminated the linkage required to open the pan as the the arm was fired. The earliest miquelet locks were equipped with only a full-cock sear, and some had a manual safety. From the mid-17th century miquelet locks usually were equipped with two horizontally acting sears for the half-cock and full-cock positions. A variation of the miquelet lock now referred to as the "roman" lock evolved in Italy. The salient feature of this lock is that the mainspring's pressure bears upwards on the extended tail or "heel" of the tumbler rather than downwards on its nose. SNAPLOCK

015.84

Some arms students believe that the snaplock is the earliest flintlock variation. It may have evolved directly from the snap-matchlock rather than the snaphance. Limited numbers of snaplock arms were used in North America by the Swedes between 1638 and 1655. The Swedes, like the colonists of other European nations during this period, relied most heavily on the matchlock system. Early snaplocks have frizzens separate from pan covers and are properly defined as a snaphance variation. Later snaplocks have frizzens that are integral with the pan covers and have been reported with both horizontal and vertical sears. They differ from other systems, except the miquelet lock, in that the mainspring is usually externally mounted on the lockplate. Also, the strike of the cock on the frizzen is a more direct smashing action rather than a scraping one. These locks were used in Portugal, Sweden, and Russia. It is believed that the low quality of the flint in these countries led to this type of lock. An early Swedish snaplock musket, dating from 1600, is illustrated and described in Section 017.J. ENGLISH LOCK

015.86

As previously stated, the snaphance lock was introduced into England by 1580, and arms with this ignition system were first procured by British Ordnance in 1601. Recent research1 now indicates that an English variation of this lock, having an integral frizzen and pan cover, appears to have been introduced circa 1650. This lock, referred to in this text as the "English" lock, differed from the 1

Beverly A. Straube, Early British Firearms: A Re-Examination of the Evidence (Jamestown, Va.: James River Institute for Archeology, Inc., 1990).

IGNITION SYSTEMS OF COLONIAL ARMS

21

Plate 015.86-A The English lock is very similar to the snaphance, from which it evolved. It is distinctive because the frizzen is integral with the pan cover. The external buffer, which arrests the cock's forward motion, is screwed and pinned to the lockplate. An external pivoting safety catch secures the cock in the half-cock position. Note that the rectangular end of the horizontal sear is visible behind the cock.

snaphance in that it was equipped with a frizzen that was integral with the pan cover. This new research indicates that the English lock was developed in England in response to the mid-17th-century appearance of the French flintlock in England. The English lock incorporated the more advantageous external lock components of the flintlock while retaining the internal components of the snaphance. All forms of the English lock are equipped with variations of the horizontally acting sear of the snaphance as well as the integral frizzen and pan cover of the flintlock. They are also equipped with an external buffer that arrests the forward motion of the cock. Most, but not all, English locks are equipped with back catches to secure the cock in the half-cock position. The English lock was produced from circa 1650 to circa 1680, when it was superseded by the doglock and the true flintlock. When introduced, large numbers of existing snaphance arms were altered to the English lock system in

Plate 015.86-B Like most English locks, this one has been converted from snaphance. The triangular projecting stud at the top of the tumbler, from which the original sliding pan cover's pusher rod extended, is still largely intact. The pusher rod and the sliding pan cover's pivot linkage have been removed and the pivot screw hole filled. The pan was replaced. The trigger's rearwards pressure on the sear pivots its front end horizontally away from the plate. This not only disengages its front end from the bottom of the tumbler but also withdraws the rectangular sear that passes through the plate, disengaging it from the projection at the rear of the cock, both of which allow the cock to pivot forward under pressure from the mainspring.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

22

England. The existence of these arms, which had previously been unrecognized as alterations, has led arms students to erroneously believe that the English lock had been introduced in England as early as circa 1620. However, contemporary military manuals and surviving arms and archeological examples do not provide proof that the English lock existed prior to circa 1650. Altered arms may be recognized by one or more of several internal lock features, all of which relate to the snaphance's sliding pan cover: (1) a projecting stud on the tumbler, to which the rear of the pan cover push rod was attached; (2) a recess below the pan for a projection of the sliding pan cover's push rod; and (3) a threaded hole near the bottom of the plate, below the pan, for the sliding pan's pivot screw. Because the existence of these features was often obscured during alteration for aesthetic reasons, they may not be seen easily. The threaded hole for the pivot screw was often filled, and the projecting stud on the tumbler was often filed or ground off. Also, a new pan was often installed, which eliminated or obscured the recess beneath the original snaphance pan. To add to the confusion, some early English locks were newly fabricated using unfinished snaphance internal lock component forgings. During the thirty-year production period of the English lock, a number of changes were made to the lateral sear mechanism. A half-cock notch was added to the tumbler. The half-cock notch eliminated the necessity for the external back catch, sometimes called a "dog catch" or "safety dog." Also, the full-cock notch in the tumbler superseded the lateral sear that projected through the lockplate to engage a rearward projection on the cock when the cock was brought to the full-cock position. Contemporary British records invariably referred to this lock as a "snaphance." Many arms students still do. However, as previously discussed, the English lock is treated as a distinct, separate ignition type because its frizzen is combined with the pan cover. The evolution of the English locks made in Scotland paralleled changes made in England. In addition to the unique regional styling of the Scottish version of the English lock's components, the horizontally acting sear of this lock had an extended front projection that passed through the lockplate to engage the lower front edge of the cock and a second edge that engaged the internal tumbler in the half-cock position. This lock's cock is also equipped with the shoulder on the inside surface of the cock, as is described for the doglock. A number of shoulder arms with English locks have survived in American collections, and there is ample archeological evidence of their use in the British colonies. DOGLOCK

015.87

"Doglock" is a relatively recent term that has been used to describe every lock with a back catch, an English lock with a back catch, or a specific type of lock with an internal sear mechanism and no external buffer for the cock. In this text it is used to describe the later improvements on the English lock. Like the English lock, the doglock's frizzen is integral with the pan cover. The doglock featured an improved internal horizontal sear and tumbler mechanism or a vertical sear with full-cock notch only. It also had a shoulder on the inside surface of the cock,

IGNITION SYSTEMS OF COLONIAL ARMS

23

Plate 015.87-A The doglock's salient identifying features are an integral frizzen and pan cover, the safety catch, or "dog," behind the cock, and an integral shoulder on the cock's inner surface, which engages the upper edge of the lockplate and arrests the cock's forward motion. This shoulder eliminated the necessity for an external buffer on the lockplate.

which prevented it from pivoting forward past a preset point by engaging the upper edge of the lockplate as the cock pivoted forward. Therefore, the doglock differs visually from the English lock in that it does not have the external buffer described for the English lock. This internal shoulder appears to have been introduced in the late 1660s or early 1670s. Early doglocks were equipped with a horizontally acting sear, which acted directly on a tumbler with both the full- and half-cock notch. A very few doglocks used in muskets made from the 1680s have vertically acting sears. The tumblers of these locks have a full-cock notch only, and an external back catch secures the cock in the half-cock position. The doglock takes its name from this external back catch, or "dog," located behind the cock. This catch may be manually rotated forward so that a spur at its top engages a notch in the rear of the cock, securing it in the safety, or "half-cock," position. However, it should be remembered that the back catch had been used on many locks made for over half a century prior to the introduction of what is now referred to as the "doglock." The back catches of English

Plate 015.87-B Interior of doglock. The trigger's rearwards pressure on the cylindrical rear end of the sear horizontally pivots its front end away from the lockplate. This withdraws a projection of its nose, which passes through the plate, from engagement of the cock and allows the cock to pivot forward. Note that the tumbler serves only as a bearing surface for the mainspring of this particular lock and that it is pinned to a square lug integral with the cock, which passes inward through the lockplate. Some late doglocks are equipped with vertically acting sears and have tumblers with a full-cock notch only.

24

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 locks were usually manually disengaged in order to bring the cock to the full-cock position. Doglocks, especially those with vertical sears, are often confused with true flintlocks, which were equipped with a back catch, or safety dog. The distinction between the two is that the vertically seared tumbler of the doglock has only a full-cock notch; the tumbler of the true flintlock has both half-cock and full-cock notches. The doglock saw widespread use in the British North American colonies during the latter part of the 17th century and the early 18th century. TRUE, OR "FRENCH," FLINTLOCK

015.89

The true flintlock was first defined by Torsten Lenk in his 1939 book, Flintlaset, as a lock that has the frizzen integral with the pan cover, a vertically acting sear, and a tumbler with both a full-cock notch and a safety, or half-cock, notch. This definition is the one most widely accepted. However, Lenk's attribution of the earliest true flintlock to French gunmaker Marin le Bourgeoys circa 1610-1615 has been found to be in error. It now appears that the true flintlock was developed in France sometime between 1630 and 1638. The flintlock was introduced into England in the mid-17th century but did not gain widespread use in British or other European military muskets until later in the 17th century. Although some late 17th-century English flintlocks had convex-surfaced lockplates and cocks, most English military doglocks and true flintlocks of this period had flat-surfaced lockplates and cocks. Some cocks had reinforced throats with a hole in the middle, while others were of the "goose-neck" configuration (referred to by the English as "swan neck"). These flat-surfaced locks and cocks were gradually superseded in the British land service by convex-surfaced locks with convex-surfaced goose-neck cocks, which were used almost exclusively from 1720. Sea service arms continued to use flat-surfaced lockplates for a number of years thereafter.

Plate 015.89-A This early flintlock was made by Henry Dunkley, who worked in London from the 1660s to the 1680s. The flat-surfaced cock has a hole through its reinforced neck. It was made before the general introduction of the external bridle, which extends forward from the pan to support the frizzen screw's head. The plate is flat-surfaced with beveled edges forward of the cock and is convex-surfaced at the rear.

IGNITION SYSTEMS OF COLONIAL ARMS

In addition to the half-cock notch, some true flintlock arms of the late 17th and early 18th centuries had a safety dog, or back catch, which engaged the rear of the cock, securing it in the half-cock position as an additional safety. These flintlocks with back catches are externally identical to some doglocks and are often confused with them. The distinction between the two, albeit minor, is that the doglock's vertical sear has only a full-cock notch, whereas the the flintlock with back catch has two notches for the full- and half-cock positions. Most muskets examined that have horizontal sears do not have an external cock screw. The arms that have external cock screws usually, but not always, have vertical sears. Contemporary British and American documents referred to "bridled locks." There may be two bridles on a flintlock. The internal bridle supports the tumbler and sear screw. The external bridle extends forward from the pan to support the outer end of the frizzen screw. Although they were used much earlier in some sporting arms, the internal bridles appear to have been introduced into the production of British flintlock muskets before 1700, but the external bridle was not commonly used in military muskets until the 1720s.

25

Plate 015.89-B This French flintlock was made early in the 18th century. The trigger's upwards pressure on the rear of the sear causes the sear's nose to pivot downwards, disengaging it from the tumbler's notches and allowing the cock to pivot forward under tension of the mainspring. The tumbler is equipped with both full- and half-cock notches. This lock has an internal bridle to support the tumbler and sear. The bridle has a downwards-projecting "foot" at the bottom for added stability. This foot is a feature of French military regulation flintlocks until the 1740s.

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS1 017.

Several different types of shoulder arms were used by the colonial militias of the British North American colonies. Records of the early colonial period indicate that the militia relied on matchlock muskets, bastard muskets, and limited numbers of long fowlers. By the late 1620s, the "firelock" musket had begun to supersede the matchlock musket, and its use would be widespread within a decade. These firelocks included some wheel-locks and the flintlock variations described in the previous section. Limited numbers of carbines were used by mounted militia units, and even more limited quantities of blunderbuss arms were included in inventories of arms in the colonies at the beginning of the 18th century. Information on and descriptions of blunderbuss arms is included in the section on British regulation shoulder arms. Seventeenth-century military shoulder arms of any given type were only generally similar. The diversity stemmed from the period's crude manufacturing technologies and continuing improvement in the arms and their ignition systems. Most importantly, there were no "regulation models" of arms in that century. There were few definitive specifications set forth for military arms by a central authority. Until the first quarter of the 18th century, the British procured their military muskets through contracts let to a number of private gunmakers. Except for caliber and inspection standards, there were few parameters in the contract specifications. Therefore, although the gunmakers fabricated arms that were, in general, usually similar to each other, there were always numerous differences in many of the specifications from one military shoulder arm to the next. In addition, each British regimental commander had the option of drawing his regiment's arms from the Tower of London or of taking an equivalent value in cash and privately purchasing the arms. Private purchasing happened frequently and resulted in a wide variety of arms being used by the various regiments. The practice would continue until almost the end of the first quarter of the 18th century. Available information indicates that the individual regiments within the French Army also procured their own muskets and that the configurations of these arms was left to the discretion of the commander. As a result of the foregoing factors, the descriptions that follow are intended to serve only as a 1 This section describes shoulder arms used primarily by the militias of the British North American colonies from their establishment to the adoption of regulation models by England and France during the first quarter of the 18th century. Descriptions of the regulation models of European arms that saw service in North America are in later sections of this volume dealing with Revolutionary War import arms.

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

27

general guide in the description of these arms and to highlight some of the design and construction features common to each type. They cannot be considered as typical of all examples of a particular type of arm. There is one type of arm associated with the American colonial period that is not included in this section: the rifle. A limited number of hunting rifles were brought to the American colonies by immigrants from the several German states during the 18th century. Shortly before the American Revolution, some of these German immigrants began to make rifles for the settlers on the western fringes of the colonies. These rifles are included in the part of this text dealing with Revolutionary War arms. The description of the American long rifle is described in its own section, and the description of the German hunting, or "Jager," rifle is in the section on German states' arms.

THE HARQUEBUS

017A

It is interesting to note that the projectile arms of Christopher Columbus's 1492 expedition to the New World included the ships' cannons, a hand cannon, and a few crossbows. This expedition apparently did not anticipate any major involvement in land combat. There is some evidence that the shoulder firearms of Columbus's subsequent expeditions in the mid-1490s, and also used in Juan Ponce de Leon's 1508 conquest of Puerto Rico, were forms of hand cannon. Surviving documents consisting of orders, requests, and inventories of these arms refer to them as hacabuches and espinards, and mention their powder and ball, but no mention is made of slow match (medic or cuerda). This suggests that these arms were not equipped with matchlocks. During the first two decades of the 16th century, the Spanish hacabuche evolved into the arcabuche. By about 1520 the arcabuche was referred to as the arcabuz, and it was equipped with a matchlock. The matchlock harquebus, as it is now known in English, was the principal military shoulder arm in use throughout Europe and in New World explorations during most of the remainder of the 16th century. These early military harquebuses typically had barrels from 38" to 42" long, and their bore diameters were commonly in the .60 to low .70 caliber range. They weighed from 11 to 13 pounds and were light enough to be fired without a forked rest. Charles I of Spain (1500-1558) was crowned Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1520. Until 1556 he ruled as king of Spain and the Netherlands, Venice and Sicily, ruler of Germany and Austria, and lord of the Americas. Production of firearms flourished in Spain during his rule. Cannon, small arms, gunpowder, and the materials needed for their manufacture were purchased from England, Germany, Italy, Hungary, and the Low Countries. Large quantities of small arms were produced in Spain from the early 1530s. The caliber of royal military arms was standardized by 1533, over seventy years ahead of most other European countries. British and French 16th-century military harquebuses were generally similar to the Spanish. They were known by a variety of similar names: "hackbutt," "harquebutt," "hargobuss," uhookbutt," and "arquebuss." One contemporary

as

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 English text described them as arms with 39" barrels and bore diameters of 20 balls to the pound, or .65 caliber. SPANISH HARQUEBUS

Plate 017.A2-A Spanish matchlock harquebus circa 1550. This is the earliest form of matchlock shoulder arm. The butt's profile inclines sharply downwards at the rear. It is equipped with a tillertype trigger and a single band near the muzzle to retain the ramrod. (Photograph courtesy of James D. Lavin.)

Plate 017A2-B The harquebus's matchlock is equipped with a serpentine, whose head — which holds the slow match — is in the form of an animal's head, a feature common with most matchlocks. The serpentine's lower end, at the pivot, is in the form of a seashell. Note the tubular rear sight on the barrel's breech. (Photograph courtesy of James D. Lavin.)

017.A2

The Spanish harquebus illustrated here dates from about 1550. It is ironmounted and measures 55" overall. The 395/s" octagonal barrel has a .62" diameter bore and is secured to the forestock by two lateral pins and a barrel band. This band also serves to secure the front end of the tapered wood ramrod. The barrel's breech is secured by a 3/s "-thick breech piece with a short tang, into which is stamped the maker's cypher. The 37/i6" tubular rear sight is in the form of a man's head. The decorative front sight is 7/s" long. The pan, with its pivoting cover, is welded to the right side of the barrel's breech.

The HVs" flat-surfaced lock has decorative vertical grooves at the rear. It is secured by two sidescrews and its ends terminate in extended points. The lower end of the serpentine is in the form of a seashell and its jaws are in the form of an animal's head. The 9l/s" round, tiller-type trigger has no guard. There is no provision for butt plate, side plate, ramrod thimbles, or other furniture, except for the single-barrel band located near the muzzle. The walnut stock extends to iVs" of the muzzle. The butt's profile arcs significantly downward from the barrel's breech. The butt section is flat-sided, with convex upper and lower surfaces. The forearm section is convex-surfaced.

COLONIAL SHOULDER A R M S MATCHLOCK MUSKETS

29

017.C

What would later be referred to as the "full musket" appears to be of Italian origin. Its use is believed to have spread rapidly to Spain because the Spanish army included a large number of Italian mercenaries. By the 1570s references were made in Spanish documents to "large" and "small" harquebuses located in Spain and its New World colonies. The "large" harquebuses were probably the earliest "muskets." Early variations of the term "musket" appear to have been introduced into the language shortly thereafter. Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva (1508—1582), is generally credited with introducing the musket into northern Europe during his campaigns in the Netherlands between 1565 and 1581. The butts of these early muskets had widely flared or roughly triangular vertical profiles. These are now often referred to as "Spanish" butts. They were typically loaded with powder equal in weight to the ball, as it was felt that this large quantity of powder was necessary to cause sufficient velocity and energy to penetrate armor. The earliest British matchlock muskets were equipped with 54" barrels. Some time prior to 1628, the 48" barrel became standard. They had 10 gauge (.78") bores that fired 12 gauge (.73 ") balls. These very heavy, clumsy, muskets weighed over 14 pounds, and were fired from forked rests. They were later described as "full muskets." The diameters of the bores and balls of Dutch muskets were established in 1599 as being of the same size. After the introduction of the full musket, the term "harquebus" refered to a lighter arm, similar to the "caliver." Relatively few of the men armed with firearms in each unit were issued these heavy muskets. Most were armed with harquebuses or calivers. For example, in 1578 the Dutch Army had twelve "musketeers" and seventy-five "arquebusiers" in each company of foot. The Duke of Alva's army, mentioned earlier, had a ratio of fifteen musketeers to each one hundred arquebusiers. Arne Hoff, in Dutch Firearms, states that the arquebusiers of the Dutch army were equipped with calivers. The Dutch caliver is described by Hoff as an arm that is of smaller caliber and somewhat lighter than the musket, although generally of the same size and configuration. British calivers had 42" barrels (about 6" shorter than the full musket of the same period). To add to the confusion, some contemporary texts described the caliver as having the same bore diameter as the musket but being shorter, or as having a bore made to an approved standard with other, similar arms in a regiment. It appears that most calivers around the beginning of the 17th century had bores in the .63 to .66 caliber range, which fired balls of about .05 " smaller diameter. The caliver was introduced into England from France in the late 16th century and was introduced into Holland at about the same time. After the introduction of these arms, it is believed that arms identified as "harquebuses" and "calivers" were essentially the same. Early American colonial document references to "bastard muskets" may have referred to harquebuses or calivers, to distinquish them from full muskets.

30

American Military Shoulder Arms, Vol. 1

Because the matchlock musket was the standard military shoulder arm used in Europe at the time of the initial colonial settlements in the early 17th century, the majority of military muskets initially brought by the colonists for their defense were of this ignition system. As described in previous sections, the disadvantages of the matchlock system and the advantages of the early variations of the flintlock system caused the matchlocks to fall rapidly into disuse as a military arm. Ultimately only the firelock was allowed for military service in North America. Of the 1,028 shoulder arms owned by Virginia colonists in the mid-1620s, only forty-seven were matchlocks. Few matchlocks were imported into the British colonies thereafter, and by 1650 their use as military arms had been prohibited by at least two colonies. During the second half of the 17th century, a number of improvements were incorporated into the manufacture of muskets. By the late 1650s the “French” style of buttstock had generally superseded the older, flared “Spanish”-style butt in most western European countries. The French-style butt was influenced by the French sporting arms of the period. It was slimmer and had the straight comb without the deep thumb rest groove at the nose generally associated with early matchlock muskets. Improvements in the manufacture of iron and barrels resulted in lighter weight barrels with thinner walls. By the end of the third quarter of the 17th century, the bore diameters specified for muskets of most European countries had been reduced. These improvements resulted in an arm that was significantly lighter than the musket of the first half of the 17th century and eliminated the need for the forked rest. As time passed and the full muskets became lighter, the terms “harquebus” and “caliver” fell into disuse. British and Colonial Procurement The Ordnance Department in London continued to procure matchlock muskets throughout most of the fourth quarter of the 17th century for the line regiment’s use. The proportion of flintlock variation muskets procured relative to matchlock muskets increased during this period. The last deliveries of matchlock muskets to the Tower’s Small Gun Office are believed to have taken place before 1700. Matchlock muskets remained in the hands of some line regiments until the reign of Queen Anne (1702–1714), when they were replaced with doglock and flintlock arms.. The matchlocks were returned to storage in the Tower, and many were subsequently issued to the various colonies that requested arms. For example, in 1705 Colonel Nicholson, royal governor of Virginia, reported to London that all of that colony’s arms in storage had been destroyed by fire. He was issued matchlock and some old doglock arms by British Ordnance, which was delighted to dispose of them. The arrival of the matchlock muskets must have been greeted with something less than equal delight because this ignition system had been obsolete in the North American colonies for almost sixty years.

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

FRENCH COLONIAL PROCUREMENT

As explained in an earlier section, the French Royal Infantry only served in North America from 1665 to 1669. The men were entirely armed with matchlock muskets during their first year, but flintlock muskets were issued to about one-fifth of the musketeers in 1666. From circa 1670 until 1755, the free companies were the sole French infantry in North America. Their arms were procured by the Ministry de la Marine (navy). It is believed that matchlock muskets were used by these forces until the introduction of the Model 1697 naval musket in North America, probably around 1698-1700. NOTES ON MATCHLOCK MUSKET CONFIGURATION The barrels of the earliest matchlock muskets were usually round, although a few full octagonal barrels are known. Barrels, octagonal at the breech for about one-quarter to one-third of their length, the remainder being round, appear to have been introduced sometime during the 16th century, although full octagonal and full round barrels continued to be used. The barrels of all muskets examined had a square-ended breech tang, which was secured by a screw passing upwards from beneath the stock. Suhl, in the German province of Thuringen, appears to have been a major supplier of military barrels throughout the European continent during the 17th century. Muskets with Suhl-marked barrels were used by the Austrians in the south, the Saxons in the east, and the French in the west. A number of examples survive in various European collections. The lockplates of early muskets are flat-surfaced. They are inlet into the stocks and their surfaces are flush. The front and rear profiles of these plates are usually square, but some have pointed ends. The convex-surfaced plate, the rounded front profile, and the rear profile with projecting point at the rear were introduced in the mid-17th century. The pan of early matchlock muskets is attached to the barrel and not to the lockplate. The use of pans affixed to the lockplate was probably introduced into the manufacture of central and northern European military muskets in the mid-17th century. The serpentine of European muskets is generally located near the front of the lockplate and pivots rearwards. The match holder of Oriental muskets is usually located behind the pan and pivots forwards. Early military muskets were assembled with little furniture besides a trigger guard and a barrel or forend band, or a thimble, to retain the ramrod. This furniture was formed from sheet metal. Sheet metal butt plates came into common usage during the 17th century, although many muskets made after mid-century did not have them. These butt plates and trigger guards were usually nailed to the surface of the stocks. Very few of the military muskets examined had side plates. The vast majority of muskets had iron furniture, although a few had some brass furniture.

31

32

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. l EARLY ITTH-CENTURY ENGLISH MATCHLOCK MUSKET WITH SPANISH BUTT

Plate 017.C1-A This Spanish butt matchlock musket is attributed to English origin and dates from the first half of the 17th century. It is believed to have been the style of musket widely used in the early British North American colonies. (Royal Ontario Museum Cat. No. 924.55.37.)

017.C1

Since its acquisition by the Royal Ontario Museum in 1924, the unverified origin of this unmarked musket has been assumed to be English. Its general specifications are consistent with those of British muskets of the first half of the 17th century. The sheet iron-mounted musket is 621/4/' overall The 473/i6" barrel is octagonal at the breech for iP/s". This octagonal section is separated from the round front section by baluster rings. The bore diameter is .80". A standing leaf rear sight is located at the breech, and the front sight is located 1" behind the muzzle. The pan is brazed to the barrel. The 9Vs" flat-surfaced lockplate is secured by two sidescrews that thread into circular projections at the front and rear. The front of the 83A" trigger guard is secured by the breech tang screw that passes upwards; the rear is secured by a wood screw. The guard is formed into a skeleton pistol grip behind the trigger and has pointed ends. The butt plate covers only the upper half of rear of the stock's butt, and its tang extends l7/s" forward along the comb. A 1 "-wide forend band is located 4l/s" behind the stock's foretip.

Plate 017.C1-B Lock of Spanish butt matchlock musket. The slow match was inserted between the halves of the serpentine's split head and clamped in place by rotating the thumbscrew counterclockwise. (Royal Ontario Museum Cat. No. 924.55.37.)

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

33

The blackened stock is of an unknown wood. The lower portion of the Spanish-style butt has side flats, and the sides of the upper portion are concave. MODIFIED SPANISH BUTT MUSKET

017.C3

This iron-mounted musket may be of British origin, and may well date from the first quarter of the 17th century. In spite of its different butt configuration, it has a number of features similar to the musket described previously. This 541/4/' musket may have been shortened about 8" or 10" during its period of use. The 385/s" barrel is octagonal for 121A" at the breech and then has sixteen flats for the next I1/*". Baluster rings separate these rear sections from the round section. A standing leaf rear sight is dovetailed to the barrel 75/s" forward of the breech. The rectangular front sight is located 7/s" behind the muzzle. The pan is brazed to the barrel. The 715/i6" by 7/s" flat-surfaced, rectangular lockplate is retained by two sidescrews located at the front and rear. The front of the 8l/i" trigger guard is secured by the breech tang screw, and the rear is secured by a nail. The trigger guard's rear section is formed into a skeleton pistol grip. The lower part of the 6" butt plate is ll/s" wide but narrows to 5/i6" wide at the top. A square-ended tang extends forward for ll/&". There is a 9/i6"-wide forend band at the stock's tip. The 5/s"-wide barrel band 35/s" behind the stock's foretip retains the ramrod.

Plate 017.C3-A The massive, modified Spanish butt of this musket, which is attributed to English origin, suggests that it may date from the first quarter of the 17th century. The barrel is believed to have originally been about 4' long, and a rest would have been used to support the barrel as it was aimed. This musket was probably shortened about 10" at the muzzle during its period of use, to permit its use without a rest. (John Echlin Collection.)

Plate 017.C3-B Lock of matchlock musket with modified Spanish butt. The stock's flat surfaces are decorated with a simple incised line paralleling the edges. The musket is equipped with the simplest form of matchlock. (John Echlin Collection.)

34

Plate 017.C4-A This Swedish matchlock musket dates from the first half of the 17th century and is believed to be typical of the muskets used in the Swedish North American colonies. (Photograph courtesy of the Livrustkammaren, Cat. No. 3117.)

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

The walnut stock has a modified Spanish butt with a distinctive "fish belly" lower profile. Although the front of the comb is almost vertical, there is a prominent thumb rest groove in front of the comb. The flats on both sides of the breech extend rearward to the butt and downwards, so that the entire lower portion of the butt is slab-sided. The stock extends to l/s" of the muzzle. SWEDISH MATCHLOCK MUSKET, CIRCA 16OO-1625

017.C4

This iron-mounted matchlock musket is believed to be typical of those used in the Swedish North American colonies during the second quarter of the 17th century. It is 601/4// overall and has a bore diameter of .708". The 455/s" barrel is octagonal at the breech for almost one-half of its length, and this tapers to round at the muzzle. There are baluster rings at the breech only. A rear sight is located at the breech and a small front sight just behind the muzzle. The pan is missing. It was retained by a projection that inserted into a mortice behind the vent, similar to the Suhl musket described next. The 83/s" rectangular lockplate is retained by sidescrews at the front and rear, and its otherwise plain surface is decorated with shallow vertical grooves at the front, middle, and rear.

Plate 017.C5-A This Spanish butt matchlock musket is marked with Suhl control marks indicating its manufacture circa 1602. Suhl was a major source of military arms for many European states from the 17th century.

The rear extension of the TVs" trigger guard is formed into a skeleton pistol grip and is secured by a nail. Its front extension is secured by the breech tang screw, which passes upwards through it. There are two forend bands. One is located at the stock's foretip; the other is 2l/i" behind this and serves to retain the ramrod, which is missing. There is no provision for butt plate or side plate. The stock is of an unknown hardwood. Its Spanish-style butt has the usual high-nosed comb with a thumb rest groove at the front. The lower portion of the butt is flat-sided, and this extends to about 4" forward of the lockplate. The underside of the forestock is rounded. Both the barrel and breech tang are stamped with control marks of the town of Jonkoping, Sweden. There are no other external markings. SUHL SPANISH BUTT MUSKET, CIRCA 16O2

017.C5

35

COLONIAL SHOULDER A R M S This iron-mounted musket is 633/s" overall. The 473/4" barrel is octagonal at the breech for 16". This is separated from the round front section by baluster rings. The .828 " diameter bore is smooth. A small oval front sight blade is located 3 /s" behind the muzzle. The rear sight is missing but was dovetailed to the barrel 3 /s" forward of the breech, similar to the Swedish musket described previously. The pan is morticed to the barrel. It may be inserted and removed from the rear. The 27/i6" square-ended tang has tapered sides. The barrel is secured to the stock by lateral pins and the tang screw that passes upwards at the front of the trigger guard. The 87/s" flat-surfaced lockplate is 7/s" wide at the rear and 15/i6" wide at the front. It is secured by two sidescrews. The top of the 3l/i" serpentine is in the form of a stylized head. The 77/s" trigger guard is formed into a skeleton pistol grip at the rear and has pointed ends. It is secured at the front by the tang screw, which passes upwards, and by a convex-headed wood screw at the rear. The curved trigger is suspended from a lateral pin above the lock and passes downwards through a slot in the 31/s" trigger plate. The tang of the 65/s" by I n /i6" butt plate extends forward 8l/i" along the top of the comb. This plate and tang are secured by nails to the stock. Similar to the Swedish musket, there are two forend bands. The 1" iron front forend band is l/s" behind the stock's foretip, and the 11A" rear band is 33/4" behind the foretip and retains the tapered wood ramrod. The 62 H" walnut stock has a Spanish-style butt with side flats on the lower portion, which extend forward to 2l/i" beyond the lock. The narrow top of the butt is 1A" wide. Both the lock and barrel are stamped with Suhl control marks "SVL" (St0ckel No.1672), and the barrel only is stamped with the the Suhl "hen" (St0ckel No. 1694). The lockplate is also stamped with a raised design containing the letters "L" and "S" in a sunken cartouche (St0ckel No.3877). FRENCH BUTT MATCHLOCK MUSKET, CIRCA 166O

17.C6

This musket is attributed to Austrian origin. Although it now is only 57nA" long, it is quite heavy and may have been used with a forked rest. The 403/4" barrel is octagonal at the breech for 17". This is separated from the round muzzle section by baluster rings. There is a shrunk-on ring around the muzzle, which carries the front sight. The bore diameter is .79". The 73/4" flat-surfaced lockplate is inlet flush with the stock's surface and has rounded ends.

Plate 017.C6-A The early use of the French-style butt distinguishes this musket, which is attributed to Austrian origin from probably the mid-17th century. It is believed that the heavy barrel was shortened at the muzzle about 7" or 8" to its present 403/4" length to enable it to be aimed without a rest. (Anthony D. Darling, Collection.)

36

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. l The sheet iron furniture includes a trigger guard whose front retaining screw passes upwards and threads into the breech tang. The guard bow section is roughly semicircular, and there is no provision for a pistol grip at the rear. The butt plate curves forward at the top to form a short tang. There are two forend bands. One is at the stock's foretip; the other is located 3l/i" behind and secures the tapered wood ramrod. The walnut stock has a simple French-style butt, with a low nose. There is no provision for a thumb rest.

BRITISH WILLIAM in PERIOD MATCHLOCK MUSKET

Plate 017.C8-A William III period (1688-1702) English matchlock musket. Its configuration is typical of British military muskets of the late 17th century. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

Plate 017.C8-B Lock of William III period English matchlock musket. The convex-surfaced lock has an integral pan, and its profile has a projecting point at the rear. These lock features are common to most late 17th-century British and French matchlock military muskets. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

017.C8

The barrel is stamped with British Ordnance view and proof marks of the William III period (1688-1702). There is also a round red wax seal under the forearm, forward of the trigger guard. This appears to be an Ordnance seal designating this musket as a pattern to be followed in the subsequent manufacture of muskets. It is very similar to the late 17th-century French musket described next. The iron-mounted musket is 607/s" overall. The 457/i6" barrel is octagonal for lOV and then tapers to round. There is a slight flare at the muzzle. There is no provision for sights. The 11A" by !3/s" lockplate is convex-surfaced and is retained by three sidescrews. Its rear profile ends in a projecting point, and the pan is mounted in a recess in the upper edge of the lockplate. The 93/V' sheet iron trigger guard's front extension has a circular profile, similar to those noted on later sea service muskets. The 5!/V' butt plate curves forward at the top to form a 1 l/i" square-ended tang. This plate is secured by wood screws. The 63/4" convex-surfaced side plate is thinner and more deeply recurved than-is seen on later British muskets. There is a l5/s" oval escutcheon on the

37

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

Plate 017.C8-C William III period English matchlock musket. The heads of the lock's three sidescrews bear on an iron, convexsurfaced side plate. Side plates were introduced into the manufacture of British military muskets near the end of the matchlock period. The sheet iron trigger guard's rounded front extension is similar to those used in later sea service muskets and suggests that this musket may have been made for the sea service. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

wrist. The single lower, or entrance, ramrod thimble is decorated with encircling grooves. The front portion of the ramrod is retained by a P/W-wide forend band located 5" behind the foretip. There is a similar band at the stock's foretip. The walnut stock has a straight comb, without flutes, and extends to the muzzle. Except for the barrel proof and wax seal, the musket is unmarked externally.

LATE ITTH-CENTURY FRENCH MATCHLOCK MUSKET

017.C9

This musket generally resembles the French military matchlock muskets described and illustrated by St. Remy in his Memories d'Artillerie, published in 1697. The general specifications are almost the same, although this example does not have some of the furniture of the musket described in that text. This arm is also of interest because of its similarity to the British musket described previously. The salient visual differences between the two are the slightly different barrel configurations and the type of trigger employed by each country. The musket is 587/s" overall. The 43l/i" barrel is octagonal at the breech for 1 9 A" and then is sixteen-sided for another 2". This is separated from the round front section by baluster rings. There is another set of baluster rings forward of this. It should be noted that another similar example is 60" overall and has a 445/i6" barrel. The standing leaf rear sight is dovetailed to the barrel 61A" forward of the breech. A front sight blade is brazed to the barrel l7/s" behind the muzzle. The barrel is secured to the stock by the breech tang screw and by three lateral pins that pass through the forestock and barrel underlugs.

Plate 017.C9-A Late 17th-century French matchlock musket. Although most other European countries used a trigger protected by a metallic guard from the late 16th or early 17th century, the French continued to use the tiller-style trigger throughout the matchlock period. The convexsurfaced lock, with its integral pan and extended point at the rear, is very similar to contemporary locks made in England.

38

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 017.C9-B Late 17th-century French matchlock musket. The barrel's top flat is engraved "NEVFCHASTEL." As in almost all other matchlock muskets examined, the tang screw spasses upwards from in front of the trigger, and the sidescrew heads bear directly on the stock's left breech flat.

The 67/s" by !3/s" convex-surfaced lockplate is retained by two sidescrews. The pan is riveted to this plate. The plate's front profile is round, and its rear profile ends in a projecting point. The 7H" "tiller"-type trigger ends in a decorative balL The French appear to have used the tiller-type trigger until the end of the matchlock period. This musket has no provision for butt plate, side plate, or forend bands. The ramrod is retained by two 13/i6" sheet brass thimbles. The tapered wood ramrod is 43l/i" long. The 583/V' walnut stock extends to l/s" of the muzzle. There are narrow plateaus on both sides of the breech and the breech tang. The butt's rear profile is curved forward at the heel. The upper profile of the lO1/^" comb is slightly concave, and there are no flutes at the sides of the VV-high nose. The barrel's top flat is engraved "NEVFCHASTEL" in block letters, and the underside of the barrel is stamped with the Suhl control mark (St0ckel No. 8018). There are two towns named Neufchastel in northern France. One is about thirty-eight miles southwest of Charleville, and the other is about twenty-two miles southeast of the coastal town of Dieppe.

WHEEL-LOCK MUSKETS

017.E

Few military wheel-lock muskets were used in Europe, and even fewer were used in colonial America. The main reason was probably the high cost of this complex system compared to the matchlock and, later, in comparison to the early flintlock variations. Also, due to its complexity, the wheel-lock was more likely to get out of order and was difficult to repair, especially in the primitive areas of North America. The primary military use of the wheel-lock ignition system was in the cavalry because matchlock arms could not be used by mounted troops. Very few were used by the infantry. Some countries, such as Holland and France, prohibited the use of wheel-lock muskets for infantry, although some Dutch civil guard units in Holland used them. Almost all known wheel-lock military muskets appear to have originated on the European continent. Howard Blackmore and Graeme Rimer, past and present keepers of firearms at the Royal Armories Museum in the Tower, agree that there is no documentary evidence of wheel-lock musket procurement for

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

39

the British Army. The only military use of wheel-locks in England was for cavalry pistols and carbines. Described next are three wheel-lock muskets of French, German, and Dutch origin. All probably date from the early 17th century and are included here only as representative examples of this type of arm, which saw limited service in the North American colonies.

GERMANIC WHEEL-LOCK MUSKET

017.E3

There are no external markings on this musket. "AX" in capital letters is engraved inside the tail of the lockplate, and there is an illegible cartouche deeply stamped into the underside of the barrel. The musket is attributed to Germanic origin solely due to its general configuration and dimensions, and it is believed to date from sometime between the late 16th century to the mid-17th century. This massive, iron-mounted musket is 64H" overall. The 48" barrel has a deep baluster ring at the breech and another set of three rings forward of the 14" octagonal section. The remainder of the barrel is round to the cannon muzzle. The \l/i" rear sight has a sculpted front tang and is dovetailed to the barrel 3l/i" forward of the breech. A spherical iron front sight is on the cannon muzzle. The rear profile of the 101A" by 27/i6" flat-surfaced lockplate terminates in a teardrop-shaped extension. The external wheel's outer edge is fully enclosed in

Plate 017.E3-A This massive, iron-mounted wheel-lock musket is unmarked externally but is attributed to Germanic origin in the late 16th to early 17th century.

Plate 017.E5^B The large W Germanic wheel-lock musket lock is equipped with an unusual sliding sear safety located above the trigger in this photograph. The external wheel's perimeter is enclosed in a supporting bridle.

40

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

a bridle. The pan cover opens automatically when the wheel begins to rotate, and there is an external, pivoting sear safety near the rear of the plate. The 1" trigger guard has a skeleton pistol grip at the rear, with three well-defined finger ridges. Its front end is secured by the convex-headed breech tang screw, and its rear end is nailed into the stock. The n/i6"-wide forend band is located l/s" behind the stock's foretip. There is no provision for butt plate, side plate, or ramrod thimbles. The head of the 455/s " tapered wood ramrod is enclosed by a 7/i6" sheet iron sleeve. The black-finished stock is 63l/i" long. Both sides of the stock are flat surfaced at the barrel's breech. As with many muskets made without butt plates, the heel is rounded. The ramrod channel is recessed deeply within the forestock and, because the slot at the bottom is very narrow, the ramrod is retained without the use of bands or thimbles. FRENCH WHEEL-LOCK MUSKET

Plate 017.E5-A The convex-surfaced wheel-lock's narrow rear profile and the raised side flat, which roughly parallels the buttstock's lower profile, are features of this unmarked musket that resemble those in the known examples of muskets of Louis XIII (1601-1643). Its graceful configuration and light proportions are in stark contrast to the Germanic military wheel-lock musket presented previously. (United States Military Academy Collection.)

017.E5

This unmarked musket is attributed to French origin because it strongly resembles the muskets of the Louis XIII (1601-1643) collection in the Musee de L'Armee in Paris. The iron-mounted musket is 60l/i" overall. The 447/s" swamped, full octagonal barrel is without sights. The bore diameter is .60". The barrel is secured by a wood screw that passes downwards through the breech tang and by lateral pins through the forestock and barrel underlugs. The 73/4" by 21A" lock is convex-surfaced behind the externally mounted wheel and is flat-surfaced, with beveled edges, at the front. This lock has a spring detent in front of the wheel, which secures the pan cover in the closed position. The cover is opened automatically when the trigger is pulled and the wheel rotates. The 73/4" sheet iron trigger guard has a 1 "-wide cupped bow and a skeleton pistol grip at the rear. It is secured by screws at the front and rear. There is a ball-headed trigger safety behind the trigger. The 55/s" butt plate is !3/i6" wide near the bottom and narrows to 7/i6" at the top. The tang extends forward at the top along the comb. The tapered wood ramrod is retained by two plain sheet iron thimbles. There is no side plate, forend band, or cap. The 603/s" black-finished walnut stock is flat-sided at the breech. These flats extend rearwards and downwards to the butt. The nose of the 93/s" comb is 5/s" high, and is without flutes at the side.

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

GERMAN-DUTCH WHEEL-LOCK MUSKET

41

017.E7

This musket is very similar to arms made in Aix-la-Chapelle in the 1650s and known to have been sold to other German and Swiss states. Aix-la-Chapelle, or Aachen in German, is located in western Germany, contiguous to the borders of Holland and Belgium. The 633A" musket has both iron and brass mountings. The 477/s" barrel is generally round with three raised ribs along the top. The center rib extends from the rear of the square-ended tang to the muzzle, and the ribs on either side of this extend HH" forward from the breech. The barrel is retained by three lateral pins and the tang screw that passes upwards from the trigger guard's front extension. The standing leaf rear sight is dovetailed into the

Plate 017.E7-A This GermanDutch wheel-lock musket is similar to those made in Aix-LaChapelle in Germany near the present-day borders of Holland and Belgium. Although of Germanic origin, it is more similar to the graceful French musket described previously, yet it has a somewhat more massive buttstock profile.

barrel 81A" forward of the breech, and the front sight is dovetailed 29/i6" behind the muzzle. The 85/s" flat-surfaced lockplate has a maximum width of 29/i6". It is mounted with an external wheel, with a small bridle at the rear. The lock is secured by two sidescrews, whose heads bear on circular bone washers. The 75/s" iron trigger guard has a 1 "-wide cupped bow, and a pistol grip at the rear. It terminates in rounded ends. The curved trigger is suspended from a lateral pin above the lock, downwards through a slot in the 35/s" trigger plate. A ball-headed sliding trigger safety is mounted on this plate behind the trigger. The 51A" sheet brass butt plate curves forward at the heel to form a iVz" square-ended tang. This plate is nailed to the stock. There is a l/V'-wide sheet brass forend band at the stock's foretip. There are also three sheet brass tubular

Plate 017.E7-B The wheel-lock of the German Dutch musket is flatsurfaced, somewhat larger, and plainer than the French musket's lock, but is otherwise very similar.

42

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

ramrod thimbles. There is no provision for a lower, or entrance, thimble. The 46" tapered wood ramrod has a 1" sleeve-type head. The stock appears to be black-finished walnut and extends to the muzzle. The buttstock has a "fish belly" lower profile and is flat-sided. There is a thumb rest groove in the front of the 95/s" comb's concave nose. The musket is marked externally only with a "T" and an unidentified cartouche, stamped into the barrel's breech on either side of the center rib. The underside of the barrel is stamped with a rectangular cartouche with scalloped ends containing the raised letters "HI."

BRITISH SNAPHANCE MUSKETS

017.G

British military muskets with snaphance locks, defined in this text as having the frizzen separate from the pan cover, are almost nonexistent. It appears that most, if not all, snaphance muskets were converted to the English lock sometime after 1650. The English lock was an English variation of the snaphance. The English lock is often referred to as a snaphance by many students and collectors of arms. However, this term of reference is only generically correct, and the specific differences between them, described in Section 015., should be kept in mind. No British muskets with snaphance locks were encountered in the research for this text. The reader is referred to the next section, describing British English lock muskets.

ENGLISH LOCK MUSKETS

017.1

As explained in the previous section, the English lock was, and sometimes still is, considered to be a form of snaphance, which it resembles. The English lock was used in British military arms from the 1650s through the 1680s. Most earlier snaphance muskets appear to have been altered to this system. The English lock was ultimately superseded by the doglock and the true flintlock. Records of the British Ordnance do not differentiate between the early variations of the flintlock system, referring to all of them as "snaphances." These records indicate that thousands of existing matchlock muskets were altered to snaphance ignition. For example, a British Ordnance repair order of 1662 specified that 1,000 of 2,000 matchlock muskets ordered repaired were to be altered to "snaphance." It is likely that these muskets were actually altered to the English lock, or perhaps even doglock, as a number of surviving examples of this alteration would suggest. Described next is an English lock military musket of the commonwealth period (1649-1660) immediately following the English Civil War. The barrel of this musket had been used previously in an early matchlock musket and has been altered. This musket is one of three known similar examples in North American collections.

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

ENGLISH MUSKET WITH ENGLISH LOCK

43

017.15

This 553/4" musket is disproportionately heavy for its length, weighing 93/4 pounds. The 407/8" barrel appears to have been shortened at the time it was assembled into this musket. It is octagonal for l1/^" at the breech and then sixteen-sided for the next 2l/i". The sixteen-sided section is separated from the round front section by baluster rings. The barrel's upper right quadrant is grooved where the matchlock's pan and shield had been located. The bore diameter is .795". The low iron front sight blade is brazed to the barrel ZVs" behind the muzzle. The 63/4" by !7/i6" flat-surfaced lockplate is inlet flush with the stock's surface. It is retained by two sidescrews at the front and rear. The horizontal sear passes through the lockplate from the inside and engages a projection at the rear of the cock when brought to the full-cock position. This musket also has a !3/4"-long safety catch, or "dog," behind the cock to retain it in the half-cock position and an external buffer to arrest the cock's forward motion. The SVz" sheet iron trigger guard has a l^/V'-wide bow. The pointed front and rear extensions are secured by wood screws. The tapered wood ramrod is retained by two 1" brass thimbles, which have decorative grooves at their ends. This musket has no provision for butt plate, side plate, or forend band.

Plate 017.I5-A English lock musket. The barrel of this musket may have been shortened during its period of use by about 8" to its present 407/8" length. (Anthony D. Darling Collection.)

Plate 017.I5-B Because this English lock was not examined internally, it is not known whether it was altered to its present configuration from a preexisting snaphance or was originally made as an English lock. The commonwealth period barrel markings suggest that it may have been made during the third quarter of the 17th century. (Anthony D. Darling Collection.)

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

44

The walnut stock extends to the muzzle. The low comb intersects the wrist 9 /4" forward of the bur., and flutes extend rearwards on both sides for 6l/i". There is a raised, carved plateau around the breech tang. The barrel of this musket is stamped with commonwealth period marks of an Irish harp and a cross of Saint George. It also is engraved "6," which is believed to be a rack number. 3

SWEDISH SNAPLOCK MUSKET

Plate 017.J-A Swedish snaplock musket, circa 1600. This musket is typical of the muskets used to defend the Swedish North American colonies during the early 17th century. (Photograph courtesy of the Livrustkammaren.)

Plate 017.J-B This Swedish snaplock has a frizzen and separate sliding pan cover. These components would be integral in later snaplocks. The unusual elbow-shaped cock is typical of most Swedish snaplock and early flintlock arms. Its shape resulted in the flint striking, rather than scraping, the frizzen. Note the large semicircular finger hook extending upwards from the upper jaw. (Photograph courtesy of the Livrustkammaren.)

017 J

This Swedish musket dates from 1600 and is representative of the snaplock arms used by the Swedish colonists in North America. The iron-mounted musket is 739/i6" overall, and its barrel has a .846" diameter bore. The 567/s" octagonal barrel is equipped with a rear sight located 9" forward of the breech, and a small front sight blade 5/s" behind the muzzle. There is a baluster ring at the breech. The 9 " lockplate is flat-surfaced. The lock is typical of early Swedish snaplock arms. The pan cover is separate from the frizzen, in the manner of snaphance arms, but the lock is also equipped with an external mainspring that bears upwards on a tang that extends rearwards from the lower portion of the cock. The upper edge of this tang is engaged by the sear in the cocked position. This sear passes horizontally through the plate but is not visible in the photo because of the cock's external bridle. The cock's long flat jaws extend well forward in typical snaplock fashion, and the circular shield at the pan's outer end suggests Dutch influence. The sheet iron trigger guard is secured at the front by the breech tang screw, which passes upwards through its front extension. Its rear end is riveted to the head of a long inclined nail located behind the trigger, which secures it as an open-ended skeleton pistol grip. This musket has two sheet metal ramrod thimbles but no lower, or entrance, thimble. There is no provision for butt plate, side plate, wrist escutcheon, or forend band.

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

45

The black-finished stock extends to the muzzle. The butt's rear profile curves forward at the bottom, and there is a deep thumb rest at the front of the straight comb. The lower portion of the butt is flat-sided. The side flats extend forward to the muzzle. Only the underside of the forend is rounded. The top of the comb and the underside of the stock, from the butt to the ramrod's entrance, are also flat-surfaced. This musket is unmarked externally.

DOGLOCK MUSKETS

017.K

The doglock ignition system was introduced into British military arms around 1650 and its use was widespread by the reign of Charles II (1660-1685). This ignition system would continue to be procured by British Ordnance during the reign of George III (1688-1702), although the true flintlock would gain widespread usage by the beginning of the 18th century. As stated earlier, English lock, doglock, and flintlock arms were referred to in British Ordnance records as "snaphances" because the terms by which they are now known had not yet come into use. In the section describing flintlock variation ignition systems, the term "doglock" refers to locks with a safety catch, or "dog," to retain the cock in the half-cock position. This part is also sometimes referred to as a "back catch." Doglocks usually have a horizontally acting sear. They differ from the English lock in that there is a projecting shoulder on the inside of the cock to arrest its forward motion by contacting the lockplate's upper edge. There is no external buffer. Very few late doglocks have vertically acting sears with only a full-cock tumbler notch. If the tumbler also has a half-cock notch, it is, by definition, a flintlock. Generally, early doglock muskets tend to resemble late matchlock muskets and are quite long and bulky. During the production period of this arm, its length and the size of some components were gradually reduced, so that late doglock muskets closely resemble early flintlock muskets. Some early doglock muskets have bright-finished metal components, but most were reportedly finished with acid-browned metal, called "russeted" by the British, and they have blackfinished stocks. There seems to be little continuity in the evolution of the stocks of doglock and early flintlock muskets. Some of these muskets with heavy, club butts have been dated into the first quarter of the 18th century. Others muskets, usually made from the 1690s, have a more graceful buttstock configuration. During the 1690s the overall length of muskets was standardized at about 61" to 62" and the barrel at about 46". Another innovation during the 1690s was the introduction of sheet brass butt plates in the production of some of the otherwise iron-mounted muskets procured by the Ordnance. The barrels of early muskets were usually stamped with both the gunmaker's mark and Gunmakers' Company markings. In addition to these, the barrel was sometimes engraved with the regimental colonel's name. From the time of

46

Plate 017.K3-A This English musket appears to have been made in the mid-17th century as a matchlock musket and sub' sequently altered to doglock during its period of use. Its unusual rail'shaped stock comb, lack of Ordnance markings, and UHB" stock brands suggest that it was made for private sale, possibly to a regimental colonel for use by his regiment or for militia use. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 William III, barrels of military arms procured by British Ordnance were usually stamped with a sunken cartouche containing a crown over script initials, such as "WR." The engraving of lockplates with the royal cypher appears to have started during the 1670s or early 1680s. The engraving consists of a crown over capital script initials. Where "R" is the second initial, it stands for "rex," which means "king," or for "regina" in the case of Queen Anne, whose cypher contained the initials "AR." Early doglock muskets sometimes had the gunmaker's name engraved on the lockplate, forward of the cock. After the introduction of the royal cypher marking in this location, the gunmaker's name was usually engraved behind the cock. The three early doglock muskets described demonstrate the wide variations of configuration encountered in British doglock muskets made before 1690. DOGLOCK-ALTERED MATCHLOCK MUSKET

017.K3

This iron-mounted musket is 615/s" overall. It was originally fabricated as a matchlock and was subsequently converted to the doglock ignition system. The 411A" barrel is octagonal at the breech for 121A". This is separated from the round section by three baluster rings. The bore diameter is .785". The l3/8"-long base of the standing leaf rear sight is dovetailed to the barrel at the breech. The small, rectangular front sight is brazed to the barrel 5/s" behind the muzzle.

Plate 017.K3-B During the alteration from matchlock to the long, slender doglock, a wood insert was used to fill the original matchlock's lock recess. The doglock's frizzen spring appears to be a replacement made during its period of use. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

COLONIAL SHOULDER A R M S

47

The 8l/i6n by !5/i6" lockplate is flat-surfaced with beveled edges. It is secured by three sidescrews. This lock has a horizontal sear. The 87/s" sheet iron trigger guard has a deeply cupped bow. Its front and rear extensions are nailed to the surface of the stock. The 43/4" butt plate curves forward at the heel and is nailed to the stock. There is no tang. The tapered wood ramrod is retained by a single 3/4/f sheet iron thimble. There is no provision for side plate or forend band. The walnut stock has a blackened finish and extends to the muzzle. A piece of similar wood has been inlet into the original matchlock's cavity and this area re-inlet for the doglock. The heavily proportioned butt has flutes along its sides, and there are flutes along the sides of the comb. The only visible external marking surviving from the musket's manufacture or original use is "HB" branded several times into both the left and right sides of the buttstock. These may be the initials of a regimental colonel. DOGLOCK MUSKET WITH SPANISH BUTT

017.K5

There is no external evidence that this iron-mounted musket with Spanish butt was originally fabricated in anything other than doglock, although the barrel may have been used previously in another arm and shortened for use in this arm. The 433/4" tapered octagonal barrel has a bore diameter of .78". It may have been shortened, as there is a rear sight with an intricate 35/i6"-long base at the breech but no evidence of a front sight. The 67/s " by 11A" lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges. There is a vertical decorative groove at the rear. The front profile is rounded, and the rear profile terminates in a projecting point. It is secured by three sidescrews. It is one of the very few doglocks examined having both an external cock screw and a horizontal sear. The 11" trigger guard is formed into a skeleton pistol grip at the rear. Its ends are screwed to the stock's surface. The 91A" butt plate is 13A" wide near the bottom and narrows at the top. A tang extends 9l/i" forward at the top along the comb. There are decorative 41/s" escutcheon plates on both sides of the forearm above the ramrod entrance and a similar escutcheon behind the trigger guard inside the curve of the butt. There is no provision for side plate, forend band, or ramrod thimbles, although it is probable that this musket had an upper thimble at one time.

Plate 017.K5-A Doglock musket with Spanish butt. This musket is unusual because Spanish butt configurations were generally superseded by the French-style butt in the mid-17th century, about the time the doglock was introduced into English military arms. Most known doglock muskets have stocks with either Frenchstyle or club butt configurations. (Jay Forman Collection.)

48

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 017.K5-B Doglocks with horizontal sears usually do not have an external cock screw. This very early doglock is one of the few exceptions, because it has both a horizontally acting sear and an external cock screw. (Jay Forman Collection.)

Plate 017.K7-A British doglock musket, circa 1650-1670. This very plain, iron-mounted musket is similar to many privately purchased arms used by the British military during the second half of the 17th century.

The walnut stock with blackened finish extends to W of the muzzle. A side flat extends rearwards and downwards from the lock to the butt. There are four IVV'long decorative grooves on both sides of the butt above this flat. The only external markings are groups of two numerals and a letter, some of which are separated by marks resembling small commas, periods, and triangles. They are stamped into the right side of the butt. BRITISH DOGLOCK MUSKET, CIRCA 166O-167O

017.K7

This iron-mounted doglock musket is 581A" overall. The 44V8" barrel is octagonal at the breech for 133/4". There are baluster rings at the breech and between the octagonal and round sections of the barrel. The barrel is retained by three lateral pins and by a screw that passes upwards from the front trigger guard extension and threads into the square-ended breech tang. The decorative rectangular rear sight has a tang at the front and is mounted on the barrel's breech. The spherical iron front sight is located 5/8" behind the muzzle. The 63/4" by l3/s" lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges. The rear profile ends in a flattened disc. It is secured by two sidescrews whose heads bear directly on the stock's surface. The 31/s" flat-surfaced cock has a oval hole in its reinforced throat. The l3/s" safety dog engages the cock in half-cock position; it is automatically disengaged when the cock is brought to the full-cock position. The separate, faceted pan is secured to the plate by a screw. The l5/i6"-high flat-topped frizzen has a highly sculpted tail.

49

COLONIAL SHOULDER A R M S

Plate 017.K7-B The inclined seam between the upper and lower buttstock sections is visible in the photograph. Also visible, stamped into the lower part of the buttstock are the initials of Francis Luttrell, 17th-century owner of Dunster Castle, where this musket originated.

The 71/z" sheet iron trigger guard has a pointed front extension secured by the head of the breech tang screw. The rounded rear extension is secured by a nail There is no provision for a butt plate or side plate. There is one ll/$" sheet iron thimble near the stock's foretip. The black-finished walnut stock extends to the muzzle. The lower portion of the French-style butt is flat-sided, and the butt's lower profile is slightly convex, or "fish-bellied." The heel is rounded, and the nose of the 8l/i" comb is without side flutes. Two examples of this musket have been observed. Both have buttstocks that consist of two pieces of wood. A separate lower, or toe, section is glued to the upper section, which is integral with the remainder of the stock. The barrel is stamped with a broad crown over "G" on the top flat. "FL" is also stamped into this top flat and into the right side of the butt. This is the mark of Colonel Francis Luttrell, 17th-century owner of Dunster Castle in Somerset, where this musket originated. Luttrell had been appointed colonel of his militia regiment in 1681. In 1686 Luttrell was placed in charge of King James's forces at Exeter. In November 1688 his regiment was the first to be raised by William III. Luttrell died the following year at the age of thirty-one. This musket appears to date from circa 1660-1670, and therefore probably predates his 1681 appointment. The musket may not have been marked with LuttrelPs initials until sometime in the 1681-1689 period. BRITISH ITTH-CENTURY AND PRE-LAND PATTERN FLINTLOCK MUSKETS

017.L

Because the records of the Ordnance Department referred to all types of flintlock variation muskets as snaphances, the date that the true flintlock ignition was introduced into the fabrication of British military muskets is unknown. Existing records indicate that carbines for horsemen may have been the first military shoulder arms to use this system in the 1670s. The grenadiers, first raised in the 1670s, were the first known foot units armed with flintlock muskets. The flintlock system was widely used in the production of muskets from the reign of William III (1689-1702). Flintlocks were used in the production of North American military muskets until the mid-1840s, a span of over 150 years.

50

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. l From the mid-1690s to about 1715, British Ordnance procured a number of muskets with true flintlocks that were also equipped with a safety dog, or back catch. Because of this, these muskets are frequently misidentified as doglock muskets. However, because they have vertical sears and tumblers with both full-cock and half-cock notches, they are true flintlock muskets. It had been the practice of the British Ordnance Department for at least half a century before the introduction of the flintlock system to determine the number of muskets required by the British armed forces and then to divide the total of these muskets among a number of London gunmakers, each of whom received a contract to furnish a portion of that total. In 1689 the Ordnance Department began contracting with gunmakers in Birmingham in addition to those in London. Few details of a musket's construction, beyond caliber and barrel length, were specified in these contracts, so many individual features were completed according to custom and the individual gunmaker's taste. In 1692 the annual contracts let to Birmingham gunmakers called for 200 muskets per month at 17 shillings each. These contracts specified only the following: the barrels were to be 46" long; the walnut or ash stocks were to be varnished; the lockplates were to be engraved (with the royal cypher); one-half of the muskets were to have flat-surfaced lockplates and the other half were to be convex-surfaced; the breech plugs were to have six threads; and the muskets were to have cast brass thimbles and butt plates. EVOLUTION OF PRE-LAND PATTERN MUSKETS

From 1690 the flintlock's use became widespread in the fabrication of muskets. In addition, a number of innovations and improvements were incorporated into the manufacture of muskets. During the 1690s the overall length of muskets was standardized at about 61" to 62" and the barrel at about 46". The 1692 contract with the Birmingham makers, just described, is the first known reference to the 46" barrel. Another innovation at this time was the introduction of sheet brass butt plates to some of the otherwise iron-mounted muskets procured by the Ordnance Department. Thereafter, the use of brass furniture increased. A less visible innovation also started in the 1690s. This was the introduction of the "bridled" musket lock. The internal bridle, which supported the tumbler and sear screw, was used increasingly in the production of arms. The external bridle, which extended forward from the pan to support the frizzen screw, was introduced at the same time but was not widely used on military muskets until the late 1720s or 1730s. There were also a few external changes in some of the musket locks. Muskets with flat-surfaced lockplates and cocks, and with convex-surfaced lockplates and goose-neck cocks, were made concurrently during the reigns of William III and Queen Anne. However, the use of flat-surfaced lockplates and cocks declined. From about the beginning of the reign of Queen Anne in 1702, the last two numerals of the year of manufacture were engraved into the lockplate behind the cock. Although the flat-topped frizzen remained in use, there was an increased usage of frizzens with rounded or pointed tops. The frizzen spring finials

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

of some muskets showed early variations of what would be known as the "trefoil" finial configuration. The angular socket bayonet came into general usage around 1705 to 1710. Most muskets made thereafter had a small bayonet lug brazed to the top of the barrel. This lug also served as a front sight. The forend of the stock was made shorter, to provide a muzzle extension of about 4". After 1700, British Ordnance let contracts to gunmakers for the alteration of existing muskets to accept socket bayonets. In 1707 an Ordnance Department contract for muskets with several gunmakers specified that barrels were to be made without the octagonal breech section, which had been a feature of British muskets to that time. Many of the round barrels made thereafter had two sets of baluster rings. One was located at the breech, and the other set was located anywhere from 12" to 20" from the breech. The club butt stock configuration was used on many muskets, but its use declined in favor of the smaller, more graceful French butt configuration. The "ordnance system of manufacture" was introduced shortly after 1714. It resulted in a semi-standardization of musket components and accelerated the evolution towards a standardized musket. Most of these changes took place between 1715 and 1720. Many of the individual changes were minor, but together they significantly altered the appearance of the muskets procured by British Ordnance. At about this same time, the hollow-cast, convex-surfaced butt plate came into use along with oval-surfaced, sculpted, cast brass trigger guards and side plates. Iron would still be used for furnishing muskets, but its use relative to brass would decline and finally be eliminated in the mid-1730s. In summary, it is clear that the British military flintlock musket of this period was in a constant state of change and that different configurations were being simultaneously procured for use by the British armed forces. Under these conditions, it is impossible to describe a musket typical of all of the arms of this period. The muskets described here are, therefore, only representative examples of these arms. COMMERCIAL SALES MUSKETS

Beside the muskets procured by the Ordnance Department, substantial quantities were purchased by regimental colonels directly from gunmakers. These muskets could be of any configuration. In addition, muskets were made for commercial sale to militia units in England and possibly to British commercial companies and militias in England's many colonies. Ordnance procurement practices and private sales of these muskets contributed to the diversity of military flintlock musket configurations that manifested itself between the 1680s and about 1725. The private sales also resulted in a large number of British military flintlock muskets made and proved for private, 2 The designation "ordnance system of manufacture" was first used by Howard Blackmore in British Military Firearms, 1650-1850 to describe a system of arms component contracts and assembly introduced into the fabrication of British military shoulder arms. This system is described in Section 065 .A of this text.

51

52

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 commercial sale during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. These muskets are defined in this text as "commercial sales" muskets. There are a few English muskets of this period in U.S. collections with proof marks indicating they were made for private sale. Although no documentary evidence has been found regarding specific purchases of English arms by North American colonies for use as "public arms" before 1747, there are several references to the existence of these arms. It is known that the Colony of New Jersey and the City of New York purchased Long Land Pattern muskets made for private commercial sale at about the time of the Seven Years' War. (See Section 065.A9.) These were maintained as public arms. Prior purchases of muskets proved for private sale can only be speculated upon until additional information is uncovered. However, three commercial sales muskets are included later in this section to illustrate this class of arms. WILLIAM in PERIOD FLINTLOCK MUSKET

Plate 017.L2-A William III period British flintlock musket, circa 1688-1702. This mixed iron- and brass-mounted musket was produced under contract with British Ordnance. Its part octagonal/round barrel is typical of the period, as is the furniture formed from sheet metal.

017.L2

The musket described here was fabricated in the 1690s, during the reign of William III. A comparison with the following musket with back catch illustrates that it is not typical of all the muskets fabricated for British Ordnance during this period. It is presented only as an example of one of the several configurations. This musket is 61" overall. The 453/4" barrel is octagonal at the breech for 103/8" and then round to the muzzle. There is a narrow baluster ring between the octagonal and round sections. The bore diameter is .768". A low iron front sight blade is brazed to the barrel 3l/i" behind the muzzle. The tang screw passes upwards from in front of the trigger and threads into the square-ended breech tang. The 613/i6" by !3/i6" lock has a convex surface, except at the front, where it is flat with a beveled edge. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. The goose-neck cock has a convex body. The round-bottomed pan is screwed to the lockplate. The lock is secured by two sidescrews. The 8l/i" sheet iron trigger guard has rounded ends that are secured to the stock's surface by wood screws. There is no trigger plate. The sheet brass butt plate is 53/4" long, and the 3 " tang is round-ended. Two 13/i6" sheet brass thimbles retain the tapered 453/4" ramrod. This musket has no provision for side plate, sling swivels, forend band, or wrist escutcheon. The black-finished walnut stock extends to 5/i6" of the muzzle. The nose of the 85/s" straight comb is l/i" high and is without side flutes. There is a raised

S3

COLONIAL SHOULDER A R M S

Plate 017.L2-B Both the lockplate and goose-neck cock are convexsurfaced. The royal crowned cypher of William III is engraved into the lockplate. The top of the cock's tang, which recurves forward, is missing from this example.

plateau around the breech tang only. The lower profile of the stock swells downwards where the ramrod enters the stock and at the foretip. The barrel's top flat is stamped with Ordnance marks and the right quarter flat is stamped with the letters "RL." These may be the initials of a regimental colonel The lock is engraved with the royal cypher of William III, which consists of a crown over script "WR," in front of the cock. It is unmarked behind the cock. The inside of the lockplate is stamped "P," and roman numeral "XII" is cut into the barrel channel.

BRITISH SEA SERVICE FLINTLOCK MUSKET WITH BACK CATCH

017.L3

The identification of this early Queen Anne musket as a sea service arm is speculative and is based entirely on the configuration of its furniture. Identified sea service muskets of this period are extremely rare. This brass-mounted musket is 611V overall. The 46" barrel has a baluster ring at the breech. It is secured by lateral pins and by a screw that passes upwards from in front of the trigger and threads into the square-ended breech tang. A small front sight blade is located 2l/s" behind the muzzle. The 73/i6" by !3/i6" flat-surfaced lock is retained by three sidescrews. The 5 3 /i6" flat-surfaced cock has a round hole in its reinforced neck. The top jaw and screw of this example appear to have been replaced from a Spanish musket. There

Plate 017.L3-A Queen Anne period British sea service musket, circa 1702-1714. This musket is well marked, indicating procurement by British Ordnance. Its identification as a sea service arm is based solely on its configuration and the configuration of its components. It represents the early use of cast brass furniture. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 017.L3-B Both the lockplate and reinforced cock of this Queen Anne period musket are flat-surfaced. There is no external lock bridle. The trigger guard's configuration, with its convex, oval-shaped front finial, is the style used in sea service muskets. The Ordnance storekeeper's stamp is visible in the right side of the butt. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

Plate 017.L7-A British commercial sales musket. This ironmounted musket's markings indicate that the musket was made by Wilson for private sale to the Thirty-third Regiment of foot in the 1717-1730 period. Its general configuration is very similar to the earliest British land pattern muskets procured by the Ordnance. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

is a !5/i6"-long back catch behind the cock. The faceted pan is not integral with the lockplate, and there is no external bridle. The top of the l3/4"-high frizzen is flat. The frizzen spring ends in a spear-pointed finial. The 93/i6" cast brass trigger guard's front extension is in the form of an oval disc. This shape is commonly associated with sea service muskets. The rear extension terminates in a round end. There is no trigger plate. The 51A" flat, sheet brass butt plate has a round-ended tang extending 27/s" forward at the top. A 73/i6" flat-surfaced side plate is inlet into the stock's left breech flat. There are two sheet brass ramrod thimbles. There is no lower or entrance thimble. There is also no forend band or wrist escutcheon. The 45 " tapered wood ramrod has no metal fittings. The walnut stock extends to the muzzle. The nose of the 81A" comb is 1" high and there are no flutes. There are flats on both sides of the breech and a small plateau around the breech tang. The barrel is stamped with a crown over "V," the mark of a private Birmingham proof house, and with another crown over two letters. The first letter is illegible. The second letter is a script "R." This is believed to have been the cypher of Queen Anne: UAR." A storekeeper's mark of a crown over script "AR" is clearly visible, stamped into the right side of the butt. Only traces of the lockplate markings remain in front of the cock, and these are illegible. BRITISH COMMERCIAL SALES MUSKET

017.L7

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

55

Plate 017.L7-B The bananashaped lock of the British musket made by Wilson for commercial sale is engraved with his name and company identification numbers behind the cock. It is also stamped with a three-tyned crown over "T" beneath the pan. The pan is not equipped with an external bridle. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

This iron-mounted musket was probably fabricated sometime between 1717 and 1730, specifically for private commercial sale to a British regiment. The 613/4" musket is only generally similar to British land pattern muskets but differs in almost all details. The 453/s" round, .75 caliber barrel has a narrow baluster ring at the breech, very similar to the private purchase musket just described. A bayonet lug, which also serves as the front sight, is brazed to the barrel 2l/s" behind the muzzle. The barrel is secured by a screw that passes downwards through the square-ended tang and by lateral pins through the forestock and underlugs. The 67/s" by 1H" lockplate is generally convex-surfaced, except for flats under the cock and frizzen spring. It is bevel-edged only at the front, and it is secured by two sidescrews. The convex-surfaced, goose-neck cock has a straight, narrow tang with a rounded top and a notch in the front. A vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of this tang. The jaw screw is slotted only. The round-bottomed pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence but no external bridle. The tail of the frizzen is well sculpted and the frizzen spring's lower leaf ends in a trefoil finial. The IZVs" trigger guard has a convex surface and pointed ends. It is secured by two screws at the rear and a lateral pin through an integral lug at the front. The 5l/i" butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex rear surface.

Plate 017.L7-C The configurations of the convex iron side plate and the trigger guard differ somewhat from British regulation land service muskets of the period. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

56

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 A long, narrow tang extends 75/s" forward at the top. This plate is secured by screws through the toe, heel, and tang. The shape of the wrist escutcheon is similar to British land pattern muskets. The 65/i6" convex-surfaced side plate is in the form of a long, reversed "S," with a rearward extension. The four ramrod thimbles were originally designed to retain a tapered wood ramrod, but this has been replaced with a button-headed steel rod. The forend band is 7/s" wide. The walnut stock extends to 4l/s" of the muzzle. The distinctive nose of the 91A" comb is 3A" high, and flutes extend rearwards for 6". There are raised flats on both sides of the breech and a raised plateau around the breech tang. The barrel is stamped twice with a three-tyned crown over "T." This mark was used by the Blacksmiths Co. of London, which is believed to have lost control of the arms business over fifty years before this musket was made. The barrel is also engraved "HAWLEY." Hawley was colonel of the Thirty-third Regiment from 1717 to 1730. The three-tyned crown over "T" mark is also stamped in the lockplate below the pan. The rear of this plate is engraved "WILSON," "C 10," and "N 21" in three vertical lines of block letters. These markings indicate that the musket was number 21 in the Tenth Company of Hawley's regiment and that it was made by Wilson. There are no other external markings. PREDDEN COMMERCIAL SALES MUSKET

Plate 017.L9-A William Predden commercial sales musket, circa 1715. The private Gunmaker's Company markings on this musket's barrel indicate that it was made for private sale rather than for British Ordnance. Unlike the previous example, this musket is not marked with regimental or company markings but does have what is believed to be a rack number, "2," engraved into its wrist escutcheon. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

017.L9

This iron-mounted musket is 603/4" overall. The 45 " barrel has a baluster ring at the breech and a .796" diameter bore. The square-ended tang has parallel sides, and a sighting groove has been cut into its upper surface and the top of the barrel's breech. The front sight also serves as the bayonet lug and is located 13A" behind the muzzle. The 7" by !3/i6" lock has a convex surface, except under the frizzen spring, where it is flat with beveled edges. The plate's rear profile inclines downwards, but this is not as pronounced as in many other muskets of this period. The 3l/i" convex-surfaced, goose-neck cock has a distinctive tang with a highly convex rear surface. The round-bottomed pan is not integral with the lockplate and has no external bridle. The tail of the frizzen has a flat upper profile, unlike other British arms. The frizzen spring is secured by a screw that passes from inside the lockplate and has an oval-shaped finial with a small button at the end. Only the end of the sear screw is externally visible behind the cock. The 129/i6" sculpted trigger guard has front and rear extensions terminating in pointed ends. Unlike other British military arms of this period, the guard bow's branches are generally rounded. The butt plate has a thin tang extending 7 " forward along the stock's comb. The flat-surfaced side plate's profile is in the

COLONIAL SHOULDER A R M S

57

Plate 017.L9-B The lock of the Predden musket is generally similar to that of the Wilson musket described previously, but its com' ponents differ in their specifications. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

form of a reversed, modified "S." The profile of the 2l/i" wrist escutcheon is similar to, but fancier than, contemporary British muskets. The four ramrod thimbles are decorated with encircling grooves with spherical sections between. The upper three thimbles are 11A" long. The 4W lower thimble has a pointed finial. There is no provision for forend cap or band. The walnut stock is 57" long. The nose of the SVz" comb appears to have been lowered subsequent to original manufacture and has flutes extending 3l/i" rearwards at the sides. There are raised plateaus around the lock, breech tang, and left breech flat. The barrel is marked with the sunken oval cartouche containing a raised "P" over a small crown, and may be Predden's mark. It is also stamped with two sunken oval cartouches containing crowns over the combined "GP" and "V," respectively, identified as Gunmakers' Company markings.3 The lockplate is engraved "W" over "PREDDEN" in inclined block letters forward of the cock. It also has double line border engraving. A "2" is engraved into the wrist escutcheon. There are no other external markings. William Predden is known to have worked in London from the 1680s into the 1720s. This musket was probably made during the latter part of that period, probably circa 1715.

18TH-CENTURY COLONIAL Ml LIT IA MUSKETS

017.N

All thirteen British North American colonies had militias. Except for the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the numerical strength of the various colonial militias shortly before the American Revolution is unknown. In 1750 Massachusetts had a population of 200,000, of which 30,000, or 15 percent, were members of the militia. In order to approximate the total militia strength of all of the 3

Howard L. Blackmore, British Military Firearms, 1650-1850 (New York: Arco, 1961), 281, nos. 13 and 14.

58

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 North American colonies, one might apply a more conservative figure of 5 percent to 10 percent to the total population of 3,000,000. This results in an estimated militia strength of 150,000 to 300,000 men. As each colony required members of the militia to supply their own muskets, there must have been at least 150,000 privately owned militia muskets in the colonies at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. Because these militia muskets were privately acquired and owned, little is known about how they were obtained. The configurations of colonial muskets have been derived by attributing militia service to the few surviving examples. Some of the muskets used by the colonial militias were combination arms used for hunting water fowl and upland game and for satisfying militia requirements. These "fowler-muskets" are described in a later section. Muskets and fowler-muskets — assembled from late 17th- and early 18thcentury British regulation musket components into military and combination military-sport ing arms of pre-Revolutionary configurations — are generally accepted as colonial militia arms. Most colonial militia muskets and fowler-muskets seem to have been assembled in North America from the salvaged metal components of doglock and flintlock pre-land pattern military muskets. Surviving examples of colonial militia muskets assembled during the first few decades of the 18th century often utilize either the flat-surfaced or convex-surfaced military locks, with three sidescrews, sheet iron furniture, and part-octagonal barrels usually associated with British military muskets made before 1707. Later colonial militia muskets appear to have been largely assembled from the salvaged metal components of British land pattern muskets. It is believed that some portion of the American-assembled muskets utilizing British Long Land Pattern metal components — which are generally attributed to Revolutionary War usage — are more appropriately identified as late 18th-century colonial militia muskets. These muskets have frequently been attributed to "Committee of Safety" contracts. Recent writers in the field have shown that the total production of arms that resulted from Committee of Safety contracts between 1775 and 1778 was comparatively small; therefore, a musket should not be so attributed unless it is honestly marked with the name of a known Committee of Safety gunmaker. This, or an incontrovertible provenance, must certainly be the only correct basis for Committee of Safety attribution. To use any other is speculation. From 1778 British pattern muskets were "repaired," "remanufactured," or "assembled" under state contract or by the continental contract armorers and Philadelphia supply agencies described later in this text. Several thousand more muskets were "repaired" or "remanufactured" by the continental agencies and armorers from 1780. A substantial portion of these were French-style, banded muskets assembled from the vast quantities of components and damaged muskets that had been imported. The identities of the privately owned late colonial militia muskets in existence before the outbreak of the Revolutionary War probably are submerged in the thousands of similar, American-assembled British pattern muskets that were repaired and rebuilt during that war. Because of this, it is doubtful that many muskets can be identified as late 18th-century colonial militia muskets of the

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

59

immediate pre-Revolutionary War period. To do so, they must be honestly marked to indicate American colonial period assembly or militia use before the war, or an incontrovertible provenance must exist. However, early colonial militia muskets assembled in America during the first few decades of the 18th century, and perhaps the closing decades of the 17th century, are more easily identified by the age and configuration of the metal components and, sometimes, by the origin of the wood used in the stock. There is no uniformity in these arms beyond the fact they all may be described as "muskets/' They are usually very simply, if somewhat crudely, assembled. Very early colonial militia muskets, made before the general introduction of the bayonet, strongly resemble contemporary fowlers and fowler-muskets. For this reason, differentiation between these muskets and fowler-muskets is sometimes very difficult. Described next are three muskets that, by their configurations and certain features, are attributed to colonial militia usage. These muskets are not typical of all colonial militia muskets; they are presented here only as examples of some of them. COLONIAL, CLUB BUTT MILITIA MUSKET

017.N3

The maple stock and its simple, somewhat crude construction suggest that this musket was assembled in North America for a member of the colonial militia. The configuration of the octagonal barrel indicates that it was originally very likely a component of a matchlock musket. The only external marking on this musket is a three-tyned crown over "T," stamped into the barrel's upper-left breech flat. This may be a London Blacksmiths' Company mark. This 64" musket is generally iron-mounted, except for the brass ramrod thimbles. The 485/s" swamped, octagonal barrel is secured by a screw that passes upwards from the bottom and threads into the square-ended tang and by four lateral pins through the forestock and barrel underlugs. The bore measures .805 " in diameter. A small iron post-type front sight is located l/i" behind the muzzle. The lock is generally similar to those used on British muskets from the 1690s to about 1720. The rear profile of the 67/s" by !3/i6" flat-surfaced lockplate inclines downwards and ends in a projecting point. This lock is secured by three sidescrews. The flat-surfaced cock has a round hole through its reinforced throat. A notch in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of the narrow tang. There are no external or internal bridles. The frizzen spring's lower leaf ends in a spear-point finial.

Plate 017.N3-A This simple, somewhat crudely assembled, iron-mounted unmarked musket is attributed to militia use in the British North American colonies. The lock and some of the other metal components appear to have been salvaged from earlier muskets and assembled into a plain maple stock.

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 017.N3-B The flat-surfaced lock of this colonial militia musket is retained by three sidescrews and is attributed to the 16801720 period. Note that the breech tang screw passes upwards from in front of the trigger and that the sheet metal trigger guard is screwed to the stock's surface.

Plate 017.N5-A This unmarked flintlock musket with back catch is attributed to colonial militia use. Although it is generally similar to the previous musket, it differs in details. The barrel is round, the buttstock is of somewhat lighter proportions, and more skill and detail are evident in the fabrication of its sheet brass furniture. It was also designed to be used with an angular socket bayonet. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

The 9l/i" trigger guard is sheet iron. The round-ended front extension and the pointed rear extension are secured by wood screws. There is no provision for a trigger plate. Three 1" sheet brass thimbles retain the 467/s" tapered wood ramrod. There is no provision for butt plate, side plate, or forend bands. The 623/s" plain maple stock extends to l5/s" of the muzzle. The massive butt has a convex lower profile, sometimes referred to as a "fish belly." The nose of the 81A" comb is 5/s" high and has only rudimentary side flutes. There are no raised plateaus or carving in this very plain stock.

COLONEL FLINTLOCK MUSKET WITH BACK CATCH

017.N5

This brass-mounted musket is 6\l/i" overall. It may have been stocked originally to the muzzle and subsequently the forestock was cut back and the bayonet lug added for use with a bayonet. The 46 l /s" tapered round barrel has a .805" diameter bore. A small rectangular bayonet lug, which also serves as the front sight, is brazed to the barrel 21A" behind the muzzle. The barrel is secured by a screw, which passes upwards from in front of the trigger and threads into the breech tang, and by lateral pins through the forestock and barrel underlugs. The lock strongly resembles the lock of the musket used to illustrate Section 017X3, describing the flintlock musket with back catch. The ll/s" by 1H" lockplate is flat-surfaced. Its rear profile is inclined downwards and ends in a projecting point. The lock is secured by three sidescrews. The tumbler has both

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

61

Plate 017.N5-B The flat-surfaced flintlock is retained by three sidescrews and is equipped with a back catch to secure the cock in the half-cock, or safety, position. No external markings are visible, but it is believed that this lock was originally fabricated in the 16801710 period. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

full- and half-cock notches. The large head of the jaw screw is slotted and holed and does not appear to be original to this lock. The 95/s" sheet brass trigger guard has a spear-pointed front extension and a rounded rear extension. These extensions are nailed to the stock's surface. The 5" by !3/4" sheet brass butt plate is nailed to the stock. A round-ended tang extends 2l/i" forward at the top. The 65/s" sheet brass side plate is in the form of a broad triangle with rounded corners. Two 1" brass thimbles retain the tapered wood ramrod and are decorated with encircling rings and grooves. There is no provision for a forend band. The walnut stock extends to 4l/8rr of the muzzle and is without decoration. It may have been shortened since the musket was originally fabricated so that a socket bayonet could be attached to the barrel. COLONIAL MILITIA MUSKET

017.N8

At first glance, this musket appears to be of more modern construction than the previous arms in this section. However, a closer examination reveals that lock and barrel are of the style used in British muskets prior to 1607. Both the frizzen and French trigger guard are replacements, probably installed during this musket's period of use. This .70 caliber iron-mounted musket is 647/s" overall. The 495/i6" barrel is octagonal at the breech for IP/V and then octagonal with rounded edges for another 3H". It is separated by two baluster rings from the round front section. An oval iron blade front sight is brazed to the barrel 35/s" behind the muzzle. The

Plate 017.N8-A The buttstock's comb of this unmarked colonial militia musket appears to have been lowered during its period of use. The crudely forged ramrod, whose head is formed by folding the shaft back upon itself, and the French trigger guard appear to be the result of repairs during the musket's service life.

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 017.N8-B The convex-surfaced lock is retained by three sidescrews, and there is no external bridle on the pan. The frizzen appears to be a replacement made during the musket's period of use.

barrel is retained by a screw that passes upwards in front of the trigger and threads into the square-ended breech tang and by three lateral pins through the forestock and barrel underlugs. There is a fourth, unused, underlug slot inlet into this barrel, suggesting previous use in another musket. The 7H" by I1//' lockplate is convex-surfaced behind the cock, and the remainder is flat-surfaced with beveled edges. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. This plate is secured by three sidescrews. The convex-surfaced, goose-neck cock has a top jaw whose rear edge bears against the front face of the tang. The jaw screw is slotted only. The frizzen has been replaced, and the frizzen spring's lower leaf ends in a spear-pointed finial. The I3l/s" trigger guard is the type used in French military and trade muskets from the 1690s. Its ends are pointed and it is without the slot for a lower sling swivel lug. The guard is retained by two wood screws at the rear and a staple at the front. The two 1 l/s" plain sheet brass thimbles are of a correct diameter for a wood ramrod, but they now retain an unusual steel ramrod, whose head was formed by hammer forging the rod back over on itself. This rod may have been installed for militia service during the Revolutionary War, when steel rods were generally required on military arms. There is no provision for butt plate or side plate. A 13/i6f'-wide forend band encloses the stock's foretip. The 613/4" maple stock has a raised plateau around the breech tang only. The comb inclines downwards from the butt and intersects the wrist 91A" forward of the butt. This musket is unmarked except for the trigger guard's armory markings of a fleur-de-lis over "A&C," inside the rear extension.

COLONIAL FOWLER-MUSKETS

017.P

Most, if not all, British colonies specified that privately owned arms used in militia service were to be of a loosely defined "musket" configuration. The

63

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

Massachusetts Bay Colony ordered that the barrel lengths were to be between 45" and 51". This was not much different than the fowlers of that time. There was little difference between the configuration of the musket, with its pin-fastened barrel, and the contemporary fowling guns used in North America. Rather than own two guns, one for hunting and one for military service, the militia man preferred an arm that had the musket's general configuration and would also serve to hunt waterfowl. This arm is referred to as a "fowler-musket." Existing examples date from as early as the third quarter of the 17th century, and fowler muskets were still in use by militia forces after the American Revolution, over 100 years later. The distinction between early colonial militia muskets, colonial fowler-muskets, and some colonial fowlers can be very small. This is especially true of the period before the advent of the socket bayonet, when most of these arms were stocked to the muzzle and few militia arms had sling swivels. It is difficult, if not impossible, to categorize many of these arms; many of them could properly be presented in other sections of this text. Like other American colonial arms, each of the fowler-muskets described here is unique and is presented only as a representative example. Each is only generally similar to other fowler-muskets. EARLY ISTH-CENTURY FOWLER-MUSKET

017.P5

Superficially, this fowler-musket appears to have been assembled using British military musket metal components. However, close examination reveals that none of the components carry Ordnance markings. In fact, the barrel carries London Gunmakers' Company proof marks. Also, the barrel and some lock components have configurations that differ from those procured by the Ordnance. This arm was assembled from commercially obtained components of both military and commercial configurations. The barrel and the lock were made by Thomas Green, who is known to have worked in London during the second decade of the 18th century. This fowler-musket was most likely assembled in North America some time thereafter and is a good example of arms that could be classified as either fowlers, or fowler-muskets, were it not for the provision for a bayonet (which may have resulted from an alteration subsequent to original assembly). The 69" fowler-musket has both iron and brass mountings. The .75 caliber, 53 " barrel is octagonal for lOV at the breech, and this tapers to the round front section without baluster rings. A bayonet lug, which also serves as the front sight, is brazed to the top of the barrel 13A" behind the muzzle. The muzzle extends 3"

Plate 017.P5-A This brass- and iron-mounted flintlock fowlermusket was assembled from privately made English military-style musket components into a cherry stock. The metal components are of the pre-1707 style. (The Peabody Museum of Salem, Mass., collections.)

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 017.P5-B The flat-surfaced flintlock is retained by three sidescrews and is equipped with a back catch. The plate is engraved "T GREEN" in block letters. Thomas Green is known to have worked in London during the second decade of the 18th century and may have worked earlier. (The Peabody Museum of Salem, Mass., collections.)

beyond the stock's forend. The barrel is retained by the tang screw and by lateral pins. The 63/4" by !3/i6" lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges and is secured by three sidescrews. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. The flat-surfaced, goose-neck cock is provided with a back-catch, or safety dog. Although the lock was not disassembled from the musket, it most likely has a vertical sear, although whether the half-cock notch is present is unknown. There is no external pan bridle. The frizzen spring finial ends in a pointed leaf. The 9l/i" sheet brass trigger guard is convex-surfaced. Its round-ended front and rear extensions are secured by screws. The convex-surfaced brass side plate is in the form of a serpent or dragon, with its mouth encompassing the front sidescrew. The two brass ramrod thimbles are decorated encircling rings and grooves. The tapered wood ramrod is 54" long. There is no provision for butt plate or forend band. The 66" cherry stock has raised flats on both sides of the breech. The barrel is stamped with Thomas Green's mark of a crown over "TG" and the London Gunmakers' Company proof markings. The lock is engraved "T GREEN" forward of the cock and is decorated with double line border engraving. LATE ISTH-CENTURY FOWLER-MUSKETS

017.P7

This section describes fowler-muskets made or assembled in North America from the mid-18th century into the 1790s. The earliest fowler-muskets of this period were among the nonregulation arms used by the British colonial militia forces during the Seven Years' War. These, and later fowler-muskets, were among the nonregulation arms used by both militia and continental forces during the early years of the Revolution. The vast quantities of French muskets that were imported during the late 1770s were usually issued to the continental forces, and nonregulation arms, such as fowler-muskets, remained in militia use throughout the war. The configurations of late 18th-century fowler-muskets often approximate those of contemporary regulation muskets. Although most are plain, the general

COLONIAL SHOULDER A R M S

65

quality of workmanship is better than that noted on late 17th-century and early 18th-century fowler-muskets. Most fowler-muskets made until the 1790s have .75 caliber bores. Many of these were assembled from British military metal components. Some fowler-muskets made from about 1780 have French .69 caliber barrels and locks, possibly salvaged from damaged muskets. Many late 18th-century fowler-muskets have round, pin-fastened barrels and military-style trigger guards. Fowler-muskets have been observed with salvaged British military locks, English-style locks of commercial manufacture, and American-made locks. The barrels of most observed examples are between 44" and 50" long. Some fowler-muskets have a full complement of furniture, including a butt plate, forend cap, and lower ramrod thimble, but many do not. All observed examples have steel ramrods — this being a general requirement during the Revolutionary War — and most have both sufficient muzzle extension and a lug for a bayonet. Many that have this provision for bayonet appear to have been altered for it subsequent to original manufacture. Walnut appears to have been the favored wood for the stocks, with cherry running a close second. Maple and other American fruit woods were also used. WATKEYS FOWLER-MUSKET

017.P7F

Henry Watkeys, of New Windsor, Ulster County (now Orange County), New York, was active at least from 1772 to 1776. This unusual German silver-mounted fowler-musket is 555/s" overall and appears to have been assembled from commercial components. The 39l/i" barrel appears to have been shortened about 1". This does not include the 3/i6" thick breech plate with integral tang at the rear. The HVz" octagonal breech section is separated from the round front section by two baluster rings. The bore measures .72". The front sight/bayonet lug is brazed to the barrel 5/i6" behind the muzzle. The rear sight is a raised channel on the breech tang. The barrel is secured to the stock by three flat keys. The 57/s" by !3/i6" lock plate has a flat surface with beveled edges. This surface is stepped down behind two decorative vertical grooves at the rear. The gooseneck cock is also flat-surfaced with beveled edges. The convex heads of the frizzen and frizzen spring screw are partially countersunk, and the frizzen spring's lower leaf ends in an acorn-shaped finial. The 6" trigger plate's front end is shaped into a well-defined acorn. The rear end is rounded. The 7/s"-wide guard bow is riveted to this plate. The 5" by 21/s" butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex rear surface. A pierced,

Plate 107.P7F-A This silvermounted fowler-musket was made by Henry Watkeys of New York from commercial English components. (William Guthman Collection.)

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Plate 017.P7F-B The lock is engraved "WATKEYS" in block letters, and its components exhibit the additional sculpting and decoration of high-quality, commercial arms of the period. (William Guthman Collection.)

pointed tang extends forward for 2l/s". The 6" side plate has a flat surface with beveled edges. Its shape is similar to those of early American long rifles. In addition to the two sidescrews, there is a retaining screw near its pointed rear end. The two barrel-type, upper ramrod thimbles are 1" long, and the 3l/i" lower thimble has a pointed finiaL A 9/i6" forend band is located at the stock's foretip. There is also an oval wrist escutcheon. The 39" steel ramrod has a trumpet head. The walnut stock is 533A" long. The forearm, from 7" forward of the breech, has been replaced. The nose of the 8l/2" comb is high, and flutes extend rearwards on both sides for 5 ". The barrel's top flat is marked "WATKEYS' NEW YORK." The left quarter flat has a cartouche of a crown over crossed scepters stamped into it twice. This barrel is almost certainly of commercial manufacture because these are the British Tower's view and proof marks for private arms. The lockplate is engraved "WATKEYS" forward of the cock. There is some decorative foliage engraving behind the cock, on the breech tang, and on the trigger guard. MEDAD HILLS FOWLER-MUSKET (1st Example) 3

017.P7I

This brass-mounted fowler-musket is 60 /s" overall. The commercially made round 447/s" barrel has baluster rings at the breech. An oval, brass front sight blade is located 3" behind the muzzle, and the bayonet lug is located under the barrel, iVi" behind the muzzle. The semi-pointed breech tang has a groove in its elevated upper surface, which serves as the rear sight. The barrel is secured to the forestock by lateral pins.

Plate 017.P7I-A This brassmounted fowler-musket was made by Medad Hills using commercial furniture and barrel and a salvaged military lock. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

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Plate 017.P7I-B "

DAD

HILLS" is all that remains of Medad Hills' name engraved on the butt tang of this fowler-musket. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

The 53/4" lock is probably from a British fusil or carbine, (See the description of markings that follows. A description of similar locks is in the section on British regulation arms.) Only the frizzen spring differs from regulation pattern; it has a spear-pointed finiaL The 95/s" brass trigger guard is of British military configuration. There is no trigger plate. The 4l/i" by l5/s" brass butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex rear surface. Its 3 " tang is pointed. The heads of the sidescrews rest on individual, diamond-shaped washers. The four thimbles are formed from sheet brass. The upper thimble is funnel-shaped. The upper-middle and lower-middle thimbles are barrel-type. The lower, or entrance, thimble has a pointed finial. There is an oval brass escutcheon on the wrist. The brass forend band is 3/s" wide. The trumpet-headed, steel ramrod is 437/s" long. The maple stock extends to 2l/i" of the muzzle. The 9l/i" comb has a low nose with flutes that extend rearwards on both sides for 53/4". The barrel's upper left quadrant is stamped with traces of Tower proofs for private arms. The lockplate is engraved "IORDAN" (Jordan) and "1747" in two vertical lines behind the cock. There are traces of a crowned royal cypher in front of the cock. The butt plate tang is engraved " DAD HILLS/' all that remains of the original UMEDAD HILLS" marking. Medad Hills worked in Goshen, Connecticut, in the 1750-1808 period. MEDAD HILLS FOWLER-MUSKET (2d Example)

017.P7J

Plate 017.P7J-A Medad Hills made this brass-mounted fowlermusket entirely from commercial components and those of his manufacture. The barrel band immediately forward of the lock was added subsequent to original manufacture to repair a stock fracture. (Al Thompson Collection. Photograph courtesy of the Northampton Historical Society, Mass.)

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Plate 017.P7J-B The butt plate tang of this fowler-musket was signed "M. HILLS" in block letters. (Al Thompson Collection. Photograph courtesy of the Northampton Historical Society, Mass.)

Another fowler-musket by Medad Hills is on loan to the Northampton, Massachusetts, Historical Society Collection. This 61Vz" brass-mounted fowlermusket has a similar barrel, stock, and butt plate configuration, but the other metal components differ. The 457/s" round barrel has a .68 caliber bore. The lockplate is flat-surfaced with beveled edges and has vertical decorative grooves at the rear. The gooseneck cock is also flat-surfaced. The frizzen spring finial has a double point and terminates in a trefoil. The trigger guard is formed from sheet brass, as is the broad, flat, bevel-edged side plate. The three upper ramrod thimbles are barrel-type, and the lower thimble has a pointed finial. The forend band is missing. The curly maple stock is SSVz" long. "M. HILLS," in block letters, is engraved in the 3 " butt plate tang. "POINTING HAND" FOWLER-MUSKET

Plate 017.P7N-A This maplestocked fowler-musket has no external maker's or proof markings, but its patchbox's side plates are decorated with engraved "pointing hands." A sheet brass band was added subsequent to original manufacture at the stock's wrist to repair a fracture. (Jay Forman Collection.)

017.P7N

This .64 caliber, brass-mounted fowler-musket is 611/V overall. The 453/s" barrel is octagonal at the breech for 10" and then round to the muzzle. There are two baluster rings at \2l/i" from the breech. A brass front sight is located 2" behind the muzzle, and the bayonet lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel, iVs" behind the muzzle. The 513/i6" by 1" commercial lock is of British military configuration. The frizzen spring finial is acorn-shaped, although it is dissimilar to the frizzen spring finial of the Watkeys' fowler-musket previously described. The \2l/i" brass trigger guard has an integral bow with a split rear branch. The sculpted front extension's profile terminates in an acorn, and the rear end

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Plate 017.P7N-B The brass mountings of this fowler-musket with the "pointing hands" decoration reflect the English styling used in British North American colonial arms through the early years of the Revolutionary War. The commercially made lock's configuration suggests that it was made circa 1750-1770. (Jay Forman Collection.)

is rounded. The 5l/i" by 2" butt plate has a curved rear profile and a convex rear surface. The 41/z" tang is pointed. The unusual, brass, three-piece patchbox has a sliding cover and rectangular side plates. The 6" side plate has a flat surface with beveled edges. All four brass thimbles are barrel style. The three upper thimbles are !3/i6"; the 3u/i6" lower thimble has a pointed finial. There is no provision for a forend band. The 573/4" curly maple stock has an old sheet brass repair at the wrist. The nose of the 9" comb is 5/s" high, and flutes extend rearwards on both sides for 3l/z". This arm is externally unmarked as to maker or proofs, but the lockplate and cock are engraved with floral designs. The trigger guard, butt plate tang, and side plate have rope-pattern border engraving. The patchbox side pieces are engraved with dogs chasing deer, and hands with pointing fingers. It is this last feature that gives this arm its nickname among collectors.

FOWLING GUNS

017.R

Records of the early British colonists include quantities of fowling guns, some up to 6l/2 in length. The primary purpose of these guns was to hunt the waterfowl of the Atlantic flyway for the settlers' tables. It is probable that the fowling guns were also used for the settlers' protection. Many of the earliest fowlers were equipped with snaphance and, later, with English locks. Surviving examples of early 17th-century fowlers are very clumsy arms that must have been very awkward to handle while hunting. They often have massive butts, which incline downwards from the bore line. Another fowling gun came into existence in the Hudson River valley and adjacent areas in the late 17th or early 18th century. The Hudson Valley fowler evolved from the swan guns used in Holland and was used through the beginning of the 19th century. It had a club butt but generally was of more graceful construction than the early colonial fowlers. Even so, the fowling guns were quite long and bulky, because the waterfowl were shot while on the water rather than in flight. When wing shooting came into vogue during the 18th century, a

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lighter, shorter-barreled fowler that could be swung and fired at flying waterfowl became popular. The New England fowler exemplifies the evolution of sporting guns into lighter, more graceful configurations. The fowlers of the British colonists are included here primarily as a matter of interest to the arms student, because fowling guns were sporting, not military, arms. If they saw military service, it was only as a weapon of last resort. The fowlers used in the French North American colonies, called fusils de chasse, or "hunting guns," were not only used by settlers and traded to the Indians; they were also used by the French colonial militia. More information on these arms is presented later in this section. 17TH-CENTURY FOWLERS

017.R1

Fowling guns were among the arms brought to America by the early British colonists. Very little is known about those sent subsequently to North America from England. Available information indicates that none of the fowling guns used in the British North American colonies during the 17th century were procured by British Ordnance. The Ordnance is known to have purchased one lot of 500 fowling pieces in 1652 for use in Scotland that had snaphance locks and 5' barrels. The only known commercial import of firearms to New England was a lot of 300 "birding and fowling pieces" and muskets, transported by the English merchant, Daniel Hore. However, because fowling guns were necessary to provide sustenance for the early colonists, substantial numbers must have been sent to the North American colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries. TOM SON LONG FOWLER

Plate 017.R12-A This massive, iron-mounted long fowler dates from the early 17th century, and its provenance includes ownership by an early Plymouth colonist, John Tomson (1616-1696). The four narrow barrel bands are believed to have been added in the 1970s to reinforce the forestock. (Old Colony Historical Society, Taunton, Mass., Collection.)

017.R12

This long fowler is perhaps the earliest firearm with a known provenance that includes ownership by one of the early Plymouth Colony settlers, John Tomson (1616-1696). Tomson was born in Wales and sailed to the Plymouth Colony aboard the Little James and Anne in 1623. In that he was a young boy at the time, he probably acquired the gun sometime after the mid-1630s. This iron-mounted fowler is 89" overall, and although it matches the meager descriptions of the fowling guns brought over by the earliest English settlers, it probably was restocked in the mid-17th century. Its original snaphance lock was probably altered to an English lock sometime during the third quarter of that century. This fowler is now in the collection of the Old Colony Historical Society, Taunton, Massachusetts.

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Plate 017.R12-B The original snaphance lock of the Tomson long fowler is believed to have been altered to its present English lock system sometime during the third quarter of the 17th century. (Old Colony Historical Society, Taunton, Mass., Collection.)

There is a wide baluster ring at the breech of the 73l/i" barrel and two sets of baluster rings in front of the 205/i6" octagonal breech section. The flared muzzle is also octagonal and is separated from the round section by a wide baluster ring. There is a small iron post front sight above the muzzle. This .75 caliber barrel is still mounted with a portion of its original matchlock pan hinge bolster on the upper right breech quadrant, which indicates that the barrel predates this stocking as a fowler. The 97/s" by I15/i6" lockplate shows evidence of welding on the inside and some reshaping at the front end, which probably occured some^ time in the third quarter of the 17th century, when it was altered to its present English lock. The buffer and frizzen spring, with their matching shield-shaped finials, appear to be the only original exterior snaphance components. The cock, pan, and frizzen were probably replaced during the alteration. The lock is retained by sidescrews at the front and rear. The sheet iron trigger guard is formed into a skeleton pistol grip behind the bow and has pointed ends. It is retained to the stock's surface by screws at the front and rear. The barrel is equipped with three underlugs and is also secured to the stock by four thin bands. A photograph of this arm published in the mid-1950s shows this musket without these barrel bands, and it is believed that they were added when the arm was refurbished in the 1970s. The bands also retain the 713/s" tapered wood ramrod. There is no provision for butt plate, side plate, or forend band. The 863/i6" beech stock probably dates from the mid47th century. If this fowler was truly Tomson's, then it was probably restocked in North America. Its massive club butt inclines sharply downwards and has a concave comb profile. The side flats extend rearwards and downwards from around the lock and left side opposite, to the butt.

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The barrel's left quarter flat is stamped with illegible cartouches, which may be the maker's or London Gunmakers' Company markings. There are traces of decoration on the trigger guard and right side of the butt stock. ENGLISH LOCK COLONIAL FOWLER

Plate 017.R15-A This ironmounted long fowler was originally fabricated as a snaphance and was subsequently altered to English lock. It has an unusual flared muzzle, and the buttstock's profile drops sharply away at the rear. Detailed photographs of its lock are in Section 015.86.

017.R15

This 611/4/' 17th-century fowler was originally fabricated as a snaphance. The 48 /4" barrel is octagonal for IZVz" from the breech. This section is separated from the round section by baluster rings. The flared muzzle section is separated from the remainder of the barrel by two baluster rings, located 2" and \l/i" behind the muzzle. There is a small iron post-type front sight at the muzzle. The 7 " by P/s" flat-surfaced lock has been altered from snaphance to English lock. The upwards projection on the tumbler used in snaphance arms for the pan cover linkage has been partially removed. The pan was replaced, and there is a small filler piece of metal along the front upper edge of the lockplate where the snaphance's sliding pan cover was removed. The lockplate's rear profile is pointed and the front profile is rounded. The lock is provided with horizontally acting internal and external sears and a safety dog, or back catch, behind the cock. The ll/i" sheet iron trigger guard has been formed into a skeleton pistol grip behind the bow. The extensions are pointed at the front and rounded at the rear. The V^'-wide iron forend band is located !3/4" behind the stock's foretip. The tapered wood ramrod is retained by a single IVs" sheet brass thimble, which has decorative grooves at the ends. There is no provision for butt plate or side plate. The walnut stock extends to 35/s" of the muzzle and has a short "hook" butt, which inclines sharply downwards to the rear. This fowler has no maker's or proof markings. 3

HUDSON VALLEY FOWLERS

017.R4

Known examples of Hudson Valley fowlers usually date from the early 18th to the early 19th century. Many are over 6' long, and known examples range from 5l/2 to ll/i in overall length. These fowlers are believed to have decended from the Dutch "swan guns." Arne Hoff states in Dutch Firearms that swan guns appeared in Holland during the 17th century. Although swans were protected by Dutch law, they were hunted in the marshes along the Zuider Zee for their meat, for their long feathers for quill pens, and for their down, which was used in cushions and mattresses.

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The locks and barrels of Hudson Valley fowlers are usually of Dutch or English origin; in the earliest examples, these components originated in the Netherlands. Spanish barrels were also used. Several fowlers examined bear London Gunmakers' Company proofs and the touchmark of Richard Wilson, who worked from 1730 until his death in 1766. The con vex-surfaced locks are usually equipped with goose-neck cocks, and the lockplates are sometimes engraved with scroll or floral designs. The furniture is usually cast brass and ranges from plain to very decorative. Trigger guards and thimbles often exhibit decorative sculpting, and some large side plates have numerous piercings. Stocks are usually made of maple or cherry. The butt section is massive in comparison to most other arms but does not have the pronounced drop at the wrist, or the vertical height, of the club butt fowler. The comb's nose is usually 3 /4" to 1" high, and long flutes extend rearwards on each side. Like the club butt fowler, the lower profile of the Hudson Valley fowler's buttstock is usually convex, or "fish-bellied." Metal components are often marked with the European makers' marks or proof stamps. They are very rarely marked with American gunmakers' names. 1713-DATED DUTCH FOWLER

017.R4B

This early brass-mounted fowler is 78l/i" overall. Its bore diameter is .725". The 625/s" barrel is octagonal for 11" at the breech and then sixteen-sided for the next 43/4". Two baluster rings separate this octagonal section from the round section, which extends to the muzzle. The barrel is pin-fastened to the forestock. The front sight blade is located 11A" behind the muzzle.

Plate 017.R4B-A This early, brass-mounted Dutch fowler may have been originally made in Holland as a "swan gun," and imported into North America during the early 18th century to hunt waterfowl for the colonists' tables. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

Plate 017.R4B-B The convexsurfaced lock has no provision for external pan bridle. The frizzen spring may be a replacement made during its period of use. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

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Plate 017.R4B-C "YA COPT^ NYCK-1713" is engraved into the butt plate's long brass tang. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

The 63/4" by !3/i6" lock is convex-surfaced, except under the frizzen spring, where it is flat-surfaced with beveled edges. The rear profile ends in an projecting point. The goose-neck cock is also convex-surfaced. The round-bottomed pan does not have an external bridle. The 12" trigger guard has sculpted, pointed ends. The sheet brass butt plate 3 is 5 /4" by 2l/i". Its semi-pointed tang extends forward for 8l/i". The butt plate is retained by several small nails. The 63/4" pierced side plate is missing, but its recess indicates that it was of a leafy vine pattern. There is a pierced, sculpted escutcheon on top of the wrist. The four thimbles are decorated with encircling grooves with spherical sections between them. The upper three thimbles are about IH" long, and the 41A" lower thimble has a pointed finial. The tapered wood ramrod does not have metal fittings. The walnut stock extends to l/i" of the muzzle. It has raised plateaus on the left and right sides of the breech and around the breech tang. There is a swell and raised carving around the lower ramrod thimble. Flutes extend 4^" rearwards from both sides of the nose of the 8l/i" comb. The barrel's left quarter flat is stamped with a sunken cartouche containing a raised crown over shield. The lock is unmarked externally. The butt plate tang is engraved UYA COPTNYCK-1713" in a single line of block capital letters. WITBECK HUDSON VALLEY FOWLER

Plate 017.R4G-A This Hudson Valley fowler dates from circa 1730, and its provenance includes ownership by Martin Cornelius Witbeck, who lived on the east bank of the Hudson River, north of Albany, New York. The sheet brass band was added at the stock's wrist to reinforce it during this fowler's period of use. (Anthony D. Darling Collection.)

017.R4G

This 81" brass-mounted fowler was made circa 1730 but is dated 1770 and bears the initials of Martin Cornelius Witbeck. The original Witbecks settled on the east bank of the Hudson River, eight miles south of Albany, New York, in the third quarter of the 17th century. Martin Witbeck was born in 1744 and served as a private in the Fifth Company of the Fourth Regiment of the Fourth Batallion of New York State Militia during the Revolutionary War. It is speculated that he may have acquired this gun from his father, Jonathan Witbeck. The elder Witbeck died in 1770, and that year and Martin's initials are engraved in the wrist escutcheon. The 67 " round barrel is secured by lateral pins and a screw passing downwards through the breech tang.

COLONIAL. SHOULDER ARMS

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Plate 017.R4G-B The flat-surfaced lock is decorated with hunting scenes and is engraved "L.KINBURGH" and "AMSTERDAM" in two vertical arcs behind the cock. The convex-surfaced wrist escutcheon can be seen protruding through an opening in the sheet brass wrist repair band. (Anthony D. Darling Collection.)

Plate 017.R4G-C A high degree of sculpting in the trigger guard and pierced side plate is clearly evident in the Witbeck Hudson Valley fowler. (Anthony D. Darling Collection.)

The 7 " flat-surfaced lock is retained by three sidescrews. The flat-surfaced cock has a reinforced throat. There is no external bridle, and the frizzen spring finial is in the shape of a pointed leaf. The cast brass furniture includes a highly sculpted trigger guard with pointed, leaf-shaped finials and a generally flat, bevel-edged surface. The pierced side plate is also highly sculpted. The four ramrod thimbles are decorated with encircling grooves, with spherical sections between. The tapered wood ramrod has a cleaning jag. The curly maple stock extends to the muzzle. There is a sheet brass wrist repair, which has been cut away to expose the escutcheon plate. The lockplate is engraved with a hunting scene. It and the cock are border engraved. "L.KINBURGH" over "AMSTERDAM" is engraved into the lockplate in two vertical arcs behind the cock. The wrist escutcheon is engraved U M.C." and conjoined "WB." over "N7" over "1770" in three horizontal lines.

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HUDSON VALLEY FOWLER

Plate 017.R4L-A This unmarked, brass-mounted Hudson Valley fowler appears to have been made during the third quarter of the 18th century. (Jay Forman Collection.)

Plate 017.R4L-B Traces of the convex-surfaced lock's decorative engraving remain. Decorative sculpting is evident on the frizzen spring. (Jay Forman Collection.)

Plate 017.R4L-C Although it has been worn through use, the stock's raised plateaus around the breech tang and left breech flat — beneath the pierced, vine pattern side plate — are evidence of this fowler's high-quality manufacture. (Jay Forman Collection.)

017.R4L

This 73 Vz" brass-mounted fowler is typical of Hudson Valley fowlers as they were made just prior to the American Revolution. The 57H", .78 caliber barrel is octagonal at the breech for 18 ". The top flat has a raised plateau. The octagonal section is separated from the round front section by baluster rings. The barrel is secured to the stock by lateral pins and by a screw that passes downwards through the square-ended tang and threads into a rectangular nut in front of the trigger. The front sight blade is brazed to the barrel 3l/i" behind the muzzle. The 67/s" by 11A" lock has a convex surface, except under the frizzen spring, where it is flat with beveled edges. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. The goose-neck cock is also convex-surfaced, and the faceted pan has an external bridle. The highly sculpted frizzen spring is secured by a screw that passes from inside the lockplate, and its lower leaf ends in a flattened figure "8"-shaped finial. The 11" trigger guard's ends are highly sculpted and terminate in points. The 1 "-wide bow is decorated with parallel grooves. This guard is retained by a lateral pin through an integral lug at the front and a screw at the rear. The 53/4/; by 2l/i" butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex rear surface, especially at the heel. The decorative 5l/s" tang is round-ended. This butt plate is secured by screws. The 6l/i" pierced side plate is in the form of a vine. The four ramrod thimbles are decorated with encircling grooves with spherical sections

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between, and the lower thimble has a pointed finial The tapered wood ramrod is 563/4" long. The 733/s" curly maple stock has raised plateaus on both sides of the breech, breech tang, trigger guard, and ramrod channel The nose of the 85/s" comb is 1" high, and square-ended flutes extend rearwards on both sides for 43/4". Except for the decorative floral engraving on the lockplate, this fowler is externally unmarked. NEW ENGLAND FOWLERS

017.R8

These are the most graceful of the American colonial fowling guns. The Huguenot gunmakers who emigrated to London circa 1685 introduced this style there, and the New England fowlers were patterned after the English full-stocked fowling guns. Most of the New England fowlers observed date during the second half of the 18th century. The metal components of New England fowlers were often of English manufacture, although examples with French and Dutch components are known. These parts do not carry American gunmakers' identification, but many have the makers' names or proof marks from their country of origin. Barrels of most examples are usually 45" to 55". As these were primarily sporting arms, there was no provision for a bayonet. Most are mounted with cast brass furniture. The full-length stock is usually of plain maple or cherry and reflects good quality, if plain, workmanship. Few have relief carving. The salient features of the stock are its vertically narrow butt, usually with a concave lower profile, and a long, slim wrist, similar to some late American fowler-muskets and Pennsylvania rifles. The very thin forestock usually extends to the muzzle. UNMARKED NEW ENGLAND FOWLER

017.R8D

This brass-mounted fowler is 697/s" overall. The 543/s" barrel is octagonal at the breech for 12" and then tapers to round. It is retained by four flat, brass keys. The bore diameter is .57". An oval, brass front sight blade is brazed to the barrel 5 " behind the muzzle. The 53/i6" by 1" Germanic-style lock has a flat, bevel-edged surface, with vertical decorative grooves at the rear. The rear profile ends in a point. The goose-neck cock is also flat-surfaced. There is a bridle on the faceted pan. The frizzen spring's outer edges are beveled, and its lower leaf ends in a teardropshaped finial.

Plate 017.R8D-A The slender, graceful profile of this brassmounted New England fowler is in sharp contrast to the fowlers used in the Hudson Valley, which have more massive butt dimensions. Although its maker is unknown, he used a barrel made by William Grice of Birmingham, England. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

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Plate 017.R8D-B The incised carving at the stock comb's nose and around the stock plateaus is well executed. The lockplate is unmarked with the maker's name. Its tail, like most of the furniture, has decorative engraving. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

Plate 017.R8G-A The configuration of this graceful, brassmounted New England fowler, made by Phinehas Sawyer, is very similar to the unmarked fowler previously described. It is also stocked in walnut. (William Guthman Collection.)

The lOVz" trigger guard has highly sculpted and engraved bow and finials, with pointed ends. It is retained by lateral pins through integral lugs at the front and rear. The 4l/2" by I15/i6" butt plate has a straight rear profile and a convex rear surface. The 33/4" tang's profile is stepped inwards, to its pointed end. There is an oval, convex-surfaced, German silver escutcheon on the wrist. The 43/4" side plate has a flat surface and scalloped edges. The four sheet brass thimbles have decorative rings at their ends. The upper thimble is slightly funnel-shaped, the two middle thimbles are barrel type, and the lower thimble has a pointed finial. The tapered wood ramrod is 53l/i" long. There is no provision for a forend band. The walnut stock has raised plateaus around the lock, left breech flat, tang, trigger guard, and ramrod channel. The 9 " comb has a slight "roman" nose, which is 5/s" high. Broad flutes extend 6l/i" rearwards at the sides. The buttstock's lower profile is concave. The barrel's left quarter flat is marked with Birmingham private proofs above and below the barrel maker's mark of a crown over "W.G." This is the mark of William Grice, who worked from the 1760s to the late 1770s. There are no other maker's identification markings. The following metal parts have decorative engraving: the rear of the lockplate, the butt plate tang, side plate, trigger guard, and wrist escutcheon. SAWYER NEW ENGLAND FOWLER

017.R8G

Phinehas Sawyer (1746-1820) is known to have worked in Harvard, Massachusetts, between 1772 and 1800. Besides fowlers, he also made flintlock muskets. In 1774 he served as clerk of the local militia company.

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Plate 017.R8G-B Phinehas Saw yer (1746-1820) is known to have worked in Harvard, Massachusetts. The configuration and proportions of the frizzen spring suggest that it may be a period replacement. (William Guthman Collection.)

This TlVs" fowler is brass-mounted. The 553/s" round barrel has a raised top flat that extends from the breech to 37/s" of the muzzle. The German silver front sight blade is located 45/s" behind the muzzle. The bore diameter is .61". The barrel is retained by a screw that passes downwards through the pointed-end breech tang and by lateral pins through the forestock and barrel underlugs. The 513/i6" by IVfc" Germanic lock is flat-surfaced with beveled edges. There are vertical decorative grooves behind the cock, and the plate's surface is stepped down at the rear. The rear profile ends in a point. The goose-neck cock also has a flat surface with beveled edges. The frizzen spring is retained by a screw from the inside, and its lower leaf ends in a spear-pointed finial. The lOl/z" trigger guard is very similar to the guard on the unmarked fowler just described, as is the 51A" side plate and the P/4", oval, convex-surfaced, German silver wrist escutcheon. The 43/4" by 2" butt plate has a slightly curved profile, and a convex rear surface. Its 5 " tang has an irregular, decorative profile. The four sheet brass ramrod thimbles have decorative rings at the ends. The 523/s" ramrod has a short trumpet head and an integral wiper at the rear. The walnut stock is 707/s" long. The 9" comb has a slight "roman" nose and a concave lower profile. Flutes extend 63/4" rearwards from the sides of the nose. There is some incised carving at the comb's nose, and there are raised plateaus on both sides of the breech, breech tang, trigger guard, and ramrod channel. The barrel is unmarked. "PHINEHAS" over "SAWYER" is engraved in two lines of block letters in the lockplate forward of the cock. The lockplate also has

Plate 017.R8G-C High-quality sculpting and detailed delicate engraving are evident in the furniture of the Phinehas Sawyer fowler. (William Guthman Collection.)

80

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 double line border engraving. There is decorative foliage engraving in the lock's tail and the barrel's top flat. The butt plate tang, wrist escutcheon, and trigger guard are also engraved with various decorative designs. LEWIS NEW ENGLAND FOWLER

Plate 017.R8L-A This brassmounted, maple-stocked New England fowler is attributed to Roger Lewis, whose name is engraved on the butt plate tang. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

017.R8L

This 693/4" brass-mounted fowler has a 54" round barrel with baluster rings at the breech. The bore diameter is .61". A sighting groove has been cut into the top of the square-ended tang and barrel's breech, and a brass front sight is dovetailed into the barrel 41A" behind the muzzle. The 6l/s" lock has a flat surface with beveled edges. Its rear profile inclines downwards and ends in a projecting point. The goose-neck cock is also flat-surfaced, with beveled edges. As in most other early fowlers, there is no external bridle extending forward from the pan.

Plate 017.R8L-B The Lewis New England fowler's lock is similar to those of early French trade guns, but its profile is narrower vertically and is more banana-shaped. A Connecticut Centennial Loan Exhibit tag, dated June 17, 1885, is glued to the right side of the butt. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

The front and rear extensions of the 93/4" trigger guard have flat surfaces with beveled edges and end in pointed-leaf profiles. There is a pronounced bulge in the heel of the butt plate. The SVz" side plate is pierced. The four sheet brass ramrod thimbles have decorative rings at the ends and centers. The upper three thimbles are IVs" long. The 23A" lower thimble has a pointed finial. There is no forend band or cap. The curly maple stock extends to the muzzle. It has raised plateaus around the lock and left side at the breech.

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

81

Plate 017.R8L-C The butt plate tang is engraved "Roger Lewis 1756" in what appears to be the same hand that accomplished the other decorative engraving on this fowler's furniture. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

Except for some decorative scroll engraving, this fowler is engraved only "ROGER LEWIS 1756" in semi-script, in the butt plate tang. No information is available on Roger Lewis in the standard source books of American gunmakers. A Connecticut Centennial Loan Exhibit tag, dated June 17, 1885, is glued to the right side of the buttstock. OTHER FOWLING GUNS

017.R9

This section is included because many of the fowling guns used in North America during the colonial period simply do not fit into the previous categories. These arms were invariably one-of-a-kind, and brief descriptions are given here to acquaint the student with the wide variety of arms that existed prior to the American Revolution. ASSEMBLED CLUB BUTT FOWLER

017.R9C

The arm is typical of many club butt fowlers assembled in North America during the second half of the 18th century. It contains components of various British muskets made from the 1690s to after 1753. As previously stated, the distinctions between colonial fowlers, fowler-muskets, and some colonial muskets are sometimes blurred. This 655/i6" overall fowler is just such an example. It might well be categorized as a colonial musket assembled from salvaged British musket components, except that its barrel is quite long and it has no provision for a bayonet. The round barrel was originally from a British military musket, and it has been extended at the muzzle by welding on an extension, to bring its overall length to 4913/i6"* The bore is .80" in diameter. A brass front sight blade is brazed to the barrel 11A" behind the muzzle. The barrel is secured to the stock by a screw that passes downwards through the breech tang and threads into the iron trigger plate and by four lateral pins that pass through the forestock and barrel underlugs. The 67/s" by !5/i6" flat-surfaced lockplate is secured by two sidescrews. The plate was originally provided with a third threaded hole for a sidescrew at the

Plate 017.R9C-A The configuration of this club butt fowler suggests that it may have descended from the French buccaneer gun. It was assembled using the lock and barrel of a British regulation musket of the 1700-1715 period. The barrel was extended at the muzzle to its present 4913/i6" length.

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 017.R9C-B The British military lock was altered for use in this club butt fowler by plugging the rear side screw hole and removing the cock's back catch.

rear, but this has been plugged. This British military flintlock was also originally equipped with a back catch, which was subsequently removed. The flat-surfaced cock has a round hole in its reinforced throat. There are no internal or external bridles. The frizzen spring finial is in the form of a flattened fleur-de-lis. The 93/4" trigger guard is sheet iron. Its front extension terminates in a trefoil finial, and its rear extension is rounded. It is secured by screws at the front and rear. The sheet brass butt plate is 5" by 2l/s". The 33/4" tang is stepped down to a rounded point. The 61A" broad sheet brass side plate resembles those found on some long fowlers and American long rifles. The three upper thimbles are of sheet brass; the lower, or entrance, thimble is of cast brass and is similar to those used on British muskets. The tapered wood ramrod is 477/s" long. There is no provision for a forend band. The maple stock extends to l/s" of the muzzle. The massive club butt has a straight comb and flat, slab-like sides. Well-defined flutes extend 4" downwards and rearwards from both sides of the concave nose. Traces of the crown and broad arrow British Ordnance mark are visible on the lockplate, under the pan. A maker's name, rather than a royal cypher, was

Plate 017.R9C-C The broad, flat side plate is typical of many Germanic and American 18th- and early 19th-century shoulder arms. The sheet iron trigger guard is screwed to the stock's surface.

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS

83

engraved forward of the cock, but this is largely illegible. The barrel has traces of the Ordnance's view and proof marks and is engraved "XX REGT" on the top. This is the mark of the Twentieth Regiment and would date the barrel at 1753 or later, when British muskets were marked with regimental numbers. CLUB BUTT LONG FOWLER

017.R9G

This unusual fowling gun is 111A" overall. The 6ll/i" barrel is octagonal at the breech for 143/s". The bore diameter is .77". The barrel is retained by a screw that passes upwards and threads into the tang and by lateral pins. The 73/s" flat-surfaced flintlock with back catch is secured by three sidescrews. There is no external bridle to support the flat-topped frizzen. This lock is generally similar to British military locks of the 1690—1715 period.

The sheet iron trigger guard has a pointed front extension. Its rear extension has been broken off, so its original length is not known. This guard is nailed to the stock's surface. The rear profile of the 55/s" sheet brass butt plate is rounded at the heel and toe. The tapered wood ramrod is retained by three sheet brass upper-type thimbles, but there is no lower, or entrance, thimble. There is no provision for a side plate or forend band. The 76" walnut stock has a patchbox in the right side of the massive club butt, with a 41/!" sliding wood cover. The only external markings are small, illegible cartouches stamped into the barrel's top flat.

Plate 017.R9G-A This unmarked, walnut-stocked long fowler has an awkwardly styled club butt containing a patchbox with a sliding wood cover. (Jay Forman Collection.)

Plate 017.R9G-B Similar to the previously described fowler, this long fowler has a British militarystyle flintlock with back catch. However, this lock appears to have all of its original components and is retained by three sidescrews. The sheet iron trigger guard's rear extension has been broken off at the nail that secures it to the stock's surface. (Jay Forman Collection.)

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

"AMERICAN" LONG FOWLER

Plate 017.R9M-A This unmarked long fowler appears to be a merging of some style elements of both the Hudson Valley and New England fowlers. (Jay Forman Collection.)

Plate 017.R9M-B The convexsurfaced lock is similar to the style of military locks procured by the British Ordnance between 1750 and 1770, but the configuration of some of its external components indicates that it was manufactured for commercial sale. (Jay Forman Collection.)

017.R9M

The configuration of this 76" br ass - mounted fowler appears to have been influenced by both the Hudson Valley fowlers and New England fowlers. Because it is unmarked as to manufacture, it is identified here only as "American," and dates from the second half of the 18th century. The 593/4" round barrel has a .73 caliber bore and a top flat that extends to the muzzle. An oval, brass front sight blade is located 31A" behind the muzzle. The barrel is retained to the stock by the tang screw and lateral pins. The 67/s" lock is similar to British military locks made in the 1750-1768 period, except that the frizzen spring is secured by a screw that passes from the inside. Its lower leaf ends in an elongated fleur-de-lis finial. The 12" trigger guard has an acorn-shaped front finial. The 5l/i" butt plate has a 43/4" tang, which steps down to a point at the end. The flat surface of the 67/s" side plate is stepped down behind decorative vertical grooves, and it is secured by a wood screw near its pointed rear end. The tapered wood ramrod is secured by two upper thimbles and a lower one. There is no provision for a forend band. The 74" walnut stock has a 83/4" comb, which ends in a slightly "roman" nose, with 6" side flutes. There is a raised plateau around the breech tang only, and there are flats at the lock and the side opposite. The barrel is stamped with two small illegible cartouches, which resemble the London Gunmakers' Company proofs. The lockplate and cock have engraved border lines. A rose is engraved in the trigger guard bow, and the front

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85

Plate 017.R9M-C A rope-pattern border decorates both the side plate and the highly sculpted trigger guard's rear extension. (Jay Forman Collection.)

ftniaPs acorn shape is accentuated by engraving. The side plate has rope pattern border engraving.

FRENCH HUNTING AND TRADE GUNS

017.SS

From the early 17th century the French government supplied "fusils de chasse," or "hunting guns" to the French North American colonies. Most were supplied to Canada, but others were sent to New Orleans and to the French Caribbean islands. Many of the guns sent to Canada were used to supply the fur trading posts and to equip friendly Indians. Others were issued to the French colonial militia. A few high-quality "fine hunting guns" were also procured as gifts to Indian chiefs. During much of the 17th century the arms supplied by the French to the Indians were the same military matchlock muskets used by the French armed forces. After the introduction of the flintlock, two types of arms evolved to meet colonial requirements. Hunting guns were originally sent to supply trading posts, as well as to friendly Indians and the militia. As time passed, more cheaply made "trading guns" were introduced to satisfy the requirements of the Canadian fur trade. In the 18th century most of the hunting guns were procured from the gunmakers of Tulle. Trade guns were procured from the gunmakers of Charleville, Saint Etienne, Liege, and other manufacturing areas. French governmental orders for hunting guns from the 1690s specified barrel lengths in the 42" to 49" range, and most were to have .60 caliber bores. Others were to be in the regulation .69 caliber. As time passed, the procurement of hunting guns in .69 caliber predominated. The evolution of the hunting guns' general configuration, locks, barrels, and some other metal components paralleled those of the ordinary muskets made at Tulle for the Navy Ministry. Some hunting guns were made with distinctive furniture, such as more highly sculpted trigger guards, butt plates having tangs with circular profiles, and side plates whose generally "L"-shaped profile included a circular disc in the middle. Early trade guns had convex-surfaced locks and goose-neck cocks. During the first half of the 18th century, these were generally superseded by locks closely resembling those of contemporary muskets procured by the Navy Ministry and the French regulation Model 1728 musket. These arms were usually brass-

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

86

mounted or had a mixture of brass and iron mountings. Very few were ironmounted. It appears that at least some trade guns were equipped with surplus or condemned metal components of French regulation muskets. A 1749 "General inventory of the munitions of the King's magazine in Montreal" included the following diverse hunting and trade arms:4 92 182

Tulle hunting guns Saint Etienne (trade) guns with 4R barrels

294 256

Saint Etienne (trade) guns with 3p8" barrels Liege (trade) guns

The identification of the two arms described next as "trade guns" is tentative and based solely on very limited available information. Both appear to have been fabricated during the first half of the 18th century and appear to have had some alterations performed on them subsequent to original manufacture. Trade guns were typically stocked to the muzzle, did not have a forend band or cap, and were equipped with tapered wood ramrods. Both of these arms are equipped with steel ramrods. One has been altered to accept a socket bayonet, and the other has been fitted with a brass forend cap.

Plate 107.S6-A This French trade gun with Liege-made lock is of the general configuration described by the authorities on these arms, but it is equipped with a steel ramrod and has a brass forend cap.

LIEGE-MADE FRENCH TRADE GUN

017.S6

This 613/s" brass- and-iron mounted trade gun has a .69 caliber bore. The 459/i6" barrel is octagonal at the breech for 4" and the top flat extends to about 41" forward of the breech. It is retained to the forestock by three lateral pins. A small rectangular iron front sight blade is located 7/s" behind the muzzle. The 23/s" tang is round-ended. The 67/i6" by !5/i6" flat, bevel-edged lock is of the same general configuration as the French Model 1728 musket, but differs in detail. The 37/i6" goose-neck cock's neck arch is more graceful, and its wide tang has a larger forward curl at the top. Also, the frizzen spring finial consists of a circular disk with a spear point extending rearward. Internally, the lock is similar; like the Model 1728 lock, the internal bridle of this lock is equipped with the downward-projecting foot or support at the front.

4

Russel Bouchard, "The Trade Gun in New France, 1690-1760," Arms Collecting, 15:1 (1977), 10.

COLONIAL. SHOULDER ARMS

87

Plate 107.S6-B The lock is similar to those procured by the French Navy Ministry during the first half of the 18th century and was made by Jean Valet of Liege.

iron butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. Its 31/s" tang has a long, narrow, rounded point. The 4" iron side plate, like the trigger guard and butt plate, is of military configuration and is modified "L"-shaped. There are four sheet brass ramrod thimbles. The upper three l5/i6"-l3/s" thimbles are plain, and the 2l/i" lower thimble has a pointed finial. The 2Vie" forend cap is also brass. The 437/s" steel ramrod has a button head. The stock extends to the muzzle. The buttstock has a typical "cow's foot" profile. The 83A" round-nosed comb has flutes extending 6" rearwards at the sides. The butt's lower profile is concave. It is interesting that both the trigger guard and lower thimble's tang are on the surface of the stock. There are no recesses in the stock for these. The lockplate is engraved, forward of the cock, "J VALET" over "A.LIEGE." This name and location represents something of an enigma because several related gunsmiths named Jean Valet are recorded as working in Saint Etienne, not Liege, between 1729 and 1782. The only gunsmith in Liege with a similar name was a Jean Vallet, who worked between 1762 and 1780. The barrel's left quarter-flat is stamped with two cartouches. One is illegible; the other appears to be a crown over UJD" or UJL."

Plate 017.S6-B The mixed iron and brass mountings of this trade gun include the brass ramrod thimbles and the military-style side plate and trigger guard, whose front extension is secured by a screw forward of the bow.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. l

88

FRENCH TRADE GUN

Plate 017.S8-A The forestock of this brass-mounted French trade gun has been shortened and a bayonet lug added to the top of the barrel to allow its use with an angular socket bayonet, similar to a fowler-musket. It has also been fitted with a steel ramrod.

Plate 017.S8-B The lock is similar to those procured by the French military and navy during the first half of the 18th century, and its internal components are cut with a roman numeral-style assembly number.

017.S8

This 587/s", .69 caliber, brass-mounted trade gun is of generally lighter construction than contemporary military arms. The 423/s" barrel is octagonal for 9l/i" and has three shallow baluster rings I3l/i" forward of the breech. The 21/s" tang is square-ended. This barrel had previously been part of another arm. It was probably about 4" longer and was stocked to the muzzle. It also originally had four underlugs in different locations than the existing three underlugs. The stock only has recesses and holes for the three existing underlugs and their lateral pins. A rectangular bayonet lug is brazed to the top of the barrel 21/^" behind the muzzle. This lug, which also serves as the front sight, probably was added subsequent to this gun's original assembly. The 613/i6" by 11/$" lock is similar to the those used in French muskets procured by the Navy Ministry and those in hunting guns of the 1720-1742 period. It appears to be of French manufacture and also closely resembles the regulation French Model 1728 musket lock described later. The 93/4" trigger guard has pointed ends, similar to contemporary military guards, but is smaller and of much lighter construction. It is secured by two wood screws at the rear and by a lateral pin through an integral vertical lug at the front. The 41/!" by l7/s" butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex rear surface. The 37/s" tang has an "hour glass" profile and a pointed end similar to those used in some French hunting guns, but the plate's curved rear profile differs from these guns. The 33/4" flat-surfaced side plate is reverse "S"-shaped. The four sheet brass thimbles have decorative grooves around their ends. The lower thimble ends in a pointed finial. This musket's present stock was originally equipped with a 3/4 "- wide forend band, which is missing. The crudely made, 393/s " steel ramrod has a trumpet head.

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COLONIAL SHOULDER A R M S

Plate 017.S8-C The side plate is reverse "S"-shaped. "RM" is branded into the stock's left breech flat in large letters. The meaning of these letters is unknown.

The 543/4" stock appears to have been shortened at the front to allow use of an angular socket bayonet. The butt's lower profile is concave. The nose of the 10" comb is l/i" high, and flutes extend rearwards at both sides for 5l/i". There are traces of a mark, resembling a script "VI," engraved in the lockplate's tail, and several of the lock components have roman numeral "XXII" cut into them. The stock's left breech flat is branded "RM" in 5/s"-high letters. There are no other visible markings.

FRENCH BUCCANEER GUNS5

017.T

Sometime in the late 17th century, a long hunting gun came into use in the French North American colonies. This arm saw extensive use in the French Indies and takes its name, fusil boucanier, or "buccaneer gun," from the smoked meat (boucan) prepared there by hunters who supplied commissary stores to the plantations and ships. Regulations of 1683 required each French merchant ship to carry twelve buccaneer guns to be sold at 15 livres each to the inhabitants of the various French colonies upon whom they called. Later regulations, such as an ordnance of November 16, 1716, would require that four buccaneer or hunting guns be carried on all ships going to America, except those involved in the slave trade. A little over a year later, in January 1718, this was modified, as ships traveling to the Compagnie de Occident in Louisiana were exempted. These arms were also used by local military forces. For example, in 1695 the Superintendent of the American Colonies in the Antilles ordered a buccaneer gun and an ordinary musket for each of the soldiers there. During the 17th century buccaneer guns were produced by gunmakers in various French ports, such as Bordeaux, Dieppe, La Rochelle, and Nantes. By 1700 production of these arms was centered in Tulle and Saint Etienne, and by 1720 almost all were fabricated at Tulle. These guns were popular into the 1740s; then their production declined. It was recommended that their production be terminated in 1749 because their range was not greater than the ordinary muskets then in use. None remained in royal stores in 1766. However, a small 5 Much of the information for this section is from Russel Bouchard's excellent work, Les fusils de Tulle en Nouvelle-France: 1691-1741, Journal de Arms enr., Chicoutimi, Canada, 1980. Unfortunately, no examples have been located to photograph for illustrative purposes, but Bouchard's work contains several line drawings of various early 18th-century buccaneer guns.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

90

number remained aboard various French merchant ships as late as the American Revolution. A few were on the Bonhomme Richard, when it was loaned to the American revolutionaries, and saw service under the command of John Paul Jones in the battle against the Serapis in 1779.6 The salient features of the buccaneer gun were its 52" barrel and flat-sided club butt with convex lower profile. The .69 caliber barrels of these 66" guns were secured to the forestock by lateral pins. Convex-surfaced locks with goose-neck cocks were used in the late 17th century. The buccaneer guns went through the same evolutionary changes as the ordinary and grenadier muskets, also produced at Tulle, during the early 18th century. This included the use of flat, bevel-edged locks with goose-neck cocks and the introduction of cast brass rather than sheet brass, furniture. From about 1729 the barrels were octagonal at the breech for about one-fourth their length. The brass furniture included the butt plate, trigger guard, and four thimbles for the tapered wood ramrod, but there was no provision for a forend band or cap. The walnut stock had a massive club butt, similar to those later used in American club butt fowlers, and it has been suggested that the butts of these fowlers were copied from the buccaneer guns.7

17TH-CENTURY CARBINES

017.V

The British dragoons of the late 16th century were armed with a short arm called a "dragon." This was described as a "short piece" with a musket bore and was equipped with a swivel bar and ring. This swivel bar and ring enabled the carbine to be suspended from a snap swivel attached to a strap, or sling, over the cavalryman's shoulder. Not only was this a method of carrying the carbine, it also prevented the carbine from being dropped in the heat of battle and enabled the cavalry trooper to go immediately to sword and pistols after firing the carbine. Military wheel-lock carbines were produced in England until about 1638, when they were superseded by carbines with snaphance and English locks. In addition to carbines, British and American colonial mounted troops used petronels. The petronel of the early 17th century has been variously described as a very large pistol or a very short carbine that was favored by light cavalry. The butt of this weapon was rested against the chest when it was discharged. As it reportedly was of large caliber, the recoil must have been tremendous. Because military carbines are known to have been imported into the North American colonies by the mid-17th century, and possibly much earlier, pre-flintlock and flintlock carbines are included in this work.

6

7

William Gilkerson, Boarders Away, Vol. 2, Chapter 8. Manuscript in publication by Andrew Mowbray, Inc., Lincoln, R.I., forthcoming. Ibid.

91

COLONIAL SHOULDER ARMS WHEEL-LOCK CARBINE

017.V2

Although wheel-lock petronels were used by the mounted troops of the colonial militias, surviving examples of the somewhat longer wheel-lock carbines are very rare. The carbine described here is of Germanic origin and is in a private American collection. It is similar to surviving carbines in some European collections, which are attributed to Austrian, Dutch, and English Civil War use. Its use in the North American colonies is only speculative. This 403/4" carbine is iron-mounted. The bore diameter is .775". The 265/s" barrel is octagonal at the breech for 11" and then tapers to round. It is secured to the stock by the tang screw and lateral pins. An iron front sight blade is brazed to the barrel 1A" behind the muzzle, and the standing leaf rear sight is dovetailed to the barrel 61/s" forward of the breech. The 8" by 2l/i" wheel-lock plate has a flat surface with beveled edges at the rear only. The wheel is externally mounted and is secured by a small, oval-shaped bridle at the bottom. The 101/4 " trigger guard has a iH'^wide, deeply cupped bow. The 7" by 2l/i" sheet iron butt plate is nailed to the buttstock, and is without a tang. An u/i6" sheet iron thimble retains the tapered wood ramrod. There is a 3/4" forend band at the stock's foretip. The stock appears to be of a light-finished walnut and extends to the carbine's muzzle. The butt's profile curves downwards towards the rear and is very rounded at the rear. This is usually now referred to as the "paddle butt" configuration. The barrel's top flat is stamped with the maker's mark of an illegible small round cartouche over "F." The left flat is stamped with the Suhl control mark of

Plate 017.V2-A This wheel-lock carbine is stamped with the control marks of Suhl, where similar arms for several European states were produced. (]. William LaRue Collection.)

Plate 017.V2-B The rounded butt profile often noted on Suhl-made Wheel-lock carbines is commonly referred to as a "paddle butt." The trigger is equipped with an unusual external return spring. (J. William LaRue Collection.)

92

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 a sunken rectangular cartouche containing "SVHL" over another sunken cartouche containing the Suhl "hen," commonly described as the Suhl "chicken." This is a pun on the name of an early ruler of the district in which Suhl is located, the Graf von Henneburg. The carbine has no other external markings. ENGLISH SNAPHANCE CARBINE

Plate 017.V5-A This snaphance carbine dates from circa 1600. Like many other English military arms of this period, the buttstock's profile inclines downwards at the rear. (Jay Forman Collection.)

Plate 017.V5-B The lock of this carbine is a rare example of an English military snaphance. The locks of most military snaphance arms were altered to the English lock system during the third quarter of the 17th century. (Jay Forman Collection.)

017.V5

This carbine dates from circa 1600. It is the only known surviving Elizabethan snaphance carbine. Similar to the 16th-century harquebus previously described in Section 017.A, its buttstock is inclined downwards. It was made before the semi-standardization of British military carbines in 1638. In that year, it was specified that they were to have snaphance locks, 30" barrels, and a bore diameter of 24 balls per pound "rolling," or about .58-.60 caliber. The unmarked, iron-mounted carbine is 42" overall. The octagonal, 277/s" barrel is slightly swamped and its bore diameter is .63 ". A standing leaf rear sight is dovetailed 43/4" forward of the breech, and the small iron blade front sight is located I/Q" behind the muzzle. The barrel is secured by lateral pins and a screw that passes upwards from the trigger guard's front extension, and threads into the square-ended breech tang. The lock is a true snaphance. It has a frizzen that is separate from the pan cover as well as a horizontal sear. The 83/s" lockplate is flat-surfaced. Sidescrews

COLONIAL SHOULDER A R M S

93

secure the lockplate at the front and rear. Their heads bear directly on the stock's surface. The sliding pan cover is very similar to that of wheel-lock arms and opens automatically as the cock moves forward. The finials of both the frizzen spring and cock buffer are in the form of highly sculpted vases. The ll/i" trigger guard has a 1 "-wide bow and skeleton pistol grip at the rear. It is secured by the tang screw at the front and by a wood screw at the rear. There is no provision for butt plate or side plate. The ramrod is retained by a single, IVz" sheet iron thimble near the front. The walnut stock extends to l/s" of the muzzle. The buttstock profile inclines downwards sharply to the rear. There are a number of decorative grooves in the flat sides of the buttstock and in the forend. The carbine is unmarked externally. FLINTLOCK CARBINES

017.V8

The earliest known reference to the use of the true, or French, flintlock in the fabrication of any British military shoulder arm is in the Ordnance Department records of a March 3, 1662, payment to the widow of gunmaker William Evetts for three carbines with French locks at 23 shillings each.8 Thereafter, several English gunmakers received payments during the 1660s for small quantities of "carbines with swivels." Aside from the fact that the carbines are identified as having what was probably a swivel bar and ring, nothing is known about the carbines delivered. It is possible that they were equipped with English locks or doglocks. In 1671 George Fisher, Jr., was paid by the Ordnance for making seventythree "Large carbines with 38" barrels" at 33 shillings each. A total of 200 additional carbines are known to have been made by Fisher, Robert Brooke, and William Palmer, Sr., during that year, at the same price, which suggests that these additional carbines were of similar length and type. Similar to the earlier arms, these carbines may have had English locks or doglocks. On September 26, 1679, the Ordnance Department paid gunmakers George Fisher, Jr., William Palmer, Sr., and Lawrence Sanders for a total of 251 carbines "with French locks and swivels" at 21 shillings. In late December of the following year, Fisher and Sanderson were also paid 28 shillings each for a total of forty carbines of the same description. In 1685 Master General of Ordnance, Lord Dartmouth, ordered a large number of "ordinary" carbines, colored blue, with 31" barrels and bridled locks. George Fisher, Jr., and Robert Brooke contracted with the Ordnance's Small Gun Office to fabricate 300 carbines with 31" barrels, convex, engraved locks, swivels, and walnut stocks, at 24 shillings each. Known payments made to these gunmakers over the following two years account for 255 carbines, and all 300 probably were delivered. During this same period, eight other gunmakers were paid the same price for a total of 271 "ordinary" carbines made for the Small Gun Office. The term "round, engraved lock" is generally interpreted to mean a convex-surfaced lockplate engraved with the royal cypher. This is the first known mention of this engraving. o

Howard L. Blackmore, British Military Firearms, 1650-1850, 29.

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Also in 1685 the Ordnance ordered 400 "extraordinary" carbines with double-bridled locks. Two of the eight gunmakers who made the "ordinary" carbines were paid for 25 additional extraordinary carbines at the higher price of 35 shillings each. They were described as having 31" barrels, burnished and bridled locks, walnut stocks, and swivels. They must have been more highly finished or decorated to command this high price. Between 1690 and 1694, nine gunmakers were paid for a total of 455 carbines with 36" barrels made for the Ordnance Department at 26 or 27 shillings each. The 31 "-barreled British military carbine of the late 17th century was sometimes referred to as the "ordinary carbine." Its barrel was attached to the stock by lateral pins and it had a swivel bar on the left side. It was finished somewhat better than the military musket. The brass furniture included a butt plate, trigger guard, two fluted thimbles, and a wrist escutcheon. The 36"-barreled carbine — usually called the "long," and sometimes the "extraordinary," carbine — had a barrel fastened to the stock by one or two barrel bands. It also had a swivel bar on the left side. It was plainer than the ordinary carbine, and very early examples did not have a butt plate or wrist escutcheon. Small quantities of carbines were in the military stores of the British North American colonies at the beginning of the 18th century, and additional carbines were sent shortly after by the Ordnance to arm mounted troops. Because few British and American records of this period have survived, it is not known how many carbines were sent to arm the mounted (horse) units of the colonial militias or over what periods of time these arms were sent. However, the practice of sending these arms to the North American colonies has been established, and because it is known that British Ordnance supplied virtually all of the arms used by tens of thousands of North American colonial militia raised during the first three quarters of the 18th century to fight Britain's wars, at least limited numbers of carbines probably were sent to several of the colonies on a more or less continuing basis during this period. WILLIAM III PERIOD HORSEMAN'S LONG CARBINE

Plate 017.V8C-A This horseman's long carbine was among a number made under contract to British Ordnance during the last decade of the 17th century. It has a rounded butt profile similar to that of the wheel-lock carbine described previously.

017.V8C

The military horseman's long carbine described here was made during the closing years of the 17th century by Henry Crisp. It is presented as an example of British military flintlock carbines of the late 17th century. This iron-mounted carbine is 517/s" overall. The 367/i6" round barrel has a bore diameter of .655". There are baluster rings at the breech, and there is no provision for sights. The barrel is secured by lateral pins, a barrel band, and a

COLONIAL SHOULDER A R M S

95

Plate 017.V8C-B Although the convex-surfaced, single-bridle lock is unmarked externally, the initials "HC" may be seen stamped into the barrel forward of the frizzen. These initials are attributed to gunmaker Henry Crisp.

Plate 017.V8C-C The single iron barrel band serves to provide an anchor for the front end of the 9 "-long swivel bar. The sheet iron trigger guard is attached to the stock's surface, and the breech tang screw pases upwards from in front of the trigger.

screw that passes upwards from just in front of the trigger and threads into the square-ended breech tang. The surface of the 53/4" lockplate is convex, except under the frizzen spring, where it is flat with beveled edges. The goose-neck cock has a convex surface. The round-bottomed pan is not integral with the lockplate. There are no internal or external bridles in this lock. The lock is secured by two sidescrews. The front profile of the 8l/i" sheet iron trigger guard is disc-shaped. The rear end is rounded. The guard is secured by a wood screw at the front and by a nail at the rear. A swivel bar extends 9" forward from the rear sidescrew. Its teardrop-shaped rear tang is secured by the head of that screw. The bar's front end is riveted to the IV-wide, convex-surfaced barrel band. There are two brass upper-type ramrod thimbles decorated with encircling grooves. There is no provision for butt plate, side plate, trigger plate, or forend band. The walnut stock extends to l/s" of the muzzle. The buttstock has a straight comb and a curved rear profile. Two oval cartouches are stamped into the barrel's upper left quadrants, which contain crowns over "P" and "V." These are Gunmakers' Company proofs. "HC," the mark of Henry Crisp, is stamped into the upper right quadrant near the breech. A roman numeral assembly number, "III," is cut into the underside of the barrel, inside the lock, and in the stock's lock recess. There are no other markings.

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AMERICAN M I L I T A R Y SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

17TH-CENTURY M I L I T A R Y B L U N D E R B U S S A R M S

017.Y

The blunderbuss is a large-bored shoulder arm having a short barrel with a flared muzzle. It is designed to fire a number of small diameter (usually .25" to .50") balls rather than a single, large ball. The effect of the blunderbuss at close range was devastating, although recent tests have shown that the flared muzzle had little effect on the dispersion of the shot. It appears that the flared muzzle had two distinct advantages: the first was its obvious psychological effect and the second was that it facilitated loading in adverse circumstances, such as in ships' rigging or in stagecoaches. Romanticized paintings of the pilgrims of the Plymouth colony often depict them with blunderbusses and give the mistaken impression that the early American settlers used these arms both to shoot game and fowl and for their defense. This simply isn't true. In a 1630 attempt to standardize the various military small arms procured by the Ordnance, the British Council of War promulgated "Orders for the general uniformatie of all sortes of arms both for horse and foot." This listed the general dimensions for the arms then in use. The blunderbuss was not included and would not be widely used in Europe until the third quarter of the 17th century. Available evidence indicates that only limited numbers were in the North American colonies at the beginning of the 18th century. In Europe the blunderbuss was used by civilians primarily as a defensive weapon on cross-country coaches, much like shotguns were used to protect stagecoaches in the American West during the late 19th century. The blunderbuss was also used for the defense of entryways and stairs of buildings. The military popularity of the blunderbuss in Europe was primarily as a naval weapon. It was fired from the rigging of one ship to the densely packed deck of another when two ships neared, preliminary to boarding. Blunderbusses may also have been issued to boarding parties. Because of the lack of published information about British military blunderbuss arms, a limited study of these arms was made for this work, and its results are presented in the section dealing with British arms imported during the Revolutionary War under the heading "Blunderbuss and Musketoon Arms."

PART II

AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY

WAR ARMS

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DEFINITION OF ARMS BY TYPE, SOURCE, AND ORIGIN 027.

The extreme diversity of shoulder arms used by the American revolutionaries ranged from arms that had been made over eighty years before the Revolution to the latest and best European military muskets of the period. They included long, awkward fowling pieces; accurate hunting rifles; crudely assembled muskets utilizing components from any one or more of at least four different countries; muskets entirely fabricated with rudimentary tools in primitive conditions; and new, arsenal-made muskets, fabricated to rigid pattern, whose manufacture was controlled by strict inspection and proof procedures. No one method of definition is adequate to describe this variety of arms. Three methods are used here to provide a better understanding: (1) the type of arm (that is, whether it is a musket, rifle, or carbine); (2) the source from which the arm was procured for service by the American revolutionaries; and (3) the origin of the arm, which was often different from the source of the American revolutionaries' procurement.

TYPE OF ARM

027.2

The seven general categories of arms types described in this section include all but a few of the shoulder arms used during the American Revolution. There are some special arms that do not fit into these categories, such as the Nock volley gun used by the British Royal Navy near the end of the war. MUSKET

027.21

A musket is a military shoulder arm intended to be carried by the ranks of line infantry. It was also usually carried by marines aboard ship, heavy dragoons, artillerymen, and certain other units. By the time of the American Revolution, most European countries had developed specialized muskets for forces other than line infantry. There were artillery muskets, dragoon muskets, light infantry muskets, and many others. The musket was the basic shoulder arm of the armies from the late 16th through the mid-19th century. Muskets used in the American Revolution usually had barrels with smooth bores ranging from .69" to .80" in diameter. They fired either a single lead round ball or a few smaller diameter balls. The barrels were

too

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

attached to the stocks either by lateral iron pins or by bands of iron or brass. The arm was usually fitted with an angular socket bayonet whose tubular socket encircled the muzzle. The musket was generally a plain arm designed for hard usage, although some British and German states' muskets had decorative raised stock plateaus around the lock and breech, border-engraved locks, and furniture with decorative sculpting. The large-diameter round balls used in these muskets could be loaded rapidly, for the diameter of the balls was slightly less than the bore's diameter. The linear tactics prevailing during the American Revolution, which consisted of ranks of opposing infantry firing volley after volley at each other from close range, emphasized rapidity of fire at the cost of long-range accuracy. FUSIL

027.23

The fusil was generally the same configuration as the musket but with slightly reduced dimensions, weight, and caliber. It was usually carried by some officers, by noncommissioned officers, and by a few special-purpose units — such as light infantry, who were required to move rapidly through the rough, wooded North American countryside. Some officers' fusils were more decorated than the muskets carried by infantry. In the British Army, these decorated fusils were privately purchased by the officers. In the French Army, they were supplied by the government. RIFLE

027.24

A rifle is a shoulder arm that has a bore cut with parallel spiral grooves, which impart rotation to a tightly fitting patched round ball, making its flight more stable. It should be noted that some of the rifles had smooth bores, and their accuracy over the musket was achieved solely by the tight-fitting patched ball. Revolutionary War rifles had both front and rear sights, and their barrels were secured to the stocks by lateral pins. Because the rifle's accuracy was achieved at the cost of slower loading and because it lacked a bayonet for hand-to-hand combat, it saw limited, albeit significant, use in most of the major battles of the war. Revolutionary War rifles included the short, German states' Jtiger (hunting) rifles popular in Europe at one extreme and the graceful American long rifle at the other. Somewhere between the two extremes were the few hundred rifles used by British regular forces. Large numbers of rifles were used by both American loyalist and revolutionary forces, primarily in the western and southern frontiers of the colonies. CARBINE

027.25

A carbine is generally a short, lightweight shoulder arm of reduced caliber, designed for use by light cavalry, artillery, and other special units that moved or fought from horseback. Arms designated by the British as carbines ranged in size, weight, and caliber from short, lightweight shoulder arms to arms that were the

DEFINITION OF ARMS BY TYPE, SOURCE, AND ORIGIN

101

same size as the regulation infantry musket, and for this reason they are often difficult to identify. The British generally defined a carbine as having a .65 caliber bore. Infantry muskets had .75 caliber bores. FOWLING PIECE AND FOWLER-MUSKET

027.26

A fowling piece, or "fowling gun," is a sporting shoulder arm designed primarily to hunt waterfowl such as ducks and geese or upland birds. Like the modern shotgun, it was intended to fire a quantity of small diameter shot, but it was used in the Revolution with both a single, large-diameter ball or a few smaller diameter balls. Because fowling pieces were primarily a sporting or hunting arm, many were of much lighter construction than military arms. The American long fowlers often had barrels of up to 5 ' in length, and and some had massive club butts. The term "fowler-musket" usually refers to a fowling piece whose general size and configuration approximates that of a musket, and which was originally made or altered to accept a bayonet. As such, it could be used as both a hunting and military arm. RAMPART MUSKET

027.27

These arms were designed to be fired from fixed fortifications. They were usually quite heavy and therefore were not as portable as service muskets. The rampart musket typically had a longer barrel and a larger bore diameter than the service musket and could fire a single, large-diameter ball at longer range. They were often used with a number of reduced-diameter balls. Because of their ability to safely contain a larger powder charge and more balls, they were more devastating against an attacking enemy than the infantry musket. BLUNDERBUSS

027.28

The blunderbuss was typically a short shoulder arm with a large-diameter bore designed to fire large quantities of small caliber balls at short range. The salient feature of the blunderbuss was the flared muzzle. It was commonly thought that this was intended to aid in the dispersion of the balls, but recent experiments have shown that it actually had little effect on dispersion. The reason for the flared muzzles may have been ease in loading on an unstable platform. Blunderbuss arms primarily saw use in the navies of the belligerent countries; they were fired from the spars of one warship to the deck of its opponent, as the ships drew close. They also saw limited use in the army, usually as escort or guard weapons.

SOURCE OF PROCUREMENT

027.5

The variety of arms used by the American revolutionary forces were obtained primarily from the five sources that follow.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

102

PRIVATELY OWNED ARMS

027.52

These were the militia muskets, fowling pieces, and rifles that had been used by the colonists to defend their land and to hunt for food prior to the Revolution. There were undoubtedly also a few British muskets that had been acquired by the colonists when they fought alongside the British Army in the colonial wars, as well as a few French and Spanish muskets acquired as trophies of those wars. PUBLICLY OWNED ARMS

027.53

There is ample documentation to indicate that several, if not all, of the British colonies and at least one city owned arms that were often purchased at "public expense" for the use of their militias. The colonies of Massachusetts Bay, New Jersey, and South Carolina had such arms, as did the Corporation of the City of New York. Many of these arms fell into the hands of revolutionary forces when they gained political and military control of their respective colonies. AMERICAN MILITARY MUSKETS AND RIFLES

027.54

After the outbreak of the war, these arms were fabricated under the authority of the individual colonies, states, or the Continental Congress. Some of the earliest muskets and most of the rifles procured for use by the revolutionaries were assembled wholly, or largely, from components fabricated in America. Many were also assembled in America using locks, barrels, and furniture cannibalized primarily from damaged British military arms that had seen previous service in North America. As metal components from muskets damaged in battle, or those that had been imported, became available after the opening years of the war, they were incorporated into the military arms made in America in ever-increasing proportions. CAPTURED ARMS

027.56

Not only did the colonists capture arms from the various British forts and repositories at the outset of the war, but they also captured vast quantities of arms from the British armed forces in battle, which were subsequently used by the revolutionaries. Additional arms were procured from loyalists: colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown were required to give up their arms. ARMS IMPORTED FROM EUROPE

027.58

The vast majority of muskets used by the American revolutionaries were imported from France. Additional arms were received from Liege and Holland. The muskets, fusils, carbines, and rampart arms received from France ranged from severely damaged, obsolete arms that had already seen service in one or more wars to some of the newest, previously unissued, arms in the French arsenals. Totally unserviceable arms were cannibalized, and their components, along with components for tens of thousands of additional muskets that had also been

DEFINITION OF ARMS BY TYPE, SOURCE, AND ORIGIN

103

imported from France, were used in the assembly and repair of arms by the American revolutionaries.

COUNTRY OF ORIGIN

027.8

The several categories of arms types may also be defined in terms of the country of origin, as follows: arms fabricated entirely in America; imported arms; and arms fabricated, assembled, or substantially repaired or overhauled in America using components of European arms. AMERICAN-MADE ARMS

027.82

Relatively few muskets were fabricated entirely using American-made components. Those that were, were fabricated primarily during the opening years of the war under the authorization of the individual colonies' committees of safety or the Continental Congress. Some rifles were brought into service by their owners, but many were procured by authority of committees of safety, usually in Pennsylvania and the South. American-made militia muskets, fowling pieces, and fowler-muskets were also brought into service by their owners or were purchased from them. Additional quantities of American-made arms were confiscated from loyalists. These arms were used initially by all parts of the army, which originally consisted of the individual states' militias, in both local or continental service. As imported muskets became available, they were most often issued to the Continental Army, and the various American-made arms continued to be used by the states' militias. However, some states imported substantial quantities of arms for use by their militias. FOREIGN-MADE ARMS

027.86

In addition to the British-made public arms owned by several of the colonies, many of which were obtained by the revolutionary governments when they came into power, fairly substantial quantities of British arms were captured early in the war, and additional quantities were captured during the war. The arms imported from France began arriving in substantial numbers in 1777 and 1778. For the remaining years of the war, they would represent about 90 percent of the muskets used by the Americans. Included in the captured British arms were quantities of muskets made in Holland or Liege under British contract as well as arms made in the German states and used by the German states' soldiers who served with the British Army. ARMS ASSEMBLED OR OVERHAULED IN AMERICA FROM FOREIGN COMPONENTS

027.88

In addition to the large numbers of arms imported in serviceable condition, vast quantities of damaged arms and component parts were also imported. Those

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

that could be repaired were overhauled and often restocked. Those beyond repair were cannibalized for their serviceable or repairable locks, barrels, and furniture, which were used in the assembly or repair of other arms. These repaired and rebuilt arms often used components from different models of arms or components from arms of different countries; they are more common in U.S. arms collections than those that wholly conform to a specific model. They are indicative of the very large quantities of arms repaired and rebuilt in America during and after the war. An obvious problem of definition arises from the existence of these repaired, overhauled, and/or restocked arms: How extensive must this work be before the arms are no longer considered "repaired foreign arms" but have become essentially new arms, partially or wholly fabricated from one or more foreign country's metal components? Thousands of these arms were created in order to supply serviceable weapons to the armed forces, and they are included in the sections of this work dealing with repaired arms, although they may as easily be classified as new, American-made arms.

PRIVATELY OWNED ARMS PROCURED DURING THE REVOLUTION

029.

These arms were supplied during the early part of the war, often by the individual soldier when he entered military service. Less frequently, they were procured through purchase by colonial or state authority, and even less frequently they were procured by authority of the Continental Congress from private citizens. The following resolution of the Continental Congress, dated May 11, 1776, was the authority for the direct purchase of arms from private individuals: "Resolved, that a number of arms, fit for use, may be bought of the owners, who incline to sell them, General Washington be desired to employ such an agent as he hath proposed, to go into any of the Colonies for that purpose." Many of the privately owned arms in America in 1776 have been described in the "Colonial Shoulder Arms" section of this text. These included colonial militia muskets and fowler-muskets, British military muskets, and a few carbines that had been issued to the North American militia units during the second colonial period and which may have been retained by their users. There were probably also some captured French and Spanish muskets in the hands of Americans after the French and Indian War, which are described in the later sections on Revolutionary War imported arms. No doubt many of the European hunting arms — brought to North America by settlers who immigrated, or which were imported by wealthier colonists in Europe — were used in the Revolution. Arms of this type would included British fowling guns and hunting rifles from the German states. Besides the privately owned militia muskets and fowler-muskets, other privately owned arms were made or assembled in America and had certain characteristics that differentiated them from European arms. These were primarily the fowling guns also described in the section on colonial shoulder arms and the American long rifles. There appears to have been few rampart or blunderbuss arms in civilian use prior to the Revolution. Little information exists about the quantities of privately owned arms that were procured and used during the Revolution. In the early months of the war, the revolutionary forces must have used a significant number of them. As military muskets were procured from both domestic and foreign sources, the use of these basically civilian arms decreased rapidly. The militia musket and fowler-musket seem to have remained in the hands of some militia forces throughout the war, and the American long rifle remained in service in the hands of both continental and militia forces during the war.

MUSKETS PROCURED BY AUTHORITY OF A COLONY OR STATE

031.

It is a misconception that all American-made British pattern Revolutionary War muskets were "Committee of Safety" muskets. As it is explained below, the colonies1 committees of safety procured muskets between late spring of 1775 and 1778. By 1778 the legislatures of the several colonies had adopted new constitutions and had become officially known as "states." Muskets made under state contracts for militia arms, let from 1778, are properly defined as "state contract" muskets. Still other American-made muskets were procured under authority of the Continental Congress.

COMMITTEES OF SAFETY

031.2

The following resolution was passed by the Continental Congress on July 18, 1775: "Resolved, that it be recommended to each Colony to appoint a committee of Safety, to superintend and direct all matters necessary for the security and defense of their respective colonies, in the recess of their assemblies and conventions." Committees of safety had been formed at the local and county level in several of the colonies for many months prior to this. The Provincial Congress of the Massachusetts Bay Colony had authorized a colony-wide Committee of Safety in May 1775. For over a year prior to the outbreak of hostilities, many Americans in the New England colonies were aware that the war was inevitable and had begun the clandestine stockpiling of military supplies. The colonies below New England do not appear to have begun this until after the April 19,1775, outbreak of hostilities. In each of the colonies, local and county committees, or "councils," of safety were formed as the organizing agency in charge of procurement and storage of military stores. The resolution of the Continental Congress just cited authorized committees of safety at the colony level. These colonial committees of safety functioned as the colonial government when the legislature was in recess and usually had power to convene the legislature as well as broad powers to act in its stead. The local and county committees of safety received direction, and coordination with the committees of other counties, from the colony's Committee of Safety or its Provincial Congress, sometimes called the Assembly of Delegates. After the outbreak of hostilities, most provincial congresses authorized the committees of safety to purchase all available firearms in each county, or to contract for the fabrication of muskets by the gunmakers in the county, or both.

MUSKETS PROCURED BY AUTHORITY OF A COLONY OR STATE

107

There were an estimated 2,500 to 3,000 gunmakers in America at that time, and at least twothirds of them were sympathetic to the Revolution. Extremely limited quantities of shoulder arms are known to have been purchased by colonies from abroad — and even fewer were procured domestically — prior to the outbreak of hostilities. There is no evidence that any Committee of Safety contracts were let for fabricating muskets in America until after the battles of Lexington and Concord. The muskets and other military stores procured by the committees of safety were usually intended for that colony's militia, not the regular Continental army. However, many of the colonial militia forces were levied for continental service, and so some arms and military stores procured by committees of safety did see continental service. There was also another exception to this: The continental government used the Committee of Safety structure of at least two colonies for the procurement of continental arms. These will be discussed next. The committees of safety procured military stores until 1778. By then most of the individual states' governments had been formed from the interim governments that had existed during the transitional period from colonial government. These state governments took over the musket contracts and other military procurement functions.

COMMITTEE OF SAFETY MUSKETS

031.4

The muskets contracted by the various colonies' committees of safety were generally of the British land pattern configuration. The specifications for the contracted muskets, prescribed by the committees of safety, were remarkably similar. The specified barrel lengths range from 42" to 46", and they were to be .75 caliber. They were to be brass-mounted, although iron-mounted muskets were accepted in some colonies. The stocks were to be of black walnut, although other indigenous hardwoods, such as maple or cherry, were also accepted. All were to have steel ramrods and a socket bayonet with a 16" to 18" blade. The probable reason for the similarity of musket specifications in the various colonies was the following resolution passed by the Continental Congress on November 4, 1775: "Resolved, that it be recommended to the several assemblies or conventions of the colonies respectively, to set and keep their gunsmiths at work, to manufacture good fire locks with bayonets; each fire lock to be made with a good bridle lock, 3/4 of an inch bore, and of good substance at the breech, the barrel to be 3 feet 8 inches in length, the bayonet to be 18 inches in the blade, with a steel ramrod, the upper loop thereof to be trumpet mouthed." The "upper loop" referred to the upper ramrod thimble. An earlier resolution of the Continental Congress, dated July 18, 1775, had specified a 42" barrel length, which perhaps accounts for this shorter length appearing in some of the specifications set forth by the colonies' committees of safety. The choice of the land pattern musket configuration was natural. Not only were the British soldiers stationed in America armed with them, but the more than 100,000 Americans who had served with the British forces during the

1O8

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

second colonial period had been issued these arms and were familiar with them. Also, patterns for the musket contractors were readily available throughout the colonies, although Pennsylvania had special pattern muskets made. Very few of these muskets were marked, and therefore identification of most is impossible. The very few marked examples might be stamped with one of the proof or ownership marks described later in this text; they were rarely marked with the maker's name. Gunmakers usually did not do this, for fear of the British. Treason was punishable by death, especially in a colony rebelling against the Crown. Both Committee of Safety and state contract muskets were generally assembled by individual gunmakers or small associations of gunmakers. A very few private manufactories were established to fill Committee of Safety requirements, and several of the states established manufactories to make arms or arms components. Many of the gunmakers did not fabricate all of the parts of the muskets they produced. They often received the barrels and locks from others.

STATE CONTRACT MUSKETS

031.6

Little information has been uncovered on the muskets contracted by the individual states after their formation in 1778. By this time — in addition to the muskets captured from the British, supplied by committees of safety, and brought into service by militia men — in excess of 60,000 muskets had been imported from Europe. Records in the U.S. Archives show that some imported continental muskets were loaned to individual states. Several of the states also procured muskets abroad. Furthermore, the size of the army was declining at this time. Over 89,000 American revolutionaries served in 1776, but less than 44,000 served in 1780. Although shortages of muskets continued to exist, they were not as acute as they had been a year or so earlier. No muskets have been identified as having been fabricated under state contract although a handful exist that were made at state manufactories. It was during this period — 1778-1780 — that the American-stocked French pattern muskets came into existence. These resulted from the importation of vast quantities of French musket components and tens of thousands of damaged French muskets, which, with American stocks, were assembled into muskets. It is possible that some state contract muskets were of this configuration, but this is conjecture. Perhaps more information on these muskets still awaits discovery in state archives and historical societies.

NOTES ON THE SPECIFICATIONS AND PROCUREMENT OF COMMITTEE OF SAFETY AND STATE CONTRACT MUSKETS

031.8

A number of American-made British land pattern-style muskets with 42" barrels exist in various collections. Only Maryland is known to have specified this barrel length for muskets delivered under Committee of Safety contracts.

MUSKETS PROCURED BY AUTHORITY OF A COLONY OR STATE

109

The other colonies specified barrel lengths of 44" or longer. Because of this, there is a tendency among arms students to attribute many of these muskets with 42" barrels to Maryland procurement. There are several reasons why muskets with 42" barrels may also have been procured by other colonies' committees of safety and later by state governments: L The July 18,1775, resolution of the Continental Congress specified a 42" barrel. It was not until November of that year that the Continental Congress established the 44" barrel as standard. 2. The Short Land Pattern musket, with its 42 " barrel, had been adopted by the British Ordnance as the army's regulation musket in 1768. The early American-made muskets were patterned after British arms. 3. The extreme shortage of muskets during the early years of the Revolution caused committees of safety to accept arms that deviated from their original requirements. The last circumstance is probably also responsible for a disproportionately large number of muskets in U.S. collections that were made by known Committee of Safety gunmakers with barrel lengths ranging from 38" upwards in length. At least one-half of the Committee of Safety muskets observed and reported during the study for this work have 42" or shorter barrels. Many of these have been described as "fusils," which suggests use by noncommissioned or commissioned officers. It is more probable that they were simply short muskets made and accepted for the colonial militia forces under the adverse conditions that existed during the war. CONNECTICUT

031.8B

On April 26, 1775, a week after the battle of Lexington, the Connecticut Assembly passed "An Act for encouraging the Manufacture of Firearms and Military Stores within this Colony for the Safety and Defense Thereof." This act created a committee that was charged with procuring 3,000 muskets with bayonets and set forth the specification of the muskets to be contracted. The British land pattern-style musket was to have a 46" barrel and a .75 caliber bore. It was to be brass-mounted and have a retaining spring in the lower thimble for the steel ramrod. The bayonet was to have a 16" blade and a 4H" socket. The musket was to be marked with the maker's name or initials. An act of October 1776 changed the specifications only slightly. The musket was to have a 44" to 46" barrel, and a "bridled lock." It was still to be marked with the maker's name or initials, but in addition, it was to be stamped "SC." This act also expanded the arms procurement committee and appointed inspectors of arms. One author has reported that only 100 muskets had been delivered by November 1775, and therefore a bounty was established for each man who enlisted in the colony's militia with his own musket fitted with a bayonet. In March 1776 the Connecticut Committee of Safety purchased an unknown quantity of imported barrels and locks, believed to be of British pattern. These

1 10

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. l

were issued to various contract gunmakers, to be completed into muskets. It is possible that these British pattern components were fabricated in Liege or elsewhere on the continent. By May the need for muskets was so great that the confiscation of privately owned muskets for public service was authorized in the colony. These muskets were to be stamped with the owner's initials, and the owners were to receive payment for them "in due time." It is not known how many muskets were confiscated or if their owners ever received compensation. STEPHEN CHANDLER MUSKET

Plate 031.8BC-A The lock plate of this Connecticut Committee of Safety musket is signed "CHANDLER" forward of the cock. (Jay Forman Collection.)

Plate 031.8BC-B The furniture of the Chandler musket is of British land pattern configuration. (Jay Forman Collection.)

031.SBC

This musket's manufacture is attributed to Stephen Chandler, who reportedly worked as a Committee of Safety musket maker in Hartford or Windham County, Connecticut, in 1775 and 1776. The British-style 5715/i6" musket is brass-mounted. The 4115/i6", .75 caliber, round barrel has a baluster ring at the breech and a 5/8"-long brass front sight blade brazed 4" behind the muzzle. The bayonet lug is located under the barrel, 2" behind the muzzle. The 57/s" by IVs" lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges, and there are decorative vertical grooves at the rear. The goose-neck cock also has a flat surface with beveled edges. The faceted pan has no external bridle. The frizzen spring's outer edges are beveled, and its lower leaf ends in a fleur-de-lis finial. The 103/s" trigger guard is retained by lateral pins at the front and rear and by a screw behind the bow, which passes upwards and threads into the 2 H "-long wrist escutcheon. These are generally of land pattern configuration, as are the butt plate, which has a 37/s" tang, and the convex-surfaced, 53/s" side plate. There are four barrel-type ramrod thimbles. The 3" upper thimble has a flared mouth, and the 3 " lower thimble has a pointed finial. A 5/s"-wide band is located at the stock's foretip. The button-headed steel ramrod is 4llA" long.

MUSKETS PROCURED BY AUTHORITY OF A COLONY OR STATE

11 1

The stock appears to be of light-finished walnut or cherry. It has flats around the lock and the opposite side at the breech and a raised plateau around the breech tang. The only external marking is "CHANDLER" engraved into the lockplate, forward of the cock. JOHN PAGE MUSKET

031.8BP

This musket is attributed to John Page of Preston, Connecticut. The 561/fc" brass-mounted musket is only generally of the British style: the configurations of the lock, stock, and furniture vary from that pattern. The 393/4" round barrel has a baluster ring at the breech. The bore diameter is .765 ". A brass front sight blade is located on top of the barrel, and the bayonet stud is below. It is located 15 /i6" behind the muzzle and is offset slightly to the left. The 6*/s" by 11A" lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges. Its rear profile ends in a small projecting point. The body of the goose-neck cock is also flat-surfaced with beveled edges. There is no external bridle on the faceted pan. The frizzen spring's outer edges are beveled, and it is retained by a screw passing from the inside of the plate. It has a flat-surfaced, modified fleur-de-lis finial. The brass furniture's configuration is similar to the furniture of early French muskets, but it is generally flat-surfaced with beveled edges. The HVs" trigger guard has semi-pointed ends and is secured by lateral pins through integral lugs. The sheet brass butt plate has a 5l/i" French pattern tang. The 41A" side plate

Plate 031.8BP-A Connecticut Committee of Safety musket attributed to John Page of Preston, Connecticut. (Ralph Reid Collection.)

Plate 031.8BP-B The lockplate of the French-style lock is stamped "JOHN PAGE" forward of the cock. (Ralph Reid Collection.)

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

1 12

Plate 031.8BP-C Connecticut state ownership markings of "SC N°45" are engraved into the British-style barrel. (Ralph Reid Collection.)

Plate 031.8BP-D The brass furniture is similar to that used on early French muskets but has a generally flat surface with beveled edges. (Ralph Reid Collection.)

has a reverse "S" shape. Both the upper and middle thimbles have flared mouths. The lower thimble has a pointed finiaL There is no provision for a forend band or cap. The 523/s" walnut stock has a very long wrist and raised flats on both sides of the breech, but it has no raised plateaus or other carving. The lockplate is engraved "JOHN PAGE" in block letters forward of the cock. The barrel is engraved with Connecticut markings: "SC No 45" along the top. DELAWARE

031.8D

Nothing is known about the specifications or procurement of muskets by Delaware during the Revolution. GEORGIA

031.8F

On January 2, 1776, the Georgia Council of Safety resolved that all muskets procured should conform to the specifications set forth in the Continental Congress's resolution of the previous November. Nothing is known about the procurement of arms by Georgia. However, it is believed that this colony may have procured European arms from the West Indies, which were more accessible to this southern colony than to the New England colonies. These islands were within easy sailing distance for the sloops,

MUSKETS PROCURED BY AUTHORITY OF A COLONY OR STATE

1 13

schooners, ketches, and brigatines owned by some of this colony's merchants and other inhabitants. MARYLAND

031.8H

In August 1775 a committee of the Maryland Convention of Delegates considered the establishment of an arms manufactory in the province. This committee reported that there were twelve gunsmith shops in the province and estimated that each could produce "twenty substantial muskets" per month for a total monthly production of 240 muskets at a cost of £5 each. On August 30 the Committee of Safety set forth the specifications for the muskets to be procured. These described a British land pattern musket with a 42" barrel. The .75 caliber musket was to have a double-bridled lock and was to be brass-mounted. The stock could be of black walnut or maple. It was to be equipped with a steel ramrod, a bayonet with 17" blade, and a priming wire and brush fitted to "double screws." Although the Committee of Safety authorized payment of up to ten and two-thirds dollars for muskets, the actual contract price was often somewhat less. Isaac Harris contracted for muskets at four and twothirds dollars. And in October 1775 William Whetcraft of Annapolis contracted to make fifty muskets per week for two years at $4 each. In December 1775 the Maryland Convention of Delegates voted to establish a gun lock manufactory at Fredericksburg and appropriated £1,700 for this purpose. By the following spring the shortage of muskets was still so acute that the Committee of Safety was forced to abandon the specifications set forth the previous August and reportedly accepted muskets with iron mountings and muskets with single-bridle locks. Like Connecticut, Maryland procured an unknown quantity of imported locks and barrels in March 1776 and issued them to gunmakers, to have them assembled into muskets. These locks and barrels may have been fabricated on the European continent. On April 17,1777, Richard Bond signed a Memorandum of Agreement with the Maryland Council of Safety to manufacture 1,000 gun barrels "three-quarters of an Inch in the Bore, and 3 1/2 feet in the barrel, well britched and looped, and otherwise completely fitted, finished and proved, ready for stocking, for which the Governor and Council agree to allow at the Rate of 35 Shillings per Barrel." Subsequent correspondence indicates that barrels were delivered through May 1778 at least. Additional barrels were forged for Maryland by Peter Grubb, Jr., and his brother, Colonel Curtis Grubb, owners of Hopewell Forge.1

1 James B. Whisker, "Gun Barrel Making," The Gun Report (January 1992), 31.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

1 14

MARYLAND-ATTRIBUTED MUSKET

Plate 031.8HT-A Maryland-attributed Committee of Safety musket. Several examples are in various American collections. Some, such as this one, have cast brass ramrod thimbles; others have sheet brass ramrod thimbles. (Photograph courtesy of the Milwaukee Public Museum.)

031.8HT

This is the only musket in this section that is not marked by a known Committee of Safety gunmaker. It is presented because it is one of a few similar muskets in American collections that are generally attributed to Maryland Committee of Safety contracts and which were assembled using imported locks and barrels. For this same reason, the musket may well have been fabricated in Connecticut. Various examples are 57H " to 575/s" overall, and are generally similar to the British Short Land Pattern musket. The salient identifying feature is that the wrist escutcheon is secured by a convex-headed wood screw that passes downwards through its center. The 415/s" to 42l/s " round barrel has baluster rings at the breech. The bayonet stud serves as the front sight and is located IVs" behind the muzzle. The 61A" to 67/i6" by IVs" to 11A" lockplate is convex-surfaced, except under the frizzen spring, where it is flat with a beveled edges. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. The goose-neck cock has a convex-surfaced body and a straight comb. The round-bottomed pan is screwed to the plate and has an external bridle. The frizzen spring's outer edge has an inside bevel, and its lower leaf ends in a distinctive, long spear-pointed finial. The trigger guard, butt plate, side plate, and forend cap are similar to, but not the same as, British arms* The bow of the lOVs" trigger guard has a split rear branch. The butt plate has a 41/V' pointed tang. The flat-surfaced 515/i6" side plate has a rear extension. The four sheet brass thimbles2 have decorative grooves at the ends and are recessed deeply into the forestock. The upper thimble is funnel-shaped, and the lower thimble has a pointed finial. There is a 1 "-wide forend band at the stock's foretip. This musket is equipped with sling swivels and a 415/s" steel, button-headed ramrod. The 533/8;/ stock has been identified as American walnut. There are flats around the lock and left side opposite and a small raised plateau behind the breech tang. This musket is not engraved with a maker's name or colony. However, the barrel of one example is stamped "US" and "M" on top and with a mark resembling an inverted "V" within the arms of a larger "V." The lock, barrel, and furniture of most examples are stamped with a number of European-type makers' marks. One example has "PS" stamped in the upper left barrel quadrant. The underside of the barrel of another example has three unidentified cartouches: 2

Some examples have cast brass thimbles similar to British Short Land New Pattern muskets. The upper thimble has a flared mouth, and the upper-middle thimble is conical.

MUSKETS PROCURED BY AUTHORITY OF A COLONY OR STATE

115

Plate 031 .8HT-B The locks of the various Maryland-attributed muskets are generally similar. Most are unmarked, although some have a small rectangular cartouche stamped into the lockplate between the branches of the frizzen spring.

one of these is "B"-shaped, the middle is an oval with horizontal lines, and the last is the edge of a rectangle with only the letter "K" visible. Some examples are stamped with a rectangular cartouche on the exterior of the lock between the leaves of the frizzen spring. The cartouche contains raised initials, such as "MR." There is another rectangular cartouche inside the escutcheon and side plate with raised letters, such as "GEB." The butt plate and trigger guard are unmarked. Another example has a rectangular cartouche with a raised "JS" or USS" stamped into the lockplate. This musket also has a small rectangular cartouche with a raised "S" and "F" over "G" stamped into the barrel's upper-left breech quadrant. These rectangular cartouches are probably makers' marks. One musket examined also has "JS" stamped in the stock, forward of the trigger guard. It is speculated that this may be the mark of Jacob Schley, who worked in Frederickstown between 1765 and 1810. It might also be the mark of John Shaw, who worked in Annapolis in 1776, at least. Both gunmakers are

Plate 031.8HT.C One of the salient distinguishing features of the Maryland-attributed musket is the wrist escutcheon secured by a wood screw from the top. (John McMurray Collection.)

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

1 16

known to have produced Maryland Committee of Safety muskets. Another musket is stamped "D" behind the trigger guard, MASSACHUSETTS

031.8J

The earliest known domestic contract for military arms to be fabricated within any British North American colony was a 1748 contract let by the Province of Massachusetts Bay to Hugh Orr of Bridgewater for 500 muskets. These muskets were probably the "public arms" referred to in Massachusetts correspondence of 1774 and 1775, which had been confiscated by the royal governor. They were reportedly stored on Castle Island in Boston until 1776. They were removed by the British as they evacuated Boston in May. This information pertaining to the disposition of the arms has not been verified by contemporary documentation. A cannon manufactory, under the administration of Hugh Orr, was established at Bridgewater. Some brass, but mostly iron, cannon barrels were cast there from 1776 through at least 1779. This manufactory was under the direction of the colony's Board of War, not its Committee of Safety. Iron for the cannon barrels was largely procured in Baltimore and some was imported from France. Although the act of the Provincial Congress that led to the official organization of local committees of safety was passed on February 5, 1775, there is evidence that the stockpiling of military supplies by local committees of safety had begun some years earlier. It is also known that an unidentified private or public entity in Massachusetts authorized and supplied funds for the purchase of muskets abroad near the end of 1774. These muskets were procured through the colony's European agent, Benjamin Franklin. More information on this is in the section describing foreign arms procured by individual states. On November 18, 1774, the Provincial Congress resolved that local militia companies form, elect officers, and join regiments. The inhabitants of the province were also required to arm themselves, if they had not already done so, according to the existing law, and to "perfect themselves in military skill." Towns and districts in the province were to provide themselves "with the full town stock of arms and ammunition according to Law." On May 18, 1775, the Provincial Congress authorized the establishment of the colony-wide Committee of Safety. A resolution of July 13 gave this Committee of Safety the power to reconvene the Provincial Congress during its recess, to call up the militia, and "Also the said Committee are hereby empowered . . . to procure and employ for that part of the continental Army raised by this Colony, all such Armourers and other Tradesmen as they shall judge to be needed to further and promote the operations of said army." On May 27 the Provincial Congress resolved to purchase any arms for sale within the colony. The local committees of safety scoured the countryside, procuring all available privately owned muskets for the colony's army. The following is a colonial army receipt for muskets from one of the local committees:

MUSKETS PROCURED BY AUTHORITY OF A COLONY OR STATE

Roxbury Camp, June 30, 1775 Received of the honorable the Committee of Safety, by the hand of Major Ebenr White, Thirty Seven Firearms, for the use of the Massachusetts Bay, of the following value, viz: Twenty-eight with bayonets at fifty-eight shillings; two with bayonets at thirty-six shillings, one without bayonet at thirty-six shillings, two ditto with bayonets and iron ramrods at fifty-four shillings; one ditto at fifty-four shillings; one ditto with bayonet at twenty shillings, one ditto forty shillings; one ditto thirty-three shillings Jno Thomas Commanders Office Even the commander of the Continental Army was not exempt from the efforts of these local committees of safety: a July 1775 entry in the expense records of George Washington reports that he sold one gun "to the chairman of one of the committees appointed by several of the counties of Massachusetts to purchase arms for the militia." A November 3, 1775, resolution of the Provincial Congress stated that the muskets contracted to be made in Massachusetts were to be delivered to Watertown and were to "resemble in construction, and as nearly as may be, equal in goodness with the King's new arms." This resolution specified that each musket was to have a 45 "4ong, .75 caliber barrel. The lock was to be stamped or engraved with the maker's name. It was to have a steel ramrod, a ramrod retaining spring, and sling swivels. Finally, it was to be equipped with a bayonet with a blade at least 18" long. The gunmakers were required to prove their own barrels. Some of the muskets accepted for militia use were stamped "MB," for Massachusetts Bay, near the breech. A number of muskets exist that are marked with the names of Massachusetts^ gunmakers. All of these are generally of the Long Land Pattern configuration and have 44" to 46" barrels in .75 caliber. Most are stocked with walnut, but a few have cherry stocks. All have steel ramrods and provision for bayonets. A September 7, 1776, "Return of Firearms, Gun Powder, & c. Belonging to the State" included the following publicly owned muskets in state repositories. This did not include the publicly owned muskets that had been issued to the militia: Muskets Boston 18 Boston firearms repairing by several armorers 400 Salem: In the care of Mr. Richard Darby 67 Watertown 50

Total

535

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

1 18

ABIJAH THOMPSON MUSKET

Plate 031.8JT-A This Committee of Safety musket by Abijah Thompson of Woburn, Massachusetts, is stocked in maple, in a blend of British and American styles. The sheet brass repair at the wrist appears to have been made during its period of use. (William Guthman Collection.)

Plate 031.8JT-B The British-style lock has decorative foliage engraving and a sculpted frizzen spring. Due to this spring's extended finial, Thompson had to elevate the last two letters of his name. (William Guthman Collection.)

031.8JT

Abijah Thompson was from Woburn. This musket is believed to have been made under a Committee of Safety contract in 1775 or 1776. This 595/s" brass-mounted musket is only generally of British configuration. The 435/i6" round barrel has two baluster rings at the breech and a bore diameter of .765 ". The bayonet lug also serves as the front sight and is located 13A" behind the muzzle. The 613/i6" by 11A" lockplate has a convex surface, except under the frizzen spring where it is flat-surfaced with beveled edges. This plate's rear profile ends in a projecting point. The body of the goose-neck cock also has a convex surface. The round-bottomed pan is screwed to the lockplate and has an external bridle. The outer edges of the frizzen spring are beveled; the spring has an acorn-shaped finial. The 81V' trigger guard has an acorn-shaped front finial, and the rear end is rounded. The bow's rear branch is split. The guard is retained by a lateral pin through an integral vertical lug at the front and a nail at the rear. The 33/4" butt plate tang is stepped down to a pointed end. The large, 69/i6" side plate is flat-surfaced. There is an iron wrist escutcheon, which is partially covered by a sheet brass wrist repair. A 5/i6"-wide forend band is located at the stock's foretip. The three sheet brass thimbles have decorative encircling grooves at the ends. The upper thimble has a flared mouth, and the lower thimble has a pointed finial. The 45 l /s" steel ramrod has a button head.

119

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Plate 031.8JT-C The wide, flat side plate and sculpted trigger guard are of brass. (William Guthman Collection.)

The curly maple stock is 557/s" long. There are flats on both sides of the breech but no raised plateaus. There are traces of British view and proved cartouches stamped into the barrel "Abijah" over "Tompson" is engraved in the lockplate, forward of the cock. The lockplate and cock also have decorative foliage engraving. These parts and the top jaw, cock screw, and frizzen also have border line engraving. NEW HAMPSHIRE

031.8L

Available information indicates that no New Hampshire contracts were let for the manufacture of arms. This colony periodically appropriated funds for arms procurement and sent agents to other colonies, often Massachusetts, to purchase them. In 1776, New Hampshire reported to General Washington that there were no dependable muskets available for sale for the use of the Continental Army and that the colony's militia was practically without even undependable muskets. NEW JERSEY

031.8N

During the Seven Years' War, the Colony of New Jersey procured equipment and English-made muskets for 500 men who had been raised to go to Canada. Many of these arms were apparently in the colony's possession at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War and are described in Section 065 .A9, "Land Pattern Commercial Sales Muskets." By early 1776 the colony's supply commissioners had been authorized to purchase 3,000 muskets, ten tons of gunpowder, and twenty tons of lead. However, the new New Jersey currency had not yet been printed and issued, so the commissioners were without funds to make these purchases. It is believed that this colony relied on purchases of small arms from private individuals rather than on a system of contracts with gunmakers. This is supported by a 1781 act of the New Jersey legislature, which refers to "Persons within the same [state] who have heretofore been appointed to purchase FireArms, Accoutrements, and Ammunition." No other information has been located regarding New Jersey arms procurement or arms specifications.

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NEW YORK

031.8O

At the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, the Corporation of the City of New York owned English-made public muskets that it had previously procured through private sources. These muskets are described in Section 065.A9, "Land Pattern Commercial Sales Muskets." New York's committees of safety supplied each contractor with a British land pattern musket and an extra lock, specifying that the contractor was to supply muskets of the same design and quality. It is not known whether these pattern muskets were Long or Short Land Pattern. Nor has any information been located regarding the contracts and deliveries of New York Committee of Safety muskets. NORTH CAROLINA

031.8P

During 1774 and 1775, eighteen counties and four towns established committees of safety in North Carolina. On April 4, 1775, an act of the Provincial Congress divided the colony into six military districts and appointed six district commissioners to direct the manufacture of "good and sufficient muskets and bayonets" by the gunmakers in each district. The commissioners were to collect together all available gunmakers and apprentices and employ them in the manufacture of muskets at public expense. A November 28, 1775, act of the Provincial Congress provided: "That the . . . Committees of Safety of North Carolina . . . employ immediately all the Gunsmiths in that Colony in the making of Muskets and Bayonets, of the size and manner recommended by Congress the 4th of this instant, November." The Continental Congress's specifications are described at the beginning of this section. In April 1776 the Provincial Congress consolidated the local committees of safety into a single Council of Safety with jurisdiction throughout the colony. On April 24 it was resolved "that John DeVane, Richard Herring, and James White, in the district of Wilmington, be empowered immediately to direct the establishment of public manufactories of good and sufficient muskets with bayonets." The muskets to be made were described as being of the British land pattern configuration, with 44" barrels in .75 caliber. They were to have a "good lock," an upper ramrod thimble with a flared mouth, and the cost of each musket with bayonet was not to exceed £5 each. The resolution also authorized the expenditure of £1,000 for the erection of the public manufactories and for purchasing tools and materials to make the muskets. Manufactories were authorized in all six military districts. The manufactory on the Black River, near the mouth of Mill Creek, began production shortly thereafter but was destroyed by Tories before any significant numbers of arms could be produced. Nothing is known of the other manufactories. In December 1778 the Provincial Congress met for the last time, and its last act was to transfer authority to the state government. All subsequent arms were fabricated under state authority.

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PENNSYLVANIA

03L8R

On June 30, 1775, the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly approved the establishment of a voluntary militia. On the same date the assembly resolved to have 4,500 muskets manufactured in the eleven counties of the colony and appropriated funds for these arms. The manufacture was allocated among the counties as follows: Bedford County Northampton County Berks County Northumberland County Bucks County City and County of Philadelphia Chester County Westmoreland County Cumberland County York County Lancaster County Total

100 300 400 100 300 1,500 500 100 300 300 600 4,500

Instead of using existing British land pattern muskets as patterns for the gunmakers, just four days after the June 30 resolution, the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety ordered pattern muskets fabricated. At its first meeting, on July 3, the committee resolved to have eleven pattern muskets with bayonets made, to be sent to each of the eleven counties. The pattern muskets were to have 44" barrels, and the bore diameter was "to carry 17 balls to pound," or .75 caliber. The muskets were to be equipped with steel ramrods and bayonets with 16" blades. The pattern muskets were made by John Nicholson, who delivered them to Robert Towers, state commissary of military stores, prior to September 11, 1775. Payment to Nicholson was authorized by the Committee of Safety on September 15. It has also been reported that Joel Feree of Lancaster received a contract to fabricate pattern muskets, but it is not known if he delivered any. Meanwhile, on August 26 the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety had changed the musket specifications slightly. These new specifications were also for a British land pattern musket, generally as described previously, but it was to have a 42 " barrel. On October 27 the Committee of Safety ordered that the Philadelphia Commissary was "to prove all the muskets made in this city for the Provincial Service, and to stamp such of them as are proof with the letters P." On March 2, 1776, the proof load was specified as equal weights of powder and ball, and the muskets that passed the proof were to be "stamp'd with the letters P.P." In late 1775 the Lancaster County gunmakers rebelled at what they thought was too low a price being paid for the muskets. They preferred to make rifles, as they had in the past, and for which they could receive more money. However,

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 the pressing need of the colony was for muskets, and the Lancaster gunmakers ultimately signed an agreement to make only muskets for public use for one year. Four thousand muskets are reported as having been completed in Pennsylvania by the end of April 1776. On March 19,1776, the Committee of Safety directed that the bore diameter of muskets, expressed as the number of balls per pound, be stamped on the musket. A directive of May 29 specified that this mark was to be stamped on the "breech pin or on the lower end of the barrel." On October 14 the Committee of Safety directed the captains of the militia units to record the name of each man who received public arms and to place "the number or mark of each musket opposite his name." This indicates that a numbering system was used and these muskets were so marked. That these

Plate 031.8R- A This British-style musket is not marked as to maker but is well marked pursuant to orders of the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety promulgated in 1776. It is attributed to fabrication in the Philadelphia area. (Photograph courtesy of Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission collections.)

Plate 03L8R-B The American variation of the British styling is evident in the flat-surfaced lock, which is mounted with a gooseneck cock and a round-bottomed pan without external bridle. The frizzen spring's finial is in the form of a decorative leaf. (Photograph courtesy of Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission collections.)

markings were actually stamped into the muskets produced under Committee of Safety contracts is supported by a known Committee of Safety musket in the collection of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. It is of the British Short Land Pattern configuration but has a French lock. The letter "P" is branded into the stock on both sides of the trigger guard's front extension. The letters "PP" are stamped in the upper left breech quadrant of the 413/4/; barrel, and another "P" is located slightly forward of this. The rear of the barrel tang is engraved "63," which is probably the number referred to earlier. A similar musket with a lock engraved "NICHOLSON" over "1775" in two vertical lines behind the cock, is marked "PHILADA" and "N°267" on the barrel. A provincial gunlock manufactory was established on Cherry Street in Philadelphia in March 1776. Mr. Peter DeHaven was contracting superinten^ dant. Due to the occupation of that city by the British from October 1777 to

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123

Plate 031.8R-C The barrel's breech is stamped with the letters "PP," pursuant to March 2, 1776, orders of the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety. This mark indicates the barrel has passed proof testing. The musket's serial number, "63," is engraved into the rear of the breech tang. (Photograph courtesy of Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission collections.)

Plate 031.8R-D The letter "P" is also stamped into the stock on both sides of the trigger guard's front extension. It is speculated that this is an ownership marking and may mean "Pennsylvania Property" or "Pennsylvania Province." (Photograph courtesy of Museum Commission collections.)

June 1778, the manufactory was moved to other locations several times. It finally discontinued operations in December 1778. The unit of the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety responsible for the procurement of weapons for the colony's troops was discontinued on March 4, 1777. Many of the gunmakers who made and repaired muskets for the province would later work as continental contract armorers in the early 1780s. These armorers, such as Ebenezer Colwell,3 are described later in this text. During the late 1770s, prior to his employment as a continental contract armorer, Colwell assembled muskets under Pennsylvania contract from parts supplied to him by the state's commissary of military stores, Captain Jonathan Stiles. The ramrods, 3

Other spellings of this man's name, such as "Cowell," have been noted in published works. "Colwell" is the spelling repeatedly used in the records examined in Record Group 93 of the U.S. Archives.

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124

some of the furniture, and the stocks assembled into these muskets probably were of ColwelPs manufacture. On September 30, 1779, Colwell invoiced the province for £4,658/17/6 for 125 muskets he had made. Another invoice of about this time was for forty-nine "new" muskets. Given the extent of repairs on some arms, the distinction between "new" arms assembled from existing parts and "repaired" arms — which may have incorporated new stocks, lock components, and furniture — becomes blurred. During the war, Colwell invoiced the province for at least 2,157 muskets that he cleaned and repaired. JOHN NICHOLSON MUSKET

Plate 031.8RN-A This Britishstyle Pennsylvania Committee of Safety musket's barrel is attributed to John Nicholson. (United States Military Academy Museum Collection.)

Plate 031.8RN-B The lock of the Nicholson Pennsylvania Committee of Safety musket is decorated with foliage engraving and rope-pattern border engraving. (United States Military Academy Museum Collection.)

031.8RN

John Nicholson worked in Philadelphia from at least as early as 1774 until 1799. This 56" brass-mounted musket was assembled with British military-style lock and barrel, of British commercial manufacture. It is generally of British land pattern configuration but is considerably lighter in weight. The 401/4/l round barrel has a narrow baluster ring at the breech and a .633 " diameter bore. The bayonet stud also serves as the front sight and is located 19/16" behind the muzzle. The 6 " by 1 l/s " lockplate has a convex surface, except under the frizzen spring, where it is flat with beveled edges. The goose-neck cock is convex-surfaced. The round-bottomed pan is integral with the plate and has an external bridle. The rear profile of this plate ends in a projecting point. The convex heads of the frizzen and frizzen spring screws are semi-recessed. The frizzen spring's inner edges are beveled, and its lower leaf has a teardrop-shaped finial. The British land pattern—style furniture is of cast brass. The 103/s" trigger guard is retained by a lateral pin through an integral lug at the front and two

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Plate 031.8RN-C Top view of the Nicholson musket, showing its British-style butt plate tang and wrist escutcheon. (United States Military Academy Museum Collection.)

screws at the rear. The profile of the 4V4" butt plate tang is stepped inwards to a pointed end. The wrist escutcheon is ZVz" long. The 59/i6" convex-surfaced side plate has the usual rearward extension. There are four barrel-type thimbles. The upper thimble has a flared mouth, and the lower thimble has a pointed finial. The 391/z" steel ramrod has a button head. The 7/s"-wide forend cap is secured by a lateral iron pin. The walnut stock extends to 3l/i" of the muzzle. There are flats on both sides of the breech and a raised plateau around the breech tang. "NICHOLSON PHILADA" is engraved in block letters along the top of the barrel, which also is stamped with an illegible cartouche in the upper left breech quadrant. There is rope pattern border engraving on the lock and cock, and the frizzen has single line border engraving. There is also simple decorative foliage engraving in the lockplate and cock. HENRY VOIGT ("VOIGHT") MUSKET

031.8RV

This 527/s" brass-mounted British land—pattern style musket is attributed to Henry Voigt of Philadelphia. However, he is listed as a lockmaker for the Committee of Safety in 1775 and 1776; so it is possible that the musket was made by another gunmaker in the Philadelphia area using a lock supplied by Voigt. The 375/s" round barrel has baluster rings at the breech. The 23/s" breech tang's profile is stepped inwards and is semi-pointed at the end. The bayonet lug also serves as the front sight and is located IVV behind the muzzle. The 61A" by 11A" lockplate is convex-surfaced at the rear and is flat with beveled edges forward of the cock. The body of the goose-neck cock is convexsurfaced. The round-bottomed pan is integral with the lockplate and has an external bridle. The frizzen spring has a short pointed finial. The 83/4" trigger guard is retained by lateral pins through integral vertical lugs at the front and rear. The front extension ends in a small sphere, and the rear is rounded. The profile of the butt plate's 3H" tang is stepped inwards to a pointed end. The broad, flat 5H" side plate has three decorative vertical grooves at the rear. Both the upper and upper-middle thimbles have flared mouths. The lower-middle thimble is barrel type, and the lower thimble has a pointed finial.

Plate 031.8RV-A This Pennsylvania Committee of Safety musket has a lock made by Henry Voigt (sometimes spelled "Voight") of Philadelphia. (Jay Forman Collection.)

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Plate 031.8RV-B Henry Voigt was a lock maker, and this 1776dated lock may have been used by another Pennsylvania gunmaker in the assembly of this musket. (Jay Forman Collection.)

The cast brass nose cap is 13/i6" wide. The 377/s" steel ramrod has a button head and an integral worm at the rear. The barrel is unmarked externally. The lock is engraved "VOIGT" and "1776" in two vertical lines of block letters at the rear. "J.MCGOWIN" is carved into the right side of the butt. Normally markings such as this, applied subsequent to manufacture, are not included in this text; however, it is of interest to note that there was a man of this name with the Fourth Pennsylvania at the Battle of Long Island in August 1776. Two other "Voigt"-marked musket have also been reported. One of these muskets has been assembled with a 42" British regulation land pattern barrel, and the lock is dated 1775. The other is of very similar configuration and is dated 1776. SOUTH CAROLINA

031.8T

Nothing is known of South Carolina's Committee of Safety contracts for the fabrication of new muskets. It is believed that this colony may have used arms imported from the West Indies. It is known that South Carolina maintained an agent there and also that South Carolina procured muskets from France. This information is in Section 057, "Foreign Arms Procured By Individual Colonies." VIRGINIA

031.8V

In March 1775 a committee of the Virginia Convention reported a series of resolutions to promote the manufacture of gunpowder, cloth, and other military stores within the colony. This ultimately resulted in the establishment of a public gun manufactory near Fredericksburg the following July, under the direction of Colonel Fielding Lewis. The Fredericksburg Manufactory's early operations during late 1775 were primarily confined to the repair of the colony's existing arms. By late spring of 1776 it was manufacturing some muskets as well. After

MUSKETS PROCURED BY AUTHORITY OF A COLONY OR STATE 1780 it operated primarily as a repair facility because insufficient funds and the lack of skilled labor precluded the fabrication of complete muskets. In the spring of 1782, nineteen workmen and five apprentices were employed. Colonel Lewis resigned and was replaced by Major Charles Dick. The manufactory was finally closed in 1783, and its tools were transferred to the Point of Fork State Arsenal. Virginia also contracted with a number of private gunmakers for muskets. One of the most notable among these was James Hunter, who had immigrated to Virginia from Scotland and had purchased an iron works on the Rappahannock River, near Falmouth. The Hunter Iron Works was in operation before the outbreak of the Revolution, but it appears that this facility, also known as the Rappahannock Forge, began fabricating muskets in the spring of 1776. On June 3, 1776, the Virginia House of Delegates ordered the Committee of Safety to contract with Hunter "for as many good muskets, with bayonets, sheaths, and steel ramrods, as he can manufacture within 12 months from this time, at the rate of six pounds for each stand." The following day the Committee of Safety issued a warrant for payment to Hunter for twenty^five sample muskets that he had supplied to the House of Delegates. Although very little production information exists, it is known that the Rappahannock Forge delivered well over 100 muskets during 1776. Production of arms continued until 1780, when it, too, was closed for lack of skilled help. The tools and equipment were removed to prevent their destruction by British loyalist raiding parties. It is possible that the production of swords may have been reestablished after this, but no more muskets are known to have been produced. Apparently an agent of the Committee of Safety, Thomas Rutherford, had contacted gunmakers Thomas Worley and Phillip and Henry Sheetz. This contact resulted in the following memorial: We, the subscribers, gunsmiths of Mechlinburg [later Shepardstown], in the County of Berkley, do certify that we can make and deliver, at our own shop in this town, to Mr. Thomas Rutherford, or any other person legally appointed by the honorable committee of Safety to secure and pay for them, 24 good and well fixed rifle guns per month, at the rate of £4 10s Virginia Currency each, or in lieu thereof 24 good and well fixed muskets with sufficient bayonets at the rate of £4 . . . like currency each. Certified under our hands this 28th day of May 1776 Thomas Worley Philip Sheetz Henry Sheetz Virginia's contracts with gunmakers specified a .75 caliber musket of the British land pattern configuration, with a "bridled lock." The brass mountings were to include a upper thimble with a flared mouth and a ramrod retaining spring in the lower thimble. It was to have a bayonet with an 18" blade and a sixteen-cavity mold was to accompany each forty muskets. In addition to the Fredericksburg Manufactory and the contracts for the fabrication of muskets within the colony by private gunmakers, Virginia also sent

127

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

agents to other colonies to contract for the manufacture of muskets. One agent, who attempted to procure arms in Pennsylvania, was allowed to purchase only second-hand arms because Pennsylvania had prohibited the sale of new muskets to other colonies. Virginia also imported muskets from France in 1780. More ihformation on this is in the Section .057, "Foreign Arms Procured By Individual Colonies." FREDERICKSBURG MANUFACTORY MUSKET

Plate 031.8VF-A This maplestocked musket was made at Virginia's Fredericksburg Manufactory. (] ay Forman Collect ion.)

Plate 031.8VF-B The flat-surfaced lockplate's tail is engraved "FRED" and "1776" in two vertical lines. (Jay Forman Collection.)

031.8VF

Known examples of Fredericksburg Manufactory muskets are generally similar to the British land pattern muskets. Although some have barrels that are over 45" long, most have barrels of 39" or less and are of lighter construction. From the few remaining examples, it appears that there was a great deal of variation in the specifications of the muskets produced, although the size and profile of the locks remained very similar. Most of the muskets were brass-mounted, but some were iron-mounted. This brass-mounted example is 613/s" overall, with a 45Vie" barrel, which is octagonal at the breech for 16" and then tapers to the round front section. The brass front sight is dovetailed to the barrel 3/4" from the muzzle. There is no provision for bayonet. The 7 " by !5/i6" lockplate is flat-surfaced, and its rear profile tapers to a point. The body of the goose-neck cock also has a flat surface with beveled edges. The round-bottomed pan is integral with the plate and has an external bridle. The frizzen spring has a curved upper leaf, and its lower leaf ends in a fleur-de-lis finial.

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Plate 031.8VF-C Both the brass trigger guard and pierced side plate of this Fredericksburg Manufactory musket exhibit a high degree of decorative sculpting. (Jay Forman Collection.)

The 105/i6" trigger guard is highly sculpted and is retained by lateral pins at the front and rear. The ends are pointed. There is no trigger plate. The British-style butt plate has a 53A" tang, whose profile steps inwards to its pointed end. The 11A" pierced side plate is convex-surfaced. It is in the shape of a recurving vine. The three ramrod thimbles are decorated with encircling grooves with spherical sections between. There is no provision for wrist escutcheon or forend band. The ramrod differs from other Committee of Safety arms in that it is made of tapered hardwood. The curly maple stock extends to the muzzle. Because slightly over 28l/i" of the forearm has been replaced, the original forearm's length may have been shorter. There are flats on both sides of the breech and a decorative raised shell pattern plateau around the breech tang. This musket is unmarked externally, except for "FRED" and "1776" engraved in two vertical lines of shaded letters in the lockplate, behind the cock. "WG" is stamped inside the lockplate. These are the initials of William Grady, master armorer at the Fredricksburg Manufactory. RAPPAHANNOCK FORGE MUSKET

03L8VR

This brass-mounted musket is 57V overall and is generally of British land pattern configuration. The 417/s" barrel has baluster rings at the breech, and its bore measures .90" at the muzzle. The 2n/i6" tapered breech tang is square-ended. A rectangular bayonet lug is located on top of the barrel, 17/i6 " behind the muzzle. This lug serves as the front sight when the bayonet is not attached. The flat-surfaced ll/s" by I1//' lockplate has beveled edges. There are two decorative vertical grooves behind the cock, and the plate's rear profile ends in a projecting point. The body of the goose-neck cock has a flat surface with beveled edges. The round-bottomed pan is integral with the lockplate. It is mounted horizontally and has a fence. The tail of the round-topped frizzen curls upwards. The frizzen spring finial is in the shape of a long fleur-de-lis.

Plate 031.8VR-A This walnutstocked Virginia Committee of Safety musket was made by John Hunter at his Rappahannock Forge, near Falmouth, Virginia. (Photograph courtesy of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.)

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Plate 031.8VR-B The lockplate's tail is engraved "RAP " and "FORGE" in two vertical lines. (Photograph courtesy of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.)

The furniture is similar to that used on British Long Land Pattern muskets. The 103/4" trigger guard has a bow with a split rear branch. The butt plate's 45/s" tang ends in a rounded point. The 63/i6" convex-surfaced side plate has an extension rearwards from the rear sidescrew. The four cast brass, barrel-type ramrod thimbles have reenforcement rings at the ends. The upper thimble has a flared mouth. There is a l/i "-wide forend band at the stock's foretip. The oil-finished walnut stock is 543/s" long. Deep flutes extend rearwards from both sides of the nose of the straight comb. There are raised flats on both sides of the breech and a plateau around the breech tang. Although most known examples of Rappahannock Forge muskets have "I HUNTER" engraved along the top of the barrel, this example does not. The lockplate is engraved "RAPA" over "FORGE" in two vertical lines of block letters behind the cock. "N° 576" is engraved into the butt plate tang.

MUSKETS PROCURED BY AUTHORITY OF THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS

CONTINENTAL, CONTRACT MUSKETS

'035.

035.2

Continental contract muskets are those American-made muskets that were procured by contract with private gunmakers under the direct or indirect authority of the Continental Congress. The authority to contract for muskets was granted by the following resolution of the Continental Congress, dated February 23, 1776: "Resolved, that a committee of five be appointed to contract for the making of muskets and bayonets for the use of the United Colonies, and to consider of further ways and means of promoting and encouraging the manufacture of fire arms in all parts of the United Colonies." The early procurement of contract arms was by this "secret committee," as it was known, and later by the Board of War. It appears that relatively few domestic contracts were let directly with gunmakers by these agencies of the Continental Congress. However, there is some evidence that they were responsible for many of the arms imported from abroad. Some of the few known domestic contracts were let to fill a special need, while most were let to satisfy the general demand for arms. JOSEPH BELTON, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA

035.2B

In 1758 a British patent was granted to Joseph Belton for loading and priming devices that facilitated the sequential firing of several superimposed charges in a barrel. This system utilized a slightly modified conventional side lock located in the stock's right breech flat.1 In 1776 Belton attempted to interest the Continental Congress in what appears to be an adaptation of this system to a multibarreled swivel gun for use by the navy. The lock of this arm was located well forward along the barrels, and the swivel gun also fired a number of sequential shots in Roman candle fashion. A July 2, 1776, letter from Benjamin Franklin to George Washington2 stated 1

2

Robert Held, "The Guns of Joseph Belton, Part I," The American Rifleman (March 1987), 36-39, 68-69. John Bigelow, comp. and ed., The Works of Benjamin Franklin in 12 Volumes (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904), VII, 105.

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that Belton had unsuccessfully petitioned Congress for "encouragement to destroy the enemy's ships of war by some contrivance of his invention." Congress does not appear to have procured any of Belton's repeating swivel guns. On April 11, 1777, Belton wrote Congress about a repeating musket that could fire each of eight or more shots in less than a second, Belton appears to have demonstrated this musket, and it was found satisfactory, because on May 3 Congress approved an order "to direct the making or altering of one hundred muskets on the construction exhibited by him and called 'the new improved gun1 which will discharge eight rounds with once loading." On June 14, 1777, Belton again demonstrated his system to a commission appointed by the Continental Congress. The musket used in the demonstration fired sixteen shots in rapid succession. In spite of the commission's favorable report, there is no evidence indicating that Belton delivered or received payment for any repeating muskets. In 1784 Belton was in London, where he offered a redesigned version of his repeating musket to British Ordnance. The new features incorporated into this arm's design remedied the two major shortcomings of his original 1758 system, which were: (1) the delay that must have occurred between pulling the trigger and the discharge of the first shot from the barrel; and (2) the inability to fire each of the successive charges at the shooter's option. The ignition delay was caused by the time needed to burn a long powder train within a priming tube that extended forward from the lock to a vent located well forward in the barrel at the powder charge for the foremost ball. Because the subsequent charges were fired automatically, the shooter could not stop the firing process until all the charges in the barrel had been expended. Belton's 1784 system remedied both of these problems by utilizing a lock that, when located in its forward position, would fire the front charge and then could be slid rearwards to fire each of the successive charges when the shooter so desired. This lock contained an ingenious self-priming mechanism: complex internal linkage would cause priming powder to be dispensed to the pan from a reservoir located in the frizzen as the cock was brought from the half-cock to the full-cock position. The charges were preloaded in a detachable chamber that, when in place, constituted the rear portion of the barrel.3 Belton conducted a firing demonstration of a repeating musket to Ordnance officers at Woolwich, England. Pursuant to an order of the Board of Ordnance, this musket was purchased from Belton, but no further arms are known to have been procured from him by the British government. The musket was subsequently removed from the arsenal to the Rotunda Museum at Woolwich, where it was later described: "English breechloading short flintlock musket, Calibre 0.663 in.; length of barrel 25.25 ins.; length of chamber 11 in. The chamber holds 7 charges and has a separate touch hole for each charge. The lock is so arranged as to slip back from the first to the last touch-hole, and fire the charges consecutively. Brass mounts. Invented by Mr. John Bolton [sic] 1784*"4

3 4

Robert Held, "The Guns of Joseph Belton, Part II," The American Rifleman (April 1987), 40-43. 1874 Catalogue, page 106 (Class IX, No. 22) as quoted by Howard Blackmore, "More Light on Chambers Repeating Flintlock," The American Rifleman (September 1958), 21-23.

MUSKETS PROCURED BY AUTHORITY OF THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS Although the repeating arms of Joseph Belton were not procured by the Continental Congress, they are historically important because modified versions of the swivel gun and both variations of the musket were later procured by the U.S. government and are discussed in Volume II of this work. The basic "Roman candle" firing system of the repeating swivel gun and the musket made on Belton's 1758 patent was the same as that patented by Joseph C. Chambers in 1813. Chambers patent repeating multibarreled swivel guns and muskets were procured by the U.S. Navy and by the State of Pennsylvania. The musket with sliding lock demonstrated to the British Ordnance in 1784 was very similar to the repeating arm patented by Isaiah Jennings in 1821. Five hundred of these were purchased by the U.S. Ordnance Department for use by the State of New York. ELISHA BUELL, MARLBOROUGH, CONNECTICUT

035.2E

On October 1, 1776, Elisha Buell delivered forty muskets "of his make" to the privateer "Oliver Cromwell." No further information is known. WILLIAM HENRY, SR., LANCASTER, PENNSYLVANIA

035.2H

At the beginning of the Seven Years' War, William Henry, Sr., had served as General Braddock's armorer during the general's campaign against Fort Duquesne in 1755. A March 29, 1776, letter from Henry to the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety stated that he required powder for the proof of sixteen muskets he had made under his "contract with the Continent." In addition to being a contractor to the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety for arms for that colony, he was an indirect contractor to the continental government through a contract let by the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety. He also contracted directly with the agencies of the Continental Congress to make arms. In September 1777 the Continental Congress authorized payment to Henry of £12,492 "on account of arms made and repaired," and on September 30 another payment of £173 to him was authorized for the same reason. Whether these payments resulted from direct contracts with Henry or from contracts through the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety is not known, but these sums of money were sufficient to procure several hundred arms. On August 22, 1777, Henry was appointed Pennsylvania state armorer. On March 18, 1778, he was appointed superintendent of military arms and accoutrements by the U.S. Board of War. For further information regarding Henry's activities as superintendent of military arms and accoutrements, see Section 039.8, "Continental Contract Small Arms Components," and Section 041, "Revolutionary War Repair of Arms."

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134

JOHN STEPHENS (OR "STEVENS" ) AND Co., PENNSYLVANIA 035.2S The April 9, 1777, minutes of the Board of War contained the following information: "Paid £160 on account of arms making by him [Stephens]. N.B. 27 guns delivered this day." No further information is known. JOSEPH YOUNG, EASTON, PENNSYLVANIA

035.2Y

On January 17, 1776, Young contracted with the United Colonies to make 1,000 muskets. Three months later, on April 17, he informed the Board of War that he had sent 700 muskets to Virginia and had 130 more on hand.

CONTINENTAL USE OF STATE PROCUREMENT AGENCIES

035.5

In addition to direct contracts with gunmakers, the Continental Congress also used existing state procurement structures of at least two states to obtain muskets. These muskets were intended for use by the regular soldiers of the Continental Army raised in those states. No surviving examples have been identified as continental contract muskets. Because the majority of these contracts were let prior to the introduction of imported French muskets and French components into the United States, the muskets delivered under these contracts were most likely of the British land pattern configuration. PENNSYLVANIA

035.57

On March 21, 1776, the Continental Congress passed the following resolution: "Resolved, that the committee of safety of Pennsylvania be requested to employ some trusting persons in each county, to purchase as many good muskets as will be sufficient to arm the battalians raised in said colony; and that they exert their utmost diligence in procuring the said arms speedily, and on the most reasonable terms; that an order be drawn on the treasurers, in favor of said committee, for the sum of 12,000 dollars to enable them to pay for said arms, the committee to be accountable." In addition to William Henry, Sr., only one gunmaker is known to have fabricated arms for the Continental Congress under a Pennsylvania Committee of Safety contract, but there were certainly more. On March 3,1777, Lewis Prahl stated in a petition to the Congress that he was "engaged in making firearms for the Continental Army by the Pennsylvania Council of Safety." VIRGINIA

035.59

As has been described in the Section on Committee of Safety muskets, the Virginia Convention of Delegates established the public gun factory at Fredericksburg in July 17 75. It was established to make arms for both the Virginia

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militia and the continental regulars raised in that colony. This manufactory was closed in 1783.

SALES OF CONTINENTAL, MUSKETS TO INDIVIDUAL STATES

035.8

Plate 035.8-A The markings stamped into the barrel of a French Model 1766 infantry musket made at Maubeuge refer to musket number 688 of New Hampshire's Third Battalion. (William English Collection.)

By the spring of 1780 there were apparently sufficient quantities of military stores in the possession of the continental government to enable the sale of these stores to individual states. All manner of military stores, from infantry and camp equipment to artillery, were sold to the states by the continental government during the closing years of the Revolution. In 1777 several thousand French muskets imported for the Continental Congress were landed at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The state was allowed to retain a portion of these for its defense. With this exception, there is no record of the sale of muskets owned by the continental government to states before January 1781. A "Ledger of Accounts of the U.S. with the Various States for Military Stores" in the U.S. Archives lists the military stores sold to the states in the 1780—1787 period. This ledger indicates that several thousand muskets, rampart muskets, rifles, and fusils were sold to the individual states in 1781 and 1782. In addition to the sales summarized as follows, New Jersey and North Carolina also procured military stores from the continental government, but these did not include shoulder arms. PENNSYLVANIA

Between January 2, 1781, and June 15, 1783, Pennsylvania purchased 975 muskets. Three hundred and seventy-five of these were identified as repaired muskets with bayonets, and 300 of them were identified as "new French muskets." An additional four "repaired rifles" were also sold to Pennsylvania.

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MARYLAND

Between April 24 and September 2, 1781, 1,018 muskets with bayonets, 1,000 rampart muskets, and two fusils were sold to Maryland by the continental government. GEORGIA

On April 4, 1781, 100 carbines and six fusils were sold to Georgia. DELAWARE

On March 27, 1781, forty rampart muskets were sold to Delaware. SOUTH CAROLINA

Between December 27, 1781, and June 14, 1782, 867 repaired muskets with bayonets were sold to South Carolina. VIRGINIA

On June 24, 1782, 2,011 rampart muskets were sold to Virginia.

CONTINENTAL ARSENALS AND LABORATORIES

037.

The terms used to describe manufacturing and storage facilities in 18th-century America are often misunderstood. An "arsenal" differs from an "armory" in that an arsenal was usually a place where arms and military supplies were stored, whereas an armory was a place where arms were fabricated.1 The term "magazine" also denoted a storage facility for either arms or ammunition. This term is now most commonly used to denote an ammunition storage facility. During the Revolutionary War, the term "laboratory" referred to an ammunition manufacturing facility. There were only two national small arms manufacturing facilities, or armories, in the United States prior to the Civil War. These were located at Springfield, Massachusetts, and Harpers Ferry, Virginia. Harpers Ferry Armory was destroyed in 1861 and was never rebuilt. In addition to these, during the first two decades of the 20th century, Rock Island Arsenal in western Illinois intermittently fabricated rifles. The fabrication of arms there was discontinued shortly after World War I. During the Revolutionary War, both the continental government and some state governments established manufactories for arms components, and some colonies and states created state-funded and -operated arms manufactories that fabricated small quantities of arms. Later, the State of Virginia established a state-owned manufactory at Richmond that produced small arms for the state during the first twenty years of the 19th century.

THE FIRST CONTINENTAL ARSENALS

037.2

The influx of tens of thousands of imported muskets, arms components, cannon, powder, and other military stores from France began in 1776. The initial imports were distributed to the army in the field as rapidly as possible because of its urgent need for these supplies. However, as the imports continued, storage facilities were required. The following excerpt from a letter from General Washington to Brigadier General Samuel H. Parsons, dated April 23, 1777, explains the need for storage facilities. It also explains Washington's philosophy regarding serviceable muskets in current use and why so many new French muskets were still in storage at the end of the Revolutionary War: "Tho' we have been fortunate in our importations, 1 The meaning of the term "armory" has changed with reference to modern armories. The ±.erm now denotes a storage and meeting facility for reserve military units.

138

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. l yet we would not be lavish in the unnecessary use of them. All of the old [muskets], that are good and serviceable, should be first put into the hands of [the] Men. The deficiency to be made up with new ones, and what remains of either should be deposited in some secure place." By 1778 six continental arsenals had been established at: Philadelphia, Carlisle, and Lancaster in Pennsylvania; Head of Elk in Maryland; Albany in New York; and Manchester in Virginia. In addition to these, there were networks of commissaries of military stores and military storekeepers who held quantities of arms and military supplies, often in rented or borrowed space, in each of the colonies.

THE ARSENAL AND LABORATORY AT SPRINGFIELD 037.5 The construction of a laboratory to manufacture paper musket cartridges was authorized by the following resolution of the Continental Congress on December 30, 1776: "Resolved, that General Schuyler, or the commander of the Northern Army, be directed to cause a laboratory to be erected at such place as he shall judge most convenient, to fix all the necessary ammunition for the ensuing campaign." This resolution was passed when the belligerent armies were in their winter camps, and the campaign referred to was to be the spring campaign. Brookfield, Massachusetts, was tentatively chosen as the site of the proposed laboratory. During the ensuing months, great quantities of French arms and military supplies arrived in America. The need for additional storage facilities was recognized, and their construction was authorized. On April 14, 1777, the Continental Congress rescinded its previous resolution and ordered the establishment of a magazine with a capacity of 10,000 muskets and a "laboratory adjacent thereto" at Springfield, Massachusetts. The laboratory and magazine were erected, forming the beginning of what would become, eighteen years later, the first national armory. The laboratory began operations in late 1777 or early 1778. By April 1778 it was producing large quantities of musket cartridges. In one week of that month, 7,584 musket cartridges were fabricated. No arms were fabricated at Springfield until 1795.

THE PHILADELPHIA SUPPLY AGENCIES

037.8

The British occupied Philadelphia from October 1777 to June 1778. During this period, the Continental Congress moved from Philadelphia to York. After Philadelphia was firmly returned to the control of the Americans, manufacturing and repair facilities required to support the Continental Army were established there. Most of these facilities were in production between March and June 1780 and remained in service until the end of hostilities. All were located in Philadelphia, and for that reason were termed "The Philadelphia Supply Agencies." These facilities were under the direction of the commissary general of military stores.

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139

A complete listing of these facilities follows, with a brief description of each, so that the reader will have some grasp of their scope. FRENCH FACTORY See "Repair of Arms," Section 041.4. CONTINENTAL ARMORY

See "Repair of Arms," Section 041.4. AIR FURNACE

037.8F

The Air Furnace facility cast iron balls, bar, and grape shot for artillery. FILE CUTTERS

037.8J

Established in the fall of 1780 under Superintendent Jonathan Thompson, the File Cutters facility fabricated the files used in the manufacture and repair of all types of military stores. LEATHER FACTORY

037.8L

The Leather Factory fabricated and repaired cavalry and artillery harness, shoes, military accoutrements, and the many other leather items used by the army. ORDNANCE YARD

037.8N

The artificers at Ordnance Yard fabricated and repaired cannon, cannon carriages, arms and ammunition chests, tools, hatchets, and similar items required by the army. LABORATORY ON KNIGHT'S WHARF

037.8P

The Laboratory on Knight's Wharf was under the direction of Benjamin Hoey and fabricated artillery cartridges and grape shot cartridges from February 1781 to at least 1783. LABORATORY AT THE STATE HOUSE

037.8R

Under the superintendency of Jonathan Shorts, the Laboratory at the State House fabricated cannon wads and assembled grape shot charges. LABORATORY ON FIFTH STREET

037.8S

The Laboratory on Fifth Street was superintended by Perigrine Jones and fabricated musket and pistol ammunition. Fortunately, its production information

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

140

has survived in the U.S. Archives, and its production of musket ammunition is summarized as follows* Musket Cartridge Production Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Totals

1780 — — — — — 45,948 53,729 26,472 15,945 12,060 32,304 25,902 212,360

1781 30,804 29,532 35,978b 136,214 105,372 47,328 11,327 61,044 111,491 41,688 46,110 62,556 719,444

1782 81,852 60,288 102,528 18,997 20,544 32,820 12,852 33,587 81,600 27,876 — — 472,944

1783 21,948 — — — — — — — — — — — 21,948

a

This production was credited in the commissary's books to "General Stores" and does not include the small quantities of musket cartridges issued directly to military units, nor does it include small quantities of 24 bore (.58 caliber) pistol ammunition fabricated. The musket ammunition fabricated was both 17 bore, for .75 caliber muskets, and 19 bore, for .69 caliber muskets. This figure includes 19,062 "remade" cartridges.

LEAD FURNACE

037.8V

The Lead Furnace facility manufactured musket balls and buckshot. These items were then issued to army storage facilities or were sent to the Laboratory on Fifth Street, to be included in the manufacture of musket cartridges. The Lead Furnace was superintended by A. Krehn. BRASS FOUNDRY

037.8X

The Brass Foundry was under the direction of Superintendent James Byers and was in production by April 1780. It is known to have fabricated brass buckles for waist belts and shoes, and brass mountings for muskets. After completion, these mountings were sent to the French Factory, and a typical shipment would include complete sets of mountings, such as this one of April 28, 1780: 50 Butt pieces 50 Side pieces 50 Trigger plates 50 Tail pipes 100 Middle pipes 50 Trumpet pipes 50 Nose caps

(Butt plates) (Side plates) (Trigger guards, not trigger plates) (Lower ramrod thimbles) (Middle ramrod thimbles) (Upper ramrod thimbles) (Forend caps)

This is the brass furniture used in fifty muskets of British land pattern configuration, each with four thimbles. It is of interest to note that the muskets made with this furniture would have cast brass side plates and forend caps.

CONTINENTAL MUSKET PARTS PROCUREMENT

039.

Most of the American gunmakers did not manufacture all of the metal components of the muskets they produced during the Revolutionary War. They often stocked muskets using metal components made by others. Some gunmakers could fabricate all of a musket's metal parts except, perhaps, the lock or the barrel, which would be procured from others. Locks and barrels were particulary difficult to obtain during the Revolutionary War, and these two components were the most difficult to fabricate in the small gunmaking operations that existed in America at that time. In addition, there was a growing demand for replacement parts with which to repair the ever-increasing number of service-damaged muskets so they could be returned to the field for use. Information on these arms is in Section 041, "Repair of Arms." The musket parts used to supply these needs were imported from Europe, fabricated at continental facilities, and fabricated by private makers under continental contract. Additional musket components were obtained by cannibalizing the serviceable parts from muskets too severely damaged to repair.

IMPORTED MUSKET PARTS

039.2

Included in the vast quantities of military stores imported from France were enough extra locks, barrels, and metal furniture components to repair and rebuild tens of thousands of muskets. There is a great deal of correspondence in the U.S. Archives pertaining to the purchases of components in France. For example, the May 26, 1777, letter from U.S. Commissioner Arthur Lee, cited in the section on French arms because it detailed arms purchases he made in Nantes, also included: 15,400 8,200 6,000

gun barrels for infantry [muskets] ditto, large, for rampart muskets short gun barrels, for cavalry

Large numbers of musket barrels, described either as "rampart barrels" or "barrels for rampart muskets," were imported from France. The French Model 1717 and 1728 rampart muskets had the same length barrels as the French Model 1717, 1728, and 1746 infantry muskets. All of these muskets had barrels about 46^" to 463/4" long. This was about 2" longer than the barrels of subsequent French infantry muskets, beginning with the Model 1754. Rampart barrels were of only a slightly larger external and bore diameters than infantry barrels, and it

142

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. l is doubtful that the U.S. commissioners were aware of the relatively subtle differences between them. The term "rampart barrels" probably was used to describe any and all barrels of the then-obsolete models of infantry and rampart muskets made before the mid-1750s. The use of this term may have disguised the fact that many of these barrels were over fifty years old at the time of the American Revolution. The known importations of musket parts for continental use were as follows: March 24, 1777: The American ship Sally arrived at Philadelphia carrying 1,500 gun locks. January 26, 1778: Four thousand gun locks were shipped from Amsterdam in the Netherlands, on board the Christina, to the port of Nantes. These locks were destined for the United States, but it is not known what ship ultimately delivered them. August 26, 1780: Fourteen chests of gun mountings and seven casks of gun locks and mountings were received at Philadelphia. They had been brought on the frigate Deane, which is believed to have been one of the ships outfitted in France by the U.S. commissioners there. April 28, 1780: The ship Batchelor delivered 1,802 bayonets to Philadelphia. December 1, 1780: Twenty-nine chests, each containing ninety rampart barrels, were shipped on board the U.S. ship Marie from Nantes. This shipment arrived in America sometime between March 1 and April 11, 1781, when Colonel Timothy Pickering of the Quartermaster General's Office wrote that the following had been received from Nantes (including the barrels imported on the Marie):

178 chests, each with 90 rampart musket barrels 63 chests, each with 550 locks

Total 16,020 34,650

May 6, 1783: The U.S. frigate America delivered 6,335 bayonets. From the preceding information, which is far from complete, it is apparent that over 40,000 locks were imported during the 1778—1781 period, as well as substantial quantities of barrels and furniture.

MUSKET PARTS FABRICATED AT CONTINENTAL, FACILITIES

039.5

The following facilities were established and operated by the authority of the Continental Congress. CONTINENTAL GUNLOCK MANUFACTORY

039.52

The Continental Gunlock Manufactory, located in Trenton, New Jersey, was fabricating locks prior to May 1776 and possibly as early as the beginning of the

CONTINENTAL MUSKET PARTS PROCUREMENT

143

year. Production information has not been located. The manufacture of locks was apparently terminated in the fall of 1776, due to the occupation of Trenton by the British. CONTINENTAL BRASS FOUNDRY

039.55

The Continental Brass Foundry was established in Philadelphia to provide the British land pattern musket furniture required in the rebuilding and restocking of muskets. Although repair of French muskets was facilitated by the import of French-style musket furniture already described, not enough British-style furniture could be salvaged from damaged muskets. This facility is described under "Philadelphia Supply Agencies" in this section.

CONTINENTAL CONTRACT SMALL ARMS COMPONENTS

039.8

Prior to the establishment of the Philadelphia Supply Agencies in 1780, quantities of arms components and accessories were contracted by agents of the Board of War. One such agent was William Henry, Sr., of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The April 18, 1778, Resolution of the Board of War — which discontinued the office of public armorer and dismissed Thomas Butler — also created the office of superintendent of arms and military accoutrements and appointed William Henry, Sr., to this job. It should be noted that Henry has been erroneously described by some writers as a "public armorer" to the United States or as a "continental armorer." Nowhere in contemporary U.S. records is he listed as either of these. Some of Henry's records have survived and are in the Pennsylvania Historical Society's archives. A ledger kept by Henry for the years 1778 and 1779, titled Expenditures for Arms and Military Accouterments, discloses that he contracted for the procurement of components, parts of arms, the repair of arms, fabric for clothing, leather goods, and other accoutrements, all of which were paid for by the United States government. Because all of these items were procured from makers in Lancaster County, it suggests that there were other, similar agents in other Pennsylvania counties and perhaps in other states. Although this ledger was badly kept, poorly stored, and is almost illegible, it does show that the following arms parts, repairs, and accessories were procured from Lancaster County gunmakers: Gun Locks: July 2, 1778: Jacob Dickert [quantity unknown, but was probably six locks] July 28, 1778: Christopher Kuntz [quantity unknown] October 14, 1778: George Fainot "6 gun locks for 6 carbines" October 22, 1778: Peter Razor ["Reasor"] "11 gun locks" June 22, 1779: John Clayton "100 riffle Locks" November 4, 1779: Laz. Winger "49 gun locks"

£ 13/10 £ 27/7 £ 13/10 £ 24/15 $750.00 $257.50

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. l

144

Mountings: October 19, 1778: Peter Razor ["Reasor"] "to brass [mountings for] . . . 17 Carbines" November 15, 1779: Casper Ehrmam "for 28 rifle mountings"

£ 10/$ 42.00

Repair of Arms: October 3, 1778: Jacob Messersmith, for 6 carbines October 19, 1778: Jacob Kraft, for 12 carbines February 6, 1778: Jacob Messersmith, for 12 carbines Many well-known gunmakers were also paid fairly large sums of money "for sundries" during this period. These ledger entries were probably kept intentionally vague so as not to endanger the gunmakers, should the records fall into British hands. Among these entries "for sundries" were the following sums paid to Jacob Dickert: £ 100/-, £ 133/-, $81.40, and $77.13. On January 22, 1779, he was paid "for 1 riffle." Henry DeHuff received £ 66/15 "on account" and was also paid for 191 powder horns he delivered. William Henry, Sr., was paid as superintendent of arms and military accoutrements until April 1, 1782, at least. From 1780, in order to augment the supplies of imported musket parts and those fabricated at continental facilities, contracts were let with private makers. The following list of the musket parts delivered at Philadelphia is by no means complete and is only indicative of the existence of these contracts. Further research should certainly uncover many more deliveries. LOCKS

On April 12,1780, Ebenezer Colwell delivered thirty-three new musket locks to the Continental Armory at Philadelphia. RAMRODS

On July 6, 1780, J. Pearson and J. Tyler delivered 100 unground ramrods to the military storekeeper at Philadelphia. BAYONETS

Deliveries of Bayonets to the Arsenal at Philadelphia, 1780-1782 Delivery Date April 18, 1780 May 4, 1780 May 29, 1780 June 2, 1780 February 3, 1781 July 13, 1781 July 17, 1781 July 17, 1781

Delivered By Adam Rupetus Jacob Eckfelt Jacob Eckfelt Samuel Holmes Jacob Eckfelt "Sundry Persons" Mary Holmes Jacob Eckfelt

Quantity 119 239 120 154 346 73 16 50

CONTINENTAL MUSKET PARTS PROCUREMENT

145

Delivery of Bayonets continued Delivery Date July 17, 1781 July 17, 1781 July 17, 1781 July 17, 1781 September 12, 1781 September 21, 1781 September 29, 1781 October 10, 1781 December 18, 1781 February 28, 1782 Total a

Delivered By William Rose Charles Hicks William Rose Jacob Eckfelt Jacob Eckfelt Jacob Eckfelt William Rose Michael Miller Lewis Fohrer James Walsh

Quantity 100a 106a

Plate 039.8-A This bayonet is attributed to a Revolutionary War delivery by Jacob Eckfelt to the military storekeeper at Philadelphia. (Winchester Collection, Buffalo Bill Historical Center.)

49a 29 23 46 16 52 183b

26 1747

These are identified as new bayonets that had been ground. Six of these were old bayonets that had been reground.

In addition to the bayonets just listed, some of the continental contract armorers who repaired muskets supplied ramrods, bayonets, and other new parts to the muskets they repaired, A summary of this information is in section 041.6, "Revolutionary War Repair of Arms."

Plate 039.8-B "ECKFELT" is stamped between the letters "U" and "S," which indicate continental government ownership. (Winchester Collection, Buffalo Bill Historical Center.)

REVOLUTIONARY WAR REPAIR OF ARMS

041.

Little is known of the repair of arms for the continental government prior to 1780, when the Philadelphia Supply Agencies were established A few of the records of William Henry, Sr., who was appointed superintendent of arms and military accoutrements by the U.S. Board of War in 1778, have survived along with the family papers and are now located in the Hagley Museum Library, Wilmington, Delaware. These records indicate that in addition to procuring arms for the Continental government and the State of Pennsylvania, Henry was also the continental government's agent in dealing with local gunsmiths for the repair of arms. An incomplete account of The United States, To William Henry for the Repair of Arms includes payments to many well-known gunsmiths. Although this account is undated, it appears to date from circa 1778, and the payments made were: Gunsmith Amount Peter Dealer £4/0/0 Jacob Dickert £2,150/0/8 George Frederick Fenot £ 182/13/6 Peter Gonter £204/18/3 John Henry £15/10/0 William Henry, Jr. £73/19/0 Jacob Kraft £81/10/7 George Kuntz £12/3/3 Jacob Messersmith £723/17/3 John Miller £396/0/8 Zebulon Pike £2/5/0 Peter Reasor £213/11/9 Samuel Sarjant £5,656/12/10 James Walsh £149/18/8 Joseph Welchance £95/14/6 Micheal Wither £237/18/10 Another account for the repair of arms, covering the period from August 14, 1779, through August 14, 1780, includes additional payments totaling £2,057/15/0 to Jacob Dickert, £504 to Peter Reasor, and £3,931/18/6 to Samuel Sarjant. Henry DeHuff was paid £50. The same account also included the following entry: "To my pay as Superintendent of Arms and Military Accoutrements from the 14th of August, 1779, to the 14th day of August, 1780, both days included, is 366 days, at 22/6 per day . . . £411/15/0." Although the specific

REVOLUTIONARY WAR REPAIR OF A R M S

147

quantities of arms are not known, the large sums paid these gunsmiths suggest that they repaired several thousand arms during the 1778-1780 period. More information is known about repairs to arms during the later years of the Revolution. Arms damaged from use in service were turned in by the Continental Army to various repositories operated by officers designated as commissaries of military stores. The following correspondence is indicative of the damaged arms on hand, and of those flowing into, the commissary of military stores at Philadelphia during the 1780-1781 period. On July 18, 1780, Commissary General of Military Stores Samuel Hodgdon wrote the Board of War: "We now have on hand three thousand stand of Repairable Muskets — which on enquiry I find will cost twenty shillings each hard money to put them into proper repair — the whole may be complete in three months." These arms probably included 1,191 damaged and incomplete muskets received on June 27 from Trenton, New Jersey, by Major Gastenlove, the commissary of military stores at Philadelphia. On June 25, 1781, General Knox wrote Hodgdon that "between 3,000 and 4,000 muskets [are] at Albany [New York], repairable, but nobody to work on them." On July 18 Hodgdon wrote Knox, requesting him to send 1,000 to 1,500 of the best of those damaged muskets to Philadelphia for repair. Two weeks later, Gastenlove turned over his office to Richard Frothingham, and an inventory dated August 4, 1781, was taken of the stores at Philadelphia. This inventory showed the following damaged arms on hand. Apparently, the damaged muskets from Albany had not yet arrived. 841 90 1,250 99 94 202 1 49

Muskets Rifles Carbines Sappers' muskets Blunderbusses Rampart muskets Wall piece Officers' fusils

CONTINENTAL ARMORERS

041.2

From 1780 the term "continental armorer" was applied to gunmakers or gunsmiths who were employed in continental factories and armories or at other facilities in the repair and reconstruction of the Continental Army's arms. We have been unable to establish a single instance where a continental armorer was employed in the fabrication of entirely new arms. Prior to 1780 "continental armorer" or "public armorer" was descriptive of gunsmiths and gunmakers in the Philadelphia area in the employ of, or under contract to, the Continental Congress. Existing information indicates that these men repaired arms for the Continental Army between 1775 and April 1778. Thereafter, the practice of designating them "continental armorers" was discontinued because agents of the Continental Congress, called superintendents of

148

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 arms and military stores, contracted for the repair of arms at the local and county level They also contracted for arms components and other military supplies. The names of only three of the continental armorers who repaired arms for the Continental Army from 1775 to 1778 are known: PHINEAS PARMALEE, LOCATION UNKNOWN

041.22

Phineas Parmalee is reported to have been a continental armorer in 1775. ROBERT TOWERS, PHILADELPHIA

041.25

Robert Towers received payment as a continental armorer from November 19, 1775, through May 19, 1777. In addition, he was appointed to the post of Pennsylvania commissary of military stores on August 11, 1775, and he was also a U.S. commissary of military stores. THOMAS BUTLER, LANCASTER, PENNSYLVANIA

041.28

On January 22, 1777, Thomas Butler was appointed public armorer by the Pennsylvania Committee of Safety. Apparently, this appointment was made on behalf of the Board of War. On April 21, 1778, the Board of War wrote the Committee of Safety that, pursuant to a resolution of that board, passed on April 18, the post of public armorer had been discontinued, and Thomas Butler had been dismissed.

CONTINENTAL FACTORIES AND ARMORIES

041.4

The three major facilities for repairing muskets for the Continental Army were the Continental Gun Factory at Lancaster and the French Factory and Continental Armory at Philadelphia. Some arms students believe that these facilities were manufactories that fabricated new muskets; however, this interpretation is open to question. Although information about these facilities is certainly not definitive, it strongly suggests that their function was to repair and rebuild the many thousands of service-damaged muskets belonging to the Continental Army. By some standards, many of the repairs were so extensive as to qualify the arms repaired or rebuilt as new arms. Muskets were often assembled using both new and used metal components and were sometimes restocked. Surviving examples of these muskets indicate that some of the repairs were so comprehensive as to completely alter the original configuration. It is more common to find surviving examples of Revolutionary War muskets in public and private U.S. collections assembled from components from several different models, or even countries of origin, than muskets that conform to a single regulation pattern of any given country of origin. Those who were involved with these arms during the Revolutionary War, either as users or as storekeepers, were only concerned with whether or not they

REVOLUTIONARY WAR REPAIR OF A R M S

149

were serviceable. Because we believe that the intent of these facilities was not to fabricate new arms so much as to put existing damaged arms into serviceable condition and to return them to the hands of the army, these factories and armories are described as "repair" facilities. THE CONTINENTAL GUN FACTORY

041.42

The Continental Gun Factory in Lancaster was in operation from sometime before May 1776. On May 23 the Continental Congress passed the following resolution: "Resolved, that the committee appointed for the making of firearms, be directed to order the manager of the continental factory of firearms at Lancaster, and the manager of the gun lock factory at Trenton, to deliver to Colonel Shee, or his order, all the muskets and gun locks that each of them may have ready, in order to have more expeditious arming of the continental battalion under Colonel Shee's command." The Continental Gun Factory continued in operation until mid-1779. It has been reported that William Henry, Sr., directed the operations there after his appointment as superintendent of arms and military accoutrements on April 18, 1778. Available information suggests that the Continental Gun Factory may have been established and operated with funds from France. In the late 1770s the Board of War had planned to bring an M. Wendel from France to superintend the Continental Gun Factory. Wendel had been the first director of the Royal Arms Manufactory at Charleville for fifteen years and, as was customary in France, held the rank of captain in the French artillery. Wendel was willing to come to the United States, provided that he would receive a superior rank and greater pay, to which the Board of War had agreed. However, in order to avoid the European practice of "selling" commissions, the Continental Congress had previously resolved not to grant any rank to any person unless obtained by actual service or by regular promotion. On January 2, 1777, Congress approved a contract with Penet, Wendel & Cie. This was probably the congressional authorization of the Board of War's contract with Wendel, but it did not include the higher rank he had required. On April 7, 1777, a letter from the "French Undertakers of the Continental Manufactory of Arms" was read to Congress. This letter requested Congress to grant an exception in this case, due to WendePs potential value as superintendent. Congress did not act on this exception, and Wendel did not take over the Continental Gun Factory. He was subsequently appointed by the French government one of the three directors who operated France's new manufactory at Tulle, in 1783. Sometime during the first part of 1779 the name "Continental Gun Factory" was changed to "Continental Armory." On June 15, 1779, Samuel Hodgdon, commissary general of military stores, directed a Captain Austen to superintend the Continental Armory "and see that they [the workmen] diligently improve the proper hours of work and faithfully perform the repairs necessary to make the muskets compleat [sic]. The arms as

150

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 fast got in good order are to be boxed up and marked, while boxes be had, [and] afterward carried to the church now improved as a magazine." Just three weeks later, on July 6, Hodgdon wrote two letters that would close the armory at Lancaster and pave the way for another at Philadelphia. The first letter ordered Captain Austen to return to his unit, where he was needed uon account of the great number of muskets daily brought in for repair." Austen was also instructed to take his forges and tools with him. The second letter of the same date was to a Mr. Sheinman and instructed him to transport Captain Austen's unrepaired arms from the armory in Lancaster to Philadelphia. The early muskets repaired and rebuilt by the Continental Gun Factory were probably both British- and American-made muskets of the British land pattern configuration. French muskets were probably also repaired sometime after the importation of these arms began in 1776. THE CONTINENTAL ARMORY AND FRENCH FACTORY

041.45

Plate 041.45-A Muskets repaired or rebuilt at the Continental Armory are believed to have been stamped with the initials of Superintendent Joseph Perkins as a form of acceptance mark. This musket is stamped "IP" in the stock's left breech flat in addition to the larger "US" continental ownership brand. (Helen and Edward Flanagan Collection.)

These two repair facilities were part of the Philadelphia Supply Agencies established by the commissary general of military stores in 1780, which were described previously. The French Factory was located on Arch Street in Philadelphia and was superintended by John Gallot. It was in operation by April 1780. The Continental Armory was in operation in Philadelphia from mid-1780. Its original superintendent was Joseph Williams. He was succeeded by Joseph Perkins in the fall of 1780. The Continental Armory employed a number of gunsmiths during the 1780-1782 period, who were referred to as "U.S. armorers." They are described in the next section. Both facilities appear to have salvaged serviceable parts from unrepairable muskets, for subsequent reuse in the repair of other muskets. They also used new, American-made components in the muskets they repaired and rebuilt.

REVOLUTIONARY WAR REPAIR OF A R M S

151

Available information indicates that the French Factory primarily repaired British- and American-made muskets of the British land pattern configuration, although banded French pattern muskets may also have been repaired there, New brass musket furniture from the Brass Foundry was used in the repair of some muskets as well as American-made bayonets and ramrods. Many arms were restocked in American wood. Surviving examples indicate that the Continental Armory repaired and rebuilt muskets of British land pattern, banded French, and Germanic configurations. It appears that the musket components used in these repairs were either obtained by import from France, from salvaged arms, or were made under continental contract. Like the French Factory, the Continental Armory used American-made bayonets, ramrods, stocks, and at least a few locks made by Ebenezer Colwell, in repairing some of these arms. U.S. ARMORERS

041.48

The following persons were described as "U.S. armorers" in contemporary pay records of the Commissary General's Department. They were employed at the Continental Armory in Philadelphia during the 1780-1782 period: Joseph Perkins, Superintendent George Browning William Clerk Christopher Cove John Flynn William Gardner Rene Joissard William Keats

Thomas Lawrence Peter Lessley Joseph Lincoln Glode Musa Joseph Simcock John Small James Smith Isaac Warner

To add to the confusion in the study of this period, the gunmakers and gunsmiths in the Philadelphia area who repaired continental arms in their own establishments under contract with the United States from 1780 were also occasionally referred to as U.S. armorers in contemporary records. In order to delineate between the Continental Armory employees and those who repaired arms under contract, these contract gunsmiths are referred to in this text as "continental contract armorers."

CONTINENTAL, CONTRACT REPAIR OF ARMS

041.6

To augment the repair work on damaged muskets being accomplished by the Continental Armory and the French Factory from 1780, the commissary general of military stores also contracted with a number of gunsmiths and gunmakers for the repair of arms. These continental contract armorers were usually located in the vicinity of Philadelphia. Most of the arms repaired under these contracts appear to have been of the French infantry musket configuration, although a few rampart arms and

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

152

American rifles were also repaired. Like the continental facilities, the contract armorers used new, salvaged, or imported metal components in repairing muskets. Several hundred of them were also restocked. The following summary of the known annual deliveries of repaired arms by the contract armorers is by no means complete. It is presented here to provide a better understanding of this work and to list the known gunmakers and gunsmiths who accomplished it. All arms listed are identified as "muskets" unless otherwise noted: Summary of Known Repairs by 1780-1785 Continental Contract Armorers Contractor George Bakewood Dunwicke G. Bod well David Burgers Samuel Coutty Ebenezer Colwell Robert Crothers James Davis William Dunwick Thos. Eton & Isaac Johns Patrick Fittrell Lewis Fohrer Joseph Foote Joseph Foster Jonathan Hall Fabian Hammer ly Hamilton Hazelton George Heiburger Thomas Higgins William Hudson John Hunter John Lacy D. Lavery Thomas Lawrence Samuel Lehman M. McCook Micheal Miller John Morris John Murrey John Nicholson Carloux, Panet & Co. John Parkhill Joseph Perkins Jacob Peters Jacob Sewer Samuel Smith

1780 — — —

(d,m)

d

24

6 ( ) 100 54 (d) (d) d

85C — — 6 6 18 49f —

(d)

1781 12 40 — 100 a

444

42 100 360 — 356 — 60 166 60 — — — — — — — 87

d

100

50 25

(d) 50d (d) — 18 17 6

125 108 m

439 173 — 225 — —

(d)

1782 12

49 247 — — 91 — 244b,n

45 — 59e — 12 — —

(d) g

33 435h'° 6 85d,P

44k 464d,q

12

1783

1784

1785

Total

— — — (d) -

— — (d) — — -

— — — — -

24 40 (d) 149 691d 66d

— _ 102d — —

— _ — — —

— _ — — —

6 iQOd 653d 54 600d

_ _ _

_ _ _

(d) _ 60 _ 166 _ 190



24



24

— — — — —

— — — — —

— — — — —

59 6 18 18 49

— 2821 60j _

— — — _

— — — _

(d) 120 817d 6d 360d i77d

-

-

-

(d)

_ — _

_ — _







18

— -

— _

— -

17 6d

18 971d — 173 12d 206 431

REVOLUTIONARY WAR REPAIR OF ARMS

153

Summary of Known Repairs continued

Contractor James Walsh John Wilson Unknown Armorers

1780 60d 12 —

1781 121 — 31

1782 173 — 248

1783 40r — —

1784 — — —

1785 — — —

Total

Total 394d 12 280 6,767

Notes: Every effort has been made to delete deliveries of those arms that were identified as "cleaned" or "cleaned and stamped" only. These arms are described in Section .043. It must be emphasized that the available information indicates that many more arms were repaired in the Philadelphia area than those shown here. The actual totals are probably close to double those shown. Two other persons, Josiah Chambers and Jacob Geiger, have been reported as having repaired arms under continental contract, but no deliveries are known. a One hundred one were restocked. b Forty-two were restocked. c These muskets are known to have been stamped "US" on the lock and barrel. d Payments were made to this continental contract armorer over and above the quantity of arms shown delivered (if any), but the quantity and type of these additional arms are unknown. e All fifty-nine were restocked. f These muskets were repaired in 1779. g Two were restocked. h Lehman supplied 142 new bayonets with these muskets, and two of them were restocked. 1 Eighty-two were restocked. J Thirty-eight were restocked. k Twenty-four were restocked, and payments were made for unknown additional quantities of arms repaired. l These are identified only as "2 Gunsmiths" or "3 Gunsmiths." m One hundred additional rifles were repaired, which are not included in the totals. n Five additional rifles were repaired, which are not included in the totals. 0 Thirty-eight additional rampart muskets were repaired. p Forty additional rifles were repaired, which are not included in the totals. q Twenty-three additional rampart muskets were repaired. r Forty-one additional rampart muskets were repaired.

POST-REVOLUTIONARY WAR REPAIR OF ARMS

041.8

In the years following the end of the Revolutionary War, the task of repairing the many thousands of damaged muskets continued. In addition, there were several thousand new French muskets as well as the other serviceable muskets that had to be cleaned periodically. In 1785 General Knox employed Joseph Cranch to clean, repair, and stamp arms at the arsenal at Springfield, Massachusetts. The arms there were generally the newest of any in the major government repositories. From 1780 to 1785 the arms stored in the Philadelphia area were being cleaned, repaired, and stamped by the continental contract armorers. It appears that no arms were repaired at Philadelphia between the end of 1785 until after the 1787 inventory of unrepairable arms in the various U.S. repositories. Also in 1785 armorers were employed at the West Point, New York, repository. Unlike the gunsmiths who were employed elsewhere, these were described as common blacksmiths and "eye servants." By October 1785, 1,912 stands of arms had been cleaned and stamped. In addition, James Morrow contracted to "clean all the new arms that are not out of repair at 18/96ths of a dollar each." By May 22,1786, Morrow had cleaned 3,227 stands of arms. A total of 4,651 muskets were cleaned, which did not require repairs. Lieutenant Price, of West Point, wrote General Knox that there were about 9,000 damaged French, Hessian, and British arms stored at West Point. Price

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

154

employed Morrow until the end of October 1786 to repair these arms. In February 1787 Morrow contracted to clean 1,000 of the least damaged arms in storage, which was accomplished by August 27. In early 1787 an inventory was taken of the unrepairable arms at the several government repositories. A May 2, 1787, resolution of Congress directed the secretary of war to sell the following arms: Springfield, Massachusetts: 413 old militia arms 365 old militia gun barrels 985 old gun locks West Point, New York: 2,000 damaged muskets Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 1,194 damaged muskets 1,066 damaged carbines 4,446 damaged musket barrels Carlisle, Pennsylvania: 3,673 damaged muskets 2,942 old musket locks No arms were sold from Virginia repositories, but one ton of damaged powder was sold. This inventory disclosed over 10,000 damaged, but repairable, arms in store at West Point. James Morrow continued working there until the end of 1790, repairing British, French, and Hessian muskets. Joseph Cranch was employed at West Point in 1791, and he continued the repair work on these foreign and American-made arms. He described the British muskets as the "long sort" (Long Land Pattern), "common size" (Short Land Pattern), and "short" (carbines). On March 24 Cranch completed one contract, and his work was inspected by George Fleming, the military storekeeper at West Point. Cranch remained at West Point, cleaning and repairing arms, until April 1800, at least. On November 27, 1797, 1,000 musket stocks were sent from Schuylkill Arsenal at Philadelphia to West Point "for repair of arms." During the first three months of 1800, Cranch used some of these stocks when he restocked 251 American-made muskets. In Philadelphia a small lot of 268 muskets was repaired and probably stamped with U.S. identification by John Thompson in 1788. Another small lot of 100 muskets was also repaired by him in 1790. In 1791 a major repair program appears to have been undertaken at Philadelphia. In that year, small lots of muskets, which rarely exceeded 100 to 200 at a time, were issued to several gunsmiths for repair. Also beginning in 1791 quantities of barrel band retaining springs were issued to the Philadelphia area gunsmiths with the muskets to be repaired, sometimes when no other repair parts were issued This suggests that middle and lower band

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retaining springs were added at this time to French muskets made prior to the Model 1773, which had not been so equipped originally. The following chart shows the quantities of muskets known to have been repaired by each of the Philadelphia area gunsmiths between 1791 and 1795, when the particular set of records used ended. The large quantities of muskets listed as "repaired" from 1792 suggest that few repairs were actually necessary and that the majority of these arms may have only been cleaned and stamped, if the "US" identification had not previously been applied. Muskets Repaired by Philadelphia-Area Gunsmiths

798 201° 100 300

800 l,100a — 1,517 — — 302

1794 1,478 — — 1,000 2,299 2,331 — — — — —

Total 1,478 187 675 1,000 5,710 6,305 74 4,085 201 100 602

3,510

4,019

5,780

7,108

20,417

Thomas Annely Francis Brooks William Clark J. Corelaux Abraham Morrow John Nicholson Nicholson & Morrow

74

Joseph Perkins Perkins & Thompson Joseph Sherrel John Thompson Total

1792 — — 300 —

1793 — — — — 1,910 2,100b — 1,770 — — —

1791 — 187 375 — 701 774

a

Thirty blunderbusses were also repaired. Four hundred seven were credited to John Nicholson, Jr. c Includes 154 fusils.

b

In 1793 a general inventory of all of the arms owned by the government was undertaken. The results of this inventory were presented by Secretary of War General Knox to the U.S. Senate on December 16, 1793. This "General Return of Ordnance, Arms, and Military Stores" showed 31,015 serviceable muskets and 15,670 damaged muskets in storage at various government repositories. The damaged muskets were in the following locations: West Point, New York Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Manchester, Virginia Fort Hamilton New London, Virginia Fort Rensselaer Fort Washington, Western Territory Other

8,617 1,482 16 45 3,488 44 639 1,339

A previous inventory of the U.S. arms stored at Manchester, Virginia, had been made by Joseph Perkins, who had been sent there for this purpose. The

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following is excerpted from his report of June 1, 1793, "On the State of the Arms in Virginia": 1,231 2,776

989 2,587 1,200

Repaired Muskets, in good order in boxes. Rusted [muskets] but worth repairing. 1,700 Require restocking 800 Extra barrels to be stocked 2,500 Total to be stocked Bayonets Ramrods [are] required to complete repairs on 3,576 muskets Locks are required for the above, also 100 sets of bands

I found the Muskets very much damaged by rust which in a great degree is owing to the store in which they are kept having been used for the storing of salt.

It is difficult to conceive of a more corrosive atmosphere in which to store arms than a salt storage facility. It appears that these muskets were transferred to the U.S. Arsenal at New London, Virginia, sometime between Perkins's June 1 inventory and the December 16 secretary of war's report. The following gunsmiths were engaged in the cleaning and repair of these arms at the New London Arsenal in 1794: William Clark Jono. Miles, Sr. Edward Taylor Edward Well William Dunwick

John Bay less James watt[?] Richard Taylor Thomas Mallory John Sullender

Adam Bayer John Ras Samuel Bedford William Store Archer Howard

William Dunwick had been a continental contract armorer ten years earlier, and Jonathan Miles, Sr., would shortly become a contractor of U.S. muskets. In addition to the previously mentioned damaged arms in Virginia, the 1793 inventory showed 8,617 damaged muskets at West Point, which were to undergo repair by Joseph Cranch, and 1,482 damaged muskets at Philadelphia. There were also small inventories of damaged arms at other repositories. Two years later, on December 12,1795, Secretary of War Timothy Pickering reported to the U.S. Senate: To increase the stock of small arms, and to render serviceable those already in the public stores, two sets of armorers have been employed, to whit; at Springfield, Massachusetts, and at New London, Virginia in repairing arms, and preparing to manufacture the most essential parts of muskets; All of the arms in the magazines at Philadelphia have been repaired, with some thousands at West Point, where the residue are now repairing.

Although this report gives the impression that the damaged arms at West Point were almost all repaired, Cranch would work for another five years at this task. Many arms were also repaired at Philadelphia in the 1798-1801 period by independent gunsmiths, who worked under contract. Known gunsmiths were

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Robert McCormick, John Miles, and James Nicholson. During this period, they are known to have repaired and returned to Schuylkill Arsenal at least the following: 418 French muskets, sixty-three German muskets, and fifty-eight rifles. Many of these muskets were fitted with new ramrods and bayonets, at least sixty-four were restocked, and sixteen were fitted with new locks. An additional 550 "brass mounted French muskets" were fitted with bayonets and ramrods by John Miles in August 1798. These muskets probably were among those issued to the U.S. Marines aboard ship in the 1798-1801 period.1 Although there were no damaged muskets reported in the 1793 inventory of arms at Springfield, 6,678 "New French Arms" had been in storage there for almost fifteen years. It is believed that the cleaning and repair of these muskets occupied one of the "sets of armorers" described in Pickering's 1795 report. These muskets were also described in the following excerpt from a February 4, 1799, letter from Springfield Armory's military storekeeper, Joseph Williams, to Samuel Hodgdon: That there was cleaned and such as required, repaired by new stocks, bayonets, ramrods, springs, and serewpins, and c.

1795: 6,999 New French Muskets which estimates at 1796: 6,999 do French Muskets which estimates at 1797: 8,499 do French Muskets which estimates at 1798: 9,000 do French Muskets which estimates at

$1,500.00 650.00 700.00 700.00

This cleaning and repair work averaged 21 cents per musket in 1795 and thereafter ranged from 9.3 cents to 7.7 cents per musket in later years. This is probably because the first year's work included cleaning and major repairs to arms that may have not been well maintained since their cleaning by Cranch in 1785. The lower average cost for the subsequent years represents only the normal annual cleaning and maintenance required by the arms. It is also believed that the 1,500 additional muskets, which were included in a Springfield inventory dated January 2, 1797, were "New American muskets" of French configuration. It is possible that 1,130 of these additional muskets were delivered by the U.S. contractors of 1794 and that the remainder were fabricated at the armory. These new muskets should not have required much in the way of maintenance and cleaning. In addition to the repairs described, it is possible, but doubtful, that another modification was made to the several thousand muskets issued to the U.S. Army that had been raised to fight the Indians of the Miami Confederation on the then-western frontier in the early 1790s. General Anthony Wayne, in command of the Legion of the United States, wrote a series of letters to Secretary of War Knox from July 1792 to January 1793, requesting that the muskets in the hands of the Legion be altered by plugging the vent and redrilling it so that the hole inclined towards the muzzle as it passed inwards. Wayne believed that this would speed the reloading process by eliminating the necessity of priming the pan

1

Described in Volume II.

158

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 separately. As the barrel was being loaded, the butt could be struck on the ground, causing a small amount of powder to pass downward from the bore, through the inclined vent, and into the pan. This idea of an inclined vent had been adopted previously in the regulation muskets of some German states. When Wayne first wrote Knox, he and the Legion were at Fort Pitt (later Pittsburgh). In the late fall of 1792, the Legion marched westward to Fort Washington, now the site of Cincinnati, Ohio. These were frontier forts, and it is unlikely that they had the personnel or facilities to make this modification to the muskets. Although this proposed modification was debated by the Second Congress, no information has been located that indicates that this modification was accomplished on the over 3,000 muskets in the hands of the Legion.

"US" IDENTIFICATION OF CONTINENTAL MUSKETS 043.

In order to reduce the theft of continental muskets, on February 14, 1777, the Board of War recommended to Congress that all continental arms be stamped with "United States," On February 24 the Continental Congress resolved: "The arms and accouterments, belonging to the United States, shall be stamped with the words 'United States', all arms already made to be stamped on such parts as will receive the impressions, and those hereinafter to be manufactured, to be stamped with the said words on every part comprising the stand," Plate 043.-A This French Model 1774 infantry musket is branded "UNITED STATES." This marking is believed to have been used as early as 1777.

This resolution was implemented by General Washington, who, on March 31, directed Colonel Benjamin Flower of the Commissary General's Department to have all arms so stamped. On April 18 Washington also issued a general order from his headquarters at Morristown, New Jersey, directing that all arms in the hands of troops and in stores were to be marked immediately. It is not known how rapidly the units in the field responded to this order, nor how many muskets were ultimately marked by the continental repair facilities. However, James Pearson, one of the commissaries of military stores with the army, listed a "U States" brand in his inventory of March 21, 1778. The Continental Armory at Philadelphia was fabricating both copper "US" brands and "US" stamps shortly after mid-1780. A musket's metal components — usually the lock and barrel — were stamped, but the stock was branded. Something is known of the stamping of the new and repaired muskets by continental contract armorers in Philadelphia. At least some were stamped as early as 1780, but the records are incomplete. A summary of the known information is given below: Plate 043.-BThe "U STATES" or "U.STATES" stock brands are known to have been in use in 1778. (Milwaukee Public Museum Collection.)

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDERS ARMS, VOL. 1

16O

Plate 043.-C The "US" stock brand was in use by 1780. Note that the stock's left breech flat is also stamped with a faint "IP," the initials of Joseph Perkins, indicating repair at the Continental Armory in Philadelphia. (Helen and Edward Flanagan Collection.)

Summary of Muskets Known Stamped by Continental Contract Armorers Year

Muskets

New French Muskets

1782 1783 1784 1785

1,215

1,578

— 1,144

313

313

15,000

734

13,108

16,144 13,842

Total

Plate 043.-D The "US" metal stamp came into use by the end of 1780 in Philadelphia. This large "US" stamp was applied to a musket with both French Model 1763 and Model 1766 metal components, which is believed to have been rebuilt in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War.

Total 2,793

33,092

'US" IDENTIFICATION OF CONTINENTAL MUSKETS

161

Plate 043. -E This "US" stamp was applied to a French Model 1773 lock made at Saint Etienne. This lock was still in storage at Philadelphia in the 1790s, when it, along with other French components, was issued to James Nicholson to be assembled into a musket pursuant to his U.S. contract of 1794.

The term "muskets" refers to those muskets that had been repaired by the continental contract armorers in 1782 only. Thereafter, this term refers to any musket that had seen service, regardless of its serviceability. On December 29, 1783, Henry Perkins and John Nicholson contracted with Samuel Hodgdon, commissary general of military stores, to stamp muskets. Pursuant to this contract, they stamped 14,000 muskets in 1784. An additional 587 muskets, which had been issued with small quantities of spare parts, indicating that some repairs had been made, were also stamped by Nicholson. Another 557 muskets, which had also been issued with a small quantity of spare parts,

Plate 043.-F The slightly smaller "US" metal stamp is believed to have been used in the period immediately following the Revolutionary War. (Springfield Armory NHP Museum Collection.)

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDERS ARMS, VOL. l

indicating that some repairs had been made, were stamped by Nicholson and Samuel Coutty. Of the new muskets stamped in 1785, John Nicholson is credited with 5,100 and John Thompson with 8,000, The additional following small quantities of muskets, described as "old" or "damaged," were issued with some spare parts, indicating that repairs were made on them, and are credited to the following continental contract armorers: Nicholson: 75; Thompson: 554; and Thomas Elton: 113. In addition to these stamped arms, the gunsmiths at the several federal arms repositories stamped the unstamped arms as a regular part of their cleaning and repair functions between 1785 and the early 1800s. Independent contract gunsmiths of this period, such as John Miles, also stamped the arms they repaired. In spite of the 1777 order to stamp continental arms, the earliest markings were wood brands. The "UNITED STATES" brand appears to have been used as early as 1777. A contraction of this, "U STATES" or "U.STATES," is known to have been in use as early as 1778. This had been further contracted to "US" in 1780. The "US" stamp in the metal came into use by the end of 1780, initially on arms repaired in the Philadelphia area. It came into more general use from 1785.

AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED MUSKETS OF BRITISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN STATES' PATTERNS

045.

A commonly encountered type of Revolutionary War musket in American collections is one that has been assembled or restocked in America using regulation metal components of British, French, or German manufacture or American-made components of the British or French military style. Very few surviving muskets assembled or restocked with British or French regulation metal components are engraved or stamped with the names of known Committee of Safety gunmakers or carry initial stamps that can reasonably be attributed to known continental or U.S. armorers or to continental contract armorers.1 Some of them, if they have barrels, locks, and furniture of British or French origin, have their original lockmaker's marks or their country's proof or acceptance marks. These muskets may have been assembled or repaired by one of the small arms repair facilities or under contract. These state and continental repair facilities are described in the text under "Revolutionary War Repair of Arms." They may also have been assembled from cannibalized British and French regulation metal components by American gunmakers for private sale to colonial committees of safety, to state militias, or to individual members of militias. There is also a substantial number of unmarked muskets in American collections that are assembled entirely, or largely, from American-made components. These muskets are usually of the British configuration, and many may have been made under Committee of Safety contracts. However, because they are unmarked, any provenance attributing them to Committee of Safety contracts or any other specific manufacturing authority is speculative. Therefore, they are included in this section. It should be noted that, in addition to the British and French pattern arms, there are a very few surviving examples of muskets that have been assembled from Spanish and German states' metal components into American stocks. Because each musket described in this section is unique, it cannot be considered typical of any other musket. These muskets are presented to illustrate both the variety of Revolutionary War arms encountered and to aid a better understanding of the arms that were produced to satisfy the demands of the war.

1

American-assembled muskets, of both British and French configurations, are known stamped "IP" in their stocks' left breech flats. This mark is attributed to Joseph Perkins, superintendent of the Continental Armory in Philadelphia from 1780 to 1783. It is speculated that these initials were his acceptance mark on the muskets repaired and rebuilt at that armory.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

164

MUSKETS CONTAINING BRITISH COMPONENTS

045.2

Muskets with British-made land pattern components may have been assembled in America at any time following the date of origin of the most recent component, but the majority of surviving examples were probably assembled shortly before, during, or shortly after the American Revolution. Although the U.S. Militia Law of 1792 required all muskets to have a bore diameter of .69 caliber by 1797, the federal government continued to repair .75 caliber British muskets and issue them to U.S. Marines for shipboard service for a number of years.2 Most American-assembled British pattern .75 caliber muskets may be assumed to have been assembled at some time prior to the 1790s. AMERICAN RESTOCKED "FARMER" MUSKET

Plate 045.2F-A This musket was assembled using both altered and unaltered British musket metal components and some American-made components. (Springfield Armory NHP Museum Collection.)

045.2F

This musket was almost entirely assembled using British Long Land Pattern musket components together with an American stock. The metal components were originally part of a Long Land Pattern (Type I) musket, as described in Section 065.A2, and has a 1746-dated lock made by James Farmer of Birmingham. The stock, wrist escutcheon, trigger guard, and ramrod thimbles are of probable American manufacture. In order to avoid redundancy, the descriptions of the British regulation metal components are abbreviated here, and detailed descriptions may be found in Section 065.A2.

Plate 045.2F-B The British land pattern lock is engraved with the crowned cypher of George II forward of the cock and "FARMER," "1746" in two vertical lines behind the cock. The cock may have been replaced at the time of this musket's assembly or during its period of use. (Springfield Armory NHP Museum Collection.)

2

These muskets are described in Volume II.

AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED MUSKETS

165

This brass-mounted musket is 613A" overall. The 46 " round barrel has baluster rings at the breech and a bayonet lug, also serving as a front sight, brazed !5/i6" behind the muzzle. The 67/s" by !3/i6" lockplate is convex-surfaced at the rear and flat with beveled edges at the front. The cock was apparently replaced during its period of use; it is of the correct style but does not have double line border engraving. The lOVz" trigger guard is generally of British configuration, but the bow has a solid rear branch. The 53/s" British butt plate's tang has been shortened so that it terminates in a rounded end. The convex-surfaced side plate is also of usual British regulation configuration. The wrist escutcheon plate is in the form of a stylized bird. The four brass ramrod thimbles are longer than British pattern. The upper thimble has a flared mouth, and the lower thimble has decorative grooves at the front and rear. There is no provision for a forend cap, and the ramrod is probably a replacement. This musket was originally provided with sling swivels, which are missing. The walnut stock is 58" long. The nose of the 83A" comb is 5/s" high, and flutes extend rearwards on both sides for 43/V'. The bottom profile of the buttstock is concave. There are flats on both sides of the breech and a raised plateau around the breech tang only. The lockplate has a royal cypher of a crown over "GR" forward of the cock. "FARMER" and "1746" are engraved in two vertical lines at the rear. The barrel is stamped only with an asterisk over "1" in the upper left quadrant, near the breech. Because of these markings, it is possible that the metal components were part of a musket made for private sale, rather than for British Ordnance. There are no other external markings.

MUSKETS CONTAINING AMERICAN-MADE BRITISH PATTERN COMPONENTS

045.5

A number of unmarked British pattern muskets exist, which have barrels, locks, or furniture that are only generally similar to those of British muskets. These components differ in detail from those of British regulation arms. It is entirely possible that these muskets were fabricated in America prior to the Revolution. It is more likely that they were made during the Revolution, possibly before the importation and distribution of the vast quantities of French arms and components. Any of these muskets may have been made for private sale to individual militiamen, made under Committee of Safety or state contract, or made at one of the state or continental facilities for arms manufacture or repair. Unfortunately, it is impossible to attribute these muskets to any specific source

Plate 045.2F-C The tang of the British butt plate was shortened and reshaped so that it is roundended. The wrist escutcheon is in the form of a stylized bird. (Springfield Armory NHP Museum Collection.)

166

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. l definitively. The information to do so simply does not exist. Any such attribution is pure speculation or wishful thinking. AMERICAN-MADE SHORT LAND PATTERN MUSKET

Plate 045.5F-A This unmarked musket was assembled using British-style components of American manufacture. It may have been made under Committee of Safety or state contract or for private sale to a Revolutionary War period militiaman.

Plate 045.5F-B The lock and trigger guard resemble those of British Short Land Pattern muskets made from the 1770s. The trigger guard is secured by lateral pins through integral vertical lugs at both the front and rear, and there is no lower sling swivel hole in the bow's front branch.

045.5F

Known examples of the American-made Short Land Pattern musket are patterned after the British Short Land Pattern musket, as it was made from about 1775. This example has three ramrod thimbles; others have four. Some have forend caps; others do not. This brass-mounted 575/s" musket has a 42" round barrel without baluster rings at the breech. The bore is .775" in diameter. The bayonet lug also serves as the front sight and is brazed to the barrel 2" behind the muzzle. The 25/i6" tapered breech tang is square-ended. The 7" by I13/i6" lockplate has a convex surface at the rear and is flat with beveled edges under the frizzen spring. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. The goose-neck cock has a convex-surfaced body, and the rounded top of the narrow tang has a notch in the front. A groove in the rear face of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of this tang. The round-bottomed pan is integral with the lockplate. It has a fence and an external bridle. The frizzen spring's outer edge has an inside bevel, and the lower leaf ends in a modified teardrop-shaped finial.

AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED MUSKETS

167

The lOVV trigger guard has a sculpted front finial and the rear extension has a round end. There is a separate brass trigger plate. The guard is retained by lateral pins through two integral vertical studs at the rear and through another at the front. The 41A" butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex rear surface. The 31/z" tang is pointed. The 41A" flat-surfaced side plate is a crude copy of the British. The three ramrod thimbles are barrel type. The upper thimble does not have a flared mouth but is larger diameter than the other two. There are no sling swivels, wrist escutcheon, or provision for a forend cap. The oil-finished cherry stock is 527/i6" long. The nose of the 8" comb is l/i" high, and flutes extend rearwards for 61/4". There are flats on both sides of the breech but no raised plateaus or other carving. The musket is unmarked externally, except for traces of double border line engraving on the lockplate. The inside of the lockplate is stamped "SC" in small block letters.

'LJBERTAS" MUSKET

045.5L

The only external marking on this musket is "LIBERTAS" engraved into the lockplate in shaded, block letters. This latinization of the word "liberty" was a popular theme during the American Revolution. For example, Dr. Benjamin Franklin had a medal struck in Paris to commemorate "the important aid afforded to America in her noble struggle, by her generous benefactor" in 1782. This medal bore the motto "Libertas Americana." Similar muskets have reportedly been found in New England. Because the inside of the lockplate is stamped with a sunken rectangular cartouche containing a raised "G.B," it is possible that this component is of European manufacture. This brass-mounted musket is 57" overall and is generally configured after the British Short Land Pattern musket. The 4111/i6/' round barrel has baluster rings at the breech that are thinner and shallower than those found on British arms. There is a P/V'-long flat on the right side of the breech. The tapered, 21A" breech tang is square-ended. The bayonet lug, also serving as a front sight, is brazed to the barrel !3/i6" behind the muzzle. The 65/i6" by 11A" lockplate's surface is convex at the rear and flat with beveled edges under the frizzen spring. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. The goose-neck cock is flat-surfaced, with beveled edges, and has faceted jaws. The horizontally mounted, faceted pan has a fence and is screwed to the lockplate. The frizzen has a rounded top. The frizzen spring's outer edge has an inside bevel, and its lower leaf ends in a pointed finial.

Plate 045.5L-A This British-style musket was assembled using American-made components and a lock that may have been imported from one of Europe's Low Countries, such as the Netherlands.

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 045.5L-B The lockplate is engraved "LI BERTAS" forward of the cock. The latinization of the word "liberty" was popular during the Revolutionary War and is sometimes attributed to arms made in New Hampshire. New Hampshire is believed to have marked state-owned muskets, so the lack of these markings suggests that if the musket is of New Hampshire origin, it was privately owned, perhaps by a member of the militia.

The 10" trigger guard's front extension ends in an acanthas leaf-shaped finial, and the rear end is rounded. This guard is retained at the front and rear by lateral pins through integral vertical lugs and by a screw that passes upwards behind the bow and threads into the wrist escutcheon. The 45/s" butt plate has a very slightly curved rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. The 3l/i" tang is pointed. The 57/s" side plate is of the British pattern, as is the ZVzMong wrist escutcheon. The two !7/i6" upper ramrod thimbles are barrel-type. The 4*/4" lower thimble has a pointed finial. There is a 3/4"-wide forend band at the stock's foretip. The 4115/i6" steel ramrod has a button head. The sling swivels are suspended from lateral screws through the front branch of the trigger guard bow and the forestock. The oil-finished walnut stock is 54" long. The nose of the 8" comb is5/s" high, and flutes extend rearwards for 5Vz" at the sides. There are flats on both sides of the breech and a raised plateau around the tang.

MUSKETS CONTAINING FRENCH COMPONENTS

045.8

Although a few French regulation muskets were undoubtedly captured in the numerous wars with France during the colonial period, it is probable that muskets with French components were assembled some time after the great influx of French muskets and components began in early 1776. The same holds true of muskets that were originally assembled with mixed British and French components. It should also be remembered that unserviceable arms of earlier, colonial period manufacture were repaired with components from the large stores of French parts available in America during the Revolutionary War. Thousands of muskets were assembled, restocked, or repaired with French components during the Revolutionary War. Much of this work was accomplished in the Philadelphia area, where most of these components, and a number of U.S. repair facilities (described in the "Revolutionary War Repair of Arms" section) were located. Many thousands more were undoubtedly repaired and rebuilt at

169

AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED MUSKETS

other federal repositories, by the various states, and elsewhere. The tens of thousands of damaged French muskets and additional thousands of French locks, barrels, and mountings in America after the Revolution enabled state and federal arms repair facilities to rebuild and restock muskets at various federal repositories for a number of years after the war. Remaining stores of French components were also used in the assembly of countless privately owned militia muskets into the 19th century. Repaired and rebuilt French muskets are the most commonly encountered type of arm in most American Revolutionary War collections. Some appear to be assembled from components of a single model of musket, but most are assembled using the metal components of several different French regulation models. These arms are often identified as being of the French regulation year-model that the lock or furniture type indicates. Few French regulation muskets have survived with all of their original components intact. To enable the arms student or collector to compare the components of a specific musket with those of the various French regulation models, complete descriptions of these regulation models are presented in Section 070. It should be remembered that, like the other American-assembled muskets already described, each of these repaired muskets is unique. The examples that follow are not typical of any other arms but are presented to demonstrate some of the variations among these arms.

BRITISH PATTERN MUSKET WITH FRENCH LOCK

045.8E

This musket is interesting because it is entirely assembled with English and American-made British pattern metal components, except for the French Model 1717 infantry musket lock, which has a replacement cock. This brass-mounted musket is 567/s" overall. The 413/s" round barrel has four baluster rings crudely cut into the breech. The iron front sight blade is brazed to the barrel l3/s" behind the muzzle. There is no provision for a bayonet lug. The bore diameter is .78". The 67/s" by 11A" French Model 1717 infantry musket lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges. The rear profile ends in a projecting point, and there are vertical decorative grooves behind the cock. The goose-neck cock has a convex-surfaced body and a wide tang that curls forward at the top. It is similar to other British-style cocks of possible American manufacture noted on other Revolutionary War muskets. The remainder of the lock's components, including the distinctive bridle arching upwards from the frizzen spring screw to the frizzen screw, are French regulation pattern.

Plate 045.8E-A This British-style musket was assembled with both British and American-made metal components and with a French Model 1717 infantry musket lock. (Winchester Collection, Buffalo Bill Historical Center.)

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 045.8E-B The French Model 1717 lock was fitted with a replacement cock either at the time it was assembled into this musket or during its period of use. (Winchester Collection, Buffalo Bill Historical Center.)

Plate 045.81-A Most of this musket's metal components, except the French Model 1766 lower band, are of the French model 1746 infantry configuration. These components were somewhat crudely restocked into this musket, which is missing its ramrod. (Winchester Collection, Buffalo Bill Historical Center.)

The Il3/s" trigger guard is — like the butt plate, wrist escutcheon, and side plate — of British regulation Short Land Pattern musket configuration. The four ramrod thimbles are similar to the barrel-type thimbles used in British muskets. The 3 " upper-middle thimble is considerably longer than usual Only the 4 "-long upper thimble has a flared mouth, and the 4Vz" lower thimble has a pointed finial. The 1 "-wide forend cap is riveted to the stock's foretip. The button-headed steel ramrod is probably a replacement. The walnut stock extends to 33A" of the muzzle. The buttstock configuration is similar to British military muskets, and there are raised flats on both sides of the breech and a raised plateau around the breech tang. There is no provision in the forestock for an upper sling swivel. The musket is externally unmarked except for "N. BROWN" engraved into the side plate and "22RT" over "E" over "No 2" engraved into the wrist escutcheon. AMERICAN RESTOCKED FRENCH MODEL 1746 MUSKET

045.81

This musket appears to be a repaired and somewhat crudely restocked French Model 1746 infantry musket. All of its existing metal components, except for a replaced top jaw and frizzen, are of this model. These components are described in Section 070.H. When this musket was assembled into the 5 95/s" walnut stock, the middle barrel band was deleted, and the barrel is retained at this location by a lateral

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171

Plate 045.8I-B The lock inclines awkwardly downwards at the front. The top jaw and frizzen appear to be replacements. (Winchester Collection, Buffalo Bill Historical Center.)

pin through the forestock and a barrel underlug 183/s" behind the foretip. The lock is also inclined downwards at the front, resulting in a bulge in the stock's profile below this. The buttstock and comb configurations are also distinctive. There is a raised plateau around the breech tang. The barrel is stamped with a fleur-de-lis over "JL" over a heart in the left quarter flat. The lock is stamped with a fleur-de-lis over "SE" forward of the cock. This is the mark of the Royal Manufactory at Saint Etienne. AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED FRENCH MIXED MODELS MUSKET

045.8M

Plate 045.8M-A This musket was assembled in North America using French metal components from a variety of models of the 1717-1770 period. The underside of the buttstock is branded "U.STATES." (Milwaukee Publie Museum Collection.)

Plate 045.8M-B The French Model 1728 lock is surcharged "US." Only traces of a fleur-de-lis marking remain on the lockplate, forward of the cock. (Milwaukee Public Museum Collection.)

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Plate 045.8M-C The barrel's top flat is stamped "US" at the breech. (Milwaukee Public Museum Collection.)

This musket was assembled using a French military barrel of the 1717 to 1746 period and a Model 1728 lock and upper band. Most of the remaining components are of Model 1766 configuration. The top jaw and probably the frizzen spring were replaced during the musket's use. The 56l/s" walnut stock is generally of the French Model 1766 configuration. The two lower barrel bands do not have retaining springs. The sling swivels and ramrod are missing. The lockplate only carries traces of its manufactory's mark of a fleur-de-lis stamped forward of the cock. It is also stamped "US" in V^'-high letters in the tail. The barrel's top flat is also stamped "US," and its left quarter flat is deeply stamped "RC" and "A." "UPSTATES" is branded into the underside of the buttstock, behind the trigger guard. These markings indicate ownership by the continental government and suggest that the assembly of this musket was accomplished under continental authority. AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED FRENCH MIXED MODELS MUSKET

Plate 045.8R-A This musket was assembled with French components from a wide variety of yearmodels.

Plate 045.8R-B The French Model 1766 lock is equipped with a Model 1746 cock. The trigger guard is a French Model 1754 infantry style. The 1754 lower sling swivel stud has been equipped with a Model 1763 or 1766 lower swivel.

045.8R

American-Assembled Muskets

173

Plate 045.8R-C The middle band is from a French Model 1754 infantry musket and has been fitted with a band retaining spring.

This 57¼" musket was assembled from a wide variety of French metal components available to Revolutionary War gunmakers. The 415∕8" barrel is from a Model 1754 dragoon musket. The lock is from a Model 1766 musket, but is equipped with an earlier cock, probably from a Model 1746 lock. The upper and lower bands are from regulation muskets of the 1746 to 1763 period. The middle band is from from a Model 1754 musket having the circular sling swivel. The trigger guard is of the type used from the Model 1754. The butt plate and side plate are of the type used in the Model 1763. These components were assembled into a 53¼" walnut stock. Both the upper and middle barrel bands are equipped with retaining springs.

Plate 045.8R-D The muzzle of the 415∕8" barrel is equipped with a large rectangular bayonet lug on its upper right quadrant, a feature of the French Model 1754 dragoon musket.

The lockplate is stamped with a three-tyned crown over an inverted “V.” Below this, “Charleville” is engraved in semi-script. “RB” is stamped into the barrel’s side flat, forward of the vent. What may be company identification, “C5,” is stamped into the barrel’s upper left quadrant, and “No 5” is engraved into the trigger guard's rear extension.



Muskets Containing Germanic Components

045.9

Paul Wentworth, a British agent in Amsterdam, wrote William Eden in London on October 21, 1777 reporting arms which had been acquired by a German, Johannes Philip Mercklé, in Liège and transported to Amsterdam. Included in this list were “3,000 fusils of the Prussion Model,” “2,000 lighter fusils,” and “5,000 Spare Gun Locks.” He also stated that Mercklé and Silas Deane’s brother, Simon Deane, were to sail with these arms to America in a new ship, believed to have been named Christine. This ship, carrying 4,000 gun locks and other arms, sailed on January 26, 1778, bound for Nantes, France. Three muskets are briefly described next. The first two are equipped only with unmarked German states’ Prussian-style locks and carry the “US” and “IP’

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markings attributed to repairs made at the Continental Armory in Philadelphia, The third musket has a Prussian "POTSDAMAGAZ"-marked lock, an octagonal/round barrel, and some furniture of the type attributed to Dutch (Type IV) muskets. It is also stamped with UUS" identification. AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED BRITISH PATTERN MUSKET WITH GERMAN STATES' LOCK

Plate 045.9E-A This British-style musket was assembled using a Germanic lock and barrel as well as brass furniture of probably American make. The stock's left breech flat is branded "US" and is stamped "IP" in smaller letters. These are the initials of Joseph Perkins, superintendent of the Continental Armory in Philadelphia. (Helen and Edward Flanagan Collection.)

Plate 045.9E-B The lock is unmarked externally and is similar to those used in Prussian Model 1723 muskets, a model that was widely copied by other German states. (Helen and Edward Flanagan Collection.)

045.9E

This 57" brass-mounted musket has a 407/s" round barrel of German states' origin. It has a 5/s" oval brass front sight located 3l/i" behind the muzzle and a baluster ring at the breech. A sighting groove has been cut into the upper surface of the breech plug tang, which appears to have been altered from square-ended to round-ended. The bore diameter is .735". The 65/s" by !5/i6" lock has a flat surface with beveled edges. It is very similar to the locks found in German states' muskets described in Section 092. The British land pattern-style lOVs" trigger guard and ramrod thimbles appear to be of American origin. The four ramrod thimbles are barrel-type with reinforcing rings at the ends. The lower thimble has a pointed finial. The 41V butt plate is of the French pattern. The flat-surfaced side plate's profile is a modified, reverse "S" shape. The 15/i6" forend cap is secured by a lateral brass pin. The upper sling swivel is suspended from a screw through the forestock just forward of the upper-middle thimble. The lower sling swivel, now missing, was suspended from a screw through the front branch of the trigger guard bow. There is no provision for a wrist escutcheon.

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The 535/s" walnut stock has a straight comb without definitive flutes at the nose. The barrel is stamped only with an "M" in the upper left breech quadrant. The lock is unmarked externally, but is stamped internally with a sunken rectangular cartouche with raised "FB" under the pan. An assembly number, consisting of inclined slashes, is cut into the mainspring's outer edge and the stock's barrel channel. The stock's left breech flat is stamped "IP" horizontally in 3/i6" letters and branded "US" vertically in 3/s" letters nearer the rear. AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED BANDED MUSKET WITH GERMAN STATES' LOCK

Plate 045.9E-C The trigger guard and thimbles are probably of American origin. The guard bow's front branch is pierced for a lower sling swivel, which is missing. (Helen and Edward Flanagan Collection.)

045.9M

This 60" musket is iron-mounted. The 44H" round barrel has a narrow baluster ring at the breech. The bore diameter is .732". The 21A" breech tang is square-ended. A rectangular bayonet lug is located on top of the barrel, l3/s" behind the muzzle. The 6n/i6" by IVs" lock is very similar to the musket previously described. The cock's top jaw and screw are replacements. Most of the furniture is of French Model 1766 infantry musket configuration. The trigger guard appears to be of the 1773 year-model-series. The three barrel bands have been equipped with band springs, which extend rearwards.

Plate 045.9M-A This banded musket was assembled using a Germanic lock and furniture primarily from French Model 1766 muskets. The stock's left breech flat is marked similar to the previously described musket, with a branded "US" and smaller "IP" initials. (Helen and Edward Flanagan Collection.)

Plate 045.9M-B The Prussianstyle lock is unmarked externally. Its top jaw and screw are replacements. The trigger guard is of the French Model 1773 infantry musket configuration. (Helen and Edward Flanagan Collection.)

176

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 The walnut stock is 55 l /s" long. The nose of the straight comb is without definitive flutes. The barrel is marked unusually, in that it is engraved with a large, decorative elephant's head at the breech and is stamped "D.N" over "M." The lock is unmarked externally. The stock has "IP" and "US" markings similar to those described for the previous musket. In addition, it is stamped "S" over "GM" in block letters behind the trigger guard. AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED BANDED MUSKET WITH PRUSSIAN LOCK

Plate 045.9T-A This banded musket was assembled using a Prussian regulation Model 1740 musket lock and other metal components of Prussian, Dutch, French, and American origin into a beechwood stock. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

Plate 045.9T-B The Prussian Model 1740 lock is engraved "POTSDAMAGAZ" forward of the cock and "S&D" in the lower edge bevel. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

045.9T

This 58" musket is iron-mounted. It appears to have been assembled using metal components of Prussian, Dutch, French, and American manufacture. The 41!/4 " barrel is octagonal at the breech for 16 ". This octagonal section is separated from the round front section by baluster rings. There is a wide sighting groove in the top of the tapered, square-ended tang. The bayonet lug is located beneath the barrel, iVs" behind the muzzle. The 63/4" by 11/\" lock is the same as is described for regulation Prussian Model 1740 muskets in Section 092.4. The trigger guard, barrel bands, and side plate are of configurations generally associated with Dutch (Type IV) muskets, except that they are iron. The IZVs" trigger guard has been modified by the addition of two wood retaining screws in its rear extension, in front of and behind the lower sling swivel. The rear ring of

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177

Plate 045.9T-C The side plate and trigger guard are of the Dutch (Type IV) configuration. The meaning of the "E*R" stamped into the rear of the stock's left breech flat is unknown. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

the upper barrel band has been modified by the addition of a 5/s" oval iron front sight blade. An oval iron wrist escutcheon, engraved with Frederick of Prussia's royal cypher, is attached to the top of the wrist by convex^headed nails at the front and rear. The butt plate is also of Prussian configuration and is secured by two convex-headed screws at the rear and two more in the 47/s" tang. The beech stock is 53l/i" long. The straight 8" comb has a Vz'^high nose with 3" flutes extending rearwards. Beech is the wood commonly used in German states' muskets during this period, and it is possible that this is the original stock. If so, its buttstock configuration is significantly different from other Prussian muskets. In addition to the "POTSDAMAGAZ" marking engraved into the lockplate forward of the cock, the plate's lower edge is engraved "S&D." This is the mark of Splittgerber & Daun. The barrel's upper left quadrant shows traces of a sunken oval cartouche with a raised crown. The wrist escutcheon is engraved with a crown over intertwined "FR," for "Frederich Rex." "ER" is stamped into the rear of the stock's left breech flat, and "US" is branded into the underside of the butt.

Plate 045.9T-D A Prussian regulation wrist escutcheon, containing the crowned cypher of Frederick II of Prussia, is nailed to the stock's wrist. The butt plate is of the Dutch (Type IV) configuration. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

THE AMERICAN LONG RIFLE 047.

Immigrants to the British North American colonies began arriving from the German states shortly after the turn of the 18th century. Because most of the Atlantic coast was already occupied, they settled further inland, in Pennsylvania, and then spread to Virginia, the Carolinas, and Maryland. Some of the German men who lived on the then-western frontier of the colonies had brought with them the short hunting, or "Jager," rifles used in the German states. There is little distinction between the general configurations of the relatively plain Jager rifles brought to America by these immigrants and the military Jager rifles used by the German states' soldiers who fought as part of the British Army during the Revolutionary War. These Jager rifles are described in Section 095. A number of German immigrant gunmakers began to make rifles, primarily for sale to settlers along the western frontier. The earliest rifles show the German influence of their makers. As time passed, the American long rifle evolved in response to the requirements and conditions of the frontier. There has been a general misconception that the rifle played a dominant role in the American Revolution. Some historians have stated that American forces, largely armed with rifles, commonly engaged the enemy from hidden positions and carried the battles solely on the superior accuracy of these weapons. This is simply not true. With the exception of the battle of King's Mountain, every major Revolutionary War battle was decided by the clash of forces employing standard European linear tactics of the period. The Americans formed solid lines in the open, just as the British did. Great rapidity of volley fire was essential for these tactics, because the theory was to force the enemy to endure as many concentrated volleys as possible before the armies closed for hand-to-hand combat, where the bayonet played the primary role. The number of riflemen relative to the number of infantry in the American army remained small for a number of reasons: 1. The main value of the rifle, its accuracy, was lost if it were in the hands of anyone other than a marksman well experienced in its use. 2. The rifle was slow to load in comparison to the musket. 3. The rifle bores required frequent cleaning to remove black powder fouling in order to maintain accuracy and to permit loading of the tightly patched ball. 4. The rifle was not equipped with a bayonet. The linear tactics of the day included the mass bayonet attack by line infantry, and the riflemen were not expected or equipped to receive these attacks.

THE AMERICAN LONG RIFLE In spite of these limitations, the American long rifle was used extensively during the early years of the Revolution and played a significant role in many of the major battles throughout the war. The long rifle proved to be a very successful military weapon in the battles against the British-supported Indians. It was also a successful auxiliary weapon in the hands of scouts, skirmishers, and snipers in the more conventional battles fought in the east and south and when units of riflemen were in support of massed line infantry. Daniel Morgan used riflemen and line infantry in this manner at the Battle of Cowpens. Three lines of infantry were formed. The first two comprised militia and riflemen and the third was regular infantry. The first two lines took as heavy a toll on the advancing enemy as possible and then retreated behind the line infantry, which met the enemy with a volley and the bayonet. Nathanial Green used similar tactics successfully at Guilford Courthouse. The first organized company-sized units of riflemen were formed as a result of a resolution of the Continental Congress dated June 14, 1775, which called for the raising of ten companies of riflemen. John Adams wrote to his wife, Abigail, regarding these riflemen: "[The Congress] have voted ten companies of riflemen to be sent from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, to join the Army before Boston. They are excellent species of light infantry." Each rifle company consisted of sixty-eight privates, twelve officers and noncommissioned officers, and a drummer, for a total of eighty-one men. The riflemen were formed too late to take part in the Battle of Bunker Hill, but three companies under Daniel Morgan were with the forces of General Montgomery and Benedict Arnold in the futile attempt to capture Quebec. About 400 riflemen were among the American forces defending New York City when General Howe's troops began arriving in the New York area in July 1776. Two hundred and fifty of these riflemen were among those who were left to defend Fort Washington when General Washington retreated to New Jersey after his defeat at the Battle of White Plains. All of them were ultimately killed or captured when that fort fell to the British. In June 1776 Congress had resolved to form the First Regiment of Riflemen, consisting of nine companies. This regiment of 500 riflemen was initially commanded by Hugh Stevenson and later by Daniel Morgan. In 1777 these riflemen played a significant role in the American victory at Saratoga. Morgan's regiment wintered that year with the army at Valley Forge, and his men were among the troops who fought at the Battle of Monmouth on June 28, 1778, as part of the Eleventh Virginia Regiment. Many rifles were brought into service by their owners. Others were procured by continental contracts and by colonies' committees of safety. As was the case with other shoulder arms, the shortage of rifles was acute during the early years of the war. In an attempt to stop the loss of rifles caused by riflemen retaining their privately owned arms when their enlistment had expired, the Continental Congress passed the following resolution June 12,1776: "Resolved, that General Washington be directed to order the riffles [sic] of such men belonging to the riffle regiments as will not re-enlist, to be purchased, and that the General order the payment out of the military chest."

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. l

180

It should be noted that, in addition to army use, numbers of rifles saw service aboard the ships of the Continental Navy, the navies of the individual states, and the privately owned privateers who were licenced to prey upon the British and loyalist's shipping for profit. These rifles, in the hands of sharpshooters in the rigging, were used to pick off enemy officers and gunners as the ships drew close during an engagement. On August 30, 1775, Tench Frances wrote Robert Morris, asking him to pay £60 to Thomas Palmer as "part payment for 60 rifles now preparing for the boats that are building for the use of the Province [of Pennsylvania]." Another partial payment of £40 was made to Palmer for these "riffle guns" on January 31, 1776. The term "American long rifle" is used as the generic term for all of the regional rifle styles, or configurations, that evolved in American during the late 18th century. These rifles have been referred to as "Kentucky" or "Pennsylvania" in the past, but those terms are too narrow and ignore the rifles made in the south, such as in the Carolinas and Virginia, as well as the rifles made in New England. Some of the earliest rifles made by the German immigrant gunmakers were very similar to the Jager rifles of their homeland. As time passed, the short, thick barrels evolved into longer, somewhat thinner, barrels. A recent survey of 200 American long rifle barrels1 showed them to be usually from 40" to 44" long, although some were as long as 50". The bore diameters ranged from .45 " to .60" but were most commonly around .50". One-third of the barrels examined were rifled with seven grooves, and one-fourth were rifled with eight grooves. A very few had straight rifling, and a full one-third of the barrels were smooth bore. Some of the rifles' locks were made by the gunmakers; others were imported. After the Revolutionary War, there was an increased use of purchased locks by the gunmakers. A few of these purchased locks were made in America by gunsmiths who specialized in this trade. Most were imported from England and the continent. Maple was favored as a stock wood, but cherry, walnut, and other fruit woods were also used. A typical stock had a cheek rest and often some modest carving or an inlay or two. The buttstocks and butt plates at the time of the Revolution were somewhat narrower than those of Jager rifles but were noticeably wider than on the rifles that would be made at the beginning of the 19th century. Some of the early American-made rifles were equipped with sliding wood patchbox covers, which were also typical of the Jager rifle. Because these covers were easily lost, the hinged brass patchbox cover was introduced. The brass mountings of the American long rifle at the time of the Revolution were simple. It would be several years before the highly decorated long rifles would evolve. At the time of the American Revolution, the American long rifle had evolved into a simple, graceful tool reflecting the simple tastes of those who endured the ordeals and enjoyed the freedoms of a new land, as they moved westward from the Atlantic seaboard. Because each American long rifle was 1

Reported by James E. Serven in "The Long Rifles of Pennsylvania," The American Rifleman (June 1969), 44-48.

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181

individually handmade, no two were exactly the same. The different rifles made by any given maker would usually have his particular styling, or "architecture," as well as his particular detailing. On a broader scale, regional stylings had also begun to evolve before the Revolutionary War. Rifles made in one location were just beginning to become distinct from rifles made elsewhere. In the years following the war, these regional stylings would be more pronounced, so that by the 1790s the configurations of rifles made in one area would be quite distinct from those made in another. The three rifles described here reflect some of the diversity already apparent in regional stylings by the time of the American Revolution. The first rifle is unsigned, but its architecture indicates it was made in the vicinity of Christian's Spring, Pennsylvania, shortly prior to the Revolutionary War. The second rifle, made by Jacob Dickert of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, shows contrasting features of regional styling, even within the same state. Following this is a description of a Revolutionary War period rifle made in Virginia. These rifles are generally similar because the distinctive regional differences had not yet fully emerged. Yet, each exemplifies the architecture and configurations of its respective origins. The three rifles have the wide buttstocks associated with this period. Although the buttstocks' profiles had significantly evolved from those of Jager rifles, they still retained the width of the Jager rifles. CHRISTIAN'S SPRING RIFLE

047.C

The fabrication of rifles at the Moravian settlement of "Christiansbrunn," or Christian's Spring, Pennsylvania, began when Andreas Albrecht started a gun shop there in 1762. John Christian Oerter became an apprentice to Albrecht at about this same time. Oerter was put in charge of the gun shop in 1766 and continued as master until his death in 1777. In 1771 Albrecht moved to Lititz, and William Henry, Jr., became his apprentice there. In September 1776 Henry moved to Christian's Spring, where it appears he ran the gun shop from Oerter's death until 1780, when he established his own gun shop one mile east, at Nazareth. From 1780 the Christian's Spring shop was operated by three other master gunmakers, Jacob Loesch, Jr., Joseph Levering, and George Weiss, before its operations were discontinued in 1789. Under the direction of Albrecht and Oerter, a distinctive style of rifle architecture and decoration evolved at Christian's Spring in the 1760s and 1770s, which influenced other nearby gunmakers. The unsigned rifle described

Plate 047.C-A This unmarked American long rifle is attributed to Christian's Spring, Pennsylvania, origin because of its similarity to known signed rifles of John Christian Oerter. The large brass patchbox is an unusual feature for rifles of this origin but may be original. (Warren T. Lewis Collection.)

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Plate 047.C-B The Germanic lockplate's front profile is in the form of an astragal arch. The top of the cock's recurved tang is miss' ing. The stock's raised plateaus around the lock and breech tang may also be seen, as well as a portion of the incised and raised carving at the comb. (Warren T. Lewis Collection.)

here exhibits many of these features and is attributed to fabrication at Christian's Spring in the 1770s because of its similarity to signed rifles of Christian Oerter. This 57!/4" rifle is brass-mounted. The swamped, octagonal barrel is 42" long. The .54 caliber bore is rifled with six grooves. The standing leaf rear sight is dovetailed to the barrel 77/s" forward of the breech. The brass front sight is dovetailed to the barrel 1" behind the muzzle. The l7/s" tapered breech plug has a square end. The 53/4" by iVie" lockplate and 23/4" goose-neck cock have flat surfaces with beveled edges. Except for the extreme front of the lockplate, the edge bevels of both the lockplate and cock are double-stepped. The front end of the lockplate is in the form of an astragal arch. The rear face of the cock's top jaw bears against the front face of the wide tang, and the head of the jaw screw is slotted only. The faceted, detachable pan is mounted horizontally and has a fence. The pan does not have an external bridle to support the flat-headed frizzen screw. There is a vertical medial ridge, with a facet at the top of the front face of the In/i6"-high frizzen. The pan cover section has a wide concave facet, and the upper profile of the curled tail, above the screw, is convex. The frizzen spring has a straight upper leaf, and there are bevels and decorative cuts in the outer edges of both leaves. It is retained by a screw passing from inside the plate, and the lower leaf ends in a long trefoil finial. The 93/4" trigger guard has a skeleton pistol grip at the rear. The squared ends have decorative grooves. The 43/4" by l7/s" butt plate's rear profile is slightly curved, and its rear surface is slightly convex. The ZVs" tang is square-ended, and its faceted surfaces have decorative grooves at the end. Most examples of Christian's Spring rifles are equipped with sliding wood patchbox covers, although some have hinged brass lids. The 43/4" two-piece brass patchbox of this rifle resembles those used in English-style trade rifles and the British military Baker rifles, both of a slightly later period. Although it might be a replacement, the configuration of the recess beneath the patchbox strongly suggest that it is original. The 5 " side plate is flat-surfaced with beveled edges and also has four sets of vertical decorative grooves. The heads of the sidescrews are convex.

THE AMERICAN LONG RIFLE

183

Because the forestock has been replaced from the lower thimble, the specifications of the thimbles, forend cap, and ramrod are presented only because they are typical of these rifles. The three faceted thimbles have reinforcement rings at the ends. The two upper thimbles are iVz" long, and the 215/i6" lower thimble has a square-ended finial with decorative grooves. The forend cap is !7/i6" long. The 42Vi6" tapered wood ramrod has a brass head. The curly maple stock extends to the muzzle. The buttstock's upper profile is slightly curved, and the lower profile is straight. A straight-edged cheek piece is located on the left side of the butt. There are raised plateaus around the lock, the left side opposite, the breech tang, and the lower thimble. The side plateaus have teardrop-shaped rear extensions, and the upper and lower plateaus end in fleurde-lis profiles. The stock is decorated in basic "C" scroll raised and incised carving. This rifle is unmarked externally. The lockplate is stamped internally beneath the pan with a rectangular cartouche with raised initials "HVE" or "HVF," believed to be typical of locks made in the Low Countries and imported into America.

JACOB DICKERT RIFLE

047.F

Jacob Dickert was born in Mainz, Germany, in 1740. Eight years later his family emigrated to America and settled in Berks County, Pennsylvania. In 1756 the family moved to Lancaster County, and Jacob probably worked as an apprentice to a gunmaker there. He presumably became a journeyman gunmaker at age twenty-one in 1761, and the rifle described here is believed to have been made sometime during the following fourteen years, before the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. The 51l/2rf rifle is brass-mounted. The swamped, octagonal barrel is 42 VV long. Its bore is rifled with seven .088 "-wide by .015 "-deep grooves, which make one turn in 42". The land-to-groove diameter is .502". The standing leaf rear sight is dovetailed to the barrel 12" forward of the breech. The front sight's silver blade is mounted on a copper base, which is dovetailed to the barrel 15/i6" behind the muzzle. The tapered, 2" breech tang is square-ended. The barrel is secured by a screw through this tang and by four lateral pins through barrel underlugs. The rear profile of the 5l/i" by iVs", flat, bevel-edged lockplate ends in an extended point. The front profile is in the form of an astragal arch. The 215/i6" flat, bevel-edged goose-neck cock has a wide, recurved tang. The top jaw's rear edge bears against the front of this tang, and the jaw screw is slotted only. The horizontally mounted, faceted pan has a fence and an external bridle. The !3/4" frizzen's front face has a vertical medial ridge with a broad facet at the top and a

Plate 047.F-A This Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, rifle was made by Jacob Dickert sometime between 1761 and the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. The nose of the stock's comb has been lowered slightly during its period of use.

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 047.F-B The Germanic lockplate's front profile is similar to that of the Christian's Spring rifle. The plate has a stepped edge bevel. The lock's external components, although generally similar, differ in detail from the Christian's Spring rifle. The four-piece patchbox has a spring-activated lid, whose release button may be seen protruding from the butt plate tang.

concave facet in the pan cover. Its tail is curled. The frizzen spring's upper leaf inclines upwards at the rear, and the outer edges of both leaves are beveled and sculpted. The lower leaf ends in a spherical finial with a leaf-like projection. Both the frizzen and frizzen spring screws pass from inside the lockplate. The 10l/i6r' trigger guard has a skeleton pistol grip at the rear. Its surface is faceted and its square-ended finals are secured by lateral pins through integral vertical lugs. The double set triggers consist of a cylindrical front trigger and a broad, inclined rear trigger, with an adjustment screw between them. The 5 " by 2H" butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex surface. Its 2/V square-ended tang has a faceted surface. The 65/s" four-piece patchbox assembly has a 43/4" spring-activated lid with an exposed hinge. Its release button projects through the butt plate's tang. The finial is in the form of a stylized fleur-de-lis, which is more typical of Lehigh and Berks County rifles, and may well reflect Dickert's apprenticeship in Berks County. The 5l/s" side plate is flat, with beveled edges. Because the forestock has been replaced from the lower thimble, the information regarding the thimbles, forend band, and ramrod is presented only because these components are typical of Dickert rifles of this period. The four, faceted thimbles have reinforcement rings at the ends. The upper three thimbles

Plate 047.F-C Simple, raised "C"scroll carving is located forward, below, and behind the cheek rest's straight lower edge.

THE AMERICAN LONG RIFLE

185

are \l/i" to l5/s" long. The 4^8" lower thimble has a square-ended finial. The l5/s" forend band is of sheet brass. The 4IV tapered wood ramrod is without metal fittings. The curly maple stock has raised plateaus with teardrops at the rear on both sides of the breech. The comb's nose has been lowered slightly subsequent to the rifle's manufacture. Originally, the buttstock's upper and lower profiles were straight. There is simple "C"-scroll incised and raised carving around the cheek rest, which has a 31A" straight lower edge. There is similar incised carving on the right side of the butt. Incised lines parallel the buttstock's lower profile and the ramrod channel. The rifle's only external marking is "J Dickert" in script, engraved into the barrel's top flat behind the rear sight. F. KUETTE RIFLE

047.M

F. Klette reportedly worked in Stevensburg, Culpepper County, Virginia, from 1760. He is also believed to have worked at the Fredericksburg Manufactory, possibly as a lock maker, during the Revolutionary War. This 591A" brass-mounted rifle has a swamped, 439/i6" octagonal barrel. The .52 caliber bore is rifled with seven grooves. A standing leaf rear sight is dovetailed to the barrel 121A" forward of the breech, and a silver bladed front sight is dovetailed to the barrel I13/i6" behind the muzzle. The profile of the 25/i6" breech tang is tapered, and it has a square end. The 55/i6" by I" flat-surfaced lockplate has beveled edges and a decorative vertical groove at the rear. The 213/i6" goose-neck cock also has a flat surface with beveled edges. The rear face of the top jaw bears against the front face of the wide tang, and the head of the jaw screw is slotted only. There is a vertical medial ridge on the front face of the frizzen, and the pan cover's upper profile is convex.

Plate 047.M-A This American long rifle was made in Stevensburg, Virginia, by F. Klette at about the time of the Revolutionary War. Although there are references to gunmakers with this surname in west-central Germany during the 18th century, nothing is known of this American gunmaker. (William Reisner Collection.)

Plate 047.M-B A great amount of detailed engraved decoration is apparent in the lock and wide fourpiece patchbox of the Klette rifle. (William Reisner Collection.)

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 047.M-C Extensive raised carving is also evident in front of and behind the sculpted straight edge of the cheek rest as well as around the raised plateaus on both sides of the breech and around the breech tang. (William Reisner Collection.)

Its tail curls upwards. The faceted, detachable pan is mounted horizontally on the plate. It has a fence and an external bridle. The frizzen spring has a slightly curved upper leaf, and the lower leaf ends in a long triangular finial. The 91A" trigger guard has a skeleton pistol grip at the rear. The faceted front and rear extentions terminate in slightly rounded ends. The Zl/z'^wide butt plate's rear profile is almost straight, and its rear surface is only slightly convex. The faceted square-ended tang extends forward for 3 ". The four-piece patchbox assembly is only 53/i6" long. The 35/s" by !7/i6" lid pivots on an exposed hinge at the front. The broad 5 H" side plate is flat-surfaced with beveled edges. The three ramrod thimbles are faceted with reinforcement rings at the ends. The forend cap is I13/i6" long. The tapered wood shaft of the ramrod is tiger-striped, and it has a short, brass head. The plain maple stock extends to the muzzle. Both the upper and lower buttstock profiles are straight, and flutes extend rearwards from both sides of the nose. A straight-edged cheek rest is located 33/V forward of the butt on the left side of the buttstock. There is a swell in the forestock's diameter at the lower thimble. There are raised plateaus around the lock and left breech flat, with teardrops extending rearwards. There is a rounded plateau around the breech tang. The left side of the buttstock only has raised, leaf pattern carving fore and aft of the cheek rest. There is also a raised plateau around the lower thimble, which extends the length of the ramrod channel. "F" over "KLETTE" is engraved into the lockplate, forward of the cock. "STEVENSBURG" is engraved into the barrel's top flat. The lockplate and most major mountings are decorated with a rope-style border. In addition, the breech tang, patchbox, and side plate have additional decorative engraving. A heart is engraved horizontally at the rear of the lockplate.

AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED

CARBINES

048.

Surviving examples of American-assembled Revolutionary War carbines are fairly rare, probably because there were only limited numbers of mounted troops in comparison with infantry. Many of the carbines observed, which have been attributed to Revolutionary War assembly, had actually been assembled sometime later, probably for militia use. The first general inventory of U.S. arms, made after the war in 1793, included a total of 1,920 carbines in the various federal repositories. The majority of these were likely British and French regulation carbines, many of which had undergone substantial repairs. During the war, carbines were often assembled from preexisting carbine and musket metal components. Some were simply shortened from muskets. It is rare to find two carbines that are similar. The descriptions of the two carbines in this section are intended only to be an indication of the variations among the carbines used by the mounted forces of the American revolutionaries. They cannot be considered typical of any other specific arms.

AMERICAN-MODIFIED FRENCH MODEL. 1734 CAVALRY MUSKETOON

048.2

This is a French Model 1734 cavalry musketoon, as described in Section 070., which has very likely been modified in America by the addition of barrel bands. The stock comb also has been lowered. Specifically, the modifications consist of the following: Barrel Bands: The ramrod thimbles were removed and replaced with three flat brass bands, which are not formed inwards at the upper edge of the forestock, and which resemble the bands used on the French 1728 muskets. Upper Band: The l5/s" band's two 7/i6"-wide barrel rings are separated by a rectangular open space.

Plate 048.2-A This French Model 1734 cavalry musketoon has been modified by the addition of barrel bands and by lowering the nose of the stock. The bands are similar to those used in French Model 1728 infantry muskets. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDERS ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 048.2-B In addition to the partially legible French manufactory markings stamped into the lockplate forward of the cock, the lock's tail is surcharged "US." (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

Plate 048.2-C "UNITED STATES" is branded into the underside of the butt behind the brass trigger guard. This marking indicates that the musketoon was owned by the continental government at some time. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

Plate 048.5-A This brassmounted carbine was made using some components that appear to have been of French manufacture, which were altered before use in this carbine. Other components are of American manufacture in the French style.

Middle Band: This band is 9/i6" wide. Pointed tangs extend forward and rearwards at the top for a total width of 15/i6". Lower Band: The barrel ring is 7/i6" wide. There are rounded front and rear shoulders at the forestock's upper edge, and the band extends forward at the bottom to I13/i6" wide. Barrel Band Retainers: The upper band only is nailed to the stock. Stock: The nose of the comb has been lowered so that it intersects the wrist 73/s" forward of the butt. Markings: In addition to the original French markings, "US" has been stamped into the lockplate, behind the cock. "U.STATES" is branded into the underside of the butt. AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED FRENCH-STYLE CARBINE

048.5

The tapered, round barrel is 34V&" long and has a .715" bore diameter. The 6" by IVs" lock is of the French Model 1766 configuration; however, the

AMERICAN ASSEMBLED CARBINES

189

Plate 048.5-B The French Model 1766-style lock contains external components whose configurations and relative placement differ from any known regulation model of French arm. It may be of American, rather than French, manufacture.

placement and configurations of the lock components are slightly different than any known French regulation arm. The lOVz" brass trigger guard appears to have been altered from another, similar configuration. It has pointed ends, and the bow's front branch is pierced for the lower sling swivel screw. The 4H" butt plate has a round-ended tang extending ZVs" forward at the top. The 35/s" flat-surfaced side plate is modified "L"-shaped. The three brass bands are secured to the stock by wood screws. The upper band has two Vz^wide barrel rings and is 27/s" long at the top. The lower edge of the open space is recurved and exposes the forestock. This band extends forward at the forestock's upper edge and rearwards at the bottom, to an overall length of 33/4". The middle band also has two Vz'^wide barrel rings, and is 25/s" long at the top. A lip extends forward at the bottom for an overall length of 31/i6"* The lower band is 5/s" wide at the top and extends forward at the bottom to a width of IVz". The button-headed ramrod appears to be a recent replacement. The walnut stock is 46Vz" long. The nose of the 81A" comb is Vz" high, and there are flats on both sides of the breech. The barrel has traces of what appear to be French proofmarks. There are no other visible external markings. A "V" is stamped into the inside of the lockplate.

AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED BLUNDERBUSS ARMS

049.

The known examples of blunderbuss arms attributed to Revolutionary War use were assembled using existing barrels. Their use is obscure, but some may have seen service aboard the several hundred American privateers during that war. Most American-assembled blunderbuss arms observed appear to have been made after the Revolution, possibly for the defense of American commercial shipping against the British and then the French in the 1790s and by American privateers attacking British commercial shipping during the War of 1812. Like the other American-assembled arms of this period, each of these blunderbusses is unique. The blunderbusses are only described here as examples of these arms and cannot be considered typical of other arms. BRITISH-STYLE BLUNDERBUSS WITH FRENCH LOCK

Plate 049.2-A This small blunderbuss was assembled using a French Model 1766 lock and what appears to be a British barrel and American-made furniture in the British style. (Springfield Armory NHP Museum Collection.)

049.2

This brass-mounted blunderbuss is 403/s" overall. It is assembled largely with British-style metal components and a French Model 1766 musket lock. Because of its unusually small diameter flared muzzle and its swivel bar and ring, it may have been used by mounted troops. The 243/4" barrel has a double baluster ring at the breech and two sets of double baluster rings 6" forward of the breech. The muzzle diameter is only

W. The 11A" by 11A" lock is of French regulation pattern. The brass furniture is British military style but appears to be American made. The bow of the 93A" trigger guard has a split rear branch. The guard is secured by two lateral pins through integral lugs at the rear and another at the front. The 43/s" butt plate is also British style, and the profile of the 3l/i" tang steps inward to a pointed end. The 6n/i6" broad side plate is flat-surfaced. A swivel bar extends 65/s" forward from beneath the head of the rear sidescrew along the left side. It is secured at the front by a machine screw that passes laterally through the stock

AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED

BLUNDERBUSS ARMS

191

Plate 049.2-B The French Model 1766 lock is stamped with the Charleville control mark of a crown over "D." (Springfield Armory NHP Museum Collection.)

Plate 049.2-C Although the "US" surcharge is clearly visible on the barrel, the original markings are partially illegible. (Springfield Armory NHP Museum Collection.)

and threads into a horizontal figure "8"-shaped escutcheon inlet into the right side of the forearm. The three cast brass thimbles are barrel-type. The upper thimble has a flared mouth, and the lower thimble has a pointed finial. The cast brass forend cap is 1" wide and is secured by a lateral pin. The 245/s" steel ramrod has a button head. The walnut stock extends to l/i6" of the muzzle. The nose of the 9" comb is only W high, and flutes extend rearwards for 6" on both sides. There are flats on both sides of the breech and a raised plateau around the breech tang. The engraving along the top of the barrel is only partially legible: "T I PLD" and "No 1." It is also stamped "US" on the breech. There are other, partially illegible, letters in the breech tang. The lockplate is stamped with the Charleville acceptance mark of a small crown over "D."

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED FRENCH-STYLE BLUNDERBUSS

Plate 049.5-A This iron-barreled blunderbuss was assembled using some French-style components of unknown origin. (Jay Forman Collection.)

Plate 049.5-B Although the lock (except the cock) and trigger guard are generally similar to the French 1777 year-model series, they differ in detail. This blunderbuss's only external marking is the "A" stamped horizontally into the lockplate's tail. (Jay Forman Collection.)

049.5

This 43 " iron- and copper-mounted blunderbuss has a 28H" iron barrel. This barrel is octagonal for lOVz" and then tapers to round. The diameter of the flared muzzle is 25/s". The 61A" by l1/^" lock only generally resembles the French Model 1777 configuration. The plate's rear profile ends in a projecting point. The goose-neck cock has a convex-surfaced body. The pan and frizzen's configurations are different from the French pattern, and the frizzen spring also differs in that it has some sculpting not usually found on French military arms. It is possible that this lock is of private French, or other (Liege?), manufacture. The 93/s" iron trigger guard assembly is similar to that used in French Model 1777 muskets. The exterior portion of the lower sling swivel lug, which projects downwards through the front extension, has been removed. The 43/4" straight, flat-surfaced butt plate has a 2l/i" round-ended tang. The 43/i6" flat, copper side plate is modified "L"-shaped. Both of the thimbles are made of sheet copper. The lower thimble has a pointed finial. There is no provision for a forend band. The 42 H" walnut stock is crudely finished and shows file marks. The rounded nose of the 81A" comb is 3A" high, and flutes extend 6" rearwards. There are flats on both sides of the breech. This arm is unmarked externally, except for an "A" stamped horizontally into the lockplate, behind the cock.

PART III FOREIGN ARMS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

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FOREIGN SHOULDER ARMS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 050.

Over 90 percent of the small arms used by the American forces during the Revolutionary War were of foreign manufacture. In addition, due to the lack of an established firearms manufacturing industry in America, a large percentage of both state-owned and continental-owned muskets — generally considered to be "American" arms because of their assembly in America — were at least partially assembled from foreign metal components. European regulation pattern shoulder arms were obtained by the Americans in several ways. Some British military arms were in storage in the colonies for the use of both the British regulars stationed in America and by the colonial militia. It is also probable that a limited number of British, French, and even Spanish muskets had been collected for private use or as trophies by Americans who had served in the colonial militias during the French and Indian War. There were also quantities of British commercial sales muskets,1 which had been purchased by at least one colony and one city for the use of their militia forces. Much larger quantities of arms were captured during the Revolution. These were not only the regulation muskets of the British Army and American loyalist units, but also the muskets of the German states' troops who served with the British. The largest single source of imported arms during the Revolutionary War was France. The revolt in Britain's North American colonies gave France an ideal method of confounding the British, to whom France had so recently ceded her claims to American territory. France sent well over 100,000 muskets to the American revolutionaries. The true quantity of arms sent is obscured by the clandestine nature of the early shipments, but may well be in excess of 200,000 muskets. Available information suggests that muskets were also imported from Holland and that locks were imported from there and also from Liege through the auspices of the French. Additional arms were also procured abroad by individual colonies and states. Inventories of arms belonging to the Americans during the Revolution define them only by whether they were serviceable or damaged. It was not until the more definitive inventories of U.S. arsenals in the 1790s, ten years after the war, that the tremendous variety of muskets, fusils, carbines, and blunderbusses, from several different countries, became known. 1

These are muskets of general British Long Land Pattern configuration, which were made for private commercial sale rather than under contract to British Ordnance.

ARMS CAPTURED DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 053. Early in any revolution the revolutionary forces frequently obtain arms and other military stores from the government in power. The American Revolution was no exception. Prior to the outbreak of hostilities in April 1775, the British and loyalists confiscated military stores from the possession of the colonists, and the colonial revolutionaries acquired military stores from the British. On September 1,1774, Massachusetts^ royal governor, Thomas Gage, confiscated the gunpowder in the public magazine at Charleston. On December 13 of that year, American revolutionaries from New Hampshire seized British gunpower and arms from Fort William and Mary. In early 1775 Royal Governor Dunmore of Virginia requested arms and ammunition from Great Britain to help put down the growing unrest in that colony. These were to enable him to arm the loyalists, Negroes, and Indians, who were to help crush the growing rebellion. An inventory of the magazine at Williamsburg made in the spring of 1775 included the following arms: 180 new muskets 527 old muskets 157 trading guns 127 bayonets

150 pistols 1,500 cutlasses with scabbards 35 small swords 19 halberds

The British shipped an additional 3,000 muskets and 600,000 rounds of musket powder and ball to the governor. Dunmore was the first of the royal governors to abdicate, in June 1775. As the American revolutionaries took up arms, he fled with his family to the British ship Fowey in the York River, leaving both the original and the newly arrived arms to the Americans. Three weeks after the outbreak of hostilities, Fort Ticonderoga surrendered, without firing a shot, to American forces led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold. Quantities of muskets, cannon, and powder were captured and put to use by the Americans. By March 4, 1776, General Knox had transported fifty cannon from Fort Ticonderoga to Washington's army on Dorchester Heights, overlooking Boston. On March 17 the British Army of 8,000 men evacuated Boston, leaving 200 cannon, together with large quantities of small arms and ammunition, to the Americans. On March 14, 1776, the Continental Congress resolved: That it be recommended to the several assemblies, conventions, and councils or committees of safety of the United Colonies, immediately to cause all persons to be disarmed within their respective colonies, who are notoriously disaffected to

ARMS CAPTURED DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION the cause of America, or who have not associated, and shall refuse to associate, to defend, by arms, these United Colonies, against hostile attempts of the British fleets and armies; and to apply the arms taken from such persons in each respective colony, in the first place to the arming of such troops as are raised by the colony for its own defense, and the residue to be applied to arming the associations.

British arms were also captured by the Americans on the high seas. On May 27, 1776, Benjamin Franklin wrote the U.S. commissioner in Canada: "I congratulate you on the great prize carried in to Boston. 75 tons of gunpowder are an excellent supply, and the 1,000 carbines with bayonets, another fine article." Military successes by the American Army resulted in the capture of more British arms as the war progressed. General Washington, after crossing the Delaware River and surprising the Hessian troops on the New Jersey side, turned south and captured Trenton on the day after Christmas in 1776. One thousand muskets were captured from the German states' forces at Trenton. Another 1,000 German states' muskets were captured by the Americans at the battle of Bennington, on August 16, 1777. On October 10, 1777, Burgoyne surrendered his army of 5,800 men at Saratoga, New York. It has been estimated that between 5,000 and 6,000 British and German states' muskets were captured by the Americans. A "Return of the Ordnance and Military Stores Taken at York and Gloucester, in Virginia, by the Surrender of the British Army, on the 19th of October, 1781" prepared by Henry Knox, included 5,743 muskets with bayonets, 915 muskets without bayonets, 1,136 damaged muskets, thirty-two fusils, thirtyone carbines and brass blunderbusses, and nine iron blunderbusses. This information indicates that at least 17,000 muskets were captured by the Americans from British regular and American loyalist units and from the German states' soldiers. Because additional arms were captured in the numerous other battles of the Revolution, the actual figure may be double that.

197

FOREIGN DIPLOMACY AND ARMS PROCUREMENT DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 055.

The outbreak of the Revolution in the British North American colonies was received with a wide variety of reactions by the various European powers. It was natural that some monarchs would feel threatened by the colonies' revolt against their king. Others opposed the Revolution because of trade agreements and alliances with Great Britain. The monarchs of the following countries were opposed to the American Revolution: Portugal, Denmark-Norway, Sweden, the German states (except Prussia), the Holy Roman Empire, and Tuscany. Portugal, Denmark, and Austria forbade their subjects to supply contraband to the Americans, but only Portugal closed its ports to American ships. At the time of the American Revolution, what is now Belgium was a possession of Austria and was part of the "Austrian Netherlands." Its governor was Charles of Lorraine, who had been appointed by Empress Maria Theresa of Austria. The Austrian Netherlands did trade, at least indirectly, with the Americans. Empress Catherine of Russia and the king of Prussia, Frederick the Great, were neutral. Frederick the Great disliked England, but remained officially neutral due to his fear of repercussions at the British Court, which could be followed by reprisals. In spite of his official neutrality, there is some evidence that he helped both sides in the conflict. There is a letter in the U.S. Archives from the Prussian secretary of state, Baron von Schulenburg, to U.S. Commissioner Arthur Lee, dated June 10, 1777. In this letter, the Baron inquires about ships for the "merchandise" being shipped to America. No further references as to what this "merchandise" might have been have been located. Prussia informed the Americans that American privateers were not allowed to use the harbor at Hamburg. In order to maintain neutrality, Prussia also stated that German troops hired by Great Britain would not be allowed to cross Prussian territory on their way to ports of embarkation. However, records of the German states' forces located at Morristown National Historic Park clearly indicate that at least one large group of German reinforcements was allowed to pass through Prussia with written permission from Berlin. Prussia also helped the cause of the British indirectly. Available information suggests that some of the muskets carried by the German states' soldiers hired by Great Britain had been made under contract with the rulers of those states by Prussian gunmakers in Potsdam.

FOREIGN DIPLOMACY AND ARMS PROCUREMENT The Stadhouder of the Netherlands, William VI, was a descendant of King George II of Great Britain and was pro-British. However, he was a hereditary prince, with only nominal powers. The governing body of the Netherlands was the States General, and the majority of the Dutch were sympathetic to the Americans. The Dutch sent war materials and money both directly and indirectly to aid the Americans. It should be noted that these may have been sent by Dutch private citizens and not by Dutch governmental authority. France and Spain had the most to gain by the American Revolution. At the very least, it represented a thorn in the side of their traditional enemy, Great Britain. In 1763, after having lost the Seven Years' War, France and Spain ceded most of their claims to new world territories to Great Britain. The American Revolution provided an opportunity to recover part, or all, of these territories. In the summer of 1775, shortly after the outbreak of hostilities in April at Lexington and Concord, Pierre-Augustine Caron de Beaumarchais, a young dramatist who had recently completed the lyrics to the Barber of Seville, began corresponding with Count Charles Gravier de Vergennes, the prime minister of France, about the situation in America. This correspondence ultimately led to a September 1775 meeting of Beaumarchais, Vergennes, and Sartinne, the French minister of the navy, on the question of establishing an understanding with the American revolutionaries. Beaumarchais was later sent to London to meet with an American agent. It is not known who that agent was, but it may have been Arthur Lee. A French officer, Aachard de Bonvoulier, was also sent to America to observe the situation, to inform the Americans that France was friendly towards their efforts, and to imply that France would secretly supply the Americans with arms and military stores. On Monday, September 18, the Continental Congress resolved: That a [secret] committee be appointed to contract and agree for the importation and delivery of any quantities of gunpowder, not exceeding in the whole, of five hundred tons. That the said Committee be Empowered to procure forty brass field pieces, six pounders. That the said Committee be empowered to contract for the importation and delivery of any number not exceeding twenty thousand good plain double bridled musket locks. That the said Committee be empowered to contract for the importation of ten thousand stand of good arms. That the said Committee be enabled to draw orders on the continental treasurer for sufficient sums of money to defray the expenses of such contracts.

On November 29 the Continental Congress created the Secret Committee of Correspondence to correspond with "our friends in Great Britain, Ireland, and in other parts of the world." The French agent, Bonvoulier, had reached America by December. During that month, he offered unlimited quantities of gunpowder and its ingredients to the Continental Congress, and Franklin was authorized to

199

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

ZOO

purchase the 500 tons of Dutch and French gunpowder mentioned in the September 18 resolution. During the early months of 1776, there were reports by British agents in Holland and Liege of increased arms manufacturing activities and of the transport of arms and powder to Saint Eustatius in the Dutch West Indies as well as directly to America. Liege-made arms were also sent to French and Dutch ports during this period for transhipment to America. The arms received in Holland from Liege may have been augmented by Dutch-made arms, and were certainly augmented with gunpowder, when shipped across the Atlantic during the first three to five months of 1776.1 Between 1776 and 1778, when France declared war on Great Britain, military supplies were usually shipped to the Caribbean islands of Saint Eustatius, Martinique, and Hispaniola. The military supplies were ultimately transhipped to America aboard American schooners, ketches, and other small boats. By shipping to their own colonies, France, Spain, and Holland technically complied with the British embargo on shipments to the British North American colonies. In 1776 the United States established agents in Cape Francais, Haiti, and in Martinique. On March 1, 1776, Count Vergennes sent a message to the Spanish foreign minister, Jeronimo Grimaldi, asking if Spain would join France in secretly aiding the American revolutionaries. Grimaldi replied on March 14: "The King is ready and offers to join reasonably in all expenses." On March 3 the Secret Committee of Correspondence (which would later be reorganized into the State Department) ordered Silas Deane to France. Deane arrived there on July 7. Arthur Lee was already there. Deane obtained a meeting with Vergennes and requested that France send 200 cannon and 25,000 troops to aid the American revolutionary cause. Although Vergennes officially refused this request, he also ignored private aid being sent to the Americans by a number of Frenchmen. Deane worked during the fall and early winter of 1776 with French officials involved in the shipment of arms to America; he was also responsible for recruiting large numbers of French officers to go to America and join the revolutionary army. Benjamin Franklin arrived in Paris on December 4. These three men — Deane, Franklin, and Lee — were referred to as "commissioners" and were the principal U.S. agents in Europe, whose job was to obtain political, financial, and military aid for the American revolutionaries. It has been stated that the U.S. agents in Europe were inexperienced in the diplomacy of European courts and politics. This is not true. Since their establishment, many of the American colonies had had a variety of agents in London to deal with private and commercial matters as well as diplomatic affairs. Both Franklin and Lee were experienced colonial agents. From 1757 to 1762 Franklin had represented the Colony of Pennsylvania in London. In 1765 he returned to London to continue this representation, and by 1768 he was also representing the Colony of New Jersey. In 1770 he also 1

Saint Eustatius is an egg-shaped island of about eight square miles in area. This Dutch West Indian island is located about ninety miles from Antigua in the Caribbean. Its harbor was protected by an old fort garrisoned by fifty men, and its capital was named Orangestadt.

FOREIGN DIPLOMACY AND ARMS PROCUREMENT represented Massachusetts. He was returning to America when the opening shots of the Revolution were fired at Lexington* Arthur Lee had been in London since 1770, representing the Colony of Massachusetts as second agent to Franklin. When Franklin left for America on March 21, 1775, Lee became the first agent, and he continued in this capacity until George Ill's August 23 Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition in America, which terminated the 168-year relationship between the British Crown and its North American colonies and those colonies' agencies in London. On May 2, 1776, King Louis XVI of France ordered 1,000,000 livres' worth of arms and military supplies sent to the American colonies.2 Charles III of Spain matched this gift. These military stores were clandestinely shipped — as were those that followed until 1778 — by means of a private trading company created in June 1776 for this purpose by the authority of Vergennes. The company was named Rodrigue Hortalez & Cie. and was headed by Caron de Beaumarchais. On October 9 it leased offices at No. 47 Rue Vielle-du-Temple in Paris. The military stores had apparently all been shipped by October 10, 1776. On that date Beaumarchais sent a memorial to the Spanish ambassador, Pedro Aranda, summarizing expenses totalling 5,600,000 livres, related to the cost and shipping of the military stores to America. This sum was 3,600,000 in excess of the original agreement between France and Spain. Spain paid only her commitment of 1,000,000 livres. A partial listing from Beaumarchais's summary follows. An explanation of how the muskets were obtained from French arsenals is in the introduction to the section on French arms. The 30,000 muskets were sent in eight chartered ships. 30,000 200 27 100,000 13,000 300,000 3,000 30,000

Muskets Cannon with full train Mortars Bullets Bombs Pounds of powder Tents Sets of uniforms for men

A letter written by Deane, which was read to the Secret Committee of Correspondence on October 1, 1776, summarizes the Franco-American negotiations and France's willingness to help the American revolutionary cause. This letter states in part: On my leaving London, Arthur Lee Esq. requested me to inform the committee of correspondence that he had had several conferances with the French Ambassador who had communicated the same to the French Court, that in consequence therof the Compte de Vergennes had sent a gentleman to Mr. Lee who informed him that the French Court could not think of entering into a war with England,

2 "Livre," which means "pound" in English, was the French monetary unit equivalent to the British pound sterling.

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but that they would assist America by sending from Holland this fall £200,000 Sterling worth of arms and ammunition to St. Eustatius, Martinique, or Cape Francois, that application was to be made to the Governors or Commandants of those places by enquiring for Messrs. Hortalez and that [to] persons properly authorized applying, the above articles would be delivered to them. In 1777 the American commissioners in France worked towards gaining open recognition of American independence and continued assistance. In January Louis XVI granted the United States a clandestine loan of 2,000,000 livres without defined terms of repayment. During 1777, American privateers entered French ports and fitted out with war gear. On September 10 Rodrigue Hortalez & Cie. prepared an invoice for the Continental Congress entitled: "Recapitulation of the Shipments Effected by Rodrigue Hortalez, and Demands for money by this House on the Congress of the United States." This invoice covered the cost of the military stores, freight, and insurance charges of the following ships: LAmphitrite, Mercure, LAmelie, La Therese, and Marie Catherine. The cargoes included the cost of "four small ships for the transport of merchandise from Santo Domingo to the [American] continent." The cargo of the Marie Catherine was addressed to an M. Bingham and had been delivered to Fort Saint Pierre on Martinique. Another ship, whose name was not given, had sailed from Nantes and had been captured by the British. There were also entries for the loading of twenty cases of arms on the ship La Mere Boble, and for loading the ship LHeureux at Marseilles in August 1777. The total charges of this invoice were over 2.5 million livres, which ultimately became part of the American debt to France. Rodrigue Hortalez & Cie. chartered a total of ten merchant ships during 1777, to ship goods either directly or indirectly to the Americans. In addition to the ships already mentioned, cargoes of military supplies were also transported on board the Fier Roderigo and the Comte de Vergennes. Other ships, such as the Penet and the Flamand, also delivered muskets during 1777. The Penet was owned by the French merchants, Plairne, Penet & Cie.3 It is not known whether the Flamand was chartered by Rodrigue Hortalez & Cie. or by others. In 1777 the Marquis de Lafayette sailed to America in his ship Victoire, which also carried a small number of muskets. During its existence, Rodrigue Hortalez & Cie. dispensed in excess of 21,000,000 livres in aid to the American revolutionaries. The American commissioners also had at least three ships fitted out for war in French ports during 1777. Spain also shipped military stores to its territories in North America in 1777. In January and February, Spain shipped powder from Mexico, and military supplies from Spain, to New Orleans. The Spanish governor of New Orleans worked with U.S. Agent Oliver Pollock, and some of these stores were used in an abortive attempt by a small American force to capture the British settlement at Pensacola. They were also used to supply George Roger Clark's expedition, which later captured a number of British outposts in the Illinois and Indiana region. On August 26 Josef de Galvez, the Spanish minister of the Indies, 3

Additional information about Plairne, Penet & Cie. is in Section 0573.

FOREIGN DIPLOMACY AND ARMS PROCUREMENT instructed Governor Diego Navarro of Havana to send two observers to the United States. One was sent to Washington's camp and the other to the seat of Congress in Philadelphia. In November, France sent another observer, an M. Holber, to America. The news of John Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga reached Paris on December 3, 1777, and greatly aided the American cause. On February 6, 1778, the United States and France signed two treaties as sovereign nations: The Treaty of Amity and Commerce and the Treaty of Conditional and Defensive Alliance. To further reinforce France's recognition of American independence, Louis XVI received representatives of Congress at court on March 20. On June 16 the French frigates Pallas and Licorne were seized by a British squadron, creating a state of war between France and Great Britain. On June 21,1779, Spain declared war on Great Britain. On July 10, 1778, less than a month after the British captured the two French frigates, a fleet of French ships under the command of Admiral Count D'Estaing appeared off the Delaware capes. This fleet included ten ships of the line, each carrying from sixty-four to ninety guns, and four frigates. It patrolled America's Atlantic coast for the remainder of the year. In November 1778 the Marquis de Lafayette returned to France, where he was welcomed back to the court of Louis XVI as a hero. While in France, Lafayette continued to advocate the American cause. In a letter to Vergennes, written from Havre on July 10, 1779, Lafayette proposed that an expeditionary force be sent to America. He designated Newport, Rhode Island, as one of its objectives, as he believed it to still be in British hands. In fact, it had been evacuated and was under American control. On February 2, 1780, the king ordered an expeditionary force to assemble for service in America under Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, Compte de Rochambeau. Originally 6,000, then 8,000, and finally 12,000 men were proposed, but the navy could only transport 5,500 with their cannon, horses, and equipment; so it was determined to send the force in two convoys. Only the first convoy of over 5,000 men left France. This force sailed on May 2, 1780, and arrived in Newport, Rhode Island, on July 10. The troops disembarked over succeeding days and built fortifications. It is of interest to note that the military forces under Rochambeau were the first in the French Army to be armed with the new Model 1777 muskets. In June of 1781 this expeditionary force marched to recapture New York, but while en route, its destination was changed to attack Cornwallis's forces in Virginia. The French marched down the coast to Maryland, where they embarked on fifteen ships on September 21.4 They arrived at Hogs Ferry, Virginia, on September 26 and were a major factor in forcing Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown on October 17. After the Battle of Yorktown, Rochambeau's expeditionary force returned to Rhode Island and sailed for France on January 14,1783. In July 1778 the British had begun detaining Dutch ships. By October, seventy-one ships had been taken. Although Holland officially remained neutral, its people were angry and became more allied with the Americans. On November 5, 1781, France guaranteed a loan of 10,000,000 livres for the United 4

Twelve hundred men had boarded other ships previously.

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2O4

States, made by the States General of the Netherlands. Thereafter, Dutch bankers loaned a tot-1 of 29,000,000 guilders ($11,600,000) directly to the United States between 1782 and 1794* It is of interest to note that in 1795, both Holland and France were persuaded by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton to exchange their millions of livres and guilders in credits for U.S. bonds. Besides the revolution in her American colonies, Great Britain was now fighting a global war with her two old enemies, France and Spain. During 1781 and 1782, Great Britain suffered several losses to these European powers, in addition to Cornwallis's surrender: Surrender of Pensacola to Spain Recapture of Saint Eustatius and San Martin by France Recapture of Demarra and Essequibo by France Capture of San Cristobal, Nevis, and Monserrat by France Capture of Minorca by Spain Failure of Lord Hughes to defeat Suffren at Pulicat and Ceylon

May 1781 November 1781 January 1782 February 1782 February 1782 February and April 1782

Benjamin Franklin made the first direct contact with the British in regards to peace negotiations by means of a note dated March 21, 1782, to Lord Shelburne, secretary of state of the Southern Department, which included Colonial Affairs. Shelburne agents met with Franklin at his residence in Passy, France, on April 12. Franklin took them to Count Vergennes, as the treaty between Great Britain and the United States would also be bound to treaties between Great Britain and France and Spain. After several months of negotiations over the relative treaty articles among the four countries, the preliminaries were signed in Vergennes's office at Versailles on January 20,1783, and a general armistice took place. The definitive American, French, and Spanish treaties with Great Britain were signed at Versailles on September 3, 1783. PRIVATE FRENCH AID The previous information details the official diplomatic relationships and actions that took place between the American revolutionaries and the French during the war; it only alludes to the aid rendered to the American cause by French citizens. Although he was aware that substantial financial aid was being given to the Americans during 1775 and 1776 by French private citizens, Vergennes officially ignored this aid. To take official note of this private aid and to put a stop to it ran counter to France's policies of confounding her old enemy, Great Britain. To take official note of the aid and not put a stop to it would have violated France's neutrality.

FOREIGN DIPLOMACY AND ARMS PROCUREMENT In addition to private French financial aid, there are numerous examples of French military officers who came to America as private citizens and of other French citizens who came to America to aid the revolutionaries. There is also some evidence that the French Factory in Philadelphia was at least partially funded by private French monies and may have employed French nationals as workers. The French Factory is described in the section "Revolutionary War Repair Of Arms." From 1775 several French merchants and trading companies were very actively trading with individual colonies. These firms received American and West Indian agricultural products and shipped arms, powder, other military stores, and manufactured products. In October 1776 Robert Morris was appointed commercial agent of the Continental Congress's Secret Committee, "to superintend what business they might have reason to transact in the different parts of Europe on account of the United States of America." Morris established his residence at Nantes, France, sometime before late April 1777. The Penet, a ship chartered to, or owned by, the French trading company Plairne, Penet & Cie., sailed from Nantes on April 26 or 27, carrying at least 13,333 muskets for the American revolutionaries. At least some of these muskets probably were negotiated for by Mr. Morris. There were undoubtedly many additional shipments of muskets privately obtained from commercial sources in France, Holland, and the West Indies. Additional information about this trade is included in the following section, "Foreign Arms Procured by Individual Colonies," and in the Appendices.

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FOREIGN ARMS PROCURED BY INDIVIDUAL COLONIES 057. During the colonial period, each colony had functioned more or less independently of the others under the authority of the British Crown, as represented by the colonial governor. The unification into the United Colonies and then the United States achieved only a loose confederation of those individual colonies, or states, each of which had much greater power in relation to the central government than is true today. Many of the colonies undertook both domestic and foreign procurement of arms from the early years of the Revolution. The domestic procurement is described in the section "Muskets Procured by Authority of a Colony or State." Very little information has been located regarding the individual colonies' foreign procurement of arms, but enough is known to indicate that significant quantities of arms and other military supplies were procured abroad. Additional information regarding this procurement must surely survive in the archives of the thirteen original states, and this subject offers an intriguing area of research. MASSACHUSETTS

057.4

The first known foreign purchase of arms by any of the American revolutionary forces took place several months before the outbreak of war, in April 1775. In November 1774 the Massachusetts Provincial Congress had voted to purchase arms abroad. At this time the colony had two agents in London: Benjamin Franklin and Arthur Lee. Using the pseudonym "M. de Tuillerie," Franklin began negotiating with two French officers named Plairn and Penet. All that is known about these men prior to this time is that Penet was from Santo Domingo. In early 1775 Penet went to Paris and then to Nantes. He probably was acting as Franklin's agent. At Nantes the transaction was managed by the commercial trading firm of Montaudovin Freres & Cie. Massachusetts paid a total of £20,837 for the 15,000 muskets that were shipped from Nantes to Saint Eustatius, accompanied by Penet. French archival records indicate that Penet accompanied the muskets to Philadelphia, and American records indicate that the muskets were reshipped to Massachusetts aboard American ships. In light of subsequent events, it is probable that Penet went to Philadelphia after visiting Massachusetts. It is not known where the muskets originated. They may have been Dutch or Liege muskets that had been shipped to Nantes for sale and transhipment elsewhere. It is also possible that they were from French arsenals. However, if they were from French arsenals, they most likely were condemned arms that had previously been purchased for resale. It is doubtful that any serviceable arms were removed from French arsenals

FOREIGN ARMS PROCURED BY INDIVIDUAL COLONIES specifically for shipment to the Americans until after the king's grant of aid to the Americans in May of 1776. By 1776 the Massachusetts Bay Colony had established trading relationships in France, usually using Plairn, Penet & Cie. as commercial agents. M. Plairn was located in Nantes, and M. Penet appears to have taken up residence in Baltimore, from where he traveled extensively to Philadelphia, Virginia, and the Carolinas. This commercial relationship was managed by the Massachusetts Board of War, presided over by Samuel Phillips Savage. The Board of War also administered the colony's many privateers. The privateering operations were closely integrated with the commercial trading operations. Additional information regarding the colony's commercial trading and privateering operations is in the Appendix "Revolutionary War Navies and Privateers." The following descriptions include only the specific references to foreign procurement of arms and military stores contained in the records of the Board of War in Massachusetts archives. Because a substantial part of these records have become illegible in storage, and because there are references to other as-yet-unknown transactions, this information is far from complete. On December 3, 1776, the Board of War wrote Louis Poncet & Son, merchants at Bordeaux, that a ship had sailed from Newburyport with a cargo consigned to Poncet. It was to be sold at the "best advantage" and the proceeds applied to the purchase of "good, effective firearms with bayonets, such as are used in the King of France's Army, or those that approach nearest to them. There has been a good manufacture of this kind lately shown here as a specimen by a gentleman from Nantes ... this fusil was offered at twenty-two Livres." The letter continued, stating that if Poncet was unable to obtain muskets, perhaps he could supply the following: 500 bridled gun locks, good flints, ten brass 3-pound cannons for field pieces, 50 pounds of Borax Purificada, and duck cloth for tents. In early March 1777, Massachusetts privateer Captain Tristram Coffin wrote to the Board of War that a prize ship had been sold at Pointe-a-Pitre on the island of Guadalupe and the funds applied to the purchase of 135 arms, 7,000 pounds of lead, 30,000 flints, 4,000 pounds of gunpowder, also duck, cordage, and other items. On March 11 Plairn, Penet & Cie. wrote the Board of War that the ship Versailles, commanded by Captain Chapman, had arrived at Nantes. Its cargo was identified as being mahogany and produce. Plairn wrote: "We do not expect that she will make any long stay here, having many of the items you demand in store (viz): muskets, gunpowder, lead, steel files, & c. We shall make an apportionment of these articles to the amount of about seventy thousand Livres, which we will insure if possible, and advise you thereof by our first opportunity." On April 26 Plairn, Penet & Cie. in Nantes invoiced the Board of War for the following items, shipped aboard the Penet under the command of Captain Chapman:

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100 chests of firearms 234 pigs of lead 2 casks of gun flints 100 barrels of gunpowder

12 casks of tin 137 bars of steel 10 casks of files

This ship also carried additional arms for the Continental Congress, and additional information on these is in the Appendix describing the imported arms. On June 5 Plairn, Penet & Cie. again invoiced the Board of War for 94,019 livres for the following military stores transported in the privateer brig Massachusetts under the command of Captain Fish: sixty cases, each containing twenty-five guns; 227 pigs of lead, and three barrels of gunpowder. Bales of blankets and blue and red cloth were also included. This ship reached Marblehead on July 12. There is a group of invoices and manifests in these records, dated January 30, 1778, that record the loading of three ships in Bilbao Harbour with a total of 826 full barrels and 306 half-barrels of gunpowder for Massachusetts. A John Emory in Bilbao appears to have been the Massachusetts agent, and the seller of these stores is listed as "The Widow of Van Kooten & John de CerfP' of Amsterdam. The ships were bound for Newburyport. On February 26 Plairn, Penet, & Cie. wrote the Board of War: In respect to Capt. Harris, we have bought another vessel and shall expedite him immediately. We shall put on board two or three thousand muskets and other merchandise. We have at present muskets and merchandise, [also] many orders at the Royal manufacturies for near thirty thousand pounds sterling, which we have agreed for, agreeable to your contract, which muskets are the same as the pattern of Mr. Pouleau. This letter indicates that Plairn, Penet, & Cie. was able to obtain muskets directly from the French royal manufactories. It is possible that this firm was purchasing some of the regulation muskets which had been "declassified," or condemned, by the French government in 1776. Additional information on these muskets is in Section 070.A, describing French regulation arms. Although they are far from complete, these records clearly indicate that in excess of 21,000 muskets and large quantities of powder, lead, flints, and other military stores were imported by Massachusetts during the late 1770s. The actual number of muskets imported may well be two or three times this quantity. NEW YORK

057.6

Very little information has been located regarding the procurement of foreign arms by New York. New York State records indicate that in June 1776 the brigantine Grant brought 263 muskets from Marseilles to the West Indies. The Grant was not one of the privateers in the service and pay of New York, and these muskets are not identified as having been procured for the Province of New York. Nor is it known whether they ultimately arrived in New York.

FOREIGN ARMS PROCURED BY INDIVIDUAL COLONIES

2O9

On July 19, 1776, William Duer authorized Peter J. Courtenious to purchase 600 to 700 French muskets at $11 each, Courtenious was the commissary of the Provincial Congress. In January 1779 the governor and legislature ordered the mercantile firm of Carron & Gouverant, located on Saint Eustatius, to receive 250 barrels of gunpowder and six chests of muskets from a Mr. John Bryson. Carron & Gouverant was apparently acting as commercial agent for New York in this transaction, because it subsequently chartered a ship to deliver these stores to New York. Unfortunately, it was lost to British privateers. NORTH CAROLINA

057.7

On October 20, 1775, the Provincial Congress of North Carolina resolved that James Coor, Abner Nash, John Foster, Richard Quince, and Samuel Ashe were "empowered to charter one or more vessels" and sail for "such ports as they shall judge to be expedient to procure Arms and Ammunition for the use ... of this province." No further information is known about this, or other, foreign procurement of arms by North Carolina. It is possible that the men traveled to one or more of the Caribbean islands to which arms were shipped by France and Holland. SOUTH CAROLINA

057.8

On January 19,1776, Henry Laurens of the South Carolina Council of Safety wrote to Elisha Sawyer, an agent for that colony: "You are also to procure at Bermuda any quantity you can of good gunpowder and salt-petre, and good muskets, good six and four-pound cannon, with shot, match, and all necessary appurtenances, swiveled guns and shot, swiveled blunderbusses, and good pistols, cutlasses, and half-pikes or lances, musket, pistol and blunderbuss ball, hand grenades, good flints and cartridge paper." It is not known whether Elisha Sawyer was successful in obtaining any of these items. However, a January 1777 letter (in the Massachusetts State Archives) from Plairn, Penet, & Cie. of Nantes to the Massachusetts Board of War contains the following paragraph: "The ship 'Hope/ Capt. Hatter, from South Carolina, loaded with 50 hundredweight of Indigo, and 300 thousand weight of rice is just arrived at our address. These articles will run off [sell] at very high prices." This letter suggests that South Carolina was also using Plairn, Penet, & Cie. as commercial agents and was probably obtaining arms and other military stores directly from France. VIRGINIA

057.9

Muskets were also procured from France by the Colony of Virginia. The French Archives d'Artillerie, located in Chateau Vincennes, contain the following entry, dated July 1780: "Pursuant to the demand of Mr. Franklin, there has been transferred from the magazine of Port-Louis to Captain Landais,

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 commanding the frigate 'L'Alliance' for the service of the state of Virginia: 2,133 New Muskets, complete." Additional information regarding the receipt of these muskets is shown in Appendix 5.

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS 1

065.

As has been discussed in the colonial period sections of this work, British military shoulder arms had been used in the British North American colonies since their establishment. From the early 1690s to the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), over 107,000 Americans saw service in the colonial militias under the British flag, and the vast majority of these were issued British regulation arms. Although little definitive information exists regarding the quantities and types of shoulder arms issued to the colonies and their militias during this period, it is known that they received both British-made regulation muskets, muskets made under British contract in Holland, as well as carbines and blunderbuss arms. In addition, at least one American colony and city procured muskets described in this text as commercial sales muskets in England. During the American Revolution vast numbers of regulation shoulder arms were carried by the British infantry, cavalry, and naval forces; additional arms, usually then-obsolete Long Land Pattern muskets, were also issued to American loyalist forces. Therefore, this section includes all known regulation models of British shoulder arms, from the introduction of the British land pattern musket to the end of the American Revolution. It is possible that some of the arms described in this section did not see service in North America. However, none are omitted because the colonies and their militias were issued a wide variety of arms during the colonial period.

BRITISH TERMINOLOGY American arms students generally consider a carbine to be a short, lightweight shoulder arm and a fusil to be a slightly shorter and lighter version of a service musket. However, many 18th-century British fusils and carbines were often dimensionally identical to contemporary regulation muskets. British Ordnance defined an arm not by its size or configuration but by its caliber and the type of troops to whom it was issued. British muskets are generally described as being of 14 or HVz bore, or .75 caliber. The caliber of carbines and fusils was usually, but not always, 17 bore, or .65 caliber. The terms "carbine" and "fusil" were interchangeable during much 1

Much of the information in this section comes from the following published sources: Howard L. Blackmore, British Military Firearms, 1650-1850; Dewitt W. Bailey, British Military Longarms, 1715-1865; and Anthony D. Darling, Red Coat and Brown Bess. Additional information has also been gained from numerous conversations and correspondence with both Mr. Blackmore and Mr. Darling.

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 of the 18th century; they referred to any arm with a .65 caliber bore. In this text, the .65 caliber arms used by infantry are referred to as fusils and those used by cavalry as carbines. This British terminology may be confusing to those not familiar with it, but these terms are used in this work, because any attempt to define these arms in any other way would ultimately result in greater confusion. Descriptions of firearms by British writers contain a number of terms that differ from those used by their North American counterparts. For example, they use "pipe" instead of "thimble" and "steel" or "hammer" instead of "frizzen." The term "pipe" was used in North America well into the 19th century, and the term "steel" was used during much of the 18th century but gave way to the term "battery," which is an anglicization of the French "batterie." It appears that frizzen is a bastardization of the 18th-century term "frizzle." Although the British terms may be the most appropriate, the generally accepted American terminology is used in the descriptions of arms in this text in the interests of easier communication and continuity. The descriptions in this text are intended to be only of representative examples of the model of arm described. Other examples of a particular model will probably have dimensional variations. These variations are caused by the dimensional tolerances inherent in the manufacture of arms during the 18th century as well as by the improvements and modifications incorporated into the manufacture of a particular model or arm during its period of production. Where known of, these improvements and modifications are also described. Dimensional tolerances of major components are also given when possible, to enable the arms student to understand the period's manufacturing tolerances.

LAND PATTERN MUSKETS

065.A

British land pattern, India pattern, and New Land Pattern muskets have all been generically referred to as "Brown Bess" muskets. The first reference in print to this term is reported to have been in 1785, almost fifty-five years after the introduction of these arms. Contemporary British Ordnance records refer to the muskets being made for the British Army at the time of the American Revolution as "land" muskets, or "muskets for land service," to differentiate them from sea service, marine, militia, or other muskets. This identification is most appropriate and has fortunately been revived by recent writers in this field. The earliest known terminology that identified land pattern muskets as such was in some payments by British Ordnance to gunmakers in June of 1715, for "muskets for land service." However, muskets made at that time, which would be made for the next fifteen years, are not now generally considered to be "land pattern muskets." The true British land pattern musket would not evolve until almost 1730. George I ascended the British throne in 1714* He believed that British weapons and their procurement systems were inferior to those of his native Hanover. At this time, flintlock muskets with and without back catches (safety "dogs") were being procured for the armed forces. Some muskets had flat-surfaced

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS

lockplates and cocks; others had convex-surfaced lockplates and cocks. Many muskets had massive club butts, while others had slimmer, more graceful, butts. Most muskets were iron-mounted; others were partially or wholly brass-mounted. There was little uniformity except for caliber and barrel length. To create greater uniformity, the British established what has recently been described as the "Ordnance System of Manufacture."2 Under this method, contracts were let to four groups of private manufacturers for the muskets' various component parts: barrel makers; lock makers; furniture makers (brass founders); and "small workmen" who made the screws, pins, and triggers. After proof, inspection, and acceptance by the Board of Ordnance, these parts were stored in the Tower of London. They were issued as needed to another group of private contractors, who "set up," or assembled, the components into muskets, using rough cut stocks that had also been supplied by the Ordnance. At each step in this process, agents of British Ordnance exercised some control. The effect of establishing the ordnance system of manufacture was the semi-standardization of musket components and, therefore, of the muskets themselves. This process of standardization took nearly fifteen years, during which time a variety of lock, stock, and furniture configurations continued to be used in the production of new muskets. Most barrel makers and lock makers were located in Birmingham, in England's Midlands. The gunmakers who assembled and finished the muskets usually worked in London's Minories area, near the Tower. Control of the manufacture of arms was in the hands of the Ordnance's Small Gun Office, located in the Tower, and in its staff at the contract establishments in London and Birmingham. The power and ability of this office to regulate the workmanship and materials increased steadily. By the late 1750s manufacturing tolerances had been reduced significantly through careful inspection and the use of better manufacturing and inspection gauges. The best brass, iron, and Swedish steel available were also used in the manufacture of muskets. The first muskets produced under the ordnance system of manufacture were known as "the Pattern of the 10,000."3 These iron-mounted muskets had flat-surfaced lockplates that were marked "TOWER" and their production began in 1718. Although they were muskets for land service, they are not now considered to have been regulation British land pattern muskets. In order to ascertain the uniformity of muskets, "model" or "pattern" muskets were established, against which all others, and their components, were compared. The earliest known dated pattern musket has a lock signed by "Wilson" and is dated "1718." In 1722 this musket was denominated the "Kings Pattern of 1722." Its iron furniture included a convex-surfaced side plate with provision for two sidescrews, and a convex-surfaced butt plate. It also had provision for a socket bayonet, because socket bayonets had been in general use since about 1705-1710.

2 This term was introduced by Howard L. Blackmore in British Military Firearms, 1650-1850.

3 D. W. Bailey, British Military Longarms, 1715-1765, 15.

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The primary force that impeded this standardization of the British Army's muskets was the private procurement of muskets by individual regiments' colonels. Although the Board of Ordnance supplied regulation muskets to the regiments free of charge, a regiment's colonel could refuse these and instead receive an equivalent value in cash to privately purchase the regiment's muskets from gunmakers. This private purchase was usually accomplished through the regimental agent. Until 1722 a large portion of the muskets procured annually for the British armed forces were privately purchased by the colonels, who were able to purchase almost any configuration they wished. On July 28, 1722, it was finally decreed that the gunmakers who privately sold muskets to the regimental colonels "shall be obliged to make them according to said Pattern, and proved and viewed by proper Officers of the Ordnance." These privately purchased muskets, now referred to as "colonel's pattern" muskets, remained in service until the British Army was rearmed in 1740 and 1741. In 1727 or 1728 a new musket configuration, also referred to as the "King's pattern," was introduced. The salient feature of this new configuration was convex-surfaced cast brass furniture, inlet into the stock's surface. Although production of the brass mountings began almost immediately, and their use in muskets was well established by 1730, some iron-mounted muskets were made as late as 1736. The new stock configuration had a "handrail"comb as the swell at the lower ramrod thimble, which provided a better grip on the forestock. The convex-surfaced, banana-shaped lock was equipped with a goose-neck cock. The cast brass trigger guard that would be used in Long and Short Land Pattern muskets until the 1790s was introduced because previous trigger guards were too light for the rigors of service. The configuration of the musket, as it had evolved by about 1730, is generally referred to as the "Land Pattern musket." Those that had previously been procured for the British land forces are generally now described as "pre-Land Pattern" muskets. The 46 "-barreled British land pattern musket was manufactured from about 1730 to 1790. A similar musket with a 42" barrel was also procured by British Ordnance during this period. The existence of this shorter musket gave rise to the terminology "Long Land Pattern" and "Short Land Pattern" muskets. From its introduction late in the 17th century until 1770 the 42 "-barreled land service musket was the regulation arm of British dragoons. Its configuration is believed to have been similar to contemporary infantry muskets throughout this period but 4" shorter. In this work, these short muskets made between the introduction of the land pattern series of arms and 1770 are referred to as the "Short Land Pattern musket (for dragoons)." In 1768 a simplified pattern of this short musket was introduced for British infantry, and it was designated the "Short Land New Pattern musket." After 1768, production of Long Land Pattern muskets declined steadily. Except for their lengths, the Long and Short Land Pattern muskets were essentially similar. During their respective periods of manufacture, the configuration of both was in a continuous state of change as modifications in design and 4

The colonel was the titular head of a regiment.

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improvements in manufacturing methods were incorporated into production of the arms. The evolution of the Long and Short Land Pattern muskets paralleled each other, and the introduction of a change in one is believed to have been reflected in the other, in most cases. LONG LAND PATTERN (TYPE I) MUSKET

065.A2

Long Land Pattern (Type I) muskets were fabricated from about 1730 until the early 1750s. Very early production (Type I) muskets had single-bridle locks. These locks have the internal tumbler bridle but not the external bridle, which extends forward from the somewhat narrow and deep pan to support the frizzen screw. The jaw screw's stylized pear-shaped head was flattened at the top and had a very narrow waist. Two grooves encircled its base. The trigger guard of early production muskets was about 11l/i" long at the bow's rear branch. The shape of its front extension was similar to those of contemporary Dutch muskets. The ramrod thimbles were secured by the same four lateral pins that secured the barrel to the forestock. The stock had raised plateaus on both sides of the breech and around the breech tang. These usually had teardrop-shaped extensions to the rear, although some extensions had a spear-pointed profile. The Ordnance's practice of contracting with several private gunmakers, each to assemble and finish a portion of the total number of muskets required by the military, was temporarily discontinued in 1725 or 1726. Until about 1741, Lewis Barbar and Charles Pickfatt received almost all of the contracts for the assembly and finishing of muskets. Almost all muskets were procured by British Ordnance using the ordnance system of manufacture; however, muskets fabricated entirely by a single gunmaker were occasionally procured. By about 1740 a number of changes had been introduced into musket production. The lock's pan was wider and was equipped with an external bridle to support the head of the frizzen screw. The trigger guard's bow had a split rear branch. The forward spur of this branch curled forward behind the trigger. The use of separate lateral retaining pins for the barrel and ramrod thimbles had been introduced in the mid-1730s. Described here is a British long land pattern musket dated 1740, which incorporates most of these changes. GENERAL INFORMATION

Caliber: .75. Overall Length: 611A" to 6P/4."

Plate 065.A2-A British Long Land Pattern (Type I) musket, circa 1740. The salient features include a 46" barrel, a bananashaped lock, tbe barrel-type upper tbimble, and a wood ramrod.

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Finish: All metal bright except for internal springs, which were blued from the heat treating process. Brass Components: Butt plate, trigger guard, side plate, wrist escutcheon, ramrod thimbles, and forend cap. Production Period: Circa 1730 to circa 1754–1756. Quantity Procured: Unknown, but estimated to be less than 40,000.5 Barrel

Length: 453∕8" to 461∕8". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat crowned muzzle. There is a double baluster ring 9∕16" to 5∕8" forward of the breech. Four underlugs are affixed under the barrel through which pass three lateral pins and the upper sling swivel screw to retain the barrel to the stock. Bore Diameter: The bore diameter of observed examples is usually between .785" and .810". Muzzle Extension: 41∕8" to 4½". Breech Tang: The 23∕16" tang is square-ended. It tapers from 9∕16" wide at the front to 5∕8" wide at the rear. The flat-headed tang screw passes downwards and threads into the iron trigger plate. The lug beneath the tang is notched for passage of the rear sidescrew. Bayonet Lug: The low, .225" by .130" rectangular lug is brazed to the top of the barrel 1" to 2l∕8" behind the muzzel. It also serves as the front sight. Lock

Lockplate: The lockplate is 67∕8" to 615∕16" by 13∕16" to 1¼". Its profile inclines ¼" downwards at the rear, resulting in what is commonly described as a

Plate 065.A2-B The faint engraved markings on this lock include the royal crowned cypher of George II of England forward of the cock and “TOWER” over “1740” in two vertical lines behind the cock. A small crown and broad arrow are stamped beneath the pan. The cock has been replaced during this musket's period of use and is only generally similar to the original.

5

 total of 643,201 muskets were procured by the Ordnance for land service between 1714 and A 1783. This includes: pre-British land pattern, Long Land Pattern, Short Land Pattern, Short Land New Pattern, and marine and militia muskets. Over 603,000 of these were produced between 1755 and 1783.

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"banana" shape. The lockplate's profile tended to become straighter during the period of production. The plate's rear profile ends in a projecting point. The surface is generally convex except for flats under the cock and frizzen spring. It is bevel-edged only at the front and is inlet into the stock to the depth of this bevel. Cock: The 33/4" goose-neck cock has a convex body. The wide recurved tang curls forward at the top. A tennon on the rear of the top jaw slides in a vertical mortice in the front face of the tang to maintain alignment. The pear-shaped head of the jaw screw is slotted only. Pan: The horizontal, round-bottomed pan is integral with the lockplate and has a fence. The powder receptacle has an oval profile. Locks made from about 1740 have an external bridle extending forward to support the head of the frizzen screw. Frizzen: The I15/i6" by !3/i6" frizzen has a round top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge with a slight lateral decorative groove at the top. The top profile of the pan cover has a slight "hump" where it joins the tail. The tail, generally oval in cross section, curls upwards. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and the curve at the front is over the end of the front sidescrew. The lower leaf ends in a trefoil finial. The inside corner of the outer edge is rounded. Other: The cock and sidescrews have convex heads. The frizzen and frizzen spring screws have convex-surfaced filister heads. The end of the sear screw is visible in the lockplate behind the cock. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The iron trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock at the bottom of the lock, downwards through a slot in the trigger plate. The trigger is curled rearwards at the bottom. The 1 Vie"'wide guard bow is integral with its 33/4" front extension and 6V' rear extension. The rear branch of the bow is split. The end of the front extension is sculpted and resembles a hazelnut with a small oval ball on top, and there is a similar small oval ball at the end of the rear extension. The 11" guard assembly is secured to the stock by lateral pins through vertical lugs at the front and rear and by a machine screw that passes upward to the wrist escutcheon from behind the bow. Butt Plate: The 51A" by 2l/s" butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex rear surface. A 6" tang extends forward at the top and is secured by a lateral pin through an integral lug below. The profile of this tang is stepped inwards twice and ends in a small oval.

Plate 065.A2-C The long butt plate tang is typical of Long Land Pattern muskets throughout their production.

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Plate 065 .A2-D The convex-surfaced side plate has a rearward extension. The sidescrews' convex heads bear against the side plate's surface.

Side Plate: The 63/ie" convex-surfaced side plate has a distinctive "tail" extending rearwards from the rear sidescrew. Wrist Escutcheon: This 25/s" by l3/s" plate is in the from of an elongated shield with an oval on top. It is located on the wrist behind the barrel's tang. Ramrod Thimbles: The four barrel-type thimbles have reinforcement rings at the ends. The three upper thimbles are l5/s" long. The 43/4" lower thimble has a pointed finial and raised decoration. Sling Swivels: The swivels are suspended from lateral screws passing from left to right through the front branch of the trigger guard bow and 9H" behind the stock's forend. Forend Band: Not all British land pattern muskets have these bands. Their use was intermittent until about 1750. The 7/s"-wide sheet brass band encloses the foretip and is open at the front. Many muskets were altered subsequent to original fabrication by the installation of a cast brass cap, riveted to the stock's forend. Ramrod: The 44VV tapered wood ramrod has a \l/i" brass sleeve-type trumpet head, which is open at the front. Large quantities of "live oak" are known to have been procured by British Ordnance for the fabrication of musket ramrods. Ash was also used. Other: After the introduction of steel ramrods, many (Type I) muskets were altered by adding a sleeve inside the upper thimble and a ramrod friction spring to the inside of the lower thimble so that they could use the steel rods. The vast majority of this alteration work was accomplished by personnel of the Small Gun Office at the Tower and extended from about 1748 to as late as 1775. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 57H" to 57Vi". Comb: The 8l/i" comb has a sharp-cornered, concave 5/s"-high nose. Flutes extend 5l/i" rearwards on each side. The British referred to this as the "handrail" comb. Other: There is a 13A" swell in the stock at the lower thimble. The size of this swell was gradually reduced during the period of production. There are raised plateaus around the lock, breech tang, and the left breech flat. These plateaus have teardrop-shaped rear extensions.

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Plate 065.A2-E Markings of the British Twentieth Regiment of foot are engraved into the top of the barrel of this example.

MARKINGS

Barrel: Ordnance view and proof marks are usually stamped in the top of the barrel near the breech. These consist of a crown over "OR," over a broad arrow, and second crown over crossed scepters. The top of the barrel may also be engraved with the regimental number or the name of the regiment's colonel Regimental markings are rarely found engraved into the wrist escutcheon or butt plate tang. Lock: The plate, cock, top jaw, and frizzen have double line border engraving. The plate also has the royal cypher of George II in front of the cock and the crown and broad arrow Ordnance lock viewer's (inspector's) mark under the pan. Engraved behind the cock is "Tower"or the lock maker's name and the year. Known lock makers during this period were Farmer, Green, Jordan, Wiletts, Wilson, and Woodridge. Note that "Jordan" is usually spelled with an "I" instead of a "J." Although no locks were made at Dublin Castle, some muskets assembled in Ireland had this castle's name engraved into the lockplate. Wrist Escutcheon: If the musket was marked with a company's identification number or letter and a rack number, they were usually engraved on the wrist escutcheon. Very early production muskets sometimes have these markings engraved into the barrel or, rarely, into the rear of the lockplate. Stock: The right side of the butt is stamped with a Tower storekeeper's receiving mark of a royal cypher with script initials "GR." The final inspector's initials are stamped behind the trigger guard. Other: The inside surfaces of the major furniture items and the lock are usually stamped with two initials of the Ordnance inspector. A roman numeral assembly number is usually cut into the edge of the lockplate, internal lock components, under the barrel and breech plug, and inside almost all furniture. LONG LAND PATTERN (TYPE II) MUSKET

065.A4

By the mid-1750s a number of relatively minor changes had been made in the Long Land Pattern musket. The steel ramrod had been introduced into the production of new muskets around 1748. The introduction of the steel ramrod

Plate 065.A4-A British Long Land Pattern (Type II) musket, circa early 1760s. The salient features of this musket include its 46" barrel, straighter lock profile, a flared-mouth upper thimble, and a button-headed steel ramrod.

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also caused a change in the configuration of the thimbles. Thereafter, they had a smaller diameter and the upper thimble was made longer and had a flared mouth. The cast brass forend cap was also introduced at this time. In 1755 a "New Pattern Lock," made to gauges, was introduced. This lock had a straighter profile than previous locks. The profile of earlier locks had inclined downwards at the rear, resulting in what is commonly referred to as the "banana" shape. These changes resulted in a slightly different configuration of Long Land Pattern musket, referred to as the "Type II" by arms students. Iron ramrods had been used in a very few Long Land Pattern muskets as early as 1724. Ten battalions serving in Ireland had received them in 1726. The conversion of existing Long Land Pattern muskets with wood ramrods to steel ramrods began in January 1748 and continued into the 1770s. This alteration consisted of soldering an iron sleeve inside the upper thimble, thereby reducing its diameter, and adding a ramrod friction spring to the inside of the lower thimble. Many of the muskets that underwent this alteration were also fitted with cast brass forend caps. As most of the specifications of the (Type II) musket were the same as the (Type I), only those items that differ are described here. In addition, where the specification of a component was stabilized in narrower parameters, this is also described. GENERAL INFORMATION 5

Overall Length: 61 /s" to 613/4". Production Period: Circa 1754-1756 to 1790. (Production was drastically reduced after 1768.) Quantity Procured: Unknown, but estimated at over 200,000. BARREL

Length: 45 V2" to 461/8". Contour: By 1760 the baluster rings at the breech were broader than those of the (Type I) muskets. Other: The official caliber was decreased from 14 bore to HVz bore in 1752. This was not a change in the bore diameter of the muskets but a reduction in the size of the balls used, so that they would be easier to load in bores fouled by previous firing. Bore diameter readings of .765" to .775" are common in observed (Type II) muskets. LOCK

From about 1755 the lockplate's lower edge is almost straight. The plate's dimensions were stabilized at 67/s" to 7" by l1/^", and it is .200" thick. The rear profile ends in a shorter point than previously. The jaw screw's head is more spherical, has a thicker waist, and a single groove encircles its base. Around 1777-1778 the following changes were made: 6

A total of 305,000 muskets of all types was procured by the Ordnance for land service between 1755 and 1763. This includes Long Land Pattern, Short Land Pattern (for dragoon), and marine and militia muskets.

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Plate 065.A4-B The lock is engraved with the lock maker's name, "VERNON," over "1761" at the rear. The royal crowned cypher is engraved forward of the cock, and a small crown and broad arrow mark is stamped beneath the pan.

Cock: The tang is made thinner and extended to the front. Its top profile is rounded, with a notch at the front. The top jaw is lengthened and has a vertical mortice in the rear, which encloses the front and sides of the tang. The head of the jaw screw is slotted and has a lateral hole. Frizzen Spring: The finial is changed from a trefoil shape to a narrow teardrop shape. Internal Components: The relative positions and sizes of the sear and sear spring are changed. As a result of this, the ends of both the sear and sear spring screws are externally visible in the lockplate, behind the cock. Because of the sharply curtailed production of the Long Land Pattern musket after the adoption of the Short Land Pattern musket as the standard infantry arm in 1768, examples of Long Land Pattern muskets made in the 1770s have not been observed or reported, although limited production continued to 1790. It is not known whether the lock modifications incorporated into Short Land New Pattern muskets in the mid-17 70s were also incorporated into the production of Long Land Pattern muskets, but it is believed that they were. FURNITURE

Butt Plate: The tang retains its shape, but is about 5n/i6" to 513/i6" long. Ramrod Thimbles: The diameter of the four brass barrel-type thimbles has been reduced, due to the smaller diameter steel ramrod. They have reinforcing rings at the ends. Upper Thimble: This 4Vi6 " thimble has a flared mouth to facilitate the return of the rod. Upper-Middle and Lower-Middle Thimbles: Both are P/s" long. Lower Thimble: This 49/i6" thimble has a pointed finial. A flat ramrod friction spring is either screwed or riveted to the inside. Side Plate: The configuration and size are unchanged. However, the heads of the sidescrews are partially countersunk in the side plates of some examples.

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Plate 065.A4-C The sidescrews' convex heads are partially recessed in the side plate's convex surface.

Forend Cap: The 15/i6" cast brass cap is secured to the stock by a brass rivet from the bottom* Ramrod: The 46 " steel ramrod has a button head. The shaft's rear end is threaded forV. STOCK

Other: The diameter of the swell at the lower thimble, centered about IZVV forward of the breech, was further reduced during this musket's production period, but no examples have been observed with it totally eliminated. By about 1753 the teardrop-shaped extensions extending rearwards from the raised plateaus around the lock and left flat had been eliminated. The shape of the plateau around the breech tang was simplified to a generally oval profile. MARKINGS

Barrel: The Tower view and proof marks of the Ordnance are usually stamped into the upper left quadrant near the breech. An order dated July 2, 1753, abolished the practice of identifying regiments with their colonel's name. The barrels of muskets made subsequent to this date may be marked with the regimental number. The following regiments were excepted from the order and were allowed to continue using an identifying name: the King's Own

Plate 065.A-4D The markings of a IV ry unit, the Fourth Battalion of the New Jersey Volunteers, is engraved into the barrel of this musket with a 1762-dated lock by William Grice. (Arthur F. Nehrbass Collection.)

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Regiment (Fourth); the Royal Irish (Eighteenth); fusiler regiments; and the three regiments of foot guards, which were the First Guards, The Coldstream (Second), and the Third Guards. The following units were also exempted from the order: the Second Queen's; the Eighth King's; the Twenty-seventh Inniskilling; the Third Buffs; and the First, or Royal, Regiment. Long Land Pattern muskets issued to New Jersey loyalist units during the American Revolution were usually engraved "NJV," for "New Jersey Volunteers." This was accompanied by a battalion marking, such as "IBN," "2BN,"or "4BN." British regimental markings were rarely engraved into the wrist escutcheon or butt plate tang. Lock: Until 1764, "Tower" or the lockmaker's name and the year were engraved in the lockplate, behind the cock. The lock contractors during this period were: Edge, Galton, Grice, Vaughn, Vernon, Whately, and Willets. From 1764 only "Tower" is engraved at the rear of the plate without a year. Previously manufactured muskets that were returned to the Tower often had their original contract marking and date removed and were remarked with "Tower" only. The lockplate, cock, top jaw, and front face of the frizzen were engraved with a double border line until about 1778. Thereafter, engraving of the double border line of the top jaw and frizzen's front face was discontinued. SHORT LAND PATTERN MUSKET

065.A6

Dragoons were first mentioned in the 16th-century Elizabethan army and carried short muskets called "dragons." However, they were first raised (organized) in the British Army in 1672. British dragoons fought from horseback. The earliest dragoons raised during the 17th century were issued matchlock arms, possibly calivers. However, as early as the 1680s dragoons were armed with "snaphance" (flintlock) muskets, which were four inches shorter than standard infantry muskets. It is believed that the evolution of dragoon muskets paralleled that of infantry muskets and that over the ensuing sixty years, muskets that were essentially similar to contemporary infantry muskets, but 4" shorter, were procured by British Ordnance for dragoon service. The first specific mention of Short Land Pattern muskets was in 1740, but it is generally assumed that these had been fabricated for dragoon service from about the same 1730 period as the Long Land Pattern muskets for infantry service. It is also believed that the evolution of the long and short muskets continued to parallel each other into the 1740s. No Short Land Pattern muskets dated in the 1750s or early 1760s have been observed. During production of the Short Land Pattern musket, other arms were introduced that have the same overall length, barrel length, and general configuration. These arms are: the sea service musket, the marine or militia musket, the 1757 artillery carbine, the 1770 dragoon carbine, and the sergeants' fusil. Only the sea service and marine or militia muskets have .75 caliber barrels. The other arms are .65 caliber and are usually of lighter construction. In order to eliminate confusion among these arms, their descriptions will stress the salient features that distinguish each of them.

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Plate 065.A62-A Until circa 1757, Short Land Pattern muskets made for British dragoons were equipped with wood ramrods. They are generally similar to contemporary Long Land Pattern muskets, except they have 42" barrels. This 1747-dated example was made without a forend band. (Anthony D. Darling Collection.)

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Until 1768 the Short Land Pattern musket was exclusively the regulation musket of the dragoons. A royal order of June 11 of that year stated that (1) a "New Pattern" short land service musket had been approved; (2) this new pattern musket was ordered to be the regulation arm of the British infantry, and (3) 100,000 of these Short Land New Pattern muskets were ordered made. The Short Land New Pattern musket used by the infantry was only a slightly modified version of the Short Land Pattern musket that had been issued to the dragoons immediately prior to the royal order. Between 1768 and 1770 both the infantry and the dragoons were authorized to use the new pattern musket, but in 1770 a new carbine was authorized for the dragoons. In 1770-1771 the Short Land New Pattern musket also became the regulation musket of the light infantry companies. The Long Land Pattern musket was the regulation shoulder arm of the British infantry during the Seven Years' War. Although the Short Land Pattern musket was the regulation arm during the American Revolution, substantial numbers of Long Land Pattern muskets remained in the hands of British line regiments and saw service in North America. There are also a number of Long Land Pattern muskets in American collections with markings of American loyalist (Tory) units, which suggests that these then-obsolete arms were issued to the loyalists, so that the existing supplies of Short Land Pattern muskets could be conserved for the use of the British regular army. During the American Revolution the British troops in North America were equipped with several thousand Short Land Pattern muskets that were purchased in Holland but which are believed to have been made in Liege. Descriptions of these Liege-made Short Land Pattern muskets is in Section 075.5, which presents information on Liege arms of the American Revolution. Except for the ramrod, thimbles, and forend cap, the modifications and improvements incorporated into the production of the Short Land Pattern (for dragoons) musket paralleled those of the Long Land Pattern muskets previously described. Because of this similarity, only those components that differ are described here together with the improvements and modifications incorporated into the production of this arm. SHORT LAND PATTERN MUSKET (FOR DRAGOONS)

Overall Length: 57V to 577/8". Production Period: Circa 1730-1768.

065.A62

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Plate 065.A62-B The bananashaped lock is engraved with the lock maker's name, "WILLETS," over "1747" at the rear. The royal crowned cypher is engraved forward of the cock, and a small crown and broad arrow mark is stamped beneath the pan. The frizzen spring appears to have been replaced during this musket's period of use. (Anthony D. Darling Collection.)

Brass Components: These are the same as for contemporary Long Land Pattern muskets, except that the trigger plate is also brass. Barrel Length: 41V to 423/i6"* Forend Cap: The known Short Land Pattern muskets made in the 1740s are without forend caps. Ramrod: The 413/V' to 4ll/i" tapered wood ramrod with brass sleeve type head was used until circa 1757, when it was superseded by the button-headed, steel ramrod.

Plate 065.A62-C From circa 1757 to about 1768, Short Land Pattern muskets with 42 " barrels and steel ramrods were the regulation arm only of the British dragoons. These muskets were also equipped with the long upper thimble with flared mouth and a forend band. (Anthony D. Darling Collection.)

Plate 065.A62-D From 1764 only "TOWER," without a date, was engraved into the lockplate's tail. This Short Land Pattern musket probably was made sometime in the 1764-1768 period because the Short Land New Pattern musket was introduced in 1768. The lower tyne of the frizzen spring's trefoil finial has been broken off. (Anthony D. Darling Collection.)

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Plate 065.A62-E Short Land Pattern muskets made from the introduction of the steel ramrod circa 1757 to the introduction of the Short Land New Pattern musket in 1768 have the long upper thimble with flared mouth and a barreltype upper-middle thimble. They also have brass forend bands. (Anthony D. Darling Collection.)

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Ramrod Thimbles: Four large diameter barrel-type thimbles were used throughout the production of this musket. Other Modifications and Notes: 1. In 1757 a limited number of previously manufactured Short Land Pattern muskets were altered to accept steel ramrods by adding an iron sleeve in the upper thimble and a ramrod friction spring inside the lower thimble. 2. In 1765 some Long Land Pattern muskets, whose 46" barrels had worn thin at the muzzles, were altered to Short Land Pattern muskets. 3. From existing examples of Short Land Pattern muskets with wood ramrods, it appears that sometime between 1757 and 1765 a 33/4" upper thimble with a flared mouth was introduced, possibly as a replacement for the l3/s" barrel-type thimble. 4. In general, Short Land Pattern muskets with wood ramrods may be considered dragoon muskets. SHORT LAND NEW PATTERN MUSKET

Plate 065.A66-A The Short Land New Pattern musket was adopted as the regulation arm of the British infantry in 1768. Although generally similar to the Short Land Pattern, some of the Short Land New Pattern's furniture was of different configurations. This example had oval, American eagle copper medallions inlet into both sides of the butt during its period of use.

065.A66

In 1768 a number of changes were incorporated into the Short Land Pattern musket. This improved musket, designated the Short Land New Pattern musket, was adopted as the regulation arm for the British infantry. Short Land New Pattern muskets have a short, 35/i6" butt plate tang, a conical upper-middle ramrod thimble, and a flat-surfaced side plate, although the plate's profile remains the same. Arms students sometimes divide Short Land New Pattern muskets into two types. The first type was produced between 1769 and about 1777-1778, when a number of changes were incorporated into the lock. This resulted in the second type, which was produced until the introduction of the India Pattern musket in 1793. The lock of the Short Land New Pattern muskets produced between 1769 and circa 1777-1778 was essentially the same as the Long and Short Land Pattern muskets produced since the mid-1750s. Circa 1777-1778 the following changes were made in the lock: Cock: The tang is made thinner and extended to the front. Its top profile is rounded, with a notch at the front. The top jaw is lengthened and has a

British Military Shoulder Arms



vertical mortice in the rear, which encloses the front and sides of the tang. The head of the jaw screw is slotted and has a lateral hole. Frizzen Spring: The finial is changed from a trefoil shape to a narrow teardrop shape. Internal Components: The relative positions and sizes of the sear and sear spring are changed. As a result of this, the ends of both the sear and sear spring screws are externally visible in the lockplate, behind the cock. Engraving: The double line border engraving of the top jaw and frizzen’s front face is discontinued at about this same time. In 1785 the profile of the cock’s tang was again changed. The rear was still recurved, but was inclined more rearwards at the top. Also, the notch near the top at the front was eliminated. At about this same time, the shape of the frizzen spring finial was further simplified. Finally, some very late production muskets have stamped lock markings rather than engraved markings. The demand for arms during the last three years of the Short Land New Pattern musket’s production (1794–1797) caused by wars with France’s revolutionary government, resulted in a relaxation of British Ordnance's standards. During this period, the Ordnance Department procured some Short Land New Pattern muskets with what would become known as India Pattern short-tanged butt plates and convex-surfaced side plates without the extension behind the rear sidescrew. The extreme demand for arms during the American Revolution was in excess of the capacity of contractors to the Ordnance and resulted in a partial breakdown in the ordnance system of manufacture. Five hundred and four thousand muskets for land service were required, but only 298,000 muskets were produced by Ordnance contractors. Over 100,000 muskets were procured from Europe’s Low Countries. Liège contract Short Land New Pattern muskets are described in Section 075.5. The following description is of a Short Land New Pattern musket manufactured shortly after the lock changes of 1777–1778. General information

Caliber: .75. Overall Length: 573∕8" to 577∕8". Finish: All metal bright except for internal springs, which were blued from the heat treating process. Brass Components: Butt plate, trigger guard, side plate, wrist escutcheon, trigger plate, ramrod thimbles, and forend cap. Production Period: Circa 1769–1797. Quantity Procured (by British Government): Unknown, but estimated at over 300,000. 7

7 A

total of 298,000 muskets of all types were produced during the American Revolution. Very few muskets were procured between 1783 and 1793, due to the large supply of muskets on hand.

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BARREL 3

3

Length: 41 /4" to 42 /i6". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There is a double baluster ring 5/s" forward of the breech. Four underlugs are affixed to the the barrel, through which pass three lateral retaining pins and the upper sling swivel screw. Bore Diameter: The bore diameter of observed examples is usually between .775"and .785". Muzzle Extension: 4l/s" to 43/s". Breech Plug: The 23/s" square-ended tang tapers from 9/i6" wide at the front to n /i6" wide at the rear. The lug beneath the tang is notched for passage of the rear sidescrew. Bayonet Lug: This 3/i6" by 5/i6" rectangular lug is brazed to the top of the barrel !5/s" to I13/i6" behind the muzzle. It also serves as the front sight. LOCK 15

Lockplate: The lockplate is 6 /i6" to 7" by !3/i6" to 11A". The profile of the lower edge is almost straight, and the rear profile ends in a projecting point. The plate's surface is generally convex, except for flats under the cock and frizzen spring. It is bevel-edged only at the front. Cock: The 37/s" goose-neck cock has a convex-surfaced body. The narrow tang has a rounded top with a notch at the front. The top jaw has a vertical mortice in the rear, which encloses the front and sides of the tang. The pear-shaped head of the jaw screw is slotted and has a lateral hole. Pan: The horizontal, round-bottomed pan is integral with the lockplate and has a fence. A bridle extends forward to support the frizzen screw. The pan has an oval-shaped powder receptacle. Frizzen: The 2 Vie" by 1 Vfc" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge, and a small decorative lip at the top. The top profile of the pan

Plate 065. A66-B Short Land New Pattern locks were the same as those illustrated for the Short Land Pattern muskets until circa 1777-1778. This lock is of the configuration introduced circa 1777-1778 and used throughout the American Revolution. Its salient features are that the ends of both the sear and sear spring screws are visible behind the cock, the cock's tang is narrower, and a vertical notch in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of this tang. The frizzen spring finial was also simplified, and the border engraving on the frizzen's front face was deleted.

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cover, where it joins the tail, is slightly convex. The tail is oval-shaped and curls upwards. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and the curve at the front is at or slightly behind the end of the front sidescrew. The lower leaf ends in a narrow teardrop-shaped finiaL The inside corner of the outer edge is rounded. Other: The cock and sidescrews are convex-headed. The frizzen and frizzen spring screws have convex-surfaced filister heads. The ends of both the sear and sear screws are visible behind the cock. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The iron trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the trigger plate. It curls rearwards at the bottom. The 1 Vie "-wide guard bow has a split rear branch with a tang that curls forward behind the trigger. The bow is integral with the front and rear extensions, and the guard is 107/s" to 1IVV overall. The front extension ends in a sculpted finial, and the rear extension ends in a small oval profile. The guard is secured to the stock by lateral pins through integral lugs at the front and rear and by a machine screw that passes upward from behind the bow and threads into the wrist escutcheon.

Plate 065.A66-C The short, 3V butt plate tang is one of the salient features of the Short Land New Pattern musket.

Butt Plate: The 5 " by 2 " butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex rear surface. A 35/i6" tang is secured by a lateral pin through an integral stud beneath the tang. There are convex-headed wood screws at the heel and near the toe. The tang's profile is stepped inwards twice, and ends in a point. Side Plate: The 61A" flat-surfaced side plate has the same profile as that of the Long Land Pattern musket, with its distinctive "tail" extending rearwards from the rear sidescrew. Wrist Escutcheon: This 25/s" by l3/s" plate is in the form of an elongated shield with a small oval on top. It is located on top of the wrist, immediately behind the tang plateau.

Plate 065.A66-D Although the profile remained the same, the Short Land New Pattern musket's side plate is flat-surfaced.

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Plate 065.A66-E The Short Land New Pattern musket's uppermiddle thimble is slightly conical- shaped to facilitate the ramrod's return. (Anthony D. Darling Collection.)

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Ramrod Thimbles: The four barrel-type thimbles have reinforcing rings at the ends and are retained by lateral pins. Upper: This 315/i6" thimble has a flared mouth. Upper-Middle: The front diameter of this l3/s" thimble is larger than the rear diameter, giving it a slightly conical appearance. Lower-Middle: This barrel-type thimble is l3/s" long. Lower: The 4Vz" thimble has raised decorative sculpting and a long, pointed finial. Forend Cap: The 15/i6" cast brass cap is secured to the stock by a vertical brass rivet. Sling Swivels: Both l5/s" swivels are suspended from lateral screws passing from left to right. The lower swivel is attached to the front branch of the trigger guard bow, and the upper swivel is located 91A" behind the stock's foretip. Ramrod: The 413/s" button-headed steel ramrod is threaded for l/i" at the rear. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 53V4" to 533/4". Comb: The 8l/i" comb has a 5/s"-high concave nose with flutes extending 5l/i" rearwards on either side. Other: There is a l5/s"-wide swell in the stock at the lower thimble. There is a raised plateau around the breech tang, but there are no raised plateaus around the lock or left flat opposite. MARKINGS

Barrel: The view and proof marks of British Ordnance are usually stamped in the upper left quadrant, near the breech. These consist of a crown over "OR" over a broad arrow and another crown over crossed scepters. The top of the barrel may also be engraved with regimental identification, such as a number followed by "REGT" or "R." Regimental markings were rarely engraved into the wrist escutcheon or butt plate tang. Lock: The plate is engraved forward of the cock with the royal crowned cypher. The crown and broad arrow lock inspector's mark are stamped below the pan. "Tower" is engraved in a vertical curve behind the cock. Some late production muskets have stamped lockplate markings. In addition, the lockplate, cock, top jaw, and front face of the frizzen have double line border engraving. Stock: The final inspector's mark, consisting of one or two crowns, is stamped behind the trigger guard. The right side of the butt is stamped with an Ordnance storekeeper's mark of a small crown over a script UGR."

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Other: Company Identification: An identifying letter or numeral of the company of issue is sometimes engraved on the wrist escutcheon. This is sometimes accompanied by a rack number. Company identification is rarely found engraved into the butt plate tang. Assembly Number: A roman numeral is usually cut into the edge of the lockplate, under the barrel and breech plug, and inside almost all the furniture. Inspectors' Initials: The inside surfaces of the lockplate and furniture are stamped with one or two inspectors' initials, often in a sunken cartouche. LAND PATTERN COMMERCIAL SALES MUSKETS

065.A9

Described in the first part of this work are British late 17th- and early 18th-century muskets that were fabricated for private commercial sales. These commercial sales were to regimental colonels equipping their regular army regiments, to English volunteer militia units, and possibly for export. Some of these early commercial sales muskets may have been purchased by British North American colonies or their militias. In an attempt to bring uniformity to the army's muskets during the 1720s, the British regimental colonels were prohibited from procuring muskets privately. However, some English gunmakers continued to produce muskets for commercial sale at home and abroad. These muskets were not British regulation arms, although they were very similar to contemporary regulation muskets. At least one British North American colony and at least one city are known to have purchased Long Land Pattern muskets. Available information regarding these follows. After the American Revolution, commercially made Short Land New Pattern muskets were frequently purchased privately by British volunteer units. Muskets made after 1777 are sometimes found with a upper-middle thimble that has a flared mouth. This thimble is not to be confused with the conical-shaped upper-middle thimble used on Short Land New Pattern muskets. Privately purchased Short Land New Pattern muskets usually do not have a notch in the front of the cock's tang and may or may not have a wrist escutcheon. The commercial British land pattern muskets procured by the North Americans were purchased during the Seven Years' War and were therefore of an earlier configuration. NEW JERSEY PRIVATELY PURCHASED MUSKETS

065.A9K

When New Jersey colonial troops were sent to Canada in 1747, the arms issued to them by the British were described as being "so rusty and rotten as not to be the Value of old iron." The swords would bend "and stay bent like lead."

Plate 065.A9K-A This Long Land Pattern musket was made for commercial sale and was purchased by the Colony of New Jersey during the Seven Years' War. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

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Plate 065.A9K-B The lock is engraved "WILSON" in block letters forward of the cock. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

This caused the colony's legislature to expend £20,000 to pay for the support of 500 men and to procure new arms. It is interesting to note that the New Jersey men sent to Canada, as well as those raised thereafter, were uniformed in blue coats. This gave rise to the nickname "Jersey Blues." In 1755 the colony's legislature authorized the raising of 500 men for service during the Seven Years' War. Additional militia were also mustered to defend the colony's inhabitants from French-supported Indians during the winter of 1755-1756. The colony unsuccessfully attempted to purchase 150 muskets from the City of New York to arm its "frontier guard" at about this time. On July 27, 1757, twenty-two barges filled with militia were surprised and almost annihilated by French and Indians in upstate New York. One hundred sixty of them were killed, and another 160 were taken prisoner. Only two of the barges escaped. A very few New Jersey militia muskets have survived. One example was originally fabricated with the usual 46" barreled Long Land Pattern (Type II)

Plate 065.A9K-C The barrel's Birmingham view and proof marks for private arms are above and below Richard Wilson's mark. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

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Plate 065.A9K-D The butt plate tang is engraved "NEW JERSEY" in block letters, and the wrist escutcheon is engraved "Q" over "95." (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

configuration, but the barrel has been shortened slightly to 443/4", and the stock proportionately. Another is known, which appears to have had an original length 42" barrel and a shorter, 6l/s" lock. These muskets generally follow the configuration of regulation arms, with only very minor deviations, such as the straight profile of the cock's tang. They are equipped with steel ramrods, long upper thimbles with flared mouths, and forend bands. The lock is engraved "WILSON" forward of the cock. The barrel is engraved "LONDON" and is stamped with view and proof marks for private arms. These consist of two oval cartouches containing crowns over an intertwined "GP" and "V," respectively, and Wilson's proof of a star over "RW." "NEW JERSEY" is engraved into the butt plate tang in block letters. The lockplate and its components are not border engraved. The wrist escutcheon of one observed example is engraved "Q" over "95." It is possible these muskets were made by Richard Wilson of London who became a master gunmaker about 1725 and a contractor to British Ordnance in 1746. He also produced arms for the East India Company (1733-1736) and the Hudson Bay Company (1730-1756). NEW YORK CITY PRIVATELY PURCHASED MUSKETS

065. A9N

On January 16, 1755, during the Seven Years' War, the Common Council of New York City resolved to purchase 1,000 muskets for the use of the city's inhabitants, should the city be attacked by the French. The muskets were to be equipped with bayonets, and cartridge boxes and belts and accoutrements were also to be procured. The August 16 Minutes of the Council stated that the muskets had been imported on the ship Irene Nicholas from England. They were then moved to storage in City Hall On May 17, 1758, the colony wrote the city's Common Council, requesting the muskets to arm three battalions of the New York Provincial Regiment under the command of Colonel Oliver DeLancy. This regiment was part of Major General James Abercrombie's force of 15,000 regular and colonial troops preparing for assault on the French Fort Carillion at Ticonderoga. On May 19 the council, fearing that the royal governor would impress the arms if they refused,

Plate 065.A9N-A This Long Land Pattern musket was made by Richard Wilson for private, commercial sale. It was purchased by the City of New York during the Seven Years' War and was subsequently shortened to its present Short Land Pattern length. (United States Military Academy Museum Collection.)

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Plate 065.A9N-B The bananashaped lock is only generally similar to that of the New Jersey musket previously described. The right side of the butt is branded with markings indicating ownership by New York's First Regiment. (United States Military Academy Museum Collection.)

resolved to sell them, their bayonets, cartridge boxes, ammunition, and accoutrements to the province at £3/5 each. This was substantially more than the muskets and accessories had cost the city. On June 20 the city's Common Council resolved to purchase from England "five hundred of the subscription arms Lately Imported in this City" and "four hundred and fifty Small arms" in addition to three fire engines. These items were to be purchased with the funds received from the sale of the 1,000 muskets to the province. It is not known what the term "subscription arms" referred to, nor has any other information been uncovered regarding the purchase and delivery of these arms or the "small arms" from England. Subsequent information indicates that commercial British land pattern muskets made by Richard Wilson were procured by the city in the following months. On December 18 the council ordered that a Mr. Nicolas Roosevelt be paid "for marking of five hundred and fifty Small arms." These 550 muskets were stored at City Hall until September of 1772, when a small number of them were loaned to two companies for training purposes. On April 23, 1775, after learning of the battles of Lexington and Concord, a number of men commanded by a Captain Sears broke into the armory at City Hall, seized the muskets, and carried them to the home of Captain Abraham Vandyck on Broadway. Two days later, the muskets were distributed to New York City citizens, 413 of whom signed receipts for them, which included the promise to return them on demand. The Continental Congress subsequently called upon the Colony of New York to raise 3,000 troops for service in the Continental Army. Because of this, in June or July the Provincial Legislature resolved to raise four regiments and ordered the citizens who had the city's muskets to turn them in. Ultimately, 470 were returned and the numbers of the muskets and the names of the citizens who returned them were carefully recorded. The musket described below is number 796, and was returned by a Mr. Duychinck. Four hundred thirty-four of these muskets were supplied to Colonel MacDougall's First New York Regiment and thirty-six were sent to Colonel James Clinton's Third New York Regiment at New Windsor, New York. The four New York regiments were part of the force that marched in the late summer to attack

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Montreal They were disbanded at Montreal in mid-November, and two regiments were reenlisted for the winter campaign. Of the 1,500 muskets that were surplus to the requirements of these two regiments, 500 belonged to New York and 150 of them were left in Montreal The fate of the muskets is unknown, but it is speculated that many were ultimately carried home by members of the New York militia. There is some confusion as to whether the City of New York was ever reimbursed for these muskets. One source states that the colony reimbursed the city in 1777. Another source states that the city attempted to obtain reimbursement from the Continental Congress during the decade following the Revolutionary War without success. The example described here was originally fabricated in Long Land Pattern configuration but was shortened to approximate Short Land Pattern configuration sometime subsequent to its manufacture. The brass-mounted musket is 57V&" overall and is generally similar to regulation British land pattern muskets of the early 1750s. However, it has a few features that distinguish it from regulation muskets. The upper surface of the breech tang is higher than that of the barrel and has a long, wide groove that serves as a rear sight. The shape of the baluster ring at the breech also differs from that observed on regulation arms. The 7Vi6" lock has the early banana profile associated with muskets made before 1750, and the configuration of some of the lock's external components differ slightly from regulation arms. However, they are very similar to those of the New Jersey musket described in the previous section. There is no provision for a wrist escutcheon, and because it has been shortened, this musket is equipped with only three ramrod thimbles instead of the usual four. The 33/i6" upper thimble has a flared mouth for a steel ramrod. The brass forend band is secured by a lateral iron pin. "WILSON" is engraved in shaded block letters in the lockplate, forward of the cock. The lock has no border engraving. "LONDON" and some illegible letters are engraved along the top of the barrel. Two oval cartouches, the proof and view marks of the London Gunmakers' Company, and Richard Wilson's touchmark, similar to those described for the New Jersey musket, are stamped into the barrel's upper left breech quadrant. The number "796" is engraved into the butt plate tang, and an inverted "N-Y" over "J.REG" is branded into the right side of the buttstock. Two other known examples have "CITY OF NEW YORK" engraved into their butt plate tangs in block letters.

SEA SERVICE MUSKET

065.C

Plate 065 .C-A This British sea service musket has the 37" barrel length most commonly encountered with these arms. It is not equipped with wrist escutcheon, lower thimble, or forend cap.

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Arms students used to believe that the muskets used by the Royal Navy during most of the mid-18th century were a variety of often-obsolete arms or arms manufactured with old, reused, obsolete components. More recent information indicates that although this may have been true until the early 1750s, sea service muskets made thereafter were newly fabricated, using newly made components of sometimes obsolete configurations, but they were preferred by the Royal Navy, which thought them to be more serviceable. A 1750 inventory of sea service muskets stored in the Tower described them as being “of sorts,” a term commonly used to describe dissimilar arms. However, a distinct pattern of sea service musket evolved in the mid-1750s, probably as a result of the Admiralty standardizing the sea service musket in 1752. It appears that many of the features of the standardized musket were not strictly adhered to. The barrel length of this musket was 37" long, and barrel lengths of 36" to 38" may be considered normal. However, examples of known sea service muskets have barrels as short as 30" and as long as 42". The Admiralty also required that sea service muskets be equipped with bayonets and sling swivels from 1752. However, many muskets made subsequent to this have no bayonet lugs, and most were made without provision for sling swivels. Sea service muskets were issued in two finishes. Some were finished with “bright” similar to land pattern arms. The other finish was a black paint, probably enamel, which was applied to all external metal and wood surfaces. The metal surfaces of sea service muskets that were to be black-finished were left finely file-finished; they were not polished. In the early 1750s, British Ordnance agreed to supply each ship with an equal number of black- and bright-finished muskets. In September 1757 the Ordnance directed that 10,000 muskets with each finish should be kept in the Tower of London as a reserve. Due to the demand for arms during the American Revolution, some sea service muskets were accepted from contractors that had not undergone the various stages of component inspection before the final acceptance inspection. Although there is a great deal of variation among known sea service muskets, certain features are common to most examples made from the mid-1750s through the American Revolution:





1. A flat-surfaced lockplate was used until the 1760s, when the convexsurfaced plate came into general use, and most sea service muskets were equipped with it thereafter. 2. The bow of the 8½" trigger guard has a solid rear branch, and the convex-surfaced front extension has a teardrop or circular profile. 3. There is no trigger plate. 4. The butt plate is formed from thick sheet brass. It has a straight rear profile and flat rear surface. The long, round-ended tang is secured by a wood screw. 5. The cock has a narrow, round-topped tang. A vertical mortice in the rear of the jaw encloses the front and sides of this tang. 6. The side plate is flat-surfaced.

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS

7. There is no lower, or entrance, ramrod thimble where the ramrod channel enters the stock. 8. There is no wrist escutcheon. 9. Some, but not all, muskets have provision for sling swivels. 10. Very few muskets have a forend cap. 11. Steel ramrods were introduced into sea service muskets in the 1760s, but their use was not widespread until the 1780s. Thereafter, large diameter thimbles continued to be used, and a small ramrod friction spring was riveted to the inside of the lower thimble. Due to the variations between different known examples of sea service muskets, the description given here is intended only to be representative of a typical example; others may differ in various details. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .75.

Overall Length (with 37" Barrel): 53". Finish: All metal bright or both wood and metal coated with black paint, probably enamel. Brass Components: Butt plate, trigger guard, side plate, ramrod thimbles, and the forend cap of those muskets so equipped. Production Period (as a Distinctive Pattern): Mid-1750s to 1797. Quantity Procured (by British Government): Unknown, but estimated in excess of 50,000. A total of 148,544 muskets were procured for sea service between 1714 and 1783. o

BARREL

Length: 37". (Examples known with barrels ranging from 30" to 42" long.) Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There are baluster ringgfpr 5/s" at the breech. Lateral stock retaining pins pass through three barrel underlugs. Muzzle Extension: 4*4 "• Breech Plug: The 25/i6" square-ended tang tapers from 9/i6" wide at the front to n /i6" wide at the rear. The lug beneath is notched for passage of the rear sidescrew. Bayonet Lug: (Not all muskets are equipped with these lugs.) The 3/i6" by 5/i6" lugs are brazed to the top of the barrel 2" behind the muzzle. These lugs also serve as the front sight. LOCK

Note: Sea service muskets made into the 1760s at least were equipped with the flat-surfaced lock described here. From sometime in the 1760s, they were equipped with the same convex-surfaced lock as is described for contemporary Short Land Pattern muskets, except for the configuration of the cock's tang, top jaw, and screw, which remained the same as described here. Some of the convex-surfaced locks used were dated in the 1750s.

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Plate 065.C-B The configuration of this sea service musket's lock indicates manufacture sometime after 1777-1778. The trigger guard bow's rear branch is not split.

Lockplate: The 1" by 11A" flat-surfaced lockplate has a thin edge bevel and is inlet flush with the stock's surface. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. Cock: The 35/s" cock has a flat-surfaced body and a reinforced throat with round hole. The narrow tang has a rounded top and does not have a decorative curl or notch. A vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of the tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted and has a lateral hole. Pan: The horizontal, faceted pan is not integral with the lockplate. It does not have a fence, nor does it have a bridle extending forward to support the frizzen spring screw. Frizzen: The 2 " by P/W frizzen has a flat top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge. Some frizzens have round tops and a medial ridge with a shallow decorative facet at the top. The distinctive tail has a very thick side profile, and its rounded end is curved upwards slightly. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and the curve at the front is usually just behind the end of the front sidescrew. The lower leaf ends in a spearpointed finial. Other: The cock and sidescrews have convex heads. The frizzen and frizzen spring screws have convex-surfaced filister heads. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The iron trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the stock. There is no trigger plate. The breech

Plate 065.C-C Sea service muskets' trigger guards have convex-surfaced front extensions with circular or teardrop-shaped profiles.

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Plate 065 .C-D Sea service muskets have thick, flat butt plates with round-ended tangs.

tang screw passes downwards and threads into a square iron nut at the front of the trigger slot. The guard bow's front branch is rarely pierced for a sling swivel, and its rear branch is not split. The front extension has a circular profile, and both flat and convex-surfaced front extensions have been noted. The rear extension is parallel-sided and terminates in a rounded end. The 8l/i" guard assembly is secured at the front by a lateral pin through an integral lug and at the rear by a wood screw. Butt Plate: The butt plate is formed from heavy gauge sheet brass, rather than hollow cast brass. It has a straight rear profile and a flat rear surface. The narrow, parallel-sided, 3l/i" tang terminates in a round end. The butt plate is secured by two screws at the rear and one in the tang. Side Plate: The 61A" flat-surfaced side plate has the same profile as the British land pattern muskets. Wrist Escutcheon: Wrist escutcheons are rarely encountered on sea service muskets. When noted, they are the same as those of British land pattern muskets. Ramrod Thimbles: There are usually two, but sometimes three, P/s" barrel-type thimbles with reinforcement rings at the ends. There is no lower thimble where the ramrod channel enters the forestock. After the introduction of the steel ramrod into the production of sea service muskets in the 1760s, the barrel-type upper thimble was superseded by a long thimble with a flared mouth, and the diameter of all the thimbles was made smaller. A ramrod friction spring was also riveted inside the lowest thimble.

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Plate 065.C-E Following the introduction of the steel ramrod, a friction spring was riveted to the inside of the lowest thimble.

Forend Cap: Most sea service muskets do not have this cap, A 15/i6" cast brass cap is secured to the foretip by a vertical brass rivet to very few of these muskets. Sling Swivels: Usually, there is no provision for sling swivels. A few sea service muskets have a lateral hole in the guard bow's front branch for the swivel screw. Ramrod: Until the 1760s, sea service muskets were equipped with tapered wood ramrods with a sleeve-type, open-ended brass tip. Thereafter, button-headed steel ramrods were used. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished or black-painted walnut. Length: A 37 " barreled musket has a 483/4" stock. Some early sea service muskets made prior to 1752 were reportedly stocked to the muzzle. Comb: The 8l/i" comb has a 5/s"-high concave nose with flutes extending rearwards about 6" on each side. The comb is usually narrower than those of land service muskets. Other: There is a swell at the lower thimble and a raised plateau around the breech tang only. MARKINGS

Barrel: Ordnance view and proof marks consisting of a crown over UGR" over a broad arrow and a second crown over crossed scepters are usually stamped on top near the breech. Barrels are often engraved near the muzzle with a rack number usually consisting of one or two numerals. Lock: The crowned cypher is located in front of the cock. The lock viewer's crown and broad arrow mark are stamped beneath the pan. The lock contractor's name and date are engraved vertically behind the cock until 1764. Thereafter only "Tower" is engraved in this location. Stock: The final inspector's mark is stamped behind the trigger guard. Other: A roman numeral assembly number is stamped or cut into the lock's edge under the barrel and tang and into the inner surface of most components.

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MARINE OR MILITIA MUSKET

065.D

The first British marine regiment was raised in 1664 as part of the army establishment and existed for twenty-five years. In 1702 several regiments were raised as marines, but they were disbanded after the Treaty of Utrecht, Three of these regiments were subsequently reestablished as the Thirtieth, Thirty-first, and Thirty-second Regiments. Ten marine regiments were raised in 1739 but were disbanded after the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. The outbreak of the Seven Years' War caused the reestablishment of the marines in 1755 and also the passage of the Militia Act of 1757. This act required each English and Welsh county to furnish between 560 and 960 militiamen. Tens of thousands of new militia recruits were raised by this act, and an additional 5,000 were raised for the marines. The muskets issued to the marine regiments raised in 1739 were the Long Land Pattern muskets procured in Liege or Maastricht in 1741. These muskets are believed to have had 46" barrels, land pattern locks, and sea service furniture. Additional vast quantities of muskets were required immediately to arm these men, and the Ordnance accepted a musket that the English gunmakers could supply rapidly. This new musket was denominated the "short musquet of the New Pattern for Marines or Militia." This has been contracted to the modern collector's term "marine or militia musket." In September 1757 the Ordnance directed that a reserve of 50,000 "Short Musquets of the New Pattern for Marines or Militia" were to be made and kept in the Tower of London. In order to satisfy the immediate demand for these muskets, some shortcuts were taken in their manufacture. The barrels were as serviceable as those of British land pattern muskets and withstood the same proofs, but the finish filing and polishing was not quite as good. Unnecessary items of furniture, such as the wrist escutcheon, were deleted from these arms. The lower thimble and forend cap were deleted from many of these arms, which were equipped with wood ramrods. (Muskets with steel ramrods are equipped with a lower thimble and forend cap.) The lockplate dates of known examples suggest that muskets with both iron and wood ramrods were made simultaneously. It is believed that most marine or militia muskets were fabricated between 1756 and 1762 to meet the emergency requirements of the Seven Years' War. Prior to 1756 marines were armed with Ordnance pattern muskets procured in Liege or Maastricht in 1740-1741. Few new muskets appear to have been made after the Seven Years' War. An order of July 1775 stated the marine or militia musket's furniture was to be the same as that of the Short Land New Pattern musket. As this was the salient difference between these arms, this order meant

Plate 065.D-A Most marine or militia muskets were made to satisfy the increased demand for arms resulting from the Seven Years' War. These muskets were similar to contemporary Short Land Pat' tern muskets but had a lower degree of finish and were produced without unnecessary furniture, such as wrist escutcheons, lower thimbles, and forend caps.

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Plate 065.D-B The lock and trigger guard of the marine or militia musket is the same as for the contemporary Short Land Pattern musket.

that no new marine or militia muskets were to be made. Thereafter, the marines and militia were issued Short Land New Pattern muskets. Because the marine or militia musket is very similar to contemporary Short Land Pattern (for dragoons) muskets, the description here is only of those items that differ. GENERAL INFORMATION Production Period: 1756-1762. Quantity Procured (by British Government): Unknown, but estimated to be between 50,000 and 100,000. FURNITURE Trigger and Guard Assembly: In addition to lateral pins through integral lugs at the front and rear, the guard is secured to the stock by a wood screw behind the guard bow. Butt Plate: The 3l/i" butt plate tang is secured by a wood screw instead of the lug and pin used in land pattern muskets. Side Plate: The flat-surfaced side plate is of the same size and configuration as other contemporary land service muskets. Wrist Escutcheon: Deleted. Lower Ramrod Thimble: Deleted in early production, but was reintroduced about the same time as the steel ramrod was introduced into production. Nose Cap: Is usually present on only those muskets equipped with steel ramrods. Ramrod: Some muskets were equipped with wood ramrods with a sleeve-type brass tip, which was open at the end; others were equipped with a buttonheaded steel ramrod. Plate 065.D-C Unit identification and rack numbers are engraved into the tang of this marine or militia musket.

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MARKINGS Barrel: Muskets issued to militia units may be engraved with the name of the English or Welsh county of issue. This may be preceded or followed by a capital "M" for "militia." Butt Plate Tang: Company identification and rack numbers are often engraved on the butt plate tang.

OFFICERS' FUSIL

065 .F

Until shortly before the American Revolution, British officers were equipped with spontoons and sergeants with halberds. Because the advent of firearms with mechanical ignition had rendered polearms obsolete, these were carried primarily as identification of rank. The first documentary reference to Officers' fusil was in 1750, in regards to a fusil with bayonet for artillery officers. In 1770-1771 companies of light infantry were raised and, together with companies of grenadiers, constituted the flank companies of infantry regiments. The officers and sergeants of these flank companies carried fusils, while those of line infantry companies continued to carry spontoons and halberds. In addition to these companies, two infantry battalions were composed from the three regiments of foot guards and were sent to North America in 1776. Upon their arrival, the officers of these battalions quickly learned that they were favored targets of American riflemen. They quickly armed themselves with fusils and altered their uniforms to become less conspicuous. The fusils used by British officers were purchased privately. Although they do not conform to a pattern, they usually were a short, light-weight version of the contemporary infantry musket. The quality of the decoration and mountings depended upon the financial circumstances of the individual officers. Officers' fusils are known mounted in brass, iron, and silver, and many of the components were often highly sculpted or engraved, or both. The hallmarks of the silver-mounted Officers' fusil described here, made by John Fox Twigg, were used in 1777-1778. Twigg was born in 1732, is known to have worked in London between 1755 and 1788, and died in 1790. This fusil is representive of the high-quality fusils in use during the American Revolution. It is generally similar to British land pattern muskets, but it demonstrates many of the features that distinguish privately purchased Officers' fusils from regulation muskets.

Plate 065 .F-A This high-quality, silver-mounted Officers' fusil was made by John Fox Twigg during the American Revolutionary War.

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GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .65. Overall Length: 53 Vz". Finish: Bright. Silver Components: Butt plate, trigger guard, side plate, wrist escutcheon, front sight, ramrod thimbles, and ramrod tip. BARREL 7

Length: 37 /s" (not including the breech piece). Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There is a 8^ "'long sighting flat along the top of the breech. Four underlugs are affixed to the barrel for the three flat keys and upper sling swivel screw that retain the barrel to the stock. Baluster rings at the breech conceal the breech piece seam. There are 2l/i" flats on both sides of the breech. Bore Diameter: .674". Muzzle Extension: 2l/i". Breech Plug and Piece: The breech plug has a rectangular hook-shaped projection at the rear, which engages a corresponding hole in the 3/i6 "-thick breech piece. The profile of the breech piece's 33/s" tang is stepped inwards and terminates in a point. Bayonet Lug: This small square lug is brazed to the barrel 1 l/s" behind the muzzle, beneath the barrel. Front Sight: The small oval blade is located 2l/i" behind the muzzle. LOCK u

Lockplate: The 5 /i6" by 1" lockplate has a convex surface, except under the frizzen spring, where it is flat-surfaced with beveled edges. The rear profile ends in a projecting point.

Plate 065 JF-B The lock of this Twigg Officers' fusil reflects a high degree of sculpting and decorative engraving.

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Cock: The body of the 27/s" goose-neck cock is convex. The top of the wide tang is recurved. The top jaw's rear flat bears on the tang's front face. The head of the jaw screw is slotted only. Pan: The horizontal, round-bottomed pan is integral with the lockplate and has a fence. The powder receptacle has an oval profile. A bridle extends forward to support the frizzen screw. Frizzen: The Iu/i6"-high frizzen has a round top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge with a decorative facet at the top. The upper profile of the tail is convex where it joins the pan cover, and the tail curls upwards. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight. The front curve is behind the end of the sidescrew. The inner edges are rounded, and the lower leaf ends in a fleur-de-lis finial. Other: The cock screw has a flat head with a wide edge bevel. The frizzen and frizzen spring screws pass from the inside of the lock. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The curved iron trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The 1 "-wide guard bow is integral with its extensions, and the guard is HVs" overall. The bow's rear branch is split. The front extension terminates in an acorn finial. The rear extension is round-ended. Both extensions are secured by lateral pins that pass through integral lugs. Butt Plate: The 43/V by 2l/s" butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex rear surface. The 43/s" tang has a pointed end. There are wood screws at the heel and near the toe. Side Plate: The 53/4" flat, bevel-edged side plate is is generally similar to those of 18th-century German states' and American long rifles. In addition to the sidescrews, it is secured by a wood screw at its pointed rear. Plate 065.F-C Detailed raised carving surrounds the breech piece's engraved tang. The silver wrist escutcheon is quite ornate and contains an unidentified coat of arms. The barrel is stamped with view and proof marks for private arms and is engraved "TWIGG" in script and "LONDON" in block letters.

Plate 065.F-D The hallmarks stamped into the trigger guard's rear extension were used during 1777-1778.

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Wrist Escutcheon: The 23/4" by 1" escutcheon is in the form of a pedestal surmounted by a large oval with a shell at the top. It is located on the stock's wrist, behind the tang plateau. Ramrod Thimbles: The four thimbles are decorated with encircling decorative grooves. The three upper thimbles are !5/i6" long. The 33/i6" lower thimble has a pointed finial. Sling Swivels: The l5/s" swivels are suspended from lateral screws through the front branch of the trigger guard bow and just forward of the upper-middle thimble. Ramrod: The 37" tapered wood ramrod has a 1^4" sleeve-type trumpet head. There is a 2 " iron sleeve at the rear with an integral wiper. Note: There is no provision for a forend cap. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 51". Comb: The nose of the 9" comb is l/i" high. Flutes extend rearwards on either side for 4Vz". Other: There is a swell at the lower thimble. There is raised floral and shell carving around the breech tang. MARKINGS Barrel: The upper left quadrant near the breech is stamped with London Gunmakers' Company marks and with Twigg's marking. "Twigg," in script, and "London" in block letters, are engraved on the top flat. Lock: The lockplate is engraved "Twigg" in script forward of the cock. There are rope pattern border lines around the plate, cock's body, and frizzen's front face. The pan bridle has decorative leaf pattern engraving. Wrist Escutcheon: The oval portion is engraved with a "2" over an unknown famility crest consisting of a shield over a banner containing the motto, "PRO-ARIS-ET-FOCIS." Other: Martial panoplies, are engraved into the trigger guard bow, side plate and butt plate tang. Silver hallmarks are stamped into the trigger guard's rear extension and near the toe of the butt plate.

FLANK COMPANY SERGEANTS' Fusiu

065.H

In the British Order of Battle, companies of grenadiers and light infantry would often be located to the sides, or flanks, of the infantry regiments. The flank companies were taken from their respective regiments and were usually brigaded together. In April 1769 sergeants of grenadiers were ordered to carry fusils instead of halberds. When the light infantry companies were raised again as flank companies in 1770-1771, sergeants of light infantry were also ordered to carry fusils.

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Like Officers' fusils, Sergeants' fusils were often privately purchased and will have the lock and barrel markings of private arms, not the ownership, proof, and inspection marks of British Ordnance. Flank Company Sergeants' fusils are sometimes mistaken for Light Infantry fusils, which were of the same size, general configuration, and caliber. The Light Infantry fusil is described in the following section. The Sergeants' fusil differs in that its trigger guard and wrist escutcheon are of the same configurations as the Short Land Pattern musket, but these components are scaled down in size. Although it has the same length and general configuration as the Short Land New Pattern musket, the Sergeants' fusil is smaller bored and of lighter construction. It is .65, or "carbine," caliber, and weighs about 7 pounds 12 ounces, which is almost 3 pounds lighter than the Short Land New Pattern musket's average weight of 10 pounds 8 ounces. Because of the visual similarity of the Sergeants' fusil and the Short Land New Pattern musket, the Sergeants' fusil is not illustrated here.

LIGHT INFANTRY FUSIL,

065.1

The light infantry companies, along with grenadier companies (who were considered to be the army's elite), served on the flanks of the regular infantry. The light infantry were the army's skirmishers and could serve to turn an enemy's flank during an offensive. Defensively, the light infantry carried out patrols and countered enemy skirmishers. The Light Infantry fusil was issued to some of the light infantry units raised during the Seven Years' War. It was not issued to the light infantry during the American Revolution. In 1755 the Sixty-second Royal American Regiment was raised as a regular line infantry regiment. It was renumbered the Sixtieth Regiment in December 1756. The men were armed with Long Land Pattern muskets, which are believed to have been equipped with wood ramrods. Although this regiment was often used tactically as light infantry, the men retained these muskets and were not issued fusils. In May 1758 General Jeffrey Amherst raised companies of light infantry totalling around 500 men. They were recruited from the marksmen of existing units under his command in North America for the Battle of Louisbourg. On May 17 it was ordered: "The Light Infantry are forthwith to exchange their heavy arms for those of the Artillery and the [3] additional companies of Col. Eraser's Highlanders."

Plate 065.1-A Light Infantry fusils were produced during the Seven Years' War to satisfy the need to arm the regiments of light infan^ try raised to fight in the rough, forested terrain of eastern North America.

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The light infantry used these artillery carbines until 1760 but were apparently displeased with them. In February of that year they were ordered “to be completed with firelocks instead of short carbines, at their own request.” It is not known what different arms were issued to these men, because just two months later they were disbanded and returned to their own regiments. In late 1757 Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gage of the Forty-fourth Regiment stationed in America proposed that he organize a regiment of light-armed infantry. This proposal was approved in early 1758, and the Eightieth (Gage’s Light-Armed Infantry) Regiment was formed. All that is known of the arms issued to this regiment is that their “firelocks were cut shorter, and the stocks were dressed to make them lighter.” It is not known whether this description referred to .65 caliber fusils or to altered .75 caliber land pattern muskets. Three other light infantry regiments, the Ninetieth (Morgan’s), the Ninety­ fourth (Royal Welsh Volunteers), and the 119th (Prince’s Own), were raised during the Seven Years’ War. Nothing is known of the arms issued to these regiments, but if the Light Infantry fusils described in this section saw service during the Seven Years’ War, it was probably in the hands of one or more of the last four regiments named. All of the light infantry were disbanded in 1763. The Sixtieth (Royal Americans) were reduced to two battalions and became a regular infantry regiment. Through the urgings of Sir William Howe, light infantry companies were again raised in 1770–1771 at the rate of one per regiment. During the American Revolution, the companies were drawn from several regiments and fought as combined battalions. The privates of the light infantry companies that had been raised in 1770–1771 were issued Short Land New Pattern muskets. Only sergeants of the light infantry and grenadier companies were issued fusils. General Information

Caliber: .65. Overall Length: 57½". Finish: All metal bright except for internal springs, which were blued from the heat treating process. Brass Components: Butt plate, trigger guard, side plate, wrist escutcheon, ramrod thimbles, and forend cap. Production Period: Believed to be between 1757 and 1760. Quantity Procured (by British Government): Unknown. Barrel

Length: 42". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. The horizontal diameter of the barrel is 1.15" at the vent, which is .2" less than the regulation musket. The muzzle is the same .92" diameter as the British land pattern musket at the bayonet lug. There is a double baluster ring 5/8" forward of the breech. Four studs are affixed to the underside of the barrel through which pass three lateral pins and the upper sling swivel screw, to retain the barrel to the stock. Bore: Observed examples have a bore diameter of .680" to .690".

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Muzzle Extension: 4V&". Breech Plug: The 21A" square-ended tang tapers from 15/6z" wide at the front to 5 /s" wide at the rear. The lug beneath the tang is notched for passage of the rear sidescrew. Bayonet Lug: The 3/i6" by 5/i6" rectangular lug is brazed to the top of the barrel I13/i6" behind the barrel* This lug also serves as the front sight. LOCK

Lockplate: The 6" by IVs" lockplate has a generally convex surface, except for flats under the cock and frizzen spring. It is bevel-edged only at the front, and the plate is inlet into the stock to the depth of this bevel. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. Cock: The 31A " goose-neck cock has a convex body. The wide recurved tang curls forward at the top. A tennon on the rear of the top jaw slides in a vertical mortice in the front face of the tang to maintain alignment. The pear-shaped head of the jaw screw is slotted only. Pan: The horizontal, round-bottomed pan is integral with the lockplate and has a fence. A bridle extends forward to support the head of the frizzen screw. Frizzen: The P/V by IVs" frizzen has a rounded top with a small lip at the front. The front face has a vertical medial ridge. The top profile of the pan cover, where it joins the tail, is slightly convex. The tail is curled upwards. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and the curve at the front is at or slightly behind the end of the front sidescrew. The inner corner of the outside edge is beveled. Other: The cock and sidescrew heads are convex. The frizzen and frizzen spring screws have convex-surfaced filister heads. Only the end of the sear screw is visible behind the cock.

Plate 065.1-B The locks of Light Infantry fusils were scaled-down versions of those used in contemporary British land pattern muskets.

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FURNITURE

Note: The configuration of the Light Infantry fusil's furniture differs from that of all other British shoulder arms. Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the trigger plate, and is curled rearwards at the bottom. The lOVs" guard has a IV^'-wide bow with a solid rear branch. The front extension's profile steps inwards to a rounded point, surmounted by a convex disc. The rear extension's profile ends in a rounded point. The guard is secured at the front and rear by lateral pins through integral lugs, and by a screw that passes upwards and threads into the wrist escutcheon from behind the bow. Butt Plate: The 4l/i" by l3/4" butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex rear surface. The 2l/i" tang's profile steps inwards and has a rounded point. There are wood screws through the heel and near the toe. Side Plate: The 53/s" convex-surfaced side plate has an extension rearwards from the rear sidescrew. Wrist Escutcheon: The l7/s" escutcheon's profile is oval-shaped with a distinctive point at the rear. Ramrod Thimbles: The four barrel-type thimbles have decorative grooves at their ends. The upper three thimbles are P/s" long. The 4" lower thimble has a pointed finial. A ramrod friction spring is riveted to the inside of the lower thimble. Forend Cap: The n/i6" cast brass cap is retained to the stock's foretip by a vertical brass rivet. Sling Swivels: Both sling swivels are suspended from lateral screws passing from left to right. The lower swivel is attached to the front branch of the trigger guard bow. The upper swivel is located just forward of the upper-middle thimble. Ramrod: The 411A" steel ramrod has a button head.

Plate 065.LC The Light Infantry fusil's wrist escutcheon and butt plate configurations are unique to this arm.

Plate 065.I'D The trigger guard is also unique to the Light Infantry fusil.

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STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 53 W. Comb: The 83/s" comb has a 5/8"-high concave nose with flutes extending rearwards on each side for 5l/i". Other: The stock is of lighter construction than a musket's stock, as may be noted in the smaller butt plate dimensions. There is the usual swell at the lower thimble and a raised plateau around the breech tang. MARKINGS

Barrel: The view and proof marks of British Ordnance are usually stamped near the breech. These consist of a crown over UGR" over a broad arrow, and a crown over crossed scepters. Lock: The plate is engraved, forward of the cock, with the crowned cypher. The crown and broad arrow lock inspector's mark is stamped below the pan. The lock maker's name and year are engraved vertically behind the cock. There is double border line engraving on the plate, cock, top jaw, and front face of the frizzen. Stock: The right side of the butt is stamped with the Ordnance storekeeper's mark of a small crowned cypher. The UGR" initials are in script. Some examples have inspector's initials stamped in block letters into the rear of the left breech flat. Other: A roman numeral assembly number is usually cut into the edge of the lockplate, under the barrel, under the breech plug, and inside most of the furniture. The inside surfaces of the lock and furniture are usually stamped with one or two inspectors' initials, often in a sunken cartouche, and sometimes these locations are stamped with a small crown over a numeral.

ROYAL ARTILLERY CARBINE

065.J

The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers was raised in 1685 as an armed guard for the artillery. Sometime between then and the mid-1750s the artillery apparently undertook its own defense against enemy infantry and cavalry. During peacetime an artillery company usually comprised 116 officers and men. Seventy-three of the men were apprentice gunners who were armed with carbines for the defense of the cannon and wagons. The first documentary reference to a specific shoulder arm for the artillery was in 1752, when some artillery units were issued carbines

Plate 065 J-A Except for the upper ramrod thimbles, the (Type II) Royal Artillery carbines are equipped with scaled-down British land pattern-style metal components.

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with bayonets that had been altered from "cavalry carbines." They probably were altered from horseman's carbines. In 1756 documentary reference is made to a new, stronger artillery carbine. In September 1757 the Board of Ordnance directed that a reserve of 50,000 "Carbines with bayonets, for Artillery and Highlanders" was to be kept in the Tower of London. It is possible that this reference to use by the Highlanders in 1757 was to the three Highland regiments in service in that year: the Forty-second (Black Watch), the Seventy-seventh (Montgomery's), and the Seventyeighth (Eraser's). These regiments are all believed to have been armed with Long Land Pattern muskets. However, in 1758 three additional companies were raised for each of these regiments. These nine additional companies are believed to have been issued artillery carbines, but this has not been verified. There is an interesting letter, dated May 27, 1776, in the U.S. Archives from Benjamin Franklin to the U.S. Commissioner in Canada regarding the capture of British military stores at sea. In this letter, Franklin comments: "I congratulate you on the great prize carried into Boston. 75 tons of gunpowder are an excellent supply, and the 1,000 carbines with bayonets, another fine article." Although it is not known to which specific British carbine Franklin referred, it probably was either the Royal Artillery carbine or the 1765 light dragoon carbine, because they had 36" to 38" barrels and were equipped with bayonets. The horseman's carbine did not have provision for a bayonet, and all of the other shoulder arms in "carbine" caliber, which were equipped with bayonets, were the same length as the Short Land New Pattern musket. An artillery carbine in the First Corps of Cadets Museum in Boston that is credited with being captured and brought into Boston harbor at about this time may have been one of the carbines referred to by Franklin. The Royal Artillery carbine was fabricated in two basic configurations during the second half of the 18th century. These are designated the (Type I) and the (Type II). The (Type I) carbine was equipped with a wood ramrod and appropriate barrel-type thimbles. It was made from about 1756 to the late 1760s. The (Type II) carbine was introduced in the late 1760s or 1770 and is equipped with a steel ramrod and a double upper thimble with a flared mouth. Almost all (Type I) carbines appear to have been altered to the (Type II) configuration. (Type II) carbines made after 1777—1778 were equipped with locks having improvements similar to those incorporated into the production of Short Land New Pattern musket locks at that time. The carbine described here is a (Type I) carbine that was subsequently altered to (Type II). GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .65. Overall Length: 515/s".

Finish: The metal components of observed examples have been finished bright. Brass Components: Butt plate, trigger guard, side plate, wrist escutcheon, ramrod thimbles, and forend cap. Production Period (Type I): estimated to be between 1756 and 1770. (Type II): circa 1770-1797.

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Quantity Procured (by British Government): Unknown, but 50,000 were initially ordered. BARREL 3

5

Length:36 /8"to37 /8". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. The horizontal diameter of this barrel is 1.15" at the vent, which is .2" less than that of the British land pattern musket. The barrel is secured to the stock by three lateral pins, the upper sling swivel screw, and the breech tang screw. Bore Diameter: The bores of observed examples are .675 " in diameter. Muzzle Extension: 3l/8rt. Breech Plug: The 2" square-ended tang tapers from 5/s" wide at the rear to 15/3z" wide at the front. Bayonet Lug: The 3/i6" by l/\" rectangular lug is brazed to the top of the barrel l5/s" behind the muzzle. It also serves as the front sight. LOCK 1

Lockplate: The surface of the 6 /s" by !3/i6" lockplate is generally convex, except for flats under the cock and frizzen spring. It is bevel-edged only at the front. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. Cock: The 33/i6" goose-neck cock has a convex-surfaced body. The wide recurved tang curls forward at the top. A tennon on the rear of the top jaw slides in a vertical mortice in the front face of the tang to maintain alignment. The head of the jaw screw is slotted only. Pan: The horizontal, round-bottomed pan is integral with the lockplate and has a fence. A bridle extends forward to support the frizzen screw. The powder receptacle is oval-shaped. Frizzen: The P/V by 1" frizzen has a rounded top with a decorative lip. The front face has a vertical medial ridge. The top profile of the pan cover where it joins the tail is slightly convex. The tail curls upwards.

Plate 065J-B This (Type I) Royal Artillery carbine lock is marked "EDGE" and dated "1762." (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

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Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and the curve at the front encloses the end of the front sidescrew. The inner edge is rounded. The lower leaf ends in a trefoil finial. Other: The cock and sidescrews are convex-headed. The frizzen and frizzen spring screws have convex-surfaced filister heads. Only the end of the sear screw is visible behind the cock. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the trigger plate, and is curled rearwards at the bottom. The lOVz" trigger guard has a 1 Vi6"-wide bow with a split rear branch. The end of the front extension is sculpted with a small disc at the extreme end. There is a similar oval ball at the rear of the rear extension. The front extension is secured by a lateral pin through an integral lug. The rear extension is secured by two screws. The forward screw threads into the wrist escutcheon.

Plate 065 J-C The configuration of the Royal Artillery carbine's butt plate tang differs only slightly from that of contemporary land pattern muskets.

Plate 065 J-D The Royal Artillery carbine's side plate and trigger guard are visually similar to those of land pattern muskets, but they are smaller.

Butt Plate: The 43/4" by 2" butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex rear surface. The profile of the 43/V' tang is stepped inwards three times and ends in a rounded point. The tang is secured by a lateral pin through an integral lug, and there are screws at the heel and near the toe. Side Plate: The 53/s" convex-surfaced side plate has a distinctive tail extending rearwards from the rear sidescrew.

Plate 065 J-E The upper ramrod thimbles of (Type I) Royal Artillery carbines have an extra double ring in the center.

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Wrist Escutcheon: The 21A" by 7/s" escutcheon is in the shape of an elongated shield with an oval at the top. It is located on top of the stock's wrist, behind the breech tang's plateau. Ramrod Thimbles: The three ramrod thimbles have reinforcement rings at their ends. The upper thimble is 33/4" and consists of a 23/3z" flared-mouth thimble located directly in front of a l5/s" barrel-type thimble. The barrel-type middle thimble is 11A" long. The 33/4" lower thimble has a pointed finial and a ramrod friction spring attached to the inside. Sling Swivels: The upper swivel is suspended from a lateral screw through the forestock, centered 7 " behind the foretip. The lower swivel is suspended from a lateral screw through the front branch of the trigger guard bow. Forend Cap: The 7/s" cast brass cap is secured by a rivet from the bottom. Ramrod: The button-headed steel ramrod is 365/8" long. STOCK 7

Length: 48 /i6". Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Comb: The 83/s" comb has a 5/s"-high concave nose. Flutes extend rearwards along either side for 5V^". Other: There is a swell in the stock at the lower thimble and a raised plateau around the breech tang. MARKINGS

Barrel: Ordnance view and proof markings are usually stamped in the upper left quadrant. These consist of a crown over "GR" over a broad arrow and a crown

Plate 065.J-F The lock of the (Type II) Royal Artillery carbine has the improvements of 17771778. (Photograph courtesy of the Maine State Museum.)

8

Examples are known with four ramrod thimbles. These are believed to have been made in the 1750s. The 4" upper thimble has a flared mouth. The upper- and lower-middle thimbles are barrel type and are 15/16" and 1/fc" long, respectively. The lower thimble is 3" long and has a pointed finial.

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Plate 065.J-G The barrel of this (Type II) carbine is engraved with British Royal Artillery markings. The "to MS" markings indicate that it is one of the carbines believed imported into the United States in the late 1790s and issued to Massachusetts by the federal government at some time between 1814 and 1821. (Photograph courtesy of the Maine State Museum.)

Plate 065.K-A Until 1768 the Short Land Pattern musket was the shoulder arm of the British dragoons. From 1768 to 1770 the Short Land New Pattern musket was the regulation arm of both the dragoons and the infantry. In 1770 this new carbine was approved as the regulation shoulder arm for the dragoons. It is the same length as the Short Land New Pattern musket, but is in .65 caliber. (Photograph courtesy of the Armouries, H.M. Tower of London.)

over crossed scepters. The barrels of most examples are usually engraved with the battalion's designation, such as "ROYL ARTILLERY«4«B." Lock: The plate is marked in front of the cock with a crowned cypher and with a crown over a broad arrow beneath the pan. The rear of the lock is engraved "GALTON" over "1762." Wrist Escutcheon: The wrist escutcheon is engraved "No" over "3" over "G." Other: The lockplate cock, top jaw, and front face of frizzen have border engraving.

177O DRAGOON CARBINE

065 .K

From their raising in the 17th century, British dragoons were issued muskets with bayonets that were 4" shorter than contemporary infantry muskets. From the introduction of the British land pattern series of arms until 1770, the regulation shoulder arm of the dragoons was the Short Land Pattern musket. Dragoons typically fought on foot like infantry, but traveled on horseback. From the early part of the 18th century, there was an increased tactical use of dragoons to fight mounted, like horse regiments, as well as on foot. In 1756 a troop of light dragoons was added to each of the eleven existing dragoon regiments.

Plate 065.K-B The 1770 dragoon carbine's furniture was similar to that of the Short Land New Pattern musket, but it was equipped with a sling bar and ring. (Photograph courtesy of The Armouries, H.M. Tower of London.)

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS

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An order dated March 12, 1770, stated that the king had approved a new pattern of "firelock" for the dragoons. This new arm was similar to the Short Land Pattern musket but was in "carbine," or .65, caliber. It was dimensionality identical to the Sergeants' fusil previously described. Like that fusil, the 1770 dragoon carbine had a more lightly built stock, a reduced diameter barrel, and a scaled-down lock and furniture. The dragoon carbine is distinguished from the Sergeants' fusil by a swivel bar that extends forward from beneath the head of the rear sidescrew. This bar has a tang that extends rearwards from the rear sidescrew and is secured by a wood screw. The bar extends about 9" forward along the left side of the stock, then curves beneath the stock, where it forms into a yoke whose branches extend up both sides of the stock. These branches are secured by a lateral machine screw that passes from the left and threads into the right branch, just above and behind the lower thimble. This carbine also has a long, upper ramrod thimble with a flared mouth.

1756 LIGHT DRAGOON CARBINE

065.L

In 1756 a troop of light dragoons was added to each of the eleven existing regiments of dragoons. Light dragoons were used for scouting, patrolling, and skirmishing. They could fight either mounted or on foot. For this reason, regulations dated April 14, 1756, described the arm for the light dragoons as "a carbine with ring and bar, four feet three inches long, with a bayonet of seventeen inches in length." This was the first in a series of carbines created as a result of the Seven Years' War. The 1756 light dragoon carbine was superseded by the Elliott carbine in 1773 as the regulation arm of the light dragoons. The light dragoon carbine typically has a 36" barrel in .65 caliber and is about 3 52 /4" long, overall. It is basically the same as the contemporary Royal Artillery carbine but is equipped with a swivel bar and ring. There is no provision for sling swivels. The swivel bar extends from beneath the head of the rear sidescrew for

Plate 065.L-A The British 1756 light dragoon carbine is very similar to the contemporary Royal Artillery carbine, except that it is equipped with a sling bar and ring instead of sling swivels. The ramrod of this example is apparently too short. (Photograph courtesy of The Armouries, H.M. Tower of London.)

Plate 065.L-B The 1756 light dragoon carbine's swivel bar closely resembles those used on contemporary horseman's carbines. (Photograph courtesy of The Armouries, H.M. Tower of London.)

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about 9" along the left side of the stock. This bar has a flat-surfaced rear tang, which is secured by a wood screw. The bar’s front end is secured by a lateral machine screw, which passes from the right side of the forearm. Further specifications may be obtained in the section describing the Royal Artillery carbine.



Plate 065 .M-A The British Elliott carbine superseded the 1756 light dragoon carbine as the regulation shoulder arm for the light dra­­ goons in 1773.

Elliott Carbine

065.M

In 1759 Colonel George A. Elliott raised the Fifteenth Light Dragoons. The following year a carbine was designed for this unit and named after him. In June 1773 the Elliott carbine was adopted by the Ordnance as the regulation arm of all the light dragoons. It ultimately superseded the 1756 light dragoon carbine and would remain the regulation arm until 1796, when a new carbine for all cavalry was adopted. Two regiments of light dragoons were sent to North America during the American Revolution. The Seventeeth arrived in Boston in June 1775 and the Sixteenth arrived in New York in July 1776. It is not known if they were equipped with Elliott carbines. The Elliott carbine described here was fabricated a few years after the end of the American Revolutionary War. General Information

Caliber: .65. Overall Length: 435∕8". Finish: All metal bright except for internal springs, which were blued from the heat treating process. Brass Components: Butt plate, trigger guard, trigger plate, ramrod thimbles, side plate, and forend cap. Production Period: 1770–1796. Quantity Procured (by British Government): Unknown. Barrel

Length: 281∕8". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There is a double baluster ring 5∕8" forward of the breech. The barrels of English-made carbines are retained by three lateral pins. The barrels of Irishmade carbines are retained by three flat keys. Bore Diameter: Observed examples have diameters of .662" to .665".

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS

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Muzzle Extension: 31/4f/. Breech Plug: The I15/i6" square-ended tang tapers from 15/3z" wide at the front to 5/s" wide at the rear. The rear of the lug beneath is notched for passage of the rear sidescrew. Bayonet Lug: The 3/i6" by VV rectangular lug is brazed to the top of the barrel !3/4" behind the muzzle. This lug also serves as the front sight. LOCK

Note: The lock is the same as on contemporary Royal Artillery carbines, and a description will be found in that section. It should be noted that almost all of the Elliott carbines encountered have the lock improvements of 1778 (described in section 065.A66).

Plate 065.M-B The configuration of the lock's external components and the stamped markings indicate that this Elliott carbine was produced after 1785.

FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the trigger plate, and is curled rearwards at the bottom. The 91/4M guard has a l"-wide bow with a split rear branch. The front extension has a sculpted finial, surmounted by an oval. The rear extension terminates with a similar oval at the end. The guard is retained by lateral pins through integral vertical lugs at the front and rear and by a screw behind the guard bow. Butt Plate: The 45/s" by l7/s" butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex rear surface. The 4" tang is secured by a lateral pin through an integral lug. It has a pointed end. Side Plate: The 53/4" flat side plate differs from other British military side plates and resembles those used on some American long rifles and German Jager rifles. It is inlet flush with the stock's surface. Wrist Escutcheon: There is no provision for wrist escutcheon. Plate 065.M-C Early Elliott carbines were equipped with swivel bars similar to those used on contemporary horseman's carbines. Several examples of Elliott carbines made after 1785 exist in U.S. collections and are equipped with a swivel bar similar to those used on contemporary 1770 dragoon carbines.

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Ramrod Thimbles: The 31/z" upper thimble has a flared mouth. The l3/s" middle thimble is barrel-shaped. The 4" lower thimble has a pointed finial. Forend Cap: The 1" cast brass forend cap is secured to the stock's foretip by a vertical brass rivet. This cap has an integral stud projecting downwards from its front end to retain the ramrod. Sling Swivels: None. Swivel Bar And Ring: The following swivel bar is described by both Blackmore and Bailey as being correct for this carbine. The 6" bar extends forward along the left side from under the head of the rear sidescrew. It has a tang that extends 2l/s" rearwards that is secured by a wood screw. The front of this bar is secured by a lateral machine screw that passes from the right side of the stock and threads into the bar's teardrop-shaped finial. However, most Elliott carbines observed in American collections have the same swivel bar described for the 1770 dragoon carbine. Ramrod: The 28" button-headed steel ramrod has a swell behind the head. There is an encircling groove 3" behind the head, similar to the "doubleshoulder" rods that would be used in American rifles manufactured at the Springfield Armory 100 years later. The stud that projects down from the front of the forend cap engages this groove, thereby retaining the ramrod. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 405/i6". Comb: The 83A" comb has a V^'-high nose. Flutes extend ll/i" rearwards along both sides. Other: There is a swell in the forestock at the lower thimble and a raised plateau around the breech tang. MARKINGS

Barrel: The upper left quadrant of one known example is stamped with a "C" over "GI" over a broad arrow and with a crown over crossed scepters. The upper right quadrant is stamped near the breech with a crown over "U." Lock: The plate is engraved with the crowned cypher in front of the cock and "TOWER" in a vertical curve behind the cock. There is border engraving on the lockplate and cock only. Other: The underside of the barrel is stamped "WROCK." This is probably the mark of W. Rock, who worked in Birmingham circa 1795. The lock maker's name, "WHEELER," is stamped inside the lock. This is probably Robert Wheeler & Son, who also worked in Birmingham. Most component parts have roman numeral assembly numbers cut into them.

18TH-CENTURY HORSEMAN'S CARBINES

065.O

From 1678 the British cavalry was divided into regiments of horse and dragoons. These differed in that the regiments of horse fought on horseback, but

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS

261

the dragoons usually fought on foot, like infantry. The dragoons were more mobile than infantry as they moved from one place to another on horseback. Because they usually fought from the saddle, men of the horse regiments were issued carbines without bayonets, a pair of pistols, and a sword. Because dragoons usually fought on foot, they were issued muskets (and later, carbines) that were equipped with bayonets, in addition to pistols and a sword. As previously described in the colonial arms section, the configuration of the British horseman's carbine changed very little between the end of the 17th century and the middle of the 18th century. QUEEN A N N E PERIOD HORSEMAN'S CARBINE

065.02

The following description is of a military horseman's carbine made during the reign of Queen Anne in 1711. This carbine is presented only as an example of military flintlock horseman's carbines of the early 18th century and for comparison with carbines made a half century later. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .65. Overall Length: 52l/i". Finish: All metal is finished bright. Brass Components: The butt plate, trigger guard, and side plate, are made of cast brass. The thimbles are made of sheet brass. BARREL

Length: 37". Contour: The round barrel tapers in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There is a baluster ring at the breech. The barrel is secured by a convex-headed wood screw passing downwards from the tang and by three lateral pins that pass through the forestock and tennons affixed to the underside of the barrel. Sights: A 3/i6" iron, oval front sight blade is brazed to the barrel 21A" behind the muzzle. Muzzle Extension: 3/s". Breech Tang: The I15/i6" by 9/i6" tang is square-ended.

Plate 065.O2-A This British horseman's carbine was made early in the 18th century during the reign of Queen Anne. It represents an early use of cast brass furniture.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. f

262

Plate 065.O2-B The lock is engraved with the royal crowned cypher of Queen Anne forward of the cock and with "T" over "GREEN" over "11" behind the cock. The "11" is the last two numerals of the year 1711.

LOCK 5

1

Lockplate: The rear of the 5 /s" by 1 A" plate is inclined downwards and ends in a projecting point. The surface is convex, except beneath the frizzen spring, where it is flat with a beveled edge. Cock: The 31/fc" goose-neck cock has a convex-surfaced body. The wide recurved tang curls forward at the top. A tennon in the rear of the top jaw slides in a vertical mortice in the front face of the tang to maintain alignment. The head of the jaw screw is slotted only. Pan: The horizontal, round-bottom pan is integral with the lockplate. There is no fence, nor does it have an external bridle. Frizzen: The IVz" by ll/\" frizzen has a rounded top. The top has a decorative forward curl and the front face's lower portion has a vertical medial ridge. There is also a distinct hump in the pan cover's profile above the frizzen screw, and the tail curls upwards. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight. The curved section at the front covers the front sidescrew. The outer edge of this spring is beveled, and the finial is spear-shaped. It is secured by a screw passing from inside the lockplate. Internal Components: This lock is equipped with an internal bridle. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The slightly curved iron trigger is suspended from a lateral pin at the bottom of the lock recess, downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The trigger's lower end is curled rearwards. The 105/s" cast brass guard has a 13/i6"-wide integral bow. Both extensions terminate in narrow round ends. The guard is secured by lateral pins through integral lugs at the front and rear. Butt Plate: The 4Vz" by l7/s" cast brass butt plate has a curved rear profile and a convex rear surface. The 4 " tang is secured by a lateral pin through an integral lug and ends in a point. The butt plate is also secured by screws at the toe and heel.

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS

263

Plate 065.O2-C The swivel bar's rear end is secured by the rear sidescrew, and its front end is se^ cured by a bolt passing through the forestock. The side plate is somewhat more ornate than would be used in carbines later in the 18th century.

Thimbles: There are three sheet brass thimbles. The two upper thimbles are !3/8" long. The 35/s" lower thimble has a long, pointed finial. Each thimble is secured by a lateral pin. Sidescrews: The lock is secured by two convex-headed sidescrews. Side Plate: The 77/i6" convex-surfaced cast brass side plate is in the form of a modified "S" with a leaf-shaped rear projection. Swivel Bar and Ring: A l/V diameter iron ring is suspended from a 9" rod on the left side. This rod is secured at the rear by the lock's rear sidescrew and at the front by a convex-headed wood screw. Ramrod: The 36l/i" tapered wood rod has a Vs" thick, convex-surfaced brass tip at the end. Note: This carbine has no provision for forend cap or wrist escutcheon. STOCK

Wood Type: English walnut. Length: 521/8"* Comb: The nose of the 9" comb is l/i" high. There are 4" flutes extending rearwards on both sides. Other: There is a raised plateau around the breech tang only and a swell in the forearm at the lower thimble. MARKINGS

Barrel: A large "OO" is engraved on top of the breech, which is also stamped with the crown and crossed scepter Tower view and proof cartouches. The left side of the breech has an engraved "69." The tang has scroll engraving in front of the screw, and a large "12" is engraved forward of this. Lock: Forward of Cock: The plate is engraved with the royal cypher of a crown over "AR," and it is stamped with the Ordnance's broad arrow acceptance stamp below the pan. Behind the Cock: "T" over "GREEN" over "11" is engraved in three vertical lines. The "11" is the last two numerals of the year 1711. Thomas Green contracted arms to British Ordnance between 1697 and 1715. Stock: The right side of the butt is stamped with a small Ordnance ownership cartouche of a crown over "AR" in script, and "16" is stamped behind the trigger guard.

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Assembly Number: Roman numeral "VII" is cut in the barrel channel, the underside of the barrel, and on the mainspring. Roman numeral "XI" is cut into the lockplate and also in the underside of the barrel* HORSEMAN'S CARBINE (FROM 1757)

Plate 065.07-A This horseman's carbine was made during the Seven Years' War. The nose of the buttstock's comb was lowered subsequent to original manufacture.

Plate 065.O7-B This lock's top jaw and screw are replacements. However, they demonstrate that the method of maintaining the top jaw's alignment by a vertical slot in its rear, which enclosed the front and sides of the cock's tang, was used in horseman's carbines many years before it was introduced into the production of land pattern musket locks.

Plate 065.O7-C The front branch of the horseman's carbine's trigger guard bow differs from that on all other British shoulder arms.

065.07

In September 1757 the Board of Ordnance directed that a reserve of 2,000 "Carbines without Bayonets for Horse" was to be kept at the Tower of London. This carbine evolved from, and is generally similar to, the horseman's carbine of the Queen Anne period, described previously. The horseman's carbine, as it was made from 1757, has a configuration identical to that of the light dragoon carbine of 1756, except that it is stocked to the muzzle, has no forend cap or bayonet stud, and has an oval iron front sight blade brazed to the barrel ZVz" behind the muzzle.

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS

265

All known examples are equipped with brass-tipped wood ramrods and three thimbles. Early horseman's carbines apparently had a barrel-type upper thimble, but a carbine made circa 1770-1771 in the collection of the Royal Armouries, H.ML Tower of London has a two-piece upper thimble consisting of a barrel-type thimble located directly behind a thimble with a flared mouth.

MILITARY RIFLES OF THE SEVEN YEARS' WAR

065.R

The first known procurement of rifles for the British Army was a lot of fifty rifles purchased for the attack on Louisbourg in May 1746. At the outbreak of the Seven Years' War in 1754 there were about sixty foreign rifled arms of various types in storage in the Tower of London. A few of these rifles were sent to America, and sixteen of them were issued from British stores in New York in 1755. They were described as "Carbines with Rifle Bores, Steel Ramrods," and they were equipped with bayonets. In January 1757 Colonel Prevost of the Sixtieth (Royal American) Regiment was repaid by the army for "300 carbines with rifled barrels, steel ramrods, and bayonets," which he had apparently procured for issue to the sharpshooters of several British regiments who were serving in North America. Ten rifled carbines are known to have been issued to British engineers who took part in the expedition against Havana in 1762. Virtually nothing is known of these rifles, and it is believed that they were fabricated in one or more of the German states, although some may have been procured in North America. It should be noted that most were equipped with bayonets. This is the earliest documented use by any nation of military rifles with bayonets and predates the general adoption of military rifles with bayonets in the German states by thirty to fifty years. (See also Section 095., describing German states' Jager rifles.) Although no documentary references have been located, it is generally believed that some American-made rifles were brought into service by some of the British North American colonial militia forces who fought in the Seven Years' War. In January 1764, after the end of the war, thirty-five various rifled arms that remained in the Tower were sold at auction.

MILITARY RIFLES OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR

065.S

Due to the nature of warfare in North America during the Revolutionary War and the heavily forested country, the Ordnance determined to have five

Plate 065.S- A This rifle was one of 200 produced by William Grhe under contract with British Ord' nance in 1776. Subsequent to original manufacture, it was altered to percussion, and its ramrod swivel was removed. (Photograph courtesy of John Bicknell.)

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

266

marksmen armed with rifles assigned to each infantry company of the regiments to be sent to North America. The total requirement was estimated to be 1,000 rifles. Two hundred of these rifles were procured from a man identified only as Heinrich Huhnstock of Hanover. They were ordered in January 1776 by the British agent, Colonel Faucett in Hanover. Payment records indicate that all 200 rifles were received. Fifty of these rifles were sent to General Howe in New York, and fifty were sent to General Burgoyne in Quebec. It is believed that they were Jager-style rifles. There are no known surviving examples. At about the same time the rifles were ordered in Hanover, British Ordnance ordered 200 rifles from each of four Birmingham gunmakers, a total of 800, at £4 each. William Grice furnished a pattern rifle for the other gunmakers in March. In 1961 Howard Blackmore reported9 that 670 of these rifles were completed in 1776 and that later in 1776 the master general of the Ordnance ordered their manufacture terminated, because procurement of the Ferguson breechloading rifle had been approved. However, recent research by DeWitt Bailey10 has located payments to the gunmakers for all 800 of these rifles. The four gunmakers are: William Grice, Mathias Barker, Galton & Sons, and Benjamin Willets. The identity of these rifles had been unknown until it was recently discovered by Anthony Darling, who has located several examples in American and Canadian collections. The description of a typical example made by William Grice is given here. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .65. Overall Length: 43 W. Finish: The metal components of reported examples are finished bright. The barrels may have originally been finished brown. Brass Components: Butt plate, side plate, trigger guard, and ramrod thimbles. Production Period: 1776. Quantity Procured (by British Government): 660. BARREL

Length: 28". Contour: Full octagonal, tapering to the flat-crowned muzzle. The barrel has a false breech, which hooks into the tang/breech piece. It is secured by three flat keys. Bore: The bore is rifled with eight grooves. Muzzle Extension: l/s". Breech Plug: The tang's sides are stepped inwards, and it terminates in a round end. Rear Sight: This sight is missing, but was located 6l/i" forward of the breech.

9 British Military Firearms, 83. 10

Unpublished.

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS

267

Front Sight: The brass blade is brazed to the top of the barrel, 1" behind the muzzle. Bayonet Lug: No provision for bayonet. LOCK 7

Lockplate: The 5 /s" by 1" lockplate is flat with beveled edges. Its general configuration is Germanic, and it does not have vertical decorative grooves at the rear. Note: This example has been converted to percussion; therefore, no further description of external lock components can be given except to note that only the end of the sear screw is visible behind the cock.

Plate 065.S-B Of the 800 rifles originally produced in 1776 under contract, only one example is known to be complete and in original flintlock. It is in a private English collection and is not available to photograph. (Photograph courtesy of John Bicknell.)

FURNITURE Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The brass trigger guard has a skeleton pistol grip behind the bow. The front extension ends in a "covered vase" finial and the rear extension ends in an acorn finial. Butt Plate: The butt plate has a straight rear profile and a convex rear surface. Side Plate: The flat side plate is the same configuration used in Short Land New Pattern muskets but is shorter and has an extra wood retaining screw at the rear. Wrist Escutcheon: None. Ramrod Thimbles: The three thimbles have reinforcing rings at the ends. The upper thimble has a flared mouth. The middle thimble is barrel-shaped, and the lower thimble has a pointed finial. Sling Swivels: The sling swivels are suspended from lateral screws. The lower swivel is located on the front branch of the trigger guard bow, and the upper swivel is at the front of the upper thimble. Plate 065.S-C The trigger guard's front extension ends in a "covered vase" finial, and its rear extension ends in an acorn-shaped finial. (Photograph courtesy of John Bicknell.)

268

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 Forend Cap: The iron nose cap has a concave recess in the upper edges, presumably to aid in barrel removal. Ramrod: The steel ramrod has a button head. (Note: These rifles were originally equipped with swivel ramrods, which were removed prior to their issue.) STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 433/s". Comb: The comb has a concave nose and deep side flutes. Other: There is a raised oval-shaped plateau around the breech tang. MARKINGS

Plate 065.T-A This is the only known complete surviving example of the 100 Ferguson breechloading rifles made under contract to the British Ordnance in 1776. A sheet metal stock reinforcement plate has been added around the front of the trigger guard assembly subsequent to original manufacture. (Photograph courtesy of the Morristown NHP.)

Barrel: The left quarter flat is stamped, near the breech, with William Grice's mark of UWG" and the Ordnance view and proof marks of a crown over "GR" over a broad arrow and with a crown over crossed scepters. Lock: The plate is engraved with the crowned cypher forward of the cock and "TOWER" in a vertical curve behind the cock. It is also struck with the lock inspector's mark of a crown over a broad arrow, under the pan. The inside of the plate is stamped UWG." The lockplate is border engraved. Butt Plate Tang: This is engraved with "R" over "No23." "R" is believed to refer to "Rifle company." Stock: The right side of the butt has an Ordnance ownership stamp without date. Behind the trigger guard are stamped the final marks of the finish viewer of Ordnance. These are a small crown and another crown over "7." Other: A roman numeral assembly number "XXIIH" is cut into the underside of the barrel and the barrel channel.

FERGUSON BREECHLOADING RIFLE

065.T

Patrick Ferguson was a British army officer who had served in Germany and the West Indies. He probably began to design his breechloading rifle upon his return to England in 1774* The principle of using a vertical breech screw to enable loading from the breech was not invented by Ferguson. It had been used previously in Germany, France, and England. Prior to 1721 this system required that the breech screw be totally removed to enable loading. That year, a Frenchman named Isaac de La Chaumette patented a breech screw with parallel threads that passed vertically through the barrel and that would drop sufficiently in one revolution to allow loading from the top. La Chaumette emigrated to

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS

England in the 1720s, and most of the known guns made under his patent were made there. Ferguson improved on these earlier arms by making it more difficult to remove the breech screw from the rifle by accident. He patented the addition of a grease groove in the breech screw's threads, which reduced fouling of the rifle during continued firing. He also patented an improved rear sight. Shortly before April 27, 1776, Ferguson demonstrated his rifle to a number of British officers. Prior to June 1 he again demonstrated his rifle's rapidity and ease of loading, accuracy, and ability to fire under adverse weather conditions to a number of senior army and ordnance officers at Woolwich. British Ordnance promptly ordered 100 Ferguson rifles to be made for field trials in North America. The rifle used by Ferguson for these demonstrations was made by the London gunmaker Durs Egg, who also made a pattern for the Ordnance Department. Contracts for twenty-five rifles were let to each of the same four Birmingham gunmakers who had made the muzzleloading military rifles described in the previous section: William Grice, Mathias Barker, Galton & Sons, and Benjamin Willets. Available information indicates that the rifles were completed by October 11,1776. The Ordnance Department paid a William Sharp three pence per rifle to engrave serial numbers in three locations on each of them. The secretary for war ordered that a detachment of riflemen be formed. On March 6, 1777, Ferguson was placed in command of this unit, which would be referred to unofficially as "Ferguson's Riflemen." By the end of that month, he was awaiting transport to North America, and his arrival was reported by General Howe on May 24. The unit was placed in the forefront of the British forces during the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777, and played a major role in the British success in that battle. However, Ferguson was wounded in the arm, and the detachment suffered heavy casualties. As a result, the unit was disbanded. Shortly thereafter, General Howe ordered the rifles placed in storage in New York. Nothing more is known about the rifles, except that an April 1, 1801, inventory of arms at Schuylkill Arsenal included one damaged "Ferguson's patent rifle." In 1780 Ferguson commanded American loyalists in the southern campaign and was killed at the Battle of King's Mountain on October 7. Of the 100 rifles procured by the Ordnance, only two have been identified. One is located in the Morristown, New Jersey, National Park Museum. A second rifle, which is also believed to be one of the original 100, is in the Milwaukee Public Museum collection. The barrel of this rifle has been shortened about 2 ", and the metal surfaces have been filed and polished, removing all lock markings, and all but the "PF" mark on the barrel.

269

Plate 065. T-B Ferguson breechloading rifle with action open, ready for loading through a hole in the top of the barrel's breech. (Photograph courtesy of the Morristown NHP.)

27O

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

A few additional Ferguson military rifles are in public and private collections in Great Britain and the United States, but these are believed to have been made for the East India Company or purchased privately by British officers and volunteer units. They are distinguished by being marked "FERGUS" on the barrel behind the breech screw and are stamped with private proofs, not Ordnance proofs. Many were made without forend caps and have other minor variations. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .64. Overall Length: 49". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: Butt plate, ramrod thimbles, and the breech screw of the Morristown Park example. The Milwaukee Public Museum example has a steel breech screw. Production Period: 1776. Quantity Procured (by British Government): 100. BARREL

Length: 34". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There are 3 " flats on either side of the breech, and the 5l/i" top flat is widest at the breech screw. The barrel's lower surface projects downwards at the breech to provide more bearing area for the breech screw threads and to inhibit the screw's being accidentally removed from the rifle while loading. Four underlugs are affixed under the barrel, through which pass three flat keys that secure the barrel to the stock and the upper sling swivel screw. Bore: Rifled with eight grooves of equal width to the lands. The land diameter is .620", and the groove diameter is .663". Muzzle Extension: 43/s". Breech Screw: The diameter of the screw tapers from 13/i6" at the top to 7/s" at the bottom. It has ten parallel, spiral threads, which make one turn in 1". It is affixed to the front of the trigger guard at the bottom, and its upper surface is flush with that of the barrel when it is closed. One full rotation of the trigger guard lowers the upper surface of this screw to the level of the bottom of the chamber. The chamber diameter is larger than the bore diameter. Therefore, if the muzzle is lowered, a round ball may be inserted through the hole, and it will roll to the front of the chamber. Loose powder may then be inserted behind it. Breech Plug: The 25/i6" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. Sights: Rear Sight: This sight consists of one standing leaf and one folding leaf on a rectangular base that is dovetailed to the barrel 45/s" forward of the breech. Front Sight: The iron blade is integral with a small rectangular base and is silver soldered to the barrel 43/s" behind the muzzle.

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271

Bayonet Lug: This rectangular lug is located under the barrel, 21A" behind the muzzle. LOCK

Lockplate: The flat, bevel-edged lockplate is 53/i6" by 31/32". There is a vertical decorative groove at the rear, and the plate's rear profile ends in a projecting point. Cock: The 213/i6" goose-neck cock has a flat-surfaced body with beveled edges. The top of the narrow tang curls forward and has a decorative notch. A vertical mortice on the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of the tang, and the slotted jaw screw has a flattened top. Pan: The horizontal, round-bottomed pan is integral with the lockplate and has an oval-shaped powder receptacle and a fence.

Plate 065 .T-C The Morristown example was one of the twentyfive rifles made under contract with British Ordnance by the Birmingham gunmakers Mattias Barker and John Whately. (Photograph courtesy of the Morristown NHP.)

Frizzen: The !9/i6" by 7/s" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge with a decorative facet at the top. The tail curls upwards at the rear. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and both leaves have beveled outer edges. The lower leaf ends in a fleur-de-lis finial. Other: The cock screw is flat-headed with a decorative ridge around the edge. The convex heads of the frizzen and frizzen spring screws are countersunk. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The straight trigger is suspended from a lateral pin through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The 8" trigger guard also serves as the breech screw lever and is attached to the bottom of this screw at the front. It has a vertical grasping knob at the rear and is secured in the closed position to the trigger plate by a spring and detent. The bow is 1" wide. This assembly is 97/s" overall. Butt Plate: The 43/4" by l7/s" butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex rear surface. The profile of the 4H" tang steps inwards to a pointed end.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

272

Wrist Escutcheon: The Morris town example has a brass escutcheon on top of the wrist in the form of an elongated shield with a small oval on top. The Milwaukee Public Museum example does not have this escutcheon. Side Plate: None. Sidescrew: A single, flat-headed screw passes from the right, in front of the cock, and is threaded into the barrel's breech. Ramrod Thimbles: The three brass, barrel-style thimbles have decorative reinforcement rings at the ends. The upper two thimbles are !7/i6" long. The 33/s" lower thimble ends in a pointed finial. Forend Cap: The 1" cast brass cap is secured by a rivet to the stock. Sling Swivels: The 3/4" lower swivel is riveted to a stud located at the rear of the stock's left breech flat. The upper swivel is suspended from a lateral screw located just forward of the middle ramrod thimble. Ramrod: Both the Morristown and Milwaukee examples have tapered wood ramrods. However, because the Morristown rifle's ramrod does not have a horn tip, and because the Milwaukee rifle and several of the Ferguson rifles observed in British collections have tapered wood ramrods with trumpetshaped horn tips, it is believed that the rod of the Morristown rifle may have been replaced. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 45". Comb: The nose of the 8l/i" comb is l/i" high. Flutes of 45/s" extend rearwards along each side. Other: There is a swell in the stock at the lower thimble. There is no raised plateau around the breech tang. MARKINGS

Barrel: The barrel is stamped with the Tower view and proof marks for private arms consisting of two crowns, each over crossed scepters. It is also stamped with the Ordnance view and proof mark of a crown over "GR." In addition, it is stamped with a crown over "PF," which may be the initials of Patrick Ferguson, as well as with the initials UMB" and "IW." These are believed to be the initials of Mattias Barker and John Whately, partners in the firm Barker & Whately, gunmakers and barrel makers in Birmingham (17751785). Only the "PF" stamp is legible behind the breech screw of the Milwaukee rifle. Breech Tang: This tang is stamped with the barrel viewer's mark of a crown over "8" and is marked with the initials "WRF." Lock: The lockplate is not border engraved. It is marked with the royal cypher of a crown over "OR" in front of the cock, and "TOWER" is stamped vertically at the rear. Serial Number: A "2" is engraved into both the breech tang and trigger guard. Stock: The Ordnance storekeeper's mark of a crown over a script "OR" is stamped into the right side of the butt.

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS NOCK VOLLEY GUN

273

065.V

On July 28, 1779, James Wilson "presented a new invented Gun with Seven barrels to fire at one time" to a British Ordnance board conducting firing trials of rifled arms. The following day, this arm underwent trials at Woolwich and was recommended for use as a weapon that could be fired from the "round tops," or crow's nests, to the decks of enemy ships at close range. This recommendation was accepted by the Admiralty on August 14. The volley gun used in the trials, as well as two prototypes made by the London gunmaker Henry Nock, were rifled. It was later found that rifling was not necessary, and all subsequent arms were made with smooth bores. The first order for seven-barrel guns was given to Nock on October 28, 1779. They were to undergo sea trials aboard HMS Phoenix. On April 18, 1780, Ordnance ordered 500 more for the navy. Nock received £15 for each of the two prototype rifled volley guns and £13 each for each of the smooth bore guns. A total of 526 volley guns, including the two rifled prototypes, were delivered by Nock before the end of 1780. Twenty-three more were delivered in January of 1781. These all are generally referred to as "first navy contract" arms. Some are believed to have been aboard ships of Admiral Rodney's fleet when he engaged the French fleet of Admiral Count de Grasse in 1782. After the Revolution, Nock made 106 more volley guns for British Ordnance. The first six were made in 1784, and 100 were made in 1788 for ultimate delivery to the navy. The salient differences in these late production arms is that they had double-throated cocks and simple "U"-shaped frizzen springs mounted on the lockplate with the curved end to the rear. Nock and other makers also made sporting volley guns. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .52. Overall Length: 37". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: Butt plate, side plate, trigger guard, and ramrod thimbles. Production Period: 1779-1780. Quantity Procured (by British Government): 549.

Plate 065 .V-A A limited quantity of the seven-barreled Nock volley gun was procured by British Ordnance late in the American Revolutionary War for use by the Royal Navy. The gun was to be fired by men in the crow's nests towards the decks of enemy ships, at close range.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

274

BARREL

Length: 20". Description: This assembly consists of six round barrels grouped around a seventh, central barrel Each of the six outer barrels has a breech plug, whose rear is flush with the breech of the barrel. The breech end of the central barrel is internally threaded and screws onto a breech screw containing an internal powder chamber, which projects from the face of the breech piece. The vent from the lock's pan leads directly to the rear of the powder chamber, which has six other vents radiating outwards to the other barrels. The breech piece has an integral 23/4" upper tang and a 5" lower tang, which also serves as the trigger plate. Bore: .520" smooth. (Note: Patched .46" diameter balls were used in this arm.) Front Sight: A small 3/i6" oval iron blade is brazed to the top barrel 7/s" behind the muzzle. LOCK 7

Lockplate: The 5 /i6" by 1" back-action lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges. The front 7/s" of the inside surface is concave, to conform to the barrel assembly. Cock: The 3l/s" goose-neck cock has a flat, bevel-edged body. The top of the narrow tang has a decorative notch in the front. The top jaw has a vertical mortice in the rear, which encloses the front and sides of the tang. The jaw screw has a lateral hole and is slotted. Pan: The integral, round-bottomed pan is mounted horizontally. It has a fence and a flat outer surface. Frizzen: The front face has a vertical medial ridge with a decorative facet at the top. The toe is curled upwards. Frizzen Spring: The 2" spring is screwed to the lockplate just forward of the cock. It projects upwards, then curves forwards and downwards in an inverted

Plate 065.V-B The back-action lock's mainspring is located to the rear of the tumbler and exerts an upwards pressure on the tumbler. Nock volley guns made under the first naval order have the gooseneck cocks and unusual frizzen springs illustrated here. Those made after the Revolution have cocks with reinforced throats and conventional frizzen springs.

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275

Plate 065.V-C Muzzle detail showing how the volley gun's six barrels are clustered around the centered seventh barrel.

"U" shape, and its tail extends forwards under the frizzen. The finial is in the form of a small curl FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the lower breech piece tang, which also serves as a trigger plate. The pad of this trigger is curved to fit the finger and is curled rearwards at the bottom. The 63/s" guard assembly has a rounded front end and a pointed rear end. It is secured by screws at the front and rear. Butt Plate: The 51A" by 2" butt plate has a slightly curved rear profile and a convex rear surface. The 37/s" tang ends in a point. Side Plate: The 33/s" modified "S"-shaped side plate is convex-surfaced. Thimbles: All are soldered to the lower barrel. Upper: This 31/V thimble has a flared mouth, and a ramrod friction spring is inlet into the bottom. Middle: This l11/^" thimble has a small diameter flared mouth. Lower: This thimble is !7/i6" and has a flat rear end. Ramrod: The 191A" button-headed steel ramrod is threaded at the rear. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: \6l/i". Comb: The nose of the 91A" comb is 5/s" high and has a concave profile. MARKINGS Barrel: The breech end of the barrel assembly, and each barrel's breech plugs, is marked with a roman numeral assembly number, such as "XII." Lock: The plate is stamped with the lock viewer's crown over broad arrow under the pan. The royal cypher of a crown over "GR" is behind the cock. The inside of the lockplate is stamped "N.H." over "9." Note: This example is otherwise unmarked.

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BLUNDERBUSS AND MUSKETOON ARMS

065.X

There is some confusion regarding the British Ordnance's use of the terms "blunderbuss" and "musketoon." Both are large bore shoulder arms with barrels that are either flared at the muzzle or are conical with a steadily increasing diameter towards the muzzle. It has variously been reported that: (1) there is no physical difference between military arms of the same period that are described as "blunderbusses" and those described as "musketoons"; or, (2) the distinction between the two is one of length. However, I have been unable to find any documentation of this or of what their relative lengths were supposed to be. Blunderbuss is undoubtedly the older term and was originally used for both sea service and land service arms. The distinction between the two, in terms of land or sea service, appears to have been introduced in the 1690s and was in general use during the 1730s. Howard Blackmore, noted authority on British military arms, believes that musketoons were officially sea service arms and that blunderbusses were mainly used by the land forces. Because of the lack of definitive information that differentiates between arms described as musketoons and those described as blunderbusses, the term blunderbuss is used in this text to describe all of these arms, because that term is the most widely used and understood. Very little research has been conducted in the field of British military blunderbuss and musketoon arms. As a result, not much is known about their procurement and development. It is generally believed that most of these arms were procured for the Royal Navy, where they were used by men posted in the rigging of ships or for issue to boarding parties. There is less available information about the use of blunderbusses by the land forces. It appears that they were used in forts and perhaps by special army units, such as payroll guards. The procurement information presented here is far from complete and should be considered indicative only of the blunderbuss and musketoon arms obtained by the British Ordnance. Very limited quantities of blunderbusses were procured by the British Ordnance for the sea service from the early 1650s. The earliest known payment by the British Ordnance Department for deliveries of blunderbusses was in 1653: on February 11 George Fisher, Sr., was paid 43 shillings each for fifty "Blunderbusses for the fleet." A 1663 inventory of arms in the Tower included sixty-three brass and iron blunderbusses with snaphance locks and back catches. This inventory would not, of course, include the arms that had been issued to the Royal Navy. Only fifty-four arms identified as musketoons and forty-one blunderbusses are known to have been procured from 1664 until the 1680s. But, the information is incomplete and many additional arms were probably procured. This assumption is supported by an inventory of 1687-1688 of the "General State of the Ordnance in England and Wales," which included 567 musketoons and 358 blunderbusses. British Ordnance procured arms described as "blunderbusses" and "musketoons" at different prices in the 1689-1692 period. In 1689, nine English gunmakers were paid for a total of seventy "musketoons with flat hard locks and

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS

walnut stocks" at the rate of 21 shillings and 6 pence each. In 1692, one gunmaker delivered forty-five more at 25 shillings each. In 1690 and 1691, ten English gunmakers, many of whom had made the musketoons mentioned previously, were paid 33 shillings and 6 pence each for a total of 115 brass blunderbusses with beech wood stocks. From this, it would appear that "blunderbusses" and "musketoons" were considered dissimilar arms because of the relative length of the two. The different terms may also have resulted from the use of different furniture, locks, or other components. Additional small quantities of "sea service musketoons," or just musketoons, were procured after 1700: in 1705-1706, twenty-four were furnished by two gunmakers; in 1708-1709, eighty more are known to have been set up by five gunmakers; and in 1717, 140 were procured. Most, if not all, were set up with locks supplied by the Ordnance. In 1737 and 1738 the Ordnance ordered 336 brass-mounted musketoons. These are believed to have been set up using existing stores of barrels and locks but with newly manufactured mountings and stocks, and they were probably equipped with the old-style "flat, naval pattern" locks. A 1756 inventory in the Tower included nineteen brass-barreled and 199 iron-barreled musketoons under the heading of "Sea Service arms." The "Miscellaneous Items" section of this inventory included 152 brass-barreled blunderbusses. On September 9, 1757, the Ordnance proposed that a reserve of 2,000 musketoons be kept in the Tower. In 1759, 500 musketoons were ordered. Because these are known to have been set up with all newly made components by the gunmakers, it is believed that they represent the first procurement of musketoons equipped with the then-current sea service locks, as used in sea service muskets. Additional, unknown quantities of musketoons were ordered by the Ordnance in 1762 and 1763. A total of 2,000 arms described as musketoons and wall pieces were procured by British Ordnance between 1714 and 1783.n Examination of the bores of a number of blunderbuss arms shows that the bores of most 17th-century military blunderbusses are tapered more or less continually from the breech, whereas most later blunderbusses have constant diameter bores, except near the muzzle, where the diameter increases rapidly. Recent test firings of blunderbuss arms have disclosed that the flared muzzle and bore diameter appear to have little effect on the dispersion of the shot. There is a growing conviction that the flared muzzle's primary advantage, in addition to its obvious psychological effect, was that it offered increased ease and speed of reloading in the swaying rigging of a ship or in carriages traveling over rough, unsurfaced roads.

11 D. W. Bailey, "The Ordnance System," Black Powder, 36:15.

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278

BRITISH LATE 1 TTH-CENTURY BLUNDERBUSS

Plate 065.X2-A This brass-barreled blunderbuss, made by George Fisher, Jr., is believed to have been one of a small number made by him for British Ordnance for use by the Royal Navy in 1687. It is possible that these served as patterns for similar blunderbusses made by ten other makers in 1690 and 1691.

065.X2

In 1687 British Ordnance paid George Fisher, Jr., 33 shillings each for eight brass-barreled blunderbusses with beech stocks. These are the only blunderbuss arms known to have been made by him for the Ordnance. In 1690 and 1691, ten other gunmakers supplied a total of 115 blunderbusses of the same description. The doglock blunderbuss made by George Fisher, Jr., described here may have been one of those he delivered to the Ordnance in 1687. This general configuration continued to be used in the procurement of sea service blunderbusses for over half a century because the new arms set up usually used existing barrels, and sometimes locks, which were supplied by the Board. As previously explained in the section on American military arms history, limited quantities of brass blunderbusses were included in inventories of military stores in the British North American colonies at the beginning of the 18th century. As in all pre-regulation pattern arms, there is a great deal of variation in the blunderbuss arms procured by the Ordnance during this period; this blunderbuss is presented only as representative of generally similar arms that may have seen service in the North American colonies. GENERAL. INFORMATION

Caliber: 1V4". Overall Length: 43." Finish: Bright. Brass Components: Barrel only. BARREL 7

Length: 27 /8". Contour: The round brass barrel has a 1.64 outside diameter at the breech, which tapers in decreasing diameter to a point 103/i6" from the muzzle. From there, it begins to flare towards the muzzle, which has an outside diameter of 2.375 ". There is a baluster ring located 2l/i" behind the muzzle. The barrel is secured by a convex-headed screw that passes upwards from in front of the trigger and threads into the breech tang and by lateral pins through the forestock and underlugs affixed to the bottom of the barrel. Breech Tang: The 23/s" by 9/i6" iron tang is square-ended.

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279

Bore: The bore diameter is IVs" at the breech. This diameter gradually increases to 11A" at a point 3" behind the muzzle, where it begins to flare outwards rapidly. Muzzle Extension: 215/i6". LOCK

Note: This blunderbuss is equipped with a doglock. Lockplate: The rear profile of the 63A" by l3/s" flat-surfaced lockplate ends in a projecting point. Cock: The body of the 3 " cock has a flat surface. The reinforced neck has a round hole in the middle, with a decorative cut at the lower front. The top jaw's rear edge bears on a step in the tang's front face. The head of the jaw screw is slotted only. There is no external cock screw. Back Catch: This 2" catch pivots on a screw near the bottom of the lockplate, behind the cock.

Plate 065.X2-B The unmarked doglock has a horizontal sear. It is shown with the back catch engaged in the half-cock, or safety, position. The sheet iron trigger guard is screwed to the stock's surface, and the breech tang screw passes upwards from in front of the trigger.

Pan: The shallow round-bottomed iron pan is not integral with the plate and is mounted horizontally. It has no fence, nor is there an external bridle to support the frizzen screw. Frizzen: The 1 n/i6" by 15/i6" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face has a slightly convex surface, and the pan cover is very thin. The toe curls upwards. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight. The outer edge of the lower leaf has decorative sculpting and ends in a short square-ended finial. Internal Components: This lock is equipped with a horizontally acting sear mechanism. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The iron trigger is suspended from a lateral pin above the lock recess, downwards through a slot in the stock. There is no

280

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 trigger plate. The 83A" sheet iron guard has a IV^'-wide bow. Both the front and rear extensions end in spear points, and they are secured to the surface of the stock by screws. Butt Plate: The 5" by 21A" sheet iron plate curves forward at the heel, forming an 8" tang with a pointed end. Ramrod Thimble: The single 1" sheet iron thimble is located near the front end of the ramrod channel Sidescrews: The lockplate is secured by three convex^headed sidescrews. As there is no side plate, the heads of these screws bear directly on the stock's surface. Forend Band: A 7/s"-wide sheet iron band encloses the stock's forend l/\e" behind the foretip. Other: A convex-headed bolt projects IVs" from the right side of the forestock. It is speculated that this may have been inserted into a keyway on a ship's mast to support the arm when loading and firing. This bolt passes through a 2l/i" by 15/i6" diamond-shaped iron escutcheon plate on the right side of the stock and threads into a similar plate on the left side. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished beech. Length: 40^4"• Comb: The nose of the 9l/i" comb is W high. Five-inch flutes extend rearwards at either side. Other: There are no raised plateaus at the breech. MARKINGS

Barrel: The upper left quadrant near the breech is stamped with George Fisher, Jr.'s, mark of a fish. There is also a crown over scepters Tower view and proof mark and a crown over "V" London Gunmakers' Company mark. Note: There are no other external marks visible on this arm. Plate 065.X5-A The lock of this blunderbuss is dated "20," the last two numerals of the year 1720. Like many blunderbusses made before the middle of the 18th century, it has a brass barrel dating from the late 1680s, salvaged from an earlier arm.

BRITISH EARLY ISTH-CENTURY BLUNDERBUSS

065.X5

The general configuration of the sea service blunderbuss arms made during the early 18th century continued to be similar to the doglock blunderbuss because earlier barrels were reused in the setting up of new arms.

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS

The sea service blunderbuss described here is brass-mounted and has a true flintlock, without back catch. The configuration of the trigger guard and butt plate are the same as those that would continue to be used on sea service muskets for at least fifty years. This blunderbuss is of particular interest because it illustrates the reuse of existing barrels in the assembly of blunderbuss arms during the early 18th century. The barrel is stamped with the Ordnance mark of William III, indicating manufacture in the late 1680s, or 1690s. The 1720-dated lockplate is engraved with the crowned cypher of George II and is stamped with the broad arrow proof. There is also an Ordnance ownership mark of a crowned cypher stamped into the right side of the butt. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: 1.125". Overall Length: 44". Finish: All metal components are finished bright. Brass Components: Barrel, butt plate, trigger guard, thimbles, and ramrod tip. BARREL 1

Length: 28 /i6". Contour: The round barrel has a convex ring at the breech and another 23/s" behind the muzzle. The muzzle diameter flares to 25/s". The barrel is retained by a screw that passes upwards from in front of the trigger and threads into the tang and by lateral pins through the forestock and barrel underlugs. Tang: The 2l/s" square-ended iron tang tapers from 7/i6" wide at the front to 5/s" wide at the rear. Bore: The bore diameter at the breech is iVs". This diameter gradually increases to 11A" at a point 3" behind the muzzle, where it begins to flare outwards rapidly. Muzzle Extension: 25/s". LOCK 9

3

Lockplate: The 7 /i6" by ! /i6" lockplate is flat-surfaced. Its rear profile inclines downwards, resulting in a banana shape, and this ends in a projecting point at the rear. This plate is secured by three convex-headed sidescrews. Cock: The 31/i6/' cock has a flat-surfaced body and a round hole with a decorative projection in its reinforced throat. The narrow, straight tang has a rounded top. A vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of this tang. The jaw screw is slotted and holed. Pan: The faceted, horizontal, round-bottomed pan is not integral with the lockplate. It is not equipped with a fence or an external bridle. Frizzen: The P/V by IVs" frizzen has a flat top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge, which splits into a facet at the bottom, and the toe is ovalshaped.

281

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 065.X5-B The flat-surfaced lock is typical of many of the locks used during the early 18th century: the cock has a reinforced throat, there is no external bridle, the frizzen spring has a spearpointed finial, and the lock is retained by three sidescrews. The thin brass trigger guard is screwed to the stock's surface, and the breech tang screw passes upwards from in front of the trigger.

Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight. The curve at the front is behind the end of the front sidescrew, and the lower leaf ends in a spear-pointed finiaL Internal Components: There is no internal tumbler bridle. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended from a lateral pin below the lock recess, downwards through a slot in the stock, and curls rearwards at the bottom. The 1 l3/s" trigger guard assembly is convex-surfaced. The short front extension ends in a disc, and the rear end is rounded. The guard is secured by screws at the front and rear. Butt Plate: The 6l/i" by 2n/i6"-thick sheet brass plate has a straight rear profile and a flat rear surface. This plate curves forward at the heel to form the 5 "-long, round-ended tang. The plate is secured by a screw through the tang and two at the rear. Thimble: The l5/s" barrel-type thimble is located near the front of the ramrod channel. Other: There is no provision for trigger plate, side plate, forend band, or wrist escutcheon. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 413/s". Comb: The nose of the 81A" comb is Vz" high. Other: There are flats on both sides of the breech and a raised plateau around the tang. MARKINGS

Barrel: The barrel maker's mark of three-tyned crown over "IA" is stamped into the upper left quadrant, as is a small "44." The crowned cypher of William

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BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS

III, consisting of a crown over "WR," is stamped forward of another, illegible sunken cartouche. Lockplate: The crowned cypher of George II, consisting of a crown over "GR," is engraved forward of the cock, and the Ordnance's lock viewer's mark of a crown and broad arrow is stamped under the pan. "TOWER" over "20" is engraved in two vertical lines of block characters behind the cock. The "20" is the last two numerals of the year 1720. The interior of the lockplate is stamped with a crown over "30" and "P18." Stock: A storekeeper's mark of a crown over script "GR" is stamped into the right side of the buttstock. Roman numeral assembly number "XIII" is cut into the ramrod channel. BRITISH MILITARY REVOLUTIONARY WAR PERIOD BLUNDERBUSS

065 .X8

&*:

The musketoons and blunderbusses procured from the late 1750s, set up with newly made components, probably were stamped with the Ordnance view and proof marks on their barrels and probably also had finish inspectors' and Ordnance ownership marks in the wood. Blunderbusses and musketoons have been attributed to British military usage simply because they have British military-type furniture, or they have sling swivels, or they have locks with crowned cypher markings. However, surplus military locks were purchased privately and were applied to arms made for commercial sale by British gunmakers; so these criteria should not be used to ascribe British military provenance to musketoons and blunderbuss arms made from the 1750s. Ordnance markings on the barrel, lock, and stock are the best indicators of this provenance. Surviving complete examples of military blunderbuss arms, with marks indicating procurement by British Ordnance, made from the late 1750s through the Revolutionary War, are unknown. Therefore, the description and photographs in this section are of a blunderbuss probably fabricated for sea service sometime between 1785 and 1797. It has been included so that the reader can better understand the changes that took place during this period. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: 1.125". Overall Length: 40^4"•

Plate 065 .X8-A Surviving exampies of blunderbusses procured by British Ordnance during the American Revolutionary War pe~ riod are almost unknown. This iron-barreled blunderbuss was procured sometime after 1785.

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284

Finish: All metal is finished bright. Brass Components: Trigger guard, butt plate, side plate, and ramrod thimble. BARREL 3

Length: 24 /i6". Contour: There is a baluster ring at the breech. The diameter gradually decreases to about 9" forward of the breech, where it begins increasing to the 2.35"diameter muzzle. The barrel is retained by a screw that passes downwards through the tang and by two lateral pins. Tang: The 23/s" square-ended tang tapers from 9/i6" wide at the front to * Vie" wide at the rear. Bore: The iVs "-diameter bore is cylindrical to a point about 10" behind the muzzle, where its diameter begins to increase towards the muzzle. Muzzle Extension: l/\". LOCK 7

1

Lockplate: The 6 /s" by I /}" lockplate is convex-surfaced, except at the front, where it is flat-surfaced with beveled edges. The rear profile arcs to a point. Cock: The 33/4" goose-neck cock has a convex-surfaced body. The rear profile of the narrow tang curls rearwards at the top. There is no notch at the front of the rounded top. A vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of the tang. The jaw screw is slotted and has a lateral hole. Pan: The integral, horizontal, round-bottomed pan has a fence and an external bridle. Frizzen: The I15/i6" by iVie" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge. The upper profile of the pan cover is convex, and the tail curls upwards. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight. The curve at the front is behind the end of the front sidescrew, and the lower leaf ends in a long, thin teardrop finial. The inner corner of the outside edges of the leaves is rounded.

Plate 065.X8-B The lock reflects the evolutionary changes that had taken place in both sea and land service arms by the late 18th century. Two salient features that date this as a post-17 85 lock are the cock's narrow tang with recurved rear profile and stamped, rather than engraved, lockplate markings.

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS

285

FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The iron trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in the stock. There is no trigger plate. This trigger curls to the rear at the bottom. The bow is integral with its extensions, and this assembly is 97/s" overall. The short front extension consists of a con vex-surfaced disc, and the long rear extension terminates in a round end. The guard is secured by a lateral pin through an integral lug at the front and by a wood screw at the rear. Butt Plate: The 5l/i" by 21A" sheet brass butt plate has a flat rear surface and a straight rear profile. A 31A" round-ended tang extends forward at the top. Side Plate: The 61A" flat-surfaced side plate is of the same configuration as British land pattern muskets; it has a rearward extension from the rear sidescrew. Ramrod Thimble: The l5/s" barrel-type thimble has reinforcing rings at the ends. Ramrod: The 24l/s" steel ramrod has a .77" diameter cupped button head. The rear end is not threaded. Other: There is no wrist escutcheon or forend cap. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 40". Comb: The nose of the 8l/i" comb is rounded. Flutes extend rearwards at the sides for 6Vz". Other: There are flats on both sides of the breech and a raised plateau around the breech tang. MARKINGS Barrel: The top of the barrel is stamped with Ordnance view and proof marks. These consist of a crown over "GR" and another crown over crossed scepters. Two Ordnance viewers' marks of small crowns over single numerals also are stamped into the barrel. Lock: The royal cypher of a crown over "GR" in block letters is stamped forward of the cock. "TOWER" is engraved in a slight vertical arc behind the cock. Stock: "I.I.I.C.R." is stamped into the right side of the butt. The Board of Ordnance's mark of a broad arrow over "BO" is stamped into the left side of the butt. BRITISH QUASI-MILITARY ISTH-CENTURY BLUNDERBUSS

065.X9

This iron-barreled blunderbuss was made in the 1740-1750 period; markings indicate ownership by the Derwent Navigation Police. Although it is not a British regulation arm, it is included here as a representative example of the many military-style blunderbuss arms that saw service in British merchant fleets used to supply the armies in North America, and also as an example of captured arms in the hands of American privateers.

286

Plate 065.X9- A The iron barrel of this 1740-1750 period quasi-military blunderbuss is engraved, indicating ownership by the Derwent Navigation Police. It is equipped with land pattern, rather than sea service, brass mountings.

Plate 065. Y-A This ironmounted musket of probable Dutch origin is believed to have been purchased by British Ordnance during the early 18th century. It is speculated that it may have been one of the 10,000 muskets procured in 1706.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

This brass-mounted blunderbuss is 395/s" overall. The general configuration of the lock, furniture, and butt is very similar to that of British land pattern muskets circa 1740. The 23 H" iron barrel is octagonal at the breech for 6" and then tapers to round. There are baluster rings at the breech and 8 " forward of the breech. The bore is .75" diameter at the breech and 1.9" at the muzzle. The tapered breech tang is square-ended. The profile of the 7 " lockplate inclines downwards at the rear, resulting in a banana shape. The surface is generally convex, except under the frizzen spring, where it is flat with beveled edges. Only the end of the sear screw is visible behind the 3n/i6" goose-neck cock. The lll/V trigger guard, the SVs" butt plate, the 25/s" wrist escutcheon, and the 63/i6" side plate are the same as have been previously described for British (Type I) Long Land Pattern muskets. The two barrel-type thimbles are also similar. The upper thimble is IVz" long, and the 43/V lower thimble has a pointed finial. There is a 19/i6"-long sleeve-type head on the 223/4" tapered wood ramrod. The walnut stock extends to l/s" of the muzzle. There is a raised plateau around the breech tang, and there are flats with pointed rear ends on both sides of the breech. There is a definite swell in the forestock, at the lower thimble. The barrel is engraved "DERW. NAVIGATION" in capital letters along the top. It is also stamped with the private view and proof marks of the Birmingham proof house. "R." over "WATKIN" in shaded upper case letters is engraved into the lockplate forward of the cock. Watkin is known to have worked in the 1725-1740 period, at least.

BRITISH FOREIGN PURCHASE ARMS

065.Y

From the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) England's involvement in wars required the country to augment the supply of arms available from local gunmakers by repeated purchases of arms on the continent. In 1560 Queen

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287

Plate 065.Y-B The unmarked, convex-surfaced, banana-shaped lock is not equipped with an external bridle. The recurved tip of the cock's wide tang is missing. An Ordnance storekeeper's stamp is visible in the right side of the butt.

Elizabeth authorized the procurement of £139,000 worth of military stores on the continent. Included were several thousand matchlock calivers purchased by Sir Thomas Gresham. It is believed that they were purchased in Holland. Just prior to the English civil wars, a number of purchases were also made on the continent. In 1630 Ordnance Proof Master Henry Rowland and his six servants were employed for thirty days viewing and proving imported Dutch muskets. The quantity is unknown, but it must have been substantial. In 1638 John Quarles was authorized to purchase £10,000 worth of pistols and carbines. In 1639 he purchased £40,000 worth of small arms. These were probably the 7,000 matchlock muskets whose order was authorized by the Ordnance. In 1640 he again purchased £10,000 worth of small arms. These purchases were made in the Netherlands. Also in 1640 Charles I ordered £20,000 worth of arms through Sir Thomas Rae, ambassador extraordinary in Hamburg. These muskets were received and inspected in May. Due to their poor quality, they were returned to Hamburg and resold to the same merchant from whom they had been originally purchased at a £1,000 loss. Two years later Charles had better luck with his purchases in Holland. In June 1642 he obtained 200 firelocks, 1,000 carbines, and 2,000 pairs of pistols, and in August he received two frigates loaded with arms and ammunition. Over fifty years later, during the reign of William III, additional small arms were purchased in the Netherlands. In 1697, 2,136 muskets, 441 carbines, and 4,381 pistols were bought for 23,337 guilders (£2,593). In 1702 the Ordnance's Small Gun Office paid London gunmaker Henry Crips for cleaning and adding "ribs" and barrel bands to 166 Dutch carbines belonging to Lord Triviott's regiment of dragoons and to 300 Dutch carbines of Colonel Ross's regiment of dragoons. Because of this, it is speculated that more dragoon carbines were actually imported than those known purchased in 1697. In April 1706 the Ordnance contracted for 10,000 muskets in Holland. A Major Wybault was sent there with a pattern musket, powder, and stamps, for the proof and inspection of these muskets. It is believed that all of these muskets were delivered, although only one payment of £11,690 is known. One of the Dutch gunmakers who fabricated them was John Van Byland. In 1738 and 1739 London gunmaker Lewis Barber assembled at least 633 muskets using brass furniture. This indicates that Dutch barrels, and possibly locks, had been previously procured, but there is no information regarding this

Plate 065 .Y-C The barrel's top flat is stamped with a rampant lion and a crudely stamped crown over "V" marking. Similar rampant lion barrel marks are known on English muskets made during the closing years of the 17th century. The third barrel marking is illegible.

288

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 065.Y-D The iron side plate and trigger guard are typical of early 18th-century muskets made in the Low Countries.

Plate 065.Y-E This musket has similar metal components but appears to have been stocked or restocked in a style more closely approximating British land pattern configuration. The stock of this musket does not have a visible Ordnance storekeeper's mark. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

procurement. At this time, Barber was the prime government contractor for setting up muskets. In 1741, 16,000 muskets with bayonets and 8,000 musket barrels were imported from Holland; a total of £16,526/9/6 was paid. The barrels were assembled into British land pattern muskets, using English-made components. In 1745 the Board of Ordnance purchased 2,500 Spanish muskets from merchants Phillip Protheroe & Co. at 16 shillings each. In 1754, 1,000 Dutch muskets with wood ramrods (presumably from those purchased in 1741) and 1,000 early production Long Land Pattern (Type I) muskets with single-bridle locks and wood ramrods were authorized for issue to 2,000 new recruits of the Fiftieth and Fifty-first regiments, raised in the North American colonies. On July 1 another 3,000 Dutch muskets were authorized to be sent to royal governor Arthur Dobbs of North Carolina. An additional 500 Dutch muskets were shipped to Georgia in 1756. From this information it appears that at least 4,500 Dutch muskets were used in North America during the Seven Years1 War. Additional Dutch muskets with 46" barrels and British land pattern locks and stocks were issued to some of the newly raised British marines in 1755. It is speculated that these were the muskets that had been assembled in London in 1738 and 1739 or those set up using the barrels imported in 1741, which are known to have used British land pattern furniture and stocks. The final purchase of arms during the Seven Years' War was in 1761. The Ordnance purchased 2,477 stands of muskets from Dutch arms merchant Henry Guinard. When this transaction was completed, the Ordnance stated that it wanted no more Dutch arms. The American Revolution drained British reserves of arms, and in spite of the earlier pronouncement, the Ordnance purchased 20,000 muskets and carbines from the Netherlands in 1778 for £30,000. These arms were purchased through the merchant firm of Thomas Fitzherbert and were shipped from Rotterdam. It should be noted that these arms may have been fabricated in Liege, shipped by barge down the Meuse River to Holland, and then sent to England.

BRITISH MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS

289

Plate 065.Y-F The lock is very similar to that of the previous musket, except that the cock and frizzen show somewhat less sculpting. The trigger guards and side plates of both muskets are similar. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

Additional thousands of arms were reportedly procured in Solingen through the agency of arms merchant George Crawford. A total of 100,000 foreign arms were purchased by the Ordnance during the American Revolution in order to augment the supply of arms made in Great Britain.12 It is clear from the foregoing information that, although the British land pattern musket was the main service arm of the British infantry during most of the 18th century, over 175,000 foreign arms were purchased by the Ordnance between 1714 and 1783 for use by the British military and colonial forces. BRITISH FOREIGN ARMS PROCUREMENT IN THE 1790s

Although this procurement took place after the American Revolution, and is therefore beyond the purview of this text, the following information is included as a matter of interest to the arms student and because some of these arms may have been supplied to the United States in the 1790s. In 1792, three years after the French Revolution, the new republic of France declared war on most of the other European powers. To augment its supply of muskets, France contracted for muskets from Birmingham gunmakers. Shortly after France declared war on Great Britain, on February 1, 1793, shipment of these arms to France was prohibited. The Board of Ordnance originally refused to purchase these English-made French pattern arms because of their small (.69) caliber. Twelve thousand were

12

13

D. W. Bailey, "The Ordnance System," Black Powder, 36:15. Ibid.

Plate 065.Y-G The barrel is stamped with a rampant lion, similar to the previous musket. It is also engraved with a rack number, "J94J," on top of the muzzle. The long narrow butt plate tang is similar to that of the previous musket and is also generally similar to tangs of English muskets made at the end of the 17th century. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

290

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

ultimately purchased by the Treasury for a proposed expedition to Brittany, which never took place. Twelve thousand French muskets, possibly those purchased by the Treasury, were shipped to Lisbon in 1797 to aid Britain's Portuguese allies. Henry Dundas, secretary of state for war and colonies, also purchased 3,000 French muskets. These were "lost" for six months. In early 1794 British Ordnance reportedly purchased 5,000 more French pattern muskets from Birmingham contractors Galton & Whately. The reason for this purchase may have been Britain's inability to procure good quality arms from Liege. In July 1793 the Ordnance contracted for 10,000 muskets from M. Lassance of Liege. By October, negotiations were under way for a second 10,000 muskets. The first shipment of 1,200 Liege muskets is believed to have arrived in late 1793 or January 1794, because the master general of Ordnance, the Duke of Richmond, wrote to the home secretary of his low opinion of these arms on January 24, 1794: "They [the Liege gunmakers] cannot work to a pattern, and although the bore is the same, scarcely any two of the muskets are similar." No further deliveries on this order were made. In July 1794 an inventory was made of the arms stored in the Tower. It included 4,481 French muskets, 3,639 Liege muskets, and 4,630 Danish muskets. The French muskets were probably part of the 5,000 purchased from Galton & Whately. The Liege muskets may have included the 1,200 accepted earlier in the year plus some arms left over from purchases during the American Revolution. The Danish muskets were probably purchased by a Major Trotter, who had been sent to Copenhagen for that purpose. No information has been located in Copenhagen regarding a sale of muskets to the British in the 1790s. If these arms were Danish regulation muskets, fabricated at the Kronenborg Manufactory, it is probable that they were the Danish Model 1774. This manufactory produced 55,000 Model 1774 muskets between 1774 and 1786. However, only 10,000 Model 1791 muskets, the then-current model, were produced between 1792 and 1795, and none of the Model 1791 muskets were produced for export. In 1794, France invaded Liege and Holland, cutting off the supply of arms from these traditional sources to Great Britain. In August 1798, 5,000 Prussian rifled muskets were ordered through the agency of arms merchants Paul and Haviland Le Mesurier at 35 shillings each. The first lot of 2,000 was received and inspected in November 1799. Because of inferior quality, the price paid was reduced to 33 shillings each. These rifled muskets were probably a commercial variation of the Prussian Model 1787 fusiliers' rifle musket (Fusilier Schutzengewehre) manufactured in, or near, Potsdam. In 1799 muskets were also ordered from Hamburg. A sample of these arms was received from the Ordnance's purchasing agent there, a Major Miller. It was passed as fit for "extra service," and Miller was instructed to buy as many as he could at 27 shillings each. At about this time, British purchasing agents, the merchants Le Mesurier, had a contract for foreign muskets increased from 20,000 to 30,000. It is believed that this increase refers to either Prussian or Hamburg muskets; it may have been prompted by the late 1790s purchase of muskets by the United States through the agency of Great Britain. (See Volume II.)

FRENCH ARMS

INTRODUCTION

070

070.A

The vast majority of arms imported into the United States for the use of the American revolutionary forces were French. Well over 100,000 French muskets are known to have been imported, as well as enough metal components to complete half again as many more. It is possible that an additional 100,000 or more French arms were imported. This is suggested by correspondence and other documents in American and European archives but is not supported by specific shipping information and manifests. In the early spring of 1776 the French tested what would become the 1777 model-series of small arms. A Lieutenant Colonel de Bellegarde, who was involved in these tests, was assigned to inspect all of the small arms that had been accumulating for decades in the French arsenals and to "declassify" (condemn) the obsolete and unserviceable arms. Four hundred and twenty-seven thousand arms were declassified. Ostensibly, this was accomplished to make room for the new Model 1777 muskets. Actually, it was to enable the sale of the declassified arms to the private trading firm of Rodrigue Hortalez & Cie., headed by Caron de Beaumarchais, as well as to other merchants who traded with the American revolutionaries, such as Plairn, Penet & Cie. of Nantes. On May 2, 1776, King Louis XVI authorized 1,000,000 livres in military aid to the Americans, which was matched by the Spanish government. Beaumarchais was then given the 2,000,000 livres and was authorized to remove the declassified arms from the French arsenals and pay for them. The arms to be removed from the arsenals and manufactories were selected by a French artillery officer, DuCoudray, who had been assigned to work with Beaumarchais by Inspector General Gribeauval. DuCoudray visited the storerooms of the royal manufactories at Maubeuge, Charleville, and Saint Etienne and the arsenals of Metz, Strasbourg, and Besan^on. He authorized the shipment of the declassified arms to the ports of Dunkirk, Havre, and Bordeaux, where their possession was assumed by agents of Rodrigue Hortalez & Cie. Thirty thousand muskets were among the war materials shipped prior to October 10, 1776. However, the "Summary of Arms Known Imported During the American Revolution," Appendix 5, shows deliveries of only 4,330 muskets between May 1776 and March 1777. Over 25,600 of the 30,000 muskets known to have been shipped are unaccounted for, which gives some indication of the incomplete nature of this summary.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

292

MANUFACTURING TOLERANCES

070.B

Although a royal inspector was assigned to each of the manufactories to assure that the arms produced conformed to pattern, it appears that this conformity was loosely enforced and that there were large deviations in the tolerances allowed in both major and minor components. For example, the barrel length of the Model 1717 musket might vary over an inch from one example to another, and the barrel tangs may vary in length by over one-third of an inch. However, realizing the importance of a standardized bore diameter to the logistics and supply of ammunitions to the army, this dimension was held as close as possible to 17.5 mm (.689") for all infantry muskets from 1717. During the decades that followed the introduction of the Model 1717 musket, there was a gradual decrease in the allowance for manufacturing variations. By the introduction of the 1777 model-series of arms, great strides had been made in improving manufacturing methods and gauging, and the muskets made thereafter were quite similar, although their parts were still not interchangeable. The descriptions of arms in this text are intended to be only of representative examples of the regulation models described. Other examples may have dimensional variations. Whenever possible, dimensional variations of the major components of various known examples are presented to enable the reader to better understand the manufacturing tolerances of the period. The specifications of original French regulation model muskets are presented not only to facilitate identification of the French muskets used in the American Revolution but also to help in identifying the components of various models of muskets that were often used in the assembly, rebuilding, and repair of arms in North America during the Revolutionary War and in the post-war period.

FRENCH REGULATION MODELS AND ARMORIES'

070.C

Prior to 1717 there was little uniformity in France's military muskets. The muskets procured for both the French army and navy by the government were purchased from private gunmakers in Saint Etienne, Charleville, Maubeuge, Nouzon, and Tulle. There were no government-approved patterns. Only the barrel length and caliber were specified by the government. Like the British, the French regimental commanders could draw their regiments' arms from the government arsenals or could purchase them privately. In 1717 the king decided to commit sufficient funds to provide the army with muskets of a standardized pattern fabricated at royal manufactories. However, the French Navy and a few army units were allowed to continue procuring their arms from private sources, and thirty years would pass before the French military establishment would be totally armed with regulation pattern arms.

1

Much of the information regarding the regulation models of French military shoulder arms has been gained from the excellent book by Jean Boudriot, Armes a feu Frangaises, Modeles Reglementaires, published by the author in Paris, 1961.

FRENCH ARMS

293

From 1717 all French regulation shoulder arms for the army were made at three royal manufactories: Charleville, located in the Ardennes, in northeastern France; Saint Etienne, located in south-central France; and Maubeuge in northwestern France. All three of these manufactories had begun operations in the 17th century. Saint Etienne first began the manufacture of arms for French royalty in 1637, during the reign of Louis XIIL A fourth royal manufactory at Tulle was established during the production of the Model 1777 musket. It is of interest to note that Charleville is located near the border of what is now Belgium. It is upstream, on the Meuse River, of the arms manufacturing centers of Liege and Maastricht. THE CONFIGURATION OF FRENCH ARMS

070.C2

Within each year-model-series of arms, special arms were often designed for specialized military units and their officers. These arms were usually equipped with locks in the model-series configuration but departed from the regulation service musket in size, caliber, decoration, furniture style, or in other ways. Infantry musket: This was the standard service arm of the French infantry. In any given year-model-series, it is the configuration to which all others are compared. Rampart musket: The rampart musket was made only in the 1717 and 1728 model-series of arms. It was of slightly larger caliber and heavier construction than the infantry musket, but it was of the same size and general configuration. All French infantry muskets manufactured from 1717 to 1763 were equipped with barrels slightly over 46" long, as were the Model 1717 and 1728 rampart muskets. From 1763, French infantry muskets were equipped with barrels that were slightly more than 44" long. We believe that all muskets with the longer barrels were referred to as "rampart muskets" when they were imported for use in the American Revolution, regardless of whether they were actually infantry or rampart muskets. The same is true of the barrels of these arms that were imported. This may have been done to conceal the age of these older muskets and barrels. Dragoon musket: The Model 1717 and Model 1733—1734 dragoon muskets used by the French mounted infantry were the same size as contemporary infantry muskets. Dragoon muskets were brass-mounted, and there were slight differences in the configurations of the furniture. Dragoon muskets made until after the American Revolution were equipped with an iron middle barrel band with two barrel rings. Cavalry musketoons: These were the forerunners of the carbines used by the cavalry. They were considerably shorter and lighter than the infantry muskets because the cavalry fought from the saddle. Their brass furniture was similar to that of the dragoon musket, and they were of smaller caliber than the infantry musket. Officers' musket: In 1754 the spontoons carried by grenadier officers were eliminated in favor of the musket. The fusiler officers' musket was authorized in 1758 and was followed by the officers1 muskets of the dragoons, infantry,

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. l

294

and other units. These muskets are of the same general style as the regulation musket used by the privates of each of these units but scaled down slightly in size and caliber; they usually are decorated with engraved metal and carved stocks. Other muskets for special units: The privates of grenadiers, who were the elite of the infantry, were not equipped with any special musket during this period. The voltigeurs, or light infantry, were equipped with a scaled-down version of the regulation infantry musket. The papal Swiss guard were armed with French muskets that had mixed brass and iron furniture. The various other cavalry units, such as the cuirassiers, or heavy cavalry, and hussars, or light cavalry, did not have special arms during this period. From shortly after the advent of the Model 1777, the royal manufactories produced special, brass-mounted muskets for the navy, for the marines, for issue to colonial troops, and for use in boarding enemy ships. These arms were of regulation infantry musket size and configuration, and are differentiated from each other by the furniture components, which are made from brass or from iron. THE TERM "FUSIL"

In French the term fusil pronounced "fusee," simply means "musket." For example, a. fusil d infanterie is an infantry musket, and a fusil de dragon is a dragoon musket. However, in 18th-century America, fusil referred to any of the scaleddown muskets used by officers, light infantry, and other special purpose units. This term of reference has continued in America, and will be used where applicable in this text. EARLY NAVAL MUSKETS

070.C4

The French Navy Ministry ("Ministry de la Marine") was organized in 1669. In addition to overseeing the French Royal Navy, this ministry was responsible for the administration and defense of the French colonies in North America. The Navy Ministry established the compagnies /ranches, or "free companies," as the French military presence in North America. From their arrival in the 1680s until 1755 there were no other French infantry in the French North American colonies. The free companies were the only French regular forces in North America during this time and were augmented by colonial militia and allied Indians. From the late 1690s until the 1740s the French Navy Ministry procured its own flintlock arms for shipboard use and for the free companies, instead of using the regulation muskets of the French Army. Several distinct models of French naval muskets have been identified by Russel Bouchard.2 The vast majority of information about the early naval muskets presented here is derived from Bouchard's book and from correspondence with the author. Early naval muskets were not included in Jean Boudriot's excellent text on French regulation arms because they were not regulation arms fabricated to a pattern at the royal manufactories.

2

Les Fusils de Tulle en Nouvelk France: 1691-1741, 1980.

FRENCH ARMS

295

Bouchard writes that most arms procured by the French Navy Ministry for North American use between 1690 and 1740 were purchased from the private gunmakers of Tulle. The designation of Tulle as a royal manufactory was not authorized until December 1777* Because eliminating these naval muskets from this text would require the strictest interpretation of "regulation arms," and because it was these muskets alone that defended the French North American colonies for over sixty years, naval muskets are presented in this section in sequence with the regulation army muskets, based on the year designations assigned by Russel Bouchard. ALTERATIONS OF FRENCH REGULATION ARMS

070.C6

As described in previous sections dealing with American Revolutionary War arms, tens of thousands of French muskets were repaired and rebuilt in America during the war. Additional tens of thousands were fabricated from imported French metal components. Also, many more thousands would continue to be repaired and rebuilt at various U.S. repositories during the remainder of the 18th century. It is generally not recognized that most French arms manufactured before the 1770-1771 model-series had been repaired, overhauled, or modified in France before they reached North America. In 1757 the French government contracted with gunmaker Claude Simon Jourgon to modify existing Model 1717, Model 1728, and Model 1746 muskets in the French arsenals to the Model 1754 configuration. Beginning in 1770, 470,000 previously manufactured French muskets were also altered to the then-current configuration under the direction of Jean-Joseph Carrier (also known as "Carrier de Monthieu") of the Saint Etienne manufactory. It is not known how long this work progressed, but it is possible that many of these may have had some improvements of the 1773 or 1774 model-series of arms. From surviving examples in the United States, it appears that Lieutenant Colonel de Bellegarde's inspection of 1776 resulted in the declassification of all arms made prior to the Model 1777. Although a considerable portion of these arms were still in new, unissued condition, large quantities had seen service in the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War and were in need of repair or were beyond repair. In order to overhaul and repair as many of these arms as possible, prior to their shipment to North America, the French established a repair facility at Nantes. A large portion of the arms bound for North America was shipped from the port of Nantes, located near the mouth of the Loire River where it empties into the Atlantic, just south of the Brittany Peninsula. In July 1777, fifty gunsmiths were recruited from Liege for this facility, and more were recruited the following November. The French Archives of Artillery in the Chateau Vincennes contain a number of records pertaining to the American Revolution. The following interesting undated document is located in the records for the 1779-1780 period

296

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 and suggests that some arms may have been shipped from France with special modifications: State of the Articles which are ordered for the Department of the Bureau of War: 50,000 Infantry muskets with steel ramrods and bayonets. All are to be of the same caliber and quality of the Charleville muskets which are used by the infantry. They must be marked on the barrels and on the lockplates U.S.A. The barrels must be 3'8" long (English measure). The French muskets are usually a little too high where the wood touches the cheek, which prevents them from accurately sighting the muskets. 1,000 "Espagnols," lately used for dragoons, to be used instead of musketoons and to be arranged to be carried in the same manner. 1,000 Artillery muskets [with] barrels 3' 1" long, with bayonet and steel ramrod. 250,000 spare bayonets. However, in spite of the repairs accomplished in France, many tens of thousands of muskets in need of major repair, and some worthy only of being cannibalized for usable parts, were sent to the American revolutionaries. A May 26, 1777, letter from Arthur Lee, U.S. commissioner to France, included the following in an "Account of Arms Purchased of Mons. Monlieu, at Nantes [France]": 3,300 short muskets for cavalry, brass mounted 7,700 rampart muskets, — good 18,000 ditto — to be new mounted 22,000 muskets for infantry — to be new mounted 364 fowling pieces, great & small About one-half the muskets have iron ramrods; the remainder of them have none, or of wood. This account demonstrates the large numbers of unserviceable arms acquired and the large amount of work necessary to put these arms into serviceable condition. Much of this repair work was accomplished at the Continental Armory and at the French Factory in Philadelphia, and more was accomplished by the continental contract armorers. These are described in Section 041. As a result of these French modifications and repairs, very few early French muskets were exported from France with all of their original components or in their original configuration. Almost none of the pre-1766 model-series, and only a few of the later model-series of arms, survived with all of their original components or configurations intact from the American repairs of the Revolutionary War and post-war periods. A note regarding the arms that remained in France during the American Revolution: The shipments of arms to the American revolutionaries largely cleared the French arsenals of arms manufactured prior to the Model 1777. Many of the few remaining pre-Model 1777 and Model 1777 arms were subsequently altered, which often included shortening, during the French revolutionary and napoleonic periods. Also during these periods, quantities of muskets were assem-

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297

bled at French arsenals from an assortment of existing components, resulting in what is generally referred to as "mixed model" (or melange, in French) muskets. FRENCH MATCHLOCK MUSKETS

070.C8

In Section .017, which describes American colonial period matchlock muskets, there is a description of a late 17th-century French matchlock musket from Neufchastel. This musket is of the general configuration of French military muskets of that period, although other examples may have more items of furniture. As previously stated, only the caliber and barrel length were specified for military muskets by the government. However, the general configurations of these arms are similar, although they vary widely in detail. It is of interest to note that the French military muskets usually continued to use the "tiller"-type of trigger until the end of the matchlock period. Most other European countries had changed to the vertical trigger, suspended within a trigger guard, half a century earlier.

1696 CONTRACT NAVAL MUSKET

070.D

There were large quantities of ordinary flintlock muskets in Quebec by the 1660s. The numbers of these muskets in the hands of the free companies in Canada increased relative to matchlock muskets over the ensuing twenty years. Prior to 1690 naval muskets were supplied by the gunmakers of Saint Etienne and other arms manufacturing centers. In 1691 Michel Pauphille and Martial Fenis de la Comb became associated in Tulle. They organized the private arms component manufactories of Pauphile, Soulent, Fes, Chariot, Mettere, and Lay into a centralized operation that employed 150 to 200 persons. Gunsmiths were also brought to Tulle from Saint Etienne and Liege. In addition to ordinary naval muskets, grenadier muskets, buccaneer guns, hunting guns (fusils de chasse), and pistols were made at Tulle. For a short period in the 1690s, swords and the heads of spontoons and halberds were also made there. Demand by the navy outpaced production until Louis XIV's death in 1715, and Tulle production was augmented by arms and components made in Saint Etienne. Saint-Remy wrote in his Memoires d1Artillery in 1697 that the ordinary flintlock musket was the same length and caliber as the matchlock musket. Little else is known about the flintlock muskets of the late 17th century, but it seems reasonable to speculate that they were generally similar to the 1696 contract naval musket. On November 7, 1696, the Navy Ministry ordered 600 ordinary muskets for use in the Caribbean colonies and Canada. The contract specified that the muskets were to have 45" barrels and convex-surfaced locks. Subsequent contracts specified a 44" barrel.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

298

1696 NAVAL MUSKETS DESCRIBED BY BOUCHARD

Muskets known tc Bouchard3 have barrel lengths ranging from 44" to 46". The .69 caliber barrels have flats at the breech for about one-fourth their length and are retained by four lateral pins. An oval front sight is brazed to the barrel near the muzzle. The breech tang is square-ended, and the lug beneath is notched at the rear for passage of the rear sidescrew. The convex-surfaced lockplate has a projecting point at the rear. The convex-surfaced goose-neck cock has a wide tang that curls forward at the top. The top jaw's rear flat rests against this tang, and the pear-shaped jaw screw is slotted only. There is no external bridle to support the frizzen screw. Only the end of one screw is visible externally behind the cock. The iron mountings include a convex-surfaced trigger guard having finials with circular profiles and pointed ends. The flat butt plate has a flat surface and a pointed tang. The modified "L"-shaped side plate is flat. The four ramrod thimbles are cylindrical with reinforcing rings at their ends. The tapered wood ramrod is without metal fittings. There is no provision for sling swivels or forend band. The walnut stock extends to the muzzle and has a butt configuration similar to the 1716 grenadier musket illustrated later in this text. There are raised plateaus around the lock, left breech flat, and barrel tang. Some examples are known with "PEAVPHILLE A TULLE" engraved in the barrel's left quarter flat. No examples of a musket fabricated at Tulle have been located from which photographs and measurements can be obtained. However, a Saint Etienne musket, which approximates the configuration of the 1696 grenadier musket, with alterations of the 1746-1754 period, is described and illustrated in the following section. The 1695 naval musket probably would be similar, but would be stocked to the muzzle and would not have the barrel bands and sling swivels.

1696 CONTRACT GRENADIER MUSKET

070.E

Grenadier muskets were made at Tulle from the mid-1690s for the free companies in North America and for the guards of several French ports. Many of these muskets were also sent to the French Caribbean colonies and Louisiana. The configuration of the grenadier musket is the same as contemporary ordinary naval muskets, but it is usually about 2" shorter and is equipped with sling swivels. This musket takes its name from a regiment formed in 1660 to throw grenades, and whose soldiers required a musket with a sling in order to have their hands free. The circular upper sling swivel is suspended from a lug projecting from the left side of the single, flat-surfaced barrel band. Although the location of this band is not fixed by a retaining spring, it is usually between the two middle ramrod thimbles. The circular lower swivel is suspended from an eyebolt behind the side plate. This bolt threads into a square nut located in the stock's lock recess.

3

Ibid,

FRENCH ARMS

299

With these exceptions, the lock, barrel, and furniture are the same as on contemporary ordinary muskets, No examples of a musket manufactured at Tulle have been located from which photographs and measurements can be obtained. The line drawing illustration by Russel Bouchard shows a musket whose configuration is generally similar to the full-length photograph of the St. Etienne musket described next, except that it has a convex-surfaced lock without external pan bridle, is stocked almost to the muzzle, and does not have an upper barrel band. BRASS-MOUNTED SAINT ETIENNE MUSKETS

There are, in American collections, a very few muskets made at Saint Etienne that, because of their brass mountings, have been attributed to early French naval contracts. These muskets may have been made by the Saint Etienne manufactories under direct contract with the Navy Ministry, or they may have been among those that Tulle manufacturer Martial Fenis de la Comb obtained in Saint Etienne for supply under his navy contracts. It is more likely, however, that they were made at Saint Etienne under contract with the French Compagnie des Indies for commercial sale. Described here is a musket that is particularly interesting because it was originally fabricated with a forestock that extended to the muzzle and was subsequently altered to accept a socket bayonet. The locations of the four barrel underlugs and recesses in the stock for the ramrod thimbles clearly indicate that this musket was originally stocked to the muzzle. The alteration consisted of removing the front sight and replacing it with a bayonet lug, shortening the forestock and adding a brass upper band and retaining spring, removing the upper and middle ramrod thimbles, and possibly adding sling swivels, although these may have been components of the musket before alteration. A button-headed steel ramrod also replaced the original tapered wood ramrod. The style of the upper barrel band suggests that the alteration took place in the 1750s, during the Seven Years' War. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .69. Overall Length: 625/8". Finish: All metal finished bright. Brass Components: Trigger guard, butt plate, side plate, ramrod thimble, and upper band. (Note: The lower band is iron.) Production Period: Possibly procured by the French Navy Ministry or privately purchased by French army commanders to arm their regiments between about

Plate 070.E- A This Saint Etienne musket was originally similar to the 1696 contract grenadier musket configuration. It was stocked to the muzzle and had a single barrel band, three ramrod thimbles, and a tapered wood ramrod. It probably was equipped with upper and lower bands and modified to accept an angular socket bayonet and a steel ramrod sometime in the 1750s.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

3OO

Plate 070.E-B The flat-surfaced lockplate with a vertical decorative groove at the rear, a flat goose- neck cock, and the shallow faceted pan are features common to most early French military muskets*

circa 1690s and circa 1716. Subsequently altered circa mid-1750s to accept a socket bayonet. Quantity Procured: Unknown. BARREL 13

Length: 46 /i6". Contour: There is a 401/4/' top flat and 4" quarter and side flats extending forward from the breech. These taper to round. There are four underlugs dovetailed to the barrel for retaining pins. Muzzle Extension: 41/s". Bore Diameter: The bore diameter of this example is .720". Breech Plug Tang: The 25/s" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. Bayonet Lug: The .250" by .310" rectangular lug is brazed to the barrel 13/V' behind the muzzle. It also serves as the front sight. LOCK l

5

Lockplate: The 6 /i" by ! /i6" lockplate is flat-surfaced with beveled edges. There are two vertical decorative grooves behind the cock. The rear profile arcs to a point. Cock: The 3^" goose-neck cock has a flat-surfaced body with beveled edges. The straight tang has a rounded top with a notch at the front. A vertical mortice in the rear face of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of this tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted only. Pan: The thin, faceted pan is not integral with the lockplate. It is mounted horizontally and has a fence. A bridle extends forward to support the head of the frizzen screw. Frizzen: The 2l/s" by IVs" frizzen has a rounded top, and the front face is convex-surfaced. There is a slight hump in the pan cover section, above the screw, and the tail is curled.

FRENCH ARMS

3O1

Plate 070.E-C The trigger guard's front extension is retained by a lateral pin through an integral vertical lug. Later arms, equipped with sling swivels located under the arm, would use the lower sling swivel stud to secure the trigger guard's front extension.

Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and the curve at the front encloses the end of the front sidescrew. Both leaves have beveled edges. The lower leaf ends in a long spear-pointed finial. Other: The internal tumbler bridle is equipped with a projecting foot, or support, which extends downwards at the front. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The curved trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The HVz" guard assembly is retained by two screws at the rear and a lateral pin through an integral vertical lug at the front. It has pointed ends. Butt Plate: The 41A" by l7/s" butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. The 33/s" tang has a modified fleur-de-lis profile. Side Plate: The 53/i6" flat-surfaced side plate is in the form of a long, reversed "S." Thimble: The 29/i6" cast brass lower, or entrance, thimble has decorative grooves at the front end and a pointed finial. Barrel Bands: Upper Band: This band was added when the musket was modified in the late 1740s. The two 9/i6" rings are separated by an open rectangular space. The band is 23/i6" at the top and steps forward and rearward at the forestock's upper edge to 2l/i" overall. Lower Band: The 9/i6"-wide convex-surfaced iron band has a round, convexheaded lug on its left side for the upper sling swivel. This band is not provided with a retaining spring, so its position along the barrel of different examples will vary. Originally it was probably this musket's only barrel band. Plate 070.E-D This early musket's lower swivel differs from those of later arms in that it is riveted to a ring around a bolt in the stock's left breech flat. The butt plate tang has a modified fleur-de-lis profile.

Plate 070.E-E The locations of the upper and middle thimbles, which were removed during the musket's modification in the 1750s, can readily be seen when the upper barrel band is removed.

302

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. l

Sling Swivels: The swivels are loosely riveted to rings beneath the lug on the left side of the barrel band and a convex-headed screw in the stock's left breech flat, behind the rear sidescrew. Ramrod: The 45l/i" button-headed steel ramrod superseded the original wood ramrod when the musket was modified in the mid-1750s. STOCK

Wood: Varnished walnut. Length: 581/2". Comb: The uroman"-style nose of the 8l/i" comb is l/i" high. Flutes extend rearwards for 6" at the sides. This style of butt was referred to in France as the "cow's foot" (pied-a-vache) butt. Other: There are flats on both sides of the breech. The buttstock's lower profile is slightly concave. There is no raised plateau around the breech tang. MARKINGS

Barrel: A crown over "V" is stamped into the left quarter flat. The underside of the barrel is stamped with a sunken circular cartouche with a raised cross, a cartouche consisting of a circle over a rectangular box, and a circle. Lock: "S," fleur-de-lis, "E" is stamped forward of the cock. Below this is a partially illegible marking believed to be "S v G" in block letters. The interior of the lockplate is stamped "C H." The "H" is only partially legible. Other: A large "N" is stamped into the inner surfaces of the brass furniture. Assembly number "XX" is cut into the stock's lock recess and into the underside of the barrel.

1716 CONTRACT NAVAL, MUSKET

070.F

A 1716 contract for ordinary naval muskets from Tulle specified a 42" barrel and a flat, bevel-edged lockplate. The muskets were also to be equipped with a socket bayonet. Therefore, the muzzle extended about 3 " beyond the stock's tip, and there was a square bayonet lug brazed to the top of the barrel, which also served as a front sight. The lockplate's flat surfaces have vertical decorative grooves near the rear, and its rear profile ends in a projecting point. The flat-surfaced goose-neck cock has a wide tang, which curls forward at the top. The top jaw's rear flat is supported by this tang. The pear-shaped jaw screw is slotted only. There is no external bridle to support the frizzen screw. With the exceptions noted, the general configuration of this musket was the same as for the 1697 contract naval musket. In 1720 a new barrel configuration was introduced at Tulle and used in all ordinary and grenadier muskets made thereafter. This barrel is octagonal at the breech and then has a short sixteen-sided section. This is separated from the round front section by baluster rings. The breech tang is rounded at the rear, and the lug beneath has a lateral hole for passage of the rear sidescrew.

303

FRENCH ARMS

No examples of the 1716 ordinary naval musket have been located from which photographs and measurements can be obtained. The line drawing illustration by Russel Bouchard shows a musket whose configuration is generally similar to the full-length photograph of the Model 1716 grenadier musket described next, except that it does not have a forend band or barrel band, and the stock has raised plateaus around the lock, breech tang, and left breech flat. Also, there is no external pan bridle.

1716 CONTRACT GRENADIER MUSKET

070.G

As with early grenadier muskets made at Tulle, this musket is essentially the same as contemporary ordinary naval muskets, although it is usually about 2" shorter and is equipped with a barrel band and sling swivels. This musket has the same flat, bevel-edged lock and has provision for a socket bayonet. The barrel band's configuration was modified slightly, in that it has short, pointed tangs extending rearwards and forwards at the top. The new barrel configuration described in the previous section was also introduced into the production of the grenadier musket at about the same time. The configuration of the Saint Etienne musket described and illustrated here generally conforms to the Model 1716 grenadier musket manufactured at Tulle and is believed to be either a variation of that arm or possibly a musket made for sale to the navy or the French India Company. In addition to its length, the musket differs from those made at Tulle in that its brass mountings are of different configurations, it has a forend band, and the stock does not have raised plateaus at the breech. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .69. Overall Length: 62 l /i". Finish: All metal finished bright. Brass Components: Trigger guard, butt plate, side plate, ramrod thimbles, and forend band. Production Period: Reportedly procured by the French Navy Ministry from private gunmakers between about 1716 and 1729. Quantity Procured: Unknown.

Plate 070.G-A This Saint Etienne musket's configuration is generally similar to the 1716 contract grenadier muskets made at Tulle. It differs in that it is brassmounted and the configuration of some of the furniture varies from Tulle pattern.

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304

BARREL 7

Length: 46 /s". Contour: There is a 43 " top flat and 8" quarter and side flats extending forward from the breech. These taper to round. There are four underlugs dovetailed to the barrel for retaining pins. Muzzle Extension: 33A". Bore Diameter: The bore diameter of this example is .690". Breech Plug Tang: The 25/s" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. Bayonet Lug: The rectangular lug is brazed to the barrel l5/s" behind the muzzle. It also serves as the front sight. LOCK l

5

Lockplate: The 6 /i" by ! /i6" lockplate is flat-surfaced with beveled edges. There are two vertical decorative grooves behind the cock. The rear profile arcs to a point. Cock: The 31/z" goose-neck cock has a flat-surfaced body with beveled edges. The straight tang has a rounded top with a notch at the front. A vertical mortice in the rear face of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of this tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted only. Pan: The thin, faceted pan is not integral with the lockplate. It is mounted horizontally and has a fence. A bridle extends forward to support the head of the frizzen screw. Frizzen: The 2l/s" by ll/s" frizzen has a rounded top, and the front face is convex-surfaced. There is a slight hump in the pan cover section, above the screw, and the tail is curled. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and the curve at the front encloses the end of the front sidescrew. Both leaves have beveled edges. The lower leaf ends in a long fleur-de-lis finial. Other: The internal tumbler bridle is equipped with a projecting foot, or support, which extends downwards at the front.

Plate 070.G-B The lock is remarkably similar to that of the Saint Etienne 1697 grenadier musket previously illustrated. The only salient differences are the lack of a semicircular bevel in the lockplate's upper front edge and the shape of the frizzen spring finial. The stamped lock markings are believed to have been applied when the musket was repaired in the 1760s.

FRENCH ARMS

3O5

Plate 070.G-C The reversed "S"shaped side plate has decorative projections, and the sling swivels are circular.

FURNITURE Trigger and Guard Assembly: The curved trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The HVs" guard assembly is retained by two screws at the rear and one at the front. It has pointed ends. Butt Plate: The 51A" by 2" butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. A 51/2" tang extends forward at the top. This tang's profile has two swells, with a narrow "waist" between, and it ends in a long, narrow, pointed end. Side Plate: The 53/i6" flat-surfaced side plate is in the form of a long, reversed "S." Its profile is slightly different from the Model 1717 and Model 1728 infantry muskets described later. Thimbles: The three sheet brass thimbles have decorative grooves at the ends. The two upper thimbles are !3/i6" long. The 23/f" lower thimble has a pointed finial. Barrel Band: The V^'-wide convex-surfaced iron band has a lug on its left side for the upper sling swivel. This band is not provided with a retainer, so its position along the barrel of different examples will vary. Sling Swivels: The circular swivels are suspended from lugs on the left side of the barrel band and bolted to the stock's left breech flat near the rear. Forend Band: The 3/s"-wide sheet brass band is located l/i" behind the stock's fore tip. Ramrod: The 45l/i" tapered wood ramrod has an open-ended brass sleeve around its trumpet head. STOCK

Wood: Varnished walnut. Length: 583/4". Comb: The "roman"-style nose of the 83/4" comb is 3/4" high. Flutes extend rearwards for 6" at the sides. This style of butt was referred to in France as the "cow's foot" (pied-a-vache) butt. Other: There are flats on both sides of the breech. The buttstock's lower profile is slightly concave. There is no raised plateau around the breech tang. MARKINGS

Barrel: A roughly square, illegible cartouche is deeply struck into the left quarter flat. The underside of the barrel is stamped with a rectangular cartouche with a raised star at one end and also with a crescent moon.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

3O6

Lock: "LEJAY" over "A ST. ETIENNE" is stamped in two lines of block letters forward of the cock. Lejay was a private contracter circa 1760, and it is believed that his name was stamped into the lock subsequent to original manufacture, possibly at the time of an overhaul. The interior of the lockplate is engraved "G»C R" in a semicircle. Stock: The left side of the wrist is branded with a large, inverted fleur-de-lis, and a six-pointed asterisk is stamped into the left side of the butt. "P. CIZERON" is stamped into the underside of the buttstock, behind the trigger guard. Cizeron was an inspector/supervisor at the Royal Manufactory at Saint Etienne from 1717 to 1740.

MODEL 1717 MUSKETS MODEL 1717 INFANTRY MUSKET

Plate 070.Hl-AThe Model 1717 infantry musket was France's first regulation shoulder arm. It was produced at all three royal manufactories. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

070.H 070.H1

The manufacturing techniques that would be used at the royal manufactories were developed by M. de Saint Hilaire of Charleville. Models of the proposed musket were presented to the Council of War on January 4, 1717. Some modifications were made by this council, and the improved model of musket was approved on January 25, 1717. An initial lot of 20,000 infantry muskets and 10,000 rampart muskets was authorized. The 1717 model-series of muskets was not a new French arms design. It was the formalization of an established configuration that had been supplied to the French armed forces for a number of years. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .69. Overall Length: 63". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: None. Production Period: Charleville: 1717-1728; Saint Etienne: 1717-1727; Maubeuge: 1717-1723. Quantity Procured (by French Government): 48,000. BARREL 3

Length: 46 /4". Contour: The barrel is octagonal at the breech for 3". The top flat extends to the bayonet lug. The remainder of the barrel is round and tapers in decreasing

FRENCH ARMS

307

diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. Four semicircular tennons are brazed to the underside of the barrel for the lateral pins, which secure the barrel to the stock. Muzzle Extension: 33/i6"* Bayonet Lug: The 1A" by 3/i6" lug is brazed to the top of the barrel !3/4" behind the muzzle. It also serves as the front sight. Breech Plug Tang: The 2l/s" to 2l/i" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. The lug beneath the tang has a lateral hole for passage of the rear sidescrew. LOCK 5

5

Lockplate: The 6 /i6" by ! /i6" plate has a flat surface with beveled edges. There are two decorative vertical grooves behind the cock. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. Cock: The 35/s" goose-neck cock has a flat surface with beveled edges. The top of the wide tang curls forward, and there is a decorative notch below. The rear face of the top jaw bears against the front face of the tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted only. Pan: The faceted, horizontal pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence, and the powder receptacle is shallow. There is no external pan bridle. Frizzen: The 2" by iVs" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge and the pan cover section is thinner than on later models. The tail's upper profile is convex above the screw, and its end curls upwards slightly. The frizzen screw's head is supported by a flat, curved bridle, which extends upwards from beneath the head of the frizzen spring screw. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and the curve at the front does not enclose the end of the front sidescrew. Both leaves have edge bevels. The lower leaf ends in a long pointed finial. Other: The internal tumbler bridle is equipped with a foot, which projects downwards at the front. All external lock screws are convex-headed. Plate 070.H1-B The salient feature that distinguishes the locks of 1717 model-series of arms is the curved bridle that extends upwards from the frizzen spring screw to support the head of the frizzen screw. Traces of a fleur-delis, which denotes government ownership, and "IF" followed by a crown over "c" are visible forward of the cock. This mark is attributed to Jean Baptiste Fournier, who was at the Charleville manufactory from 1716 to 1733. The crown over "c" marking is believed to mean "royal controller," or inspector. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

308

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 070.H1-C This long, waspwaisted butt plate tang configuration was used on French regulation muskets from the 1717 through the 1754 year-model-series.

FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in the trigger plate. It curls rearwards at the bottom. The 1 "-wide guard bow is integral with the front and rear extensions, and this assembly is 123/4" overall. The extensions terminate in pointed ends. The guard is secured by two wood screws through the rear extension and by a lateral pin through an integral vertical lug at the front. Butt Plate: The 5l/s" by 2l/s" butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. A tang extends 6" forward at the top and is secured by a lateral pin through an integral lug. The tang's profile has two swells, with a narrow "waist" between, and it ends in a long, narrow, rounded point. The butt plate is also secured by wood screws near the toe and at the heel. Barrel Band: In addition to four lateral pins, the barrel is secured by a single, convex-surfaced, 3/s"-wide band located about 31" forward of the breech. There is an integral lug on the left side of this band for the upper sling swivel. Because there is no band retaining spring, the band's location may vary. Sling Swivels: The circular swivels are suspended from lugs on the left side of the musket. The upper swivel lug is integral with the barrel band. The lower swivel lug is located near the rear of the stock's left breech flat. It is secured by a machine screw, which passes through to the lock recess, where it threads into a square nut. Side Plate: The 4Vi6" flat-surfaced side plate is reverse "S"-shaped. Forend Band: The 3A" sheet iron band is located 9/i6" behind the stock's foretip. Ramrod: The 45 " wood ramrod has a lVi6" iron, sleeve-type head. Beginning in 1741, many of these wood ramrods were replaced with steel ramrods with button heads. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 59^". Comb: The 9" comb has a long "roman" nose, which is about 3/4" high. Flutes extend 6 " rearwards from either side of the nose. This buttstock configuration is described by the French as the "cow's foot" (pied-a-vache) butt. Other: The buttstock's lower profile is slightly concave. The rear of the ramrod channel is angled slightly to the left, so as to miss the internal lock parts.

FRENCH ARMS

309

MARKINGS

Lockplate: Known examples are marked in front of the cock as follows: Charleville: Stamped in front of the cock "J»F." and a small "c" with a small crown above. This is the mark of Jean Baptiste Fournier, who worked at Charleville from about 1716 to 1733. It is speculated that the crown over the small "c" means royal controller. A small fleur-de-lis is stamped behind the cock. Saint Etienne: Stamped with a crown over "S" and "E," separated by a fleur-de-lis. Maubeuge: The letters "A" and UR" are stamped on either side of a fleur-delis. It is speculated that these stand for "Armory Royal." Below this is stamped "M B E." Note: Other markings of these muskets are unknown. MODEL 1717 RAMPART MUSKET

070.H2

The Model 1717 rampart musket is visually similar to the infantry musket, except that rampart muskets were stocked to the muzzle. The salient differences are in the very slightly larger caliber, the larger barrel diameter, and the heavier stock dimensions. The example described here was fabricated at Saint Etienne. It conforms to the configuration of the regulation Model 1717 rampart musket, except that it is brass-mounted. Its markings suggest manufacture at the Royal Armory for commercial sale, possibly to the navy or the French Indian Company (Compagnie des Indies). GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .71. Overall Length: 63". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: Trigger guard, butt plate, side plate, thimbles, and forend band. Production Period: 1717-1725. Quantity Procured (by French Government): 40,000. BARREL

Length: 47". Contour: The barrel is octagonal for 41/z" at the breech. The top flat extends for 42", almost to the front sight. The remainder of the barrel is round and tapers in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. Four semicircular tennons

Plate 070.H2-A The Model 1717 rampart musket is visually similar to the Model 1717 infantry musket. However, it is more massively constructed and is stocked to the muzzle.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

31O

are brazed to the underside of the barrel for the lateral pins, which secure the barrel to the stock. Front Sight: The 5/s" oval front blade is 43/s" behind the muzzle. Muzzle Extension: 9/16". Bore: The bore diameter of this example is .77". Breech Plug Tang: The 2l/i" by l/i" tang is round-ended. The lug beneath the tang has a lateral hole for passage of the rear sidescrew. Muzzle Extension: 3/i6". LOCK 1

3

Lockplate: The 7 /s" by ! /s" plate has a flat surface with beveled edges. There are two decorative vertical grooves behind the cock. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. Cock: The 35/s" goose-neck cock has a flat surface with beveled edges. The top of the wide tang curls forward, and there is a decorative notch below. The rear face of the top jaw bears against the front face of the tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted only. Pan: The faceted, horizontal pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence and a shallow powder receptacle. There is no external pan bridle. Frizzen: The 2l/s" by 1W frizzen has a rounded top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge and the pan cover section is thinner than on later models. The tail's upper profile is convex above the screw, and its end curls upwards slightly. The frizzen screw head is supported by a flat, curved bridle that extends 1H " upwards from beneath the head of the frizzen spring screw. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and the curve at the front does not enclose the end of the front sidescrew. Both leaves have edge bevels. The lower leaf ends in a long, pointed finial. Other: The internal tumbler bridle is equipped with a foot, which projects downwards at the front. All external lock screws are convex-headed.

Plate 070-H2.B The lockplate markings of this Model 1717 rampart musket indicate that it was made by contract lock maker P. Girard at Saint Etienne.

A

Lockplates of known examples are from 67/s" to 73/i6" long.

FRENCH ARMS

31 1

FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in the trigger plate. It curls rearwards at the bottom. The 1 "-wide guard bow is integral with the front and rear extensions, and this assembly is 105/s" overall. The extensions terminate in pointed ends. The guard is secured by two wood screws through the rear extension and by a lateral pin through an integral vertical lug at the front. Butt Plate: The 5 " by 2 " butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. The 61A" tang is secured by a lateral pin through an integral lug. The tang's profile has two swells with a narrow "waist" between, and it ends in a long, narrow, rounded point. Barrel Band: In addition to four lateral pins, the barrel is secured by a single, convex-surfaced, band. The 9/i6" band extends forwards and rearwards at the top to 3/4" wide. There is no integral sling swivel lug on this band. Because there is no band retainer, the band's location may vary along the forestock. Sling Swivels: None. Side Plate: The 45/i6" flat-surfaced side plate is reverse "S"-shaped. Forend Band: The 3A" sheet iron band is located 9/i6" behind the stock's foretip. Ramrod: The 453/4" tapered wood ramrod has a !3/s" iron, sleeve-type head. Beginning in 1741, many of these wood ramrods were replaced with steel ramrods with button heads. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 623/4". Comb: The 83/4" comb has a 5/s"-high nose. Flutes extend 53/4" rearwards from either side of the nose. This buttstock configuration is described by the French as the "cow's foot" (pied-a-vache) butt. Other: The stock is of generally heavier proportions, but of the same configuration, as the infantry musket. MARKINGS

Markings: This Saint Etienne musket's lock is stamped, forward of the cock, "S," fleur-de-lis, "E" over "P.GIRARD" in two horizontal lines. These markings indicate that the lock was produced by Girard, a contract gunsmith for the Royal Manufactory. "I«DAVID" is stamped inside the lockplate below the pan. The barrel's left quarter flat is stamped with two illegible cartouches over "IP" and with a partially illegible "IPEVI" in block letters. MODEL 1717 DRAGOON MUSKET

070.H5

Plate 070.H5-A This 1717 dragoon musket's barrel is marked indicating ownership by the Dragoon Regiment of Orleans. Orleans is located south of Paris. Although generally similar to the infantry musket, it has no barrel band or sling swivels and has provision for an angular socket bayonet. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 070.H5-B The lock is marked similarly to the Model 1717 infantry musket previously illustrated, with the marks of Jean Baptiste Fournier of Charleville. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

Although no French procurement information is known of, a single example of this musket exists in the Musee de L'Armee in Paris. The specifications of this musket are essentially the same as those of the Model 1717 infantry musket, but there are minor differences in the brass furniture, and the top barrel flat is marked "Dragons D'Orleans." This musket probably was procured privately for this dragoon unit. The salient differences between the infantry musket and this dragoon musket are described as follows. Muzzle Extension: 23/4". Trigger and Guard Assembly: The iron trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The 123/4" brass trigger guard assembly is flat-surfaced with wide beveled edges. It is more sculpted than the infantry musket. The profile of the rear guard extension widens, then steps down, and ends in a point at the rear. The front extension's profile has a low hemisphere near the front and also ends in a point. The guard is secured to the stock by a wood screw at the rear and by a lateral pin through an integral vertical lug at the front. Butt Plate: The 47/s" brass butt plate tang ends in a fleur-de-lis profile. The buttplate is otherwise similar to that of the infantry musket. Thimbles: The four brass thimbles are faceted between the reinforcing rings at their ends. Side Plate: The 53/4" brass side plate is pierced with openwork and is of a floral design. The lower sling swivel stud passes through the rear extension of the side plate. Stock: The stock has a lower comb than the infantry musket but is otherwise similar to it. MODEL 1728 MUSKETS MODEL 1728 INFANTRY MUSKET

070.1 070.11

In 1727 M. de Valliere, who was director of manufactures as well as inspector general, proposed several improvements to the Model 1717 musket. These improvements were approved by the king on January 20, 1729. Although the Model 1728 musket is visually different from the Model 1717, primarily due to the adoption of barrel bands and an external pan bridle, it is basically very similar; so only those specifications that differ are described here.

313

FRENCH ARMS

GENERAL INFORMATION Production Period: 1727-1746. Quantity Procured (by French Government): 375,000. BARREL

Contour: The barrel is octagonal for 7" at the breech. The top flat extends 331/2". The four retaining pin tennons of the Model 1717 have been deleted, and a l/i" anti-twist lug has been added to the underside of the barrel, 4l/i" behind the muzzle.

Plate 070.I1-A The Model 1728 infantry musket was the first regulation French musket equipped with three barrel bands. Until 1741 muskets were equipped with wood ramrods. Muskets produced thereafter were equipped with steel ramrods, and the wood ram' rods of most existing muskets were replaced.

LOCK

Pan: A supporting bridle extends forward from the pan to the frizzen screw. Frizzen Spring: The curve at the front encloses the end of the front sidescrew. The lower leaf of some examples ends in a spear-pointed finial; other examples have a teardrop finial with an extended point to the rear.

Plate 070.11-B The configuration of the 1728 year-model-series lock reflects a return to the component styles used prior to 1717. The lockplate of this example is stamped "A," fleur-de-lis, "R" over only faint traces of U M B E" forward of the cock. This marking is attributed to the Royal Manufactory at Maubeuge.

FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The guard has been reduced to H3/4" to IZVie" long. Barrel Bands: The three flat-surfaced iron bands are not formed inwards at the forestock's upper edge. Upper: The two 3/s" to 7/i6" barrel rings are separated by a rectangular open space. This band is !5/s" to I13/i6" long at the top. There are front and rear

314

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 070.I1-C The configuration of the trigger guard, reverse "S"shaped side plate, and lower sling swivel on the stock's left breech flat are common to both the 1717 and 1728 year-model-series of infantry muskets. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

steps at the forestock's upper edge, which extend the overall length of this band to l7/s". There is a square hole for the retaining spring lug in the right side. The mouth of the ramrod channel is not flared outwards. Middle: The l/i" to 9/i6"-wide band has tangs projecting to the front and rear at the top, for an overall width of 5/s" to 3A". The circular sling swivel is suspended from an integral lug on the left side of this band. Lower: As on the upper band, there are front and rear steps below the 7/i6" to 5/s"-wide barrel ring at the forestock's upper edge. A tang extends forward at the bottom for an overall width of l5/s". Barrel Band Spacing: Because only the upper band is equipped with a retainer, muskets may be encountered with the lower two bands in a variety of locations, depending on the diameter of the stock, which may have been reduced by refinishing or by lowered moisture content. Barrel Band Retainers: The upper band only is secured by a flat spring with a square stud at the front, which engages a corresponding hole in the right side of the band. This spring has an exposed length of 23/4". Ramrod: Muskets fabricated to 1741 were equipped with the same wood ramrod described for the Model 1717 infantry musket. Beginning in 1741 muskets were equipped with a 453/4" steel ramrod with a button head. STOCK

Note: The stock is unchanged except for the addition of the inlet for the upper band spring. Also, the recesses in the barrel channel for the pin tennons were deleted. MARKINGS

A musket made at Saint Etienne is marked as follows. Barrel: Top Flat: Engraved with "DVBOYS" in block letters. Left Quarter Flat: Stamped with two proof and view marks. One is in the form of a fleur-de-lis over crossed lines, whose bottom portion forms an inverted heart. The other is a crown over the intertwined script letters "S" and "E." Lock: The lockplate is stamped, forward of the cock with Saint Etienne's stamp of a crown over "S," fleur-de-lis, "E." To the right of this is a small crown over

FRENCH ARMS

315

Plate 070.11-D The left side of this French Model 1728 infantry musket is branded "LA MARINE." This suggests ownership by the French Navy Ministry's free companies. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

"E," which is probably the lock inspector's mark. Below these, in large block letters, is "DVBOYS." Stock: Right Side of Butt: Stamped with a crown over US," fleur-de-lis, and "E." Centered just below this is "F." Behind Trigger Guard: "LCLAVD" and "E.COVET" are stamped in block letters. Muskets made at Maubeuge are stamped on the barrels' left quarter flat with a crown over "M" and "B" in intertwined script. Lockplates of Maubeuge muskets are marked as described for the Model 1717 infantry musket. One known example also has a small "IN" stamped into the lockplate's tail. The barrel's left quarter flat of another Maubeuge musket is stamped with a fleur-de-lis. Its lock is marked "A," fleur-de-lis, "R," forward of the cock, over a very faint "M B E." A small UIM" is stamped behind the cock. The right side of the stock's butt is stamped with a fleur-de-lis over "N»D»I," over "M»E»G," over another small fleur-de-lis. MODEL 1728

RAMPART MUSKET

070.12

Because this musket is the same as the Model 1717 rampart musket with the improvements of the Model 1728 described previously, no additional description is necessary. No rampart muskets were fabricated after the 1728 year-model-series ceased production.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

316

1729 CONTRACT NAVAL MUSKET

Plate 070.J-A Except for its barrel configuration, this Saint Etienne musket is generally similar to the 1729 Tulle contract navy muskets described by arms authority Russel Bouchard. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

070J

Because of the vast distances in North America, muskets with slings (that is, grenadier muskets) were preferred by the free companies serving there, because their slings enabled them to carry the muskets over the shoulder on long marches. Therefore, the 1729 contract between the Navy Ministry and the Tulle gunmakers specified that the ordinary musket was to be equipped with sling swivels and a barrel band. The ordinary naval muskets made thereafter were essentially the same as, although slightly longer than, contemporary grenadier muskets. Tulle muskets of this period examined by Russel Bouchard are about 61" overall. The 44 Vz", -69 caliber barrel is octagonal at the breech and then sixteen-sided for a short distance. This section is separated from the round front section by a double baluster ring about 12" forward of the breech. The breech tang has a round end, and the lug beneath has a lateral hole for passage of the rear sidescrew. The rectangular bayonet lug also serves as the front sight. The front two barrel underlugs, through which pins pass to retain the barrel, are brazed to the barrel. The flat, bevel-edged lockplate has a projecting point at the rear. The goose-neck cock also has a flat-surfaced body, and its narrow tang curls forward at the top. A vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of the tang. The horizontally mounted, faceted pan has an external bridle extending forward to support the frizzen screw. The tumbler is also supported by an internal bridle. The frizzen spring's lower leaf ends in a long, pointed finial. The furniture is iron. No contract of this period with the Tulle gunmakers specifies "yellow copper" or brass mountings. The configuration of the furniture items is the same as for the Model 1717 infantry musket, although the dimensions may differ. Only after April 9, 1743, were ordinary and grenadier muskets made at Tulle equipped with three barrel bands. The 59" walnut stock is also similar to the Model 1717 infantry musket but has raised plateaus around the lock, left breech flat, and breech tang. The iron-mounted musket described here generally conforms to the description of the Model 1729 navy musket described by Russel Bouchard. It does not have the short sixteen-sided section and baluster rings separating the barrel's octagonal and round sections. Although many of the markings are only partially legible due to wear, this musket is believed to have been made in Saint Etienne and represents a variation from the Tulle musket described above. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .69. Overall Length: 627/s".

FRENCH ARMS

317

Finish: All metal is finished bright. Brass Components: None. Production Period: Unknown. Quantity Procured: Unknown. BARREL

Length: 45V. Contour: The barrel is octagonal at the breech for 143/4" and then round to the muzzle. A baluster ring separates the octagonal and round sections. The barrel is secured by the tang screw, lateral pins through four underlugs and the forestock, and a single barrel band. Muzzle Extension: 33/s". Bore: The bore diameter of this example is .700". Breech Plug Tang: The 2l/i" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. Bayonet Lug: This rectangular lug is brazed to the barrel P/V' behind the muzzle. It also serves as the front sight. LOCK 3

9

Lockplate: The 7 /s" by l /3z" lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges. There are two decorative vertical grooves behind the cock. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. Cock: The 33/s" goose-neck cock has a flat surface with beveled edges. The narrow tang has a straight rear profile and a round top with a notch at the front. A vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of this tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted and holed. Pan: The horizontal, faceted pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence and an external bridle. Frizzen: The l7/s" by 1 l/s" frizzen has a rounded top. The upper profile of the pan cover is straight, and the tail is curled. (Note: This is broken off of the example photographed.)

Plate 070.J-B The partially legible lockplate markings are attributed to Saint Etienne. The jaw screw and frizzen appear to have been replaced subsequent to original manufacture. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf curves slightly upwards, and the curve at the front encloses the end of the front sidescrew. Both leaves' outer edges are beveled, and the lower leaf ends in a fleur-de-lis finial. FURNITURE Trigger and Guard Assembly: The curved trigger is suspended downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The IZVz" guard assembly has pointed ends. It is secured by a lateral pin through an integral vertical lug at the front and by two wood screws at the rear. Buttplate: The 5" by 2l/s" butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. The 5" tang has a thin-waisted profile similar to that described for previous muskets. Side Plate: The 35/s" flat-surfaced side plate is in the form of a modified, reverse "S." Thimbles: The three sheet iron thimbles have decorative grooves at the ends. The upper two thimbles are ll/s" long. The lower thimble is 23/s" and has a pointed finial. Barrel Band: The convex-surfaced iron band is 9/i6" wide, except at the top, where short, pointed tangs extend front and rear for a total width of 3/4". This band has no retaining spring, so its position along the forearm may vary. Sling Swivels: This musket is equipped with circular swivels on the left side, as are described for previous muskets. Ramrod: The 46" tapered wood ramrod has no metal fittings and may be a replacement.

Plate 070.J-C The iron trigger guard, reverse "S"-shaped side plate, and sling swivel are similar to those of the 1717 and 1728 year-model-series of muskets as well as those described for the 1729 contract navy musket. "C.MAPLEY IEUNE" is stamped into the barrel's left flat, just above the stock's upper edge. This translates as "C. Mapley the younger." (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 591/4". Comb: The 91A" comb has a 5/8"-high "roman"-style nose. Flutes extend rearwards at the sides for 53/4".

FRENCH ARMS

319

Other: The buttstock's lower profile is concave. There are flats on both sides of the breech but no raised plateaus. MARKINGS Barrel: The only visible markings are "C.MAPLEY IEUNE" stamped into the left flat, just above the stock in block letters. This refers to "C. Mapley the younger." Lock: The markings are only partially legible: "P.CIHA " over "COMP" is stamped in two horizontal lines of block letters forward of the cock. Stock: The marking is only partially legible: " RO ET" is stamped in block letters behind the trigger guard.

1729 CONTRACT GRENADIER MUSKET

070.K

Because the ordinary musket made at Tulle from 1729 was equipped with sling swivels and a barrel band, it is basically the same as the grenadier musket. Some grenadier muskets were slightly shorter. A Tulle grenadier musket made after 1729 was described by Russel Bouchard as being 59" overall and having a 433/s" barrel. This is only slightly more than an inch shorter than the Tulle ordinary musket. Most, but not all, grenadier muskets made at Tulle between 1732 and 1740 were equipped with what was described as "uniform" locks. These locks had fully interchangeable components and were supplied only on grenadier muskets. Locks with interchangeable components were made as early as 1720 by Saint Etienne gunmaker Danvier le Cadet. Because these locks facilitated repairs, increased workers' productivity, and were more economical to make, le Cadet was encouraged to move to Tulle in 1729. He taught his production methods to the gunmakers there, and the first interchangeable locks were completed in 1730. Rough lock component forgings were prepared by hand, heated, and stamped in a steel mold to precise dimensions. They were then cleaned and polished. Each part was placed in a steel die, which also served as a gauge. This die had holes for drills and taps, so that the resulting threaded holes were precisely located in each of the successive components from a particular die. This is believed to have been the first large-scale production of locks with interchangeable parts. Manufacture of these locks was discontinued at Tulle in 1740 because the stamping made the iron more brittle, and the components were more easily broken.

MODEL 1734 DRAGOON MUSKET

070.L

This musket was authorized by the king on May 28, 1733, and its pattern was adopted by the regulations for cavalry arms on January 18, 1734. It is a scaleddown, mixed brass- and iron-mounted version of the Model 1728 infantry musket. Unfortunately, no example of this musket was located to photograph and measure. The specifications below are from published sources and include only those items that differ from the infantry musket.

320

Plate 070.M-A The Model 1734 cavalry musketoon was the first regulation shoulder arm adopted by the French for use by the cavalry. It has a pin-fastened barrel and is equipped with both sling swivels and a swivel bar and ring. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978. Photograph by Margaret Green.)

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Caliber: .67. Overall Length: 601/4 ". Brass Components: Trigger guard, upper and lower barrel bands, side plate, and anti-split band. Production Period: 1734-1754. Quantity Procured (by French Government): Estimated at 6,000. Barrel: Except for the length and bore, it is the same as on the infantry musket. Length: 45 V4". Muzzle Extension: 33/i6". Furniture: Trigger and Guard Assembly: The brass trigger guard bow is integral with the front and rear extensions and is I03/s" long. The surface is flat with a wide bevel. The rear extension ends in the profile of a flattened oval with a point, and the front extension ends in a fleur-de-lis profile. Barrel Bands: The iron middle band is the same as on the Model 1728 infantry musket. The brass upper and lower bands are also configured after the Model 1728 musket. During the production period of this arm, lateral, convex-headed retaining nails were added through the right sides of the lower and upper bands and stock. Later in production, the upper band's retaining nail was superseded by a stud-type band retaining spring, extending rearwards. Side Plate: The 5l/s" brass side plate is flat with beveled edges. It is wider than the infantry side plate and extends further to the rear. Ramrod: Early production dragoon muskets were equipped with a wood ramrod with an iron, trumpet head. This was superseded by the steel, button head ramrod, beginning in 1741. Stock: There are raised, carved plateaus around the lock, left flat, and the breech tang of the 57" stock. It is otherwise similar to that of the infantry musket.

MODEL 1734 CAVALRY MUSKETOON

070.M

The Model 1734 cavalry musketoon was authorized by the king in May 1733 and its pattern adopted on January 18, 1734. Although the general style of this musketoon is that of the Model 1728 model-series of arms, it differs in that it has a pinned barrel and in other details. In addition to those described here, 1,100 musketoons were fabricated in 1742-1743, which were externally the same, but which were rifled from the

321

FRENCH ARMS

breech to 8l/i" of the muzzle. The bore diameter of this rifled section was slightly reduced, and the balls were seated with the steel ramrod and a mallet, which was issued with the musketoon. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .67.

Overall Length: 445/s" to 447/s". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: Butt plate, side plate, trigger guard, ramrod thimbles, and forend band. Production Period: 1734-1765. Quantity Procured (by French Government): 25,000. BARREL 13

Length: 30 /i6" to 31^". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter from the breech to the muzzle. There are flats at the top and sides of the breech. The top flat extends for about 10" and the side flats extend for about 7 ". The barrel is retained by the tang screw and by two lateral pins and an upper sling swivel screw, which pass through three tennons brazed to the underside of the barrel. Front Sight: The oval blade is brazed to the barrel 25/s" behind the muzzle. Bore Diameter: The diameter of this example is .705". Breech Tang: The !7/s" by 7/i6" tang is round-ended. Muzzle Extension: None. LOCK u

1

Note: The 5 /i6" by I /!5" lock is the same configuration as the Model 1728 infantry musket lock. The cock is 3" high, and the frizzen's rear face is l5/s" byl".

Plate 070.M-B The lock is a scaled-down version of the lock used in the 1728 year-model-series of infantry arms. The plate is engraved "Manufacture" over "Charleville" in script. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

322

Plate 070.M-C The swivel bar extends forward from the rear sidescrews. The flat, bevel-edged side plate is similar to that described by Boudriot for the Model 1734 dragoon musket. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

Plate 070.M-D The lower sling swivel is riveted to a broad ring around a bolt that passes upwards through the rear of the flat, beveledged trigger guard assembly. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

FURNITURE Note: This musketoon is equipped with both a swivel bar and ring and sling swivels. Trigger and Guard Assembly: Identical to the Model 1734 dragoon musket, but various examples measured were 93/4" to 10" long. Butt Plate: The 4" by P/V brass butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. The 3l/i" upper tang is in the form of a lily and is retained by a lateral pin. There are also two wood screws at the toe and heel of the butt. Thimbles: The three round brass thimbles have reinforcement rings at the ends. The upper two thimbles are 17/i6". The 27/s" lower thimble has a pointed finial. Side Plate: The broad, flat, bevel-edged, 51A " side plate is similar to that of the Model 1734 dragoon musket. Swivel Bar: An 8l/i" bar extends from underneath the head of the rear sidescrew to a machine screw passing from right to left through the stock just behind the lower thimble. Sling Swivels: The upper swivel is suspended from a lateral screw passing from right to left through the stock and barrel tennon. The lower swivel is riveted to a collar retained by a convex-headed wood screw through the rear of the trigger guard. Forend Band: This 5/s"-wide band is located 3/s" behind the foretip. Ramrod: Early musketoons were equipped with wood ramrods with brass trumpet heads. From 1741 these were superseded by steel, button-headed ramrods. STOCK 5

7

Length: 44 /8" to 44 /8". Comb: The prominent round nose of the 63/s" comb is 3A" high. Flutes extend rearwards at the sides for 4".

FRENCH ARMS

323

Other: There are raised plateaus around the lock and left breech flat and around the barrel tang. There is also a plateau extending along the sides of the ramrod channel and rear thimble. MARKINGS

Barrel: The left quarter flats of various examples were stamped with sunken cartouches. One was over an intertwined design. One example had "DV CH DE«MONTMORIN" engraved along the barrel's top flat in block letters. Lock: The example with the engraved barrel marking just described was stamped on the lockplate, forward of the cock, "G.GUILLMARD" over "LONGWY" in two horizontal lines of block letters. Another example was engraved "MANUFACTURE" over "CHARLEVILLE" in two lines of script letters. Note: Guillmard worked at Muerthe-et-Moselle, about sixty-five miles east of Charleville, near the German border, circa 1750-1760.

MODEL 1746 INFANTRY MUSKET

070.N

The Model 1746, like the Model 1728, reflected a series of improvements to the Model 1717 musket. These changes were formalized by the adoption of this new year-model-series of arms. In 1750 another series of modifications to the Model 1746 musket was approved. However, because no Model 1746 muskets were fabricated after the adoption of these modifications, none were originally fabricated with these improvements. There is no rampart musket in the 1746 model-series of arms, as it had been previously discontinued.

GENERAL INFORMATION

Caliber: .69. Overall Length: 623/8". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: None. Production Period: 1746-1750. Quantity Procured (by French Government): 248,000.

Plate 070.N^A The French Model 1746 infantry musket is visually similar to the Model 1728. The salient change in the furniture is in the configuration of the three flat-surfaced barrel bands. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

324

BARREL 1

Length: 46 /s". Contour: The barrel is octagonal at the breech. The quarter and side flats extend 6" forward. The top flat extends 45" to the bayonet lug. The remainder of the barrel is round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. A V^'-long anti-twist lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel 4l/i" behind the muzzle. Muzzle Extension: 31/i". Bayonet Lug: The H" by 3/i6" rectangular lug is brazed to the top of the barrel IVs" behind the muzzle. It also serves as the front sight. Breech Plug Tang: The ZVs" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. The lug beneath has a lateral hole for passage of the rear sidescrew. LOCK 9

5

Lockplate: The 6 /i6" by ! /i6" plate has a flat surface with beveled edges. There is a vertical decorative groove behind the cock. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. Cock: The body of the 3 Vz" goose-neck cock has a flat surface with beveled edges. There is a decorative curl at the top of the wide tang. The rear face of the top jaw bears against the front face of this tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted only. Pan: The horizontal, faceted pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence and a larger and deeper powder receptacle than on previous models. There is no external frizzen bridle to support the frizzen screw's head. Frizzen: The V/s" by 1 l/s" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge with a decorative facet at the bottom. The pan cover section is thin, similar to preceeding models, and the tail is curled upwards. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf inclines upwards at the rear. The curve at the front is at the end of the front sidescrew. Both leaves have beveled edges. The lower leaf ends in a convex-surfaced finial, shaped like a spear point with a small sphere at the end.

Plate 070.N-B The pan is deeper than on previous models and does not have an external bridle to support the head of the frizzen screw, but it is otherwise similar to the 1728 year-model-series lock. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

325

FRENCH ARMS

Other: The cock screw and sidescrews have convex heads. The frizzen and frizzen spring screws have convex-surfaced filister heads. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The straight trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in the trigger plate. The 1 "-wide guard bow is integral with its extensions. The IZVz" guard has pointed ends. It is secured by two wood screws at the rear and a lateral pin through an integral vertical lug at the front. Butt Plate: The 5l/s" by 23/i6" butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. The 5l/i" tang is secured by a lateral pin through an integral lug. The profile of this tang consists of two swells with a narrow waist between, and it ends in a rounded point. Barrel Bands: The three flat-surfaced bands are not formed inwards at the forestock's upper edge. Upper Band: The 21A" band's two 9/i6" barrel rings are separated by a rectangular open space. There are narrow front and rear steps at the forestock's upper edge, which increases the band's length to 2n/i6" at the bottom. The mouth of the ramrod channel is not flared outwards, and there is a square hole in the right side of the band for the retaining spring lug. Middle Band: This 5/s" band has an integral upper sling swivel lug on the left side. It differs from the Model 1728 in that it does not have the top flanges to the front and rear. Lower Band: The l/i" barrel ring has narrow front and rear steps at the forestock's upper edge. A tang extends forward at the bottom for an overall width of !9/i6". Barrel Band Spacing: Because only the upper band is equipped with a retainer, muskets may be encountered with the two lower bands in various locations. Barrel Band Retainers: The upper band only is secured by a 25/s" flat spring with a square stud at the front, which engages a corresponding hole in the right side of the upper band. Sling Swivels: The circular swivels are located on the left side of the musket. The upper swivel is suspended from a lug on the left side of the middle barrel band. The lower swivel is suspended from a lug with an integral machine screw that passes from the stock's left breech flat through to the lock recess, where it is secured by a square nut. Side Plate: The 4" flat side plate is reverse "S"-shaped. Ramrod: Although incorporated into the production of muskets since 1741, the 461/z" button-headed steel ramrod was officially adopted with the Model 1746 musket. Its rear end is threaded for 3/s" for ball screw and wiper. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 59^". Comb: The 9" comb has a 5/s"-high, rounded nose. Flutes of 5^"extend rearwards from either side of the nose.

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326

Other: The buttstock's lower profile is slightly concave. The rear of the ramrod channel is inclined to the left, to miss the internal lock components.

Plate 070.N-C Left side of the French Model 1746 infantry musket. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.) MARKINGS

Barrel: The left quarter flat is stamped with two marks near the breech. One consists of a crown over intertwined script initials. These initials will vary with the manufactory. The other consists of a fleur-de-lis over crossed lines, which terminate in an inverted heart at the bottom. Lock: The lock of a Charleville manufactured musket is stamped only with "A" and UR" in block letters, separated by a fleur-de-lis. It is believed that muskets of Saint Etienne manufacture are stamped with a crown over intertwined "S" and "E" in script, and that muskets of Maubeuge manufacture are stamped with either "M B E" in block letters or with a crown over intertwined "M" and "B" in script. Stock: Although no Model 1746 muskets have been observed with stock markings, it is believed that a marking similar to that described for the Model 1728 musket was originally stamped into the right side of the butt.

MODEL, 1754 MUSKETS MODEL 1754 Plate 070.01 ^A The Model 1754 infantry musket, like previous arms, was based on the 1717 yearmodel-series. It represents the culmination of a progression of modifications. Its salient visual features are the relocation of the circular sling swivels to the underside of the musket and the addition of a retaining spring for the middle band. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

INFANTRY MUSKET

070.O

070.O1

No new infantry arms had been fabricated at the royal armories from 1750, until the outbreak of the Seven Years' War caused a renewed demand for small arms, and production of a new model began after the pattern was approved by Minister of War d'Argenson in September 1754. Although its general configuration was essentially the same as the 1717 model-series, as modified in 1728 and 1746, the Model 1754 infantry musket incorporated some of the modifications that had been approved in 1750 as well as other modifications.

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327

GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .69. Overall Length: 63". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: None. Production Period: 1754-1762. Quantity Procured (by French Government): 208,000. BARREL !

Length: 46 /2" to 47". Contour: The barrel is octagonal at the breech. The side and quarter flats extend 5 " forward, and the top flat extends 24" forward. The remainder of the barrel is round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. Muzzle Extension: 35/i6". Bayonet Lug: The l/\" by 3/i6" rectangular lug is brazed to the top of the barrel I13/i6" behind the muzzle. It also serves as the front sight. Breech Plug Tang: The 23A" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. The lug beneath has a lateral hole for passage of the rear sidescrew. Anti-Twist Lug: This 3/s" lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel 4" behind the muzzle. LOCK

Note: All of the lock components are of heavier construction than on preceding models. Lockplate: The 65/s" by !3/i6" lockplate has a flat surface and beveled edges. Its rear profile ends in a projecting point. There are two vertical decorative grooves at the rear. Cock: The 39/i6" goose-neck cock has a flat-surfaced body with beveled edges. The top of the narrow tang has a slight decorative forward curl. The top jaw differs from previous models of regulation infantry muskets because it has a

Plate 070.O1-B The lock components are of heavier construction than on preceding models, and it is equipped with an external bridle. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

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vertical mortice in its rear face, which encloses the front and sides of the tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted only. Pan: The horizontal, faceted pan has a fence. Like the Model 1746, it is vertically thicker than previous models, but it has an external bridle that supports the frizzen screw's head. Frizzen: The 2l/s" by 1V&" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge with decorative facets at the top and bottom. The pan cover section is thicker than on preceding models, and the end of the tail curls upwards. Frizzen Spring: The end of the upper leaf inclines upwards. The curve at the front encloses the end of the front sidescrew. Both leaves have beveled edges. Two types of finials have been observed. One is a short, wide fleur-de-lis; the other is a long, convex-surfaced teardrop, with its small end to the rear. Other: The cock screw and sidescrews have convex heads. The frizzen and frizzen spring screws have convex-surfaced filister heads. From 1759 muskets made at Charleville and Maubeuge had internal lock components similar to those that would be adopted in 1763. The salient visual feature of these is the elimination of the internal bridle's foot, a projection that extended downwards at the front. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The slightly curved trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in the trigger plate. The iVs'^wide guard bow is integral with its extensions, and this assembly is from 125/s" to ISVs" overall. The 4" front extension terminates in a pointed end. It differs from previous models in that there is a rectangular hole in front of the bow for the lower sling swivel lug, which secures it. The rear extension ranges from 63/f" to 73/s" and also has a pointed end. It is secured by two convex-headed wood screws. Butt Plate: The 5" by 2l/s" butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. The 45/s" to 5" tang is secured by a lateral pin through an integral lug beneath it. The profile of this tang differs from previous models in that it has a long, narrow waist, with a single swell near the narrow, rounded end. Barrel Bands: The three flat-surfaced bands are not formed inwards at the forestock's upper edge. Upper: The 21A" band's two 9/i6" barrel rings are separated by a rectangular open space. There are front and rear steps at the forestock's upper edge, which increase the band's overall width to 213/i6". A small square hole is Plate 070.O1-C The trigger guard was modified by the addition of the lower sling swivel lug that passes upwards through its front extension and is secured by a lateral pin. (Musee D'Manufactures, Saint Etienne.)

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Plate 070.O1-D The location of the circular upper swivel was moved from the side to the bottom of the middle barrel band. The band springs' studs and their corresponding holes in both the upper and middle bands are rectangular. (Musee D'Manufactures, Saint Etienne.)

near the rear of the right side for the band-retaining spring stud. The mouth of the ramrod channel is slightly flared. Middle: The 9/i6" band has small pointed tangs extending to the front and rear at the top for an overall width of 7/s". This band differs from previous models in that it has the upper sling swivel lug at the bottom, and there is a square hole in the right side for the retaining spring stud. Lower: The 9/i6" barrel ring has steps at the front and rear at the forestock's upper edge. A tang extends forward at the bottom for an overall width of Iu/i6". A ramrod friction spring is riveted to the inside of this band. Barrel Band Spacing: (Note that the position of the lower band is not fixed.) Breech to Lower Band: I0l/i". Lower to Middle Band: 15". Middle to Upper Band: 153/4". Barrel Band Retainers: The upper and middle bands only have retaining springs with square studs, which extend from 2l/z" to 25/s" rearward. Sling Swivels: The circular sling swivels are suspended beneath the musket. The upper swivel stud is integral with the middle barrel band. The lower swivel stud passes upwards through the trigger guard's front extension. The lower swivel stud of early production muskets had an integral threaded bolt that threaded into a square nut in the barrel channel. During the production of this model, this was superseded by a vertical stud that was retained by a lateral pin. Side Plate: The 41/s" flat-surfaced side plate is reverse "S"-shaped. Ramrod: The 46^" steel ramrod has a .66" diameter trumpet-shaped head with a slightly convex face. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 593/4".

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33O

Comb: The 83/4" comb has a 7/s"-high rounded nose. Flutes of 61A" extend rearwards on both sides. Other: The bottom profile of the butt stock is slightly concave. There are no shoulders behind the barrel bands. MARKINGS

Barrel: The left quarter flat of a musket made at Saint Etienne is stamped with a crown over "N C" in block letters as well as a fleur-de-lis over a cross, which terminates in an inverted heart at the bottom, and which has also been described as intertwined script "E's." Charleville muskets are known stamped with either "RC" in block letters or with a small "C" under a crown. Lock: The lock of the musket made at Saint Etienne is stamped in front of the cock with a simple crown over "S.E" over "B." Below this is "CARRIER" in block letters. This last marking refers to the manufactory's "entrepreneur," or superintendent, Carrier de Monthieu. A musket made at Charleville is reportedly stamped with a crown over "C." It is engraved below this: "Manufacture de," "Charleville" in two lines of script. A musket made at Maubeuge is stamped "A B" over "M.B.G" in two lines of block letters. MODEL 1754

Plate 070.02^A The Model 1754 dragoon musket is slightly shorter than the infantry musket and has both iron and brass mountings. It has a distinctive double-ringed middle band and a very long upper band. (Photograph courtesy of The Armouries, H.M. Tower of London.)

DRAGOON MUSKET

070.02

The dragoon typically fought on foot, like infantry, but moved from one place to another on horseback. To facilitate its carrying on horseback, the dragoon musket was made slightly shorter and lighter than the infantry musket. The salient features of the Model 1754 dragoon musket are its shorter overall length, some brass furniture, a double-ringed middle band, and an extendedlength upper band. When compared to the Model 1754 infantry musket, production of the dragoon musket was very limited. Only 3,400 were made between 1754 and 1763; 2,100 of these were made in 1755. GENERAL INFORMATION

Caliber: .67. Overall Length: 593/8" to 60". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: Trigger guard, lower and upper barrel bands. Production Period: 1754-1763. Quantity Procured (by French Government): 3,400.

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BARREL 5

5

Length: 44 /s" to 45 /s". Contour: The barrel is octagonal at the breech. The quarter and side flats extend ll/i" forward, and the top flat extends 40" forward. The remainder of the barrel is round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. Muzzle Extension: 4". Bayonet Lug: The rectangular V by 3/s" lug is brazed to the right side of the barrel 1 Vz" behind the muzzle. This lug is located slightly above center on the right side. Breech Tang: The 21A" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. The lug beneath has a lateral hole for passage of the rear sidescrew. Anti-Twist Lug: This 3/s" lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel 4Vz" behind the muzzle. A ramrod friction spring is retained to this lug by a lateral pin. Note: There is no provision for a front sight. LOCK

Note: The lock is identical to that on the Model 1754 infantry musket, except for the reduced dimensions of the components, which are given here. Lockplate: 6V&" by !3/i6". Cock: 3Vi6". Frizzen: The rear face is I13/i6" by lVi6".

Plate 070.O2-B The lock of the Model 1754 dragoon musket is a scaled-down version of the infantry musket's lock. (Musee D'Manufactures, Saint Etienne.)

FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The slightly curved trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The lower sling swivel stud is integral with the front of this plate, and it passes downwards through a rectangular slot in the trigger guard's front extension. The llV'-wide brass guard bow is integral with its extensions, and this assembly is HV/f" overall. The bow's rear branch is split. The pointed-end

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Plate 070.O2-C A lip extends forward from the dragoon musket's middle band to facilitate the ramrod's return. Similar to the infantry musket, both the band spring's lug and its corresponding hole in the band are rectangular. (Musee D'Manufactures, Saint Etienne.)

Plate 070.O2-D The upper band's ramrod channel mouth is reinforced at the bottom. Note that both the band spring's lug and corresponding hole are round. The large rectangular bayonet lug is located on the right side of the barrel. (Musee D'Manufactures, Saint Etienne.)

extensions are secured by a machine screw at the front and two wood screws at the rear. Butt Plate: The 43/s" by 2" butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. The 2l/i" tang is round-ended. Barrel Bands: The upper and lower bands are of brass; the middle band is iron. Unlike all previous arms, the lower and middle bands are formed inwards at the fores tock's upper edge. Upper: The two 9/i6" barrel rings are separated by an open space with a recurved lower edge. This is low enough to expose the stock's upper edge. The band is 41/s" long at the top. The lower portion of the band extends 7 /s" forward of the front barrel ring, and a tang extends rearwards at the bottom, for an overall length of 53/s". There is a round retaining stud hole near the rear of the right side. The ramrod channel mouth is flared and reinforced. Middle: The two l/i" barrel rings are connected at the bottom. This band is 4" long at the top. A guide lip, to facilitate the return of the ramrod, extends forward at the bottom, increasing the band's overall length to 43/i6". The upper sling swivel lug is located beneath the front barrel ring. Lower: The 9/i6" barrel ring has 3/i6" front and rear steps at the forestock's upper edge. A tang extends forward at the bottom, increasing the band's length to !3/4" overall. Barrel Band Spacing: Breech to Lower Band: 11". Lower to Middle Band: 83/s". Middle to Upper Band: 173/s". Barrel Band Retainers: All three bands are secured by flat springs with studs, which extend rearwards for 2l/s" to 25/s" on the right side. Some examples

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have square lugs for the two lower band positions and a round lug for the upper band. Other examples have round lugs for all band positions. Sling Swivels: The circular sling swivels are suspended from a lug beneath the middle band's front ring and from an integral lug on the front of the trigger plate, which passes downwards through a slot in the guard's front extension. Side Plate: The 33/4" convex-surfaced side plate is reversed "S"-shaped. The sidescrews have convex heads. Ramrod Friction Spring: This spring is pinned to the anti-twist lug under the barrel at the upper barrel band and passes downwards to the ramrod channel to prevent the ramrod from sliding forward when the musket is carried muzzle downwards from a sling while the rider is mounted. Ramrod: The trumpet head of the 45 " steel ramrod has a slightly convex front face. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 56". Comb: The nose of the 8" comb is 5/s" high. Flutes extend 35/s" rearwards on either side. MARKINGS

Observed examples are marked on the barrel and lock similar to the infantry musket.

MODEL 1763 INFANTRY MUSKET

070.P

France's defeat in the Seven Years' War and the loss of its North American possessions to Great Britain caused major reforms in the French Army. These reforms extended to the military's small arms procurement system and ultimately to the muskets themselves. The existing service muskets were thought to be too long, and some of their component parts too fragile to withstand the rigors of service. Minister of War Count de Stainville ordered the three national armories to create a new model of musket. In February 1762 government inspectors M. Boileau at Maubeuge and M. Montbelliard at Charleville began the design process that resulted in the Model 1763 musket. Inspector M. St. Hilliare at Saint Etienne was unable to take an active part in this due to age and illness. Production of the Model 1763 musket, which was quite different than preceding models, began in July 1763.

Plate 070.P-A The French Model 1763 infantry musket was of an entirely new design. It weighs over 10 pounds, much more than the Model 1766, which followed. The upper and lower bands have projecting shoulders at the forestock's upper edge. A sheet iron ramrod cover is riveted to the inside of the upper band and extends rearwards in the ramrod channel to the lip that projects forward of the middle band. (Harmon C. Leonard Collection.)

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334

The Model 1763 musket and early production Model 1766 muskets are visually very similar. There are minor differences in the lock and barrel bands, and the Model 1763 has a heavier 43 pound barrel, which is a major factor in the musket's 10.25 pound gross weight without bayonet. This musket was referred to as both the "Heavy" musket and as the "Stainville" musket, after the minister of war. It should be noted that, starting in 1770, 470,000 previously manufactured muskets were altered at French arsenals to the then-current musket configuration, and most observed Model 1763 muskets have some of these improvements. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .69.

Overall Length: 603/4" to 613/s". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: Front sight only. Production Period: 1763-1766. Quantity Procured (by French Government): 88,187. BARREL 3

7

Length: 44 /4" to 44 /s". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. The vertical diameter at the breech is I13/i6". There are 2l/i" flats on both sides of the breech. Muzzle Extension: 35/s". Breech Plug Tang: The 29/i6" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. The lug beneath has a lateral hole through which the rear sidescrew passes. The breech plug's face is notched at the vent. Bayonet Lug: The rectangular 3/i6" by 1A" lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel, IVs" behind the muzzle. Anti-Twist Lug: This 3/s" lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel 4l/i" behind the muzzle. LOCK H

3

Lockplate: The 6 /i6" by l /s" lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. The plate's shape visually differs from that of the later Model 1766 in that the upper front shoulder is concealed by the frizzen in both the open and closed positions when viewed from the side. The rear sidescrew threads into an integral lug behind the pan flange. Cock: The 33/s" cock has a heart-shaped hole in its reinforced throat and has a flat, bevel-edged body. The tang's rear profile does not continue that of the body, and the front of the tang's top has a decorative curl and notch. The vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of the narrow tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted and has a lateral hole. Pan: The horizontal, faceted iron pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence, and an external bridle supports the frizzen screw's head.

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Plate 070.P-B The Model 1763 lockplate visually differs from that of preceding models in that it does not have vertical decorative grooves in the rear, and it differs from the later Model 1766 in that its upper front corner is concealed by the frizzen when in the open position. The cock has a reinforced throat. The lower sling swivel of this example should be a bell-style swivel suspended from its lug. (Harmon C. Leonard Collection.)

Frizzen: The IVs" by l7/s" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge with decorative facets in the top and bottom. The pan cover's top profile, where it intersects the curled tail, is convex. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, or curved slightly upwards, and the front curve encloses the front sidescrew. The lower leaf ends in a fleur-de-lis finial. The outside edges of both leaves are beveled. Other: The external lock screws and sidescrews have convex-surfaced heads. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The 11/16 "-wide guard bow is integral with the front and rear extensions, and this 1215/i6" to l3l/&" assembly terminates in pointed ends. The straight trigger is suspended downwards through a slot in the trigger plate. The lower sling swivel lug passes upwards through rectangular slots in the guard's front extension and is secured by a lateral pin, thereby also securing the front trigger guard extension. The rear extension is retained by two wood screws. Butt Plate: The 4l/i" by l7/s" butt plate has a straight rear profile and slightly convex rear surface. The 25/s" tang is round-ended. This plate is made from thicker metal than that used in preceding models. Barrel Bands: The three iron barrel bands are not formed inwards at the forestock's upper edge. Upper: The 9/i6" front ring is separated from the 5/s" rear ring by a rectangular space. The brass front sight is riveted and soldered to the rear ring. There are 1A" rear and Vs" front steps at the forestock's upper edge, which increase the band's length to 23/f". The mouth of the ramrod channel has a pronounced flare. A ramrod friction spring and ramrod cover are riveted to the inside of the bottom of this band. Middle: The barrel ring portion is 7/s" wide, and the band extends to the front and rear at the bottom to l5/s" overall. The front extension has a lip to facilitate the return of the ramrod. There is an integral sling swivel stud on the underside of the band.

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Lower: The 5/s"-wide barrel ring has ^"-wide steps at the front and rear at the forestock's upper edge. It extends forward at the bottom to l5/s". Barrel Band Spacing: Breech to Lower Band: lllA". (This may vary because there is no retainer.) Lower to Middle Band: I5l/i". Middle to Upper Band: 121A". Barrel Band Retainers: The upper two bands only are retained by flat band springs with studs that extend rearward on the right side. The studs and the corresponding holes in the bands are round. The exposed lengths of these springs are: Upper: 2V. Middle: 2V2". Ramrod Cover: A sheet metal cover for the ramrod extends between the middle and upper barrel bands in the stock's ramrod channel. It is riveted to the upper band. Sling Swivels: The bell-shaped swivels are suspended from lugs under the middle band and through the front trigger guard extension. Side Plate: The 4Vi6" flat side plate is modified "L"-shaped. Ramrod: The 445/i6" steel ramrod has a trumpet head with a slightly convex face. The shaft's rear is threaded for 5/ie" for ball screw and wiper. STOCK

Plate 070.Q-A The French Model 1766 infantry musket is considerably lighter than its predecessor, weighing about S1/^ pounds. It is the first musket entirely equipped with barrel bands without projecting shoulders at the forestock's upper edge. This example has had a lower band spring added subsequent to original manufacture. It also has the bayonet lug modification of 1769-1770, which relocated the lug from the underside of the barrel to the top of the barrel. It is this configuration that was widely used as a pattern for United States muskets in the 1790s.

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 567/s". Comb: The 8" comb has a squared VV-high nose with 5" flutes extending rearwards on either side. MARKINGS

Barrel: The tang is engraved "M1763" in semi-script. The upper left quadrant near the breech is marked with a small crown over two initials, such as UCS." Lockplate: Examples have been noted stamped with a small crown over UV" or " AE" and engraved with either a semi-script "CHARLEVILLE" or a full script "MANUF ROY ALE" over "ST. ETIENNE." Other: One or two inspectors' initials, such as "D" or UCB," are stamped into the side plate.

MODEL 1766 INFANTRY MUSKET

070.Q

FRENCH ARMS

337

Although the Model 1763 infantry musket was generally well received by the French Army, many thought that it was too heavy. Therefore, Royal Inspector M. de Montbelliard of Charleville redesigned the component parts of the Model 1763 to reduce the weight of those that were excessively heavy. He reduced the barrel weight from 43 pounds to 3.95 pounds; he also redesigned the barrel bands, lightened the stock, and eliminated excess metal from the lockplate. The gross weight of the Model 1766 musket, without bayonet, is 8.36 pounds, which is over 2 pounds lighter than the Model 1763. As was discussed in the introduction to this section on French arms, beginning in 1770, 470,000 previously manufactured muskets were altered in French arsenals to the then-current configuration. It is not known how long these alterations continued, but because a few Model 1766 muskets have been observed with some improvements of the Model 1773 musket, the alterations are believed to have continued until that year, at least. Most observed Model 1766 muskets have the improvements to the bayonet lug consistent with the Model 1770-1771 configuration. It was this improved Model 1766 configuration that was used as a pattern for the U.S. Model 1795 Springfield Armory muskets and the U.S. contract muskets of 1794. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .69.

Overall Length: 59V2" to 60 V* Finish: Bright. Brass Components: Front sight. Production Period: 1766-1769. Quantity Procured (by French Government): 140,000, not including the muskets made for the navy or for export. BARREL 7

Length: 44V' to 44 /s". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There are 2V flats on both sides of the breech. The vertical diameter of the barrel is 1 /^" at the breech, which is over l/i" less than the diameter of the Model 1763 musket's barrel. Muzzle Extension: 3 VBreech Plug Tang: The 29/i6" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. The lug beneath has a lateral groove for passage of the rear sidescrew. The face of the breech plug is notched at the vent. Bayonet Lug: The Model 1766 musket was originally fabricated with a V by 3 /i6" rectangular lug brazed to the underside of the barrel IV behind the muzzle. The modifications of 1770 included relocating this lug to the top of the barrel, 1V behind the muzzle. In 1771 it was decided to return the lug to the underside, l7/s" behind the muzzle. Anti-Twist Lug: This V lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel 4V behind the muzzle.

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Ramrod Friction Spring: The spoon-shaped spring is pinned to a lug brazed to the underside of the barrel about 75/s" forward of the breech. LOCK

Note: The lock is the same as the Model 1763 lock, except for the size and shape of the lockplate. Lockplate: The 61A" by !3/i6" lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. The shape differs from the Model 1763 in that the upper front shoulder projects further forward and is visible in front of the frizzen when viewed from the side. Cock: The 35/i6" cock has a heart-shaped hole in its reinforced throat, and the body is flat-surfaced with beveled edges. The rear profile of the tang does not continue that of the body. The top of the tang is rounded and has a decorative notch in front. There is a vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw, which encloses the front and sides of the tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted and has a lateral hole. Pan: The horizontal, faceted pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence and a bridle extends forward to support the frizzen screw's head. Frizzen: The 115/i6 " by 1 l/s" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge with decorative facets at the top and bottom. The pan cover's upper surface is convex, and the tail curls upwards at the rear. Frizzen Spring: Both the straight upper and the lower leaves have edge bevels. The curve at the front encloses the end of the front sidescrew. The lower leaf ends in a fleur-de-lis-shaped finial. Other: The cock and sidescrews are convex-headed. The frizzen and frizzen spring screws have convex-surfaced filister heads.

Plate 070.Q-B The Model 1766 lockplate is shorter than the Model 1763 lockplate, and its salient visual distinction is that its upper front shoulder projects further forward, so that it is visible in front of the frizzen in the open position. The top jaw screw of this example has been replaced. (William C. English Collection.)

FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The slightly curved trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in the trigger plate. The

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FRENCH ARMS

Plate 070.Q-C French muskets from the Model 1763 have flat, modified uL"-shaped side plates. Both the Model 1763 and Model 1766 have similar long trigger guards with pointed ends.

!3/i6-wide guard bow is integral with the front and rear extensions. This assembly is 127/s" to I3l/8f> overall and has pointed ends. The front extension is secured by the lower sling swivel stud, which passes upwards through it and is pinned in the stock. The rear extension is secured by two convex-headed wood screws. Butt Plate: The 43/4" by 2" butt plate has a 2l/i" round-ended tang. This plate is secured by a convex-headed wood screw through the tang and another through the rear. Barrel Bands: The three flat-surfaced bands are made from thinner material than those of the Model 1763 and are formed inwards at the forestock's upper edge. They have slightly rounded edges, without the projecting steps of the previous models at the front or rear. Upper: The 27/i6" band has a rectangular open space between the two 5/s" barrel rings. The brass front sight blade is riveted and soldered to the rear ring. The band extends rearwards at the bottom to 35/s" overall. The hole for the ramrod channel has a flared mouth. Middle: This 13/i6" band has an integral upper sling swivel lug beneath. Lower: The 7/s" band extends forward at the bottom to P/V'. Barrel Band Spacing: Breech to Lower Band: 11". (Location of this band is not fixed by a retaining spring.) Lower to Middle Band: HVz". Middle to Upper Band: 14". Barrel Band Retainers: As originally fabricated, the Model 1766 infantry musket had 21/s" to 2H" flat band springs with studs behind the upper and middle bands only. The French modifications of 1773 included the addition of a 27/i6" spring behind the lower band as well. Sling Swivels: The bell-shaped swivels are suspended from vertical lugs under the middle barrel band and through the trigger guard's front extension. Side Plate: The 4" flat-surfaced side plate is modified "L"-shaped. Ramrod: The rear end of the 443/4" steel button-headed ramrod is threaded for 5 /i6" for ball screw and wiper. The modifications of 1774 included replacing this with a trumpet-headed ramrod. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 567/s".

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Comb: The 8" comb has a 3/4"-high nose. Flutes of 5V extend rearwards on both sides. Other: There are shoulders behind the lower and middle barrel bands. The general construction of this stock is lighter than that of the Model 1763 infantry musket. MARKINGS

Barrel: A control mark of a crown over one of two initials and an inspection mark of a fleur-de-lis are stamped in the upper left quadrant. The practice of stamping the last two numerals of the year of manufacture into the barrel's upper left quadrant, near the breech, appears to have been introduced in 1767. Lock: Charleville muskets are usually marked with the star in a circle over "D" behind the pan. Below this, the plate is engraved "Manufre de" over "Charleville" in two lines of script. Muskets are also known without the "Manufre de" marking. Another example is engraved "Maubeuge" in script. This musket is stamped with an "M" behind the pan. The master lockmaker's name is usually stamped inside the plate, below the pan. Other: Most furniture is stamped with inspectors' initials or the manufactory mark.

MODEL 1763-1766 DRAGOON MUSKETS

Plate 070.R1-A The French Model 1763-1766 (Type I) dragoon musket is the same overall length as the Model 1763 and Model 1766 infantry muskets. Its salient visual distinctions are the double-ringed middle band and the long upper band. The bayonet lug of this example has been removed from the right side of the barrel to the top, possibly as a modification of 1769-1770. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

070.R

Dragoon muskets of the late 1760s and 1770s were the same basic size and had the same locks and buttstock configurations as contemporary infantry muskets. The salient differences were that the dragoon musket had some brass mountings of different configurations. Model 1763—1766 dragoon muskets are divided into two types, depending on when they were fabricated. (Type I) dragoon muskets have locks, stocks, and barrels of the 1763 or 1766 year-model configurations. (Type II) dragoon muskets have locks, stocks, and barrels of the 1770-1771 to 1774 year-model configurations. It should be noted that these types are modern designations. MODEL 1763-1766 (TYPE I) DRAGOON MUSKET

070.R1

The lock, stock, overall length, and markings of this musket are the same as previously described for the Model 1763 infantry musket. The barrel is similar

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Plate 070.R1-B The lock of this example, made at Maubeuge, is of the 1763 year-model-series configuration. The loop-style lower swivel is suspended from a lateral screw. Later (Type II) variations of the Model 1763-1766 dragoon musket were equipped with 17701771 or 1773 year-model-series locks. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

to the Model 1766. Described here are only those components that differ from the infantry musket. GENERAL INFORMATION Brass Components: Trigger guard, side plate, lower sling swivel stud, and the lower and upper barrel bands. Quantity Procured (by French Government): 4,000. BARREL Muzzle Extension: 3". Bayonet Lug: The 3/i6" by 3/s" rectangular lug is brazed to the right side of the barrel, slightly above center, I13/i6" behind the muzzle. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The brass guard bow has a split rear branch and is integral with its pointed-end front and rear extensions. The assembly is lllV' overall. Butt Plate: The 4Vz" by 2" butt plate is slightly shorter than that of the infantry musket. Otherwise, it is the same. Side Plate: The 313/i6" convex-surfaced side plate is reverse "S"-shaped. Barrel Bands: The upper and lower bands are brass. The middle band is iron. Upper: This band is 4" long at the top. The lower edge of the open space between the two 5/s" barrel rings is recurved, and the upper edge of the forestock is visible. The brass front sight blade is riveted and brazed to the front ring. There is a 5/s"-wide forward projection at the forestock's upper edge, and the band extends rearwards at the bottom, to an overall length of 5l/s". The mouth of the ramrod channel is flared and reinforced. Middle: The lower edge of the open space between the two 3/4" barrel rings is recurved. This band is 33/4" long at the top. A l/i" lip, to facilitate ramrod

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return, extends forward at the bottom, extending the band's overall length to 41/4". The upper sling swivel stud is centered under the front barrel ring. Lower: The 5/s" barrel ring has l/8" front and rear steps at the forestock's upper edge. The band extends forward at the bottom to l5/s". Barrel Band Spacing: Breech to Lower Band: HVs". Lower to Middle Band: 9". Middle to Upper Band: 165/s". Barrel Band Retainers: All three bands are retained by flat, stud-type band springs, which extend rearwards on the right side. The exposed length of these springs is ZVz". Sling Swivels: The bell-shaped upper swivel is suspended from a lug beneath the middle barrel band. The loop-style lower swivel is suspended from a lateral screw through a vertical brass stud that passes upwards through the front trigger guard extension. MODEL 1763-1766 (TYPE II) DRAGOON MUSKET

070.R2

Depending upon when a particular example was manufactured, its lock may be the same as the Model 1770-1771 or Model 1774 infantry musket. The barrel may also be the same as that described for the Model 1770-1771 or Model 1773 infantry musket. The stock and markings are also the same as contemporary infantry muskets. Known examples of this musket were manufactured at the Charleville and Saint Etienne manufactories. Described next are only those components that are unique to this musket. GENERAL INFORMATION

Production Period: 1772, 1774-1775, and 1778. Quantity Procured (by French Government): Estimated at about 5,000. BARREL 3

Muzzle Extension: 2 /4". Bayonet Lug: The l/i" by 3/i6" rectangular lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel l7/s" behind the muzzle. FURNITURE

Upper Barrel Band: Although they are of the same length and general configuration as the (Type I) musket, the barrel rings are 3/f" wide, and there is no step extending forward of the upper barrel ring. The mouth of the ramrod channel is not reinforced. Lower Barrel Band: The barrel ring is 3/V' wide at the top. The band extends forward at the bottom to 2l/i"'.

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MODEL, 1763-1766 CAVALRY MUSKETOONS

070.S

These musketoons were issued to the heavy cavalry. They are scaled-down, fully brass-mounted versions of the dragoon musket and are equipped with sling swivels and a swivel bar and ring. Cavalry musketoons were generally better finished than infantry muskets. Arms students divide Model 1763-1766 cavalry musketoons into two types, depending on when they were manufactured. MODEL 1763-1766 (TYPE I) CAVALRY MUSKETOON

070.S1

GENERAL INFORMATION

Caliber: .67. Overall Length: 45". Brass Components: Butt plate, side plate, trigger guard, and barrel bands. Quantity Procured (by French Government): In 1765: 2,400; in 1769: 4,000. BARREL Length: 31". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There are 2l/i" flats on both sides of the breech. Muzzle Extension: 5/s". Breech Plug Tang: The 2l/s" by l/i" tang is round-ended. The lug beneath has a lateral hole for passage of the rear sidescrew. The face of the breech plug is notched at the vent. Note: A 1A " lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel, 5 " forward of the breech. The ramrod friction spring is pinned to this lug. LOCK

Note: The lock has the same configuration as that on the Model 1763 musket, but is scaled down. Lockplate: The 55/s" by iVs" lockplate has a flat surface and beveled edges. The rear profile ends in a projecting point. Cock: The 3" cock has a rounded, heart-shaped hole in its reinforced throat. The body's surface is flat with beveled edges, and the rear profile of the tang does not continue that of the body. The top of the tang has a decorative curl and a notch at the front. A vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw encloses

Plate 070.S1-A The French Model 1763-1766 (Type I) cavalry musketoon is brass-mounted and stocked almost to the muzzle. Its salient visual features include the double-ringed middle band, distinctive upper band, and lower swivel mounted on the rear of the trigger plate. This example's upper sling swivel is a replacement. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

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Plate 070.S1-B The scaled-down lock is of the 1763 year-model-series configuration. Later (Type II) musketoons made at Saint Etienne were equipped with locks and have buttstocks of the 1770-1771 year-model-series arms. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

the front and sides of the tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted and has a lateral hole. Pan: The horizontal, faceted pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence, and a bridle extends forward to support the frizzen screw's head, which is partially countersunk. Frizzen: The IV by 15/i6" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge with decorative facets at the top and bottom. The top of the pan cover is convex, and the tail is curled upwards. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight. The curve at the front encloses the end of the front sidescrew. Both leaves have beveled edges. The lower leaf ends in a wide fleur-de-lis finial. Other: The external lock screw and sidescrews have convex heads. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The 1 Vie"'wide bow has a split rear branch and is integral with its front and rear extensions. This lOVf" assembly has pointed ends. The front extension is secured by an integral pin through an integral stud. The rear extension is secured by a wood screw and by the lower sling swivel lug, which is screwed into the stock 1 l/i" forward of the end of the rear extension. Butt Plate: The 41A" by l7/s" butt plate has a straight rear profile and slightly convex rear surface. The 2Vie" tang is round-ended. Side Plate: The 39/i6" modified "L"-shaped side plate has a convex surface with flats under the sidescrews' heads. Barrel Bands: The three brass bands are flat-surfaced and are not formed inwards at the forestock's upper edge.

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FRENCH ARMS

Plate 070S.1-C The convex-surfaced side plate has flats under the sidescrew heads. The lower sling swivel is riveted to a sleeve around a screw that passes upwards through the rear of the trigger guard. This cavalry musketoon was not equipped with a swivel bar and ring. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

Upper: The lower edge of the open space between the two 5/s" barrel rings is recurved. This band is 3" long at the top and extends rearwards at the bottom to 31/!" long. Early production cavalry musketoons had an upper band that was Z1/^" long at the top and 23/s" long at the bottom. Middle: The bottom edge of the open space between the two 9/i6" barrel rings is recurved, and this band is 2l/i" long at the top. A 7/i6" lip extends forward at the bottom to facilitate the return of the ramrod, and this increases the band's overall length to 215/i6". The upper sling swivel lug is beneath the front ring. Lower: This band is 13/i6" wide at the top and extends forward at the bottom to l5/s". The front end of the swivel bar is screwed to an integral lug on the left side. Barrel Band Spacing: Breech to Lower Band: 75/s". Lower to Middle Band: 9^". Middle to Upper Band: 103/4". Barrel Band Retainers: All three bands are secured by stud-type springs, which extend rearwards on the right side and have an exposed length of ZVV. Sling Swivels: The bell-shaped upper swivel is suspended from a lug beneath the middle barrel band. The loop-style lower thimble is pinned to a sleeve around the extended-length rear trigger guard wood screw. Swivel Bar and Ring: The ring is suspended from an 8" bar that extends from under the head of the rear sidescrew to a lug on the left side of the lower band, where it is secured by a convex-headed screw. Ramrod: The 305/s" steel ramrod has a button head with a slightly convex face. It is threaded at the rear for 3/s" for ball screw and wiper. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 44^". Comb: The nose of the SVz" comb is 5/s" high. Flutes extend 4^" rearward along each side. Other: There are shoulders behind the lower and middle barrel bands.

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MARKINGS Barrel: "Ml763" is engraved in script in the barrel tang. The upper left quadrant is marked with the last two numerals of the year of manufacture. "T.83" in script is engraved into the top of one observed example. It is believed to refer to a troop (company) of issue. Lock: A star in a circle over "A" is stamped behind the pan. Below this is engraved in script: "Manuf Rle" over "de Charleville." Other: Most furniture is stamped with the star in a circle over an "A." MODEL 1763-1766 (TYPE II) CAVALRY MUSKETOON

070.S2

This musketoon is very similar to the (Type I) musketoon. The salient difference is that those made at Saint Etienne have Model 1770-1771 style locks, whereas those made in Charleville and Maubeuge have Model 1763 style locks. The stock combs of (Type II) carbines also have the rounder nose associated with the Model 1770-1771 configuration.

MODEL 1767 HUSSAR'S MUSKETOONS

Plate 070.T1-A The French Model 1763-1766 (Type I) hussar's musketoon's salient visual feature is that it is half-stocked. This example is one of many that were modified by the addition of the lower barrel band, swivel bar, and ring. Later (Type II) musketoons have a longer swivel bar, and the lower band is located further forward. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

070.T

Hussar's musketoons were made for issue to France's two regiments of light cavalry, and 500 were also issued to the French Navy in 1778. Like the 1763-1766 dragoon musket and cavalry musketoons, the hussar's musketoons may be divided into two types, based on their period of manufacture and, therefore, the year-model-series of their components. The metal components of the half-stocked hussar's musketoon were the same as those of the full-stocked cavalry musketoon, previously described. Described here are those specifications that differ from the cavalry musketoon. MODEL 1767 (TYPE I) HUSSAR'S MUSKETOON

070.T1

As originally manufactured, this musketoon was equipped with a single upper barrel band that was the same as the upper band of the cavalry musketoon, and there was no provision for a swivel bar and ring. Many musketoons were altered subsequent to original manufacture, by equipping them with the lower barrel band and swivel bar and ring.

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Plate 070.T1-B This example is equipped with a scaled-down version of the 1766 year-model-series lock. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

GENERAL INFORMATION

Production Period: 1767-1769. Quantity Procured (by French Government): Estimated at 1,000-1,100. BARREL l

Front Sight: A /i" oval iron front sight blade is brazed to the top of the barrel 2l/i" behind the muzzle. Muzzle Extension: 133/4". FURNITURE Barrel Bands: Upper: This is the same as the upper band of the cavalry musketoon. When this is the only band, it is located 14" forward of the breech. If the musketoon has had the lower band added, then the upper band is 55/s" forward of that band. Lower: This band was added at the time of modification to the swivel bar and ring. The convex-surfaced iron band is 13/i6" wide at the top. It extends forward at the bottom to 1V&". This band is located 83/s" forward of the breech and is secured by the swivel bar. Swivel Bar And Ring: The musketoons modified for a swivel bar and ring have an 83/4" bar extending from under the head of the rear sidescrew to the lower barrel band. A 1 "-diameter ring is suspended from this bar. STOCK 3

Length: 30 /8". Other: The ramrod channel enters the forestock under the center of the barrel, then angles to the left, past the lock recess, and into the butt stock, so that only 2" of the 301/z" ramrod protrudes beyond the stock's foretip.

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MODEL 1767 (TYPE II) HUSSAR'S MUSKETOON

Plate 070.T1.C The 83/8" swivel bar extends from under the head of the rear sidescrew to the lower band. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

This musketoon is the same as the (Type I) musketoon just described, with the following exceptions. Production Period: 1773-1786. Quantity Procured (by French Government): Estimated at 8,000. Note: The lock and butt stock comb are of the Model 1770-1771, or later, configurations, depending upon when a particular example was fabricated. Lower Barrel Band: This flat-surfaced steel band is located !5/s" behind the upper band or 123/s" forward of the breech. Swivel Bar and Ring: The 1 "-diameter ring is suspended from a I2l/i" bar.

FRENCH MODEL 177O-1771 INFANTRY MUSKET

Plate 070.U-A The French Model 1770-1771 infantry musket had a number of new design features. These included a heavier barrel, a new buttstock configuration, the bayonet and its stud's location, retainers for all three bands, and a new style of lock. The bayonet stud location illustrated is that approved in 1771. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

070.T2

070.U

Prior to 1766 Charleville Inspector M. de Montbelliard had temporarily served at Saint Etienne Armory, as M. St. Hilliare was unable to continue due to age and illness. While at Saint Etienne, Montbelliard appointed Honore Blanc superintendent of the armory. In 1766 M. Bellegarde, a protege of Inspector General M. de Gribeauval, was appointed inspector at Saint Etienne, and M. de Montbelliard returned to his duties at Charleville. By 1769 a dispute had arisen between Bellegarde and Montbelliard over the barrel dimensions of the Model 1766 musket, which Bellegarde thought were too light and badly proportioned. Inspector General Gribeauval supported his protege in this dispute, and the king approved the changes recommended by them in October 1769. In spite of his high competency, Montbelliard ultimately lost his position as inspector at Charleville as a result of the dispute and was replaced by M. de Maury. The changes authorized by the king included a redesigned barrel and butt stock and a new bayonet. Other changes, although not specifically authorized,

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were also incorporated into production. These included a new lock design and redesigned furniture. From 1769 the dimensions of the barrels produced at all three national armories were different than previously manufactured. The rear portion of these barrels were made heavier, and their weight with breech plug increased to 4*84 pounds. Beginning in 1770 the production of an entirely new musket began at all three manufactories. The following year many of the components would undergo further modifications. It is the redesigned musket of 1770, with the improvements incorporated into production in 1771 that is described here as the Model 1770-1771 infantry musket. In addition, the modification of 470,000 previously manufactured muskets (including the just-completed Model 1770 muskets) was undertaken to bring them up to the then-current configuration. It is believed that this work continued for at least two or three years. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .69. Overall Length: 60". Finish: Bright.

Brass Components: Front sight (from 1771). Production Period: 1770-1773. Quantity Procured (by French Government): 160,000. BARREL 5

3

Length: 44 /8" to 44 /4". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There are 2Vz" flats on both sides of the breech. The vertical diameter of the barrel's breech is ln/32". Muzzle Extension: 27/s". Breech Plug Tang: The 25/i6" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. The lug beneath has a lateral hole for passage of the rear sidescrew. The face of the breech plug is notched at the vent. Bayonet Lug: Pursuant to an order of March 31,1769, the 1A" by 3/i6" rectangular lug was located on top of the barrel, 11A" behind the muzzle, and it also served as the front sight. On March 13, 1771, the relocation of this lug to the underside of the barrel, l7/s" behind the muzzle, was authorized. Note: This model was not equipped with an anti-twist lug. LOCK

Note: The lock components of the Model 1770-1771 musket are of more substantial construction than those of previous muskets. Lockplate: The 65/i6" by l n /32" lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges in front of the cock. The surface is convex behind the cock. The rear profile ends in a small projecting point. The plate's upper front shoulder is not visible

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Plate 070.U-B The 1770-1771 lock included a new convex-surfaced lockplate and cock and a horizontally mounted, roundbottomed detachable pan. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

in front of the frizzen when viewed from the side because it is iVz " behind the front end. Cock: The 33/s" cock has a convex-surfaced body and a broader heart-shaped hole in the reinforced throat than previous models. The rear profile of the straight tang continues from that of the body, and the top of the tang is rounded. A vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of the tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted and has a lateral hole. Pan: The horizontal, round-bottomed pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence and an external bridle to support the head of the frizzen screw. Frizzen: The l7/s" by 1" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face is slightly convex. The top profile of the pan cover is straight, and the tail is curled upwards. Frizzen Spring: The outer edges of both straight leaves are beveled. The curve at the front encloses the end of the front sidescrew. The lower leaf ends in a fleur-de-lis finial. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The slightly curved trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in the trigger plate. The I1/! "-wide guard bow is integral with the front and rear extensions, and this 127/s" to 13 " assembly has pointed ends. It is secured at the front by the lower sling swivel lug, which passes upwards through a rectangular slot in front of the bow and is pinned in the stock, and by two wood screws at the rear. Butt Plate: The 47/s" by l7/s" butt plate has a straight rear profile and a convex rear surface. The 2l/\" tang is round-ended. Barrel Bands: The three flat-surfaced bands are formed inwards at the forestock's upper edge. Upper: The lower edge of the open space between the two 5/s" barrel rings is recurved, exposing the forestock's upper edge. A brass front sight blade

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was riveted and soldered to the rear ring from 1771. The band is 2l/i" long at the top and extends rearwards at the bottom to 35/s" overall, Middle: The 7/s" band has an integral sling swivel lug at the bottom. Lower: This band is 7/s" wide at the top and extends forward at the bottom to l7/s" overall. The ramrod friction spring is located inside the bottom and is secured by a flat-headed screw from the outside. Barrel Band Spacing: Breech to Lower Band: ll1^". (Location not fixed by retaining spring.) Lower to Middle Band: HVz". Middle to Upper Band: 133/4". Barrel Band Retainers: Only the two upper bands are retained by flat, stud-type springs, which extend rearwards on the right side. The exposed length of the upper spring is 23/4", and the middle is 2l/i". Sling Swivels: The bell-shaped swivels are suspended from lugs beneath the middle band and in front of the trigger guard bow. Side Plate: The 37/s" flat-surfaced side plate is modified "L"-shaped. Ramrod: The button head of the 443/s" steel ramrod has a slightly convex face. The rear end is threaded for 3/s". STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 57". Comb: The nose of the 8l/i" comb is 5/s" high. Shallow 4" flutes extend rearwards on both sides. MARKINGS

Barrel: "Ml770" is engraved in the breech tang. The upper left quadrant near the breech is usually stamped with a control mark consisting of a crown over one or two initials, a fleur-de-lis inspection mark, and the last two numerals of the year of manufacture. Lock: The manufactory's name is engraved in script forward of the cock. An example is "Manuf Royale" over "St. Etienne" in two lines. The master lockmaker's name or initials are usually stamped inside the plate, beneath the pan. Stock: Two initials are usually stamped into the rear of the left breech flat.

MODEL 177O ARTILLERY MUSKET

070.V

Inspector General M. de Gribeauval directed that this musket be made to replace the heavier infantry muskets in the hands of artillery personnel. The initial order was for 8,000 muskets. However, only 3,200 were fabricated at Saint Etienne under the direction of Carrier de Monthieu. The reorganization of the Artillery Department resulted in the cancellation of further production. The following components are the same as those of the Model 1763-1766 (Type II) cavalry musketoon: barrel (with modifications), lock (as manufactured

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at St. Etienne), stock, furniture, and ramrod. Because of these similarities, the Model 1770 artillery musket is visually similar to the Model 1763-1766 cavalry musketoon, except that its longer barrel projects further forward from the upper band and is equipped with a bayonet lug. Unfortunately, no photograph is available of this arm. Described here are those components that differ from the cavalry musketoon. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .69. Overall Length: 49". Production Period: 1770. Quantity Procured (by French Government): 3,200 at Saint Etienne. BARREL Length: 36V&". Muzzle Extension: 25/s". Bayonet Lug: The W by 3/i6" lug was brazed to the underside of the barrel !7/s" behind the muzzle. LOCK

Lockplate: There is a screw threaded into the lockplate behind the cock between the sear and sear spring. This is identified as a "safety screw," but its function is unknown. FURNITURE Lower Barrel Band: A ramrod friction spring is retained to the inside of the bottom by a small flat head screw. There is no provision for a swivel bar. Barrel Band Spacing: Breech to Lower Band: 91/z". Lower to Middle Band: 85/s". Middle to Upper Band: Il7/s". Sling Swivels: The lower, bell-shaped sling swivel is suspended from a lug in front of the trigger guard bow. STOCK 5

Length: 48 /s". Comb: The 13A" comb has a 5/s"-high nose.

MODEL. 1773 INFANTRY MUSKET

070.W

After Inspector General Gribeauval was discharged in 1770, an inquiry into the French small arms procurement system was instituted in 1771. This inquiry resulted in a reorganization of the Artillery Department under M. de Valliere as director and a revision of the royal manufactories' administrative system, under which the royal inspector had the ultimate authority.

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The Model 1773 infantry musket was developed under the direction of M. de Valliere and was referred to as the "Valliere musket." It appears to combine the best features of previous muskets. The furniture is similar to the Model 1766 but with slightly different dimensions. The stock, lock, and barrel are more similar to the Model 1770-1771, except that the lockplate is vertically narrower. GENERAL INFORMATION

Caliber: .69. Overall Length: 60". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: None. Production Period: 1773-1774. Quantity Procured (by French Government): 28,994, of which 4,665 were fabricated at Saint Etienne. BARREL 5

3

Length: 44 /s" to 44 /4". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There are ZVV flats on either side of the breech. The barrel configuration is the same as for the Model 1770—1771 musket. Muzzle Extension: 3/^". Breech Plug: The 25/i6" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. The lug beneath has a lateral hole for passage of the rear sidescrew. The breech plug's face is notched at the vent. Bayonet Lug: The W by 3/i6" rectangular lug is brazed to the top of the barrel 1H" behind the muzzle. This lug also serves as the front sight. Anti-Twist Lug: This lug was reintroduced in this musket and is brazed to the underside of the barrel 5Vz" behind the muzzle. A ramrod friction spring is pinned to this lug. Ramrod Friction Spring: This spoon-shaped spring is pinned to a lug brazed to the underside of the barrel about 7 " forward of the breech. LOCK 5

7

Lockplate: The 6 /i6" by l /3z" lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges in front of the cock. The surface is convex behind the cock. The rear profile ends in a small projecting point. The plate's upper front shoulder is visible in front of the frizzen when viewed from the side because it is ll/s" behind the

Plate 070.W-A The French Model 1773 infantry musket combines features of previous models and has a somewhat heavier buttstock with short, rudimentary comb flutes. The barrel is similar to that of the Model 1770-1771. The furniture is similar to the Model 1766 furniture but of somewhat different dimensions. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 070.W-B The Model 1773 lock is visually similar to the 1770-1771 year-model-series, except that it is slightly narrower and the lockplate's upper front shoulder projects further forward and is visible in front of the opened frizzen. The wax seal and tag on the butt of this example identify it as the "sealed pattern" for the arms made at Saint Etienne. (Musee D'Manufactures, Saint Etienne.)

front end. This plate is slightly narrower than the lockplate of the 1770—1771 infantry musket. Cock: The 33/s" cock has a convex-surfaced body and a heart-shaped hole in the reinforced throat. The rear profile of the straight tang continues that of the body, and the top of the narrow tang is rounded. A vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of the tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted and has a lateral hole. Pan: The shallow, horizontal, round-bottomed pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence and an external bridle to support the frizzen screw's head. Frizzen: The I15/i6" by 1" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face is convex. The top profile of the pan cover is straight, and the tail curls upwards. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and the front curve encloses the end of the front sidescrew. The lower leaf ends in a fleur-de-lis finial. Other: The heads of the cock screw and sidescrews are convex. The frizzen and frizzen spring screws have convex-surfaced filister heads. FURNITURE

Note: The furniture is generally similar in style to that of the Model 1766 musket, but it is of slightly different dimensions. Trigger and Guard Assembly: The slightly curved trigger is suspended from a pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in the trigger plate. The 1 VV-wide guard bow is integral with the 3l/s" front extension and 7" rear extension. The ramrod stop projects upwards from the front extension. This 125/s" to 13 " assembly terminates in pointed ends. It is secured at the front by the lower sling swivel lug, which passes upwards through a rectangular slot, and it is pinned in the stock. It is secured at the rear by two wood screws. Butt Plate: The 4Vz" by l7/s" butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. The 2l/i" tang is round-ended. Barrel Bands: The three flat-surfaced bands are formed inwards at the forestock's upper edge. Upper: There is a rectangular, open space between the two 9/i6" barrel rings. This band is 23/s" long at the top and extends rearwards at the bottom to 313/i6" long. The mouth of the ramrod channel is flared.

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355

Middle: The 7/s" band has an integral sling swivel lug at the bottom. Lower: This band is 15/i6" wide at the top and extends forward at the bottom to 2". Barrel Band Spacing: Breech to Lower Band: lOVs". Lower to Middle Band: 143/4" Middle to Upper Band: 1315/i6". Barrel Band Retainers: This is the first model of French infantry musket to have all three bands equipped with flat, stud-type springs, which extend about 25/s" rearwards. Sling Swivels: The bell-shaped sling swivels are suspended from lugs under the middle barrel band and in front of the trigger guard bow. Side Plate: The 4" flat side plate is modified "L"-shaped. Ramrod: The 441/V' steel ramrod's button head has a slightly convex face. The rear end is threaded for 5/i6" for ball screw and wiper. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 563/s". Comb: The nose of the 81A" comb is l/i" high. Shallow 2l/i" flutes extend rearwards along both sides. MARKINGS

Barrel: "Ml773" is engraved in the breech tang. The upper left quadrant, near the breech, is usually stamped with a control mark consisting of a fleur-de-lis or crown over one or two initials, a fleur-de-lis inspection mark, and the last two numerals of the year of manufacture. Lock: The lockplate is stamped behind the pan with a small crown over one or two initials. Below this the manufactory's name is engraved, usually in two lines of script. An example is: "Manufacture" over "de St. Etienne." The master lockmaker's name or initials are stamped inside the plate, beneath the pan.

MODEL 1774 INFANTRY MUSKET

070.X

In 1774 the French Artillery Department, which was in charge of small arms procurement, was again reorganized. The government inspectors at all three manufactories, Honore Blanc, M. de Agout, and de Maury, advocated adopting

Plate 070.X-A The Model 1774 infantry musket's barrel and lock are similar to those of the Model 1770-1771 and the stock is similar to the Model 1773 stock. It's middle band has a forward-projecting lip at the bottom, similar to the Model 1763, to facilitate the ramrod's return. Much of the other furniture is of new configurations.

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a new pattern musket based on the modifications of 1770 and 1771. This pattern was adopted by the inspector general in 1774. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .69. Overall Length: 60". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: Front sight. Production Period: 1774-1779. Quantity Procured (by French Government): Estimated at 70,000. BARREL 3

Length: 44 /4". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There are 31/z" flats on both sides of the breech. Muzzle Extension: 23/4". Breech Plug: The 25/i6" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. The lug beneath has a lateral hole for passage of the rear sidescrew. The breech plug's face is notched at the vent. Bayonet Lug: The 1A" square lug is brazed to the top of the barrel 1" behind the muzzle. Bayonet Spring Catch: The l/i" lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel about 4!/4" behind the muzzle. It is offset about l/s" to the left. A 25/s" bayonet spring catch is pinned to this lug and extends forward, protruding 5/s" beyond the stock's foretip. LOCK

Lockplate: The 65/i6" by !5/i6" plate has a flat surface with beveled edges forward of the cock. The surface is convex behind the cock. The rear profile ends in a small projecting point. The plate's upper front shoulder is not visible in

Plate 070.X-B The Model 1774 lock is similar to the Model 17701771 lock, except that its external components are of heavier construction and the frizzen has a straight tail.

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front of the frizzen when viewed from the side because it is !7/i6" behind the plate's front end. This plate is similar to the Model 1770-177L Cock: The 35/i6" cock has a convex-surfaced body and a heart-shaped hole in its reinforced throat. The rear profile of the straight tang continues that of the body, and the top of the narrow tang is flat on some examples and rounded at the front only on others. A vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of the tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted and has a lateral hole. Pan: The horizontal, round-bottomed pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence and an external bridle to support the frizzen screw's head. The pan is deeper than the Model 1773 pan. Frizzen: The 2" by !3/i6" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face is convex-surfaced. The top profile of the pan cover and tail is straight. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and the front curve encloses the end of the front sidescrew. The lower leaf ends in a fleur-de-lis finial. Other: The heads of the cock screw and sidescrews are convex. The frizzen and frizzen spring screws have convex-surfaced filister heads. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in the 45/i6" trigger plate. This plate is longer than those of previous models and has a ramrod stop brazed to its upper surface at the front. The IVV-wide guard bow is integral with both pointed-end extensions. This 11" assembly is secured by the sling swivel lug that passes upwards through it at the front and by two wood screws at the rear. Butt Plate: The 4^" by 2" butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. The 27/i6" tang is round-ended. Barrel Bands: The three flat-surfaced bands are formed inwards at the forestock's upper edge. Upper: There is a rectangular open space between the two 5/s" barrel rings, and the length at the top is 2l/i". The brass front sight blade is riveted and soldered to the rear ring. The band extends rearwards at the bottom to 3n/i6" overall. The mouth of the ramrod channel is slightly flared. Middle: The band is7/s" wide at the top. A lip to facilitate the ramrod's return extends forward at the bottom to an overall band width of !3/i6". There is an integral sling swivel lug at the bottom. Lower: This band is 13/i6" wide at the top and extends forward at the bottom to 21/s". A 2" ramrod friction spring is secured inside the bottom by a convex-headed machine screw from the outside.

Plate 070.X-C The Model 1774 trigger guard is shorter than those of previous models, and the parallel-sided trigger plate is longer.

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Plate 070.X-D A bayonet spring catch protrudes forward from the stock's foretip, which engages the collar of a new bayonet adopted with the Model 1774 infantry musket.

Barrel Band Spacing: Breech to Lower Band: 103A". Lower to Middle Band: HVz". Middle to Upper Band: 15". Barrel Band Retainers: All three bands are secured by flat, stud-type springs that extend rearwards. The exposed length of the upper band spring is ZVz", and the exposed length of the two lower springs is 23/4". Sling Swivels: The bell-shaped sling swivels are of larger diameter material than on previous models. They are suspended from lugs located under the middle band and in front of the trigger guard bow. Side Plate: The flat, 37/s" side plate is modified "L"-shaped. Ramrod: The 443/s" steel ramrod's trumpet head has a convex face. The rear end is threaded for 5/i6" for ball screw and wiper. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 571A". Comb: The nose of the 85/s" comb is 3/s" high. 43/s" flutes extend rearwards on both sides. MARKINGS U

Barrel: M1774" is sometimes engraved in the breech tang in script. The upper left quadrant, near the breech, is usually stamped with a control mark consisting of a crown or fleur-de-lis over one or two initials, a fleur-de-lis inspection mark, and the last two numerals of the year of manufacture. Lock: A crown over one of two initials is stamped behind the pan. Below this, the royal manufactory's name is engraved in script. Examples are: "Charleville" or "Manuf Royale" over "Charleville" in two lines. A musket of Saint Etienne manufacture is marked "Manufre Royale" over ude St. Etienne" in two lines. The master lock maker's name or initials are usually stamped inside the plate, beneath the pan. Other: Two inspectors' initials are usually stamped into most furniture and into the rear of the stock's left breech flat.

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MODEL 1777 MUSKETS MODEL 1777

INFANTRY MUSKET

070.Y 070.Y1

In 1775 Minister of War M. de St. Germain named the Count du Chatelet to preside over a commission created "To determine the best model of arms to be executed for the infantry in the future." By April of that year Honore Blanc was actively working on improvements of the Model 1774 musket at Saint Etienne. This work continued through 1775. On January 24, 1776, this redesigned musket, along with others, was submitted for examination, and it was selected. Available information suggests that improvements in the new musket and in the system of manufacture continued through much of 1776. The Model 1777 musket incorporates a number of innovative features not previously used in the military muskets of any nation. Many of these features would remain in use until the end of the flintlock period in France, and a number were copied by the U.S. Ordnance Department and used in the U.S. Model 1816 musket. Ten variations of French muskets and carbines, including officers' muskets, would be based on the 1777 system. Additional variations were created when Model 1777 muskets were modified for use during the French post-revolutionary and napoleonic wars.

Plate 070.Y1-A The French Model 1777 musket, which incorporates a number of new features not previously used in the muskets of any nation, was designed by Honore Blanc, of the Royal Manufactory at Saint Etienne. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

Plate 070.Y1-B The Model 1777 lock's salient visual features include the inclined brass pan and the frizzen, which inclines forward at the top. The trigger guard assembly is of an entirely new design. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

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Plate 070.Y1-C An oval cheek recess is cut into the left side of the butt of the Model 1777 musket. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

In December 1777 the arms manufactory at Tulle was authorized as a royal manufactory. The arms produced there were specifically for the navy and the colonies. It operated under the direction of M. de Saint-Victour until 1783. Thereafter, MM. de Wendel and Bettigne directed two-thirds of the operation, and M. Saint-Victour directed the remaining one-third. During the 1780s production was greatly expanded. The first general issue of the Model 1777 musket was to the forces under General Rochambeau, who served in the United States between 1780 and 1783. GENERAL INFORMATION

Caliber: .69. Overall Length: 60". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: Pan and front sight. Production Period: 1777-mid-1790s. Quantity Procured (by French Government): Unknown, but believed to be in excess of 250,000. BARREL 3

Length: 44 /4". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. Early production arms had 2" flats on both sides of the breech. In 1783 a 5 /s"-long top flat was added, giving the breech an octagonal appearance. Muzzle Extension: 23/4". Breech Plug: The 2l/s" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. The lug beneath has a lateral hole for passage of the rear sidescrew. The breech plug's face is notched at the vent. Bayonet Lug: The rectangular 1A" by 3/i6" lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel V/s" behind the muzzle. Anti-Twist Lug: This lug is perpendicular to the bore and subtends an arc about one-sixth of the barrel's circumference. The V^'-wide lug is brazed to the lower right quadrant of the barrel, 23/f" behind the muzzle. (See also Upper Barrel Band.) LOCK

Lockplate: The 61A" by !5/i6" plate has a flat surface with beveled edges forward of the cock and a convex surface behind the cock. The rear profile ends in a small projecting point. Cock: The 33/s" cock has a convex-surfaced body and a heart-shaped hole in its reinforced throat. The rear profile of the straight tang continues that of the

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body, and its top is rounded. A vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of the tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted and has a lateral hole. Pan: The round-bottomed pan is inclined upwards at the rear and is without a fence. An external bridle supports the frizzen screw's head. Frizzen: The rounded top of the 13A" by ll/s" frizzen is inclined forward. The front face has a convex surface. The top profile of the pan cover and tail is straight. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and the front curve encloses the end of the front sidescrew. The lower leaf ends in a fleur-de-lis finial. Other: The heads of all external lock screws are flat. The sidescrews also have flat heads. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The !3/i6"-wide guard bow is integral with the 25/i6" front extension. The front of this extension is pointed. The rear branch of the guard bow ends in a hook, which engages a rectangular slot in the 9" trigger plate. The trigger plate also serves as the rear extension and has two finger ridges behind the guard bow. The straight trigger is suspended from a pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in this plate. The front extension is secured by the lower sling swivel stud. The trigger plate is secured by the tang screw at the front and by a wood screw at the rear. This assembly is 93/4" to 97/8" overall. Butt Plate: The 4V^" by 2" butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. The 2l/i" tang is round-ended. Barrel Bands: The three flat-surfaced bands are formed inwards at the forestock's upper edge. Upper: The open space between the two v/i" barrel rings has a recurved lower edge and exposes part of the forestock. The brass front sight blade is riveted and soldered to the rear barrel ring. A machine screw in the lower right quadrant of this band, at the front, secures it against the anti-twist lug on the barrel. The head of this screw was shaped like a violin key during the first year of production. From 1778 it was flat-headed and slotted. This band is 27/s" long at the top. It extends rearwards at the bottom to 33/4" overall. A ramrod friction spring is riveted to the inside of the bottom of this band. Plate 070.Y1-D The upper band was secured by a machine screw at the front, in the lower right quadrant. During the first year of production, the head of this screw was as shown. In 1778 it was superseded by a screw with a flat, slotted head.

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Middle: The 9/i6"-wide band has a split sling swivel lug at the bottom. The upper swivel is suspended from a lateral screw across this lug. Tightening the screw clamps the band to the stock. Lower: The band is 9/i6" wide at the top and extends forward at the bottom to ll/s". Barrel Band Spacing: Breech to Lower Band: 107/s". Lower to Middle Band: 145/s". Middle to Upper Band: 133/8". Barrel Band Retainers: The upper band is secured by the machine screw described with that band. The middle band is secured by the clamping action of the upper sling swivel screw. The lower band is retained against the stock's shoulder by a flat spring that extends 13A" forward on the right side. A shoulder on this spring engages the front edge of the band. Sling Swivels: The loop-style upper swivel is suspended from a lateral screw through a split lug under the middle barrel band. The bell-shaped lower swivel is suspended from a lug in front of the trigger guard bow. Side Plate: The flat, 37/s" side plate is modified "L"-shaped. Ramrod: The 44!/z" steel ramrod's trumpet head has a slightly convex face. The rear end is threaded for 5/i6" for ball screw and wiper. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 563/4". Comb: The nose of the 8" comb is 3A" high. There are no side flutes. Other: There is a 4" by 13A" oval cheek recess in the left side of the comb. MARKINGS

Barrel: The breech tang is sometimes engraved "Mle 1777." The upper left quadrant near the breech is stamped with a control mark consisting of a crown or fleur-de-lis over one or two initials, a fleur de lis inspection mark, and the last two numerals of the year of manufacture. Lock: The lockplate is stamped behind the pan with a crown over one or two initials. Below this is engraved the manufactory's name in script. Known examples include: "St. Etienne" in one line and uManuf Rle" over "Charleville" in two lines. The master lock maker's name or initials are stamped inside the plate, beneath the pan. MODEL 1777 NAVAL MUSKET

070.Y2

This musket is the same size as the Model 1777 infantry musket and is of the same configuration. It differs only in that it is entirely brass-mounted, including the sling swivels. Due to the demand for arms caused by the American Revolution, The navy ordered naval muskets from Saint Etienne and Maubeuge in 1778. The Model 1777 infantry musket had just been adopted. In order to simplify production, the

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orders for these navy muskets based them on the infantry muskets, but with brass mountings. A total of 8,373 naval muskets were fabricated at Saint Etienne Armory between 1778 and 1782. In 1778 Mauberge Armory was ordered to produce 3,500 naval muskets, and in 1791 Tulle Armory was ordered to make 6,000 more. None were made at Charleville Armory. At the beginning of the French Revolution, additional navy muskets were ordered. The barrels of the 6,000 muskets produced at Tulle in 1791 and 1792 differed from the then-current production in that they were produced with the two breech side flats instead of the five breech flats, which had been adopted by the other manufactories in 1784* The following components are brass: butt plate, trigger, trigger plate, trigger guard, sling swivels and studs, and all three barrel bands. MODEL 1777 SHIP, MARINE, AND COLONIAL MUSKETS

070.Y3

These three muskets are treated separately from the Model 1777 naval musket because all were produced only at Tulle Manufactory. As indicated in the introduction to this section, Tulle was established in December 1777 as a royal manufactory of small arms specifically for the navy and the colonies, whose defense was in the hands of the Navy Ministry. Prior to 1777 the navy did not supervise the manufacture of the arms ordered from Tulle. The completed muskets were shipped from Tulle to Rochefort, where officers of the naval artillery inspected them. From 1777 an officer of the naval artillery resided at Tulle and supervised production. He was assisted by a controller and three inspectors. MODEL 1777 SHIP MUSKET

070.Y32

The ship musket was part of the complement of a ship and was used only by seamen. Its salient feature is that, like the naval musket, the ship musket was entirely brass-mounted. During its production period, this musket underwent the same modifications to the lock, barrel, and upper band, as described for the colonial musket. MODEL. 1777 MARINE MUSKET

070.Y34

The marine musket was used to arm the marines stationed on board warships. Some were also used by seamen assigned as sharpshooters in the ships' rigging. It is the same as the ship musket and has the same brass components, except that the trigger and swivels are of iron. During the production period of this musket, it underwent the same modifications to the barrel, lock, and upper band, as the colonial musket. MODEL. 1777 COLONIAL MUSKET

070.Y38

This musket was issued to the troops raised in French colonies. Similar to the marine musket, it has an iron trigger and sling swivels. In addition, it has an iron middle band. During its production period, the colonial musket underwent the following modifications.

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Barrel: 1778-1784: Equipped with one lug only, for the French Model 1769-1770 bayonet, located under the barrel, 13/V' behind the muzzle. 1784—1786: Equipped with a second underlug, 2n/i6" from the muzzle, to secure the upper barrel band. 1786-1792: Equipped with the bayonet lug only. Lock: 1778-1786: The 69/3z" plate is of the Model 17 70 configuration. It is mounted with external components similar to those of Model 1777 infantry muskets, but slightly different in configuration. 1786-1792: The 67/i6" plate and components are of the same configuration as the Model 1777 infantry musket, although the plate is slightly longer. Barrel Bands: 1778-1784: All bands retained by band springs. Bell-style swivels suspended from lugs. 1784—1792: Middle band is clamping type. Loop-style swivels suspended from screws. 1784—1786: Upper band secured by a convex-headed screw that passes upwards through the bottom front portion of the band and bears on a lug beneath the barrel. 1786-1792: Upper band retained by band spring. Trigger guard: 1778-1786: Trigger guard bow's rear branch has a hook that engages a rectangular hole in the trigger plate. 1786—1792: Trigger guard bow's rear branch is threaded and is secured in the trigger plate by a slotted round nut. MODEL 1777 DRAGOON MUSKET

Plate 070.Y5-A Illustrated here is the Model 1777 dragoon musket in its original configuration and as it was modified by shortening in 1800-1801. (Courtesy of The Armouries, H.M. Tower of London.)

070.Y5

The dragoon musket is shorter than the infantry musket, has a double-ringed middle barrel band, and is partially brass-mounted. The dragoon musket was introduced into production in 1778. Because of its similarity to the infantry musket, only those specifications of the dragoon musket that differ are described here.

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GENERAL INFORMATION 5

Overall Length: 57 /s". Brass Components: Trigger guard bow and front extension, pan, side plate, and the upper and lower barrel bands. BARREL 5

Length: 42 /8". Contour: The breech side flats are P/V' long. Breech Plug: The tang is 2l/s" long. Bayonet Lug: Unlike previous dragoon muskets, which had bayonet lugs located on the right side of the barrel, this W square lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel iVs" behind the muzzle. LOCK Note: The lock of the dragoon musket is the same as on the infantry musket. FURNITURE Trigger Guard: The guard bow and its integral front extension only are brass. This assembly is otherwise the same as for the infantry musket. Barrel Bands: The upper and lower bands are brass. The middle band is iron. Upper: An iron front sight is riveted and soldered to the rear barrel ring. Middle: The lower edge of the open space between the two 9/i6" barrel rings is recurved. The band is 35/s" long at the top. A lip extends 9/i6" forward at the bottom to facilitate the ramrod's return and extends the band's overall length to43/i6". Barrel Band Spacing: Breech to Lower: 103/4". Lower to Middle: 81A". Middle to Upper: 177/s". Barrel Band Retainers: Both the middle and lower bands have flat, spring-type retainers that extend 13A" forward on the right side. The middle band's retainer is located between the barrel rings, and a shoulder on this spring engages the front edge of the lower ring. Side Plate: The brass side plate has a convex surface. It is the same size and shape as that of the infantry musket. Ramrod: The 425/i6" steel ramrod has a trumpet head. STOCK

Length: 55". MARKINGS

Note: Same as the infantry musket.

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MODEL 1777

Plate 070.Y6-A The French Model 1777 artillery musket is generally similar to the dragoon musket, except that it is fully brass-mounted and is scaled down in size. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

ARTILLERY MUSKET

070.Y6

This musket is generally similar to the dragoon musket. However, it is shorter, has scaled-down components, and is fully brass-mounted. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .69. Overall Length: 5llA". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: Butt plate, side plate, trigger guard bow and front extension, pan, and all barrel bands. Production Period: Unknown. Quantity Procured (by French Government): Unknown. BARREL 1

Length: 36 /s". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There are l3/4" flats on both sides of the breech. Muzzle Extension: 25/s". Breech Plug: The 2" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. The lug beneath has a lateral hole for passage of the rear sidescrew. The breech plug's face is notched at the vent. Bayonet Lug: The /V by 3/i6" lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel l7/s" behind the muzzle. Anti-Twist Lug: This lug is perpendicular to the bore and subtends an arc of about one-sixth of the barrel's circumference. The V^'-wide lug is brazed to the lower right quadrant of the barrel, 25/s" behind the muzzle. LOCK n

3

Lockplate: The 5 /i6" by ! /i6" plate has a flat surface with beveled edges forward of the cock and a convex surface behind the cock. The rear profile ends in a small projecting point. Cock: The 3" cock has a convex-surfaced body and a heart-shaped hole in its reinforced throat. The rear profile of the straight tang continues that of the body, and its top is rounded. A vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of the tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted and has a lateral hole.

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Plate 070.Y6-B The markings on this Model 1777 artillery musket's lock indicate that it was made in 1786. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

Pan: The round-bottomed pan is inclined upwards at the rear and does not have a fence. A bridle extends forward to support the frizzen screw's head. Frizzen: The rounded top of the \l/i" by 1" frizzen is inclined forward. The front face is convex-surfaced. The top profile of the pan cover and tail is straight. Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and the front curve encloses the end of the front sidescrew. The lower leaf ends in a fleur-de-lis finial. Other: The heads of all external lock screws and the sidescrews are flat. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The straight trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. This plate also forms the rear trigger guard extension. The 1 "-wide brass bow is integral with the 2" front extension, which terminates in a pointed end. The rear branch of the bow ends in a hook, which engages a slot in the trigger plate behind the trigger. The guard assembly is 9l/i" overall. The front extension is secured by the lower sling swivel lug. The rear extension, which has two finger grooves, is secured by a convex-headed wood screw. Butt Plate: The ^/i" by 2" butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. The 23/s" tang is round-ended. Barrel Bands: The three flat-surfaced brass bands are formed inwards at the forestock's upper edge. Upper: The open space between the two 17/32" barrel rings has a recurved lower edge, exposing part of the forestock. The iron front sight blade is riveted and soldered to the rear barrel ring. A machine screw, located at the front of the lower-right quadrant of the band, secures it against the barrel's anti-twist lug. A ramrod friction spring is riveted inside the bottom of the band. This band is 25/i6" long at the top and extends rearwards at the bottom to 31A" long.

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Middle: The lower edge of the open space between the two l/i" barrel rings is recurved. The band is 25/s" long at the top. A lip extends forward at the bottom to facilitate the ramrod's return, and extends the band's overall length to 31/4". The upper sling swivel lug is below the front barrel ring. Lower: This band is 5/s" wide at the top, and it extends forward at the bottom to IV. Barrel Band Spacing: Breech to Lower Band: 103/s". Lower to Middle Band: 83A". Middle to Upper Band: 1IV. Barrel Band Retainers: The upper band is secured by the screw described earlier in this section. Both the middle and lower bands have flat retaining springs that extend P/V forward on the right side. The middle band's retainer is located between the barrel rings, and a shoulder on this spring engages the front edge of the rear barrel ring. Side Plate: The 39/i6" modified uL"-shaped side plate has a convex surface. Sling Swivels: The loop-style upper swivel is suspended from a lateral screw through a lug under the middle barrel band. The bell-shaped lower swivel is suspended from a lug in front of the trigger guard bow. Ramrod: The 353/4" steel ramrod has a trumpet head with a convex face. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 483/4". Comb: The nose of the S/V comb is 3/V' high. There are no flutes. Other: There is a 33/4" by !3/4" oval-shaped cheek recess in the left side of the comb. MARKINGS

Plate 070.Y8-A The Model 1777 cavalry musketoon is brassmounted. It is visually similar to the Model 1777 ship musketoon, except that the ship musketoon has a band retainer extending forward from the lower barrel band. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

Barrel: The breech tang of a known example is engraved "Mle 1777" in script. Lock: Two muskets manufactured at Saint Etienne have been observed. Both are engraved in script, in front of the cock: "St. Etienne." One example has a crown over UEL" above that marking, and the other is stamped with the last two numerals of the year date of manufacture, "86," between the two words. MODEL 1777 CAVALRY AND SHIP MUSKETOONS

070.Y8

Except for the following differences, the specifications of these two musketoons, which are stocked for about two-thirds of their barrel lengths, are identi-

369

FRENCH ARMS

cal: (1) the ship musketoon has a lower band retained by a spring, whereas the cavalry musketoon's lower band has provision for a swivel bar; (2) the cavalry musketoon's lock was based on the Model 1777 system, but the ship musketoon, manufactured only at Tulle, used a lock that was only generally similar; (3) the cavalry musketoon has an anti-twist lug on the barrel and a different method of securing the upper band; (4) there is a difference in the caliber of the two musketoons. Because of these relatively minor differences, these musketoons are being described together. In addition, the ship musketoon underwent the same production modifications to the barrel, lock, and upper band as the colonial musket, described earlier. GENERAL INFORMATION

Caliber: The cavalry musketoon is .67 caliber. The ship musketoon is .69 caliber. Overall Length: 46". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: Butt plate, side plate, trigger guard assembly, and bands. Production Period: Unknown. Quantity Procured (by French Government): Unknown. BARREL 7

Length: 29 /8". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. Early production arms only had 2" flats on either side of the breech. From 1784 the breech end of the barrel of the cavalry musketoon only also had a 5 /s" long top flat. Muzzle Extension: SVs". Breech Plug: The ZVs" by 9/i6" tang is round-ended. The lug beneath has a lateral hole for passage of the rear sidescrew. The breech plug's face is notched at the vent. Bayonet Lug: Eliminated. Anti-Twist Lug: Eliminated in the ship musketoon. The cavalry musketoon has a V^'-wide lug subtending an arc of about one-sixth of the barrel's circumference, which is brazed to the lower right barrel quadrant 81A" behind the muzzle. Between 1784 and 1786 the ship musketoon's upper band was secured by a convex-headed screw that passed upwards from the bottom, at the front, into a lug beneath the barrel. Thereafter, it was retained by a spring.

Plate 070.Y8-B The Model 1777 cavalry musket illustrated here has both a swivel bar and ring and sling swivels. The ship musketoon is similar but only has sling swivels. (Photograph copyright Musee de L'Armee, Paris.)

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. l

LOCK Note: The lock described here is that used on the cavalry musketoon, and the ship musketoon after 1786. Prior to 1786 the ship musketoon was equipped with a small version of the lock described for the Model 1777 ship musket. Lockplate: The 5n/i6" by V/ie" lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges forward of the cock and is convex-surfaced behind the cock. The rear profile ends in a small projecting point. Cock: The 3" cock has a broad, heart-shaped hole in the reinforced throat and a convex-surfaced body. The rear profile of the straight tang continues from that of the body, and the top of the tang is flat. The jaw screw's head is slotted and has a lateral hole. Pan: The round-bottomed pan is inclined upwards at the rear and does not have a fence. Frizzen: The rounded top of the iVz" frizzen is inclined forward. The front face is convex-surfaced, and there is a slight hump in the top profile of the straight tail. Frizzen Spring: Same description as for Model 1777 infantry musket. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The brass bow is integral with the I15/i6" front extension, which ends in a point. The rear branch of the guard bow has a hook that engages a rectangular notch in the trigger plate. The overall length of this assembly is 9l/i". The iron trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in this brass trigger plate. This plate has two lateral finger ridges, and the lower sling swivel stud is 1" from its rounded rear end. Butt Plate: The 43/s" by P/V butt plate has a 2" round-ended tang. Barrel Bands: Upper: The lower edge of the open space between the two 5/s" rings is recurved and exposes the forestock. The band is 23A" long at the top and extends rearwards at the bottom to 35/i6" long. The cavalry musketoon's band has a machine screw threaded into the lower-right quadrant at the front, which bears on the barrel's anti-twist lug, securing the band. It also has a ramrod friction spring. Until 1784 the ship musketoon's upper band was retained by a flat, stud-type spring extending rearwards, with an exposed length of 2Vie". Thereafter, it underwent the same production modifications as described for the ship musket. Lower: This band is 3/V' wide at the top and extends forward at the bottom to 1 Via". The cavalry musketoon's band has an integral lug on the left side, to which the swivel bar is screwed. Because of this, it does not require a band retaining spring. The ship musketoon's band is secured by a spring extending P/V forward. Barrel Band Spacing: Breech to Lower Band: SVz". Lower to Upper Band: lOVz". Barrel Band Retainers: Previously described.

FRENCH ARMS

371

Sling Swivels: Both musketoons are equipped with iron swivels. The upper, bell-shaped swivel is suspended from a lug under the lower band. The lower swivel is suspended from a lateral screw to a stud 1" forward of the rear of the trigger plate. Swivel Bar and Ring: Only the cavalry musketoon has a IVs "-diameter ring suspended from a 97/s" bar that extends from under the head of the rear sidescrew to the left side of the lower barrel band, to which it is secured by a convex head screw. Side Plate: The 33/4" side plate is modified "L"-shaped. Ramrod: The 295/s" steel ramrod has a 7/s" slightly tapered cylindrical head. The rear end is threaded. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 381A". Comb: The 83/s" comb has a 5/s" high nose with no flutes. MARKINGS

Note: The markings on the barrel and lock are the same as for the Model 1777 infantry musket.

LIEGE ARMS

075.

The arms manufacturing city of Liege is located astride the Meuse River, in what is today eastern Belgium. In the late 18th century the province of Liege, part of the Austrian Netherlands, extended for thirty miles northward of the town of Liege, along the west bank of the Meuse, to encompass the west side of the town of Maastricht. Part of the town of Maastricht was in the province of Liege. Although it was Dutch, at the time of the American Revolution Maastricht was an independent state. Both towns were linked geopolitically and economically. They were major centers of arms manufacture, and both used the Meuse River to ship their products down stream to the coast in Zeeland. The Meuse River becomes the Maas River in Holland. It is of interest to note that the French arms manufacturing town of Charleville is also on the Meuse River, upstream from Liege, a few kilometers across the French border. In the late 18th century it was claimed of the Liege arms manufactories: "The private armories [manufacturers] there exceed those of any country." Some of the arms manufactured in Liege were transported by barge and road to the Atlantic port of Ostend, about twenty miles from the French border. From there they were shipped to French ports, possibly for reshipment to the American revolutionaries or to certain friendly Caribbean islands. Other arms were shipped by barge down the Meuse to Zeeland, where they were reshipped to their end destinations. Because of the clandestine nature of arms procurement for the Americans, and because this procurement was handled as commercial rather than governmental transactions, no information has been located in the Belgian General Archives of the Kingdom in Brussels regarding any specific contracts or arms shipments to the American revolutionaries. In 1776 there was a strong international demand for arms from Liege. It is not known whether this demand was by the British, the Americans, or by the French who may have been purchasing arms for the American revolutionaries. In that year, the mayor of Liege stated: "Our traders, great and small, are giving work to our men; we see nothing but crates of muskets in the streets." No specific contract information is known. However, one can get an idea of the increase in the quantities of Liege-made arms shipped by barge to Ostend for reshipment to France, England, or across the Atlantic from the tax records pertaining to these barge shipments. The value and nature of the cargoes were carefully recorded. The following is the annual traffic in arms:

LIEGE ARMS

373

Year

Value

1774 1775 1776 1777

£ 50,708 £ 80,968 £183,716 £662,104

These figures are for barge traffic only and do not include the significant cargoes of muskets shipped overland by freight wagon from Liege to the port town of Ostend. Fairly definitive records were kept of the arms shipped from Ostend, bound for French ports, between April 1776 and the end of 1778. These shipments included 29,000 muskets, 74,000 casks of bullets, and 2,060 cannon. Because of the clandestine nature of the arms shipments, and because Liege-made muskets would probably have been shipped across the Atlantic by way of French or Dutch ports, it is possible that Liege muskets may have been identified as French or Dutch arms when they were imported into North America. The known Liege arms makers in the mid- to late 18th century were: Johann Jacob Behr,1 Phillipe Henning, Jean Gosvan, Hubert Raick, Louis Simonois, Lassence, Grusoin, Claude Niquet,2 Jacques Speder, and de Posson. In addition to these men, the following makers are known of through their markings on arms: "DEVILLERS.A.LIEGE," "LAMBERT SPINA" (in script), "PHILIPS S. ELIER," "F. MERCIER," "I FR. GOUNA A LIEGE," "LEIUNE [or LEIUNNE] A LIEGE,"3 "CLAUDE HAUET A LIEGE," "LL. E PAPE," "J. VALET A.LIEGE,"4 and "G. ROCHETTE." In spite of the large volume of musket manufacturing and shipping activities that took place in Liege during the American Revolutionary War, with the exception of the Liege-made British Short Land Pattern muskets, not one surviving example has been located in American public or private collections. There are, however, a number of muskets in U.S. collections with Liege locks. These are described in the following section.

1

2

3

4

Johann Jacob Behr (1690-1750) worked in both Liege and Maastricht as well as in Wurzburg, Wallenstein, and Weimar. See also "American-Assembled/Repaired Arms with Liege Locks," later in this section. Claude Gaier wrote in his book, Four Centuries of Liege Gunmaking, that gunmakers Claude Niquet and Jean Gosvin supplied muskets to both the Americans via Holland and to the British during the American Revolution. Jean Gosvin is listed in Der Neue St0ckel as a gunmaker who lived from 1745 to 1808 and worked in Liege and, later, in Charleville, France. This same source lists a Jean Claude Niquet, who worked as a gunmaker in Liege from 1778. This mark is usually credited to Francois Corbau, who is known to have worked from 1777 to 1790 in Maastricht. However, both his father and grandfather were gunmakers, and both were named Godefroi Corbau. I believe that the marks "CORBAV LEIEUNE," "LEIUNE," or "LEIUNE A LIEGE" are those of Godefroi Corbau, the younger, who was the father of Francois Corbau. (The French term "le jeune" means "the younger.") See "American-Assembled/Repaired Arms with Liege Locks," later in this section.

374

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

In addition, Great Britain purchased large quantities of Short Land Pattern muskets in the Netherlands. It is believed that these muskets were actually fabricated in Liege, and then shipped down the Meuse to Holland, where they were reshipped to England. Because of this, these muskets are described in this section. Various authorities in Germany have stated that some of the German states that sent troops to aid the British also procured arms in Liege and Maastricht. However, the limited procurement information obtained from archival sources in Germany indicates that these states procured their arms within Germany.

AMERICAN-ASSEMBLED/REPAIRED ARMS WITH LIEGE LOCKS

075.2

There are a variety of shoulder arms in a few American collections that show assembly or repair in America and that have Liege-made locks. The locks of three examples examined are all marked "J. VALET A«LIEGE," and another is marked "LI.BEHR." The "Valet"-marked locks are all French style, similar to those used in the 1754 model-series of muskets. They had been fitted to French Model 1728 muskets with markings indicating that had been in the possession of the French Navy Ministry's "free companies" in America (see Plate 070.11-D) and had been used in the assembly of a militia musket of immediate Revolutionary War vintage and in the assembly of a French trade gun (see Section 017.S6). The Behr lock is of early Dutch configuration and was fitted on a Germanic or Dutch musket, which has a replaced forestock. The existence of these arms suggests that some Liege-made locks were available in the United States during or shortly after the Revolution. It is also possible that these locks were salvaged from Liege-made French trade guns sent to North America during much of the 18th century. The first general inventory of U.S. arms was made following the Revolutionary War, in 1793. This inventory

Plate 075.2-A Early French-style lock marked "J*VALET" over "ArLIEGE." Three similar locks are known on dissimilar arms in U.S. collections, all with North American provenance. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

375

LIEGE ARMS

Plate 075.2-B Lock marked "M BEHR," which has been fitted to an American-assembled or -repaired musket with a replaced forestock. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

stated that there were "487 New Dutch gun locks" in the U.S. repository at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. It also listed "447 New French gun locks" in the same location. The only other repositories that contained substantial quantities of gun locks were Philadelphia — which had 4,300 serviceable and 2,300 "damaged" gun locks — and New London, Virginia — which had 725 gun locks "wanting cleaning." Unfortunately, these inventories did not clearly identify the locks' country of origin. It might be speculated that these locks were part of the shipment of 4,000 locks that were shipped from Amsterdam on January 26, 1778, on board the Christiana. The ship was bound for Nantes, but the locks' ultimate destination was reported to be America. (This shipment is reported in Section 039.2.) Nantes was the major French port through which arms for the American revolutionaries were shipped and was the base of French commercial trading companies, such as Plairn, Penet, & Cie., who sold to the Americans. Here is a description of a typical "J. Valet a Liege"-marked lock. The 69/i6" by !5/i6" French-style lock has a flat surface with beveled edges. There are two decorative vertical grooves behind the cock. This goose-neck cock also has a flat surface with beveled edges. The faceted, horizontal pan has a fence and an external bridle. The frizzen spring's lower leaf ends in a long, pointed finial. The only external markings are those engraved into the lockplate, forward of the cock, in two lines of block letters: "J. VALET" over "A'LIEGE."

LIEGE CONTRACT BRITISH SHORT LAND NEW PATTERN MUSKETS

075.5

In 1778 the British Ordnance's reserves of arms were rapidly dwindling. In order to augment the supply of muskets from English gunmakers, the Ordnance initiated the procurement of 20,000 muskets in Holland through the agency of arms merchants Thomas Fitzherbert and George Crawford. A total of £30,000

376

Plate 075.5-A Liege contract British Short Land New Pattern musket. These muskets are almost identical to those made in Great Britain. The buttstock's comb has been lowered slightly subsequent to original manufacture.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

was paid for these muskets. Additional muskets were bought in the Low Countries of Europe, and some were purchased in Soligen. Over 100,000 foreign muskets were ultimately purchased by the Ordnance during the American Revolution to augment the supply of arms from British contractors. There is a growing consensus that many of these muskets were made in Liege. They may have been shipped by barge to Holland and then sent to England. The few examples believed to be these Liege-made muskets are almost identical to the British-made Short Land New Pattern muskets described in Section 065.A65. Several salient features are thought to help identify these arms. First, the lockplate and cock are of pre-1777-1778 configurations. Only the end of the sear screw is visible behind the cock, and the rear edge of the top jaw rests against the front face of the cock's wide tang. The jaw screw is slotted only. With one exception, known examples have frizzen springs with the post-1777-1778 smooth, narrow teardrop-shaped finial. Second, the wrist escutcheon and butt plate tang are dimensionally different: Liege Manufacture Wrist Escutcheon: 25/s" long by l/V wide. Butt Plate Tang: 39/i6" to 35/8" long. Terminates in a broad rounded point. Third, the following markings aid identification:

Plate 075.5-B The lock of this Liege-made Short Land New Pattern musket has "TOWER" engraved with broad, shaded letters behind the cock. There is no broad arrow mark with the Ordnance's crown under the pan. The cock is not border engraved. (Anthony D. Darling Collection.)

English Manufacture 27/i6" long by !3/i6" wide. 37/s" long. Terminates in a sharp point or a narrow rounded point.

LIEGE ARMS

377

Plate 075.5-C The lock of this Liege-made Short Land New Pattern musket is equipped with a frizzen spring with trefoil finial. As with the previous example, there is no broad arrow marking under the pan. Although the cock is border engraved, the frizzen's front face is not.

Plate 075.5-D The configurations of the wrist escutcheon and butt plate tang of this Liege-made musket are slightly different than those of British-made muskets. (Anthony D. Darling Collection.)

Barrel: The barrel of one example is stamped with the usual Tower view and proof marks. The barrel of another example is stamped with a small crown over "iF." On the underside of the barrel of the example with the Tower view and proof marks is stamped a sunken rectangular cartouche containing raised "PR." Lock: The "TOWER" marking behind the cock is composed of broad, shaded letters. This marking and the royal cypher are somewhat more crudely engraved than on observed British-made muskets. Only the small crown, of Ordnance's crown-and-broad arrow mark is beneath the pan. The lockplate's double borderline engraving does not extend beneath the pan. The lockplate is stamped internally with sunken rectangular cartouches containing raised letters, such as UGG" or "NC." Side plate: Initials, such as "B" or UDN," are stamped in the inner surface. Stock: No stacker's name is visible in the ramrod channel forward of the lower thimble. Another example, attributed to Liege gunmaker Jean Gosvin, has recently been located. This musket is also very similar to British Short Land New Pattern muskets but has the following features that differentiate it from English-made muskets. Due to its worn condition, the barrel's Tower view and proof markings are very faint. Only a small crown over UGR" is visible at the top. Its upper surface is also stamped with a raised "IG" in a sunken rectangular cartouche. This is

378

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 075.5-E The raised "IG" in sunken rectangular cartouche stamped into this Liege-made Short Land New Pattern musket has been attributed to Liege gunmaker Jean Gosvin.

believed to be the mark of Jean Gosvin. The underside of the barrel is stamped with a royal cypher and broad arrow. The lock is of the general style used prior to 1777—1778. Only the end of the sear screw is visible behind the cock, and the frizzen spring terminates in a poorly defined trefoil finial. There is no double line border engraving below the pan. Finally, the lower edge of the cock's body projects below the lower edge of the lockplate when the cock is in the forward position. There is a crown, but no broad arrow, stamped beneath the pan. As on English-made arms, a royal crowned cypher is engraved forward of the cock, and the right side of the butt is stamped with a storekeeper's mark of a crown over script "OR."

DUTCH ARMS

COLONIAL PERIOD

080.

080.1

Dutch archives have not yet been located that show the vast quantity of arms sold to the British from the 16th century. This information has come from England and is explained in a previous section, "British Foreign Purchase Arms." Dutch sources do show the sales to other countries of large quantities of arms from the end of the first quarter of the 17th century, such as 22,400 muskets sold to Denmark in 1625-1627 and 50,000 muskets sold to Russia around 1630. It is known that the bores of Dutch matchlock harquebuses in 1580 were generally between .709" and .772" diameter. In 1599 the diameter of musket bores was established by a Regulation of the States General at .783 ", which used a ball of .73 ". At the same time the bore diameter of the carbine was established at .626" and its bullet at .58". Dutch muskets of this period were long and bulky and required a rest for aiming and firing. It was not until 1639 that the barrel length of matchlock muskets was established at 4'. Surviving examples of matchlock muskets of this period with 48" barrels are 59" to 63" overall. Matchlock muskets remained in service in the Netherlands much longer than in most other European countries. A May 10, 1745, inventory of the arms in storage at the Delft Arsenal, the main Dutch repository, included 30,538 flintlock muskets with steel ramrods and bayonets and 4,316 matchlock muskets. Wheel-lock arms were eliminated as Dutch regulation infantry arms in 1600, because they were too complicated and too expensive to manufacture. It is not known whether their use was also eliminated by the Dutch commercial trading companies who operated in the colonies. British archival records indicate that Britain intermittently purchased military arms from Holland from before 1600 until the end of the 18th century. Some of the arms purchased in the early 18th century were sent to the British North American colonies. In 1754 North Carolina Royal Governor Arthur Dobbs requested arms from the Crown for arming a regiment to be raised for the assistance of Virginia against French and Indian attacks. On July 1 the British Board of Ordnance approved a warrant to send 3,000 Dutch muskets with bayonets and wood ramrods to the colony. An additional 500 Dutch muskets were shipped to Georgia in 1756. Also in 1754, another 1,000 Dutch muskets, along with 1,000 Long Land Pattern muskets, were authorized for issue to 2,000 recruits of the Fiftieth and Fifty-first regiments, which had been raised in North America. It is known that at least 4,500 Dutch muskets, probably those

380

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 purchased by Great Britain in 1741, were sent to North America during the Seven Years' War.

REVOLUTIONARY WAR PERIOD

080.3

Evidence exists that Dutch military stores were shipped to aid the Americans during the Revolutionary War, but it is not known whether the cargoes shipped from Dutch ports included Dutch-made muskets or Liege-made muskets that had been shipped to Holland for reshipment across the Atlantic. A British informant in Rotterdam reported to England that six Dutch ships, laden with powder (and possibly arms) for the Americans, sailed from Rotterdam between January 1 and May 1, 1776, bound for Saint Eustatius. Also, the British ambassador at The Hague reported that 85,000 pounds of powder had been shipped from Amsterdam to France, destined for the Americans, at about the same time. At least one ship that sailed from Rotterdam landed its cargo in the United States. Besides other military stores, it carried 2,100 muskets. The known information regarding this ship is described in Appendix 5. Modern French authorities on the subject disagree about whether or not Dutch arms were sent to the American revolutionaries. Louis de Lomenie states in his book, Beaumarchais, that the French purchased 60,000 muskets in Holland for shipment to the United States. However, K. de Hartogh states in Les Fusils de Beaumarchais that no muskets were purchased in Holland during the American Revolution. Although there is disagreement among arms authorities as to whether Dutch arms were imported for the use of American revolutionaries, there is no disagreement that Dutch arms were used in the war by one or the other of the opponents. This opinion is supported by a January 1797 inventory of small arms in various U.S. repositories that identified 525 Dutch muskets in storage at the Schuylkill Arsenal near Philadelphia among the arms remaining from the Revolutionary War. Dutch arms in American public and private collections, which carry makers' identifications, primarily come from either Amsterdam or Maastricht. Private arms manufacture flourished in Amsterdam long before the establishment of the first "municipal" manufactory in 1672. This manufactory produced muskets for the defense of the city. Its name was changed several times before its sale in the 1730s to a man named van Soligen. Thereafter, it made arms for the Dutch East India Company under contract. In 1759 a second public arms manufactory, the private property of the Stadhouder, William V, was established in Amsterdam. The Culemborg Manufactory1 was under the direction of Jean Dusseau from 1759 until his death in 1777. It was directed by A. J. van Schenk from 1777 to 1798. In addition to this public manufactory there were a number of private gunmakers in Amsterdam.

1 This manufactory's name was also spelled "Kulenborg" and "Kulenburg."

DUTCH ARMS

381

CONFIGURATIONS OF DUTCH MUSKETS

080.5

A great deal of conflicting information has been obtained from various authoritative European sources regarding Dutch and German states' military muskets of the 18th century. Much archival information has been irretrievably lost as a result of the two world wars. In recent years some European arms students have developed a growing interest in their national regulation shoulder arms of the pre-napoleonic period, and this interest should result in better definition of the regulation models in their various states. Dutch shoulder arms in American collections reflect the wide diversity of muskets used in the Netherlands during the 18th century. These arms were not only procured by the Netherlands' army and navy from a variety of sources, but large numbers were also procured by cities for use by their civil guards and by the Dutch East and West India companies. Also, many Dutch army units continued to purchase muskets privately from various gunmakers until 1790, at least. This practice had been abolished in England and France fifty years earlier. To add to the confusion, large quantities of muskets were made by many different gunmakers in Holland for private sale to foreign governments. The configurations of these commercially exported muskets were quite diverse and may have been determined by their buyers. For the purposes of an empirical study, known Dutch muskets in American collections were divided into four basic groups, or types, based on their general configuration. Within each of the groups, there is some variation among individual examples in furniture styles, lock features, barrel length, overall length, and caliber. These four groups, or types, are modern designations. Examination of (Type I) muskets, early (Type II), and (Type IV) configurations revealed that they generally appeared to be pretty much as they were originally fabricated. However, most (Type II) and (Type III) muskets examined, and many of those reported, appeared to have undergone repairs or alterations. Whether these repairs were accomplished in Holland, or later in America, is unknown. Some (Type II) muskets, which do not have barrel bands, had been altered from (Type III) muskets, which are equipped with barrel bands. Conversely, (Type III) muskets are known that were originally equipped with barrel underlugs and whose forestocks show evidence of having had lateral pins. Approximately two-thirds of the (Type IV) muskets examined were marked with their makers' names. Most of these makers did not begin making muskets until after the end of the American Revolution, and some worked as late as 1810. It is believed that many of the Dutch (Type IV) muskets in American collections were fabricated in the 1790s and that they were imported into North America in the 1799-1800 period. Although the (Type IV) musket falls outside this volume's scope, it is discussed here in order to provide a better understanding of the various configurations of Dutch military flintlock muskets. It should be added that no known examples of (Type IV) muskets are marked with "US" or other federal identification, which would be expected of muskets owned by the federal government at the turn of the 19th century.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

382

080.52

(TYPE I) MUSKET

Plate 080.52-A The salient identifying features of the Dutch (Type I) musket are a flat, beveledged lock and cock, pin-fastened barrel, and iron furniture.

The salient features of the (Type I) musket are: (1) a pin fastened barrel; (2) a lock having a flat, bevel-edged plate and cock, and a pan without external bridle; and (3) iron furniture. Because at least one (Type I) musket is known with South Carolina markings, and because of the iron furniture (an early feature), it is possible that this pattern was the configuration purchased by Great Britain in Holland in 1741 and sent to North America in 1754 and 1756. There is simply not enough information to substantiate this hypothesis, and so it must remain as speculation until more is learned about these arms. It should be noted that at least two of the (Type I) muskets are related to each other by having similar markings engraved on their barrels, which are noted in the "Markings" section of the following description. In addition, some (Type II) muskets are known with similar barrel engravings. Henk Visser, noted Dutch arms authority, is of the opinion that these barrel marks — consisting of a letter, a colon, and several numerals — were applied by the individual Dutch towns that owned the arms for their civil guards. The numbers were the rack or serial numbers applied by the towns' arsenals. GENERAL

INFORMATION

Caliber: .75. Overall Length: 613/i6"* Finish: Bright. Brass Components: None. Production Period: Unknown. Quantity Procured: Unknown. BARREL 15

Length: 45 /i6". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There is a double baluster ring for 5/s" at the breech and a 1" flat in the right side of the breech. There are four underlugs, through which pass three lateral pins and the upper sling swivel screw. Muzzle Extension: 31/s". Breech Plug: The 23/s" tang is square-ended. It tapers from 5/s" at the front to n /i6" at the rear. The breech plug's face is not notched at the vent. Front Sight: The 15/i6" oval-shaped, iron blade is brazed to the top of the barrel 43/s" behind the muzzle.

383

DUTCH ARMS

Bayonet Lug: The 3/i6" by 5/i6" rectangular lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel, IVV behind the muzzle. LOCK 3

5

Lockplate: The 6 /s" by ! /i6" lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges. Its rear profile inclines downwards and ends in a projecting point. Cock: The 3l/i" goose-neck cock has a flat-surfaced body with beveled edges. The top of the tang is curved rearwards, and there is a decorative notch at the front. The top jaw's rear face bears against the front face of the tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted only. Pan: The horizontal, faceted pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence but no external bridle. Frizzen: The l7/s" by ll/\" frizzen has a straight-edged top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge with a decorative facet at the top. The upper surface of the pan cover, where it joins the tail, is convex. The tail is curled upwards.

Plate 080.52-B The lower edge bevel of this Dutch (Type I) musket's lockplate is engraved "CORBAV'LE-IEUNNE." This is believed to be the mark of Godefroi Corbau the younger, who is known to have worked in Maastricht between 1717 and 1750.

Frizzen Spring: The upper leaf is straight, and the front curve is at the end of the front sidescrew. The inner corner of the outside edge of both leaves is beveled. The lower leaf is secured by a screw passing from inside the plate, and it ends in a long, pointed finial. Other: The head of the cock screw is flat, with beveled edges. The frizzen screw's filister head has a convex surface. The sidescrews have convex heads. The internal bridle has a pronounced foot, or downwards projecting support, at the front. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended from a lateral pin in the stock, downwards through a slot in the 3l/s" trigger plate. It is curled rearwards at the bottom. The 1 "-wide guard bow has decorative grooves near the edges and is integral with the 37/s" front and 67/i6" rear decorative pointed-end

384

Plate 080.52-C The highly sculpted iron trigger guard and lower thimble of a Dutch (Type I) musket attributed to Godefroi Corbau the younger.

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

extensions. This 123A" assembly is retained by a lateral pin through a vertical lug at the front and by two wood screws at the rear. Butt Plate: The 5 " by ZViV' sheet iron butt plate has a 5n/i6" pointed tang. This plate is retained by two screws at the rear and two in the tang. Side Plate: The 6l/s" convex-surfaced side plate is modified uL"-shaped with an extension to the rear from the rear sidescrew. Ramrod Thimbles: The four, barrel-type thimbles have reinforcing rings at the ends. The three upper thimbles are ll/i" long. The 41/^" lower thimble ends in a pointed finial. Forend Band: The llV'-wide sheet iron band encloses the stock's foretip. It is open at the front end. Wrist Escutcheon: The front profile of the 2" by 7/s" sheet iron plate is in the form of a broad arc, and its rear profile is pointed. It is secured by a wood screw through the center. Sling Swivels: (The swivels were missing on the muskets examined.) The lower swivel is secured to the front branch of the trigger guard bow. The upper swivel is suspended from a lateral screw located forward of the upper-middle thimble. Ramrod: The 45 Vz" button-headed steel ramrod has a slightly convex face. It is threaded at the rear for 3/s " for ball screw and wiper.

Plate 080.52-D In addition to the Dutch marking of UF:119," this (Type I) musket's barrel is stamped "S-CAROLINA." The unusual wrist escutcheon is secured by a wood screw from the top.

STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 58". Comb: The rounded nose of the 6V comb is 11A" high. Flutes extend 514' rearwards from both sides of the nose.

385

DUTCH ARMS

Other: There are raised plateaus, with teardrop-shaped rear extensions on both sides of the breech. There is also a raised plateau around the breech tang and carved moldings parallel the ramrod channel on both sides of the forestock. MARKINGS

Plate 080.52-E This Dutch (Type I) musket's barrel is stamped "F:227," believed to be a city's rack number. It is also engraved "CONSTANT" in a banner. (Springfield Armory Museum NHP Collection.)

Barrel: There are no view or proof marks on the barrel. The top of the barrel of one musket, in the Springfield Armory National Historic Site collection, is engraved "F:227" and "CONSTANT" in a banner. Another example is engraved "Fill9" and is stamped "Se CAROLINA." Lock: The lockplate is engraved near the front of the lower edge bevel "CORBAY LE IEUNE." Some examples also have ".A.MASTRICHT" in this location. Other: The lockmaker's mark of a raised "IL" in a sunken rectangular cartouche is stamped inside the lockplate, and a similar cartouche with UNR" is stamped under the barrel of one known example. A roman numeral assembly number is cut into some components. One observed musket has "No 6" engraved in the lower ramrod thimble. (TYPE II) MUSKET

080.55

The salient features of the Dutch (Type II) musket are: (1) a pin-fastened barrel; (2) a flat, bevel-edged lockplate and cock; and (3) brass furniture. A study of several (Type II) muskets suggests that there are two distinct barrel-length groups. One consists of arms with barrels 453/4" to 46V16" long. For the purpose of identification, this group is designated (Type IIA). The other group has barrel lengths ranging from 39" to 42" and will be referred to as (Type IIB). There is considerable variation in many specifications, but at the same time, there is general uniformity in the muskets of each group. The (Type IIA) muskets

Plate 080.55-A The salient identifying features of the Dutch (Type II) musket are a flat, beveledged lock and cock, pin-fastened barrel, and brass furniture. This is an example of the longer (Type IIA) configuration.

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appear to be of earlier manufacture than the (Type IIB) muskets. Two observed examples of (Type IIA) muskets are related to known examples of iron-mounted (Type I) muskets because they have engraved markings on the barrel in the same style as the (Type I), albeit in a different series: examples marked "G1001." and "C: 1268." are known. It is possible that if (Type I) muskets were among the 18,000 muskets purchased by Great Britain in Holland in 1741, then (Type IIA) muskets were also part of this purchase. This is pure speculation, however. The locks of both (Type II) variation muskets are very similar to those of the (Type I). Examples are known with both flat and round topped frizzens and with the ends of one or two screws visible in the lockplate behind the cock, and the frizzen spring may be secured by either an external or internal screw. Finally, the pan may or may not be equipped with an external bridle to support the frizzen screw. Slight differences in configurations of trigger guards and side plates have been noted, but most are generally similar. (Type IIB) muskets tend to have somewhat more decorative furniture than (Type IIA) muskets. Most (Type IIB) muskets have cast brass thimbles, whereas most (Type IIA) muskets have sheet brass thimbles. Several (Type IIB) muskets had one or more conical or flared-mouth ramrod thimbles to facilitate the ramrod's return. Examples of (Type IIA) and (Type IIB) muskets were examined and reported that had been previously equipped with barrel bands. The marks of barrel bands were clearly visible on the wood and metal surfaces. A few of these muskets were disassembled, and it was determined that the four underlugs were dovetailed to the barrel subsequent to original manufacture. The lateral pins through these lugs were of very small diameter. Also, the ramrod channel had been inletted for four ramrod thimbles subsequent to original manufacture. These thimbles were old but were not original to the arm. It is of interest to note that they are of a style common in America in the 18th century, being faceted and having decorative rings at the ends. One (Type IIB) musket has "KULEN" over "BURG" engraved on the lock, forward of the cock. Another has this name in a sunken rectangular cartouche surmounted by a crown in the same location. This Amsterdam manufactory is discussed in the introduction to this section. No makers' names were visible on other (Type II) muskets that were examined or reported. Because of its similarity to the (Type I) musket, the (Type IIA) musket's following description is brief and is intended to stress those features that differ from the (Type I) musket. Due to the variations in (Type II) muskets, this description cannot be considered typical of all (Type II) muskets or even of all (Type IIA) muskets. It is presented only as one example of its type. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .75.

Overall Length: 603/4" to 61V4". Finish: Bright.

387

DUTCH ARMS

Brass Components: Butt plate, side plate, trigger guard, ramrod thimbles, and wrist escutcheon plate. Production Period: Unknown. Quantity Procured: Unknown. BARREL

Note: The barrels of observed examples were essentially the same as on Dutch (Type I) muskets. LOCK

Note: The locks of observed and reported (Type IIA) muskets are similar to those of the (Type I) musket except that some (Type IIA) musket locks are known with the ends of both the sear and sear spring screws visible in the lockplate behind the cock. Only the end of the sear screw is visible in other locks. Some are equipped with external bridles; others are not. The top of the frizzen may be flat or rounded. All noted examples have long spearpointed frizzen spring finials, although the frizzen springs of various examples are secured by either internal or external screws.

Plate 080.55-B The locks of Dutch (Type II) muskets are similar to those of (Type I) muskets. No known examples classified as (Type IIA) in this text have external lock markings. However, the lockplates of a few examples of the shorter (Type IIB) are stamped with the Culemborg Manufactory marking.

FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The iron trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The guard bow is integral with its front and rear extensions and is 111A" overall. The front extension's profile terminates in a convex-surfaced disc, with a rounded point at the end. The rear extension terminates in a convex-surfaced round end. The trigger guard is retained by a lateral pin through an integral vertical lug at the front and by two wood screws at the rear. Butt Plate: The 5" by 2" sheet brass butt plate has a straight rear profile and a flat rear surface. The 67/s" decorative tang is pointed. The plate is secured by two screws at the rear and a screw in the tang.

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Plate 080.55-C The distinctive brass trigger guards and side plate of the Dutch (Type II) and (Type III) muskets are similar to each other.

Side Plate: The 57/s" flat, bevel-edged side plate has a tail extending rearwards of the rear sidescrew and is only generally similar to the profile of the (Type I). Its form differs in detail. Ramrod Thimbles: Most examples of (Type IIA) muskets are equipped with four faceted thimbles with rings at the ends. The upper three thimbles are P/s", and the 43/s" lower thimble ends in a pointed finial. Forend Band: The !5/i6" sheet brass band is located at the stock's foretip. Wrist Escutcheon: Some (Type II) muskets have an oval brass escutcheon, while others have a somewhat circular, 2n/i6" shield-shaped escutcheon, which is pointed at the rear and which is retained by a wood screw through its center. A few muskets have no wrist escutcheon. Ramrod: Same as (Type I). Sling Swivels: The lower swivel is suspended from a screw through the front branch of the trigger guard bow, and the upper swivel is suspended from a screw through the stock, forward of the upper-middle ramrod thimble. STOCK

Note: The walnut stock is essentially as described for the Dutch (Type I) musket. MARKINGS

Barrel: As described in the introduction to this section, some (Type IIA) muskets are known with markings similar to those on some (Type I) muskets. The upper portions of all other barrels examined, except one, are unmarked. The one marked barrel is engraved "DOVGLAS" in shaded capital letters and stamped "CAROLINA." The underside of most barrels is stamped with a maker's mark, such as a raised UILB" in a sunken rectangular cartouche. Lockplate: Unmarked externally.

Plate 080.55-D The barrels of a few Dutch (Type II) muskets are known stamped with a letter-numeral combination similar to this. All are prefixed with the letter "C."

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DUTCH ARMS

Plate 080.55-E The Dutch (Type IIB) musket is generally similar to the (Type IIA) but is somewhat shorter. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

Assembly Number: An assembly number in roman numeral style, but not a roman numeral, is usually cut or stamped into most metal components. Other: The musket with the uDouglas"-marked barrel also had "19 GP" engraved in the wrist escutcheon and UN35" engraved into the lower thimble finiaL (TYPE I I I ) MUSKET

Plate 080.55-F The lockplate of this Dutch (Type IIB) musket is stamped with the mark of the Culemborg Manufactory and attributed to use during the 17771798 period, when the manufactory was under the directorship of A. ]. van Schenk. This manufactory's marking die, used during the 1759-1777 period when Jean Dusseau was the director, included his initials. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

080.58

The salient features of the Dutch (Type III) musket are: (1) the barrel is retained by three or four bands; (2) a lock with a flat, bevel-edged plate and cock; and (3) brass furniture. (Type III) muskets are generally more uniform than (Type II) muskets. The barrels of most examined and reported examples are between 39" and 405/s" long. There is also a greater uniformity in the locks and furniture of these muskets. The vast majority of the observed and reported muskets had the same trigger guards, butt plates, side plates, barrel bands, and most other features of the musket described next. There is evidence that those with variant features were restocked, possibly in North America.

Plate 080.58-A The salient identifying features of Dutch (Type III) muskets are a flat, beveledged lock and cock, brass furniture, and the barrel retained by three or four barrel bands. Most (Type I I I ) muskets examined were altered from (Type II) by the addition of barrel bands subsequent to original manufacture. (Jay Forman Collection.)

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Plate 080.58-B This Dutch (Type III) musket is equipped with four barrel bands. The nose of its buttstock appears to have been lowered at some time subsequent to original manufacture.

(Type III) muskets have been observed that had been altered from the (Type II) configuration. Several of these have been disassembled. The four underlugs had been ground down almost flush with the barrel's surface. The recesses for these lugs and ramrod thimbles, as well as the holes for the lateral pins and upper sling swivel screw, are still visible in the stock's barrel channel and forend but are often obscured by the barrel bands. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .75. Overall Length: 555/s". Finish: Bright.

Brass Components: Butt plate, trigger guard, side plate, ramrod thimbles, barrel bands, and front sight. BARREL

Length: 40". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There are baluster rings for n/i6" at the breech and a \l/i" flat on the right side of the breech. Note: This barrel was originally equipped with underlugs for lateral retaining pins and upper sling swivel screw, but these have been removed. Bore: .775" smooth. Muzzle Extension: 23/4".

Breech Tang: The !9/i6" tang is square-ended. It tapers from 5/s" wide at the front to 13/i6" wide at the rear. Bayonet Lug: A rectangular lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel 11A" behind the muzzle. LOCK 9

7

Lockplate: The 6 /i6" by l /3z" lockplate has a flat surface with beveled edges. The rear profile is inclined downwards slightly and arcs to a point at the rear. Cock: The 3H" goose-neck cock has a flat-surfaced body with beveled edges. The tang has a decorative curl at the top with a notch at the front. A vertical mortice in the rear of the top jaw encloses the front and sides of the tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted only. Pan: The horizontal, faceted pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence but no external bridle to the frizzen screw's head. (Some examples have external bridles.)

391

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Plate 080.58-C Locks of Dutch (Type III) muskets are generally similar to earlier types. The end of only the sear screw is visible behind the cock of this example. (Jay Forman Collection.)

Frizzen: The l5/s" by IVs" frizzen usually has a straight-edged top. The front face is faceted. The upper profile of the pan cover section is flat, and the tail is curled upwards. Frizzen Spring: The straight leaves' inner corners of the outer edges are beveled. The curve at the front is over the front sidescrew. The lower leaf ends in a crude teardrop-shaped finial. FURNITURE Note: The trigger guard, butt plate, and side plate are generally similar to the Dutch (Type II) musket previously described. Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The trigger has a rearward curl at the bottom. The brass guard bow is integral with its extensions and is 12 W overall. The front extension ends in a crude acorn-shaped finial, and the rear extension is round-ended. Butt Plate: The 5" by l3/4" sheet brass butt plate has a straight rear profile and a flat rear surface. The plate curves forward at the heel, forming a 57/s" pointed tang.

Plate 080.58-C The brass side plates and trigger guards of Dutch (Type III) are similar to those on the earlier (Type II) muskets. (Jay Forman Collection.)

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392

Side Plate: The 7 " side plate is is flat with beveled edges. Its profile is similar to the British land pattern musket, having a rearward extension, but it is more sculpted between the sidescrews. Barrel Bands: The four bands are flat-surfaced. Upper: The open space between the two l/i" rings is rectangular. The band is I n /i6" long at the top and extends rearwards at the bottom to 25/i6". Upper Middle: This band is n/i6" wide at the top and extends forward at the bottom to I1/}". The upper sling swivel stud is beneath. Lower Middle: This band is u/i6" wide at the top and extends forward at the bottom to IVs". Lower: This band is n/i6" wide at the top and extends forward at the bottom to 2V8". Barrel Band Spacing: (Note that only the upper band has a retainer. The locations of the three lower bands may vary.) Breech to Lower: 91A". Lower to Lower Middle: 1 !5/i6". Lower Middle to Upper Middle: 81A". Upper Middle to Upper: ll/i". Barrel Band Retainers: The upper band has a spring-type retainer extending 25/i6" rearwards. This spring's stud engages a square hole in the right side of the band. Sling Swivels: The bell-shaped swivels are suspended from the front branch of the trigger guard bow and from a lug beneath the upper-middle band. Ramrod: The 403/4" steel ramrod has a button head. STOCK

Wood: Varnished European walnut. Length: 5213/i6". Comb: The nose of the 6l/i" comb is 1" high. It appears to have been shortened subsequent to original manufacture. Other: The stock originally had provision for thimbles, a British-type upper sling swivel, and the barrel retaining underlugs and pins. There are raised plateaus on both sides of the breech and breech tang. MARKINGS

Both the barrel and interior of the lock are stamped with sunken rectangular cartouches, which are largely illegible. The lock's cartouche appears to contain the raised letters "DIM," but the letters are reversed. The side plate is stamped with a rectangular cartouche with a raised UR" and reversed "N." (TYPE IV) MUSKET

080.59

CONFIGURATIONS OF (TYPE IV) MUSKETS

This is the most commonly encountered Dutch musket configuration in American collections.

DUTCH ARMS

A study of (Type IV) muskets in Dutch and American collections indicates that there are at least two different basic sizes of these muskets. There are also a few muskets that seem to fall in between. Unfortunately, American collectors often refer to the smaller arms as "fusils" and attribute them to officers' use. This is doubtful, because it was the most commonly encountered size in the study, which would imply its use by a larger number of field grade officers and noncommissioned officers than privates in the Dutch Army. The limited available information suggests that what is referred to in this work as the (Type IV) musket may have been the regulation musket of the Dutch Army and Navy or of the civil guard (militia) of individual Dutch cities. The barrels of muskets in American collections generally conform to the 431/4" regulation length and caliber of Dutch infantry and navy muskets of the 1771— 1800 period. How much earlier this pattern was used is not known. Dutch records indicate that an artillery musket was also in use at this time, but its specifications are not known. The barrels of many of the smaller muskets or "fusils" in American collections generally conform to the configuration of the Dutch cavalry and dragoon carbines of the 1771-1800 period. The regulation length of these carbine barrels was 381/8/' and their bore diameters were .66". The dragoon carbines were equipped with sling swivels and bayonets. The cavalry carbines were not. Because of the similarity of these smaller muskets or "fusils" to the known specifications of Dutch carbines, they are referred to as "carbines" in this text. HISTORICAL INFORMATION

Research in the records of the Council of State of the General State Archives of Holland in The Hague and in the library of the Netherlands Army and Weapons Museum in Delft has yielded only very limited information about Dutch regulation shoulder arms prior to the late 1780s. It is known that large numbers of shoulder arms were owned by the Dutch government. For example, a 1753 inventory of the various arms in the thirtyeight Dutch arsenals disclosed there were 103,254 serviceable muskets in storage there and another 6,643 muskets described as defective or obsolete. These were in addition to the muskets in the hands of the Dutch Army. Experiments and trials of muskets and carbines in the 1789-1790 period resulted in a new model-series of muskets, carbines, and pistols. Sealed patterns for these arms were approved by the Stadhouder prior to February 21, 1791. In 1792 contracts for annual deliveries of 1,300 infantry muskets, 300 cavalry carbines, 300 dragoon carbines, eighteen dragoon sergeants' carbines, and 650 pairs of pistols were made with the Culemborg Manufactory in Amsterdam. These new arms were to be issued as replacements for arms in the hands of the army as existing arms became unserviceable. The procurement of muskets was to continue until there was a reserve of 12,000 muskets in the Dutch arsenals. Because France conquered Holland in 1795, it is doubtful that more than a few thousand new model muskets were actually procured. On January 23, 1792, at about the time the orders for the procurement of the new model muskets was authorized, an inventory of the arms in the various

393

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394

Dutch arsenals included 81,053 muskets, of which 48,307 muskets were described as "old items with flat bayonets . . . only fit for use in the defense of fortresses." The specifications for the new model infantry muskets of 1791 stated they were to have barrels 411A" long and bore diameters of .718". They were to have convex-surfaced lockplates and pans with external bridles to support the frizzen. Their brass mountings were to include two double-ringed barrel bands. They were also to be equipped with ramrods with cylindrical heads, ramrod friction springs, trigger plates with an integral ramrod stop, and walnut stocks. The specifications for the new model carbines indicated that they would be of similar general configuration. Their barrels were to be 317/s" long, and they were also to have convex-surfaced locks with external pan bridles. Their brass mountings included two double-ringed barrel bands, and they had walnut stocks. The dragoon carbines were to be equipped with bayonets and sling swivels, but the cavalry carbines were not. The dragoon sergeants' carbines were to be the same as the dragoon carbines, but "the bayonets are accommodated in the butt." VARIATIONS IN CONFIGURATION

One of the more interesting features of Dutch arms in American collections is the lack of uniformity in the configuration of their components, even between muskets by the same maker. It is possible that some of this lack of uniformity may be attributed to repairs and rebuilding subsequent to original manufacture, but it is so commonly found as to indicate that these muskets were made only generally similar to each other. They vary widely in specific detail. SALIENT FEATURES

The salient features common to all (Type IV) arms are: (1) a convex-surfaced lockplate and cock; (2) a pan with an external bridle; and (3) the brass furniture includes either three or four barrel bands. DUTCH G U N M A K E R S

Many of the muskets, and almost all of the carbines, included in the study are marked as to maker. These makers were usually located in Amsterdam, although some were located in Rotterdam and Maastricht. The most commonly encountered maker's name is "Thone." Lambertus Michaelus Thone moved to Amsterdam from Liege and was made a citizen in July 1781. He became a gunmaker shortly thereafter but did not start his manufactory, which employed nineteen or twenty gunmakers in the fabrication of military muskets, until 1797. The manufactory ceased production in 1812. Other known Amsterdam makers of (Type IV) arms are: Johan Georg Erttel: Emigrated to Amsterdam from Dresden, Saxony, and took over the workshop of Pierre Joseph Thirion on his death in 1752. Erttel died about 1795. Heinrich Brandt: Became a master gunmaker in 1767. Known to have been active in the 1780s.

DUTCH ARMS

395

Hedrich Bosman: Became a citizen of Amsterdam in 1764. Active in the 1780s and 1790s, Retired in 1798. Johannes Rousseau: Became a master gunmaker in 1780 and made arms until

1805. The arms described here are intended to be only representative examples of a (Type IV) musket and a (Type IV) carbine. Other examples of each should be generally similar, but the sizes and configuration of some components will probably vary. (TYPE IV) MUSKET

080.592

The following description is of a typical (Type IV) musket. As a group, these muskets are more uniform in configuration and dimensions of their components than previous types of Dutch arms. The barrels of the various examples of these muskets range from 425/s" to 43V^" and they are 58" to 59" overall. The bore diameters measure between .760" and .783 ". Most observed examples have three barrel bands, but one has four. All muskets and carbines in the study, except one, have bayonet lugs located on the undersides of their barrels. There are in European collections slightly smaller variations of the Dutch (Type IV) musket that have an extended-length, two-ring upper barrel band, similar to that described for the Dutch (Type IV) carbine. This extended-length band has only been encountered in carbine-length arms in American collections. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .75.

Overall Length: 58 "to 59". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: Butt plate, trigger guard, side plate, barrel bands, wrist escutcheon, and front sight. BARREL 5

Length: 42 /8" to 43 Vz". Contour: Round, tapering in decreasing diameter to the flat-crowned muzzle. There are baluster rings for 5/s" to 3/V' at the breech, and there is a ll/i" to 3" flat on the right side of the breech. Muzzle Extension: 27/s" to 33/s".

Plate 080.592-A The salient identifying features of Dutch (Type IV) muskets and carbines and convex-surfaced lockplates and cocks, brass furniture, and the barrel retained by either three or four barrel bands. The rearward extention of the lower portion of this example's upper band has been eliminated subsequent to original manufacture.

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Breech Tang: The 21A" to 29/i6" square-ended tang tapers from 5/s" wide at the front to 3/4" wide at the rear. A rear sight groove is usually cut into the tang's upper surface, which is higher than the barrel's surface. Bayonet Lug: A rectangular 3/i6" by 5/i6" lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel 1" to 11A" behind the muzzle. Anti-Twist Lug: Most muskets are equipped with a 3/s" to 9/i6"4ong anti-twist lug, brazed to the underside of the barrel 53A" behind the muzzle. Some, but not all, of these muskets have a spring-type bayonet catch pinned to this lug, so that its hook-shaped front end projects l/i" beyond the stock's foretip. This catch resembles that described for French Model 1774. LOCK 13

7

Lockplate: The 6 /i6" by 1 /32" lockplate has a convex surface, except at the front where it is flat with beveled edges. Its rear profile ends in an almost imperceptible projecting point. Only the end of the sear screw is visible in the plate behind the cock. Cock: The 35/s" goose-neck cock has a convex-surfaced body. There is a decorative forward curl at the top of the tang. The rear edge of the top jaw bears against the front face of this tang. The jaw screw's head is slotted and has a lateral hole. Pan: The horizontal, round-bottomed iron pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence and an external bridle to support the frizzen screw's head. Frizzen: The 2" by ll/s" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge with a slight flattening near the top. The upper profile of the pan cover is straight, and the tail curls upwards. Frizzen Spring: The straight leaves have inside bevels on their outer edges. The curve at the front encloses the end of the front sidescrew. The lower leaf ends in a wide fleur-de-lis finial. Other: The cock screw and sidescrews have convex heads. The frizzen and frizzen spring screws have either convex or flat-surfaced filister heads.

Plate 080.592-B The locks of many Dutch (Type IV) muskets are unmarked, but this example is stamped with the mark of Culemborg Manufactory in Amsterdam. (Type IV) muskets are equipped with external pan bridles. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

397

DUTCH ARMS

Plate 080.592-C The lock of this Dutch (Type IV) musket is engraved "THONE" over "AMSTERDAM." This is the mark of Lambertus Michaelus Thone. (Photograph courtesy of the Colorado Historical Society.)

Plate 080.592-D The brass trigger guards of Dutch (Type IV) muskets and carbines are much plainer than preceding types. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The 1 "-wide guard bow is integral with its front and rear extensions, which end in simple points. This lOVV assembly is secured at the front by a lateral pin through an integral lug and at the rear by two wood screws. Butt Plate: The 43/4" by P/V sheet brass butt plate has a straight rear profile and a slightly convex rear surface. The 43/s" tang has a pointed end. The butt plate is secured by two convex-headed screws at the rear and two flat-headed screws through the tang. Wrist Escutcheon: The !9/i6" by iVs" oval escutcheon is secured by two brass nails. Side Plate: The 4l/i" convex-surfaced side plate is reverse "S"-shaped, with a circular disc at the front. The heads of the sidescrews are partially countersunk in this plate. Barrel Bands: Muskets have been observed with both three and four barrel bands. These flat-surfaced bands are made of thin sheet brass and are not formed inwards at the forestock's upper edge. There is considerable variation in the shapes of the bands from one musket to another. The front and rear edges of some are stepped at the forestock's upper edge, similar to French Model 1754 and 1763 muskets. Some bands have tapered sides; others have parallel sides. The upper barrel band has a rectangular open space between the two barrel rings and is generally about l3/4" wide at the top. The upper

Plate 080.592-E The butt plate tangs of all examples of (Type IV) muskets and carbines and most (Type II) and (Type III) muskets examined were of this configuration.

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 080.592-F The convex-surfaced brass side plates of Dutch (Type IV) muskets have a distinctive reverse "S" shape, with a circular disc at the front.

sling swivel is located under the middle, or upper-middle, band, depending on whether there are three or four barrel bands. Barrel Band Spacing: This varies from one musket to another, because only the upper band has a retaining spring and there are no stock shoulders for the other bands. Barrel Band Retainer: The upper band only has a stud-type retainer, which engages a hole in the right side of the band and extends rearwards of the band for !9/i6". Sling Swivels: Examples have been observed with both bell- and loop-style swivels. This latter type is suspended from lateral screws. The swivels are suspended from the front branch of the trigger guard bow and either the middle or upper-middle barrel band, depending on whether there are three or four bands. Ramrod: Examples have been observed with both trumpet and button-headed steel ramrods. However, one example has been noted with a button-headed rod numbered to the musket (see "Markings"), which suggests that this is the correct configuration. The rear end of the 42 Vz" rod is formed into an integral ball screw. STOCK Wood: Examples with both oil-finished and varnished European walnut stocks are known. Length: 545/s" to 551A". Comb: The 73/4" comb has a 3/4"-high nose. Examples are known without side flutes or with only short rudimentary flutes at the nose. Plateaus: There are raised plateaus on both sides of the breech, with teardrop shapes at the rear. There is also a raised plateau around the breech tang. Note: The stocks of many of these muskets do not exhibit as much finish sanding as most military muskets, and the surface is often somewhat rough. MARKINGS

Barrel: The upper surfaces of most barrels are unmarked. Some barrels are engraved "GENERALITEIT," which refers to Dutch government ownership and, more specifically, for the use of the land service. Some barrels are stamped near the breech with variations of the Amsterdam Proof House contrast mark.

399

DUTCH ARMS

Plate 080.592-G "GENERALITEIT" engraved into the barrels of some Dutch (Type IV) muskets refers to Dutch government ownership for the land service. (Ralph Reid Collection.)

Lock: The lockplates of some examples are engraved forward of the cock with the maker's name over the town of manufacture in block letters, such as "THONE" over "AMSTERDAM." Wrist Escutcheon: The wrist escutcheons of many muskets are unmarked. Those that are engraved have different styles. For instance, one is engraved "N6 II 4" in a single line; another is engraved "2" over "B" over "No 52" in three lines. Butt Plate Tang: Usually unmarked. However, the butt plate tang of the latter musket previously described also has "R No 7" engraved in a single line. Ramrod: Only the ramrod of the musket with the barrel and butt plate tang markings has been observed with a markings. "B No 52" is stamped deeply into the shaft behind the head. Other: Most muskets are stamped with cartouches inside the lockplates and under the barrels. Although most of these are unidentified and may be makers' or control marks. (TYPE IV) CARBINE

080.597

(Type IV) carbines usually have barrels between 39l/s" and 403/4" and are 54" to 55" overall. The bores of observed and reported examples range from .67 caliber to .712" diameter. Most observed examples have three barrel bands. The upper band is the two-ring extended-length type. However, carbines with four barrel bands are known, and one is described here. The general construction of these carbines is lighter than for the muskets. Because the configuration of most components is similar to those of the musket previously described, only those specifications that differ are described here.

Plate 080.597-A Dutch (Type IV) carbine with three barrel bands. The upper band is the extended-length style. (Jay Forman Collection.)

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

400

Plate 080.597-B Considerable variation has been noted in the side plates of various examples of Dutch (Type IV) carbines. (William Moore Collection.)

GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .68.

Overall Length: 54" to 55". Finish and Brass Components: Same as musket. BARREL 1

3

Length: 39 /fe" to 40 /4". Contour: Similar to musket. Baluster rings for l/i" at the breech. Breech Tang: Some examples have been noted with 21A" round-ended tangs. Bayonet and Anti-Twist Lugs: Similar to musket.

Plate 080.597-C Dutch (Type IV) carbine with four barrel bands. The bands have projecting "shoulders" at the forestock's upper edge, and the lower-middle band does not have a spring retainer.

Plate 080.597-D The lockplate of the carbine with four bands is engraved "J.G.ERTTEL" in the lower edge below the frizzen spring and "AMSTERDAM" in the edge above the spring.

LOCK

Note: The lock's configuration is similar to that of the muskets, but it has been scaled down slightly. For example, the plate is 5n/i6" by l1/^", and the cock is 27/s" long.

DUTCH ARMS

401

Plate 080.597-E The side plate is similar to those of British land pattern muskets but has a retaining screw in the tail.

FURNITURE

Note: The furniture of most examples is the same general style as the musket's, but some are known to have a finial style that ends in con vex-surfaced discs. Trigger and Guard Assembly: This assembly is 95/s" long. Butt Plate: Examples are known with butt plates 43/s" to 4^" by \l/i" to P/f". Tangs extend forward for 33/s" to 35/s" and may have pointed ends or terminate in a small round disc. Wrist Escutcheon: The oval escutcheon is ll/i" by I". Side Plate: Two types of side plates have been noted on carbines. One is 35/8", flat-surfaced, inlet flush, and in the form of a reversed "S" with squared corners. The other is similar to the convex plate of the British land pattern musket, with a tail extending rearwards. This plate is 57/i6" and its tail is secured by a wood screw. Barrel Bands: The barrel bands of the three banded examples, all of which have an extended-length upper band, are very similar. Following the description of the bands of a three-banded carbine is a description of the bands of a carbine with four bands. The flat-surfaced bands are not formed inwards at the forestock's upper edge. Three Band Configuration: Upper Band: The 75/s" extended-length band has a 1" front ring and a 5/s" rear ring. This band extends rearwards at the bottom to 8H" overall. Middle Band: This band is l/i" wide at the top. It has small front and rear steps at the forestock's upper edge, and the bottom also extends forward and rearwards for an overall width of 3/4". Lower Band: This band is 5/s" wide at the top. The front edge steps forward, and the lower edge extends further forward to !5/8". An integral upper sling swivel lug is usually located at the bottom. Barrel Band Retainers: Only the upper barrel band is secured by a stud-type retainer, which engages a hole in the right side of the front barrel ring and extends rearwards of that ring for l 3 /4 /r . Four Band Configuration: All four bands have rounded front and rear shoulders at the forestock's upper edge. Upper Band: There is a rectangular open space between the two 5/s" barrel rings. This band is 23/s" long at the top. The ramrod guide section extends 2H" rearwards in the ramrod channel at the bottom for an overall length Of415/16".

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Upper-Middle Band: This is the same as the middle band of the three-band example just described. Lower-Middle Band: The barrel ring is3/s" wide. There are rounded shoulders at the front and rear at the forestock's upper edge. The bottom extends to the front and rear to iVs". Lower Band: The barrel ring is 9/i6" wide. There is a shoulder at the front, at the forestock's upper edge. The band extends forward at the bottom to !5/s". Barrel Band Retainers: The upper and upper-middle bands are retained by stud-type springs that engage holes in the right sides of the bands and extend rearwards. The lower-middle band has no retainer, and the lower band is equipped with a spring with a shoulder that engages the front edge of the band and extends forward on the right side. Barrel Band Spacing: Note that the lower-middle band does not have a fixed location. Breech to Lower Band: lOVs". Lower to Lower-Middle Band: SVs". Lower-Middle to Upper-Middle Band: 73A". Upper-Middle to Upper Band: I1/*". Sling Swivels: Swivels are suspended from lateral screws through the front branch of the trigger guard bow and from under the rear ring of the extendedlength upper band or the lower-middle band, depending on whether the carbine is equipped with three or four barrel bands. Ramrod: Observed examples have 39" trumpet-headed steel ramrods. The rear end is threaded for 3/s" for ball screw and wiper. STOCK

Wood: Same as musket. Length: SlVs" to 521A". Comb: The nose of the 63A" to 7" comb is 5/s" high. Flutes extend rearwards on either side for 2" to 3l/i". Plateaus: There are raised plateaus on both sides of the breech and around the breech tang. These plateaus do not have teardrop-shaped rear extensions. MARKINGS

Barrel: The barrels of some carbines are unmarked on external surfaces. Others are known stamped with an Amsterdam control mark.

Plate 080.597-F "N°3" is engraved into the barrel and wrist escutcheon of the Erttel carbine. An Amsterdam control mark is also engraved into the barrel.

DUTCH ARMS

Lock: The locks of most examples are marked with the gunmaker and town of manufacture. These are usually engraved in front of the cock. Examples are known that have this information engraved in the lock's upper and lower edge bevels, near the front. One carbine is engraved "AMSTERDAM" in the bevel above the frizzen spring and "J.G.ERTTEL" in the bevel below this spring. Other: One carbine was engraved "No 3" on top of the barrel, in the wrist escutcheon, and in the side of the ramrod head. Most observed carbines were unmarked, except as noted.

4O3

SPANISH ARMS

085.

Spanish military shoulder arms saw service in North America during the colonial period and later during the American Revolution. However, little is known of the use of Spanish military arms by American revolutionaries. As explained previously, 2,300 North American colonial troops were among the British forces in Cuba during the Seven Years' War. They took part in the forty-day siege of Havana in 1762 and suffered heavy casualties. It is possible that some of these Americans returned home with captured Spanish muskets as war trophies. In 1776, Spain joined France in sending aid to the American revolutionaries. This aid was in the form of 1,000,000 livres paid by Spain to France for military stores sent by the French government-sponsored commercial trading company, Rodrigue Hortalez & Cie. These military stores included French arms, but there is no record of Spanish arms in these shipments. In January and February 1777, Spain shipped powder from Mexico and military supplies from Spain to New Orleans. France had ceded New Orleans to Spain in 1763, but Spain did not occupy it until 1767. Formal control of New Orleans did not take place until 1769, when General Alejandro O'Reilly arrived with a military force of 2,100 troops. Some of these stores were used in the supply of George Roger Clarke's expedition to capture British outposts in the Illinois and Indiana region. Some authorities report that the Spanish supplied the following military stores: hats, cartridge boxes, belts, jackets, and powder; no arms were reported. American arms authority Harold L. Peterson has stated: "The great George Rogers Clark, for instance, armed his Illinois regiment of the Virginia State Line with Spanish muskets and cartridge boxes at St. Louis before he recaptured Vincennes."1 After Spain declared war on Great Britain on June 21, 1779, Spanish troops occupied parts of Florida and the Gulf Coast. The Louisiana Infantry Regiment was formed from Spanish regulars and Spanish colonial forces. In May 1781 the regiment was under the command of Don Bernardo de Galvez when it captured Pensacola from the British. The regiment also garrisoned Saint Augustine and New Orleans. Spanish military forces also moved up the Mississippi River, establishing forts as far north as Saint Louis. From there they attacked the British in Detroit and Saint Joseph. They occupied the town of Natchez until November 30, 1798, when Spain relinquished the territory it had claimed below the thirty-first parallel to the United States.

1 Sidney B. Brinkerhoff and Pierce A. Chamberlain, Spanish Military Weapons in Colonial America, 1700-1821,6.

SPANISH ARMS

CONFIGURATIONS OF SPANISH MILITARY ARMS

405

085.2

From late in the 15th century the kings of Spain procured the arms for their armies and navies from Placencia, and weapons were the main product of the area. In the early years of the 16th century the various gun, sword, and armor makers formed guild-like societies, from which the "Royal Weapons Factories" were formed in 1573. The manufacture of arms was divided into various specialties (lock makers, barrel makers, furniture makers, and stockers) during the 17th century. During the 18th-century regulation, military small arms were contracted by the Spanish Crown from the Military Arms Manufactory at Placencia, in the Basque province of Guipuzcoa. Some of the arms were produced at this manufactory and through subcontracts that were let to gunmakers in nearby Eibar and Elgoibar. Additional nonregulation small arms for the militia were also fabricated in Barcelona. Until about 1718 Spanish regulation arms had miquelet locks. In that year, King Phillip V ordered a change to the French flintlock. Phillip V was a grandson of French King Louis XIV, and during his reign the French influence was very strong in Spain. The French had adopted their first regulation flintlock infantry musket in 1717. Because — until 1746 — the gunmakers of Placencia were unable to produce these new-style locks with the quality required by the armed forces, many were imported from Liege. In addition, Liege gunmakers PierreFran^ois Henoul and Lambertus Winan were brought to Placencia to establish production of the new flintlocks there. Winan remained as an inspector at the Royal Weapons Factory until his death in 1747. In addition to the regulation military arms produced, thousands of small arms were made in Placencia for Spanish colonies in Mexico and South America. Spanish regulation muskets continued to be equipped with flintlocks until 1789, when the miquelet lock was reintroduced into the production of regulation arms. Spanish infantry muskets made from 1718 were very similar to the French Model 1717 muskets. Until 1722 the locks of Spanish muskets were fabricated without internal bridles to support the tumblers. Muskets made from 1722 have a "double-footed" internal bridle2 similar to that used in French muskets until about 1759. A new infantry musket was adopted by the government in 1753. This iron-mounted musket was originally equipped with a tapered wood ramrod made of ash or oak. Wood ramrods were declared obsolete in 1755, and all muskets made thereafter were equipped with steel trumpet-headed ramrods. It is not known whether a formal program was undertaken by the government to alter existing muskets from wood to steel ramrods. There were still large quantities of muskets with wood ramrods in the Havana, Cuba, arsenal in 1771. The Model 1757 musket was generally similar to the Model 1753, except that the Model 1757 was brass-mounted. The Model 1757 musket was the Spanish regulation infantry arm during both the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution.

This bridle had a projection at the front that extended downwards and rested on the plate for extra support.

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MODEL 1757 MUSKET

Plate 085.7-A The brassmounted Spanish Model 1757 musket has a number of distinctive features that include its furniture's configurations, inclined stock comb flutes, and lock styling. The lower sling swivel is missing from this example. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

085.7

During the American Revolution the Model 1757 saw extensive use in the hands of the Spanish regular and militia forces in the Louisiana and Florida campaigns as well as in the Spanish forts along the Mississippi and in the attack on Detroit. Relatively few Model 1757 muskets were used in the Spanish territories west of the Mississippi River. The Spanish militia who served in this Tierra adentro were primarily armed with the military escopeta described later in this section. The Model 1757 musket was adopted by a royal order of June 14, 1757. It resembles the French Model 1754 musket but is brass-mounted and somewhat shorter. Its salient feature is a flintlock with a ring-type jaw screw. It continued as the Spanish regulation infantry arm until 1789, when it was superseded by a similar musket equipped with a miquelet lock. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .71. Overall Length: 595/8". Finish: Bright. Brass Components: Butt plate, trigger guard, side plate, and barrel bands. Production Period: 1757-1788. Quantity Procured (by Spanish Government): Unknown. BARREL l

Length: 43 /i". Contour: Octagonal at the breech for 7" and then tapering to round to the flat-crowned muzzle. Muzzle Extension: 3Vz". Breech Plug: The 23/4" round-ended tang tapers from 9/i6" wide at the front to 5 /8" wide at the rear. Front Sight: The 5/i6" front sight blade is brazed to the barrel 23A" behind the muzzle. Bayonet Lug: The 3/i6" square lug is brazed to the underside of the barrel 2" behind the muzzle. LOCK 5

5

Lockplate: The 6 /s" by 1 /i6 " lockplate is flat with beveled edges. The rear profile inclines downwards, giving it a banana shape, and it ends in a projecting point at the rear. There are two vertical decorative grooves behind the cock.

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SPANISH ARMS

Plate 085.7-B Although based on contemporary French locks, the Spanish Model 1757 lock is distinguished by a more highly sculpted cock and frizzen and the "ring"-style jaw screw. (The George C. Neumann Collection, a gift of the Sun Company to Valley Forge National Historic Park, 1978.)

Cock: The 3{/i" goose-neck cock has a flat, bevel-edged body. The tang's recurved rear profile does not continue that of the body. Both jaws have curved sides and a straight front edge. The top jaw has a vertical mortice in its rear edge, which encloses the front and sides of the cock's tang. The jaw screw's head is in the form of a 5/s "-diameter ring. Pan: The horizontal, faceted pan is not integral with the lockplate. It has a fence and an external bridle to support the frizzen screw's head. Frizzen: The I13/i6" by lVi6" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face has a vertical medial ridge with a facet at the top. The upper surface of the frizzen's toe is highly convex and curls upwards at the end. Frizzen Spring: Both the upper and lower leaves are straight, and the curve at the front is over the end of the front sidescrew. The lower leaf ends in a fleur-de-lis finial. Other: This lock is equipped with a double-footed bridle, similar to those of early French musket locks. The front foot extends downwards and forwards, under the tumbler. The cock, frizzen, and frizzen spring screws have convex-surfaced heads. FURNITURE

Trigger and Guard Assembly: The iron trigger is suspended from a lateral pin, downwards through a slot in the trigger plate. The iV/s" trigger guard has a

Plate 085.7-C The Spanish Model 1757 infantry musket's broad side plate has a retaining screw at the rear. The lower sling swivel is located behind the trigger guard. (Robert Nittolo Collection.)

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

Plate 085.7-D The butt plate tang's profile resembles an extended trefoil or fleur-de-lis.

generally flat surface with wide edge bevels and terminates in pointed ends. The guard is retained by two convex-headed wood screws at the rear and by a lateral pin through an integral lug at the front. Butt Plate: The 43/4" by !5/s" butt plate has a straight rear profile and slightly convex rear surface. The 43/i6" tang ends in a rounded finial that resembles an extended trefoil. The plate is secured by two convex-headed screws at the rear and two convex-headed screws in the tang. Barrel Bands: The three brass bands are not formed inwards at the forestock's upper edge. Upper: The two l/i" barrel rings are separated by a rectangular open space. This band is l7/s" long at the top. The front and rear edges of this band are stepped forwards and rearwards at the forestock's upper edge, increasing the band's length to 27/i6". The band extends further rearwards at the bottom, to 31A" overall. Middle: This band is 5/s" wide and has a lateral hole through the middle for passage of the upper sling swivel screw. Lower: This band is 3A" wide at the top and extends forward at the bottom to !3/8". Band Retainers: The upper band only has a band retaining spring located behind the band with an exposed length of l7/s". A rectangular stud on the front end of this spring engages a corresponding hole in the band's right side. The middle band is secured by the upper sling swivel screw. Barrel Band Spacing: Breech to Lower: lOl/z". (Not fixed, because there is no band retainer.) Lower to Middle: 145/i6". Middle to Upper: 133/8". Sling Swivels: The upper swivel is suspended from a lateral screw that passes through the center of the middle barrel band. The lower swivel is suspended from a semicircular stud at the rear of the trigger guard. Side Plate: The wide 61/z" side plate is similar to that of North American long rifles or some German Jager rifles. It has a flat surface with beveled edges and is secured at the rear by a convex-headed wood screw. Ramrod: The 42V^" steel ramrod has a long trumpet head. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 553/4". Comb: The nose of the 83/s" comb is 3/4" high. Flutes extend rearwards for 5l/i" on both sides.

4O9

SPANISH ARMS

Other: There are raised plateaus with teardrop-shaped rear profiles on both sides of the breech and the barrel tang. The buttstock's lower profile is concave. MARKINGS

Barrel: From 1750 the left quarter flat, or sometimes the top flat, of Spanish military barrels were stamped "EX" and the inspector's initials, often followed by the year of manufacture. The top flats of some barrels are also stamped with block numerals and letters, such as "7T" and a smaller "49," which may refer to military unit identification and rack numbers. Lock: The lockplates of some muskets are stamped in front of the cock with a crown over the year of inspection. Below this are initials, designating the arsenal or town of inspection. The maker's initials or cartouche is stamped into the tail of the lockplate, behind the cock. An example in the U.S. Military Academy Museum collection is stamped vertically with two rectangular cartouches behind the cock containing raised "bAZCAN" and "1774," respectively.

MILITARY ESCOPETA

085.9

The modern English translation of the Spanish word escopeta is "shotgun." In the 18th century the term referred to a light fowling gun or fusil. These were nonregulation military arms sent from Spain to arm the colonial militias. On at least one occasion it was also issued to Spanish regular army forces. Like the American colonial fowler-musket, the military escopeta served both as a hunting arm and as a military weapon when the need arose. Escopetas were the primary military shoulder arm in the northern provinces of New Spain. Those provinces west of the Mississippi River now constitute the southwest portion of the United States. During the second half of the 18th century, Spain built a series of fourteen presidios in the northern provinces of New Spain, in what are now the states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. The presidios established Spain's military presence and served as forts for the colonial militia. Spain sent very few small arms for the protection of the presidios. The militia in these northern provinces were inadequately armed throughout the 18th century. For example, a 1772 inventory of arms in the province that included the present state of New Mexico disclosed that there were only 250 military escopetas in the entire province.

Plate 085.9-A The Spanish military escopeta was used by both Spanish Army and militia forces in the Spanish territories west of the Mississippi River during the 18th century. (J. William LaRue Collection.)

AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1

410

Because the military escopeta was a nonregulation arm, it lacked the uniformity of regulation service arms. As a result, various examples are only generally similar to one another. Therefore, the description here is only intended to be of a representative example; the specific dimensions of other examples may differ. GENERAL INFORMATION Caliber: .70. Overall Length: 545/8". Finish: The metal of observed examples is bright. Brass Components: Butt plate, trigger guard, side plate, and barrel bands. Procurement: Unknown. BARREL

Length: 39VContour: Octagonal at the breech for 125/s", followed by two or three baluster rings, and then round to the muzzle. Muzzle Extension: iVz". Breech Plug: The 25/s" tang's rear end is stepped inwards and is pointed. Other examples are known with tapered, square-ended tangs of about the same length. The tang screw usually passes upwards from in front of the trigger and threads into the tang. Front Sight: The 3/g" rectangular blade is brazed to the barrel l/i" behind the muzzle. LOCK

Note: Escopetas were equipped with miquelet locks until well into the 19th century.

Plate 085.9-B The escopeta's salient features include its miquelet lock and unusual buttstock configuration. (J. William LaRue Collection.)

411

SPANISH ARMS

Lockplate: The 53/s" by l3/s" lockplate has a flat surface that is inlet flush with the stock's surface. Cock: The cock is 2l/i" long. The jaw screw's head is in the form of a 9/i6"-wide oval ring. Pan: The horizontal, flat-bottomed iron pan is not integral with the lockplate. Frizzen: The !9/i6" by 1" frizzen has a rounded top. The front face has a flat surface with beveled edges, and the pan cover section is flat. The toe is straight. Frizzen Spring: The single leaf of this spring is curved upwards. FURNITURE Trigger and Guard Assembly: The trigger is suspended downwards through a slot in the iron trigger plate. The 10" to 103/s" guard assembly is generally convex-surfaced, and the extensions terminate in fleur-de-lis profiles. The guard is secured by wood screws at the front and rear. Butt Plate: The buttplate extends 31/z" to 35/s" down from the heel, leaving the lower portion of the 5 "-high butt unprotected. The 3" tang ends in a fleur-de-lis finial. Side Plate: The wide, flat-surfaced side plate varies from 53/8" to 6l/i" in examples observed.

Plate 085.9-C The trigger guard has an integral pistol grip at the rear and highly sculpted finials. (]. William LaRue Collection.)

Barrel Bands: The two flat-surfaced bands have front and rear steps at the forestock's upper edge. Both bands have 1A" barrel rings and are !5/i6" overall. The bands' location along the barrel vary somewhat because there are no retaining springs. Ramrod: The 383/s" steel ramrod has a trumpet-shaped head. Note: There is no provision for wrist escutcheon or sling swivels. STOCK

Wood: Oil-finished walnut. Length: 53 V. Comb: The nose of the 8l/i" to 9l/i" comb is 5/s" high. Flutes extend rearwards at the sides for 3" to 33/4". Other: There are raised plateaus with some decorative carving on both sides of the breech. There is also a plateau around the breech tang and some decorative carving where the ramrod enters the stock. MARKINGS

Barrel: The barrel of one example is stamped "B.C.PL" and "1779" along the top flat. It is also stamped with two crowns over crossed scepters in the left

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AMERICAN MILITARY SHOULDER ARMS, VOL. 1 quarter flat. These marks are very similar to the British Tower private view and proof marks. Another example examined appears never to have had barrel markings. Lock: The lockplate of one example is stamped "RC" in a vertical line at the rear and has two rectangular cartouches, one above the other, forward of the cock. The upper cartouche contains "SAS" and two or three more illegible letters. The lower cartouche has "BASLT" in raised block letters. Stock: One example has URC" stamped behind the trigger guard. Another is stamped "RC6" in this location.

GERMAN STATES' FORCES IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 090.

Few arms students understand the many, almost feudalistic, Germanic states that made up north-central Europe in the 18th century. These states were ruled by various princes, dukes, landgraves, and electors. Many small groups of states were interdependent and intertwined by marital and blood relationships as well as by economic and defense treaties. By conquest and by consent, these states would evolve into two major powers, centered around Prussia in the north and the Austro-Hungarian Empire to the south. The unification of most of these states into the nation of Germany did not occur until 1870, almost a century after the American Revolution. The German states' soldiers who served in North America were usually referred to as "Hessians." About two-thirds of the German states' forces were from Hesse Cassel and Hesse Hanau. The remaining one-third came from four other states. These soldiers have also been labeled mercenaries. This is not strictly true. Although some of the officers and senior enlisted men certainly fought for career advancement and profit, the average private enlisted because his ruler needed men, for the small enlistment bonus, and for the steady employment of such service. The monthly wages he received from his ruler were quite small. The rulers contracted with Great Britain and received payment for supplying the services of their soldiers. In August 1775 British Minister of State Lord Suffolk appointed Colonel William Faucitt as minister plenipotentiary to the German states. Faucitt had served in the Netherlands during the War of Austrian Succession and in the western German states during the Seven Years' War. Following his appointment, Faucitt mustered four battalions of Hanoverians for duty in Gibraltar and Minorca. King George III was also elector of Hanover and had ordered the Hanoverian troops to relieve British soldiers there for duty elsewhere. Colonel Faucitt then went to the other German states with whom Great Britain had close ties: Brunswick, Hesse Cassel, Hesse Hanau, Ansbach-Bayrenth, Waldeck, and Anhalt-Zerbst. Duke Carl William Ferdinand of Brunswick was married to the daughter of the Prince of Wales. He contracted to provide soldiers for service in North America on January 9, 1776. The rulers of Hesse Cassel had rented soldiers abroad since the reign of Prince (also Landgrave) Carl (1670-1730). William III, who ruled Hesse Cassel as landgrave from 1751 to 1760, had been an ally of Great Britain during the Seven Years' War. At the time of the American Revolution, Prince Frederick II was

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the landgrave of Hesse Cassel, and he followed the precedent of his predecessors by contracting with Faucitt on January 15, 1776. Prince Frederick II was also the reigning Count of Hesse Hanau, and this undoubtedly influenced that state to contract with Faucitt on February 5. The tiny state of Waldeck was contiguous to Hesse CassePs western border. Since 1748 the landgrave of Hesse Cassel also had rights of sovereignty over this principality, a factor, no doubt, when Waldeck contracted with Faucitt on April 20, 1776. King George III was ultimately successful in obtaining the following quantities of soldiers for service in North America: Hesse Cassel Brunswick Hesse Hanau Ansbach-Bayreuth Waldeck Anhalt-Zerbst Total

16,992 5,723 2,422 2,353 1,225 1,152 29,867

An additional 2,365 Hanoverians were sent to Gibraltar, Minorca, and India to relieve British soldiers there for duty elsewhere. The six German states whose troops served in North America were located in western Germany. Brunswick was the furthest north, with Hesse Cassel immediately to the south. Waldeck was an enclave in western Hesse Cassel, and Hesse Hanau was contiguous to the south. Waldeck, Hesse Hanau, and Hesse Cassel are all now in the present province of Hesse. The province of Anhalt extended from Brunswick in the west, to Potsdam, near Berlin, in the east. Zerbst is a town within this central German province and is about seventy kilometers southwest of Potsdam. The towns of Ansbach and Bayreuth are about 100 kilometers apart in the Franconian section of northern Bavaria. This is now in southern Germany. For each of the soldiers supplied by Duke Carl of Brunswick, Great Britain paid seven pounds, four shillings, and six pence, per month. "All extra ordinary losses in battle or otherwise" were to be compensated by Britain. It is believed that similar contracts were made with the rulers of the other German states.

HESSE CASSEL

090.3

Hesse Cassel initially sent 12,000 men in fifteen inf