Verbs of Leading in the Hebrew Bible 9781463221683

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Verbs of Leading in the Hebrew Bible

Perspectives on Hebrew Scriptures and its Contexts 11

The series Perspectives on Hebrew Scriptures and its Contexts publishes academic works dealing with study of the Hebrew Bible, ancient Israelite society and related ancient societies, biblical Hebrew and cognate languages, the reception of biblical texts through the centuries, and the history of the discipline. Volumes in the series include monographs, collective works, and the printed version of the contents of the important on-line Journal of Hebrew Scriptures

Verbs of Leading in the Hebrew Bible

Daniel C. Leavins

l gorgias press 2011

Gorgias Press LLC, 954 River Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA www.gorgiaspress.com Copyright© 2011 by Gorgias Press LLC

All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise without the prior written permission of Gorgias Press LLC.

ISBN 978-1-61143-925-0

ISSN 1935-6897

L i b r a r y of Congress Data

Cataloging-in-Publication

Leavins, Daniel. Verbs of leading in the Hebrew Bible / by Daniel Leavins. p. cm. --

(Perspectives on Hebrew

Scriptures and its contexts ; 11) Includes bibliographical references and index. 1.

Hebrew language--Verb. 2.

0.T.--Language, style.

Bible.

I. Title.

PJ4645.L43 2011 492.4'56--dc22 2011007672 Printed in the United States of America

TABLE OF C O N T E N T S

Table of Contents Preface Acknowledgments Abbreviations Introduction 1 Methodology and Preliminary Considerations 1.1 Verb Meaning and Behavior 1.2 Other Work 1.3 Semantics 1.3.1 Structuralism 1.3.2 Interrelation of semantics and syntax 1.4 Methodology: Theoretical 1.4.1 Argument Structure 1.4.2 Semantic Role Theory 1.5 Verbs of Leading 1.5.1 Cook's model 1.5.2 Creason's model 1.6 Methodology: Practical 1.7 Structure of the Study 1.8 Goals 2

v xi xiii xv 1 5 5 6 10 10 12 13 13 15 31 31 32 38 40 40

Class I Verbs of Leading 43 2.1 Introduction 43 2.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics of the Verb Class as a Whole 44 2.3 Realization of the Argument Structure for the Verb Class as a Whole 44 2.4 Pairs and Sequences 46 2.5 T h e ^ / o P m 46 2.5.1 General Characteristics 46 2.5.2 Argument Structure Characteristics 47

v

vi

VERBS O F L E A D I N G IN T H E H E B R E W BIBLE

2.5.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 2.5.4 Problem Passages 2.5.5 Distinguishing Features 2.6 The Hiphi/oi'TO 2.6.1 General Characteristics 2.6.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics 2.6.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 2.6.4 Problem Passages 2.6.5 Distinguishing Features 2.7 The Qal of 2.7.1 General Characteristics 2.7.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics 2.7.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 2.7.5 Distinguishing Features 2.8 The Pie/ of 2.8.1 General Characteristics 2.8.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics 2.8.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 2.8.4 Problem Passages 2.8.5 Distinguishing Features 2.9 The Hipbi/and Hophal of ^ 2.9.1 General Characteristics 2.9.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics 2.9.3 Additional Features of the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 2.9.4 Problem Passages 2.9.5 Distinguishing Features 2.1 o The Pie/ of Vrtf 2.10.1 General Characteristics 2.10.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics 2.10.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 2.10.4 Problem Passages 2.10.5 Distinguishing Features 2.11 Summary

48 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 58 60 60 60 62 63 64 64 65 67 67 69 69 69 70 72 72 74 74 74 75 75 75 79 79

TABLE OF CONTENTS

3

4

5

VII

Class II Verbs of Leading: b y 81 3.1 T h e Q a l o i b y 81 3.2 The Niphal of by 83 3.3 The Hiphil of by Functioning as a Verb of Leading 85 3.3.1 Argument Structure 85 3.3.2 Realization of the Argument Structure 86 3.3.3 Pairs and Sequences 87 3.3.4 Glosses and Further Discussion 88 3.3.5 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 92 3.4 The Hiphil of by when not Functioning as a Verb of Leading 92 3.5 Dubious Passages with the Hiphil of b y 96 3.6 The Hiphil of by in the Septuagint 99 3.7 The Hophal of by 99 3.8 Summary 101 Class II Verbs of Leading: NU 103 4.1 T h e £ a / o f N U 103 4.2 The Hiphil of Nil Functioning as a Verb of Leading 104 4.2.1 Argument Structure 105 4.2.2 Realization of the Argument Structure 105 4.2.3 Pairs and Sequences 109 4.2.4 Glosses and Further Discussion 110 4.2.5 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 113 4.3 The Hiphil of Nil when not Functioning as a Verb of Leading 113 4.4 The Hiphil of K11 in the Septuagint 117 4.5 The H^/W of K11 117 4.6 Difficult Passages 118 4.7 Summary 123 Class II Verbs of Leading: N2P 5.1 The^a/ofNJT 5.2 The Hiphil of as a Verb of Leading 5.2.1 Argument Structure 5.2.2 Realization of the Argument Structure 5.2.3 Pairs and Sequences 5.2.4 Glosses and Further Discussion 5.2.5 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb

125 125 126 127 127 130 131 133

viii

6

7

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

5.3 The Hiphil of when not Functioning as a Verb of Leading 134 5.4 The Hiphil of K5T in the Septuagint 137 5.5 The Hophal of 138 5.6 Difficult Passages 138 5.7 Summary 146 Class II Verbs of Leading: 31U? 147 6.1 T h e ^ / o f l l U ? 147 6.2 The Hiphil of as a Verb of Leading 148 6.2.1 Argument Structure 149 6.2.2 Realization of the Argument Structure 149 6.2.3 Pairs and Sequences 153 6.2.4 Glosses and Further Discussion 154 6.2.5 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 157 6.3 The Hiphil of 31$ when not Functioning as a Verb of Leading 158 6.4 The Hiphil of in the Septuagint 162 6.5 The Hophal of 11U? 163 6.6 Difficult Passages 164 6.7 Summary 167 Other Class II verbs 169 7.1 The Hiphil of l i p 169 7.1.1 General Characteristics 169 7.1.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics 170 7.1.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 171 7.1.4 Problem Passages 172 7.1.5 Distinguishing Features 174 7.2 The Hiphil of "[Vn 174 7.2.1 General Characteristics 174 7.2.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics 175 7.2.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 177 7.2.4 Problem Passages 177 7.2.5 Distinguishing Features 178 7.3 The Hiphil 179 7.3.1 General Characteristics 179 7.3.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics 180

TABLE OF CONTENTS

8

ix

7.3.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 7.3.4 Problem Passages 7.3.5 Distinguishing Features 7.4 The Hiphil of UttJ 7.4.1 General Characteristics 7.4.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics 7.4.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 7.4.4 Problem Passages 7.4.5 Distinguishing Features 7.5 The Hiphil o i ^ 7.5.1 General Characteristics 7.5.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics 7.5.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 7.5.4 Problem Passages 7.6.4 Distinguishing Features 7.6 The Hiphil and Hophal of ^ 7.6.1 General Characteristics 7.6.2 Argument Structure Characteristics 7.6.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 7.6.4 Problem Passages 7.6.5 Distinguishing Features 7.7 The Hiphil of "[11 7.7.1 General Characteristics 7.7.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics 7.7.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb 7.7.4 Problem Passages 7.7.5 Distinguishing Features 7.8 Summary of Class II Verbs of Leading 7.8.1 Similar Features 7.8.2 Distinguishing Features 7.8.3 Class I vs. Class II

199 199 203 203 204 204 205

Conclusions 8.1 Verb Behavior and Meaning 8.2 Distinguishing within the Verb Class 8.3 Text-Critical Problems

207 207 208 210

182 182 183 184 184 185 187 187 187 188 188 188 189 190 193 193 193 194 195 195 197 197 197 198

x

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW B I B L E

8.4 Hebrew Stem System 8.5 Avenues for Further Research Appendices Appendix A: Distinguishing Features of Class I Verbs Appendix B: Distinguishing Features of Class II Verbs Appendix C: Class I Verb Occurrences C.l Introduction

210 211 213 214 215 216 216

C.2 T h e Q a l of TiJ

217

C.3 The Hiphil of TiJ

218

C.4 T h e Q a l of ¿m

220

C.5 The Piel of ¿m

222

C.6 The Hiphil of bw

223

C.7 The Hophal of by

224

C.8 The Piel of Vm

225

C.9 The Possible Class I Verb n t f (Qal)

226

Appendix D: Class II Verb Occurrences D . l Introduction

228 228

D.2 The Hiphil of 'by as a Verb of Leading

229

D.3 The Hiphil of NU as a Verb of Leading

236

D4. The Hiphil of NX' as a Verb of Leading

250

D5. The Hiphil of 31U? as a Verb of Leading

261

D6. The Hiphil of mp as a Verb of Leading

270

D7. The Hiphil of "jVn as a Verb of Leading

272

D8. The Hiphil of I T as a Verb of Leading

275

D9. The Hiphil of UUJ as a Verb of Leading

278

D10. The Hiphil of -ay as a Verb of Leading

279

D11. The Hiphil and Hophal of 'hi as a Verb of Leading

282

D12. The Hiphil of "TTT as a Verb of Leading

285

D13. All Passages with Extended Animacy

286

Bibliography Index Index of Scripture

293 301 303

PREFACE

Recently my 8-year old daughter, Abigail, approached me and said, "Dad, I'm suspicious of you." Two thoughts instantly came to my mind. Number One: "What did I do?" and Number Two: "Where did she learn the word 'suspicious?'" After talking with her some more, it turns out that Abigail was suspicious that I had hidden her Christmas present in the shed in our back yard. It was a few days before Christmas, and I had just strictly warned the children not to go into the shed. She suspected that the bicycle that she wanted for Christmas was out there (and she was right). As for where she learned the word "suspicious," I remembered that Abigail had recently read a Nancy Drew mystery novel. That novel had to be where she learned the word. I also remembered that ever since she read that novel, she had been continually looking for "mysteries" to solve around the house. Her suspicion of her father was another opportunity for her to try out her newly-found detective skills. I share this interaction with my daughter here because it serves to illustrate the importance of this book. When we use words, the contexts in which we use them are incredibly important. In fact, it is only in their contexts that we can determine the meanings of words and what is being communicated. Understanding the context of my daughter's statement (Christmas season, hopes for a bicycle, Nancy Drew novel) helped me to understand what she was trying to say. In the same way, when we approach the biblical languages, and we try to determine the meanings of words in those languages, it is of chief importance that we consider the contexts in which the words of the language occur. Few would disagree with this statement, and lexical work in the biblical languages has always taken contexts into account when defining words. The standard biblical Hebrew dictionaries mention contextual information (e.g., how verbs occur with certain prepositions) often in their lexical entries. xi

xii

VERBS O F L E A D I N G IN T H E H E B R E W BIBLE

This information, however, is often merely stated and left unanalyzed. Also, dictionaries rarely (if ever) group words by similar contextual features. In this book I attempt to make a systematic analysis of the contexts of a certain group of verbs that occur in the Hebrew Bible, the verbs of leading. The goal of this analysis of contexts is to be able to define more precisely the verbs as a group, and to distinguish between the individual verbs in the group. To accomplish this, I have analyzed each of the occurrences of these verbs in the Hebrew Bible, looking specifically for information about the associated phrases used with the verbs. I have used strategies from linguistics to try to analyze these associated phrases and I have given the results below in text and chart form. Hopefully this study might not only help us understand this one group of verbs, but provide a model for analyzing the contexts of the other words (especially verbs) that we find in the Hebrew Bible. It is my suspicion that with studies like this one, we can get even more clues as we attempt to solve the important mysteries of what the biblical authors were trying to communicate. Danny Leavins February 1, 2011

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I offer deepest thanks to my wife, Kristen, who sacrificed along with me to see this work finished, and who cheered me on when it was difficult. I also thank my children, Abigail, Eliza, Anna, and Benjamin, who also sacrificed time with their father for this work to be done. In addition, I recognize my father, the late William Leavins, and my mother, Rebecca Leavins, for inspiring me to do "whatever the Lord might call me to do" and doing everything they could to make it possible. In addition, I offer gratitude to the two men who most influenced this work. First, I thank Professor Douglas Gropp, who taught me Hebrew and Aramaic, and led me through the late stages of this work. Finally, I thank the late Professor Michael Patrick O'Connor, who directed most of the work of this book when it was in its dissertation form, but did not see it completed due to his untimely death.

xiii

ABBREVIATIONS

BDB BHS CAD DCH Gesenius HALOT Madrid NET OED

A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Brown, Driver, and Briggs) Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia Chicago Assyrian Dictionary Dictionary of Classical Hebrew (Clines) Hebräisches und Aramäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Koehler and Baumgartner) Diccionario bíblico hebreo-español (Alonso Schökel) New English Translation, NET Bible, First Edition, 2005 Oxford English Disctiona

XV

INTRODUCTION

A popular passage of Scripture in modern discussions of the spiritual life is Prov 3:5—6. The passage reads: 5a i s V ' m 5b

rnrr^ ifnrrbNi

6a i n y r ^fD-JT^DI 6b

-IU7"

5a Trust in the LORD with all thine heart; 5b and lean not unto thine own understanding. 6 a In all thy ways acknowledge him, 6b and he shall direct thy paths. (Prov 3:5—6; AV 1 ) The translation of the verb in the last line can have a profound impact on how the passage is understood. The translation 'direct' seems to imply guidance and direction from God in the spiritual life. This is often then applied in books and sermons to the process of making non-moral decisions (e.g., where to go to college, whether or not to buy a home). 2 For this approach, the verse teaches that if the follower of God will acknowledge God in all of

1 The

NKJV is similar. is a major problem with this interpretation. Proverbs 3 describes the great benefits of following God's moral law. It is not providing a strategy for making non-moral decisions. 2 This

1

2

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

his or her ways, then God will give them direction in the nonmoral decisions of life. Most of the other English translations, however, do not translate the verb in 6b 'direct'. The NRSV, for example, has 'he will make straight your paths'. 3 The NJPS and the NJB translate the verb 'make smooth'. HALOT glosses the Pie/ of ""lU^ for this passage 'to smooth' (449) and BDB has 'to make smooth or straight' (448-49). 4 This brief survey of translations and lexicons raises some questions: can the Pie/ of ""lU^ correctly be translated 'direct' (in the sense of guidance)? In other words, can this verb function as a verb of guiding or leading? If not, what verb would best function that way in this context? What verb would the author have chosen to indicate the idea of guidance that is implied in the applications for the spiritual life noted above? These questions about the verb in Prov 3:6 raise an even larger question about how verb groups in Hebrew, specifically, the verbs of leading in this case, can be analyzed: is there a systematic way to group Hebrew verbs together in classes and then to distinguish between the individual verbs within the class so that questions such as the ones about Prov 3:6 can be answered? The present lexicons have much to say about individual verbs, but not about groups and how the individual verbs fit into groups. 5

3 Also

RSV, NASB, NAB, NIV, and NET. is possible that "direct" for the AV meant 'make straight,' especially considering the Vulgate's 'diriget', which suggests 'to give particular direction to [direct]' as well as 'to lay straight, set in a straight line' (Lewis and Short 1958, 584). This understanding, however, does not come across in the modern discussions of the spiritual life and Prov 3:5—6. This misunderstanding emphasizes the general need for new and up-to-date translations of the Bible. The meanings of words change and develop over time. 5 ln a discussion of this same problem, Barr states, "It can be argued that real meaning of a word has to be expressed paradigmatically, that is, the difference that it makes to choose this word rather than some other word, in a related [semantic] field, that might have been in the same place" (Barr 1993,144). 4 It

INTRODUCTION

3

In order to answer some of these questions, the verb class "verbs of leading" in the Hebrew Bible will be analyzed in this work. The verbs of leading will be identified based on shared semantic and syntactic traits. Every occurrence of the verbs of leading in the Hebrew Bible will be examined. The traits common to all verbs in the class and the distinguishing traits of each individual verb in the class will be presented in the following chapters. The goal of the study is to define more precisely the verb class "verbs of leading" as a whole and, at a semantic and syntactic level, to distinguish more precisely between the individuals verbs in this class. The term 'lead' can cover several semantic nuances in English. The OED divides the verb's meaning into three main categories: "1. to conduct, to bring or take (a person or animal) to a place; 2. to carry on, to engage or take part in, to perform (dances, songs), to go through, to pass (life); 3. to precede, be foremost, have the first place in" (Simpson and Weiner 1989, 745-747). This study of Hebrew verbs of leading is most concerned with the first English definition above. Biblical Hebrew verbs of leading will be defined here as verbs that describe how animate, potent, and personal Agents cause animate and potent Objects to move over the space of some distance.6 There are six such verbs of leading in Hebrew. They are TU in both the Qal and Hiphil,1 AH J in both the Qal and VieI, ^ l 1 in the Hiphil (and Hophal), and ^¡"U in the PieI. They occur about 100 times in the Hebrew Bible. There is a second group of verbs, however, that also must be considered. These 11 verbs sometimes function as verbs of leading, i.e., they sometimes share the same lexical semantics as the verbs mentioned above. These verbs are the Hiphils of N2P, m p , "f^n, TV, UttJ, m y , "M

2.5.1 General Characteristics The Qal of TI.2 occurs eleven times in the Hebrew Bible. Of the eleven occurrences, eight are in poetry. It is paired with other verbs of leading in neighboring lines three times.57 The verb appears only in the non-prefixing forms (perfect, converted perfect,

56 These numbers are skewed slightly by identical and parallel passages. An identical case occurs in Ps 6 0 : l l = P s 108:11. An example of a parallel passage is 2 Sam 6:3=1 Chr 13:7. 57 Exod 15:13 is an A-B pair with b m Ps 60:1 l = P s 108:11 is a B-A pair with the Hiphil of VT.

CHAPTER TWO

47

and the imperative). A typical example of the use of this verb is found in Exod 13:17:



ïïl!

n n r ^ i aun-riN njns nVute

When Pharaoh sent the people away, God did not lead them toward the way of the Philistine land. (Exod 13:17)

2.5.2 Argument Structure Characteristics God is the expressed Agent of this verb eight times and may be involved in some aspect of the Agentive role in every occurrence of the verb. 'D ('who?') is the Agent in two identical passages and Moses is the Agent once. In Ps 60:1 l=Ps 108:11, where 'Q is the Agent, the questions seem to be a plea from God's people for his leadership and for military victory.58 In Exod 32:34, where Moses is the Agent, God is the one who is commanding him to lead.59 The Objects are always animate and potent, as discussed above. With this verb, however, a further observation can be made. The Objects are also always personal. Specifically, Objects are either personal pronouns in the form of object suffixes or involve the word Dp 'people'.

58 Dahood suggests the meaning 'offer' for the verb TH in Ps 6 0 : l l = P s 108:11. He argues for this meaning from his assumption that the noun nnjQ derives from the root TH (Dahood 1968a, 357 cited in DCH, 899). The major lexicons, however, disagree with Dahood and argue that the noun nnjQ comes from the root 1"UO 'to lend, give a gift' (not otherwise used in Biblical Hebrew) that is attested in Ugaritic. (See HALOT, 601; BDB, 585.) 59 The observation that God is the only Agent of this verb is simply that—an observation. It is not a lexical-semantic feature of the verb., i.e., other Agents could theoretically appear with this verb.

48

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

The Locative role occurs seven times60 in the same clause as thc Qal of TU. That leaves four passages without the Locative case explicitly mentioned. In one of those four passages (Exod 15:13), a Locative is indicated in a neighboring line. In the other three (Isa 58:11; Pss 5:9;61 77:2162), the Locative role is simply deleted. The Goal is indicated four times, twice with the preposition "TJ7, once with and once with no preposition. Path is indicated five times, three times with the preposition 2, once with no preposition, and once with several phrases (Gen 24:27, discussed in Section 1.2.4.3 above). Source is never indicated. The modal roles of Instrument (three times), Reason (twice), Temporal (once), and Manner (once) also occur with this verb. 2.5.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb See under the Hiphil of T i l 2.5.4 Problem Passages The verb TU in the Q a l may occur in Isa 7:2, D n a N ' ^ y

Hill

The lexicons do not consider this verb to be the same as the verb TU discussed here. BDB calls it a Qal perfect 3fs from PIT J meaning 'rest' (BDB, 628). Both HALOT and DCH argue that there is another TU root. HALOT glosses the second root as 'stand by' 60 Gen 24:27 (Path); Exod 13:17(Path); 32:34 (Goal); Pss 27:11 (Path); 60:11 (Goal); 108:11 (Goal); 139:24 (Path). 61 Scholars have sought to find a Locative in the phrase "[np"T2n 'in your righteousness' in Ps 5:9. The NJPS translates "[np"T2n as "along your righteous path." Dahood translates the phrase "Lead me into your meadow," citing other contexts with this same phrase in Psalms as validation. He views this destination as Paradise or as the eternal assembly in the presence of God (Dahood 1966b, 28, 33). These interpretations are not necessary, however, since the Locative role is often deleted. For more against Dahood's argument, see Craigie's commentary (Craigie 2004, 83— 87). For both Ps 5:9 and Isa 58:11, there is no Locative specification needed. The understanding here is that God guides everywhere. 62 No Locative specification is needed here because the passage refers to a known story, the crossing of the Red Sea. Cf. Section 1.4.2.4 about tradition history.

CHAPTER T W O

49

and refers to cognates in other Semitic languages {HARLOT, 685). 63 DCH notes that three additional TI.2 roots have been proposed. The second root, with HALOT and Loretz, is glossed 'support, stand by' (DCH, 899), the third is glossed 'aim at' (G.R. Driver, quoted in DCH} 900), and the fourth is translated 'ally oneself (O. Eissfeldt, quoted in DCH, 654). 64 This argument-structure study of the verb TI.2 supports the judgments of the dictionaries. The Isaiah 7 occurrence of TI.2 certainly does not fit the pattern of other occurrences of this verb discussed in this chapter. For example, the preposition b y is never used to mark the Object role with any of the Class I verbs. For this reason, the translation that would come from the usual gloss for TI.2, 'Syria has led Ephraim', is highly questionable. Even though the preposition b y can mark the Locative role with Class I verbs, there is no good candidate (overt or hidden) in the sentence to fill the Object role, a role that is rarely deleted. Therefore it is best to agree with the dictionaries and to find another explanation. The suggestion of BDB and Barth (Barth 1998, 314) to parse the verb from the root m.2, reflected in the NJB ('Aram has halted in Ephraimite territory'), may have the same kinds of problems with argument structure that were identified with the root TI.2 I.65 A better alternative would be to consider a second TI.2 root as an explanation. As alluded to above, other Semitic languages such as Ugaritic and Akkadian have such a root. In those languages, it is a verb that expresses different kinds of motion, depending on the particular language. The Ugaritic root is intransitive. The Ugaritic 63The

listed cognates are Ugaritic nh(n>), Arabic nhw, and Akkadian na/ e'u. 64DCH's third root is an attempt to explain various passages in the Psalms by emending to TH from nnj (e.g., Ps 18:35=2 Sam 22:35; Ps 38:3), referring to Arabic naha, supposed 'direct oneself. The fourth root was proposed by O. Eissfeldt in connection with Isa 7:2 (DCH, 899-900), referring to supposed ndhu 'ally oneself. The Akkadian word in question, ndhu is cognate to Biblical Hebrew HID and means simply 'be slow, still; rest' (CAD N I 143-150); for political uses see CAD, N I 145. 65Wildberger

lem.

(1991, 283) also argues for mj, but points out this prob-

50

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

cognate, nh(-y) '\% glossed 'proceed towards' or 'lean' (DUL 629). The Akkadian cognate, ne'u, in contrast, is transitive and is glossed 'turn away, turn back' (CAD N II 198-200). HALOTs gloss, 'stand by', does not make an easy connection with either of the cognate verbs unless 'stand by' means something like 'ally with', as in the AV, the NRSV, and the NJPS. In fact, because this root appears in these other Semitic languages, it is possible that the Hebrew root, TU II, associated with its Semitic cognates, as a verb of motion is the ultimate source for the verb of leading, TU I, that appears more often in the Hebrew Bible. 2.5.5 Distinguishing Features See under the Hiphil of Til 2 . 6 T H E HIPHIL OF >M

2.6.1 General Characteristics The Hiphil of TI.2 occurs 27 times in the Hebrew Bible. Of the 27 occurrences, 24 of them are in poetry. It is paired with other verbs of leading in neighboring lines four times.66 The verb appears only in the prefixing forms (imperfect, jussive, narrative) and the infinitive, except in Gen 24:48 and Neh 9:12, where it occurs in the perfect. A typical example of the use of this verb is found in Ps 23:3:

He guides me in paths of righteousness for his name's sake. (Ps 23:3)

66 Ps 31:4 is an A-B pair with Vni Ps 43:3 is an A-B pair with the Hiphil of NU. Job 38:32 is a B-A pair with the Hiphil of Ps 78:53 is a BA pair with the Piel of JHJ.

CHAPTER TWO

51

2.6.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics God is the Agent of the verb in 19 of the 27 occurrences. In two others (Ps 43:3 and 143:10), things directly associated with God serve as the Agents ('light and truth', 'your good spirit'). The remaining Agents are all animate, potent, and personal, or at least associated with a person (e.g., 'the law of the father' in Prov 6:22, 'a man's gift' in Prov 18:16, and 'the integrity of the upright' in Prov 11:3). They include 'David', 'Job' and 'Balak' (cf. Barth 1998: 315). The Objects are all animate, potent, and personal. It is interesting to note that every one of the Objects is formed with a pronominal suffix. All but one of the 27 are object suffixes attached directly to the verb.67 Prov 6:22, the only exception, has the directobject marker with a suffix instead. Sometimes a casus pendens construction with a resumptive pronoun appears with this verb, especially in contexts where the Object had not been previously mentioned. An example is in Ps 67:5c: 5a era« 5 ? UJTI i n o u r 5b - l i u r ' p c r a y u i D ^ n - ' ?

5c r6D oram H N S c r a x b i

5a Let the peoples rejoice and jubilate 5b For you judge the peoples justly 5c And as for the peoples who are on the earth, you guide them. 68 (Ps 67:5)

67 This

may be partly because most of the occurrences are in poetry. translates it this way also: "and the nations, you lead them on the earth" (Kraus 1989, 39). He does not, however, mention the pronominal-suffixing pattern with this verb. Also, his translation of is dubious: it should be understood as a reduced relative clause modifying 68 Kraus

D'QN1?.

52

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Another example of the pronominal suffix with a casus pendens construction for this verb is in Job 38:32. The Locative role occurs 11 times with the Hiphil of T i l The Path is indicated seven times, five times with the preposition and twice with no marking. Goal is indicated twice in two different ways (^zb, b a ) . The Source is indicated twice, both in the same pair of poetic lines and with the preposition JO. Five times a Locative case appears in a neighboring line or clause. Because Source and Goal occur only a combined four times out of the 27 occurrences of the verb, it is reasonable to say that this verb shows little concern with origins and destinations and is more oriented to the path or some other aspect of the leading action. Several modal roles also appear with this verb, including Instrument (seven times), Temporal (six times), Reason (four times), and Manner (twice).

2.6.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb Because the Path role is so common with thc Qal and Hiphil of TU, it is possible that the Path role is lexicalized as a part of the semantic features of this verb. As discussed above, this verb shows little interest in Goals or Sources. It is more concerned with the Path of motion. Another lexical semantic feature seems to be that the verb requires personal Objects. All of the Objects used with this verb are personal. 2.6.4 Problem Passages There are six occurrences of the Hiphil of TI.2 that HALOT repoints to Hiphil forms of ITU {Qal: 'to rest'; Hiphil: 'to settle'; 685). 69

69Barth (315) agrees with HALOT about all six (he is explicit about Job 12:23) and adds Prov. 11:3 and 18:16. Of these, BDB (635) and DCH (653) also consider three (1 Sam 22:4; 1 Kgs 10:26; and 2 Kgs 18:11) to be from m i The Madrid Dictionary considers two of the passages (1 Kgs 10:26 and 2 Kgs 18:11) to be from nij (Alonso Schokel, et al. 1990, 487).

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The first and best-known case is 1 Sam 22:4. There it reads: 2KÎ0 ^STIItf DrU*]. There are two particular problems that impact one another in this passage. First, how should Dil J1! be read? Should it be understood as coming from PIU or ni"U? Second, how should nK in the phrase 12TIK be understood, as a directobject marker or as the preposition 'with'? The modern translations are divided on how to handle this. The AV translates the phrase, "And he brought them before the king of Moab," as if reading The NJPS also understands TU here, as do the Revidierte Lutherbibel ("Und er brachte sie vor den König von Moab") and the Traduction Oecuménique de la Bible ("Il les conduisit devant le roi de Moab"). Tacitly reading a form of ITU,70 the New Jerusalem Bible, however, translates the clause, "He left them with the king of Moab." The NRSV, NAB, NET, NASB, and NIV all share this approach, along with the Revised Zwingli Bible ("Und er Hess sie bei dem König von Moab") and the French Jerusalem Bible ("Il les laissa chez le roi de Moab"). 71 The ancient translations are also divided. The LXX has the verb Jiapaica^éû) ('summon, urge, persuade, comfort, entreat'; Brooke, McLean, and Thackeray 1927, 75), probably reading a Hebrew "Vorlage of DIU (Niphah 'regret, be sorry'; Viet 'comfort'). Aquila (ë9exO atixo^ç), the Syriac (wsbq 'mvti), and Targum Jonathan ( p m U H ; root HU?: Apheh 'make dwell, settle') are probably all reading 1111 This occurrence does fit the argument structure and selectional restrictions that have been observed for the Hiphil of TU. It does have the personal and potent Agent and Object that we expect. It even seems to have a Locative role in the clause, if Î1& is understood as the direct-object marker. The difficulty of the phrase MSTIN, however, remains. If the verb is indeed TU here, the preposition will have to mean "to" or "toward" and function to introduce the Goal ("He led them to the King of Moab"). The problem 70 The verb n i j has two different Hiphils. The B meaning of the Hiphil from BDB ("lay or set down, let remain, leave") is probably the one being understood here and in all of these problem passages (BDB 628—29). 71 McCarter also translates it, "So he left them with the king of Moab" (McCarter 1980, 354-56). Smith also sees it this way (Smith 1902, 204).

54

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

with this function is that the Goal of Class I verbs of leading is never expressed elsewhere with MSTIK. One would expect the prepositions b, MS2?, or "TJ). Also, in the 73 occurrences of the combination MSTIN (total number of cases, combining cases where TIN is the direct-object marker and where it is the preposition), it never introduces the Goal of a verb of motion or leading. 72 This problem could be solved by emending the preposition to but repointing the verb would be a much less invasive solution, especially since there is strong external evidence for it in the ancient translations. With these things in mind, the verb should be repointed to the Hiphil of PIU and should be translated, "He placed/left them with the King of Moab," along with Aquila, Targum Jonathan, the Syriac, and many modern dictionaries and translations. It is then best to translate ''.ISTIN as 'with' or 'in the presence o f . A similar problem occurs in 1 Kgs 10:26; 2 Kgs 18:11; and Ps 61:3 with the preposition 2. These passages all contain animate and potent Agents and Objects and all have a Locative role. In all of the passages, however, if the verb is read as TU, the preposition 2 indicates the Goal, something that is quite unusual with Class I verbs of leading. Ps 61:3 is a representative example:

3a jqjpN T^K p a n n*i?p 3b ^ b f p i n

3c r i i i i r i ' j p p D r i p m 4a "h n o m 4b

rrrr?

•'jap T i r V ^ P

72,J£rnN occurs as "in the presence of, with" with such verbs like as i"lN~l (Aliphat 'appear, be seen in the presence of someone'; Deut 16:16) and rrn 'to be' with an adjective ('before'='in the estimation of someone'; 1 Sam 2:17). Often the JIN is simply the direct-object marker and 'face' is the object of verbs such as (Ps 27:8).

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55

3a From the end of the earth I cry out to you 3b When my heart is faint 3c You lead (?) me to (?) a rock that is much higher than I 4a For you have been a refuge for me 4b (You have been) a strong tower in front of the enemy (Ps 61:3-4) Line 3c is usually translated, "You lead me to a rock that is higher than I." 73 The preposition however, usually indicates the Path of the motion with Class I verbs rather than Goal, as in Ps 23:3 cited above. Goal is usually indicated by or l y , but not The verb ITU,74 on the other hand, often indicates the Location/Goal of its action using the preposition 2. 75 All of these passages, 1 Kgs 10:26;76 2 Kgs 18:11;77 Ps 61:3; and 1 Sam 22:4, should be repointed to read the Hiphil of m i 7 8 Isa 57:18 is another disputed passage: i8a irixa-iN] • ' m o TOTT 18b n ^ n ^ i ib c r p m d V u m i n r a N i

73 So the AV, NJPS, NJB, NRSV, NASB, NIV, NET, Revised Zwingli ('geleite'), Revidierte Lutherbibel ('fiihren'), French Jerusalem Bible ('conduis') and the Traduction Oecuménique ('conduiras'). Only the HALOT dictionary and the NAB ('set') read nil 74 Again, this is the Hiphil B meaning from BDB (628-29). 75 Some examples: Gen 2:15; Num 17:19; 32:15; Josh 4:3; 2 Kgs 17:29; Ezek 37:14; and 2 Chr 4:8. 76 In the parallel passage in 2 Chr 1:14 and in a similar passage in 2 Chr 9:25, the Hiphil of m j is used. 77 A parallel passage in 2 Chr 5:26 has the Hiphil of N13 plus the preposition y 78 The LXX of both 1 Kgs 10:26 and 2 Kgs 18:11 have the verb tî07][ii. The Syriac of Ps 61:3 reads wbj'tnj (BHS), probably understanding Hebrew Dnj (so BHS), which is also suggested by the Madrid dictionary (487).

56

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

18a I have seen his ways and I will heal him 18b I will lead him and I will restore comfort to him and to the one who mourns him (Isa 57:18)

HALOT (685), Barth (314-15), and NET's 'give them rest' suggest that the verb here should be replaced with 1111 The Madrid dictionary (487) suggests that Isa 57:18 read the verb DrU instead of T i l These changes, however, are not needed. Again, the animate and potent Agent and Object are in this clause, just as we would expect for T i l The Locative case is not present in this line but, as observed above, the Locative role is often deleted. Finally, the notion of leading does make sense in this context, so it is possible to retain the text as pointed in the MT. 79 A sixth passage with the Hiphil of TI.2 that HALOT wants to change (along with BHS) to ITU is Job 12:23: 23a

D ^ mu>n

23b :Dnri

23a The one who enlarges nations and destroys them, 23b The one who scatters nations around and leads them (away). (Job 12:23)

It is possible that HALOT and BHS want to read PIT J in order to 'balance' the poetic lines. In 23a, the verbs would be positive (HXU?) and then negative ("UN). In 23b, the verbs would be negative (nOU>) and then positive (mi). This balance of positives and negatives, however, is not needed. The poetic lines can simply indicate one positive thing that God does and then three negative things

79 Further, the Object of the Hiphil A of n i j 'give rest to someone' is usually with the preposition b (BDB, 628-29).

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CHAPTER T W O

without violating any restrictions of Hebrew poetry. The MT should be retained here. A final text that HALOTquestions is Ps 139:10: l O a ^ m n i[T n u r m iob

•'JTrmrn

10a Even there your hand will guide me, 10b And your right hand will take hold of me. (Ps 139:10) Here again both BHS and HALOT suggest an emendation. They suggest reading Mllpn ' y o u r hand will take me' for Mrun. This would provide parallel lines that seem to work more naturally together (take: hold). This emendation, however, is not necessary. The argument structure and realization of the Hiphil of TI.2 that one expects is present here (animate, potent, and personal Agent and Object). Also, the parallelism works well as it appears in the MT. Taking hold of someone is a more vivid way to express guiding someone. DCH mentions two other passages that could be emended to the Hiphil of Til Eccl 4:1 (899) 80 and Ps 106:45 (653). Eccl 4:1b reads, "Behold, the tears of the oppressed, and there is no one to fNI); and from the hand of their strong comfort them (Dn.20 oppressors, there is no one to comfort them (Dn.20 Drib fNI)." Even though the argument structure and realization of the Hiphil of TU fits this occurrence, emending the text is unnecessary here. The presence of oppressors and the absence of comforters is a perfectly understandable situation for this context. Ps 106:45 is the second passage: 43at

n n n crpya

80DCH cites Dahood's article in connection with this reading (Dahood 1966a, 272).

58

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

43a2 a m i n m w n a m 43b :DTiin Wbjl 44a an 2 ?

K"V]

44b 45a i r r a on5? - l i n 45b :HDn 1 1 3 D m

43al Many times he delivered them 43a2 But they rebelled in their counsel 43b And they sank low because of their sin. 44a But he saw them in their distress 44b When he heard their cry of lament 45a And he remembered his covenant for their benefit 45b And he relented (?) according to his great lovingkindness. (Ps 106:43-45)

Dahood argues that the verb form in 45b should be read as the Hiphil of TO with a 3mp object suffix (Dahood 1970, 76). The Syriac supports this reading with wdbr 'nwn (BUS). The line does reflect the argument structure and realization that is expected with Til The LXX, however, reads Dm, reflected by H£T£H£?ai9Tl ' t o regret, repent' (Rahlfs 1967, 268) with the MT. Both readings are possible. The reading in the MT makes more sense contextually. Israel was suffering from the consequences of their own sin (verse 43). When he remembered his covenant with Israel, God relented by delivering them from those devastating consequences. This relenting was not according to what Israel deserved, but according to his great lovingkindness. 2.6.5 Distinguishing Features. The Qal and Hiphil should be considered together for this section. Because there is so litde difference in the argument structure, its realization, and the meaning of the Qal and the Hiphil of this verb,

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59

it is possible that the two have a suppletive relationship with one another.81 In general, the Qal is used for the non-prefixing forms while the Hiphilis used for the prefixing forms. The two exceptions in Genesis and Nehemiah would represent analogical exceptions that developed as the link between the Qal and the Hiphil became less salient.82 It is also possible that the Hiphil is secondary. The form n n r may originally have been the Qal form (yaqtil) that was reinterpreted as a HiphilP As for distinguishing features, four are clear. First, the verb TU takes exclusively personal Objects (in the form of a pronominal suffix or the Object •}?). Second, in 32 of the 38 occurrences, God is the Agent. Third, the verb is almost exclusively poetic (32/38). Also, the verb seems to lexicalize the Path role. Finally, in all occurrences of TI.2, the leading has beneficial results for the Object. Sometimes the leading depicted in the passages is general, peaceful guidance by a benevolent Agent (often God) for a willing people (e.g., Isa 58:11; Ps 23:3; Job 31:18; Prov 6:22). Related to this are passages where God guides the Israelites in Exodus (13:17, 21; 15:13; 32:34) and other passages that reflect that tradition (e.g., Pss 77:21; 78:14a, 14b, 53, 72; Neh 9:12a, 12b, 19). Other passages refer to guidance in a particular manner of behavior (e.g., Pss 5:9; 27:11; 139:24; 143:10) or to a correct route (e.g., Gen 24:27, 48; Ps 43:3; 60:1 l=Ps 108:11). Some passages even imply protection in the leading (e.g., Pss 31:4; 107:30; Job 12:23). 81 Both Joiion (Joiion and Muraoka 1991, 198) and GKC (Kautzsch and Cowley 1910, 219—220) discuss this phenomenon in Biblical Hebrew using the pair 310 (Perfect) and 30'' (Imperfect). Gesenius discusses other suppletive pairs, calling them Verba defectiva'. Some of them are: "IP in the Perfect, TU in the Imperfect ('to be afraid'); f S J in the Perfect, f ! 3 in the Imperfect ('to break into pieces'); and i"inu? ('to drink') in Qal, but npU?n ('to give to drink') in Hiphil from a Qal, HpU?, not used in Hebrew (but cf. Akkadian saqum G 'to give to drink'). GKC also mentions the Qal and Hiphil of TU specifically as serving complementary functions with regards to tense (220). 82 It is the general tendency of analogy "that its effect is the disappearance of irregular or anomalous forms" (Ariotto 1972, 130). 83 This would be similar to yasqeh being reinterpreted as a Hiphil.

60

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

2.7 T H E QAL OF AM 2.7.1 General Characteristics The Qal of occurs 20 times in the Hebrew Bible. Of the 20 occurrences, seven of them are in poetry. The verb occurs in pairs or sequences nine times.84 The verb appears in all sorts of forms, including perfect, imperfect, narrative, and the participle (active and passive). A typical example of the use of th c Qal of AH J is found in 1 Sam 23:5:

a n p i c m u f t a s onV»! n V p p vutoNi T H ^ » I r 6 n i H30 a n s f i arnpp-ri!S!

David and his men went to Qeilah and fought against the Philistines. And he led (off) their cattle and struck them severely. (1 Sam 23:5)

2.7.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics The Agents of the Qal of are always animate, potent, and personal (or closely connected to a person). God is the Agent once (Lam 3:2). Some of the other Agents of this verb are 'Jacob', 'Moses', 'David', 'Jehu', and 'the king of Assyria'. An example of an Agent that is associated with a person is in Eccl 2:3, where 'my heart' is the subject. Objects of this verb are animate and potent, but do not have to be personal. Eight times non-personal Objects occur with this verb, most of them livestock. The Object role is overtly represented in 16 of the 20 occurrences of the verb. It is marked 84 Song 8:2 is an A-B pair with the Hiphil of N13. Lam 3:2 is an A-B pair with the Hiphil of "[Vn. Isa 60:11 is a B-A pair with the Hiphil of N13. Seven sequences occur. Three of them are A-B sequences with (1 Sam 30:2, 22; 2 Kgs 4:24; 2 Chr 25:11). One of them is an A-B sequences with X13 (Exod 3:1).

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with either the direct-object marker, the preposition 85 or no marking at all. Three times the Object can be easily identified from the context. The other passage deletes the Object altogether. It is 2 Kgs 9:20: j r n p ? j r u a r n n u r ^ i • ¡ T ^ - T P HI imb

n a k n TP]

:.inr p j t t u h ' U t o r j n

airr

The watchman announced, "He [the horseman of v. 18] came to them and he did not return. The driving is like the driving of Jehu son of Nimshi, because he drives insanely." (2 Kgs 9:20)

Now while there is no Object clearly available in the context, it is understood that Jehu was driving a horse-drawn chariot.86 If a horse-drawn chariot is the Object, it is possible that AH.! in this context with no clear Object means 'to lead a means of travel (horse or chariot)', or, in better English, 'to drive'.87 The Locative role only occurs three times with the Qal of AHl This is the lowest percentage (less than 1/6) of any of the verbs in this chapter. In five occurrences, however, the Locative role can be found in a neighboring line or clause. Even taking those passages into account, the Locative role does not play a large role in the usage of these verbs. Where the Locatives do occur, Goal occurs twice ("inN; bit) and Path once The modal roles of Manner (three times), Instrument (once), and Reason (once) also occur.

85 The

two passages where 3 marks the Object are Isa 11:6 and 1 Chr

13:7. 86 Gross also argues that the object is clear from the context. He says that it is either a chariot or the horses pulling it (Gross 1998, 256). 87 The noun .jnjO here also means 'driving'. It is a noun of the VupQ pattern, a pattern which Joiion says forms "abstract nouns [as here], nouns of place and nouns of instrument" (Joiion-Muraoka 1991, 256—57). In this case, it is an action noun.

62

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

2.7.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb HALOT lists the gloss 'drive' for JPU in thc Qal (675).88 This gloss is a reflection of the particular lexical-semantic features of the verb itself. Because animals are often the Objects, the Manner role is sometimes lexicalized with this verb. Specifically, the manner of travel, travel with animals (e.g., on a horse-driven chariot in 2 Kgs 9:20, or moving a herd of cattle in 1 Sam 23:5), is lexicalized. Therefore the gloss 'drive' is appropriate. 2.7.4 Problem Passage. One passage involving the Qal of AH J is of text-critical concern, Lam 1:4: •lai n f n N j v ? o i l 4a2 "TDin 4bi

nnv?"*7? 4b2 D'niNi m r p 4ci rrm-i i r n ' ^ r a 4c2

^m

4al The roads of Zion mourn 4a2 Because there are none who come to a festival. 4bl All of her gates are desolate. 4b2 Her priests sigh. 4cl Her virgins are worried. 4c2 She is bitter. (Lam 1:4)

88DCH (628-29) lists those glosses as well, along with 'conduct'. BDB takes 'drive' as the main gloss and calls the other glosses "figurative" (624).

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63

The verbal form niXQ (N participle fp, root T , 'be worried, grieved') in 4cl is rendered ayo^ievaL (pres middle fp participle, root ayco, 'to lead') in the LXX (Ziegler 1957, 468), probably reading niXirU, a Qal passive participle fp from JPU, "Her virgins are led (away)."89 The argument structure and realization of AH J would fit with this passage. Because of the passive form, an Agent is not expected to appear. The Object (nTDirQ) is animate as expected. Therefore either reading would be appropriate as far as the argument structure is concerned. The reading niXU ('worried'), however, is slightly preferred. The root T occurs in other places in this chapter (1:5 and 1:12), works well in the context, and does explain the origin of the reading.90 2.7.5 Distinguishing Features As mentioned above, the Qal of JiU only takes God as the Agent once. Also, non-personal Objects (animals) appear with the verb in eight of the 20 occurrences. Those two features distinguish it from its VieI stem (see below) and both of the TU stems. The Qal of often lexicalizes the Manner role, namely, the manner of travel, travel with animals. Therefore the gloss 'drive' is often appropriate with this verb. The Objects that occur with AH J are relatively weak and are often manipulated by strong Agents. Animals are led by persons in several passages (e.g., Exod 3:1; 1 Sam 23:5; Job 24:3). Twice women captured in war are the Objects (1 Sam 30:2, 22) and once children are the Objects (1 Sam 30:22). In Isa 20:4, captives and exiles are the Objects. In Song 8:2, where the Object is a pronominal suffix, the woman is imagining her lover (the Object) as a younger brother, suckled at her mother's breast. Perhaps even the passages where military leaders are marshalling their armies (e.g., 1 Chr 20:1; 2 Chr 25:11) could be included here. Often, but not always, the verb always has a violent, manipulative element. It has this nuance in 1 Sam 30:2, where Amalekites 89DCH

notes this option (629). (Hfflers 1992, 67) and House (Garrett and House 2004, 335) also argue for the MT based on parallelism between the lines. 90 Hillers

64

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

capture the women of Ziklag (cf. Job 24:3). In the same chapter in verse 22, however, it is impossible to say that violence and manipulation are involved when the same verb is used for the men leading their wives back home after the rescue. Each case has to be examined in light of the context to determine the tone of the leading (Gross 1998: 257). 2 . 8 T H E PIEL OF AM

2.8.1 General Characteristics The Piel of AH J occurs 10 times in the Hebrew Bible. Of the 10 occurrences, five of them are in poetry. The verb pairs with other verbs of leading three times, all in the poetic passages.91 The verb appears in the perfect, imperfect, and narrative forms. A typical example of the use of the Piel of is found in Psalm 78:52: 52a iray 52b n r m

ypn

T r y ? DJtnri

53a r m a

nun 2 ? nm*]

53b :D*n n o ? on'TiN-nx-i

52a He brought his people out like sheep 52b And he led them through the desert like a flock. 53a He led them safely and they were not afraid. 53b The sea covered their enemies. (Ps 78:52-53)

91 Isa

49:10 is an A-B pair with Vni Ps 78:26, 52 are B-A pairs with

the Hiphil of J7D1

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65

2.8.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics Unlike the Qal of ¿¡"U, which only shows God as the Agent once, the Pie/ of has God (or something connected closely to God) as the Agent in nine of the 10 occurrences. The only other Agent is Jacob, in Gen 31:26. This preference for a divine Agent in the Pie/ is the only clear difference between the two stems that can be identified, given the limited number of forms in Biblical Hebrew. Seven of the ten Objects are clearly animate, potent and personal. The other three Objects are not personal or animate. Two of them are winds (Exod 10:13 and Ps 78:26), and the other is probably a wheel of a chariot or the chariot itself (Exod 14:25). That passage is worth a closer look: • n a p run/r^K m r r ^ p u n r n b u ^ s •»rn ns* funip ni* Drn fim m i D s i m a n vnirp-ia

At the morning watch the Lord looked down at the Egyptian camp in a pillar of fire and cloud, and he threw the Egyptian camp into panic. He turned aside the wheel of his chariots and he drove it with difficulty. (Exod 14:24-25)

Even though wheels and chariots are not animate and potent Objects, there may be a close connection between chariots and the animate horses that pull them, so that the requirement of an animate, potent Object could possibly be fulfilled. As for the winds in the other two passages, those two Objects are certainly potent; but are they animate? In both contexts, the winds come directly from God. In Exodus 10, they bring the locusts. In Psalm 78, they bring manna. Both are commanded by God. This close connection with God could meet the requirement of animacy with the Objects of these verbs. If not, these would be the only exceptions with this verb to the animate-Object rule. The Locative role occurs four or perhaps five (see below) times in the same clause as the Pie/ of AilJ. Twice Path occurs, both times with the preposition 2. Twice Goal occurs, both times in a relative clause headed by "lU^K and resumed by ¡ 1 0 $ (DU? with the directional ¡1). In two other occurrences, the Locative role appears

66

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW B I B L E

in a neighboring clause. 92 Neither the Qal nor the Pie/ of ever indicates the Source role. The modal roles of Manner (four times), Temporal (twice), and Reason (once) also occur with this verb. It is difficult to determine if the Locative role is used in Psalm 48:15. The passage reads: i5ai c r r f ? « nr i5a2 "ryi nViy i r n ' b x 15b ¡ r n n - ^ y m n r Kin

15al For this is God, 15a2 Our God forever and ever; 15b He guides us until dying. (Ps 48:15) The sense o f this final phrase is unclear. The Septuagint reads £15 XOTJ5 aioovag (Rahlfs 1967,158), which might reflect an understanding o f the Hebrew as perhaps a feminine plural of n6iy. 9 3 The plural of oblj? elsewhere, however, is • ^ ( • O y . The Syriac I'l mn mwt' (BHS) seems to be understanding either the noun niQ ('death') or the infinitive construct JTIO ('dying'). Another possibility suggested in the BHS apparatus by Bardtke is that the text be emended to m Q ^ y ^ y ('according to the Alamoth style') and read as a musical direction that goes with the following Psalm which already has a multi-part superscription. The modern translations are divided also. The N R S V and the NJPS read 'forever' and 'evermore' respectively, agreeing with the suggestion. The AV reads 'until death'. The N J B leaves m Q ' ^ y completely untranslated, not even incorporating it into the heading o f Psalm 49. That is also how the passage is treated in the Revised Zwingli Bible, the French Jerusalem Bible, Revidierte Lu92 Ps 78:26 (Path with 3 in previous line) and Isa 49:10 (Path with V}? in the next line). 93Several medieval Hebrew manuscripts read mn1?}? (BHS).

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therbibel, and the Traduction Oecuménique de la Bible (which ends the chapter with "Il nous mène . . ."). None of these translations that eliminates the final phrase from the verse, however, add the suggested musical instruction to the following psalm. The argument structure of the Piel of AÎ1J and the tendencies of its realization that we have observed in this chapter do not favor one reading over another. 'Until death/dying' could indicate the Goal (place of death). It is just as easy, however, to understand that the Locative role is deleted and to read 'until death/dying' as a Temporal clause or to read 'forever' or even to leave the phrase out. So this study is not able to contribute to solving this textcritical problem, except to confirm that all three options are possible within the verb's expected argument structure. 2.8.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb It is possible that the Pie/ of AH.! sometimes applies the lexicalsemantic feature of the Qal of AÎ1J (manner of travel, with animals) to personal Objects. In other words, this verb would be chosen when personal Objects were to be led in a way similar to the way that animals are led. This is explicit in Ps 78:52 where it reads - i r r a n TTJ?D m n m "He led them like a flock in the desert." At other times, however, this feature is not present. In Exod 14:25 (discussed above), for example, the verb seems to function in a way similar to the Qal of AHl 2.8.4 Problem Passages The occurrence of the fp Piel participle of Ailï in Nah 2:8 is difficult. The passage reads: 8a rm^yn

nam

8b ••»jv Vips n ù r u n r r n r m - i 8c ¡înnnV^y r i a a r i n

8a It is fixed! She [Nineveh] is uncovered. She is taken up.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

8b Her maidservants moan like a dove's voice 8c Beating upon their heart. (Nah 2:8)

The normal meaning of does not make much sense here. Three alternatives have been proposed to deal with the problem: a second Anj root, repointing the MT to read a Vual participle, and inserting a deleted Object. The translation 'moan' comes from a proposed Anj II root meaning 'to moan, lament' based on the Arabic root nahija (HALOT, 675) and Akkadian nagagu ('to bray, to neigh, to produce a mournful sound' CAD N I 195b).94 The NJB, NRSV, NAB, NASB, NIV, and NET take the verb this way. The ancient translations, however, repoint the MT to a Vual. The LXX reads rai al bov'ko.i aiki^ fiyovto 10x6005 Jtepiaxepai cpBeyyonevaL ev K(Xp6iai5 aikoov 'And her maidservants were led along as doves moaning in their hearts' (Ziegler 1967,256). Targum Jonathan and the Vulgate are similar.95 The AV and the NJPS read a deleted Object 'her', probably referring to the city of Nineveh. The AV reads, "And her maids shall lead her as with the voice of doves." Since God is usually the Agent of the VieI of AH J, the third option is less likely than the other two. Repointing the verb works fine for the argument structure of AH J, but it is difficult contextually to compare the voice of a dove with maidservants being led out. For these reasons, it is best to posit a II root here and translate it 'moan'. 96

94BDB,

624 and HALOT, 675. Also DCH, 629. The Madrid dictionary simply states, "Nah 2,8 duduso." 95 This would understand the appearance of both similar-looking roots, M13 and T . It is possible that both forms were original and that one fell out by haplography. The original may have been / n u n j p HTinONl CJV VlpD "Her maidservants are led away/ They moan like the voices of doves." 96 Also Gross, 259.

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2.8.5 Distinguishing Features The Piel of AH J is like the Qal and Hiphil of TU (and unlike the Qal of Anj) in that God is usually the Agent and persons are usually the Objects. It is possible that the PieI of Ail! sometimes applies the lexical-semantic feature of the Qal of Ail! (manner of travel, with animals) to personal Objects. In other words, this verb would be chosen when personal Objects were to be led in a way similar to the way that animals are led. At other times it seems to function in much the same way as the Qal of Ail J. As with the Qal of Aill, only context can determine whether an occurrence of the verb has a violent, manipulative nuance (e.g., Gen 31:26; Deut 4:27; 28:37) or a benevolent nuance (e.g., Isa 49:10; 63:14; Ps 78:26).97 2 . 9 T H E HIPHIL AND HOPHAL OF BRR

2.9.1 General Characteristics The Hiphil of ^n 1 occurs 7 times while the Hophal occurs 11 times. 98 This verb has two characteristic features. First, of the 18 total occurrences, 17 of them clearly appear in poetry. Only Jer 11:19 possibly contains an example of this verb in prose (so, e.g., BHS), but it could just as well be interpreted as poetic (so, e.g.,

97 Gross rejects Jenni's claim that the Piel serves as a more figurative version of the Qal. Jenni bases the claim on the fact that God occurs as the subject. Gross argues that this is not convincing, especially since it cannot apply to the one occurrence of the Piel with a human Agent, in Gen 31:26 (Gross 1998: 258). 98 The Qal of VT is not found in Biblical Hebrew. Hoffner proposes (1986: 366—67) that the noun yebul 'produce' "confirms the use of the qal in the early period of the language" (366). It is possible that VT is only secondarily a Hiphil in the Hebrew Bible. The passive form (Hophal in the MT) occurs more often, and it is possible that the Qal passive (especially the imperfect) was misunderstood as a Hophal form. Therefore because the Qal passive was understood as a Hophal, the Qal forms would have been mistaken for Hiphil forms. The presence of this root in the G-stem in other Semitic languages (e.g., Akkadian) strengthens this argument.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

NJPS). Second, the verb always occurs in the imperfect or jussive form. This verb pairs with other verbs of leading four times and is in a sequence once." A typical example of this verb is in Ps 60:11: l l a T t e Q TXJ Vby

lib

W

^m

11a Who will lead me into the fortified city? l i b Who will lead me to Edom? (Ps 60:11)

2.9.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics The Hiphil has the argument structure Agent—Object—Locative. The Agent semantic role is only utilized in the active (Hiphil) form of this verb. The Hophal has the same Agent—Object—Locative argument structure, but the Agent is deleted in all of the passive forms of the verb.100 In the seven occurrences of the Hiphil, the potent, animate, and personal Agents that are expected appear. Although the Lord only functions as the explicit Agent of this verb once (Jer 31:9), he is also probably the one in mind in Ps 60:1 l=Ps 108:11 (above), where the Agent is ''Q.101 Other Agents are 'her feet' (Isa 23:7), 'kings' (Ps 68:30), and 'all those around him' (Ps 76:12). The Objects of b y in the Hiphil serve as direct objects of the verb in the realization of the argument structure, while the Objects of the Hophal occurrences serve as subjects. As discussed above, it " T h e Hiphil of VT is in an A-B pair with the Hiphil of "[Vn in Jer 31:9. The Hophal of *7T is in an A-B pair with the Hophal of N13 in Ps 45:15. The Hiphil of V t is in a A-B pair with the Qal of TIJ in Ps 60:11 =108:11. The Hophal of V t is in an A-B sequence with th& Qal of N13 in Ps 45:16. 100 "By 'passive' we mean that the subject is in the state of being acted upon or of suffering the effects of an action by an implicit or explicit agent" (Waltke and O'Connor 1990, 382). 101 It is possible that the 'D here is exclamatory with an unspecified referent, cf., 'Would that I were brought to the bastion' (NJPS).

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is expected that the Objects of Class I verbs of leading are animate and potent. That is clearly the case with in some passages. Often persons serve as Objects102 and other times animals do.103 Very often, however, gifts or deliveries of tribute are the Objects of the verb. 104 Since these are not animate and potent, such usage breaks the pattern that has been identified with the Objects of these verbs. It is possible to associate tribute and gifts with those who deliver them. In the ancient world, tribute would need to be directly conveyed by people. This might explain how these Objects can be used with this verb.105 The tributes themselves, however, are still inanimate. This verb, therefore, may not always function as a verb of leading like the rest of the Class I verbs do. It is still best to consider this verb as a Class I verb, however, because it does not have a Qal verb of motion (as Class II verbs do) and has only this one type of exception (tribute-bearing) to the animate-Object rule. The Locative case is often deleted with the other Class I verbs; that is not the situation with this verb. The Locative role with is rarely deleted. It occurs explicitly in 14 of the 18 occurrences. In two of the other three instances, the Locative role occurs in a neighboring poetic line. Goal, the most common of the Locatives with this verb, is indicated ten times and is marked with either b or 0. Source is indicated twice and is marked with either JO or 0. In two passages (Isa 18:7 and Job 10:19, discussed above in the introductory section), Path appears. Several modal semantic roles 102 Isa 23:7; 55:12; Jer 31:9; Pss 45:15, 16; 60:11; 68:30; 108:11; Job 10:19; 21:30, 32. 103 Isa 53:7; Jer 11:19. 104 Isa 18:7; Hos 10:6, 12:2; Zeph 3:10; Pss 68:30; 76:12. 105 Akkadian abdlu, which is actually more common in the G stem but also does occur in the C stem, takes Objects similar to the ones that Hebrew VT takes (from CAD A I 10—29). The causative of abdlu, subulum, means 'to send, have [someone] carry away' (CAD A I 24a). The verb takes Objects that are materials, staples, tablets, letters, documents, people, and animals in both stems. It is even used in Akkadian for bringing tribute at Amarna (EA 160:44: biltasu sa sarri beliya ubbal "And he will bring the king, my lord, his tribute"; CAD A I 12) and in the annals of the Kings of Assyria (AKA 324 ii 81: GU.UN (bilta) maddattu . . . ana muhhiya ubluni "They brought tribute and gifts to me"; CAD B 236a).

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

occur with this verb including Manner (five times), Reason (twice), Temporal (once), and Benefactive (once).

2.9.3 Additional Features of the Lexical Semantics of the Verb Because the Goal role is so common with this verb, it is possible that the Hiphil and Hophal of ^n 1 lexicalize the Goal role as a part of its semantic features. In addition, because tribute-bearing is a large part of how this verb is used in the Hebrew Bible, it is possible that verb may sometimes lexicalize the Manner of motion, namely a vehicle or cart of some kind that is used to carry tribute. This lexical nuance may even color the way that the verb is used when its Objects are persons. The idea may be that, when this verb is used, the people are "carted off as if they were a tribute." This could be the understanding in Ps 45:15 where the Object is brought to the king.

2.9.4 Problem Passages Probably the most difficult of the passages with The passage reads:

is Hos 10:6.

6ai ^nv -iiu^ 2 ? i n i K - m

6a2

IT

nmp

6al It (?) is led to Assyria 6a2 As a tribute to the great king. (Hos 10:6a) Three problems appear in this pair stands the verb as to, a Hiphil, MT. 106 Second, how is the reading tood? Finally, how is IT* f^O to be

of lines. First, the LXX underinstead of the Hophal in the with the Hophal to be understranslated?

106lt reads ajtriveyicav ^evia tcb Paoi^ei Iapi|a "They carried [it] away as presents for King Jarim" (Ziegler 1967,169).

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The first two problems are connected. Since the argument structures for the two stems are the same, there is no inherent reason for choosing one reading over the other. For the reading in the LXX, in these lines there are no good overt candidates for the Agent role of a Hiphil verb. The Agent could be an understood 'they' (some segment of Samaria's population, cf. 10:5). In the seven clear occurrences of the Hiphil of however, the Agent is explicitly mentioned each time. If the Hophal is read, however, the phrase imN could serve as the Object (which would serve as the subject of the sentence). This would be a passive verb with reduced inflection. 107 The translation would be as it appears above, "It is led to Assyria." This is probably the best reading because it is the most difficult. As for IT* "f^Q, there are several possibilities. First, IT 1 , meaning 'let him contend' {Qal Jussive 3ms) could be the hypocoristic name of a king, cf. Jerubbaal in Biblical Hebrew. This would be awkward syntactically, however. Another possibility is that there is an improper word division and that the text should read XI with t h e y o d possibly being either a remnant of genitive case ending or used as an "analogy of Hebrew names which have malki- as their first element" (Andersen and Freedman 1980,414). This phrase would be close to Akkadian sarrum rabum, 'great king'. 108 Another option would be that the phrase as vocalized in the MT "became understood as a secret name for the Assyrian king" (Wolff 1974,104). HALOT recommends that forms in Hos 12:2 and Ps 45:16 also be switched from Hophal to Hiphil. The lexicon also recommends that Job 21:30 be changed to a form of or to blV (383). These changes are not necessary, however. The proposed emendations in all three passages suffer from a lack of textual support. The

107 See

Joiion-Muraoka, Section 128b. phrase 3 1 "[Vo does appear in Aramaic on the Sefire inscription contemporary with Hosea (Wolff 1974, 171). In Sf. I ( K A I 222) B 7 the phrase 'a great king' is used to refer to Bir-Gay'ah, King of KTK, the suzerain (Fitzmyer 1967,17, 61). For further discussion, see DNWSIat (A3) 'important, great' (Hoftijzer and Jongeling 1995, 1048). 108 The

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

verbs as they occur in the MT in these passages also conform to the expected argument structure and realization for 2.9.5 Distinguishing Features The most distinguishing feature of is the consistent realization of the Locative role (especially Goal) in its clauses. This consistency may be evidence that the Goal role is a lexicalized semantic feature of the verb. Other distinguishing features appear as well, however. God is not often the Agent, as he is with other Class I verbs of leading. The Objects of 721 are rather specialized as well. For example, tributary offerings serve as Objects (e.g., Isa 18:7; Zeph 3:10; Ps 68:30). According to Hoffner, a ceremony is often involved in the execution of this verb. Along with tribute, important people serve as Objects such as princesses (Ps 45:15) and the victorious Judahite king (Ps 60:1 l=Ps 108:11; Hoffner 1986, 365). It is also possible that the Manner role is lexicalized with this verb, specifically the Manner of motion. Movement on a vehicle or cart, especially as it pertains to the conveyance of tribute, may be a semantic feature of this verb. This feature may also color the way that personal Objects are led with this verb, i.e., they may be led as if they were a tribute. 2 . 1 o T H E PIEL OF BRU

2.10.1 General Characteristics The Piel of ViU occurs eight times in the Hebrew Bible. Seven of the eight occurrences appear in poetic passages. Four times this verb is paired with another verb of leading in a neighboring line or clause. The verb appears in the narrative, imperfect, and perfect forms. A typical example of the Piel of bill is in Ps 23:2: 2a ' i r r y nutt r r i i u s

2b 2a He allows me to lie down in green pastures

nimn •»¡rbi?

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2b He leads me beside the waters at resting places. (Ps 23:2)

2.10.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics The Agents of this verb are animate, potent, and personal. God is the Agent five times. The other agents are 'Joseph' (Gen 47:17), 'the men' (2 Chr 28:15), and 'no one' (Isa 51:18). The Objects of this verb are always animate and potent. The Objects are personal as well in eight of the nine passages. In Isa 40:11, however, the Object is ('nursing ones'), a noun that always refers to mother animals in the Bible. The Locative role occurs in three of the nine passages with this verb. Path is indicated twice with by (Isa 49:10; Ps 23:2); Goal is indicated once with (Exod 15:13). Source does not occur with the verb bill. In three other passages, the Locative case appears in a neighboring line. 2.10.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb The PieI of b n j does not seem to have any lexicalized roles or coreferential roles as many of the verbs of leading do. Some scholars suggest that the verb is not a verb of leading; instead they suggest that it means 'to give rest'. This suggestion will be dealt with in the following section. Additionally, two other semantic associations affect the use of the verb: supplying water and provisions. BDB glosses the verb as meaning at base 'lead, guide to a watering place or station', possibly associating it with Arabic manhal (BDB, 624). Twice the verb fits this gloss precisely, in Ps 23:2 and Isa 49:10. The verb also has an association with the concept of supplying provision as noted below in Gen 47:17, where Joseph supplies the people in Egypt with food. 2.10.4 Problem Passages Another possible occurrence of this verb may be found in 2 Chr 32:22. The MT reads:

76

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW B I B L E

^nrnp t q D ^ v v ^

n*ti irppTrrni* m r r yurh n ^ n r i ^ " p m -IIWN-^O

The Lord saved Hezekiah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem from the power of Sennacherib king of Assyria and from the power of all; and he led(?) them all around. (2 Chr 32:22)

The last clause is difficult. The Septuagint reads Kai raTEJtanaev aikoiJÇ ICUIC^oBev 'And he gave them rest all around' (Brooke, McLean, and Thackeray 1932, 544), which reflects • r 6 n m T I D O in Hebrew. The Hebrew verb ITU often lies behind the translation of Greek KaxaJtavO) and other compounds of JT(TU(D. The verb KaxaJTaD(0 ('put to an end, cease, give rest to') translates it 19 times,109 the verb avaJtaiJ(0 ('to give rest, to quiet'), 25 times,110 and the verb eJtavaJtaiJ(0 ('to rest upon, come to rest upon'), five times.111 Only in 2 Chr 32:22 do any of the forms of JtaiJO) translate Hebrew bill 1 1 2 The modern translations divide into three groups. First, some of the translations retain the M T and translate it, "He guided them all around." In this group are the AV and NASB. Another group retains the M T and translates the verb, "He provided for them." The NJPS, Revised Zwingli Bible ("verschaffte"), and the N I V ("took care of them") are in this group. (This is similar to the 'supply' meaning of bru discussed below.) The largest group of translations, the NRSV, NJB, NAB, N E T , the French Jerusalem Bible, Revidierte Lutherbibel, and the Traduction Oecuménique de

109 Eight

times it is the Qal stem (e.g., Exod 20:11; Josh 3:13; 2 Sam 21:10); 11 times the Hiphil oirm (e.g., Exod 33:14; Deut 12:10; Josh 1:13). 110 It is the Qal stem 17 times (e.g., Exod 23:12; Deut 5:14; J o b 3:13) and the Hiphilstem eight times (e.g., 2 Sam 7:11; 2 Kgs 13:30; Isa 14:1). m I t is the Qal stem four times (Num 11:25, 26; 2 Kgs 2:15; Isa 11:2) and the Hphilonce (Judg 16:26). 112 Muraoka suggests that this passage should be emended to nij (Muraoka 1998, 302).

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la Bible, emends the MT 113 and reads with the Septuagint. HALOT (675) and BDB (624) also recommend the emendation. DCH suggests that there are two ^¡"U roots, one meaning 'to lead' and the other meaning 'to give rest' (see below). It argues that 2 Chr 32:22 should go with the latter or be emended as suggested above (630). The argument structure of the Piel of ^¡"U does not favor one reading over another. The structure Agent—Object—Locative is completely intact in the MT. Selectional restrictions in the realization of the argument structure, however, may favor emending the text. If the MT is retained, TUDO would be understood as the Path role. That role occurs 18 times with Class I verbs; it is never realized in those passages using the preposition JO. That preposition is used for the Source, Temporal, and Reason roles, but never the Path role. So the usual appearance of the preposition in these cases with Class I verbs favors the reading reflected in the Septuagint. The argument for emending the text is also bolstered by the presence of parallels in similar contexts with PIT J plus b and TUDO. A very similar construction occurs in Deut 12:10, where the text reads TIDQ b'DD odb m m , "And he will give you rest from your enemies all around." Even in 2 Chronicles itself there are two strong parallels. 2 Chr 15:15 reads t i d q n r 6 m m n n "And the Lord gave them rest all around". In a very similar context to 2 Chr 22:32, 2 Chr 20:30 reads TIDQ 17 n n , "And his God gave him rest all around".114 While the MT is certainly the more difficult reading, it is most likely an impossible reading. Above it was argued that JO is not usually a preposition that indicates Path with Class I verbs. It is also the case that it does not indicate Path in any of the occurrences of n^DO with a verb of motion. It always indicates Source.115 Since Source is an unlikely possibility in this context, it is best to emend the text and read with the LXX and the majority of modern translations. 113 Though it is also possible that they are retaining the MT and understanding a different meaning for b i l l See below. 114 Other examples are Deut 25:9; Josh 21:44; 23:1; 2 Sam 7:1; 1 Kgs 5:18. 115 See Jer 17:26 (with NU) and Ezek 23:22 (with NHH) for examples.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

There may be another ^¡"U verb, meaning 'give rest to'. DCH indicates two different ^¡1.2 roots that reflect two competing ways of understanding the meaning of the verb. One reflects the way the verb is being taken here, as a verb of leading, meaning 'to lead'. The other way understands a base meaning to be 'give rest'. For this second meaning, DCH refers to Akkadian nalu ('lie down, rest'; 895) as evidence for this root, depending on A. Kapelrud and ultimately on Paul Haupt, who argues that "the verb has nothing to do with the common associated meaning 'lead'" (Kapelrud 1998, 260). BDB also includes 'cause to rest' as a possible gloss alongside the meaning 'to lead' (624). This proposal that the verb does not have the meaning 'to lead' and should be glossed 'give rest, bring to rest' is not convincing. While some passages can be glossed this way because of vague contexts (e.g., Isa 40:11), still others present major problems. How, for example, should the phrase "[U?"Tp ¡TU'bN in Exod 15:13 be translated if the verb is 'you gave them rest'? The preposition is not compatible with that gloss. It would need the preposition 2 to achieve the desired effect ("You gave them rest in/at your holy enclosure"). Another major problem with understanding bill to mean 'to give rest' is the Akkadian verb on which the argument is based. Akkadian nalu (older nialu) does not mean 'to give rest'; it means 'to lie down' (CAD N I 204-6).116 Therefore the meaning 'to give rest' for bill should be rejected. A final word on the translations and dictionaries suggest a different gloss for the occurrence o f ^ m in Gen 47:17. The passage reads: Kinn r n u a o r n p p - ' m onVs Dbnri

116 See Huehnergard's discussion of this verb, where he calls the G of nialu intransitive and the D-stem meaning 'lay (out, flat)' (Huehnergard 2002, 181).

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And he guided them using food in exchange for all cattle that year. (Gen 47:17)

HALOT suggests 'to provide' (675, cf. NJPS). BDB similarly suggests 'refresh with food' (624). The Madrid dictionary suggests the glosses 'suministrar, otorgar' ('supply, reward', 481). Jastrow records the glosses 'to quiet, support, lead' for later Hebrew (881). While these suggestions make smoother sounding sentences in the modern languages, there is no need to abandon the sense of leading, albeit metaphorical, in this sentence. The use of this verb, instead of fn.2, for instance, highlights the fact that Joseph is leading the people through a period of famine, thereby demonstrating his shrewd leadership on Pharaoh's behalf during the national crisis. 2.10.5 Distinguishing Features The verb ^¡"U usually has a personal Object. All but one of its occurrences are in poetry, and the one prose passage is peculiar (Gen 47:17). Additionally, two other semantic associations affect the use of the verb: supplying water and provisions. The meaning in BDB 'lead, guide to a watering place or station' fits this gloss precisely in two passages. The verb also has an association with the concept of supplying provision as noted above in Gen 47:17. 2 . 1 1 SUMMARY

The Class I verbs presented in this chapter define the semantic and syntactic characteristics of the verb class 'verbs of leading' in the Hebrew Bible. These verbs have the same argument structure: Agent—Object—Locative. All of the verbs take animate and potent Agents and Objects (with the possible exceptions of AH J in the Piel and ^T). The verbs in the group differ from one another in the realization of the argument structure (Agent as God, Objects as personal or non-personal, Locative roles used, lexical semantic features, etc.). The chart in Appendix A highlights the major distinguishing features of each of the verbs. Finally, the analysis of the argument structure of these verbs and its realization provides insight into difficult passages such as 1 Sam 22:4; Ps 139:10; Nah 2:8; and 2 Chr 32:22.

3

CLASS II VERBS OF LEADING:

There is a second group of verbs in the Hebrew Bible that indicate 'leading' in the sense described in the previous chapters. These 11 verbs sometimes, but not always, function as verbs of leading, i.e., they sometimes share the same lexical semantics as the Class I verbs in the previous chapter. These verbs are the Hiphik of 21U?, Kin, W, m p , -¡bn, TV, urn, m y , "bx, and -p-r. The verbs themselves are not actually verbs of leading; they are probably better classified as translocative verbs. Most of these 11 verbs, however, function just like verbs of leading in about half of their occurrences. Not only that, but the occurrences of these verbs that function like verbs of leading (about 1000 times) far outnumber the occurrences of the verbs that are the actual verbs of leading (about 100 times). The following chapters analyze the Class II verbs and are organized in the following way: each of the four most common Class II verbs pbj? W , 21$) will be treated in a separate chapter. The seven less-common verbs will be treated together in Chapter Eight. For each of the more common Class II verbs, the argument structure of the Qal and Niphal stems is indicated first. Then the argument structure of the verb in the Hiphil stem is analyzed. Unlike the Class I verbs, Class II verbs do not always serve as verbs of leading. For this reason distinctions will be made among the occurrences of the verbs when they function as leading verbs and the occurrences when the verbs are functioning in some other way. Problem passages will be considered throughout. 3 . 1 THE QAL OF "by

The Qal of "hy is glossed 'to ascend, go up' and, according to HALOT, it occurs 612 times in the Hebrew Bible (HALOT',

81

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

828).117 Because the verb in this stem is so common, the following analysis is limited to a representative portion, the 76 occurrences in 1 Samuel and Isaiah. An example of t h c Q a l of is in 1 Sam 7:7a: ò y n rmasran

m p n n - 3 cmuft?

The Philistines heard that the Israelites had gathered themselves together at Mizpah and the governors of the Philistines went up to 118 Israel. (1 Sam 7:7)

The argument structure of thc Qal of is Object—Locative. In 64 of the 76 occurrences of the Qal of in 1 Samuel and Isaiah, the Object role is filled by an animate entity.119 There are 12 occurrences, however, where the Object role is filled by an inanimate entity.120 These Objects are things such as a razor (1 Sam 1:11), a yoke (1 Sam 6:7), the dawn (1 Sam 9:26), smell (Isa 34:3), and a cart (1 Sam 6:9). As for the first two of these references (1 Sam 1:11; 6:7), BDB says that the verb is used here "of inanimate things (instead of passive construction)" (748). Similarly, HALOT says that they "approximate the meaning of the passive" (829). The second two references (1 Sam 9:26; Isa 34:3) describe the processes of natural phenomena (BDB: 748). The final reference (1 Sam 6:9) is a vehicle moved by an animal. Because these Objects are inanimate, the argument structure of these Qal occurrences (Object—Locative) is the same as the argument structure with the Niphal of "hy (see below). The Agent in these Qal occurrences is

117 Andersen and Forbes indicate 579 occurrences (Andersen and Forbes 1989, 391). 118 Or 'against Israel'. This may be a case of VN for V}?. 119 For a discussion of whether or not animate Objects oiQal verbs of motion serve as Agents as well, see Section 1.4.2.2 120 1 Sam 1:11; 5:12; 6:7, 9, 20; 9:26; Isa 34:3,10; 37:29; 65:17.

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CHAPTER THREE

understood (beasts pulling carts, people using razors, the acts of natural phenomena with the dawn and smell). Locative roles (Source, Path, Goal) occur one or more times in 56 of the 76 passages. 121 The Goal semantic role, the most common of the Locative roles, occurs in 41 of the 76 passages. Source occurs 12 times and Path five times. Goal and Path occur together once (1 Sam 6:9; Path, then Goal) while Goal and Source also occur together twice (1 Sam 6:20 has Goal, then Source in an interrogative clause; 1 Sam 13:15 has Source, then Goal). 122 3 . 2 T H E NIPHAL OF "by

The Niphal of is glossed 'to arise, be exalted, absent oneself from, be lifted' and, according to HALOT, it occurs 18 times in the Bible (829). These glosses reflect the diverse role of the Niphal stem with this verb, even though it has few occurrences. An example of the Niphal of "hy is in Exod 40:36: bin binup ^

w p ? fsuton bm

jiun n i g r a l

When the cloud lifted from over the tabernacle, the Israelites would set out on their departures. (Exod 40:36)

The argument structure of the verb in the Niphal is ObjectLocative. Unlike the Q a l stem, however, there is usually no confusion about the presence of an Agent; the Agent role is often completely deleted. In the sentence above, for example, the one who caused the cloud to ascend (presumably God) is not mentioned. 123

accounting of deleted Locative roles, see Section 1.4.2.4. the discussion in Section 1.4.2.3 about the possibility of multiple Locative roles in one clause. 123 An alternative way to understand this, however, is that the cloud is God. In that case Agent and Object would be coreferential. i2ip

o r

122 See

an

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

There are six occurrences of the ISSiphal of however, where the Agent role is not deleted: Num 16:24, 27; 2 Sam 2:27; Jer 37: 5, 11; and Ezek 9:3. Num 16:27, for example, reads:

rraop • t i k i irn rnp-puto b m

fan

And they removed themselves from beside the dwelling of Korah, Dathan and Abiram from all around. (Num 16:27)

BDB calls this occurrence (along with the other five mentioned above) 'reflexive' and glosses them 'take oneself away from, get up from' (BDB, 749). Similarly, HALOT glosses them 'absent oneself from' (829). This passage would then be glossed, as above, 'they removed themselves'. In these passages the Agent does appear and is possibly coreferential with the Object. Waltke and O'Connor call this type of Niphal form the 'Double-Status Species of the Niphal! (Waltke and O'Connor 1990, 387-391). They observe: "In the double-status uses of the Niphal, the subject (almost always personal) is at the same time agent and patient (or undergoer) [Object] of the verbal action. These correspond to reflexives and related constructions in the European languages" (387). This coreferentiality, however, is different from the similar phenomenon that possibly occurs within the Qal stem. The Niphal coreferentiality is explicit (while the Qals is implicit, if present at all) and is meant to serve a distributive, benefactive, reciprocal, tolerative, or causative-reflexive purpose (Waltke-O'Connor 1990, 388-391). In Num 16:24 and 27, a distributive purpose is likely, namely, each person should get himself or herself away from the coming destructive judgment in that particular location. Forms of the Locative case occur in 12 of the 18 occurrences with the Niphal of "hy. Among the Locatives, the Source semantic role occurs nine times with the Niphal of "hy while the Goal role occurs four times. The two roles occur together in Ezek 9:3

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(Source, then Goal).124 The Path role does not occur with ''by in the Niphal.

3 . 3 T H E HIPHIL OF "by FUNCTIONING AS A V E R B OF LEADING

The Hiphil of ^ J ) is generally glossed 'to make someone climb up, to lead up, to cause to rise, to bring up' (HALOT: 829-830). It occurs 255 times in the Bible.125 The Hiphil of the verb itself is not a verb of leading. In 120 of these passages (47%), however, the verb functions as a verb of leading, i.e., it shares the same lexical semantics of the Class I verbs of leading described above. This similarity is clear from the realization of the argument structure in some of the verb's occurrences: when the Hiphil of "by functions as a verb of leading, it has animate Objects. This section deals with the occurrences where the Hiphil of "by functions as a verb of leading. The following section deals with the more general occurrences of the Hiphil of "by. Of the 120 passages in the first group, 97 of them appear in prose. An example of the Hiphil of "by functioning as a verb of leading is in Judg 6:8: r r s p a r m x N^NI o n ^ p a r m « ' i r b u n •gjs*

I brought you up from Egypt and brought you out of a house of slaves. (Judg 6:8)

3.3.1 Argument Structure The argument structure of the Hiphil of ''by functioning as a verb of leading is Agent—Object—Locative. The Agent semantic role is almost always apparent from either the inflection of the verb form 124 See the discussion in Section 1.4.2.3 about the possibility of multiple Locative phrases in one clause. 125 Of the 255, 216 are in prose while 39 are in poetry.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

itself or f r o m the explicit presence of the subject (75 times). T h e Object is explicitly m e n t i o n e d in all but three of these passages. 1 2 6 Locative roles (Source, Path, Goal) occur in 91 of the 120 occurrences of the occurrences w h e r e the Hiphil of acts as a v e r b of leading. Source is the m o s t c o m m o n and occurs 67 times. Goal occurs 31 times. 1 2 7 T h e Path semantic role does not occur. T h e Locative semantic roles are deleted in 29 of the 120 occurrences.

3.3.2 Realization of the A r g u m e n t Structure T h e Hiphil of "h)J functioning as a v e r b of leading usually takes A g e n t s that are animate, potent and personal. In only one occurrence is there a non-personal A g e n t , E z e k 19:3. 1 2 8 T h e L o r d is the m o s t c o m m o n A g e n t with this verb. H e appears in 52 of the 120 passages with the Hiphil of as a v e r b of leading. T h e role of Object is filled b y an animate and potent entity in 99 of the 120 occurrences w h e r e the Hiphil of acts as a v e r b of leading. In 95 of those 99 cases, the Object is also personal. 1 2 9 126 Judg 16:31; 1 Sam 2:6; and Nah 3:3. For possible explanations of deleted Object roles, see Section 1.4.2.4. 127 Source and Goal occur together in six passages (Gen 50:24; Exod 3:8, 17; 2 Sam 6:12; Jer 50:9; and 2 Chr 8:11). For an accounting of multiple locative roles in one clause, see Section 1.4.2.3. 128 There the Agent is a wdb 'lioness' (cf. v. 2). In this instance the passage is metaphorical; the term wdb is most likely used as a symbolic designation for a human Judahite leader. Greenberg says of the passage, "One of the last kings of Judah is addressed, either Jehoiachin—exiled but hopeful of restoration—or Zedekiah, the reigning incumbent" (Greenberg 1983, 350). For the purposes of the argument, however, the symbolism makes no difference; a lion is still not personal. 129 ln two of these 95 occurrences, there is no explicit Object in the text (1 Sam 2:6; Jer 23:8). In 1 Sam 2:6, however, the unspecified Object is most likely humans because of the mention of Sheol in the passage. The line reads, VjW TITO 'He takes down to Sheol and he lifts up'. This is also understood as a theological generalization. (See the discussion above.) In Jer 23:8, the Object ^NIBr ITS JHTTIN 'the seed of the house of Israel' appears with the second verb (Nnn) of a pair of verbs of accompaniment. That Object should be the understood Object of nVjJH as well. See section 1.4.2.4 for a discussion of this passage.

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Frogs are also Objects of this verb in two passages (Exod 8:1, 3). Horses are the Objects in Jer 51:27 and Nah 3:3. A lion cub is the Object in Ezek 19:3. Objects with an extended animacy also occur with this verb. They will be discussed below in Section 3.3.4. The Object role appears in four ways in the realization of this verb in the Bible. Most often it appears with TIN, the marker of the definite direct object (62 times). Other times it appears as a pronominal object suffix on the verb (33 times). It has no marker (0) 20 times and in all other cases, the Object is deleted. The realization of the Locatives is very consistent with the Source semantic role. It is realized in all 67 occurrences with the preposition JO 'from'. The Goal semantic role is more varied in its realization, however. It is realized as 11 times, as b y 10 times, as 0 six times, as a directive ¡1 four times, as b three times, and as the compound preposition btfD once. Modal semantic roles occur 35 times with the Hiphil of "h)J as a verb of leading. Reason and Manner both occur eight times. The Temporal role has seven occurrences and the Instrumental role six. The Comitative and Benefactive roles both occur three times. 130

3.3.3 Pairs and Sequences Class II verbs of leading often occur in neighboring clauses or lines with different Class I or Class II verbs of leading. The relationship between between those verbs of leading will be named a 'pair'. When the verb in question occurs first in the pair, the pair will be called an A-B pair. When it occurs in the second position, it will be called a B-A pair. There are 7 pairs that occur with the Hiphil of •^y. All seven of the pairs are A-B pairs. Five of them occur with the Hiphil of Nil, 1 3 1 one with the Hiphil of N2P (Judg 6:8), and one with the Hiphil oi "f^H (Amos 2:10). In a similar way, Class II verbs of leading often occur in neighboring clauses or lines with simple verbs of motion. When this happens, the relationship will be named a 'sequence'. When the 130The charts in the Appendices show the roles that appear with each of the occurrences of these verbs. 131Judg 2:1; 1 Sam 7:1; Jer 23:8; Ezek 37:12; 39:2.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

verb in question occurs first, the sequence will be called an A - B sequence. W h e n it occurs in the second position, it will be called a B - A sequence. T h e Hiphil of b y occurs in two sequences, both of w h i c h are B - A sequences, vAt\\Qal and then Hiphil forms. T h e first occurs with the verb "TT {Qal\ 'to g o down') in 1 S a m 6:21; the second with the verb "[^¡l {Qah 'to walk, go') in 2 S a m 6:12.

3.3.4 Glosses and Further Discussion. 1 3 2 W h e n the Hiphil of b y is functioning as a verb of leading it usually takes the gloss 'lead up'or 'bring up'. U p w a r d motion is often clearly indicated in occurrences of the Hiphil of b y used as a verb of leading. O f t e n the Locative phrases used with the verb or in the context makes the upward m o t i o n clear. A n example is in G e n 37:28: n p v - n K b y * \ DU>P»I a n n o • • ' r i p d ^ n ray*] ' nnn'îp

li2HALOT organizes the meanings of the Hiphil of simply in terms of the nature of the Objects. It has, "1. said of individuals, 2. said of the community or of a people, 3. said of animals, 4. said of something inanimate" (829—30). BDB goes a bit beyond this and takes some contexts into account. It organizes the meanings in the following way: "1. Bring up persons, 2. in personal relations, in war, 3. bring up animals, 4. cause to ascend, 5. mentally, 6. offer present, 7. exalt, 8. cause to ascend, offer" (749—50). The Madrid dictionary has two main categories: 1) 'Con el sema de elevación' (including the semantics 'go up'), which is divided into objects that are a) persons, b) animals, c) inanimate entities, and then two further subdivisions under 1), d) metaphorical uses and e) specifications for semantic fields; and 2) 'Sin sema de elevación' (without the semantics 'go up'), which is divided into a) of persons, b) of things, and c) military contexts. This chapter serves to complement these entries by indicating how this verb often serves the same function as the Class I verbs of leading.

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The Midianite traders passed by and they pulled Joseph 133 and brought him up out of the well. (Gen 37:28)

Here the upward motion from the well is clearly indicated in the Source phrase "TQiTfO134. Such motion is indicated in the Goal phrase, ¡TUn, in Josh 2:6: rrnn o r t e n

She had taken them up to the roof. (Josh 2:6)

Even though there are no telling locative phrases in four occurrences of the Hiphil of "by in 1 Samuel 28 ( w . 8, 11a, l i b , 15), upward motion is clear from the context. 1 Sam 28:8b reads:

And he [Saul] said, "Consult for me the spirit of the dead and bring up for me the one that I tell you." (1 Sam 28:8b)

Here the witch is asked to 'bring up' a dead spirit from Sheol, a place viewed as being below the earth (Stadelmann 1970,169-176). Context also helps clarify motion upwards in fishing contexts like Ezek 29:4; 32:3; and Hab 1:15. Understanding the geographical context helps in other passages. For example, in 2 Sam 2:3, the Hiphil of b y is used when David brings his men up from Ziklag (2 Sam 1:1) to Hebron (2:1). He133 The Hebrew has Joseph as the Object only after the verb iVjPl ('and they brought up'). The Object applies to this first verb as well, however, because of conjunction reduction (McCawley 1998, 59). The Hebrew grammars refer to this as 'object omission' as well (Kautzsch and Cowley 1910, 364). Also see Joiion (Joiion and Muraoka 1991, 544). 134 Jer 38:10,13; Ezek 37:12, 13; Jon 2:7; and Ps 40:3 are similar.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

bron is slightly north and to the east of Ziklag, and also has a higher altitude. Josh 7:24 is another example of how altitude can be a factor: i b - i ^ N - b r r i N i . . . p y n K y u n r r nj?»! n - b y p a y Dri* ftin irap

Joshua [and all Israel] took Achan . . . , and everything that he owned—they took them up to the Valley of Achor. (Josh 7:24)

In this passage, the prisoner is taken from a place presumably near Jericho and Ai (Josh 7:2) to a destination toward the south named the Valley of Achor. 135 If the Israelites are camped at Jericho, a city with a low altitude, the trip would have involved a movement upward in altitude. So perhaps the Hiphil of "hy is chosen here because of the 'uphill' nature of the trip. Some argue that there should be a more specialized gloss with the Hiphil of "hy as a verb of leading besides 'lead up'. For example, often the gloss 'deliver' is said to be just as appropriate as 'bring up' with the Hiphil of "hy functioning as a verb of leading. This type of specialized gloss is most often associated with the Lord's deliverance of Israel from Egypt. 136 An example passage is Exod 3:17:

135 The Valley of Achor is described as "a small and isolated plain just west of Qumran on the high escarpment above the Dead Sea" (Boling 1982, 228). 136 Fuhs argues that "this usage became such a standard feature of the language that topographic references can be omitted entirely" (2001: 82). This analysis is probably saying too much, however. Upward motion is still a factor in the semantics. The Madrid dictionary treats the verb in the Exodus contexts more accurately. It does not assign the Hiphil of 'Vj? such a specialized meaning. Instead it observes, "Expresión frecuente para designar la liberación de Egipto (Palestina está más alta)"(566).

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'innHi riittan n ^ S

ivn

DDIIN rbvx

-IBNI

' d i t h i 'inrn n n a m n b a m

And I say, "I will lead you up ['deliver you'] from the oppression of Egypt to the land of the Canaanite, Hittite, Amorite, Pereite, H i w i t e and Jebusite." (Exod 3:17)

This specialized gloss of the Hiphil of however, should be avoided. The verb itself involves upward motion and not deliverance. Only the specialized context in which the verb itself is used can suggest a deliverance implicature. Moreover, even when there is a context of deliverance, the verb itself still simply means 'lead up'. A separate verb is needed to indicate deliverance, such as in 1 Sam 10:18: V n - i u t t i n Tp'pyn • g j a b i n u r ' ¡ f w rnrr - i n i r r D • n a n TO DDIIN b^K)

onsap

Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: "I brought up Israel from Egypt and delivered you from the power of Egypt." (1 Sam 10:18)

Therefore the gloss 'lead up, bring up' is appropriate for this usage. As discussed above, sometimes the Objects of the Hiphil of have an extended animacy. In these passages, the animacy of the Object is not clear; it could be considered either animate or inanimate. This phenomenon occurs 21 times in the Bible with this verb. The most common Object with an 'extended animacy' is the ark of the covenant. An example of a passage with the ark as an Object is in 2 Sam 6:15:

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n y r m nirv r h a r n N a t y n b i n u r RR'r^Di TITI n a i u ? ^ipni

David and all of the house of Israel were bringing up the ark of the Lord with shouts of joy and the sounding of the horn. (2 Sam 6:15) In the books of Samuel, the ark and the presence and power of YHWH are strongly associated with one another. 137 Because of this close connection with YHWH, the ark has an 'extended animacy'. The ark appears as the Object of the Hiphil of "h)J 18 times. Other Objects that may have an extended animacy are healing (Jer 30:17; 33:6) 138 and a wing (Isa 40:31). 3.3.5 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb The Hiphil of in addition to leading, has the semantic feature of lexicalizing the direction of motion of the Object, namely the upward direction of motion. In this way it serves as an opposite to the Hiphil of TV (discussed in Section 7.3), which also serves as a verb of leading and lexicalizes the direction of motion, specifically, the downward direction of motion.

3.4 THE HIPHIL OF "by WHEN NOT FUNCTIONING AS A VERB OF LEADING Of the 255 occurrences of the Hiphil of ^ J ) , 135 of them do not function as verbs of leading. Most of these occurrences are in prose (119). In these 135 passages, the verb has the same argument structure (Agent—Object—Locative) as in the leading passages. In the 137See

especially the narratives of 1 Samuel 4—7. Also note 2 Sam 6:2 and the association of the ark with God's name and his dwelling place. 138This Object (rO"tN) is used of "new flesh growing on a healing wound" (HALOT, 85).

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realization of the Object case, however, there is a clear distinction: the Objects of the Hiphil of "h)J are always inanimate. A brief survey of these passages with their particular nuances or glosses is now offered. 1. Sacrifice. The Hiphil of ""by often means 'to offer a sacrifice'. This involves the 'sending up' of an offering to a deity. It occurs in this way 74 times. The Agent role is realized by the one offering the sacrifice. The Object role is usually realized as 'burnt offering' (60 times). The Locative role (specifically: Location) occurs 35 times to indicate where the sacrifice is taking place. It is realized with the preposition by 19 times, with 2 eight times, with no marking (0) four times, with MS2? four times, and with the directional ¡1 once (Lev 14:20). A typical example of this meaning occurs in 1 Kgs 3:4: tfiit, rfpnan r m n > r n D U > ¡ - ¡ i f ? r u y r u ^ r a n f ? ? :Kinn n s r o n by nb'bv) r 6 i r n i b y

The king went to Gibeon to sacrifice there because it was the greatest high place. Solomon would sacrifice 1000 burnt offerings on that altar. (1 Kgs 3:4) 2. Chewing Cud. In eight passages, the Hiphil of "hy> takes on a specialized meaning with a particular Object, ¡1~IJI 'cud'. The Agents of the verb with this meaning are animals. According to Milgrom, the Hiphil of "hy is used here to reflect "the constant regurgitation from the animal's stomachs to its mouth and back again" (Milgrom 1964, 647). The occurrences of this meaning are found only in two chapters in the Bible: Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14.139

139The

passages are Lev 11:3, 4a, 4b, 5, 6; Deut 14:6, 7a, and 7b.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

3. Overlaying. In another eight passages, the Hiphil of ""by can be glossed as a verb of overlaying, manufacturing, or decorating. 140 In these occurrences, the Agent is realized as the overlayer, manufacturer, or commissioner of the work. The Locative marks the place where the overlaying or decorating takes place while the Object is the thing added to that place. An example is in 1 Kgs 10:16— 2 Chr 9:15: rmiru>u> uinu? nnt r m t r n a n nb'bu? ^ r a n ÚWÜI :nn^n r m r r b y rbir nnj

King Solomon made 200 large shields of beaten gold. He put 600 minas of gold on the surface of each shield. (1 Kgs 10:16)

Solomon is the Agent serving as the overlayer. The Locative is realized by n n K n r m r r b y 'one shield', the thing on which the overlaying takes place. The overlaying or manufacturing material, gold, is realized as the Object. Other passages like this one are 2 Sam 1:24; 1 Kgs 10:17- 2 Chr 9:16; 2 Chr 3:5, and 14. Another occurrence in this category is Ezek 37:6: c m a n n riK nan nV^n n i n s a ^ m r r •»na IQK n s orrbu T f r y m d h a a y b v ' n r m o i r : m n n • r i p T i a n , , n , ! n n DDI ' n r m niy orrbu 'nn-ipi mrr ^ ^ p ?

140 The

Madrid dictionary (566) identifies this under A.5. "Especificaciones por campos semánticos" a) "Artesanía: recubir, chapear" (A.5. "Specifications for semantic fields a) Craftsmanship: to cover, veneer/plate").

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Thus says the Lord GOD to these bones: Behold, I am causing breath to enter you that you may live; and I will set tendons on you and I will overlay you with flesh. I will cover you with skin and I will set in you breath and you will live and know that I am the Lord. (Ezek 37:5-6)

The Lord is the Agent who is the overlayer. The bones are the realized Locative case and the Object is 'flesh'. 4. Set up lamps. In eight more passages, the Hiphil of ""by has the specialized meaning 'to set up lamps' in the context of the construction of the tabernacle during the wilderness wanderings. 'Lamps' are always the Objects with this meaning. Occurrences are limited to the Pentateuch; they are in Exod 25:37; 27:30; 30:8; 40:4, 25; Lev 24:2; and Num 8:2 and 3. 1 « 5. Other Inanimate Objects. Finally, the Hiphil of occurs 37 times with a general meaning of 'bring up' with several inanimate Objects. The most common of these Objects is 'dust'. It occurs three times. Josh 7:6 is an example: rnrr j n a ^ a b niriN v i a - b p b i n viibnu? y u n r r n i p * ] • u w h - b y n a y i b i n bisnur ^¡pri Kin nnyn'-ry

Joshua tore his garments and fell on his face to the ground before the ark of the Lord until evening—he and the elders of Israel—and they threw dust on their head. (Josh 7:6) 142

Other Objects include gates (Judg 16:3), bowstrings (Judg 16:8), silver (Judg 16:18), an uprising of smoke (Judg 20:38), waves (Ezek

141 Instead of setting up the lamps, this could also possibly refer to lighting the lamps and making the flames 'go up' (Madrid 566, BDB 749). 142 The other two occurrences are Ezek 27:30 and Lam 2:10.

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26:3), mighty waters (Isa 8:7), stench (Amos 4:10), and anger (Prov 15:1).

3 . 5 DUBIOUS PASSAGES WITH THE HIPHIL OF TY

Before moving on from the Hiphil of ^ J ) , it is important to tackle a few dubious passages that occur in the Hebrew Bible with the verb Specifically, there are several passages where it is difficult to know whether the stem of the form of v j ? is Qal or Hiphil because they have the same shape in several imperfect, jussive and narrative forms. In most passages with such forms it is clear from the argument structures discussed above which form is to be understood. For example, when there is a distinct Agent and Object present, the Hiphil is to be read. When the Object is present without an Agent, •&Qalv& to be read. Some passages, however, have the possibility of understanding the presence of deleted Objects and can be read in more ways than one. Four similar occurrences of three of them in 1 Kgs 12:32—33 and one in 2 Kgs 16:12, provide examples. The phrase r a r n r r b y b y i 'And he went up to/sacrificed on the altar' appears in the three passages in 1 Kgs 12:32—33. The phrase "l^y ^ y i , with the pronoun referring to an altar, appears in 2 Kgs 16:12. As far as the argument structure is concerned, the Qal would work because the Object—Locative argument structure is present. If a deleted Object, ¡iViy, is read, however, then the king becomes the Agent, the offering becomes the Object, and the Hiphil argument structure is present. 143 Since both argument structures are possible the rest of the context must be the determining factor. Because of the presence of the verb TOpH (root ~lUp, Hiphil: 'offer up incense/smoke [as a sacrifice]') in both 1 Kgs 12:33b and 2 Kgs 16:12, it is most likely that these two are Qal forms of the verb "hp. 1 Kgs 12:33b reads T O p r 6 n i T Q n ^ y V l 'he went up to the altar to sacrifice.' 2 Kgs 16:12-13a reads "[^OH l i p 1 ! 143 Objects are often deleted with the Hiphil of ,l7J? when it is used with the 'sacrifice' meaning. See the section above on 'Sacrifice'.

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inmQTIKl i r b j r n N T U p ^ vbj? b y i nnTQn-^y 'The king approached the altar and he went up on it and he sacrificed his burnt offering and his food offering'. Twice the combination of the verbs ^J) and Tupn join together to indicate a sacrifice. In these contexts, "hy (Qal) indicates the ascent to the altar itself, while the verb TUpH indicates the actual sacrifice. The occurrences in 1 Kgs 12:32 and 33a could bc Qal as well. They are modified by temporal clauses that would mark the time of the king's ascent, while the final clause in verse 33b would define the purpose of his ascent, the performance of the sacrifice. It is possible, however, that the occurrence in 1 Kgs 12:32 is a summary statement of what the king did. If that is the case, it could be read as a Hiphil with a deleted Object and translated 'sacrifice' (Cogan 1964, 361). This is probably the best approach. The occurrence in verse 33a, however, is almost certainly a Qal because of context (describes the timing of his ascent; Cogan 1964, 367). Another difficult passage is Isa 40:31. It reads: 3iai

rp la^rr nyv ripi

31a2 Dnu>33 -QK

far

3 i b i l y i " KVI

ran;

31b2

Nbl o V

31al The ones who wait on the Lord will renew [their] strength. 31a2 They will mount up (?) on wings like eagles. 31 b l They will run and not get tired; 31b2 They will travel and not grow weary. (Isa 40:31)

The questions in 31a2 are 1) whether to understand "fry as a Qal or a Hiphil and 2) how to understand the function of the noun 'wing'. If the Qal is read, the English translation would read, as

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

above, "They will go up/mount up on/with wings like eagles." 144 The noun would then function as the object of a headless prepositional phrase or perhaps as an accusative of means or as an accusative of destination ('onto'). If the Hiphil is read, two options are present. First, the Hiphil of "hy could mean to 'make go up' in the sense of 'to grow'. That seems to be what is reflected in the LXX's JTTepocpDTiaoncnv (05 a e x o i (root: Jtxepocpnea) 'to grow feathers, sprout wings'; Ziegler 1939, 271). The English translation would read, "They will sprout wings as eagles [do]."145 Finally, the Hiphil of "hy could have an extended animacy of the Object and be translated, "They will raise up [their] wing(s) like eagles." 146 The argument structure of the Hiphil of "hy> is preferable in this line. There is no preposition with the noun to suggest the 'with, on' translation that has to appear with the Qal reading. Instead, it is best to understand this as a Hiphil with miT ''Ip as the Agent (previous line), as the Object, D'HUttD as Manner, and the Locative role deleted. The question remains then as to which Hiphil meaning is more likely. Even though the meaning 'grow, sprout' occurs in the Qal, it is not attested elsewhere with the Hiphil of Also, 'raise up' 147 makes more sense in the context. For these reasons, therefore, it is probably best to understand this verb as the second meaning proposed above and translate it, "They will raise up [their] wing(s) like eagles." As Baltzer explains, "If a huge bird raises his wings he can fly away immediately" (Baltzer 2001, 84). This fits the context as the ones who wait on the Lord (the exiles) are about to fly away from Babylon back to Judah with the renewed strength of an eagle.

144 AV,

NRSV, NAS, NIV, RSV, Revidierte Lutherbibel. NET ('rise up as if they had eagle's wings') and NAB ('soar as with eagles' wings') are similar. 145 NJB, NJPS, and Baltzer (Baltzer 2001, 77). 146 Delitzsch understood the passage this way. He renders the line, "They cause their wings to rise up, lift high their wings, like the eagles" (Delitzsch 1890,150). 147 There is no need to document the growth of an eagle's wings.

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3 . 6 T H E HIPHIL OF "HY IN THE SEPTUAGINT

According to the Muraoka index to Hatch-Redpath, the Hiphil of is translated by the following Greek verbs: avdyCD ('bring up, raise up, lead up') 84 times; avacpepü) ('bring up, raise up, offer') 79 times; a v a ß l ß d ^ ü ) ('bring up, guide up, mount up') 27 times; a v a ß a i v ü ) ('go up, rise up, mount') nine times; 148 £§ay(D ('lead out, bring out') eight times; and various others from one to three times (Muraoka 1998, 319).

3 . 7 T H E HOPHAL OF "hy

BDB (750), HALOT (830), and the Madrid dictionary (566) record three occurrences of the Hophal of "hy-. Judg 6:28; Nah 2:8; and 2 Chr 20:34. 149 The Hophal has the same argument structure as the Hiphil (Agent-Object-Locative), but the Agent role is deleted. Judg 6:28 provides the clearest example of this. In this passage, the meaning of the verb is the passive form of the 'Sacrifice' meaning above. It reads ' ' i n n n i T Q n ^ y H ^ H 1 2 n TIKI "And the second bull had been sacrificed on the altar that had been built." The Hophal is used here by the author to portray the point of view of the participants in the narrative. They do not know who the Agent of the sacrifice was. The Hophal form allows the Agent role to be deleted and brings the reader into the perspective of the men of the city. Nah 2:8 is the second passage. It reads: Greek verb a v a P a i v c o usually translates the Qui of ,t7}J. The nine places where it is used to translate the Hiphil are interesting. In three of them (Jer 31:35; Nah 3:3; and 2 Chr 29:21), the Objects of the Hiphil are deleted in the MT. In the six other passages, Objects are clearly present. In four of them (Judg 16:3; 1 Sam 1:24; Ezek 26:3; and Jon 2:7), the clauses are reworded with many of the same elements so that they are intransitive. For example, in 1 Sam 1:24, instead of 'She brought him up with her', the LXX reads, 'She went up with him'. There are two passages (1 Sam 28:15; Ezek 24:8) where infinitives are involved and the LXX translator seems to understand the noun phrases with these infinitives as Subjective rather than Objective. 149 Fuhs also lists these passages (Fuhs 2001, 80). 148 The

too

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

8a r m ^ y n

nam

8b ••»JV Vips n u r u n rrnnoNi 8c rjnnnVbi? r i a a r i n

8a It is fixed! She is uncovered. She is taken up. 8b Her maidservants moan as with doves' voices 8c Beating upon their hearts. (Nah 2:8)

Here the city of Nineveh is being delivered over to her conquerors. The conquerers are not mentioned. The final passage, 2 Chr 20:34, shows a unique meaning of

c r n i m mri D-nnNni m u ^ a n u a u n r r n z n - i r n binizp o V a n a p - ^ y rbv'T]

r u n - p Kirr n r r a

The rest of the events of Jehoshaphat's reign, the earlier events and the later events, behold they are written in the Annals of Jehu son of Hanani which were brought up onto the Scroll of the Kings of Israel. (2 Chr 20:34)

Again, there is no Agent present. The Object is '•JJiTp NIPP HXT 'Annals of Jehu son of Hanini'. The Locative b j a i y -|flD_t7J? 'on the Scroll of the Kings of Israel' makes the meaning hard to determine. HALOT glosses the verb in this passage 'to be recorded' (830). BDB glosses it 'to be inserted' (749). Since the Scroll would match the 'Inanimate Objects' realization characteristic, it seems best to associate it with the 'Inanimate Objects' meaning above.

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3 . 8 SUMMARY

The analysis in this chapter has served to identify the occurrences of the Hiphil of where it functions like the Class I verbs of leading (a little less than half the time). Those occurrences are characterized by animate and potent Objects, or Objects that have an extended animacy. The gloss 'lead up' covers most of these occurrences. The Locative role most characteristic with this verb is the Source role, occurring in over half the passages. The Hiphil of lexicalizes the direction of motion for the Object, specifically, upward motion. In this way it is the opposite of the Hiphil of "TT. Tendencies in the realization of the argument structure of these verbs aid in the understanding of difficult passages, such as Isa 40:31.

4

CLASS II VERBS OF LEADING: KIN

4.1 THE QAL OF Kin Thc Qal of is glossed 'to enter, to come' (HALOT', 113) and, according to Preuss, occurs 1969 times in the Hebrew Bible (1975: 20). Because the verb in this stem is so common, the following analysis is limited to a representative portion of the occurrences, the 92 occurrences in 1 Samuel 1—11 and Isaiah 40—66. An example of an occurrence of t h c Q a l of is in 1 Sam 2:27a: VVK -ion'I -by-bx

an*]

A man of God came to Eli and said to him . . . (1 Sam 2:27a)

The argument structure of thc Qal of is Object—Locative. In 61 of the 92 occurrences of the Qal of in 1 Samuel 1—11 and Isaiah 40—66, the Object role is filled by an animate entity, 150 whereas in 31 of the 92 occurrences the Object is inanimate. 151 Examples of these Objects are 'days' (1 Sam 2:31), 'sign' (1 Sam 2:34), 'the ark' (e.g., 1 Sam 4:3b), 'calamity' (Isa 47:11a), and 'your light' (Isa 60:1).

i5op or a discussion of whether or not animate Objects of Qal verbs of motion serve as Agents as well, see Section 1.4.2.2. 151 For the passages examined, inanimate Objects are much more common in poetry. Of the 42 poetic passages, 21 have inanimate Objects. Of the 50 prose passages, only 11 have inanimate Objects.

103

104

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Locative roles (Source, Path, Goal) occur one or more times in 54 of the 92 passages. 152 Goal is the most common of the Locative roles with these occurrences of the Q a l of appearing 47 times. 153 The Source role occurs six times and the Path role once.

4 . 2 THE HIPHIL OF a n FUNCTIONING AS A VERB OF LEADING The Hiphil of is generally glossed 'bring, lead in, let come, introduce' (HALOT, 114). It occurs 552 times in the Bible. 154 The verb itself is not a verb of leading. In 247 of these passages (45%), however, the verb functions as a verb of leading, i.e., it shares the same lexical semantics of the Class I verbs of leading described above. This similarity is clear from the realization of the argument structure in some of the verb's occurrences: when the Hiphil of functions as a verb of leading, it has animate Objects. This section deals with the occurrences where the Hiphil of functions as a verb of leading. The following section deals with the more general occurrences of the Hiphil of Of the 247 passages in the first group, 207 of them appear in prose. An example of the Hiphil of as a verb of leading is in Gen 2:22: t n ^ r n p n p y - i u ^ ybxn-m*

crrf?« mrr •"rNrrbN n ^ i n

The Lord God made a woman from the rib that he had taken from the man. Then he brought her to the man. (Gen 2:22)

152For

an explanation of deleted Locative roles, see Section 1.4.2.4. the Goal is an enclosed space, the gloss 'enter into' is ap-

153When

propriate. 154Of the 552, 467 are in prose while 85 are in poetry.

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4.2.1 Argument Structure The argument structure of the Hiphil of functioning as a verb of leading is Agent—Object—Locative. The Agent semantic role is almost always apparent from either the inflection of the verb form itself or from the explicit presence of the subject (126 times). The Object is explicitly mentioned in all but five of these passages.155 In all five of those passages the Object is clear from the context. Locative roles (Source, Path, Goal) occur in 207 of the 257 occurrences where the Hiphil of acts as a verb of leading. The most common Locative role is Goal, occurring 192 times in these passages. Source occurs 20 times and Path occurs three times.156 The Locative semantic roles are deleted in 40 of the 247 occurrences. 4.2.2 Realization of the Argument Structure The Hiphil of functioning as a verb of leading takes Agents that are animate, potent, and personal. Examples are Jacob (Gen 46:7), Joab (2 Sam 14:23), and the Lord (Exod 13:15).157 There are only six passages where the Agents do not meet these qualifications. In three of these passages, the Agent is m~l ('wind, spirit'). All three of these passages are in the book of Ezekiel (11:1, 24; 43:5) and all three of them refer to a wind that comes from God.158 So while these Agents are not personal, they are closely associated with a person. The same is true for Ps 43:3, where the Agents are 155 Gen 2:19; 1 Sam 16:17; 27:11; 2 Kgs 17:24; 2 Chr 28:5. All of these except 2 Kgs 17:24 can be explained as object omission. See below in Section 4.2.2. 2 Kgs 17:24 can be explained as either an understood Object DJ7 ('people') or as a series of Objects with a partitive JO. ("He took some from Babylon and some from . . . " ) . The following verb in 2 Kgs 17:24 also lacks an Object ( 3 t t n ) . 156 Sometimes it appears as if there are multiple Locative roles with one occurrence of this verb (Judg 12:9; 1 Sam 5:1; Isa 66:20a; Jer 5:15; and Ezek 23:22; and 26:7). For a discussion of this phenomenon, see Section 1.4.2.3. 157 The Lord plays the role of Agent in 88 of the 257 passages. 158 The connection between the wind and God is explicit in Ezekiel 11:24.

106

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

friQ^l -pIK ('your light and your truth'). While these things are not animate in themselves, they are things that are sent from God and therefore closely associated with him. Other inanimate Agents are in Isa 43:6. In this passage God commands the "North" (flS^n) and the "South" (|0TI) to bring his children from the ends of the earth. While these locations are not animate, this is a figure of speech (metonymy) that probably refers to the groups of people who live in the North and South. In context, God is demanding that his exiled people be returned to their homeland. This command is directed towards those nations that captured them.159 The final passage with a non-personal Agent is Isa 60:9. A similar figure of speech is also used here where 'coastlands' (DV,N) and 'boats of Tarshish' (U^UHn niMN) are the Agents. The boats are also told to bring God's people 'from afar'. More likely, the command is issued to the people who operate the boats.160 There is no problem, then, with these six passages and the expected realization of the argument structure of the Hiphil of In four passages where the Hiphil of acts as a verb of leading, the Agent of the verb is unspecified. 161 The role of Object is filled by an animate and potent entity in 229 of the 247 occurrences of the Hiphil of functioning as a verb of leading. In 216 of these 229 passages, the Object is also personal. In two passages (Gen 2:19; 6:19), all sorts of animals serve as the Objects. A dove is the Object in Gen 8:9. Cattle and flocks are the Objects several times (e.g., Gen 46:32; 2 Chr 17:11b). A lion cub is the Object in Ezek 19:4, 9. Objects with an extended

159 Blenkinsopp observes, "That foreigners will be charged with the repatriation of Jews in the dispersion is a theme repeated at intervals through Isaiah (11:12; 14:1-2; 45:13-14; 49:22-23; 66:20" (Blenkinsopp 2003, 214). 160 The figures of speech in both Isa 43:6 and 60:9 could also be considered personification, which would also conform to the requirements of animate, potent, and human Agents. 161 Payne observes, "The easiest way to downplay the centrality of a controlling entity in a clause is simply not to mention it" (Payne 2006,249). The four passages with unspecified Agents are Lev 24:11; Num 6:13; Esth 6:8; and 2 Chr 22:9.

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animacy also occur with this verb. They will be discussed under the section 4.2.4 below. In five passages, the Object is deleted. 162 The Object role appears in four ways in the realization of this verb in the Bible. Most often it appears as a pronominal object suffix on the verb (105 times). It appears with the marker of the definite direct object (TIN) 97 times. 163 It has no marker (0) 42 times and in all other cases the Object is deleted. The realization of the Locative role takes many forms with the Hiphil of functioning as a verb of leading. The most common of the Locative roles, Goal, is realized in seven different ways in these passages. It is realized with 106 times, with no marking (0) 23 times, with a directive ¡1 22 times, with b 12 times, with 13 2 164 times, with 2.11 times, and with MS ? four times. Also, the Goal semantic role is often realized by multiple noun phrases. An example is in Gen 19:10: n n a n n r r ^ u f r n K i r a DTTUS! D ^ k h i n b u n ' r u o n^n-nx-j

The men reached out their hand and brought Lot to them into the house and they locked the door. (Gen 19:10)

In this passage, the noun phrases ('to them') and nrPUn ('into the house') both represent the Goal semantic role. These should not be considered, however, two distinct Goal roles with the verb. One noun phrase represents the people to whom Lot was

162 For

possible explanations of deleted Objects, see Section 1.4.2.4. includes occurrences where the marker of the definite direct object takes suffixes. 164 There does not seem to be any diachronic dimension to the distinction between the specific markings of Locatives. The preposition b, for example, is used with similar frequency in both Classical Biblical Hebrew passages (e.g., Gen 39:14; Exod 2:10) as well as Late Biblical Hebrew passages (e.g., 2 Chr 25:12; 28:8). 163 This

108

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

brought, the other represents the location. Both phrases are referring to the same place.165 In other passages the location is simply defined with more detail in multiple noun phrases in apposition. An example is in 1 Kgs 8:6=2 Chr 5:7: T I T ^ N i m p i r ^ ¡"nrr-rim rharnN D^rpn o'lnsn n n n - b x o'urjipn 'unp-^N r r s n

The priests brought the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord to its place, to the inner room of the house, to the Holy of Holies, to the place under the wings of the cherubs. (1 Kgs 8:6=2 Chr 5:7)

The multiple noun phrases here, just as above, add more specification to the realization of the one semantic role in the sentence. 166 The preposition 2 is usually not used to indicate Goal with verbs of leading in the Hebrew Bible. It is more often used to indicate Path or other modal roles with these verbs. 167 It is used here 11 times, however, to indicate the Goal of these verbs. This use has various explanations. In some of these 11 passages, the indicated Goal is specialized and usually refers to a wide, spacious area or an open area. For example, in Exod 10:4, the Goal is f n j Q ('within your borders') and in Lev 26:41 it is •rPTK ('in/among the land of your enemies'). In these passages, the preposition may serve to emphasize a large and/or open area within which the Object may move around. 168 The second explanation is that the indicated Goal serves to constrain the Object so that it is enclosed. This ex165 Other

occurrences like this one, with Goal specified as to person and location, are Num 31:12 and 2 Kgs 11:4. 166 Other passages similar to this one are Jer 15:8; 25:9; 35:2; Ezek 8:3; 11:24; 17:12; 20:24; Ps 43:3; and Song 3:4. 167 lt is also often used to indicate Location for verbs of putting, placing. 168 Ezek 27:26 (open waters) and Zech 13:9 (fire) may also be explained this way.

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planation would explain the occurrences in Exod 4:6 (twice; here Moses is told to put his hand into [the garment covering] his bosom), Jer 27:11-12 (twice; where Judah is told to put its neck into the yoke of the King of Babylon), and in Ps 66:11 (where God's people are led into a net). Finally, two passages use 2 to indicate the Goal OSU^O ('judgment'), a metaphorical destination referring to a day of judgment (Job 14:3; Eccl 11:9).169 The Source semantic role is realized with the preposition JO in all 20 passages where it occurs. The Path role is realized once with the preposition 2 (Ezek 46:19) and twice with no preposition and the noun "fTT (Ezek 40:32; 44:4).™ Modal semantic roles occur in 51 of the occurrences of the Hiphil of as a verb of leading. Reason is the most common, occuring 21 times. Manner occurs 10 times, Temporal nine times, Comitative six times, Instrumental five times, and Benefactive twice. 4.2.3 Pairs and Sequences Class I verbs of leading often occur in neighboring clauses or lines with different Class I or Class II verbs of leading. When this happens, the relationship will be named a 'pair'. When the verb in question occurs first in the pair, it will be called an A-B pair. When it occurs in the second position, it will be called a B-A pair. There are 14 pairs that occur with the Hiphil of All 14 pairs are B-A 1 pairs. Six of them occur with the Hiphil of N^ ,171 five with the Hiphil oi ^y, 1 7 2 and one each with the Hiphil of TI.2 (Ps 43:3), thc Qal of APti (Song 8:2), and Piel of bTU (2 Chr 28:15). In a similar way, Class I verbs of leading often occur in neighboring clauses or lines with simple verbs of motion. The relation169 Another

possible example related to this is Ezek 17:13 (brought 'into' a curse). The noun phrase could also be understood as Instrument, however ('by' a curse). 170 The noun "["11 ('way, road, path'), however, can function like a preposition. BDB says of "["11, "of direction, almost or quite=toward" (203). 171 Num 27:17; Deut 26:8-9; 2 Sam 5:2= 1 Chr 11:2; Jer 26:23; Ezek 20:10; 42:1. 172 Judg 2:1; 1 Sam 7:1; Jer 23:8; Ezek 37:12; 39:2.

110

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

ship b e t w e e n these verbs will b e n a m e d a 'sequence'. W h e n the v e r b in question occurs first in the pair, it will be called an A - B sequence. W h e n it occurs in the second position, it will be called a B A sequence. T h e r e is only one sequence w i t h the Hiphil of as a v e r b of leading. It is in 1 K g s 2:40. It is a B - A sequence with the verb 4.2.4 Glosses a n d F u r t h e r D i s c u s s i o n . W h e n the Hiphil of is functioning as a v e r b of leading it usually takes the glosses 'bring' or 'bring into'. 1 7 3 In m o s t of these occurrences of the v e r b there is a personal A g e n t that guides an animate (most often, personal) Object to a specifically-defined end-point (Goal). 1 7 4 T h e r e are slight variations o n this m e a n i n g in s o m e of

173BDB organizes the meanings of the Hiphil of N13 in the following way: 1) cause to come in, bring in (conduct, lead, obj. persons and animals), a) opp N2P, b) bring in wives, sons, c) bring into judgment, d) cause sun to go down, e) of harvest, f) put staves into rings, g) other phrases, 2) cause to come, bring, bring near (animate obj.), a) bring against or upon (enemies, calamity), b) bring to pass, c) bring forward, bring on the scene, d) bring in for a purpose, e) bring, procure ([BDB, 98-99). HALOT has BDB's two major categories first, but organizes the rest of the meanings independently. They have: 1) to bring, lead in, 2) to let come, to introduce, 3) to bring in as a wife, 4) to let in water, 5) to bring in the army, 6) to gather in, 7) to get, with 3 of price, 8) to put under oath, 9) to bring in judgment, 10) to take away from, 11) to bring an offering, to sacrifice, 12) to bring guilt upon, 13) to bring to pass, 14) to apply one's mind, 15) to hand over (HALOT, 114). Gesenius 17, like BDB, has two major categories. The first is 1) hineinführen ('lead in'). Subcategories under it include 'to penetrate', 'put something or someone into something', and 'invite'. The second is 2) kommen lassen, bringen ('to make come, to bring'). Subcategories under it include 'sacrifice', 'hostility', 'realization of prophecy', and 'perform speech' (Gesenius 1987, 130—31). The Madrid dictionary has four categories of meaning: 1) Sentido propio, de un móvil impulsado hacia su término, 2) El término es una persona, 3) Sentido temporal, 4) Sentido figurado (Madrid, 107). This chapter serves to complement these entries by indicating how this verb often serves the same function as the Class I verbs of leading. 174 When the Goal is an enclosed space, the gloss 'bring into', analgous to 'enter into' with the Qal, is appropriate.

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the passages. For instance, sometimes the end-point is not explicitly defined and the beginning point is defined. Sometimes the Objects are animals. On the whole, however, the above description holds true. An example is in Gen 43:24: Hpr n n a • • ' U ^ r r n ^ u ^ n j a » i

The man led the men to Joseph's house. (Gen 43:24)

This passage has the expected personal Agent ( U ^ H 'the man') and required animate Object 'the men'), along with the Goal semantic role indicating the end point (r)DT' nrPUn 'to Joseph's house'). There is no further need to divide this meaning to take into account different contexts or Locative alternations. These differences and alternations occur, but they do not make a large difference in the meaning of the verb itself. In fact, most of the occurrences of this verb can be comfortably translated into English with the gloss 'bring'. 175 There is also no need to propose a negative connotation to the verb. For example, Beal, in his Esther commentary, says of Est 1:11, "Whether out of insecurity or a desire to show off to the other men or some combination thereof, the king tells his seven eunuchs 'to bring' (lehaM)—as though an object—Vashti the queen 'into the presence o f (lipne) the king" (Linafelt and Beal 1999, 9). Beal seems to argue that the use of the verb K ^ n means that she is being treated as an inanimate object. Other contexts make it clear, however, that the Hiphil of does not carry that negative connotation when used of animate Objects. 1 Sam 19:7 is a good example:

175 One

possible exception to this is the apparent idiom in Ezek 17:13. It reads there, "He took a child of the royal family, made a covenant with him and made him swear an oath (hVn^ 1J1N NT1 lit. 'he brought him by/into a curse/oath')."

112

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

n ^ n • n r r r n - ^ n a j m i r r i b - i p i i n 2 ? j m i r r Kip*] •IUFRU? VIANIO NAB 'HVVINUH?!* TPTTIN JNJIIR NRRP

Jonathan called to David and Jonathan told him all of these things. Then Jonathan brought David to Saul and David remained in his presence as he had been formerly. (1 Sam 19:7)

In this context, Jonathan is not treating David poorly. Chapter 19 begins with a statement about how much Jonathan favors David, and verses 2—6 tell how Jonathan convinced Saul to remove David's death warrant from him. As discussed above, sometimes the Objects of the Hiphil of have an extended animacy. In these passages, the animacy of the Object is not clear; it could be considered either animate or inanimate. This phenomenon, according to the count here, occurs 18 times in the Bible with this verb. The most common Object with an 'extended animacy' is the ark of the covenant. An example is in 2 Sam 6:17: b n x n f i n s i o i p o s in'a w i n rnrr p~ust-n^ t h iVnoj

They brought the ark of the Lord and they placed it in its place inside the tent that David had pitched for it. (2 Sam 6:17).

In the books of Samuel, the ark and the presence and power of YHWH were strongly associated with one another.176 Because of this close connection with YHWH, the ark has an 'extended animacy'. The ark appears as the Object of the Hiphil of 11 times.

176 See especially the narratives of 1 Samuel 4*7. Also note 2 Sam 6:2 and the association of the ark with God's name and his dwelling place.

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Personal body parts can also be considered to have an 'extended animacy' since they are parts of an animate being. Objects such as 'hand' (Exod 4:6), 'neck' (Jer 27:11-12; Neh 3:5), 'heart' (Ps 90:12; Prov 23:12a), and 'ears' (Prov 23:12b) fit into this category. 177 4.2.5 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb The Hiphil of in addition to functioning as a verb of leading, also has the Goal role as a part of the lexical semantics of the verb. The Goal role appears 192 times in passages where this verb serves as a verb of leading. Even in passages where no Locative is indicated, a Goal is implied because of the lexical nature of the verb. For example, in Gen 47:7 it reads: V2H I p y JIN ^DV KTl 'And Joseph brought in Jacob his father'. Even though there is no Locative indicated, because of the lexical semantics of the Hiphil of we know that he is being brought into somewhere. In Gen 47:7, the Goal is clear from the clause that follows: ny~l2 v s b i m n j m then is 'And he stood him up before Pharaoh'. The Hiphil of opposite to the Hiphil of N2P, which lexicalizes the Source role. It is also related to the Hiphil of 21U?, which lexicalizes a Goal that the Object had been position at in some point in the past. 4 . 3 THE HIPHIL OF NIL WHEN NOT FUNCTIONING AS A

VERB OF LEADING

Of the 552 occurrences of the Hiphil of 305 of them are not used as verbs of leading. Most of these occurrences are in prose (260). In these 305 passages, the verb has the same argument structure (Agent—Object—Locative) as in the other 247 passages. In the realization of the Object case, however, there is a clear distinction. The Objects of the Hiphil of in these passages are always inanimate. A brief survey of the nuances and glosses of these passages are now offered.

177This Objects can also be considered coreferrential with the Agent when they are a part of the Agent's own body.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

1. Bring (Inanimate Objects). As discussed above, the basic meaning of the Hiphil of is 'to bring'. When the Objects are inanimate, however, this verb is not functioning as a verb of leading. In these passages there is a personal Agent that brings an inanimate Object to a specifically-defined end point (Goal). There are slight variations on this meaning in some of the passages. For instance, sometimes the end point is not explicitly defined and the beginning point is defined. On the whole, however, the above statement covers most of the usages with this meaning. There are 178 occurrences of the Hiphil of with this meaning. An example is in 2 Kgs 5:6: ibab

^isnu^ ^ o - b x n a o n Nrri

He (Naaman) brought the letter to the king of Israel that said . . . (2 Kgs 5:6)

Here an inanimate Object (~l2Dn 'the letter') is present in this passage, along with the expected Goal semantic role and the animate Agent. 2. Bring (Figurative). There is another nuance that shares the same argument-structure-realization characteristics as the above passages, but is distinct because the Objects in these passages are figurative. In these passages, Objects are not physical, tangible things; rather they are figurative expressions or expressions of feeling or emotional conditions. Often the gloss 'cause to come about, bring about" is more appropriate than simply 'bring'. This meaning occurs 64 times with the Hiphil of An example is in Gen 20:9: JTUttrriQ ib I D ^ I Drnrmb ^ O ' I N jqjp»! n V n ns*un ^ r ^ n / r ^ y i "hv n ^ n n - 1 ? f ? •»n^on-rim

Abimelech summoned Abraham and said to him, "What have you done to us? How have I sinned against you that you

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would bring this great sin upon me and upon my kingdom?" (Gen 20:9)

The Object here, ¡INOn 'sin', is figurative; another way to express this would be: "that you caused me and my kingdom to be in peril for wrongdoing." The expression 'bring sin', however, strongly indicates the Agentive role of Abraham in the near-disaster suffered by Abimelech. The most common of the figurative Objects used in the Bible is ny~l ('calamity, disaster, evil'). It occurs with the Hiphil of 35 times in the Hebrew Bible, 17 of which are in the book of Jeremiah. An example is i n j e r 35:17: « ' n o r u n binizp ' n b x niaiv

' n b x rnrr -lairniD p 1 ?

nxnn-ba ni* d ^ i t 'nurrbip b a i r m r r b a

Therefore thus says the Lord, the God of hosts, the God of Israel: "Behold I am bringing on 178 Judah and on all the inhabitants of Jerusalem all of the disaster that I spoke against them." (Jer 35:17)

Other figurative Objects used with this verb are the contents of speech, i.e., a promise (Gen 18:19), 'guilt' (Gen 26:10), 'curse' (Gen 27:12), 'plague' (Exod 11:1), 'sword of vengeance' (Lev 26:25), 'year of their punishment' (Jer 48:44), 'fear' (Jer 49:5), and 'day' (Lam 1:21).179 3. Bring (Cultic Usages). Several occurrences of the Hiphil of occur in cultic contexts where sacrifices are being made. Preuss 178 This

is probably a case of Vn for V}?. many of these figurative Objects ('curse', 'year', and 'day'), it is a matter of 'bringing about' a situation or event. 179 For

116

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

calls this usage of the verb "a fixed term in cult terminology . . . used to denote the bringing of sacrifices, firstfruits, etc. by men in general, and the bringing of sacrifices by priests" (Preuss 1975, 25). This meaning occurs 63 times in the Bible and most of the occurrences (40) are in the book of Leviticus. In these passages, the argument structure is the expected Agent—Object—Locative and the Objects are generally inanimate. There is some confusion, however, in some passages, whether or not the Object being 'brought' for sacrifice is still alive and therefore animate. In Lev 4:4, e.g., it appears that the Object is alive: TfODi rnrr ^ s b "ririn b n x n n s r b N -larrriN N-nni rnrr v s b l a r r r ^ o n u n n a n u w i T ^ y "¡TTIK

Then he (the priest, v.3) must bring the bull to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting before the Lord and he must lay his hand on the head of the bull and slaughter the bull before the Lord. (Lev 4:4)

Since the priest has to slaughter the bull after he brings it to the tent, it is clear here that he is guiding the bull to the Tent of Meeting. It is possible, then, to consider instances of the Hiphil of like the one in Lev 4:4 as a verb of leading. Very few passages with the 'cultic' Hiphil of are this clear and detailed (e.g., Lev 4:14— 16). The more common pattern is the one found in Lev 19:21—22: • u t e Vist t p i n bnfc n n a b x rnrr 2 ? i n m p r r ^ y rnrr ^

Duten V i s a j n a n

anm riv

Then he (a guilty man, v.20) must bring his guilt offering to the Lord to the Tent of Meeting, a ram for the guilt offering. Then the priest will make atonement for him using the ram for the

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guilt offering before the Lord on account of his sin that he committed. (Lev 19:21-22)

In this passage, the animacy of the ram is not clear, i.e., it is not clear whether the worshipper has slaughtered the ram and then the priest makes atonement with the blood, or if the priest performs both the slaughtering and the ceremony with the blood. Because many passages like Lev 19:21—22 (e.g., Lev 5:18, 25; 12:6) are not clear, because the animals will soon be dead even if they are 'brought' alive, and because many of the Objects in these cultic passages are clearly inanimate, 180 it is best to classify all of the cultic passages in the same way and to call the Objects inanimate. While it may be true that in some cases the animals 'brought' for sacrifice are living, they will not be alive for long and they are a part of a specialized cultic context.

4 . 4 T H E HIPHIL OF NIL IN THE SEPTUAGINT

According to Muraoka, 54 different Greek verbs are used to translate the Hiphil of in the Septuagint (Muraoka 1998, 233). Of these 54, however, only six are used more than ten times. The Greek verb most commonly used to translate the Hiphil of is cpep(0 ('to carry, bring'). It is used about 140 times. Four other verbs are used about 70 times each: ay(0 ('to bring, lead'), eioayco ('to bring in, lead into'), eiacpepO) ('to carry in, bring in'), and ¿Jtayco ('to bring upon). The verb JtpOOCpepO) ('to bring to, offer') translates the Hiphil of about 20 times.

4 . 5 T H E HOPHAL OF A N

There are 26 occurrences of the Hophal of in the Hebrew Bible. The Hophal has the same argument structure as the Hiphil (Agent—Object—Locative), but the Agent role is deleted. Of those 180 E.g.,

10:38).

'bread' (Lev 23:17), 'coarse meal, grain, fruit, wine, oil' (Neh

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26 occurrences, 10 times the Hophal of is realized with an animate Object and functions as a verb of leading. An example is in Gen 43:18a: nov r r a m i n ^ D ^ a n IKT*]

The men were afraid because they were brought to the house of Joseph. (Gen 43:18a)

In this passage, the men (•'•UfaNn) serve as Object, 'house of Joseph' (lOV IT!) serves as the Locative Goal, and the Agent, obviously, servants of Joseph, are not mentioned. While the Object and the Locative are important to the narrative, the Agent is not, and therefore the Hophal form is appropriate here.

4 . 6 D I F F I C U L T PASSAGES

Several passages with the Hiphil and Hophal of as a verb of leading are difficult. In the following paragraphs a few will be analyzed to see if this study can contribute to solving these textcritical problems. It has been proposed for at least three passages with the Hiphil of as a verb of leading that the Hiphil form should be emended to aQalform. The first of these is Num 6:13:

nna-bx ink

i n n •»¡r n ^ n d ì ^ - v n n r n i n n a n "TIRIN BNÀ

Now this is the rule concerning the Nazirite: On the day that his consecration is fulfilled, he will be brought [lit.: "he will bring him"] to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting. (Num 6:13)

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BHS suggests that the form (Hiphil Imperfect 3ms) should be emended either to the Qal form NIT (with the phrase HIN deleted) or it should be emended to l ^ 1 ! 1 (.Hiphil 3mp). These emendations, however, are not necessary. While there is no candidate in the text to play the role of Agent, as was observed above, sometimes the Hiphil of as a verb of leading can have an unspecified subject. Commenting on this occurrence, Levine argues that it has a passive force and says, "This is often the sense of third-person verbal forms, when no subject is specified" (Levine 1993, 224).181 For this reason, there is no need to emend the form to thc Qal stem.182 The second of these three passages is Deut 33:7: 7ai - i q ^ I r m r r V n a n 7a2 r m r r Vip m r r y n u ? 7a3 u i s r n r i iray-^jsn

7bl ib 21 VT 7b2 : r r n n r n s m i * v )

7al Now this is for Judah. He said, 7a2 "Hear, O Lord, the voice of Judah. 7a3 You must bring him to his people 7b 1 And his hands must struggle for him 7b2 And you must be a help against his foes." (Deut 33:7)

181 See

also Gesenius' discussion of the 3rd person masculine singular as an indefinite personal subject (Kautzsch and Cowley 1910, 460). 182 Another possibility, put forth by Gray, is that the sentence is interrupted by an interpolation and should read "In the day when the days of his Nazariteship are complete, he shall bring to the door of the Tent of Meeting a yearling he-lamb without blemish for a burnt offering . . ." (Gray 1903, 67). Even if this is the case, the form still does not need to be emended.

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HALOT (114) argues that instead of the Hiphil form in the MT of verse 7a3, the form JN"Qn {Qal Imperfect 2ms with an energic nun) should be read.183 The argument structure of both the Qal and the Hiphil would be acceptable for this occurrence of the verb. If the Qal is read, the Object is ' y o u ' (referring to miT) and the Locative is 'to his people' ('his' referring to Judah). If the Hiphil is read, the Object is 'him' (Judah) and the Locative is 'his people' ('his' again referring to Judah) and the Agent is m n \ So this study is not able to eliminate either of these possibilities on the basis of the realization of the argument structure of the verb. Other factors must be considered to solve this problem. Because it appears to be the more difficult reading, the MT and the Hiphil form is retained here.184 The final passage to be discussed where a Qal is proposed to replace the Hiphil of NU in the MT is Mic 1:15: i5ai

ns* u r v n

i5a2 n u h n m u r i i5bi185^iT a y r y ' T P 15b2 r b i n u r T i n ?

15al Again I will bring the dispossesses to you, 15a2 Residents of Mareshah. 183 The

dictionary bases this suggestion on an article by Cross and Freedman (Cross and Freedman 1948, 203) and on the reading of the LXX, e'ioé^Ooiç a v 'may you come' (Wevers 1977, 364). But in this case, it would be better to read NJ N13n with the particle NJ instead of the socalled 'energic'. 184 This is the verdict for most English translations (e.g., AV, NRSV, NJPS, NJB), the Redivierte Lutherbibel, the French Jerusalem Bible and the Traduction Oecuménique de la Bible, along with Christensen (2002, 841), Driver (1902, 396), and O'Connor (1980, 210). 185 Note that in the two different forms of N13, there are two different spellings. The first (read as a Hiphil in the MT) is spelled without the 'alep of the root while the second form (read as a Qal) is spelled with the 'alep.

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15bl To Adullam will come 15b2 the glory of Israel. (Mic 1:15) HALOT (114) and BHS suggest reading a 3ms Qal Imperfect form in line 15al instead of the Hiphil l c s Imperfect in the MT. Again, both stems are viable options as far as the argument structure and its realization are concerned. For the Qal, the 'dispossesor' would be the Object and 'to you' would be the Locative ('I will come again, the dispossesor, to you'). For the Hiphil, T (presumably m m ) would be the Agent, the 'dispossessor' the Object, and 'to you' the Locative. Again, then, other factors must decide the problem. In this passage, the ancient witnesses agree with the MT. Also, this is the only 1 cs verbal form in the lament in Mic 1:10—16 (Andersen and Freedman 1964,235—36), perhaps making it the more difficult reading. For these reasons, the MT reading the Hiphil should be retained. There is at least one passage where there is reason to believe that a Qal form should be emended to a Hiphil. It is 1 Sam 31:12: biNU) r n r r i N inip*] n b ^ r r b D o V i V n wx-bi • n a i £ n u n nu^T w r r i py r r a n m n n m

imp*] r r a msn

Then every valiant man got up and travelled all night and took Saul's corpse and the corpses of his sons from the wall of Beth Shan and they came to Jabesh and they burned them there. (1 Sam 31:12) For the form in the MT, "IK!1! {Qal Narrative 3mp), the LXX reads cpeponaiv (root cpepO): 'to carry'), which would reflect a Hiphil form in the Hebrew. The argument structure for the Qal form is clearly present in the clause with the Object present in the 3mp form of the verb ('they', that is the men from earlier in the verse) and the Locative phrase 'to Jabesh'. If a Hiphil is read, the Agent would be present in the 3mp form of the verb and the Locative

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would be present in 'to Jabesh'; the Object, however, would be deleted. From the context, it would be clear, however, that the corpses of the fallen king and his sons are the understood Objects. Since a pattern has been described in which Objects can be deleted with verbs of leading, the argument structure and its realization again are unable to eliminate any of the above options. It is most likely here, however, that the LXX is correcting the MT. The Qal form is a more difficult reading in the context since the men were in one place with the bodies (Beth Shan) and had to carry those bodies to another place (Jabesh) to burn them. The Hiphil of is also often used in collocation with Tlpb {Qal. 'to take7). Since the Qal is the more difficult but not impossible reading, the MT should be retained. One final text to consider involves the Hophal of The text is in Eccl 8:10. It reads: o V r r un-rp Dipram m i a m p o w n •»¡Tin p n i

T h e n I saw the wicked buried; they would come and f r o m the holy place they would go. (Eccl 8:10)

The LXX, however, for 1K21 • 1 ~Qp ('buried, they would come') translates £15 Tacpong eiaaxSevtag 'to the tombs they are brought' (Swete 1895,11:497). This probably reflects a Hebrew text with D ^ l l Q Dniip bit {Hophal mp participle of KU). HALOT (114; sic! Qoh 10:8) and' Scott (1964, 242-43) are among those who favor this reading. Such a Hebrew text would be possible in light of what has been observed about the Hophal of NH as a verb of leading. The text has an animate Object 'the wicked') and a Locative (• 1 ~Qp 'to the tombs') with the Agent role deleted. This study can then confirm that the Hebrew text behind the LXX translation is a viable option. Beyond this, however, other factors must be considered in reconstructing the original text. For instance, the more difficult reading would be the MT since the syntax of U?Hp DlpQQl liOl ('they would come and from the holy place and they would go') is a bit odd (converted perfect followed by an imperfect). It is possible, however, that the reading in the MT is so difficult that it is peculiar (Seow 1997, 284). For this reason,

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the MT should be emended and the HophaI of should be read here. The passage would then talk about how the wicked receive an honorable burial while the righteous are left out in the street. According to Kriiger, the context and message of Qohelet— specifically, how the wicked are not punished in this life—would favor this reading (Kriiger 2004, 159). So since the Hebrew text behind the LXX translation is viable and makes more sense contextually and syntactically, the MT should be emended. 186 4 . 7 SUMMARY

The analysis in this chapter has served to identify the occurrences of the Hiphil of where it functions like the Class I verbs of leading (a litde more than half the time). Those occurrences are characterized by animate and potent Objects, or Objects that have an extended animacy. The gloss 'bring' covers most of these occurrences. The Locative role most characteristic of this verb is the Goal role, occurring in well over half of the passages. Because of the large number of occurrences of the Goal role, it is likely that Goal is lexicalized as a part of the semantic features of this verb. Tendencies in the realization of the argument structure of these verbs aid in the understanding of difficult passages, such as Num 16:3; Mic 1:15; and E s t h l : l l .

186 »j^g j y ^ a j s o j^g s u pport from the ancient versions, however. See Murphy for more details (Murphy 1992, 79-81). See Seow (1997: 284) for an explanation of how the MT came about. Another reading not attested in the ancient witnesses is sometimes proposed: 1N31 D m p ('they were approaching and coming'). See NAB, NEB, and NET. With no support from the ancient witnesses, however, this is a less attractive option.

5

CLASS II VERBS OF LEADING: KIT

5 . 1 T H E QALOV KJT

The Qal of N^1 is glossed 'come out, go out, set out, move away, go forth' and occurs about 750 times in the Hebrew Bible (HALOT, 425). Because the verb in this stem is so common, the following analysis is limited to a representative portion, the 77 occurrences in 1 Samuel and Isaiah.187 An example of an occurrence of the Qal of K2T is in 1 Sam 7:11: • « n D ^ U ^ T I K i £ n - n n a ^ n - j o b i n u r ' u b x IKSTI 1 3 n r f ? nrmp--ry

The men of Israel went out from Mizpah and pursued the Philistines; they struck them down as far as the land below Beth Kar. (1 Sam 7:11)

The argument structure of the Qal of N^1 is Object—Locative. In 63 of the 77 occurrences of the Qal of N^1 in 1 Samuel and Isaiah, the Object role is filled by an animate entity. In 14 of the 77 occurrences of the Qal of K^1 examined, however, the Object is

187 Of

these occurrences, 27 are in poetry; 50 are in prose.

125

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

inanimate. 188 Examples of these Objects are 'wine' (1 Sam 25:37) and 'law' (Isa51:4). Locative roles (Source, Path, Goal) occur one or more times in 43 of the 77 passages. 189 Source is the most common of the Locative roles with these occurrences of the Q a l of N2P, appearing 28 times. The Goal semantic role also occurs 15 times. Path does not occur in any of these 77 occurrences. 5 . 2 T H E HIPHIL OF N2T AS A VERB OF LEADING

The Hiphil of K^1 is generally glossed 'cause to go or come out, bring out, lead out' (BDB, 424). It occurs 281 times in the Bible. 190 The verb itself is not a verb of leading. In 184 of these passages (65%), however, the verb functions as a verb of leading, i.e., it shares the same lexical semantics of the Class I verbs of leading described above. This is clear from the realization of the argument structure in some of the verb's occurrences: when the Hiphil of K^1 functions as a verb of leading, it has animate Objects. This section deals with the occurrences where the Hiphil of K^1 functions as a verb of leading. The following section deals with the more general occurrences of the Hiphil of Of the 184 passages in the first group, 156 of them appear in prose, while 28 appear in poetry. An example of the Hiphil of N^1 as a verb of leading is in Deut 21:18— 19: t i n Vlps uau> ursst r n i m - n i o

with

TIN in IU72JVI a n ^ N y a u r KVI in'a n c n iraa Vlpni i o p o - i y w ' ^ 1 "¡Tp ' i p r ^ "irix w s i r n iraK]

188 Inanimate Objects only occur in two of the 50 prose occurrences in 1 Samuel and Isaiah. On the other hand, 12 of the 27 poetic occurrences have inanimate Objects. 189 For an explanation of deleted Locative roles, see Section 1.4.2.4. 190 Of the 281 occurrences, 220 are in prose, while 61 are in what BHS marks as poetry.

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If a man has a stubborn and rebellious son who does not obey his father and mother, and if they discipline him and he does not listen to them, his father and mother must take hold of him and lead him out to the elders of his city, to the gate of his place. (Deut 21:18-19)

5.2.1 Argument Structure The argument structure of the Hiphil of N^1 functioning as a verb of leading is Agent—Object—Locative. The Agent semantic role is almost always apparent from either the inflection of the verb form itself or from the explicit presence of the subject (105 times). The Object is explicitly mentioned in all but six of these passages.191 Locative roles (Source, Path, Goal) occur in 144 of the 184 occurrences where the Hiphil of K^1 acts as a verb of leading. The most common Locative role is Source, occurring 112 times in these passages. Goal occurs 32 times and Path three times. Goal and Source occur together three times192 while Goal and Path occur together once (Ezek 42:1). The Locative semantic roles are deleted in 40 of the 184 occurrences. 5.2.2 Realization of the Argument Structure The Hiphil of N^1 functioning as a verb of leading takes Agents that are animate, potent, and personal. There are no exceptions. The Lord plays the role of Agent most frequendy, in 106 of the 184 passages. In nine passages with the Hiphil of N^1 as a verb of leading, the Agent of the verb is unspecified. In these passages, there are no candidates for the Agent role in the surrounding context in which the verb occurs. An example is in Gen 38:24:

191 Gen 19:12; Judg 19:25; 2 Sam 5:2=1 Chr 11:2; 1 Kgs 10:29=2 Chr 1:17b. For a further discussion of missing elements in the realization of the argument structure with verbs of leading, see Section 1.4.2.4. 192 Josh 10:23 (Goal, then Source); Ezek 20:6 (Source, then Goal); 2 Chr 9:28 (Source, then Goal, then Source again). It is also possible to understand iichfvb as Benefactive here instead of Goal.

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ï f r f o i n n n r m i b a b rmrrV "T^I n ^ i n u>'bu>p3 •»n^i m ^ n i n w s n n r m r r I Q ^ I Drmf? r n n nan DXI

After three months it was told to Judah, "Tamar, your daughter-in-law, has prostituted herself and now she is pregnant because of her prostitution." Judah said, "Bring her out and let her be burned." (Gen 38:24)

In this passage, the Agents are unspecified since there are no explicit potential Agents available in the context. In this passage (and the other eight), the identity of the Agent is not important. The Agents could be friends or family members of Judah. They could be people of the city. The point of the statement is not who would bring Tamar out to be burned but the fact that she must be brought out and burned. 193 The role of Object is usually filled by an animate and potent entity. That is the case in 182 of the 184 occurrences of the Hiphil of N^1 functioning as a verb of leading. In 177 of those 182 passages, the Object is also personal. In two passages, horses are Objects (2 Chr 1:17a; 9:28). All sorts of animals are the Objects in Gen 8:17. In Exod 8:14 gnats are Objects, and 'my [God's] flock' is the Object in Ezek 34:13.194 Objects with an extended animacy also occur with this verb. They will be discussed in Section 5.2.4 below. In six passages, the Object is deleted.195

193 Payne observes, "The easist way to downplay the centrality of a controlling entity in a clause is simply not to mention it" (Payne 2006, 249) .The eight other passages with unspecified Agents are Deut 22:21; Josh 10:22, 23, 24; 2 Sam 13:9a; 1 Kgs 21:10; Jer 8:1; and 2 Chr 9:28. 194 It could be argued, however, that Ezek 34:13 has a human Object since 'JNS ('my flock') is an extended metaphor for God's people (Allen 1990, 160). 195 For a discussion of the possible explanations of deleted Objects, see Section 1.4.2.4.

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The Object role appears in four ways in the realization of this verb in the Bible. Most often it appears with the marker of the definite direct object (JIN) (93 times). It also appears as a pronominal object suffix on the verb (59 times). It has no marker (0) 28 times, and in all other cases the Object is deleted. The realization of the Locative role takes many forms with the Hiphil of K^1 as a verb of leading. The most common Locative role in these passages, Source, is remarkably consistent. It is realized with the preposition JO in all 112 passages. Often the Source semantic role is realized by multiple prepositional phrases. An example is in Exod 13:14: v b a rnipKi m r n n i m b - i m ^ n • n n y n a p •nsrap mrr uN^in t

priis

When your son asks you in the future, "What is this?", you should respond to him, "With strength of hand the Lord brought us out from Egypt, out from a house of slaves." (Exod 13:14)

In this passage, the prepositional phrases ('from Egypt') and nHO ('from a house of slaves') both represent the Source semantic role. This should not be considered, however, two distinct Source roles with the verb. The noun phrases are appositional to one another, one representing the geographical location of the Source, the other giving a description of it. The Goal semantic role is realized in four different ways in these passages. It is realized as 28 times, as 7 eight times, as 0 twice, and as a directive ¡1 twice. Like the Source role with this verb, the Goal role is also often realized by multiple noun phrases. An example is in 2 Kgs 11:15: i Q ^ i V n n n p a n i ^ p n n u r n a iron y r i r r isn r h - r u ^ n s p - b x n n x w a i n OJTVN

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Jehoiada the priest commanded the captains of the units of hundreds, the ones in charge of the army, and he said to them, "Bring her [Athaliah] out to the outside of the house to the foot soldiers." (2 Kgs 11:15)

Here the noun phrases ITHO'-bit ('to the outside of the house') and r m i y b ('to the foot soldiers') both represent the Goal semantic role. This should not be considered, however, two distinct Goal roles with the verb. The noun phrases are appositional to one another, the former representing the location where she was to be brought and the latter indicating more specifically the people to whom she was to be brought. The Path semantic role is realized without a preposition in all three occurrences in these passages. The noun fTT ('way, road'), however, occurs in all three passages.196 Modal semantic roles occur in 52 of the occurrences where the Hiphil of N^1 acts as a verb of leading. Instrument is the most common, occurring 21 times. Reason occurs 18 times, Manner 10 times, Temporal five times, Benefactive twice, and Comitative once. 5.2.3 Pairs and Sequences Class II verbs of leading often occur in neighboring clauses or lines with different Class I or Class II verbs of leading. When this happens, the relationship will be named a 'pair'. When the verb in question occurs first in the pair, it will be called an A-B pair. When it occurs in the second position, it will be called a B-A pair. There are seven pairs that occur with the Hiphil of K^1 as a verb of leading. Six of them are A-B pairs and all six of these occur with the

196 The passages are Ezek 42:1, 15; and 47:2. The word "[TT is understood to mean 'through' (Path) in these passages. It is also possible to understand "[TT as 'toward' (Goal).

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Hiphil of N"Q.197 T h e o n e B - A pairs occurs in J u d g 6:8 (with the Hiphil o f h y ) . ™ I n a similar w a y , Class II v e r b s of leading o f t e n occurs in n e i g h b o r i n g clauses or lines w i t h simple v e r b s of m o t i o n . T h e relationship b e t w e e n these t w o v e r b s will b e n a m e d a 'sequence'. W h e n the v e r b in question occurs first in the pair, it will b e called an A - B sequence. W h e n it occurs in the s e c o n d position, it will b e called a B - A sequence. T h e r e is only o n e s e q u e n c e w i t h the Hiphil of N^ 1 as a v e r b of leading. It is in J o s h 24:6. It is an A - B s e q u e n c e w i t h the Qal of K12. 5.2.4 G l o s s e s a n d F u r t h e r D i s c u s s i o n W h e n the Hiphil of N^ 1 is f u n c t i o n i n g as a v e r b of leading it is usually g l o s s e d 'lead out' or 'bring out'. 1 9 9 W i t h this u s a g e there is a

197 Num 27:17; Deut 26:8-9; 2 Sam 5:2=1 Chr 11:2; Jer 26:23; Ezek 20:10; 42:1. 198 Another possible but unlikely pair is in Ps 31:5 (with the Viel of 199BDB

organizes the verb's meanings in the following way: 1. cause to go or come out, bring out, lead out (with subcategories for different objects and prepositional phrases); 2. figurative, persons as objects; 3. bring out animals; 4; inanimate objects (with subcategories for different objects and prepositional phrases); 5. figurative with the Lord as subject (BDB, 424-25). HALOT organizes the meanings this way: 1. to cause to go out, lead out a) people, b) animals and other things; 2. to produce; 3. miscellaneous ( H A L O T , 426-27). DCH has the meanings this way: it lists a string of glosses with verse references: take out, bring out, produce, lead out, cause to appear, exact money, expel, give in marriage, and perhaps cast into weapon. Then the entry lists the subjects, objects, prepositions, collocations, and antonyms of the verb without further distinguishing meanings (DCH, 261-64). The Madrid Dictionary glosses the verb 'sacar ('to take out'), soltar ('loosen, let go'), dejar/hacer salir ('let/make go out'), retirar ('withdraw, remove')." Five categories of these meanings then follow: 1. of an enclosed or limited space, or a space understood as such; 2. source (birth, language, military); 3. exit of a person or group; 4. individual situations (sprouting of grass, promotion of justice, etc.); 5. metaphorical usages (Madrid, 328). Gesenius has two major categories of meaning: 1. herausführen ('lead out, bring out') and 2. herausbringen ('bring out'), hinaustragen ('carry out, spread out'). There are many subcategories under

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

personal Agent that guides an animate (most often, personal) Object either from a specifically-defined point of origin (Source; 112 times) or to a specifically-defined end point (Goal; 32 times). An example of this meaning is in Gen 15:5: ~i2Di n n w n

- i n j n nsnnn i n k KSVI • n f c ISD2? ^ d i j t d k DnDian

Then he [the Lord] led him [Abram] outside and he said, "Look up at the sky and count the stars, if you can count them." (Gen 15:5)

This passage has the expected personal Agent (the Lord) and the required animate Object (Abram). It also has the Goal semantic role indicating the end point (¡I^Hin- 'outside') that is characteristic of this particular meaning with the Hiphil of N^1 as a verb of leading. The Hiphil of K^1 with this usage often occurs in contexts where some scholars argue for a gloss of 'deliver'. 200 This happens most often in association with the Lord's leading out or deliverance of Israel from Egypt. 201 An example is in Deut 5:6:

each of these meanings (Gesenius 2:482—83). This chapter serves to commplement these entries by indicating how this verb often serves the same function as the Class I verbs of leading. 200 Preuss sometimes glosses the Hiphil of N2P as 'deliver' (1990: 236). 201 There are at least 86 occurrences of the Hiphil of N2P associated with the exodus from Egypt. (Preuss argues for 91.) Preuss states, "We find in the use of N2P an implication that the exodus is an act of deliverance on the part of Yahweh, especially since the hiphil (which appears frequently, e.g., in divine discourse) more than the qal emphasizes Yahweh's initiative" (Preuss 1990, 238).

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rrsp onsp

^nxrln

^pribN rnrr o i l *

I am the Lord your God who led you out [delivered you] from the land of Egypt, from a house of slaves. (Deut 5:6)

This 'deliver' gloss, however, is not necessary. It is not a separate meaning of the verb; it is simply the usual meaning of the verb 'lead out, bring out' in a particular context. As discussed above, sometimes the Objects of the Hiphil of K^1 have an extended animacy. In these passages, the animacy of the Object is not clear; it could be considered either animate or inanimate. This phenomenon occurs twice in the Bible with this verb. The Object is 'hand' and it appears in Exod 4:6 and 7. Hands are considered to have an extended animacy since they are parts of an animate personal being.202 5.2.5 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb The Hiphil of in addition to functioning as a verb of leading, also has the Source role as a part of the lexical semantics of the verb. The Source role appears 112 times in passages where this verb serves as a verb of leading. Even in passages where no Locative is indicated, a Source is implied because of the lexical nature of the verb. For example, Exod 32:12a reads: •nfc ^nn2? DNrain n x m nQ-mn

nn^p bm

rupb

•n'W? 1 ) n n n |

202 This could also be viewed as an Object that is coreferrential to the Agent, since it is part of the Agent's own body.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

"Why should the Egyptians say, 'For evil he brought them out to kill them in the mountains and to destroy them from the face of the earth'?" (Exod 32:12a)

Even though no Locative is indicated in the clause, it is implied that the Israelites were brought out of somewhere. The context makes it clear that the Source is Egypt. The Hiphil of N^1 then is opposite to the Hiphil of which lexicalizes the Goal role. 5 . 3 T H E HIPHIL OF N2T WHEN NOT FUNCTIONING AS A VERB OF LEADING

Of the 281 occurrences of the Hiphil of 97 of them do not function as verbs of leading. Two-thirds of these occurrence are in prose (64). In these 97 passages, the verb still has the same argument structure (Agent—Object—Locative) as in the other 184 passages. In the realization of the Object case, however, there is a clear distinction. The Objects of the Hiphil of N^1 in these passages are always inanimate. A brief survey of these passages with their particular nuances or glosses is now offered. 1. Bring out (Inanimate Objects). As discussed above, the basic meaning of the Hiphil of N^1 is 'to lead out' or 'to bring out'. Many times, however, there is not an animate Object with the verb. In these passages there is a personal Agent that conveys an inanimate Object either from a specifically-defined point of origin (Source; 23 times) or to a specifically-defined end point (Goal; 23 times). There are 67 such occurrences of the Hiphil of An example is in 2 Kgs 24:13: •^ran 3T3 n r a i K ] rnrr ITS n r a i K - ^ r r i K a w n

a m

He [the king of Babylon] brought out from there all of the treasures of the house of the Lord and the treasures of the king's palace. (2 Kgs 24:13)

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Here the inanimate Object (the treasures) is present in this passage, along with one of the expected Locative roles and the animate Agent. 2. Bring Out (Figurative). There is another nuance that shares the same argument-structure-realization characteristics as the above meaning, but is distinct because the Objects in its passages are figurative. In these passages, Objects are not physical, tangible things; rather they are figurative expressions or expressions of abstract notions. More specifically, they usually have to do with a reputation or with teaching of some kind. This meaning occurs eight times with the Hiphiloi An example is in Deut 22:13-14:

n V ? y rb nun r m j i f i n^K n m n nu^n-nK -iqw y i

nute

v)^

y b y N^im • n r r

••^irQ rb • m s / r a V i n^K nnipw •'nnpV

If a man marries a woman and has sexual relations with her and then rejects her, and makes an accusation of abominable behavior and defames her reputation and says, "I married this woman, drew near to her, but I did not find evidence of her virginity..." (Deut 22:13-14)

Here the phrase DU? ¡T^y K ^ i m literally translates 'bring out against her an evil name'. The phrase is a figurative Object, and it means 'to defame her reputation'. The expression 'bring out an evil name', however, strongly communicates the Agentive role of the man in the serious accusation. Other figurative Objects with the HiphiloiXV are in Isa 42:1, 3; Jer 51:10; and Ps 37:6. 3. Speech. Nine passages with the Hiphil of N^1 use Objects having to do with speech. An example is in Num 13:32:

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

i b ^ b i n u r M ^ K PIJIN n n 1U7N p a n r m n n ^ v rbla

wsvi

p a pijin u n b n i u - p u

pan Kin

They [the spies] issued an evil report about the land that they had spied out to the Israelites and said, "The land that we travelled through to spy out is a land that devours its inhabitants." (Num 13:32) Here the report (¡121) is brought out by the spies. The Object n i l also occurs in Num 14:36, 37; and Prov 10:18. Other passages with Objects of speech are Job 8:10; 15:13; Eccl 5:1; Neh 6:19; and perhaps Jer 15:19.203 4. Vlants. In six passages, the Hiphil of K^1 is used to describe the growth of plants. While the same argument structure applies to these meanings, there is one peculiarity with regards to the realization of the argument structure. In five of the six passages, the Agents are not personal, animate, or potent. An example is in Gen 1:12: n a n & y ppi i n r r f ? p_j i p r n nuw k u t t p a n x r l r n inrrf? in-ipT

Then the earth brought forth vegetation, plants yielding seed according to their kinds and fruit trees with its seed in it according to their kinds. (Gen 1:12)

Other similar passages are Num 17:23; Isa 61:11; and Hag 1:11. In Gen 1:24, animals and not plants are the Objects, but the earth is 203 Some of these passages involve teaching as well, which is similar to some of the passages in the previous category, "Bring Out (Figurative)."

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still the Agent. The only possible animate Agent in these occurrences is DIN ('man') in Ps 104:14; but man's role as Agent is not clear because the Agent in the passage is ambiguous. 5. Bring out (Cultic Usages). Some occurrences of the Hiphil of occur in cultic contexts where sacrifices are being made. Preuss says, "Just as the qal of N^1 can mean 'perform a cultic act', so too can the hiphil" (1990: 236—37). This meaning occurs eight times in the Hebrew Bible. An example is in Lev 4:21: ink miyi

f i n p " ^ "larrn^ K^irn jiu>*qn n a n ni*

Then he [the priest] must bring out the bull outside the camp and burn it just as he burned the first bull. (Lev 4:21)

Other passages with this meaning are Lev 4:12; 6:4; 16:27; Num 19:3; Judg 6:18,19; and Ezek 46:20. 204 5 . 4 T H E HIPHIL OF N2T IN THE SEPTUAGINT

According to Muraoka, 25 different Greek verbs are used to translate the Hiphil of K^1 in the Septuagint (Muraoka 1998,271). Of these 25, however, only two of them are used more than five times. The verb £§ay(D ('to lead out, lead away, bring out o f ) is used about 170 times to translate the Hiphil of The other common verb, ElCCpepCO ('to carry out, carry away') is used about 70 times.

204 On the animacy of the sacrifices, see the discussion in Chapter 3 (X"Q) under 'Bring (Cultic Usages)'.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

5 . 5 T H E HOPHAL OF K2T

There are five occurrences of the Hophal of K^1 in the Hebrew Bible. The Hophal has the same argument structure as the Hiphil (Agent—Object—Locative), but the Agent role is deleted. Of those five occurrences, four times the Hophal of N^1 is realized with an animate Object and serves as a verb of leading. An example is in Jer 38:22: niKinn r m r r ^ n n m n x u b

crutirrb:? rurn ' m Tfbo n u r b i s !

Behold, all the women who are left in the king of Judah's palace will be led out to the officers of the king of Babylon. (Jer 38:22)

In this passage, the women serve as Object, 'to the officers of the king of Babylon' fan f b o n f e H ? « ) serves as the Locative Goal, and the Agent, probably the Babylonian army, is not mentioned. While the Object and the Locative are important to the narrative, the Agent is not, and therefore the Hophal form is appropriate here. 205 5 . 6 DIFFICULT PASSAGES

Several passages with the Hiphil and Hophal of N^1 as a verb of leading are difficult. In the following paragraphs a few will be analyzed to see if this study can contribute to solving these text-critical problems. DCH (261) and BHS suggest that the occurrence of N^1 in the M T of Exod 15:22 should be emended from a Qal to a Hiphil. The passage reads in the MT:

205 The other occurrences of the Hophal of N2P are in Gen 38:25; Ezek 14:22; 38:8; and 47:8.

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i i u r - i r r p - b i s ! w i n ^lO'D^p V N - i ü t t i n n u ? b y o n

iib) -ISIQS O'^TIuftu; o V i

Then Moses led Israel away from the Red Sea. They went out to the desert of Shur and they walked for three days in the desert without finding water. (Exod 15:22)

The LXX has Kai riyayev o.vxovc, eig xf|v eprinov 2 o n p 'and he led them to the desert of Sur' (Wevers 1991, 203), which may be representing a Hebrew "Vorlage of TilN^VI (3ms Hiphil of N^1 with a 3ms object suffix). 206 BHS cites that same Hiphil reading for the Samaritan Pentateuch. Of 13 modern translations that were examined, 207 only one, the Redivierte Lutherbibel suggests an emendation to the Hiphil.,208 It reads "Mose ließ Israel ziehen vom Schilfmeer hinaus zu der Wüste Schur" ("Moses led Israel out from the Red Sea to the desert of Shur"). The argument structure of both the Qal and the Hiphil can be explained with either reading. For the Qal reading, the argument structure Object—Locative would be realized by Israel as the Object (though not explicitly named in the clause) and "IIU? Q'TO'bN ('to the desert of Shur') as the Goal Locative. For the Hiphil reading, the Agent—Object—Locative argument structure would be realized with Moses as the Agent (though not explicidy mentioned in the clause), 'him' (3ms suffix: Israel) as the Object, and the same Locative as above in the Qal. So the analysis of the realization of thematic roles here allows for the possibility of both options.

206 The verb ay(0 is not used to translate the Qal or Hiphil of X2P in any other passages in the Bible. 207 AV, NRSV, NJB, NJPS, NASB, NAB, NIV, NET, RSV, French Jerusalem Bible, Traduction Oecuménique de la Bible, Redivierte Lutherbibel, and the Revised Zwingli German translation. 208 Childs (Childs 1974, 265), Propp (Propp 1999, 573), and Durham (Durham 1987, 210-11) also read the Qal.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

The MT should be retained here. It is difficult to explain the loss of the letter ¡1. It could be argued that the Hiphil should be read with a deleted Object, thereby relieving the need for the object suffix. It should be remembered, however, that Objects are rarely deleted with the Hiphil of K^1 functioning as a verb of leading. The Object is explicitly mentioned in all but four of the 186 occurrences. Another difficult passage is 2 Sam 13:9. It reads: -IQ^I

n a b pirn] niU7Qn-riN npiri vbun

w i n "bvD

wirin

When she [Tamar] took the dish and dispensed [it] before him he refused to eat. Then Amnon said, "Get everyone away from me." So everyone left him. (2 Sam 13:9)

The last verb of the verse, {Qal 3mp Narrative), is the one in question here, namely, whether the stem is Qal or Hiphil. While the MT reads Qal, BHS reports that a few Medieval Hebrew manuscripts read W S V l (Hiphil 3mp Narrative), which is also reflected in the LXX, a Targum codex, and the Vulgate. The translation would be, "So they got everyone away from him." All thirteen of the modern translations surveyed, along with McCarter (McCarter 1984, 314—17) and Anderson (Anderson 1989,170), however, seem to be reading the Qal.209 The argument structure of both the Qal and the Hiphil can be explained with either reading, especially in light of the previous clause. The previous clause has the Hiphil of K^1 (mp Imperative). As noted above in a previous section, however, the Agent of the verb is unspecified. The Object is U^K'^D ('everyone'), and the Locative is "'btfD ('away from me'). 210 Taking this into account, 209 See

the note above for a list of translations. the similarity of this passage and Gen 45:1. Unfortunately there is not a narrative retelling of the response in Genesis as there is here. 210 Note

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both the Qal and the Hiphil stems are possible here. For the Qal reading, the Object would again be U^K'^D and the Locative V^yQ ('away from him'). There would be no need for the unspecified Agent from the previous clause, however, since the narrator simply needs to communicate that everyone left the room. For the Hiphil, however, the unspecified Agents (though again, not mentioned in the clause) would also be included in the narrative report of obedience to Amnon's command with the same Object and Locative as in the previous clause. Therefore the realization of the argument structure allows for the possibility of both options. While both options are possible in this passage, the Qal has an advantage. Since the same verb in the previous clause is a Hiphil, it is more likely that a scribe would change the verb in the following clause to match the one in the previous clause than vice versa. Therefore the Qal reading better explains the presence of multiple readings. For this reason, the Qal is to be read with the MT and the majority of modern translations. A Kethiv-Qere reading in Ezra 8:17 is another difficulty. It involves a confusion of the roots N^1 and 'command'. 211 The passage reads: n o w ] Dipran ^ a p r n u>*nn i n t - b y o n i a 212 nN2iNi ' whvDi ^ W ^ n vni* i r T V n n n ' T DiTfli ' ' ' oipran I led them (people of v. 16) out to Iddo, the leader, in the place called Casiphia. I placed the words in their mouth to say to Iddo, his brother, the temple slaves in the place called Casiphia. (Ezra 8:17)

211 Joiion and Muraoka (1991) observe that there is a gradual weakening of the gutturals over time in Hebrew (28). This may be part of the reason behind the confusion of these two roots. It is possible that it is simply a graphic confusion as well. 212 Reading with the Kethiv. 213 Reading with the Qere.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Among the many challenges in this verse is the Kethiv-Qere reading in the first word of the verse. The Kethiv, (Hiphil l c s Narrative; root 'lead out'), is translated above. The Qere, (Piel l c s Narrative; root: 'to command') would be translated "I charged them to go to Iddo." According to BHS there are Septuagint manuscripts to support both readings. The Syriac reflects the Qere. Modern translations are divided. Several favor the Kethiv, including the RSV, NRSV, NJB, NASB, NIV, NET, and Luther Redivierte.214 The AV, NJPS, NAB, French Jerusalem Bible, Traduction Oecuménique de la Bible, and the Revised Zwingli translations reflect the Qere. The realization of the argument structure of the verb in this passage does present a problem with the Kethiv reading. While the expected Agent—Object—Locative argument structure is represented in the clause (Ezra as Agent; 'them' as Object; 'to Iddo' as Locative), the realization of the Goal semantic role is questionable. Specifically, there are no other passages with the Hiphil of as a verb of leading where the preposition by ('on, upon, concerning') realizes the Goal semantic role.215 For this reason, as well as the witness of the Masoretic vocalization tradition and some ancient translations, the Qere should be preferred. Another passage has a possible confusion between the verbs K2T and It is 2 Chr 23:14a: i n í ñ V n n H i p a niaran n ú r r i N i r o n y r i r r k s v i r r n i & n rrsp-bN n w s i n o r 6 x

214 Also in favor of the Kethiv are Myers (Myers 1965a, 65) and Williamson (Williamson 1985, 112-13). 215 Other Class II verbs of leading, however, use this preposition to represent the Goal role, namely the Hiphils of'Vj? and NIX It is also possible that this is an buhv interchange. BDB understands it this way, also reading with the Qere (846a).

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Then Jehoiada the priest led out the leaders of the units of hundreds who were in charge of the army and he said to them, "Bring her [Athaliah] out to the outside of the house of the foot soldiers." (2 Chr 23:14)

Because of a parallel passage that is very similar in 2 Kgs 11:15, BHS suggests that (Pie/ 3ms Narrative; root 'to command'), the form present in the parallel passage, be read instead of (.Hiphil 3ms Narrative; root 'to lead out'). The translation of the emended reading would be "Jehoiada commanded the leaders . The Vulgate and Syriac reflect the emendation suggested by BHS. The LXX has what amounts to a double reading of the verb in the MT, but with a Qal of N2P instead of a Hiphil: m i e|fl>i9ev Ico6ae o iepeijg icai evexei^axo 'I(o6ae o iepeiJ5 xotg eraTOVTapXOig . . . "Then Jehoiada the priest came out and Jehoiada the priest commanded the guards . . . " (Brooke, McLean, and Thackeray, 1932, 522). Most modern translations reflect the Kethiv.216 Some, however, agree with BHS.217 The MT should be retained in this passage. It is consistent with what is expected with the realization of the argument structure of the Hiphil of K^1 (Agent-Object with Locative deleted). Also, it is more difficult to explain the origin of the reading in the MT if is the original than vice versa. 218 It is much more likely that the readings in the LXX and other ancient translations are conforming to the parallel passage in Kings. Ezek 12:4 is another problem passage, this one involving the Hophal of W:

216 AV,

RSV, NRSV, NASB, NAB, NIV, NET, French Jerusalem Bible, and Traduction Oecuménique de la Bible. Also Myers agrees with the MT (Myers 1965b, 128-29). 217 NJB, NJPS, Redivierte Lutherbibel, and the Revised Zwingli. 218 It is possible to argue that the copyist may have glanced down to the next line and seen ¡"llN'Xin and then miscopied the verb in question. The second imperative form is quite different, however, from the first narrative form, which makes that argument less plausible.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

r u n a s r i r m a i D ì r r r ò DOV nVu ^ D ? T'pd nK^ini nVU dîTrtfp

Bring out your baggage for exile during the day before their eyes. Then you must go out in the evening before their eyes in a manner similar to departures for exile. (Ezek 12:4)

HALOT (427) suggests that the word '"KSiOD (noun: 'exit, (place of) departure' + preposition D) should be emended to ^^IQD (Hophal mp participle, root: N^1 'to lead out'; construct + preposition D). The translation would then be "before their eyes like those being led into exile." The ancient and modern translations of this passage are not helpful since many of the translations could reflect either Hebrew reading. For example, the LXX's (bç EICJtOpEVETai aÎX^âtaDTOÇ 'as a captive goes out' (Ziegler 1952, 132) could represent either option, or even a third.219 English translations tend to read either 'as one who goes out into exile' (NJPS) or 'as they that go forth into captivity' (AV). These translations can also be viewed as interpretive translations of either of the above Hebrew readings. The Hophal reading is possible with regards to the realization of the argument structure. The only semantic role present is the Object, a nominalized preposition, with the Agent and Locative having been deleted. It is preferable, however, to read the noun form here. The plural form of the noun is not a problem since it is most likely a plural of abstraction (Jouon and Muraoka 1991,136 gi).220 This, in turn, also best explains the singular form of the verb in the LXX. A final passage to consider is Ezek 14:22:

219 Zimmerli argues that the LXX reading "does not necessitate the revocalizing of the M T " (Zimmerii 1979, 265). 220 See also Greenberg (1983, 210).

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D|n nijqi m ^ a n nu^a pirrnira rum arionri anib^u-riN*. as-jTnK amioi cd^n "lute"^ ni* •'puhT-^y TiKin nynn-^y yhv Behold, a surviving remnant will remain in it, sons and daughters who are being brought out. Behold, they will come out to you, and you will see their way and their deeds and you will find consolation concerning the calamity that I brought on Jerusalem, everything that I brought on it. (Ezek 14:22) BDB (425) and BHS suggest that the form D ^ i a n {Hophal mp participle root 'to be brought out') be emended to •''NiriO (.Hiphil mp participle root 'to bring out'). The translation of the emended text would be 'they are bringing out sons and daughters'. BHS cites the LXX as a witness for the emendation, which has Ol e l a y o n c n v 'the ones who bring out' (Ziegler 1952: 144), reading • ' ' i ^ i Q n . BDB (425) argues that the previous verse contains the Agent of the verb, apparently • l y~in ('my four terrible judgments'). Many modern translations apparently favor the MT, rendering the phrase as passive. 221 There are some, however, that are apparently reading the Hiphil222 The realization of the argument structure confirms that both options are possible, but slightly favors the MT. For the MT Hophal, the Object is 'sons and daughters' while the Agent and Locative roles are deleted. For the Hiphil emendation, the Agents are either the 'judgments' of verse 21 (BDB), or the 'survivor(s)' of verse 22 (NAB, RSV). It is not likely that ('surviving remnant') is the Agent since it is feminine singular and the participle is

221AV, NRSV, NJPS, NASB, NIV, NET and Greenberg (1983: 258*59). 222NAB, RSV. Also Zimmerli (1979: 311).

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

masculine plural. 223 The 'judgments' from verse 21 are also unlikely candidates. While they would agree in gender and number, it is extremely rare to have inanimate Agents of verbs of leading and it never happens elsewhere with the Hiphil of N2P.224 For this reason and because of the witness of the MT, the Hophal should be read. 5.7 SUMMARY The analysis in this chapter has served to identify the occurrences of the Hiphil of K^1 in passages where it functions like a Class I verb of leading (about two-thirds of the time). Those occurrences are characterized by animate and potent Objects (almost always personal), or Objects that have an extended animacy. The glosses 'lead out, bring out' cover most of these occurrences. The Hiphil of K^1 as a verb of leading takes the Lord as Agent more than any other verb of leading (106 of 184 occurrences). The Locative role most characteristic with this verb is the Source role, occurring in well over half of the passages. Because of the large number of occurrences of the Source role, it is possible that the Source role is lexicalized as a part of the semantic features of this verb. Tendencies in the realization of the argument structure of these verbs aid in the understanding of difficult passages, such as 2 Sam 13:9 and 2 Chr 23:1

223The

agreement could be ad sensum, however, as is often the case with DJJ. 224It could be argued, however, that the judgments have an extended animacy.

6

CLASS II VERBS OF LEADING: 1H2>

6 . 1 THE QAL OF

The Qal of is glossed 'turn back, return' and, according to HALOT, occurs 683 times in the Hebrew Bible (HALOT, 1429).225 Because the verb in this stem is so common, the following analysis is limited to a representative portion of the occurrences, the 60 occurrences in 1 Samuel and Isaiah. An example of an occurrence of the Qal of 2W is in 1 Sam 26:25b: 1U7 blNUTi Ì3-|f? Tri TfV]

Then David went on his way, and Saul returned to his place. (1 Sam 26:25)

The argument structure of the Qal of H1U? is Object—Locative. In 46 of the 60 occurrences of the Qal of H1U? in 1 Samuel and Isaiah, the Object role is filled by an animate entity.226 In 14 of the 60 occurrences of the Qal of examined, however, the Object is in-

225 Andersen and Forbes have 685 occurrences (Andersen and Forbes 1989, 428). This difference can be explained by the fact that certain forms of 3112? could be confused with forms of other verbs (J"QUj, H3U7) in the consonantal text. See note 6 below, however, where HALOT and Andersen and Forbes agree on the number of occurrences in the Hiphil. 226 For a discussion of whether or not animate Objects of Qal verbs of motion serve as Agents as well, see Section 1.4.2.2.

147

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

animate. 227 An example of an inanimate Object is in Isa 55:10 ('rain and snow'). 228 Locative roles (Source, Path, Goal) occur one or more times in 31 of the 60 passages. 229 Goal is the most common of the Locative roles with these occurrences of the Q a l of 21U?, appearing 21 times. The Source role occurs seven times and the Path role three times. 6 . 2 T H E HIPHIL OF

AS A VERB OF LEADING

The Hiphil of H1U? is generally glossed 'to bring back, lead back, drive back, reverse' (HALOT: 1432). It occurs 353 times in the Bible. 230 The verb itself is not a verb of leading. In 165 of these passages (47%), however, the verb functions as a verb of leading, i.e., it shares the same lexical semantics of the Class I verbs of leading described above. This similarity is clear from the realization of the argument structure in some of the verb's occurrences: when the Hiphil of H1U? functions as a verb of leading, it has animate Objects. This section deals with the occurrences where the Hiphil of functions as a verb of leading. The following section deals with the more general occurrences of the Hiphil of 21U?. Of the 165 passages in the first group, 112 of them appear in prose. An example of the Hiphil of as a verb of leading is in 1 Kgs 8:34: binup

natprf? rinboi D w n y n u t a r m w ¡ • n i n ^ ? n n : nute n o - m r r ^ Dmu>m

227 Ten

of the 14 occurrences are in poetry. of these 14 occurrences, however, may have an extended animacy, such as the Object 'word' in Isa 45:23 (because of the theological significance of "131 in Isa 40—55). 229 For an explanation of deleted Locative roles, see Section 1.4.2.4. 230 Andersen and Forbes have this same number (Andersen and Forbes 1989, 428). Of the 353, 228 are in prose while 125 are in poetry. 228 Some

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May you hear [in] heaven and forgive the sin of your people Israel and may you return them to the land that you gave to their ancestors. (1 Kgs 8:34)

6.2.1 Argument Structure The argument structure of the Hiphil of H1U? functioning as a verb of leading is Agent—Object—Locative. The Agent semantic role is almost always apparent either from the inflection of the verb form itself or the explicit presence of the subject (96 times). The Object is explicitly mentioned in all but eight of these passages. In seven of the eight passages, the Object is clear from the context.231 Locative roles (Source, Path, Goal) occur in 96 of the 166 occurrences where the Hiphil of acts as a verb of leading. The most common Locative role is Goal, occurring 72 times in these passages. Source occurs 22 times and Path occurs four times.232 The Locative semantic roles are deleted in 70 of the 166 occurrences. This deletion is because the Goal role may be understood as a part of the lexical semantics of the verb itself (the Object returning to place where it had been previously; see Section 6.2.4 below); often that Goal can be understood from the context.233 6.2.2 Realization of the Argument Structure The Hiphil of H1U? functioning as a verb of leading takes Agents who are animate, potent, and personal. Examples of Agents with this verb in the Bible are Abimelech (Gen 20:7), Mesha, king of

231 Gen 20:7b; Isa 42:22; Ezek 14:6a; 18:30; 18:32; and Ps 68:23a, 23b; and 85:4. The first seven passages can be explained by object omission. (See below under 'Realization of the Argument Structure'.) The Object of Ps 85:4, however, is difficult to determine. It will be discussed below under 'Difficult Passages'. 232 Sometimes it appears as if there is more than one Locative role in a clause. For a discussion of this phenomenon, see Section 1.4.2.3. 233 For example, in Gen 20:7a, it is clear that the U^NrrnUW 'wife of the man' is being returned to the husband. This example is given below in Section 6.2.5.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Moab (2 Kgs 3:4 234 ), and the Lord (e.g., Isa 1:26). There are only five passages where the Agents do not meet these qualifications. In one passage (Job 39:12), an animal is the Agent. In the other four passages, things closely associated with persons are the Agents. In Ps 19:8, the 'Law/Teaching of the Lord' (HI IT m i n ) is the Agent. While the Law itself is not animate, potent, and personal, it does come from the Lord. Similarly, Prov 15:1 has 'a soft answer' ("[TrUyO) as the Agent. Again, the answer itself is not animate, potent, and personal, but the answer comes from a speaker who is. Finally, in Job 20, two passages have Agents that are inanimate but that are closely associated with a person. Verse 2 has 'my disquieting thoughts' CflyU?) and verse 10 has 'his hands' (VP). In three passages where the Hiphil of H1U? acts as a verb of leading, the Agent of the verb is unspecified. In these passages, there are no candidates for the Agent role in the surrounding context in which the verb occurs. An example is 1 Kgs 22:26— 2 Chr 18:25: IbK-^is! i n r r u i n ] i r r r r a - n i * n p b i n u r

^W'1

u^v-b!*] Tyn"iu>

The King of Israel said, "Take Micaiah and return 235 him to Amon, the city official, and to Joash, the king's son." (1 Kgs 22:26)

234 This passage, along with several others, does not seem to fit the usual meaning of the Hiphil of 31U?. This phenomenon is discussed below in Section 6.2.5. 235 The use of 31U? here is puzzling. How was Micaiah 'returned' to Amon, the city official? That is not where he came from; he is being arrested here. This may be an example of a case where the semantic content of 31U7, namely, the sense that the Object is going back to a place that it had been previously, is weakened or bleached out. The Vulgate, however, reads the Hiphil of here.

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In this passage (and the other two, Isa 42:22 and the parallel in 2 Chr 19:25236), the identity of the Agent is not important. It is probably one of the king's servants who returns Micaiah to Amon and Joash. The point of the statement, however, is not who was to return Micaiah but the fact that he was to be returned. 237 The role of Object is usually filled by an animate and potent entity. That is the case in 123 of the 165 occurrences of the Hiphil of as a verb of leading. In 116 of these 123 passages, the Object is also personal. In seven passages different kinds of animals serve as the Objects. 238 Objects with extended animacy also occur with this verb. They will be discussed in Section 6.2.4 below. In eight passages, the Object is deleted.239 The Object role appears in four ways in the realization of this verb in the Bible. Most often it appears as a pronominal object suffix on the verb (60 times). It appears with the marker of the definite direct object (JIN) 47 times.240 It has no marker (0) 51 times and in all other cases the Object is deleted. The realization of the Locative role takes many forms with the Hiphil of as a verb of leading. The most common of the Locative roles, Goal, is realized in six ways in these passages. It is realized with 34 times, with b y 14 times, with O i l times, with b 9 times, with a directive ¡1 4 times, and with 2 once. The preposition 2 is usually not used to indicate Goal with verbs of leading in the Hebrew Bible. It is more often used to indi-

236 Synoptic

passages are identified in this study, but are counted as separate occurrences. 237 Payne observes, "The easiest way to downplay the centrality of a controlling entity in a clause is simply not to mention it" (Payne 2006: 249). In Isa 42:22, the downplaying is explicit because it says that there is no one (J'N) to say, "Return (them)!" 238 Exod 23:4; Deut 22:1, 2; 1 Sam 6:7; 2 Kgs 3:4; and Jer 2:24; and 23:3. 239 For a discussion of some possible explanations of deleted Objects, see Section 1.4.2.4. 240 This includes occurrences where the marker of the definite direct object takes suffixes.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

cate Path or other modal roles with these verbs. 241 It is used here once, however, to indicate the Goal of this verb. It is in 2 Sam 8:3:

i r TU^nb i n r f r a r a t e

n h y i s nTirnrrriN i n

fi

David struck Hadad-Ezer son of Rechob, king of Tsovah when he tried to reestablish his power over the Euphrates River.242 (2 Sam 8:3) T h e indicated Goal ( m S ' ^ i n J l 'over/on the Euphrates River'; Qere) is specialized and refers to an entire region. Also, an idiom of power over a territory is involved here since the Object of the verb is "IT ('his hand 7 ). Rulership, power, and authority over a certain people or domain is often represented in Hebrew with the preposition l . 2 4 3 T h e Source semantic role is realized with the preposition JO in 20 of the 22 passages where it occurs. T h e compound preposition is used in the other two passages. T h e Path role is realized three times with the preposition 1 (Deut 28:68 and 2 Kgs 19:28—

241It

is also often used to indicate Location for verbs of putting, plac-

ing. 242 Reading

with the Qere. example, the Object of the verb bviD is realized with the preposition 3. A different way to understand this passage is to read TU7H7 as TU^hV (Hiphil infinitive construct of 3U7'' 'to cause to dwell, leave') and to understand T as referring to a stela (Cf. 2 Sam 18:18). The passage would be translated "On his way to leave his stela at the River David defeated Hadadezer son of Rehob, the king of Zobah" (McCarter 1984, 242-49). Anderson also lists this possibility (Anderson 1989, 132). There are two problems with this suggestion, however. First, one would expect the consonantal text TUhn1? for the Hiphil infinitive of Second, the Hiphil of 3U7'' usually takes Objects that are animate. With a stela as the Object, the phrases D'pn1?, ITU?1?, TSH1?, or D,U7t7 would be more expected. 243 For

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Isa 37:29) and once with no preposition and the noun fTT (Ezek 44:1). 244 Modal semantic roles occur in 25 of the occurrences of the Hiphil of H1U? functioning as a verb of leading. Manner is the most common, occurring 10 times. Temporal occurs five times, Reason four times, Comitative two times, and Instrument and Benefactive do not occur in these passages. 6.2.3 Pairs and Sequences Class II verbs of leading often occur in neighboring clauses or lines with different Class I or Class II verbs of leading. The relationship between these verbs will be named a 'pair'. When the verb in question occurs first in the pair, it will be called an A-B pair. When it occurs in the second position, it will be called a B-A pair. There is only one pair that occurs with the Hiphil of H1U?. It is a B-A pair. It occurs in Ezek 47:6 and is paired with the Hiphil of f b i l . In a similar way, Class II verbs of leading often occur in neighboring clauses or lines with simple verbs of motion. The relationship between these verbs will be named a 'sequence'. When the verb in question occurs first in the pair, it will be called an A-B sequence. When it occurs in the second position, it will be called a BA sequence. There are three sequences with the Hiphil of as a verb of leading. In 2 Sam 14:21, there is a B-A sequence with the verb In 1 Kgs 13:29, there is an A-B sequence with the verb In Ezek 14:6, there is a B-A sequence with the Q a l o i

244 The noun "["11 ('way, road, path'), however, can function like a preposition. BDB says of "["11, "of direction, almost or quite=toward" (203).

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

6.2.4 Glosses and Further Discussion. 2 4 5 W h e n the Hiphil of H1U? functions as a verb of leading it usually takes the glosses 'to return' or 'to bring back'. 246 In most occurrences of the verb with this meaning there is a personal Agent that guides an animate (most often, personal) Object to a specificallydefined end point (Goal) at which the Object had been positioned at some time in the past. 247 There are slight variations on this de-

245BDB

organizes the meanings of the Hiphil of 31U? in the following way: "1) cause to return, bring back, a) with accusative of person, b) put back, with accusative of thing, c) draw back, hand, refrain from, d) give back, restore, with accusative of person or thing, e) relinquish, with accusative of thing, f) to give in payment, 2) bring back, a) heart, b) U73J=refresh, 3) bring back word, 4) a) bring back (in retribution) upon, b) pay as recompense, 5) turn back, backwards=repel, defeat, 6) turn away face, 7) turn against, 8) bring back to mind, 9) bring back exiles, 10) shew a turning away from idols, 11) reverse, revoke judgment and blessing" (BDB, 998-99). HALOT has: "1) bring back, lead back a) with accusative of person, b) with accusative of thing, 2) to bring back, drive back by force, 3) to reverse a movement, avert from danger, 4) to cause to turn around a) meaning to give back, b) to give back, meaning to repay, 5) with 131, to answer, 6) to bring back, revoke, cancel, 7) to bring back, convert from evil, 8) to restore, 9) to turn the hand, 10) expressions, 11) conjectural emendations" (HALOT, 1431-34). The Madrid dictionary has four major categories: "1) Movimiento de retorno o no, a) Personas, b) Cosas y situaciones, 2) Reiteración, 3) Cambio de actitud o conducta; de estado físico, 4) Uso intransitivo" (751—52). This chapter serves to commplement these entries by indicating how this verb often serves the same function as the Class I verbs of leading. 246It may seem simplistic to say so little about the glosses of this verb, especially since Holladay states that the verb 31U? has "a rich variety of meanings" (Holladay 1958, 1). It is true that the verb can be glossed in dozens of ways if meaning depends on the context and semantic content of each occurrence (Holladay 1958, 55-56). In this study, however, the primary concern is with the realization of the argument structure of the verb in its own immediate clause and not with the larger realms of context that Holladay employs. Therefore the number of glosses can be fewer. 247 Part of this definition is based on the meaning of the Qal verb given by Holladay, who says that 31U? is a word used of someone "having moved in a particular direction, to move thereupon in the opposite direc-

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scription in some of the passages. For instance, sometimes the end point is not explicitly defined and the beginning point is defined. 248 Sometimes the Objects are animals. On the whole, however, the above description holds true. An example is in Gen 20:14: • n n n ^ j m n h a u h a m y ] -ii?ni ÎKS ^ O ' I N ni?*] :inu>N mù> ni* ib n u h

Then Abimelech took flocks, herds, men and women servants and gave [them] to Abraham; and he returned his wife Sarah to him [Abraham], (Gen 20:14)

This passage has the expected personal Agent 'Abimelech') and required animate Object (inU^ ¡"IIU? 'his wife Sarah'), along with the Goal semantic role indicating the end point ("6 "to him"). The Object, Sarah, had been with Abraham in the past before this episode with Abimelech (Gen 20:2). There is no further need to divide this meaning to take into account different contexts or Locative alternations. These differences and alternations do occur, but they do not make a large difference in the meaning of the verb itself.249 In fact, most of the occurrences of this verb with this meaning can be comfortably translated into English with the gloss 'return'. 250

tion, the implication being (unless there is evidence to the contrary) that one will arrive again at the initial point of departure" (1958: 53). 248 Or sometimes the Locatives are metaphorical, such as in Mai 2:6 where it reads J1J70 TU?n D m i ('And he returned many from sin'). In this case, the implied Goal would be the behavior that God demands. See also Jer 23:22. 249 The subtle nuances of the verb meaning are adequately accounted for in the dictionaries and monographs, see especially Holladay, 1958. 250 Possible exceptions are passages like Gen 40:13 where 'restore' works better in English with 'returning to office' and in passages like Ruth 4:17 where 'restore' works better in English with 'returning the soul'. This,

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

As discussed above, sometimes the Objects of the Hiphil of mU? have an extended animacy. In these passages, the animacy of the Object is not clear; it could be considered either animate or inanimate. This phenomenon occurs 42 times in the Bible with this verb. The most common Object is 'hand'. An example of a passage with extended animacy is in 1 Kgs 13:4: nip n s r o n bm

o'nbNrru^N m y r i N ^ ¡ a n y b u b "¡TTIK DPIT r 6 u n b i r r r r n rQTQrrbp

b y xb) vby

rf?u>

i r u a ^ ] iniyari -ibtf? nn^n2?

When the king heard the word of the man of God that he decreed against the altar of Bethel, Jereboam moved his hand from the altar and said, "Seize him!" Then his hand that he had moved from it dried up so that he was not able to return it to himself. (1 Kgs 13:4)

Since body parts are part of an animate being, they can be considered to have an 'extended animacy'. 'Hand' is the Object of the Hiphil of H1U? 22 times in the Bible. Another common body part that serves as an Object of this verb is QMS ('face'). It occurs 14 times, and an example is in 1 Kgs 2:20: n u t f r b x inNO rbiiv ™

o i l * r u o p nna rfpNu; l o x m -biiv) T^ran nV-io>ri 'JSTIN

however, may simply be due to the characteristics of the English verbs involved.

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She [Bathsheba] said, "I am asking one small request of you. Do not refuse me [lit., 'return my face']." The king said to her, "Ask, my mother, for I will not refuse you pit., 'return your face']." 251 (1 Kgs 2:20)

Other body parts that appear as Objects of this verb are 'feet' (Isa 58:13; Ps 119:59) and 'heart' (Mai 3:24252).253 The ark of the covenant also appears as the Object of the Hiphi/ of three times (1 Sam 6:21 and 2 Sam 15:25a and 29). In the books of Samuel, the ark and the presence and power of YHWH are strongly associated with one another.254 Because of this close connection with YHWH, the ark has an 'extended animacy'. 6.2.5 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb When Hiphil of 21$ serves as a verb of leading it often occurs without a Locative role. As discussed above, the absence of the Locative role may be because the lexical semantics of the verb itself include the Goal semantic role in some passages. As defined above, the verb involves a personal Agent who guides an animate (most often, personal) Object to a specifically-defined end point (Goal) at which the Object had been positioned at some time in the past. In some passages, however, that Goal need not be mentioned for two reasons: first, it is understood in the lexical semantics of the verb itself that the Object is returning to a specific place. Second, be-

251 This construction is similar to the one in the Ezekiel passages discussed earlier, e.g., 14:6. Both passages speak of someone turning away from something (e.g., idols) or someone (the king). 252 This passage, Mai 2:6, and perhaps the occurrences in Amos 1*2, are the only places where the gloss 'repent' might be appropriate. 253 The body-part Objects can also be viewed as coreferrential with the Agent when the Object is a part of the Agent's body. This is not the case with D'JS in 1 Kgs 2:20. 254 See especially the narratives of 1 Samuel 4—7. Also note 2 Sam 6:2 and the association of the ark with God's name and his dwelling place.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

cause the context might make the specific Goal clear. Gen 20:7a is an example:

rrm ^-ps bVair] Nin « ' i f ? u^n-nute nu?n rmui Now return the man's wife [Sarah] because he is a prophet. Let him pray for you so that you may live. (Gen 20:7a) Because of the use of the Hiphil of H1U?, it is clear that Sarah is returning to a place that she had been previously. The context makes it clear that the unmentioned Goal is 'to her husband'. The Hiphil of also lexicalizes the semantic role of Goal, but the Hiphil of H1U? lexicalizes a specific kind of Goal, one at which the Object had been positioned previously. Another lexical semantic issue is that sometimes this verb does not seem to have its usual meaning. 2 Kgs 3:4, along with several other passages, does not seem to fit the usual meaning of the Hiphil of H1U?. The meaning is unusual because the Object is not going back to a place where it had been previously. In 2 Kgs 3:4, the Objects are animals that the king of Moab would 'return' to the king of Israel, even though the king of Israel had never possessed them. This usage, however, is not isolated. In fact, in tribute, payment, and retribution contexts, it is appropriate to use the Hiphil of mU? even when Objects are not being returned to a place that they had been previously. Other examples in tribute contexts are 2 Kgs 17:3 and Ps 72:10, in a payment context, Ezek 27:14, and in retribution contexts, Exod 21:34 and 1 Sam 6:8. Similar usages are also present in English when one 'returns' a favor (not necessarily the same favor), a gift (not necessarily the same gift), or a visit (a different event).

6 . 3 THE HIPHIL OF

WHEN NOT FUNCTIONING AS A

VERB OF LEADING

Of the 353 occurrences of the Hiphil of H1U?, 188 of them do not function as verbs of leading. Most of these occurrences are in prose (116). In these 188 passages, the verb has the same argument struc-

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ture (Agent—Object—Locative) as in the other 165 passages. In the realization of the Object role, however, there is a clear distinction. The Objects of the Hiphil of H1U? when it is not functioning as a verb of leading are always inanimate. A brief survey of these passages with their particular nuances or glosses is now offered. 1. Return (Inanimate Objects). As discussed above, the basic meaning of the Hiphil of H1U? is 'to return'. When the Objects are inanimate, however, this verb is not functioning as a verb of leading. In these passages there is a personal Agent that returns an inanimate Object to a specifically defined end point (Goal) at which the Object had been positioned at some time in the past. There are slight variations on this meaning in some of the passages. For instance, sometimes the end point is not explicitly defined and the beginning point is defined. On the whole, however, the above description covers most of the occurrences of the verb with this nuance. An example is in 2 Sam 9:7: - i i n i p i o n yipy

n u w k t j t ^ k i n ib - l a t n

r m w i p n « b w u ; r n u r b r n N ^ • » m ^ m ^pis* j m i r r : r p r i 'jrfpurVu Dnb b p a n

Then David said to him (Mephibosheth), "Do not fear because I will surely act faithfully towards you on account of your father Jonathan. I will return every field of your father Saul to you and you will eat bread at my table continually." (2 Sam 9:7)

Here the inanimate object (Viku? m u r ^ D 'every field of Saul') is present in this passage, along with the expected Goal semantic role ("[*? 'to you') and the animate Agent. 2. Return (Figurative). There is another nuance that shares the same argument-structure-realization characteristics as the above meaning but is distinct because the Objects are figurative. In these passages, Objects are not physical, tangible things; rather they are figurative expressions or expressions of feeling or emotional conditions or

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

events. This nuance occurs 67 times with the Hiphil of H1U?. A common Object in this category is !iy~l ('evil'). An example is in Judg 9:56: ^nn2? v n x b n u w

^O'IN nyn m

crrf?« n u h

Thus the Lord repaid Abimelech's evil that he did to his father for the killing of his 70 brothers. (Judg 9:56) Other common Objects in this category are words for anger. Jer 18:20 is an example: 20ai n x n r n i o - n r m oVurn 20a2 •»utofp nmu? nD-»? 20bi ^ a 2 ? H o y ~DT 20b2 n n i u o r r b u - i r f t 20b3 : o n a ^ n n i r r i N n ^ n 2 ?

20al Should evil be repaid for good? 20a2 For they have dug a pit for my life. 20bl Remember how I have stood before you 20b2 To speak good concerning them 20b3 To turn your anger back from them. (Jer 18:20) Other figurative Objects used with this verb are a blessing (Num 23:20), vengeance (Deut 32:41 and 43), righteousness and faithfulness (1 Sam 26:23), the action of God (Isa 43:13), reproach (Hos 12:15), and judgment (throughout Amos 1—2).

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3. Speech. In 43 passages the Hiphil of is used of speech. In most of those passages the verb has the Object ~QT ('word') and it means 'to answer'. An example is in 1 Sam 17:30: • y n innuh njn i r n p

i n x b m b i i f ^ a n nfcn :jiu>jqn "DTD I I T

Then he [David] turned around from beside him and toward someone else and asked the same question and the people answered him the same as before. (1 Sam 17:30) The realization of the argument structure with this construction is interesting. Note that the Object, ~Q"T ('word') has no marking (0*) while the Goal of the verb, 'to him' is realized as a object suffix on the verb, the place that is usually occupied by the Object. This construction is the only one in which the Locative is realized in this way with these translocative verbs that serve as verbs of leading. 255 This Locative realization is common with this verb (e.g., Gen 37:14; 1 Kgs 20:9). The person who is replied to can also be marked with the marker of the definite direct object (e.g., Num 22:8; 2 Kgs 22:9). The person occurs with both the suffix and the marker of the definite direct object in Job 35:4: 4a f V P

4b

TV~rriKi

4a I will answer pit. 'return words to'] you 4b And your friends who are with you (Job 35:4)

255 This

usage could be an analogy with the verb HJJ7 'to answer', which also uses JIN to mark the addressee. So even though a verb of translocation (Hiphil of 31U?) is used in place of the verb of speaking (HJJJ), the same marking applies.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

There are also passages where the Object ~Q"T is deleted, but is understood to be present because of this idiom (e.g., Job 13:22; Est 4:13;256 Neh 6:4). 4. Cult/Retribution. As with the other Class I leading verbs, there are some occurrences of the Hiphil of H1U? that occur in cultic contexts where sacrifices are being made. In each of these passages, the Object of the verb is DU^N ('restitution'). The idea of returning something to a place that it was previously applies in these usages as well. An example is in Num 5:7: i u w - a inuftrnN m y n i wv •Ab Dute

onwprrriN m n r n jnji

riv

^

inu^pm

Then they must confess their sin that they committed and he must repay its restitution of its principal and add one fifth to it. Then he must give it to the one that he wronged. (Num 5:7) The other four occurrences are in Num 5:8; 18:9; and 1 Sam 6:3 and 4.257 6 . 4 T H E HIPHIL OF

IN THE SEPTUAGINT

According to Muraoka, over 60 different Greek verbs are used to translate the Hiphil of H1U? in the Septuagint. Of this number, however, only six are used more that ten times. The two verbs used most often to translate the Hiphil of H1U? are forms of the Greek verb oigstpco 'to turn, turn into'. The first is aJtOOXpecpO) 'to turn back, bring back', which is used over 90 times. The second is 256 This

passage has the preposition last two examples from 1 Samuel are a little different than the rest because they are not in a classic cultic context. The Philistines are offering restitution to the God of Israel in this passage. Even though it is not a strict cultic text that involves worship at the tabernacle or temple, it is, however, still cultic in the sense that it is an offering to Israel's God. 257 The

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¿Jtioxpecpo) 'to turn, return', used 85 times. The verb ¿110616(0^1 'to give back, restore, return' is used 47 times. The Hebrew combination ~Q"T TU^H is translated 24 times by the Greek verb (fotoicpivopiai 'to answer'. Similarly, the verb avxaJto6i6a)HL 'to give answer, reply' is used 15 times. Finally, the verb aJTOraBiaxriHl 'to restore' is used 12 times to translate the Hiphil of 2 W . 6 . 5 T h e HOPHAL

of

There are five occurrences of the Hophal of in the Hebrew Bible. The Hophal has the same argument structure as the Hiphil (Agent-Object-Locative), but the Agent role is deleted. Of those five occurrences, only once the Hophal of is realized with an animate Object and serves as a verb of leading. That passage is in Exod 10:8: 0*7 o r 6 x

n j n a - ^ p r m - r i a i nu>?rnN nu>n_ orrn'bN m r r n i *

m y

Then Moses and Aaron were returned to Pharaoh, and he said to them, "Go worship the Lord your God." (Exod 10:8)

In this passage, Moses and Aaron serve as the Objects (even taking the marker of the definite direct object despite their position as the subject of the clause 258 ), 'to Pharaoh' ( n j n f l ' b N ) serves as the Locative Goal, and the Agents, obviously servants of Pharaoh, are not mentioned. While the Object and the Locative are important to the

258 The particle JIN can mark the subject of a passive verb. This is a passive verb with reduced inflection. See Joiion-Muraoka (2006), Section 128b.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

narrative, the specific Agent is not, and therefore the Hophal form is appropriate here.259 6 . 6 DIFFICULT PASSAGES

Two difficult passages are noteworthy. The first is Ps 85:4. It reads: 4a tfn-jny-^D r i a p ^ 4b

rhm

JTiTUin

4a You withdrew all of your rage; 4b You turned back from your burning anger. (Ps 85:4)

The problem with line 4b is that there is no Object for the verb niTtyn {Hiphil Perfect, 2ms, root: ' y o u returned'). As many as five suggestions have been made to solve this problem. (1) A first option would be to read "[2K piIlQ ('some of your burning anger') as the Object instead of as a Locative phrase. 260 (2) Second, it is possible that an Object be understood from the context. The Object could be 'it' as in 'you returned it', meaning, the rage Q n i H y ) in line 4a. The omitted Object could also possibly be 'yourself as the AV and the Revidierte Lutherbibel have it. (3) A third option would be to emend the text to rOU^H {Hiphil Perfect 2ms, root: rQU? 'to put an end to') and translate the line as Kraus does, "[you] stilled the heat of your wrath" (1989:172). (4) A fourth option that has been proposed is to simply read the Hiphil as if it were an intransitive verb (G=C) and translate the line, "You turned from your raging anger." Dahood (Dahood 1968b, 287) and Tate (Tate 1990, 365) suggest this as a possibility based on "internal Hiphils" in Psalm 80. Several English translations seem to take this ap259 The

other passages with a Hophal of 31U? are Gen 42:28; 43:12; Num 5:8; and Jer 27:16. 260 Kraus cites this possibility and then dismisses it by saying, "This interpretation of the text is hardly possible" (Kraus 1989, 173).

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proach. 261 (5) A fifth way to solve this problem is to suggest that the mem on the beginning of the word pHIO should instead be placed at the end of the previous word, I T D ^ n . It would function there as an enclitic mem and the phrase "[2N p i l l ('your burning anger') would function as the Object of the verb. The line would then be translated, "He returned his burning anger." This appears to be the approach of the NJB, NAB, and the Revised Zwingli translation. Option (4) and probably Option (3) can be eliminated on the basis of the argument structure of the Hiphil of H1U?. It is not possible to read the Hiphil of H1U? as an intransitive verb as Option (4) suggests. To do so would be to suggest that there is no Agent (and that God is the Object). This is impossible with this verb since the Hiphil of H1U? must have an Agent and an Object.262 Option (3) may have the same problem since the verb rQU? in the Hiphil may also require an Agent and an Object. It is likely that further study of that verb and its argument structure would eliminate it as an option as well. Options (1), (2), and (5), however, are all acceptable based on this study of the argument structure of the Hiphil of H1U?. Options (1) and (5) would have both Agent and Object explicit in the line. Option (2) would have a deleted Object that is understood from the context.263 Of these three options, Option (5) seems to be the best. Options (1) and (2), even though they are possible with regard to argument structure, have other difficulties. It is hard to imagine, for example, Option (1) where God is returning some of his anger since he covered all of the sins of his people in the previous verse. It is also hard to imagine God returning 'his rage from his burning anger'. For this reason, the slight emendation involved in Option (5)

261 RSV,

NRSV, NJB, NJPS, NASB, and NET. cites Ps 80:4, 8, and 20 as other places where the Hiphil of 31U? is intransitive (1968: 287). In all of those passages, however, there is a clear Agent (the Lord) and Object (Israel). 263 It should be noted, however, there is no other place in the Hebrew Bible where the Hiphil of 31U? takes a reflexive Object. This brings the translation 'yourself into some doubt. 262 Dahood

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

makes the most sense and the passage should be translated, "You returned your burning anger." Another difficult passage is Prov 12:14: i4a n i u - j n u r

u n a p

i 4 b -Ah 2 1 $ ? d - t k - ' T ^ i m i

14a A person will be satisfied with good from the fruit of his lips; 14b And the reward of a man's hands will return to him. (Prov 12:14)

The Kethiv, represented above, has 21$J {Qal Imperfect 3ms, root: 'to return', intransitive) for the verb in 14b.264 Thc Qere, on the other hand, has 2 1 $'' (Hiphil Imperfect 3ms, root: 2 1 $ 'to return', transitive). The Qere would be translated "And he [God, other people] will return the accomplishment of a man's hands to him" or, for an unspecified Agent, "The accomplishment of a man's hands will be returned to him." 265 Either of these options is acceptable with regard to the argument structure of 21$ and its realization. The Qal would have the expected Object ('accomplishment') and Locative ('to him') while the Hiphil would add an unspecified Agent (probably God). Since both options are acceptable with regard to argument structure, other factors must determine what the correct reading is. The Kethiv is probably the better candidate since it more adequately explains the origin of the Qere reading. It would have been more likely for someone to introduce an Agent (probably a divine one, even though it is not expressed) than it would be to take one away. Therefore the Qere might be theologizing the reading of the Kethiv. 264 This

seems to be the reading of the RSV, NRSV, NJB, NASB, NIV, Waltke (Waltke 2004, 517), and Murphy (Murphy 1998, 87-88). 265 The AV, NJPS, NET, and Scott (Scott 1965, 90) seem to be reading xheQere from their translations in the passive.

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167

Such theologizing is unnecessary, however, since the Lord is mentioned explicitly in 12:2 and 12:22. As Waltke observes, "Return (yasiib . . . ) to him {Id, i.e., the doer of the deed) affirms the wisdom teaching that deeds and their consequences are inseparable. The parameters of the unit show that the Lord is the one who upholds the nexus (cf. 12:2, 22)" (2004: 531). For this reason, the Kethiv and the translation above is to be preferred. 6.7 SUMMARY

The analysis in this chapter has served to identify the occurrences of the Hiphil of H1U? where it functions as a Class I verb of leading (a little less than half the time). Those occurrences are characterized by animate and potent Objects, or Objects that have an extended animacy. The gloss 'return' covers most of these occurrences. The Locative role most characteristic with this verb is the Goal role, occurring in more than a third of the passages. In passages where there is no Locative role, it is possible that the Goal role is lexicalized as a part of the semantics of the verb itself. Tendencies in the realization of the argument structure of these verbs aid in the understanding of difficult passages, such as Ps 85:4 and Prov 12:14. Finally, this verb has the most occurrences of all of the verbs in this class in poetry.

7

OTHER CLASS II VERBS

There are seven more translocative verbs that sometimes exhibit the characteristics of the Class I verbs of leading. These seven verbs occur less frequently than the four major Class II verbs examined in the previous chapters. These verbs (the Hiphils of TV, l~lp, "hx, and "[TT) will be examined in this chapter.266 The verbs will be introduced and their basic characteristics will be given. Then the argument structure of the verbs and its realization will be examined. Finally, attention will be given to some problem passages and the distinguishing features of each verb will be observed. 7.1 THE HIPHIL OF m p

7.1.1 General Characteristics The Hiphil of T i p has the basic meaning 'bring near, bring, present' (BDB, 897-98) and occurs 177 times in the Hebrew Bible. 267 In 27 of these 177 passages this verb functions as a verb of leading, i.e., it shares the argument structure and selectional restrictions of the Class I verbs of leading. 268 Of those 27 passages, only 266 Only the 'leading' occurrences of these verbs will be examined in this chapter. 267 The Qal means 'come near, approach' (BDB, 897) and occurs less frequently than the Hiphil, 99 times according to Andersen (Andersen and Forbes 1989, 414). This can be explained by the frequent use of the Hiphil of Tip in cultic contexts (139 times). 268 Of the 150 occurrences that do not involve leading, 139 of them are used in cultic contexts of offerings brought to be sacrificed.

169

170

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

one of them occurs in poetry (Jer 30:21). This verb does not occur in any pairs or sequences. A n example of the use of this verb is in J o s h 8:23: i n k m . i p n ' n i & a n run

Then they captured the king of Ai alive and brought him near to Joshua. (Josh 8:23)

7.1.2 A r g u m e n t - S t r u c t u r e Characteristics. 2 6 9 T h e argument structure of the Hiphil of T i p is Agent—ObjectLocative. T h e Agents of this verb are always animate, potent, and personal. T h e L o r d is the A g e n t only five times, four of w h i c h are in N u m b e r s 16. 270 T h e most c o m m o n l y used A g e n t is M o s e s (10 times). Other Agents include J o s h u a (four times) and Samuel (twice). W h e n functioning as a verb of leading the Object role is also realized with an animate, potent, and personal entity. In two of these passages, however, the Object is deleted (Exod 14:10; N u m 16:5a). 2 7 1 In the 25 passages w h e r e there is an explicit Object, the

269BDB divides the usages for this verb into two categories: "1. a. bring near, present [and then BDB subdivides into passages with accusatives of thing, accusatives of 'case, affair', and accusatives of person], b. of time" and "2. bring near . . . of presenting, dedicating, or offering to v ' (897-98). HALOThns four categories: "1. to bring over, take, bring; 2. to offer a sacrifice; 3. to bring forward, cause to come up, advance; 4. to be on the point of doing something" (1134). Meanings 1 and 3 are subdivided into accusatives of thing and person. The Madrid dictionary has two categories: "1. spatial sense, a) intransitive, b) transitive; 2. temporal sense" (671). This section serves to complement these entries in the lexicons by indicating where this verb functions in a similar way to the Class I verbs of leading discussed in Chapter Two. 270 The passages are Num 16:5a, 5b, 9, and 10; and Jer 30:21. 271 For more on deleted Objects and other missing elements in the realization of the argument structure of these verbs, see Section 1.4.2.4.

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171

Object role is realized with the marker of the definite direct object 24 times. In one passage, the only poetic passage with this verb, Jer 30:21, the Object is realized as an object suffix on the verb. Locative roles are realized in only nine of the 27 passages. 272 The Goal semantic role is the most common, occurring eight times. It is realized with the preposition in each of those passages. The Source role occurs once (Exod 28:1) and is realized with the preposition JO. The Path semantic role does not occur with this verb. Therefore the Locative role is deleted in 18 of the 27 passages. This is probably due to the fact that the Agent and the Goal roles are often coreferrential, i.e., with this verb, the Object is moved by the Agent toward the Agent. For a further discussion, see Section 7.1.3 below. The modal role of Manner occurs 6 times with this verb, realized each time with the preposition b. The roles of Reason (with V ) and Comitative (with J1K) occur once.

7.1.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb The Locative role is often deleted with the Hiphil of Tip. This is probably because the Agent and Goal roles are often coreferrential, i.e., with this verb, the Object is moved by the Agent toward the Agent. An example is in Josh 7:17a:

Tn-rn n n a u t o n a

TSVI

r m r r n n a w r r i N nnpn

And he made the tribe of Judah approach and the clan of the Zerahites was selected. (Josh 7:17a)

The occurrence in Exod 14:10 is usually interpreted as an intransitive verb by the dictionaries and translations. It also, however, has a deleted Object that can be found in the context. It will be dealt with below under 'Problem Passages'. 272por a discussion of deleted Locative roles, see Section 1.4.2.4.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Here the Agent, Joshua (v. 16), is bringing the Judahites toward himself (the lexicalized Goal). This usage is especially common in Leviticus and Numbers where the cultic leaders are told to bring people close to themselves for some cultic action. 273

7.1.4 Problem Passages The occurrence of the Hiphil of T i p in Exod 14:10, alluded to above, is usually translated as an intransitive verb. The text reads:

trrr^y m i l onia i r u n nnnrm nn^p i s r m b m ^Qb n T n n rurn • n ^ r y n ^

i V m v u h a i n j n a n : n oiD"b3 ixun nnpn njnai a n n n x vvi

an^p

Then Egypt chased after them and caught up with them, and every horse-drawn chariot of Pharaoh and their riders and his army was camping at the sea, by Pi-hahiroth before BaalZephon. When Pharaoh brought near (his army), the Israelites lifted up their eyes and behold! Egypt was setting out after them. (Exod 14:9-10) BDB argues that the verb means here 'make an approach' (898) instead of the 'bring near' translation given above. HALOT says that it simply means 'come near' (1134). The Madrid Dictionary classifies this passage under 'Intransitivo" (671). The AV, NJB, NRSV, NJPS, NASB, NET, NIV, and RSV translate the passage as if it were intransitive. 274 This interpretation, however, does not fit with the usual argument structure of the Hiphil of T i p . Usually the 273E.g.,

Lev 7:35; 8:6,13, and 24; Num 3:6; 5:16; and 18:2. also Childs (Childs 1974,216), Durham, citing BDB (Durham 1987, 188-89), and TDOT (Gane and Milgrom 2004,142). 274So

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Agent and the Object roles are a part of the argument structure. Even if the Object is deleted in the realization of the clause, it is usually understood from the context. In the previous verse there is a good candidate for a deleted Object, namely, the Egyptian army that is described at length. It is understandable that the author would not want to repeat the long phrase describing Pharaoh's troops. An intransitive Hiphil is also a possibility, however. Because there are quite a few cases of intransitive Hiphils from stative roots (e.g., 'to be long, lengthen'), that interpretation remains an option. Because of the argument structure of the verb and its realization, the translation given above is slightly preferred here, though the interpretation of an intransitive Hiphil is also a possibility. One other passage should be noted in this section. There is one occurrence of the Pie/ of 1~Xp21s that also appears to serve as a verb of leading. It is in Ps 65:5: 5ai r r i p n i - i n n r i n u t e 5a2 f n a n 5a3 1 J T 2 m m

pur

nusutt

5b ^ ¿ O ^

^i?

5al Happiness of [the one whom] you choose and bring near, 5a2 Who dwells in your courts. 5a3 Let us be satisfied with the good things of your house, 5b Your holy temple. (Ps 65:5)

275 Waltke and O'Connor have an extended discussion (based on the work of Jenni) concerning the difference between the Pie/ and Hiphil stems with the same roots. They indicate that "the Pie/ signifies to bring about a state and the Hiphil, to cause an event" (Waltke and O'Connor 1990, 433). This distinction is relevant here with the root Tip.

174

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Here the Agent is the Lord, the animate, potent, and personal Object stands in the reduced relative clause 'the one whom you bring near', and the Locative is coreferrential to the Agent and is understood as 'to yourself. 7.1.5 Distinguishing Features The Hiphil of 2~lp is used least often to indicate leading of all of the verbs of leading in the Hebrew Bible. Only 27 of 177 passages (15%) fall into this category. Most of the other Class II verbs involve leading about half of the time. The verb's most common use is in the cultic context where animals are brought near for sacrifice. Also, 'leading' occurrences are found almost exclusively in prose. In those prose passages, the Object role is always realized with the marker of the definite direct object. In addition, Locatives occur rather infrequently with the Hiphil of T i p (nine of 27 passages). When they do occur, Goal is the most commonly indicated Locative. There are so few occurrences of the Locative role because, in some passages, the Goal role is coreferrential with the Agent role as a part of the lexical semantics of the verb. Finally, unlike most of the other Class II verbs, the Hiphil of T i p as a verb of leading takes only Objects that are personal. Animals are never the Objects of this verb when it is functioning as a verb of leading.276 7 . 2 T H E HIPHIL OF FBN

7.2.1 General Characteristics The Hiphil of "[^¡l has the basic meaning 'bring, lead, escort' (HALOT, 248) and occurs 45 times in the Hebrew Bible.277 In 38 of these 45 passages this verb functions as a verb of leading, i.e., it shares the argument structure and selectional restrictions of the

276 Animals commonly serve as Objects, however, in cultic contexts with this verb. For a discussion of the animacy of animals brought for sacrifice, see Section 4.3. 277 The Qal means 'to go, proceed, move, walk' (BDB, 230) and occurs much more often than the Hiphil, 1411 times according to Andersen (Andersen, et al. 1989, 307).

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175

Class I verbs of leading. T h e 38 passages are split almost equally b e t w e e n prose (20) and poetry (18). This v e r b occurs in pairs twice. 2 7 8 A n example of the use of this v e r b is in J o s h 24:3:

i n i K ^ i N i -in|n i n y o • r n r m - n ^ o r r u a r n N n p N i :pnr-riN i^'iri^] ijnrriN

279n"un

H - ^ ? ?

I [God] took your father Abraham from beyond the River and I led him through the whole land of Canaan. I made his descendants numerous and gave Isaac to him. (Josh 24:3)

7.2.2 A r g u m e n t - S t r u c t u r e Characteristics. 2 8 0 T h e argument structure of the Hiphil of f b i l is Agent—ObjectLocative. T h e A g e n t s of this v e r b are always animate, potent, and personal. T h e L o r d is the A g e n t in over half of these passages (21). Other A g e n t s include Nebuchadnezzar, 2 8 1 M o s e s (Deut 29:4), the 278 One is an A-B pair with the Hiphil of "pT in Isa 42:16. The other is a B-A pair with the Qui of ^HJ in Lam 3:2. 279 Reading with the Kethiv. 280BDB outlines the meanings in the following way: "1. lead, bring [several subcategories here]; 2. lead away; 3. carry, bring; 4. fig, of influence on character; 5. cause to walk" (236—37). HALOT has: "1. to bring (thing or person); 2. to take (with oneself) something; 3. to cause to move; 4. to lead, escort" (248). DCH has the general meaning "lead, bring, take, cause to go, cause to walk, cause to flow" and then a second meaning "with object used adverbially" (Clines 2001, 557). Gesenius has two meanings: "1. gehen lassen, führen ['make go, lead']; 2. dahinfahren lassen, vertilgen ['make depart, exterminate']" (Gesenius 1987, 277-78). The Madrid dictionary has two meanings also: "1. Llevar(se) ['to lead']; 2. Conducir, guiar, hacer caminar, encaminar ['conduct, guide, make walk, to direct']" (205). This section serves to complement these entries in the lexicons by indicating where this verb functions in a similar way to the Class I verbs of leading discussed in Chapter Two. 281 2

Kgs 24:15; Jer 32:5 ('king of Babylon'); and 2 Chr 36:6.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

man of Ezekiel's vision (Ezek 40:24; 43:1; and 47:6), and 'a man of violence' (Prov 16:29). The Agent is unspecified once, in 2 Kgs 17-27.282

When functioning as a verb of leading the Object role is also realized with an animate, potent, and personal entity in all but one of these 38 passages. In that passage, Isa 63:12, the Object is yi~lT i r n N S n ('his magnificent arm', referring to the Lord). Since the arm is a part of the Lord's body, it has a kind of 'extended animacy' (cf. Section 3.3.4) and can serve as the Object of this verb when it acts as a verb of leading. In one passage with the Hiphil of "[^¡l the Object is deleted (Lam 3:2). It is clear that the Object of the previous verb in the line, 'me', should be read as the Object of this verb as well.283 In the 37 passages where the Object role is explicitly mentioned, the Object is realized as an object suffix on the verb 17 times. It appears with the marker of the definite direct object (JIN) 13 times and it is unmarked (0) seven times. Locative roles are realized in 32 of the 38 passages with the Hiphil of f ? n functioning as a verb of leading. The Path semantic role is the most common, occurring 19 times. It is realized with the preposition 2 13 times, with 0 three times, and with by once.284 The Goal semantic role occurs 14 times and is realized with a directive !1 five times, four times, 0 three times, b y twice, and b once. The Source role does not occur.285 Locative roles are deleted in six of these passages. The modal role of Manner occurs five times with the Hiphil of as a verb of leading. It is realized with 0 four times and D once. The Temporal role appears four times. It has no marking (0) three times and is marked with 2 once. 282 They

are servants of the king of Assyria, who is speaking. Section 1.4.2.4 for more on missing elements in the realization of the argument structure with these verbs. 284 It is also realized with the combination of JO and the directive il in 2 Kgs 24:15 and with the combination Vn and 3 in Jer 31:9 (see discussion below). 285 Two times it appears as if there are multiple Locative roles with one occurrence of this verb. For a discussion of this phenomenon, see Section 1.4.2.3. 283 See

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7.2.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb There seem to be no significant additional semantic features with the Hiphil of f b i l . It seems to indicate leading in a fairly neutral manner. Locative roles are very common with this verb. Therefore it is possible that no Locative roles are lexicalized as a part of the semantics of this verb, as they are with other verbs of leading. It is possible, however, that the role of Manner is lexicalized as a part of the semantics of this verb. Specifically, the type of locomotion of the Object, namely, traveling by foot, may be lexicalized with this verb. The common use of the Path role, which indicates the ground over which the Object traveled, is a possible hint to this feature of the verb. It is also unlikely that this verb would be used, for instance, to describe driving a chariot. Therefore travel by foot may be a part of the semantics of this verb. 7.2.4 Problem Passages The dictionaries mention two passages with the Hiphil of f b i l that could possibly be emended. One of them is worth examining; it is Ezek 36:12.286 n " r n s p u r n b i n u r '•BPTIN DIN o r r b u 'nrfr-irn HPirrKVi n b n i b

Then I will lead people, my people Israel, over you [mountains, see v. 6]. They will possess you and you will become their inheritance. You will no longer leave them childless. (Ezek 36:12)

2S6HALOT also mentions that in Job 12:17 the verb I'VlE) {Hiphil ms Participle) should perhaps be replaced with the noun "[Vo ('advice'; conjectural root "[Vn III in HALOT, 592). Since, however, the MT fits the argument structure of the Hiphil of "[Vn, there is no need to emend this text.

178

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

For the verb TDVim {Hiphil Converted Perfect lcs, root "[^¡l 'lead') the LXX has Yevvriaco 'I will beget' (Ziegler 1952,263), probably reading Hebrew (.Hiphil Converted Perfect lcs, root 'beget'). Zimmerli argues against the LXX because "a reference to Yahweh's 'begetting' would, in view of the context, be extremely odd" (Zimmerli 1983, 231). The last clause of the verse, however, speaks of the mountains not being able to make God's people childless. Therefore one could certainly argue that the context would support the reading of 'beget' found in the LXX. The MT, however, is to be preferred here. The clause conforms precisely to what is expected with the argument structure of the Hiphil of f b i l . The Lord is the Agent, the Object is personal, and the Path role is present with DDvy ('over you'). All of these noun phrases represent the most common realization of this verb. Further, the preposition by is not used with the Hiphil of "T£7"' anywhere in the Hebrew Bible. 287 Therefore the reading of the MT should be retained. 7.2.5 Distinguishing Features The Hiphil of "[^¡1 has the highest percentage of passages where leading is indicated of all of the Class II verbs except for the Hiphil of That is the case in 38 of the 45 passages (84%). Most of the other verbs in this class are used for leading only about half the time. Also Locatives appear in a higher percentage of passages with this verb than with the other verbs (32 of 38; 84%). Even more significant is the number of times that the Path role occurs with this verb. The 19 occurrences of Path with the Hiphil of f b i l represent more than the total number of occurrences of the major Class II verbs combined. 288 So Path is a major feature of this verb. It is possible that the Hiphil of f b i l does not have any significant lexicalized roles or features beyond leading. The role of Manner, 287It

is possible, however, that DD'1?}? could function as an adjunct Locative here if "pVin were adopted. 288The Hiphik of -hy, NU, NX', and 31U? have a combined total of 10 occurrences of the Path role.

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however, could be lexicalized in the verb, namely, the Manner of locomotion, movement by foot. The Lord appears as the Agent in a high number of these passages (21 of 38). Finally, unlike most of the Class II verbs of leading, the Hiphil of f b i l is not used in cultic contexts. 7.3 THE HIPHIL OF I T 7.3.1 General Characteristics The Hiphil of TV has the basic meaning 'bring down' (HALOT, 435) and occurs 67 times in the Hebrew Bible. 289 In 48 of these 67 passages this verb functions as a verb of leading, i.e., it shares the argument structure and selectional restrictions of the Class I verbs of leading. The 48 passages are two-thirds prose (32) and one-third poetry (16). This verb occurs in a pair once. 290 An example of the use of this verb is in Judg 7:4: t r a r r ^ i s ! nniK - n i n i n n u n Tiy

fiynrbii

nirv

DU7 I s ? HQ-UN-i

The Lord said to Gideon, "There are still too many people. Bring them down to the water and I will sift them for you there." (Judg 7:4)

289The

Qal means 'come or go down' (BDB, 432) and occurs more often than the Hiphil, 309 times according to Andersen and Forbes (1989, 337). 290It is an A-B pair with the Hiphil o f b y in 1 Sam 2:6.

180

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

7.3.2 A r g u m e n t - S t r u c t u r e Characteristics. 2 9 1 T h e argument structure of the Hiphil of "TT is Agent—Object—Locative. T h e A g e n t s of this verb are always animate, potent, and personal. T h e L o r d is the A g e n t in one-third of these passages (16). Other A g e n t s include J a c o b ' s sons (Genesis 42:38; 43:7), R a h a b (Josh 2:15, 18), an E g y p t i a n (1 S a m 30:15, 16), and S o l o m o n (1 K g s 2:6, 9). A g e n t s are unspecified three times. 2 9 2 W h e n functioning as a v e r b of leading the Object role is also realized with an animate, potent, and personal entity in 37 of the 48 passages. In another passage, the Object is animate and potent, but not personal (a heifer in Deut 21:4). In the ten other passages with the Hiphil of "TT as a v e r b of leading, the Object has an 'extended animacy', m e a n i n g that it is closely connected with s o m e t h i n g animate. Objects w i t h 'extended animacy' with this v e r b include gray hair (e.g., G e n 42:38; and 1 K g s 2:6, 9) and the ark of the covenant (1 S a m 6:15). 2 9 3 In one poetic passage with the Hiphil of "TT the 291BDB outlines the meanings in the following way: "1. cause to come or go down (with some variation of the Objects taken into account); 2. bring down; 3. let down" (433-34). HALOThns "1. bring down; 2. cause to fall down; 3. send down (with various meanings attached to certain Objects)" (435). DCH has "take down, bring down" among numerous glosses, depending on the Agents and Objects (287—89). Gesenius has the basic gloss 'hinab-, herabsteigen lassen' ('make go down') and then distiniguishes meaning categories based on destinations (e.g., to the 'Underworld') and glosses that fit specific contexts (493). The Madrid dictionary has a group of general glosses headed by 'hacer bajar' ('make go down') and two categories, 1. proper usages and 2. figurative usages (335—36). This section serves to complement these entries in the lexicons by indicating where this verb functions in a similar way to the Class I verbs of leading discussed in Chapter Two. 292 ln Josh 8:29 and 10:27, the Agents are probably members of the Israelite army. Both passages discuss the treatment of the corpses of defeated enemies. In 1 Kgs 1:53, servants of Solomon are probably the Agents. All of these unspecified Agents are 3mp. 293 In the books of Samuel, the ark and the presence and power of YHWH are strongly associated with one another. Because of this close connection with YHWH, the ark has an 'extended animacy'. Also note 2 Sam 6:2 where the ark is associated with the name of God and with his dwelling place.

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Object is deleted (1 Sam 2:6). It is clear, however, that the Object of the verb is 'people' or 'everyone' since the statement is identifying God's general power over life and death.294 In the 47 passages where the Object role is explicitly mentioned, the Object is realized as an object suffix on the verb 23 times. It appears with the marker of the definite direct object (JIN) 16 times, and it is unmarked (0) eight times. Locative roles are realized in 39 of the 48 passages with the Hiphil of "TT as a verb of leading. The Goal semantic role is the most common, occurring 27 times. It is realized with 11 times, a directive ¡1 six times, 0 five times, b four times and n n n once. The Source role occurs eight times and appears as either the preposition JO (6 times) or the compound preposition btfD (twice). The Path role occurs four times, twice with once with and once with a combination of noun phrases. 295 Locative roles are deleted nine times when the Hiphil of "TT acts as a verb of leading. The modal role of Manner occurs nine times with this verb. It is represented with 2 five times, D three times, and 0 once. The modal roles of Comitative (three times with TIN), Reason (once with b, once with 2), and Instrument (once with 2) also occur. The Hophal of TT. There are three passages where the Hophal of "TT serves as a verb of leading.296 One of them is Isa 14:15: 15a "TTn ViKuH?!* 15b ¡ T Q - ' m T - b i S !

15a How you [the king of Babylon] have been brought down to Sheol! 15b To the innermost part of the pit! (Isa 14:15)

294 See

the discussion of missing roles in the argument structure in Section 1.4.2.4. 295 For a discussion of this phenomemon, see Section 1.4.2.3. 296 There are six total occurrences of the Hophal of I T .

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

The argument structure of the Hophal of "TT is Agent—ObjectLocative with the Agent role deleted. In this passage, the animate, potent, and personal Object is "DU?~p W i l of Isa 14:12. The Locative is expressed in both poetic lines (Goal). No Agent is indicated with the Hophal stem. 297 7.3.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb The Hiphil of TV, in addition to leading, has the semantic feature of lexicalizing the direction of motion, namely the downward direction of motion. In this way it serves as an opposite to the Hiphil of which also acts as a verb of leading and lexicalizes the direction of motion, specifically, the upward direction of motion. 7.3.4 Problem Passages Isa 10:13 is a difficult passage. It reads: 131QK r? i3ai •'jvùw H ; r m i3a2 'JTiirn

Tinnii

13bl DWV rfrOA TDK] 1302 •'nunu? D n ^ i n n y ] 13b3 rDpUiV T 2 Ì O T1ÌK1

13 For he [the king of Assyria] said, 13al By the strength of my hand I did [this], 13a2 By my wisdom that I have understood. 13bl For I have taken away the borders of peoples, 13b2 I have plundered their storehouses, 297The

other two passages are Ezek 31:18 and Gen 39:1.

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13b3 And I have brought down [their] inhabitants [like] a mighty one. (Isa 10:13)

HALOT (435) claims that the occurrence of the Hiphil of "TT in line 13b3 should be emended to "TIKI {Qal Narrative lcs, root ¡TTI 'to tread, rule'). It could then be translated, "I have ruled [their] inhabitants pike] a mighty one." The NJB may be following that reading when it translates, "I have subjugated their inhabitants." Most English translations, however, have 'bring down' or something else similar that clearly reflects the root "TT1.298 There is no need to make this emendation. The required argument structure for the Hiphil of TV is present. The Agent is the Lord, the personal, animate, and potent Object is ('inhabitants'), and the Locative case is deleted.299 The modal role of Manner appears in the clause, a role that is common with this verb. For these reasons there is no need to read the root ¡TT~I as suggested by HALOT. The MT should be retained as most of the modern English translations do. 7.3.5 Distinguishing Features The Hiphil of TV is used as a verb of leading more frequently than most of the other Class II verbs. It is used in this way in 48 of the 67 total occurrences (72%). Only the Hiphils of "[^¡l and "[TT are used a higher percentage of the time as a verb of leading. Locative roles occur more often with the Hiphil of T l 1 than with most of the other Class II verbs. They appear in 39 of the 48 passages (81%), only a slightly lower percentage than that of the Hiphil o f f ? ! ! . Also, the Hiphil of "TT lexicalizes the modal role of Manner by specifying the downward direction of the leading. Finally, unlike most of the Class I verbs, the Hiphil of "TT* is not used in cultic contexts where sacrifices are brought.

298 The

LXX (Isa 10:14) has ical oeioco Jto^eig i c a t o n c o u n i v a g 'and I will shake inhabited cities' (Ziegler 1939,161). Perhaps the LXX is reading one of the Hebrew roots 7JH, 1 1 7 3 , o r 113 . 299 The Locative could be understood as 'from a high or safe place'.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

7 . 4 T H E HIPHIL OF UttJ

7.4.1 General Characteristics. The Hiphil of has the basic meaning 'cause to approach, bring near, bring' (BDB, 621) and occurs 37 times in the Hebrew Bible.300 In six of these 37 passages this verb functions as a verb of leading, i.e., it shares the argument structure and selectional restrictions of the Class I verbs of leading.301 All six of these passages are in prose. This verb of leading does not occur in pairs or sequences. An example of the use of this verb is in Gen 48:10: vbii DJIN ufrn rriN-f? bir

iib jpto n i 3 b i n u r TV) •.arb psiTi n r 6 p u h

Now Israel's eyes were failing because of old age. He was not able to see. Then he (Joseph) brought them (Joseph's sons) near to him and he kissed them and embraced them. (Gen 48:10)

300 The Qal means 'draw near, approach' (BDB, 432) and occurs more often than the Hiphil, 68 times according to Andersen and Forbes (1989, 372). 301 The most common usage of the Hiphil of UUJ is in cultic contexts (14 times). It is also common in legal contexts where people 'bring' evidence or a case (Ringgren 1998, 218-19).

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7.4.2 A r g u m e n t - S t r u c t u r e Characteristics. 3 0 2 T h e a r g u m e n t structure of the Hiphil of Utt.2 is Agent—Object—Locative. T h e A g e n t s of this v e r b are always animate, potent, and personal. T h e L o r d is never the A g e n t . T h e A g e n t s are J o s e p h (Gen 48:10, 13), 'his m a s t e r ' (twice in E x o d 21:6), and A h i j a h (1 S a m 14:18). T h e A g e n t is u n s p e c i f i e d in 1 S a m 15:32. 3 0 3 W h e n this v e r b f u n c t i o n s as a v e r b of leading, the Object role is also realized w i t h an animate, potent, and personal entity in five of the six passages. I n the other passage, 1 S a m 14:18, the Object (DTfrNn p-lK 'the ark of G o d ' ) has an 'extended animacy', m e a n ing that it is closely c o n n e c t e d w i t h s o m e t h i n g animate. 3 0 4 In o n e p a s s a g e w i t h the Hiphil of the Object is deleted (Gen 48:13). It is clear, h o w e v e r , that the O b j e c t s of the v e r b are J o s e p h ' s sons m e n t i o n e d earlier in the verse. 3 0 5

302BDB

simply glosses the verb in this stem 'cause to approach, bring near, bring' and then discusses specific passages (621). HALOThas three meanings: "1. to bring in close; 2. in a legal process: a) to produce, b) to adduce; 3. to present (offerings, ephod)" (671). DCH has one main meaning, 'bring near, present, bring' and then considers two optional meanings, 'to draw near' and a meaning directly linked to approaching the divine. (617*18). The Madrid dictionary has four meanings: "1. Genérico: acercer (Generic: to bring near); 2. Alimentos: servir, ofrecer (food: to present, serve); 3. Culto: ofrecer sacrificios (Cultic: to offer sacrifices); 4. Jurídico (Judicial)" (478). This section serves to complement these entries in the lexicons by indicating where this verb functions in a similar way to the Class I verbs of leading discussed in Chapter Two. 303 In this passage, the Agent is an unspecified 3mp. It is probable that Samuel is commanding members of the Israelite army to bring Agag to him. Interestingly, the next clause does not solve the problem because it simply says that Agag came before him with no guidance indicated. (Apparently the army was paying attention to Saul and not Samuel.) 304 In the books of Samuel, the ark and the presence and power of YHWH are strongly associated with one another. Because of this close connection with YHWH, the ark has an 'extended animacy'. Also note 2 Sam 6:2 where the ark of God is associated with God's name and with his dwelling place. 305 See Section 1.4.2.4 for a discussion of missing elements in the realization of the argument structure.

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In the five passages where the Object role is explicitly mentioned, the Object is realized as an object suffix on the verb twice. It appears with the marker of the definite direct object (JIN) twice and it is unmarked (0) once. Locative roles are realized in five of the six passages with the Hiphil of Utt.2 as a verb of leading. The Goal semantic role is the only one that occurs. It is realized with in all five passages. The Source and Path roles do not occur with this verb. The Locative role is deleted in 1 Sam 14:18. In that passage the Locative 'to me' is probably to be understood in Saul's command to Ahijah. 306 No modal roles occur when the Hiphil of Utt.2 acts as a verb of leading. The Hophal of Uttl There is one passage in which the Hophal of U?X2 serves as a verb of leading. The passage is 2 Sam 3:34: 34ai rrhp>r>6 i [ T 34a2 lUttn D ^ n f ? " ^

T^-PI

34a3 ribpj n b i p - ^ a ^ a b Viirn

34al Your [Abner's] hands were not bound 34a2 And your feet were not brought near to bronze (chains). 34a3 You fell like one falls before evildoers. (2 Sam 3:34)

The argument structure of the Hophal of U?X2 is Agent-Object('your Locative (with Agent deleted). Here the Object is feet') and the Locative is • T u y m b ('to bronze chains'). The Object, while not technically animate itself, has an 'extended animacy'

306 This

is also because, with this verb, the Goal may be corefferential with the Agent. See Section 7.4.3 below. Another possibility is that the Locative is present in the ¡"1- ending of the verb, functioning like the Akkadian ventive ending.

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since it is a part of a human body. The Goal is the Locative expected with this verb, based on its prevalence in the Hiphil stem. 7.4.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb Because of the small number of occurrences where this verb functions as a verb of leading, it is difficult to determine additional lexicalized semantic features. It is possible that, like the Hiphil of Tip, the Goal and Agent roles are coreferrential with this verb, i.e., the Object is moved by the Agent towards the Agent, without having to represent the Path role in the clause. In every occurrence where this verb acts as a leading verb, however, the Goal role is mentioned. In non-leading occurrences of the verb, however, the Agent-Goal coreferentiality seems to be present (e.g., Isa 41:21). 7.4.4 Problem Passages There are no major problems with the verbs in these six passages. 7.4.5 Distinguishing Features The Hiphil of Utt.2 is significant in that it serves as a verb of leading relatively few times. Most of the verbs in Class II serve as verbs of leading about half of the time. The Hiphil of however, only does so in six out of 37 passages (16%). Only the Hiphil of 2~lp (15%) has a similarly low percentage. Also, the Hiphil of U?X2 is the only Class II verb of leading in which the Lord does not appear as an Agent. Two further distinguishing characteristics are that the verb only appears in prose and that Goal is the only Locative role that occurs with this verb. The latter characteristic may mean that the Goal role is sometimes lexicalized as a semantic feature of the verb. The small number of occurrences of this verb, however, does not give much certainty to this claim.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

7 . 5 T H E HIPHIL OF m y

7.5.1 General Characteristics. T h e Hiphil of m y has the basic meaning 'cause to pass over, bring over' (BDB, 718) and occurs 77 times in the Bible. 307 In 45 of these 77 passages this verb functions as a verb of leading, i.e., it shares the argument structure and selectional restrictions of the Class I verbs of leading. Only three of these 45 passages are in poetry. A n example of the use of this verb is

T ' l y n n m y n n r f ? m r r •»na PIHK y u n r r i r r i N r f ? n b a n T 2 u n a nrf? n T ^ ' n a njn • y n - n ^

And Joshua said, "O, Lord God, why did you bring this people across the Jordan to give us into the hand of the Amorites and to destroy us?" (Josh 7:7)

7.5.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics T h e argument structure of the Hiphil of m y is Agent—ObjectLocative. T h e Agents of this verb are always animate, potent, and personal. T h e Lord is the Agent in ten of the 45 passages. W h e n the verb functions as a verb of leading, the Object role is also realized with an animate, potent, and personal entity in 41 of the 45 passages with the Hiphil of m y as a verb of leading. In two

307BDB

has the meanings "1. Tread, tread down; 2. Tread (bend the bow); 3. Cause to tread or march" (202). HALOT also has three meanings: "1. Tread down; 2. Cause to tread upon, cause to walk; 3. To catch up with, reach" (231). DCH (463*64), Gesenius (259), and the Madrid dictionary (183*84) have essentially the same divisions as HALOT. This section serves to complement these entries in the lexicons by indicating where this verb functions in a similar way to the Class I verbs of leading discussed in Chapter Two.

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of the other passages, animals are the Objects (Gen 32:24;308 Ezek 14:15). In the other two passages, the Objects can be classified as having an extended animacy.309 The most common Object with this verb is some form of the noun J2 'son'. When this noun is the Object, the phrase is usually referring to the cultic practice of passing children 'through fire'. This cultic usage appears 13 times.310 Locative roles are realized in 35 of the 45 passages with the Hiphil of ~Qy as a verb of leading. The Path and Goal semantic roles are the most common. Path occurs 17 times. It is realized with 2 13 times, with ''isb twice, with by once, and with n n n once. The Goal role appears 15 times. It appears with five times, with b four times, and once each with b y , 2, "TJ7, and no marking (0). Source occurs four times with this verb and appears with JO each time. Locative roles are deleted ten times when the Hiphil of ~Qy acts as a verb of leading. Modal roles occasionally occur with the Hiphil of "Qy as a verb of leading. The role of Reason occurs twice, both times with b. The Benefactive role occurs twice, also with b. The role of Manner p ) occurs once. 7.5.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb Unlike some of the other Class II verbs of leading, the Hiphil of ~Qy does not appear to have any lexicalized roles. The verb describes the movement of an Object (led by an Agent) across something or someone to something or someone. In the realization of the argument structure in some contexts, the verb indicates what

308 Presumably ,t7""lU7N"t7D

included animals. Object nTO'Va in Exod 33:19 has to do with the Lord's presence as it passes before Moses. In Ps 119:37, eyes, part of an animate being, are the Object. 310 The 10 passages with p are Deut 18:10; 2 Kgs 16:3; 17:17; 21:6 (=2 Chr 33:6); 23:10; Jer 32:35; and Ezek 16:21; 20:31; and 23:37. Three other passages use other nouns with a similar meaning: Exod 13:12 (DnTIUS'^D); Lev 18:21 ("[JHTO- deleted, from previous clause); and Ezek 20:26 (Dm "TOS-VD). 309 The

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

thing or person that the Object is crossing (e.g., Num 32:5). In other contexts, the realization of the verb focuses on the final destination of the Object's crossing (e.g., 2 Sam 2:8). 7.5.4 Problem Passages HALOT suggests an emendation to a passage with this verb, Jer 15:14a. In the MT, Jer 15:13-14a reads: i3ai ^pnraiK'i ifVn i3a2 T R M iib JIIN i3b ^ n r ^ r n i

nb

^rn^rrbiiiri

i4ai ^'TNTIN •'mnyni i4a2 r u n ; xb n x s

13al Your strength and your treasures 13a2 I will give away as plunder—not for a price 13b For all your sins or for all your borders. 311 14al And I will cause your enemies to cross over 14a2 Through a land that you do not know. (Jer 15:13—14a)

The verb of 14al, TTQyn (lcs Converted Perfect, root ~Qy Hiphil: 'bring across') in the MT, is understood differently by some ancient versions. It is rendered Kaxa6oD^(00(0 as 'I will enslave you' in the LXX (Ziegler 1957, 227), reflecting Hebrew - [ T m y n (lcs Converted Perfect, root "QJ? Hiphil: 'enslave' with 2ms object suffix). The Syriac and a few Medieval Hebrew manuscripts also re-

311 1 understand the 3 prepositions here as the commercial 3, along with Holladay (1986, 456).

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fleet the reading "[TTTIiyn.312 Also many Medieval Hebrew manuscripts have TTTIiyn 'I will enslave [your enemies]'. The characteristic elements of the argument structure of the Hiphil of ~Qy are present in this passage. There is an animate, potent, and personal Agent (the Lord), an animate, potent, and personal Object ("p^WriN ' y o u r enemies') and a Locative ( ttb

pan

n y - p 'through a land that you do not know'). These arguments, however, can also be typical of the Hiphil of "Qy. 313 Therefore the argument structure and its realization are not able to solve this problem. It seems best to emend the MT to "[TTTIiyn. The confusion between "T and ~l is common enough; and while the loss of the 2ms object suffix is more difficult to explain, it is not impossible. The very similar passage in Jer 17:4 could be brought as evidence for the suffix in 15:14a. Finally, the context seems to demand this reading. Jerusalem is addressed in a judgment speech here. They are the objects of the Lord's anger. It would make more sense if they, and not their enemies, were the ones undergoing the judgment of the Lord. 314 Another text with the Hiphil of ~Qy that possibly could be emended to "Qy is Gen 47:21:

312 Most of the modern translations seem to be reflecting this as well (NRSV, NJB, NIV, NET, French Jerusalem Bible, Traduction Oecuménique de la Bible, and the Revidierte Lutherbibel). The NJPS and Holladay (1986, 447) retain the MT. 313 The Locative would be understood in a different way with the two verbs, however. It would probably designate a Path or Goal with "OV, and a simple adjunct Location with "QJJ. Cf., Jer 17:4. 314 Holladay argues that 15:13-14 are addressed to Jeremiah himself and that the enemies are the Jerusalem prophets who preach prosperity. Therefore he retains the MT and understands it to mean that the false prophets will be brought into a land that Jeremiah does not know. His explanations of what Jeremiah's "treasures" and "power" (v.13) are, however, unsatisfactory. He also does not argue decisively for his position that Jeremiah alone is the addressee here.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

nr-up-binx n^ipp • n u b in'a T i u n oi3n-nNi nn^ip-Tpi

As for the people, he brought them over to the cities from one end of Egypt's border to the other. (Gen 47:21)

For the MT's D n y b T i y n 'he brought them over to the cities' (3ms Perfect root ~Qy Hiphil: 'bring across'), the LXX (Wevers 1974, 447) has mxeôon^dbaaxo at)TCp eiç J t a î ô a ç 'he made them serve him as slaves', reflecting the Hebrew Vorlage "P^yn DHiy*? iriK (3ms Perfect root "Tiy Hiphil: 'enslave, make serve'). The Samaritan Pentateuch and the Vulgate reflect this reading as well. The modern translations are divided. The AV, NJPS, NASB, and the Traduction Oecuménique de la Bible reflect the MT while the NRSV, NJB, NAB, NIV, NET, French Jerusalem Bible and the Revidierte Lutherbibel reflect a reading similar to what is in the LXX above. The characteristic elements of the argument structure of the Hiphil of ~Qy are present. There is an animate, potent, and personal Agent (Joseph), an animate, potent, and personal Object (him/it; presumably referring to DpH) and a Locative (D'Hyb 'to the cities'). The arguments in the passage, however, can also be understood reasonably with the Hiphil of "THy. For that reading the Agent is Joseph, the Object is DpH, iriK 'him' (Joseph) serves as a Benefactive modal role,315 and 'as slaves' functions as a Manner modal role. So the argument structure and its realization are not able to solve this text-critical problem. When other factors are considered, it is probably best to emend the MT to read DHiy*? iriK T i y n . This reading is reflected in some ancient witnesses. While it does require some textual emendation, the changes are not overly extensive. Also, the emended reading makes the most sense contextually. In verse 19 315 For

a similar construction with Î1N, see Jer 17:4.

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the people asked that their land be bought and that they might become Pharaoh's slaves. Verse 20 reports the buying of the land. It makes sense that verse 21 would report the enslaving of the people. 7.6.4 Distinguishing Features The Hiphil of ~Qy is used as a verb of leading a little more than half of the time (45 of 77; 58%). The verb is used almost exclusively in prose passages; there are only 3 occurrences in poetry where it functions as a verb of leading. Locative roles are used quite often with this verb when it functions as a verb of leading, in 35 of the 45 occurrences (78%). The Locative roles of Path and Goal are both common. The verb describes the movement of an Object (led by an Agent) across something (e.g., a barrier) or someone to something or someone. In the realization of the argument structure in some contexts, the verb indicates what thing or person that the Object is crossing. In other contexts, the realization of the verb focuses on the final destination of the Object's crossing. Finally, while the Hiphil of ~Qy is not used in cultic passages involving the sacrifice of animals (like many of the Class II verbs), it does have a specialized cultic usage having to do with child sacrifice in 13 passages. 7 . 6 T H E HIPHIL AND HOPHAL OF "HI

7.6.1 General Characteristics The Hiphil of has the basic meaning 'carry away into exile, take into exile' (BDB, 163) and occurs 38 times in the Hebrew Bible.316 The Hophal, which means 'be carried into exile', occurs 7 times. In all of these 45 passages, it is possible to understand the verb functioning as a verb of leading, i.e., that it shares the argument structure and selectional restrictions of the Class I verbs of leading. It

316 The. Qal means 'uncover, remove, go into exile' (BDB, 162-63) and occurs 48 times.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

appears almost always in prose (40 of 45 times).317 This verb of leading occurs twice in a pair318 and twice in a sequence.319 An example of the use of this verb is in 2 Kgs 24:15a: n ^ i r r n i * Vpi

And he led Jehoiachin into exile to Babylon. (2 Kgs 24:15a)

7.6.2 Argument Structure Characteristics The argument structure of the Hiphil of "hx is Agent—Object—Locative. The Agents of this verb are always animate, potent, and personal. The Lord is the Agent in eight of the 38 passages. Kings are the agents in most of the other passages with this verb (e.g., 2 Kgs 15:29; 16:9). The Agents are unspecified five times.320 With the Hophal-stem occurrences, the Agents are deleted. It also appears that the Object role is realized with an animate, potent, and personal entity in all of the passages with the Hiphil and Hophal of "h), as a verb of leading. Unlike the other Class II verbs, this verb apparently always functions as a verb of leading. There are three passages where this could be debated. In 2 Kgs 16:9; 17:6; and 1 Chr 5:41, cities or countries are the Objects of the Hiphil of ^bx. It is certain in these passages, however, that it is the animate inhabitants of the city or country that are taken away into exile, and not the actual city or country itself. On the one hand, since this verb functions as a verb of leading in every occurrence, the Hiphil and Hophal of "hx could be clas-

317 The

poetic passages are Jer 13:19 a and b, Amos 1:6; 5:27; and Lam

4:22. 318 One is an A-B pair with the Hiphil of "[Vn in 2 Kgs 24:15. The other is an A-B pair with the Hiphil of N13 in 1 Chr 5:26. 319 lt is in an A-B sequence with the Qui of 31U? in Ezra 2:1 and Neh 7:6. 320 2 Kgs 17:27, 28, 33; Jer 22:12; and 1 Chr 8:6.

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sified as a Class I verb. On the other hand, since it is a Hiphil stem of a Qal verb of motion, it also belongs here in Class II. In the 38 passages with the Hiphil of ''bx, the Object role is realized with TIN 17 times, with no marking (0) 14 times, and as an object suffix seven times. Locative roles are realized in 28 of the 45 passages with the Hiphil and Hophal of "h), as a verb of leading. The Goal semantic role is the most common, occurring 21 times. It is realized with a directive ¡112 times, with no marking (0) three times, with three times, and with b three times. The Source role occurs eleven times, appearing each time with JO. In four passages, the Source and Goal roles appear together (Jer 27:20; 29:1 and 4; and Amos 5:27). In these passages, it is best to understand the Source and Goal locatives combining to represent one Path role.321 Locative roles are deleted 17 times with the Hiphil and Hophal of "hx. 7.6.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb. In addition to serving as a verb of leading, the Hiphil and Hophal of "*bx may also lexicalize the Goal role as a part of the lexical semantic features of the verb. The Goal role occurs in almost half of the passages with this verb. Then the Goal role does appear, the verb is characterized by an Object being moved by an Agent to a location "away" from the place where the Object currently resides. That place is always a foreign country. Therefore it is possible that this verb lexicalizes a Goal, perhaps even a specific kind of Goal, namely, a foreign country, as a part of its semantic features.

7.6.4 Problem Passages. The LXX has a different reading than the MT for the Hiphil of ^bx in Ezek 39:28. The passage reads:

32ip or

a

detailed discussion of this, see Section 1.4.2.3.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

cmrrbis! o n à ' l i i o n s on'ribx rnrr 'JN :DU> Dni?

iy-n

tjiïk-KVI a n n - r i ^ y a ^ o p i

And they will know that I am the Lord their God when I take them into exile to the nations and then gather them onto their own soil. I will not leave behind any of them there any longer. (Ezek 39:28) The LXX £V Ttp 8Jtl(f)avfivai a w o i c ; 'when/because I have revealed myself to them' (Ziegler 1952, 281) for ' n f a r n • n f c in the MT. The LXX is probably reading, instead of a Hiphil infinitive construct, the Niphal infinitive construct of "bx {Niphal: 'to expose oneself, reveal, show'). This could represent the same consonants and is probably vocalizing as The tendencies in the realization of the argument structure observed above support the reading in the MT. There is an animate, potent, and personal Agent, an animate, potent, and personal Object, and a Goal Locative role (including the additional specification that the Goal is a foreign country). The realization of the argument structure also appears to be typical for the Niphal of bx. 322 So since the consideration of the argument structure of these readings supports both the MT and the LXX, other factors will have to be considered to solve this problem. Both readings are also possible with regard to the context. For the MT, the clause after the one in question talks about how God will gather his people. A statement about how God scattered them to other nations would certainly fit well before the passage in question. The two clauses would then indeed demonstrate the Lord's identity and power ("They will know that I am the Lord") because he was able to send his people away and then bring them back to their land. It is also possible, however, to understand the LXX's reading contextually. God would certainly be revealing himself po-

322 See

a similar realization in 1 Sam 14:8.

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werfully to them if he regathered them to their land. It is hard to know which reading is original.323 7.6.5 Distinguishing Features. The Hiphil and Hophal of are used as a verb of leading more frequently than any of the other Class II verbs. It is used as a verb of leading in each of the 45 occurrences. In this way it is similar to the Class I verbs of leading. It is included with this group, however, because it is the Hiphil stem of a Qal verb of motion. The Hiphil of "hx, in addition to indicating leading, also lexicalizes the Goal role. This is evident from the frequent appearance of the Goal role with this verb (21 times). In addition, it appears that the Hiphil of ^bx lexicalizes a specific kind of Goal, namely, a foreign country. The Objects of the Hiphil of ^bx are always animate, potent, and personal. People are always the Objects and animals are not. Also, unlike most of the Class II verbs of leading, the Hiphil of "hx does not have usage in cultic contexts. Finally, the verb is almost exclusively used in prose passages, where it appears in 40 of the 45 occurrences.

7 . 7 T H E HIPHIL OF TVT

7.7.1 General Characteristics. The Hiphil of "[~I"T has the basic meaning 'tread down, cause to tread upon, cause to walk' (HALOT, 231) and occurs 12 times in the Hebrew Bible.324 In 10 of these 12 passages this verb functions as a verb of leading, i.e., it shares the argument structure and selectional restrictions of the Class I verbs of leading. Nine of the ten

323 Almost

all of the modern translations read with the MT. Qal means 'tread, bend the bow' (HALOT, 231) and occurs more often than the Hiphil, 48 times, according to Andersen and Forbes (1989, 305). 324 The

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

passages are in poetry. This verb of leading occurs in a pair once. 3 2 5 An example of the use of this verb is in Ps 119:35: 35a T ^ t e p T i m ' i D ' - n n 35b ¡•'man u - » ?

35a Cause me to walk along the path of your commands 35b For I delight in it. (Ps 119:35)

7.7.2 Argument-Structure Characteristics. 3 2 6 The argument structure of the Hiphil o f "[~I"T is Agent—ObjectLocative. The Agents of this verb are always animate, potent, and personal. The Lord is the Agent in eight of the ten passages. The other two Agents are Israelites (Judg 20:43) 3 2 7 and the father (Prov 4:11). When the verb functions as a verb of leading, the Object role is also realized with an animate, potent, and personal entity in all 10 passages with the Hiphil of fTT as a verb of leading. In one passage, Isa 11:15, the Object is deleted. While the object in the clause itself is unclear, it is probable that the Lord's people are in view here. 328 This is an Exodus-tradition context where God's people It is a B-A pair with the Hiphil of "[Vn in Isa 42:16. BDB has the meanings "1. Tread, tread down; 2. Tread (bend the bow); 3. Cause to tread or march" (202). HALOT also has three meanings: "1. Tread down; 2. Cause to tread upon, cause to walk; 3. To catch up with, reach" (231). DCH (463-64), Gesenius (259), and the Madrid dictionary (183—84) have essentially the same categories as HALOT. This section serves to complement these entries in the lexicons by indicating where this verb functions in a similar way to the Class I verbs of leading discussed in Chapter Two. 327 This is not an example of benevolent leading by the Agent. Here the tribes of Israel are defeating the Benjaminites. See the discussion below under 'Problem Passages'. 328 In addition, the phrase D'VjJJ^ is suggestive of the Object. 325 326

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will once again cross over dried-up bodies of water.329 In the nine passages where the Object role explicitly appears, it is realized as an object suffix eight times and has no marking (0) once. Locative roles are realized in seven of the 10 passages with the Hiphil of fTT as a verb of leading. The Path semantic role is the most common, occurring six times. It is realized with 2 five times and with by once. The Goal role appears once, with "TJ). Source does not occur with this verb. Locative roles are deleted three times when the Hiphil of "[~I"T acts as a verb of leading. The modal roles of Reason and Manner p ) occur once with this verb. 7.7.3 Additional Comments on the Lexical Semantics of the Verb. The Hiphil of "fTT, in addition to indicating leading, also indicates the role of Manner as a lexical semantic feature. Specifically, the verb indicates the mode of locomotion of the Object, namely, walking by foot. This Manner role is overtly indicated in one passage, Isa 11:15, where this phrase occurs: D^VJa T I T ™ ' A n d he will cause [them] to walk in their sandals'. Another hint of this feature is that the Path role occurs commonly with this verb. 7.7.4 Problem Passages. Ps 25:5 has a noun phrase that can be understood in several ways. The verse reads: 5ai ^-raVi

'iD'-nn

5a2 'uu^ ' n b x r m j p : ? 5b rDVn-ba •'JTlp ^ n i K

329 A further discussion of missing elements in the realization of the argument structure of these verbs can be found in 1.4.2.4.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

5al Guide me in your truth and teach me 5a2 For you are the God of my salvation. 5b I have waited for you all day. (Ps 25:5)

The phrase "[HOiO, translated above as most English translations have it, 'in your truth', should be more clearly defined. The English translation 'in your truth' could represent several thematic roles. It could be understood as Goal ('into your truth'; cf. NET), Path ('in the path governed by your truth'), or as Instrument ('by means of your truth', or 'by your faithfulness'; cf. REB). 330 The first option, understanding the noun phrase as a Goal thematic role, should be eliminated. Only rarely does the preposition 2 indicate the Goal of a verb of leading.331 Therefore the translation 'in/into your truth' is not preferable. The preposition 2 often represents both the Path and the Instrument roles. Therefore both of these roles are possible in terms of the argument structure of the Hiphil of "[~I"T and its realization. The Path role is a good candidate. Unlike the Instrumental role, it is an essential part of the verb's argument structure. Also, the Path role occurs with 2 four other places with the Hiphil of "[~I"T.332 Finally, in the previous verse of the psalm the psalmist is asking God to make known his path to him and for God to teach him his way. This context seems to support the Path reading. The Instrument role is also possible, however. For example, in those four other passages with the Hiphil of "[~I"T and the preposition 2, the preposition is used with a noun that designates a path, specifically using either "[~I"T or PUTO. Here the noun is "[HON 'your truth'.333 Also, it could be argued that the context argues for 330 Another

possibility, suggested by Dahood, is that the phrase should be translated 'Make me walk faithful to you', i.e., 'in fidelity to you' (Dahood 1966b, 154—56). This might represent a Manner semantic role, a role that is often represented by the preposition 3. It could also be considered, however, just a variant of the Instrumental role. 331 Cf., Section 4.2.2. 332 Isa 42:16; 48:17; Ps 107:7; 119:35. 333 This, however, could be a metaphorical Path.

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the Instrument role. The psalmist had just asked the Lord to make known his path in the previous verse. He would not need to mention the Path again. The psalmist would now ask for God's truth to be the instrument that guides him on that path mentioned in verse 4. Also, while the Locative roles are an essential part of the argument structure, they are often deleted. Here the Locative could be deleted because the Path role was designated in the previous verse. Therefore, both the Path and the Instrument role are possible. The Path role should be slightly preferred. It is a common role with this verb and works well in the context. It should be translated "Guide me in the path governed by your truth."334 Another difficult passage is Jer 9:2. It reads: 2ai -ipu; onu7p a r l ^ - r i N D-JTI 2a2

nru

kVI

2bI IKS; nxn-bN ny-jr? ^ 2b2 ¡ m r r n w W T - ^ •'JIK'I

2al "They have readied their tongue as their bow for falsehood; 2a2 It is not through faithfulness that they are powerful in the land. 2bl They have gone out from evil to evil 2b2 And they do not acknowledge me." Oracle of the Lord. (Jer 9:2)

The translation above reflects the emendation suggested by BUS, HALOT (231), and Gesenius (259). They recommend repointing W I T ] (Hiphil Narrative, 3mp, root "[TT 'to cause to tread') in the 334 The Instrument and Path roles are also possibilities in a similar passage a few lines down in Ps 25:9a. Path is slightly better possibility there as well.

202

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

M T to W I T ] {Qal Narrative 3mp, root "[TT 'to tread, bend the bow'). This emendation is because of the attested Qal idiom "to bend the bow by firmly planting the foot in the middle of it" (HALOT: 231). This emedation seems to be the reading of the LXX, which reads m i ¿VEXELvav xf|v y^oooaav aiJXOOV cba xo|ov 'And they have bent their tongue like a bow' (Ziegler 1957, 194). This reading is also reflected in the AV, NJPS, NRSV, NJB, and most other English translations. BDB (202) maintains that the Hiphil should be read and associates it with the Qal idiom. The problem with this view, however, is that the normally irreducible 1 that usually appears between the second and third consonants of this root is here reduced. 335 Also, this idiom that is attested with the Qal is attested nowhere else with the Hiphil. Therefore the text should be repointed to a Qal stem and translated as above. Finally, one passage with the Hiphil of "[TT as a verb of leading is quite different than the others. It is Judg 20:43: ¡-Di t p i r D ' T r n n n u a i n s r n n [ p ^ r n i *

n m

:U70urmTQp n y r u n

They [Israelites] surrounded the Benjaminites. They pursued them to Menuhah (and) they trod them down as far as the area opposite Gibeah to the east. (Judg 20:43) While this passage has the usual argument structure expected with this verb, its meaning is not the same as the meaning in the other nine passages. Here, God is not the Agent and action is not benevolent. In fact, it is harmful. Also, the semantic nuance of leading is difficult to identify. Perhaps the verb demonstrates the idea that the Israelite army is defeating the Benjaminites as they are pursuing

335Though rare, this reduction does occur (Joiion and Muraoka 1991, 161).

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203

them (from behind) in the chase. 336 The meaning is closest to the Qal meaning 'tread upon' (BDB: 202) that appears in passages such as Deut 33:29. 337 7.7.5 D i s t i n g u i s h i n g F e a t u r e s . The Hiphil of "[~I"T is used as a verb of leading more frequently than most of the other Class II verbs. It is used in this way in 10 of itsl2 occurrences (83%). Only the Hiphik of "[^¡l and "h), are used a higher percentage of the time as a verb of leading. The Lord appears as Agent in a high percentage of these passages (eight of 10; 80%). The Hiphil of "f~l"T, in addition to indicating leading, also indicates the role of Manner as a lexical semantic feature. Specifically, the verb indicates the mode of locomotion of the Object, namely, walking by foot. In addition, unlike most of the Class II verbs of leading, the Hiphil of "[TT does not have usage in cultic contexts. Finally, the verb is almost exclusively used in poetic passages, where it appears in nine of the ten occurrences.

7 . 8 SUMMARY OF CLASS I I VERBS OF LEADING

Class II verbs occur a total of 1901 times in the Hebrew Bible. In 935 of those passages (49%), the verbs are serving as verbs of leading. 338 In the following paragraphs, the features that are common to all of these Class II verbs will be given attention. Then several distinguishing features within the verb class will be discussed. Finally, some general differences between Class I and Class II will be observed.

336 Moore (Moore 1976, 443) suggests that another possible meaning is 'reach, attain'. This is similar to 'overtake', a sense known for this verb from Jewish Babylonian Aramaic (Sokoloff 2002, 352). Both Moore and HALOT (231) list this as an option. 337 Among many other problems with this passage are the presence of two asyndetic perfects and the problem of how to understand nmM. These problems should be explored elsewhere. 338 These statistics will vary slightly depending on one's judgment concerning extended animacy in particular instances.

204

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

7.8.1 Similar Features. All Class II verbs share the same argument structure when they function as a verb of leading, Agent—Object—Locative. The Agents of all Class II verbs are animate, potent, and personal. The Lord is by far the most common Agent with Class II verbs. He appears as the Agent 379 times with these verbs (41% of the occurrences). When the Class II verbs are functioning as verbs of leading, the Object role is always filled with an animate and potent entity. In most occurrences (807), the Object is personal as well. In 32 passages the Objects are animals. In another 96 passages, the Objects are judged to have an 'extended animacy', that is, closely related to some animate entity (e.g., a body part). The Locative role is a characteristic of each of these verbs. The specific Locative roles (Source, Path, Goal) occur with different frequencies with each of the individual verbs and serve to distinguish the individual verbs from one another. The Goal role is the most common, occurring 418 times. Goal is the only Locative role to occur with every Class II verb of leading. Source occurs 245 times and Path 56 times. All of the verbs of this class have their Locative roles deleted in some passages. As indicated above, many of these verbs lexicalize certain Locative roles (e.g., the Hiphil of lexicalizes a specific kind of Goal). 7.8.2 Distinguishing Features.339 While the Class II verbs of leading share several features with one another, there are also several differences among the individual verbs in the class. One of the differences concerns the occurrences of the verbs in a particular genre. Most of the Class II verbs appear much more often in prose. There are two Class II verbs, however, that have about a third of their occurrences in what BHS marks as poetry, the Hiphil of and the Hiphil and Hophal of TV. In addition, one Class II verb of leading, the Hiphil of "(TT, has almost all of its occurrences in poetry (nine of 10). Another distinguishing feature among the Class II verbs is the use of specific Locative roles. Some Class II verbs strongly prefer 339 See

the chart, 'Distinguishing Features of Class I Verbs'.

CHAPTER SEVEN

205

the Goal role (NH, TV, XI p) while others have the Source role more often C^y, N^1). Only the Hiphils of f b i l and ~Qy have Path as the most common Locative role. The use of the Locatives by the particular verbs sometimes reflect lexical-semantic traits that are particular to each verb. For example, the Hiphil of lexicalizes the Goal role while the Hiphil of K^1 lexicalizes the Source role. Each of the verbs in this class have particular lexical-semantic features that distinguish it from the others in the group. Other distinguishing features of these individual verbs such as number of occurrences, number of occurrences as a verb of leading, particular meanings with each verb, and kinds of Objects with each verb can be observed on the chart "Distinguishing Features of Class Two Verbs" in Appendix B. 7.8.3 Class I vs. Class II. As discussed above, Class I verbs of leading only function as verbs of leading in the Hebrew Bible. Their semantic and syntactic characteristics define the group of verbs that are the 'verbs of leading' in the Hebrew Bible. Class II verbs are not technically verbs of leading in themselves. They are translocative verbs that sometimes share the same characteristics as the Class I verbs of leading. Namely, they have the same argument structure, Agent—ObjectLocative, have animate, potent, and human Agents, and have animate and potent Objects. There are some other differences between the two classes, however, that should be noted here in a summary of Class II verbs of leading. Class II verbs of leading are verbs in the Hiphil stem that have corresponding Qal verbs of motion. Class I verbs do not have a corresponding J2«/ verb of motion. Another difference between Class I and Class II is the number of occurrences. Class II verbs occur 935 times in the Hebrew Bible while Class I verbs occur only 94 times. There are also more Class II verbs of leading (eleven) than Class I (six). Finally, Class II verbs appear much more often in prose (771) than in poetry (164), 83% of the time. Class I verbs, however, occur more in poetry (69) than prose (25), 73% of the time.

8

CONCLUSIONS

8 . 1 V E R B BEHAVIOR AND MEANING

Levin made the observation about English verbs (stated in 1.1) that "the behavior of a verb is to a large extent determined by its meaning" (Levin 1993, 1). Levin demonstrates this with English verb classes on the basis of alternations in syntactic behavior, many of which involve the argument structure of the verbs in question and the semantic roles that routinely appear with them. In the present study it has been shown that the same kind of connection between verb behavior and meaning that Levin identified in English verbs can also be identified in at least one particular verb class in Biblical Hebrew, the verbs of leading. All six of the Class I verbs of leading share the same argument structure, AgentObject—Locative. In addition, the realization of the argument structure in each of these verbs has common features: their Agents are realized as animate, potent, and personal entities and their Objects are realized as animate and potent entities. The eleven Class II verbs of leading also display this argument structure and realization in many of their occurrences. The identification of these common features also serves to exclude certain verbs from being a part of this verb class. Specifically, the Pie/ of ""lU^, as in the Prov 3:6 passage quoted in the introduction, is not a part of this verb class. It does not take animate Objects and uses the Locative case only twice. 340

340The other passages are Isa 40:3; 45:2, 13; Prov 9:15; 11:5; 15:21; 119:128; and 2 Chr 32:30.

207

208

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Missing elements in the realization of the argument structure of these verbs were also dealt with in this study. It was observed that several contextual considerations could explain the absence of the Objects and Locatives. The contextual explanations included the fact that the missing roles were present in neighboring clauses, object omission, idiom abridgement, and understanding the tradition-historical context. In addition to these contextual considerations, covert roles (lexicalized roles and coreferrential roles) were discussed to explain missing elements as well. The lexical semantics of the verbs of leading often involve these covert roles. These lexical features were discussed in the treatment of each of the verbs. 8 . 2 DISTINGUISHING WITHIN THE V E R B CLASS

It was also proposed in the introduction that this study could help distinguish between the individual members of the verb class. These distinguishing features could highlight any potentially specialized meanings of one verb or another and begin to answer the question, "Why would the author have chosen this verb of leading instead of another?" 341 As this study has shown, while there are shared characteristics that bind these 17 verbs into this verb class, there are also many distinguishing features that separate the individual verbs from one another. First of all, there are two major classes of verbs of leading. Class I verbs of leading are the Biblical Hebrew verbs that always display the characteristics of the verb class mentioned above. The Class I verbs are TU in both th c Qal and Hiphil, AH J in both th c Qal and Pie/, b y in the Hiphil (and Hophal), and bilJ in the PieI. These verbs occur about 100 times in the Hebrew Bible. The second group of verbs that indicate leading in the Hebrew Bible are not, in fact, verbs of leading in themselves. They are better classified as translocative verbs. These Class II verbs are the Hiphik of Kin, aw, mp, I T , urn, m y , bx, and 341 Obviously, the confidence with which that question can be answered depends on the particular verbs in question. There can be great confidence with the commonly occurring Class I verbs such as NHH and ilVjJn. Statements about the verbs that occur less often, however, must be made with more care.

CHAPTER EIGHT

209

"[TT. Most of these eleven verbs, however, function just like verbs of leading in about half of their occurrences. Not only that, but the occurrences of these verbs that function like verbs of leading (about 1000 times) far outnumber the occurrences of the verbs that are the actual verbs of leading (about 100 times). Also, as the summaries in the text and the summary charts show, there are distinguishing features of the individual verbs themselves that separate them from one another. Here are some examples: there are some verbs that seem to be restricted to either poetry or prose, or at least occur in one or the other most of the time. There are some verbs where the Lord is the only entity that serves as the Agent, and there are some where he is never the Agent. There are some verbs that prefer only personal Objects and others that feature animals or other Objects that have an 'extended animacy'. Some verbs prefer certain Locative roles more than others. There are also certain lexical-semantic features (coreferrential roles or lexicalized roles) that distinguish the verbs from one another. These are just a few examples of the many distinguishing features of the individual verbs in this class. These distinguishing features are helpful because they can bring light to why a certain verb of leading was chosen by the author over others. For example, in Ps 119:35, the author chose the Hiphil of TTT to say "pm^Q I T U l r D m n ('Cause me to walk in the path of your commandments'). This choice makes sense because the Hiphil of "[~I"T occurs almost exclusively in poetic passages (nine of 10 times), often employs the Path role (six of seven Locative roles are Path), has the Lord as Agent most of the time (eight of 10), has only personal Objects, and occurs in passages where the Agent is acting benevolently towards the Object.342

342 The Qal or Hiphil of TU would fit comfortably in this passage as well, which shows that absolute distinctions are more difficult to draw. Some of the 17 verbs of leading share several characteristics with one or two other verbs in the class. It is fairly clear, however, that the Hiphil of 'V}?, for example, a verb that never takes the Path role, would not work in this passage.

210

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

8 . 3 TEXT-CRITICAL PROBLEMS

In the previous chapters the analysis of the verbs of leading has provided insight into several text-critical problems that occur in the Hebrew Bible. In many cases the analysis of the argument structure of these verbs and its realization was unable, in itself, to solve the problem. 343 In other places it was not able to solve the problem, but was able to eliminate one or more possible readings. 344 In other places, however, the analysis of the argument structure and its realization was the key to solving the problem. Such passages are Ps 61:3 (Section 2.6.4); Isa 40:31 (Section 3.5); and Ex 14:9-10 (Section 7.1.4) and Ps 25:5 (7.7.4). 8 . 4 HEBREW STEM SYSTEM

Some observations can be made from this study about the structure of the Hebrew stem system, especially as it involves the relationship between the Qal and Hiphil stems. Specifically, two observations can be made. The first observation is that, at least for the verbs of leading, movement from the Qal to the Hiphil stem involves the addition of one argument. The Class II verbs of leading are Hiphil stems of verbs that have a corresponding Qal verb of motion. The argument structure of the Qal verbs of motion (based on a representative sample) is Object—Locative, two arguments. The argument structure of the Hiphil verbs of leading of the same root is AgentObject—Locative, three arguments. This additional argument is the difference between the Qal and Hiphil stems of these verbs. 345 The second observation that can be made, one that is closely related to the first, is that the movement from Qal to Hiphil in-

343 Though

the analysis was often able to affirm all of the particular possibilities as viable options. Cf., the discussion of Deut 33:7 in Chapter 3. 344 Cf., the discussion of Ps 85:4 in Chapter 5. 345 Lyons discusses languages such as Hebrew which have a "productive causative construction." He says, "This has the effect of increasing the valency of the verb by I, so that intransitive verbs become transitive, as it were, and transitive verbs become ttivalent" (Lyons 1977, II: 487).

CHAPTER EIGHT

211

volves the addition of an Agent argument. 346 While the idea of motion is present with the Qal form of these verbs, the cause of that motion, the Agent, is present in the Hiphil stem. These observations fall in line with the extended discussion of the Hiphil stem in Waltke and O'Connor (1990, 433-446). 8.5 AVENUES FOR FURTHER RESEARCH This study leaves much left to be done and opens up possibilities for further studies. There are at least four avenues for further research that come from or are related to this study. First of all, an analysis similar to this one could be done with all verb classes in Biblical Hebrew. While such a project is vast, it would yield many of the same benefits achieved here with other Hebrew verbs, along with many additional benefits that would come from the comprehensive study. First of all, it would possibly confirm at a comprehensive level for Biblical Hebrew the contention of Levin that verb behavior and meaning are essentially related. Having a similar analysis of every verb class would also allow for the production of a lexicon based on verb classes and the similarities and alternations of their argument structures. 347 In addition, it would allow for a more comprehensive analysis of the stem system in Biblical Hebrew. This possibility leads to the second avenue for further research, the further investigation of the stem system. The observations made here should be added to a more thorough analysis of the argument structures of different verbs and verb classes in their different stems. This further study would either confirm that the

346The reason that these two observations need to be made distinct is that there are some, such as Cook, who might argue that the Agent role is present in the Qal verbs. The Agent role could be seen as coreferential with the Object role in these instances (Cook 1989, 203). It was argued above that such an understanding is unlikely (see Section 1.4), but without a similar comprehensive analysis of the verbs of motion, that possibility should not be discounted. 347Another option would be that a detailed appendix for existing lexicons could be created in order to supplement the important lexical information already present in the existing lexicons.

212

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

difference between the Qal and Hiphil is the addition of one argument or show that observation to be a particular characteristic of particular verb classes (e.g., verbs of leading). It would also show more about other stems and perhaps allow observations about them to be made. A third and more specific avenue for research, one that would help with regard to both of the previous two avenues, is a comprehensive study of verbs of motion similar to the one done here. Among other things, such a study would specifically bring more light onto the problem of whether or not the Object role is coreferential with the Agent role in Qal verbs of motion. Finally, a fourth avenue of research that would supplement this study would be the comprehensive study of verbs of leading in other Semitic languages. Specifically, a comparison with the same verb group in epigraphic Hebrew and its closest cognate languages (Northwest Semitic) could bring more insight to the use of particular verbs in Hebrew and identify some linguistic innovations of Biblical Hebrew in the context of the history of the Semitic languages.

APPENDICES

The appendices contain summaries of the research above in chart form (A and B) and the linguistic data used above from every occurence of the verbs of leading in the Hebrew Bible (C and D).

213

214

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

APPENDIX A : DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF CLASS I VERBS Verb, # of Occurrences

Genre

Agents

Objects

Locatives

Qui* ru llx

mostly poetic (8/11)

God always

persons always

Goal 4x Path 5x

Hiphil''TU 27x

mosdy poetic (24/27)

God (21/27)

persons always

Path 7x Goal 2x Source 2x

Qali ru 20x

mostly prose (13/20)

God is Agent only once -strong Agents

-persons and animals -weak Objects

Path l x Goal 2x

PieU ru lOx

poetry/prose equal

God is Agent (9/10)

persons and nonpersons

Path 2x Goal 2x

Hiphil and Hophalb 18x

Poetic always

God not often Agent

persons, nonpersons, and tributes

Goal lOx Source 3x Path 2x

Pieloibm 8x

Mostly poetic (7/8)

God 5x

persons and nonpersons

Path 2x Goal lx

Other Features -Suffixing formsSuppletive with Hiphil -Benevolent -lexicalized Path -Prefixing forms -Suppletive with Qai -Benevolent -lexicalized Path -'drive' gloss -lexicalized manner of travel (with animals) -Both benevolent and violent, manipulative -lexicalized manner of travel (with animals) used for persons -both benevolent and violent, manipulative -lexicalized Goal -tribute -Manner of motion (vehicle) lexicalized? -Often occurs in pairs -'supply' - water

215

APPENDICES

APPENDIX B : DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF CLASS I I VERBS Verb, # of Genre Agents Occurrences mostly God 52x Hiphil "by prose (97) 120x (of 255)

Objects

Locatives

Other Features

Source 67x persons - 95 Goal 31x animals - 4 extended - 21

-upward direction of motion lexicalized

-most occurrences -lexicalized Goal role

Hiphil KU 247x (of 552)

mostly God 88x prose (207)

persons - 216 Goal 192x Source 20x animals - 13 extended - 18 Path 3x

Hiphil wr* 184x (of 281)

mostly God 106x prose (156)

persons - 177 animals - 5 extended - 2

Hiphil 1W 165x (of 353)

2/3 prose God 63x (112)

persons - 116 Goal 72x Source 22x animals - 7 extended - 42 Path 4x

Source 112x -lexicalized Source Goal 32x role Path 3x

mostly God 5x Hiphil and prose (26) Moses lOx P«/np 27x (of 177)

persons only

Goal 8x Source l x

HiphH^bn 38x (of 45)

prose 20 poetry 18

God 21x

persons only

Path 19x Goal 14x

-most occurrences in poetry (53) -lexicalized Goal, where Object had been previously -lowest percentage with leading mng (15%) -Agent and Goal coreferential -lexicalized Manner of locomotion

Hiphil and Hophal'TT 48x (of 67) Hiphil and Hophal mi 6x (of 37)

prose 32 poetry 16

God 16x

persons - 37 animals- 1 extended - 10

Goal 27 Source 8 Path 4

-downward direction of movement lexicalized

prose only God is never the Agent

persons - 5 extended - 1

Goal - 5

-fewest occurrences -Agent and Goal coreferential?

prose 43 poetry 2

God lOx

persons - 41 animals - 2 extend - 2

Path 17x Goal 15x Source 4x

Hiphil and Hophal hi 45x (of 45)

prose 40 poetry 5

kings or God (lOx) are Agents

persons - 45

Goal 21 x Source l l x

Hiphil T^ lOx (of 12)

poetry 9 prose 1

God 8x

persons only

Path - 6 Goal - 1

-two types of Goals: point that is crossed or final destination -child sacrifice -lexicalized Goal of a foreign country -all occurrences are leading -highest percentage of occurrences in poetry -benevolent guidance -lexicalized Manner of locomotion

45x (of 77)

216

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

APPENDIX C : CLASS I V E R B OCCURRENCES

C.l Introduction The following pages show the occurrences of the Class I verbs of leading with their arguments and semantic roles. The following categories are listed for each verb occurrence: 1. Verb (with root and Stem) 2. Bible Passage 3. Agent 4. Object 5. Object Realization (the prepositions or markers that appear with the Object, if any) 6. Complements 7. Semantic Role of Complements 8. Adjuncts 9. Semantic Role of Adjuncts These charts will allow the reader to view and evaluate the judgments made in this study in each of the passages with these verbs.

217

APPENDICES

C.2 The Qal of TU Verb

'n: G

Bible Agent Passage Gen 24:27 nw

Object Object Compi Semantic Adjunct Realiz'n Role me sffx .. . r m Path

Semantic Role

TIN i r a ra

'ru G

Exod 13:17

ffi-ÒN

them

sffx

HX "[TT

Path

trinca

'ru G

Exod 15:13

(mrr)

'ru G

Exod 32:34

you (Moses)

'n: G 'n: G

Isa 58:11 Ps 5:9

you

•pona

It-QJJ

0

nbi« oyn

nK

mir

you

sffx

you (HIT)

me

sffx

ran j yrh

me

sffx

mixa

-[np-rsa jüab

me

sffx

oi-m-ry

nm' you

"iu>î< bu Goal -\b 'mat

TITO; Path

'n: G

Ps 27:11

'n: G 'n: G

Ps 60:11 Ps 77:21

you (tmbN)

•py

0

'n: G 'n: G

Ps 108:11

'0

me

sffx

OTTX-ry

Goal

me

sffx

T-m

Path

-to'O

Ps 139:24 you

Instr

Reason

'TITO Goal

nu>irva ¡«sa pnm

obiy

Temp Reason; Instr

Instr; Mnnr

218

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

C.3 The Hiphiloî^m Verb c

Bible Agent Passage Gen 24:48

Object me

Object Compl Realiz'n Sffx Tvn

Semantic Adjunct Role Path nnpb

Semantic Role Reason

'Oîcna-nN

na«

uab TTN c c 'ru c

'ru c 'ru c

Exod them (nw) 13:21 Num me pba 23:7 Num a m a - i b a me 23:7 (gapped) (gapped) Deut Lord him 32:12 Isa 57:18 I him

'ru c

Ps 23:3

c

Ps 31:4

Sffx

Trrn

Path

Sffx

d i n ja

Source

Sffx

mna

Source

otp Sffx

Tra

Manner

iau> jyab

Reason

Sffx

¡nrr

me

Sffx

(Lord) you

me

Sffx

me

Sffx

them (o^aub

sffx

^yaa

Path

pis

'ru c

Ps 43:3 nan light, truth Ps 67:5 you O r b «

'ru c

Ps 73:24 you O r b «

'ru c

Ps 78:14

'ru c

n*a) Me

Sffx

iau> jyabi Reason

•jmya

Path

them (Israel) them Ps 78:14b (trnbN) (gapped) (gapped) He

Sffx

oav ;pya

Sffx

m -n«a;

Ps 78:53

Sffx

noab

Mnnr

he them (his (David) people)

Sffx

nuiana

Instr

(mrr)

them (his people)

Sffx

(nw)

Me

Sffx

Ps 143:10 naio i n n

Me

Sffx

'ru c

Job 12:23 (ffnbs)

Sffx

'ru c

Job 31:18

them (nations) her rurfcN

c 'ru c

(trnbN)

C7K) he

'ru c

Ps 78:72

'ru c

Ps 107:30

'ru c

Ps 139:10

c

them (Israel)

nVVbai

Temp; Instr Instr; Temp

V33 nnn-bs

Goal

osan 00

Path

psa

Path

XT'

Instr

t i n joaai

Temp

-lU^n

Oob) I

Sffx

219

APPENDICES

Verb

'ru c

Bible Agent Object Object Compi Passage Realiz'n sffx Job 38:32 you-Job rpirrti? You Prov 6:22 nisa or nK

'ru c

Prov 11:3

nan

Them

Sffx

'ru c

Prov 18:16

trm jna

Him

Sffx

'ru c

Neh 9:12a

You (nw)

Them

Sffx

'ru c

Neh 9:12b (gapped)

(you) (nini)

(them)

Sffx

'ru c

Neh 9:19

(nm)

Them

Sffx

'ru c

Semantic Adjunct Role

Semantic Role

labnnna

Temp

oar;

Temp; Instr

min

uabi

Goal

trVn py n a y a

Temp; Reason; Instr vix n a y a Trina

Path

220

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

C.4 The QaloììTU Verb an: G

Bible Agent Object Passage Gen 31:18 Jacob -ba-nN m:pa

Object Compi Semantic Adjunct Semanti Realiz'n Role c Role Reason ¡on1? n« pnü'-^K

-ba-nNi iubn an: G

Exod 3:1

Moses

jxsn-nx

nx

ms

Goal

latan :n: G

1 Sam 23:5 David

:n: G

1 Sam 30:2

:n: G

1 Sam 30:20

:n: G

1 Sam 30:22

:n: G

2 Sam 6:3

onnpa-nN

nx

(trran)

0

David's men

npan

0

men who stayed behind

(wife, children)

0

«ryi

nbjyn-nx



m VONI

nunn

Path n:pan Ninn

mm« :n: G :n: G

2 Kgs 4:24 ( m y : ) 2 Kgs 9:20 «in 1

:n: G

Isa 11:6

j op ny:

:n: G

Isa 20:4

ute-lbn n

(jinan)

0

(chariot?)

0

them (animals)

a n«

•pintfn

Mnnr

a r a tyri

Mnnr

1NÏ3

Mnnr

nmm

Instr

trnsa nibrnNi . . . 013

:n: G

Isa 60:11

onoba

0

:n: G

Ps 80:2

(you)

10V

0

:n: G

Job 24:3

they

trow nan

0

:n: G

Song 8:2

1

you

Sffx

Eccl 2:3

vb

(me)

0

:n: G

Lam 3:2

he

me



:n: G

1 Chr 13:7

nry

rfwya

a

Vn-nN

nx

:n: G

•PONI :n: G

1 Chr 20:1

aw

¡osn

Appendices Verb

an: G

Bible Passage

2 Chr 25:11

Agent Amaziah

Object

inp-ns

221

Object Compi Semantic Adjunct Semanti Realiz'n Role c Role



222

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

C.5 T h e Piel of r u Verb

Bible Agent Passage Gen you 31:26 Exod 10:13

nur

Exod 14:25 Deut 4:27

he

Object

wnn trip nn

Object Compi Realiz'n nN 0

fixa

Semantic Adjunct Semantic Role Role nvaub Mnnr Path

nn ovn-bi

Temp

Ninn

nWn-bn Mnnr mm

sffx

nur

it (chariot?) you (pi)

nN

(nnu>)

Goal

Deut 28:37

nur

you

sffx

(nnu>)

Goal

Isa 49:10

onmn

them

sffx

Isa 63:14

you

lay

0

Ps 48:15

us

sffx

Ps 78:26

sin he

Ps 78:52

he

ton them

sffx

p; mwyb Reason; Mnnr

mirby

Goal

-ami

Path

0

itya

Instr

TTJJ3

Mnnr

223

APPENDICES

C.6 T h e Hiphiloî by Verb

bïC bïC bïC

Bible Agent Passage Isa 23:7 rrbn Jer 31:9

i

Hos 10:6 they; it

her

Object Compi Semantic Adjunct Realiz'n Role sffx pimo Source •tab

them

sffx

it

nN

Tima

0

me

sffx

bïC

Zeph 3:10

bïC bïC

Ps 60:11 Ps 68:30

trabo

0

bïC bïC

Ps 76:12

va^ao-ba

0

Ps 108:11

nny 'sia-na

Object

me

sffx

-nu*«1:

Goal

Semantic Role Reason

alunna -\bab nn:o IT

Mnnr

•frano obuhT-bp;

Benef; Reason

Mnnr

-ayo Source toia-'in:1: usa TJ> Goal

«-na1: -una TJ>

Goal Goal

224

V E R B S OF L E A D I N G IN T H E H E B R E W B I B L E

C.7 The Verb

Hophaloîby

•ar Cp

Bible Passage Isa 18:7

•ar Cp

Isa 53:7

•ar Cp

Object

Complement Semantic Role Path rn&as nii-rt

Adjunct

Semantic Role Temp njn

. . . op naob

Goal

Isa 55:12

nu> you

bïC

Hos 10:6

they; it

-ITON1:

Goal

b ï Cp

Hos 12:2

b ï Cp

Ps 45:15

b ï Cp •ar Cp

Ps 45:16 Job 10:19

pu> she flbn-ruv.14) they

b ï Cp Cp

oibrà

Mnnr

-\bab nn:o

Mnnr

IT Goal •]bab

Goal

I

jvno napb

Job 21:30

they

n r a y ovb

Goal; Source Goal

Job 21:32

sin

nmpb

Goal

nmp-ft

Mnnr

Vui nnou>n

Mnnr

225

APPENDICES

C.8 T h e Verb

PieloîbTtt

Bible Agent Object Passage Gen Joseph them 47:17

Exod 15:13 pair ba Isa 40:11

you

0

(nw) ¡nrr

Isa 49:10 ( o o m o ) pair ba prev line Isa 51:18

del (DP)

Object Compi Realiz'n sffx

rs

nirbs

Semantic Adjunct Role

Semantic Role orupn-bai; Instr; Temp; Mnnr orón

Goal

Itpa

Instr

•juhp mbp

0

them

sffx

her

b

'puo-bp

Path

tro

om-bao mV Ps 23:2

you (nw)

me

sffx

Ps 31:4 pair ba 2 Chr 28:15 pair ab

¡nrr

me

sffx

them

sffx

'a-bp

Path

mmn

bvm-bib-, mora

Benef; Instr

226

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

C.9 The Possible Class I Verb "QU? (Qui) Verb

Bible Agent Passage Gen Unspecified G 31:26 Gen Jacob's sons G 34:29

Object

Object Compi Realiz'n

del (my daughters)

oVrrba

Semantic Adjunct Semantic Role Role nn Mnnr



oavrba-nNi QiTra-nxi

Num 21:1 Num 24:22 Num 31:9

Canaanite king of Arad

uoo

0

'3U>

Mnnr

"ITON

you (Kenites)

sffx

na-ry

Temp

pn

na

'30 G

Deut 21:10

you (Israel)

V3U>

0

'30 G

Judg 5:12 1 Sam 30:2

0J>r3iCJ3

T3U>

0

Amalekites

. . . trran



13103

Instr

G G '3U> G

'3U> G

'30 G

lKgs 8:46a

'3U> G

lKgs 8:46b lKgs 8:47 lKgs 8:48

'30 G '30 G '3U> G '30 G

'3U> G

lKgs 8:50 2Kgs 5:2 2Kgs 6:22

Isa 14:2a Isa '30 G 14:2b '3U> G Isa 61:1 '30 G

'30 G

'3U> G

Jer 41:10a

bN-iiy'-m

oavrnNi

bra

Enemies Enemies -|U>N (their enemies) Enemies Arameans

them (people)

sffx

them (people) them (people) them (people)

sffx

them (people)

sffx

n:op m y :

0

. p&rt«

Goal

Ì1311P . .

sffx na

pNQ

Source

bíí-iú?'' king of Israel

0 (unspecified)

-[inypx

Unspecified

0iT3U>

b

Unspecified

them (unspecified) Del

sffx

. . miw-ba



Unspecified

Op'ON .

Jer m n r p ^ y o u ^ them (see 41:10b 10a)

sffx

227

APPENDICES

Verb

Bible Agent Passage Jer G 41:14

Object

(oyn)

Object Compi Semantic Adjunct Semantic Realiz'n Role Role 0 n a s o n - j o Source

Jer 50:33 'au> G Obad 1:11 'au> G Ps 68:19

Unspecified

(people) them (Egyptian gods) them (Israel)

onr

iVn

0

you (God)

>nu>

0

Ps 106:46 G Ps 137:3

Unspecified

them (Israel)

sffx

Unspecified

us (Israel)

sffx

G

Jer 43:12

'au> G

'au> G

'au> G

Nebuchadnezzal

1 Chr Reubenites, etc. . . . o m p n 5:21 (V. 18)

sffx

sffx

0

lbs

'au> G

2 Chr 6:36a

'au> G

2 Chr 6:36b 'au> G 2 Chr 6:38 G 2 Chr 14:14

'au> G

2 Chr 21:17

'au> G

2 Chr 25:12

'au> G 'au>

2 Chr 28:5 G 2 Chr 28:8

G

'au> G 'au>

(enemies) unspecified (men of Judah)

(Philistines and Arabs)

mirr Syrians

sffx

them (people) them (people)

sffx

2 - b Ji«2

0

. p&rtN

Goal

mnp.. na

trbnn .. utoirrta na vrái. trabN mú>y

0

o"n rftvn ¡rnu>

0

. . . OTINO

0

unn

Source

OSTINO

Source

nun

2 Chr army in Samaria (v. 9) 28:11

2 Chr 28:17 G 2 Chr 30:9

them (people)

0 (captives)

Edomites

>nu>

0

Unspecified

them (brothers and sons)

sffx

228

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

APPENDIX D : CLASS I I V E R B OCCURRENCES

D.l Introduction The following pages show the occurrences of the Class II verbs of leading with their arguments and semantic roles. The following categories are listed for each verb occurrence: 1. Verb (with root and stem) 2. Bible Passage 3. Agent 4. Object 5. Object Realization (the prepositions or markers that appear with the Object, if any) 6. Complements 7. Semantic Role of Complements 8. Adjuncts 9. Semantic Role of Adjuncts These charts will allow the reader to view and evaluate the judgments made in this study in each of the passages with these verbs.

229

APPENDICES

D.2 The Hiphil of Verb

Bible Agent Pssge •hy C Gen 37:28 C Gen 46:4 •hy C Gen God 50:24

as a Verb of Leading Object

Objet Compl Rlztn

10V

nx

you (Jacob)

sffx

you (pi- Jacob's sons)

nx

-nan-jo

p¡N Exod 3:8

c

I (God)

him (Israel)

sffx

p¡a-n abn

you them (Aaron •hy C Num 20:25 (Moses) and Eleazar) us •hy C Num you (Moses 21:5 and God) him (Balaam) •hy C Num pba 22:41 you •hy C Deut (mm) 20:1 them (men) c Josh 2:6 (Rahab) they (all them c Josh 7:24 Israel) •hy c Josh «in un« 24:17 irnuN-nNi c

•jnaa

oa^N

Goal

231

APPENDICES

Verb

Bible Agent Object Pssge them (Israel) •hy C 1 Sam nirr 8:8 •>by C 1 Sam (nirr) 10:18 oa^niaN •>by C 1 Sam -IU>N (mm) 12:6 him (David) •>by C 1 Sam traîna 19:15 •hy C 1 Sam nu>N 28:8 •hy

awcnbya C 1 Sam I ( n w 28:11a awrnbya)

•hy

C 1 Sam

tmsaa

nx

tmsaa

Source

nx trisa f i x a Source Goal

nx nx

inanb Reason N rraxi irrai U^N . . .

0

c 2 Sam

(HI oyn-bai in« -IU>N)

trnbNn JI-IN . . . -IU>N

nN

c 2 Sam

nt

trnban JI-IN

nx

nay rraa Source; nnatoa Goal n i -ry ;ok
N 23:8 Jer NIRR 30:17

them

NX a n s a pNO Source NX a n s a pNO Source NN

pas pNO

Source

niTiNn bam

M

NX a n s a pNO Source

Neighb Line nan«

0

Goal

Comit

233

APPENDICES

Verb

'by 'by

Bible Agent Object Objet Compl Pssge Rlztn C Jer I (mm) «aim na-iN 0 nb 33:6 you C Jer ¡^a:n imam nx man-ja 38:10 ClbQ-iny)

'by C 'by

Jer servants of him (Jeremiah) nx 38:13 the king C Jer truHS-Vn him (Zedekiah) sffx 39:5

•hy C

•hy

C

•hy

C

'by c 'by c •hy

c

'by c •hy

c

'by c 'by c 'by c 'by c 'by c 'by c 'by c 'by c

Jer 50:9

(mrr) trb-u tmrbnp

Jer you 51:27 (nations of the earth?) Jer truHS-Vn 52:9

Ezek 16:40 Ezek 19:3 Ezek 23:46 Ezek 26:3a Ezek 29:4 Ezek 32:3 Ezek 37:12 Ezek 37:13 Ezek 39:2 Hos 12:14 Amos 2:10 Amos 3:1

Amos 9:7a 'by c Amos gapped 9:7b

DID him (-[ban)

0

Smantic Adjnct Smantic Role Role Goal Source

man-ja

Source

sx-rraiarby baa--[ba n f-ixa nnban nan ; jias p-ii -¡toa-baa ... baa

tnsn-bN

Goal

0

nann-bx

Goal

ri«

prer

her (Rebecca)

sffx

&

him (Jacob)

sffx

nay IU>N (tayn nayn) jopn oa'riN

Gen you 42:20 (brothers) you jopn oa'riN NU C Gen 42:34 (brothers) plNI him (Benjamn) NU C Gen 42:37 Judah him (Benj) NU C Gen 43:9 NU C Gen trutoNn 43:16



nann-bx nrr an nn^s

Comit; Reason

rnto nbn^n ins irra-bN

Goal Goal

Goal Goal

nansa

Goal

0

Goal

0

Goal



nnK rrnnb

Goal

her (ntib) na 10V

S m a n i e Adjunct S m a n t c Role Role Goal niN-ò Reason

sffx

01*7

NU C

Gen 43:17 NU C Gen 43:24 NU C Gen 44:32

cnsn-bs

na

&

NU C

Object C o m p i Realiz'n

it (dove)

Noah

Gen 29:13 NU C Gen 29:23 NU C Gen t^Nyau^ 37:28 del NU C Gen 39:14 (Potiphar) you NU C Gen 39:17 (Potiphar) NU C

Object

•bK

na

Goal Goal

sffx

T*

Goal

sffx

T*

Goal



nrran

Goal

irra-by u^Nn

trutoNn



«pr nrra

Goal

u^Nn

trutoNn

na

«pr nrra

Goal

Judah

him (Benj)

sffx

T*

Goal

nn pruòReason

237

APPENDICES

Verb

Bible Agent Pssge NU C Gen apy 46:7 NU C

NU C NU C NU C NU C NU C NU C

Gen Jacob and 46:32 sons Gen 1DV 47:7 Gen (tr-isrrta47:17 V.15) Exod nu>Nn 2:10 Exod you 4:6a (Moses) Exod Moses 4:6b Exod nirr 6:8

Object

Object Compi Realiz'n 0 . . r u \ui r u nansa

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Goal Comit inN

ijnrbai. onpai o:n!2

0

Qnb nyN-bai IUN a p y

nN

onnpa

nN

lor-bN

Goal

him fiVn)

sffx

njna-nab

Goal

0

lp>na

Goal

IT

0

ip^na

Goal

you (Israel)

nN

f-iNn-bN

Goal

naiN

0

•fun

Goal

Goal

IT

. . . "1U>N

Exod 10:4

I (run-

NU C

Exod 13:5

nirr

you (Israel)

sffx

flN-^N

NU C

Exod 13:11 Exod 15:17 Exod 19:4 Exod 23:20

nirr

you (Israel)

sffx

^ y n pN-^N

Goal

you nirr

them (Israel)

sffx

I- nirr

you (Israel)

nN

^N

Goal

T&òn

you (Israel)

sffx

oipan-^N

Goal

NU C

NU C NU C NU C

NU C

nN

nau>

(-iu>n)

Goal

NU

nN

nau>

(-iu>n)

Goal

NU NU

UNba

you (Israel)

Lev nw 26:41 C Num u^Nn 5:15a C Num unspecfled 6:13

Temp

Goal

. . . Tinnì

you (Israel) Lev \in (nirr) 18:3 you C Lev (nw) 20:22 C Lev unspecfled him (nu>Nn-ja 24:11 rrt&ntepn)

NU

ora

' n u n -IU>N naNn-bN

NU

Exod 23:23

Temp

. . . \iynn

sffx

NU C

ma

ning

nN

niya-bN

Goal

them (Israelites)

nN

onu'N p N a

Goal

WU>N

nN

jnan-^N

Goal

him (-ran)

nN

bnN nna-^N

Goal

-ryia

nNba im w

238

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Verb

Bible Agent Pssge NU C Num mrr 14:3 NU C

Num 14:8

NU C

Num 14:16 Num 14:24

NU C

Object

Object Compi Realiz'n

us (Israel)

nN

f-iNn-bN

mm

us (Israel)

nN

fiNn-^N

mrr

nrn oyn

nN

¡nrr

(aba) him

sffx

Smanie Adjunct Smantc Role Role Goal bsA Reason

riNrn

ama Goal

riNrn ... pNn-bN Goal fiNn-^N nou> Na~iu>N

NUC

Num \IN (¡nrr) 15:18

you ( \U

nN

nou> (-IU>N)

Goal

NU C

Num 16:14

you (Moses)

us (Israel)

sffx

nar p-iN-bN

Goal

NU C

Num 20:4

you (Moses)

mrr bnp

nN

NU C

Num 20:5

us (Israel)

nN

NU C

you (Moses and Aaron?) Num Moses and 20:12 Aaron

u>a-n abn na-mn-bN

Goal

.. mob Reason

nrn jnn oipirbN Goal nrn nrn bnpn

nN

fiNn-^N

Goal

Tin: -IU>N onb

NU C NU C

Num "TC>N (U>'N) them (Israel) 27:17 Num Israelites uu>n-nN 31:12 nipban-nNi

Sffx nN

nuto-bN

Goal

-irybN-bNi jnan

Vwn-nNi

' u nty-bNi ...bN"!^ nman-^N nany-bN aNia Num we (trans- them (rest of 32:17 Jordan Israel) tribes) you (Israel) Deut ¡nrr 4:38

Sffx

NU C

Deut -pnbN mrr 6:10

you (Israel)

Sffx

NU C

Deut 6:23

us (Israel)

nN

NU C

NU C

mrr

ompa-^N

Goal

Sffx

. -[Vnn1: Reason fiNn-^N

Goal

nnb

Reason

...yarà -10N nnb Reason

239

APPENDICES

Verb

Bible Agent Pssge Nil C Deut -pnbN 7:1

Object

nw

you (Israel)

Object Compi Smanie Adjunct Smanie Realiz'n Role Role Sffx fiNn-^N Goal nnuh1: Reason

NU C

Deut 8:7

-pnbN nw

you (Israel)

Sffx

NU C

Deut 9:4

rum

me (Israel)

Sffx

NU C

Deut 9:28

rum

them (Israel)

Sffx

NU C

Deut 11:29

-pnbN nim

you (Israel)

Sffx

NU C

Deut you 21:12 (Israelite)

her ( nU>N iNn-na')

Na nnN~i0N nou> rum pN-^N

Goal

nuh1: Reason pNn-riN riNtn Tip-rea fiNn-^N mt~i0N onb f-iNn bu nriN~i0N nou>-Na

Goal

Sffx

i n u -prrbN

Goal

NU C

Sffx

oipan-^N nrn

Goal

NU

Sffx

fiNn-^N U l >m"IU>N -piuN .. natNn bu

Goal

f-iNn-bN Tiyarà"iu>N fiNn-^N

Goal

Deut us (Israel) nim 26:9 pair ba C Deut -pnbN nirr you (Israel) 30:5

NU C

Deut 31:20

I (nirr)

him (Israel)

Sffx

NU C

Deut 31:21

I (nirr)

him (Israel)

Sffx

NU C

Deut 31:23

b&nUP \U

nN

nnN

Goal

Goal

onb

NU NU

C Deut 33:7 C Josh 24:8

NU C J u d g 1:7

you (nirr)

him (¡TTUT)

Sffx

nirr

you (Israel)

Sffx

iTTliT

him (prn-\nN)

Sffx

you (Israel)

nN

NU C J u d g nirr IN^O 2:1 pair ba

lay-bN

Goal

pN-^N . . . '-ißNn obuhm

Goal

"1U>N pN-^N 'njnrà oaTUN1:

Reason

o-iüa

Temp

Goal

Tiyarà -IU>N

(yuhm)

nnuh1:

Goal Goal

240

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Verb

Bible Agent Ps s g e pax NU C Judg 12:9

Object n u a a*

Object Compi Realiz'n 0 finn-ja

Smantc Adjunct S m a n t c Role Role Goal; Source

NU C

Judg 18:3

'0

you (Levite)

Sffx

obn

Goal

NU C

Judg 19:3

nu>«

him (Levite)

Sffx

rras n'a

Goal

NU C

J u d g jptn u>'Nn 19:21 Judg warriors (v.10) 21:12

him (Levite)

Sffx

OTab

Goal

them (400 virgins)

ri«

runn-bs

Goal

him (ijnn)

Sffx

him ("iy:n)

Sffx

-ijun

na

it ( t n s

Sffx

NU C

"IU>N nbw psa

n:n NU C 1 Sam 1:22 n:n NU C 1 Sam 1:24 NU C 1 Sam Hannah 1:25 and others? NU C 1 Sam OTuyba 5:1 NU C 1 Sam 5:2

OTuyba

o'nbNn) it ( ji-in

•bv> nirv r r a

Goal Goal

;ityn j a x a Source; Goal rnrnSs

ri«

j u t n*a

Goal

nx

n'a- 1 :«

Goal

o'nbNn)

NU C 1 Sam r m p ' r a x 7:1 Q'-|J>' pair ba

it (nirv pi«)

atra« nyan

them (Saul and Sffx his young man) 1 Sam they (QJJil) them sffx; 0 15:15 1 Sam pboy -[bo JJN na 15:20 1 Sam him (David) Sffx 'U>' 16:12 1 Sam you (Saul's del ( a'0'0 U>'N 16:17 servants)

NU C 1 Sam 9:22 NU C NU C NU C NU C

bNiau*

NU C 1 Sam 17:57 NU C 1 Sam 19:7 NU C 1 Sam 20:8a

NU C 1 Sam 20:8b

jn:irr

nnatób

Goal

'pboyo

Source

Goal

him f m )

Sffx

VlNU> 'Mb

Goal

jrmrr

•m

nx

ViNUí-bN

Goal

jn:irr

Tray

nx

n'-iaa ;nirr lay

me (David)

sffx

-paìny

Goal

Mnnr; Comit

241

APPENDICES

Verb

NU

Bible Agent Object Pssge him ( C 1 Sam Achish's 21:15 servants

sue NU

1 Sam Achish's 21:16 servants •m C 1 Sam 27:11

NU C

2 Sam 3:13

Object Compi Realiz'n

j»nu>o) nt

ns

pin&nb

ru

Reason

Goal

(nu^Ni

NU C NU

ba

del WX)

jrou(-IUN) VKWTU bi'o

2 Sam David 5:2 pair ba C 2 Sam nu-bai -rn 6:17 (v.

ns

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Goal

ns

-[Nil niN-ft

Temp

irta ip

Temp

ruu>~in n:uu

Temp

ns ¡nrr jnN

ns

15)

NU C

¡nrr 'ns me frn -[bon)

sffx

obn-ry

Goal

NU

nuwn him (iimn rryipnn iw OlbUUN

sffx

ba

Goal

ns

ab&ir

Goal

her (1U>UN)

ns

ibab

Goal

VT1JJ

ns

run

her (ny-ia-ni)

sffx

onnm mrr-rmi jriN

ns

2 Sam 7:18 C 2 Sam 14:10

NU C NU C NU C NU C NU C

NU C

2 Sam 14:23 lKgs 1:3 lKgs 2:40 sq ba lKgs 3:1 lKgs 8:6

lKgs 10:25

David's servants

nnbvi

nan

NU C

(tf'K)

NU

boy's father

NU

lKgs 20:39 C 2Kgs 4:20 C 2Kgs 9:2

NU C

2Kgs 10:24

.. .bs inrun tmai him (boy)

\uo ms him (N1!T) owun 'IN (N1!T)

-nt impn-bN nun -lurbs unp-bN trunpn 'au nnn-bx ourun

Source

Goal Goal

0 0

Goal

sffx

Goal

ns

-rmi nn

Goal

0

tu'v-by

Goal

242

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Verb

Bible Agent Object Object Compi Smantc Adjunct Smantc Pssge Realiz'n Role Role na nirr i r a rbN Goal NU C 2 K g s J>V1!T them (leaders) 11:4 del nniaoi baao Source NU C 2 K g s •nufenbn (prisoners?) 17:24 NU C 2 K g s 23:8 NU C 2 K g s 24:16

-[ban

onnan-ba

nx

iTTiiT n p n

Source

baa--[bo them (people

sffx

baa--[bo

him (irrp-re)

sffx

¡nrr

n« . . . m r •nufenbn

0; nN

them (Israel)

sffx

isnr

0

mm a

Source

m

0

pima

Source

Tin

0

him (v. 14)

sffx

rn

0

them (v. 6)

sffx

^ t p -in-bN

Goal

0

rra

Goal

rn

0

pimo

Source

oa^nicba

na

nirr

you (Israel)

ri«

pN-bN bman

Goal

Jer 3:14 Jer 5:15

niir

you (Israel)

nx

trs

Goal

'U

0

NU C

Jer 15:8

¡nrr

YTU>

0

NU C

Jer 18:22

niir

-n-u

0

NU C 2 K g s 25:7 Isa NU C 7:17

in 16a)

Isa troy 14:2 NU C Isa nirr 43:5 NU C Isa 43:6a NU C Isa JCTn;J13!2 gapped 43:6b NU C Isa nirr 48:15 NU C Isa nations? 49:22 nirr NU C Isa 56:7 Isa Israel NU C 58:7 niriN NU C Isa 60:9 NU C Isa people of 66:20a v. 19

NU C

NU C Jer 2:7

NU C NU C

(nw)

onnn

baa

nbu baaa

Mnnr

jsna

Instr

Goal

•py-by i Tby Goal Tin n^a-byi ooipirbN Goal

p « n nspo Source

;trun-bao Source; nn:o Mnnr Goal ^ t p i n by nwb obuh-p . troica baab Reason nna naioi

Goal; ;oa'by Source pmnn Oicby onb Goal tr-insa Temp nna Goal on'by oxna Mnnr

243

APPENDICES

Verb

NU

Bible Agent Object Object C o m p i S m a n t c Adjunct S m a n t c Pssge Realiz'n Role Role nu jnr nN N:IAS pNO Source C Jer -IU>N (nirr) 23:8 niTiNn bam pair ba

trnnm -IU>N 00

NU C NU C

Jer 24:1 Jer 25:9

NU C NU NU

Jer 26:23 pair ba C Jer 27:11 C Jer 27:12

NU C NU C

Jer 31:8 Jer 35:2

baa-ibo nirr

them (Judahite leaders) them (Babylonians)

sffx

baa

Goal

sffx

Goal

him (WLLN)

sffx

fiNn-by nNtn nuu^-byi trun-ba byi auo nbNn -[bon-bN

trraN

Goal

Op'liT

-IU>N CUN)

TIKIS

nN baa--[bo bya

Goal

n'pTS

tnnsis

nN baa--[bo bya

Goal

mm'-ibn (nirr)

them (IpJP)

nN

Jeremiah

them ( n U

nirr nu nnN-bN nuu>bn nN nirr nu . . . nau>b-bN sffx tr-iú>n-bN

Goal

ouam)

JIAS PNO Source

sffx

Goal

NU C

Jer 35:4

Jeremiah

them (people in v.3)

NU C

Jer 37:14 Jer 39:7 Jer 52:11 Ezek 7:24 Ezek 8:3

n"NT

him (Jeremiah)

baa -[bo

him (irrp-re)

nN

nbaa

Goal

baa--[bo

him (irrp-re)

sffx

nbaa

Goal

NU C NU C NU C NU C

mrf

tru

nn

me (Ezekiel)

NU C

Ezek 8:7

mrf

me (Ezekiel)

NU C

Ezek 8:14

mrf

me (Ezekiel)

Goal

0

nN

nobuhT Goal niNiaa nyu> nna-bN mnbN Goal nN nna-bN nsnn nN nyu> nna-bN Goal iu>N nirr-nu n:iaïn-bN

Mnnr

244

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW B I B L E

Verb

Bible Agent Pssge NU C Ezek nirr 8:16

Object me (Ezekiel)

Object Compl Realiz'n ri«

"isn-bx

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Goal

nwrra rrman

NU C

Ezek 11:1

nn

me (Ezekiel)

Goal

nN nwrra mirrpn n m p nnan

NU C

Ezek 11:24

nn

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

nnntoa

Goal

n^noa

Instr

nna

nVurrbN

trnbN Ezek 12:13

nirr

NU C

Ezek 17:12

baa-ibo

them (nabo

NU C

Ezek 17:13

baa-ibo

him ( j n r a

Ezek 17:20 Ezek 19:4

nirp

him (njna)

sffx

nbaa

Goal

tru

him (-TON ™ )

sffx

ns-bs

Goal

NU C

Ezek 19:9a

tru- v.8

him ( i n «

sffx

NU C

Ezek 19:9b

OTJ

him ( i n « ™ )

sffx

NU C

Ezek 20:10 Ezek 20:15

nirp

them (Israel)

sffx

nirp

them (Israel)

ri«

NU C

Ezek 20:28

nirp

them (Israel)

sffx

NU C

Ezek 20:35

nirp

you (Israel)

ri«

NU C

Ezek 20:37

nirp

you (Israel)



NU C

Ezek 20:42

mrr (les

you (Israel)



NU C

NU C NU C

NU C

him (N'tettn-

nN

f i x nbaa

nN

rfm

v.12)

Goal

tntoa vb«

Goal

¡mUmm) n«

rft&a

Mnnr

trnna

Instr

nratn

Mnnr

-inooa

Mnnr

naibon)

ansa baa iba-bx

Goal

rrun-v. 5)

-a-mn-bN

Goal Goal

. . . "1U>N Goal . . . "1U>N "îaurbN

Goal

troyn

m n no-m-bN

sffx)

. . . -IU>N

Goal; Goal

245

APPENDICES

Verb

NU NU

Bible Agent Object Object Compi Smantc Adjunct Smantc Pssge Realiz'n Role Role nirr them (-panNE) sffx nuca ;-pbj? Goal; C Ezek 23:22 Source C Ezek \i:n (nirr) 1SNT13U: 0 pasa j-urbN Goal; oion Mnnr 26:7 Source

-[ba ...ouba an-QjJi bnpi

NU C

Ezek 27:26

NU C

Ezek 28:7 Ezek 34:13 Ezek 36:24 Ezek 37:12 pair ba Ezek 37:21

NU C

you (Tyre) own triN \i:n (nirr) tru '¡mp trnr

33 "Ul truhasi

sffx

oui tran

Goal

0

T^

Goal

nirr

them

(^N!2)

sffx

onatN-bN

Goal

nw

you (Israel)

sffx

onatN-bN

Goal

nw

you (Israel)

nN

Goal

nw

them ( \U

nN

natN-^N bN"!^ onatN-bN

nw

you (AU)

sffx

^-iN-by

Goal

NU C

nw

you (AU)

nN

on^y

Goal

NU

nw

you (AU)

sffx

Goal

nw

me (Ezekiel)

nN

'-in-by bN"!^ nau>

nw

me (Ezekiel)

nN

Goal

nw

me (Ezekiel)

nN

flN-^N bN"!^ nau>

NU C NU C NU C NU C

NU NU

Ezek 38:16

Ezek 38:17 C Ezek 39:2 pair ba C Ezek 40:1 C Ezek 40:2

NU C

Ezek

Goal

bN"!^)

Ezek 40:17

U>N ' - v.3

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

NU C

Ezek 40:28

U>N ' - v.3

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

NU C

Ezek 40:32

U>N ' - v.3

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

NU C

Ezek 40:35

U>N ' - v.3

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

nsnn-bN nrurnn nsn-bN nyuu 'anan onm 111 fflpn; nsnn-bN 'anan iNiy-bN jiasn

Reason

niNia3 trnbN

Instr

Goal

Goal

40:3

NU C

jyab . . . njn

Goal

Goal

Goal; Path

Goal

246

Verb NU

NU

NU

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Bible Agent Object Object Compi Smantc Adjunct Smantc Pssge Realiz'n Role Role sffx n u n o b N - b N Goal C Ezek U>'N- V.3 me (Ezekiel) 40:48 sffx Goal C Ezek U P N - 40:3 me (Ezekiel) ba^nn-bN 41:1 sffx Goal C Ezek U P N - 40:3 me (Ezekiel) nau^n-^N 42:1 . . .

-IU>N

NU

C

Ezez 43:5

n n

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

nsnn-bN

NU

C

Ezek 44:4

m m

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

W"T"TT

Goal

w : a n

^a-bN

;jiasn

Path; Goal

n u n NU

C

Ezek voi (Israel) 44:7

n a r r u 'Vijn

0

nrnb

a V ^ n y

Reason

ttnb

"1UU NU

C

Ezek 46:19

¡nrr

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

; N u a a nuu^n-^N

Path; Goal

0-rpn onnan-bN n : m NU

NU

C Micah 1:15 C Zeph 3:20

NU

C

NU

C

NU

C

NU

NU

NU

NU

NU

NU

NU

Zech 3:8 Zech 8:8 Zech 10:10

Zech 13:9 Ps C 43:3 pair ba Ps C 66:11 Ps C 78:54 C

Ps 78:71 Ps C 90:12 Ps C 105:40 C

mrr

u>-rn

0

mrr

you (Zion)

nN

onan Y>

Goal n y a N'nn

\i:n

(mrr)

nns

n a y

nN

mrr

them (•ay)

nN

mrr

them (Israel)

sffx

pN-^N

Goal

pubi mrr

rrefttfn

nN

u>Na

Goal

"["TIN

me (psalmist)

sffx

-[unp-w-bN

Goal

trnbN

us (Israel?)

sffx

mrr

them (Israel)

sffx

-[llßNl

mrr

Israel mrr

-pnuaujirbNi

him (David) noan

nab

sffx 0 0

n - m o a

10-rp

b u r ^ N

. . .

n n n

niby

-inNß

Goal Goal Source

Temp

247

APPENDICES

Verb NU C NU C NU C gapped NU C NU C NU C

Bible Agent Object Pssge me (Job) Job ¡nrr 14:3 Prov reader/hea rer 23:12a reader/ Prov -ptN 23:12b hearer Song 1:4 Song 2:4 Song 3:4

Object C o m p l Realiz'n

S m a n t c Adjunct S m a n t c Role Role Goal Comit lay

nN

oau>on

0

-iDiab

Goal

0

ny-rnoN1:

Goal

iban

me

sffx

•p-rm

Goal

iban

me

sffx

l"n nu-^N

Goal

woman

him

sffx

••ON nu-^N

Goal

Trn-bNi M

Song 8:2 pair ba NU C Eccl 11:9 NU C

NU C

Esth 1:11

woman

you

sffx

TIN nu-^N

Goal

trnbNn

you

sffx

oau>on

Goal

K-bs-bp nb

Reason

king's officials

r u b a n Tiuh

nN

i b a n nab

Goal

-irun

Mnnr; Reason

jnuba niNin 1 :

Esth 1:17 Esth 5:10

king's officials?

r u b a n Tiuh

nN

jon

uhrnNi iunN

nN

NU C

Esth 5:12

-inoN

NU C

Esth Unspecfied D1D1 . . . 6:8 Esth jon 'O'-IO 6:14 iban

NU C NU C

NU C

nab

Goal

nnuton-bN

Goal

inu>N TIIN-QN-U

0

rubon

nnú>y"iu>N

-op •¡ban

Comit

0 nN

nnuton-bN

Goal

nnú>y"iu>N inoN

Dan 1:3

a i nau>N

NU C

Dan 1:18a

-Iú>

NU C

Dan 1:18b

NU C

ry-rV...

0

them (O'-rV)

sffx

them (O'-rV)

sffx

her ( 1U

sffx

. bN"!^

m Source

o-raV: Reason

vono

twion -iú>

- u m a n : ^ab

Goal

wnbN n u b

Goal

twion

NU C

Dan 11:6

king of north?

NU C

Ezra 8:17

people of v.16

xun-rbo) D'tllOT

0

lA

Benef

248

VERBS O F L E A D I N G IN T H E H E B R E W BIBLE

Verb

Bible Agent Object Object Compi Pssge Realiz'n 0 NU C Ezra people of . . . bau* m ;lf: 8:18 v.16 m i rrmufi ^nn

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Goal; Reason Souce u

n:ou> v n s i Neh 1:9

nirr

NU C

Neh 3:5

orr-r-m

DHS

0

NU C

Neh 9:23 Neh 11:1 Neh 12:27

nirr

them (Israel)

sffx

. . . p « n ba

Goal

in«

0

nniyyn-jo

Source

n n vh

Reason

them (tribn)

sffx

Goal

núíyb

Reason

24 1 Chr TIU>N -[BRA them (trans5:26 Jordan tribes)

sffx

ornean

Instr

NU C

NU C NU C

NU C

NU C

NU C NU C NU C NU C NU C NU C

1 Chr 11:2 pair ba

them (Israel)

sffx

oipa-bx

Goal

. . . -IU>N nmyn

Benef

orma

oyn w n

dwïr-A

a^ibn- v.

¡in«

•»HUP

n a m nbnb

Goal

jtu m : i &nni na

(David)

1 Chr nvhwn Them 11:19 1 Chr BI^-IIY-BA OVFTKN JI-IN 13:5 1 Chr David OVFTKN JI-IN 13:12 1 Chr •»nUP-ba- OVFTKN JI-IN 16:1 V.15:28 1 Chr me (David) mrf 17:16 1 Chr nirr m a JI-in 22:19 •»HUP Uftp ^ a i

sffx na

t r n j p r m p n Source Goal

nx na sffx nx

abn~iy n:a:n irab

Goal Goal

trnbNn NU C

2 Chr 5:7

onnan

m n ' - r r a jriN

nx

bu

;iaipa-bn

rran

Goal

i n

unp-bN bu t r u n p n 'a:a n n n trinan NU C

2 Chr 9:24

NU C

2 Chr o w a n y n 17:11b

on

. . . inmn

0

N^-IM Temp

trnai . . . JNS

0

ib

Goal

249

APPENDICES

Verb

Bible Pssge 2 Chr 22:9 2 Chr 25:12 2 Chr 25:23 2 Chr 28:5 2 Chr 28:8 2 Chr 28:13 2 Chr 28:15

Agent

NU C

2 Chr 29:4

NU C

2 Chr 31:6

NU C

2 Chr 33:11

nirr

2 Chr 36:4 C 2 Chr 36:10

u: -KNnau:

NU C NU C NU C NU C NU C NU C NU C

NU C NU

Unspecifie d

Object

him (irvrnN)

T ¡ TUT \U them

(10,000 men)

U>NV

him (irrsaN)

Object C o m p i Realiz'n sffx NWbN

S m a n t c Adjunct S m a n t c Role Role Goal

sffx

pbon 0N-11:

Goal

sffx

obuhT

Goal

ptoan

Goal

Arameans del (captives) Israelites

bbm

nN

jnau*1:

Goal

Israelites

nuu>n

nN

run

Goal

them (captives)

sffx

irrv

Goal

onnan tribn-riNi . bN"!^ \U . . . "liyya

nN

-IU>N Nasn

nN

on^y

Goal

him (tnNr)

sffx

nansa

Goal

him ( p ' l i T )

sffx

rfm

Goal

ffráNil

irrprir

ff-iann--py OT i ON "WN

0

-nu>N -\bab

Comit

man mrp-m

250

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

D4. The Hiphil of N2T as a Verb of Leading Verb

Bible Pssge NT C Gen 8:17

Agent n:

Object rrnrrta

Object Compi Smantc Adjunct Smantc Realiz'n Role Role 0 Comit -[TIN

. . . -[nN"IU>N NT C Gen 15:5

¡nrr

him (Q13N)

nN

NT C Gen 15:7

mrr

you (Q13N)

sffx

rmnn

Goal

TINE

Source

tr-rú>3 NT C Gen 19:5

01*7

NT C Gen 19:8 NT C NT C NT NT C NT C

Gen 19:12 Gen 19:16 Gen 19:17 Gen 38:24 Gen 40:14

them (trraNn)

sffx

01*7

them ( i n n )

nN

01*7

del (anyone) sffx

they (men) them (Lot and family) unspecified her (Ian)

nN

him

me (Joseph)

Goal

aa^N

Goal

aiporrjo Source

(Vlb)

trraNn

ir"7N

renon

Goal

sffx sffx

r r a r r j o Source nrn

Gen U^Nil- v.19 NT C 43:23 NT C Gen 45:1 a^asnn bs

onbN

Goal

rs>ou>

nN

u^N-ba

0

'bpa

Source

them (his sons)

nN

opa

Source

rbp NT C

Gen 48:12

Exod 3:10 NT C Exod 3:11 NT C Exod 3:12 NT C Exod 4:6 NT C Exod 4:7

NT C

NT C Exod 6:6

10V

raía Moses

b&nUP

apnN

ansoo

Source

Moses

b&nUP ' n

nN

ansoo

Source

you (Moses) Moses

ayn

nN

ansoo

Source

it (his hand)

sffx

Moses

it (his hand)

sffx

ip'na

Source

¡nrr

you (Israelites)

nN

nnno

Source

mbao ansa NT C Exod 6:7 n(the one you (Israelites) who- mrr)

nN

nnna mbao ansa

Source

nnb

Reason

251

APPENDICES

Verb NT C

NT C

Bible Agent Pssge Exod Israelites(P) 6:13 and Pharaoh Exod nu>m pnN 6:26

Exod 6:27 NT C Exod 7:4 NT C

Object •»HUP m

Object Compl Smantc Adjunct Smantc Realiz'n Role Role nN FINE Source ansa

•»HUP m

nN

fiNa

njna

•»HUP m

nN

onsaa

mm

'riNnTriN

nN

fiNa

Source

ff-isa

'ajrnN

-bl)

Mnnr

ariNas Source Source B ' n a ^ a

ff-isa

Instr

trVn

•»ntep-'n NT C Exod 7:5

mm

nN

Exod 8:14 Exod 12:17

trntnnn

Brian

nN

¡nrr

aa^niNas

nN

NT C

Exod 12:42

mrr

them (Israelites)

sffx

NT C

Exod 12:51

mrr

•»HUP ^a

nN

Exod 13:3 Exod 13:9 Exod 13:14

mrr

you (Israel)

mrr mrr

NT C NT C

NT C NT C NT C

oaina

f-iNa

Source

Source

ansa fiNa

arroba

Instr

asya

Temp

nrn a r n Source

ff-isa fiNa

Source

-bv

Mnnr

ff-isa

ariNas

nN

nro

Source t prna

Instr

you (Israel)

sffx

onsaa

Source nprn T a

Instr

us (Israel)

sffx

ffisaa

Source v prna

Instr

Instr

rraa ff-tay

NT C NT C NT C

Exod 13:16 Exod 14:11 Exod 16:3

mrr

us (Israel)

sffx

ansoo

Source v prna

Moses

us (Israel)

sffx

ansoo

Source

you (Moses and Aaron)

us (Israel)

nN

-bN

Goal

. . rranb Reason

latan nrn

NT C

Exod 16:6

mrr

you (Israelites)

nN

NT C

Exod 16:32

I (mrr)

you (Israelites)

nN

fiNa

NT C

Exod 18:1 Exod 19:17

mrr

•»HUP

nN

ansaa

nu>o

ayn

nN

NT C

f-iNa

Source

ansa Source

ansa Source

n:non-jo Source

nN-ipb B^nbNn

Reason

252

Verb NT C

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Bible Pssge Exod 20:2

Agent

Object

mrr

you (Israel)

Object Realiz'n sffx

Compl S m a n t c Adjunct Smantc Role Role Source fiNa ansa rrna tr-ay

Exod 29:46

mrr

NT C

Exod 32:11

mrr

"1U>N (your people)

0

NT C

Exod 32:12

¡nrr

them (Israel)

sffx

NT C

them (Israel)

nN

Source

nau*1:

fiNa

Source Vrn r m

ansa

nprn v m ;n$m ariN n r f t

you (Israelites)

nN

NT C Lev 22:33 n (the one you (Israelites)

nN

NT C Lev 19:36

fiNa

Reason

ansa

mrr

fiNa

Instr Mnnr; Reason

Source

ansa fiNa

Source

nrnb

Reason

nnb

Reason

Source

rrnna

Reason

Source

rry 1 :

Mnnr; Reason

ansa

who- mrr) NT C Lev 23:43

mrr

them (Israelites)

nN

fiNa

NT C Lev 24:14

Moses

bbpan

nN

fina-^N

bbpan

nN

fina-^N

Source

ansa Goal

nmab NT C Lev 24:23 b N i i y ' - m

Goal

nmab NT C Lev 25:38

mrr

you (Israelites)

nN

NT C Lev 25:42

mrr

"1U>N; them (Israel)

0; nN

fiNa

Source

ansa fiNa

Source

ansa

NT C Lev 25:55

mrr

"1U>N; them (Israel)

0; nN

NT C Lev 26:13

mrr

you (Israelites)

nN

fiNa

Source

ansa fiNa ansa

NT C Lev 26:45

mrr

them (Israel)

nN

fiNa ansa

^un rrnb

NT C

Num 15:36

rrryrrba him (U>'N- v.32)

NT C

Num 15:41

mrr

you (Israelites)

nN

fiNa

NT C

Num 20:16

mrr

us (Israel)

sffx

ansaa

nN

fina-^N

Goal

nmab Source

ansa Source

nrnb

Reason

253

APPENDICES

Verb NT C NT C NT C

NT C

Bible Agent Pssge Num "7N 23:22 Num "7N 24:8 Num U>'N- v.16 27:17 pair ab Deut 1:27 nirr

Object them (Israel)

Object Realiz'n sffx

him (Israel)

sffx

them (Israel)

sffx

us (Israel)

sffx

C o m p l S m a n t c Adjunct S m a n t c Role Role o n s a a Source onsaa

Source

f1Nß

Source

onsa

nN:u>a

Reason

unN m m nnb

NT C Deut 4:20

nirr

you (Israel)

nN

"113ß

Source

nrnb

Reason

Source

r:aa

Instr

bnan onsaa NT C Deut 4:37

nur

you (Israel)

sffx

onsaa

niaa "run NT C Deut 5:6

nur

you (Israel)

sffx

F-INA

Source

onsa rraa fftay NT C Deut 5:15 -pnbN n u r

you (Israel)

sffx

Source nptn T a

Instr

jntai mra: NT C Deut 6:12 -IU>N

(nirr) you (Israel)

sffx

F-INA

Source

onsa rraa fftay NT C Deut 6:21

sffx

nirr

us (Israel)

NT C Deut 6:23

mm

us (Israel)

nN

NT C Deut 7:8

mm

you (Israel)

nN

onsaa

Source nptn T a Source

\ynb

Instr Reason

. n a n N a Reason; Instr ;rau>ai nptn T a

NT C Deut 7:19 -pnbN n u r

you (Israel)

sffx

..nnNn jntm. mra:n "1U>N

Instr

254

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Verb

Bible Pssge NT C Deut 8:14

Agent

Object

n (mm)

you (Israel)

Object Compi Smantc Adjunct Smantc Realiz'n Role Role sffx f-lNO Source ansa maa ff-ay

NT C Deut 9:12

you (Moses)

NT C Deut 9:26 you (mm) NT C

Deut 9:28a

NT C

Deut 9:28b

NT C Deut 9:29

-IU>N ( l a y )

0

-IU>N ( l a y )

0

mm

us (Israel)

sffx

mm

them (Israel)

nN

mm

-IU>N ( l a y )

0

onsaa

Source

onsaa

Source nptn Ta

Instr

. . . -IU>N Source o0a ;inN:ú>a Reason; Reason onanb inaa

Instr

Vnn ly-itai mimn NT C Deut 13:6

mm)

you (Israel)

nN

ansa

n (twnbN NT C

Deut 13:11

mm)

f-iNa

Source

you (Israel)

sffx

f-iNa

Source

ansa

n (rnbN

maa fftay NT C Deut 16:1 T r f » ! mm

you (Israel)

sffx

onsaa

Source

na

Temp

. . a'aNn rfrb. NT C Deut 17:5

you . ntn . . . U^NH (Israelite) IN u^NmnN..

nN

Tiy^-bN

Goal

nN

^pfbN

Goal

my'Nn NT C

Deut 21:19

IONI V3N

him (J3)

imp -lyiy-bNi lapa

NT C

Deut 22:21

Unspecifie d

n-iy:n

nN

NT C

Deut 22:24

you (Israel)

om:u>

nN

nna bu

Goal

mas-ma -lyiy-bN

Goal

myn Ninn

NT C Deut 26:8

mm

us (Israel)

sffx

trnsnn

Source

... ra ffnaaai

Instr

255

APPENDICES

Verb

Bible Pssge C Deut 29:24

Agent

NT

he (¡TI¡T)

NT C Josh 2:3 NT C Josh

6:22

NT C

Josh 6:23a

NT C

Josh 6:23b Josh 10:22

NT C NT C

Josh 10:23

NT C

Josh 10:24 C Josh 24:5

Object

Object Compi Smantc Adjunct Smantc Realiz'n Role Role them (Israel) riN FINE Source

ansa am

. . . trráNn imb trráNn nu>Nn nVnuferta-riNi trnjun rb... am rraN-riNi trnjun rrninauterba unspecfied unspecfied

they

0

riN

nN riN

you (Israel)

nN

them (Israel)

nN nN nN

NT C Judg

nirr

you (Israel)

nN

NT C Judg 6:30 NT C Judg

u>Nr jprn

. . . u>N 'n

nN nN

NT C

jprn

them (women)

nN

u^Nn

del (lUtoVa)

NT C

19:22 Judg 19:24 Judg 19:25

NT C NT NT

1 Sam Moses, 12:8 Aaron C 2 Sam 5:2 n (David) pair ab C 2 Sam -irjmn 10:16

NT C NT NT

2 Sam 12:31 C 2 Sam 13:9a C 2 Sam 13:18

David

oa^niaN

nnyon-jo Source

nN nnyon-jo Source; Goal ;rbN

NT nirr NT C Josh 24:6 nirr NT C Judg2:12 n (nirr) 6:8 pair ba

Source

riN

trabón nuton nbNn trabón nu>on riN . . . nbNn jibjy... ibo nbNn trabo oaTiiaN

ou>o

nN

jrowbN

Goal

mN trnsoo f-iNO trisa rraa tr-ray

Source

orrbN finn trisara

Goal Source

Source Source

del (Israel)

nayo -iu>n oin nN m:n na~iu>N oyn nN

unspecfied

u^N-ba

0

*byo

Source

irnuto

her fian)

nN

finn

Goal

Temp

256

Verb

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Bible Pssge 2 Sam 22:20 2 Sam 22:49 lKgs 8:16

Agent

Object

nirr

me (David)

bNn

me (David)

NT C

lKgs 8:21

nirr

NT C

lKgs 8:51

nirr

NT C NT C NT C

nirr

Object Compi Smantc Adjunct Smantc Realiz'n Role Role Goal nN amab sffx

U'NO

Source

nN

onsaa

Source

them (Israel)

nN

FINE

Source

nyN ( l a y )

0

tmsoo

•»nU^-n«

ap

"1U>N

Temp

(orn)

ansa

Source

na lina bnan

l K g s you (nirr) 8:53 NT C 1 Kgs 9:9 -IU>N ( n i r r ) NT C

irnuN

nN

QnaN

nN

onsaa

Source

FINE

Source

ansa NT C

lKgs 10:29

they (ansa)

del (chariots, horses)

^ba-bib

Goal

BTinn ^babi Q-1N

NT C NT C NT C NT C NT C

lKgs 21:10 lKgs 21:13 lKgs 22:34 2 Kgs 11:12 2 Kgs 11:15

NT C Isa 42:7a

Unspecifie d

him ( n u : )

sffx

oyn

him ( n u : )

sffx

T y b f i n a Source

1331

m e (INnN)

sffx

n : n o n - j o Source

yvw

iban-ja

nN

niNon n t o

her ( n ^ n y )

nN

nuirbN

Goal

n-i-rób TON

0

C-iay)

•jum u u * '

0

nations

l o b . . QJJ

0

n (nw)

V n 0101-33-1

0

'my

NT C Isa 42:7b (gappe d) NT C Isa 43:8 NT C Isa 43:17 NT C Isa 65:9a

nw

-uooo

Source

n"73 n u o Source

myi

NT C Isa 65:9b (gappe d) NT C Jet 7:22

jnr

0

3pjm

Source

(nw)

nn uhr

0

nnn^a

Source

nw

them (03TIUN)

nN

F-INA

Source

tr-isn

0 V 3 ;|3

Mnnr; Instr

257

APPENDICES

Verb

Bible Pssge C Jer 11:4

Agent

NT

nirr

NT C

Jer 20:3

NT C Jer NT

26:23 pair ab C Jer 31:32

Object

Object Compl Smantc Adjunct Smantc Realiz'n Role Role them (03TIUN) nN FINE Source

nnu>a

wot

trràN

inniN

ansa naa bmn nN aanon-jo Source n nN trnsoo Source

nirr

them

(OnUN)

sffx

NT C Jer

32:21

nirr

bNiiy'-nN lay

nN

NT C Jer

34:13

nirr

them

(03TIUN)

nN

NT C Jer

38:23

nN "m-v.22

NT C Jer NT C Jer

39:14 52:31

irrVn •pm VIN

-[mTiNi him

(wot)

sffx

him

(p'W)

nN

you (Israel)

FINE Source ansa FINE Source . . ninNn Instr ansa Vrn. FINE Source ansa n^no trmy 'tiyan-bN Goal B n^n-bN Goal n^no Source Nfon naino Source naino Source F"ino Source; ;tr-i!20 Goal . FIN-^N u>nn.. FINE Source ansa FINE Source ansa onrryb Benef

NT C Ezek 11:7 NT C Ezek 11:9 NT C Ezek 20:6

nirr nirr nw

you (Israel)

nN nN

them (Israel)

sffx

NT C Ezek 20:9

nw

them (Israel)

sffx

NT C

Ezek 20:10

nw

them (Israel)

sffx

NT C

Ezek 20:14 Ezek 20:22 Ezek 20:34 Ezek 20:41

nw

them (Israel)

sffx

nw

them (Israel)

nN

nw

you (Israel)

nN

troyn-jo

Source

nw

you (Israel)

nN

troyn-jo

Source

NT C NT C NT C

onrryb

Benef

258

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Verb

Bible Pssge NT C Ezek 34:13 NT C Ezek 37:1

Agent

Object

Object Compl Smantc Adjunct Smantc Realiz'n Role Role sffx troyrrjo Source

mm

them ( W S )

mm

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

NT C Ezek 38:4

mm

"[¡IN

NN

mm n r a

Instr

. . -[Vrrba-NNI

NT C Ezek 42:1

¡nrr

oba . me (Ezekiel)

sffx

-isnn ;n:iTnn

Goal; Path

Ttt Trrn jiasn

NT C

Ezek 42:15

mrr

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

T"

Path

w n

r:a -IU>N T" trrpn SON C

Ezek 46:21

NT C Ezek 47:2

mrr

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

-isnrrbN

mrr

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

W"T"TT Path

Goal

ruisinn ruias

TNAN

m

0

nrrtN

Goal

NT C Micah 7:9

mrr

me (Micah)

sffx

nNb

Goal

NT C Ps 18:20

mrr

me (David)

sffx

amab

Goal

NT C Ps 25:15

mrr

^

nuhn

Source

NT C Ps 25:17

mrr

me

sffx

Tiipisnn Source

NT C Ps 31:5

mrr

me

sffx

. ir nuhn Source

NT C Ps 66:12

mrr

us (Israel)

sffx

nnubn

Mnnr

=1033

Mnnr

NT C Hos 9:13

0

NT C Ps 68:7

TRNBN

TRTON

0

NT C Ps 105:37

mrr

them (Israel)

sffx

*nnn 1 7

Goal

inn Ps 105:43a Ps NT C (gappe 105:43b d) NT C Ps 107:14 NT C

mrr

lay

0

titotoi

Mnnr

(mm)

w m

NN

ana

Mnnr

mrr

them (Israel)

sffx

-[umo

Source

mrfan NT C Ps 107:28 NT C Ps 136:11

mrr mrr

them (Israel)

sffx

•»HUP

0

•rrnpixnn Source oaina

Source

APPENDICES

Verb

Bible Pssge

Agent

NT

C Ps 142:8

mrr

NT

C Ps 143:11

mrr

NT

C Job 10:18 ¡TftN- v.2

Object

259

Object Compl Smantc Adjunct Smantc Realiz'n Role Role 0 "uonn Source nrrin1: Reason •pu>-nN 0

rnsn

Source

me (Job)

sffx

omo

Source Source

NT C Dan 9:15

¡nrr

lay

nN

FINE

NT C Ezra 8:17

Ezra

them (v. 16)

nN

TTN-bjJ

NT C Ezra 10:3

Israel

iVim trra-ba ona

0

-[np-T!23

Reason

nprn V3

Instr

mjn

Reason

ansa Goal

TO m m nism irnbN

NT C

Ezra 10:19

NT C Neh 9:7

people of v.18

amu>:

0

mrr

him (Q13N)

sffx

1 Chr n (David) 11:2 pair ab 1 Chr NT C Q1N 19:16 NT C

NT C NT C

NT C

1 Chr 20:3 2 Chr 1:17a

2 Chr 1:17b

nN

David

na~i0N Qyn

nN

-[ban nno

. . . ¡13310 D1D1

0

they

Source

tnsnn

Source

del (Israel)

-aya -iu>n bin m:n

(ansa)

tino tntoa

del (chariots, horses)

^ba-bsb trnnn

Goal

roa 1D3 niNO ffutom hnoi trra ;p

Instr

Mnnr; Instr

Q-1N NT C 2 Chr 6:5

NT C

2 Chr 7:22

mrr -iu>n (mrr)

them (Israel)

nN

fiNa ansa

Source

sffx

fiNa ansa

Source

"1U>N (arn)

Temp

260

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Verb

Bible Pssge NT C 2 Chr 9:28

Agent

Object

unspecfied

troio

Object Compi Smanie Adjunct Smantc Realiz'n Role Role 0 . tmsoo Source; Goal -iNirbaai ;nis

nab&b 2 Chr 18:33 NT C 2 Chr 23:11 NT C 2 Chr 23:14a NT C

NT C

331

me (1NÏ1N)

sffx

m i yvirr

iban-ja

nN

JÍVUT

niNon nt»

riN

¡nan

Vnn 'npa

2 Chr niNon nto 23:14b

her (iTbny)

sffx

n:non-jo Source

rrnirbN mita

Goal

261

APPENDICES

D5. The Hiphil of Verb

Bible Pssge 310 c Gen 14:16b

as a Verb of Leading

Agent

Object

Object Realiz'n

tm«

10311 VON Olb



Compi Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role

031 . . . o^n-nN oyn-nNi

Gen 20:7a 310 c Gen 20:7b 310 c

310 c 310 c

0

I 1 : IMN

0 , Nn-n0N

you CTbiyiN)

del (0*in

m



na0

Goal

¡TIT

you (Jacob)

sffx

nmsn-bs

Goal

Gen 37:22 Gen 38:29 Gen 40:13

Reuben

him (Joseph)

sffx

mr

IT1

0

ny-ia

you (Q , p0an~10)

Gen 40:21 Gen 41:13

ny-ia ny-ia

i3j>n

ri«

lb

Goal



p-isn-bs

Goal

o0a 310 c 310 c 310 c 310 C 310 C 310 C 310 C 310 C 310 C 310 C

nxtn vas-bs

Goal

sffx

•pa-by

Goal

o ^ a n 10

ri«

inputertp

Goal

me ( "10



na-by

Goal

sffx

T1»

Goal

ri«

pN-bN

Goal

0

Ip'n-bx

Goal

o^an)

Gen 'JN (Reuben) him (Benjamin) 42:37 Gen you (Israelites) trnbN 48:21

310 C Exod 4:7a 310 C Exod 4:7b 310 C Exod 23:4

emu«

n0a

XT'

n0a

IT

0

ip'n-bs

Goal

you (Israelites)

it (ox or donkey)

sffx

ib

Goal

262

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Verb

Bible Pssge 310 c Num 35:25 310 c

Agent

Object

Object Realiz'n

myn

him (renn)

nx

Deut 17:16

im

oyn

nx

Deut 22:1 Deut 22:2 Deut 28:68

Israel

Compi

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role . . TJJ-bx Goal nansa

Goal

jyab

Reason

num DID

310 c 310 c 310 c

sffx

Tnsb

Goal

Israel

them (ox or sheep) it (animal)

sffx

ib

Goal

nur

you (Israel)

sffx

sonsa

Goal; Path

... i-m

ni\iN3

Mnnr

nnx-ib 310 c

Josh 8:26

0

j>0irr

. "10N t y Temp

310 c

Judg 11:9

a n « ( \ipr

me (nna1)

na

onbnb Reason

0'N

her ( 1 0 M )

sffx

trnufta

onm

0

310 c 1 Sam 6:21 310 c 1 Sam 14:27 310 C 1 Sam 29:4 310 C 1 Sam 30:19 310 C 2 Sam 3:26

trnufta

mre j n x

ri«

jruv

IT1

0

310 C 2 Sam 8:3 310 C 2 Sam 12:23 310 C 2 Sam 14:13 310 C 2 Sam 14:21 310 C 2 Sam 15:8 310 C 2 Sam 15:20 310 C 2 Sam 15:25a

-irjmn

IT

0

•m

him (dead child)

sffx

iban

irra

0

3NV

DibufemN ny:n

na

nur

me (Ol1703i™ nip orropn

~[bnb

na

Goal

-[11«

Comit

264

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Verb

Bible Pssge 310 c 2 K g s 19:28

Agent

Object

nirv

you (3in:D)

Object Realiz'n sffx

Compl Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Path TTT3 n«3-10N i!3

310 c 310 c 310 c 310 c 310 c

Isa 1:25 Isa 1:26a Isa 1:26b Isa 14:27 Isa 36:9

nirv

'V

0

nirv

TOS30

0

RUSANAA

Mnnr

0

NBNRAA

Mnnr

nirv 'a Israel

T ^

it (hand) •TON n n a

^A

T ^

Goal

sffx ri«

' n s l T3y orropn

310 c

Isa 37:29

mrf

you (3-in:o)

sffx

TTT3

Path

n«3-10N i!3

310 c 310 c 310 c 310 c 310 C 310 C 310 C 310 C 310 C 310 C 310 C

Isa Unspecified del ( Q J J ) 42:22 Isa nirv OTian 44:25 Isa T3y BN-W' 'usi 49:6 Isa Israel 58:13 1a Jer her (donkey) 2:24 Jer 6:9 Jeremiah XT' Jer them (nations) nirv 12:15 Jer you (Jerusalem) mrf 15:19 Jer them (Israel) nirv 16:15 Jer them (sheep) nirv 23:3 Jer prophets of them ('OJJ) 23:22 v.21

310 C

Jer 24:6

310 C

Jer 28:4

mrf

0

N N X

Goal

n30a

Source

ni0y

Purpose

"1S133

Mnnr

0 0 sffx 0

nibobo-by

Goal

sffx

inbn: 1 :

Goal

in«1:...

0^1

sffx sffx

onirm-by

Goal

sffx

jnirby

Goal

Sffx

. . . 03Tm Soure jnn

them (exiles)

Sffx

fixn-by

t r p ' W ' t S i-p.^

11«

oipan-bx

Goal

n«rn (nirr)

¡Trw-ibo rrfarbs-riNi

ntn

. . . 0'N Mnnr

Goal

265

APPENDICES

Verb

Bible Pssge Jer 310 c 28:6

Agent ¡n¡T

Object nwrw

'bs

Object Realiz'n 0

Compi "ma

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Source; Goal

310 c

Jer 29:10

nw

you (Israel)

Sffx

310 c

Jer 29:14 Jer 30:3

nw

you (Israel)



oipon-bN ntn oipon-bN ntn oipon-bN

nw

them (11130

Sffx

f-ixn-bx

Goal

Jer 31:18 Jer 32:37

nw

me (Israel)

Sffx

nw

them (Israel)

sffx

oipon-bN ntn

Goal

Jer 32:44 Jer 33:7

nw

011130

ri«

nw

iTTliT 11130

nx

Jer 33:11 Jer 33:26 Jer 34:11

nirv

pi 111

'n

him (mm)

sffx

HIT

me (Job)

sffx

'n

himinibx)

sffx

me (Zophar)

sffx

'n

him (mm)

sffx

HIT

me (Job)

0

¡n¡T

10a:

0

bap

it (IT)

sffx

Reason

isp-bs

Goal

nio

Goal

nn0-\io Source lira-bs

Goal

268

Verb 310 c 310 c 310 c 310 c 310 c 310 c 310 c 310 c 310 c 310 c 310 c 310 C 310 C

310 C 310 C 310 C 310 C 310 C

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Bible Agent Pssge Prov JON: T S 25:13 Prov buy 26:15 Ruth NIRV 1:21 Ruth btu 4:15 Lam nap 1:11 Lam NIRV 1:13 Lam on:o 1:16 Lam npn nna 1:19 Lam NIRV 2:3 Lam NIRV 2:8 Lam NIRV 5:21 Dan jiasn -[ba11:18a v.15 Dan jiasn -[ba11:19 v.15

Object TTTN 0a:

Object Realiz'n 0

it (IT)

sffx

me F A Y : )

sffx

0a:

0

0a:

0

me

sffx

*0a:

0

o0a:

11«

Compl Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role

va- 1 :«

Goal

0

3'iN n a a

Source

IT1

0

pbia

Source

us (Israel)

sffx

T *

Goal

v:a

0

v:a

0

MYAB

Goal

sffx

T *

Goal

sffx

-[MIRRBN

Goal

sffx

no-mn-bN Goal

Neh o m n - v.24 them ( T « ^ : ) 9:26 Neh them NIRV 9:29 (Israelites) 2 Chr NIRV them ( L A Y ) 6:25 2 Chr T M B N N I R R - p r v 0 a *:a 6:42 2 Chr Unspecified h i m ( I R W O ) 18:25

Goal

0 sffx

JION-BN

Goal

0W17N1

•fan-p 310 C 2 Chr 19:4

oa0i;r

them (QJJil)

sffx

2 Chr 24:19 310 C 2 Chr 25:13 310 C 2 Chr 28:11

own

them (Judah)

sffx

NIRR-BN

Goal

IRRSON

-10X ( r r n n *:3)

0

nabo

Source

Israelites

iT130n

0

NIRV-BN

Goal

Oi-ITIUN 310 C

opn

Mnnr

un«

Mnnr

un«

Mnnr

269

APPENDICES

Verb

Bible Pssge niu> c 2 Chr 33:13

Agent

Object

nur

him (Manasseh)

Object Realiz'n sffx

Compi Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Goal obuhT iniabab

270

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

D6. The Hlphll of Bible Pssge c Ex 14:10

p as a Verb of Leading

Verb

Agent

Object

a-ip a-ip c

ny-ia nnN

del (army)

Exod 28:1

(Moses)

a-ip c

Exod 29:4

Moses

a-ip c

Exod 29:8 Exod 40:12

Moses

a-ip c

Object Realiz'n

Tns pns ns ins m-nsi pns na-nNi r:a

ns

ns

a-ip c

Moses

a-ip a-ip c Lev 8:6

Moses

them

ns

pns

ns

Exod 40:14 c Lev 7:35

a-ip c Lev 8:13 a-ip c Lev 8:24 a-ip c Num 3:6 a-ip c Num aip c aip c aip c aip c aip c

5:16 Num 15:33

Num 16:5a Num 16:5b Num 16:9 Num 16:10

aip c

Num 18:2

aip c

Num 25:6

nu>o

Moses

¡nan

her

ns

ins ossari

him

ns

¡nrr

del (holy one)

nu>o

mrr

Adjunct

Smantc Role

m lina bí^-lú?''

Source; Goal

sffx

rfm

Goal

sffx

obuhm

Goal

274

Verb

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Bible Agent Pssge •jbn c 2 Chr Nebuchad36:6 nezzar

Object him (Jehoiakim)

Object Realiz'n sffx

Compi rfm

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Goal

275

APPENDICES

D8. The Hiphil of TV as a Verb of Leading Verb Bible Pssge I T C Gen 39:1 IT C •TT C IT C IT C IT C

Gen 42:38 Gen 43:7 Gen 44:21 Gen 44:29 Gen 44:31

I T C Gen

45:13 I T C Deut 21:4

Agent

Object

Object Realiz'n him (Joseph) sffx

Compl

nou>

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Goal

(o^Nyou^n) pra

Mnnr

Goal

nyna

Mnnr

nbîw

Goal

pra

Mnnr

nN

n:n

Goal

nN

bru-bs

Goal

bana

Instr

Jacob's sons

Tia'U*

ri«

Jacob's sons

oa'nN

nN

Jacob's sons

him (Benjamin)

sffx

Jacob's sons

Tia^u*

nN

nbîw

Tiny

-pay na^u* wax

nN

Jacob's son's

'ax

myn npr Ninn

rfwyn

Goal

Goal

I T C Josh

sffx

IT C

sffx

u

Path

nN

fyn-ja

Source

IT C IT C IT C IT C IT C IT C IT C

them (spies) Rahab 2:15 Josh Rahab us 2:18 Josh Unspecified inba: 8:29 Josh Unspecified them (kings) 10:27 Gideon Judg them (QJJil) 7:4 Gideon Judg oyn 7:5 J u d g Philistines him (Samson) 16:21 1 Sam del (everyone) mm 2:6 1 Sam tribn n«i mm jn« 6:15

nbuw

sffx

jibnn -rya Path

trsyn bpa Source

nN

Goal

nN

Goal

nx

nnry

Goal

VINU>

Goal

nx

bya

man •rn

nx

jibnn tya

Path

Egyptian

me

sffx

Goal

I T C 1 Sam Egyptian

you (David)

sffx

TrnrrtN nrn TrnrrtN ntn

I T C 1 Sam Egyptian

him (David)

sffx

I T C 1 Sam

19:12 I T C 1 Sam 30:15a

30:15b 30:16

Goal

276

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Verb Bible Agent Pssge I T C 2 Sam ban 22:48 I T C l K g s Zadok and others 1:33 I T C l K g s Unspecified 1:53 •TT C l K g s Solomon 2:6 I T C l K g s Solomon 2:9 Elijah IT C lKgs 17:23 IT C lKgs 18:40

•¡¡T^N

Object o^ay him (Solomon) him (Adonijah)

Object Realiz'n 0

Compl

ri«

pnrbN

sffx

nnnn

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Goal Goal

naran bpa Source

ina'iy

0

bn&

Goal

abrà

Mnnr

ina'iy

0

VlNt»

Goal

ata

Mnnr

him fT^n)

sffx

them ( w n :

sffx

srrbyrrja Source; Goal nrran Goal bru-bs

ri«

¡lU»p mrr rraa Source

0

-raxa

Mnnr

0

owia

Mnnr

;0,_133

Mnnr; Reason

^an) I T C 2Kgs officers and -[ban 11:19 others I T C Isa mrr trnu>r 10:13 I T C Isa mrr oba 43:14 I T C Isa mrr oris: 63:6 you (Edom) I T C Jer ¡nrr 49:16 them I T C Jer mrr (Babylon) 51:40

0

f-ixb

sffx

Goal Source

sffx

mao1:

I T C Ezek 26:20

mrr

you (Tyre)

sffx

ojrbN

I T C Ezek 28:8 I T C Ezek 31:16

Ont- v.7

sffx

nn&b

I (mrr)

you (prince of Tyre- v.2) him (Assyria)

I T C Ezek 32:18

o-m-jn

it; nuai nni« sffx; nN

Goal

obiy

ri«

ma

Goal

'Tir-nN

Goal

'•nr-nx

nrnnn

I T C Joel 4:2

mrr

them (all the nations)

sffx

them- people Amos mrr ofv.l 9:2 Obad me (Edom) 'a 1:3 Obad you (Edom) mrr 1:4 them Ps Q'nbx nnx

sffx

ou>a

Source

sffx

fix

Goal

IT C IT C

sffx

liya own pajrbN

Goal

rr

sffx sffx

Comit

ma

DTTN tru them (Ephraim)

IT C

Comit

ma f-iK-bn

mrr

IT C

Comit

Goal

Hos 7:12

IT C

'•nr-nx

Source nnu> -ixab Goal

Mnnr

277

APPENDICES

Verb Bible Pssge 55:24

Agent

Ps 56:8 "TT C Ps 59:12 "TT C Lam 2:10

ffi-ÒN

tray

0

ffi-ÒN

them (enemies)

sffx

rfrinn

tufen

0

iban



"TT C

"TT C 2 Chr 23:20

Object

Object Realiz'n

Compi

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role

(enemiesV.19) «isa

f-ixb

Goal

obuhT Jehoiada

nur m n Source

Reason

278

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

D9. The Hiphiloîmi Verb Bible Pssge rà: c Gen 48:10 rà: c Gen 48:13 rà: c Exod 21:6a rà: c Exod 21:6b

as a Verb of Leading

Agent

Object

Object Realiz'n

Compi

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Goal

Israel

them (sons)

na

Joseph

del (sons)

vns

him frayn)

sffx

ffnbxn-bx

vns

him frayn)

sffx

i s nbtn-bN Goal

Goal Goal

ntiran-bs

rà: c 1 Sam mrm ovftNn t n s 14:18 -[bo JJN rà: c 1 Sam Unspecified 15:32

pbw

0 na

•h*

Goal

279

APPENDICES

DIO. The Hiphil Verb Bible Pssge -ay c Gen 32:24a -ay c Gen 32:24b •ray c Gen 47:21

as a Verb of Leading

Agent

Object

Object Realiz'n sffx

Jacob

them (his family)

Jacob

iV-iufemN



Joseph

oyn

nx

Compi bnin-n«

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Goal

nxpn onyb Goal ff-isn-Viaa insp-iyi

-ay c Exod 13:12 -ay c Exod 33:19 -ay c Lev 18:21 -ay c Num 32:5 -ay c Deut 2:30

Israel

om-ioa-ba

nx

nm^

Goal

'IN (¡TUT)

aivrba

nx

-pM-by

Goal

Israel

del Crjnra)

•frib

Goal

Moses

us (Reubenites and Gadites) us (Israel)

sffx

p-pn-nN

Goal

sffx

a

Path

inarm

0

ufea

Path

ntn oyn



p-pn-nN

Goal

him (ana¡

0

im nyau>

0

b^inu* víh

Path

him (nym)

sffx

him (

sffx

orina

Goal



jabaa

Goal

nx

p-pn-n«

Goal

p-pn-n«

Goal

i b a jrro

jaum -ay c Deut Unspecified 18:10 -ay c Josh nirr 7:7

-ay c 1 Sam 16:8 -ay c 1 Sam 16:9 -ay c 1 Sam 16:10 -ay c 1 Sam Jonathan 20:36 -ay c 2 Sam lDK 2:8

nnb;

nab

nu>a) David -ay c 2 Sam them (oyn) 12:31 -ay c 2 Sam iban ¡TTIIT 19:16 people -ay c 2 Sam iban n a 19:19 -ay c 2 Sam ¡mm oy-ba iban 19:41 -ay c 2 Sam -[ban-n« irriN 19:42 ina-nxi ¡TTIIT

n« nx nx

Reason

280

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Verb Bible Agent Pssge Asa -ay c lKgs 15:12 Ahaz - a y c 2Kgs 16:3 - a y c 2 K g s your fathers (v. 13) 17:17 - a y c 2Kgs 21:6 - a y c 2Kgs 23:10

Manasseh

Jer 32:35

Israel and Judah

-ay c

- a y c Ezek 14:15 - a y c Ezek 16:21 - a y c Ezek 20:26 - a y c Ezek 20:31 - a y c Ezek 20:37 - a y c Ezek 23:37

Object ffunpn

Object Realiz'n 0

Compi

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Source

pNi-rjo

m

na

úwa

Path

onm-nN



ufea

Path

m



ufea

Path

in-ns



ufea

Path

nayra

Mnnr

•frib

Benef

•frib

Benef

nbixb

Reason

orrnua-nNi

ina-nsi onm-nN



orrnua-nNi

¡nrr

ny-i rrn

0

pNa

Path

Jerusalem

them (sons)

na

onb

Goal

Israel

a m lüa-ba

0

Israel

03\n

0

ufea

Path

¡nrr

you (Israel)



v»u>n n n n

Path

Israel

-iu>n jm:a

na

onb

Goal

- a y c Ezek 37:2

mrr

'VVTV me (Ezekiel)

sffx

a a o orrby

Path

- a y c Ezek 46:21

mrr

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

njm&rtN

aao Goal

'jnspn isnn

- a y c Ezek 47:3

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

'n t r o a

- a y c Ezek 47:4a

me (Ezekiel)

sffx

tra troa

- a y c Ezek 47:4b - a y c Zech 13:2

me (Ezekiel)

Path

¡MON Path

tra-a

mrr

sffx na

Path pxn-ja

Source

nn-nsi nxaün

-ay c

Ps 78:13

mrr

them (DnUNv. 12)

sffx

-ay c

Ps 119:37

mrr

\ry

0

siu> nis-in Source

281

APPENDICES

Verb Bible Agent Object Object Pssge Realiz'n 0 -ay c Ps nirr 136:14 0 -ay c Dan unspecified tou 11:20 me sffx -ay c Neh governors 2:7 (Nehemiah)

-ay c

2 Chr 33:6

-ay c

2 Chr 35:23 2 Chr 35:24

-ay c

m

na

king's servants

me (king)

sffx

vrny

him (king)

sffx

Compi

«ira

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Path

TP

Goal

nnrf-bx o:n-ja va ufea

Path

ru3-ian-ja

Source

282

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Dll. The Verb Bible Pssge hi c 2 K g s 15:29 hi, c 2 K g s 16:9 hi, c 2 K g s 17:6 hi c 2 K g s 17:11 hi Cp Jer 40:7 hi c 2 K g s 17:26 hi c 2 K g s 17:27

Hiphil

and

Hophaloî

King of Assyria it (Damascus)

Sffx

ilTp

Goal

King of Assyria



¡mute

Goal

0

ornan

Source

rfm

Goal

¡nrr

-IU>N (trun)

poor King of Assyria -IU>N (trun)

TO ( -TON

2Kgs 17:28

Unspecified

TO ( -TON

hi c

2Kgs 17:33

Unspecified (Assyrians?)

hi c

2Kgs -ITOX-lba 18:11 2 K g s Nebuchadnezz obuh-p-ba-nN ar 24:14 -uoani...

hi c

Unspecified

Jer -ISN-TOU: 24:1 baa-iba pair ab Jer he (Nebuchadc 27:20 nezzar)

hi c

0

Source

0

jnau>a Source

na

Source

onnana)

2 K g s Nebuchadnezz ar 24:15 ¡-to ¡mm ^ J Cp Jer 13:19a Judah ^ J Cp Jer 13:19b Jer King of hi c 20:4 Babylon Jer 22:12

0

onnana)

hi c

c

as a Verb of Leading

Agent (C) Object (C) Objt (C) Compi Smantc Adjunct Smantc Object (Cp) Realiz'n Role Role Tiglath-pileser them (cities) Sffx rniu>N Goal

Unspecified

hi c

"hi

them (trun) resmptv; "IU>Î
N (oyrrba) 0 Goal

•hi c

Jer 29:4

mrr

•hi c

Jer 29:7

mrr

you (exiles)



•hi c

Jer 29:14

mrr

you (exiles)

na

•hi c

Jer 39:9

pNnnnj

. . . Ul'HK Qnxran



•bi Cp

Jer 40:1 Jer 43:3 Jer 52:15

n (exiles)

•hi c •hi c

c

Jer 52:28

•hi c

Jer 52:30

0

(nburrba)

Chaldeans

us



nbaa obu>rro Source; Goal nbaa nou> Goal (-ryn) Source

(oipon) baa

Goal

nbaa

Goal

baa

Goal

pN-ina: .. oyn mbm nx; 0 trnavra-i 0 "•«N-TOU: -IU>N (oyn) pN-ina: trnavra-i

... tr-nrr

I (nw)

them (Israel)

Temp

0

Temp

nutom

vhv) IWIlDUlb

'bj c

Ezek 39:28 •hi c Amos 1:6

'bj c

Amos 5:27

'bj c

Lam 4:22 •bi Cp Est 2:6a •bi Cp •hi c

Est 2:6b Est 2:6c

•hi c

Ezra 2:1

'bj c

Neh 7:6

nobu> nib}

they (Gaza)

na

trun-b«

Goal

0

-nonb

Reason

onfrò

¡nrr

you (Israel)



mrr

you (daughter of Zion)

sffx

;nNbno pvìmb

D'bshna

Source; Goal

Source

rfarroy

Comit

(Mordecai)

-IU>N (tfan) -[bo "lSNnaia: baa isnaia: baa--[bo isnaia: baa--[bo

Comit 0

-IU>N ( nrtan) -IU>N ( nrtan)

0

0

baab

Goal

284

VERBS OF L E A D I N G IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Verb

Bible Pssge

•hi

c

1 Chr IONAS i t f t n 5:6

•hi

c

1 Chr Tiglath Pileser them ( >13IKll! 5:26 King of Assyria ¡-¡too...)

•hi

c

1 Chr 5:41

¡Tim

obuh-pl ¡TTirP

m

•hi

c

1 Chr 8:6

Unspecified

them (descendants of Ehud)

sffx

c

1 Chr 8:7

Kin (Gera)

them (descendants of Ehud)

sffx

•hi

Cp 1 Chr 9:1 •hi c 2 Chr 36:20

•bi

A g e n t (C) Object (Cp)

O b j e c t (C) O b j t (C) C o m p i S m a n t c A d j u n c t S m a n t c Realiz'n Role Role -IU>N ( ¡TIKI

0

ua) sffx; b

TI

Instr

-imnsnj

rmîwn ainn-ja

Goal

nrun

rmn> King of Babylon

-•JN

0

bxib

Goal

baa-bx

Goal

Reason

APPENDICES

285

D12. The Hlphll of "["17 as a Verb of Leading Verb Bible Pssge

Agent

Object

TVT C J u d g 20:43

Israelites

him (Benjaminite army) del (remnant of Israel) them (blind)

TVT C Isa nirr 11:15 nirr "[TT C Isa 42:16 pair ba "[TT C Isa w ( nirr 48:17 TrfjN) TVT C Hab 3:19 "[TT C Ps 25:5 "[TT C Ps 25:9 "[TT C Ps 107:7 "[TT C

Ps 119:35

TVT C Prov 4:11

Object Realiz'n sffx

Compi na: ty

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Goal

njnjn ffbwa

Mnnr

sffx

niawa

Path

you (Israel)

sffx

-[bn "[Tra

Path

nirr

me

sffx

•moa by

Path

niT

me

sffx

•pENa

Instr

niT

trup

0

üau>oa

Instr

niT

them 'VlM)

sffx

rdb

Reason

n-10' "[Tra

Path

aTi:a

Path

(nw niT

me

sffx

-pniso father

you (son)

sffx

-uy'-^yoa

Path

286

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

D13. All Passages with Extended Animacy Verb Bible Agent Object Pssge mr IT aiu> c Gen 38:29 I T C Gen Jacob's sons Tia'iy 42:38 I T C Gen Jacob's sons Tia'iy 44:29 I T C Gen T-T3J> Tray na'iy 44:31 wax

Object Realiz'n 0

Compi

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role

nx

nbixu*

Goal

jira

Mnnr

nx

nbxu*

Goal

njna

Mnnr

nx

nbxu*

Goal

jira

Mnnr

it (his hand) Moses XT C Exod 4:6 it (his hand) Moses NT C Exod 4:7 aiu> c Exod nu>o XT' 4:7a IT 310 C Exod nu>o 4:7b s n c Exod you (Moses) IT 4:6a Moses s n c Exod IT 4:6b - a y c Exod ' : x ( n i r r ) 'aivrba 33:19 yuhrv no: -iu>x IT aiu> c Josh 8:26 jiTaa

sffx sffx

ip'no

Source

0

Ip'n-bx

Goal

0

ip'n-bx

Goal

0

IP'na

Goal

0

ip'na

Goal

nx

•pa-by

Goal

0

. . -iu>x t y Temp 'yn.

1 Sam 5:1

OTuyba

it ( j n x

310 c 1 Sam 6:21 aiu> c 1 Sam 14:27 s n c 1 Sam 5:2

OTuyba

nirr jinx

nx

IT

0

ra-bx

Goal

OTuyba

it ( j n x

nx

j u t n^a

Goal

"TI1 C 1 Sam

tribn

nxi nirr j n x

oa'bx

Goal

n'a-bx

Goal

snc

6:15

trnbxn)

•hy C 1 Sam 7:1

snc

;-iryn jaxo Source; Goal ÍTTTT0X

trnbxn) nx

mxn

•hy C 1 Sam 6:21

sffx

it (nirr jinx)

nx

nirr j n x

nx

it (nirr j n x )

nx

ony-mp 'rax ony-mp

1 Sam r m p ' r a x 7:1

atrax nyan

287

APPENDICES

Verb Bible Pssge tò: c 1 Sam 14:18 tò: Cp 2 Sam 3:34 •hy c 2 Sam 6:2

Agent

Object

rrriN

trnb^n JIIN

Object Realiz'n 0

T^i

Compi

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role

trn0n:b

Goal

o0a

Source

tmbi c 2 K g s 18:24 Isa 1:25 aiu> c Isa 14:27 aiu> c Isa 36:9

aiu> c

-[bon

it (hand)

sffx

Israel

•m« nna ^a 'nit nay orropn

nx

nirr

'V

0

1a

it (hand)

sffx

Israel

Isa niiT 'lp 40:31 Israel 310 c Isa 58:13 •jbn c Isa niir 63:12 aiu> c Jer 6:9 Jeremiah

•hy c

"t"TT G Jer 9:2

•m« nna 'nit nay orropn •tax

Goal



0 0

imxan ynt

Goal

onràa nau>o

Source . . . niiyy Purpose

0

nu>o jw1? Goal mbobo-bp

TT*

0

Israel

DllU^



Goal

snc

Jer 27:11

-IU>N cun)

TINIÏ

nx

bya

Goal

snc

Jer 27:12

iTpTS iTTliT-lba niir

oanxis

nx

"m-ibo bya

Goal

nan«

0

I (nw)

xaïai nan«

0

bx-ii^ ira

del (oana)

Jer 30:17 •hy c Jer 33:6 aiu> c Ezek 14:6a

•hy c

310 c Ezek bx-ii^ m 14:6b

"m-ibo

oana

0

Mnnr

Goal

nb

Goal

bpa aybib}

Source

Source bpa Tiayin-ba oa

Mnnr ima npu> onu>p Mnnr

289

APPENDICES

Verb Bible Pssge 310 c Ezek 18:8 310 c Ezek 18:17 310 c Ezek 18:30

Agent

Object

0'N J3-v.14

biyo

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Source

IV

0

nyo

Source

3 , y0a- 1 73a Source

del (03\i3?see 14:6)

310 c Ezek 18:32 310 c Ezek 20:22 310 c Ezek 38:12

Compi

IV

Object Realiz'n 0

0

del (03\i3?see 14:6) mrr

'V

na

Gog

IT

0

nmrrby

Goal

ri30u oy-bxi

310 c Amos ¡nrr 1:8 310 c Zech mrr 13:7 310 c Mai ¡^3:n rrbs 3:24 Ps 74:11 310 C Ps 81:15 N13C Ps 90:12 -13JJ C Ps 119:37 310 C Ps 119:59 310 C Ps 132:10 310 C

310 C Prov 19:24 N13C Prov 23:12a N13C Prov gpped 23:12b 310 C Prov 26:15 310 C Lam 2:3 310 C Lam 2:8 "TI1 C Lam 2:10

'V

0

jnpy-by

Goal

'V

0

tnpsrrbp

Goal

. . nuN-sb

0

. . om-by

Goal

o m 3V1.

onns-bp.

mrr

-pwi IV

0

mrr

'V

0

Israel

n a s n 33b

0

nab

o r r i s by

Reason

Goal

mrr

0

«10 niN-in Source

psalmist

0

Tmy-bhi

Goal

mrr

•jmuto ^a

0

111 "113X3 Reason

buy

it (IV)

sffx

irra-bs

Goal

0

-tomb

Goal

"TJt«

0

nyv-ioN 1 :

Goal

it (IV)

sffx

va-bs

Goal

TT3J>

reader/ hearer reader/ hearer buy

0

mrr

IIN 'lan Source

mrr

IV

0

ybia

nVim

J0N"1

0

f-ixb

Qb0rr

Source Goal

-un«

Mnnr

290

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Verb Bible Agent Pssge aiu> c Dan jiasn -[ba11:18a v.15 aiu> c Dan jiasn -[ba11:19 v.15 s n c Neh omm-m 3:5 snc

1 Chr 13:5

•hy c 1 Chr 13:6

Object na

Object Realiz'n 0

na

0

ons

0

trnbNn JI-IN

nN

nx

Goal

m m JI-IN

nx

oipirbN

nN

'nirambN

you (v. 11 people)

mm jnx

•hy C 1 Chr 15:14

onnan

mm jnx

nx

JI-IN

nx

mm

...

Goal

-IU>N

Goal

ib

tribm

David, •hy C 1 Chr 15:25 elders, etc. •hy C 1 Chr 15:28

mm-rma JI-IN

ma-jo

Source

nx

mm-m-a

T R N B N N JI-IN

nx

m a JI-IN

nN

n:a:n ma1: Goal

unp ^ai mm TIT

T R N B N N JI-IN

0

rmpo

Source

pana ff-ijp T i l lb

•hy C 2 Chr Solomon, 5:2 elders, etc. •hy C 2 Chr 5:5a

Levites

JI-IN

nx

mm-rma jnxn

nx

-ryia bnicnNi ^a-ba-nNi

•hy C 2 Chr 5:5b

onnan tribn

them (ark, tent, etc.)

Mnnr

nynna

Mnnr

-iaiu> bipai

V.15:28 niy-ba

nnou>a

trm-ray

Q'nbxn •hy c 2 Chr 1:4

Benef

Source

T R N B N N JI-IN

•hy c 1 Chr 15:12

1 Chr 22:19

rmpo

Source

David

snc

maya

nx

1 Chr 13:12 •hy c 1 Chr 15:3

1 Chr 16:1

IS-IN myab Goal

any tmbNn JI-IN

snc

Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role Goal

omrm

TVT

snc

Compl

nx

TIT

myo Source

291

APPENDICES

Verb Bible Pssge s u e 2 Chr 5:7

Agent

Object

Object Realiz'n

orinan

tns nwma

na

Compi Smantc Adjunct Smantc Role Role siaipa-bx Goal; Goal; -rat bu Goal

;rran

nnn bu traman aiu> c

2 Chr 6:42

ffnbx nur -piru>o 'is

0

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Boling, R. G. 1982.Joshua. Anchor Bible. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Brooke, A. E., N. McLean, and H. S . J . Thackeray, eds. 1927. The Old Testament in Greek. Volume II. The Later Historical Books. Part 1.1 andII Samuel. London: Cambridge University Press. , eds. 1932. The Old Testament in Greek. Volume II. The Later Historical Books. Part III. I and II Chronicles. London: Cambridge University Press. Brown, F., S. Driver, and C. Briggs. 1907. Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon. Childs, B. S. 1974. The Book of Exodus: A Critical, Theological Commentary. Old Testament Library. Philadelphia: Westminster. Christensen, D. L. 2002. Deuteronomy 21:10—34:12. Word Biblical Commentary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Clines, D. J., et al. 2001. The Dictionay of Classical Hebrew. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. Cogan, M. 2001. / Kings. Anchor Bible. New York: Doubleday. Cook, W. A. 1989. Case Grammar Theoy. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. . 1998. Case Grammar Applied. Arlington, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics. Craigie, P. C. 2004. Psalms 1-50. 2nd ed. Ed. M. E. Tate. Word Biblical Commentary. Nelson Reference and Electronic. Creason, S. A. 1995. Semantic Classes of Hebrew Verbs: A Study of Aktionsart in the Hebrew Verbal System. University of Chicago: Ph.D. dissertation. Cross, F. M., and D. N. Freedman. 1948. The Blessing of Moses. JBL 67:191-210. Cruse, D. A. 1986. Lexical Semantics. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Dahood, M. 1966a. The Phoenician Background of Qoheleth. Biblica 47:264-82. . 1966b. Psalms I: 1—50. Anchor Bible Commentary. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company. . 1968a. Hebrew-Ugaritc Lexicography VI. Biblica 49:355-69. . 1968b. Psalms II: 51—100. Anchor Bible Commentary. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company. . 1970. Psalms III: 101—150. Anchor Bible Commentary. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company.

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Driver, S. R. 1902. Deuteronomy. International Critical Commentary. New York: Scribners. Durham, J. I. 1987. Exodus. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word Books. Eckardt, W., and C. Riepl. 1991. Der Grammatizität der Grammatik: Am Beispiel der Basis G-TMH. In Text, Methode und Grammatik: Wolfgang 'Richter %um 65.Geburtstag, eds. W. Gross, H. Irsigler, and T. Seidl. St. Ottilien: EOS Verlag. Fillmore, C. J. 1968. The Case for Case. In Universals in linguistic Theory, eds. E. Bach and R. T. Harms, 1-90. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Fitzmyer,J. A. 1967. The Aramaic Incriptions of Seßre. Biblca et Orientalia. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute. Fromkin, V., and R. Rodman. 1998. An Introduction to Language. 6th ed. Forth Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Fuhs, H. F. 2001. Ala. In Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, Vol. XI, eds. G . J . Botterweck, H. Ringgren, and H.-J. Fabry, trans. D. E. Green, 76-95. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Gane, R. E., and J. Milgrom. 2004. Qärab. In Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, vol. 13, ed. G . J . Botterweck, H. Ringgren, and H.-J. Fabry, trans. D. E. Green, 135-48. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Garrett, D., and P. R. House. 2004. Song of Songs I Lamentations. Word Biblical Commentary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Gelb, I., A. Oppenheim, E. Reiner, and M. Roth, et al., eds. 1965-. The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Chicago: Oriental Institute. Gesenius, W. 1987. Hebräisches und Aramäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament. 18. Ed. U. E. Ruterswörden. Berlin: Springer. Gibson, J. C. L. 1994. Davidson's Introductory Hebrew Grammar: Syntax. 4th ed. Edinburgh: T&T Clark. Gray, G. B. 1903. Numbers. International Critical Commentary. New York: Scribners. Greenberg, M. 1983. E%ekiel 1-20. Anchor Bible. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. . 1997. E%ekiel 21-37. Anchor Bible. New York: Doubleday. Gross, W. 1998. Nähag*. In Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, eds. G . J . Botterweck, H. Ringgren, and H.-J. Fabry, trans. D. E. Green, 255-59. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.

296

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

Helfmeyer, F . J . 1978. Hdlakh. In Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, vol. 3, eds. G . J . Botterweck and H. Ringgren, trans. J. T. Willis, G. W. Bromiley, and D. E. Greene, 388-403. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Hillers, D. R. 1992. Lamentations. Anchor Bible. New York: Doubleday. Hoffner, H. 1986. Ybl. In Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, 'Vol. V, eds. G . J . Botterweck and H. Ringgren, trans. D. E. Green, 364-67. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Hoftijzer, J., and K. Jongeling. 1995. Dictionary of the Northwest Semitic Inscriptions. Leiden: Brill. Holladay, W. L. 1958. The Root subh in the Old Testament. Leiden: Brill. . 1986. Jeremiah 1. Philadelphia: Fortress. Joiion, P., and T. Muraoka. 1991. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. Subsidia Biblica. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute. Kapelrud, A. 1998. Ndhal. In Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, Vol. IX, eds. G . J . Botterweck, H. Ringgren, and H.-J. Fabry, trans. D. E. Green. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Kautzsch, E., and A. Cowley, eds. 1910. Gesenius'Hebrew Grammar. 2nd English ed. Oxford: Clarendon. Koehler, L., and W. Baumgartner, eds. 2001. The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Leiden: Brill. Kraus, H.-J. 1989. Vsalms 60-150 :A Commentary. A Continental Commentary. Trans. Hilton C. Oswald. Minneapolis: Augsburg. Kriiger, T. 2004.Qoheleth. Trans. O. C. Dean Jr. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress. Levin, B. 1993. English Verb Classes and Alternations: A Vreliminary Investigation. Chicago: University Press. , and M. Rappaport Hovav. 2005. Argument Realisation. Research Surveys in Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Levine, B. 1993. Leviticus 1—20. Anchor Bible. New York: Doubleday. Lewis, C. T., and C. Short. 1958.^4 Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon. Linafelt, T., and T. K. Beal. 1999. Ruth and Esther. Berit Olam: Studies in Hebrew Narrative and Poetry. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press.

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Lyons, J. 1977. Semantics, 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. McCarter, P. K. 1980.1 Samuel. Anchor Bible Commentary. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company. . 1984.11 Samuel. Anchor Bible. Garden City: Doubleday. McCawley,J. D. 1998. The Syntactic Phenomenon of English. 2nd ed. Chicago: University Press. Malessa, M. 2006. Untersuchungen ^ur verbalen Valen^ im biblischen Hebräisch. Studia Semitica Neerlandica. Assen: Van Gorcum. Mayer, W. 1990. Yärad. In Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, vol. 6, eds. G . J . Botterweck and H. Ringgren, trans. D. E. Green, 315-22. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Milgrom, J. 1991. Leviticus 1—16. Anchor Bible. New York: Doubleday. Moore, G. F. 1910. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Judges. International Critical Commentary. Edinburgh: T & T Clark. Muraoka, T. 1998. Hebrew/Aramaic Index to the Septuagint. In A Concordance to the Septuagint, E. Hatch and H. A. Redpath. Grand Rapids: Baker. Murphy, R. E. 1998. Proverbs. Word Biblical Commentary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson. . 1992. Ecclesiastes. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word Books. Myers, J. M. 1965. E^ra, Nehemiah. Anchor Bible. Garden City: Doubleday. . 1965. II Chronicles. Anchor Bible. Garden City: Doubleday. Nissim, U. 2000. Die Bedeutung des Ergehens: Ein Beitrag einem biblisch-hebräischen Valen^lexikon am Beispiel von Ergehensverben. Arbeiten zu Text und Sprache im Alten Testament. St. Ottilien: EOS. O'Connor, M. P. 1980. Hebrew Verse Structure. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns. Palmer, F. 1994. Grammatical Koles and delations. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics. Cambridge: University Press. Payne, T. E. 2006. ExploringEanguage Structure: A Student's Guide. Cambridge: University Press. Preuss, H. D. 1975. Bo. In Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, vol. II, eds. G . J . Botterweck and H. Ringgren, trans.J. T. Willis, 20*49. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.

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VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

. 1990. YäSä'. In Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, vol. VI, eds. G . J . Botterweck and H. Ringgren, trans. D. E. Green, 225*250. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Propp, W. H. C. 1999. Exodus 1-18. Anchor Bible. New York: Doubleday. Quirk, R., S. Greenbaum, G. Leech, and J. Svartvik. 1972. A Grammar of Contemporary English. Essex: Longman. Rahlfs, A., and R. Hanhart, eds. 2006. Septuaginta, Editio altera. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. Rappaport Hovav, M., and B. Levin. 1998. Building Verb Meanings. In The Projection of Arguments: Lexical and Compositional Factors, eds. M. Butt and W. Geuder, 97-134. Stanford: CSLI Publications. Richter, W. 1980. Grundlagen einer althebräischen Grammatik: 3: Der Sat% (Sat^theorie). ATSAT. St. Ottilien: EOS. Ringgren, H. 1998. Näg*as*. In Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, vol. 9, eds. G . J . Botterweck, H. Ringgren, and H.-J. Fabry, trans. D. E. Green, 215*19. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Scanlin, H. P. 1992. The Study of Semantics in General Linguistics. In Linguistics and Biblical Hebrew, ed. W. R. Bodine, 125-36. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns. Scott, R. B. Y. 1965. Proverbs andEcclesiastes. Anchor Bible. Garden City: Doubleday. Seow, C. L. 1997. Ecclesiastes. Anchor Bible. New York: Doubleday. Simpson, J. A., and E. S. C. Weiner. 1989. The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon. Smith, H. P. 1902. The Books of Samuel. International Critical Commentary. New York: Scribner's Sons. Sokoloff, M. 2002. A Dictionary of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic of the Talmudic and Geonic Periods. Ramat-Gan, Israel: Bar Ilan University Press. Stadelmann, L . J . 1970. The Hebrew Conception of the World: A Philological and Literary Study. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute. Stuart, D. 1987. Hosea—Jonah. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word. Tate, M. E. 1990. Psalms 51-100. Word Biblical Commentary. Dallas: Word. van der Merwe, C., and H. Rechenmacher. 2005. The Contribution of Wolfgang Richter to Current Developments in the Study of Biblical Hebrew. Journal of Semitic Studies 50:59—82.

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Van Valin, R. D. 2005. Exploring the Syntax-Semantics Interface. Cambridge: Unversity Press. Waltke, B. 2004. The Book of Proverbs Chapters 1—15. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Waltke, B. K., and M. P. O'Connor. 1990. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns. Watts, J. D. 1985. Isaiah 1-33. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word Books. Wevers, J. W., ed. 1974. Genesis. Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. , ed. 1991. Exodus. Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. Wildberger, H. 1991. Isaiah 1-12. T. Trapp, trans. Continental Commentary. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. Williamson, H. G. M. 1985. E^ra, Nehemiah. Word Biblical Commentary. Waco: Word Books. Wolff, H. W. 1974. A Commentary on the Book of the Prophet Hosea. Trans. P. D. Hanson. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress. Ziegler, J., ed. 1939. Isaias. Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. , ed. 1952. Ezechiel. Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. , ed. 1957. Ieremias. Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. , ed. 1967. Duodecimprophetae. Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. Zimmerli, W. 1983. E^ekieH. Trans. J. D. Martin. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress.

INDEX

Aktionsart, 9, 32, 295 alternations, 5, 6, 13, 15, 111, 155,207, 211 Argument structure, 13 arguments, 13 case grammar, 5, 15, 16, 25 complements, 7 coordinate simplification, 28, 29 Coreferential roles, 21 covert roles, 26, 208 event-structure, 31 extended animacy, 39 modal roles, 17, 44, 48, 52, 61, 66,108,152,181,186,199 object omission, 28, 29, 89, 105, 149, 208

propositional roles, 17, 32, 44 proto-roles, 19 selectional restrictions, 4, 6, 20, 38, 40, 53, 169, 174, 179, 184,188,193,197 semantic-role theory, 4, 5, 13, 15,16, 24 structuralism, 10 syntagmemes, 8, 9 TELICITY, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38 translocative verbs, 4, 81, 161, 169, 205, 208 valence, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 17, 25

301

INDEX OF SCRIPTURE

Genesis 1:12, p. 136 1:24, p. 136 2:19, p. 28,106 2:22, p. 104 6:19, p. 106 8:9, p. 106 8:17, p. 128 15:5, p. 132 18:19,p. 115 19:10, p. 107 20:7, p. 149,158 20:9, p. 114 20:14, p. 155 24:27, p. 23, 48, 59 24:28, p. 59 25:5, p. 14-15 26:10, p. 115 27:12, p. 115 28:34, p. 128 31:26, p. 65, 69 37:14, p. 161 37:28, p. 88 42:38, p. 180 43:7, p. 180 43:18, p. 118 43:24, p. I l l 46:7, p. 105 46:32, p. 106 47:7, p. 31 47:17, p. 75,78, 79,113

47:21, p. 192 48:10, p. 184 48:13, p. 185 Exodus 3:1, p. 63 3:17, p. 91 4:6, p. 113 8:1, p. 87 8:3, p. 87 8:14, p. 128 10:4, p. 108 10:8, p. 163 11:1,p. 115 13:14, p. 129 13:15, p. 105 13:17, p. 47, 59 13:21, p. 59 14:10, p. 170,172,210 14:24-25, p. 65 15:13, p. 78 15:22, p. 139 21:34, p. 158 32:12, p. 133 32:34, p. 47, 59 40:36, p. 83 Leviticus 4:4, p. 115 4:12, p. 137 4:21, p. 137 303

304

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

6:4, p. 137 14:20, p. 92 16:27, p. 137 19:21-22, p. 115 26:25, p. 115 26:21, p. 108 Numbers 5 : 7 - 8 , p. 162 6:13, p. 118 13:32, p. 136 13:36-37, p. 136 16:5, p. 170 16:27, p. 84 17:23, p. 136 18:19, p. 162 19:15, p. 137 22:8, p. 161 23:20, p. 160 Deuteronomy 4:27, p. 69 5:6, p. 132-33 12:10, p. 77 21:18-19, p. 126 22:13-14, p. 135 28:37, p. 69 28:68, p. 152 29:4, p. 175 32:41, p. 160 32:43, p. 160 33:7, p. 119 Joshua 2:6, p. 89 2:15, p. 180 2:18, p. 180 7:6, p. 95 7:17, p. 30,171 7:24, p. 90

8:23, p. 170 24:3, p. 175 24:6, p. 131 Judges 6:8, p. 24, 85 6:18, p. 137 6:19, p. 137 6:28, p. p. 99 7:4, p. 179 7:7, p. 188 9:56, p. 160 16:3, p. 95 16:8, p. 95 16:18, p. 95 20:38, p. 95 20:43, p. 198, 202 1 Samuel 2:6, p. 181 2:27, p. 21, 103 6:3-4, p. 162 6:8, p. 158 6:15, p. 180 6:21, p. 157 7:7, p. 82 7:11, p.125 14:18, p. 185-86 15:32, p. 185 16:17, p. 28 17:13, p. 161 19:7, p. I l l 22:4, p. 53, 79 23:5, p. 60, 62, 63 26:25, p. 147 27:11, p. 28 10:18, p. 91 26:23, p. 160 30:2, p. 45, 63 30:15-16, p. 180

INDEX

30:22, p. 63 31:12, p. 121 2 Samuel 1:1, p.89 2:1, p. 89 2:3, p. 89 3:4, p. 186 6:3, p. 37, 45 6:15, p. 91 6:17, p. 37,112 8:3, p. 152 9:7, p. 159 13:9, p. 140, 146 14:10, p. 105 15:25, p. 157 15:29, p. 157 1 Kings 2:6, p. 180 2:9, p. 180 2:20, p. 156 2:40, p. 110 3:4, p. 93 8:6, p. 108 8:34, p. 148 10:16, p. 94 10:26, p. 54 12:32-33, p. 96 13:4, p. 156 20:9, p. 161 22:26, p. 150 2 Kings 3:4, p. 150 4:24, p. 46 5:6,114 9:20, p. 61, 62 11:15, p. 129 15:29, p. 194

305

16:9, p. 194 16:12, p. 96 17:6, p. 194 17:13, p. 158 17:27, p. 176 18:11, p. 54 19:28, p. 152 22:9, p. 161 24:13, p. 134 24:15, p. 194 Isaiah 1:26, p. 150 7:2, p. 48 8:7, p. 96 10:13, p. 182 14:15, p. 181 18:7, p. 71, 74 20:4, p. 63 23:7, p. 45, 70 37:29, p. 153 40:11, p. 78 40:31, p. 92, 97,101,210 42:1, p. 135 42:3, p. 135 43:13, p. 160 49:10, p. 69, 75 51:18, p. 75 57:18, p. 55 58:11, p. 48 58:13, p. 157 61:11,p. 136 63:12, p. 176 63:14, p. 69 Jeremiah 9:2, p. 201 15:13-14, p. 190 15:19, p. 136 17:4, p. 191

306

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

18:20, p. 160 23:7, p. 28-29 27:11-12, p. 109,113 30:17, p. 92 31:9, p. 70 33:6, p. 92 35:17, p. 115 38:22, p. 138 48:44, p. 115 49:5, p. 115 51:10, p. 135 51:27, p. 87 Ezekiel 11:1, p. 105 11:24, p. 105 12:4, p. 144 14:22, p. 145 19:3, p. 86, 87 19:4, p. 106 19:9, p. 106 26:3, p. 96 27:14, p. 158 29:4, p. 89 32:3, p. 89 34:13, p. 128 36:12, p. 177 37:6, p. 94, 95 39:28, p. 196 40:24, p. 176 40:32, p. 109 43:1, p. 176 43:5, p. 105 44:1, p. 153 44:4, p. 109 46:19, p. 109 46:20, p. 137 47:6, p. 176

Amos 4:10, p. 96 Hosea 10:6, p. 72 12:2, p. 73 12:15, p. 160 Micah 1:15, p. 120 Nahum 2:8, p. 67, 79,99 3:3, p. 87 Habakkuk 1:15, p. 89 Zephaniah 3:10, p. 74 Haggai 1:11, p. 136 Malachi 3:24, p. 157 Psalms 5:9, p. 48,59 31:4, p. 46, 59 23:2, p. 74, 75 23:3, p. 50, 59 25:5, p. 199,210 37:6, p. 135 43:3, p. 25, 27, 51, 59, 106, 109 45:16, p. 73 48:15, p. 66 60:11, p. 47, 59,70, 74 61:3, p. 54, 210

307

INDEX

65:5, p. 173 66:11, p. 109 67:5, p. 51 68:30, p. 70, 74 72:10, p. 158 76:12, p. 70 77:21, p. 48,59 78:14, p. 29-30 78:26, p. 69 78:52, p. 64, 67 78:53, p. 59 78:72, p. 59 85:4, p. 164,167 90:12, p. 113 104:14, p. 137 106:45, p. 57 107:30, p. 36,59 108:11, p. 47,59, 70, 74 119:35, p. 198, 209 119: 59 139:10, p. 57, 79 139:24, p. 59 143:10, p. 51,59 Job 8:10, p. 136 10:18-19, p. 71 12:23, p. 56, 59 13:22, p. 162 14:13, p. 109 15:13, p. 136 21:30, p. 73 24:3, p. 63, 64 31:18, p. 59 35:4, p. 161 38:32, p. 52 Proverbs 3:5-6, p. 1,207 6:22, p. 45,51,59

10:18, p. 136 11:3, p. 45 12:14, p. 166,167 15:1, p. 96 16:29, p. 176 18:16, p. 45, 51 23:12, p. 113 Song of Songs 8:2, p. 109 Lamentations 1:21, p. 115 1:4, p. 62 3:2, p. 60 Esther 4:12-13, p. 29, 162 Ecclesiastes 2:3, p. 45,60 4:1, p. 57 5:3, p. 136 8:10, p. 122 11:9, p. 109 Ezra 8:17, p. 141 Nehemiah 3:3,113 6:4, p. 162 6:19, p. 136 9:12, p. 59 9:19, p. 59 1 Chronicles 5:41, p. 194 13:7, p. 45 20:1, p. 63

308

VERBS OF LEADING IN THE HEBREW BIBLE

2 Chronicles 1:17. p. 128 5:7, p. 108 9:15, p. 94 9:28, p. 128 15:15, p. 77 17:11, p. 106 18:15, p. 109 20:30, p. 77 20:34, p. 99,100 23:1, p. 146 23:14, p. 142-43 25:11, p. 46, 63 28:5, p. 28 28:15, p. 75 32:22, p. 75, 79