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Women in American Cartography
Women in American Cartography An Invisible Social History
Lanham • Boulder • New York • London
Published by Lexington Books An imprint of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706 www.rowman.com 6 Tinworth Street, London SE11 5AL, United Kingdom Copyright © 2020 The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without written permission from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote passages in a review. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Available ISBN 978-1-4985-4829-8 (cloth: alk. paper) ISBN 978-1-4985-4830-4 (electronic) ∞ ™ The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992.
This book is dedicated to Alice Hudson, whose pioneering work uncovering women’s names in cartography started it all. Thank you, Alice for all your work.
List of Figures
List of Abbreviations
Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii Introduction: Women in the History of Cartography 1 Pedagogues and Students
2 Activists, Persuaders, and Travelers
3 Pictorial and Illustrated Maps
4 Millie the Mapper and Maps of the Second World War
5 Women Professors and Researchers: Their Role in an Emerging Discipline 67 6 Government Girls and Company Women
Conclusion 105 Army Map Service: Schools with Military Map Making Classes
Cartography Dissertations and Theses by Women 1966–1982
Bibliography 115 Index 127 About the Author
List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Map of 1826 from A Series of Maps to Willard’s History of the United States, 1829 Figure 1.2 Map of New York Drawn by Anna A. Heermans from A Hieroglyphic Geography of the United States, 1875 Figure 1.3 Map by Caroline Chester a Student at the Litchfield Academy in 1816 Figure 1.4 Globe Made by Elizabeth Mount in 1822 Figure 1.5 Globe with Mounting Patented by Ellen Eliza Fitz. Manufactured by Ginn and Heath, 1879 Figure 2.1 Suffrage Map by Bertha Demaris Knobe, 1908 Figure 2.2 Hull-House Map of Nationalities, 1895 Figure 2.3 Map of Southern California from Emily Post, By Motor to the Golden Gate, New York: D. Appleton, 1916 Figure 3.1 Frontispiece from Ruth Taylor White, Our USA, A Gay Geography, 1935 Figure 3.2 Louise Jefferson, Map of “Americans of Negro Lineage” Published by Friendship Press, Inc., New York Figure 3.3 Dell Map Back No. 184, Murder Is My Business by Brett Halliday, 1944 Figure 4.1 WAC Recruiting Poster ca. 1943 Figure 4.2 Edna Eisen, Title page from Our Country from the Air, Published in 1937 by the Wheeler Publishing Company of Chicago Figure 4.3 “Map Making Class,” Edna Eisen with Women Students of the 3M Class
13 15 17 23 24 29 32 34 42 43 47 55 57 58
List of Figures
Figure 4.4 Bea Shaheen MacPherson Represented the “Military Mapping Maidens” When They Were Inducted into the Geospatial Intelligence Hall of Fame, October 4, 2016. Bea is Third from Right Figure 5.1 Marie Tharp at Her Desk Figure 5.2 Marie Tharp Sketches Figure 6.1 Grace Raymond Hebard at Her Desk Figure 6.2 Map of the Oregon Trail Created by Grace Raymond Hebard and E. A. Brininstool, 1922 Figure 6.3 Laura Whitlock, the Official Cartographer of Los Angeles, Date Unknown Figure 6.4 Laura Whitlock Transportation Map of Los Angeles, 1915 Figure 6.5 “Main Street of America” Map Drawn by Gertrude Bracht, ca. 1926 Figure 6.6 Armstrong, Eltea, Map of Dickens County, Texas Figure 6.7 Patricia Bridges Creates a Lunar Map ca. 1963
59 75 77 84 86 87 89 92 93 97
List of Abbreviations
AAA AAG ACA ACIC ACSM AMS BLM CSULB DMA CAGIS COI GIS GLO HOC ICA LOC NGA OSS TVA UCLA USC&GS USGS WAC
American Automobile Association Association of American Geographers American Cartographic Association Aeronautical Chart and Information Center American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Army Map Service Bureau of Land Management California State University Long Beach Defense Mapping Agency Cartography and Geographic Information Science Coordinator of Information Geographic Information Science General Land Office History of Cartography International Cartographic Association Library of Congress National Geospatial Intelligence Agency Office of Strategic Services Tennessee Valley Authority University of California at Los Angeles United States Coast and Geodetic Survey United States Geological Survey Women’s Army Corps
It was the first day of the semester and I was teaching an evening cartography class. Two of my graduate students rushed into my office in great glee a few minutes before class. An older male student had come into the classroom and announced, “I didn’t expect to see so many girls, after all, cartography is a man’s field!” My graduate students were eager to see his reaction when the female professor of the class walked in. A number of psychology studies in recent years have claimed to “prove” that women can’t read maps. All begin with the assumption that women cannot read maps and the studies provide various reasons for this ranging from the hardwiring of the brain to hormones. Books on the history of cartography made little or no mention of women who made maps and had titles like The Men Who Mapped the World. Are these statements true? Is cartography a man’s field? Are women incapable of reading and making maps? Did only men map the world? As a woman who taught map reading and cartography for over thirty-five years and who has considered herself a cartographer for over fifty years, I found these statements disturbing and I have sought to find the story. A BRIEF REVIEW OF MY QUALIFICATIONS I was taught to read road maps at the age of seven by my mother who was the navigator in the family and who had little patience with a female relative who bragged that she couldn’t read maps. My mother said, “She says she can’t so she won’t have to.” Many years later when I made a visit to our home town and wanted to visit some family landmarks, mother drew me a map rather than a list of addresses. xiii
When I went to University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) after some detours into math and astronomy, I discovered cartography. I took my first map interpretation class and I was hooked. This was a “golden age” of cartography at UCLA. The geography department had two professors of cartography—highly unusual at the time—Richard Dahlberg and Norman Thrower. Also unusual, the department offered map reading and three cartography classes: beginning, intermediate, and advanced, plus air photo interpretation. In those precomputer days, the cartography students drew their maps on vellum (a type of paper) or mylar (a type of plastic). We worked with pen and ink, and lettering was done using Leroy scribers and lettering templates. We had to learn to carefully erase mistakes or literally cut out the mistake and paste in a correction. In the beginning class, taught by Dahlberg, we learned projections: their characteristics and how to construct them from tables and formulas. The intermediate class dealt with map design and thematic mapping. The quantitative revolution in geography was just beginning so we got the rudiments of statistics from Dahlberg. Norman Thrower, who is primarily considered a historian of cartography, taught the advanced class where the students learned to do terrain representation and block diagrams. Thrower was especially skilled in these areas. But the lectures also covered history of cartography. Thrower, who had worked in photogrammetry during the Second World War, also taught the air photo interpretation classes. I continued to graduate school where instead of being a teaching assistant, I worked as an independent cartographer making maps for students and faculty and later being given the position of research cartographer making maps for faculty research and publications. At times, when asked to make a map of a particular subject, my only “instruction” was, “You do have a library card, don’t you?” Only rarely during that time did I even have my initials on the maps I drew. My master’s thesis was a history of lunar cartography (before the far side of the moon had been photographed and six years before the first moon landing). I found a part-time teaching job at California State University Long Beach (CSULB) and went back to UCLA for my dissertation. During that period, I wrote a book on map reading and my dissertation on persuasive maps. I didn’t realize until many years later that I was one of the first women to write a dissertation on cartography. For many years, like most in the field, I too assumed that maps, until recently, had been made by men. But, through the years, my research evolved and led to the present subject as I found snippets of information in unexpected places. I wrote about needlework maps by schoolgirls and found how girls learned geography by drawing maps and that many of their teachers made
maps. I wrote about women who made maps in the Second World War and found an even larger group of women. A small 1926 map of Route 66 in a museum exhibit had a woman’s name on it. From an article sent by a friend, I learned that a woman was the official cartographer for the city of Los Angeles in 1910. Women map illustrators made maps for the mystery novels I read. And so it began.
Although only my name will be catalogued in libraries with this book, it was not a solo performance. I could not have written it without the assistance of dozens of people. First and foremost among these people are the librarians who helped me at every stage of the writing. Greg Armento of CSULB who has now seen me through four books; the ever-helpful staff at Interlibrary Loan at CSULB; Amanda Faehnel, Katie Clements, and Kathleen Medicus of the Special Collections Department at Kent State University; Ronald Grim, Curator of Maps at the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center of the Boston Public Library; Glen Creason, history librarian of the Los Angeles Public Library; and G. Salem Mohammed, head and chief curator of the David Rumsey Collection. All have patiently found sources, photographs, and maps and answered questions. Second, my cartography colleagues throughout the country who have tipped me off to women’s names, answered questions, and allowed me to bounce ideas off of them. Aileen Buckley, Christina Dando, Janice Monk, and Mark Monmonier have all been especially supportive of this project. I also thank the anonymous peer reviewer for an exceptionally thorough reading and for valuable comments and insights. Several people at companies and agencies have answered emails and talked to me about women in their mapping programs. I particularly thank Carla Majernek of Adventure Cycling, Roland Wood of World Bank, and Nancy Yoho of Thomas Bros Maps. Editors are the people who actually make a book happen, who see potential in the idea and who turn a marked-up digital manuscript into an attractive book on a shelf. Thus, I thank my editors at Lexington who saw promise in my work and were patient with my many delays, Carissa Marcelle and Kasey xvii
Beduhn, acquisitions editors, and Zachary Nycum who saw the final work through the press. Finally, I thank my family for putting up with another book. My husband Gerald, who now knows more about women cartographers than he wanted to know; son David, who let me vent when problems arose; and son James, who as the author of more than eighteen books himself, was a valuable source of advice. Finally, I thank Alice Hudson, retired Map Librarian of the New York Public Library, Mary McMichael Ritzlin, and Penny Barkley, pioneers in research on women in cartography.
Introduction Women in the History of Cartography
Probably the best-known woman cartographer of the mid-twentieth century was Marie Tharp, now famous for her mapping of the world’s oceans. Tharp is often the only woman featured in “coffee table” works on cartography, but the map usually displayed was not drawn by her! Until the past twenty or so years, even she was not well known and only in her later years received recognition and honors for her accomplishments; many other women worked in obscurity or only recently were recognized. In this work, I am telling the story of women mapmakers who were often hidden or invisible and also their experiences in becoming and being cartographers. To paraphrase Lloyd Brown, who said in his classic history of cartography, “This is the story of maps, the men who made them.”1 I am looking at the story of maps in America, the women who made them. In 1977, Penny Barclay and Alice Hudson began to look into women’s involvement in mapmaking thinking they might find a few names.2 In 1978, the respected historian of cartography Ronald Vere Tooley wrote an article for The Map Collector in which he said, “It is not generally recognized the part women have played in the map world. I doubt if there are as many even among those who are familiar with maps who could name even as many as half a dozen.”3 He provided a list of sixty-two names (only one of which was American) and noted that the list might open the way for a general monograph on the subject, or a more detailed study of a particular person. Ironically, his 1980 volume, The Mapping of America has no female mapmakers listed in the index. Walter Ristow answered the call and wrote a brief article on “Eliza Colles, America’s First Female Map Engraver” in 1980.4 Mary McMichael Ritzlin joined Alice Hudson in compiling a list of pre-twentieth-century women in 1
the map trades. In 2000, they had about 300 names, (53 of whom were American) but by 2016 Hudson estimated the list at 1,000.5 Tooley’s call reflected the nature of research in the history of cartography since its beginnings. For the most part, works on the history of cartography ended with the nineteenth century; some works carried up to 1850, but the twentieth century was ignored until recently. In the standard histories of cartography, there was little mention of women except for wives and widows who worked with their husbands or inherited the publishing business or spinsters who worked as map colorists, applying watercolor paint to maps in the period before color printing, or book stitchers sewing atlases together. The general assumption seemed to be that cartographers were men. Standard works, such as Lloyd Brown’s The Story of Maps (1948), Tooley’s Maps and Mapmakers (1949), Crone’s Maps and Their Makers (1953), and Bagrow’s History of Cartography (1960, updated 1964) list only one or two women in their indices. Even some recent studies by feminist scholars have assumed that women did not make maps and studied how women were represented on maps or how subjects of interest to women were neglected. The names of some books have reflected a belief that only men made maps, such as Maps and Man and The Men Who Mapped the World. Both of these titles were revised in later editions as Maps & Civilization and Mapping the World: The Story of Cartography. Studies in the history of cartography have changed over the past seventy years; they have broadened in scope and recent works have examined curiosities, ephemera, pictorial maps, illustrative maps, maps on cloth, persuasive maps, road maps, and newspaper maps, all formerly considered not “real” maps and worthy of study. But there has still been little work done on the history of women in cartography. To be fair, there has also been less done on male cartographers than their maps as historians of cartography have focused on maps not chaps. The various types of scholars who study history of cartography each have their own biases. Historians have focused on maps as documents and their significance to history, for exploration, or to show changes through time— maps of history. The studies have tended to be Eurocentric and focus on the period before the twentieth century. There has been little interest in the form of the maps and who made them. Map collectors, who have been major authors of works on old maps, have primarily been interested in “significant” or “landmark” maps, maps by “big name” cartographers, such as Mercator and Hondius. They have especially focused on decorative maps that have elaborate cartouches and pictorial elements. These studies also tend to be Eurocentric and also focus on prenineteenth century presumably because as maps became more “scientific” they became “sterile,” that is, less decorative.
Cartographic historians have tended to be guided by what Brian Harley termed “scientific chauvinism” and have not, until recently, been interested in maps that do not conform to the scientific canon.6 Thus, again, the interest has been in the big names, companies, and government agencies. The so-called nonscientific maps, pictorial, educational, both of which had larger numbers of women practitioners, were generally not studied. Cartographers have examined the technology of the field, the commerce of cartography, and how maps work. For the most part, cartographic histories of all genres have focused on the maps, their form and content, and their role. There has been little on the day-to-day work of making maps and even less about the cartographers who made the maps. However, there have been changes. A major impetus has been the monumental six-volume History of Cartography project begun in 1981 and scheduled for completion in the next decade. It examines the production and consumption of maps across cultures and from prehistory to the twentieth century. The volume on the twentieth century addressed the role of women in the field. There is a specific entry on women in the twentieth century as well as entries on a number of individual women (all deceased per the volume guidelines). The journal Meridian had a special issue on women cartographers in 1999, as did Terrae Incognitae in 2016. The subject of women’s roles in various fields has become popular, with books and motion pictures on women and computing, women code breakers, women internet pioneers, women scientists, women as the Second World War spies, and photo interpreters. Most of these focus especially on the Second World War period and describe uncovering or revealing hidden stories. There has been more work on woman geographers than cartographers with multiple articles by Janice Monk, Mona Domosh, and Avril Maddrell. The book Complex Locations, by Maddrell, details women in the Royal Geographical Society. In many cases the work of geographers and cartographers is intertwined. Maddrell wrote one of the few articles on women cartographers, “Map Girls,” which dealt with women cartographers in the Second World War England.7 Mona Domosh, writing about women travelers in “Toward a feminist historiography of geography” noted: “It becomes problematic . . . when only part of that tradition is remembered and recorded in the official histories of the discipline. In so doing, geography loses some of its history.” She continues, “It would behove [sic] us to recover from our own history the stories that have gone unnoticed.”8 Domosh commented that “it is worth considering why the stories of these women [travelers] have been omitted from the official histories of geography.”9 Both of these comments apply equally to women in cartography.
In cartography specifically, there are two recent books on women in various aspects of the field. Christina Dando has examined women’s mapping and map use in the Progressive Era and Will C. van den Hoonaard, a sociologist, wrote the only general book on women in cartography.10 While van den Hoonaard touches on history and has valuable vignettes of modern women cartographers, his primary emphasis is on the sociology of the women. Susan Schulten’s books and articles on nineteenth-century geography have discussed Emma Willard and schoolgirl maps.11 I have written on women cartographers in the Second World War and also addressed an unusual type of mapmaking done by schoolgirls in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries—that of embroidered maps.12 Two books have been written about individual cartographers: Sarah Hartley wrote about Phyllis Pearsall, the British creator of the London A to Z map series, and Hali Felt wrote about Marie Tharp, who mapped the ocean floor and confirmed continental drift. Irene Fischer, a geodesist in the late twentieth century, wrote her autobiography.13 There have been some feminist studies on women in cartography, but few have addressed actual women in cartography. Nicholas Huffman, drawing on Harley’s “Silences and Secrecy” suggested that historians of cartography deliberately “hid” women cartographers. Mei-Po Kwan criticized Geographic Information Science practitioners for not mapping subjects of interest to women ironically— the underlying premise here seems to be that those practitioners are men.14 In this work, I argue that women were not deliberately erased or hidden, but rather they were overlooked owing to the types of jobs they held and the maps they made. Women have been involved in mapping from early days to the present. Most studies are gender-centric because authors were unaware of women—indeed, until Hudson and Ritzlin began their lists, women cartographers were invisible. We can also note that because there has been more interest in maps than their makers, the majority of men, certainly the rank and file, were also invisible. Alice Hudson noted in 1995: The women are there, but literally behind the veil of social and cultural constraints that continue to this day. Anonymous was often a woman according to Virginia Woolfe. Well, in the world of early maps, unsigned colorists; names masked by initials; widows and heirs without their own names; all are lost to us unless unveiled by accident or design.15
We might note that men and women working for government agencies, commercial companies, societies, and institutions especially fall into this category. One cannot study any aspect of cartography without putting the work in context. Harley, in one of his lesser cited, but important works “Texts and Contexts in the Interpretation of Early Maps” notes the need to place early
maps in a series of contexts to understand and interpret their meaning. His contexts are the cartographer’s context, the context of other maps, and the context of society.16 I suggest that to study the role of women in the history of cartography, we must also look at multiple contexts: the context of society and especially women’s roles in that society; the context of technology, which determines how maps were made, reproduced, and used; the context of the time—wars, political movements, and exploration, all influence what kinds of maps are made. There are many challenges to any major research project, and there is no exception for this work. A major challenge has been simply finding the women. Carol Humphrey noted: Researching any aspect of women’s history is more like detective work than the pursuit of knowledge via a methodical plan. Breakthroughs are frequently the result of random reading and acquisitions of snippets of seemingly unconnected information rather than uninterrupted scholarly acquisition.17
Many cartographers, women and men, were faceless and nameless. Avril Maddrell noted: While some women were well known in their day and their work easily traceable, others [in her study] were serendipitous “discoveries” (as with most “discoveries,” there all the time and usually known to others). “Unearthing” perhaps gives an appropriate sense of the archaeological nature of some of the historiographical work . . . and the thrill of finding even shards which tell us something new and enlightening.18
Unlike the geographers that Maddrell studied, the cartographers, with few exceptions, did not write about their work until the academic era. Dando noted that much of [the] research on women and cartography requires piecing together bits and pieces, given little documentation survives capturing these women’s contributions and details about their lives, such as their education and how they came to be involved in cartography.19
Finding names, as Hudson and Ritzlin did, was and is a tedious task because seldom was a full name on the map; it was customary for engravers to use a first initial and surname and many women used initials only. Even to the present time, many cartographers do not include their name or even initials on their maps for books and articles. At best, they might get a mention on the copyright page or in the acknowledgments. Many geographers, who made maps as graduate students in the twentieth century, were not permitted
to include their names or initials. Eileen James, the wife of the well-known geographer Preston James, who made the maps for her husband’s All Possible Worlds, as well as his books on Latin America, is mentioned in the acknowledgments section right before the typists who typed the manuscript. (In later editions, her name is on the copyright page.) Thus, finding the women is a challenge and learning more than just her name and the map she made is even more challenging. Of course, a name on a map is a first source, but the women may be mentioned in passing in articles and books and, of course, obituaries. Another challenge that most historians of cartography face is defining what is a map and who is a cartographer. In fact, “what is a map?” has become a standard, almost a cliché, introductory section for many cartographic histories. In this book, the question is “who is a cartographer?” Is a map librarian who provides research materials for map drafters a cartographer? Indeed, is the person who drafts a map sketched out by another a cartographer? Erwin Raisz noted: Production of a map is a complex process; a map has to be surveyed, checked, drawn, engraved, printed and published, and all these functions are never done by one person. It is rather unfortunate that maps are often named after the person who did the least work on them, such as the publisher or the chief of the survey. This is especially true in more modern times when, with the increasing complexity of maps, the work of the individual can scarcely be distinguished, and the name attached to a map or atlas serves more for the designation of the map than to identify with production the particular person.20
In this work, I have cast my net wide and I include all women who were involved in the mapping field. Some women were not cartographers per se in the sense of conceiving and drawing maps, but contributed by researching, editing, engraving, and printing. They were all a part of the “map trades” or what van den Hoonaard has designated the “map worlds.” The chapters are thematic and in roughly chronological order based on the time of major popularity. “Pedagogues and Students” describes women teachers who made atlases and maps as well as globe makers and schoolgirls who made maps. “Activists, Persuaders, and Travelers” looks at maps created in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that were largely used to promote social change. “Pictorial and Illustrated Maps” tells of women who made pictorial maps and artistic book illustrations. “Millie the Mapper and Maps of the Second World War” looks at women who were involved in governmental mapping during the Second World War. “Women Professors and Researchers: Their Role in an Emerging Discipline” looks at the earliest women cartography PhDs who taught cartography, women who were involved in research cartography, or women who worked in cartographic labs
at universities as cartography became an emerging discipline. Finally, “Government Girls and Company Women” examines the careers of women in the twentieth century in government, institutions, and commercial firms. Women in American Cartography begins with the period after the American Revolution and the work ends in the late twentieth century, roughly the 1990s—a period of transition before GIS had become a major field. I believe that the women I discuss in each chapter represent the tip of the iceberg; that there were many more women working than I have found. I cannot discuss all of the women I have found and, indeed, not all of the women can be found. The discussions are uneven because of the unevenness of the information about the women. However, I am not writing a biographic dictionary, but telling the story of how women fit into various cartographic cultures. Many of, to paraphrase E. G. R. Taylor, the “lesser women” remain nameless and faceless. We know they exist from old engravings of map publishing houses and photographs of more modern publishers, but little else. I have focused on American women in this book. Life is short and to write a complete history of women cartographers throughout the world would require more than one lifetime. I have kept six questions in mind while writing: What were the roles of women in American cartography? What kinds of maps did they make? How did women fit into the overall history of American cartography? How did individual women learn to make maps or get involved in the field? How did women’s roles differ from those of men? Did women’s maps differ from those of men? What this book is not is an analysis of the various map types. While I do discuss maps to establish context, the emphasis here is on the women who made the maps. This is also not a critique of women’s cartography. Rather it is the story of women in cartography in the United States. I also do not discuss all of the women I have found; in many cases all I have is a name and a job. It is my hope that this work will spur others to follow with works on women cartographers and with research on specific women or groups of women.
NOTES 1. Lloyd Brown, The Story of Maps (New York: Bonanza Books, 1949), p. 3. 2. Alice Hudson and Mary Ritzlin, “Checklist of Pre-Twentieth Century Women in Cartography.” Cartographica, 37, no. 3 (Fall 2000): 9–24. 3. Ronald Vere Tooley, The Map Collector, 4 (1978): 16. 4. Walter Ristow, “Eliza Colles, America’s First Female Map Engraver.” The Map Collector, 10 (1980): 14. 5. Alice Hudson, personal communication. 6. John Brian Harley, “The Map and the Development of the History of Cartography.” In HOC Volume One, Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval
Europe and the Mediterranean, ed. Brian Harley and David Woodward (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), p. 4. 7. Avril Maddrell, Complex Locations: Women’s Geographical Work in the UK, 1850–1970 (Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009); Averil Maddrell, “The ‘Map Girls.’ Women Geographers’ War Work, 1939–45: Shifting Boundaries of Gender and Reflections on the History of Geography.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 33 (2008): 127–148. 8. Mona Domosh, “Toward a Feminist Historiography of Geography.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (1991): 95–104. 9. Domosh, “Toward a Feminist Historiography of Geography,” p. 96. 10. Christina Dando, Women and Cartography in the Progressive Era (New York: Routledge, 2018); Will C. van den Hoonaard, Map Worlds: A History of Women in Cartography (Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier Press, 2013). 11. Susan Schulten, “Emma Willard and the Graphic Foundations of American History.” Journal of Historical Geography, 33 (2007): 542–564; Mapping the Nation: History and Cartography in Nineteenth-Century America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012); “Map Drawing, Graphic Literacy, and Pedagogy in the Early Republic.” History of Education Quarterly, 51, no. 2 (May 2017): 185–220. 12. Judith Tyner, “The Hidden Cartographers: Women in Mapmaking.” Mercator’s World, 2, no. 6 (November/December 1997): 46–51; “Millie the Mapper and Beyond: The Role of Women in Cartography Since World War II.” Meridian, 15 (1999): 23–28, Stitching the World: Embroidered Maps and Women’s Geographical Education (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2015). 13. Sarah Hartley, Mrs. P’s Journey: The Remarkable Story of the Woman Who Created the A–Z Map (London: Simon and Schuster, 1997); Hali Felt, Soundings: The Story of the Remarkable Woman Who Mapped the Ocean Floor (New York: Henry Holt, 2012); Irene K. Fischer, Geodesy? What’s That? (iUniverse Books, 2005). 14. Nikolas H. Huffman, “Silences and Secrecy in the History of Cartography: J.B. Harley, Science and Gender.” In Proceedings of the 17th International Cartographic Conference, pp. 1622–1630; Mei-Po Kwan, “Is GIS for Women? Reflections on the Critical Discourse in the 1990s.” Gender, Place and Culture, 9, no. 3 (2002): 271–279. 15. Alice Hudson, “Pioneers? Where Are the Female Blaeus?” Poster presentation to ICA, https://icai.org.files/documents/ICC_proceedings/ICC1995/PDF/Cap280.pdf. 16. J. Brian Harley, “Text and Contexts in the Interpretation of Early Maps.” In Introduction to From Sea Charts to Satellite Images: Interpreting North American History through Maps, ed. David Buisseret (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990), pp. 33–49. 17. Carol Humphrey, Quaker School Girl Samplers from Ackworth (Guildford, Surrey: Needleprint Publications and Ackworth School Estates, 1997), p. 1. 18. Maddrell, Complex Locations, p. ix. 19. Dando, Women and Cartography in the Progressive Era, p. 15. 20. Erwin Raisz, “Time Charts of Historical Cartography.” Imago Mundi, 2 (1937): 16.
Pedagogues and Students
In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries education was changing, especially for girls. Whereas, the emphasis for girls had been on the so-called “accomplishments” curriculum, which involved manners, deportment, music, art, reading (but not necessarily writing), and needlework, more academic subjects were being introduced. Girls were learning arithmetic, writing, and geography. Public schools did not exist in all states, so girls were usually educated at home, in “dame schools” or in boarding schools or academies. There was a great increase in the number of academies and seminaries for girls during this time, and there was a difference in the subjects taught to male and female students. Girls were not thought capable of learning Greek and Latin and the classics, which were prerequisites for entering universities for young men who were studying medicine, religion, or law; girls learned French. There were no colleges and universities open to young women at this time. Although in the early days of the republic, village schools were primarily for boys and usually open to girls only at times that boys weren’t there such as early mornings or summer, and teaching was largely a male profession, this began to change rapidly. In fact, by the 1820s articles were being written about women filling the teacher shortage and private academies were advertising training for girls wishing to enter the teaching profession. Nearly 400 academies for women were founded between 1790 and 1830. Normal schools for the training of teachers in public schools began in the United States in the 1840s. The first such school opened in Lexington, Massachusetts in 1839. By the late 1820s teaching was being seen as a profession and educational journals such as the Connecticut Educational Journal and the American Educational Journal were founded. These journals published articles, book 9
reviews, suggestions for teaching various subjects, and profiles of schools. Article subjects included “geography” and “map drawing.” It was about this time that the common- or public-school movement began. Geography was an important study for both girls and boys at the time and common advertisements for boarding schools advertised “geography and the use of the globes.” Although the subject was emphasized in schools in England as well, in the United States there was an additional reason. Geography was a way of indoctrinating students—for instilling patriotism for the new country. Numerous textbooks by American authors were published. Mathew Carey, a Philadelphia publisher, criticized a major popular British textbook, Guthrie’s Geography, noting that the majority of the book focused on England and that other countries were given short shrift. He observed that only a few pages were devoted to the United States. Therefore, he wrote and published an American version of the Geography in 1794. The most familiar and most cited American textbooks were by Jedidiah Morse, beginning with The American Geography in 1792, which went through multiple editions. Although most studies of geography texts of the early nineteenth century focus on Morse, “the father of geography,” he was not the only geography textbook author and men were not the only authors of geography texts. David Dahman listed over 400 geography textbook authors from 1800 to 1922 and 63 of those were women.1 Susanna Rowson, actress, novelist, and boarding school founder wrote two geography books, among one of which was based on Morse’s work, An Abridgement of Universal Geography (1805). Emma Willard wrote introductory geographies and “ancient” geographies as well as atlases (more later). In the latter part of the century, Sarah Sophia Cornell was a prolific textbook and atlas author. Early textbooks tended to be quite small in dimensions, largely owing to the cost of paper, and most textbooks in the early part of the century did not include maps; instead some authors published an atlas “to accompany x’s geography.” There were several reasons for this, both technological and economic. In the early part of the nineteenth century, fine maps were engraved (incised) on copper and printed on high-quality paper. Books were printed from letterpress, that is, raised type. The two printing techniques were/are incompatible. Thus, to include a map in a textbook, it had to be printed separately and “tipped” in, and that is sewn into the book separately. This was a very expensive process and as a result, only one or two maps would be included. Morse introduced “word maps” that showed country or state names in type in their proper geographic positions. Many authors assume that this was simply a pedagogic device, and while it was a clever teaching tool, I believe that it was primarily done to solve the printing problem. Largely owing to costs, a single, two-hemisphere world map on the globular or stereographic projection and perhaps a map of the United States were the
Pedagogues and Students
only maps in these textbooks. Sometimes a “chart” that showed the world on a Mercator projection2 was included. Providing an atlas to accompany the textbooks had several advantages: the student could have the map at hand while reading the text; the atlas could be used with several different textbooks; and all of the children in the family could use one atlas. These school atlases have not enjoyed the attention that general “landmark” world atlases have had. In fact, Ristow in his monumental American Maps and Mapmakers: Commercial Cartography in the Nineteenth Century (1985) does not look at any school atlases even though they were commercial ventures.3 THE TEACHERS Probably the best-known female educator of the nineteenth century was Emma Hart Willard (1787–1870). Numerous books and articles have been written about her life and various aspects of her teaching; but here, of course, I will concentrate on her contributions to cartography. Willard was born in Berlin, Connecticut, and was the sixteenth child of Samuel Hart. She attended the district school and at age fifteen attended an academy in a nearby town. Her father was a major influence on her education. At age seventeen she began her teaching career at the village school, but feeling that she needed more education she attended a school in Hartford, Connecticut. Soon after turning twenty she received offers to teach at three different schools: Westfield, Massachusetts; Middlebury, Vermont; and Hudson, New York. She chose Westfield, but after a few months she went to Middlebury—a thriving community that had, in addition to the school where she taught, a boy’s academy and the recently (1800) founded Middlebury College. Two years later she married John Willard, a doctor, twenty-eight years her senior, gave up teaching, and gave birth to a son in 1810. Doctor Hart had financial problems; so to help with money, Emma opened a school for girls in Middlebury. From that point on, she was devoted to education, writing textbooks, creating atlases, and, her most famous document, “A Plan for Improving Female Education.” She moved her school from Middlebury, to Waterford, New York, and ultimately to Troy, New York where it still exists as the well-known Emma Willard Academy. Willard’s books and atlases were on geography and history and maps figured prominently in all of her work. Especially, important for this work was Willard’s philosophy of teaching geography. Willard was a proponent of the Pestalozzian method—particularly the idea that learning should progress from the familiar to the new. This is exemplified in her teaching about maps. She believed the child should first make maps of their home area and only later learn latitude, longitude, and
the map of the world. Map drawing was an essential part of her geography classes. As Willard was beginning work on her books, she learned that William Channing Woodbridge was also beginning a similar series and the two formed a partnership. Willard wrote Geography for Beginners, Ancient Geography, Abridged History of the United States, and a historical atlas, among others (figure 1.1). Susan Schulten notes that Willard was the first in America to create an historical atlas. Her Ancient Geography, which was accompanied by an atlas, notes on the title page that “Problems on the Globes and Rules for the Construction of Maps” are included (1833 ed.). Her Geography for Beginners is subtitled or Instructors Assistant in Giving first Lessons from Maps in the style of familiar conversation. It too was accompanied by an atlas. The first sentence of the preface of Geography for Beginners says “Maps may be said to be the written language of geography, and nothing can be taught until the pupils understand the medium through which they are to learn.”4 Schulten comments that Willard had no formal training in cartography, which is true; but at that time, there was no such training. Surveying (primarily for boys) was learned in school, drawing and penmanship was taught in school, and engraving was usually taught through apprenticeship, often to a father. In fact, the term cartography had not yet been coined. Map drawing, as we will see later in this chapter, was learned in school throughout the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. An example of this is Elizabeth Sherrill, who was the daughter of one of Emma Willard’s employees at the Middlebury Female Seminary and was educated by Willard. At the age of fourteen Elizabeth began teaching a few classes and drew many of the maps for Willard’s Geography for Beginners.5 Ironically, some of the best-known geographies and atlases of the latter part of the nineteenth century were by probably the least-known woman. Sarah Sophia Cornell (possibly 1815–1875) authored a graded series of geographies with accompanying atlases; many of these went through more than twenty editions. They included Cornell’s Primary Geography, Cornell’s Grammar School Geography, Cornell’s Intermediate Geography, Cornell’s High School Geography, and Cornell’s Physical Geography. She also published Cornell’s Companion Atlas to Cornell’s High School Geography. The atlas subtitle notes that it has maps to commit to memory. Her name on the title page is S. S. Cornell and the books were published by D. Appleton and Company—a major publishing house of the time. Her use of only her initials apparently led John Nietz, the author of Old Textbooks to assume that she was male and Nietz refers to “he” and “his” book in the discussion of Cornell’s works.6 Cornell was a corresponding member of the American Geographical and Statistical Society between 1856 and 1860.
Figure 1.1 Map of 1826 from A Series of Maps to Willard’s History of the United States, 1829. Source: Image Courtesy of the David Rumsey Map Collection, David Rumsey Map Center, Stanford Libraries.
Pedagogues and Students 13
However, almost nothing exists on the personal life of Sarah Cornell including her dates of birth and death. There is speculation that she may have been related to Silas Cornell, an American globe maker, but there is no evidence of him having a daughter named Sarah. We know nothing about where she went to school; she may have attended one of the many academies where girls drew elegant maps discussed later in this chapter. Some of the maps in the Cornell atlases are signed “drawn by J. Wells,” and others say engraved by George Ray Smith, but whether Sarah drew the maps and Wells and Smith engraved them or if she commissioned the maps aren’t known. Stauffer’s American Engravers on Copper and Steel lists Wells as a map engraver in New York in 1886, but there is no other information. At the beginning of the American Civil War, textbooks for Southern schools were seen as a necessity in the schools because teachers and schools wanted to put forward the Confederate philosophy. The popular textbooks, published by northern publishers, became unavailable and the text material did not reflect Southern thinking. Marinda Branson Moore (1839–1865) was one of the Southern authors who filled the void. She first issued her Geographical Reader for the Dixie Children in 1863 that was advertised as the first geography published in the Confederate states; a second edition was published in 1864 under the title Primary Geography. Ten thousand copies of each edition were published by a North Carolina firm Branson, Farrar and Co. owned by her brother Levi. Miranda graduated from the Greensboro Female College and was the principal of a female seminary for several years before opening a school for girls in her own home.7 The Geographical Reader included six maps on double-page layouts. Davis and Parks noted that the maps appeared to be more decorative than tied to textual passages in that they were not near the appropriate text. They also noted that the selection of maps was strange in that loyal Union states were included and Texas was the only Confederate state excluded. They suggested the choice of states was based on the possibility that printing plates for only those states were available.8 This raises a frequent and frustrating issue for my study. The maps have no name on them so we don’t actually know how much, if any, input was from Moore. There is nothing to indicate the cartographer or even the engraver of the maps. If Davis and Parks are correct, these maps were a sort of nineteenth-century “stock illustration.” Certainly, from her discussions of the earth’s grid and other geographic concepts in the book, Branson was familiar with maps, but we can’t say for sure that she was involved with these maps. Probably the most unusual pedagogic atlas/geography of the nineteenth century is A Hieroglyphic Geography of the United States created by two women, Anna A. Heermans and Charlotte B. Cogswell and published by E. P. Dutton & Co. in 1875 (figure 1.2). Anna Heermans (1832–1894) was a
Pedagogues and Students
Figure 1.2 Map of New York Drawn by Anna A. Heermans from A Hieroglyphic Geography of the United States, 1875. Source: Image Courtesy of the David Rumsey Map Collection, David Rumsey Map Center, Stanford Libraries.
student at the Cooper Union Institute for Women, receiving her certificate in drawing on wood in 1873. At that time Charlotte Cogswell was the principal of the engraving school (1871–1880). In a report to the state Charlotte stated, “We find more publishers ready to accept ‘women’s work’ than in recent years.”9 It would appear in 1875 that Anna was a freelance artist and the two
teamed up with Anna doing the drawings and Charlotte engraving the illustrations. Their Geography is far from the usual geography textbooks at the time. Each state page contained a series of rebuses that combined words with pictures to describe the geography of the state. A state map was also included. Although the title page indicates that this is the first volume, apparently no other volumes were made. This work is available on the David Rumsey website (davidrumsey.com). SCHOOLGIRL MAPS “Staid at school and worked on my map” Caroline Chester, Journal Book Caroline Chester was a fifteen-year-old student at Litchfield Academy in 1816 when she wrote the above quote in her diary. Her map of the United States is a hand-drawn copy of a published map, but nonetheless, is quite elegant with craftsmanship that equals that of professional cartographers of the day. Why did Caroline make the map? Was it for a geography class, a penmanship class, or for her own amusement? What tools were available at a girl’s school in that time before copy machines and carbon paper that allowed her to make such a precise copy and exhibit such cartographic skills? (figure 1.3). Although maps such as Caroline’s appear in collections and auctions from time to time, they have usually been treated as oddities or examples of “kid cartography.” They have not, until recently, been considered worthy subjects for study since most are copies of published maps. Both Susan Schulten and Martin Brückner have recently written on maps by children.10 We might ask, what kinds of maps did girls make, where did they make them, and were they always copies? Was mapmaking a common school exercise for girls or was it confined to only a few places? And finally, why do more maps made by girls than boys appear in collections? Given the importance of maps to educators like Emma Willard, it is not surprising that schoolgirls created maps in their geography classes. What is surprising is the quality of those maps. Like many school assignments, map drawing could serve multiple purposes: learning geography and learning drawing techniques (one reason for drawing in the accomplishments curriculum was so that girls could learn to draw or copy patterns for needlework); because of the amount of lettering on the maps they also served as lessons in penmanship. In fact, the David Rumsey collection contains an “atlas” by Frances Henshaw that she titled a penmanship exercise, but includes maps of individual states and descriptions of their geography. A major question is: How did the girls create the maps? Some authors have blithely assumed that the girls traced the maps. This is not correct.
Pedagogues and Students
Figure 1.3 Map by Caroline Chester a Student at the Litchfield Academy in 1816. Source: Collection of the Litchfield Historical Society, Litchfield, Connecticut.
Even assuming that they had access to the expensive tracing paper, the extant maps are on heavy paper that could not be used for tracing. There are records indicating that students also made maps on blackboards with chalk. Emma Willard has a lesson in Geography for Beginners in which a mother is teaching her son map drawing and says she would prefer him to use a slate and pencil or “better still, a black board and chalk.” Tracing, of course, is not an option on a blackboard. Outline maps were available as early as the seventeenth century. Erasmus Darwin in his Plan for the Conduct of Female Education in 1798 recommended Faden’s outline maps for learning geography. Some of the blanks are actually projection grids upon which the students would draw the maps. George Fitch’s Mapping Plates gave detailed directions for drawing the maps and the plates consist of blank grids. The David Rumsey collection has several Fitch maps completed by students. Examples of elegant schoolgirl maps from as early as the 1790s are in the Boston Public Library collection.
How does a student copy and even enlarge a map onto a blackboard or a piece of heavy paper or even a blank grid? Other than by eye, there were three methods—a camera obscura, a pantograph, and similar figures. The camera obscura (essentially a pinhole camera with a lens) is an optical method, the pantograph is a mechanical method, and similar figures is a graphic method. A letter quoted in Helen Hole’s Westtown through the Ages mentions the purchase of a camera obscura, which is a projection device used into the twentieth century for enlarging and reducing drawings. Deborah Smith at Westtown wrote to her friend Zilla Embree in 1819 about working on her maps—she was making at least four—and said she was putting away her maps and instruments “of which thou knowest we had a variety.”11 Another Westtown letter dated 1817 notes that the school’s “pentograph” [sic] had gotten much out of order and requested that it be reframed. Textbooks included instructions and diagrams for similar figures; Emma Willard, in a lesson for map drawing, demonstrates similar figures (without calling it such) [citation]. Thus, the conclusion is that the girls made maps in much the same way all cartographers did prior to the introduction of computers and used the same kinds of equipment—pantograph, projector, T-square, straight edge, protractor, ruler, pencil, and pen and ink. The many recent studies on women’s education provide tables showing courses offered at various periods and some material on the curricula, but there has been little on actual school exercises. There are many valid reasons for this. Foremost is the scarcity of artifacts—this is a common problem in studying the history of cartography, of course, but it is a major impediment here. Even into the nineteenth century much student work was done on a slate and erased, and work committed to paper probably suffered the nineteenth-century equivalent of being displayed on the fridge for a week and then “recycled.” Thus, unless some samples were preserved in scrapbooks or framed, they are not now available for study. The only examples widely preserved are schoolgirl samplers, which were framed to show prospective suitors a girl’s skills, and paper maps, which were sometimes framed or varnished and mounted on rollers. From my studies and also Susan Schulton’s, I have found more maps made by girls than boys, yet numerous references describe mapmaking by both sexes. It has been suggested that boys learned map drawing in surveying classes, but those maps would be of small areas, not the elegant world, continent, and country maps discussed here. My supposition is that an elegant map with a male name might not be recognized as a school exercise, but would be seen as a professional product, while the same type of map with a female name would be assumed to be a school map. With the exception of a group of maps from Westtown School, a Quaker school in Pennsylvania, the only maps that I have found that are described as student work by a boy are fairly crude, and of less than professional quality.
Pedagogues and Students
The maps that I have studied fall into three categories: surveys of small areas, desktop maps of the world, countries, or states, and wall maps. One would expect to find maps of individual states and countries, but at Westtown School a common exercise was creating a map of the school grounds, often called the “farm.” Westtown encompassed 600 acres, so this was not a matter sketching out a one-acre plot. Westtown records indicate that these maps were made in surveying classes, and certainly there is variation among the maps; they are not copies of one another. They do all include a bit of information about the school including the number of students from the time of its opening to the year the map was made. Westtown School has in its collection thirty-nine maps of the school farm drawn by students, most not identified, but eight have female names attached. One of those was drawn by Sarah B. Dewees, who was an employee of the school between 1882–1904.12 It is possible that she taught mapmaking. Seven other Westtown maps by girls are in the collection including a world map and maps of individual states and countries. Other maps commonly made by schoolgirls were world maps and maps of the United States. However, maps of Africa and Ireland have been found. The David Rumsey map collection includes over 200 student maps. It is interesting to know what the girls thought about their studies. Caroline Chester frequently recounts in her diary her recitations in geography, but she also talks about making her map although we do not learn what area was being mapped. Over the course of about four to six weeks, one can see her feelings changing about the project: The first reference to her mapmaking was in early August: “The afternoon was spent drawing on my map, reciting in Blair and cyphering.” A few days later: “Wednesday morning was spent to committing to memory a lesson in Blair & Elements—the morning at school was devoted to drawing on my map an employment of which I am very fond.” A couple of weeks later: “Staid in School and worked on my map till four then . . . had a fine swing.” In late August, Caroline again noted working on her map, but by early September the charm of mapmaking was wearing thin: “Monday at school was examined in Sacred History wrote and drew on my map—I once heard a gentleman remark that he had seen patience advertised for sale and if ever I have the pleasure of seeing him again I will petition him to purchase ma a large quantity.” Finally, on September 7, she wrote: “Monday afternoon—My time was spent in drawing on my map, cyphering & parsing—Tuesday Wednesday & Thursday were spent as usual. I am quite tired of drawing on my map.”13 At the Litchfield Academy, where Caroline made her map, founded in 1792 by Sarah Pierce, students studying geography were required to draw the map of a quarter of the world as soon as they began the study of geography. “It is expected that during the course of instruction, the pupils will learn to draw with neatness and accuracy the two hemispheres, and the quarters of the
globe.”14 Pupils in history and ancient geography were also expected to draw maps of the countries whose history they study. Numerous articles on map drawing specifically and map drawing as first steps in geography appeared in professional journals in the 1830s. Since these articles refer to the pupil as “he” in keeping with the grammatical rules of the time, it would be easy to assume that they were aimed at teachers of male students. GLOBES The function and use of globes through history have changed. In the earliest days, globes were scientific instruments for use in the study of the earth. They have also had a symbolic function showing power or leadership—presidents and prime ministers were and are often painted or photographed next to a globe. By the late eighteenth century, globes had become important educational tools for children. At that time, globes were usually sold in pairs—one terrestrial and one celestial. It was common for boarding schools in the nineteenth century to specify “geography and the use of the globes” sometimes with the additional caveat “if globes can be found.” Although globes are still used in education, they are often found in the toy department and Amazon lists them under toys and games. Prior to 1810, when James Wilson produced the first American-made globe, globes had to be imported at some expense from Europe. A letter dated June 20, 1752 from Benjamin Franklin requested his agent John Strahan in London to purchase “a pair of Mrs. Senex’s improved Globes, recommended in the Transactions of the Royal Society . . . the best and largest that may be had for (not exceeding) Eight Guineas.” A later letter of November 16, 1752, indicates that Franklin felt Mrs. Senex had overcharged him. “The . . . Globes also came out well; but we think Mrs. Senex has impos’d on us in the Price of the Globes, there being 2 pair in this Town of the same Size and the same Prints, both bought at the same Shop, for 6 Guineas the pair. Please to speak to her about it.”15 Mrs. Senex was the widow of John Senex—a globe maker in England who took over her husband’s business. Globes imported from England were expensive in the nineteenth century: about $200 for a terrestrial and celestial pair. Even after James Wilson sold the first commercial globes produced in the United States, globes were costly. Wilson’s globes came in three sizes, three, nine, and thirteen and a half at prices ranging from $5 to $55 depending on the mounting. By the midnineteenth century almost all globes sold in the United States were supplied by American firms and prices had gone down so that a globe could be found in each classroom.16
Pedagogues and Students
Geography books in the early nineteenth century began with “mathematical geography” and some books such as Emma Willard’s Astronography, Or, Astronomical Geography, with the Use of Globes (1856) focused entirely on latitude and longitude, and the plane of the ecliptic on terrestrial and celestial globes. Thus, schools were presented with a challenge—the necessity to teach the use of the globes, and the high cost of globes. One solution was for students to create their own globes. Samuel Gummere’s Astronomy17 included instructions for making papier maché globes. At least one student, Elizabeth Mount, made a globe in 1822, but what book she followed for making it and whether she was a pupil or a pupil teacher is not known. Elizabeth’s globe is very professional in appearance, which isn’t surprising when we consider the caliber of schoolgirl maps. It is set in an elegant four-legged maple stand, which was probably professionally made. Parents typically had a daughter’s samplers framed professionally, so it is reasonable to assume that a professional mount would be made for a globe. Elizabeth’s globe included the states of the United States. Interestingly, the Mount globe, which is owned by Yale University Library, is housed in the furniture department. Surprisingly, the largest number of schoolgirl globes that I have found are silk globes, sewn and embroidered by girls between 1804 and 1844 at Westtown School. As of this writing, I have found thirty-nine of these globes. It appears that these were designed to teach both geography and needlework and they solved the problem of the great expense of importing globes from England at this time. Westtown records show that in 1824, the school ordered three new globes because the old ones were “much defaced.” Three globes for an entire school would not permit much hands-on work for over 100 students learning to solve problems with globes. Although Westtown School was and is coeducational, there is no reference to boys making globes of any sort.18 Many girls made both a terrestrial and a celestial globe, although the majority were terrestrial. It appears from examining the globes that learning place names was not the primary purpose of the globe-making exercise—the number of place names varies and one has wildly misplaced locations, but all show the parallels, meridians, and the ecliptic correctly. Because globes were so important in female education it is not surprising to find female pedagogues involved. In the United States, there were three woman “inventors” of globes who received patents for their work. Of course, they did not invent the globe, but rather mountings, and refinements. The earliest of these women was Elizabeth Oram, who was the principal of the Female High School of New York in 1830. Her globe was designed for teaching and apparently showed relief. A description of her patent was published in 1831, and an introduction to the description in a list of patents read: “As this instrument is the invention of a lady, we will, of course allow her to tell
her story in her own way, without any animadiversions of ours, which might mar the narrative, or involve us in inextricable difficulties.” This rather condescending comment is followed by a description of the globe written by Oram for the patent and reprinted in The Journal of the Franklin Institute: Be it known, that I, Elizabeth Oram, of the city of New York, have invented a new and useful instrument for the teaching of geography, and that the following is a full and exact description of the construction and use thereof as invented by me. It consists of a globe, upon which the surface of the earth is represented by various heights, as they exist in nature. By this the distinction between land and water is clearly seen. The various ranges of mountains, with their relative heights exhibited; and their influence upon heat and productions, with their geologic structure. By means of a magnet inserted in the surface of the improved globe, the great principle of attraction may be clearly shown, by affixing thereto any small iron figure. The Globe is surrounded by the principal circles of the sphere. The ecliptic is elevated, by means of which, and a moveable and illuminated sun, may be clearly exhibited. On the horizon there is affixed a small instrument by which the causes of eclipses are shown. A movable star, brings to the comprehension of pupils in the nature of right ascension, declination, celestial latitude and longitude. ELIZABETH ORAM19
Oram received her patent in 1831, but unfortunately, no examples of her globe exist, which is an indication that it was probably not produced commercially (Monmonier notes that such a globe would be difficult to mass produce) and the original drawing or model, as well as the original description, was burned in an 1836 Patent Office fire.20 Ellen Eliza Fitz was born in 1835 or 1836 in New Hampshire, and in 1875 she was an American governess working in New Brunswick. Fitz invented a different type globe mounting and patented it in 1875. The Fitz globe mounting is very distinctive with two circular standards that show regions of darkness and twilight and two brass rings represent the horizon and the meridian. The axis of the globe is tilted at 23 1/2˚ from vertical (figure 1.4). The globes were published by Ginn and Company of Boston in both six-inch and twelve-inch versions. Fitz received a second patent for a refinement of the globe including a device to show the positions of the constellations and other stars during the year.21 In 1876, Fitz published a book on the use of globes Handbook of the Terrestrial Globe that is not just a “user’s manual” for her globe, but is actually a textbook on astronomical geography. Hers is
Pedagogues and Students
Figure 1.4 Globe Made by Elizabeth Mount in 1822. Source: Yale University Art Gallery.
probably the most famous globe by a woman and apparently the only one actually commercially produced. It was exhibited at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876. The Library of Congress, the Smithsonian, and the Boston Public Library all have Fitz globes, and occasionally one shows up at an auction house. Fitz died in 1884 in Massachusetts. A more obscure American globe designer was Bertha Olsen Smith who applied for a patent in 1936. Her globe was designed to show wind currents by means of metal strips that could be manipulated with the seasons. The patent was granted in 1938, but it seems unlikely that globes were ever produced. It would have been expensive to produces and because of its specialized nature wouldn’t have been enough educational value to justify the expense of production. As is the case with many women cartographers, little is known about Smith’s personal life. Monmonier notes that she was fiftyseven years old, living in Minneapolis and selling World Book encyclopedias when she applied for the patent. She was born Bertha Olsen in Illinois, had two years of college, and married about 191822 (figure 1.5). This chapter has focused on teachers who worked in precollege schools and academies. By the 1850s normal schools, institutions for training teachers were established, some of the early academies, and seminaries had evolved
Figure 1.5 Globe with Mounting Patented by Ellen Eliza Fitz. Manufactured by Ginn and Heath, 1879. Source: Map Image from the Norman B. Leventhal Map and Education Center of the Boston Public Library.
into women’s colleges and the majority of the mapmaking activities of pedagogues began to take place there. These will be covered in chapter 5, “Academic Cartography.” NOTES 1. David Dahman, Geography in American Schools, Libraries, and Homes, Pathways in Geographic Resource, publication 39 (Washington, D.C. National Council for Geographic Education, 2011). 2. By the early 1800s the Mercator projection became the most popular projection in school textbooks. 3. Walter Ristow, American Maps and Mapmakers: Commercial Cartography in the Nineteenth Century (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1985). 4. Emma Willard, Geography for Beginners (O. D. Cooke, 1826).
Pedagogues and Students
5. Alma Lutz, Emma Willard, Pioneer Educator of American Women (Boston: Beacon Press, 1964). 6. John Alfred Nietz, Old Textbooks: Spelling, Grammar, Reading, Arithmetic, Geography, American History, Civil Government, Physiology, Penmanship, Art, Music, As Taught in the Common Schools from Colonial Days to 1900 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1961), p. 198. 7. The information about Marinda Branson Moore is based on O. L. Davis Jr., and Serena Rankin Parks, “Confederate School Geographies I: Marinda Branson Moore’s Dixie Geography.” Peabody Journal of Education, 40 no. 5 (March, 1963): 265–274. 8. Davis and Parks, “Confederate School Geographies I,” 268. 9. “Sixteenth Annual Report of the Trustees of the Cooper Union,” 1875. 10. Susan Schulten, “Map Drawing, Graphic Literacy, and Pedagogy in the Early Republic.” History of Education Quarterly, 51, no. 2 (May 2017): 185–220; Martin Brückner, The Social Life of Maps in America, 1750–1860 (Williamsburg, VA: The Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2017). 11. Westtown Archives, Box 7, Letter from D. Smith to Zillah Embree, 10th mo., 12th, 1819. 12. Mary Brooks, personal communication, February 2018. 13. Emilly Noyes Vanderpoel, More Chronicles of a Pioneer School from 1792 to 1833: Being Added the History of Litchfield Academy Kept by Miss Sarah Pierce and Her Nephew John Pierce Brace (New York: The Cadmus Bookshop, 1927). 14. Annual Catalog, American Annals of Education, 1832, p. 62. 15. Letters of Benjamin Franklin, franklinpapers.org. 16. Judith Tyner, “A World of Their Own: James Wilson and the First American Globe.” Mercator’s World, 4, no. 1 (January/February, 1999): 28–33. 17. Samuel Gummere, Astronomy (Philadelphia: Kimber and Sharpless, 1822). 18. Judith Tyner, Stitching the World: Embroidered Maps and Women’s Geographical Education (Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2015). 19. Mark Monmonier, Patents and Inventions: A New Perspective for Map History (Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017), pp. 187–188. 20. Monmonier, Patents and Inventions, pp. 186–187. 21. Monmonier, Patents and Inventions, pp. 184–186. 22. Monmonier, Patents and Inventions, pp. 188–189.
Activists, Persuaders, and Travelers
The period from the 1890s to the 1920s was a time of economic and social change and reform that included women’s suffrage, concerns with poverty and immigration, prohibition, and anti-lynching laws. It was a time when women were increasingly attending colleges and normal schools—a time when women’s literacy was at a high level. It was a time when women were working outside the home, and especially when women were involved in the various progressive social movements. It was also a time when more women began to travel and explore and write about their adventures MAPS FOR SOCIAL CHANGE In the mid-nineteenth century, small-scale thematic maps, as opposed to large-scale topographic maps, became increasingly important in cartography. Dr. John Snow, a London physician, created a dot map on which each dot represented a cholera case to identify the source of a cholera epidemic in London in 1855. Charles Booth, a London reformer and social researcher, surveyed the working-class people of London and used choropleth maps, which shade or color different areas according to quantities, to show various social characteristics, such as poverty in Life and Labour of the People of London in 1889. This period also marks the rise of social statistics, the use of statistics to study human behavior and social environments, which Booth also used in his studies. The women in the following two sections utilized all of these techniques. Women’s Suffrage Maps Persuasive mapping, which refers to the use of maps to change opinions or sell an idea or product, runs the gamut from selling real estate through 27
spreading wartime propaganda. While all maps persuade to some extent, simply by the unstated judgment that maps are true, some are more specifically designed to make a point or advance a cause.1 Such maps were used by organizations during the Progressive Era to advance their causes. One of the major causes in the Progressive Era was women’s suffrage, and many of the maps made promoting it were of the persuasive genre. The suffrage movement began in the early nineteenth century as women in the United States became more educated and attended schools, thus leading to a high female literacy rate. At the time, married women could not own property or make contracts and, of course, they could not vote. The date for the formal start of the American women’s suffrage campaign is usually taken as the first Women’s Rights Convention, organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, among others, in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848. The search for equality involved not only the right to vote, but access to higher education, professions, and, indeed, independence in the right for married women to make their own decisions. The suffrage movement continued until the Nineteenth Amendment was passed in 1920, stating that voting rights could not be denied on the basis of sex. However, the Nineteenth Amendment did not guarantee full equality as evidenced by the proposed Equal Rights Amendment that was submitted to state legislatures in 1972, but by 1977 had not passed because it had only thirty-five of the thirty-eight state ratifications. As of 2019, the amendment still needed one more state ratification. In discussions of suffrage, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony are usually cited as they are those most closely identified with the movement. However, others were also involved and important to the cause, including Bertha Damaris Knobe (1869–1930). She was born in Franklin, Indiana, and graduated from the local college with a BA. Bertha worked as a journalist for most of her life. As was common for female journalists of the time she began her career as a society editor but became a reporter for the Chicago Tribune and later concentrated on magazine writing, especially focusing on women’s rights. Bertha actually created two suffrage maps. Her first map, and the one with the greatest impact, was of the United States that was originally published in Appleton’s Magazine in 1907 and reprinted in The Woman’s Journal in January1908 (figure 2.1). The map is a basic choropleth map in gray shades (newspapers could not print color maps at that time) that shows the degree of suffrage in all forty-eight states with black for full suffrage to white for no suffrage. The map was copied by others with variations in style and used on posters and banners to rally for the suffrage movement. A week after the reprint in The Woman’s Journal, a dispute arose over its origins, with arguments crediting the map to a Miss. Anna Nichols and acknowledging Rand McNally with printing it. Knobe wrote a rebuttal to
Activists, Persuaders, and Travelers
Figure 2.1 Suffrage Map by Bertha Demaris Knobe, 1908. Source: P.J. Mode Collection of Persuasive Maps, Cornell University Library.
these claims in The Woman’s Journal where she states “I made the map myself, and sold it to Appleton’s Magazine to illustrate my article on ‘The Suffrage Uprising.’ It was copyrighted, published, and so accredited to that magazine, and, at my suggestion, afterwards reproduced in the Woman’s Journal, through courtesy of the publishers.”2 Knobe’s second map accompanied an article that she published in Harper’s Weekly, April 25, 1908 titled “Votes for Women: An Object Lesson.” The article was about an international world suffrage convention to be held in Amsterdam and the map was a world map that showed countries (and states of the United States) that had suffrage. The credits state “drawn from a map by Bertha Damaris Knobe.” Anti-lynching Maps Another cause of the Progressive Era was the anti-lynching movement. Lynching as a practice has a long history, and numerous maps were made showing locations and numbers in the United States. In February, 1922, a lynching map of the United States drawn by “Miss Madeline Allison” was published in The Crisis—a publication of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). It is a simple dot map that shows each of the
3,436 lynchings that took place in the United States between 1889 and 1921. While each dot represents one lynching, but it is noted in the caption that the dots could not be placed in their exact locations within state boundaries.3 The dots are placed on a basic Rand McNally outline map of the United States and simply spread across each state. While some cartographers might recommend that a choropleth might be used instead, showing each lynching with a dot is more effective by calling attention to the individual instances. I have found no information about Madeline Allison. Christina Dando, a geographer who has written extensively on women and cartography in the Progressive Era, noted that the map was reprinted and used by the NAACP in support of a congressional anti-lynching bill that unfortunately never passed.4 A second anti-lynching map is credited to Jessie Daniel Ames, who was a Texas suffragist who also opposed lynching. Her map, dated January, 1935, is also a dot map that showed lynchings carried out in 1934 with a cross and prevented lynchings with a dot. There are sixty-nine symbols on the map. A note on the map states “Jessie Daniel Ames, Director, Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching.”5 There is no other name on the map so we cannot say for certain that Jessie actually drew the map or if she commissioned it. Participatory Mapping In recent years, there has been much discussion of participatory mapping and the democratization of cartography. Today participatory mapping is usually considered a product of the GIS era as it involves groups of people who gather information that is then mapped using GIS. The democratization of cartography refers to anyone with a computer being able to make a map; thus, maps are no longer the sole province of the “professionals.” However, throughout the history of mapping, anyone with a pencil or pen could and did make maps. Not all of these “amateur” maps were crude, and many were of publication quality. In reality, participatory maps date to the nineteenth century. In the Progressive Era we see some of the earliest uses of such maps with themes such as wages, poverty, and nationalities. An early example is the settlement house movement that began in London in 1884 when Toynbee Hall, the first such establishment, was founded. “Settlement houses” were established in poor urban areas, and volunteer settlement workers would work and live with poor neighbors to provide social services, such as education and recreation. Settlement houses in the United States arose during the late nineteenth century—a time when millions of Europeans immigrated to the United States. These immigrants often lived in poverty in crowded tenements and men and women and even their children worked long hours. The most famous settlement house in the United States
Activists, Persuaders, and Travelers
was Hull-House in Chicago, which was founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Star after Jane Addams had visited Toynbee Hall and was inspired to provide similar relief in the United States. A resident of HullHouse, Agnes Sinclair Holbrook wrote the chapter “Map Notes and Comments” in a book authored in 1895 by “Residents of Hull House,” Hull-House Maps and Papers: A Presentation of Nationalities and Wages in a Congested District of Chicago, together with Comments and Essays on Problems Growing out of the Social Conditions.6 Holbrook comments in general on the nature of the area that they mapped and especially on the wage map and the map of nationalities in the chapter (figure 2.2). The residents of Hull-House created maps of nationalities and wages for an area about 1/3 square mile around the settlement house. The residents of the house filled out “schedules” (surveys) that provided information for each house in the neighborhood, much in the nature of a census. The information was then placed on outline maps that had street names and house numbers. The residents did not make the outline maps themselves; those were prepared by Mr. Greely of Greely and Carlson, a Chicago mapmaking company. The social information for maps was symbolized in color to indicate the birthplace of each individual or the wage of each family. The residents colored the map and a legend explained the colors. In her chapter “Map Notes and Comments” in Hull-House Maps and Papers, Agnes Holbrook gave a nod to Charles Booth: The great interest and significance attached to Mr. Charles Booth’s maps of London have served as warm encouragement; and although the eyes of the world do not centre upon this third of a square mile in the heart of Chicago as upon East London when looking for the very essence of misery, and although the ground examined here is very circumscribed compared with the vast area covered by Mr. Booth’s incomparable studies, the two works have much in common.7
There has been some debate as to who was in charge of creating the maps. Certainly, the residents did the work of gathering the information and coloring the maps, but inasmuch as Agnes Holbrook wrote the chapter on the maps it is reasonable to assume that she was the supervisor of the project. WOMEN TRAVELERS AND EXPLORERS In this section I explore the work of women who went on adventures, wrote about their travels, and mapped their travels. These were not women who made a “grand tour” of Europe to finish their education, but women who traveled with a purpose.
Figure 2.2 Hull-House Map of Nationalities, 1895. Source: Image Courtesy of the David Rumsey Map Collection, David Rumsey Map Center, Stanford Libraries.
32 Chapter 2
Activists, Persuaders, and Travelers
One of the best known was Elizabeth “Libbie” Custer (1842–1933). Elizabeth was born Elizabeth Bacon to wealthy parents in Monroe, Michigan and her father was an influential judge. In 1864, she married George Armstrong Custer, famous for his defeat at the Battle of the Little Big Horn or “Custer’s Last Stand” and whenever possible she followed him from camp to camp, living in Fort Riley Kansas, Big Creek near Fort Hays, Kansas and lastly, in 1873, Fort Lincoln in the Dakota Territory.8 With Custer’s death, in 1876 at the Battle of Little Big Horn, Elizabeth became a widow at age 34. For the rest of her life, Elizabeth was devoted to defending her husband’s reputation. To this end, and also to supplement her meager pension, she wrote a series of books, Boots and Saddles (1885), Tenting on the Plains (1887), and Following Guidon (1890). These books tell the story of her life on the Plains following Custer and each is illustrated with maps. Hudson and Ritzlin list Elizabeth Custer in their checklist, but there is nothing on the maps to tell definitely who made them. Elizabeth could have drawn them or they could have been made under her direction. Perhaps the most surprising woman of this group is Emily Post (1872– 1960), who was best known for her books and magazine columns on etiquette. Emily was a wealthy debutante, who married Edwin Post, a banker, in 1892 and divorced him in 1905. In 1915 when motoring was becoming popular, even trips across the United States, Emily decided to travel not by train, but by automobile from New York to San Francisco to visit the Panama Exposition, a world’s fair held that year. Her book, By Motor to the Golden Gate, published in 1916, is a well-written, entertaining account of that trip.9 Emily made the trip with her undergraduate son, Edwin Post, Jr. and her cousin, Alice Beadleston. Edwin, usually referred to as Ned, did the driving. The book is illustrated with twenty-seven maps showing the stages of the trip. They are obviously hand drawn and signed E.P. It is possible that the maps were made by her son, but since she usually referred to him as “Ned” or E. M., it is reasonable to believe that Emily created the maps herself (figure 2.3). By far the most adventurous of these travelers was Fanny Bullock Workman (1859–1925).10 Fanny was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, the daughter of future governor, Alexander Hamilton Bullock. At the time of Fanny’s birth, her father was the mayor of Worcester. Fanny was sent to a finishing school in New York and then traveled to Paris and Dresden to improve her French and German. After marrying William Workman, a physician twelve years her senior, the two began climbing mountains in New Hampshire and joined climbing clubs that in New England were not male only. In 1895 Fanny and William set off on a tour in Spain by bicycle, riding new “safety bicycles” that had two wheels of the same size. They traveled 2,800 miles averaging 45 miles per day. After this trip, they coauthored a book, Sketches
Figure 2.3 Map of Southern California from Emily Post, By Motor to the Golden Gate, New York: D. Appleton, 1916.
Awheel in Modern Iberia.11 This was followed by additional rides plus climbing Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Having proven herself in the Alps, she set her sights on the Himalayas. She eventually set a record for women climbers in 1906 on Pinnacle Peak that was 22,736 feet in elevation. By this time, Fanny was giving presentations at the Royal Scottish Geographical Society. She and her husband made eight expeditions to the Himalayas over fourteen years. Fanny was an ardent supporter of women’s rights and suffrage. She was photographed in 1912 on the Siachen Glacier in the Karakoram holding a newspaper with the headline “VOTES FOR WOMEN.”
Activists, Persuaders, and Travelers
In 1916, Fanny Workman published an article “Exploring the Rose,” in which she describes the Rose Glacier (Siachen) to which she made two trips. I had become Rose mad, being imbued with the single desire to return the next summer and with a thoroughly organized caravan, including alpine guides and topographer to visit the sources and have the glacier mapped in detail.12
She continued, Two caravans were to work on the glacier, our own, which would include an Italian guide, three porters and native servants, and that of our English surveyor, who traveled with one Italian porter and a native plane-tabler.13
Fanny, unlike many of the women in this book, did not survey or draw the maps, but rather organized the mapping expedition and supervised it. She did make measurements including elevation. Fanny was the first woman to lecture at the Sorbonne in Paris and she was the second woman to be made a fellow of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society and was member of the American Geographical Society. The women in this chapter exemplify the “new woman” of the early twentieth century, involved in social causes, activism, and demonstrating that woman’s place was not just in the home. Certainly, the maps discussed here, and the women who conceived and created them demonstrate that women not only knew about cartography and the mapmaking practices of their times, but also engaged in the practice. NOTES 1. Judith Tyner, “Persuasive Cartography.” History of Cartography, 6, 1087–1095. 2. Dando, Women and Cartography in the Progressive Era, pp. 180–181. 3. NAACP, The Crisis (1922), pp. 168–169; Dando, Women and Cartography in the Progressive Era, pp. 208–209. 4. Dando, Women and Cartography in the Progressive Era, pp. 208–209. 5. Dando, Women and Cartography in the Progressive Era, pp. 210–211. 6. Residents of Hull-House, Hull-House Maps and Papers (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1895, Reprint Edition, New York: Arno Press, 1970). 7. Hull-House Maps and Papers, p. 11. 8. Information for this section is from the Kansas State Historical Society web site, Kansapedia, https://www.kshs.org/kansaspedia/elizabeth-bacon-custer/12030. 9. Emily Post, By Motor to the Golden Gate, annotated and with an introduction by Jane Lancaster (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. (2004, original text 1916, Emily Post).
10. Information for this section is from the Royal Scottish Geographical Society Blog by Jo Woolf, https://rsgs.org/international-womens-day-fanny-bullock-workman/. 11. Fanny Bullock Workman and William Hunter Workman, Sketches Awheel in Modern Iberia (New York: G.P. Putnam and Sons, 1897). 12. F. R. G. S. Fanny Bullock Workman, “Exploring the Rose,” The Independent, 85, no. 3501 (January 10, 1916): p. 54. 13. Workman, “Exploring the Rose,” p. 54.
Pictorial and Illustrated Maps
This chapter looks at two types of maps and their makers, both of which have a major artistic component: pictorial maps and illustrated maps as book illustrations. Of course, maps have had pictures on them from early days giving rise to Jonathan Swift’s satirical poem that many cartographers know by heart. So geographers on Afric maps With savage pictures fill their gaps And oer uninhabited downs, Place elephants for want of towns
True to Swift’s description, many early maps had drawings of sailing ships, sea monsters, and other fantastic elements, and these were often placed on “empty” parts of the maps. The maps described in this chapter are deliberately designed to be artistic, and the pictorial elements form a major part of the map; they are more artistic than scientific. PICTORIAL MAPS In this section I am looking at maps primarily aimed at tourism, education, and advertising that have pictorial symbols, often cartoonish, instead of abstract symbols. They may or may not be drawn to scale and they are usually printed in color. They are designed to be eye-catching and usually amusing and fall into the category of ephemera.
In the early twentieth century, travel and tourism became very popular with Americans. Railroad travel was comparatively cheap and easy, and the rise of the automobile made road travel accessible and flexible. By 1926, the country had a system of numbered highways. Paired with this is the availability of inexpensive paper and of cheap color lithography that made ephemeral (throwaway) maps economically feasible. The “golden age” of pictorial mapping is usually placed from the 1920s to the 1950s. There is no widely accepted definition for “pictorial map,” but Stephen Hornsby in Picturing America: The Golden Age of Pictorial Maps describes them: Pictorial maps formed a distinctive cartographic genre. They were not scientific representations of the earth’s surface, but artistic renderings of places, regions, and countries. Pictorial maps commonly depicted people, history, architecture, landscape, and terrain. They combined map, image, and text, frequently for the purposes of telling a visual story or to capture a sense of place. As a popular art form, pictorial maps appealed to a wide audience. They were often as attractive to children as to adults. The best pictorial maps were characterized by bold and arresting graphic design, bright and cheerful color and lively detail.1
Looking through major books on the general history of cartography you will find no entries for pictorial maps. Even the monumental History of Cartography has no specific entry, although it does have entries on decorative maps, advertising maps, and perspective maps. The emphasis in most cartographic histories is on governmental mapping and commercial mapping publishers, and there is little or nothing on this large category of maps. This is tied to the scientific bias discussed in the introduction. Some kinds of maps were simply not viewed as serious maps and were not seen as having a role in the history of American cartography. Dori Griffin notes that they were often dismissed as “mere decoration.”2 However, in recent years, there have been a number of studies. Nigel Holmes, an infographics designer, discussed the design and making of pictorial maps in his landmark book Pictorial Maps.3 The Art of Illustrated Maps by John Roman is subtitled “A Complete Guide to Creative Mapmaking’s History, Process and Inspiration.”4 It is illustrated with dozens of color maps. Dori Griffin’s Mapping Wonderlands: Illustrated Cartography of Arizona, 1912–1962, (2013) looks at the ways in which the landscape and history of Arizona was imagined and promoted during its first fifty years of statehood.5 Gestalten Publishers in 2015 published a richly illustrated “coffee table book” titled Mind the Map: Illustrated Maps and Cartography.6 Stephen J. Hornsby published Picturing America: The Golden Age of Pictorial Maps (2017) providing a thorough analysis of the subject.7 And most recently, The Writer’s Map: An Atlas of Imaginary Lands discusses maps in fiction, many of which
Pictorial and Illustrated Maps
are pictorial.8 Hanna and del Casino discuss maps for tourism in their edited volume Mapping Tourism that takes an analytical view of tourism maps, many of which are pictorial.9 A number of books on cartographic curiosities include various kinds of pictorial maps, but they do not analyze the character of these maps as a whole. There is no agreement on what defines a pictorial map. I have found fifteen different terms used: Pictorial map, popular map, illustrated map, cartoon map, pictour map, cartograph, tourist map, advertising map, propaganda map, journalistic map, promotional map, perspective map, geopictorial map, picture map, and pictogram. Some of these terms actually refer to very specific types of map rather than a generic reference, such as perspective map or bird’s-eye map, and some, such as cartograph, were coined by the maker to describe their maps. The terms advertising map and promotional map refer to their uses as does tourist map. There is also no agreement of the characteristics of most of these maps except that they are not examples of “scientific cartography.” Maps by Richard Edes Harrison and Erwin Raisz, both discussed in standard histories of twentieth-century cartography, have been described as pictorial by some. Perspective or “bird’s-eye” maps that show the land as an oblique view and were popular in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century have been studied recently, but, interestingly, I have not found, at this date, any made by woman cartographers. There are, however, certain basic characteristics that are common to pictorial maps. They have a specific message and make a point beyond the simple presentation of information and they show the mapped territory in an artistic rather than a technical or scientific style. These are narrative maps; they are designed to tell a story. They are often, but not always, humorous or whimsical. Various authors have attempted to describe the nature of pictorial maps. Dori Griffin in Mapping Wonderlands notes that while “cartographs” use formal conventions of mapmaking such as compass arrows and dotted lines, they “journey beyond the graphic, using representational or pictorial illustration.”10 Nigel Holmes says that a pictorial map makes a point beyond the basic presentation of information.11 Thus, they are often used in persuasion and propaganda. John Hessler in Map states that maps have been used as a “form of expressive visual art that has both cultural and political purposes with deep aesthetic underpinnings.”12 Stephen Hornsby categorizes the maps by type and use, thus he discusses “Maps to Amuse,” “Maps to Instruct,” “Maps of Place and Region,” “Maps for Industry,” and “Maps for War.”13 One way that pictorial maps differ from scientific maps is in their content. They are designed to capture the character of a place, not present data. Because these maps were usually viewed as ephemera—throwaway maps, printed on cheap paper (sometimes as restaurant placemats or in magazines), designed to be used at the amusement park or zoo for one day and then discarded, often cartoonish—they were not often of interest to collectors and
didn’t find their way into library map collections. The postcard maps might be an exception since there were groups of postcard collectors. The maps had little monetary or research value. However, over time, this has changed. Both the Los Angeles Public Library and the Boston Public Library have fine examples of pictorial maps in their collections; the Library of Congress has two pictorial collections: the Ethel M. Fair collection and the Muriel H. Parry collection; and the David Rumsey collection has over 2,000 pictorial maps that are viewable on line. The P.J. Mode collection of persuasive maps at Cornell University has many pictorial examples. Exhibits of women’s maps, including pictorial maps, curated by Alice Hudson have been mounted by both the Osher Map Library and the Boston Public Library. The Library of Congress and the Rumsey collection now have blogs focused on pictorial maps. Ironically, these throwaway maps now command high prices at map auction sites. An original pictorial map of Disneyland drawn by Walt Disney in 1953 was sold at auction in 2017 for $700,000.14 Pictorial maps are still produced and available as free handouts at tourist bureaus, hotels, tour bus companies, zoos, amusement parks, and the like. They are also still found on postcards and posters. Although many pictorial maps in the past and present are produced by companies and individual names are not always shown, this is an area where women have made major contributions as independent artists, and also an area where women’s names are known, especially for the “golden age.” In this section I look at five women pictorial mappers of varying styles and times. Ruth Taylor White (1896–1985), who also signed her name Ruth Taylor, was born in 1896 and attended Stanford University as an English major.15 However, while there, she did freelance illustrations for Stanford periodicals and advertisements for local businesses. She also did a number of commercial cartoons in this period. In 1919 Taylor left Stanford to study art at the New York Institute of Art and Design. She married Leonard White and moved to Arizona. Her first pictorial map was made of the Grand Canyon in 1929. Her maps exemplify what most people think of as pictorial maps in that they show scenery and people in an artistic way and are aimed at tourists. Taylor also illustrated a number of books, probably the best known was Oh, Ranger! about the National Parks. Her brother Frank Taylor wrote the text for this and many other of the early books she illustrated. This book has no maps, but the illustrations are in her distinctive cartoonish style. (Oh, Ranger! was so popular that the National Park Service now has an app by that name.) The Hawaii Tourist Bureau saw her work and hired her to make a series of maps of the (at that time) territory and sent her on a two-month research trip. The resulting maps were used in the tourist bureau’s promotional media. The maps were very popular and Griffin notes that their estimated distribution was in
Pictorial and Illustrated Maps
the millions.16 These maps led to the publication of probably her best-known work, a 1935 children’s atlas of the United States, Our U.S.A.: A Gay Geography, that Little, Brown and Company commissioned17 (figure 3.1). Her maps are often described as cartoon maps because of the whimsical nature of the drawings of people on them, but Taylor used the term “cartograph” for the maps that she made. Close examination of the maps reveals many racial and regional stereotypes of the era, that are shocking to modern viewers. As with most cartoon-style atlases and maps, the images are stereotypical and sometimes jarring in a modern context. The map of Tennessee, for instance, shows a Ku Klux Klan member complete with robe, hood and pistol. However, such maps often reveal what was culturally or socially of note at the time of their creation and illustrations were often included precisely to be provocative or even satirical in style.18
Dori Griffin notes that although the maps are a disturbing reminder of widespread Anglo-American prejudice of the interwar period, “the illustrations at the time were not accused of being offensive, derogatory or clichés in the negative sense.” In fact, a review of the book in the New York Times, described the maps as accurate, but funny.19 In contrast to Ruth Taylor is Louise Jefferson (1908–2002), who was an African American born in 1908 and active during the 1940s. Jefferson’s father was a calligrapher for the US Treasury who apparently taught Louise drawing and calligraphy as a child. She later studied art and attended Howard University in Washington, D.C., and Hunter College in New York where she studied fine art. She also attended Columbia University where she studied graphic arts. In her early career, she created posters and book illustrations. Illustrations in a song book that she coauthored with Marion Cuthbert in 1936, We Sing America, showed black and white children playing together. The book was banned by the governor of Georgia, Eugene Talmadge, who ordered the book be burned.20 Probably her most famous map was “Americans of Negro Lineage” published in 1946 (figure 3.2). This was a detailed map that celebrated the accomplishments of African Americans in all fields. Two years earlier she made a map of Indians of the United States. She created maps of Africa, India, and China as well as America. While she showed people on her maps as did Taylor, they are not cartoonish and certainly less stereotypical. Jefferson worked primarily with Friendship Press, which was sponsored by the National Council of Churches. She ultimately became the director of the press in 1942.
Figure 3.1 Frontispiece from Ruth Taylor White, Our USA, A Gay Geography, 1935. Source: Image Courtesy of the David Rumsey Map Collection, David Rumsey Map Center, Stanford Libraries.
42 Chapter 3
Figure 3.2 Louise Jefferson, Map of “Americans of Negro Lineage” Published by Friendship Press, Inc., New York. Source: Image Courtesy of the David Rumsey Map Collection, David Rumsey Map Center, Stanford Libraries.
Pictorial and Illustrated Maps 43
Jefferson’s map of China was published by Friendship Press in 1948, the year before the Communist revolution. It shows cities and rivers, of course, but also regional products, typical architecture, and modes of transportation as well as traditional dress and decorative arts. After retiring from the Friendship Press she traveled to Africa and studied native decorative arts and published a book on the subject titled The Decorative Arts of Africa in 1973 illustrated with her own photographs and drawings as well as two conventional maps. Louise Jefferson’s maps are viewable at the David Rumsey collection. Ruth Rhoads Lepper Gardner (1905–2011) was a trained artist, but also worked as a conventional cartographer. She was born in Massachusetts and like most of the women in this chapter, she studied art. She attended Pembroke, the Rhode Island School of Design and the School of the Museum of fine Arts in Boston. She learned about maps during the Second World War while working with the US Navy at Newport, R.I. as a draftsman. She lived much of her life in Maine and her pictorial maps focused on the history of Maine. Her maps are not cartoonish, but do contain small drawings of ships, houses, and other features. She made voyages around Maine with the Maine Seacoast Mission. On these voyages, she made maps and sketches and illustrated a book about the Mission with her drawings. She spoke of her enjoyment of mapmaking: “Maps are precise, time-consuming projects, but if your work gives you pleasure, what the heck.”21 Her maps are of the type that would be used in education as well as tourism. Like Gardner, Alva Scott Garfield (1902–1993) was a New Englander. She produced a five-map series of pictorial maps, “Scott Maps,” that portrayed many regions of New England.22 The earliest was made in about 1949 and shows the White Mountains of New Hampshire. The other maps in the series, none of which are dated, include Harvard University and Radcliffe College, Boston, Salem, and Concord, Massachusetts. The Scott Maps use humor and historical references, but are not racially stereotypical as are the Ruth Taylor White maps. She was born Alva Bennett Scott, and used the term Scott Maps, but is often listed as Alva Scott Mitchell or Alva Scott Garfield. Mitchell was her first husband, whom she divorced, and Garfield was her second husband who died after three years of marriage. This variety of names emphasizes one of the difficulties of doing research on women that we will see often in this study. The maps of Mildred Burrage (1890–1983) are difficult to categorize. Burrage is primarily considered a fine artist not a cartographer or graphic artist
Pictorial and Illustrated Maps
whose talents were recognized at an early age. She was born in Portland, Maine, where her parents, especially her mother, who was an artist herself, saw to it that she had art training from childhood. Between 1907 and 1912, she attended art school in Giverny, France, where she met Claude Monet, and also visited museums in Paris studying paintings; she also visited Venice and Rome and there she worked on paintings.23 During the First World War she made recruiting posters and worked in the shipyards of South Portland, but primarily she painted. After her time in France, she painted in the impressionistic style, but became well known for her mica paintings that were images formed by attaching mica, foil, and colored paper to a panel, and painting over them. In the 1940s she saw the paintings of Jackson Pollock and other abstract expressionists and began working in that mode. However, she also created a small series of maps that she displayed as art during the 1930s. She made a watercolor copy of Samuel de Champlain’s 1613 engraving of “New France” and also copies of Portland, Cape Ann, and Washington, D.C. Her map of the Battle of Bunker Hill is made of “painted gesso plaster, with land features shown in relief.” It is, thus, not intended as a map, but a painting based on a map. In these works, she may be the forerunner of other current artists who incorporate maps into their work. One of her more unusual maps was a map on cloth. The National Capitol Park commissioned her in 1933 to make a map of Washington, D.C., from a watercolor copy of a Samuel de Champlain engraving. The map was reprinted on linen and could be used as a handkerchief or scarf. It was created as a fundraiser for the George Washington Parkway, and personally promoted by Eleanor Roosevelt who was a friend and patron of Burrage.24 ILLUSTRATIVE MAPS Like pictorial maps there is no firm definition of illustrative map. As I use the term here, I am referring to maps that are basically conventional maps that have pictorial elements illustrating the setting or a scene of a story. The place may be real or fictional or a combination. There is a fine line between illustrative maps by artists and map illustrations created by cartographers and geographers. Modern book illustrations drawn by cartographers and geographers tend to have little in the way of decorative elements; they are quite straightforward and “scientific”; and, of course, these maps are found in textbooks, articles, and nonfiction works on history, geography, geology, anthropology, history, and the like. The makers are usually trained in cartography, not art, although some do have an artistic background. The scientific illustrations will be discussed in chapter 6 “Academic Cartographers.”
Unlike the pictorial maps, illustrative maps are not considered ephemera because they are printed in books, often as endpapers, and while there may be illustrations on the map they generally are not cartoonish. Surprisingly, given that maps have been used to illustrate fiction books for centuries—the well-known cartographer Herman Moll illustrated Gulliver’s Travels in about 1726—there have been few studies of this genre of cartography. An exception is J. B. Post’s Atlas of Fantasy of 1973.25 Although the title refers to fantasy, the maps that Post included are of a variety of fictional genres including mysteries and detective fiction, fantasy, and science fiction. Certain types of books lend themselves to map illustrations. The common ones are historical fiction, mystery fiction, science fiction and fantasy, travel narrative, and children’s literature. The places mapped may be fictitious, real, or a combination. Travel narrative books that don’t include maps are often criticized by readers who want to follow the travels of the narrator whether he/she goes by foot, bicycle, automobile, or plane. However, not all such narrative maps fall into the illustrative category. As noted above, maps employed in geographies and histories usually have no pictorial or artistic elements (these will be discussed as scientific maps in chapter 6). From the 1930s to the present, maps have been used in mystery and detective fiction to illustrate the scene of the crime. While these were sometimes simply a plan of a room, they more often were of a town or even country. George Demko, formerly of the Dartmouth University Geography Department, was a researcher of mystery fiction and wrote about maps in mystery fiction for Mystery Scene magazine as well as a blog on the subject. Unfortunately, for the present study, with one exception, Jackie Aher, Demko discusses the book author and how he/she uses maps but not the artist-cartographer who actually drew the maps.26 Combined with the frequent omission of the artist’s name on the copyright page, this makes identifying the artists difficult. Science fiction and fantasy especially lend themselves to maps. The invention of new worlds essentially requires a map of the fictitious land. J. B. Post’s Atlas of Fantasy looks not only at maps of fantasy but also of science fiction, mysteries, and detective fiction—including those from Sherlock Holmes mysteries and from children’s books. Post also includes an index of forty-seven artists of the maps in the Atlas that includes seven identifiable as female.27 At least seven books have been published on fantasy mapmaking in the past six years ranging from how-to books on creating fantasy worlds and maps to a 2013 scholarly study by Stefan Ekman titled Here Be Dragons: Exploring Fantasy Maps and Settings.28 It would be expected that the maps in children’s literature fall into the illustrative map category and this tends to be so. I am not considering picture books for young children, but books for approximately ten-to-fifteen-year
Pictorial and Illustrated Maps
age group. The majority of the illustrators of these works appear to be male. Perhaps because the books themselves tended to be aimed at boys rather than girls. Clare Ranson, the author of “Cartography in Children’s Literature,” noted, “Maps were most commonly used as frontispiece illustrations in adventure and fantasy books. They have also generally been aimed at the male reader, when children’s books were marketed separately for boys and girls.”29 In the past two decades there have been a number of studies on maps in children’s literature, but the majority focus on the maps, not their makers.30 An indication of increased interest in this type of illustrated map can be seen in the recent sale of the original map of the “100 Aker Wood” by Ernest Shepard from Winnie the Pooh at Sotheby’s for over half a million dollars, more than four times the expected amount.31 Dell Map Backs In the 1940s, Dell Publishing produced a numbered series of inexpensive paperback books called the Dell Map Backs32 (figure 3.3). George Demko described the “heyday” of these books as from 1943 to 1951.33 While the
Figure 3.3 Dell Map Back No. 184, Murder Is My Business by Brett Halliday, 1944. Source: Author Photograph, Author Collection.
mysteries have had the most attention and the greatest number of books, there were 577 books in the series including romance novels and westerns. They now are considered collectibles. The distinguishing feature of these books was a map on the back cover that portrayed the scene of the action. The authors of the books were often quite well known and included Agatha Christie and Dashiel Hammet. The best-known artist in the map back series is Ruth Belew (active 1940s, 1950s). Although little is known about her personally, she was apparently a staff artist for Dell and lived in the Chicago area. Belew illustrated at least 150 of the map backs. She would draw the maps at two times the publication size on cardboard and after they were vetted for accuracy by the publisher, they were sent to a lithographic artist for color. While the cover artist was usually identified on the copyright page, the artists who created the works that gave the series their name were never listed or identified anywhere. Virtually nothing is known of the life of Ruth Belew and exactly which map backs were drawn by her could only be inferred by analyzing the style of the maps, which has not yet been done. Karen Lea Wynn Fonstad (1945–2005) is unusual among the map artists in this chapter, in that her training was not in art, but in geography and cartography. She is best known for her Atlas of Middle Earth, a book with text and maps of Tolkien’s Middle Earth. Fonstad was born in Oklahoma City and attended the University of Oklahoma, majoring first in physical therapy and then received an MA. in geography specializing in cartography. She was director of cartographic services at the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh for several years where her husband was a professor of geography. As such she was responsible for creating conventional maps for publication for faculty and exemplifies how many of the women cartographers worked in more than one mode. However, she is best known for a series of five atlases of fantasy fiction: The Atlas of Middle Earth (1981), The Atlas of Pern (1984), The Atlas of the Land (1985), The Atlas of the Dragonlance World (1987), and The Forgotten Realms Atlas (1990), most of which have been translated into multiple languages. The Atlas of Middle Earth went through two editions. Fonstad wrote a brief article not long before she died in 2005 that was published posthumously in 2006 in which she described creating The Atlas of Middle Earth.34 It is very unusual to find artist’s writings on how they made their maps. She noted that she had envisioned designing the site maps at first and then realized that she had many geological/geographical questions about some of the features described. She needed to study the text thoroughly for clues to terrain, slope, minerals, caves, stream patterns, and more in order to create the maps. Fonstad’s fantasy maps are unusual in that they use conventional cartographic techniques, not pictorial symbols: physiographic drawings of hills and mountains and conventional symbols for forests and marshlands, plus
Pictorial and Illustrated Maps
additional symbols for battle flows, troops, and pathways. The atlases include a legend of symbols at the beginning of the book. They include thematic maps of climate, vegetation, language, and population distribution. They are highly detailed real geographical atlases of fictitious places. Although this book focuses on cartographers prior to the twenty-first century, I include two women who began their careers in the 1990s as illustrators using pen and ink techniques not computer technology: Jackie Aher and Laura Hartman Maestro. A prolific woman cartographic illustrator who began her work in the 1990s and is still creating maps is Laura Hartman Maestro.35 Maestro’s maps are found in mysteries, historical fiction, and travel narrative. Although she signs her maps, her style is quite distinctive and identifiable, even without the signature. Maestro attended the New York School of Music and Arts as well as the Cooper Union School for the Advancement of Science and Art. She refers to herself as an illustrator and has drawings for a variety of books including cookbooks. She has been making illustrated maps since the 1980s. Her maps are not ephemera; they are normally included in books, most often as end papers of hard bound books. She has created maps for mystery and fantasy novels, but also for nonfiction and historical novels. A recent nonfiction illustration is in Phillip Caputo’s 2013, The Longest Road. Another is in Simon Winchester’s 2005 book, A Crack at the Edge of the Earth, the story of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 that contains ten maps, three of which are pictorial and created by Maestro. An example of work in a historical novel is Gutenberg’s Assistant, which contains a map of Mainz in 1450. The largest set of her maps is for a series of mystery novels by Deborah Crombie, an American writer whose books are set in England, especially in London. The maps in novels are mostly set in real places, but have the fictional places interwoven. Crombie’s website has a discussion of each of the maps in her books.36 Before creating the map, Maestro first reads the book manuscript to learn the “territory.” Not all map illustrators take this step. The book author may provide photographs of the landmarks or particular features he/she wants included. Maestro submits a pencil draft of the map, and when the author approves, the final map is drawn in pen and ink using a rapidograph technical pen for the line work and stippling and the lettering is all hand done.37 Even though Maestro’s maps have a quite distinctive style, she always signs them. As noted earlier, the book designer’s name is usually on the copyright page, as is the cover designer’s name, but not necessarily the cartographer’s name. Of course, Maestro is so well known that she now receives credit. Quite often when one of her (or other illustrator’s) books is converted to mass-market paperback, the map is omitted owing to the size of the page. The maps would not be readable at the reduced size and there are no endpapers.
A separate two-page layout is required and some publishers will not go to the expense of adding the maps. Jackie Aher, now retired, like Maestro was a freelance illustrator for a variety of books; she did not confine her work to maps, but has created illustrations on a variety of book types. She had her early training at the High School of Music and Art in New York, but considered herself self-taught. Also, like Maestro, she preferred to work with pen and ink and says that computer drawing didn’t interest her; she finds hands-on art most satisfying.38 Although Aher has created maps for a number of different authors, she is probably best known for those in the Nevada Barr series of mysteries featuring a female national park ranger. Each book is set in a different park so Aher has created maps of Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico, the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island National Monuments in New York, the Natchez Trace Parkway in Mississippi, Big Bend National Park, and Glacier National Park in Montana among others. The more recent books do not contain maps. Aher has a distinctive style, as do most illustrators, but she tries to have the copyright read “Map Art by Jackie Aher.” Pictorial and illustrative mapping is the mode that has had the greatest number of named women working and with a wide range of maps and map types. For the most part, these women were trained in art, not cartography and worked independently. NOTES 1. Stephen J. Hornsby, Picturing America: The Golden Age of Pictorial Maps (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017). 2. Dori Griffin, Mapping Wonderlands: Illustrated Cartography of Arizona, 1912–1962 (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2013). 3. Nigel Holmes, Pictorial Maps (Watson-Guptil, 1991). 4. John Roman, The Art of Illustrated Maps: A Complete Guide to Creative Mapmaking’s History, Process and Inspiration (Cincinnati, OH: HOW Books, 2015). 5. Griffin, Mapping Wonderlands. 6. Antonis Antoniou, Mind the Map: Illustrated Maps and Cartography (Gestalten: Berlin, 2015). 7. Hornsby, Picturing America. 8. Huw Lewis-Jones, ed. The Writer’s Map: An Atlas of Imaginary Lands (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2018). 9. Stephen P. Hanna and Del Vincent del Casino, eds. Mapping Tourism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003). 10. Griffin, Mapping Wonderlands, pp. 5–6. 11. Holmes, Pictorial Maps, p. 13. 12. John Hessler, “Introduction.” In Map: Exploring the World (New York: Phaedon Press, 2015), p. 7.
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13. Hornsby, Picturing America, table of contents. 14. www.ocregister.com/2017/06/26/walt-disneys-original-map-ofdisneyland-g oes-for-700000/. 15. Much of the information on Ruth Taylor White is from Dori Griffin, “Beautiful Geography: The Pictorial Maps of Ruth Taylor White.” Imago Mundi, 69, part 2 (2017): 233–247. 16. Griffin, “Beautiful Geography,” p. 238. 17. Note that in 1935, “gay” referred to happy and light-hearted, not homosexuality. 18. Kenneth Field, 2014, International Cartographic Association, Blog. 19. Griffin, “Beautiful Geography,” p. 239. 20. Jessie Carney Smith, ed. Notable Black American Women: Book 2 (Michigan: Gale Publishing, 1995), p. 329. 21. Ruth Rhoades Lepper Gardner, “Obituary,” www.obituaries.pressherald.com /opbituaries/mainetoday-press-ld/obituary.aspx?n=ruth-rhoads-lepper-gardner&pid- 150422149. 22. Additional information on Alva Scott Garfield is found at www.barronmaps. com/alva-scott-garfield-1902-1993/. 23. “The Making of an Artist: Mildred G. Burrage’s Early Years: essay by Earle G. Shettleworth, Jr.,” www.tfaoi.com/aa/10aa/10aa78.htm; “Mildred Burrage Exhibition,” www.pressherald.com/2016/04/24/mildred-burrage-hxhi…lights-creative-li fe-of-one-of-maines-most-extraordinary-artists/. 24. www.pressherald.com/2016/04/24/mildred-burrage-exhi…lights-creative-li fe-of –one-of-maines-most-extraordinary-artists/. 25. J. B. Post, Atlas of Fantasy, 2nd ed. (New York: Ballantine Books, 1979). 26. George Demko, Landscapes of Crime Website, https://www.dartmouth. edu~gjdemko. 27. Post, Atlas of Fantasy. 28. Stefan Ekman, Here Be Dragons: Exploring Fantasy Maps and Settings, (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2013). 29. Clare Ranson, “Cartography in Children’s Literature.” Papers from the Annual Conference of the International Association of School Librarianship (1995). 30. A recent work is Nina Goga and Bettina Kummerlin-Meibauer, eds., Maps and Mapping in Children’s Literature (Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing, 2017). 31. Sothebys.com May 30, 2018. 32. William H. Lyles, Putting Dell on the Map: A History of the Dell Paperbacks (Greenwood Press, 1983); Gary Lovisi, “Dell Map Back Mysteries: They Don’t Make ‘em Like That Anymore!” Mystery Scene Magazine, 80 (Summer 2003) 68–71. 33. George Demko, “Mapping the Mystery.” Mystery Scene Magazine (Winter, 2007). 34. Karen Wynn Fonstad, “Writing ‘TO’ the Map.” Tolkien Studies, 3 (2006): 133–136, https//muse.jhu.edu. 35. Personal communication, Laura Hartman Maestro, September 25, 2015. 36. Deborah Crombie Website, www.deborahcrombie.com. 37. Maestro, personal communication. 38. Jackie Aher, personal communication, September 24, 2015.
Millie the Mapper and Maps of the Second World War
Most people are familiar with the 1943 Norman Rockwell picture of Rosie the Riveter, the saucy young woman with rivet gun and lunch pail and the perhaps more familiar J. Howard Miller poster emblazoned “we can do it.” We associate Rosie the Riveter with jobs in the defense industry as iconic riveters, or other mechanical and production line jobs to help with the “war effort” and replace men who were drafted into the military. But these were not the only types of jobs that women performed during this period. I have coined the term “Millie the Mapper” to refer to the women who were employed in mapmaking during the Second World War—a time when probably more maps were made than at any other. December 17, 1941 ten days after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) signed a bill providing for an additional appropriation to the army for the national defense effort. The bill included funding for expediting and completing needed mapping in areas designated as “strategic.” FDR’s words ushered in an era of major change in cartography and for women’s role in cartography. Even before the war began, the government realized that the available maps were inadequate. They were out of date (some maps were from the nineteenth century), there was poor coverage of the areas of interest, many of the available maps were made in other countries and in foreign languages, and maps were scattered in collections throughout the country. A huge number of maps were needed, for strategic planning, for navigation, and for reports—the numbers of map sheets needing to be produced and printed was in the millions. The agencies concerned will need a large increase in personnel. This is estimated at from 1,000 to 2,000 additional employees during the next year. The 53
men needed should, of course, be young and able-bodied, and should preferably have a scientific background and have completed a short course especially directed toward this work.1
Even though the call specified “men,” because so many of the qualified young men were drafted into the military, hiring women was a viable solution to the shortage, but the women would also need training. Virtually all government mapping agencies were supporting military mapping needs: the Army Map Service (AMS), the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center (ACIC), the Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS), the Navy, and the Women’s Army Corps (WAC), and recruiting posters were used in the effort (figure 4.1). Although all of the above mapping agencies became involved in the war mapping effort, three agencies will be discussed in detail here: The AMS, the OSS, and the TVA. These three all employed large numbers of women during the war. ARMY MAP SERVICE The AMS, forerunner of the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA), was established in 1942 and given four tasks: 1. To collect, catalog, and store foreign and domestic maps and map information required by the war department. 2. To furnish such map service as required by the (army) general staff and other authorized agencies. 3. To compile and reproduce maps required for initial operations of field forces. 4. To develop and improve mapping and map reproduction methods, with particular emphasis upon those most suitable for use in theaters of operations.2 It was hoped that engineering schools would establish courses on topographic map drafting, surveying instruments and field procedures, plane table topography, and photogrammetry for junior and senior engineering students and liberal arts students. By April 15, 1942, ninety-nine courses had been approved by fifty-seven institutions in thirty states. There were two surprises. The first was the number of women students who signed up. In some programs, training courses in topographic drafting and cartography enrolled more women than men. The second surprise was that although all
Millie the Mapper and Maps of the Second World War
Figure 4.1 WAC Recruiting Poster ca. 1943. Source: National Archives.
fourteen members of the Committee on Education for Defense Mapping were professors of civil engineering or surveying, the major participants were in geography departments.3 Training programs in Military Map Making (3M courses) were established at twenty-two colleges, primarily coeducational and women’s colleges, through the east and midwest. College catalogs during this period often had a statement about war work at the university at the time. The 3M program was a sixty-hour course at a college, but was augmented at the AMS with a four-week “in service” training set up for new employees. The Engineering, Science and Management Wartime Training (ESMWT) program was put into place at many universities. Military Map Making classes were considered a part of this program. The person put in charge of the 3M program in 1942 was Edith Putnam Parker (1886–1961), who was an associate professor of geography at the University of Chicago at the time. Parker’s teaching emphasis was on geographic education not cartography. Interestingly, Henry Leppard, who was the cartographer at Chicago at the beginning of the war, was not selected to head the 3M program. It is likely that the AMS specifically wanted a female to be in charge since the majority of students in the 3M program were female. Parker had achieved Bachelor of Philosophy and Master of Arts degrees and originally taught at the University of Chicago’s laboratory school (1913– 1921)—an experimental school focused on testing educational theories. She became a member of the geography department in 1921 and with Harlan Barrows, wrote a series of elementary school geography textbooks. She was not uneducated or inexperienced in maps, however. She wrote articles and a school textbook on map reading and was also a consulting editor for Weber Costello Company, a maker of maps and globes. Parker’s duties as director of the AMS program included selecting the colleges where the courses would be offered and preparing the instructional materials. Not surprisingly, many of the colleges had ties to Chicago including Wellesley, where Parker’s sisters Margaret Terrell Parker and Elizabeth Eiselen, both with PhDs from Chicago, taught. Of the twenty-two colleges that participated in the program, one of the major ones was Kent State University in Ohio. The instructor at Kent State for the mapmaking course (which was not titled cartography but simply mapmaking) was Edna Eisen. At the time, Eisen had a Bachelor of Philosophy and Master of Science degrees in geography, both from the University of Chicago, and she had begun work on her PhD. Eisen was hired by the geography department at Kent State in 1935 when the university’s emphasis was teacher training reflecting its earlier normal school status. When she was hired at Kent State, her references included Harlan Barrows, Charles Colby, and Edith Parker. Like Parker, Eisen was involved in geographic education,
Millie the Mapper and Maps of the Second World War
Figure 4.2 Edna Eisen, Title page from Our Country from the Air, Published in 1937 by the Wheeler Publishing Company of Chicago. Source: Author Photograph, Author Collection.
and, also like Parker, she had a background in maps and mapmaking. In 1937, she published Our Country from the Air, (figure 4.2) which was a geography text of the United States using air photos. She was a consultant for the Cram Company, maker of maps and globes, and her PhD, which she completed after the war, had maps drawn by her. Eisen began teaching the mapmaking course at Kent State, which the catalog indicated emphasized the making of military maps. As a part of her work with the 3M program, she went to visit the AMS facility in Washington, D.C., in 1943. Figure 4.3 shows Eisen with a group of women students in the 3M course. A total of forty-nine Kent State University students were sent to the AMS and twenty-one of those were still in government service at the end of the war. It ranked first among schools with the highest percentage of its cartographers retaining positions after the war.4 After the war, Kent State continued to offer courses in map reading and mapmaking. In the 1946–1947 academic year, Kent State offered a sophomore course on map reading and interpretation and a graduate course in mapmaking, then titled cartography, both of which were taught by Eisen.5 In 1943, Eisen suggested to a student, Bea McPherson nee Shaheen, that she should take the 3M class because she would be able to get a job with the
Figure 4.3 “Map Making Class,” Edna Eisen with Women Students of the 3M Class. Source: Kent State University Libraries, Special Collections and Archives, accessed June 24, 2019, https://omeka.library.kent.edu/special-collections/items/show/344.
AMS that paid well, immediately after graduation. Shaheen, at that time, was majoring in geography and elementary education and planned to become a teacher, but she took the 3M class and was hired. She went to Washington, D.C., where she was initially listed as a drafter. The women who worked at AMS were originally called the “Military Map Making Girls,” or the “3M girls” and sometimes the “Military Mapping Maidens.” These terms might make a twenty-first-century woman cringe, but Shaheen said they actually liked it and thought it was “kind of cute”; it gave them recognition.6 Ultimately there were about 200 3M girls. The women who worked at the AMS Base Plant, which was about seven miles from Washington, D.C., were housed in an eight-building complex that was segregated into units for men, women, and married couples. There were also social events for the workers, such as dances and softball games, to ease the stress of the jobs since they were not near the metropolitan recreation facilities. They worked for three years in a camouflaged building with day and night shifts and frequently had seventy-hour weeks. The jobs they did included map design, photointerpretation, photomapping (combining a photographic mosaic with cartographic enhancements), map drafting, and
Millie the Mapper and Maps of the Second World War
editing. In some cases, the work was top secret, and the mapmakers knew little to nothing about how their work would be used. Bea’s group worked on maps for the D-Day invasion, although they didn’t know it at the time; they knew only that the maps were for “something big.”7 Bea began as a drafter, but after some months she was made a coordinator of the AMS and traveled for speaking engagements. By the end of the war she had been made assistant to the Head of the Project Drafting Department. After the war, Bea returned to civilian life, taught for about ten years, married, and became Bea McPherson. However, she maintained ties to AMS; she kept in touch with many of the women and was able to stage a twenty-fiveyear reunion in 1968. About thirty women attended, and they were given a tour of the (at that time) Defense Mapping Agency. In 1976, in honor of the US Bicentennial, Bea organized another reunion and attempted to contact all of the former 3M girls still living. In 2016, at the age of ninety-five, Bea was invited to Washington, D.C., to be inducted into the NGA Hall of Fame as a representative of the Military Mapping Maidens (figure 4.4). As a result, she has become the face of the
Figure 4.4 Bea Shaheen MacPherson Represented the “Military Mapping Maidens” When They Were Inducted into the Geospatial Intelligence Hall of Fame, October 4, 2016. Bea is Third from Right. Source: www.nga.mil.
3M girls and featured in articles on the AMS and as a notable alumna of Kent State University. OFFICE OF STRATEGIC SERVICES On July 11, 1941, five months before Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt established an intelligence organization titled the Office of the Coordinator of Information (COI), which was authorized to collect and analyze information and data relevant to national security. The COI was headed by William Donovan who reported directly to the president. The name was changed on June 13, 1942 to the OSS. In 1941, the search began for staff of the newly formed agency. One of those early recruits was Arthur Robinson, a PhD geography graduate student at Ohio state. He began at the geographic division of the COI Research and Analysis Branch on October 16, 1941 and then was asked to create the Cartography Section. While most people think of spies when they hear “OSS,” the majority of the more than 200 geographers in the organization8 were in the Research and Analysis Branch and within the geography division there were three sections: cartographic, map information, and geographic reports. The Cartographic Section prepared materials for the planning staff as well as maps to illustrate the agency’s reports, but it was quickly realized that there was a need for specialized intelligence maps on a variety of topics and at all scales and production of these became an important part of the mission. This section produced customized thematic maps for the President, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies, and the Board of Economic Warfare. The Map Information Section was formed to procure, inventory, and evaluate all published maps so they could be used effectively in research and portrayal. The Geographic Reports Section, which was later reorganized into regional units, collected, interpreted, and presented in written form all of the data pertinent to any assigned task.9 By February 1, 1942, the Cartographic Section was fully operational, with Robinson as chief. While Robinson later became well known, the other cartographers of the Cartographic Section did not. One of the first cartographers, and the first woman in Robinson’s pioneering group, was Marion Frieswyk (maiden name unknown) in 1942. Marion was twenty-one years old and a graduate student at Clark University in Massachusetts. Marion produced customized maps and 3D topographic models for the Cartographic Section. When the OSS was dissolved in 1945, Marion stayed with the Cartographic Section which became part of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). At the same time Marion was recruited, another graduate student at Clark University, Henry Frieswyk, was
Millie the Mapper and Maps of the Second World War
hired and later married Marion. Marion left the CIA in the 1950s but her husband remained and retired in 1980 as the head of the cartography division.10 In 2016, the OSS was honored with the Congressional Gold Medal. Twenty OSS veterans went to Washington, D.C. and ninety-six-year-old Marion Frieswyk was there. TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY The TVA was established in the 1930s for the study of the Tennessee Valley region concerned with the processes in the region that affected the physical configuration that influenced erosion, flooding, reservoir construction, and hydroelectric power. By the end of the 1930s, the agency had charted a million acres, over 1,500 square miles of the region. By the summer of 1941, while the United States was still officially at peace, there was concern about the possibility of an invasion by Axis forces and a recognition that our maps of the US coasts were inadequate. The army called upon the TVA to map specific coastal areas and industrial facilities. To this end, the TVA mapped possible invasion sites in New York state, South Carolina, and the Texas Gulf Coast—a total of 24,000 square miles.11 In 1942, the army realized that its mapping requirements were larger than it could handle and it called on the TVA in July 1943 for help in preparing surveys of enemy-held territories. The first task was to map 30,000 square miles of Nazi-occupied France. As with other agencies at the time, the TVA suffered from personnel attrition. Many of their male employees were drafted into the military—470 TVA mapping experts and technicians were acquired from the TVA’s Maps and Surveys Division alone. The agency began hiring women for a variety of traditionally male roles. At first, the agency wanted college graduates, preferably with degrees in math or art. When there were not enough with those credentials, a college degree became the requirement and finally the TVA began hiring high school graduates. These women were trained to be mapmakers working from aerial photographs. Ultimately the Maps and Surveys Division of the TVA began employing and training women for work as draftsmen, computers, cartographers, and photogrammetrists. By early 1944, 230 women, 185 of whom were college women, mostly graduates, had been employed by the TVA.12 Over 500 men and women worked nearly 1.5 million hours over the course of the war.13 Because of the team nature of the TVAs work, where each worker had a specific task in creating a map, products by individual women do not exist, but the roster of members of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM) in 1946 listed six women members of the ACSM from
the TVA. All of these women were listed as engineering draftsmen. One woman who served during this time was Charlotte Shields (died 1976), who was featured in a newspaper article after her death. Charlotte was a former University of North Carolina art student who went to work for TVA in 1943 and was heavily involved in mapping of the French coastline. She was also enlisted by TVA to travel in the local region to recruit other young women into the program.14 OTHER AGENCIES One of the best-known women of the war years was Evelyn Pruitt (1918– 2000) who began her work at the US Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1942. Pruitt received her BA and MA from UCLA—the latter by written examinations in 1943 because she was already in Washington, D.C. She was one of the few trained geographers in the Aeronautical Chart branch and she was given a P (professional) rating that indicated continuing employment. She was listed as a member of ACSM in 1946 as a cartographer with the Coast and Geodetic Survey, but by 1948 she was with the Office of Naval Research (ONR), which was established by President Truman in 1946 to sponsor scientific research. Pruitt remained with ONR until her retirement in 1973. One of the tasks of the ONR’s geography branch was air photo interpretation, which in the 1950s was a rapidly changing technology. Pruitt has been given credit for coining the term “Remote Sensing.”15 MAP LIBRARIANS While not mapmakers, map librarians were especially important for the wartime mapping effort. As noted earlier, one of the major problems at the start of the war was finding maps to use as sources. The war department was seeking older maps, city plans, port plans, gazetteers, guide books, and place name lexicons for places outside of the United States and Canada as reference materials for intelligence work and as a basis for making new maps. The war department was especially interested in maps from the previous ten years. Although some maps were compiled from aerial photographs, these photographs were not always available in the early days of the war. Announcements were printed in professional journals and magazines for the public to donate maps “for the duration” or until the maps could be reproduced. The announcements stated that the maps could be mailed to Miss. Viohla Klipell, Head of the New York Public Library (NYPL) Branch of the AMS. The NYPL map collection thus became a major source of maps for the war
Millie the Mapper and Maps of the Second World War
effort. Important female librarians during the war included Dorothy Lewis who served as the map librarian for the Department of State, and Clara Le Gear, who was the assistant chief of the Division of Maps of the Library of Congress (LOC). Le Gear (1896–1944) began her career at the LOC in 1914 in the cataloging division where she was essentially a clerk-typist. In 1915, she transferred to the LOC Division of Maps and Charts and continued her education obtaining a BA in library science in 1930 and a MA in 1936 in library science with a minor in geology.
ATTITUDES TOWARD WOMEN Although there appears to be no debate about the value of the services these women performed, reading contemporary articles reveals some surprising attitudes about the women. Victor Martin, writing in The Military Engineer in 1944, noted that 3,151 women worked for the Corps of Engineers. Of course, not all were in mapping; some were in heating and plumbing for instance. But it does show the impact of women. There is a paternalistic attitude and a certain amount of condescension in his words. Martin speaks of a 5 foot 2 inches girl who worked in the field with a survey crew: “The first time out, the men fell over themselves trying to help the tiny mite in jodphurs and boots; but today when she is on the job, she is the boss, believe it or not” (italics mine).16 Contemporary photographs often show women posed over drafting tables or stereoscopes and air photos, but there are also many photos that show, for example, a woman perched on a ladder in high heels and a skirt, apparently to show that these women could be cute or even sexy and that the mapmakers were not dull drudges. Elisabeth M. Herlihy, who was the chair of the Massachusetts State Planning Board, presented a paper at the 1944 meeting of the ACSM. A report on the meetings said: Miss Elisabeth M. Herlihy, the first woman to appear on a Congress program, glamorized surveying and mapping. She covered a broad field of state planning and pointed out specific cases with respect to the importance of surveying and mapping information. She won the attention and hearty applause of all those present, and even the “hard boiled” engineers and surveyors were made to realize that woman’s place transcends the boundaries of home.17
Although such comments may seem somewhat paternalistic, it is clear that the reviewer was impressed. Miss. Herlihy’s paper was published as an article in the ACSM Bulletin in January 1945.
AFTER THE WAR There was the feeling that these jobs would be temporary and that they would be filled by returning men after the way. A. O. Quinn published an article in the ACSM Bulletin18 where he reviewed women’s training, employment problems, and postwar probabilities, and he pointed out that women could succeed in the work, but he doubted that large numbers of women would be trained and working as engineers after the war. One concern of the time was retention. A. O. Quinn of the TVA noted that frequently after an employer had spent months of time and substantial sums in training, some women left on short notice to join a husband at an army post, and some single girls married and left before the agency could benefit from their training.19 Anticipating the twenty-first-century STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Math) emphasis for women, he lamented that the use of women in surveying and mapping had been “greatly impeded by a tendency on the part of colleges not to encourage women to take courses in science, mathematics, and mechanical drawing”20so that employers had to provide training courses. At the war’s end, returning men resumed their jobs and women were displaced from their positions. For example, in 1942, the AMS had a total of 2,107 civilian employees, of whom 543 were women. By 1945 the total was 3,123 and 58 percent were women. But in 1946, the percentage of women had dropped to 37 percent.21 Many of the women who began as map drafters at various agencies continued in government service, especially those with degrees in geography, and some moved to higher level supervisory or research positions as we saw with Evelyn Pruitt. The number of women who joined professional organizations during the war would indicate that they intended to make a career and many did. The 1946 directory of the ACSM listed twenty-four women of the 1,177 total members. Quinn, in discussing the outlook for postwar surveying and mapping jobs for women stated: The call of the home will still be with us, and the investment of time and effort involved in a complete engineering education is greater that is warranted by the relatively brief space during which the average girl works between the end of her school days and the beginning of married life. There are some successful women engineers who have made this work their life careers. This group will undoubtedly increase in the future, but probably will not amount to a very large proportion of the professional surveyors and map makers.22
Quinn assumed that married women would not continue to work.
Millie the Mapper and Maps of the Second World War
Not everyone shared Quinn’s opinion that women’s numbers would be few. Hubert A. Bauer, in a 1945 monograph on the vocation and profession of cartography, noted: With several years of excellent work to their credit, women’s place in cartography appears to be established. In fact, there are several phases of cartographic work for which women seem particularly well fit. This is true for government and private employment alike.23
Women proved their abilities in cartography during the war and made it easier for women in the years to follow to enter the field. For many women, the Second World War opened the door as we shall see in the next chapters. NOTES 1. “Education and Training for Defense Mapping: An Open Letter from the Committee on Education and Training.” Bulletin of the National Congress on Surveying and Mapping. 2. “WWII History of the Army Map Service,” http://www.escape_maps/history _army_map_service_wwii.htm. 3. Judith Tyner, “Millie the Mapper and Beyond: The Role of Women in Cartography since World War II.” Meridian, 15 (1999): 23–24. 4. Edna Eisen papers, Kent State University Library. 5. Kent State University Catalogue, 1946–1947. 6. “WWII History of the Army Map Service.” 7. Jan Senn, “On the Map.” Kent State Magazine (Winter 2018): 31–33. 8. At its peak in 1944, the OSS employed almost 13,000 men and women, www. cia.gov/news-information/featured-story-archive/2008-featured-story-archive/offic e-of-strategic-services.html, accessed May 6, 2019. 9. Kirk H. Stone, “Geography’s Wartime Service.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 69, no. 1, Special issue (1979): 91. 10. Miss Ryan, “After a Long Wait, World War II Spy Service Honored for Daring Acts that Helped Secure Allied Victory.” Washington Post, https://washingtonpo st.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2018/3/28after…helped-secure-allied-victory/?noredirec t=on&utm_36a90141a90d, accessed October 31, 2018. 11. www.tva.com/About-TVA/Our-History/heritage/The-Topography-of-War, accessed Match 24, 2018. 12. A.O. Quinn, “Women in Surveying and Mapping.” Bulletin of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (April 1944): 40. 13. www.tva.com. 14. Joe Elliott, “A Soldier Without Uniform, But a Soldier all the Same,” www. citizen-times.com/story/opinion/contributors/2014/07/21/soldier-without-uniform-s oldier/12935025/.
15. H. Jesse Walker, “In Memoriam: Evelyn Lord Pruitt, 1918–2000.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 96, no. 2 (2006): 432–439. Evelyn L. Pruitt, “The Office of Naval Research and Geography.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 69, 103–108. 16. Victor Martin, “Woman Power in the Corps of Engineers.” Military Engineer, 36, no. 224 (1944): 195–196. 17. ACSM Bulletin, July 1944, pp. 5–6. 18. A.O. Quinn, “Women in Surveying and Mapping,” 37–40. 19. Quinn, “Women in Surveying and Mapping,” 39–40. 20. Quinn, “Women in Surveying and Mapping.” 21. “WWII History of the Army Map Service.” 22. Quinn, “Women in Surveying and Mapping,” 40. 23. Hubert A. Bauer, Cartography (Map Making) (Vocational and professional monograph No. 60) (Boston: Bellman Publishing Co. Inc., 1945).
Women Professors and Researchers Their Role in an Emerging Discipline
Cartography at colleges and universities can be divided into three main periods: the normal school era, pre-Second World War, and post-Second World War. The kinds of cartographic work and research carried out in these three periods are quite different, but women were involved in all three. NORMAL SCHOOLS US Normal schools, which were first established in the mid-nineteenth century with the first private school founded in Vermont in 1823 and the first state-supported school in 1839 in Massachusetts, were designed for training teachers and had a large female population. In fact, by the end of the nineteenth century, there were 166 state, and 165 private normal schools, plus county and city normal schools.1 In these schools, geography was a part of the curriculum from the beginning, and map drawing was a subject for prospective geography teachers, sometimes listed by itself and sometimes included under geographic methods. Educational journals included articles on teaching map drawing in geography classes, but the articles were practical, “how tos,” not research studies. An important normal school geographer Mary Arizona (Zonia) Baber (1862–1956) was a professor at the Cook County Normal School (now Chicago State University), where she was head of the geography and geology department. Best known for her field work, she believed that mapmaking and map reading were a vital part of geography, and she required that students make their own maps. But she did not believe simply learning boundaries and locations of capital cities was of value. She said, “We cannot, I believe, place too high a value upon maps.”2 She continued, “Copying of maps, considered 67
from the educative standpoint, has little, if anything to commend it and much to condemn it.”3 Like Emma Willard, she believed that students should first map familiar areas rather than the country or the world. A promoter of women’s suffrage she was also a believer that women belonged in field work and the university. She was an early member of the Society of Woman Geographers, founded in 1925, because women were not permitted to be members of the all-male Explorer’s Club.4 PRE-SECOND WORLD WAR As more universities opened and normal schools morphed into colleges and universities in the twentieth century, formal cartography courses began to be offered. Cartography was still not considered an academic subject at universities, but rather an adjunct to geography programs. It was a valuable tool, but not a subject of scholarly research. Indeed, Richard Hartshorne, in his classic 1939 work, The Nature of Geography stated: So important, indeed, is the use of maps in geographic work, that, without wishing to propose any new law, it seems fair to suggest to the geographer a ready rule of thumb to test the geographic quality of any study he is making: if his problem cannot be studied fundamentally by maps—usually by a comparison of several maps—then it is questionable whether or not it is within the field of geography.5
Despite this statement of the importance of maps, he went on to say: Because it [cartography] is more essential to geography than in any other science and has been developed to highest extent in geography . . . , it is both natural and reasonable that it should be most closely associated with our science, but it is no more a branch of geography, logically speaking, than is statistics a branch of economics.6 (Italics mine)
The growth of cartography from a mere tool into an academic research discipline can be divided into the period before the Second World War and the postwar period.7 J. Paul Goode offered the first cartography course called such in 1904 at the University of Chicago, which was a major influence in geography at the time. The class was essentially a practical course offered in the “geographic methods” part of the curriculum. Erwin Raisz offered the first cartography course at Columbia University in 1928 while he was still a graduate student (he received his PhD. in geology in 1929). There were no formal textbooks in cartography until Raisz published his General Cartography in 1938.
Women Professors and Researchers
The attitude toward cartography as a tool continued to some extent even into the 1960s. The perception could be seen in the role of cartographers in academia. Many early stage faculty were hired initially to teach cartography and then moved up to teaching “real” geography classes. Staff cartographers, despite the fact that they often worked with a faculty member on mapping research were considered, not academics, but on a par with the secretarial and other “support” staff. There were no cartography organizations or journals until the ACSM was founded in 1941, and at that time it was primarily focused on cartographers working in government and commerce. Geography journals, such as the Annals of the Association of American Geographers, did not publish articles relating to cartography with the exception of histories of maps and discussions of map projections. Although a few pieces on techniques were found in The Professional Geographer; most were in Surveying and Mapping, the journal of the ACSM after its founding. The focus of academic cartography has tended to be on small-scale, thematic maps as opposed to engineering cartography and geologic mapping that concentrated on large-scale maps and charts such as topographic maps and aeronautical charts. That is not to say that these areas were totally ignored, and most map reading and interpretation classes did spend time on such maps as well as projections. Women in academic cartography were conspicuous by their absence in the literature during the early part of the twentieth century, but we have seen that they taught mapmaking in normal schools and teaching colleges. Edna Eisen, was typical of women in this prewar period. Eisen, as we saw in chapter 5, taught at various grade levels before becoming a professor at Kent State College, (now Kent State University) in 1935, which still had a teaching focus. She taught mapmaking there before and during the Second World War. She also wrote numerous articles on geographic education, one of which concerned the use of maps and graphs in the teaching of elementary geography in 1932.8 Her 1937 book, (mentioned in chapter 4) Our Country from the Air, was an early treatment of air photos that provided pictures and descriptions of various areas seen from the air.9 She created the maps for her dissertation in 1948. POST-SECOND WORLD WAR Major changes took place after the Second World War, based largely on experiences of cartographers, especially Arthur Robinson, who worked in government agencies during the war. Arthur Robinson et al. stated that cartography “has emerged by 1976 into an identifiable scholarly and scientific field in contrast to its status 50
years earlier.”10 They noted that prior to the Second World War there were relatively few academic courses in cartography and that most of those were practical training courses for geography students, and thus not focused on theory. After the war, the number of institutions offering cartography rose from 29 in 1948/49 to 264 in 1972/73 and the number of courses went from fewer than 45 to more than 450.11 In fact, the rise of academic cartography as a research discipline can be attributed, in large part, to the Second World War. As we have seen, hundreds of cartographers, photo interpreters, and geographers were employed in mapmaking during the war. This marks the beginning of cartography as an “emerging discipline” as John Wolter labeled it in his 1975 dissertation.12 The emerging discipline was often called “geographic cartography” and had an emphasis on map design, map use, and map communication especially in thematic cartography as opposed to the work in civil engineering and geology. The first cartographic organization in the United States, the ACSM, began during the Second World War in 1941 and published the first mapping journal in the United States, Surveying and Mapping. There were no women members at the outset, but of the 505 members in 1942, there were four women, all of whom were employed by the government. By 1946, the number of women had grown to twenty-four and again they were all employed by the government in some capacity, and none were listed as academics at that time.13 “When the Association of American Geographers was formed, there was no cartography profession in the United States.”14 Federal agencies were involved with large-scale general purpose maps and they were staffed by engineers and draftsmen. Some academic geographers practiced thematic mapping to illustrate their research.15 In 1950 and 1951 the Association of American Geographers included a session in their annual conference for those with an interest in cartography. The number of those who expressed an interest was 242, and of those 40 were women.16 Arthur Robinson who had headed the mapping division of the OSS, returned to civilian life and completed his dissertation at Ohio State University under the direction of Guy Harold Smith. His doctoral dissertation, Foundations of Cartographic Methodology (1947), is considered the first true cartographic dissertation in the United States. It was published as The Look of Maps in 1952. Unlike most books on cartography of the time, it was not a textbook or “how-to” book. Instead, it analyzed cartographic design. Robinson’s wartime experiences in cartography impressed upon him the need for a different approach to cartography. He recognized that more was required than simply drafting—that map reading and interpretation was needed, and that the symbolism of thematic maps and how maps worked, was important. Academic cartography in the United States was founded by Robinson and three other men, George Jenks (who had been in the Army Air Corps),
Women Professors and Researchers
John Sherman, and Norman Thrower (who served in India as a member of the British Armed Forces). Only Robinson and Thrower wrote dissertations on cartographic subjects—Jenks noted that at that time, students did not write theses or dissertations on cartographic problems—all were instrumental in establishing cartography programs at universities: Robinson at University of Wisconsin, Madison, Jenks at the University Kansas, Sherman at the University of Washington, and Thrower at UCLA. All of these men became mentors to women students in cartography and these universities became the top four institutions in cartographic theses and dissertations. Although Norman Thrower is not usually listed as a founder in the literature because he is technically a “second generation” cartographer because he wrote his dissertation under Arthur Robinson. However, he was a contemporary of Robinson, Jenks, and Sherman, and began teaching cartography at UCLA in 1957. Thus, I am including him as one of the founding mentors. In 1991, the journal Cartography and Geographic Information Science published a special issue devoted to the history of academic cartography.17 It included an overview article by McMaster and McMaster that detailed four major periods of academic geography, and a summary of the major names in the field. The rest of the journal focused on brief histories of major cartography departments. In the introductory article, McMaster and McMaster included a section titled “Women in Academic Cartography.” Three paragraphs long, it was basically a list of women and their mentors and a few major accomplishments because “it is not possible to be comprehensive in this paper.”18 This gives short shrift to the women who were in the field for nearly forty years from the first thesis by a woman to the time of the article’s publication. A follow-up entry by Robert McMaster published in Volume Six of the History of Cartography (HOC) doesn’t have a section specifically on women, but Volume Six does have a separate entry on women cartographers in the twentieth century.19 At the time, these early women were getting their degrees, there were no women mentors in cartography and few in geography departments in general. As the normal schools were converted into universities and the early women retired, they were not replaced. Janice Monk noted that in the 1950s and 1960s many of those institutions were initiating graduate programs and longtime women faculty were retiring or not welcome as “upgrading” departments sought prestige.20 As an example, UCLA had two well-known women geographers on the faculty in the 1940s and 1950s—Ruth Baugh and Myrta McClellen, who were both hired in 1913; McClellen retired in 1941 and Baugh in 1956. After that there were no women faculty members until 1974.21 Who were the academic women cartographers? What sorts of topics did they write on? What did they do after receiving their degrees?
Of the early MA theses, the first two were actually the production of a map with a discussion of the area shown or of the map’s creation. One was A Relative Relief Map of West Virginia by Sister Mary Schaffner in 1960 at the Catholic University of America, and the second was A Koeppen Map of the Sub Continent of India by Norine Mattimore at Clark University. In 1963, Judith Tyner (nee Zink), at UCLA (see below), wrote a thesis on the history of lunar cartography and the cartographic techniques employed. Seven dissertations were written between 1966 and 1977—three at Wisconsin, one at George Peabody College for Teachers, one at Kansas, and one at UCLA. All of these degrees were in geography departments, but focused on cartographic subjects.22 I look next at four woman academics who were among the first to write dissertations on cartography. Although they were of the same era, they had somewhat different careers. Mei-Ling Hsu (1932–2009), the first woman to write a dissertation on cartographic theory completed her dissertation, An Analysis of Isarithmic Accuracy, in 1966 at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, with Arthur Robinson as her chair. She became a member of the University of Minnesota’s geography department in 1965 and remained there until her retirement. Mei-Ling had interests in both cartography and the geography of China, and at Minnesota she built the cartography and GIS programs and was the first director of the university’s China Center. She also served as geography department chair from 1994–1997. Her research was in cartographic symbolization, early Chinese cartography, and map projections. Among her publications were The Fidelity of Isopleth Maps: An Experimental Study, and articles on the Han and Qin maps. She continued to create maps as well as write about them with a number of published maps. This was somewhat unusual since most academic women cartographers taught mapmaking but did not make maps after graduate school. In the academic world, creating maps was not considered research. Barbara Petchenik nee Bartz (1939–1992)23 also received her PhD from Madison with Arthur Robinson. She originally intended to concentrate on physical geography, but in 1964 after obtaining her MA she became the cartographic editor with the Field Enterprises Education Corporation in Chicago where she designed and researched material for the World Book Encyclopedia. This caused her to change her mind about her focus in graduate school and she received her PhD in 1969, concentrating on cartography. Her dissertation title was Type Variations and the Problems of Cartographic Type Legibility. For five years she worked at the Newberry Library in Chicago as cartographic editor, and from 1975 until her death she was the senior sales representative of cartographic services for the R.R. Donnelly and Sons Company. Although she was not working at a university she continued impressive
Women Professors and Researchers
research and publication productivity. At the Newberry, she was coauthor of The Atlas of Early American History. With Arthur Robinson, she cowrote The Nature of Maps: Essays Toward Understanding Maps and Mapping, now considered a classic in cartography. She was especially interested in cartographic education and maps for children, especially atlases for children. She was active in most of the cartographic organizations of the time, including the International Cartographic Association (ICA) and a member of the US National Committee to ICA. She was the first woman to be elected a vice president of the ICA whose executive committee consists of seven vice presidents, the president, the past-president, and a secretary general. The Barbara Petchenik “Children’s World Map Competition” was set up in her honor after her untimely death. Judy Olson, Robinson’s third woman PhD received her degree in 1970. Her dissertation was titled The Effects of Class Interval Systems on the Visual Correlation of Choropleth Maps. Judy’s career was in academia started at University of Georgia, she then moved to Boston University and finally she joined the faculty at Michigan State University where she worked from 1983 until her retirement. She was department chair from 1989–1994. She served as editor of The American Cartographer (1977–1982), president of the American Cartographic Association, vice chair of the ICA from 1992 to 1999 as the replacement chosen by the United States after Petchenik’s death, and as president of the Association of American Geographers from 1995–1996. Judy supervised a number of PhDs and MAs of the second generation of women academic cartographers including Cynthia Brewer, who received both her MA and PhD with Judy. Kathryn Ford Thorne and Amy Lobben were also Judy’s students. Judy’s publications focus largely on color in cartography. I was the fourth of the PhDs from the four “founding fathers.” I received all of my degrees at UCLA where I studied with Richard Dahlberg and Norman J. W. Thrower—both Robinson students. Both my MA and PhD in geography focused on cartographic subjects. My MA thesis which I began with Dahlberg and completed with Thrower when Dahlberg left UCLA, was titled Lunar Cartography: 1610–1961 and was a study of cartographic methods, such as terrain representation and projections on lunar maps, and had a sizeable historic element. My dissertation was titled Persuasive Cartography: A Subjective Tool of Communication (1974) in which I coined the term “persuasive cartography.”24 Before receiving my PhD I went into the academic world, and taught at California State University, Long Beach (formerly California State College, Long Beach). When I arrived at California State University Long Beach (CSULB), the emphasis was on teaching and the department had only two classes related to cartography—cartography and map reading.
Since CSULB was state university that did not offer a PhD, I did not advise doctoral students. But three of my MA students went on to receive doctoral degrees at other institutions. My teaching and research work had two foci— teaching map design and map reading, and history of cartography. Through the years, I introduced advanced cartography, remote sensing, history of cartography, and a seminar in cartography. Because in the 1970s and 1980s, the government specifications for the rating as “cartographer” changed, I worked with other departments on campus including civil engineering and art to create a certificate program in cartography that would meet the government requirements for a position in cartography. My publications include two textbooks on map reading, two textbooks on cartography and map design, and a scholarly book on embroidered maps and women’s geographic education as well as numerous articles and chapters on cartography and history of cartography. Two other early women with PhDs in cartography followed quite different paths. Patricia Caldwell received her PhD at UCLA in 1979 studying with Norman Thrower. Her dissertation was titled Television News Maps: An Examination of Their Utilization, Content and Design. Unlike most who obtained PhDs and went into university teaching and academic writing, Patricia balanced commercial mapmaking with teaching. She owned her own cartographic and consulting firm, Caldwell and Associates, which created maps for various clients including organizations and publishers, especially textbook publishers. She also taught at community colleges in Northern California. She has been involved with various cartographic organizations, first as a member ACSM and later as president of the American Cartographic Association—a member organization of ACSM. Prior to her graduate work, she worked as a staff cartographer in the Department of Oceanography at the University of Washington, and she also worked briefly for the Central Intelligence Agency. Sona Karentz Andrews followed a quite different path from most of the women mentioned previously. After obtaining an MA and PhD at Arizona State University, she became involved in university administration. Her 1981 dissertation was titled Tactual Thematic Mapping: Graduated Circle and Choropleth Maps. Although she has held positions as a professor of geography at several universities and she has published numerous cartographic articles, she ultimately gravitated toward university administration: Serving as assistant vice chancellor, associate vice chancellor, and vice provost at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; provost and vice president for academic affairs at Boise State University; and from 2012 to the present as provost and vice president for academic affairs at Portland State University in Oregon.
Women Professors and Researchers
CARTOGRAPHY AS A RESEARCH TOOL Maps have been used as tools of research in many fields from early days. In fact, Norman Thrower said that the highest use of cartography is to find out by mapping that which cannot be discovered by other means.25 The researcher plots information on a base map in order to determine patterns and trends. One of the most famous examples is the Cholera Map of London by Dr. John Snow in 1855. Snow placed a dot on the map for each reported instance of cholera and the resulting pattern pinpointed a particular public water well as the source of the outbreak. His original map was not a finished map for publication, but a research tool. An equally significant twentieth-century example is the map of the oceans floor by Marie Tharp in 1957. Marie Tharp (1920–2006) is now probably the best-known woman cartographer of the mid-twentieth century, famous for her mapping of the world’s oceans in the 1950s; however, until the past thirty years or so, she was not widely known and only in her later years did she receive recognition and honors for her work (figure 5.1). Tharp was born in 1920 and said that she owes her career to the Second World War and would not have made her discoveries if not for the war. Her father, whom she greatly admired, was a soil surveyor,
Figure 5.1 Marie Tharp at Her Desk. Source: Photo Courtesy of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the Estate of Marie Tharp.
and she often went with him on his surveys, thus developing an early interest in maps. When she entered Ohio University about 1939, the primary careers open to women were secretary, nurse, or teacher. As she said, she could not type and could not stand the sight of blood, so that left teaching although it did not really interest her. She changed her major frequently seeking something that would appeal to her and ultimately graduated in 1943 with majors in English and Music plus four minors. In her last year, she took a geology class and saw a notice posted for women to study in the geology department at the University of Michigan. The women were guaranteed a job in the petroleum industry. These kinds of advertisements were not uncommon as a major impact of the war was that as men enlisted or were drafted, traditionally male departments, such as geology were decimated and departments were trying to keep their classrooms as full as possible. Tharp went to Michigan and became one of the “PG Girls”—the Petroleum Geology Girls. When she completed her MS degree, she accepted a job in Tulsa, Oklahoma in the oil industry, but she was not really happy because she could not go into the field and the job did not challenge her. While in Tulsa, she got a second bachelor’s degree in mathematics. In 1948, after the war, she moved to New York to find more interesting work, and she was hired by Columbia University’s Lamont Geological Observatory. Her main qualification that interested Maurice “Doc” Ewing, the head of the laboratory, was her ability to draft. He was not a supporter of women in science, so he put her to work drafting maps for his male graduate students. She began working with Bruce Heezen, a doctoral student in geology, who like her, was a newcomer to the lab. Heezen went to sea taking soundings and Marie remained on shore (women were not allowed on the ships) converting the soundings to profiles and ultimately maps. She used methods devised by Armin K. Lobek to create a physiographic diagram of the bottom of the ocean. The story is well known now—Marie noticed a rift valley in the mid-Atlantic Ridge. When she pointed it out to Heezen, he dismissed it as “girl talk” because it would support the theory of continental drift, and considered it a “crackpot idea.” Ultimately, Marie’s discovery changed the face of geology and helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The well-known “portrait of the oceans” map that many people are familiar with was commissioned by National Geographic and painted by Heinrich Berann, but it was probably her use of the physiographic diagram method for mapping the ridge that made the rift valley visible to Marie (figure 5.2). Heezen died in 1977, but Tharp continued working on the ocean floor maps until her retirement from Lamont in 1982 after which she formed a company to sell maps. In her seventies and eighties her accomplishments were finally recognized and she was honored by the Society of Woman Geographers with a lifetime achievement award in 1996, by the Philip Lee Phillips Society of
Women Professors and Researchers
Figure 5.2 Marie Tharp Sketches. Source: Marie Tharp Collection, Library of Congress. Author Photograph.
the Library of Congress in 1997, and in 1999 was honored by Woods Hole Oceanographic Laboratory as a Woman Pioneer in Oceanography, was given the first Lamont Dougherty Honors Award in 2001, and was inducted posthumously into the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Hall of Fame in 2013. There have been two oral histories of Tharp, and the Tharp-Heezen papers are at the Library of Congress.26 The type of work that Tharp performed is now called cartographic visualization or geospatial visualization. Often, as in the case of the Tharp/Berann maps, a more polished map is made for publication after the initial map research has been completed. CARTOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATORS In chapter 4, we looked at pictorial and illustrated maps that contained artistic elements. Those women primarily had art rather than cartographic training. However, maps for textbooks, journal articles, and other scholarly publications usually are made by those with cartographic and, often, geographic training. Erwin Raisz called these people “cartotechnicians.”27 In the pre-GIS period, many universities had a cartographic production laboratory staffed by
a graduate student or a staff member who would produce maps for faculty, not only in geography, but also history, anthropology, sociology, and other departments. In chapter 4 I noted that Karen Fonstad held such a staff cartographer position. If there was no such facility, or in addition to a formal lab, students who had exhibited skills in map drawing would create maps. The students would be hired by faculty with grant money or department funds and also by fellow students who needed maps for their thesis or dissertation. Essentially, these freelance cartographers were doing work-for-hire. As such, the cartographers received no credit in the publication, and only sometimes, but not usually, they were allowed to put their initials on the maps they made. In chapter 1, I noted Eileen James who made maps for her geographer husband, but received no credit until later years. The kinds of maps made by these cartographers were conventional scientific maps. This situation provided cartography students with experience and entries on their resumes when they applied for jobs outside the university. Most of the women cartography PhD students did such work at some point in their career (I was the UCLA geography department research cartographer while working at the master’s level and also did freelance work for other students). If the department had a laboratory, the staff cartographer was considered a member of the support staff, akin to the secretarial staff. In some departments, such as University of Wisconsin, Madison, the cartography production lab was available to faculty in departments other than geography. GENDERED EXPERIENCES In previous chapters, I have spoken of reactions to women in various aspects of the field. Here I will draw on my own experiences in graduate school and academia, which I believe were quite similar to other women in the early days of academic cartography in the United States. In the 1960s, it was still comparatively unusual for women to be graduate students in geography and, as noted earlier, female mentors at the university level were rare to nonexistent. When I arrived at the UCLA geography department there were no female faculty and no female teaching assistants or research assistants. In fact, while at UCLA, I had only two female instructors. As a junior, I changed my major from mathematics, where the atmosphere was unfriendly to women, to geography, which seemed more welcoming. When I began my graduate studies, I first worked with Richard Dahlberg and then with Norman Thrower, both of whom were very supportive. But some other faculty members were not as encouraging. In the masters’ program, a six-week summer field camp was required, but I was the only woman graduate student eligible for the course at the time. The instructor met with me to discuss perceived problems. He
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went into great detail on what kind of special provisions would be made for me, including a room in the quarters of the facility caretaker and his wife and a motel room at another location where the male students would be sleeping outside in sleeping bags. He finished with noting that, under the circumstances, the geography department would be willing to waive the course requirement for me, if I so chose. To be fair, in those days (1962) the offer was reasonable, and it was likely that my mother would not have approved of me sharing quarters with a dozen male students. I accepted the waiver. Interestingly when I returned for my PhD, as a part of my written exams I had a required weekend field problem, despite the fact that I had not taken the graduate course. Five years after receiving my MA, I returned to UCLA to begin the PhD program. During those five years, I had married a fellow graduate student who went into the military. We traveled to Kentucky, New York, and Germany and he served in Viet Nam. After the military stint was over, we both decided to teach at the college level. We obtained part-time teaching positions at local state colleges. Then, realizing that a PhD would be necessary for tenured positions we began our doctoral studies. My husband applied first to the UCLA geography PhD program in the fall of 1968 and I applied a year later. We found that we had quite different entrance interviews. My husband was asked about his interests and his plans. I was asked if I was serious about getting a degree, and I had the impression that the department might have thought that I was a dilettante going to graduate school for “fun.” I realized that the difference was owing to me being female, married, and having two preschool children. Fortunately, my advisor, Norman Thrower, had been encouraging me to return and was not concerned with the interview or my marital status. I became a full-time member of the geography department at CSULB in 1970. I was chair of seven MA thesis committees specifically on cartography, three of which were by women. I was often the third person on other thesis committees apparently so that I could “vet” the student’s maps, and often I received the thesis at the last minute. The other committee members were often surprised that a cartographer could contribute to the heart of the thesis, despite the fact that my degrees were in geography. This is indicative of the low esteem cartography was held by many older geographers not related to gender. I encountered little gender discrimination in my department, but there was a sense that cartography was not “real” geography. In 1973, Wilbur Zelinsky wrote an opinion piece for the Professional Geographer titled “The Strange Case of the Missing Female Geographer.” In it he noted, “By every objective measure that can be mustered, the lot of the female geographer is, and has been, a discouraging one: and there is little assurance of substantial improvement during the foreseeable future.”28
Zelinski pointed out that “female movie directors, orchestral conductors, and supreme court justices are about as plentiful as lady chairpersons of major departments of geography.”29 At the time of Zelinski’s writing, there had not been a female supreme court justice. The fact that several of these women cartographers just discussed were department chairs, two at major universities and also served in higher positions in universities and were presidents of major cartographic organizations, emphasizes their pioneer status. He also noted: If the woman scholar chooses to bear children, she is expected to drop demurely out of sight temporarily, then stay away partially or permanently. If she should marry, it is usually understood that her career may continue only at the sufferance of her husband; and if both husband and wife are employed, the decision of the man as to the locality in which he will live and work is also binding upon the wife.30
Even into the 2000s, male faculty expressed concern about hiring a married woman, believing that if her husband got a job elsewhere, of course, she would follow him. A problem that surfaced in the later part of the twentieth century was that of a woman married to a male academic within the same field or department. This was related to academia in general, not just cartographers. Until the early twenty-first century, nepotism rules, written and unwritten, precluded two academics having tenure track positions in the same department. Since only very large urban areas were likely to have two geography departments, the “trailing spouse,” usually the woman was given a position as adjunct faculty or a lecturer, usually without the possibility of tenure. Now, spousal hires are possible although there is no guarantee of both being on the tenure track. We noted that several women who obtained PhDs in cartography formed their own mapping companies to make custom maps for publishers and individuals. Chapter 7 will look at governmental and commercial cartography in more detail.
NOTES 1. Janice Monk, “Women, Gender, and the Histories of American Geography.” Annals of the AAG, 94, no. 1 (March 2004): 1–22. 2. Zonia Baber, “The Scope of Geography.” The Elementary School Teacher, 4, no. 5 (January 1904): 264. 3. Baber, “The Scope of Geography,” p. 267.
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4. Janice Monk and Marcella Schmidt di Friedberg, “Mary Arizona (Zonia) Baber.” Geographers Biobibliographical Studies, 30 (2011): 68–79. 5. Richard Hartshorne, The Nature of Geography: A Critical Survey of Current Thought in the Light of the Past (Lancaster, PA: Association of American Geographers, [1939 reprinted 1949]), p. 249. 6. Hartshorne, The Nature of Geography, p. 399. 7. Slocum et al. describe four periods based on the growth of programs. Here I am focused on the rise of PhDs and women in the field. 8. Edna E. Eisen, “Maps and Graphs as Tools in Teaching Geography.” School Science and Mathematics, 32, no. 3 (1932): 302–313. 9. Edna E. Eisen, Our Country from the Air (Chicago: Wheeler Publishing Company, 1937). 10. Arthur H. Robinson, Joel L. Morrison, and Phillip C. Muehrcke, “Cartography 1950–2000.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 2 no. 1 (1977): 3. 11. John Wolter, The Emerging Discipline of Cartography, PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota (1975), pp. 265–266. 12. Wolter, The Emerging Discipline of Cartography. 13. ACSM membership rosters. 14. Arthur Robinson, “Geography and Cartography Then and Now.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 69 no. 1(1979): 97. 15. Robinson, “Geography and Cartography Then and Now,” 97. 16. Professional Geographer. 17. Robert McMaster and Susanna McMaster, “A History of Twentieth-Century American Academic Cartography.” Cartography and Geographic Information Science, special issue, 29, no. 3 (2002). 18. McMaster and McMaster, “A History of Twentieth-Century American Academic Cartography.” 19. Judith Tyner, “Women in Cartography.” In The History of Cartography Volume Six, Cartography in the Twentieth Century, ed. Mark Monmonier, 1758–1761, University of Chicago Press, 2015. 20. Janice Monk, “Women, Gender, and the Histories of American Geography,”1–22. 21. Joan Clemons and Tom McKnight, A Short History of the Geography Department, University of California, Los Angeles, 1882–2002 (UCLA Geography Department, 2002). 22. Although the Monmonier list includes eight dissertations by women, one was a discussion of vernacular regions illustrated with a map and one was a map librarian topic on criteria for the selection of maps for a college map collection. 23. Information on Barbara Petchenik is taken from Hoonaard, Map Worlds and Alberta Auringer Wood, “Barbara Bartz Petchenik: Her Works, Citations to her Works, Works about Her,” Oral presentation ICA, https://mapyear.icai.org/wp-co ntent/…/105/Barbara_Bartz_Petchenik_biographpy.pdf. 24. Tyner, Lunar Cartography: 1610–1962, MA Thesis, UCLA, 1963; Judith Tyner, Persuasive Cartography, A Subjective Tool of Map Communication, PhD Dissertation, UCLA, 1974.
25. Norman J. W. Thrower, Maps and Civilization: Cartography in Culture and Society, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), p. 152. 26. List of sources. 27. Erwin Raisz, “Introduction.” Professional Geographer, 2, no. 6 (1950). 28. Wilbur Zelinsky, “The Strange Case of the Missing Female Geographer.” The Professional Geographer, 25, no. 2 (1973): 101. 29. Zelinsky, “The Strange Case of the Missing Female Geographer,” p. 104. 30. Zelinsky, “The Strange Case of the Missing Female Geographer,” pp. 101–102.
Government Girls and Company Women
When most people think of commercial mapping companies, mapping organizations, or government mapping agencies, they will perhaps identify Rand McNally, the National Geographic Society, and the US Geological Survey. While these are, indeed, probably the largest and best known, there are far more. For example, the American Automobile Association has provided maps made in the Association’s cartography section since 1911 when a map drafting department was formed. Some regional divisions, such as the Auto Club of Southern California, had their own map drafting departments through the twentieth century. Some newspapers and magazines also have departments that produce maps for the publication. The majority of women working in cartography were not PhDs or academics but worked for government agencies, commercial mapping firms, or organizations. They worked as the rank and file of these companies and agencies usually without having their names on the maps they made and often drawing only certain portions of the map. In the earliest days, their training might have been in art or perhaps drafting or even self-taught. I noted in the previous chapter that many women with a PhD in a cartographic subject combined academia with commercial work either in a publishing firm or by founding their own companies. The more recent women in this chapter largely have undergraduate degrees in geography with an emphasis on cartography, but generally were more interested in map drawing than exploring cartographic theory in an academic setting. PIONEERS IN APPLIED CARTOGRAPHY Grace Raymond Hebard (1861–1936) was a remarkable woman with a multifaceted career (figure 6.1). She was born in Iowa in 1861 and received a 83
Figure 6.1 Grace Raymond Hebard at Her Desk. Source: Image Courtesy of the Grace Raymond Hebard Papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.
bachelor’s degree in 1882 in civil engineering with a focus on surveying and mechanical drawing from the University of Iowa; she was the first woman to graduate with this degree from the University of Iowa and possibly the first in the country. There is some debate as to whether she received a Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts degree, but either would have been unusual for a woman studying that subject at that time. As might be expected, as the first woman, she faced some discrimination. She recalled: I met with many discouragements and many sneers, and much opposition to my enrolling in the scientific course, which was then entirely a man’s college. . . . All kinds of discouraging predictions were made that I would fail, that it was impossible for a woman to do the kind of work I was undertaking.1
In 1882, before Wyoming’s statehood, Hebard moved to Cheyenne with her mother, brother, and sisters because of her mother’s health. She took a job at the United States Surveyor General’s office in Cheyenne as one of forty-six draftsmen [sic] at a salary of $100 per month, which was quite good for the time. While there, she took correspondence courses through the University
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of Iowa toward a master’s degree. She realized that her job would not last indefinitely and indeed, by 1889 there were only two people still working in the Surveyor General’s Office and her job ended later in the year when the mapping was completed. She then continued engineering work with an appointment as deputy engineer at the State Engineer’s Office, although she was not doing map drafting. She took a serious pay cut with this job, receiving only $40 per month. The University of Wyoming had been founded by this time and Grace moved to Laramie where she was appointed to the university’s board of trustees and was also made the paid secretary of the board. In 1894, she completed courses for a PhD in political economy from Illinois Wesleyan University, again by correspondence. She was appointed librarian for the university and began building the library’s collection. In 1906, she was appointed associate professor of political economy, eventually being named head of the department. While engaged in these activities, she was admitted to the Wyoming bar in 1898 and admitted to practice law before the Wyoming Supreme Court in 1914 although she never received a law degree. It would seem that Grace’s mapping activities had come to a close, but she began studying the history of the west, especially Wyoming. The result of this was a series of books on such subjects as Jim Bridger, Sacajaweah, Washakie, the Bozeman Trail, and the Pathbreakers from River to Ocean. Many of these books, which were illustrated with maps by Hebard, are still in print and available in newer editions. The maps were in the style that would have been used in the Surveyor General’s Office; they were not pictorial but rather simple black and white line maps with hachuring for terrain and a mix of type and hand lettering. They usually bear the notation “copyright Grace Raymond Hebard” or “prepared by Grace Raymond Hebard” (figure 6.2). However, The Pathbreakers states on the title pages, “with four maps and ninety-three illustrations, many by William H. Jackson.” These maps are different in appearance from those in The Bozeman Trail, and since Hebard’s name or initials are not found on any of them, I assume that she was not the cartographer. Hebard not only made maps for her books, she also drew site plans such as Fort Smith and Fort Reno and Wyoming battlefields. Her initials are on these plans. One of Hebard’s maps that occasionally appears in auctions is a pictorial map called “Map of the History and Romance of Wyoming.” This map bears a copyright date of 1928 and the copyright is in her name. However, a simple cartouche on the map states, “This map is the work of Grace Raymond Hebard and Paul M. Paine.” It is probable that the basic cartography on the map is by Hebard and the pictorial elements are by Paine. Paine made other pictorial maps during the “golden age” of pictorial maps, which lasted from the 1920s to the 1950s (see chapter 4).
Figure 6.2 Map of the Oregon Trail Created by Grace Raymond Hebard and E. A. Brininstool, 1922. Source: Image Courtesy of the Grace Raymond Hebard Papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.
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Hebard’s history writing has been criticized, notably by Mike Mackey2 for inaccuracies and for trying to make the facts fit her preexisting concepts, but she is still considered a Wyoming historian of note and the University of Wyoming Historic Map Collection has been named in her honor; so she can still be considered a pathbreaking female cartographer. Laura Whitlock (1862–1934) did not work for a company or a government agency, but was an independent map publisher. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries women were often listed as map publishers, but usually these women inherited the company when their husband died and they subsequently ran the business. In most cases, the publisher did not make maps but rather had a variety of draftsmen and engravers to do the actual work. Laura Whitlock in the early twentieth century is an exception (figure 6.3).
Figure 6.3 Laura Whitlock, the Official Cartographer of Los Angeles, Date Unknown. Source: Image Courtesy of the Los Angeles Public Library.
Laura was born in 1862 in Iowa but the family moved a bit in her early days and she lived in Nebraska and Vermont as well as Iowa. At some point, she and her widowed mother moved to Los Angeles, California, where initially, Laura was listed in the city directory as a music teacher. By 1907 she was listed as affiliated with the Pacific Coast Travel Club. Later listings progressed to “saleslady of maps.” By 1912 she was listed as “Official Map Publisher,” and by 1930 she had apparently retired. During this time, she was the only female map publisher in the United States. She died in 1934.3 This bare-bones timeline does not reflect the remarkable woman that Laura Whitlock was. There is no information on where Laura learned mapping skills, although, given the time frame, she may have learned map drawing at school. While she was at the Pacific Coast Travel Club, she began making and selling maps that she researched thoroughly and drew herself.4 She studied railroad and engineering maps to create an official map of the city of Los Angeles. At this time, she was working in an office in the Los Angeles Times building. The six original plates of these maps, which were on the press and ready to be published, were destroyed on October 1, 1910, when the Times building was bombed in a terrorist attack. Fortunately, she had kept the drawings in a safe deposit box, and from these drawings she was able to create new plates. However, during this time a dishonest local publisher, T. Blowditch Blunt, pirated her printed maps and sold thousands with no attribution to Whitlock. Blunt also sold the maps to another group for free distribution. Luckily, this caused Laura to strike a blow for then present and future cartographers. Laura had the foresight to copyright her map. A lawyer compared her map with the pirated copies and declared them identical. The lawyer advised her to file a civil suit for damages, but Laura wanted her case to go to the federal courts. She took the maps to the highest federal officer in the federal court and asked him to file a government suit for infringement. The government proceeded with the case for three years during which time Laura made a thorough study of copyright law, learned every decision relating to maps, and could quote “chapter and verse” on copyright law. The final trial in 1913 lasted for eight days and for two of those days she was subjected to uninterrupted interrogation. The case was decided in her favor, and an appeal was denied. Afterward, map publishers throughout the country wrote for copies of the trial transcript.5 The maps created from the rescued materials in the safe deposit box included a large format (43.5 x 31.5 inches) map titled the “Official Transportation and City Map of Los Angeles California and Suburbs” (figure 6.4). Under the title it states “copyright, 1911, by Laura L. Whitlock for Los Angeles Ry.” [railway]. The map is in color and shows the routes of the Pacific Electric Railway system with their destinations in color. A set of concentric
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Figure 6.4 Laura Whitlock Transportation Map of Los Angeles, 1915. Source: Image Courtesy of the Los Angeles Public Library.
circles centered on downtown Los Angeles are drawn at one mile intervals. There was also a separate street index. Present day Los Angeles citizens would be happy to have such transportation systems and maps. In chapter 3 we saw that education for women had changed by the turn of the twentieth century; more had college educations and more worked independently. The period between the First World War and the Second World War and post suffrage had more women having appropriate course work for mapping in high school and it was more common for women to work outside the home. Prior to 1926 the United States did not have a numbered road system and many of the major roads were dirt, not pavement. With increasing automobile travel, a numbered route system was instituted in order to have a consistent structure. State departments of highways were set up as well as an American Association of State Highways. One of the major associations was in Oklahoma under the rule of Cyrus Avery, the Highway Commissioner. Gertrude Bracht (1895–1972) was the daughter of a “sooner,” a pioneer of Oklahoma. Gertrude did private study in art, architecture, and drafting which prepared her for her cartographic work. She joined the Oklahoma State Highway Department in 1923 and remained there for fourteen years. During that time, she was the official mapmaker for the state highway maps. For many years she was the only female drafter in the department. While there, she designed the first official State Highway Department seal and also designed and created the first official state highway map. This map was a 7 by 12-foot map that showed highway construction, and natural and cultural features. Reproductions of the map were mounted behind glass and lighted and placed in large towns, chambers of commerce, and hotels. It was Bracht’s job to keep the map current. Of course, many smaller maps were also created. Reflecting Erwin’s Raisz’s quote about the prominent names on the map often being the people least involved in its making, one can note that on the Oklahoma highway maps, the people named prominently were members of the State Highway Commission, including the State Highway Engineer. At the very bottom in tiny type was the name of the mapmaker, Gertrude Bracht. Indeed, on many early maps, Bracht’s name is not shown at all; though in keeping with the customs of the time, the highway director and his deputies were listed. In December of 1933 Bracht was named Oklahoma’s first “highway beautification engineer” and this was reported in newspapers across the country— as far away as San Jose California. Cartoons appeared in newspapers showing lampposts with frilly shades, highway markers in Old English Script, and “sashes for long-waisted trees.”6 Surprisingly, an important map that Bracht created in 1926, but is not noted in her obituary or other references, is a map of Route 66, titled “The Main Street of America.” At that time, the numbering system for the US highway system was in the process of being established to replace the old informal
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system of named routes, such as the Lincoln Highway, the Dixie Highway, and the National Old Trails Road. The numerical system assigned even numbers to east-west highways and odd numbers to north-south highways. The east-west numbering began in the north with the best known being Route 6, which was the longest transcontinental highway, and ended with Route 90 in the south. North-south numbers began with Highway 1 on the east coast and finished with Highway 101 on the West Coast. Simple though it sounds, there were many disputes over the system. A major argument concerned a route that began in Chicago, headed diagonally southwest to Oklahoma and continued to Los Angeles. Originally, it was to be called Route 60, but there was much disagreement among the states. Ultimately, the highway was designated Route 66—the iconic road of song and television. The numbering system was ultimately approved in 1926. Cyrus Avery, of the Oklahoma State Highway Commission, was a major proponent of naming the disputed highway Route 66, and a map titled “The Main Street of America” showing the entire route was drawn and signed by Gertrude Bracht. The map not only shows the route of Highway 66, it also contains a profile of elevations along the route showing towns. The cartouche is a banner with the Route 66 national highway shield. It is quite possible that this was the first map to name Route 66 “The Main Street of America” (figure 6.5). Bracht retired from the highway department at the comparatively young age of forty-two. She then spent her time at her small suburban farm where she engaged in experimental farming, nature study, and artistic pursuits. Another prominent female cartographer who began her career in the interwar period was Eltea Armstrong (1907–1996). Her maps may be the most unusual of this period. For thirty-seven years she was employed by the Texas General Land Office (GLO) compiling and drawing county maps that were the backbone of the GLO map collection. The Texas GLO is the oldest public agency in Texas, having its origins before Texas became a state. Its mission is to manage Texas public lands, maintain records of land grants and titles, and issue maps of these lands. Armstrong was born in Dale, Texas in 1907 and moved to Austin, Texas as a child. She took a drafting class in high school where she was first introduced to map drawing. Like other women, such as Grace Hebard, Eltea was taunted by male classmates, one of whom said that no girls were able to draft as well as he. However, Eltea was so good that her teacher recommended her for a job at a blueprint company. She worked at that company until 1935 when she was hired by the Texas Reclamation Department which merged four years later with the Texas GLO.7 What makes Eltea unusual is not simply that she was a woman working for a largely male agency, but the nature of the maps she made and the quantity and quality of the maps. Her county maps were not simple outlines labeled with their owners’ names. These were elegantly lettered creations that
Figure 6.5 “Main Street of America” Map Drawn by Gertrude Bracht, ca. 1926. Source: Image Courtesy of Steve Rider.
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included artistic elements. It was estimated that each map required 900 hours to complete, and she made over seventy of these highly detailed county maps before her retirement in 1972. Because she was an artist with an interest in history and the natural world, her maps incorporated these elements (figure 6.6). A typical county map by
Figure 6.6 Armstrong, Eltea, Map of Dickens County, Texas. Source: Image Courtesy of the Texas General Land Office, Austin, Texas.
Eltea included the basic county outlines labeled with their owners’ names, and an ornately lettered title and legend. Her lettering was not typical of maps of the period but highly decorative and often colored. At the same time, the lettering on parcels is the simple, standard lettering of the time. Surrounding the main map are hand-drawn pictorial vignettes representing the county’s character, either a landscape, wildlife, a historic event, or other symbol typical of the county. For example, Armstrong’s 1972 map of Hamilton County illustrates the story of two pioneer women. Randall County, drawn in 1958, includes a drawing of Palo Duro Canyon and also an illustration of the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon—the last major Indian battle in Texas that occurred in 1875. The story of the battle is detailed in text beneath one of the drawings. Armstrong’s 1955 map of Bailey County, which is home to the Muleshoe National Wildlife Preserve, shows birds in flight over the preserve and includes two pictures of pairs of mallard ducks in the title block. These illustrations are not black and white pen drawings but detailed color renderings using stippling—a pointillism technique. Armstrong’s map of Blanco County, the home of Lyndon Baines Johnson, includes the presidential seal and a mini biography of Johnson. She commented about her job: Drafting requires more patience than talent. Many very artistic people do not have the patience to do the detail work necessary for drafting. The scroll parchment is very hard to work on and certainly doesn’t lend itself to correcting mistakes. The inking of the map lettering also requires a great amount of patience.8
Armstrong’s maps certainly display both artistic talents and drafting patience, and her maps are definitely not the common county maps one finds in the mid-twentieth century. The Texas GLO is quite proud of Eltea’s work and has made reproductions of them available through their Archives Map Store.9 POST-SECOND WORLD WAR Although one of the above four women, Grace Hebard, had a civil engineering degree, the others did not have college degrees and they were either self-taught, had taken drafting classes, or learned on the job. However, after the Second World War and the revolution in academic cartography, many women from universities, especially those who received a degree in geography with some cartography training, went to work at government agencies, commercial mapmaking firms, such as Rand McNally, and societies, such as National Geographic. The largest number of cartographers in this category worked virtually anonymously. They worked as map compilers, drafters, and editors. Some
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worked in large drafting rooms in the cartographic equivalent of a production line, some as editors, and a few rose to be supervisors. The kinds of maps they made varied with where they worked, but for the most part, their names did not go down in history. Instead, the publisher got the credit. Although this was true for both men and women, the assumption has been that the employees almost exclusively were male. Even though many women worked in applied cartography, few were recognized in any way. However, in this day of the internet, some of the smaller companies post the employee names and job title that identify the gender. In remainder of this chapter, I will look at the nature of the work of some of the agencies, organizations, institutions, and companies post-Second World War, and focus on a few women. As noted in the introduction, finding and identifying women cartographers is a challenge, but for this group the challenge is even greater because of the nature of their employment. My sources of information have been photographs, word of mouth, computer searchers, personal correspondence, and, in some cases, dumb luck. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES The US government has had many different agencies concerned with mapping as we saw in chapter 5, and each have been concerned with a different type of mapping. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for topographic mapping of the country; the General Land Office (GLO), which later merged with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is responsible for mapping public lands; the army, navy, and air force and coast guard have responsibility for military maps, hydrographic charts, and aeronautical charts, both domestic and foreign, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration was responsible for oceans and shorelines. The military agencies were combined in 1972 as the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) to provide mapping, charting, and geodesy support to the Secretary of Defense, the Military Departments, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff; in 1996, it was reorganized as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), and in 2004 it became the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). Women have been involved in mapping all of these government agencies from early times, and we saw the contributions of Grace Hebard and Eltea Armstrong to the GLO. Many women worked in various agencies during and after the Second World War, a few of which are highlighted next. USGS USGS, established in 1879, is one of the oldest government agencies. It is a scientific agency within the Department of the Interior and currently employs
over 8,000 people. One of its major functions has been the topographic mapping of the United States. Although outside of the time frame of this work, it is worth noting that USGS has now had two female directors: Marcia McNutt from 2009–2013 and Suzette Kimball from 2014–2017. In 1990 the Department of the Interior, in honor of Women’s History Month, produced a booklet titled Profiles of Women at Work in the Department of the Interior that featured women who had worked in various agencies. Three of the women selected worked as cartographers at USGS.10 Patricia Bridges began her career in government with the Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center (ACIC) in 1956. She was a scientific illustrator with expertise in airbrush techniques that are often used when mapping terrain, when the first ACIC lunar charts were being produced in the early 1960s. By combining photo interpretation techniques, telescope observations and the use of air brush and electric eraser tools, Bridges was able to make large-scale shaded relief lunar maps—essentially the lunar equivalent of topographic maps. The ACIC was headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri, but the lunar work was moved to Flagstaff, Arizona, where the US Naval Observatory was located. She retired briefly to raise a family, but was called out of retirement in 1970 by the new USGS Branch of Astrogeology in Flagstaff, Arizona to resume her career in mapping twenty-two planets and satellites of the solar system. She is the author of at least 150 published maps, and numerous articles on her techniques.11 No book on planetary mapping is complete without mention of her name. As an indication of the respect she earned, an asteroid was named in her honor12 (figure 6.7). Another cartographer with the USGS Astrogeology Branch was Kathleen Edwards, who began working there in 1963. Her work involved remote sensing as well as computer mapping in the early days of that technology. Edwards made mosaics of the 90,000 pictures returned by the multiple Surveyor space crafts that landed on the moon in 1966 and 1967. She wrote computer programs to aid in making maps of landing sites and was in charge of a team in the compilation of a computer mosaic of images that covered all of Mars.13 NGA Irene Kaminka Fischer (1907–2009) was a geodesist who, like Marie Tharp, owed her career to the Second World War, but in a different way. Fischer was born in Vienna, Austria where she had studied mathematics at the University of Vienna and descriptive and projective geometry at the Technical University of Vienna. She married a geographer, Eric Fischer, in 1931, and together they founded and ran a kindergarten in Vienna. However, in 1939, with the Nazi takeover of Austria, she and her husband and their daughter fled Austria on a
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Figure 6.7 Patricia Bridges Creates a Lunar Map ca. 1963. Source: Lowell Observatory Archives. Courtesy of Patricia Bridges.
journey that took them two years and eventually bringing them to Boston in 1941. There she worked in a variety of jobs including grading blue books for professors at Harvard and MIT. Her son was born in 1946, and after he reached school age, Irene looked for a full-time job. She was hired at the Geodesy Branch of the Army Map Service in 1952 where her husband already had a position in a different branch. During her twenty-five years at the AMS she was instrumental in developing what became the World Geodetic System—the standard datum for cartography, geodesy, and GPS. The Fischer Ellipsoid of 1960 was instrumental in the Mercury and Apollo lunar missions. While she didn’t specifically draw maps, her datum made accurate mapping of the moon possible. During her career, Fischer published over 120 scientific papers. She also published her autobiography, Geodesy? What’s That? My Personal Involvement in the Age-Old Quest for the Size and Shape of the Earth, that details her work and experiences with the government. She received many honors including induction into the National Imaging and Mapping Hall of Fame, and the Learning Center at the NGA was named in her honor. Mary G. Clawson is considered a pioneer in the use of digital geospatial data to solve problems in advanced weapons systems.14 Clawson earned a
Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Maryland in 1970, and her first cartography job was as a draftsperson for the Baltimore Regional Planning Council where she created a digital outline map of the region using a keypunch. In these very early days of “computer mapping,” outlines were created from coordinates of the vertices along outline, keypunched onto cards (generally called IBM cards) and printed from alphanumeric printers—there were no plotters, scanners, laser printers, or inkjet printers. Clawson was one of the few married female cartographers of the time. Typical of that era, when Clawson’s husband moved, so did she. The couple lived in Kansas for a while, where she worked in the soils lab of the University of Kansas creating a color soils map of Kansas. This was her first published map. In 1974, she began work at the Defense Mapping Agency Hydrographic Center, in the Military Charts branch (which is now part of NGA) and also began working on her MA at the University of Maryland, which she completed in 1979. Interestingly, for a cartographer who worked with digital geospatial data, her thesis topic was a historical one: The Evolution of Symbols on Nautical Charts prior to 1800. In 1981, she left DMA to work with the IIT Research Institute, again working with digital maps. In 1984, she was recruited by the Department of the Navy to work with weapons systems developers on geospatial products. During her career, Clawson was very active in mapping organizations, especially the ACSM and the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
SOCIETIES AND ORGANIZATIONS National Geographic Society The National Geographic Society (NGS) is probably the best known of the mapping societies. It was formed in 1888 as an organization of academics, explorers, and scientists who were interested in travel and exploration. Among early members were the geologists Grove Karl Gilbert and John Wesley Powell, and inventor Alexander Graham Bell. There were no women among the original thirty-three members; however, many women have worked for the Society through the years; one of the best known was Alice Rechlin (1932–2002). Rechlin joined National Geographic in 1986 as an academic who had taught from the 1950s to 1986 and served as the department chair at Valparaiso University in Indiana.15 Alice, unlike many of the women in this section had advanced degrees, although not in cartography; her dissertation and much of her academic research dealt with the spatial organization of the Amish. She was the first woman to hold the title “geographer” at the
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NGS. There, she was a cartographic supervisor and oversaw the completion of the Society’s sixth edition world atlas during the time of the breakup of the Soviet Union and the reunification of Germany. She also officiated during the society’s Geography Bees. She retired in 1997, but continued for several years after as a consultant for the grant committee.16 A scholarship was named in her honor by Gamma Theta Upsilon—the International Geographical Honor Society. World Bank The World Bank is not an agency that comes immediately to mind when considering organizations involved with mapmaking. However, they have a Maps and Charts Unit that “produces maps that portray the substantial geographic information contained in lending project documents for consideration by the Bank’s Board of Directors.”17 In 1971, the unit had 14 people who produced 600 maps for that year whereas earlier there was only one cartographer.18 The Cartography Section within the Art and Design Division was created by Florence Doleman. The cartographers had a higher pay grade than the cartographic technicians in the Cartography Section. The process in the Cartography Section involving cartographers meeting with the client, gathering data and source maps, and directing the map construction, which was done either by an in-house technician or a contractor. Each mapmaking team, which consisted of one cartographer and one cartographic technician, focused on a particular region, such as Sub-Saharan Africa. During most of the 1960s and 1970s, there was a mix of male and female cartographers, and in the earliest days most had come from art backgrounds. This changed in the 1970s as more cartographers and technicians with university cartography educations were hired.19 Florence Dolman retired from the World Bank in 1974 and by that time the staff included five cartographers, five cartographic technicians, and a map editor. Adventure Cycling Association While we perhaps automatically think of AAA and road maps, we may not consider the need for maps for bicycle tourists or indeed realize the great popularity of long-distance bicycle touring. Adventure Cycling is an organization that had its roots in 1972 by four couples who planned a cycling expedition from Alaska to Argentina. While on the tour they had the idea of a bicycle tour across the United States to celebrate the country’s bicentennial in 1976—they named the tour “Bikecentennial ’76.” They realized the need for specialized bicycle maps for the tour and by the fall of 1975 a dozen staff members were creating and mapping the Trans America Trail. More than
4,000 cyclists took part in the 1976 tours. From this beginning, the Adventure Cycling Association was formed and headquartered in Missoula, Montana. In addition to publishing a magazine called Adventure Cycling, the major activity of the organization is designing bicycle routes for long-distance touring in the United States and creating maps of these routes. As of this writing, there are twenty-six routes. For each route, there is a series of maps covering segments of the route and the maps include such things as elevation profiles, services information (including food, lodging, bicycle repairs), road conditions, distances, and field notes that provide information about the area.20 Carla Majernik21 is the Routes and Mapping Department Director at Adventure Cycling. She is a veteran of Bikecentenial ’76 and she has worked for the organization since 1983. The Routes and Mapping Department has three women in addition to Carla, two with degrees in geography from the University of Montana and one with a degree in botany from University of Wyoming with a GIS/remote sensing focus. Majernik has a BS in Design from the University of Cincinnati, but she did a lot of architectural drafting and these skills transferred to mapping. Carla notes that when a map is updated, it is usually assigned to one cartographer and when a new route or map is created, it is designed by a single cartographer; although eventually, especially as the print date nears, the entire department will be involved. Today as director of the cartography program, Majernik’s duties are more involved with management, such as scheduling of updates and new routes as well as the work the department does for other programs within the organizations, such as producing maps for the magazine, tours that Adventure Cycling offers, and planning research for proposed routes. Of course, she also has the tasks that a director of any program has—producing and reviewing budgets, supervising staff, and working with other directors to achieve the organization mission and outreach. COMMERCIAL FIRMS Throughout the history of the United States there have been numerous commercial mapping firms, such as Rand McNally, Hammond, Gousha, and General Drafting that have specialized in various kinds of maps and atlases. Walter Ristow studied the firms of the nineteenth century in American Maps and Map Makers: Commercial Cartography in the 19th Century.22 Most of these companies employed women and that can be seen in old photographs, such as those of Rand McNally in the Newberry Library Collection that show women performing various mapmaking tasks. In this section23 I will look at a specialized mapping firm that was not as well-known as Rand McNally and
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Hammond, but was of considerable importance on the West Coast—Thomas Bros. Maps. Thomas Bros. Maps Thomas Bros. Maps was a specialty mapping firm in California most noted for producing street guides for various cities. For decades, The Thomas Guide could be found in every taxi and delivery van and in almost every private automobile in California. The “Tommy Guide” was considered essential for navigating California cities in the pre-GPS era. Thomas Bros. was founded in 1915 in Oakland, California by George Coupland Thomas and his two brothers. They made wall maps at first, but they expanded into tourist maps and moved to Los Angeles in 1940. In 1945, they began publishing county guides and directories in the iconic book form that became identified with the name. When George Thomas died in 1955, the company was bought by its attorney, Warren Wilson. Thomas Bros. continued to grow and was moved to Irvine, California in Orange County in the 1970s. Although the Tomas Bros maps had a major presence on the West Coast, the company was fairly small and had fewer than 250 employees. Rand McNally bought the company in 1999 and expanded the product line. Ultimately, Rand McNally outsourced the mapping operations to India and closed the Irvine production facility. So, although Thomas Guides are still being made, they are not produced in California. Before the company left California, Thomas Bros employed many women cartographers in a variety of positions. One notable woman was Nancy Joel Yoho who received her BA degree in geography from California State University Long Beach in 1981 and rose in the company to vice president of GIS.24 Yoho says that when she arrived at the company in 1982, the maps were all made manually. They were based on a variety of sources, such as city and county maps, tract maps, and contacts with hospitals, police, fire, and park departments. In the earliest days, the maps were drawn on vellum and the names were hand inked. By 1982, the cartographers drew on mylar panels that covered four map pages. They still drew in ink, but names were typeset and placed along the streets. The company had a manual, the TCB Cartographic Standards Manual, that was used for training new cartographers. New cartographers trained with an experienced cartographer until they were ready to work on their own. The first level for a cartographer was drafter, which involved inking and laying street type. The next level was plotter, which involved interpreting information from the various sources and drawing it onto the draft copy of the map panels. The highest-level cartographer position was plot checker who essentially edited the map.
Women occupied all of these positions. Nancy Yoho said that there was no difference between the jobs performed by men and those by women. In the 1980s the cartography supervisor was male and the lead cartographer was female. When the supervisor left, Yoho and another woman became cosupervisors. Yoho was made vice president of GIS in 1995. She estimated that the cartographic work force, during her time at the firm, was about twothird men and one-third women. Most of the cartographers had bachelor’s degrees in cartography from four-year universities, primarily from CSU Long Beach and CSU Fullerton, both of which were nearby and had long-standing cartography programs. Thomas Bros. worked with the university faculty at these institutions to host field trips for classes so that students could learn how a mapping company operated. These trips also served as a recruiting opportunity for the company. As vice president of GIS, Yoho had major responsibilities that included managing ninety-five GIS staff in involved research, data development, product creation, and quality assurance in producing over 350 published products per year. She also provided leadership and innovation in the development of new production systems, setting mapping standards, and improving production procedures. She also managed a production budget of almost $4 million per year. This chapter has only touched the surface of the roles women played in cartographic production. I have not included sections on companies such as Rand McNally and Hammond, not because they did not employ women, but because the kinds of jobs that they did were much like the companies and organizations that I have examined and in many cases each map was a team effort, not produced by an individual. NOTES 1. Virginia Scharf, “The Independent and Feminine Life, Grace Raymond Hebard, 1861–1936.” In Lone Voyagers: Academic Women in Coeducational Institutions, 1870–1937 (New York: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1989), p. 128. 2. Mike Mackey, Inventing History in the American West: The Romance and Myths of Grace Raymond Hebard (Powell, Wyoming: Western History Publications, 2005). 3. Glen Creason, Personal communication, 2018. 4. Glen Creason, Los Angeles in Maps (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 2010), p. 108, Glen Creason, “CityDig: L.A.’s Rosie the Riveter of Cartography,” Los Angeles Magazine (May 14, 2014), http://www.lamag.com/citythink/ cithythinkblog/2014/5/14/citydig-las-rosie-the-riveter-of-cartography/print. 5. Jennie Van Allen, “Interesting People.” Sunset Magazine, 40, no. 1 (1918): p. 44.
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6. Gertrude Bracht, obituary. 7. Texas GLO website. 8. Texas General Land Office, “Eltea Armstrong, a Legendary GLO Draftsperson.” Texas General Land Office, June 18, pp. 2–3, https://medium.com/save-texas- history/eltea-armstrong-a-legendary-glo-draftsperson-d6df0c433436. 9. Texas GLO archives map store. 10. U.S. Department of the Interior, Profiles of Women at Work in the Department of the Interior (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, 1990). 11. U.S. Department of the Interior, Profiles of Women, p. 51. 12. Lutz D. Schnadel, Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (Springer, 2013), p. 531. 13. U.S. Department of the Interior, Profiles of Women, p. 54. 14. Much of the information about Mary G. Clawson is from Hoonaard, Map Worlds, pp. 98–102. 15. While Rechlin was at Valparaison University, her cartography class inspired a current woman in cartography/GIS, Aileen Buckley of ESRI. 16. Alice Rechlin Perkins, obituary www.geospatialworld.net/news/alice-rechl ino-perkins-national-geographic-map=researcher-dies/. 17. Personal Communication from Roland Wood, December 29, 2018. 18. Bank Notes, September 15, 1972, p. 8. 19. Personal communications, Roland Wood, September 21, 2018; December 29, 2018. 20. Adventure Cycling web page. adventurecycling.org. 21. Carla Majernik, Personal communication, January 14, 2019. 22. Ristow, American Maps and Mapmakers. 23. “Thomas Guide Maps: The Rise and Fall of LA’s Directional Holy Grail,” www.laist.com/2018/06/22/Thomas_guide_maps_theo_rise_and_fall.php. 24. The following section is from a personal communication from Nancy Yoho, December 29, 2018.
I was asked at a colloquium a few years ago if there was a difference in maps made by women and maps made by men. Based on the fact that the tools used by both were the same (including technical pens, T squares and other drafting tools, GIS, and other software and technology), my quick answer was “no.” In general, one cannot distinguish a map made by a woman from one made by a man. But the question gave me pause and stuck with me. After spending two decades looking at maps by women, having been a cartographer over half my life, and conversing with both male and female cartographers over time, I wondered, “Could I identify a woman’s map culture?” As I dug through the history of women cartographers in America, some patterns began to emerge. Yes, by and large, maps made by women working for government and commercial mapmaking firms were indistinguishable from those by men because they were adhering to the same guidelines. Even maps by independent female cartographers, such as pictorial maps, were quite similar to those made by men. But I began to realize that the “culture” lay not in the appearance of the maps or the tools used, but in the types of maps made. Women, as we have seen, were often involved with creating maps in school atlases and textbooks, worked as independent map artists making pictorial maps, and created maps for political causes, such as suffrage. The Second World War opened the door to women scientists who used maps in research. With the advent of cartography as an academic discipline, women initially followed the lead of their male mentors and colleagues and did research in the popular subjects of the time—communication and quantitative studies of map subjects. However, as the century waned, we began to see something new, such as Joni Seger’s Atlas of Women and Mei-Po Kwan’s call for GIS professionals to make maps on subjects of interest to women. 105
Thus, there has been a cartographic culture of women, not based on technology or the appearance of the maps, but of the subject matter and types of maps made. To a large extent, the “culture” is/was based on the role of women at the time. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it was acceptable for a woman to work with her map publisher husband and take over the company if she was widowed. A daughter might work in her father’s printing firm or engrave the maps that he drew. A spinster or widow could make money by stitching book signatures or coloring maps in the days before color lithography, but positions for independent women were limited. Teaching was one acceptable profession; although even here, once a woman married, she was expected to stop working. There were exceptions, such as when Emma Willard who opened a school to help support the family and when others ran schools jointly with their husbands. Even into the mid- to late twentieth century, the women mapmakers generally were unmarried. Although it was acceptable for women to attend universities and be a part of the work force, the kinds of jobs available were still limited. In the 1960s and 1970s, women who wanted to combine marriage, children, and a professional life were often criticized for “neglecting” their children. Thus, we have women like Eileen James who drew maps for her husband’s publications, but received little credit. However, in the obituary for Preston James in the Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Eileen is mentioned as “constant and devoted companion and cartographer for much of his work.”1 The women’s movement that began in the 1960s helped women gain a foothold in cartography. Implementation of affirmative action and equal employment opportunities made it more difficult to refuse entry to graduate programs and jobs to qualified women. Professional organizations became aware of underrepresentation and undertook studies on unequal representation in the 1980s and 1990s. The International Cartographic Association formed a commission on women and prepared a report on gender inequality in the organization. The Association of American Geographers instituted a Committee on the Status of Women. While I have posited that there may be some differences in mapping by women, I do not believe that cartographic research by women could, during the time frame of this work, be characterized by gender. The types of research carried out by women have included psychophysical studies of specific symbols, historical studies of map types, the use of color on maps, map reading abilities, generalization, and critical cartographies among others—in short, the gamut of cartographic research. However, in the late 1980s and 1990s, feminist geographers began looking at cartography, and by the 2000s a considerable literature on feminist cartography and GIS developed. Much of the
work centered on the assumption that cartographers and GIS specialists were primarily male and that women and their interests were missing from maps.2 At this time feminist scholars began mapping feminist interests. One of the best-known examples is Joni Seager’s The State of Women in the World Atlas, which was first published in 1997 with maps by Isabelle Lewis is in its fourth edition as of this writing and an updated version with the title The Women’s Atlas was published in 2018.3 Fanny Bullock Workman, writing about holding the “Votes for Women” sign on a mountain top in the Himalayas, said that she had raised the sign so that in the accomplishments of women, now and in the future, it should be known to them and stated in print that a woman was the initiator and special leader of this expedition. When, later, a woman occupies her acknowledged position as an individual worker in all fields, as well as those of exploration, no such emphasis of her work will be needed; but that day has not fully arrived, and at present it behooves women, for the benefit of their sex, to put what they do, at least, on record.4
I have attempted in this work to put on record the work of American women cartographers. It is my hope that others will take a more detailed look into some of the women’s lives and careers that I have mentioned and that the role of women in GIS will be explored to carry this story forward. NOTES 1. Martin, Geoffrey, “In Memorium, Preston E. James, 1899–1986.” Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 78, no. 1 (1988): 169. 2. Mei-Po Kwan, “Introduction: Feminist Geography and GIS.” Gender, Place and Culture, 9 (2002): 271–279; Nikolas H. Huffman, “Charting the Other Maps: Cartography and Visual Methods in Feminist Research.” In Thresholds in Feminist Geography: Difference, Methodology, Representation, ed. John Paul Jones III, Heidi J. Nast, and Susan M. Roberts (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002), pp. 255–283. 3. Joni Seeger, The Women’s Atlas (Penguin Books, 2018). 4. Fanny Bullock Workman, quoted in Cathryn J. Prince, Queen of the Mountaineers: The Trailblazing Life of Fanny Bullock Workman (Chicago: Chicago Review Press Incorporated, 2019), p. 242.
Army Map Service Schools with Military Map Making Classes
Barnard Brown Bryn Mawr University of Chicago Columbia University Cornell Florida State College for Women Houghton Hunter Illinois Kent State College Michigan Mt Holyoke Northwestern Penn State Radcliffe Rochester Simmons Syracuse University of Maine Wellesley Wisconsin, Madison
Cartography Dissertations and Theses by Women 1966–1982
Hsu, Mei-Ling, An Analysis of Isarithmic Accuracy in Relation to Certain Variables in the Mapping Process, Wisconsin, 1966 Bartz, Barbara Sue, Type Variation and the Problem of Cartographic type Legibility, Wisconsin, 1969 Simmons, Virginia A. Psychological Aspects of the Value Dimension of Color as Applied to Cartographic Design, George Peabody College for Teachers, 1969 Olson, Judy, The Effects of Class Interval Systems on the Visual Correlation of Choropleth Maps, Wisconsin, Madison, 1970 Hale, Ruth F. A Map of Vernacular Regions in America, University of Minnesota, 1971 Tyner, Judith, Persuasive Cartography: An Examination of the Map as a Subjective Tool of Communication, UCLA, 1974 Shortridge, Barbara, Map Lettering as a Quantitative Symbol: A Preliminary Investigation, Kansas, 1977 Evans, Marlene J., The Effects of Attitudes on the Approach to Maps: Contribution to a Theory of Map Perception, Syracuse, 1978 Kuo, Elizabeth, Tactual-Thematic Map Design, North Carolina, 1978 Pearson, Karen, Severus, Lithographic Maps in 19th Century Geographical Journals, Wisconsin, Madison, 1978 Caldwell, Patricia, Television News Maps: An Examination of Their Utilization, Content and Design, UCLA, 1979 Gilmartin, Patricia, The Map Context as a Source of Perceptual Error in Graduated Circle Maps, Kansas, 1980 Andrews, Sona Karentz, Tactual Thematic Mapping: Graduated Circle and Choropleth Maps, Arizona State, 1981
Cartography Dissertations and Theses by Women 1966–1982
MASTERS THESES BY WOMEN 1960–1977 Schaffner, Sister Mary R., Relative Relief Map of West Virginia, Catholic University of America, 1960 Zink, Judith A., Lunar Cartography: 1610–1962, UCLA, 1963 Shortridge, Barbara G., Some Aspects of Error in Dot Mapping, University of Kansas, 1968 Cannon, Christine, Mapping Western North America and Puget Sound, University of Washington, 1969 Edwards, A. Cherie, Walker’s 1870 Statistical atlas and the Development of American Cartography, University of Wisconsin, Madison 1969 Fonstead, Karen L.W. Guidelines for Preparing Maps for Manuscripts, University of Oklahoma, 1971 Pearson, Karen L., The Relative Visual Importance of Selected Line Symbols, University of Wisconsin, Madison Caldwell, Patricia, Cartographic Typography, UCLA, 1972 Payne, Janet, The Effect of Programmed Presentation of Basic Map Skills on the Map Reading Abilities of Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Grade Students, Eastern Michigan University, 1972 Auringer-Koerner, Alberta, Joseph Gaspard Chaussegros De Lery and His Maps of Detroit, University of Michigan, 1973 Evans, Marlene, Cartographic analysis of Mortality Data: A Case for the Cartogram, Syracuse University, 1973 Bosowski, Elaine, Cartography as a Language: Argument and a Functional Application, Clark University, 1974 Snow, Cynthia B., History and Techniques of Medical Cartography, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1974 Mackintosh, Anne K., A Language of Structure, Structures, and Maps, The Pennsylvania State University, 1975 Day, Margaret, Tactual Mapping and Nonvisual Perception, University of Texas at Austin, 1976 Ray, Jean M., An Analysis of Borrowing from a University Library Map Collection: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1972/73–1973/74, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1976 Rowles, Ruth A., Perception of Perspective Block Diagrams, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1976 Carter, Vivian E.C., The Readability of Distance Charts on Road Maps, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1977 Fegley, Barbara J., The Effect of Map Design on Trail Selection in Cederville Natural Resources Management Area, University of Maryland, 1977 Gilmartin, Patricia E., Thematic Map Evaluation Measured by the Semantic Differential, Georgia State University, 1977 Karentz, Sona, Tactual Mapping for the Blind: Symbol Discrimination and Production Techniques, Arizona State University, 1977
Cartography Dissertations and Theses by Women 1966–1982
Phillips, Deborah J., The Visual Effectiveness of Flow Maps and Cartograms, University of Georgia, 1977 Prince, Vicki, Characteristics of Map Recall of a Single Regional Shape, University of Kansas, 1977 Compiled from: Monmonier, Mark, “Dissertations and Theses in Cartography, 1960–1977, The American Cartographer, 5#2, 1978, pp162–171; Stuart, Merrill M., A Bibliography of Master’s Theses in Geography: American and Canadian Universities, Tualatin, Oregon: Geographic and Area Studies Publications, 1973; Browning, Clyde E. A Bibliography of Dissertations in Geography: 1901–1969, Department of Geography, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1970; Browning, Clyde E., A Bibliography of Dissertations in Geography: 1969–1982, Department of Geography, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1983
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References to figures are italized.
Adams, Jane, 31 Adventure Cycling Organization, 99–100 Aher, Jackie, 46, 49, 50 Allison, Madeline, 29, 30 American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM), 61, 62, 63, 64, 69, 70, 74, 98 Ames, Jessie Daniel, 30 Andrews, Sona Karentz, 74 Annals of the AAG, 69, 106 Anthony, Susan B., 28 Anti-lynching Maps, 29–30 Applied Cartography, 83–102 Armstrong, Eltea, 91–94, 93 Army Map Service (AMS), 54–60; World War II tasks, 54 Association of American Geographers, 70, 106; Annals, 69, 73, 106 atlases, 2, 6, 10–12, 14, 41, 48, 49, 73, 100, 105 Atlas of Fantasy, 46 Attitudes toward Women, 63
Baber, Mary Arizona (Zonia), 67 Barcklay, Penny, 1 Baugh, Ruth, 71 Belew, Ruth, 47, 48 Booth, Charles, 27, 31 Bracht, Gertrude, 90–91, 92; Route 66 Map, 92 Bridges, Patricia, 96, 97 Brown, Lloyd, 1, 2 Burrage, Mildred, 44–45 Caldwell, Patricia, 74 cartograph, 41 Cartographic Illustrators, 77–78 cartography: academic, 67–74; applied, 83–102; illustrative, 45–56; pictorial, 37–45; research tool, 68, 75–77 Chester, Caroline, 16, 19; diary , 16, 19; map, 17 Choropleth Map, 27, 28, 30, 73, 74 Clawson, Mary G., 97–98 Cogswell, Charlotte, 14–16, 15 contexts, 4, 5
Cornell, Sarah Sophia, 10, 12, 14 Crombie, Deborah, 49 Custer, Elizabeth, 33 Dahlberg, Richard, xiv, 73, 78 Dando, Christina, xvii, 4, 5, 30 David Rumsey Collection, 16, 17, 19, 40, 44 Dell Map Back Books, 47, 47, 48 Demko, George, 46, 47 Dewees, Sarah, 19 Dissertations by Women, 72 Domosh, Mona, 3 Edwards, Kathleen, 96 Eiselen, Elizabeth, 56 Eisen, Edna, 56–58, 57, 58 Ewing, Maurice, 76 female education: academies, 9, 14, 23; accomplishments curriculum, 9, 16; geography, 9–24; map drawing, 12, 16–20 Fischer, Irene Kaminka, 4, 96–97 Fitz, Ellen Eliza. See Globes Fonstad, Karen Wynn, 48–49 Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 45, 53, 60 Friendship Press, 41, 44 Frieswyck, Marion, 60–61 Gardener, Ruth Rhodes Lepper, 44 Garfield, Alva Scott. See Scott, Alva gendered experiences, 78–80; Academia, 78–80; World War II, 63 Geodesy, 95, 97 Geographic Information Science (GIS), 4, 7, 30, 72, 77, 91, 100, 101, 102, 105, 106, 107 Geography Reader for Dixie Children, 14 globes, 10, 12, 20–24; Fitz, Ellen Eliza, 22–23, 24; Mount, Elizabeth, 21, 23; Oram, Elizabeth, 21–22; Smith, Bertha Olsen, 23; Wilson, James, 20 Goode, J. Paul, 68
government agencies: Army Map Service (AMS), 54–60; National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), 54, 95, 96–97, 98; Office of Naval Research (ONR), 62; Office of Strategic Services (OSS), 54, 60–61, 70; Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 54, 61–62, 64; United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS), 54, 62; United States Geological Survey (USGS), 95–96 Griffin, Dori, 38, 39, 40, 41 Harley, J. Brian, 3, 4 Hartshorne, Richard, 68; The Nature of Maps, 68 Hebard, Grace Raymond, 83–87, 84, 86; General Land Office, 84; University of Wyoming, 85 Heermans, Anna, 14, 15 Heezen, Bruce, 76, 77 Henshaw, Frances, 16 Herlihy, Elisabeth, 68 History of Cartography project, 3 Holbrook, Agnes Sinclair, 31 Holmes, Nigel, 38, 39 Hornsby, Stephen, 38, 39 Hsu, Mei-Ling, 72 Hudson, Alice, 1–2, 4, 5, 33, 40 Hull House, 31; Maps, 32 Humphrey, Carol, 5 illustrative map, 45–50 James, Eileen, 6, 78, 106 Jefferson, Louise, 41–44, 43; Friendship Press, 41, 44; Maps, 43; We Sing America , 41 Kent State University, 56, 57, 60, 69 Klipell, Viola, 68 Knobe, Bertha Damaris, 28–29, 29 Le Gear, Clara, 63 Lewis, Dorothy, 63
Library of Congress, 23, 40, 63, 77 Litchfield Academy, 16, 17 Lunar Maps, xv, 72, 73, 96, 97 Mackey, Mike, 87 Maddrell, Avril, 3, 5 Maestro, Laura Hartman, 49–50 Majernik, Carla, 100 Map Librarians, 62–63 mapping companies: Rand McNally, 28, 30, 83, 100, 101, 102; Thomas Brothers, 101, 102 Martin, Victor, 63 McClellan, Myrta, 71 McMaster, Robert, 71 McMaster, Susanna, 71 McPherson, Bea, 57–59, 59 Military Map Making Course, 56, 58, 109 Military Mapping Maidens, 58 Millie the Mapper, 6, 53–65 Monk, Janice, 3, 71 Monmonier, Mark, 22, 23 Moore, Marinda Branson, 14 Mount, Elizabeth. See globes Mystery and Detective Fiction, 46, 49 National Geographic Society, 83 National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Nietz, John, 12 Normal Schools, 9, 23, 27, 67–68, 69, 71 Office of Naval Research (ONR), 62 Office of Strategic Services (OSS), 54, 60–61, 70 Olson, Judy, 73 Oram, Elizabeth See Globes Outline Maps, 17, 30, 98 Parker, Edith Putnam, 56, 57 Parker, Margaret Terrell, 56 participatory mapping, 30–31 persuasive mapping, xiv, 27
Petchenik, Barbara Bartz, 72–73 pictorial map, 3, 6, 37–45; definitions, 39–40 P.J. Mode Collection of Persuasive Cartography, 29, 40 Post, Emily, 33, 34 Post, J.B., 46 posters, recruiting, 53, 55 Post War Outlook, 64–65 Post World War II, 64–65 Progressive Era, 4, 27–31 Pruitt, Evelyn, 62, 64 Quinn, A.O., 64, 65 Raisz, Erwin, 6, 39, 68, 77, 90 Ranson, Clare, 47 Rechlin, Alice, 98 Ristow, Walter, 1, 100 Ritzlin, Mary McMichael, 1, 4, 5, 33 Robinson, Arthur: Office of Strategic Services, 60, 69–70; University of Wisconsin, Madison, 71, 72, 73 Rowson, Susanna, 10 Schoolgirl Maps, 16–20 Schulten, Susan, 4, 12, 16 Scott, Alva, 44 Scott Maps, 44 Settlement House Movement, 30; Hull House, 31 Shaheen, Bea, see McPherson, Bea Sherman, John, 71 Shields, Charlotte, 62 Smith, Bertha Olsen. See Globes Snow, John, 27, 75 Society of Woman Geographers, 76 Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 28 Surveying and Mapping, 69, 70 Talmadge, Eugene, 41 Taylor, E.G.R, 7 Taylor, Ruth, 40–41, 42, 44 Tennessee Valley Authority, 54, 61–62
Textbooks, Geography, 10–11, 12, 14, 16, 56 Tharp, Marie, 1, 4, 75–77, 96, 75, 77; education, 75; honors, 77; ocean floor maps, 76; physiographic diagram, 76 Thomas Brothers Maps, 101–2 Thrower, Norman J.W., xiv, 71, 73, 74, 75, 78, 79 Tooley, Ronald Vere, 1, 2 travel and tourism, 38 travel narrative, 46, 49 Tyner, Judith, 72, 78–79 United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 54 United States Geological Survey, 95, 96 University of Chicago, 56 Van den Hoonaard, Will C., 4, 6
Westtown School, 18, 19, 21 White, Ruth Taylor. See Taylor, Ruth Whitlock, Laura, 87–90, 87, 89; Copyright Sui, 88; Los Angeles Maps, 89 Willard, Emma, 4, 10, 11–12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 21, 68 Wilson, James. See globes Women’s Army Corps (WACs), 54, 55 Women’s Map Culture, 105–6 Woman Suffrage, 27–29, 35 29 Workman, Fanny Bullock, 33–35, 107 World Bank, 99 Yoho, Nancy Joel, 101–2 Zelinski, Wilbur, 80
About the Author
Judith Tyner is Professor Emerita at California State University Long Beach, where she taught for thirty-seven years. She received her PhD from the geography department of the University of California, Los Angeles. She is the author of four textbooks on map reading and map design and a scholarly work titled Stitching the World: Embroidered Maps and Women’s Geographical Education. She has written over forty scholarly articles on a wide range of cartographic subjects including lunar cartography, persuasive cartography, history of atlases, cloth maps, and women in cartography. She is a member of the American Association of Geographers, the North American Cartographic Society, and the Society of Woman Geographers, among others and regularly presents papers at conferences. She was awarded the E. Willard and Ruby S. Miller Award by the American Association of Geographers in 2018 for her “outstanding contributions to the geographic field due to special competence in teaching or research.”