Travels in New England and New York: Volume IV Travels in New England and New York, Volume IV [Reprint 2014 ed.] 9780674287884, 9780674336773


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Table of contents :
Contents
Journey to Niagara
First Journey to Lake Winnipesaukee or Wentworth
Second Journey to Lake Winnipesaukee or Wentworth
Journey to Utica
The Iroquois
Remarks on European Travelers in America
Language of New England
Learning, Morals, Etc. of New England
Religion of New England
Characteristics of the Men and Women in New England
Manufactures of New England
Massachusetts
Prospects of the United States
Notes
Index
Recommend Papers

Travels in New England and New York: Volume IV Travels in New England and New York, Volume IV [Reprint 2014 ed.]
 9780674287884, 9780674336773

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THE JOHN HARVARD LIBRARY Bernard Bailyn Editor-in-Chief

TRAVELS in NEW ENGLAND and NEW YORK BY

TIMOTHY

DWIGHT

Edited, by Barbara Miller Solomon with the assistance of Patricia Μ. King

VOLUME

IV

The John Harvard

Library

The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press Cambridge, Massachusetts 1969

© Copyright 1969 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College All rights reserved Distributed in Great Britain by Oxford University Press, London Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 69-12735 Printed in the United States of America

John Harvard Library books are edited at the Charles Warren Center for Studies in American History, Harvard University.

CONTENTS

Volume

IV

Journey to Niagara First Journey to Lake Winnipesaukee or Wentworth Second Journey to Lake Winnipesaukee or Wentworth Journey to Utica T h e Iroquois Remarks on European Travelers in America Language of New England Learning, Morals, Etc. of New England Religion of New England Characteristics of the Men and Women in New England Manufactures of New England Massachusetts Prospects of the United States Notes Index Map following p. xv

1 95 109 122 129 150 J 95 206 258

327 338 351 361 375 399

TRAVELS; IN

NEW-ENGLAND AND NEW-YORK: BY

TIMOTHY DWIGHT, S. T. D. LL. D.

LATE PRESIDENT OF YALE COLLEGE γ

AUTHOR OF

THEOLOGY EXPLAINED AND DEFENDED.

IN FOUR VOLUMES.

VOL. IV.

NEW-HAVEN: PUBLISHED BY TIMOTHY DWIGHT. S. CONVERSE, PRINTER.

1822.

CONTENTS

JOURNEY

TO

NIAGARA

LETTER I Journey to Sheffield—White marble—Rapid descent of the streams which fall into the Hudson and into the Housatonic—Egremont— Manor of Livingston—Claverack—Character of first settlers in little landing places—Catskill—Canton—Durham—Catskill Mountains— Bristol—Blenheim—Stamford—Harpersfield—Meredith—White pine tree—Franklin—Sidney—Miserable inns—Troublesome innkeeper— Unadilla—Oxford—Norwich—Jericho—Chenango River and valley —Sherburne—Hamilton—Cazenovia L E T T E R II Holland Company—Face of the country from Sullivan to Canandaigua —Manlius—Varieties of names given to townships—Onondaga—Salt springs—Marcellus—Early fall of snow—Skaneateles Lake—Aurelius —Cayuga Bridge—Account of lakes in this region—Junius—Geneva —Seneca Lake L E T T E R III Easton—Canandaigua—Bloomfield—Charleston—Hartford—Genesee River—Genesee flats—Oak plains—Their peculiar appearance, owing to fires kindled by the Indians—Their soil productive—County of Genesee—Buffalo—View of the lake, etc.—Beautiful collection of clouds L E T T E R IV Brief account of the Great Lakes which supply the river Niagara— Lake Superior—Its islands, rivers, etc.—River St. Marys—Its only outlet—Opinion that there are subterraneous outlets examined—Lake Huron—Lake Michigan—Island of Mackinac—Huron River—Lake St. Clair—Lake Erie—Evidence that the waters of these lakes are lower than they formerly were

χ

CONTENTS

LETTER V River Niagara—Properly called the St. Lawrence—Islands in the river —General appearance and character of this region—Cataract of Niagara

52

L E T T E R VI A passage behind the sheet of water of the cataract practicable at some times and not at others—Explanation of this phenomenon—Retrogression of the cataract considered

63

L E T T E R VII Severe storm—General observations upon the western part of New York —Excessive value placed upon lands covered with vegetable mold— Climate and prevalent winds of this region—Western district of New York unhealthy—Diseases—Fever and ague—Goiters—Pulmonary affections rare

70

L E T T E R VIII General observations upon the western part of New York continued— Want of stone for building and fencing—Defective supply and quality of its timber—Water impregnated with lime—Commerce—Different outlets for its commodities

83

L E T T E R IX Return slowly along the Mohawk to Albany—Kinderhook—Hudson— Uncommon phenomena observed on Taconic Mountain 88

FIRST JOURNEY TO LAKE WINNIPESA UK EE OR WENTWORTH LETTER I Journey to Andover—Atkinson—Hampstead—Chester—Pembroke— Concord—Boscawen—Salisbury—Sanbornton—Gilmantown—Meredith—Center Harbor—Winnipesaukee Lake—Its extent—Fed by subjacent springs—Its numerous and beautiful islands

95

L E T T E R II Holderness—Squam Lake—Plymouth—Baker River—Rumney—Wentworth—Warren—Ryegate—Barnet—St. Johnsbury—Lyndon—Sheffield—Premature frosts—Lebanon Falls—Boating on Connecticut River—Governor Griswold 102

CONTENTS

SECOND JOURNEY OR

xi

TO LAKE WINNIPESAUKEE WENTWORTH

LETTER I Journey to Andover through Providence—To Portsmouth through Newburyport—Rochester—Norway plain—Middleton—Wolfboro— Governor Wentworth—Tuftonboro—Moultonboro—Prospect of the Lake Winnipesaukee or Wentworth from the Red Mountain— Squam or Sullivan's Lake—Return 109 L E T T E R II General remarks upon New Hampshire—Its population, soil, and agriculture—Form of government—Support of religion 115

JOURNEY

TO

UTICA

Description of the Catskill Mountains—Extensive prospect from the summit—Journey to Utica—Hamilton College—Cavities worn by the Mohawk in the rocks at Little Falls—Return 122

THE

IROQUOIS

LETTER I Authorities consulted in the following account of the Iroquois—Their form of government—Their story relative to the creation of man— Their mythology as related by the Oneidas 129 L E T T E R II Government of the Iroquois—Sachems—Customs and laws of the nation 136 L E T T E R III Origin of the Iroquois—Their warlike character—Their faithfulness in keeping treaties—Their eloquence and language—Mischiefs produced by ardent spirits—The effects of General Sullivan's march through their country—Feast or thanksgiving of the Senecas 141

REMARKS

ON EUROPEAN IN AMERICA

TRAVELERS

LETTER I Volney

150

xii

CONTENTS

L E T T E R II Weld

158 L E T T E R III

Duke de La Rochefoucauld

164 L E T T E R IV

Lambert

179

LANGUAGE

OF NEW

ENGLAND

LETTER I The English language in this country pronounced more correctly than in England—Blunders in language customary in London—Reasons why the people of New England pronounce the English language with propriety 195 L E T T E R II The inhabitants of this country charged with retaining obsolete words, with introducing new words, with annexing new significations to words—Alterations in language less in this country than in England for the last two hundred years—Vindication of this conduct 199

LEARNING,

MORALS, ETC. OF NEW

ENGLAND

LETTER I Schools—System of Connecticut—Schools of New England—Effects of this education on the people at large—Hon. Roger Sherman 206 L E T T E R II Academies in New England—Colleges—State of these institutions in 1812—Law and theological seminaries—Medical, historical, and philosophical societies—Social libraries 212 L E T T E R III Observations of Buffon, De Pauw, etc. relative to the deterioration of animals; of the bodies and of the minds of men in America—Genius, what and whence derived—Genius of Americans—Literature and science of the Americans—Men of learning—Causes why they are not numerous 217 L E T T E R IV Opinion of the Edinburgh Review relative to the literature of America —President Edwards—Rev. Dr. Edwards—Dr. Franklin—Dr. Ritten-

CONTENTS

xiii

house and other natural philosophers—Ingenious and useful invent i o n s — M c F i n g a l — P r o g r e s s of learning in Great Britain from the eighth century 227 LETTER V Manners and morals of the people of N e w E n g l a n d — E x e c u t i o n s d u r i n g the Revolutionary W a r — C a p i t a l punishments in the county of N e w H a v e n in 175 years—Duels in N e w E n g l a n d since its settlement— Inhabitants all required to be in the possession of a r m s — T h e poor supported and e d u c a t e d — P u b l i c and private charities 235 L E T T E R VI Various traits of character of the people of N e w England, compared w i t h similar traits of the inhabitants of Great Britain—Difficulties f o u n d by Englishmen in j u d g i n g of the character and circumstances of the people of this country 239 L E T T E R VII Modes of l i v i n g — A m u s e m e n t s — P e o p l e of N e w England fond of acq u i r i n g k n o w l e d g e — H a p p y effects of this trait of c h a r a c t e r — T h e Sabbath observed w i t h sobriety and reverence—Marriages—Funerals 248

RELIGION

OF NEW

ENGLAND

LETTER I History of religion in N e w England from the year 1755—Effects of the French and Revolutionary W a r s — E v i l s arising from the introduction of foreigners into the country 258 L E T T E R II State of religion after the peace of 1783—Effects of the French Revolut i o n — C i r c u l a t i o n of the writings of infidels 263 L E T T E R III T h e effects of the principles avowed by the leaders of the French Revolution, counteracted and destroyed in a great measure by their cruelties and impiety, and by the miseries they brought on other n a t i o n s — T h e s e effects likewise lessened by the efforts of the clergy a n d of many other respectable inhabitants, but principally by an extensive revival of r e l i g i o n — C o m p a r i s o n of the religious and moral character of the first settlers w i t h that of the present inhabitants 270 L E T T E R IV Establishment of the public worship of G o d in Connecticut

279

CONTENTS

xiv

LETTER V Vindication of the establishment of the public worship of God by law

283

L E T T E R VI Education of candidates for the ministry, and settlement of clergymen

291

L E T T E R VII Influence of the clergy in Connecticut: its nature and derivation

295

L E T T E R VIII Confession of faith and articles of church discipline agreed to at Saybrook in 1708 by the delegates of the churches—History of the proceedings relative to this subject—Observations 299 L E T T E R IX Comparison of the state of religion in England with that in New England—English representations of the state of religion here refuted 308 LETTER X Articles of faith held by the first settlers of New England—Episcopalians, Baptists, Universalists, Methodists, and Antinomians—Jemima W i l k i n s o n — R o m a n Catholics—Friends—Sandemanians—Shakers 318 L E T T E R XI Number of congregations and of ministers in Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Vermont—Churches distributed at small distances 322

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEN AND IN NEW ENGLAND

WOMEN

LETTER I T h e personal appearance of the inhabitants—Their gravity, etc.— General remarks on the influence of theaters and plays on society 327 L E T T E R II Opinion of a writer in the Quarterly Review relative to the women of this country e x a m i n e d — T h e features, manners, and employments of the women of New E n g l a n d — T h e i r education 332

MANUFACTURES

OF NEW

ENGLAND

Extracts from the Report of the Secretary of the Treasury, April 19, 1810—General account of the manufactures of Massachusetts and of

CONTENTS

χν

Connecticut—Account of the manufactures of Rhode Island, with a history of their origin 338

MASSACHUSETTS LETTER I T h e state of Massachusetts—Its boundaries, population, and government 351 L E T T E R II Laws relative to schools and the qualifications of schoolmasters; concerning the maintenance of ministers and the establishment of public worship—Early laws for the support of Harvard College—Crimes punished by death—Militia 356

PROSPECTS

OF THE

UNITED

STATES

LETTER I Opinions of foreigners relative to the future prospects of our country— Bishop Berkeley's views of this subject in verse—Extent, waters, soil, productions, and population of the United States 361 L E T T E R II Enterprise, ingenuity, intelligence, means of acquiring knowledge; laws, morals, language, and liberty of the people of the United States—Extent of country yet to be settled—Institutions of the country in a state of improvement—Increase of evangelical religion and Catholicism—Future prospects of the United States 365 Notes

375

Index

399

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