A new arabic grammar of the written language

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SCHOOL OF THEOLOGY AT CLAREMONT

MUL

10017056648

{ries

The Library of Claremont School of

Theology

1325 North College Avenue Claremont, CA 91711-3199

(909) 447-2589

A NEW ARABIC GRAMMAR

15 ‫أيه‬

fry Me ry

—¥

te

7

6207

H136

1465 A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR OF THE

WRITTEN By J.

LANGUAGE

A.HAYWOOD

and

H. M. NAHMAD

Revised Edition

1965 HARVARD

UNIVERSITY

CAMBRIDGE,

PRESS

MASSACHUSETTS

ALL RIGHTS COPYRIGHT

©

PERCY LUND,

RESERVED

1965 IN ENGLAND

HUMPHRIES

LONDON

AND

BY

AND CO. LTD

BRADFORD

First edition 1962 Second edition 1965

This Grammar replaces the Sixth Edition of Thatcher’s Arabic Grammar published under licence from

Messrs. Julius Groos, Heidelberg

SBN 674-60851-8

MADE AND PRINTED PERCY

LUND,

IN GREAT BRITAIN BY

HUMPHRIES

AND

00.

LTD

TABLE

OF CONTENTS

٠١ PREFACE

TO

THE

SECOND

PREFACE

TO

THE

FIRST

EDITION

EDITION

Page Vii Vill

ABBREVIATIONS CHAPTER 1 The Arabic Language. Orthography. Phonetics. Punctuation : 2 The Article. The Simple Nominal sentende : 3 Gender. The Feminine 4 Declension of Nouns. The Thred ‫هم‬‎ 5 Number. The Sound Masculine and Feminine Plurals. Some Simple Verb Forms 6 The Broken Plural 4 7 The Broken Plural (continued) 8 The Genitive (?Idafa) 9 The Attached Pronouns 10 Demonstrative Pronouns 11 Adjectives 12 The Verb : 13 The Verb with Pisnvmiiial ‘OEE. The Verb “to be” ; : d 14 The Imperfect . 15 Moods of the Imperfect. The subiunedve 16 Moods of the Imperfect. The Jussive . 17 The Imperative : 18 The Passive Verb 3 19 Derived Forms of the Triliteral Meche Geheral Introduction 20 Derived Forms of Hes Triliteral ea, 11 III, and IV. ; : 21 Forms V and VI 22 Forms VII and VIII . 23 Forms IX, X and XI ‘ 24 Irregular Verbs. The Doubled Verb 25 Hamzated Verbs. Hamza as Initial Radical Vv

22 2 33 40 50 57 63 71 80 86 94 103 110 120 127 134 142 151

159 169 175 183 191 199

vi

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS Page

CHAPTER

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

Hamza as Middle and Final Radical Weak Verbs. The Assimilated Verb The Hollow Verb The Verb with Weak Final Radical The Doubly and Trebly Weak Verb

40

The Relative Noun and Adjective. Various Adjectival Forms Abstract Nouns. Proper Names The Feminine . Number . : Declension of Nouns The Use of the Cases The Permutative Particles. Prepositions : Adverbial Usages, including ‫ل‬‎ quasi-adverbial particles Particles. Conjunctions Particles. Interjections Exception The Rules of Arabic ‫لو‬‎

The Quadriliteral Verb

206 215 224 235 250 261 268 278 284 290 301 317

3

Various Unorthodox Verbs How to Use an Arabic Dictionary Relative Sentences Conditional Sentences : The Cardinal Numbers. Time. oe The Ordinal Numbers. Fractions The Structure of Arabic Noun Forms Noun Forms. The Noun of Place and

3 : . Time. The

Noun of Instrument. The Diminutive .

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

338 348 357 365 372 384 391 405 412 426 436 448 455

Supplement. (Specimens from Arabic Literature)

462

Appendix A: Colloquial Arabic Dialects

B: Guide to Further Study C: Supplementary Grammatical Notes Vocabulary, Arabic-English Grammatical Index.

327

496


>

‫( دجو تيبلا كانه‬wajada I-baita hunaka)‫‏‬ he found the house there.‫‏‬ “609

96

‫ رضاح‬ced ce! (ibnu 1-maliki hadirun)‫‏‬ the king’s son is present, BUT‫‏‬

THE ‫”نمصص‬‎

-

"6

‫ر‬

ARABIC

LANGUAGE

11

eg

‫ نبا كلملا‬de.‫‏‬ ‫و‬

(wajadtu bna |-maliki)‫‏‬

I found the king’s son.‫‏‬ -

6-7--06

Ole Sa

(inkasara finjanun) a cup broke, BUT

§

-

67°--90-

Obes ‎‫( وانكسر‬wa nkasara finjanun) and a cup broke. It should be noted that when a sentence begins word with hamzatu 1-wasl, the hamza a

with a strictly

speaking, be written, as CS al-baitu, the house. In practice, however, it is often omitted and the vowel : 26-02 G/N : sign only left, thus ,‫تيبلا‬‎ of which examples are given in the exercises. (c) In the middle of a word hamza may be written over sae

ya’ (without the two dots)_or °alif; and atthe end of a word it may also be written on the line, that is, not on a letter but roughly level with the lower part of the other letters

of the

word

concerned.

The

following

are

examples with pronunciation. Further explanations will come later in the grammar. -E-

‫سال‬ >5

ee So

>

E--

84

‫قرا‬

mas’alatun

S-

‫‏‬nurrb

2

‫سسثلة‬

f‫‏‬

21

‫د‬ : ines yajr'u

0

5 fs

‫بوس‬ ‫دع‬

8

FD‫‏‬

ely)9 Wuzara’u‫‏‬ J)‫‏‬

2

5 ‫ه‬‫ ءىش‬5

‫حرو‬

IP

1

-

9

‫سثل‬ So-‫‏‬

82

‫ضوء‬

ae

aa

eg © majri’un

+‫‏‬

24 21

gcs

‫‏‬70 yaji‫‏‬

A NEW

12

GRAMMAR

ARABIC

§8 MADDA If a hamza with fatha is followed by the long vowel, alif, the

hamza and fatha are dropped in writing, and the long vowel >alif is written over the alif horizontally thus: | ?4, for ١١. This ‎‫> َ و‬

‫حي‬

‫ال‬

1

sign is called ‫ةدم‬‎ madda. This occurs chiefly atthe beginning of a word, as aa >4mana, he believed. It does, however, occur 5 ‎_‫ده‬

sometimes in the middle of a word, as O|,5 qur’dnun, Koran, oe

5 Bos

Se

and oly ra’ahu, he saw him, for ‫كاارق‬‎ and oll).

§9 STRESS, THE SYLLABLE Written Arabic is a language of syllable length, rather than accent or stress. When sexd-aicad allallables should be given their full length, without slurring any letter, but no

effort should be made to emphasise any syllable at the expense of another. The resultant reading may sound as if some syllables are stronger than others, but this will in reality be because oftheir length. There are two kinds of syllable, short and long.

(2) The short

syllable consists of a consonant with a short

vowel, like the three syllables in Sc ka-ta-ba, he wrote. In this word the three syllables should be even and equal. (b) The

long syllable consists of a vowelled

consonant

followed by attuhvowelled letter. This may be (i) Either a consonant with vowel, followed by a long vowel (which is, in effect, an unvowelled letter), as the first syllable of = i kd-ta-ba, he corresponded with, or the second syllable of cir ka-bi-run, big

THE

ARABIC

(ii) or a vowelled

LANGUAGE

13

consonant followed by a truly con-

sonantal second letter with sukin, as the first syllable of sag BEES

his dog.

Thus the word eee ka-tab-tum, a (pl.) wrote, is one short syllable followed by two long. os, kitabun, a book, is one short followed by two long. No syllable cann_be in with an_unvowelled letter: consequently no word mmay

begin with two consonants unless a

vowel intervenes. This explains why certain verb forms ---6

begin with an extra alif with hamzatu l-wasl, as ‫ملتسا‬‎ istalama, he received. — eae No syllable should close with two unvowelled consonants though this may occur reading aloud in-pause, at the end of

a sentence. Thus i qalbun, heart, could be read At galb, without the case-ending, in pause. In certain forms from the doubled verb, however, we do encounter a syllable ending on two unvowelled letters, the first being the long vowel alif, e.g. eRe shab-bun, a youth.

§ 10 PUNCTUATION

Punctuation was not considered important in early Arabic manuscripts. Even paragraphing was ignored. But the start of a new section was sometimes indicated by putting the

heading in a different-coloured ink, e.g. red, instead of black. Again, section headings were sometimes indicated by a line over the words.

oe

‎‫ اويا‬se ‎‫الل‬

hg ray‫قدا‬‎ BRE

Here ‎‫ باب الصلاة‬retpahC( fo )reyarP si eht gnidaeh fo a new section. In medieval times, a single point, usually diamond shaped, because of the reed-pen used, came to be employed.

YA

14

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR -

‫‏‬.g.E

»‫ة‬ ‫ كثير ه‬752

0 ‫صاحب توادره‬

-= ee

‫وكان‬

Sometimes three inverted commas, thus «‘« were used. In modern times, the Arabs have imitated European

punctuation, usually — though not always - putting them upside-down. ——_—

E.g.

¢

comma

¢

semi-colon

٠

colon

.

full-stop

«

»

(

) sometimes replaced by brackets,

quotation marks

though this practice is dying out. ‎‫ ؟‬or ? question mark. The exclamation mark and dash are also used. It is now normal to divide prose passages into paragraphs, as in Europe. Large type is used for headings, and, although italics do not exist, there is a wide variety of ornamental scripts which facilitate clear setting-out.

§11 ABBREVIATIONS

A eke Te

ee

ee

‫م‬‎

not always)

put above abbreviations, e.g. ‫خلا‬‎ for ‫ه‬‎al J! 1a *akhirihi “and so forth” (literally “to its end’’). The following abbreviations are in common use after the 1

5

-G--

o--

‫و‬‎ ‫لص‬

Ge

names of certain persons: ‫معلص‬‎ = ‫وملس‬. ‫ لص هللا هيلع‬salla 1

alaihi wasallama “God bless him and give him peace’’ used after the name of Mohammed. ‫م‬

O--‫‏‬

‫ عملهتطت هيلع مالسلا معاج‬s-salamu “‘Upon him be‫'”ععدعم ‏‬ used after the names of other prophets.

THE

ARABIC

LANGUAGE

15

§ 12 THE

ALPHABET

AS

NUMERALS

This is little used today except for numbering paragraphs, items, etc. in the manner of the English a, b, c, and so on,

In this case the order of the letters is that of the old Semitic 0

‫عفت‬‎

-

‫ير‬oo,

0

|

‫تس‬‎

‫سس‬

‫د‬

0602

alphabet. This is.called ‫دجبالا‬‎ ‫ فورح‬hurifu 1-’abjad. i: 200 BT 4 5 4 Toe 9. £05)

|

20. 4 30. Jd AD. 20 ¢ 50:11 60. uw 70. 0 80.

eS Pa) 3 9 4) 3b 6

100.

ZOO _ indy 300. (ft 400. © 500. & 600. & 7002" ‫د‬‎ 800. ‫ض‬‎

&

1000.

2

This order is given in the following line:

jie ‫ذه‬‎ iz ‫تشرق‬‎ ‫ زوه ىطح نملك صفعس‬sel § 13 EXERCISES

oaC

‫ه‬

‫ره‬

99

IN

READING

Se ‫‏‬yf ‫الات اويا أ افاي‬ =

‫ده‬

2-



2

‫‏‬-

5

-

tib

kul

qum

hamun

qul bal ’abun

li ta

wa

ai Se NS ap ‫عود‬‎ ‫ يدع‬+ gen yadun

kai dum

bi

LE Tie

fi nam dha khudh ean lam ma 13 sir ‫ده‬

‫لد‬

‫دس‬

‫هيد‬

3

‫‏‬ca

eee 7 de®



٠‫رلك‏‬

‫ه‬-

hey‫‏‬

-

kullun dalla tibbun madda lubbun wai

GRAMMAR

ARABIC

A NEW

16

II s--

S0-

farahun

qatlun

aS

7066

de

*ibilun

hablun

‎‫ و‬g-

- ‫هو‬‎

Sere

‫راس‬

‫خفت‬

‫قمت‬

‫موت‬

--é

kataba

‫ده‬

Sas‫‏‬

ot ‫ووو‬‎ ce

hasanun

husnun

5 ‫و‬‎

5 0-

5

ra’sun khifti qumta

5

tala

khafa

darbun

‫ل‬‎ ‫ا‬

qatala

fariha

city JB

ee

eh

ee

a

shariba hasuna

‫> نوه‬

5

5107

ert

TN

ADO

filun nurun

jarun baitun

mautun

on

‫نور‬

ds‫‏‬

‫بيت‬

‫حا‬

$029

oe

‎‫اكل‬

‫بكر‬

‫نهر‬

‫بحر‬

‫بعل‬

bw

jara

’akala

Dien

mena

bahrin

‫انو‬‎ ‫ل‬

mbna

111

cpa haribun ‫> جوده‬

‎‫ نفس‬reElis Lab 2 Laces nafsan

aa pate

‫مكتوب‬

e---

kitabun katabtu oad

0-0005

katabtum 6

ae

‫‏‬-a

‫ود و‬

‫ورد‬

fattich fattasha ’aqtulu 000

‫‏ شغلكم‬١ ‫كتابه‬

‫ مخرج‬2 ‫بعثوا‬

6

ee:

‫فرحنا‬

maktibun shughlukum kitabuhu takhruju ba cath farihna‫‏‬

Ieee‫‏‬

‫ مكفيرط‬i base

Olle,

“Ue

takhtalifi tariqukum ta ¢banu saratanun TBR

Aes

tadaraka

0G- 6

ihmarrat

039° &

‫ ىلإ لع‬cela ST...



ce

S110

ijtama pnd ikhtilafun

Gene. 3

jalisan miftahun

kal} CX)

50

Seta‫‏‬

nei‫ل ‏‬ San

ee‫‏‬ Are}

-

ala ila *akhidhun ’akilun mu’minun tatadhakkaru idtarabat

‫‪LANGUAGE‬‬

‫‪17‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬

‫‪)IC‬‬

‫موسى‬

‫‪0-‬‬

‫‪sees‬‬

‫استكئاس‪‎‬‬

‫‪miusa‬‬ ‫‪$e‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪lus‬‬

‫‪isti’ndsun‬‬

‫‪yB‬‬

‫~‬

‫‪THE‬‬ ‫دع سد‪‎‬‬

‫‪Ra‬‬

‫مواخدة‬

‫‪istahlifini‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫مولفون‪‎‬‬

‫‪mu’allifina‬‬

‫‪mu’akhadhatun‬‬

‫‪z‬‬

‫‪GJ‬‬

‫‪ta’lifan‬‬ ‫‪IV‬‬ ‫‪000‬‬

‫‪30208‬‬

‫القطر‬

‫‏‪ee‬‬

‫‪22‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫الصرى‬

‫‪‎‬راس‬

‫يكون‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫أفريقية ويقال له بض‬ ‫‏‪gS‬‬

‫)‪ aie‬دك ‪ -‬صا ‪‎‬داس‬

‫‪39‬‬

‫‪OF‬‬

‫الزاوية‬

‫‪Ba‬‬

‫>‪ -‬و‬

‫وادى ا‬

‫‪-G 0G‬‬

‫الشمالية‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫الشرقية‬

‫ردوص‬

‫من‬ ‫رب اص‬

‫يي‬

‫لذن سمه ‪soi‬‏ ‪No sla‬‬ ‫سله‬

‫محنب‬

‫و‪-‬م‪02‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫سلسلتى جبال وخترقه ‪sa‬‏ النيل العظيم ‪sL‬‏ ‪ na‬جغرافيا اربعائة‬ ‫‪a-‬‬

‫‏‪Al‬‬

‫‪ut, eo Je‬‬

‫‏‪eee‬‬

‫هتحاسم‬

‫‪olds OV‬‬

‫ةساقملا ىهف‬

‫ليم عم اهنم‬

‫‪ 30‬‏‪i‬‬

‫‪ yl‬ةيعارز ‪.‬‬

‫دو‬

‫‪ aes) oe hall Ia Jets‬للا طسوتملا ‪‎‬نمو ‪iz aya‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬

‫‪3 -0-‬‬

‫‏‪ se‬من خان يونس‬ ‫ص>و‪>+‬ورو‬

‫صوءه‪>-‬‬

‫ىلبخر المتوئطإلالسوس ‪ETA‬‏‬ ‫عل ا‬

‫‪“°060‬‬

‫الاجر والبحر الأحمر ومن ا نوب بلاد الثوية ومن الغرب بلاد‬ ‫‏‪ie‬‬

‫والنيل نهر ترق القطر ‪llay‬‏ ‪ selAls rep8‬فإذا‬ ‫‪ore‬‬

‫‪‎ J} hes‬برق )‪zal‬‬ ‫‪ar‬‬

‫‏]‪oes‬‬

‫‪5-7‬‬

‫>‬

‫وز‬

‫ا ىلإ ‪‎‬نيعرف ‪‎ eet‬امهدحا ‪at ML‬‬ ‫‪-‎‬ه‬

‫‪ 20-0‬ند‬

‫‪3-pbe-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪ gal‘al eee‬طسوتملا دنع ةئيدم طايمد رخالاو ريسي‬ ‫‪ee‬‬ ‫ساس‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫مائلاً‏!‪ J‬الغرب دق‬ ‫‪ Gis‬صف إن ذلك‪lp‬‏ عند ‪x‬‏ ‪ees‬‬

‫وينقسم القطر ‪lay‬‏ ‪ eR edI‬إلى قسميبننجنوي وشمالى‬ ‫‪5‬‬

‫=‏‬

‫‪Se‬‬

‫‪wom‬‬

‫‪700‬‬

‫ويرسل‬ ‫‪0‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪3743‬‬

‫درسا ‪‎‬مارس‬

‫‪6‬د‬

‫صورن‪-‬‬

‫‪@-0-‬‬

‫‪Se CT‬‬

18

A NEW ‫ و‬-‫وء‬-

ّ‫ش‬

‫صءوده‬

‫والبحرى ويقال له‬

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

‫وي‬ye‫ حدود ‏‬al‫من‏‬

‫إلى نقطة تفرعكل‬

. ‫‏ اق إلى البحر المتوسط‬oe ‫لقال الست امن اق‬ ‫‏ متوسط وهو الع بين‬alp ‫ويقسم الوجه البحرى إل ثلاثة‬

TaW ‫‏‬lraC ‫فرعي ايل وقد سمى لذلك ود البحرين وبثال له‬ --

‫ود‬

‫‏ الواقع لحر‬tsae‫ بهته حرف ألذّال عند اليونانيين وشرق‬lil‫‏‬

‫‏ ويقال‬gc ‫‏ وغربى وهو الواقع إلى‬AG ‫ ويقال له الحوف‬Gi‫‏‬ Ul ‎‫ هذههى أقساماملقطر الصرى الطبيعية‬0

‫رك‬

-

‎.‫ الادارية فتختلف بحلاف الأزمان‬A ]so TRANSCRIPTION AND LITERAL TRANSLATION al-qutru The land

l-misriyu the Egyptian

sh-shamfaliyata the northern lahu

sh-sharqiyata the eastern

aidan

yukawwinu forms min of

z-zawiyata the angle

afriqiyata Africa

wadia n-nili

wa yuqalu and it is

l’anna

qismahu

called also valley of the Nile because l-janibiya waqi¢un baina silsilatai

_its part ‫متلةقطاز‬‎

the southern

_lies

between

two chains of mountains,

wa yakhtariquhu nahru_ n-nili 1- ¢azimu. and cuts through it the river of Nile the mighty. masahatuhu jighrafiyan °arba eu mi’ati ?alfi milin Its area (is) geographically 400,000 miles murabba cin wa ’amma masahatuhu 1-muqidsatu square fahiya

and 65 alfa

as for

its area

milin murabba¢in

the measured,

minha

it (is) 65,000 square miles, of which faddanin -ardan zara ¢iyatan. faddans (are) _—ground agricultural.

5,736,000

5,736,000

THE

wa yahuddu

ARABIC

hadha

And bounds | this

LANGUAGE

19

1I-qutra

mina

sh-shamali

1-bahru

land

on

the North

the sea

]-mutawassitu.

wamina_

sh-sharqi khattun yamtaddu

the Mediterranean

andon_

the East a line which extends

min khani yainusa from Khan Yunus s-suwaisi Suez

ala 1-bahri on the sea

¢alal-bahril-’ahmari, on the sea the Red,

l-mutawassiti the Mediterranean

ila to

wal-bahru and thesea

1-’ahmaru the Red;

wa mina

1-janubi

biladu

n-nubati

wa mina

and on

the South

theland

of Nubia;

and on

1-gharbi the West

biladu barqata. the district of Barqa.

wa

n-nilu

nahrun

yakhtariqu

And

the Nile (is)

ariver (which)

cuts through

1-0142

1-2

mina 1-[ 11

the land the Egyptian from the South fa and

’idhad when

wasala itcomes

118

sh-shamili

to

the North

ila qurbi to _ the neighbourhood

nqasama 115 fargaini yasiru it divides into two branches, goes

1-qahirati of Cairo,

ahaduhuma_ mi’ilan oneofthem _ tending

ila sh-sharqi hatta yasubba ’ila l-bahri -- 1-mutawassiti to the East until it flows into the sea the Mediterranean inda madinati dimyata wa l|-’akharu at thecity of Damietta and the other

yasiru goes

ma’ilan tending

ila l-gharbi

hattaé

yasubba

“ila

dhalika

1-bahri

2‫ع‬‎

tothe West

until

it flows

into

that

sea

at

thaghri rashida. the frontier of Rosetta. wa yanqasimu

I-qutru

And is divided

the land

li ctibari way

]-misriyu _ the Egyptian

1153 qismaini janibiyin into two parts, asouthern

wa and

bi hadha in this

shamiliyin anorthern,

au or

20

A NEW

qibliyin

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

wa __ bahriyin

asouthern

and

asea-coast,

fa l-qismu

1-qibliyu

andthe part

the southern,

wa yuqalu lahu

s-sa¢idu

au

misru_

and it is called

the Sa’id

or

Egypt the upper,

min

akhiri

hudidi

from

the end

ofthe limits

nuqtati

tafarru

1- ‫عاق‬‎

misra

yamtaddu

extends

janiban

¢i

n-nili

the point of the branching

wa

to

1-bahriyu

of the Nile; and the sea-coast,

wa yuqialulahu misru_ s-sufla yamtaddu min and itis called Egypt the lower, extends from tafarru ‎‫ع‬1

"11a

of Egypt (on the) South

n-nili

ila l-bahri

nuqftati the point

1-mutawassiti.

of the branching of the Nile to the sea the Mediterranean. wa

yuqsamu

l-wajhu

1-bahriyu

"ila

And_

isdivided

the portion

the sea-coastal

into

thalathati three

’aqsimin mutawassitin divisions, a middle,

far 1‫ع‬‎ two branches

wahuwa and it

l|-waqi eu baina 1165 between

n-nili

wa gad summiya

of the Nile,

and it has been named

11 dhalika

raudatu

1-bahraini

on account of that

garden

of the two rivers

wa yuqalu lahu and it is called

aidani also

bahatihi

dh-dhalta the Delta

biharfi

resemblance

dh-dhali

tothe letter.

wa sharqiyin wahuwa

li mushaon account of its ¢inda

dhal

1-yinaniyina

among _ the Greeks,

l-waqi cu ila sharqiyi

and an eastern, and it

lies

§ dh-dhalta

to the East of the Delta

wa

yuqalulahu

I-haufu

sh-sharqiyu

wa gharbiyin

andis

called

the border

the eastern,

ard a western

wa huwa 1-03 eu "ila and it

lies

to

gharbiyiha

wa yuqalu

lahu

the West ofit,

andis

called

1-haufu

l-gharbiyu.

hadhihi

hiya

’aqsamu

the border

the western.

These

are

the divisions

THE

ARABIC

LANGUAGE

21

l-qutri

l-misriyi

t-tabigiyatu

*amma ’aqsamuhu

of the land

the Egyptian

the natural.

As for its divisions

1-’idariyatu

fa takhtalifu

bi

khtilafi

the administrative,

they differ

with

the differing

1-’azmani.

of the times.

CHAPTER TWO ‎)‫ى‬ SUT ‫ان‬AL-babu ‫ الث‬th-thani) The Article. The Simple Nominal Sentence 1. There is no indefinite article in Arabic, but the presence of nunation at the end of a noun (see Chap. One, Sect. 5) indicates indefinite-ness.

§

07

Thus ‫تيب‬‎ baitun means

a house,

5-2

‫ لجر‬rajulun, a man.‫‏‬ 2. The definite article is ‫لأ‬‎ al, the, which is prefixed to, and attached to, its noun, e.g. coll al-baitu the house, ‎‫> و‬66

‎‫ الباب‬al-babu, the door. The noun, being definite, loses its nunation.

The hamza of the definite article is hamzatu 1-wasl (See Chap. One, Sect. 7). Consequently it disappears when it follows another word, and in pronunciation the ‫ل‬‎ “1” follows immediately after the final vowel of the preceding word, e.g. 9300"

J--

08

‎‫الولد والبتت‬

udalaw-la aw ,utnib-I eht yob dna eht .lrig

(Note: ‎‫ و‬wa meaning “‘and”’ is written as part of the following word.) 3. When the word to which the article is attached begins 3

2G

0%

2

‫و‬‎

‫ورود‬

with certain letters termed Sun-letters ‫)ةيسمشلا‬‎ S941

al-

hurifu sh-shamsiya), the “‘l’’ of the article changes to the

initial letters in question. 2,

x,

shamsu

0

5

‫كو‬‎ ‫و‬3 ‫ رورو‬Oy

(pronounced

The :

*

Ur

UF

fourteen ٠

Sun-letters ٠

‫ضو‬‎ L, L, J, O,

30

are

& 9

€.g. ‫سمشلا‬‎

21-

ash-shamsu), the sun; eat al-rajulu

(pronounced ar-rajulu) the man. In such a case, no sukin is placed over the J “I”, but a tashdid is written over the first letter of the word, as shown. 22

THE

ARTICLE.

THE

SIMPLE

NOMINAL

SENTENCE

23

4. Adjectives as attributes are placed after the nouns they qualify. If the noun has the article, the adjective also must -

S6e6-

have it, e.5 ‫ريغص‬‎ ‫ تيب‬baitun saghirun, a small house, but ‎‫الصغير‬ -

‫ ا‬utiab-la ,urihgas-s eht llams .esuoh etoN taht »

0-08

‫ تيبلا ٌريغص‬al-baitu saghirun can only mean “the house is‫‏‬ small”. Where two or more adjectives qualify the same noun it is not necessary to put “and” between them. 5

©.8.

5

5

‫تل‬‎

‫ا‬

‫لكان‬

‎‫بيت جميل جديد‬

house; ‎‫اميل الجديد‬

nutiab nulimaj ,nudidaj a enif

wen

‫ ل‬utiab-la ulimaj-I ,udidaj-1 eht

fine new house. But if the two adjectives form the predicate ‎‫ كتارم‬of= oe

sentence it is usual to insert ‘“‘and”’,

e.g. ae‫و‬‎ ‫ ليج‬ai al-baitu jamilun wa jadidun, the house is ane and new.

5. The verb “‘to be” is omitted in Arabic when it has a BY indicative meaning, as the English “‘is’ or “‘are’, e.g. =

‫د‬

80-0

a ‎‫ البيت‬al-baitu qadimun,

the house (is) old. Such a

sentence is termed a nominal sentence as opposed to a verbal

sentence. 6. The been pronouns of the singular are: GI ana, I

ei| ?anta, you (thou) masculine eit ?anti, you (thou) feminine 0

huwa, he, it

‫ ىه‬hiya, she, it‫‏‬

3 J These pronouns are indeclinable. ‫وه‬‎ and _ are used to mean “it”, according to the gender of the thing to which they refer, there being no neuter in Arabic.

24

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY

a door, chapter

iy babun

a house

as baitun

a man a boy, son

a book a street a chair

‫دلو‬‎ waladun

nahrun

55 kursiyun

Sagi qahwatun

a cup

es finjanun

the Nile

‫نلينلا‬‎ an-Nilu

‫ديك‬‎

Rabin

age pas

Nery

moe saghirun

‫دق‬‎ qadimun

new

sche jadidun

long, tall

dhsne tawilun

short

‫ريصق‬‎ gastrin

beautiful, fine

eal

‫عراش‬‎ shari ‫عاته‬‎

caffed

old

:

Cus kitabun, * 4, 229

‫ىاش‬‎ shayun

small, young

tS

be bahrun

tea

big, great, old

‫لا‬‎ 4 oe

‫لح‬‎ rajulun

a river a sea

1 BPR (Ax)

‫ليمج‬‎ jamilun -

‫اج‬‎

0

+ ?

THE

ARTICLE.

THE

SIMPLE

NOMINAL

SENTENCE

25

oe

handsome, good Hassan (pr. noun m.)

‫نمسح‬‎ hasanun, Hasanun 5

broken

3907

‎‫ مكسور‬0 pa ‫وأاسع‬

,daorb ‫‏‬ediw

5

narrow

‫ب‬

15 ‫صتاع‬

>

:

‎‫ ضيق‬dayyiqun

Note: In the English exercises words in parentheses ( ) indicate the rendering in Arabic. Words in square brackets [ ] are not translated. Exercises are for translation from Arabic to English or vice versa. EXERCISE1

- ‫وأول‬‎ ees

2

EA ie

68 wl—. Se

> 08

dy sb de)

Se

‫تا‬‎

eH

Lo

One

ie)

jn © 90-08

8d

-0bcls

8 - ‫مم‬‎ ‫ناعم‬‎ ‫اناسو‬

£)

‫ديبكا‬‎ ‫ وه رهن‬ee ‫كيلا‬‎ 3 . ‫ ليوطو‬els moor

‎‫ و ولد حسن‬. ‫م البحر الضيق‬ Sie

‫هر و‬ ne

me

ue

‫ا‬‎

eaevV : ‎‫ت هيل‬ ‫دالبييك‬ -

3-0-0007

Dog OS

‎.‫انا رجل وانت ولد‬,+ .‫ والقهوة‬ete | ‎.‫ وقهوة‬,y—elG 572607

‎2‫و‬

ie

EEC S--

‫وه‬‎-.‫و‬

00

‫يل‬‎ 6

90.7

200

ane

2

39 -70

0

0308

ea 0‫م ود ه‬

‫ا‬‎

a6

Sou

TRANSCRIPTION

1. ?And saghirun wa ’anta kabirun. 2. Anta rajulun tawilun. 3. Ash-shari eu wasi¢un wa tawilun. 4. An-nilu nahrun, huwa nahrun kabirun. 5. Al-babu qadimun. 6. Albaitu jamilun. 7. Nahrun qasirun. 8. Al-bahru d-dayyiqu. 9. Waladun hasanun. 10. Shayun wa qahwatun. 11. Ash-

shayu wa I-qahwatu. 13. Al-kursiyu

12. ?Ana rajulun wa ’anta waladun.

saghirun.

14. Al-finjanu

qadimun,

huwa

26

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

maksirun. 15. Al-kitabu jamilun, huwa jadidun. 16. Al-babu maksirun. 17. Rajulun wa waladun wa bintun. 18. ?Ana wa hiya. 19. >Anta wa huwa. 20. Ash-shari eu d-dayyiqu. EXERCISE

1. The house a short boy. 4. is narrow. 6. A broken door. 9.

is large. 2. A large Hassan is a young wide street. 7. He The Nile is a long

2

house. 3. A tall man and (small) boy. 5. The river is a new boy. 8. An old wide river. 10. The book

is new. 11. A new book. 12. The sea is beautiful. 13. An old chair. 14. Nice tea. 15. Old coffee. 16. The cup is small. 17. A man and a boy. 18. You are a tall man, and I am short.

19. A small new book. 20. The long street.

CHAPTER 2

wo

‫وب‬‎

THREE

OF

‎)‫ الثالث‬GUI Al-babu th-thalithu) Gender. The Feminine 1, There are only two genders in Arabic, masculine and feminine. Generally speaking, there is no special sign of the masculine, and words should be assumed to be masculine

unless they belong to one of the following categories: (a) Words feminine by meaning, aerate human beings or

animals, e.g. ‫ما‬‎ >ummun, 5

mother, ‫تنب‬‎‫ ب‬bintun, daughter,

‫وج‬‎

‎‫ عروس‬garisun, bride. (b) Words

feminine by form. The principal feminine 2

form is the ta” marbita 5 atun (see Chap. One, Sect. 2, note 2) which is the usual feminine ending. The ta” marbita is added

to masculine nouns and adjectives (though not invariably) to make them feminine, e.g.

Ad:

‎‫ خادم‬khadimun, servant; ‫ةمداخ‬:‎ khadimatun, female servant -

onl ibnun, son; Fen ibnatun, daughter ‎‫هه‬

-

sane

‎‫ كير‬kabirun, big, old; fem. ‫ةريبك‬‎ 0 ion

‫ود‬‎

‫ءا‬

‫اب‬

‎‫ حديد‬jadidun, new; fem. ‫ةديدج‬‎ 111

Words

ending in ta? marbita should be assumed to be

ake feminine, unless known to be otherwise, e.g. 4 lS kitaba1 aoe = tun, writing. But ‫ةفيلخ‬‎ khalifatun, Caliph, is masculine,

being a male human being. There are a few other feminine word forms, besides the ta? marbiita, but these will be explained later (see Chapter

Eleven). 27

28

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(c) Words feminine by convention. The following categories apply: (i) ‫سدو‬‎ éetc.,

‫كادوا‬names, that is, towns, ‫هل‬‎ countries, eg?

ep

misru,

Egypt;

‫قشمد‬‎

dimashqu,

Damascus. (ii) Parts of the body which occur inpairs are almost al ‎65‫> ه‬

feminine, €.g. ‫نيع‬.‎ gainun, eye; 14 yadun, hand; Jey rijlun, foot. (iii) Certain

other nouns

are feminine

for no apparent

reason. Among the common ones are: 5 oF

١ ‫ا‬‎ ”

v2)! C yal in

Vie 57 1

5

5

?ardun, earth

‫ب‬‎

' 2 |a

‫راد‬‎ darun, house, home

ae ‫ران‬‎ narun, fire

5121051111 sun

{

4. 5 J

5 6>

We a

‫سفن‬‎ 2215112, soul, self.

In this category are a few words which may be either feminine or masculine, though in Classical Arabic the feminine was preferred, e.g. Chee

5 -

‎‫ طريق‬tariqun, road, way J& halun, condition, or

i

state.

The latter word also occurs with the feminine ending, G--

‫ ةلاح‬halatun, condition or state.‫‏‬

2. The adjective must :

ae

230

agree with the noun 3

5

qualifies, e.g. 3‫ريغص‬‎ ‫ لجر‬rijlun saghiratun, ‫ ةريبكلا‬coal ¢ al-bintu ‫ور‬

‫راصن‬

+

1-kabiratu,

which

it

a small foot;

the big (old) daughter;‫‏‬

‫دوت‬

5-

-6-

‫ ةفيلخلا ديدجلا‬al-khalifatu l-jadidu, the new caliph;‫ قديمة ‏‬yle‫‏‬ darun qadimatun, an old house.

Similarly, the adjective must agree with the noun to which it is the predicate in the nominal

sentence,

5 an

2oa-

e.g. ‫ة‬‎‫سمشلا رح‬

GENDER.

ash-shamsu me

hadiratun,

harratun,

the

you (fem.)

THE FEMININE

é is

sun

are

hot;

present,

29

s- sl

of ; Jl ?anti

5:

-6

but ‫رضاح‬‎ ‫? تنا‬anta

hadirun, you (masc.) are present. COLLECTIVE

NOUNS

3. Many words have a collective meaning in their singular form. This applies especialy |to natural features and animals, e.g. ‎‫ خر‬hajarun, rocks; ‫قجش‬‎ shajarun, trees; ‫رقب‬‎ 010, cows. To indicate a single object or animal, the feminine ta’ marbita ending is added:

52

3,> hajaratun, a rock;

Sia

‫شجرة‬‎

g---

shajaratun, a tree; ‫ةرقب‬‎ baqaratun, a cow.

THE INTERROGATIVE PARTICLE * 4. In the written language, ‫هاا‬‎

are introduced by

either of the particles 1 hal, or | .‫دو‬‎ The lattera i written = -

-

3906

if it were part of the word which follows it, e.g. ‫؟‬‎ ‫ رصمةديعب‬1 hal misru ba cidatun, or Peas pes ?a-misru ba cidatun,

is Egypt distant, far? The European interrogative sign is written in modern Arabic either in its normal form or reversed ‫)؟‬‎ or ?). In spoken Arabic, these interrogative par-

ticles are almost never used, the interrogation being indicated by the tone of voice.

VOCABULARY g 2

‫مأ‬‎ -ummun

mother

506

girl, daughter daughter son * See also Appendix C, Ԥ2.

‫تنب‬‎ :

a2

4

Pr

5-6

‫ةنئبا‬‎ 2 56

©

58

‫نبا‬‎ ibnun

‫ما‬ Dy

30

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(f-) ‫سورع‬‎ éarusun

bride

Caliph

(m.) ‫ةفيلخ‬‎

Egypt (Cairo)

(1) pes Misru 0° 7° ?

Damascus

(f-) Gees Dimashqu

eye

(f) oe

Khalifatun

¢ainun

1

‎‫دج‬

hand

(f:)

foot (anatomical)

(f.) dey rijlun

qr?

‫راد‬‎ darun

fs Avaw

home, homeland, house

(f.)

‫دي‬‎ yadun

7 1‫اح‬‎ harrun, harrun

hot earth, land

(f.)

sun

&

)/( ‫سش‬‎

?ardun

shamsun

stone (s)

(coll.)

frente)

(coll.)

‫رجش‬‎

cow(s), oxen

(.11‫م‬2)‎

bey baqarun

distant, far

‫ب‬‎ ‫الم ل‬

garden, orchard king

queen a place a man, human being

= hajarun

5

shajarun

ba cidun

‫ناتسب‬‎ bustanun ‫كلم‬‎ malikun

ick, malikatun = mahallun 50

insanun

ene

‫م‬‎ Kt Ae

ele hadirun

present, ready

YT

7 / 2 \f

GENDER.

THE

yes!

FEMININE

31

‎‫ نعم‬na¢am

nol

‫ال‬‎ [3

x5

-

$i-

grandfather, grandmother

B-

‫ةدح‬‎ ¢ ‫ دح‬jaddun, jaddatun ‎‫و‬+ -

servant

١

5,.-

(f.) ‫ةمداخ‬‎ «(m.) ‫مداخ‬‎ khadimun, khadimatun

ugly, nasty

‫حيبق‬‎ qabihun

hour, watch, clock, time

‫ةعاس‬‎ sa ‫عون‬‎

EE

. RA

«ie ‫ديدت‬‎ me ‫بيبط‬‎ tabibun

strong, violent doctor, physician

5

clean

43 nazifun

‎0‫و‬

dead

‎‫ ميت‬0

fire

95-

(f.)

‫ران‬‎ narun

/

) 4

EXERCISE 3 59228 CIA Bas Ce

dns

5

‫و‬‎ 970°

. ‫ةليمح‬‎ ‫ب‬ ‎‫< ري‬,

Scr OLS 9“5170

‫سورعلا‬

2-7

36

‫دا‬

6m

--§

» 060-

5

‎‫الخادمة‬

¢

w-

. ‫الجد سيت‬

fie 205

. ‫واسعة‬

et

is

S-

‫ | الارض‬.

‫ش>مَع‬‎

. ‎‫ هوطبيب‬teb« ‎‫إنسان‬

—r.

tie

. ‫ ةفيلخ دجدي‬- ‫ ب‬. ‫ ةحيبق‬ALT ‫ب‬‎

‫و‬

‎.‫ارات دمشق محل حار‬ 0-6

522002

٠ ‫ةريغص‬‎ ‫وجراح ىه‬

S)=.

! ‫معن‬‎ ‫لهم تنبلا ةليمج ؟‬ 8‫ق‬‎ -

1

‫ همه‬. ‫ع مالا ةرضاح‬

1‫ك‬

‫سو‬

‫حلا‬

,‫نظيفة‬ G-

‫ل‬

- 3

1

. ‫ بوحالدار يفده والشمس شديدة‬+

‫كوت‬ 6

, ‫طويلة‬ -

abe ‫ةكلمحرو‬‎ ee

‫شجره‬--١‫هم‬ -

‫و‬‎

. ‫حاضرة‬

- -‫هرو‬

‫ديعب‬‎ ‫بناتسبلا‬ 6‎‫ا‬

-

3--0٠.

ne \

-

32

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

TRANSCRITION

1. As-sa¢atu l-jadidatu l-jamilatu maksiratun.

2. ?A-hiya

sa¢atun kabiratun? 3. La! hiya saghiratun. 4. Al-?>ummu hadiratun. 5. Al-¢arisu bintun jamilatun. 6. Kitabatun qabihatun. 7. Khalifatun jadidun. 8. Hali l-bintu jamilatun? Nagam! 9. Rijlun nazifatun. Dimashqu mahallun harrun.

sh-shamsu

shadidatun.

10. Al-’ardu wasi¢atun. 12. Ad-daru ba¢idatun

13. Al-jaddu

mayyitun.

14.

11. wa

Al-

khadimatu hadiratun. 15. Sharajatun tawilatun. 16. Hasanun *insanun jamilun..Huwa tabibun. 17. Al-bustanu ba¢idun. 18. Malikun kabirun. 19. Malikatun jamilatun. 20. Almalikatu jamilatun. EXERCISE

4

1. You (fem. sing.) are beautiful. 2. The tall tree is dead. 3. The mother is present. 4. Is the bride ready? No! 5. The dead Caliph. 6. The Caliph is dead. 7. A long foot. 8. Extensive (wide) land. 9. Damascus is distant. 10. The old watch is broken. 11. She is an ugly girl. 12. You are the queen.

13. The king is a fine man. 14. Are you the grandmother? No, I am the mother. 15. Awful (ugly) handwriting. 16. A large foot. 17. Is the garden clean? Yes, it is clean. 18. He is a doctor. 19. A long wide road. 20, The new house is small.

CHAPTER

FOUR

‎)‫ الرابع‬SUI ALbabu r-rabi eu) Declension of Nouns. The Three Cases 1. There are three cases in Arabic, and these are indicated

merely by changing the vowelling of the final consonant (except in the dual and sound masculine plural endings). The “n” sound of nunation occurs after the final vowel in all

three cases where required. The cases are: (a) ‎‫ رفع‬raf 2 (nominative, vowelled with damma) 5 0-

907 On

e.g. ‎‫ بيت‬baitun, a house; ‫تيبلا‬‎ al-baitu, the house. Sy

6>

(b) Cai nasb (accusative, vowelled with fatha) =o7

e.g. x» baitan,

eg: Gok: Kast

‫تيبلا‬‎ al-baita.

(c) ‎‫ جر‬jarr (genitive, vowelled with kasra) ‎‫كن‬

O- 0”

e.g. ‫تيب‬‎ fi baitin, in a house; ‫تيبلاى‬‎ fi 1-baiti, in the house. Note that in the accusative, the letter ’alif is added io the indefinite noun, but this does not lengthen the fatha; it is merely a convention of spelling.

2. The English translation of case names given above is sometimes misleading, and it would be a great mistake for students to assume that where, for instance, a word would be considered accusative in English, or any other language, nasb should be employed in Arabic. As a rough guide, the student. would do well, at this stage, to think of nasb as adverbial as well as objective. For example, Yb halan, at present, at once, is really the accusative indefinite of halun, a state, or condition. Jarr, the genitive, is used for posses33

34

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

sion or after prepositions. While raf the nominative, is used as the subject of a sentence, we have also seen (Chap. Two) that it is used for the predicate-of a nominal sentence. 3. The

Arabs

fully declined

call declension

esi‫رعإ‬‎ igrab, and 5

-

‫وه‬

are said to be ‫فرصتنم‬‎ munsarif.

words

However,

certain classes of noun are not fully declined, and are termed HVE

LYSE |

‫ ريغ فرصنم‬ghair munsarif (other than munsarif). European‫‏‬ grammarians sometimes call thesé diptotes/as opposed to the regular triptotes. Diptotes are declined as follows: Indefinite

Definite

Nominative Os} za ¢lanu* angry

‫ٌنالع‬‎aT az-za ¢ lana

Acc.

‫نالعز‬‎ za clana

‫نالع‬‎aT 22-2 ‫عاةصد‬‎

Gen.

‫نالعز‬‎ za 8‫ع‬‎

‫ لانالع‬22-22 ‫عاقمت‬

It will be noted from the above that diptotes are quite normal

when definite. When indefinite, they

differ from triptotes in

two respects. First, there is no nunation; second, there are only two different vowel endings, the accusative and genitive

both fatha. having ‫د‬‎

For the present, the student should find out from the vocabularies or from a dictionary which words are diptotes. THE GENITIVE WITH pO

‫نيل‬‎

4. Every Arabic preposition (harf jarr > 20 takes its following noun in the genitive, e.g. ‫ قى‬fi, in‫‏‬

‫ ق ناتسب‬fi bustanin, in a garden.‫‏‬

‫ىفتيبلا‬8 l-baiti, in the house.‫‏‬ yas : fi Misra (diptote), in Egypt.‫‏‬ 6

‫م‬

‎‫ من‬min, from

is‫و‬‎ ay min waladin, from a boy.

* Modern usage. In eax Arabic it means “‘in agony”’.

DECLENSION

OF NOUNS. --90

THE

THREE

CASES

35

-

‫ نم اولادل بيطلا‬mina l-waladi t-tayyibi, from the‫‏‬ nice boy.‫‏‬ ‫دلو نالعز‬ ‫ و‬be min

7[ ‫بمنن الولد|العلان‬

waladin

za ¢lana, from

an‫‏‬

boy.‫‏‬ anim

‫‏‬idalaw-|

8-2 ‫ رأصقاع‬from‫‏‬

“the angry boy.‫‏‬ :

* ‫ ل‬li, to, for,

#‫‏‬

belonging to‫‏‬ 2

x

‫ لجرل‬li rajulin, to a man.‫‏‬ La

‫ىلإ‬‎ ,1153 0

‫ ىلإ قوسلا‬ila s-siiqi, to the market. -i-

‫ ةكم‬J! ila Makkata (diptote), to Mecca.‫‏‬ 10

‫ىلع‬‎‫ علق‬on ‫ةدئ‬‎uit ‫ىلع‬‎ ‫ع‬

1-ma’idati, on the table.

5. Where a nominal sentence has a prepositional phrase as its predicate, and the subject is indefinite, it is usual not to

put the subject first, e.g. ‫ حيبق‬ee‫ ناتسلا ‏‬3 fi l-bustani rajulun qabihun, an‫‏‬ ugly man is in the garden.‫‏‬ NOT‫‏‬ >

0030

53

‫ات‬

‫ لجر حيبق ف ناتسبلا‬rajulun qabihun fi !-bustani.‫‏‬ In such sentences the verb “‘to be’? understood can be translated by the English impersonal verb, “there is” or

“there are’’, e.g. the sentence above: “There is an ugly man in the garden.” THE GENITIVE OF POSSESSION ‎)‫ إضافة‬idafa) 6. A noun followed by another noun in the genitive auto2G 5 — * With the definite article it is written ‫ال‬‎ , e.g., ‫لحرلل‬‎ to or for the man.

36

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

matically loses its nunation. Moreover, where-—as in the majority of instances — the following genitive noun is definite, the first noun also is automatically definite. A NOUN

FOLLOWED BY A GENITIVE THE ARTICLE. Go

‎‫و‬

>

Thus ‘oo ‫تيب‬‎ TP

man;

eS O

os ‫تيب‬‎

MUST

baitu r-rajuli means

baitu

Muhammadin

NOT

the house

means

TAKE of the

the house

of

Muhammad, or Muhammad’s house. In the first example, if it is intended that “house’”’ should

be indefinite, with the meaning a house of the man’s, and implying that he has other houses also, then another idiom must be used, as ‫لج‬‎ ‫ تفرلل‬baitun li r- peer literally, a house to or of the man.

Similarly, ‫دمحمل‬‎ ow , baitun li Muham-

madin, a house of 11

3-3

7. ‎1‫ غ‬15.2 rule of *idafa that nothing must interpose between the noun and its following genitive. Consequently, if the

noun is to be qualified with an adjective, the latter must come AFTER the genitive, e.g. Dees

Ol

wey

ed) Oe

‎‫بيت محمد الكر‬ ١ ;

‫هع ميدقلا‬

.

sj.

as

5

utiab inidammahuM ,uribak-|I man’s big house.

-mahuM

cas baitu r-rajuli i-qadimu, the man’s old‫‏‬ house.‫‏‬

Note that by altering the vowelling of the adjectives above, quite different meanings are given, e.g. ‫ نييكلا‬saz‫‏‬ ‫ل‬ ‫تيب‬

baitu Muhammadini 1|-kabiri, the house‫‏‬ of the great Muhammad.‫‏‬

‫لج رييكلا‬we‫‏‬ ‫تيب‬

baitu r-rajuli |-kabiri, the house of the‫‏‬ old man.‫‏‬

DECLENSION

OF NOUNS.

THE

THREE

CASES

37

As will be seen, the adjective of the noun made definite by idafa takes the article. It is possible for a noun to form idafa with a following indefinite genitive. In such cases, that noun still remains indefinite, even though it loses its nunation, as the following example shows: (without a qualifying adjective) ‫ ةوهق‬Obes

finjinu qahwatin, a cup of coffee.‫‏‬

(with a qualifying seeps) -e3 -

‫ناجنفةوجق ريبك‬

finjanu qahwatin cup of coffee.

kabirun,

a large‫‏‬

Such instances are less frequent than the definite idafa, except, perhaps, in Classical poetry. In modern prose, for instance, one would not expect to encounter 59

ws

8>

AS ‫دمحم‬‎ :‫تيب‬ instead of

Goo

5

=

5

o-

Hered ‫ريبك‬‎ ‫تيب‬

baitu Muhammadin

kabirun

baitun kabirun li-Muhammadin

with the meaning of “a large house of Muhammad’s”’ VOCABULARY Sr

angry

10"

Orns; za ¢lanu

bread

(lit. in agony)

good, nice,

ob tayyibun2) om

satisfactory :

9 ‫رو‬‎a

est

honest,

upright

butter

2

ait

cals

*

plate

Martara

knife fork

market (m. or f.) Soe sugqun

spoon.

table

in

gulls ma@idatun -

9 3-02 ‘zubdatun, 6 ‫هدبر‬‎ 7) zubdun

tale1G labanun=}

ale salihun

: ac

e+ lahmun (| /? ¢ (

milk ٠ 2‫ك‬‎ ‫ب‬2‫ ه‬halibun, 20

truthful, YT Gale sidiqun

honest Mecca

khubzun

‫نحص‬‎ sahnun

‫نيكس‬‎ sikkinun

wee iS ‫وش‬‎ shaukatun

dial, mil ‫عونه‬‎ a fi

ARABIC

A NEW

38

from

GRAMMAR

‎‫ من‬min

|I s

‫ل‬‎ li

to, for, belonging to

scat

on, upon

‫ىلع‬‎ eala

with

3

5

‫عم‬‎ maga ae ‫ريزو‬‎ 10 cil ‫تثاب‬‎ ba’itun

minister (political) stale, old

EXERCISE 5 “700

9°-6

-

ln Bg.

-90@

>>

. ‫مدقلا‬‎ 57 pos ‫تين‬‎ ‫انوفا‬

. ‫‏ الصادق‬mo~ ‫مد (هى) ف بستان‬: ‫حسن ولد صالح الع مح‬ “of

‫‏‬ao

‫وحانت‬. -

“20

‫ور‬

‫‏‬haa

0

‫صسّه و‬-

‫دس‬

.‫ واللحم شديد‬lse S5

- 80

‫أَنْتفي بستان حسن‬

‫‏‬leg

‫ابعل‬

‫الج‬

‫ هو‬+

‫‏‬oy

‫و‬--

‫دوه‬

‫ار‬

‫نك‬, ‫ و‬- 0-

- ‫‏‬yy . ‫ من حسن وهو ولدطيب‬OS)‫‏‬

= - 00 ‫‏‬iw ‫در‬ ‫ ام الخليفة على‬eop ‫‏‬reme ‫د‬ . ‫بقرةمحم‬ ‫وم‬

‫عار‬

‫‏‬elod ‫‏بنك‬sap

.‫حسن‬

0

‫ل‬

Peas

AJ

-

‫‏‬gy

1 .‫ في ببت لمحمد‬BUI,

‫ هس‬Si Ma ete‫‏‬ “09

.‫لياق الولد فىالفنجان الكبير‬

‫‏‬0¢-

. ‫المائدةالصغيرة‬

. ‫يان الملك‬

. det!‫‏‬

44

TRANSCRIPTION 1. 1

gala l-m@idati sahnun wa sikkinun. 2. Mil 4‫ع‬‎ n-nazifatu. 3. Al-halibu tayyibun. 4. Mina 5-01

l-qadimi. 5. Li-siiqi Makkata.

6. Ibnu Hasanin waladun

DECLENSION

OF

NOUNS.

THE

THREE

CASES

39

salihun. 7. Ibnatu Muhammadin (hiya) fi bustani Hasanini ¢adilun. 9. Huwa bnu s-sadiqi. 8. Maliku Misra malikun 1-maliki z-za ¢lani. 10. ?Anta za ¢lanu min Hasanin, wa huwa waladun tayyibun. 11. Al-khobzu qadimun wa l|-lahmu

shadidun. 12. Az-zubdu min halibi (labani) baqarati Mu¢ala 1-ma?idati hammadin. 13. Shaukatu >ummi 1-khalifati s-saghirati.

bustani

Muhammadin.

maga

mahallun

14. Makkatu

Hasanini

1-jamili.

hasanun.

15. ?Anta fi

16. Al-maidatu

fi baitin li-

17. Al-khubzu

z-zubdati.

¢ala s-sahni I-jadidi. Huwa

18. Hali l-labanu jadidun?

La, huwa

qadimun. 19. ?Anti fi bustani l-maliki. 20. Shayu 1-waladi fi

1-finjani |-kabiri. EXERCISE

6

1. The king is angry with the new minister. 2. There is a beautiful new table in Hassan’s house. 3. On the table are a knife, fork and spoon. 4. The milk is with the bread and

butter. 5. The new market of Damascus is in a long, narrow street. 6. The meat is on the plate. 7. He is a good and just

man from Mecca. 8. The king’s young son is in one of the minister’s houses (lit. a house to the minister). 9. The Caliph’s grandmother is dead. 10. Hassan’s beautiful mother

is a doctor (fem.). 11. Is there a fire in the house? 12. Is there a strong chair in the man’s house? 13. Is there fresh (new) coffee in the large cup? 14. The knife and fork belong to the minister. 15. I am a just man, and you are a reliable servant.

16.

I am from Egypt. 17. Damascus is beautiful.

18. The King of Egypt is a just man. 19. Yes, he is a short man. 20. The doctor’s old broken watch is with the book on the table.

CHAPTER

FIVE

‎)‫ ألباب الشامس‬ubab-lA )usimahk-I Number. The Sound Masculine and Feminine Plurals. Personal Pronouns.

Some simple Verb Forms 1. There mufrad),

are

three numbers

in Arabic:

Dual eS muthannan),

5-09

Singular :) ‫درفم‬‎

and Plural ‫)عمج‬‎ jam é):

The Dual is formed by adding the termination ‫نأ‬‎ ani in the Nominative and a aini in the other cases. (The latter, which we may term the oblique case, is the only form used in the colloquial, and becomes ain.) e.g. ‎‫ ملك‬malikun, a king; ‫ناكلب‬‎ ‫ نيكل‬malikani, malikaini, :

two kings.

‘gad

01:

‎‫ الملك‬al-maliku, the king; OSI!



enShel | al-malikani,

al-malikaini, the two kings. ١

When the noun ends in ta? marbita, this changes to an ordinary ta” before any suffix is joined to it, consequently gee

;

6

‎‫ملكة‬: malikatun, a queen, forms the dual ‫ناتكلم‬‎ mali= Joe katani, two queens.

ie Bi 36s ‫ ةكلملا‬al-malikatu, the queen,‫ ناتكلملا ‏‬al-malikatani, the‫‏‬ two queens.

2. There are two types of plural in Arabic:

(i) The Sound Plural ‫)ملاسلا‬‎ geil al-jameu s-silim) which

has different masculine

and feminine

forms.

This is formed by adding certain endings to nouns. 40

NUMBER.

THE

SOUND

PLURALS.

PERSONAL

PRONOUNS

41

(ii) The Broken Plural (paket ‫عمجلا‬‎ al-jam eu ]-mukas-

sar Or ‫سمكتلا‬‎ ‫ عمج‬jam gut-taksir), formed by internal changes, sometimes with the addition of prefixes and suffixes (see Chaps. Six and Seven). —_™_---——-

3. The Sound een

Plural of nouns and adjectives iis

formed by adding 82 una to the Nominative, and ‫ني‬‎ ina to the Oblique, e.g. ‫مّلعم‬‎ mu ¢allimun, a teacher, pl. ‫نوملعم‬‎ , ‫كي نيملعم‬

‫يالا‬

‫د‬

‫اق‬

bs

khayyatun,

a‫‏‬

g--

tailor, pl. abla hasanun, good,

‘ ‫نيطايخ‬‎ khayyatiina,

khayyatina.

nice, pl. ١‫نوئسح‬‎ hasaniina.

cy

5. kathirun,

much, many, pl. oiath kathirina. 4. Many nouns and adjectives cannot form the sound masculine plural, and for them the broken plural (see

succeeding chapters) is used as the masculine plural. Similarly, some nouns and adjectives cannot form the broken plural, and must invariably take the sound plural. When the dictionary does not give the plural of a noun or

adjective, this usually means that it takes the sound masculine plural. Among the common

types of noun to take the

sound masculine plural are participles of verbs, and also nouns of profession or occupation like ‫طايخر‬‎ khayyatun, a tailor, and ‫زابخ‬‎ khabbazun, a baker. In these latter the middle radical consonant is doubled and is followed by an

-alif of prolongation. 5. Apart from a very few exceptions, two of which are

given below, the sound masculine plural can only be used of male human beings. Names of animals, inanimate objects, and abstract nouns which have no broken plural should take the sound feminine plural given below.

42

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

Exceptions: 6--

g6-

o-

dx. sanatun, year, plural 5ro 511211112 or ‫تاوئس‬‎ ee >ardun, earth, plural nen >aradiina or er >aradin. Even these two exceptions have, it will be seen, alternative 2-6

plural forms, and ‫نوضرا‬‎ is seldom encountered in prose. Ae 6. The Sound Feminine Plural is formed by adding ‫تا‬‎ dtun in the nominative, and ‫تأ‬‎

4tin in the oblique. The

final ‘“‘n” is treated as a nunation, and therefore disappears woe

when the word is definite, e.g. Ol‫اويح‬‎ ‫ممل‬

animal;

‫ه‬ ‫د دل‬2 ‫س‬

pl. ‎‫حيوانات‬. ‫ اجتماع‬ijtima ‎‫ تناع‬meeting; pl. ‫تاعامتجا‬‎ Where

the noun

in the singular has the tw marbiita

feminine ending, this is removed before the sound feminine plural ending is added, e.g. ‫ةكلم‬‎ malikatun, queen, pl. ‫اكلم‬‎

‫ تاكلم‬malikdtun, malikatin.‫ ةريثك ‏‬kathiratun, much, many‫‏‬ 2

-

5

00

520

(feminine), pl. ‫تارثك‬‎ , kathiratun. ‫ةمداخ‬‎ khadimatun, a maidSires

1

servant, pl. ‫تامداخ‬‎ khadimatun. When

‫هدا‬‎

ie

definite, ‫ةكلملا‬‎ al-

malikatu; pl. ‫ثاكلملا‬‎ CLS al- malikatu, al-malikati, the queens. ii The sound feminine plural is not confined to female human beings, but is used with many abstract nouns, infinitives, and other forms. It does not follow, either, that a feminine noun

ending in ta’ marbita will take the sound feminine plural. In fact, the whole question of the plural in Arabic is complicated to the beginner. He will ultimately learn to associate certain singular forms with certain plural forms, but there will be many instances when the dictionary is the only guide. It should be stressed that the plural of a word should be learned with its singular.

NUMBER.

THE

SOUND

PLURALS.

PERSONAL

PRONOUNS

43

7. A few feminine nouns take the sound masculine plural.

pee

The commonest is 4~. sanatun, year, which has already been

given. Conversely, some masculine nouns take the feminine coe

plural, as jl‫أريح‬‎ hayawanun, animal, already noted. AGREEMENT

OF

ADJECTIVES

8. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, case, and

number, with certain exceptions: (a) For the agreement of the broken plural see the next chapters. (b) The sound feminine plural noun usually has its adjective in the feminine singular. This is occasionally so

even when female human beings are concerned. $-0-

e.g.

‫م هو‬

‫دده‬

‎‫حيوانات وحشة‬ 52717 17 5 re )

mals; ‎‫حميلة‬

‫خادمات‬

‫هود‬

servants

152

(OX‫‏‬

nutanawayah

,nutahshaw dliw

nutamidahk ,nutalimaj

‫ تح‬et

eee‫‏‬

‫تامداخ‬

khadimatun

lufituaeb

jamilatun

-ina -diam

15 pre-‫‏‬

ferable, especially in modern Arabic).‫‏‬ Examples of regular agreement: oe

Us isey-

‎‫ غائب‬pols khadimun gha?ibun, an absent servant. OWE ‎‫ خادمان‬khadimani gha’ibani, two absent ser‎‫م‬ ‫ اا‬ROMI D :sn mats

our

‎‫ختادمون غائبون‬

8 ,anibi’ahg tnesba .stnavres

re‎‫ غا‬isle khadimatun gha@’ibatun, an absent maid-

4

“servant.

Obese ‫ناتمداخ‬‎ khadimaténi gha’ibatini, 7 7 7 * maidservants.

two

absent

‎‫ غائنات‬Sole khadimatun gha’ibatun ) absent 0 i ‎‫عانفات فاكية‬

maidnutamidahk nutabi’ahg [ .stnavres

44

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

9. The personal pronouns are:

Singular

Dual

Plural

-¢é

IGS

‎‫? انا‬ana, I

‫نحن‬‎ nahnu, we

> of

‎‫ انت‬anta, thou (you)

> 208

‫امتنا‬‎ ’antuma, you ‫متنا‬‎ ?antum, you

masc.

(two) 12.6

5

‎‫ انت‬anti, thou (you)

3

° 06

(masc.) 0

cyl 2antunna,

feminine

you (fem.)

‎2‫و‬

td

‎‫ هو‬,awuh eh

‎‫وه‬

‎‫ هما‬,amuh yeht — ‎‫ هم‬,muh yeht (two) (masc.)

m. & f.

4.

‎‫ هى‬hiya, she

Gs

‫نه‬‎ hunna, they

a

(fem.)

(Attached pronouns will be explained later.) Note: Where only one form is shown above, there is no distinction between masculine and feminine forms. Where dual or plural pronouns refer to mixed sexes, the masculine predominates and the

masculine form of the pronoun is used. Thus if the pronoun “‘they”’ refers to “men concerned,

and women”

the form

previously

‫مه‬‎ hum, not

mentioned

of hunna, would

in the passage be used. This

would be the case even if the pronoun referred to “two women and one man”’, SOME

SIMPLE

VERB

FORMS

10. Verbs will be dealt with in detail from Chapter Twelve onwards. However, to make more realistic sentences possible for translation a few forms will be introduced here. The simplest form of any Arabic verb is the third person

masculine singular of the Perfect which usually has a past meaning. --

e.g. ‎‫ وصل‬wasala, he arrived, or he has arrived. pee

‫ بلط‬talaba, he demanded, requested, or he has de-‫‏‬ manded, etc.‫‏‬ --

‫ ناك‬kana, he was.‫‏‬ 2-2e

‫ رضح‬hadara, he attended, was present, etc.‫‏‬ This part of the verb invariably ends with the vowel fatha.

NUMBER.

THE

SOUND.

PLURALS.

PERSONAL

PRONOUNS

45

We have already pointed out that the ta’, in the form of the ta’ marbuta, is a feminine ending. The third person Perfect of

the verb may be made feminine merely by adding a ta’, but in this case it is the ordinary ta’, not the marbiita. Thus from -

ee

or

‫ماس‬‎

‫ لصو‬wasala we have‫ تلصو ‏‬wasalat, she arrived. From‫كان ‏‬

kana we have 0

kanat, she was. From Cg kataba, he‫‏‬

wrote, we have ‫تيتك‬‎ katabat, she wrote. We

have

noticed

that the sound

characterised

by the waw

mu callimun,

schoolmaster,

with

masculine

:

a nin

plural

added,

plural is ‎5‫س‬

>‫ر‬

thus ‫ملعم‬‎

‫نوملعم‬‎ mu callimina.

Similarly, with the Perfect of the verb we add the waw to make it masculine plural. In this case, however, there is no

nun. Thus: Sion kataba, |fos katabi, they (masc.) wrote. hig kana, ee kant, they were. It should be pointed out that in the Arabic spelling an ?alif is written after the waw; but this is merely a convention of orthography, and the ’alif is not pronounced. Its existence, in certain cases, prevents ambiguity, such as the waw’s being read at the beginning of the next

word as “‘and’’, The dual of parts of the verb in the Perfect. are formed by adding the ’alif, which we have already seen in the dual noun

ending, ‎‫ ان‬ani, to the singular, e.g.

LS kataba, they (two) wrote. ‫ اتبتك‬katabata, they (two) wrote (fem.).‫‏‬ 11. The normal sentence order is: VERB — SUBJECT -

OBJECT — 0 ‫ب‬

-

‫لع‬‎ 9~

e.g. ool ‫عامتجالا‬‎ one ‫ري‬‎ ‫ رضح‬hadara Hasanuni l-ijtima¢a >amsi, Hassan attended the meeting yesterday. 12.

When the verb in the third person comes

first it is

always singular, though it agrees with its subject in gender,

46

A NEW ‫م‬

e.g.

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

--09

‎‫ اكش الوالدان‬abatak ‎0212-1‫ رلصة‬eht owt syob .etorw

‎:‫ كتب |المعلمون‬kataba 1-mu¢allimiina,

the teachers

wrote. ew

KOO

‫ اتملعملا‬en katabati l-mu¢allimatani, the two‫‏‬ teachers (fem.) (or schoolmistresses)‫‏‬ wrote.‫‏‬ ‫و‬

> W730‫‏‬

‫ تاملعملا‬oe katabati

4

l-mu

¢allimatu, the teachers‫‏‬

(fem.) wrote.‫‏‬

Should the subject have already been mentioned, however, in the previous sentence the verb agrees with it in number ‫سا مم‬

‫رانس‬

ww‫‏‬

‫مات‬

as well as in gender, e.g. We (pies ‫نوملعملا‬‎ ‫ رضح‬928 l-mu ¢allimina wa talabii khubzan, the ‘teachers arrived (rete present) and demanded bread. Here the second verb (| ‎‫ (طلبوا‬is in the plural because

the subject in the plural

(Ge

in the previous sentence.

has been mentioned

The verb ‫رضح‬‎ is in the singular because it comes before its subject ‎)‫«(المعلّمون‬ VOCABULARY language

world word window

(ous pl.) rei) lughatun pl. lughatun

3‫اع‬‎ ¢alamun

‫وطرد‬‎

(ole pl.) is kalimatun, pl. kalimatun ‫ةذفان‬‎‘ KG shubbakun,

a Muslim

ples Muslimun

a believer

‫نموم‬‎ Muminun

s



nafidhatun

|

4 1

NUMBER.

THE

SOUND

PLURALS.

PERSONAL

PRONOUNS

S08

‫? اكل‬aklun‫‏‬

food

S32

§a-‫‏‬

a cook

‫ خابط‬tabbakhun‫‏‬

a baker

‫ خباز‬khabbazun‫‏‬

5 َ‫> س‬

$

a-‫‏‬

‫ خياط‬khayyatun‫‏‬

a tailor

Suns‫‏‬

a teacher

mu ¢allimun‫‏‬

‫ او‬--animal

pet]

‫حيوان‬ 01

2 ‫سنئة‬

year

a meeting

WW

1

‫ عامتجا‬ijtima ¢un‫‏‬ ‘oe‫‏‬ 5

002

eee‫‏‬

much, many

‫ رثك‬kathirun‫‏‬

wild (beast)

‫ شحو‬wahshun‫‏‬ Fs ae‫‏‬

ill, sick

‫مريض‬

hard, difficult

‫‏ صعب‬a$ ‫صتااطع‬

easy

‫ لهس‬sahlun‫‏‬

5

o7‫‏‬

21

‫ت‬00

Gor‫‏‬

see)‫‏‬ weak

present, found absent

‫فيعض‬ 6

39

Oo

‫موجود‬ Wak‫‏‬ ‫غائب‬ 65

day today

47

‫يوم‬ Sage‫‏‬ ‫اليومم‬

da cifun‫‏‬ 0‫‏‬

2

2 01 821-12

of‫‏‬

yesterday

‫? سما‬amsi‫‏‬

to arrive (lit. ‫“طع‬‎ arrived’’)

‫وصل‬

24

Dt?

48

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR -

to demand, request from

-e-

‫بلط‬‎ 2

to be (lit. “he was”)

‫ناك‬‎ kana

to attend, be present

ae hadara

to write (to)

(J) 5

kataba (li)

2

EXERCISE 7 -a-

- -0~7

‫‏‬eaF . ‫ خياطان‬ae ‫‏‬eta . ‫‏ كثيرة‬WO ‫و فىالعالم‬ 25

=

pier ire, CG

‫ا‬

‫هون‬

J

- 3

‫دن‬

‫“مد‬

00-0

ee ee Soe

$-0-

S-

-

tile 3 ‫‏‬see . ‫لمومئون غابون اليوم‬-‫ا‬+ .‫ثيرة صعبة‬

‫ فد نك‬ca‫ ‏‬552 ‫ل‬

ie al re‫‏‬

dd

CA ‎‫داو‬

JtJesse

.»‫بط‬‎ eo ‫ف‬‎

00 or -

‫الكتابان‬

AT

DI

eg

‫اا‬‎ Sia

Oh

-

‫ورم‬

1

‫اب‬

OS

‫ناش‬‎ ‫فاي‬

Seo!

ES

Aue

ea lbO eto ‫‏‬noiti ‫هن سملمات؟‬ OF

sell

008.

on 3

os

hes‫أليوم ‏‬

‫اد‬‎

si‫ المائدة ‏‬ds‫‏‬

TRANSCRIPTION 1. Fi l-¢alami

lughatun kathiratun.

2. Huma

khayyatani.

3. Kana khabbazani fi l-baiti. 4. Al-mu ‫ع‬‎2111021113 5.

Fi

kitabi

Hasanin

kalimatun

kathiratun

sa¢batun.

6. Al-mu’minina gha’ibina l-yauma. 7. Kani. fi sh-shari ei

NUMBER.

THE

SOUND

PLURALS.

PERSONAL

PRONOUNS

49

>amsi, wa l-yauma hum fi I-baiti. 8. Wasalati s-sanatu 1jadidatu. 9. Fi l-baiti shubbakani (nafidhatani). 10. Talaba

?akalan

min

at-tabbakhaini.

11.

Kataba

1-khalifatu

‫[نكح‬‎

mu’minina fi Dimashqa. 12. Talaba hayawanan wa wasala rajulun. 13. Hadara l-waziru |-maridu lijtima¢a. 14. Alkitabu sahlun li t-tabibi.. 15. ?A-fi bustani |-mu ¢allimi hayawanun wahshun? 16. Talabat min al-khadimina khubzan wa zubdan wa shayan wa haliban. 17. Fi Misra Muslimina kathirina. 18. °?A-hunna Muslimatun?. 19. Li-bustani l-Hasanaini babani. 20. Kana 1-kitabani gala 1-m2?idati

?amsi. Al-yauma hum fi baiti t-tabibi. EXERCISE

8

1. Two difficult languages. 2. He wrote two easy books for the boy. 3. The bread arrived from the baker yesterday. 4. The food of the two cooks [who are] present )‫ني‬‎ eel) today is beautiful. 5. The Muslim teachers are absent today. 6. It was a house belonging to (‫)ل‬‎ two believers. 7. Hassan’s house has (J) two windows, two doors, and a large garden. 8. They (dual) are sick, weak men. 9. There are many wild animals in the world. 10. They attended many meetings. 11. They asked for (demanded) good _ tailors. 12. Two

little words. 13. In the book are many difficult words. 14. They (dual) arrived from Egypt yesterday. 15. You (dual) are teachers. 16. We are upright Muslims. 17. They are schoolmistresses in Damascus. 18. Many years. 19. Two days. 20. You and I are good doctors. He is an animal

doctor (a doctor of the animals).

CHAPTER

SIX

‎)ٌ‫ السّادس‬GUS! Al-babu s-sadisu) The Broken Plural 1. Before dealing with broken plurals, it is necessary for the student to appreciate the importance of word forms, or patterns, in Arabic. The great majority of Arabic roots are triliteral, that is, they consist of three radical letters or consonants. The combination of these letters gives a basic

meaning. By modifying the root, by the addition of prefixes and suffixes, and by changing the vowels, whether long or short, a large number of word patterns can be formed from each root. Many of these word patterns are associated with a meaning ‫ا‬‎ ThisbdgreethelpToe acquisition. The Arab grammarians expressed the various word ore

patterns by using the root ‫لعف‬‎ fa gala (to do). The ‫ف‬‎ represents the first radical, the ¢ the second, and the ‫ل‬‎ the third.

vos Thus of words already given, ‫نسح‬‎ hasanun is of the form nee ‫ لعف‬fa‫ ع علان ‏‬baitun (baytun) is of the form fa clun; oie‫‏‬

kabirun of the form hal fa cilun and so on.‫‏‬ 2. For a large number of Arabic nouns the sound plural

does not exist at all.The broken plural must be used. Unfortunately, many different word; patterns are used for SS -

IE

irae

ee

‎‫ حت‬and although certain of them are mostly associated with specific singular forms, this is not an invariable rule, and is of little help to the beginner. Consequently the plural of a new word should be learned from the

dictionary

at the same time as its singular. For this reason,

thestudent Shotht Kave-af Arabie-Engtich dictionary which gives plurals, Some dictionaries, being designed for Arabs learning English, do not give plurals. 50

THE

BROKEN

PLURAL

51

3. The following are among the commoner patterns of the broken plural: 2 52

>62

(a) ‫لاعفا‬‎ ?afae ‫دل‬ 38 PEELE

5 > َ‫ه‬‎

e.g. ‫دالوا‬‎ ?auladdun

ial ?amtarun,

(awladun) pl. of

pl. of matarun,

jb. rain;‫‏‬

OOS‫‏‬

‫> تاق‬awqatun, pl. of‫ تقو ‏‬waqtun, time.‫‏‬

(b) JJosfu‫ ‏‬,‫ عاقله‬eg. 4hemulikun, pl. of dil.malikun,‫‏‬ king; Ss, > hurufun, pl. of 5AS harfun, letter; ol cen,

pl. of at qalbun, heart; Ppa Buns D, pl. of =o saifun, 5

sword;

‫رو‬

‎‫ يستتصستالتاع علوم‬.lp fo ec sare

science, study; ne durisun, pl. of —

,egdelwonk

darsun, lesson.

(c) jus ficalun, e.g. te kilabun, pl. of het kalbun, dog; Ales rijalun, pl. of 5 rajulun, man; aie jibalun, pl. of ae jabalun, mountain; among

adjectives 57 find ‫لاوط‬‎

tiwalun, pl. of aepi tawilun, tall; “te kibarun, pl. of ger

kabirun, big, old; She sigabun, pl. of ‫بعص‬‎ sa?bun, difficult. (d) ee fu ¢ulun, e.g.

eg

kutubun,

pl. of ‫باك‬‎

kitabun, book; ne mudunun, pl. of ie madinatun, city; eke sufunun,

pl. of soe safinatun,

jududun, ie of sede pee of

river; ‎‫ اشمهر‬us

a

new.

(e) ait a Eulun, e.g. pet CUE ‎‫ره‬

a (large) ship;

pl. of 00 nahrun,

pl. of pot shahrun,

month;

vel

‫لجرا‬‎

*arjulun, pl. of BS rijlun, foot. 4. It will be noticed that adjectives as well as nouns may

52

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

have broken plurals. These plurals are used in place of the sound masculine plural, and normally refer to male human Otherwise,

beings, e.g. nes ies rijalun tiwdlun, tall men.

broken plurals are usually considered to be feminine singular for the purpose

of agreement: ‎‫كو فنا‬

3

e.g.

mune

5 3 ord

‫ةريبك‬‎‫ندم‬

993

kabiratun, lprge cities; ‫ةبعص‬‎ ‫ د سور‬durdsun sa ¢batun, difficult lessons. 6ron aed! al-mudunu kabiratun, the cities are large. However, in older Classical Arabic, especially poetry, as . well as late Classical and Modern Prose of a rhetorical or

studied nature, broken plural adjectives may be found with broken plural nouns even when these do not refér to male human beings. C ee

e.g.

Glee ‫مولع‬‎

(instead

‫هيوم‬

of sa ¢batun);

sifale

difficult

JA Fo, sufunun

sciences

tiwalun

(for

tawilatun), long ships. The beginner is advised, nevertheless when writing Arabic, to treat broken plurals as feminine singular unless they refer to male human beings. Broken plural adjectives are frequently used with nouns in the sound

masculine

plural, e.g. ‘se eke

khadimtina

kibarun, old servants. The dictionary ‘will show us that the

adjective

kabirun does not form the sound masculine

kabiriina; consequently the broken plural, kibarun, has to do duty for it.

5. Some words have more than. one broken plural; e.g. g---

‫ ةبلط‬talabatun and nd tullabun, plurals of‫ طالب ‏‬talibun,‫‏‬ student. In some cases, this involves difference of meaning, 560+

€.g., ‫تيب‬‎ baitun means either a house or a verse of poetry. In the former, and commoner meaning, the plural’ is Sis

-0F

usually 45. buytitun. In the latter meaning, the plural ‫تايبأ‬‎

THE

BROKEN

53

PLURAL

’abyadtun is more common. Again, some words may take both the sound masculine plural and the broken plural, e.g. aoe, ey 5

‎‫ خادمون‬khadimiina and ‫ ةمدخ‬khadamatun, plurals of pole‫‏‬ khadimun, servant.

VOCABULARY rain

(qe pl.) jas matarun, pl.’amtérun

time

| ‫)تاقوأ‬‎ pl.) Bs waqtun, pl. ’auqatun

letter

8 ‫ورجل‬‎pl.) 4ee harfun, pl. hurifun

9 OD

(of the alphabet) heart

(eas pl.) ‫تتلق‬‎ qalbun, pl. qulibun

sword

‫ب‬‎ pl.) ait saifun, 21. 8

knowledge,

‫(م‬‎ ‫ ع‬pl.) ‫ملع‬‎ cilmun, pl. culimun

science, study lesson

dog

1 (assis pl.) 330 darsun, pl. durisun

othe nL ‫عل‬‎ ‫ ووكر ايو اع ب لدحر‬0 >

mountain

(Sue pl.) je jabalun, pl. jibalun

city, town

(Os pl.) ‫ةنيدم‬‎ madinatun, p/. mudunun

(large) ship

(sin pl.) ‫ةنيفس‬‎ safinatun, p/. sufunun

month

ae pl.) ‫وهش‬‎ shahrun, pl. shuhirun

5

student to go (lit. he went)

6° -

(ub pl.) eb talibun, p/. tullabun 2

dhahaba

soe

to go out (from)

(‫)نم‬‎ ‫ جرخ‬kharaja (min) woe

to kill

‎‫قدر‬ woe

to find

qatala

Aa wajada

Se 0

54

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR ‫وه‬-

before (prep. of time)

‫لبق‬‎

after (prep. of time)

‫دعب‬‎ bagda

then

2

¢ thumma

Arabic, Arabian, an Arab English,

(ae2 pl.) 7‫ع‬‎ carabiyun, pl. garabun

(5-55) pl.) 2‫زيلكنإ‬‎ 121111715711

Englishman

1

°°"

profitable, useful

pl. ?inkilizun

‫عفان‬‎ nafi eun

watchful, guarding

‫سر‬‎‫اح‬harisun

fast, swift

‫عي‬‎ ‫ رس‬sari gun

cutting

‎‫ قاطع‬902 gun

a little, a few

(Oglala pl.) a

Alexandria (city)

qalilun, pl. qaliliina

re) ‫دئكسالا‬‎ Al-’iskandariyatu 2

London

309

OX)

Lundunu

EXERCISE ‫صن وو‬

-o

q bed

‫دده‬

of

db.

72

9 ‫عم‬‎

2c

ger

‫‏‬s01“

2

99

‫دوّر‬--‫صو‬

3 dn2( .srep .csam ‫)‏‬.gnis ‫ س — قتلت‬.‫العريية حروفا ليزي جميلة‬ ADs

ed

0 grr

5

‫و‬‎

0-07

aa

coe Gn

‫محلم ذهبوا‬

‫ل‬‎ re

53°

hb DOM

|

§-

ie

-

ha

6-0

s8--00

‫ةعفان‬‎ ‫ا ةيبرعلا‬ as

ps

. fae

ams

dere

LA ‫‏‬dees ‫ القاهرة قبل‬3 ILC bo ‫‏‬y— . ‫حارس‬

‫ أوقات الأمطار طويلة ى‬- | . .‫وزبر خادم سريع‬-‫ول‬ ‫ ل‬. ‫مشق‬ ‫إدلى‬ 00-0

‫ صوةه‬50-9

‫قار‬

308

‫ب‬

THE

BROKEN

PLURAL

55

—yy‫ةعاس ‏‬. ‫ نم سوردلا لبق‬ess] ce— --

>,

-

‫‏‬tesE

-09-

1 . (India)‫الهند ‏‬

=

0© 6 ‫رو‬-

‫ا‬

0 5

‫الع‬ ‫ورورر‬

‫ممم‬

‫صم‬

6

‫واد‬

‫صاش‬

‫راغصلا‬. WT‫ دل هرم رابكلانحنو ‏‬ee yy beecls whe‫‏‬ ‫‏ وظليعا‬eto

‫وصلت‬

-

‫و‬

. ‫وو لعزورتير مسجو ايسان الكبيرة‬ ---90

Stes ‎‫بالك‬

‫ان‬

.‫الخدمة‬

-

s---

‫ولبنامن‬

269

ep

TRANSCRIPTION

1. Wajadi kilaban kathiratan fi 5-5001 ’amsi. 2. Katabati 1bintu 1- ¢arabiyatu hurifan inkiliziyatan jamilatan. 3. Qatalta rajulaini bi s-saifi qabla shahraini. 4. Kharajat sufunun kathiratun tawilatun mina s-suwaisi. 5. Ad-durisu 1- ¢arabiyatu nafi¢atun li t-tullabi. 6. Al-kalbu hayawanun harisun. 7. Kana t-tullabu fi l-qahirati qabla shuhirin qalilatin. 8. Thumma dhahabu 113 Dimashga. 9. Li 1-waziri khadimun saricun. 10. ’Augatu 1l-’amtari tawilatun fi 1-Hindi. 11. Kharaja t-tullabu mina d-duriisi qabla sa¢gatin. 12. Hiya ultiimun sa ¢batun. 13. Wajada jibalan jamilatan ba cidatan mina l-madinati. 14. Hali s-suyufu naficatun? 15. La, alkutubu naficatun. 16. Li Muhammadin saifun 0341 cun wa li Hasanin galbun salihun. 17. Humu r-rijalu 1-kibaru wa nahnu 1-’auladu s-sigharu. 18. Huwa nahrun sa¢bun li s-sufuni |-kabirati. 19. Wasalat bintani wa talabata khubzan wa-labanan mina |-khadamati. 20. Nahnu rijalun si ‫ع‬‎abun. EXERCISE

10

1. The students went to the teachers’ houses. 2. They came out of the lessons two hours ago (lit. before two hours).

3. After a long time the new teachers arrived. 4. They ‫)ىهز‬‎

56

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

are swift rivers. 5. A few English boys arrived today in the

large ship. 6. They are from many cities. 7. The king killed the minister with (~) the sword, then went out to the mountain. 8. There is a watchful dog in Muhammad’s house. 9. They found the Arab boy an hour ago (before one hour). 10. Hassan’s books are easy. 11. The students attended the lessons yesterday. 12. Long months. 13. The cow has (J) a

big heart. 14. The time of the rains has gone. 15. The boys’ Arabic letters are ugly. 16. There was a cutting sword in the tall man’s hand. 17. They sought learning in Egypt. 18. Cairo

and Damascus are great cities. 19. They (ls) are Arab cities. 20. The large new-ships arrived in Alexandria from London two days ago.

CHAPTER

SEVEN

(‫عياسلا‬‎ Cl! Al-babu s-sabi eu) The Broken Plural (continued) 1. Further forms of the broken plural are:

(f) ‎‫ فعلاء‬fu ‎‫( ةلمع‬diptote),

e.g. ‫ءارزو‬‎wuzarau,

pl. of

(political); 2ai >umara’u,

pl. of

eve

y. 0‫و‬‎ wazirun, 5

‎‫’ ا‬amirun,

a minister

1

a prince, commander;

l,i. sufara’u, pl. of

safirun, ‎‫ سفير‬an ambassador. This is a very common plural for words of the form ‫ليعف‬‎

when they denote human beings. 2-

َ‫ه‬‎

J?

OS

(g) ‫ءالعفا‬‎ af ”‫عالة‬‎ (diptote), e.g. elit! asatidhu. Sometimes the singular does not have the long vowel after the third consonant, e.g. ‫> ةفقاسأ‬asaqifatun, pl. of ea >usqufun, a bishop, from the‫‏‬ Greek episkopos.‫‏‬ -o-

Yoke sayadilatun, pl. of aoe saidaliyun, a chemist.

3..The following words deserve special notice: ‫ نبا‬ibnun,

a son,

plural‫نونب ‏‬ 80-5

dnuos( .csam ep) ‫‏‬ro ‫ايناء‬

‫ نينب‬bantina,

800 oe

si nutanbi ‫‏‬ro ‫ بنت‬,nutnib ,rethguad ‫‏‬.lp ‫بنات‬ -

-

banina‫‏‬

60

A

NEW

ARABIC

5 =

c! ’akhun, brother, *ikhwatun. 5 02

GRAMMAR Se

pl. Olgs! 5

7ikhwanun

or

--¢

os! ?ukhtun, sister, pl. ‫تاوخا‬‎ re abun, father, pl. eT ‫ا‬‎ 8 32

5

| ‫د‬

-

we

ummun, mother, pl. ‫تاهما‬‎ ’ummahatun, >ummatun (not commonly used).

5

or

ab

‫امات‬

65‫ه‬

When the word‫ نبا ‏‬ibnun, son, forms part of a proper‫‏‬ name, and has a name before it as well as after it, the initial‫‏‬ -0-

-alif is not

Sallamin,

written;

al-Qasim

e.g.

son

‫مالس‬‎ 2 ‫ مساقلا‬al-Qaésimu

of Sallam.

When,

bnu

however,

this

man is merely referred to as “‘son of Sallam’ it is written

‫ مالس‬,‫ نبا‬Ibn Sallam (cf.‫ نبا نودلخ ‏‬Ibn Khaldiin, etc.).‫‏‬ This form is also used at the beginning of a line. The ’alif in ‫ نبا‬has hamzatu 1-151.‫‏‬

VOCABULARY near adj.

se3 qaribun

school

ORES, pl.)

‫هس‬‎ madrasatun, pl. madarisu

to take

3a -akhadha

to mention

cs dhakara

to know

200 7

re 8‫ع‬‎

to

‫ىلإ‬‎ 3

about, concerning

‫نع‬‎ gan

or

a -au

Tanta (town in Egypt)

Ub Tanta

(Other words in the accompanying chapter.)

‫ا‬ 4 ie

THE

BROKEN

PLURAL

EXERCISE ee

0 ‫تضخ‬‎

26-

‫لمر‬1 ‫‏كر‬S

61

11

“00

.‫دقضيبٌ ق يد الملك قبل ساعة‬

‫كن‬

‫نعةاقداعأ نسح ءاينغألا‬+ aa‫ع ‏‬ae eT‫الانطيرى ‏‬ ‫ر‬

- ‫صوءَ ه‬

‫‏ تبنت‬la—he . ‫الأمير العربى‬ ‫هم فىمجلس‬

‫‏‬I ‫موجود ون فق البيت مع‬

‫ ل‬.‫جواهر جميلة ممالنوزير‬

‫د‬

‫ كمد‬:‫‏ الأمين‬eo ‫المجلس فى‬ ‫ القاهرة والاسكند‬- ‫و‬

‫البوسور‬rosea‫‏‬

igA elsia er ‫‏‬eli ‫كثيرة‬

aac

‫ ىاشىف‬Obes‫ذاكر ريفسلا ‏‬

ee)

pee g LAr ba‫‏‬

‫ا‬ “

‫وطنطا‬

‫!‏‬daas ‫ند وعد لجل المكاتيب ع المكتبة‬, ‫‏‬xw‫مكتب الوز‬ ‫من‬

0

2-0-7

‫التلامذة‬

-90

‫وصل‬

we).

- ‫س و‬

2

8-22

‫هى خرجت‬ - oeBEDI

‫صو‬

3-0

.‫منالملك‬ ‫أو ن‬

£00

-

00+ ‫بلقت الأخبار‬

‫م رأ‬

sta ‫ةفيظن‬‎ ‫ ديك‬shige aa cote

‎‫من‬

‎.‫الانبياء‬

-

‫سمه‬

‫مرو‬‎ - ‫اعاوة‬١‎

IN

Ls

112108 8 Be

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ien ‎‫اخبار اليوم ؟‬

‫ السلطان‬1 ‫عرفت‬

‫و‬‎ >

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‫ذكر كتب‬

‫ م‬.

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‫ردد‬

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‫ننال(ا* ادي‬

.‫نياء‬ ‫غتم‬ ‫لاان‬ ‫او‬ ‫ و‬. ‫يومين‬. ‫المدينة قبل‬

TRANSCRIPTION 1. Kana qadibun fi yadi l-maliki qabla sa Eatin. 2. Dhakara s-safiru 1-?inkiliziyu 1-’akhbara t-tayyiba ¢ani s-sufuni. 3. ?Asdiqa’u Hasanini 1-’aghniya’u maujidina fi 1-211, ma 8‫ع‬‎

?aqriba’i ‫”Akhadha s-safiru

62

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

finjana shayin fi maktabi l-waziri. 11. Wajada r-rajulu 1¢ala l-maktabati l-jadidati. 12. Balaghati l-’akhbaru makatiba mina l-waziri ?au mina l-maliki. 13. Wasali t-talamidhatu 7ila 1-madrasati. 14. Manadilu t-talamidhi nazifatuni l-yauma. 15. Tajaribu 1-asatidhati naficatun. 16. Ibnu s-safiri wa ’ukhtu lPamiri sadiqani. 17. Hal ¢arafat >ummu s-sultani ’akhbara l-yaumi? 18. La, hiya kharajat mina l-madinati qabla yaumaini. 19. >Antumu 1-’aghniya’u. 20. Dhakara kutuba l-’anbiya’i. EXERCISE

1. News

about

the experiments

12

reached

the council

of

ministers yesterday. 2. They are upright princes. 3. The new ambassador is the friend of (the) rich men. 4. He is near ‫هو‬

to‫ )نم( ‏‬the town. 6. The today. fessor of the

5. There were jewels in the old chests.‫‏‬

king’s son mentioned the good news in the council 7. The clean cups are in the big boxes. 8. The protook the king’s sons to (the) school. 9. The mothers pupils attended with the teachers. 10. They learned

9390---

‫ )مهتغلب‬lit. “reached them’’) the news about the sultan’s‫‏‬ letters. 11. He is with Hassan’s friend in the office. 12. They‫‏‬ are in the garden of Muhammad’s house. 13. They went to‫‏‬ Cairo or Damascus two months ago. 14. She is the daughter‫‏‬ of the king and the sister of the prince. 15. The relatives‫‏‬ killed the ambassador and left the house. 16. She found old‫‏‬ cups in the house. 17. They are old handkerchiefs. 18. He‫‏‬ asked for tea in a clean cup. 19. The rich men are present.‫‏‬ .20 Are you prophets?‫‏‬

CHAPTER

EIGHT

‎)‫ الثامن‬CU) The Genitive

(Idafa 41,1) 1. Declension of nouns has been dealt with in Chapter Four. The purpose of this chapter is to explain the genitive further. We have already mentioned that the noun with a following definite genitive or idafa is ipso facto definite, and that a noun with idafa always loses its nunation. 2. In the dual, and the sound masculine plural, the final

; 2 nun and its vowel are omitted. Thus ‫نا‬‎ and ‫نب‬‎ (ani and ain1) Po

|and GC(a and ai); Osand o (ana and ina) become

‫ و‬ad‫( ى ‏‬a and i).‫‏‬

c.g.‫‏‬ 20 0

-o-

‫ لحرلا‬ky baita r-rajuli, the two houses of the man.‫‏‬ ‫ لم‬Ley baita Muhammadin, the two houses of‫‏‬ 3 Muhammad.‫‏‬ ‫ ىتيب لجرلا‬Gb baba baitayi r-rajuli, the two doors of‫‏‬ 5

١

the two houses of the man.‫‏‬

‫ اتنبا ريزولا‬ibnata l-waziri, the two daughters of the‫‏‬

0

~ minister.‫‏‬

Al JI spell mu ¢allimi 1-1211, the teachers of the 2 “boy. (the boy’s teachers). ‫ ةسردملا‬ules os

kataba

li mugallimi

|I-madrasati,

wrote to the teachers of the school.‫‏‬ 63

he‫‏‬

64

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

3. Certain words, when followed by a genitive, have long vowels as their case endings, viz.: father

father-in-

brother

mouth

law

Nom. ‎‫ و‬-a

Acc.t-

Gen.

ee) -abii

a hamu

sl -akhu

‫وف‬‎ fa

Gl’aba

lhama

Kl >akha

6 fa

ax hami (sl akhi

fi

o-i gglabi

Normal form 5 F wl ?abun

without gen.

>

o‫مح‬‎ hamun

.

sé ‫خا‬‎ -akhun

oer

a7 ‫مف‬‎famun

The last named is particularly irregular. To these should be added the word ‫وذ‬‎ ‫( لطتت‬possessor, master, of) which is only used with a following genitive:

Nom. dha 93 Acc. ‫اذ‬‎ dha Gen. ‫ىذ‬‎ dhi e.g.

‎‫ابو محمد‬

‫ ل‬212521

iba’

,nidammahuM

eht

father of Muhammad arrived.

0

‫ اولتق| ابا دمحم‬022134 *aba Muhammadin, killed Muhammad’s father.‫‏‬

dost ay one katabat li >abi Muhammadin, 3

9

they‫‏‬

she‫‏‬

wrote to Muhammad’s father.‫‏‬

3 ‎‫ و مالكثير‬yeJ ‎‫ كان‬anak nulujar ihd nilam nirihtak if 3

‎‫قرآلسَنْطَان‬ ‫ه‬- 11520 ,inatlus-s a hcir nam saw ni the sultan’s palace (a man, possessor

of much wealth). 4. It is a rule of ’idafa that a noun cannot be separated from

its following genitive. If, therefore, it is qualified by an adjective, the adjective must come after the genitive.

THE GENITIVE

eg.

65

‫ةميدقلا‬‎ ‫ ةعاس لجرلا‬sdcatu r-rajuli l-qadimatu, ee man’s old watch (clock). nN a

the

dat ens & » baitu Muhammadini |-kabiru, Mute hammad’s large house.

‫لمحت ريبكلا‬ES 61 fi baiti Muhammadini I-kabiri, in‫‏‬ Muhammad’s

large house.‫‏‬

It should be noted that here the adjective takes the definite article, because when a noun is es by a definite genitive it automatically becomes definite. ae Nes ia baitu Muhammadin kabirun could only mean “‘Mfuhammad’s house is big’. On the other hand the third sentence above is ambiguous, since it could mean “‘in old (big) Muhammad’s house’. 5. If the genitive refers to two nouns, it must follow the first, while the second takes the suffix oethe personal pronoun (see Chapter Nine). re

19 ‫ريز‬‎ist cy ) baitu L-waziri wa

bustanuhu, the minister’s house and garden (literally ‘‘and

his garden’). 6. In the case of parts of the body of which there are two, the dual, not the plural, should be Heed e.g. 6020

262

‫اع تنبلا‬

00”

00-7

eaina l-binti, not‫ تنبلا ‏‬0

euyanu l-binti, the‫‏‬

girl’s5 (two) eyes.‫‏‬ 7. Although the genitive is primarily for possession, it is also used partitively. 5-5-9

e.g. ‫محل‬‎ ‫ ةعطق‬qit ‫عال‬‎ lahmin, a piece of meat or flesh. ORAS:

10

‫ ناجنف ةوهق‬finjanu qahwatin, a cup of coffee.‫‏‬ In addition, it may be used to denote the material of which

something is composed: Che

a

‫هد‬‎

e.g. ‎‫ كرسى خشب‬uyisruk

,nibahsahk a riahc

wood, a wooden chair.

)edam( fo

66

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

In such cases, the ?idafa may be replaced by the preposition a min, followed by a genitive. When this happens, of course, the noun, being indefinite, and having no idafa retains its nunation.

eg: (aul) ‫محل‬‎ ise‫ٌةعطق‬‎ git ¢atun min lahmin (or better, > qit?atun mina l-lahmi).

(al) ‫بشخ‬‎ ٠ ‫ مرانم‬kursiyun min khashabin (or al“ khashabi). The optional (but more usual) use of the article in the above examples with ‫محل‬‎ and ‫بشخ‬‎ should be noted. When

a noun is used in a general sense, not to denote a single unit, the article is more often than not employed.

8. The genitive often occurs after an adjective to define or limit its application; e.g. cel) ‎‫ قليل‬qalilu 1- eal, little of understanding, stupid.

ut Pe kathiru l-m4li, abundant of wealth, rich. 6>

‎‫زهون‬Sire .‫ى‬

‫نسح هجولا‬

hasanu |-wajhi, handsome of face.*‫‏‬

9. Some nouns in Arabic are used with a following genitive noun

to denote

a quality which,

in English,

would

normally be expressed simply by an adjective. These include: ry a (already FAECES

dual masc. ‫اوذ‬‎dhawa, plural

dhawti ote fem. Bing, RAB dhatu, dual

GIS dhata, pl. ‫تاوذ‬‎

dhawatu. 0 abil; ‫مآ‬‎ ummu; ‫نبا‬‎ibnu; ‫بحاص‬‎ sahibu. These words are, of course, un-nunated because of the following genitive, and they all mean, in a loose sort of sense, master of, endowed with, possessor of. They are not so common in modern Arabic. * See also Appendix C, §3.

THE

GENITIVE

67

e.g.

: ‎‫ علم‬wale ‘

‫هر‬‎

7

1

‫عاام‬‎ “master of learning’’, learned.

5

2

‎‫ ذات حسن‬utahd 3

ninsuh ,).mef( rossessop“ fo ,”ytuaeb

beautiful. ve

‎‫ ابو لسانين‬tba? ,iniandsil rehtaf“ fo owt ,’seugnot -sid el i sembling. ser

e-

o-

‫رو‬‎

diw ‎‫ابن خمسين‬

0

unbi

anismahk

,natanas

nos“ fo 05 ,’sraey

~ 50 years old.

These expressions can nearly always be seplaccd, by simple

adjectives. For eae: the adjective (fem.) ae jamilatun could replace a

Sls dhatu husnin. The indiscriminate

use of the above compound expressions in modern Arabic would be considered an affected mannerism.

VOCABULARY

father

‫)ءابآ‬‎pl.) (gs!) Gl abun ?aba),

2%

pl. ?aba’un father-in-law

ps pl.)

~( ar) ne hamun (hami),

pl. ?ahma’un brother mouth

‎)‫ إخواق‬pl.) (21) 2 ‫

et lahmun ‫كم‬

meat

2 wis

wood

mind, intellect, intelligence

wealth, property face

)ٌ‫ عقول‬pl.)‫‏‬

sade’

khashabun‫‏‬

fe eéaqlun, pl. euqulun

5

>65

‫)لاوما‬‎ pl.)

Jt malin, pl. ’amwélun

ORD pl.)

‫ للعلا‬wajhun, pl. wujahun‫‏‬

friend, (GE |pl.) companion, master

tongue

‎)‫ السنة‬pl.)

tribe

‎)‫ قبائل‬pl.)

(ei!pl.)

a morsel, bit

a

‎‫صا‬

sahibun,

pl. ?ashabun bd

lisinun, || 9 $ pl. ?alsinatun

les qabilatun, pl. qaba@’ ilu 5-6)

4.4) luqmatun, pl. lugamun

see iron

44s

sheikh, old man, (¢ 52:pl.) elder, tribal leader

room

kitchen

hadidun

‫ شيخ‬shaikhun,‫‏‬ pl. shuyikhun‫‏‬

(= pl.)

‎)‫ مطابخ‬pl.)

‫ ةرجح‬hujratun, pl. hujarun‫‏‬ S; OR,

matbakhun,

pl. matabikhu ae

people, men

‎‫ تاس‬0 5

women

‫ساء‬

351”

4.0° V4

-

merchant

Ge pl.)

5

-

‫ رجات‬tajirun, pl. 1‫‏‬

‫‪GENITIVE‬‬

‫‪69‬‬

‫‪THE‬‬

‫‪oe‬‬

‫‪to a sae‬‬

‫‪‎‬عقو‬

‫ع‪2 2‬‬

‫‪‎‬ع‪‎ wada 3‬عضو‬

‫‪to place, put‬‬

‫‪‎ hamala‬لمح‬

‫‪to carry, bear‬‬

‫‪7 nazara‬‬

‫‪to see‬‬

‫‪nazara ila‬‬

‫‪to look at‬‬

‫‪Jy A‬‬

‫)‪very kaiter adj.‬‬

‫‪re jiddan‬‬

‫‪ yrev )doog‬بلك جدا‪(e.g.‎‬‬

‫‪z‬‬ ‫‪ Al- ciraqu‬العراق‪‎‬‬

‫‪13‬‬

‫‪Iraq‬‬

‫‪EXERCISE‬‬

‫رت ‪tor‬‏ ‪ sk‬الأبناء‬‫مظ‬ ‫‏‪ si‬ل وذهب للمدرسة‪ .‬ن‬

‫‪0069393‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-709‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫ها‬

‫فى شارع المدينة‪.‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪0-0‬‬

‫‪---‬‬

‫‪--‬‬

‫‪ -‬هو ‪yad‬‏ ذُو‪.‬مال كثير وهو قليل‪liS‬‏ ‪.‬‬

‫‏‪ ete tb es‬ىف خبطم ‪.‬كلملا ب‪-‬تعضو ملا ‏‪ dail‬ملك‬ ‫وقطعةخبزعلىالمائدةاو‬

‫دا‬

‫‪et‬‏ ‪setala‬‬

‫كدير‬

‫‪eo‬‏ ‪eyt‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫وينا‪.‬الاميرة‬ ‫الامير ولدى الوزير ق ‪op‬‏ ‪ er eeg‬القصر‪ .‬ع‬ ‫‏= ‪“01‬‬

‫‏‪Olek‬اًدِج ‪.‬‬ ‫‏‪O39‬‬

‫)‪9S‬‬

‫‏‪Gis).‬قسذ‬

‫‪Paes‬‬

‫‪onan‬‬

‫وصندوق حديد فىبيت الشيخ‪.‬‬ ‫‪---‬‬

‫‪‎‬يو‬

‫و‬

‫صوعو ‪-‬‬

‫‪--‬‬

‫‪ 0‬ره‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ry‬‏‬

‫—‬

‫‪oo‬‬

‫ع | اهما قبيلتاالعراق ‪o‘— .‬‏‬ ‫‪---‬‬

‫‪14‬‬

‫‪aa‬‬

‫هى مع أخى جسن‪.‬‬

‫‪oe‬‬

‫نظرا وجه صاحب الت © ‪dal‬‏‬ ‫‪ step‬الاولاد‬

‫‪ Re eg‬ماو‬

‫سو‬

‫ا ع‬

‫نربط ‪ :‬‏‪ OF — ١‬قودنص بشخ‬

‫قتل‬

‫‪d0-‬‏‬

‫و‬

‫‪-00‬‬

‫‪-09‬‬

‫الوزير ابي الملك‪nl ‎‬‬

70

eel

A NEW

(Gis)

GRAMMAR

_‫رييك‬. ‫ مف‬EB ‫ىه‬‎

SUE ‫اورظن‬‎ - ‫م‬١

- - ‫صن‬

27

ARABIC

‫‏‬eG

‫وات‬

. ‫برعلا‬‎ ore ‫ق‬‎ ‫تاخابطلا‬

GF

‫نه‬

‎‫جاص‬

‫و‬

١

‫عاهاة‬

‫تميس‬

‫ كل‬7

Tig 2c

‫عا‬

---o

---o

ay 003-

.‫المعلم ساعتى ولدين لتجربة نافعة‬

EXERCISE

14

1. There are many pieces of wood in the dirty garden of the Sheikh. 2. Two morsels of meat fell on the ground from the table. 3. The teachers of the big new school are good. 4. He is a man of wealth. 5. You are of small intelligence. 6. The Sheikhs of Cairo are learned (lit. “‘masters of learning’). 7. The woman demanded bread of the merchant. 8. There is an iron chest in the man’s room. 9. He placed the Sultan’s two old books on the large table. 10. He found a man of learning from Damascus in the market. 11. News of the two sons of the minister arrived yesterday from the city. 12. The two men wrote to the merchant and asked for wood for the kitchen. 13. ‘The cow’s tongue is long. 14. The boy saw

Muhammad’s

father’s face in the window

of the house.

15. The master of the house arrived and killed the Sheikh’s two dogs. 16. The bread of the Cairo bakers is beautiful. 17. They are beautiful women. 18. Hassan’s teachers have arrived today. 19. The man wrote two long letters to the

minister. 20. There were two useful experiments in the school today.

CHAPTER

NINE

(‫عساتلا‬‎ Estat The Attached Pronouns 1. In addition to the detached pronouns (‫ةلصفنم‬‎ es dam ir munfasila) given in ee

Two and Five, Arabic has also

attached pronouns ‫)ةلصتم‬‎ 06 dama’ir muttasila). They are: Singular 1st Person Masc. and Fem. ‫ىر‬‎ -1

Dual

Plural 3 ‫ان‬‎ -na

(as plural)

(3 -ni when attached to a verb) 2nd Person Masc.

s -ka

Fem.

7 ‎‫ كا‬UO

-kum oes erg

3) -ki

ee -kunna

3rd Person

Mase.

٠ -hu ( e-hi)

Fem.

‫اه‬‎ -ha

le -henas

‫مه‬‎ -hum ‫)مه‬‎ him)

(\® -hima) ‫نم‬‎ -hunna (%» -hinna)

2. They are used in the following ways: (a) Attached to the verb as direct object: -

-90

--

‫ بابلا‬as fataha |-baba, he opened the door.‫‏‬ ‫او‬

‫ هحتف‬fatahahu, he opened it.‫‏‬ ew

3

Vor

‫ تلفق اكابش‬gafalat shubbakan (modern usage), she closed‫‏‬ a window.‫‏‬ 71

72

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

‫ هتلفق‬qafalathu, she closed it.‫‏‬ ‫مدو‬ ‫د‬

‫ ىوبرض‬darabini, they hit me.‫‏‬ (b) Attached to a preposition: ‎‫| = بغداد‬Rey wasalii min Baghdada (diptote), they arrived

from Baghdad. yor

ges ‫اوُلِص‬ ‫اهنم‬‎ | ‫ و‬1725215 minha, they arrived from it (i.e. from there). oo

--

XI‎‫ قال الملك‬alaq ukilam-l ,mukal eht gnik dias ot .uoy Note that the preposition ‫ل‬‎ li, to, changes its vowel to

fatha (a la) before the attached pronouns, except with the 1st person, ‫ىل‬‎ li, to me.

(c) Attached to a noun to indicate possession. ‎‫ كتابى‬kitabi, my book. (Note that the final vowel disappears with this particular suffix, consequently there is no distinction of case.) 989

‫ نم ىتيب‬min baiti, from my house.‫‏‬ 3307

423

baituhu, his house.

The attached pronoun is, in fact, a genitive of *idafa, and 3307

therefore makes its noun definite. Thus, 4+, baituhu tends to imply that he had only one house. If you wish to say “‘a house of his, oe of his houses”, you must use some such emir ession 2

as ‎‫ بيت له‬nutiab uhal .til( a esuoh ot ,)mih ro‫ته‬‎‫بيت من بي توه‬ baitun min buyitihi, a house from his houses. (d) After the particles ‫نإ‬‎ ?inna, Ol anna, Chapter Eighteen).

etc.

(See

3. The attached pronouns, ‫ه‬‎» hu, lon huma, ‫مه‬‎ hum,

hunna, take the kasra in place of the damma (as shown in

THE

ATTACHED

PRONOUNS

73

the above table) when preceded by a kasra or ya’, whether long vowel or diphthong. Students should realise that this change of vowel is purely euphonic and has no connection with declension.

e.g. ‎‫ إليه‬ilaihi, to him, it, ‫هيلع‬‎ galaihi, on him, it be 5) ---

li kursiyihi, to his chair, ‫امهيف‬‎ fihima, in them (dual); ‫همدان‬‎ JU

qala li khidimihi, he saidto his servant. 4. The suffixes Se kum

‫ع ال سد سه‬

and ie hum become 2 kumu

Pi)

and ‎‫ هم‬humu, when followed by hamzatu l-wasl, or in poetry, where the metre demands an extra syllable. ‎‫مم‬aul 2 ‫و‬‎ wajadahumu I-yauma, he found them today. 5. The following anomalies occur with the first person

singular suffix: ‫إن‬

w‫‏‬

(a) the final nin of‫ نم ‏‬min, from, is doubled:‫منى ‏‬, minni,‫‏‬

from me.

3

ae‫‏‬

(b) the pronoun becomes CS -ya, instead of ¢¢ -i, after an unvowelled |, 9,

‫ر‬

of ,‫ىوملعم‬‎ the ‫و‬‎

20

being replaced by ‫ى‬‎ which is then doubled

‫ى‬‎

7. When a pronoun is attached to the third person mascu-

line plural of the perfect verb, the conventional and unpronounced final ’alif of the verb is removed. e.g. ‎‫| العدو‬ie darabi, 1- ¢adiwa, they struck the enemy, ‫ار‬ ‫رد‬ -

but ‎‫ ضربوه‬darabuhu, they struck him. 8. Certain forms of the Perfect Verb have been given in coe

Chapter Five. Here are the remaining forms, with ‫حتف‬‎ fataha, to open: »0o--

‫ تحتف‬fatahtu, I opened.‫‏‬ WEN‫‏‬ fatahta, you (masc. sing., thou) opened. 1١:

7

Soy oe

fatahti, you (fem. sing., thou) opened.

1

-o--

‫ انحتف‬fatahna, we opened (note this is the same ending as‫‏‬ the attached pronoun).‫‏‬

aos fatahtum, you (masc. pl.) opened. peer fatahtunna, you (fem. pl.) opened.

|‫اوحتف‬‎ fatahi, they (masc.) opened. -

o--

‫ نحتف‬fatahna, they (fem.) opened.‫‏‬ (For full tables see Chapter Twelve.)‫‏‬ Note: The practice in Classical Arabic verb tables is to begin with the 3rd person. This is followed in later chapters of this book.

THE

ATTACHED

PRONOUNS

TS)

9. Although Arabic has verbs meaning to possess, these

are not usually used where in English the verb “to have”

would be used. Instead, phrases introduced by the following eae

3

é

=

6

1

prepositions are used: ‫عم‬‎ ma¢a, J li, and ‫دنع‬‎ ‫ عاهل‬e.g.

om Gag (4) ‫ديزل‬‎ li zaidin (or lahu) kutubun kathiratun, Zaid (or he) has many books. The sentence literally means: to Zaid many books (‘‘are”’ being understood).

books”

ie

It is thus a nominal

the ee

sentence,

“many

and “to Zaid” the predicate.

Therefore ‫ة‬‎‫ كثيرة‬evae nubutuk nutarihtaksi ni eht -animon tive. ‎‫ددمي‬

- 0 Bow

>>

‎‫ مع الاولاد حنيهان‬agam idalua’~1 ,inahianuj eht syob evah two pounds (lit. “with the boys’, etc.). The preposition ‫عم‬‎ usually implies not merely possession,

but having the thing possessed actually with one. ‫ صموءه‬-

126‫ه‬

6

‫ نم نيمداخلا‬Ae‫ع خيشلا ‏‬

ginda sh sh-shaikhi gadadun mina‫‏‬

-1khadimina, the sheikh has a number of servants.‫‏‬

Although Ate‫ ‏‬8‫ع‬

is used with the mere meaning of‫‏‬

possession, and is particularly common with this implication in modern written and spoken Arabic, in Classical Arabic it Span

3

frequently means “‘at or in the house of”. Thus ‫نسح‬‎ ‫ىدنع‬ ‫ عامل‬Hasanun means “Hassan is (staying) at 203: 201156”.‫‏‬ Note also its use for time and place, as: on ted “6

‫دنع فلا‬ Bae ‎‫عند باب المدينة‬

51202

l-fajri, at dawn, daybreak.‫‏‬

‫ع‬8 ibab ,itanidam-l ta eht ytic .etag VOCABULARY

here

there

oe)

‎‫ هنا‬3

(‫)كلاته‬‎ ‫ كانه‬hunaka (hundlika)

76

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR eee

to open (trans.)

fataha

to close (trans.)

qafala ‫برض‬‎ daraba

to strike, hit to enter (with direct object

or (3)

iP

‫لخد‬‎

dakhala

‫لاق‬‎ qala

to say to ride

abi

to leave, abandon

Bo -

(clic pl.) ‫ودع‬‎ cadiwun, pl.?a ‫علقم‬‎ (fem.) ‫ايند‬‎ ‎‫ةتوصسل‬3 (indeclinable)

world pound, guinea

(eles pl.) iiss junaihun, pl. junaihatun Jes ginda

by, with, in possession of, at between

on 5-08

paper

S--

baina

iy

‎)‫ اوراق‬pl.) ‎‫ورق‬

waraqun, pl. ’auraqun

)‫ أقلام‬pl.)‫قلم ‏‬

qalamun, p/. aqlamin

peek 45)9 waragatun

a piece of paper

pen‫‏‬

5 > ‫َه‬

52--

5‫ه‬

ink

‎‫حسر‬

hibrun

silver

3 ‎‫فضة‬

fiddatun

gold

or 5

name

> َ‫ه‬‎

dhahabun

‎‫رك‬

°

‎)‫ اسماء‬pl.) ay ismun, pl.’asm@un Sit

donkey ‫‏‬esroh

200

cigs) taraka S$ -o8

enemy

rakiba

g-

0 V/

(nm pl.) ‫رامح‬‎ himarun, pl. hamirun ) \) |? $99

s-

06

6

-

)‫ احصنة » حصن‬pl.)‫ حصان ‏‬hisanun, pl. ?ahsinatun, husunun

THE ATTACHED

slave

PRONOUNS

77

(tase pl.) Je gabdun, pl. cabidun

noon, midday

a

zuhrun

head

eres ‫ور‬‎ pl.) on ra’sun, pl. ‫ال‬1‎

chest

(a5 gals pl.) je sadrun, pl. sudirun

shop

aS

Wr)

(OS ‫كد‬‎ pl.) ‫ند‬‎ dukkanun, :

roof, ceiling

pl. dakakinu

hse pl.) sue saqfun, pl. suqifun

wall

(Oth.a-ph) LS: ”‫اج‬‎ ,‫ مدح‬pi-hitanun

motor-car

{‫ةرايس‬‎‫ني‬

‎‫ عربة‬éarabatun

bicycle

Re cela ‫دراحة‬

minute (of time)

0

(s‫‏‬ ‫ دقا‬pl.)‫ دقيقة ‏‬daqiqatun,‫‏‬ pl. daq@’iqu

what?

ne ¢ 0 ma, madha

why?

‫اذامل‬‎ limadha

soldier

(2iyi ‘ ae pl.) ein jundiyun, pl. jundun, juntdun

sad

‎‫ حون‬hazinun

in, at

3

by, with, in

‫ب‬‎ bi

Abu Bakr (pr. 1. masc.) Zaid (pr. n. masc.) dirty

re) 4

11

‫ركب‬‎A >Abu Bakrin 5 Zaidun iy ‫ وس‬wasikhun -

78

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

EXERCISE

15

‫ الأبواب هناك ؟ مس نعم » فتحتها قبل ساعات» ثم‬coil ‫—‏‬ ‫ ا‬oilw

y—

» ota gA ,hserfa( ‫)‏‬niaga ‫ جديد‬70 lg:‫‏‬

‫‏‬lgX ‫‏ كثيرة جديدة فى دكن‬SU ‫ وجدنا‬- ‫ع‬

‫ل‬

ee ‫‏‬hy ‫اذا أسمك؟‬08104 ‫‏أيكان لوقربكد‬ylr‫سن‬

‫جات‬

0 do J ‫‏‬eroc 7 )ٌ‫المدرسة عبلاتهن (دراجاتهن‬

‫‏ عزن‬leB ‫ تزتها موت‬CS ‫‏‬TB ‫ل بن‬ ‫ومد‬

- ‫وص‬

‫الوزربر وقتلوا‬ 52

215

‫تت‬

Ele

=iore

ness) Mea‫‏‬

| ‫الملك ذهبا وفضة‬

ions

0 a

20

eens‫‏‬

‫ لا‬at

Sys‫ا ًاليوط هملقب هربحو ىلع ‏‬ ‫تروس‬‎

‫‏‬eoD

‫ واحنيا‬a=

‫ع‬

A‫‏‬

‫ وح وحدك‬.

‫ايه‬

Hes

d-0-

ore ‫ىقفيدصو‬.‎ ‫ ىبودجو نيب ىودع‬-١١ g-

‫راسه‬

SO

eK

ees

‫ربت‬ ‫ضو‬ § ‫‏‬ele

=

a

.‫حيطاله وسخة‬

‫يبتك؟‬

.‫ل الصغار سقف البيث بالحجر‬ --

.‎‫أبنائه‬

‫ع‬

°

.‫ خادمان وخادمة‬PCS(

. ‫ البيت‬3 -

ssl‫‏‬

‫‏‬ee ‫ماذا فى صدوركم ؟‬

of

‫سن‬

‫وهب‬‎ ‫نم‬

‫‏‬xi

‫لماذاتركت‬

‫هدبع‬.‎

>

‫لد هنا‬

3

. ‫اليوم‬

‫ال‬ *

eola

Ow

EXERCISE

16

1. Your friend opened the windows and closed the door an hour ago (before an hour). 2. My teachers found me in the street with my father’s horse. 3. He hit me on my head. 4. My car is very fast. 5. The room is small and its ceiling is old and dirty. 6. Why did you ride your bicycles to school

today? 7. The news about (‫)نع‬‎ you reached me yesterday.

THE

ATTACHED

PRONOUNS

79

8. The enemy is there at the gate of the city. 9. I have two pounds with me today, and he has a pound. 10. The mother is present here, and her many sons are at school (lit. in the school). 11. The schoolmistresses went out of the school and closed its doors. 12. Why have you ridden your donkeys from your homes to the city? 13. What have you written with (~) your pen on the paper? 14. He said to the women: You arrived a moment ago (before a minute). 15. His head is big and his feet are small. 16. The wall and ceiling of the room are dirty. 17. The girls are in their father’s shop in the market. 18. I entered her house and she struck me. 19. I left

her in the street far (exe) from her house. 20. There are many beautiful cities in Egypt. They have wide streets.

CHAPTER

TEN

‎)‫ العاشر‬Gu!) Demonstrative Pronouns 1. The Demonstrative Pronoun 0 ‫اشإلا‬‎ ‫ مسا‬ismu-lishara) as normally used is as follows: This, these.

Masculine oa

Singular, all cases

‫اده‬‎ hadha

Dual Nominative

Olas hadhani

Accusative and Genitive

‫نيده‬‎ hadhaini

-1

o-}

Plural, all cases, masc. and fem.

Feminine oe

cae

ods hadhihi “1

Ole» hatani 5-0

‫رند‬‎ hataini

avis ha#ula’i

It will be noted that the ’alif of the long 4 after the initial »

of all these forms is written as a short vertical stroke above the letter. In unpointed Arabic, this ’alif is not normally --

shown. It is incorrect to write an ordinary ’alif, thus .‫اذاه‬‎ There are really two elements in the above forms, the ‫اذ‬‎ which is the basis, and the preceding ls, which reinforces it. Sometimes, though infrequently in modern written Arabic, the ha’ is omitted, and the following forms result: Masc.

Singular

Dual Nom. Acc., Gen.

Fem.

‫اذ‬‎ dha

‫ىذ‬‎ *dhi (or ‫هذ‬‎ dhihi)

, ‫ناذ‬‎ dhani

OU tani

Be dhaini

so taini re

|

Plural all cases, masc. and fem. J | ula or ‫ءال‬‎ | lai * Norte: In the full form, ‫ىذه‬‎ hadhi sometimes hadhihi. 80

occurs

for a oo

DEMONSTRATIVE

PRONOUNS

81

2. That, those.

These are based on the forms already given with the addition of the suffix ‫ك‬‎ ka, which implies distance, but with-

out the preliminary .‫اه‬‎ In some examples a ‫ل‬‎ is interpolated. Masc. Fem.

Singular

‫كاذ‬‎ dhaka

‫كلت‬‎ tilka

or

3

‎‫ ذلك‬dhalika Dual Nom.

Gen.and Acc.

‎‫ مل تاك‬a

(more common)

als tika

‫ذانك‬‎ dhanika

‫كنات‬‎ tanika

135 dhainika

‫كنيت‬‎ tainika

y-

-

tarely)

2

Plural, all cases, ‫كثالوا‬‎ tla’ika masc. and fem. ‫عات‬ teat‫‏‬

yrev( ‫‏‬ylerar ‫ اولالك‬akildla* ‫‏‬ro ‫< اولاك‬15‫(دعلة‬

.3 If the demonstrative qualifies a —

noun, . precedes‫‏‬

it and the noun takes the article, e.g. ‫باتكْلا‬‎ 55 hadha 1kitabu, this book. But if the noun is defined by a following genitive or a pee suffix the demonstrative is placed after these,

e.g. ‎‫الك هذا‬yeF unbi ikilam-I ahdah siht nos fo eht ;gnik jee POLS kitabukum

hadha, this book of yours. “Stes and as

have the meaning of “‘these” and “those” respectively when used with broken plurals of ile ake coi

IIIb”

'

.‫ع‬.»©‎ ‫هده بتكلا‬

hadhihi |-kutubu, these books; ‫مايألآ‬‎‫ كلت‬tilka 1-< ayyamu, those days. 4. If the demonstrative is used pronominally and as subject of a nominal sentence, then: (a) If the predicate is an indefinite noun, no copula is 3

3

:

Bee

necessary, e.g. ‫باتحك‬‎ ‫ اذه‬hadha kitabun, this is a book.

82

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(b) If the predicate is defined by the article the 3rd pers. pron. is used as a copula to prevent the demonstrative from SAE OID

ra

being taken adjectivally (as in 3), e.g. ‫دلولا‬‎‫ اذه وه‬hadha huwa l-waladu, this is the boy.

(c) If the predicate is defined by a following genitive or a pronominal

suffix, the demonstrative 039

-

Zt

is put first and

no

5

copula is needed, e.g. ‫مكباتك‬‎ ‫ اذه‬this is your book. 5. The

Interrogative 0

pronouns

=

‫)ةاهفتسالا‬‎ ‫سا‬

ismu

a

-stifhim) are ‫نم‬‎ man, whot, ‫ام‬‎ ma, what? Coe

li 2

2

‫اذام‬‎

Siz

madha); il? ayyun, fem. 8 geil‫باتكلا‬‎ ‫عشنا كارلو‬ -

oes

=

0-002

6-1

ll

‫‏‬reej

0

. ‫صعب‬ = w

i

-

santool Ke est Mae

0-7

5

>> -

gwrs0p7m

---

-

‎‫ررر‬

‫ كبك هذه‬: ‫المعلم وقاللتلميذ من التلامذة‬

92-3

0-00

‫؟‬‎ ‫ سمأ‬one

>

1

‫كلذ‬‎

. ‫ملع‬‎‫ م كئالوألاجرلا ووذ‬. ge ‫تاذ‬‎‫—كلت ةرجشلا‬y

‎‫ رع‬.‫ اليوم‬:‫ى‬5‫حت‬eS ‎‫ المشهور منالمدينة‬tsej si --

‫مول‬

-09 -

-

.‫هى من الغائبات‬

‫ م‬-‫ صه‬809

‫من؟‬

€3-6

‫ص‬

‫وه‬

‫‏‬TNA ‫هذه‬

— ‫‏‬yy

‫ صق‬- ‫دو‬

‫رده‬

‫‏‬lla ‫ المدرسة بعد الدروس؟ ع أيه‬5 -

-09

---

‎‫ قفل‬tes ‎‫ حصانى‬5

6

3-090

‫الجامع مشهور‬

AS

-

‫صوود سو‬

‫ده‬

eae

reel ‫كلذ‬‎ 3

21

‫ساس‬‎

ewe

‫ هذ—ا‬. ‫الزراعة فى جامعة القاهرة‬

>62

‫و‬5‎

eR

ign.

. ‫فى الشرق والغرب‬ s--

‫‏‬7-0

‎‫ وهم غائيبون؟‬9O slop ‎‫ لما انتم‬+ . ‫ومدرسة كبيرة‬

EXERCISE

18

1. Did you know that famous man? No, I knew his elder (big) brother. 2. This is a good man, and that (fem.) is a bad

woman. 3. This tree has good shade. 4. These Arabs are nice persons. 5. Those men have not arrived so far (until the hour). 6. This woman returned from Cairo yesterday. 7. Which

DEMONSTRATIVE

PRONOUNS

85

man did you find in that room? 8. Which woman killed the minister’s father? 9. How many persons attended that meet-

ing of the council yesterday? 10. What did you demand of °

(cy) your students in the university? 11. This is the great (big) mosque of the city. 12. I found these books in Muhammad’s shop in the little market. 13. This is a great calamity to the inhabitants of my village. 14. All this has two reasons, the sword of the foe and the neglect of the prince. 15. Whose son is Hassan? He is the minister’s son. 16. These two men are friends, and those two are enemies. 17. That daughter of

the sheikh is beautiful of face. 18. The two men mounted (rode) their horses and left (went out of) the city. 19. This is a new English car. 20. We have studied agriculture from these two new books.

CHAPTER

ELEVEN

)‫ عشر‬el‫(ألباب ‏‬ oo

»-

‫©خ‬‎

Adjectives 1. Some

of the commonest

forms

of adjectives ‫)ةفص‬‎ ‫مسا‬

ism sifa) are given below. Of these, the first is the active participle; the rest are forms which give the meaning of the active participle, with, at any rate originally, some intensification in meaning. They are derived from what might be termed ‘stative’ verbs, that is, verbs which denote a state or condition rather than an act. They are not normally derived from transitive verbs. (a) Gels fa cilun (properly

the

active

participle)

e.g.

Gole sadiqun, upright; dale ¢adilun, just, ‫لهاج‬‎ jahilun, ignorant. (b) Bae fa cilun, 626 ee sa cidun, happy; ee

kabirun,

great; ce kathirun, much, many. 5

Te

(c) die fa ey denoting intensity, e.g. ‫لوهج‬‎ jahilun, very ignorant; 3ee kasulun, very lazy. See

Oe

(d) Ores fa ¢lanu (without nunation), e.g. ‫نابضغ‬‎ ghadbanu, angry.

2. Another

intensive

form

of the active

participle

is

fa & ¢alun; but these words are nouns rather than adjectives. ‘They are used to denote occupations, e.g.

‫ رابخ‬khabbazun, baker.

bie khayyatun, tailor.‫‏‬ 86

ADJECTIVES 5

a-

§

‎‫ طباخ‬tabbakhun, cook. 5 a-

Jl

87 a7

‫رازح‬‎ jazzarun, butcher.

baqgalun, greengrocer.

Unlike the adjectives mentioned in paragraph 1, nouns of this form are usually derived from transitive, not stative, -

g8-

verbs. They form the sound masculine plural, e.g. OssLb tabbakhiina, cooks. They add ta’ marbita to form the feminine, and also take the sound feminine plural, e.g. 6-a-

‫ ةطايخ‬khayyatun, pl.‫ ٌتاطايح ‏‬khayyatatun, tailoress, needle-‫‏‬ woman.‫‏‬ 3. Another common form of adjective expressing the meaning of the active participles of stative verbs is that used for colours or defects. They have the masculine ‫هوما‬‎ ‫ وع‬in ‫ لعلنا‬af calu, and the feminine singular in‫ فعلاء ‏‬fa‫لقاع ‏‬ (both diptotes). The plural, as fu ¢lun, is a triptote, and

is used for both genders. Here are typical examples. Sing. Masc.

Fem.

50

‎‫? اسود‬aswadu, black

‎‫و‬

>‫عه‬

‫ابيض‬

0‫ع‬

,urafsa wolley \

,uhsartaP faed

Ras I

‎‫ اخرس‬2akhrasu, dumb 66

=

:

‎‫ اعمى‬84 ‫ع‬1 blind é

‫” اعرج‬8¢ ,ujar emal

‫دوس‬‎ 5

‫بيض‬

‎‫رو عبد‬

‎‫ صفراء‬uarfas me

Oaae

b,al« u’ahsrat

OY:

Arto

deg

clu,+ kharsa?’u 2

= cles oe

ge

b‫‏‬c s5

=)

hs

2

509

el, hamra’u

of

2

‫‏‬uadiab

Sai

‎‫ت‬0

‎‫? اجر‬ahmaru, red 2

Plural

= Oe

>= humrun te)

‫قرز‬‎ zurqun 56

‫د‬‎

2

khudrun

905

eey nurfus 5

‎‫ره‬

‎‫ طرئس‬nuhsrut $09

‫سرخ‬‎ khursun 509

gamya’u

‫ىمع‬‎ eumyun

‫امع‬

‫هنا تناع عرج‬

5 ‫هر‬‎

58

9

a

A

60

‫‏‬ubadha-

{

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

7-0-9

5

/ Z‫‏‬ ‫‏‬dekcabpmuh ‫حابا‬

‫ممم‬

‫ره‬

‫ حد‬hudb‫‏‬ ‫ل‬

‫كت‬ :etroN ehT .mef fo eht laud segnahc azmah otn9i ‫‏‬.g.e ‫سوداوان‬ saudawani.‫‏‬

4. For

the

) ‎‫ التفضيل‬5

comparative

and

superlative

of adjectives,

ismu t-tafdil), sometimes termed the Elative,

the same form as that for colours and defects, though only in the masculine singular, is employed: aes 01 ‫علال‬‎

The feminine is ‫ىلعف‬‎ fuela. But though the Arab grammarians imply that this form exists for all elatives, in practice it is only encountered with a few words, except in ancient poetry. The masculine plural is ‫لعافأ‬‎ 013 clu, the feminine --609

6-5

plural is ‫تايلعف‬‎ fu clayatun and ‫لعف‬‎. But students will have little use for anything but the masculine singular, because

this should always be used when the meaning is comparative. And even when the meaning is superlative, the masculine singular can be used except when the adjective has the definite article di (This will be dealt with in greater detail in Chapter 40).

e.g. Ay| *akbaru, greater, fem. eae kubra, from a kabirun, big.

Ae

?ashalu, easier, fem. abe suhla, from Nees

sahlun, easy. ‫ع وعد‬

S$‫‏‬

‫در‬

ye! ?asbaru, more patient, from ‫روبص‬‎ sabirun. 2-0

5

-

de>! ?ajhalu, more ignorant, from ‫له‬‎‫ اج‬jahilun. It will be seen that, to form the elative from any adjective,

the three radical consonants

only should be taken, then

prefixed with a hamza. Long vowels must be removed, like 921

the ya? in 1 and the waw in .‫روبص‬‎

ADJECTIVES

89

5. If the root has a doubled consonant, as ‫ٌديدج‬‎ jadidun,

new, the SSNS

form is ea -ajaddu, instead of ‫ددحأ‬‎

?ajdadu. From ‫ليلق‬‎ qalilun, little, few, comes it aqallu, less, fewer (instead of aqlalu) and so on.

6. The Arabic preposition for “than” in such English phrases as “‘smaller than” is 7 min (from), e.g. ‫نم‬‎‫رغصأ‬ 2‫ع‬‎2113 ”35 2

‫ه‬2


moon

:

6 ‫أس‬‎ a traveller, tourist

(at a place) 5

75

el. water

aa’

0

THE 5 ‫ه‬-

yes fem., wine mage '

VERB ه‬

CPM

§ to rejoice J

3

7 re

a

‎‫ ضيف‬pl. Sono guest

Gas

260%, to break

ley food

fay: pl. Any ~ glass (drinking), tumbler

‫ساج‬‎ ‫رهمظ‬‎ to appear

ee to send

‫برش‬‎ to drink

‎‫ فلاح‬pl. Oger

peasant,

coal

to sit

che pl. Jd

cultivator

pulses

$i» ‎‫ حاكم‬pl. ‎‫ حكام‬governor, ruler

outh

night, night time

1

‫ةليل‬‎ a (single) night 5 ‫د‬‎ ‫هد‬

1

DYE

‎‫ موضوع‬pl. ‎‫موضوعات » مواضيع‬

‎)‫ بعد (عن‬ot ‎‫ عط‬tnatsid )morf( 2 tcejbus )rettam( EXERCISE 036

-

=a

POROIOL

21

RS |OPT,

‫رود‬‎ ‫نهم‬

ea

wae ‎‫ لكر‬Memes ot Sueeens (re,

“eg ‎‫ع‬

Tone ete ‫طع‬‎ gid

cal —e . ‫مكلوق‬‎‫— معنانمهف‬

. ‫انلوق‬

‫‏باب‬sb ‫ بمح خرحنا‬. ‫ السائح وخادمة ودخلا المدينة‬,llet ‫‏‬daA - ‫ب‬

lleG ‫‏‬tra‫ل‬p‫‏ ه‬, . .‫‏ ونزلوا‬TEG ‫وطلع الرجال‬- .‫الدينة‬ ‫ظ‬11‫أ‬1 “21

Na‫‏‬to

11

5701 ‫ا‬

‫ت‬0‫ق‬ 2 ‫ع‬0 ‫إانابة الما‬

‫ا‬

‫احا ا‬

‫وا‬

2

of‫‏‬

‫رايا‬ ‫سا م‬ ‫=ل‬ ‫ا‏ف‬ py ‫انث بدوادوك؟‬

102

A NEW

Bee

ARABIC

aren lenr ag

‫كمل‬

GRAMMAR

2

=

‫( هذه رادلا‬for Cas)

0

-0-

ie, CLP

‫و‬‎

HO"

TG‫‏‬

lliS ao sik ‫‏‬naS ‫( أتمابهامن'لأغنياء‬for‫(وجدث ‏‬ ‫وا الضيف‬‫ل‬, ‫قب‬. .‫لرصإليىد‬ ‫جت فى هذا الانها‬-‫خور‬ . ‫الحوش‬

EXERCISE 22 1. Have you written your letters to your friends today? 2. Yes, we have written them (ls lS) and put them on that big table. 3. The beggar sought food from me. 4. The maid opened the

door of the house, and they entered. 5. Have you been out hunting (to the hunt) today? No, I did not go out hunting, I went to the city, to the market. 6. The sun has set, and the moon has risen. 7. Muhammad and his son went into the city,

and came out of it (use (‫جرخ‬‎ an hour later (lit., after an hour). 8. He struck me two minutes ago (lit. before two minutes). 9. The men sat down and drank tea with the sheikh. 10. We returned from the hunt with the minister, then attended the council meeting. 11. They drank (the) coffee with the women. 12. I received the guests at my house (ate) and my wife received the female guests. 13. I stayed (use (‫لزن‬‎ with (‫)دنع‬‎ Hassan and his brother Muhammad.

14. Have you under-

stood what I said (lit. my speech)? 15. He said this an hour ago, and you knew it from his books. 16. Why have you (fem. sing.) closed the door and opened the window? 17. The wind is from the North today. 18. You studied this subject months ago (lit. before months). 19. They mounted their horses and made for Damascus, and arrived there two days

later. 20. The girls went to (the) school, and asked for the new books.

CHAPTER

THIRTEEN

(je ‎‫ الثالث‬Sul) -

The Verb with Pronominal Object The Verb “To ”‫ع‬8‎ 1. The use of the attached pronouns as direct object to the verb has been illustrated in Chapter Nine. Here it should again be stressed that, for the first person singular pronoun, the form Q -ni is used, not ‫ىو‬‎ -i. €.g. ‎‫ ضربى‬darabani, he struck me. 2. In the third person

masculine

‫مو‬

plural verb, such as

---

‫ اودجو‬wajadi, they found, from‫ دجو ‏‬wajada, the final alif‫‏‬ is Bs

when a pronoun is attached.‫‏‬ --

e.g. er ‫و‬‎ wajadthu, they found him (it). O26:

3. In the second person masculine plural, such as ‫متدجو‬‎ wajadtum, you found, a waw is added to the verb before the ‫ووم‬

‫و‬

pronoun, e.g. ‫اهومدجو‬‎ wajadtumiha, you found her (it), them (with broken plural non-human objects) wy

0

>

-

‫ ىلوكدجو‬wajadtumini, you have found me.‫‏‬ 4. Some verbs in Arabic are doubly transitive, and take two direct objects where we would expect one direct and one

indirect object. These will be dealt with in greater detail in Chapter 45, 3(a), annmney include verbs of giving, seeing and thinking, e.g. ‫اله‬‎‫اج‬peta hasibtuhu jahilan: _ I considered him ignorant.

5. The verb “to be” Be kana

(lit. he was) is a weak

(chews mu €tall) verb, and will be treated in full in Chapter 103

A NEW

104

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

Twenty-eight, where it is included among the hollow verbs. As it is used so often, however, its Perfect is given here.

oS kana, he was.

Sing. 3. masc. 11

5-0 FETE.

‫تلا‬‎ kanat, she was.

jw

2c 0mase,

oe

kunta, you (m.) were.

oe

kunti, you (f.) were.

tena,

‎‫ا‬ 5-

‫حبر‬

_masc. & fem.

2-261

"‫تنك‬‎ kuntu, I was.

27 kana, they two (m.) were.

. masc.

fem,

‫اتناك‬‎ kanata, they two (f.) were.

.masc. & fem. as) ‎‫ ثم‬‎‫ ع‬‎‫بج‬

. masc.

“309

2S

kuntum4, you two were.

oe ‫اوناك‬‎ kandi, they (m.) were. a3

mete eli:

‫نك‬‎ kunna, they (f.) were. 0

‫رود‬‎

»

2 masc,

e= kuntum, you (m.) were.

»

WwW bdo ‫رد‬‎ i) WwW NO

2. fem.

‫نتنك‬‎ kuntunna, you (f.) were.

»

G3909

1. masc..& fem.

ao

‫انك‬‎ kunnd, we were.

6. The Perfect Ok is used with the Perfect of another verb

to express the Pluperfect, the subject being normally placed between the two verbs. ‫دوه‬

‫م‬

‫سا‬

eg. ‎‫ كان زيد كتب‬dnak nudiaZ ,abatak diaZ dah .nettirw Note that, where the subject is plural, referring to human beings, ‎‫ كان‬will be in the singular, according to the rule of the preceding verb: but the second verb, its subject having

been mentioned already, must agree with it in number. e.g. ‫اوبرش‬‎ ‫ لاجرلا‬OF kana r-rijalu sharibi, the men had drunk. 2 The interpolation of ‫دق‬‎ qad also occurs,

VERB

WITH ‎‫و‬

PRONOMINAL

‫ا‬

‫ا‬

OBJECT.

THE

VERB

“TO BE”

105

‫ جل‬so ro .ei

e.g. ‎‫ كان الرجال قد شربوا‬anak ulajir-r daq ,ibirahs htiw eht same meaning.

7. When ‫نك‬‎is used as a copula, its predicate @‫ربخ‬‎ khabar) is put in the accusative as if it were a direct object. 2°

e.g. 20

‎‫م‬

Gr

-

‎‫ زيد ولدا‬SO anak nudiaZ ,nadalaw diaZ saw a .yob -

-‫صو‬

-

‫ كيملا‬dy | LLU‫ ‏‬sk ‫تن‬

kanat Fatimatu bnata l-maliki, Fatima‫‏‬

was the King’s daughter.‫‏‬ |rae ‫ٌناتسبلا‬‎ oe kana l-bustanu was large.

kabiran,

the garden

8. The verb “to be’? cannot be used impersonally in Arabic, as in Bagish: e.g. “there was a thief in the house’.

In Arabic, we say “a thief was in the house” (the verb, of ‫كر‬

‫ع‬

course, usually being placed first). ‫كل‬‎ 3 ye) ‫ناك‬‎ kana lassun fi 1-baiti. Consequently, in such sentences the verb aS may be feminine, if the subject demands this, --0.0

%02

0-5-

‫م‬

e.g. ee! ‫قوف‬‎ ‫ تناك ةعلق‬kanat gal ¢atun fauga I-jabali. There was a fort on top of the hill. Beginners tend to translate such sentences treating the subject of O

as its object, as if the Arabic read “it was a fort on Cena

top of the hill”; putting ‫ةعلق‬‎ in the accusative. They should carefully avoid this common error, which is made even by Arab schoolchildren. ALL. EACH. EVERY. Be

9. ‫نك‬‎ kullun is used to mean “all”, ‘‘each’”, or “every”. When followed by an indefinite noun in the genitive singular,

it means “‘each” or dee be i ya ees

eg. ‎‫ وصل كل ولد‬,yreve ro hcae yob .devirra When followed by a definite noun in the genitive plural, it means “‘all’’,

‫ور‬

106

A NEW

ARABIC

"003

e.g.

GRAMMAR

‫لت‬

‎‫ حضر كل الوزراء‬lla eht sretsinim .dednetta

‫ عامتجالا‬Reel‫ رضح لك ءارزو ‏‬all the ministers of the gov-‫‏‬ ae ernment attended the meet-‫‏‬ ing. In the latter case, if it is the subject of a following verb, the verb will be in the plural, when referring to human beings, ‫ودعم‬

e900

bx

-

--‫‏‬

e.g.‫لصو لك ءارزولا اوسلحو ‏‬

all the ministers arrived sat down.‫‏‬ A

and‫‏‬

0

$-

‫ عيب‬jami¢ un also is used to mean “all”, Like‫ لك ‏‬it is a‫‏‬ noun and is followed by a genitive, --300

9

-

e.g. ‎‫ جنيع الوزراء‬tog lla eht sretsinim .dednetta Both these words may take a plural attached pronoun as their genitive, 6.2.

mole all of them. ie ae

‎‫جم =يعكم‬

all of

y you.

They may occur in apposition to the nouns to which they refer,

e.g. seals ‫لاجرلا‬‎cas The men arrived, all of them. Od

SE

‫ويد‬‎

OF

‫ مهتبرض مهعيمج‬I hit them, all of them.‫‏‬

54

(‫عيبج‬‎ is in the accusative here). VOCABULARY

‫ نزح‬to be or become sad‫‏‬

‫ ىلع‬Ali pr. 71. mase.

oe sadness‫‏‬

‫ ةعلق‬pl.‫عالق ‏‬fortress, citadel‫‏‬

009

5 ‫‏‬eG

gel pl. ‫راج‬‎ merchant

7

ypbv

-

35 fr]

‫اس‬

‫عمس‬‎ to hear

>9‫‏‬

2

‫ مومم‬important

--@

|> to take prisoner‫‏‬

VERB

WITH

PRONOMINAL

OBJECT.

> ‫و‬

‫ ةعاضب‬pl. ila: goods, mer-‫‏‬ ehandice

>>

THE

VERB

“TO BR”

‫)سي ءارزولا‬rae 2-

701

‫صور‬

Minister‫‏‬

‎‫و‬

ise pl. ONS government

‎‫ ور‬Dl: stg light n.

6--

‫ ةسايس‬pl. aes poliey, politics‫‏‬ sug ar

SES ph iSt,5 fruit

$=

Oo

‫ ةلود‬pl.‫ لود ‏‬state, power‫‏‬ 202

5

o-

|

‫ دنم‬since prep.‫‏‬

S55

‎‫ ثوب‬pl. ols garment

vile 8 ON! now

‫ سبل‬to wear, put on‫‏‬

5

2150

S-0-9

‫ ةنينح‬pl. Gite garden‫‏‬

‫ اريثك‬adv. greatly, much, a‫‏‬

5

tls pl. dad cloth

lot‫‏‬

96

‫ ليخ‬pl. ape horses (collec-‫‏‬ tive and plural)‫‏‬

cus apple, apples ‫ ةحافت‬an apple‫‏‬

Lifes pl. ‫نانرع‬‎ sheep, lamb

fe (collective), dates‫‏‬

‫ سبك‬pl,‫ اصماك ‏‬fish‫‏‬

JF to do

500

‫ رئيس‬pl.‫‏‬

Tener

+)

‫رووساء‬

chairman,‫‏‬

>‫ه‬

‫ ندع‬pl. J‫ | ‏‬work,

deed,

doing‫‏‬

president, head‫‏‬

‫ إيطاليا‬Italy‫‏‬

‫ ةرازو‬ministry, cabinet‫‏‬ 2-8

‎‫) أ حك‬2( ot ekat

EXERCISE -

ont ii Bi; it‫‏‬yay Ga

2

‫هر‬‎

bes ‎‫ون التجار‬ -o-

23 2-90

9-H

‫الخبر عن موت‬

a

We

‫النساء‬

‫ال‬ -

.‎‫( كثيرًا‬for os)

-

0G

bias ‫دولا‬‎

2

‫‏ وو هناك فى قلعةمن‬ytals » ‫ للمديئة‬dis!‫عل ‏‬

by.‫‏‬

‫عع‬

ARABIC

A NEW

108

GRAMMAR

. ‫قلاعالملك‬

. ‫‏ الحكومة الجديدة‬ea ‫ قد بلغتنا أخبارمسهمةٌعن‬06

‫دن‬

‫ل‬

‫نينزح ملا‬ ‫ وي‬Sis aeG5

3

0-5

&

‫عدو‬

-

deal Sag o‫ إيطاليا‏‬ee‫‏‬ “0-

-

J

9 oe

ie ae (among them, ivan

Rast

--

3 ‫ةريثك‬‎

‎»‫م»نها اللخيل والخرفان‬ilga ‎‫ الحيوانات‬Ta eS tuotif lids LeleNhBess

oes el aia ‫اذامل‬‎ ;Pee JN, ‫ادن‬

6

‫‏‬etac

‫و‬

- ‫‏‬١ ‫وضعت‬

‫‏‬lo

8-4-

‫ و‬- ‫صرووّى‬

‫ ل‬3 ‫الدولاد قماشنًا‬

.‫واخذدوه‬

‫سعد‬

‫ وحد‬70

is ‎‫ ذلك‬cle ‎‫ قد‬cals ‎‫ هذه ا‬yy . ‎‫ف على المائدة‬

- 080-0

—44 ‫دده‬

onl ‫ا‬

‫ا‬

‫ل‬

‫الوزراء كلهم‬

5-

et

08

bs el

21

‫هدو‬‎

Ge

4

‫تلد‬‎

‫اهم‬

‫السكر‬

‫‏ بلادنا‬elC

‫‏ يك‬ya

‫ا‬

yo Pere

‫‏‬FO ‫‏ ل وصلال مر‬eee ‫ على‬i ‫‏‬a ‫دحلو‬ ‫و‬

-

‫صوء‬

-

--

o-0-

0-

‫‏ خيلنا‬o ‫‏ أسرع‬he ‫جل‬

-

‫‏‬00-

0 abs

2 ae‫‏‬ ‫صو‬

.‫لها البارح‬ EXERCISE

24

1. Has this news reached you about the death of many of our soldiers’

2. No, and our

sorrow

is very great now.

3. The Prime Minister said: These merchants have many goods important to our country. 4. He also mentioned the new policy of the government. 5. Ali said: There were many fine fruits in my garden, but the boys of the village have

VERB

WITH

PRONOMINAL

OBJECT.

THE VERB “TO BE”

109

entered it in the night and taken them. 6. They became sad when they heard what he said (his speech). 7. The cloth of these garments is very old. It is my grandmother’s cloth. 8. The soldiers found the enemy and took them prisoner. 9. The women wore their white clothes when the men returned. 10. Cairo is the largest city in the Arab East. 11. These sheep have been miine since the days of your father. 12. Each scholar took an apple and two dates from the fruits of the school garden. 13. What have you done to this fish? 14. The soldiers rode their horses to the fortress, (and) captured it, and took prisoner the inhabitants. 15. They killed the old and left the young, all of them. 16. There were lights from the windows of my friend’s house. 17. That merchant has all the sugar in the market. 18. The wives had demanded a great deal of work from their servants, (fem.)

so the latter (these) left the food on the table and went out. 19. We have attended every meeting of the council. 20. You were our friends, and now you are our enemies

CHAPTER.

FOURTEEN

‎)‫(ألباب الرايععشر‬

The Imperfect 1. The

Imperfect tense (‫عر‬‎ (2) expresses

an action still

unfinished at the time to which reference is being made. It is most frequently translated into English by the Present or the Future.

2. Whereas in the Perfect, as we have seen, the different persons were expressed by suffixes, the Imperfect has

prefixes. It also has some suffixes to denote number and gender.

The prefixes and suffixes are as follows: 3. masc.

2

on”

3 3. mase.

‫إن‬

‫نا‬‎ -

3. fem.



2. masc.

ves

2. fem.

oe :

Tae

a 3. fem. 2.

Ol

25:05 ‫ان‬

‫ د‬.3 masc.

6

3 S..fem

=

o-

‫ د‬2. 052227.

8

2. fem.

|

11 22 27 -

ds‫‏‬

‫و‬

°

we

Fe

1S

aE

‫‏‬sr

6) =

oO

‫‏‬5

‫هه‬

J

--

yaktubu, he writes (or

will write) »

3- fem,

taktubu, she writes.

‫رو‬

21.

taktubu, you (masc.)

822.

write. 110

-

3

Paes

Os

Full form of Imperfect Indicative of ‫بتك‬‎ Sing. 3. masc.

°

3

825

5

THE

Sing. 2. fem.

IMPERFECT -

111

y0o-

‫نيبتكت‬‎ taktubina, you (fem.) “write.

»,

‎‫ د‬20%

1. masc. & fem.

Dual 3. masc.

‫بتكا‬‎ ’aktubu, I write.

‎‫ع‬ OLS yaktubini, they two 1

‎‫اده‬

AOLBS

(masc.) write.

SA

‎‫ تكتبان‬taktubani, they two

(fem.) write. »,

2. masc. & fem.

Plur. 3. masc.

‫نابتكت‬‎ taktubani, you two write:

‫نوبتكي‬‎ yaktubiina, they (masc.) write.

ht

od. fem.

Sail)

alter

‫ع‬

dE

‫نبتكي‬‎ yaktubna, they (fem.) write.

»»

2. masc.

‎‫ادم‬

‫نوبتكت‬‎ taktubiina, you (masc.) write.

par

2s SOE

9

1. masc. & fem.

‘SS SI

taktubna, you (fem.) write.

Or

‫بتكت‬‎ naktubu, we write.

3. It will be noted that after the pronominal prefix the first radical or consonant of the verb has sukiin (the +) in this case). The second radical (©) has damma. But this is not always so, for the vowelling of the second radical in the Imperfect, no less than in the Perfect, may be fatha, damma, or kasra, and in the majority of verbs only the dictionary will show which vowelling is used with any particular verb.

The following points may, however, give some guidance: (a) Most verbs whose second or third radical is a guttural (lec

pie (‫ه‬‎ take a — e.g. ‫حتف‬‎ to open, Imperfect :‫حتفي‬‎

‫ عنمو‬to hinder, Imperfect es. There

are, however,

many‫‏‬

112

A NEW tis

ARABIC

GRAMMAR Semen

exceptions as ne to enter, Imperfect ‫لخديز‬‎ ‫ غلبو‬to reach, 3907

‫و‬‎

7

6>

Imperfect ‎‫ رجع يبلغ‬ot ,nruter tcefrepmI ema -

(b) Verbs

of the form ‫زه‬

Ald generally

-

take —

-

as ‫برش‬‎ -

-

‫سراح‬

to drink; Imperfect‫ز برشي ‏‬exceptions, however, occur as «>‫‏‬ SF IO

to esteem; Imperfect cat uae’ to reckon, makes .(‫بسح‬‎ ‫دوم‬

(c) Verbs of the form ae may only take — as ¢‫رك‬‎ to be 33907

noble, Imperfect ‫مركي‬‎. 4. The Imperfect in itself denotes only unfinished action, ' but it may be made to indicate the future b putting the fixing tl the independent word d pw before it0orprefixing 1€ contraction contracti =

PSOE

“oO

w, 6.2. ‫بتكي‬‎ ‫ ترب‬or eee he will write. But where it is clear from the context that the Imperfect has a Future meaning, these particles need not be inserted. ERC

eae tae Belpeal (Sola

RN Tel

SG

e.g. Lal lnc Carty ‫حرابلا‬‎ ‫بهذ‬

He went yesterday and will go tomorrow

Here the use of the word “‘tomorrow’’ the verb refers to future time.

also.

makes it clear that

5. When used with a Present significance, the Imperfect may

give the meaning

of the Continuous

Present

or the

Habitual Present, e.g. (Continuous) (Habitual)

‎‫ الآن‬IESE He is (actually) going now. iB)

2

iO

‎‫م‬7oul ‫بهدي‬‎

He Bossey

day.

(Note 13 accus. here)

The Past Continuous and Habitual are expressed by the

Perfect of Os followed by the Imperfect of the verb concerned, e.g.

THE IMPERFECT

113

(Continuous) 3ial paddy Bice‫رم‬‎ ‫ م‬When he passed by my house, he was going to the market. --

(Habitual)

x3

-0o-

--

che 15 el ‫بهدي‬‎ OF He used to go to 2

eis

the market every morning.

6. As we have seen, the verb ‘‘to be’ is not used in Arabic to express the Present Indicative. A Nominal Sentence is used instead. Consequently, when the Imperfect of OF is used, it must have some other meaning. The Imperfect of

‫ ناك‬is given below. (A fuller explanation of this type of verb‫‏‬ will be given under the “Hollow Verb” in Chapter Twenty-‫‏‬ eight.)

Sing. 3. masc. .

00

coe tem.

bps taktinu, she will be.

Sing. 2. masc.

2. fem. ,,

>

ERS takinu, you (m.) will be.

‫نينوكت‬‎ takiinina, you (f.) will be.

de. masc & fem.

Dual 3. masc.

yakinu, he will be.

Ost ?aktnu, I shall be.

‫نانوكي‬‎ yakinani, they two (m.) / will be.

ote.

‫قانوكت‬‎ takiinani, they two (f.) ‘ will be.

2. masc. & fem.

OSS

takinani, you two will be.

Plur. 3, masc. 0 fem.

‫نوئوكي‬‎ yakiiniina, they (m.) will be. ‫نكي‬‎ yakunna, they (f.) will be.

2. masc.

‫نونوكت‬‎ takiiniina, you (m.) will be.

.

9

9.

114

A NEW

ARABIC

Plur. 2. fem. »

GRAMMAR

‫نكت‬‎ takunna, you (f.) will be.

1. masc. & fem.

BES nakinu, we shall be.

6. The Future Perfect is expressed by using the Imperfect of ‎‫ كان‬with the Perfect of the verb concerned, eg.

2

‫تم‬‎

SOD

‎‫ زيد كتب‬pO

diaZ lliw evah .nettirw

Frequently, the particle ‫دق‬‎ is inserted: ‫‏‬er THE

5

‎‫احم‬

SOF

I ae:

‫يكون عسو‬

ORTHOGRAPHY

OF

FINAL

HAMZA

7. In Chapter One no attempt was made to give exhaustive rules for writing the hamza in order to avoid confusing the beginner. However, the final hamza may have already caused some confusion, and a few rules will now be given. It should be mentioned, though, that they do not cover the writing of hamza as a final radical for a verb. First, the student should study the following table:

A. Nom.

Accus. Gens

With pronominal suffix

He‫حجزء‬‎

de) o95> (his

(a part)

=O09

\c5> ‎‫ره‬

‎‫حر‬

or its part)

3-09

‫هءزج‬‎ _

5

‫رده‬

5

5 >

et) beginning, and oe « ‫طعام‬‎ may be written in the same way (but the accusative of eo with attached pronoun is

Gas

ai,

5

.(.‫ءاع‬‎ Note that final hamza, when

preceded

by an

unvowelled letter, is written “‘on the line”, as the Arabs put it; that is, alone. When, however, a pronominal suffix is added, the hamza is no longer final, and is written on the semi-vowel appropriate to its own vowelling (» for damma, and ‫ىر‬‎ without dots, for kasra) except in the accusative,

THE

115

IMPERFECT

when it is written on ¢¢ if the previous letter is one which connects, or otherwise ‘‘on the line’’. Similar rules apply when a long vowel or diphthong, with | or ‫و‬‎or ‫ى‬‎ precede

the final hamza,

since from the Arab

viewpoint these, too, are unvowelled letters. e.g. With pronominal suffix

eae light

le 990 eeiN

its (fem.) light

TNs

‎‫ضوءه‬ dds

‎‫ضوئه‬ raf

٠. ‎‫وزراء‬

(diptote)

‫لان‬

‫باد‬

‫وزراؤهم‬

their ministers

ministers ‫ن‬ - ‫و‬ ‫وده‬

Acc.

‫وزراء هم‬ =

Gen.

‫ودم‬

2

‫وزراء‬

(defined as triptote)

In the latter type, however, when ’alif precedes final hamza in a triptote the indefinite accusative is not written with 7alif 207

_(as in ky a house), to avoid two ’alifs coming together. e.g. 10. Nom.

building

72

4

og ly his building

Ace.

‫بناءه‬

Gen. }

0 ‫سام‬ ‫اس‬

a prophet

Paes 2

6-7

bet

yy ae ‫بيئهم‬- ‫ت‬

their prophet

116

Gen.

A NEW

ARABIC R

9

GRAMMAR Z

‫لبيثهم‬

ue

--

S. 0-7;

The orthography of the hamza in (,4, thing, is similar to that in ore 5 In table E, note the difference in the writing of hamza in the indefinite accusative.

VOCABULARY

Note: Verbs marked with an asterisk have been given before but are repeated here to show the vowelling of the Imperfect, indicated in brackets beside the verb in Arabic.

(ce) ‎‫)—( منع‬

to

hinder

(from)

* ‫تعا‬‎ )-( to go ‫ (—) عمج‬to gather‫‏‬ --e-

‫ (—) عطق‬to cut‫‏‬ oe

‫ (=) عفر‬to raise, lift‫‏‬

* pa (—) to hear ‫( بعل‬-) to play‫‏‬

its (~) to estimate oo

*‎‫) بلغ‬2( to reach

* ae (2) to attend ‫) *لخد‬2( to enter‫‏‬ ‫) *سرد‬2( to study‫‏‬

me

‫) *بلط‬2( to demand, * ‎‫ )—( عمل‬to work, do

|? ‫ل‬‎

‎‫( سكن‬2) to live, dwell,' inhabit (with ‫ىف‬‎ or direct object) 3 re-‫‏‬

quest

es (~) to carry

‫م‬ yi )2( to be or become‫‏‬ noble‫‏‬

A

‫) ربك‬2( to be or become big,‫‏‬

(=) to sit

old‫‏‬

je (~) to wash trans.

56+

2

2

‫ شىء‬pl.‫ اشياء ‏‬thing‫‏‬

mS (~) to break

502

5-08

‫ ءزج‬pl.‫ ءازجا ‏‬a part‫‏‬

THE 5 ‎‫ه‬

5

5

ee pl. ‫ءابعا‬‎ a burden

i=

‎‫ حمال‬a porter

eel

‎‫لال‬

5 ‫ه‬

So-

‎‫ ضوء‬pl. cll light, brightness 5 ‫ه‬-

‫ بدء‬beginning‫‏‬ --

117

IMPERFECT

>‫ه‬

aw

3-2-7

orl ‎‫( بعد‬in) the afternoon

se see

‫ ءانب ىلع‬in accordance with‫‏‬

_ ‎‫صباحا » ىق الصباح‬ni eht

“morning

‫( هللا‬Allahu) God‫‏‬

‫ ءعاسملا‬3 > ‫ ءاسم‬in the evening‫‏‬

of

...¢l... or (ina double question, the first of which

oa

‫ اليل ف ليللا‬at night‫‏‬

is preceded by ior cs) 5

sy A or not? 59:

hs

4% >? QR

‫ماع‬pl. alge year‫‏‬

3.

‎‫ دخان‬smoke, tobacco

Na

302

‫ عوبسا‬pl. atl week‫‏‬

J pl. Ste rope‫‏‬

ala

‫ برش اناخد‬to smoke‫‏‬

a

|Aé tomorrow

8‫‏‬

3-

‫ قح‬pl. ue a right‫‏‬

Ve) (with perfect only), when

EXERCISE

25

‫هل تحمل جزءا من‬, ‫ لطامت‬0 5-1 902

‫ص‬

‫و‬

-41

-0-

06-

-397-0- -

‫ذلك‬

a

30 ee

alee eee

eee

(something) ect3 iss peat 3 woke ota ٠ ‫دلولا‬‎ ‫لاقف‬ —¢ ‫‏‬eB

202

eb‫‏‬ylo ‫د‬

3-- 009

‫و‬

‫ه‬-

20%

-

‫‏‬ee ‫محسوف يجلس الوزراء‬

52-0

. ‫‏ اي صَباحا‬er ‫الأمرأة ثيابها‬

‫غسلت‬

-

+

-90

-

=poduilat| ‎‫من‬

"ee 3

on (pl. of OLS) ‫لا‬‎ ‫تبسح نيلامحلا‬ ‫ت‬ 5-0-2

oa

‎‫ص‬

a

ST ‎‫يون ضوء الشمس شديدا يعد‬

‫و‬

ee )eE(

A NEW

118

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

‫ اًريبك ىلع‬be‫ ىف ءدبلا ناكو كلذ ‏‬ST S525‫التلامدة ‏‬ os‫ هللا ‏‬:٠ ‫ دونجلل ‏‬dls etl ooh

0

‫ مبصر‬ew le dna

deat‫‏‬

ea ‫‏‬salF 1 ‫ ف اليل‬jor‫هذا ‏‬

‫‏‬la ‫ طعا لكين طيبون ووزراؤهم من حسمن‬all ‫‏‬3

‫ ىّتح ءذب‬led (for‫ نكسيو نئكسي( ‏‬Gare LT Jb‫‏‬ . ‎‫ الرجال‬Li 000 ‘le‫اذه‬‎ mee‫نيح‬‎ ١ 0 0

ie

-0asta ‫كناوخإ‬‎ ‫نيب‬

CA ede ‫] ورد‬nac

o- = 909 se ‫‏‬a

‫ء‬-‎ ‫ووص‬ lees)

‫ووور‬ 7

--0- 00 - 1‫و‬‎ ‫د روس ا‬

EXERCISE

-0 £00 ifs. ‫لامعالا‬‎ ‫هذه‬

Werth aime ‫حضرت‬

5

‫الا‬‎

On ‫ل‬‎ ‫وص‬ ‫ هذه قد‬mat‫‏‬

37ceils eal‫‏‬

26

1. We are students, and we seek learning. 2. At the start (in the beginning) they will also see varry all the loads (plural) collecting

the women saw the light of the sun, it in the afternoon. 3. The porters from the house to the car. 4. Were the boxes in the morning or not? 5.

and will you The

Prophet of God will have gone to Mecca tomorrow evening. 6. The people will hear the news and will kill their ministers. 7. Ali cut the rope from his friend’s hands during the night (by night), and they broke a part of (2.) the wall, and went

out of the fortress. 8. This thing will be a big burden to (‫ )ىلع‬vs. .9 She will be in Damascus in two weeks’ time‫‏‬ (after two weeks). 10. She used to smoke a lot, but her‫‏‬ father prevented her a year ago. 11. We have many ancient‫‏‬

(old) rights, and the government

knows

them.

12. My‫‏‬

THE

IMPERFECT

119

father used to raise great stones from the ground and carry them from our garden to Hassan’s (garden). 13. The clean boy washes his face and hands every day in the morning and evening. 14. What are you doing now? Are you studying your lessons? 15. He has broken everything in the room. 16. The Arabs were noble and used to live in the desert. 17. I con-

sidered oe

him better than me in this work. 18. In

accordance with the president’s speech, we attended the meeting. 19. The minister has grown old — he is the oldest minister in the Arab world today. 20. The news will reach you tomorrow when you are in the council.

CHAPTER ‫سمه‬

FIFTEEN 2 93)

S06‫‏‬

)‫(الباب الخامس عشر‬ Moods of the Imperfect‫‏‬ The Subjunctive‫‏‬ 1. So far we have given only the Imperfect Indicative, the Imperfect which makes a plain statement, whether applicable to the present or the future. But the Imperfect, by slight changes, may be in the Subjunctive or Fussive moods, the

former implying wish, purpose (or command

in indirect

speech), and the latter command (or, with the negative, prohibition). The reader will have noted that in the Indicative the final vowel of the Imperfect is damma in the singular number. Thus ene yaktubu, he writes. For the subjunctive,

this damma is changed to fatha, eS yaktuba; while, for the Jussive, it is replaced by sukin, ASS

‫‏‬SOPS

5250

‫عاو‬

=0-

‫ ا‬Oe‫‏‬

eden

b ‎‫ص‬

-

“027

3

‫‏ النجوم‬s‫ ك‬a 0 ‫ خا‬ASSP‫‏‬

‫دن‬ ‫ص‬

‫دوه‬

.‫بعد ذلك‬ a=

(‫كوسد‬2‎

or

‫‏‬aoR ‫يقال هذا الطبيب العثهور إن مخوفت الموت‬ 0

‫سس‬

aces‫‏‬

‫وا‬

he

‫رد‬

2

2

aS‫‏‬

wo)

‫=‏‬

00-2

- 2

‫‏ هدايا‬sed ‫م حامر الببودى أذ يقدم للوزير وان يبحمل‬ aso

gk

. ‫الليلة‬

ow

Ga

‫هو‬

POs! aie,

‫‏‬,na’ruQ(. 2505 2, 151) ‫ليهراجعون‬ 1 ‫إنا لله وإنا‬

a5

. ‫لعيسة‬ -

‫ يبي كسر سيف الجندى‬.‫“هذا المورخ معروف بين العلماء‬jes‫‏‬ ‫‏‬w

eee

‫ه‬6 ‫ص‬

‫ و‬‫هرو‬

6+

5

‫وو‬ -+

- ‫صورة سنس‬

ay‫‏‬

THE

PASSIVE

VERB

149

‫ ةراسخ‬9 eel‫‏‬ ‫ ر دئاربلل‬ea‫ ‏‬3 ‫جو انقلب‬+ 7 $G 9 , ‫ةمهم‬‎

Si ae

oa

‎‫هده المدة‬

- ‫ورم‬‎ ‫كسا‬‎

opens -- 00

sb

‫انما‬

9gs Re‫‏‬

5 ‫هو‬ 6‫م‬ Ti ‫ةرييك‬‎ ‫ ىنغلا‬bl

GE

eee| ‫اده‬‎

on

‫د مرحإت‬ . ‫ قق‬llac ‎‫ البيت لان‬toa ‎‫دل تدخل‬,‫يذ‬

‫جرر‬ ‫لعب‬ ‫ابيش‬ ‫‏ أن الم‬UB ‫‏ فى‬aeS .‫طويلةٌ لعملك الصغير‬

“O09

B-

---

-o

-

-

0-90

GE

--o

‫و‬‎

‫ص‬

726-250

-

‫ درست عن امم‬.LSI la«

‫‏‬azO ‫ه‬1

‫م‬

2

ns‫‏‬

yj—b | ‫‏‬leag ‫)‏ بعد‬galS ‫ووصل إلى‬

‫‏ الست‬lel » ‫‏ لمكانك‬rolo .ٌ‫‏ جاهل‬le 9‫ الكثيرة‬Gall‫‏‬ ‫صه‬

639° -

“853

£9

‫مم‬

--

-0-00

o-

FAP ‫‏‬SO 5 ‫السياء اركين‬

=-

-‫ض شٌ ه‬

a--

0-11 . ‫‏ بعدهذا‬EEB ‫لعلكتَكونين‬

-

Sheds Go oud JY yt G EXERCISE

-

‫ا‬‎ (LI. -of

34

1. The doors of the house were opened, and the presents were received with (‫)ب‬‎ joy. 2. I did not know that you were (are) busy today. 3. I ‘know that the Arabs are the conquerors and the enemies the conquered. 4. The men mentioned are

[some] of )(‫نم‬‎ my friends. 5. His courage has been mentioned in the history books. 6. He was killed with the madmen were angry with him. 7. You long time (period), perhaps you will go M.P.s attended this meeting, because the

the sword because have been here a now. 8. The sick nation demanded

that of them. 9. (5!) Courage is better than fear. 10. He said that all the wood had been put on the fire. 11. Look at the

lives of (the) great men

in the books of the historians.

12. Many soldiers crossed the river, but ((‫نكل‬‎ the wounded were not able to leave their positions (places), so they were

killed. 13. There are (begin with ()) many valuable substances in the stars. 14. His honour the M.P. lost the key of

150

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

his car, so he returned home (to his house) in his friend’s old car. 15. I heard that (31) the merchants’ losses have been very great this year. 16. The reason for that is the danger of war. 17. (Ol) The Jews are a very old nation in the history of the world. 18. Verily the fear of God is in your hearts. Let it open the gates of heaven to you! 19. Oh Hassan, you are a great man today. A year ago you were [one] of (cy)

the poor. 20. The teacher said that Solomon was king of the Jews.

:

CHAPTER

NINETEEN

)‫(الباب التاسع عشر‬ ‫ماه‬

‫ساسم‬

Go‫‏‬ ‫ و‬-of‫‏‬

Derived Forms of the Triliteral Verb General Introduction 1. Although Arabic is poor in verb tenses, it is rich in derived

١

verb forms which extend or modify the meaning of the root form of the verb, giving many exact shades of meaning.

This is a common feature of Semitic languages, though it ; perhaps reaches its greatest extent in Arabic. The simple or root form of the verb is called ‫دال‬‎‫( اعلا‬the “‘stripped”’ ace verb), while the derived forms are said to be ‎‫“( مزيد‬increased’’). Derived forms are made letters before

or

between Le

radicals.

Thus

‫كا‬‎

ee

means “‘to write”; CJ -

the three

by adding

“to write to’’, “correspond with”;

‫ا‬ ‫سع‬

and ‎‫“ تكاتب‬to write to each other”, “to correspond with ---

each

other’.

-a-

‫لتق‬‎ means

-

“to

kill’;

J

“to

massacre’.

-a--

Bs “to break” (trans.); ‫رسكت‬‎ and po “to break” (intrans.).

“to be broken”’,

2. Beginners often consider these forms a bugbear. But once their peculiarities are grasped, and it is realised that

each derived form is associated with certain meaning patterns, they become a great help to the speedy acquisition of vocabu-

lary. As we have said, the acquisition of an understanding of word patterns is of prime importance in learning Arabic. 3. The derived forms are generally numbered

‫رع‬‎

by Euro-

peans from II upwards, I being the root form. The exact number

of derived

forms

is open

to dispute:

fourteen

(Nos.II-XV) could be given, but this number would increase if one

took into account

a number 151

of quasi-quadriliteral

152

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(3rd pers. sing. m.) 11

Imperfect

Perfect

Form No.

ae fa 8 gala

(3rd pers. sing. m.)

‎ُ‫ يفَعِل‬yufag gilu

(e.g. ole to know; aleto teach) ‎‫ يفاعل‬yufa cilu

Ill

IV

(e.g. ‎‫ كتب‬to write; ‫بتاك‬‎ +0 write to) ae affeala

Jaks yuf ¢ilu

(e.g. A to know; ‫ملعأ‬‎ to inform) ‫دير‬

eh tafa ‫ع‬‎gala

‫يتفعل‬

2 ‫ ع‬galu‫‏‬

(e.g. ‎‫ كسر‬to break; re to be broken)

VI Vil

‫ لعافتي‬yatafa alu‫‏‬

(e.g. ‎‫ تكاتب‬to write to one another) jas infa gala ‫سمه‬

‎‫ افتعل‬atfi ‎‫ع‬2 Vill

(e.g. ‎‫ نفع‬to profit, benefit trans.; ---6

‫ابوعفتن‬to profit by)‫‏‬ Ix

hs yanfa cilu

-0

(e.g. ‎‫اكسر‬ ‫ ت‬ot kaerb ).snartni ‫ لعتفي‬yafta cilu‫‏‬ (note insertion of & after first radical)

‫ لعفا‬ifgalla‫‏‬

1 nis yaf gallu

(e.g. fe) to become red)‫‏‬ --0-6

‫ لعفتسا‬istaf gala‫‏‬

1 55 35 yastaf ‫عااد‬‎

(e.g. oe to be good; cert to think good, admire) XI

‫‏‬suG ‫اع كذ‬ --

XI

0-0

‫ لعوعفا‬if eau‫دع ‏‬

xn

ne if cawwala

XIV

‫ للتعفا‬if canlala‫‏‬

AV

me) if eanla‫‏‬

‫ل‬ J

SO"

yaf callu‫‏‬ OF

‫ يفعوعل‬yaf‫ للع ‏‬galu‫‏‬ ‫و‬

-0O-‫‏‬

gat yaf eawwilu Alcor yaf canlilu -0-0-

bey yaf eanla

DERIVED FORMS OF THE TRILITERAL VERB Verbal Noun

153

Meaning Patterns

‫ د‬taf cilatun

5 taf calun (rare) ‫ لاعف‬fi céalun ‫ عاق‬mufa calatun‫‏‬ 5-6 Gta) if ealun 2

Strengthening or intensifying of meaning. Applying act to a more general object. Causa:

tive.

=

Transitive

/

=‫‏‬

of intransitive

roots.‫‏‬

Relation of the action to another person.‫‏‬ Attempting the act.‫‏‬ aa eR ee Pe 2 Transitive of intransitive verbs. Causative of transitive verbs. Also for “‘stative verbs” derived from nouns.

22

as tafa 8 culun

Reflexive of II (or sometimes of I). Verbs derived from nouns of quality or status. To consider or represent oneself as having a quality expressed in the root meaning.

jel tafa culun

Reflexive of III, often implying the mutual application of the action.

Jui! infi ‫عقم‬‎

Passive sense (perhaps originally reflexive).

5

°

‎‫ افتعال‬ifti calun

Reflexive of I, but used for varied twists of meanings from the root idea.

5

The possession or acquisition of colours or defects.

°

‎‫ افعلال‬if ¢ilalun Jue a

isGf

Balun 3

.

20

Asking for the act or quality of the root. Esteeming or thinking someone or thing to have the quality of the root. Originally, perhaps, a reflexive of IV. Similar to IX, perhaps intensive.

=

‫إن‬

‫ اعيعفا‬if ¢igalun‫‏‬

‫‏ أذ‬fi

‫ا‬

Osi) if ginlalun 5

‫ة‬:‫رهبي‬#‫ه‬

‫ ءالنعفا‬if ¢inla’un‫‏‬

: 12 j‫‏‬ ‘Very rare, with specialised meanings.‫‏‬

154

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

forms listed by Lane on page xxviii of Vol. One of his “Arabic Lexicon”. However, the beginner will only be concerned with forms II 222 ‫ممل‬‎

if ever encountered

at all, will be easily understood by the

more experienced scholar. (There are also three derived forms of the quadriliteral verb which will be dealt with in their appropriate place.) 4. Even leaving out of account the very rare derived forms from number XI upwards, very few verb roots have all the other derived forms from II to X; some have only one or two, while four or five is a good average. Despite this, there is often a good deal of overlapping of meaning between the forms. On the other hand, we sometimes find that the root form is no longer in use, whereas the derived forms are.

It is the presence of available, but neglected, derived forms

which makes-Arabic potentially oneof the very richest of languages, abletoSoinewwords Tometsadn équire—. a See eee pee mir ments without necessarily adopting forei i words. This fact has been exploited by linguistic academies in centres like Cairo and Damascus in their efforts to abolish non-Arabic words. 5. In this chapter the common

derived

forms

will be

listed, together with their meaning patterns, for reference only. (They should not be learned by heart at this stage.) The

various forms will be dealt with in detail in later chapters. 6. It may be noticed that, in respect of their vowelling (in the Imperfect), the derived forms II to X fall into three classes: (a) II, 111 and IV, which have damma followed by kasra. (b) V and VI which have fatha throughout. (c) VII, VIII and X which have kasra on the middle radical (or cain), but fathas on preceding vowelled letters. (NOTE: LX may be considered to have had this form, yaf falilu, originally, but to have lost the kasra when the two lams were written together with tashdid.)

DERIVED

FORMS

OF THE

TRILITERAL

VERB

155

7. The verbal nouns of all the forms except II, V, VI and sometimes III, have a long 3 between the last two’ radicals. 8. Verbal nouns regularly take the sound ferninine plural, 8

‫بيلا‬‎ (ce VIII), to choose, elect. v.n. Ses, pl. Col Ges elections.

Some verbal nouns of form II also take a broken plural (in addition to the sound feminine) of the pattern jel ‘ 9. The Participles are easily grasped, as for all forms they

are prefixed with mim middle

vowelled

with damma

radical (or cain) is vowelled

with

(4). The

kasra for the

Active and fatha for the Passive, except for form IX where, in any case, there is only an active participle. Participles Perfect Active ‫ عم‬afum ¢ nuli¢

eti ‫‏‬af ‫مع ع‬

‫‏ فاعل‬af ‫مع‬

Gels mufa ¢ilun 509

esl ’af gala

oe

S

‫ لعانم‬mufa galun‫‏‬

4

muf ¢alun

2 ” Tad‬‬

‫و‬

‫للع‬

‫موق‬

‫‪5 Sg‬‬

‫ذلك اليوم ‪tg‬‏‬

‫‪se‬‬

‫‪-a--‬‬

‫‪‎‬سراحلا ‪‎ «Ase‬غلبو ‪‎ (the latter) ine‬كيملا ‪‎ ot‬ةتدلاو ‪es 1‬‬ ‫‪-‬‏‬

‫‪03-‬‬

‫‪Ow-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪ 3‬المدينة المجاورة ‪.‬‬

‫ل‬ ‫‏‪IIB‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫عدي‬

‫"‪0-0‬‬

‫‪--‬‬

‫القهوة‬

‫ساسم‬

‫يا نساء‪.‬‬

‫ب الدكان ‪FS‬‏ ‪ ela‬الكتاب ‪.‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬

‫هو ودسَ‪-‬‬

‫ص‬

‫م‬

‫كط اامع‬

168

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

EXERCISE

38

1. Servant, bring us fresh (new) coffee at once from the kitchen. 2. The minister commanded them to bring forward the robber. 3. I ordered them to tell their friends about this affair, but they did not believe me. 4. Man proposes, but God disposes. 5. Send that man to me, so that I may supervise his work. He has disobeyed my orders many times. 6. Bring in the doctor so that we can consult him about the prince’s condition. 7. God brings you good news about a son, whose name is (his name is) Jesus (eo): 8. Attack (the attack) is the best way of defence. 9. Do not mix with the people next door (lit. in the neighbouring house). 10. The government inspectors travelled to the village, greeted the sheikh, and witnessed the horse races. Then they inspected the new houses. 11. We saw the bedouins round the well, from a distance, during the journey. 12. He kissed her hands and informed her that he (asl) had become prime minister. 13. They are fond of travel. 14. I will inform you during the coming (ie) month.

15. He was big like his

father, but his sister was small like her mother. 16. He was speaking to his wife, but she cut him short. 17. The horizon was dark, but the bedouin mounted his camel and left the

village. 18. My son did his studies well, and his teacher treated him kindly (use hh), 19. Where is peace in this world of ours? 20. They are the new inspectors of agriculture.

CHAPTER

TWENTY-ONE

(Gately ‫دانا‬‎ Cul) Derived Forms of the Triliteral Verb: Forms V and VI 1. Derived Forms V and VI form a pair. They tend to be Reflexives of Forms II and III, from which they are formed

by prefixing &. Moreover, they are both vowelled entirely by fatha in the imperfect, but take damma on the middle

radical in the verbal noun. FORM

V

Nad

2. Conjugation of ‫ملست‬‎ to take over, receive: Imperf.

Perf.

Indic.

Sota

Juss.

‫تتسلم‬

1

Bee theBAL ‫هيدر‬‎‫مو‬iecoh fe

‎‫تسلمت‬

‫م‬

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

Imperative nie

Part. Active

Hive

a--

‫وم‬‎ - ‫و‬© ot6

Part. Passive

F |

Verbal noun

As

Passive, Perf. tas

Imperf. Indic. 169

5

10

A NEW

ARABIC

MEANING

GRAMMAR

PATTERNS

3. (a) This is most frequently the reflexive of II. -a-

-a--

re)- to separate; ‫مه‬

(3,4) (to separate oneself), to scatter. ‫دي‬

ale to teach; ‫ملعت‬‎ (to teach oneself), to learn. -

‫م ري م‬

‫ ركذ‬to remind;‫( ركذت ‏‬to be reminded), to remember.‫‏‬ (b) It is also used to form verbs from nouns, especially nouns of quality or stays, e.g.

from

56 4‫رصن‬‎ a Christian; as to become a Christian. 0

Eo

‫طي‬‎ ‫د‬

‫ ىدوهي‬a Jew;‫ دوهت ‏‬to become a Jew.‫‏‬ (c) Closely related to nieaning (b) is that of thinking or representing oneself to have a certain quality or status, e.g.

‫ ريك‬great; ite, to think oneself great, to be‫‏‬ proud,

0 prophet; fate to represent oneself to be a prophet.

FORM VI jets 4. This only differs from V in having the °alif after the first radical. It is conjugated as follows: wore

Conjugation of .}i% to fight with one another: Imperf. Perf.

Indic.

Subj.

cba

jt

aetna

etc.

etc.

etc.

Juss

etc.

TRILITERAL

VERB:

FORMS

V

AND

171

VI

Imperative OF os

3

‎‫نقاتل‬ |

etc. ‫وه‬

‫اللا‬‎

‫ل دوي‬

Part. Active

pl

Part. Passive

‫لتاقتم‬‎

--

Verbal noun

‫لتاقت‬‎

Passive, Perf.

isa

Imperf. Indic. ply

MEANING PATTERNS 5. (a) The reflexive of III, e.g. --

-

ws

ee

‫ لتاق‬to fight;‫ لتاقت ‏‬to fight each other.‫‏‬ --

eee e

‫ براح‬to fight;‫ براحت ‏‬to fight each other.‫‏‬ eee

--

Ogle to co-operate with; --

=

ee

‫سس‬‎

‫ثنواعت‬‎ to co-operate together. ee

‫ قفاو‬to agree with;‫ قفاوت ‏‬to agree together.‫‏‬ In this sense, this form of verb must always have a dual or plural subject, though, of course, when the third person verb comes first it will always be in the singular. -‫صضرون‬

‫مب‬

‫سل‬

‫عسي‬

‫سدم‬

‫قفاوت ازحناب‬ 0-9

oud

‎‫تقاتل‬

the two parties agreed with each other.‫‏‬ the two armies fought each other.

3 But the subject is sometimes a collective word such as ‫سان‬‎ 50>

or ‎‫ قوم‬people. 00°03

‫مب‬

‫سد‬

‫ نواعت موقلا‬the people co-operated (together).‫‏‬ (b) Even more than Form V, Form VI is used with the meaning of simulating a state or status, or representing oneself to have it, e.g. or

‎‫ساس‬

del 5 ignorant; ‫له‬‎‫ اجن‬to affect ignorance, is + busy; jes to pretend to be busy. apes ore

we

ee

‫ره‬Us clear (from 5 to appear);‫ رهاظت ‏‬to feign.‫‏‬

108

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY a pl. “el trace, footstep

ies pl. Jubl child, baby

(in pl. also means

paca

“antiquities”’)

pie

‫كحض‬‎ (

1 ‫ — إن‬١ 5

-02

‫ص‬‎

SB emoc |

6-07-07

‫‏‬cpp

» ‫ذلك‬

tics‫‏‬

o-7

2=6o7-

‫عن‬

‫ميك‬

aN

‫و‬‎ 67

‫نعرف‬

Ses‫‏‬

‫ام‬

-

‫ و‬--0-0

‫وهي‬

‫هوص‬

. ‫الإنكليزية فنستكيرها‬

‫ود‬

- &

aie

Soy ae

‫‏‬tial ‫اما‬

‫‏ الفارس‬ee .‫ارد سياسةا الولي‬ =

0 ‫هه‬

‫دودر‬

, . ‫ةنيفسلا‬.‎ BOLE Samed 0-

‫مول‬ ‫د‬

00-02 َ ‫د‬

uae ie it

“00

—"¥ ‎‫و‬

2‫‏‬

1 ‫الصحافة العربية ضعيفة‬

‫م‬

‫ الغريب ؟‬deetaas

Si

EXERCISE

5 )eliN( ‎‫اليل‬

‫ ده‬86+

)3 2

44

1. What have you done girl? Why did you blush (become red)? 2. The garden will become green in the summer after --6-0

the rains of spring. 3. I do not think much of (use (‫نسحتسا‬‎ the English press today. 4. We expect reform in the future;

for that is the reason for the new law. 5. The official view is that haste is necessary to these two states, because the enemy

have used these weapons for (since) many years. 6. Enquire of the inspector about the employment of Japanese workers in agriculture. 7. I fought against the enemy in Europe. 8. The king received the members of the council in his palace. 9. That was the work of the nationalists. 10. They

190

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

are under the leadership of Hassan Abdullah. 11. ()) His story is very strange. 12. He used to be (Oo) a teacher in Cairo University. 13. My friend was employed in a foreign

embassy for a long period. 14. But he was not happy there, so he thought best to leave his work (use Gl with the subjunctive). 15. A bomb fell on the Minister’s car and killed him. 16. They used (the) atomic power. 17. Two atomic bombs fell on Japan during the late war. 18. Do not think

much of the small; but do not also belittle eat the great. Remember the story of David ‫(د‬‎919). 19. I drew a sketch of this picture, but people thought it ugly. 20. What is your

opinion of (.3) these Italian pictures? Do you find them good or not?

CHAPTER

TWENTY-FOUR

‎)‫(الباب الرابع والعشرون‬ Irregular Verbs. The Doubled Verb 1. The term “irregular” is, perhaps, inaccurate with regard to Arabic Verbs, if by “irregular” we mean isolated idiosyncrasies. Yet there are whole classes of verbs in which certain changes or deviations take place owing to the laws of contraction and assimilation. There are three causes: (a) Where one of the three radicals is a weak letter, that is,

a waw or a ya’. (b) Where one of the three radicals is a hamza. Early Arab philologers classed the hamza as a weak letter with the ‎‫ و‬and ة رد‬

‫ دري‬yaruddu, he restores, for‫ ددري ‏‬eee aoe‫‏‬

:noitpecxE eht evissaP tcefreP fo III ‫‏‬si ‫ دد‬3 11111 (b) Assimilation

does not take place where

* When we discuss quadriliteral Foot, we =

the third‫‏‬

find that sometimes

the biliteral root is doubled, e.g. Bit from ae

IRREGULAR

VERBS.

THE

DOUBLED

VERB

193

radical has sukiin. This, of course, applies especially to the Imperative and Jussive, as well as certain other forms.

Shee e.g. ‫انددر‬‎ we restored. atte O25) they (fem.) restored. >

6367

O55, ‫وه‬

they (fem.) restore.

6>

25,5 we restore (Jussive). 6369

55)! restore! (Imperative).

oe Norte: Thus verbs of the form ‫لعق‬‎ and ‫لعق‬‎ are only distinguished from those of ‫لعف‬‎ in the uncontracted forms, e.g. ‫لم‬‎ to be bored ‎‫هو‬

>

with; ‫تللم‬‎ I was bored.

(c) Where the second radical is separated from the third by a long vowel no assimilation can take place. e.g.

5

‫و‬

>

‎‫ مردود‬Passive Participle, I.

313)! Verbal Noun, IV. 4. Conjugation of ds to show: Perfect a-

Sing. 3. m.

‫لد‬‎ oa-

1

‫تلد‬‎ Aya

epee.

ous

‎‫ا‬

‫دللت‬

Dual

a-

‫الد‬‎ -a-

5

Wo

5

‫امتللد‬‎

-390--

tad

1

1

‫متللد‬

Subj.

2 o-

Gor

Ge

$2055

@ 90-7

spe 22

2535

Imperfect Indic.

ga

-o--

‫نللد‬‎

a

‫تللد‬‎

‎‫يدل‬

‫اولد‬‎

a

yor-215

a-

Plur.

‫يدل‬ Fr] =

ante

‫انللد‬

Juss. ‫سد‬‎

03 0-

wor

‫يدلل‬, osla ‎‫ يدل‬ro ‎‫يدل‬ 030-

ha

Bor

or ‫لدي‬‎

A NEW

194

GRAMMAR

ARABIC

Juss.

Subj.

Imperfect Indic.

©

5

‫تدل‬ 00 ‫ندلين‬ 0

‫ادل‬ fs

0 00‫ي‬1‫ال‬ ‫©ا‬.5‫م‬

‫‏‬212

‫يدلان‬

3

2‫و‬

‫‏‬i

‫> راي‬

32‫‏‬ Ge \@e ‫مع‬

ES ‎‫خ‬

‫ندلان‬

‫رت‬

‫ندلا‬

‫ندلان‬ 2 bo‫‏‬ ‫يدلون‬

‫ددا‬

‫يدلوا‬

-‫>هةوه‬

“706306

FSO‫‏‬

‫يدللن‬

‫يد‬

‫د‬

3 &o-‫‏‬

‫تدلون‬

‫تدلوا‬

‫تدلان‬ -

cae‫‏‬

‫تدللن‬ ‫ددن‬

030-

Go-‫‏‬

‫ندل‬

J‫‏‬

Imperative‫‏‬ ‫وده‬

‫ادلل‬ 202

ol

BOE

‫ادللا‬

or

a‫‏‬

ores‫‏‬ or

‎‫دلا‬

or

‎‫دلوا‬

9902

‫ادللوا‬ -‫ودوء‬

‫أدللن‬ 72

Part. Active ‫لاد‬‎

Si G7

Part. Passive ‫لولدم‬‎

It will be noted that in the Imperative and Jussive the rule may be broken and the two repeated radicals may be

written with tashdid. In this case, the third radical is vowelled, usually with fatha, but occasionally with damma or kasra.

IRREGULAR

VERBS.

THE

5

DOUBLED

VERB

195

Passive.

Imperf. Indic.

Perf.

Juss.

3 ae)

‫هب‬‎

‫يدل‬

‫ل‬

Atte‫‏‬

‫و كش‬

90-0

3 =a)

‫هج‬‎

‫تدل‬ 5

DERIVED

6.

‎‫ا‬

wry

‎‫تقال‬ 201 ‫ادلل‬

etc.

6

FORMS Imper. Part. Act. P

30-3

>‫ةهس‬‎

Verbal Noun

‫>و هس‬-

Ss

6>

‫يدلل‬

‫دلل‬

‫مدلل‬

‫تدليل‬

We

Aloe

‫ءلادم‬‎

aS

a

III

69

Nas‫‏‬

Jas 030 ‫ادل‬

Imperf. P

II

09

‫يدلل‬



6

w

ag)

‫وداش‬

(Passive

IV

a-é

‎‫ادل‬

‎‫يدل‬

J

pol

‎‫ ه‬OF

J

‫يتدثل‬

Jae‫‏‬

‫متدلل‬

‫ د يَيَو‬-

Vv

oa--‫‏‬

---

VI

oo.

Macs

VII

Oo)

VIII

See

6

(The VIII form of ‫دم‬‎ to

7-6

el

‎‫دود‬

5

as‫‏‬

--

HIG

d-o-

Fe

te

‫ددتا‬‎

stretch

0 B-o>%

“oe

Ales §°

=

40

cel

8-04

5 ar

‫كعوح‬

‫دادتما‬

out, is given here,

because in the VIII form of ds there is assimilation— Jal ). IX

Seldom occurs.

Xx

a-- 0

‫إستدل‬

2

Re

‫‏‬opa ‫إستدلل‬ -

Sikes

‫ادل سيل‬

196

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY g--

sole pl. ‫تارك‬‎ custom, habit Bes

pl. 1 we

problem,

question, matter

5 ‎‫ه‬2



‎‫ اهل‬pl. Sle! people -é

‎‫ كن‬pl.

2

hope

‫ةرارح‬st heat‫‏‬

$a-9

‫ فظوم‬pl. RY ~ official n.‫‏‬

6--

1‫ر‬1 Syria‫‏‬ 2

‫ةياكح‬pl. ele‫‏‬ _.

‫د‬

story

Ole,

‫ سورى‬Syrian‫‏‬ 5

se hot‫‏‬

‫ ةعرس‬quickly, with speed‫‏‬ ‫ه‬

‎‫مد‬

‎‫ مشروع‬.lp yg ni ‘ too

2

“80

(cr)‫ لضفا ‏‬better (than),‫‏‬

preferable (to)‫‏‬

scheme, project DOUBLED

VERBS

a-t

ae II to lay down, decide

a-o

‫ تقرير‬pl.‫ تقارير‏‬report‫‏‬

‘Ske (%) to stretch out 2.

‎‫ امد‬IV to help

5

‎‫ امتد‬VIII to stretch znir. a-

ui () to narrate, recount, tell A 8 to collect 2.

‎‫ اه مع » إلى‬IIV ot ,nioj adhere

ae (2) to count, consider

‎‫ أعد‬IV to prepare tr. a--0

‫ دعتسا‬X to prepare oneself,‫‏‬ be prepared a-

‫ (~) رق‬to be settled‫‏‬

ordain,

Ge

ee ‎‫ قرار‬decision, determination g-

‎‫ عم‬uncle (paternal) Su-

‫ ةمع‬aunt (paternal)‫‏‬

Ye asl VIII to be concerned about, bother about, be interested in 5 (2) to think, consider

Cs! IV to love, like és (2) to injure

wel VIII to compel

IRREGULAR

VERBS.

THE

DOUBLED

VERB

197

a-

‫ (~) رس‬to rejoice t7., make‫‏‬ glad $e2, 1 _.)

to

‫) نح‬2( to be or go mad‫‏‬ ee a ‫ىلع‬‎ ‫) »بررم‬2( to pass (by)

be new

a-

ae V to be renewed

je

ee ve ‫سحا‬‎ IV to feel, be aware “of

5 IV to complete ike ‫قحتسا‬‎ X to deserve, merit

EXERCISE

ois Faia

45

. ‫” تقبلها‬loi ‫‏‬lagiS‘ ‫‏ إلى الأمير‬ab ‫|دت الأميرة‬ ‫م‬ -0

‫‏‬-fo-

-00-0-9-

‫للسفر» واحسمنا‬

-- ‫وعد‬

‫دود‬ ‫در‬

slaoG ILW ‫‏‬ed ‫كانت الطريق الطويلة‬

y‫‏‬

» ‫ حينما نظرن هذا المشروع‬eo eva ‫‏‬sees ‫ا‬. ‫بسرور ف قلوبن‬ CBI

‫وروص‬-

»&

&

-

-e

o-

REIS ‫بم‬‎‫نع‬

+ ‫هب‬. HO =e

4—

Gar -‫‏‬

‫اجر‬‎of

nae

=

‫ اذه باتكلا ادملل سر ةيرصلا اهلك‬BY ee‫‏‬

5 ‫ فضلك‬3

sdw-

.‫والدروس‬

0 ‫ هى حكاية ذلك الموظف ؟ ل تمه‬58

ilas ke ,llaf ‫‏‬lasyU ‫المسافرون الخيل لسفرهم‬

‫م‬

‫ ىلإ‬coal oe ® (in any case)‫لاح ‏‬1 ities ath. ert 2 ji‫‏‬ ‫السألة‬

I

> ‫نص‬‎

ee )er hieri ‫!‏‬aa 1 . ‫التعاون مع الشكومة‬

.‫‏ التقرير‬KSG &‫رنى اسأتنحقاقاتك‬1‫س‬-) .‫نرائد‬ ‫فى جريدةاملنب‬ ‫مص نبي‬

oo

OE

--90

‫‏‬eS

1 7 als 3

eee

vier

-

3 0

aa

a-0-0

‫هدعيل‬‎ ‫رصم‬

‫و‬

53

00

‫واود‬‎

wae‫‏‬

6

was]



iy

20

“arr

eee Bee eeepar

oath Cs ee

0

‫عم‬‎ ‫شيح ايروس‬

-‫‏‬

a3, ‫سم‬

-

--09

era] ‫دربلا‬‎ oil i hy 32 ‫رارقلا‬‎

198

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

‫‏‬llac ‫ حائط‬- 5 . ‫لجل بسرالاسان‬ 9-00

---—

Gr

‫بوا‬‎

‫وو‬

a-

‫ كيلا‬Crt. Col Gere wy.‫‏‬

0‫ر‬1 ‫ال‬ I)

. ‫ تاعاس‬As ya‫ وكان ‏‬re‫بارد‏‬ oe

ee

EXERCISE 46

-

0-

oF

Ol

_

1. The minister has written long reports on this matter, so the government has been compelled to do something

(literally: a thing) for the deserving officials. 2. Syria asks for an international scheme for the renewal of the people’s hopes, and the completion of their happiness. 3. Help your friends in times of anxiety, as is (like) the custom of the

Christians, Muslims and Jews. 4. I realized that he (434) had gone mad through (from) the heat. 5. I passed many fine buildings during my visit to the West. 6. Affairs have settled down in the foreign companies. 7. The government has laid it down that the people should be ready to fight, all of them, and to join the army at all times. 8. Tell me (de) the story, for I like it greatly. 9. The English like horse racing

in the cold season. 10. Do you think he is pleased? (translate: do you think him pleased?) 11. He is angry at the government’s decision. 12. I am not bothered about the Syrian question. 13. Hope is preferable to fear. 14. The cultivation (agriculture) stretches from here to Damascus. 15. My work will be complete in a week’s time. 16. Go quickly, and tell

that passing man to wait a minute. 17. May you deserve what I have done for you and your brother. 18. Work does not harm. 19. Be ready in front of the door and wait for me. 20. It is your duty to be concerned with the future of your

country.

CHAPTER

TWENTY-FIVE

(Qgealty Gt Ctl) Hamzated Verbs. Hamza

as Initial Radical

1. The main trouble with hamzated verbs is orthography, since the hamza may be written on the 7alif (| a, or | u), under the ’alif (| i), on the waw (5) or on the ya (£) which then loses its two dots -2‫ه‬‎even unsupported by another letter (except at the beginning of a word). In addition, there is some irregularity in Form VIII of the verb. 2. The hamza is a consonant, and, as such, may be the --¢

initial or first radical, as in ‫لكا‬‎ to eat, and ‫ذخا‬‎ to take; the middle or second radical, as in ‫ل‬‎ to ask; on to be brave; ‎‫ سكم‬to be disgusted at; and the final or third radical as ‫دع‬

z‫‏‬

-

‎‫دع‬

in ‎‫ قرا‬to read; ‫ىطخ‬‎ to transgress; and ‫وطب‬‎ to be slow. 3. The whole question of the orthography of hamza, especially with verbs, is very confused, and, in some cases, alternative usages will be encountered. The following rules are only general guides, and should be taken in conjunction with the verb tables in this chapter and the next: (a) At the beginning of a word hamza is invariably written over or under alif (except in certain Quranic usages), --


GE

Ju és

Imper. Part. Act.

Noun

‫كلا‬‎ ‫كلان واذ كتوم جا‬ Owe

Swe ‫ر‬‎

g-

ceil © ‫دإ‬‎ or

‎‫موالفة‬

HAMZATED

Ty)

VERBS.

eeu

ie

HAMZA ‎‫د‬

or

2s

Soe

viene

eas

RADICAL ‎‫ و‬85

‎‫ا‬

= Soles

Vee VII

AS INITIAL

203 5 -

pA

CE

Wanting in all verbs beginning with 3 waw, ya’, ra’, lam, nun.

‎‫لايس سم‬ IX

‫) لو تتومد‬EC ‎‫ان شي‬

hoS

Wanting.

X tl

Ait

Sie

edie

SEN

VOCABULARY ok IV to show

Ac murder, killing ge

nse ‘ el, pl. 1

A ee

ee forbidden

angel

56

sty Resurrection

og

‫و‬‎

ei)

(G) ‎‫ مضر‬harmful (to)

is religious

‫ ريزتخ‬pl. ie pig, pork‫‏‬

‎‫ = اك ارو اكد‬movement

Ea II to name, nickname‫‏‬

‎‫ عو‬noitativni

‫ل‬

G--

‫ كلمة‬pl.‫ ات ‏‬word‫‏‬

9

>66

pl.‫ باقلا ‏‬name,

title,‫‏‬

nickname‫‏‬

Ae Mike

ide ‎‫وامينسآ‬ 7‫ ق‬dictionary HAMZATED

5

‎‫ » قرش‬Ste ‫قضاء‬‎ ‫سورغ كورك‬ piastre

J‎‫ و‬pl. hes apostle

VERBS

AND

THEIR

DERIVATIVES

cal (2) 6 be secure

‫ ا‬VIII to take to oneself,‫‏‬ adopt‫‏‬

‎‫ من ب‬VI ot eveileb ni

31 (2) to hope

(religious)

‫ ذخأ‬111 to blame‫‏‬

(3) a6 V to observe, look at

204

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

- ae

--

(de » (‫ىف‬‎ ‫ رثا‬11 to make an

‫رجا‬‎ IV to let (for hire)

impression (on), influence

2

--

‫رجاتسا‬‎ X to hire, rent

yt V to be influenced, im-

__

pressed

il 111 to be intimate with

uta

“a

‎‫ تاخر‬V to be late

‫فلا‬‎ II to compile, write,

‎‫ ب‬O31 (2) to allow

cope

-

Subs

-

2

hk

‫فلوم‬‎

‎‫ استاذن‬X to ask permission

ae

beg leave we 8 ) JS | II to assure, confirm me JSG V to be sure (of)

EXERCISE

‎‫ « لرئاسته‬aa

70-2

‫ويوم‬

‫بقلب‬‎ adh ‫بقل‬‎- | 2

Cy

B95

---

°030

‫المسلم‬

49

‫د‬

otk

‫‏‬.=

‫ا‬‎

-

I a6207:%

. ‫ةرجاتسم‬‎ ‫ ىفةبرع‬lah aise 032

‫‏ وسلائكته‬yla

‫‏‬daed ‫ي لعريبة كلمات كثيرة‬ ‫ إن فى القواميس‬3 ‫ام‬

--

al

‫‏‬ssa ‫ورسله‬ 2G

‫ان‬

1

47

‫كه‬

. ‫القيامة‬

‫ديننا‬

me

eae aria, ‫بدا‬‎ 11 to discipline 5-5 wol pl. ‫اذ‬‎ courtesy; literature

-

il

compiler, writer, author

"= ‫‏‬eeB ‫ده‬

9)

‫و‬6‎ ao

‫‏‬m0

‫‏ يتخذون‬SIE

Paste

el ‫نذاسا‬‎ 2 ‫ه‬

0-0 0 ‫ود‬‎ ‫مث‬

. ‫ نذاي لتقلاب‬Y 0-0

write

‫‏‬---

— + . ‫وكانت الاجرة غرشين (قرشين ) مصريين‬ ‫ها‬

‫ د‬is

‫‏‬lsi

» ‫القبيحة‬

‫هذه اعادة‬ --

‫سيره‬ -‫)‏ تاكل‬tiD

6 950 ‫مسلم‬

- ‫عه‬ ‫ات‬

. ‫جميعهم‬

bo‫‏‬ ‫فىالمسلمين‬3 ‫رسول الله‬

‫عو‬ ‫حياة‬

. ‫ عه لاهار لدعوتى‬sae d ‫‏‬eop ‫ إن ذلك‬: ‫لحم الخنزير‬ )4

‫ناسنإلاب‬. sees Pf‫ تاكرح ‏‬Ol‫ دكاتم نم ‏‬es‫‏‬ 1‫ه‬

b0‫‏‬

5

‫اماس‬

‫دو‬

Ge ‫هلام‬ ‫نجا‬Van‫مايألا ‏‬.‫ماا ضال‬

aie!

Co)

Sw

t-»

-é‫‏‬

SSE aes‫‏‬ ae

oa

1 7 :‫ البنت الحمردة‬sa GE — ‫‏‬yy .‫كله» لذلك يواخده أبوه‬ -

‫‏‬00230-H

>

2

‫را شو‬

HAMZATED tS

‎‫ادبك‬

‫عاك‬

VERBS. 2

HAMZA

‫د‬‎ ‫ص‬

AS

INITIAL

‫وو‬



‫اعادسن‬

‫لمولفي كتب‬ ‫ددج‬

‫َّء‬

. (ancestors) ‫اندادجأ‬‎ ‫=اننإ تا نملامعأ‬e ‫نونظك‬

‫مهنونظ‬

aiken:

4 ew

‫ص‬

.‫فى الشرق‬

‫هد‬

36

205 -

fi

& ‫التاكيد غير‬ ‫مدر‬

a5)

ate, put

. ‫ يودب التلامذة ولا يوالفهم‬ibo‫‏‬eas ‫مه‬

RADICAL

) Seal l=

y‫‏‬

‫ و‬. ‫المجميع‬ ‫ساس عام‬

‫مضرة‬

EXERCISE

om‫‏‬

‫حرارة‬

eee‫‏‬

48

1. The pig was eaten in the Christian’s house. 2. How did the Muslims name their Caliph? 3. They named him with

the title of “Prince of the Faithful”. 4. The affairs of the state became secure after the murder of the author of that

harmful book. 5. Look at the influence of religious opinions on the history of the world. 6. Religion is an important matter, more important than wealth. 7. I accept your kind invitation, and I will try not to be late. 8. But I am very busy, so I will hire a car. 9. Arab thought and literature deserve

long study. 10. Muhammad blamed the Christians and the Jews because they went against his religion. 11. Yet they

believed in the Day of Resurrection. 12. Wine drinking is forbidden to the Muslim. 13. This author has many famous

compilations. 14. It appears that you have disciplined your sons, yet they blame you. 15. The angels and the apostles are servants of God. 16. I am certain that this word is [to be] found in the dictionary. 17. Show your two piastres to the owner of the horse, perhaps he will hire‘it to you. 18. There

is much traffic (movement) in the streets of Baghdad. 19. The heat was the cause of his sickness. 20. Do not be influenced by my opinions. Think about the matter.

CHAPTER

TWENTY-SIX

‎)‫) السادس والعقرون‬TUG Hamzated Verbs. Hamza

as Middle

and Final Radical 1. The Verb with Hamza as Middle Radical: The Middle Radical or kasra. As explained the previous chapter, written over ’alif, waw,

may be vowelled with fatha, damma, in rule (d) of Hamza orthography in this means that the hamza may be or ya’.

2. Conjugation of ne to ask: Perf. Ae

‎‫عالت‬ Biopsy

Imperf. Indic.

Subj.

Aes (also written eas ) Jug ee. )

FROG ol

gus ibs

‎‫ سالت‬71015‫السال‬

‫سال‬

etc.

etc.

etc.

Jussive

diss .qo¢dead Tae mw °

١

°°

Cie) 1١ ec

11١

ee

2at, Ee Gas ay VG nm °

ieee

\

7

١

©.

\ ‫مس‬8‫ح‬

etc.

etc.

206

HAMZA

AS MIDDLE

AND

FINAL

RADICAL

Imperative

2 ‫( لالا‬also written ‫أسالى‬

(



ew



‫)‏‬lad

etc. Part. Act.

or‫‏‬

1 ‫سل‬

‫وو‬

‫سلى‬

207

etc.‫‏‬

a8 5

5 2Bo-

2

Part. Pass. ‫لو‬‎

eo7

5 2o-

(also written ‫لوسم‬‎ or (‫لوسسم‬‎

Passive Perf. eo Imperf. Indic. Ws (also written Aes

3. Example of the form ies : Bees to be cast down. Imperf. Indic.

oi

(also written ee:

Imper 61 (,

5

osu

-2-

4. Example of the form ae ٠ ‫سوب‬‎ to be brave. Imperf. Indic.

a 0 202

Imper. ‎‫ابوس‬ DERIVED

5:

Perf.

Imperf. Indic.

FORMS

Imper. Part. Act. Part. Pass. ‫>سه‬

‫ سه‬+> ‫و‬

2 ‫‏‬niwG ‫و‬

Tis dake

‫لئاس‬‎

‫لئاس‬

‫للان‬

ee

1

ion

je

See

lee

Vetter

‫ل‬‎

aes,

dle

Vi-gacal eaket

‫كءاقت‬‎

dil

datas;

-‫لكسب‬‎ ٠-١ ‫قف‬‎ ‫ ضد‬eee,

Sli.

ee eee

208

A NEW

Perf.

ARABIC

Imperf. Indic.

7111. ‎‫لاما‬,

GRAMMAR

Imper. Part. Act. Part. Pass.

sg

sete

Pia di

oslalgaidly

‫ه‬‎ >

(pel

5-09

‫>ه‬-52‫و‬

(from ey to bind up a wound, as this form of ‫لاس‬‎ does not occur). IX. does not occur. -50-6

020

‫ مثلت‬os

x. “‫مالتسإ‬‎

6

AC

67-6

‫هه‬‎

aul

‫جو‬

‫مالت‬‎

‫ر‬

‫هو‬

+

‫ور هه‬

Verbal Noun

11. jews

4

i ©

Ju

IV.

-

1119 ‎‫تافل‬

2

oe

VI. dys

‫هو‬‎

‫ماثتلا‬‎

VIII.

-

ov. dks WIE? 36 oes 5‫وسد‬

6. Example of verb, whose third radical is hamza: E--

‫ ارق‬to read.‫‏‬ Perf.

Imperf. Indic.

Subj.

aa

B-o-

‫يقرا‬

E-o-

‫يقرا‬

‫>ة ه‬-

B-o-

622

tee

ee

‎‫قرا‬ ‫‏‬slo

‫قرات‬ g--

B-o-

‫يقرا‬ B-o-‫‏‬

‫تقرا‬

‫تقرا‬

‫تقرا‬

‫تقرا‬

‫تقرا‬

-0-

‫تقربي‬

70-6

ae‫‏‬

-

‫أرق‬

Juss.

we‫‏‬

ob--

2-

‫تقرا‬

Sone

0

‫‏‬-0-e

5-0

8-0

‫‏‬slo

‫اقرا‬

‫اقرا‬

‫اقرا‬

etc.

etc.

etc,

etc.

Imperative 8-0

‫ارقا‬

Part. Active‫‏‬

70

ul ete. 1

َ‫واء‬

Pass. Perf. ‫ىرق‬‎ o- ‎‫و‬

‫© قرت‬.

J

ae

‫قارى‬

5‫و‬‎ 30-

Part. Passive ‫ءورقم‬‎ ‫رود‬

Imperf. Indic. |2

0

HAMZA

AS

MIDDLE

AND

FINAL

209

RADICAL

Note the orthography of the hamza in the following examples. They represent the usual modern practice, though

the student should not be surprised if he encounter other minor variants from time to time. 3 Masc.

2--

Ia

a2

‎‫قراوا‬, 1995, 15,5 they read,

Pl. Perf.

have read ”

hg

»» Imperf. Indic.

em

Peae eae

‎‫يقراوك‬, ‫يقرؤون‬,O94

they

read

3 Masc. Sing. Imperf. Indic.

oe

with Pronominal

he reads it

suffix 2:35

3 Masc.

AR

Subjunctive



‫ ارق‬they (two) read, have‫‏‬

Dual Perf.

read ”

>

Imperf. Indic.

Ole they (two) read

7. Conjugation of verbs which take kasra in the Imperf.: foe

La to be healthy, Imperf. Indic. ‫قي‬‎ Imperative TB 8. Conjugation of verbs of the form ‫لعق‬‎ ٠ ‫ىطخ‬‎ to sin. Perf.

Imperf. Indic. 22 0

Imper. ‎‫ثم‬

210

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

9. Conjugation of verbs of the form ih : ‫وطب‬‎ to be slow. Perf.

Imperf. Indic.

Imper.

25 0-

25 ‫هر‬‎

EB9-

Of

25 o-



£2 ‫هر‬‎

‫بطوى‬

eo a Pa)=

2s ‎‫ه‬-

5

o

etc.

etc.

DERIVED

10.

Perf.

etc.

Imperf. Indic.

FORMS

Imper.

Part. Act.

Bun

Fd‫‏‬

‫فرى‬

nes

‫‏‬7

0 ‫‏‬eo

5

E--o

VIII. (3! IX.

‫متقرق‬

‫‏‬---g

5

g ‎‫ى‬

ae

g

~ Oo

‫يقترى‬

Sw--9‫‏‬

‫تقرأ‬

* ‫عرى‬3 ‫ين‬

cA

‫ده‬

‫مقرق‬

‫ده‬

VIL. 1a!

50 we

‫مفر‬

‫مقارق‬

‫اقرى‬

VI. .‫اراقت‬‎

31

‫مفرقى‬

‫قارى‬

\

-5

‫وده‬

‫ع‬‎

6

‎‫اق‬ yh

Does not occur. B-0- 6

2

‫وده‬

5

0-

90

‫ استقرى‬2 ‫مستقرق‬

X. ‎‫استقرا‬

Verbal Noun

TVs ‎‫نا ترا‬ TEs 25->

>‫و‬

‫قرف لا‬ Sue"

7

ameeS

aI.‫اقراء ‏‬ ١

‫حل‬‎

Part. Pass. ‫ود‬

‫ودس‬

x‫‏‬

HAMZA

AS

MIDDLE

AND

FINAL

211

RADICAL

VOCABULARY 5060>

G39

439 pl. 5559 delegation ‫ حرص‬II to declare, permit‫‏‬ mod.‫‏‬ Cis

2

2

5

-

‫ حاحة‬.lp ‫‏‬lo —,

2

‫ دفن‬II to carry out, execute‫‏‬ 57 ١‫‏‬ A235 execution

‫ف‬

i‫‏‬

5) 339

‫ رورم‬passing n.‫‏‬

Wes pl. ees barrel, cask, vat, drum S

‫ ىاديفنت‬executive adj.‫‏‬ ve

‫ك‬1

need, in... of...

rake

Sol pl. ‫ثداوح‬‎ event mod.

a

5-09

or

.

٠.

o-

5

05 3

oe pl. Ses path, road,

‫ه‬‎

‫ « طفن‬423 oil, naphtha, tar‫‏‬ 2

‫ زيت‬oil‫‏‬ 2

‫دود‬

5>

‫ زيتون‬olive 53()329

method

‫ ليبس‬d (with following gen.)‫‏‬ in the way

of, in aid of,‫‏‬

na ‫)‏‬evilo

‫ (—) عنص‬to make, do, manu-‫‏‬ facture‫‏‬ ‫دادو‬

‫ ةعانص‬pl.‫عن ‏‬ ‫انص‬craft, industry‫‏‬

towards‫‏‬ G---

‫ ةقالع‬pl. Et relationship(s),‫‏‬ relation(s)‫‏‬

‫ نظام‬pl.‫ أنظمةٌ‏‬arrangement,‫‏‬ system, discipline $y!5! administration, 30

00

٠.

.

a S pk ‫عئاصم‬‎ factory, workshop a! VIII

-

‎‫ شعب‬pl.

5

‫دود‬‎

‎‫ شعوب‬people, nation

rise,

to

be

raised

‫نجس‬pl. Sax

management G5

to

aes0

prison‫‏‬

wees

ase result

As) independence

areal pl. ©) 2 examination

ails pl. hel dream

cé success 5-- ‫ده وا‬

gee

‎‫ رجوع‬return G--

5

-0F

‫ ثمن‬pl.‫ اثمان ‏‬price‫‏‬

80-5

‫ © نمز‬Ole} pl. dus)! time‫‏‬

‎‫( فاس‬f.) pl. ‫سووف‬‎ axe 5

2

6

25

212

A

NEW

VERBS

ARABIC

WITH

GRAMMAR

MEDIAL

HAMZA

‫ال‬ ‫قع‬

‫ لأفت‬7

(cy) AS. (—) to loathe, be disgusted with

-

WITH

FINAL

good omen‫‏‬ from, bode‫‏‬

well of‫‏‬

Sts! VIII

‫( (—) ماش‬with‫ ىلع( ‏‬to draw‫‏‬ ill luck upon, bode ill for‫‏‬

VERBS

to draw a‫‏‬

ice Cee 214

HAMZA

Za-

E--

‎‫ )—( بدا‬to begin trans.

‫ انه‬11 to congratulate‫‏‬

E--o

4G (2) to fill

‎‫ ابتدا‬VIII to begin intrans.

‎‫ )—( قرا‬to read

2 )-( to grow intrans.

‫>نرومار‬

‫ القراان‬the‫‏‬

)0‫( مة*ن‬Koran)‫‏‬

il IV to establish, set up

5 II (with ace. ys ‫ب‬‎ to inform

re (2.) to dare, be brave

MOF LF

5

3

EXERCISE

49

E--0

‎)‫ (ب‬bed! VIII to take refuge

‫ه‬-‎

‎‫ جرىء‬pl. ‎‫ ا‬bold, brave

(with)

‫ ن‬layE‎‫ الوفد‬etp ‫‏‬lO ‫ م — نسال الله‬. ‎‫ الحوادث الأخيرة‬3 of

-bwe ‫معو‬‎-

-G-

‎‫دعو‬

0007

-00

‫‏ الملك وقد صرح‬:eaf ‫لماذا تتفألون‬ -

gore

-

-

20°00

>

>

‫ م‬dais‫مدنا ‏‬ 06-6

-

‫رس‬

gapsdreh * ‫‏‬talp ‫الشكوبة أن المشكلة‬,‫متكلم بأسم‬

‫كه‬

‫اح‬

o-

0-E-‫‏‬

aa

‎‫و‬

‫)‏‬hcraM( ‫)‏شهر مارس‬er ‫ن حلمه‬ ¢‫( م‬Caesar)‫‏‬ 2-00

‎‫ص‬

‫السلطة‬

FO ‫‏‬Si

-a-

‫فذت‬ -‫ن‬ 4 . ‫اثناء' شهركامل‬ ‫ ه‬Ba-

‫‏‬2

‫ لفط‬ah‫ نات ‏‬Saas‫‏‬ Sa

‫ الاصلد‬en ‫‏‬3

1 Also ‫راذا‬‎ (see Chapter 36)

ٍِ‫ع‬

‫ممورومم‬

75 ‫ شهرين‬ia‫ ‏‬ola

‫التنفيذيةهلذا الثانون‬

HAMZA

AS

‫‏‬HC‫يدوع زر جح رز‬ ‫ان إلى جنيهين‬ -

. ‫ خفيفة‬eelg a

ree

‎-‫صرن‬

dal

-

‫ده‬

--

‫‏‬TS ‫العراق‬

-

9

‫‏‬te ‫و حاتيع النظام‬

‫كت‬‎ ~ Hegre‫ةكرشلا‬ ead SLT ‫عم‬‎‫ةرادالا‬ ‫نال تاقالع‬ 5-826

‫هنمث‬. ad

‫»لالقتسالا‬‎ ‫ ةريبك ىلإ‬GL

-0-00

E--000-

. ‫ ىفتيب نم توبب ةيرقلا‬bly seal‫‏‬

3 ‫عد‬‎ ‫نش فى ببتصغير قريب من باب‬ Be

213‫‏‬

. ‫ السئة الجديدة‬3 ‫للبرميل‬

£-o.0-

ee

‫فره‬‎ ,‫سا‬

‫لك كانه هنكل‬

‫سيوفا‬

RADICAL

ti

. ‫ برميلك بالزيتون‬yloM

Me 2i!

‫>ور‬

FINAL

‫‏‬ae

‫دو‬‎ ‫ص َّي‬

oe ey)

AND

‫صورور‬

x1

‫ هده‬70-000

o

MIDDLE

‫دوة ‏‬ ‫‏‬nnO ‫& يجداب‬ ‫ ثمن الزيت سوف‬tb

-- ‫ ودود‬of ‫هد‬‎ 5 o- , ‫ ع‬.‫‏ يستعملها‬fd ‫لمرو على‬

Ae

-

-

2-5

‫—نع‬ ‫‏ ب و ص‬eld 3 ‫ ابداوا تصليح اللبدار‬- ‫‏‬oy

‫ رفاسملا‬oeaussi‫ب و بتلكدعي رورم ‏‬

a a

-

-00‫‏‬

. ‫المدينة‬

see‫اد‏‬ Oye

oan

>

=

aa

O92

SIs

hOe8!

os

ws

‎‫وبلسع‬

i

of

var id 0 ‫ءارزولا‬‎00 se ‫نا‬‎

EXERCISE

50

1. The government congratulated the delegation on their success in the way of improving the relations between the

people and the administration. 2. A government spokesman announced the return of the price of oil to what it was before the war. 3. Life is our prison, and we take refuge in dreams. 4, Events have deprived (use ~~») us of liberty since the war,

and we are in need of it. 5. The wall of this room has become dirty with the passage of time. 6. This executive arrangement began a week ago. 7. A cask of olives reached me yesterday. 8. The servants cut the wood with their axes, then

214

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

informed their master of the completion of the work. 10. I have read the whole of the Quran. 11. Do you draw a good omen from the establishment of these factories? 12. No, it bodes ill to me (lit. I draw a bad omen from it). 13. I filled the guests’ cups with coffee, and they drank it. 14. This writer

grew up in the city of Baghdad (ofad). 15. He was ill, yet he began his examination. 16. The result is not known, because it is in God’s hands. 17. Ask the scholars about that

great man. He became disgusted with city life (the life of cities). 18. What have you made today? 19. Don’t ask me about that. It is my secret. 20. Market prices have gone up in recent days.

CHAPTER -

‫وه‬‎

TWENTY-SEVEN 00° 9

& ©

9

08

‎)‫) السابع والعشرون‬ltS Weak Verbs. The Assimilated Verb 1. The

Weak

SG-09

5

-0&

Verbs ‫)ةلتعم‬‎ (‫ لاعفا‬are those in which one

radical is one of the two semi-vowels or semi-consonants,

waw and ya’. They are of three classes: A. Those with a weak Initial Radical (Jt. J), sometimes called in English the Assimilated Verb. B. Those I-05

with weak Middle Radical, the Hollow

Verb

GO

‎)‫ أجوف‬Js). C. Those with weak Final Radical ‫)صقان‬‎Js), sometimes

called the Defective Verb in English. 2. The weak radical in these verbs may undergo, according

to certain rules, any one of the folloying changes: (a) It may change to a long “a or ’alif, ---

e.g. Root Q-W-L. ‫ع‬‎ he said, for .‫لوق‬‎ “a ” (b) It may ‫مكس‬‎ to a long '"0* (waw) or

ay

(ya’),

336-

e.g. ‎‫ دول‬he says, for dain. ‎‫ قيل‬it was said, for dj53. (c) It may disappear entirely, 1 e.g. ‫لقي‬‎let him say (Jussive) for ape ---

a stop! Imperative of .‫فقو‬‎ J

hee he arrives, for BOS 5

(d) In some cases, in disappearing the weak letter leaves some vestige in the shape of a short vowel (see the first example in (c) above). 215

216

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(e) In certain parts it may be replaced by hamza, which early Arabic lexicographers therefore classed as a weak letter, e.g. wa for J,‫واق‬‎Active Participle of ‫لاق‬‎to say. 2 for ‫ىاقلو‬‎

Verbal Noun of ‫قالو‬‎ to meet. (a III). (f) In compensation for the change of the weak radical to »alif, we sometimes find the feminine ending «6 added, e.g. ‎‫ إقامة‬and ‎‫ اانه‬Verbal Nouns of ‫ماق‬‎ IV and X respectively.

Similarly, certain Verbal Nouns with the feminine ending occur in the assimilated verb, the weak initial radical being omitted, e.g. has quality, a verbal noun of ap to describe. A grasp of the above principles will assist the student to

recognise weak verbs when he encounters them in reading. The Assimilated Verb. A. With ya’ 3. The initial may be waw or ya’, but the latter, being easier—and also rarer—will be dealt with first. Such verbs are regular, the ya’ always appearing like any other radical, except in the following isolated parts:

(a) In the Imperfect Passive, ya’ turns to waw. (b)A similar change occurs in the Imperfect and the Participles of Form IV.

(c) The ya’ is changed to a ta’ in Form VIII. See the following tables where the above are underlined. =-

Conjugation

of the verbs, whose

first radical is S:

to be dry. Perf.

J

Imperf. Indic.

1

7 -

Subj.

Juss.

1

1

96507 35

WEAK

Perf.

20

Cas

VERBS.

THE

ASSIMILATED

Imperf. Indic.

217

Subj.

oe

=,

VERB

Juss.

ae

‫دب‬‎ ‫نو‬

>

ae

5

0-08

wn!

on!

‫سبيا‬‎

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

Imperative ral

‫| ىسبي‬ete. Verbal Noun

5

Pass. Perf.

‫سبي‬‎

Part. Act.

Oe35

Part. Pass.‫‏‬

‫ميبوس‬

Imperf. Indic.

ear

5

‫>ور‬

-

DERIVED FORMS Perf. "ar

Imperf. Indic.

11.

‎‫يبس‬

IV.

‫سبيا‬‎

‫سبوي‬

VIL

‎‫باس‬

wis

yl

‫سبيني‬‎

--06

VIL.

Imper.

Jury

Part Act.

our

‫لدان‬ 2

Suns

te

‫ه‬‎ ‫هع‬

$9

‫سييا‬

‫سبوم‬

Part. Pass. $a-3

oa

5>

3

‫و‬

‫| سبيل‬

VIII.

1

IX.

Does not occur.

1

2200)

CO Seat Jira

6

607-0

5

O-

‫هر‬‎

1

5-0-6039

Verbal Noun

I 1110

o-

‫نيم‬‎ 2

-

eta ‫ قو‬--

Aeghs | Ve geet

30/10

3 -w

th IIL. 151

yor

VI. th

6-5

XK. ‫سابيتسا‬‎ e

A NEW

218

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

Although there are few very common with ya’, whether deserve mention.

e.g.

verbs beginning

root or derived, there are a few which

(vo) ‫سي‬‎ (—) to despair (of). eel IV to drive anyone to despair. nes (—) to become dry, wither (given above). pe 11 to dry anything. ‫ (—) رسي‬to be or become easy.‫‏‬ 28 II to facilitate.‫‏‬

ine (—) to wake up.‫‏‬ 7 -a-r-

II, en IV to awaken (trans.) --0-6

‎‫ تيقظ‬V, ‎‫ استيقظ‬X same meaning as root form. The Assimilated Verb. B. With waw

4. In the root form practically all these verbs except the doubled ones, and all the commonly-used ones:

(a) Lose the waw in the Imperfect, ‫ مه‬ee‫‏‬

e.g. ‎‫ وصل‬to arrive, to link; Imperfect, ‫لصي‬‎ 2+

but it is reinstated in the Passive, .‫لصوي‬‎

3

(b) Lose both this waw and the preceding ’alif (which would normally be found) in the Imperative. =a

‎‫ وصف‬to describe;

°

‫فص‬‎ describe!

ore

‫ وعض‬to place, put;‫‏‬

‫ ضع‬put!‫‏‬

WEAK

VERBS,

THE

ASSIMILATED

VERB

219

zee

Conjugation of .‫لصف‬‎ Perf.

Imperf. Indic.

Subj.

Juss.

a

‫لمي‬‎

‫لك‬

‫لعب‬

‎‫وصلت‬

‫تصل‬

‫تصل‬

‫تصل‬

‎‫وصلت‬

‫تصل‬

‫تصل‬

‫تصل‬

BO

Se

‫م‬‎

etc. Imperative

‫يس‬

etc.

3

‫ه‬

etc.

é

etc.

‎‫صل‬

Part. Act.

ee

‎‫ صلى‬ete.

Part. Pass.

om

--

Verbal Noun Sos or 1for or ie Pass. Perf. APL

Imperf. Indic. Jers

5. We pointed out in Chapter Fourteen that verbs of the CoE

‎‫قرف‬

initial ww,

e.g.

form

‎‫فعل‬, ‫ يفعل‬era erar ni .cibarA ynaM fo meht evah te ‎)‫وثق (ب‬, ot ;tsurt .frepmI ‫جات‬

1 we ;44( evitarepmI ‎‫ثق‬ ‫دل‬

6

‫ورث‬, ot ;tirehni ‫‏‬.frepmI ‫‏ زيرث‬evitarepmI ‫رث‬ ‫شام‬

‫ورم‬, ot ;llews ‫‏‬.frepmI

‫صو‬

‫إن‬

‫‏ زيرم‬evitarepmI ‫رم‬

.6 Of those few verbs which retain the waw in the Im-‫‏‬ perfect, the least uncommon is ‫لجو‬‎ to be afraid. SFOs

ey

Imperf.

Jel Imperative

(for Jes!)

220

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

7. Doubled verbs having initial waw retain it in the Imperfect, and merely follow the rules already given for the Doubled Verb, e.g.

‫ دو‬to love.‫‏‬

a--

Imperfect 593; Imperative .‫دو‬‎

8. Derived

Forms.

These

are regular, except for the

following points:

(a) In VIII, the waw changes to ta’ and appears in the doubling of the ta’ of increase, wor

--

G

e.g. from ‫حضو‬‎ to be clear ‫حضتإ‬‎ (same meaning). ow

(b) Where the waw has sukin and is preceded by kasra, it changes to ya’, e.g. Verbal Nouns of IV and X. --e

--

‎‫ وجحد‬to find

of

3

5

-

IV ‫دجوا‬‎ to create, v.n, .‫دانا‬‎

enter

Cote

Kut)

‎‫ ودع‬to let, allow; X ‫عد‬‎gw! to let, deposit; 5


سار‬

11. ‫وصل‬

‫سه‬ >

‫يوصل‬

eaF ‫‏‬ea

‫و‬

87-2

‫وصل‬

2‫و‬

‫و‬

2

‫َع‬

‫ه‬

‫يوصل‬

‫‏‬iV ‫توصل‬

‫‏‬sed

-00 نس و‬

‫ني‬

0-2-5

5

5

‫اوصل‬

Part. Pass.

5‫ س‬-‫و‬

‫موصل‬

‫‏‬fo

‫‏‬.VI ‫اوصل‬

0

Part. Act.

‫موصل‬

‫و‬

1-25

‫موصل‬

‫موصل‬

‫‏‬seye

‫و‬ 5-2-2

‫ا‬

5

‫هج‬

ae

0

‫ر‬

‫لصوتسم‬

ba

3-0-0609

‫لصوتسم‬22

WEAK

VERBS.

THE

ASSIMILATED

221

VERB

Verbal Noun

1 boys

igh peer ea RUE ‫لاا‬‎

1. Ola

V. Suess

III. ‎‫ وضال‬or delys

Sa--

‫اه‬

Forms VII and IX do not occur. VOCABULARY

(3) oo (—) to despair (of)

‫ (—) رسع‬to be difficult‫‏‬

Ash IV to drive to despair

es II to make difficult‫‏‬

Pe (—) to be, become, dry

el, III to help

wae anger

-

‫ سبي‬II

to dry‫‏‬

OB (—) to be, become, easy‫‏‬

‫ رسي‬11 to facilitate‫‏‬

a despair ‫ لا‬pl.‫ لئاك ‏‬essay, letter,‫‏‬

message 5‫‏‬

--0-

aa X to wake up, awaken i | IV to wake anyone up “fr e-

‫ هجاو‬III to face, stand up to,‫‏‬ encounter‫‏‬

5

‎‫ره‬

20-

‫ ىوقت‬piety, fear of God‫‏‬ Lanes pl. i ee ‘ ae loved one, friend

4#| VIII to turn towards ‫( بجو ىلع‬-) to be incum-‫‏‬

5

yee » bs dangerous



ine pl. nls marvel, wonder

bent on, the duty of‫‏‬

3

‫ قفاو‬III to agree with‫‏‬

ee wonderful

‫ قفتا‬VIII to agree together;‫‏‬

‎‫ حرك‬II to move trans.

to happen‫‏‬ “oe

‫ (~) درو‬to arrive; to come to‫‏‬ water (of animal)‫‏‬ ---

‫ (—) فصو‬to describe‫‏‬

‫ اسرة لتر‬bed‫‏‬ 4

09$ َ‫ء‬

-

an

-

a--

‫ كرصت‬17 to move intrans.‫‏‬ 5

‎‫ سين‬62517 $405

Py

73

‫ فقوم‬pl. Wsilg+ situation;‫‏‬

park for vehicles mod.

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪222‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬ ‫ود و‪‎‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪eid ytilauq‬‬

‫‪$‬‬

‫‪ lavirra‬وصول‪‎‬‬

‫و‪2‎‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪ link, connection‬صلة‪‎‬‬

‫‪ss‬‬

‫‪‎ difficult‬ريسع‬

‫‪-w‬‬

‫‏‪ )2( to fail‬لشف‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪ agreement‬اتفاقية‪GI, ‎‬‬ ‫‪(political, ‘commercial, and‬‬ ‫)‪otherwise‬‬

‫‪3 exactitude,‬‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫‪455‬‬ ‫‪accuracy‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪Si ee‬‬

‫‪Pe‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫لا‬

‫واردات‪‎‬‬

‫‪oS‬‬ ‫‪:‬‬ ‫‪all which (masc. relative‬‬

‫‪» bare‬‬ ‫‪ ole exports‬رات‪‎‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬

‫)‪pronoun) (see Ch. 34‬‬

‫‪Je1 pl. 3583 promise‬‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫‪ey pl. es‬‬

‫‪to dry‬‬

‫‪description‬‬

‫‪EXERCISE 51‬‬

‫شح قلبت دال زا ‪‎‬ل‬

‫‪SWAT‬‬

‫مهفقوم لق ‪.‎‬رسع ‪ ap ny‬ىلإ ‪‎‬فقوم‬

‫‪oe ee. 2‬‬

‫‪ BN wey, LS oa oe‬ةيرصملا ‪‎‬ةديدجلا ‪.‬‬ ‫‪--‬‬

‫‪er‬‬

‫‪‎‬سل‬

‫‪oe‬‬

‫‪cr‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫عص—بحت الأرض ‪laaB‬‏ وفشلت الزراعة فكانت آلوارداث‪yey‬‏‬ ‫أ‬ ‫صو‬

‫‪--80‬‬

‫ور‬

‫‏‪ ska‬نالمش‬ ‫‪ -‬‏‪°‬‬

‫إن ‪EP‬‏ ‪ ET‬ويقفوا فى رهم‬

‫‪300‬‬

‫‪woV‬‏‬

‫المدير‪.‬‬

‫لتفتيش‬ ‫جرع‬ ‫>‬

‫ححَوسَّو‬

‫”>‬

‫حسن‬

‫عدوه‬

‫وق‬

‫‏‪3 OF‬‬

‫فيها وعد‬

‫‪ore‬‬

‫‪ore‬‬

‫‪)maf‬‬

‫يديك‬

‫‪600‬‬

‫‪sda‬‏ غضب‬

‫‪Be TS 300k‬‬

‫‪-‬ءغٌ و‬

‫الصماعدة ‪.‬‬

‫وصفا‬

‫‪oe‬‬

‫ب ‪ -‬واجه‬

‫على المائدة ‪.‬‬ ‫ءءء ‪1‬م‬

‫وباسراد بم ‪-‬‬ ‫هك‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫تما‬

‫‪00-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫وردت‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫>‪5‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫&‬

‫ود‬

‫‪6$‬‬

‫رسالة مهمة يض‬

‫عروض رس‬

‫المولف عبائب ‪ruaG‬‏ ‪ J‬كتاب‬

‫عيبب ‪.yoJ‬‏ التعو "تلناضفات المومن‪.١ ....‬‏‪+‬يا‬ ‫ص ّدّه‪-‬‬

‫‪or‬‬

‫ا‬

‫‪ta‬‏‬

‫‪rae‬‬

‫‪Ge‬‬

‫لا تعسرن اليسير» بل أعملن أعمالكن حى يبسر العسير‪ .‬كمه‬

‫‪ Coat fetaeaa‬ل يفقس‬

‫فال ‪‎‬يدا ‪adele oan‬‬ ‫يم‬

‫د‬

‫ورم‬

WEAK » ‫ على سريره‬,lia( Gar

FD

Sa

VERBS. KO

THE

‫و‬

2a

‫‏‬er

noe

‎‫دَاء د هرودو‬ ise ‎‫ ورد‬- +.

‎‫د‬

08--

2-3

.‫ايقظه‬

33! pate PouL ss

sd ee

‫اه‬ re‫ تتوافقوا ‏‬A‫‏‬ 2397

GF

gener -

nuj

ea 6 Sars ‎‫دقام‬

--G0‫‏‬

‫اتفق‬

‫ ىلإ‬ok‫اهنسبلو‬‎

‫وه‬

dye)

223

‫‏‬sri ‫ان رحد ع‬

‫ب‬‎ 3

‫دم‬

VERB

‫صوغ د‬ .‫هذه الأمور‬

noce( ‫‏‬١ 5

ae‫‏‬

‫النساء ملابسهن‬

ASSIMILATED

‎ ‫نَبن‬ ‫ص‬ tie) vee.‫هذه‬‎ ‫ةدشلا‬ ‫ه‬7

‎‫ولم يقف‬

. ‫بح‬

seL ga

ed‎‫تعاس‬

‫ل‬

‎‫الماء‬

EXERCISE 2 1. Quickness to anger is a bad quality. 2. How many apples have you promised? It is your duty to bring more than that. 3. We have described all these events to you so that you may know that piety is preferable to despair, and we have put our ideas in our many letters to you during a period of two years. 4. The situation of our loved ones is perilous. They

face difficulties from every side. 5. He had despaired of life before your arrival. 6. My wife drives me to despair, as she

wakes me up every day in the morning. 7. We stopped in the car park and alighted (‫)لزن‬‎ from our vehicles. 8. This agreement between two enemies is remarkable. It is [one] of (use (‫ْنم‬‎ the wonders of the world. 9. Speech is easy, but deeds are hard. 10. He has described the qualities of the Arabs exactly. 11. Dry that book which has fallen into the

water, so that you can use it again for your lessons. 12. The pupil turned towards his teacher and his tongue became dry from fear. 13. By chance

(GUS!) the animal

came

to the

water, and the trees moved. 14. 1 attempted a description of

that animal, but failed because of its quickness. 15. Let us agree together and facilitate matters. 16. Your anger has made them difficult. 17. We will arrive in two hours time,

since the road has become hard. 18. Wake up, women, and do your duty in the kitchen. 19. My work has become easy. 20. I don’t agree with you.

CHAPTER TWENTY-EIGHT (Osptally ‫نماثلا‬‎ OU!) The Hollow Verb

1. Hollow verbs et ae) are those in which the middle radical is ‫و‬‎ or ¢. They are conjugated according to the following rules: (a) In the Perfect if the final radical is vowelled, the weak letter (i.e. 9 or (‫ى‬‎ changes to the long vowel ’alif.

e.g.

Os for ni he was. ‎‫ قامت‬for Daf she stood up. |ran for |nes they sold.

(b) In the Imperfect if the final radical is vowelled, the weak middle radical is changed to 9, ‫ى‬‎ or |, in accordance

with the vowelling of the particular verb, as shown in the dictionary. -

-

‫د‬‎ -

‎‫ خاف‬to fear; WEI

I fear.

eG to stand up; ‫م‬‎ai we stand up. ‎‫ باع‬to sell; 000 you (./‫)م‬‎ sell. (c) If the final radical is unvowelled (e.g. in the Jussive, Imperative, or other parts in which the final radical regularly has sukun before its pronominal suffix) the weak middle radical disappears, but the preceding initial radical takes the short vowel appropriate to the vowelling of the particular verb. OK (=-).to be; ay I was.

‎‫( قام‬2) to stand up; ‫نمق‬‎ they (f. pl.) stood up. ‎‫) باع‬-( 01 ‫ بع زلأعة‬tel su lles .)evissuJ( ‎‫ بعت‬I .dlos 224

THE

‫ (—) مان‬to sleep;

HOLLOW

VERB

225

ew they (f. pl.) sleep.‫‏‬

Note: In applying the above three rules the beginner is advised to compare with some simple regular verb. For example, if he has to ‎‫الع‬

‫عير‬

write “I was’, he may take “I opened” as a model. This is ‫تحتف‬‎ and the final radical, ~ has swktin. According to rule (c), therefore, the middle

radical, the waw of O& must be removed,

269

and we have

gree

‫ تنك‬.Most verbs of the form ¢) NS « O& have a damma in the Perfect‫‏‬ when the middle radical iis elided, e. 8.‫‏‬ ple‎‫) م‬to fast; -

Most having the form

‫كتمص‬‎aa fasted

-

on! ‫عاب‬‎ also take kasra in the Perfect when 2

6

there is no middle radical. ‫تعب‬‎ I sold. The common exceptions are: ites Ju to pariseb I obtained;

=

with Imperfect dls.

PEE

‫ نام‬ot ,peels eca ;tpels htiw ‫‏‬tcefrepmI ‫ ينام‬.

(d) In the 00 not only does the middle radical disappear when the final radical is unvowelled (as in the Jussive), but in addition, the prefixed ’alif of the regular Imperative is omitted, e.g.

‫ لاق‬to say; Imperative

At (m. s.)‫‏‬

but Joi‫ )رك ‏‬s.)‫‏‬ ‫ باع‬ot ;lles ‫‏‬evitarepmI ‫( بعن‬7. ‫ام‬.(

but ‎‫( بيعوا‬m. pl.) (e) In the root form the weak medial is changed to hamza in the Active Participle:

‫قائل قال‬

‫انم باع‬

(f) For verbs with kasra a the Imperfect, the Passive‫‏‬ is oF the pattern ae sold. Otherwise, it is as OU

gh, said; aes feared.

226

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR ewe

2. Conjugation of ‫ماق‬‎(2) (for psi), to rise, set out; (with w) to carry out, undertake. Perfect

Sing. ‎‫قام‬

Dual

Plural ‎‫قاموا‬

‫اماق‬‎

err 539



- 029 om” 6369

-

1539

Imperfect Subj.

‫يقوم‬

Sing. ”

‎ ot ‫دن‬

‫تقوم‬

‫تقوم‬ wee

part

‫يقوموا‬

8+3

-‫رن‬-

as

‎‫تقوموا‬ 695 were -



‫نقوم‬

-

‫روودس‬

THE

HOLLOW

227

VERB

Imperative

S. 2. m.

‫مق‬‎

ak

‫ا‬‎

D. 2.

Le

PiQem.

(yes

akong.

cad

Part. Act.

‫مئاق‬‎ 9

2+

Part. Pass. ‫مم‬‎ ‫وقم‬

Passive

Imperf. Indic.

Perf.

Subj.

‘a pe

20

1 ‎‫ميل‬ Me: ,

0: f f5

١

1١ ١0 0

ail o-2

ee ah \

etc.

etc.

3. Conjugation of verb, whose middle radical is ¢: “ere

(for ‎‫ (صير‬to become. Perfect

Sing. 3. m.

ple e-

tage. £. ez

reef :5

م‬

‫فوخم‬‎

Passive

Perf. 5

‎‫خيف‬

Imperf. Indic. ce 2

Subj. Ree

‫رخاف‬

le, BOS

Juss. a2

ws

is

‎‫خيفت‬

2

‫حاف‬

either

ls

wis

re

etc.

etc.

etc.

230

A NEW

ARABIC

DERIVED

GRAMMAR FORMS

5. In forms II, III, V, VI, and IX, the weak medial is treated as if it were a normal sound letter, and therefore

irregularity does not occur. In the following tables, therefore, students should observe carefully forms IV, VII, VIII and X, where the hollowness still remains. They should also

note that in these forms there is no distinction of vowelling between verbs like ‫لاق‬‎ with ‫مهم‬‎ and those like

‫عاب‬‎with ya’.

Note the compensatory feminine ending of the verbal nouns

in IV and X. Note that the weak radical becomes ?alif in both Perfect and Imperfect in VII and VIII. Special attention

should be paid to IV, which is tricky to the beginner. 6. Derived Forms of the Hollow Verb with Medial waw:

Perf. Imperf. Indic. ae

Jw-s

‫ا‬

Imper. own

Part. Act. Part. Pass. Su-9

5 ‫تدر‬‎

111. ‫قاوم‬

‫يقوم‬

‫قوم‬

‫ يقاوم‬2 ‫قاوم‬

‫‏‬nlp 2 ‫مقاوم‬

.VI ‫‏‬lup

‫يقيم‬

‫أقم‬

‫‏‬crp

‫مقام‬

‫‏‬.IV ‫تقاوم‬ .IIV ‫‏‬alp .IIIV ‫!‏‬stp

‫‏‬aelp ‫ينقام‬ ‫يقتام‬

‫تقاوم‬ ‫م‬ lw

‫متقاوم‬ ‫منقام‬ ‫‏‬A

‫متقاوم‬ ‫منقام‬ ‫مقتام‬

‫‏‬.XI

‫دحت‬

‫د ودش‬

‫اسود‬

‫اه‬->‫م‬

‫يسود‬

‫أسودد‬

-

-

ogee‫‏‬

-

‫‏‬-B ‫وهم‬

‫مسود‬

‫مجو‬

0.

-

Verbal Noun

11

aig

77.

‫موقت‬‎

.77111 ‫مايتقإ‬

IIL. dustin

71.

‫مواقت‬‎

IX. ‫ةاقوسإ‬‎

IV.

VIL. ‫مايقنإ‬‎

.‫ةماقتسإ ا‬

5

o-

ib ‫> و‬

5a--

60-6

- 6

BS--

‫‏‬6

THE

HOLLOW

VERB

231

7. Derived forms of the Hollow Verb with Medial ya’:

Perf. Imperf. Indic. “0 =

1

‫عي‬ 3

‫صاير‬

2

‫‏‬-uS ‫ر‬

eB

Ae}

se

‫صاير‬

‫و‬

‫ َو‬->-‫ر‬

‫‏‬ee

Ch

‫يصاير‬

0

Part. Act. Part. Pass.

‫> سه‬

‫عر‬

CAH

111.

Imper.

‫ر > سر‬

‫عير‬

3

2-00‫‏‬

‫مصاير‬

‫‏‬é

7

‫مصاير‬

‫و‬

39-6

‫‏‬.VI ‫اصار‬

‫يصير‬

‫اصر‬

‫مصير‬

J‫‏‬

Barre

2 ae?

oa --

Su Bey

$a--9‫‏‬

‫‏‬sie

‫‏‬.IV ‫تصاير‬ ‫ع‬

‫و‬2

‫ج‬2

‫‏‬-o

‫يتصاير‬

56

‫ده‬

‫تصاير‬

PO

o-

‫ينصار‬

6

‫‏‬.IIV

‫انصار‬ 6-02

7-0-2

‫ له‬6

‫‏‬.IIIV

‫اصطار‬

‫يصطار‬

‫اصطر‬

‫‏‬.XI

‫ابيض‬

‫‏‬ova

-

--60

‫‏‬.X ‫إستصار‬

‫أانصر‬

‫دوعت‬

6

‫يبيض‬ ‫‏‬i

6

+6 ‫ع‬

>‫و‬

‫‏‬oo

‫استصر‬

-

-

‫و‬-

--3

: FAQS)

S

020203‫‏‬

‫متصار‬

‫منصار‬

5

-

‫متصاير‬

‫ره‬

5

‫مصطار‬

3)

‫ ةق‬-‫وه‬

‫|بيضض‬

‫يسصير‬

>->‫و‬

‫متصاير‬

‫ببيض‬ 5

‫رهد‬

‫مستصسرس‬

-

90

?

wanting.‫‏‬ S$

‫‏‬90--

‫مستصار‬

-

Verbal Noun.

ee ‫ا‬

te.‫‏‬

IV. ‎‫إغارة‬

ete

17111. ‫رايطصإ‬‎

‫ا‬

IX. Flag!‫‏‬

VIL. jleail

X, ‫ٌةراصتسإ‬‎

VOCABULARY

‫ ءاقأ‬IV to set, set up, place;‫‏‬

(with d) to settle, stay (in a place) -a--8 ‫فوخ‬‎ 11 : ‫ اخاف‬IV

32 ‫ حارتسا‬X to rest

toterrify

‫) تام‬2( to die‫‏‬

3G (—) totake a siesta ig Jib (2) to be long ‫مجم‬‎

‫لوط‬‎ II to make long; to take a long time‫‏‬ - -%

se‫‏‬

dal, rest, ease

‫ لاطا‬IV to lengthen‫‏‬

3

‎‫) سار‬-( to go, journey

-

-

9

‎‫ استراحة‬rest-house

0

5

232

A NEW

ARABIC

‫) داع‬2( to return‫‏‬

GRAMMAR

ABE

‎‫ صيانة‬protection,

--§

tion

‫ داعا‬IV to repeat, bring back‫‏‬

5

‫ داتعا‬VIII

to be accustomed‫‏‬

‫>و‬‎

3

‎‫ تراب‬soil, earth u (—)to flee, run away

to

-

conserva-

-6

‎‫ اصاب‬IV to hit the mark, afflict, attack eee

‫ لوان‬IV to hand over (with‫‏‬ double accusative)‫‏‬ "09

rite authority,

ie (a) with object: to make (b) with imperfect verb: to begin doing anything 22

rule,

con-

a pair

trol ‫هم‬

“0a‫‏‬-

‫ تاطلسلا‬the authorities‫‏‬

dle) bullet 6$

S55 3d,

‫ ةلوهس‬ease, easiness‫‏‬

5 > َ‫ه‬‎

733pl. ‫جاوز‬‎‫ا‬husband, one of

‫رود‬

‫ ةيقداب‬pl.‫ قدانب ‏‬rifle, gun‫‏‬

$6

‎‫ صحة‬health, soundness

-

‫خم‬

‫ (~) حاص‬to cry out‫‏‬ 5

6>

‫ دارا‬IV to wish, want‫‏‬

‫ نوم‬sleep‫‏‬

‫) راز‬2( to visit‫‏‬

sil )—( to fly‫‏‬

‫ دادزا‬VIII to increase‫‏‬

3‫‏ طا أ‬.lp ‫ — ات‬aeroplane‫‏‬

‫لوكو‬

5

intrans.‫‏‬ Sa -

‫عاطأ‬IV_ to obey‫‏‬ -

--9

‫ عاطتسإ‬X to be able (with‫‏‬ object in accus., or | subjunc-‫‏‬

‫طيار‬

‫ ول‬pilot‫‏‬

ai pl. elle airfield, airport

tive preceded by bi)

elo pl. ‫حلاصم‬‎ depart-

we (—) to investigate

ment (of government), interest (e.g. in his interests)

bbe (2-) to protect

‫‪VERB‬‬

‫‪233‬‬

‫‪THE‬‬

‫‪HOLLOW‬‬

‫‪35‬‏‪EXERCISE‬‬ ‫‏‪a*- "000 (2 =E‬‬

‫ف‬

‫‪on‬‬

‫ن‪“1‬‬

‫‏‪ae‬‬

‫‏‪SOA‬‬

‫نهد‬

‫‏‪٠‬ماقا برعلا ىف ضعب ندم ايروس مهنكل مل اوحرفياهيف ‪.‬‬

‫ب ‪ -‬طرنا ‪!oJ‬‏ بعيد ى المتدراة ‏ لدرنا فى الاستراحة الحكوسية ‪.‬‬ ‫ار‬ ‫ا‬

‫العطار ‪8‬‬

‫ين‬

‫إن‬

‫صغيرا جذّاء ولكن ‪tsuj‬‏ ‪ea‬‬

‫من‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫زسان‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ا‪‎‬‬

‫‏)‪ .(for some time‬ع ‏‪ afb J Cs‬ةيزيلكلإ » ثمنو انااهيف ءانثا‬

‫السفر كعادق ‪a‬‏ ات وكين صحبنا سائحان ‪sito‬‏ لم يزورا‬

‫‪Vos‬نم لبق ‪‎‬ملف ‪ Ble arg ca 5‬التراب‪‎‬‬ ‫‪Sue‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫‪20-6‬‬

‫!‪Ce‬‬

‫‪°‬‬

‫‪5-007‬‬

‫‪0‬‬ ‫‏‪9‬‬

‫ا‬ ‫‪-e-‬‬

‫‪Rr‬‬

‫تصح‬

‫‪°‬‬

‫‪:reiP‬‏ والمصاب (‪)mitciv‬‏ زوج عدو ‪)ig‬‏‬ ‫ه‪2‬‬

‫‪On‬‬

‫‏‪a-‬‬

‫اد‬

‫=‬

‫‪o-‬‬

‫‏‪ZEo-‬‬

‫حينما تفر» ‪Si‬‏ لا يعرف العدو شيئًا (‪)gnihtyna‬‏‬ ‫‪w‬‬

‫‪Oa‬‬

‫‪OM‬‬

‫‪“OO‬‬

‫‪9‬‬

‫عن‬ ‫‪33‬‬

‫‪‎‬كتاكرح ‪‎eee ooh 9 .‬دالبلا ‪ Poe ele‬انتظرت‪Opes ‎‬‬ ‫الربيعلشدة ‪tl‬‏ هناك وأزدياد البرد ‪ 3‬ذلك الفصل ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ere‬‬

‫كي‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪si.‬‬ ‫سيدى المحترم » أخيرك ‪bJ‬‏أستطيع ‪IG‬‏ أسير لدمشق‪ylO‬‏ ‪V i‬‬ ‫بعد‬

‫وى راحة»‬

‫‪neL‬‏‬

‫(‪)sa‬‬

‫‪;i‬‬

‫‪J‬‬

‫خادمك‬ ‫‪ GH‬صروس ‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‏‬

‫الطيع«‬

‫‪‎ (here, meaning ‘weather’) Chal 500‬ةراح |‪«OY‬‬ ‫عازنتسد‬ ‫‪ eep‬ياوا‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫وجتى لعل ‪tet‬‏‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫ب‬

‫‪ree‬‬

‫ا ولت فا«الستوق‪‎»:‬‬ ‫— لمذ‬

‫ا‪f‬‏ ضَائْمهم‪hes‬‏ ما‬ ‫امو ‪o‬‬

‫‏‪. J ele «Jal donee Fae‬هداتعأ ؛ ‪ -‬‏‪ sli‬ناجنف‬ ‫‪--96‬‬

‫‪1‬‏‬

‫شاى‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪ado‬‏‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪‎ Sle,‬سهولة‪.‬‬

‫‪9B:‬‬

‫‪ 64‬ك‪ 1‬لكوك‬

‫>‬

‫خائفٌ‪.‬‬

‫‪ities py‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫ودر‬

‫خوفته ؟‬

‫و‪2‬‬

‫يقت اجن‬

‫)‪“ui (may .. . prolong‬‬

‫‪of‬‬

‫هو‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪ae‬‬

234

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

Bred Aiba “ps jee 1A. (Perfect used for pious wish) 2

3

w

>

‫اع‬‎

oa---

2

wb

ae

- a

‎‫ أى حال لتاتكلم‬sed ‎‫سرك‬

‫هد‬‎

See

Sie

3

0309

)dneehtni(. ‎‫اخيرا‬

‎‫ (عنى) لعلك تصاب‬sg« ‎‫ابعد‬- ‫وم‬

=

Ran

0

‫متن‬ =

+. .‫ المرض الخطر‬eM -‫ص‬ ‫ن‬

. ‫ والاطفال‬oleae‫عند ‏‬ ” ‎‫له‬

EXERCISE

307 ٠.

4

1. An inspector of the Soil Conservation Department flew from the city to investigate the problem. 2. He returned and handed over his report to the Minister. 3. The latter put it on his desk, but was unable to do anything (4) because his

wife began to visit him in his office every afternoon (every day after noon), and he left most of his work to a clerk. 4. We wish to write about this because difficulties have increased in the government recently. 5. Every official must do his duty and obey orders. 6. The sentry’s sleeping was

the cause of his being hit by a bullet. 7. Preserve your rifles, soldiers, and do not flee before the enemy.

8. How many

times have I said that to you, but you have not listened. 9. We must not take the siesta in times of war. 10. They

arrived by aeroplane and settled in a place near the airfield. 11. Their habit was to emerge every evening and terrify the

inhabitants. 12. I think it best that you travel by air like the other tourists. 13. Hassan was a brave airman and died in his plane. 14. Take your ease (translate literally) in the rest house. 15. I am glad that the authorities have extended your stay here. 16. Take it easy, and have another look (lit. return the look) at these papers. 17. Perhaps you will find in them

something which (‫)ام‬‎ will not please you. 18. Your visit has lasted a long time. I think it best that you set out at once, and return to your people, your relations, and your country. 19, Are you accustomed to my ideas or not (Yel)? 20. Our relations with his government frightened his enemies greatly.

CHAPTER

TWENTY-NINE

‎)‫(ألباب التاسع والعشرون‬ The Verb with Weak Final Radical

(Defective Verb) 1. The verb with weak final radical is called ons Ae in Arabic,

and,

sometimes,

in English,

by the

somewhat

ambiguous term Defective. The weak radical may be considered to have been originally either waw or ya’, but it may be written also as ’alif, according to the following rules:

(a) When the Perfect has |, the Imperfect must have 4. e.g. ‎‫ دعا‬to call; Imperfect ‫وعدي‬‎ (b) When the Perfect has ya’, the Imperfect also must have ya’. This occurs in the following types:

(i) fa Ela, yaf ‫علان‬‎ ‫ىلا‬en to throw. (ii) fa cila, yaf eal 347 ‫ىقلي‬‎ to meet. (iii) The passive of all forms. ca ‎‫دعى‬ 0 5902

A

ee to be called. = to be thrown. “029

‎‫ يلقى‬to be met.

Note that the final yd’ in some instances is ’alif magsira, and is pronounced like ’alif.

(c) There is also a rare form which has ‫مهم‬‎ in Perfect and Imperfect. thee are verbs of the form fa Eula, yaf eulu. An example is ‫ورس‬‎ ‫ و‬i to be noble; but the beginner is unlikely to encounter this type. 235

236

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(d) In the derived forms the weak final is always written as ya@ in both tenses, whatever the root form may be, e.g. --6

-

‫ ىفقتلا‬to meet (a VIII),‫‏‬ -

#6

‫ ىعادت‬to call one another (les VI).‫‏‬ 2. Rules for the elision of the weak radical.

(a) Complicated rules will not be given. It is better to see from the tables. Nevertheless, it is important to note that in the verb when the weak radical is the last letter of the word it is removed in those parts where it should be unvowelled. This applies to the Jussive and Imperative.

e.g. from oe

‫مرا‬‎throw!

‫اعد‬

col call!‫‏‬

‫ىقل‬

GSI meet! (1).‫‏‬

‫ ىقتلا‬gil meet! (VIII)‫‏‬ (b) In the Verbal Noun of derived forms III (type dts), IV, VII, VIII, IX and X, the weak radical, when occurring

after °alif, is changed to hamza: From

‎‫ لاق‬111.

>

>‫َتدو‬‎ > “054i

1

‫انوعد‬

Imperfect

Indic. 2

.gniS .3 ‫‏‬csam

» ‫وو‬

3. ‫‏‬.mef

‫يدعو‬

‫و‬‎ 67

67525

-‫ه د‬-

‫ د‬70

‫تدعو‬ =e

‫نيعدت‬‎ 5 ots

‫‏‬sito

©

.

‫ادعو‬ - 390-7

lauD .3 ‫‏‬.csam

‫يدعوان‬

‫ ار‬153 1‫اطة‬

‫تدعوان‬

» 2.

‫تدعوان‬

-3

3» fem.

‫ رو‬2. ‫‏‬,esaM

‫ا‬

On

‫تأ‬

‫وم‬

‫يدعون‬

Ose -

‫ار‬

sneH ‫‏‬yb

‫ل‬

‫دمو‬

‫تندعون‬ est

9,

0-

-30-

.rulP .3 ‫‏‬.csam

»,

5

Juss.

‫يدعو‬

367

tem.

Subj. bone JNfact

‫ندعو‬

2. ‫‏‬.csam

2.

o7

de Jee

‫‏‬epO ‫ و‬-0

‫ندعو‬

‫يد‬

‫تدعو‬ SES:

‫ندم‬

OF

2

‫تدعو‬ on

ese

o7

‫تدع‬ on

eg

“206

2 08

‫ادعو‬

‫دع‬

2I-0~

AEs CS

‫يدعوا‬

‫يدعوا‬

-20-

‫تدعوا‬

=3

‫تدعوا‬

‫تدعوا‬ 0=

es‫‏‬

703

‫يدعوا‬ Kees

‫لوعدي‬‎ ‫ود‬

‫تدعوا‬ 7a 20°

‫تدعون‬ Gad Ue

‫درن‬

7307

72

07

PN‫‏‬

‫يدعوا‬ ce‫‏‬

‫لوعدي‬ 7

‫تدعوا‬ Gigs

OS

‫تدعون‬

Jig OZ‫‏‬

‫ع‬

238

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

Imperative Sing. masc. »

‫‏‬.mef

-208

3063

Dual ‫اوعدا‬‎

‫ادع‬ ‫ده‬

»

‫ادعى‬

‫ فس‬DOD:‫‏‬

fem.

‫نوعدا‬‎

Part. Active

Sing. nom. masc.

0

Plur. masc.

‫عاد‬‎ (with Art. (‫ىعادلا‬‎ fem.

ee ‎‫داعية‬ 2-

»

accus.

35‫و‬

gen.

,,

‫داعيًا‬

(





‫(الذاعى‬



fa

(





)lle

oo

-

nom.

masc.

‫نايعاد‬‎

fem.

Ok cls

‫ىو‬,

-‫داعيتين‬

‫داعون‬

‫وى‬

‫داعيات‬

gels

4

oblslo‫‏‬

-

‫ وو‬gen. accus.

,‫ ‏‬.

‫داعيين‬ ie

Plur.

nom.

» gen. accus,



a tay‫‏‬

Bs ‎‫ه‬-

Part. Pass. ‫وعدم‬‎ Passive Perfect

Sing. 3. masc.

Dual

Les

Plur.

-

‫داعية‬

‫‏‬:

se

Dual

-

‫داعية‬



|‫اوعد‬‎

--‫و‬

‫وو‬

3. fem.‫‏‬

»

‫‏‬sek

5

‫دعين‬

»

2. masc.‫‏‬

»»

‫دعيتما‬

‫وو‬

‫دعيتم‬

‫وو‬

2. fem.‫‏‬



‫دعيتن‬

0

>

7

‫دعيئا‬

THE

VERB

WITH

WEAK

FINAL

Pass. Imperf. Indic. ‘

Subj.

>‫ده‬

.gniS .3 ‫‏‬.csam

RADICAL

239

Juss.

- 320

‫يدعى‬

‫أ‬

‫يدعى‬

-‫وه‬

- ‫وه‬

-

96

-

90

»

3. ‫‏‬,mef

‫ندعى‬

»

2 ‫‏‬,csam

‫تدعى‬

»

2 ‫‏‬.mef

‫تدعين‬

‫تدعى‬

‫تدعى‬

- ‫ه‬4 ‫ادعى‬

-o2 ‫ادعى‬

- of‫‏‬ ‫ادع‬

1-05

Dual 3. masc.

=

25

0.

3

‫ه‬

1

7 25

ya ‫‏‬DPA

‫تدعيان‬ ‫جه‬

‫ره‬

ee

-6-

96

34fem,

‫نيعدي‬‎

»»

2. ‫‏‬.csam

2 -‫ه‬‎

‫وو‬

2. ‫‏‬,mef

“- 02

‫تدعيا‬ ‫به‬

96

-6-

90

‫يدعوا‬

‫نيعدي‬

Oe

‫هج‬‎

‫تدعون‬ BOT‫‏‬

Ned

ews

‫يدعولن‬

oy

‫ره‬

-- 90

1 7-02

-

0

‫ايعدي‬

55

‎‫تدعيان‬

» 1.

75

‫تدعى‬

‫نايعدي‬‎

00

.rulP .3 ‫‏‬.csam

‫تدعى‬

‫وج‬

= ‫يد‬

O29

‫تدعوا‬ ‫نام‬

‫تدعين‬

‫تدعين‬

‫ندعى‬

‫ندعى‬

‫فده و‬

2

‫و‬

‫تدع‬ ‫تدع‬ 96-70

39,

‫ايعدي‬ 00039

‎‫تدعيا‬ YD

‫تدعيا‬ o-

‫‏‬96

‫يدعوا‬

"930-0

‫نيعدي‬ o-

Oo»

‫تدعوا‬ OOD.‫‏‬

‫تدعين‬

‫ندع‬

‫‏‬gC

‫وه‬

The following points should be particularly noted in the above tables: (a) Active Perfect: The final radical disappears in the 3rd Person Fem. Sing. and Dual. In the 3rd Pers. Masc. Plural

also it disappears, but the previous radical has a diphthong to compensate it: o--

‫‏ دعوا‬ad ‫ولمع‬

grr

‫ دعووا‬da‫مع ‏‬.

(b) Active Imperfect: Note the elision of the weak ‫مهم‬‎ in the 2nd P. Fem. Sing., and the 2nd and 3rd P. Masc. Plur. in both Indicative and Subjunctive. In the Jussive it also

240

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

disappears in all parts in which it would otherwise be the final letter. The same applies to the Imperative.

(c) The complicated forms of the Active Participle should be especially noted, as some of these participles are of frequent use as nouns, e.g. ‫ضاق‬‎ a judge; ‫عاد‬‎ muezzin. Used thus, with technical meanings, these Active Participles take broken plurals of the form es ‫ٌةاعد‬‎ when applied to

human beings. (d) The Passive table above can be taken as a model for all Defective Verbs whatever the vowelling of the Active may be. 4. Conjugation of the verb (‫)نع‬‎ es) to be pleased (with) (Of the form Athy Perfect

Sing. 3. masc. ‎‫وو‬

3. fem.

‫ىضر‬‎

Dual

‫تيضر‬‎ =

‫وو‬

«

‫ايضر‬‎

Plurs

‫اتيضر‬ -y9

|0



-

‫نيضر‬ ‫هو‬‎

>

»»

2. masc.

‫تيضر‬‎

7

2 fem.

‫تيضر‬‎

‫وو‬

‫ٌنتيضر‬

‎‫وو‬

1

‫رصي‬

‫و‬

‫رضيئنا‬

ry

Imperf. Indic. Sing. 3. masc.

ae 02

»

3. fem.

‫ىضرت‬‎

»»

2. masc,

‫ىضرن‬‎

‎‫وو‬

2. fem.

‫نيضرت‬‎

ti ks

mos

a=.

Cis

66

‫ىضرا‬‎

‫امتيضر‬‎

«, 2‫رمتيضر‬

Subj.

Juss.

es

Pn

ae

207

‫ىضرت‬ >

‫ىضرت‬ ‫كه‬‎

‫ىضرت‬ 2

‫ىضرا‬

‫ضرت‬ .

2

‫صرت‬ roan

es

‫ىضرت‬ >

‫ضرا‬

THE

VERB

WITH

WEAK

FINAL

١ Imperf. Indic. Dual 3. masc. ‫‏‬Si

Oe 42

30

7 ee

‫وو‬

2. ‫‏‬.csam

‫رو‬

2. ‫‏‬.mef

5

Nes 2-260

‫ترضيا‬

ee

‫ترضيا‬

6‫>ه‬-6>-

6-5-

‫يرضوا‬

62

‫يرضوا‬

0

‫يرضين‬

- 0- 0-

‫يرضين‬

000

‫يرضين‬

0

‫ترضون‬ - 0- o-

‫ترضين‬

1.

ie

oa

0-07

‫ترضوا‬

‫ترضوا‬

-0-0-

-0-0-

‫ترضين‬

ot ”

Juss.

‫ترضيا‬

‫يرضون‬

3. ‫‏‬.meL

Subj.

‫ترضيا‬

‫ترضيان‬

.rulP .3 ‫‏‬.csam

241

2-20

‫ترضيان‬

‫‏‬.dei

‫ىو‬

6-

RADICAL

‫ترضين‬

-o-

rr

202

‫ىضرن‬‎

‫صرن‬

Imperative

Sing. masc. »

fem.

il

Dual

be

6-0

‫ارضى‬

‫وو‬‎

-

ac-

Part. Act. ‫ضار‬‎ (with article (‫ىضارلا‬‎ Pass. Perf. a (see (‫ىعد‬‎

07-0

Plur. masc.

‫اوضرا‬‎ -o-6

fem.

‫نيضرا‬‎ 3

o-

Part. Pass. ‫ىض‬‎

1

5

-

69

Imperf. Indic. aie (see (‫ىعدي‬‎

The Passive of this measure

is exactly the same as the

Active, but for the change of the vowelling of the initial radical.

5. Conjugation of 0 to throw (of the form ews Perfect :

Sing. 3. masc.

ae

‫ىمر‬‎

Dual

6

‎‫وو‬

3. fem.

‫تمر‬‎

‎‫وى‬

2. 8221©. 2 ‫رميثت‬

-62-

oe

‫ايمر‬‎

Plur.

as



‫اتمر‬

,,

‫رميتما‬

‫وود‬‎

Roa



‫وو‬

6>

‎‫وو‬

2. fem.

or)

4,

‫رميت‬

‫نيمر‬ ->‫هووج‬

een

Gi20--

Ap

ow)

‫وو‬

‫رمينا‬

Bere 35‫و‬

Ort

‫اومر‬‎

I-o--

242

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

Imperf. Indic.

Subj.

o-

Sing. 3. masc.

‫ىمري‬‎

3. fem.

‫ىمرت‬‎

»

2. masc.

‫ىمرت‬‎

»»

2. fem,

‫نيمرت‬‎

-

‫ا‬‎

o-

of

- 06

- o-

e-

‫و‬‎

‫ايمري‬ 25

‫ايمرت‬

‫هو‬‎

-

‫ايمرت‬

5 307

->‫دو‬

‫اومري‬

Jo

o-

‫ايمرت‬

‫دو‬‎

‫لومري‬‎ 2

- on

‫ايمري‬

‫ايمرت‬

‫نايمرت‬‎

Plur. 3. masc.

‫هم‬‎

‫نا‬

- >

‫نايمرت‬‎ -

6>

wr

‫ىمرا‬

‫نايمري‬‎

ys

en

t

‫ىمرت‬

‫ىمرا‬‎

3. fem.

o-

(ee

wr

- -‫ن‬‎

‎‫وو‬

Ck

‎‫ت‬0

Dual 3. masc.

‫مرد‬

‫ىمرت‬

“ee

» 1.

o-

‫ىمري‬

o-

»

Juss.

2162

‫اومري‬

0

5

3. fem;

or

‎‫ور‬

2. 52201.

‫ترمون‬

»

2. fem.

ony o-

12

o-



UF

wer

we

[ey

>

‫نيمري‬‎

-

‎‫دار‬

3907

‫نيمري‬

207

‫دود‬‎

‫ترموا‬

in the

244

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

‎‫وه‬

“08

0307

definite, e.g. ‫مرم‬‎ throwing, a thrower (from (,4)!-IV); ‫ىم‬‎ ‫رملاو‬ 2

eee

‫هد‬‎

the thrower; 6x41 ,‫ىمرم‬‎ the thrower of the stone.

if

(c) The alif magsira of the Passive Participle in the derived 2029

forms loses its nunation nee the word is definite, e.g. Ab, ‫هر‬‎

2 500 6‫م‬

‫الملقى‬. ehT eninimef‫‏‬si ‫ملقاة‬, ‫لملقاة‬

(d) Verbal Nouns:

Note that in Form

II these verbs

always have the form ids, not Ke In III the first form of the verbal noun has an ’alif in place of the weak radical,

before the feminine ending. Forms V and VI elide the final radical when indefinite and they change the damma of the middle radical of the regular verb to kasra. The ya reappears when the word is definite. Finally, the verbal nouns in forms

III (second type), IV, VII, VIII, [IX and X have a final hamza in place of the weak radical.

(e) Form IX is extremely rare in this type of verb, but when it occurs, the doubled final radical appears as an alif followed by a ya. From ‫ىمع‬‎to be or become blind, we also -

-o

have ‎‫ اعماى‬with the same

meaning.

The

XIth

Form also

occurs, and in it the y@ is doubled, as it should be, e.g. Sls, also with the same meaning.

7. When

an attached pronoun

is added to any word

ending in alif magsiira, the latter is written as an ?alif, accord-

ing to its actual sound. This applies to pronominal objects of defective verbs. €.g.

+) he threw; oly) he threw him or it.

ee ‎‫ يلقى‬he meets;

‫مه‬‎‫اقلي‬he meets them. ‫ساسم‬

ay he encountered;

‫كاقال‬‎ he encountered you.

But note that the ya’, if preceded by kasra, is no longer an alif maqstira.

THE

VERB

se

e.g.

WITH ae

WEAK

FINAL

RADICAL

245

‫ىقل‬‎ he met; 43 he met him. 6

'

‎‫ يرمى‬he throws; ‫هيمري‬‎ he throws it.

The same change to ?alif occurs also in nouns. €.g.

(4) consent;

Wl») her consent.

‫اهاضر‬‎ ‫ نودب‬without

her consent. ١ This rule does not apply to the prepositions

Pe ‫ىلع‬‎ “on”

and ‎‫“ إلى‬to”, which, as already shown, become diphthongs =07=

ee

when a pronoun is attached, e.g. ‫اميلع‬‎ on her, it; ‫مهيلإ‬‎ to them, etc. 7

8. The Defective and Hollow Verbs can cause much difficulty for the beginner in one way or another. This is particularly so when he encounters certain forms of these verbs in unvowelled Arabic. Let us take as an example the phrase ‎‫ يقل‬/ُ Here it would be difficult to tell whether the verb is: from a hollow verb (2 BG ”»

99





doubled ,, »

>, defective ,,

(=) ‫لاق‬‎

at ‫ىلق‬‎‘ ‫الق‬

The root of the verb in the phrase 4 } could be either eee

-

-

ac

‫ دحو‬or‫ داح ‏‬or‫ ‏‬.‫ دج‬In most cases, of course, the context‫‏‬ should prove a guide to the correct root. Where there is‫‏‬ doubt the student may have to check several possible roots‫‏‬

before finding the correct one.‫‏‬ VOCABULARY

es (2) to hope for, request (acc. of person or thing)

‫اعد‬‎ (2) to call, pray for, invite

‎‫ رحا‬hope

‎‫ إدعى‬VIII to claim

‫) الت‬2( to read, recite‫‏‬

‫ ىعدتسا‬X to summon‫‏‬

> 0-0

246

A NEW

ARABIC

‫ نم‬Us ).2( to approach‫‏‬ (3s ‘ =) Ka (2) to com-

GRAMMAR

‫( ضام‬with article‫ (الماضى ‏‬past,‫‏‬ “last

wa (—) to decide, judge

plain (about) ‫ شكوى‬pl.‫ شكاو ‏‬complaint‫‏‬

‎‫ اقتضى‬VIII to demand,

re-

quire

ol III to call‫‏‬

‎‫ قاض‬pl. ‎‫ قضاة‬judge (Cadi)

‫)احن‬2( to escape‫‏‬ (‫ )نع‬lic ).2( to forgive‫‏‬

A )-( to build

line (2.) to be pure, clear

‎‫ م‬Be to water

ake pure, clear

‫ هيلع‬iid Pass. he fainted‫‏‬

eon II to name, call (doubly

ras itt Pass. she fainted

err

le

trans.; or second object with

‎‫(ب‬

ee V to wish, hope, beg

x (=) to weep

‫ ىبر‬11 to train, bring up,‫‏‬

pes (—) to run, flow, happen

eas

breed‫‏‬

0 (~) to walk, go ‫ ةاثم‬infantry Part.)‫‏‬

(pl. of Act.‫‏‬

;

a.

4.5 education, upbringing 5-0-

savin

?

‫ معهد‬pl.‫ معاهد ‏‬institute‫‏‬ med

‫ قوت‬V Pass. to dia‫‏‬

‫ شاوم‬cattle pl. of‫ماشية ‏‬

‫ (=) ىده‬to guide‫‏‬

fess V to lunch, have lunch

Bie road, path (Quranic)

es V to dine, have dinner, supper

‎‫ مستقيم‬straight

‫ ىطعأ‬IV to give (doubly‫‏‬

oF ‎‫ )هك رضى‬ot eb detnetnoc

trans.)‫‏‬ et (~) to pass, go away

SAS

ea

Os

3

Shull

with, approve of

es (—) to forget

THE

es

VERB

WITH

forgetfulness,

4

WEAK

forget-

ting

FINAL

217

RADICAL

‎‫ةق‬

‎‫ جو‬,yks ,ria erehpsomta

0

‎‫ )—( بقى‬to remain oe

‫ ىوح‬air- adj.‫‏‬ g

ela remaining n., existence

-

‫ ديرب‬post, mail‫‏‬

Pre ‫ راد ءاقبلا‬the Hereafter,‫‏‬ Heaven (lit. the House of‫‏‬ Eternity)‫‏‬

les pl.‫ نيطايش ‏‬Satan, devil‫‏‬

A (—) to meet someone

Bit yl

GV III,

following genitive) ”

rest,



e-

remainder

(with

zee

= » ‫نع‬‎ ‫ الدب‬instead of

>

‎‫ القى‬IV to throw a VIII to meet one another

‫ لاع‬with article Jet high‫‏‬ Su > OF

0٠ bitter 5‫و‬-

‫( قلخ‬2) to create‫‏‬

‫ اغلبية‬majority‫‏‬

af AGS

‫ و‬03

‫ا‬‎ ge

‎‫ بص » باص‬pl. ‎‫ باصات‬bus

‫ عرمو‬Syl man‫‏‬ ---e

‫( بقاع‬III) to punish‫‏‬

‎‫ الميلاد‬ee Christmas

EXERCISE zee

55

2a

w

‫الطائرة‬

O69

‫‏احب‬ ‫ ص‬eem ‫سا ب‬

4) By ‫نوجا‬‎ ‫ رجاثلا‬ot — ‫م‬‎ ee (oe3ie 1 . ‫لاع‬‎‫ توصب‬Ola iy ‫ةعابللا‬‎ ‫اند‬

a

‫‘و‬of.‫‏‬

2

‫ ا‬. ‫ الشكاوى‬- ‫‏‬uJ ‫‏ قولك‬A ‫الرجاء‬

ar ‎‫ده‬

4a 9}

5

“6

‫عه‬

‫ أعْلبِيةٌ المشاة بحياتهم‬eE‫‏‬lip ‫ قبلت دعومي‬Pere,‫الخليفة ‏‬ dG

‫دون‬

5

-‫م‬-

-

«dhe ‎‫فى‬

-9a-7

‫_اخديا‬ ‫ ك‬elo a ni( )hcihw ‎‫ه‬4 ‫! محل ففي‬J snaol 20)

srt

ys

209

‫ادبزو‬‎ ee

‫كه‬

‫ءَّه‬

‫ىق‬

OB‫‏‬

, ‫ تتعشى عندى‬Ol‫فاستحسن ‏‬

248

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR a--é

*

‎‫ أثناء زيارته عد‬er fa YG ‎‫القاضى قل‬

‫ ون‬yR ‎‫حاتمنى‬

٠

‫ رلا‬tiew ,2 da ‫‏‬eG ‫ البلثالتزور‬ebay)‫‏‬ ‫ت‬

‫‏ جديدًا‬yE ‫القاضى‬

‫‏‬yi . ‫ فكرفىالمستقبل‬:‫ لمامَقَى‬di‫‏‬

‫ — إهدنا د‬,

. ‫ الشهر الماضى‬og ‫‏‬yeKa » ‫ف حي العرب‬

tt‫‏‬si » ‫طويلة‬

‫‏ واقفين‬sep ‫ هر‬. ,naruQ( aru ‫)‏‬sI ‫المستقيم‬

‫ اذه‬Gi cp‫ اي ‏‬yy‫نايسنلا ‏‬. ‫ اههبلغو‬os gle) Je‫‏‬ 7 al‫ لصي ‏‬aba) SoH!‫ بالبريد ‏‬ul‫ الصندوق ‏‬Jd‫الخطاب‏‬

ge Ol ga Mew‫ ‏‬,‫ تناك‬:‫ دليلاىلا‬ae dS Ce‫‏‬ 262

Sage!

aay

ohne eae

Pings‫‏‬

1 ‎‫لوجم إليه‬, YO lua saW ‎‫ بواج‬4 0 ‫ددا المرءمثل شيطان لا‬

‫ نكل‬ia‫‏‬ ‫لرج‬

‫‏‬lA

‫ لد‬ce —y.

—yy si

‫ا‬

‫و‬

‫» غردون‬

‫‏ شارع‬er ‫ا‬

=o

io

5 ‫لقيت‬ a

309

.‫التاء‬

‫ د‬Suds‫ ‏‬.‫الوت‬

.(righteous deeds) ella‫‏‬

. ‫‏نيهم بالماء الصانى‬snit 60‫و‬

«

‫‏‬١

ee ‎‫أولادنا‬

3300

‫عات‬

‫ا‬

. ‫ الرجال‬au =

3

‫‏‬le

eae seig

‫فاشرباها‬

‫عن‬

‫‏‬0 ‫‏‬eb

‫مواشيهما‬

>‫‏‬

. ‫كلذ‬‎ ‫ هتيمسو نودرغب دعب‬igs J! ‫هتلمحف‬‎ (Gordon) ere 1

| ‫‏‬re ‫‏ الحو‬YO ‫فلتلتق فى الجنينة‬

‫ا‬

‫‏ عليهم‬ro( ‫ وقضى (حكم‬vce‫‏‬

EXERCISE 56 1. Abu Bakr (may God be pleased with him!) (Use Perfect, ““God has been pleased with him’’, for a pious wish) was the

first Caliph in the history of the Islamic State. 2. We read in the opening sura (at of the Quran: ‘‘Lead us in the straight path”. 3. The foreign traveller mounted a swift

THE

VERB

WITH

WEAK

FINAL

RADICAL

249 _

camel and escaped. For two months he drank camels’ milk, and found it very bitter, because he was used to cow’s milk. 4. They met in an elevated place, and the atmosphere was pure there. They had become disgusted with the smoke of cities. 5. Hassan will remain here instead of his father. As for the rest of those present, let them lunch with us, then we will give them the presents, and they can leave. 6. I used to

meet him in the bus every day when I was studying in the Institute of Education. 7. We hope that the judge will treat these men as ‫)امك‬‎( they deserve when they appear before him. They stole many letters from the air mail, and opened them. Then, when they found no money in them, they threw them in the river. 8. Indeed, they are devils, and the majority

of the inhabitants of this city fear them. 9. In the past many people complained about your friend’s doings, but we forgave him. Now we shall weep, but we shall also punish

him. 10. The teacher said to the girls: ‘‘Run’’, and to the boys, ‘‘Walk!”’. 11. Have you forgotten that your father died last week? 12. God created us that we might go to heaven. 13. I have called you, so approach me and tell me about your complaint. 14. The foreign commander did not know correct Arabic, so he called the infantry “cattle”! 15. Summon the man who (‫)ىذلا‬‎ claims that his son is a prophet. 16. You two

have built a beautiful house, you have watered a beautiful garden, but you have not brought up your children; and this

is the most important of your duties as parents and Muslims. 17. We hope that you will recite the Quran in the mosque

tomorrow. You are the best reciter in the village. 18. Our hearts have become pure. 19. The ministers have invited me to dine with them. 20. This invitation was unexpected, and I cannot go as I am busy that night. 21. He greeted her, and passed on to his uncle’s house, and remained there until sunset,

CHAPTER

THIRTY

‎)َ‫(ألباب التلَانُون‬ The Doubly and Trebly Weak Verb 1. Taking the hamza as a weak consonant, it is possible for two, or even three, radicals of a triliteral verb to be weak. Such verbs were

termed Bie (complicated, tangled) by the

philologers. They are, obviously, of rare occurrence, but they do include some common verbs, and, in any case, they

must be given for completeness. The following types may be encountered:

2. Verbs with waw and ya as 2nd and 3rd radicals respectively. These must be conjugated as Deficient verbs, the Medial waw remaining in all parts. Consequently there is no

need to give any tables, e.g. o-

--

($9 $9)

to recount, transmit,

ee (hence 4:19) a story or play). 5

Imperative,

6

‫ورا‬‎

The derived forms present no problems.

3. Doubled verbs with ya’ as Medial and Final Radicals. ac

Conjugation of ee also written ‫ىح‬‎ (for se) to live. Perf. -

t-

ond :0

Imperf. Indic. -o-

is& (also written Ls)

-E-

250

THE

DOUBLY

AND

TREBLY

WEAK

VERB

251

In the derived forms, the second yd? is changed to ?alif, >62

e.g. in Form IV l=! (to resuscitate, revive) -0-0

‫تدعو‬‎

OTS

In X the forms ‫ايحتسإ‬‎ , ‫ ىحتسا‬and ‫ىحتسإ‬‎ (to spare alive, to

feel ashamed) are encountered. The second yd of this root appears to have been originally a wdw, ‫و‬

as is seen in the

---

word ‎‫حيوان‬ 4. Verbs in which the first and third radicals are weak letters. These follow the rules that govern the conjugation of the Assimilated and the Defective verbs; e.g. Perf. dé‫و‬‎ to guard: Imperf. Indic. ‫ىقيز‬‎ Juss. ie Imper. Masc. Sing. 5; Fem. Sing. 3; Plur. |Fe

Part. Act. ‫قا‬‎‫( و‬with Article .(‫قاولا‬‎

VILL ‎‫ت جم‬01 cet )d8( Perf. as to be complete, fulfil (a promise). IV. fore Ail to fulfil a Lor; Imperf. Indic. ‫فويل‬‎:

Imper. il; Verbal Noun ‫ءاقيإ‬‎. Perf. ae‫و‬‎ to be near, follow; Imperf. Indic. ab ; Juss. fee Imper. J. -

5. Verbs with waw or ya? for allthree radicals. Only ‫ىيب‬‎is encountered, and that only in 11 3 to write, a beautiful ya’. wee

Perfect

Imperfect

3 ak

BS

etc.

2. m.

ong

etc.

Jussive

etc.

6. Doubled Verbs with Initial hamza, ¢.g. (tak) a to burn

(3 ) alto direct one’s steps towards.

252

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

Such verbs must follow the rules of the doubled verb, and

those of the Verb with initial hamza. Needless to say, the --s

hamza cannot be removed (e.g. as the Imperative of 41). 37

Conjugation ‫جا‬‎

Perfect

ect

gS

‫َه‬

‎‫وو‬

2. m.

Jussive

‫دق‬

0 as

sine:

:

Sf

‫م ده‬-

a 2-‫‏‬

col

‫جوت‬‎

- 0-8

a 3-

‫تجحا‬‎

‫م‬

etcuthi

‫عب‬‎

(a

o-é

- ow 2

‫وو‬‎

2 173

‫اججت‬

Oy

> 0-6

3 22

‎‫وو‬

.1

‫اججت‬

cl

7. Verbs with Initial hamza and Medial waw or ya:

These are conjugated like hollow verbs, save that the rules of orthography for the hamza must be followed: -

e.g.



wl for ‫بوأ‬‎ to return.

Perf,

Imperf. Indic.

‎‫اب‬

Juss.

a 2 abe ‫ يووب‬osla( nettirw ‎‫(يوب‬

055

‫ابت‬

‎‫و‬

‫د‬

»

2

0 2‫يوب‬ o ‎َ‫ث‬-

‫تووب‬

- ‫‏‬fo

‫ ابت‬etc.‫‏‬

‫توب‬

‫ ه‬2-

‫ تووب‬etc.‫‏‬

‫ توب‬etc.‫‏‬

Imper. ‎‫وه‬

2

cI ;

‎‫اوبى‬

5

re

Part. Active

‫بنا‬‎ 7

Pass. Perf.

‫بيا‬‎

-

So too the rarer verbs: a (for isl), to injure. di (for ‫ل‬‎sl), to come, return.

ot (for ual}, to be strong. II 5 to strengthen. 8. Verbs

with

Medial

hamza

and

Initial waw

or ya’.

These are very rare, but the following are the most common.

THE

DOUBLY

AND

TREBLY

WEAK

VERB

253

0 ‎‫ يئس‬, to despair. As is usual with verbs with Initial ya’

that letter is not elided. With ae we find dls ‫و‬‎ » Ja, to seek -t-

refuge; and the Quranic ‫داو‬‎ 6a, to bury (a female child) alive. In these the waw is elided according to the rules for the Assimilated Verb, and the orthography of the hamza follows the normal rules. In the unlikely event of derived forms Bee encountered, -ta

they follow the normal rules; e.g. from si‫و‬‎ VIII ‫داتا‬‎ to act slowly, Imperfect +: , Imperative 381, It should be noted that the hamza a a normal consonant, and may therefore be -ae

‎‫لقيو‬

doubled; e.g.5 als V; Imperfect :‫دأوتي‬‎ with the same meaning as VIII. 9. The Hollow Verb with final hamza. This is an extremely common class, and in many parts, the hamza is written, as

the Arabs say, “‘on the line”, that is, to our way of thinking, suspended in mid-air, -

e.g.

E-

-

el. for ‫اوس‬‎ to be bad. Boor

ai for » to come.

Conjugation of ele to come. Perf. Imperf. Indic. 2

Juss.

3

LS

‫حاء‬

‫بجىء‬

sé‫‏‬

‫ه‬2 ‫تءاح‬

2 iS

g ‫‏‬3 Ss‫‏‬

925

etc.

es

& = etc.

8 -

= ete.

Imper 8

Ss

is ete.

-

Verbal Noun ‫ءىجم‬‎

Part. Active gle (with Article Jl) Pass. Perf. ‫ءىج‬‎

Imperf. ‫ماجي‬‎

254

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

The student may wonder how such a verb can have a Passive. But verbs in Arabic may be transitive through a preposition, and this especially applies to verbs of motion which, with ‫بر‬‎ mean to bring or take; -

eg.

‎‫ساسا‬

-

ee

‎‫ ب‬agto bring. ‫بهذ‬‎ to go; ‫ب‬‎ ‫ بهذ‬to take (away). ‫( ا‬for }1 to be bad.‫‏‬ Perf.

Imperf. Indic.

be

‎‫ساء‬

‫د‬‎

Eyomy

‫‏‬ep

‫و‬

”-

0

‫وه‬

etc.

Juss.

1

‫وسي‬‎ ‫ و‬2 Jz‫‏‬

etc.

etc.

Imper. ‎‫ده‬

ju

‫م‬

Verbal Noun

‎‫سوئى‬

‫وس‬‎

Part. Active ‫كاس‬‎ (with Article (‫ىثاسلا‬‎ Pass. Perf. ‫ءىس‬‎ Imperf. Indic. Zl, -é

Of the Derived forms is IV alul to make bad;

Imperf.

Indic. ¢ 5.3; Imper. ae Verbal Noun sal); Part. Act. pene

Conjugation of ala (for 254) to wish. Perf.

Imperf. Indic. -

‎‫شاء‬

oe

eels a6

‎‫ شئكت‬ete. g-

Imper. ‫اش‬‎

Pass. Perf. ect

Juss.

Ae

Noe

ae

2--

ae

ere

‫يشاء‬

‫يشا‬

elas

las

eK’ ete. 9°

‫اشن‬‎ ete. a7)

Ee

Verbal Noun (,4 and ‫ةئيشم‬‎

Part. Act. eli (with Article SeU1).

THE

DOUBLY

AND

TREBLY

WEAK

VERB

255

10. Verbs with Medial hamza and Final ya’. These include E-

the common verb ‫ىار‬‎ to see, which also has certain irregularities of its own,

in that the hamza

is dropped

in the

Imperfect and Imperative, and in Form IV. Perfect. Sing. 3. masc.

‫ىأر‬‎

Dual

ul,

Plur.

Isl)

© Gofem. ١ Sl,

abl

!

‫صقار‬‎

11

4

c

wal)

nae

14

‫نار‬‎

eal;

0

»,

Mase: 2. fem.

0

mals

Imperfect Indic. Sing. 3. masc.

al,

Subj.

Juss.

Sp

‫ىري‬‎

=

»

3 fem.

es

ies

7

»

2. masc.

oo

es

5

»

2. fem.

oie

oe

Ss

Pre

Dual 3. masc.

»

fem

‫ىرأ‬‎

‫ىَرأ‬

A

‫نايري‬‎

‫ايري‬

‫ايري‬

‫ايرت‬

‫ايرت‬

+‫نايت‬‎

‎‫ا‬

7

7

‫نور‬‎

0

ly

» 3. fem.

Gey:

cn

‫نيري‬‎

‎‫رو‬

cs

0

‫اورت‬‎

‫نيرت‬

‫نيرت‬

Plur. 3. masc.

2. Mase.

» 2fem.

‫نيرت‬‎ we

:

oe

oo

256

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

Imperative Dual

Die

Sing.

‫م‬6‎

oer

3-9

|19)

Plur.

39 ‫اي‬‎

-o-

‎‫عل‬



‎‫رى‬



py

Verbal Noun Ot‫أر‬‎

Part. Active el) (with Article (‫ىئارلا‬‎ Part. Pass. oo Pass. Perf. oO

Imperf. Indic. ‫ى‬‎ 5 ‫صو‬ >

When united with a suffix the forms used are oly he saw‫‏‬ -

-e-

him; ‎‫ يراها‬he sees her, etc.

Of the Derived Forms the following occur:

111. wel), to dissemble; Imperf. Indic. ‫ىئاريز‬‎ Verbal Noun ae or 2). IV. cA to show; Pare Indic. OF Juss. 2 Imper. AE Verbal Noun ‫ءارإ‬‎or eh. VI. 8 ie to look at one another. B-o

VIII. ‫ىاترا‬‎ to think.

11. Verbs with Initial hamza and Final yd or, rarely, waw. me

These include the extremely common verb (~) (JI, to come; -3

(also, with or without (‫ب‬‎ to bring. (—) ‫ىبا‬‎ to deny, refuse. These verbs are conjugated as Defective Verbs, the hamza being always retained. Perf. Imperf. Indic. Subj. Juss.

“8

J ons

ol

- 0-é

‫ تيتا‬ete.

8

3k 1

‫قات‬‎ ‘te

Gl ete.

2

‫ىباي‬‎ af gl

- ‫غد‬‎

GE etc.

8

‫تاي‬ ie ol

1 g-

ol etc.‫‏‬

THE

Imper

DOUBLY

AND

TREBLY

WEAK

VERB

257

‫( تيا‬from ed !) also shortened‫ت ‏‬ 2 =‫‏‬ se etc, -

Part. Active ‫تآ‬‎ (with Article Yl) 3

- ‫ده‬

Pass. Perf. ‫ىلا‬‎

Imperf. Indic. 35.

Of this verb the IV form is Gl “to bring’; Imperf. Indic. ‎‫ده‬

‫ده‬

dU

eb

2

32; Juss. ‫تؤي‬‎ : Imper. oI; Pass. Perf (3s). 12. Verbs with Final hamza

and Initial wa@w (or yd’).

These may occur with different vowellings. For example, there

is i

‫أدي‬‎ to level; but the only verb -

likely to be

gee

encountered is bs, ‫اطي‬‎ to tread. It is conjugated according to the rules of the verb with final hamza and the assimilated verb, e.g. Imperative, ‫ىط‬‎ tread. 13. Trebly weak verbs. The doubled verb with initial hamza has already been mentioned. yee are also 5‫أوو‬‎ ‫ ىي‬2 to promise, threaten; and (J!) ‫ى‬‎sl ‫ى‬‎ ‫وأي‬to take refuge (with),

the second named being quite common. The student can work the first out for himself, with the aid of the dictionary, noting that the Imperative masculine singular is just | “i”! fem sing. ‫ىاز‬‎ masc. pl. |iol. The few derived forms which may be encountered can be

easily worked out by the student himself. VOCABULARY ea

‎‫ )~( روى‬to recount, tell phi

‫ وار‬pl. oly) a recounter,‫‏‬ transmitter

ced (£) to live

‫ه‬-‎

‫ايحا‬‎ IV to resuscitate, revive -GE-

eb V to burn, be aflame

CI (2) to return

258 So-

A NEW

ARABIC

5

‫ ء » ءعوس‬1 n., evil (badness)‫‏‬

pat evil adj. “3

‫ (=) ىلا‬to come‫‏‬ ‫ باد‬to bring‫‏‬ ra (—) to come

zl )-( to wish é-

oe

Gly (G2) to see ‫ ةياور‬pl.‫ تايع ‏‬story, account,‫‏‬ -

‫ (—) ىطو‬to tread‫‏‬ -6

‫ ٌنشيواج‬¢ ‫( شيواش‬Turk.) ser-‫‏‬ geant‫‏‬ Gls (2.) to drive‫‏‬ 3

a-

‫ سائق « سواق‬driver‫‏‬ J!‫ جاتحإ‏‬VIII to need‫‏‬ ‫ (=) شاع‬to live‫‏‬ -

-86

‫ عاضا‬IV to lose‫‏‬ --%

‫ دافا‬IV to benefit trans.‫‏‬ 308 pl.‫ ‏‬5 ‫ اوف‬benefit, profit,‫‏‬

play‫‏‬ 03

GRAMMAR

5

‫ ىلإ (=) ىوا‬to take refuge‫‏‬ with‫‏‬ ‫ ىوأ‬IV to harbour, provide‫‏‬ refuge, shelter, lodging‫‏‬ Re life, age

interest‫‏‬ On

a0

‎‫ استفاد من‬X ot tifeneb morf

He » in the direction of, towards prep.

‫ (=) باغ‬to be absent, go‫‏‬ absent‫‏‬ 5 6>

-a-

‫ نيع‬11 to appoint‫‏‬

‫ جوز‬II to marry (someone to‫‏‬ somebody)‫‏‬

5--0-

‫ ضيب‬un. ay eggs‫‏‬ ae general adj., public ‫ نكمأ‬IV to be possible (for)‫‏‬

-a-cr

‫ جوزت‬V to marry (someone)‫‏‬

6

‫راتخا‬VIII to choose‫‏‬

$a

ee ‎‫ الله‬2

‫ا ىلع‬

IV to reply to‫‏‬

‫ طباض‬pl. aes officer‫‏‬ s--

‫ رفن‬pl. aia private (mil.)‫‏‬

special‫‏‬ =

‫ ةيضق‬pl.‫ اياضق ‏‬case (legal)‫‏‬ ‫)داق‬.2( to lead‫‏‬

4s ‎‫ قا‬leader, general >>

‫ ذقنا‬11 to save, deliver‫‏‬

‫‪VERB‬‬

‫‪259‬‬

‫‪WEAK‬‬

‫‪TREBLY‬‬ ‫‪57‬‬ ‫ثَ‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪AND‬‬

‫‪THE‬‬

‫‪DOUBLY‬‬

‫‪EXERCISE‬‬ ‫‪eG‬‏‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪00‬‬

‫‪- -o‬‬

‫‪a7‬‬

‫وم‬

‫‪--I‬‬

‫— يروى راو من الرواة أن سكان مرو (‪)vreM‬‏ اجتمعوا حول‬ ‫‪5‬‬

‫‏‪on‬‬

‫‏=‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫و‬

‫‪“o-‬‬

‫‏}‪Se‬‬

‫كشي ‪lO‬‏ احضر هذه‬ ‫و‬

‫ها‬

‫‪na‬‏‬ ‫واليهم وصاحوا ‪ :‬بحى حاكمنا‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫>‬

‫‪00‬‬

‫‪‪‎-‬‬

‫رداب‪‎‬‬ ‫‪o-0-‬‬

‫‪di‬‏ بعد ‪rO‬‏‬

‫‪ea‬‏ ‪ tJ 3 chr‬هذا ‪oB‬‏ ‪3 P‬‬ ‫‪e‬‬

260

A NEW

ARABIC EXERCISE

GRAMMAR 58

1. It is recounted that the general led his army in[to] the inferno of the fighting, and returned defeated (accusative), and took refuge with the inhabitants of Merv. 2. We cannot attend this case in the court, because the victim is cur friend.

3. The officer appointed an army private as my special driver.

4. The transmitters have brought back to life the history of Islam, and we see the past in their stories. 5. Long live the

king. (lit. may the king live). 6. I have chosen a sergeant because the officers have gone absent, all of them. 7. The servant lost the food, so I took advantage of the food of his

neighbour’s cook. 8. I have long lived in the desert, so I don’t need anything. 9. They have not trodden on the soil

of their native land for (since) two years, but they will return to it in a month’s time. 10. I came, I saw, I conquered. 11. I complained of the badness of my condition, so I got

married. 12. My ae married me (2) to an ugly woman; her name was Hind (a). 13. She provided shelter for me,

but did not benefit me. 14. Do not drive my car, you are a bad driver. 15. Bring me those eggs and put them on the table. 16. I said to the beggar: What do you want of (from) me? He replied: I don’t want anything of a man like you. 17. gine

benefits of this good government are known to all (endl ae), 18. Go towards the city, and stop at the bridge. 19 Bring me flesh and bring me wine! 20. There is (Ae fen a green hill far away, and they recount that Our Lord (Ae) died there to save us all.

CHAPTER

THIRTY-ONE

(Gb ‫ىدا‬‎ CAN

The Quadriliteral Verb 1. As far back as the 9th century, Arabic grammarians and philologers had classified Arabic roots as: (a) Biliteral, ,‫ىبانث‬‎ including, in their pure form, particles 3, az

.

like ‎‫ قد‬and ‎‫ زعن‬but also, the doubled verb, though the latter was moulded into triliteral form.

(b) Trilteral, oN, by far the largest part of the language.

5 ‎‫و‬

(c) Quadriliteral, ‫ىعابر‬‎ , comprising many roots, but few derivations and comparatively few common

the nouns 5

are words

SIAO=.

words. Among 5

“09

like ‫برقع‬‎ scorpion; Ol.

garden;

-09

Ol » proof. (d) Quinquiliteral, alt a very small section of the vocabulary, and confined to nouns. No verb can have more than four radicals, when the letters of increase are Sete away. Toone, common

quinquiliteral words are Cy Ke a spider,

See and ‎‫ لفك‬nightingale.

2. Here we are concerned with the quadriliteral; more particularly, its verbs. It has a root form and three derived forms. The Root Form corresponds in form and vowelling to --0-

Form II of the triliteral, e.g. 7 >> to roll (transitive), com-

pared with ‫ملع‬‎ II, le to teach. 261

ARABIC

A NEW

262

GRAMMAR

‫امم‬ -

(ore Perfect

one ‫جرحد‬‎

3. m.

Ooi

3.f.

0 ‫تجرحد‬‎

ee

2. 21.

‫دحرجحت‬

2.1.

‎‫دحرجت‬

200000

etc.

Imperfect (Indicative) 93

3.10.

‫رتسو‬

O79

‫حجرحدي‬‎

-

etc.

etc.

Imperative 6-5

11

(Came

etc. Participles 6

Active

‫قو‬‎

One

3

9>

Passive

‫هاو‬‎

‫جرحدم‬‎

Verbal Noun ‫و‬

->‫ى‬

-

‫دحرحة‬

‫و‬

-0o-‫‏‬

10 ‫دحراج‬

no comparison.

Passive Pp

erf.1

Imperf.

CoP 9

311

3 2.



Bs

"wl

Ue

5

>

Juno

toa |

Gar

rs

Note that the doubled ‫ل‬‎ of ‫مّلع‬‎ corresponds to the unvowelled ‎‫ ح‬followed by the ) in .‫جرحد‬‎ 3. Quadriliteral verbal roots are of three types: (a) Those

of genuine

four-radical

origin,

or

at least

--0-

thought to be, e.g. ‫جرحد‬‎ .Sometimes these were of foreign

THE

QUADRILITERAL

VERB

‫وم‬

‫ لدمح‬to say aed

--

phrase or may note

‫دن‬

moi to say‫آلله ‏‬te‫‏‬ DERIVED

FORMS

pores 4. The root form is expressed in Arabic as ‫للعف‬‎ , with the derived forms:

11 ‫للعفت‬‎ :111 ‫افعتلل‬: IV ‫للعفا‬‎. The following are examples: II. ‎‫ تدحرج‬to roll (intrans.) Imperf. Indic.

SiO

nr

eae

(PED

Active Participle ‫جرحدتم‬‎

0-6

ie

Imperative

¢>

Verbal Noun

‫جرحدت‬‎

G20--

Other verbs of this form are: ‫لزلزن‬‎ ‫ رت‬to be shaken; ‫بهدمت‬‎ to follow a sect. < =0'=0

III. ‫مطنرخا‬‎ to raise the nose, be proud. 907 0-

.frepmI ‫‏‬.cidnI

‫حرنطم‬

Active Participle

‫مطن‬‎=

Oe

o- 7

‫‏‬evitarepmI

‫آخر نطم‬

Verbal Noun ‫ماطن‬‎‫رخآ‬

264

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

@ E- 6

IV. ‫نامطا‬‎ to be tranquil. & -o-

‫يطمئن‬

Imperf. Indic.

0 Bo

‫‏‬evitarepmI

‫اطما نن‬

-

a

Active Participle

5

2218

Other verbs of this form

‎>‫ ه‬6

Verbal Noun Oltebl

Pra b

are:

‎‫ الك‬to dwindle away;

‫ود‬

‫ رعشقا‬to shudder.‫‏‬ 5. Of these only II is fairly common, and it is often passive or stative where I is active or causative. It is also customary to form verbs of this sort from nouns, as in the example ‫جاه‬

‫و‬22

5

71021

-

ee‫‏‬

given #103; from ‫به‬‎ ‫ ذم‬a noun from ‫بهذ‬‎ to go, which has the specialized meaning of a religious way or sect. --o9--

-

-o9--

Other examples are bse to become a Muslim; ‫فسلفت‬‎ to philosophize from Feeds a philosopher.

Many such verbs --0--

are to be found in Modern Arabic such as 05545 to become

(like a) Sudanese; AC: to be like (or become) an American. VOCABULARY fone

:

‎‫ زخرف‬to adorn, embellish ‫ ةفرخر‬pl. Ss)i; adornment‫‏‬ ne to shake tr., frighten‫‏‬

‫ تزلزل‬3

to

shake

intr.,

tremble, quake‫‏‬

BAY: eee

0

Ok»,

interpreter,

drago-

man, guide Ie to stammer

ae to roll tr. ze 11 to roll intr.

sone

‫ رغرغ‬to gargle‫‏‬

‫ سدنه‬to sketch, make a plan‫‏‬

‫ حلق‬throat‫‏‬

u-ig+ engineer

‫رو‬

905

Ge » Gs neck

Bohs

‎‫ ترجم‬to translate, interpret 5

OMS:

‫_مج‬x~» translator‫‏‬

2-0)

Ante # ‫سوسو‬

1 to

whisper,‫‏‬

suggest

evil (of Satan)‫‏‬ --9--

‫ فسلفت‬11 to philosophize‫‏‬

THE

QUADRILITERAL

265

VERB

--09-

tan philosophy

=

evel pl. ‫ٌةفسالف‬‎ philosopher --0--

‫ رقهفقت‬II to driven back‫‏‬

be _ repulsed,‫‏‬

tO

practise

surgery ie

‎‫ بطر‬pl. surgeon

veterinary

0

abl: —*

3°50

5

veterinary -

‫ بهدمت‬11 to follow a sect‫‏‬

‫ امتياز‬pl.‫‏‬

en se)‫‏‬

concession (modern commer-‫‏‬ cial)‫‏‬

-

-

69--

sive pl tee Suk

3

8

of‎‫ مر‬centre, headquarters

“afs wool

-

o-

‎ 06‫ مر كر‬lartnec

plasys| III to be proud

‫م‬

ts local

‫ لعي مم‬Khartoum‫‏‬ G§

‫ ات‬privilege,‫‏‬

‫ راشا ىلإ‬IV to point at, refer‫‏‬

909

‫ موطرخ‬elephant’s trunk‫‏‬

to‫‏‬

ie pl. ‫لايفأ‬‎ elephant ‫ عاذا‬IV to broadcast‫‏‬

‫ لحمضا‬IV dwindle‫‏‬

to fade

away,‫‏‬

GE-o

‎‫ اطمان‬IV to be tranquil, calm 2-2-6

‫رعشقا‬

Cire

‫ غلبم‬extent; sum (of money)‫‏‬

‫ ٌةمصاع‬pl.‫ مصاوع ‏‬capital (city)‫‏‬ ‫د د‬

IV

to

shudder

with‫‏‬

5 ce‫‏‬

OS! pl. ‫ناذا‬‎ ear Ae pl. 5lel festival, holiday

horror

EXERCISE

59 ‫ و‬Os‫‏‬

‫دهع‬

a 3 53 3M ‫نم‬‎

ae

‎‫ عددا‬Ol i

it ‫ةعاذإ‬‎‫من‬

‫‏ الركزية من‬ta ‫)ونياطوة‬dag LJ ‫‏‬UU — ‫م‬ 1

A

eae

5-3

1

Uae‫‏‬

‫جنوب ا‬

:‫‏‬

»‫ان ذلك الرجل فيلسوفا‬¢ ‫ ك‬. ‫ حال الحيوانات‬CW‫‏‬ 3

‫العاصمة‬ 2

‫ ملا ناين‬6 ‫ناطيش‬. ‫ نم سواسو‬Pau Hk)‫وق فلسفته |ن ‏‬ ‫لخنا‬

266

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

‫‏‬laG ‫‏فى‬ht ُ‫ شعرث‬- ‫ د‬.‫ فى البلاد الشرقية‬2 ‫أمتيازاث‬ sf‫ ًاعاد ىف هلوق ‏‬po sell Way ١‫ لذرعرت ‏‬Gl,‫‏‬ ‫دق‬‎ ‫ دج اد‬Lt ‫ةتمجرت‬‎ pe ‎‫ اللغة‬J ee)cae -

‫‏‬ereb

-9-

--f-

6G

‫ على‬68 ‫سقف البيت‬

o‫‏‬ee ‫ولد‬

‫دحرج‬

‫ريثك‬.CE‫عقوو‏‬clint‫ةرجش ‏‬gt I - ١١‫‏‬ ‫رقهقت‬yy‫اهنم‏‬ ‫و‬25
ه د‬=

This is all that exists of the verb. Only the Perfect occurs, and when used it has the meaning of the Imperfect. Like BS Z--

‎‫ وار‬-

it may take a predicate in the accusative: 0‫رع‬‎ ‫ تسل‬Tam not wee

an Arab. It is also used with ‫بن‬‎ ‫ ىلرعب‬.‫ تسل‬Note that, unlike other hollow verbs its middle radical does not change to ’alif. @)The Verbs ‫معن‬‎and ot are Verbs of Praise and Blame

(PUL ‫و‬‎ foul dual). These, like 00 only occur in the Perfect, and have the pipers meaning. They are only found in the 3rd Person, e.g. ‫معل‬‎fem. ‫تمعلا‬‎ Examples of use: a; ‫مع‬‎ Zaid 15 ‫نعم زيد‬

‫دو‬

‫ور‬

5) 268

53 3 teacher?‫‏‬

2

VARIOUS 05-8

Abu si 0-2

‫و‬

-

UNORTHODOX

-

269

Fatima is good.

‫وده‬

‫تمعن ةمطاف ةحوز‬ g-.

VERBS

‫اح‬

as a wife.‫‏‬

-0

Or ‫ةمطاف‬‎ ws, since the verb is sometimes put in the mascu-

line even with a feminine subject, because the Arabs were not certain that these were verbs at all. oe

THE

VERB

wt

(3.) This is one way of saying‘‘perhaps’ or “it may be” Arabic. It is almost never used except in the 3rd Person 0

the Perfect, and it gives a Present or Future meaning. It is followed by a sentence in the Subjunctive introduced by ol the subject of which is also the subject of :‫ىسع‬‎ er

of

5o=

a

‫ همم‬-2- ‫وع‬

-

‫ ىسع ديز نا موقي‬perhaps Zaid is standing, or will stand‫‏‬

(difference

,‫ موتي دير‬Ol ene

forms).

of emphasis

The

first

in the two‫‏‬

sentence

suggests‫‏‬

“perhaps it is Zaid who will stand”.‫‏‬ This verb gives the sense of nearness, and in the rare instances in which it occurs in 1st or 2nd Persons it means

“nearly’’. POs

(0:6

e304 =

‫تيسع نا لعفا كلذ‬

Iam nearly doing that.‫‏‬ a-G

‎‫ و‬-‫ن‬2

THE VERB OF WONDER ‫)بجعتلا‬‎ (‫لاعفا‬ (4.)The verb of Wonder is formed on the measure of Derived Form IV (with a prefixed hamza) from any adjective. From

s--

‫نسح‬‎ Sur

‫ طيب‬good‫‏‬

‫ سهل‬easy‫‏‬

‫و‬

=,

-

good

0s

Cr 1

‫تا‬‎

‫أسهل‬ --o8‫‏‬

200

A NEW

‫‏‬morF

‫كر م‬

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

‫‏‬elbon

025

Ate

8‫كر م‬ ‫حت‬

new

su

‫جيد‬

‫دحا‬‎

- 08

excellent‫‏‬

‫احود‬

-

Note that in hollow roots the correct radical appears. In the doubled root, the doubled tashdid. They are used as follows: 2105

(a)

A) 1018)

ie

1435 ‫نسحا‬‎ ‫‏‬eo

‫سام‬

‫فاطمة‬ --0°-

‫وس‬

radical

is written

with

how good is Zaid!

-

‫ما احسن‬ --o8

‫وو‬

»

‎‫ىر‬,

Fatima!

‫وو‬

‫ور‬

our house!‫‏‬

-

‫ما احسن بيتنا‬



-0% -

‫ام مركأ لاجرلا‬ ‫ يبل تاملعملا‬is

,,

noble are the men!‫‏‬

,

good are the teachers (fem.)!‫‏‬

-

Note that we have here a verb, not an adjective. It must always have fatha at the end, and the noun at which wonder

is expressed is its object, and is therefore in the accusative. The verb itself is always masculine singular, and we may, perhaps, imagine b to be its subject; ‘“what has made Zaid

good?” or “that which .

.!”'

(b) A much rarer form, found in the Qur?4n and early poetry in particular, uses the Singular Masculine Imperative

of Form IV, and prefixes the Preposition ‫ب‬‎ « to the object (thing or person). 0

e.g.

6

‎‫ بززيد‬oaS woh doogsi !diaZ ach ty cont ‫وول‬‎ ma

‎‫ب‬

‫ور‬

‫رى‬

12203, ete. ٠

A pronominal object may be used with either form. 3--

08

-

‫ ام هئسحا‬or 9 gaol how good he is!‫‏‬

VARIOUS

UNORTHODOX

VERBS

271

If two such verbs apply to one object, the second one must take a pronominal termination referring to the object already

mentioned. ore

apy las ‫ةمطاف‬‎ gal ‫ام‬‎ how beautiful is Fatima and how tall. WISHES

(THE

OPTATIVE)

5. In Classical Arabic it was customary to express wishes,

especially pious wishes in which the name of God was mentioned, in the Perfect, as if the wish had already been fulfilled, e.g. abe

‎‫دو‬-

‫هجر هللا‬

May God have mercy on him (literally, God‫‏‬

“has had mercy on him)‫‏‬ Certain formulae of this kind are used in old literature whenever the name of the Prophet Muhammad or the early saints of Islam are mentioned.

e.g.

For the Prophet play ‫هيلع‬‎ ‫ هللا‬7 May God bless him

and save him (abbreviated to ‫معلص‬‎ i

For the early Khalifas, Companions of the Prophet, etc.,

ais ‫هللا‬‎ ‫ ىضر‬may God be pleased with him (abbreviated to 42)). ; This Perfect may be preceded by the negative ‫ال‬‎ ,

e.g. ‫كادي‬‎ EL ,‫ال‬‎ May thy hands not grow dry! Later, especially in speech and popular language, the Imperfect came to be used in this context, e.g. ‫ةمحري‬‎ ‫ هللا‬or

‎‫ الله‬az» God have mercy on him! (of the dead).

THE VERB ‫لاز‬‎ 6. The verb ai|; Imperf. ls. a to cease is used preceded by the negative particles ‫امر‬‎ Y, or ‫هل‬‎and followed either by an Imperfect Verb, or a participle or other adjective in the accusative, to mean that the action is still continuing.

272

A NEW

‫ابهاذ‬ 2-e-

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

--‫ ام لاز | |و‬Hassan is still going.‫‏‬ ١ ‫نسح‬‎ / o-- o- (lit, did not cease to go).

‎‫يدهب‬

sr‎‫§ الم‬

‫تلون‬9‫يقا‬

‫وا‬Ree: ‫ما زال‬

SBE ily ‫مل‬‎

8°)

they still fought.‫‏‬

La ‫لازي‬‎ ‫طعال‬isstillalive. Sometimes the Predicate after ‫لاز‬‎ may take the form of a prepositional phrase:

‫‏‬J

‫و‬-- kee‫‏‬ | 0 ‫لا‬

‫‏‬yi

‫تلك‬

‫ام |تلاز‬ ‫و عد‬ ‫ل يزل‬

matters were still in that‫‏‬ — condition.‫‏‬ ee

THE VERB

7. The verb ‫داعب‬‎ 0

‫داع‬‎

,‫ دوي‬which is used in the

normal manner to mean “to return’, has also a special usage

in which it means “‘to do again”. Like the previous verb, it may be followed by an Imperfect Verb or an accusative. It occurs sometimes in the positive, as well as the negative. ‫او‬ ‫ود‬ ‫ام‬ ‫د‬ ‫م‬

‫ طع ام داع عجري‬did not return again.‫‏‬ 3

90"

03"

6=

coz ‫دعن‬‎ ‫ مل‬we did not return again. 2

‫دروع‬‎

‫وود‬

yas” ‎‫ لا تعد تفعل‬od ton od os .niaga JI-OE

9

22

‎‫ لا اعود افعله‬I lliw ton od ti .niaga =

‎‫ره‬

2

a

P dist re od


>

‎‫ المجنود تعبانين‬lec eht sreidlos emaceb .derit ‎2‫م‬

12. The verbs he to become; 4+! to take; yes to make or do or put, also mean “‘to begin” when followed by a verb

in the Imperfect: mes lay le "36°

‫و‬‎

Op

‫اودخا‬‎

they began to weep.

(es ‫و‬

> ٠

Note also use with Verbal Noun with ¢ or ‫بر‬‎ -

-9-8

e.g. ‫سسملاب‬‎ ‫ اندخا‬we began to travel.

VARIOUS

UNORTHODOX

275

VERBS

VOCABULARY

eels 8 ‫اوب‬‎police

aL - 69

t

S--0- 03

aoe.

‎‫ مستعمرة‬Colony 3 4

‎‫الاستعمار‬

°

im-

bw (2) to fall, descend, land -- 08

‎‫ اعلن‬IV to notify, advertise, announce >‫ه‬

5

6

37°

fe cae

5

> س‬

in touch with

‫ خلال‬during‫‏‬

dbs pl. cl — station

‎‫ قطار‬pl. ‎‫ —ات‬train

to an

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‪5425‬‏‬

‫‪Poe‬‬

‫‏‪ ).”( to become weak‬فعض‬ ‫‏‪ar‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪ -‬ور >و‬

‫‏‪ ticket‬ركاذت ‏‪ pl.‬ةركذت‬ ‫‪96--‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‏‪ 11 to crown‬جوت‬ ‫‪5‬‬

‫‪276‬‬

‫‏‪ al VIII to buy‬ى‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪- 60‬‬

‫‏‪ pl. Obes crown‬جات‬

‫‪ pl. lye‬توزع‬

‫‏‪voice‬‬

‫‪EXERCISE 61‬‬ ‫سما لس‬

‫د‬

‫‪--6‬‬

‫ذلك‬

‫حدث‬

‫خلال يوى العيد‪ei .‬‏ ‪ yo‬الناس كن‬

‫‪:‬‬

‫‪2‬ه‬

‫‪‎ 6‬يي‬

‫‪ao‬‏‬

‫‪a-‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫ا‬

‫‪08‬‬

‫‪G29‬‬

‫‪Os‬‬

‫منها‪we ,‬‏‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪92.‬‬

‫‏‪ eee‬وعدت يصحن حتى ضعفت ‪0‬‬

‫على المطار وخرج ا‬ ‫‪»08-‬‬

‫‪Eas‬‬

‫هم درايت‬

‫صورة‬

‫‪la‬‏ الغائب ‪)er‬‏ جريدة‬

‫عندما‬

‫د‬

‫‪70-03‬‬

‫هبطت الطائرة‬

‫إلى مكتب الدير‪.‬‬ ‫البوليس )‪. (132503‬‬

‫‪ ore‬ل رئاوذلا ةيمسرلا ‪‎‬نأ ‪‎ UE‬انتقطنم ‪Bolas‬‬ ‫‬‫‪-‬ءءديََ‬

‫‪ook‬‬

‫‬‫‪ ىذا‬

VARIOUS

sciF ‫‏‬eniW‫ااي‬ -‫ه >ه‬2

2

UNORTHODOX

VERBS

277

‫ذلك إلى تحسين العلاقات بين الصحافة‬

‫‏‬iF

2

‫‏ جديد» وهو‬ly ‫النادى على‬ ‫( لوسر‬i, oi ai =e

0A

‫شثم‬

‫‏‬Fo--

‫و‬

‫م‬

= 5 ‫‏‬sea

ig aman oes‫‏‬ fst}

‎‫>ر‬ ‫و‬

. ‎‫( خليفتة‬222 ‫ بكر( رضى الله‬sla ita EXERCISE

1. How

62

excellent is this exhibition; the club will benefit

greatly from it. 2. When I attended the party of the circle of authors, a strange thing happened to me. 3. A police ‘askari came in searching for the revolutionaries. 4. That station used to broadcast a great deal of propaganda under

the name of ‘“‘Voice of Freedom’’. 5. The science of the hadith is very important for the believers. 6. The war had scarcely

ended when a new war began, so the great powers fought again. 7. The basis of the new economic policy is not sound. 8. Hassan is still filling the place of the governor of the region. 9. Muhammad (may God bless him and save him!) was a good prophet. 10. Rarely have I read an advertisement

like that during my whole life. 11. My father got in touch with his brother, and they began a policy of strict economy. 12. He toid the merchants to display their wares in the camp, so that the soldiers would buy them. 13. Down with

colonization, for it is not the basis of sound government. 14. The times 15. So long as 16. He began soul! He is in

of trains are advertised in the daily papers. the tickets are dear, I shall travel by donkey. to weaken after his coronation; God rest his a better place now! 17. Two stones fell from

the wall, but I did not think about them. Then a month later the whole wall broke and fell. 18. The crown became important. 19. He read the whole of the Quran, then read it again. 20. That is the duty of every Muslim.

CHAPTER

THIRTY-THREE

‎)‫!) الثالث والثلاثون‬UG -



wr

‫و‬‎

GO

‫و‬‎

nominal

prefix

of the

second

person.

Again,

‫وده‬

‫تفتلا‬‎ he

glanced might be cil she wrapped herself from 4) VIII. An initial ?alif with hamza may be a letter of increase, or it may bea

ork

‎‫د‬2

ae

radical. «| he imprisoned might be ‫رسا‬‎ )‫ رس‬IV).

(b) Care must be taken in recognizing those verbs which lose a weak radical in certain parts: the Hollow and Defective Verbs in particular, and also the Assimilated Verb. It must be mentioned that the weak letter may be wdaw or ya’, and this will affect the position of the root in the dictionary. True, in many cases the two alternatives do not occur; but

we have, for example, both (2.) ‫لاق‬‎ to say, and (—) J& to spend the heat of the day in siesta. The following phrase ‫لاق‬‎ ‫امو‬ unvowelled, might therefore mean either he did not say, or

he did not spend the heat of the day in sleep. (c) Certain derivations which are formed in regular manner are not shown in dictionaries. For example, the participles are not given unless they also have a technical 5

=

5

nominal meaning. We do not find, for instance, ‫بهاذ‬‎ going; Sur

3

A

> 6‫و‬‎

la! wherever 50

iS how --o-

LaS however

CONDITIONAL err

e.g.

205

SENTENCES

ee se

‫ من حاول نجح‬Whosoever tries succeeds. ‫‏‬FIO ‫ دن قال ذلك‬Whoever 20)

02 - 6150

=

‫ قتصلاه‬eye‫‏‬ BA

‎‫ا‬

Yel

(a) said

that lied.

What you sow you will reap.

Slap

‎‫ متىما رايته وجدته‬Whenever you see him, you will find him wearing white clothes. ee -

00

>‫م‬6‫و‬‎

‎‫يلبس البياض‬

-

‫دوو‬

‫ماهمه‬ ‫عد‬

-03-

Wherever you go, I will accompany

you. --0-

o-

G

--90

--07-

‫ امفيك تدهتجا نل حجنت‬However you strive, you will not‫‏‬ succeed. ‫هوب‬

i)

‫عت‬

B-o-

pele‫‏‬

o-ds‫‏‬

Everyone who reads this will die.

‫ ًاولضو لإ* اوعتص‬Uk’ Whenever Sa TR

cae

‫مراكب وعبروه‬

‫ جاء قاتلة‬oa‫‏‬

they reached a river,‫‏‬

they built (made) boats and crossed it.

eee

Whoever comes, fight him.

o-

at ent ‫ظعاو‬‎Et Whichever preacher you listen to,

‫ امنيا نكت قر كدجأ‬wherever you may be, I will find‫‏‬

you.‫‏‬

CONDITIONAL

SENTENCES

If this occurs, the rule about applied, e.g.

297

with the Apodosis is not

esl eas eleol if you die, I will bury your body under a vine.

pe ‫تحت‬‎‫كمسج‬ ‫ك‬

‫دوم‬

‫تحت‬

Sores‫‏‬

I will bury your body under a vine, ‎‫ ده‬if you die.

‫ أذفن جسمك‬aces‫‏‬ Carne

‫ إن مت‬ipa‫‏‬

VOCABULARY

‫ قيرح‬pl.‫ قرح ‏‬fire, conflagra-‫‏‬ tion‫‏‬

mse pl. ‫ماصأ‬‎ idol ‫) دبع‬2( to worship‫‏‬

ab, (2) ‫ًافطنأ‬‎VII to go out,

‫ نهرب‬pl. cele proof‫‏‬

be extinguished wi IV to extinguish, put out

Pacer

‫رفةق ىاطملا‬fire brigade‫‏‬

‫ دهتجا‬VIII to strive, be dili-‫‏‬

ae II to pray

gent

‫ ةالص‬prayer, praying‫‏‬

oor

Ai pl. uea wounded (man)

1

5

‫ ةلواط‬pl.‫تا ‏‬

table

(Syr.‫‏‬

from Ital. ‘“‘tavola’’); backgammon ‫ةلفاق‬pl. ils caravan‫‏‬

‫خونة‬

5

a2

‫‏‬EB( 6 ‫خوان‬

treacherous, traitor

‫ (—) عرز‬to sow (seeds)‫‏‬ ‫ (—) دصح‬to reap‫‏‬ nee (2) to happen

Aee pl. a ee dese

ole (eo) ‘ils v.n. to betray ‫و‬ >‫م‬

ce (—) to succeed

‎‫ على‬alsa to obtain

‫ ىضرأ‬IV to please (anyone)‫‏‬

‫ئن‬ ‫‏ خا‬.lp

‫قفار‬III to accompany‫‏‬ ‫ رفيق‬pl.‫ رفقاء ‏‬companion‫‏‬

“0007 ‫دو‬

produce, crops, harvest -0-

3 ‎‫ مر‬pl. os be ‫رم‬‎٠ small ship or boat (mod.)

208

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

Ge ‎‫ فر‬pl. ‎‫ فروق‬party of men,

ey ‎)‫ (يعظ‬to preach

group, section

Selly pl. Glas preacher

O95 pl. Soir cupboard

ad

‫ (~) نفد‬to bury‫‏‬

-

‫)عنق ب‬2( ‫عنتقأ ب‬VIII to be‫‏‬

06

I

-

66

evil, wicked

contented with‫‏‬ -a-- 08

ib pl. ‫كاع‬‎ eloquent

‫ عنق‬,11 ‫ عنقا‬IV to satisfy, con-‫‏‬

‎‫ تواسطة‬through, by means of

vince‫‏‬

sue

= pl. Os 32 ~.contented, sat-

‎‫ بطل‬vain, useless

isfied ‫دور‬

»°-

‎‫ ردىء‬pl. ‎‫ اردياء » اردثاء‬bad,

-

‫ قفد‬11 to pour trans.‫‏‬

‫ اميف دعب‬later, in future‫‏‬

‫ قفدنا‬VII to pour intr., to be‫‏‬

So-

‫ دقع‬pl. Syke knot, tie, contract‫‏‬

poured‫‏‬

Sw--9

ie pl.‫ طالغأ ‏‬error,

‫ متعقدك‬contractor‫‏‬ ‫َو‬

mistake

‫ لاب‬mind, state‫‏‬ EXERCISE

67 ‫دمو‬

‫‏‬tahG ‫‏ قبل ساعة لمااندشر الحريق‬salG ‫فرق‬

‫قوم‬l‫ت‬O ‫‏‬KU ‫ العصر كان‬eD ‫‏‬ebA‫قد‬

‎‫ الجرهئ‬OL aloe CE

‫‏ على الطاولة‬LC ٌ‫ تضع الزوجة‬WJ‫‏‬ laeV 3 ‫‏‬eee ً‫دائما‬ ‫‏ نظام‬gG ‫الباقون كالعادة‬ 8

-

١

--6

‫الأصنام‬

80-6

‫اردا‬

‫ور‬

‫إن يعبد‬ -

‫ده‬

‫ل‬

‫ا‬

‫راي‬

‫ل لى وض نلاسلاطا عشي‬

=O

‫‏‬by ‫خائن ىق‬

fault,‫‏‬

‫‏‬eo ‫إنها‬ ‫وقف‬ ‫اه‬

‫ل‬

‫ ر‬wis‫‏‬

‫‏‬A

. ‫المورخون‬

‫خان‬ -

‫فانت ل‬

‫ لهذا | لمعي‬: ‫ا‬

‫| ذا وقف‬

‫ملكه كان‬

- of-

. ‫يا طبيب‬

ee

‫كد‬

‫ لك‬Sika‫‏‬ 00

‫إن كان‬

7

. ‫القوافل‬

o-

‫لم نه‬

bly‫بلادناء ‏‬

CONDITIONAL k,

é-‫‏‬

‫ا‬

2703

SENTENCES

.9

FS

299‫‏‬

See

as

‫‏ هذا‬VI( ‫ و إن طلب الوزير برهانا فاره (راى‬.‫فهو من الكفار‬ 3‫‏‬

ereh( ,1 si siht‫‏‬eu‫‏ها هو‬lac : ‫ رفيق اك» ودقل له‬1‫‏ بالفريدهيرف‬iBer, o ‫‏مكتوب‬8‫ل‬02‫ا‬ ‫إن‬

‫ده‬

ees if not,) 6002

sr).adil ‫ىلإ‬‎ ocr Vis pus

0-9

‫مه‬

‫و‬

On

lig ‫حجنت‬‎ ‫فوسف‬

‫موسي‬

063

ne

‫مهظعو‬‎

‫لمعلا ةطساوب دقعتم‬

‫‏‬8

‫— دفنت ابني فقد دفنت‬lO ‫‏‬yy ً. ‫( ترق اهاب باطلا‬otherwise‫‏‬ --

wre

307

13

!‎‫أعطيتك لحر والقمر فلن اتقتنع بهما‬

ie ‫ددا ور‬

"ylO ‎.‫ معة‬iuJ

‫‏‬eq . ‫ عبرا النهره هما وفريقهما‬ia ‫‏‬yS( ‫ن وجدا‬‫ إ‬, 27

‫‏‬lits ‫وجد‬

‫دوم‬

‫‏‬ela 7

‫ عم‬er‫‏‬

‫هخ‬

. ‫لم تزرع فليس لك حصولٌ تخصلة‬ awe

--

‫‏‬80-9

‫من‬- 6 .‫‏ مهما حصل من شر عش قنعا‬yy . ‫أعداء همقتلوهم‬

«SU ‎‫ َك رض‬yal . ‎‫ بصديق‬00 ‫ الصداقة‬elys sp ae

6

-

Ger

‫هس‬‎

2 ‫هو‬

-o-

‫ تقفد اهيلع ءام‬Oy‫ ىفطت ران انتبحم ‏‬Gye —y,

EXERCISE

0

oe‫لانه ‏‬

68

1. If hot water pours into the cupboards, all the contractor’s

work will be [in] vain. 2. Were it not for this wicked and eloquent preacher the inhabitants of the village would have GE

o-

been contented with what they had. 3. If only (use ‫نا‬‎ (‫ول‬ you had helped the wounded they would not have fallen into the hands of that treacherous enemy. 4. If you had witnessed what happened to the unbelievers who worshipped idols, you would have buried your doubts and the words of the Prophet would have satisfied you. 5. If you say the

300

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

afternoon prayer at once we can leave with the Mecca (355) caravan. 6. When you open the window the wind comes into

the room; when you open the door the rain comes in. 7. If my daughter had asked for a proof, I would have told her what was preached in the sermon in the mosque yesterday.

8. If what was on the table has not pleased him he takes what is in the cupboards also. 9. If he acts (use (‫لمع‬‎ through

this group, the result is in their hands because he has no authority over them. 10. If you see a fire, call the fire brigade;

they will come and put it out quickly. 11. If he has a companion he will not be afraid of the dangers. 12. If you don’t work hard (strive) you will certainly not succeed. 13. Whatever the case may be, the crops are bad this year; the reason

is the lack of water. 14. If you are absent from the house a long time the fires will go out. 15. What you sow you reap.

16. If you don’t find a boat on the river, that is not (use acl) my fault. 17. Whoever betrays his country deserves death. 18. Wherever you go, I will accompany you. 19. Whenever I see you I remember my mother. 20. Live contented in the

future, [and] you will find the ties of friendship a great help, and you will obtain what is more valuable than wealth — a tranquil mind.

CHAPTER

THIRTY-SIX

(SSK Joust Sih

The Cardinal Numbers.

Time. Dates

1. Although it is easy to learn the Arabic numerals for colloquial use, as they follow a simple general pattern, they are one of the trickiest features of written Arabic, particularly when fully vowelled, and the Arabs themselves frequently make errors in their use. It might be best to deal with them

here in groups beginning with the numbers ‘‘one”’ and “‘two’”’. ‫ةدحاو‬ 59

2. “One” masc. ‫دحاو‬‎ 35> 5

5

3

Arabic sign ١ 52

0

3

5

-0

-o

.

‎‫ [ احد‬fem. ‫ىدحإ‬‎ J ‫ادحإ‬‎ with attached

pronoun.

The first form is participal

(Active

Participle

I), and is

usually employed as an adjective after the noun: -

‎‫> ره‬-

cee

aa |‫و‬‎ ‫ لصو لجو‬one man (only) arrived. ‎‫هأوائخلدة‬y‫ر‬oa‫ب‬y eew‎1‫ قرا‬eh daer eht koob ecno eno( .)emit It may 0--

5

-

also

be used

‫ع ا نض‬

-

(and

declined)

as a noun,

e.g.

‫سام‬

‫ نوريثك نكل ىقب دحاو طقف‬cls many came but only one re-‫‏‬ mained; ‎‫ واحدًا‬,laaS I koot .eno tuB ti yam ton ekat na

2202/4. The 0

of the “tafe may, however, be given 030

by adding a

CB.

cee

‫او‬‎ ‫ لصو‬one of them arrived. ‫مهتم‬‎ sols

The second form, ial, is usually used either with a nega-

tive, meaning no-one or none, or with a following genitive or idafa whether noun or pronoun, e.g. zi-éB-B

o-

‎‫ لم اراحدا‬I did ton ees .enoyna 301

:

302

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

‫ كفو ةريثك ىتكل تدخا‬ches many books arrived but I took‫‏‬ 2

‫ار‬

G§‫‏‬

‫در‬

peotas

‫حدها فقط‬ > ‎‫صم بن‬

.>

shone of them only.‫‏‬

-a0-

‎‫ كلمنا إحدى النساء‬ew ekops ot eno fo eht .nemow -

‫نيتديرجنكل ادحإامه هل‬. (ib we ordered two papers but one‫‏‬

e - of them did not arrive.‫‏‬ -

Norte: The singular noun in Arabic, when indefinite, means ‘‘one”’ or a’, so that the word for “‘one’”’ is used much less frequently than in «cn?

English,

e.g.

BIS OLD

aight"

A

‫ةرم‬‎ ‫ هتيار‬I saw him once.

buh lod‫ًارخآ‬:‎ine, « 1‫امسم‬‎‫ ىنطغأ‬give me one nail; I will take another -

3.

later.

-0

‎‫وه‬

‎1‫ “م‬masc. obs); fem. obs! (nom.)

¥

oil; fem. ool (acc., gen.) This number on the whole is seldom used, since the dual ending gives its ee

Thus, Oke means ‘‘two houses”;

if we write ‫نانثآ‬‎ote, then some emphasis iis implied on the word ‘‘two”’. e.g. bis geil | ‫نيع‬‎We‫تي‬‎Ay |, I saw two shepherds only (implying that I expected to see more).

ws i ‎‫دده‬

A?

Ye]

Ave ‫كانه‬‎ ‫ نإ‬J 1 I was told that there were ‫صوده‬

‫» شه‬

-s-o --0»

‎‫ اثنين فقط‬eno )eta ‎‫لافيت‬

ynam sdrehpehs ,ereht tub

1 tem owt dlo nem .ylno

“6

‎‫ إثنان‬isi also used as a noun: ‫ نكلنينثأ اباغ‬us‫ توعدعينج ‏‬I invited all my relatives but‫‏‬ 3 two (of them) stayed away.‫‏‬ .4 3 to 10.‫‏‬ 3 masc.

- --

also

001

St ‫‏‬nettirw(‫تلثة‬

2-5

‫‏‬.mef ‫ثلاث‬

5> > ‫َه‬

4

‎‫وو‬

‫اربعة‬

0512

‫‏‬5

02 ‫> ' لالت‬

5>+‫ه‬

‫وو‬

‫أريع‬

db

THE

CARDINAL

NUMBERS.

$0.

5 masc.

So”

5:

7

8

‫ةسمخ‬‎

fem.

00 asks

10

‫كس‬‎

‎‫و‬

‫ع‬+

‎‫و‬

SLO

-s=.4-

4

vV

‎‫ ا‬ef osla

written 4,0)

53-6

Lope

So.

‫ةهعمس‬‎

ky ‫و‬‎

7

6

so-

‫ةعبس‬‎

5

‫سمخ‬‎

5 ”

See

9

303

DATES

‎‫ه‬5 >

ate

8

TIME.

0

nettirw( ‎‫دمن‬ 7

A

9

ae >

‫هرسع‬‎

‎‫وو‬

‫عسر‬

eof

(i) It will be noted that these numbers reverse the genders, adding the ta marbiita for the masculine form.

(ii) OWS 8 is declined like .‫ضاق‬‎ (iii) They are all nouns, and, when not standing alone, take the nouns to which they refer as genitive plurals in

*idafa. - ar

-G-

‫و‬‎ -=

9°08

‎)‫ (برادات‬oes ‎‫ ثلاث‬eo 1 -

three refrigerators were advertised for sale in today’s paper.

-

ce -- =

09

‫و‬

‫د‬

Agu

the

number

of absentees

is

eight. 2520-7

‫ ةديدج‬ST A

J‫ ‏‬I have eight new books. -

AG

‎‫مفو‬ iat

take ten of these chairs, and leave four.

Note: The gender of the numeral depends on the singular of the noun,

cee

not its plural. For example, GL 6

is masculine but its broken plural

‫>ه‬‎

‫ باوبا‬is, prarimnatically: feminine‫ ‏‬singular. Nevertheless, one writes -o8

2-708

‫)! باوبا‬42 four doors, treating the noun as masculine. In the case of‫‏‬ a broken plural of a feminine noun the numeral is put into the feminine.

304

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

5. 11 to 19. ‫موده‬

11 masc.

ne aol

12,

el

--0‫ممه‬ ‫و‬ a‫‏‬ ‫اثنتا عسره‬

‫وو‬

--90ef

7

14

‫م‬

‫دماص‬ x‫‏‬

* ‎‫ عشرة‬ON

2-260

oon aed |

0

‫اربع عشرة‬ ‫ا‬

‫وو‬

7

‫"مدع‬‎

ae‫‏‬

‫عشرة‬

‫ست‬

cree ne

pe a

18-

‫خمس‬

tet

16 95, 0

17

62

‫عشرة‬

‫وو‬

0 pink‫جع ‏‬ ceaYE Ee

‫ةينامك اشم‬

‎‫وو‬

19 , | phe‫ةعست‬‎

*

0 pent ‫ىنامث‬‎

2-2 9

es,

elie

-

(i) All these are indeclinable, except Twelve. (ii) ahey.aare followed by a Singular noun in the Accusative,

e.g.

16 pupils arrived. I passed 17 women. I want nineteen.

‫‏ جنيها‬sed‫لك أثنا‬ 3702

---

---

‫>نود‬ ‫ور‬

you have twelve pounds (guineas).

9-00

‫‏ عشر كتابا‬id ‫ عمى‬J ‫‏‬1 Elida alle‫‏‬

my uncle has sent me twelve

letters during the last year.

.6 20 to 99.‫‏‬ ‫م‬

20 ‫كورشع‬

masc. and fem.‫‏‬

12

‫احد وعشرون‬

22

‫جم‬

522. -

‫وو‬ etc.‫‏‬

019)

‫ارت‬

‫حزق‬

‫و‬6

‫اثنان وعشرون‬ |

‫كزان‬

2

Ae

aay

‫‏‬.mef ‫إحدى وعشرونث‬

,,

000

‫نورشعو‬‎ ‫ناتنثا‬

"١ ar

THE

CARDINAL

NUMBERS.

TIME.

DATES

305

‫وداس‬ ‫ل‬

30

‎‫ثلاثون‬

40

Sat

eae

50

‫نون‬‎

BOP

5

37

‫ا‬

5s

6

60

‫نوتس‬‎

masc. and fem.

Y.

6

70

‫تدل‬‎

ae

80

Se

ee

aie

oe

Ae

90

‫نوعا‬‎

Migs

‫فقير‬‎

‫كو‬

٠

98

(i) The tens from 20 to 90 are declined as nouns in the sound pray 2062

3

‫ ق اذه رهشلا نوثلت اموي‬there are 0 days in this month.‫‏‬ shoal‫ ىف ‏‬27 pes‫‏‬ 1 ‫د‬

I spent 40 days in the desert.‫‏‬

(ii) All these numbers from 20 to 99, like those from 11 to 19, are followed by a noun in the Accusative Singular. See the examples above. 7. From

100 upwards.

100

hes frequently written 4 8

3

- | but ‫طع‬‎ ’alif is not pronounced) From 200 upwards.

200

dk (SUL)

ree:

300 BSN (gtttn LAE or BLE)

ree

400 500 600

ii, al 3 aes 3

a Te nie

700

‎‫سبع مئة‬

eeV

306

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

800 ‎‫ مئة‬iis

es

900

iss , ‫عست‬‎

4

1000

at

1 088

2000 3000

oul GY ‫ةثالث‬‎

cil ree

oe to 10000.

11000 100000

i ‫رع‬‎ ‫دحأ‬etc. uli ie,

1000000

Lice LI

i etka ‫ني‬‎ Plur. ‫نييالم‬‎

fe

‫ل‬‎ ore

0 Zero, Nil Sie (hence “cypher’’).

(i)

These

numerals

from

100

are

nouns

and

take their

following noun in the Genitive Singular. Note that as the word G ‫ام‬‎ 100 is feminine the “‘three’’ in 300 has no

7 of ta marbita. As Si 1,000 is masculine the 3 of 3,000 has

the ta marbita in accordance with the rule governing numbers 3 to 10.

(ii)

In compound numerals over 100 the noun follows the rule governing its relation to the last element in the number. Thus in ‘103, men’’, the rule for 3 must be followed; therefore, the noun must be in the Genitive

Plural. e.g.

‎‫ اله‬iN, ‎‫ مانة‬a hundred and three boys.

In ‘123 men” the last element, 23, has an Accusative Piao

4g

1910)

2-2

Singular noun, e.g. X=) ‫نورشعو‬‎ ‫ ةثالثو‬GL In “2,300 men”’ the last element, 300, takes the Genitive ‫ال‬

ate‫‏‬

Singular, e.g.‫ رجل ‏‬GL‫ وثلاث ‏‬OWI‫‏‬

THE

CARDINAL

NUMBERS.

TIME.

DATES

307

(iii) Note the ‫د‬‎ of the various elements in the following: eal oi dae ‎‫ وتسم وثلاثون‬t‫ ة‬ia, ‎‫ ودسع‬ie 9391 .sraey nA redlo mrof is At. en, 2 oat Re oh es which, however, is not Gaed in dee connected by 9.

Arabic.

Note

that

each

element

is

5 6>

8. “Some” is expressed by ‫ضعب‬‎ . It is also used in ee --j

0

Arabic to mean “one of’’, “a certain”, e.g. ‫ءارعيشلا‬‎ ‫لاق ل‬ one of the poets said (but this say alee ou “some of’’). “A few” is ea

by eo or dads, followed by the

Genitive, e.g. ell ‫عضب‬‎ a few days (presumed to be between

three and ten). Sun

An undefined Sun"

C6!

number over ten is expressed by Us),

es

0%

‫و‬‎

S435

e.g.

1

‫ سفن فينو‬GL,‫ ةئام فينو سفن ‏‬a hundred or more souls, a‫‏‬ hundred or so souls. 507

“Approximately, in the region of” is expressed by 9+, literally ‘“‘towards’’. It is a noun with the following word in the Genitive, e.g. ‫ود‬

0-0-2

‫سراف‬ii‫ انيلع وحن‏‬ined about 1,000 cavalry attacked us.‫‏‬ o-

08

J‎‫مائة‬192‫ رأينا‬we saw about 100 camels.

This cone is alee used as preposition in the sense of ‘‘direc= obese tion”’, as: ‫ةنيدعلا‬‎ ‫ تبكر وحن‬I rode towards the city. 9. When a number is required to be definite, e.g. “the nine books”, it is placed after the noun to which it refers in apposition with the definite oe e.g. ‫هدىلا اهتفلتسا‬ ‫ة‬ ] ‫عجرىل بتكلا‬ ‫ع‬ return

me

the ten books‫‏‬

which you borrowed. cil,

'‎‫حسن‬ specks gsi give me Hassan’s nine books.

308

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

In the first example, however, the reader may encounter ----90

5-8 ‎‫ العشرة‬in modern Arabic; this is the colloquial usage also. TIME 2

So-

5

0‫ج‬‎

10. Among the words used for time are ‫تقو‬‎ pl. ‫تاقوا‬‎ used

in the general sense (pupnot in penne and telling the time); 5

G--

é

‫و‬‎ ‫وي‬

cry or OL), pl. SIF ee pl. pee meaning ‘‘an age” or

“era” (e.g. deusii Jpal 6 Middle ney also Se Go-

5 ‫در‬‎

ore

-

5 5‫ه‬-‎

‎‫ قرن‬pl. O95, '‫تري‬‎ ‫ ل‬ie. or ,‫ماع‬‎ pis.Clic ,‫نونس‬‎ ‫ماوعا‬, oS

fae ; ‫رهش‬‎ pl.)Noe, “month’’;

pial pl. call “week”;

5 pl. aul, “day”; dol, pl. SEL, “hour”; ‫ةقيقد‬‎, pl. ,‫قئاقد‬‎

“minute”;

aes pl. ‫تاما‬‎ “‘moment”’ ;

ast, pl. ,‫ناو‬‎

“second’’. ‎‫ ساعة‬also means a “‘watch”’ or ee

and is used

in telling the time:

‎‫ الساعة كم؟‬tahw emit si ?ti OFS

Hea

soles

‫ ةثالاث‬USI

it is 3 o'clock. *‫‏‬ (Note the use of the masculine here)‫‏‬ The Ordinals (see Ch. Thirty-rape are also used for expressing the time of day, as: dy!a EL four o’clock (the fourth hour). 11. The periods of the day are expressed by ‫ىو‬‎ sometimes OU)

by ‎‫عند‬,or more commonly by the Adverbial Accusative, ep: chal 6

‫صاش‬

or ies in the morning. -‫و‬

‫ دنع رهظلا‬at noon.‫‏‬ ‫ ق رصعلا‬in the afternoon.‫‏‬ --90

clu! ‎‫ فى‬or sl. in the evening. * Numerals used in this way as abstract numbers are diptote.

THE

CARDINAL

NUMBERS.

TIME.

DATES

309

ou

‫ ق ليللا‬or‫ ليل ‏‬at night.‫‏‬

jsut ‎‫ ق‬or ‎‫ ارا‬during the day. ‫ و‬--

Nie‫‏‬

‫ راهم‬means the daytime, whereas‫ موي ‏‬means hours.

the whole 24‫‏‬

When a single night is specified, we say‫ يل ‏‬e.g.‫‏‬

yl a last night. 12. The days of the week are:

‫ )راهن( دحألا‬te Sunday.‫‏‬ sat (63) 9 ‫موب‬‎ Monday.

(slat) ‎‫ (تهار)آلشلاماء‬ea .yadseuT ‎‫) الأريعاء‬55 a .yadsendeW ‫ اميس‬Gigs‫ يو‏‬Thursday.‫‏‬ - ‫و‬

‫صور‬

‫اد‬

‫ د (نهار) المجمعة‬Friday.‫‏‬ ‫ يوم (نهار) السبت‬Saturday.‫‏‬ -

5

‫ديس‬

The word ¢ioe or ragis often omitted, e.g. ‫ءاثالغلا‬‎ . Tuesday. “The week”’ is eo or zen (usually the latter). MONTHS OF THE CHRISTIAN YEAR 26

-

Ow

2

HH

13. The Christian year is called ‫ةيداليملا‬‎ ‫ ةنسلا‬the birth year,

or Be -

29H

6087

iledali the Messiah

year,

or, occasionally,

= 7

‫ ةيسمشلا‬I, the sun year. Dates B.C. are called Sei‫قبل‏‬

(abbreviated ¢ 3); and A.D., ‫داليملا‬‎Jey (abbreviated ‫ماب‬‎ or just ‫مر‬‎ The names of the months have two alternative forms, the first being used primarily in Egypt and the Sudan, the second in the Levant and Iraq.

ARABIC

A NEW

310

GRAMMAR

(1) January

(2)

ph

Jul Ost

3-0

February

ON Ie ct

‫‏‬hcraM

id

5

3

‫آذار‬

‫مارس‬ ‫و‬

0

‫طابش‬‎

ply

‫ءَه‬

7-05

‫‏‬lirpA

‫ابريل‬

May

‎‫مايو‬

‫ايار» نوار‬

‫‏‬enuJ

‫يونيو‬

ad

Dats

‫‏‬yluJ

‫يوليو‬

August ‫‏‬rebmetpeS

5 ie

‫نيسان‬ 5

a

5 we

‫فل‬

3 a-‫‏‬

‫تموز‬

‫ دار‬820

2

‫بآ‬‎

|

‫وحور‬ >

5

‫سبتمبر‬ ‫غرود‬

October

a.

November

‎‫نوفمير‬

‫‏‬rebmeceD

‫دسمبر‬

‫ود‬

‫ر‬

“ws

8%,

‫حزيران‬

‫و‬

‫ايلوا‬

‫و صوءَيَ د‬

°

‫اوالا‬‎ ‫نيرشت‬ 24

BWI

‫د‬

om‫‏‬

‎‫تشرين‬

eee

‫الاول‬

‫كانون‬

THE MUSLIM YEAR 14. This is called aPoul) inl after the Aen (Hegira) or

Flight (properly, Emigration) of the Prophet from Mecca to

Medina on 16th July, 622 A.D. Dates have the word dyss in brackets after them, or simply ‫ه‬‎ . As the year has only 354 days, the Muslim year progressively outstrips the Christian year. A.H. (the European form of (‫ه‬‎ 1381 began on 4th June, 1961. Comparative calendars of the Muslim and

Christian years are available.* In the modern Islamic world * Wustenfeld: Vergleichungs-Tabellen der muhammedischen christlichen Zeitrechnung, Leipzig, 1854, and later editions.

und

M. 0. Jimenez, Tablas de Conversion de Datas Islamicas a Cris-

tianas y Viceversa, Granada, 1946.

THE

CARDINAL

NUMBERS.

TIME.

DATES

311

one seldom sees the Hijriya date alone. Newspapers, for instance, always show the Christian date, which is also operative in commerce and official pronouncements.

The following are the Islamic months: IG-

1.

20-

Cae)

5

1

Res -

ea)

9.

tee are

2

--e

Olas) (the month of fasting).

‫اولا‬‎

ky‫لا‬‎

6. i

5

b ae

eins

12. ols He (month of the 0

Some names of these months are often used with special attributives, e.g. ‫سرهم‬

‫‏‬OIGO

9-09

‫و‬

0-0

=i

2

‫رجب الفرد‬ 0097029

-

="

‫ مركملا‬Olas MUSLIM

‫المعة‬

Il ‫‏‬DIVO

9-3

‫ن‬2

‫شعبان‬

etc.‫‏‬ FEASTS

Sie aes

z 15. The general term for a festival is aw pl. sls | : bhe chief ones are: -G 0 258

(a) ‫ةنسلا‬‎

-G

0

‫ومي‬‎

‫لوا‬o» ‫ةنسلا‬‎‫ سار‬New Year’s day of the Islamic

Calendar.

(b) 200 ‫لولا‬‎ The Birth of the Prophet. ‫صا يي‬

‫و‬

(c) ‎‫ الصغير‬dal “the small festival’, at the beginning of the month of i‫وش‬‎ after the end of the fast of the month of

ee 2

se

312

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(d) ‎‫ العيدالكبير‬eht“ taerg ,”lavitsef osla dellac

eip Go

r

“the sacrificial festival”, on the 10th of the month of ‫ةجح‬‎‫وذلا‬

when the pilgrims offer sacrifice in Mecca. The commonest festival greeting is ‫كيلع‬‎ aye s ‫ديعلا‬‎the feast (is, or may be) blessed on you. INDICATING

DATES

16. To indicate the date, the Ordinal numbers are usually employed (see the following chapter). After the ordinal is 56

>

put the name of the month, with or without the word ‫ربعش‬‎ before it, and after that the number of the year, with or g--

without the word 4~ in the genitive or accusative.

e.g.

gon

(Aw) ae (‫)رهش‬‎ ie

SADR

ESET

AOR

IHEP ‫راك‬‎IS

LIN

‫ا‬‎

(‫)رهش‬‎ ‫)مودلأ[ عباسلا نم‬

iiss oe

INDICATION

OF

(On) the a8 7th

January

1956

AGE a--

17. How are old are you? is expressed by 4 ae ray ce (lit. your life is how many years?). An older form is eee‫نبا‬‎ ‫همه‬

=--

‫( ةنس تنا‬lit. the son of how many years are you?) but this is‫‏‬ rarely used now.‫‏‬ The answer to the eS questions would be:‫‏‬ zor

e

20

pre

Dee

I am twenty years old.

VOCABULARY a--

ba «bs only (at the end of

eb ‫ار‬‎ pl. ae, shepherd

the sentence or that part of

53 -

the sentence applies)

m8 pl. ‫اياعر‬‎ flock, subjects (of a ruler)

25-6

‫كا‬‎

to which ‫تي‬

‎‫ مسمار‬pl. ‎‫ مسامير‬nail

it

21

‎‫ مسن‬old, aged

THE

CARDINAL

NUMBERS.

sal refrigerator (mod.) (Syria, Lebanon) 6-

the “ occasion (mod.)

a-

-

‫ غنم‬sheep‫‏‬

‫معز‬

of

(+ gen.)

--9

‫ (>) داز‬to increase (intrans.)‫‏‬ -ac-

+2) 11 to increase (trans.)

‫ (ماعز‬goats‫‏‬

sl pl.‫ » ءاش ‏‬ol a single sheep‫‏‬ 6

313

‫ لاقتسا‬X to resign‫‏‬

bu (m.s. ise,if aS) sheep

So-

DATES

‎‫ بمناسبة‬with reference to, on

‫ ةجالث‬refrigerator (Egypt,‫‏‬ Sudan)‫‏‬

TIME.

-01-0--

S06

chk! « ‫لبا‬‎ camels (collective no eae

G-

-

62k) increase, more, surplus

gle II to hang (érans.), suspend

‫قلعت ب‬

V

to

hang from,‫‏‬

g--

45U pl. 50 she-camel ‫ ب‬---b00‫‏‬

‫در‬

‫ تاناويحلا‬diy toz00, zoological‫‏‬ ‘gardens‫‏‬ S-0-

ale attack

Saran

ms

‎‫ فلسطينى‬Palestinian 2

refugee

depend on, be attached to, appertain to : -B-

‎‫دور‬

‫ تاقلعملا‬Mus allaqat, the name‫‏‬ given to 7 pre-Islamic odes‫‏‬ said to have been hung‫‏‬ from the Ka‘ba in Mecca‫‏‬ sites pl.‫ ‏‬2 ‫ انمق‬ode, poem‫‏‬ S$ 39093

‫ دكتور‬pl.: 33 > rotcod ‫)‏‬.dom(

-ae-

‫ ردص‬II to export‫‏‬ -- 0-0

2

‫ دروتسا‬X to import‫‏‬ 5

on7

1

‫ حيرصت‬declaration (mod. per-‫‏‬ mit, permission)‫‏‬ 5

2

‫ا‬

els pl. ,‫ناوم‬‎ ‫ ىناوم‬port, harbour - 08 ‫ المانيا‬Germany‫‏‬

-‫و‬

‫مئناسب‬

111

G--

‫ تآ‬coming, next‫‏‬

ui

German

-9»5

4k. suitability

Germans)

of O°

(Susi the

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ republican‬وهج‪‎‬ىو‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫َه‪‎‬‬

‫‪314‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‪4or pl. oaklepublic, crowd,‬‬ ‫~‬ ‫‪masses‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪ .lp lej yrteop‬شعر‬

‫;‬

‫‪4) 944 republic‬‬

‫‪re eae‬‬ ‫‪‎ happiness, good for-‬ةداعس‬

‫‪died‬‬

‫‪Ringe‬‬

‫‬‫‪so‬‬

‫‪Paty,‬‬

‫‪plows pl. role» nail‬‬

‫‪tune‬‬ ‫‪69‬‬

‫ف‪‎‬‬

‫‪EXERCISE‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫‪minis‬‬

‫‪Ge‬‬

‫‪s‬س‪h‬‏ ‪ 0‬سبب الاستقالة ‪ram‬‏‬ ‫(منما) يزيد ‪G‬‏ صعوبة رئي‬ ‫‪4‬ت دعوت المعلمةٌ المجديدة اعماج ‪seef‬ال‏بنات التأريخ لكنها‬ ‫ع‬ ‫اماج‬

‫=‬

‫وحدت‬

‫إحدا هن ‪sL‬‏ وهى‬

‫الممامير الباقية ‪}er‬‏ ذلك‬ ‫‏‪+o‬‬

‫‏‪spas‬‬

‫‪ 0‬در‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪ole a‬‬

‫لاجئةٌ‪.‬‬

‫م ‪-‬‬

‫الصندوق ‪I‬‏‬ ‫‪o+‬‏‬

‫‪ea‬‬

‫‪Gi‬‬

‫‪ekiB‬‬

‫ا‬

‫‪ َ2‬ردوده‬

‫سمخو ‏‪ Oy rte‬ةقان‬

‫تاناويحلا توريبب ‪‎‬؟‬

‫مو سه‬

‫أعغطني مسسمارين اثنين وضع‬

‫‏‪oes‬‬

‫‪Jui i)mares‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫‪ee‬‬

‫‪2C‬‏‬

‫مكررا ‏‪tiie‬‬

‫‪pine daly ene‬‬

‫‪‎‬تاتلعملا ‪ ca 37es‬دئاصق ‪‎ 0‬يبرعلا ‪al ste .‬‬ ‫دوم‬

‫‪59-2‬‬

‫‪02.‬‬

‫من باب المدينة بعد حملةالألمان ‪eL‬‏‬

‫ا‬

‫‏‪eNO‬‬

‫الشمس؟ ارجع لعقلكياخادم ! ال‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫ل‬

‫‪ anE‬وا ليث‬

‫بغداد من‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫م‬

‫‪cs‬‬

‫لبن المعز وتتركة فى‬

‫‪ihsoA‬‏ كثيراً عن أفكاررعايا‬ ‫‪-‬ه‪5-‬‬

‫كتاب‬

‫دود‬

‫« ألف ليلةوليل » ‪s5‬‏ هذه القصص غير‬ ‫ره ار‬

‫ايد‬

‫‪--‬‬

‫حليب المعز» خصوصاً إِذَا‪A‬‏ بَاردًافى الثلاجة ‪:‬‬

‫‏)‪ SHG‬لك ذلك ألف مرة»قلماذًا ‪AC‬‏‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫يل‬

‫‪.‬‬

‫|‬

‫س‬

‫‪eeW‬‏ ‪TE‬‬

‫َه‬

‫دد‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫السو‬

‫لدج‬

‫أعبر الصحراء‬

THE

CARDINAL

NUMBERS.

T'IME.

DATES

a.

315 wore

Bly 2

iets on ‫كلذ‬‎ ‫ اوري أ لبق‬o! oe

‎‫ وخوفهم‬Sl 3 ork ‫كلذ‬‎ ‫ نم مكاحلا »نك" دير‬Apa ‫مهيأ‬‎ ‫ ةنسلا ةيضامل كوسو‬3 ‫ ةدارب اقينو‬3

‫ — تدروتسا نانبل‬ie

05-2

oF

Ss‫‏‬ »

o-

o-

‫ تردصو‬- 15 ‫ةينآلا‬. ‫ىف ةنسلا‬ (amount)‫ نم اذه ادق ر ‏‬AS byged‫‏‬

e‫‏‬F ,io6 00 ‫‏ من ميناء عسوت‬llud ‫فواكه كثيرة فى تلك‬ ‫ا‬

‫ ظقيتسمي‬cen aes‫‏‬

. ‫ داليم حيسلا‬Jap

shdaySat‫‏‬

‫‏‬eleB ‫ويسوق غنمأيه إلىمحل بعيد من البيت» ولم يكن معه‬ ‫هي‬

6 bar

‫‏‬ea‫ر‬: ‫فني المساءكانيسأل كل ما‬

ral 1S ‫ةسايس‬‎ ps ce sali ie eeste) ods ---

»‎‫ ربعاء‬3 ‫يوم الأحد وقام يوم‬

2-5

. ‫ الشجرة‬oO

‫الكبيرة‬

‫بالشجرة‬

-

‫يا‬

=e

ehd

seG ‫‏‬ssid ‫واليوم يوم السبت وسلابسة لا‬

eal oe Leyla

ape ees ‫سلك‬‎

Ea

EXERCISE

70

Note: Numbers given in words should be translated in words. 1. My sister opened one of the boxes only; there are many long nails in the other, and she has not opened it since she came from Palestine with the refugees. 2. Why have you three refrigerators in your house, and you say that you are a poor

shepherd? 3. One came, and one stayed away because he wanted to visit the zoo. There were two this year. I invited three last year, but one died in February. God have mercy

316

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

on his soul (use Perfect). 4. I am an old man now, but I cannot say that my happiness has increased since my youth.

I have eight sons and three daughters, but all of them have got married and left home. 5. The minister explained in his statement with regard to the economic state of the republic that imports were more than exports. 6. The country had exported seventeen thousand cars in the previous year, but had imported commodities whose value was greater than that.

7. The future of this country depends are a hundred reasons for the present he said, “1 am the one responsible, and read in the history of the Arabs that the

on trade, and there difficulties. “Still”, so I resign”. 8. We seven poems known

as the ‘‘Mu‘allaqat’”’ were hung in Mecca. Some scholars say

that there were ten (they were ten). 9. He is a Palestinian, but he studied in a university in Germany and became a doctor in Nineteen hundred and thirty-five. 10. Our country will have a new port in the coming year, and it will be suitable for the biggest ships. 11. September has thirty days,

but October has thirty-one. February has only 28 or 29. 12. I worked with sheep and goats for a week (use the accusative)

and then resigned.

Now

I am

working

with

camels. But I really want to work with elephants. 13. This tribe attacked a caravan a few days ago, and killed about 100 men. This attack has increased the public’s fear of the Arabs. 14. I do not know what time it is because I have no watch. 15. I lost it on Sunday night when I was going from my house to my friend’s house. 16. I looked for it on Monday morning. 17. Those two boys were born in 1931 A.D. 18. I met him in Ramadan, 1370 A.H. 19. How old is your

eldest daughter? She is seventeen, and my youngest son is three. 20. I spent the holiday in my garden. There are twelve apple trees in it, but my neighbour’s sons have taken much of the fruit. 21. I heard that you have 50 or so cows. Why, then, do you buy milk in the market?

CHAPTER

THIRTY-SEVEN

‎)‫(ألباب السايع والثلاثون‬ The Ordinal Numbers. Fractions 1. The Ordinals from 1 to 10 are generally formed on the

measure of the Active Participle, del, more or less from the Cardinals ‎‫وءََ د‬-

‎‫الاول‬

.mef

gh

ze

-

‫دو‬

‎‫الاولى‬

eht .tsrif

‫ةيناثلا‬‎ the second.

-

-

(without article Ol) ar

>

‫ثلاثلا‬ 2 a-

al Bel

‫سماخلا‬ ‫و‬

we‫‏‬

‫سداسلا‬ ‫هاه‬

‫عباسلا‬ ‫ده‬

‫اه‬

‫نماثلا‬ ‫ا‬

ae

‫عساتلا‬ ‫أو‬

6

‫رشاعلا‬

Ka

ft



ae‫‏‬

‫أ‬

‫ةثلاثلا‬

i‫‏‬

‫ةعبارلا‬ a=)

7

the third.‫‏‬ the fourth.‫‏‬

0‫‏‬

‫ ةسماخلا‬the fifth.‫‏‬

4

ists

17

‫ةعباسلا‬

‫دو‬

‫ول‬

5

‫دس‬

ae

‫ةئماثلا‬

POT |‫‏‬

5

‫ةعساتلا‬ 3

7

the sixth.‫‏‬

the seventh.‫‏‬ 1‫‏‬

the eighth.‫‏‬ the ninth.‫‏‬

o-‫‏‬

‫ةرشاعلا‬

the tenth.‫‏‬

All the above are declined fully.

2. After 10, the Cardinal Numbers are used as Ordinals, save in so far as the above numbers are included in them. Those from 11 to 19 are indeclinable. 317

318

A NEW ree

‫‏‬e

‫ال‬

‫د‬

GRAMMAR

--9-

‫ىداحلا رشع‬ ‫عل صاصم‬

ARABIC

‫وده‬

fem.‫‏‬

‫سد‬

‫مول‬

‫ةيداحلا ةرشع‬

>

-- 9 --

the eleventh.‫‏‬

Go‫‏‬

‫ رشع‬Bld

a‫‏‬

‫ةيناثلا ةرشع‬

the twelfth.‫‏‬

‫ ردع‬eI

M

ate 35 the thirteenth.‫‏‬

ye asi‫‏‬ ‫رلا‬

3

‫ ةرشع‬1‫ ءارلا‬the fourteenth,‫‏‬ etc.

Higher numbers run as follows: Masc. and Fem. 306

twentieth -

396

4‫اور‬‎yell

o0-

SO)

‫مريم‬‎

9

Ae

‫ ىداحلا نورشعلاو‬fem.‫ ةيداحلا نورشعلاو ‏‬the twenty-first.‫‏‬ =

310

070=

fe

a

an

‫ىناثلا نورشعلاو‬

5

‫ ةيناثلا نورشعلاو‬the twenty-second.‫‏‬

‫نووتشل‬ ‫او‬ar

ee‫‏‬

‫ ةثلاثلا نورشعلاو‬the twenty-third.‫‏‬

ye Soe aaa Te

etc. ‫دي‬

‫ةثملا‬

masc. and fem.

‫‏ سساو‬mO

the hundredth.‫‏‬ ‫و‬ ‫دسس‬ OF‫‏‬

i age.

fem.

‫ةرخآلا‬‎ ‫؟‬‎ ‫رول‬

‎‫الاخير‬

,‫ى‬:1+

‫الاخيرة‬

itheslast.

The Ordinals have the Sound Plurals, e.g. 5‫ولوألا‬‎

eel

fem.

‫ثالوالا‬‎

0000

Note the following plurals: J‘ei the first; ball the middle; I

wom

>= YI the last;

‫عكا‬‎ the early part; aay the middle part; ‫و‬‎



‫رخاوا‬‎ the last part.

THE

ORDINAL

NUMBERS.

FRACTIONS

319

wr - eo

‫ع‬

‫عساتلا‬oat‫لئاوأ ‏‬ . @ in the early 19th century.‫‏‬ ‫طساوأ ةنسلا‬

in the middle of the year.‫‏‬

eA‫اوأ >| ‏‬pe towards the end of the affair.‫‏‬ 3. The Numerical Adverbs, “first”, “‘secondly’’, “thirdly”, may be expressed by the Accusative Indefinite of the Ordinal. 66

Hic Ge YE first, secondly, thirdly.

4. The

Numerical

Adverbs

“once’’,

“‘twice’’,

‘“‘several 5a-

times’’, may be expressed by the use of the noun accusative,

e.g.

‫ةرم‬‎

‫ةرم‬‎ in the

once

‎‫ جه‬an

opr

twice

ly ‎‫ مرا‬or ie --

-



several times.

ra

Note GW ‫وا‬‎ on,‫رم‬‎ “two or three times” “Thrice” (three times), ‘four times’, etc. are expressed §a-

by the use of ‫ةرم‬‎ as a genitive of *7ddfa following the Cardinal Number in the Accusative, ae

e.g. ‎‫; ثلاث مرات‬ecirht -

-06

O=

a !vq ruof .semit

22040

>

6>

‫ تارم ءانثا‬pe‫ دق هتلباق ‏‬I have met him five times‫‏‬

shaw,

‫ ىضاملا‬5

24)| a uring th 6

pas

t

mon‫‏‬

th.‫‏‬

“Once” used historically, ‘“‘once upon a time’, may be expressed in any of the following ways:

(a) tase (b) ‫ام‬‎ ‫(انوي‬oe a certain day); (c) feelin‫نم‬‎ ‫مبا‬3 (d) (2 eile

» ‫موي‬‎‫= تاذ‬

The occurrence of an action once or more

verb is often expressed

by the Verbal

times with the

Noun,

with the

320

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

-

feminine ending added, known as the 6‫ةرملا‬‎pel This is always of the measure

‫ةلعف‬‎ with the root fore of the verb. With

derived forms the ta marbita is simply appended to the Verbal Noun: -

‎‫لومي‬

Ge

eee

is ‎ٍ‫ة غرد‬6‫ عط نظر إلى نظر‬evag ema egnarts .ecnalg -

‎‫ صوء‬220

on

any‎‫ اتتحت المدرسة ابد‬eht wen loohcs saw denepo yllaiciffo ‎‫دهم هده‬

ero = 019 .eciwt

‎‫رسميتين‬ err

=C ‎‫سه‬

‫تاب‬de‫هبر ثالث ‏‬ ‫ درض‬he hit him three times (lit. three‫‏‬ blows).‫‏‬

5. The Fractions (with the exception of ‘‘a half’’) are of ‎‫وه‬

‫رد‬

60

the type ae or as with the Plural Sta:

$

aie ea ‫د‬‎ ‫هو‬

‎‫ثلث‬

0

21012. $22

or

‎‫ثلث‬

9

‫عبر‬

‎65‫و‬

‫عبر‬‎

$39

‎65‫ر ه‬

t

‫و‬‎

509

4 65

5

>62

‫ى‬, 0 ‫سادسا‬

>ie ١

2

١

> ١

o ١

>

١



‫عابسا‬‎ “06

١



‫نامثا‬

n

5

‫و‬

5



0

5‫د و‬

te

oF

‫سامخا‬

5 ‫در‬‎

‫ع اعموي‬

‫م‬

‫عابرا‬

599

” $03

‫نس‬‎

5-

» ‫و‬

$99

»

34 1

5

MSU

92$

Coa

ok hail

$S

-

80-

Vv

١

‫يد‬ ١

ST

ae

eg. ‫؟‬‎OWS, + ‫عابرا‬‎ ‫ةثالث‬ If a whole and a fraction are united, they must be joined by 9; e.g.

THE

ORDINAL

NUMBERS.

FRACTIONS

321

45 — ‫سادسأ‬‎ ‫ ةسمخو‬:‫ ةعبرا‬go 27 0-

- S$--06

% (per cent) = ‫ةّئاملأ‬‎ 3 BUG 17 e.g.

20%

wu 3 ‫نورشع‬‎ : dys sa -

percentage = 4)54, 6. The Multiplicative Adjectives are of the form aie €.g.

cow two-fold, a

three-fold (also means a triangle) pl. RACES

ne ia four-fold (also means a square) pl. ia. 3-69

Single, simple, singular, is .‫درفم‬‎

7. The Distributive Adjectives, 2 by 2, 3 by 3, etc., are expressed: (a) By repeating the ordinal in the accusative.

‎‫ دخلرا ثلاثة ثلاثة‬yeht deretne eerht yb ,eerht ni .seerht

(b) By the forms dts or Jade “00

0°60

e.g. ol ‫نينثا‬‎ ‫ يا‬or ‫ىنثم‬‎ lsat they come two by two. ont ‫و‬‎oh ‫موقب‬‎‫ترعب‬ ‫ رم‬I passed by people (walking) in twos and threes. 8. The Numerical Adjectives ‫مارح‬‎ of ee e.g.

the composition

are of the measure ous 1

twofold, biliteral.

Ge threefold, triliteral. ‎‫ رباعى‬fourfold, quadriliteral or a quatrain in poetry, ~

hence the “Rubi ciyyat” ‫)تايعاب‬‎(‫ ر‬of ¢ Umar Khayyam. 1

322

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY

& o-

(395 national, nationalist 5 o-

5

‫>ه‬‎

8

Ls pl, ‫ثاحنأ‬‎ research, investigation ‫وان‬

‫ قرش‬Eastern, Oriental‫‏‬

33 pl. re individual n. ‎‫ واد‬pl. %a standard, flag; Brigade, major-general 2‫و‬

= ‎‫ مر‬correspondent

“oe

ck 111 to meet, to corres-

aie fundamental(ist)

pond to, be equivalent to ‫ قلطأ‬IV to fire, throw‫‏‬ --

eG

w

‫ قلطأ رانلا ىلع‬to fire at‫‏‬ ‫ سام‬see

‫‏‬80--

‫ قلطأ ةملك ىلع‬to use a word‫‏‬ with a certain meaning

ete

él that is to say, namely 5

‫رود‬

‫ قنصل‬pl.‫ قناصل ‏‬consul‫‏‬

it ph ‫فال‬‎ noble Gilene

adj.) ‫م‬

Ss pl. ‫ءالكو‬‎ agent

‫ فرش‬II to honour‫‏‬

os

‫ لمتشا ىلع‬VIII to comprise,‫‏‬ include

U5 9 agency ‫ ىلع‬as‫ ون‏‬V to entrust oneself‫‏‬

to, rely on‫‏‬

‎‫ فرع‬pl. ‎‫ فروع‬branch ‎‫ ارت‬N.W. Africa, the

3 ‎‫ سا‬former

Maghrib (also used for Morocco) (lit. the West)

rr1 formerly

slsecurity

2pen Algeria, Algiers

‫ ها‬pl.!32 dearth, scarcity;‫‏‬ crisis (mod.)‫‏‬

‫ شكارم‬Morocco,

‫ ةشقانم‬discussion (mod.)‫‏‬

‫ برلان‬pl.‫‏‬

ae—

Parliament

(Fr.)‫‏‬ ‫ جمانرب‬pl.‫ جمارب ‏‬scheme, pro-‫‏‬ gramme

32

G-

Marrakesh‫‏‬

‫ ىوتحا لع‬VIII to contain,‫‏‬ comprise‫‏‬ ‫ (~) ىوح‬to comprise, tain‫‏‬ ‫هه‬

con-‫‏‬

---o69‫‏‬

obs etc.)

contents (of a book,

THE 5

ORDINAL

NUMBERS.

‫‏ قارة‬.lp ‫ — ات‬continent‫‏‬

dee ‎)‫ (سئن‬Sunna, law in Islam GA.

‎‫وى‬

‫ »رثإ رثا‬following on, immedi-‫‏‬ ately after‫‏‬

religious

plor 3] ‫ىلع‬‎ «(same meaning)

‫دسق‬

a ‎‫ و‬II to help, give success

‎‫ اهل السنة‬.gnis wg( eht -nuS

to (usually used of God)

nites

5

‫و‬we Dt‫‏‬

‫ ةعيشلا‬sing.

1>

‫ قيفوت‬success (due to God);‫‏‬

= the Shiites‫‏‬

‫ ءاشأ‬IV to spread make known‫‏‬ 2 8

323

FRACTIONS

-

proper name masc.

trans.,‫‏‬

ne (2.) to resolve, solve 1 solution, resolving v.n.

39

‫ شيوعى‬Communist‫‏‬

sG

‎‫و‬

15

609

‫‏‬yB

‫ان‬

js II to represent

a-

J ‫حلص‬‎ )2( to be suitable

‎‫ الشيوعية‬Communism

for

‎‫ اشتراق‬Socialist

‫ فلتخا نع‬VIII to differ from‫‏‬

=

‫ الاشتر|كية‬Socialism‫‏‬ ‫صورت‬

esGS almost, approximately‫‏‬

03



.‫ بكثير‬sse yu ia ere ‫م‬‎ ‫ ىداحلا‬0

llis ‫‏‬sS ‫‏ المقلة اى‬sni — ‫ ع‬,‫‏ شهر ينائر‬eo ‫اليوم |الأول‬ ‫ور‬

‫و‬

2

-e

ase

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬ ‫‏‪oe‬‬

‫‪10‬‬

‫‪ea‬‬

‫ا‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫رود‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‪022‬‬

‫كان ‏‪ GL‬بيت وكيل ‪lled‬‏ فى مراكش‪.‬‬ ‫‪SRO‬‏‬

‫ل‬

‫‪324‬‬ ‫ص‬

‫ه ل‬

‫‪ + -‬ورر‬

‫إني ‪TER‬‏‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪7-1-2‬‬

‫ل‬

‫حينما استقال إثر ابتداء الأزمة وسافر إلى المغرب‪ .‬جد حك‬ ‫‪fo‬‬

‫&‬

‫‪063‬‬

‫‪rar‬‬

‫‪mae‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫الله الذى وفق ‪ea‬‏ ‪0‬‬ ‫افع‪‎‬‬

‫‪RS‬‬

‫ر‬

‫‪oF‬‬

‫‪pack‬‬

‫‪si‬‬

‫همد‬

‫عل‬ ‫‪a‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫فى ‪lbJ‬‏ القرن ‪ee‬‏ فإنه‬

‫‪=i‬‬

‫‪ ee‬عم‬

‫‪‎‬ع‬

‫‪ae‬‬

‫‪80 2‬‬

‫»‪‎ he « le‬ناملربلا ‪va ‘aaa 3‬‬

‫‪ORR‬‬

‫‪We ca‬‬

‫‪of‬‬

‫‪OF‬‬ ‫‪> GR‬‬

‫‪Stu‬‬

‫‪ae‬‬

‫‪dures‬‬

‫امتحدة عن مششاكل القارة ‪yf‬‏ وتقدم ‪enac‬‏ ‪ eia‬جديد‬ ‫‪ 0‬تلك المشاكل بأسرع ‪uL‬‏‪ sa(. ylkciuq sa )elbissop oR‬و‪-‬‬

‫‪pls,‬‬

‫‪--‬‬

‫طلب‬

‫)‪Se‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪SU‬‬

‫‪ria‬‬

‫‪del‬‬

‫‏‪ao‬‬

‫هدا‬

‫‪EL‬‬

‫من الامة ان‪yw ‎‬‬

‫‪PR Pp‬‬ ‫حاربت‬

‫‪"62‬‬

‫الكتاب محتويات ‪sle‬‏ فائدة لبه‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪930‬‬

‫الماضى ‪.‬‬

‫‪OF‬‬

‫ىربكلا‬

‫‪14‬‬

‫ق‬

‫‪— 1,‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬

‫‏‪yy‬‬

‫‪,.‬ةيبرغلا‬

‫‪-0a--‬‬

‫تعلمنا‪‎‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬

‫‪p‬‬

‫اذه‬

‫ىف‬

‫نإ‬

‫‪su‬‏ السئة وللشيعة ‪eR‬‏‬

‫‪DE‬‬

‫مكرايه فى بوم‬ ‫م ‏‪ ١‬ساقد شرفتموق “‪ga‬‏‪ ij .saip‬تجيثوال‬

‫‪o-7‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪ails‬‬

‫‪‎‬ابيرقت ‪ ae‬ىصوصخ ‪‎‬كلملل‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫ده‪‎‬‬

‫‪ ‘st al wry‬للخدمة‪» ‎‬‬

‫‪ore‬‬

‫‪80-2‬‏‬ ‫والاخماس‬

‫‪DRE‬‬ ‫|‬

‫‪cc‬‬

‫‪pe‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪69‬‬

‫الباقية‬

‫"‪3767‬‬

‫تستعمل‬

‫‪pM nR‬‬ ‫‪06‬‬

‫*‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪2‎‬ع ‪.‬‬

‫‪axe: Baan‬‬ ‫و‬

‫وب‬

‫‪GS‬‏‬

‫‪ asus Gal‬ةينالثو ‪:.‎‬ةيعابرو‬

‫‪ae‬‬ ‫للوزراء‬

‫‪ eR MIMO‬الزغليك لين‪‎‬‬

‫‪oe‬‬

‫مع ذلك كانوا يملكون نصف الاراضى ‪.‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬

‫‪ea‬‏‬

‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪i‬‬

‫‪- 80‬‬ ‫واعضاء‬

‫‪35‬‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫‪I‬‬

‫‪‎‬ب‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪°‬‬

‫‪‎ cde‬تركع )‪DO 9‬‬

‫‪.١‬‏ كدق اللغة العربية توحد‬ ‫‪‎‬را ‪5‬‬

‫‪3707‬‬

‫‪‎ on—j4‬ةعلقلا ‪3‬‬

‫>‪8‬‬

‫‪20-32‬‬

‫‪enh‬‬

THE ‫مهمه‬

‫وسحمك‬

2

00-0

‫ لماذا‬-‫بم و‬ it;

pls 362

‫زرت‬

ORDINAL

-

FRACTIONS

00-0

‫‏‬lo

‫المساجين‬ +-‫هءاش‬‎ ‫و‬

AS

.‫مرات‬

esas 14

)ri

‫ست‬

325

cre‫‏‬

5

fe} -a

-‫ع‬.

lno

NUMBERS.

F Lids 1

‫‏‬ew

7-0 0360

eae | ‫صوء‬

‫)‏‬nisuoc( ‫ابن عمى‬

hi‫‏‬

‫دور‬

: ‫تلقو‬‎ ‫دعوو‬

20-9

‫اثلثم‬ --

‫الماضية وقابلت‬ 307

.‫ للمرة الثالعة فى أواسط شهر ايثول‬eras‫‏‬

EXERCISE

72

1. He founded the first national newspaper to appear (which appeared) in the Eastern world; it corresponds to The Times (‫ )سعاتلا‬in Britain. 2. He fired at the former agent for‫‏‬

(J) the thirteenth time and wounded him. 3. The twenty-first‫‏‬ chapter contains fundamental knowledge about the sunna and the views of the Shi‘ites about it. 4. In the early part of the twentieth century the majority of people thought Socialism a branch of Communism, and this was one of the reasons for the Labour Party’s lack of success in the elections

for Parliament. 5. It is the duty of every individual first to believe as the Muslims believed formerly, secondly to say

his prayers five times a day, and thirdly to trust in God, for success is from Him. 6. What is the use of long discussion in this crisis? You have seen the programme which was made known in the Security Council of the United Nations.

7. You are nobles, and we have been honoured by your visit. Indeed, you have paid us three honours: by your coming, your precious gifts, and your kind words. 8. The flag of independence was raised here yesterday for the first time since the middle of the century. 9. The women looked at the

presents they had received from their husbands with the look of happy children. 10. The consul claims that this correspondent only sends half the news; but my view is that he sends no more than a quarter of it. 11. The reason is that

he spends forty per cent of his time in private investigations,

326

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

and does not think about the contents of the paper for which

he works. 12 Shape is a singular noun. 13. The solution to this problem is threefold. 14. I read my thousandth book following my admission flees) to hospital. It was a book not suitable for children. 15. I scarcely noticed the difference in his appearance when he returned after an absence of 25 years. 16. He is about seventy now, but if you saw him you would think he was 50, no more. 17. A third of the representatives have resigned following the receipt of the recent petition. 18. But the real reason is the company’s lack of capital. 19. They have been told five times so far that there is NOES)

(2) )hope of an improvement in the situation, but they have despaired since the resignation of the director. 20. Once upon a time there rose a great man from among the people.

CHAPTER (SS

THIRTY- EIGHT S15 jet Sut)

The Structure of Arabic Noun Forms 1. There are three parts of speech in Arabic: (a) Verb J pl. dus) (b) Noun ol pl. ata This includes what we would call adjectives. 5 6>

‫نر‬‎

(c) Particles ‫فرح‬‎ pl. ‫فورح‬‎ . That is, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. 2. We have seen that, although the Verbal Noun is termed G-

‎‫دو‬

the ‎‫ مصدر‬or source, it would seem that the actual root in Arabic consists usually of three consonants — occasionally two, the second being doubled; and, more rarely, four or

even five consonants. Arabic roots can be seen most clearly in the third person masculine singular of the Perfect of the simple verb; whereas the verbal noun not infrequently includes a letter of increase.

For example, at is the Verbal Noun of ‫سلج‬‎ to sit. In such cases it might appear that the verb is the source of the noun, not vice versa. On the other hand, some roots appear to have been originally nouns, not verbs. When we look up the word 5

E-

‫ سار‬head, in the dictionary, the first entry under the root is‫‏‬ ip

Deo

‫دا دو‬

the simple verb |), Imperf. a ‫ارد‬‎ ‫سئري‬, Verbal Noun tals )

“to be chief (of a tribe)’. But common sense tells us that 5

really the noun ‫سار‬‎ is a primitive noun, and the verb was formed from that noun. The Medieval Arabic lexicographer

would usually put the noun ‫سأر‬‎ first under this root, and the verb later. Modern dictionaries put the verb first in order to standardize the sequence of entries under all roots. 327

328

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

39 We find, then, that there are three types of nouns,

having regard for their possible derivation:

(i)

5 02

‫و‬‎ -‫ه‬

84

Primitive Nouns, such as 05! ear; ‫تيب‬‎ house (originally, 5 6>

5

*

tent), ‫روث‬‎ ox; in fact, those simple nouns which describe

everyday objects familiar in primitive society. With these we may also class nouns adopted from foreign 5 ‫ه‬‎

languages, e.g. we aac race, from the Greek genos; ‫شاعام‬

from which Verbs eck (II) to specify; ‫سناج‬‎ (III) to be of the same type as.

(ii

De-verbal Nouns. We have already, seen numerous noun forms derived from verbs, e.g. at SONG. from Ace >

‎‫> نم‬

err

‫ ساجم‬session, council, from‫ سلج ‏‬to sit; a great, from‫‏‬

2

Sto be great.‫‏‬

(iii)

De-nominal Nouns, that is, nouns

nouns, Fie

Sa --

e.g.

‫ةينطو‬‎ patriotism,

derived from other

from

‫نطو‬‎ homeland

(mod.), nationality, from oe race. In modern

Arabic we also have SPE.

nouns such as ‫لافتا‬‎‫لآ‬

or, more correctly, ‫لاملا‬‎ee‫ار‬‎ capital (head of wealth);

‎‫ عررضحال‬itiS( rS)sb noititep gniwohs( fo .)etats eW yam OA

mention also Sls (pl. sul) a place abounding in lions, from cai lion. Sor

DE-VERBAL

NOUNS.

THE

‫ردصم‬‎ .

4. The Verbal Noun properly expresses the verbal idea in the form of a noun,

but it sometimes POT

has a remoter

ABI

meaning and is then known as ‫ردصم‬‎ eul. Some grammars attempt to associate various measures of the Verbal Noun with specific root verb vowellings. This is not, on the whole,

THE

STRUCTURE

OF ARABIC

NOUN

FORMS

329

very helpful, and the student had best learn the Verbal Noun of any new verb from the dictionary. It may be mentioned here, however, that we often encouné

S-0-

ter what is called the ‫ىميم‬‎ )4.e+, the Verbal Noun beginning with the letter mim, existing side by side with some other

form of noun. Such words are often identical with the Noun astad and Time

(see ‫ماا‬‎ ee)

e.g. eae and Las from

‫ساس‬

oor‫‏‬

4.25, to intend; eis and JS, murder, from ‫لتق‬‎ . It must

be pointed out also that some verbs have several Verbal Nouns, though CHE there is a distinction in meaning, e.g. ---

CS

‫ فصو‬0

divequality, from +29 to describe.‫‏‬

5. The Verbal Nouns of Derived forms have already been given, although there are some alternative forms, particularly in II and III. Verbal Nouns of II sometimes take a broken S=

0%.

plural when used technically, e.g. ‫هب‬‎ ‫ ابر‬an Bagh

pl.

Qe or occasionally ‫ثاب‬‎ Sea from ‫برج‬‎ to test, try; be 7 Se v.n. of tg to set up, pomp may take the plural nS is ‫رت‬‎ ; when it has the meaning “‘a construction”. But all Verbal Nouns

may take the sound feminine plural: 5

0‫م‬

‫ حيلصت‬repair, v.n. of ae pl.‫ تصليحات ‏‬repairs.‫‏‬ sa--

ace

‫ه‬‎ -3--

4:5 v.n. of ‫لقنت‬‎ to be transferred, transported, pl. ‫تالقنت‬‎

transfers, postings.

The Passive Participle is sometimes used as an alternative 2

>‫وه‬

Verbal Noun from Derived forms, e.g. ‫ىضتقم‬‎ necessity, for ag 9 : ‎‫اقتضاء‬,from ‫ىضتقا‬‎ ,to demand, necessitate.

6. We may distinguish broadly two uses of the Verbal Noun, although there is much overlapping: (a) as a Noun, (b) as a Verb. To these should be added as a third usage the absolute object. While (a) is grammatically obvious, (b) is

330

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

not, at least to the beginner, because an Arabic verbal noun, used verbally, may have its own subject and object. (a) As a Noun. In its most extreme form, this takes the form of the complete divorcing of any action from the of

Thus, ‫باتك‬‎ a book, is really a verbal noun

meaning.

Ce

9

ane

eee)

‎‫ كتب‬111. In modern Arabic we may speak about ‫داصتقا‬‎, economy or economics, but it is really the verbal noun of --e

‫قصد‬ 1 But there is also an in-between stage, in which the masdar

acts grammatically exactly as a noun, although the verbal force is not absent: -

-

Sig

-

‫ةمي ٌةميظع‬6 ‫ لثقلا‬murder is a serious crime.‫‏‬ (Note the use of the article, because we are thinking of murder in general, not of any particular act of murder.) 20

Here, ‫لتق‬‎ the Verbal

Noun, Gimp

is merely the subject of a ‫عطا‬‎ ‫ودها‬

‫اص‬

Nominal Sentence of which ‫ةميظع‬‎ ‫ ةميرح‬is the Predicate. 2-7

‎‫كه‬

)0

‫لد‬

OR

‫ تبجع نم لتق ديز‬I was astounded at the murder of Zaid.‫‏‬ 2000

Here, ‫لتق‬‎ has a ‫ا‬‎ 23)

2.6!)

‫مم‬‎

force. Indeed, we could say instead,

‫م‬

J ‫اديز‬‎ ‫ نكد نم نا‬Zaid is, in effect, the object of 3, yet he appears as an ordinary -idafa following a noun. In fact, apart from

the context, or commonsense

in some passages,

we have no guarantee that the *zddfa after the Verbal Noun is its object: it could be its subject, and the sentence given

might mean “I was astounded at Zaid’s committing murder!” (6) As a Verb. If we add another noun, and say: ‎‫ باه‬8 A) Js i ees

I was astounded his father.

at Zaid’s killing 3-21

the Verbal Noun now has both a subject Ja} 2}and an object, alt While the subject remains as an >iddfa in the Genitive, the object goes into the Accusative.

THE

STRUCTURE

OF

ARABIC

NOUN

FORMS

331

Thus we have a rule: When the verbal noun is used with verbal force, and only the subject or the object is mentioned, not both, then that subject or object is treated as an *idafa. If, however, both the subject and the object are mentioned, the subject remains in the Genitive, but the object is put in the Accusative. The subjedt sae be a pronoun, as in za-9

0

‫هبرض ادمحم‬ ‫هب‬ 55 ‫تبيع‬

I was

astounded

at his beating‫‏‬

3 Muhammad.‫‏‬ If the object is a Pronoun, it must be appended to the aro

word 5 Thus ‫مه‬‎‫ايإ‬00 ‫ = برض‬oF I was astounded at Muhammad’s beating them. The object may be replaced by a Genitive with J, al) oe my love for my country, instead of ‫ىدلب‬‎= a) 7

a 6 1

‫ع‬‎

‫مهيبأهل‬2 3‫ رك‬he hated his father’s blaming him.‫‏‬ The Rees

J is also used when the Verbal Noun is

employed indefinitely with an adverbial meaning.

‎‫ إخرانا له‬iac 1 esor ni ruonoh fo .mih 2

32060767

The Arabs call this usage ‫هل‬‎ ‫ لوعفملا‬,as it gives the reason for ‫ل‬‎ the action of the main Verb. In fact the Verbal Noun replaces the Subjunctive.

(c) As

the

Absolute

Object

‫)قلطملا‬‎ .(‫ لوعفملا‬This

has

already been touched on in Chapter Seventeen. The following

methods of use may be distinguished: ser cr ce

(i) The Verbal Noun alone. ‫احرف‬‎ ‫ حرف‬he rejoiced. Here the Verbal

Noun

adds

nothing,

except

possibly

a little

stress or a sense of finality. (ii) Qualified with an BENET thus specifying the type of action (called in Arabic ‫زييمتلل‬‎ “for distinguishing’’): tobe los ‫رف‬‎‫ حرف ة‬he rejoiced greatly.

332

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

This may also be used with the Passive, e.g. Ors

50>

9-7

‫ رض ب ديز ايرض اديدش‬Zaid was struck violently.‫‏‬ (iii) Qualified otherwise, e.g. by an *7ddfa: (or (‫نونجلا‬‎ ost a;‫در‬‎‫ احم‬50 he fought like a madman (the fighting of madness, or of a pane). By a sentence: 4 pans Shue3 ‫حرف‬‎he rejoiced with a rejoicing which nearly made him 2

By the demonstrative: ‫ب‬‎ al ‫اذه‬‎ ‫هير‬ ‫درض‬2 I struck him thus (this striking).

(iv) To describe the type of act. Here the Verbal Noun of the eee Verb may take the form ‫ةلعف‬‎, and is called ol ‫مسا‬‎ (the noun of kind). ‫كبو‬2

‫م‬2

ols! :‫ةب‬‎‫ ب بره‬1 he fled like a coward (lit. the fleeing of the coward). (v) To specify the number of times the act is committed. S-0o-

Here, the measure ‫ةلعف‬‎ is used for the single act, and it

takes the dual and the sound feminine plural. The name G-

306

of this is 4,1! ‫مسا‬‎ (the noun of times). ae

OS

‫ورو‬‎

>>

0S

FPIONS

‎‫ ضربته ضربة‬I kcurts mih eno .wolb

OF

‫ هتبرض نيتبرض‬I struck him twice.‫‏‬ ‫م‬

‫امم‬

ds

Yee‫‏‬

‫ هتبرض ثالث تابرض‬I struck him three blows.‫‏‬ Note: (a) Sometimes the Verbal Noun is omitted but its Adjective retained. CAE

AE MEY ah

‫ شديدا‬eger eh tih mih ,drah ‫‏‬rof ‫ضربته ضربا شديدا‬ This 1s i more common in modern Arabie.

THE

STRUCTURE

OF ARABIC

NOUN

FORMS

333

(b) The Verbal Noun of a different verb, but with a similar meaning, may be used: =

2

22

aes ‫اودعق‬‎ they sat down. where 4:5 and Hide both mean “to sit’. THE ACTIVE PARTICIPLE

“62

306

‫لعافلا‬‎ ‫مسأ‬

7. Like the verbal noun, it may be used with greater or less verbal force. (a) As a Noun. At one extreme, we find the noun acquiring See

Gur ‫و‬‎

a technical meaning as a noun. Thus, ‫بت‬‎ ‫ اك‬a clerk, ‫ملعم‬‎ a teacher. As we have pointed out, when this occurs with the Active Participle of the opel Triliteral verb, it eee

takes a broken plural, as 6 and as. plurals of ese These

broken

plurals,

however,

are not used

when

the

participle has an ordinary verbal sense, save in poetry. (b) As a noun with vestiges of verbal force, as in expressions like JubyT eis a massacrer of children. Although grammarians do mention the possibility of putting JULY! in the accusative as an object thus, ‫لافطألا‬‎ als, this is rare and not to be recommended. However, if it is made definite, and we say ‫لافطألا‬‎ cll he who kills children, ‫لافطألا‬‎ must be in the accusative. Again, we may replace the object by ‎‫ ل‬+ the Genitive.

‫لطالب للعلم‬.‫ا‬

He who

strives after knowledge,

e.g.

6600639 & >

‫مم‬

‫ع‬

-

(c) As a Verb, capable of taking its own object: ‫ طع وه بكار‬is riding.‫‏‬ ‫ نام‬Re 1 I)is he is riding a horse.‫‏‬

‫ مهن نوبكار‬they are riding.‫‏‬ boos ‎‫ركأبين‬,1 (isk they were riding horses.

Note that there is no *idafa here, consequently ‫بك‬‎1 ‫ أر‬retains its

334

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

nunation. In all these sentences, the Active Participle could be replaced by the Imperfect Verb.

e.g. ‎‫ (هو) يركب‬eh si .gnidir Sometimes the Active Participle is used with the meaning §

2

gui”

>

‫زو‬‎‫مد‬

2052

B=

6

of the future, eg. ‫هب‬‎ ‫ ام هللا لعاف‬ple ‫ال‬‎ ‫ لجا‬abl, Before him is a period with which he does not know what God will do. This is common in modern colloquial. VOCABULARY G--

‫ قيادة‬RARER‫‏‬

‫ ليحو‬sole, only‫‏‬

--

‫ | نع‬IV to quit; to goon‫‏‬ strike (mod.)‫‏‬

‫ ٌبارِضِإ‬strike (mod.)‫‏‬

bis energy, zeal, activity ‫) لذب‬+( to give generously,‫‏‬ squander‫‏‬ --e

2-09

3 ‎‫ اشترك‬VIII to take part in, subscribe to

os ‎‫ را‬cape, headland

Lia pl. oe ‫ورش‬‎ condition (laid OND) ji‎‫ بشرط‬+ subj. on condition

that

ie V asl VIII to be moved ae posted 5-578

per) ‎‫ اجناس‬species, type, rare class

‫م‬

‫هك‬

ae ‎‫ بذل‬to do one’s utmost

. ‫ مهنا‬111 to accuse‫‏‬

‫د‬

6

‫ ةيسحج‬nationality (mod.)‫‏‬

anyone of .. $- 069

‫ ةمهت‬charge, accusation‫‏‬ 5 202

Sen

22‫‏‬

‫ لوطسا‬.1‫ ليطاسا م‬fleet‫‏‬ 5 ‫ خط‬handwriting‫‏‬ 55 2

‫خطة‬

‫ م‬line‫‏‬

a: heDL. das a number, several

(+gen.)

‫ (=) داز ىلع‬to exceed, increase,‫‏‬ add to‫‏‬ o-

—~»

composition,

struc-

ture, syntax -

‫ جريمة‬pl.‫ جرائم ‏‬crime‫‏‬ Ps is. ‎‫ (_) تعب من‬ot rednow ,ta eb surprised at

THE

STRUCTURE

OF ARABIC

NOUN

FORMS

335

oS‎‫) ع‬-( to be incapable of

He sailor

bs te tor bate

EL pl. ‫لاوس‬‎ liquid

aeser hatred

3‫اف‬‎luke-warm

‫) مال‬2( to blame‫‏‬

‫ تاج تلم جن‬page (of book)‫‏‬

Ole coward

|

ale pl. eee moral character‫‏‬

‫ نر بره‬to Hees aia aney

égs to address a letter‫‏‬

Be AAS

late address

‫عون‬pl.‫ عاونأ ‏‬sort, type, kind‫‏‬

‫ واضح‬clear‫‏‬

ula capitalist (mod.)

“ae Ci as for, as to

‫ كن القيقة لي‬EY SB‫‏‬n‫‏‬eeyl‫ع‬g‫قياو"ر‬-‫قن مبد‬ EXERCISE

‫‏‬37

aic eg llageS lup

ga ‫‏‬lO ‫‏ يستطيع‬lias ‫الرجل الوحيد‬

00 . ‫ العظيمة‬Beg‫‏‬

.‫‏ من هذا النوع‬YEUS ‫بالتصليحات اللازمة لعربتى لطول تجاربك فى‬ ‫ ةيهارك تالق‬basal‫ دق ‏‬aves] ple Leys: aeajr‫‏‬ ‫ تديير‬a sy ea lé‫‏‬aL ‫— ولايرجعون لعملهمإل‬ ‫اللاثة‬

.‫الاخيرة‬ -

‫‏‬tJ ‫البحارين ف‬ ‫ه‬

‫)‏‬eo ‫إلى استقالة‬

65 ‫‏‬es

9

‫—ن‬ ‫ك‬ = 5

‫َس‬

loo ‫‏‬a ‫الأخيرة‬

. ‫الشركة‬ w‫‏‬

‫‏‬bi

‫عن‬

‫اك‬

anole‫لما ‏‬

‫ من قراءتك هذا ل‬7 ea . raw( ‫)‏‬retsinim ‫بية‬2 BOVE:

* Note that the whole sentence beginning with ‫نأ‬‎ takes the place of an idafa, and L>) , therefore loses its nunation.

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬ ‫=‬

‫‪26‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪phil‬‬

‫‪ete.‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪aaa‬‬

‫‪‎ deI Ae‬كنإ‬

‫‪Say‬‬

‫‪‎‬تجهز‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪336‬‬ ‫‪‎‬ا‬

‫‪on‬‬

‫‪So‬‬

‫‪eee‬‬

‫‪‎2 y tape‬اما ‪gale GE UI‬‬

‫‏‪ TSI ge‬كلذذ امهم ثناك ‏‪ SURE‬لاؤحألا الق" ‪.‬ىملت‬ ‫‪80‬‬

‫=‬

‫اممو‬

‫‪2‬ه‪2-‬‬

‫‪"0‬‬

‫‪ite‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪‎‬يآ‬ ‫بح ‪:‬‬

‫اناس‬

‫‪ao‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫سا‬

‫‪‎‬و‬

‫‪8‎‬غ‬

‫‪ae‬‬

‫‪S07‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫م‬

‫اليأس؟ و ‪ -‬تعجبت ‪neir‬‏ ‪ fs ec eb‬رع ع يو‬

‫رد ‪LR‬‏ ‪ gS oreteh‬عل ‪tas 0‬‏‬ ‫‪ght (= _lél) pine olMeats‬‬ ‫ةلتاقمل ‪‎‬؟ودعلا ‪dear‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪eee‬‬

‫‪- 09‬‬

‫‪Sines %‬‬

‫‪ere‬‬

‫‪-E-‬‬

‫‪ese‬‬

‫« الشاى‪» ‎‬‬

‫ا كل ‪‎‬ىاشلا ‪ee ai‬ا‬

‫‪-- -‬‬

‫‏‪Ns‬‬

‫‪ 3 els‬بيكرت كمالك مل لفت‬

‫‪ 0-7‬‏)‪ re‬بيكرت‬

‫هذا السائل الضعيف الفاتر ! ‪ei‬‏ ‪ etS‬جيك سي ألا تعرف‬ ‫‏‪ Jal‬الخروف العربية ا مختلفة؟ ‪a‬‏‬ ‫‪seer‬‬

‫‪ saA‬اكتب‬

‫هذه‬

‫الصفحة‬

‫‪sewer‬‬

‫كتابةٌ‏‪ BS‬من جديد » ‪TEG‬‏ تنتقل إلىفصل أغلى ! ‪ehj‬‏ ‪cal‬‬ ‫‏‪(=‪5‬‬

‫وه‬

‫‏‪el‬‬ ‫هذين ! الزوخ ‪asaaa‬‬

‫‪-‬ه > دد‬

‫وزوحته‬

THE

STRUCTURE

OF ARABIC

NOUN

FORMS

337

EXERCISE 74

1. Necessity is the sole teacher of the man who squanders his money. 2. We know that special instructions (‫)ثاميلعت‬‎ arrived a number of days before the recent strike. 3. The moving of the capital will necessitate also a number of postings of officials from one place to another. 4. Your hatred of that man is a question of race, and I blame you for

it. Nevertheless I agree with you that he is a man of bad character. 5. I was sorry for his death because I knew that the accusation was not true. 6. When will the capitalists realize that the payment of high rents is among the most

important causes of lack of confidence among the workers? 7. His crime was the opening of letters, addressed to his uncle in clear handwriting. 8. I wondered at his leadership of the fleet and his energy in everything he did during the war. 9. Your giving him this sum was one of the conditions of your appointment. 10. Quit your work for a short period

and take part in our festival out of respect for our customs. 11. You have constructed the sentence well (use absolute object). 12. What sort of man is this? He fled like a coward, and then returned as if he were a victorious sailor. 13. When will you realize that we are incapable of hating anybody properly? (absolute obj.). 14. The (female) servants came quickly to my table and placed on it three glasses of a green lukewarm liquid. 15. It was of a type which scarcely anyone drinks here except ignorant foreigners. 16. I will accept this line on condition that you make three announcements of it; one today, another tomorrow, and a third in a week’s time

17. He walked like an old man. 18. I am going out because I don’t like your talk. 19. I am telling you this so that you won’t blame me later. 20. I saw your children throwing stones and breaking the windows of my neighbour’s house.

CHAPTER

THIRTY-NINE

‎)‫(ألباب التاسع والثلاثون‬ Noun

Forms.

The Noun

of Place and Time.

The Noun of Instrument. The Diminutive 1. Students will have noticed in previous chapters a number of nouns formed by the prefixing of mim to the triliteral root, e.g. SS, an office, from as : ole council from nics These

two nouns belong to the category known as the Noun of Place and Time ‫)نامزلا‬‎‫ ناكملا و‬ah It expresses the place where the action of the verb is committed, or the time or

occasion of that action. Such nouns are nearly always of the 0 Sizo77

measure (jx or GS

5

‫لعفمو‬‎ e.g.

o-

‎‫ منزل‬a house or lodging; from J; to alight. e 78 ‎‫ مجلس‬a council; from (J to sit. Zed

ue

:

‎‫ مشرق‬East; from ‫قرش‬‎ to rise. 5

o-

- oe

‫ برغم‬West; from‫ برغ ‏‬to set.‫‏‬ ‫دجسم‬ ‫ و‬-0-

mosque; from‫ دجس ‏‬to prostrate oneself,‫‏‬ ---

O35 a store; from 03+ to store. ‫ ىوام‬a lodging, refuge; from‫ ىوا ىلإ ‏‬to resort to.‫‏‬ 5

‫ه‬-

02

‫ دعوم‬an appointment; from‫ دعو ‏‬to promise.‫‏‬ =

O7

ea

‫ ىعرم‬pasture; from‫ ىعر ‏‬to tend cattle.‫‏‬ ay

0

aaNet

‎‫ موضع‬place; from ‫عضو‬‎ to place. 5

0-

a-4

‫ فتقوم‬a situation; from‫ فقو ‏‬to stop, stand.‫‏‬ 338

NOUN Sete

FORMS ‫لالا‬‎

339 in eal

The plural form is ‫لعافم‬‎ as Silo, ‫سلاجم‬‎ Sometimes the feminine ending is added to the singular: S--o-

-

we

‫ ةيتكم‬desk, library, bookshop; from‫ بتك ‏‬to write.‫‏‬ 5-710

ees

434 a cemetery; from ‫نفذ‬‎ to bury.

‫مسهلك‬ 5-0

Ns‫‏‬

5

s--e-

05

\ a desert; place of destruction; perish.‫‏‬

from‫كله ‏‬

to‫‏‬

5-30 =

Note from the above last form that the Middle Radical sometimes has damma. Very occasionally, especially from roots with initial waw or ya’, we find the form Hira which, as we shall see, is the form of the Noun 9 Instrument, e.g. See (for (‫ٌداعوم‬‎ an appointment; from ‫دعو‬‎ to promise.

‫( ذاليم‬for‫ وم(دال ‏‬birth; from‫ دلو ‏‬to give birth to.‫‏‬ For the Derived Verbs, the Passive Participle takes the place of the Noun of Place and Time: e.g.

ee place of prayer; from ‫اح‬‎ (II) to pray. (ak a meeting place; from Zl (VIII) to meet.

2. Note

the following

modifications

from

the various

classes of Weak verb. (i) Doubled verb. es abode; from 5 to settle. g--

52 place | sa-- and

Ale city-quarter

ae

from ‫لح‬‎ to alight.

340

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(ii) Hollow verb. ‫ ماقم‬place; from‫ماق ‏‬to rise.‫‏‬ ge 28‫‏‬ 3) lu cave; from ju to sink in i the earth. g---

‫ ةلاقم‬an article, essay; ie‫ لاق ‏‬to say.‫‏‬ ‫و‬

-‫دن‬-

S--0-

‫‏‬-0--§

Here the correct forms would be ,‫موقم‬‎ )3,9% .‫ةلوقم‬ “02

30

THE NOUN OF INSTRUMENT (JY! (‫مسا‬‎ 3. This describes the zmstrument with which the action of the verb is carried out. It resembles the Noun of Place and

Time, beginning with the mim, but this letter is vowelled §

-0

with kasra instead of fatha. The commonest form is :‫لاعفم‬‎ e.g.

5-9

oor

‎‫ مفتاج‬a key; from ‫حتف‬‎ 60 ore

Ol; ‎‫ ميز‬balance, scales; from ‫نزو‬‎ to weigh. The second form is ree

e.g.

5--6

‎‫ءه‬-

‎‫ مكنسمة‬broom; from ‫سنك‬‎ to sweep. 5 5-66

‫ رم ةحو‬fan; from‫حار ‏‬ ‫ أر‬to blow.‫‏‬

Thirdly, we find sete e.g.

5 ‎-‫ه‬

a

+» a file; from >» to file. 3-

a -

‎‫ مقص‬scissors; from ‫صق‬‎ to cut. 26

--

‎‫ مكوى‬iron; from ‫ىوك‬‎ to iron. Zoo

_ Occasionally, we find gars, as in ‫قدم‬‎ a hammer; from

‎‫ دق‬to pound (also ‫قدم‬‎ and .‫قدم‬‎

NOUN

FORMS

341

For the first form, we have the plural ‫نايعافم‬‎ as ‫حيتافم‬‎ and oe,

ets

Des

LP

See

22

ie

‎‫ين‬ots ‫موا ز‬. roF eht ,tser ew evah ‎‫مفاعل‬, sa ‎‫مكانس‬, ,elys ‎‫مقاص‬ rof( 8 5 5 -

THE

DIMINUTIVE

4. The Diminutive (‫ريغصتتلا‬‎ ol) can be formed from any noun. _ ee are tives. consonants in the noun, the Diminu6

o-9

tive is des If there are four or more, the form is .‫لليعف‬‎

(a) Three consonants. 0

sea, becomes

es (note fem. ending) lake

nas dog, becomes aa CG door, becomes

ra7 50-3

ae shadow, becomes

au

5

98-‫و‬

‫ باش‬youth, becomes‫‏‬ The dim. of ‫تا‬‎

‫نشبيت‬

a book, is tats

Note that the full form returns in the doubled verb, as in the last two examples above. Where there are TEAS radicals ‫و‬

which have changed, they must be reinstated, as in ,‫بيوب‬‎ the waw having been changed to ’alifin .‫باب‬‎ $-0-

The feminine ending is retained in words like 4«J5 fort, $-0-3

3---

from which the diminutive is 45; ‫ةرجش‬‎ a tree, from which 520

5-0-9

$a 2

.

we have ‫ةريجش‬‎ a bush; ‫ةديدم‬‎ from 64 a period.

In feminine nouns which have not the feminine ending, this occurs in the diminutive: 3 Gedy Psi J

‫ه‬50‎ 8

‎‫ شميسة‬from

(pot (f.) sun.

5 2029

$=

695 S20

‫ته‬‎

from ‫راد‬‎ (f.) house.

‫ ةليوح‬from

dius (f.) state, condition.‫‏‬

342

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

eae

(b) Four consonants: here the form is .‫لليعف‬‎ 5 -0-

e.g.

Caos)

a

‫بريقع‬‎

‎‫ عقرب‬a scorpion

‫ مسلم‬Muslim.‫مسيلم ‏‬ 0

(fem.) dln



Note the following: 5

2

62

‫روفصع‬ Gi

S10)

a sparrow,‫‏‬

Ord

5

‎‫ سلطان‬a sultan,

aS:

‫عصيفر‬ ‫هد‬‎

‫ر‬

‫نيطيلس‬‎ ‎‫ و‬Cer

al a: red (fem.)

el ne

(c) Five consonants: here one consonant, usually the last, must be removed to form the Diminutive:

‫‏‬.g.e

5

26-3

15

6-‫وي‬

‫ عندليب‬,elagnithgin ‫‏‬.mid ‫عنيدل‬ 5

02

2

5

Cae)

‫‏‬3

‫‏ سفرجل‬,ecniuq ‫سفيرج‬ 5 2-0

‫‏ إمبراطور‬,rorepmE ‫ابيطر‬

2-2

(note the broken plural: 3 bbl) But where the fifth consonant 5

is the nin of the suffix Ol

--o-

this may be retained, as ‫نارفعز‬‎ saffron; the diminutive being LSNitec

ee}

Olas}. 5. Note the following forms: sé

oI father; dim. 5 i

B-2

ee brother 5

of

esl

‎5‫و‬

3

vu

‫ىخأ‬‎ 5

- 2

sister ‫ةيخا‬‎ acs

‎‫ ابن‬son ‎‫ببى‬ 5-‫ه‬

5 ‫ه‬

dul » ‫ثنب‬‎ daughter 5 ‫ةيزع‬‎

re)

Sa->‫‏‬

4

at)

5a - ‫و‬‎

‎‫ شىء‬thing ‎‫ شوى‬,‫شوية‬

desu(ni -olloc

quial to mean “‘a little’, “‘slightly’’).

NOUN “USE

OF

THE

FORMS

343

DIMINUTIVE

6. The student will probably have little cause to use these forms; the important thing is for him to recognise them. They are used as follows:

(a) In proper names, 9-05

e.g.

>‫و‬ -

‎‫ن‬ .‫ي‬ Husain, ‫ حس‬dim. of Oa

50-3

‫ديبع‬

ee

dim. of Me‫‏‬

in‫ هللا ‏‬see ¢ Ubaidullah.‫‏‬

(b) With a specialised meaning, ‎5-‫ه‬-‫و‬

e.g.

‎‫ خيرة‬lake, from =

os S

booklet, from See

6-3

5>

‎‫ كليب‬puppy, 180522 ‫بلك‬‎ (c) For endearment, e.g.

‫ىنب‬‎ eg regularly used by a father to his son.

(d) To express contempt, ye

e.g.

cai

if a grown man were termed (>).

7. The Diminutive

is sometimes used also with triliteral

prepositions,

e.g.

0-00

-0-

‫رجفلا‬‎ ‫ لبق‬before dawn. 0-60

“67-9

‎‫ قبيل الفجر‬a elttil erofeb .nwad ‫َه‬

eo

Or)

‎‫ بعيد الظهر‬2 elttil retfa .noon An even rarer usage is with the Verb of Wonder:

e.g.

‎‫ ما يم‬morf !uta 1 woh emosdnah eh !si -

‫دو‬

‫دو‬

-

‫مارم‬

Wines

‫‏‬8

‫ ام هحليما‬from‫ ام هحلما ‏‬with the same meaning.‫‏‬

344

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY

(excluding words occurring in the body 17the chapter) Sas

5

a 1 (diptote) Bethlehem

‎‫قبة‬

‫ سدقملا‬on Jerusalem‫‏‬

‫ دوقعم‬arched, vaulted (in this‫‏‬ context)‫‏‬

5

sk (2) to be holy ‫نال‬‎ 1 7

eee dome

02

ale

ee

J

eae,

Avec’ pl! joe church

‎‫ ل‬II to make holy, sanctify

‫ ناولس‬ons Ain Sulwan (place-‫‏‬

4 lé limit, extreme ayia

name)( ‫)ناولعل‬‎ = solace, com-

‫ رصبا‬IV to see‫‏‬

fort)

‫ ءاطو‬depression (of land)‫‏‬

705

5

‫وذ‬

‫ه ده‬2

.

‫‏ عين‬.lp ‫ اعين » عيون‬spring,*‫‏‬

34 pl.‫ ةدمعأ ‏‬pillar, column‫‏‬

stream‫‏‬

aly marble‫‏‬

‫ع‬+ ‫و‬2

‫ اربا‬IV to cure‫‏‬

Sitio. tblind‫‏‬

‫ ةحيلم‬beautiful thing, attrac-‫‏‬ tive thing‫‏‬

‫) رقن‬2( to hollow out, pierce,‫‏‬ peck‫‏‬

eho Dr ‫ناكرا‬‎ ‫ هن‬corner

es pl.‫ريقانم‬‎beak, bill (of bird)

Ae pl. is1 temple, shrine,

S509

5

08

statue, altar

‫ (_) سبح‬to imprison, shut up‫‏‬

mails inside prep.

5 208

7 pl. oe self, same ‫م اهسفن‬ etc.‫‏‬

‎‫ خارج‬outside prep.

himself, herself,‫‏‬

20-00

‫ مذود‬pl.‫ مذاود ‏‬manger‫‏‬

‫معدي‬

‫ ةدابع‬worship, piety

ne‫‏‬

---

2

‫)دلي( دلو‬to bear a child,Ae‫‏‬

Ge pl. ‫لا‬‎ mile Se ‎‫ قبور‬tomb, grave

‫( بوقعي‬diptote) Jacob.‫‏‬

ga pl. 5tee oe ‎‫ سسافة‬ph ‎‫ — ات‬distance is10 ‫ا‬‎ cat ES pl. ‫شاشع‬‎ nest (of bird)

‫) ضع‬2( to bite‫‏‬ 50-

* Nore: A little later in the following extract ‫نيع‬‎ is also used with the common meaning of “‘eye’’.

NOUN FORMS EXERCISE

345

75

NOTEs:

(a) This exercise is not intended to test the accompanying chapter which is largely concerned with word structure rather than syntax or grammar. (b) The student will have observed that in previous exercises some vowel points from common words and particles have been gradually dropped. From now onwards non-essential vowels will be

omitted. The same applies to orthographical signs. From a description of the Holy Land (12th century A.D.)

by the geographer

al-Idrisi

‫سرت من بيت المقدس إلى مدينة بت اكلم فوجدت عل‬.)(et‫ريت ‏‬

1.1601 Sead as Teh‫ون‏‬ ‫ علا‬cll gas OWLS oe Cab‫‏‬ -

‫ره‬

‫وبقريها‬ ‫فيما‬

eneldim slley ‫‏‬ei ‫ له‬65 ‫ ولم‬: ul‫( الضرير ‏‬Christ)‫‏‬ ‫و‬

‫دا‬

3 ‫وفيما‬

.‫بيوت كثيرة منقورة فاىلصخر‬ — ‫لحم‬

ee ‫)‏‬oeR‫)‏ ولد فيه‬esA ‫وهوالموضع‬ -

‫‏ بيت‬giC

2225

20°

. ‫عبادة‬ lee

-o-

. ‫ يعقوب‬elaG ‫‏‬sp ‫‏ وق وسط الطريق‬leJ ‫قبينة وببن القدس ستة‬ ‫‏‬IWS

5-‫ووان‬

3

‫جمدم‬

65

‫وهو قبرعليه اثناا‬

‫‏ وفوقه قبة معقودة بالصخر وبيت لحم‬spe

-

53

IGE

‫‏ انه‬Si ‫االن أبعد غاية‬

‫‏‬ai ‫البناء‬

‫ وفيمها كنيسة نه‬٠.‫‏‬

-

‫‏‬Ve

‫ من‬yi )ef

‫‏‬dP

‫ء‬. ‫‏ بنا‬stav

‫الكنائس‬

‫ما يردن ميم‬

-

* The student should notice this use of the vague attached ‫رم‬‎ and 4,which refers back to nothing in particular. The particles Ol ‫نإ‬etc. must be followed by an accusative, and if no noun is available,‫‏‬ back to some‫‏‬ a pronoun must be used. This pronoun normally refers the sentence‫‏‬ in part a plays also which sentence previous noun in the

after jf etc. When,

however, no such noun

is available, the neutral

pronoun ‫ه‬‎ is used merely to satisfy grammatical not, of course, translated. .

3

requirements. .

It is .

346

5.1

A NEW

BS

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

‫ا‬‎

5

‎‫ب من جبة المغرب» وبها من اعمدة الرخام كمليحة وق‬5 ‫ با‬ypeb

‫‏ التى ولد بها السيد المسيح » وهى‬WW ‫‏ الشال‬ep ‫ البيكل فى‬oS‫‏‬ ‫ هرك و ع و‬ya ‫)‏‬yes .

eeT

‫‏‬A

-

‫دوه‬

-

‫‏ روصو ا" عير‬lU ‫دالب موود وده‬ 0-93

‫بيت لحم نظرت فى الشرق كنيسة الملائكة الذين بشروا الرعاة‬ PB ‎‫ لمسيح‬ilesendh ales ‫يمو‬ ‫عام‬

‫اح‬

EXERCISE 76 1. My brother was accused of worshipping idols outside the

Mosque of Omar (se), 2. These birds have long beaks.. 3. We saw a spring of pure flowing (running) water outside the cave. 4. The tomb of these men is at (‫)ىلع‬‎ a distance of four miles from the place in which they were imprisoned. 5. If you ask the director of stores, he will issue you with

three files, one [pair of] scissors, and two hammers; one big, one small. 6. My black cat gave birth to seven kittens, one of them black, three grey, two white and one brown. 7. In one of the corners of this consecrated temple (use pass. part. pf

‎‫ قدس‬II) are three marble pillars. 8. The women saw a vaulted dome in the middle (L..5) of the pasture-land, near the lake, and they realised that it was the tomb of Jacob. 9. I was

extremely afraid of the situation (lit. I feared the extremity of fear). 10. His name will become holy a little after his death.

11. My house is a place of prayer, and you have made it ore

(use ‎-‫ (جعل‬a market in which merchandise is bought and sold. 12. You have swept the room with a new broom, and you have ironed my clothes with a new iron, yet all your work

is bad. 13. Our appointment was for five o’clock. Why did 2

309

you not arrive until seven o’clock? 14. London (O4J) is a meeting place for students from every nation. 15. Outside my office is a bush in which there is a nightingale’s nest.

NOUN

FORMS

347

16. Shortly after mid-day, my son, we will meet in Husain’s garden. In it are many different kinds of fruit, including (lz) quince and apple, and I prefer quince. 17. I opened his desk with the key, and found his new article on Arab independence in it and it was in excellent handwriting. 18. The sparrow is a small bird [well-]known in England. 19. A little scorpion bit him while he was repairing the fan in my brother’s room. 20. Weigh everything on the official scales in the market; I have no confidence in the merchants’ scales.

CHAPTER

FORTY

)‫(الباب الاربعون‬ The Relative Noun and Adjective Various Adjectival Forms 1. The Relative Adjective ‫)ةبسنلا‬‎ et) is formed by adding ‎‫ دى‬to a Noun, and denotes that the person or thing governed is related to or connected with the original noun. It is most frequently formed from geographical and other proper names, names of occupation, tribe, land, city, and the like. If the noun has the feminine ending ‫ة‬‎ this must be dropped before adding .‫ى‬‎ Gee

Mee

w

‫ برع‬Arabs (collective);‫‏‬

‫ ىبرع‬Arabic, Arab.‫‏‬

5 0

5

ws

:‫‏‬

‫ ىرصم‬Egyptian, an‫‏‬

‫ رصم‬Egypt;‫‏‬ 5

[7

%2 =
هو‬

‫ رهش‬month;‫‏‬ te

‫ و‬0-

‫ موي‬day;‫‏‬

‫ماش‬

!ilG ‫;‏‬namuh ‫قا‬

ee

‫ ىهلإ‬divine;‫‏‬ ٌ ‫ ه‬-

‫ ىرهش‬monthly; Z ‫‏‬-o

‫ ىموي‬daily;‫‏‬

4$

+>‫ه‬

‫ إنسا نية‬humanity.‫‏‬ sa

١‫‏‬

‫ ةيهلإ‬divinity.‫‏‬ ‫‏‬GS

‫> ه‬

4-44 monthly salary.‫‏‬ ‫َو‬

‫ه‬-

‫ ةيموي‬diary, journal.‫‏‬

In some cases this form exists where the Relative Adjective‫‏‬ does not, or is seldom seen. Thus, for example, the Relative‫‏‬

Adjective is rarely formed from the so-called Elative form

THE RELATIVE Be

NOUN

AND ADJECTIVE

351 a-%

but we find 4J5! with the meaning “minority”, from ‫لقا‬‎ Pf > ‫ورع‬‎

‫ددورع‬

less, least; and ‫ةيرثكأ‬‎ “majority”, from ‫رثكأ‬‎ more, most. All these ouns have the Feminine Sound Plural.

Some

Verbal

special meaning,

Nouns

form

the Relative

with

a

e.g. ‫قوز‬‎ v.n. of ‫قفو‬‎ VIII, with the 55

meaning

Noun

“‘agreement”

forms

> ‫نب‬‎

‫ةيقافتا‬‎ which is used today to

mean an agreement of an official, political, commercial, or international nature, or a treaty. This is typical of the great extension in the use of the Relative Noun and Adjective in modern Arabic, so much so, that it is almost permissible to

make them up for oneself. Such phrases as ‫ةيسر‬‎‫ٌةنسلادملا‬ “the school year’, the Relative Adjective being formed from

the Noun of Place and Time of ‫سرد‬‎ “‘to study’’, are characteristic of the modern idiom. 6. A rare form of sneak Adjective ends in aie). From 69

6a -

‫ حور‬ied we have SEs; spiritual, and‫ روحانية ‏‬spirituality.‫‏‬ From ‎‫ جسم‬body; ge bodily, corporeal.

Note also ‫قار‬‎‫ دنكسإ‬Alexandrian, from 4&‫ةير‬‎‫ دنكسإلا‬Alexandria (in Egypt); Gs of or from ‫ةيقذاللا‬‎Latakia (a town in Syria). ADJECTIVAL FORMS 7. The Adjectival

student forms

has now

encountered

‫)ةفص‬‎ pl) Most

nearly

of them

all the

resemble

in

meaning the Active Participle of the Saye Verb and are

termed in Arabic ‫لعافلا‬‎ed ‫ٌةبهاشملا‬‎ ‫ هنا‬They include the following:

(i) jel, the Active Participle itself.

352

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(ii) desi, e.g. oS, from ‫وب‬‎ etc. This form sometimes

has the meaning of the Passive Participle, in which ask the Plural is usually of the measure 52-0

,‫ىلعف‬‎ e.g. ‫حير‬‎ ‫رج‬

5200-0

pl. ‎‫ جرحى‬wounded, from ‫حرج‬‎: des, murdered, pl. Js from ‎‫قتل‬. 5000

51

mic es

(iii) Us, e.g. ‫روبص‬‎ patient, from ro. ‫ور‬

‫مم‬

(iv) OS, eg. es 25

lazy, from LS.

‫م‬

(v) OG, e.g. OW glad, joyful; from ‫حرف‬‎ (vi) Maske for Colours and Defects. SiO=

=

-

(vii) ‎‫فعل‬,eg. Que difficult, from ‫بمعص‬‎ .

(viii) (ba, e.g. C= good, beautiful, from jam. (ix) des, 62 ‫حرف‬‎joyful, from .‫حرف‬‎ The following have intensive meanings:

(x) 0

e.g. ‫عار‬‎ a liar, addicted to lying; from as

ake, a savant, learned man; from ple. This form is also used for professions and occupations, 6 ‫َس‬

etc., e.g. ‫راح‬‎ a carpenter; ‫طايخ‬‎

tailor.

(xi) Uo, e.g. ‫قيدص‬‎ righteous, very trustworthy. 5

°

5

5

(xii) ‫ليعفم‬‎ ,e.g. ‫نيكسم‬‎ poor, unfortunate, wretched.

beatae

5 -

(xiii) ,‫لاعفم‬‎ e.g. ‫مادقم‬‎ brave. Some of these forms may be given an even more intensive meaning by the addition of the Feminine ending, even when

THE

RELATIVE

NOUN >

AND

ADJECTIVE

353

-%-

referring to males, e.g. ‫ةمالع‬‎ very learned, a very learned Si=

0

man; ‎‫ مقدامة‬very brave. OG

‎‫ص‬

FURTHER NOTES ON THE ELATIVE ‫)ليضفتلا‬‎ (‫مسا‬ ‫م‬ 8. The

Elative

(see Chapter

rover) is always

formed

from the three radicals. Thus from ‫بيبح‬‎ beloved, is formed a-z 5

‫( بحا‬for eet hy more beloved, dearer. In the case of Partici-‫‏‬

ples of the Derived forms, words with more than three con-‫‏‬ ‫> ر‬20

sonants, and words of the form‫ لعفا ‏‬, the Elative is formed by‫‏‬ 2708

a-=

1‫‏‬

using either‫ رثكا ‏‬or 42! followed by a noun in the accusative‫‏‬

(a Verbal Noun, as a rule), e.g. ge diligent; ‫عا‬‎ more pallies (lit. ‘“‘more

29-08

as to diligence”).

>!

9S| black;

(She ‎‫ أشد‬blacker (lit. “stronger as to blackness’’).* 9. If the second part of the comparison is not a noun but a whole sentence or an adverbial determination, it is preceded ir]

2

°

by ‫امم‬‎ (for (‫امنم‬‎ with a Verb or the Preposition ‫نم‬‎ with an attached Pronoun, e.g. “0-00

39 -0F

207

‎‫ اليوم‬wile)! (or (‫سقطلا‬‎

OR

Gd

Ye

clo! the

weather

5

is pleasanter

ance today than it was yesterday

“oT

(lit. “than it a yesterday”). 3

OR OB

eT,

AO =Ore

‫دا‬‎ 08

‫و‬

2-28

0

‎.‫ امس‬OF ‎‫ الهواء الطف اليوم مما‬.til(

1

a

naht“ ti saw )”yadretsey

Metaphorical expressions such as “‘as quick as lightning”’, “as sweet as sugar” are usually put into the comparative in Arabic, as a literal translation is not possible, e.g. 0-00

>

3-0E

GA! ‎‫ اسرع من‬.til rekciuq‘ naht .”gninthgil ‫ صارشرات‬-

26200

dl‫ نحا نم ‏‬lit. “sweeter than sugar”.‫‏‬ * See Appendix C, §4 (c).‫‏‬

354

A NEW

Another

method

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

of rendering it would

be BNE

‫م‬‎or lit.

“quick like lightning”’. (a) “‘like as” is an attached Preposition taking, of course, the Genitive.) 9 VOCABULARY (excluding words occurring in the body of the chapter) >

‫ نوع‬pl. Ol‫ اوعأ‏‬helper, attendant‫‏‬ Pe EE : ‫ لاقي هل‬he is called

o--

‎‫دوه‬

we

‎‫ بين يديه‬ni tnorf fo mih -

J belonging to, to

‫ عدو‬II to take leave of, say‫‏‬ oodbye to 2 he‫‏‬

١ IV to make recom-

gi a mendation, recommend

5

ban

5

-

‎‫ ضجيمح‬clamour

Jt! IV to put an end to,

--

soe

high

pte Ai

‫ انيس ةعاطو‬I hear and obey‫‏‬ (lit. hearing and obeying)‫‏‬

(2) to rise, be or become

‫ صباح‬shouting‫‏‬

ee

-

‫( كله‬-) ‫ (~) كره‬to perish --0€

-

‫ كلها‬IV to ruin, destroy

(lit. He has become exalted)‫‏‬

‫‏ تعلقات‬ytreporp eee

22 ‫ه‬ ‎‫ اخطا‬11

‫ (~) كلم‬to possess‫‏‬

---

‫ل‬‎ ‫ )~( رفغ‬to forgive

Sig: ‎‫ رخيص‬cheap ٠.

50'S

om charcoal, coal

Siz

‎‫ حيلة‬pl. ‎‫ حيل‬stratagem, trick

Lear tases

your kindness)

8 vinegar

ealI to nationalise

“tice ‎‫ خلص‬V to be saved please!

to make a mistake,

err

Je expensive

Sag ‫ حك‬o ‎

-e

38 may He(God) be exalted‫‏‬

5 --8-

2

fF

Ye‫ ثاغتسا ‏‬X to ask help of‫‏‬

(lit.

(from

4.4! nation pe ) from

th th ‎‫او الله‬‎ oath of God ename on 5 a-o-

‫ةيرقبع‬‎ 5

‫‪ADJECTIVE‬‬

‫‪355‬‬

‫‪AND‬‬ ‫‪77‬‬

‫‪RELATIVE‬‬

‫‪NOUN‬‬

‫‪THE‬‬

‫‪EXERCISE‬‬

‫‪Nore: The following exercise is not specially connected with the con‬‬‫‪tents of the chapter.‬‬

‫اللهح‬ ‫صال‬ ‫حى ‪fd‬‏ هارون الرشيد استدعى ‪yeH‬‏ من اعوانه يق‬ ‫در>‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫عت‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫‪eep‬‏ ‪C‬‬

‫‪2-7‬‬ ‫‪Me AS,‬‬

‫»‬

‫فلمًا حضر بين يديه قالله ‪ « :‬يا صالح سر الىمنصور ‪sid‬‏له ‪:‬‬ ‫‏‪ W SI‬كدنع فلأ ‏‪ Al‬مشرد ىأرلاو دق ىضتقا كنا لمحت كلذ‬ ‫صاالح‬ ‫الساعة» وقد امرتك ي‬

‫ذىه‬ ‫هف‬ ‫المبلغ ‏‪W‬‬

‫‪Jae‬‬

‫‪6-‬‬

‫‪6‬‬

‫انه إن لم‬ ‫‏‪ves‬‬

‫لك‬

‫ذلك‬

‫‪lled‬‏ من‬

‫هذه‬

‫الساعة‬

‫‪lJ‬‏ قبل‬

‫المغرب‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪630-‬‬

‫دن‬

‫تزيل‬

‫‪skes‬‏‬

‫عناجسدوروتأقهنابه »‪ .‬فقال صالح ‪swal‬‏ وطاعة‪.‬‬

‫ثم سارالىمتصور وأخيرة يماذكر امير المومنين ‪ .‬فقال منصور ‪:‬‬

‫قد علكتء ‪yla‬‏ إن تعلقاق ‪yL‬‏ ‪ ELA‬يد ‪ya 131‬‏ ‪LEB‬‬

‫قيمة لايزيد ثمنهاعلى ‪LB‬‏ الف» فمن أينأُقدرياصالح على‬ ‫‏)‪ٍ di eee‬مهرد ؟ةيقابلا » لاقف هل حلاص ‪« :‬ريد كل ليما‬ ‫‏‪‘ed able eat Sail y dp «Este IhSetety bss‬‬

‫بعد المدة اعليتىتها لى الخليفةٌ ‪lg‬‏ بحيلة »‪ .‬فقال النصور ‪:‬‬ ‫ديا صالح» ‪tiw‬‏ نان« ليدم اب فضْلك » ‪)ea‬‏‬

‫‪be‬‬

‫و‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‏‪«dels «sol‬‬ ‫الى بيته فجعل‬

‫يودع ‪selap‬‏ وارتفع الضجيج ق ‪yJ‬‏‬

‫‪ en‬الك‬

‫والصياح والاستغاثة ‪lia‬‏‪42 seil‬‬

‫‪dnasuohT dna enO .)sthgiN‬‬

‫‪, ehT‬الف ليلة وليلة‪(From ‎‬‬

356

A NEW

ARABIC EXERCISE

GRAMMAR 78

1. Among his helpers were an Egyptian, two Italians and three old Meccans whom he had met on the pilgrimage a year previously. 2. This region is called the light industries region: it was established by the government after the war had put an end to the former industries of our country. 3. I read in his diary how he saved himself and all he possessed by a stratagem. 4. Please show me the way to the civil airport. 5. Everything was expensive in England after the war. 6. Education is cheap in the French government secondary schools. 7. The majority recommended the nationalisation of all foreign commercial companies, so a cry and clamour arose from the minority. 8. My husband has said farewell to me for the last time, so I ask help of God most

high in my difficult problems. 9. To err is human, to forgive is divine. 10. The workers’ monthly pay was increased by an agreement between them and the employers. 11. Spiritual health is more important than bodily health. 12. Iam a patient man and am not quick to anger. 13. I met a beggar in the streets — and he had been a carpenter formerly: “I am a poor unfortunate’, he said, “give me something”’ (a thing). 14. “I

have no money with me’’, I said, “ask help of God most high”. 15. He was a very learned man, and was more diligent than other scholars. 16. Your face is blacker than coal, my son. Where have you been? 17. The university is bigger today than it was formerly. 18. They are better in work than they are in words. 19. Her words were as sweet as sugar, but her thoughts were as bitter as vinegar. 20. You are very worldly men. 21. The genius of Omar is famous in the history of the caliphs.

CHAPTER er

0

FORTY- ONE

E00-

‫ )نوعبرالاو‬sot Stl)‫‏‬

Abstract Nouns. Proper Names‫‏‬ .1 Nouns may be classified according to their meanings as‫‏‬ (a) Names of Classes or Species, ean zis‫‏‬

)b( reporP ‫‏‬semaN )‫)= علم‬,

2

.2 The first type may be subdivided into:‫‏‬ (a) Concrete

‫نيع‬‎‫ هع‬whether Nouns

‫ سرف‬horse, or ees (b) Abstract a

S$ =

such as ‫لجر‬‎ man;

such as SI;‫‏‬ ‫ را‬riding;‫ جالس ‏‬sitting.‫‏‬

‫ا‬‎ whether nouns such as alescience,

5 O°

5 ‫د‬‎ 0-

learning, ~~~ ignorance; or adjectives such as ‫موهمقم‬‎ understood.

3. When Abstract Nouns are used in a general sense and without further determination they always take the Article, eg.

5-9

‎‫ د‬Ge

41.25 ‫ةعاجشلا‬‎

bravery is a virtue.

But the same rule applies to all nouns used in a general or generalizing sense, as in the names of materials,

e.g. ‎‫ ووالفضةٌ معدنان‬ldne dlog dna revlis era )owt( .slatem We do, however, have such renderings as: goad 8‫ردع‬‎ gold CY te

box; aS 2 ,‫قودتص‬‎ (lit. a box from ‘gold) instead of

The dst

rule is applied to people and animals, as in the

following examples: pea) ‫نوبادكلا‬‎ ‫لخدي‬ 357

‫ نل‬liars shall not

358

A NEW ARABIC Aeris

GRAMMAR

enter heaven; ‫مير‬‎ ayy Olgam Sted would translate “horses are noble animals” as well as, “the horse is 2 noble animal’’. In a sentence like iat ‫تاث‬‎wu ‫مئالم‬‎ 1 cat ,‫اذه‬‎ this

house is not suitable for heavy furniture, the indefinite can also be used, as ‫ةليقك‬‎.‫تائاثأل‬ 4. Proper names are always definite and so can be the subject of a Nominal Sentence, GSu- 3»

e.g.

GO- 29

‎‫حسين معلم‬

niessuH si a .rehcaet

CON

Oe

-

‫و‬‎

-6

ae ‎‫ مدينة‬525 Baghdad is a beautiful city. Note, article,

e.g.

tie

that

some ‫و‬

proper

names

3 0I0-

include

the

mg‫‏‬

Khartoum is ‫موطرخلا‬‎ Cairo is ‫ةره‬‎wl,

5. Many names take the form of a noun followed by a Genitive in *7dafa,

e.g.

ail‫دبع‬‎ Abdullah (or Abdullahi) eo

307

» al Abu Bakr.

In such names, the first part is declined, but the genitive naturally cannot change, 6>

e.g.

‫ور‬

>

5 ‫وبا‬‎ ‫ ءاج‬Abu Bakr came. ‫ ده‬-E

3

‫‏‬-60

‫تيار ابا ركب‬

I saw Abu Bakr.‫‏‬

=

-e--

‫ انررم ىبأبركب‬We passed Abu Bakr.‫‏‬ ‫وإر صل‬-

‫جو‬

‫ هللا‬A‫ نيا ‏‬Where is Abdullah?‫‏‬ ‫صيل‬

ae.‫‏‬

‫دان دبعهللا‬Call Abdullah!‫‏‬ 96

Note: In modern Arabic place names consisting of ‫وبا‬‎ plus

ABSTRACT

NOUNS.

PROPER

NAMES

359

a Genitive, sometimes the nominative form is used in all cases in unvowelled writing or print, Cs

thy 5

‫دج‬‎ ‫ وبا‬Abu Hamad (a town in the Sudan)

e.g.

‫د‬

ore

a>‫ لزن وباب ‏‬He alighted at Abu Hamad.‫‏‬ for

ae‫بأبى‏‬

Az ‎‫ زار أبو‬eH detisiv ubA .damaH for

‎‫زار أباجد‬

6. Classical Arabic proper names are a difficult subject, and often a source of trouble when one tries to look them up in the index of a book. They include these elements: (a) The Name

Proper, e.g. ten Zaid; Bias Ja‘far; a a

Sulaiman (Solomon) (js! al-Khalil. a

(b) The Kunya (4:5), containing a term of relationship 59 66 such as “father”, “‘mother’’, “‘brother’’, ‘‘son’’, ‘‘sister’’,

e.g.

‫ةطوطب‬‎ ‫ نبا‬Ibn Battita. ‎‫احمد‬.‫ ابن‬Ibn Ahmad.

‎‫“ كلثوم‬i Umm Kulthim. ‎‫ هرون‬ped Akhi Harin. (c) The Nickname (3), usually given to a grown man, referring to some quality for which he is famous ‫)قيدصلا‬‎ ‫ ركب‬al Abii Bakr as-Siddiq i.e. “the righteous’’), to some event with Wiz > >2‫َمي‬‎ which he is associated ‫)ارش‬‎ ‫ طبات‬Ta’abbata Sharran, given to

the poet who, as the name signifies, carried evil, in his case a ghoul, under his arm!) or to a place of origin or residence, or a tribe, e.g. ‫ىديه‬‎ ‫ ارفلا‬ite os jot al-Khalil ibn Ahmad al-

Farahidi (tribe); ‫قابيشلا‬‎ ‫‘ ع و‬el Aba

‘Amr _ ash-Shaibani

300

A

(tribe); ‎‫المهرووى‬

iwaraH-la fo( eht nwot fo ;)tareH ‎‫الاتدلسى‬

al-Andalusi

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR w

(the Andalusian);

,‫ىدادغبلا‬‎ al-Baghdadi

2-08

(of

Baghdad).

Note that some compound names ‫دض‬

are indeclinable, e.g

‫دع‬

‫ طبات ارش‬given above, which is really a verb with its object,‫‏‬ in fact, a complete sentence.‫‏‬ In the case of authors and other famous historical characters, the name by which a man is popularly known may be any one of the above three elements, e.g. (a) +e! ‫نب‬‎ ‫ ليلخلا‬is i

known as :‫ليلك‬‎ (b) ‫ريبج‬‎‫ نب‬ae ‫نيا‬‎ ‫ و‬is known Aes ols (c) nbs! ahs ‫نب‬‎ A# is known as ‫ىربطلا‬‎ from Tabaristan, his place of birth. Older writers in giving a person’s proper name will often include a whole pedigree after the Kunya and two or more names and ol (pl. of Cay.

7. The two names ¢ Umar (Omar) and eAmr (Amr). ee is a diptote. ‫و‬‎ee is a triptote and is declined as follows: So-

A

o-

Nom. ‎‫ عمرو‬€amrun; Acc, ‫ارمع‬‎ ¢amran; Gen. ‫ورمع‬‎ eamrin. This is purely a convention of spelling and does not affect the pronunciation. The otiose ‫و‬‎ distinguishes the two names in unvowelled script.

8. For the rule of when ‫نب‬‎ is used for ‫نبا‬‎ ibn, see Chapter Seven, sec. 3. VOCABULARY S-

48 confidence, trust (in passage (A) Ex. 79 a reliable scholar, authority) Ce eae

a)

ss

‎‫ عن‬46! to study under, learn from (antique usage) ‫>ه‬

‫ ةفالخ‬caliphate

(office; or‫‏‬

31

S5# grammarian 330 =

‫ ب‬+992 known as‫‏‬

period of reign)‫‏‬

Bas pl. ‫ناعم‬‎meaning

ABSTRACT

NOUNS.

G59

J= greed, avarice, stinginess

nel

we

4b 5) pl. ‫لئاذر‬‎ vice, a vice 7

01

Ey?

.

.

PROPER

361

NAMES

5> ‫وه‬

5-‫و‬

‫ ةصرف‬pl.‫ صرف ‏‬chance, oppor-‫‏‬ tunity‫‏‬ SiO=

tn

yak

0

5

‎‫ده‬

ie

3

‎‫ فضيلة‬pl. ‎‫ فضا كل‬,eutriv a eutriv

-

‫ةيالو‬pl. ele province‫‏‬ -»

‫بباحثة‬ 0

me the opposite of anything ‫ره‬

‫ع‬

G-

-

‫ اهمية‬importance‫‏‬

je height

‎‫برقية‬

5

‫ نمضن‬V to include, contain‫‏‬ 5 ‫ > نب بن‬2‫غ‬

‫مامه‬

5

artist

ree ‎‫غراف‬

man -ua-re-

gs

‫ةذفان‬pl. daly slip window‫‏‬

‫صن‬

‫ سكعلاب‬on the contrary‫‏‬ Aol ‎‫ على‬equally, alike §--

‫ رشب‬man, mankind‫‏‬

362

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

EXERCISE

79

A GEO!

397 ‫هو‬‎

(From Ibn al-Anbiari, 13th century A.D., ‫ءابلالا‬‎

4533, a

collection of biographies of Lexicographers. The following piece is about

al-Qirmisini

who

was

so called because

he

came from Qirmisin, a village in N. Iraq.) ‫فؤورعملا‬ :

ee

‫لدت‬

‫كان‬

cp‫نورا ‏‬ 6 ‫ل‬

cp

Ctl

re

(as for) ls‫‏‬

7 eey ‫‏‬s52 ‫الجروى ا‬

‫» ار‬

lac slac ‫‏‬Gd ”‫ عل لساره بن خسان المصرى‬2 ‫‏ توق على بن هارون القرميسينى النحوى فى جمادى‬٠ » ‫الفوارس‬

: ‫‏ » قال‬yS ‫] وسبعين وثلاثمائة فى خلافة‬EG ‫‏‬LL ‫الآخرة‬ 5 ‫‏ يقول‬snA ‫ وسمعت‬ya reac ٠ ‎‫ومائتين‬

Cres

tnec ‫‏‬IY ‫‏ ابى حسن‬rC ‫وكان عنده‬ ‎‫وكان مولده سك‬

oG

en

no :ei

B ‎‫ فذاك‬,‫اسل والكي إن الأول مك الثان‬

eG niN 0

‫ مالسالا ةيحيسملاو‬ae ji‫( ةليذر واذه ”ةليفف كرولا ‏‬the former)‫‏‬

‫ هل رثكاام هيفكي‬GU‫َءاطعإلا تيخبللو ‏‬. ‫ نم ناسنالا‬oth,‫‏‬

‫‏‬ja ‫يفتمزن‬

«1055 ‫ يعطيهم‬oly‫ بامساكين ‏‬pa‫أن ‏‬

ٌ‫‏ نفود‬lloc ]‫ران اومان اينلتمدو أهمية كبيرة ولهذا المبد‬ 1 ‎‫ عند‬is used in the sense “‘to have’’.

yi

ee The word ee) adds nothing to the meaning here.

ABSTRACT

NOUNS.

PROPER

NAMES

363

‫‏ الاعضاء‬laJ ‫ ب فى اثناء تلك المباحثة زعم‬.‫عظيم فىتأريخ البشر‬

‫بقل‬-‫ةريخألا م‬. ‫ امهم نع تاضوافلا‬be Yas‫ البرقية ‏‬di‫‏‬ ee sepiw

‫‏‬eed ‫‏ كان‬YU 1 ‫هذا الشاعر بتابط‬

‫‏ اهتمام‬SE ‫ لا‬kaR ‫‏‬hS ‫ أما أناء فاعتس هذه القصة‬.‫الايام‬

‫‏ بالكلمات » والشعر فى رأى‬bd ‫ إن الشعر § والشاعر‬- > Gu‫‏‬ ‫ ناظلرزعيم فىالإجراءات‬eePa

‫‏‬ea .‫ اكبرفن اذبى‬ahi‫‏‬

‫‏ يصدر بلاغ عن المسألة؟‬oG ‫اللازمة؟ ألم يجب على التلغراف؟‬

‫ اكتشّفت فضْةٌومعادن اخرى ى‬iG SL ‫‏‬kc ‫كن لى اكبر‬ ‫د‬ ‫ونٌ لك فرصة ناظلربنت من جديد من تلك‬-‫يك‬ ‫ ت‬.‫الولاية الجنوبية‬ ‫ را‬GL GUT dy cL

salut‫‏‬

--
942, ser ‘clamour, uproar”; used today by schoolmasters

of an unruly class! Note that the latter has nunation when magqstira. Both words are, however, Masculine. 5. The addition of ta marbiita to a Collective Noun to

form the Noun of Unity has been noted in Chapter Three. 5-0-

Such collectives may be Masculine or Feminine, e.g. U4 S$ 3

+:902

Soe

‫نع‬‎

“a bee”; ‫ريثك‬‎ ‫ لحن‬or ‫ةريثك‬‎ ‫“ لحن‬many bees”. 6. There are some Collectives, however, from which no

Noun of Unity, or Singular, can be formed: e.g.

So-

‫ليخ‬‎ horses.

5

ck} camels.

‫ موق‬people (or a people). 5 -

plas women.‫‏‬ 2

7

‫ سان‬people (the form clk) also exists).‫‏‬ The last two are of disputed derivation, but may be consi-‫‏‬ dered broken plurals. Note‫“ ٌناسْنِ ‏‬human being”, generally‫‏‬

nwohs ni seiranoitcid rednu lio sa llew ‫‏‬sa )‫ (نسو‬2 We may divide such words, as to gender, into two groups.

THE

FEMININE

367

(a) Those referring to irrational beings are usually Feminine: e.g. See

SO:

‎‫ خيل كريمة‬enif )elbon( .sesroh CP

eats

‫ه‬56‎

‎‫إبل كثيرة‬

ynam .slemac

‎)‫ (ط‬esohT gnirrefer ot namuh sgnieb era yllausu -isnoc dered to be Plurals, and are Masculine or Feminine according to significance, e.g.: ‫ما‬ ssi‫ يمان‏‬noble people.‫‏‬ oleS‫ ءاسن‏‬or‫ءاس ةميازكأ ‏‬ cag

OO

Re ee

Boe

SRR

Ke

‎‫ ناس كثيرون وحضروا المعرض‬elc

:

:

noble women.‫‏‬

ynam elpoep emac dna -netta

ded the exhibition.

7. The following should be noted: Masc.

2GEO-

‎‫والاول‬

Fem.

‎‫دو سدور‬

- ‫جود‬‎

‎‫ الأولى‬the first - 0 -02

Masc. ‎‫الاخر‬: Fem. ‎‫ الاخرى‬the other. No Masc.

Fem.

‫عن‬

(j= pregnant.

8. Some words which cannot, for obvious reasons, refer to the male, retain a Masculine form: e.g.

holes pregnant (lit. carrying).

git: le barren, sterile (woman). CIN

‫ روع‬senile woman (uncomplimentary when applied‫‏‬ to a man).‫‏‬

.8 Certain adjectives have no separate form for the feminine.‫‏‬ ae‫‏‬ (a) Those of the form‫ ليعف ‏‬when they have the meaning‫‏‬ of the Passive Participle, e.g.:‫‏‬ 6

-

‫ ليتق‬slain; synonym Jfom killed.‫‏‬ ‫و راددع‬207

‫صرق‬

‫ م‬2

‫ تناك ليتقلا ةليمح‬the slain girl was beautiful.‫‏‬

368

A NEW

(b) Those

ARABIC

of the form

GRAMMAR

‫كرف‬‎ with the meaning of the

Active Participle, e.g. ‫م‬‎ patient. ie by ‫تناك‬‎ she was a patient girl.

ane 9. Adjectives of the form dns, without OF

nunation,

take akg

2

their feminine form in 18, e.g. 0

angry; fem. ‫ىبضغ‬‎.

Note, however, with nunation, the ta? marbita is added, e.g. 5

-0-

‫عدو‬

‫دهمت‬

‫; ندمان‬tnatneper ‫‏‬.mef ‫دمانة‬.‫ن‬ 10. In Chapter Three we pointed out that some words were feminine for no apparent reason, while others could be of either gender, again with no apparent explanation. Some dictionaries list these, as Hava’s Arabic-English Dictionary (in the explanatory remarks of the preface). The following feminine words should be added to those given in Chapter Three; they are only the commoner ones: 50

‎‫ بثر‬well. 2

2

lac staff, stick. 50-7

‎‫ نعل‬sandal,

5

6>

5

‎‫ حرب‬war.

a

ْ‫و‬‎

wind.

gh-

‫ساف‬‎ axe.

‫ساك‬‎ cup, glass.

5 6>

‎‫ قوس‬bow (weapon).

horseshoe. 11. The following should be added to the words given in Chapter Three which may be masculine or Joes at will; the letters of the alphabet, e.g. ewe ii or aia (although they are usually feminine),

‫ عبصإ‬finger.

pits ladder.‫‏‬

‫ حانج‬wing (usually masc.).

alow heaven.‫‏‬

ile

shop, stall.

et wine (usually fem.). ‫ حفر‬spirit.

560-6

‫سود‬‎ 2 paradise, garden. a horse. ts neck.‫‏‬

THE

369

FEMININE

tae knife:

‎‫ كبك‬liver.

G56

‎‫ سلم‬peace.

old tongue. ae

4)

‫‘ توسى‬razor.‫‏‬ VOCABULARY -acr

vw

II

to

put,

place

(in

3

‫ك‬

225

‫‏ هندى‬.lp ‫هنود‬

11

Ex. 81), lit. to cause to be> ‫رس‬

come

‫ امير‬perhaps, sometimes,

ae carriage (in Ex. 81) S-G

E>

- 26

SHE 9

‫ ةرخوم‬¢ ‫ رخوم‬the rear of any-‫‏‬ thing‫‏‬ “0-0

‫ قرحا‬IV to burn tr.‫‏‬ ‫مه‬

5

‎‫ استلقى‬X to lie down, throw oneself down ane pl. oa

the back

(ana-

tomical)

VIII to be burned, to

burn zntr.

‫اي‬ets f. pride‫‏‬ 52-0

‫ » ىضوف‬lags anarchy‫‏‬

‫) اثح‬2( to pour dust (upon)‫‏‬

SOE

Jig

= (2)

an VIII beguiled

ee wwe

0-57

iat

medicine

fession)

camphor

52

1

5 >

eld pl. ‫ءاودا‬‎ sickness, disease --

5

7

A.J! India, or the Indians 2-0-2

-

-

Sly ashes ‫ا‬‎

au

30d

(the study, science or pro-

--

3:6

(~) to win, gain

cbt ale «bl

JAxne sandalwood CT

0‫غ‬‎ bes or become,

general or widespread

to be deceived,

‫) رغ‬2( to deceive, beguile‫‏‬

‫هر‬‎

‫ ءاضوض » ىضوض‬noise, clamour‫‏‬

‫) ذفن‬2( to pierce, penetrate,‫‏‬ be effective‫‏‬

J2

it‫‏‬

may be‫‏‬

pea pl. ‫هلام‬‎ sight, view

:

S-

of

‎‫ دواء‬pl. 4:95! medicine ‫لتر‬

oes‫‏‬

4J9U! internationalism‫‏‬ -

ARABIC

A NEW

370

GRAMMAR

EXERCISE 81 (From the Travels of Ibn Battiita, 14th Cent., A.D.) I

FOF

)nolyeC( ‫‏‬sisi ‫سر‬+ ‫موت ملوك‬

‫‏ صر على عجلة قريباً من الأرض‬lsa

‫ عل عي عد شدره الاب عن‬HEL‫‏‬ 07-2

‫دش‬

‫اذا‬

‫ املك بيلاد‬ol‫‏‬

‫كنف‬ ”

‫ربس‬

.‫‏ فيكم‬EIB ‫‏ امس قدقملدككم وكان أمره‬een ‫الناس» هذا‬ ‫وغة رو‬

>

-

. ‫روحه ملاك الموت‬

‫‏ ان‬tsey ‫‏ ترك‬ro ‫ إلى ما ترون‬Ks‫وقد‏‬

‫‏ د‬tuaeb ‫ وكلام نحو هذا ثلاثة‬.‫فلا نتروا بالحياة بعده‬

. ‫‏ فى الرج‬ra‫يرى‬sa‫‏‬a ٌ‫‏ فيحرق‬eeei‫الصندل والكافور‬ ‫ دشد‬63

‫مع‬ee‫ كلملا لخدتففاشن رانلا ‏‬oflGe‫الهند ‏‬ EXERCISE

2

A The people have been deceived by pride, so anarchy has become general. Every day we hear a clamour in the streets of the capital. The youth drink wine, get drunk, then run

from shop to shop. They have already burnt more than a hundred shops. One boy, perhaps his age was about ten, broke the windows of a number of shops with a small axe. If this is the new spirit of nationalism, then I prefer inter-

nationalism. 1 ‎‫ ”و‬or “there is” understood here.

26 of ae becomes | with pron. suffix.

THE

FEMININE

371

B

India beguiled me during the late World War. I served in the Indian Army with Indian troops, but I also saw many of the remarkable sights (‫)رظانم‬‎ of that beautiful country. Some parts of it are like paradise to whomsoever loves colour and brightness. But it has too many inhabitants, many of whom are very poor. The new national government is fighting poverty with great energy, and I hope that it will succeed.

0 The Prime Minister’s house caught fire this afternoon, and the fire brigade did not arrive until four hours later. This was because their vehicles were in a bad condition.

Two of them had broken down (use ‫رسك‬‎ VII) and were awaiting repair. Among those who died in the fire were the Prime Minister’s old mother, and his pregnant second wife. D I found a thief in the house during the night. I had no rifle or other weapon with me, so I hit him on the neck with

a silver cup which I had won when I rode in horse races. When the doctor saw the thief, he said that he had become unhappy because his wife was barren, and that was the reason for his resorting to a life of crime. My wife is a very

patient woman, but she does not believe all these new ideas which have come into medicine. ‘‘This man is not sick’, she says, “he is a criminal. But that is a nasty word, and people don’t like nasty words these days, even when they are the truth. This man’s sickness is thieving, and the

suitable medicine is prison.”

CHAPTER

FORTY-THREE

‎)‫ والاربعون‬IT SUN) Number 1. For the three numbers: Singular (344), Dual (cats) and Plural (2), see Chapters Five, Six and Seven. 2. The Sound Masculine Plural is used for:

(a) Masculine Proper Names, except those which end in ‫ةو‬‎ 50

e.g.

5

5 ‫تدر‬‎

‫ديز‬‎ Zaid; pl. Ossie;

suis

-

doe

‎‫ ود‬-0--

‫وَيدو‬

Muhammad; pl. O94

‫ و‬Be

‫ فشك ةبلطلا‬3 ee‫ تارق ةعبس ‏‬1 read seven Muhammads‫‏‬ among the list of students. (b) Diminutives

of Proper

Names

and

of Class

Names

(c) Participles, when they refer to male human

beings,

which indicate rational beings, e.g. G0-9

‫سمع‬

dim. of nae ‘Umar; pl. ne‫‏‬

S620

ck)

e.g.

5

be

eee)

little man, pl. Gale) .

25

‫ه‬2

ares (also el!)‫‏‬

ale world;

‫ى‬,‎

‫;‏ ارض‬htrae

,, 2 *‫( ارضون‬also‫(اراض ‏‬

!sd ;ylimaf

,

5 of

a-

Ogadle

-

‫; حزيرة‬dnalsi ‫‏‬.lp‫ جزائر‬55 ‫ر‬ ‫(خو‬

gute‫‏‬

ody‎‫ جرد‬Newspaper; pl. st uF a

letter; pl. a,

4.£ wonder; pl. ‫دا‬‎ ‫ع‬

‫ روم‬old woman; pl.‫عبائز‏‬ 5

-

gore ‫ع‬ ٠.‫‏‬

ev ,nuonorp ;ecneicsnoc ‫‏‬.lp ‫ضما بر‬

(i) dls, ‫)ىلاعف‬‎when definite). ‫ ءاردع‬virgin; pl. ide‫‏‬ FUSE

‫ ىوتف‬Mufti’s legal decision; pl.‫فتاو‏‬ Note also

a night; pl.‫ليال‏‬ jal people, family; pl. Je!‫‏‬

il land, earth; pl. ‫ضارا‬‎

318

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(j) ‎‫ فعالى‬as an alternative to (i), e. g-Ss)Lae virgins; from ‫ىلعف‬‎ when not Superlative (fem.), e.g. ges pregnant; pl. .‫ىلابح‬‎ OOP Gamta

From OS, e.g. ep wae. lazy; pl. ‫اك‬‎ From ‫ا‬‎ with Weak final radical:

e.g.

Sa

>

-

--

‎‫ عديه‬present, gift; pl. .‫اياده‬‎ -

--

is) flock; pl. .‫اياغو‬‎ ‫ينم‬fate, death; pl. blo. 5. Where a Noun has more than four radicals their number must be reduced to four to form a Broken Plural:

eg.

SITIO

sKce

spider; pl. Sts

‫ روطاربمإ‬emperor; pl.‫أباطرة ‏‬ ‫ني‬

nightingale; pl. Joke‫‏‬

This rule may be ibis in colloquial speech:

e.g.

‎‫ عنقريب‬wooden.bed (Egypt); pl. ‫برقانع‬‎ 5

-03-

‫سام‬

Ole3 dragoman, guide, interpreter; pl. ‫نامحارت‬‎ But no purist would allow these plurals in print. 6. Where a Noun has two or more Plurals, these may be used for different meanings:

e.g.

os eye; pl. Ogee etc. os notable; - Otel ‫دبع‬‎ as slave; pl. de So7-

‫ دبع‬worshipper (of God); pl. ole‫‏‬

7. Sometimes a further Plural may be formed from a Plural. It may be Sound Fem. or Broken, and is used to give a more extensive meaning:

NUMBER

379

5 o-

AGA

‫ برح‬war; pl. es pl.pl.‫ حَروبَات ‏‬campaigns.‫‏‬ ‫ حتف‬conquest; pl. a pl.pl. ol rer‫‏‬

‫ قيرط‬road, way; pl. oa pl.pl.‫طرقات ‏‬ ‫ دي‬hand; pl. 21 pl.pl‫أياد‏‬ ‫ ءانإ‬vessel; pl.‫ٌةينأ ‏‬pl.pl. ob‫‏‬ 8. The Feminine ending ‫ة‬‎ may be used as a kind of Collective Plural for the following two categories of nouns:

(a) Jb 5

e.g.

a-

‫قواس‬‎ bowman; pl. Fs

ar

(b) The relative adjective:

e.g.

Kos Sudanese; pl. 5

(or peda)

ee Sufi (mystic); pl. Mee (or afr

9. The following irregular plurals should be noted: 2

5

-ab

3

ae

‎‫ ام‬mother; Plur. Ol! and ‫تاما‬‎

2 ‫ مق‬mouth; Plur. algil‫‏‬ -

5 -

‫و‬‎ --

5 - ‫نع‬

5 -

5 -

el, water (for ols for 05+); Plur. elg+l and ‫هايم‬‎(for oly)

12 lip (for 4gi); Plur, ‫ءافش‬‎(also ‫تاوفش‬‎ and Slit) 2l3 sheep (for 4&5); Plur. ‫هاش‬‎ and ‫ةايش‬‎ maid-servant; Plur. att and Asay é

‎‫ه‬

‫ ةارما‬woman; Plur. clad and‫ةوسن؛ ‏‬ and Bl gant‫‏‬ man; Plur. th usually oe ‫ سوق‬bow; Plur. “as and oa‫‏‬

380

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY

‫ فرتقا‬VIII to commit (a sin‫ ‏‬diA ‫‏‬.lp ‫شفاه» شفوات » شفهاتث‬ or crime)‫‏‬ o--

11‫م‬

ore

‫ (_) مدن ىلع‬to repent, regret‫‏‬

S$)

5

4

‎‫ إناء‬pl. ‎‫ آنية‬vessel, pot

pee II to fall short, be remiss‫‏‬

‎‫ )—( مسك‬to seize, hold

wl

‫ (~) ضبق‬to seize, grasp‫‏‬

V to regret something

missed ‫و‬

)‫دة>ببع‬

‫ ريصملا‬the future, result, issue‫‏‬

a ‎‫ قبض‬to seize, arrest 5

‫ المصير‬7‫ تقر‬self-determina-‫‏‬

-08

‫ نس‬pl.Olu! tooth, age‫‏‬ S33 (~) to intend

tion (mod. )‫‏‬ pet II to open anyone’s eyes, enlighten

a3pl. cl — intention 26

‫ هل‬pl. Jc journey‫‏‬ ye (=) to forsake, abandon

‫ امنإ‬a strong affirmative par-‫‏‬ ticle; indeed, in truth, only‫‏‬ or -

‫ رداب‬111 to hasten‫‏‬

‫ىعس‬

(eas pl. ‫عاسم‬‎ effort 27

oe (3 ( to plunder, carry off pul VIII to seize (plunder, or opportunity)

‫) تاف‬2( to elapse (of time);‫‏‬ to pass (zntr.)‫‏‬

gS o-

-

‫ هذى‬guidance‫‏‬

‫هود‬‎

1

Ge

One

‎‫مستوى‬44 lk gr. standard

“Bi ‎‫دجة‬ ‫ ر‬.lp ‎‫ سات‬,eerged pets Che

5

-

‎‫ الة‬pl. ‎‫ — ات‬tool, instrument Ors.

o=

‎‫ فضلا عن‬trapa ,morf ton ot mention, in addition to

‫ تاف‬to escape, miss (ér.)‫‏‬ ‎‫ فوت‬v.n. of OF

)>( to exert oneself,‫‏‬

make an effort‫‏‬

-

Sa oF

‫ وضوح‬clarity‫‏‬

=

67

‎‫ قصدا‬intentionally, ately, on purpose

deliber-

‫‪NUMBER‬‬

‫‪381‬‬

‫‪EXERCISE 83‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫)‪(Extract from a sermon by Ibn eaten 12th cent. A.D.‬‬

‫‪ anakac‬ىف مايالا ‪ً‎‬اريخ ‪a‬‬

‫‪‎‬ىناوخإلا » ‪lelpaleh‬‬ ‫‪ Sai‬اهنا ارش ‪‎‬عاضأ‬ ‫و‬ ‫>‬‫ي‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪tevane‬‬

‫‪ee‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬

‫‪of‬‬

‫‪pale aia‬‬

‫‪So ee‬‬

‫اس‪‎‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪er‬‬

‫ع‪‎‬‬

‫‪308‬‬

‫‪a‬‏‬

‫‏ياد قبل‬ ‫قبل الفوت‪ sea .‬خ‬

‫‪8‬‬ ‫أولائك الناس لا‪ :‬تكفيهم حكوبة عادلة» إنما يبادرون الى تقدير‬

‫‏‪eth val‬قاذلا ‏‪ GF 1s‬يا ‏‪ el‬هذه ةراقلا مهتينو لأ‬ ‫‏‪weet‬‬

‫الفرضة‪.‬‬

‫نعم»‬

‫كلم‬

‫يغتدمون‬

‫الفرصة‬

‫‪seic‬‏‬

‫ليستحقوا‬

‫الاستقلال‪.‬‬ ‫‪C‬‬ ‫هد ‪2‬‬

‫مها ‪‎‬ع‬

‫‪-o-‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪-8‬‬

‫—‪ BY ST GS — y teal cyl OS ait ail‬وكان‪‎‬‬ ‫اك‪‎‬‬

‫‪ees‬‬

‫‪ rayaD‬أبن‪ bibg ‎‬من الهند للصين مشهورة‪ .‬ففى اوائلها‪‎‬‬ ‫‪grrr‬‬

‫قبضه ‏‪URI‬‬ ‫‏‪, Ody A‬‬

‫ع‬

‫ولكنه نا متهم ‪Na .‬‏‬ ‫‪ -‬عفر ‏‪ie ks‬‬

‫ةايحا‬ ‫~‬

‫و‬ ‫)ةشيعلا(‬

‫‪lse‬‏ الصين بعدمسساعٍ‬ ‫‏‪Ly ol a‬‬

‫‪day‬‬

‫‪ne‬‬

‫‪14 is here omitted.‬‬

‫‪“they”, i.e. the days of one’s life.‬‬

382

A NEW

ARABIC

‫‏‬ew

fia

‫ست‬

5

GRAMMAR 4

,na’ruQ(. ‫)‏‬I ‫لله رب العلمين‬

‫ لى صعوية‬- ‫ب‬

‫دوو‬

‫ا‬ ‫ىلحمد‬

5

.‫متوقعة‬

IBY‎‫ ضيبم محمدين !درن‬eleS depoc etaelo eaB ‫م‬

SY etal ‫ةلآلا‬‎ ode) — ‫مب‬‎ . ‫ لامجو‬00 ‫ تاوذ‬EA

S55) ASSO

‫عو‬

on pees ‫عبرا‬‎

PV Mg ae ‫كف‬‎‫ وو‬ee

Sie *‫لفات‬‎ SSG)

Sao Stereos

noe

de ‎‫ بن‬Chall ‎‫ كل‬GSU Sis Shaul EXERCISE 84 A

The three Muhammads

co-operated in the committing of

this crime; then the first two repented of it. I forgave them, but as for the third, I don’t know what the outcome will be. He is not the son of poor parents: indeed, his father and his uncle are wealthy, and give him everything he asks for. But it seems that he reads the crime stories of modern European

authors, and takes every opportunity to thieve and fight. The whole town is afraid of him, and his father can do nothing with him. The police have arrested him seven times during the last seven months. I hope that in the future we will find good uses for his exertions and that he will become a useful member of (the) society.

B These girls scarcely open their mouths when they speak. Has it escaped them that clarity is the most important thing in speech? They are all Hinds, and they all want to be writers; they are exerting themselves a great deal to reach a high level in their studies. Apart from their speech, they have been very successful in their work.

NUMBER

383

Cc 1, What is your intention in this long and difficult journey? There is not (5-2) a place in the world which some traveller has not visited, and you are old (castae ). I think it best for you to remain at home and leave allthese exertions to someone else. 2. He seized the vessels and placed them all on the floor, then broke them deliberately with a strange, heavy instrument. 3. You are all Aghas and Beys in the view of the republicans; whatever you were formerly, peasant or princes.

CHAPTER

FORTY-FOUR

‎)‫(ألباب الرابع والأربعون‬ Declension of the Noun 1. Declension was dealt with briefly in Chapter Four. The -

2-

Arabic for declining a toy is ,‫ٌبارعإ‬‎ v.n. of ‫برع‬‎ IV. A Noun declined is said to be ‫ب‬‎ ee, (Passive Part.). But this term is also used of conjugating a verb, especially with reference to the Imperfect, whose three moods are considered to correspond roughly to the three cases, with their change of final 3. on

vowels. A word whose final vowel is static is said to be ‫ىبم‬‎ indeclineable, but this term is used almost solely of unin

da

verbal forms (e.g. the Perfect) and of Particles like 43, i. A few isolated Nouns may be considered ipa such as ne “caution”; and ‫ماطقر‬‎ a woman’s name. % o-

2. Words ending in the ?alif magsiira are not ss

but

declined by pa that is, notionally, e.g.

(ie 4 Ss femme Elative ok tbe

(ii)

> world.

(iii)

‫ىركذ‬‎ remembrance.

(iv)

Gas guidance.

(v) ‫ىفطصم‬‎ Mustafa (proper name).

(vi)

Cas a stick.

Of the above, nos. (i) to (iii) have no Nunation. They are therefore Diptotes, or ‫فرصتم‬‎ ‫( ريغ‬see Chapter Four). They 384

DECLENSION

OF THE

NOUN

385

are the same for all cases. However, (i) and (iii) would change to °alif if a Pronoun were attached: $-

eg.

-

-6

4;3 ‫ىركذ‬‎ ‫ ىل‬I have a sad remembrance indef.)

5-0

0-2

‫مص‬-‎

0‫ن‬-

‎‫ ى الماضى باطلة‬38

8

‘i ‫عو‬

(nom.

ecnarbmemeR fo eht tsap si niav

“ (nom.def.). - ‫ و‬-‫و‬

‫ هاركذ ةلطاب‬Its remembrance is vain (nom. with‫‏‬ 1 ~ attached pronoun).‫‏‬ oi Ser.

welll S 3‫د‬‎ ‫تننم‬

I became sad at the remembrance of the past (gen. def.).

ae

ed ite

ol ‎‫ذكر‬5 ‫نت من‬eL I emaceb das ta eht ecnarbmemer fo

it (gen. with attached pronoun). --

}: ‎‫ز‬as ‫ح‬

‫وم‬

Nee The world is a sad place (nom. def.).

Rae0 He left the world (acc.def.). °

‫ ايندل‬oa‫تبعت نم ‏‬

I tired of this world (gen. def.).‫‏‬

3. Nouns (iv), (v) and (vi) are Triptotes or 3ped They have Nunation, but this is removed when they are Definite. Again final ya” changes to ?alif, when a Pronoun is attached:

e.g.

‫وم‬

‎‫ هذى‬J ‎‫ ليس‬I have no guidance (nom.indef.). i,ee ‫اضع‬‎ ‫ ىل‬Ihavea long stick (nom.indef.). ‫و‬

-03-

‫ىدبلا رضىرو‬

Guidance is necessary (nom.def.).‫‏‬

3) ‎‫ العقصعاا يكسوة‬ehT kcits si nekorb .).fed.mon( 302

3) oo

al Ws My father’s stick is broken (nom.def. with *2dafa).

pK!

‎‫ عصاه‬His stick broke (nom.def. with attached pronoun).

386

A NEW aw

‫جو‬‎

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

َ‫ه‬

ly ‫ىده‬‎ ‫ ىنطعأ‬Give me clear guidance (acc.indef.). Ce

et

a

of

‎‫اعطنى عصا جديدة‬

eviG em a wen kcits .).fedni.cca(

0 Wes ‫ىنطعأ‬‎ Give me my father’s stick (acc.def. 4 0 ‫واخ‬‎ >7ddafa). ‫ ىنطعأ هاصع‬Give me his stick attached pronoun).‫‏‬

(acc.def.

with‫‏‬

‫ نم اصعلا‬cs I was afraid of the stick (gen.def.).‫‏‬ va AAO)

bine

al las ‫نم‬‎ ‫تف‬ De faz

9

I was afraid of my father’s (gen. def. with ’zddfa).

stick

6‫د‬‎

‫ تفخ نم هاصع‬I was afraid of his stick (gen.def. with‫‏‬ “ “attached pronoun).‫‏‬ 4. The following types of Noun are Diptotes: (a) Broken Plurals of the following forms: e.g.

‫ءالعف‬‎

‫و‬

A33

ministers; pl. of

bs

poe

sick people; pl. of esi

--

--

‫لئاعف‬

‫نئادم‬

eS‫‏‬

‫ىاتي‬

‫للاعف‬

cities; pl. of‫‏‬

2

--

‫ريزانخ‬

-

-

‎‫د‬

‫درهم‬ 5

Se‫‏‬ to

LTT

‎‫( اول‬from

‎‫ اول‬first)

cot (from

‫د‬‎other)

06

&‫‏‬

0

pigs; pl. of

Also the following plurals:

-

‫‏‬-

‫مدينة‬

orphans; pl. of

money; pl. of‫‏‬

3

G-

‫مها‬b> dirhems (silver coins);‫‏‬

‫م‬

‫ليلاعف‬

at

clit! (from¢ee thing)

DECLENSION

OF THE

NOUN

387

(b) The following feminine forms: e.g.

aloes black

Beene

6583 ‫د‬‎ remembrance beoe greatest

(c) The

Masculine

Singular Elative and Colour-Defect

Nouns of the form ey ‫عن حو‬

Cg.‫‏‬

‫ لوطا‬longer, longest.‫‏‬ Jt

wil

62‫‏‬

grey.‫‏‬ mae‫‏‬

Among the rare exceptions is‫ لمرا ‏‬widower, whose fem. is‫‏‬ S--0F‫‏‬

‫ازملة‬. ٠ )d( sevitcejdA fo eht mrof senO esohw .mef ‫‏‬si ‫فل‬ -o-

GS-

-0-

(Note, however, OLas boon companion; fem, .(‫ةنامدن‬‎ (e) The numerals which end in ‫ة‬‎ when they stand alone

as pure numbers, e.g, 4. ‫فصن‬‎ ‫ ةثالث‬three is half of six. (£) Most proper names, whether personal or geographical,

pe

e.g.

‫ةفرط‬‎ Tarafa (masc.) 2-0-0

‫ ناميلس‬Sulaiman (Solomon)‫‏‬ ‫ سراف‬Persia (Fars province)‫‏‬ I-08

Az! Ahmad (as an Elative this is bound to

oo Yahya

be diptote) Names beginning with a y@ ofincrease,

‎‫ف‬ ‎‫ يزيد‬Yazid

resembling the 3rd Person Sing. of the Imperfect must be Diptotes.

It may be mentioned that names of onsen origin are almost 3

309

invariably Diptotes, e.g. ‫ندنل‬‎ London; ‫سير‬‎ yb Paris.

358

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

On the other hand, there are many

Triptote Personal S07

Names. The chief guide here is the dictionary, e.g. 44) Zaid. 560>

So

‎‫‘ عمرو‬Amr, ‎‫ هند‬Hind (a woman’s name, sometimes a Diptote).

tee Ja‘far. They include many names either of participal Sins

5

form, e.g. ‫دمع‬‎ Muhammad;

3207

‫دوغ‬‎ Mahmid, or from the class

of Adjectives resembling the Active Participle in meaning, e.g. oo Hasan (lit. “‘beautiful’’), ‫ليعس‬‎Sa‘id (lit. “happy’’). 5. As already stated, Diptotes are treated as Triptotes when they are made definite in any way, e.g. by the Article, by an attached Pronoun or an 77ddfa:

eg.

2

xe

Nom.

‫نئادم‬‎ cities;

Acc.

‫مداثئن‬‎ cities;

Gen.

ee

‫مدائن‬‎ cities;

is

a

o,e

2

Ie

OSs

‫نئادملا‬‎ the cities.

ak Sp sets

@ptl4s their cities. ‫نئادم‬‎ ‫ نم‬from the cities atone te ‎‫ بلاد العرب‬fo .aibarA ‫ع‬‎

0

2

.

6. Nouns ending in - im have been dealt with when occuring as Active Participles of the Defective Verb, e.g.

‎‫ناد‬, ‫ قاض‬ees( retpahC .)enin-ytnewT A ralimis nonemonehp takes place in the case of some Broken Plurals derived from triliteral roots with the third radical waw or ya’, e.g.

ra‫راج‬‎slave-girl; ‫ىوتف‬‎ mufti’s ruling.

Nom. and Gen. yly>; ‫واتف‬‎ Accus. Giles: ‫ىواتف‬‎ 1 With Article, Nom. and Gen. ‫ىر‬‎ (ol. ‫ىواتفلا‬‎ With Article, Accus. ‫ىر‬‎|peur ‫ىواتفلا‬‎

The yd@ is similarly written when such words are made definite by iddfa.

DECLENSION

OF

THE

389

NOUN

VOCABULARY

5-06

- =e

‫م‬: pl.‫( « ماتيا ‏‬els orphan‫‏‬

‫ حرتقا بر‬VIII to recom-‫‏‬

‫ ريزنخ‬pl.‫ريز‏‬Ls pig‫‏‬

mend, suggest ee

42) pl. ‫را‬‎lee slave-girl, ser-

4, le protection ‫امام‬ -

j° 111 to desert, leave

vant-girl

‎‫( تلا‬2.) to follow

5 - ‫ه‬2

+)! widower

$-

7 calbudget ‎‫ ‘ المرتقال‬JS

Portugal

5

‫يس‬

pl. Slaw

forehead,‫‏‬

‫نع‬‎

5 o-

‎‫ رمل‬sand

gis ‎‫ عرق‬perspiration, sweat

--0-0

‎‫ اسد‬X to colonize sii'f 2 ‫روسيا‬ 2 3°

>

‎‫ اعد‬IV to execute (put to death)

front‫‏‬ Lye

aie

‫ لقتعا‬VIII to intern, arrest‫‏‬ -

‫برتقال‬

-

‫ وسيلة‬pl.‫ وسائل ‏‬means‫‏‬

‎2‫>ع‬ ‫و‬

l

‎‫ فجاة‬suddenly ‫ فقوت‬V to hesitate, stop‫‏‬

Paid

‫ ايسآأ‬Asia‫‏‬

05! permission

EXERCISE 85

. ‫كان العرق يسيل على جبهة الرجل حينما رأى الخنزير الوحشى‬ 8

‫‏‬IUC ‫وى تلك اللحظة فكر فى ولده الصغير‬

.‫ تصبح أرملة باكية‬se

‫َع‬

3

:

.‫‏ماية‬l‫ح‬a ‫فما كان له‬

‫‏‬ee ً‫يصير يتيما‬ 8-5

ZE0O-

‫) يجرى عر الرمل » فغادر المكان‬aec ai ‫‏‬lpc ‫وفجاة توقف‬

‫هلخدو‬.‫ل ىلإ تبب‬ yore

one et‫‏‬

390

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

B

‎.‫ الشمالية أثناء القرن التاسم عشر‬daL ‎‫ إ—ستعمرت روسيا معظم‬٠ %

os

Fe

~

"09

6

‫ياا‬‎

‫و‬

--

lecy !J ‫‏‬eiC ‫ ولم أن‬aS ‫‏‬top ‫ وجدت جاريتى قد أكلث جميع‬- ‫؟‬ ‫‏‬no

‫ يرض‬sL

)Sa

eS

7

lsa

‫خوخ‬

‫ر‬

‫‏‬lip "‫ك قرا‬2

12

. ‫‏ لم اباغدامه‬lY :‫ المجرم' واقترح‬.‫أبعتقل‬ EXERCISE

ae

‫‏‬2

‫!‏‬eG ‫فواكه‬

sles‫‏‬

6

1. My world came to an end when I became a widow, for, when I was eleven, my father died, and my mother had died three years previously. 2. We see in Russia’s budget large

sums for the defence of her borders. 3. The helping and guidance of widows is among the duties recommended to believers. 4. He had many pigs, apart from his cows and sheep. 5. He met a black girl, so he took her into employment [as] a servant girl in his house in Baghdad. But she deserted him suddenly without permission two days later. 6. They followed the enemy and found them hesitating in the sand, so they destroyed them straight away. 7. Portugal had many colonies in the past, and her sailors were famous. 8. I knew from the perspiration flowing on his forehead that his endea-

vours had tired him, but this was my only means of finishing the work at the appointed time. 9. I saw Muhammad on my right and Ahmad on my left. As for the boastful Tarafa, I did not see him at all. He had deserted me in my time of difficulty. 10. I met a lame man and a tall negro (black) in

the street, and I did not know whence they had come,

CHAPTER (Ops

FORTY- FIVE gti Sul)

The Use of the Cases 1. As already stated, the Arab grammarians used case terminology for the Verb in the Imperfect as well as for Nouns: Noun

Nominative 2

Imperfect

Indicative

Accusative



Subjunctive —

Genitive

>

Jussive

as

The Jussive may be approximated to the Genitive since the sukiin changes to kasra when hamzatu I-wasl follows, e.g.

aba ‫نإ‬‎ é if he speak; ai [be ‫تإ‬‎ if he speak the truth. Here, however, we are only ‘concerned with Noun cases, and the English grammatical terms, though inadequate as will be seen, must be used.

2. The Nominative )‫مفر‬‎(is used: (a) For the Subject (che) of a Verbal sentence, e.g. Cie ‎‫ تكرالموم‬fal ‎‫ وضلت‬the newspapers arrived this morning. (b) For

the

Subject

(termed

Fass “beginning”’)

of a

Nominal sentence, e.g. ae ‫دل‬‎ 0 | the boy is wounded. ‫عدو‬

(c) As the Predicate )‫ربخ‬‎ “information”’) of a Nominal sen‎2‫م‬

tence. ‎‫ مجروح‬is the Predicate of the above sentence.

(d) As the Predicate of it, Of, 6060 C2. ee 0 ‫ر‬‎ by verily your Lord is merciful. ENS

oe

NIN

SeatYA

WS

I)

Lars! ol ‫نم‬‎ ae

I was angry that the egg (was) broken,

(e) After the Vocative Particle Bal (always used with the 391

392

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

Article), e.g. ‫نوملسملا‬‎ yal O Muslims!

Also after Lyiin the

gore

Singular without nunation, e.g. ‫دلو‬‎ ‫ اي‬O boy! Jest ‫اي‬‎O Muhammad! (f) For the Adjective another Nominative, e.g. 9

‎‫عات‬,

of, or a Noun

in apposition

to,

3380 - -

‎‫ جاء الرجل النبيل‬eht elbon nam ;emac JE-

on‎‫ وا‬heeaf ‫ماق‬‎the man and his father rose. 3. The Accusative ((‫بصن‬‎ is i used:

(a) As the Object 5 ‫ل‬‎ of a Verb, e.g. ‫ ف هتيب‬rane ELG I met a servant-girl in his house.‫‏‬ Some Verbs take two Objects, e.g.*

bu 00 ‫تابعا‬‎ I gave Hassan a book. 2

‫و‬

57 ‎‫ محمدا‬ous I considered Muhammad a liar. Occasionally theremay be three Objects, e.g. 2

2‫و‬

‫ت انهحا اددبذاك‬ayes I informed Hassan that Muhammad‫‏‬ was lying.‫‏‬ Some Verbs which in English take direct Objects are said in Arabic to be transitive by means of a Preposition. A good dictionary will always give the appropriate Preposition. Below are some examples: --

=e

‫ زاف ىلع‬to surpass, beat (someone);‫‏‬ -

‫ ب‬2 to pass (someone);‫‏‬

-

gd ‎‫ رغب‬to eee

Some Verbs may take either a direct Object or a Preposi-

tion. This is especially true of Verbs of Motion, thus we have: =

@

2

==

‫بهذ قوسلا‬

Fer

=,

he went to the market; or‫ للسوق ‏‬was,‫‏‬

The second version is the more usual.‫‏‬

pa or J an he came to me. * See Appendix C, §6 for further notes on Doubly Transitive Verbs,

with special reference to VERBS OF THE HEART ( lait heal).

THE

USE

OF THE

CASES

393

Here the first version is more customary in writing. When used with ‫ب‬‎ such Verbs mean “to bring” or “‘take

away’, e.g.

9

‫ ا‬‫شام‬

‫ىمهار‬ ‫بهذارد‬ o-an-

‎‫و‬

he went off with my money;‫‏‬

rite

‎‫ بمجلدين‬ele he brought two volumes; 9

o-a-

‫ ىناتأ دلجمب ني‬he brought me two volumes.‫‏‬ The werg

Transitive

Verb is ‫انج‬‎

‫ لعتم‬and the Intransitive

26

‫ غس د‬or‫لازم ‏‬

(b) As the Absolute Object ‫)قلطملا‬‎ cdl) (see pp. 331 ff) 2--

e.g.

‫ومو‬

tas ‫تقلق‬‎ I was disturbed, upset.

(c) Adverbially for Time and Place ‫)ف‬‎ae:: ‫هيف‬‎ 8pete] 1 e.g. ‫ ةلماك‬zs‫‏‬ ‫؛‬ ‫ دنع مه‬etd I stayed with them a whole year.‫‏‬ sof

‎‫ د‬oG--

‫ احابص‬Gps

I awoke in the morning.‫‏‬

Wee‫ تفتلاانيمي ‏‬he looked right and left.‫‏‬ ‫رحب‬57 ‫ قاس‬he travelled by land and sea.‫‏‬ Such Accusatives may be replaced by Prepositional phrases,‫‏‬ netfo htiw , ecneh eht lacitammarg ‫‏‬mret ‫لمفعول فيه‬.‫ا‬ -i

2 ou--

‫ تهبنت ىف حابصلا‬1 awoke in the morning.‫‏‬ - - ‫نص‬‎ >

200,

27

22-6

‎‫ واليسار‬cred! ‎‫ التفت إلى‬eh dekool ot eht thgir dna .tfel ‎‫نه صوده‬

- >

‎‫ قام عند الفجر‬eh esora ,ro( tes )tuo ta .nwad Many so-called Particles or Prepositions are really Adverbial

Accusatives of ae

at least in origin, e.g.

cae behind; ‫قوف‬‎ above; cd beneath, under; -o-

‫ قبل‬before;

»+ after.‫‏‬

fe: towards;

304

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

All these words will be found under their triliteral roots in

the dictionary. (d) To express Aim or Purpose (a Avert This is expressed by a Verbal Noun in the Accusative, e.g. ‫ودع‬

‫ اماركإ هل‬Sas I rose to honour him.‫‏‬ aul enh ane

I kept silent out of respect for him.‫‏‬

The Arabic terminology indicates that this Accusative could be replaced by a Subjunciive Verb or a Verbal Noun introduced by 0 Thus the above two examples might be 2-7

08

9 09

Beit

rendered as ‫همركال‬‎ ‫ تمق‬and ‫همرتحال‬‎ .‫تمص‬ (e) To determine Hal. This is a peculiarly Arabic construction which is used to describe the Condition or Circumstance obtaining at the time when the action of the main Verb takes place. The term “‘condition” may lead to confusion since the sort of condition in a conditional sentence is termed

5

6

‎‫ رشرط‬and the sentence

5

‫ه‬-

$= ‫ده‬

ab : ‫ةلمح‬‎ Hal, however, is

condition in the sense of state. It may be expressed by an Accusative or by a Finite verb, e.g. PEC at fot weet ae

‫ ًابكار‬ae ele or‫ نسح بكري ‏‬el Hassan came riding.‫‏‬ Such a Hal Accusative may take its own direct object, e.g.‫‏‬ ees (le ‫كا‬‎‫ أر‬re he came riding a white donkey.

ees ss 7 |‫اولصو‬‎ they arrived riding donkeys. The Hal usually refers to the subject of the sentence, as to Hassan in the first example; but it could refer to the object or even to some Genitive, e.g. Fs ce eeNY Sen

‫| بكار‬tomes‫ تيار ‏‬or ag eteeal I saw Hassan riding.‫‏‬ opie ‫ب‬‎‫ن ب‬e‫ج‬m ‎‫ درن بالنساءماشيات (يمشين‬ew dessap eht nemow walking beside their camels,

THE

USE

OF THE

CASES

395

The Accusative Hal is nearly always an Active Participle. It may also be a Passive Participle, e.g. ‫رود‬

ies ae‫‏‬

‎y‫ ررأايت حسئنا مقتولا‬I was nassaH .nials Lars ‎‫ ترك البلاد‬eh tfel eht ,yrtnuoc .delixe

Occasionally, a Verbal Noun may replace the Active Participle: 99

3

3970-0

‫ هولبقتسا اسولج‬they received him seated.‫‏‬

86

‫جالسين‬

The verbal Hal occasionally refers not to any specific part of the previous sentence (i.e. Subject, Object, etc.), but to the whole statement. ‫صاوة‬

‫واد‬

‫و‬212

Cale an ‫ىمضاقلاو‬‎ ‫ مهمتش‬he insulted them, while the judge can wicca al “remained (it. remains) silent. Even a nominal sentence could be used here Rod

‫ىضاقلاو‬‎:

In such sentences the ‫و‬‎ which introduces the Hal might be translated “‘while’’.

(f) For Specification (sels); with the meaning of “ regard to”’, e.g. 3 Cece

‎‫و‬

‫ل‬

8072 70S

‫ ديز رثكا املع نم نسح‬Zaid is greater in knowledge than‫‏‬ 3 ‫ريل‬ Hassan.‫‏‬ ‫ بط سفن‬be good in regard to soul‫‏‬ ~ (i.e. rejoice heartily).‫‏‬ Such is the construction after os how much, how many, e.g.

‫ ىف خبطملا‬86 ii how many apples are there in the‫‏‬

3

2

kitchen?: (as also after the numbers‫‏‬ 11 to 99).‫‏‬

396

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(g) The Predicate of O and its sisters (Chapter Thirtytwo), e.g. 709-2 7

‫وجوه‬

‫عد‬

-

@--

‫ تناك ةنيدم دادغب ةروهشم‬the city of Baghdad was famous in‫‏‬ ‫هدوص‬4200 . the Middle Ages.‫‏‬

(h) For the Subject of O| and its sisters, e.g.

‫} ماق‬14 OJ (truly) Zaid is standing,‫‏‬ 5,

Note that nothing should interpose between such Particles‫‏‬ and their Accusative, the only normal exception being the

Predicate, when it consists of a prepositional phrase, e.g. Bi

perl

Aves

-

636

i ry Ee

‎‫ قال إن فى البستان رحلا غريبا‬eh dias taht ni eht nedrag )saw(

apenas 0i

53

a strange man.

This is most likely to happen when the Accusative after the Particle is indefinite, and the sentence can be translated as “there is, are’, “there was, were’, e.g. the example above is

net

“the said that there was a strange man in the garden”, ‫كانه‬‎ “there” is sometimes interposed. ‫هو‬

o-

١‫‏‬

(i) In the construction of‫ ىفنل سنجلا ‏‬Y, that is, after the‫لا ‏‬ which denies absolutely the class or species in the place or circumstances defined in the sentence. This Accusative has no nunation, e.g. ‫هدو‬

AE Sa‫‏‬

‫تيبلا‬

Ge)‫ ال ‏‬there is not a man in the house.‫‏‬

Note the following expressions:

-‎‫ذلك‬4 6‫ من‬fice ‫ لا مفر‬ereht si on epacse morf .taht Ge

os

©

Ge

(Ol « Ol) ‫نم‬‎ ‫ ال كش‬there is no doubt. Ge

of

‫وه‬‎

Gos

(ol « Ol) ‫نم‬‎ ‫ ال دب‬it is inevitable (stronger than the above).

THE

USE

OF THE

CASES

397

The following sentences illustrate the use of the last two:

(ae Shei Sie » le Y There is no doubt that the Arabs won.

‫كل‬3 ‫ ال كش نم‬There is no doubt about that.‫‏‬

‫ا‬

‫ لوصو برعلا © دلو‬The arrival of the Arabs with-‫‏‬ ai

64

out doubt saved the besieged.

‎‫صرين‬ oo)

So

‎‫رس‬

٠

‎‫ نقاوسهم‬ol oa 3 ‫ال‬‎ We must definitely resist them.

ene‘ hy Yo « ‫ميلعتلا‬‎en The spread of education will wz, lead, inevitably, to the raising

‎‫ مستوى العيشة‬5 ‫ يودى إل‬fo eht dradnats fo efil ni eht Peay re)=a) 3

Middle East.

(j) After ‫الإ‬‎(see Chapter Fifty-one).

(k) When the Noun after the Vocative Particle (4) is defined by a Genitive, e.g.

oN 3 ‫اي‬‎ 0 Abu Bakr!; . DS

See

engl fa ‫اي‬‎ © Prince of the 3 Believers (Caliph)!

SOO

(1) With ‫ةعم‬‎ ‫ لوعفملا‬, a comparatively rare construction in which the Accusative ‘during’, e.g. ob

a)

Seen

‎‫والئيل‬ - 0% >

is used to mean

“with”,

“by”, or

eee:

‫ سرت‬I dellevart gnola eht .eliN

‫وود‬‎ ‫د‬

‎‫ سافرت والليل‬I dellevart gnirud eht .thgin 4 Be

ysonyins

Zaid travelled along with his brother. This usage is rather antique, it is found in poetry and the Quran, and is not recommended to the student for general use. ally 6}3) 1

398

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(m) For any Adjective governing an Accusative Noun, or any Noun in ‫م‬‎ to another Accusative Noun, e.g. =z=70-

9

‫ |المج‬be, esl I saw a beautiful scene.‫‏‬

2 ‎‫م سدا و‬ ‫ رايت‬I was a noil dna .tnahpele (n) In certain Exclamations, the usual explanation being S10

that there is a suppressed verb (9

dss), e.g.

=-0-

‫ كب‬l=, welcome to you‫ )كب ‏‬Lai understood).‫‏‬ Gas slowly! ala understood). ‎‫! والنحاة النجاة‬epacse !epacse The ‎‫ و‬here, sometimes written with ’alif ‫او‬‎ introduces several such expressions. Sometimes ol is added to the noun: -

‎‫دوم‬

--o-

Giants woe! alas! (lit. sigh). Note also ‫كليو‬‎ » ‫كبيو » كحبنو‬ woe to you! 4. The Genitive (ge) is used: (a) For ‫ةفاضإ‬‎ that is, after a Noun (see Chapters Seven and Eight). (b) After a Preposition ee aniga‫رح‬‎ see Chapter Four) Arabic grammarians say that the ‫ةفاضا‬‎ has the force of one of the Prepositions, and indeed it may be replaced by this construction, e.g. 2 07000) Des

‫بوث‬‎ or ‫ريرح‬‎ ‫ تك نم‬a garment of silk;

‫ ةالص برغملا‬or‫ دنع برغلا ‏‬hell the prayer

of sunset;‫‏‬

Dy EE Nes mae

SL! ‎‫ قصر دمششق‬ro yahs MAS( iaj eht layor ecalap ni Damascus. (c) For Adjectives agreeing with, or Nouns in apposition to, other Genitive Nouns.

THE

USE

OF THE

CASES

399

(d) In the following common constructions: (i) After is each, every, all. f0oe every day; ‫دحاو‬‎ a every

one; ‎‫ المدينة‬3 the whole city; ‫سانلا‬‎ i 1 ‫مي‬‎ ‫الار‬ all the people.

(ii)

‫عيمج‬and i which may replace §; e.g. pals “At‫ جنيع‏‬or‫‏‬

‫ ةفاك نيملسملا‬all the Muslims.‫‏‬ S20

ie

‫دوو‬‎

(iii) ‎‫ بعض‬some, or one of, e.g. ‫ءارعشلا‬‎ ‫ ضعب‬one of the poets,

a certain poet, some poets; ‫ضعب‬‎ ‫ لاق‬someone 2

said;

207

‫ ماعطلا رو قابلا‬ws

1< I ate some of the food‫‏‬

and left the rest.

(iv)

Ate likeness. This is used where the Pie) would or

‎ >‫ه‬ =

have “like” or “as”, but is a noun, e.g. ‫ديز‬‎ Jee ‫نمسح‬‎ Hassan is like Zaid; 457 0 2-0

‫ردو‬‎

- َ‫ه‬

or

or bk. Hassan was like

- 08

Zaid; ‎‫= واعطيت مثله‬

‫ اعطى‬eh evag a dnuop dna 1

gave the same. G56

‫ لثب‬forms the Plural Jel, but it has no Feminine,‫‏‬ e.g. of

-

” ‫ ال‬do not listen to men like‫‏‬ ‫عمتسا ىلإ اثما‬ ‫مهلاثم‬

2

them we “their nesses” go-

-

08

like-

2

salle Abe353: ‫ال‬‎do not visit women like them. --

- 90

‎‫احثرامنا‬

j

&

-0-

‫تسق‬

7

.‫مورو‬‎

GO

rA ‎‫بنت‬

7#

a lrig ekil reh seod ton

7 merit our respect.

400

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(v) ‎‫ سوى‬properly “another”, means

also “except”. It is

a noun, e.g. ‫ كاوس‬Jee Sie I passed by a man other‫‏‬ than you.‫‏‬

‫ كاوس‬as‫ نكل ‏‬Sheil eas I expected you but some-‫‏‬ one else came.

pol ‎‫ سوى‬err‎‫ كنت بارعاف كل‬1

saw

trepxe ni

yreve

subject except science. So-

(vi) x»*, also a Noun, means “another”, but often corres‎‫ره‬

zi

ponds to the prefixes non-, un-, im-, etc., e.g. oe ‫ريغ‬‎

‘impossible’. It cannot form the Feminine or Plural,

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬ ‫‪87‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪402‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‪EXERCISE‬‬

‫‪Caliph, ‘Umar ibn al- Khattab.‬‬

‫‪The Death of the Second‬‬

‫)‪(From the Annals of at-Tabari, 838-923 A.D.‬‬

‫خرج عمر بن ‪LEG‬‏ ‪ yb‬يطوف فى السوق فلقية أبو‪)sia‬‏« وكان‬

‫اًجارخ ‪ً.‬ريثك لاق ‪ :‬مكو‬ ‫نينمؤملا‏‪OL‬ىلع‬ ‫‏‪ «Gl pal‬لاقف ‪ :‬ايريمأ‬ ‫خراجك؟ قال ‪ :‬درهان فى كل يوم» وقال ‪ :‬أيش رك شىء)‬ ‫صناعتك؟ قال ‪ +‬نجار ‪siG‬‏ وحدّاد‪ .‬قال (عمر)‪:‬‬

‫عرى‬

‫‏‪ dale‬بكثير على ‪)ot‬‏ (‪ gnidrocca‬ما ‪lac‬‏ ‪ eb‬الأعمال‪ .‬قد بلغني‬

‫‏‪ afl‬تقول ‪ :‬لو ‪lyS‬‏ ان اعمل رحى تطحن بالريج ‪shc‬‏ قال ‪:‬‬ ‫نعم‪ .‬قال ‪ :‬فاعمل لى رحى‪ .‬قال‪sB‬‏ سلمت لأعملن لك رحى‬ ‫‪a‬‏ صم‬

‫>‬ ‫ي>ن‬

‫درت‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫مها (عنمها ‪no‬‏‬ ‫‏‪Ons‬‬

‫عنه ‪.‬‬

‫‪22‬م‬

‫اهار مون‬ ‫المؤمنين‬

‫بالمشرق والمغرب ‪.‬‬

‫ثم ا‬

‫فقال‬

‫‪na‬‏ ‪ea‬‬

‫‪yo‬‏ ‪ ee 5‬الأحار شال ‪.iag‬‏‬ ‫ق ‪So‬‏‬

‫أيام‪.‬‬

‫قال ُ وما يدريك ©‬

‫‪:‬ه‬ ‫قال ‪٠‬‏‪laS‬حد‬

‫‏‪ alec‬التؤواة‪ .‬قال ‪esv‬‏ الله‪)!doG‬‏ (‪ )a raef‬لتجدٌعمربن‬

‫‏‪ CLL‬فى التوراة؟ قال ‪ :‬لا ولكثى ‪leJ‬‏صفتك وذ فك ‪TUG‬‏‬ ‫‪aG‬ع‬ ‫‪y‬‏‬

‫‪las‬‏‬

‫‪ ylS‬ال ينا‪bO‬‏ ‪ liat‬اه سب فال‬

‫المؤمنين » ذهب يوم وبقى يومان‪ .‬ثم جاءه من غد الغدء فقال ‪:‬‬

‫‪lla‬‏‬

‫ذهب يومان ويقى يوم ‪ydU‬‏ فلما‪FO‬‏ ‪ eo !a‬ا‬

‫‏‪ee doce eee‬راك ىف ليم صبح هل »ناسأر هباصن ىف‬ ‫‏‪yr‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫ورور‬

THE USE OF THE CASES

403

‫‏‬,eAB ‫ كيك سرتة‬te ‫‏‬eeleP

‫وك لل‬

‫‏ فلمًا وجد‬SA ‫‏ وكان‬NS ‫بن اأبلىبكير‬

‫ وقتل مع‬as‫‏‬ ‫يهب‬

‫‏ بن عوف؟‬elO ‫ أى الناس عبد‬: ‫عمر حر السلاح' سقط وقال‬ : ‫ قال‬ereht(. eh ,si tah‫‏‬sti ‫‏ هو ذا (عط‬lliuq« ‫‏ نعم يا امير‬٠ ‫قالوا‬

0 ‫‏‬be ‫ فصل بالنامل ساقم ع كد والرغاف بين عرف فمرعدر‬pais‫‏‬ ee jal‫‏‬

EXERCISE 88 No translation from English to Arabic is given here. Instead, it is recommended that the student re-read the passage in the previous exercise, noting the various grammatical and syntactical features, and then REWRITE THE WHOLE

PASSAGE WITH FULL VOWELLING GRAPHICAL SIGNS.

AND ORTHO-

The following points should help the student:

‎‫ كم خراجك‬yllacitammarG ‎‫ كم‬si eht ,etaciderP dna si dias 5 ‫ردت‬

to be ‫مدقم‬‎ “brought forward”. ‫كجارخ‬‎ is the subject of this nominal sentence. WS

dels ‫قرا‬‎ ‫ ام‬Verbs of thought and estimation are

doubly transitive. The first object of ‫ىرا‬‎ here is ‫كجارخ‬‎ .The second, which should have been genitive after a preposition (~).

us, is replaced

by a

set ‎‫ كلمت‬oJ The ‫ل‬‎ before ‫نإ‬‎ adds nothing to the meaning.

This is a conditional, and the apodosis has the

Energetic form of the Jussive for stress. a ‎‫ إنك‬Here

‎‫ ميت‬which resembles the Active Participle

ie ‎‫“ مانت‬dying”; in meaning, is used with a future sense.

404

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

‫ دق ىف كلجأ‬ail‫‏‬ ‫ و‬The pronoun 5 after ol refers to nothing‫‏‬ previously mentioned, as would normally be the case. It is‫‏‬ a Neutral Pronoun, not translated, which merely serves to‫‏‬

satisfy the grammatical requirement of an Accusative after‫‏‬

Ol. ‫حون‬

‫ نم دغ دغلا‬On the day after the following day, i.e. two‫‏‬ days later.‫‏‬ s- 07

‫هدي رجنخ‬

‫ ف‬A nominal Hal sentence referring to 54J5)‫ابو ‏‬. G---

‫ ادحإ نه‬The Feminine‫ ىدحإ ‏‬refers to‫“ ةبرض ‏‬a blow’. oa is‫‏‬ Feminine Plural, according to antique usage, oe

to‫‏‬

‫ضربات‬. nredoM cibarA dluow yllamron ‫‏‬evah ‫ إحداها‬: yrre

‫ هراد‬gai The yr

>

Verb

jesl is doubly transitive,

e.g.‫‏‬

‫دعو‬‎

‫ رمع هراد‬gail “the took ‘Umar into his house”. When the‫‏‬ Verb is Passive the first Object takes the place of the Subject,‫‏‬ but the second Object‫ راد ‏‬still remains in the Accusative. In‫‏‬ either case we could write ‫هراذ‬‎ ‫ ق‬as an alternative. --

CHAPTER

FORTY- sae

‫‏‬ymo( ‫لكك السادس‬

The Permutative ‎)‫ البدل‬the substitution) 1. The Permutative must follow immediately the word for

which it is substituted (42+ .(‫لدبملا‬‎

There are four kinds of substitution: (a) The substitution

of the whole

for the whole

(GST ‫نم‬‎JST Jas) i.e. where the Permutative is exactly

equivalent to the word for which it is substituted, e.g. -

396

90---

-

‎‫ اخوك‬42} ele Zaid, thy brother came. ‎‫فده‬

‫< فده ده‬

-

00-

‫ مهوارغصو‬wast‫موق ةنيادملا‏‬Gel the people of the city,‫‏‬ the great and the small, came to me.‫‏‬

(b) The part is substituted for the whole ‫)ضعبلا‬‎ ‫لد‬

‫& (من الكل‬8. --00 ‫>سور‬-

‫ءءء‬

‫ قبله اليد‬ssik mih eht ,dnah .e.i ssik sih ‫;‏‬dnah ‫اكل الرغغييفة‬ ‫ ةفصن‬he ae the loaf, half of it, i.e. he ate the half of “he loaf.‫‏‬

(c) A possession or quality is substituted for the name es

5

> - 2

)‫ذ بدل الأشتمال‬.e.i evitatumreP fo ,)noisulcni ‫‏‬.g.e ‫ زيد ثوبه‬Se!‫‏‬ Zaid, his garment pleased me, i.e. Zaid’s garment pleased IO)

Ss

ON

KI RO! ee

me; ‎‫ مدحت زيدا حسنه‬I desiarp ,diaZ sih ,ytuaeb.e.i I desiarp Zaid’s beauty.

(d) A word is used to correct the WIE

--00

9--

one ‫)طلغلا‬‎ ‫لدب‬

20-7

the Permutative of error), e.g. uw" 1 ‫بلكي‬‎‫ تررم‬1 passed by a

dog (no, I mean) a horse. This usage is very rare. 405

406

A NEW

ARABIC

PRONOUNS.

GRAMMAR EMPHASIS

2. The Personal Pronoun ((‫ريمض‬‎ may be either Separate or Attached. The Separate Pronoun is always Nominative, except when used for stress in apposition to a Noun or an Attached -é

---

Pronoun, e.g. ‫انا‬‎ ‫ ىبرض‬he struck me (accus.). esl‎‫ كارت بك‬I dessap yb uoy .).neg( -

56>

But the Emphasis is more often achieved by the use 05 ‫سفن‬‎ G

‎‫ود‬

pl. ‎‫ انفس‬meaning ‘“‘myself’’, “yourself”, etc., e.g. HCC

4

IW" 200

Aan ‎‫ام الكتاب‬2 ‫المع‬ ‫وم‬

“602

>

eht rehcaet etorw eht koob .flesmih

009330-

i ‎‫ كلمتهم‬I spoke to them themselves. Occasionally, this word is placed in the Genitive after w,‫ب‬‎ e.g. 2 S05)

SOK,

=

Sa

‫ ديز هسفن‬Or‫ ديز هسفنب ‏‬Zaid himself.‫‏‬ Used

"1

000

less ‫لا‬‎

and ay things

rather than people generally, is ae (pl. (‫نيعأ‬‎ e.g. ane rl the matter itself.

The Reflexive Pronoun in the Accusative is also expressed by these three words with pronominal suffixes, e.g. 72 ‫ده‬

‫‏‬oe ‫ قعل‬:‫اللنعط‬

1

If the Pronoun depends on a ‫د‬‎

it is enough to use

the Pegpomingk suffix, e.g. -&

(NOT ‎‫نفسى‬J) kes J ‫تذخأ‬‎

1 took something for myself.

It should be noted that ‫سفن‬‎ and ‫نيع‬‎ may be used as indepeneke

‎‫در‬

dent Nouns with a following Genitive, e.g. ‫لج‬‎‫ را‬oe ‫تلباق‬‎ I met the same

man

-0-

(for ws

yen

or ‫هل‬‎ ‫كحل‬ witetsGee

a ayde ‫نيع‬‎ ‫ىناطغأ‬She gave me the self-same present as my

father. Note: When Feminine.

S

62

‫سعت‬‎ means

§) 99

“soul”, it takes the Plural (94)

and is

THE

PERMUTATIVE

407

3. The Attached Pronoun may be either Accusative or Genitive, but not Nominative. It may be attached to the form ‎‫ إيا‬to form a Detached Accusative Pronoun as follows:

3. Mase.

‫هايإ‬‎him.

3. Fem.

ki her.

2. Masc.

SG you.

a

FA

Fem.

1

ply them

‫امه‬‎ ‫ ايإ‬them

3

both

pret

a 2.

& ‫اع‬

‫ع‬2‎

‫وو‬‎

‫ىو‬

‫مكايإ‬‎ you.

‫امكايإ‬‎ you both

Su!

ao 5

‫نهايإ‬‎

3

‫ىايإ‬‎ me.

ae. eo ul



GLI us.

It is used as follows:

(a) To carry the Object of a singly transitive Verb. In this case, stress is implied, and this may be further heightened by ee. 003‫ا‬‎ order and putting the Object first, e.g. ecg

ed

‫ كايإو نيعتسن‬6 Sul Thee do we worship and Thee do we‫‏‬

ask for help (Qur’4n I).‫‏‬ (b) To carry the second Object of a doubly transitive Verb, when that Object is a Pronoun, e.g. (‫ قاطعاهأيإ )اهايإ‬he gave me it.‫‏‬ But ‎‫ أعطانيه‬is equally common. Nevertheless, when a doubly transitive Verb has a Noun as first ‫د‬‎

and a Pronoun as ‫مداع‬

the second, the second must have UI, e.g. stl ‫م‬‎ el he gave it to Hassan. ‫موا‬‎ if both Objects are Pronouns,

the second must have |!‫د‬‎if it is not of a later person than the first: Lc;

2

“oF

‫كيناطعا‬‎ he gave me you. 8

ajlecl Se

i0e

:

he gave me it.

‫ ةكاطعأ‬he gave you j it.‫‏‬

408

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

3

\ Stes! he gave you me. G) steel he gave him you. 5-7708

‫ هاطعاهايإ‬he gave him it.‫‏‬ (c) It is ale used independently as a warning, e.g. ‫ كاي‬take care};‫ كايإ راثلاو ‏‬be careful of the fire.‫‏‬

4. If the Conjunctions », ,‫ف‬‎ “and”, “so” and J “verily”

are prefixed to the Pronouns ‫ره‬‎ and ey the ‫ه‬‎ usually loses -o-

-y-

aids

its vowel, e.g. ‫وهو‬‎ for 5% 9; (3 for sti. 5. The first Person

Singular attached Pronoun ¢ is often

omitted and replaced by a kasra in cries and commands, chiefly in the Quran, e.g.

aj for

‫ير‬‎my Lord!

‫ نقتا‬for gil fear me!‫‏‬ 53

6. The attached Pronoun 4 is often used after ol and its sisters in a vague general sense, referring to a whole sentence or the general situation. This is merely a device to provide an Accusative after the Particle, since the Arabs like to use

this particle. It is termed ‫ناشلا‬‎ ,‫ يمض‬eg. a--

208

-o

---

‫ رهظ دئاقلل هنا ال رفم‬it appeared to the general that‫‏‬ 5--- there was no escape from fighting.‫‏‬

‫نم ةبراحملا‬

a‫‏‬

Here the sentence after ‫نأ‬‎ is introduced by the ‫ال‬‎ of Denial of the Species, which does not therefore provide a Noun to serve as Accusative after Ol. An alternative way of writing a--

-

‫م‬‎

this, though less idiomatic, would be . . ‫رفم‬.‎ ‫ ال‬Ol... 7. The Reciprocal Pronoun “‘one another”’ is SJE 05-

=

0-

>

‫ضوخو‬

by

-0‫د‬

the use 08 ‫ضعب‬‎ ‘‘one, some’, e. g. ‫اضعب‬‎ ‫ اندعاس ائضعب‬ag we have

helped one another (or gael (‫انضعي‬‎

THE

409

PERMUTATIVE

With Prepositions the ‫ضعب‬‎ is often not repeated, e.g. 5

OFS

TOLLS

--

--

‎‫ دنا العساكر من بعضهم‬eht sreidlos dehcaorppa eno .rehtona VOCABULARY o-e

‫) مغر‬2( to dislike‫‏‬ oor

>

‫ فلتسا‬VIII to borrow‫‏‬

‫وم‬ ‫ع‬

,‫ مغرا مغر‬IV to compel‫‏‬

asl VIII to pay attention

)‫ اقم ين رآن‬de:‫‏‬

on climate, weather

(‫ مغرلاب نم )نأ‬despite, in‫‏‬

es) (2_) to refuse, reject

spite of Ge fact that)‫‏‬

ome II to surprise

$- 6

‫ةف‬ig pl. =be profession, trade‫‏‬

:



aya Childhood

‫مه‬

(mod.)

sluggishness;

failure

‫تالف‬6 qualifications (mod.)‫‏‬ 5



to be surprised by‫‏‬

Oise pl. ‫ىراكس‬‎ drunk ‫و‬

‫وم‬

‫ اسةماين‬382, ‫( دهش‬2)

old youth (abstract)

‎‫( للها‬rz) to play

‫مه‬

‫ ادهش‬71

‫ مفاس‬bankrupt‫‏‬ ol IV to go bankrupt

-

teas advice

‫إفلاشس‬bankruptcy‫‏‬ EXERCISE

89

5

Gras’)

Sines

» ‫‏ الصحيح‬llo ‫‏ له‬ehl ‫( لكنه لا‬Intermediate)‫‏‬

ee

‫التعوسطة‬

SRey ‫‏‬hgs ‫‏ل‬eeN ‫‏ ار‬NO ‫ من عمرة‬,‫وهو بلغالستين‬ ‫ تقلا تالاقبو دئارجلا‬gt fue eh‫ ا تي ‏‬oae Gu‫‏‬ ‫ م يحقق أمال ابويه‬lia“ ‫‏‬enoF ‫« وقال لى بنفسه ) وهو‬dual‫‏‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‪410‬‬

‫هيملعمو » هناو نزح اًريثك ‪,‬نم ‪‎‬هلشف ‪ of eM dl‬دانعأ ‪‎‬هيلا ‪.‬‬ ‫‪oe‬‬ ‫ار ا الا ‪‎‬لع‬ ‫‪ Lawes‬ذه (‪ )1‬ا‬

‫موهلاتهم البالغةء بل‪ yaL ‎‬أعطيناهم نصيحة صالحة مُفيدة ولم‪‎‬‬ ‫يستمعوا إليها‪. ‎‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬

‫ات اذهب‪ ylS daG ‎‬بالكتاب‪' UC ‎‬استلفته من المكتبة أول‪‎‬‬ ‫‪ a ay‬و مر ‪‎‬را ‪SPS‬‬

‫‪dS‬‬

‫‪‎‬نيرحبلا )‪ iessal (Bahrain‬هنم ق »ًايروس ‪)‎‬كلذو ‪ ALE Vg‬يزيد‪‎‬‬

‫‪ eyd‬اماه فى تيك الدزيرة‪ ehW golS ‎.‬قصيرة ولا بد ‪.‬من‪‎‬‬ ‫الموت فى‪yc ‎‬‬ ‫‏‪Nall‬‬

‫فلنقم باعمال يرضى‪ eG ‎‬لد لو‬ ‫>>‬

‫‪ane‬‬

‫الا فى‪‎‬‬

‫وار‬

‫‪ leak” Sodding‬نت تيدانيتوز نيمداخ‬

‫غيرهما‪.‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪ 0‬لك نه اللي اتصرت حد وصوك الاسين‬

‫‪

redeem thee at the price of my father’’. (This is called ‫ةيدفتلا‬‎ cb, the ba’ of redemption.)

Prepositions are sometimes described by the Arabs as being interchangeable

2

4)

(‫)ةلدابتم‬‎ and this is true in some instances.

Thus, while geographically we more often use ~ of a town or village (O44 “in London’’) and ‫ىف‬‎ of an area or country ‎)‫ فى فرنسا‬ni“ ‎‫ العم‬ew osla dnif ‎‫ فى لندن‬ee ‎‫فرنسا‬.‫ب‬ (2) and (3) and

‫و‬‎ “by” in an oath, e.g. a and ails“by

God”’. (e occurs only in this expression, “and is rare and antique — not to be used by students.) If, however, a verb is used in the oath, ~ must be used. (4) ‎‫“ ل‬for, to, because of”. ‫ ل‬is used to express the Dative and denotes possession‫‏‬

==( have”),‫‏‬ As a Conjunction (with the Subjunctive of the verb) it denotes “‘in order that, so that’. It denotes the English ,2‫"ه‬‎ when it follows an indeter-

minate noun, e.g. ‫ديزل‬‎ ‫ ٌباتك‬a book of (belonging to) Zaid; 3 ‎‫صاحب‬a friend of me, i.e. one of my friends. -

414

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

It is used especially for the editor of a book, e.g. ‫ رمصق ءانالا ٌيبلعشلل‬The

Stories of the Prophets of (i.e.‫‏‬

written by) Tha ¢labi.

:‫‏‬

J also denotes “for the benefit of” (opposite of (‫ىلع‬‎ and so denotes a creditor (‫ىلع‬‎the debtor), e.g. ‫ود‬

=,

pe ‎‫لى عليك الف‬

uoy ewo em a dnasuoht .smahrid

It is also used to denote the Purpose and the Cause, e.g. ‫م‬

Ae IO, DOS‫‏‬

asgli ‫تمق‬‎ I rose to help him.

‫لهذًا‬ _

‫ < رج‬for this reason, therefore‫‏‬

NA‫‏‬ Note 1: ‫ل‬‎ ‫“ لاق‬to say to” often means, especially in the Passive, ‘‘to

call, name’, e.g. ‫هل‬‎ (‫ طع ليق )لاقي‬was (is) called. Nore 2: ‫ل‬‎ is changed to ‫ل‬‎ before Pronominal suffixes (except with 5 “‫ما‬‎ 1 the 1st Person), e.g. J, ‫اهل‬‎ etc. It is also changed to ‫ل‬‎ after the --o-

particle of address Us e.g. vel

-

‫ندم‬‎

‫اي‬‎ “O wonder”, ‫ديزل‬‎‫“ اي‬O Zaid!”

(i.e. come and help O Zaid!).

(5) 4j“as, like’’ is usually counted among the prepositions, o--

although it is really a noun meaning “‘similarity’’, e.g. oe ‫دي‬‎ like Zaid. It is not used with Pronominal suffixes.

B. SEPARATE PREPOSITIONS (1) ‫ىلإ‬‎ “to, unto, until”. Is nearly related in meaning to J and serves to express

motion towards a place, e.g. ‫ىلإ ةييدملا‬a he came to the city.‫‏‬ -

-

PARTICLES,

PREPOSITIONS

415

In relation to time it expresses continuance up to a certain

point of time, e.g.

‫ نمالاءادتب ىلإ ءاهتنالا‬from beginning to end.‫‏‬ Notice pear 3ea) ‫ىلإ‬‎(abbreviated (‫خلا‬‎ “and so forth”, “et cetera”

an

oaWith suffixes: ‫هيلإ‬‎ “to him”, ‫ىلإ‬‎ “to me’, etc.

(2) ‎‫“ حتى‬up to, as far as”. Is not used with suffixes. It is sometimes

used to mean

‘“‘even’”’ and then exercises

no influence on the case of the following word, e.g. ‫‏‬-$-e

‫ده‬

‫هاعد‬

‫ ىتح اهسار‬5s lh‫ اك ‏‬1

‫ ع‬fish, even its head.‫‏‬

(3) ‎‫“ على‬over, on, against”. ae With suffixes:

a--

‫هيلع‬‎ “‘on him”;

“on me’”’ etc.

Used of place. 3 ‫رطلآ‬‎‫ ىلع‬on the way. PLS

hg

-

‫ ىلع املاةدث‬ee he sat at table.‫‏‬ o-

--

6-

-

‫ ةئيدم ىلع رهن‬a city ona

river.‫‏‬

Notice specially: autde ‫جرفت‬‎ to look (with pleasure) at a thing.

0 ae ctl

to examine into a thing.

5 ‫ىلع‬‎ ‫فلو‬ ‫ددن‬

‫( هيلع‬or eal) tt he fainted (lit. it was, made dark upon‫‏‬ him). las‎‫ السلام‬Peace be on yom! (the greeting of Moslems to ‫او‬

‫رةه‬

‫ماع وا‬

‫عع‬

eno ,rehtona eht rewsna ‫‏‬gnieb‫(وعليكم السلام‬. ‫ه‬--

‫وص بل‬-‫ة‬-

‫ ةمحر هللا ديِلَع‬God’s mercy be upon him.‫‏‬

416

A NEW ‫م‬

‫دي‬

‫مو‬

‫م يلو‬

‫ هللا هيلع ملسو‬0

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

God give him blessing and peace.‫‏‬

Used in a hostile sense: orc

cee

alc ‎‫ خرج‬he went out (to war) against him. So with verbs denoting anger: cot!

on ane

NAY)

‫و‬‎

‫تبضغ كيلع‬

1 was angry with thee.‫‏‬

Used with Adjectives: a--

Ses

5

‎‫ فرض على إنسان‬a ytud tnebmucni no a .nam ‫ بجي ىلع نالف‬it is the duty of such and such a one.‫‏‬

‫ كيلع‬J‫ اذه ‏‬you owe me this (see A, 4(.‫‏‬ ‫ ىلع‬0

a preference over.‫‏‬

Common expressions with ‫ىلع‬‎ are: ‫ ىلع‬ely according to.‫‏‬ of

3

‎‫ على ان‬no eht noitisoppus .taht “0

00

‫ نكمإلا‬ys‫ىلع ‏‬ ‫ ل‬so far as possible.‫‏‬ os “le bring him here to me.‫‏‬

Boe

lit. on the head and eye)

i ‫ا‬‎‫ لع‬ee ( owl|‫و‬‎ ‫سأرل‬ s

with pleasure.3

‎‫ ععليك‬ta I erujnoc eeht yb .doG 1%

PARTICLES.

PREPOSITIONS

417

Ree (4) ‫نع‬‎ “from, about, concerning”’. o-

=

a-

With suffixes: ‫هنع‬‎ “from him”, ‫ىنع‬‎ “from me”, Ls “from us’’, etc.

0

Used of place=away from, and so is used with verbs denoting “to flee’, ‘avoid’, ‘“‘restrain oneself”, “forbid”, “hinder’’, “defend”

(with many of these verbs

‫نم‬‎ can be

used), e.g.

١

(or i) ‫نع‬‎ ‫ عقم‬to prevent from... -

‫وعدم‬

(or &) ‫نع‬‎ wea! OS

oF

to avoid...

---

ect ‎‫ دافع عن شخص او‬ot dnefed enoemos ro .gnihtemos It is ae used with verbs meaning to “uncover’’, ‘“‘reveal”’, “open” and “‘ask’’, e.g. 59

0352

O05

Ree

66

ee

‎‫ كشف عن شىء‬ot revocnu .gnihtemos -o

‫‏‬FO

‫جره‬

‫تو‬

2 ‫دع‬

ecg ‎‫ سال عن شخص او‬ot ksa tuoba enoemos ro .gnihtemos In the sense of the Latin de “concerning”’, e.g. A

am

Oia

‫ نع ناميلس‬S it is told concerning Solomon.‫‏‬ To indicate the source of information, e.g.‫‏‬

eal ‎‫ عن‬SS it is told on the authority of ash--Shafiei. Be, It is sometimes used of time, e.g. ‫بيرق‬‎ ‫“ نع‬shortly, soon’. Notice specially: ‎‫و‬

‫لد‬

‫ص‬

A

‫ ىضر هللا هنع‬May God be pleased with him.‫‏‬ O FaiF

‫ نع‬Shai apart from.‫‏‬

The following usages should also be noted: (a) In signing a re

e.g.

- £00

‫نع‬‎ means “for”, ‫“هرج‬‎ behalf of”,

‎‫ عن مدير الاعمال‬rof eht rotceriD fo .skroW

418

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR -

(b) In asking leave of a host, one may say ‫كنذِإ‬‎ ‫“ نع‬by your leave’’, “by your permission’. (5)

3 “in”?

With suffixes: ‫هيف‬‎ in him, :in me, etc. --

It expresses rest in place or time and answers the See -

Gwe,

“‘where?” and “‘when?”’, e.g. slat3 in the house, ‫ةئسسلا‬‎ ‫ هده‬3 -in this year. w

300

oe

Sometimes it expresses motion to a place, e.g. ‫بيلا‬‎ 3 ‫مقو‬ he fell into the cistern.

Peet It also denotes “among’’, e.g. ‫انيف‬‎ ‫ نم‬who among us. It is used with verbs of speaking and thinking: 3 ‎‫ تكلم‬to speak about... ---9

‫ ركتفا ىف‬to think over .‫‏‬ ‫م‬

>

ms 3 Jl

to consider something.

Also after the verbs of desiring: 3 ‫بغ‬‎») to wish for something; 3 ‫عمط‬‎to yearn after.

“To multiply by” is ‫ىف‬‎ bane e.g. 2210 e

--

ee

‫ برضاب ةثالث ىف ةعبس‬multiply three by seven.‫‏‬

(6) CN, Sais ‫ادل‬‎ “with” (Latin “‘apud’’). With suffixes JJ with him, gu with me etc.; #2. with a--

him, ‎‫ لدى‬with me.

Rarer than ee, -

(7) ‎‫( مع‬rarely ‎‫ ؛ (مع‬,’htiw‘ With suffixes te with him, ‫ىغم‬‎with me, etc.

PARTICLES.

PREPOSITIONS

419

It denotes association in place or connection in time, e.g. --

‫ راس ىعم‬he travelled with me.‫‏‬ ‫ سمشلا‬eee‫ عم ‏‬dhe I came to you at sunrise.‫‏‬ It often means “to have something with one’, e.g. G-

>

-

‫ ىعم ةعاس‬I have a watch with me.‫‏‬

It also translates the English “‘besides’’, e.g. ‎‫ غريبا‬Ree‎‫ مع‬besides his being a stranger. Notice specially:

‫ عم كلذ‬in spite of that.‫‏‬ (or Ol) Ol‫ عم ‏‬in spite of the fact that, although.‫‏‬ )8( as “from”.‫‏‬ oe)

a

With suffixes 4. from him, ‫انم‬‎ from us, etc. Used of place (often interchangeable with Ss): al ‎‫ خرج من‬eh tnew tuo morf eht .tnet It is used with verbs denoting “‘to go out”, “to free’, “to forbid”:

‎‫ام‬

ail ‎‫ أغوذ‬I take refuge in God

(to free me)

from evil.

Used of time: ‎‫سرخا‬

>

‫مو‬

4

‎‫ من الصباح إلى المساء‬morf gninrom ot .gnineve Sometimes used (like (‫دنم‬‎ to mean 4

o---

1

0

‎‫م‬

‫ نم نيتنس‬Le. two years ago.‫‏‬

“since.

6

39

420

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

It is also employed with verbs and nouns denoting near-

23111 ness, as ,‫اند‬‎ ‫ برق‬e.g. wI-07

>

IO

a

5

‫ تود نم ودعلا‬I approached the enemy.‫‏‬ cs

ls ‎‫ قريب‬near us. -

-

Noe specially: Oe

Gink

‫ عءىش‬ES‫ )كجعت(‏‬ct to wonder at something;‫‏‬

so with other ue offeeling: --

‫ كت‬es to rejoice at .‫‏‬ 6

Be

3907‫‏‬

‫ طوسيم نم‬pleased at...‫‏‬ o

The word “than” after a Comparative is expressed by o ‫نمر‬‎ ‎‫م‬ p e.g.

o-

02

-

AN! ‫نم‬‎ ‫ا‬

swifter than the dog.

“A certain” is often expressed by es preceded by a word indefinite in the Sing. and followed by the same

word

definite in the Plur., e.g. ae

-

‫ رجات نم راجتلا‬a certain merchant.‫‏‬ It is also used partitively (gaveill) followed by a definite noun in the Plur. to indicate an indefinite number or quantity,

e.g. ‫هتايآ‬by‫مكارأ‏‬ ‫ الفارا‬edt

already shown you some of his‫‏‬

signs; and to indicate material, e.g. ‫م‬

‫بشخ‬

0

5 ‫ ىسرك‬a chair of wood.‫‏‬

It is very often used after ‫ام‬‎ to explain )(‫نييبتلل‬‎ what is intended by the particle, e.g. ‫نسلاما‬ ‫ ن‬Cus Os‫ ام ‏‬what was with me in the way of wealth,‫‏‬

i.e. the wealth, which I had.‫‏‬

PARTICLES. ‎‫ور‬

-‫صمن‬

>

2

390

=

PREPOSITIONS

421

5-5

‎‫ ما عملتموه بنامن المعروف‬tahw uoy evah enod ot su ni eht way of kindness, ie. the kindness, which you have done us. ‫رود‬

(9) An, a “since” (for ‫وذ‬‎ és) Is not used with suffixes.

It is ‫هلا‬‎ followed by the Nominative, e.g.

‫( يوم الأحد‬04) ‫‏‬sed ‫ رانك‬5 I - ‎‫ع‬

‫ص‬

= eio

‫( موي دحألا‬ds) es‫ماعرايتك] ‏‬ B00

490-

‫دور‬‎

= 30 E-

2

have not seen you since Sunday.

NOUNS USED AS PREPOSITIONS 4. Of the Prepositions which are really nouns in the Accusative fssb) the following are the most common: (1) ‫مامأ‬‎“before, opposite’’ (of place): pailFoul before, opposite the castle. oll aul before the judge. (2) os, “after” of time or rank (opposite of :(‫لبق‬‎

‫ دعب داليملا‬after the birth (of Christ).‫‏‬ )3( ‎‫ بين‬ietween. When two words are dependent on ,‫نيب‬‎ then if both are substantives the on need not be repeated, but if one (or both)

is a ‫مر‬‎ it is always repeated, e.g.

‎‫ زيدو عم و‬5 neewteb diaZ dna .rmA‘ ‫ر‬ ‎‫ أخيك‬enye neewteb eeht dna yht .rehtorb --6--

‫ كنيبو‬3

between me and thee.‫‏‬

oe‫‏‬ ‫ ام نيب‬and oe‫اميف ‏‬are often used with the same ee 2‫‏‬

as ‎‫بين‬.

meaning‫‏‬

422

A NEW ee

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

Sie

on L and ‫نيب‬‎ sometimes mean “both - and” or “partly Pare 5-5

ea

-

so

‫ يبغو‬Je‫ انءاج ام نيب ‏‬both poor and rich came to us.‫‏‬

(4) old, ‫هاجت‬‎

33

‎‫ ر‬2 \“opposite” (= elde).

)5(

‫تلقاء‬‎

,

(6) ‎‫“ تحت‬under, below” of place or rank (opposite to .(‫قوف‬‎ --=‫ا‬

‫سىس‬

‫ تحت ةرجش‬under a tree.‫‏‬ ‫ تحت كلا‬below the king (in rank).‫‏‬

(7) ‎‫‘ دا‬opposite’: rte opposite the house. (8) ‎‫“ حول‬round about”.

ae. ‫ ةنيدملا‬ape‫‏‬ ‫ أوح‬round about the city.‫‏‬

(9) ‎‫“ خلف‬behind”: ‎‫ خلف ظهرى‬dniheb ym .kcab (10) O95 “‘on this side of, under, without”: oa

‫اص‬‎

>

el ‎‫ ذون‬on this side of the river. aaa

eS

Gr

é ‫و‬‎

2.

rhe

=

Js

‎‫> تدك خد عدو را‬sO yam eht keehc fo eht ymene eb under thy feet. With

the meaning

“without”

used instead of :‫نود‬‎ 2

06

‎‫و‬

‫إن‬

Ret or ‫نود‬‎ ‫ نم‬may

‫( كلذ‬or‫ نم نود ‏‬oF‫ نوذ نودب( ‏‬without that.‫‏‬

be

PARTICLES,

PREPOSITIONS

423

0

(11) ‫دنع‬‎ “with, at’: Used of place: 370

Se

‫ع‬‎

‎‫ جلست عنده‬1 tas htiw )ediseb( .mih

Used of time: on

‫ص‬‎

eS

‫ا‬‎

:

‎‫ جاء عند طلوع الشمس‬eh emac ta .esirnus It is often used with the meaning “‘to have’’. Le (or ee or (‫ىل‬‎ ous I have wealth. vate Note.

7

‫اذك‬‎ ‫ ىدنع‬means

“‘according to my opinion it is so’’.

(12) ‎‫( عوض‬or ‎‫ عن‬eae) “instead of, in place of”: ‫اي‬

206

‫ كلذ‬ets‫ اذه ‏‬G45!

I took this in place of that.‫‏‬

(13) ss “on, over, above’: of place and rank (opposite of od): ‫ قوف ةرجشلا‬on (or above) the tree.‫‏‬ 8

“00

‫كلملا‬

-0-

‫ قوف‬above the king (in rank).‫‏‬ -0o-

(14) ‎‫“ قبل‬before” of time (opposite of +):

‎‫ قبل الميلاد‬erofeb eht htrib fo( .)tsirhC (15) plas“before” of place (more often pul): ‫ ماَدق راّدلا‬before the house.‫‏‬

2 (16) ‫وحن‬‎ “towards”: 0-02

- O7

‫ وحن برغلا‬towards the West.‫‏‬

(17) ‎‫“ وراء‬behind, on the far side of”:

‎‫ وراءهم‬behind them. Justi‎‫ وراك‬behind (on the far side of) the mountains.

ARABIC

A NEW

424

GRAMMAR

5. Two prepositions often occur together. In this case, if it must

the second was originally a noun, Genitive, e.g. °

Oc

ern

be put in the

وه‬‎ ‫َء‬

aL pl. ‫قايطا‬‎ large meat tray

‫ وه‬-0-

‫ةريح‬‎ perplexity

or dish; plate Cy re ne ea55‫‏‬its& : ‫ قاقز‬pl. 1554 lane, side street

. ‫ارباح‬ gai‫‏‬ Cc PG) cea ee‫‏‬

‫ ةيلكلاب‬altogether

ee VIII to hide, disappear‫‏‬

5

65‫ه‬

EXERCISE

‎>‫ه‬

91

Note: This exercise is not specifically concerned with the grammatical matter in this chapter. It is partly a test in reading unvowelled Arabic.

‫ لجر هعم‬alySc deel a‫( فير ‏‬yeeeee ages‫‏‬ : ‫ نعم» قال‬: ‫ أتبيع هذا الحمار؟ قال‬: ‫طبق فيه سمك فقال له‬ ‫ نمثب‬AAA Set OW‫ألاهاةنكر زجاود) ‏‬Se‫ لبطل ‏‬fe dit‫‏‬

PARTICLES.

PREPOSITIONS

425

Ae Aly.) lec ieee ‫روي‬‎ te ‫ا‬‎1‫قلبي كشسأفع غملل‬ a)

ean MOAT ٠‫ابايأوغ‬‎ ‫باخذ‬

ingen HI

Lash Ges ‫كلذ‬‎ ge EH Gell odeh, TEI) ‫هنع‬‎ Gass ‎‫ ما فعلت‬: ‫ فقال‬.‫ فرجع بالطبق فالتقاه رفيقه‬.‫ عليه‬ed lY

ML oly 2 SB 6

‫لاقي‬‎ :‫ هرعت‬JU Tay fo ‫راع‬‎ ! ‫ير‬‎ ‫اذهو قبطلا‬ EXERCISE

92

Rewrite the above passage with full vowelling and other orthographical signs. The following notes may help: ‫ لاق‬In old Arabic, where two people are conversing,‫‏‬ frequently the words of both speakers are introduced by‫‏‬ “he said’, where we might write: “the first 5210 . . . the‫‏‬ second said’, or “the former 5210 . . . then the latter replied”.‫‏‬ The sense of the passage shows who is speaking.‫‏‬ ‫ ىح‬This introduces the Subjunctive of purpose. Note‫‏‬ later in this passage we have a different use of this particle‫‏‬ introducing a statement of fact in the Perfect.‫‏‬ ‫ ىبععا‬Literally, “it aroused my admiration”: here it means‫‏‬ simply “‘if I like it’. This is a Conditional.‫‏‬ 2 é-

bul Verbal Noun of eA aly to return.

2) ‎‫ ماله » وهذا الطبق‬yo

roF“ sti ,latipac .e.i tahw ew

paid for it (=nothing!) and this tray (is) profit.” A joke, of course, as the thieves paid nothing for the donkey!

CHAPTER

FORTY- EIGHT

(Guay Sis ‫نماثلا‬‎cul)

Adverbial Usages. Including Miscellaneous Quasi-adverbial Particles 1. Arabic has no Adverbs, properly speaking, but this lack is hardly felt owing to the inherent flexibility and expressiveness of the language. Only occasionally, in translating, does one feel a certain awkwardness which is unusual in a language potentially so succinct (and almost telegraphic) as Arabic. There are a number of ways of expressing what would

necessitate Adverbs in English, and they could be summarized as follows: (a) By Prepositional Phrases, e.g.

‫ ةعرس‬ele he came quickly (with speed).‫‏‬ (b) By the use of certain Verbs, e.g.‫‏‬ ok . abit as Be

GT scarcely saw him.‫‏‬

3

‫ نسحا‬to do well:‫‏‬

2-006

‫ نسحا ةتباتك‬he wrote well.‫‏‬

(c) By a number of uses of the Accusative. Indeed, this is

the chief means employed; so much so that the Accusative in Arabic may also be described as an Adverbial case. The simplest use of the Accusative Noun is in words such as: 80-2

‫ا‬

‫“ احيانا‬sometimes”’;‫‏‬

‫“ تقريبا‬approximately”;‫‏‬

662‫>ه‬

9

‫“ فجاة‬suddenly”.‫‏‬

(d) Into the above category should really go numerous Prepositions

which

end

in

the

wun-nunated

Accusative; ‫عومد‬

un-nunated because they have a following Genitive, e.g. ‫دعب‬‎ 426

ADVERBIAL 0-0-7

“after”;

USAGES.

QUASI-ADVERBIAL

PARTICLES

427

-o-

‎‫بعد يومين‬

“of

retfa“

owt .”syad

fO

esruoc

ew

evah

Gs

‎‫“ اين‬where” and ‫مث‬‎ “then”, which are un-nunated though no Genitive follows. (e) An extension of the above is found in such expressions Sharan

o.

oa

is

ee

a

as ‫ام‬‎ ‫“ اليلق‬little”; ‫ام‬‎ aS “often”; ‫ام‬‎ Ole. “quickly”. (f) The Absolute Object also comes under this heading, especially when qualified, e.g. ‫اًديدش‬‎ Le ‫هتبرض‬‎ Lhit him hard. (g) The Hal construction also takes the place of Adverbs, 00 Dig eed

e.g.

‎‫ سرعا‬el» He came quickly.

(h) There are a few particles ending in the un-nunated Nominative, which, though obviously Nouns in origin, are the nearest approach to the true Adverb in Arabic, e.g. 3 O7

Os

‎‫“ قبل‬before’’, “previously”; ‫دعب‬‎ “after”, “‘later’’. (i) Finally, there are some particles ending in sukdin which play the part of Adverbs, e.g. ‫طقف‬‎ “only”. The following is a fairly comprehensive list of various Adverbial or Quasi-adverbial usages. Many have already been mentioned in this grammar, and are given again for completeness.

INSEPARABLE PARTICLES

Ae

0

2. (a) ١ a particle used to indicate a question (= ‫له‬‎ see

Chapter Three, 4) (called the ‫ماهفتسألا‬‎ Gj); but only when no Interrogative pronoun occurs in the sentence, e.g. aA

Bosse

MOK

itm

9

‎‫( هذا‬or ‎‫ افعلت (هل فعلت‬evah uoy enod ?siht but laa bs ae who has done this? ‎‫ ام‬- lin a double question; see ‫م‬‎i of

é

°

428

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(b) ‎‫ س‬a particle used to give a Future meaning to the

at

Imperfect. It is a shortened form of ‫فوس‬‎ “at the end.”

(alas! ‎‫ سافعله (سوف‬1 llahs od .ti See

Soe

3290

(c) 1 a particle used for Emphasis, “‘certainly, truly’, often omitted in translation, e.g. ‫ ةتلعفل‬truly, I have done it.‫‏‬ Especially with the Modus Energicus: Ae eV I shall certainly strike thee. Also in an Oath:

‫ كرمعل‬by thy life.‫‏‬ 1 is often used before the Predicate of a Nominal sentence, which begins with él (see below 3e). It is often used to introduce the apodosis of a conditional

1 sentence beginning with .‫ول‬‎ SEPARATE

ADVERBIAL

PARTICLES

3. The most important separate particles are: o-

2

-

(a) 05! and ‫اذإ‬‎ (related to (‫اذإ‬‎ “in that case, then”, e.g.: 13) ‎‫ نروح‬let us go then. (b) ‎‫( الا‬for ١ and Y) “not” in an Interrogative sentence: ‫ ةلعفأ‬YI shall I not do it?‫‏‬ o-

So ‎‫— لم‬nvfor ‫ه‬

(c)‫“ ما ‏‬or” in a double question:‫‏‬

‫‏‬y ‫الوه انسله م‬

‫ل‬

‫وعم‬

ADVERBIAL

USAGES.

QUASI-ADVERBIAL

PARTICLES

429

(d) ‎‫( اما‬for | and (‫ام‬‎ “not” in an Interrogative sentence: ‫در‬ ‫وم‬ ‫د ا‬ -‫خ‬

‫ اما هتلعف‬have you not done it?‫‏‬ (e) ol “truly, certainly’.‫‏‬ ‫ نإ‬introduces Nominal sentences, the subject following in‫‏‬ the Accusative, the Predicate often strengthened by A (see

above 2c) following in the Noun, e.g.: 20-

&

‫ان زيدا ع‬

ost 1 ae

verily, Zaid is intelligent.‫‏‬

It may be used with Pronominal suffixes, the pronoun then Being a subject, e.g. a5 verily he, J and A verily I,

uyand 3 verily we. (f) si) (for Ol and L) is always at the beginning of a sentence and limits the word or clause at the end of it by its meaning ‘‘only”’, e.g.:

‫ امنإ تاقدنملا ءارقفلل‬the alms are for the poor only.‫‏‬

)g( lc ,.e.i“ taht ‫”‏‬si (= ‫(يعنى‬.

(h) ‎َ‫“ أين‬where?” “OE

‎‫ه‬

- oF

-

ce! gy “whence?” ‎‫?” إلى اين‬rehtihw“ ‫عمده‬

‫‘‘ ايئما‬wherever”’.‫‏‬

(i) ‫لب‬‎ “but rather, no on the contrary, but”. 57

.

(j) ‎‫“ بلى‬yes certainly” as answer to negative sentences.

430

A

(k) @ “there”,

NEW

ARABIC

4.

GRAMMAR

0 ‫ال‬‎

(1) ‎‫ قد‬before the Perfect expresses the completion or certainty of the action and can sometimes be translated

“already”, but is often to be left untranslated. It may also change the meaning of the Perfect to the Pluperfect. With the Imperfect it means ‘“‘sometimes”’,

yo

6

:5 ‘‘may’’.

(m) Lis “only”, always placed after the word it modifies. (n) b3 “never’’, follows a verb in the Perfect with a negative, e:¢.: ‫دش‬

80393-

-

‫ ام هتيار طق‬I have never seen him.‫‏‬ )0( AT “not at all, by no means’.‫‏‬ (p)‫“ال ‏‬not, no”,

x j‫‏‬

(1) As particle of Denial ‫)ىفنلل‬‎ Y) before the Imperf. Indic. with Present and Future meaning: 23.00

=

‫ ال هلعفا‬1 do it not (or I shall not do it).‫‏‬

(2) As particle of Prohibition (eu Y) followed by the Jussive with the meaning of the Imperative: JOTI

lo

‫ هلعفت‬Y do it not.‫‏‬ (3) As particle of Complete Chapter Forty-five, 3 i)

Denial

(ati ‫يىفنل‬‎ ‫( ال‬see

(r)‎‫ لما‬followed by the Jussive means “‘not 76”.

(s) ‎‫“ لن‬not” is followed by the Subjunctive, which then has the meaning of a Future: ‫در‬

‫ هلعفا‬ra I shall not do it.‫‏‬

ADVERBIAL

USAGES.

QUASI-ADVERBIAL

PARTICLES

431

(t) ‎‫“ ما‬not” is followed by either Perfect or Imperfect,

usually the former. 6

Note: For ‫نإ‬‎ as particle of Denial see Chapter Forty-Nine 3 (c) Note.

(u) ‎‫“ مى‬when”’, also used as a Conjunction. (v) ‫معن‬‎ (rarely (‫معن‬‎' ‘yes’, derived from ‫معن‬‎“(what you say)

is ‫اود‬‎

١

(w) ‎‫ هل‬Particle of Interrogation, ‫وجو‬

‫ ل هتلعف‬have you done it?‫‏‬ In an indirect Wa

it denotes ‘‘whether’’, e.g.:

-0--000

‫ له ةرظتناىنن‬3‫ ذربخأ‬tell me whether you have expected me.‫‏‬ ‫ ه‬-

‫( دله‬for‫ له ‏‬and‫“الإ ‏‬not” in an Interrogative sentence.‫‏‬ cal)‫‏‬

‫او‬

(x)‫“ انه ‏‬here’’, or ina strengthened form‫( انهاه ‏‬sometimes‫‏‬ SIA

written kgs). (y) Sta and Wes

“there’’.

NOUNS

USED

AS

ADVERBS

4. Several nouns are used as adverbs in the un-nunated nominative, and are, of course, indeclinable. Some of these words (those in the left-hand column below) are also used as prepositions, in which instance, as has been seen, they end in un-nunated fatha, e.g.: 207

20-

yee

‫ه‬‎

‎‫ يعد‬or ‎‫ من بعد‬.”sdrawretfa“ ‫يعد‬

rate

— 5 ton“ ‫‏‬.’’tey 2265

3

‫من حيث‬

‫تر‬

©

‫ فوق‬,, ‫“ من فوق‬above”’.‫‏‬ 307

Se

J

َ‫ه‬‎

0

°

‫دع‬

at one time — at another time.‫‏‬

ADVERBIAL

USAGES.

QUASI-ADVERBIAL

PARTICLES

3

-o-

‫“ دحو‬alone” is used with suffixes, e.g.‫ىدحو ‏‬ 9- I alone,‫‏‬

SO

‫وحده‬

he alone, ete.‫‏‬ yar-r-

dé and ‫لعل‬‎ ' ‘perhaps” are often used with suffixes, e.g. aLJ

‫ ميو‬he,‫(ىلعل ‏‬rarely Ab) perhaps I.‫‏‬ ‫“ تيل‬would that”

with suffixes ax) would

that he, ea‫‏‬

(rarely ‎‫ (ليتى‬would that I.

/

VOCABULARY sc appetising

‫تك‬‎ pl. GUS shoulder

ce pl. ‫حالم‬‎ pretty, tasty;

>! VIII to commit suicide

good : ‎‫ غى‬sufficiency, wealth

“= ‫سبع‬‎ )-( to frown 5 209 pis

es

pry ‎‫ سواحل‬sea shore,

‎‫ ساحل‬pl. -

coast =

20

-

2

Be

a LAS pl. ‫ىط‬‎lye ri bank se? ‫ اوش‬river 5 0>

‫بطء‬

5

BS J pl. ‫تا‬‎

(Syr. Eg.)

inn, hotel

He 3 ‫بهذا‬‎ mind your own 0000

ey slowly

32 (—) to drown intr.‫‏‬

eh slow 90-5

S45 pl. Dee inn, hotel 5 -o-

bs(~) to jump‫‏‬ ‫ه‬

-??

‫ ةوطخ‬pl.‫ تاوطخ ‏‬step, pace

Bjjumping (v.. of above)‫‏‬

EXERCISE 93‫‏‬ From the Kitab al-Bukhald of al-Jahiz This is the story of a rich miser who would not invite his relatives to his house because of the cost of entertaining them. Finally, however, they prevail upon him to invite them and the following tells what happened:

eer iy sey ‫احيلم‬‎‫مهلاماعطافيفخاًيهش‬Jat ‎‫« آنا‬ass ‎‫ الذى لا شئّ اعظم‬llla eoR ‎‫انيه اقبل عليهم فقال‬

434

A NEW

ARABIC

w

GRAMMAR ‎‫َه‬

0

‫ع‬

3~

of

iS

‎‫ انك‬Aas ‎‫ ما‬٠ ‎‫ تاكلوا طعامى؟ قالوا‬lO ‎‫الساعة ايسر وأغنى أقوبل‬

at ‎‫ الماعة‬Gs SG, ‫عرسي‬‎‫ لاننا ىو فلكل نمااور‬ok, om .‫‏ الى الفقر‬tsS ‫ بل انت الساعة‬: ‫الى الفقر آم تلك الساعة؟ قالوا‬

‫‏‬yletaG ‫‏ على ترك دعوة قوم قربونى من الفقرء‬koS ‫ فمن‬: ‫قال‬ ‫‏‬lage ‫ومح‬: ‫يت دن الفقر اقرب‬

‫نوكتي‬

‫ا‬

.‫ابعد‬ ‫ند‬ ‫“ ةعاسلا‬now” (Adverbial Acc.)‫‏‬ bb

Ol‫“ وأ لبق ‏‬or (was I) before you ate?”‫‏‬

‫دن الفقر = كنت من الفقر اقرب‬ EXERCISE

‫لكأف‬

94

I met him walking slowly by the river bank, taking short paces. Where has this strange man come from, I thought,

and why does he walk sadly as if ‫(نك‬‎ the cares of the whole world were on his shoulders? I will invite him to my house, as I am arich man, and I will give him tasty appetizing food.

Perhaps when he leaves my house he will be happier than he was previously! I called him, but he did not hear me and made no reply. It seemed that his private thoughts were too important for him (oI 8 with subjunctive) to heed a passer-by. I called him again in a loud voice, and he turned towards me frowning. He hesitated a little, then said angrily: “Have I met you

before? Do you know me?”’. “No”, I said, “but I thought that you were perhaps in

some difficulty, and I wanted to help you. Will you come to my house, and stay a little while and eat and drink something with me?”

ADVERBIAL

USAGES.

QUASI-ADVERBIAL

PARTICLES

435

“They say that an Englishman’s home is his castle’’, he replied, ‘“‘but you want to make yours an hotel, poorhouse, or orphan’s home. Do you think that a stranger like you can help me? Allow me to give you some advice; and even if you won’t allow me, I will give it: mind your own business!” Then he went off, and I continued on my way. On the following day I read in the local paper that the

body of an unknown man had been found in the river, that he had drowned, and that there was no apparent cause for that. And even now I do not know whether (i) it was the man whom I had met who had drowned, or (el) someone else. But I always imagine that the troubles of that poor

unfortunate frowning man became too great for him to bear, and so he committed suicide by jumping into the river. And

I still ask myself occasionally: Could I have saved him?

CHAPTER

FORTY-NINE

‎)‫) التاسع والأربعون‬NUS Particles. Conjunctions 1. Whereas in English it is considered bad style to commence a sentence with “‘and’’, in Arabic it is the rule rather than

the exception to do so. Sentences are continually linked by 5 and less frequently, by 3 “then”. Only at the end of a paragraph, or where there is a definite change of topic, is the Conjunction omitted. It is true that under Western influence the Conjunction is more frequently omitted in modern literary Arabic; but even so the Western reader will at first be struck by the ubiquitous .‫و‬‎ It is by far the commonest conjunction; ‫فر‬‎ as we have seen, has special implications. Doubtless,

a , having the Accusative

un-nunated

ending,

ought properly to be considered adverbial. As it often introduces sentences without a preliminary » or ‫فر‬‎ however, it

may properly be mentioned here.

There are, of course, many other Particles which may be described more or less as Conjunctions. Some of them have already been discussed, but they are mentioned again here for completeness.

Conjunctions may be either Inseparable (that is, joined to the first word of the sentence they introduce) or Separate. 2. The Inseparables are: (a) ‎‫و‬. This may Join Sentences or Nouns, e.g. oe

ee

(i) ‎‫ كرسي‬ae ‎‫ وجلس‬ia Hes Zaid entered and sat on a chair. §6§---

‫دوو‬

-

-

(ii) ‎‫ جاء زيد وحسن‬diaZ dna nassaH .emac It is not usually used in Arabic to link two Adjectives governing the same Noun. Thus the sentence “‘a large and beautiful 436

PARTICLES.

CONJUNCTIONS

437

city” would be Heer‫ةريبك‬‎‫ ةئيدم‬rather than ‫ةليمجو‬‎ ‫ ةريبك‬,‫ةنيدم‬ though the latter is not grammatically incorrect, and may occasionally be encountered.

‫ و‬between two sentences, of which the second is a Nominal‫‏‬ sentence, often means ‘“‘while”’. Such a sentence introduced‫‏‬ by ‎‫ و‬is called a GIES Pies “sentence of condition’, e.g.: 0 ‫وهو‬‎ ‫\ ماق ديز‬ Zaid stood up, while he wept ah 3 َ‫م‬‎ (Zaid stood up weeping). also with change of Subject: 50--

GO-

-

--

‫[| بهذ ديز ورمعوقاب‬Zaid went away and ‘Amr‫‏‬ ‫ سمع‬s0--‫ وهمي ‏‬--~ [ remained (while ‘Amr remained).‫‏‬

ee‫‏‬

ee

The‫ و ‏‬is usually dropped, follows:‫‏‬ 3-6-7

when a Verbal Hal sentence‫‏‬

Gor - -

‫ ديز كحضي‬els Zaid came, while he laughed (laughing).‫‏‬

The waw of Hal (SUI (‫واو‬‎ is sometimes used before a Nominal sentence which has no Participle or Imperfect: 5‫> م‬

--

°0 -6 -

‫ ديز هديبو فيس‬ele Zaid came,

(b)

and in his hand a sword‫‏‬

8 (with a sword in his hand).‫‏‬ differs essentially from ‫فر‬‎ although there are many

contexts in which either would be acceptable. It implies a close connection between the sentences before and after it. This connection may be either definite Cause and Effect, or a natural sequence of event (i) Cause and eRe 20028

‫ انا اضيا‬ca‫ ماق ةريزولا‏‬the minister stood up, so I‫‏‬ stood up also.‫‏‬ ro‫ ودعلا مهو‏‬ais the ‫)| اوردو‬14

enemy

advanced

to-‫‏‬

ne °° wards them; so they turned‫‏‬ 1 and fled hurriedly.‫‏‬

438

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

Conditionals, already dealt with, come under this cate6

gory. But, as has been seen, in the Conditional with ‫كإ‬‎ the Apodosis is introduced by ‫ف‬‎ only in certain given circumstances. (ii) Natural eS, Gs-07

---0

-

‫ رظتناف ودعلا‬co jeu‫ ماق ‏‬He stood up, drew his sword,‫‏‬ and waited for the enemy.

Here, both ‫فاو‬‎ could be replaced by .‫و‬‎ ‫ ف‬is rarely used to join single words, but it may be so used when a closely connected sequence is intended, e.g.

9553 ‎‫ حساك هرا‬rek gnirb ni ,nassaH neht -mahuM mad, then Zaid. (here i could be used, or ‫كلذ‬‎ ‫ دعبو‬or (‫هدعبو‬‎ ‫دهج‬

‫وه‬

oe‫‏‬

‫ ةرئاد ةرمتسم‬elles‫ تناك ‏‬his life was a constant round:‫‏‬ eens - g 2 going to the inn, drinking, get‎‫ شرب فسكر‬letO ‎‫ لد هاب‬gnit ,knurd ,gnipeels neht gniog 60

er

Aste the inn.

By its very nature, ‫ف‬‎ is precluded from joining two Adjectives governing the same Noun. Such a usage, if encountered, would be most unusual. (c) J “so that” with following Subjunctive: --90

-

JU ts dele he came to me so that he might demand the wealth (to‘demand the wealth). With the same meaning are used ON, ‫ىلإ‬‎ and negatively Ky ; ‫دايكل‬‎ “so that 201”. ‫ ل‬with the Jussive

expresses a demand:‫‏‬ i250

‎‫ ليكتب‬let him write!

(nearly always in the 3rd Person)‫‏‬

PARTICLES.

CONJUNCTIONS

439

3. The usual Separable Conjunctions are: ‫إن‬

(a) }3 “when, since, after, Nominal or Verbal sentence.‫‏‬

because”

with

following‫‏‬

(b) ‎‫“ إذا‬when, if” originally used of time, but often of

condition. In direct questions= ‘‘whether”’.

3 and ‫اذإ‬‎ also mean “‘behold!’’, in which case the former is aivrays followed by a Verbal sentence, the latter by a

Nominal sentence in which the Subject is either in the

Nominative or takes :‫ب‬‎ 5 ‫>ر‬-

2

‫ رجل‬Jl‫‏‬

2 behold, a man came!

HF (den) JS 1

‫ ام‬131 means “‘whenever”.‫‏‬ 5

(c) ‫نإ‬‎ “if, whether” introduces Conditional sentences or indirect Questions. 6-

Oly means “and if, even if, although”.

es = “verily if”.

Note: There is also a iDarticle of Denial ol e€.g.: ‎‫متهاَم أغمصة‬

‫ا‬ )I ld I evah ton nees gnihtyna fo ,reh taht * I despise.

This usage, though common in the Quran, is rare elsewhere,

and should not be used by students. (d)‎‫ إلا‬used for Exception, see Chapter Fifty-one. Note,

however, the following uses of this particle as a conjunction: garcrc

(i) bi JI; ‫لاع‬‎‫( مك توصب‬tls ‫نك‬‎ ail JI‫ةبحأ‬‎ae I liked him, save that he always spoke in i a loud voice. ae

- 390°

‫ني‬‎ -

‫مهو‬

\

5

:

(ii) Vis; ‫كتب‬‎‫ رض‬Vig ‫مق‬‎ Stand up, otherwise I will beat you. (Quasi-condition, or after-thought condition).

440

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

ae

(e) ‫اما‬‎ “as for” with a following Nominative, the Predicate

being always strengthened with a W, e.g.: er

‎‫دوت‬

‫در خماش‬

el ion 3 as for Mt. Hermon, lofty mountain.

it is a‫‏‬

‫ قيرطلا‬d‫ةتيقلف ‏‬Pei, ui as for the dog, I met him‫‏‬ on the road.‫‏‬ ‫در‬

80-0

(According to Arabian grammarians‫ بلكلا ‏‬is the Sub-‫‏‬ ject, all the rest is Predicate.)‫‏‬ (f) Ol “that” with following Verbal sentence, the verb being occasionally in the Perf., nearly always in the Imperf. Subjunctive. 0 E-

of

Of =“‘as though”; OY = “‘because”’. of

‎‫و‬

an

With Negative: ‫الا‬‎ (for ‫نأ‬‎ and Y) “that not’; ‫الثل‬‎ “so that not”’, (g) ‎‫“ انث‬that”? with a Nominal sentence. In compounds: ee

“just as if”, “it is as if’.

‎5‫ك‬ ‫لان‬ SI}

“because’’.‫‏‬ “except pt that, th 8‫‏‬ yet’.‫‏‬

(h) 9 ‘or’: ‫عال‬‎ “either — or”’

With the Subjunctive 1 means “unless that, until that’’. --o-

(i) 2» (more rarely (‫انيب‬‎ “while”. (j) ‎‫“ ث=م‬then, thereupon”’ often followed by at

PARTICLES.

(k)

a.” (>

: “until”

CONJUNCTIONS

agen (=ol 3);

with

a Nominal

441

sentence



often ‫نا‬‎ iS:

(1) er or SJ “in order that” with following Subjunctive. ele ee With Negative ‫اليك‬‎ and AN “in order that not’’.

(m) ‎‫ لكن‬and ‎‫“ لكن‬but”, the former being followed by a verb, the latter only by nouns in the Accusative, or Pronominal suffixes: i

“but he’.

(n) ‎‫“ لما‬when, after” with following Perfect to be translated usually by the Pluperfect.

Ae (0) ‫ول‬‎ “if” in Conditional sentences referring to a mere supposition.

(p) ‎‫“ ما‬so long as” ‫)ةموميدلا‬‎ ‫“ ام‬the ‫ام‬‎ of continuance’’), is often used in compound Conjunctions: Sen L ‎‫‘“ بعد‬after’’. --0-

‫ امئيب‬and ks “while’’.‫‏‬

a Ns “before” (always with the Imperf.). It is often used also to generalize, e.g.: eG ‎‫“ ) إذما‬whenever”.

kas ee, ‫ام‬‎ ‫‘ ىتم‬whenever’.

ar

-a2

‫ اماذإ‬J.“if ever”.‫‏‬

‫ “هو املك‬often as”.‫‏‬

In these cases it is followed by the Perf. or the Juss. in the sense of the Present.

(q) ‫ىتم‬‎ -

‫دودر‬

ce

“when”, ‫ام‬‎ ‫ىتم‬ 99

8

‫رهم‬

(r) Ax or‫“ مك ‏‬since”.‫‏‬

2

2

“whenever”. ”

442

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY a-

‎‫ ولى‬II to turn round, bac intr. 20-7

Sw--s

‫مدقتم‬‎ ancient, an ancient (of historical personages)

wae

FRET

‎‫ إستل سيفا‬11171 ot

wa ar drod ws ‎‫ حكيم‬.lp ‎‫ حكماء‬,esiw esiw ;nam

doctor (popular)

OL pl, ‫تا‬‎ — inn, khan

LSA ca

hee X to be round jlacel

ak ‫مكح‬‎

wisdom,

aphor-

Pp

1

—)to

e (-)top

persevere, continue 1

as ‎‫ الشر‬the Shari‘a, Muslim

anissGreek, a Greek pe

law

oe

2,7 °%

‫نانويلا‬‎ Greece, the Greeks

‎‫ب‬. . . ‫ استدل على‬X ot evorp cloud (collective)

Sh TAS

‎‫ شرعى‬legalist,lawyer, expert

on the Shari‘a; legal adj. fess pl. ‫خما‬‎‫ وش‬lofty

a (2) to wither, fade 5

39

a» pl. ‫جورب‬‎ tower ‫رابع‬‎ architect

EXERCISE

95

The geographer, al-Mas‘idi, writes about the roundness of the earth.

‫ فذهب الاأكلثرفملناسفة المتقدمين من‬.‫ فشىكل البحار‬gist‫قد ‏‬ » ‫من خالفهم وذهب القىول الشرغيين‬.‫»لا‬ ‫الهند ونحكماء اليوتانيين ا‬ ‫ اولدتساو ىلع مم كلذ‬A

ge polyps le tes‫ ابيز ‏‬di‫‏‬

‫ هيف‬Bas‫( اذا ‏‬among them, including) Ys‫ ةريثك » ‏‬YY‫‏‬ ‫ ٍعءىش ىتح بيغي‬sy‫ اًعيش ‏‬July‫( تباغ كنع ضرالا ‏‬i.e. the sea)‫‏‬

PARTICLES.

CONJUNCTIONS

443

‫ذلك كله » ولا ترى شيئًا من شوامخ الجبال» واذا اقبلت ايضا نحو‬ 2

é-

‫الاشجار‬

‫‏‬sbp

‫‏‬2

»

‫شىء‬

‫شيعا يعد‬

‫وال‬

‫‏‬s‫ك‬3y‫ل‬a ‫ت‬

‫ظهرت‬

:

»

‫الساحل‬ ‫و‬

.‫والارض‬

NOTE:‫( وثت ع ‏‬Pass. Perf. of‫ عزن ‏‬VI) “‘was disputed”’.‫‏‬

EXERCISE

Note: content nature. already papers,

96

It is not intended to test and practise by exercises the whole of this chapter and similar chapters largely of a revisional In any case, it is assumed that by this stage the student will have commenced reading literature or magazines or newsif rather laboriously.

1. Turn round and face me, for I have drawn my sword and do not wish to strike a man in the back. 2. He persevered in his study of the religious law in order to take it (use Form VIII) as a profession. 3. Give me a clean glass, otherwise I

will go and drink in another inn. 4. I have a little round picture (use diminutive) of my mother, and it resembles her,

save that the colours have faded. 5. The ancients used to build their palaces and castles with lofty towers, then after the passage of time, the custom changed; so that we rarely see towers in the buildings of modern architects. 6. Uneducated people today call the doctor ““Hakim’’, since they consider wisdom one of his qualities. 7. As for the science of medicine, it began, perhaps, in fee a number of centuries before Christ. 8. Caesar (as) said: I came, I saw, I conquered— and that was when he returned to Italy from France with his

army. 9. I used to eat at his house frequently, until he moved to another town; then I did not see him after that until the

day of his death. 10. While we were watching, he was raised up to heaven in a cloud.

CHAPTER (6

‫رو‬‎ 1

FIFTY SU)

Particles. Interjections. 1. The Vocative (clasi GES is expressed by the particles ‫اي‬‎ adé

- 208

and ‫اهيا‬‎ Fem. 4x! (but the Masc. is often used for the Fem.) ‫عنم‬

-

‫‏‬ro ‫يا ايها‬.

‫ اهيا‬and‫اي اهيأ ‏‬are followed by the noun in the Nominative‫‏‬ with the Article:‫‏‬ ‫ ٌديملتلا‬taal)0 O scholar!‫‏‬

‫ اي‬is followed

by the noun

in the Nominative

without‫‏‬

Article (and without Nunation in the Sing.) if the person‫‏‬ addressed is present and the noun is not determined by any‫‏‬ following words, e.g.‫‏‬ Wy 5 O boy!

hese L O Mohammed!

‫ © يا اولاد‬boys!‫‏‬ If the person addressed is absent or the noun is determined

by some word or words after it, then the noun is put in the Accusative, e.g.:

‫ اي الفاغ‬O careless! (not addressed to any one particular‫‏‬ person). ‎‫ ها‬See there! ‎‫هو ذا‬

eeS ereht eh !si

ht! WL ‫اي‬‎ © thou, who climbest the mountain! wo

O my brother!

‫الهاي‬‎ welcome!

Notice specially: -E

-

oak

‎‫ © يا ابت‬ym !rehtaf

-

‎‫! © يا اماه‬rehtom

‫ © اي بر‬my Lord!‫‏‬ Norte 2: The noun that follows 4 often takes the Vocative ending

8

8

el - (see below .(‫هصاق‬‎

2. Some of the commonest Interjections are: .

shit a d aly! Ah! -

7 ‫ او‬Oh! The following: noun often has the ending | — or‫‏‬ ol — in pause, e.g.‫‏‬ B--

-

‫‏‬po ‫وم‬

-

‫ وا أسفا‬ro ‫‏‬lualc ‫ © وا‬sorrow!‫‏‬

ee‫‏‬

‫ وا حسرتا‬0 grief!‫‏‬ Ee ‎‫ وى‬Alas! also with suffixes: ‫كيو‬‎ Alas for thee! a Berl Also ‎‫يلك‬92, ‫وحك‬ ‫ه‬. ‫ و‬ehT tsom

nommoc si ‎‫ويلك‬.

i Come! with the Preposition ‫بن‬‎ ly ee Come, let us go! ‎١‫ مه‬oa wle Far from it!

i Gree

‎‫اف‬, ‫! اف‬eiF 62-2

‫‏ بخ‬dna ‫ بخ بخ‬Bravo!‫‏‬ ‫‏‬a

-‫م ه‬

‫كك‬ae (Fem. of the Elative‫‘“ بيطا ‏‬best’’) Hail!‫‏‬

Sugb or ‫كل‬‎ eeyb Hail to thee! ‎‫ هلم‬, in the Plural |‫اومله‬‎ “Hither!”

446

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

a

5

‎‫( هات‬properly the Imper. IV of ‫ىلا‬‎ “to come’) “give, bring here!’’ also used in the Fem. Cee

|

65-2

‎‫ دونك‬and ‎‫““ دوتكم‬Beware!”’. -

ia

‫هدر‬‎

Sb! and ‫مكايإ‬‎ “‘Beware!”’. 3. Certain nouns are used in the Accusative as Interjections. ‫ال دكهسو‬ Ke f Welcome!‫‏‬ 2--

LE Strange! ‎‫ مهلا‬Slowly! ‫همه‬

‫ مرحيا‬Welcome!‫‏‬

007

‎‫ مرحبا بك‬emocleW ot !eeht

dehy ‎‫( سمعا‬lit. “hearing and obeying”.) At your service! ‫ كِل‬Gs Alas for thee!‫‏‬

4. Many religious expressions are used interjectionally: e.g. ‫ هللا‬or alll‫اي ‏‬or very commonly‫ مهلا ‏‬O God!‫‏‬

‫هللات‬alli;‫ هللاو ‏‬By God!‫‏‬ ‫دصل‬

‫صن‬

-

oe

1 20-0

‫ دمحلاهلل‬Thanks to God!‫‏‬ ar ola o!If God will! ‎‫منن الزعيم‬3‫الرح‬ila‎‫ يسم‬nI eht eman fo doG eht -noissapmoC ate, the Merciful! ‎‫صك‬

‫ود‬

%9

&

‎‫ اعوذ بالله‬ro tia ‎‫ معاد‬doG dibrof !ti .til( I“ ekat eguferni 1 0000.

PARTICLES,

‫ وه‬022

‫ادوس‬

INTERJECTIONS

447

=

‫ ال لوح الو ةوق‬There is no might and no power, save‫‏‬ oe be

-

in God the Mighty! (Expression of astonishment and alarm.)

fe

aut elt ‫ام‬‎ What God will! (Astonishment.) ‫م صلء‬

0-0)

‫ هللا‬ist I ask pardon of God! (Used to decline‫‏‬ 3 a compliment.)‫‏‬ Praises constantly appended to the name of God:

is (Perf. IV of (‫الع‬‎ He is exalted! ‫> ددن‬

‫اي‬

‫اح‬9 ‫ رع‬He is powerful and glorified!‫‏‬ 5-5-2

‫ هناحبس‬Praised be He!‫‏‬

There are no vocabulary or exercises for this chapter.

CHAPTER

FIFTY-ONE

‎)‫ رن‬esi SU Exception

lncThe commonest, way, ofexpressing Eeeehtioga(B)ae)a'2 "0

0

by the Particle ‫الإ‬‎ (a modification of Y ol “if not”). This Particle takes the Accusative iin its following Noun in most,

but not all, circumstances. The following rules apply. For the purpose of explanation, we consider the situation of the two important elements involved, i.e. the thing (or person) Excepted, and the Generality. Thus, if I say: ‘““The teachers

came, apart from George’, George is the Exception, and the teachers are the Generality. The following situations may occur in Arabic: (a) The Generality may not be mentioned at all. e.g. S--%

ee

}

‫ ام ىقب الإ نسح‬only Hassan remained (lit. did not‫‏‬ 1 ‫و‬

remain except Hassan).‫‏‬

80-

‫ ام تيارالإ ائمسح‬I saw only Hassan.‫‏‬ --

-

g9o-7

-

‫ ام تيضرالإ نع نسح‬I was pleased only with Hassan.‫‏‬ Here, it will be noted that ‘Hassan’,

the Noun

after Ni

6

changes its case as if ‫الإ‬‎ were not there, ‫هت‬

e.g.

>

‫م‬

fe‫‏‬

‎‫ بقى حسمن‬nassaH .deniamer 2°-

306-

‫ تيار‬I saw Hassan, etc.‫‏‬

To put it another way, the noun after Tlgoes into the case in which the generality would have been, had it been mentioned. Note that this situation can only occur in a negative 448

EXCEPTION

449

sentence. The following are the rules, when the generality is mentioned: (b) In Positive Sentences ‫ال‬‎ Iinvariably takes the Accusative,

€.g‫رضاحلاني‬As‫كلملاماق‏‬ iy except the King, all present stood‫‏‬ up (the Excepted coming first).‫‏‬

‫الإ كلما‬etl‫ماق ‏‬all stood up except the King.‫‏‬ (c) In Negative Sentences the Accusative may be used, but there are alternative usages as under:

(i) Where

the Excepted

comes first, it may be in the

Nominative eee

‫ رضح‬5 (or ae)‫ ا ‏‬aT except Hassan, the pupils did not‫‏‬ 25 ‫د‬ attend.‫‏‬

(ii) Where the 000

comes first, the Excepted may be

put in the same case as the Generality.

i ‎‫ ما حضر التلامذةٌ ِل‬eht slipup did ton ,dnetta tpecxe 5

OF im)

Hassan.

eas ‫الإ‬‎spd J‫ر‬‎ as 3 he

rien

‫د‬‎

(or ‫مهدئ‬‎ li)

did

not

pass

the

soldiers,

except their leader.

‎‫ إلاأياه‬ty & tfo ‎‫ كان‬eh detah ydobyreve tpecxe sih father. Note that in this eventuality, the Generality may be expressed 5-6 by ef

“one”,

e.g.

--

pets) Say :| ‫دحا‬ =

5-85

SI

eye

te

‫ا‬‎

>

ol‫ ام ‏‬no one came except Hassan.‫‏‬ 01S

‫ الإ انسح‬loa!‫ ام تبرض ‏‬I struck no one except Hassan.‫‏‬ ,5 ,© wife

ag

00‫‏‬

‫ ام تررم دحاب الإ نمسح‬1 passed no one but Hassan.‫‏‬ 2

=

‫امد‬

(or (eases)

450

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

2. The above rules may seem complicated, but it is best for the novice to use the Accusative in all circumstances where the Generality is mentioned. The following table, however, summarizes what has been said: -

Table to show the cases to be used after TE

Position of the Generality

Positive Sentence

Not mentioned

Negative Sentence

In the

case

in

which the generality would have been, had it been mentioned.

First

Accusative

Accusative (or in

the Case of the generality). Last

Accusative

Accusative (or Nominative).

3. Other Exceptive Constructions are: 5‫و‬

>

(a)‫ ريغ ‏‬This is a Noun, as explained in Chapter Forty-five,‫‏‬ 4 4 (vi), and takes ’iddfa. It is placed in the case in which‫‏‬ the Noun after J would have been placed, according to the above eae e.g.

a cee ‫ىقب‬‎‘a only Hassan remained. --

‫دمو‬

‫وو‬

>>

-

‫ ام تبرض ريغ نسح‬1 struck no one except Hassan.‫‏‬

EXCEPTION

451

2

‫ سغ‬is also os in the un-nunated Accusative followed by a‫‏‬

sentence with Sl, e.g. I--

‫رَسَم‬‎

GO

ed

3 wile ‫هنا‬‎ ‫ اومن ريغ‬O he was happy, except that he “0

- - feared the King’s wrath.

veo

-

a

"er

Here ‫الإ‬‎could replace .‫ريغ‬‎ (b) ‎‫ ما عدا‬dna ‎‫ حلا‬sU esehT tca sa ,sbreV dna ekat na Accusative, e.g.

Pvt (A+ L) ‫ادع‬‎ ‫ ع موقلا ام‬The people came, apart from Hassan. (c) These two words occasionally occur without ,‫ام‬‎ and then take the Genitive, as Prepositions. The above sentence

would then read:

gee (edie ‫موقلا‬‎ ‫ءاج‬ But the use of ‫الخ‬‎ in this way was disputed by the grammarians.

4. Related to Exception is the use of It invariably takes the Nominative.

‫الإ‬‎“especially”.

699

‫ رابكمه‬Ley G5 |Ris they were infidels, especially‫‏‬ their old men.‫‏‬

‫ ىذلا‬gs‫‏‬ = ‫الاميس‬aks EAL I saw -w-»

them

all, especially‫‏‬

| 2 - Hassan, who was in their fore-‫‏‬

mrss 3 ‫َن‬‎ front.

‫ لاميسدْئاَقمه‬oraes

I was angry with them, espe-‫‏‬ cially their leader.‫‏‬

-

Note: For Oo|

@

and

|‫و‬‎ see Chapter Forty-Nine, 3 (d).

452

A NEW

ae ‎‫عيادة‬

(from

surgery ‫‏‬ea

‫ه‬

GRAMMAR

VOCABULARY

2 ‎‫(عاد‬

time (with or without

8

(mod.);

ents’ ‫ا‬‎

ARABIC

out-pati(mod.)

‫د‬

‫ ةخسن‬pl.‫ خس ‏‬copy (of book,‫‏‬ etc.)‫‏‬

‫ني‬‎

‎‫مان‬I) ds pl. S| — company, group, faction or

cre

‫ نع‬e )~( to result from‫‏‬

$755

‫ رهام‬pl.‫ ةرهمم ‏‬clever, skilful,‫‏‬ ‫اتات‬

Als pl.‫ ٌديلاقت ‏‬tradition (lit.‫‏‬ imitation) ٠

‫ عراب‬clever, accomplished‫‏‬ ‎‫ الصِين‬China, the Chinese “0

eae 8 ry experienced

2

‎‫ وواافر‬,lufitnelp tnadnuba

fie pl. iI0 a revolutionary,

pel VIII to be on the point of death 5>

Chinese

‫ده‬

‫ ةهرب‬pl.‫ تاور ‏‬a space of‫‏‬

rebel ll dole «ial the common “people, the masses

EXERCISE

97

‫ ا‬‎‫ يكرهون‬52 ‫ هناك فى الشرق الأوسط‬Sg : ‎‫لغرب » فيقولون‬Sb

‎‫ وبا نتج عنه الا إتنقكارليدنا‬LOC ‎‫ما أعطانا هذا التأثير الاعدم‬ .‫من سكان تلك البلاد‬. ‫‏ الكثير‬,BAJ ‫ نا‬:‫ وهذا‬: lx By ‫انتاداعو‬‎

.» ‫العلم ولو من الصين‬

0

: )‫لكنهم ينسون حديث النبى (صلعم‬

‫استقال جميع اعضاء الحكومة ما عدا اثنين منهمء وهما وزير‬

‫المفكرين‬

‫وهذان وغيرهما من‬

‫‏‬٠ ‫والتجارة‬

eee Sars ‫"ل‬‎ ‫ع‬

‫الخارحية ووزير الاقنصادية‬

‫ نول‬ap Ol ‫نا‬‎

UW blige GS IYI “‫داصتقاب‬/‫ةلودلا‬‎ fas cela Vy

EXCEPTION

‫‏‬354

6 ‫الا الأولاد والبنات» خرج جميع ناالسقرية للمزارع » فهذا فصل‬

LW )SAB allirog ‫‏‬elc 11-0711 ‫ وضلا تررحن‬iedy‫‏‬ .)‫قطت فى جميع الشهور تقريبا الا شهر آذار (مارس‬3 ‫س‬ EXERCISE

98

Rewrite the whole of Exercise 97, with full vowelling and orthographical signs. Note: In translating, the student is advised to follow the order of the English where possible, putting the Generality before the Exception, and vice versa, in the Arabic, according to the order in the English.

Further, ‎‫| لا‬,by far the commonest exceptive particle, should be used wherever admissible. ‫ادع‬‎ Land ‫الخ‬‎ Lare not so common, and should

be sparingly introduced.

EXERCISE 99 A All the patients (the sick) waited for the doctor in his outpatients’ department several hours, except one, and this man

knew the doctor’s habits. The reason for the doctor’s delay was that, while returning from visiting a patient in his house, he stopped on his way home at an inn to have a drink (to drink something). He frequently did this, especially in the winter. Consequently, he had lost many patients. And he might have lost more, except that he was clever and experi-

enced. B When I entered my friend’s house, I only saw a ghost. I was only a youth, and that sight terrified me. Apart from my father, I had never seen a dying man before. No-one was with my friend, except his neglectful inexperienced servant, so I decided to remain with him for a time.

454

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

C Hassan

had wanted

to read al-Jahiz’s ‘““Book of Misers’’,

and told his father that. When his birthday arrived, he was expecting his father to give him a copy, but he gave him another book instead. He was very angry, for a time, but when he read the book, he liked it very much. D No strangers have ever entered our city except ten travellers

who had lost the way. All of them were killed, except two. We allowed them to survive because one of them was a blacksmith and the other a carpenter.

CHAPTER

FIFTY-TWO

(Syed, ‫ىناثلا‬‎(‫بابلأ‬ The Rules of Arabic Versification Note: For a more complete account, should be consulted (Part IV. Prosody).

Wright’s

Arabic

Grammar

1. Whereas in most languages there are two genres or classes of writing, Prose and Poetry, in Arabic there are three: (a) Prose (LS

(b) Poetry :‫)ٌرعش‬‎ (‫ْمظن‬ (c) Rhymed Prose (x 2 This third genre is common in

what might be termed “‘art prose”, — that type of studied prose literature which used the devices of rhetoric (or 424) to a considerable degree. The language of the Qur’4n, however, is not allowed by Muslims to belong to any genre,

although the early chapters or siras (that is, early chronologically) do contain rhyme. Rhymed prose has not, of course, any regular metre, while poetry has both rhyme and metre. 2. Classical Arabic is a language of syllable length rather

than stress; it is quantitative rather than qualitative: and this must be realized to understand the rules of Arabic poetry. The metres were codified in the 8th century by al-Khalil ibn

Ahmad, and his codification has remained substantially unchanged. Scanning Arabic poetry necessitates recognizing the length of syllable, which may be either short or long.

(a) The short syllable consists of a consonant with a short vowel, e.g. all three syllables in ‫بتك‬‎ ka-ta-ba, “he wrote”.

(b) Long syllables consist of a vowelled letter followed by an unvowelled letter. The unvowelled letter may be 455

A NEW

456

GRAMMAR

ARABIC -

fF

(i) A long vowel, as ‫اك‬‎ ka, in ‫بتاك‬‎ ka-ta-ba. (ii) A consonant with sukdn, as ‫كم‬‎ mak in ass mak-ta-bun. Note that it is the ACTUAL SOUND which counts. Thus

is long (bun), because, although the third syllable we written as a single letter with nunation, it sounds as if the word were spelled ‫نبتكم‬‎ . Similarly, Los, which is really er-

0-7

one. Consequently an ?alif with hamzatu I-wasl does not --

count. Thus the words

ese P| ‫ناك‬‎ would

be scanned as

follows: Kd nas mu hu ha sa nan. Note: The Pronominal suffix ‫ه‬‎ and the second syllable in ‫انا‬‎ may be either long or short.

Two short syllables are considered equal to one long one, which often replaces them.

3. Arabic verse has both Rhyme ‫)ٌةيفاق‬‎pl. (‫فاوق‬‎and Metre 95:6

56>

)‫‏ وزنث‬ro ‫(حر‬. Every Verse

5 or Line (cw pl.‫ تايبا( ‏‬consists 5

6>

8-2

of two‫‏‬

‫‏‬sesreV-flaH ( ‫ شطر‬10 ‫(مصراع‬ At the end dropped and The vowel as the metres

of the Verse i.e. in Pause (a5) the Nunation is sometimes the vowel is omitted altogether. of the rhyme letter is usually considered long, almost always end with a long syllable.

In most older poetry, and much modern poetry, all lines

are of the same length, and the same rhyme persists throughout the poem, which may contain up to 100 or more lines or verses. But later in the Medieval period varied rhyme schemes were introduced. For example, the two halves of each verse might rhyme together, especially in Rajaz metre (see below), and in didactic poetry. Again, complicated rhyme schemes were evolved such as: aaaaa,bbb ba, cccca,dddda,

etc., the unit concerned being the half-

verse. The poem with the uniform rhyme and metre is the

THE

RULES

OF ARABIC

VERSIFICATION

457

i ‎‫ قصيدة‬or ode par excellence. It is found in the famous pre-

Islamic Seven Odes known as the Mu ‫عل‬‎

(‫)تاتلعملا‬

4. Al-Khalil codified the Metres by expressing the various feet with the root ‫لعف‬‎ .He discovered the following different types of foot (jess pl. .(‫ليعافت‬‎

@ ‫ هران‬2 ‫)‏‬b( .‫== فاعلن‬ ‫ره‬

‫>*ر‬

‫)‏‬c( ‫مستفعلن‬

)3( )©

‫حاد حا‬

‫عفاحنعيلن‬ ‫م‬ ‫‏‬E‫ت‬R ‫د ح‬A‫ح‬G

(f) ‎‫دمافحعاوتلات‬ UR Ae

ee ee

tare

These Feet are subject to certain changes, e.g.: ‫)‏‬a(

20

79

‫فعولن‬ ‫هد‬

‫)‏‬b(

»-——

‫‏‬semoceb

ka

tt 9

‫‏‬:

‫فعول‬

‫دن‬ ‫د‬

Os‫‏‬

‫— فاعلن‬

‫ب‬

‫دب‬

‫فعلن‬



1

‫ره‬

‫رجه‬

‫متفعلن‬

‫)‏‬c(

‫جه‬

36

‫ره‬

ceb semo‫م‬ ‫‏‬,‫س‬ ‫تان‬ ‫قعلن‬ 7

‫ده‬

os

‫مفاعيلن‬

3

‫لادان‬

0

‫اب‬

‫ده‬

‫‏‬9“ x

6

ee‫‏‬

ee‫‏‬ alsI

‫)‏‬d(

‫د‬

‫—م‏ف‬ —‫ت‬vv ‫علن‬

os 5

‫ب‬

‫‏‬٠ 40 ‫ين‬

‫هر ان‬

‫بي‬

0001

‫ىد دان مفاعيل‬

458

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR ee

EGE

(e)

oor

es= |) 2٠.

‎‫نتن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫علا‬ ‫اءط‬ ‫فرمء‬ ‫ وعه‬4 ٍ

cee

Hae ‫تك‬‎ ‫ل‬

-

‫لناتن‬ ‫— ني‬ ‫فع‬ — ahi

oS

‫يو‬‎ ‫ روم‬mee

‫دوم‬‎

2 ‎‫ا‬

(f)

SY

ta

pie

ye

‫وو‬‎

0

1

s

‎‫دان فعولات‬ Od

)8(7

Ee

ant?

os ‫تا‬‎ 2-06

(ht) Geli ‫وده‬

bg

‫ىد‬

ead Sry

‫ل‬

‫‏ مفاعتن‬yv -- ‫( حت‬rare)‫‏‬

Gets — 20

“90

-

Such changes may occur spasmodically within a single poem, save that the final (rhyme-) foot of each verse must be of the same pattern throughout a poem.

If Catalexis (rejection of the last syllable) occurs at the end of a verse, then

‫ب‬‎ — — is changed to

‫ب‬‎

‫ — ~ — و‬to — —

etc.

5. The principal metres are as follows: (a) Tawil

chere

‎‫فنعولن مفاعيلن‬si ‎‫فعولن‬ ‎‫ مفاعيلن‬si yltneuqerf degnahc ot ‎‫مفاعلن‬, yllaicepse ni eht

rhyme foot.

(b) Kamil ‫لمكلا‬‎

a ‫نلعاقتم‬‎ Seuss ‫متفاعلن متفاعلن متفاعلن‬

THE

RULES

OF ARABIC

VERSIFICATION

459

The two short syllables of each foot are often combined to 0 one long oa in which case the foot might be scanned as ‎‫( متفاعل‬or ‎‫ (مستفعل‬The rhyme is frequently shortened to

ieee)

SS

ee

a

(c) Wafir ‫رفاولا‬‎ ‎‫مفاعلتن مفاعلتن فعولن‬

Ses How Yow

‎‫ مفاعلتن‬often changes to ‫نتلعافم‬‎ or .‫نايعافم‬‎ (d) Rajaz =sul (especially in didactic poems; such a poem

3-0

being called :(‫ةزوجرا‬‎ ‎‫ده‬

600

‫ده‬



02 .

0-09 a

5

09

0-53

09

Of OF

٠.

0

٠.

an

ae

Or

‫هد‬‎

ie

NO)

5

e.g. =

3960-3

$873)



(=

‎‫قال محمد هو أبن مالك‬ ae

“bo

wr

3708

“Said Mate aia ibn Malik: I praise my Lord God, the

best Ruler.” (Beginning of the Alfiya of Ibn Malik.) In this metre Catalexis of the last foot (change ~ = to » + —) is very common. (e) Hazaj eel common

in Persian and Urdu

‫ند‬‎

also in

Ruba elyat ‫تايعاب‬‎2) (e.g. the Ruba ‫عالق‬‎ of ¢ Umar-ii-Khay-

yam). --

69

‫مفاعيلن مفاعيلن‬

‫امن ماي‬

460

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(f) Basit ‫طيسبلا‬‎ ‎‫ مستفعلن فاعلن‬bes 5

‎‫جم‬

‫ره‬

‫نلعفتسم‬

may

change

eo ‫ده‬

no

to‫ متفعلن ‏‬and‫‏‬

‫ فاعلن‬to‫ فعلن ‏‬and‫‏‬

even‫ نلعف ‏‬-( » — or — —) especially in the rhyme foot.‫‏‬

(g) Khafif Cit ‎‫ففاعالائن‬: Gli skew SAE

‫هد‬‎

0

2

Geb

‫ فاعلاثن‬yam egnaho ct ot eki{ ‫‏‬ro ‫ — — تن ) فعلاتن‬or

—— ‫—)‏‬

especially iin the Faye foot. (h) Sarie pyel

Sheu SLE

a

‫هو‬‎

‎‫ره‬

‫يت‬

‫يي‬

=

5

‫هر‬‎

09

0-9

3

‫ل‬30

=

632020 2

(O19

‫نلعفت‬‎

100

0

ga

aP

‎‫ مستفعلن‬yam SEEB ot ‎‫) متفعلن‬//

‎‫ده‬

93

‫ هدب‬dna ‎‫فاعلن‬

Seb or Glad ( ‫د‬‎ — or - .‫ل‬‎ ‫ره‬

>

The other metres are much less frequently encountered in Classical Arabic. RHYME 6. Rhyme in Arabic poetry consists essentially of a Consonant. ‘This consonant may have sukun, whether real or imposed, e.g. the poem by ’Abi I--¢ Atahiya:

‎‫ضر‬ abe SOLE What is (wrong) with us, that we do not think? Where is Chosrees, where is Caesar?

THE

RULES

Usually, however,

OF ARABIC

VERSIFICATION

the rhyme consonant

461

has a vowel,

which should be constant throughout the poem, or at least, -

--

with that thyme. Thus ‫بتك‬‎ rhymes with ,‫برع‬‎ the rhyme

letter (é(‫ور‬‎ having fatha.

As already stated, the rhyme

vowel is usually considered long, the above two words being considered “‘kataba”’ ¢arabi. ee rhymes with set The nunation is always removed for rhyme purposes. Sometimes a kasra rhyme may be varied with damma or vice versa, but fatha must not be varied. Kasra and damma are considered related sounds. If a long vowel occurs in the syllable previous

to the shyme; or the syllable before 0

it phonld be cons-

tant, e.g. ‫مالس‬‎ and amas; ‫ريك‬‎ 4 pees ee and :‫روهش‬‎ ‎‫ كاملا‬and oh.‫اق‬‎ In this connection, the long vowel » | is always considered equivalent to S$ ~; but ’alif (| -) cannot be varied (e.g. )9-0 rhymes with Es but not with ‫ر‬‎tS).

7. Arabs tend to recognize the metres of their poetry rather by an innate sense of the rhythm of the language than by identifying

the precise

metre

concerned.

They

have

their own particular method of reciting poetry; and Arabic poetry needs to be declaimed to be appreciated. Only by listening to an Arab reading Arabic poetry can one acquire a feeling for it. Only then can a non-Arab appreciate the outstanding genius of Arabic poets such as al-Mutanabbi.

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬ ‫‪SELECTIONS‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬

‫‪FROM‬‬

‫‪THE‬‬

‫‪Stra 1‬‬ ‫و‬

‫‪-9@9-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫سورة الفاحة‬

‫‪ gnep‬آلله الرجمن‪ral ‎‬‬ ‫ص‬

‫صل‬

‫َ ‪6١‬‏‬

‫‪ S a )ier‬العامين ‪" .‬لكي‬

‫انر‪‎‬‬

‫‪‎ Gaal poss takes‬طاوضلا ‪Binoe . cowed‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪ la‬عليهم ‪ .‬غير أ(لمغضوب عليهم ولا الصالين‪— ‎‬‬ ‫‪Stra 112‬‬ ‫‪92‬‬

‫رمدت‬ ‫>‬

‫‬‫‪6‬‬

‫سورة الإخلاص‬

‫قل هوألله أحد‪ .‬ألله الصمد‪ .‬لم يلد ولم يولد‪ .‬ولم يكن‬

‫‪Stra 113‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪‎‬ةروس |‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪Wa‬‬

‫‪O70‬‬

‫قل أعودٌ برب الفلق‪eae .‬‏‬

‫‪ yS‬شمر اسق ‪)BI‬‏‬

‫وقب‪ .‬ومن شر ‪]rre‬‏ فى العقد‪ .‬ومن ش‪5‬ر حاسد يدت‬ ‫‪204‬‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫‪463‬‬

‫‪Stra 114‬‬ ‫و‬

‫‪‎‬ود‬

‫‪Bo‬‬

‫سورة الناس‪‎‬‬

‫قل ‏‪ Set‬برب ‏‪ tT‬ملك الناس‪ .‬إاللهناس‪ .‬من شر‬ ‫‪‎‬هو‬

‫‪6:‬‬

‫الا‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪1‬‬

‫‪wer‬‬

‫‪ao‬‬

‫‪c‬‬

‫‏‪ sill Pat‬سوسوي ‪ 3‬رودص ‪.‬سانلا‬

‫نم ةنجلا‬

‫‏‪eee‬‬ ‫‏‪Fables‬‬

‫‪ D.A( 9581 — .D.A )7291‬لويس‪ ybsei ‎‬انى الأدب‪From ‎‬‬ ‫شد‬

‫و‬

‫‪reo@G-‬‏‬

‫ب ‏‪ SI cel‬جاجدلا دق اوضرم اوسبلف ‏‪ sgl‬سيواوط اوتأو‬ ‫‪o--‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪GE‬‬

‫ليزوروم ‏‪ PALM cog) (ts‬كلا ‏‪ES ol GS cleall lyst‬‬

‫أخوالكم فقالوا ‪lU‬‏ خير يوم لا نرى وجوهكم (‪)niyl‬‏ ‪ lO‬كثيرًا‬ ‫‪ee‬‬

‫)‪OE‬‬

‫‪Cita‬‬

‫‪22983‬‬

‫يظهرون المحبة ويبطنون البغضاء‪‎‬‬

‫قطان اختطفنا‬ ‫‪nd‬‏ روهديتا بها إلى القرد ‪SR‬‏ يقسمها بينهما‬ ‫‪-e‬‬

‫‪52‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫فقسمها إلى قسمين |‪aaA‬‏ ‪acm‬‬

‫الثانى وهنا ‪ 3‬ميزانه فرجح‬

‫الأكبر فاخذ منه ‪sB‬‏ بأسنانه وهو يظهر انه يريد ‪sal‬‏‪ sha‬بالأضغر‬ ‫ودر‬

‫ولكن ‪kah13‬‏‬

‫‪2922295‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫منه وا يرا اللازم رجح لمر‬

‫دل‬

‫بهذا ما فعله بذاك ‪fg‬‏فعل بذاك مافعله بهذا وهكذا حت كاد‬ ‫‪0‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‏‪ indy aids‬تلاقف هل ‏|‪ 3“ oubw‬انيضر هذهب ةمسقلا المعلا‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪464‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫ةنبجلا لاقف اذإ امتنك ‪‎‬امتنا ‪ a Ou ies‬ال ‪‎‬ضرع ‪dh bs‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬

‫‪‎‬ا‬

‫‪“362‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫‪- 308‬‬

‫‪sig‬‬

‫‪be‬‬

‫‪0-31‬‬

‫‪- Mag‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫‪he‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫الات ‪:‬حزن ‪ya‬‏ وهما ‪se‬‏‬

‫كان ‏‪ Sle‬يصيد العصافير ‪ 3‬يوم ‪ba‬‏ ‪SO‬‬

‫‪ :aeV‬والدموع‬ ‫‪eS‬‬

‫تسيل فقال‪tej‬‏ لصاحبه لا‪hG‬‏ عليك ‪yo‬‏ ‪UF toJ‬‬ ‫‪ooo‬‬

‫فقال له الآخر لا تنظر دموعه وانظر ماتصنيعداه‬ ‫‪030‬‬

‫‪Ce‬‬

‫>‬ ‫در‬ ‫و‬ ‫اسود‬ ‫‪grrr‬‬

‫‏‪had‬‬ ‫‏‪ Syl‬فى‬

‫كذ‬

‫‪ 2b Gi AH‬جلتلا ‏‪UE,‬‬

‫‏‪ Eh‬ليقف‬

‫هب‬

‫لقان ‪,eM‬‏ ‪otlaS laFyi esEgof aiS anasA‬‬

‫َك ‏‪ gan 5 Oy‬من جشمك وهو باق على خاله ‪)hoB‬‏‬ ‫الشرير يقدرأن ‪dnas‬‏ ار ‪sidA‬‏ مايصلحة ‪uoc‬‏‬ ‫‏‪DIOS‬‬

‫‪52‬‬

‫>‪5‬‬

‫‪56‬‬

‫اسد وثعلب ‪ss‬‏‬ ‫‏‪[a8 ae‬‬

‫‪DES‬‬

‫وهو مثل‬ ‫‪5‬‏‬

‫‪ee‬‬

‫‪--G.0‬‬

‫‪Hg‬‬

‫من‬ ‫صن‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫اتعظ‬

‫‪22‬و‬

‫بغيره وأعتبر ببه‬

‫در‬

‫‏‪ otal‬وتغلت ‏‪ sy‬امل اي‪I‬ن‪ay‬‏ ‪sii neda‬‬

‫ارا‬

‫واونيا ‏‪ ee alias Vey‬بئذلل ‏‪ oil‬اننيب لاقف رمألا نيب رامحلا‬ ‫ور‬

‫‪80-2‬‬

‫بسو‬

‫‪55‬‬

‫للأسد‬

‫‏‪ails‬‬

‫‪te‬‬

‫ىبظلاو ‏‪adandes re‬‬

‫دسالا‬

‫‏‪jw‬‬

‫‪sees‬‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫هسار مث‬

‫رع ‏‪ Leuilliy, eleall‬ع لمجلا اةمينغعلابيكبطاصا بتاج تنأد‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫‪465‬‬

‫فقال ‪-‬يا ‪lU‬‏ ‪ lyS‬الأمر واضح الحمار لغدائك والظبى لعشائك‬

‫‏‪ ,)2YuuzVier‬اة ليركتذاباتم ليي دسحلاارب كاضفا ‏‪Silke Be‬‬ ‫‪Aa‬‬

‫‏‪5‬‬

‫‪of-‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫و‬

‫‪00‬‬

‫‏‪as‬‬

‫‏‪ HL‬عبضو‬ ‫و‬

‫فىيه‬ ‫رف‬ ‫طاء‬ ‫‏‪ Sealine‬وود موي وعليها رش‬ ‫‪=i‬‏ ‪sa‬‬

‫‪-0-‬‬

‫>‬

‫‪--G0‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪2‬م‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‬‫‪-‬‬

‫‪---5‬‬

‫ور‬

‫صن‬

‫‪- -‬‬

‫‪0‬‬

‫دلُوان ‏‪ 2 Der‬الدلو العلا ‪sled‬‏ رت فشرب فجاءت الضبع فاطلعت ىق‬

‫البثر فأبصرت وو‬ ‫‏‪ OB‬عجن‬

‫منتصفاً ‪stteL‬‏ قاعدٌ فق قعر ‪laz‬‏‬

‫‏‪ Boon‬تنهال ‏‪Gry‬‬

‫‪Pe‬‬

‫اانجس ‏‪fo‬‬

‫‏‪ Gh‬كل ىلزناف اهيلكف تلاقف فيكو ‏‪ Us‬لاق نيدعفت ىف ولدلا‬ ‫‏‪ ng Lue ils eats‬ىرْخألا ‏‪ ty‬انآى‬ ‫وسط ‏‪ AI‬قالت له ماهذا قال كذا التجار ‪ELG‬‏ فضربث بهما‬ ‫وق‬ ‫مم‬

‫العرب ‪laG‬‏ فى الختلفين ‏‬

‫‏‪ a‬امار والثور معصاحب الزرع‬ ‫‪ i) Wi (“The Thousand and One Nights”.‬وليلة‪From ‎‬‬ ‫)‪Authors Unknown‬‬

‫‪‎ ail JU‬ناك ‪‎ yaad‬كاوكأاراجنلا ‪Moly dag} a) Ky Gilpey‬‬ ‫فكاتالنده ‏‪tla, (Tuas‬خمايتفإر ‏‪ etl gl pi‬ريطلاو ناكو نكسم‬ ‫ذلك "الاج الأزياف‪ :‬وكان ‪eo‬‏ ‪toj egL UG slag elg olg G‬‬

‫الى مكان الحمار فوجده مكنوسًا مرشوشًا وى معلفه شعير مغربل‬ ‫وتبن مغربل وهو راقد مستريح ‪yd‬‏ بعض الأوقات يركبه ‪elad‬‏‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‪406‬‬

‫لحاجة تعرض له ويرجع على ‪EW‬‏ فلمًاكانفىبعض الأيام سمع‬

‫التاجر الثور وهويقول للحمار ‪we‬‏ لك ذلك أنا تعبان وأنت مستريح‬ ‫‏‪ [Sb‬رمي ‏‪ Ayes‬عودمونك ‪sd‬‏ ‪ eaj‬الأوقات ‪,SA‬‏ ‪ela‬‬ ‫ويرجع ‪ylb‬‏ دائما للحرث والطحن فقال له الحمار إذا خرجت إلى‬

‫الغيط ووضعوا على رقبتك الناف فارقد ولا تقم ولو ضربوك فإن قمت‬

‫فارقد ‪UG‬‏ ‪ )reyI B1‬بك ‪setay‬‏ ‪:‬لك ‪llig‬‏ ‪ SNA ESA GA‬عيفت‬ ‫وامتنع من الأكل والشرب يوبا أو يومين أو ثلاثة فإِنّك تستريح‬ ‫من التعب والمبهد وكان التاجر يسمع كلامهما فلما جاء السواق إلى‬

‫الثوريعلفه أكل‪eca‬‏‪ sep taE‬فأصبح السواق يأخذ الثور إلىالحرث‬

‫‏‪ re meee‬هللا سانا دعي نامجلا ضئرعاو ‏‪ at‬ةمويلا هلك‬ ‫فرجع الرجل وأخذ الحمارمكان الثور وأحرثه مكانه اليوم كله قلا‬ ‫رجع آخر النهار شكره الثور على تفضلاته حيث أراحه من التعب‬ ‫فى ذلك اليوم فلم يرد عليه الحمار جواباوندم ‪faeL‬‏ الندامة ‪GU‬‏ كان‬ ‫‏‪ dl‬يوم جاء الزراع ‪ylad‬‏ امار واحرله إلى آخر ‪!dels‬‏ فلم يرجم‬ ‫الحمار إلا مسلوخ الرقبة شديد الضعف فتأمله الثور وشكره ويجده‬

‫‏‪ is‬له ‏‪ Ll‬كيت ‏‪ Ca‬سيلا ‏‪ i‬ضرق الا‪.‬فضولية ثم قال رإعلم‬

‫وثورض معنه‬ ‫ممال‬ ‫صح وقد سمعت صاحبنا يقول إن لميق‬ ‫نالك‬ ‫‏‪GI‬‬ ‫فأعطوه ‪tas‬‏ ليذيحه ويعمل جلده نطعا وأنا خائف عليك ونصحتك‬ ‫والسلام فلماسمع الثور كلام الحمار شكره وقال غد اسرح معهم‬ ‫فله‬ ‫لأك‬ ‫عغور‬ ‫‪ 5‬إن الث‬

‫ك‬ ‫لكل‬ ‫ذنه‬ ‫بتمامه حتى ‪hc‬‏ المذود بلسا‬

‫‪764‬‏‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫وصاحبهما يسمع كلامهما فلما طلع النهار خرج التاجر وزوجته إلى‬

‫دار البقر وجلسا ‪hc‬‏ السواق وأخذ الثور وخرج فلما رأى الثور‬ ‫صاحبه ‪DA‬‏ ذنبه وضرط وبرطع فضحك التاجر ‪oS‬‏ استلقى على قفاه‬ ‫فقالت له زوجته من أى شىء تضحك فقال لها شىء (‪;1a‬‏ ونتمعتة‬

‫ولا أقدر أن ابوح به فأموت فقالت له لا بِد أن ‪rG‬‏ ‪ eW‬وما‬ ‫سبب ضحكك ولو كنت موت فقاللهاماأقدر أن أبوح به خوفا من‬

‫الموت فقالت له أنت لم تضحك إلا على ثمإِنّْهالمتزل تلح عليه‬

‫وتلج فى الكلام إلى أن غلبت عليه وتحير فأحضر أولاده وأرسل أحضر‬ ‫القاضى والشهود وأراد أن ‪neG‬‏ ثم يبوح لها بالسر ويموت ‪YS‬‏ كان‬ ‫مه وأم أولاده وكان قدعمر من العمر‬ ‫يحبها محبة عظيمة ‪IY‬‏ بعنت‬

‫‏‪ UL‬وعشرين سنة ثم ‪lia‬‏ ارسل أحضر جميع أهلها وأهل حارته وقال‬ ‫لهم ‪na‬‏ وأثه ‪so‬‏ ‪ at US‬على ‪epo‬‏‪ sL‬نقال لها جميع الناس‬

‫‏‪ ges‬حضرها بالله عليك اتركى هذا الأمر ‪YW‬‏ يموت زوجك أبو‬ ‫أولادك فقالت لهم لا أرجع عنه حتى يقول لى ولويموت فسكتوا عنها‬

‫ثم ‪fO‬‏ التاجر قام من ‪eraP‬‏ وتوجه إلى دار الدواب ‪deg‬‏ ثم يرجع‬ ‫يقول لهم ‪sloS‬‏ وكان عنده ديك تحته خمسون دجاجة وكان عنده‬

‫كلب فسمع التاجر الكلب وهو ينادى الديك ويسميه ويقول لأهنت‬ ‫فرحان وصاحبنا رائح يموت ‪WS‬‏ الديك للكلب وكيف ذلك الأمر فأعاد‬ ‫الكلب عليه القصة فقال له الديك والله ‪fO‬‏ ‪ eleL‬قليل ‪!daj‬‏ ‪luJ‬‬ ‫خجمسون زوحة أرضى هذه واغضب‬

‫هذه وهو ما له الا زوجة واحدة‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‪408‬‬

‫ولا يعرف صلاح أمره معها فا لهلا يأخذ لها ‪wal‬‏ من عيدان‬

‫التوت ثم يدخل إلى ‪EL‬‏ ويضربها حتّى موت أو تتوب ولا تعود‬ ‫تسأله عن شىء قال فلما سمع التاجر كلام الديك وهو يخاطب‬ ‫الكلب رجع إلى عقله وعزم على ضربها ودخل عليها الحجرة بعد أن‬

‫قطع لها عيدان التوت وخبأها ‪sieG‬‏ الحجرة وقال لها ‪sL‬‏ داخل‬

‫الحجرة ‪S‬أ‪e‬‏قول لك ولا ينظرنى أحد ثم أموت فدخلت معه ثم ‪]i‬‏‬

‫‏‪ Sees‬ا ا ونوك ليها ‪yllaer‬‏ ‪ !dual‬اغبي عليها‬ ‫فقالت له تبت ثم إنها ‪ste‬‏ يديه ورجليه وتابت وخرجت هى واياه‬

‫وفرح الجماعة ‪yloh‬‏ وقعدوا فى أسر الأحوال إلى الممات‪.‬‬ ‫‪)‎ of © Tries eo‬ةمدقملا( ‪From the Prolegomena‬‬

‫)‪(A.D. 1332 — A.D. 1406‬‬ ‫فى وجوه المعاش وأصنافه ومذاهبه‪‎‬‬

‫اعلم‪ fO ‎‬العاش هو‪ eh‎S‬عن ابتغاء الرزق والسعى فى تحصيله وهو‪‎‬‬ ‫اي‬

‫العيش تأنه لما كان العيش‪ UC ‎‬هاولحياة لا‪het‎‬‬

‫الا بهذه جعلت موضوعًا له على طريق المبالغة ثم ان تحصيل الرزق‪‎‬‬

‫وكسبه إما أن يكون بأخذه من يادل‪.‬غير وانتزاعه بالاقتدار عليه‪‎‬‬

‫‪ ef‬تاتون‪ smeG eelG ‎‬مغرما بوحباية‪ KO IO yLL ‎‬من الحيوان‪‎‬‬ ‫الس‪eagla ‎‬‬

‫ا‬

‫لالس اا اتج اوس اصطياءا‪‎‬‬

‫وإما أن يكون من الحيوان الداجن باستخراج فضوله المنصرفة بين‪‎‬‬ ‫الناس فى منافعهم كاللبن من الانعام والحرير من دوده والعسل من‪‎‬‬

‫نحله أو يكون من النبات فى الزرع والشجر بالقيام عليه واعداده‪‎‬‬ ‫!‪1Come‬‬

‫‪964‬‏‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫لاستخراج ‪dia‬‏ ويسمى هذاكله فلحًا واما ان يكون ‪USH‬‏ من‬ ‫الاعمال الانسانية إما فى مواد معينة وتسمى الصنائع من كتابة‬ ‫ونجارة وخياطة وحياكة وفروسية وامثال ذلك أو فى مواد غير معينة‬ ‫وهى جميع الامتهانات ‪sap‬‏ ‪ iloc‬وام اف كرك‬

‫)‪ 4‬يب‬

‫دن‬

‫البضائع واعدادها للاعزاتيج ‪lL‬‏ بالتفد ‪pld‬‏ ‪ lo‬وطاعا‬ ‫فارتتاب‪ :‬حوالة الإسراق ‪del‬‏ ‪ eM rue‬ارة فيد وجوه ‪LPU‬‏‬

‫وأصنافه وهى معنى ما ذكره المحققون من اهل ‪loG‬‏ والحكمة‬ ‫‏‪Cp Ah‬‬

‫‪ ones‬مهناف اولاق شاعملا ةراما ةراحتو ةحالفو ةعانصو‬

‫‏‪ ALY! Lb‬تسيلف ‏‪ Cade‬ىعيبط شاعملل الف ةجاح انب ىلا اهركذ‬ ‫وقد تقدم شىء من احوال الجبايات السلطانية فى الفصل الثانى وأما‬

‫الفلاحة و الصناعة والتجارة فهى وجوه طبيعية للمعاش أما الفلاحة‬

‫قبن ‪sea‬‏ ‪ elaY‬كنا ‪lte‬‏ ‪ PS‬عر اله ‪yte‬‏ ارد‬ ‫‪llip lac T‬‬ ‫‪p‬ين‪ISo‬‏‬ ‫ذ‪e‬ا تن الا‬ ‫ه‏‪lo‬‬ ‫ل ‪yV‬‬ ‫ل‪bc‬ا‪t‬‏ ‪ IU‬نظ‬ ‫وانه معلشها والقائم_عليها اشارة ‪IU‬‏ ‪ FU‬أقدم وجوه المعائن وأنسيتها‬ ‫الى الطبيعة وأما الصنائع فهى ثانيتها ومتأخرة عنها ‪TU‬‏ مركبة‬ ‫‏‪ Ales‬تصرف ‏‪ ply Use GS! gg‬ال دعوي ابلاغ ‏‪Jol EVI‬‬ ‫الحضر الذى هموتأخر عن البدووثان ‪eta‬‏ ون [‪ed‬‏ (‪ llag‬سيكت ‪IM‬‏‬

‫‏!?‪vv‬‬

‫‪ pl ep okey alYeas al male GU‬ولاه‬

‫من اللهتعالى واما التجارة وإن كانت طبيعية ‪.‬فى ‪HS‬‏‬

‫‪ a‬فالأكثر من‬

‫حاطه ارو ‏‪ oy Ere‬نيئميتلا‬ ‫‏‪ tealicy ab‬اننا‬ ‫فى ‏‪ olAll‬عيبلاو ‏‪ attri SEN dar‬هاب ‏‪el ay, aR‬‬ ‫الشرع فيه المكاسبة لما انه من باب المقامرة ‪YS‬‏ انه لأيخسدًا ‪US‬‏ الغير‬

‫مانا فلهذا اختص بالمشروعية‪٠ ..‬‏ '‬ ‫‪١‬‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‪470‬‬

‫)‪‎ (A.D. 1203—A.D. 1283‬يورقلا> ‪From the Cosmography of‬‬

‫‪5acl‬‬

‫‏‪ Tyall Ge sped‬ةروهلملا ‏‪ QU‬نؤملسملا(ااهانبأ اق“‪ .‬ئبعشلا“‬ ‫مصرت‬

‫البصرة قبل الكوفة بسمئنة ونصف»‬

‫وهى مديئة على قرب‬

‫البحرء كثيرة النخيل ‪yM‬‏ سبخة التربة» ملحة ‪Ua‬‏ ‪US YO‬‬

‫‏‪ Gh‬عن ال ‪et‬‏ الك ‪L‬‏ ‪ aG‬البصره| ‪YH‬‏ ‪sni slS lup‬‬ ‫‪Ey pee el cate eat‬‬ ‫‏‪ein) eee‬‬

‫خيلها فكثير جدا‪ .‬قال الأصمعى*‪ :‬سمعت الرشيد يقول ‪ :‬نظرنا‬ ‫‏‪ ٠‬ناذا كل ذهب ونضة ‪ed‬‏ وجه الأأرض ‪Y‬‏ ‪ fo ela‬حل البصرة ‪.‬‬ ‫‏‪ (oe geet ene as‬اهدحا نا ةلحد ‏‪ Glass tally‬برق‬ ‫‏‪ ood‬نامل ار طخءاش ضوص ونع طم كاضتلا علاد تونا“ ؛‬

‫‏‪ loner gs‬ا‬

‫‏‪ coll‬لا لانا هومر رادو‬

‫يفعل‪ .‬ذلك فىكل يوم وليلة مرتين » فاذا جزرء نقص نقصا كثيرا‬ ‫بحيث لقويس لكان الذى ذهب مقدار ماباقىكأثور» وينتهى كل‬ ‫اول شهر فى الزيادة الى غايته » ويسقى المواضع العالية والأراضى‬

‫القاصية‪ .‬ثم يشرع فى الانتقاص » فهذا كل يوم وليلة انقص من الذى‬ ‫كان قبله الى آخر الاسبوع الاول من الشهر‪ .‬ثم يشرع فى الزيادة‬

‫م‬ ‫يذاوكل‬ ‫فه‬

‫ر‪.‬‬ ‫هنصف‬ ‫شلى‬ ‫لله ا‬ ‫ا‏ قب‬ ‫وليلة اكثر من ‪UC‬‬

‫ثم يأخذ فى‬

‫النقص الى آخر الاسبوع » ثم فى الزيادة الى آخر الشهرء وهكذا‬ ‫أبدا ‪saG‬‏ هذا القانون ولا يتغير‪ .‬وثانيها انك لو التمست ذبابة‬ ‫‏‪ fe‬باهر الطدكة! ازا ىوا تيليا و"العامرها ‪L‬‏ وعدت ‪iV‬‏‬ ‫‪* famous Arab philologist, eighth century A.D.‬‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫‪174‬‏‬

‫فى الفرط ولو ان معصرة دون الفيض او ثمرة منبوذة دون المسناة لا‬

‫استبنتها من كثرة الذبان وذكروا ان ذلك لطلسم‪ .‬وثالثها ان‬ ‫الغربان القواطع فى الخريف تسود جميع ‪EJ‬‏ البصرة ‪yy‬‏ حتى لا‬

‫يرى غصن الواعليه منها ولم يوججدم فيىع الدهر غراب ساقط‬ ‫عل ‪HU‬‏ غين مضرومة‪ .‬ولو ‪aG‬‏ ‪ edal‬عدق ‪.‬واحد » ‪yalo‬‏ ‪LO‬‬ ‫كالعاول » والتمر فى ‪SU‬‏ الوقت على الأعذاق غميترماسك» فلو لا‬

‫‏‪ Ud‬الله تعالى لتساقطت كلها يقر ‪ajlO‬‏ مركم ‪tseM‬‏ ‪GSI elet‬‬ ‫تم الصرام رأيتها ‪elc‬‏ اصول الكرب فلا تدع حشفة الا‬ ‫استخرجتها » فسبحان من قدر ذلك لطفا بعباده‪.‬‬ ‫‪‎ (Dictionary of‬داشرإ ‪ repel‬ىلا ‪‎‬ةفرعم‬

‫‪From aI‬‬

‫)‪‎ (A.D. 1179 — A.D. 1229‬توقاي ‪Learned Men) of‬‬

‫‏]‪ ca SU‬راسل‬

‫‪era .eraR‬‬

‫وان الرشيد إدز ‪0‬‬

‫يولع به كناه‪UP ‎‬‬

‫صفيان»‪, ag ydnes ‎‬العلم ومكانه من‪ stta doC ‎.‬لأرودنا‪‎‬‬ ‫استيعابه‪ LIJ ‎‬الكتاب » وخرجنا من غرضنا من الاختصار ومن وقف‪‎‬‬

‫على الأخبار وتتبع‪ TU ‎‬علم موضعه‪ yliL ‎‬الغناء فكان اصغر علومه‪‎‬‬ ‫‪L Gols‬‬

‫‪‎ Oly 64: eg‬ناك ‪BY ade CUB‬‬

‫‪GO‬‬

‫‪ple‬‬

‫علومه نظراء » ولم يكن‪ AE ‎‬هذا نظير‪ EG ‎‬فيه من مضى وسبق‪‎‬‬ ‫من بقى فإهموام هذه الصناعة على أنه اكره الناس للغناء والتتسمى‪‎‬‬ ‫به ويقول‪ ٠ ‎‬وددت‪ ld ‎‬م‬

‫أراد متى من يندبنى ان اغنى‪Ws ‎‬‬

‫قال قائل اماق الموصلى‪ llaG ‎‬عشر مقارع (لا أطيق اكثر من هذا)‪‎‬‬

‫‪: abl Go sels‬ةبسلاو ‪‎‬ةنومأملاناكويوةيلا ‪yds gis‬‬

‫‪Gee‬‬

‫‪1 Celebrated musician at the court of Haran ar-Rashid.‬‬

‫‪3 Son of Harin.‬‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪472‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‏‪ GLY‬على «السئة‪ILW .‬‏ وشهر يه من الغناء عندهم » لوليته القضاء‬ ‫بحضرق » فانه أولى به واحق ‪yleG‬‏ واصدق تديناً وامانةٌ ‪eR‬‏‬

‫‏‪ I plat cao ge EL eum + JU. shal‬شه ‪ 36‬عمساف ‏‪ee‬‬

‫الحديث؛ ثم اصير الى ‪SUG‬‏ فأقرأ عليه ‪egel‬‏ من القرآن» وآق‬

‫الفراءة قأفرأ عليه جزءاء ثم آتى منصور زلزل‪ :‬فيضاربنى طريقين أو‬ ‫‏‪ ON‬ثم ‏‪ ie Ua $28 ¢ddpd Cy NGL‬وأ نيتوص » مث ‏‪SI‬‬

‫‏‪teas UF Gly cots aa‬أفىركاذ مث ‏‪ of Ul‬اهملعاف ‏‪Le‬‬

‫‏‪ Glee‬كلو اكيفل“ ابو" تذل" ىدغتا‪ 3‬‏‪ Sly vas‬نك ‪.‬ءاشعلا تضر‬ ‫الى الرشيد‪ .‬وقال الأصمعى ‪ :‬خرجت مع الرشيد فلقيت اماق‬

‫‏‪ Ja : J Cle ly Leoll‬مل ‏‪ Sle s SS TALIS Go Ket‬ان‬

‫‏‪NG Tyla 4) eels pom‬‬

‫يامل رثع فوات ‏‪(Saeed‬‬

‫وقلت ‪ +‬اذا كان ماخف فكم يكون ما ثقل ؟ فقال ‪ :‬اضعاف ذلك‪.‬‬ ‫‏)‪ .4) circa A.D. 872‬ظحاجلا ‏‪ OLS of‬ءالخبلا ‏‪From‬‬

‫‏‪ANN‬‬

‫‏‪ GIT‬بذكي‬ ‫‪ getteil Bee‬ندر دلع نيبو ردت نعي ‏‪ Mla‬ناكآ‬

‫‏‪ carl‬راما ةنا نوكيادلع عر ديورولاهم ‏‪ vane‬لاقجا ‏‪pete‬‬ ‫يومًا فى ‪eluc‬‏ وهو مشغول بحسابه وأمره» وقد احتجب جهدهة »‬ ‫‪1 A contemporary of al-Mausili.‬‬ ‫‪2 al-Mausili’s uncle.‬‬ ‫‪3 Name of person.‬‬ ‫‪one‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪Peg‬‬

‫‪himself (from people) as much as he‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪er‬‬

‫‪2‬‬

‫‪‎ , he concealed‬بجتحا ‪* odpm‬‬ ‫‪could.‬‬

‫‪374‬‏‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫اذ نجم شاعر من بين يديه » فأنشده شعرا مدحه فيه وقرظه ‪sdos‬‏‬

‫فلما‪gg‬‏ ‪Ed‬‬

‫اعتلىبه‬ ‫كبل‬ ‫رودل‪etes‬‏ ثم اق‬

‫» ‪lJ‬‏ ‪leba :‬‬

‫عشرة ‪TYG‬‏ درهم ‪ .‬ففرح الشاعر فرحا قد يستطار له‪ 1.‬فلما رأى‬ ‫حاله قال ‪ :‬وإنى لأرى هذا القول قد وقع منك هذا الموقع !‪ 2‬اجعلها‬

‫عشرين الف درهم‪ .‬وكاد الشاعر ‪HC‬‏ من جلده‪ .‬فلما رأى فرحه‬ ‫قدا ته عساء ‪UJ‬‏ ‪I lioS selciiy eJ dralci sal ylG +‬‬ ‫أعطه يا ‪WO‬‏ اربعين ‪IW‬‏ فكاد الفرح يقتله‪ .‬فلما رجعت اليه‬

‫نفسه » قال له ‪ :‬انت» ‪eehS‬‏ فداك » رجل كريم ‪ :‬وأنا اعلم انك‬ ‫كلما رأيتنى قد ازددت فرحا» ‪,uG‬‏ ‪ . tps‬وقبول هذا منك لا‬

‫يكون الا منَقلة ‪laS‬‏ له‪ .‬ثم دعاله وخرج‪.‬‬

‫!‪ean ital: dle facut‬‬ ‫قال‏‪alias‬‬

‫‪$b), OM‬‬

‫منك باربعين درهماء تأمر له باربعين الف درهم ! قال ‪٠‬‏ ويلك !‬ ‫وتريد ان تعطيه ‪SET‬‏ قال ‪٠‬‏ ومن ‪IWS‬‏ امرك بك؟ قال ‪٠‬‏ يا ‪laG‬‏ »‬ ‫ائما هذا رجل سرنا بكلام » وسررناه بكلام ! هو حين زعم أنى‬

‫احسن من القمر ‪ylS‬‏ من ‪LAC‬‏ وأن لسانى اقطع من السيف» ‪ylO‬‏‬ ‫امرى ‪liaS‬‏ من السنان» جعل فىيدى من هذا ‪tE‬‏ ارجعبه الى‬

‫‏‪ Teens‬أليينا ‏‪Ay TOITOFaille‬‬

‫‪ GIT oe Uj‬ال >‬

‫فنحن ايضا نسره بالقول» ونأمر له بالجوائز» وإن كان ‪TIW‬‏ ‪ :‬فيكون‬ ‫اكت ‪yev‬‏ ولول ‪yeO‬‏ لآ أن ‪apO‬‏ ا‬

‫‏‪ ga Me ew‬لاا هك مروان‬

‫‪seB‬‏‬

‫‏‪Nes‬‬

‫‪ dluoc evah nekat thgilf no tnuocca fo .ti‬قد يستطار‪‎‬‬

‫)‪14‬‬

‫!‪2 This speech has moved you‬‬ ‫‪5 J.e. the narrator.‬‬ ‫‪‘For us, for our sake.‬‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪474‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‪ aus (Book of‬راظنلا ىف بئارغ راصمالا بئاجحعو ‪‎‬رافسالا ‪From‬‬ ‫‪‎ (A.D. 1304‬نبا ‪Travels) of 590‬‬ ‫)‪- A.D. 1377‬‬

‫‪I‬‬ ‫انو ناك دنع ‪‎‬ءرهظلا ‪ LAT bee‬لت »ضولا ‪‎‬اونظف ‪wel‬‬ ‫‪ ale‬ارامل لإ ‪‎‬لوران ‪‎ ape‬الردف ‪‎ Claes‬اموق ‪cael‬‬ ‫‪‎‬اوراشاف ‪ pple‬نا اوبهذي ىف مهتبحم ‪.‬اوبأن سلجو ‪‎‬مهتثالث ‪Call‬‬

‫وأنا مواجه لهم'‪ .‬ووظعوا حبل قتب كان معنهم بالارض‪ .‬وأنا انظر‪‎‬‬

‫مبيلا لوقاو ىق ‪‎‬ئسفن ‪ ee Sober GL es‬القتل‪coil. ‎‬‬ ‫كذلك ساعة‪ .‬ثم جاء ثلاثة من‪ !elpp ‎‬الذين أخذونى» فتكلموا‪‎‬‬

‫‪‎ cope‬كمبشؤلا ‪‎ ppl‬ااولاق ‪LEG Tope Let CY + apd‬‬ ‫الشيخ الى الأسود كأنه اعتذر بمرضه‪ .‬وكان احد هؤلاء الثلاثة‪‎‬‬

‫شابا جسن الوجه فقال لى ‪ :‬أتريد ان اسرحك؟ فقلت‪ :.‬نعم‪‎.‬‬ ‫فقال ‪ +‬اذهب ! فأخذت‪ IO da ‎‬كانت‪ eg ‎‬فاعطيته اياهاء‪‎‬‬

‫ا‬

‫‪leer‬‬

‫‪‎‬يكل ‪Ol cals canst eel eile:‬‬

‫يبدو لهم فيدركونى» فدخلت غيضة قصب واختفيت فيها الى أن‪‎‬‬ ‫غابت الشمس ثم خرجت وسلكت الطريق التى أرانيهاء الشاب‪‎‬‬

‫د ال اء قر‪ elec eae ‎‬الى ثلث الليل فوصلت‪‎‬‬ ‫‪elb‬‬ ‫‪o‬حك‪‎‬‬ ‫‪G‬ك أصب‬ ‫‪ tnec‬الست ادف قلما‬

‫‪ dehcs‬مي‪‎‬‬

‫الى جبل من الصخر عال » فيه‪ireo ‎‬غيلان والسدر‪ ,‬فكنت اجنى‪‎‬‬

‫‪‎‬سس‬

‫‪ Aya gh‬ف ‪‎‬عار ‪‎ GUT‬يح ‪OUI ge an ase‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬

‫فاذا تلك الطريق ‪dap‬‏ الى قرئ ‪SU‬‏ ‪ be hsaS‬أخرى‬ ‫فأفضت بى الى قرية خربة» ‪sloc‬‏ بها أسودين‪eyl ,‬‏ فخفسنهما »‬ ‫‪1A blue cloak.‬‬

‫)‪‎sly‬انا‬

‫‪Madde‬‬

‫‪574‬‏‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫اقبت ‪de‬‏‪ FO EL elulct‬الليقكعلت القزية ‪reac‬‏ دارا‬ ‫فى بيت من بيوتها شبه خابية كبيرة يصنعونها لاختزان الزرع » وق‬ ‫اسفلها نقب يسع الرجل ‪ .‬فدخلتها ووجدت داخلها مفروشاً بالتبن »‬

‫وفيه حر جعلت رأسى عليه ونمت‪ .‬وكان فوقها طائر يرفرف يجناحيه‬ ‫‏‪ ably « hull A‬نك ‏‪ «Ge‬ايمان‪ .‬‏‪AS hee cals. cn‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫الحال سبعة أيام » من يوم اسرت وهو يوم السبت‪.‬‬

‫‪)4191‬‏ ‪ (A.D. 1681 - .D.A‬جر جى زيدان ‪yb‬‏ فتح الأندلس ‪morF‬‏‬ ‫الأندلس والقوط‪ 1‬وطليطلة‪8‬‬ ‫‏‪ coal Jul‬تاعطاقم ‏‪ lil‬اهيكساو ى ‏‪ Goll‬اسولدتوا‬

‫‏‪ ile 4.5‬ةلادنولا وأ‪ .‬اونكودلادتنلا دق ‏‪ ilehsb‬دعب ناكورلا‬ ‫فلما فتحها العرب سموها الاندلس ثم اطلقوا هذا الاسم على اسبانيا‬ ‫كلها ‪.‬‬ ‫وكات اسبانيا في ‪ed‬‏ ‪ elM‬الرومان الغريبة آلى ‪lO‬‏ ‪lt‬‬ ‫للميلاد فسطا عليها القوط وهم من القبائل المرمانية‪ 4‬الذين رحلوا‬ ‫من ‪,‬أغالى ‪llew‬‏ ‪,‬الى وزيا طلا المرعى والمعاشن وأقانوا فى ‪eloS‬‏‬ ‫اوربا كا أقام العرب فى بوادى الشام والعراق‪ .‬ثم سطا القوط على‬ ‫‏‪ dy All Gly! ibe‬ليف ولكل ‏‪ Gt‬لع ‏‪ ILM‬ةكرشلا ‏‪Fegan‬‬ ‫الترون وأنشأوا الممالك فى فرنسا والمانيا واتكلترا وغيرها وهى الدول‬

‫الباقية فى اوربا الى الآن‪.‬‬ ‫وكاث فى جملة تلك القبائل قبيلة القوط الغربيين « فيسيقوط »‪5‬‬ ‫سطوا على اسبانيا فى القرن الخامس واستخرجوها من الرومانيين‬ ‫‪1The Goths.‬‬ ‫‏‪6.‬‬ ‫‏‪5 The Vandals.‬‬ ‫‪4 Germanic.‬‬

‫‪§ Visigoths.‬‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪476‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫وأنشأوا فيها دولة قوطية انتهت بالفتح الاسلامى سنة ‪yaB‬‏ (‪)rave‬‬ ‫على يد طارق بن زياد القائد البربرى الشهير‪.‬‬

‫وانت عاصمة ‪eW‬‏ القوط فى اسبانيا عامئذ مدينة طليطلة على‬ ‫ك‬

‫ضفاف نهر ‪llet‬‏ فى أواسط اسبانيا‪ .‬وكانت طليطلة ى ذلك ‪lsd‬‏‬ ‫‏‪ daa,‬عامرة فيها الحصون والقلاع والقصور والكنائس والديور‪.‬‬ ‫‏‪ Sy hy‬نيدلا ةسايسلاو اهيفو عمتجي عمجم ةفقاسالا لك ماع‬

‫ظ فى الامور العامة‪.‬‬ ‫وكان ملك الاسبان عام الفتح الملك رودريك* والعرب يسمونه‬ ‫ل«ذريق » وهو قوطى الأصل تولى املك سنئة و‪.‬ب م ولم يكن من‬ ‫العائلة المالكة ولكنه اختلس الملك اختلاسا وترك أبناء املك السايق‬ ‫تاقدين ‪.‬عليه ‪ .‬اوكانت ‪lel‬‏ تنقسم ‪spaeH‬‏ الى‪,YL ,‬‏ ‪ fg‬دوقيات‪2‬‬

‫حاكم‪ .‬سيق الدوق] أف ‪SLC‬‏ ويرجعون فى‬

‫إل إل ‪leed‬‏‬

‫أحكاسهم جميعًا الى املك القيم فى طليطلة‪.‬‬ ‫وطليطلة واقعة على ‪TSL‬‏ مؤلفة من ‪TO‬‏ بحيط بها مر التاج من كل‬

‫‏‪Mate‬‬

‫الال عا لله لدو لفن مانا ‪,go‬‏ ‪oS po deti‬‬

‫الشرق والغرب والبنوب ‪ehd‬‏ متسلسلة تحجب ‪YG‬‏ عن ‪led‬‏‬ ‫المدينة وفيها مغارس‬ ‫والصنوبر‪.‬‬

‫وق‬

‫الزيتون وكروم العنب وغابات‬

‫منتصف‬

‫المدينة‬

‫الكئيسة‬

‫الكبرى‬

‫السنديان‬

‫‪So‬‏ جعلها‬

‫السلمون بعد الفتح ‪eloC‬‏ وهى من الفخامة والمناعة على جانب‬

‫عظيم ‪ 4.‬وكان الناظر إذا ألقى نظره على أبنية طليطلة من شاهق تبين‬ ‫فيها من ضيروب الأبنية مزيجا من الطرز الرومانية والطرز القوطية وحول‬ ‫‪1 River Tagus.‬‬ ‫‪2 Roderic.‬‬ ‫‪3 Dukedoms.‬‬ ‫‪‘'To a great extent.‬‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫‪477‬‬

‫المدينة ‏‪ASW! yylis GEV CLL Ge Al elias SLO gs‬‬ ‫والأثمار وسائر أصناف ‪Ej‬‏ إذا أطل الواقف من إحدى نوافذ‬

‫منازلها أشرف عليها ‪FE‬‏‬ ‫‏( ‪ ab (A.D. 1891-‬نيسح ‏‪ (Autobiography) by‬مايألا ‏‪From‬‬

‫‏‪I‬‬

‫لقد رأيتك (يا(‪eG‬‏ ذات يوم جالسة على حجر ابيك وهو يقص‬ ‫عليك قصة اديب ‪LM‬‏ وقد خرج من ‪ 5‬بعد أن قاعنة لايدك‬

‫كيف سير |واقيلت ايه اتجونة ‪seca‬‏ ‪ssoal‬‬

‫‪,‬يراك ذلك‬

‫اليوم تسمعين هذه القصة مبتهجة من أولها ثم أخذ لونك يتغير‬

‫‏‪ HU AG‬ثذخاو ‏‪ tL tye‬كرد ‏‪oo by ets Et‬‬ ‫‏‪KIL ctl‬‬

‫]‪OV‬‬

‫‪CL chily ews CY dol le CS‬‬

‫فاترعتك ‏‪Seapiy heyy fae Se dh Cl) Ly cael)3soy ge‬‬ ‫امك وفهم ابوك وفهمت أنا ايضاً انك إنما بكيت ‪YB‬‏ رأيت اديب‬

‫‏‪ cst‬كأبيك مكفوفاً لا يبصر ولايستطيع أن يبتدى وحده‪ .‬فبكيت‬

‫ليله كا ‪yS‬‏ لردت‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫والنساء فى قرى مصر لا ‪tG‬‏ الصمت ولا يملن اليه » فاذا خلت‬

‫د‏من‬ ‫‏!‪ gale‬الى انفسها ‪yb‬‬

‫‪daoG‬‏ ‪. dade llac‬الى نفسلا‬

‫‏‪ GLI‬من' الحديت » فغنت إكنانت فرحةء ‪sedoc‬‏ إن كانت بكروتة»‬

‫‏‪Hl els Ded Cols cus op tye pe i ADI SS‬‬ ‫إذا “مغلوث ‪ME‬‏ *اننفي‪ 1‬أن" ‪uS‬‏ ا لاسن ‪)LSP‬‏‬ ‫‪1 Oedipus Rex.‬‬ ‫‪2 Antigone.‬‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‪478‬‬

‫‪ eepe es‬بجهذا![العسايدة الم البكاة! حتاررن وكان تطلاحتنا‪das ‎‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫الناس بالاستماع الكامزاته وهن يتغنين‪ yl ‎‬امه وهى تعدد‪‎.‬‬

‫وكان غناء أخواته يغيظه ولا ‪AA‬‏ فى نفسه أثراًء لانه كان ‪ew‬‏‬ ‫سخيفا لا يدل على شىء» بينما كان تعديد أمهيبزه هزا ‪esil‬‏‬

‫‏‪L Lys‬ناك ‏‪ poll Me des 4K‬ظفح ‏‪oe UBT Gale‬‬

‫‏‪ all go Ley GES‬كو نايا ‏‪ da‬ضتقعلاا اتلزهو ‪.‬‬ ‫—‪ (A.D. 89‬توفيق الحكيم ‪yb‬‏ يوميات نائب فى الأرياف ‪morF‬‏‬ ‫(‪1‬‏‪8‬‬

‫أبصرت سائق السيارة مختفياً خلف ‪elp‬‏ السئط شاحب الوجهء‬ ‫‏‪ jyh‬اين ‪stlas ¢‬‏ هذا ‪llef‬‏ ‪ oV‬ملك ‪sdud‬‏ ‪+‬‬ ‫‪sede) Geral) WIE at EC Late Sl caps. ie‬‬ ‫‪‎ LolaVk only ops abil‬تكضو ‪BLL G AIT UW‬‬ ‫ةحيص فرصنا اهدعب ىلا ةرايس ‪‎‬عبقو ‪ eee‬ا يذلا ‪‎‬؟ضشور‪sal ,‬‬

‫منظر العظام فى ذاتهاء أم فكرة الموت المثلة فيها» امالمصير الآدمى‪‎‬‬ ‫وقد رآه أمامه رأى العين ؟ ولاذا لم‪ ye‎d‬منظر الميثث أو العظام‪‎‬‬

‫‪ sh‬فى مثل وف مثل الطبيب » وحتى فى مثل اللحاد‪ llag ‎‬هذا‪‎‬‬ ‫التأثير؟ ‪,‬ميل‪ ID ‎‬ان هذه‪ !LAG ‎‬والعظام قد فقدث لدينا ما‪ed ‎‬‬ ‫من رموز‪ .‬فهى لا تعدو فى نظرنا قطع الأخشاب وعيدان الحطب‪‎‬‬

‫وقوالب الطين والآجر‪ .‬إنها اشياء تتداولها أيدينا فى عملنا اليومى‪‎.‬‬ ‫‪ a‬انفصل عنها ذلك ا«لرمز‪ UG » ‎‬هوكل قوتنا‪ .‬نعم» وما يبقى‪‎‬‬ ‫رل‪‎‬‬ ‫طك‬ ‫لشرية‬ ‫المظيمة القدسة الىلهافى‪ ek‎‬الب‬ ‫‪a‬‬ ‫‪ o‬تلك‪‎‬‬ ‫مناكل‬ ‫نلزوعنا عنها ذلك « الرمز » أيبقى منها أمام أبصارنا اللاهية» غير‪‎‬‬ ‫دى‬ ‫اسم‬ ‫مر ج‬ ‫المكترثة » غي‬

‫‪ :‬حر أو‪ cilc ‎‬لا يساوى‪ tu ‎‬ولا يعنى‪‎‬‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫‪479‬‬

‫شيئا‪ .‬ما مصير البشرية وما قيمتها لو ذهب ‪eY‬‏ «الرمز »؟ هو‬ ‫فىذاته كائن لا وجود له‪ .‬هو‬

‫‏‪he‬‬

‫‪ oT‬اذه‬

‫‪S‬ك‪SA‬‏‬ ‫‪Ve‬‏ وهو مع ذل‬

‫‏‪ CU «e No‬ديشن ‏‪ Like as‬رهلكاذن‬

‫ملك من سمق ‪ELS‬‏ به وممتاز على غيرنا من المخلوقات ‪ .‬هنا كل‬ ‫اق ‪”,syuG‬‏ ‪ TU‬وال ناك اليا‬

‫قطع الطبيب سلسلة تفكيرى ‪,iaG‬‏ (‪bc‬فىيده ‪SNO‬‏ القَقّازْالجلدى‬ ‫‏!‪ GULL‬يفحص به العظام ‪. . ,‬‬ ‫عباس ممود العقاد ‪yb‬‏ ‪morF eht levon 51..15‬‬

‫‪)4691‬‏ ‪(A.D. 9881 - .D.A‬‬ ‫اللقاء‬

‫ألفى ‪elp‬‏ نفسه» وهو ‪el‬‏ الى منزله » على مقربة منسكن‬ ‫صاحبه الأستاذ ‪)lec‬‏ وهو ‪yoJ‬‏ ظريف طيب النحيزة‪ .‬وكان يومئذ‬ ‫يسك ف نيك من ‪sgiG‬‏ هرات ‪llig‬‏ ‪SAS‬‬

‫لراك‬ ‫مط لو‬

‫اسمها ماريانا‪ . . .‬فدلف هام الى المنزل يزور صاحبه ويقضى معه فترة‬

‫يفقزان فيها بين معارض ‪tte‬‏ ‪ ID‬لا وصلة بينها» ويضحكان‬

‫نيرمت عفان‬ ‫‏‪ LT Kes‬نإمل نكتهيف ةهاكف ةيلاع هيففالوكش‬ ‫للرئتين ‪.‬‬

‫ووجد ‪LLUG‬‏ فناء الدار تطعم الديكة الرومية التى لها صفحة‬ ‫من ‪UDS‬‏‪g‬‬

‫يدرسا‬ ‫‪ !USW‬وعتداها ‪dtS‬‏ امليحة ‪separG‬‏ تق‬

‫الآنها‬

‫تصلح* للعشرين كا تصلح للخامسة والعشرين » وتسمىة آنسة كا‬ ‫تسمى سيدة » وهى مشغولة بكساء تقلبه وتمعن النظر في ‪.‬ه‬ ‫‪3 might well be called.‬‬

‫‪1 Sarah.‬‬ ‫‪2 might be; 114. suitable for.‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪480‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫قال همام ‪lua :‬‏ ‪ lla‬الصباح » اين زاهر يا ‪edloM‬‏ فردت‬

‫التحية يمثلهاء وقالت ‪ :‬أولا نراك إلا زائراً لزاهر؟ ‪]ia‬‏ خرجمنذ‬ ‫هنيهة على أن يعود بعد قليل‪.‬‬ ‫والتفت همام الى صفحة المكرونة ‪EW‬‏ ‪ :‬أرى ان الديكة اليوم‬ ‫ايطالية وليست رومية ! فلم تجب ماريانا بغير ابتسامة عريضة » وانما‬

‫اجابت الفتاة قائلة ‪ :‬إن كان الجنس بالطعام فالديكة هنا عالمية لا‬

‫تدين” يجنس من الاجناس ‪ :‬مصرية إن اكلت الفول‪ .‬المدمشة»‬ ‫وانجليزية ان اكلت البطاطس» وهندية إن صبرت على الصيام‬ ‫الطويل ‪.‬‬

‫فنظرت اليها ماريانا نظرة العتب المصطنع » واستظرف هام جوابها‬ ‫واستغرب مشاركتها فى الحديث فى وقت واحدة» ورحب مع ذلك بهذه‬ ‫المشاركة ‪US‬‏ احس التوهاة انها وافقت هواه» وانه ‪FO‬‏ يسوق الحديث‬ ‫إن ‪VL‬‏ تعرف كل شىء عن‬ ‫اليها إن أبطأ المساق‪ .6‬قال همام ‪:‬‬

‫ديكة البيت وتذبدّبها فى الوطنية » ولكنى لا اذكر اننى رأيتك هنا يا‬ ‫‏‪ Lal‬قبل ‏‪LOM‬‬ ‫ماذا يقول؟ أيقول لا أذكر انى رأيتك؟ ‪TbO‬‏ من ‪LS‬‏ إذن ان‬

‫يراها ويهملها ويتسى انه رآها؟‬ ‫أحس همام ‪iet‬‏ ان الكلمة ل توافق هواهاء وسمعها نجيب بشىء‬ ‫من الامتعاض المكتوم ءا اطي‬ ‫‪‎‬ةسنآ !‬

‫‪‎ Gaya‬ىننا ‪dy‬‬

‫‪,atO‬‏‬

‫ولماذ | اعون‬

‫يا‬

‫‪‎ bog‬مأو !!‬

‫(‪5 deliob .)tpygE‬‬

‫‪1 Madame.‬‬ ‫‪ gnoleb .ot‬دان ب*‪‎‬‬ ‫‪4 at the same time.‬‬

‫‪5 at once (33).‬‬ ‫‪‎‬ا ‪®a v.n. of‬‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫‪184‬‏‬

‫حسن ‪SS‬‏ عبد الوهاب الصمادحى ‪yb‬‏ خلاصة تأريخ تونس ‪morF‬‏‬ ‫)‪1‬‏‪(A.D. 38—8‬‬ ‫افتك النصارى غرناطة‪ +‬سنة يوم هجرية من ملوكها بنى الأجره‬

‫‏‪ wy ide‬صتؤتملاةهتذزف * ‏‪GE Mase sald AMER Lal:‬‬

‫‏‪ alte‬م ‏‪ AT dae Telly Gall UE dT alin‬نم‬ ‫ضعفاءمم يمواطنهم مهانين فى اعتقادم مضطهدين فى حقوقهم الى‬ ‫‏‪ alll Gal‬داش مع للا ‏‪Gass Ob pele Is a‬‬ ‫‪ 0 ee‬مرايد ًاعيمج دعب نا ‪‎‬موماس ‪equ‬‬

‫‪‎ Se‬د ‪‎ Jd‬مصعب ‪‎Gls dey‬ال ‪pill pat‬‬

‫‪ IAI‬وشردوم‪K ‎‬‬

‫‪‎ ad‬هيرتل ‪ot‬‬

‫‪ ie‬وقصد آخرون القطر التونسى لما‪ FO ‎‬يبلغهم عن كرم اهله‪‎‬‬

‫وخصب تربته‪ .‬فوفدوا ملتجئين‪ sno ‎‬وديتهم الا هذه‪shal ‎‬‬ ‫‪,. + ua‬و‬

‫وما‪ ssoP !aJ »bO yab ‎‬على عبد عثان داىة‪‎.‬‬

‫‪‎‬رشمات ‪ py‬ءالؤه ‪‎‬نييوكتملا ‪Spot Jal Cony Seerd opily‬‬ ‫ا ىتح ماسنأ‪‎‬دقف ‪ay‬‬ ‫‪ 3‬إن هذا الداى أقطع ‪laS‬‏ ‪ly‬‬

‫ملناراضى‬ ‫ما اختاروا ا‬

‫وورّع على محتاجيهم الاموال والنفقات فانتشروا فى اكناف البلاد‬

‫يشيدون القرى وينشئون المزارع والبساتين حتى ‪daeliG‬‏ القطر ‪ieAy‬‏‪l‬‬ ‫المفتودزوتروته ‪lllgaog‬‏ نين الى ليها ‪ .‬لجان وفرنبالية‬ ‫‪"0-93‬‬

‫والحديدة ‏‪ Olsen‬وطبربة ‪ 1‬الباب وتسور وقامة الاندلس وغيرها‪.‬‬ ‫‪1 Granada.‬‬ ‫‪ last Muslim dynasty which ruled Granada‬ونب ‪‎‬رجألا‪2‬‬ ‫‪A.D. 1239 to A.D. 1492.‬‬ ‫‪3 Ferdinand the Catholic.‬‬ ‫‪4 Castile.‬‬ ‫‪5 €Uthman (Otman) Dey, Governor of Tunis, A.D. 1595 to A.D. 1610.‬‬ ‫‪6 Softened their exile.‬‬ ‫‪7 et seq. names of towns.‬‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‪482‬‬

‫وعلاوة على ذلك فقد استوطن منهم جانبٌ ‪yliL‬‏ حاضرة تونس‬ ‫واتخذوا بها حارات عرفت بهم واسواقاً للصناعات الى جلبوها معهم‬

‫كصناعة الشاشية* ونسّج الحرير ونقش الرخام واليبس والرليج ‪.‬‬ ‫وها‪ .‬وبالجملة‬ ‫وقد نقل اهل البلاد عنهم اصول تلك االحترفقحنتى‬ ‫‪Sem Gy bil Grae vs‬‬

‫!‪les deuly Sof Ad! Crd‬‬

‫دافق‪‎.‬‬

‫)‏ — ‪ (A.D. 4981‬ميخائيل نعيمة ‪yb‬‏ الغربال ‪morF‬‏‬ ‫الرواية التمثيلية ومسألة اللغات‬

‫اكبر عقبة صادفتها فى تأليف « الآباء والبنين »‪ 3‬هى اللغة العامية‬

‫ظن‬ ‫ا‪-‬‬ ‫وفى‬ ‫‏‪ plilly‬الذى يجب ان تعطاه فى مثل هذه الروايات‪ .‬فى عر‬ ‫اشخاص الرواية يجب ان‬ ‫أن‬ ‫الكثيرين يوافقوننى على ذلك‬ ‫‪ Uy‬ةغللاب ىتلا اودوعت نا ‏‪ Lane‬اهب نعمهفطاوع مجراكفاو »‬ ‫‏‪bie‬‬

‫وإن الكاتب ‪UC‬‏ يحاول ان يجعل ‪EAL‬‏ اميا يتكلم بلغة الدواوين‬ ‫الشعرية والمؤلفات اللغوية يظلم فلاحه ونفسه وقارئه وسامعه» لا بل‬

‫يظهر اشخاصه فىمظهر الهزل حيث لا يقصد الهزل ويقترف جرم‬ ‫ذافن ‪el‬‏ ‪ ILG teop G‬حسبما نراه § مشاهد الحياة‬ ‫هناك أمرآخر جدير بالاهتام متعلق باللغة العامية ‏ وهو أن هذه‬

‫اللغة تستر تحت ثوبها النشن كثيراً من فلسفة الشعب واختباراته‬ ‫فى الحياة وامثاله واعتقاداته ‪HB‬‏ لو حاولت ان تؤديها بلغة فصيحة‬ ‫‪‎ a sufficient number.‬بناج ‪* lo‬‬ ‫‪* Sheshiya; red felt cap (similar to the tarbush) worn in North Africa.‬‬

‫‪ ely YI, a previous work of the author.‬والبئون*‪‎‬‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫‪483‬‬

‫لكنت كن يترجم اشعاراً وامثالاً عن لغة اعجمية‪ .‬وريما خالفنا ى‬ ‫ذلك ‪yaj‬‏ ‪ lio‬تأبطوا القواميش ‪.‬وتسلحوا‪yK :‬‏ الصرف ‪yrg‬‏‬

‫كلها قائلين إن «كل الصيد فى جوف «‪laL‬‏ ‪ ylO‬لا بلاغة أو‬ ‫فصاحة أو طلاوة فىاللغة العامية لاتستطيع أن ‪EG‬‏ بمثلها‪ .‬بلغة‬

‫فصحى‪ .‬فلبؤلاء ننصح ‪fO‬‏ يدرسوا حياة الشعب ولغته بامعان‬ ‫وندقيق ‪.‬‬

‫الرواية التمثيلية » من بين كل الأساليب ‪gdc‬‏ لا تستطيع ان‬ ‫‏‪ aul Ge (git‬ةيماعلا ‏‪ Lied! gl Lif wm said! UCL‬هذه‬ ‫القاعدة لوجب ‪fO‬‏ نكتب كل رواياتنا باللغة العامية» إذ ليس بيننا من‬ ‫يتكلم عربية‪ :‬المجاهلية أو العصور الاسلامية «‪eD‬‏ وذاك يعنى‬ ‫انقراض لغتنا الفصحى‪.‬‬

‫ونحن بعيدون عن أن نبتغى هذه الملمة‬

‫القومية فأين المخرج ؟‬

‫د‪.‬‬ ‫ح‪sa‬‬ ‫ا‪t‬‏‪f‬‬ ‫و‪la‬‬ ‫عبثاً‏‪ ote‬عن حل لهذا الشكل فهو اكبرمنان‬ ‫وتجلومصالت‬ ‫‏‪ole‬‬

‫اعترف‬

‫‪liG‬‏ بعد التفكين” هو أن أجعل‪ .‬المتعلمين ‪,‬من‬

‫‪ aly‬نوملكتي ةغل »ةبرعم نييمالاو ةغللا ‪.‬ةيماعلا‬

‫‏‪Nie ol peek,‬‬

‫‏‪NS‬‬

‫‪ oA‬ال ‏‪ je‬ةدقعلا“‪#‬نا اسال‬

‫فالمسألة لا تزال ‪elad‬‏ ال ‪!esle‬‏ ‪ led yJ lS‬كايا‬ ‫جبران خليل جيران ‪yb‬‏ دمعة وابتساية ‪morF‬‏‬ ‫صوت الشاعر )‪.D.A 1391‬‏ ‪.D.A( 3881 -‬‬ ‫‏‪ ae‬الى ‏‪ OKs Cals ULL or‬ىدالب مهتساعتل » نكلو اذا‬

‫ما هب قومي مدفوعين بما يدعونه وطنية وزحفوا على وطن قريبي‬ ‫وضلبواسامواله [‪yhp‬‏ ‪ yellA‬ويتموا اطفاله وريلوا ‪ 00100‬ايرا‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‪484‬‬

‫ارضه دماء بنيه واشبعوا ضواريه ‪top‬‏ فتيانه كرهت اذ ذاك بلادي‬

‫وسكان بلادي‪.‬‬

‫‪IS) Sy cas uty Cp dl GEL coed) bine SH Ctl‬‬ ‫‪ 1‬عابر طريق وطلب مأوى في ذلك اليك وقوتا' مسنك"انة ومنع‪‎‬‬

‫مطروداً استبدلت تشبيبي بالرثاء وشوقي بالسلو وقلت بذاتي‪ :‬ان‪‎‬‬ ‫‪Gal‬‬ ‫البيت الذي‪ rag ‎‬بالخبز على محتاجه » وبالفراش على طالبه لهو‪‎‬‬ ‫البيوت بالهدم والخراب‪‎.‬‬ ‫احب سقط رأسي ‪,‬بعض ‪es‬‏ لبلادي‪ .‬واحب ‪KOG‬‏ بقسم من‬

‫‏‪ Se‬للارض وطني ‪ .‬واحب الارض ‪SE‬‏ لانها ‪yS‬‏ الانسانية روح‬ ‫الالوهية على الارض ‪ .‬الانسانية المقدسة روح الالوهية على الارض‪.‬‬ ‫سبا ‏‪HEIGL Gil LG seplly‬‬ ‫‏‪ eater) ans‬ةقفارلا ني لا‬ ‫البالية» الذارفة الدموع السخية على وجنتيها الذابلتين ‪ ¢‬المنادية‬ ‫أبناءها "يصوت ‪eh‬‏ ‪ ld YS‬و عويلاً ادها مشغولون عن‬

‫ندائها باغاني العصبية» منصرفون عن دموعها بصقل السيوف‪.‬‬ ‫تلك الانسانية ‪LJA‬‏ وحدها تستغيث بالقوم ‪sB‬‏ لا يسمعون» وان‬

‫‏‪ 542 Ya‬وادرء‪rY .‬‏ وبيج دموعها عوزاها فى شدائده كال‬ ‫القوم ‪ :‬اتركوه فالدموع لاتؤثر بغير الضعيف‪.‬‬ ‫الانسانية روح الالوهية على الارض‪ .‬تلك الالوهية السائرة بين‬ ‫الامم المتكلمة بحابة المشيرة اسلىبل الحياة والناس يضحكون مستهزئين‬

‫باقوالما وتعاليمها‪ .‬تلك التي سمعها بالامس الناصري‪ +‬قصلبوه»‬ ‫وسقراط‪ 2‬فسمموه» ‪elloc‬‏ ‪ caL‬اليوم القائلون بالناصري وسقراط‬ ‫‪1The Nazarene.‬‬ ‫‪2 Socrates.‬‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫‪485‬‬

‫وجاهروا‬

‫‏‪ Lek‬امام الناس والناس لايقدرون على قتلهم» لكنهم‬

‫يسخرون بهم قائلين ‪ :‬السخرية اقسى من القتل واس‪.‬‬

‫‪ hy‬وقت ‪‎‬بقوا ‪‎ Gage 6 Gpetll USE‬ىلا ‪Yo WM‬‬

‫ءانيثآلع ‪‎‬مادا‪‎ Ge ged bl de‬لإ ‪de iepeel 6s gly 2‬‬ ‫يعماس ةيئاسنالا ‪‎‬يعباتو ‪» pail‬ةيهولالا نويخيسف ‪‎‬ىلا ‪SAW‬‬ ‫الابد‪‎,‬‬ ‫‪‎‬لوادجلا ‪Specimen of modern Arabic verse from‬‬

‫‪ LL (A.D. 1889‬وبأ ‪‎‬ىضام ‪of‬‬ ‫)‪-A.D. 1957‬‬ ‫‪eS‬‬

‫‏‪ ad,‬أدرى‬

‫‪et Exits gal gyplel‬‬ ‫‪YSee‬‬ ‫ولقد أبصرت قدامى طريقًا فمشيت‪‎‬‬

‫ئقبلسو ارئاس‪‎‬نإ‪Sail pl lie Gta‬‬ ‫‪ob pal is ToS‬‬

‫‪eat‬‬

‫‪Got Gud‬‬ ‫أجديد أم قدي أنا فى هذا الوجود‪‎‬‬

‫هل أناحرطليق أم أسيرفىقيود‪‎‬‬ ‫‪ TU oY‬قائد‪ lp alG d dleg‎‬سود‪‎‬‬ ‫تمن‬

‫ادق‪‎‬‬

‫‪es‬‬ ‫لنيتك‪ ,‬أد رف‪‎‬‬

‫‪1 Jerusalem.‬‬ ‫‪2 Athens.‬‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‪Proverbs and Aphorisms‬‬ ‫‪-0E-‬‬

‫(حكم وأمثال)‬ ‫صوءةه‪- ‎‬‬

‫الاة ال‪‎‬‬

‫الأبثال‪= ,sel ‎‬‬

‫‪be‬‬

‫‪ay gs‬‬ ‫‪ ileal‬ن‪‎ 0‬ناطيّشلا ‪: ec‬‬ ‫‪$--‬‬

‫‪= = 90‬‬

‫‪ sokYI Gg‬إفادة‪‎‬‬

‫‪‎‬ةلاسر ‪Bes ile OLX‬‬ ‫‪‎‬ود‬

‫‪Go‬‬

‫‪80-I‬‬

‫‪G-00‬‬

‫‪ea‬‬

‫‪ZF‬‬

‫‪SOO‬‬

‫مي‪‎‬‬

‫ل‬

‫اربع ذ‪sulc‬‏ والقربة يابسة !‬

‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪do‬‬

‫‪oe‬‬

‫كل‪‎‬‬ ‫‏‪we‬‬

‫‪7‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫»‪oo‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪S-‬‬

‫‪‎26‬‬ ‫معحيه‬

‫‪roHiLs‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫ا‬ ‫=‪a‬‏‬ ‫صمي ”‬

‫ود‬

‫لدرهم‬ ‫وى ق‬ ‫قعل‬ ‫عاس‬ ‫كلم الن‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫=‬

‫‏‪Be‬‬ ‫‏‪- ds‬‬

‫و‬

‫‪--‬‬

‫‪39 -0-‬‬

‫‪eL‬‏‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫‪Sine‬‬

‫‪ 00-‬ور‪‎‬‬

‫©‬

‫‪°‬‬

‫الوعد حاب والفعل مطر‬ ‫‪8‬‬

‫> ورور‬

‫‪8‬‬

‫‪a‬‏‬

‫ص‬

‫سه‬

‫العدر اقبح من الذنب‬ ‫جمو‪‎-‬‬

‫‪70‬‬

‫الادب يزين الغى ‪As‬‏‪ gn‬فقر الفقير‬ ‫‪-E0-‬‬

‫‪-02‬‬

‫‪jure‬‬

‫‪‎‬و‬

‫‪a‬‬

‫ده‪‎‬‬

‫‪CR‬‬

‫القبح حارس المرأة‬

‫‪03635‬‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫رو‬

‫ضصوء‪-‬وءع‬

‫الْرجالُ قوالب الأحوال‬ ‫‪ay‬‬

‫‪o-‬‬

‫‏‪ Ss‬شىء‬

‫‪2‬و‪‎‬‬

‫وت‪‎‬‬ ‫‪Wr‬‬ ‫ه‬

‫>‬

‫تى العبادة‬ ‫‏‪ dl‬ح ~~‬

‫‪486‬‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫‪487‬‬

‫‪gritos‬‬ ‫‪=Ce‬‬

‫‪I‬‬

‫‪CM‬‬

‫َب ‏‪iE‬‬ ‫لا‏‪0 mG‬‬

‫=‪Sa Obeee‬‬

‫جد القلمنه‬ ‫إذا َك ور‬

‫عش تر‬ ‫‏‪SE‬احبها فىالثار‬ ‫كم وص‬ ‫‏‪ by‬البطالة والكسل أحلى مذَاًا منالعسل‬ ‫=‪“y‬‬

‫‪ie‬‬

‫‪seme‬‬

‫‏‪ ceil fee‬نإ هتنص كناص » نإ ‏‪ ace‬كناخ‬

‫لولا‪na‬‏ ماعرفت ربى‪.‬‬

‫‪PRESS‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪THE‬‬

‫‪FROM‬‬

‫‪SELECTIONS‬‬

‫‪ yliad ,repapswen oriaC‬والأهرام‪From ‎‬‬

‫فوزى يطير الى ‪TSL‬‏ لتنفيذ الميئاق ‪VSA‬‏‬ ‫‏‪ y‬خبراء يطيرون لتأليف الجهاز الدائم لؤتمر القمة‬ ‫‪6#‬‏‬

‫‪ jo‬ان ‪sbn‬‏ الدكتود محمود‬

‫فوزى وزير الخارحية الى اكرا‬

‫لحضور اجتماع وزراء الخارجية خلال هذا الاجتماع الذى سيعقد فى‬ ‫منتصف الشهر القادم » تأليف الجهاز الدائم للميثاق الافريقى » الذى‬ ‫وقعه الرئيس جمال عبد الناصر فى الدار البيضاء مع اقطاب الدولة‬

‫الافريقية فى ‪elp‬‏ الماضى ‪.‬‬

‫‏‪ lame‬خبراء من الدول الافريقية السبع التى ‪AS‬‏‬

‫فىمؤتمر‬

‫الدار البيضاء افوىائل الشهر القادم الى اكرا لعقد اجتماع تحضيرى‬ ‫لوزراء الخارجية للاتفاق على تفاصيل تأليف اللجان السياسية‬ ‫والعسكرية والاقتصادية والثقافية والسكرتيرية الدائمة للميثاق‬

‫سيمثل الجمسبورية العربية فى هذا الاجتماع سبعة من الخبراء‬ ‫العرب فى النواحى السياسية والعسكرية والاقتصادية والثقافية‪.‬‬ ‫‪1 Accra.‬‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪488‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫الاجتماع التحضيرى فى الاسبوع الاول من الشهر القادم ثم ينقلب‬ ‫فى نهايته الى مؤتمر على مستوى وزراء الخارجية‪.‬‬ ‫التنظيم الجديد لوزارة الادارة المحلية‬ ‫ه‪.‬قلايرين ‪eluc‬‏ يرأسون‪ .‬الادارات ‪sA‬‏‬ ‫‏‪ 7 3K‬ثم وضع ممشروع تنظيم وزارة‬

‫الادارة المحلية تتتتكون الوزارة‬

‫من خمس ادارات» هى ادارات الشئون المالية والادارية والقانونية‬

‫والعلاقات العامة والتفتيش الفنى‪ .‬سيرأس هذه الادارات مدير عام‬ ‫او موظف من الدرحة الاولى‪ .‬ستضم الوزارة اقساما فنية تختص‬

‫ببحث المسائل التى يحيلها الى الوزارة مجلس‬

‫الامة او الاتحاد‬

‫القومى او الوزارات المختلفة‪.‬‬ ‫لن تضم الوزارة ادارات تمثل المراقبات الفنية فى المحافظات‪ .‬اذ‬

‫سيبقى اشراف الوزارات التنفيذية المختلفة على النواحى الفنية فى‬ ‫المجالس المحلية بحيث يكون المحافظ فى حكم نائب الوزير لكل وزير‬

‫‪ la‬المتصيلة يعمل الوزارة‪ .‬ستزوت ‏ الادارات‬ ‫‏‪ ss‬نا غل ‪,lelag‬‏‬ ‫والاقسام الفنية بحاجتها من الموظفين عن طريق موظفى الوحدات‬

‫المجمعة وادارة البلديات وادارة المديريات ‪ID‬‏ ضمت لوزارة الادارة‬

‫المحلية من الوزارات الاخرى‪.‬‬ ‫‪Cairo‬‬

‫‪‎‬اذه ‪ge‬‬

‫‪ 0‬اليوم‪From, ‎‬‬

‫سياسة التخطيط‪‎‬‬ ‫‪‎ gee che‬ةيحان ‪Dol GU wl‬‬

‫‪Lashes cast‬‬

‫التخطيط الاقتصادى والاجتماعى » ولم تعد الميزانية العامة فى ظل‬

‫هذه ‪tiluS‬‏ ‪ lloc NALLA !sabA slo yc eyaM IV‬وضعتها‬ ‫الحكومة بكافة أجهزتها وناقشتها على مختلف المستويات واستصدرت‬ ‫قرارا جمهوريا باعتمادها» وأصبحت محددة فى دقة تامة وتفصيل‬ ‫دقيق » بحيث يصبح ‪lo‬‏ تعديل فى اليزانية ‪kQ‬‏ عنهاء منافيا‬

‫‏‪ fa‬التخطيط ومتعارضا معه‪ .‬وقد يكون معرقلا لسير الخطة التى‬ ‫تقوم على تفضيل ‪lap‬‏ على المهم وعلى توفير الامكانيات اللازمة‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫‪489‬‬

‫للتفين على التوقيت‬

‫المتسلسل‬

‫الزمنى‬

‫المشروعات والاعمال وبين‬

‫التناسق بين‬ ‫للدولة » وبين‬

‫مختلف‬

‫وذلك ‪TA‬‏‬

‫وفقا لمقتضيات‬

‫جوانب‬

‫السياسة العامة‬

‫القطاعات‪.‬‬

‫ان هذه السياسة الجديدة التى يتبعها القيسونى‪ 1‬فى اعداد ميزانية‬ ‫الدولة تمنع الانحراف ‪UC‬‏‬

‫‪SG‬‬

‫‪ llla‬عندما ‪FO‬‏ مجلس‬

‫النواب يزيد فى اعتمادات الميزانية دون طلب الحكومة‪.‬‬ ‫ولكنها ‏ السياسة الجديدة ‏ لن تمنع مجلس الامة من مناقشة‬ ‫الحكومة فيما يرى ‪!oLJ‬‏ مق ‪dar‬‏ ‪ .‬فاذا وافقت عليه ‪ -‬فى نطاق‬ ‫الخطة الشاملة طبعا ‏ امكن اجراؤه فى حدود الدشتور‪.‬‬

‫ومن شأن هذا كله أن يجعل المناقشة فى مجلس الامة ايجابية‬ ‫ومجدية ‪2 .‬‬ ‫‪,daily newspaper, Beirut‬الحياة‪From ‎‬‬

‫لجنة الادارة تجتمع ظهر السبت للشروع ىق درس‬ ‫الايجارات‬

‫لمندوب‬

‫مشروع‬

‫« الحياة » الخاص ‪٠‬‏‬

‫كان من المنتظر ان تجتمع لجنة الادارة والعدل ظهر هذا النهار‬

‫الخميس للشروع ى‪ -‬درس مشروع قانون الايجارات الجديد» غير‬

‫ان هذا الاجتماع ارجىء الى ظهر يوم السبت المقبل ‪.‬‬ ‫وبرر الشيخ بهيج تقى الدين‪ 1‬رئيس اللجنة هذا التأجيل بقوله ‪:‬‬ ‫ان الرغبة فى دعوة جميع ممثلى لجنة المستأجرين والنقابات والهيئات‬

‫المعنية بهذه القضية » والملاكين » كل هذا اوجب تأجيل الموعد الى‬ ‫يوم السبت حتى يتسنى دعوتهم الى حضور الجلسة والوقوف على‬ ‫ارائهم ‪.‬‬ ‫وف الواقع ‪ ,‬فأن قلم المجلس تولى امس توجيه الدعوة الى هؤلاء‬ ‫الممثلين مذكرا اياهم بوجوب اعداد ملاحظاتهم بشأن المطالب‬ ‫التى ينادون بها‪.‬‬ ‫وقد اشرنا فى عدد‬

‫امس الى ان النقابات العمالية اجتمعت وقررت‬

‫بالاجماع رفض المشروع من اساسه‪.‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫‪1 Name of person.‬‬ ‫‪of‬‬

‫‪) IV) to be useful.‬ودج ‪‎‬ىدجا ‪2‬‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫‪490‬‬

‫اشتباك فى بعلبك‪ 1‬واعتقال الفاعلين‪‎‬‬

‫لخلاف على ‪elO‬‏ ارض ف حلبتا* (قضاء بعلبك) اقدم دعاس طعان‬ ‫دندش* وولده نوفل‪ 4‬وخليل سعيد علاء الدين‪ 5‬جميعهم من زبود‬ ‫على ضرب نايف ديب سيف الدينة الذى ادعى انهم اشهروا عليه‬

‫اسلحة كانوا يحملونها‪ .‬وبنفس اليوم وثأرا لنسيبهم ‪TAT‬‏ المذكور‬ ‫تصدى محمد ديب سيف ‪IWB‬‏ وعلى مهدى سيف الدين لدعاس‪9‬‬ ‫وولده» وقد قام درك بعلبك بالتحقيق واوقف خليل علاء الدين‬

‫ومحمد سيف الدين ومهدى سيف الدين وفتشوا منازلهم فلم يعثر على‬ ‫شىء ممنوع « والتحريات ناشطة لتوقيف دعاس‪.‬‬

‫)‪ , daily newspaper, Rabat (Morocco‬العلم‪From ‎‬‬

‫سفير المغرب فى بغداد يشكر‬ ‫‏‪ Cal‬العراق'والحكومة العراقية‬ ‫أصدر سعادة سفير المغرب فى بغداد يوم امس البيان التالى ‪ :‬يتقدم‬ ‫‪la‬‏ ‪“ deef ata GNSe llap aa‬وان‬ ‫تكةل‬ ‫‏‪ Gules Gundy SL! Cale‬ةداتسلا ‏‪ Sy Glad‬ةذاننلا‪ ,‬ءارزولا‬ ‫‏‪ elects‬تاعيهلا ‏‪ dubswl‬ةبادعتملاا ‏‪ Gkesly Ghdk‬ةليضفلا‬ ‫‏‪ ors cal dleyy elLul‬تانيؤلا‪ -‬ةيساكسلا«»تاّدحإلاو“ ‏‪Bary‬‬ ‫النقابات والمنظمات الاجتماعية ‪yykS‬‏ الصحافة والمنظمات النسوية‬ ‫وكافة المعوزين بوفاة المغفور له ‪ISWN‬‏ الراحل محمد الخامس سواء من‬

‫‏‪ cul ayia! slo 3yL52 ages rail‬ةءارق ةحتافلا وأ نم اوربع‬ ‫عن مشاعرهم بالبرقيات والرسائل يتقدم اليهم جميعا بعميق‬ ‫شكره وبالغ تأثره لما عبروا ‪ew‬‏ من العواطف ‪gnils‬‏ الحزن على‬ ‫فقيد المغرب الراحل والتى كانت له ‪ssalc‬‏ السفارة المغريية ‪TSO‬‏‬ ‫مواساة لهذا الخطب الجلل الذى حل بالشعب المغربى داعيا الى‬ ‫الله تعالى أن يحفظهم وان لايريهم ‪LL‬‏ ولا مكروها‪.‬‬ ‫‏‪1 Baalbek.‬‬ ‫‪2 Locality.‬‬ ‫‪3 Et seqg., names of persons.‬‬

‫‪491‬‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫‪From (3_w!, Arabic weekly, Paris‬‬

‫‪‎‬ىف‬ ‫حالصالا ىعارزلا‬ ‫دخل‬

‫‪AH‬‬

‫الإصلاح الزراعي في دوره الانشائي وذلك‬

‫بعد‬

‫احداث‬

‫صندوق يساعد على امتلاك ‪GIV‬‏‪ la‬الفلاحية‪ .‬وتم تحويل ما يزيد‬

‫عن الف هكتار كانت تابعة إما ‪YLA‬‏ الدولة وإما للشركات‪ .‬فانتزع‬ ‫من الشركة الجزائرية ‪ya‬‏ الف هكتار ومن الشركة السويسرية‬ ‫بجنيف‪ 1‬ب ‪ ,‬الف هكتار بحيث بلغ المجموع مائة الف هكتار ستوزع‬ ‫‪ 3‬قطع ذات مساحات تتراوح بين‬

‫‪.‬هو ‪ya‬‏‪o‬‬

‫هكتار‪.‬‬

‫وف المناطق المتمتعة بالري سيجري الانتزاع على الاراضي ‪lA‬‏‬

‫تزيد مساحتها عن ‪.‬ه هكتارا او فى ‪EU‬‏ وجود ‪ILUJ‬‏ لاا تتجاور‬

‫‏‪ yo.‬هكتاراً‪ .‬اما العشرون الف هكتار المتحصل عليها فستوزع‬

‫على قطع ذات خمسة هكتارات‪.‬‬

‫وينخرط المحرزون على تلك القطع ‪,‬‬

‫فى تعاضدية وشركة فلاحية احتياطية‪ .‬وليس من الضرورى ان يكونوا‬ ‫‪ANNOUNCEMENTS‬‬

‫‪AND‬‬

‫‪ADVERTISEMENTS‬‬

‫مصانع « العلوية » لصاحبها ‪td‬‏ حسين العلوى‬ ‫ان مصانع « العلوية » على استعداد لتقديم أية مساعدة تتعلق‬

‫باجهزة «العلوية »‪ .‬ان ‪bO‬‏ لديك أية مشكلة أو أية فكرة أو‬

‫ضان‬

‫‪ 324‬بأن»ضتاعة ‪ej‬‏ ‪ lc eg SAM lT‬خلل ‪ta‬‏ ‪tnec‬‬ ‫وتعتبر هذه الكفالة ملغاة عند وقوءع أى خلل بها وذلك فىحالة سوء‬ ‫استعمال الجهاز أو عدم الاعتناء به أو فى حالة تصليحه من قبل أى‬ ‫شخص ليس وكيلا ‪LUG‬‏ العلوية‪ .‬ان هذه الشهادة تعتير الكفالة‬

‫الوحيدة ويجب ان تعاد مع الجهاز فى حالة طلب خدمة مكفولة له‬ ‫والا فان أى تصليح ‪Y‬‏ ‪eB es‬‬ ‫‪, Geneva.‬‬

‫‪GRAMMAR‬‬

‫إن التحسين‬ ‫إلى ‪lek‬‏‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪492‬‬

‫‪A NEW‬‬

‫الذى ‪bL‬‏ على إنتاج بطاريات « فيدور» بمهد الطريق‬ ‫التجارة مع السوق العالمية‪ .‬وق ‪!sO‬‏ هذه الشركة‬

‫الشهورة أن تنتج بطاريات ‪LU‬‏ تصلح ‪dee‬‏ الأغراض » وهى تنتج‬ ‫‏‪ ty Ll if‬نم ‏‪ dal‬ةزهجأ‬ ‫المعدات الكهربائية ‪zdA‬‏ ‪gep‬‬

‫‏‪ ¢ gril‬ةعومجمو ‏‪tr Bo‬‬ ‫‪ « Sa‬فيدور » أن تمد عملاءها‬

‫فها وراء البحار بتفاصيل منتجاتها والشروط ‪!del‬‏ ‪yA‬‬

‫مكتبة عمد على‬

‫لطبع وبيع الكتب الشرقية‬

‫لدينا مجموعة كبيرة من الكتب (جديدة ومستعملة) عن مصر‬ ‫وبلاد العرب وتركيا وايران والهند والصين الخ ‪SJ‬‏ ‪!LOL‬‬

‫سترسل الكتالوجات عند الطلب‪.‬‬ ‫إلى المؤلفين والناشرين ‪ :‬الرجاء إعلامنا يمطبوعاتكم‪.‬‬ ‫اخصائيون‪ 1‬ىق الرسوم الدقيقة والمخطوطات والفخار وغيرها من منتجات‬

‫ا ان‬

‫‪5‬‏ ‪ GIS 2‬شهرة عامية‬

‫بحاجة الى مهندسين وكيماويين قديرين لهم رغبة فى اتخاذ الصناعة‬

‫مهنة لهم‪ .‬على الراغبين ان يكونوا مستعدين للعمل ى ‪yaS‬‏ او‬

‫واد‬

‫‪)TER‬‏ ريت‬

‫‪slle‬‏(‪>gniGlat llaG spal‬التدريك‬

‫‪1‬‬ ‫اللازم براتب كامل قبل تسلمهم مهام العمل‪.‬‬ ‫ترسل الطلبات الى صندوق البريد رقم ‪١‬‏ ‪ ١ . .‬بيروت قبل ‪١‬‏ ‪ ١‬اذار‪.‬‬

‫)‪Za, sain‬‬

‫زرا شاد الوطى‪‎‬‬ ‫الح‬

‫المغربى للمراقبة والتصدير‪‎‬‬ ‫اعلان عن عرض انان‪‎‬‬

‫يتسلم المكتب المغربى للمراقبة والتصدير‪ laG yy ‎‬محمد سميحة‪‎‬‬ ‫بالدار البيضاء حَى نهاية‪ ay ‎‬مارس‪ ynap ‎‬عروضا بشأن امداده‪‎‬‬ ‫‪Shad dy, oY,‬‬

‫‪AA‬‬

‫ويمكن الحصول على دفتر التكاليف وعلى المزيد من‬

‫الارقادات‪‎‬‬

‫لدى مصاحة الادوات التابعة للمكتب بالعنوان المذكور اعلاه‪‎.‬‬ ‫‪1 Specialists.‬‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫‪493‬‬

‫‪ lO yaa‬تربيل‪ sedalllca ‎‬بادارة السب ان رم ‪.‬تف‪ie ‎‬‬ ‫مزدوج‪ hW tep ‎‬مع البريد الموصى عليه وان يكتب على الظرف‪‎‬‬

‫الخارجى الاسم التجارى لصاحب العرض مع عبارة « اعلا عن‪‎‬‬ ‫عرض اثمان بشان اللباس‪.» ‎‬‬ ‫اعلان‬

‫‏‪ens‬لااارا‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬

‫‏‪ icsslice‬رار للا ا‬

‫ال‬

‫سيارتان جيب‪ 1‬من صنع ‪.‬دور أن رحجور‪.‬‬

‫تقدم‬

‫العروض‬

‫‪lJ‬‏ ‪ne‬‬

‫ادارة‬

‫المناقصات‬

‫‪yla‬‏‬

‫‪eJ‬‬

‫‪,ksA‬‬

‫—ارع شاتوبريان ‏ قبل الساعة ‪yy‬‏ من يوم الجمعة ‪gy‬‏ اذار‬ ‫ش‬ ‫سنة ‪-1‬و‪.١‬‏‬

‫يمكن الاطلاع على دفتر الشروط فى محاسية الداخلية‪.‬‬ ‫اعلان‬

‫مطروح مجددا ‪llag‬‏ بالمزاد العلنى كامل عقار الدولة ‪.‬رقم ‪gro‬‏ من‬ ‫ولىر—ءة‬ ‫صشما‬ ‫منطقة برج ال‬

‫المحتوى على ارض‪#‬بعل سليخ تزرع‬

‫حبوب مساحته وم مم مثّرا مربعا‪.‬‬

‫تجرى المزايدة فى صور ‪HC‬‏ الحاكم المنفرد من الساعة التاسعة حتّى‬

‫الحادية عشرة من يوم الخميس الواقع فى ‪.‬م اذارسنة ‪١‬دور‪.‬‏‬ ‫يمكن الاطلاع على دفتر الشروط فى مديرية الشؤون العقارية ى‬

‫‪ Nee‬هلا للا‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫‏‪ones‬‬ ‫العقارى فى صيدا‪ 4‬وفى المكتب العقارى المعاون فى صور خلال الدوام‬ ‫الرسمى ‪.‬‬

‫نيان الراغيين ‪bo‬‏ اوضر ف لوقت ‪llac‬‏ وليك يا‬

‫‪yhb‬‬ ‫الك ‪ic‬‏ ‪t2 35‬‬

‫‏‪1 Jeep.‬‬

‫‏‪2 Tyre.‬‬ ‫”)‪3 “treeless watered (by natural sources‬‬ ‫‪4 Sidon.‬‬

‫‪494‬‬

‫‪A NEW ARABIC GRAMMAR‬‬ ‫عطاءات ومناقصات‬ ‫‏‪ asl,‬الشئون البلدية والقروية بمحافظة البحيرة ‪1‬‬

‫لغاية ظهر يوم الاثنين الموافق مب«‪/‬س‪ | /‬ب و‬ ‫الزراعية ‪ylad‬‏ ‪ytt‬‬

‫وتطلب‬

‫ورقة دمغة فئة الخمسين‬

‫ظيسر ‪od‬‏ مبلغ‬ ‫نظ‬ ‫ملياء ن‬

‫لعملية انشاء الوحدة‬

‫المستندات من المراقبة بدمنهورة على‬

‫اليها تبلغ ثلاثمائة مليم فى ‪5‬‬

‫عطاء غير مصحوب‬

‫‪af‬‏ عطاءات‬

‫‪.٠ .‬‏ ‪6‬‬

‫‪3‬‬

‫طلب الات‬

‫يضاف‬

‫اكد — ‪sB‬‏‬

‫بتأمين موقت قدره ‪( /+‬اثنان فى المائة) من‬

‫قيمته او مخالف لنصوص المواصفات والشروط العمومية لن يلتفت اليه‬

‫و‪-‬رودوه‪.‬‬‫‪CORRESPONDENCE‬‬

‫أيها الأخ الخلص السيد ‪WO‬‏‬ ‫‏‪ ey‬ارال طن الخاطركم الأبل أن ‪SSO‬‏ عا يرام لين "كرد‬ ‫وعافية على الدوام‪ .‬ثم اننا نتقدم اليك ‪yyeH‬‏ بمناسبة قدوم السنة‬ ‫‪.‬ذا واننا مشتاقون ‪eeL‬‏ ‪ dahS‬ومشاهدة عاصمة بلادكم‬ ‫الجديدة‪ .‬ه‬ ‫الجميلة فى هذه الايام » أيام عيذ المبالاد‪«..‬وساكتك لك الخطابا‪ :‬مطؤلا‬

‫فى بحر هذا الأسبوع ‪yalp‬‏ لنا على جميع الاصدقاء» ومنى اليكم الف‬

‫الخلص لكم‬

‫‏‪so‬‬

‫فلان‬

‫حضرة الأخ الفاضل السيد فلان ذام بقاوه‬

‫بعد التحية والسلام والأمل ان تكونوا بغاية الصحة والسلامة‬ ‫لقد تشرفنا ‪yo‬‏ تحريركم المؤرخ فى ‪ey‬‏ الجارى ونشكر حضرتكم‬

‫جزيل الشكر وما شرحتم به صار لدينا ‪selyL‬‏ اما ‪.‬بخصوص البضائع‬ ‫ال ‪igoJ‬‏ عدي فى ‪giS‬‏ ‪ SSL UU‬سبق وعرقناكم أن جميع‬ ‫الأصناف ‪gaL‬‏ وى استطاعتنا عرضها على أسواق سوريا واستيرادها »‬ ‫هينح ‪‎‬ىرصم ‪5‬‬

‫‪2 Egyptian coin.‬‬

‫‪1In Egypt.‬‬

‫‪SUPPLEMENT‬‬

‫‪495‬‬

‫‏‪ Ge‬الاشياء التى تم اختراعها فى الآوئة الأخيرة‪ .‬وهنا نرجوكم‬ ‫اكنان فى استطاعتكم ان ترسلوا لطنارعينق‪ .‬البريد هذه الطلبية‬ ‫الضغيرة » ‪lld‬‏ _أدناه م ‪deyS‬‏ ‪ LO‬تزفرنا عن «السعر ‪eg‬‏ نقدم‬ ‫‪3‬يمتها على أ‬ ‫لكم ق‬

‫مصارف‬

‫طرفكم ‪.‬‬

‫أخى سيحرر لكم اليوم وهو بصحة حيدة وجميعنا هنا نذكر حضرتكم‬

‫بالثناء ونمديكم ‪EL‬‏ التحية‪ytsiL .‬‏ تفضلوا بقبول (‪!jS‬‏ سلامنا‬ ‫‪ksa‬‏‬

‫وشكرنا ‪.‬‬

‫فلان ‏‪DAW‬‬ ‫الى حضرة ابن ‪EL‬‏ العزيز السيد فلان المحترم‬

‫يوادي‬

‫‪sij‬‏ ‪ sla‬إن ‪ekal‬‏ كال اي‬

‫و‪15‬‬

‫لقد ورد الينا بأحسن وقت كتابكم الكريم المؤرخ فى ‪ +‬من الشهر‬

‫الماغى وشكرناكم مزيد الشكرء أما ‪ALS‬‏ ‪ VSA‬التى وعدمموى‬

‫بارسالها فلم تصل بعد فلا اعرف سبب التأخير‪ .‬الى ذهبت اليوم‬ ‫ال ‪otis‬‏ اليد ‪yehS‬‏ موطف قال لل أن الطاكرة ‪ec‬‏ ‪,hcs !SSAL‬‬ ‫لسبب ضباب على مطار روما وليس لديهم خبر عن وصولها‪ .‬وقد‬ ‫زارنا ‪!UG‬‏ ‪ do!TI elaC‬ممود سليم على طريقه الى نيو يورك‬ ‫‏‪ ce‬سيحل ‏ محل ‪lsa‬‏ ‪ G‬القنصلية هناك» بقى‪ .‬عتدنا‪ .‬حوالى‬

‫ساعتين وسرنا حضوره غاية السرور إذ لم نره من مدة طويلة ويعر‬ ‫علينا‪ .‬رافقناه جميعاً الى المطار خارج المدينة‪.‬‬ ‫هذا والرجاء ال ‪s1‬‏ ‪ eaL‬عل ‪leaG‬‏ ‪ EJ‬اوافلوا ما ‪PGC‬‏‬ ‫السلام والتحية ودمتم‪.‬‬

‫‪5‬‬ ‫فلان‬ ‫‪1 Mutual friend.‬‬

APPENDIX

A

Colloquial Arabic Dialects 1. A comprehensive and practical guide to spoken Arabic is well beyond the scope of this Grammar. The following notes are intended merely as a preliminary guide, a statement

of broad principles in fact, with only sketchy details. 2. Whereas Latin developed into different languages, such as Italian, French, and Castilian (Spanish) in the course of the centuries, Arabic did not split up into separate languages over the same period and in a comparable geo-

graphical area. The reason was that Arabic was the language of a religion, Islam, as well as of government. This meant

that in the first place the written language was shielded from the usual linguistic decay; and secondly, that the colloquial

speech did not diverge as widely as might otherwise have been the case. As a consequence the spoken Arabic of countries as mutually remote as Iraq, the Sudan, Morocco,

can be described as dialects rather than separate languages. Colloquial Arabic is, for convenience, divided into geographical areas, each with its own general characteristics and peculiarities; but within each area there is considerable diversity in sub-dialects. Nevertheless, the main dialects all have certain features and tendencies in common and are seldom mutually completely unintelligible. In fact a person who is familiar with, say, the spoken Arabic of Egypt will soon understand a Lebanese or an Iraqi. Indeed, in some cases the difference between the colloquial as a whole and written Arabic is much greater than that between one colloquial dialect and another.

The main dialect areas are: Egypt (Lower Egypt, the Cairene dialect), The Sudan 496

APPENDIX

A

497

(and Upper Egypt). The Maghrib (Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco). The Levant Coast (Syria and Lebanon). Iraq. The Arabian Peninsula.

3. The differences between Classical and Colloquial Arabic may be analysed under three headings: Phonology, Grammar, and Vocabulary.

4. Phonology In most of the dialects the pronunciation of certain letters of the alphabet differs to some extent from that of recognised classical usage. Generally speaking we may say that consonants difficult to pronounce (in the mouths of certain groups of peoples) are simplified. This simplification can often be

parallelled in other Semitic languages such as Hebrew and Syriac. The hamza goes frequently unpronounced except at the

beginning of a word. Thus the word

SF

‎‫وف‬

9s.» &



“responsible”

becomes something like masil. ‫كاع‬‎ “the asked”? becomes sal

as though written Jl; ‫ارق‬‎ “he read” becomes gara. The consonant ‫ث‬‎ becomes either ta or sin. For example we have taldta for ‫ةثالث‬‎ “three”.

For ‫الثم‬‎ we have both

masalan and matalan, the latter being heard in some partsof the Levant. There seems to be no guiding rule in this matter. In Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula, however, the true pronunciation of ‫ث‬‎ is used.

- becomes a hard g in Egyptian Arabic. Thus so. “bucket” becomes gardal. Although this pronunciation of the - can be heard elsewhere it is particularly associated with Egyptian Arabic. 5 becomes d or ‫ع‬‎ except in Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula. Thus we have hdda for ,‫اذه‬‎ and kazdlik for ‫كلذك‬‎ ‫ ض‬is usually considered a peculiarly Arabic sound,‫‏‬ hence the appellation‫) داضلا ‏‬4 for the Arabic language. Yet‫‏‬ it is frequently confused with 6. In Iraq and areas in the‫‏‬

498

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

Arabian Peninsula both these letters have a sound similar to

that of 5. In Egypt and the Levant ‘L is sometimes pronounced as a

‫ض‬‎ in addition to its own sound as .‫ع‬‎ In both.

these areas, however, the wold,Hale “officer” is pronounced zabit. In Syria and Lebanon ‫ط‬‎phen, “correct” is ‫يب‬‎ as both mazbut and madbit. ‫ ق‬becomes a hamza in the dialects of Lower Egypt and‫‏‬ the towns of Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and the western area of‫‏‬ Jordan. Thus the word ‫لاق‬‎ “the said” becomes al. In other

regions, particularly the Sudan, parts of Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula and the Maghrib the ‫ق‬‎ becomes a hard ‫عر‬‎ thus gal for ‫لاق‬‎ .This g pronunciation was

recognised in

Classical times as an alternative pronunciation; for example, in Ibn Duraid’s introduction to his famous dictionary, the “Jamhara” (9th-10th Century). This pronunciation is that of the Persian S gaff.

In the vowel sounds there is considerable divergence in the colloquials from the Classical. For example, damma often becomes kasra. Thus the proper name ‫تاوغت‬‎ may be heard as

Hisain. It is often omitted altogether in words like pes and ‎‫ك‬0 which are heard as mnawwar and mbdrak (or even embarak). 'Vhe fatha in words of the Ales form is often not

sounded and we have bir for a . Diphthongs may become long vowels, and vice versa.

In the Syrian dialect ve

“thing” is heard as shi and Se “how” as kif. Verb vowellings are also frequently varied. SES, “he writes” may be heard as yiktob, yiktib, or yaktib. as “he

grew” as kibir. 5. Grammar In grammar all the dialects resemble one another in that practically all final vowels disappear. This applies especially to those vowels indicating the cases of nouns and the moods

APPENDIX

A

499

of verbs. Nunation disappears altogether except in a few isolated adverbial usages such as hdlan ‘“‘at once”, ahydnan

“sometimes”, and tagriban ‘“‘approximately’’. 5 0>

‫تيب‬

---

“house”

is bait in all cases.‫‏‬ 330

‫“ بتك‬he wrote”

is‫‏‬

7

pronounced as katab; ‫بتكي‬‎ as yaktub (or one of the variations shown in Section 4). A final vowel may be used if the following

word begins with a hamzatu I-wasl, and this will be either fatha or damma or kasra, e.g.

ma yag¢rifa l-walad, “he does not know the boy”. Iglibi l-waraqa, “‘turn the piece of paper 07617“

Even when the following word begins with a consonant vestiges of a final vowel are sometimes heard. Thus in Egypt kataba gawab “‘he wrote a letter” is heard as well as katab

gawab. The Demonstrative Pronouns are often simplified, shortened or otherwise modified in the different dialects. Thus the rendering for ‘“‘this book” may be il-kitdb-da (or ik-kitdb-da) in Egypt and the Sudan, or hal-kitab, hel-kitab in Syria and the Lebanon and Iraq.

Conjunctivs

‎‫ ا‬AG largely JOE

omitted.

Thus

the

oF

sentence ey es ‫أ‬‎ ‫“هردي نأ‬T wish to write to my brother” would be rendered in colloquialspeech as arid ?aktub li-’akhi. The “doubled” Particles Ol, bf, Ov etc. are scarcely ever heard. ‎‫ ف‬is even rarer. In the Dual and the sound Masculine Plural, only the oblique forms are used. Thus ‫نالجر‬‎ >), oblique ley,‘ ,‘‘twomen”’ is ia in all cases (with the final kasra unpronounced). Oyale, oblique ‫نيملعم‬‎ , ' ‘teachers’, is mug allimin in i all cases

(with the fatha over the niin unpronounced). The verbal suffixes undergo some simplification. -

3310

=

0

>‫ررور‬‎

J

For

example ‫نوبتكي‬‎ “they write” becomes |‫اوبتكي‬‎ in most of the dialects, but not in Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula as a rule.

500

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

The Dual forms of the Perfect and Imperfect are not used in colloquial speech. One can hear ‫نوبتكي‬‎ and ‫اوبتكي‬‎ for the Feminine, ‫نبتكي‬‎ ‫ز‬and even sometimes nang for Oss (fem.). “10 9:0) =

In the dialects of Egypt and the Levant 6 or be is prefixed

to the persons of the Imperfect to make it a Present Indicative. Thus byiktub means “he writes”; betimshi ‘“‘she walks’’;

ba rif “T know’. Various means are employed to indicate the Future tense of the Imperfect. In Egypt we may hear (huwa) ha yimshi

for os ape which

in Syria (and Lebanon) would be

expressed by rah yimshi. In Iraq ga is placed before the Imperfect.

Occasionally also the Active Participle will be

used with a future meaning, e.g. and mdshi as-siiq, 1 shall go to the market’’. A curious use of the Active Participle, found in some areas, is to give it a meaning of the Perfect. ie

eee

.

.

Thus the phrase ‫نلف‬‎ ‫ دخأ تنب‬can mean “‘he took (in marriage) -

the daughter of such-and-such a one’”’. To express possession the plain *iddfa is not exclusively used; instead, several words with the meaning of “property”

are employed. In Egypt 05616 ‫ع‬‎ (for matd¢) is used; in the Maghrib mta é3 in Syria taba ‫ع‬‎ in Iraq mal. 11400 may also be

heard. Thus ‫ىباتك‬‎ ,“my book”, is expressed by al-kitab beta et or mta ‫عأ‬‎ or taba ‫ع‬‎ or mali or haqqi according to the dialect area. In the negative, Y tends to be replaced by .‫ام‬‎ In Egypt and parts of the Levant the word ‘“‘not’” is expressed by mush; in Iraq by mi, and in parts of Syria by mo and mau. These variations, however, are not usually used with the Perfect or Imperfect; md is used in these cases. In Egypt and parts of the Levant the verb in the negative has sh as a suffix. Thus “‘he did not strike” would be md darabsh. “I did not

see him” as ma shuftish (colloquial ‫فاش‬‎ “to see’). This final sh is presumably (4 “thing” in origin and appears in

APPENDIX

A

501

these cases as shi in the Maghrib. In colloquial Arabic ‫ال‬‎ tends to mean merely “‘no’”, though it is used in prohibition with the verb in some areas. Thus “do not go” may be 12

tamshi (timsht) or md tamshi (sh). In popular intercourse the re word ‫معن‬‎ “yes’’ is less common than such expressions as eh, ay, and aiwa. The last is used extensively in Egypt and the Levant. The Relative Pronoun ell is rare except in Iraq. Instead, we hear simplifications like al (the Article), al-li, il-li, el-li,

hal-li or yal-li. Thus 431,35 ‫ىذلا‬‎ ‫ باتكلا‬becomes al-kitab al, el-li, hal-li, etc. garaituh (garaituh, etc.). The above are only a few of the grammatical variations of colloquial Arabic dialects and are not intended to be exhaustive for any dialect. 6. Vocabulary

Uniformity of vocabulary is, according to the philologists, the least important prerequisite for linguistic homogeneity. Languages of the same family and dialects of the same language may differ considerably in vocabulary. So it is with

the various dialects of Arabic. We must not be surprised to find that a refrigerator is barrdda in the Lebanon and talldja in the Sudan; or that a bedsheet is sharshaf in one country and milaya in another. Strangely enough, the commoner the Go

word the more likely it is to differ from area to area. ‫رعش‬‎ “poetry” is the same everywhere. It is the everyday things,

especially modern or foreign importations, which show most variety. Dialectical variations may be due to three causes: loan words, corruption of classical words, or selection from

classical synonyms. (a) Loan words. These are numerous and are employed to describe modern machines and techniques. Various learned academies such as the Egyptian Academy have tried to

502

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

discourage the use of these by inventing suitable words from Arabic roots, a perfectly feasible procedure. But such fabrications do not easily gain ground among the masses. Thus we can hear 616 or Otombil for a car, or ¢arabiya

(Egypt) or sayydra; the two latter are Arabic. A truck may be lari (i.e. “lorry’’) or sayyarat naql. Similarly, use of the word

“telephone”

(written in Arabic O95) is discouraged

by

the language reformers in favour of the word ‫فتاه‬‎ which might be translated

as “an unseen

man

whose

voice is

heard”’. To list the foreign vocabulary in Arabic would require a book. Some of this vocabulary is Turkish (dating back to the Ottoman Empire or even earlier) and Persian. Titles such as bey and pasha are Turkish. Bash, Turkish for “‘head”’ is used in compounds for “‘chief’’, as bashmufattish “chief inspector’, bashkatib ‘chief clerk’, bashmuhandis “‘chief engineer’’. The

Turkish word dughri is used for “straight on” or “straight ahead”. The adoption of foreign words in Arabic goes back to pre-Islamic times. The Quran itself contains words of Persian, Greek, and Aramaic origin. In adopting foreign words the Arabs try to give them

Broken Plurals (or, in many cases, sound Feminine Plurals) wherever possible. Thus the plural of taks or tdksi, ‘“taxi’’ can be tawdkis or tawaks; the plural of lari “lorry” lawari or luriyat. The plural of film “a film” 15

Foreign

words

may

undergo

considerable

corruption.

From the French ‘“‘vapeur” we have 2066117 or babar used in

Egypt and the Sudan for a steamer or pumping engine. In Syria it has the former meaning. (b) Corruptions of Classical words. The following are a few examples: Bap

‎‫“ م‬like” (jis or 5), from the classical 58

“a manner” or “‘fashion”’.

hast] “had” from , Wes “to be useless or corrupted”.

APPENDIX

badal

‎‫“ ايان‬travelling

A

.

allowance’,

from

503

‫لدب‬‎

‫"عم‬

change” and oo “travelling’’. it¢ashsha ' ‘to dine”, for ‫ىشعت‬‎ . Such corruptions may affect either the actual form of the word or its meaning. (c) Selection from Classical synonyms. The

Medieval

Arabs

boasted

of the richness of their

language and of the large number of ACR es or synonyms, The student of this grammar will have encountered four words for “garden”:

S09,

2-4

0

52043,

5 >

‫ناتسب‬‎ , ‫ ةقيدح‬, die, de. The first

three are all common in colloquial Arabic. There are also many words for animals, and natural phenomena such as clouds. The various names for the camel are legion. The G6 -

student must not be surprised to find the word ‫سعب‬‎ 56 7‫ع‬ used in some localities almost exclusively for ‫رتل‬‎ ‫>هو‬--

instead of the commoner ‫لمج‬‎ .He may also find ‫موده‬‎ instead ‫لد‬

of ‎‫ ملابس‬for ‘‘clothes’’. He will rarely hear the classical ‫بهذ‬‎ “to go”’; instead it will be ‫حا‬‎|, rah or masha ee lit. “to walk’”’). 7. It is advisable for the student to begin by learning one single dialect, presumably one for which he has a practical need. He can later turn to other dialects and learn the various principles governing them and the characteristic differences which distinguish one from the other. The following preliminary bibliography can be taken as a guide: Egypt:

W.H. T. Gairdner: Egyptian Colloquial Arabic, Cairo, 1944.

T. F. Mitchell: An Introduction to Egyptian Colloquial Arabic, Oxford, 1956. Iraq:

Van Ess: The Spoken Arabic of Iraq, 2nd edition, Oxford, 1938. Haim Blanc: Communal Dialects in Baghdad, Harvard U.P., 1964.

504

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

Syria, Lebanon, Palestine:

R. Nakhla:

Grammaire

du Dialecte Libano-

Syrien. Beirut, 1937/8. G. R. Driver:

A Grammar of the Colloquial

Arabic of Syria and Palestine, Probsthain & Co., London (Printed in Vienna), 1925. A. Barthélemy:

Dictionnaire

Arabe-Frangats

(5 fascicules), Paris, 1934-1954.

Rice and Sa‘id: Eastern Arabic, Beirut, 1961. Cantineau and Helbaoui: Avabe Orientale (Parler de Damas), Paris, 1953. t M. Piamenta: Tenses, Aspects, Moods in the Arabic dialect of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 1964.

South Arabia (Hadramawt): R. B. Serjeant, Prose and Poetry from Hadramawt, London, Sudan:

1951.

J. 5. Trimingham: Sudan Colloquial Arabic, Second edition, Oxford, 1946.

The Maghrib: Gaudefroy-Demombynes & Mercier: Manuel d’ Arabe Marocain, Paris, 1925. Louis Brunot: Introduction a Il’arabe marocain,

Paris 1950. J. Jourdain: Cours pratique d’arabe dialectal (Tunisian), 7th ed., Tunis, 1956. Central and West Africa:

G. J. Lethem: Colloquial Arabic, Nigeria and Lake Chad, London, 1920.

Arabic Phonetics:

W. H. T. Gairdner: The Phonetics of Arabic, London, 1925.

Jean Cantineau: Etudes de Linguistique Arabe, Paris, 1960. C. Rabin: Ancient

West Arabian,

London,

1952, This list does not include popular primers for travellers.

APPENDIX

8

Guide to Further Study

1. Many students will doubtless have used this grammar under a teacher’s guidance; for them these notes will not be necessary. For those, however, who are studying without the aid of a teacher these brief remarks, we hope, will be of some assistance. 2. Works of Reference. Dictionaries

While this grammar contains a substantial vocabulary of over 4,000 words the student wishing to proceed further will certainly require dictionaries. Those by Elias E. Elias, Arabic-English and English-Arabic, published in Cairo in several editions, range from pocket dictionaries to larger volumes comprising over 60,000 words each. They suffer from the fact that they are compiled primarily for Arabs studying English. Consequently, they do not give broken plurals of nouns, the vowelling of verbs in the imperfect, or their verbal nouns. Moreover, the English-Arabic dictionaries

do not always indicate sufficiently clearly which words under any given reference are commonest,

which are antiquated

rather than modern, nor what fine shades of meaning distinguish them. In spite of their manifold drawbacks, however, these dictionaries represent no mean achievement. In the field

of aie dictionaries; that of Hava published by the Catholic Press of Beirut (in several editions) is an excellent short work. It gives the plurals, verb-vowelling, and verbal nouns. At the same time, for those engaged in a profound

study of modern Arabic literature it has some gaps. The best | modern bic-English dictionary is undoubtedly that or ee ee eat Arabic, Wiesbaden, 1961. 505

inay of Modern Written |

506

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

In the field of large-scale dictionaries nothing complete

and satisfactory exists.

bane’s

Arabic-English Lexicon

vols),

co

|

recently reprinted, is a classic work, but it was never completed and ceases to be more than rough notes from the middle of the letter 027 onwards. This work is, however,

being completed in Jorg Kraemer’s Wéorterbuch der Klasstschen Arabischen onwards).

Sprache

(Wiesbaden,

Harrassowitz,

1957

Of Arabic-Arabic dictionaries the 15th century Qdmiis of al-Firizabadi is the most comprehensive short work (4 vols.). Of the larger works

century)

and

Ibn Manzir’s

Murtada

az-Zabidi’s

Lisdn al-¢ Arab (13th

Ta

al- E Aris (18th

century) are the most famous. All these works, however, will be beyond the great majority of students at this stage.

They have the disadvantage that they are arranged in the “rhyme order’, that is, according to the last radical of the root. A number of handy modern Arabic-Arabic dictionaries also exists, the most popular perhaps being the al-Munjid of

Louis Ma‘luf (New Edition, Beirut, 1956). There are also some specialised vocabularies such as Dictionary of Sentences, English-Arabic by Ismail Mazhar (Cairo, 1957), Wordcount of modern Arabic prose by J. M. Landau (New York, 1959) with word frequencies but no translations, and Manual of Diplomatic and Political Arabic by Bernard Lewis (Luzac, London,

1947).

3. Advanced Grammars

The best adyanced reference grammar is that by William

Wright, first published in 1862 and recently reprinted (2 vols.). It uses the Latin grammatical terminology which may make difficulties for a large number of students who have no knowledge of Latin. Another excellent grammar is one by Howell published in Allahabad, India, 1883-1911, in seven

volumes and based on the works of Arab grammarians. It is extremely full and prolix, and probably of less practical use for that reason. Good grammars have also been compiled in France and Germany notably the Grammaire de l’arabe

APPENDIX

8

classique by Gaudefroy-Demombynes published in Paris, 1952.

507

and

Blachére,

4. Further Prose Composition (translation from English to Arabic). Unfortunately there is no satisfactory material readily available for Arabic in the shape of selected passages for translation. © 5. Further Reading. Anthologies There is a number of literary anthologies which may be read by those students not wishing to embark on whole works. On the modern side Chaim Rabin’s Arabic Reader,* published by Lund Humphries, London, 1962, is a useful collection. It enables the reader to find the vowelling, translation, and grammatical explanation of every word in the accompanying text without turning over the page. The extracts are all short but include well-known authors like Taha Husain, Taufigq al-Hakim, al-‘Aqqad. On the classical side mention must be made of Thornton and Nicholson’s Elementary Arabic, Vols. 11, 111, and IV i (1st, 2nd and 3rd Reading Books), published in Cambridge, 1907-11, which have full vocabularies. Of works published in the Near East, Cheikho’s Majani | l-? Adab in six volumes, published in Beirut during the last century, may still be found. Fwad Afram al-Bustani’s al-Majdani |-Haditha is, however, superior, having full footnotes explaining difficult

words and ‘sentéfices. This work is in five volumes published in Beirut in 1946. There is also M. C. Lyons’ An Elementary I/ Classical Reader, Cambridge, 1962. Those students specialising in modern Arabic will wish

toireadlahe neviepapées: ASeleetion WOME ESTavidious but al- Ahram (‫)مارهألا‬‎ of Cairo and al-Jarida )(‫ةديرجخلا‬‎ and al-Hayat )(‫ةايخلا‬‎ of Beirut may be recommended. There are also numerous journals and magazines, both learned and popular. The Iraq Petroleum Company and the Kuwait Oil OG 2 208

Company publish excellent illustrated magazines, ‫طفنلا‬‎ ‫لها‬ * 2nd Revised Edition.

508

A NEW a wie

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

o-

> SU! respectively. Reading the captions of the illustraand is

tions is a useful aid to learning one type of modern Arabic. For modern newspaper Arabic the Middle East Centre for Arabic Studies, deserve special mention. These include Prepared, and A Selected Word List Arabic.

publications of the Shemlan, Lebanon, a reader, The Way of Modern Literary

6. Modern Literature Some very good modern Arabic literature exists, its chief sources” pt. 6 15 a new school of writers in Iraq which is showing much promise.

Perhaps the best of the modern works to begin with is the autobiographical work (in novel form) ‫مايألا‬‎ of Taha Husain ‎)‫(طهحسين‬. Another is the satirical and amusing novel ‫ الأرياف‬3 ‫‏‬eem ‫ يوميات‬yb qgifuaT ‫‏‬mikaH-la )‫(توفيق الحكيم‬ which depicts Egyptian rural officialdom of a generation ago.‫‏‬ This author has written a number of fine plays of which‫‏‬ 20

‫و‬

‫َو‬

‫ فهكلا‬de and Nate‫ ناميلسو ‏‬of the phantasy type, and‫‏‬ ‫ بلقلا‬3 rig with a modern environment, may be men-‫‏‬ tioned. “Al-Hakim has also many one-act plays which make‫‏‬

interesting reading. For the short story Mahmud Taimiur‫‏‬ ‫) )روميت‬25% can be recommended both for his excellent style‫‏‬ of writing and his art of story-telling.‫‏‬ ‫يو‬ ‫ا دنس‬ pre is not an easy‫‏‬ ٠ subject

forstudy.

For the student interested in modern‫‏‬

Arabic poetry Arberry’s Modern Arabic Poetry (Cambridge,‫‏‬ )1950 can be recommended as an anthology, containing‫‏‬ among other things some fine examples of verse by the‫‏‬ modern Lebanese-American (or Syrian-American, as it is‫‏‬ usually called) school, 71whom an outstanding figure is‫‏‬ Eliya Aba. Madi‫ وبأ )ىضام ‏‬.(‫ ايليإ‬Of an older period are the‫‏‬ Egyptians Hafiz Ibrahim (aa!‫ ربإ‏‬,(‫ ظفاح‬and Shauqi‫(شوق) ‏‬, whose poems are not easy for Europeans. Shauqi’s poetical‫‏‬

dramas are good but may not have a ready appeal. Perhaps‫‏‬ his‫( عرصم ارتابويلك ‏‬the Death of Cleopatra) may be of interest‫‏‬

APPENDIX

8

509

to those acquainted with the works of Shakespeare. During the last few years a number of younger writers have

achieved prominence. Among those deserving mention are the Egyptians Nagib Mahfiz, Yahya Haqqi and Al-Sharqawi; the Lebanese woman writer, Laila Ba‘labakki, and the young Iraqi poetess, Nazik al-Mala’ika. A brief account of some of the chief writers of the older generation may be found in Khemiri and Kampffmeyer, Leaders in Contemporary Arabic Literature; Berlin-Dahlem, 1930. 7. Classical Literature Classical Arabic literature is tremendously copious and _ covers a wide field instyle and subject. Much of itis difficult

and it is not easy toadvise the student where to begin. All should read the Quran, however. Its language is by no ‫ا‬‎ | simple but manytranslations exist which will assist in its study. Arberry’s The Quran Interpreted (London, 1955) may

be recommended. Among older translations there is one by Rodwell (Everyman Edition) and an earlier translation by Sale. There is, of course, a very extensive literature on the Quran and the religion of Islam. In the latter field Gibb’s Muhammadanism (Home University Library) is a good

primer (4th impression, revised edition, 1928). For the hadith, or Traditions of the Prophet Muhammad, there is a selection of the Sahih of al-Bukhari in the Semitic Study Series

(Leyden, 1906). Guillaume’s book The Traditions of Islam (Oxford, 1924) is still a classic. Books on Sufiism have been written by Nicholson (The Mystics of Islam, London, 1914) and Arberry (Sufiism, London, 1950). For works on tafsir

Baidawt’s Commentary on Sirah 12 of the Qur'an by A. F. L. Beeston (Oxford and New York, 1963) can be recommended.

ac le0 sca 1 Fov7 eT5 TAw6 ‫ جا‬522to 0 ١ ‎5 ‎‫لمر لاز‬ga 7 poets the all Of elucidate. an hour or two The study

of classical Arabic poetry necessitates com- |

verse may take perhaps *Abu I--atahiya (42 ‫اتعلا‬‎‫وبأ‬ljis the easiest. Readers

may, however, find that his theme — the vanity of the world

and the reality and imminence of death — palls after a time. Of

510

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

the later poets "Abu Nuwas (urls: (‫وبأ‬‎ may have a greater appeal. But_the student will ultimately ‫ط‬‎have to to [ face_preIslamic and early | Islamic POE Ye 6 short poems of chivalry

in “Abi Tammam’s

(¢5 ‫وب‬‎I) collection known as the

Hamdasa (‫)ةسامحلا‬‎ make a suiitable beginning for study. Some

of these poems were fairly effectively translated by Lyall in his Translations of Ancient Arabic Poetry, published in 1885. In the poetical sense, however, these poems are really untranslatable. The poems in the celebrated Mu 2‫ع‬‎

(‫ )تاقّلعلا‬are an essential study, even though they may not at‫‏‬ first have the same appeal as the Hamdsa to the non-Arab.‫‏‬

Of the later poets "Abu Firas ‫)سارف‬‎ (‫ وبأ‬will be enjoyed. His poems written during his captivity in Byzantium have a charm all their own, largely because of the genuineness of their emotions. Al-Mutanabbi ‫)ىبنتملا(و‬‎ who has been called

the Sh

eare of the Arabs, may at first repel Western

readers, but the student is advised to persevere with him. In time a non-Arab may at least be able to appreciate why he is so admired in the East. Once the excessive pride of al-Mutanabbi is accepted, his real genius may be descried, however dimly. Arabic prose ranges from the comparatively simple writin of biographers and historians to the poetical, artificial and

brilliant and excessively difficult (even for Arabs) prose of the Magamat{ oa.) of al-Hariri ) (‫ىريرخلا‬‎ andal-Hamadhani )‫(الممذانى‬١‎ Probably the historical and geographical writers

are the best to begin with. among the ‫يس‬‎

‫ ل‬in

this category are the Travels of Ibn Battita ‫)ةطوطب‬‎ ‫(ابن‬٠.‎ Sir Hamilton Gibb has already translated a selection of Ibn Battiita for the Broadway Travellers series (Routledge, London, 1929), and the first volume of his full translation appeared in 1958. Another travel author is Ibn Jubair

(4s

o!), whose works have been published in the Gibb

Memorial series (ed. William Wright, 1907). The Annals of

Tabari (‫)ىربطلا‬‎ are the obvious choice for historical reading,

APPENDIX

8

501

while at a later stage the student will be ready to apply

himself to the celebrated Mugaddima, or Prolegomena, of

Ibn Khaldiin’s History, now available also in Rosenthal’s excellent translation (3 vols., London, 1958). There is also W.J. Fischel’s Ibn Khaldun and Tamerlane (Berkeley, 1952). There is a large literature of collected biographies, the most famous work being the Biographical Dictionary of Ibn

Khallikan (OS\+ .(‫نبا‬‎ There is a translation of this by De Slane (Paris, 1883, 6 vols.). Another work is Yaqiit’s ‫)توقايز‬‎

Dictionary of Learned Men. For literature of a less classifiable type the 7‫ع‬‎

al-

?akhbar (jks SI (‫نويع‬‎ of Ibn Qutaiba (4.23 (‫نبا‬‎ deserves mention. His section on “sermons” contains examples of early preaching in Islam and will repay study.

The Medieval-—Arabe_had_a_fine sense_of_bumous /|

Al-Jahiz’s

(‫)ظحاجلا‬‎ Book of Misers ‫)ءالخبلا‬‎ ,(‫ باتك‬also

available in French translation, is an outstanding collection

of witty and satirical tales. The celebrated Alf Laila wa Laila ‫)ةليلو‬‎ 4) Wl), Thousand and One Nights, contains a rich store of legend, story, and anecdote in the original Arabic. This work is of interest also for its language, and the student will encounter in it occasional grammatical errors and colloquialisms. An important development in prose literature was the 50-5

cultivation of rhymed prose (eo) and other artificial devices G-

--

collectively known as ‫ةغالب‬‎ (rhetoric). This led to the use by authors of a recherché vocabulary, demanded partly by the exigencies of rhyme, but also out of a desire to display erudition. This culminated in the tenth century (A.D.) in the devising of the ‘“‘maqama”’ form in which an anecdote or a situation is used as an excuse for a linguistic tour de force. The leading writers of Magdmat were Badi¢ az-zaman

al-Hamadhani (d. 1008 A.D.) and al-Hariri (d. 1122 A.D.). These works will be beyond the grasp translations.

of the student for some |

APPENDIX

C

Supplementary Grammatical Notes

§1 The Phonology of Arabic (see pages 6 ff.) 1. At first sight, the lack of a scientific account of the phonology of Arabic in the body of this grammar might seem

surprising. This omission has, however, been deliberate, and is based on the following considerations:

(a) We are concerned here only with the written language, not the spoken language.! As to how classical Arabic was spoken it is not possible, even now, to dogmatise in detail despite extensive Mediaeval grammatical and lexicographical Arabic literature, and accounts of the dialects of Arabia and of the various methods of Quranic reading. (b) Written Arabic is only heard in reciting the Quran, verse, rhetorical utterances, oratory and the like, and also in | broadcasts from the Arabic radio stations. This being so, one

can hardly speak of the phonology of written Arabic in the same way as one could of a spoken dialect.

(c) Nevertheless, written Arabic must not be treated as a dead language, as if the written words

were

mere

hiero-

glyphics. While to teach the beginner a scientific phonology of the language would be, in the opinion of the authors, of doubtful value and might only create an additional hurdle to

the student, he certainly needs a rough guide to the sounds of the language. This is what has been provided in Chapter One, sections 3 and 4. 1 See Appendix A. Sila

APPENDIX

C

511b

(d) There are few students of Arabic today who will not wish sooner or later to visit an Arab country and perhaps pass from the classical to the colloquial language with a minimum of difficulty. Even for them - particularly in the early stages — a detailed study of phonology is of secondary consideration: a rough guide to pronunciation is their prime

need. Despite all these arguments, however, the authors of this grammar realise that further phonological notes may be desired by some students. To this end the following brief notes are intended to fill the gap in a very rudimentary way. To those who wish to undertake a more thorough study of the phonetics of Arabic the following two works can be consulted: W. H. T. Gairdner, The Phonetics of Arabic, Oxford, 1925. Jean Cantineau, Etudes de Linguistique Arabe, Paris, 1960. The Consonants

2.~b; em; 9 38 ‫ف‬‎ 1. These are pronounced more or less as their English equivalents. It should be observed, however, that ,‫و‬‎ when having a sukun and ending a syllable, should still be pronounced as a consonant, with the lips rounded and protruding. (See reference to diphthongs, page 9.) ‫ ت‬tand‫ د ‏‬.0 These consonants are closer in pronunciation‫‏‬

to the Italian dentals

2 and d than the English sound.‫‏‬

They are uttered with the tip of the tongue against the upper‫‏‬ teeth.‫‏‬ J 1. See Gairdner, pp. 17-19 for the two types of/ sound. ‫ ث‬th and 3 dh. As in the words think and that respectively.‫‏‬ It should be noted that the Arabic pronunciation is more‫‏‬

emphatic than the English. (See also Appendix A, page 497.)‫‏‬ ‫ س‬5‫ ه‬and‫ ز‏‬z. These are more sibilant than in English. In‫‏‬

the former the ‘‘hiss’’ and in the latter the ‘“‘buzz’ are‫‏‬ stronger and clearer in Arabic.‫‏‬ ‫ ص‬:‫ ض و‬:‫ ي‬bt; bz. These are pronounced by the point of‫‏‬ the tongue with the teeth-ridge, while the back of the tongue‫‏‬

511

A NEW

ARABIC.GRAMMAR

is raised towards the soft palate. More than one pronunciation of ‫ظ‬‎ (z) is heard. In sound it is related rather to 5 (dh) ithan to ‫ز‬‎ (z). In Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula the three consonants 3, ‫ضر‬‎ 4, are pronounced practically the same, that is with a dh sound. (See also Appendix A, pp. 497-498). yr. The ) is rolled, similar to the Scottish 7 but not as emphatic or as prolonged. In some of the dialects there is more than one sound. Among most Jews of Baghdad and Christians of Mosul district, for example, it has a sound rather like the French 7 grasseyé (or like the &). eal. The pilea Speen treo nea ‫م‬‎ word John. It is also pronounced as the hard ,‫م‬‎ as in the

English word gag, and the French j, as in the word jour, over a large area of the Arabic-speaking world. The hard g is used all over Lower Egypt. Although this pronunciation can be

heard elsewhere it isparticularly associated with Egyptian usage. The French 7 pronunciation is used in the Lebanon, in Palestinian urban dialects (i.e. in Israel and Jordan on the

Western Bank), and large areas of Syria. (In North Syria, however, it has the English sound.) Rarer dialectal pronunciations of ¢ are gy, dy, dz, d and y. iS y. As with the ‫ور‬‎ care should be taken to retain the consonantal sound in di ongs. ‫ فق‬.‫ و‬The student must take great care in distinguishing‫‏‬ this sound from that of 4) k. It can cause confusion in mean-‫‏‬ S

ing if not properly pronounced. Thus al heart; ‫دع‬‎ dog. (See also Appendix A, page 498.) h. Students tend to pronounce this consonant either as *h or like ¢ kh. Care should be taken to avoid particularly

the latter sound

by eliminating

any suspicion

of what

Gairdner calls “‘scrape’’. For notes on the ‫ع‬‎ see Gairdner, pp. 28-29. The Vowels and Diphthongs

3. (a) The Classical Arab philologists unfortunately give us little guidance on the correct pronunciation of the vowels.

APPENDIX

C

511d

They usually content themselves with explaining the meanings of the words fatha, damma, and kasra. They do, however, refer to a feature called ’zmdla (v.n. of the 4th form verb, ‫ لاما‬to cause to incline) whereby the | = )2( in certain locali-‫‏‬ ties inclines from d to é (just as fatha does from a to e). This‫‏‬ is heard in the Maghribi dialects, in the Lebanon and parts of‫‏‬ Syria. Thus the word ae

sakin (dwelling, inhabitant) is

heard as sékin. It has the sound of the az in the French word

aigu. (b) The six vowels (three short and three long) and two diphthongs of written Arabic do not represent all the sounds heard

in the colloquial—or

even

in Quranic

reading.

As

stated on page 8 the proximity of certain consonants affects the vowel sounds. To appreciate this one need only note the difference in the sound of the fatha in ak (road, way) and aes (striking, blow). Likewise, the difference in the sound of the long d@ in ‫اعل‬‎ (the account) and ‫ىضاملا‬‎(the past). The 2 in the latter word is a “back vowel” and is heard almost as the a in the word father as pronounced in London and South-East England. Reading aloud 4. There are basically two methods of reading aloud:

(a) As in Quranic reading, all the final vowel points being / pronounced, except in pause, i.e. at the end of a sentence (in the> English :sense of that word).

ng the (b) Ongitti

finalvowels of inflection. For example the

following sentence — cone 0 ‫و‬‎ real JdIu would be read:

(a) qala li l-haqiqata wa ma watt (b) gal li l-haqiqa wa ma kadhab.

Note the disappearance of the ta ’marbita in (b).

511

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

§2 The Interrogative Particle (see Chapter 3, para. 4, page 29) Students are at times

in doubt

as to which

of the two

particles i and ‫له‬‎ to use. In many instances there is a free choice. The following points, however, should be noted: 3

(a) | is the first word in a sentence and cannot be preceded -o0--

‎‫عق‬

even ay,the conjunction. Thus, while we can write ‫تبتك‬‎ Je, -0--



with \the ‫و‬‎ must follow, as, 225.‫وا‬‎ (b) | may be followed by a word beginning with hamza,

e.g. ‎‫ انت ق البيت‬,١ era uoy ni eht ?esuoh ehT ,stsirup ,revewoh insisted in such cases the interrogative particle have madda,

Bae

as...

‫رن‬

‫صن‬

sige 3 he is the tallest boy in the room. genitive noun as follows :—

Note that this

is also commonly used in the definite plural

‎‫هو أطلول الأولاد‬, eh si eht tsellat .yob ehT mrof TNES ‎‫هوالولد‬

is rare. (b) The Elative may be preceded by % to mean “‘one of the... est’’, ‘one of the most . “among ther : ‫ا‬‎ e.g. 2:35

we

-

2

o>

66

among the most .



1

0)

ol oie‫نموه‬‎ he is one of the most generous people. (c) (see Chapter 40, para. 8) The student should note the frequent use of ach elative of AOS in modern za--

-‫ق‬‎

‫ لقا امدقت‬with

politico-economic

the meaning

expressions

“under-developed”

advanced), e.g.‫‏‬ za--

a- ‫عوص‬‎

‫و‬

>

‫ لقالا امدقن‬Ages the under-developed

countries.‫‏‬

such

as

(Jit. less‫‏‬

511

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

§5 Subjunctive Particles (see Chapter 15, para. 4, page 122) The remarks made in Chapter 15 on the choice of subjunctive eens require some amplifications and amendment. (a) jl follows. verbs expressing desire, dislike, command, prohibition, duty, fear, necessity, and kindred notions, e.g. ‫أت‬

Aa‫‏‬

‫د‬

‫ ديرا نا رظتنا‬I want to wait.‫‏‬ 077

ONE

‫ىبجاو نا رظننا‬ -

-o-

it is my duty to wait.‫‏‬

of

‫ نا رظنني‬3 ‫ طع فاخ‬was afraid to wait.‫‏‬ (b) J OY Ss 6S indicate purpose, intention, object, and the like, e.g. ‫هوريل‬‎ ‫ اورظتنا‬they waited to see him. Their negatives are ‫الغل‬‎ « SES manasa, (c) Some beginners tend to circumvent the subjunctive by using ‎‫ إن‬or =

RRS

Or

‎‫أن‬

instead

of a subjunctive

particle, e.g.

5 am

‫مهنإ نورظتني‬ge a in error for‫ اورظنني ‏‬ey‫ ‏‬0 ‫ لاق‬he told‫‏‬ ee

a

Ae

2

ee

‫ل‬‎

‫بص‬

=

them to wait. ‫كوتومي‬‎ ‫ مهنا‬eee in error for ‫اوتومي‬‎ ‫ نأ‬on he | | was afraid that they would die. This

mistake should be avoided.

(d) The use of the subjunctive may, however, often be avoided by the substitution of a verbal noun with the definite article, | or ina prepositional phrase, or with the maj el lahu ‫ عسب‬in the accusative, e.8‫‏‬

They Went ‘out to receive the prince.

‫|‏ للوزير‬SU ‫‏ قمث‬rof ‫رمالوزير‬

20

‫قمت‬

I rose out of respect for the minister.

APPENDIX

©

511h

§6 Doubly Transitive Verbs (see Chapter 45, para. 3, page 392) Doubly transitive verbs are of three main types: (a) Causative verbs, mostly of the second or fourth derived forms, where the root verb is transitive, e.g. ‫ملع‬‎ II to teach,

from ‎‫ علم‬to know or learn. (b) Verbs implying giving, or some similar notion, as filling, satisfying, allowing, appointing: also the reverse meanings of forbidding and depriving. To these should be added verbs of asking, entreating and the like; e.g.

0 LS ‫اًدمحم‬‎ a

‫ىطعأ‬‎ Hasan gave Muhammad two books

at Fos ‫ذل‬‎ he filled the bucket with water. (modern Arabic usually replaces the second object ail by a - 00

prepositional phrase ‫ٍءامب‬‎or :(‫ءاملاب‬‎ 2

‫عا‬

‫ا‬

‫عاص عات‬

2‫و‬6

‫ ع سانلا ةديصق‬Lid!‫ دشنا ‏‬the poet recited an ode to the people.‫‏‬ ‫دهع‬

‫ وا مه‬5‫ صانل‬y---‫‏‬

‫ همرح هللا ةكرب‬God has deprived him of a blessing.‫‏‬ Kal ail hak I ask pardon of God.‫‏‬

(c) What the Arabs call “Verbs of the Heart” ‫)بلقلا‬‎ .(‫لاعفا‬ These are sometimes called also verbs of certainty and doubt (GLE

‫قيقيلا‬‎ .(‫ لاعفا‬These

are at times what

might

be

called “estimative” verbs, such as ‫بسح‬‎ to think, reckon. They include verbs of thinking, knowing, finding, and imagining, e.g.

Su ‎‫ أظن حسنًا‬I kniht nasaH )si( .tnegilletni (ie ‎‫ قائدًا‬foes ‎‫ رت‬I found Zaid (to be) a great commander.

5111

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

§7 Composite Words Composite words in Arabic fall into three categories. 1. A word

Shem. 8

compounded

pl. ‎‫سر ادبن‬,

of two foreign words, e.g. ‫بادرس‬‎

dnuorgrednu ,tluav .rallec

morF owt

naisreP

words sard cold and 26 water (because kept cool by means of cold water). 2. A word made up of one Arabic and one foreign word, e.g. ‫ا‬

pl. Ogu‫دنبمشاب ‏‬

chief

engineer.

From

Arabic‫‏‬ OID.

‫ سدنمم‬engineer, and Turkish bdsh head. reess pl.‫كتبخانات ‏‬ bookshop or library. From Arabic 3 khaneh house.

books, and Persian ae

eee

3. A compound of two Arabic words, e.g. from All ‫سار‬‎ ‫و‬

capital (finan.),

we

:

9a

- ‫م‬-‎ ‫َنَد‬

have, ‫ةيلامسارلا‬‎ capitalism,

1

As

‫ثويلامسأرلا‬‎

capitalists. (34, amphibious; from ‫رب‬‎ land, and el. water. Some of the Arabic-Turkish

compounds

are tending

to

disappear “gradually, gradually, being being feptaced replaced by by wholly wholly “Ara Arabic words. While on the other hand compound new words are

being introduced to meet the needs of science and technology, ‫دهم‬

like OW ‫وبرت‬‎ turbo-jet; Poet

‫كرمت‬‎ turbo-prop engine.

‫ا‬

‫امج‬50007 ‫اس‬

toot s bus

nov:

‫وف‬be‫دنا مسا ‏‬

‫ كيسا ور‬oT

th ;‫‏‬

Vin Lota, sare “Saute baw

vee. rst gerne. eey‫‏‬:sra‫الوك‬stsip eI eHsiop .ekapS la ‫‏‬oi ‫ محال توصو‬werd‫لك ‏‬ "‫اممو رجاف ص‬

‫مااكدر‬ ‫هت‬

:

ak’

»

sats o‫دش يمك ‏‬ ‫يباب‬

1 aby aniiowor

3

+21

SUN‫‏‬

‫سلا‬

dO ‫‏‬nav

=

Ce,

shies i

‫‏‬naaD

‫ذه‬

072

‫دك‬

0

‫ربع‬

١ oy Zariet‫و ‏‬1 ‫كور‬

eniqia nt Seon oi godt‫‏‬ >

3‫‏‬ prez trewted.

ie

1

ier

7

a‫‏‬

iS

es

1 7

‫"ب‬

>

: ‫ ودل هلك‬ete sede?‫اذب ‏‬. 41

1

_

igyrgotiB ‫‏‬ob GE

1

9

~

daw,

‫‏‬leh

1

1

.

0

3‫‏‬

A

ts)‫‏‬

ie‫‏‬

7

;

hatfans‫‏‬

‫‏‬١‫و‬

0

‫ تجا كسا‬3 ‫ و يع تناج‬03-4

‫د‬ +

‫ا‬

‫ع ع ال‬ 1

9

wer

‫‏‬tesoc ‫عو نفووكم‬ f _ g, Dies‫‏‬

u,b,

2-2

١5

teow

verietwenw

‫ ورج‬gnivimulat dle tcat sesepe roiciod et

5

١‫‏‬

8

3

‫ي‬ ‫فأ‬ ‫رجا‬ ‫دتر‬ ‫جا‬

‫سو ا‬

5"

eA 71

5

‫‏‬gne 1

‫ا‬

‫را‬

0

;

‘Vie vi on”

‎‫كنك‬

Hh

&

1

0 AG

ne

je

2

, ‫هلا‬‎ she i Sy

j ‫انا‬ baler

«Fe.‫‏‬

‫كلب‬‎3

0

0 7 1

VOCABULARY (1) The unvowelled words shown in brackets indicate the root letters. Some non-Arabic words (place names, etc.) are given under a root form whenever the construction of the word allows of this; otherwise they are placed in alphabetical order according to the initial letter of the word. (2) A few words

may be written with alternative vowelling. These 3

are shown thus; vl ‫ناو‬‎ means that this particular word may be spelled i

5

or aa Where this happens in the case of the

vowelling of the second ‎‫ترك‬

radical of the Imperfect

it is indicated

as

2

follows: )2(, e.g. ‫رفني‬‎ or ‫رفني‬‎ . ‫د‬

|

... !3 father of, possessor,‫‏‬ owner of

2 1 : | interrogation particle

(attached)

‎‫( أبوان‬dual) parents

(2!) 2-‫خ‬

‫ادبا‬

ever

(with

(a!)

negative ee=

ca! () الى‬ot emoc 4

RNP waF

‎‫ دب‬to bring

hearts ‎‫ تابط‬17 tocarryunderthearm

-

‎‫ ا‬pl. Bul armpit

‫تا‬‎ coming, following

(ce!)

( V to be affected,

4='| VIII to take for oneself,

influenced

adopt

os pl. wel trace, footstep (in pl. also antiquities)

G4!)

ald, il 3, sh a following

‫ رخأ‬II to delay (someone,‫‏‬ anything)‫‏‬

“on, immediately after

‫ رخات‬V to be late, delayed,‫‏‬

-GE-

behind‫‏‬

= 1 ethereal atmosphere

5

es last, finally, recently

)‫(اجج‬ -GE-

‫ىرخا رثرخا‬ pl. Al, O94! an-‫‏‬

‫ ججان‬V to burn, be aflame‫‏‬

other, other‫‏‬

(+!)

5

al IV

to

rent,

hire

(to

someone)

pga

a

5-02

6

‫ ريخا‬last, recent‫‏‬

‫ ريثان‬influence, impression‫‏‬

‎‫م‬

E-

eS LeU paces Leh

Xx 60 rent, hire

the

6-2

world

to

come,

the

Hereafter

on Pl. ‫رخآ‬‎ rent, reward, fee

2G Bs

a baked bricks

|+9 lately, recently

(de!) Bel II to

‫و‬

>=! pl. ‫رخاوا‬‎ last, end (pl. = latter part)

G*!) postpone,

delay

(something) as) pl. Jui the (fixed) term of one’s life

A,

el (with following

a

0 Dien, ‫هر‬‎ brother --=

‫حت‬3 ‫‏‬.lp ‫ اخواا تت‬sister‫‏‬

‫ولد‬

ey for the sake of, for

(44!)

‫ بدا‬II to discipline‫‏‬

Sel (2 ) un. if to take; (+ imperf. to begin); to learn from, study under (antzq.)

‫ بدا‬pl.‫ بادا ‏‬literature, arts,‫‏‬ politeness‫‏‬

5

‫ ذخا‬111 v.n.‫ ةذخاوم ‏‬to blame‫‏‬

5

>

SF.

3

9 --2

:

‎‫ اديب‬pl. ‎‫ ادباء‬cultured, educated man, literary figure

514

A NEW

ARABIC

(re)

GRAMMAR

‫ خرأ‬II to date; write history‫‏‬

‫مدا‬,‫ا‬ : pol‫ ونب‏‬Adam;

58 --

mankind‫‏‬

re Te SA‫‏‬ ,‫ خيرات خيرات‬pl.‫ خيراوت ‏‬date;‫‏‬ history‫‏‬

‫ ادمى‬man‫‏‬ 5

wis

cs» historian

(31) 5 -

5 --é

sls! pl. ‫تاودا‬‎ tool, implement, instrument

(se!)

(4!) ‫جسم‬

805

land

tes II to perform; to lead to

(with J!)

‫ا ل‬

‫دو‬

‫)( ضرا‬pl.‫‏‬,‫ ضارا‬O54)! earth,‫‏‬ a‫‏‬

)‫(ارنب‬ 5

>

Sy! pl. ‫بنارأ‬‎ rabbit, hare

(3!)

(J5!)

°

5| since

5-2

SG

>

‫ازل‬, ‫ ازلية‬eternity‫‏‬

‫اذِإ‬if, when; behold (with‫(ب ‏‬ Goo

,‫ اذإ‬OS! therefore, so, then‫‏‬

)‫(ازم‬ 5 > ‫َه‬

(50!)

‫ ةمزا‬pl.‫ مز ‏‬dearth, scarcity;‫‏‬ crisis (mod.)‫‏‬

‫ (=) نذا‬to permit‫‏‬

)‫(اسس‬

: rire

ab i

‎‫ استاذن‬X to ask permission 536

‫ا‬‎

05! permission

gee

5

Os 37

5 ‫ب‬‎ ‫َءر‬

‫ نذوم‬Muezzin (caller to‫‏‬

prayer)‫‏‬ §--8-

5 -2

ea fundamental(ist)

>

‎‫ اذان‬Moslem call to prayer

5--0

>

‫ مساسا‬vu! foundation‫‏‬

Os! pl. Ol! ear 5

‫ ضل‬II to found, establish,‫‏‬ build‫‏‬

‫و‬

‫ةنذام‬.,‫ ةندثم‬pl. OSL minaret‫‏‬

(4!) é

‫إسبانيا‬: ‫إسبانى‬, ٌ‫ الإسبان‬Spain;‫‏‬ Spanish, the Spaniards

‎5)‫سهت>ذ‬2‫(ا‬

Stal pl. ail, ‫ٌةدتاسأ‬‎ professor, teacher

‎‫ اريب‬clever, able

‎)‫(اسد‬

)‫(ارخ‬

dul pl. Awl, mak lion

5>

5

22

VOCABULARY

515

(yl)

(J!)

ot (_) to take prisoner,

lye \defintterarsicle

captive J

--2

pelpl. ‫ءارسأ‬‎ captive, prisoner 0 war

(1!) -we

‫ فلا‬11 to compose,‫‏‬

write,

compile (a book, etc.)‫‏‬

Gshcl pi. jabtt feet, flotilla

PK III to be intimate with

(s+!)

Hl pl. ,‫فولأ‬‎ GYT thousand

508

Sueno

‎‫ مواساة‬consolation; help

)Sof ‫(أصل‬

5 922

-~

(1,000) 59 8-

‫ فولام‬customary, usual‫‏‬

‫ع‬

5

22

bel pl. ‫لوصا‬‎ origin, root, principle ‫إفريقيا‬, ٌ‫ إفريقية‬Africa‫‏‬

Sues‫‏‬

‫ فلوم‬composer, author‫‏‬ 5 -GEs

‫( تافلوم‬pl.) compositions,‫‏‬ compilations‫‏‬

)‫(الم‬

(3!)

‫ملأ‬11 to pain‫‏‬

8 pl. Gut horizon

(SH) we VIII

(251)

to

(from), be pained (by)

its iII to assure, confirm

wl pl.‫مالا‬‎pain, grief

(ce) er V to be assured (of)

‎‫ مولم‬painful

aS,‫ا‬‎firm, certain

)‫(اكل‬

is (=) wn. As to eat 5

‫ اكل‬food‫‏‬

)‫(اكم‬

5 85

‫ نيا‬ul Germany 9-0f0-

3iu, OU!

German, a

German; the Germans

(ai!)

4!pl. ‫ٌةهلآ‬‎ a god, divinity

‫‏ كلد‬.lp ‫— ات‬, 762 summit,‫‏‬

hillock, rising ground‫‏‬

suffer

: ‎‫ الله‬God

516

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR ‫دوي‬ ‫ل‬

osJl divineness

‫ةرامإ‬rule, pore princedom‫‏‬

(J!)

‘si pl. ana prince, ruler, Emir

Jl to

5 ‫دغ‬‎‫د‬ yb pl. oat, yee official,

its (with verb) until

functionary; district officer (in some page countries)

(e!) - cE

5--.8 ‫و‬

‫ مما‬11 to nationalise (mod.)‫‏‬

‫‏ موتمر‬.lp ‫ — أت‬conference‫‏‬

‫مأ‬pl. ere‫ ثامأ ‏‬mother‫‏‬

3 ‎‫ا‬

‫مامأ‬in front of, before‫‏‬ 5

50



50 @

‫‏ إمام‬.lp ‫واثمة‬

SSpl American

‫ ا‬Imam,‫‏‬

religious eater) leader Brey eke eases

of

8 ue ae nation

‫) لك‬.2( to hope, hope for‫‏‬ at, observe, study Solo Jui hope

‫ ام‬or‫‏‬

ber")

‫امأ‬. as for‫‏‬

oF

(J+!)

bE V (also with 4) to look

7shilliterate

‫ف‬

‫ ا‬aciremA

G

2

-!) ‫) رما‬2( to command, order‫‏‬ 05‫ه‬

yl pl. ‫رما‬‎ ‫وأ‬command, order 506

yp! pl. 5oe thing, affair

trust, secretariat.‫‏‬ ‫ ه‬60

5

>

,‫ نما‬OL! safety, protection,‫‏‬ security‫‏‬ ‫و صوءه‬

o-‫‏‬

‫ سلع ندد‬Security Council‫‏‬

SL! belief, faith‫‏‬

517

VOCABULARY

‫دكن اشم ولط أمين‬

1

5

‫مثد‬‎

cry

believer,

OLS] man (human being) & 0

worthy; pr. 2. 25.

Gli] human adj.

faithful

(in

rp ‎‫ اناس‬people, men (p/. of

religious sense), Moslem

(0!)

ْ‫ إِن‬if‫‏‬

‫ كا‬young lady, miss (mod.)‫‏‬

i (v ol) if not; except

(Gil) ae

ji (+verb) that conj. jl (with

.

‎‫ استانف‬X to appeal;

2. or pron.)

that

05

con}. ‫َّنِإ‬verily, truly; that (after‫‏‬

JW)‫‏‬

begin

anew ‫‏‬22S ‫ك‬5 -‫ع‬

‫ فنا‬pl.‫ ‏‬,4531 ‫ فانا‬nose, fore-‫‏‬ part, point‫‏‬

aT formerly, before, above,

Lil indeed, in truth, only (strong affirmative particle)

aforesaid

‎)‫(انن‬

Abs, [ale England

SE

‫ ةنا‬moaning, lamenting n.‫‏‬

‎‫ إنكليزى‬pl.‎‫ إنكليز‬English(man)

)‫(انا‬

(J!)

Gi

GE-

‫ ىلات‬11 to procrastinate, delay‫‏‬

)‫(انت‬ oi m. oil

(Ja!) Ves dual you

-

people, family

Al m.pl. 3 f.pl. you

B®) 1.

ys YI Andalusia, Spain




2>

‫سم‬

Ol, Oly! pl. ‫ةنوا‬‎ time, moment, season 3

1 OY! now

‫) سوب‬2( to be brave‫‏‬ 25-

ul misfortune

(63!) (2!) ssl ‫مى‬‎3 to take refuge

Git

00 to be bad ae.

1

‫ )ىو ىوأ‬5 IV to harbour,‫‏‬ shelter‫‏‬ 24-

‎‫ ماوى‬shelter, refuge

(s!) Gl that is to say, i.e.

‎‫ ل أى‬sa ?hcihw ,revehcihw yna

(gs)‎‫لالد‬

,)tuoba(

no matter!

() to weep

‫ ما بع‬Clshidtismulé‫‏‬ )‫(بغى‬

at IV to cause to weep Cees}

23! VIII to desire, wish for

‎‫ بكاء‬weeping, v.n.

(de) Os but, nay rather

(4) $2.

)‫(بكم‬

5 -0f

‫ رقب‬pl.‫ راقبا ‏‬oxen, ox‫‏‬

5

‫ر‬6>

Jol. wet, moistened

)‫(بقع‬ 5-09

(Je)

9-3

‫م بقعة‬1. ‫ بقع‬, ‫ بقاع‬depression;‫‏‬

plain inpee country; valley

(J#) Ss pl. Apes vegetable, green an

st greengrocer

(4)

(a4) zs dates (coll.) (+L) ‫ بلاد‬pl.‫ بلدان ‏‬country‫‏‬ goes

‎‫و‬

‫ دلبو‬ag pl. Sh, lab town,‫‏‬ district (also country)‫‏‬ ‫َو‬

--

4;4); municipality

(eh)

roca

‫ (_) ىقب‬to remain, stay‫‏‬ eee‫‏‬ ‫ ءاقب‬remaining, existence v.n.‫‏‬ ee‫‏‬ ‫ دار البقاء‬Heaven‫‏‬ ee‫‏‬

ool pl. i St devil, Satan,

,‫ قاب‬456 remainder, rest‫‏‬

pl ‎‫ يوا‬police

=

Iblis

524

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR 5-

(ey)

08

3 2 pl. ‫ةينبا‬‎ building, 2

ae (2 ) to swallow

.

ee)

--

2

‫ ىلع‬elyin accordance with‫‏‬ ‫دهج‬

‫ةيانب‬2 pl.‫ كاابك‏‬edifice, building‫‏‬

oer

‫) غلب‬.2( to reach‫‏‬

cpl pl. ats es son‫‏‬

‫ غلب‬II to convey, inform‫‏‬ o--

oe,‎ٌ‫ |أبنة‬pl.Sly girl, daughter

‫ غلاب‬111 to exaggerate, over-‫‏‬ aepl. Si mason, builder

reach‫‏‬

207

‫ غالب‬pl. Bip message, an-‫‏‬ nouncement, G1

communiqué‫‏‬

‎‫ده‬

‫ ىبم‬pl.‫نابس ‏‬building, edifice‫‏‬

(ee) ‫مه‬

‫وم‬

‫ بلاغة‬rhetoric‫‏‬

rl VIII to rejoice

ichpl. ey eloqu nt‫‏‬

(3!)

G-o0-

‫ غلبم‬pl.‫غلاب ‏‬ ‫ أبم‬sum (of money),‫‏‬ amount‫‏‬

(sb) ‎‫( بلا‬2.) to test, try, afflict

)‫ب(لى‬ ‫ لاب‬decayed, rotten, tattered‫‏‬

(8) ‫ نب‬coffee, coffee berries‫‏‬ 2 gw

‫ ىب‬coffee-coloured, brown‫‏‬

(Gy) 65

‫دور‬‎

rac pl. ir door, gate; chapter; class

elas doorkeeper

(cst) cb (2) to reveal ‫ حابا‬IV to permit‫‏‬

(Os) 5 o7-

‫ نوب‬interval; difference‫‏‬

(ه‬‎

4344 rifle, gun

‫ تيب‬pl.‫ تويب ‏‬house, tent‫‏‬

(s)

‫ بيت‬pl.‫ ابيات ‏‬verse‫‏‬

(3 (—) to build

as1 stale, dry (bread, food)

525

VOCABULARY ‫و‬

‫>ور‬

‫ببروت‬

1

‫ (—)عيت‬to follow, belong to‫‏‬

)‫ب(يض‬

‫ عبتت‬Ve‫عبتا ‏‬VIII to follow‫‏‬

‫ نشا‬IX to be, or become‫‏‬ white‫‏‬

)‫(تبغ‬ ‫ تبغ‬tobacco‫‏‬

han, ‎‫ يض‬egg, yo pena ae ees pl. ‫ضيب‬‎ white “0-02

33

‫ راذلا ءاتمسلا‬Casablanca (in‫‏‬ Morocco)‫‏‬

(4) ‫يو‬

=

BS rs:‫‏‬ 6) commerce, trade

=)

(ex)

) ‫ مجرت‬to translate, interpret‫‏‬ ‎‫اجم‬iE ‫تر‬ iz‎r ‫نر‬5 pln 6

o-»

Sa

Oa),

translation

‫ مجرتم‬ease

(oe) an straw

c=)

:

‎‫ تحفة‬pl. ‎‫ تحف‬precious article,

S62 7S "SF

eb eo

MI ‫‏‬te

5 a‫‏‬

‫ تاجر‬pl. 4\) merchant‫‏‬

interpreter‫‏‬

‫ جم‬.‫ مثر‬translated‫‏‬ Sed =

‫ ناحرت‬pl. les guide,‫‏‬

dragoman

~‫‏‬

526

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(‫(ترع‬

(JS)

‫ ةعرت‬pl. es channel, canal‫‏‬

‎‫ كل‬ab Sve small tall, billet

(34)

‫ تفاؤغلك‬telegram, telegraph‫‏‬

‫) كرت‬2( to leave, abandon‫‏‬ gs Turkey‫‏‬

)‫(تلمذ‬

Jali pl. S05, dees pupil,‫‏‬

‫ كرت‬pl Af pl pl. all‫‏‬ Turk, Turkish‫‏‬

disciple‫‏‬

(9)

)‫(قسع‬

‫) الث‬2( to read, recite; follow‫‏‬

‫ لةعست‬es nine‫‏‬

(e)

0i

3 (~) to be complete, com-

ninety

pleted, finished

el ninth me pl. ‫اك‬‎ a ninth

(fraction)

)‫(تعب‬ -

>‫ع ه‬

wl

IV to make tired, tire‫‏‬

ws tiredness

ve ‫ ثنعاسة‬misfortune‫‏‬ (cit) cls apples (coll.) ‎‫وت‬

‫ ةحافت‬single apple‫‏‬

)‫(تقن‬ 5

Le completely, exactly ‫مان‬perfect, complete‫‏‬

‎‫لل‬

Os tired

S-

‫ مام‬completion, end, perfec-‫‏‬ tion‫‏‬

co)

202

tat

‫ متا‬IV to complete trans.‫‏‬

->‫وه‬

‫ نقتم‬solid, strong, well-made‫‏‬

‫ متمت‬to stammer‫‏‬

(+) ‫ رمت‬dried dates‫‏‬

(s5)‫‏‬ ‫ و‬single, sole (antiq.);‫ ‏‬.‫توا‬ now, immediately‫‏‬

)‫(توب‬ ‫) بان‬.2( to repent‫‏‬

VOCABULARY

527

)‫(توت‬

cls pl. ‫بلاعُت‬‎ fox

9is mulberry‫‏‬

O*)

)‫(توج‬

= pl. 36 1 frontier, mouth, boundary

‫ جوت‬II to crown‫‏‬ ‫حات‬pl. Ole crown‫‏‬

G---

‫ ةفاقث‬education, culture‫‏‬

03)

Gur

‫ ةاروتلا‬The Torah, Penta-‫‏‬ teuch (loosely, the Old‫‏‬

Testament)

‫ فقثم‬educated, cultured‫‏‬

(J) ie (2.) to be heavy

esfe Tunisia Aes heavy

‎)‫(تمن‬ ‎‫ تين‬sgif

)‫(ثلث‬ ON, if, EN, ‫ثلث‬‎ three --

=

OSH, ‎‫ تلثون‬thirty

Ob) 58-

‎‫ ثالث‬third (ordinal)

(22)

‎‫ ثلث‬a third (fraction)

cad (2.) to be firm, sure

ENS pl ‫ثا‬‎ triangle

cv

‫ يوم الثلاناء‬Tuesday‫‏‬

y& vengeance (bloodfeud)

--%G

firm, sure,

established

(o*)

()

cn thick, fat

‫ جلت‬pl. zo snow, ice‫‏‬

(3)

‫ ةحالث‬refrigerator (mod.)‫‏‬

5

6-a-

‫ دوو‬$ -69>, el» wealth, riches

)‫(ثمم‬

ee wealthy, rich man

3 then, moreover, thereupon‫‏‬

(ls!)

2 there, yonder

528

A

NEW

ARABIC

(+4)

)‫(ثور‬

ies 300 pl. ‫راما‬‎ fruit, fruits ial fruitful, productive

‫) راث‬2( to rise up, break out;‫‏‬ revolt, rebel‫‏‬ --E

‫ راثا‬IV to arouse, incite‫‏‬

(oe)

Si‫‏‬

crtpl.‫نام‬‎ price

bed expensive, valuable

asus1 ‫نامت‬‎eight ‫ثمانون‬

GRAMMAR

0

‫ نما‬eighth (ordinal)‫‏‬ ose pl. jai an eighth

(fraction)

‫؟‬

Bs‫‏‬

> pl.‫ راوث ‏‬rebel, rebellious‫‏‬ ey : : ‎‫ ثورة‬revolt, insurrection

‫‏ ثور‬.lp ٌ‫ثيران‬, ‫ أثوار‬bull‫‏‬ )‫(ثوم‬ ¢ie garlic‫‏‬

(>) SiGe

5

‫>و‬‎

(S)

‫ ةبج‬pl.‫ بيج ‏‬top-coat, long‫‏‬

‫ ىنثتسا‬X to except, set aside,‫‏‬ exclude‫‏‬

(+>)

cloak‫‏‬

coe

‫ ثناء‬praise‫‏‬

‫ ا انا‬daring‫‏‬ ‫ اثنتان ر إثنان‬two‫‏‬

a=

‫ جبار‬pl.‫ جبايرة ‏‬mighty,‫‏‬ Peer

‫ةيناث‬pl.‫ناوث ‏‬second (unit of‫‏‬

i) ocr

‫ بوث‬pl. ae garment‫‏‬

--

(>) 0

‫ سبج‬lime, gypsum, plaster‫‏‬

)‫(جبل‬ ‫هم‬

“ time)

G-

powerful, giant 5

‫ د‬secondly‫‏‬

(with (‫ىلع‬‎

iG|l=! compulsory

cel ‎‫ يوم‬Monday ‫ناث‬i a8 second (ordinal)‫‏‬

i oxi IV

to compel, oblige, force

--

de pl. te mountain

(o>) ‫و‬

-

ees pl. ‫نبج‬‎ forehead, brow

529

VOCABULARY SiS

$09

5

-0'3

‎‫ جدار‬pl. ‎‫جدر‬, ‫ جدران‬llaw

Oke pl. ges coward dum, ‎‫ جبن‬cheese

)‫(جدل‬

0

eda pi.‫ وادع‘ ‏‬brook; list,‫‏‬ table

3-69

503

‫ ةهبح‬pl. leak brow, fore-‫‏‬ ea

)‫(جذب‬

front‫‏‬

-

‫سام‬

‫( بذج‬-) to attract, draw‫‏‬

)‫جبى‬-( 6---

4, = tax, tribute

)‫(جذع‬

‫ جاب‬tax-collector‫‏‬

3 pl. pace trunk (of tree, eay); beam

Coea

)‫(جرر‬

ike pl.‫ثثح‬‎002856 body

‫(رج‬2) to drag, draw‫‏‬

‎)‫(حجدد‬ an

‫) دج‬2( to be new;

to be‫‏‬

(Le)

serious‫‏‬ -

‫ جرة‬pl.‫زجرارٌ‏‬jar‫‏‬

2>

Bo-

‫) ورج‬2( to be brave, dare‫‏‬

‫ ددج‬11 to renew‫‏‬

‫ده‬ ‫ ددجت‬V to be renewed.‫‏‬

=

-80

ee pl. pe brave

g

ir seriousness 8

)‫(جرب‬

FA

-

‫ جدا‬very‫‏‬

ac

w=

tempt

- ‎‫عن‬

ispl. ‫دادجأ‬‎ grandfather,

s-

‎‫ون‬

dya pl. Oe trial, tempta-

ancestor

tion, experiment

san

sd2 grandmother 1

Sas

II to try, put to test,

‎‫ جدة‬Jidda (town in Arabia)

$239

Cine

‫عني‬‎ 08

‎‫ حراب‬pl. ‎‫ ات‬,— ‫ اجربة‬sock,

stocking

3

‫دوه‬ ‫د‬

ٌ‫ جديد‬pl.‫ جدد ‏‬new‫‏‬

(0) ‫دجري بر‬worthy (of)‫‏‬

‎)‫(جرح‬ ‫ (=) حرج‬to wound, hurt,‫‏‬ injure‫‏‬

530

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR ‫ده‬

)‫(جزأ‬

‫ ةحارج‬surgery (art of)‫‏‬

‫رهد‬

‫ >> اح‬surgeon‫‏‬ Mt.

and

5‫غ‬

‫ ءزج‬pl.‫ ءازجا ‏‬part, portion‫‏‬

S$ a-

5 Coe

‫لد‬

‫الةمز‬- necessary steps‫‏‬

‫حرج‬pl.‫حورج ‏‬ ‫ رج‬wound, cut,‫‏‬ injury‫‏‬

,3 -bé‫‏‬

0

pl.

J!‎‫ اجز‬chemist, druggist,

2504 ‫ىحرج‬‎

apothecary

wounded man, or woman

ae pl. ‫حير‬‎‫ امم‬wounded (man)

)‫(جزر‬ wee

‫) رزج‬2( to ebb (sea)‫‏‬

)‫(جرد‬

‫ حزر‬ebb‫‏‬

‫ و‬-

5

-

‫ جريدة‬pl.‫ جرائد ‏‬newspaper,‫‏‬ journal (mod.)

-

5

a crime‫‏‬

-oF‫‏‬

‫مرج‬ pl‫ مارجا ‏‬crime, sin‫‏‬

‫ ةميرج‬pl. ple crime‫‏‬ 5 ‫ره‬

‫ رم‬criminal‫‏‬

)‫(جرى‬ ‫( ىرج‬-) to run, flow, happen‫‏‬ ‫ ىرجا‬IV to carry out, exe-‫‏‬ cute‫‏‬

‫ راج‬running, current‫‏‬

‫ جارية‬pl‫ جوار ‏‬slave-giel,‫‏‬ servant-girl ‫م‬‎

lela! steps, measures (mod.)

-

0 000 ‫‏‬dnalsi

36

‫ جزيرة‬444 peninsula‫‏‬

--08

‫ مرجا‬IV to commit

2-2

>

‫ جريرة‬pl.

(p>) --

َ

‫ رازج‬butcher, slaughterer‫‏‬

‫رئازبملا‬Algeria, Algiers‫‏‬

)‫(جزل‬ dose abundant, much

(S55) S)& 111 to reward, requite,

punish

sijle, ‫ءازج‬‎ requittal, reward 6-0

‫ ةيزج‬poll tax‫‏‬

)‫(جسس‬ ‫ حاسوس‬pl.‫ جواسيس ‏‬spy‫‏‬

)‫(جسد‬

‫عسل‬

ee‫‏‬

VOCABULARY

531

(+>)

(AL)

So

‫ رسج‬pl.3ghee bridge‫‏‬

Als 11 to bind (book); skin

Ae courage, audacity‫‏‬

aes pl. soles skin, hide,

‫تنم‬

alae‫‏‬

leather

‫ روسح‬bold, courageous‫‏‬

Sa-9

Als pl. ‫تاغ‬‎=— volume, tome

)‫(جسم‬

‫ جسم‬pl.‫ أجسام ‏‬body‫‏‬

i

)‫(جعل‬

(i)

‫( لعج‬-2) to place, put, make‫‏‬

‎‫ )=( جلس‬to sit

5 ‫ه‬

5

>

‫َه‬

+( imperf., to begin to)‫‏‬

)‫(جفف‬ )‫(جفن‬

>65

‫ نفح‬pl.‫ ‏‬,‫ نافجا‬Osa eye-lid‫‏‬ ‫م‬‎part of a thing;8

‫ جلالة‬majesty‫‏‬ ‫دمو‬

=

Bes ane pl. ‫تاسلج‬‎ session, ‫و‬

‫سبد‬

yl pl. ‫سلاجم‬‎council, assembly, parliament

(He) = : main gist

III to sit with

artis §

Pe)

-- -

wk

‎‫ أجلس‬IV to seat, make one sit

‫ كفاح‬dry, withered‫‏‬ 52

snow, ice -

serious, momentous

val pl. al exalted, great;

(@) ‫(عمج‬-) to gather, add‫‏‬ ‫ عمتجا‬VIII to gather gether, assemble‫‏‬ ‫ با‬to meet (anyone)‫‏‬ “0300

pr. n. masc.

‎‫ اليل‬Galilee Ga--

Ale magazine, book, review (mod.)

(te) ‎‫( حلب‬2) to gather, bring, import

to-‫‏‬

307

ii ‎‫ يوم‬Friday ‫ ةعامج‬party, community,‫‏‬

group‫‏‬ 05 ‫>ه‬

‫ ةيعمج‬society,

league,

asso-‫‏‬

ciation, (trade-) union‫‏‬ Sa

= 7 0:

59

5‫‏‬

‫ااء‬ ‫ةتم‬ ‫ اح‬pl.‫ ات ‏‬meeting,‫‏‬ gathering, social life

532

A NEW

an

ARABIC

8

‎‫ اجتماعى‬social

‫ جامع‬comprehensive‫‏‬ ue pl.‫ جوامع‏‬mosque‫‏‬ S-

‫ ةعماج‬university; league‫‏‬

‫ بيع‬all‫‏‬

80

-

‫و‬

co! pl.‫ — نو ‏‬whole, all‫‏‬ 9 4

(0)

‫ امحإ‬unanimity, agreement‫‏‬ on a matter

‎‫ مجموع‬pl.‎‫ مجاميع‬total; united ‫ و‬--‫وو‬-

‫مجموعة‬

‫ ليمج‬beautiful, handsome;‫‏‬ good deed, kindness; pr. n. masc.

Gr) Sie pl. ‫ا‬‎ ae

public,

the masses

dyLge pl. ey

lat all together, adv.‫‏‬ ‫در‬

GRAMMAR

‫ح‬0

‫>وحو‬

26 assembly, feat Bie

8 ‎‫ مهو‬republican

)‫(جنن‬ ‫) قرن‬2( to go mad‫‏‬ ope madness ie, in jinn, genii, demon 5 0 garden 5

‫ عمتجملا‬society (as a whole)‫‏‬

)‫(جمل‬

‫دعا‬‎

lea ple , ‫نئانج‬‎ (small)

learned body 97 -630-

republic

‫دور‬

307

Oss pl. ‫نين‬‎‫اج‬madman, mad

(>) 5

-

Ho

ee

ake pl. she

side

i pl. ‫لاح‬‎ camel oe ‫ َال‬beauty‫‏‬ GS-09

‫ ةلمج‬pl. nes sum, total;‫‏‬ sentence, phrase‫‏‬

32

‫وما‬

ae beside ‫حو‬

Y“ys the south ee polite form of address

‫ ةلمجلاب‬in the aggregate;‫‏‬

aolpl. ‫بناجأ‬‎ foreign,

" wholesale (commerce)

foreigner, :strange, stranger

“0300

Yue generally speaking, in general

(=)

‎‫ جناح‬pl.‎ٌ‫ أجنحة‬wing

533

VOCABULARY

sane ‎‫ جا هز‬,edam-ydaer dettif

(>) ‎‫ د‬II to levy troops, conscript 5‫ر ه‬

Fe‫‏‬

Am pl. :‫دونح‬‎ ‫ ئىدنج‬troop, army; soldier~

(>)

-

u-¢>!_ IV to burst into tears

(i>) de> (—) to be ignorant, not

5 ‫ه‬

‫ سنج‬pl.

5

>‫ه‬

!= kind, class, sex,‫‏‬

to know --

species, genus‫‏‬ SG

)‫(جبش‬ -

93$

ef

‫ لهاجن‬VI to feign ignorance‫‏‬

©

‫ ةيسنج‬nationality (mod.)‫‏‬

(se)‫‏‬

‫ اجلاةيله‬the Days of Ignor-‫‏‬ ance (period before Islam)

is> (~) to gather (fruit, etc.)‫‏‬

5:00

5 ‫َس‬‎ ‫د‬

‫ جاهل‬pl.‫ حبال ‏‬ignorant‫‏‬ 2000

So-9

a> pl. ‫كا‬‎- pound, guinea

‎‫( حول‬very) ignorant 30-7

1le unknown

(see) ---6

4A->| VIII to strive, work hard, be diligent 65‫ه‬

9

993

eS‫‏‬

Ap> pl.‫ دوهمج ‏‬striving, zeal,‫‏‬ effort‫‏‬ a

Jihad, holy war

Soe pl. col — effort -

‫ رهاج‬III to declare openly‫‏‬

Ge)

(‫احا )ىلع‬

G-

of

j= pl. 5‫ةزهجا‬‎ apparatus, set, machine, ‘outfit

IV

to answer,‫‏‬

reply to‫‏‬ See

3¢> 11 to equip, get ready, fit out, furnish : 2

‫دسا‬

‫ ىوج‬air, adj.‫‏‬

)‫(جوب‬

)‫(جهر‬ or

‫ وج‬sky, atmosphere, air‫‏‬

5-

o€‫‏‬

‫ باوج‬pl.‫ ةبوحا ‏‬answer, reply‫‏‬

)‫(جوخ‬ See

pl. ele

hearth,‫‏‬

place for drying dates

534

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR a»

)‫(جود‬ ‫) داج‬2( to excel in, be good at‫‏‬ Se" 0S.‫‏‬

)‫(جول‬ ‫) لاح‬.2( to travel, roam‫‏‬

‫ ةدوح‬goodness, excellence‫‏‬

Boe‫‏‬ ‫حواد‬

-e

‫ جاتزه‬pl‫ جوائز ‏‬prize‫‏‬

Js V to wander

56

)‫(جوع‬

--

‫ اوحدا‬pl. she swift horse,‫‏‬ steed‫‏‬

33 hungry

5 ‫> يب‬

‫ ديح‬good, excellent‫‏‬

)‫(جوف‬

‫ فوج‬pal, ahhollowers‫‏‬

sun

‫ اديج‬well, adj.‫‏‬

belly‫‏‬

)‫(جور‬ ‫ واح‬III to adjoin, be neigh-‫‏‬ bour to‫‏‬

lise ) ‫او‬‎ neighbourhood; in the neighbourhood

(As) S-

o7

‫ رهوج‬pl. eal res ~ jewel, essence,‫‏‬ nature‫‏‬ err

of,

near, by

(ee) el. (—) to come

Ble pl. ‫ناريج‬‎ neighbour

‎‫ داب‬to bring

‫ رواحم‬neighbouring, next-door‫‏‬

‎)‫(جيب‬ 5

‎‫)ع‬

SD)

‎‫ حيب‬pl. ‎‫ حيوب‬pocket

)‫(جوز‬ AR (2.) to pass, be allowable,

be permitted

)‫(جيش‬ he. pl. yes army‫‏‬

--

‫ رواجن‬VI to exceed, go beyond‫‏‬

(J)

‫ حور‬nut‫‏‬

pie pl. dtl generation, age

-y ee

-

-e-

‫‏جواز سفر‬.lp ‫ايت‬: ‫ وا‬passport‫‏‬

4: )3jb] permission, licence,‫‏‬

(

leave

ae

)

2

w

gai passing, mitted

lawful,

per-

Poel IV to love, like ‫اع‬٠‫‏‬ ‫ق‬

‫إلا‬

55+

‫رحب‬, ‫ محبة‬love‫‏‬

VOCABULARY 5

‫َه‬

‫ع‬

)2( to conceal, hide,‫‏‬

veil‫‏‬

beloved S$

535

>62

pl. Aunt learned

chamberlain

man,‫‏‬

doctor, rabbi (antiq.)‫‏‬

57

)‫(حجر‬

p> ink

)‫(حبس‬

$--

§---

-‫ه‬

‫ رخ‬, ‫ ةرجح‬.‫ م‬ea stone‫‏‬ 5-69

5-3

G6

---

‫ خرة‬pl. ,= ol => room,‫‏‬

‫هه‬

‫ (—) سبح‬to imprison, shut up‫‏‬

(=)

0>

‫ بوجع‬concealed, veiled‫‏‬

chamber, quarter = lap, knees (Eg.)

Je pl. Ste rope‫‏‬

‎)‫(حدد‬

Bes pl. ibe pregnant

‎‫ل‬

tnaiseeu

-a-

5

)‫(حى‬ ‫ ىح‬until, even, so that‫‏‬

‫ددح‬

II

to

limit,‫‏‬

confine;

define; goa‫‏‬ g-

)‫(حثو‬

‫ ع‬pl. apne boundary, limit,‫‏‬ frontier‫‏‬

‫) اثح‬2( to pour (dust)‫‏‬

‫ حد يك‬2. iron‫‏‬

5

-

-

)‫(حجج‬

fice blackenith

= (2) to perform the

)‫(حدب‬

pilgrimage (to Mecca) = pilgrimage (to Mecca) 3 pl. aN pilgrim, Haji

(=)

23

“60 3

‫ بدحا‬hunch-backed, hump-‫‏‬ backed‫‏‬

)‫(حدث‬ ‫) ثدح‬.2( to happen, occur‫‏‬

536

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

s

-

3

--

‎‫ حدث‬II to narrate to CAC HS

‫ ثدحا‬IV to cause to happen,‫‏‬

bring into being‫‏‬ ‫م‬

=‫عدي‬

‫ ثدحت‬V to relate a thing,‫‏‬ speak, converse‫‏‬ ‫اسداس‬

ee‫‏‬

‫ ثداحت‬VI to converse one another)‫‏‬ ‫سل‬

5S

en

a

(with‫‏‬

gs

5

26 3

‫ رح‬pl.‫ رارحأ ‏‬free, freeman‫‏‬

‫ حار‬hot‫‏‬ 5

.07

3

5-2

‫ ريرحت‬pl.‫ ريراحت ‏‬writing, editing‫‏‬ letter; freedom, liberty‫‏‬ 5 ‫ربس‬

‫ممحرر‬

oe‫‏‬

Gok, Bok pl.‫ ثداوح ‏‬event,‫‏‬ accident; news‫‏‬

gare ge ‎‫ حد يث‬.lp ‎‫ حداث‬,wen tnecer

)‫(حرب‬ ‫عاسم‬

‫ براح‬III to go to war with,‫‏‬

fight with‫‏‬ we

‫ ثي‬shesple‫‏‬ ‫احأ ثيد‬story, Hadith‫‏‬

ee

‫ براخت‬VI to fight each other‫‏‬ ‫مه‬

(tradition of the Prophet); talk, conversation 5

5

‫دود‬

‫( برح‬f.) pl.‫ حروب ‏‬war‫‏‬ 5

"0

‫و‬‎

a

‫ بارحم‬pl.‫ بيراحم ‏‬niche in‫‏‬

ws

‫ ثدحم‬relater of Tradition‫‏‬ -

mosque, direction of Mecca‫‏‬

(>)

G+) ---6

‫م‬

‫دسا‬

‫ ردخا‬1711 to come or go down,‫‏‬ descend‫‏‬

‫) ثرح‬+( vn. re to till the‫‏‬ soil, plough‫‏‬

(G4)

‫ ثرحا‬IV to cause to plough‫‏‬ Soke & yl‫اح‬‎ ploughman

g-

-

-

‫وا‬‎

‫ ةقيدح‬pl.‫ قئادح ‏‬park, large‫‏‬ garden‫‏‬

(34>) 394 horseshoe

)‫(حرر‬ ‫ ررح‬II to write, edit; liberate‫‏‬ ‫كه‬ ‫حر‬, ‫ حرا ره‬heat‫‏‬ SG ws

4;> freedom, liberty

-0of8

‫ احلا ثر‬a name for a lion‫‏‬ gr= 6

‫ محراث‬pl.‫ محاريث‏‬plough‫‏‬

)‫(حرز‬ 2-2

‫ زرحا‬IV to guard, look after,‫‏‬ preserve; obtain‫‏‬

)‫(حرس‬ -

‫ع‬

‫) سرح‬2( to guard, watch‫‏‬

537

VOCABULARY Sa

5

‫تدر‬‎

‫ حارس‬pl.‫ حراس ‏‬watchful,‫‏‬

5

(>)

--

to swerve,

esFs (m. orf.) pl. 2

‫ورح‬‎

letter (of alphabet); particle (gram. ee 2020

‫ رجةف‬pl. a‫ارح‏‬ ‫رح‬trade, craft‫‏‬

)‫(حرق‬

‎‫ تحرى‬V to inquire into, investigate wor

5 -w--

‎‫ تحر‬pl. ob

(~), aes IV to burn

‫ قرتحا‬VIII to be burned‫‏‬

Ge‎‫ حر‬fire, conflagration

inquiry, investi-

‘ gation

ate) 5

-o€

‎‫ حزب‬pl. ‎‫ احزاب‬party (political, etc.)

trans.

(03>) ‎‫)—( عرد‬to be sad 5-8

oe pl. ‫نازحا‬‎

‎)‫(حرك‬

‎‫و‬

a-

‎‫ حرك‬II to move trans. ‎‫ ترك‬V to move intrans.

Aten 45 > movement; vowel point; traffic (mod.) Ne pl. oe engine (mod.)

2

s

) coer

‫مر‬ 7 )—( to refuse, forbid‫‏‬

‫ =مم‬11 to forbid (in religion)‫‏‬ ‫م‬eal VIII to venerate,‫‏‬

honour, respect‫‏‬

count, reckon, think, esteem -

9‫و‬

‫ ةمرح‬pl.‫ مرح ‏‬woman, wife ~‫‏‬ (Moslem)‫‏‬

2s

ahr

calculate;‫‏‬

ies

,‫ ىلع بسح بسح‬in accordance‫‏‬ with ~‫‏‬ 5

06-5 ‫و‬

o-

(G-)

‎65‫ه‬

---6

-

Ctr]

‎‫ حرامى‬pl. ‎‫ حرامية‬thief

(5) 44! VII deviate (from)

>

(in religion);‫‏‬

sacred‫‏‬

guard, sentry‫‏‬

eee

‫ مارح‬unlawful

5

2

ole pl. ‫تأ‬‎ — account, reckoning; regard, esteem

538

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR -

a

-

‎‫ حصل‬II to attain, acquire,

Ca

realise

‫) دسح‬+( to envy, grudge‫‏‬

-@a--

‫ لصحت‬V to result, be obtained,‫‏‬

(om)

realised

|

IV to be good to,

charitable

towards;

know a

ae pl. ela ai result,

subject well, excel in, make well

product SAIL

‫ نسحتسا‬X to approve, admire,‫‏‬ esteem good, think best,‫‏‬ recommend‫‏‬

OS

5

‫ نسح‬good, handsome; pr. n.‫‏‬ m.‫‏‬ 56 9

‫حسين‬

0

5

~

‫‏‬.lp

5

5

2

‫راو‬

‫حصول‬ 75

‫‏ حصان‬.lp

38 85 9702

‫وحصن‬

‫احصئة‬

horse‫‏‬

)‫(حصو‬

0

-

‎‫َه‬

‎‫ احصى‬VI ot ,rebmun ,tnuoc take census

better, best

(Gta)

Gtx (coll.) bad dates )‫(خصص‬

(saa) ‎‫( حضر‬2) to be present, attend --o08

‎‫ احضر‬IV to bring (a person,

pee pl. ox part, share, portion

9

)‫(حصن‬ ‫حصر‬

‫ حسن‬beauty‫‏‬

a

produce 65‫ه‬

65‫رده‬

‫و‬‎

:

thing); to cause to attend --

‫وء‬

)‫(حصد‬

‫ رضتحا‬VIII to be on the point‫‏‬ of death‫‏‬

‫) دصح‬2( to mow, reap‫‏‬

eal X to summon; to get

Se harvest, harvest-time

‫ل‬

5

---

7-5

‫( حصل‬2) v.n.‫ حصول ‏‬to‫‏‬ happen; to acquire, obtain

(with ‎‫(على‬

‫هو‬

‫ حضرة‬pl.‫ حضرات ‏‬presence,‫‏‬ polite form of address‫‏‬

‎)‫(حصل‬ ‫ارا‬

ready, prepare ‫دودو‬

CP

‫ حضور‬presence‫‏‬

‫ رضاح‬ready, present‫‏‬

539

VOCABULARY ‫ممه‬

‎0‫ حاضرة‬eal city

‫وء‬

ssl governorate, district

CREE preparatory

)‫(حفل‬

‎)‫(حطط‬

‫ (—) لفح‬to gather, assemble,‫‏‬

be (2) to put, put down Sa--

intrans.‫‏‬

‫ بد‬to celebrate (feast, etc.)‫‏‬

dbs station (railway, etc.)

-

|

(b=)

VIII to receive with

aa

‫ بطح‬wood, firewood‫‏‬

(di)‫‏‬

‎‫ حفلة‬crowd bration

Ee pl. ee happiness, luck

‎‫ احتفال‬pl. ‎‫ سات‬celebration,

95

S§-

6

of people, cele5

=

festivity, pomp

I20-

‫ ظوظحم‬happy, lucky‫‏‬

(‫ٌلفاح )ب‬full (of, with)‫‏‬

‫العملا‬

‫ محفل‬pl.‫ محافل ‏‬celebration,‫‏‬

ape pl. ‫دافحأ‬‎ grandchild

party, gathering‫‏‬

(>)

)‫(حقق‬ 5-5

‫) رفح‬2( to dig‫‏‬

ee )~( to be true, right‫‏‬

‫ حافر‬pl.‫ حوافر ‏‬hoof‫‏‬

Gis II to verify, confirm

(Hi) st

5

6

‫ (_) ظفح‬v.n.‫ ظفح ‏‬to keep,‫‏‬ preserve, commit

guard, to memory,

retain;‫‏‬ learn‫‏‬

by heart‫‏‬

fall due payment) cS pl. one right,

truth,

worth, law g-

53K one who has learnt the Qur’an by heart

‫ قح‬right, true, adj.; worthy‫‏‬ of (with‫(ب ‏‬

‫ اقح‬in reality, truly‫‏‬

Lite guardian, keeper; governor (in countries)

‎‫ استحق‬X to deserve, merit; to

some

‫ ةقيقح‬pl. Gite truth, reality‫‏‬ Arab

s-

-

Ee

,‫ ةقيقحلا ةقيقح‬3 truly, really‫‏‬

540

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

(As)

(Se)

ays humble, despised

i (2_) to solve (a problem); dissolve (a solid), loosen

(oe)

Dray

— (+) to alight, abide, settle

eee

a-

. . . ‫لم‬‎ - ‫ خه‬fill the place of

‎)‫(حكر‬ ---9

‫ ركتحا‬VIII to buy up (espe-‫‏‬ cially grain);

to withhold‫‏‬

stocks against high price;‫‏‬ to corner the market‫‏‬

)‫(حكم‬

‎‫ )=( عل‬to be lawful (in religion) ae II to analyse

Jel VII to be loosened, solved, cease

--e

‫) مكح‬2( to rule; govern,‫‏‬ judge S&S pl. ‫ماكحا‬‎ rule, order, authority, law; sentence (judgement)

‫ ةمكح‬pl.‫ مكح ‏‬wisdom, aphor-‫‏‬ ism, Ae

witticism

2223

‫مه‬

government‫‏‬

aS5 pl. aie ruler, governor 5

-

Deis;

‎‫ حكم‬pl. ‎‫ حكماء‬wise (man), doctor Lee pl. ‫مكا‬‎ le tribunal, court

jel VIII to occupy country)

(of a

ae solving, dissolving, solution al As coming (of time);

alighting ‫( لالح‬opp.‫ رحما ‏‬lawful, right,‫‏‬ allowed (rete: )‫‏‬ g--

g--

‫ ثا لا‬dle place‫‏‬ als quarter of a town Swe

= local

(+)

‫ حليت‬milk‫‏‬

of law

(>) Be (~) to relate, speak S6--

‫ حكاية‬story‫‏‬

aoe Aleppo (in Syria)

‎)‫(حلف‬ eal (aon: eae to swear (an oath)

541

VOCABULARY =70-6

‎‫ استحلف‬X to make swear, give an oath

‫دّندر‬5

‫فلح‬pl. SE] pact, alliance,‫‏‬

(*)

‫ٌفيلح‬pl. elds ally, confederate‫‏‬

we IX to be, age red

(Ge)‫‏‬

rehire

‫ قلح‬0

3-0F

‫>هو‬-

‫محمد‬, ‫احمد‬, ‫ محمود‬02221, Ahmad, Mahmud‫‏‬

2-08

‫ ةقالح‬to shave‫‏‬

FS‫‏‬

Ces

Wind

PhWe red

je pl. ‫ريج‬‎ ass, donkey

Gla pl. pel throat‫‏‬

(G47)

0 pl. estas link, ring, circle

Ro sour, acid, adj.

§a-

‫ حلاق‬barber‫‏‬

)‫(حلك‬

‫ عد جارك‬bee‫‏‬

)‫رخلم‬

)‫(حمص‬ ‫ صمح‬Homs (in Syria)‫‏‬

(G) Lad pens

‫عه‬

‫) ملح‬2( to dream‫‏‬

‫ قمحا‬pl.‫ قمح ‏‬Sa

= pl.‫ مالح ‏‬dream‫‏‬

(J)‫‏‬

‫ميلح‬pl. riba gentle, forbear-‫‏‬

‫ (=) لمح‬to carry, bear; to‫‏‬

ing, mild; pr. n. m.

‫احلوا‬

rare ‎‫ حلاوة‬sweetness, sweetmeat 1 Sola, ‫ىو‬‎ ‫ لاح‬sweetmeat, halva G09

‫ ولح‬sweet, agreeable‫‏‬

(p=)

‎‫ حمام‬pl. cl — bath

2-08

le a fool‫‏‬

oor

attack,

charge

(with

Js);‫‏‬

to induce to (with‫(على ‏‬ ayes VIII to bear, suffer,‫‏‬ endure; be probable or‫‏‬ possible‫‏‬ Se pl.ust load, burden 3707

ale attack, charge in battle 5 َ >

(47)

Jl» porter, carrier

ae (2 ) 2.22. do to praise

ale (f.) pregnant

542

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

jae probable, possible, bearable

7

(s*)

6a

‎‫ حم‬pl. ‎‫ أحماء‬father-in-law 5 =

Hanafite, follower of

the rite of Abi Hanifa >>

‫ ةيفنح‬water-tap (mod.)‫‏‬

>.

(with following gen. rel 5--

-

slam pl. elias ¢ mother-in-law;

)‫(حوج‬ ‫جاتحا ىلإ‬VIII to need‫‏‬

‫ دبرا‬.lp Sn ‫‏‬a—p, ‫ حوائج‬need,‫‏‬

Hama (in Syria)

necessity; object, thing

(4) ‎‫ )>( حمى‬to defend, protect

‎‫بحاجة إلى‬, ‫ حاجة إلى‬niG deen fo

‫ ةيامح‬protection, protegé‫‏‬

‫ جاتع‬needy one, needful‫‏‬

5

-‫ره‬

-

‫ ماح‬pl. aie protector‫‏‬

(5+) 5---5

4... guard, garrison epi. O‫اوماخم‬‎lawyer, solicitor

sess, win‫‏‬

‫ (~) نح ىلإ‬to yearn towards,‫‏‬ have a longing for‫‏‬

>

follower of‫‏‬

)‫(حنت‬ ee pl. ‫تيناوح‬‎ shop, wine-

(be) 5) -6

abr» wheat

)‫(حنف‬

6) > possession

)‫(حوش‬

the rite of Hanbal‫‏‬

shop

‎)‫(حوز‬ ‫) راح‬2( to get, acquire, pos-‫‏‬

(o>)

Noe ‫ ىلبنح‬Hanbalite,

3)9ls conversation, debate

‫>ن‬

G5‫‏‬

>‫و‬#

‫‏ حوش‬.lp ‫احواش‬

033

isa‫‏‬

)‫(حوض‬ 59,

‎‫دل‬

6-08

‎‫ حوؤض‬pl. ls, ‫ضاوحا‬‎ tank, pool

)‫(حوط‬ (‫ طاحأ )ب‬IV to surround‫‏‬

LS pl. Stas wall

543

VOCABULARY 2-6

‫ طايتحا‬investment,

security,‫‏‬

reserve -(commercial financial)‫‏‬

and‫‏‬

=

(comm.)

3-9

soe SL (2) on. Sle to weave 2

o-

‫ لاحم‬impossible, absurd‫‏‬

)‫(حوك‬ ee

5

S$

‫ ليوغ‬transfer, exchange‫‏‬

det (4, (‫ايحي‬‎ to live

-a--

‫ ليغ‬V to exercise cunning‫‏‬

0 II to greet, salute

‫ ال‬3 ro ).f ‫‏‬.lp

it IV to bring to life, make to live

pl. ies

‫حالةٌ ال‬

condition,

state,

‫هو‬

case

Y& at once, immediately 83

‫ده‬

Aes life

-

‫ ىلاح‬actual, present (time)‫‏‬ 57

‫ لوح‬power, might‫‏‬ ,‫ لوح ىلاوح‬about, approxi-‫‏‬ mately, around‫‏‬

5 5

-08

es pl. ‫ءايحا‬‎ alive; quarter of a town; settlement; section of tribe 9a‎‫ حية‬snake, une oe

‫ ناك‬pl. esl — animal‫‏‬ 50

‫مو‬

--

lym draft, transfer

docu-

ment, bill (comm.) -o

Eon

‫ قاوس‬Yl — fluctuation of‫‏‬ markets

4.# greeting, salutation

( ‫ته‬

‎‫ حيث‬so that

‫‏ خبر‬.lp ‫ أاخبار‬87

=)

rn pl. ‫ءاربخ‬‎ expert, well-

SxS

0

informed

Ee II to confuse

5-09

pay: to be confused

‫ ستخم‬experienced, expert‫‏‬

(5)

ae perplexity 5

‫ ةراح‬quarter of a city‫‏‬

‫ره‬

‫ خبز‬bread‫‏‬

‫؟‬

َ‫ن‬ >

‫ خباز‬baker‫‏‬

)‫(حين‬ 5

)‫(خبط‬

>‫ه‬

‫ حين‬pl.‫ احيان ‏‬time‫‏‬

‫عاسم‬ 80-2

‫انايحأ‬

at times,

sometimes,‫‏‬

from time to time

‫ ذئنيح‬then, at that time‫‏‬ s-

‫ (—) طبخ‬to strike, trample on‫‏‬

)‫(خبى‬ ‫اخةيب‬pl.‫ باوخ ‏‬largejar, vat‫‏‬

‎‫ما‬

Cy, ‎‫ حيئما‬when, whenever

(34) ‫»م‬

oe

‫ (—) متخ‬to seal, close, con-‫‏‬ clude, ope‫‏‬

me

eee re ‫ماتخا‬‎ seal

2 @) 5 conceal, hide

erpl. as ‫ماوخ‬‎ seal-ring, signet

ene pl. sp pe large jar, vat

(=) wad adh II, ver IV to inform oe

»& III to negotiate with, get news from S51)

‫ ريختسا‬X to seek information,‫‏‬

get to know‫‏‬ 5>

‫ ةريخ‬experience, knowledge,‫‏‬

So-

5

> 5‫ه‬‎

oe

‫ ةمتاخ‬pl. elses‫ ختام‏‬pl.‫ختم ‏‬ end, conclusion‫‏‬ ‫ اًماتخ‬finally, in conclusion‫‏‬

(242)

Ta sate cheek Sa-

64 cushion, pillow

)‫(خدع‬ 00

expertness

‫ (=) عدخ‬to deceive‫‏‬

VOCABULARY 5

545, -

‫نهم‬‎

‫و‬

4

og

alee

‎)‫(خدم‬

Seayteal ‫ريزو‬‎

‎‫( خدم‬+) to serve ‎‫م‬‎‫ ودإستودخهد‬X ot yolpme

Foreign Affairs ‎‫ج‬.‫را‬a‫ خ‬llop xat dei:vel no -non

‫ مستخدم‬employer‫‏‬ tema

of

Muslims

5 0-09

Ck

Minister

$= 0=,

‫ جرخم‬outlet, issue, exit‫‏‬

Soe )

‫ مدختسم‬employee, employed‫‏‬

)‫(خردل‬

person‫‏‬

SPIO = ‫و‬

§- 06

‫ةمدخ‬ 0

‫ خردل‬mustard‫‏‬

---

Ls

service‫‏‬ 010

)‫(خرس‬

ts alanad

Sepsis

el

‎)‫(خرط‬

‫ خدمة‬servant‫‏‬

)‫(خرب‬

f. te pl. ie dumb

‫ (~) برخ‬to ruin, demolish‫‏‬

‫ فر‬Lb 1 VII to join, associ-‫‏‬ ate with‫‏‬

‫ (_) برخ‬to be ruined‫‏‬

)‫(خرطم‬

‫ برخ‬II to lay waste, destroy,‫‏‬ raze‫‏‬

pases) gigs,)III to be proud

‫ا صا م‬

$-

6

5

3069

‫ موطرخ‬pl. bl)‫‏‬ ‫ارخ‬elephant trunk‫‏‬

Chases

‎‫ خربة‬pl. ‎‫ خرب‬a ruin, waste

ae ‎‫ خراب‬ruin, destruction AeA ‎‫ خرب‬wasted, ruined

eveat Khartum (in the Sudan)

)‫(خرع‬ eo VIII to invent

)‫(خرج‬ ‫عا م‬

em ‎)‫ ) ج‬v.n. ‫جورخ‬‎ to go out a IV to expel, take out

‫عا‬FI pl. ete- invention‫‏‬

(44) 3.

--0-0

‫ جرختسا‬X to extract, take or‫‏‬ draw out

Di

5

5-586

‫ خروف‬pl.‫ خرفان ‏‬lamb‫‏‬ oHce autumn

‎‫ خارج‬exterior, outside 7.

)‫(خزن‬

‫ جراخ‬outside prep.‫‏‬

Os! VIII to store, lay up

5

5

,

546

A NEW

ARABIC

‫ نر‬pl. oie store, shop‫‏‬ »-070-

‫ ٌنزخملا‬the Government

GRAMMAR

(2s) 59-8

‎‫ خصب‬fertility

(in‫‏‬

Morocco)‫‏‬

5 ‎‫و خصب‬

(une)

(-=*)

8 lettuce

rata VIII to shorten, abridge

oe) ‫رسخ‬‎ )—( .2.2

$6.3

‫ خسر‬to lose,

suffer loss or damage

sre Ole ‫ارسخ‬‎ loss, damage ( :

*

١

he wes ( Bas,

pas shortened, abridged; summary, compendium

(with fem. pl.)

)‫(خصم‬ ‫ مصخ‬pl.>oe adversary,‫‏‬ antagonist‫‏‬

wood 10 )

SOs‫‏‬

~ discount, rebate‫‏‬ (comm.)

‫ ندع‬pl. Olek rough, coarse,‫‏‬

(44)

gross‫‏‬

(++)

ee II to dye

)‫(خضر‬

‫ (—) ىشخ‬to fear, dread‫‏‬

)‫(خصص‬ ee (2) to concern

yas VIII (with O) to be one’s property; be special,

8

S

‫ خصيب‬elitref

Proper to

‫ را‬IX to be, become,‫‏‬ green‫‏‬ ‫رس‬ S$

‫ راضخ‬vegetation, vegetables,‫‏‬ greens‫‏‬

(e+) /

eres, le special, private ‎‫ خصوص‬, ie

‫ق‬‎ with

reference to, concerning

West, ‫ةصاخ‬‎ especially, particularly

‫ ار‬Ateone green‫‏‬

ers

ones

‫ (—) عيضخ‬to submit (to), obey‫‏‬

)‫(خطط‬ ‫ ططخ‬11 to plan‫‏‬

‫ طخ‬pl‫طوطخلا ‏‬

handwriting‫‏‬

VOCABULARY

iad pl. la2opoliéy) line ‎‫ )—( خطى‬to err, sin of

(ks! IV to err, make a mis-

take; miss (the way, etc.) ‫دي‬

-

‫ أطخ‬.1‫ م‬clef error, sin,‫‏‬ mistake ‎‫ع‬

ees VIII to snatch, grab for oneself

(es) E-

547

)‫(خطو‬ ‫( اطخ‬2) to step, walk‫‏‬

‫ ةوطخ‬pl.‫ ثاوطخ ‏‬3525 pl.‫‏‬ ‫ تاوطخ‬step, pace‫‏‬

(=) ee yon. ‫ةفخ‬‎ i to be light

55

(= wrong, mistaken

tinreign’)

(42)

oe pl. lis light

‫) عشا‬2( to make a speech;‫‏‬

(42)

to betroth, ask in marriage 277

‫ بطاخ‬III to address anyone,‫‏‬ converse with‫‏‬ oy

ee



Gm) 5

el VIII to disappear, hide

39

‎‫ خطب‬pl. ‎‫ خطوب‬affair, matter, cause of an affair Sie pl. A

(Le) ‎‫ )_( خفى‬to be hidden

letter, speech,

address

it hidden, concealed

(du)

N= V to mix in; penetrate,

be pierced; use a toothpick 2 S

ae pl. 8

‎)‫(خطر‬

sermon

Jee wes dangerous

‫ ربطخ‬great, important,‫‏‬ momentous

thought, idea;

heart (fig.), sake, mind

‎)‫(خطف‬

-

‫ خل‬vinegar‫‏‬ Je during

we pales danger, risk

erie pl. a

wW

Ge pl. hel, OWE friend, companion; pr. n. m.

a ‫ جيلخ‬pl.‫ جلخ ‏‬gulf, canal‫‏‬

(i) ey VIII to steal, cheat, swindle, seize by trickery, usurp

548

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR 5-

‎‫هوه‬

5

(yale)

wr!

gals II to save

‫ فلتخحم‬varied, different‫‏‬

gale V to be saved

(GE)

G2

M8

difference

5 ->‫ره‬

urs] sincerity, devotedness

Ge (2) to create

pals pure, unmixed, free of

‎‫ خلق‬creation, creatures,

50 >

5

‫ده‬

yas sincere, devoted

‎)‫(خلط‬

mankind, people ‎‫ خلق‬pl. ‘aoe

‫ل‬‎ character

‎‫ المخلرقات‬created things

Lis (=) to mix, trans.

(3)

‫ طلاخ‬III to mix with, have‫‏‬ intercourse with‫‏‬

‎‫( خلا‬2) to be empty, vacant,

LJ VI to mix, mingle with

‫ لاخ‬empty, vacant‫‏‬

one another Sr 2502

‫ مختلط‬mixed‫‏‬

)‫(خلف‬

alone

‫مرا‬ 5

‫ رمخ‬f. wine‫‏‬ 6) 4s tavern, inn

is ).2( to succeed, replace‫‏‬

)‫(خمس‬

naif III to oppose, disagree _with, contravene

Psd de me five

(‫ فلتخا )نع‬VIII to differ‫‏‬

ee pl. ‫ساما‬‎ a fifth (fraction)

(from)‫‏‬

éme fifty

‫وم‬

‫ فلخ‬behind, at the back of‫‏‬

gett fifth (ordinal)

+

yo ‎‫م‬on Thursday

ee

disagreement, contra-

vention; other than

vee ‎‫ خلافة‬succession, caliphate Soa

2

‎‫ خليفة‬pl. clas successor,

caliph

)‫(خنجر‬ ‫ رج‬pl. rave dagger‫‏‬

)‫(خنزر‬ 3.6

‎‫و‬

oie

‎‫ خنزير‬pl. ‎‫ خنازير‬pig, pork

549

VOCABULARY

)‫(خنس‬ ‫ ضال‬Satan (lit. he who‫‏‬

6

holds back or hides)‫‏‬

to fear

-a-

‫ فوخ‬11 to terrify, cause to‫‏‬ fear‫‏‬ -

G07

‫ ربخنم‬better than‫‏‬

(54) ‎‫ خاف‬2

w= good, 2. and adj.; prosperity

jue selection (with fem. pl.); mukhtar (village headman); pr. n. m. S) ‫ايتخا‬‎ voluntary

-€

GI IV to HN!

terrify

(4+)

ch pl. Sl‫و‬‎ fear, fright

Li (—) to sew

‫ مخافة‬fear‫‏‬

aes pl. ee string ae

)‫(خول‬

Othe thread,

‫ للاخ‬pl. Jial maternal uncle‫‏‬

‎‫ خياطة‬tailoring, sewing

Die pl.‫ تا ‏‬59 maternal aunt‫‏‬

‫خياط‬

5 a)

0

‫ ةطئاخ‬needlewoman, seam-‫‏‬

)‫(خون‬

5

Ok (2) to betray, act treacherously g-

g-

pl. Oly,

stress

)‫(خيل‬

-

als treachery, betrayal ge

7

01

-

ab,

‫ لي‬II pass. (with‫ ل ‏‬or‫(إلى ‏‬

aa --

‫ةنوخ‬‎

traitor, treacherous

to seem to anyone, imagine‫‏‬ a thing‫‏‬ -a--

oc.

=

5

‫م‬‎

Ok pl. o| — inn, shop, caravanseral

(+) SAO

4.5 disappointment

(4+)

bk V to imagine, fancy

‫ لاتخا‬VIII to be haughty,‫‏‬ conceited‫‏‬

‫ ٌليخ‬pl.‫( ٌلويخ ‏‬coll.) horses‫‏‬ (e+) 6-0-7

jt! VIII to choose, select

‫ خيمة‬pl.‫ يام ‏‬tent‫‏‬

550

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

‫ ةّيلخادلا‬Shs Ministry of‫‏‬

(si?)

Interior DD,

us pl. csi bear An pl. ie animal, beast of burden

‫ٌليخد‬.‫دءالخ ما‬guest, intruder‫‏‬ beast,

)‫(دخن‬ ‫ بوش ناخد ناخد‬smoke;

(39)

to‫‏‬

smoke (tobacco)

as II to arrange, plan,

manage 5. 0>

‫ تديير‬pl.‫ تدايير‏‬arrangement,‫‏‬ measure, step‫‏‬

cS) ‎‫ درب‬11 to train, exercise, drill So7

5

‎‫ درب‬pl. ‎‫ دروب‬path, way, road

Gc)‫‏‬ @- » ‫و د‬

ml, ‎‫ دحجاحة‬hen

‫(دجل‬

‎‫جه‬2-‫رد‬ day pl.‫مشع تما ‏‬- degree, step‫‏‬

oreo 1

‫ جراد‬common, current, in‫‏‬

‎)‫(دجن‬

3)

des Tigris (river)

‎‫ داجن‬.lp ‎:‫اجن‬IE ‫ دو‬tame (animal)

general use aes

ie)

‫) ةجراد‬42 common

language,‫‏‬

wulger tongue

Peal ‎‫ درا‬bicycle Gm (quad.) to roll, trans.

)‫(درس‬

Seb bass ‎‫ تدحرج‬II to roll, intrans., be rolled

0 )=( to study‫‏‬

(J+)

oe II to teach, lecture‫‏‬

‫) لخد‬2( on. nes to enter‫‏‬

0 ‫ د‬pl. Laie lesson, study‫‏‬

69:

+> income, revenue

ee pl.‫ ادمسر ‏‬school‫‏‬

‎‫ داخل‬inside, x.

say vu) 4 teacher, lecturer

je‎‫ دا‬inside, prep.

ve) 3 Idris, Enoch

ae

551

VOCABULARY

Sore

)‫(درك‬

=

, ‫ةيعاد‬‎ pl. ‫عاود‬‎ cause,

Soe

‎‫ ادرك‬IV to overtake, know, understand, grasp

motive, reason

> ‫و‬ ‫ل‬ a, --

‫ كرد‬police (Syr., Leb.)‫‏‬

> pl. 56> register, account

)‫(درهم‬ 5

book, note-book

‎->‫ه‬

‫ار‬

uo

‫ مهرد‬pl.‫ مهارد ‏‬dirham (coin‫‏‬ or weight), drachma; (in pi.,‫‏‬

money)‫‏‬

‫ مفاد نع‬III to defend‫‏‬

(>) ‎‫ درى‬0

‫ عافد‬defence‫‏‬

to know

-08

‫ ىردا‬IV to inform, teach‫‏‬

(49) 5

io ‫ (—) مفد‬to pay, push‫‏‬

303

‫ روتسد‬pl.‫ ريتاسد ‏‬rule, regula-‫‏‬ tion;

political constitution‫‏‬

(3) ‫ قفد‬II to pour trans.; bestow‫‏‬ profusely‫‏‬ ---6

‫ قفدنا‬VII to be poured‫‏‬ ‫ قفاد‬profuse‫‏‬

(mod.)‫‏‬

(o>)‫‏‬

)‫(دعو‬

oor

ies (aa ) to call, name,

pray;

‫ (~) نفد‬to bury‫‏‬

pray for (with J) ol VIII to claim Cel X to summon ‎59‫و‬

5

o€

cles pl. 4,05! call, prayer ‎‫ دعوة‬0

2

cui

03

.

‫) قد‬2( to knock; crush‫‏‬

as II to examine minutely, in detail SG

٠.

|fet ice

‫ ىوعد‬pl.‫ واعد ‏‬claim, lawsuit‫‏‬

i;les propaganda ‎‫ داع‬pl. sles calling, one who " prays

0

gS

o-

455, ($545 exactness, preciseness, minuteness

454) in detail, exactly ae

‫ قيقد‬pl. aol, ee fine, thin,‫‏‬ minute, exact; fine flour

552 S6-

A NEW -

ARABIC

s--

4455 pl. ‫قئاقد‬‎ minute (of 3

3

,‫ قدم قدم‬pl. Sls hammer,‫‏‬

mallet, pestle‫‏‬

(ee?)‫‏‬ ‫ دمشق‬Damascus‫‏‬ --

)‫(دكتر‬ 9

-

‫ رمد‬II to destroy, lay waste‫‏‬

time) 5

GRAMMAR

(o>)

309

‫ روتكد‬pl.‫ ةرتاكد ‏‬doctor (mod.)‫‏‬

)‫(دكن‬

dass, ‎‫ دمع‬pl. ‎‫ دموع‬tear

‎)‫(دمغ‬

Obs pl. oS ‫اكد‬‎ shop

aah stamp, seal

)‫(دلل‬

‎‫ دماغ‬pl. ‎‫ ادمغة‬brain

(‫ )ىلع‬Jo )-2( to guide, show,‫‏‬

(>) ‎‫ دم‬pl. els blood

S-

prove, lead (to)‫‏‬ o-

a--6

‫ ب‬. . . ‫ لدتسا ىلع‬X to prove‫‏‬ + DY ees‫‏‬

‫ه‬ ‫دم‬

‫ ةلالد‬pl. dys guidance,‫‏‬ guiding, indication, proof‫‏‬ 2a

Gs) ‎‫ دينار‬pl. wis dinar (gold

5 ‎ََ‫> ن‬

‎‫ دلال‬broker, auctioneer

Ss

of

6‫‏‬

‫ دليل‬pl.‫ أدلاء ‏‬guide‫‏‬

(>) oss pl. ‫بيلاود‬‎ cupboard; wheel

)‫(دلف‬ ‫( فلذ‬-) to saunter along,‫‏‬ move slowly‫‏‬

)‫(دلى‬ ‫ دلو‬pl.‫ دلاء‏‬bucket‫‏‬

coin); currency unit used in some modern Arab countries

(33>)

(c+) Ua (2) to approach, be near

‫ع‬

‫د‬- Of‫‏‬

‫ ىلد‬pl. elie! bad, base, low;‫‏‬ near “09

‫ رك ايند‬world; lowest; nearest‫‏‬

(elat. f.)

OF) eye os time, fate,

destiny

VOCABULARY > ‫هو‬

.‫عه‬‎

5

553

‎)‫(دهش‬

‫ مستدير‬,dnuor ralucric

‎‫ (—) دهش‬ot ,ezama esirprus

‎)‫(دول‬

‫ شهد نم‬to be surprised by‫‏‬

(pass.)‫‏‬ --of

‫ دا شه‬IV to surprise, astonish‫‏‬

5-5 -

‫ ةلود‬pl.‫ لود ‏‬state, power,‫‏‬ country‫‏‬

(31>)

elo pl. (29°)

‫ لوادت‬VI to do by turns,‫‏‬ negotiate with one another‫‏‬

‫دق‬

5

>

‎‫ ادواء‬sickness, disease

‫ ىلود‬international (mod.)‫‏‬

)‫(دوم‬

2

3

5

‎‫ دودة‬pl. ‎‫دود‬, Sls worm



‫ ماد‬ea) to last, endure,‫‏‬ continue‫‏‬

(3°)

‫ ماد‬eso long as, as long as‫‏‬

‫) راد‬2( to revolve, turn, go‫‏‬ round, circulate‫‏‬

‫ رادا‬IV to direct, administer,‫‏‬ manage‫‏‬ -

‫وم‬

-

‫ري‬ ‫ص‬

‎‫ على الدوا|م‬yllaunitnoc 415continuing, lasting, permanent Zion

‫ رادتسإ‬X to be round‫‏‬

lw 15 always

NE (f.) pl. Ane. ‫رايد‬‎ house,

(09>)

home, homeland, seat

ties before;

5

-08

‎y‫ دور‬pl. ‎‫ ادوار‬turn, age, period ‫ةرْئاد‬pl.‫ رئاود ‏‬circle; office‫‏‬ 8

‫وو‬

Re pl. ,‫ةريدأ‬‎ ‫ رويد‬monastery ‫ إذارة‬administration,‫‏‬ management‫‏‬ 5

2

‎‫ مدير‬director, manager,

short

‫ بلاون‬without‫‏‬ s

-

‫ر‬‎

--

‫ ناويد‬pl.‫ نيواود ‏‬diwan, col-‫‏‬

lection of poetry; council of‫‏‬ state‫‏‬

ie) g-

of

lise pl. ‫ةيودا‬‎ medicine ‫هو‬

governor

without,

of, beyond

‫زايد‬country (pl. of 315)‫‏‬

>>

‫ دواة‬pl.‫ داو ‏‬inkstand‫‏‬

554

A

NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR 5

20 5

>

‎‫ نبددب‬,ssenelkcif gnirevaw

)‫(ديك‬ ‫ ديك‬cock‫‏‬

)‫(ذبح‬

‫ — روس‬turkey‫‏‬

é5 (—) to slay, slaughter

(en)

(5)

‫( ناد ل‬-) to submit, yield to‫‏‬ 2 ‫وي‬

>>

‫ نيدن ب‬V to profess or follow‫‏‬

(99)

a religion 56

>

bs (2_) to wither, dry up, fade

3

90

‎‫ دين‬pl. ‎‫ ديون‬debt, loan os pl. Sone ‫ةنايد‬‎ pl. ein

‫لهت‬ ‫ال‬ ‫اج‬

‫ درى‬atomic‫‏‬

‫كه‬ pbs pl. esl arm‫‏‬

religion

‎‫ يوم الدين‬yaD fo tnemegduJ ‫لم‬

‫ ىبد‬religious, pertaining to‫‏‬

(54) ‫ (~) فرذ‬to flow, shed tears‫‏‬

)‫(ذقن‬

religion

3 pl.

(15)

‫( هذا‬51‫ (هذى) هذه ي)ر‬this‫‏‬ ‫ تلك ب ذلك بذاك‬that‫‏‬

‫ كذا هكذا‬,.‫لوكداكت‬ thus

‫‏‬5

0 beard, chin‫‏‬

(35) ‫( ردد‬pom

0 to mention,‫‏‬

record, remember

is II, ‫ركذأ‬‎ IV to remind wis III to confer with -a-e

lay therefore

4

)‫(ذاب‬

an ops pl. ‫تايركذ‬‎ remem-

‫ ب‬pl. GUS wolf‫‏‬ )‫(ذبب‬

V to remember, recollect

brance, recollection g--

Sepia: 1353 5 male, masculine G6-

-

Rese memory (faculty)

555

VOCABULARY

5-_9-

ise

sa- 5)

‫و‬‎

‎‫ تذكرة‬pl. 5145 ticket, note

)‫(ذهب‬

ar ges ‎‫ )_( ذهب‬v.n. ‫باهذ‬‎ to go ‫د‬

4. masculine S-w

‎‫ داب‬to take away

a J

3,544 note, memorandum,

Meeas

memoir

‎‫هب‬

(35) 6

- es‫‏‬

gold n.

5 2 ee

‫ بهدم‬pl.‫ نع ‏‬ne sect, rite,‫‏‬

--

‫ ءاكذ‬intelligence, perception‫‏‬ “Ee

5?

08

tenet, school, way ee

0‫‏‬

‫ ىذ‬pl.‫ ءايكذا ‏‬perceptive,‫‏‬

‫ بهذمت‬quad. II to follow a‫‏‬ sect, rite; hold a belief‫‏‬

intelligent, quick of understanding

3

)‫(ذلل‬

)‫(ذهن‬ oa pl. Atel mind, intellect

des pl.‫ ءالذأ ‏‬low, abject,‫‏‬ wretched

)‫(ذمم‬

(35) J

of

‫) مذ‬.2( to blame, rebuke,‫‏‬ censure‫‏‬

‫و‬

4.5 conscience, moral sense, honour

-

ols self, person, essence

6a

5a

ee

495 f. ‫تاذ‬‎ master of, possessor

-

self-same,

-

‫ تاذ موي‬one day‫‏‬ ‫َقاَذ‬adj. self-‫‏‬

to”.

So

4,3 pl. ‫ممذ‬‎ covenant, security, protection a,

‫داو‬‎

‫ لها ةمذدلا‬protected com-‫‏‬ munity, tributaries; Jews and Christians in Islam

(35)

(95)

‫) باَذ‬.2( to melt, dissolve‫‏‬ intrans.‫‏‬

(28°) ‫ مدو‬pl.‫ مذاود ‏‬manger‫‏‬

es pl. ae sin, fault, guilt

)‫(ذوق‬

sg Dl. CEES

‫_) قاد‬2( to taste trans.‫‏‬

cise guilty

eon, lest; yee taste

80-5

556

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR -é

(24) 131 IV to make public (news); broadcast (mod.) ‎‫ إذاعة‬publication (news),

oe

8

.

0

broadcast

‎‫ ارى‬IV to show Siow

5 8-

ely! opinion

5-85

4,9) vision, seeing, sight - ‎‫و‬

‎‫ رويا‬,noisiv maerd 5 ‎‫ؤس‬

5,2

ak broadcaster, announcer ‫ مدياع‬.lp ‫‏‬ehlt ‫ — أت‬micro-‫‏‬ phone‫‏‬

bao

(9) 58 pl. unA lord, master or

207

‫ بيت‬4) housewife‫‏‬

)‫(ذيل‬

Ge‫‏‬

5‫و‬ >

‫ ليذ‬.‫ م‬3re tail, appendix‫‏‬

‫ بر‬+ gen. many a‫‏‬ > ‫دس‬

‫ربما‬

‫) سؤر (>);سار‬-2( to be chief‫‏‬ a a tribe; be head of‫‏‬

i pl. oa head (part of body); cape (geog.)

‫ سيئر‬pl.‫ ءاسور ‏‬head (chief,‫‏‬ president, etc.), chairman‫‏‬ ‫ي‬ >‫ت‬

‫ ةسائر‬leadership, headship,‫‏‬ chairmanship, presidency‫‏‬ ‫من‬

5

)‫(ربح‬

)‫(رأس‬

>

at

‎‫ مراة‬pl. ‎‫ مرايا‬mirror

‫دغوه‬

‫ور‬

--‫م‬-

SU ‎‫راس‬, GhulJ! capital (mod.)

ٍِ (—) to gain, win >

‫حبر‬pl.‫ حابرأ ‏‬gain, profit‫‏‬

(42) ‫ دبرإ‬IX to alter (expression of‫‏‬ face); be ash-coloured, pale‫‏‬

)‫(ربط‬ bay (2) to tie, bind if} pl. Ey) connection,

bond, league (body binding together people) ~

e* S82

‫ |)ىلامسأ‬capitalist (mod.)‫‏‬

(a)

)‫(رأى‬

wypl. ‫عاب‬‎ 5 a quarter )+(

hj )2$( to see‫‏‬

alyfourth (ordinal)

509

557

VOCABULARY ‫هو‬

-

‫عج‬8 spring, ‫و صوءَيَ ر‬

spring

season‫‏‬

-

‫ لوالا‬ca) Rabi‘ I (3rd month‫‏‬

aie el) elegy, lament for the dead

(by) 2-6

in Islamic Calendar)

(‫ )رخآلا‬Jui gx) Rabit 11‫‏‬ (4th month in Islamic oe

‫ اجرا‬IV to put off, postpone‫‏‬

(Ws) hes Rajab (7th month

endar) 5>

5-08

‫ اربع كر اربعة‬four‫‏‬ -

3-08

060

‫>ور‬

‫يوم الاربعاء‬

)‫(رجح‬ ‫ (>) حجر‬to outweigh, weigh‫‏‬

‫ اربعون‬forty‫‏‬ -

of

Islamic Calendar)

‫يليا‬

more than‫‏‬

)‫(رجع‬

Pe pl. ela square, four-‫‏‬ sided‫‏‬

‫ مر عجر‬om.‫ عوجر ‏‬to return‫‏‬

(sy)

~ II to return trans.

my II to educate, bring up, breed C Pa

or =

‫ ارعجا‬III to consult, review,‫‏‬ revise‫‏‬

es

45 education, training ‫به‬

intrans.‫‏‬

‫رب‬

‫ برم‬educator, one who‫‏‬

(ey) Beene,

‫ فخرا‬VIII to tremble, shake‫‏‬ intrans.‫‏‬

brings up‫‏‬

(Jey)

(4) ‫ بتر‬II to arrange, plan‫‏‬ 90-5

§

>‫و‬

43) pl. ‫بتر‬‎ rank, position ‫و‬

ra

2

poe‫‏‬

‫ بتار‬pl.‫ بتاور ‏‬salary, pen-‫‏‬ sion

‎)‫(رتع‬ ‫ ارم‬pasture ground or pl. ‫عت‬‎

:

Jey )/( pl. da! foot aes pl. ‫لاجر‬‎man

)‫(رجو‬ ley (2.) to beg, hope, request 5

--

els) hope, request

)‫(رحب‬ ‫تن‬

‎)‫(رثو‬

‫بحر ب‬

II to welcome‫‏‬

558 S$

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

707

‎‫ترحاب‬

)‫(ردد‬

(‫ نك )ب‬welcome (to)!‫‏‬

‫)د‬4 )2( to give back, answer,‫‏‬ retort‫‏‬

)‫(رحل‬

3-

‫ در‬repulse, return, reply (to‫‏‬

‫ ( لحر‬J&L VIII to‫‏‬ depart, migrate, travel, journey

‫لان‬

res pl. ‫لاح‬‎ journey

‎‫و‬5 a-

‎‫رحالة‬, ‫ رحال‬taerg ro tnenime traveller

pie pl. ‫لحار‬‎ ‫ارم‬. stage, day’s journey

)‫(رحم‬

el,‫ نمحرلا ‏‬the Merciful,‫‏‬ (attri-

)‫(رحى‬ ‫ل‬

S$

‫قه‬

‫ ده‬OF

‫>‏‬

)‫(ردى‬ (coat, etc.)‫‏‬ Si

S-

‫هت‬‎

eld) pl. 4:5)! cloak, coat

(J5))

ae Pa 45) pl. ‫لئكاذر‬‎ vice

)‫(رزق‬ ‫) قزر‬2( to grant, bestow (of‫‏‬ God), sustain‫‏‬

‫ قل‬pl. 5 it sustinence,‫‏‬ means of livelihood‫‏‬

)‫(رزم‬ )‫(رخص‬ 5-0 +

‫ ةصخر‬permit, licence (mod.)‫‏‬

‫ صيخر‬cheap‫‏‬

‫) مر‬-2( to pack up, wrap‫‏‬

‫ ررم‬pl. 8) ,egakcap ‫‏‬,elab

ream‫‏‬

)‫(رخم‬

)‫(رزك‬

ple; marble

oi) weighty, grave, calm

)‫(رخو‬

‎)‫(رسل‬

65‫ه‬ >

‫ وخر‬lax, soft, loose‫‏‬

‫‏‬3

‫ ىدترإ‬VIII to wear, put on‫‏‬

departed (deceased)

the Compassionate butes of God)

79

‫ ءىدر‬pl.‫ ‏‬,‫ عاثدرا ءايدرا‬bad, adj.‫‏‬

ight pl. Ars traveller; late, $-G-

‫(على‬ )‫(ردأ‬

5

IV to send

559

VOCABULARY

mis pl. el essay,

Speen ‎‫ رسائل ب‬,rettel

message

50-5

=

‫ رشاء‬rope‫‏‬

$399

‫ رسول‬pl.‫ رسل ‏‬messenger,‫‏‬ apostle‫‏‬ 5

‎‫ رشوة‬pl. («bribe

g§-06

ber]

ul,»

(newspaper)

corres-

)‫(رصص‬ :‫ملق صاصر ضصاصر‬lead; pencil‫‏‬ ‫داهو‬

‫داه‬

pondent (mod.)

AACS pl. ‫تا‬‎ — bullet

)‫(سم‬

‎)‫(رضو‬

‫مسر‬

)~=( to trace,

design,‫‏‬

draw, =‫‏‬ 3 6>

‫ مسر‬pl. aoe tracing, draw-‫‏‬ ing, sketch; tax, duty, cus-‫‏‬

tom‫‏‬ a

o-

‎‫ (—) رضى‬htiw( ‎‫عن‬, ‫ ب‬ro ‎‫(من‬ to be content, pleased,

satisfied (with) > ‫هع‬‎

‎‫ ارضى‬IV to please ‫ ضار‬pl. Opel) pleased, con-‫‏‬

‎‫ رسمى‬official, authoritative

* tent, satisfied‫‏‬

(+4)

ve satisfactory, pleasing

ob1) (2) to sprinkle

‎)‫(رطب‬

(4+4))

‎‫ رطب‬,pmad tsiom

--

06

‎‫ ارشد‬IV to direct, guide 5

‫ره‬

‫ دشر‬rectitude, maturity‫‏‬ ‫شه‬

Ad JI ‫نس‬‎ age of discretion, majority Alia: ‫ ديشر‬upright, righteous;‫‏‬

pr. n. m.‫‏‬

(+) ‫ قيشر‬fine, elegant‫‏‬

)‫(رشو‬ ‫( اشر‬-) to bribe‫‏‬

as pl. Sales! ripe, fresh dates S=—23.

‫ ةيوطر‬humidity, moisture,‫‏‬ damp, 2‫‏‬ 5

‎‫رحت‬

‎‫ مرطب‬,looc ,hserf tsiom

)‫(رعد‬ ‫( دع‬Oe ) to thunder‫‏‬ 5 6>

‫ رعد‬pl.‫ رود ‏‬thunder‫‏‬

(6) es (—) to pasture, graze, tend (cattle)

560

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR ---6

Le) pl. bly flock, subjects

(of a ruler)

‫عفت‬ 3 VIII to be raised, to‫‏‬ rise‫‏‬

(3)

‎‫ راع‬pl.‎‫ رعاة‬shepherd

‫قفار‬III to accompany‫‏‬

ee pl. ‫عارم‬‎pasturage,

ILS Sed:

‫ رفيق‬7 ‫ رفقاء‬companion‫‏‬

pasture

)‫(رقق‬

‫رفع‬ ‫( (—) بغر‬with )3 to wish‫‏‬ (for), desire, like‫‏‬

ws) met

is pl. Gt) slave

‫جه‬

‫ ةبغر‬wish, desire‫‏‬

)‫(رقب‬

)‫(رغف‬

‫ بقار‬III to observe, watch,‫‏‬

‫ورم‬

--e

ek Sr‫‏‬

guard,

‫‏‬,eiw ‫م‬1. ‫ ارغفة‬52

oversee,

supervise,‫‏‬

control; to fear (God)‫‏‬

)‫(رغم‬

-

‫وعم‬

‫ بقترا‬VIII to wait for‫‏‬

‫) مغر‬.2( to compel; dislike‫‏‬

‫ مغرا‬IV to compel‫‏‬

5--45) pl. ou, neck Leal

‫بالرغم عن‬, ‫رغما عن‬, ‫على الرغم من‬

ag }

‎‫ مراقية‬watching over, observation, surveillance, super-

aust

despite (the fact that)‫‏‬

Di PUD

)‫(رفف‬

ٌ‫ رقيب‬pl.‫ رقباء ‏‬guardian,‫‏‬

--o0-

9,3) to flutter

censor ‫و‬

(%) Ge pl. pe ‫رم‬‎ harbour ships) —~

2

‫ بقارم‬supervisor, (for

foreman,‫‏‬

controller‫‏‬

)‫(رقد‬

)‫(رفض‬

‫) دقر‬.2( to sleep, lie down‫‏‬

‫) ضفر‬2( to refuse, reject‫‏‬

‫ رقاد‬sleep‫‏‬

(es) ‫ (—) عفر‬to raise, lift‫‏‬

pies)‫‏‬

)‫ر(قص‬ -

--

‫) صقر‬.2( to dance‫‏‬

VOCABULARY

(es)

561

(‫)زمر‬‎

‎‫ رقم‬pl.‎‫ أرقام‬figure, number

a pl. : 5 as sign, symbol, allegory, type

‫ (==) بكر‬ont:

75 to ride‫‏‬

Ole.) Ramadan (9th month

“ake II to compose, form,

in Islamic Calendar; month

of fasting)

construct

iS, pl. ay knee

(Jy)

es ‫ا‬‎pl. nt rider, passenger

‫ لك‬II to widowed‫‏‬

widow,

make‫‏‬

o-

‎‫ ثركك‬,noitisopmoc -curtsnoc

32 structure

S$ o-

S767

ey, ‎‫ رملة‬sand, sandy ground Ren

ao ‎‫ مر‬pl. ‎‫مررااكب‬+ llams ,pihs boat

)‫(ركز‬

ail BL Joi widow-

er, widow

(oy) 5

as

Oly pomegranate (coll.)

‫‏ مركز‬.lp‫ مرا اكز‬centre‫‏‬

(5)

9-0-6

‫ر‬ ‫ك ى‬central‫‏‬

‫ ) (= ىمر‬U.N.

)‫(ركش‬ ‫دده‬

2-

es ‎‫ مرا‬Morocco,

Marrakesh

)‫(رهن‬ ‫ نهر‬pledge, mortgage‫‏‬

(4459)

(7)

‫امه‬

‫) ضكر‬2( to run‫‏‬

)‫(ركن‬ 705

55 to throw;‫‏‬

subdue; accuse‫‏‬

‫ (—) حار‬to depart, go‫‏‬ -

‫ه‬5

> ‫َو‬

5

‫نكر‬ pl.‫ ناكرار‏‬On) corner;‫‏‬ support‫‏‬

-@%

‫ اراحا‬IV to permit, or cause,‫‏‬ to rest‫‏‬ -

2

ee

‫ حوارت‬VI to alternate‫‏‬

(4)

a] VIII to rest, be com-

re grey (lit. ash coloured)

fortable, at ease

562 -

A NEW

ARABIC

63

--9

‫|حا‬ rw! X to rest, sit down‫‏‬ a‫‏‬ ‫ ةحار‬rest, ease, comfort‫‏‬ 5

GRAMMAR

‫و‬

5

-60

‫ حور‬Cf) pl. cls)! soul, spirit,‫‏‬

‫ساب‬



7093

‫ العلوم الرياضية‬mathematics‫‏‬

)‫(روع‬ ‫ عور‬II to frighten, terrify‫‏‬

breath‫‏‬

‫ عوز‬fear, fright‫‏‬

‫ حورلا‬ckan long-suffering,‫‏‬

)‫(روم‬

patient‫‏‬

‫) مار‬2( to desire‫‏‬ ‫د ةق‬

5

5

>

(eS (f.) pl. chy! wind

st) Greek, ‫ينس‬‎ -

@-

a2\)pl. J ‫اور‬‎smell, odour

OG‎,‫ الرو‬the Romans

ie ‎‫ احة‬Fal a rest-house

(6)

‫ مروحة‬pl.‫ مراوح‏‬fan‫‏‬

$9) (=) to quote, narrate, report, relate a tradition

)‫(رود‬

$3) (—) to be watered, irri-

Sn ere

3203

‫دا‬I IV to wish, want‫‏‬

gated - 08

‫ ةدارإ‬will, wish‫‏‬

63)! IV to irrigate

(+9)

‎‫ ارتوى‬VIII

6

a

to be watered,

irrigated Russia

5 / >

sy) Russian a a-

‫ سورلا‬Russia, the Russians‫‏‬

)‫(روض‬ ‫ م‬pl. ee ) meadow, garden‫‏‬ elkaiiRiyad (city in Arabia)‫‏‬

— ‎‫ رياضة‬exercise, sport

g-

‎‫ رى‬irrigation oe ‎‫ رواية‬narrative, narration,

tale, play (theatre) ly, ‫ةيوار‬‎ pl. ‫ةاور‬‎ narrator,

: story-teller, transmitter

‎)‫(ريف‬

2‎‫ ريف‬pl. Sb)! 0cultivated

land,

land by river; countryside

VOCABULARY

563

ore

‫ (—) |)عر‬to sow, plant, till the‫‏‬

‫ع‬

soil‫‏‬

le

‫‏ زبون‬.lp ‫ )ز}يائن‬customer‫‏‬

fo ‫ ةعارز‬cultivation, agriculture‫‏‬

(435) 36$

5

‎‫ زرع‬plantation, farming, produce

-‫ره‬

,‫ ةدبز دبز‬butter, cream‫‏‬

Eft

5

Bo

‫‏ زارع‬.lp 2 ‫ زرا‬cultivator‫‏‬

)‫(نجج‬

5

5

:‫ ةجاجز حاجز‬glass, glass‫‏‬ vessels; a glass vessel‫‏‬

‫مزارع وزرااع‬: cultivator‫‏‬ 2 2 ‫ ةعرزم‬pl.‫عراذ ‏‬ ‫ازم‬+ (sown) field‫‏‬

)‫(زحف‬

)‫(زرق‬

‫ ىلع‬aS )—( to march‫‏‬ against‫‏‬

3)

blue‫‏‬

3-0F

Gyjl ‎‫ زرقاء كر‬.lp }yG eulb

‫ محاز‬III to crowd, press‫‏‬ ‫ محازت‬VI to crowd together‫‏‬ ‫ محدزإ‬VIII to be crowded‫‏‬ ia} pressure, throng; trouble Ss se

81 IX to Be)

2

‫د‬‎

‎‫ ازدحام‬pl. ‎‫ سات‬crowding, a

)‫(زرى‬ ‫! ىر‬35 VIII to scorn, despise‫‏‬

)‫(زعج‬ - -60

‫ جعزا‬IV to disturb, agitate‫‏‬ ---6

ee331 VII to be disturbed, troubled, upset

crowd

a agitation, disturbance

(445)

ee disturbing, upsetting

‫ف‬0

(quad.) to adorn‫‏‬

‫ع‬

‎)‫(زعل‬

‫ زخرفة‬pl. 5 ij,‫‏‬ ‫ رز‬adornment‫‏‬

‫ (—) لعز‬to be angry, sorry‫‏‬

(53)

‫ نالعز‬in agony; angry (mod.)‫‏‬

>

2

‫ وا‬- 80

‫ زر‬pi.‫ ازرار ‏‬button‫‏‬

)‫(زرع‬

‫ا‬

)‫(زعم‬ ‫( معز‬-) to claim, assert‫‏‬

564

A NEW

$-

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

‫دم‬

‫ ةماعز‬leadership, authority‫‏‬

A pl. ‫جونز‬‎ negro, black

‫ ميعز‬pl. clea) leader,spokes-‫‏‬

jk) Zanzibar

man‫‏‬

‫رخجبيل‬ 5

(35) bye-way

(953)

95‫و‬

‎‫ هذ‬i;pl. ‫داهز‬‎ ascetic, abstainer, ‫ور‬

-

‫م‬

‫ ىكز‬pl.‫ ءايكزأ ‏‬pure, just‫‏‬

abstaining 5285 little, insignificant

(45)

(5) Jj to shake, trans. ‫ لزلوت‬II to shake, intrans.,‫‏‬ be shaken‫‏‬

‎‫ )_( زهر‬to shine ‫ رهدزا‬VIII to flourish‫‏‬ ‫> هه‬

5

>

‫ه‬5

5

‫رر‬

‫‏ زهر‬.lp ‫ازهار‬, ‫ زهور‬flower,‫‏‬ blossom‫‏‬

6--0-

‫ زلزلة‬earthquake‫‏‬

eh shining, flourishing;

(2)

pr. n. m.

5059

‫ يلو‬coloured tiles and‫‏‬ pottery (Magh.)‫‏‬

3-080

‎‫و‬

-O-

‫ رهزالا‬ei the Azhar Univ-‫‏‬ ersity and Mosque (in Cairo)‫‏‬

)‫(زمل‬ ‫رارقل‬

.

‫ دهز‬abstinence; indifference‫‏‬ (to worldly things)

63 alms (in Islam) -

6

)‫(زهد‬

au pl. 455 lane, side-street,

‫‏‬zZ

:

5

2 colleague,‫‏‬

companion‫‏‬

)‫(زمن‬ Sas SS S- 2‫ه‬‎ 5 ‫هّمم‬‫نس ناكر‬pl.‫ ةنمزأو ‏‬OL! time‫‏‬

(5) a‫ار‬‎ black, negro races

‫وه‬

‫ هر‬+> flourishing‫‏‬

)‫(نمه‬

els) about (quantity, number)

)‫(نوج‬ ‫ جوز‬II (with‫ ب ‏‬or J) to‫‏‬ marry (anyone to)

565

VOCABULARY

‫ تر‬V to be married (to)‫‏‬ ore

‫ جود‬VIII to be doubled‫‏‬

as)) pl. 5‫و‬‎ithusband, couple, pair te

trans.

‫ دياز‬111 to outbid one another‫‏‬ (in an auction)‫‏‬ - 5

‎‫ ازاد‬IV to increase, trans.

55

‫ ةجوز‬pl. aie— wife‫‏‬

Caton

‫ دادزا‬VIII to be increased‫‏‬

(595) ‫ دوز‬II to provide, equip‫‏‬

‎‫ زيد‬II to increase (a thing),

05~-

supply,‫‏‬

Pag S|} provisions

4:5 Zaid (pr. n. m.) eo ‫ دايز‬Ziyad (pr.‫ص ‏‬. m.)‫‏‬ ene‫‏‬ 65k) increase 7

(035) ‫) راز‬2( to visit‫‏‬

‫ دئاز‬exceeding, excessive‫‏‬

ie II to falsify, counterfeit

‫ ديزم‬excess, extra‫‏‬

‫ مزاد‬auction‫‏‬ a: 3

aa

٠.‫‏‬

Ae a visit

)‫(زين‬

ae pl. 5S) visitor

‫ نيز‬II to adorn, beautify‫‏‬ ‫و بسو‬

AY‎‫ الزو‬a name of Baghdad

ceo hairdresser

‎)‫(زول‬ ‫) كاز‬2( to cease‫‏‬ Jl IV to abolish, remove

)‫(زيت‬

‫س‬ ‫ عم‬Oe‫‏‬

(jl) 5 Bsremainder, rest (see also

ES2) pl. ‫توب‬‎5 oil

‎‫(سير‬

os (coll.) olive, olives

(Jt)

(+5) ‫ دا‬6 ) to add, increase‫‏‬

(with J, ‫ىلع‬‎)

Ju (—) to ask

aisepl. ‫ٌةلئسأ‬‎question a tesbeggar (lit. asker)

566

A NEW

-Bo-

Ay

ARABIC

ige

Dl. pl. ‫لئاسم‬‎ matter, question, subject, problem Bo-

GRAMMAR

‫مياس‬seventh (ordinal)‫‏‬ 23

10

»

-6

‫ عوبسا‬pl.‫عيب ‏‬lelweek‫‏‬

4‫اووسم‬‎ cesponsibley in 1 charge (for, of (‫نع‬‎

‫) قس‬.2( to precede, go before‫‏‬

)‫(سأم‬

ore

(‫ )نم‬si to loathe, be dis-‫‏‬ gusted (with)‫‏‬

)‫(سبب‬ -

@-

‫ ببس‬11 to cause‫‏‬ Pag

3-08

‫ ببس‬pl.‫ بابسأ ‏‬cause, reason,‫‏‬

)‫(سبت‬

pete with, try to precede‫‏‬ we

‎‫ سابق‬former, previous, forerunner

GL. formerly, earlier 53-

5

7

gG°---%9

contest

Cow pl. ‫توبس‬‎ Sabbath,

)‫(سبل‬ 5)

Saturday

=

G39

‫ليبس‬pl.‫ لبس‏‬path, way,‫‏‬

(em)

course‫‏‬

vor

c (—) to swim, float II to praise, magnify

(God)

Se F

romfo ‫تس‬‎~ (see also (‫سدس‬‎ six -3

Glew (all (‫ناحبس‬‎ Praised be He (God)

)‫(سبخ‬ a saline (of soil)

Q‫وتس‬‎ Sixty F

3

‫ تس‬pl.‫( تاتي ‏‬see also‫(سود ‏‬ lady, mistress‫‏‬

(~~) ‫) رثس‬2( to cover, veil‫‏‬

) ‫(سبع‬

215

fee‎‫ ع ظ‬neves $029

‫ قباس‬111 to vie with, com-‫‏‬

‫‏ سباق‬.lp ‫سات‬: ‫ مسابقة‬race,‫‏‬

occasion

5

>65

‫ عبس‬pl.‫ عابسا ‏‬a seventh‫‏‬ (fraction)‫‏‬ -

)‫(سبق‬

0

$29

:

‎‫ ستار‬pl. peu, Aw curtain

)‫(سجد‬ ‫>و‬

‫‏‬na

‫و‬

--

sole pl. tees : dole‫‏‬

390°

‫ سبعون‬seventy‫‏‬

prayer -Carpet;

carpet

VOCABULARY

‫ مسجل‬pl.‫ مساجد ‏‬mosque‫‏‬

6$

567 ‫و‬

‫ةي‬ ‫ يرخس‬ridicule, derision‫‏‬

(a)

)‫(سخف‬

5‫و‬ >

inden silly

‫ عبع‬rhymed prose‫‏‬

(Je)

)‫(سخن‬

cine II to register, record

‫"‏‬$S

‫ومو‬

‫ ةنوخس‬heat, fever‫‏‬

(of)

865‫و‬ ‫ه‬

‫ سخن‬hot‫‏‬

om (2) to imprison oF pl. Oye prison

(Leer ‫ سخى‬bountiful‫‏‬

oe pl. ‫ءانع‬‎ prisoner

)‫(سدد‬

eo het

Gps pl. ‫نيجاسم‬‎ prisoner

i (2) to close, stop (up), dam

(—*) 0

°

z- -

(—) to drag, draw,

withdraw

@&

ga-

‫ دس ةجاح‬to fulfil a need‫‏‬ ‫َه‬

5

-‫ه‬

‫ دس‬pl. Sal dam‫‏‬

eat VII to go off, withdraw, be withdrawn

G+)

‫ ٌباحس‬cloud (coll.‫‏‬

pe species of lotus

)‫(سدس‬

)‫ح(مق‬ Gel, ‎‫ إسحق‬Isaac

(J)

5‫ده‬

5

2

‫م سدس‬. ‫ اسداس‬ees( ‫‏‬osla ‫ستت‬ a sixth (fraction)‫‏‬

‫ سداس‬sixth (ordinal)‫‏‬

Bed bepl. “at‫اوس‬‎ bank, coast, shore

Cd) eae (-4) 6 Gees ee at (with ‫ب‬‎ or =)

)‫(سرر‬ ‫) رس‬2( to rejoice, trans.‫‏‬ ‫‏‬dF

5

> ‫َه‬

‫رس‬pl.‫ رارسأ ‏‬secret n.‫‏‬

‫)را‬Sil) peal) ob secretary‫‏‬

568

A NEW

ARABIC

‫اه‬

GRAMMAR

‫ ىرس‬secret adj.‫‏‬

)‫(سطح‬

SG

‫ حطس‬pl.‫ حوطس ‏‬roof, surface‫‏‬

‎‫ سرة‬the navel

$

)‫(سطر‬

99)

‎‫ سرور‬pleasure, joy 535 >

‫‏ سطر‬.lp ‫هذا سطور‬

5 ‫َت‬‎

‎‫ سرير‬pl. ‎‫ اسرة‬bed

3

‫ وه‬of

‫=‏‬

legend‫‏‬ ‫ ةروطسأ‬oh‫ نيطاننأ ‏‬fable,

5Ce glad, pleased

)‫(سرح‬

)‫(سطل‬

‫ (—) حرس‬to pasture in the‫‏‬

Shae pl.Jpie pail, bucket‫‏‬

morning‫‏‬

35 II to send away, set free coe

navy, fleet‫‏‬

‫رطل‬

‎‫ه‬2 ‫عو‬

)‫(سطو‬

Pele: jbl he set him free, let him go

de‫) اطس‏‬2( to assault, over-‫‏‬

( ‫(سرع‬

=)

‫ ب‬speed‫‏‬

power

‫ دعاس‬111 to help, assist‫‏‬

‫عي‬ ‫رس‬pl.‫هسناعرس ‏‬speedy, fast‫‏‬

dul TV to make happy,‫‏‬

fortunate‫‏‬

by‎‫ر‬.‫ س‬quickly

GQ---

(3)

o5lau happiness

a11 (=) to steal

‎‫ ساعد‬pl. ‎‫ سوااعءد‬mra-erof

ig 3 theft, robbery

‫ ٌةيدوعسلا‬da pl‫ المملكة ‏‬king-‫‏‬

5

‫ن م سارف‬1

2

‫د‬

‫ص‬

‫سر‬

--‫صن‬

86-07-9

dom of Saudi Arabia‫‏‬

tier‫‏‬

Te

robber‫‏‬

AGES: happy,‫‏‬

fortunate; pr, n. m.

)‫(سرول‬ 7-5

G

6-1

‫حم‬

‫ سروال‬pl.‫ سراويل ‏‬trousers,‫‏‬ pantaloons

‫وام‬

‫ ةدعاس‬help, assistance‫‏‬ 6

3-3

‫مساعد‬

0

VOCABULARY

‎)‫(سعر‬

oe) 5 > 0é

‎‫ سعر‬pl. ‎‫ اسعار‬price, rate, current price

An) ‫ فعسا ب‬IV to help, aid‫‏‬ 5-0

sl ‎‫ إسعاف‬first aid (mod.)

)‫(سقط‬ or

ee

‫ طقاست‬VI to fall one

after‫‏‬

another‫‏‬

# ‫صو‬‎

‫) نعش‬2( to cough‫‏‬ le. cough

)‫(سعى‬

- ‫هد‬

‎‫ مسقط الراس‬ecalphtrib

‎)‫(سقف‬ 50-

=o pl. ‫عاسم‬‎ effort, enterprise, endeavour

5 ‫در‬‎

‎‫ سقف‬pl, ‎‫ سقوف‬roof, ceiling

‎‫رت‬ ‎)‫(سقى‬ ‎‫ود‬

‫م ىعس‬ F a to exert‫‏‬ oneself, make an effort

‫ال‬

2

‎‫ (>) سقى‬ot ,retaw evig ot drink ‫ قاس‬cup-bearer (class.);‫‏‬

)‫(سفر‬ ea III to travel 5

>‫َه‬

‫رقت‬ 1 ‫ رافسا‬journey, travel‫‏‬ 3ae, dining table, table cloth‫‏‬ (dining room)‫‏‬ ae pl. ‫ةادتس‬‎ ambassador 6) las embassy

‎)‫(سفرجل‬ linquince (fruit)‫‏‬ ‫ احر‬pl.‫جرا ‏‬

(a)‫‏‬ 2

‫ةنيفس‬‎pl. a ship, vessel

Lic. Muscat (in Arabia)

‎)‫(سعل‬

‫و‬

0

‫) طقس‬.2( v.n.‫ طوقس ‏‬to fall‫‏‬

--08

3 at

569

‫ لفسا‬low, lower, bottom‫‏‬

"waiter (mod.)‫‏‬ isl pl. ‫قاوس‬‎water wheel, irrigation canal

)‫(سكك‬

se pl. EK coin; way, route,

road "00296

$6

‫ سكة الحديد‬,‫ سكةحديدية‬railway‫‏‬

(Seemed‫‏‬ ‫ل تكس‬ silent

oS‎‫ سا‬silent

‫ توكس‬to be‫‏‬

A NEW

570

$39:

6.7

gl... consumptive

(+) ‎‫ )—( سكر‬to be drunk $3.2

‫ سكر‬sugar‫‏‬

‫ لكن‬to chain, thing with‫‏‬ s-

0

g--

‫ سيكارة‬pl.‫ سكائر‏‬cigarette‫‏‬ 8Set (Fr.) secretary‫‏‬

a‫‏‬

Edit

5 5 eo

‘‫‏‬

‫ لسلستم‬consecutive, serial‫‏‬

)‫(سلب‬ ‫) بلس‬2( to rob, seize,‫‏‬

plunder‫‏‬

)‫(سكن‬

5

‫) نكس‬2( to dwell, live,‫‏‬ inhabit; be still, quiescent “sWepl. OK inhabitant;

202

‫و‬

-é‫‏‬

‫ بولسا‬pl.‫ بيلاسا ‏‬style,‫‏‬ method ~‫‏‬

(ee) ‫ حلس‬II to arm, trans.‫‏‬

still, quiet

ie pl. ll‫اكس‬‎knife

‫ ٌةنوكسسملا‬the world‫‏‬

‫ نكسم‬pl.‫ نكاسم ‏‬dwelling‫‏‬ place‫‏‬

‫نيكسسم‬pl.‫نيك ‏‬6 poor, lowly,‫‏‬ wretched “0-0

‎dy‫ |لإسكندرية‬airdnaxelA

‫ حلست‬V to arm armed‫‏‬ Eee

oneself, be‫‏‬

ele

‫ حالس‬pl.‫ ةحلسا ‏‬weapon, arm(s)‫‏‬

)‫(سلخ‬ ‫ (= خلس‬or )— to flay, skin‫‏‬

(4)

(te) ‎‫ تسلط‬V to exercise power (over)

)‫(سلل‬

power, authority, rule

(G22) ‎‫ إستل‬VIII to draw (a sword) ‫م‏‬w ‫ر ت‬w ‫> ا‬

‫ لسلا‬els consumption‫‏‬ (disease), T.B.‫‏‬ llepl. A

‫را‬‎

connect

‫ ةلسلس‬pl.‫ لسالس ‏‬chain, series‫‏‬

OX pl.‫ سار ‏‬drunk‫‏‬

a@

GRAMMAR

ARABIC

basket

5

‫هو‬6-‎

‫ ناطلس‬.‫ نيطالس م‬sultan, ruler,‫‏‬ authority ~‫‏‬

(+)

dal. pl. a article for sale, goods, belongings

571

VOCABULARY

)‫(سلف‬

Ta IV to turn Muslim -a--

‫ الا‬VIII to borrow‫‏‬

‫ ملست‬V to take over, receive‫‏‬ ‫‏‬aS ‫د‬

5--

Sh payment in advance s==

3-08

‫ سلف‬pl.‫ اسلاف ‏‬predecessor,‫‏‬ ancestor‫‏‬

Pas wl. predecessor, former

‫و‬

‫ ملس‬.2) orf.) pl.‫ سلالم ‏‬ladder,‫‏‬ steps eee ‫ مالس‬peace, greeting‫‏‬ (‫مالسلا مكيلع )كيلع‬ ‫م‬ a greet-‫‏‬ ing (lit. peace be upon you)‫‏‬

eyaT

aforementioned,

cere

‫ ةمالس‬safety, health, well-‫‏‬

previously said

being‫‏‬

(s+)

‫ الإسلام‬Islam‫‏‬

gl. (2.) to boil (of an egg, meat, etc.)

blake Solomon‫‏‬

celts safe, sound, whole;‫‏‬

)‫(سلك‬ ‫) كلس‬2( v0. fhe to take a‫‏‬ road, course; to behave‫‏‬

pr. n. m. 30 pl. ‫ءاملس‬‎ sound, safe;

pr. n. m.

dhapl. ‫كالسأ‬‎ wire

§

-

4he conduct, behaviour, manner

‫ السلوك‬jac‫‏‬ > good

09

‫ ملسم‬a Muslim‫‏‬

ist. Y wireless

behaviour

‫ كولكتلا‬yee well-behaved,‫‏‬ mannerly‫‏‬

)‫(سلم‬ 0 1to be safe, unharmed

i) a -

‎‫ سلى‬11 to divert, amuse, console, cheer ‫عن‬

0

V_

to be diverted,

cheered, amused So-

gl. consolation, diversion $4207

4.3

diversion,

amusement

-

)‫(سمم‬ ‫ ما‬II to deliver some-‫‏‬ 2 ae (2); festsII to poison Heel to‫‏‬ ‫مامه‬

‫ديت‬

‫ ىلع‬58 II to greet‫‏‬

g-

5 99

‫‏ سم‬.lp ‫سموم‬

0

572

A NEW

‫سام‬

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

)‫(سمو‬

93

)‎‫(سمح‬

pe II to name, call‫‏‬

‎‫ (—) سمح‬ot ,timrep wolla (with J for person, and Ye‫ب‬‎

ele III to vie in glory with ee V to be called, named;

for thing) ‎‫ سامح‬III

(with ‫ىلإ‬‎ or (‫ب‬‎ to claim to pardon, excuse

‎‫ سمح‬smooth, compliant

rélationship to, with g

Gse--

‫ تسامح‬tolerance‫‏‬

‫ه‬

>>

‫ ءامس‬pl.‫تاو ‏‬ po sky, eee‫‏‬

)‫(سمر‬ y+ III to converse

‎‫رو‬

‎‫ سمو‬,thgieh ;ssenhgih eltit given to ae prince

with,

entertain

‫ مسمار‬pl.‫ مسامير‏‬nail‫‏‬

polph elo, cul, Lich name

‫ ماس‬high, exalted‫‏‬

)‫(سمط‬

(o)

bik pl. ae tablecloth

‫نس‬pl. te tooth, age‫‏‬

(eo)

AE pl. ne Sunna (in Islam),

66 oe hear

law, usage, tradition ‫وس‬

eee. 5 VIII to listen to oefame, reputation, report

)‫(سمك‬ ‫و‬

>

‫ يس‬Sunni, Sunnite (ortho-‫‏‬ dox Aiea‫‏‬ Oka pl. il spear, spearhead 5

‫[ شاك لم سمك‬514

na old, of advanced age

(om)

oad.

58

‫ نمس‬fat, butter, rancid‫‏‬ butter‫‏‬ 5

je pl. Olen fat, adj.

‎‫) سند إلى‬2( ot nael nopu ‫ ىلإ‬ren) IV to ascribe to (a‫‏‬ tradition, etc.)‫‏‬

573

VOCABULARY

J} ‎‫ استند‬VIII to lean upon; have recourse to (God) 2>

5 -0é

‫ دنس‬pl,‫ دانسا ‏‬document,

(5) el. (2) to be bad, evil

bill,‫‏‬

36

5 ‫>هة‬

S$ >

deed (legal or comm.), sup-‫‏‬

cow, ‫ءوس‬‎ pl. ‫ءاوسا‬‎ bad, evil n.

port‫‏‬

‫ ظحلا‬eg. misfortune‫‏‬

wd

‎‫و‬

2

5> ‎‫ه‬

‎‫ إسناد‬gnibircsa fo a ;noitidart isnad 5-6

Ds

‫سك‬‎

‎‫ مسئد‬pl. ‎‫ مسائد‬cushion, pillow

S

2nd

‫ نايدنس‬evergreen oak, ilex‫‏‬

‫مه‬Gateigh . misunderstanding‫‏‬

‫ يس‬bad, evil, adj.‫‏‬ )‫(سوح‬ hates square, place (piazza),‫‏‬

)‫(سنط‬ ee

court

(24)

ie acacia tree

(+) eid

Le:

‫ ةنس‬pl. Oya,‫ سئوات ‏‬year‫‏‬ $479

Sas

3

$

-a-9‫‏‬

‫‏ مسئناة‬.lp ‫مسئوات‬, ‫مسنيات‬ dam, dyke‫‏‬

(s) nicks V to be facilitated, made

possible

(Se) i) ipa: ARF ie ease; easily Nes easy 5 pl. Jie plain (geog.)

‎)‫(سهم‬ Gor

NC pl. ‫ماهسم‬‎ arrow ae pl. ara lot, share; share (in a company)

‫) داس‬2( to rule, have domin-‫‏‬ ion over :‫‏‬ -

ar

‫ دوس‬II to make black‫‏‬ Seal IX to be, become, black

Spelfi‫ءادوس‬.‎ pl. dg black ‎‫ السودان‬the Sudan gG-°

depl. solu Mr., gentleman, sir; descendant of the

Prophet oul, lady, mistress, Mrs., madam a

authority, sovereignty,

title )‫(سور‬ ir ag

‫ ةروس‬pl. i= Siira, verse Qur’an‫‏‬

of‫‏‬

574

A NEW

ARABIC

‫اي‬ )ee Syria‫‏‬ 5

‫و‬

‫سوق رى‬

GRAMMAR

‫ ىوس‬except, save‫‏‬

Ae ely equity, like, sameness

0

-

)‫(سوس‬ inte politics (mod.); government, administration (class.) 5

‫مصاص‬‎

ar

‫خط الاستواء‬

-

‫ اا‬equality‫‏‬ ‫ لكاو‬equal‫‏‬

--

‫ ىسايس‬pl. (of noun) dle‫‏‬

owe pl. Sly gees standard, level n.

political, politician‫‏‬

)‫(سوع‬

(ex)

‎‫ ساعة‬hour, clock, watch, time

‫( حاس‬-) to travel, tour‫‏‬

(Go)

Pali (long) journey;‫‏‬

oe

cigs (also (‫س‬‎ future particle (before imperf.) G-

tourism (mod.)‫‏‬ 35tspl. chee, c!i traveller,

>

‫ مسافة‬distance‫‏‬

tourist §-

(3p)

ee reo ‎‫( ساق‬2) vn, ‫قاسم‬‎ to drive, lead

‎‫و‬

5

WA

)‫(سير‬ ‫ (>) راس‬to travel, go‫‏‬

al pl. Ole leg, stem (of a plant) 3 5

‫سل‬

‫ ةحاسم‬area, extent‫‏‬

9

+

5

a-

5

=.

5

Way, journey

‫ ةريس‬manner,

‎‫( سوق‬m. or f.) pl. ‫قاوسا‬‎ market 5 Go

S0-

Is) a Jo3

way

of life,‫‏‬

biography ‫و‬‎

‎‫ائق‬pl. ‫ س‬‎‫سواق‬: ‫واق‬.‫س‬ lp ‎‫ون‬-

pee distance

driver, chauffeur

pie remainder, rest (see also

‎)‫(سوى‬

‎‫(سأر‬

5> G-

‎‫( سوى‬-) ot eb htrow

‫ ةرايس‬motor car‫‏‬

‫ ىواس‬III to be equal, be‫‏‬ equivalent to‫‏‬

(Hom)

:

(de) ‫رطيس‬‎ to rule (over)

575

VOCABULARY 6-

-0-

‫ه‬5

‫ ةرطيس‬rule, domination‫‏‬

(in his youth ‫هبابش‬‎ (‫ق‬ 3

-

‎‫ شاب‬pl. ics, ols young

(Se)

man

‫ (=) لاس‬to flow, become‫‏‬

(+)

liquid‫‏‬

‫ شاكل‬pl‫ سوائل ‏‬liquid‫‏‬ Or

-

of youth

‫ فيس‬pl. alpal sword‫‏‬

---

5>

wht, 4.4% youth, the time

(Ge)

G6

>

‫ حبش‬pl. cual ghost,‫‏‬

apparition‫‏‬

flowing, flood

)‫(شبع‬ ‫ (—) عبش‬to be satisfied,‫‏‬

%

satiated

(pls)

>>

-t-

oe

‫) ماش‬2( (with accus. or‫(على ‏‬ to draw ill-luck upon; bode‫‏‬ ill for‫‏‬

‫ عبشا‬IV to satisfy‫‏‬ Olt satisfied, satiated

85

(41+)

Nee

‫ كبتشا‬VIII to be entangled‫‏‬

,‎‫ شو‬bad omen, ill luck glis pessimism

confused, ambushed‫‏‬

c slice pessimist

Sts pl. ‫كيبابش‬‎ window

‫ مشل‬AES Syria, Damascus‫‏‬

(424)

)‫(شأن‬ ‫و‬4 -

‫عاسم‬

‫ هباش‬ITI, A) IV to resemble‫‏‬ ‫؟‬

52

5

‫ ناش‬pl.‫ نووش ‏‬matter, affair,‫‏‬ condition, thing, state,‫‏‬

dignity‫‏‬ g-

‎‫ § شان‬concerning

‫ ةبش‬similarity, likeness‫‏‬ ‫ حزيرة‬44 peninsula‫‏‬

(++) co

)‫(شبب‬ ‫ ببش‬II to laud; rejuvenate‫‏‬ ه‬-

‫( برش‬-) .0.2 ‫ برش‬to drink‫‏‬

) ‫(شجع‬

‫ — اناخد‬to smoke‫‏‬

‫ عجش‬II to encourage‫‏‬

‫ براش‬111 to drink with‫‏‬

jolt courage ps pl. ‫ناعم‬‎ courageous, brave

)‫(شرح‬ 5200-0

‫ حرش‬-)

to Bai‫‏‬

So-‫‏‬

‫‏ شرح‬.lp ‫ش روح‬2 explanation,‫‏‬

(’) ‫تحاش‬

commentary

ghastly,

drawn

(of‫‏‬

face)

‫ حارشلا‬joy, happiness

(Ut.‫‏‬

expansion)‫‏‬

)‫(شسخص‬ yaw? pl. el

‫'‏‬

person

‎‫كم‬ Puig bids force,

(7) ‫ درش‬II

to

drive

into

exile,‫‏‬

disperse, trans.‫‏‬ violence,

strength; violently, strongly

Pee ‎‫ شديد‬strong, violent, tough

(34.4)

6 f+ ieee ‎‫ شاذ‬pl. ‎‫ شواذ‬odd, strange, eccentric, rare &

‎)‫(شرر‬

(4,4) So-7

‫ طرش‬pl.‫ ‏‬£452 ‫ رش‬condition, term,‫‏‬ stipulation‫‏‬ 4

o-

‎‫ بشرط ان‬no noitidnoc taht 5 -

a

5

4

‎‫ شرطة‬police Z

‫نإ‬‎9

‫ششررطى‬

0

) ‫(شرع‬

‎َّ‫ق‬

‎‫ شر‬,ssendab ,live .7

‫( عرش‬-) to begin‫‏‬

‎‫عب‬

‎‫ شر‬,dab ,esrow ,tsrow elative

‘ ‎‫ شر‬divine, religious law (Islam)

577

VOCABULARY

s

-

‎‫ شريعة‬Shari‘a, Moslem law,

2

icici

‎‫ شارع‬pl. 2° street S$."

3:0"

CEE

SaMe

‫‏ مشروع‬.lp ‫ مشروعات‬, ‫ريع‬ ‫مشا‬

=

451, partnership :

39

‫ مشروعية‬undertaking‫‏‬

6

2

5

‫ كارتشا‬pl. o| — participation,‫‏‬

scheme, project‫‏‬ 5a

Wa

(commercial)

code S's

-

aS. ‎‫ شر‬pl. ‎‫ — ات‬company

subscription‫‏‬ $4

0-

6

‫ اشتراكية‬socialism‫‏‬

Bon

eu

Aiwa:

)‫(شرف‬

Ss|‫رتشا‬‎ Socialist

‫ فرش‬II to honour (anyone)‫‏‬

‫ شرييك‬7 ‫ شرك‬partner‫‏‬

-- 80

‫ رش ف‬IV to overlook, super-‫‏‬

vise (with (‫ىلع‬‎

ory

4) ‎‫ مشر‬idolator, polytheist BY

0‎‫ مشتر‬joint, common; sub-

‫ فرعي‬V to have the honour‫‏‬

4

(to), be honoured (by) (with‫‏‬

‎)‫ى‬ae‫(شر‬

‫(ب‬ 5

=

5

‎‫ شريف‬pl. ‎‫ اشراف‬noble, 2. and adj., exalted, Sherif (title)

َ‫ه‬‎

--

‫ ىف‬3 ‫ رتشإ‬VIII to participate‫‏‬ in; subscribe to‫‏‬

=

s

Loe)

pins; ‫راش‬‎ pl. ol 2 buyer =

=

(que) eae extensive, remote

)‫(شطط‬

bs pl. Lbs shore, bank

)‫(شطأ‬ ‫ ٌءطاش‬pl.‫ ىطاوش ‏‬river bank,‫‏‬ coast‫‏‬

)‫(شطن‬ Glare pl. ‫نيطايش‬‎ Devil, Satan

578

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

tats pl. isa people, tribe

)‫(شفق‬ ‫( قفش‬-) (with Le) to pity‫‏‬

Olas 8th month in Islamic

‫ ةقفش‬compassion, pity‫‏‬

)‫(شعب‬

‫و‬

calendar

ae

)‫(شعر‬ ‫ا‬

‫‏‬eiJ

yt (2) 2.4.

28

‫و‬

‫روعش‬‎ to know;

>

G---

Ol 524 lip

-

‫ شعر‬hair‫‏‬

‫ رعش‬pl. jul poetry; feeling,‫‏‬ knowledge, perception‫‏‬

‎)‫(شفى‬ ‎‫( شفى‬-) ot ,laeh eruc 6@--

‫ عافش‬cure, recovery‫‏‬

S a ed would that I knew!

we barley

‫ شاعر‬pl.‫ شعراء ‏‬poet‫‏‬ ‎a ‫ مشعر‬pl.‎‫ مشاعر‬feeling, sense

(J++)

2*2

‫جه‬

‫وه‬

>26

‫(شققف‬ fe3 2() ot ,tilps ‫‏‬evaelc ‫ قاش‬hard, severe, some‫‏‬ >

>

trouble-‫‏‬

2

‎‫ أعمالٌ شاقة‬lanep edutivres

‎‫ شقيق‬pl. ‎‫ أشقاء‬blood brother =

(J++)

5

‫ مستشفى‬pl.‫ ستشفيات ‏‬hospital‫‏‬

5 َ

‫) لعش‬2( to kindle‫‏‬

--e

‫ ةفش ةفشر‬pl. clus,‫رشفهات‏‬

feel, perceive (with ~) 56

‫مم‬ ‫ع‬

23a

gee

6

ae

‫ لغاشت‬VI to pretend to be‫‏‬ busy‫‏‬

a pl. ste misfortune, hardship

‫ لغتشا‬VIII to be occupied,‫‏‬

‫ قتشم‬derived (a word)‫‏‬

work‫‏‬ $03

S

- of

‫ لغش‬pl.‫ لاغشا ‏‬work, business‫‏‬ J‎‫ مشغوا‬busy, occupied

(a) ‫ فافش‬transparent, very fine‫‏‬

3-0 >

)‫(شقر‬ ‫‏‬leip ‫ شتراء كر‬pl. i reddish. ‫ دج‬OF

Je

Oe‫‏‬

coloured‫‏‬

(si4) 5

‎‫ شقاء‬misery, destitution

579

VOCABULARY ‫و‬

>

6.

ie pl. ‫ اشقياء‬miserable,‫‏‬ abject

-a-

‫ حلش‬11 strip

to

rob,

plunder,‫‏‬

‎)‫(شمم‬

‎)‫(شكك‬

‎‫) شك‬.2( htiw( ‎‫ (ى‬ot tbuod

pe (2-) to smell, trans.

213 pl, ‫كرك‬‎ ‫لس‬

‎)‫(شمخ‬ ‫ خماش‬high, lofty‫‏‬

)‫(شكر‬ ‫_) ركش‬2( on. jx to thank‫‏‬ -g-8

‫ ركشت‬V to be grateful,‫‏‬

)‫(شمس‬ ‫( سمش‬f.) ple‫ شموس ‏‬sun‫‏‬

{ee‫‏‬

thankful‫‏‬

‫ شاكر‬thankful‫‏‬

‫ ةعمش‬wax candle‫‏‬

)‫(شكل‬

)‫(شمل‬

Ke II to form, fashion; to mark with vowel points ‫ اشللك‬III to bear resemblance‫‏‬ to, be like‫‏‬ Ae pl. del shape, form

kind, sort; vowel point

‎ٌ‫ مشكلة‬pl. ‎‫ مشاكل‬difficult matter, problem

‫( كش‬is)‫ نا نع) ‏‬to complain‫‏‬ ape ne

‫ لمتشا ىلع‬VIII to. contain,‫‏‬ comprise‫‏‬

Jas north ‫ ٌلامش‬left hand‫‏‬ ٌ‫ شَامل‬comprehensive‫‏‬

‫م‬

)‫(شكو‬ (of)

‫( لمش‬2) to include, embrace‫‏‬

;‫‏‬ pl. ‫واكش‬‎ com-

plaint

)‫(شلح‬ ‫ (—) حلش‬to strip, undress,‫‏‬ intrans.‫‏‬

‫ عيش‬ugly, foul‫‏‬

)‫(شهب‬ ‫كا‬ 2

eG:

cape grey‫‏‬

"68.7

‫ ءابهشلا‬a name of Aleppo‫‏‬

(44+) ‫ (_) دهش‬to witness, testify‫‏‬

580

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR ‫ عام‬e-‫‏‬

J Li 111 to see, witness --0-0

‫ دهشتسا‬X to call to witness‫‏‬ Ave‫‏‬ ‫ةداهش‬

evidence,

testimony;‫‏‬

certificate, diploma;‫‏‬ martyrdom‫‏‬

‫ رواش‬111 to seek advice, con-‫‏‬ sult ©‫‏‬

JI, ITV to indicate, refer to

‎‫ أشار على‬VI ot esivda or ‎‫اس‬

‫ساس‬ ‫ص‬

‫ راشتسا‬X see gli‫‏‬

eau ‫ ده‬Li witness‫‏‬

‫) ىروّشلا‬

wees pl. slags martyr

‫ ديك‬scene; place of martyr-‫‏‬

council‫‏‬

‫ ةراشإ‬indication, sign, signal,‫‏‬ hint‫‏‬

dom; town in Persia‫‏‬

(J) J! 3)Lil with reference to

)‫(شهر‬

‎‫) إليها) مشار إليه‬.cte ,diaserofa

0200000000

oe (—) (with (‫ب‬‎ to make public, divulge ~ --

‎‫عه مم‬

(te) ‎‫ اشهر‬IV to draw weapon (against) 56

‫هر‬‎

2‫ه‬

‎‫ سر‬ae, 30000

5

9

-o7

referred to S--06

‎‫ مشورة‬advice, consultation,

a

counsel SEA

IOS.

‫ مستشار‬101

‫و‬

‎‫ شمهو‬month

‫ان‬‎=

net, 39¢~ famous

)‫(شهق‬ Gal pl. ‫قهاوش‬‎ high, lofty ‎)‫(شهى‬

)‫(شوش‬ ‫ شاووشن وشاوش‬pl.‫ شواش ‏‬com-‫‏‬ missionaire, messenger (Magh.) ‫ شيواش‬pl. i is sergeant‫‏‬

(G+)‫‏‬

erat VIII to desire eagerly, covet

‫ اتشقىلإ‬VIII to long for‫‏‬

‫شهوة‬

‫ قون‬pl. Glyat longing, desire‫‏‬

pl.‫ شهواتٌ ‏‬pleasure,‫‏‬ indulgence‫‏‬

pA

MS

(454)

‎‫ شهى‬longing for; appetising

4,4 pl. gal thorn

)‫(شور‬

‎‫ شوكة‬fork, thorn

2-0-7

VOCABULARY

)‫(شول‬

di, 10th month of Islamic calendar

581

)‫رشيد‬ ‫ ديش‬11 to build up‫‏‬ (=)

(294)

‎‫ )—( شا‬to be spread abroad, published

ols pl. ACS oles ewe, sheep

‫ عاشأ‬IV to publish, dis-‫‏‬

)‫(شوى‬ ‫( ىوش‬-) to roast, trans.‫‏‬

seminate news, make public‫‏‬

gene

‎‫ إشاعة‬widespread report, rumour

oe (ols tea

gts widespread, prevalent

(2)

es Shi‘a sect of Islam; of

‎‫ )_( شاء‬to wish, will

the followers of Ali

ar ala ‫نإ‬‎ ¢ (also written َ (‫ءاشنإ‬‎ if God (D.V.)

3

‎‫ شيعي‬Shi'ite, Shi‘i, follower

wills!

of the shi‘a G6

ace pl. ‫ءايشأ‬‎ thing (with neg.

a

rd

= nothing)

‎‫راو‬

‫شيوعية‬ ‫دو‬‎

‫ شيوعى‬Communist‫‏‬

‫ ةئيشم‬wish, will‫‏‬

)‫(شيل‬ ‫( لاش‬-) to lift up, take away‫‏‬

‫ بيشم‬old age‫‏‬

‫ ٌبئاش‬old, white-haired‫‏‬

) ‫(شيخ‬ ‫ خيش‬pl.‫ ‏‬,‫ خوش‬a @

‫ كيز‬sheikhdom‫‏‬

)‫(صبب‬ as (2-) to pour out

sheikh,‫‏‬

old man, tribal leader, in‫‏‬

of respect‫‏‬

oo

(ere) -- 08

‫ صا‬IV to become;

(iit. to‫‏‬

do in the morning; to enter‫‏‬ upon the morning)

582

A

NEW

ARABIC

- 08

che, me pl. ‫حابصأ‬‎ morning

oh ‫حابص‬‎ Good morning!

GRAMMAR 30-00

a

11 to correct, sound, valid

‫ حيبص‬beautiful, comely‫‏‬

Su

S_-78

‫ حابصم‬pl.‫اصمحيي ‏‬lamp, torch‫‏‬

42

make

health, validity,

correctness

(+)

correct, right, valid

eee

xe (~) to be patient; to persevere in, bear patiently (with ‎‫(على‬

cl pl. ‫تا‬‎ chapter of a book (of Holy Scripture)

(~~)

264

uve patience

a

‫بحص‬‎ =( ;) ‫ ماك‬III

‎‫ صابر‬patient, adj. 5

=

Joe ‫حصي‬‎ it is true to say

to

accompany, be the friend of

9-

-

‫( روبص‬very) patient‫‏‬

-

‫ اع اصمت‬VIII to keep com-‫‏‬ pany with one another‫‏‬ S69

4

‫عبصإ‬ ! pl.‫عياصأ ‏‬finger‫‏‬

company (of friends)

5

‫م‬‎

5

2-602

$07

4

‎‫ صاحب‬pl. ‎‫مااب‬, ‫ عب‬,dneirf

companion; owner, possessor, master

‫) غبص‬2( to dye, colour‫‏‬ ‫ صباغ‬dyer‫‏‬

dian

)‫(صبن‬ Soars

)‫(صبو‬ S

-

02 ‫‏‬.lp ‫خارى‬, ‫ مراوات‬desert‫‏‬ “03

(#4)

‫ ىبص‬pl. Slee youth, boy‫‏‬ aa -

G-

owe

)‫جرمح‬

Zo»

‫ (=) حص‬to be sound, true,‫‏‬ correct;

recover

from

‎‫ل‬

4a pl. Gz, ile page (of a book)

‫ ةيبص‬pl. ble young girl‫‏‬

illness

of

‫كد‬

Os be soap ao

a

‎‫ الصحاية‬the companions Muhammad

an

5

KH, gle journalist (mod.)

4s journalism, (mod.)

the press

583

VOCABULARY (Me

ie)

‫ مصحف‬pl.‫ مصاحف ‏‬Quran,‫‏‬ prayer-book‫‏‬

(4)

‫ ردص‬pl. hie chest (part of‫‏‬ body)‫‏‬ Sloe exports (mod.)

“2 pl. ‫نوم‬‎ plate Go

‫ه‬5 >

»0-

‫ نم رادلا‬courtyard of a‫‏‬ house

a) le (2) to be clear, bright (of sky, weather, etc.); to awake from sleep

cle clear (day, sky, weather 1 etc.); awake, conscious

C*) 5B rock

(240) Scie subject matter --

‫ ددصب‬concerning, in the‫‏‬

"matter of

(er) ‫ صداع‬headache‫‏‬

5

ae

temple (of

Ce

(G2) ere

‫ فداص‬III to encounter, come‫‏‬

across, happen on‫‏‬ g9--

-9»

‫ ةفداصم‬encounter, meeting‫‏‬ 3-09

‫ صدفة‬pl.‫ صدف ‏‬chance,‫‏‬ occurrence‫‏‬

2709

‫ةفدص‬

Tal by chance,‫‏‬

0

)‫(صدق‬ ‫) قدص‬2( to be true, right,‫‏‬ sincere, tell the truth‫‏‬

‎)‫(صدأ‬

oe II to believe, confirm

‫ مدأ‬rust‫‏‬

aie truth, veracity

)‫(صدر‬ ‫) ردص‬+( to go out, issue‫‏‬ intrans.‫‏‬

jae II to export (mod.) --o60é

‫ ردصا‬IV to issue, send forth‫‏‬

dae pl. Sh

‎‫ صداقة‬friendship, sincerity Gib trustworthy, faithful

(title of the second Caliph, Abu Bakr)

‫ قيدص‬pl.‫ ءاقدصأ ‏‬,Oty friend‫‏‬ 2

‫ لليمحنا‬X to issue‫‏‬

alms, charity

‫ك‬1

‫ ل‬93"

in some Arab countries)‫‏‬

(tye)

)‫(صرم‬

‫) خرص‬2( to cry out‫‏‬

‫(رصم‬-) to pluck‫‏‬

‫‏ صاروخ‬.lp ‫ريخ‬00 rocket,‫‏‬

meteor

‎)‫(صرط‬ 5

‫و‬

‫م‬

‫ مارص‬time of trimming palm‫‏‬ trees

Peles ‫ مراص‬sharp, severe‫‏‬

(+)

-

ble way, path (relig.)

‫رحم‬

~

‫ ف‬as Mutasarrif (governor‫‏‬

permit

Bie, eae

‫و‬

‫ صعوية‬difficulty‫‏‬

585

VOCABULARY 5

o-

Hie

sath

‫ بعص‬pl. olee difficult, hard‫‏‬

(4x2)‫‏‬

Poe ‎‫ صفر‬2nd month calendar 80-3

eae:

‫ (_) دعص‬.0.2

5

3993

‫ دوعص‬to ascend‫‏‬

pale‫‏‬

)‫(صفو‬ lie )2( to be clear, pure‫‏‬

seat Upper Egypt

‫ ىفطصإ‬VIII to choose‫‏‬

)‫(صغر‬

g--

elie clearness, purity

‫ (—) رغص‬to be, become,‫‏‬ small‫‏‬

ee) X little of Go

‫و‬

‫ رفصا‬f. Ape pl. ce yellow,‫‏‬

iastas‫ نم نآلآ ‏‬from now‫‏‬ onwards‫‏‬

of Islamic

to belittle, think

|

pure, clear; net (weight

‘etc.) dhe. Mustafa (lit. chosen), pr.n.m.

98

. ‫رغص‬‎ smallness, youth -_

le

Sri

‎‫ صغير‬pl. ye small, young

)‫(صغو‬

(ie) 50

‫ رقص‬pl. oie Shek hawk‫‏‬

(e)

gel IV

to hearken,

)‫(صفف‬

iors pl. A

listen.

line, class, row‫‏‬

) ‫(صفح‬ ‫ حفاص‬III to shake hands (in‫‏‬ greeting)‫‏‬ ‫هي‬

‫سدم د‬

‫ د‬pl.‫ تاحفص ‏‬page (of a‫‏‬ book); plate‫‏‬

(se) en IX to become yellow, pale 52

>

‫هه‬

je pl.‫رافصا‬‎ zero

tie frost

(Jé) ‫) لقص‬2( to polish‫‏‬

(sake)‫‏‬ ‫ (—) بلص‬to crucify‫‏‬ ous crucifix‫‏‬ 5

oie crusader

ich

(2.) to be sound, honest;

to be suitable, good, fit for (with (‫ل‬‎

586

A NEW

ARABIC

GRAMMAR

$--

che II to repair eer‎‫اس‬

‫ حلاص‬111 to make peace with,‫‏‬ 06

é

‎‫ اصلح‬IV to improve, reform,

‎)‫(صمم‬ -a-

repair

‫ ممص‬11 to plan, design; (with‫‏‬

‫ حلاصت‬VI to be reconciled,‫‏‬ make peace one with the‫‏‬ other‫‏‬

(‫ ىلع‬to determine upon‫‏‬ Ss

6.

‫ ممصت‬plan, design‫‏‬ 5

65‫ه‬ ‫د‬

‫ حلص‬peace, reconciliation‫‏‬ ‫ه‬ > >

‫ حالص‬goodness; adjustment‫‏‬ G-6

5

-‫‏‬

‫ حالصإ‬pl.‫ — تا ‏‬reform, im-‫‏‬ ‎‫إن‬

-

‫ حالطصا‬pl. ol‫‏‬

)‫لمعتصطءء‬

use, idiom‫‏‬ 5

_

5

‫م‬

sincere, true‫‏‬

)‫(صمت‬ -- (2) to be silent ‎‫ صمث‬silence

provement‫‏‬ Sn

g---

(antig.) pl. ‫تاولص‬‎

{ee place of prayer

reconcile‫‏‬ --

gI-

oe, ‫ةولص‬‎ prayer

-

cule silent

)‫(صمد‬

gle good, proper, honest;

deal the eternal (God)

self-interest (mod.); pr. n. m.

(+)

g-- 0°

Oe

Oe

‫ ةحلصم‬pl. shes interest,‫‏‬ advantage, good; administrative department

‫> دودو‬

‫ ربونص‬pine (tree)‫‏‬

(G+) $

‫رورو‬‎

2

Sa

‫ حلطصم‬pl.‫( — ثا ‏‬see CA!)‫‏‬

‫ قودنص‬pl.‫ دائنصقي ‏‬box, chest;‫‏‬ fund 9‫‏‬

)‫(صلد‬

(er)

‫ دل‬hard, solid‫‏‬

(de)

duel bald

(she) Ae II to pray

+e (_) to make, do; manufacture (mod.)

‫ عنطصإ‬VIII to be artificial,‫‏‬ contrived‫‏‬

‫ ٌةعانص‬pl.‫ تا ‏‬i dle art;‫‏‬ industry (mod.) 1‫‏‬

557

VOCABULARY

‫ عنصم‬pl. gles factory‫‏‬

‫) ماص‬.2( to fast‫‏‬

seat‫‏‬

nae, i‫ مايص‏‬aan fast‫‏‬ 5-

‫َه‬

6

39939

‎ٌ‫ صنف‬pl. ‎‫راصنئاف‬, Sere

class,

wile pl. AP lee one who fasts;‫‏‬

category, brand

fasting, adj.

‎)‫(صم‬

‎‫الم صم‬

(One) Aline idol

Ole (2.) to protect, preserve

ee

‎)‫(صوب‬

‫ةئنايص‬

lol BY 0 S-

‎‫و‬

‫و‬

calamity

)‫(صيح‬ ‫( حاص‬-) to cry out‫‏‬

( َ‫ه‬‎

ee pl. ‫تاوصا‬‎ voice, sound; vote (mod.)

shouting

(-=2)

i

‫) صاد‬-(,‫‏ تصيد‬,V ‫ إصطاد‬11

‫ روص‬II to picture‫‏‬

depict,

make

‫و‬

>

to hunt‫‏‬

a‫‏‬

26

‫ ديص‬hunt, hunting, 2‫‏‬

‫ روصت‬V to imagine‫‏‬ 5>

protec-‫‏‬

tion, conservation

0

‎‫ مصيبة‬.lp ‎‫ مصائب‬,enutrofsim

=

preservation,

5

“.

$a-

Ale, ‫دايص‬‎ hunter

22

‫ ةروص‬pl.‫ روص ‏‬picture, form,‫‏‬ copy; manner‫‏‬ ‫ ل م‬pl.‫ عادر ‏‬picture‫‏‬ 7‫ و‬Tyre (in Lebanon)‫‏‬

(ive) ‫ وق‬pl.‫ مراف ‏‬wool‫‏‬

ie Sidon (in Lebanon)

(x) Ae (=) to

become;

(with

imperf.) begin to, to go ba the future, result, out-

come

re

‫ قوص‬Sufi, mystic‫‏‬

)‫(صوم‬

‫ تقديرالصير‬self-determination‫‏‬

(mod.)‫‏‬

588

A NEW

ARABIC

neepl. ‫عابض‬‎ hyena

0 -

GRAMMAR

5

>

(oF)

‫ه‬6

cite pl. Glee! summer

Su

(cx)

ig, ‎‫ يج‬tumult, cry

()

‎‫ الصيين‬China

g-
unrest, disquiet

Sine pl. lye tray

)‫(نجع‬ oor

ony?

a (—) to lie, recline

(ute)

‫دل‬

dite pl. ings thin, small, insignificant

(24) Ae )-( on,‫ كمن ‏‬to laugh‫‏‬

(ats) sB-

9

‫ مضجع‬pl.‫ مضاجع ‏‬couch‫‏‬

Spc

Ole (sing. gp le) sheep (coll.)

‫كد‬

funny, comic, laugh-‫‏‬

able‫‏‬

‎)‫(ضبب‬ ae pl. ‫نابت‬‎ mist (thin cloud)

(s#)‫‏‬ :

2

cl, &

4,

-

forenoon +e

)‫(ضبط‬

ie pl. Lig sacrifice, victim

‫ )ث( طبض‬to put right, correct,‫‏‬ do a thing well, regulate‫‏‬

ul

-

0060

‫و‬

‎‫ عيد‬Sacrificial Festival

(Moslem Bestival)

S07

‫ طبض‬exactness, correctness‫‏‬

hale pl. id. \42 outskirts,

oi‫‏‬

‫ طبضلاب‬exactly‫‏‬

0

ee}

dats pl. Lis officer

$a >

(military) 5

3b-

‎‫ مضبوط‬correct, regulated

)‫(ضبع‬

of a town

‫ مضخة‬pump‫‏‬

right,

well-

Sie‫‏‬ wet pl. ‫ماخض‬‎ large, bulky

heavy,

VOCABULARY

589

ewe

)‫(ضدد‬

‫ برطضا‬VIII to be agitated,‫‏‬

‫ داض‬111 to oppose, go‫‏‬ against‫‏‬

troubled, unsettled‫‏‬ ‫ برض‬pl. ed kind, manner‫‏‬

‫ دض‬against, opposite,‫‏‬

‫ ٌبارضِإ‬pl. Sle strike (mod.)‫‏‬ See

contrary to prep.‫‏‬

‫ ةيبرض‬pl. ile tax, impost‫‏‬

)‫(ضرر‬

aS115! pl. ore trouble,

9 (2.) to injure, harm a-s

‫ رضا ب‬IV to injure, harm‫‏‬

‫ رطضإ‬VIII to compel‫‏‬

agitation (often used in political sense)

(44) ore

bye (=) to fart, break wind

ar

‎‫ ضراء‬adversity see

)‫(ضرع‬ ‫ عراض‬III to resemble‫‏‬

‫ ررض‬harm, injury‫‏‬ ‫‏‬,aS

5

-60

‫م‬

&

&

‫‏ضرير‬.lp ‫اضرار‬, ‫ أضراء‬blind‫‏‬ 5”

‫و‬

‫ ورضىر‬necessary, essential‫‏‬ 3

oo harmful, injurious

)‫(ضرب‬ 52 00-

3

wy

)2(

U.N.

0-7

wy,

S-07

‫ةبرض‬‎ (a

blow) to beat; strike a coin; play (a musical aetna os

‎‫مد‬

eee

‫ برض الثم‬to quote a proverb,‫‏‬ give a parable, example‫‏‬ -

(3!) ‎‫ تضرع‬V to beseech

(2?) ‫راض‬ds Fe‫‏‬ ‫اضبر‬pl.5 ie voracious,‫‏‬ carnivorous )(beast)‫‏‬

)ee‫(ضعف‬ ‎‫( ضعف‬.) to be, become, weak ‫ فعاضت‬VI

to be doubled‫‏‬

G09

tz

weakness

So

5-06

‎‫ضعف‬ue kyl

double

ee

‫ براض‬111 to fight; have traffic‫‏‬ with; compete with‫‏‬ -

-0o8

‫ برضا نع‬IV to quit, cease‫‏‬ (work, etc.); to go on strike‫‏‬ (mod.)‫‏‬

Gunsa) ‫ءافعض‬‎ weak

‎)‫(ضغط‬ bis )-( to press, squeeze ‎65‫> ه‬

‫ طغض‬pressure, compulsion‫‏‬

590

A NEW

ARABIC

)‫(ضفف‬

GRAMMAR

on Oke guarantee

ig pl. iis bank, side, of a river

5

‫ال‬

‫ل‬

‫ل‬

‫ مضمون‬guaranteed‫‏‬ ‫ب‬

‫ نومضم‬pl. cl — contents (of‫‏‬ a letter)‫‏‬

(She)

)‫(ضنن‬

ie (=) to err, wander; stray from path (relig.)

‫(ْنْض ب‬2) to withhold, keep‫‏‬

ae pl. one strayed, erring

‘back‫‏‬

(d+)

)‫(ضهد‬

65‫ه‬

>

6

993

cle pl. ‫عولض‬‎ rib

)‫(ضمم‬ oo (2.) to collect, gather, amalgamate

,‫ )عم‬J!) pail VIL to join‫‏‬ )‫(ضمحل‬ ‫( للا‬quad.) IV to vanish,‫‏‬ disappear, grow faint, dwindle away

(+4) See pl. ee pronoun

conscience;

‫ )ضمن‬-( ‫ مغ‬1‫ ناآعه‬0‫ع‬, guarantee‫‏‬

to persecute,‫‏‬

(ur) ‫ ىهاض‬III to resemble (a‫‏‬ person or thing)‫‏‬

(142) ‫ ءاضا‬IV to light, trans.‫‏‬ 5

5

- of

a

‫ ضوء‬pl.‫ اضواء ‏‬light‫‏‬

)‫(ضوض‬ 2

)‫(ضمن‬ -

‫ كا‬VIII maltreat‫‏‬

ae

I

BOre

5

,‫ ءاضوض ىضوض‬noise, uproar,‫‏‬ clamour‫‏‬

(ex?) ele (—) to be lost ‎‫ أضاع‬137 to lose

ce

‫ نمضن‬V to include, comprise‫‏‬

ee (with following gen.) within, inside, enclosed

(prep.)

tag pl. ‫عايض‬‎village

)‫(ضيف‬

‫ فاضأ‬117 to treat with‫‏‬ hospitality‫‏‬

VOCABULARY

(‫)ىلإ‬GUI IV to add, join (to)‫‏‬

5

591

-

‫وأ‬‎

lies

‎‫ طايع‬pl. ‎‫ طوابع‬stamp, seal, est

ence pl. 5-6 guest‫‏‬ ‫ ٌةفاضإ‬addition, annexation,‫‏‬

joining‫‏‬

‎‫ بريدد‬bq ‎‫ تتلا‬pmats

Ae pl. ol — impression

3 Lol additional, auxiliary

‎)‫(ضتق‬ ‫ قياض‬111 to annoy, oppress‫‏‬

bate

eg

‫ ةعبطم‬pl.‫عياطم ‏‬printing press‫‏‬

)‫(طبق‬ we

‫ قباط‬111 to agree, conform‫‏‬

‫و‬

‫ قيض‬need, anxiety‫‏‬

with‫‏‬

Sun‫‏‬

26

‫ ضيق‬narrow‫‏‬

‎‫ طبقا ل‬ni ecnadrocca ,htiw conformance with 6>

7) eas medicine (the art of) roe pl. at physician

ae pl. ‫تا‬‎ — grade, layer, stratum, class

ab pl. ‫قبا‬‎ele floor, storey

‎)‫(طبخ‬ ‎‫ له طبخ‬.nO ‎‫ طبخ‬ot

5-06

‎‫ طبق‬pl.‎‫ اطباق‬plate, tray

,kooc

trans.

oe

‎‫( طحن‬2) on. ‫نحط‬‎ to mill, grind (flour)

‫ خيبط‬cooked food‫‏‬

‎ٌ‫م طاحون‬1. ‫ طواحين‬llim

ub a cook

(Lt)

SS -Ores

‫ خبطم‬pl. giles kitchen‫‏‬

‫ا‬ ‫ عبط‬-)) vn, del, erie‫‏‬

‫ ىلع‬me )-2( to happen to,‫‏‬ befall one suddenly‫‏‬ >

print, stamp

‫ ارطا‬IV to praise highly,‫‏‬ overwhelm with praise‫‏‬

tol naturally

45) lb pl. ‫ىراوط‬‎ emergency,

eee pl. ‫ع‬‎‫ يلع‬nature

Pheer

poe‫‏‬

accident, mishap

592

A NEW

ARABIC

‫( لقب‬m. or f.) pl. ab road,‫‏‬

(224) ‫ برط‬II

GRAMMAR

to sing, chant, trill‫‏‬

way‫‏‬ aioepl. a3|MN path, manner,

(a) | ‎‫ )—( طرح‬to throw, cast down; subtract (math.) ‫ حرطم‬pl.‫ حراطم ‏‬place (Syr.‫‏‬ hs Eg.)‫‏‬

‫حير‬ sb pl. me9 prostrate,‫‏‬ thrown on the ground‫‏‬

fashion, method; order

(relig.)

(34)

oP (Sb fresh, tender, moist

)‫(طعم‬ ‫ معط‬II to graft; vaccinate‫‏‬ -- 80

(2.5)

‫ معطا‬IV to feed, trans.‫‏‬

ae (2.) to expel, drive away

‫ معط‬taste, flavour‫‏‬

Soe-

‎3‫ اإستطرد‬X to digress

sub pl.‫ ٌةمعطأ ‏‬food‫‏‬

‎‫ اد‬.lp 93ey ,lecrap elab

‫ مطعم‬pl.‫ مطاعم ‏‬restaurant‫‏‬

)‫(طرز‬

‫ (—) ىفط‬to go out,‫ عط ‏‬extin-‫‏‬

-o9-

tet

8

dt ‎‫ طريد‬expelled, outcast

guished‫‏‬

S07

‫ زرط‬form, style‫‏‬

shape,

manner,‫‏‬

‫ٌزارط‬pl. pri model, style;‫‏‬

Ll IV to extinguish

aes VII to be extinguished, --‫وصرن‬

5

1

‫ اطرش‬f.‫طرشاء ‏‬, pl.‫ طرش ‏‬deaf‫‏‬

5

B- 08

go out

embroidery‫‏‬

)‫(طرش‬

Naat

89

‫ فرط‬pl.‫ فارطأ ‏‬side, end, part‫‏‬

(G4)‫‏‬ ae (2-) to strike, knock at

gle a5 a. 8 fire brigade (mod.)

(Jib)

Gab pl. JULI child, baby GH

‎‫رو‬

‫ طفوليمة‬, ‫ كلمو[له‬childhood‫‏‬

)‫(طقس‬ ‫ سقط‬pl. (wii climate,‫‏‬ weather; rite, liturgy

593

VOCABULARY

)‫(طقم‬

‫ قلطنإ‬VII to go, depart‫‏‬

wil uniform (dress)

Gab free, unfettered‫‏‬ ae

)‫(طلب‬

‫ قلط ناسللا‬eloquent of‫‏‬

‫) بلط‬2( on. le to seek,‫‏‬

“speech

ask‫‏‬ $a

‎‫ه‬

>>

‫من‬

‫ — ديلانب‬liberal, open-handed‫‏‬

>

‫ ةيبلط‬order, demand, request‫‏‬ so‫‏‬

=

‫تم و‬

75

Jo's

2

g---‫‏‬

‫‏ طالب‬.lp ‫طلاب‬, ‫طلبة‬ ee‫‏‬

‫ مطلوب‬pl.‫مطاليب ‏‬

+ demand,‫‏‬

requirement‫‏‬

‫ قلطلا‬Ape the open air‫‏‬ ‫ طلاق‬divorce‫‏‬ ee ‫ ةقالط‬fluency, volubility;‫‏‬

openness‫‏‬ ‫ قالطالا‬de, Ge’ absolutely‫‏‬

)‫(طلسم‬

g-o‎‫رو‬

rea pl.‫ طلاسم ‏‬talisman‫‏‬

(db) ore

ab (+) ‫عولط‬‎ to ascend, go up; rise cesun)

--a

dblVIII to examine (with

‫ قلطم‬absolute, free, unres-‫‏‬ tricted‫‏‬

(sib) g--

‫ ةوالط‬beauty, elegance‫‏‬

)‫(طمر‬

J)

pb pl. ih tatters, rags‫‏‬

)‫(طلق‬

i)

Gib II to divorce

‫ (=) عمط‬to covet, desire‫‏‬

‫ قلطأ‬IV to set free, throw,‫‏‬

eb greed, avidity

cast --08

‫ىلع‬‎ . . . ‫ أطلق‬to use a word to mean ‫ دور‬ce

‫‏‬80

‫ قلطا هحارس‬to set (him) free‫‏‬ iG}

‘ AS ‫قلطأ‬‎ to shoot, ©

fire at (with (‫ىلع‬‎

‎)‫(طمن‬ ‎‫) إطمان‬.dauq( VI ot leef ,eruces tranquil, calm oneself “60 6

ٌ‫أطمئنان‬, ‫ طماًنينة‬tranquillity,‫‏‬

reassurance, feeling of security

594 5

A NEW

ARABIC

- ‫وه‬

GRAMMAR

‫ نئمطم‬tranquil, at ease‫‏‬

‫ عاطتسإ‬X to be able‫‏‬

)‫(طهر‬

rat obedience‫‏‬

‫) ري‬-2( to be clean, pure‫‏‬ - Fr] -

‎‫ طمهر‬11 to purify, cleanse, cir-

lesb, ‎‫ طاعة‬voluntarily, willingly

‫ ام ةعاطو‬your service‫‏‬ (it. hearing and obeying)‫‏‬

cumcize S39 3

‫ طهور‬purity‫‏‬

za--

‫ تطوعا‬voluntarily‫‏‬

ab pure, clean‫‏‬

6-

(se)‫‏‬

-

‫ ةعاطتسإ‬ability, power‫‏‬ 16 obedient

Yb (2) to cook

‫ متطوع‬volunteer‫‏‬

abpl. stab cook

5 --0»

‫ مستطاع‬possible‫‏‬

‎)‫(طور‬

)‫(طوف‬

5gs V to be developed,

evolve stages

through

time,

by

cumambulate‫‏‬ 5

-o8

)is pl. ‫راوطا‬‎ stage, time, state OF

FO

‫) فاط‬2( to go round, cir-‫‏‬

(S10S

‫ اروط دعب روط‬time after time‫‏‬ 2

‎‫ طور‬mountain; Mount Sinai ga--

‫ روطت‬pl. ee transition,‫‏‬ development, evolving‫‏‬

)‫(طوس‬ ‫ سوواط‬pl. a‫دوا‏‬ial peacock‫‏‬

> ‫و‬

‫ طوااف‬Circumambulation‫‏‬ ceremony Mecca)‫‏‬

to‫‏‬

‫ ٌنافوط‬flood, deluge‫‏‬

dete

‎‫ طائقة‬party, sect, community, denomination Sun- ‫و‬‎

‫ فوطم‬Mecca pilgrimage‫‏‬ guide‫‏‬

)‫(طوع‬

(Gs)

‫ عاطأ‬IV to obey‫‏‬

‫ قاظأ‬IV

‫ عوطت‬V to do voluntarily,‫‏‬ 6-5

(Pilgrimage

to be able,‫ ‏‬bea