We study to become professionals : учебно-методическое пособие

В данное издание включены материалы, связанные с современными средствами и экономическими факторами комплексной механиза

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Министерство сельского хозяйства РФ ФГБОУ ВПО «Самарская государственная сельскохозяйственная академия»

И. А. АКИМОВА

WE STUDY TO BECOME PROFESSIONALS Учебно-методическое пособие

Самара 2011

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

УДК 802: 631.3 ББК 81.2Англ-923 K-89

Рецензенты: канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков ФГБОУ ВПО МГАУ Е. А. Яшина; канд. пед. наук, зав. кафедрой иностранных языков ФГБОУ ВПО Самарской ГСХА С. В. Сырескина

Акимова, И. А. K-89 We study to become professionals : учебно-методическое пособие. – Самара : РИЦ СГСХА, 2011. – 121 с. В данное издание включены материалы, связанные с современными средствами и экономическими факторами комплексной механизации отраслей сельского хозяйства, описанием машин и оборудования в агробизнесе, с историей развития автомобилестроения в странах изучаемого языка, и устройством автомобилей, а также материалы по техническому сервису. Собранный в пособии дидактический материал отражает современные достижения науки и техники в России и за рубежом. Система упражнений предоставляет возможность совершенствовать навыки чтения, перевода, письменной и устной коммуникации, а также расширить терминологический и общепрофессиональный словарный запас. Пособие предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по направлению 110800.62 «Агроинженерия».

© Акимова И. А., 2011 © ФГБОУ ВПО «Самарская государственная сельскохозяйственная академия», 2011

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ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ ( CONTENTS) ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ……………………………………………………... UNIT 1. AGRICULTURE……………………………………………. LESSON 1……………………………………………………………… LESSON 2……………………………………………………………… LESSON 3……………………………………………………………… UNIT 2. AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING……………………… LESSON 4……………………………………………………………… LESSON 5……………………………………………………………… UNIT 3. FARM MACHINERY DEVELOPMENT………………… LESSON 6……………………………………………………………… LESSON 7……………………………………………………………… UNIT 4. IMPORTANCE OF A TRACTOR FOR FARM WORK... LESSON 8……………………………………………………………… UNIT 5. COMPONENTS OF A MACHINE………………………... LESSON 9……………………………………………………………… LESSON 10…………………………………………………………….. UNIT 6. AUTOMOBILE……………………………………………... LESSON 11…………………………………………………………….. ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК……………………………... НАИБОЛЕЕ УПОТРЕБИТЕЛЬНЫЕ СОКРАЩЕНИЯ……………... АНГЛО-РУССКИЙ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ……….. РЕКОМЕНДУЕМАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА (REFERENCE)……………………………………………………………

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Учебно-методическое пособие подготовлено в соответствии с требованиями Государственного образовательного стандарта по иностранным языкам для вузов неязыковых специальностей. Цель учебно-методического пособия – формирование общекультурных и профессиональных компетенций в процессе изучения профессионально ориентированной лексики, терминов, грамматических структур, а также чтения текстов профессиональной направленности в рамках направления обучения, совершенствование навыков их перевода; развитие умения эффективно и адекватно оперировать терминологическим минимумом подъязыка профиля в устной и письменной речи, развитие речевых навыков с учетом требований к используемым речевым образцам, а также психолингвистической готовности к профессиональной коммуникации на иностранном языке. Данный дидактический материал разработан для применения в учебном процессе при реализации этапа профессионализации в курсе обучения иностранному языку. Материалы пособия рассчитаны как на определённые программой часы аудиторной работы, так и на самостоятельную работу студентов, с учётом зависимости исходного уровня языковой компетентности обучающихся и степени интенсивности учебного процесса. Пособие включает 6 дидактических разделов (Units) и 11 тематических уроков. Каждый урок включает текст А – для развития навыков изучающего чтения и текст В – для развития навыков поискового или просмотрового чтения и развития речевых навыков, набор грамматических, лексических и коммуникативных заданий. В пособие включены задания, способствующие развитию у студентов навыков реферирования тексов. Данное пособие может использоваться в качестве центрального элемента УМК по английскому языку, а так же в комплексе с другими дидактическими материалами.

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UNIT 1 AGRICULTURE LESSON 1

Introduction Do you know what the word agriculture means? What word did the word Agriculture originate from? How long ago did the mankind begin to cultivate fields? What branches does agriculture consist of? Exercise 1. Study the text given below and you will find out all those facts. Before you start working with the materials of this Lesson, study the following words that we have chosen for you from the text. Then translate Text A in writing. Active vocabulary 1. occupation 2. commerce 3. crop 4. cropgrowing = crop production 5. animal breeding = animal husbandry 6. to adapt 7. practice 8. disease 9. basis 10. arable 5

занятие, род деятельности торговля с/х культура растениеводство животноводство применять опыт\метод болезнь основа пахотный

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

экстенсивный высокоурожайные сорта гибрид гербицид нарушать, разрушать равновесие

11. extensive 12. high-yielding varieties 13. hybrid 14. herbicbde 15. to disturb 16. equilibrium

TEXT A What is agriculture? Agriculture is a Human activity in which people use areas of land for the production of food, clothing and other necessary materials. It is the fundamental occupation on which industry and commerce depend. Without agriculture no civilisation can develop. The word “Ager” is a Latin word. It means a field. The word Agriculture means the cultivation of fields and growing crops. But this is the old meaning of the word. Now it also means the use of land for breeding animals. At present there are two main branches of agriculture. They are: crop growing or crop production and animal breeding or animal husbandry. Agriculture is the combination of science, art and business. A good farmer must know and apply scientific principles in agriculture; he must also be a good businessman. He may learn to be a good farmer by imitation; but if he understands scientific principles he is able to adapt his practice to new and changing conditions. Farm practice requires some knowledge of botany, chemistry, physics, zoology, bacteriology, plant and diseases, geology and meteorology. The soil is the basis of agriculture. Enough food for all the people can be obtained by growing high crops yield. There are two ways to grow enough food. There is an increase in area of arable land and the intensification of production in the areas already used for cropping. The intensification of agricultural areas is based on the knowledge of climate, soils and the use of a large collection of high-yielding varieties and hybrids of agricultural crops. All intensification factors such as full mechanisation, high application of fertilizers and extensive use of herbicides must be used in such a way as not to disturb the biological equilibrium of the soil.

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A farmer must also be good lawyer, doctor and merchant. They used to say that anyone can farm. But this is another way to say the no one know much about it. Exercise 2. Name Russian equivalents of the following international words. Production, material, fundamental, commerce, civilisation, combination, adapt, intensification, extensive, traditional, climate, collection, hybrid, mechanisation, herbicide, region, machine, tractor, combine, bulldozer, tendency, industrial. Exercise 3. Find in Text A sentences with modal verbs and their equivalents, sound the sentences and translate them. Exercise 4. Review grammar material “ word combination”: Adj.+Noun; Noun+Noun; Noun+Gerund, Participle+Noun and give the equivalents in Russian to the following combinations of words. human activity fundamental occupation arable land traditional agriculture full mechanisation growing crops high-yielding varieties field crops increasing yields

food products food production extensive use crop growing breeding animals changing conditions land use crop production increase

Exercise 5. Find in Text A where it informs about: а) что означает слово «agriculture»; б) какой род деятельности представляет собой сельское хозяйство; в) фермеру необходимы обширные знания; г) каков основной путь увеличения продуктов питания в настоящее время. Exercise 6. Give the answers to the questions. 1. What kind of activity is agriculture? 2. What is the origin of the word «agriculture»? 3. What are the Branches of agriculture? 7

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4. Why do farm practices require any knowledge of fundamental and special sciences? 5. What is the basis of farming? 6. What are the two ways of supplying enough food? Exercise 7. Complete the sentences according to Text A content and using the active words of the Lesson 1. Animal husbandry and crop production... 2. Agriculture is the fundamental... 3. At present there are two main branches... 4. A good farmer should... 5. Enough food can be grown ... 6. The factors of intensification... 7. No civilization... 8. The main two branches of Exercise 8. Make up “Summary” (краткое изложение) of Text A. Exercise 9. Represent the text orally. Exercise 10. Read Text В, interpret it, pay attention to the notes. TEXT B Agriculture is a business. In planning what to produce, the farmer relies upon the market. There are problems, connected with grading, packing, storage and shipment, buying and selling. Agriculture is also a biological industry. It is dependent on weather, soils and living things. No one can grow a horse in a year, but almost unlimited horsepower can be added in the engines of factory in a year. Persons who are accustomed to mechanical industries sometimes fail to understand farming. Farming is a partnership with nature. There was a time when most industries were connected with the home. Cloth, candles, soap were made in the home, and the children helped with the work. Nowadays agriculture continues to be home industry. The farmer and his family do most of their work themselves. The hours of work cannot be standardised. On some days it is necessary to do a very long and a very hard day’s work; on other days less work is required.

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Agriculture is a continuous game in which the farmer must change his plans on minute’s notice to meet the changes that nature makes. Farming is one of the few occupations in which the business and the home are united. Notes: (after G.F. Warren. Elements...): Farming – сельское хозяйство (Америк.); to rely upon – полагаться; grading – сортировка; packing – упаковка; storage – хранение; horsepower – мощность, измеряемая в лошадиных силах; partnership – партнёрство; to meet the changes – соответствовать изменениям.

Exercise 11. Will you speak out in English on the following (if you find this task difficult you may use Russian language). а) Можно ли фермера назвать бизнесменом? Почему? б) От каких факторов зависит уровень развития сельского хозяйства?

LESSON 2

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Introduction What can be the total Russian equivalent to several English words: earth, land, ground, soil? Which of these words is an agricultural term? How is the soil formed by? What are the fertile soil layers? What soil types do you know? Exercise 1. Study Text A given below and you will find out all those facts. Before starting this work learn the following words. Active vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. A B C 13. 14. 15. 16.

soil to break up rock to rot tiny profile layer depth bank cut strata horizon:

mature surface topsoil subsoil

почва дробить зд. скальные породы гнить крошечный разрез, профиль слой глубина берег разрез слой плодородный горизонт, слой гумусовый аллювиальный материнская порода зрелый поверхность верхний плодородный слой почвы нижний плодородный слой почвы 10

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17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

root solum vegetation vegetative chernozemic desertic soil latozolic soil padzolic soil tundra

корень плодородный слой растительность растительный, вегетативный черноземный пустынная почва материзованная почва подзольная почва тундра

TEXT A Soil As it was mentioned before, soil is the basis of agriculture. And lucky the farmer is who has a fertile soil! But what do you know about soil as an agricultural term? Are the words soil, land, ground, earth synonyms? Let’s see! Soil is formed partly by the breaking up of rocks. It is created by the rotting of plant and animal material with the help of water, wind, air, temperature changes and tiny soil organisms. So the five major factors in soil formation are climate, living organisms, parent rocks, topography and time. The structure of the soil can be seen in its profile, in the layers of differing colours, textures and depths. A typical profile may be found on a bank along a stream or in a deep roadway cut. These strata are called horizons and a mature soil normally has A, B, C horizons. The A horizon is the covering layer. It may be also called the surface soil, or top soil or plow layer. The A horizon is the next layer down. This is so called subsoil where the roots of large plants usually grow. In mature soils the A and B horizon are called the solum. Beneath the solum we have the C horizon. In mature soils C horizon is the basis or parent material from which the solum has usually been formed. When we speak of an ABC soil, we mean a mature soil or one having three well-defined horizons. The A contains organic matter, C layer may have little or none. There are five major soil types. These groups are result of differences in vegetative growth. Among the important soil types are the 11

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chernozemic soils, which are found in subhumid and temperate zones where grass originally covers the surface of the soil. Desertic soils sparsely covered with shrubs and grass – in arid region of tropical and temperate zones. Latosolic soils are found in areas covered with forests and exist both in tropical and subtropical zones. Padzolic soils are found in most forest areas of cool or temperate climate. Tundra soils are found in the arctic regions. Exercise 2. Will you find in Text A and read it out: а) how the soil is formed; б) what the five major factors in soil formation are; в) where the structure of the soil is seen; г) how surface soil or covering layer is called; д) in what layer the roots of plants grow; е) how the A and B horizons are called. ж) what the major soil types are. Exercise 3. Name the synonyms from the left and the right word lists soil topsoil organic matter living thing surface horizon humid arid strata

land solum covering layer organic material organism top plow layer layer wet dry

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences according to the text content. Soil is ... The soil is formed… Organic matters which soil has are created by ... The five major factors in soil formation are ... The structure of the soil is seen ... The profile of soil structure may be ... The layers of the soil are called ... or ... 12

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Mature soil has ... Topsoil is ... Subsoil ... Both A, B horizons are called ... Beneath the solum there is ... The five major soil types ... The synonym to the word “soil” is “...”

Exercise 5. Speak out in English about the following on your choice: а) как образуется почва и какие факторы влияют на ее формирование; б) пахотных слоях почвы; в) разнообразии типов почв и объясните какой тип в каких климатических условиях обнаруживается. Exercise 6. Make up a dialogue between a teacher and a student speaking about “soil”, your personal task is to add the B partner replies, dramatise it. A: – Hello! B: – A: – Are you ready for today’s Lesson topic”Soil” B:A: – Will you first of all tell me, please what synonyms does the word “soil” have. B: – A: – What factors influence soil formation? B: – Well…. A: – Do you know where it is possible to see the soil layers well enough? B: – Of course, I… A: – Have you ever seen them? Do they differ in colour? B: – A: –Would you tell me what soil layers are the most fertile and explain why, please. B: – A: – What soil types are the most arable and what areas are they found? B: – In fact there are…. 13

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A: – Thank you very much, you have prepared well enough to get an excellent mark today. B: –…….. Exercise 7. Determine the function of -ed verb form and translate the sentences. 1. Grain crops produced in our region are wheat and barley. 2. Fertilisers are used to increase soil fertility. 3. Proper moisture in the soil should be provided for all farm crops. 4. Rainfall, sunlight and nutrients are the factors required by plants for their proper growth. 5. All farm machinery is subjected to tests in order to meet up-todate requirements of producers. 6. Our Farm Machinery has just conducted testing of new design of airseeder produced in Germany. 7. This rotation plan was developed to meet the farm needs. Note: airseeder – пневматическая сеялка. Exercise 8. Read Text В and tell what kind of farming activity effects environment. Pay attention to the notes. TEXT B Agriculture and the quality of our environment There are four main ways in which agriculture affects our environment. The first way is soil erosion. It is a natural process but it can be because of farming is used. The second way is wastes of intensive keeping of livestock and poultry. These wastes pollute waterways. The third way is improper use of fertilizers. And the last way of agricultural pollution of the environment is the use of different chemicals such as pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and others. The chemicals affect both the soil and air. They also affect and pollute the ground. But soil is one of our main resources which is almost not recyclable. So the farmers always should take care of the soil while cultivating it or utilising for grazing. Notes: wastes – отходы;

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pollute – загрязняют; grazing – выпас животных.

Exercise 9. Perform briefly Text B in English.

LESSON 3

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Introduction Is agriculture a business? What does agriculture take in except the farmer? What does agribusiness cover? Exercise 1. Study Text A given below and you will find out all those facts. Before starting this work learn the following words. Active vocabulary главный, большой / большинство привлекать к работе, нанимать зарабатывать вывозимый товар, эксперт источник, ресурс в результате приводить к питательный доход вовлекать оптовая торговля розничная торговля перерабатывать жизненно важный потребитель расширять цена прибыль(ный), выгода(ный) покупать пестицид забор, ограждение техника

1. major/majority 2. to employ 3. to earn 4. export 5. resource 6. to result in 7. nutritious 8. income 9. to involve 10.wholesale 11.retail 12. to process 13. vital 14. consumer 15. to expand 16. price 17. profit(able) 18. to purchase 19. pesticide 20. fence 21. machinery

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служить, обслуживать рынок спрос торговля сырье

22. to serve 23. market 24. demand 25. trade 26. raw material (fiber-Америк.)

TEXT A Agribusiness For the first 300 years, farming in USA employed 90 percent of population and food required 60 cents of every dollar earned. The majority of exports were agricultural products with civilization being dependent on the agrarian economy. Through time the US agricultural system has continued to produce an increase of food and raw materials, using relatively fewer resources. This increase in production has resulted in a greater choice of nutritious foods for a smaller percentage of the income. Today’s agriculture is a complex system that reaches far beyond the farm. Besides the farmer, it includes everyone involved in bringing food and raw materials to the consumer. Agriculture takes in:  Small family farms;  Large corporate organizations;  Credit and input supply firms;  Output marketing and processing firms;  Transportation networks;  Wholesalers;  Restaurants;  Food and fiber retailers. Since the late 1940s, agriculture has undergone many changes as operations extended and became more specialized. As farm size grew, farmers found it more profitable to concentrate on farming and purchase inputs they formerly produced themselves. This trend enabled others to create businesses that concentrated on providing these input needs for items such as pesticides, fencing, machinery, fertilizer, and the like. These firms, referred to the farm input sector, and are now a major factor in agriculture. At the same time, other business involved in moving farm products from producer to the consumer began to prosper. During the post-war

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period many of these firms expanded from local or regional operations to serve national and international markets. They continued to meet the consumers demand for greater processing of food. These firms constitute the third major part of agriculture called the farm output or product marketing sector. The term agriculture needed expanding to correctly define this three-part system. The term agribusiness better describes the combination of the farm input sector, the production farming sector, and the product marketing. Exercise 2. Find in Text A where it is said about the following. а) Современное сельское хозяйство представляет собой сложную систему, включающую не только фермера. б) Что представляет собой сектор агробизнеса, называемый “Farm input”? в) Что представляет собой сектор агробизнеса, называемый “Product marketing”? Exercise 3. Analyze the words, share all the words given below under three groups, each named according to the Table section. Fill in the form: a farmer, machinery, consumer, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizer, fencing, wholesale, retail, family farm, banks, processing plants, transport, restaurants, seeds, market place, soil, final product, fuel, tractor, seeds, dairy plant, bakery, grain storage, vegetable store, wheat growing, gardening, green house, flower store, machinery spare parts, new combine, dairy plant, grain elevator. Production Farming

Farm input

Product marketing

Exercise 4. Find waste-word in each group. Name each group.

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Transportation

Consumer

Demand

Income

Price

Market

Wholesale

Profitable

Supply

Retail

Fence

Production

Exercise 5. Give the answers to the questions according to Text A information. 1. How many sectors does agribusiness include? 2. What sector of agribusiness was created as the result of specialization? 3. What does “product marketing” as sector of agribusiness deal with? 4. What does the sector of agribusiness called Farm Input include? Exercise 6. Reproduce Text A not more than in 7 sentences in writing. Exercise 7. Prepare to retell briefly Text A. Exercise 8. Make translation of the sentences below from Russian into English. 1. Только 2% населения заняты в с/х, а большинство в промышленности (индустрии). 2. Большую часть экспортируемых товаров представляли с/х продукты. 3. Сегодняшнее с/х – это сложная система. 4. Наш семейный доход – невысокий. 5. Различные фирмы вовлечены в этот жизненно-важный проект. 6. Сколько ты зарабатываешь? 7. Оптовые цены значительно ниже, чем розничные. 8. Спрос приводит в результате к росту цен. 9. Я купил недавно компьютер. 10. Мой брат работает на перерабатывающем предприятии (заводе). 11. Они используют электрические ограждения для своих полей.

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12. Нагретый газ расширяется. Exercise 9. Read Text В and tell what factors of farming may effect the environment. Pay attention to the notes. TEXT B Agriculture and environment Agriculture and environment are closely connected with each other. Crop yields and animal productivity depend on soil and climatic conditions of the region in which they are grown. When environmental conditions are favorable, crops grow and develop well and produce high yields. At present agriculture is not so dependent on the environment as in the past. Man can improve the conditions under which crops are grown. The conditions can be improved by using irrigation and drainage, by applying fertilizers and different chemicals such as herbicides and insecticides and by some intensive practices. The environmental factors do not only affect agriculture, but they are also affected by the agriculture activity. Mineral fertilizes and chemicals used by farmers are accumulated in the soil and in plants and may become harmful for people. Thus, the farmers have to solve two problems. On the one hand they are to improve and intensify agricultural production and on the other hand they are to minimize the effect of agriculture on the environment. Notes: practice(зд.) – метод; to affect отрицательно влиять; on the one hand с одной стороны; on the other hand с другой стороны; to minimize снижать.

Exercise 10. Name Russian equivalents to the following adjectives, pay attention to the negative meaning prefixes. impossible

irregular

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improper unpopular unfavorable nonprofitable misunderstanding unemployment homeless unsuitable irresistible

unimportant independent unexpected incorrect disadvantage unemployed jobless helpless irrational

Exercise 11. Find in both texts the sentences with predicates in Passive Voice and translate them. Exercise 12. Determine the function of -ing verb forms and translate the sentences from English into Russian. 1. Cattle breeding is the most important branch of animal husbandry. 2. Harvesting grain crops with combines, is widely practised throughout the world. 3. Harvesting grain crops with combines, farmers obtain better yields and product quality. 4. Most farms growing grain crops use non-tillage technology. 5. Have you passed driving test well? 6. Testing this equipment you should control the pressure. 7. The production of machinery comprises the following phases: designing, working out technological processes, laboratory and road tests and mass manufacturing. Exercise 13. Use the correct Participle form (I or II) and translate the sentences. 1. In our region there are some collective farms (grown/growing) wheat. 2. Grain crops are the crops (harvested/harvesting) witch combines 3. The environmental conditions (requiring/required) by crops should be favourable 4. Dairy cattle (providing/provided) with nutritious feed and water produce much milk. 5. To achieve these qualities a lot of work must be (doing/done).

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6. Mechanical engineers deal with (constructed/constructing and manufactured/manufacturing) of machinery. 7. After (graduating/ graduated) agricultural academy I shall work for farm machinery testing station, (located/locating) in our settlement. Exercise 14. Find 5 “key sentences” in Text B, interpret them. Exercise 15. Make up Summary of Text B and reproduce it orally.

UNIT 2 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING 22

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LESSON 4

Introduction What do the engineers deal with? What does agricultural engineering mean? What kind of special knowledge should agriengineers have? Exercise 1. Read Text A using a dictionary and you will be able to tell about that exactly well enough. Learn active words first. Active vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

yeild annual operation design to handle

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

capable source sphere application to suit compact ability to run = to operate milking machine milk cooler water heater feed spreader waterer mill

урожай ежегодный работа, действие дизайн, конструкция возделывать, обращаться с (управлять) способный источник сфера применение подходить компактный способность работать, действовать доильный аппарат молочный охладитель водонагреватель кормораздатчик поилка мельница

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20. grain dryer

зерносушилка

TEXT A Agricultural engineering Agricultural engineering means the application of engineering knowledge to agriculture. The biological factor is an important one in engineering applications and the engineer must know well the basic principles and practices of agriculture. Engineers in Mechanical Engineering design test, build and operate machinery of all types: they also work on a variety of manufactured goods and certain kinds of structures. The field is divided into machinery, mechanisms, materials, hydraulics, work and energy, heating, ventilating, air controlling and etc. Changes in cultural practices often need to make a machine more adaptable to the farm use or to increase its effectiveness processing equipment may also need changes, crop harvesting may sometimes be reduced by the use of an improper machine. Most field operations are seasonable in nature often with only a short period of time in which the job is done. Therefore field machinery in many cases has a low annual duty (i.e. very few hours of operations per year). The field of farm machinery design gives greater opportunity to an engineer than any other field of engineering. Farm machines must work where the temperature may be above 100F or where it falls below freezing. They must be able to work in rain and in snow as well. Instead of resting on the floor, they must operate over any kind of land. They must also be designed to handle wide variations in crop and soil conditions. Not only agricultural engineering in the field of mechanisation, agricultural engineers capable of designing, operating, controlling and adapting any form of electric energy to farm needs are in the demand of modern agriculture. As it is known, electric power has become the main source of energy in agricultural production and its sphere of application is ever increasing. For example, it is a most reasonable source of mechanical power for some kinds of equipment such as electric motors which are very

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suited for farm job because of their automatic control, land life, compact construction, ability to run in a cold or hot weather, etc. All kinds of equipment for handling milk such as milking machines, milk coolers, water heaters, feed spreaders, waterers, mills, grain driers, grinders, feed mixes are also operated by electricity. Exercise 2. Tell what text paragraphs perform the answers to the following questions. 1. How is equipment for handling milk operated? 2. Why are electric motors suitable for farm jobs? 3. Why are the electricians wanted in modern agriculture? 4. What is meant by Agricultural Engineering? 5. What is there specific about field operations? 6. What factor can sometimes reduce the quality and yield of crops? Eexercise 3. Give the answer to the question. Соответствует ли последовательность вопросов Ex. 2 последовательности изложения материалa в тексте? Выставьте вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста. Составьте план текста (in English). Eexercise 4. Look Text A through and choose from each paragraph the only one “key-sentence” being the most meaningful or make up your own one by each paragraph, and summarize the content of the text. Write the Summary down. Prepare to read it. Eexercise 5. Memorize the summary of Text A and represent the text orally. Eexercise 6. Analyze each sentence given in this exercise and name in Russian: чем выражены главные члены каждого предложения (подлежащее и сказуемое); translate the sentences. 1. After the international conference on ecology it has become possible to begin working at environmental problems on a global scale. 2. Some scientists and engineers are working at improving traditional production processes, others are developing new technologies.

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3. The new instruments will enable us to determine the level of pollution in our rivers. 4. Our technological advances make it possible to deal with the most difficult problems 5. One must study six or five years to become an engineer 6. It is well-known that technological progress is impossible without electronics, computers, robots and new materials. 7. What is necessary for the students is to get a good qualification Exercise 7. Analyze the sentences and name in Russian the form and the Voice of each predicate, translate the sentences. 1. The electronic industry produces several types of minicomputers. 2. The air in many cities has been polluted by traffic and industry. 3. The lecture on environment protection was very interesting. 4. The task of the world community is to improve the ecological situation in the world. 5. In five years we shall become engineers. 6. It is possible to take measures to protect environment on global level by the joint efforts of all countries. 7. The important feature of our education is that it combines theory (lectures and seminars) with practical training. 8. The main tendency of our life is that computers are being used in all spheres of technology, science and everyday life. 9. What is necessary today is that the protection of global natural resources must be planned. Eexercise 8. Pronounce “internationalisms” and give their variants in Russian. Electricity, civilisation, economic and social progress, transformer, universal cable, specific, machine, photocopying machine, radar, generator, battery, lamp dynamo, indicator, nation, energy service, laser, compact, disc, rotor, indicator, chassis, protector, personal computer, robot, qualification, code. Name some more. Eexercise 9. Overview Text B, find the sentences which perform the information: а) о том, что машины выполняют работу экономически более выгодно; 26

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б) о машинах, приводимых в движение тракторами; в) о с/х машинах в прошлом и настоящем. TEXT B Importance of machinery and energy in agriculture More and more machines are used on farms today replacing hand labour and increasing labour productivity. With machines and power available farmers not only can do more work and do it more economically, but they can do higher-quality work and the work may be finished in a shorter and more favorable time. Machines that are used for crop production include those that till the soil, plant the crops, perform various cultural practices during the growing season and harvesting crops. Many machines are known to be powered by tractors. Implements such as plows, cultivators and planters may be mounted on a tractor or they may be pulled by a tractor. However, an increasing number of farm machines are now selfpropelled. These machines are grain combine harvesters, cotton pickers, forage harvesters, potatoes – diggers and others. Machines that do not require a lot of mobility are usually powered with electric motors. Such machines include silage unloaders, livestock feeding equipment, watering machines and milking machines. Farm machines we use today are quite different from those the farmers used two or even one decade ago. The tractors, tractor ploughs were smaller and less productive. They could plant less acres per day than the machines do now. Exercise 9. Using information from Text A and B make up a list of machinery and equipment helpful on farms. Learn the names of those items. Exercise 10. Give the answers to the following questions. Text B should be helpful. 1. Do machines make labour more productive? 2. Can machines work in a shorter time? 3. What machines are mounted on a tractor? 4. What self-propelled machines do you know? 5. What energy are -farm- machines powered with ? 6. What do modern machines differ in?

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Exercise 11. Scan the text below and say what machines this text informs you about. Use notes to understand the text. Before 1930 most corn was harvested by hand, one ear at a time . Today self-propelled pickers are standard equipment on Corn Belt farms and in many other parts of the USА. One person operating a tworow picker can harvest more corn per day than ten hand pickers. Although mechanical pickers are produced in a greater number every year. Much cotton is still picked by hand because many fields are too small or too rough for mechanical harvesting. Tea is also one of plants that is still harvested by hands. But cotton…….One – row cotton picker can harvest as much cotton per hour as 50 hand pickers. Notes: to harvest – убирать урожай; two-row – двурядный; ear – початок(кукурузный); at a time – одновременно; self-propelled – самоходный; Corn Belt – Корн Белт – район – крупнейший производитель кукурузы в США; picker – подборщик\уборочная машина; rough – неровный.

Exercise 12. Answer in English, but if difficult you may use Russian. 1. What is the efficiency of a corn-picker in comparison with hand picker? 2. What crops or plants are picked by hand and why? Exercise 13. Combine sentence parts to get logically completed sentences, read and translate them. 1. Plows (ploughs) and various cultivators are used... 2. Self-propelled machines are those that... 3. Silage unloader and milking machines are powered... 4. Cereals are planted ...

a. are not powered by tractors b. with tractor-drown drill c. to till the soil d. with electricity

LESSON 5 Introduction Do you know what a universal energy source of civilization is? What kind of energy helped to make industrial progress more effective? Do you know what are specific properties of electricity are?

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What is the reason of the fact that electricity has a wide range of applications? Exercise 1. Study Text A, translate it and you will exactly know the answers to those questions. Before starting this work learn the words below. Active vocabulary применять применение освещение электрохимия появляться появление кабель трансмиссионный вал зубчатое колесо (передача) ремень блок мастерские приборы, экономящие время и труд устройство характеристика (качество, свойство) источник изобретать изобретение устанавливать потребление удваивать на душу населения преимущество вырабатывать покрывать (зд.) охватывать последний (новый) обеспечивать, снабжать человечество (зд.) поистине

1. to apply 2. application 3. lighting, 4. electrochemistry 5. to appear 6. appearance 7. cable 8. transmission shaft 9. gear wheel 10. belt 11. pulley 12. workshop 13. time and labour saving appliances 14. device 15. property 16. source 17. to invent 18. invention 19. to set up 20. consumption 21. to double 22. per capita 23. advantage 24. to generate 25. to cover 26. recent 27. to provide 28. mankind 29. truly

TEXT A Electricity It is impossible to imagine our civilization without electricity: economic and social progress will be turned to the past and our daily lives completely transformed. 29

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Electrical power has become universal thousands of applications of electricity such as lighting, electrochemistry and electrometallurgy are longstanding and unquestionable. Which the appearance of the electrical motor, power cables replaced transmission shafts, gear wheels, belts and pulleys in the 19 the century workshops. And in the labour saving appliances have become part of our everyday lives. Other devices are based on specific properties of electricity: electrostatics in the case of photocopying machine and electromagnetism in the case of radar and television. These applications have made electricity most widely used. The first industrial application was in the silver workshops in Paris. The generator – a new compact source of electricity – was also developed there. The generator replaced the batteries and other devices that had been used before. Electric lighting came into wide use at the end of the last century with the development of the electric lamp by Thomas Edison. Then the transformer, was invented, the first electric lines and networks were set up, dynamos and induction motors were designed. Since the beginning of the 20 the century the successful development of electricity has begun throughout the industrial world. The consumption of electricity has doubled every ten years. Today consumption of electricity per capita is an indicator of the state of development and economic health of a nation. Electricity has replaced other sources of energy as it has been, realized that it offers improved service and reduced cost. One of the greatest advantages of electricity is that it is clean, easily-regulated and generates no by-products. Applications of electricity and generates now cover all fields of human activity from house washing machines to the latest laser devices. Electricity is the efficient source of some of the most recent technological advances such as the laser and electron beams. Truly electricity provides mankind with the energy of energy of the future. Exercise 2. Find in Text A answers to the questions. 1. What source of energy is this text about? 2. What industrial applications of electricity do you know? 3. What home applications of electricity can you name? 4. Where was the generator developed? 30

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5. Who invented the electric lamp? 6. Do you know who invented the dynamo? 7. Can you imagine our life without electricity? Why? Exercise 3. Get reminded the functions of the verb «to have», determine those functions in the sentences and translate them. 1. Electricity has many useful properties: it is clean and generates no by-products. 2. The latest laser devices have found application in medicine. 3. Electricity has provided mankind with the most efficient source of energy. 4. No other source of energy has so widely used as electricity. 5. The consumption of electricity has doubled every ten years. 6. We have many various electric devices in out houses. 7. Our lives have been completely transformed with the introduction of electricity. Exercise 4. Review the Tense Forms in Passive Voice, focus on the difference between Active and Passive voices. Paying attention to the verb forms translate the sentences from English into Russian. 1. The indicator of nation development is how much electricity is consumed per capita. 2. What has been and is being done in environment protection cannot be measured by yesterday’s standards. 3. It is evident that electricity will be the energy of the future. 4. New powerful electric stations must be built because it is electricity that offers improved standards of life and work. 5. Electric power has become universal. 6. Electricity is transmitted to distant parts of this country by a combinations of electric networks. 7. Several power stations have been connected by high-voltage transmission lines into electricity networks. Exercise 5. Using the words and word combinations in brackets make up sentences answering the questions given. Translate the sentences you have got. 1. What is electricity? (a source of electric power/energy used in every day life and industry)

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2. What are the sources of electricity? (batteries, generators, electric motors and many other devices) 3. What properties of electricity have made it widely used? (electrostatics and electromagnetism) 4. What are the advantages of electricity? (cleanliness, easy regulation, no by-products, low cost, improved service) 5. What are home uses of electricity? (lighting, heating, various time and labour saving appliances, radio, television, video and many others) 6. What are the latest industrial applications of electricity? (lasers and electronic beams). Exercise 6. Combine the sentence parts to have got logically completed sentences. Translate them. 1. Electricity 2. The applications of electricity in the home and industry 3. Electricity was used for the first time

1. have completely transformed universe. 2. has completely transformed our every day life. 3. per capita is in an indicator of the state of development of a nation. 4. The generator, a new source of electricity 4. the wide industrial use of electricity has begun throughout the world. 5. Since the beginning of the 20th century 5. was also developed in Paris. 6. Today consumption of electricity 6. for industrial purposes in the silver workshop in Paris.

Exercise 7. Review the meanings of the words one and that, translate the sentences from English into Russian, make up your own sentences with those two words in different functions. 1. Although the US is a large country with many nationalities the language is almost the same wherever one goes. 2. A man can grow in one part of the country, go to college in another place, find work somewhere else and merry a girl from still another part of the country. 3. Southern pronunciation in USA differs from that in the rest of the country. 4. They have ways of speech that are like the English spoken centuries ago when the first settlers came there from England. 5. Many songs they sing today are those ones sung long ago in England.

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6. One should be very attentive working with sharp instruments. 7. This new John Deer Tractor model has more horse power than the previous one. Exercise 8. Use the verb “to be” in a suitable form to fill in the blanks, read what you have and interpret. Today……, (date) of 2011(12,13….) I…at my English class. I ….reading a story about Thomas A. Edison. I… learning that his laboratories …. in Orange, New Jersey. I… glad to read about such a man as Thomas A. Edison. A young inventor …. in Thomas A. Edison’s laboratory. He ….looking at an invention that ….in a glass case. It … an electrical invention. The young inventor’s pencil …in his hand. He …drawing the part of the invention which he came there to study. An Englishman and his young son…also in the same laboratory. They ….looking at hundreds of inventions. Many of them …in glass cases. The man and his son… interested in all Edison’s inventions, but they… the most interested in the electrical ones. Many of those …in one room. Several tourists…in this room, and among them ….the Englishman and his son. The man says to one tourist,” We….interested in electrical ones. Exercise 9. Read Text B and interpret it.

TEXT B Electricity on the farm Electricity gives the means to save both time and money by mechanizing the work in and about the farm building. It is an important tool for hygiene for milk production. The conditions of controlled environment under which so much farm livestock must today be kept, cannot be achieved without its use. Electricity provides light, heat and power in a clean and highly efficient form which can be turned to the maximum 33

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advantage in the production of hot water, in running a milking(dairy) plant, pumping water, preparing feeds, heating and ventilating buildings for housed stock and above all, correctly lighting these various operations. All these services can be provided by electricity at a cost which is lower than that of other fuel. Because of wind and weather it is not always possible to provide on the farm the devices used in the factory to improve working conditions. Electricity can be applied revolutionize the working environment and conditions in the farm building as well as in the field whenever possible. The storage of grain in the barn, the stock keeping under conditions of controlled environment and the storage of potatoes in buildings illustrate the point. Exercise 10. Find English equivalents in Text B to the following Russian word combinations:  средства экономии времени и денег;  механизация работы;  важное средство (орудие);  условия контролируемой среды;  сельскохозяйственные животные;  высокоэффективная форма;  максимальное преимущество;  работа молочного завода (2);  подача воды;  приготовление корма;  отопление и вентиляция;  стоимость которого ниже стоимости какого-либо другого вида топлива;  изменить рабочие условия;  хранение зерна;  содержание животных. Exercise 11. Review Grammar and find infinitive or its forms in Text B. Determine its function and translate the sentence. Exercise 12. Find in Text B and determine to what speech parts the -ing forms do belong to. Translate the sentences containing them.

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Exercise 13. Name in English all known forms of electricity application (use Texts A and B). Exercise 14. Using the words given below make up your-own sentences as many as possible. Electricity, means, to save, to mechanize, to provide, to use, tool, advantage, low cost, energy, source, universal, power, to supply, machines. Exercise 15. Find in Text A and B the information about the advantageous features of electricity as a source of energy. Exercise 16. Study the text below to get the information about electric fencing application, interpret the text. Use notes to understand it well enough. You will know what electric fencing is used for and how it is made. The electric fence consists of a galvanized iron wire energized by of such low current that it is perfectly safe although capable of giving a shock to livestock. Electric fence units can have main supply and will energize some miles of wire. While the principle function of the electric fence is to confine cattle for controlled grazing it is becoming increasingly employed for other services such as the control of stock feeding from the face of silage clamps, the guidance of cattle from collecting yards to milking parlous (an electric “cow-dog or watch-dog” in fact) and the confinement of pigs and poultry in which case two or more wires are used. The fence wires are supported by insulator on driven or free standing posts and care must be taken to ensure that the wire is free from herbage through which current leakage could come. Notes: fence – изгородь, ограждение; a galvanized iron wire – гальванический железный провод; main supply – основной источник; confine – оградить; grazing – выпас (на пастбище); milking parlous – доильные залы; insulators – изолятор; poultry – домашняя птица; herbage – травяной покров; current leakage – утечка электрического тока.

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Exercise 17. Summarize the information you got in this lesson and prepare to speak about the following on your choice: a) Electricity is a universal source of power; b) Nowadays we can’t imagine our life without electricity; c) Electricity supplies a lot of mechanisms with power. d) Electricity made countries to develop.

UNIT 3 FARM MACHINERY DEVELOPMENT LESSON 6 Introduction When do the first plants manufacturing Farm machinery appear in Britain?

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What was the first “agricultural locomotive”? What invention of Henry Ford was used in agriculture? When were the horses completely replaced in farming and by what? FROM

Pic. 1. Primitive wooden plough

THTOUGH THE HISTORY TO

Pic. 2. Metal trailed (or drown) plough

Exercise 1. To get known those facts study Text A, translate it and you will exactly know the answers to those questions. Before starting this work learn the words below.

Active vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

implement craftsman plow (plough) to plough tool to arose steam oil engine

орудие ремесленник плуг пахать инструмент, орудие производства появляться пар масло, нефть двигатель

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10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

to mount transmission to transmit chassis speed cylinder to suit pneumatic tyre power to power gasoline to draw/pull to push to sow to mow to pass wheel/wheeled track/ tracklayer to perform load to expand/expansion to till resistance cost

крепить (навешивать) трансмиссия = передача передавать шасси скорость цилиндр подходить (быть удобным) пневматический шина сила, мощность зд. – оснащать, приводить в движение бензин тянуть, тащить толкать сеять косить проходить колесо (колесный) гусеница/гусеничный выполнять груз расширять/расширение обрабатывать почву сопротивление (себе)стоимость

TEXT A History of agricultural equipment development Until the nineteenth century Great Britain had no plants and factories producing farm implements. They were made by local craftsmen to the design of individual farmers. There were innumerable types of plows. One of the first men to set up a plow works was Robert Ransome, who made all-iron plows. Other implement works followed, manufacturing many farm tools and mechanisms that arose later in the century. This was a golden age of agricultural tools invention Then steam plowing through “oil-engined agricultural locomotive” appeared. 38

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But even twenty years later the farm tractor was still little more than a slow moving stationary engine mounted together with the transmission on a heavy chassis. In 1917 the tractor powered by a high-speed multicylinder engine with no chassis appeared. It was lighter than any of earlier tractors and it is said to have been designed by Henry Ford I. It was widely criticized as being quite unsuited for agriculture. Nevertheless, since 1920 practically, every tractor that has come into mass production has imitated this design. Pneumatic tires made tractors more mobile both in going about the farm and for transport work. At present tractors, powered with a gasoline or diesel engine are widely used to draw and operate agricultural implements for ploughing, sowing, harvesting, moving and a large variety of other operations on the farm and in the field. Having a mighty pulling power a tractor can pass through any difficult ground. Wheeled or track layer tractors perform a wide range of tasks the track layer tractor being more powerful, able to pull or push very heavy loads. With today’s ploughs a tractor expands its power not only on tilling but also on overcoming the resistance of the soil to the movement of the plough through it. Between 1939 and 1945 tractors completely displaced horses in farming. The tractor has become “a maid of all work” able to operate economically in light work as well as heavy. The development of the low cost high speed diesel engine has been one of the very important achievements in the world.

Exercise 2. Make grammar analysis and find in Text A such parts of speech as:  прилагательные в положительной степени;  прилагательные в сравнительной степени;  количественные и порядковые числительные;  причастия I;  причастия II;  отглагольные существительные (назовите суффиксы с помощью которых они образованы);  наречия.

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Exercise 3. Find the pares of words from the left and right columns having similar meaning: 1.implement 2.plant 3.to design 4.to appear 5.low speed 6.engine with many cylinders 7.energized 8.oil engine 9.to pull 10.instrument 11.operation 12.machinery 13.land 14.horse power 15.producing

a. force b. powered c. to draw d. tool e. mechanism f. diesel engine g. multi cylinder h. slow i. manufacturing j. to arise k. factory l. soil m. a number(a set) of machines n. work o. to develop

Exercise 4. Having defined verbs tense and voice forms make an adequate translation of the sentences. 1. They had been made by local craftsmen on the design of individual farmers. 2. One of the first men to set up a plow(plough) works was Robert Ransome, who made all-iron plows. 3. Then steam plowing through oil-engined agricultural locomotive appeared. 4. It was lighter than any of earlier tractors. 5. This invention has been widely criticized. 6. Since 1920 almost every tractor has imitated the original design. 7. One very important achievement has been the development of the low cost high speed diesel engine. Exercise 5. Fill in the following words from brackets into the sentences, pay attention to-ed endings and translate the sentences. (produced, planting, machines, planters, harvesters, cultivators, pickers, practices) 

Modern farm ....... do more work and in a shorter time. 40

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     

Crops are planted with special ........ machines or ........ All grain crops were harvested with combine ……... in our region last year. More self-propelled machines will be ........ in future. The machines, pulled by tractors are plows, planters and……… The design of cotton…….. produced in our country last year is very good. Most cultural…….. had been performed by draft animals.

Exercise 6. Look this small text through and tell. а) О каких трех первых моделях плуга говорится в нем. б) Какой плуг является экономически более выгодным. History of the plow First steel plows came to the fields of America in 1937. First plows were of the “walking” type, that is, the operator walked behind the plow while horses pulled it.

Pic. 3. “Walking” type plough

Some decades later the first riding (ехать) plow was developed. The plow was mounted on wheels and pulled by one or two horses. It had a place for the operator to sit. The operator by means of such implement could plow two acres per day.

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Pic. 4. Drown type plough

You can find the image on this picture. There were tractor-drown plows (you might have already probably seen them on Agricultural Exhibition or in the museums) that could plow several acres per hour. You must have seen the modern ploughs in the fields of the farm. Nowadays they are different, but mainly powered by tractor. Notes: walk behind-идти за…; steel – сталь; to ride – ездить верхом.

Pic. 5. It is a mouldboard plough mounted on a tractor

Exercise 7. Read and translate Text B and find the parts where the text performs information: а) о том, что машины выполняют работу экономически более выгодно; б) об орудиях, приводимых в движение тракторами; 42

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в) о сельскохозяйственных машинах и орудиях машинах в прошлом и настоящем. Pay attention to the notes. TEXT B Importance of machinery and energy in agriculture More and more machines are used on farms today having replaced hand labour, horses and increasing labour productivity. With machines and power available farmers not only became able to do more work and do it more economically. But they can do higher-quality work and the work may be finished in a shorter and more favourable time. Machines that are used for crop production include those that till the soil, plant the crops, perform various cultural practices during the growing season and harvest the crops. Many machines are known to be powered by tractors. Implements such as plows, cultivators and planters may be mounted on a tractor or they may be pulled by a tractor. However, an increasing number of farm machines are now selfpropelled. These machines are grain combine harvesters, cotton pickers, forage harvesters, and many others specialized farm machines. Machines that do not require a lot of mobility are usually powered with electric motors. These are such machines as silage unlouders, livestock feeding equipment and milking machines. Farm machines we use today are quite different from those the farmers used two or even one decade ago. The tractors, tractor-drawn planters and drills were smaller and less productive. They could plant less acres per day than the machines do now. Notes: power available – доступная энергосила; higher-quality work – работа более высокого качества; till the soil – обрабатывают почву; to be powered – получают мощность – приводятся в движение; increasing number of farm machines – растущее число с\х машин.

Exercise 8. Find in Text B English equivalents to the word combinations and terms:  хлопкоуборочная машина;  культиватор;

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          

рядовая сеялка; доильный аппарат; навешивать, крепить; посадочная машина, сажалка; плуг; самоходный; разгрузочная машина для силоса (силосоподборщик); обрабатывать почву; на тракторной тяге; подвижность; оборудование для кормления животных.

Exercise 9. Have a look to the words groups, give each group a title. a) plows, cultivators and planters, tractor, combine harvesters, cotton pickers, forage harvesters; b) plowing, seeing, planting, harvesting, cultivating, rolling, spreading, spraying; c) labour productivity, soil conservation, power efficiency, power increase, specialization, high quality. Exercise 10. Look Text B through and be ready to give the answers to the questions. 1. Do machines make labour more productive? 2. Can machines do work in a shorter time? 3. What machines are mounted on a tractor? 4. What self-propelled machines do you know? 5. Are milking machines powered with electricity? 6. What modern machines differ in? Exercise 11. Get ready to speak out on the following on your choice: а) история развития плуга; б) первые трактора; в) сельскохозяйственное оборудование. LESSON 7

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Introduction What word does the word engineer originate from? Who invented the first steam engine? What was the first engine ever invented like? What kinds of engines are existing? What does the abbreviation ICE mean? Exercise 1. To be able to give answers to all questions above learn the vocabulary of the Lesson and study Text A. Active vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

двигатель пар/паровой двигатель внутреннего сгорания колесо орошать изобретать лопасть печь, топка котел древесина уголь гореть превращаться огонь приводить в движение, вести воспламенять(ся) внутри топливо

engine steam internal combustion eng wheel to irrigate to invent blade furnace boiler wood coal to burn to turn into fire to drive to ignite inside fuel

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19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

бензин реактивный газ достигать устойчивый таять/плавить(ся) звук выше/сверх-

petrol jet engine gas to reach resistant to melt sound over

TEXT A First Engines Do you know what the first engine was like? It was called the «water wheel». This was an ordinary wheel with blades fixed to it, and current of a river turned it. These first engines were used irrigating fields. Then a wind-powered engine was invented. This was a wheel, but a very small one. Long wide wooden blades were attached to it. The new engine was driven by the wind. Some of these one can still see in the country. Both of these, the water-and wind-operated engines are very economical. They do not need fuel in order to function. But they are dependent on the weather. Many years passed and people invented a new engine, one operated by steam. In a steam engine, there is a furnace and a boiler. The furnace is filled with wood or coal and then lit. The fire heats the water in the boiler and when it boils, it turns into steam which does some useful work. The more coal is put burning. The more steam there is the faster a train or a boat is moving. The steam engine drove all sorts of machines, for example steam ships and steam locomotives. Indeed, the very first aeroplane built by A.F. Mozhaisky also a steam engine. However, the steam engine had its disadvantages. It was too large and heavy, and needed to mach fuel. The imperfection of the steam engine led to the design of a new type. It was called the internal combustion engine, because its fuel ignites and burns inside, the engine itself and not in a furnace. It is smaller and lighter than a steam engine because it does not have a boiler. It is also more powerful, as it uses better – quality fuel: petrol or kerosene. The internal combustion engine is now used in cars, diesel locomotives and motor ships. But to enable airplanes to fly faster than the speed of sound another more powerful engine was needed. Eventually, one was

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invented and it was given the name “jet engine.” The gases in it reach the temperature of over a thousand degrees. It is made of a very resistant metal so that it will not melt. Exercise 2. Guess the meaning: a) an ordinary device used for irrigating fields, designed in the form of a wheel with blades fixed to it, and current of a river turned it; b) a substance which appears as the result of boiling water; c) a device ever invented which forced the civilization to develop and industry appear; d) it may be also called a heart of any machine; e) engine in which the fuel burns inside its cylinder and it doesn’t need a furnace. Exercise 3. Find Gerund in the following sentences, translate the sentences, paying attention to its function. 1. Overcoming these difficulties is not so easy as it may seem. 2. Overcoming these difficulties the designers can increase the fuel efficiency. 3. Setting a problem the scientist makes the first step to its solution. 4. Setting a problem is the first step to its solution. 5. Covering the distance between Tokyo and Moscow in less than two hours is above the speed of sound. 6. Covering the distance between Tokyo and Moscow on board a super liner requires about two hours. 7. Putting the discovery into practice the engineers will solve a complicated technological task. 8. Putting the discovery into practice sometimes requires more effort than making it. Exercise 4. Fill in the prepositions by/with/for/at/in. The steam was invented… James watt. Who worked… many years before he could make the instruments… which he perfected his machine… first he worked… primitive tools so he could not make his engine well-regulated. The first efficient steam-engine was made… a Birmingham firm and it was soon used… nearly every manufacturer. The revolution in industry mode … this machine was extremely great.

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Exercise 5. Identify what part of speech do underlined words belong to and due to that give correct translation of the sentences. 1. Television has a great number of uses nowadays. 2. This car uses a new sensor mechanism. 3. ABM wanted to build a mechanism that people could use to talk to one another over long distances. 4. The new material can be applied in manufacturing the components much smaller than those in use today. 5. Measures to keep Moscow’s air clean are important components of our ecological programs. 6. A thermometer is a device that measures temperature. 7. Computers can do many things, they can control machines in factories, cars or roads, play chess and so on. 8. Engineers are now testing a computer control system which has a new car model. 9. Computer control is now applied nearly in every area of production in the world. Exercise 6. Find Russian equivalents to the following word combinations. It was called, water wheel, blades fixed to the wheel, windpowered engine, in order to function, dependent on the weather, steam engine, the boiler is filled with wood or coal, the fire heats the water, the water turns into a steams, the more coal the stronger the fire, steam engine drove all sorts of machines, steam engine disadvantages, imperfection of steam engine, better quality fuel. Exercise 7. Complete the sentences and interpret them. 1. The first engine ever invented was an ordinary…… 2. The wheel with long wooden blades attached to it was…. 3. The principle of steam engine operation is ….. 4. Steam engines needed…. 5. Steam engines were used in…. 6. The disadvantage of a steam engine was that it was….. 7. The imperfection of the steam engine lead to… 8. A new type of the engine was called… 9. ICE was …. 10. Now the ICE is used…

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Exercise 8. Speak about the history of engines development, use the following phrases to cover the text content in brief, learn this phrases for the future to make a text rending. 1. The text gives information on… 2. It is interesting to note that… 3. Speaking about… 4. Further description of… is given. 5. It is pointed out that… 6. As far as I know… 7. In conclusion I’d like to say that… Exercise 9. Explain the meanings of underlined words. 1. When the first self-propelled vehicles appeared measures were taken to limit their speed in many countries. 2. His having measured the distance will enable him to calculate light intensity. 3. The universal system of measures and weights was worked out by the French academy of Science in 1791. 4. The distance from North Pole to the Equator was measured, onefourth was taken divided into ten million equal parts. One of this parts was called a “measure” or “a meter”. 5. One of the earliest ideas to propel a vehicle using mechanical power was suggested by Isaac Newton. 6. Having used a steam driven engine a French engineer built a three-wheeled vehicle for two passengers. 7. At the end of the 19th century the use of cars was still very limited. Exercise 10. Read Text B without a dictionary. Pay attention to the notes below and learn those terms. Answer the questions to the text. Text B Tractor engines Like automobiles, tractors use internal-combustion engines. These ignite and burn their fuel inside the cylinder; and the heat thus produced is converted into useful power. But not all of the heat available in the fuel can be changed into useful power. Some is lost in the exhaust gases, some in the cooling water, and some in the power required to overcome friction of the engine parts. The portion of the heat that changed 49

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into useful power determines the efficiency of the engine. Designers of tractor engines try to make this portion as large as possible; it means economy of operation. To make an engine an efficient heat converter, it is serviced by systems, each of which has a special function; they are the fuel system, the lubrication system, the ignition and electrical system and the cooling system. The care and maintenance of these systems are important. But cylinder is often called the heart of the engine. Within the cylinder the process of combustion takes place. Most tractor engines have four cylinders. Notes: heat thus produced – образованная таким образом теплота; to convert – превращать; to overcome friction – преодолевать трение; fuel system – топливная система; lubrication system – смазочная система; cooling system – система охлаждения.

Questions: What type of engine do tractors use? Why is the engine called internal combustion engine? In what part of an engine is fuel burnt? What determines the efficiency of the engine? What part of an engine is called the heart of the engine? How many cylinders have most of the tractor engines? Exercise 11. Review the grammar paragraph «Инфинитивные конструкции», try to find them and translate the sentences.  We consider the results of ploughing to be excellent.  Electricity is known to be introduced in many branches of agriculture.  The engine to be used on farm tractors is very powerful.  Specialists are considered to be working out new possible applications of this combine.  The capacity of this mobile station seems to range from 600 to 700 kilowatt.  We consider electrical machines to have vast application on every farm.  Blinov is known to be the inventor of the first tracklayer tractor.  The engine is found to be called “the heart” of the automobile.  This soil is expected to be very fertile to use it for grazing. 50

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 To know the capability of this tractor special test is conducted. Exercise 12. Here we have prepared an original article. It would be nice if you work with it. Your task is to understand the information important for the farmer-producer. If there is a need you may use a dictionary to understand it well enough. After reading and translating this text, write an essay telling briefly what key-facts should the farmer think first to make a choice of a tractor. It would be very nice of you to use phrases of Ex. 8 of Lesson 7. Farming With One Tractor Although few farms claim only one tractor in their machinery inventory, it is possible to choose, equip and schedule a single tractor to accomplish all of the field work on a farm. Even though most tractors have a flexible design suitable for a wide range of tasks, farmers often keep a variety of tractors on hand to accomplish specific tasks. Large tractors are most often used for primary and secondary tillage. A small tractor may be used for utility chores, mowing, and light hauling. Intermediate-sized tractors are often used for the widest range of tasks including some primary tillage, secondary tillage, planting, mowing and hauling. Equipment costs are a large part of the cost of Midwest row crop agriculture. Equipment costs account for about 20 percent of the total cost of production. Power equipment such as tractors and combines, are the most expensive items. Reducing the number of tractors can significantly reduce total equipment costs. Costs associated with an equipment set (the combination of tractors and related equipment used in a farming operation) include: labor, timeliness and ownership costs. Labor requirements are generally greater for smaller equipment sets. Small equipment sets may also delay field operations, resulting in timeliness costs such as reduced yield or crop quality. An optimum equipment set is a compromise between ownership costs and costs for labor and timeliness. Factors affecting tractor size and number. Farm size, availability of labor and custom services, crop selection, and cultural practices, such as choice of tillage system, all affect the selection of an optimum equipment set and, ultimately, the number of tractors necessary to farm. Although demand for tractor power generally increases with farm size, many commercial farms in Missouri could 51

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operate efficiently with a single tractor. Abundant labor may permit owning a single tractor by allowing several operators to keep the machine running for extended periods of the day during high-demand times such as field preparation and planting. The availability of custom services or equipment rental may reduce the need for larger equipment or more extensive equipment sets. Reduced tillage systems have lowered the demand for total tractor power and time by reducing the number and type of field operations required to produce a crop. By replacing tillage with a burndown herbicide, one of two results can occur. Either the field preparation time is reduced, since the time required for herbicide application is less than for tillage; or the herbicide application is custom hired so that a tractor is not needed for that operation. (William W. Casady Department of Agricultural Engineering Raymond E. Massey Department of Agricultural Economics)

Exercise 13. Tell if that true or false. Your tractor needs are affected by: 1. a) farm size; b) tractor size; 2. a) labour availability; b) labour efficiency; 3. a) custom service availability; b) equipment service availability; 4. a) crop selection; b) crop diversity; 5. a) cultural practices used; b) cultural experience.

Exercise 14. Name exact factors each farmer should keep in mind selecting a tractor for the work in any farm. Say what can help the farmer to win weeds except farm implements and operations he does by means of their usage.

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Exercise 15. Make rendering of Text B (you may use phrases of Ex.8 Lesson 7).

UNIT 4 IMPORTANCE OF A TRACTOR FOR FARM WORK

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LESSON 8

Introduction What companies are the world known/ domestic tractor manufacturers? What typical tractor operations do you know? What is the main power machine for all types of agricultural implements?

Exercise 1. To be able to speak on these questions you are to learn the active vocabulary fist and then study Text A. Active vocabulary 1.

at the rear

сзади

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

mounted (semi-mounted) trailed internal combustion engine (ICE) capacity manufacturer crawler employ at the front sowing yield harvesting safety rules gear box lock differential power steering driving wheels drive protection to fit(ted) cab

навесной (полунавесной) прицепной двигатель внутреннего сгорания (ДВС) мощность производитель гусеничный трактор использовать/работать на впереди посев уборка урожая правила безопасности коробка передач блокирующийся дифференциал рулевое управление с усилителем ведущие колеса привод защита подгонять кабина

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21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

injury excessive all purpose accurate electric starting machinery management normal starting to transfer mounted semi-mounted trailed

повреждение чрезмерный общего назначения nочный (тщательный) электрозажигание содержание техники обычный (распространённый) запуск перемещать навесной полунавесной прицепной

TEXT A History of a tractor The history of tractor development is really long. The first use of an internal combustion engine in a tractor in the United States goes back as far as 1890. Today tractor construction industry is highly developed in Russia, the USA, Great Britain and some other countries, a number of types of tractors being produced for doing various agricultural practices on soil and in the livestock barn, including wheeled and ones. In recent years the diesel engine has become the accepted power unit for all British tractors. The most important development is the increase of engine capacity. Wheeled tractors in the 100 horse-power (hp) class have been introduced by most of the British and other countries’ tractor manufacturers, and are increasingly used. Perfect examples here are John Deere 5310N, Lamborghini Campion 135, MF 6290 and Renault Ares 640RZ. But today a 200-300 hp tractor, like Fendt Farmer 300LS or John Deere 8850, is the main power source for large farm operations in agriculturally advanced countries. Most tractors employ two larger driving wheels at the rear and two smaller driven wheels at the front. But with the increase in engine power, four-wheel-drive ones have become common. Large tractors tend to be used for a limited range of operations, the chief being tillage, combined tillage and sowing and yield harvesting. Safety rules, designed for the protection of a tractor operator, require most new tractors to be fitted with safety cabs; and other rules are leading to the necessity for cabs to reduce the intensity of noise at the 55

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driver’s ear. Drivers’ seats are also being improved to reduce injuries caused by excessive vibration. Most modern farm tractors are truly “all purpose”. Case Steiger 9390 and Valtra Valmet 8150 HiTech can operate a range of mounted, semi-mounted, and trailed implements and machines, and have hydraulic devices to provide easy and accurate control of the equipment from the tractor driver’s seat. Among the typical operations performed by the latest tractors there are plowing, cultivating, harrowing, sowing, harvesting and transporting agricultural crops, livestock and poultry feeds distribution, barn cleansing and others. Inefficient machinery management turns to be a considerable problem too. Say, data of the research conducted in 2000 show that a good share of farmers in America, having large tractors, only use them 400 hours per year or even less, while smaller tractors are long proved and recommended to be in use 1000 or more hours - and still doing good work. Farmers should not purchase larger tractors than they need, for heavier machines consume far more fuel which make them uneconomic. In addition, the area of land must be spacious enough in order to employ such tractors properly, which is not sometimes the case in the USA. It has now become normal practice to provide electric starting, lights and light-signaling. Other developments that have rapidly become common include such items as multi-speed gear-boxes, power take-off (PTO), lock differential, power steering and various devices for transferring weight from mounted implements to the tractor’s drive wheels. Exercise 2. Guess the meaning of the Participles II underlined in the Text. Copy the sentences and translate them. Exercise 3. Give the equivalents to the following word combinations from the text.  Первое использование датируется.  Тракторостроительная промышленность.  Для выполнения различных сельскохозяйственных приёмов.  Увеличение мощности двигателя.  Колесный трактор класса мощности 100 лошадиных сил.  Используют два ведущих колеса сзади.

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 Для определённых (ограниченных по количеству) операций.

 Необходимость снизить шум в кабине, действующий на слух тракториста.  Чтобы обеспечить доступный и тщательный контроль.  Неэффективное использование техники.  В настоящее время распространённой практикой стало применение.  Для перемещения веса с навесных орудий на…… Exercise 4. Find pares of a) synonyms and b) antonyms, (you may consult the dictionary). Below – above; useful – useless; easy – difficult; field – sphere; to meet demands – to meet requirements( needs); full – complete; to use – to apply; to get – to obtain; moreover – besides; sufficient – enough; likely – unlikely; to continue – to discontinue; conductivity – nonconductivity; to vary – to change; to lead to – to result in; recent – latest; advantage – disadvantage; low – high; believable – unbelievable; to lose – to find; tiny – huge; liquid – solid; unexpected – expected; common – ordinary; produce – manufacture; capacity – power; implement – tool. Express your own sentences with any of them. Exercise 5. Translate sentences with infinitive constructions (consult grammar first: «Сложное подлежащее», «Сложное дополнение», « For+ Infinitive»). 1. The new drill is reported to be able to seed 2,5 cm deep. 2. Radio navigation stations are known to be located all over the world to guide the pilots. 3. People considered dirigibles to be slow and un reliable, that is why they were not used for a long time. 4. Propeller engines are considered to be much more economical. 5. But as propeller planes are known to fly slower than jet planes a new ventilator engine with a propeller has been built. 6. Recent discoveries in superconductivity made scientists look for new conducting materials and for practical application of the phenomenon.

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7. M. Faradey supposed a light beam to reverse its polarization as it passed through a magnetized crystal. 8. Diesel engine is found to be used in different machinery. Exercise 6. What mounted, semi-mounted, and trailed implements can you name? Copy the table given below to your notebook, and fill it in by yourself. Mounted

Implements Semi-Mounted

Trailed

Exercise 7. A) Scan Text A one more time, in order to find and copy to your notebook its parts which answer the following questions, presented in written form by your Russian chief who would like to have the list of some major facts in English, translate them for him. 1. Для каких видов работ предназначены трактора с высокой мощностью двигателя? 2. Почему большинство современных тракторов называют «универсальными»? 3. Какие требования предъявляются к кабине тракториста? 4. Какова типичная колесная формула тракторов сельскохозяйственного назначения? 5. Какие трактора наиболее популярны в Англии? 6. Двигателями какого типа оборудуется большая часть тракторов? B) Basing on the text, and employing your own agricultural experience and knowledge, provide extended responses to the provided questions. When presenting your answers, resort to the useful speech combinations from the following list. I know only that …- Мне только известно, что; I believe that – Я полагаю, что …; I’d like to tell you that – Я хотел бы сказать, что…; If I’ve got that right – Если я правильно понял, то…; What is more, – Более того… . 58

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1. When was the first internal combustion engine used in the world? 2. What power unit is accepted for most tractors and automobiles? 3. What characterizes the most popular British farm tractors? 4. How do manufacturers comfort the driver’s work? 5. What auxiliary electrical and mechanical devices is the modern tractor provided with? Exercise 8. Read and interpret Text B, Notes will help you. TEXT B Farm tractor The first farm tractor replaced the horse simply as a vehicle to pull implements. Developments in tractor design, which have taken place since then, have enabled the tractor not only to pull an implement, but also to operate an implement attached to the three – point linkage. The modern tractor can also supply power to operate a machine through the p.t.o. by hydraulic means, or by belt. The most popular type of tractor is the general-purpose tractor. This is designed to perform a wide range of tasks. Details of design differ with model and size, but most have:

Pic. 6. Tractor Parts

1. аn engine capable of producing between 65-100 hp (horse power); 2. a transmission system;

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3. for rubber typed wheels or two tracks; 4. a drawbar; 5. a tree-point linkage for mounted implements; 6. a hydraulic system; 7. a p.t.o. (power – take – off) shaft for driving implements; 8. a front axle and engine chassis; 9. a low center of gravity, to give stability and reduce the risk of overturning. Notes: Vehicle – транспортное средство; three-point linkage – трёх точечное соединение; p.t.o. – вал отбора мощности; belt – ремень; general purpose – общего назначения; rubber wheel – резиновое колесо; overturning – переворот; axle – ось.

Exercise 9. Guess the English variants, learn those terms and word combinations, consult Pic. 6 and find in the English-Russian dictionary the meanings, learn them:  конструкция трактора;  приводить в движение орудия;  вал отбора мощности;  гидравлические средства;  привод (приводное устройство);  передняя ось;  центр тяжести;  риск переворота (опрокидывания). Exercise 10. Give the answers to the questions. 1. What kind of a vehicle is a tractor? 2. What is the most popular type of a tractor? 3. What are the chief parts of a tractor?

Exercise 11. Now you are requested to prepare a written report, basing yourselves on the out-line of the texts A and B, you may also

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use any additional information. While preparing consult a Report Scheme. REPORT SCHEME Before you start preparing your report, we would consider that worth mentioning that a typical scientific report should comprise four basic narrative elements. Those elements are: 1) title; 2) introduction; 3) main body; 4) conclusion. The generalized functions of the said elements are as follows:  title – suggests the topic that follows, and can also be employed for advertising (as a slogan);  introduction – states the topic of the article, or clearly outlines the topics to be covered;  main Body – a series of paragraphs in each of which a separate subject is developed in detail; Main Body can include two streams: main issues arisen by other authors, and your (narrator’s) personal attitude;  conclusion (summary) – sums-up the topic and/or offers an opinion, comments, recommendations, etc. Given below are the offered sets of introductory constructions that may be recommended for the application in the respective parts of your presentation (report) scheme. a) Introduction - The text (article) points out …В тексте (статье) отмечается…; - The author believes … Автор полагает, что….; - The major point is …Основное-это то, что…..; /The key-stone here is/… - The purpose / aim / intention of the report is to …Цель данного сообщения-….(что то сделать); - This is the paper concerning …Этот документ касается - This article contains / outlines / examines / assesses …Статья содержит/ отражает/представляет b) Main Body  To state main issues arisen in the text: - The first thing to be mentioned in this connotation is …; - The text starts with the assumption that …; - To begin with, …; First of all, …; - Secondly / Then, …; - Thirdly / In the third place, …; - Lastly / Last but not the least … .

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To note or declare (your) personal attitude: - As I see it, …; - That goes without saying that …; - As far as I can judge, …; - I would assume that …; - My opinion here is as follows: …; - From my point of view, …; - Personally, I believe that …; - To my way of thinking, …; - I am inclined to consider that … . c) Conclusion - On the basis of the points mentioned above, it would seem that …; - It is therefore considered / obvious / recommended that …; - To sum-up …; - Summarizing the foresaid, …; - Taking everything into account, …; - In conclusion we should reconfirm that …; - On the whole, …; - Finally, … . Exercise 12. Present your report orally to your colleagues - “engineers who participate in a scientific conference devoted to agricultural mechanization progress issues”. (A Role play)

UNIT 5

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COMPONENTS OF A MACHINE LESSON 9 Introduction What is the principle of the reciprocation engine operation? Why is the engine called the internal combustion engine? How is the chemical energy converted into mechanical one? What does the operation cycle mean? What happens during the operation cycle in the ICE?

Pic. 7. Engine cut: E – Exhaust camshaft; I – Intake camshaft; S – Spark plug; V – Valves; P – Piston; R – Connecting Rod; C – Crankshaft; W – Water jacket for coolant flow

Exercise 1. To be able to speak on these questions you are to learn the active vocabulary fist and then study text A. Active vocabulary 1. Internal combustion engine 2. bottom dead center 3. charge of fuel 4 .combustion chamber 5. compression stroke 6. connecting rod 7. crankshaft 8. cylinder

двигатель внутреннего сгорания нижняя мёртвая точка заряд топлива камера сгорания такт сжатия шатун коленчатый вал цилиндр

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9. diesel engine 10. exhaust stroke 11. four –stroke cycle 12. fuel injection 13. to ignite 14. ignition 15. intake stroke 16. mixture 17. operating cycle 18. petrol engine 19. piston 20. power stroke 21. pressure 22. reciprocating movement 23. residual gas 24. rotary motion( movement) 25. spark plug 26. top dead center 27. valve

дизельный двигатель такт выпуска четырёхтактный цикл впрыск топлива воспламенять(ся) горение такт впуска смесь (зд. – топливная) рабочий цикл бензиновый двигатель поршень рабочий ход (зд. – поршня) давление возвратно-поступательное движение выхлопной газ вращательное движение свеча зажигания верхняя мёртвая точка клапан

Тext A Principle of Operation of the Four-Stroke Petrol Engine The internal combustion engine is called so because fuel is burned directly inside the engine itself. Most automobile engines work on a 4stroke cycle. A cycle is one complete sequence of 4 strokes of the piston in the cylinder. The operating cycle of the four-stroke petrol engine includes: inlet stroke (intake valve opens), compression stroke (both valves closed), power stroke (both valves closed), exhaust stroke (exhaust valve is opened). To describe the complete cycle, let's assume that the piston is at the top of the stroke (top dead center) and the inlet and the exhaust valves are closed. When the piston moves down the inlet valve opens to intake a charge of fuel into the cylinder. This is called the inlet (intake) stroke. On reaching the lowest position (bottom dead center) the piston begins to move upward into the closed upper part on the cylinder, the inlet valve is closed and the mixture is compressed by the rising piston. This is called the compression stroke. As the piston again reaches the top dead center the spark plugs ignite the mixture, both valves being closed during its combustion. 64

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As a result of burning mixtures the gases expand and great pressure makes the piston move back down the cylinder. This stroke is called the power stroke. When the piston reaches the bottom of its stroke, the exhaust valve is opened, pressure is released, and the piston again rises. It lets the burnt gas flow through the exhaust valve into the atmosphere. This is called the exhaust stroke which completes the cycle. So the piston moves in the cylinder down (intake stroke), up (compression stroke), down (power stroke), up (exhaust stroke). The heat released by the fuel is transformed into work so that the reciprocating movement of the pistons is converted into rotary movement of a crankshaft by means of connecting rods.

1 – intake

2 – compression

3 – power

4 – exhaust

Puc. 8. Principle of Operation of the Four-Stroke Petrol Engine: 1) intake – такт выпуска; 2) compression – такт сжатия; 3) power – paбочий такт; 4) exhaust – такт выхлопа

Exercise 2. Translate the words into Russian, pay attention to their suffixes and explain word formation rule. To combust-combustion, to operate – operation, to ignite – ignition, to reciprocate-reciprocation, to connect – connection, to compress – compression, to describe – description, to rotate – rotation, to act – action, to reduce-reduction, to exhaust – exhaustion, to continue – continuation, to complete – completion, to expand – expansion, to impress – impression, to confuse – confusion, to compromise – compromising. Exercise 3. Read and give variants in Russian of «internationalisms». Principle, cycle, piston, center, cylinder, atmosphere, compression, revolution, combination, induction, position, operation, ovulation, rotor. 65

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generator, distributor, fantastic, laser, plasma, potential, intensive, intensity, principle, to vibrate, fraction, project, transmission, compression. Exercise 4. Scan the text and choose correct answers to the fallowing questions. 1. Why is the engine called the internal combustion engine? It is called so because the fuel (the mixture) is burned….. A) directly inside the engine; B) outside the engine. 2. What stroke is called the inlet one? The inlet stroke is called so because during moving down the piston….. A) the inlet valve opens to intake a charge of fuel into the cylinder; B) the inlet valve is closed and the mixture is compressed. 3. What is a compression stroke? The compression stroke is a stroke….. A) when the inlet valve opens to intake a charge of fuel into the cylinder; B) when the inlet valve is closed and the mixture is compressed. 4. What takes place in the cylinder on power stroke? On power stroke….. A) the spark plugs ignite the mixture, both valves are closed during its combustion; B) the exhaust valve is opened and residual gas flows through the exhaust valve into the atmosphere. 5. What takes place on the exhaust stroke? On the exhaust stroke….. A) the spark plugs ignite the mixture, both valves are closed during its combustion; B) the exhaust valve is opened and residual gas flows through the exhaust valve into the atmosphere. 6. By means of what is reciprocating movement of the pistons converted into rotary movement of a shaft? It is done….. A) by means of pistons; B) by means of the connecting rod.

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Exercise 5. Complete the sentences choosing the right ending variant according to the content of the text A. Translate each sentence and pay attention to the utilizing the prepositions. 1. The internal combustion engine is called so because fuel is burned …. a) outside the engine; b) inside the engine; c) within the cylinder. 2. On the intake stroke…. a) the intake valve opens; b) the intake valve is closed; c) the intake and the exhaust valves are closed. 3. On the compression stroke… a) the intake valve opens; b) the intake valve is closed; c) the intake and the exhaust valves are closed. 4. On the power stroke…. a) the intake valve opens; b) the intake valve is closed; c) the intake and the exhaust valves are closed. 5. On the exhaust stroke…. a) the exhaust valve opens; b) the intake valve is closed; c) the intake and the exhaust valves are closed. Exercise 6. Using a dictionary and your grammar rules translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. Три основные части автомобиля – это двигатель, шасси и кузов. 2. Двигатель – это источник энергии. 3. Топливо сгорает внутри самого двигателя, а именно в камере сгорания. 4. Большинство автомобильных двигателей работают на четырёхтактном цикле. 5. Четырёхтактный цикл включает: такт впуска, такт сжатия, рабочий ход и такт выпуска выхлопных газов. 6. Когда поршень внутри цилиндра движется вниз, открывается впускной клапан и порция топлива поступает в цилиндр.

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7. Когда поршень движется вверх, порция топлива сжимается – это такт сжатия. 8. Как только поршень достигает верхней мёртвой точки свеча зажигания воспламеняет топливную смесь. 9. Газы, образовавшиеся в результате горения топлива, заставляют поршень двигаться вниз цилиндра. Это рабочий ход поршня. 10. Как только поршень во время рабочего хода достигает нижней мёртвой точки, открывается выпускной клапан, давление падает, и поршень снова начинает двигаться вверх. 11. Возвратно-поступательное движение поршня превращает химическую энергию в энергию механическую. 12. Двигатели внутреннего сгорания могут иметь разную эффективность, но они менее эффективны, чем электрические. 13. Двигатели внутреннего сгорания производят продукты сгорания (СО2), которые загрязняют воздух в наших городах. Exercise 7. Select the terms that are belonging to the group “Engine” and write them down in your copy books. Make up you own sentences with those terms. Ventilator, design, efficiency, control, movement, reciprocating motion, revolve, ignition, a technician, driving test, ignition system, service, stroke, piston, unit, body, wheel, fuel, valve, differential, compression, to go up and down, to handle, to operate, to convert, energy, to contain, charge, to inlet, cylinder, cycle. Exercise 8. Translate sentences into Russian pay attention to the model ”adjective – enough-verb infinitive” 1. Materials used for superliners structure must be strong enough to withstand the air resistance at high speed. 2. The “night vision” system is to be small enough to be used in automobiles. 3. The film must be interesting enough since everyone has already seen it. 4. New materials for hypersonic craft should be light enough because the weight of the aircraft structure is of the great importance. 5. Infrared rays emitted by any object on the road are to be intensive enough for sensors to pick them up.

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6. The Voice Warning System for cars requires the connection of 18 wires, but it is simple enough to be installed in a car. 7. This engine is not efficient enough to be operated on this tractor model. Exercise 9. Learn the Russian meanings of the English verbs «to cause, to make, to force», translate the sentences into Russian. 1. Weather changes are often caused by cyclones and anticyclones. 2. Work with deaf people made Mr.Al. Bell look for a way to help them and he began to study the theory of sound. 3. In internal combustion engines the pressure of gases forces the piston to go down. 4. The fact that Sofia Kovalevskaya couldn’t continue her studies in Russia made her leave for Germany. 5. Heating causes the motion of molecules in a substance, the hotter it comes, the quicker the molecules move. 6. Morse’s interest in electricity made him start experimenting with it. 7. Sometimes bad weather forces the aircrafts to land. 8. In ordinary air it is possible to make electrons jump trough space by means of pressure of high voltage. 9. The environment pollution makes scientists to invent the less polluting engines like for example electric generators for cars. Exercise 10. Read Text B (if needed use English-Russian dictionary) and say what new information you have found in the text. Text B Compression ratio The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine, particularly piston engines (but can be used essentially on any internal-combustion engine). In a piston engine it is the ratio between the volume of the cylinder, when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke, and the volume when the piston is at the top of its stroke. Picture a cylinder with the piston at the bottom of its stroke containing 1000 cc of air. When the piston has moved up to the top of its

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stroke inside the cylinder, and the remaining volume inside the head or combustion chamber has been reduced to 100 cc, then the compression ratio would be proportionally described as 1000:100, or with fractional reduction, a 10:1 compression ratio. A high compression ratio is desirable because it allows an engine to extract more mechanical energy from a given mass of air-fuel mixture due to its higher thermal efficiency. Higher compression ratios will however make gasoline engines subject to engine knocking, also known as detonation and this can reduce an engine's efficiency or even physically damage it. Diesel engines on the other hand "knock" because they operate on the principle of compression ignition. Motorcycle racing engines can use compression ratios as high as 14:1, and it is not uncommon to find motorcycles with compression ratios above 12.0:1 designed for 86 or 87 octane fuel. Racing engines burning methanol and ethanol often exceed a CR of 15:1. In engines with a 'ping' or 'knock' sensor and an electronic control unit, the CR can be as high as 13:1 (2005 BMW K1200S) In a turbocharged or supercharged gasoline engine, the CR is customarily built at 9:1 or lower. In an auto-ignition diesel engine, the CR will customarily exceed 14:1. Ratios over 22:1 are common In 1981, Jaguar released a cylinder head that allowed up to 14:1 compression; but settled for 12.5:1 in production cars. Exercise 11. Answer the questions. 1. What is meant by a compression ratio? 2. Why is a high CR more desirable? 3. What may reduce engine’s efficiency? 4. How high is the CR in motorbikes? 5. How high is the CR in production cars? Exercise 12. Express the text briefly in writing but don’t forget to use the «Essay phrases and Report scheme» (Lesson 8). Exercise 13. Read the dialogue and tell what is discussed about. Will you try to reproduce the content of the dialogue in pair with your groupmate. 70

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Dialogue At the Repairing Shop Client: Good afternoon! Can you help me? There is something wrong with the engine of my car. Master: Hi! What is wrong with it? C.: I don’t know. It wouldn’t start. Maybe the piston and valves are in disorder. M.: Let’s have a look! Well, they are quite right. C.: And what about the crankshaft, or electric spark plugs. I know absolutely nothing about the operating cycle of the engine. M.: Just a moment. Don’t worry! We shall check up all units and how they work together. Some time later…… My God! There is no petrol in the tank. How can you move drive? C.: Really? Oh! I have forgotten to fill in the tank! I beg your pardon to trouble you! M.: No trouble, at all. You are welcome!

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LESSON 10 Introduction Can you name the main tractor parts? What does a three-point suspension mean? How many axes does the typical tractor have? Exercise 1. To know the answers to these questions you are supposed to study text A and active vocabulary. Active vocabulary 1. general-purpose tractor 2. frame 3. power unit 4. ram piston 5. traction members 6. drawbar frame 7. top link 8. hub 9. lower link 10. lifting rod 11. drawbar coupling 12. steering gear 13. differential (gear) 14. rear axle 15. drive axle 16. stub journal 17. torque converter lever 18. gear-change (gear-shift) 19. multi-speed transmission 20. fluid clutch (drive) 21. PTO gear 22. main clutch 23. PTO gear-change with PTO clutch

трактор общего назначения рама силовой агрегат, силовая установка золотник ПСР части тягового устройства, ходовые части скоба сцепного крюка подъемный рычаг навесного устройства (верхняя тяга); втулка, ступица колеса нижняя тяга подъемный стержень (тяга) механизм сцепки рулевой механизм, механизм управления дифференциальный механизм (дифференциал) задний мост (ось) ведущая ось полуось рычаг механизма преобразования крутящего момента (гидротрансформатора); механизм переключения передач многоступенчатая) коробка скоростей (переключения передач); гидромуфта сцепления привод вала отбора мощности основная муфта сцепления рычаг переключения диапазонов вала отбора мощности

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24. hydraulic power steering and reversing gears 25. swivel 26. front axle suspension 27. front coupling (hitch)

гидроусилитель системы (рулевого) управления и реверсивный механизм вертлюг, шарнир, соединение переднее подвесное (навесное) устройство переднее соединение (сцепка)

Text A Tractor Construction: the chief parts A tractor of any kind is made up of the following principle parts, namely: (1) the frame, which is the foundation on and around which the tractor is built, (2) traction members, as the wheels and crawlers are called, (3) the power unit which includes the engine and all its auxiliary devices, that develop the power, (4) the transmission system which transmits the power of the engine to the drive wheels or crawlers by various clutches, gears, and shafts, (5) the steering gear by and through which the tractor is steered, and (6) the braking device for stopping the tractor. The Frame comes first. The frame is supported by wheels or crawlers, and it, in turn, carries the engine, transmission system and all the other numerous parts that go to make up the tractor. Frame must be sufficiently rigid so that all of the power units will remain fixed in their positions relative to each other. Axles. There are two axles used in tractors having four wheels, or where a single front non-drive wheel, or a single, rear, non-drive wheel is employed the stub journal it sets on may be considered as the equivalent of the axle. There are two kinds of tractor axles and there are the non-drive axle and the drive axle. Front suspension. The point that rests on the front axle, or front suspension as it is called, either a ball and socket suspension, a spring suspension, a swivel suspension, or a rigid suspension. To enable the tractor to travel easily over rough ground and to prevent the power units from being jarred out of alignment a three point suspension is used. A three point suspension means that the frame rests on three points. In tractor two of the points of suspension must rest on the rear axle near the hubs of the wheels and the third point of suspension rests on the middle of the front axle. 73

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The Draw-Bar. The draw-bar is usually fixed to a cross brace on the frame, that sets in front of the rear axle and it should have a coil spring suspension to allow it to give a little and to absorb the shocks. The coupler end sets well back of the rear axle so that plows and other implements can be easily and quickly hitched to it. In some tractors the draw-bar is rigid, and in others it is pivoted to allow it to move from side to side, while in a few it is swiveled so that its height can be adjusted. The Traction Members of Tractors. There are three distinct kinds of traction members used on tractors and these are wheels, drums, and crawlers, endless track, tracklayers, or caterpillars, as this last type is variously called, and, lastly, there are diverse combinations of wheels and crawlers used. You have to know all parts of a tractor to drive it well.

Pic. 9. John Deer

This photo (pic. 9) presents modern JOHN DEER tractor/150 horse power and tractor drawn drill used nowadays on many farms of Samara region. This drill makes several field operations for one path: it cuts the soil, not turning it over, it also puts the fertilizer more deeper than airseeder forces the seed into the soilbed. Three operations in one path. This implement is called air seeder or drill or direct drill Exercise 1. Find the equivalents to Russian words among the group of words performed: Конструктор – designer, design, to design. Стабилизировать – stabilizer, stability, to stabilize. 74

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Самый последний (по дате) – latest, later, late. Эффективный – efficient, efficiency, efficiently. Характеристика, работа – perform, performing, performance. Надёжно – reliable, reliability, reliably. Легко (с лёгкостью) – easy, easily, the easiest. Дополнительно – in addition, additionally, additional. Exercise 2. А) Make comparison degrees of the following adjectives: great, easy, good, far, many, difficult, possible. B) Put “much” in front of each comparative degree and translate: late, simple, important, valuable, quick, reliable, useful, complex; C) translate word combinations: гораздо (намного) раньше, гораздо длиннее, намного труднее, намного эффективнее, намного легче, гораздо экономичнее. Exercise 3. A) Find Russian equivalents for the following word combinations. As old as seagoing, a round container, Swiss National Fair, as primitive as marine life, so called, to take people deep into the lake, underwater tasks, around the ocean floor, wrist of the manipulator, to lift 120 pounds, marine life, the world’s deepest vehicle, underwater helicopter. Швейцарская национальная ярмарка; подводные работы; опускать людей на большую глубину озера; по морскому дну; подводный вертолёт; запястье манипулятора; морской животный и растительный мир; самый глубоководный в мире аппарат; такая же примитивная, как и морская среда (жизнь); так же стары, как мореплавание; так называемый; круглый контейнер; поднимать 120 футов. B) Translate word combinations: round glass container, marine life people watch around them, centuries before, to bring people faster than before, easy to attach the instruments, mounted on a metal platform, attached by three point suspension, it looks like inside helicopter cabin, moves noiseless, GPS system provides field vision, the engine develops up to 150 hp (horse power, tractor performs up to 2000 working hours.

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Exercise 4. Will you complete the sentences according to the content of Text A. 1. Frame is….. 2. Wheels and crawlers are called… 3. Power unit of a tractor includes…. 4. Transmission system transmits….. 5. Tractor is steered by….. 6. Breaking device is used for…. 7. Frame carries…. 8. Frame may be… 9. There are two kinds of tractor axles:…. 10. Tractor usually have……….. axles (which ones?) 11. Suspension of a tractor is….. 12. Tractor front suspension enables tractor…. 13. A three point suspension means. Exercise 5. Say in English and write it down.  Рама – это основание трактора.  Раму поддерживают колёса и гусеницы, и на ней крепится двигатель и трансмиссионная система.  Трансмиссионная система передаёт мощность от двигателя на колёса или гусеницы.  Трактор может иметь заднюю и переднюю оси.  Существует два вида осей: ведущая ось и не ведущая.  Трактор, как правило, имеет трёхточечное соединение где навешиваются разные орудия.  Тяговое устройство трактора – это колёса, барабаны, и гусеницы.  Существуют два типа тракторов колёсные и гусеничные, бульдозер (caterpillar) – это вид гусеничного трактора. Exercise 6. Choose the correct word from brackets and fulfill the sentences, translate them. 1. The car has….(brought, brought about) mobility to millions of people, but at the same time polluted the atmosphere. 2. The scientific and technological revolution ….(brought, brought about) great changes in people’s life and work.

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3. A lot of people came to…..(look at, look for) a new invention, the television set, at the World Fair in New York. 4. It was necessary to….(look at, look for) a more reliable method of calculation. 5. The airplane “Ruslan” can…(carry, carry out) up to 150 tons. 6. Research is being …(carried, carried out) for developing new composite materials to lighten aircraft structure. Exercise 7. Will you answer the questions about tractor construction. 1. What tractor types do you know? 2. What companies are the most popular producers of tractors in your country and worldwide? 3. What is the most popular tractor type? 4. How is the foundation of the tractor built on and around called? 5. What are the chief tractor parts? 6. What engine type is used to power a tractor? 7. How are tillage implements attached to a tractor? 8. What horse power may tractors have? 9. What is the most important machine on the farm? Have a look at the picture and you will find that trucks may have more than two axles.

Pic. 10. This is triaxle dump truck

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Exercise 8. Consult grammar part and define gerund forms and functions, translate the sentences. 1. One of the best ways of keeping the speed steady is using a computer for this purpose. 2. Newton’s having made a mistake in his calculations has no influence on his theory. 3. one of the main problems of a driver on the road is keeping the speed constant and watching the cars ahead. 4. A new device for monitoring and adjusting air pressure in tires (шины) has recently been developed. 5. On being turned on the radar will warn the driver about stationary or slow-moving objects on the road. 6. Upon being heated the air-fuel mixture expands very rapidly. 7. The wide white line in the centre of the road is one of the most effective means of controlling traffic (движение транспорта, транспортный поток). Exercise 9. Here we have found some information from the website connected with types of machinery used in the sphere of agriculture. Your task is to read Text B and say how can this kind of machines be called in Russian and what kind of jobs they may perform. Text B Auger An auger is a device for moving material or liquid (see Archimedes' screw) by means of a rotating helical flighting. The material is moved along the axis of rotation. The grain auger is used in agriculture to move grain from trucks and grain carts into grain storage bins (from where it is later removed by gravity chutes at the bottom). A grain auger may be powered by an electric motor; a tractor, through the power take-off; or sometimes an internal combustion engine mounted on the auger. The helical flighting rotates inside a long metal tube, moving the grain upwards. On the lower end, a hopper receives grain from the truck or grain cart. A chute on the upper end guides the grain into the destination location.

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The modern grain auger of today's farming communities was invented by Peter Pakosh. His grain mover employed a screw-type auger with a minimum of moving parts, a totally new application for this specific use. An auger may also be used in agriculture or animal farming for digging post holes. Such an auger is called an earth auger. This kind of auger can be a manually turned, handheld device, or powered by an electric motor or internal-combustion engine, possibly attached to a tractor (being provided with power by the tractor engine's power takeoff as shown). It is a truck that moves. Exercise 11. Give Russian equivalents to the following words from Text B. Auger; device; screw; rotating; axis; grain auger; grain truck; grain cart grain storage bin; gravity; bottom; metal tube; upper/lower end upwards/downwards; hopper; chute; screw-type; specific use; manually turned. Exercise 12. Make up sentence ending assisted by the information of Text B. 1. Auger is a device…. 2. Auger can be manually turned or…. 3. The grain auger was invented … 4. The grain auger is used to… 5. A grain auger may be powered… 6. The earth auger is a machine used for… 7. The earth auger may be attached to…. Exercise 13. Consult grammar “Participles forms and constructions” and perform this exercise. 1) Find a Participle in the following sentences and translate the sentence. a) Studying Newton’s work “Principia” a young physicist discovered a mistake in the calculations. b) While driving a car one should be very attentive. c) A new electronic device will calculate how far one can drive on the fuel left in the tank. d) The engine tested showed that it needed no further improvement.

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e) Scientists are experimenting with a system allowing drivers to see better after dark. f) The system being tested will increase the safety and fuel efficiency of a vehicle. g) Recently there appeared battery-powered cars. h) Having been heated the lubricant changed its properties completely. i) Being provided with batteries an electric car can develop a speed of 50 miles per hour. j) When mass produced, electric cars will help to solve ecological problems of big cities. k) A defect undetected caused an accident. l) Though first developed for military purposes radar can be used in modern cars. 2) Make sentence changes using Absolute Participle Clause (Независимый причастный оборот). a) While Boris was driving home ha saw an accident. b) After we had talked with Peter we felt much better. c) When John arrived at the station he saw the train leave. d) After he had left the house he walked to the nearest metro station. e) When I looked out of the window I saw Marry coming. f) As we finished our part of work we were free to go home. g) As Ann had had no time write us letter she sent a telegram.

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UNIT 6 AUTOMOBILE LESSON 11

Introduction Surely you have seen the famous auto Mersedes, but where does this auto take its name from? When was the first auto invented? What main components is the automobile made up of? Exercise 1. You will be able to find the information from Text A. Before you start working with the materials of this Lesson, study the following words of active vocabulary that we have chosen for you from the text. Active vocabulary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

корпус (кузов) шасси скользить сцепление ходовая часть рулевое управление тормоза коробка передач карданный вал дифференциал полуоси рама с осями

body (shell) chassis to slice сlutch running gear steering system breakes gearbox propeller shaft differencial axle shafts frame with axles

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13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

колёса с рессорами капот крылья стеклоочиститель в свою очередь смазка маховик

wheels and springs hood fenders windshield wiper in turn lubricating/lubricant flywheel

Text A Car Body

The automobile is made up of three basic parts: the power plant or engine, the chassis, and the body. The body shell is a fairly complex assortment of large steel sections. These sections have been stamped into specific shapes which make up the body of a car. These parts are designed to do many jobs at once; protect the occupants from the elements and in collisions, provide solid mounts for all other systems, and slice through the air with minimal resistance. Early cars were so uncomfortable to ride in. The body and the suspension system now give us a smooth ride. The idea is that the body of the car should go forward with as little upand-down and side-to-side movement as possible. The frame(chassis) provides a firm structure for the body. There are two types of frames: integral frames or unibody and conventional. The frame is extremely rigid in order to keep all other parts of a car in 82

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perfect alignment. It is usually constructed of heavy steel and welded or cold riveted together. The manufacturer takes the rigid type of frame and attaches all the other parts to it, like the way a sculptor starts with a wire frame to build his sculpture on and give it shape. The main units of chassis are: the power transmission, the running gear, and the steering mechanism. The power transmission mechanism consists of the clutch, gearbox, propeller (cardan) shaft, rear axle, final drive, differential, and axle shafts. At the front end of the car is the engine. On the back of it is the flywheel. Behind the flywheel is the clutch, a friction device connecting the engine with gears of the gearbox. The main function of the gearbox is the change the speed of the car. The power is always transmitted by the cardan shaft to the live back axle. The final drive reduces the high speed of the engine to the low speed of the driving wheels. The differencial enables the driving wheels to turn at different speeds which is necessary when turning the car. The rear axle is capable of moving up and down about the frame. The rear axle is an important part of transmission. It carries the greater portion of the weight of the car. The steering mechanism is designed for changing the direction of driving. The brakes are used for stopping the car, for decreasing its speed and for holding the car position. Exercise 2. Find in the Text A the answers to the following questions. 1. What main units does the chassis consist of? 2. Where is the engine located? 3. Where is the flywheel fixed? 4. Where is the clutch placed? 5. What is the gearbox designed for? 6. By what shaft is the power transmitted to the back axle? 7. What does the rear axle do? 8. What is the function of the differential? 9. What purpose is the steering system designed for? 10. What is the function of the brakes?

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Exercise 3. Translate the sentences into Russian pay attention to grammar «Complex Subject». 1. Transmission, running gear and steering mechanism are known to be the main units of the chassis. 2. The clutch is known to connect the engine with the driving wheels of the car. 3. The gearbox is known to change the speed of the car. 4. The steering mechanism is known to change the direction of the car. 5. Brakes are considered to be one of the most important mechanisms of the car. Exercise 4. Translate into English relying upon the text above. 1. Основными узлами шасси являются: трансмиссия, ходовая часть и рулевой механизм. 2. Радиатор расположен в передней части автомобиля. 3. Маховик крепится на задней части двигателя. 4. Сцепление соединяет двигатель с коробкой передач. 5. Коробка передач предназначена для изменения скорости движения автомобиля. 6. Усилие передается карданным валом. 7. Главная передача снижает высокие обороты двигателя до невысоких оборотов ведущих колес. 8. Дифференциал позволяет ведущим колесам вращаться с разной скоростью при повороте автомобиля. 9. Рулевой механизм предназначен для изменения направления движения автомобиля. 10. Тормоза используются для остановки или снижения скорости автомобиля. Exercise 5. Find on the right equal explanations of the terms. 1. differential a. mechanism used to increase the speed of the car 2. steering wheel b. wheel used to turn the direction of the car c. mechanism used to transmit power to the 3. clutch back axle d. instrument used to measure the speed of the 4. rear axle car 5. steering system e. mechanism that slows or stops the car 84

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6. speedometer 7. brakes 8. gearbox 9. cardan shaft

f. mechanism used to guide the car g. mechanism used to engage or disengage the engine with gearbox h. mechanism used to carry the greater portion of the car weight i. mechanism used to turn the wheels at different speeds

Exercise 6. Read the dialogue and then learn it and dramatize. DIALOGUE Transmission Mechanism Teacher: Let's speak about the transmission mechanism. What main units does the transmission include? Student: The transmission is the entire mechanism between the engine and the rear wheels. It includes the clutch, gearbox, cardan shaft, rear axle, final drive and differential. T.: What does the clutch connect? S.: The clutch connects the engine with the gearbox. T.: And what does the gearbox do? S.: The gearbox changes the speed of the car. T.: What does the differential enable? S.: The differential enables the driving wheels to move at different speeds when turning the car. T.: For what purpose is the steering system used? S.: The steering system is used for changing the direction of the car movement. T.: And what is the function of the brakes? S.: Brakes are used to slow or stop the car. T.: That's right. You know the subject very well. Exercise 7. Almost each of you will have driving license and will have a chance to drive, imagine a situation when something has been wrong with your car and you read the manuals but they are in English but the knowledge of it will help you in this case. Will you learn the terms and word combinations from the notes to reproduce the actions to be performed if the trouble would take place.

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Basic trouble of transmission mechanism The transmission of the engine torque to the driving wheels of the automobile must be smooth. There should be no vibration in the operation of transmission mechanism within the range of traveling speeds. The indications of malfunctions in the transmission mechanism components are as follows: 1) incomplete disengagement of the clutch; 2) difficult engagement or self-demeshing of gears; 3) run out and vibration of the cardan-drive shaft. What to do in this case 1. Check the free travel of the clutch pedal and adjust it. 2. Check the oil level in the gearbox housing and wash breather channel. 3. Check to see that all the fastening bolts are securely tightened and that the trunnion crosses fit properly the bearings, and the bearing, in turn, the universal-joint forks. Notes: to adjust – регулировать breather channel – канал сапуна fastening bolts – крепёжные болты to fit properly – подгонять должным образом free travel – свободный ход gear lever – рычаг коробки передач incomplete disengagement – неполное отключение сцепления malfunction – неполадка torgue – крутящий момент trouble – неисправность universal – joint forks – вилки кардана

Exercise 8. Find on the right the completion of a sentence on the left. Translate the sentences. 1. The frame provides support for … a) channel sections welded togethe. 2. Conventional are made of … . b) prevent noise and vibrations from passing to the passengers. 3. Frameless constructions are made. c) cross member. 4. insulated from other parts in order d) the engine, body and power to … . train members. 86

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5. The frame is reinforced by … .

e) integral with the body.

Exercise 9. Translate into Russian the sentences containing Complex Object. First consult Grammar. 1. We know the frame to be the structural centre of any car. 2. Car specialists consider the conventional frame to be extremely rigid and strong. 3. We know the frame to be insulated from the other parts by rubber pads to prevent metal-to-metal contacts. 4. Many specialists consider the body parts to be used to structurally strengthen the entire car. 5. The manufacturers believe the unibody constructions to be called so because they are made integral with the body. Exercise 10. Choose the right ending: 1. The clutch is a device connecting ... . a) the rear axle and axle shafts, b) the gearbox and differential. c) the engine and the gearbox. 2. The clutch is situated between .... a) the gearbox and cardan shaft. b) the flywheel and the gearbox, c) the gearbox and rear axle. 3. The clutch is controlled by .... a) the brake pedal. b) the clutch pedal, c) the gearbox and rear axle. 4. The clutch is engaged .... a) when the clutch pedal is pressed down, b) when the clutch pedal is at. rest. 5. The clutch is disengaged .... a) when the clutch pedal is at rest, b) when the clutch pedal is pressed down. Exercise 11. Find the paragraphs where it is said about brakes and clutch, copy them down in your copybooks in two columns. Translate the information.

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Two stories – in one 1. Brakes are the most important mechanism of the car. They are used to slow or stop the car where it is necessary. 2. The clutch is a friction device. It connects the engine to the wheels in the gearbox. It is used for freeing the engine from the gearbox, for starting the car and for releasing the engine from the car wheels. 3. It is fixed between the flywheel of the engine and the gearbox. 4. They are divided into 2 types, namely: drum brakes and disc brakes. 5. Most cars of today use hydraulic or power assisted brakes. 6. They may be of 2 plates: friction disc and pressure disc. The friction disc is situated between the flywheel and the pressure disc. Exercise 12. No doubt that your knowledge and skills are enough to translate the following sentences into English. Do It!!! 1. Тормоза являются наиболее важным механизмом автомобиля. 2. Они используются для замедления движения или остановки автомобиля. 3. Тормоза можно разделить на два типа, а именно: барабанные тормоза и дисковые тормоза. 4. На большинстве автомобилей используется гидравлический привод или пневматический привод. 5. Тормоза срабатывают, когда водитель нажимает на тормозную педаль. Exercise 13. Make the dialogue completed, the missed phrases are given below you are to make a choice and dramatize it. Dialogue Alex: Why are brakes used? Boris: A.: isn't it?

Well, it is one of the most important mechanisms of the car,

B.:

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A.:

What types of brakes are used today?

B.: A.:

And in what way are they applied?

B.: A.: mation. B.:

Thank you. It was very nice of you to tell me this inforDon't mention it. 1 was glad to serve you.

Phrases to use Drum brakes, disk brakes and others. - They are used to stop or to slow the car. - Of course, the safety of the passengers depends upon their proper performance. - They are applied by the brake pedal. When the driver pushes down on the pedal they are applied. Exercise 14. Here it is the text from internet source about the history of Mercedes Benz – world leading car manufacturer. It is interesting to read it and understand! Sure you will get fun! Text B History of Mercedes-Benz Although Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is often credited with building the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in about 1769, this claim is disputed by some, who doubt Cugnot's three-wheeler ever ran. What is not in doubt is that Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive in 1801, the first truly successful steam-powered road vehicle. François Isaac de Rivaz, a Swiss inventor, designed the first internal combustion engine, in 1806, which was fuelled by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to run on such an engine. The design was not very successful, as was the case with Samuel Brown, Samuel Morey, and Etienne Lenoir who each produced vehicles powered by clumsy internal combustion engines.

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In November 1881 French inventor Gustave Trouvé demonstrated a working three-wheeled automobile. This was at the International Exhibition of Electricity in Paris. An automobile powered by an Otto gasoline engine was built in Mannheim, Germany by Karl Benz in 1885 and granted a patent in January of the following year under the auspices of his major company, Benz & Cie. which was founded in 1883. Although several other German engineers (including Gottlieb Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach, and Siegfried Marcus) were working on the problem at about the same time, Karl Benz is generally acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile. In 1879 Benz was granted a patent for his first engine, designed in 1878. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle and in 1896, Benz designed and patented the first internal combustion flat engine. Approximately 25 Benz vehicles were built and sold before 1893, when his first four-wheeler was introduced. They were powered with four-stroke engines of his own design. Emile Roger of France, already producing Benz engines under license, now added the Benz automobile to his line of products. Because France was more open to the early automobiles, more were built and sold in France through Roger than Benz sold in Germany. Daimler and Maybach founded Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (Daimler Motor Company, DMG) in Cannstatt in 1890 and under the brand name, Daimler, sold their first automobile in 1892. By 1895 about 30 vehicles had been built by Daimler and Maybach, either at the Daimler works or in the Hotel Hermann, where they set up shop after falling out with their backers. Benz and Daimler seem to have been unaware of each other's early work and worked independently. Daimler died in 1900 and later that year, Maybach designed a model named Daimler-Mercedes, special-ordered by Emil Jellinek. Two years later, a new model DMG automobile was produced and named Mercedes after the engine. Maybach quit DMG shortly thereafter and opened a business of his own. Rights to the Daimler brand name were sold to other manufacturers. Karl Benz proposed co-operation between DMG and Benz & Cie. when economic conditions began to deteriorate in Germany following the First World War, but the directors of DMG refused to consider it initially. Negotiations between the two companies resumed several 90

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years later and in 1924 they signed an Agreement of Mutual Interest valid until the year 2000. Both enterprises standardized design, production, purchasing, sales, and advertising – marketing their automobile models jointly—although keeping their respective brands. On June 28, 1926, Benz & Cie. and DMG finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company, baptizing all of its automobiles Mercedes Benz honoring the most important model of the DMG automobiles, the Maybach design later referred to as the 1902 Mercedes-35hp, along with the Benz name. Karl Benz remained a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz until his death in 1929. Exercise 15. Sure you will not find difficulty to give answers to the questions on Text B. Relying upon those answers make a brief essay on the topic ”Automobile production history”. 1. Who is undoubtedly considered to be the inventor of a steampowered road vehicle? 2. When was the first three-wheeled automobile demonstrated? 3. Who patented the first gasoline – powered auto? 4. When did Benz patent his first IC flat engine? 5. What country was more open to early automobiles? 6. Who founded Daimler Motor Company and when? 7. When was the first car model Daimler –Benz designed? 8. How did the first Mercedes-Benz appear? 9. What power did it have? Exercise 16. Now You are supposed to study any CompanyAutomobile Producer web-site It would be perfect for you to find information about domestic car production development and description of some products (car or machinery models). GOOD LUCK! Don’t forget to use essay phrases and report scheme. Perform that in writing.

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ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК §1. Таблица временных Форм глагола в действительном залоге (Active Form) ( на примере стандартного глагола "to ask – спрашивать") Indefinite (to ask)

Present

ask asks (he, she, it)

Past

asked (2 ф.гл.)

Continuous (to be asking) am asking are

is

have asked (3 ф.гл.) has (he, the, it) had asked (3 ф.гл.)

was

Future

Perfect (to have asked)

asking were shall

shall (I, we) ask will

shall have asked (3 ф.гл.) will

be asking will

Таблица временных форм глагола в страдательном залоге (Passive Form) to be + Participle II (в соответствующем времени)

Present Past

Future

Indefinite (to be asked) am is asked are was asked were

Perfect (to have been asked)

Continuous am is are was

have being asked

been asked has

being asked

had been asked

were – –

shall (I, we) be asked will

shall have been asked will

§2. Причастие I (простая форма) Причастие I – причастие настоящего времени действительного залога образуется от инфинитива прибавлением суффикса -ing: read + ing = reading Причастие I на русский язык переводится как причастие с окончанием -щий или деепричастие: читающий Например: reading читая 92

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В предложении причастие I может быть: 1) определением и тогда может стоять перед определяемым словом (т.е. слева) и после определяемого слова (т.е. справа). В последнем случае оно вместе с уточняющими его словами образует причастный оборот. Например: Everybody listened to the reading student. Everybody listened to the student reading the newspaper.

Все слушали читающего студента. Все слушали студента, читающего газету.

2) обстоятельством, тогда оно стоит в начале или в конце предложения и вместе с уточняющими его словами соответствует русскому деепричастному обороту. Например: Reading the new text the student made no mistakes.

Читая новый текст, студент не сделал никаких ошибок.

3) частью сказуемого, вместе с глаголом " to be " образует формы времен продолженной группы. Например: The student is reading a newspaper now.

Студент сейчас читает газету.

Функции причастия в предложении можно обобщить следующим образом. Причастие I: 1. определение – слева от существительного; 2. определительный причастный оборот – справа от существительного с зависимыми словами; 3. обстоятельство – в начале или в конце предложения с зависимыми словами; 4. часть сказуемого группы продолженных времен – после глагола “to be”. §3. Причастие II Причастие II – причастие прошедшего времени страдательного залога, у стандартных (правильных) глаголов образуется от инфинитива при помощи суффикса -ed, а у нестандартных (неправильных) глаголов является третьей формой (см. список). Например: translate + ed write

translated written

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Причастие II переводится на русский язык причастиями с окончаниями -ный, -мый, -тый. Например: translated – переведенный, переводимый. written – написанный.

В предложении причастие II может быть: 1) определением и тогда стоит в предложении перед определяемым существительным (слева) или после него (справа), образуя вместе с уточняющими словами причастный оборот. Например: The translated article is very interesting. The article translated by the student is very difficult.

Переведенная статья очень интересная. Статья, переведенная студентом, очень трудная.

2) входить в состав сказуемого в страдательном залоге (Passive Voice). Например: New texts are usually translated at home.

Новые тексты обычно переводятся дома.

3) входить в состав сказуемого временных форм "Perfect": Например: The economist has translated a chapter from the book.

Экономист перевел главу из этой книги.

§4. Причастие II в функции правого определения к существительному (в пост-позиции) Причастие II, не имеющее уточняющих слов, также может употребляться справа от существительного. В этом случае оно переводится на русский язык перед существительным. Например: The engineer studied the relation Инженер изучал соотношение between the price and the engine между ценой и предложенной efficiency supplied. эффективностью двигателя.

Причастие II в этой функции следует отличать от причастия II в причастном обороте, которое тоже стоит справа от существительного, но имеет зависимые слова (см. § 3).

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§5. Причастия (простые и сложные)

Present

Active asking спрашивающий спрашивая

Past



Perfect

having asked спросив

Passive being asked будучи спрошенным (когда спросили) asked спрошенный, спрашиваемый having been asked после того как спросили

Сравните: 1. Читая эту книгу, студент 1. Reading this book the student found out many interesting things about узнал много интересного о новых конструкциях техники. new machinery design. 2. Having introduced the new method, 2. Введя новый метод, мы увеличили производительность труда. we increased the labour productivity. 3. The machinery, produced by their company were of high quality.

3. Техника, произведенная их фирмой, была высокого качества.

4. Being harvested in time, this crop gives good results.

4. Лучше перевести не "Будучи убрана...", а "Когда эту культуру убирают вовремя, она даёт хорошие результаты."

5. Having been modernized, this plant 5. После того как этот завод был модернизирован, он увеличил increased its output. выпуск продукции.

§6. Существительное в функции определения Если подряд стоят два или более существительных без предлогов, образуя так называемую "цепочку существительных", то все они являются определениями к последнему существительному в этой "цепочке". При переводе на русский язык существительному в функции определения может соответствовать либо прилагательное (market economy – рыночная экономика, government restrictions – государственные ограничения), либо существительное в родительном падеже (economics study – изучение экономики), либо существительное с предлогом (demand information – сведения о спросе). 95

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Перевод "цепочки" может включать несколько способов перевода: farm economics expert

специалист по экономике сельского хозяйства или специалист по сельскохозяйственной экономике

farm produce price increase

повышение цен на сельскохозяйственную продукцию

oil price restriction

ограничение цен на нефть.

§7. Глагол "to be" в сочетании с инфинитивом Глагол "to be" в личной форме перед инфинитивом может выражать долженствование. Например: The price of this car model is to Цена на эту модель авто должна increase by 7 per cent. увеличиться на 7%. The designers were to foresee the Конструкторы должны были предуmarket price rise. смотреть увеличение рыночной цены.

Если по смыслу предложения "to be" перед инфинитивом нельзя перевести словом "должен", его следует переводить "состоит в том, чтобы". Например: The manager’s task was to analyse the market prices for tractors of 150 hp.

Задача экономиста состояла в том, чтобы проанализировать рыночные цены на трактора мощностью 150 л.с.

§8. Глаголы, выражающие долженствование Долженствование может быть выражено рядом глаголов, за которыми непосредственно следует инфинитив (с частицей "to" или без нее). Например: We must maintain current prices. We should maintain current prices. We are to maintain current prices. We have to maintain current prices. We ought to maintain current prices.

Мы должны сохранять существующие цены.

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§9. Оборот to be + of + существительное В этом сочетании глагол "to be" переводится "иметь, представлять". Например: His latest managerial decisions are of great use for the firm.

Его последние управленческие решения имеют большую пользу (очень полезны) для фирмы.

Good textbooks are of high value for any student.

Хорошие учебники представляют высокую ценность для любого студента.

Prices are of importance for demand in any type of economy.

Цены имеют значение для спроса в экономике любого типа.

§10. Бессоюзное присоединение определительных придаточных предложений В английском языке в определительных придаточных предложениях союзные слова who, which, that (который), when (когда) могут быть опущены. Если за двумя рядом стоящими существительными (или существительным и личным местоимением в общем падеже) следует глагол в личной форме, второе существительное (или местоимение) обычно является подлежащим придаточного предложения, которое присоединено к главному без союза. Например:

Money can be used to buy things we wish to consume.

На стыке слов things и we опущено союзное слово which или that. Такие придаточные предложения на русский язык переводятся с добавлением союзного слова "который": "Деньги можно использовать для покупки вещей, которые мы хотим потреблять". Если в конце такого придаточного предложения имеется предлог, то он переводится с добавлением союзного слова " который ". Например: The information the engineer relied upon was outdated.

Информация, на которую полагался инженер, была устаревшей.

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§11. Независимый причастный оборот Независимый причастный оборот – это причастный оборот со своим подлежащим. Независимый причастный оборот распознается по следующим признакам: 1) причастие стоит на месте сказуемого и имеет свое подлежащее; 2) от основной части предложения оборот отделяется запятой. Предложения с независимым причастным оборотом строятся следующим образом: (П – подлежащее) П1 + причастие + второстепенные члены, П2 + сказуемое + ... или наоборот: П1 + сказуемое + ..., П2 + причастие + второстепенные члены. Если оборот предшествует основной части предложения, он переводится с союзами "так как, когда, если " в зависимости от смысла всего предложения. Если оборот употребляется после основной части предложения, он переводится со словами "причем, при этом, а, и". Причастие в независимом обороте переводится как сказуемое. Перфектные формы причастия переводятся глаголом в прошедшем времени. Например: The country having a budget deficit inflation may follow.

Если в стране имеется бюджетный дефицит, может последовать инфляция.

A bank is a business, its owners and Банк – это предприятие, и его влаmanagers aiming to maximize prof- дельцы и управляющие ставят своits. ей целью максимальное увеличение прибылей.

§12. Отглагольное существительное и герундий В английском языке есть три формы с суффиксом -ing: причастие I, отглагольное существительное и герундий. Эти формы важно различать, чтобы суметь найти их эквиваленты в русском языке. Русский эквивалент причастия I зависит от того, какую функцию выполняет эта форма в предложении (см. §2, 11).

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Отглагольное существительное трудностей при переводе не представляет, т.к. в русском языке ему всегда соответствует тоже существительное. Как и обычное существительное, оно может употребляться; с артиклем, иметь определение, выраженное прилагательным, иметь форму множественного числа. Чаще всего встречается следующая форма отглагольного существительного the planning of, т.е. слева определенный артикль, справа предлог “of”. Например: The planning of the cropping is one of the main tasks of the agronomist and engineer as well.

Планирование посева – это одна из основных задач агронома, а также инженера.

Герундий обозначает название процесса, т.е. "делание". В отличие от отглагольного существительного, за герундием часто следует прямое дополнение, но переводятся и герундий, и отглагольное существительное одинаково. Например: The long-term planning of production helps to avoid income losses. Долгосрочное планирование производства помогает избегать потери в Long-term production planning доходах. helps to avoid income losses.

Важно уметь отличить герундий от причастия I, так как их значение различно. В русском языке формы аналогичной герундию нет, поэтому герундий можно переводиться по-разному, в зависимости от контекста: существительным, неопределенной формой глагола, деепричастием и глаголом в личной форме, если перед ним имеется притяжательное местоимение или существительное в притяжательном падеже (-'s). Например: Increasing labour productivity reduced the production cost. Choosing proper decisions is of great importance in management. Labour productivity may be increased by introducing new technique.

Повышение производительности труда снизило себестоимость. 1) Выбор правильного решение очень важен в управлении. 2) Выбрать правильное решение очень важно в управлении. Производительность труда можно повысить: 1) используя новую технику. 2) путем использования новой техники.

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The expansion of production will largely depend on their investing adequate amount of money in this business.

Расширение производства будет во многом зависеть от того, вложат ли они соответствующее количество денег в это дело.

Сложные формы герундия Герундий имеет простую, перфектную и пассивную формы, как и причастие I (см. §5).

Indefinite Perfect

Active Increasing Having increased

Passive being increased having been increased

Простая форма (Indefinite) указывает на то, что действие, выраженное герундием, происходит одновременно с действием, выраженным сказуемым. Перфектная форма (Perfect) показывает, что действие, выраженное герундием, предшествует действию, выраженному сказуемым; в русском языке этой форме соответствует глагол в прошедшем времени. Например: Increasing the production of 1) Повысить производство сельскохозяйfarm machinery was of great ственной техники было очень важно. importance. 2) Повышение производства сельскохозяйственной техники имело большое значение.

We know of their having greatly decreased the production cost.

Мы знаем, что они значительно снизили себестоимость.

Они поблагодарили экономиста: They thanked the economist for 1) за то, что им дали все сведения. being given all the data. 2) за получение всех данных.

§13. Инфинитив в функции подлежащего Если предложение начинается с инфинитива, за которым сразу следует глагол-сказуемое, то этот инфинитив является подлежащим и переводится на русский язык глаголом в неопределенной форме или существительным.

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Например: Строить торговые центры – один из новых путей американской торговли. То build shopping centres is one или of the new ways of American Строительство торговых центров являmarketing. ется одним из новых путей американской торговли.

Такой инфинитив вместе с уточняющими его словами образует группу подлежащего (она кончается перед глаголомсказуемым). Например: Развивать малый бизнес быстрыми То develop small business at a темпами является одной из важнейrapid rate is one of the most im- ших задач нашего времени. portant tasks of to-day. или Развитие малого бизнеса быстрыми темпами является одной из важнейших задач нашего времени.

§14. Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства пели Инфинитив (или инфинитивная группа – т.е. инфинитив с уточняющими его словами), находясь в начале предложения, может выполнять и другую функцию: он может быть не подлежащим, а обстоятельством цели. Такой инфинитив часто вводится союзом "in order" ("чтобы", "для того, чтобы"). Например: In order to satisfy the needs of farmers, the producer must know the market well.

Чтобы удовлетворить потребности фермеров, производитель должен хорошо знать рынок.

Однако, союз "in order" часто опускается, и тогда предложение начинается с инфинитива (или инфинитивной группы). При переводе перед таким инфинитивом следует добавить "чтобы". Например: То satisfy the needs of farmers, the producer must know the market well.

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Итак, инфинитив в начале предложения переводится либо неопределенной формой глагола (если это инфинитив в функции подлежащего), либо неопределенной формой глагола с союзом "чтобы" (если это инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели). Сравните: 1. То satisfy the needs of consumers is a difficult task. 2. To satisfy the needs of consumers, the producer must know the market well.

Следовательно, обнаружив в начале предложения инфинитив, надо сначала попытаться перевести его, не добавляя союза "чтобы" (в I-м примере: "Удовлетворить потребности потребителей трудная задача".) Если это не удается (во 2-м примере: "Удовлетворить потребности потребителей производитель должен хорошо знать рынок "), значит надо добавить "чтобы" ("Чтобы удовлетворить потребности потребителей, производитель должен хорошо знать рынок"). Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели может находиться не только в начале предложения, но и после дополнения или обстоятельства, причем союз " in order" и в этом случае часто опускается. Например: The small shops seek for the new ways in order to survive.

Маленькие магазины ищут новые способы, чтобы выжить.

Инфинитиву после слов too (слишком), enough, sufficiently (достаточно) в русском языке также соответствует неопределенная форма глагола с союзом "чтобы" ("для того, чтобы"). Например: This store is rich enough to satisfy the needs of numerous buyers.

Этот магазин достаточно богат, чтобы удовлетворить потребности многочисленных покупателей.

§15. Оборот "for + существительное (местоимение) + + инфинитив" В русском языке такому обороту соответствует придаточное предложение; при этом "for" соответствует союз "чтобы", а инфинитиву – сказуемое. Например: The producers decided to accelerate supplies for consumers not to feel the shortage of goods.

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§16. Инфинитив в функции определения Инфинитив или инфинитивная группа, следующие непосредственно после существительного, могут являться не только обстоятельством цели, но и правым определением к этому существительному (обычно инфинитив в функции определения имеет пассивную форму to be used, to be produced и т.д.). В русском языке такому инфинитиву соответствует определительное придаточное предложение с союзным словом "который". Сказуемое этого придаточного предложения выражает действие, которое должно произойти. Например: The problem to be solved in the near future is attraction of younger customers by design and quality of new goods. То raise the living standard of people is the prime task to be fulfilled.

Проблема, которую нужно решить в ближайшем будущем, – это привлечение молодых покупателей дизайном и качеством новых товаров. Повысить жизненный уровень людей первостепенная задача, которую предстоит выполнить (которая должна быть выполнена).

§17. Предложения с вводящим “there” Вы уже знаете, что в сочетаниях "there" с глаголом "to be" в разных временных формах (there are, there was, mere were, there will be, there has been и т.д.) "there" самостоятельного значения не имеет, и все сочетание переводится целиком. Например: There is a new store in our street There will be a sale in this supermarket

На нашей улице есть новый магазин. В этом супермаркете будет распродажа.

Но "there" может сочетаться не только с глаголом "to be", а также я с модальными и некоторыми другими глаголами: should, must, can, may; exist, соme, livе. При этом переводится только глагол. Например: There may be a sale in this supermarket tomorrow. There exist different forms of retailing.

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Если в предложении с вводящим "there" имеется еще и наречие there ("там"), то оно употребляется в конце. Например: There are many retailing firms there.

Там имеется много торговых фирм.

§18. Значение слова "one" Слово "one" может быть: 1) числительным "один". Например: One of die most important tasks Одной из самых важных задач сейчас now is transportation of these является транспортировка этих товаgoods. ров.

2) заместителем упомянутого существительного. В этом случае или не переводится или "восстанавливается" существительное, которое "one" заменяет. Например: I don't like this method, let's use Мне не нравится этот метод, давайте another one. используем другой (метод).

3) формальным подлежащим, если стоит перед глаголом в личной форме. В этом случае слово "one" не переводится. Например: One should know the difference Следует знать разницу между этими between these systems of marketing. рыночными системами.

§19. Значение слова "it" Местоимение "it" может выполнять различные функции в предложении. Оно может быть: 1) личным местоимением в именительном падеже. В этом случае переводится "он, "она", "оно". Например: We approved of this system of banking. It is more progressive.

Мы одобрили эту систему банковского дела. Она является более прогрессивной.

2) указательным местоимением со значением "это".

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Например: It is our standard of these goods.

Это наш стандарт на эти товары.

3) формальным подлежащим в безличных предложениях; на русский язык не переводится. Например: a) It is cold. a) Холодно. b) It is necessary to research this b) Необходимо исследовать этот market. рынок.

4) частью усилительной конструкции "it is... that ... ", которая переводится "именно". Например: It is this method of analysis that helped us so much.

Именно этот метод анализа очень нам помог.

§20. Инфинитивная конструкция "сложное подлежащее" Эта конструкция строится по следующей модели: I Подлежащее (существительное или местоимение в именительном падеже)

Сложное подлежащее II Сказуемое (глагол в личной форме страдательного залога)

III Инфинитив

В качестве сказуемого в этой конструкции используются такие глаголы, как: to know – знать, to say – говорить, to think – думать, to believe – полагать, to consider – считать, полагать, to expect – ожидать, to report – сообщать, to suppose – предполагать, to find – находить, обнаруживать. Все эти глаголы лишь формально являются сказуемыми, а по сути, передают лишь отношение людей к действию, выраженному инфинитивом. Например: This firm is said tore high profits.

This new business was believed to improve the situation in the market.

1) Эта фирма, как говорят, получает большие прибыли. 2) Говорят, что эта фирма получает большие прибыли. 1) Это новое дело, как полагали, улучшит положение дел на рынке. 2) Полагали, что это новое дело улучшит 105

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This practice has been found to require new capital investments.

положение дел на рынке. 1) Этот прием, как установлено, потребует новых капиталовложений. 2) Установлено, что этот прием потребует новых капиталовложений.

Следовательно, инфинитив английского предложения, содержащего эту конструкцию, следует перевести сказуемым, а "формальное" сказуемое английского предложения – либо вводными словами (как известно, как считают и т.д.), либо неопределенноличным предложением с последующим союзом "что" (известно, что…; считают, что... и т.д.). §21. "Сложное подлежащее" при сказуемых в действительном залоге Несколько глаголов употребляется в этой конструкции в личной форме действительного залога. В русском языке им всегда соответствуют "оценочные" слова (т.е. слова, выражающие уверенность или неуверенность говорящего): to seem – кажется, to appear – по-видимому, to be likely – вероятно, to be unlikely – вряд ли, to be sure, to be certain – безусловно, наверняка. Например: He seems to know this rule well.

По-видимому, он хорошо знает это правило.

They are likely to obtain good Они, вероятно, получат хорошие profits in the market. прибыли на рынке.

§22. Инфинитивная конструкция "сложное дополнение" Эта конструкция строится последующей модели: I II III Подлежащее Сказуемое Сложное дополнение в действительном (существительное или залоге местоимение в объектном падеже + инфинитив) "Сложное дополнение" употребляется после следующих глаголов, используемых в качестве сказуемого английского пред-

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ложения: to want, to know, to think, to believe, to consider, to expect, to find, to suppose и некоторых других в действительном залоге. (Не путать со "сложным подлежащим", где они употребляются в страдательном залоге). На русский язык "сложное дополнение" переводится придаточным предложением с союзами "что", "чтобы", при этом инфинитив английского предложения передается сказуемым русского предложения. Например: We want these companies to help pension funds. Сравните: 1. We expect the credit terms to ensure the product development (сложное дополнение). 2. The credit terms are expected to ensure the product development (сложное подлежащее).

Мы хотим, чтобы эти компании помогли пенсионным фондам. Мы надеемся, что условия кредита обеспечат разработку новой продукции Условия кредита, как ожидают, обеспечат разработку новой продукции. или Ожидают, что условия кредита обеспечат разработку новой продукции.

§23. Сложные формы инфинитива В английском языке имеется несколько форм инфинитива: Indefinite Continuous Perfect

Active to use to be using to have used

Passive to be used — to have been used

Формы инфинитива, в составе которых имеется глагол "to have", называются перфектными. В инфинитивных конструкциях перфектные формы обозначают действие, предшествующее действию, выраженному сказуемым. В русском языке им соответствует сказуемое в прошедшем времени. Сравните: This equipment is known to work Известно, что это оборудование well. работает хорошо. This equipment is known to have Известно, что это оборудование worked well. работало хорошо. Сравните также: We know this equipment to work Мы знаем, что это оборудование 107

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well. работает хорошо. We know this equipment to have Мы знаем, что это оборудование worked well. работало хорошо.

§24. Условные предложения Условные предложения в английском языке вводятся союзами "if” (если), "provided" (если), "unless" (если не). (Как вы знаете, после этих союзов будущее время глагола заменяется настоящим). Например: 1. If you use labour resources Если вы будете использовать трудоproperly, you will increase labour вые ресурсы правильно, вы повысиproductivity. те производительность труда. 2. The accountant will prepare the Бухгалтер подготовит балансовый balance sheet, provided we calculate отчет при условии, что мы рассчитаthe depreciation of die assets. ем амортизацию фондов.

Если же в главном предложении имеется should или would, а в условном придаточном предложении сказуемое употреблено в прошедшем времени, то на русский язык и главное и придаточное предложения переводятся с частицей "бы". Например: 1. If we applied new high efficient equipment, we would decrease the production cost. 2. If they had used double entry bookkeeping system they would have easily found the error in balances. 3. The accountant would prepare financial statements more quickly if he got the necessary computer program.

Если бы мы использовали новое высокоэффективное оборудование, мы бы снизили себестоимость. Если бы они использовали двойную систему бухгалтерской записи, они бы легко обнаружили ошибку в балансах. Бухгалтер подготовил бы финансовые отчеты намного быстрее, если бы он получил необходимую компьютерную программу.

§25. Неполные придаточные предложения Группа слов, состоящая из союзов when, while, if, until, unless я т.д. в причастия, прилагательного и редко существительного, рассматриваются как неполные придаточные предложения. Например: When carried out last year, the experiment showed good results.

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Здесь опущено подлежащее (то же, что и в главном предложении – the experiment и вспомогательный глагол was). При переводе на русский язык подлежащее восстанавливается: "Когда эксперимент проводился в прошлом году, он показал хорошие результаты". §26. Предложения типа ‘'It is necessary that... " В английском языке после предложений, выражающих совет, рекомендации, необходимость, желательность и т.п. (It is necessary, it is important, it is desirable, ft is advisable, it is not necessary, it is encouraging, it is not impossible, и т.п.), в придаточных предложения с союзом "that" сказуемое имеет необычную форму; она либо совпадает с инфинитивом (но не имеет частицы, "to"), либо состоит из should + инфинитив (без частицы "to"). На русский язык обе формы переводятся глаголем в прошедшем времени, а союз ''that" – "чтобы". Например: 1. It is important that the plan be fulfilled in time. или It is important that the plan should be fulfilled in time. 2. It is necessary that our engineer take part (или should take part) in this work.

Важно, чтобы план был выполнен вовремя. Необходимо, чтобы наш инженер принял участие в этой работе.

§27. Усилительная конструкция "It is ... that " Данная конструкция служит для смыслового выделения члена предложения (подлежащего, дополнения или обстоятельства). It is (was) + выделяемое слово + that (who, whom, which).... На русский язык эта конструкция переводится со словом "именно". Например: It is this new system of management that gave the best results. It is the bookkeeper who prepares a balance sheet.

Именно эта новая система управления дала лучшие результаты. Именно бухгалтер подготавливает балансовый отчет.

§28. Значения слова "that (those)" Слово "that (those)" может употребляться: 1) Как указательное местоимение в значении "тот (те)". Например: 109

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That method is more reliable man me Тот метод надежнее, чем старый. old one.

2) Как заместитель ранее упомянутого существительного. В этом случае оно часто употребляется с предлогом “of” и на русский язык переводится существительным, которое "that (those)" заменяет. Например: The goods sold in the market are Товары, продаваемые на рынке, of lower quality than those of our имеют более низкое качество, чем company. товары нашей компании.

3) Как союзное слово "который". Например: A consumer prefers the good that Потребитель предпочитает товар, has high quality and reasonable который обладает высоким качестprice. вом и имеет разумную цену.

4) Как союз "что". Например: It is well-known that the market Хорошо известно, что рыночная цена price is regulated by the law of регулируется законом спроса и предsupply and demand. ложения.

5) Как часть усилительной конструкции " It is ... that". Например: It is a reduction in incomes that Именно уменьшение доходов повлияinfluenced the quantity of the ло на количество потребляемых товаgoods consumed. ров.

6) Как союзное слово "чтобы" в предложениях типа "It is necessary... that”. Например: It is necessary that all data be Необходимо, чтобы все данные были prepared in time. подготовлены во время.

§29. Наиболее распространенные союзы as – так как, когда, по мере того как, как as well as – так же как и as soon as – как только as long as – до тех пор, пока as ... as – так же ... как 110

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not so (as) ... as – Не так ... как as to – что касается so as + инфинитив – так чтобы after – после того как (как предлог "after" означает "после") because – потому что because of – из-за before – до того как ( как предлог "before" означает "до") for – так как, ибо ( как предлог "for" означает "для, за, в течение") if – если, ли provided, providing (that) – при условии, если since 1) так как (как предлог "since" означает "с") 2) с тех пор, как though (although) – хотя unless – если ... не until – до тех пор пока ... не when – когда whether – ли while – в то время как, когда both … and – как ... так и either... or – или... или neither … nor – ни... ни the + сравнительная степень..., the + сравнительная степень - чем ..., тем §30. Конверсия

Конверсия – это способ словообразования без добавления суффиксов и префиксов и без изменения основной формы слова. Например: глагол to use – использовать to increase – увеличивать to produce – производить to effect – влиять

существительное use – использование increase – увеличение produce – продукты, изделия effect – влияние

§31. Наиболее употребительные суффиксы и префиксы Суффиксы существительных: -еr, -or: seller (продавец), constructor (конструктор);

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-tion (-ation): connection (соединение), consumption (потребление), organization (организация), indexation (индексация); -ing: accounting (отчетность), handling (обращение); -ment: development (развитие), government (правительство); -(t)ure: future (будущее), expenditure (расход); -ance (-ence) - dependence (зависимость), importance (важность); -ness: effectiveness (эффективность), accurateness (точность); -ity: activity (деятельность), utility (полезность); -th: strength (сила), growth (рост); -ship: friendship (дружба), relationship (взаимосвязь); -ism: mechanism (механизм), materialism (материализм); -ics: economics (экономика), physics (физика); -ist: economist (экономист), artist (художник). Суффиксы прилагательных: -al: national (национальный), industrial (промышленный); -able (-ible): adjustable (приспособленный), changeable (изменчивый) extensible (растяжимый), convertible (обратимый); -ant (-ent): resistant (устойчивый), different (различный); -ive : active (деятельный), competitive (конкурирующий); -fill: peaceful (мирный), useful (полезный); -ic: basic (основной), historic (исторический); -ous: famous (знаменитый), dangerous (опасный); -less: useless (бесполезный), careless (небрежный). Суффиксы глаголов: -en: weaken (ослаблять), shorten (укорачиваться); -fy: intensify (усиливать), simplify (упрощать); -ize: realize (осуществлять), stabilize (стабилизировать). Суффиксы наречий: -ly: practically (практически), entirely (полностью); -ward(s): forward(s) (вперед), backward(s) (назад). Префиксы с отрицательным значением: un-: unlimited (неограниченный), to unfold (развертывать); dis-: disability (неспособность), to disapprove (не одобрять); in-: incapable (неспособный); 112

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il-: illegal (нелегальный); ir-: irrational (нерациональный); im-: impossible (невозможный); non-: non-metallic (неметаллический), non-essential (несущественный); mis-: to miscalculate (ошибиться в расчете), to misinform (дезинформировать); under-: to underestimate (недооценить), underdeveloped (слаборазвитый). Префиксы с разными значениями: over- (сверх): to overestimate (переоценить), to overpay (переплачивать); post- (после): postwar (послевоенный), postgraduate (аспирант); рге- (до): prewar (довоенный), prehistoric (доисторический); rе- (вновь): reconstruct (перестроить), to resell (перепродавать).

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НАИБОЛЕЕ УПОТРЕБИТЕЛЬНЫЕ СОКРАЩЕНИЯ a.m. – ante meridiem (лат.) – во столько-то часов до полудня С - centigrade – по стоградусной Шкале Цельсия (о температуре) e.g. – exempli gratia (лат.) – например etc. – et cetera (лат.) – и т.д. hr. – hour – час i.e. – id est (лат.) – то есть kg. – kilogram – килограмм lb. – pound-фунт l. – litre – литр m. – metre – метр mi. – mile – миля min. – minute – минута NB – nota bene (лат.) – pay attention – обратите внимание, заметьте p.m. – post meridiem (лат.) – пополудни s. – second – секунда t. – ton – тонна vs – versus(лат.) – против w. – watt – ватт X-rays – Roentgen rays – рентгеновcкие лучи a.c [alternating current] – переменный ток amp. [ampere] – ампер B.D.C [bottom dead centre] – нижняя мертвая точка b.h.p.[brake horsepower] – эффективная тормозная мощность C.-I.engine[compression-ignition engine] – двигатель с воспламенением от сжатия, дизель c.c./cu.cm.[cubic centre] – кубический сантиметр cu.in. [cubic inch] – кубический дюйм

cu.ft.[cubic foot] – кубический фут c.wt.[hundredweight] – центнер d.c.[direct current] – постоянный ток F.[Fahrenheit] – по шкале Фаренгейта (о температуре) f.p.m. [feet per minute] – футов в минуту f.p.s[feet per second] – футов в секунду ft.-lbs.[foot-pounds] – футо-фунты gal.[gallon] – галлон g.p.m.[gallon per minute] – галлон в минуту hp[horsepower] – лошадиная сила in.[inch] – дюйм k.p.h.[kilometers per hour] – километров в час lb[pound] – фунт lb.-ft.[pound-foot] – фунто-фут m.p.g.[miles per gallon] – число миль пробега на галлон топлива m.p.h.[miles per hour] – миль в час n.h.p.[nominal horsepower] – номинальная мощность в л.с. n.t.p[normal temperature and pre ssure] – нормальные температура и давление o.a.d.[overall dimension] – габаритный размер psi.[pounds per square inch] – фунтов на кв.дюйм r.p.m[revolutions per minute] – оборотов в минуту sq.ft.[square foot] – квадратный фут t.d.c.[top dead centre] – верхняя мертвая точка v.[velocity] – скорость vol.[volume] – объем

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АНГЛО-РУССКИЙ ТЕРМИНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ СЛОВАРЬ Aa Accelerate – ускорять, разгонять Acceleration – ускорение, разгон accelerator pedal – педаль подачи топлива, педаль управления дроссельной заслонкой access – доступ accessories – вспомогательные устройства achieve – достигать achievement – достижение adjustment – регулировка, наладка aid – помощь all-wheel drive – полный привод angle – угол anti-lock device – антиблокировочное устройство assemble – собирать assembly – сборка, агрегат, комплект axial thrust – осевая нагрузка axle – ось, мост axle shafts – полуоси Bb back axle – задний мост balanceweight – противовес ball bearing cams – кулачки шарикоподшипника band brakes – ленточные тормоза bearing – подшипник blower – компрессор, нагнетатель body – кузов brakes are applied – тормоза срабатывают brake free-wheel – тормозная муфта свободного хода, обгонная муфта brake pedal – тормозная педаль braking effect – тормозное действие braking force – тормозное усилие, сила торможения bring into contact – соединение bring into operation – привести в действие bring the shoe into contact – соединить by means of – посредством

Cc Caliper – измерять штангенциркулем или нутромером car wheels – колеса автомобиля carry out – осуществлять, проводить, выполнять catalytic converter – каталитический преобразователь centrifugal clutches – сцепление центробежного типа centrifugal forces – центробежные силы change gear(box) – коробка передач chain – цепь chassis – шасси clutch – сцепление clutch pedal – педаль сцепления coasting – движение накатом, движение по инерции coil spring live axle – ведущий мост с пружинными рессорами complete – завершать component – составная часть, узел, блок comprise – включать в себя conical shape – коническая форма connect – соединять consider – считать, полагать; рассматривать consist of – состоять из control lever – рычаг управления conveniences – удобства conventional design – стандартная конструкция conventional slitter – раздаточная коробка, стандартный переключатель диапазона передач conveyor – конвейер, транспорт cooling system – система охлаждения couple – соединять, сцеплять колодку crane carrier – автокран crankshaft – коленчатый вал

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Dd deal (with) – иметь дело с de-clutching – разъединение сцепления deliver – подавать, доставлять demands – требования dependable brakes – надежные тормоза design – проектировать, конструкция designing – проектирование develop – разрабатывать, совершенствовать development – разработка device – устройство diaphragm spring – пружина диафрагменного типа differential – дифференциал disc brakes – дисковые тормоза disengagement – отключение dog clutch – кулачковая муфта drawback – недостаток drive – привод driven plate – ведомый диск driving safety – безопасность вождения (движения) drum brakes – барабанные тормоза due to – благодаря, за счет dumper – самосвал Ee easy of maintenance – легкость техобслуживания electric motor – электрический мотор electric switch – электрический переключатель electric system – электрическая система emergency situation – аварийная ситуация enable – делать годным, позволять engage – соединять engaged position – при включенном состоянии engine – двигатель engine capacity – мощность двигателя engine output – выходная мощность evaporative emissions – выхлоп газов

Ff fen belt – ремень вентилятора fenders – крылья final dive – главная передача fine finish – чистовая обработка, доводка finger – палец, штифт fire crash tender – пожарная техника first cost – начальная цена flat position – плоское положение Flexibility – гибкость Flexible – гибкий flow of air – поток воздуха foul the engine – загрязнять двигатель four-wheel drive – полный привод frame – рама free(disconnect, disengage) – отсоединять, разъединять friction clutch – фрикционное сцепление friction device – фрикционное устройство friction disc – фрикционный диск friction material – фрикционный материал friction pad – фрикционная накладка front suspension – передняя подвеска fuel consumption – расход топлива fuel system – топливная система fuel vapors – пары топлива fulcrum – точка опоры, ось шарнира Gg gas(oil) mileage – пробег в милях на галлон израсходованного топлива gas cap – крышка наливной горловины топливного бака gearbox – коробка передач gears – шестерни generator – генератор get rid of – избавиться (от чего-либо) Hh head lamp flasher – проблесковый прерыватель света фары heat-dissipation – рассеяние (отвод) тепла

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heater – отопитель, обогреватель heavies – большегрузные автомобили high efficiency – высокий КПД highway – трасса, шоссе hoist – подъемный механизм, подъемник hood – капот horn – сирена, звуковой сигнал horseless vehicle – безлошадное транспортное средство hydraulic pressure – гидравлическое давление hydraulic pump – гидронасос hydraulic system – гидравлическая система hydromantic converter – гидротрансформатор Ii improvement – усовершенствование in conjunction with – в сочетании с… include – включать inhibitor – ингибитор, замедлитель increase – увеличивать, повышать indicator level – рычаг индикатора inner portion – внутренняя часть inner shaft – ведущий(приводной) вал input shaft – первичный вал installation – установка, монтаж, сборка instrumental panel – приборный щиток, пульт управления integral clutch and brake unit – объединенный блок из сцепления и тормоза intend – предназначать intercity bus – городской автобус internal combustion engine – двигатель внутреннего сгорания inventor – изобретатель Kk kick – удар, толчок kick down – удар, толчок knob – кнопка

Ll laboratory test – стендовые испытания leading shoes – ведущие тормозные колодки leaf spring – листовая рессора level – уровень lever – рукоятка (рычаг) lights – фары lining – накладка, обивка link – соединять load deflection – прогиб, под действием нагрузки loader – автопогрузчик lock-up clutch – блокировочная муфта long service life – долгий срок службы loss – потеря low road noise – небольшой шум при lower gear – понижающая передача lubricate – смазывать lubricating system – система смазки lug – кронштейн, зажим, кулак Mm machine tool – станок maintenance – техническое обслуживание и ремонт manual override – ручное управление автоматически управляемой системой manufacture – производить manufacturing – производство manufacturing processes – производственные процессы mass manufacturing – массовое производство meet up- to- date requirements – отвечать современным требованиям multi-disc device – многодисковое устройство multiple-speed gearbox – многоступенчатая коробка переключения передач Nn natural bias – естественные смещения network – сеть normalizing – нормализация, закалка nuclear – ядерный numerical – числовой nut – гайка

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Oo obtain – получать, добиться octane rating – октановое число off-road travel – езда по бездорожью oil circuit – замкнутый поток масла one-way free-wheel – муфта свободного хода operating cylinders – рабочие цилиндры operation flexibility – гибкость в работе outer shaft – выходной (вторичный) вал overload safety valve – предохранительный клапан при перезагрузке overrun – превышение нормальной скорости Pp park brake – парковочный (стояночный) тормоз performance – рабочая характеристика, КПД permit – позволять, давать возможность pivot – ось вращения, шарнир power plant – силовой агрегат power train – силовая передача (трансмиссия) power-shift gearbox – коробка переключения передач pre-determined engine speed – расчетные обороты двигателя pressure plate – нажимной диск prevent – предотвращать propeller shaft – карданный вал propulsion output – мощность силовой установки (двигателя) provide – обеспечивать push own on the pedal – нажимать Qq questionnaire – опрос quiet-running power unit – бесшумный силовой агрегат Rr racing car – гоночный автомобиль rack and pinion steering – рулевой механизм с рейкой и шестерней, реечное управление rapid – быстрый

ratio – соотношение, передаточное число reaction member – реактивный элемент rear axle – задний мост rear suspension – задняя подвеска reduce – сокращать, понижать release – разъединение, расцепление release lever – рычаг отключения (отсоединения) release ring – разъединяющее кольцо relief valve – предохранительный клапан require – требовать requirements – требования rigid quality control – жесткий контроль качества rim – обод, зубчатый венец road travel – езда по дороге rotary motion – вращательное движение Ss separating clutch – разъединяющая муфта shock absorber – амортизатор shoes – колодки (тормозные) silent gearbox – бесшумная коробка передач single row engine – рядный двигатель skid-steer drive system – система крутящего момента slot – паз, канавка smooth-acting clutch – плавное сцепление smooth engagement – плавное включение spare wheel – запасное колесо spiral bevel differential – дифференциал с коническими шестернями springs – рессоры, пружины steering system – система рулевого управления steering wheel – рулевое колесо suit requirements – отвечать требованиям

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synchromesh gearbox – коробка передач с синхронизатором Tt tailpipe – хвостовая часть, выхлопная труба take advantage – воспользоваться преимуществами thrust assembly – тяговый узел torque – крутящий момент torque capacity – несущая способность передачи по крутящему моменту torque converter – преобразователь крутящего момента, гидротрансформатор tracked vechicle – гусеничное транспортное средство tractive effort – тяговое усилие, сила тяги tractive unit – тяговый агрегат traffic lights – светофор trailing shoes – ведущие вторичные тормозные колодки transfer gearbox – раздаточная коробка transmatic torque converter – автоматический преобразователь truck – грузовик

Uu units and mechanisms – узлы (агрегаты) и механизмы Vv valve – клапан vehicle – транспортное средство, автомобиль V-type engine – V-образный двигатель Ww wear – износ, амортизация wheeled vehicle – колесное транспортное средство wheels – колеса work out – разрабатывать windshield wipers – стеклоочистители ветрового стекла

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РЕКОМЕНДУЕМАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА (REFERENCE) 1. Кузнецов, А. Н. Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов агроинженерных специальностей. – М. : ФГОУ ВПО МГАУ, 2008. – 110 с. 2. Агабекян, И. П. Английский для технических вузов / И. П. Агабекян, П. И. Коваленко. – Ростов-на-Дону : Феникс, 2004. – (Серия «Высшее образование»). 3. Шляхова, В. А. Английский язык для студентов автомобилестроительных специальностей средних профессиональных учебных заведений : учеб. пособие. – М. : Высшая школа, 2005. 4. Смекаев, В. П. Учебник технического перевода (английский язык). – Нижний Новгород : НГЛУ им. Н.А. Добролюбова, Вектор ТиС, 2006. 5. Волкова, З. Н. Научно-технический перевод: Английский и русский языки. Вып. 1 : Медицина, инженерное дело, сельское хозяйство. – М. : Изд-во УРАО, 2000. 6. Новый большой англо-русский словарь. В 3-х т. / под ред. Э. М. Медниковой, Ю. Д. Апресян. – М., 1994. 7. Орловская, И. В. Учебник английского языка для студентов технических университетов и вузов / И. В. Орловская, Л. С. Самсонова, А. И. Скубриева. – М. : Изд-во МГТУ им. Н.Э. Баумана, 1997. 8. Curriculum materials for agribusiness 311 Agribusiness managemen and marketing / Department of Agricultural education Texas A & M university. College Station texas, 1997.

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Учебное издание

Акимова Ирина Александровна

WE STUDY TO BECOME PROFESSIONALS Учебно-методическое пособие

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