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Transportation Energy Data Book Edition 31

31

Stacy C. Davis

Susan W. Diegel

Robert G. Boundy

Transportation Energy Data Book Quick Facts Petroleum • • • • • • • •

The U.S. produces 7.5 million barrels of petroleum per day (M bpd), or 9% of the world’s 82.43 M bpd. The U.S. consumes 19.15 M bpd, or 22.5% of the world’s 85.26 M bpd. U.S. transportation petroleum use is 69.7% of total U.S. petroleum use. U.S. transportation petroleum use is 172.5% of total U.S. petroleum production. Petroleum comprises 93.2% of U.S. transportation energy use. Cars and light trucks account for 64% of U.S. transportation petroleum use. Medium trucks account for 4% of U.S. transportation petroleum use. Heavy trucks account for 17% of U.S. transportation petroleum use.

Energy • • • • •

U.S. transportation energy use accounts for 28.1% of total U.S. energy use. 99% of ethanol consumed in the U.S. is consumed as ethanol in gasohol (or “E10”). Cars and light trucks account for 60% of U.S. transportation energy use. Medium trucks account for 4% of U.S. transportation energy use. Heavy trucks account for 18% of U.S. transportation energy use.

Light Vehicle Characteristics • •



• • • •

There are 134,880,000 cars and 100,154,000 light trucks in the U.S. (235,034,000 total light vehicles). U.S. cars: o 5,635,000 cars were sold in 2010. o The average age of a U.S. car is 10.6 years; the average car lifetime is 16.9 years. o The average fuel economy for the U.S. car fleet (all cars on the road today) is 22.5 mpg. o Cars comprise 48.8% of new light vehicle sales. U.S. light trucks: o 5,919,000 light trucks were sold in 2010. o The average age of a U.S. light truck is 9.6 years; the average car lifetime is 15.5 years. o The average fuel economy for the U.S. light truck fleet (all light trucks on the road today) is 18.0 mpg. o Light trucks comprise 51.2% of new light vehicle sales. There were 8,030,000 fleet vehicles in 2009: 3,844,000 cars and 4,186,000 trucks. U.S. car registrations account for 20.4% of total world car registrations. U.S. truck and bus registrations account for 40.8% of total world car registrations. The average U.S. household vehicle travels 11,300 miles per year.

Heavy Truck Characteristics • •

10,973,000 heavy trucks were registered in the U.S. in 2009. In 2002 (the last time a survey was conducted), heavy trucks accounted for 80% of medium and heavy truck fuel use.

Note: Data are for calendar year 2009 or 2010 unless otherwise noted.

ORNL-6987 (Edition 31 of ORNL-5198)

Center for Transportation Analysis Energy and Transportation Science Division

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31 Stacy C. Davis Susan W. Diegel Oak Ridge National Laboratory Robert G. Boundy Roltek, Inc.

July 2012

Prepared for the Vehicle Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy

Prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6073 Managed by UT-BATTELLE, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725

DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge: Web site: http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of the public from the following source: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone: 703-605-6000 (1-800-553-6847) TDD: 703-487-4639 Fax: 703-605-6900 E-mail: [email protected] Web site: http://www.ntis.gov/support/ordernowabout.htm Reports are available to DOE employees, DOE contractors, Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) representatives, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS) representatives from the following source: Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Telephone: 865-576-8401 Fax: 865-576-5728 E-mail: [email protected] Web site: http://www.osti.gov/contact.html

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

Users of the Transportation Energy Data Book are encouraged to comment on errors, omissions, emphases, and organization of this report to one of the persons listed below. Requests for additional complementary copies of this report, additional data, or information on an existing table should be referred to Ms. Stacy Davis, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Stacy C. Davis Oak Ridge National Laboratory National Transportation Research Center 2360 Cherahala Boulevard Knoxville, Tennessee 37932 Telephone: (865) 946-1256 FAX: (865) 946-1314 E-mail: [email protected] Web Site Location: cta.ornl.gov/data

Jacob W. Ward Vehicle Technologies Program Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Department of Energy, EE-2G Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20585 Telephone: (202) 586-7606 FAX: (202) 586-1600 E-mail: [email protected] Web Site Location: vehicles.energy.gov

Find useful data and information in other U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Data Books.

v

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... xix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ......................................................................................................... xxi ABSTRACT

......................................................................................................................... xxiii

INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................xxv CHAPTER 1

PETROLEUM ................................................................................................1–1

Table 1.1

World Fossil Fuel Potential ..............................................................................1–2

Table 1.2

World Crude Oil Production, 1960–2011 .........................................................1–3

Table 1.3

World Petroleum Production, 1973–2011 ........................................................1–4

Table 1.4

World Petroleum Consumption, 1960–2011 ....................................................1–5

Figure 1.1

World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010 ................................1–6

Table 1.5

World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010 ................................1–6

Figure 1.2

World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010 .................1–7

Table 1.6

World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010 ..................1–7

Table 1.7

U.S. Petroleum Imports, 1960–2011.................................................................1–8

Table 1.8

Imported Crude Oil by Country of Origin, 1973-2011 .....................................1–9

Table 1.9

Crude Oil Supplies, 1973-2011.......................................................................1–10

Figure 1.3

Oil Price and Economic Growth, 1970–2011.................................................1–11

Figure 1.4

Costs of Oil Dependence to the U.S. Economy, 1970–2010 ...........................1–12

Figure 1.5

Refinery Gross Output by World Region, 2001 and 2011 ..............................1–13

Table 1.10

U.S. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 1987–2010.........1–14

Table 1.11

Refinery Yield of Petroleum Products from a Barrel of Crude Oil, 1978–2011.......................................................................................................1–15

Table 1.12

United States Petroleum Production, Imports and Exports, 1950–2011 ........1–16

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

vi

Table 1.13

Petroleum Production and Transportation Petroleum Consumption in Context, 1950–2011 ........................................................................................1–17

Figure 1.6

United States Petroleum Production and Consumption – All Sectors, 1973–2035.......................................................................................................1–18

Figure 1.7

United States Petroleum Production, and Transportation Consumption, 1970–2035.......................................................................................................1–19

Table 1.14

Consumption of Petroleum by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 ..........................1–20

Table 1.15

Highway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010 ......1–21

Table 1.16

Nonhighway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010.......................................................................................................1–22

Table 1.17

Transportation Petroleum Use by Mode, 2009–2010 .....................................1–23

CHAPTER 2

ENERGY .........................................................................................................2–1

Figure 2.1

World Consumption of Primary Energy, 2009 .................................................2–2

Table 2.1

U. S. Consumption of Total Energy by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 ..............2–3

Table 2.2

Distribution of Energy Consumption by Source, 1973 and 2011 .....................2–4

Table 2.3

Alternative Fuel and Oxygenate Consumption, 2003–2010 .............................2–5

Table 2.4

Ethanol Consumption, 1995–2010....................................................................2–6

Table 2.5

Domestic Consumption of Transportation Energy by Mode and Fuel Type, 2010 ................................................................................................2–7

Table 2.6

Transportation Energy Use by Mode, 2009–2010 ............................................2–8

Table 2.7

Highway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010 .............2–9

Table 2.8

Nonhighway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010 .....2–10

Table 2.9

Off-highway Transportation-related Fuel Consumption from the NonRoad Model, 2010 ....................................................................................................2–11

Table 2.10

Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment, 2010 ........................2–12

Table 2.11

Highway Usage of Gasoline and Diesel, 1973–2010 .....................................2–13

Table 2.12

Passenger Travel and Energy Use, 2010.........................................................2–14 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

vii

Table 2.13

Energy Intensities of Highway Passenger Modes, 1970–2010.......................2–15

Table 2.14

Energy Intensities of Nonhighway Passenger Modes, 1970–2010 .................2–16

Figure 2.2

Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems, 2010 .....................................2–17

Figure 2.3

Energy Intensity of Heavy Rail Systems, 2010................................................2–18

Figure 2.4

Energy Intensity of Commuter Rail Systems, 2010 .........................................2–18

Table 2.15

Energy Intensities of Freight Modes, 1970–2010 ...........................................2–19

CHAPTER 3

ALL HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS .....................3–1

Table 3.1

World Production of Cars and Trucks, 2000-2010 ...........................................3–2

Table 3.2

Car Registrations for Selected Countries, 1960–2010 ......................................3–3

Table 3.3

Truck and Bus Registrations for Selected Countries, 1960–2010 ....................3–4

Table 3.4

U.S. Cars and Trucks in Use, 1970–2010 .........................................................3–6

Figure 3.1

Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to Other Countries (in 2000 and 2010) ...........................................................................3–7

Table 3.5

Vehicles per Thousand People in Other Countries, 2000 and 2010 .................3–9

Table 3.6

Vehicles per Thousand People in the United States, 1990–2010 ...................3–10

Table 3.7

Shares of Highway Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Type, 1970–2010.......................................................................................................3–11

Table 3.8

Cars in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 ......................3–12

Table 3.9

Trucks in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 ..................3–13

Table 3.10

U.S. Average Vehicle Age, 1995–2011 ..........................................................3–14

Table 3.11

New Retail Vehicle Sales, 1970–2011............................................................3–15

Table 3.12

Car Scrappage and Survival Rates, 1970, 1980 and 1990 Model Years ........3–16

Table 3.13

Light Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates ....................................................3–17

Table 3.14

Heavy Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates ...................................................3–18

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

viii

CHAPTER 4

LIGHT VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS ......................................4–1

Table 4.1

Summary Statistics for Cars, 1970–2010..........................................................4–2

Table 4.2

Summary Statistics for Two-Axle, Four-Tire Trucks, 1970–2010 ...................4–3

Table 4.3

Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks ..............4–4

Table 4.4

Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks, 1989–1999.........................................................................................................4–4

Table 4.5

New Retail Car Sales in the United States, 1970–2011 ....................................4–5

Table 4.6

New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the United States, 1970–2011 .................................................................................4–6

Table 4.7

Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 ........................4–7

Table 4.8

Definition of Wagons in Model Year 2011 ......................................................4–8

Table 4.9

Definition of Non-Truck Sport Utility Vehicles in Model Year 2011..............4–9

Table 4.10

Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 ..............4–10

Table 4.11

Light Vehicle Market Shares by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ..........4–11

Figure 4.1

Light Vehicle Market Shares, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................4–12

Table 4.12

Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .........................................................4–13

Table 4.13

Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .........................................................4–14

Table 4.14

Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .........................................................4–15

Table 4.15

Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1977–2011 .........................................................4–16

Table 4.16

Average Material Consumption for a Light Vehicle, Model Years 1995, 2000, and 2010 ................................................................................................4–17

Table 4.17

New Light Vehicle Dealerships and Sales, 1970–2010 ..................................4–18

Table 4.18

Conventional Refueling Stations, 1993–2010 ................................................4–19

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

ix

Table 4.19

Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Standards, MY 2012–2016 ...............................................................................................4–20

Table 4.20

Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Targets for Model Year 2016 ................4–21

Table 4.21

Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 ..................................4–22

Table 4.22

Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 .......................4–23

Table 4.23

Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, 1983–2010 ......4–24

Table 4.24

The Gas Guzzler Tax on New Cars ................................................................4–25

Table 4.25

List of Model Year 2011 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes .................................4–26

Table 4.26

Tax Receipts from the Sale of Gas Guzzlers, 1980–2010 ..............................4–27

Table 4.27

Fuel Economy by Speed, PSAT Model Results .............................................4–28

Table 4.28

Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, and 1997 Studies ................................4–29

Figure 4.2

Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, and 1997 Studies ................................4–30

Table 4.29

Steady Speed Fuel Economy for Vehicles Tested in the 1997 Study .............4–31

Table 4.30

Driving Cycle Attributes .................................................................................4–32

Figure 4.3

City Driving Cycle ..........................................................................................4–33

Figure 4.4

Highway Driving Cycle...................................................................................4–33

Figure 4.5

Air Conditioning (SC03) Driving Cycle .........................................................4–34

Figure 4.6

Cold Temperature (Cold FTP) Driving Cycle ................................................4–34

Figure 4.7

High Speed (US06) Driving Cycle ..................................................................4–35

Figure 4.8

New York City Driving Cycle ..........................................................................4–36

Figure 4.9

Representative Number Five Driving Cycle ...................................................4–36

Table 4.31

Projected Fuel Economies from U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles ................................................................................................4–37

Table 4.32

Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles .......................4–38

Table 4.33

Summary Statistics on Demand Response Vehicles, 1994–2010...................4–39 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

x

CHAPTER 5

HEAVY VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS .....................................5–1

Table 5.1

Summary Statistics for Class 3-8 Single-Unit Trucks, 1970–2010 ..................5–2

Table 5.2

Summary Statistics for Class 7-8 Combination Trucks, 1970–2010 ................5–3

Table 5.3

New Retail Truck Sales by Gross Vehicle Weight, 1970–2011 .......................5–4

Table 5.4

Truck Statistics by Gross Vehicle Weight Class, 2002 ....................................5–6

Table 5.5

Truck Harmonic Mean Fuel Economy by Size Class, 1992, 1997, and 2002 ............................................................................................................5–6

Table 5.6

Truck Statistics by Size, 2002 ...........................................................................5–7

Table 5.7

Percentage of Trucks by Size Ranked by Major Use, 2002 .............................5–8

Table 5.8

Percentage of Trucks by Fleet Size and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002..........5–9

Table 5.9

Share of Trucks by Major Use and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002 ...............5–10

Figure 5.1

Distribution of Trucks over 26,000 lbs. Less than Two Years Old by Vehicle-Miles Traveled ...................................................................................5–11

Figure 5.2

Share of Heavy Trucks with Selected Electronic Features, 2002 ..................5–12

Table 5.10

Effect of Terrain on Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy .........................................5–14

Table 5.11

Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ............................................................................................5–15

Figure 5.3

Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed ...........................................................................................5–16

Figure 5.4

Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ...........................................................5–17

Table 5.12

Class 8 Truck Weight by Component .............................................................5–18

Table 5.13

Gross Vehicle Weight vs. Empty Vehicle Weight..........................................5–19

Figure 5.5

Distribution of Class 8 Trucks by On-Road Vehicle Weight, 2008 ................5–20

Table 5.14

Growth of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys...............................................................5–22

Table 5.15

Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys .....................................................5–23 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

xi

Table 5.16

Summary Statistics on Transit Buses and Trolleybuses, 1994–2010 .............5–24

CHAPTER 6

ALTERNATIVE FUEL AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS ....................................................6–1

Table 6.1

Estimates of Alternative Fuel Highway Vehicles in Use, 1995–2010..............6–3

Table 6.2

Alternative Fuel Transit Vehicles, 2010 ...........................................................6–4

Table 6.3

Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012 .......6–5

Table 6.4

Hybrid and Plug-in Vehicle Sales, 1999-2011 .................................................6–7

Table 6.5

Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012 ..........6–8

Table 6.6

Number of Alternative Refuel Sites by State and Fuel Type, 2012................6–10

Figure 6.1

Clean Cities Coalitions ...................................................................................6–11

Table 6.7

Properties of Conventional and Alternative Fuels ..........................................6–13

CHAPTER 7 FLEET VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS........................................7–1 Figure 7.1

Fleet Vehicles in Service as of January 1, 2011 ...............................................7–2

Table 7.1

New Light Fleet Vehicle Registrations by Vehicle Type, Model Year 2010 ..........................................................................................................7–3

Table 7.2

Average Length of Time Commercial Fleet Vehicles are in Service, 2010 .....7–3

Table 7.3

Average Annual Vehicle-Miles of Travel for Commercial Fleet Vehicles, 2010...................................................................................................................7–3

Figure 7.2

Average Miles per Domestic Federal Vehicle by Vehicle Type, 2011 ..............7–4

Table 7.4

Federal Government Vehicles, 2001–2011.......................................................7–5

Table 7.5

Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions by Fuel Type, FY 2002– 2011 .................7–6

Table 7.6

Fuel Consumed by Federal Government Fleets, FY 2000–2011......................7–6

Table 7.7

Federal Government Vehicles by Agency, FY 2011 ........................................7–7

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

xii

CHAPTER 8

HOUSEHOLD VEHICLES AND CHARACTERISTICS..........................8–1

Table 8.1

Population and Vehicle Profile, 1950–2010 .....................................................8–2

Table 8.2

Vehicles and Vehicle-Miles per Capita, 1950–2010 ........................................8–3

Table 8.3

Average Annual Expenditures of Households by Income, 2010 ......................8–4

Table 8.4

Annual Household Expenditures for Transportation, 1985-2010 .....................8–5

Table 8.5

Household Vehicle Ownership, 1960–2010 Census.........................................8–6

Table 8.6

Demographic Statistics from the 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ......................................................................................8–7

Table 8.7

Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ........8–8

Table 8.8

Average Number of Vehicles and Vehicle Travel per Household, 1990 NPTS and 2001 and 2009 NHTS .............................................................8–9

Table 8.9

Trip Statistics by Trip Purpose, 2001 and 2009 NHTS ..................................8–10

Figure 8.1

Average Vehicle Occupancy by Vehicle Type, 1995 NPTS and 2009 NHTS ......................................................................................................8–11

Figure 8.2

Average Vehicle Occupancy by Trip Purpose, 1977 NPTS and 2009 NHTS ......................................................................................................8–12

Table 8.10

Average Annual Miles per Household Vehicle by Vehicle Age ....................8–13

Table 8.11

Self-Reported vs. Odometer Average Annual Miles, 1995 NPTS and 2001 NHTS .....................................................................................................8–14

Figure 8.3

Share of Vehicle Trips by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS ....................................8–15

Figure 8.4

Share of Vehicle Trips to Work by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS ......................8–15

Table 8.12

Share of Vehicles by Annual Miles of Travel and Vehicle Age, 2009 NHTS .....................................................................................................8–16

Table 8.13

Household Vehicle Trips, 2009 NHTS ...........................................................8–17

Figure 8.5

Average Daily Miles Driven (per Driver), 2009 NHTS ..................................8–17

Table 8.14

Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel (per Vehicle) by Number of Vehicles in the Household, 2009 NHTS ............................................................................8–18

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

xiii

Table 8.15

Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS .............................................................8–18

Figure 8.6

Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ......................................................................................................8–19

Figure 8.7

Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ......................................................................................................8–19

Table 8.16

Means of Transportation to Work, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 .....................8–20

Table 8.17

Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density ............................................................................................8–21

Table 8.18

Housing Unit Characteristics, 2009 ................................................................8–21

Table 8.19

Workers by Commute Time, 1990, 2000, and 2010 .......................................8–22

Table 8.20

Bicycle Sales, 1981-2010................................................................................8–23

Figure 8.8

Walk and Bike Trips by Trip Purpose, 2009 NHTS ........................................8–24

Table 8.21

Long-Distance Trip Characteristics, 2001 NHTS ...........................................8–26

CHAPTER 9

NONHIGHWAY MODES .............................................................................9–1

Table 9.1

Nonhighway Energy Use Shares, 1970–2010 ..................................................9–2

Table 9.2

Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 1970–2011 .........................................9–3

Table 9.3

Summary Statistics for General Aviation, 1970–2010 .....................................9–4

Table 9.4

Tonnage Statistics for Domestic and International Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 .....................................................................................9–5

Table 9.5

Summary Statistics for Domestic Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 ...........9–6

Table 9.6

Recreational Boat Energy Use, 1970–2010 ......................................................9–7

Table 9.7

Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States Ranked by Revenue Ton–Miles, 2010 ................................................................................9–8

Table 9.8

Summary Statistics for Class I Freight Railroads, 1970–2010 .........................9–9

Table 9.9

Intermodal Rail Traffic, 1965–2010 ...............................................................9–10

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

xiv

Table 9.10

Summary Statistics for the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak), 1971–2010 ......................................................................................9–11

Table 9.11

Summary Statistics for Commuter Rail Operations, 1984–2010....................9–12

Table 9.12

Summary Statistics for Rail Transit Operations, 1970–2010 .........................9–13

CHAPTER 10 TRANSPORTATION AND THE ECONOMY .........................................10–1 Figure 10.1

Transportation Services Index, January 1990–January 2012 ........................10–2

Table 10.1

Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 1990–2011 .......................................10–3

Table 10.2

Diesel Fuel Prices for Selected Countries, 1998–2011...................................10–4

Figure 10.2

Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2011 ................................10–5

Figure 10.3

Diesel Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2011 ....................................10–6

Table 10.3

Prices for a Barrel of Crude Oil and a Gallon of Gasoline, 1978–2011 .........10–7

Table 10.4

Retail Prices for Motor Fuel, 1978–2011 .......................................................10–8

Table 10.5

Refiner Sales Prices for Propane and No. 2 Diesel, 1978–2011.....................10–9

Table 10.6

Refiner Sales Prices for Aviation Gasoline and Jet Fuel, 1978–2011 ..........10–10

Table 10.7

State Tax Exemptions for Gasohol, 2010 .....................................................10–11

Table 10.8

Federal Excise Taxes on Motor Fuels, 2010 .................................................10–11

Table 10.9

Federal and State Alternative Fuel Incentives, 2012 ....................................10–12

Table 10.10

Federal and State Advanced Technology Incentives, 2012 ..........................10–13

Table 10.11

Average Price of a New Car, 1913–2010 .....................................................10–14

Table 10.12

Average Price of a New Car (Domestic and Import), 1970–2010 ................10–15

Table 10.13

Car Operating Cost per Mile, 1985–2011 .....................................................10–16

Table 10.14

Fixed Car Operating Costs per Year, 1975–2011 .........................................10–17

Table 10.15

Personal Consumption Expenditures, 1970–2011 ........................................10–18

Table 10.16

Consumer Price Indices, 1970–2011 ............................................................10–18

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

xv

Table 10.17

Transportation-related Employment, 2000 and 2011 ...................................10–19

Table 10.18

U.S. Employment for Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing, 1990–2011 ...........................................................................10–20

CHAPTER 11 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ............................................................11–1 Table 11.1

World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990 and 2008 ........................................11–2

Table 11.2

Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared with Carbon Dioxide .......................................................................................11–3

Table 11.3

U.S. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, based on Global Warming Potential, 1990–2010 ......................................................................................11–4

Table 11.4

Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by End-Use Sector, 2010 ..................11–5

Table 11.5

U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1990–2010 ...........................................................................11–6

Table 11.6

U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in the Transportation End-Use Sector ...............................................................................................11–7

Table 11.7

Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Mode, 1990 and 2010 ...........11–8

Figure 11.1

GREET Model .................................................................................................11–9

Figure 11.2

GREET Model Feedstocks and Fuels ...........................................................11–10

Figure 11.3

Well-to-Wheel Emissions for Various Fuels and Vehicle Technologies .......11–11

Table 11.8

Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011................................................11–13

Table 11.9

Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ..................................11–14

Table 11.10

Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975 and 2011 ........................................................................................................11–15

Table 11.11

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Gallon of Fuel........................................11–16

CHAPTER 12 CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS ................................................................12–1 Table 12.1

Total National Emissions of the Criteria Air Pollutants by Sector, 2011 .......12–2

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Table 12.2

Total National Emissions of Carbon Monoxide, 1970–2011 .........................12–3

Table 12.3

Emissions of Carbon Monoxide from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 ..........12–4

Table 12.4

Total National Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides, 1970–2011 ............................12–5

Table 12.5

Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 .............12–6

Table 12.6

Total National Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds, 1970–2011 .......12–7

Table 12.7

Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005.......................................................................................................12–8

Table 12.8

Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM–10), 1970–2011 ..........12–9

Table 12.9

Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM–10) from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005.....................................................................................................12–10

Table 12.10

Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5), 1990–2011 ........12–11

Table 12.11

Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5) from Highway Vehicles, 1990–2005.....................................................................................................12–12

Table 12.12

Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards ..............................................12–14

Table 12.13

Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Evaporative Emission Standards .......................................12–15

Table 12.14

Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses – Exhaust Emission Standards .........................................................................12–16

Table 12.15

Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards .......................................................................................................12–18

Table 12.16

Heavy-Duty Highway Compression Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines – Evaporative Emission Standards...................................................................12–20

Table 12.17

California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards .......................................................................................................12–21

Table 12.18

Aircraft – Exhaust Emission Standards ........................................................12–22

Table 12.19

Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards .....12–23

Table 12.20

Nonroad Large Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust and Evaporative Emission Standards .......................................................................................12–25

Table 12.21

Locomotives – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................................12–26 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Table 12.22

Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards .......................................................................................................12–28

Table 12.23

Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels – Exhaust Emission Standards .......................................................................................................12–32

Table 12.24

Nonroad Recreational Engines and Vehicles – Exhaust Emission Standards .......................................................................................................12–34

Table 12.25

Gasoline Sulfur Standards.............................................................................12–36

Table 12.26

Highway, Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine (NRLM) Diesel Fuel Sulfur Standards ............................................................................................12–37

APPENDIX A. SOURCES & METHODOLOGIES ............................................................ A–1 APPENDIX B. CONVERSIONS ............................................................................................ B–1 APPENDIX C. MAPS ..............................................................................................................C–1 GLOSSARY.............................................................................................................................. G–1 INDEX......................................................................................................................................... I–1

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FOREWORD Welcome to this 31st edition of the Transportation Energy Data Book. This edition builds on a 36-year tradition of Data Books supported by Philip Patterson, whose recent retirement marked the end of an era for a long-time asset and shining example both for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the transportation energy community. Twenty-two editions of this Data Book have been produced by Stacy Davis; DOE is grateful for the dedication, consistency, and skill she has brought to this effort. I would like to bring to your attention some of the data that are new in this edition: • • • •

• •



Table 1.8. Imported Crude Oil by Country of Origin, 1973-2011 – a new table added this year from historical data in EIA’s Monthly Energy Review Table 1.9. Crude Oil Supplies, 1973-2011 – another new table from historical EIA data Table 3.1. World Production of Cars and Trucks, 2000-2010 – a new table comparing global production of passenger vehicles today and ten years ago Table 4.9. Definition of Non-Truck Sport Utility Vehicles in Model Year 2011 – a list of two-wheel drive SUVs that are considered cars under new Corporate Average Fuel Economy rules Table 4.25. List of Model Year 2011 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes – an updated list for model year 2011 of vehicles subject to the Gas Guzzler Tax levied by the IRS Table 6.4. Hybrid and Plug-in Vehicle Sales, 1999-2011 – this new table shows trends in hybrid and plug-in vehicle sales, both in absolute units sold and relative to total light vehicle sales, since 1999 Table 8.4. Annual Household Expenditures for Transportation, 1985-2010 – this new table relates various transportation expenditures (vehicle purchases, gas expenditure, public transit fares, etc.) to average annual household income

Additionally, it’s worth making special note that since the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) discontinued their VM-1 series showing car and light truck vehicle miles and fuel use, ORNL developed a model to estimate data for cars and light trucks to continue existing car and light truck data series presented in this data book. The model uses data from FHWA Highway Statistics 2010, Environmental Protection Agency’s Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, and R.L. Polk to estimate the number of vehicles, vehicle-miles of travel, energy use, and fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks. Documentation of the model will be published in an ORNL report, forthcoming. I hope you find value in this data book. Stacy and I welcome suggestions on how to improve it.

Jacob W. Ward Senior Analyst, Vehicle Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to express their gratitude to the many individuals who assisted in the preparation of this document. First, we would like to thank Jacob Ward and the Vehicle Technologies Program staff for their continued support of the Transportation Energy Data Book project. We would also like to thank Lindsey Marlar for the cover. This book would not have been possible without the dedication of Debbie Bain, who has masterfully prepared the manuscript since 1998. Edition 31 is the first edition of this series without Phil Patterson at the helm. Though he was certainly missed, his leadership, guidance, and vision through the years have allowed us to continue this report into the future with the same level of excellence. The authors and the transportation research community will be forever grateful for his efforts.

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ABSTRACT The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 – energy; Chapter 3 – highway vehicles; Chapter 4 – light vehicles; Chapter 5 – heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 – alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 – fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 – household vehicles; Chapter 9 – nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 – transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 – greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 – criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader’s convenience.

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INTRODUCTION In January 1976, the Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration contracted with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to prepare a Transportation Energy Conservation Data Book to be used by TEC staff in their evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. The major purposes of the Data Book were to draw together, under one cover, transportation data from diverse sources, to resolve data conflicts and inconsistencies, and to produce a comprehensive document. The first edition of the TEC Data Book was published in October 1976. With the passage of the Department of Energy (DOE) Organization Act, the work being conducted by the former Transportation Energy Conservation Division fell under the purview of the DOE's Office of Transportation Programs. This work continues today in the Vehicle Technologies Program. Policymakers and analysts need to be well-informed about activity in the transportation sector. The organization and scope of the data book reflect the need for different kinds of information. For this reason, Edition 31 updates much of the same type of data that is found in previous editions. In any attempt to compile a comprehensive set of statistics on transportation activity, numerous instances of inadequacies and inaccuracies in the basic data are encountered. Where such problems occur, estimates are developed by ORNL. To minimize the misuse of these statistics, an appendix (Appendix A) is included to document the estimation procedures. The attempt is to provide sufficient information for the conscientious user to evaluate the estimates and to form their own opinions as to their utility. Clearly, the accuracy of the estimates cannot exceed the accuracy of the primary data, an accuracy which in most instances is unknown. In cases where data accuracy is known or substantial errors are strongly suspected in the data, the reader is alerted. In all cases it should be recognized that the estimates are not precise. The majority of the statistics contained in the data book are taken directly from published sources, although these data may be reformatted for presentation by ORNL. Consequently, neither ORNL nor DOE endorses the validity of these data.

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Chapter 1 Petroleum Summary Statistics from Tables/Figures in this Chapter

Source Table 1.3

World Petroleum Production, 2011 (million barrels per day)a

82.59

U.S. Production (million barrels per day)

7.85

U.S. Share Table 1.4

9.5%

World Petroleum Consumption, 2011 (million barrels per day)

87.28

U.S. Consumption (million barrels per day)

18.84

U.S. Share Figure 1.5

21.6% OECD Europe

North America

Gasoline

19.3%

42.7%

Diesel oil

39.8%

25.3%

Residual fuel

13.0%

5.8%

Kerosene

6.8%

7.3%

Other

21.1%

18.9%

Average Refinery Yield, 2011

Table 1.13

U.S. transportation petroleum use as a percent of U.S. petroleum production, 2011

160.8%

Table 1.13

Net imports as a percentage of U.S. petroleum consumption, 2011

44.8%

Table 1.14

Transportation share of U.S. petroleum consumption, 2011

69.4%

Table 1.17

Highway share of transportation petroleum consumption, 2010

85.9%

Table 1.17

Light vehicle share of transportation petroleum consumption, 2010

63.6%

In this document, petroleum is defined as crude oil (including lease condensate) and natural gas plant liquids.

_________________________ a

Because other liquids and processing gain are not included, the world production is smaller than world petroleum consumption.

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Although the world has consumed about 40% of estimated conventional oil resources, the total fossil fuel potential is huge. Methane hydrates–a potential source of natural gas–are included in the “additional occurrences” of unconventional natural gas, and constitute the largest resource.

Table 1.1 World Fossil Fuel Potential (gigatonnes of carbon) Consumption (1860-1998) Oil Conventional Unconventional Natural Gas Conventional Unconventional Coal

Reserves

Resources

Additional occurrences

97 6

120 102

121 305

0 914

36 1 155

83 144 533

170 364 4,618

0 14,176 a

Source: Rogner, H.H., World Energy Assessment: Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability, Part II, Chapter 5, 2000, p. 149. a

Data are not available.

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In 2011, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) accounted for more than 42% of world oil production. Responding to low oil prices in early 2000, Mexico, Norway, Russia, and Oman joined OPEC in cutting production. This group of oil countries, referred to here as OPEC+, account for over 63% of world oil production.

Table 1.2 World Crude Oil Production, 1960–2011a (million barrels per day) Year 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

United States 7.04 7.80 9.64 8.38 8.60 8.97 8.68 8.35 8.14 7.61 7.36 7.42 7.17 6.85 6.66 6.56 6.47 6.45 6.25 5.88 5.82 5.80 5.75 5.68 5.42 5.18 5.10 5.06 4.95 5.36 5.47 5.67

1960–2011 1970–2011 2001–2011

-0.4% -1.3% -0.2%

U.S. share 33.5% 25.7% 21.0% 15.9% 14.4% 16.6% 15.4% 14.7% 13.9% 12.7% 12.2% 12.3% 11.9% 11.4% 10.9% 10.5% 10.1% 9.8% 9.3% 8.9% 8.5% 8.5% 8.5% 8.2% 7.5% 7.0% 6.9% 6.7% 6.7% 7.4% 7.4% 7.7%

OPEC OPEC +c c share OPEC + share 41.4% 12.25 58.3% 47.3% 19.83 65.4% 50.8% 31.12 67.8% 50.3% 37.55 71.1% 44.3% 40.80 68.5% 28.5% 30.98 57.4% 32.5% 34.05 60.6% 32.7% 34.72 61.3% 34.6% 36.66 62.4% 36.9% 38.50 64.3% 37.2% 38.34 63.4% 38.7% 38.53 64.1% 40.6% 37.67 62.7% 41.7% 37.65 62.6% 41.7% 37.67 61.6% 40.9% 37.77 60.5% 40.8% 38.70 60.6% 41.5% 40.28 61.2% 42.3% 41.21 61.5% 41.3% 40.14 60.9% 42.2% 42.71 62.3% 41.3% 42.39 62.2% 39.3% 41.13 61.2% 40.2% 43.34 62.4% 41.8% 46.30 63.8% 43.1% 47.70 64.5% 42.9% 47.30 64.0% 42.6% 46.65 64.5% 44.0% 47.50 63.6% 42.2% 45.46 62.9% 42.5% 46.49 62.8% 42.9% 46.73 63.2% Average annual percentage change 2.6% 2.7% 0.8% 1.0% 1.2% 1.0%

Total OPECb 8.70 14.35 23.30 26.79 26.38 15.37 18.28 18.52 20.32 22.07 22.49 23.27 24.40 25.12 25.51 25.54 26.02 27.29 28.37 27.22 28.94 28.11 26.44 27.89 30.31 31.77 31.48 31.09 32.36 30.44 31.44 31.73

Total nonOPEC 12.29 15.98 22.59 27.04 34.18 38.60 37.95 38.15 38.42 37.79 38.00 36.86 35.70 35.05 35.66 36.89 37.80 38.51 38.67 38.74 39.58 40.00 40.83 41.52 42.13 41.91 41.90 41.82 41.23 41.74 42.45 42.24

World 20.99 30.33 45.89 52.83 59.56 53.97 56.23 56.67 58.74 59.86 60.50 60.13 60.10 60.17 61.17 62.43 63.82 65.81 67.03 65.97 68.52 68.12 67.12 69.40 72.45 73.67 73.38 72.91 73.59 72.18 73.89 73.96

2.5% 1.5% 0.5%

2.5% 1.2% 0.8%

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics Website, March 2012. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov) a

Includes lease condensate. Excludes natural gas plant liquids. See Glossary for membership. c OPEC+ includes all OPEC nations plus Russia, Mexico, Norway and Oman. b

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This table shows petroleum production, which includes both crude oil and natural gas plant liquids. Because other liquids and processing gain are not included, the world total is smaller than world petroleum consumption (Table 1.4). The United States was responsible for 9.5% of the world’s petroleum production in 2011 and 7.7% of the world’s crude oil production (Table 1.2).

Table 1.3 World Petroleum Production, 1973–2011a (million barrels per day)

Year 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

United States 10.95 10.44 10.01 9.74 9.86 10.27 10.14 10.17 10.18 10.20 10.25 10.51 10.58 10.23 9.94 9.77 9.16 8.91 9.08 8.87 8.58 8.39 8.32 8.30 8.27 8.01 7.73 7.73 7.67 7.63 7.40 7.23 6.90 6.84 6.85 6.73 7.27 7.54 7.85

1973–2011 2001–2011

-0.9% 0.2%

U.S. share 18.7% 17.8% 18.0% 16.2% 15.7% 16.2% 15.4% 16.1% 17.1% 17.9% 18.0% 18.0% 18.3% 16.9% 16.3% 15.5% 14.2% 13.7% 14.0% 13.7% 13.2% 12.6% 12.2% 11.9% 11.5% 11.0% 10.7% 10.3% 10.3% 10.3% 9.7% 9.1% 8.5% 8.4% 8.5% 8.3% 9.1% 9.2% 9.5%

Total Total OPEC nonOPECb share OPEC 29.99 51.3% 28.48 29.67 50.7% 28.84 26.16 47.0% 28.48 29.55 49.1% 30.66 30.06 47.9% 32.64 28.70 45.4% 34.54 29.95 45.4% 36.01 26.05 41.3% 35.77 21.95 36.8% 37.73 18.54 32.5% 38.55 17.26 30.3% 39.64 17.29 29.6% 41.08 16.22 28.0% 40.88 18.40 30.4% 41.17 18.69 30.7% 41.46 20.79 32.9% 41.87 22.51 35.0% 41.18 23.70 36.4% 40.81 23.71 36.5% 40.53 25.03 38.5% 39.37 25.82 39.6% 38.82 26.54 39.9% 39.21 27.23 40.0% 40.21 27.71 39.9% 41.26 29.07 40.6% 42.05 30.21 41.4% 42.35 29.13 40.4% 43.01 30.94 41.3% 43.95 30.34 40.5% 44.47 28.77 38.8% 45.30 30.35 39.7% 46.11 32.92 41.3% 46.81 34.61 42.6% 46.61 34.40 42.4% 46.77 34.05 42.1% 46.75 35.34 43.4% 46.12 33.52 41.8% 46.75 34.72 42.2% 47.63 35.03 42.4% 47.56 Average annual percentage change 0.4% 1.4% 1.4% 0.7%

NonOPEC share 48.7% 49.3% 51.2% 50.9% 52.1% 54.6% 54.6% 56.8% 63.2% 67.5% 69.7% 70.4% 70.6% 68.1% 68.0% 66.3% 64.0% 62.6% 62.4% 60.6% 59.5% 58.9% 59.1% 59.3% 58.7% 58.0% 59.6% 58.7% 59.5% 61.2% 60.3% 58.7% 57.4% 57.6% 57.9% 56.6% 58.2% 57.8% 57.6%

World 58.47 58.51 55.62 60.21 62.69 63.24 65.96 63.00 59.68 57.09 56.89 58.37 57.90 60.49 60.93 63.20 64.31 65.14 64.95 64.95 65.23 66.55 68.01 69.52 71.65 73.04 72.15 74.90 74.81 74.07 76.46 79.73 81.22 81.17 80.80 81.46 80.26 82.35 82.59 0.9% 1.0%

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics Website, March 2012. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov) a

Includes natural gas plant liquids, crude oil and lease condensate. Does not account for all inputs or refinery processing gain. b Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. See Glossary for membership.

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During the 1980s and 1990s, the United States accounted for about one-quarter of the world’s petroleum consumption, but since 2000 that share has been decreasing. In 2011 the United States accounted for only 21.6%. World petroleum consumption decreased in 2009 but rose in 2010. Non-OECD consumption has continued to increase.

Table 1.4 World Petroleum Consumption, 1960–2011 (millions barrels per day) Year 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

United States 9.80 11.51 14.70 16.32 17.06 16.06 15.30 15.23 15.73 15.73 16.28 16.67 17.28 17.33 16.99 16.71 17.03 17.24 17.72 17.72 18.31 18.62 18.92 19.52 19.70 19.65 19.76 20.03 20.73 20.80 20.69 20.68 19.50 18.77 19.18 18.84

1960–2011 1970–2011 2001–2011

1.3% 0.6% -0.4%

U.S. share Total OECDa 45.9% 15.78 37.0% 22.81 31.4% 34.69 29.0% 39.14 27.0% 41.87 26.3% 39.60 25.7% 37.87 25.9% 37.00 26.3% 37.77 26.2% 37.56 26.3% 38.68 26.4% 39.43 26.6% 40.75 26.2% 41.44 25.5% 41.59 24.9% 42.06 25.3% 43.02 25.5% 43.44 25.7% 44.64 25.3% 45.12 25.5% 46.25 25.4% 47.01 25.5% 47.21 25.7% 48.23 25.7% 48.21 25.4% 48.25 25.3% 48.22 25.1% 48.90 25.1% 49.75 24.7% 50.10 24.3% 49.82 24.1% 49.53 22.8% 47.92 22.2% 45.91 22.0% 46.40 21.6% 45.83 Average annual percentage change 2.1% 0.7% -0.5%

Total non-OECD 5.56 8.33 12.12 17.06 21.25 21.36 21.68 21.78 22.04 22.52 23.12 23.66 24.21 24.63 24.94 25.14 24.37 24.13 24.25 24.98 25.44 26.44 26.90 27.63 28.58 29.26 29.94 30.81 32.80 33.98 35.35 36.23 37.51 38.78 40.74 41.45

World 21.34 31.14 46.81 56.20 63.12 60.95 59.55 58.78 59.81 60.08 61.80 63.08 64.96 66.07 66.52 67.20 67.39 67.57 68.89 70.10 71.69 73.45 74.10 75.87 76.78 77.51 78.16 79.71 82.56 84.09 85.13 85.81 85.44 84.68 87.14 87.28

4.0% 3.0% 3.5%

2.8% 1.5% 1.2%

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics Website, May 2012. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov) a

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. See Glossary for membership.

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Figure 1.1. World Oil Reserves a, Production and Consumption, 2010

Table 1.5 World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010

United States OPEC Rest of world

Crude oil reservesa (billion barrels) 20.7 951 370.1

Reserve share 2% 71% 28%

Petroleum production (million barrels per day) 8.6 34.8 37.0

Production share 11% 43% 46%

Petroleum consumption (million barrels per day) 19.1 9.5 58.5

Consumption share 22% 11% 67%

Sources: Reserves – Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics, May 2012. Production – Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics, May 2012. Consumption – Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics, May 2012. resources: www.eia.doe.gov)

(Additional

Note: Total consumption is higher than total production due to refinery gains including alcohol and liquid products produced from coal and other sources. OPEC countries include Venezuela, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Angola, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, Indonesia, Gabon, and Ecuador. a

Reserves are 2009 data.

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Figure 1.2. World Natural Gas Reservesa, Production and Consumption, 2010

Table 1.6 World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010 (trillion cubic feet)

U.S. OPEC Rest of world

Natural gas reservesa 272.5 3,182.8 2,833.8

Reserve share 4% 51% 45%

Natural gas production 21.6 20.0 70.5

Production share 19% 18% 63%

Natural gas consumption 24.1 13.8 75.0

Consumption share 21% 12% 66%

Source: Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics, 2012. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov) Note: Production data are dry gas production. a

Reserves are 2009 data.

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The share of petroleum imported to the United States can be calculated using total imports or net imports. Net imports, which are the preferred data, rose to over 50% of U.S. petroleum consumption for the first time in 1998, while total imports reached 50% for the first time in 1993. OPEC share of net imports has been below 50% since 1993.

Table 1.7 U.S. Petroleum Imports, 1960–2011 (million barrels per day) Year 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Net OPECa imports 1.31 1.48 1.34 3.60 4.30 3.32 2.15 1.86 2.05 1.83 2.84 3.06 3.52 4.14 4.30 4.09 4.09 4.27 4.25 4.00 4.21 4.57 4.91 4.95 5.20 5.53 4.61 5.16 5.70 5.59 5.52 5.98 5.95 4.78 4.91 4.53

1960–2011 1970–2011 2001–2011

2.5% 3.0% -2.0%

Net OPECa Net imports as a share share Net imports of U.S. consumption b 81.3% 1.61 b 64.7% 2.28 b 42.5% 3.16 59.5% 5.89 35.8% 62.2% 6.36 37.3% 55.4% 5.40 33.6% 42.0% 4.30 28.1% 36.9% 4.31 28.2% 37.7% 4.72 29.9% 36.1% 4.29 27.3% 45.6% 5.44 33.4% 45.8% 5.91 35.4% 47.6% 6.59 38.0% 51.4% 7.20 41.3% 53.6% 7.16 42.2% 53.7% 6.63 38.9% 51.9% 6.94 40.9% 49.6% 7.62 44.9% 47.2% 8.05 45.7% 45.3% 7.89 44.5% 44.4% 8.50 46.4% 45.0% 9.16 49.2% 45.8% 9.76 51.6% 45.6% 9.91 50.8% 45.4% 10.42 52.9% 46.6% 10.90 55.5% 39.9% 10.55 53.4% 42.1% 11.24 56.1% 43.4% 12.10 58.4% 40.7% 12.55 60.3% 40.2% 12.39 59.9% 44.4% 12.04 58.2% 46.1% 11.11 57.0% 40.9% 9.67 51.5% 41.6% 9.44 49.2% 39.9% 8.44 44.8% Average annual percentage change 3.3% 2.4% -2.5%

Total imports 1.82 2.47 3.42 6.06 6.91 6.00 5.11 5.05 5.44 5.07 6.22 6.68 7.40 8.06 8.02 7.63 7.89 8.62 9.00 8.84 9.48 10.16 10.71 10.85 11.46 11.87 11.53 12.26 13.15 13.71 13.71 13.47 12.92 11.69 11.79 11.36 3.7% 3.0% -0.4%

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, Washington, DC, March 2012, Table 3.3a. (Additional resources: www.eia.gov) a b

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. See Glossary for membership. Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Just over half of the oil imported to the United States in 2011 was from the western hemisphere. Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela provided most of the oil from the western hemisphere, along with small amounts from Brazil, Columbia, Ecuador, and the U.S. Virgin Islands (these countries are not listed separately.

Table 1.8 Imported Crude Oil by Country of Origin, 1973-2011 (million barrels per day)

Saudi Arabia 0.49 0.71 1.26 1.13 0.55 0.34 0.32 0.17 0.68 0.75 1.07 1.22 1.34 1.80 1.72 1.41 1.40 1.34 1.36 1.41 1.49 1.48 1.57 1.66 1.55 1.77 1.56 1.54 1.46 1.48 1.53 1.00 1.10 1.19

Year 1973 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Venezuela 1.13 0.70 0.48 0.41 0.41 0.42 0.55 0.60 0.79 0.80 0.79 0.87 1.02 1.03 1.17 1.30 1.33 1.48 1.68 1.77 1.72 1.49 1.55 1.55 1.40 1.38 1.55 1.53 1.42 1.36 1.19 1.06 0.99 0.94

Nigeria 0.46 0.76 0.86 0.62 0.51 0.30 0.22 0.29 0.44 0.53 0.62 0.82 0.80 0.70 0.68 0.74 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.70 0.70 0.66 0.90 0.89 0.62 0.87 1.14 1.17 1.11 1.13 0.99 0.81 1.02 0.82

Other OPECa countries 0.91 1.42 1.70 1.17 0.67 0.80 0.96 0.76 0.92 0.97 1.03 1.23 1.13 0.55 0.52 0.82 0.87 0.55 0.56 0.69 1.00 1.33 1.19 1.43 1.03 1.14 1.45 1.36 1.52 2.00 2.25 1.90 1.80 1.58

Canada 1.32 0.85 0.45 0.45 0.48 0.55 0.63 0.77 0.81 0.85 1.00 0.93 0.93 1.03 1.07 1.18 1.27 1.33 1.42 1.56 1.60 1.54 1.81 1.83 1.97 2.07 2.14 2.18 2.35 2.45 2.49 2.48 2.54 2.71

Mexico 0.02 0.07 0.53 0.52 0.68 0.83 0.75 0.82 0.70 0.65 0.75 0.77 0.76 0.81 0.83 0.92 0.98 1.07 1.24 1.39 1.35 1.32 1.37 1.44 1.55 1.62 1.66 1.66 1.71 1.53 1.30 1.21 1.28 1.20

Russia 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.09 0.07 0.09 0.21 0.25 0.30 0.41 0.37 0.41 0.47 0.56 0.61 0.62

Other nonOPEC countries 1.90 1.52 1.62 1.70 1.80 1.81 2.00 1.64 1.86 2.10 2.11 2.17 1.99 1.67 1.88 2.19 2.46 2.41 2.57 2.63 2.83 2.95 3.00 2.98 3.20 3.15 3.34 3.87 3.76 3.09 2.70 2.66 2.46 2.29

Total imports 6.26 6.06 6.91 6.00 5.11 5.05 5.44 5.07 6.22 6.68 7.40 8.06 8.02 7.63 7.89 8.62 9.00 8.83 9.48 10.16 10.71 10.85 11.46 11.87 11.53 12.26 13.15 13.71 13.71 13.47 12.92 11.69 11.79 11.36

Sources: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, Washington, DC, March 2012, Tables 3.3c and 3.3d. (Additional resources: www.eia.gov) a

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. See Glossary for Membership.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

1–10

The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) began in October 1977 as a result of the 1975 Energy Policy and Conservation Act. Its purpose is to provide protection against oil supply disruptions. The U.S. consumed nearly 20 million barrels per day in 2011. At that rate of consumption, the SPR supply would last 37 days if used exclusively and continuously.

Table 1.9 Crude Oil Supplies, 1973-2011 Strategic Petroleum Reserve Year 1973 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

0.0 7.5 66.9 91.2 107.8 230.3 293.8 379.1 450.5 493.3 511.6 540.6 559.5 579.9 585.7 568.5 574.7 587.1 591.7 591.6 565.8 563.4 571.4 567.2 540.7 550.2 599.1 638.4 675.6 684.5 688.6 696.9 701.8 726.6 726.5 696.0

Other crude oil stocksa (Million Barrels) 242.5 340.2 309.4 339.1 358.2 363.5 349.7 343.9 345.4 320.9 331.2 349.0 330.4 341.3 322.7 324.6 318.1 335.4 337.2 303.3 283.9 304.7 323.5 284.5 285.5 312.0 277.6 268.9 285.7 323.7 312.3 286.1 325.8 325.2 333.4 330.9

Total crude oil stocks 242.5 347.7 376.3 430.3 466.0 593.8 643.6 722.9 795.9 814.2 842.8 889.6 889.9 921.1 908.4 893.1 892.9 922.5 928.9 895.0 849.7 868.1 894.9 851.7 826.2 862.2 876.7 907.3 961.3 1,008.2 1,000.9 983.0 1,027.7 1,051.8 1,060.0 1,026.8

U.S. petroleum consumption (million barrels per day) 17.3 18.4 18.8 18.5 17.1 16.1 15.3 15.2 15.7 15.7 16.3 16.7 17.3 17.3 17.0 16.7 17.0 17.2 17.7 17.7 18.3 18.6 18.9 19.5 19.7 19.6 19.8 20.0 20.7 20.8 20.7 20.7 19.5 18.8 19.2 18.8

Number of days the SPR would supply the U.S.b 0 0 4 5 6 14 19 25 29 31 31 32 32 33 34 34 34 34 33 33 31 30 30 29 27 28 30 32 33 33 33 34 36 39 38 37

Sources: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, Washington, DC, March 2012, Tables 3.1 and 3.4. (Additional resources: www.eia.gov) a

Other crude oil stocks include stocks held by petroleum companies, as well as stocks of Alaskan crude oil in transit. b Strategic Petroleum Reserves divided by U.S. consumption per day. This would only hold true if the SPR were the only oil used for that many days.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Major oil price shocks have disrupted world energy markets five times in the past 30 years (1973-74, 1979-80, 1990-91, 1999-2000, 2008). Most of the oil price shocks were followed by an economic recession in the United States.

Figure 1.3. Oil Price and Economic Growth, 1970–2011

Source: Greene, D.L. and N. I. Tishchishyna, Costs of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL/TM-2000/152, Oak Ridge, TN, 2000, and data updates, 2011. (Additional resources: cta.ornl.gov/cta/publications.shtml)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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The United States has long recognized the problem of oil dependence and the economic problems that arise from it. According to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers Greene and Hopson, oil dependence is a combination of four factors: (1) a noncompetitive world oil market strongly influenced by the OPEC cartel, (2) high levels of U.S. imports, (3) the importance of oil to the U.S. economy, and (4) the lack of economical and readily available substitutes for oil. ORNL developed a model to estimate the historical cost of oil dependence and analyze the potential effectiveness of policies on likely future costs. The most recent study using this model shows that the U.S. economy suffered the greatest losses in 2008 when wealth transfer and GDP losses (combined) amounted to approximately half a trillion dollars. However, when comparing oil dependence to the size of the economy, the year 1980 is the highest. Oil dependence costs were almost 4.5% of GDP in 1980, but were under 3.5% in 2008. In 2009, the average oil price fell to about $60 per barrel and oil dependence costs fell to about $300 billion for 2009 and 2010.

Figure 1.4. Costs of Oil Dependence to the U.S. Economy, 1970–2010

Source: Greene, David L., Roderick Lee, and Janet L. Hopson, “OPEC and the Costs to the U.S. Economy of Oil Dependence: 1970-2010,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory Memorandum, 2011. Notes: Wealth Transfer is the product of total U.S. oil imports and the difference between the actual market price of oil (influenced by market power) and what the price would have been in a competitive market. Dislocation Losses are temporary reductions in GDP as a result of oil price shocks. Loss of Potential Gross Domestic Product (GDP) results because a basic resource used by the economy to produce output has become more expensive. As a consequence, with the same endowment of labor, capital, and other resources, our economy cannot produce quite as much as it could have at a lower oil price.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Other parts of the world refine crude oil to produce more diesel fuel and less gasoline than does North America. The OECD Europe countries produce the lowest share of gasoline in 2011.

Figure 1.5. Refinery Gross Output by World Region, 2001 and 2011

Source: International Energy Agency, Monthly Oil Survey, January 2012. (Additional resources: www.iea.org) a

Includes jet kerosene and other kerosene. Includes motor gasoline, jet gasoline, and aviation gasoline. c Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. See Glossary for membership. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Oxygenate refinery input increased significantly in 1995, most certainly due to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 which mandated the sale of reformulated gasoline in certain areas beginning in January 1995. The use of MTBE has declined in recent years due to many states banning the additive. The other hydrocarbons and liquids category includes unfinished oils, motor gasoline blending components and aviation gasoline blending components. In 2005 the gasoline blending components rose significantly.

Table 1.10 U.S. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 1987–2010 (thousand barrels)

Year 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1987–2010 2000–2010

Crude oil 4,691,783 4,848,175 4,891,381 4,894,379 4,855,016 4,908,603 4,968,641 5,061,111 5,100,317 5,195,265 5,351,466 5,434,383 5,403,450 5,514,395 5,521,637 5,455,530 5,585,875 5,663,861 5,555,332 5,563,354 5,532,097 5,361,287 5,232,656 5,374,094 0.6% -0.3%

Oxygenates Natural gas Fuel Other liquids ethanol MTBEa oxygenatesb c c d 280,889 c c d 304,566 c c d 182,109 c c d 170,589 c c d 172,306 c c d 171,701 179,213 3,351 49,393 1,866 169,868 3,620 52,937 1,918 172,026 9,055 79,396 4,122 164,552 11,156 79,407 3,570 151,769 11,803 86,240 4,246 146,921 11,722 89,362 4,038 135,756 13,735 94,784 4,147 138,921 15,268 90,288 4,005 156,479 16,929 87,116 4,544 155,429 26,320 90,291 2,338 152,763 55,626 67,592 1,937 154,356 74,095 47,600 940 161,037 84,088 39,751 612 182,924 117,198 11,580 57 184,383 136,603 1,610 0 177,559 190,084 480 0 177,194 240,955 90 0 161,479 285,883 901 0 Average annual percentage change d d d -2.4% 1.5% 34.0% -36.9% -100.0%

Other hydrocarbons and liquids 132,720 105,645 223,797 260,108 280,265 272,676 280,074 193,808 190,411 214,282 201,268 206,135 225,779 201,135 192,632 224,567 163,459 194,203 295,064 322,989 349,807 548,843 518,998 523,015

Total input to refineries 5,105,392 5,258,386 5,297,287 5,325,076 5,307,587 5,352,980 5,482,538 5,483,262 5,555,327 5,668,232 5,806,792 5,892,561 5,877,651 5,964,012 5,979,337 5,955,475 6,027,252 6,135,055 6,135,884 6,198,102 6,204,500 6,277,893 6,169,893 6,345,372

6.1% 10.0%

0.9% 0.6%

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Supply Annual 2010, Vol. 1, July 2011, Table 15, and annual. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov) a

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Includes methanol and other oxygenates. c Reported in “Other” category in this year. d Data are not available. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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When crude oil and other hydrocarbons are processed into products that are, on average, less dense than the input, a processing volume gain occurs. Due to this gain, the product yield from a barrel of crude oil is more than 100%. The processing volume gain has been growing over the years.

Table 1.11 Refinery Yield of Petroleum Products from a Barrel of Crude Oil, 1978–2011 (percentage) Year 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Motor gasoline 44.1 43.0 44.5 44.8 46.4 47.6 46.7 45.6 45.7 46.4 46.0 45.7 45.6 45.7 46.0 46.1 45.5 46.4 45.7 45.7 46.2 46.5 46.2 46.2 47.3 46.9 46.8 46.2 45.8 45.5 44.2 46.1 45.7 45.0

Distillate fuel oil 21.4 21.5 19.7 20.5 21.5 20.5 21.5 21.6 21.2 20.5 20.8 20.8 20.9 21.3 21.2 21.9 22.3 21.8 22.7 22.5 22.3 22.3 23.1 23.8 23.2 23.7 23.9 25.0 25.4 26.1 27.8 26.9 27.5 28.9

Jet fuel 6.6 6.9 7.4 7.6 8.1 8.5 9.1 9.6 9.8 10.0 10.0 10.1 10.7 10.3 9.9 9.2 9.8 9.7 10.4 10.3 9.9 10.2 10.3 9.8 9.8 9.5 9.7 9.8 9.3 9.1 9.7 9.3 9.3 9.4

Liquefied petroleum gas 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.6 4.0 3.6 3.8 4.3 4.1 4.2 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.0 3.6 3.9 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.3 4.0

Othera 29.6 30.3 30.0 28.7 26.2 24.8 24.2 24.6 24.8 24.5 24.4 24.2 24.1 24.1 24.0 23.3 23.2 22.8 22.4 22.4 22.9 22.4 22.0 21.6 21.5 22.1 22.2 21.6 21.7 21.5 20.7 20.2 20.3 19.8

Totalb 104.0 104.0 104.0 104.0 104.4 104.1 104.4 104.5 104.7 104.8 104.8 104.8 104.9 105.2 105.4 104.6 105.0 105.2 105.7 105.5 105.7 105.9 106.1 105.7 106.1 106.4 106.6 106.2 106.1 106.3 106.5 106.6 107.1 107.1

Source: Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Supply Navigator, April 2012. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov) a

Includes aviation gasoline (0.1%), kerosene (0.1%), residual fuel oil (4.0%), naphtha and other oils for petrochemical feedstock use (1.0%), other oils for petrochemical feedstock use (1.0%), special naphthas (0.2%), lubricants (1.0%), waxes (0.1%), petroleum coke (5.3%) asphalt and road oil (2.4%), still gas (4.3%), and miscellaneous products (0.5%). b Products sum greater than 100% due to processing gain. The processing gain for years 1978 to 1980 is assumed to be 4 percent.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Domestic petroleum production increased in 2009 for the first time in 20 years and has continued to increase. Most of the petroleum imported by the United States is in the form of crude oil. The United States does export small amounts of petroleum, mainly refined petroleum products which go to Canada and Mexico. Table 1.12 United States Petroleum Production, Imports and Exports, 1950–2011 (million barrels per day)

1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1950–2011 1970–2011 2001–2011

Domestic production Natural gas Crude plant oil liquids Totala 5.41 0.50 5.91 6.81 0.77 7.58 7.05 0.93 7.98 7.80 1.21 9.01 9.64 1.66 11.30 8.38 1.63 10.01 8.60 1.57 10.17 8.97 1.61 10.58 8.68 1.55 10.23 8.35 1.60 9.95 8.16 1.63 9.97 7.61 1.55 9.16 7.36 1.56 8.91 7.42 1.66 9.08 7.18 1.70 8.88 6.85 1.74 8.59 6.66 1.73 8.39 6.56 1.76 8.32 6.47 1.83 8.30 6.45 1.82 8.27 6.25 1.76 8.01 5.88 1.85 7.73 5.82 1.91 7.73 5.80 1.87 7.67 5.75 1.88 7.63 5.68 1.72 7.40 5.42 1.81 7.23 5.18 1.72 6.90 5.10 1.74 6.84 5.06 1.78 6.85 4.95 1.78 6.73 5.36 1.91 7.27 5.47 2.07 7.55 5.67 2.18 7.86 0.1% -1.3% -0.3%

2.4% 0.7% 1.3%

Net imports

Crude Petroleum oil products Total 0.49 0.36 0.85 0.78 0.47 1.25 1.02 0.80 1.82 1.24 1.23 2.47 1.32 2.10 3.42 4.11 1.95 6.06 5.26 1.65 6.91 3.20 1.87 5.07 4.18 2.04 6.22 4.67 2.01 6.68 5.11 2.29 7.40 5.84 2.22 8.06 5.89 2.13 8.02 5.78 1.85 7.63 6.08 1.81 7.89 6.79 1.83 8.62 7.06 1.94 9.00 7.23 1.61 8.84 7.51 1.97 9.48 8.23 1.93 10.16 8.71 2.00 10.71 8.73 2.12 10.85 9.07 2.39 11.46 9.33 2.54 11.87 9.14 2.39 11.53 9.67 2.59 12.26 10.09 3.06 13.15 10.13 3.58 13.71 10.12 3.59 13.71 10.03 3.44 13.47 9.78 3.13 12.92 9.01 2.68 11.69 9.21 2.58 11.79 8.92 2.44 11.36 Average annual percentage change 0.5% 4.9% 3.2% 4.3% 0.9% 4.8% 0.4% 3.0% 0.2% -0.2% 0.2% -0.1%

Exports

Crude oil 0.10 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.29 0.20 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.14 0.11 0.12 0.09 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.05

Petroleum products 0.21 0.34 0.19 0.18 0.25 0.20 0.26 0.58 0.63 0.61 0.66 0.72 0.75 0.89 0.86 0.90 0.84 0.86 0.87 0.90 0.84 0.82 0.99 0.95 0.98 1.01 1.02 1.13 1.29 1.41 1.77 1.98 2.31 2.88

Total 0.31 0.37 0.20 0.19 0.26 0.21 0.54 0.78 0.79 0.76 0.82 0.86 0.86 1.00 0.95 1.00 0.94 0.95 0.98 1.00 0.95 0.94 1.04 0.97 0.98 1.03 1.05 1.17 1.32 1.43 1.80 2.02 2.35 2.92

-1.1% 4.0% 0.0%

4.4% 6.1% 11.3%

3.7% 6.1% 10.9%

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, March 2012, Tables 3.1 and 3.3b. (Additional resources: www.eia.gov) a

Total domestic production includes crude oil, natural gas plant liquids and small amounts of other liquids.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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The U.S. is responsible for 22% of the world’s petroleum consumption. The United States relies heavily on imported petroleum. Imports accounted for nearly 45% of U.S. petroleum consumption in 2011.

Table 1.13 Petroleum Production and Transportation Petroleum Consumption in Context, 1950–2011

1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1950–2011 1970–2011 2001–2011

Domestic petroleum productiona

Net petroleum imports

5.91 7.58 7.99 9.01 11.30 10.01 10.17 10.58 10.23 9.94 9.76 9.16 8.91 9.08 8.87 8.58 8.39 8.32 8.30 8.27 8.01 7.73 7.73 7.67 7.63 7.40 7.23 6.90 6.84 6.85 6.73 7.27 7.55 7.89

0.55 0.88 1.62 2.28 3.16 5.85 6.36 4.29 5.44 5.91 6.59 7.20 7.16 6.63 6.94 7.62 8.05 7.89 8.50 9.16 9.76 9.91 10.42 10.90 10.55 11.24 12.10 12.55 12.39 12.04 11.11 9.67 9.44 8.44

0.5% -0.9% 0.1%

4.6% 2.4% -0.6%

U.S. Transportation petroleum petroleum consumption consumption (million barrels per day)

World petroleum consumption

b 3.36 6.46 b 4.46 8.46 5.15 9.82 21.34 6.04 11.51 31.14 7.78 14.70 46.81 8.95 16.32 56.20 9.57 17.06 63.11 9.84 15.73 60.08 10.19 16.28 61.80 10.50 16.67 63.08 10.88 17.28 64.96 10.94 17.33 66.07 10.89 16.99 66.52 10.76 16.71 67.20 10.91 17.03 67.39 11.12 17.24 67.57 11.13 17.72 68.89 11.61 17.73 70.10 11.91 18.31 71.69 12.05 18.62 73.45 12.36 18.92 74.10 12.70 19.52 75.87 12.98 19.70 76.78 12.86 19.65 77.51 13.12 19.76 78.16 13.20 20.03 79.71 13.61 20.73 82.56 13.79 20.80 84.09 13.95 20.69 85.13 14.00 20.68 85.81 13.33 19.50 85.44 12.82 18.77 84.68 12.94 19.18 87.14 12.68 18.84 87.28 Average annual percentage change b 2.2% 1.8% 1.2% 0.6% 1.5% 0.0% -0.1% 0.3%

Transportation Net imports U.S. petroleum petroleum use as as a share of consumption as a share of a share of world U.S. domestic consumption consumption production

8.4% 10.4% 16.5% 19.8% 21.5% 35.8% 37.3% 27.3% 33.4% 35.5% 38.1% 41.6% 42.2% 39.6% 40.8% 44.2% 45.5% 44.5% 46.4% 49.2% 51.6% 50.8% 52.9% 55.5% 53.4% 56.1% 58.4% 60.3% 59.9% 58.2% 57.0% 51.5% 49.2% 44.8%

b b

46.0% 37.0% 31.4% 29.0% 27.0% 26.2% 26.3% 26.4% 26.6% 26.2% 25.5% 24.9% 25.3% 25.5% 25.7% 25.3% 25.5% 25.4% 25.5% 25.7% 25.7% 25.4% 25.3% 25.1% 25.1% 24.7% 24.3% 24.1% 22.8% 22.2% 22.0% 21.6%

56.8% 58.8% 64.5% 67.0% 68.9% 89.4% 94.1% 93.0% 99.6% 105.7% 111.4% 119.4% 122.2% 118.5% 123.0% 129.7% 132.6% 139.5% 143.5% 145.7% 154.3% 164.3% 167.9% 167.7% 172.0% 178.4% 188.2% 199.9% 203.9% 204.4% 198.0% 176.4% 171.4% 160.8%

Sources: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, March 2012, Tables 2.5, 3.1, and A3. (Pre-1973 data from the Annual Energy Review). World petroleum consumption - U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics Website, May 2012. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov) a b

Total domestic production includes crude oil, natural gas plant liquids and small amounts of other liquids. Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

1–18

Before 1989 the U.S. produced enough petroleum to meet the needs of the transportation sector, but was still short of meeting the petroleum needs of all the sectors, including industrial, residential and commercial, and electric utilities. In 1973 the gap between what the U.S. produced and what was consumed was 5.6 million barrels per day. By 2035, the gap is expected to be at least 8.0 million barrels per day if all sources of petroleum are included or 11.1 million barrels per day if only conventional petroleum sources are used.

Figure 1.6. United States Petroleum Production and Consumption – All Sectors, 1973–2035

Source: See Tables 1.12 and 2.7. Projections are from the Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2012, January 2012. Notes: The U.S. Production has two lines after 2010. The solid line is conventional sources of petroleum, including crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gains. The dashed line adds in other non-petroleum sources, including ethanol, biomass, liquids from coal, other blending components, other hydrocarbons, and ethers. The sharp increase in values between 2006 and 2007 is the result of the FHWA’s methodology change. The data change from historical to projected values occurs between 2010 and 2011.

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In 1989 the transportation sector petroleum consumption surpassed U.S. petroleum production for the first time, creating a gap that must be met with imports of petroleum. By the year 2035, transportation petroleum consumption is expected to grow to more than 15 million barrels per day; at that time, the gap between U.S. production and transportation consumption will be about 2.5 million barrels per day (when including the nonpetroleum sources).

Figure 1.7. United States Petroleum Production, and Transportation Consumption, 1970–2035

Source: See Tables 1.12 and 2.7. Projections are from the Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2012, January 2012. Notes: The U.S. Production has two lines after 2010. The solid line is conventional sources of petroleum, including crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gains. The dashed line adds in other non-petroleum sources, including ethanol, biomass, liquids from coal, other blending components, other hydrocarbons, and ethers. The sharp increase in values between 2010 and 2011 are caused by the data change from historical to projected values. The sharp increase in the value for heavy trucks between 2006 and 2007 is the result of the FHWA’s methodology change.

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Transportation accounted for almost 70% of the U.S. petroleum use in 2010 and 2011. Total petroleum consumption reached more than 20 million barrels per day from 2004 to 2007, but has been below that level from 2008 through present. Though petroleum consumption increased slightly from 2009 to 2010, it declined again in 2011.

Table 1.14 Consumption of Petroleum by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 (million barrels per day) Year 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1973–2011 2001–2011

Transportation 9.05 8.84 8.95 9.40 9.76 10.16 10.00 9.57 9.49 9.31 9.41 9.62 9.84 10.19 10.51 10.88 10.94 10.89 10.76 10.91 11.08 11.36 11.61 11.91 12.05 12.36 12.70 12.98 12.86 13.12 13.20 13.61 13.79 13.95 14.00 13.33 12.82 12.94 12.68 1.0% -0.1%

Percentage Residential Commercial 52.3% 1.46 0.77 53.1% 1.33 0.70 54.8% 1.29 0.65 53.7% 1.40 0.72 53.0% 1.39 0.75 53.9% 1.35 0.72 54.0% 1.07 0.65 56.0% 0.89 0.63 59.1% 0.79 0.54 60.8% 0.75 0.50 61.8% 0.72 0.57 61.0% 0.79 0.60 62.6% 0.81 0.53 62.6% 0.80 0.57 63.0% 0.85 0.55 62.7% 0.87 0.54 62.8% 0.88 0.51 64.7% 0.74 0.49 63.2% 0.74 0.46 64.2% 0.76 0.44 63.7% 0.77 0.41 64.7% 0.76 0.41 64.9% 0.74 0.38 64.6% 0.81 0.40 65.2% 0.78 0.38 65.6% 0.72 0.36 65.3% 0.82 0.37 65.9% 0.87 0.42 65.7% 0.85 0.41 66.7% 0.82 0.38 66.3% 0.85 0.43 65.9% 0.84 0.42 66.8% 0.81 0.39 68.2% 0.69 0.34 68.7% 0.71 0.34 69.7% 0.72 0.34 70.0% 0.69 0.36 69.4% 0.67 0.36 69.4% 0.67 0.36 Average annual percentage change -2.0% -2.0% -2.4% -1.3%

Industrial 4.48 4.30 4.04 4.46 4.82 4.87 5.34 4.86 4.27 4.06 3.85 4.20 4.07 4.09 4.21 4.36 4.33 4.15 4.53 4.45 4.64 4.57 4.83 4.96 4.86 4.84 5.03 4.92 4.89 4.93 4.90 5.23 5.10 5.19 5.05 4.53 4.27 4.51 4.45

Electric utilities 1.54 1.48 1.39 1.52 1.71 1.75 1.44 1.15 0.96 0.69 0.68 0.56 0.48 0.64 0.55 0.69 0.75 0.57 0.53 0.44 0.50 0.47 0.33 0.36 0.41 0.58 0.53 0.51 0.56 0.43 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.29 0.29 0.21 0.17 0.17 0.13

Total 17.31 16.65 16.32 17.51 18.43 18.84 18.51 17.10 16.06 15.30 15.23 15.78 15.72 16.29 16.67 17.34 17.40 16.84 17.03 16.99 17.39 17.57 17.90 18.44 18.47 18.86 19.46 19.68 19.57 19.67 19.91 20.63 20.63 20.45 20.38 19.14 18.31 18.64 18.28

0.0% -0.9%

-6.3% -13.6%

0.1% -0.7%

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, March 2012, Tables 2.2– 2.6. Converted to million barrels per day using Table A3. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)

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Light trucks include pick-ups, minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and vans. See Table 2.7 for highway energy use in trillion Btu.

Table 1.15 Highway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010a (thousand barrels per day)

Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Cars 4,424 4,654 4,954 5,103 4,842 4,836 5,107 5,157 5,261 4,996 4,565 4,508 4,509 4,587 4,609 4,665 4,773 4,782 4,784 4,821 4,538 4,196 4,268 4,374 4,428 4,440 4,515 4,559 4,677 4,780 4,766 4,798 4,923 4,866 4,919 5,050 4,893 4,852 4,492 4,451 4,395

Light trucks 803 880 988 1,098 1,087 1,245 1,359 1,460 1,576 1,595 1,552 1,546 1,481 1,562 1,670 1,785 1,897 1,996 2,130 2,170 2,323 2,493 2,670 2,795 2,878 2,975 3,089 3,222 3,292 3,448 3,453 3,491 3,602 3,963 4,137 3,840 3,959 4,034 4,082 4,120 4,193

1970–2010 2000–2010

0.0% -0.8%

4.2% 2.0%

Light vehicle subtotal 5,227 5,534 5,942 6,201 5,929 6,081 6,466 6,617 6,837 6,591 6,117 6,054 5,989 6,149 6,280 6,450 6,670 6,778 6,914 6,992 6,861 6,688 6,938 7,169 7,305 7,415 7,604 7,781 7,969 8,228 8,219 8,290 8,525 8,829 9,055 8,890 8,852 8,885 8,574 8,571 8,588

Motorcycles 4 5 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 11 13 14 13 11 11 12 12 12 13 14 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 13 12 12 13 12 14 31 32 31 28

1.2% 0.4%

5.0% 7.2%

Heavy Class Class Trucks 7-8 3-6 subtotal trucks trucks Buses 62 140 598 738 60 146 624 771 59 161 685 846 58 177 757 934 57 178 758 935 58 181 771 952 63 191 814 1,005 65 212 903 1,114 66 237 1,010 1,247 68 247 1,052 1,299 68 247 1,055 1,302 69 253 1,077 1,329 71 253 1,077 1,330 72 257 1,097 1,354 69 266 1,132 1,398 72 265 1,131 1,396 76 271 1,155 1,426 77 279 1,190 1,469 80 284 1,211 1,495 79 291 1,242 1,534 78 304 1,294 1,597 83 310 1,320 1,630 87 315 1,345 1,660 86 325 1,386 1,711 86 343 1,463 1,806 87 357 1,523 1,881 88 367 1,564 1,931 91 370 1,579 1,949 93 382 1,630 2,012 96 420 1,792 2,212 98 437 1,861 2,298 93 436 1,859 2,295 91 456 1,944 2,401 90 443 1,890 2,334 92 411 1,752 2,162 93 461 1,965 2,426 94 470 2,006 2,476 92 585 2,495 3,080 95 591 2,521 3,112 95 549 2,341 2,890 90 557 2,375 2,933 Average annual percentage change 0.9% 3.5% 3.5% 3.5% -0.8% 2.5% 2.5% 2.5%

c

Highway subtotal 6,031 6,369 6,852 7,200 6,928 7,099 7,542 7,805 8,160 7,969 7,500 7,466 7,403 7,586 7,758 7,930 8,184 8,336 8,503 8,618 8,549 8,413 8,698 8,979 9,211 9,396 9,636 9,834 10,086 10,550 10,630 10,690 11,029 11,265 11,323 11,422 11,436 12,089 11,813 11,587 11,639 1.7% 0.9%

Total transportationb 7,333 7,654 8,179 8,601 8,310 8,472 8,969 9,314 9,793 9,725 9,118 9,175 8,944 9,077 9,364 9,537 9,896 10,111 10,343 10,505 10,425 10,246 10,583 10,820 11,091 11,346 11,601 11,776 12,014 12,644 12,794 12,665 12,945 13,128 13,395 13,563 13,604 14,295 13,863 13,419 13,548 1.5% 0.6%

Source: See Appendix A for Highway Energy Use. a

Each gallon of petroleum product was assumed to equal one gallon of crude oil. The oil used to produce electricity is also estimated. See Appendix A, p. 18 for details. b Total transportation figures do not include military and off-highway energy use and may not include all possible uses of fuel for transportation (e.g., snowmobiles). c Due to changes in the FHWA fuel use methodology, motorcycle, bus, and heavy truck data are not comparable with data before the year 2007.

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Although about 18% of transportation energy use is for nonhighway modes, only 14% of transportation petroleum use is for nonhighway. This is because some nonhighway modes, such as pipelines and transit rail, use electricity. An estimate for the petroleum used to make electricity is included in the data. See Table 2.8 for nonhighway transportation energy use in trillion Btu.

Table 1.16 Nonhighway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010a (thousand barrels per day)

Year 1970 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1970–2009 1999–2009

Air 625 651 697 706 701 699 781 814 884 920 958 960 991 928 942 961 1,004 1,036 1,068 1,113 1,102 1,202 1,236 1,161 1,079 1,094 1,188 1,226 1,216 1,215 1,160 1,029 1,040 1.3% -1.7%

Water Pipeline Rail 381 43 253 423 50 249 625 35 262 722 29 253 604 21 214 561 20 212 577 16 232 564 13 216 601 17 210 626 15 213 644 18 220 688 18 221 655 14 216 690 12 202 724 10 208 653 11 215 635 11 230 668 7 239 644 8 245 574 9 246 566 12 248 625 11 257 662 10 256 546 11 257 572 8 257 496 10 263 596 10 278 625 10 281 661 5 286 709 5 277 621 4 265 579 3 220 626 3 240 Average annual percentage change 1.2% -6.4% -0.1% -0.6% -11.3% -0.6%

Nonhighway subtotal 1,302 1,373 1,618 1,709 1,541 1,491 1,606 1,606 1,712 1,775 1,840 1,887 1,876 1,833 1,885 1,841 1,880 1,950 1,965 1,942 1,927 2,095 2,164 1,975 1,917 1,863 2,073 2,142 2,168 2,206 2,050 1,832 1,909

Total transportationb 7,333 8,472 9,118 9,175 8,944 9,077 9,364 9,537 9,896 10,111 10,343 10,505 10,425 10,246 10,583 10,820 11,091 11,346 11,601 11,776 12,014 12,644 12,794 12,665 12,945 13,128 13,395 13,563 13,604 14,295 13,863 13,419 13,548

1.0% -1.2%

1.5% 0.6%

Source: See Appendix A for Nonhighway Energy Use. a

Each gallon of petroleum product was assumed to equal one gallon of crude oil. The oil used to produce electricity is also estimated. See Appendix A, p. 18 for details. b Total transportation figures do not include military and off-highway energy use and may not include all possible uses of fuel for transportation (e.g., snowmobiles).

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Highway vehicles were responsible for 85.9% of all transportation petroleum use in 2010. See Table 2.7 for transportation energy use in trillion Btu.

Table 1.17 Transportation Petroleum Use by Mode, 2009–2010a

HIGHWAY Light vehicles Cars Light trucksb Motorcycles Buses Transit Intercity School Medium/heavy trucks Class 3-6 Class 7-8 NONHIGHWAY Air General aviation Domestic air carriers International air carriers Water Freight Recreational Pipeline Rail Freight (Class I) Passenger Transit Commuter Intercity HWY & NONHWY TOTALc Off-Highway

Thousand barrels per day 2009 2010 11,586.6 11,639.0 8,602.0 8,616.1 4,395.2 4,450.6 4,120.0 4,193.1 31.5 27.8 94.6 90.3 43.7 41.5 14.6 14.0 36.3 34.8 2,890.0 2,932.6 549.1 557.2 2,340.9 2,375.4 1,832.2 1,908.5 1,029.5 1,039.7 103.2 108.8 739.7 734.2 186.6 196.6 579.1 625.9 453.3 500.4 125.5 125.8 3.4 3.2 220.3 239.8 210.0 229.6 10.2 10.2 0.0 0.0 6.2 6.1 4.0 4.1 13,418.9 13,547.5 999.5 1,018.2

Percentage of total 2009 2010 86.3% 85.9% 64.1% 63.6% 33.2% 32.4% 30.7% 31.0% 0.2% 0.2% 0.7% 0.7% 0.3% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 21.5% 21.6% 4.1% 4.1% 17.4% 17.5% 13.7% 14.1% 7.7% 7.7% 0.8% 0.8% 5.5% 5.4% 1.4% 1.5% 4.3% 4.6% 3.4% 3.7% 0.9% 0.9% 0.0% 0.0% 1.6% 1.8% 1.6% 1.7% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Percentage of total U.S. petroleum consumption 2009 2010 61.7% 60.7% 45.8% 44.9% 23.7% 22.9% 21.9% 21.9% 0.2% 0.1% 0.5% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 15.4% 15.3% 2.9% 2.9% 12.5% 12.4% 9.8% 10.0% 5.5% 5.4% 0.5% 0.6% 3.9% 3.8% 1.0% 1.0% 3.1% 3.3% 2.4% 2.6% 0.7% 0.7% 0.0% 0.0% 1.2% 1.3% 1.1% 1.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 71.5% 70.6%

Source: See Appendix A for Energy Use Sources. a

Each gallon of petroleum product was assumed to equal one gallon of crude oil. The oil used to produce electricity is also estimated. See Appendix A, p. 18 for details. b Two-axle, four-tire trucks. c Civilian consumption only. Totals may not include all possible uses of fuels for transportation (e.g., snowmobiles).

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TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Chapter 2 Energy Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter

Source Table 2.1

Transportation share of U.S. energy consumption, 2011

27.8%

Table 2.2

Petroleum share of transportation energy consumption, 2011

92.8%

Table 2.3

Alternative fuel and oxygenate consumption, 2010 (thousand gasoline equivalent gallons) Ethanol in gasohol

8,527,431

92.5%

0

0.0%

Liquefied petroleum gas

126,354

1.4%

Compressed natural gas

210,007

2.3%

E85

90,323

1.0%

Liquefied natural gas

26,072

0.3%

4,847

0.1%

(trillion Btu)

(transportation energy share)

Cars

8,288

30.0%

Light trucks

7,920

28.7%

Medium/heavy trucks

6,151

22.3%

190

0.7%

22,603

81.8%

Air

2,148

7.8%

Water

1,374

5.0%

Pipeline

933

3.4%

Rail

581

2.1%

MTBE

Electricity Table 2.6

(share of Total alt fuel/oxygenates)

Transportation energy use by mode, 2010

Buses Total Highway

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Petroleum accounted for 35% of the world’s energy use in 2009. Though petroleum is the dominant energy source for both OECD countries and non-OECD countries, the non-OECD countries rely on coal, natural gas, and hydroelectric power more than OECD countries do.

Figure 2.1. World Consumption of Primary Energy, 2009

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics Database, April 2012. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Total energy use was 97.5 quads in 2011 with transportation using 27.1%. The Energy Information Administration includes renewable energy in each sector.

Table 2.1 U. S. Consumption of Total Energy by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 (quadrillion Btu)

Year 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Transportation 18.6 18.1 18.2 19.1 19.8 20.6 20.5 19.7 19.5 19.1 19.2 19.7 20.1 20.8 21.5 22.3 22.5 22.4 22.1 22.4 22.8 23.4 23.8 24.4 24.8 25.3 25.9 26.5 26.3 26.8 27.0 27.9 28.4 28.8 29.1 28.0 27.1 27.5 27.1

1973–2011 2001–2011

1.0% 0.3%

Percentage transportation of total Industrial Commercial 24.6% 32.6 9.5 24.5% 31.8 9.4 25.4% 29.4 9.5 25.1% 31.4 10.1 25.4% 32.3 10.2 25.8% 32.7 10.5 25.3% 33.9 10.6 25.2% 32.0 10.6 25.6% 30.7 10.6 26.1% 27.6 10.9 26.3% 27.4 10.9 25.7% 29.6 11.4 26.3% 28.8 11.5 27.1% 28.3 11.6 27.2% 28.4 11.9 27.0% 30.7 12.6 26.5% 31.3 13.2 26.5% 31.8 13.3 26.2% 31.4 13.4 26.1% 32.6 13.4 26.1% 32.6 13.8 26.3% 33.5 14.1 26.2% 34.0 14.7 26.0% 34.9 15.2 26.2% 35.2 15.7 26.8% 34.8 16.0 26.8% 34.8 16.4 26.9% 34.7 17.2 27.3% 32.7 17.1 27.5% 32.7 17.3 27.6% 32.5 17.3 27.8% 33.5 17.7 28.3% 32.4 17.9 28.9% 32.4 17.7 28.7% 32.4 18.3 28.2% 31.3 18.4 28.6% 28.5 17.9 28.1% 30.4 18.1 27.8% 30.7 18.1 Average annual percentage change -0.2% 1.7% -0.6% 0.5%

Residential 14.9 14.7 14.8 15.4 15.7 16.1 15.8 15.8 15.3 15.5 15.4 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.3 17.1 17.8 16.9 17.4 17.4 18.2 18.1 18.5 19.5 19.0 19.0 19.6 20.4 20.0 20.8 21.1 21.1 21.6 20.7 21.6 21.6 21.1 21.8 21.7

Totala 75.7 74.0 72.0 76.0 78.0 80.0 80.9 78.1 76.1 73.1 73.0 76.7 76.4 76.7 79.1 82.7 84.8 84.5 84.4 85.8 87.4 89.1 91.0 94.0 94.6 95.0 96.7 98.8 96.2 97.6 98.0 100.2 100.3 99.6 101.3 99.3 94.5 97.7 97.5

1.0% 0.6%

0.7% -0.1%

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, March 2012, Washington, DC, Table 2.1. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov) a

Electrical energy losses have been distributed among the sectors.

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In transportation, the alcohol fuels blended into gasoline to make gasohol (10% ethanol or less) are counted under “renewables” and are not in with petroleum. The petroleum category, however, still contains other blending agents, such as MTBE, that are not actually petroleum, but are not broken out into a separate category.

Table 2.2 Distribution of Energy Consumption by Source, 1973 and 2011 (percentage) Energy source Petroleuma Natural gasb Coal Renewable Nuclear Electricityc Total

Transportation 1973 2011 95.8 92.8 4.0 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 100.00 100.00

Residential 1973 2011 18.8 5.3 33.4 22.3 0.6 0.0 2.4 2.6 0.0 0.0 44.8 69.8 100.00 100.00

Energy source Petroleuma Natural gasb Coal Renewable Nuclear Electricityc Total

Industrial 1973 2011 27.8 26.3 31.8 27.1 12.4 5.4 3.7 7.5 0.0 0.0 24.2 33.7 100.00 100.00

Electric utilities 1973 2011 17.8 1.0 19.0 19.6 43.9 46.0 14.4 12.5 4.6 20.9 0.2 0.3 100.00 100.00

Commercial 1973 2011 16.8 3.8 27.8 17.8 1.7 0.3 0.1 0.7 0.0 0.0 53.7 77.4 100.00 100.00

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, March 2012, Washington, DC, Tables 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, and 2.6. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov) Note: Numbers may not add due to rounding. a b

In transportation, the petroleum category contains some blending agents which are not petroleum. Includes supplemental gaseous fuels. Transportation sector includes pipeline fuel and natural gas vehicle

use. c

Includes electrical system energy losses.

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Oxygenates are blended with gasoline to be used in conventional vehicles. The amount of oxygenate use dwarfs the alternative fuel use. Gasoline-equivalent gallons are used in this table to allow comparisons of different fuel types.

Table 2.3 Alternative Fuel and Oxygenate Consumption, 2003–2010 (thousand gasoline–equivalent gallons) Alternative fuel Liquefied petroleum gas Compressed natural gas Liquefied natural gas E85a Electricityb Hydrogen Biodiesel Other Subtotal Oxygenates MTBEc Ethanol in gasohol Total

2003

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

224,697 133,222 13,503 26,376 5,141 2 18,220 0 421,161

188,171 166,878 22,409 38,074 5,219 25 91,649 2 512,427

173,130 172,011 23,474 44,041 5,104 41 267,623 2 685,426

152,360 178,585 24,594 54,091 5,037 66 367,764 2 782,479

147,784 189,358 25,554 62,464 5,050 117 324,329 2 754,658

129,631 199,513 25,652 71,213 4,956 140 325,102 2 756,209

126,354 210,007 26,072 90,323 4,847 152 235,188 0 692,943

2,368,400 1,919,572 4,709,133

1,654,500 2,756,663 4,923,590

435,000 3,729,168 4,849,594

0 4,694,304 5,476,783

0 6,442,781 7,197,439

0 7,343,133 8,099,342

0 8,527,431 9,220,374

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels, 2010, Washington, DC, May 2012, Web site www.eia.doe.gov/renewable. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov) a

Consumption includes gasoline portion of the mixture. Vehicle consumption only; does not include power plant inputs. c Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether. This category includes a very small amount of other ethers, primarily Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether (TAME) and Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE). b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Ethanol is used as an oxygenate, blended with gasoline to be used as gasohol in conventional vehicles. The amount of ethanol used in gasohol dwarfs the amount used in E85. Production of E95 ended in 2000.

Table 2.4 Ethanol Consumption, 1995–2010 (thousand gallons)

1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2010 Percentage

Ethanol blends E85 E95 166 970 10,530 12 12,756 0 15,513 0 26,376 0 31,581 0 38,074 0 44,041 0 54,091 0 62,464 0 71,213 0 90,323 0 1.0% 0.0%

Ethanol in gasohol 934,615 1,114,313 1,173,323 1,450,721 1,919,572 2,414,167 2,756,663 3,729,168 4,694,304 6,442,781 7,343,133 8,527,431 99.0%

Total 935,751 1,124,855 1,186,079 1,466,234 1,945,948 2,445,748 2,794,737 3,773,209 4,748,395 6,505,245 7,414,346 8,617,754 100.0%

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels, 2010, Washington, DC, May 2012, Web site: http://www.eia.doe.gov/renewable/afv/index.cfm. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov) Note: Gallons of E85, E95 and Ethanol in gasohol, do not include the gasoline portion of the blended fuel.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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As data about alternative fuel use become available, an attempt is made to incorporate them into this table. Sometimes assumptions must be made in order to use the data. Please see Appendix A for a description of the methodology used to develop these data. See Table 1.17 for transportation petroleum use in thousand barrels per day.

Table 2.5 Domestic Consumption of Transportation Energy by Mode and Fuel Type, 2010a (trillion Btu)

HIGHWAY Light vehicles Cars Light trucksb Motorcycles Buses Transit Intercity School Medium/heavy trucks Class 3-6 trucks Class 7-8 trucks NONHIGHWAY Air General aviation Domestic air carriers International air carriersc Water Freight Recreational Pipeline Rail Freight (Class I) Passenger Transit Commuter Intercity TOTAL HWY & NONHWY

Gasoline 16,437.3 15,811.5 8,241.4 7,516.9 53.2 7.7 1.0 6.7 618.2 568.7 49.5 222.6 25.3 25.3

197.3 197.3 -

16,659.9

Diesel fuel 6,077.8 403.4 46.7 356.6 162.3 65.9 29.9 66.5 5,512.2 771.7 4,740.5 799.9 -

290.1 242.2 47.9 509.8 488.1 21.7 12.9 8.8 6,877.7

Liquefied petroleum gas 67.5 47.0

Jet fuel -

Residual fuel oil -

Natural gas 19.6 -

Electricity 0.7 -

19.6 19.6

0.7 0.7

71.2 46.8 18.6 5.8

Total 22,602.9 16,261.8 8,288.2 7,920.4 53.2 190.2 87.2 29.9 73.2 6,150.9 1,360.7 4,790.2 5,036.1 2,147.6 221.2 1,519.5 406.9 1,374.4 1,129.2 245.2 933.0 581.0 488.1 92.9 46.8 31.5 14.6

315.3

27,639.0

47.0 -

20.5 20.3 0.2 -

-

-

-

-

2,122.4 2,122.4 196.0 1,519.5 406.9

887.0 -

689.6 -

314.6 -

689.6 -

243.4 71.2

887.0 887.0 -

67.5

-

2,122.4

-

887.0

709.2

Source: See Appendix A for Energy Use Sources. a

Civilian consumption only. Totals may not include all possible uses of fuels for transportation (e.g., snowmobiles). b Two-axle, four-tire trucks. c One half of fuel used by domestic carriers in international operation.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

2–8

Highway vehicles were responsible for 81.8% of all transportation energy use in 2010. See Table 1.17 for transportation energy use in thousand barrels per day.

Table 2.6 Transportation Energy Use by Mode, 2009–2010a

HIGHWAY Light vehicles Cars Light trucksb Motorcycles Buses Transit Intercity School Medium/heavy trucks Class 3-6 trucks Class 7-8 trucks NONHIGHWAY Air General aviation Domestic air carriers International air Water Freight Recreational Pipeline Rail Freight (Class I) Passenger Transit Commuter Intercity HWY & NONHWY TOTAL Off-highway

2009 22,531.4 16,270.7 8,411.0 7,799.4 60.3 199.3 91.8 31.1 76.4 6,061.4 1,340.9 4,720.5 4,871.1 2,127.3 210.3 1,530.8 386.2 1,269.6 1,024.0 245.6 934.5 539.8 446.6 93.1 47.8 30.9 14.4 27,402.5 1,997.5

Trillion Btu 2010 22,602.9 16,261.8 8,288.2 7,920.4 53.2 190.2 87.2 29.9 73.2 6,150.9 1,360.7 4,790.2 5,036.1 2,147.6 221.2 1,519.5 406.9 1,374.4 1,129.2 245.2 933.0 581.0 488.1 92.9 46.8 31.5 14.6 27,639.0 2,036.4

Percentage of total based on Btus 2009 2010 82.2% 81.8% 59.4% 58.8% 30.7% 30.0% 28.5% 28.7% 0.2% 0.2% 0.7% 0.7% 0.3% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 22.1% 22.3% 4.9% 4.9% 17.2% 17.3% 17.8% 18.2% 7.8% 7.8% 0.8% 0.8% 5.6% 5.5% 1.4% 1.5% 4.6% 5.0% 3.7% 4.1% 0.9% 0.9% 3.4% 3.4% 2.0% 2.1% 1.6% 1.8% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 100.0% 100.0%

Source: See Appendix A for Energy Use Sources. a

Civilian consumption only. Totals may not include all possible uses of fuels for transportation (e.g., snowmobiles). b Two-axle, four-tire trucks.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

2–9

Light trucks include pick-ups, minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and vans. See Table 1.15 for highway petroleum use in thousand barrels per day.

Table 2.7 Highway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010 (trillion Btu) Light vehicles subtotal 10,018 11,682 12,428 12,725 13,154 12,685 11,775 11,656 11,510 11,792 12,034 12,345 12,767 12,976 13,236 13,388 13,139 12,803 13,286 13,724 13,985 14,184 14,551 14,878 15,240 15,736 15,707 15,839 16,274 16,806 17,192 16,875 16,866 16,900 16,249 16,210 16,209

Motorcycles 7 14 15 16 18 22 26 27 25 22 22 23 23 24 25 26 24 23 24 25 26 25 24 25 26 26 26 24 24 24 25 24 28 59 61 60 53

Buses 129 124 134 137 141 144 143 145 151 152 146 153 160 164 169 169 167 177 184 183 183 184 186 192 196 203 209 196 192 190 194 196 199 195 200 199 190

Year 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Cars 8,479 9,298 9,826 9,928 10,134 9,629 8,800 8,693 8,673 8,802 8,837 8,932 9,138 9,157 9,158 9,232 8,688 8,029 8,169 8,368 8,470 8,489 8,634 8,710 8,936 9,134 9,100 9,161 9,391 9,255 9,331 9,579 9,316 9,221 8,506 8,411 8,288

Light trucks 1,539 2,384 2,602 2,797 3,020 3,056 2,975 2,963 2,837 2,990 3,197 3,413 3,629 3,819 4,078 4,156 4,451 4,774 5,117 5,356 5,515 5,695 5,917 6,168 6,304 6,602 6,607 6,678 6,883 7,551 7,861 7,296 7,550 7,679 7,742 7,799 7,920

19702010 20002010

-0.1%

4.2%

1.2%

5.2%

1.0%

-0.9%

1.8%

0.3%

7.4%

-0.9%

Heavy Class Class trucks 7-8 3-6 subtotal trucks trucks 333 1,220 1,553 430 1,574 2,003 453 1,661 2,114 503 1,841 2,344 672 1,935 2,607 813 1,884 2,697 929 1,757 2,686 1,065 1,659 2,724 1,182 1,525 2,707 1,121 1,649 2,770 1,072 1,801 2,873 986 1,897 2,883 920 2,038 2,958 858 2,203 3,061 860 2,257 3,118 869 2,330 3,199 891 2,442 3,334 895 2,507 3,402 897 2,570 3,468 906 2,671 3,577 936 2,842 3,778 954 2,983 3,937 958 3,088 4,045 945 3,141 4,086 967 3,251 4,218 1,054 3,584 4,638 1,085 3,734 4,819 1,074 3,738 4,813 1,114 3,921 5,035 1,083 3,812 4,895 1,003 3,532 4,535 1,126 3,963 5,088 1,149 4,045 5,193 1,429 5,031 6,460 1,444 5,083 6,527 1,341 4,720 6,061 1,361 4,790 6,151 Average annual percentage change 3.6% 3.5% 3.5% 2.3%

2.5%

b

2.5%

Highway subtotal 11,707 13,823 14,691 15,222 15,920 15,548 14,630 14,552 14,393 14,736 15,075 15,404 15,908 16,225 16,548 16,782 16,664 16,405 16,962 17,509 17,972 18,330 18,806 19,181 19,680 20,603 20,761 20,872 21,525 21,915 21,946 22,183 22,286 23,615 23,037 22,531 22,603

Total transportationa 15,395 17,424 18,492 19,126 20,097 19,652 18,940 18,741 18,237 18,368 18,962 19,205 20,276 20,771 21,327 21,685 21,581 21,182 21,841 22,322 22,930 23,465 23,974 24,327 24,662 25,960 26,273 25,945 26,536 26,715 27,173 27,582 27,760 29,223 28,345 27,403 27,639

1.7%

1.5%

0.9%

0.5%

Source: See Appendix A for Highway Energy Use. Note: Totals may not add due to rounding. a

Total transportation figures do not include military and off-highway energy use and may not include all possible uses of fuel for transportation (e.g., snowmobiles). These data have been revised due to a new data series for recreational boats. b Due to changes in the FHWA fuel use methodology, motorcycle, bus, and heavy truck data are not comparable with data before the year 2007.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

2–10

About 18% of transportation energy use is for nonhighway modes. Air travel accounts for over 42.6% of nonhighway energy use. See Table 1.16 for nonhighway petroleum use in thousand barrels per day.

Table 2.8 Nonhighway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010 (trillion Btu) Year 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Air 1,307 1,274 1,333 1,350 1,423 1,488 1,434 1,453 1,445 1,440 1,609 1,677 1,823 1,899 1,978 1,981 2,046 1,916 1,945 1,986 2,075 2,141 2,206 2,300 2,275 2,483 2,554 2,397 2,229 2,260 2,456 2,532 2,511 2,509 2,396 2,127 2,148

1970–2010 2000–2010

1.2% -1.7%

Water 836 927 1,083 1,177 1,382 1,149 1,393 1,270 1,063 974 964 871 1,323 1,378 1,417 1,516 1,442 1,523 1,599 1,437 1,394 1,468 1,411 1,250 1,232 1,367 1,454 1,186 1,247 1,074 1,299 1,368 1,450 1,559 1,368 1,270 1,374

Pipeline Rail 990 555 840 559 803 581 786 591 784 588 860 607 896 588 904 561 855 481 740 478 782 532 755 498 735 487 772 498 874 511 890 515 923 506 860 478 846 490 885 505 951 539 967 559 979 572 1,022 574 897 578 908 599 904 601 886 603 931 605 850 617 822 650 842 657 842 670 882 657 911 634 934 540 933 581 Average annual percentage change 1.2% -0.1% 0.1% -0.6% 0.3% -0.3%

Nonhighway subtotal 3,688 3,601 3,800 3,904 4,177 4,104 4,310 4,189 3,844 3,632 3,887 3,801 4,368 4,546 4,779 4,903 4,918 4,777 4,879 4,813 4,958 5,135 5,167 5,146 4,982 5,357 5,512 5,073 5,012 4,800 5,227 5,399 5,473 5,608 5,309 4,872 5,036

Total transportationa 15,395 17,424 18,492 19,126 20,097 19,652 18,940 18,741 18,237 18,368 18,962 19,205 20,276 20,771 21,327 21,685 21,581 21,182 21,841 22,322 22,930 23,465 23,974 24,327 24,662 25,960 26,273 25,945 26,536 26,715 27,173 27,582 27,760 29,223 28,345 27,403 27,639

0.8% -0.9%

1.5% 0.5%

Source: See Appendix A for Nonhighway Energy Use. Note: Totals may not add due to rounding. a

Total transportation figures do not include military and off-highway energy use and may not include all possible uses of fuel for transportation (e.g., snowmobiles).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

2–11

The Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2008a model estimates fuel use for different types of equipment and off-highway vehicles. Most of these vehicles/equipment use diesel fuel. Recreational equipment, such as offhighway motorcycles, snowmobiles, and ATVs, are mainly fueled by gasoline.

Table 2.9 Off-highway Transportation-related Fuel Consumption from the NonRoad Model, 2010 (trillion Btus) Gasoline

Diesel

LPG

CNG

Total

Agricultural equipment Tractors, mowers, combines, balers, and other farm equipment which has utility in its movement.

8.4

554.2

0.0

Airport ground equipment

0.3

14.1

0.2

a

14.6

11.4

888.6

1.8

a

901.8

12.4

126.3

198.1

18.3

355.2

1.7

23.2

0.2

3.4

171.7 205.9

Construction and mining equipment Pavers, rollers, drill rigs, graders, backhoes, excavators, cranes, mining equipment Industrial equipment Forklifts, terminal tractors, sweeper/scrubbers Logging equipment Feller/buncher/skidder Railroad maintenance equipment Recreational equipment Off-road motorcycles, snowmobiles, all-terrain vehicles, golf carts, specialty vehicles Total

a

562.6

a

24.9

0.0

a

3.6

1.9

0.1

a

173.7

1,611.7

200.4

Source: Environmental Protection Agency, NONROAD2008a model, www.epa.go/oms/nonrdmdl.htm. a

0.0

There is no equipment listed for this fuel type.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

18.3

2,036.4

2–12

Mowing equipment consumes nearly half of all the fuel used by lawn and garden equipment. The gasoline used in lawn and garden equipment is 1.9% of total gasoline use.

Table 2.10 Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment, 2010 (million gallons)

Equipment Mowing equipment Front mowers Lawn & garden tractors Lawn & garden tractors Lawn mowers Lawn mowers Rear engine riding mowers Rear engine riding mowers Total Soil and turf equipment Commercial turf equipmenta Rotary tillers < 6 HP Rotary tillers < 6 HP Total Wood cutting equipment Chain saws < 6 HP Chain saws < 6 HP Chippers/stump grinders Shredders < 6 HP Total Blowers and vacuums Leafblowers/vacuums Leafblowers/vacuums Snowblowers Snowblowers Total Trimming equipment Trimmers/edgers/brush cutter Trimmers/edgers/brush cutter Other lawn & garden equipmentb Other lawn & garden equipmentb Total Total all equipment

Classification

Gasoline

Diesel

LPG

Total fuel consumption

Commercial Commercial Residential Commercial Residential Commercial Residential

19.65 229.23 539.54 152.54 206.34 16.87 40.22 1,204.40

110.52 22.81 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 133.34

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

130.18 252.05 539.54 152.54 206.34 16.87 40.22 1,337.73

Commercial Commercial Residential

738.50 85.46 18.71 842.67

17.73 0.00 0.00 17.73

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

756.23 85.46 18.71 860.40

Commercial Residential Commercial Commercial

73.67 17.75 38.71 9.18 139.30

0.00 0.00 150.40 0.00 150.40

0.00 0.00 18.89 0.00 18.89

73.67 17.75 208.00 9.18 308.59

Commercial Residential Commercial Residential

203.77 18.03 34.81 18.43 275.04

0.02 0.00 1.96 0.00 1.97

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

203.79 18.03 36.76 18.43 277.01

Commercial Residential Commercial Residential

62.24 25.76 23.43 19.64 131.06 2,592.47

0.00 0.00 0.42 0.00 0.42 303.86

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 18.89

62.24 25.76 23.85 19.64 131.48 2,915.22

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NONROAD2008a Model, www.epa.gov/oms/nonrdmdl.htm. a

Includes equipment such as aerators, dethatchers, sod cutters, hydro-seeders, turf utility vehicles, golf course greens mowers, and sand trap groomers. b Includes equipment not otherwise classified such as augers, sickle-bar mowers, and wood splitters.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

2–13

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) cautions that data from 1993 on may not be directly comparable to earlier years. Some states have improved reporting procedures in recent years, and the estimation procedures were revised in 1994. Now, the FHWA does not publish separate estimates of gasohol or ethanol used in gasohol. See Table 2.3 for details on oxygenate usage.

Table 2.11 Highway Usage of Gasoline and Diesel, 1973–2010 (billion gallons) Year 1973 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Total gasoline and gasohol 100.6 99.4 101.2 99.6 98.5 100.1 101.4 103.6 106.8 108.7 109.8 110.6 110.2 107.9 111.0 113.7 115.0 117.1 119.5 120.9 124.7 128.7 128.9 129.7 133.0 134.1 136.5 135.2 134.8 135.4 132.2 132.9 133.1

1973–2010 2000–2010

0.8% 0.3%

Diesela Percent diesel 9.8 8.9% 9.6 8.8% 13.8 12.0% 14.9 13.0% 14.9 13.1% 16.0 13.8% 17.3 14.6% 17.8 14.6% 18.4 14.7% 19.0 14.9% 20.1 15.5% 21.2 16.1% 21.4 16.3% 20.7 16.1% 22.0 16.5% 23.5 17.1% 25.1 17.9% 26.2 18.3% 27.2 18.5% 29.4 19.6% 30.2 19.5% 31.9 19.9% 33.4 20.6% 33.4 20.5% 34.8 20.7% 35.5 20.9% 37.4 21.5% 39.1 22.4% 40.1 22.9% 40.7 23.1% 38.6 22.6% 35.3 21.0% 36.6 21.6% Average annual percentage change 3.6% 0.9%

Total highway fuel use 110.5 109.0 115.0 114.5 113.4 116.1 118.7 121.3 125.2 127.7 129.9 131.9 131.6 128.6 132.9 137.2 140.1 143.3 146.7 150.3 154.9 160.7 162.3 163.1 167.8 169.6 173.9 174.3 174.9 176.1 170.8 168.1 169.7 1.2% 0.4%

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2010, Washington, DC, 2012, Table MF-21 and annual. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov) a

Consists primarily of diesel fuel, with small quantities of other fuels, such as liquefied petroleum gas and

E85.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

2–14

Great care should be taken when comparing modal energy intensity data among modes. Because of the inherent differences among the transportation modes in the nature of services, routes available, and many additional factors, it is not possible to obtain truly comparable national energy intensities among modes. These values are averages, and there is a great deal of variability even within a mode.

Table 2.12 Passenger Travel and Energy Use, 2010

Cars Personal trucks Motorcycles Demand responsea Buses Transit Intercityc Schoolc Air Certificated routed General aviation Recreational boats Rail Intercity (Amtrak) Transit Commuter

Energy intensities (Btu per (Btu per vehiclepassengermile) mile) 5,342 3,447 7,081 3,848 2,881 2,484 15,111 15,645

Number of vehicles (thousands) 130,892.0 90,810.3 8,212.3 68.9

Vehiclemiles (millions) 1,551,457 924,556 18,462 1,529

Passengermiles (millions) 2,404,758 1,701,183 21,416 1,477

Load factor (persons/ vehicle) 1.55 1.84 1.16 1.0

b

b

b

b

b

b

66.8

2,425

21,172

8.7

35,953

4,118

b

b

b

b

b

b

1,970.1

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

5,499

555,653

101.0

276,329

2,735

223.4 13,392.9 20.8 0.3 13.6 6.9

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

1,400 295 760 345

35,874 6,420 18,580 10,874

25.6 21.8 24.5 31.5

66,378 49,453 61,645 91,242

2,590 2,271 2,520 2,897

Energy use (trillion Btu) 8,288.2 6,547.0 53.2 23.1 190.2 87.2 29.9 73.2 1,740.8 1,519.5 221.2 245.2 92.9 14.6 46.8 31.5

Source: See Appendix A for Passenger Travel and Energy Use. a

Includes passenger cars, vans, and small buses operating in response to calls from passengers to the transit operator who dispatches the vehicles. b Data are not available. c Energy use is estimated. d Only domestic service and domestic energy use are shown on this table. (Previous editions included half of international energy.) These energy intensities may be inflated because all energy use is attributed to passengers– cargo energy use is not taken into account.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

2–15

Great care should be taken when comparing modal energy intensity data among modes. Because of the inherent differences among the transportation modes in the nature of services, routes available, and many additional factors, it is not possible to obtain truly comparable national energy intensities among modes. These values are averages, and there is a great deal of variability even within a mode.

Table 2.13 Energy Intensities of Highway Passenger Modes, 1970–2010 Light trucka (Btu per (Btu per passenger-mile) vehicle-mile) 4,868 12,480 4,733 11,879 4,796 11,524 4,710 11,160 4,693 10,807 4,632 10,468 4,279 10,224 4,184 9,997 4,109 9,268 4,092 9,124 4,066 8,931 4,110 8,730 4,197 8,560 4,128 8,359 4,033 8,119 4,046 7,746 3,856 7,746 3,695 7,351 3,723 7,239 3,804 7,182 3,765 7,212 3,689 7,208 3,683 7,247 3,646 7,251 3,638 7,260 3,684 7,327 3,611 7,158 3,583 7,080 3,607 7,125 3,525 7,673 3,496 7,653 3,571 7,009 3,510 6,974 3,512 6,904 3,492 7,315 3,474 7,280 3,447 7,225 Average annual percentage change -0.9% -1.4% -0.5% 0.1%

Cars Year 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

(Btu per vehicle-mile) 9,250 8,993 9,113 8,950 8,839 8,647 7,916 7,670 7,465 7,365 7,202 7,164 7,194 6,959 6,683 6,589 6,169 5,912 5,956 6,087 6,024 5,902 5,874 5,797 5,767 5,821 5,687 5,626 5,662 5,535 5,489 5,607 5,511 5,513 5,412 5,385 5,342

1970–2010 2000–2010

-1.4% -0.6%

Transit Busesb (Btu per (Btu per vehicle-mile) passenger-mile) 31,796 2,472 33,748 2,814 34,598 2,896 35,120 2,889 36,603 2,883 36,597 2,795 36,553 2,813 37,745 3,027 38,766 3,237 37,962 3,177 38,705 3,307 38,876 3,423 37,889 3,545 36,247 3,594 36,673 3,706 36,754 3,732 37,374 3,794 37,732 3,877 40,243 4,310 39,043 4,262 37,259 4,262 37,251 4,307 37,452 4,340 38,861 4,434 41,296 4,399 40,578 4,344 41,695 4,531 38,535 4,146 37,548 4,133 37,096 4,213 37,855 4,364 37,430 4,250 39,568 4,316 39,931 4,372 39,906 4,348 39,160 4,242 35,953 4,118 0.3% -1.5%

1.3% -1.0%

Source: See Appendix A for Highway Passenger Mode Energy Intensities. a

All two-axle, four-tire trucks. Series not continuous between 1983 and 1984 because of a change in data source by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA). b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

2–16

 

Great care should be taken when comparing modal energy intensity data among modes. Because of the inherent differences between the transportation modes in the nature of services, routes available, and many additional factors, it is not possible to obtain truly comparable national energy intensities among modes.

Table 2.14 Energy Intensities of Nonhighway Passenger Modes, 1970–2010

Year 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1970–2010 2000–2010

Air Certificated air carriersa (Btu per passenger-mile) 10,115 7,625 7,282 6,990 6,144 5,607 5,561 5,774 5,412 5,133 5,298 5,053 5,011 4,827 4,861 4,844 4,797 4,602 4,455 4,490 4,407 4,349 4,199 4,173 3,987 4,108 3,960 3,943 3,718 3,614 3,505 3,346 3,250 3,153 3,055 2,930 2,852 -2.8% -2.5%

Intercity Amtrak (Btu per passenger-mile) b

3,548 3,278 3,443 3,554 3,351 3,065 2,883 3,052 2,875 2,923 2,703 2,481 2,450 2,379 2,614 2,505 2,417 2,534 2,565 2,282 2,501 2,690 2,811 2,788 2,943 3,235 3,257 3,212 2,800 2,760 2,709 2,650 2,516 2,398 2,435 2,271 Average annual percentage changec -1.3% -3.5%

Rail Rail transit (Btu per passenger-mile) 2,157 2,625 2,633 2,364 2,144 2,290 2,312 2,592 2,699 2,820 3,037 2,809 3,042 3,039 3,072 2,909 3,024 3,254 3,155 3,373 3,338 3,340 3,017 2,856 2,823 2,785 2,797 2,803 2,872 2,837 2,750 2,783 2,707 2,577 2,521 2,516 2,520 0.6% -1.1%

Commuter rail (Btu per passenger-mile) b b b b b b b b b b

2,804 2,826 2,926 2,801 2,872 2,864 2,822 2,770 2,629 2,976 2,682 2,632 2,582 2,724 2,646 2,714 2,551 2,515 2,514 2,545 2,569 2,743 2,527 2,638 2,656 2,812 2,897 1.3% 1.3%

Source: See Appendix A for Nonhighway Passenger Mode Energy Intensities. a

These data differ from the data on Table 2.12 because they include half of international services. These energy intensities may be inflated because all energy use is attributed to passengers–cargo energy use is not taken into account. b Data are not available. c Average annual percentage calculated to earliest year possible.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012  

2–17

The energy intensity of light rail systems, measured in btu per passenger-mile varies greatly. The weighted average of all light rail systems in 2010 is 3,626 btu/passenger-mile.

Figure 2.2. Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems, 2010

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Transit Database, May 2012. www.ntdprogram.gov)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

(Additional resources:

2–18

Figure 2.3. Energy Intensity of Heavy Rail Systems, 2010

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, www.ntdprogram.gov)

National

Transit

Database,

May 2012.

(Additional

resources:

Figure 2.4. Energy Intensity of Commuter Rail Systems, 2010

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, www.ntdprogram.gov)

National

Transit

Database,

May 2012.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

(Additional

resources:

2–19

Great care should be taken when comparing modal energy intensity data among modes. Because of the inherent differences between the transportation modes in the nature of services, routes available, and many additional factors, it is not possible to obtain truly comparable national energy intensities among modes.

Table 2.15 Energy Intensities of Freight Modes, 1970–2010

Year 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1970–2010 2000–2010

Heavy single-unit and combination trucks Class I freight railroad (Btu per vehicle-mile) (Btu per freight car-mile) (Btu per ton-mile) 24,960 17,669 691 24,631 18,739 687 24,567 18,938 680 24,669 19,226 669 24,655 18,928 641 24,746 19,188 618 24,758 18,742 597 25,059 18,629 572 24,297 18,404 553 23,853 17,864 525 23,585 17,795 510 23,343 17,500 497 23,352 17,265 486 22,923 16,790 456 22,596 16,758 443 22,411 16,894 437 22,795 16,619 420 22,749 15,835 391 22,609 16,043 393 22,373 16,056 389 22,193 16,340 388 22,097 15,992 372 22,109 15,747 368 21,340 15,784 370 21,516 15,372 365 22,884 15,363 363 23,449 14,917 352 23,024 15,108 346 23,462 15,003 345 22,461 15,016 344 20,540 15,274 341 22,866 15,152 337 b 14,990 330 23,340 21,238 14,846 320 21,008 14,573 305 21,024 13,907 291 21,463 13,733 289 Average annual percentage change -0.4% -0.6% -2.2% -0.9% -0.8% -2.0%

Waterborne commerce on taxable waterways (Btu per ton-mile) a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a

266 256 266 270 253 253 251 241 241 235 225 252 225 217 a

-2.2%

Source: See Appendix A for Freight Mode Energy Intensities. a b

Data are not available. Due to changes in the FHWA fuel use methodology, truck data are not comparable with data before the year

2007.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

3–1

Chapter 3 All Highway Vehicles and Characteristics Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter

Source Table 3.2

U.S. share of world car registrations, 2010

16.8%

Table 3.3

U.S. share of world truck & bus registrations, 2010

39.3%

Table 3.4

Number of U.S. cars, 2010 (thousands)

130,892

Table 3.4

Number of U.S. trucks, 2010 (thousands)

110,322

Table 3.7

Vehicle miles traveled, 2010 (million miles)

Table 3.10

2,966,495

Cars

52.3%

Two-axle, four-tire trucks

37.0%

Combination trucks

5.9%

Other single-unit trucks

3.7%

Motorcycles

0.6%

Buses

0.5%

Average age of vehicles, 2011 Cars (years)

11.1

Light trucks (years)

10.4

All light vehicles (years)

10.8

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The top countries producing the world’s cars and trucks have changed over the last ten years. In 2010, China was the largest producer of cars and trucks. In 2000, Japan produced the most cars and the United States produced the most trucks (includes light trucks).

Table 3.1 World Production of Cars and Trucks, 2000 and 2010 (thousands)

Cars China Japan Germany Brazil U.S. India Spain France Mexico UK Russia Czech Republic All other countries Total world Trucksa China U.S. South Korea Japan India Canada Thailand All other countries Total world

2000 605 8,363 5,132 1,362 5,542 605 2,366 2,880 1,130 1,641 969 428 10,205 41,229

2010 9,494 8,307 5,552 2,828 2,731 2,317 1,951 1,914 1,386 1,274 1,208 1,070 11,006 51,040

2000 1,464 7,263 513 1,781 283 1,411 315 4,685 17,717

2010 8,771 5,012 1,480 1,319 1,237 1,101 1,091 5,226 25,236

Percent change 2000-2010 1470% -1% 8% 108% -51% 283% -18% -34% 23% -22% 25% 150% 8% 24% Percent change 2000-2010 499% -31% 188% -26% 336% -22% 247% 12% 42%

Source: Ward’s Communications, Ward’s World Motor Vehicle Data, 2011 Edition, Southfield, MI, 2010, pp. 265-271 and annual. (Additional resources: www.wardsauto.com) a

Includes all trucks and buses. In the United States, light trucks, such as pickups, vans, and sport-utility vehicles are counted as trucks.

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Use caution comparing historical data because of disconnects in data series. Also, the United States is unique in how many light trucks (SUVs, minivans, pickups) are used for personal travel. Those light trucks are not included on this table. The U.S. share of world cars continues to decline. The growth in the World total comes mainly from developing countries, like China, India, and South Korea.

Table 3.2 Car Registrations for Selected Countries, 1960–2010 (thousands)

Country Argentina Brazil Canadab China France India Indonesia Germanyc Japan Malaysia Pakistan Russia South Korea United Kingdom United States U.S. percentage of world World total

1960 474 a

4,104 a

4,950

1970 1,482 a

6,602 a

11,860

1980 3,112 a

10,256 351 18,440

a

a

a

a

a

a

4,856 457

14,376 8,779

23,236 23,660

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

1990 4,284 12,127 12,622 1,897 23,550 2,300 1,200 35,512 34,924 1,811 738 2,075

43,772 52,437 4,213 375 20,353 8,084

2005 5,340 18,370 18,124 8,900 30,100 7,654 3,850 46,090 57,091 6,402 411 25,285 11,122

2008 6,244 21,884 19,613 18,270 30,850 9,400 4,750 41,321 57,865 7,190 445 32,021 12,484

2009 6,706 23,612 19,877 25,301 31,050 12,125 10,364 41,738 58,020 8,506 1,658 33,187 13,024

2010 7,605 25,500 20,121 34,430 31,300 13,300 10,800 42,302 58,347 8,900 1,726 34,797 13,632

a

2000 5,060 15,393 16,832 3,750 28,060 5,150 a

Average annual percentage change 1990-2010 2.9% 3.8% 2.4% 15.6% 1.4% 9.2% 11.6% 0.9% 2.6% 8.3% 4.3% a

9.9%

5,650 61,671

11,802 89,244

15,438 121,601

22,528 143,550

27,185 127,721

30,652 132,909

31,252 135,882

31,036 119,292

31,258 118,947

1.7% -0.4%

62.7% 98,305

46.1% 193,479

38.0% 320,390

32.3% 444,900

23.3% 548,558

21.5% 617,914

20.4% 667,630

17.4% 684,570

16.8% 707,764

2.3%

Source: Ward’s Communications, Ward’s World Motor Vehicle Data, 2011 Edition, Southfield, MI, 2011, pp. 287–290 and annual. (Additional resources: www.wardsauto.com) a b

Data are not available. Data from 2000 and later are not comparable to prior data. Canada reclassified autos and trucks prior to

2000. c

Data for 1990 and prior include West Germany only. Kraftwagen are included with automobiles.

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The United States totals include SUVs, minivans, and light trucks, many of which are used for personal travel.

Table 3.3 Truck and Bus Registrations for Selected Countries, 1960–2010 (thousands)

Country Argentina Brazil Canadab China France India Indonesia Germanyc Japan Malaysia Pakistan Russia South Korea United Kingdom United States U.S. percentage of world World total

1,920 34,195

1990 1,501 936 3,931 4,314 4,910 2,050 1,391 2,764 22,773 616 172 7,200 1,320 3,774 45,106

2000 1,554 3,917 739 9,650 5,733 2,390 2,373 3,534 20,211 1,030 385 5,041 3,956 3,361 85,579

2009 2,249 6,031 915 38,875 6,388 6,950 7,917 2,895 15,789 1,099 513 6,323 4,301 4,182 119,770

2010 2,511 6,600 933 43,590 6,444 7,480 8,100 2,960 15,512 1,150 538 6,427 4,310 4,220 120,865

Average annual percentage change 1990-2010 2.6% 10.3% -6.9% 12.3% 1.4% 6.7% 9.2% 0.3% -1.9% 3.2% 5.9% -0.6% 6.1% 0.6% 5.1%

37.7% 90,592

32.7% 138,082

42.1% 203,272

40.6% 295,115

39.3% 307,497

4.1%

1960 392

1970 788

1980 1,217

a

a

a

1,056

1,481

a

a

1,650

1,850

2,955 1,480 2,550

a

a

a

a

a

a

786 896

1,228 8,803

1,617 14,197

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

1,534 12,186

1,769 19,175

42.6% 28,583

36.2% 52,899

Source: Ward’s Communications, Ward’s World Motor Vehicle Data, 2011 Edition, Southfield, MI, 2011, pp. 287–290 and annual. (Additional resources: www.wardsauto.com) a b

Data are not available. Data from 2000 and later are not comparable to prior data. Canada reclassified autos and trucks prior to

2000. c

Data for 1990 and prior include West Germany only. Kraftwagen are included with automobiles.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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VEHICLES IN USE Both the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and The Polk Company report figures on the car and truck population each year. The two estimates, however, differ by as much as 11.2% (1981). The differences can be attributed to several factors: ●

The FHWA data include all vehicles which have been registered at any time throughout the calendar year. Therefore, the data include vehicles which were retired during the year and may double count vehicles which have been registered in different states or the same states to different owners. The Polk Company data include only those vehicles which are registered on July 1 of the given year.



The classification of mini-vans, station wagons on truck chassis, and utility vehicles as cars or trucks causes important differences in the two estimates. The Polk Company data included passenger vans in the car count until 1980; since 1980 all vans have been counted as trucks. Recently, the Federal Highway Administration adjusted their definition of cars and trucks. Starting in 1993, some minivans and sport utility vehicles that were previously included with cars were included with trucks. This change produced a dramatic change in the individual percentage differences of cars and trucks. The difference in total vehicles has been less than 5% each year since 1990 and does not appear to be significantly affected by the FHWA reclassifications.



The FHWA data include all non-military Federal vehicles, while The Polk Company data include only those Federal vehicles which are registered within a state. Federal vehicles are not required to have State registrations, and, according to the General Services Administration, most Federal Vehicles are not registered.

According to The Polk Company statistics, the number of cars in use in the United States declined from 1991 to 1992. This is the first decline in vehicle stock since the figures were first reported in 1924. However, the data should be viewed with caution. A redesign of Polk's approach in 1992 allowed a national check for duplicate registrations, which was not possible in earlier years. Polk estimates that, due to processing limitations, its vehicle population counts may have been inflated by as much as 1½ percent. Assuming that percentage is correct, the number of cars in use would have declined from 1991 to 1992 under the previous Polk method. The growing popularity of light trucks being used as passenger vehicles could also have had an impact on these figures.

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In the early 1980's, researchers had to make a conscious choice of which data series to use, since they differed by as much as 11%. In 2009 the two sources differed by about 1%. Both sources show a decline in automobiles from 2008 to 2009 and an increase in trucks. The series, however, seem to be growing further apart.

Table 3.4 U.S. Cars and Trucks in Use, 1970–2010 (thousands)

Year 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

FHWA 89,243 106,706 110,189 112,288 116,573 118,429 121,601 123,098 123,702 126,444 128,158 127,885 130,004 131,482 133,836 134,559 133,700 128,300 126,581 127,327 127,883 128,387 129,728 129,749 131,839 132,432 133,621 137,633 135,921 135,670 136,431 136,568 135,400 135,933 137,080 134,880 130,892

Automobiles The Polk Percentage Company difference 80,448 10.9% 95,241 12.0% 97,818 12.6% 99,904 12.4% 102,957 13.2% 104,677 13.1% 104,564 16.3% 105,839 16.3% 106,867 15.8% 108,961 16.0% 112,019 14.4% 114,662 11.5% 117,268 10.9% 119,849 9.7% 121,519 10.1% 122,758 9.6% 123,276 8.5% 123,268 4.1% 120,347 5.2% 121,055 5.2% 121,997 4.8% 123,242 4.2% 124,613 4.1% 124,673 4.1% 125,966 4.7% 126,869 4.4% 127,721 4.6% 128,714 6.9% 129,907 4.6% 131,072 3.5% 132,469 3.0% 132,909 2.8% 135,047 0.3% 135,222 0.5% 135,882 0.9% 132,424 1.9% a

a

FHWA 18,797 25,781 27,876 29,314 31,336 32,914 33,667 34,644 35,382 36,723 37,507 43,210 45,103 46,826 49,941 52,172 54,470 59,206 63,136 66,082 69,491 72,458 75,940 77,307 79,062 83,148 87,108 92,045 92,939 94,944 100,016 103,819 107,944 110,498 110,242 110,561 110,322

Trucks The Polk Company 17,688 24,813 26,560 28,222 30,565 32,583 35,268 36,069 36,987 38,143 40,143 42,387 44,826 47,344 50,221 53,202 56,023 58,179 61,172 65,260 66,717 70,199 73,681 76,398 79,077 82,640 85,579 87,969 91,120 94,810 99,698 105,475 109,596 113,479 114,357 116,036

Percentage difference 6.3% 3.9% 5.0% 3.9% 2.5% 1.0% -4.5% -4.0% -4.3% -3.7% -6.6% 1.9% 0.6% -1.1% -0.6% -1.9% -2.8% 1.8% 3.2% 1.3% 4.2% 3.2% 3.1% 1.2% 0.0% 0.6% 1.8% 4.6% 2.0% 0.1% 0.3% -1.6% -1.5% -2.6% -3.6% -4.7%

a

a

FHWA 108,040 132,487 138,065 141,602 147,909 151,343 155,267 157,743 159,084 163,166 165,665 171,095 175,106 178,308 183,777 186,731 188,171 187,505 189,717 193,409 197,375 200,845 205,669 207,056 210,901 215,580 220,729 229,678 228,860 230,614 236,447 240,387 243,344 246,431 247,322 245,441 241,214

Total The Polk Company 98,136 120,054 124,378 128,126 133,522 137,260 139,832 141,908 143,854 147,104 152,162 157,049 162,094 167,193 171,740 175,960 179,299 181,447 181,519 186,315 188,714 193,441 198,294 201,071 205,043 209,509 213,300 216,683 221,027 225,882 232,167 238,384 244,643 248,701 250,239 248,460

Percentage difference 10.1% 10.4% 11.0% 10.5% 10.8% 10.3% 11.0% 11.2% 10.6% 10.9% 8.9% 8.9% 8.0% 6.6% 7.0% 6.1% 4.9% 3.3% 4.5% 3.8% 4.6% 3.8% 3.7% 3.0% 2.9% 2.9% 3.5% 6.0% 3.5% 2.1% 1.8% 0.8% -0.5% -0.9% -1.2% -1.2%

a

a

Source: FHWA - U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 1970-2008, Highway Statistics 2008, Washington, DC, 2009, Table VM-1 and annual. 2009-2010 data from tables MV-1 and MV-9. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov) Polk - The Polk Company, Detroit, Michigan. FURTHER REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED. (Additional resources: www.polk.com) a

Data are not available.

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The graphs below show the number of motor vehicles per thousand people for various countries. The data for the United States are displayed in the line which goes from 1900 to 2010. The points labeled on that line show data for the other countries/regions around the world and how their vehicles per thousand people compare to the United States at two different points in time, 2000 and 2010. For instance, the graph shows that in 2000, Western Europe’s vehicles per thousand people was about where the United States was in 1970, but by 2010 it is about where the United States was in 1972. The lower part of the graph (1900-1940) is shown enlarged on the facing page.

Figure 3.1. Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to Other Countries (in 2000 and 2010)

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Source: See Tables 3.4 and 3.5.

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Though some countries are listed separately in this table, those countries are also included in the regional total. For instance, China is listed separately, but is also included in the Asia, Far East region.

Table 3.5 Vehicles per Thousand People in Other Countries, 2000 and 2010

Country/Region Africa Asia, Far East Asia, Middle East Brazil Canada Central & South America China Europe, East Europe, West India Indonesia Pacific

Vehicles per 1,000 people 2000 2010 23.1 29.9 39.8 66.7 92.2 106.2 109.5 159.6 565.0 623.6 107.0 150.4 10.6 58.7 200.7 321.8 540.7 587.2 7.5 17.7 14.1 77.8 456.0 565.3

Sources: Population – (2010) U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, International Data Base (IDB) World, April 18, 2012. (Additional resources: http://www.census.gov/population/international) Vehicles – (2010) U.S.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2010, Washington, DC, 2012. All others: Ward’s Communications, Ward’s Motor Vehicle Data 2011, pp. 287–290. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov, www.wardsauto.com)

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The number of vehicles per thousand people in the United States has grown significantly from 1900 to 2007. In 2008 to 2010, however, the number decreased from a high of 843.57 in 2007.

Table 3.6 Vehicles per Thousand People in the United States, 1990-2010

Year 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922

U.S. vehicles per 1,000 people 0.11 0.19 0.29 0.41 0.67 0.94 1.27 1.65 2.24 3.45 5.07 6.81 9.90 12.94 17.79 24.77 35.48 49.57 59.69 72.50 86.78 96.68 111.53

Year 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945

U.S. vehicles per 1,000 people 134.90 154.35 173.26 189.10 195.77 204.87 219.31 217.34 210.37 195.38 192.38 199.90 208.61 222.62 233.33 229.65 236.93 245.63 261.57 244.73 225.89 220.23 221.80

Year 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968

U.S. vehicles per 1,000 people 243.11 262.56 280.20 299.56 323.71 337.14 340.57 353.67 361.40 379.77 387.58 392.11 392.17 402.83 410.37 415.11 426.06 438.75 451.57 466.90 489.34 500.66 516.49

Year 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991

U.S. vehicles per 1,000 people 533.37 545.35 562.45 585.60 615.19 632.32 640.07 659.47 669.03 690.17 700.42 710.71 715.22 713.95 724.30 728.20 744.50 753.33 758.58 772.92 776.99 773.40 760.19

Year 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

U.S. vehicles per 1,000 people 757.96 761.94 766.94 770.99 781.16 776.02 781.20 790.07 800.30 825.49 815.22 815.50 829.26 836.58 840.09 843.57 840.80 828.04 811.83

Sources: Population – (2010) U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, International Data Base (IDB) World, April 18, 2012. (Additional resources: http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/) Vehicles – (2010) U.S.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2010, Washington, DC, 2012. All others: Ward’s Communications, Ward’s Motor Vehicle Data 2010, pp. 287–290. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov, www.wardsauto.com)

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Total vehicle-miles traveled increased slightly from 2009 to 2010. The trend of using two-axle, four-tire trucks, such as pickups, vans, and sport-utility vehicles, for personal travel is evident in these data; two-axle, four-tire trucks account for 25.8% more travel in 2010 than in 1970, and cars account for 30.3% less travel in that time period.

Table 3.7 Shares of Highway Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Type, 1970–2010

Year 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Cars 82.6% 77.9% 76.9% 75.6% 74.2% 72.8% 72.8% 72.9% 72.8% 72.3% 71.3% 70.2% 69.2% 68.5% 67.6% 66.8% 65.7% 62.5% 61.0% 59.9% 59.6% 59.4% 59.1% 58.7% 58.9% 58.3% 58.3% 58.4% 58.1% 57.8% 57.3% 57.1% 56.1% 53.5% 52.6% 52.8% 52.3%

Two-axle, Other four-tire single-unit Combination Motorcycles trucks trucks trucks 0.3% 11.1% 2.4% 3.2% 0.4% 15.1% 2.6% 3.5% 0.4% 16.1% 2.6% 3.5% 0.4% 17.1% 2.7% 3.8% 0.5% 18.1% 2.8% 4.1% 0.6% 19.1% 2.7% 4.4% 0.7% 19.0% 2.6% 4.5% 0.7% 19.1% 2.5% 4.4% 0.6% 19.2% 2.5% 4.4% 0.5% 19.8% 2.6% 4.5% 0.5% 20.8% 2.6% 4.5% 0.5% 22.0% 2.6% 4.4% 0.5% 23.1% 2.5% 4.4% 0.5% 23.8% 2.5% 4.5% 0.5% 24.8% 2.4% 4.4% 0.5% 25.6% 2.4% 4.4% 0.4% 26.8% 2.4% 4.4% 0.4% 29.9% 2.4% 4.4% 0.4% 31.5% 2.4% 4.4% 0.4% 32.5% 2.5% 4.5% 0.4% 32.4% 2.6% 4.6% 0.4% 32.6% 2.6% 4.8% 0.4% 32.8% 2.6% 4.8% 0.4% 33.2% 2.6% 4.9% 0.4% 33.0% 2.6% 4.9% 0.4% 33.5% 2.6% 4.9% 0.4% 33.6% 2.6% 4.9% 0.3% 33.6% 2.6% 4.9% 0.3% 33.8% 2.7% 4.9% 0.3% 34.0% 2.7% 4.8% 0.3% 34.6% 2.6% 4.8% 0.3% 34.8% 2.6% 4.8% 0.4% 35.9% 2.7% 4.7% 0.7% 35.6% 3.8% 5.9% 0.7% 36.1% 4.1% 6.0% 0.7% 36.2% 4.1% 5.7% 0.6% 37.0% 3.7% 5.9% Average annual percentage change

Buses 0.4% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5%

Total vehicle-miles traveled (million miles) 1,109,724 1,327,664 1,402,380 1,467,027 1,544,704 1,529,133 1,527,295 1,555,308 1,595,010 1,652,788 1,720,269 1,774,826 1,834,872 1,921,204 2,025,962 2,096,487 2,144,362 2,172,050 2,247,151 2,296,378 2,357,588 2,422,696 2,485,848 2,561,695 2,631,522 2,691,056 2,746,925 2,790,372 2,855,508 2,890,450 2,964,788 2,989,430 3,014,369 a 3,124,828 3,070,268 2,956,764 2,966,495

1970–2010 2000–2010

2.5% 0.8%

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2010, Washington, DC, 2012, Table VM-1 and annual. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov). 2009-2010 cars and 2-axle 4-tire trucks – see Appendix A for car and light truck 2009-2010 estimations. a

Due to FHWA methodology changes, data from 2007-on are not comparable with previous data.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Due to data restrictions, the 2001 data are the latest than can be published.

Table 3.8 Cars in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 1970 Vehicles (thousands)

Age (years)

Percentage

2001 Cumulative percentage

Vehicles (thousands)

Percentage

Cumulative percentage

2001 Estimated vehicle travel Cumulative Percentage percentage

Average annual miles per vehicle

Under 1a

6,288

7.8%

7.8%

6,183

4.8%

4.8%

6.9%

6.9%

15,000

1

9,299

11.6%

19.4%

8,882

6.9%

11.7%

9.4%

16.3%

14,300

2

8,816

11.0%

30.3%

8,093

6.3%

18.0%

8.2%

24.6%

13,700

3

7,878

9.8%

40.1%

7,555

5.9%

23.9%

7.2%

31.8%

12,900

4

8,538

10.6%

50.8%

7,860

6.1%

30.0%

7.2%

39.1%

12,400

5

8,506

10.6%

61.3%

7,337

5.7%

35.7%

6.5%

45.6%

12,000

6

7,116

8.8%

70.2%

8,555

6.6%

42.3%

7.4%

53.1%

11,700

7

6,268

7.8%

78.0%

7,471

5.8%

48.1%

6.3%

59.4%

11,400

8

5,058

6.3%

84.3%

7,420

5.8%

53.9%

6.1%

65.5%

11,100

9

3,267

4.1%

88.3%

6,807

5.3%

59.2%

5.4%

71.0%

10,700

10

2,776

3.5%

91.8%

6,810

5.3%

64.5%

5.0%

76.0%

9,900

11

1,692

2.1%

93.9%

6,692

5.2%

69.7%

4.5%

80.5%

9,000

12

799

1.0%

94.9%

6,742

5.2%

74.9%

4.7%

85.2%

9,400

13

996

1.2%

96.1%

6,189

4.8%

79.7%

3.8%

88.9%

8,200

14

794

1.0%

97.1%

5,345

4.2%

83.9%

2.9%

91.8%

7,200

100.0%

20,773

16.1%

100.0%

8.2%

100.0%

5,300

128,714

100.0%

15 and older

2,336

2.9%

Subtotal

80,427

100.0%

Age not given Total

22

0

80,449

128,714

100.0%

Average age

5.6

9.3

Median age

4.9

8.1

Source: The Polk Company, Detroit, MI. FURTHER REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED. Vehicle travel - Average annual miles per auto by age were multiplied by the number of vehicles in operation by age to estimate the vehicle travel. Average annual miles per auto by age - generated by ORNL from the National Household Travel Survey Web site: nhts.ornl.gov. (Additional resources: www.polk.com, nhts.ornl.gov) a

Includes cars from model year 2002 and 2001 which were sold prior to July 1, 2002, and similarly, model years 1971 and 1970 sold prior to July 1, 1970.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

3–13

Due to data restrictions, the 2001 data are the latest than can be published.

Table 3.9 Trucks in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 1970

2001

Vehicles (thousands)

Percentage

Cumulative percentage

Vehicles (thousands)

Percentage

Under 1a

1,262

7.1%

7.1%

6,213

7.1%

Age (years)

Cumulative percentage

2001 Estimated vehicle travel Cumulative Percentage percentage

7.1%

8.5%

Average annual miles per vehicle

8.5%

17,500 19,200

1

1,881

10.6%

17.8%

7,958

9.0%

16.1%

12.0%

20.6%

2

1,536

8.7%

26.5%

7,522

8.6%

24.7%

11.7%

32.3%

19,800

3

1,428

8.1%

34.6%

6,398

7.3%

31.9%

9.0%

41.3%

17,900

4

1,483

8.4%

43.0%

6,109

6.9%

38.9%

8.4%

49.7%

17,500

5

1,339

7.6%

50.5%

5,122

5.8%

44.7%

6.8%

56.6%

17,000

6

1,154

6.5%

57.1%

5,574

6.3%

51.0%

6.8%

63.4%

15,600

7

975

5.5%

62.6%

5,042

5.7%

56.8%

6.1%

69.5%

15,400

8

826

4.7%

67.3%

4,148

4.7%

61.5%

4.9%

74.4%

15,100

9

621

3.5%

70.8%

3,395

3.9%

65.3%

3.5%

77.9%

13,200

10

658

3.7%

74.5%

3,221

3.7%

69.0%

2.3%

80.3%

9,200

11

583

3.3%

77.8%

3,039

3.5%

72.5%

2.2%

82.5%

9,200

12

383

2.2%

80.0%

3,345

3.8%

76.3%

2.4%

84.9%

9,200

13

417

2.4%

82.3%

3,112

3.5%

79.8%

2.3%

89.1%

9,200

14

414

2.3%

84.7%

2,544

2.9%

82.7%

1.8%

89.0%

9,200

15 and older

2,710

15.3%

100.0%

15,227

17.3%

100.0%

11.0%

100.0%

9,200

Subtotal

17,670

100.0%

87,969

100.0%

Age not given

15

Total

100.0%

0

17,685

87,969

Average age

7.3

7.9

Median age

5.9

6.8

Source: The Polk Company, Detroit, MI. FURTHER REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED. Vehicle travel—The average annual vehicle-miles per truck by age were multiplied by the number of trucks in operation by age to estimate the vehicle travel. Average annual miles per truck by age were generated by ORNL from the 1997 Truck Inventory and Use Survey public use tape provided by U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Washington, DC, 2000. (Additional resources: www.polk.com, www.census.gov) a

Includes trucks from model year 2002 and 2001 which were sold prior to July 1, 2002, and similarly, model years 1971 and 1970 sold prior to July 1, 1970.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

3–14

Table 3.10 U.S. Average Vehicle Age, 1995-2011

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Passenger cars 8.4 8.5 8.7 8.9 9.1 9.1 9.3 9.4 9.6 9.8 10.1 10.3 10.4 10.6 10.8 11.0 11.1

Source: The Polk Company, Detroit, MI. www.polk.com)

Light trucks 8.3 8.3 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.9 9.0 9.3 9.8 10.1 10.4

All light vehicles 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.8 8.8 8.9 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.4 9.5 9.7 9.8 10.0 10.3 10.6 10.8

FURTHER REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

(Additional resources:

3–15

Table 3.11 New Retail Vehicle Sales, 1970–2011 (thousands) Calendar year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Cars 8,400 10,242 10,940 11,424 8,853 8,624 10,110 11,183 11,314 10,673 8,949 8,489 7,956 9,148 10,324 10,979 11,404 10,192 10,547 9,779 9,303 8,185 8,213 8,518 8,991 8,620 8,479 8,217 8,085 8,638 8,778 8,352 8,042 7,556 7,483 7,660 7,762 7,562 6,769 5,401 5,635 6,089

1970-2011 2001-2011

-0.8% -3.1%

Light Subtotal trucks light vehicles 1,463 9,863 1,757 11,999 2,239 13,179 2,745 14,169 2,338 11,191 2,281 10,905 2,956 13,066 3,430 14,613 3,808 15,122 3,311 13,984 2,230 11,179 2,054 10,543 2,399 10,355 2,974 12,122 3,883 14,206 4,461 15,440 4,654 16,058 4,714 14,905 4,910 15,457 4,755 14,533 4,569 13,872 4,144 12,329 4,655 12,868 5,378 13,896 6,068 15,059 6,108 14,728 6,619 15,097 6,904 15,121 7,458 15,543 8,256 16,894 8,572 17,350 8,700 17,122 8,774 16,816 9,084 16,639 9,384 16,867 9,288 16,948 8,743 16,504 8,527 16,089 6,426 13,195 5,001 10,402 5,919 11,555 6,645 12,734 Average annual percentage change 3.8% 0.6% -2.7% -2.9%

Heavy trucks 334 340 438 497 424 298 324 376 441 391 265 235 183 189 277 285 265 287 334 312 277 221 249 303 353 388 359 376 424 521 462 350 322 328 432 497 545 371 298 200 218 306

Total vehicle sales 10,197 12,339 13,617 14,666 11,615 11,203 13,390 14,989 15,563 14,375 11,444 10,778 10,538 12,312 14,483 15,725 16,323 15,193 15,792 14,846 14,149 12,550 13,117 14,199 15,411 15,116 15,456 15,498 15,967 17,415 17,812 17,472 17,139 16,967 17,299 17,444 17,049 16,460 13,493 10,601 11,772 13,041

-0.2% -1.3%

0.6% -2.9%

Source: 1970-2011: Ward’s Communications, www.wardsauto.com.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

3–16

Using current registration data and a scrappage model by Greenspan and Cohen, [1996 paper: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/1996/199640/199640pap.pdf], ORNL calculated car scrappage rates for 1970, 1980, and 1990. These data are fitted model values which assume constant economic conditions. Using 19772002 data, the Federal Highway Administration completed a separate survivability study in 2006.

Table 3.12 Car Scrappage and Survival Rates 1970, 1980 and 1990 Model Years Vehicle agea (years) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

1970 model year Survival Scrappage rateb ratec 99.0 1.0 94.1 5.0 88.4 6.1 82.0 7.2 75.2 8.3 68.1 9.5 60.9 10.6 53.8 11.7 46.9 12.8 40.3 14.0 34.2 15.1 28.7 16.2 23.7 17.4 19.3 18.5 15.5 19.6 12.3 20.8 9.6 21.9 7.4 23.0 5.6 24.2 4.2 25.3 3.1 26.4 2.2 27.5 1.6 28.6 1.1 29.7 0.8 30.8 0.5 31.9 0.4 33.0

1980 model year Survival Scrappage rateb ratec 100.0 0.0 96.3 3.7 91.3 5.1 85.7 6.1 79.7 7.1 73.3 8.1 66.6 9.0 60.0 10.0 53.3 11.0 46.9 12.0 40.8 13.0 35.1 14.0 29.8 15.0 25.0 16.1 20.8 17.1 17.0 18.1 13.8 19.1 11.0 20.1 8.7 21.2 6.7 22.2 5.2 23.2 3.9 24.2 2.9 25.3 2.2 26.3 1.6 27.3 1.1 28.4 0.8 29.4

1990 model year Survival Scrappage rateb ratec 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 99.4 0.6 96.3 3.2 92.7 3.7 88.7 4.3 84.4 4.9 79.8 5.5 75.0 6.1 70.0 6.7 64.9 7.3 59.7 7.9 54.6 8.6 49.5 9.3 44.6 9.9 39.9 10.6 35.4 11.3 31.1 12.0 27.2 12.7 23.5 13.5 20.2 14.2 17.1 15.0 14.5 15.7 12.1 16.5 10.0 17.2 8.2 18.0 6.6 18.8

Median lifetime

11.5 years

12.5 years

16.9 years

2002 Survival rate 95.9 94.1 91.9 89.2 86.0 82.5 78.7 71.7 61.3 50.9 41.4 33.1 26.0 20.3 15.7 12.0 9.2 7.0 5.3 4.0 3.0 2.3 d d d d d

152,137 Lifetime miles

Sources: Schmoyer, Richard L., unpublished study on scrappage rates, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 2001. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Vehicle Survivability and Travel Mileage Schedules, January 2006. a

It was assumed that scrappage for vehicles less than 4 years old is 0. The percentage of automobiles which will be in use at the end of the year. c The percentage of automobiles which will be retired from use during the year. d Data are not available.

b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

3–17

Using current registration data and a scrappage model by Greenspan and Cohen [1996 paper: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/1996/199640/199640pap.pdf], ORNL calculated light truck scrappage rates for 1970, 1980, and 1990. These data are fitted model values which assume constant economic conditions. Using 1977-2002 data, the Federal Highway Administration completed a separate survivability study in 2006. Table 3.13 Light Trucka Scrappage and Survival Rates Vehicle ageb (years) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Median lifetime

1970 model year Survival Scrappage rateb ratec 99.7 0.3 97.5 2.2 94.9 2.7 91.8 3.2 88.3 3.8 84.4 4.4 80.2 5.0 75.7 5.6 70.9 6.3 66.0 6.9 61.0 7.6 55.9 8.3 50.8 9.0 45.9 9.8 41.1 10.5 36.4 11.3 32.1 12.0 28.0 12.8 24.2 13.6 20.7 14.4 17.5 15.2 14.7 16.1 12.2 16.9 10.1 17.8 8.2 18.6 6.6 19.5 5.2 20.4 16.2 years

1980 model year Survival Scrappage rateb rated 99.1 0.9 96.6 2.5 93.7 3.1 90.2 3.7 86.3 4.3 82.0 5.0 77.3 5.7 72.4 6.4 67.3 7.1 62.1 7.8 56.8 8.5 51.5 9.3 46.3 10.1 41.3 10.8 36.5 11.6 32.0 12.4 27.7 13.3 23.8 14.1 20.3 14.9 17.1 15.8 14.2 16.7 11.7 17.5 9.6 18.4 7.7 19.3 6.2 20.2 4.9 21.1 3.8 22.1

1990 model year Survival Scrappage rateb ratec 99.3 0.7 96.9 2.4 94.1 3.0 90.7 3.6 86.9 4.2 82.7 4.8 78.2 5.5 73.4 6.1 68.4 6.8 63.3 7.5 58.0 8.2 52.8 9.0 47.7 9.7 42.7 10.5 37.9 11.3 33.3 12.1 29.0 12.9 25.0 13.7 21.4 14.5 18.1 15.4 15.2 16.2 12.6 17.1 10.3 18.0 8.4 18.8 6.7 19.7 5.3 20.6 4.2 21.5

2002 Survival rate 91.9 89.1 85.9 82.3 78.3 74.0 69.6 65.0 60.4 55.2 50.1 45.2 40.6 36.3 32.4 28.7 25.4 22.4 19.8 17.4 15.2 13.3 11.7 10.2 8.9 7.7 6.7

15.5 years

179,954 Lifetime miles

15.3 years

Sources: Schmoyer, Richard L., unpublished study on scrappage rates, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 2001. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Vehicle Survivability and Travel Mileage Schedules, January 2006. a

Light trucks are trucks less than 10,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight. It was assumed that scrappage for vehicles less than 4 years old is 0. c The percentage of light trucks which will be retired from use during the year. d The percentage of light trucks which will be in use at the end of the year. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

3–18

Using current registration data and a scrappage model by Greenspan and Cohen [1996 paper: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/1996/199640/199640pap.pdf], ORNL calculated heavy truck (trucks over 26,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight) scrappage rates. The expected median lifetime for a 1990 model year heavy truck is 29 years. These data are fitted model values which assume constant economic conditions. Table 3.14 Heavy Trucka Scrappage and Survival Rates Vehicle ageb (years) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Median lifetime

1970 model year Survival Scrappage ratec rated 98.8 1.2 97.2 1.6 95.3 1.9 93.2 2.3 90.7 2.6 88.1 3.0 85.2 3.3 82.1 3.6 78.8 4.0 75.4 4.3 71.9 4.7 68.3 5.0 64.6 5.3 61.0 5.7 57.3 6.0 53.7 6.3 50.1 6.7 46.6 7.0 43.2 7.3 39.9 7.6 36.7 8.0 33.7 8.3 30.8 8.6 28.0 8.9 25.4 9.3 23.0 9.6 20.7 9.9

1980 model year Survival Scrappage rateb ratec 98.5 1.5 96.7 1.9 94.5 2.3 92.0 2.7 89.1 3.1 86.0 3.5 82.7 3.9 79.1 4.3 75.4 4.7 71.6 5.1 67.7 5.5 63.7 5.9 59.7 6.3 55.7 6.7 51.8 7.1 47.9 7.4 44.2 7.8 40.6 8.2 37.1 8.6 33.7 9.0 30.6 9.4 27.6 9.7 24.8 10.1 22.2 10.5 19.8 10.9 17.6 11.2 15.5 11.6

1990 model year Survival Scrappage rateb ratec 99.4 0.6 98.6 0.8 97.6 1.0 96.5 1.2 95.2 1.3 93.8 1.5 92.2 1.7 90.5 1.9 88.6 2.0 86.7 2.2 84.6 2.4 82.4 2.6 80.2 2.7 77.9 2.9 75.5 3.1 73.0 3.3 70.5 3.4 68.0 3.6 65.4 3.8 62.8 3.9 60.3 4.1 57.7 4.3 55.1 4.5 52.6 4.6 50.0 4.8 47.6 5.0 45.1 5.1

20.0 years

18.5 years

28.0 years

Source: Schmoyer, Richard L., unpublished study on scrappage rates, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 2001. a

Light trucks are trucks less than 10,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight. It was assumed that scrappage for vehicles less than 4 years old is 0. c The percentage of light trucks which will be retired from use during the year. d The percentage of light trucks which will be in use at the end of the year. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–1

Chapter 4 Light Vehicles and Characteristics Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter

Source Table 4.1

Table 4.2

Table 4.6

Table 4.7

Table 4.10

Tables 4.21 and 4.22

Table 4.28

Cars, 2010 Registrations (thousands) Vehicle miles (million miles) Fuel economy (miles per gallon) Two-axle, four-tire trucks, 2010 Registrations (thousands) Vehicle miles (million miles) Fuel economy (miles per gallon) Light truck share of total light vehicle sales 1970 calendar year 2011 calendar year Car sales, 2011 model year (thousands) Small Midsize Large Light truck sales, 2011 model year (thousands) Midsize pickup Large pickup Midsize van Large van Small truck SUV Midsize truck SUV Large truck SUV Corporate average fuel economy Car standard, MY 2011 Car fuel economy, MY 2011 Light truck standard, MY 2011 (unreformed) Light truck fuel economy, MY 2011 Average fuel economy loss from 55 to 70 mph

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

130,892 1,551,457 23.0 99,552 1,096,202 17.1 14.8% 52.2% 7,713 2,194 2,642 1,226 4,652 80 1,664 553 18 93 1,071 1,193 (mpg) 30.1 33.8 24.2 24.5 17.1%

4–2

Car registrations, along with vehicle travel and fuel use, all declined from 2008 to 2010. The data in this table from 1985–on DO NOT include minivans, pickups, or sport utility vehicles. Much of the data for 2009 were estimated; the FHWA no longer publishes travel and fuel data for cars.

Table 4.1 Summary Statistics for Cars, 1970–2010 Year 1970 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985c 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Registrationsa (thousands) 89,244 106,706 121,601 123,098 123,702 126,444 128,158 127,885 130,004 131,482 133,836 134,559 133,700 128,300 126,581 127,327 127,883 128,387 129,728 129,749 131,839 132,432 133,621 137,633 135,921 135,670 136,431 136,568 135,400 135,933 137,080 134,880 130,892

1970–2010 2000–2010

1.0% -0.2%

Vehicle travel Miles Fuel use (million miles) (per vehicle) (million gallons) 916,700 10,272 67,820 1,033,950 9,690 74,140 1,111,596 9,141 69,981 1,133,332 9,207 69,112 1,161,713 9,391 69,116 1,195,054 9,451 70,322 1,227,043 9,574 70,663 1,246,798 9,749 71,518 1,270,167 9,770 73,174 1,315,982 10,009 73,308 1,370,271 10,238 73,345 1,401,221 10,413 73,913 1,408,266 10,533 69,568 1,358,185 10,586 64,318 1,371,569 10,836 65,436 1,374,709 10,797 67,047 1,406,089 10,995 67,874 1,438,294 11,203 68,072 1,469,854 11,330 69,221 1,502,556 11,580 69,892 1,549,577 11,754 71,695 1,569,100 11,848 73,283 1,600,287 11,976 73,065 1,628,332 11,831 73,559 1,658,474 12,202 75,471 1,672,079 12,325 74,590 1,699,890 12,460 75,402 1,708,421 12,510 77,418 1,690,534 12,485 75,009 1,672,467 12,304 74,377 1,571,756 11,466 68,864 1,561,904 11,580 68,228 1,551,457 11,853 67,323 Average annual percentage change 1.3% 0.4% 0.0% -0.3% -0.1% -0.8%

Fuel economyb (miles per gallon) 13.5 13.9 15.9 16.4 16.8 17.0 17.4 17.4 17.4 18.0 18.7 19.0 20.2 21.1 21.0 20.5 20.7 21.1 21.2 21.5 21.6 21.4 21.9 22.1 22.0 22.4 22.5 22.1 22.5 22.5 22.8 22.9 23.0

d

1.3% 0.5%

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2010, Washington, DC, 2012, Table VM-1 and annual. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov) a

This number differs from R.L. Polk’s estimates of “number of cars in use.” See Table 3.3. Fuel economy for car population. c Beginning in this year the data were revised to exclude minivans, pickups and sport utility vehicles which may have been previously included. d Due to FHWA methodology changes, data from 2009-on are not comparable with previous data. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–3

Much of the data for 2009 were estimated; the FHWA no longer publishes travel and fuel use data for two-axle, four tire trucks.

Table 4.2 Summary Statistics for Two-Axle, Four-Tire Trucks, 1970–2010 Year 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985a 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Registrations (thousands) 14,211 20,418 22,301 23,624 25,476 27,022 27,876 28,928 29,792 31,214 32,106 37,214 39,382 41,107 43,805 45,945 48,275 53,033 57,091 59,994 62,904 65,738 69,134 70,224 71,330 75,356 79,085 84,188 85,011 87,187 91,845 95,337 99,125 101,470 99,368 99,588 99,552

Vehicle travel (million miles) 123,286 200,700 225,834 250,591 279,414 291,905 290,935 296,343 306,141 327,643 358,006 390,961 423,915 456,870 502,207 536,475 574,571 649,394 706,863 745,750 764,634 790,029 816,540 850,739 868,275 901,022 923,059 943,207 966,034 984,094 1,027,164 1,041,051 1,082,490 1,112,271 1,058,457 1,071,344 1,096,202

1970–2010 2000–2010

5.0% 2.3%

5.6% 1.7%

Miles Fuel use (per vehicle) (million gallons) 8,675 12,313 9,830 19,081 10,127 20,828 10,607 22,383 10,968 24,162 10,802 24,445 10,437 23,796 10,244 23,697 10,276 22,702 10,497 23,945 11,151 25,604 10,506 27,363 10,764 29,074 11,114 30,598 11,465 32,653 11,676 33,271 11,902 35,611 12,245 38,217 12,381 40,929 12,430 42,851 12,156 44,112 12,018 45,605 11,811 47,354 12,115 49,389 12,173 50,462 11,957 52,859 11,672 52,939 11,204 53,522 11,364 55,220 11,287 60,758 11,184 63,417 10,920 58,869 10,920 60,685 10,962 61,836 10,652 62,575 10,758 63,159 11,011 64,115 Average annual percentage change 0.6% 4.2% -0.6% 1.9%

Fuel economy (miles per gallon) 10.0 10.5 10.8 11.2 11.6 11.9 12.2 12.5 13.5 13.7 14.0 14.3 14.6 14.9 15.4 16.1 16.1 17.0 17.3 17.4 17.3 17.3 17.2 17.2 17.2 17.0 17.4 17.6 17.5 16.2 16.2 17.7 17.8 18.0 16.9 17.0 17.1

b

1.4% -0.2%

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2010, Washington, DC, 2012, Table MV-9. Previous years Table VM-1. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov) a

Beginning in this year the data were revised to include all vans (including mini-vans), pickups and sport utility vehicles. b Due to FHWA methodology changes, data from 2009-on are not comparable with previous data.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–4

Because data on Class 2b trucks are scarce, the U.S. DOE funded a study to investigate available sources of data. In the final report, four methodologies are described to estimate the sales of Class 2b trucks. Until another study is funded, the 1999 data are the latest available.

Table 4.3 Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks

Class 1 Class 2a Class 2b

CY 1999 truck sales (millions) 5.7 1.8 0.5

MY 2000 truck population (millions) 49.7 19.2 5.8

Percent diesel trucks in population 0.3% 2.5% 24.0%

Average age (years) 7.3 7.4 8.6

Estimated annual milesa (billions) 672.7 251.9 76.7

Estimated fuel use (billiona gallons) 37.4 18.0 5.5

Estimated fuel economy (miles per gallon) 18.0 14.0 13.9

Source: Davis, S.C. and L.F. Truett, Investigation of Class 2b Trucks (Vehicles of 8,500 to 10,000 lbs GVWR), ORNL/TM2002/49, March 2002, Table 16. Note: CY - calendar year. MY - model year.

Table 4.4 Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks, 1989–1999

Calendar year 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Class 1 (6,000 lbs and under) 3,313 3,451 3,246 3,608 4,119 4,527 4,422 4,829 5,085 5,263 5,707

1989–1999

72.3%

Sales estimates (thousands) Class 2a Class 2b (6,001-8,500 lbs) (8,501-10,000 lbs) 918 379 829 268 670 206 827 194 975 257 1,241 265 1,304 327 1,356 334 1,315 397 1,694 342 1,845 521 Percent change 101.0% 37.5%

Total 4,610 4,548 4,122 4,629 5,351 6,033 6,053 6,519 6,797 7,299 8,073 75.1%

Source: Davis, S.C. and L.F. Truett, Investigation of Class 2b Trucks (Vehicles of 8,500 to 10,000 lbs GVWR), ORNL/TM2002/49, March 2002, Table 1. Note: These data were calculated using Methodology 4 from the report. a

Estimates derived using 2000 population data and 1997 usage data. See source for details.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–5

Car sales in 2009 and 2010 were below 6 million. In 1980, the Big 3 (Chrysler, Ford and General Motors) held 73.8% of the market; by 2011, that had dropped to 33.3%.

Table 4.5 New Retail Car Sales in the United States, 1970–2011 Calendar year 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Domestica

1970–2011 2001–2011

-1.3% -3.8%

7,119 7,053 6,580 8,205 8,215 7,085 7,543 7,098 6,919 6,162 6,286 6,742 7,255 7,114 7,206 6,862 6,705 6,919 6,762 6,254 5,817 5,473 5,334 5,473 5,417 5,198 4,490 3,558 3,792 4,240

Importb Total Percentage (thousands) imports 1,280 8,400 15.2% 1,571 8,624 18.2% 2,369 8,949 26.5% 2,775 10,979 25.3% 3,189 11,404 28.0% 3,107 10,192 30.5% 3,004 10,547 28.5% 2,680 9,779 27.4% 2,384 9,303 25.6% 2,023 8,185 24.7% 1,927 8,213 23.5% 1,776 8,518 20.8% 1,735 8,991 19.3% 1,506 8,620 17.5% 1,272 8,479 15.0% 1,355 8,217 16.5% 1,380 8,085 17.1% 1,719 8,638 19.9% 2,016 8,778 23.0% 2,098 8,352 25.1% 2,226 8,042 27.7% 2,083 7,556 27.6% 2,149 7,483 28.7% 2,187 7,660 28.6% 2,345 7,762 30.2% 2,365 7,562 31.3% 2,278 6,769 33.7% 1,843 5,401 34.1% 1,844 5,635 32.7% 1,850 6,089 30.4% Average annual percentage change 0.9% -0.8% -1.3% -3.1%

Percentage Big 3 salesc d d

73.8% 72.9% 70.9% 67.6% 69.3% 67.9% 65.7% 64.2% 65.8% 67.3% 65.9% 65.3% 64.1% 62.2% 59.7% 58.3% 55.0% 51.4% 48.4% 47.1% 44.9% 43.1% 40.5% 36.9% 34.2% 31.3% 31.7% 33.3%

Percentage diesel 0.07% 0.31% 4.32% 0.83% 0.37% 0.17% 0.02% 0.13% 0.08% 0.10% 0.06% 0.04% 0.04% 0.03% 0.09% 0.09% 0.14% 0.16% 0.26% 0.18% 0.39% 0.52% 0.40% 0.63% 0.86% 0.11% 0.12% 2.94% 2.69% 1.47%

Source: Domestic and import data - 1970–97: American Automobile Manufacturers Association, Motor Vehicle Facts and Figures 1998, Detroit, MI, 1998, p. 15, and annual. 1997 data from Economic Indicators, 4th Quarter 1997. 1998–2010: Ward’s Communication, Ward’s Automotive Yearbook, Detroit, MI, 2009, p. 249. 2011: Ward’s Communications, www.wardsauto.com. Diesel data - Ward's Communications, Ward's Automotive Yearbook, Detroit, MI, 2009, p. 31, and Ward’s Communications, www.wardsauto.com. a

North American built. Does not include import tourist deliveries. c Big 3 includes Chrysler, Ford and General Motors. d Data are not available.

b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–6

Light trucks, which include pick-ups, minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and other trucks less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight (GVW), accounted for more than half of light vehicle sales from 2001 to 2007 and again in 2011.

Table 4.6 New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the United States, 1970–2011 Percentages Calendar year 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1970–2011 2001–2011

Light truck salesa (thousands) 1,463 2,281 2,230 4,461 4,654 4,714 4,910 4,755 4,569 4,144 4,655 5,378 6,068 6,108 6,619 6,904 7,458 8,256 8,572 8,700 8,774 9,084 9,384 9,288 8,743 8,527 6,426 5,001 5,919 6,645

Big 3 salesc

Dieseld Importb f 4.5% f 10.0% 21.5% 3.5% 18.7% 78.2% 3.3% 21.0% 76.9% 3.7% 19.6% 78.3% 2.3% 14.5% 81.6% 2.3% 13.5% 81.9% 2.9% 13.4% 80.9% 2.2% 13.0% 79.4% 3.2% 8.8% 83.1% 2.4% 7.0% 83.4% 2.3% 6.8% 82.9% 2.5% 6.6% 83.4% 3.8% 6.6% 83.8% 3.1% 8.4% 81.9% 2.7% 8.8% 80.5% 2.6% 9.4% 78.0% 2.8% 9.9% 76.1% 3.3% 11.2% 75.3% 2.8% 12.1% 74.7% 2.7% 13.5% 72.4% 2.8% 13.3% 70.1% 2.7% 13.1% 68.2% 2.7% 15.4% 63.9% 2.8% 16.3% 61.9% 3.1% 17.1% 59.8% 3.3% 17.7% 56.5% 4.0% 15.2% 57.6% 4.8% 14.8% 59.4% 5.3% Average annual percentage change

Light trucks of light-duty vehicle salese 14.8% 20.9% 19.9% 28.9% 29.0% 31.6% 31.8% 32.7% 32.9% 33.6% 36.2% 38.7% 40.3% 41.5% 43.8% 45.7% 48.0% 48.9% 49.4% 51.2% 52.2% 54.6% 55.6% 54.8% 53.0% 53.0% 48.7% 48.1% 51.2% 52.2%

Light rucks of total truck sales 80.4% 87.9% 89.4% 94.0% 94.6% 94.3% 93.6% 93.8% 94.3% 94.9% 94.9% 94.7% 94.5% 94.0% 94.9% 94.8% 94.6% 94.1% 94.9% 96.2% 96.5% 96.5% 95.6% 94.9% 94.1% 95.8% 95.6% 96.2% 96.5% 95.6%

3.8% -2.7%

Source: Ward’s Communications, Ward’s Automotive Yearbook, Detroit, MI, 2011, and updates at www.wardsauto.com. (Additional resources: www.wardsauto.com) a

Includes all trucks of 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight and less sold in the United States. Excluding transplants. c Big 3 includes Chrysler, Ford and General Motors. d Based on model year factory installations. e Light-duty vehicles include cars and light trucks. f Indicates less than 1 percent.

b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–7

The sales-weighted fuel economy of new cars (including wagons and non-truck SUVs) increased dramatically from 1975 (15.8 mpg) to 1985 (26.9 mpg), but rose only 1.9 mpg from 1985 to 2005. Since 2005, fuel economy rose 4.0 mpg—from 28.8 mpg in 2005 to 32.8 mpg in 2011.

Table 4.7 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011a (thousands) CARS Small Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg Midsize Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg Large Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg WAGONS Small Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg Midsize Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg Large Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg NON-TRUCK SUVS Small Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg Midsize Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg Large Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg TOTAL Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg

1975

1980

1985

1990

4,089 49.5% 18.3

4,825 51.1% 26.1

5,519 50.7% 29.8

4,999 56.3% 29.8

1,631 19.7% 13.6

2,987 31.6% 21.6

2,777 25.5% 24.9

1,555 18.8% 13.1

963 10.2% 19.1

477 5.8% 22.4

Sales period 1995

2000

2005

2010

2011

5,190 53.5% 30.7

4,266 43.1% 30.3

3,185 35.1% 31.1

2,507 35.1% 34.1

2,194 28.4% 34.4

2,342 26.4% 26.2

2,515 25.9% 26.1

2,894 29.2% 27.0

2,886 31.8% 29.8

2,261 31.6% 34.1

2,642 34.3% 34.5

1,512 13.9% 22.3

1,092 12.3% 23.7

1,305 13.4% 24.4

1,665 16.8% 25.6

1,234 13.6% 26.4

832 11.6% 28.3

1,226 15.9% 30.5

310 3.3% 28.6

496 4.6% 32.5

160 1.8% 29.6

198 2.0% 33.3

68 0.7% 29.2

365 4.0% 32.4

450 6.3% 34.1

487 6.3% 34.7

289 3.5% 13.2

257 2.7% 21.1

342 3.1% 25.2

184 2.1% 25.3

176 1.8% 26.6

234 2.4% 27.3

238 2.6% 26.0

8 0.1% 28.6

4 0.1% 24.9

197 2.4% 11.9

102 1.1% 19.1

146 1.3% 20.9

31 0.4% 22.7

10 0.1% 22.8

0.0 0.0%

118.3 1.3% 22.2

0 0.0%

0 0.0%

b

b

6 0.1% 12.0

0 0.0%

0 0.0% b

25 0.3% 29.2

131 1.3% 23.3

45 0.5% 29.9

3 0.0% 21.9

0 0.0%

b

27 0.3% 23.4

14 0.2% 14.8

4 0.0% 16.3

104 1.0% 21.4

46 0.5% 21.0

288 3.0% 20.6

575 5.8% 21.7

737 8.1% 24.5

689 9.6% 28.9

774 10.0% 29.4

7 0.1% 13.1

0 0.0% 19.5

0 0.0%

0 0.0%

0 0.0%

b

b

b

65 0.7% 17.7

278 3.1% 23.4

397 5.6% 27.3

386 5.0% 27.5

8,265 100.0% 15.8

9,448 100.0% 23.5

10,895 100.0% 26.9

8,882 100.0% 27.7

9,708 100.0% 28.0

9,899 100.0% 27.5

9,088 100.0% 28.8

7,147 100% 32.3

7,713 100% 32.8

b

b

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, March 2012. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm) a b

The fuel economy data on this table are EPA laboratory test values. No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–8

The term “wagon” conjures up images of the station wagons from the 1960's. However, most of the cars that are now classified as wagons have little in common with those station wagons. The wagons below make up the category “wagon” on Tables 4.7 through 4.15.

Table 4.8 Definition of Wagons in Model Year 2011 Small wagon BMW 328i Sports Wagon BMW 328i Xdrive Sports Wagon Cadillac CTS Wagon Cadillac CTS Wagon AWD Chevrolet HHR FWD Chevrolet HHR Panel FWD Chrysler Caliber Honda Fit Honda TSX Wagon Hyundai Elantra Touring Kia Soul Mitsubishi Lancer Sportback Nissan Cube Nissan EX35 Nissan Juke Saab 9-3 Sportcombi Saab 9-3X Sportcombi AWD Subaru Impreza Wagon-Outback Sport AWD Suzuki SX4 Suzuki SX4 AWD Toyota Corolla Matrix Toyota Xb Volkswagen A3 Volkswagen A3 Quattro Volkswagen A4 Avant Quattro Volkswagen Jetta Sportwagen Volvo V50 FWD Midsize wagon Kia Rondo Mercedes Benz E350 4MATIC Volkswagen A6 Avant Quattro Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, March 2012. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–9

A new vehicle classification was created to match the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) methodology. Under CAFE, small, two-wheel drive SUVs will be considered cars. The vehicles below make up the category “non-truck SUV” on Tables 4.7 through 4.15.

Table 4.9 Definition of Non-Truck Sport Utility Vehicles in Model Year 2011 Midsize non-truck SUV Mazda CX-7 2WD Mazda Tribute FWD Mazda Tribute FWD FFV Mazda Tribute Hybrid 2WD Mercedes Benz GLK 350 Mitsubishi Endeavor 2WD Mitsubishi Outlander 2WD Mitsubishi Outlander Sport 2WD Nissan Rogue FWD Nissan Xterra 2WD Suzuki Grand Vitara Toyota 4Runner 2WD Toyota RAV4 2WD Toyota FJ Cruiser 2WD Toyota Highlander 2WD Toyota RX 350 Toyota Venza Volkswagen Tiguan Volvo XC60 FWD Large non-truck SUV Cadillac SRX 2WD Jeep Grand Cherokee 2WD Chevrolet Equinox FWD Kia Borrego 2WD Dodge Journey FWD Lincoln MKX FWD Ford Edge FWD Mazda CX-9 2WD Ford Explorer FWD Nissan FX35 RWD Ford Flex FWD Nissan Murano FWD General Motors Terrain FWD Nissan Pathfinder 2WD Honda Accord Crosstour 2WD Saab 9-4X FWD Hyundai Veracruze 2WD Volvo XC70 FWD

Chrysler Compass 2WD Dodge Nitro 2WD Ford Escape FWD Ford Escape FWD FFV Ford Escape Hybrid FWD Ford Mariner FWD Ford Mariner FWD FFV Ford Mariner Hybrid FWD Honda CR-V 2WD Honda Element 2WD Honda Pilot 2WD Honda RDX 2WD Hyundai Santa Fe 2WD Hyundai Tucson 2WD Jeep Liberty 2WD Jeep Patriot 2WD Kia Sorento 2WD Kia Sportage 2WD

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, March 2012. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–10

Sales of light trucks in 2011 are more than twice that of 1975. Similar to the car trend, the sales-weighted fuel economy of light trucks increased substantially during the late ‘70's and ‘80's, but has increased slowly until the mid-2000’s. From 2005 to 2011, fuel economy rose from 21.0 mpg to 23.6 mpg. Some two-wheel drive SUVs are now classified as cars.

Table 4.10 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economiesa of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 (thousands)

PICKUPS Small Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg Midsize Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg Large Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg VANS Small Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg Midsize Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg Large Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg TRUCK SUVS Small Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg Midsize Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg Large Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg TOTAL Total sales, units Market share, % Fuel economy, mpg

1975

1980

1985

Sales period 1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

2011

160 8.2% 22.5

452 24.3% 24.3

497 13.9% 26.7

289 7.7% 24.8

298 5.5% 24.4

101 1.5% 26.3

8 0.1% 25.8

b

b

b

b

b

b

56 2.9% 21.1

98 5.3% 25.9

617 17.3% 25.7

600 16.1% 24.7

700 12.9% 24.7

766 11.5% 22.8

216 3.2% 23.6

153 3.9% 24.9

80 1.7% 27.5

1,126 57.5% 13.1

887 47.7% 17.2

965 27.1% 17.7

945 25.3% 18.0

1,273 23.4% 18.0

1,746 26.2% 19.3

2,076 30.5% 19.4

1,123 28.3% 20.5

1,664 35.8% 21.3

2 0.1% 20.6

16 0.8% 19.0

93 2.6% 25.5

31 0.8% 23.9

6 0.1% 26.5

20 0.5% 30.7

302 15.4% 13.3

130 7.0% 16.9

600 16.8% 19.8

1,124 30.1% 21.8

153 7.8% 12.6

96 5.2% 16.0

162 4.6% 16.1

47 2.4% 16.8

61 3.3% 18.8

109 5.6% 11.8

b

b

b

b

b

b

b

1,552 28.5% 22.2

1,522 22.8% 23.5

1,426 20.9% 24.2

524 13.2% 25.0

533 11.5% 26.5

107 2.9% 16.5

104 1.9% 17.1

170 2.5% 18.0

55 0.8% 19.4

15 0.4% 20.1

18 0.4% 18.4

115 3.2% 22.1

163 4.4% 23.4

164 3.0% 23.6

269 4.0% 22.2

170 2.5% 23.2

95 2.4% 21.8

93 2.0% 21.8

96 5.2% 14.2

458 12.9% 19.4

401 10.7% 18.9

1,109 20.4% 19.4

1,288 19.3% 20.7

1,342 19.7% 22.2

1,156 29.2% 26.9

1,071 23.0% 27.4

3 0.2% 10.4

24 1.3% 14.3

57 1.6% 16.9

72 1.9% 16.7

230 4.2% 16.6

814 12.2% 17.6

1,512 22.2% 19.4

877 22.1% 22.6

1,193 25.6% 23.3

1,959 100.0% 13.7

1,859 100.0% 18.6

3,564 100.0% 20.56

3,733 100.0% 20.7

5,436 100.0% 20.5

6,675 100.0% 20.7

6,806 100.0% 21.0

3,964 100.0% 23.4

4,652 100.0% 23.6

b b

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, March 2012. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm) Note: Includes light trucks of 8,500 lbs. or less. a b

The fuel economy data on this table are EPA laboratory test values. No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–11

Back in 1975 only 19.2% of new light vehicle sales were light trucks. Because of the boom in sales of minivans, sport utility vehicles, and pick-up trucks, that number rose to over 40% in 2005. Cars made a comeback to account for 64.3% in 2010 and 62.4% in 2011.

Table 4.11 Light Vehicle Market Shares by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011

1975 Small car Midsize car Large car Small wagon Midsize wagon Large wagon Small non-truck SUV Midsize non-truck SUV Large non-truck SUV Small pickup Midsize pickup Large pickup Small van Midsize van Large van Small truck SUV Midsize truck SUV Large truck SUV

Total light vehicles sold (thousands) Cars Light trucks

40.0% 16.0% 15.2% 4.7% 2.8% 1.9%

1980 42.7% 26.4% 8.5% 2.7% 2.3% 0.9%

1985 38.2% 19.2% 10.5% 3.4% 2.4% 1.0%

1990

Model year 1995

2000

39.6% 18.6% 8.7% 1.3% 1.5% 0.2%

34.3% 16.6% 8.6% 1.3% 1.2% 0.1%

25.7% 17.5% 10.0% 0.4% 1.4% a

2005

2010

2011

20.0% 18.2% 7.8% 2.3% 1.5% 0.7%

22.6% 20.4% 7.5% 4.0% 0.1%

17.7% 21.4% 9.9% 3.9% 0.0%

a

a a

0.1%

a

a

0.2%

0.2%

0.8%

0.3%

0.0%

0.1%

0.0%

0.7%

0.4%

1.9%

3.5%

4.6%

6.2%

6.3%

0.1% 1.6% 0.5% 11.0% 0.0% 3.0% 1.5% 0.5% 1.1% 0.0%

0.0% 4.0% 0.9% 7.8% 0.1% 1.1% 0.8% 0.5% 0.9% 0.2%

a

a

a

2.0% 4.6% 8.4% 0.0% 10.2% 0.7% 1.1% 7.3% 1.5%

1.7% 0.1% 1.4% 13.1%

3.1%

2.3% 4.8% 7.5% 0.2% 8.9% 0.9% 1.3% 3.2% 0.6%

0.4% 0.6% 4.6% 10.5%

3.6%

3.4% 4.3% 6.7% 0.6% 4.1% 1.1% 0.8% 3.2% 0.4%

10,224 80.8%

11,306 83.6%

14,460 75.3%

12,615 70.4%

19.2%

16.4%

24.7%

29.6%

a

a

a

a

9.2% 1.0% 1.6% 7.8% 4.9%

9.0% 0.3% 1.1% 8.4% 9.5%

1.4% 10.1% 0.2% 4.7% 0.1% 0.9% 10.4% 7.9%

0.6% 13.5%

15,145 64.1%

16,574 59.7%

15,893 57.2%

9,732 64.3%

12,366 62.4%

35.9%

40.3%

42.8%

35.7%

37.6%

a

4.3% 0.1% 0.8% 8.7% 9.6%

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, March 2012. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm) Note: Includes light trucks of 8,500 lbs. or less. a

No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–12

Light trucks were gaining market share from the early 1980s until 2004, mainly due to increases in the market share of sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and pickup trucks. A new category of SUVs has been added to the vehicle classification—non-truck SUVs. The non-truck SUVs are two-wheel drive SUVs that will be counted as cars in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards for model years 2011-2016. A listing of the makes/models of non-truck SUVs is in Table 4.9.

Figure 4.1. Light Vehicle Market Shares, Model Years 1975–2011

Source: See Table 4.11

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–13

The midsize and large cars and wagons sales-weighted engine sizes have decreased at an average of about 2% per year since 1975.

Table 4.12 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ( litersa) Model year 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1975–2011 2001–2011

Small 3.67 3.70 3.67 2.91 2.72 2.25 2.12 2.15 2.24 2.30 2.26 2.25 2.19 2.18 2.15 2.15 2.14 2.19 2.18 2.25 2.25 2.23 2.18 2.24 2.31 2.28 2.29 2.32 2.35 2.40 2.36 2.47 2.39 2.42 2.29 2.37 2.37

Cars Midsize 5.79 5.62 5.45 4.79 4.46 3.74 3.60 3.46 3.48 3.44 3.35 3.18 3.09 3.00 2.97 3.07 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.11 3.10 2.96 3.01 2.90 2.87 2.86 2.87 2.91 2.85 2.85 2.76 2.77 2.71 2.67 2.57 2.58 2.51

Large 6.71 6.72 6.01 5.85 5.56 5.14 4.99 4.79 4.80 4.82 4.58 4.26 4.25 4.30 4.29 4.22 4.33 4.30 4.20 4.07 4.06 4.10 3.97 3.94 3.85 3.62 3.63 3.58 3.67 3.69 3.68 3.76 3.75 3.50 3.28 3.31 3.12

-1.2% 0.3%

-2.3% -1.3%

-2.1% -1.5%

Wagons Small Midsize Large 2.09 5.92 6.73 2.24 5.17 6.81 2.20 4.86 5.98 2.19 4.23 5.80 2.02 4.08 5.46 1.86 3.74 5.30 1.78 3.17 5.12 1.78 3.36 5.01 1.72 3.28 5.03 1.76 2.82 5.01 1.75 2.79 4.99 1.85 2.65 4.99 1.90 2.83 4.99 1.85 2.80 4.98 1.83 2.88 4.98 1.97 2.97 4.98 1.97 2.96 4.99 2.01 3.09 5.53 1.93 3.08 5.57 1.98 2.96 5.74 1.94 2.74 5.74 2.00 2.64 5.74 b 2.04 2.62 b 2.03 2.54 b 2.05 2.58 b 2.08 2.51 b 2.38 2.54 b 2.38 2.50 b 2.08 2.48 2.07 2.59 3.52 2.00 2.99 3.56 2.08 2.99 3.58 2.08 2.63 3.88 2.12 2.71 3.71 2.05 2.51 3.43 b 2.05 2.52 b 2.01 3.35 Average annual percentage change -0.1% -1.6% -2.0c d -1.7% 2.8%

Small 4.21 4.23 4.23 4.23 2.66 0.00 0.00 2.47 2.47 2.46 0.00 2.93 2.93 2.93 2.87 2.72 2.23 2.07 2.09 1.92 1.56 1.77 2.19 2.36 2.13 2.52 2.08 2.12 2.05 2.46 2.37 0.00 3.80 3.79 3.79 3.80 0.00 -0.3%c 6.9%c

Non-truck SUVs Midsize Large 5.37 5.72 5.37 5.67 5.31 5.61 5.16 5.54 5.15 0.00 5.03 3.93 4.79 0.00 4.65 0.00 2.91 0.00 3.15 0.00 3.20 0.00 3.12 0.00 3.21 0.00 3.63 0.00 4.16 0.00 4.00 0.00 3.85 0.00 3.75 0.00 4.08 0.00 3.77 0.00 3.73 0.00 3.85 5.74 3.73 4.95 3.80 3.55 3.62 5.20 3.68 5.31 3.49 3.87 3.29 4.08 3.24 4.13 3.37 3.82 3.13 3.61 3.08 3.62 2.96 3.64 2.87 3.63 2.81 3.42 2.81 3.12 2.78 3.25 -1.8% -2.2%

-1.6% -1.7%

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, March 2012. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm) a

1 liter = 61.02 cubic inches. No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year. c Data are thru latest available year. d Data are not available.

b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–14

The engine size of large truck sport utility vehicles (SUVs) declined an average of 1.5% per year from 2000 to 2011, while the size of a small truck SUV engine increased by 3.2%.

Table 4.13 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 (litersa) Model year 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1975-2011 2001-2011

Small 1.94 1.95 1.98 1.96 1.97 2.00 2.13 2.25 2.32 2.32 2.35 2.38 2.40 2.43 2.51 2.51 2.49 2.50 2.41 2.48 2.58 2.60 2.39 2.62 2.83 2.43 2.42 2.89 2.91 3.02 2.46 2.46 b b b b b

c c

Pickups Midsize 1.79 1.79 2.04 2.03 2.15 2.18 2.15 2.49 2.40 2.43 2.52 2.41 2.60 2.71 2.90 2.87 3.11 3.20 3.25 3.23 3.11 3.06 3.20 3.14 3.27 3.15 3.40 3.70 3.22 3.59 3.14 3.23 3.32 3.29 3.31 3.27 2.49 0.9% -3.1%

Vans Midsize Large 5.08 5.47 5.20 5.50 5.35 5.62 5.36 5.49 5.25 5.51 4.72 5.17 4.57 5.09 4.66 5.14 4.81 5.14 4.06 5.14 3.82 5.12 3.68 5.01 3.70 5.06 3.65 5.07 3.57 5.06 3.59 5.14 3.50 5.12 3.57 5.16 3.45 5.16 3.59 5.21 3.70 5.15 3.47 5.33 b 3.45 4.91 b 3.43 4.87 b 3.49 4.86 b 3.40 4.85 b 3.37 4.97 b 3.44 4.80 b 3.48 4.74 b 3.50 4.79 b 3.49 4.72 b 3.47 4.65 b 3.55 4.65 2.29 3.60 4.63 2.29 3.56 4.66 2.29 3.52 4.73 b 3.47 5.10 Average annual percentage change -0.4% 0.5% -1.1% -0.2% c 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% Large 5.62 5.64 5.68 5.55 5.41 5.00 4.80 4.91 4.94 4.93 4.99 4.88 5.06 5.22 5.22 5.25 5.17 5.11 4.97 5.17 5.19 5.16 4.97 5.04 5.13 4.74 4.78 4.83 4.82 4.94 4.82 4.75 4.89 4.95 5.02 5.01 4.84

Small 1.94 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.82 1.93 1.97 1.98 2.15 2.19 2.20 2.14 2.29 2.04 2.11 1.99 2.21 2.20 2.33

Small 4.52 4.52 4.57 4.56 4.51 3.72 3.68 3.71 3.74 3.06 2.74 2.74 2.61 2.52 2.80 2.65 2.46 2.58 2.66 2.45 2.37 1.75 3.20 2.77 2.70 2.94 2.77 2.77 2.81 3.09 3.07 3.28 3.36 3.51 3.79 3.80 3.80

Truck SUVs Midsize 5.76 5.84 5.77 5.91 5.66 5.33 5.20 5.29 4.24 3.80 3.53 3.39 3.60 3.86 4.17 3.98 3.88 3.84 3.88 3.94 3.93 4.18 3.91 3.91 3.79 3.79 3.51 3.38 3.47 3.59 3.47 3.49 3.33 3.25 3.02 3.04 2.99

-0.5% 3.2%

-1.8% -1.6%

Large 6.51 6.58 6.66 6.55 6.15 5.58 5.54 5.64 5.82 5.76 5.74 5.74 5.73 5.75 5.75 5.75 5.37 5.42 5.65 5.62 5.69 5.64 5.38 5.27 5.31 5.10 4.78 4.66 4.80 4.85 4.61 4.39 4.57 4.39 4.07 4.01 4.11 -1.3% -1.5%

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, March 2012. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm) Note: Includes light trucks of 8,500 lbs. or less. a

1 liter = 61.02 cubic inches. No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year. c Data are not available.

b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–15

Table 4.14 Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 (pounds) Model year 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Small 3,440 3,474 3,486 3,029 2,936 2,717 2,648 2,684 2,734 2,776 2,771 2,791 2,803 2,818 2,841 2,897 2,886 2,921 2,903 2,965 2,988 2,977 2,977 3,013 3,085 3,079 3,101 3,125 3,169 3,192 3,163 3,255 3,238 3,284 3,251 3,268 3,304

Cars Midsize 4,630 4,558 4,474 3,820 3,710 3,362 3,346 3,321 3,316 3,318 3,319 3,241 3,247 3,293 3,314 3,450 3,412 3,515 3,515 3,529 3,546 3,527 3,551 3,534 3,540 3,550 3,566 3,549 3,567 3,577 3,545 3,568 3,581 3,564 3,541 3,577 3,601

1975-2011 2001-2011

-0.1% 0.6%

-0.7% 0.1%

Wagons Small Midsize Large 2,834 4,791 5,453 2,902 4,555 5,444 2,801 4,410 4,713 2,805 3,836 4,664 2,711 3,758 4,467 2,591 3,535 4,423 2,531 3,285 4,394 2,580 3,384 4,396 2,565 3,348 4,380 2,620 3,298 4,371 2,579 3,356 4,354 2,648 3,355 4,381 2,795 3,434 4,348 2,757 3,378 4,349 2,766 3,436 4,334 3,026 3,499 4,337 3,005 3,506 4,403 3,076 3,504 4,500 2,882 3,498 4,500 2,908 3,533 4,500 2,859 3,482 4,500 2,952 3,661 4,500 a 2,901 3,666 a 2,874 3,669 a 2,923 3,691 a 3,107 3,572 a 3,470 3,775 a 3,504 3,732 a 3,262 3,745 3,235 3,860 4,769 3,160 3,839 4,791 3,255 3,827 4,806 3,264 3,727 4,785 3,300 3,845 5,017 3,263 3,653 5,500 a 3,269 3,814 a 3,281 4,409 Average annual percentage change -0.8% 0.4% -0.2% 0.0%b a 0.2% -0.6% 1.6% Large 5,142 5,156 4,482 4,394 4,210 4,130 4,108 4,034 4,041 4,022 3,841 3,719 3,696 3,730 3,721 3,799 3,893 3,872 3,831 3,859 3,830 3,895 3,821 3,784 3,854 3,782 3,774 3,768 3,841 3,858 3,933 4,014 4,026 3,966 3,883 3,923 3,833

Small 4,000 4,073 4,000 4,000 3,127 a a

2,500 2,500 2,500 a

3,500 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,444 3,241 3,076 3,088 3,018 2,617 2,857 2,989 3,380 3,214 3,563 3,281 3,247 3,056 3,091 3,049 a

4,408 4,500 4,500 4,500 a

0.3%b 3.6%b

Non-truck SUVs Midsize Large 4,362 4,500 4,348 4,500 4,405 4,500 4,409 4,500 a 4,385 4,457 4,500 a 4,458 a 4,242 a 3,550 a 3,617 a 3,633 a 3,612 a 3,606 a 3,594 a 3,613 a 3,692 a 3,873 a 3,879 a 3,937 a 3,900 a 4,049 4,128 4,500 4,136 4,500 3,943 4,500 3,953 4,461 3,973 4,471 4,026 4,272 3,946 4,450 3,941 4,403 3,998 4,369 3,959 4,220 3,991 4,182 3,908 4,289 3,870 4,353 3,844 4,289 3,820 4,277 3,807 4,293 -0.4% -0.6%

-0.1% 0.0%

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, March 2012. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm) a b

No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year. 1996–2010.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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The interior space of new small and midsize cars in 2010 was about the same as in the late 1990's; large cars, however, had smaller interior space.

Table 4.15 Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1977–2011 (cubic feet) Model year 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1975–2011 2001–2011

Small

Cars Midsize

Large

Small

Wagons Midsize

Large

Small

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

95.4 90.9 89.2 90.0 91.6 92.2 95.1 95.2 95.8 96.7 96.9 98.5 98.3 97.6 97.6 97.9 98.3 98.7 99.6 99.9 99.2 98.8 98.9 99.4 99.2 99.9 99.4 99.0 99.1 98.8 99.3 98.3 99.8 101.6 98.9

112.9 113.0 113.1 113.2 113.9 113.9 113.8 113.7 113.6 113.8 113.7 113.4 113.6 113.7 113.5 113.9 113.9 113.5 114.3 114.1 114.5 114.0 114.0 113.6 113.7 114.8 114.6 114.0 114.5 114.0 113.8 113.3 113.8 114.3 113.5

128.1 128.5 130.0 130.9 131.0 131.0 131.3 130.9 129.3 127.4 127.0 128.1 127.4 126.7 129.0 129.6 128.9 128.3 127.9 128.1 127.4 127.4 127.0 124.9 124.8 124.3 124.8 124.7 125.0 124.7 123.8 123.2 122.6 122.8 121.9

100.0 100.0 100.0

125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.1 125.1

150.0 150.0

150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 150.0 141.1 150.0

0.1% 0.0%

0.0% 0.0%

-0.1% -0.2%

0.0% 0.0%

0.0% 0.0%

108.0 143.6 163.1 108.0 140.0 162.4 105.1 139.7 162.5 108.2 139.7 161.5 110.6 136.2 161.4 112.2 136.1 161.3 108.2 136.2 161.6 116.5 135.9 161.7 117.7 134.8 161.7 118.4 137.8 161.4 120.0 140.2 161.8 118.7 139.4 161.7 118.6 139.9 161.8 122.2 141.6 161.6 123.3 142.3 169.1 123.7 142.6 170.3 123.0 137.7 169.3 122.9 137.4 169.2 122.1 135.9 169.3 118.0 136.9 170.2 a 119.5 136.5 a 116.9 135.3 a 117.9 136.4 a 119.7 134.0 a 119.6 133.6 a 118.2 133.6 a 115.2 133.5 117.5 135.0 165.0 115.9 133.3 165.0 118.4 135.6 164.4 112.0 135.4 159.2 115.0 134.6 160.1 114.8 133.7 161.7 a 117.9 135.1 a 116.5 136.2 Average annual percentage change 0.2% -0.2% 0.0% a -0.3% 0.2%

a a

100.0 100.0 100.0 a

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 a

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 a

0.0% 0.0%

Non-truck SUVs Midsize Large

a

150.0 a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, March 2012. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm) a

No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–17

The average light vehicle in 2009 contained more than 2,000 pounds of steel, most of it conventional steel. High and medium strength steel, however, made up more than 10% of the vehicle. The use of aluminum grew from 1995 to 2009, while the use of iron castings declined.

Table 4.16 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Light Vehicle, Model Years 1995, 2000, and 2010

Regular steel High and medium strength steel Stainless steel Other steels Iron castings Aluminum Magnesium castings Copper and brass Lead Zinc castings Powder metal parts Other metals Plastics and plastic composites Rubber Coatings Textiles Fluids and lubricants Glass Other materials

Pounds 1,630.0 324.0 51.0 46.0 466.0 231.0 4.0 50.0 33.0 19.0 29.0 4.0 240.0 149.0 23.0 42.0 192.0 97.0 64.0

1995 Percentage 44.1% 8.8% 1.4% 1.2% 12.6% 6.3% 0.1% 1.4% 0.9% 0.5% 0.8% 0.1% 6.5% 4.0% 0.6% 1.10% 5.20% 2.60% 1.70%

Pounds 1,655.0 408.0 62.0 26.0 432.0 268.0 8.0 52.0 36.0 13.0 36.0 4.0 286.0 166.0 25.0 44.0 207.0 103.0 71.0

2000 Percentage 42.4% 10.5% 1.6% 0.7% 11.1% 6.9% 0.2% 1.3% 0.9% 0.3% 0.9% 0.1% 7.3% 4.3% 0.6% 1.10% 5.30% 2.60% 1.80%

Pounds 1,542.0 559.0 73.0 33.0 237.0 344.0 13.0 65.0 40.0 9.0 41.0 6.0 378.0 200.0 34.0 54.0 226.0 94.0 92.0

2010 Percentage 39.4% 14.3% 1.9% 0.8% 6.1% 8.8% 0.3% 1.7% 1.0% 0.2% 1.0% 0.2% 9.7% 5.1% 0.9% 1.4% 5.8% 2.4% 2.3%

Total

3,694.0

100.0%

3,902.0

100.0%

4,040.0

100.0%

Material

Source: Ward’s Communications, Ward’s Motor Vehicle Facts and Figures, 2010, Detroit, MI, 2010, p. 65 and updates.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–18

The number of franchised dealerships which sell new light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks) has declined about 40% since 1970. The average number of vehicles sold per dealer in 2010 was 638 vehicles per dealer, down from a high of 779 vehicles per dealer in 2004.

Table 4.17 New Light Vehicle Dealerships and Sales, 1970–2010 Calendar year 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1970–2010 2000–2010

Number of franchised new New light vehicle sales light vehicle dealershipsa (thousands) 30,800 9,862 29,600 10,905 29,300 13,066 29,100 14,613 29,000 15,122 28,500 13,984 27,900 11,389 26,350 10,678 25,700 10,426 24,725 12,132 24,725 14,187 24,725 15,437 24,825 15,998 25,150 14,802 25,025 15,347 25,000 14,389 24,825 13,851 24,200 12,312 23,500 12,842 22,950 13,869 22,850 15,024 22,800 14,688 22,750 15,046 22,700 15,069 22,600 15,441 22,400 16,771 22,250 17,234 22,150 17,472 21,800 17,139 21,725 16,967 21,650 17,299 21,640 17,444 21,495 17,049 21,200 16,460 20,770 13,493 20,010 10,601 18,460 11,772 Average annual percentage change -1.3% 0.4% -1.9% -3.7%

Light vehicle sales per dealer 320 368 446 502 521 491 408 405 406 491 574 624 644 589 613 576 558 509 546 604 658 644 661 664 683 749 775 789 786 781 799 806 793 776 650 530 638 1.7% -1.9%

Source: Number of dealers - National Automobile Dealers Association website, www.nada.org. (Additional resources: http://www.nada.org/Publications/NADADATA/) Light-duty vehicle sales - See tables 4.5 and 4.6. a

As of the beginning of the year.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–19

The number of conventional refueling stations fell below 160,000 for the first time in the series history. The number of vehicles fueling at those stations fell in 2009 for the first time in several years but rose slightly in 2010. In 2010, there were 0.66 fueling stations per thousand vehicles or 1.51 thousand vehicles per station. Table 4.18 Conventional Refueling Stations, 1993-2010

Number of retail outlets Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

207,416 202,878 195,455 190,246 187,892 182,596 180,567 175,941 172,169 170,018 167,571 167,346 168,987 167,476 164,292 161,068 162,350 159,006

Vehicles in operation (thousands) Conventional fuels 186,315 188,714 193,441 198,294 201,071 205,043 209,509 213,299 216,683 221,027 225,882 232,167 238,384 244,643 248,701 250,239 239,062 239,812

Stations per thousand vehicles

Thousand vehicles per station

1.11 1.08 1.01 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.86 0.82 0.79 0.77 0.74 0.72 0.71 0.69 0.66 0.64 0.68 0.66

0.90 0.93 0.99 1.04 1.07 1.12 1.16 1.21 1.26 1.30 1.35 1.39 1.41 1.46 1.51 1.55 1.47 1.51

Sources: Conventional refueling stations: National Petroleum News Survey, 2011. Conventional vehicles: The Polk Company, Detroit, MI, FURTHER REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED. Notes: The County Business Patterns (CBP) data published by the Bureau of the Census tells the number of establishments by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). NAICS is an industry classification system that groups establishments into industries based on the activities in which they are primarily engaged. NAICS 447 represents gasoline stations. However, the CBP gasoline station data differ from the National Petroleum News Survey data by as much as 30% (117,189 stations in 2005); the CBP may not include every gasoline retail outlet due to the classification of the primary activity of the business. Alternative Fuel Refueling Stations are listed in Chapter 6.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–20

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency issued joint rulemaking to establish a new National Program to regulate fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions for model year 2012-2016 cars and light trucks. Table 4.19 Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Standards, MY 2012-2016

Year

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Combined cars and Light trucks light trucks Average required fuel economy (miles per gallon) 33.3 25.4 29.7 34.2 26.0 30.5 34.9 26.6 31.3 36.2 27.5 32.6 37.8 28.8 34.1 Average projected emissions compliance levels under the footprint-based carbon dioxide standards (grams per mile) 263 346 295 256 337 286 247 326 276 236 312 263 225 298 250

Cars

Source: Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 88, May 7, 2010. (Additional resources: www.nhtsa.dot.gov/fuel-economy) Note: The required fuel economy, along with projections of CO2 emissions, are shown here.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–21

The target levels for the proposed fuel economy and carbon dioxide emission standards for vehicles manufactured in model years 2012-2016 are assigned based on a vehicle’s “footprint.” Each footprint has a different target. The vehicle footprint is calculated as: footprint = track width × wheelbase, where track width = lateral distance between the centerlines of the base tires at ground, and wheelbase = longitudinal distance between the front and rear wheel centerlines.

Table 4.20 Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Targets for Model Year 2016

Vehicle type

Example models

Example model footprint (square feet)

CO2 emissions target (grams per mile)

Fuel economy target (miles per gallon)

214 237 270

41.4 37.3 32.8

269 289 313 358

32.8 30.6 28.2 24.7

Example Passenger Cars Compact car Midsize car Fullsize car

Honda Fit Ford Fusion Chrysler 300

40 46 53 Example Light-Duty Trucks

Small SUV Midsize crossover Minivan Large pickup truck

4WD Ford Escape Nissan Murano Toyota Sienna Chevy Silverado

44 49 55 67

Source: Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 88, May 7, 2010. (Additional resources: www.nhtsa.gov/fuel-economy) Note: Examples use model year 2008 vehicle specifications.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–22

The Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards were established by the U.S. Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (PL94-163). These standards must be met at the manufacturer level. Some manufacturers fall short of meeting the standards while others exceed them. Legislation passed in December 2007 changed the CAFE standards beginning in the 2011 model year (MY). Some two-wheel drive sport utility vehicles are classified as cars under the final standards for MY 2011-2016.

Table 4.21 Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011a (miles per gallon) Model yearb 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

CAFE standards 18.0 19.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 26.0 27.0 27.5 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 30.1d

Cars CAFE estimatesc Domestic Import 18.7 27.3 19.3 26.1 22.6 29.6 24.2 31.5 25.0 31.1 24.4 32.4 25.5 32.0 26.3 31.5 26.9 31.6 27.0 31.2 27.4 31.5 27.2 30.8 26.9 29.9 27.3 30.1 27.0 29.2 27.8 29.6 27.5 29.6 27.7 30.3 28.1 29.6 27.8 30.1 28.6 29.2 28.0 29.0 28.7 28.3 28.7 29.0 29.1 28.8 29.1 29.9 29.9 28.7 30.5 29.9 30.3 29.7 30.6 32.2 31.2 31.8 32.1 33.8 33.1 35.2 32.5 35.3

Combined 19.9 20.3 24.3 25.9 26.6 26.4 26.9 27.6 28.2 28.5 28.8 28.4 28.0 28.4 27.9 28.4 28.3 28.6 28.5 28.7 28.8 28.3 28.5 28.8 29.0 29.5 29.5 30.3 30.1 31.2 31.5 32.9 33.9 33.8

CAFE estimates Cars and light trucks combined 19.9 20.1 23.1 24.6 25.1 24.8 25.0 25.4 25.9 26.2 26.0 25.6 25.4 25.6 25.1 25.2 24.7 24.9 24.9 24.6 24.7 24.5 24.8 24.5 24.7 25.1 24.6 25.4 25.8 26.6 27.1 29.0 29.3 29.6

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, NHTSA, "Summary of Fuel Economy Performance," Washington, DC, October 2011. (Additional resources: www.nhtsa.dot.gov) a

Only vehicles with at least 75 percent domestic content can be counted in the average domestic fuel economy for a manufacturer. b Model year as determined by the manufacturer on a vehicle by vehicle basis. c All CAFE calculations are sales-weighted. d Projected 2011 required average fuel economy standards value based on pre-model year reports.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

4–23

The Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards for light trucks are lower than the car standards. Light trucks include pickups, minivans, sport utility vehicles and vans. New legislation passed in December 2007 changed the CAFE standards beginning in the 2011 model year (MY). Some two-wheel drive sport utility vehicles are classified as cars under the final standards for MY 2011-2016.

Table 4.22 Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011a (miles per gallon) Model yearc 1978 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

CAFE standards

Light trucksb CAFE estimatesd Domestic Import

Combined

e

f

f

f

e

16.8 19.6 20.0 20.5 20.6 20.4 20.3 20.9 20.5 20.7 20.5 20.3 20.5 20.1 20.5 20.4 21.1 20.6 20.6 21.8 20.7

24.3 26.5 25.9 25.2 24.6 23.5 23.0 23.0 22.7 22.8 22.1 21.5 22.2 22.1 23.0 22.5 19.7 21.8 21.9 22.4 22.3

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

f

18.5 20.7 21.5 21.7 21.3 21.0 20.8 21.3 20.8 21.0 20.8 20.5 20.8 20.6 21.0 20.9 21.3 20.9 21.4 21.8 21.5 22.1 22.5 23.1 23.6 24.8 25.2 24.5

19.5 20.0 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.0 20.2 20.2 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.7 20.7 20.7 20.7 20.7 20.7 20.7 20.7 21.0 21.6 22.2 22.5g 23.1g 23.5g 24.2h

CAFE estimates Cars and light trucks combined 19.9 23.1 25.4 25.9 26.2 26.0 25.6 25.4 25.6 25.1 25.2 24.7 24.9 24.9 24.6 24.7 24.5 24.8 24.5 24.7 25.1 24.6 25.4 25.8 26.6 27.1 29.0 29.3 29.6

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, NHTSA, "Summary of Fuel Economy Performance," Washington, DC, October 2011. (Additional resources: www.nhtsa.dot.gov) a

Only vehicles with at least 75% domestic content can be counted in the average domestic fuel economy for a manufacturer. b Represents two- and four-wheel drive trucks combined. Gross vehicle weight of 0-6,000 pounds for model year 1978-1979 and 0-8,500 pounds for subsequent years. c Model year as determined by the manufacturer on a vehicle by vehicle basis. d All CAFE calculations are sales-weighted. e Standards were set for two-wheel drive and four-wheel drive light trucks, but no combined standard was set in this year. f Data are not available. g Unreformed standards. See Table 4.18 for reformed standards. h Projected 2011 required average fuel economy standards value based on pre-model year reports.

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Manufacturers of cars and light trucks whose vehicles do not meet the CAFE standards are fined. Data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration show CAFE fine collection dropped under $25 million in 2002 and 2003; this was due to several factors, including the CAFE credit system, manufacturer mergers, and fines not being paid in the same year they were assessed. Fines for recent model years are still being collected.

Table 4.23 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, 1983-2010a (thousands)

Model year 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Current dollars $58 $5,958 $15,565 $29,872 $31,261 $43,471 $48,549 $48,309 $42,243 $38,287 $28,688 $31,499 $40,787 $19,302 $36,212 $21,740 $27,516 $51,067 $35,507 $20,042 $15,225 $30,412 $25,057 $40,934 $37,386 $11,620 $9,148 $23,803

2010 constant dollarsb $126,915 $12,504,158 $31,542,206 $59,431,829 $60,004,807 $80,126,908 $85,374,938 $80,596,659 $67,631,029 $59,505,454 $43,291,857 $46,345,831 $58,359,309 $26,825,377 $49,197,577 $29,082,749 $36,015,169 $64,665,935 $43,718,826 $24,292,254 $18,043,445 $35,105,961 $27,976,736 $44,275,269 $39,317,788 $11,768,273 $9,298,484 $23,803,412

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance, Washington, DC, January 2012. (Additional resources: www.nhtsa.dot.gov) a

These are fines which are actually collected. Fines which are assessed in certain year may not have been collected in that year. b Adjusted using the Consumer Price Inflation Index.

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Consumers must pay the Gas Guzzler Tax when purchasing a car that has an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fuel economy rating (combined city and highway) less than that stipulated in the table below. The Gas Guzzler Tax doubled in 1991 after remaining constant from 1986 to 1990. The tax has not changed since 1991. This tax does not apply to light trucks such as pickups, minivans, sport utility vehicles, and vans.

Table 4.24 The Gas Guzzler Tax on New Cars (dollars per vehicle) Vehicle fuel economy (mpg) Over 22.5 22.0–22.5 21.5–22.0 21.0–21.5 20.5–21.0 20.0–20.5 19.5–20.0 19.0–19.5 18.5–19.0 18.0–18.5 17.5–18.0 17.0–17.5 16.5–17.0 16.0–16.5 15.5–16.0 15.0–15.5 14.5–15.0 14.0–14.5 13.5–14.0 13.0–13.5 12.5–13.0 Under 12.5

1980 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200 200 300 300 550 550

1981 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200 200 350 350 450 450 550 550 650 650

1982 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200 200 350 350 450 450 600 600 750 750 950 950 1,200

1983 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 350 350 500 500 650 650 800 800 1,000 1,000 1,250 1,250 1,550 1,550

1984 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 450 450 600 600 750 750 950 950 1,150 1,150 1,450 1,450 1,750 1,750 2,150

1985 0 0 0 0 500 500 600 600 800 800 1,000 1,000 1,200 1,200 1,500 1,500 1,800 1,800 2,200 2,200 2,650 2,650

Source: Internal Revenue Service, Form 6197, (Rev. 10-05), "Gas Guzzler Tax." www.irs.ustreas.gov)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

1986–90 0 500 500 650 650 850 850 1,050 1,050 1,300 1,300 1,500 1,500 1,850 1,850 2,250 2,250 2,700 2,700 3,200 3,200 3,850

1991 - on 0 1,000 1,000 1,300 1,300 1,700 1,700 2,100 2,100 2,600 2,600 3,000 3,000 3,700 3,700 4,500 4,500 5,400 5,400 6,400 6,400 7,700

(Additional resources:

4–26

Consumers who purchased these 2011 model year vehicles paid the Gas Guzzler tax.

Table 4.25 List of Model Year 2011 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes Make Aston Martin Aston Martin Aston Martin Aston Martin Aston Martin Audi Audi Audi Audi Bentley Bentley Bentley Bentley BMW BMW BMW BMW BMW BMW BMW Bugatti Cadillac Cadillac Cadillac Chevrolet Dodge Lamborghini Maserati Maserati Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz Porsche Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce

Model(s) DB9 DBS Rapide V8 Vantage V12 Vantage R8/R8 Spyder R8/R8 Spyder S5 S6 Continental Flying Spur Continental GTC Continental Supersports/Supersports Convertible Mulsanne 550i Gran Turismo 750i/Li xDrive 750Li 760 Li Alpina B7 SWB/LWB x Drive Alpina B7 SWB/LWB M3 Sedan/Coupe/Convertible Veyron CTS/CTS Wagon Funeral Coach/Hearse Limousine Corvette Challenger SRT8 Gallardo Coupe/Spyder Gran Turismo/Gran Turismo Convertible Quattroporte C63 AMG CL600 CL63/CL65 AMG CLS550 E63 AMG S550 4matic S600 S65 AMG SL550 SL63/SL65 AMG SLS AMG 911 GT3/GT3 RS Ghost Phantom Coupe/Phantom Drophead Coupe Phantom/Phantom EWB

Size class Minicompact cars Minicompact cars Subcompact cars Two seaters Two seaters Two seaters Two seaters Subcompact cars Midsize cars Midsize cars Subcompact cars Two seaters Midsize cars Large cars Large cars Large cars Large cars Large cars Large cars Subcompact cars Two seaters Midsize cars Large cars Large cars Two seaters Compact cars Two seaters Subcompact cars Large cars Compact cars Compact cars Compact cars Compact cars Midsize cars Large cars Large cars Large cars Two seaters Two seaters Two seaters Two seaters Large cars Compact cars Large cars

Combined city/highway fuel economya 13 13 15 15 13 15 14 17 16 13 13 14 13 18 17 17 15 16 17 16 10 16 14 14 16 17 16 15 14 15 14 17 16 15 17 14 14 17 14 16 16 15 14 14

Source: U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Fuel Economy Guide database, http://www.fueleconomy.gov a

Tax based on unadjusted combined fuel economy; data shown here are adjusted combined fuel economy.

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Consumers continue to demand gas guzzling cars though fewer gas guzzlers were bought in model year 2010 than in the previous seven years. The IRS collected over $85 million in 2010 from those buying cars with combined city/highway fuel economy less than 22.5 miles per gallon. This tax does not apply to light trucks such as pickups, minivans, sport utility vehicles, and vans. It is worthy to note that total revenue from fines paid by consumers to purchase gas-guzzling vehicles greatly exceeds the overall fines paid by manufacturers whose vehicles fail to meet CAFE standards (see Table 4.23).

Table 4.26 Tax Receipts from the Sale of Gas Guzzlers, 1980–2010 (thousands) Model year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Current dollars 740 780 1,720 4,020 8,820 39,790 147,660 145,900 116,780 109,640 103,200 118,400 144,200 111,600 64,100 73,500 52,600 48,200 47,700 68,300 70,800 78,200 79,700 126,700 140,800 163,800 200,200 178,700 172,428 99,300 85,226

2010 constant dollarsa 1,958 1,871 3,887 8,801 18,511 80,636 293,779 280,056 215,254 192,804 172,176 189,558 224,117 168,409 94,314 105,165 73,102 65,485 63,811 89,395 89,654 96,284 96,604 150,151 162,532 182,886 216,542 187,934 174,633 100,929 85,226

Source: Ward’s Communications, Detroit, MI, 2012. Original data source: Internal Revenue Service. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/fueleconomy/guzzler) a

Adjusted using the Consumer Price Inflation Index.

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The Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) provides vehicle simulations for a variety of research purposes. It is used by the Department of Energy to evaluate the fuel efficiency potential of advanced powertrain configurations for different driving conditions. Recently, PSAT was used to develop data on the relationship between speed and fuel economy. Table 4.27 Fuel Economy by Speed, PSAT Model Results Gasoline conventional Speed (mph)

Midsize car

Small SUV

Large SUV

Diesel conventional Midsize car

Small SUV

Hybrid vehicles

Large SUV

2000 Insighta

2004 Prius

2007 Camrya

2008 Tahoea

45

39.1

32.5

29.5

56.4

47.7

43.6

101.3

72.0

52.2

32.2

55

41.7

34.3

30.0

57.0

46.0

39.9

94.3

66.0

46.8

27.1

65

36.9

29.1

23.0

47.9

37.6

32.5

80.0

57.0

40.9

23.7

75

31.9

24.5

19.8

40.2

30.8

26.9

60.6

42.0

35.0

21.1 12.4%

Fuel economy loss 55 - 65 mph

11.5%

15.2%

23.5%

16.0%

18.3%

18.5%

15.2%

13.6%

12.6%

65 - 75 mph

13.6%

15.8%

13.8%

16.2%

18.1%

17.2%

24.3%

26.3%

14.5%

11.1%

55 - 75 mph

23.5%

28.6%

34.0%

29.6%

33.1%

32.6%

35.8%

36.4%

25.3%

22.1%

Source: Argonne National Laboratory, Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit, July 16, 2009, www.transportation.anl.gov/modeling_simulation/PSAT/. (Additional resources: www.transportation.anl.gov) a

From Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (Vehicle Test Data).

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The two earlier studies by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) indicate maximum fuel efficiency was achieved at speeds of 35 to 40 mph. The recent FHWA study indicates greater fuel efficiency at higher speeds. Note that the 1973 study did not include light trucks.

Table 4.28 Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, and 1997 Studies (miles per gallon) Speed (miles per hour)

1973a (13 vehicles)

1984b (15 vehicles)

1997c (9 vehicles)

15

d

21.1

24.4

20

d

25.5

27.9

25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

d

30.0 31.8 33.6 33.6 33.5 31.9 30.3 27.6 24.9 22.5

30.5 31.7 31.2 31.0 31.6 32.4 32.4 31.4 29.2 26.8

20.0

24.8

75 55–65 mph 65–70 mph 55–70 mph

21.1 21.1 21.1 20.3 19.5 18.5 17.5 16.2 14.9 d

Fuel economy loss 12.4% 17.8% 8.0% 9.6% 19.5% 25.7%

9.7% 8.2% 17.1%

Sources: 1973- U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Office of Highway Planning, The Effect of Speed on Automobile Gasoline Consumption Rates, Washington, DC, October 1973. 1984 - U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Fuel Consumption and Emission Values for Traffic Models, Washington, DC, May 1985. 1997 - West, B.H., R.N. McGill, J.W. Hodgson, S.S. Sluder, and D.E. Smith, Development and Verification of Light-Duty Modal Emissions and Fuel Consumption Values for Traffic Models, FHWA-RD-99-068, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, March 1999. a

Model years 1970 and earlier cars. Model years 1981–84 cars and light trucks. c Model years 1988–97 cars and light trucks as shown in Table 4.29. d Data are not available.

b

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Figure 4.2. Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, and 1997 Studies

Source: See Tables 4.27 and 4.28.

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Of the tested vehicles, the 1994 Oldsmobile Olds 88 had the greatest fuel economy loss from 55 mph to 75 mpg. The 1997 Toyota Celica tested fuel economy was slightly better at 65 mph than at 55 mph.

Table 4.29 Steady Speed Fuel Economy for Vehicles Tested in the 1997 Study (miles per gallon) 1988 Chevrolet Corsica 10.0 16.8 17.7 21.7 23.9 28.7 28.6 29.2 28.8 31.2 29.1 28.2 28.7 26.1 23.7

1993 Subaru Legacy 14.5 24.7 31.9 34.4 37.4 39.7 38.0 37.0 33.7 33.7 37.7 35.9 33.4 31.0 28.8

1994 Oldsmobile Olds 88 10.5 14.9 22.2 26.3 28.3 29.0 30.9 33.2 32.4 34.2 34.6 32.5 30.0 26.7 24.0

55–65 mph 65–75 mph

1.4% 17.4%

11.4% 13.8%

13.3% 20.0%

55–75 mph

18.6%

23.6%

30.6%

Speed (mph) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75

1994 1994 Oldsmobile Chevrolet Cutlass Pickup 5.1 7.9 7.9 16.0 11.4 16.3 12.5 19.9 15.6 22.7 19.0 26.3 21.2 24.3 23.0 26.7 23.0 27.3 27.3 26.3 29.1 25.1 28.2 22.6 25.0 21.8 22.9 20.1 21.6 18.1 Fuel economy loss 14.1% 13.1% 13.6% 17.0% 25.8%

27.9%

1994 Jeep Grand Cherokee 8.2 11.2 17.5 24.7 21.8 21.6 25.0 25.5 25.4 24.8 24.0 23.2 21.3 20.0 19.1

1994 Mercury Villager 12.3 19.0 22.4 25.8 30.8 30.3 26.1 29.0 27.8 30.1 31.7 27.3 25.3 23.9 22.4

1995 Geo Prizm 18.1 23.1 38.9 39.4 41.7 40.0 39.1 38.9 42.3 39.1 37.7 36.7 34.1 31.7 28.3

1997 Toyota Celica 19.1 34.1 41.7 46.0 52.6 50.8 47.6 36.2 44.1 44.8 42.5 48.4 43.5 39.2 36.8

11.3% 10.3%

20.2% 11.5%

9.5% 17.0%

-2.4% 15.4%

20.4%

29.3%

24.9%

13.4%

Source: B.H. West, R.N. McGill, J.W. Hodgson, S.S. Sluder, D.E. Smith, Development and Verification of Light-Duty Modal Emissions and Fuel Consumption Values for Traffic Models, Washington, DC, April 1997, and additional project data, April 1998. Note: For specifications of the tested vehicles, please see Table 4.28.

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This table shows the new methodology that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) used to determine fuel economy ratings for new vehicles beginning in model year 2008. In addition to the Urban Driving Cycle and the Highway Driving cycle, the EPA will also use three additional tests to adjust fuel economy ratings to account for higher speeds, air conditioner use, and colder temperatures. Though the EPA uses a complex combination of these five cycles to determine the fuel economy that will be posted on a new vehicle window sticker, the manufacturer’s Corporate Average Fuel Economy is still calculated using only the city and highway driving cycles. To know more about new vehicle fuel economy ratings, visit www.fueleconomy.gov.

Table 4.30 Driving Cycle Attributes

Trip type Top speed Average speed Max. acceleration Simulated distance Time Stops Idling time Engine startupa Lab temperature Vehicle air conditioning

City Low speeds in stop-and-go urban traffic

Highway Free-flow traffic at highway speeds

Test schedule High speed Higher speeds; harder acceleration & braking

AC AC use under hot ambient conditions

Cold temp City test w/colder outside temperature

56 mph 20 mph 3.3 mph/sec 11 mi. 31 min. 23 18% of time Cold 68-86° F

60 mph 48 mph 3.2 mph/sec 10 mi. 12.5 min. None None Warm 68-86° F

80 mph 48 mph 8.46 mph/sec 8 mi. 10 min. 4 7% of time Warm 68-86° F

54.8 mph 22 mph 5.1 mph/sec 3.6 mi. 9.9 min. 5 19% of time Warm 95° F

56 mph 20 mph 3.3 mph/sec 11 mi. 31 min. 23 18% of time Cold 20° F

Off

Off

Off

On

Off

Source: U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Fuel Economy Web site, www.fueleconomy.gov. a

A vehicle’s engine doesn’t reach maximum fuel efficiency until it is warm.

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These driving cycles simulate the performance of an engine while driving in the city and on the highway. Once the city cycle is completed, the engine is stopped, and then started again for the 8.5 minute hot start cycle. Three additional cycles also influence new vehicle fuel economy ratings beginning with the 2008 model year.

Figure 4.3. City Driving Cycle

Figure 4.4. Highway Driving Cycle

Source: Code of Federal Regulations, 40CFR, "Subpart B - Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles - Test Procedures," July 1, 1988 edition, p. 676.

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Beginning with the 2008 model year, these cycles influence the new vehicle fuel economy ratings.

Figure 4.5. Air Conditioning (SC03) Driving Cycle

Source: U.S. Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency, Fuel Economy Web site, www.fueleconomy.gov.

Figure 4.6. Cold Temperature (Cold FTP) Driving Cycle

Source: U.S. Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency, Fuel Economy Web site, www.fueleconomy.gov.

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Beginning with the 2008 model year, this cycle influences the new vehicle fuel economy ratings. The US06 driving cycle was originally developed as a supplement to the Federal Test Procedure. It is a short-duration cycle (600 seconds) which represents hard-acceleration driving.

Figure 4.7. High-Speed (US06) Driving Cycle

Source: U.S. Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Agency, Fuel Economy Web site, www.fueleconomy.gov.

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The Environmental Protection Agency also uses other driving cycles to test new vehicles (although these do not affect the fuel economy ratings). The New York Test Cycle was developed in the 1970's in order to simulate driving in downtown congested areas. The Representative Number Five Test Cycle was developed in the 1990's to better represent actual on-road driving by combining modern city and freeway driving.

Figure 4.8. New York City Driving Cycle

Figure 4.9. Representative Number Five Driving Cycle

Source: Data obtained from Michael Wang, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, 1997.

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Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory have estimated the fuel economy of a midsize car using driving cycles from different countries. These results illustrate the difference in fuel economy which can be obtained from the same vehicle using different test cycles.

Table 4.31 Projected Fuel Economies from U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles

Driving cycle Japanese 10/15 mode test cycle

Projected fuel economy for a 1995 composite midsize vehiclea 17.5 mpg

New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)

22.0 mpg

U.S. EPA city cycle (LA4)

19.8 mpg

U.S. EPA highway cycle

32.1 mpg

U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy cycle

23.9 mpg

Source: Santini, D., A. Vyas, J. Anderson, and F. An, Estimating Trade-Offs along the Path to the PNGV 3X Goal, presented at the Transportation Research Board 80th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 2001. Note: China and India both use the European Driving Cycle, though India uses a modified version called the Modified Indian Driving Cycle which accounts for lower maximum speeds that better represent driving conditions in India. a

The 1995 composite midsize vehicle is an average of a Chevrolet Lumina, Chrysler Concord, and Ford Taurus. The fuel economies were projected using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR) model.

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When comparing data between countries, one must realize that different countries have different testing cycles to determine fuel economy and emissions. This table compares various statistics on the European, Japanese, and U.S. testing cycles [for fuel economy measurements, the United States uses the formula, 1/fuel economy = (0.55/city fuel economy) + (0.45/highway fuel economy)]. Most vehicles will achieve higher fuel economy on the U.S. test cycle than on the European or Japanese cycles.

Table 4.32 Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles

Distance (miles)

Average speed (mph)

Maximum speed (mph)

Maximum acceleration (mph/s)

631

Percent of time stopped or decelerating 52.3

2.6

14.8

43.5

1.8

1,181

24.9

6.84

20.9

74.6

2.4

1,372

43.2

7.5

19.5

56.7

3.3

765 2,137

9.3 27.9

17.8 10.3

48.2 29.9

59.9 59.9

3.3 3.3

Time (seconds) Japanese 10/15 mode test cycle New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) U.S. EPA city cycle (LA4)a U.S. EPA highway cycle U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy cycle

Source: Santini, D., A. Vyas, J. Anderson, and F. An, Estimating Trade-Offs along the Path to the PNGV 3X Goal, presented at the Transportation Research Board 80th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 2001. Note: China and India both use the European Driving Cycle, though India uses a modified version called The Modified Indian Driving Cycle which accounts for lower maximum speeds that better represent driving conditions in India. a

The actual Federal Procedure (FTP), which is also the test for emissions certification, repeats the first 505 seconds of the Federal Urban Driving Simulation cycle, hot started, after a 10 minute hot soak. Starting with Model Year 2001, the emissions test-but not the fuel economy test-incorporates a supplemental cycle that simulates aggressive urban driving, coupled with an added air conditioning load.

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Demand response vehicles (also called paratransit or dial-a-ride) are widely used by transit agencies. The vehicles do not operate over a fixed route or on a fixed schedule. The vehicle may be dispatched to pick up several passengers at different pick-up points before taking them to their respective destinations and may even be interrupted en route to these destinations to pick up other passengers. Demand response service is provided primarily by vans. In 2007, the data changed substantially due to improved estimation methodologies. Unfortunately, those data are no longer comparable to the rest of the historical series.

Table 4.33 Summary Statistics on Demand Response Vehicles, 1994–2010

Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Number of agencies 5,214 5,214 5,214 5,214 5,214 5,252 5,252 5,251 5,251 5,346 5,960 5,960 5,960 7,300 7,200 6,700 6,741

Number of active vehicles

28,729 29,352 30,804 32,509 29,646 31,884 33,080 34,661 34,699 35,954 37,078 41,958 43,509 64,865 65,799 68,957 68,621

Vehicle-miles (millions) 463.7 506.5 548.3 585.3 670.9 718.4 758.9 789.3 802.6 864.0 889.5 978.3 1,013.0 1,471.4 1,495.2 1,529.2 1,693.6

Average miles per vehicle 16.14 17.26 17.80 18.00 22.63 22.53 22.94 22.77 23.13 24.03 23.99 23.32 23.28 22.68 22.72 22.18 24.68

Passengermiles (millions) 577 607 656 754 735 813 839 855 853 930 962 1,058 1,078 1,502 1,412 1,477 1,494

Energy use (trillion Btu) 9.5 9.2 9.9 9.8 10.4 10.6 10.8 11.3 11.6 12.9 13.3 14.8 15.5 24.7 24.7 23.1 22.8

a

Source: American Public Transportation Association, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, April 2012. (Additional resources: www.apta.com) Note: See Glossary for detailed definitions of demand response. a

Data are not continuous between 2006 and 2007 due to changes in estimation methodology. See source document for details.

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TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Chapter 5 Heavy Vehicles and Characteristics Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter

Source Table 5.1

Class 3-8 single-unit trucks, 2010 Registration (thousands) Vehicle miles (millions) Fuel economy (miles per gallon)

Table 5.2

Vehicle miles (millions) Fuel economy (miles per gallon) and 5.15

7.3 2,553 175,911 5.9

Freight Shipments, 2007 Commodity Flow Survey Value (billion dollars)

11,685

Tons (millions)

12,543

Ton-miles (billions) Table 5.16

110,674

Class 7-8 combination trucks, 2010 Registration (thousands)

Tables 5.14

8,217

Transit buses in operation, 2010

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

3,345 66,810

5–2

Class 3-8 single-unit trucks include trucks over 10,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight with the cab/engine and cargo space together as one unit. Most of these trucks would be used for business or for individuals with heavy hauling or towing needs. Very heavy single-units, such as concrete mixers and dump trucks, are also in this category. The data series was recently changed by the FHWA back to 2007.

Table 5.1 Summary Statistics for Class 3-8 Single-Unit Trucks, 1970–2010 Year 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Registrations (thousands) 3,681 4,232 4,350 4,450 4,518 4,505 4,374 4,455 4,325 4,204 4,061 4,593 4,313 4,188 4,470 4,519 4,487 4,481 4,370 4,408 4,906 5,024 5,266 5,293 5,414 5,763 5,926 5,704 5,651 5,849 6,161 6,395 6,649 8,117 8,228 8,356 8,217

Vehicle travel (million miles) 27,081 34,606 36,390 39,339 42,747 42,012 39,813 39,568 40,658 42,546 44,419 45,441 45,637 48,022 49,434 50,870 51,901 52,898 53,874 56,772 61,284 62,705 64,072 66,893 67,894 70,304 70,500 72,448 75,866 77,757 78,441 78,496 80,344 119,979 126,855 120,207 110,674

1970–2010 2000–2010

2.0% 3.3%

3.6% 4.6%

Average annual Fuel use miles per vehicle (million gallons) 7,357 3,968 8,177 5,420 8,366 5,706 8,840 6,268 9,461 6,955 9,326 7,050 9,102 6,923 8,882 6,867 9,401 6,803 10,120 6,965 10,938 7,240 9,894 7,399 10,581 7,386 11,467 7,523 11,059 7,701 11,257 7,779 11,567 8,357 11,805 8,172 12,328 8,237 12,879 8,488 12,492 9,032 12,481 9,216 12,167 9,409 12,638 9,576 12,540 9,741 12,199 9,372 11,897 9,563 12,701 9,667 13,425 10,321 13,294 8,881 12,732 8,959 12,275 9,501 12,084 9,852 14,781 16,314 15,417 17,144 14,386 16,253 13,469 15,072 Average annual percentage change 1.5% 3.4% 1.2% 4.7%

Fuel economy (miles per gallon) 6.8 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.8 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.2 6.5 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.8 7.0 7.0 7.5 7.4 7.5 7.4 8.8 8.8 8.3 8.2 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.3 0.2% -0.1%

Source: U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2010, Washington, DC, 2012, Table VM1 and annual. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov) a

Due to FHWA methodology changes, data from 2007-on are not comparable with previous data.

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a

5–3

Class 7-8 combination trucks include all trucks designed to be used in combination with one or more trailers with a gross vehicle weight rating over 26,000 lbs. The average vehicle travel of these trucks (on a per truck basis) far surpasses the travel of other trucks due to long-haul freight movement. The data series was recently changed by the FHWA back to 2007.

Table 5.2 Summary Statistics for Class 7-8 Combination Trucks, 1970–2010 Year 1970 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Registrations (thousands) 905 1,131 1,417 1,261 1,265 1,304 1,340 1,403 1,408 1,530 1,667 1,707 1,709 1,691 1,675 1,680 1,681 1,696 1,747 1,790 1,831 2,029 2,097 2,154 2,277 1,908 2,010 2,087 2,170 2,635 2,585 2,617 2,553

Vehicle travela (million miles) 35,134 46,724 68,678 69,134 70,765 73,586 77,377 78,063 81,038 85,495 88,551 91,879 94,341 96,645 99,510 103,116 108,932 115,451 118,899 124,584 128,159 132,384 135,020 136,584 138,737 140,160 142,370 144,028 142,169 184,199 183,826 168,100 175,911

1970–2010 2000–2010

2.6% 2.0%

4.1% 2.7%

Average annual Fuel use miles per vehicle (million gallons) 38,822 7,348 41,312 9,177 48,467 13,037 54,825 13,509 55,941 13,583 56,431 13,796 57,744 14,188 55,640 14,005 57,555 14,475 55,879 14,990 53,120 15,224 53,825 15,733 55,202 16,133 57,153 16,809 59,409 17,216 61,379 17,748 64,802 18,653 68,073 19,777 68,059 20,192 69,600 20,302 69,994 21,100 65,246 24,537 64,387 25,666 63,409 25,512 60,930 26,480 73,459 23,815 70,831 24,191 69,012 27,689 65,516 28,107 69,905 30,904 71,113 30,561 64,234 28,050 68,904 29,885 Average annual percentage change 1.4% 3.6% 0.7% 1.5%

Fuel economy (miles per gallon) 4.8 5.1 5.3 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.1 6.1 5.4 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.9 5.9 5.2 5.1 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.9 0.5% 1.1%

Source: U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2010, Washington, DC, 2012, Table VM1 and annual. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov) a b

The Federal Highway Administration changed the combination truck travel methodology in 1993. Due to FHWA methodology changes, data from 2007-on are not comparable with previous data.

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5–4

Truck sales rose in 2010 and 2011 for the first time since the sales peak in 2004. Trucks under 10,000 lbs. continue to dominate truck sales.

Table 5.3 New Retail Truck Sales by Gross Vehicle Weight, 1970–2011a (thousands) Calendar year

Class 1 6,000 lbs. or less

Class 2 6,001– 10,000 lbs.

1970b 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985

1,049 1,101 1,318 1,306 1,334 1,271 985 896 1,102 1,314 2,031 2,408

408 952 1,401 1,803 2,140 1,574 975 850 961 1,207 1,224 1,280

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

3,380 3,435 3,467 3,313 3,451 3,246 3,608 4,119 4,527 4,422 4,829 5,085 5,263 5,707 5,965 6,073 6,068 6,267 6,458 6,586 6,136 5,682 4,358 3,528 4,245 4,714

1,214 1,175 1,333 1,297 1,097 876 1,021 1,232 1,506 1,631 1,690 1,712 2,036 2,366 2,421 2,525 2,565 2,671 2,796 2,528 2,438 2,623 1,888 1,306 1,513 1,735

1970–1985 1986–2011 2001–2011

5.7% 1.3% -2.5%

7.9% -1.4% -3.7%

Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 Class 6 10,001– 14,001– 16,001– 19,501– 14,000 lbs. 16,000 lbs. 19,500 lbs. 26,000 lbs. Domestic sales (import data are not available) 6 12 58 133 23 1 9 159 c 9 153 43 36 3 5 163 73 6 3 156 15 3 3 146 c 2 90 4 c 2 72 1 c 1 44 1 c c 1 47 c 5 55 6 c 5 48 11 Domestic and import sales c 12 6 45 14 2 8 44 14 21 8 54 19 27 7 39 21 27 5 38 21 24 3 22 26 26 4 28 27 33 4 27 35 44 4 20 40 53 4 23 52 59 7 19 53 57 9 18 102 43 25 32 122 49 30 48 117 47 29 51 102 52 24 42 80 38 24 45 91 40 29 51 107 47 36 70 167 49 46 60 150 50 49 70 166 51 45 54 135 36 40 39 112 20 24 22 161 12 31 29 195 10 42 41 Average annual percentage change 4.1% -15.1% -6.6% 8.1% -0.4% 11.8% 6.9%d 6.7% -15.2% 5.8% -0.2%

Class 7 26,001– 33,000 lbs.

Class 8 33,001 lbs. and over

Total

36 23 22 28 41 50 58 51 62 59 78 97

89 83 97 141 162 174 117 100 76 82 138 134

1,791 2,351 3,043 3,485 3,915 3,236 2,231 1,972 2,248 2,710 3,538 3,983

101 103 103 93 85 73 73 81 98 107 104 114 115 130 123 92 69 67 75 89 91 70 49 39 38 41

113 131 148 145 121 99 119 158 186 201 170 179 209 262 212 140 146 142 203 253 284 151 133 95 107 171

4,870 4,912 5,149 4,942 4,846 4,365 4,903 5,681 6,421 6,481 6,930 7,226 7,826 8,716 8,965 9,050 9,035 9,357 9,793 9,777 9,268 8,842 6,680 5,145 6,137 6,951

2.8% -1.7% -2.0%

5.5% 1.4% -2.6%

6.8% -3.5% -7.8%

Source: Ward’s Communication’s, Motor Vehicle Facts and Figures 2011, Southfield, MI, 2011, p. 27, and annual; 20102011: Ward’s Communications, www.wardsauto.com. (Additional resources: www.wardsauto.com) a

Sales include domestic-sponsored imports. Data for 1970 is based on new truck registrations. c Data are not available. d 1987-2011. b

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The Census Bureau has discontinued the Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey; it was not conducted in 2007. The 2002 data remain the latest available.

Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey The Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS), which was formerly the Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS), provides data on the physical and operational characteristics of the Nation's truck population. It is based on a probability sample of private and commercial trucks registered (or licensed) in each state. In 1997, the survey was changed to the Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey due to future possibilities of including additional vehicle types. The 2002 VIUS, however, only includes trucks. Copies of the 2002 VIUS report or CD may be obtained by contacting the U.S. Bureau of the Census, Transportation Characteristics Surveys Branch (301) 457-2797. Internet site: www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html Since 1987, the survey has included minivans, vans, station wagons on truck chassis, and sport utility vehicles in addition to the bigger trucks. The 1977 and 1982 surveys did not include those vehicle types. The estimated number of trucks that were within the scope of the 2002 VIUS and registered in the United States as of July 1, 2002 was 85.2 million. These trucks were estimated to have been driven a total of 1,115 billion miles during 2002, an increase of 6.8% from 1997. The average annual miles traveled per truck was estimated at 13,100 miles. In the 2002 VIUS, there are several ways to classify a truck by weight. The survey respondent was asked the average weight of the vehicle or vehicle-trailer combination when carrying a typical payload; the empty weight (truck minus cargo) of the vehicle as it was usually operated; and the maximum gross weight at which the vehicle or vehicle-trailer combination was operated. The Census Bureau also collected information on the Gross Vehicle Weight Class of the vehicles (decoded from the vehicle identification number) and the registered weight of the vehicles from the State registration files. Some of these weights are only provided in categories, while others are exact weights. Since all these weights could be quite different for a single truck, the tabulations by weight can be quite confusing. In the tables presented here, the Gross Vehicle Weight Class was used.

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Table 5.4 Truck Statistics by Gross Vehicle Weight Class, 2002

Manufacturer's gross vehicle weight class 1) 6,000 lbs and less 2) 6,001 – 10,000 lbs Light truck subtotal 3) 10,001 – 14,000 lbs 4) 14,001 – 16,000 lbs 5) 16,001 – 19,500 lbs 6) 19,501 – 26,000 lbs Medium truck subtotal 7) 26,001 – 33,000 lbs 8) 33,001 lbs and up Heavy truck subtotal Total

Number of trucks 51,941,389 28,041,234 79,982,623 691,342 290,980 166,472 1,709,574 2,858,368 179,790 2,153,996 2,333,786 85,174,776

Percentage of trucks 61.0% 32.9% 93.9% 0.8% 0.3% 0.2% 2.0% 3.4% 0.2% 2.5% 2.7% 100.0%

Average annual miles per truck 11,882 12,684 12,163 14,094 15,441 11,645 12,671 13,237 30,708 45,739 44,581 13,088

Harmonic mean fuel economy 17.6 14.3 16.2 10.5 8.5 7.9 7.0 8.0 6.4 5.7 5.8 13.5

Percentage of fuel use 42.7% 30.5% 73.2% 1.1% 0.5% 0.3% 3.2% 5.2% 0.9% 20.7% 21.6% 100.0%

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, Microdata File on CD, 2005. (Additional resources: www.census.gov/svsd/www.tiusview.html)

Table 5.5 Truck Harmonic Mean Fuel Economy by Size Class, 1992, 1997, and 2002 (miles per gallon) Manufacturer's gross vehicle weight class 1) 6,000 lbs and less 2) 6,001–10,000 lbs Light truck subtotal 3) 10,000–14,000 lbs 4) 14,001–16,000 lbs 5) 16,001–19,500 lbs 6) 19,501–26,000 lbs Medium truck subtotal 7) 26,001–33,000 lbs 8) 33,001 lbs and over Large truck subtotal

1992 TIUS 17.2 13.0 15.7 8.8 8.8 7.4 6.9 7.3 6.5 5.5 5.6

1997 VIUS 17.1 13.6 15.8 9.4 9.3 8.7 7.3 8.6 6.4 5.7 6.1

2002 VIUS 17.6 14.3 16.2 10.5 8.5 7.9 7.0 8.0 6.4 5.7 5.8

Sources: Estimates are based on data provided on the following public use files: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census of Transportation, Washington, DC, 1992 Truck Inventory and Use Survey, 1995; 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, 2000, and 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, 2005. (Additional resources: www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html) Note: Based on average fuel economy as reported by respondent.

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As expected, most light trucks travel within 50 miles of their home base and refuel at public stations. About sixty percent of heavy trucks travel over 50 miles from their home base and 36% of them refuel at central companyowned refueling stations.

Table 5.6 Truck Statistics by Size, 2002

Under 50 miles 51–100 miles 101–200 miles 201–500 miles 501 miles or more Off-road Vehicle not in use Not reported Total Gas station Truck stop Own facility Other nonpublic facility Other All

Manufacturer's gross vehicle weight class Medium Light (10,001– Heavy (< 10,000 lbs) 26,000 lbs) (> 26,000 lbs) Range of operation 69.2% 61.5% 40.7% 8.5% 11.7% 13.5% 2.4% 3.2% 6.7% 1.1% 1.8% 7.6% 1.4% 2.2% 10.4% 1.1% 3.5% 3.2% 2.2% 4.4% 3.2% 14.1% 11.7% 14.7% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Primary refueling facility 96.9% 62.4% 28.4% 0.7% 7.7% 31.9% 2.0% 27.3% 36.2% 0.3% 2.6% 3.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Total 68.2% 8.7% 2.5% 1.3% 1.7% 1.2% 2.3% 14.1% 100.0% 93.9% 1.8% 3.7% 0.5% 0.0% 100.0%

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, Microdata. File on CD, 2005. (Additional resources: www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html)

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More medium truck owners listed construction as the truck’s major use than any other major use category. Construction was the second highest major use for light trucks and heavy trucks.

Table 5.7 Percentage of Trucks by Size Ranked by Major Use, 2002

Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Light (< 10,000 lbs average weight) Personal 81.5% Construction 4.6% Other servicesa 2.5% Not in use 2.2% Agriculture 1.9% Retail 1.5% Unknown 1.3% Leasing 0.7% Manufacturing 0.7% Utilities 0.6% Waste management 0.6% Wholesale 0.6% Information services 0.4% For hire 0.4% Food services 0.3% Arts 0.2% Mining 0.1%

Medium (10,001 – 26,000 lbs average weight) Construction 18.4% Agriculture 16.2% For hire 9.6% Retail 7.1% Not in use 6.4% Leasing 6.2% Wholesale 5.5% Waste management 5.4% Utilities 5.0% Personal 4.8% Unknown 4.4% Manufacturing 3.3% Other servicesa 3.2% Food services 1.6% Information services 1.3% Mining 1.1% Arts 0.5%

Heavy (> 26,000 lbs average weight) For hire 30.1% Construction 15.9% Agriculture 12.2% Retail 5.4% Not in use 5.1% Waste management 5.0% Manufacturing 4.9% Wholesale 4.8% Leasing 4.6% Unknown 3.2% Personal 2.5% Mining 2.4% Other servicesa 1.3% Utilities 1.1% Food services 1.1% Arts 0.3% Information services 0.1%

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, Micro data File on CD, 2005. (Additional resources: www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html) a

Business and personal services.

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Nearly half of trucks in fleets of 11-20 and 21-50 vehicles use company-owned facilities. Most trucks in smaller fleets use public gas stations for fueling.

Table 5.8 Percentage of Trucks by Fleet Size and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002

Truck fleet size 1–5 6–10 11–20 21–50 51 or more Fleets of 6 or more vehicles No fleet

Gas station 73.8% 55.3% 41.1% 42.9% 48.3% 47.6% 96.4%

Primary refueling facility Truck stop Own facility 6.1% 18.2% 5.7% 35.5% 5.1% 48.9% 3.7% 49.8% 6.3% 44.4% 5.2% 1.6%

43.9% 1.7%

Other's facility 1.9% 3.4% 4.9% 3.6% 1.0%

Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

3.4% 0.3%

100.0% 100.0%

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, Microdata File CD, 2005. (Additional resources: www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

on

5–10

Most trucks are fueled at gas stations but for-hire or warehousing trucks are more often fueled at truck stops. Mining trucks and vehicle leasing or rental trucks fuel at the companies’ own facility more than 30% of the time.

Table 5.9 Share of Trucks by Major Use and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002 Major use Personal Other services All Information services Retail trade Construction Accommodation or food services Manufacturing Arts, entertainment, recreation services Waste mgmt, landscaping, admin/support services Wholesale trade Utilities Agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting Vehicle leasing or rental Mining For-hire or warehousing

Gas station 98.6% 96.0% 93.9% 92.3% 86.6% 84.7% 82.4% 81.5% 81.1% 78.2% 76.2% 72.6% 62.7% 60.2% 48.7% 33.3%

Truck stop 0.6% 1.4% 1.8% 0.4% 3.5% 3.3% 7.5% 5.1% 4.3% 3.0% 6.6% 1.8% 6.7% 1.3% 8.5% 38.7%

Own facility 0.7% 1.6% 3.7% 7.2% 8.6% 9.8% 8.8% 11.9% 14.2% 17.1% 12.0% 24.3% 29.4% 31.8% 34.3% 25.8%

Others facility 0.1% 0.9% 0.5% 0.1% 1.2% 2.2% 1.3% 1.5% 0.3% 1.6% 5.1% 1.3% 1.0% 6.8% 8.5% 2.3%

Other 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

Overall

93.90%

1.80%

3.70%

0.50%

0%

All 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.00%

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, Microdata File on CD, 2005. (Additional resources: www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html)

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The figure below shows the distribution of annual travel the two types of Class 7 and 8 vehicles–combination units (separate tractor and trailer) and single units (tractor and trailer on a single chassis). This information is for vehicles two years old or less and comes from the 2002 VIUS. Combination trucks, dominated by box-type trailers, display the greatest amount of annual travel of all heavy vehicle types, as is evidenced both by the range of annual use which is up to 250,000 miles per year, and the peaking that occurs in the 100,000 to 140,000-mile segments. Most of the single-unit trucks in the survey travel 40,000 miles per year or less.

Figure 5.1. Distribution of Trucks over 26,000 lbs. Less than Two Years Old by Vehicle-Miles Traveled

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey, Microdata File on CD, 2005. (Additional resources: www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html) Note: Heavy trucks (class 7 & 8) are greater than 26,000 pounds gross vehicle weight based on the manufacturer’s rating.

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The latest Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey asked truck owners if the truck had certain features as permanent equipment on the truck. Some of the features asked about were onboard computers, idle-reduction devices, navigational systems, and Internet access. Of the 2.3 million heavy trucks (class 7 & 8) in the United States, nearly 10% were equipped with onboard computers that had communication capabilities and another 5% had onboard computers without communication capabilities. Six percent of heavy trucks were equipped with idle-reducing technology. Navigational systems and Internet access were available in less than one percent of heavy trucks.

Figure 5.2. Share of Heavy Trucks with Selected Electronic Features, 2002

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2002 Vehicle Inventory and User Survey, Microdata File on CD, 2005. Note: Heavy trucks (class 7 & 8) are greater than 26,000 pounds gross vehicle weight based on the manufacturer’s rating.

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Fuel Economy Study for Class 8 Trucks As part of a long-term study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in conjunction with several industry partners has collected data and information related to heavy-truck operation in real-world highway environments. The primary objective of the project was to collect real-world performance and spatial data for long-haul operations of Class 8 tractor-trailers from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Six model year 2005 Class 8 trucks from the selected fleet, which operates within a large area of the country extending from the east coast to Mountain Time Zone and from Canada to the US-Mexican border, were instrumented and 60 channels of data were collected for over a year at a rate of 5 Hz (or 5 readings per second). Those channels included information such as instantaneous fuel rate, engine speed, gear ratio, vehicle speed, and other information read from the vehicle’s databus; weather information (wind speed, precipitation, air temperature, etc.) gathered from an on-board weather station; spatial information (latitude, longitude, altitude) acquired from a GPS (Global Positioning System) device; and instantaneous tractor and trailer weight obtained from devices mounted on the six participating tractors and ten trailers. Three of the six instrumented tractors and five of the ten instrumented trailers were mounted with New Generation Single Wide-Based Tires and the others with regular dual tires. Over the duration of this phase of the project (just over a year) the six tractors traveled nearly 700,000 miles. To find out more about this project, contact Oscar Franzese, [email protected], 865-946-1304. The final report on this project is available on-line at: cta.ornl.gov/cta/Publications/Reports/ORNL_TM_2008-122.pdf.

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The type of terrain a truck is traveling on can cause significant differences in fuel efficiency. This study (see page 5–13 for project description) shows fuel economy on severe upslopes is less than half that on flat terrain. On severe downslopes, the fuel economy was two times higher than on flat terrain.

Table 5.10 Effect of Terrain on Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy

Type of terrain Severe upslope (>4%) Mild upslope (1% to 4%) Flat terrain (1% to 1%) Mild downslope (-4% to -1%) Severe downslope ( 0.00 mph) to 85 mph, while the four main columns of the table are organized by the type of tires that were mounted on the tractor and trailers. The first row of the table contains information about fuel consumed while the vehicle was idling (i.e., the vehicle was static with the engine on) with the following rows presenting information about the distance traveled, fuel consumed, and fuel economy for each one of the speed intervals. The next-to-the-last row shows the totals for both traveled distances and fuel consumed as well as the overall fuel economy for each tire-combination category. The latter are then used to compute the percentage difference in terms of fuel economy from dual tire tractors and trailers, which is the most common tire setup for large trucks at the present time.

Table 5.11 Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination

Speed (mph) Idling 0+ to 5 5+ to 10 10+ to 15 15+ to 20 20+ to 25 25+ to 30 30+ to 35 35+ to 40 40+ to 45 45+ to 50 50+ to 55 55+ to 60 60+ to 65

Dual tire tractor – dual tire trailer Distance Fuel Fuel traveled cons. econ. (miles) (gal) (MPG) N/A 1,858.5 N/A 281 101.8 2.76 674 198.8 3.39 723 192.0 3.77 744 199.1 3.73 938 228.4 4.11 1,178 266.9 4.41 1,481 336.8 4.40 1,917 403.5 4.75 2,955 584.1 5.06 4,935 907.9 5.43 9,397 1,629.8 5.77 20,656 3,297.2 6.26 38,964 5,879.6 6.63

65+ to 70 70+ to 75 75+ to 85 Totala

58,304 56,378 7,849 207,374

Percent increase in fuel economy from dual tire trac/trail

8,313.2 7,483.2 808.2 30,831.0

7.01 7.53 9.71 6.73

0.00%

Dual tire tractor – Single (wide) tire tractor – single (wide) tire trailer dual tire trailer Distance Fuel Fuel Distance Fuel Fuel traveled cons. econ. traveled cons. econ. (miles) (gal) (MPG) (miles) (gal) (MPG) N/A 967.9 N/A N/A 1,676.4 N/A 148 50.4 2.93 368.0 124.2 3.0 368 103.2 3.56 808.0 245.4 3.3 396 98.3 4.03 848.0 216.5 3.9 404 100.9 4.00 882.0 221.6 4.0 489 113.6 4.31 1,111.0 244.2 4.6 609 131.5 4.63 1,420.0 286.9 5.0 753 154.2 4.88 1,774.0 341.1 5.2 1,000 193.6 5.17 2,284.0 433.6 5.3 1,543 285.9 5.40 3,380.0 603.6 5.6 2,573 447.7 5.75 5,410.0 872.8 6.2 4,962 811.5 6.11 10,046.0 1,622.7 6.2 11,707 1,721.9 6.80 22,373.0 3,257.8 6.9 21,472 2,980.8 7.20 34,517.0 4,840.0 7.1 NOT ADJUSTED FOR TERRAIN: See note below. 27,931 3,652.2 7.65 65,063.0 9,256.4 7.0 21,751 2,745.5 7.92 66,882.0 8,435.6 7.9 3,610 403.2 8.95 11,513.0 911.1 12.6 99,714 13,994.0 7.13 228,680.0 31,913.0 7.2

5.93%

Single (wide) tire tractor single (wide) tire trailer Distance Fuel Fuel traveled cons. econ. (miles) (gal) (MPG) N/A 706.0 N/A 156 52.8 2.96 331 98.8 3.35 343 87.0 3.95 361 90.5 3.98 462 101.1 4.57 580 117.6 4.93 708 141.1 5.02 941 184.3 5.10 1,350 254.4 5.31 2,177 360.4 6.04 3,877 625.5 6.20 8,710 1,246.9 6.99 14,944 2,049.4 7.29 27,144 32,887 6,817 101,790

6.53%

3,880.1 4,056.1 512.2 13,858.0

7.00 8.11 13.31 7.35

9.20%

Source: Capps, Gary, Oscar Franzese, Bill Knee, M.B. Lascurain, and Pedro Otaduy. Class-8 Heavy Truck Duty Cycle Project Final Report, ORNL/TM-2008/122, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, December 2008. (Additional resources: cta.ornl.gov/cta/publications.shtml#2008) Note: These data were not adjusted to account for the effects of terrain. The increase in fuel economy for speeds above 70 mph is likely due to the vehicle achieving high speeds while traveling down slope. Therefore, this increase in fuel economy is not expected to be characteristic of all travel at these higher speeds. a

Total Fuel Consumed does not include fuel consumed while idling.

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The fuel economy information presented in Table 5.11 is on the upper limits of today’s large-truck fleets and is mostly a result of driver training and the extensive vehicle maintenance (including constant tire pressure) to which the fleet company participating in this project adheres. Nevertheless, the results of this extensive test indicate that there are substantial gains in terms of fuel economy for large trucks when single (wide) tires are used in combination with dual tires or alone (best case). Figure 5.3 shows the information from Table 5.10 in a graphical form (bars) and also displays for each speed bin the percentage of the total distance that is traveled at that speed (line). It is possible to observe that above 80% of the distance traveled by long-haul Class 8 trucks is done at speeds above 55 mph. Therefore, any gains in fuel economies at these speeds derived from a given tire combination would have a very large impact on the overall fuel economy of these types of trucks. Figure 5.3 shows that, except for the D-S combination within the 65+ to 70 mph, the combinations with all single (wide) tires perform better and, therefore, obtain the largest overall fuel economy.

Figure 5.3. Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed NOT ADJUSTED FOR TERRAIN: See note below.

Source: Capps, Gary, Oscar Franzese, Bill Knee, M.B. Lascurain, and Pedro Otaduy. Class-8 Heavy Truck Duty Cycle Project Final Report, ORNL/TM-2008/122, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, December 2008. Note: D = Dual tire. S = Single (wide) tire. These data were not adjusted to account for the effects of terrain. The increase in fuel economy for speeds above 70 mph is likely due to the vehicle achieving high speeds while traveling down slope. Therefore, this increase in fuel economy is not expected to be characteristic of all travel at these higher speeds.

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This graph presents for each one of the four tire-combination categories the percent of total fuel that is consumed when traveling at different speeds (bars) as well as the average percent of fuel consumed for each speed bin (line). As opposed to Table 5.10, the total fuel consumed on this graph includes the fuel consumed while idling.

Figure 5.4. Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination NOT ADJUSTED FOR TERRAIN: See note below.

Source: Capps, Gary, Oscar Franzese, Bill Knee, M.B. Lascurain, and Pedro Otaduy. Class-8 Heavy Truck Duty Cycle Project Final Report, ORNL/TM-2008/122, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, December 2008. Note: D = Dual tire. S = Single (wide) tire. These data were not adjusted to account for the effects of terrain. The increase in fuel economy for speeds above 70 mph is likely due to the vehicle achieving high speeds while traveling down slope. Therefore, this increase in fuel economy is not expected to be characteristic of all travel at these higher speeds.

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A typical class 8 truck tractor weighs about 17,000 lbs. The powertrain is nearly a quarter of the weight (24%) while the truck body structure is 19%.

Table 5.12 Class 8 Truck Weight by Component

Wheels and tires Chassis/frame Drivetrain and suspension Misc. accessories/systems Truck body structure Powertrain Total

Pounds 1,700 2,040 2,890 3,060 3,230 4,080 17,000

Share of total 10% 12% 17% 18% 19% 24% 100%

Source: National Academy of Sciences, Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, prepublication copy, March 2010, p. 5-42. Notes: • Powertrain includes engine and cooling system, transmission and accessories. • Truck body structure includes cab-in-white, sleeper unit, hood and fairings, interior and glass. • Miscellaneous accessories/systems include batteries, fuel system, and exhaust hardware. • Drivetrain and suspension includes drive axles, steer axle, and suspension system. • Chassis/frame includes frame rails and crossmembers, fifth wheel and brackets. Wheels and tires include a set of 10 aluminum wheels, plus tires.

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The gross weight of a vehicle (GVW) is the weight of the empty vehicle plus the weight of the maximum payload that the vehicle was designed to carry. In cars and small light trucks, the difference between the empty weight of the vehicle and the GVW is not significantly different (1,000 to 1,500 lbs). The largest trucks and tractor-trailers, however, have a payload capacity share of 200%, which means they can carry 200% of their empty weight. The medium-sized trucks (truck classes 3-6) have payload capacity shares between 50% and 100%.

Table 5.13 Gross Vehicle Weight vs. Empty Vehicle Weight

Vehicle description Cars Minivans, small SUVs, small pick-ups Large SUVs, standard pickups Large SUVs, standard pickups Utility van, multi- purpose, mini-bus, step van City delivery, parcel delivery, large walk-in, bucket, landscaping City delivery, parcel delivery, large walk-in, bucket City delivery, school bus, large walk-in, bucket City bus, furniture, refrigerated, refuse, fuel tanker, dump, tow, concrete, fire engine, tractor-trailer Refuse, concrete, furniture, city bus, tow, fire engine (straight trucks) Tractor-trailer: van, refrigerated, bulk tanker, flat bed (combination trucks)

Gross vehicle weight range (pounds) 3,200-6,000

Empty vehicle weight range (pounds) 2,400-5,000

Maximum payload capacity (pounds) 1,000

Payload capacity share (percent of empty weight) 20%

1

4,000-2,400

3,200-4,500

1,500

33%

2a

6,001-8,500

4,500-6,000

2,500

40%

2b

8,501-10,000

5,000-6,300

3,700

60%

3

10,001-14,000

7,650-8,750

5,250

60%

4

14,001-16,000

7,650-8,750

7,250

80%

5

16,001-19,500

9,500-10,000

8,700

80%

6

19,501-26,000

11,500-14,500

11,500

80%

7

26,001-33,000

11,500-14,500

18,500

125%

8a

33,001-80,000

20,000-26,000

54,000

200%

8b

33,001-80,000

20,000-26,000

54,000

200%

Truck class

Source: National Academy of Sciences, Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, prepublication copy, March 2010, pp. 2-2 and 5-42.

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According to weigh-in-motion data collected by fifteen states, the majority of 5-axle tractor-trailers on the road weigh between 33,000 and 73,000 lbs. Eleven percent of the tractor-trailers had weight recorded around 72,800 lbs and 10% around 68,300 lbs. Another 10% of tractor-trailers were on the lighter end of the scale – around 37,500 lbs. These data show that only a small percent of trucks on the road are near the maximum roadway gross vehicle weight of 80,000 lbs. Thus, most trucks are filling the trailer space to capacity (cubing-out) before they reach the maximum weight limit (weighing-out).

Figure 5.5. Distribution of Class 8 Trucks by On-Road Vehicle Weight, 2008a

Source: National Academy of Sciences, Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, prepublication copy, March 2010, p. 5-45. Original source: Federal Highway Administration, Vehicle Travel Information System, 2008. Note: Data are from these 15 States: California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, and Washington. a

Study reported data on 5-axle tractor-trailers which are class 8 trucks. Single-unit class 8 trucks were not considered in the study.

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Commodity Flow Survey The Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) is designed to provide data on the flow of goods and materials by mode of transport. The 1993, 1997, 2002, and 2007 CFS are a continuation of statistics collected in the Commodity Transportation Survey from 1963 through 1977, and include major improvements in methodology, sample size, and scope.

The 2007 CFS covers business establishments with paid

employees that are located in the United States and are classified using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) in mining, manufacturing, wholesale trade, and select retail trade industries, namely, electronic shopping and mail-order houses. Establishments classified in services, transportation, construction, and most retail industries are excluded from the survey. Farms, fisheries, foreign establishments, and most government-owned establishments are also excluded.a The 1993, 1997, 2002, and 2007 CFS differ from previous surveys in their greatly expanded coverage of intermodalism (i.e., shipments which travel by at least two different modes, such as rail and truck). Earlier surveys reported only the principal mode. Route distance for each mode for each shipment was imputed using methodologies developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Distance, in turn, was used to compute ton-mileage by mode of transport. The data can be viewed at: www.bts.gov/publications/commodity_flow_survey.

a

Bureau of Transportation Statistics and U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2007 Economic Census, 2007 Commodity Flow Survey, December 2008.

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Industries covered by the 2007 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) shipped over 12 billion tons of goods worth over $11 trillion. Compared to the 1997 CFS, the value of shipments is up 1.3% per year and tons shipped are up 1.6% per year. By value, intermodal shipments increased 4.7% per year from 1997 to 2007.

Table 5.14 Growth of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys (Detail may not add to total because of rounding) Value of goods shipped

Mode of transportation All modes Single modes Trucka For-hire truck Private truck Rail Water Shallow draft Great Lakes Deep draft Air (includes truck and air) Pipelineb Multiple modes Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier Truck and rail Truck and water Rail and water Other multiple modes Other and unknown modes

1997 (billion 2007 dollars) 8,970.5 7,388.8 6,435.3 3,748.0 2,630.8 412.9 97.9 69.6 1.9 26.4 296.0 146.6 1,221.9

2002 (billion 2007 dollars) 9,678.0 8,124.6 7,186.0 4,330.2 2,818.3 359.5 102.9 66.3 0.9 35.7 305.4 172.0 1,243.8

1,105.7 97.8 10.6 2.3 5.6 359.9

1,138.5 80.6 16.6 3.8 4.4 309.6

Tons

2007 (billions) 11,684.9 9,539.0 8,335.8 4,955.7 3,380.1 436.4 114.9 91.0

Average annual percent change (1997-2007) 2.7% 2.6% 2.6% 2.8% 2.5% 0.6% 1.6% 2.7%

b

b

23.1 252.3 399.6 1,866.7

-1.3% -1.6% 10.5% 4.3%

1997 (millions) 11,089.7 10,436.5 7,700.7 3,402.6 4,137.3 1,549.8 563.4 414.8 38.4 110.2 4.5 618.2 216.7

1,561.9 187.2 58.4 13.9 45.3 279.1

3.5% 6.7% 18.6% 19.7% -8.0% -2.5%

23.7 54.2 33.2 79.3 26.2 436.5

2002 (millions) 11,667.9 11,086.7 7,842.8 3,657.3 4,149.7 1,873.9 681.2 458.6 38.0 184.6 3.8 685.0 216.7 25.5 43.0 23.3 105.1 19.8 364.6

2007 (millions) 12,543.4 11,698.1 8,778.7 4,075.1 4,703.6 1,861.3 403.6 343.3 17.8 42.5 3.6 650.9 573.7

Average annual percent change 1.2% 1.1% 1.3% 1.8% 1.3% 1.8% -3.3% -1.9% -7.4% -9.1% -2.2% 0.5% 10.2%

33.9 225.6 145.5 54.9 113.8 271.6

3.6% 15.3% 15.9% -3.6% 15.8% -4.6%

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics and U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2007 Commodity Flow Survey, Table 1a. (Additional resources: www.bts.gov/ publications/commodity-flow-survey) a

"Truck" as a single mode includes shipments which went by private truck only, for-hire truck only, or a combination of private truck and for-hire truck. b Denotes data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or poor response quality. c CFS data for pipeline exclude most shipments of crude oil.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Industries covered by the 2007 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) accounted for 3.3 trillion ton-miles on the nation’s highways, railways, waterways, pipelines, and aviation system. Ton-miles increased an average of 2.7% per year from 1997 to 2007.

Table 5.15 Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys (Detail may not add to total because of rounding) Ton-miles

Mode of transportation All modes Single modes Trucka For-hire truck Private truck Rail Water Shallow draft Great Lakes Deep draft Air (includes truck and air) Pipelineb Multiple modes Parcel, U.S. Postal Service or courier Truck and rail Truck and water Rail and water Other multiple modes Other and unknown modes

1997 (billions) 2,661.4 2,383.5 1,023.5 741.1 268.6 1,022.5 261.7 189.3 13.4 59.0 6.2

2002 (billions) 3,137.9 2,867.9 1,255.9 959.6 291.1 1,261.6 282.7 211.5 13.8 57.4 5.8

2007 (billions) 3,344.7 2,894.3 1,342.1 1,055.6 286.5 1,344.0 157.3 117.5 6.9 33.0 4.5

Average miles per shipment Average annual percent change (1997-2007) 2.3% 2.0% 2.7% 3.6% 0.6% 2.8% -5.0% -4.7% -6.4% -0.1% -3.2%

1997 472 184 144 485 53 769 482 177 204 1,024 1,380 c

2002 546 240 173 523 64 807 568 450 339 664 1,919

2007 619 234 206 599 57 728 520 144 657 923 1,304

Average annual percent change 2.7% 2.4% 3.6% 2.1% 0.7% -0.5% 0.8% -2.0% 12.4% -1.0% -0.6%

c

c

c

c

c

c

c

204.5

225.7

416.6

7.4%

813

895

975

1.8%

18.0 55.6 34.8 77.6 18.6 73.4

19.0 45.5 32.4 115.0 13.8 44.2

28.0 196.8 98.4 47.1 46.4 33.8

4.5% 13.5% 11.0% -4.9% 0.1% -7.5%

813 1,347 1,265 1,092

894 1,413 1,950 957

975 1,007 1,429 1,928 1,182 116

1.8% -2.9% 1.2% 5.8%

c

122

c

130

c

-0.5%

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics and U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 2007 Commodity Flow Survey, Table 1a. (Additional resources: www.bts.gov/publications/commodity-flow-survey) a

"Truck" as a single mode includes shipments which went by private truck only, for-hire truck only, or a combination of private truck and for-hire truck. b CFS data for pipeline exclude most shipments of crude oil. c Denotes data do not meet publication standards because of high sampling variability or other reasons. Some unpublished estimates can be derived from other data published in this table. However, figures obtained in this manner are subject to these same limitations.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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In 2007, the data changed substantially due to improved estimation methodologies. Unfortunately, those data are no longer comparable to the rest of the historical series.

Table 5.16 Summary Statistics on Transit Buses and Trolleybuses, 1994–2010

Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Number of active buses 68,766 67,802 72,353 73,425 72,788 74,885 75,665 76,675 76,806 78,000 81,630 82,642 83,689 65,808 67,096 65,363 66,810

Vehicle-miles (millions) 2,176 2,198 2,234 2,259 2,188 2,290 2,329 2,389 2,425 2,435 2,484 2,498 2,507 2,314 2,388 2,345 2,425

Passengermiles (millions) 19,019 19,005 19,280 19,793 20,542 21,391 21,433 22,209 22,029 21,438 21,550 21,998 22,985 21,132 21,918 21,645 21,172

Btu/passengermile 4,262 4,307 4,340 4,434 4,399 4,344 4,531 4,146 4,133 4,213 4,364 4,250 4,316 4,372 4,348 4,242 4,118

Energy use (trillion Btu) 81.1 81.9 83.7 87.8 90.4 92.9 97.1 92.1 91.1 90.3 94.0 93.5 99.2 92.4 95.3 91.8 87.2

a

Source: American Public Transportation Association, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, April 2012, Tables 6, 8, 9, 15, and Appendix A. (Additional resources: www.apta.com) a

Data are not continuous between 2006 and 2007 due to changes in estimation methodology. See source document for details.

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Chapter 6 Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles and Characteristics Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter Source Table 6.1

Alternative fuel vehicles in use, 2010 E85

618,505

LPG

143,037

CNG

115,863

Electric

Table 6.6

938,642

57,462

LNG

3,354

M85

0

Number of alternative fuel refuel sites, 2012

14,086

LPG

2,670

CNG

988

Electric

7,197

Biodiesel

630

Hydrogen

56

Fuel type abbreviations are used throughout this chapter. B20 = 20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel CNG = compressed natural gas E85 = 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline E95 = 95% ethanol, 5% gasoline = hydrogen H2 LNG = liquefied natural gas LPG = liquefied petroleum gas M85 = 85% methanol, 15% gasoline M100 = 100% methanol

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Alternative Fuels The Energy Policy Act of 1992 defines alternative fuels and allows the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to add to the list of alternative fuels if the fuel is substantially nonpetroleum, yields substantial energy security benefits, and offers substantial environmental benefits. DOE currently recognizes the following as alternative fuels: • • • • • • • • • •

methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols, blends of 85% or more of alcohol with gasoline, natural gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), coal-derived liquid fuels, hydrogen, electricity, biodiesel (BIOO), fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, P-series.

Alternative Fuels & Advanced Vehicles Data Center DOE established the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) in 1991 to support its work aimed at fulfilling the Alternative Motor Fuels Act directives. Since then, the AFDC has expanded its focus to include all advanced transportation fuels, vehicles, and technologies. It has been renamed the Alternative Fuels & Advanced Vehicles Data Center to reflect this broader scope. The AFDC is operated and managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. The purposes of the AFDC are: •

to gather and analyze information on the fuel consumption, emissions, operation, and durability of alternative fuel vehicles, and



to provide unbiased, accurate information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles to government agencies, private industry, research institutions, and other interested organizations.

Much of the AFDC data can be obtained through their Web site: www.afdc.energy.gov. Several tables and graphs in this chapter contain statistics which were generated by the AFDC. Below are some links to specific areas of the AFDC Web site.

Alternative & Advanced Fuels – http://www.afdc.energy.gov Alternative Fueling Station Locator - http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/locator/stations/ Alternative & Advanced Vehicles - http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/index.html Fleet Information - http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/fleets/index.html State & Federal Incentives & Laws - http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/laws/ Data Analysis & Trends - http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/data/index.html

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There are over 938,000 alternative fuel vehicles in the United States, not including flex-fuel E85 vehicles which operate mainly on gasoline. The E85 vehicles in this table are those believed to be regularly fueled with E85.

Table 6.1 Estimates of Alternative Fuel Highway Vehicles in Usea, 1995–2010 E85b

E95

Electricityc

386

1,527

136

2,860

0

246,855

172

4,536

361

3,280

0

265,006

21,040

172

9,130

347

4,453

0

280,205

1,172

19,648

200

12,788

14

5,243

0

295,030

1,681

18,964

198

24,604

14

6,964

0

322,302

100,750

2,090

10,426

0

87,570

4

11,830

0

394,664

185,053

111,851

2,576

7,827

0

100,303

0

17,847

0

425,457

2002

187,680

120,839

2,708

5,873

0

120,951

0

33,047

0

471,098

2003

190,369

114,406

2,640

0

0

179,090

0

47,485

9

533,999

2004

182,864

118,532

2,717

0

0

211,800

0

49,536

43

565,492

2005

173,795

117,699

2,748

0

0

246,363

0

51,398

119

592,122

2006

164,846

116,131

2,798

0

0

297,099

0

53,526

159

634,559

2007

158,254

114,391

2,781

0

0

364,384

0

55,730

223

695,763

2008

151,049

113,973

3,101

0

0

450,327

0

56,901

313

775,664

2009

147,030

114,270

3,176

0

0

504,297

0

57,185

357

826,315

2010

143,037

115,863

3,354

0

0

618,505

0

57,462

421

938,642

-1.3%

5.7%

12.1%

-100.0%

Year

LPG

1995

172,806

1996

175,585

1997

CNG

LNG

M85

M100

50,218

603

18,319

60,144

663

20,265

175,679

68,571

813

1998

177,183

78,782

1999

178,610

91,267

2000

181,994

2001

Hydrogen

Total

Average annual percentage change 1995-2010

-100.0%

49.2%

-100.0%

22.1%

9.3%

Source: U. S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels, 2010, Washington, DC, May 2012, Web site www.eia.gov/renewable/afv/. 1995-2006, Annual Energy Review, Table 10.4. Estimated Number of Alternative-Fueled Vehicles in Use and Replacement Fuel Consumption. a

Vehicles in Use represent accumulated acquisitions, less retirements, as of the end of each calendar year. They do not include concept and demonstration vehicles. b Includes only those E85 vehicles believed to be used as alternative-fuels vehicles (AFVs), primarily fleetoperated vehicles; excludes other vehicles with E85-fueling capability. In 1997, some vehicle manufacturers began including E85-fueling capability in certain model lines of vehicles. For 2007, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that the number of E85 vehicles that are capable of operating on E85, motor gasoline, or both, is about 7.1 million. Many of these AFVs are sold and used as traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. c Excludes HEVs.

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Trollybus, heavy rail, and light rail use nearly all alternative fuels. However, the 33.5% of buses using alternative fuels replace a lot of traditional fuel use. Rail transit vehicles have the highest average age.

Table 6.2 Alternative Fuel Transit Vehicles, 2010

Mode Bus Commuter rail Ferry boat Heavy rail Light rail Paratransit Trolleybus Vanpool

Average age 7.5 20.5 17.8 21.9 15.8 3.5 8.9 4.0

Percent powered by alternative fuels 33.5% 11.3% 47.6% 100.0% 98.3% 8.0% 100.0% a

Number of vehicles 66,239 6,927 196 11,510 2,104 66,621 571 12,378

Source: American Public Transportation Association, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, April 2012, Appendix A. (Additional resources: www.apta.com) Note: See Glossary for definition of modes, such as paratransit and vanpool. a

Not available.

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Table 6.3 Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012 Model Fuel Bentley: 1-800-777-6923; www.bentleymotors.com Continental Supersports E85 flex fuel Continental GTC E85 flex fuel Continental Flying Spur E85 flex fuel Chrysler: 1-800-999-FLEET; www.fleet.chrysler.com Chrysler 200S E85 flex fuel Chrysler 300 E85 flex fuel Chrysler Town & Country E85 flex fuel Dodge Avenger E85 flex fuel Dodge Charger E85 flex fuel Dodge Charger Police E85 flex fuel Dodge Grand Caravan E85 flex fuel Dodge Durango 2WD, 4WD E85 flex fuel Dodge Journey E85 flex fuel Dodge Ram 1500 E85 flex fuel Jeep Grand Cherokee E85 flex fuel Ram 2500/3500 HD B20 Ford: 1-800-34-FLEET; www.fleet.ford.com; www.fordvehicles.com Ford E-150, E-250, E-350 CNG/LPG capable Ford E350 FFV 2WD E85 flex fuel Ford E-Series E-150/E-350 E85 flex fuel Ford Escape FWD, 4WD E85 flex fuel Ford Expedition 2WD, 4WD E85 flex fuel Ford F-150 E85 flex fuel Ford F-250/F-350 E85 flex fuel Ford Fusion E85 flex fuel Ford Super Duty F-250/F-350 B20 Ford Super Duty F-250/F-350 CNG/LPG capable Ford Super Duty F-450 B20 Ford Transit Connect CNG/LPG capable Lincoln Navigator 2WD, 4WD E85 flex fuel Lincoln Town Car E85 flex fuel Mercury Grand Marquis E85 flex fuel Mercury Mariner FWD E85 flex fuel Mercury Milan AWD E85 flex fuel Police Interceptor FWD, 4WD E85 flex fuel General Motors Corporation: 1-888-GM-AFT-4U; www.gm.com/vehicles Buick LaCrosse E85 flex fuel Buick LaCrosse E85 flex fuel Buick Regal Turbo E85 flex fuel Cadillac Escalade AWD, 2WD E85 flex fuel Cadillac SRX 2WD, 4WD E85 flex fuel Chevrolet Avalanche 1500 2WD, 4WD E85 flex fuel Chevrolet Caprice Police Package E85 flex fuel Chevrolet Equinox AWD, FWD E85 flex fuel Chevrolet Express 1500 2WD, 4WD E85 flex fuel Chevrolet Express 2500/3500 GNG Chevrolet Express 2500/3500 B20 Chevrolet HHR E85 flex fuel Chevrolet Impala E85 flex fuel Chevrolet Impala Police Package E85 flex fuel Chevrolet Malibu E85 flex fuel Chevrolet Silverado 1500 2WD, 4WD E85 flex fuel Chevrolet Silverado 2500/3500 HD B20 Chevrolet Suburban 1500 E85 flex fuel Chevrolet Tahoe 1500 2WD, 4WD E85 flex fuel Chevrolet Tahoe Police Package E85 flex fuel

Type

Emission class

Small car Small car Midsize

Tier 2 Bin 5 Tier 2 Bin 5 Tier 2 Bin 5

Sedan Sedan Minivan Sedan Sedan Sedan Minivan SUV SUV Pickup SUV Pickup

Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 5 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 5 N/A Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 5 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 4 Fed. HD 1

Van/wagon Van Van/wagon SUV SUV Pickup Pickup Sedan Pickup Pickup Pickup Van SUV Sedan Sedan SUV Sedan Sedan

N/A Tier 2 Bin 8 Tier 2 Bin 8 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 8 Tier 2 Bin 5 Fed. HD N/A Fed. HD N/A Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 5 Tier 2 Bin 4

Sedan Sedan Sedan SUV Sedan SUV Sedan SUV Van Van Van SUV Sedan Sedan Sedan Pickup Pickup SUV SUV SUV

N/A N/A Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 5 N/A Tier 2 Bin 5 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 5 N/A Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 5 N/A Tier 2 Bin 5 Tier 2 Bin 5 Tier 2 Bin 4

Continued on next page.

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Table 6.3 (continued) Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2011 Model General Motors Corporation (continued) GMC Sierra 1500 2WD, 4WD GMC Sierra 2500/3500 HD GMC Savana 1500 2WD, 4WD GMC Savana 2500/3500 GMC Terrain FWD, AWD GMC Yukon 1500 2WD, 4WD GMC Yukon Denali 2WD, 4WD Honda: 1-888-CC-HONDA; www.honda.com Civic NGV

Fuel

Type

Emission class

E85 flex fuel B20 E85 flex fuel B20 E85 flex fuel E85 flex fuel E85 flex fuel

Pickup Pickup Van Van SUV SUV SUV

Tier 2 Bin 5 N/A Tier 2 Bin 4 N/A Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 5 Tier 2 Bin 5

CNG Dedicated

Sedan

LEV II , AT-PZEV, Tier 2 Bin 2

Mazda: 1-800-866-1998; www.mazdausa.com Tribute 2WD FFV E85 flex fuel SUV Mercedes-Benz USA: 1-800-FOR-MERCEDES; www.mbusa.com C300 4Matic E85 flex fuel Sedan Nissan: 1-800-NISSAN-1; www.nissanusa.com Armada 4WD E85 flex fuel SUV Titan E85 flex fuel Pickup Tesla Motors: 1-650-681-5000; www.teslamotors.com Roadster 2.5 Electric Two-seater Toyota: 1-800-331-4331; www.toyota.com Sequoia 4WD E85 flex fuel SUV Tundra 4WD E85 flex fuel Pickup Vehicle Production Group: 1-877-MV1-FORU (1-877-681-3678); www.vpgautos.com VPG CNG dedicated SPV Volkswagen: 1-800 DRIVEVW; www.volkswagen.com Routan E85 flex fuel SUV

Tier 2 Bin 4 LEV II, LEV, Tier 2 Bin 5 LEV II, LEV, Tier 2 Bin 5 LEV II, LEV, Tier 2 Bin 5 ZEV, Tier 2 Bin 1 Tier 2 Bin 5 Tier 2 Bin 5 LEV II SULEV Tier 2 Bin 4

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, National Alternative Fuels Data Center, Web site, www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/index.html, March 2012. (Additional resources: www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/) Note: LEV=low emission vehicle. ILEV=inherently low emission vehicle. ULEV=ultra low emission vehicle. ZEV=zero emission vehicle. TLEV=transitional low emission vehicle. SULEV=super ultra low emission vehicle. See Chapter 12 for details on emissions.

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The hybrid share of all light vehicles peaked in 2009 with 2.8% of the market. Plug-in vehicles certified for highway use began selling in 2010.

Table 6.4 Hybrid and Plug-in Vehicle Sales, 1999-2011

Calendar year 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Hybrid vehicle sales (thousands) 0.0 9.4 20.3 36.0 47.6 84.2 205.9 251.9 351.1 315.8 290.3 274.6 266.5

Plug-in vehicle sales (thousands) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 17.8

All light vehicle sales (thousands) 16,894 17,350 17,122 16,816 16,639 16,867 16,948 16,504 16,089 13,195 10,402 11,555 12,734

Hybrid share of all light vehicles 0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 1.2% 1.5% 2.2% 2.4% 2.8% 2.4% 2.1%

Plug-in share of all light vehicles 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1%

Sources: Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Sales – Compiled by the Transportation Research Center at Argonne National Laboratory, 2012. All Light Vehicle Sales – Table 3.11. Note: Plug-in vehicle sales include only those vehicles certified for highway use. Small electric carts and neighborhood electric vehicles are excluded.

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Table 6.5 Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012 Model Battery typea Type BMW: 1-800-831-1117; www.bmwusa.com ActiveHybrid 5 NiMH Sedan ActiveHybrid 7 NiMH Sedan ActiveHybrid 7L NiMH Sedan Ford: 1-800-34-FLEET; www.fleet.ford.com; www.fordvehicles.com Ford Escape Hybrid NiMH SUV Ford Focus-Electric Li-ion Sedan Ford Fusion Hybrid NiMH Sedan Ford Transit Connect Li-ion Van Lincoln MKZ FWD NiMH Sedan Mercury Mariner Hybrid NiMH SUV Mercury Milan FWD Hybrid NiMH Sedan General Motors: 1-888-GM-AFT-4U; www.gm.com/vehicles Buick LaCrosse Hybrid Li-ion Sedan Buick Regal Hybrid Li-ion Sedan Cadillac Escalade Hybrid 2WD, 4WD NiMH SUV Chevrolet Silverado 1500 Hybrid 2WD NiMH Pickup Chevrolet Tahoe 1500 Hybrid 2WD, 4WD NiMH SUV Chevrolet Volt PHEV Sedan GMC Sierra 1500 Hybrid 2WD, 4WD NiMH Pickup GMC Yukon 1500 Hybrid 2WD, 4WD NiMH SUV Honda: 1-888-CC-HONDA: www.honda.com Civic Hybrid Li-ion Small car CR-Z NiMH Small car FCX Hydrogen fuel cell Sedan Fit EV Li-ion Small car Insight NiMH Compact car Hyundai: 1-800-633-5151; www.hyundaiusa.com Sonata Hybrid Li-Polymer Sedan Infiniti: 1-800-662-6200; www.infinitiusa.com M35h Hybrid NiMH Sedan Kia: 1-800-333-4KIA (1-800-333-4542); www.kia.com Optima Li-poly Sedan Lexus: 1-800-255-3987; www.lexus.com Lexus CT 200h NiMH Compact car Lexus GS 450h NiMH Small car Lexus HS 250h NiMH Small car Lexus LS 600h L NiMH Sedan Lexus RX 450h AWD NiMH SUV Mercedes-Benz USA: 1-800-FOR-MERCEDES; www.mbusa.com S400 Hybrid Li-ion Sedan F-cell Hydrogen fuel cell Sedan Mitsubishi: 1-888-MITSU2012 (1-888-648-7820); www.mitsubishicars.com MiEV Li-ion Subcompact Nissan: 1-800-NISSAN-1; www.nissanusa.com Altima Hybrid NiMH Sedan Leaf Li-ion Sedan Porsche: 1-800-PORSCHE (1-800-767-7243); www.porsche.com/usa/ Cayenne S Hybrid NiMH SUV Panamera S Hybrid NiMH Sedan Toyota: 1-800-331-4331; www.toyota.com Camry Hybrid NiMH Sedan Highlander AWD Hybrid NiMH SUV Prius Hybrid NiMH Sedan Prius Plug-In Hybrid Li-ion Sedan Prius V NiMH Station wagon RAV4 EV Li-ion Small SUV

Emission class N/A Tier 2 Bin 5 Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII, SULEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 ZEV, Tier 2 Bin 1 PZEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 ZEV, Tier 2 Bin 1 LEVII, SULEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII, SULEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII, SULEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 N/A Tier 2 Bin 4 Tier 2 Bin 5 Tier 2 Bin 5 Tier 2 Bin 5 SULEV Tier 2 Bin 5 Tier 2 Bin 5 LEV II, AT-PZEV, Tier 2 Bin 2 LEV II, AT-PZEV, Tier 2 Bin 2 CARB ZEV, Tier 2 Bin 1 CARB ZEV, Tier 2 Bin 1 LEV II, AT-PZEV, Tier 2 Bin 2 LEV II, SULEV, Tier 2 Bin 2 LEV II, ULEV, Tier 2 Bin 5 LEV II, SULEV LEV II, SULEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII, SULEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII, SULEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 LEV II, SULEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII, SULEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII, SULEV, Tier 2 Bin 4 CARB ZEV, Tier 2 Bin 1 CARB ZEV, Tier 2 Bin 1 LEV II, SULEV, Tier 2 Bin 5 CARB ZEV, Tier 2 Bin 1 LEV II, ULEV, Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII, ULEV, Tier 2 Bin 5 LEVII, AT-PZEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII, SULEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII, AT-PZEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII, AT-PZEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 LEVII, AT-PZEV, Tier 2 Bin 3 CARB ZEV, Tier 2 Bin 1

Continued on next page.

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Table 6.5 (continued) Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012 Model Battery typea Volkswagen: 1-800-DRIVE VW; www.volkswagen.com Touareg Hybrid NiMH Wheego Electric Cars: 1-678-904-4795; www.wheego.net Wheego Life Li-Iron-ion

Type

Emission class

SUV

Tier 2 Bin 5

Compact

CARB ZEV, Tier 2 Bin 1

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, National Alternative Fuels Data Center, Web site, www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/index.html, March 2012 (Additional resources: www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/) Note: LEV = low emission vehicle; ILEV = inherently low emission vehicle; ULEV = ultra-low emission vehicle; ZEV = zero emission vehicle; TLEV = transitional low emission vehicle; SULEV = super ultra-low emission vehicle; AT-PZEV = avanced technology - partial zero emissions vehicle. See Chapter 12 for details on emissions. a

NiMH = Nickel-Metal Hydride; PbA = Lead-Acid; Mild hybrid = A vehicle that shuts down the engine when coasting, breaking or stopped while continuing to power accessories. There is however, no electric drivetrain like that found on a full hybrid vehicle.

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This list includes public and private refuel sites; therefore, not all of these sites are available to the public.

Table 6.6 Number of Alternative Refuel Sites by State and Fuel Type, 2012 State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Totals by Fuel:

B20 sites 7 0 14 5 49 14 3 1 2 15 25 8 7 8 3 4 7 4 2 3 7 7 13 5 3 4 6 2 5 3 4 6 25 144 2 21 6 23 8 2 30 1 44 13 5 1 12 32 0 2 13 630

CNG sites 11 1 30 6 228 28 14 1 2 18 20 0 8 28 10 0 5 1 14 1 6 20 17 3 2 10 2 6 9 4 24 10 108 23 2 15 69 12 33 5 5 0 6 34 81 3 11 15 1 18 8 988

E85 sites 20 0 34 20 59 81 1 1 3 65 53 1 9 216 154 172 39 32 2 0 24 5 121 362 2 104 1 69 23 0 4 10 81 31 75 88 16 8 34 0 102 100 44 60 4 0 15 20 3 124 6 2,498

Electric sites 4 0 43 31 1,718 100 93 0 72 475 81 59 19 245 40 41 20 0 20 3 262 163 480 84 6 67 0 0 28 33 84 6 367 211 0 70 4 415 45 11 86 0 195 570 30 14 128 674 7 93 0 7,197

Hydrogen sites 0 0 1 0 23 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 9 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 56

LNG sites 1 0 1 0 35 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 47

LPG sites 106 8 67 46 227 58 14 3 0 71 55 3 28 70 182 21 37 41 22 8 18 21 64 38 40 59 46 19 41 11 10 50 36 63 18 68 56 31 70 6 27 17 75 480 29 4 58 67 9 50 22 2,670

Totals by Statea 149 9 190 108 2,339 282 128 6 79 644 234 72 71 568 389 238 108 78 61 15 317 217 699 492 53 245 55 96 109 51 126 82 626 472 98 264 151 489 192 24 252 118 364 1,163 150 23 225 808 21 287 49 14,086

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center Web site, www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/fuels/stations counts.html, February 2012. a

Totals by State is the total number of fuel types available at stations. Stations are counted once for each type of fuel

available.

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Clean Cities is a locally-based government/industry partnership, coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy to expand the use of alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. By combining the decision-making with voluntary action by partners, the "grass-roots" approach of Clean Cities departs from traditional "top-down" Federal programs.

Figure 6.1. Clean Cities Coalitions

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuel Data Center, March 2012. www.eere.energy.gov/cleancities/progs/coalition_locations.php)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

(Additional resources:

6–12

Vehicle Technologies Program www.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels The Vehicle Technologies Program is administered by the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The mission of this program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that enable America to use less petroleum. The long-term aim is to develop "leap frog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, with lower costs and lower impacts on the environment. For additional information about the Vehicle Technologies Program, visit the Web site listed above.

Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center hydrogen.pnl.gov/ The Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center was developed to provide reliable data and information for hydrogen-related analytical activities. The Center’s Web site includes: •

Hydrogen Data Book - contains a wide range of factual information on hydrogen and fuel cells. hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen/article/103.



Hydrogen Glossary – contains acronyms and terms used commonly in the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center.



Related Sites - provides links to other sites with data relevant to hydrogen and fuel cell analysis.



Guidelines and Assumptions for DOE Hydrogen Program Analysis - contains guidelines for conducting analysis (under development) and assumptions.



Calculator Tools - provides tools to perform conversions of hydrogen and other calculations relevant to hydrogen and fuel cells.



Analysis Tools - provides links to models and other tools relevant to hydrogen and fuel cells, such as H2A, GREET, PSAT, VISION, MOVES, and other transportation and energy models.

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Table 6.7 Properties of Conventional and Alternative Fuels Property

Gasoline

No. 2 diesel

Methanol

Ethanol

Chemical formula Physical state Molecular weight Composition (weight %) Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen

C4 to C12 Liquid 100–105

C8 to C25 Liquid ~200

CH3OH Liquid 32.04

C2H5OH Liquid 46.07

85–88 12–15 0

87 13 0

37.5 12.6 49.9

52.2 13.1 34.7

Main fuel source(s) Specific gravity (60˚ F/ 60˚ F) Density (lb/gal @ 60˚ F) Boiling temperature (F˚) Freezing point (F˚) Autoiginition temperature (F˚) Reid vapor pressure (psi)

Crude oil 0.72–0.78 6.0–6.5 80–437 -40 495 8–15

Crude oil 0.85 7.079 356–644 -40–30 ~600 30,000 miles All

1 and under 2% 2% 5% 7% 10% 11% 9% 16% 18% 13% 6% 100%

2 3% 3% 6% 10% 10% 11% 11% 15% 15% 11% 5% 100%

< 1,000 miles 1 - 2,000 miles 2 - 4,000 miles 4 - 6,000 miles 6 - 8,000 miles 8 - 10,000 miles 10 - 12,000 miles 12 - 15,000 miles 15 - 20,000 miles 20 - 30,000 miles >30,000 miles All

8 4% 4% 9% 11% 12% 13% 11% 13% 12% 9% 3% 100%

9 4% 4% 9% 12% 12% 11% 11% 13% 13% 8% 3% 100%

3 4 3% 3% 2% 3% 7% 7% 9% 8% 11% 11% 11% 11% 11% 11% 14% 15% 17% 17% 12% 11% 4% 3% 100% 100% Vehicle age (years) 10 11-15 4% 6% 4% 5% 10% 11% 12% 14% 11% 14% 12% 12% 11% 10% 12% 10% 14% 9% 7% 7% 3% 3% 100% 100%

5 3% 3% 6% 8% 10% 11% 12% 15% 16% 11% 4% 100%

6 4% 3% 7% 10% 12% 12% 11% 14% 14% 10% 4% 100%

16-20 9% 7% 16% 14% 13% 10% 8% 8% 7% 4% 2% 100%

Over 20 19% 8% 19% 14% 12% 7% 6% 5% 5% 3% 2% 100%

7 3% 3% 9% 10% 12% 12% 11% 13% 14% 9% 3% 100%

Source: Generated from the Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 2009 National Household Travel Survey Web site: nhts.ornl.gov. (Additional resources: nhts.ornl.gov)

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The average driver makes three trips per day with an average of 9.7 miles for each trip.

Table 8.13 Household Vehicle Trips, 2009 NHTS

1990 1995 2001 2009

Number of daily vehicle trips (per driver) 3.3 3.6 3.4 3.0

Average vehicle trip length (miles) 8.9 9.1 9.9 9.7

Daily vehicle miles of travel (per driver) 28.5 32.1 32.7 29.0

Source: National Household Travel Survey Web site: nhts.ornl.gov.

Figure 8.5. Average Daily Miles Driven (per Driver), 2009 NHTS

Source: National Household Travel Survey Web site: nhts.ornl.gov.

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Table 8.14 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel (per Vehicle) by Number of Vehicles in the Household, 2009 NHTS

Number of household vehicles 1 2 3 4 5 More than 5 All

Daily miles per vehicle 2001 2009 25.6 29.1 27.5 32.7 24.2 31.3 23.0 30.2 21.1 27.6 18.4 27.2 25.2 31.1

Source: 2009 National Household Travel Survey, nhts.ornl.gov.

Table 8.15 Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS Vehicle number One-vehicle household 1 Two-vehicle household 1 2 Three-vehicle household 1 2 3 Four-vehicle household 1 2 3 4 Five-vehicle household 1 2 3 4 5 Six-vehicle household 1 2 3 4 5 6

Average daily miles

Average annual miles

Average age (years)

29.0

10,600

9.0

43.6 21.4

15,900 7,800

7.6 9.0

50.7 28.2 14.0

18,500 10,300 5,100

7.9 9.1 11.8

56.2 33.2 20.3 9.9

20,500 12,100 7,400 3,600

8.5 8.8 11.4 13.2

57.8 34.0 22.7 14.2 6.3

21,100 12,400 8,300 5,200 2,300

8.5 9.4 12.3 12.7 16.8

61.4 38.1 26.3 17.5 10.4 4.4

22,400 13,900 9,600 6,400 3,800 1,600

10.2 9.8 12.2 12.5 14.5 17.9

Source: 2009 National Household Travel Survey, nhts.ornl.gov.

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Figure 8.6. Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS

Source: 2009 National Household Travel Survey, nhts.ornl.gov.

Figure 8.7. Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS

Source: 2009 National Household Travel Survey, nhts.ornl.gov.

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According to the U.S. Census data, the percentage of workers who car pooled has dropped from 19.7% in 1980 to 10.4% in 2010. The percent of workers using public transit declined from 6.4% to 5.3% in the ten-year period between 1980 and 1990, but stayed relatively the same from 1990 to 2010 (~5.0%). The average travel time increased by 3.6 minutes from 1980 to 2010. The American Community Survey (ACS) now collects journey-to-work data on an annual basis. It shows the average commute time as 25.3 minutes in 2010.

Table 8.16 Means of Transportation to Work, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 1980 Census Number of workers (thousands) Share 81,258 84.1% 62,193 64.4% 19,065 19.7% 6,175 6.4%

Means of transportation Private vehicle Drove alone Car pooled Public transportation Bus or trolley busa

3,925 a

Streetcar or trolley car Subway or elevated Railroad

Ferryboat Taxicab Motorcycle Bicycle Walked only Other means Worked at home Total workers Average travel time (minutes)

b

1,529 554 b

167 419 468 5,413 703 2,180 96,617 21.7

1990 Census Number of workers (thousands) Share 99,593 86.5% 84,215 73.2% 15,378 13.4% 6,070 5.3% 3.0%

3,207

2.5%

3,705

2.7%

78 1,755 574

0.1% 1.5% 0.5%

73 1,886 658

0.1% 1.5% 0.5%

90

0.1%

2,294 744

1.6% 0.5%

37 179 237 467 4,489 809 3,406 115,070 22.4

0.0% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 3.9% 0.7% 3.0% 100.0%

44 200 142 488 3,759 901 4,184 128,279 25.5

0.0% 0.2% 0.1% 0.4% 2.9% 0.7% 3.3% 100.0%

40 164 305 717 3,962 1,216 5,760 139,255 25.3

0.0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 2.8% 0.9% 4.1% 100.0%

b

1.6% 0.6% 0.2% 0.4% 0.5% 5.6% 0.7% 2.3% 100.0%

2010 ACS Number of workers (thousands) Share 120,259 86.4% 105,841 76.0% 14,418 10.4% 6,873 4.9%

3,445

4.1%

b

2000 Census Number of workers (thousands) Share 112,736 87.9% 97,102 75.7% 15,635 12.2% 6,068 4.7%

Sources: 1980-1990 data - Provided by the Journey-to-Work and Migration Statistics Branch, Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census 2000 data - U.S. Bureau of the Census, Journey to Work: 2000, Tables 1 and 2, 1990-2000, March 2004 (www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/journey.html). 2010 data – U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2010 American Community Survey, Tables B08301 and S0802. (Additional resources: www.census.gov)

a b

This category was "Bus or streetcar" in 1980. Data are not available.

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Table 8.17 Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density

All classes detached single All classes other 25,000/sq. mile all other

Share of vehicles in density type 77.0% 23.0% 81.6% 18.4% 75.5% 24.5% 42.5% 57.5% 17.8% 82.2% 9.8% 90.2%

Hours per vehicle per day 0.92 0.99 0.91 0.91 0.94 1.03 0.96 1.15 1.02 1.05 0.72 1.23

Miles per vehicle per day 29.6 27.4 31.6 29.5 26.0 25.9 25.1 24.6 18.5 22.3 14.8 26.9

Average vehicle speed (miles/hour) 32.0 27.7 34.7 32.5 27.5 25.1 26.1 21.5 18.2 21.3 20.5 21.9

Source: Generated from the 2009 National Household Survey Web site: nhts.ornl.gov.

Table 8.18 Housing Unit Characteristics, 2009 Share of occupied housing units Type of housing unit New construction (< = 4 years) Manufactured/mobile homes Geographic location (Census Region) Northeast Midwest South West Tenure Owner Renter All occupied units

% with garage or carport

4.3% 6.1%

82.3% 38.6%

18.3% 22.7% 37.2% 21.8%

52.5% 73.8% 60.2% 80.8%

68.4% 31.6% 111,806 units

79.8% 37.5% 66.4%

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2009 American Housing Survey, Table 2-7. (Additional information: www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/h150-09.pdf.)

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The average commute time increased to 25.3 minutes in 2010. Two thirds of workers travel less than 30 minutes to work. In 1990, 15.9% of workers commuted less than 15 minutes; in 2010, 28.1% enjoyed the short commute.

Table 8.19 Workers by Commute Time, 1990, 2000 and 2010 Commute time Less than 15 minutes 15–29 minutes 30–39 minutes 40–59 minutes 60 minutes or more Average travel time (minutes)

1990 15.9% 51.6% 14.7% 9.0% 5.9% 22.4

2000 30.1% 36.3% 15.7% 10.7% 7.3% 25.5

2010 28.1% 36.5% 16.3% 11.1% 8.0% 25.3

Sources: 1990 - U. S. Department of Transportation, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Journey-to-Work Trends in the United States and its Major Metropolitan Area, 1960–1990, FHWA-PL-94-012, Cambridge, MA, 1994, p. 2-6. 2000 - U.S. Bureau of the Census, Journey to Work: 2000, Tables 1 and 2, 1990-2000, March 2004. 2010 - U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2010 American Community Survey, Tables S0802 and B08303. (Additional resources: www.census.gov)

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8–23

Sales of bicycles with wheel sizes of 20 inches and over have grown at an average annual rate of 1.4% from 1981 to 2010. Bicycle sales experienced a large decline in 2009, which brought total sales to 14.9 million—a new low in the 18-year series, but then sales rose to 19.8 million in 2010.

Table 8.20 Bicycle Sales, 1981–2010 (millions) Wheel sizes of 20 inches and over a 8.9 a 6.8 a 9.0 a 10.1 a 11.4 a 12.3 a 12.6 a 9.9 a 10.7 a 10.8 a 11.6 3.7 11.6 3.8 13.0 4.2 12.5 4.1 12.0 4.5 10.9 4.2 11.0 4.7 11.1 5.9 11.6 9.0 11.9 5.4 11.3 5.9 13.6 5.6 12.9 5.3 13.0 5.8 14.0 5.5 12.7 5.4 12.8 5.1 13.4 4.7 10.2 6.3 13.5 Average annual percentage change a 1.4% -3.5% 1.3% Wheel sizes under 20 inches

1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1981–2010 2000–2010

All wheel sizes a a a a a a a a a a a

15.3 16.8 16.7 16.1 15.4 15.2 15.8 17.5 20.9 16.7 19.5 18.5 18.3 19.8 18.2 18.2 18.5 14.9 19.8 a

-0.5%

Source: 1981–1996: Bicycle Manufacturers Association. 1997–on: National Bicycle Dealers Association. (Additional resources: www.nbda.com) a

Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

8–24

In 2009, 4.5% of walk trips and 10.9% of bike trips were to/from work. Forty-seven percent of all bike trips were for social/recreational purposes. Nearly 15% of walk trips were shopping trips.

Figure 8.8. Walk and Bike Trips by Trip Purpose, 2009 NHTS

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 2009 National Household Travel Survey Web site: nhts.ornl.gov.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

8–25

In 2009 only data on daily trips were collected in the NHTS. The 2001 data are still the latest available on longdistance trips.

Long Distance Trips – 2001 National Household Travel Survey The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) collected data on long-distance trips as well as everyday travel. The everyday travel data is a continuation of the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS), while the long-distance travel data is a continuation of the American Travel Survey (ATS) which was collected in 1977 and 1985. The survey collected trip-related data such as mode of transportation, duration, distance and purpose of trip. It also gathered demographic, geographic, and economic data for analysis purposes. A long-distance trip is defined as a trip of 50 miles or more, one-way. Long-trip data from the 2001 NHTS were released in the summer of 2004. For additional information about the 2001 NHTS data, contact the Bureau of Transportation Statistics at 202-366-3282 or visit the following Web site: www.bts.gov/programs/national_household_travel_survey.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

8–26

Table 8.21 Long-Distance Tripa Characteristics, 2001 NHTS

Trip characteristic Total Principal means of transportation: Personal use vehicles Airplane Commercial airplane Busb Intercity bus Charter, tour, or school bus Train Round trip distance: 100 to 300 miles 300 to 499 miles 500 to 999 miles 1,000 to 1,999 miles 2,000 miles or more Mean (miles) Median (miles) Calendar quarter: 1st quarter 2nd quarter 3rd quarter 4th quarter Main purpose of trip: Commuting Other business Personal/leisure Personal business Other Nights away from home: None 1 to 3 nights 4 to 7 nights 8 or more nights Destination: Within Census division Across Census division, within Census Across Census region

Person trips (thousands) (percent) 2,554,068 100.0

Person miles (thousands) (percent) 1,138,322,697 100.0

2,310,376 165,039 158,880 52,962 3,456 45,952 20,672

90.5 6.5 6.2 2.1 0.1 1.8 0.8

735,882,255 367,888,741 361,717,015 23,747,433 1,765,696 21,019,942 9,266,373

64.7 32.3 31.8 2.1 0.2 1.9 0.8

1,688,358 373,550 261,802 125,665 104,694 446 206

66.1 14.6 10.3 4.9 4.1

284,586,370 143,571,597 180,669,482 178,629,838 350,865,409

25.0 12.6 15.9 15.7 30.8

566,502 653,310 734,878 599,378

22.2 25.6 28.8 23.5

246,556,190 298,154,812 341,021,290 252,590,405

21.7 26.2 30.0 22.2

329,395 405,866 1,406,411 322,645 88,230

12.9 15.9 55.1 12.6 3.5

65,877,968 242,353,212 667,471,358 130,020,982 32,031,679

5.8 21.3 58.7 11.4 2.8

1,454,847 808,281 214,464 76,475

57.0 31.7 8.4 3.0

304,469,524 414,219,147 269,265,597 150,368,429

26.8 36.4 23.7 13.2

2,077,810 196,890 279,367

81.4 7.7 10.9

549,651,116 134,930,113 453,741,468

48.3 11.9 39.9

c

c

c

c

c

c

Source: U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics and the U.S. Federal Highway Administration, 2001 National Household Transportation Survey. (Additional resources: www.bts.gov/programs/national_household_travel_survey) Note: Long-distance trips were not included in the 2009 NHTS. a

A long-distance trip is defined as a trip of 50 miles or more, one-way. Includes other types of buses. c Not applicable.

b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

9–1

Chapter 9 Nonhighway Modes Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter

Source Passenger-miles

(millions)

Table 9.2

Domestic and international air carrier, 2011

Table 9.10

Amtrak, 2010

Table 9.11

Commuter rail, 2010

10,874

Table 9.12

Transit rail, 2010

18,580

Freight ton-miles Table 9.5

Domestic waterborne commerce, 2010

Table 9.8

Class I railroad, 2010 Passenger energy use

825,893 6,420

(millions) 503,000 1,691,004 (trillion Btus)

Table 9.2

Domestic and international air carrier, 2011

Table 9.3

General aviation, 2010

221.2

Table 9.6

Recreational boats, 2010

245.2

Table 9.10

Amtrak, 2010

14.6

Table 9.11

Commuter rail, 2010

31.5

Table 9.12

Transit rail, 2010

46.8

Freight energy use Table 9.8

Class I railroad, 2010

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

2,378.6

(trillion Btus) 488.1

9–2

Nonhighway transportation modes accounted for 16.8% of total transportation energy use in 2010.

Table 9.1 Nonhighway Energy Use Shares, 1970–2010

Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Air 8.5% 8.1% 7.7% 7.7% 7.3% 7.3% 7.2% 7.1% 7.1% 7.6% 7.6% 7.8% 7.9% 7.8% 8.5% 8.7% 9.0% 9.1% 9.3% 9.1% 9.5% 9.0% 8.9% 8.9% 9.0% 9.1% 9.2% 9.5% 9.2% 9.6% 9.7% 9.2% 8.4% 8.5% 9.0% 9.2% 9.0% 8.6% 8.5% 7.8% 7.8%

Water 5.4% 4.8% 4.6% 5.0% 5.1% 5.3% 5.9% 6.2% 6.9% 5.8% 7.4% 6.8% 5.8% 5.3% 5.1% 4.5% 6.5% 6.6% 6.6% 7.0% 6.7% 7.2% 7.3% 6.4% 6.1% 6.3% 5.9% 5.1% 5.0% 5.3% 5.5% 4.6% 4.7% 4.0% 4.8% 5.0% 5.2% 5.3% 4.8% 4.6% 5.0%

Share of transportation energy use Nonhighway Pipeline Rail total 6.4% 3.6% 24.0% 6.3% 3.5% 22.8% 6.1% 3.4% 21.9% 5.6% 3.4% 21.7% 5.4% 3.6% 21.5% 4.8% 3.2% 20.7% 4.3% 3.1% 20.6% 4.1% 3.1% 20.4% 3.9% 2.9% 20.8% 4.4% 3.1% 20.9% 4.7% 3.1% 22.8% 4.8% 3.0% 22.4% 4.7% 2.6% 21.1% 4.0% 2.6% 19.8% 4.1% 2.8% 20.5% 3.9% 2.6% 19.8% 3.6% 2.4% 21.5% 3.7% 2.4% 21.9% 4.1% 2.4% 22.4% 4.1% 2.4% 22.6% 4.3% 2.3% 22.8% 4.1% 2.3% 22.6% 3.9% 2.2% 22.3% 4.0% 2.3% 21.6% 4.1% 2.3% 21.6% 4.1% 2.4% 21.9% 4.1% 2.4% 21.6% 4.2% 2.4% 21.2% 3.6% 2.3% 20.2% 3.5% 2.3% 20.6% 3.4% 2.3% 21.0% 3.4% 2.3% 19.6% 3.5% 2.3% 18.9% 3.2% 2.3% 18.0% 3.0% 2.4% 19.2% 3.1% 2.4% 19.6% 3.0% 2.4% 19.7% 3.0% 2.2% 19.2% 3.2% 2.2% 18.7% 3.4% 2.0% 17.8% 3.4% 2.1% 18.2%

Source: See Appendix A for Nonhighway Energy Use.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

Transportation total (trillion Btu) 15,395 16,015 17,036 17,874 17,174 17,424 18,492 19,126 20,097 19,652 18,940 18,741 18,237 18,368 18,962 19,205 20,276 20,771 21,327 21,685 21,581 21,182 21,841 22,322 22,930 23,465 23,974 24,327 24,662 25,960 26,273 25,945 26,536 26,715 27,173 27,582 27,760 29,223 28,345 27,403 27,639

9–3

These data include ALL international and domestic certificated route air carrier statistics; therefore, the data are different than those in Chapter 2. Revenue aircraft-miles, passenger-miles, and seat-miles began to rise in 2010. Passenger load factor was 81.6% in 2011.

Table 9.2 Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 1970–2011a

Year 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1970–2011 2001–2011

Revenue aircraftmiles (millions) 2,542 2,241 2,924 3,462 3,873 4,182 4,354 4,442 4,724 4,661 4,899 5,118 5,360 5,627 5,855 6,025 6,220 6,558 6,946 6,814 6,834 7,367 7,479 7,716 8,220 8,415 8,142 7,534 7,666 7,782 2.8% 1.3%

Passenger load Available Available Revenue factor seats per seat-miles passenger-miles (percentage)c aircraftb (millions) (millions) 148,137 264,904 104 55.9% 173,324 315,823 141 54.9% 267,722 448,479 153 59.7% 351,073 565,677 163 62.1% 378,923 623,075 161 60.8% 417,808 670,825 160 62.3% 437,649 696,337 160 62.9% 447,480 703,888 158 63.6% 472,236 753,211 159 62.7% 463,296 738,030 158 62.8% 493,715 772,869 158 63.9% 505,996 793,959 155 63.7% 537,518 809,259 151 66.4% 558,794 832,081 148 67.2% 596,164 859,721 147 69.3% 620,029 880,715 146 70.4% 634,933 899,029 145 70.6% 668,626 942,311 144 71.0% 708,926 981,080 141 72.3% 664,849 950,519 139 69.9% 655,215 913,898 134 71.7% 674,160 922,440 125 73.1% 752,341 1,000,193 134 75.2% 795,117 1,029,316 133 77.2% 810,086 1,027,526 125 78.8% 842,007 1,060,093 126 79.4% 823,783 1,040,835 128 79.1% 779,997 975,304 129 80.0% 809,051 991,912 129 81.6% 825,893 1,012,562 130 81.6% Average annual percentage change 4.3% 3.3% 0.5% 2.2% 0.6% -0.7%

Revenue cargo ton-miles (millions) 3,755 5,062 7,885 9,048 10,987 13,137 14,632 16,347 16,403 16,149 17,306 19,083 21,773 23,375 24,892 27,610 28,015 25,147 30,221 27,882 30,507 32,446 37,958 39,286 38,251 38,433 35,227 30,317 35,209 35,713

Energy use (trillion Btu)d 1,363.4 1,283.4 1,386.0 1,701.4 1,847.1 1,954.9 2,049.4 2,087.4 2,180.2 2,085.2 2,116.4 2,169.7 2,271.5 2,338.6 2,409.1 2,513.6 2,459.5 2,665.0 2,750.4 2,592.5 2,430.1 2,470.6 2,657.2 2,693.3 2,661.1 2,684.6 2,547.8 2,303.2 2,333.3 2,378.6

5.6% 2.5%

1.4% -0.9%

Sources: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, www.transtats.bts.gov. (Additional resources: www.bts.gov/programs/airline_information/air_carrier_traffic_statistics) 1970–76 Energy Use - Department of Transportation, Civil Aeronautics Board, Fuel Cost and Consumption, Washington, DC, 1981, and annual. a

Data are for all U.S. air carriers reporting on Form 41. Available seats per aircraft is calculated as the ratio of available seat-miles to revenue aircraft-miles. c Passenger load factor is calculated as the ratio of revenue passenger-miles to available seat-miles for scheduled and nonscheduled services. d Energy use includes fuel purchased abroad for international flights. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

9–4

General aviation includes: (1) aircraft operating under general operating and flight rules; (2) not-for-hire airplanes with a seating capacity of 20 or more or a maximum payload capacity of 6,000 lbs. or more; (3) rotorcraft external load operations; (4) on-demand and commuter operations not covered under Federal Aviation Regulations Part 121; and (5) agricultural aircraft operations.

Table 9.3 Summary Statistics for General Aviation, 1970–2010 Calendar year 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1970–2010 2000–2010

Aircraft hours flown Total number of aircraft (thousands) 131,700a 26,030b 168,475 30,298 177,964 31,950 184,294 33,679 199,178 36,844 210,339 40,432 211,045 41,016 213,226 40,704 209,779 36,457 213,293 35,249 220,943 36,119 196,500 31,456 205,300 31,782 202,700 30,883 196,200 31,114 205,000 32,332 198,000 32,096 196,874 29,862 185,650 26,747 177,120 24,455 172,935 24,092 188,089 26,612 191,129 26,909 192,414 27,713 204,710 28,100 219,464 31,231 217,533 29,960 211,446 27,017 211,244 27,040 209,708 27,329 219,426 28,126 224,352 26,982 221,943 27,705 231,607 27,852 228,663 26,009 223,877 23,763 223,370 24,802 Average annual percentage change 1.3% -0.1% 0.3% -1.9%

Energy use (trillion btu) 94.4 110.7 118.8 127.2 165.3 167.9 165.9 161.2 173.6 134.2 155.3 143.9 147.9 139.1 148.5 134.1 131.8 120.0 103.7 93.6 95.3 106.6 111.0 121.1 147.4 172.1 175.2 165.1 141.5 141.4 175.9 242.4 256.3 243.6 265.7 210.3 221.2

Sources: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, General Aviation Activity Survey: Calendar Year 2010, Tables 1.2, 1.5, 5.1, and annual. (Additional resources: www.faa.gov/data-research/aviation_data_statistics/general_aviation) a b

Active fixed-wing general aviation aircraft only. Includes rotorcraft.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

2.2% 2.4%

and

Avionics

9–5

In the early seventies, domestic waterborne commerce accounted for over 60% of total tonnage, but by 1994 foreign tonnage grew to more than half of all waterborne tonnage. Total foreign and domestic tons shipped were about 2.3 billion tons in 2010, down from a peak of 2.59 billion tons in 2006.

Table 9.4 Tonnage Statistics for Domestic and International Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 (million tons shipped) Year 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Foreign and domestic total 1,532 1,695 1,835 1,908 2,021 2,073 1,999 1,942 1,777 1,708 1,836 1,788 1,874 1,967 2,088 2,140 2,164 2,092 2,132 2,128 2,215 2,240 2,284 2,333 2,340 2,323 2,425 2,393 2,340 2,394 2,552 2,527 2,588 2,564 2,477 2,211 2,335

1970–2010 2000–2010

1.1% -0.4%

Foreign totala Domestic totalb 581 951 749 946 856 979 935 973 946 1,075 993 1,080 921 1,077 887 1,054 820 957 751 957 803 1,033 774 1,014 837 1,037 891 1,076 976 1,112 1,038 1,103 1,042 1,122 1,014 1,079 1,037 1,095 1,060 1,068 1,116 1,099 1,147 1,093 1,183 1,101 1,221 1,113 1,245 1,094 1,261 1,062 1,355 1,070 1,351 1,042 1,319 1,021 1,378 1,016 1,505 1,047 1,499 1,029 1,565 1,023 1,543 1,022 1,521 956 1,354 857 1,441 894 Average annual percentage change 2.3% -0.2% 0.6% -1.8%

Percent domestic of total 62.1% 55.8% 53.4% 51.0% 53.2% 52.1% 53.9% 54.3% 53.9% 56.0% 56.3% 56.7% 55.3% 54.7% 53.3% 51.5% 51.8% 51.6% 51.4% 50.2% 49.6% 48.8% 48.2% 47.7% 46.8% 45.7% 44.1% 43.5% 43.6% 42.4% 41.0% 40.7% 39.5% 39.9% 38.6% 38.8% 38.3%

Source: U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 2010, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2012, Table 1-1. (Additional resources: www.ndc.iwr.usace.army.mil) a

All movements between the United States and foreign countries and between Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and foreign countries are classified as foreign trade. b All movements between U.S. ports, continental and noncontiguous, and on the inland rivers, canals, and connecting channels of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, excluding the Panama Canal. Beginning in 1996, fish was excluded for internal and intra port domestic traffic.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

9–6

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Navigation Data Center collects a wealth of waterborne commerce data. Energy use data, however, have never been collected as part of this effort. The energy use data collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on vessel bunkering was formerly displayed on this table. The EIA data include different uses of fuel, not just fuel for domestic waterborne commerce; therefore it was misleading to display those data together.

Table 9.5 Summary Statistics for Domestic Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 Year 1970 1975 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Number of vesselsa 25,832 31,666 38,792 41,672 40,308 40,000 39,192 39,209 41,119 39,233 39,210 39,064 39,064 39,445 41,104 41,419 42,032 41,766 39,641 41,588 41,002 39,983 40,290 41,354 41,109 40,695 40,301 40,109 40,512

1970–2010 2000–2010

1.1% 0.2%

Ton-miles (billions) Tons shippedb (millions) 596 949 566 944 922 1,074 893 1,011 873 1,033 895 1,072 890 1,106 816 1,097 834 1,118 848 1,074 857 1,090 790 1,063 815 1,093 808 1,086 765 1,093 707 1,106 673 1,087 656 1,056 646 1,064 622 1,037 612 1,016 606 1,010 621 1,042 591 1,024 562 1,018 553 1,016 521 952 477 852 503 894 Average annual percentage change -0.4% -0.1% -2.5% -1.7%

Average length of haul (miles) 628.2 599.9 856.4 883.5 845.3 835.0 804.3 743.2 745.7 789.9 785.7 742.7 745.5 743.6 699.4 639.5 619.0 621.1 606.8 599.7 602.5 600.3 596.4 577.4 548.7 544.2 546.7 559.7 562.8 -0.3% -0.7%

Sources: Number of vessels -1970–92, 1995–2010 - U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States, 2010, New Orleans, LA, 2011, Table 2, p. 6, and annual. 1993–94 - U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, The U.S. Waterway System-Facts, Navigation Data Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, January 1996. Ton-miles, tons shipped, average length of haul - U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 2010, Part 5: National Summaries, New Orleans, LA, 2011, Table 1-4, pp. 1-6, 1-7, and annual. (Additional resources: www.iwr.usace.army.mil/ndc) a

Grand total for self-propelled and non-self-propelled. These figures are not consistent with the figures on Table 9.3 because intra-territory tons are not included in this table. Intra-territory traffic is traffic between ports in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

9–7

The data displayed in this table come from the Environmental Protection Agency’s NONROAD2008a model.

Table 9.6 Recreational Boat Energy Use, 1970–2010

Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Number of boats (thousands) 10,087 10,137 10,187 10,237 10,287 10,337 10,387 10,437 10,487 10,537 10,587 10,637 10,687 10,737 10,787 10,837 10,887 10,937 11,030 11,122 11,215 11,327 11,440 11,553 11,770 11,988 12,206 12,244 12,283 12,321 12,359 12,464 12,568 12,673 12,777 12,882 12,984 13,086 13,189 13,291 13,393

1970–2010 2000–2010

0.7% 0.8%

Diesel fuel

Gasoline (trillion Btu) 5.5 151.7 6.5 152.6 7.6 153.6 8.6 154.5 9.7 155.5 10.7 156.4 11.8 157.4 12.8 158.3 13.9 159.3 14.9 160.2 16.0 161.2 17.0 162.1 18.0 163.1 19.1 164.0 20.1 165.0 21.2 165.9 22.2 166.9 23.3 167.8 24.3 170.4 25.4 172.9 26.4 175.4 27.5 178.7 28.5 182.0 29.5 185.3 30.6 192.5 31.6 199.7 32.7 206.8 33.7 207.2 34.8 207.4 35.8 207.1 36.8 206.6 37.9 206.9 39.0 206.7 40.2 206.0 41.3 205.0 42.4 203.7 43.5 202.5 44.6 201.2 45.7 200.0 46.8 198.8 47.9 197.3 Average annual percentage change 5.6% 0.7% 2.7% -0.5%

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NONROAD2008a model, downloadable file from http://www.epa.gov/otaq/nonrdmdl.htm.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

Total energy use 157.2 159.2 161.2 163.2 165.1 167.1 169.1 171.1 173.1 175.1 177.1 179.1 181.1 183.1 185.1 187.1 189.1 191.1 194.7 198.3 201.8 206.2 210.5 214.8 223.1 231.3 239.5 240.9 242.2 243.0 243.4 244.9 245.7 246.2 246.2 246.1 245.9 245.8 245.7 245.6 245.2 1.1% 0.1%

9–8

The Interstate Commerce Commission designates Class I railroads on the basis of annual gross revenues. In 2010, seven railroads were given this designation. The number of railroads designated as Class I has changed considerably in the last 30 years; in 1976 there were 52 railroads given Class I designation. Table 9.7 Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States Ranked by Revenue Ton-Miles, 2010

Railroad Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway Company Union Pacific Railroad Company CSX Transportation Norfolk Southern Railway Canadian National, Grand Trunk Corporation Canadian Pacific Soo Railway Kansas City Southern Railway Company Total

Revenue ton-miles (billions) 647 520 229 182 50 33 30 1,691

Percent 38.3% 30.8% 13.5% 10.8% 3.0% 2.0% 1.8% 100.0%

Source: Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts, 2011 Edition, Washington, DC, November 2011, p. 66. (Additional resources: www.aar.org)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

9–9

Revenue ton-miles for Class I freight railroads was over 1.7 trillion in 2010. Though there are many regional and local freight railroads, the Class I freight railroads accounted for 94% of the railroad industry’s freight revenue in 2010 and 69% of the industry’s mileage operated. The energy intensity of Class I railroads hit an all-time low of 289 btu/ton-mile in 2010.

Table 9.8 Summary Statistics for Class I Freight Railroads, 1970–2010

Year 1970 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1970–2010 2000–2010

Number of locomotives in servicea 27,077d 27,846 28,094 27,421 26,795 25,448 24,117 22,548 20,790 19,647 19,364 19,015 18,835 18,344 18,004 18,161 18,505 18,812 19,269 19,684 20,261 20,256 20,028 19,745 20,506 20,774 22,015 22,779 23,732 24,143 24,003 24,045 23,893

Number of freight cars (thousands)b 1,424 1,359 1,168 1,111 1,039 1,007 948 867 799 749 725 682 659 633 605 587 591 583 571 568 576 579 560 500 478 467 474 475 475 460 450 416 398

-0.3% 1.8%

-3.2% -3.4%

Tons Trainoriginatedc miles Car-miles (millions) (millions) (millions) 427 29,890 1,485 403 27,656 1,395 428 29,277 1,492 408 27,968 1,453 345 23,952 1,269 346 24,358 1,293 369 26,409 1,429 347 24,920 1,320 347 24,414 1,306 361 25,627 1,372 379 26,339 1,430 383 26,196 1,403 380 26,159 1,425 375 25,628 1,383 390 26,128 1,399 405 26,883 1,397 441 28,485 1,470 458 30,383 1,550 469 31,715 1,611 475 31,660 1,585 475 32,657 1,649 490 33,851 1,717 504 34,590 1,738 500 34,243 1,742 500 34,680 1,767 516 35,555 1,799 535 37,071 1,844 548 37,712 1,899 563 38,995 1,957 543 38,186 1,940 524 37,226 1,934 436 32,115 1,668 476 35,541 1,851 Average annual percentage change 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% -0.6% 0.3% 0.6%

Average length of haul (miles) 515 541 616 626 629 641 645 665 664 688 697 723 726 751 763 794 817 843 842 851 835 835 843 859 853 862 902 894 906 913 919 919 914

Revenue ton-miles (millions) 764,809 754,252 918,958 910,169 797,759 828,275 921,542 876,984 867,722 943,747 996,182 1,013,841 1,033,969 1,038,875 1,066,781 1,109,309 1,200,701 1,305,688 1,355,975 1,348,926 1,376,802 1,433,461 1,465,960 1,495,472 1,507,011 1,551,438 1,662,598 1,696,425 1,771,897 1,770,545 1,777,236 1,532,214 1,691,004

Energy intensity (Btu/tonmile) 691 687 597 572 553 525 510 497 486 456 443 437 420 391 393 389 388 372 368 370 365 363 352 346 345 344 341 337 330 320 305 291 289

Energy use (trillion Btu) 528.1 518.3 548.7 521.0 440.8 435.1 469.9 436.1 421.5 430.3 441.4 442.6 434.7 405.8 419.2 431.6 465.4 485.9 499.4 499.7 502.0 520.0 516.0 517.3 520.3 533.9 566.2 571.4 584.5 566.9 542.5 446.6 488.1

1.4% 0.8%

2.0% 1.4%

-2.2% -2.0%

-0.2% -0.6%

Source: Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts, 2011 Edition, Washington, DC, November 2011, pp. 27, 28, 33, 34, 36, 49, 52, 61. (Additional resources: www.aar.org) a

Does not include self-powered units. Does not include private or shipper-owned cars. Beginning in 2001, Canadian-owned U.S. railroads are excluded. c Tons originated is a more accurate representation of total tonnage than revenue tons. Revenue tons often produces double-counting of loads switched between rail companies. d Data represent total locomotives used in freight and passenger service. Separate estimates are not available. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

9–10

According to the 2007 Commodity Flow Survey, 7% of all freight ton-miles are rail intermodal shipments (truck/rail or rail/water). See Table 5.15 for details. The number of trailers and containers moved by railroads has increased almost seven-fold from 1965 to 2010. Containerization has increased in the last two decades, evidenced by the 316% increase in the number of containers from 1988 to 2010. The number of trailers moved by rail, however, fell to an all-time low in 2009, but rose in 2010.

Table 9.9 Intermodal Rail Traffic, 1965–2010a Year 1965 1970 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1965–2010 2000–2010

Trailers & containers Trailers b 1,664,929 b 2,363,200 b 2,238,117 b 3,059,402 b 3,150,522 b 3,396,973 b 4,090,078 b 4,565,743 b 4,590,952 b 4,997,229 b 5,503,819 5,779,547 3,481,020 5,987,355 3,496,262 6,206,782 3,451,953 6,246,134 3,201,560 6,627,841 3,264,597 7,156,628 3,464,126 8,128,228 3,752,502 7,936,172 3,492,463 8,143,258 3,302,128 8,698,308 3,453,907 8,772,663 3,353,032 8,907,626 3,207,407 9,176,890 2,888,630 8,935,444 2,603,423 9,312,360 2,531,338 9,955,605 2,625,837 10,993,662 2,928,123 11,693,512 2,979,906 12,282,221 2,882,699 12,026,631 2,600,635 11,499,978 2,478,890 9,876,195 1,639,831 11,282,336 1,707,366 Average annual percentage change b 4.3% 2.1% -5.1%

Containers b b b b b b b b b b b

2,298,527 2,491,093 2,754,829 3,044,574 3,363,244 3,692,502 4,375,726 4,443,709 4,841,130 5,244,401 5,419,631 5,700,219 6,288,260 6,332,021 6,781,022 7,329,768 8,065,539 8,713,606 9,399,522 9,425,996 9,021,088 8,236,364 9,574,970 b

4.3%

Source: Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts, 2011 Edition, Washington, DC, November 2011, p. 26. Additional resources: www.aar.org) a

Beginning in 1995, the Grand Trunk Western Railroad and the Soo Line Railroad Company are excluded. Beginning in 1999, the Illinois Central data are excluded. Beginning in 2002, the Wisconsin Central data are excluded. b Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

9–11

The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, known as Amtrak, began operation in 1971. Amtrak revenue passenger-miles have grown at an average annual rate of 3.0% from 1971 to 2010. Table 9.10 Summary Statistics for the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak), 1971–2010

Year 1971 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1971–2010 2000–2010

Number of locomotives in service a

355 448 398 396 388 387 382 369 381 391 312 318 316 336 360 411 422 348 292 362 385 385 401 372 442 276 258 319 270 278 274 282 a

-3.1%

Number of passenger cars 1,165 1,913 2,128 1,830 1,929 1,880 1,844 1,818 1,793 1,850 1,845 1,742 1,863 1,786 1,796 1,853 1,874 1,907 1,501 1,572 1,347 1,285 1,891 2,084 2,896 1,623 1,211 1,186 1,191 1,164 1,177 1,214 1,274 0.2% -3.9%

Revenue passengerTrain-miles Car-miles miles (thousands) (thousands) (millions) 16,537 140,147 1,993 30,166 253,898 3,753 29,487 235,235 4,503 30,380 222,753 4,397 28,833 217,385 3,993 28,805 223,509 4,227 29,133 234,557 4,427 30,038 250,642 4,785 28,604 249,665 5,011 29,515 261,054 5,361 30,221 277,774 5,686 31,000 285,255 5,859 33,000 300,996 6,057 34,000 312,484 6,273 34,000 307,282 6,091 34,936 302,739 6,199 34,940 305,600 5,869 31,579 282,579 5,401 30,542 277,750 5,066 32,000 287,760 5,166 32,926 315,823 5,325 34,080 349,337 5,289 35,404 371,215 5,574 36,512 377,705 5,571 37,624 378,542 5,314 37,459 331,864 5,680 37,159 308,437 5,511 36,199 264,796 5,381 36,083 263,908 5,410 37,484 266,545 5,784 37,736 271,762 6,179 38,300 282,764 5,914 37,453 294,820 6,420 Average annual percentage change 2.1% 1.9% 3.0% 0.6% -2.3% 1.4%

Energy use (trillion Btu)

Average trip length (miles) 188 224 217 226 220 223 227 238 249 259 265 274 273 285 286 280 276 266 257 255 251 245 243 238 228 231 219 215 220 218 215 217 220

Energy intensity (Btu per revenue passenger-mile) a

a

3,548 3,065 2,883 3,052 2,875 2,923 2,703 2,481 2,450 2,379 2,614 2,505 2,417 2,534 2,565 2,282 2,501 2,690 2,811 2,788 2,943 3,235 3,257 3,212 2,800 2,760 2,709 2,650 2,516 2,398 2,435 2,271

13.3 13.8 12.7 12.2 12.2 12.9 12.9 12.4 13.1 13.5 15.3 15.2 15.2 15.4 15.9 13.4 13.5 13.6 14.5 14.8 15.6 18.0 18.1 17.1 15.9 15.2 14.6 14.3 14.5 14.8 14.4 14.6

0.4% -1.0%

a

a

-3.5%

-2.1%

b

Sources: 1971–83- Association of American Railroads, Economics and Finance Department, Statistics of Class I Railroads, Washington, DC, and annual. 1984–88- Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts, 1988 Edition, Washington, DC, December 1989, p. 61, and annual. 1989–93- Personal communication with the Corporate Accounting Office of Amtrak, Washington, D.C. 1994–2010 - Number of locomotives in service, number of passenger cars, train-miles, car-miles, revenue passenger-miles, and average trip length - Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts, 2011 Edition, Washington, DC, 2011, p. 77. Energy use - Personal communication with the Amtrak, Washington, DC. (Additional resources: www.amtrak.com, www.aar.org) a

Data are not available. Energy use for 1994 on is not directly comparable to earlier years. Some commuter rail energy use may have been inadvertently included in earlier years. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

9–12

Commuter rail, which is also known as regional rail or suburban rail, is long-haul rail passenger service operating between metropolitan and suburban areas, whether within or across state lines. Commuter rail lines usually have reduced fares for multiple rides and commutation tickets for regular, recurring riders. Table 9.11 Summary Statistics for Commuter Rail Operations, 1984–2010

Year 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Number of passenger vehicles 4,075 4,035 4,440 4,686 4,649 4,472 4,982 5,126 5,164 4,982 5,126 5,164 5,240 5,426 5,536 5,550 5,498 5,572 5,724 5,959 6,228 6,392 6,403 6,391 6,617 6,941 6,927

Vehiclemiles (millions) 167.9 182.7 188.6 188.9 202.2 209.6 212.7 214.9 218.8 223.9 230.8 237.7 241.9 250.7 259.5 265.9 270.9 277.3 283.7 286.0 294.7 303.4 314.7 325.7 310.2 343.5 345.3

1984–2010 2000–2010

2.1% 2.3%

2.8% 2.5%

Average PassengerPassenger trip length miles trips (miles) (millions) (millions) 267 6,207 23.2 275 6,534 23.8 306 6,723 22.0 311 6,818 21.9 325 6,964 21.4 330 7,211 21.9 328 7,082 21.6 318 7,344 23.1 314 7,320 23.3 322 6,940 21.6 339 7,996 23.6 344 8,244 24.0 352 8,351 23.7 357 8,038 22.5 381 8,704 22.8 396 8,766 22.1 413 9,402 22.8 419 9,548 22.8 414 9,504 22.9 410 9,559 23.3 414 9,719 23.5 423 9,473 22.4 441 10,361 23.5 459 11,153 24.3 472 11,049 23.4 468 11,232 24.0 464 10,874 23.4 Average annual percentage change 2.1% 2.2% 0.0% 1.2% 1.5% 0.3%

Energy intensity (Btu/passengermile) 2,804 2,826 2,926 2,801 2,872 2,864 2,822 2,770 2,629 2,976 2,682 2,632 2,582 2,724 2,646 2,714 2,551 2,515 2,514 2,545 2,569 2,743 2,527 2,638 2,656 2,812 2,897

Energy use (trillion Btu) 17.4 18.5 19.7 19.1 19.7 20.7 20.0 20.3 19.2 20.7 21.4 21.7 21.6 21.9 23.0 23.8 24.0 24.0 23.9 24.3 25.0 26.0 26.2 29.4 29.3 31.6 31.5

Source: American Public Transportation Association, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, April 2012, Tables 5, 6, 8, and 9. (Additional resources: www.apta.com)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

9–13

This table on transit rail operations includes data on light rail and heavy rail systems. Light rail vehicles are usually single vehicles driven electrically with power drawn from overhead wires. Heavy rail is characterized by high speed and rapid acceleration of rail cars operating on a separate right-of-way.

Table 9.12 Summary Statistics for Rail Transit Operations, 1970–2010a

Year 1970 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Number of passenger vehicles 10,548 10,617 10,654 10,824 10,831 10,904 10,848 11,109 11,083 10,934 11,370 11,261 11,332 11,426 11,303 11,286 11,192 11,156 11,341 11,471 11,521 11,603 12,168 12,084 12,479 12,236 12,480 12,755 12,853 13,032 13,346 13,529 13,614

Vehiclemiles (millions) 440.8 446.9 402.2 436.6 445.2 423.5 452.7 467.8 492.8 508.6 538.3 553.4 560.9 554.8 554.0 549.8 565.8 571.8 580.7 598.9 609.5 626.4 648.0 662.4 681.9 694.2 709.7 715.4 726.4 741.2 762.8 775.3 759.6

1970–2010 2000–2010

0.6% 1.1%

1.4% 1.6%

Average trip PassengerPassenger length miles trips (miles)d (millions)c (millions)b f 2,116 12,273 f 1,797 10,423 2,241 10,939 4.9 2,217 10,590 4.8 2,201 10,428 4.7 2,304 10,741 4.7 2,388 10,531 4.4 2,422 10,777 4.4 2,467 11,018 4.5 2,535 11,603 4.6 2,462 11,836 4.8 2,704 12,539 4.6 2,521 12,046 4.8 2,356 11,190 4.7 2,395 11,438 4.8 2,234 10,936 4.9 2,453 11,501 4.7 2,284 11,419 5.0 2,418 12,487 5.2 2,692 13,091 4.9 2,669 13,412 5.0 2,813 14,108 5.0 2,952 15,200 5.1 3,064 15,615 5.1 3,025 15,095 5.0 3,005 15,082 5.0 3,098 15,930 5.1 3,189 16,118 5.1 3,334 16,587 5.0 3,879 18,070 4.7 4,001 18,941 4.7 3,955 19,004 4.8 4,007 18,580 4.6 Average annual percentage change g -0.2% 1.6% 1.0% 3.1% 2.0% -1.0%

Energy intensity (Btu/passengermile)e 2,157 2,625 2,312 2,592 2,699 2,820 3,037 2,809 3,042 3,039 3,072 2,909 3,024 3,254 3,155 3,373 3,338 3,340 3,017 2,856 2,823 2,785 2,797 2,803 2,872 2,837 2,750 2,783 2,707 2,577 2,521 2,516 2,520

Energy use (trillion Btu) 26.5 27.4 25.3 27.5 28.1 30.3 32.0 30.3 33.5 35.3 36.2 36.5 36.4 36.4 36.1 36.9 38.4 38.1 37.7 37.4 37.9 39.3 42.5 43.8 43.3 42.8 43.8 44.9 44.9 46.6 47.8 47.8 46.8

0.4% -1.0%

1.4% 1.0%

Sources: American Public Transportation Association, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, April 2012, Table 27. (Additional resources: www.apta.com) Energy use - See Appendix A for Rail Transit Energy Use. a

Heavy rail and light rail. Series not continuous between 1983 and 1984 because of a change in data source by the American Public Transit Association (APTA). Beginning in 1984, data provided by APTA are taken from mandatory reports filed with the Urban Mass Transit Administration (UMTA). Data for prior years were provided on a voluntary basis by APTA members and expanded statistically. b 1970–79 data represents total passenger rides; after 1979, data represents unlinked passenger trips. c Estimated for years 1970–76 based on an average trip length of 5.8 miles. d Calculated as the ratio of passenger-miles to passenger trips. e Large system-to-system variations exist within this category. f Data are not available. g Average annual percentage change is calculated for years 1980–2010.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

9–14

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–1

Chapter 10 Transportation and the Economy Summary Statistics from Tables/Figures in this Chapter

Source Figure 10.2

Table 10.12

Table 10.13

Table 10.17

Share of gasoline cost attributed to taxes, 2011 Canada

31%

France

57%

Germany

58%

Japan

42%

United Kingdom

60%

United States

14%

Average price of a new car, 2010 (current dollars)

24,296

Domestic

23,095

Import

26,808

Car operating costs, 2011 Variable costs (constant 2011 dollars per 10,000 miles)

1,774

Fixed costs (constant 2011 dollars per 10,000 miles)

5,587

Transportation sector share of total employment 2000

8.3%

2011

7.2%

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–2

The Transportation Services Index (TSI) was created by the U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS). It is an index that measures the movement of freight and passengers. The Freight TSI consists of: • • • •

for-hire trucking (parcel services are not included); freight railroad services (including rail-based intermodal shipments such as containers on flat cars);inland waterway traffic; pipeline movements (including principally petroleum and petroleum products and natural gas); and air freight.

The index does not include international or coastal steamship movements, private trucking, courier services, or the United States Postal Services. The index does not include intercity bus, sightseeing services, taxi service, private car usage, or bicycling and other nonmotorized means of transportation.

Figure 10.1. Transportation Services Index, January 1990–January 2012

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Transportation Services Index Web site, www.bts.gov/xml/tsi/src. (Additional resources: www.bts.gov.)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–3

Until 2005, gasoline prices in China were, on average, less than the United States. Since then, the United States prices are the lowest of these listed countries. Those in France, Japan, Korea, the United Kingdom, and Germany paid, on average, more than five dollars per gallon in 2010.

Table 10.1 Gasoline Pricesa for Selected Countries, 1990–2011

1990 China Japan India Korea Franced United Kingdomd Germany Canada United Statese

c

3.16 c c

3.63 2.82 2.65 1.87 1.16

Current dollars per gallon 1995 2000 2005 c 1.03 1.70 4.43 3.65 4.28 c c 3.71 c c 5.28 4.26 3.80 5.46 3.21 4.58 5.97 3.96 3.45 5.66 1.53 1.86 2.89 1.15 1.51 2.27

2010 3.71 5.73 4.29 5.60 6.74 5.83 7.10 3.79 2.78

China Japan India Korea Franced United Kingdomd Germany Canada

6.06 4.70 4.42 3.12

Constant 2011 dollarsf per gallon 1995 2000 2005 2010 c 1.52 1.96 3.83 6.54 4.77 4.93 5.92 c c 4.27 4.43 c c 6.08 5.78 6.29 4.96 6.29 6.95 4.74 5.98 6.87 7.05 5.84 4.51 6.51 7.33 2.26 2.43 3.33 3.91

United Statese

1.94

1.70

1990 c

5.27 c c

1.97

2.62

2.87

2011b

Average annual percentage change 1990–2011

c

c

7.19

4.2%

c

c

c

c

7.95 8.21 8.49 4.86 3.63

2011b

4.0% 5.5% 6.0% 4.9% 5.9% Average annual percentage change 1990–2011

c

c

7.19

1.6%

c

c

c

c

7.95 8.21 8.49 4.86

1.4% 2.8% 3.3% 2.2%

3.63

3.2%

Source: International Energy Agency, Energy Prices and Taxes, Fourth Quarter, 2011, Paris, France, 2012. resources: www.iea.org)

(Additional

Note: Comparisons between prices and price trends in different countries require care. They are of limited validity because of fluctuations in exchange rates; differences in product quality, marketing practices, and market structures; and the extent to which the standard categories of sales are representative of total national sales for a given period.

a

Prices represent the retail prices (including taxes) for regular unleaded gasoline, except for France and the United Kingdom which are premium unleaded gasoline. b 3rd quarter 2011. c Data are not available. d Premium gasoline. e These estimates are international comparisons only and do not necessarily correspond to gasoline price estimates in other sections of the book. f Adjusted by the U.S. Consumer Price Inflation Index.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–4

Of these selected countries, the United Kingdom had the highest diesel fuel price average in 2011, while the United States had the lowest. Similar to the trend with gasoline prices, China’s diesel prices were lower than the United States until 2009.

Table 10.2 Diesel Fuel Pricesa for Selected Countries, 1998–2011

Current dollars per gallon 2003 2004 2005 2007

2010

2011b

Average annual percentage change 1998–2011

1.47 3.08 3.00 4.16 5.68 4.41

1.69 3.45 3.98 4.81 6.25 5.01

2.42 3.82 5.17 5.66 7.34 6.06

3.65 4.86 4.92 5.74 6.97 6.15

c

c

6.20 6.11 6.95 8.48 7.62

5.2%

1.81

2.40

2.88

2.99

3.86

Constant 2011 dollarse per gallon 2003 2004 2005 2007

2010

2011b

6.8% Average annual percentage change 1998–2010

1.75 3.67 3.57 4.95 6.77 5.25

1.95 3.97 4.59 5.54 7.20 5.77

2.63 4.15 5.61 6.14 7.97 6.57

3.77 5.02 5.08 5.92 7.19 6.34

c

c

6.20 6.11 6.95 8.48 7.62

3.5%

2.15

2.76

3.13

3.09

3.86

5.1%

1998

2000

c

c

2.25

1.32 2.76 2.47 3.39 4.82 3.79 1.51

China Japan Korea France United Kingdom Germany

2.71 4.10 2.45

2.85 2.05 2.95 4.66 2.79

United Statesd

1.04

1.50

c

1998

2000

c

c

3.11

1.62 3.37 3.02 4.15 5.89 4.63 1.84

China Japan Korea France United Kingdom Germany

3.74 5.66 3.38

3.73 2.68 3.85 6.08 3.65

United Statesd

1.44

1.95

c

c

4.8% 3.7% 5.8%

c

3.1% 2.0% 4.1%

Source: International Energy Agency, Energy Prices and Taxes, Fourth Quarter, 2011, Paris, France, 2012 (Additional resources: www.iea.org) Note: Comparisons between prices and price trends in different countries require care. They are of limited validity because of fluctuations in exchange rates; differences in product quality, marketing practices, and market structures; and the extent to which the standard categories of sales are representative of total national sales for a given period.

a

Prices represent the retail prices (including taxes) for car diesel fuel for non-commercial (household) use. 3rd quarter 2011. c Data are not available. d These estimates are for international comparisons only and do not necessarily correspond to gasoline price estimates in other sections of the book. e Adjusted by the U.S. Consumer Price Inflation Index. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–5

In 2011 close to sixty percent of the cost of gasoline in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom went for taxes. Of the listed countries, the United States has the lowest percentage of taxes.

Figure 10.2. Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2011

Source: Table 10.1 and International Energy Agency, Energy Prices & Taxes, Fourth Quarter, 2011, Paris, France, 2012. (Additional resources: www.iea.org.)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–6

Diesel fuel is taxed heavily in the European countries shown here. The U.S. diesel fuel tax share is the lowest of the listed countries.

Figure 10.3. Diesel Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2011

Source: Table 10.2 and International Energy Agency, Energy Prices & Taxes, Fourth Quarter, 2011, Paris, France, 2012. (Additional resources: www.iea.org.) Note: Data for Canada are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–7

Though the cost of crude oil certainly influences the price of gasoline, it is not the only factor which determines the price at the pump. Processing cost, transportation cost, and taxes also play a major part of the cost of a gallon of gasoline. The average price of a barrel of crude oil (in constant 2011 dollars) increased by 176% from 2000 to 2011, while the average price of a gallon of gasoline increased 75% in this same time period.

Table 10.3 Prices for a Barrel of Crude Oil and a Gallon of Gasoline, 1978–2011

Year 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1978–2011 2001–2011

Gasolineb Crude oila (dollars per barrel) (cents per gallon) Current Constant 2011c Current Constant 2011c 12.5 43.0 65.2 224.9 17.7 54.9 88.2 273.3 28.1 76.6 122.1 333.3 35.2 87.2 135.3 334.8 31.9 74.3 128.1 298.6 29.0 65.5 122.5 276.7 28.6 62.0 119.8 259.4 26.8 55.9 119.6 250.0 14.6 29.9 93.1 191.1 17.9 35.4 95.7 189.5 14.7 27.9 96.3 183.1 18.0 32.6 106.0 192.3 22.2 38.2 121.7 209.4 19.1 31.5 119.6 197.5 18.4 29.5 119.0 190.8 16.4 25.5 117.3 182.6 15.6 23.7 117.4 178.2 17.2 25.4 120.5 177.9 20.7 29.7 128.8 184.7 19.0 26.7 129.1 180.9 12.5 17.3 111.5 153.9 17.5 23.6 122.1 164.9 28.3 36.9 156.3 204.2 23.0 29.1 153.1 194.5 24.1 30.1 144.1 180.2 28.5 34.9 163.8 200.2 37.0 44.0 192.3 229.0 50.2 57.9 233.8 269.3 60.2 67.2 263.5 294.0 67.9 73.7 284.9 309.1 94.7 99.0 331.7 346.5 59.3 62.1 240.1 251.7 76.7 79.1 283.6 292.6 101.9 101.9 357.7 357.7 Average annual percentage change 6.6% 2.6% 5.3% 1.4% 16.0% 13.4% 9.2% 6.3%

Ratio of gasoline to crude oil 219.8 209.1 182.7 161.3 168.8 177.5 175.7 187.8 268.7 224.5 275.7 247.7 230.0 263.5 271.2 300.2 316.3 293.7 261.2 284.8 374.0 292.9 232.3 280.2 251.1 241.1 218.4 195.5 183.7 176.1 147.0 170.1 155.3 147.4

Sources: Crude oil - U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, March 2012, Washington, DC, Table 9.1. Gasoline - U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, March 2012, Washington, DC, Table 9.4. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov) a

Refiner acquisition cost of composite (domestic and imported) crude oil. Average for all types. These prices were collected from a sample of service stations in 85 urban areas selected to represent all urban consumers. Urban consumers make up about 80% of the total U.S. population. c Adjusted by the Consumer Price Inflation Index. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–8

Until 2005 the price of diesel fuel was lower than gasoline. Since then, the diesel fuel price has been higher than gasoline.

Table 10.4 Retail Prices for Motor Fuel, 1978–2011 (cents per gallon, including tax) Diesel fuela

Year 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1978–2011 2001–2011

Average for all gasoline typesb Constant Constant Current 2011c Current 2011c d d 65 225 d d 88 273 101 276 122 333 118 292 135 335 116 270 128 299 120 271 123 277 122 264 120 259 122 255 120 250 94 193 93 191 96 190 96 189 95 181 96 183 102 185 106 192 107 184 122 209 91 150 120 198 106 170 119 191 98 153 117 183 111 169 117 178 111 164 121 178 124 177 129 185 120 168 129 181 104 144 112 154 112 151 122 165 149 195 156 204 140 178 153 194 132 165 144 180 151 184 164 200 181 216 192 229 240 277 234 269 271 302 264 294 289 313 285 309 380 397 332 347 247 259 240 252 299 308 284 293 384 384 358 358 Average annual percentage change 1.1%e 5.3% 1.4% 4.4%e 10.6% 8.0% 8.9% 6.3%

Sources: Gasoline - U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, March 2012, Washington, DC, Table 9.4. Diesel - U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2004, Washington, DC, June 2004, Table 7.2. 2005–2011 data from EIA Web site. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)

a

1980-1993: Collected from a survey of prices on January 1 of the current year. 1994-on: Annual average. These prices were collected from a sample of service stations in 85 urban areas selected to represent all urban consumers. Urban consumers make up about 80 percent of the total U.S. population. c Adjusted by the Consumer Price Inflation Index. d Data are not available. e Average annual percentage change is from the earliest year possible to 2011. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–9

The fuel prices shown here are refiner sales prices of transportation fuels to end users, excluding tax. Sales to end users are those made directly to the ultimate consumer, including bulk consumers. Bulk sales to utility, industrial, and commercial accounts previously included in the wholesale category are now counted as sales to end users.

Table 10.5 Refiner Sales Prices for Propane and No. 2 Diesel, 1978–2011 (cents per gallon, excluding tax) Propanea

Year 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1978–2011 2001–2011

No 2. diesel fuel Constant Constant Current 2011b Current 2011b 33.5 115.6 37.7 130.1 35.7 110.6 58.5 181.3 48.2 131.6 81.8 223.3 56.5 139.8 99.5 246.2 59.2 138.0 94.2 219.6 70.9 160.1 82.6 186.5 73.7 159.6 82.3 178.2 71.7 149.9 78.9 164.9 74.5 152.9 47.8 98.1 70.1 138.8 55.1 109.1 71.4 135.8 50.0 95.1 61.5 111.6 58.5 106.1 74.5 128.2 72.5 124.8 73.0 120.6 64.8 107.0 64.3 103.1 61.9 99.2 67.3 104.8 60.2 93.7 53.0 80.4 55.4 84.1 49.2 72.6 56.0 82.7 60.5 86.7 68.1 97.6 55.2 77.4 64.2 90.0 40.5 55.9 49.4 68.2 45.8 61.8 58.4 78.9 60.3 78.8 93.5 122.1 50.6 64.3 84.2 106.9 41.9 52.4 76.2 95.3 57.7 70.5 94.4 115.4 83.9 99.9 124.3 148.0 108.9 125.4 178.6 205.7 135.8 151.5 209.6 233.9 148.9 161.5 226.7 245.9 189.2 197.7 315.0 329.1 122.0 127.9 183.4 192.3 148.1 152.8 213.4 220.1 170.9 170.9 311.7 311.7 Average annual percentage change 5.1% 1.2% 6.6% 2.7% 170.9% 10.3% 14.0% 11.3%

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, April 2012, Washington, DC, Table 9.7. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)

a b

Consumer grade. Adjusted by the Consumer Price Inflation Index.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–10

Prices of finished aviation gasoline began climbing in 1999 and peaked in 2008. In 2011 the prices showed an increase over 2010. Kerosene-type jet fuel rose to its highest price in 2011—a sharp jump from 2010.

Table 10.6 Refiner Sales Prices for Aviation Gasoline and Jet Fuel, 1978–2011 (cents per gallon, excluding tax) Year 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1978–2011 2001–2011

Finished aviation gasoline Current Constant 2011a 51.6 178.0 68.9 213.5 108.4 295.9 130.3 322.4 131.2 305.8 125.5 283.4 123.4 267.2 120.1 251.1 101.1 207.5 90.7 179.6 89.1 169.4 99.5 180.5 112.0 192.8 104.7 172.9 102.7 164.7 99.0 154.1 95.7 145.3 100.5 148.3 111.6 160.0 112.8 158.1 97.5 134.5 105.9 143.0 130.6 170.6 132.3 168.0 128.8 161.0 149.3 182.5 181.9 216.6 223.1 257.0 268.2 299.2 284.9 309.1 327.3 341.9 244.2 256.0 302.8 312.4 308.3 308.3 Average annual percentage change 5.6% 1.7% 8.8% 6.3%

Kerosene-type jet fuel Current Constant 2011a 38.7 133.5 54.7 169.5 86.6 236.4 102.4 253.4 96.3 224.5 87.8 198.3 84.2 182.3 79.6 166.4 52.9 108.6 54.3 107.5 51.3 97.5 59.2 107.4 76.6 131.8 65.2 107.7 61.0 97.8 58.0 90.3 53.4 81.1 54.0 79.7 65.1 93.3 61.3 85.9 45.2 62.4 54.3 73.3 89.9 117.4 77.5 98.4 72.1 90.2 87.2 106.6 120.7 143.7 173.5 199.8 199.8 222.9 216.5 234.9 305.2 318.9 170.4 178.7 220.1 227.0 308.8 308.8 6.5% 14.8%

2.6% 12.1%

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, April 2012, Washington, DC, Table 9.7. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov)

a

Adjusted by the Consumer Price Inflation Index.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–11

At the end of 2010, only four states offered tax exemptions to encourage the use of gasohol for transportation purposes. This list is quite short compared to the 30 states which offered gasohol tax exemptions twenty-five years ago.

Table 10.7 State Tax Exemptions for Gasohol, 2010

State Hawaii Iowa Maine Montana

Exemption (cents/gallon of gasohol) 1.0 2.0 6.5 4.0

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2010, August 2011, Washington, DC, Table MF-121T. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov)

Table 10.8 Federal Excise Taxes on Motor Fuels, 2010 Fuel Gasolinea Diesel and kerosene Gasoholb Other special fuelsb CNG LNG LPG

Cents per gallon 18.4 24.4 18.4 18.4 18.3 24.3 18.3

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics 2010, August 2011, Washington, DC, Table FE-21B. (Additional resources: www.fhwa.dot.gov)

a b

All gasohol blends are taxed at the same rate. Includes benzol, benzene, naphtha, and other liquids used as a motor fuel.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–12

These states have laws and incentives for alternative fuels production and/or use.

Table 10.9 Federal and State Alternative Fuel Incentives, 2012

State Federal Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Totals

Biodiesel 36 7 1 7 5 15 7 5 3 1 9 6 8 3 17 9 12 7 7 7 7 2 5 6 6 4 7 8 5 6 6 2 11 8 14 14 5 9 9 6 3 10 7 12 5 1 5 17 18 5 13 0 408

Ethanol 35 5 2 6 4 12 8 4 3 2 10 6 10 1 18 14 16 12 7 10 7 3 4 6 11 4 6 7 7 5 2 2 8 9 13 10 6 10 10 6 2 8 8 11 6 1 5 14 15 5 10 1 407

Natural Gas 26 4 3 14 8 25 9 7 3 4 2 5 4 3 7 9 6 5 6 10 4 1 4 4 3 8 7 4 4 10 2 3 6 9 6 3 5 12 7 6 2 3 1 5 14 10 7 16 9 7 7 1 350

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) 25 4 1 14 4 17 6 4 5 3 2 3 4 3 7 6 5 4 4 5 4 1 2 4 2 5 6 4 3 10 2 3 5 6 6 2 5 9 6 5 1 4 2 5 9 6 5 13 8 7 8 0 284

Electric vehicles (EVs) 23 4 1 15 2 36 5 6 3 5 6 5 9 1 12 7 7 1 2 4 5 8 4 9 4 2 4 2 2 10 2 5 6 7 11 1 4 9 10 4 2 3 0 6 10 6 5 19 19 7 6 0 346

Neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) 3 0 1 1 0 3 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 0 0 2 0 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 1 1 1 0 50

Hydrogen fuel cells 27 3 1 11 2 24 6 6 2 3 5 3 5 2 7 5 5 1 1 1 3 0 2 5 3 2 5 2 1 9 2 2 7 7 5 3 5 8 5 4 2 7 0 2 5 2 5 13 6 7 7 0 256

Aftermarket conversions 6 0 2 0 2 7 3 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 3 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 5 4 2 0 0 66

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center. Data downloaded April 2012. (Additional resources: www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/laws/matrix/tech)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–13

Table 10.10 Federal and State Advanced Technology Incentives, 2012 State Federal Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist. of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Totals

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) or plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) 9 1 0 6 0 29 3 5 2 3 2 0 7 2 10 6 0 0 1 2 2 6 3 8 2 1 0 0 0 6 1 5 2 4 6 0 0 3 4 1 1 3 0 5 8 2 4 10 6 4 4 0 189

Fuel economy or efficiency 17 1 1 0 1 5 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 2 0 3 3 4 2 0 0 0 73

Idle reduction 7 2 0 2 2 4 2 3 3 1 2 2 1 0 5 1 0 1 0 0 3 1 1 1 3 0 1 0 1 1 4 1 1 3 4 0 2 1 4 4 2 2 0 0 4 3 2 2 3 2 2 0 96

Othera 7 0 0 2 0 8 0 3 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 2 0 0 0 0 4 1 3 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 2 1 0 0 50

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center. Data downloaded April 2012. (Additional resources: www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/laws/matrix/tech)

a

Includes Clean Fuel Initiatives and Pollution Prevention.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–14

The average price of a new car in 2010 ($24,296) was very close to the average price in 1916 ($21,621) when adjusted for inflation. Average new car prices were at their lowest in 1940 ($12,093). Since 1914 the highest average price was in the year 1998 ($27,242).

Table 10.11 Average Price of a New Car, 1913–2010

Year 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937

2010 Constant dollars $31,516 $32,615 $27,118 $21,621 $19,972 $18,323 $18,140 $17,957 $19,056 $20,156 $18,323 $16,491 $16,308 $16,124 $15,941 $15,758 $15,575 $15,391 $17,224 $19,056 $17,957 $16,857 $15,025 $13,193 $13,559

Year 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962

2010 Constant dollars $13,926 $13,009 $12,093 $12,250 $12,407 $12,564 $12,721 $12,878 $13,034 $13,191 $13,815 $16,099 $16,498 $16,779 $18,175 $18,198 $17,868 $17,770 $18,282 $20,310 $21,485 $21,530 $20,719 $19,728 $19,612

Year 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987

2010 Constant dollars $19,395 $19,492 $19,123 $19,108 $20,996 $19,784 $19,784 $19,906 $20,147 $20,235 $19,900 $19,638 $20,063 $20,763 $20,920 $21,334 $20,565 $20,043 $21,374 $22,348 $23,220 $23,873 $23,990 $25,172 $25,695

Year 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2010 Constant dollars $25,680 $25,272 $25,096 $24,775 $25,390 $25,459 $26,342 $25,696 $26,096 $26,134 $27,242 $27,106 $26,086 $26,440 $25,756 $25,652 $24,977 $25,699 $25,563 $25,127 $23,741 $23,658 $24,296

Sources: Compiled by Jacob Ward, Vehicle Technologies Program, U.S. Department of Energy, from the following sources. Raff, D.M.G. & Trajtenberg, M. (1995), "Quality-Adjusted Prices for the American Automobile Industry: 1906-1940," National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.; Gordon, R.J. (1990), The Measurement of Durable Goods Prices, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.; and U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis (2012), National Income and Product Accounts. Note: Estimations were used for years 1941-1946.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–15

In current dollars, import cars, on average, were less expensive than domestic cars until 1982. Since then, import prices have almost tripled, while domestic prices have more than doubled (current dollars).

Table 10.12 Average Price of a New Car (Domestic and Import), 1970–2010

Year 1970 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1970–2010 2000–2010

Domestica Import Current Constant 2010 Current Constant 2010 dollars dollarsb dollars dollarsb 3,708 20,839 2,648 14,882 5,084 20,606 4,384 17,769 5,506 21,100 4,923 18,866 5,985 21,536 5,072 18,250 6,478 21,665 5,934 19,846 6,889 20,691 6,704 20,136 7,609 20,136 7,482 19,800 8,912 21,379 8,896 21,340 9,865 22,291 9,957 22,499 10,516 23,023 10,868 23,794 11,079 23,252 12,336 25,890 11,589 23,486 12,853 26,047 12,319 24,509 13,670 27,197 12,922 24,804 14,470 27,775 13,418 24,733 15,221 28,056 13,936 24,507 15,510 27,275 14,489 24,173 16,640 27,762 15,192 24,322 16,327 26,140 15,644 24,314 18,593 28,897 15,976 24,108 20,261 30,575 16,930 24,910 21,989 32,354 16,864 24,129 23,202 33,198 17,468 24,277 26,205 36,419 17,600 23,911 27,509 37,374 18,479 24,721 29,614 39,617 19,032 24,910 27,542 36,049 19,586 24,802 25,965 32,879 20,042 24,677 25,787 31,750 18,897 22,905 27,440 33,260 19,971 23,667 26,081 30,908 18,910 21,829 28,409 32,794 21,593 24,109 26,621 29,723 22,166 23,975 27,062 29,271 22,284 23,435 27,465 28,884 22,204 22,488 25,903 26,234 22,148 22,511 25,499 25,917 23,095 23,095 26,808 26,808 Average annual percentage change 4.7% 0.3% 6.0% 1.4% 1.7% -0.7% 0.3% -2.0%

Current dollars 3,542 4,950 5,418 5,814 6,379 6,847 7,574 8,910 9,890 10,606 11,375 11,838 12,652 13,386 13,932 14,371 15,042 15,475 16,336 16,871 17,903 17,959 18,777 19,236 20,364 20,710 21,041 21,474 21,249 21,646 21,646 23,017 23,634 23,892 23,441 23,276 24,296 4.9% 1.4%

Total Constant 2010 dollarsb 19,906 20,063 20,763 20,920 21,334 20,565 20,043 21,374 22,348 23,220 23,873 23,990 25,172 25,695 25,680 25,272 25,096 24,775 25,390 25,459 26,342 25,696 26,096 26,134 27,242 27,106 26,644 26,440 25,756 25,652 24,987 25,699 25,563 25,127 23,741 23,658 24,296 0.5% -0.9%

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts, underlying detail estimates for Motor Vehicle Output, Washington, DC, 2012. (Additional resources: www.bea.gov) a b

Includes transplants. Adjusted by the Consumer Price Inflation Index.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–16

The total cost of operating a car is the sum of the fixed cost (depreciation, insurance, finance charge, and license fee) and the variable cost (gas and oil, tires, and maintenance), which is related to the amount of travel. The gas and oil share of total cost was 16.2% in 2011.

Table 10.13 Car Operating Cost per Mile, 1985–2011

Model year 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1985–2011

Total cost per mileb (constant Constant 2011 dollars per 10,000 milesa Variable cost Fixed cost Total cost 2011 centsa) 1,551 4,309 5,860 58.60 1,338 4,735 6,073 60.73 1,327 4,610 5,936 59.36 1,502 5,761 7,263 72.63 1,451 5,297 6,748 67.48 1,446 5,604 7,049 70.49 1,602 5,889 7,491 74.91 1,443 6,067 7,510 75.10 1,432 5,794 7,226 72.26 1,381 5,822 7,204 72.04 1,417 5,911 7,328 73.28 1,376 6,011 7,388 73.88 1,514 6,094 7,607 76.07 1,477 6,249 7,725 77.25 1,431 6,292 7,723 77.23 1,594 6,171 7,764 77.64 1,727 5,869 7,597 75.97 1,475 6,094 7,570 75.70 1,601 5,971 7,572 75.72 1,500 6,708 8,208 82.08 1,624 6,233 7,857 78.57 1,685 5,228 6,913 69.13 1,573 5,169 6,742 67.42 1,772 5,641 7,413 74.13 1,617 5,794 7,411 74.11 1,726 5,900 7,625 76.25 1,774 5,857 7,631 76.31 Average annual percentage change 0.5% 1.2% 1.0% 1.0%

Percentage gas and oil of total cost 19.9% 15.1% 14.7% 13.6% 14.2% 13.2% 14.6% 12.6% 12.7% 11.8% 11.7% 10.9% 12.2% 11.1% 9.8% 11.6% 13.2% 9.7% 11.6% 9.4% 12.0% 15.3% 14.3% 16.4% 14.3% 15.4% 16.2%

Source: Ward’s Communications, Motor Vehicle Facts and Figures 2011, Southfield, Michigan, 2011, p. 65, and annual. Original data from AAA “Your Driving Costs.” (Additional resources: newsroom.aaa.com) a b

Adjusted by the Consumer Price Inflation Index. Based on 10,000 miles per year.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–17

While the previous table shows costs per mile, this table presents costs per year for fixed costs associated with car operation. For 2011 model year cars, the fixed cost is over $16 per day.

Table 10.14 Fixed Car Operating Costs per Year, 1975–2011 (constant 2011 dollars)a

Model year 1975 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Insuranceb 1,601 1,923 1,463 1,496 1,338 1,262 1,047 1,061 1,093 972 1,045 1,059 1,090 1,170 1,158 1,169 1,262 1,158 1,167 1,156 1,211 1,187 1,242 1,310 1,267 1,259 1,268 1,347 1,909 1,483 1,033 1,069 985 1,023 1,064 968

1975–2011 2001–2011

-1.4% -2.6%

License, registration Finance & taxes Depreciation charge c 125 3,232 c 275 3,144 c 255 3,084 c 279 2,919 c 224 2,834 c 218 3,185 c 126 3,161 c 219 2,931 c 229 2,613 230 2,638 1,116 267 2,709 1,307 253 2,958 1,042 264 3,392 1,074 261 3,661 1,067 284 4,056 1,170 277 4,135 439 279 4,356 1,276 277 4,405 1,043 294 4,462 984 300 4,536 1,013 308 4,545 1,029 303 4,586 1,076 312 4,642 1,122 305 4,639 1,118 291 4,561 1,109 264 4,506 1,100 251 4,653 1,035 251 4,570 910 494 4,504 882 448 4,468 851 597 3,785 799 584 3,680 795 579 3,470 792 594 3,629 817 603 3,666 831 595 3,728 823 Average annual percentage change c 4.4% 0.4% 8.5% -1.9% -2.9%

Total 4,959 5,341 4,802 5,611 5,550 5,877 5,590 5,407 5,079 4,957 5,328 5,313 5,820 6,159 6,669 6,021 7,173 6,884 6,908 7,004 7,094 7,152 7,318 7,372 7,229 7,129 7,207 7,077 7,789 7,250 6,214 6,127 5,826 6,063 6,165 6,114

Average fixed cost per day 13.59 14.62 13.14 15.37 15.21 16.11 15.31 14.82 13.92 13.59 14.59 14.55 15.95 16.87 18.28 16.50 19.66 18.87 18.93 19.19 19.44 19.59 20.05 20.20 19.80 19.53 19.74 19.39 21.34 19.87 17.03 16.78 15.96 16.61 16.89 16.75

0.6% -1.5%

0.6% -1.5%

Source: Ward’s Communications, Motor Vehicle Facts and Figures 2011, Southfield, Michigan, 2011, p. 65 and annual. Original data from AAA “Your Driving Costs.” (Additional resources: newsroom.aaa.com) a

Adjusted by the Consumer Price Inflation Index. Fire & Theft: $50 deductible 1975 through 1977; $100 deductible 1978 through 1992; $250 deductible for 1993 – on. Collision: $100 deductible through 1977; $250 deductible 1978 through 1992; $500 deductible for 1993 – on. Property Damage & Liability: coverage = $100,000/$300,000. c Data are not available. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–18

Table 10.15 Personal Consumption Expenditures, 1970–2011 (billion dollars)

Year 1970 1980 1990 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Personal consumption expenditures Constant Current 2011a 648.30 3,019.6 1,755.80 4,164.8 3,835.50 6,016.9 6,830.40 8,727.2 7,148.80 8,932.2 7,439.20 9,147.0 7,804.10 9,398.0 8,270.60 9,687.0 8,803.50 9,979.7 9,301.00 10,213.7 9,772.30 10,428.6 10,035.50 10,477.2 9,866.10 10,192.7 10,245.50 10,464.2 10,726.00 10,726.0

Transportation personal consumption expenditures Constant Current 2011a 80.8 376.3 241.7 573.3 455.7 714.9 814.3 1,040.4 829.6 1,036.6 832.6 1,023.7 873.7 1,052.1 927.0 1,085.8 998.0 1,131.3 1,027.5 1,128.3 1,071.7 1,143.7 1,055.7 1,102.2 903.0 932.9 989.7 1,010.8 1,111.9 1,111.9

Transportation PCE as a percent of PCE 12.5% 13.8% 11.9% 11.9% 11.6% 11.2% 11.2% 11.2% 11.3% 11.0% 11.0% 10.5% 9.2% 9.7% 10.4%

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts, Table 2.3.5, http://www.bea.gov Note: Transportation PCE includes the following categories: transportation, motor vehicles and parts, and gasoline and oil.

Table 10.16 Consumer Price Indices, 1970–2011 (1970 = 1.000)

Year 1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Consumer price index 1.000 2.124 3.369 4.438 5.034 5.344 5.549 5.529 5.620 5.797

Transportation consumer price indexb 1.000 2.216 3.213 4.088 4.637 4.925 5.215 4.780 5.157 5.663

New car consumer price index 1.000 1.667 2.286 2.689 2.597 2.566 2.527 2.554 2.599 2.672

Used car consumer price index 1.000 1.997 3.769 4.994 4.468 4.351 4.293 4.070 4.587 4.776

Gross national product index 1.000 2.702 5.585 9.562 12.176 13.546 13.842 13.488 14.086 14.683

Sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Price Index Table 1A for 2011, and annual. (Additional resources: www.bls.gov) GNP – U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts, Table 1.7.5. (Additional resources: www.bea.gov) a

Adjusted by the GNP price deflator. Transportation Consumer Price Index includes new and used cars, gasoline, car insurance rates, intracity mass transit, intracity bus fare, and airline fares. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–19

The data below were summarized from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Current Employment Statistics Survey data using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Transportation-related employment was 7.2% of total employment in 2011.

Table 10.17 Transportation-related Employment, 2000 and 2011a (thousands)

Truck transportation (includes drivers) Transit and ground transportation Air transportation Rail transportation Water transportation Pipeline transportation Motor vehicle and parts - retail Motor vehicles and parts - wholesale Gasoline stations - retail Automotive repair and maintenance Automotive equipment rental and leasing Manufacturing Cars and light trucks Heavy-duty trucks Motor vehicle bodies and trailers Motor vehicle parts Aerospace products and parts Railroad rolling stock & other transportation equipment Ship & boat building Tires Oil and gas pipeline construction Highway street and bridge construction Scenic & sightseeing Support activities for transportation Couriers and messengers Travel arrangement and reservation services Total transportation-related employment Total nonfarm employment Transportation-related to total employment

2000 1,405.8 372.1 614.4 231.7 56.0 46.0 1,846.9 355.7 935.7 888.1 208.3 2,143.9 237.4 54.0 182.7 839.5 516.7 72.7 154.1 86.8 72.2 340.1 27.5 537.4 605.0 298.6 10,985.4 131,785.0 8.3%

2011 1,298.9 436.1 456.0 228.8 62.5 42.9 1,687.9 312.2 828.0 813.1 165.2 1,434.1 134.8 24.8 114.0 443.3 487.6 56.6 120.6 52.4 110.4 282.2 28.6 563.9 528.5 190.3 9,469.6 131,359.0 7.2%

Percent change -7.6% 17.2% -25.8% -1.3% 11.6% -6.7% -8.6% -12.2% -11.5% -8.4% -20.7% -33.1% -43.2% -54.1% -37.6% -47.2% -5.6% -22.1% -21.7% -39.6% 52.9% -17.0% 4.0% 4.9% -12.6% -36.3% -13.8% -0.3%

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics Web site query system: www.bls.gov/ces/cesnaics.htm, (Additional resources: www.bls.gov) a

Not seasonally adjusted.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

10–20

The total number of employees involved in the manufacture of motor vehicles decreased by over 56% from 1990 to 2011 and by more than 67% for those involved in the manufacture of motor vehicle parts. Beginning in 2008, the share of production workers fell below 80% for manufacturers of both vehicles and parts.

Table 10.18 U.S. Employment for Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing, 1990–2011a Year

All employees

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

271.4 258.4 259.9 263.7 281.5 294.7 285.3 286.8 283.6 291.3 291.4 278.7 265.4 264.6 255.9 247.6 236.5 220.0 191.6 146.4 152.6 159.6

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

653.0 638.9 661.2 677.8 735.6 786.9 799.9 808.9 818.2 837.1 839.5 774.7 733.6 707.8 692.1 678.1 654.7 607.9 543.7 413.7 418.9 443.4

Production workers Motor vehicles 243.4 234.8 234.0 234.8 250.9 273.7 271.2 273.6 254.8 254.3 251.0 236.4 220.8 217.1 208.0 198.6 191.8 177.3 151.1 114.2 120.7 126.2 Motor vehicle parts 527.4 514.7 537.0 554.7 606.9 647.7 657.4 662.4 660.3 674.2 676.7 624.9 590.9 567.6 561.6 553.9 533.7 488.9 430.6 317.8 323.3 343.3

Share of production workers to total employees

Source: Tabulated from the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, www.bls.gov, May 2012. a

Not seasonally adjusted.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

89.7% 90.9% 90.0% 89.0% 89.1% 92.9% 95.1% 95.4% 89.8% 87.3% 86.1% 84.8% 83.2% 82.0% 81.3% 80.2% 81.1% 80.6% 78.9% 78.0% 79.1% 79.1% 80.8% 80.6% 81.2% 81.8% 82.5% 82.3% 82.2% 81.9% 80.7% 80.5% 80.6% 80.7% 80.5% 80.2% 81.1% 81.7% 81.5% 80.4% 79.2% 76.8% 77.2% 77.4%

11–1

Chapter 11 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Summary Statistics from Tables/Figures in this Chapter

Source Table 11.1

Carbon dioxide emissions (million metric tonnes)

1990

2008

United States

4,989

5,838

OECD Europe

4,149

4,345

China

2,293

6,801

Russia

2,393

1,663

Japan

1,054

1,215

Non-OECD Europe

1,853

1,169

573

1,462

India Table 11.5

Transportation share of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption 1990

31.6%

2005

33.4%

2010

32.7%

Table 11.6

Motor gasoline share of transportation carbon dioxide emissions

Table 11.10

Average annual carbon footprint (short tons of CO2)

63.8%

Cars

5.7

Light trucks

7.9

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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The U.S. accounted for 23.2% of the World’s carbon dioxide emissions in 1990 and 19.34% in 2008. Nearly half (42%) of the U.S. carbon emissions are from oil use.

Table 11.1 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990 and 2008

United States Canada Mexico OECDa Europe OECD Asia Japan Australia/New Zealand Russia Non-OECD Europe China India Non-OECD Asia Middle East Africa Central & South America Total World

1990 Percent of Million emissions metric tons from oil use 4,989 44% 471 48% 302 77% 4,149 45% 243 59% 1,054 65% 298 38% 2,393 33% 1,853 32% 2,293 15% 573 28% 811 57% 704 70% 659 46% 695 76% 21,488 42%

2008 Percent of Million emissions metric tons from oil use 5,838 42% 595 48% 493 66% 4,345 48% 522 39% 1,215 47% 464 33% 1,663 20% 1,169 25% 6,801 15% 1,462 25% 1,838 48% 1,581 57% 1,078 41% 1,128 71% 30,190 37%

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, International Energy Outlook 2011, Washington, DC, September 2011, Tables A10 and A11. (Additional resources: www.eia.doe.gov) a

OECD is the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. See Glossary for included countries.

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11–3

Global Warming Potentials (GWP) were developed to allow comparison of the ability of each greenhouse gas to trap heat in the atmosphere relative to carbon dioxide. Extensive research has been performed and it has been discovered that the effects of various gases on global warming are too complex to be precisely summarized by a single number. Further understanding of the subject also causes frequent changes to estimates. Despite that, the scientific community has developed approximations, the latest of which are shown below. Most analysts use the 100-year time horizon.

Table 11.2 Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared with Carbon Dioxide (kilogram of gas per kilogram of carbon dioxide)

Gas Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) HFCsb, PFCsc, and sulfur hexafluoride HFC-23 HFC-125 HFC-134a HFC-152a HFC-227ea Perfluoromethane (CF4) Perfluoroethane (C2F6) Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)

Lifetime (years) 5-200a 12 114 270 29 14 1 34 50,000 10,000 3,200

Global warming potential direct effect for time horizons of 20 years 100 years 500 years 1 1 1 72 25 8 289 298 153 12,000 6,350 3,830 437 5,310 5,210 8,630 16,300

14,800 3,500 1,430 124 3,220 7,390 12,200 22,800

12,200 1,100 435 38 1,040 11,200 18,200 32,600

Source: Solomon, S. et al., “Technical Summary,” in Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2007. (Additional resources: www.ipcc.ch) Note: The typical uncertainty for global warming potentials is estimated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ± 35 percent. a

No single lifetime can be defined for carbon dioxide due to different rates of uptake by different removal processes. b Hydrofluorocarbons c Perfluorocarbons

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Carbon dioxide emissions in 2010 were 12% higher than in 1990. Carbon dioxide accounts for the majority of greenhouse gases.

Table 11.3 U.S. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, based on Global Warming Potential, 1990–2010 (million metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalenta)

1990 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Carbon dioxide 5,067.0 5,067.0 5,960.0 6,065.2 5,876.1 5,455.2 5,660.9

Methane 668.2 625.7 664.7 656.1 667.9 672.2 666.6

Nitrous oxide 316.1 331.6 336.8 334.7 316.9 303.9 305.9

High GWP gasesb 90.1 139.0 138.6 143.1 139.0 131.4 142.5

Total 6,141.4 6,163.3 7,100.1 7,199.1 6,999.9 6,562.7 6,775.9

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U. S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2010, EPA 430-R-12-001, April 2012, http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads12/US-GHG-Inventory2012-Main-Text.pdf Note: This greenhouse gas emissions inventory includes two “adjustments to energy consumption” which make the data different from Table 11.5. The adjustments are as follows: (1) Emissions from U.S. Territories are included. (2) International bunker fuels and military bunker fuels are excluded from the U.S. total. a

Carbon dioxide equivalents are computed by multiplying the weight of the gas being measured by its estimated Global Warming Potential (See Table 11.2). b GWP = Global warming potential. Includes HFC-hydrofluorocarbons; PFC-perfluorocarbons; and SF6sulfur hexaflouride.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

11–5

Though the transportation sector accounts for the largest share of carbon dioxide emissions, the industrial sector accounts for the largest share of total greenhouse gas emissions.

Table 11.4 Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by End-Use Sector, 2010 (million metric tonnes carbon dioxide equivalenta)

Residential Commercial Agricultural Industrial Transportation Transportation share of total Total greenhouse gas emissions

Carbon dioxide 1,190.0 1,002.9 82.6 1,625.9 1,759.5 31.1% 5,660.9

Methane 3.7 126.9 207.2 327.2 1.6 0.2% 666.6

Nitrous oxide 9.3 13.5 231.1 33.0 19.0 6.2% 305.9

Hydroflurocarbons, perflurocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride 23.5 27.6 0.1 32.9 58.4 41.0% 142.5

Total greenhouse gas emissions 1,226.5 1,170.9 521.0 2,019.0 1,838.5 27.1% 6,775.9

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, 1990-2010. EPA 430-R-12-001, April 2012. (Additional resources: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html) Note: Totals may not sum due to rounding. a

Carbon dioxide equivalents are computed by multiplying the weight of the gas being measured by its estimated Global Warming Potential (See Table 11.2).

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Gases which contain carbon can be measured in terms of the full molecular weight of the gas or just in terms of their carbon content. This table presents carbon dioxide gas. The ratio of the weight of carbon to carbon dioxide is 0.2727. The transportation sector accounts for approximately one-third of carbon emissions.

Table 11.5 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1990–2010a (million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide)

1990 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Residential 931.4 1,214.7 1,152.4 1,205.2 1,192.2 1,125.5 1,183.7

1990–2010 2005–2010

1.2% -0.5%

End use sector Commercial Industrial Transportation 757.0 1,533.1 1,489.0 1,027.2 1,553.3 1,901.3 1,007.6 1,560.2 1,882.6 1,047.7 1,559.8 1,899.0 1,041.1 1,503.8 1,794.5 978.0 1,328.6 1,732.4 997.1 1,415.4 1,750.0 Average annual percentage change 1.4% -0.4% 0.8% -0.6% -1.8% -1.6%

Transportation percentage 31.6% 33.4% 33.6% 33.2% 32.4% 33.5% 32.7%

CO2 from all sectors 4,710.5 5,696.5 5,602.8 5,711.7 5,531.6 5,164.5 5,346.2 0.6% -1.3%

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, 1990-2010. EPA 430-R-12-001, April 2012. (Additional resources: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html) a

Includes energy from petroleum, coal, and natural gas. Electric utility emissions are distributed across consumption sectors.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

11–7

Most U.S. transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions come from petroleum fuels (97.5%). Motor gasoline has been responsible for about two-thirds of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions over the last twenty years.

Table 11.6 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in the Transportation End-Use Sector

Fuel

Emissions

Motor gasoline LPGa Jet fuel Distillate fuel Residual fuel Lubricants Aviation gas Subtotal Natural gas Electricityb Totalc

1990 Percentage

983.7 1.4 176.2 262.9 22.6 3.1 1,449.9 983.7

66.1% 0.1% 11.8% 17.7% 1.5% 0.2% 97.4% 66.1%

36.0 3.0

2.4% 0.2%

1,488.9

100.0%

2005 Emissions Percentage Petroleum 1,187.8 62.5% 1.7 0.1% 194.2 10.2% 458.1 24.1% 19.3 1.0% 2.4 0.1% 1,863.5 98.0% 1,187.8 62.5% Other energy 33.1 1.7% 4.7 0.2% 1,901.3

Emissions

100.0%

2010 Percentage

1,117.0 1.8 140.5 418.9 25.3 1.9 1,705.4 1,117.0

63.8% 0.1% 8.0% 23.9% 1.4% 0.1% 97.5% 63.8%

40.1 4.5

2.3% 0.3%

1,750.0

100.0%

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, 1990-2010. EPA 430-R-12-001, April 2012. (Additional resources: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html) a

Liquified petroleum gas. Share of total electric utility carbon dioxide emissions weighted by sales to the transportation sector. c Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

11–8

Highway vehicles are responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector.

Table 11.7 Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Mode, 1990 and 2010 (Million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent) Carbon dioxide 1990 Highway total 1,190.5 Cars, light trucks, motorcycles 952.2 Medium & heavy trucks and buses 238.3 Water 44.5 Air 179.3 Rail 38.5 Pipeline 36.0 Other 0.0 1,489.0 Totala 2010 Highway total 1,482.5 Cars, light trucks, motorcycles 1,077.2 Medium & heavy trucks and buses 405.3 Water 42.6 Air 142.4 Rail 43.5 Pipeline 38.8 Other 0.0 a 1,750.0 Total Percent change 1990–2010 Highway total 24.5% Cars, light trucks, motorcycles 13.1% Medium & heavy trucks and buses 70.1% Water -4.3% Air -20.6% Rail 13.0% Pipeline 7.8% Other 0.0% 17.5% Totala

Methane

Nitrous oxide

4.2 4.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 4.7

40.4 39.6 0.8 0.6 1.7 0.3 0.0 0.9 43.9

1.4 1.3 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 1.9

16.6 15.6 1.0 0.6 1.3 0.3 0.0 1.6 20.4

-66.7% -67.5% -50.0% 0.0% -50.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% -59.6%

-58.9% -60.6% 25.0% 0.0% -23.5% 0.0% 0.0% 77.8% -53.5%

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Draft Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2010, Tables 3-12, 3-13, 3-14, April 2012. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions) Note: Emissions from U.S. Territories, International bunker fuels, and military bunker fuels are not included. a

The sums of subcategories may not equal due to rounding.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model

greet.es.anl.gov Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Argonne has developed a full life-cycle model called GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation). It allows researchers and analysts to evaluate energy and emission impacts of various vehicle and fuel combinations on a full fuel-cycle/vehicle-cycle basis. The first version of GREET was released in 1996. Since then, Argonne has continued to update and expand the model. The most recent GREET versions are GREET 1 2012 version for fuel-cycle analysis and GREET 2.7 version for vehicle-cycle analysis.

Figure 11.1. GREET Model

For a given vehicle and fuel system, GREET separately calculates the following: •

Consumption of total energy (energy in non-renewable and renewable sources), fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal together), petroleum, coal and natural gas.



Emissions of CO2-equivalent greenhouse gases - primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Emissions of six criteria pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), particulate matter with size smaller than 10 micron (PM10), particulate matter with size smaller than 2.5 micron (PM2.5),and sulfur oxides (SOx).

GREET includes more than 100 fuel production pathways and more than 80 vehicle/fuel systems. These vehicle/fuel systems cover all major vehicle technologies in the market and R&D arena: •

Conventional spark-ignition (SI) engines



Direct-injection, SI engines



Direct injection, compression-ignition (CI) engines



Grid-independent hybrid electric vehicles (both SI and CI)



Grid-connected (or plug-in) hybrid electric vehicles (both SI and CI)



Battery-powered electric vehicles



Fuel-cell vehicles

Figure 11.2. GREET Model Feedstocks and Fuels

To address technology improvements over time, GREET simulates vehicle/fuel systems over the period from 1990 to 2035, in five-year intervals. For additional information about the GREET model, see the GREET Web site, or contact: Michael Q. Wang Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue, ES/362 Argonne, IL 60439-4815 phone: 630-252-2819 fax: 630-252-3443 email: [email protected]

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

11–11

These are results from the GREET model (see preceding pages for description). California’s (CA) grid mix was chosen due to the high renewable energy mix in that state. While in contrast, West Virginia’s (WV) grid mix is primarily coal. Both of these are compared against the average U.S. grid mix for various vehicle technologies.

Figure 11.3. Well-to-Wheel Emissions for Various Fuels and Vehicle Technologies

Source: Argonne National Laboratory, GREET 1 2012 Model. Note: H2 = hydrogen; High-T = high-temperature.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

11–12

Carbon Footprint

The carbon footprint measures a vehicle’s impact on climate change in tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted annually. The following three tables show the carbon footprint for various vehicle classes. The sales-weighted average fuel economy rating for each vehicle class, based on 45% highway and 55% city driving, is used to determine the average annual carbon footprint for vehicles in the class. An estimate of 15,000 annual miles is used for each vehicle class and for each year in the series. The equation to calculate carbon footprint uses results of the GREET model version 1.8.

CarbonFootprint

AnnualMiles   = CO 2 × LHV ×  + (CH 4 + N 2 O ) × AnnualMiles  CombinedMPG 

where: CO2 = (Tailpipe CO2 + Upstream Greenhouse Gases) in grams per million Btu LHV = Lower (or net) Heating Value in million Btu per gallon CH4 = Tailpipe CO2 equivalent methane in grams per mile N2O = Tailpipe CO2 equivalent nitrous oxide in grams per mile

Note: The Environmental Protection Agency publishes tailpipe emissions in the Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 through 2010, www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

11–13

The carbon footprint for all classifications of cars declined between 1975 and 2011. Midsize cars have experienced the greatest reduction in carbon footprint with a decrease of 60%.

Table 11.8 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011a (short tons of CO2) Sales period 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Small 10.2 7.2 6.6 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.9 5.6 5.5 5.4

Cars Midsize 13.7 8.6 8.1 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.5 7.2 7.2 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.3 6.0 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.4

Large 14.2 9.8 9.1 9.0 9.2 9.1 8.4 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.7 7.8 7.6 7.7 7.6 7.6 7.5 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.1 7.2 7.2 6.9 6.6 6.6 6.1

1975–2011 2001–2011

-1.8% -1.2%

-2.6% -2.4%

-2.3% -1.8%

Wagons Small Midsize Large 8.4 14.1 15.6 6.5 8.8 9.8 6.2 8.1 9.4 6.1 7.9 9.7 5.8 7.7 9.5 5.9 7.5 9.4 5.8 7.4 8.9 6.0 7.2 8.5 6.1 7.3 8.4 6.0 7.1 8.2 5.9 7.3 8.3 6.3 7.4 8.2 6.1 7.2 8.2 6.2 7.1 8.2 5.8 7.1 8.3 5.7 7.2 8.2 5.6 7.0 8.2 5.9 7.1 8.1 b 5.8 7.1 b 5.8 7.1 b 5.9 7.1 b 6.4 6.9 b 6.9 7.0 b 7.2 6.8 b 6.2 6.9 6.0 7.1 8.5 5.8 7.2 8.4 6.0 7.1 8.5 5.9 6.8 8.5 5.8 7.0 8.6 5.6 6.7 8.7 b 5.5 6.5 b 5.4 7.5 Average annual percentage change -1.2% -2.4%

-1.7% 0.7%

Non-truck SUVs Small Midsize Large 15.5 12.6 14.2 b 11.4 9.6 b b 11.1 b 7.9 9.9 b 8.1 7.7 b 8.3 8.6 b b 8.7 b 8.0 8.8 b 8.0 8.6 b 8.1 8.5 b 8.1 8.7 b 8.0 8.9 b 8.2 8.7 b 8.0 8.9 b 8.1 9.2 b 7.5 8.8 b 6.4 9.1 6.4 9.0 9.8 6.7 9.0 10.1 7.3 8.7 9.0 6.9 8.5 10.4 8.0 8.6 10.5 7.0 8.3 8.9 7.0 8.2 9.0 6.5 7.9 8.8 6.4 7.9 8.4 6.3 7.6 8.0 b 7.4 7.9 8.6 7.1 8.1 8.6 6.9 7.9 8.5 6.7 7.6 8.5 6.5 6.9 b 6.4 6.8

c

c

c

c

-1.9% -2.6%

-2.0% -2.7%

Source: Calculated using fuel economy from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, March 2012. See page 11-12 for details. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm) a

Annual carbon footprint is based on 15,000 miles of annual driving. Includes tailpipe plus upstream emissions. b No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year. c Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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The annual carbon footprint of light trucks decreased for all classes of light trucks between 1975 and 2011. In the last ten years, midsize truck SUVs experienced the greatest decline with about 23% while small truck SUVs experienced a 10% gain in carbon emissions.

Table 11.9 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011a (short tons of CO2) Sales period 1975 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1975-2011 2001-2011

Small 8.3 7.7 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.2 7.0 7.2 7.2 7.5 7.8 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.1 7.5 7.7 7.6 7.5 7.6 8.0 7.1 7.1 8.1 8.0 8.3 7.2 7.0 b b b b b

c c

Pickups Midsize 8.9 7.2 7.1 7.0 7.1 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.9 7.9 7.8 7.6 7.5 7.7 7.8 8.3 8.2 8.6 8.9 8.2 8.6 7.9 7.8 8.0 7.8 7.6 7.5 6.8

Large 14.2 10.8 10.0 10.0 10.3 10.5 10.6 10.2 10.5 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.2 10.2 10.0 10.2 10.4 10.2 9.9 10.0 10.1 9.7 9.9 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.6 9.5 9.5 9.4 9.2 9.1 8.8

-0.7% -2.3%

-1.3% -1.2%

Vans Midsize Large 14.0 14.8 11.1 11.7 10.4 11.1 10.4 11.6 10.0 11.5 9.7 11.4 9.4 11.6 9.0 10.6 8.8 11.0 8.6 11.0 8.6 11.1 8.6 11.3 8.5 11.2 8.6 11.0 8.4 11.0 8.5 11.0 8.4 10.9 8.2 10.9 b 8.3 10.0 b 8.0 10.2 b 8.1 10.4 b 8.0 10.4 b 7.8 10.5 b 7.9 10.4 b 7.8 10.0 b 7.8 9.6 b 7.7 9.6 b 7.6 9.6 b 7.7 9.4 6.1 7.6 9.3 6.2 7.5 9.3 6.1 7.5 9.3 b 7.0 10.2 Average annual percentage change c -1.9% -1.0% c -1.1% -0.3% Small 9.1 9.8 10.1 8.6 9.5 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.7 7.6 7.5 7.8 7.8 6.9 6.6 6.9 7.1 7.1

Small 11.1 9.9 9.2 9.5 8.9 8.7 8.5 7.9 7.7 7.7 8.2 8.0 7.8 7.9 8.0 7.9 7.9 6.7 8.6 8.0 8.0 8.4 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.9 8.1 8.7 8.3 8.2 9.1 8.6 8.6 -0.7% 1.0%

Truck SUVs Midsize Large 15.8 17.9 13.1 13.0 12.0 12.2 11.5 9.9 10.2 10.6 10.1 11.0 9.6 11.0 9.6 11.1 9.6 11.0 9.7 11.2 9.7 11.2 9.8 11.2 9.4 11.5 9.6 11.9 9.4 11.4 9.6 11.4 9.6 11.2 9.4 10.8 9.2 10.7 9.1 10.9 9.0 10.9 9.0 10.6 8.9 10.3 8.8 9.9 8.6 10.1 8.5 10.1 8.4 9.6 8.2 9.4 7.9 9.1 7.6 9.0 7.2 8.4 7.0 8.3 6.8 8.0 -2.3% -2.7%

-2.2% -2.5%

Source: Calculated using fuel economy from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, March 2012. See page 11-12 for details. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm) Note: Includes light trucks of 8,500 lbs. or less. a

Annual carbon footprint is based on 15,000 miles of annual driving. Includes tailpipe plus upstream emissions. b No vehicles in this category were sold in this model year. c Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Between 1975 and 2011, the carbon footprint for light vehicles sold in the United States dropped dramatically. Cars experienced the greatest decrease at 51.5% while the carbon footprint for light trucks decreased by 41.7%.

Table 11.10 Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975 and 2011a (short tons of CO2)

Fuel Small Midsize Large Small wagon Midsize wagon Large wagon Small non-truck SUV Midsize non-truck SUV Large non-truck SUV Total cars Small van Midsize van Large van Small truck SUV Midsize truck SUV Large truck SUV Small pickup Midsize pickup Large pickup Total cars

Market share 1975 2011 Cars 40.0% 17.7% 16.0% 21.4% 15.2% 9.9% 4.7% 3.9% 2.8% 0.0% 1.9% b 0.1% b 0.1% 6.3% 0.1% 3.1% 80.8% 62.4% Light trucks 0.0% b 3.0% 4.3% 1.5% 0.1% 0.5% 0.8% 1.1% 8.7% 0.0% 9.6% 1.6% b 0.5% 0.6% 11.0% 13.5% 19.2% 37.6%

Carbon footprint 1975 2011 10.2 13.7 14.2 8.4 14.1 15.6 15.5 12.6 14.2 11.8 9.1 14.0 14.8 11.1 15.8 17.9 8.3 8.9 14.2 13.6

Percent change 1975 - 2011

5.4 5.4 6.1 5.4 7.5 b b 6.4 6.8 5.7

-46.5% -60.4% -56.7% -35.2% -46.8% c c -49.4% -52.0% -51.5%

b 7.0 10.2 8.6 6.8 8.0 b 6.8 8.8 7.9

c -49.6% -31.3% -22.5% -56.7% -55.1% c -23.3% -38.3% -41.7%

Source: Calculated using fuel economy from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, March 2012. See page 11-10 for details. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm) a

Annual carbon footprint is based on 15,000 miles of annual driving. Includes tailpipe and upstream emissions. b Data are not available. c Not applicable.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

11–16

The amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by a vehicle is primarily determined by the carbon content of the fuel. However, there is a small portion of the fuel that is not oxidized into carbon dioxide when the fuel is burned. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published information on carbon dioxide emissions from gasoline and diesel which takes the oxidation factor into account and is based on the carbon content used in EPA’s fuel economy analyses. The other fuels listed come from the Energy Information Administration.

Table 11.11 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Gallon of Fuel

Gasoline Diesel LPG Propane Aviation gasoline Jet fuel Kerosene Residual fuel

Grams per gallon 8,788 10,084 5,805 5,760 8,345 9,569 9,751 11,791

Kilograms per gallon 8.8 10.1 5.8 5.8 8.3 9.6 9.8 11.8

Pounds per gallon 19.4 22.2 12.8 12.7 18.4 21.1 21.5 26.0

Sources: Gasoline and Diesel: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Emission Facts: Average Carbon Dioxide Emissions Resulting from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel,” February 2009. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/OMS) All others: Energy Information Administration, Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, Fuel and Energy Source Codes and Emission Coefficients.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–1

Chapter 12 Criteria Air Pollutants Summary Statistics from Tables in this Chapter

Source Table 12.1

Transportation’s share of U.S. emissions, 2011 CO

61.8%

NOX

50.9%

VOC

29.8%

PM-2.5

4.2%

PM-10

2.7%

SO2

2.1%

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–2

Transportation accounts for the majority of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. Highway vehicles are responsible for the largest share of transportation emissions.

Table 12.1 Total National Emissions of the Criteria Air Pollutants by Sector, 2011 (millions of short tons/percentage) Sector Highway vehicles Other off-highway Transportation total Stationary source fuel combustion Industrial processes Waste disposal and recycling total Miscellaneous Total of all sources

CO 33.09 53.0% 5.47 8.8% 38.56 61.8% 4.77 7.6% 1.93 3.1% 1.56 2.5% 15.60 25.0% 62.42 100.0%

NOx 3.76 31.3% 2.35 19.6% 6.11 50.9% 4.39 36.6% 1.02 8.5% 0.13 1.1% 0.35 2.9% 12.01 100.0%

VOC 2.94 24.3% 0.67 5.5% 3.61 29.8% 0.29 2.4% 4.37 36.0% 0.17 1.4% 3.69 30.4% 12.13 100.0%

PM-10 0.09 1.2% 0.12 1.5% 0.21 2.7% 1.02 13.0% 0.54 6.9% 0.28 3.5% 5.78 73.8% 7.84 100.0%

PM-2.5 0.08 0.1% 0.11 1.4% 0.19 4.2% 0.98 21.3% 0.48 10.3% 0.27 5.9% 2.70 58.4% 4.63 100.0%

SO2 0.03 0.4% 0.14 1.7% 0.17 2.1% 7.01 87.0% 0.77 9.5% 0.03 0.3% 0.08 1.0% 8.06 100.0%

Source: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends Web site www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/ttn/chief) Note: CO = Carbon monoxide. NOx = Nitrogen oxides. PM-10 = Particulate matter less than 10 microns. PM-2.5 = Particulate matter less than 2.5 microns. SO2 = Sulfur dioxide. VOC = Volatile organic compounds. NH3 = Ammonia.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–3

The transportation sector accounted for more than 61% of the nation’s carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in 2011. Highway vehicles are by far the source of the greatest amount of CO. For details on the highway emissions of CO, see Table 12.3.

Table 12.2 Total National Emissions of Carbon Monoxide, 1970–2011a (million short tons)

Source category Highway vehicles Other off-highway Transportation total Stationary fuel combustion total Industrial processes total Waste disposal and recycling total Miscellaneous total Total of all sources

1970 163.23 11.37 174.60 4.63 9.84 7.06 7.91 204.04

1980 143.83 16.69 160.51 7.30 6.95 2.30 8.34 185.41

1990 110.26 21.45 131.70 5.51 4.77 1.08 11.12 154.19

2000 68.06 24.18 92.24 4.78 2.63 1.85 12.96 114.47

2010 36.51 9.71 45.31 4.67 1.86 1.57 14.38 67.79

2011 33.09 5.47 38.56 4.78 1.93 1.56 15.60 62.42

Percent of total, 2011 53.0% 8.8% 61.8% 7.6% 3.1% 2.5% 25.0% 100.0%

Source: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends Web site www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/ttn/chief) a

The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–4

Though gasoline-powered light vehicles continue to be responsible for the majority of carbon monoxide emissions from highway vehicles, the total pollution from light vehicles in 2005 is about a third of what it was in 1970. This is despite the fact that there were many more light vehicles on the road in 2005.

Table 12.3 Emissions of Carbon Monoxide from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005a (million short tons)

Source category

1970

1980 1990 Gasoline powered

Light vehicles & motorcycles Light trucksb Heavy vehicles Total

119.14 22.27 21.27 162.68

98.21 67.24 28.83 32.23 15.35 8.92 142.39 108.39 Diesel powered 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.03 1.36 1.81 1.43 1.87 Total 143.83 110.26 1.0% 1.7%

Light vehicles Light trucksb Heavy vehicles Total Highway vehicle total Percent diesel

0.01 0.06 0.49 0.56 163.23 0.3%

1995

2000

2005

Percent of total, 2005

46.54 29.81 5.96 82.31

36.40 27.04 3.42 66.86

24.19 21.19 1.97 47.35

50.2% 43.9% 4.1% 98.2%

0.02 0.02 1.53 1.57

0.01 0.01 1.19 1.20

0.01 0.01 0.85 0.87

0.0% 0.0% 1.8% 1.8%

83.88 1.9%

68.06 1.8%

48.22 1.8%

100.0%

Source: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends Web site www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps) Note: Data beyond 2005 are not available. a b

The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding. Less than 8,500 pounds.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–5

The transportation sector accounted for over half of the nation’s nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in 2011, with the majority coming from highway vehicles. For details on the highway emissions of NOx, see Table 12.5.

Table 12.4 Total National Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides, 1970–2011a (million short tons)

Source category Highway vehicles Other off-highway Transportation total Stationary fuel combustion total Industrial processes total Waste disposal and recycling total Miscellaneous total Total of all sources

1970 12.62 2.65 15.28 10.06 0.78 0.44 0.33 26.88

1980 11.49 3.35 14.85 11.32 0.56 0.11 0.25 27.08

1990 9.59 3.78 13.37 10.89 0.80 0.09 0.37 25.53

2000 8.39 4.17 12.56 8.82 0.81 0.13 0.28 22.60

2010 4.28 2.87 7.16 4.23 1.00 0.13 0.32 12.91

2011 3.76 2.35 6.11 4.39 1.00 0.13 0.35 12.01

Percent of total, 2011 31.3% 19.6% 50.9% 36.6% 8.5% 1.1% 2.9% 100.0%

Source: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends Web site www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/ttn/chief) a

The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–6

Heavy diesel-powered vehicles were responsible for nearly one-half (44.1%) of highway vehicle nitrogen oxide emissions in 2005, while light gasoline vehicles were responsible for the rest.

Table 12.5 Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005a (million short tons)

Source category

1970

Light vehicles & motorcycles Light trucksb Heavy vehicles Total

8.54 1.54 0.72 10.81

Light vehicles Light trucksb Heavy vehicles Total Highway vehicle total Percent diesel

0.00 0.07 1.76 1.83 12.64 14.5%

1980 1990 Gasoline powered 6.63 4.26 1.58 1.50 0.62 0.57 8.83 6.33 Diesel powered 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.02 2.59 3.19 2.66 3.26 Total 11.49 9.59 23.1% 34.0%

1995

2000

2005

Percent of total, 2005

3.05 1.46 0.52 5.03

2.31 1.44 0.45 4.20

1.63 1.56 0.38 3.57

25.5% 24.4% 5.9% 55.9%

0.02 0.01 3.82 3.85

0.01 0.01 4.18 4.19

0.00 0.01 2.81 2.82

0.0% 0.2% 44.0% 44.1%

8.88 43.4%

8.39 49.9%

6.39 44.1%

100.0%

Source: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends Web site www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps) Note: Data beyond 2005 are not available. a b

The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding. Less than 8,500 pounds.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–7

The transportation sector accounted for almost 30% of the nation’s volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2011, with the majority coming from highway vehicles. For details on the highway emissions of VOC, see Table 12.7.

Table 12.6 Total National Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds, 1970–2011a (million short tons) Source category Highway vehicles Off-highway Transportation total Stationary fuel combustion total Industrial processes total Waste disposal and recycling total Miscellaneous total Total of all sources

1970 16.91 1.62 18.53 0.72 12.33 1.98 1.10 34.66

1980 13.87 2.19 16.06 1.05 12.10 0.76 1.13 31.11

1990 9.39 2.66 12.05 1.01 9.01 0.99 1.06 24.11

2000 5.33 2.64 7.97 1.18 7.21 0.42 0.73 17.51

2010 3.15 1.31 4.46 1.38 5.11 0.18 3.32 13.44

2011 2.94 0.67 3.61 0.29 4.37 0.17 3.69 12.13

Percent of total, 2011 24.3% 5.5% 29.8% 2.4% 36.0% 1.4% 30.4% 100.0%

Source: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends Web site www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/ttn/chief) a

The sum of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding. The EPA's definition of volatile organic compounds excludes methane, ethane, and certain other nonphotochemically reactive organic compounds.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–8

Gasoline-powered vehicles are responsible for over 95% of highway vehicle emissions of volatile organic compounds. VOC emissions from highway vehicles in 2005 were about one-quarter of the 1990 level.

Table 12.7 Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005a (thousand short tons)

Source category

1970

Light vehicles & motorcycles Light trucksb Heavy vehicles Total

11,996 2,776 1,679 16,451

Light vehicles Light trucksb Heavy vehicles Total Highway vehicle total Percent diesel

8 41 411 460 16,911 2.7%

1980 1990 Gasoline powered 9,304 5,690 2,864 2,617 1,198 633 13,366 8,940 Diesel powered 16 18 28 15 459 415 503 448 Total 13,869 9,388 3.6% 4.8%

1995

2000

2005

Percent of total, 2005

3,768 2,225 421 6,414

2,903 1,929 256 5,088

2,111 1,629 171 3,911

51.8% 39.9% 4.2% 95.9%

9 10 315 335

3 4 230 238

2 6 159 167

0.0% 0.1% 3.9% 4.1%

6,749 5.0%

5,326 4.5%

4,078 4.1%

100.0%

Source: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends Web site www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps) Note: Data beyond 2005 are not available. a b

The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding. Less than 8,500 pounds.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–9

The transportation sector accounted for almost 3% of the nation’s particulate matter (PM-10) emissions in 2011. For details on the highway emissions of PM-10, see Table 12.9.

Table 12.8 Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-10), 1970–2011a (million short tons) Source category Highway vehicles Off-highway Transportation total Stationary fuel combustion total Industrial processes total Waste disposal and recycling total Miscellaneous total

1970 0.48 0.16 0.64 2.87 7.67 1.00 0.84

1980 0.43 0.26 0.69 2.45 2.75 0.27 0.85

1990 0.39 0.33 0.72 1.20 1.04 0.27 24.54

2000 0.23 0.32 0.55 1.47 0.71 0.36 20.65

2010 0.12 0.17 0.29 1.02 0.58 0.29 8.60

2011 0.09 0.12 0.21 1.02 0.54 0.28 5.78

Percent of total, 2011 1.2% 1.5% 2.7% 13.0% 6.9% 3.5% 73.8%

Total of all sources

13.02

7.01

27.75

23.75

10.78

7.84

100.0%

Source: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends Web site www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/ttn/chief) Note: Because PM-10 is fine particle matter less than 10 microns, it also includes PM-2.5. Specific data for PM-2.5 are shown on Tables 12.10 and 12.11. a

Fine particle matter less than 10 microns. The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–10

Since the mid-1980's, diesel-powered vehicles have been responsible for more than half of highway vehicle emissions of particulate matter (PM-10). Heavy vehicles are clearly the main source.

Table 12.9 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-10) from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005a (thousand short tons) Source category

1970

Light vehicles & motorcycles Light trucksb Heavy vehicles Total

249 74 44 367

Light vehicles Light trucksb Heavy vehicles Total

2 19 92 113

Highway vehicle total Percent diesel

480 23.5%

1980 1990 1995 Gasoline powered 141 56 53 49 31 32 30 17 13 220 104 98 Diesel powered 9 11 4 12 5 3 191 268 199 212 284 206 Total 432 387 304 49.1% 73.4% 67.8%

Percent of total, 2005

2000

2005

51 31 10 92

46 35 8 89

25.1% 19.1% 4.4% 48.6%

1 1 135 137

1 1 92 94

0.5% 0.5% 50.3% 51.4%

230 59.6%

183 51.4%

100.0%

Source: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends Web site www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps) Note: Because PM-10 is fine particle matter less than 10 microns, it also includes PM-2.5. Specific data for PM-2.5 are shown on Tables 12.10 and 12.11. Data beyond 2005 are not available. a b

The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding. Less than 8,500 pounds.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–11

The transportation sector accounted for only 4% of the nation’s particulate matter (PM-2.5) emissions in 2011. For details on the highway emissions of PM-2.5, see Table 12.11.

Table 12.10 Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5), 1990–2011 (million short tons)

Source category Highway vehicles Off-highway Transportation total Stationary fuel combustion total Industrial processes total Waste disposal and recycling total Miscellaneous total Total of all sources

1990 0.32 0.30 0.62 0.91 0.56 0.23 5.23 7.56

1995 0.25 0.31 0.56 0.90 0.50 0.25 4.73 6.93

2000 0.17 0.30 0.47 1.29 0.50 0.33 4.69 7.29

2005 0.14 0.32 0.46 1.13 0.53 0.27 3.07 5.46

2010 0.09 0.16 0.25 0.95 0.44 0.28 2.57 4.50

2011 0.08 0.11 0.19 0.98 0.48 0.27 2.70 4.63

Percent of total, 2011 1.7% 2.4% 4.2% 21.3% 10.3% 5.9% 58.4% 100.0%

Source: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends Web site www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/ttn/chief)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–12

Diesel vehicles are responsible for the majority of highway vehicle PM-2.5 emissions. Nearly two-thirds of the highway vehicles’ PM-2.5 emissions are from heavy diesel trucks.

Table 12.11 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5) from Highway Vehicles, 1990–2005a (thousand short tons) Source category Light vehicles & motorcycles Light trucksb Heavy vehicles Total Light vehicles Light trucksb Heavy vehicles Total Highway vehicle total Percent diesel

1990 1995 Gasoline powered 35 30 21 20 11 9 67 59 Diesel powered 9 4 4 2 243 179 256 185 Total 323 244 79.3% 75.8%

2000

2005

Percent of total, 2005

27 18 7 52

23 18 6 47

18.0% 14.1% 4.7% 36.7%

1 1 119 121

1 1 79 81

0.8% 0.8% 61.7% 63.3%

173 69.9%

128 63.3%

100.0%

Source: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Inventory Air Pollutant Emission Trends Web site www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps) Note: Data beyond 2005 are not available. a b

The sums of subcategories may not equal total due to rounding. Less than 8,500 pounds.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–13

EMISSION STANDARDS The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates emissions from mobile sources including vehicles, engines, and motorized equipment that produce exhaust and evaporative emissions. Mobile sources contribute to four main air pollutants: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter. The EPA not only sets standards for the vehicles, engines, and equipment, but also the fuels that they use. Tables 12.12 through 12.25 contain summaries of the current standards.

Acronyms Used on Tables 12.12 through 12.25 bhp CI CO DE g g/kN g/mi GVW HC HCHO HLDT Hp-hr kW kW-hr LDT LDV LEV LLDT LVW MDPV NMHC NMOG NOx PM ppm rPR SI SULEV ULEV ZEV

Brake horsepower-hour Compression-ignition Carbon Monoxide Diesel engine Gram Grams per kilonewton Grams per mile Gross vehicle weight Hydrocarbons Formaldehyde Heavy light-duty truck Horsepower-hour Kilowatt Kilowatt-hour Light-duty truck Light-duty vehicle Low-emission vehicle Light light-duty truck Loaded vehicle weight Medium-duty passenger vehicle (8,500-10,000 lbs. GVWR) Non-methane hydrocarbon Non-methane organic gases Nitrogen oxides Particulate matter Parts per million Rated pressure ratio Spark-ignition Super-ultra-low-emission vehicle Ultra-low-emission vehicle Zero-emission vehicle

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–14

These exhaust emission standards were phased-in from 2004 to 2010.

Table 12.12 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards

Standard

Federal

Emission limits at 50,000 miles NOx NMOG CO PM HCHO (g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi)

Emission limits at full useful life (120,000 miles)a NOx NMOG CO PM HCHO (g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi) (g/mi)

Bin 1

-

-

-

-

-

0

0

0

0

0

Bin 2

-

-

-

-

-

0.02

0.01

2.1

0.01

0.004

Bin 3

-

-

-

-

-

0.03

0.055

2.1

0.01

0.011

Bin 4

-

-

-

-

-

0.04

0.07

2.1

0.01

0.011

Bin 5

0.05

0.075

3.4

-

0.015

0.07

0.09

4.2

0.01

0.018

Bin 6

0.08

0.075

3.4

-

0.015

0.1

0.09

4.2

0.01

0.018

Bin 7

0.11

0.075

3.4

-

0.015

0.15

0.09

4.2

0.02

0.018

Bin 8

0.14

0.100 / 0.125c

3.4

-

0.015

0.2

0.125 / 0.156

4.2

0.02

0.018

Bin 9b

0.2

0.075 / 0.140

3.4

-

0.015

0.3

0.090 / 0.180

4.2

0.06

0.018

Bin 10b

0.4

0.125 / 0.160

3.4 / 4.4

-

0.015 / 0.018

0.6

0.156 / 0.230

4.2 / 6.4

0.08

0.018 / 0.027

Bin 11b

0.6

0.195

5

-

0.022

0.9

0.28

7.3

0.12

0.032

Source: 40 CR 86 Subpart S. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards) Note: Tests Covered: Federal Test Procedure (FTP), cold carbon monoxide, highway, and idle. Definitions of acronyms are on page 12-13.

a

In lieu of intermediate useful life standards (50,000 miles) or to gain additional nitrogen oxides credit, manufacturers may optionally certify to the Tier 2 exhaust emission standards with a useful life of 150,000 miles. b Bins 9-11 expired in 2006 for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks and 2008 for heavy light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles. c Pollutants with two numbers have a separate certification standard (1st number) and in-use standard (2nd number).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–15

Table 12.13 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Evaporative Emission Standards

Federal

Vehicle type LDV/LLDTsa HLDTsb MDPVsa, b LDVa LLDTa HLDTb MDPVa, b

Model year 2004 2004 2004 2009 2009 2010 2010

3 Day diurnal + hot soak (g/test) 0.95 1.20 1.40 0.50 0.65 0.90 1.00

Supplemental 2 day diurnal + hot soak (g/test) 1.20 1.50 1.75 0.65 0.85 1.15 1.25

Running loss (g/mi) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

Source: 40 CR 86 Subpart S. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards) Note: Multi-fuel vehicle phase-in applies. Definitions of acronyms are on page 12-13.

a

For liquefied petroleum gas-fueled light-duty vehicles (LDV), light-duty trucks (LDT), and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPV): 0.15 grams hydrocarbon per gallon (0.04 grams per liter) of fuel dispensed. b Refueling standards for heavy light-duty trucks (HLDT) are subject to phase-in requirements. MDPVs must also comply with the phase-in requirement and must be grouped with HLDTs to determine phase-in compliance.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–16

Table 12.14 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses – Exhaust Emission Standards HC (g/bhphr)

NMHC (g/bhphr)

NMHC + NOx (g/bhphr)

NOx (g/bhphr)

PM (g/bhphr)

CO (g/bhphr)

Idle CO (percent Exhaust gas flow)

Smokea (percentage)

1974-78

-

-

16

-

-

40

-

20 / 15 / 50

-

1979-84

1.5

-

10

-

-

25

-

20 / 15 / 50

-

1985-87

1.3

-

-

10.7

-

15.5

-

20 / 15 / 50

MHDDE: - / 8 / 185,000

1988-89

1.3

d

-

-

10.7

0.6

1990

1.3d

-

-

6.0

0.6

Year

Useful life (hours/years/miles)

LHDDE: - / 8 / 110,000 HHDDE: - / 8 / 290,000 15.5

c

0.5

20 / 15 / 50

15.5

0.5c

20 / 15 / 50

1990-97 and 1998+ for HC, CO, and PM: LHDDE: - / 8 / 110,000

1991-93

1994-97

1.3

1.3

-

-

-

-

5.0 [ABT]

5.0 [ABT]

0.25 [ABT] 0.10e 0.1 [ABT] 0.07f,0.05g

15.5

0.5c

20 / 15 / 50

MHDDE: - / 8 / 185,000

20 / 15 / 50

1994+ urban buses for PM only:

HHDDE: - / 8 / 290,000 15.5

0.5c

LHDDE: - / 10 / 110,000

b

Federal

1998+ for NOx: LHDDE: - / 10 / 110,000 1998-2003

1.3

-

-

4.0 [ABT]

2004-2006h

-

-

2.4 (or 2.5 with a limit of 0.5 on NMHC)o [ABTi,j]

-

2.4 (or 2.5 with a limit of 0.5 on NMHC) [ABT]

0.2o

2007+h,k,l,m,n

-

0.14o

0.1 [ABT] 0.05g

0.1 0.05g

15.5

0.5c

20 / 15 / 50

15.5

0.5

20 / 15 / 50

MHDDE: - / 10 / 185,000 HHDDE: - / 10 / 290,000

For all pollutants:p LHDDE: - / 10 / 110,000 MHDDE: - / 10 / 185,000

0.01

15.5

0.5

20 / 15 / 50

HHDDE: 22,000 / 10 / 435,000

Sources: 40 CFR 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 40 CFR 86.004-11 Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 40 CFR 86.007-11 Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavyduty engines and vehicles. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards) Note: The test procedures are the EPA Transient Test Procedure and the EPA Smoke Test Procedure. Definitions of acronyms are on page 12-13.

a

Percentages apply to smoke opacity at acceleration/lug/peak modes. Standards for 1990 apply only to diesel-fueled heavy-duty engines (HDE). Standards for 1991+ apply to both diesel- and methanol-fueled HDEs. Standards that apply to urban buses specifically are footnoted. c This standard applies to the following fueled engines for the following model years: methanol - 1990+, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) - 1994+. d For petroleum-fueled engines, the standard is for hydrocarbons (HC). For methanol-fueled engines, the standard is for total hydrocarbon equivalent (THCE). e Certification standard for urban buses for 1993. f Certification standard for urban buses from 1994-95. g Certification standard for urban buses from 1996 and later. The in-use standard is 0.07. h Load Response Test certification data submittal requirements take effect for heavy-duty diesel engines beginning in model year 2004. The following requirements take effect with the 2007 model year: steady-state test requirement and Not-to-Exceed (NTE) test procedures for testing of in-use engines. On-board diagnostic requirements applicable to heavy-duty diesel vehicles and engines up to 14,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) phase in from the 2005 through 2007 model years. b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–17

Table 12.14 (continued) Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses – Exhaust Emission Standards

i

The modified averaging, banking, and trading program for 1998 and later model year engines applies only to diesel cycle engines. Credits generated under the modified program may be used only in 2004 and later model years. j For heavy-duty diesel engines, there are three options to the measurement procedures currently in place for alternative fueled engines: (1) use a THC measurement in place of an non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) measurement; (2) use a measurement procedure specified by the manufacturer with prior approval of the Administrator; or (3) subtract two percent from the measured THC value to obtain an NMHC value. The methodology must be specified at time of certification and will remain the same for the engine family throughout the engines' useful life. For natural gas vehicles, EPA allows the option of measuring NMHC through direct quantification of individual species by gas chromatography. k Starting in 2006, refiners must begin producing highway diesel fuel that meets a maximum sulfur standard of 15 parts per million (ppm). l Subject to a Supplemental Emission Test (1.0 x Federal Test Procedure [FTP] standard (or Family Emission Limit [FEL]) for nitrogen oxides [NOx], NMHC, and particulate matter [PM]) and a NTE test (1.5 x FTP standard [or FEL] for NOx, NMHC, and PM). m EPA adopted the lab-testing and field-testing specifications in 40 CFR Part 1065 for heavy-duty highway engines, including both diesel and Otto-cycle engines. These procedures replace those previously published in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 86, Subpart N. Any new testing for 2010 and later model years must be done using the 40 CFR Part 1065 procedures. n Two-phase in-use NTE testing program for heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The program begins with the 2007 model year for gaseous pollutants and 2008 for PM. The requirements apply to diesel engines certified for use in heavy-duty vehicles (including buses) with GVWRs greater than 8,500 pounds. However, the requirements do not apply to any heavy-duty diesel vehicle that was certified using a chassis dynamometer, including medium-duty passenger vehicles with GVWRs of between 8,500 and 10,000 pounds. o NOx and NMHC standards will be phased in together between 2007 and 2010. The phase-in will be on a percent-of-sales basis: 50 percent from 2007 to 2009 and 100 percent in 2010. p Note that for an individual engine, if the useful life hours interval is reached before the engine reaches 10 years or 100,000 miles, the useful life shall become 10 years or 100,000 miles, whichever occurs first, as required under Clean Air Act section 202(d).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–18

Table 12.15 Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards

Engine or vehicle

Gross vehicle weight (lbs)

HCa (g/bhp-hr)

NMHCb (g/bhphr)

NOx (g/bhp-hr)

NOx + NMHCc (g/bhp-hr)

PM (g/bhphr)

CO (g/bhp-hr)

Idle CO (% exhaust gas flow)

Formaldehyde

-

12.7

-

-

6.86

-

155

-

-

1970-73

-

275 ppm

-

-

-

-

1.50%

-

-

1974-78

-

-

-

16

-

-

40

-

-

1979-84

-

1.5

-

10

-

-

25

-

-

1985-86

-

1.9

-

-

10.6

-

37.1

-

-

≤14,000

1.1

-

-

10.6

-

14.4

Year Prior to Control

1987

Heavy duty enginesd

5 / 50,000

0.5

> 14,000

1.9

-

-

10.6

-

37.1

≤14,000

1.1

-

-

6.0

-

14.4

-

-

> 14,000

1.9

-

-

6.0

-

37.1

-

-

1988-90

1990e

1991-97f

Federal

Useful life (years / miles)

19982004f 20052007f 2008+

20052007 Complete heavy-duty vehiclesn, q

≤14,000

1.1

-

-

6.0

-

14.4

-

> 14,000

1.9

-

-

6.0

-

37.1

-

≤14,000

1.1g

-

-

5.0

-

14.4

-

> 14,000

1.9

h

-

-

5.0

-

37.1

-

≤14,000

1.1g

-

-

-

14.4

-

> 14,000

1.9h

-

-

-

37.1

-

≤14,000

1.1

g

-

> 14,000

1.9h

-

All

-

0.14

8,500 10,000

-

10,000 14,000

8 / 110,000k

4.0i -

-

14.4

-

-

37.1

0.2

-

0.01

14.4

0.280m

-

0.9

-

7.3

-

-

0.330m

-

1.0

-

8.1

-

8,500 10,000

-

0.195o

-

0.2

0.02

7.3

0.032

10,000 14,000

-

0.230o

-

0.4

0.02

8.1

0.04

1.0l

0.5

j

-

10 / 110,000

11 / 110,000

2008+p

Sources: 40 CFR 86.1816-05, 86.1816-08 Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles 40 CFR 86.1806-01, 86.1806-04, 86.1806-05 Onboard diagnostics requirements 40 CFR 86.1817-05, 86.1817-08 Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, banking, and trading program 40 CFR 86.091-10 Heavy-duty engine averaging, banking, and trading program for 1991 and later - Not available in the e-CFR 40 CFR Part 86 Subpart B Vehicle test procedures (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards) Note: Definitions of acronyms are on page 12-13.

a

For methanol-fueled engines, the standard is for total hydrocarbon equivalent (THCE). For methanol and alcohol fueled vehicles the standard is for non-methane hydrocarbon equivalent (NMHCE). c For methanol fueled engines the standard is for nitrogen oxides (NOx) plus NMHCE. d Standards for heavy-duty engines are expressed in grams per brake horsepower-hour (g/bhp-hr). Starting with the 1998 model year, crankcase emissions are not allowed. e Standards for 1990 apply to gasoline and methanol-fueled engines. f Standards for 1991 and later apply to gasoline and methanol engines and are optional for natural gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-fueled engines through the 1996 model year. g For natural gas fueled engines the standard is 0.9 g/bhp-hr non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC). b

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–19

Table 12.15 (continued) Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards

h

For natural gas fueled engines the standard is 1.7 g/bhp-hr NMHC. The NOx standard is 5.0 for all natural gas-fueled engines. j This standard applies to the following engines utilizing aftertreatment technology (except for methanol) for the following model years: gasoline/1990+; natural gas and LPG/1991+; methanol/1990+. Starting in 2005, engines certified to on-board diagnostics requirements are not required to meet the idle carbon monoxide (CO) standard. k Useful life is expressed in years or miles, whichever comes first. Useful life for the 1998 and later NOx standard and for all 2004 standards is 10 years or 110,000 miles, whichever comes first. l Manufacturers can choose this standard or one of the following options: (1) a standard of 1.5 g/bhp-hr NMHC+NOX that applies to the 2004 through 2007 model years, with complete heavy-duty vehicle standards taking effect in 2005; or (2) a standard of 1.5 g/bhp-hr NMHC + NOX that would apply to the 2003 through 2007 heavy-duty engines and optionally to 2003 through 2006 complete heavy-duty vehicles. m Standard is expressed as non-methane organic gas, but compliance can optionally be shown using measurement of NMHC or total hydrocarbon (THC). n Complete heavy-duty vehicles have the primary load-carrying container or device attached. Incomplete heavy-duty vehicles are certified to heavy-duty engine standards. Standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles are expressed in grams per mile (g/mi). Starting in 2005 (or 2003 or 2004 depending on the selected phase in option; see footnote l), complete heavy-duty vehicles under 14,000 lbs gross vehicle weight are tested on chassis-based rather than engine-based procedures and must meet these complete heavy-duty vehicle standards. o Although expressed as NMHC, compliance can optionally be shown using measurement of NMOG or THC. p At least 50 percent of a manufacturer's sales must meet these standards in 2008, with 100 percent required in 2009. q Gross vehicle weight ranges are more accurately specified as follows: 8,500 ≤GVW ≤10,000 and 10,000 < GVW < 14,000. i

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–20

Table 12.16 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines – Evaporative Emission Standards

Enginet ype

Year 1991-95

SI

1996-2007 (Enhanced)f

Gross vehicle weight (lbs)

Conventional diurnal + hot soak (g/test)a

Three-diurnal test sequence (g/test)b

Supplemental two-diurnal test sequence (g/test)c

Running loss (gpm)c

Spitback (g/test)c

≤14,000

3.0

-

-

-

-

> 14,000e

4.0

-

-

-

-

≤14,000

-

3.0

3.5

1.0

e

> 14,000

-

4.0

4.5

-

8500-14,000

-

1.4

1.75

1.0

> 14,000e

-

1.9

2.3

-

≤14,000

-

3.0

-

-

-

e

> 14,000

-

4.0

-

-

-

≤14,000

-

3.0

3.5

Useful lifed 8 / 110,000

10 / 120,000 0.05

2008+ (Enhanced)

Federal

1996-97 CI 1998+ (Enhanced)g

e

> 14,000

11 / 110,000

1.0 0.05

-

4.0

4.5

MHDDE: 8 / 185,000 HHDDE: 8 / 290,000 MHDDE: 8 / 185,000 HHDDE: 8 / 290,000

-

Sources: 40 CFR 86.099-11 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 40 CFR 86.004-11 Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. CFR 86.007-11 Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards) Note: Definitions of acronyms are on page 12-13. a

Applies to gasoline and methanol engines. Standard is hydrocarbon (HC) for gasoline engines, total hydrocarbon equivalent (THCE) for methanol engines. b For spark-ignition (SI) engines, standard applies to gasoline, methanol, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas engines. For compression-ignition (CI) engines, standard applies to methanol, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas engines. Standard is THCE for methanol engines, HC for others. c For SI engines, standard applies to gasoline and methanol engines. For CI engines, standard applies to methanol engines. Standard is THCE for methanol engines, HC for others. d Useful life is expressed in years or miles, whichever comes first. e Vehicles over 26,000 pounds gross vehicle weight may demonstrate compliance with an engineering design evaluation in lieu of testing. f A new enhanced evaporative test procedure applies, which is considerably more stringent than the previous test procedure despite the fact that the standard values do not change from prior years. Gasoline and methanol engines are phased in at the following rates of a manufacturer's sales for the specified model year: 1996: 20 percent; 1997: 40 percent; 1998: 90 percent; 1999: 100 percent. g A new enhanced evaporative test procedure applies, which is considerably more stringent than the previous test procedure despite the fact that the standard values do not change from prior years. Methanol-fueled vehicles are phased in at a rate of 90 percent of a manufacturer's production in 1998 and 100 percent in 1999.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–21

Table 12.17 California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards

Vehicle type All passenger cars; LDTs 8,500 lbs GVW or less Vehicles in this category are tested at their loaded vehicle weight

Durability vehicle basis (mi) 50,000

120,000

150,000 (Optional)

MDVs 8,501-10,000 lbs GVW Vehicles in this category are tested at their adjusted loaded vehicle weight MDVs 10,000-14,000 lbs GVW Vehicles in this category are tested at their adjusted loaded vehicle weight

120,000

150,000 (Optional)

120,000

150,000 (Optional)

NMOG (g/mi)

Carbon monoxide (g/mi)

Oxides of nitrogen (g/mi)

Formaldehyde (mg/mi)

Particulates (g/mi)

LEV

0.075

3.4

0.05

15

n/a

LEV, Option 1

0.075

3.4

0.07

15

n/a

ULEV

0.040

1.7

0.05

8

n/a

LEV

0.090

4.2

0.07

18

0.01

LEV, Option 1

0.090

4.2

0.10

18

0.01

ULEV

0.055

2.1

0.07

11

0.01

SULEV

0.010

1.0

0.02

4

0.01

LEV

0.090

4.2

0.07

18

0.01

LEV, Option 1

0.090

4.2

0.10

18

0.01

ULEV

0.055

2.1

0.07

11

0.01

SULEV

0.010

1.0

0.02

4

0.01

LEV

0.195

6.4

0.2

32

0.12

ULEV

0.143

6.4

0.2

16

0.06

SULEV

0.100

3.2

0.1

8

0.06

LEV

0.195

6.4

0.2

32

0.12

ULEV

0.143

6.4

0.2

16

0.06

SULEV

0.100

3.2

0.1

8

0.06

LEV

0.230

7.3

0.4

40

0.12

ULEV

0.167

7.3

0.4

21

0.06

SULEV

0.117

3.7

0.2

10

0.06

LEV

0.230

7.3

0.4

40

0.12

ULEV

0.167

7.3

0.4

21

0.06

SULEV

0.117

3.7

0.2

10

0.06

Vehicle emission category

Source: California LEV Regulations with amendments effective 12/8/10. (Additional resources: www.arb.ca.gov) Note: Definitions of acronyms are on page 12-13.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–22

These exhaust emission standards apply to commercial aircraft engines.

Table 12.18 Aircraft – Exhaust Emission Standards Applicabilitya

HC (g/kN)

NOx

1974+ 1976+ 1978+

Pressure ratio (PR) -

T8 TF with rOc 129 kN T3d

-

-

CO (g/kN) -

1983+

-

TF with rO < 26.7 kN

-

-

-

19.6

-

-

140(.92)rPR

-

-

140(.92)rPR

-

-

-

-

-

19.6

40+2(rPR)

118

19.6

32+1.6(rPR)

118

83.6(rO)-0.274 NTE max of SN=50

19.6

32+1.6(rPR)

118

83.6(rO)-0.274 NTE max of SN=50

-

19+1.6(rPR)

-

-

-

37.572+1.6(rPR)0.2087(rO)

-

-

-

7+2.0(rPR)

-

-

-

-

-

-

Year

1984+

-

Federalb

1997+ -

2000+

-

PR ≤30

2005+ 30 < PR < 62.5 PR ≤62.5

T3, T8, TF with rO kN

26.7

TSS TSS with rO

26.7 kN

TP with rO 1,000 kW T3, T8, TF with rO > 26.7 kN T3, T8, TF newly certified with rO > 26.7 kN T3, T8, TF newly manufactured with rO > 26.7 kN T3, T8, TF newly certified with rO > 89 kN T3, T8, TF newly certified with 26.7 kN < rO ≤89 kN T3, T8, TF newly certified with rO>89 kN T3, T8, TF newly certified with 26.7kN < r0 ≤89kN T3, T8, TF

-

42.71+1.4286(rPR)0.4013(rO)+0.00642(rP R)(rO) 32+1.6(rPR)

Smoke 30 83.6(rO)-0.274 25 83.6(rO)-0.274 NTE max of SN=50 83.6(rO)-0.274 NTE max of SN=50 83.6(rO)-0.274 NTE max of SN=50 83.6(rO)-0.274 NTE max of SN=50 187(rO)-0.168 83.6(rO)-0.274 NTE max of SN=50

Source: 40 CFR Part 87, Aircraft emission standards, test procedures, certification requirements (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards) Note: The test procedures are the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Smoke Emission Test Procedure and the ICAO Gaseous Emissions Test Procedure. There is no useful life or warranty period for purposes of compliance with aircraft emissions standards. Definitions of acronyms are on page 12-13.

a

T8=all aircraft gas turbine engines of the JT8D model family TF=all turbofan and turbojet aircraft engines except engines of Class T3, T8, and TSS T3=all aircraft gas turbine engines of the JT3D model family TSS=all aircraft gas turbine engines for aircraft operations at supersonic flight speeds TP=all aircraft turboprop engines b Federal standards apply to planes operating in the United States, regardless of where they were manufactured. c Rated output (rO) is the maximum power/thrust available for takeoff. d T3 engines are no longer manufactured but are in the existing fleet.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–23

These standards apply to construction and agricultural equipment, such as excavators, paving equipment, tractors, combines, bulldozers, and skidders.

Table 12.19 Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards

Rated power (kW) kW < 8

8 ≤kW < 19

19 ≤kW < 37

Tier 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 2 4

37 ≤kW < 56

56 ≤kW < 75

1 2 3e 4 (Option 1)f 4 (Option 2)f 4 1 2 3 4

Federal 75 ≤kW < 130

1 2 3 4

130 ≤kW < 225

1 2 3 4

225 ≤kW < 450

1 2 3 4

450 ≤kW < 560

1 2 3 4

560 ≤kW < 900

1 2 4

Model year 2000-2004 2005-2007 2008+ 2000-2004 2005-2007 2008+ 1999-2003 2004-2007 2008-2012 2013+ 1998-2003 2004-2007 2008-2011 2008-2012 2012 2013+ 1998-2003 2004-2007 2008-2011 2012-2103g 2014+h 1997-2002 2003-2006 2007-2011 2012-2013g 2014+ 1996-2002 2003-2005 2006-2010 2011-2013g 2014+h 1996-2000 2001-2005 2006-2010 2011-2013g 2014+h 1996-2001 2002-2005 2006-2010 2011-2013g 2014+h 2000-2005 2006-2010 2011-2014 2015+h

NMHC (g/kW -hr) --------------------0.19 ----0.19 1.3i ---0.19 1.3i ---0.19 1.3i ---0.19 1.3i -0.4 0.19

NMHC + NOx (g/kW -hr) 10.5 7.5 7.5 9.5 7.5 7.5 9.5 7.5 7.5 4.7 -7.5 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 -7.5 4.7 4.7 --6.6 4.0 4.0 --6.6 4.0 4.0 --6.4 4.0 4.0 --6.4 4.0 4.0 --6.4 ---

NOx (g/kW -hr) ----------9.2 -----9.2 ---0.4 9.2 ---0.4 9.2 ---0.4 9.2 ---0.4 9.2 ---0.4 9.2 -3.5 3.5j

PM (g/kW -hr) 1.0 0.80 0.40c 0.80 0.80 0.40 0.80 0.60 0.30 0.03 -0.40 0.40 0.30 0.03 0.03 -0.40 0.40 0.02 0.02 -0.3 0.3 0.02 0.02 0.54 0.20 0.20 0.02 0.02 0.54 0.20 0.20 0.02 0.02 0.54 0.20 0.20 0.02 0.02 0.54 0.20 0.10 0.04k

CO (g/kW -hr) 8.0 8.0 8.0 6.6 6.6 6.6 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 -5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 -5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 -5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 11.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 11.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 11.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 11.4 3.5 3.5 3.5

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

Smokea percentage

Useful life (hours/years)b 3,000 / 5

3,000 / 5

5,000 / 7d

20 / 15 / 50

8,000 / 10

12–24

Table 12.19 (continued) Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards Rated power (kW)

Federal

kW > 900

Tier 1 2 4

Model year

NMHC (g/kW -hr)

2000-2005 2006-2010 2011-2014 2015+h

1.3i -0.4 0.19

NMHC + NOx (g/kW -hr) -6.4 ---

NOx (g/kW -hr)

PM (g/kW -hr)

CO (g/kW -hr)

Smokea percentage

Useful life (hours/years)b

9.2 -3.5j 3.5j

0.54 0.20 0.10 0.04k

11.4 3.5 3.5 3.5

20 / 15 / 50

8,000 / 10

Source: 40 CFR 98.112 = Exhaust emission standards 40 CFR 1039.101 = Exhaust emission standards for after 2014 model year 40 CFR 1039.102 = Exhaust emission standards for model year 2014 and earlier 40 CFR 1039 Subpart F = Exhaust emissions transient and steady state test procedures 40 CFR Part 86 Subpart I = Smoke emission test procedures 40 CFR Part 1065 = Test equipment and emissions measurement procedures (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards) Note: Definitions of acronyms are on page 12-13. a

Smoke emissions may not exceed 20 percent during the acceleration mode, 15 percent during the lugging mode, and 50 percent during the peaks in either mode. Smoke emission standards do not apply to single-cylinder engines, constant-speed engines, or engines certified to a PM emission standard of 0.07 grams per kilowatt-hour (g/kW-hr) or lower. Smoke emissions are measured using procedures in 40 CFR Part 86 Subpart I. b Useful life and warranty period are expressed hours and years, whichever comes first. c Hand-startable air-cooled direct injection engines may optionally meet a PM standard of 0.60 g/kWhr. These engines may optionally meet Tier 2 standards through the 2009 model years. In 2010 these engines are required to meet a PM standard of 0.60 g/kW-hr. d Useful life for constant speed engines with rated speed 3,000 revolutions per minute (rpm) or higher is 5 years or 3,000 hours, whichever comes first. e These Tier 3 standards apply only to manufacturers selecting Tier 4 Option 2. Manufacturers selecting Tier 4 Option 1 will be meeting those standards in lieu of Tier 3 standards. f A manufacturer may certify all their engines to either Option 1 or Option 2 sets of standards starting in the indicated model year. Manufacturers selecting Option 2 must meet Tier 3 standards in the 2008-2011 model years. g These standards are phase-out standards. Not more than 50 percent of a manufacturer's engine production is allowed to meet these standards in each model year of the phase out period. Engines not meeting these standards must meet the final Tier 4 standards. h These standards are phased in during the indicated years. At least 50 percent of a manufacturer's engine production must meet these standards during each year of the phase in. Engines not meeting these standards must meet the applicable phase-out standards. i For Tier 1 engines the standard is for total hydrocarbons. j The NOx standard for generator sets is 0.67 g/kW-hr. k The PM standard for generator sets is 0.03 g/kW-hr.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–25

These standards apply to gasoline and propane industrial equipment such as forklifts, generators, airport service equipment, compressors and ice-grooming machines.

Table 12.20 Nonroad Large Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust and Evaporative Emission Standards

Federal b

Tier 1c

Year 2004-2006

2f

2007+

General duty-cycle Alternative standards for standards severe-duty engines Field testing standards CO CO HC+NOxa CO HC+NOxa HC+NOxa Useful life (g/kW-hr) (g/kW-hr) (g/kW-hr) (g/kW-hr) (g/kW-hr) (g/kW-hr) (years/hours) 4.0d 50.0 4.0d 130.0 7 / 5,000e 2.7f 4.4f 2.7 130.0 3.8f 6.5f 7 / 5,000e Evaporative emission standards (for engines fueled by a volatile liquid fuel) Fuel line Nonmetallic fuel lines must meet the permeation specifications of SAE permeation J2260 (November 1996) Diurnal Evaporative HC emissions may not exceed 0.2 grams per gallon of fuel tank 5/emissions capacity Liquid fuel in the fuel tank may not reach boiling during continuous engine Running loss operation in the final installation at an ambient temperature of 30°C

Sources: 40 CFR 1048.101 = Exhaust emission standards 40 CFR 1048.105 = Evaporative emission standards 40 CFR 1048.110 = Engine diagnostic requirements (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)

a

The numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons (HC) must be met based on the following types of hydrocarbon emissions for engines powered by the following fuels: (1) non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) for natural gas; (2) total hydrocarbon equivalent (THCE) for alcohol; and (3) total hydrocarbons (THC) for other fuels. b Voluntary Blue Sky standards for large spark-ignition (SI) engines are available. Engines with displacement at or below 1,000 cubic centimeters (cc) and maximum power at or below 30 kilowatts (kW) may be certified under the program for small SI engines. c Emission standards are based on testing over a steady-state duty-cycle. d The Tier 1 HC plus nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission standard for in-use testing is 5.4 grams per kW-hour (g/kW-hr). e Useful life is expressed in years and hours, whichever comes first. These are the minimum useful life requirements. For severe-duty engines, the minimum useful life is seven years or 1,500 hours of operation, whichever comes first. A longer useful life in hours is required if: (a) the engine is designed to operate longer than the minimum useful life based on the recommended rebuild interval; or (b) the basic mechanical warranty is longer than the minimum useful life. f Optional engine certification is allowed according to the following formula: (HC+NOx) × CO0.784 ≤8.57. The HC+NOx and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels selected to satisfy this formula, rounded to the nearest 0.1 g/kW-hr, become the emission standards that apply for those engines. One may not select an HC+NOx emission standard higher than 2.7 g/kW-hr or a CO emission standard higher than 20.6 g/kW-hr.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–26

Table 12.21 Locomotives – Exhaust Emission Standards Dutycycleb

Tier Tier 0 Tier 1

Linehaul

Tier 2 Tier 3

a

Federal

Tier 4 Tier 0 Tier 1 Switch

Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 4

Yearc 19731992d,e 19932004d,e 20052011d 20122014f 2015+g 19732001 20022004h 20052010h 20112014 2015+

HCi (g/hp-hr)

NOx (g/bhp-hr)

PM (g/bhp-hr)

CO (g/bhp-hr)

Smoke (percentage)m

1.0

9.5 [ABT]

0.22 [ABT]

5.0

30 / 40 / 50

0.55

7.4 [ABT]

0.22 [ABT]

2.2

25 / 40 / 50

0.30

5.5 [ABT]

0.10k [ABT]

1.5

20 / 40 / 50

(7.5 x hp) / 10 / -

0.30

5.5 [ABT]

0.10 [ABT]

1.5

20 / 40 / 50

(7.5 x hp) / 10 / -

0.14

1.3 [ABT]

0.03 [ABT]

1.5

-

2.10

11.8 [ABT]

0.26 [ABT]

8.0

30 / 40 / 50

(7.5 x hp) / 10 / (7.5 x hp) / 10 / 750,000o

1.20

11.0 [ABT]

0.26 [ABT]

2.5

25 / 40 / 50

(7.5 x hp) / 10 / -

0.60

8.1 [ABT]

0.13l [ABT]

2.4

20 / 40 / 50

(7.5 x hp) / 10 / -

0.60

5.0 [ABT]

0.10 [ABT]

2.4

20 / 40 / 50

(7.5 x hp) / 10 / -

0.03 [ABT]

2.4

-

(7.5 x hp) / 10 / -

0.14

j

j

1.3 [ABT]

Minimum useful life (hours / years / miles)n (7.5 x hp) / 10 / 750,000o (7.5 x hp) / 10 / 750,000o (7.5 x hp) / 10 / -

Sources: 40 CFR 1033.101 = Emission Standards and Useful Life

a

These standards apply to locomotives that are propelled by engines with total rated horsepower (hp) of 750 kilowatts (kW) (1006 hp) or more, unless the owner chooses to have the equipment certified to meet the requirements of locomotives. This does not include vehicles propelled by engines with total rated horsepower of less than 750 kW (1006 hp); see the requirements in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 86, 89 and 1039. The test procedures specify chassis-based testing of locomotives. These test procedures include certification testing, production line testing, and in-use testing using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) when the locomotive has reached between 50-70 percent of its useful life. b Line-haul locomotives are powered by an engine with a maximum rated power (or a combination of engines having a total rated power) greater than 2300 hp. Switch locomotives are powered by an engine with a maximum rated power (or a combination of engines having a total rated power) of 2300 hp or less. c The Tier 0 standards apply to locomotives manufactured after 1972 when they are manufactured or remanufactured. Note that interim standards may apply for Tier 0 or Tier 1 locomotives remanufactured in 2008 or 2009, or for Tier 2 locomotives manufactured or remanufactured in 2008-2012. d Line-haul locomotives subject to the Tier 0 through Tier 2 emission standards must also meet switch standards of the same tier. e The Tier 0 standards apply for 1993-2001 locomotives not originally manufactured with a separate loop intake air cooling system. f Tier 3 line-haul locomotives must also meet Tier 2 switch standards. g Manufacturers using credits may elect to meet a combined nitrogen oxides (NOx) plus hydrocarbon (HC) standard of 1.4 grams per brakehorsepower-hour (g/bhp-hr) instead of the otherwise applicable Tier 4 NOx and HC standards. h Tier 1 and Tier 2 switch locomotives must also meet line-haul standards of the same tier. i The numerical emission standards for HC must be met based on the following types of hydrocarbon emissions for locomotives powered by the following fuels: (1) alcohol: total hydrocarbon equivalent (THCE) emissions for Tier 3 and earlier locomotives, and non-methane hydrocarbon equivalent (NMHCE) for Tier 4; (2) natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas: non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions; and (3) diesel: total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions for Tier 3 and earlier locomotives, and NMHC for Tier 4.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–27

Table 12.21 (continued) Locomotives – Exhaust Emission Standards

j

Manufacturers may elect to meet a combined NOx+HC standard of 1.4 g/bhp-hr instead of the otherwise applicable Tier 4 NOx and HC standards. k The line-haul particulate matter (PM) standard for newly remanufactured Tier 2 locomotives is 0.20 g/bhphr until January 1, 2013, except as specified in 40 CFR Part 1033.150(a). l The switch PM standard for new Tier 2 locomotives is 0.24 g/bhp-hr until January 1, 2013, except as specified in 40 CFR Part 1033.150(a). m The smoke opacity standards apply only for locomotives certified to one or more PM standards or Family Emission Limits (FEL) greater than 0.05 g/bhp-hr. Percentages apply to smoke opacity at steady state/30-second peak/3-second peak, as measured continuously during testing. n Useful life and warranty period are expressed in megawatt-hours (mw-hr), years, or miles, whichever comes first. Manufacturers are required to certify to longer useful lives if their locomotives are designed to last longer between overhauls than the minimum useful life value. o For locomotives originally manufactured before January 1, 2000, and not equipped with mw-hr meters.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–28

These standards apply to auxiliary and propulsion engines used by all types of recreational and commercial vessels, from small fishing boats to ocean-going ships.

Table 12.22 Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards Category a, b

Tier

Displacement (L/cylinder)

Pow er (kW)

c

Speed (rpm)

Model Year

rpm < 130 Ů2.5

1

disp. < 0.9

C1 Commercial

Ů37

Ů37

0.9 ŭdisp < 1.2 2

1.2 ŭdisp < 2.5

all

2.5 ŭdisp < 5.0

Ů2.5

1

Ů37

130 ŭrpm < 2000

disp < 0.9

Ů37

0.9 ŭdisp < 1.2 2

1.2 ŭdisp < 2.5

all

2.5 ŭdisp < 5.0

Federalg

C1 Commercial & Recreational < 75 kW

C1 Commercial Engines w ith ŭ35 kW/L pow er density k

3

-

-

-0.20 i

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2005h

-

-

7.5 (ABT)

0.40 (ABT)

5.0

-

2004 h

-

-

7.2 (ABT)

0.30 (ABT)

5.0

-

2004 h

-

-

7.2 (ABT)

0.20 (ABT)

5.0

-

2007 h

-

-

7.2 (ABT)

0.20 (ABT)

5.0

rpm < 130

17.0

-

-

-

-

130 ŭrpm < 2000

45.0 x N-0.20 i

-

-

-

-

9.8

-

-

-

-

2004

-

2007

-

-

7.5 (ABT)

0.40 (ABT)

5.0

-

2006

-

-

7.2 (ABT)

0.30 (ABT)

5.0

-

2006

-

-

7.2 (ABT)

0.20 (ABT)

5.0

2009

-

-

7.2 (ABT)

0.20 (ABT)

5.0

2009+

-

-

7.5 (ABT)

0.40 (ABT)

8.0

8 ŭkW < 19

-

2009+

-

-

7.5 (ABT)

0.40 (ABT)

6.6

j

-

2014+

-

2009-2013

-

-

2014+

-

-

4.7 j (ABT)

< 0.9

-

-

2012+

-

-

5.4 (ABT)

0.9 ŭdisp < 1.2

All

-

2013+

-

-

5.4 (ABT)

-

2014-2017

-

5.6 (ABT)

-

2018+

-

5.6 (ABT)

2009-2013

-

< 600

-

2014+

-

-

2013-2017

-

-

2018+

-

-

2013+

-

-

2012-2017

-

-

2018+

-

Ů600

-

2012+

Ů75

-

5.5

-

4.7 j (ABT)

5.0

-

7.5 j (ABT)

5.6 (ABT)

-

5.6 (ABT)

-

5.8 (ABT)

-

-

5.8 (ABT)

2012+

-

-

5.8 (ABT)

-

2013+

-

-

5.8 (ABT)

-

2014+

-

-

5.8 (ABT)

2.5 ŭdisp < 3.5

-

2013+

-

-

5.8 (ABT)

3.5 ŭdisp < 7.0

-

2012+

-

-

5.8 (ABT)

< 0.9

< 600

0.9 ŭdisp < 1.2 1.2 ŭdisp < 2.5

j

7.5 (ABT) 0.30 (ABT)

-

-

3.5 ŭdisp < 7.0

10/ 1,000

10 / 1,000

-

< 600

10 / 10,000

10 / 10,000

-

Ů600

Useful Life e (years/hours)

-

9.8

-

2.5 ŭdisp < 3.5

-

45.0 x N

37 ŭkW < 75

3l

PM (g/kW- CO (g/kWhr) hr)

2004h

-

1.2 ŭdisp < 2.5

3

17.0

19 ŭkW < 37

< 0.9

l

HC+NOx d (g/kW-hr)

35 kW/L pow er density & All Recreational Engines k

HC (g/kWhr)

rpm Ů2000

rpm Ů2000 C1 Commercial & Recreational

NOx (g/kWhr)

0.20 (ABT) j

0.30 (ABT)

5 / 3,000

7 / 5,000

10 / 1,000 for CI Recreational

5.0 5.0

10 / 10,000

8.0 for < 8 5 / 3,000 for commercial kW engines < 19 kW 6.6 for 8 ŭ 7 / 5,000 for commercial 0.12 (ABT) kW < 19 engines 19 ŭkW < 37 10 / 10,000 for C1 5.5 for 19 ŭ 0.11 (ABT) Commercial ŭ37 kW kW < 37 5.0 for ŭ37 0.10 (ABT) kW 0.14 (ABT)

0.11 (ABT) 0.11 (ABT) 0.10 (ABT) 0.11 (ABT) 0.11 (ABT) 0.10 (ABT)

All

0.11 (ABT) 8.0 for < 8 5 / 3,000 for commercial kW engines < 19 kW 6.6 for 8 ŭ 7 / 5,000 for commercial 0.14 (ABT) kW < 19 engines 19 ŭkW < 37 5.5 for 19 ŭ 10 / 10,000 for C1 0.14 (ABT) kW < 37 Commercial Ů37 kW 5.0 for Ů37 10 / 1,000 for CI 0.12 (ABT) kW Recreational 0.15 (ABT)

0.11 (ABT)

(Continued on next page)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–29

Table 12.22 (continued) Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards Category a, b

Tier

Displacement (L/cylinder)

All C1 Commercial > 600 kW

All 4m All < 7.0

Pow er (kW)

c

600 ŭkW < 1,400 1,400 ŭkW < 2,000 2,000 ŭkW < 3,700

Speed (rpm)

Model Year

NOx (g/kWhr)

HC (g/kWhr)

HC+NOx d (g/kW-hr)

-

2017+

1.8 (ABT)

-

0.19 HCn

0.04 (ABT)

n

-

2016+

1.8 (ABT)

-

0.19 HC

0.04 (ABT)

-

2014+

1.8 (ABT)

-

0.19 HCn

0.04 (ABT)

-

2014-2015

1.8 (ABT)

-

0.19 HCn

0.12 (ABT)

-

2016+

1.8 (ABT)

-

0.19 HCn

0.06 (ABT)

17.0

-

-

-

45.0 x N-0.20 i

-

-

-

-

rpm Ů2,000

9.8

-

-

-

-

all

-

-

-

7.8 (ABT)

0.27 (ABT)

5.0

< 3,300

-

-

-

8.7 (ABT)

0.50 (ABT)

5.0

Ů3,300

-

-

-

9.8 (ABT)

0.50 (ABT)

5.0

all

-

-

-

9.8 (ABT)

0.50 (ABT)

5.0

Ů3,700

rpm < 130 1

2

5.0 ŭdisp < 15.0 15.0 ŭdisp < 20.0 15.0 ŭdisp < 20.0 20.0 ŭdisp < 25.0 25.0 ŭdisp < 30.0 7.0 ŭdisp < 15.0

C2 3o,p

Federalg

Ů2.5

15.0 ŭdisp < 20.0 20.0 ŭdisp < 25.0 25.0 ŭdisp < 30.0 All All

4m,p

All

Ů37

130 ŭrpm < 2,000

2004

2007

-

-

-

11.0 (ABT)

0.50 (ABT)

5.0

-

-

-

6.2 (ABT)

0.14 (ABT)

5.0

2,000 ŭkW < 3,700

-

-

-

7.8 (ABT)

0.14 (ABT)

5.0

< 2,000

-

-

-

7.0 (ABT)

0.34 (ABT)

5.0

< 2,000

-

-

-

9.8 (ABT)

0.27 (ABT)

5.0

< 2,000

-

-

-

11.0 (ABT)

0.27 (ABT)

5.0

600 ŭkW < 1,400 1400 ŭkW < 2,000 2,000 ŭkW < 3,700q

Ů3,700

All

-

2014+

2017+

Ů30.0

All

2016+

1.8 (ABT)

-

0.19 HC

0.04 (ABT)

1.8 (ABT)

-

0.19 HCn

0.04 (ABT)

n

All

10 / 20,000

10 / 20,000

2014-2015

1.8 (ABT)

-

0.19 HC

0.12 (ABT)

-

2014-2015

1.8 (ABT)

-

0.19 HCn

0.25 (ABT)

-

2016+

1.8 (ABT)

-

0.19 HCn

0.06 (ABT)

17.0

-

-

-

-

45.0 × N-0.20 i

-

-

-

-

9.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

130 ŭrpm < 2,000

2004

130 ŭrpm < 2,000

14.4 2011

130 ŭrpm < 2,000 rpm Ů2,000

44.0 × N-0.23 i

2.0

7.7 3.4 2016

9.0 × N-0.20 i 2.0

2.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10 / 20,000

10 / 20,000

-

rpm < 130 Ů30.0

0.04 (ABT)

n

0.19 HC

2014+

rpm Ů2,000

3

-

-

rpm < 130 2

1.8 (ABT)

n

-

rpm Ů2,000

C3

10 / 10,000

2013+

rpm < 130 Ů30.0

Useful Life e (years/hours)

-

all

All

1

5.0

< 2,000

< 15.0 15.0 ŭdisp < 30.0

PM (g/kW- CO (g/kWhr) hr)

5.0

3 / 10,000

5.0

3 / 10,000

5.0

3 / 10,000

Sources: 40 CFR 89.104 = Tiers 1 and 2 useful life & warranty period for marine CI engines less than 37 kW 40 CFR 89.112 = Tiers 1 and 2 emission standards for marine CI engines less than 37 kW 40 CFR 89 Subpart E = Tiers 1 and 2 test procedures for marine CI engines less than 37 kW 40 CFR 94.8 = Tiers 1 and 2 emission standards for C1 (both commercial & recreational), C2 and C3 engines 40 CFR 94.9 = Tiers 1 and 2 useful life for C1 (both commercial & recreational), C2 and C3 engines 40 CFR 94 Subpart B = Tiers 1 and 2 test procedures for C1 (both commercial & recreational), C2 and C3 engines 40 CFR 1042.101 = Tiers 3 and 4 exhaust emission standards and useful life

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–30

Table 12.22 (continued) Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards Sources (continued): 40 CFR 1042.107 = Tiers 3 and 4 evaporative emission standards engines using a volatile liquid fuel (e.g., methanol) 40 CFR 1042.120 = Tiers 3 and 4 warranty period 40 CFR 1042 Subpart F = Tiers 3 and 4 test procedures (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)

a

For Tiers 1 and 2, Category 1 marine engines are greater than or equal to 37 kilowatts (kW) and have a displacement less than 5.0 liters per cylinder (L/cylinder); Category 2 marine engines have a displacement greater than or equal to 5.0 L/cylinder and less than 30 L/cylinder; and Category 3 marine engines have a displacement greater than or equal to 30.0 L/cylinder. For Tiers 3 and 4, Category 1 represents engines up to 7 L/cylinder displacement; and Category 2 includes engines from 7 to 30 L/cylinder. The definition of Category 3 marine engines remains the same. b Tiers 1 and 2 for marine engines less than 37 kW are subject to the same emission standards as for landbased engines. See Table 1 in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 89.112 and 40 CFR Part 89.104. c For Tiers 1 and 2, this refers to the rated power; for Tiers 3 and 4, this refers to the maximum engine power. d Total hydrocarbon (THC) plus nitrogen oxides (NOx) for Tier 2 standards. e Useful life is expressed in hours or years, whichever comes first. For Tiers 3 and 4, a longer useful life in hours for an engine family must be specified if either:1) the engine is designed, advertised, or marketed to operate longer than the minimum useful life; or 2) the basic mechanical warranty is longer than the minimum useful life. f Warranty period is expressed in years and hours, whichever comes first. g For Tiers 3 and 4, there are no evaporative emission standards for diesel-fueled engines, or engines using other nonvolatile or nonliquid fuels (e.g., natural gas). If an engine uses a volatile liquid fuel, such as methanol, the engine's fuel system and the vessel in which the engine is installed must meet the evaporative emission requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1045 that apply with respect to spark-ignition engines. Manufacturers subject to evaporative emission standards must meet the requirements of 40 CFR 1045.112 as described in 40 CFR 1060.1(a)(2). h Indicates the model years for which the specified standards start. i N is the maximum test speed of the engine in revolutions per minute (rpm). j Manufacturers of Tier 3 engines greater than or equal to 19 kW and less than 75 kW with displacement below 0.9 L/cylinder may alternatively certify some or all of their engine families to a particulate matter (PM) emission standard of 0.20 grams per kilowatt-hour (g/kW-hr) and a NOx+HC emission standard fo 5.8 g/kW-hr for 2014 and later model years. k The applicable Tier 2 NOx+HC standards continue to apply instead of the Tier 3 values for engines at or above 2000 kW. l These Tier 3 standards apply to Category 1 engines below 3700 kW except for recreational marine engines at or above 3700 kW (with any displacement), which must meet the Tier 3 standards specified for recreational marine engines with a displacement of 3.5 to 7.0 L/cylinder. m The following provisions are optional: 1)Manufacturers may use NOx credits to certify Tier 4 engines to a NOX+HC emission standard of 1.9 g/kW-hr instead of the NOX and HC standards. See 40 CFR 1042.101(a)(8)(i) for more details. 2) For engines below 1000 kW, manufacturers may delay complying with the Tier 4 standards until October 1, 2017. 3) For engines at or above 3700 kW, manufacturers may delay complying with the Tier 4 standards until December 31, 2016. n The Tier 4 standard is for HC (not HC+NOx) in g/kW-hr. o These Tier 3 standards apply to Category 2 engines below 3700 kW; no Tier 3 standards apply for Category 2 engines at or above 3700 kW, although there are Tier 4 standards that apply.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–31

Table 12.22 (continued) Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards

p

An alternative set of Tier 3 and Tier 4 standards for PM, NOx, and HC are available for Category 2 engines at or above 1400 kW, but must be applied to all of a manufacturer's engines in a given displacement category in model years 2012 through 2015.

Tier 3 4

Maximum engine power kW 1400 1400 ≤kW < 3700 kW 3700

Model year 2012-2014 2015 2015

PM (g/kW-hr) 0.14 0.04 0.06

NOx HC (g/kW-hr) (g/kW-hr) 7.8 NOx+HC 1.8 0.19 1.8 0.19

q

Interim Tier 4 PM standards apply for 2014 and 2015 model year Category 2 engines with per-cylinder displacement at or above 15.0 liters: 0.34 g/kW-hr for engines 2000 = kW < 3000, and 0.27 g/kW-hr for engines 3300 = kW < 3700.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–32

These standards apply to gasoline boats and personal watercraft, such as pleasure boats, jet-skis, outboard engines and sterndrive/inboard engines.

Table 12.23 Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels – Exhaust Emission Standards HC + NOxa (g/KW-hr) Engine type

Model year 1998

1999

2000

2001

2002 Personal watercraft & outboard marine engines Federale

2003

2004

2005 20062009

P ≤4.3 kWb 278 ABT

253 ABT

228 ABT

204 ABT

179 ABT

155 ABT

130 ABT

105 ABT

81 ABT

30 ABT 2010 +g

P > 4.3 kWb (0.917 x (151 + 557/P0.9 + 2.44) [ABT] (0.833 x (151 + 557/P0.9 + 2.89) [ABT] (0.750 x (151 + 557/P0.9) + 3.33 [ABT] (0.667 x (151 + 557/P0.9) + 3.78 [ABT] (0.583 x (151 + 557/P0.9) + 4.22 [ABT] (0.500 x (151 + 557/P0.9) + 4.67 [ABT] (0.417 x (151 + 557/P0.9) + 5.11 [ABT] (0.333 x (151 + 557/P0.9) + 5.56 [ABT] (0.250 x (151 + 557/P0.9) + 6.00 [ABT] 2.1 + 0.09 x (151 + 557/P0.9)

[ABT] Conventional enginesg Sterndrive/ inboard engines

Highperformance engines

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

500 - 5.0 xP

[ABT] 5.0 [ABT]

2010 +

COc (g/KW-hr) P ≤4.3 P > 4.3 kWb kWb

75 [ABT]

P ≤kWb

P > 485 kWb

2010

20.0

25.0

2011+

16.0

22.0

350

300

Useful life (hours/years)d

350 / 5

Personal Watercraft: 350 / 5h Outboard: 350 / 10h 480 / 10i P ≤485 kW: 150 / 3 P > 485 kW: 50 / 1

Sources: 40 CFR 91.104 = Outboard and personal watercraft (PWC) exhaust emission standards (1998-2009) 40 CFR 91.105 = Outboard and PWC useful life (1998-2009) 40 CFR 1045.103 = Outboard and PWC exhaust emission standards (2010+) 40 CFR 1045.105 = Sterndrive/Inboard exhaust emission standards 40 CFR 1045.107 = Not-to-exceed exhaust emission standards (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)

a

The numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons (HC) must be met based on the following types of HC emissions for engines powered by the following fuels: (1) total hydrocarbon equivalent for alcohol; (2) non-methane hydrocarbon for natural gas; and (3) total hydrocarbons for other fuels.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–33

Table 12.23 (continued) Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels – Exhaust Emission Standards

b

P stands for the maximum engine power in kilowatts. Manufacturers may generate or use emission credits for averaging, but not for banking or trading. d Useful life and warranty period are expressed hours or years of operation (unless otherwise indicated), whichever comes first. e The test procedure for federal standards uses the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 8178 E4 5-Mode Steady-State Test Cycle. f Also applies to model year (MY) 1997 engine families certified pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 91.205. g Not-to-exceed emission standards specified in 40 CFR 1045.107 also apply. h A longer useful life in terms of hours must be specified for the engine family if the average service life is longer than the minimum value as described in 40 CFR 1045.103(e)(3). i The useful life may not be shorter than: (1) 150 hours of operation; (2) the recommended overhaul interval; or (3) the engine's mechanical warranty. A longer useful life must be specified in terms of hours if the average service life is longer than the minimum value as described in 40 CFR 1045.105(e)(3). c

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–34

These standards apply to land-based recreational vehicles, such as snowmobiles, dirt bikes, all-terrain vehicles and go-karts.

Table 12.24 Nonroad Recreational Engines and Vehicles – Exhaust Emission Standards

Vehicle

Snowmobilesc

Phase

Year

1d

2006+

2

20102011

3e

Federal

HCa g/kW-hr 100 [ABT] 75 [ABT]

HC + NOx g/km -

f

2012+

150 [ABT]

-

CO g/kW-hr 275 [ABT] 275 [ABT] 400 f [ABT]

g/km

Minimum useful life (hours/years/km)b

-

400 / 5 / 8,000

-

Off-highway motorcyclesg

1d

2006+

-

2.0h, i [ABT]

-

25h, i [ABT]

ATVsg

1d

2006+

-

1.5j, k [ABT]

-

35k [ABT]

> 70 cc Displacement: - / 5 / 10,000 ≤70 cc Displacement: - / 5 / 5,000 100 cc Displacement: 1000 / 5 / 10,000 < 100 cc Displacement: 500 / 5 / 5,000

Sources: 40 CFR 1051.101-115 = Emission standards (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)

a

The numerical emission standards for hydrocarbons (HC) must be met based on the following types of hydrocarbon emissions for recreational engines and vehicles powered by the following fuels: (1) non-methane hydrocarbons for natural gas; (2) total hydrocarbon equivalent for alcohol; and (3) total hydrocarbons for other fuels. b Useful life is expressed in hours, years, or kilometers, whichever comes first; warranty period is expressed in hours, months, or kilometers (km), whichever comes first. Nonroad recreational engines and vehicles must meet emission standards over their full useful life. A longer useful life in terms of km and hours must be specified for the engine family if the average service life is longer than the minimum value as described in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1051 Subpart B. c Test procedures for snowmobiles use the equipment and procedures for spark-ignition engines in 40 CFR Part 1065. d Phase 1 standards will be phased in: 50 percent by 2006, 100 percent by 2007. e Litigation on the November 2002 final rule resulted in a court decision that requires EPA to clarify the evidence and analysis upon which the Phase 3 carbon monoxide (CO) and HC standards were based. EPA will address this in a future rulemaking. f These are the maximum allowable family emission limits (FEL). The HC and CO standards are defined by a functional relationship as described in 40 CFR 1051.103(a)(2). g For off-highway motorcycles and ATVs, chassis dynamometer emissions test procedures are specified in 40 CFR Part 86, Subpart F and engine dynamometer emissions test procedures are specified in 40 CFR Part 1065. h Maximum allowable FEL: 20.0 grams per kilometer (g/km) for HC plus nitrogen oxides (NOx) and 50 g/km for CO.

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12–35

Table 12.24 (continued) Nonroad Recreational Engines and Vehicles – Exhaust Emission Standards

i

Manufacturers may certify off-highway motorcycles with engines that have total displacement of 70 cubic centimeters (cc) or less to an HC+NOx standard of 16.1 grams per kilowatt-hour (g/kW-hr) (with an FEL cap of 32.2 g/kW-hr) and a CO standard of 519 g/kW-hr. j Maximum allowable FEL for HC+NOx is 20.0 g/km. k Manufacturers may certify all-terrain vehicles with engines that have total displacement of less than 100 cc to an HC+NOx standard of 25.0 g/KW-hr (with an FEL cap of 40.0 g/kW-hr) and a CO standard of 500 g/kW-hr.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–36

These standards were established in conjunction with the Tier 2 light vehicle standards to maintain the performance of catalytic converters.

Table 12.25 Gasoline Sulfur Standards Regulated entity Large refiners / importersa GPA refiners d, e Small refiners f, g, h Downstream standards i, j

Federal

Refinery average and per-gallon cap by year (ppm) 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

2004 b

120 / 300

c

b

2010

2010

30 / 90 / 300

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

150 / 300c

150 / 300

150 / 300

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

k

k

k

k

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

30 / 80

378

326

95

95

95

95

95

95

Source: 40 CFR Part 80 Subpart H (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)

a

Standards effective January 1 at the refinery gate. No Refinery Average Standard applies in 2004; Corporate Average Standard applies in 2004 (120 ppm) and 2005 (90 ppm). c Cap exceedances up to 50 ppm in 2004 must be made up in 2005. d Geographic Phase-in Area (GPA) refiners must also comply with the corporate average standards in 2004 and 2005 if less than 50% of the refiner's gasoline is designated as GPA gasoline in a given compliance period. e GPA refiners may receive an additional two years (i.e., through 2008) to comply with the 30 / 80 ppm gasoline sulfur standards in exchange for producing 95% of their highway diesel fuel at the 15 ppm sulfur standard by June 1, 2006. f Small refiners may receive an additional two years (i.e., through 2009) to comply with the 30 / 80 ppm gasoline sulfur standards via a hardship demonstration. g Small refiners may receive an additional three years (i.e., through 2010) to comply with the 30 / 80 ppm gasoline sulfur standards in exchange for producing 95% of their highway diesel fuel at the 15 ppm sulfur standard by June 1, 2006. h Small refiners may receive a 20% increase in their annual average and per-gallon cap standards in exchange for producing 95% of their highway, nonroad, locomotive, and marine diesel fuel at the 15 ppm sulfur standard by June 1, 2006. i Downstream standards are effective February 1 at any downstream location other than at a retail outlet or wholesale purchaser-consumer (e.g., pipelines and terminals) and March 1 at any downstream location. j Downstream standards for gasoline that is not blended with small refiner gasoline are shown. Refer to the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the downstream standards that apply when a gasoline blend includes small refiner gasoline. b

k

1997-98 Refinery baseline sulfur level (ppm) 0 to 30 31 to 200 201 to 400 401 to 600 601 and above

Small refiner interim gasoline sulfur standards (ppm) 2004 - 2007 Average Cap 30 300 baseline level 300 200 300 50% of baseline 1.5 x avg. standard 300 450

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

12–37

Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel is necessary for new advanced emission control technologies. It also reduces particulate matter in the existing fleet of nonroad engines and equipment.

Table 12.26 Highway, Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine (NRLM) Diesel Fuel Sulfur Standards

Regulated entity Large refiners & importers Small refiners Large refiners & importers

Federal

Small refiners Transmix processor & in-use

Covered fuel

2006a

Highway Highway NR LM NRLM with creditse NRLMf NRe LMe

-

Per-gallon maximum sulfur level by year (ppm) 2007b 2008 2009 2010c,d 2011 2012 80% 15 20% 500 15 500 500 500 500 15 15 15 500 500 500 500 500 15

2013

2014

15 15

15 15

-

HS

HS

HS

500

500

500

500

15

-

HS HS HS

HS HS HS

HS HS HS

500 500 500

500 500 500

500 500 500

500 500 500

15 15 500

Source: 40 CFR Part 80 Subpart I (Additional resources: www.epa.gov/otaq/standards)

a

For highway diesel fuel, standards are effective June 1 for refiners/importers, September 1 for pipelines and terminals, and October 15 for retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. Anti-downgrading provisions effective October 16, 2006. b For Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine (NRLM) diesel fuel, standards are effective June 1 for refiners; downstream requirements apply for Northeast/Mid-Atlantic area only (August 1 for terminals, October 1 for retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers, and December 1 for in-use). c For highway diesel fuel, standards are effective June 1 for refiners/importers, October 1 for pipelines and terminals, and December 1 for retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers. d For NRLM diesel fuel, standards are effective June 1 for refiners, August 1 for terminals, October 1 for retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers, and December 1 for in-use. e Excluding the Northeast and Alaska. f Excluding the Northeast, with approval in Alaska.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

A–1

APPENDIX A

SOURCES & METHODOLOGIES

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

A–2

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

A–3

SOURCES & METHODOLOGIES This appendix contains documentation of the estimation procedures used by ORNL. The reader can examine the methodology behind the estimates and form an opinion as to their utility. The appendix is arranged by subject heading.

Only tables which contain ORNL estimations are documented in

Appendix A; all other tables have sources listed at the bottom of the table. Since abbreviations are used throughout the appendix, a list of abbreviations is also included.

Contents of Appendix A List of Abbreviations Used in Appendix A ............................................................................................. A–4 Energy Use Sources ................................................................................................................................. A–5 Highway energy use ....................................................................................................................... A–5 Off-highway energy use ............................................................................................................... A–14 Nonhighway energy use ............................................................................................................... A–14 Passenger Travel and Energy Use .......................................................................................................... A–24 Highway Passenger Mode Energy Intensities ........................................................................................ A–28 Nonhighway Mode Energy Intensities................................................................................................... A–31 Freight Mode Energy Intensities ............................................................................................................ A–32

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

A–4

List of Abbreviations Used in Appendix A

AAMA

American Automobile Manufacturers Association

AAR

Association of American Railroads

APTA

American Public Transportation Association

Amtrak

National Railroad Passenger Corporation

Btu

British thermal unit

DOC

Department of Commerce

DOE

Department of Energy

DOT

Department of Transportation

EIA

Energy Information Administration

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

FAA

Federal Aviation Administration

FHWA

Federal Highway Administration

GSA

General Services Administration

gvw

gross vehicle weight

lpg

liquefied petroleum gas

mpg

miles per gallon

NHTS

National Household Travel Survey

NHTSA

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

NPTS

Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey

NVPP

National Vehicle Population Profile

ORNL

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

pmt

passenger-miles traveled

RECS

Residential Energy Consumption Survey

RTECS

Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey

TIUS

Truck Inventory and Use Survey

TSC

Transportation Systems Center

VIUS

Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey

vmt

vehicle-miles traveled

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

A–5

Energy Use Sources Highway energy use Cars Fuel use in gallons (1970-2007) – DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2008, Table VM-1 and annual editions back to 1996; DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995. Fuel use in gallons (2008 – 2010) – Results of a model developed by ORNL to estimate data for cars and light trucks since the FHWA discontinued their VM-1 series showing cars and light trucks separately. The model uses data from FHWA Highway Statistics 2010, EPA Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, and R.L. Polk to estimate the number of vehicles, vehicle-miles of travel, energy use, and fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks. Documentation of the model will be published in an ORNL report, forthcoming. Fuel type distribution – Fuel use was distributed among fuel types using the percentages shown in Table A.1. The FHWA discontinued gasohol data in 2005. Therefore, data from EIA, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels, 2006-2010, Table C1 were used.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

A–6

Table A.1 Car Fuel Use and Fuel Type Shares for Calculation of Energy Use Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Fuel use (million gallons) 67,820 71,346 75,937 78,233 74,229 74,140 78,297 79,060 80,652 76,588 69,981 69,112 69,116 70,322 70,663 71,518 73,174 73,308 73,345 73,913 69,568 64,318 65,436 67,047 67,874 68,072 69,221 69,892 71,695 73,283 73,065 73,559 75,471 74,590 75,402 77,418 75,009 a 74,377 68,864 68,228 67,379

Source for Gasohol shares

FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e EIA, C1 EIA, C1 EIA, C1 EIA, C1 EIA, C1

Source for gasoline/diesel shares 1984 NVPP interpolated interpolated interpolated interpolated interpolated interpolated interpolated interpolated 1979 RTECS interpolated 1981 RTECS interpolated 1983 RTECS interpolated 1985 RTECS interpolated interpolated 1988 RTECS interpolated interpolated 1991 RTECS interpolated interpolated 1994 RTECS interpolated interpolated interpolated interpolated interpolated 2000 NVPP 2001 NVPP 2001 NVPP 2001 NVPP 2001 NVPP 2001 NVPP 2001 NVPP 2001 NVPP 2001 NVPP 2001 NVPP 2001 NVPP

Heat content used for conversion to btu:

a

Shares by fuel type Gasoline Gasohol Diesel 99.8% 0.0% 0.2% 99.2% 0.0% 0.8% 98.7% 0.0% 1.3% 98.1% 0.0% 1.9% 97.5% 0.0% 2.5% 97.0% 0.0% 3.0% 96.4% 0.0% 3.6% 95.8% 0.0% 4.2% 95.3% 0.0% 4.7% 94.7% 0.0% 5.3% 93.9% 0.5% 5.6% 93.4% 0.7% 5.9% 93.5% 2.3% 4.2% 93.2% 4.3% 2.5% 92.7% 5.3% 2.0% 90.8% 7.7% 1.5% 91.0% 7.6% 1.4% 92.4% 6.3% 1.3% 91.4% 7.4% 1.2% 92.6% 6.2% 1.2% 92.0% 6.8% 1.2% 90.8% 8.0% 1.2% 90.8% 7.9% 1.2% 89.7% 9.1% 1.3% 89.1% 9.6% 1.3% 87.6% 11.2% 1.2% 88.8% 10.1% 1.0% 86.9% 12.2% 0.9% 88.0% 11.2% 0.8% 88.3% 11.0% 0.6% 86.9% 12.6% 0.5% 86.5% 13.0% 0.5% 83.9% 15.6% 0.5% 75.3% 24.2% 0.5% 67.2% 32.3% 0.5% 66.9% 32.6% 0.5% 78.2% 21.3% 0.5% 72.9% 26.6% 0.5% 61.8% 37.7% 0.5% 55.8% 43.7% 0.5% 49.2% 50.3% 0.5% 125,000 120,900 138,700 btu/gallon btu/gallon btu/gallon

Data are not continuous between 2007 and 2008 due to changes in source.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

A–7

Motorcycles DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2010, Table VM-1, and annual editions. The FHWA made methodology changes for Highway Statistics 2009-10. At that time, they published historical data back to 2007 which do not match the previous data. Table A.2 Motorcycle Fuel Use Fuel use Year (thousand gallons) Year 1970 59,580 1991 1971 72,140 1992 1972 86,620 1993 1973 103,880 1994 1974 108,900 1995 1975 112,580 1996 1976 120,060 1997 1977 126,980 1998 1978 143,160 1999 1979 172,740 2000 1980 204,280 2001 1981 213,800 2002 1982 198,200 2003 1983 175,200 2004 1984 175,680 2005 1985 181,720 2006 1986 187,940 2007 1987 190,120 2008 1988 200,480 2009 1989 207,420 2010 1990 191,140 Heat content used for conversion to btu:

Fuel use (thousand gallons) 183,560 191,140 198,120 204,800 198,262 195,940 201,620 205,660 211,680 209,380 192,780 191,040 190,780 202,447 189,495 221,030 474,923 489,417 482,290 425,551

a

125,000 btu/gallon

a

Data are not continuous between 2006 and 2007 due to changes in estimation methodology. See source document for details.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

A–8

Buses Transit: APTA, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2012. Includes motorbus and trolley bus data. Table A.3 Transit Bus Fuel Use

Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Heat content used for conversion to btu:

LNG (million gallons) 1.1 1.7 2.3 3.3 3.1 5.3 10.5 11.7 16.8 14.2 16.5 18.3 19.6 18.3 17.9 25.5 23.0

LPG (million gallons) 0.2 0.3 0.6 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.2 1.8 1.8 1.7 2.0 1.6

84,800 btu/gallon

91,300 btu/gallon

a a a a

CNG (million gallons) 3.1 10.0 11.5 20.0 32.6 39.9 50.4 60.9 77.8 94.9 106.7 117.2 138.8 129.1 135.5 141.6 126.2

Gasoline (million gallons) 2.1 2.3 1.8 2.7 2.0 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.1 1.8 1.0 2.3 2.5 3.8 6.7 8.1

Diesel fuel (million gallons) 565.1 563.8 577.7 597.6 606.6 618.0 635.2 587.2 559.0 536.0 550.5 533.8 536.7 494.1 493.3 455.5 435.4

Electricity (thousand kilowatt hours) 102.9 100.0 69.0 78.0 74.0 75.0 77.0 74.0 73.0 69.0 68.0 67.0 62.0 61.0 62.2 69.5 66.0

138,700 btu/gallon

125,000 btu/gallon

138,700 btu/gallon

64,600 btu/gallon

Note: CNG is reported in diesel-gallon equivalents. a

Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

Biodiesel (million gallons)

20.5 25.8 41.8 40.6 43.5

Methanol (million gallons) 12.5 12.0 11.6 8.7 5.0 2.7 0.8 0.8 1.8 1.9 4.7 8.1 0.9 1.3 0.9 0.0 0.0 10,339 but/kWhr

A–9

Intercity and School: Eno Transportation Foundation, Transportation in America, 2001, Nineteenth Edition, 2003, Washington, DC, pp. 20–23. School bus fuel was assumed to be 90% diesel fuel and 10% gasoline based on estimates from the National Association of State Directors of Pupil Transportation Services. Intercity bus fuel was assumed to be 100% diesel. Table A.4 Intercity and School Bus Fuel Use Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Intercity (million gallons) 305.34 296.73 288.12 252.42 216.72 181.02 182.28 181.86 180.18 205.38 213.78 205.38 227.22 237.30 169.26 165.48 148.68 155.82 160.44 166.74 159.60 160.44 157.08 171.36 195.30 195.30 199.92 212.52 220.08 241.08 233.10 217.35* 210.22* 208.32* 208.87* 214.37* 208.32* 214.37* 218.48* 224.58* 215.25*

Fuel type shares

100% diesel

Heat content used for conversion to btu:

138,700 btu/gallon

School (million gallons) 299.88 309.75 319.62 327.04 334.46 341.88 389.76 401.52 406.98 404.88 379.68 386.82 398.58 400.68 375.06 425.04 462.42 487.20 511.14 498.12 472.08 533.40 546.00 533.40 546.00 545.16 545.16 544.74 550.20 555.66 577.08 538.08* 520.44* 515.72* 517.09* 530.70* 515.72* 530.70* 540.89* 556.00* 532.89* 90% diesel 10% gasoline 138,700 btu/gallon 125,000 btu/gallon

*Estimated using the rate of change of bus vehicle-miles traveled from FHWA Highway Statistics, Table VM-1 (recently revised).

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

A–10

Trucks Light Trucks: Fuel use in gallons (1970-2007) – DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2008, Table VM-1 and annual editions back to 1996; DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995. Fuel use in gallons (2008 – 2010) – Results of a model developed by ORNL to estimate data for cars and light trucks since the FHWA discontinued their VM-1 series showing cars and light trucks separately. The model uses data from FHWA Highway Statistics 2010, EPA Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, and R.L. Polk to estimate the number of vehicles, vehicle-miles of travel, energy use, and fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks. Documentation of the model will be published in an ORNL report, forthcoming. Fuel type distribution – Fuel use was distributed among fuel types using the percentages shown in Table A.1. The FHWA discontinued gasohol data in 2005. Therefore, data from EIA, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels, 2006-2010, Table C1 were used.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

A–11

Table A.5 Light Truck Fuel Use and Fuel Type Shares for Calculation of Energy Use

Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Fuel use (million gallons) 12,313 13,484 15,150 16,828 16,657 19,081 20,828 22,383 24,162 24,445 23,796 23,697 22,702 23,945 25,604 27,363 29,074 30,598 32,653 33,271 35,611 38,217 40,929 42,851 44,112 45,605 47,354 49,388 50,462 52,859 52,939 53,522 55,220 60,758 63,417 58,869 60,685 61,836 62,575 63,159 64,280

Source for gasohol shares

a

FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e FHWA, MF-33e EIA, C1 EIA, C1 EIA, C1 EIA, C1 EIA, C1

Source for gasoline/diesel /lpg shares 1977 TIUS 1977 TIUS 1977 TIUS 1977 TIUS 1977 TIUS 1977 TIUS 1977 TIUS 1977 TIUS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 1982 TIUS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 1987 TIUS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 1992 TIUS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 1997 VIUS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS

Heat content used for conversion to btu:

a

Shares by fuel type Gasoline 97.6% 97.6% 97.6% 97.6% 97.6% 97.6% 97.6% 97.6% 97.1% 96.7% 95.7% 95.1% 93.0% 91.0% 90.0% 87.6% 87.7% 89.0% 88.2% 89.5% 89.2% 88.1% 88.5% 87.3% 86.8% 85.1% 86.2% 84.2% 85.0% 84.9% 83.1% 82.4% 79.6% 71.0% 62.9% 62.6% 73.9% 68.6% 57.5% 51.5% 44.9% 125,000 btu/gallon

Gasohol 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.7% 2.3% 4.3% 5.3% 7.7% 7.6% 6.3% 7.4% 6.2% 6.8% 8.0% 7.9% 9.1% 9.6% 11.2% 10.1% 12.2% 11.2% 11.0% 12.6% 13.0% 15.6% 24.2% 32.3% 32.6% 21.3% 26.6% 37.7% 43.7% 50.3% 120,900 btu/gallon

Data are not continuous between 2007 and 2008 due to changes in source.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

Diesel 1.6% 1.6% 1.6% 1.6% 1.6% 1.6% 1.6% 1.6% 2.0% 2.4% 2.7% 3.1% 3.5% 3.5% 3.5% 3.5% 3.5% 3.5% 3.5% 3.4% 3.4% 3.3% 3.3% 3.3% 3.3% 3.4% 3.4% 3.4% 3.5% 3.6% 3.8% 3.9% 4.0% 4.0% 4.0% 4.0% 4.0% 4.0% 4.0% 4.0% 4.0% 138,700 btu/gallon

Lpg 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.9% 1.0% 1.0% 1.1% 1.2% 1.2% 1.2% 1.2% 1.2% 1.2% 1.0% 0.8% 0.7% 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 90,800 btu/gallon

A–12

Medium/Heavy Trucks: DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2010, Table VM-1 and annual editions back to 1996; DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995. The FHWA made methodology changes for Highway Statistics 2009. At that time, they published historical data back to 2007 which do not match the previous data. Total gallons for medium/heavy trucks are the sum of single-unit trucks and combination trucks. Table A.6 Medium/Heavy Truck Fuel Use and Fuel Type Shares for Calculation of Energy Use Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Fuel use (million gallons) 11,316 11,812 12,964 14,320 14,341 14,598 15,408 17,082 19,121 19,913 19,960 20,376 20,386 20,761 21,428 21,405 21,861 22,513 22,925 23,512 24,490 24,981 25,453 26,236 27,685 28,828 29,601 29,878 30,841 33,909 35,229 35,179 36,800 35,775 33,150 37,190 37,959 47,218 47,705 44,303 44,957

a

Source for fuel type shares 1977 TIUS 1977 TIUS 1977 TIUS 1977 TIUS 1977 TIUS 1977 TIUS 1977 TIUS 1977 TIUS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 1982 TIUS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 1987 TIUS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 1992 TIUS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 1997 VIUS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS 2002 VIUS

Heat content used for conversion to btu:

a

Gasoline 10.4% 10.4% 10.4% 10.4% 10.4% 10.4% 10.4% 10.4% 16.2% 22.1% 27.9% 33.8% 39.6% 35.6% 31.5% 27.5% 23.4% 19.4% 18.8% 18.1% 17.5% 16.8% 16.2% 15.4% 14.7% 13.9% 13.2% 12.4% 12.1% 11.8% 11.6% 11.3% 11.0% 11.0% 11.0% 11.0% 11.0% 11.0% 11.0% 11.0% 11.0% 125,000 btu/gallon

Shares by fuel type Diesel Lpg 89.5% 0.1% 89.5% 0.1% 89.5% 0.1% 89.5% 0.1% 89.5% 0.1% 89.5% 0.1% 89.5% 0.1% 89.5% 0.1% 83.5% 0.3% 77.5% 0.5% 71.4% 0.6% 65.4% 0.8% 59.4% 1.0% 63.6% 0.8% 67.8% 0.7% 72.0% 0.5% 76.2% 0.4% 80.4% 0.2% 81.0% 0.3% 81.6% 0.3% 82.1% 0.4% 82.7% 0.4% 83.3% 0.5% 84.1% 0.5% 84.8% 0.5% 85.6% 0.5% 86.3% 0.5% 87.1% 0.5% 87.4% 0.5% 87.6% 0.5% 87.9% 0.5% 88.1% 0.5% 88.4% 0.5% 88.4% 0.5% 88.4% 0.5% 88.4% 0.5% 88.4% 0.5% 88.4% 0.5% 88.4% 0.5% 88.4% 0.5% 88.4% 0.5% 138,700 90,800 btu/gallon btu/gallon

Data are not continuous between 2006 and 2007 due to changes in methodology. See source for details.

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Shares of Class 3-6 and 7-8 energy use by fuel type were calculated from the 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) and applied to all years 1970-2010. Table A.7 Share of Medium and Heavy Truck Energy Use

Fuel type Gasoline Diesel LPG

Share of energy use Class 3-6 Class 7-8 92% 8% 14% 86% 99% 1%

Total 100% 100% 100%

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Off-highway energy use U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NONROAD2008a model, results generated May 2012. Gallons of fuel by fuel type were produced for agricultural equipment, airport equipment, construction and mining equipment, industrial equipment, lawn and garden equipment, logging equipment, railroad maintenance equipment, and recreational equipment. Some non-transportation-related equipment, such as generators, chain saws, compressors, and pumps, were excluded from the data.

Nonhighway energy use Air General Aviation: DOT, FAA, General Aviation Activity and Avionics Survey: Annual Summary Report Calendar Year 2010, Table 5.1, and annual. Table A.8 General Aviation Fuel Use Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Heat content used for conversion to btu:

Jet fuel (million gallons) 208.0 226.0 245.0 304.0 357.0 453.0 495.0 536.0 763.0 736.0 766.0 759.0 887.0 613.0 738.9 691.0 732.1 672.7 746.0 688.0 662.0 579.0 496.0 454.1 470.8 544.0 567.5 639.4 814.6 967.2 998.1 938.7 815.5 820.0 1,075.2 1,507.4 1,636.3 1,516.3 1,688.6 1,350.6 1,451.5 135,000 btu/gallon

Aviation gasoline (million gallons) 551.0 508.0 584.0 411.0 443.0 412.0 432.0 456.0 518.0 570.0 520.0 489.0 448.0 428.0 462.4 421.0 408.6 401.8 398.0 342.8 353.0 348.0 306.0 268.4 264.1 276.0 286.5 289.7 311.4 345.4 336.3 319.3 261.4 255.5 256.1 323.6 294.7 314.8 306.3 226.6 210.3 120,200 btu/gallon

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Domestic and International Air Carrier: DOT, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, "Fuel Cost and Consumption Tables," www.transtats.bts.gov/fuel.asp. The table below shows all international fuel use. Because the data for international include fuel purchased abroad, for the tables in Chapter 2, the international total was divided in half to estimate domestic fuel use for international flights. Table A.9 Air Carrier Fuel Use

Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Heat content used for conversion to btu:

Domestic (thousand gallons)

International (thousand gallons)

Separate estimates for domestic and international are not available from 1970-1976.

8,202,051 8,446,117 8,865,885 8,519,233 8,555,249 8,432,465 8,672,574 9,625,958 10,115,007 11,137,331 11,586,838 11,917,904 11,905,144 12,429,305 11,506,477 11,762,852 11,958,663 12,475,549 12,811,717 13,187,305 13,659,581 13,876,971 14,402,127 14,844,592 14,017,461 12,848,329 12,958,581 13,622,603 13,778,869 13,694,437 13,681,664 12,666,911 11,339,220 11,255,800 135,000 btu/gallon

1,708,376 1,741,918 1,828,435 1,747,306 2,032,520 1,967,733 1,998,289 2,286,407 2,487,929 2,544,996 2,893,617 3,262,824 3,557,294 3,963,081 3,939,666 4,120,132 4,113,321 4,310,879 4,511,418 4,658,093 4,964,181 5,185,562 5,250,492 5,474,685 5,237,487 4,990,798 4,836,356 4,931,546 5,520,889 6,017,638 6,204,502 6,186,747 5,721,298 6,027,900 135,000 btu/gallon

Total (thousand gallons) 10,085,000 10,140,000 10,302,000 10,671,000 10,417,260 10,412,640 10,400,040 9,910,427 10,188,035 10,694,320 10,266,539 10,587,769 10,400,198 10,670,863 11,912,365 12,602,936 13,682,327 14,480,455 15,180,728 15,462,438 16,392,386 15,446,144 15,882,983 16,071,984 16,786,428 17,323,135 17,845,398 18,623,762 19,062,533 19,652,619 20,319,277 19,254,948 17,839,127 17,794,936 18,554,149 19,309,758 19,712,075 19,886,165 18,853,658 17,060,517 17,283,700 135,000 btu/gallon

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Water Freight: Total – DOE, EIA, Petroleum and Other Liquids Database, May 2012. Adjusted sales of distillate and residual fuel oil for vessel bunkering. (This may include some amounts of bunker fuels used for recreational purposes.) Table A.10 Diesel and Residual Fuel Oil for Vessel Bunkering

Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Heat content used for conversion to btu: Domestic share of total fuel use

Distillate fuel oil (thousand gallons) 819,000 880,000 1,013,000 1,125,000 1,018,920 1,097,880 1,220,100 1,407,420 1,578,822 1,630,858 717,376 1,723,143 1,423,216 1,418,890 1,692,045 1,894,265 2,034,215 2,223,258 2,310,367 2,356,444 2,197,004 2,167,640 2,240,170 2,043,745 2,026,899 1,978,105 2,177,608 2,107,561 2,125,568 2,064,590 2,041,433 2,099,011 2,056,465 1,863,150 2,313,448 2,115,381 2,206,690 2,158,930 1,365,351 1,485,134 1,745,995 138,700 btu/gallon

Residual fuel oil (thousand gallons) 3,774,120 3,307,000 3,273,000 3,859,000 3,827,040 4,060,140 4,977,000 5,416,740 6,614,790 8,002,672 7,454,242 7,922,512 6,408,818 5,724,115 5,688,931 5,269,733 5,690,250 5,869,154 6,025,511 6,621,100 6,248,095 6,786,055 7,199,078 6,269,882 5,944,383 6,431,238 5,804,977 4,789,861 4,640,153 5,598,630 6,192,294 4,345,284 4,783,956 3,801,425 4,886,978 5,533,552 6,000,434 6,773,950 6,230,994 5,464,313 5,925,505 149,700 btu/gallon

77.5%

9.3%

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Recreational Boating: Fuel use by recreational boating comes from the EPA’s NONROAD2008A model. Table A.11 Recreational Boating Fuel Use

Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Heat content used for conversion to btu:

Diesel use (gallons) 39,589,953 47,130,906 54,671,856 62,212,803 69,753,735 77,294,680 84,835,632 92,376,573 99,917,523 107,458,470 114,999,421 122,540,357 130,081,302 137,622,248 145,163,202 152,704,140 160,245,074 167,786,030 175,326,970 182,867,916 190,408,869 197,949,808 205,490,749 213,031,707 220,572,649 228,113,596 235,654,521 243,195,481 250,736,414 258,159,525 265,582,657 273,547,835 281,512,965 289,478,093 297,443,197 305,408,463 313,420,594 321,432,801 329,445,068 337,457,287 345,469,668 138,700 btu/gallon

Gasoline use (gallons) 1,213,397,311 1,220,995,448 1,228,593,572 1,236,191,635 1,243,789,752 1,251,387,972 1,258,986,070 1,266,584,111 1,274,182,341 1,281,780,460 1,289,378,532 1,296,976,672 1,304,574,832 1,312,172,890 1,319,771,007 1,327,369,146 1,334,967,322 1,342,565,455 1,362,856,034 1,383,146,636 1,403,437,194 1,429,688,292 1,455,939,504 1,482,190,597 1,539,794,180 1,597,269,921 1,654,446,069 1,657,737,628 1,659,056,085 1,657,198,161 1,652,906,973 1,655,303,922 1,653,583,696 1,648,070,959 1,639,713,127 1,629,873,278 1,619,603,593 1,609,567,873 1,599,830,522 1,590,749,216 1,578,405,558 125,000 btu/gallon

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Pipeline The sum of natural gas, crude petroleum and petroleum product, and coal slurry and water. Natural Gas: The amount of natural gas used to transport natural gas was defined as "pipeline fuel" as reported in DOE, EIA, Natural Gas Annual 2011, Table 1. Cubic feet were converted to Btu using 1,031 Btu/ft3. Electricity use was estimated using the following procedure as reported on p. 5-110 of J. N. Hooker et al., End Use Energy Consumption DataBase: Transportation Sector. The energy consumption of a natural gas pipeline was taken to be the energy content of the fuel used to drive the pumps. Some 94% of the installed pumping horsepower was supplied by natural gas. The remaining 6% of the horsepower was generated more efficiently, mostly by electric motors. The energy consumed by natural gas pipeline pumps that were electrically powered was not known. In order to estimate the electricity consumed, the Btu of natural gas pipeline fuel consumed was multiplied by a factor of 0.015. From this computed value, electricity efficiency and generation loss must be taken into account. The electricity energy use in Btu must be converted to kWhr, using the conversion factor 29.305 x 10-5 kWhr/Btu. Electricity generation and distribution efficiency was 29%. When generation and distribution efficiency are taken into account, 1 kWhr equals 10,339 Btu. Crude petroleum and petroleum product: J. N. Hooker, Oil Pipeline Energy Consumption and Efficiency, ORNL-5697, ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, 1981. (Data held constant; Latest available data.) Coal slurry and water: W. F. Banks, Systems, Science and Software, Energy Consumption in the Pipeline Industry, LaJolla, CA, October 1977. (Data held constant; Latest available data.)

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Table A.12 Pipeline Fuel Use

Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Heat content used for conversion to btu:

Natural gas (million cubic feet) 722,166 742,592 766,156 728,177 668,792 582,963 548,323 532,669 530,451 600,964 634,622 642,325 596,411 490,042 528,754 503,766 485,041 519,170 613,912 629,308 659,816 601,305 587,710 624,308 685,362 700,335 711,446 751,470 635,477 645,319 642,210 624,964 666,920 591,492 566,187 584,026 584,213 621,364 647,956 670,174 668,847 1,031 btu/cubic foot

Estimated natural gas pipeline electricity use (million kWhr) 3,272.9 3,365.4 3,472.2 3,300.1 3,031.0 2,642.0 2,485.0 2,414.1 2,404.0 2,723.6 2,876.1 2,911.0 2,703.0 2,220.9 2,396.3 2,283.1 2,198.2 2,352.9 2,782.3 2,852.0 2,990.3 2,725.1 2,663.5 2,829.4 3,106.1 3,173.9 3,224.3 3,405.7 2,880.0 2,924.6 2,910.5 2,832.3 3,022.5 2,680.7 2,566.0 2,646.8 2,647.7 2,816.0 2,936.6 3,037.2 3,031.2 10,339 Btu/kWhr

Electricity constant (btu) 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1 212.1

Note: Formula for estimating electricity use for natural gas pipelines is: Natural gas use (in million cubic ft) × 1,031 btu/cubic ft × 0.015 × 29.305 ×10-5 kWhr/btu

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Rail Freight: AAR, Railroad Facts, 2011 Edition, Washington, DC, 2011. Table A.13 Class I Freight Railroad Fuel Use

Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Heat content used for conversion to btu:

Diesel fuel (thousand gallons) 3,807,663 3,822,907 3,996,985 4,160,730 4,175,375 3,736,484 3,895,542 3,985,069 3,968,007 4,072,187 3,955,996 3,756,439 3,178,116 3,137,295 3,388,173 3,144,190 3,039,069 3,102,227 3,182,267 3,190,815 3,134,446 2,925,970 3,022,108 3,111,981 3,355,802 3,503,096 3,600,649 3,602,793 3,619,341 3,749,428 3,720,107 3,729,985 3,751,413 3,849,229 4,082,236 4,119,879 4,214,459 4,087,405 3,911,178 3,220,059 3,519,021 138,700 Btu/gallon

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Passenger: Commuter - APTA, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2012. Table A.14 Commuter Rail Fuel Use

Year 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Heat content used for conversion to btu:

Diesel (thousand gallons) 58,320 55,372 54,608 51,594 53,054 52,516 52,681 54,315 54,951 59,766 61,900 63,064 61,888 63,195 69,200 73,005 70,818 72,204 72,847 72,264 71,999 76,714 78,600 80,700 83,500 95,000 93,200 138,700 Btu/gallon

Electricity (million kWhr) 901 1,043 1,170 1,155 1,195 1,293 1,226 1,239 1,124 1,196 1,244 1,253 1,255 1,270 1,299 1,322 1,370 1,354 1,334 1,383 1,449 1,484 1,478 1,763 1,718 1,780 1,797 10,339 Btu/kWhr

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Transit – APTA, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2012. Includes light rail and heavy rail. Table A.15 Transit Rail Fuel Use

Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Heat content used for conversion to btu:

Electricity (million kWhr) Heavy rail Total 2,561 2,556 2,428 2,331 2,630 2,646 Light rail and heavy rail data are 2,576 not available separately from 2,303 1970 to 1985. 2,223 2,473 2,446 2,655 2,722 2,930 3,092 2,928 173 3,066 3,239 191 3,219 3,410 243 3,256 3,499 242 3,286 3,528 239 3,284 3,523 274 3,248 3,522 297 3,193 3,490 281 3,287 3,568 282 3,431 3,713 288 3,401 3,689 321 3,322 3,643 363 3,253 3,616 382 3,280 3,662 416 3,385 3,801 563 3,549 4,112 587 3,646 4,233 510 3,683 4,193 507 3,632 4,138 553 3,684 4,237 571 3,769 4,339 634 3,709 4,343 687 3,817 4,505 721 3,898 4,619 738 3,866 4,624 749 3,780 4,529 10,339 10,339 10,339 Btu/kWhr Btu/kWhr Btu/kWhr Light rail

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Intercity – Personal communication with Amtrak, Washington, DC, 2012. Table A.16 Intercity Rail Fuel Use

Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Heat content used for conversion to Btu

Diesel fuel (thousand gallons) 73,516 72,371 71,226 75,656 75,999 79,173 94,968 96,846 84,432 74,621 68,605 65,477 62,463 61,824 63,428 61,704 63,474 138,700 Btu/gallon

Electricity (thousand kWhr) 308,948 335,818 362,689 389,559 416,429 443,300 470,170 455,703 518,306 536,950 550,695 531,377 548,856 577,864 582,022 564,968 558,662 10,339 Btu/kWhr

Calculation of Million Barrels per Day Crude Oil Equivalent One gallon of gasoline, diesel fuel, or lpg is estimated to be the equivalent of one gallon of crude oil. Petroleum used for electricity was calculated using the following formula: ({[(BTU*S)/G ]/P }/365)/1000 BTU S

= =

G P

= =

Btus of electricity from Table 2.5 Share of petroleum used in making primary electricity (Calculated from Table 2.6 from the EIA, Monthly Energy Review) Electricity generation and distribution (assumed 29%) Btus per barrel of petroleum product (Table A3 from the EIA, Monthly Energy Review).

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Passenger Travel and Energy Use Cars Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles – Results of a model developed by ORNL to estimate data for cars and light trucks since the FHWA discontinued their VM-1 series showing cars and light trucks separately. The model uses data from FHWA Highway Statistics 2010, EPA Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, and R.L. Polk to estimate the number of vehicles, vehicle-miles of travel, energy use, and fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks. Documentation of the model will be published in an ORNL report, forthcoming. Passenger-miles – Vehicle-miles multiplied by an average load factor. Load factor – 2009 NHTS shows car load factor as 1.55 persons per vehicle. Energy intensities – Btu per vehicle-mile – Car energy use divided by vehicle-miles. Btu per passenger-mile – Car energy use divided by passenger-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-5. Data series shown in Table 2.7.

Light Trucks Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles – Results of a model developed by ORNL to estimate data for cars and light trucks since the FHWA discontinued their VM-1 series showing cars and light trucks separately. The model uses data from FHWA Highway Statistics 2010, EPA Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, and R.L. Polk to estimate the number of vehicles, vehicle-miles of travel, energy use, and fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks. Documentation of the model will be published in an ORNL report, forthcoming. Data by truck type were multiplied by the shares of trucks/truck travel which are for personal use (Table A.17). Passenger-miles – Vehicle-miles multiplied by an average load factor. Load factor – 2009 NHTS shows personal light truck load factor as 1.84 persons per vehicle. Energy intensities Btu per vehicle-mile – Personal light truck energy use divided by personal light truck vehicle-miles. Btu per passenger-mile – Personal light truck energy use divided by personal light truck passengermiles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-10, A-12 (light trucks, medium/heavy trucks). Data by truck type were multiplied by the shares of truck fuel use which are for personal use (Table A.17) which were derived by ORNL from the 2002 VIUS Micro Data File on CD.

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Table A.17 Share of Trucks, Truck Travel, and Fuel Use for Personal Travel Personal trucks 85.6% 26.9% Personal truck travel 80.9% 13.1% Personal truck fuel use 78.0% 6.0%

2-axle, 4-tire trucks Other single-unit and combination trucks 2-axle, 4-tire trucks Other single-unit and combination trucks 2-axle, 4-tire trucks Other single-unit and combination trucks

Note: Since these shares come from the 2002 VIUS, they may underestimate the amount of personal trucks, truck travel, and energy use for 2010.

Motorcycles Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles – DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2010, Table VM-1. Passenger-miles – Vehicle-miles multiplied by an average load factor. Load factor - 2009 NHTS shows motorcycle load factor as 1.16 persons per vehicle. Energy intensities – Btu per vehicle-mile – Motorcycle energy use divided by vehicle-miles. Btu per passenger-mile – Motorcycle energy use divided by passenger-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-7. Data series shown in Table 2.7.

Demand Response Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles, passenger-miles – APTA, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2012. Load factor – Passenger-miles divided by vehicle-miles. Energy intensities – Btu per vehicle-mile – Energy use divided by vehicle-miles. Btu per passenger-mile – Energy use divided by passenger-miles. Energy use – APTA, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2012.

Buses Transit Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles, passenger-miles – APTA, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2012. Data series shown on Table 5.16. Load factor – Passenger-miles divided by vehicle-miles. Energy intensities – Btu per vehicle-mile – Transit bus energy use divided by transit bus vehicle-miles. Btu per passenger-mile – Transit bus energy use divided by transit bus passenger-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-8. Data series shown in Table 5.16.

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Intercity Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-9. Because the data past 2000 are not available, the rate of change in bus VMT from FHWA, Highway Statistics 2010, was used to estimate the change in energy use. School Number of vehicles – DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2010, Table MV-10. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-9. Because the data past 2000 are not available, the rate of change in bus VMT from FHWA, Highway Statistics 2010, was used to estimate the change in energy use.

Air Certificated air carriers Aircraft-miles, passenger-miles – DOT, BTS, U.S. Air Traffic Statistics Through February 2012, http://www.bts.gov/xml/air_traffic/src/index.xml#customizeTable, Washington, DC. Load factor – Passenger-miles divided by aircraft-miles. Energy intensities – Btu per passenger-mile – Certificated air carrier energy use divided by passenger-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-15. All of domestic fuel use and half of international fuel use was considered to be domestic use. Note: These data differ from the data in Table 9.2 because that table contains data on ALL domestic AND international air carrier energy use and passenger-miles. General aviation Number of vehicles – DOT, FAA, General Aviation and Part 135 Activity Surveys - CY 2010, Data series shown in Table 9.3. Energy intensities – Btu per passenger-mile – General aviation energy use divided by passenger-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-14. Data series shown in Table 9.3.

Recreational boating Number of vehicles and energy use – U.S. EPA, NONROAD2008a model.

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Rail Intercity Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles, passenger-miles – AAR, Railroad Facts, 2011 Edition, Washington, DC, 2011. Load factor – Passenger-miles divided by vehicle-miles. Energy Intensities – Btu per vehicle-mile – Intercity rail energy use divided by vehicle-miles. Btu per passenger-mile – Intercity rail energy use divided by passenger-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-23. Data series shown in Table 9.10. Transit Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles, passenger-miles – APTA, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2012. Sum of light and heavy rail transit. Data series shown on Table 9.12. Load factor – Passenger-miles divided by vehicle-miles. Energy intensities – Btu per vehicle-mile – Light and heavy transit rail energy use divided by vehicle-miles. Btu per passenger-mile – Light and heavy transit rail energy use divided by passenger-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-22. Data series shown in Table 9.12. Commuter Number of vehicles, vehicle-miles, passenger-miles – APTA, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2012. Data series shown on Table 9.11. Load factor – Passenger-miles divided by vehicle-miles. Energy intensities – Btu per vehicle-mile – Commuter rail energy use divided by vehicle-miles. Btu per passenger-mile – Commuter rail energy use divided by passenger-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-21. Data series shown in Table 9.11.

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Highway Passenger Mode Energy Intensities Cars Btu per vehicle-mile – Car energy use divided by car vehicle miles of travel. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-5. Data series shown in Table 2.7. Vehicle-miles – 1970-2007: DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2007, Table VM-1 and annual editions back to 1996; DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995. Data series shown in Table 4.1. 2008-2010: Results of a model developed by ORNL to estimate data for cars and light trucks since the FHWA discontinued their VM-1 series showing cars and light trucks separately. The model uses data from FHWA Highway Statistics 2010, EPA Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, and R.L. Polk to estimate the number of vehicles, vehicle-miles of travel, energy use, and fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks. Documentation of the model will be published in an ORNL report, forthcoming. Btu per passenger-mile – Car energy use divided by car passenger-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-5. Data series shown in Table 2.7. Passenger miles – Vehicle miles multiplied by an average load factor. Vehicle-miles – DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2009, Table VM-1 and annual editions back to 1996; DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995. Data series shown in Table 4.1. Load factor – NPTS 1969, 1977, 1983/84, 1990, and 1995; NHTS 2001 and 2009. Data series shown in Table A.18.

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A–29

Table A.18 Car Load Factor used to Calculate Passenger-Miles Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Source 1969 NPTS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 1977 NPTS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 1983/84 NPTS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 1990 NPTS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 1995 NPTS Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated Interpolated 2001 NHTS 2001 NHTS 2001 NHTS 2001 NHTS 2001 NHTS 2001 NHTS 2001 NHTS 2009 NHTS 2009 NHTS 2009 NHTS

Load Factor 1.90 1.90 1.90 1.90 1.90 1.90 1.90 1.90 1.88 1.87 1.85 1.83 1.82 1.80 1.77 1.74 1.71 1.69 1.66 1.63 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.59 1.59 1.58 1.58 1.57 1.57 1.57 1.57 1.57 1.57 1.57 1.55 1.55 1.55

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

A–30

Light trucks Btu per vehicle-mile – Light truck energy use divided by light truck vehicle miles of travel. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-10. Data series shown in Table 2.7. Vehicle-miles – 1970-2007: DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2009, Table VM-1 and annual editions back to 1996; DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995. Data series shown in Table 4.2. 2008-2010: Results of a model developed by ORNL to estimate data for cars and light trucks since the FHWA discontinued their VM-1 series showing cars and light trucks separately. The model uses data from FHWA Highway Statistics 2010, EPA Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2011, and R.L. Polk to estimate the number of vehicles, vehicle-miles of travel, energy use, and fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks. Documentation of the model will be published in an ORNL report, forthcoming.

Buses Transit Btu per vehicle-mile – Transit bus energy use divided by transit bus vehicle-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-8. Data series shown in Table 5.16. Vehicle-miles – APTA, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2012. Data series shown on Table 5.16. Btu per passenger-mile – Transit bus energy use divided by transit bus passenger-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-8. Data series shown in Table 5.16. Passenger-miles – APTA, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2012. Data series shown on Table 5.16. Intercity Btu per passenger-mile – Data are not available. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-9. Because the data past 2000 are not available, the rate of change in bus VMT from FHWA, Highway Statistics 2010, was used to estimate the change in energy use. Passenger-miles – Data are not available.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

A–31

Nonhighway Mode Energy Intensities Air Certificated air carriers Btu per passenger-mile – Certificated air carrier energy use divided by passenger-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-15. All of domestic fuel use and half of international fuel use was considered to be domestic use. Passenger-miles – DOT, BTS, Air Carrier Traffic Statistics, Washington, DC, ww.bts.gov/programs/airline_information/air_carrier_traffic_statistics. Pre-1994 data are from various editions of the FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation (no longer published). Scheduled service passenger-miles of domestic air carriers and half of international air carriers were used to coincide with fuel use. Note: These data differ from the data in Table 9.2 because that table contains data on ALL domestic AND international air carrier energy use and passenger-miles. General aviation Btu per passenger-mile – Data are not available. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-14. Data series shown in Table 9.3. Passenger-miles – Data are not available.

Rail Intercity Btu per passenger-mile – Intercity rail energy use divided by passenger-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-23. Data series shown in Table 9.10. Passenger-miles – AAR, Railroad Facts, 2011 Edition, and previous annual editions. Transit Btu per passenger-mile – Transit rail energy use divided by passenger-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-22. Data series shown in Table 9.12. Passenger-miles – APTA, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2012. Data series shown on Table 9.12. Commuter Btu per passenger-mile – Commuter rail energy use divided by passenger-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-21. Data series shown in Table 9.11. Passenger-miles – APTA, 2012 Public Transportation Fact Book, Washington, DC, 2012. Data series shown on Table 9.11.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

A–32

Freight Mode Energy Intensities Truck Btu per vehicle-mile – Heavy single-unit and combination truck energy use divided by vehicle miles Energy use – See Energy Use Sources (medium/heavy trucks), p. A-11. Vehicle-miles – DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics 2010, Table VM-1 and annual editions back to 1996; DOT, FHWA, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995. Data series is the total of vehicle travel data on Tables 5.1 and 5.2.

Rail Btu per freight car-mile – Class I rail energy use divided by freight car-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-20. Data series shown in Table 9.8. Freight car miles – AAR, Railroad Facts, 2011 Edition, Washington, DC, 2011. Data series shown in Table 9.8. Btu per ton-mile – Class I rail energy use divided by ton-miles. Energy use – See Energy Use Sources, p. A-20. Data series shown in Table 9.8. Ton-miles – AAR, Railroad Facts, 2011 Edition, Washington, DC, 2011. Data series shown in Table 9.8.

Water Btu per ton-mile – Domestic waterborne commerce energy use on taxable waterways divided by tonmiles on taxable waterways. Energy use – Modeled by Chrisman A. Dager, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, using Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center detail records and annual IRS reports on the Inland Waterway Trust Fund tax on diesel fuel used on the inland waterway. Ton-miles – Based on detailed records from the U.S. Department of the Army, Army Corps of Engineers, Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center. Includes only ton-miles on taxable waterways.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–1

APPENDIX B

CONVERSIONS

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–2

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–3

CONVERSIONS

A Note about Heating Values

The heat content of a fuel is the quantity of energy released by burning a unit amount of that fuel. However, this value is not absolute and can vary according to several factors. For example, empirical formulae for determining the heating value of liquid fuels depend on the fuels' American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity. The API gravity varies depending on the percent by weight of the chemical constituents and impurities in the fuel, both of which are affected by the combination of raw materials used to produce the fuel and by the type of manufacturing process. Temperature and climatic conditions are also factors. Because of these variations, the heating values in Table B.4 may differ from values in other publications. The figures in this report are representative or average values, not absolute ones. The gross (higher) heating values used here agree with those used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Heating values fall into two categories, usually referred to as “higher” (or gross) and “lower” (or net). If the products of fuel combustion are cooled back to the initial fuel-air or fuel-oxidizer mixture temperature and the water formed during combustion is condensed, the energy released by the process is the higher (gross) heating value.

If the products of combustion are cooled to the initial fuel-air

temperature, but the water is considered to remain as a vapor, the energy released by the process is the lower (net) heating value. Usually the difference between the gross and net heating values for fuels used in transportation is around 5 to 8 percent; however, it is important to be consistent in their use.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–4

Table B.1 Hydrogen Heat Content 1 kilogram hydrogen = Higher heating value Lower heating value 134,200 Btu 113,400 Btu 39.3 kWhr 33.2 kWhr 141,600 kJ 119,600 kJ 33,800 kCal 28,560 kCal

Table B.2 Hydrogen Conversions Weight

1 lb 1 kg 1 SCF gas 1 Nm3 gas 1 gal liquid 1 L liquid

Pounds (lb) 1.0 2.205 0.005209 0.19815 0.5906 0.15604

Kilograms (kg) 0.4536 1.0 0.002363 0.08988 0.2679 0.07078

Gas Standard cubic feet (SCF) 192.00 423.3 1.0 38.04 113.41 29.99

Normal cubic meter (Nm3) 5.047 11.126 0.02628 1.0 2.981 0.77881

Liquid Gallons (gal) 1.6928 3.733 0.00882 0.3355 1.0 0.2642

Liters (L) 6.408 14.128 0.0339 1.2699 3.785 1.0

Table B.3 Pressure Conversions Weight

1 lb 1 kg 1 SCF gas 1 Nm3 gas 1 gal liquid 1 L liquid

Pounds (lb) 1.0 2.205 0.005209 0.19815 0.5906 0.15604

Kilograms (kg) 0.4536 1.0 0.002363 0.08988 0.2679 0.07078

Gas Standard cubic feet (SCF) 192.00 423.3 1.0 38.04 113.41 29.99

Normal cubic meter (Nm3) 5.047 11.126 0.02628 1.0 2.981 0.77881

Liquid Gallons (gal) 1.6928 3.733 0.00882 0.3355 1.0 0.2642

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

Liters (L) 6.408 14.128 0.0339 1.2699 3.785 1.0

B–5

Table B.4 Heat Content for Various Fuels Conventional gasoline

125,000 Btu/gal (gross) = 115,400 Btu/gal (net)

E10

120,900 Btu/gal (gross) = 112,400 Btu/gal (net)

E15

119,000 Btu/gal (gross) = 109,400 Btu/gal (net)

Hydrogen

134,200 Btu/kg (gross) = 113,400 Btu/kg (net)

Diesel motor fuel

138,700 Btu/gal (gross) = 128,700 Btu/gal (net)

Biodiesel

126,200 Btu/gal (gross) = 117,100 Btu/gal (net)

Methanol

64,600 Btu/gal (gross) = 56,600 Btu/gal (net)

Ethanol

84,600 Btu/gal (gross) = 75,700 Btu/gal (net)

E85

90,700 Btu/gal (gross) = 81,600 Btu/gal (net)

Aviation gasoline

120,200 Btu/gal (gross) = 112,000 Btu/gal (net)

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

91,300 Btu/gal (gross) = 83,500 Btu/gal (net)

Butane

103,000 Btu/gal (gross) = 93,000 Btu/gal (net)

Jet fuel (naphtha)

127,500 Btu/gal (gross) = 118,700 Btu/gal (net)

Jet fuel (kerosene)

135,000 Btu/gal (gross) = 128,100 Btu/gal (net)

Lubricants

144,400 Btu/gal (gross) = 130,900 Btu/gal (net)

Waxes

131,800 Btu/gal (gross) = 120,200 Btu/gal (net)

Asphalt and road oil

158,000 Btu/gal (gross) = 157,700 Btu/gal (net)

Liquefied natural gas (LNG)

84,800 Btu/gal (gross) = 74,700 Btu/gal (net)

Compressed natural gas (CNG)

22,500 Btu/lb (gross) = 20,300 Btu/lb (net)

Crude petroleum

138,100 Btu/gal (gross) = 131,800 Btu/gal (net)

Fuel Oils Residual

149,700 Btu/gal (gross) = 138,400 Btu/gal (net)

Distillate

138,700 Btu/gal (gross) = 131,800 Btu/gal (net)

Production average

20.192 x 106 Btu/short ton

Consumption average

19.612 x 106 Btu/short ton

Coal

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–6

Table B.5 Fuel Equivalents 1 million bbl crude oil/day

= = = = = =

0.365 billion bbl crude oil/year 2.117 quadrillion Btu/year 107.944 million short tons coal/year 97.927 million metric tons coal/year 2.067 trillion ft3 natural gas/year 2,233 petajoules/year

1 billion bbl crude oil/year

= = = = = =

2.740 million bbl crude oil/day 5.800 quadrillion Btu/year 295.737 million short tons coal/year 268.293 million metric tons coal/year 5.644 trillion ft3 natural gas/year 6,119 petajoules/year

1 quadrillion Btu/year

= = = = = = =

0.5219 gasoline gallon equivalents 0.472 million bbl crude oil/day 172.414 million bbl crude oil/year 50.989 million short tons coal/year 46.257 million metric tons coal/year 976.563 billion ft3 natural gas/year 1,055 petajoules/year

1 billion short tons coal/year

= = = = = =

0.907 billion metric tons coal/year 9.264 million bbl crude oil/day 3.381 billion bbl crude oil/year 19.612 quadrillion Btu/year 19.152 trillion ft3 natural gas/year 20,691 petajoules/year

1 billion metric tons coal/year

= = = = = =

1.102 billion short tons coal/year 8.404 million bbl crude oil/day 3.068 billion bbl crude oil/year 17.792 quadrillion btu/year 17.375 trillion ft3 natural gas/year 18,771 petajoules/year

1 trillion ft3 natural gas/year

= = = = = =

0.484 million bbl crude oil/day 0.177 billion bbl crude oil/year 1.024 quadrillion Btu/year 52.213 million short tons coal/year 47.368 million metric tons coal/year 1,080 petajoules/year

1 petajoule/year

= = = = = =

447.741 bbl crude oil/day 163.425 thousand bbl crude oil/year 0.948 trillion Btu/year 48.331 thousand short tons coal/year 43.846 thousand metric tons coal/year 0.926 billion ft3 natural gas/year

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–7

Table B.6 Energy Unit Conversions 778.2 ft-lb 107.6 kg-m 1055 J 39.30 x 10-5 hp-h 39.85 x 10-5 metric hp-h 29.31 x 10-5 kWhr

1 kWhr = = = = = =

3412 Btua 2.655 x 106 ft-lb 3.671 x 105 kg-m 3.600 x 106 J 1.341 hp-h 1.360 metric hp-h

1 kg-m

= 92.95 x 10-4 Btu = 7.233 ft-lb = 9.806 J = 36.53 x 10-7 hp-h = 37.04 x 10-7 metric hp-h = 27.24 x 10-7 kWhr

1 Joule = = = = = =

94.78 x 10-5 Btu 0.7376 ft-lb 0.1020 kg-m 37.25 x 10-8 hp-h 37.77 x 10-8 metric hp-h 27.78 x 10-8 kWhr

1 hp-h

= = = = = =

1 Btu = = = = = =

1 metric hp-h = = = = = =

2544 Btu 1.98 x 106 ft-lb 2.738 x 106 kgm 2.685 x 106 J 1.014 metric hp-h 0.7475 kWhr

2510 Btu 1.953 x 106 ft-lb 27.00 x 104 kg-m 2.648 x 106 J 0.9863 hp-h 0.7355 kWhr

a

This figure does not take into account the fact that electricity generation and distribution efficiency is approximately 33%. If generation and distribution efficiency are taken into account, 1 kWhr = 10,339 Btu.

Table B.7 International Energy Conversions

Gigacalories

Million tonnes of oil equivalent

Million Btu

Gigawatthours

1

238.8 x 103

2.388 x 10-2

947.8 x 103

277.8

4.1868 x 10-6

1

10-7

3.968

1.163 x 10-3

41.868

107

1

3.968 x 107

11,630

1.0551 x 10-6

0.252

2.52 X 10-8

1

2.931 x 10-4

3.6 x 10-3

860

8.6 x 10-5

3412

1

To:

Petajoules

From:

multiply by:

Petajoules Gigacalories Million tonnes of oil equivalent Million Btu Gigawatthours

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–8

Table B.8 Distance and Velocity Conversions

1 in. = 83.33 x 10-3 ft

1 ft = 12.0 in.

-3

= 27.78 x 10 yd

= 0.33 yd

= 15.78 x 10-6 mile

= 189.4 x 10-3 mile

= 25.40 x 10-3 m

= 0.3048 m = 0.3048 x 10-3 km

-6

= 0.2540 x 10 km 1 mile

1 km = 39370 in.

= 63360 in. = 5280 ft

= 3281 ft

= 1760 yd

= 1093.6 yd

= 1609 m

= 0.6214 mile

= 1.609 km

= 1000 m

1 ft/sec = 0.3048 m/s = 0.6818 mph = 1.0972 km/h 1 m/sec = 3.281 ft/s = 2.237 mph = 3.600 km/h 1 km/h = 0.9114 ft/s = 0.2778 m/s = 0.6214 mph 1 mph = 1.467 ft/s = 0.4469 m/s = 1.609 km/h

Table B.9 Alternative Measures of Greenhouse Gases 1 pound methane, measured in carbon units (CH4)

=

1.333 pounds methane, measured at full molecular weight (CH4)

1 pound carbon dioxide, measured in carbon units (CO2-C)

=

3.6667 pounds carbon dioxide, measured at full molecular weight (CO2)

1 pound carbon monoxide, measured in carbon units (CO-C)

=

2.333 pounds carbon monoxide, measured at full molecular weight (CO)

1 pound nitrous oxide, measured in nitrogen units (N2O-N)

=

1.571 pounds nitrous oxide, measured at full molecular weight (N2O)

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–9

Table B.10 Volume and Flow Rate Conversionsa 1 U.S. gal

= 231 in.3

1 liter

= 61.02 in.3

= 0.1337 ft3

= 3.531 x 10-2 ft3

= 3.785 liters

= 0.2624 U.S. gal

= 0.8321 imperial gal

= 0.2200 imperial gal

= 0.0238 bbl

= 6.29 x 10-3 bbl

= 0.003785 m3

= 0.001 m3

A U.S. gallon of gasoline weighs 6.2 pounds 1 imperial gal

= 277.4 in.3

1 bbl

= 0.1606 ft3

= 5.615 ft3

= 4.545 liters

= 158.97 liters

= 1.201 U.S. gal

= 42 U.S. gal

= 0.0286 bbl

= 34.97 imperial gal 3

1 U.S. gal/hr

= 9702 in.3

= 0.004546 m

= 0.15897 m3

= 3.209 ft3/day

= 1171 ft3/year

= 90.84 liter/day

= 33157 liter/year

= 19.97 imperial gal/day

= 7289 imperial gal/year

= 0.5712 bbl/day

= 207.92 bbl/year

For Imperial gallons, multiply above values by 1.201 1 liter/hr

1 bbl/hr

a

= 0.8474 ft3/day

= 309.3 ft3/year

= 6.298 U.S. gal/day

= 2299 U.S. gal/year

= 5.28 imperial gal/day

= 1927 imperial gal/year

= 0.1510 bbl/day

= 55.10 bbl/year

= 137.8 ft /year

= 49187 ft3 year

= 1008 U.S. gal/day

= 3.679 x 105 U.S. gal/year

= 839.3 imperial gal/day

= 3.063 x 105 imperial gal/year

= 3815 liter/day

= 1.393 x 106 liter/day

3

The conversions for flow rates are identical to those for volume measures, if the time units are identical.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–10

Table B.11 Power Conversions TO FROM

Horsepower

Kilowatts

Metric horsepower

Ft-lb per sec

Kilocalories per sec

Btu per sec

Horsepower

1

0.7457

1.014

550

0.1781

0.7068

Kilowatts

1.341

1

1.360

737.6

0.239

0.9478

Metric horsepower

0.9863

0.7355

1

542.5

0.1757

0.6971

Ft-lb per sec

1.36 x 10-3

1.356 x 10-3

1.84 x 10-3

1

0.3238 x 10-3

1.285 x 10-3

Kilocalories per sec

5.615

4.184

5.692

3088

1

3.968

Btu per sec

1.415

1.055

1.434

778.2

0.2520

1

Table B.12 Mass Conversions TO FROM

Pound

Kilogram

Short ton -4

Long ton 4.4643 x 10

Metric ton -4

4.5362 x 10-4

Pound

1

0.4536

5.0 x 10

Kilogram

2.205

1

1.1023 x 10-3

9.8425 x 10-4

1.0 x 10-3

Short ton

2,000

907.2

1

0.8929

0.9072

Long ton

2,240

1,106

1.12

1

1.016

Metric ton

2,205

1,000

1.102

0.9842

1

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–11

Table B.13 Fuel Efficiency Conversions

MPG

Miles/liter

Kilometers/L

L/100 kilometers

Grams of CO2 per milea

Pounds of CO2 per milea

10

2.64

4.25

23.52

877.80

1.94

15

3.96

6.38

15.68

585.20

1.29

20

5.28

8.50

11.76

438.90

0.97

25

6.60

10.63

9.41

351.12

0.78

30

7.92

12.75

7.84

292.60

0.65

35

9.25

14.88

6.72

250.80

0.55

40

10.57

17.00

5.88

219.45

0.49

45

11.89

19.13

5.23

195.07

0.43

50

13.21

21.25

4.70

175.56

0.39

55

14.53

23.38

4.28

159.60

0.35

60

15.85

25.51

3.92

146.30

0.32

65 70

17.17 18.49

27.63 29.76

3.62 3.36

135.05 125.40

0.30 0.28

75

19.81

31.88

3.14

117.04

0.26

80

21.13

34.01

2.94

109.73

0.24

85

22.45

36.13

2.77

103.27

0.23

90

23.77

38.26

2.61

97.53

0.22

95

25.09

40.38

2.48

92.40

0.20

100

26.42

42.51

2.35

87.78

0.19

105 110

27.74 29.06

44.64 46.76

2.24 2.14

83.60 79.80

0.18 0.18

115

30.38

48.89

2.05

76.33

0.17

120

31.70

51.01

1.96

73.15

0.16

125

33.02

53.14

1.88

70.22

0.16

130

34.34

55.26

1.81

67.52

0.15

135

35.66

57.39

1.74

65.02

0.14

140

36.98

59.51

1.68

62.70

0.14

145

38.30

61.64

1.62

60.54

0.13

150

39.62

63.76

1.57

58.52

0.13

8,778/MPG

19.4/MPG

Formula

MPG/3.785

a

MPG/[3.785/1.609]

235.24/MPG

For gasoline-fueled vehicles.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–12

Table B.14 SI Prefixes and Their Values

One million million millionth One thousand million millionth One million millionth One thousand millionth One millionth One thousandth One hundredth One tenth One Ten One hundred One thousand One million One billiona One trilliona One quadrilliona One quintilliona

Value 10-18 10-15 10-12 10-9 10-6 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 106 109 1012 1015 1018

Prefix atto femto pico nano micro milli centi deci

Symbol a f p n μ m c

deca hecto kilo mega giga tera peta exa

k M G T P E

a

Care should be exercised in the use of this nomenclature, especially in foreign correspondence, as it is either unknown or carries a different value in other countries. A "billion," for example, signifies a value of 1012 in most other countries.

Table B.15 Metric Units and Abbreviations Quantity Energy Specific energy Specific energy consumption Energy consumption Energy economy Power Specific power Power density Speed Acceleration Range (distance) Weight Torque Volume Mass; payload Length; width Brake specific fuel consumption Fuel economy (heat engine)

Unit name joule joule/kilogram joule/kilogram•kilometer joule/kilometer kilometer/kilojoule kilowatt watt/kilogram watt/meter3 kilometer/hour meter/second2 kilometer kilogram newton•meter meter3 kilogram meter kilogram/joule liters/100 km

Symbol J J/kg J/(kg•km) J/km km/kJ kW W/kg W/m3 km/h m/s2 km kg N•m m3 kg m kg/J L/100 km

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–13

Table B.16 Carbon Coefficients, 2002 (Million metric tons carbon per quadrillion Btu) Fuel Type Coal Coal (residential) Coal (commercial) Coal (industrial coking) Coal (industrial other) Coal (electric utility) Natural gas Natural gas (pipeline) Natural gas (flared) Petroleum Asphalt and road oil Aviation gasoline Crude oil Distillate fuel Jet fuel Kerosene LPG Lubricants Motor gasoline Petrochemical feed Petroleum coke Residual fuel Waxes

26.04 26.04 25.63 25.74 25.98 14.47 14.92 20.62 18.87 20.30 19.95 19.33 19.72 16.99 20.24 19.34 19.37 27.85 21.49 19.81

Note: All coefficients based on Higher Heating (Gross Calorific) Value and assume 100 percent combustion.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–14

Conversion of Constant Dollar Values Many types of information in this data book are expressed in dollars. Generally, constant dollars are used–that is, dollars of a fixed value for a specific year, such as 1990 dollars. Converting current dollars to constant dollars, or converting constant dollars for one year to constant dollars for another year, requires conversion factors (Table B.17 and B.18).

Table B.17 shows conversion factors for the

Consumer Price Index inflation factors. Table B.18 shows conversion factors using the Gross National Product inflation factors.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–15

Table B.17 Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) Index From: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

1970 1.000 0.958 0.928 0.874 0.787 0.721 0.682 0.640 0.595 0.534 0.471 0.427 0.402 0.390 0.373 0.361 0.354 0.342 0.328 0.313 0.297 0.285 0.277 0.269 0.262 0.255 0.247 0.242 0.238 0.233 0.225 0.219 0.216 0.211 0.205 0.199 0.192 0.187 0.180 0.181 0.178 0.172

1971 1.044 1.000 0.969 0.912 0.822 0.753 0.712 0.668 0.621 0.558 0.492 0.446 0.420 0.407 0.390 0.376 0.370 0.357 0.342 0.327 0.310 0.297 0.289 0.280 0.273 0.266 0.258 0.252 0.248 0.243 0.235 0.229 0.225 0.220 0.214 0.207 0.201 0.195 0.188 0.189 0.186 0.180

1972 1.077 1.032 1.000 0.941 0.848 0.777 0.735 0.690 0.641 0.576 0.507 0.460 0.433 0.420 0.402 0.388 0.381 0.368 0.353 0.337 0.320 0.307 0.298 0.289 0.282 0.274 0.266 0.260 0.256 0.251 0.243 0.236 0.232 0.227 0.221 0.214 0.207 0.202 0.194 0.195 0.192 0.186

1973 1.144 1.096 1.062 1.000 0.901 0.825 0.780 0.733 0.681 0.612 0.539 0.488 0.460 0.446 0.427 0.413 0.405 0.391 0.375 0.358 0.340 0.326 0.316 0.307 0.300 0.291 0.283 0.277 0.272 0.267 0.258 0.251 0.247 0.241 0.235 0.227 0.220 0.214 0.206 0.207 0.204 0.197

1974 1.271 1.217 1.179 1.110 1.000 0.916 0.866 0.814 0.756 0.679 0.598 0.542 0.511 0.495 0.474 0.458 0.450 0.434 0.417 0.398 0.377 0.362 0.351 0.341 0.333 0.323 0.314 0.307 0.302 0.296 0.286 0.278 0.274 0.268 0.261 0.252 0.245 0.238 0.229 0.230 0.226 0.219

1975 1.387 1.328 1.287 1.212 1.091 1.000 0.946 0.888 0.825 0.741 0.653 0.592 0.558 0.540 0.518 0.500 0.491 0.474 0.455 0.434 0.412 0.395 0.383 0.372 0.363 0.353 0.343 0.335 0.330 0.323 0.312 0.304 0.299 0.292 0.285 0.275 0.267 0.259 0.250 0.251 0.247 0.239

1976 1.466 1.405 1.361 1.282 1.154 1.058 1.000 0.939 0.873 0.784 0.691 0.626 0.590 0.571 0.548 0.529 0.519 0.501 0.481 0.459 0.435 0.418 0.406 0.394 0.384 0.373 0.363 0.355 0.349 0.342 0.330 0.321 0.316 0.309 0.301 0.291 0.282 0.274 0.264 0.265 0.261 0.253

1977 1.562 1.496 1.450 1.365 1.229 1.126 1.065 1.000 0.929 0.835 0.735 0.667 0.628 0.608 0.583 0.563 0.553 0.533 0.512 0.489 0.464 0.445 0.432 0.419 0.409 0.398 0.386 0.378 0.372 0.364 0.352 0.342 0.337 0.329 0.321 0.310 0.301 0.292 0.281 0.282 0.278 0.269

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

1978 1.680 1.610 1.560 1.468 1.323 1.212 1.146 1.076 1.000 0.898 0.791 0.717 0.676 0.655 0.628 0.606 0.595 0.574 0.551 0.526 0.499 0.479 0.465 0.451 0.440 0.428 0.416 0.406 0.400 0.391 0.379 0.368 0.362 0.354 0.345 0.334 0.323 0.314 0.303 0.304 0.299 0.290

1979 1.871 1.793 1.737 1.635 1.473 1.349 1.276 1.198 1.113 1.000 0.881 0.799 0.752 0.729 0.699 0.675 0.662 0.639 0.614 0.585 0.555 0.533 0.517 0.502 0.490 0.476 0.463 0.452 0.445 0.436 0.422 0.410 0.404 0.395 0.384 0.372 0.360 0.350 0.337 0.338 0.333 0.323

B–16

Table B.17 Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) Index (Continued) From: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

1980 2.124 2.035 1.971 1.856 1.671 1.532 1.448 1.360 1.264 1.135 1.000 0.906 0.854 0.827 0.793 0.766 0.752 0.725 0.697 0.665 0.630 0.605 0.587 0.570 0.556 0.541 0.525 0.513 0.506 0.495 0.479 0.465 0.458 0.448 0.436 0.422 0.409 0.397 0.383 0.384 0.378 0.366

1981 2.343 2.244 2.175 2.047 1.844 1.690 1.598 1.500 1.394 1.252 1.103 1.000 0.942 0.913 0.875 0.845 0.829 0.800 0.768 0.733 0.695 0.667 0.648 0.629 0.613 0.596 0.579 0.566 0.558 0.546 0.528 0.513 0.505 0.494 0.481 0.465 0.451 0.438 0.422 0.424 0.417 0.404

1982 2.487 2.383 2.309 2.173 1.957 1.794 1.696 1.592 1.480 1.329 1.171 1.062 1.000 0.969 0.929 0.897 0.880 0.849 0.816 0.778 0.738 0.709 0.688 0.668 0.651 0.633 0.615 0.601 0.592 0.579 0.560 0.545 0.536 0.524 0.511 0.494 0.479 0.465 0.448 0.450 0.443 0.429

1983 2.567 2.459 2.383 2.243 2.020 1.851 1.750 1.644 1.528 1.372 1.209 1.096 1.032 1.000 0.959 0.926 0.909 0.877 0.842 0.803 0.762 0.731 0.710 0.689 0.672 0.654 0.635 0.621 0.611 0.598 0.578 0.562 0.554 0.541 0.527 0.510 0.494 0.480 0.463 0.464 0.457 0.443

1984 2.678 2.565 2.486 2.340 2.108 1.931 1.826 1.715 1.594 1.431 1.261 1.143 1.077 1.043 1.000 0.966 0.948 0.915 0.878 0.838 0.795 0.763 0.741 0.719 0.701 0.682 0.662 0.647 0.637 0.624 0.603 0.587 0.578 0.565 0.550 0.532 0.515 0.501 0.483 0.484 0.476 0.462

1985 2.773 2.657 2.574 2.423 2.183 2.000 1.891 1.776 1.650 1.482 1.306 1.184 1.115 1.080 1.036 1.000 0.982 0.947 0.910 0.868 0.823 0.790 0.767 0.745 0.726 0.706 0.686 0.670 0.660 0.646 0.625 0.608 0.598 0.585 0.570 0.551 0.534 0.519 0.500 0.502 0.493 0.478

1986 2.825 2.706 2.622 2.468 2.223 2.037 1.926 1.809 1.681 1.510 1.330 1.206 1.136 1.100 1.055 1.019 1.000 0.965 0.926 0.884 0.839 0.805 0.781 0.758 0.740 0.719 0.699 0.683 0.672 0.658 0.636 0.619 0.609 0.596 0.580 0.561 0.544 0.529 0.509 0.511 0.503 0.487

1987 2.928 2.805 2.718 2.559 2.304 2.112 1.996 1.875 1.742 1.565 1.379 1.250 1.177 1.141 1.093 1.056 1.036 1.000 0.960 0.916 0.869 0.834 0.810 0.786 0.767 0.745 0.724 0.708 0.697 0.682 0.660 0.641 0.631 0.617 0.601 0.582 0.563 0.548 0.528 0.530 0.521 0.505

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

1988 3.049 2.921 2.830 2.664 2.400 2.199 2.079 1.952 1.814 1.629 1.436 1.301 1.226 1.188 1.139 1.099 1.079 1.041 1.000 0.954 0.905 0.869 0.843 0.819 0.798 0.776 0.754 0.737 0.726 0.710 0.687 0.668 0.658 0.643 0.626 0.606 0.587 0.571 0.549 0.551 0.543 0.526

1989 3.196 3.062 2.967 2.793 2.515 2.305 2.179 2.046 1.902 1.708 1.505 1.364 1.285 1.245 1.193 1.152 1.131 1.092 1.048 1.000 0.949 0.910 0.884 0.858 0.837 0.814 0.790 0.773 0.761 0.744 0.720 0.700 0.689 0.674 0.656 0.635 0.615 0.598 0.576 0.578 0.569 0.551

B–17

Table B.17 Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) Index (Continued) From: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

1990 3.369 3.227 3.127 2.944 2.651 2.429 2.297 2.157 2.005 1.800 1.586 1.438 1.354 1.312 1.258 1.215 1.193 1.151 1.105 1.054 1.000 0.960 0.932 0.904 0.882 0.858 0.833 0.814 0.802 0.785 0.759 0.738 0.727 0.710 0.692 0.669 0.648 0.630 0.607 0.602 0.599 0.581

1991 3.510 3.363 3.258 3.068 2.763 2.532 2.394 2.248 2.089 1.876 1.653 1.498 1.411 1.367 1.311 1.266 1.243 1.199 1.151 1.098 1.042 1.000 0.971 0.943 0.919 0.894 0.868 0.849 0.836 0.818 0.791 0.769 0.757 0.740 0.721 0.697 0.676 0.657 0.633 0.635 0.625 0.605

1992 3.616 3.464 3.356 3.160 2.846 2.608 2.466 2.315 2.152 1.933 1.703 1.543 1.454 1.409 1.350 1.304 1.280 1.235 1.186 1.131 1.073 1.030 1.000 0.971 0.947 0.921 0.894 0.874 0.861 0.842 0.815 0.792 0.780 0.763 0.743 0.718 0.696 0.677 0.652 0.654 0.643 0.624

1993 3.724 3.568 3.457 3.255 2.931 2.686 2.540 2.384 2.216 1.990 1.754 1.590 1.497 1.451 1.391 1.343 1.318 1.272 1.221 1.165 1.106 1.061 1.030 1.000 0.975 0.948 0.921 0.900 0.887 0.867 0.839 0.816 0.803 0.785 0.765 0.740 0.717 0.697 0.671 0.674 0.663 0.642

1994 3.820 3.659 3.545 3.338 3.006 2.755 2.605 2.446 2.273 2.041 1.799 1.630 1.536 1.488 1.426 1.377 1.352 1.305 1.253 1.195 1.134 1.088 1.056 1.026 1.000 0.972 0.945 0.923 0.909 0.890 0.861 0.837 0.824 0.805 0.785 0.759 0.735 0.715 0.688 0.691 0.680 0.659

1995 3.928 3.763 3.646 3.432 3.091 2.833 2.678 2.515 2.337 2.099 1.850 1.677 1.579 1.530 1.467 1.416 1.391 1.342 1.288 1.229 1.166 1.119 1.086 1.055 1.028 1.000 0.971 0.950 0.935 0.915 0.885 0.861 0.847 0.828 0.807 0.780 0.756 0.735 0.708 0.710 0.699 0.678

1996 4.044 3.874 3.754 3.534 3.183 2.916 2.757 2.589 2.406 2.161 1.904 1.726 1.626 1.575 1.510 1.458 1.432 1.381 1.326 1.265 1.200 1.152 1.118 1.086 1.059 1.030 1.000 0.978 0.963 0.942 0.911 0.886 0.872 0.853 0.831 0.803 0.778 0.757 0.729 0.731 0.720 0.698

1997 4.137 3.963 3.840 3.615 3.256 2.983 2.821 2.649 2.462 2.211 1.948 1.766 1.663 1.611 1.545 1.492 1.464 1.413 1.357 1.294 1.228 1.178 1.144 1.111 1.083 1.053 1.023 1.000 0.985 0.963 0.932 0.906 0.892 0.872 0.850 0.822 0.796 0.774 0.745 0.748 0.736 0.714

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

1998 4.201 4.025 3.900 3.671 3.306 3.030 2.865 2.690 2.500 2.245 1.978 1.793 1.689 1.637 1.569 1.515 1.487 1.435 1.378 1.315 1.247 1.197 1.162 1.128 1.100 1.070 1.039 1.016 1.000 0.978 0.947 0.920 0.906 0.886 0.863 0.835 0.809 0.786 0.757 0.760 0.748 0.725

1999 4.294 4.114 3.986 3.752 3.379 3.097 2.928 2.749 2.555 2.295 2.022 1.833 1.726 1.673 1.603 1.548 1.520 1.467 1.408 1.344 1.275 1.223 1.187 1.153 1.124 1.093 1.062 1.038 1.022 1.000 0.967 0.941 0.926 0.905 0.882 0.853 0.826 0.804 0.774 0.777 0.764 0.741

B–18

Table B.17 Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) Index (Continued) From: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

2000 4.438 4.252 4.120 3.878 3.493 3.201 3.026 2.842 2.641 2.372 2.090 1.894 1.784 1.729 1.657 1.600 1.571 1.516 1.456 1.389 1.318 1.264 1.227 1.192 1.162 1.130 1.098 1.073 1.056 1.034 1.000 0.972 0.957 0.936 0.912 0.882 0.854 0.831 0.800 0.803 0.790 0.766

2001 4.564 4.373 4.237 3.989 3.592 3.292 3.112 2.922 2.716 2.439 2.149 1.948 1.835 1.778 1.705 1.646 1.616 1.559 1.497 1.428 1.355 1.300 1.262 1.226 1.195 1.162 1.129 1.103 1.087 1.063 1.028 1.000 0.984 0.963 0.938 0.907 0.878 0.854 0.823 0.825 0.812 0.787

2002 4.637 4.442 4.304 4.052 3.649 3.344 3.162 2.969 2.759 2.478 2.183 1.979 1.864 1.806 1.731 1.672 1.641 1.584 1.521 1.451 1.376 1.321 1.282 1.245 1.214 1.180 1.147 1.121 1.104 1.080 1.045 1.016 1.000 0.978 0.952 0.921 0.892 0.868 0.836 0.839 0.825 0.800

2003 4.742 4.543 4.402 4.144 3.732 3.420 3.234 3.036 2.822 2.534 2.233 2.024 1.907 1.847 1.771 1.710 1.679 1.620 1.555 1.484 1.408 1.351 1.311 1.273 1.242 1.207 1.173 1.146 1.129 1.104 1.069 1.039 1.023 1.000 0.974 0.942 0.913 0.887 0.855 0.858 0.844 0.818

2004 4.869 4.664 4.519 4.255 3.832 3.511 3.320 3.117 2.897 2.602 2.292 2.078 1.958 1.897 1.818 1.756 1.724 1.663 1.597 1.523 1.445 1.387 1.346 1.307 1.275 1.240 1.204 1.177 1.159 1.134 1.097 1.067 1.050 1.027 1.000 0.967 0.937 0.911 0.877 0.881 0.866 0.840

2005 5.034 4.822 4.672 4.399 3.961 3.630 3.432 3.223 2.995 2.690 2.370 2.149 2.024 1.961 1.880 1.815 1.782 1.719 1.651 1.575 1.494 1.434 1.392 1.352 1.318 1.281 1.245 1.217 1.198 1.172 1.134 1.103 1.086 1.061 1.034 1.000 0.969 0.942 0.907 0.910 0.896 0.868

2006 5.196 4.978 4.823 4.541 4.089 3.747 3.543 3.327 3.092 2.777 2.447 2.218 2.089 2.024 1.940 1.874 1.839 1.775 1.704 1.626 1.542 1.480 1.437 1.395 1.360 1.323 1.285 1.256 1.237 1.210 1.171 1.138 1.121 1.096 1.067 1.032 1.000 0.972 0.936 0.940 0.925 0.896

2007 5.344 5.120 4.960 4.670 4.206 3.854 3.644 3.421 3.180 2.856 2.516 2.281 2.149 2.082 1.996 1.927 1.892 1.825 1.753 1.672 1.586 1.522 1.478 1.435 1.399 1.360 1.321 1.292 1.272 1.245 1.204 1.171 1.153 1.127 1.098 1.062 1.028 1.000 0.963 0.966 0.951 0.922

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

2008 5.549 5.316 5.151 4.849 4.367 4.002 3.784 3.553 3.302 2.966 2.613 2.369 2.231 2.162 2.072 2.001 1.964 1.895 1.820 1.736 1.647 1.581 1.535 1.490 1.453 1.413 1.372 1.341 1.321 1.292 1.250 1.216 1.197 1.170 1.140 1.102 1.068 1.038 1.000 1.004 0.987 0.957

2009 5.529 5.297 5.132 4.832 4.352 3.988 3.770 3.540 3.290 2.955 2.604 2.360 2.223 2.154 2.065 1.994 1.957 1.889 1.813 1.730 1.641 1.575 1.529 1.485 1.448 1.408 1.367 1.337 1.316 1.288 1.246 1.211 1.193 1.166 1.136 1.098 1.064 1.035 0.996 1.000 0.984 0.954

B–19

Table B.17 Consumer Price Inflation (CPI) Index (Continued)

From: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

2010 5.620 5.384 5.217 4.911 4.423 4.053 3.832 3.598 3.344 3.004 2.646 2.399 2.260 2.189 2.099 2.027 1.990 1.920 1.843 1.759 1.668 1.601 1.554 1.509 1.471 1.431 1.390 1.359 1.338 1.309 1.266 1.231 1.212 1.185 1.154 1.117 1.082 1.052 1.013 1.016 1.000 0.969

2011 5.797 5.554 5.381 5.066 4.563 4.181 3.953 3.712 3.450 3.098 2.730 2.475 2.331 2.258 2.165 2.091 2.052 1.980 1.901 1.814 1.721 1.652 1.603 1.557 1.518 1.476 1.434 1.401 1.380 1.350 1.306 1.270 1.250 1.222 1.191 1.152 1.116 1.085 1.045 1.048 1.032 1.000

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–20

Table B.18 Gross National Product Implicit Price Deflator From: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

1970 1.000 0.952 0.913 0.864 0.793 0.724 0.685 0.644 0.602 0.555 0.509 0.466 0.439 0.422 0.407 0.395 0.386 0.376 0.364 0.350 0.337 0.326 0.319 0.311 0.305 0.299 0.293 0.288 0.285 0.281 0.275 0.269 0.264 0.259 0.251 0.244 0.236 0.230 0.225 0.221 0.220 0.215

1971 1.050 1.000 0.958 0.908 0.833 0.761 0.719 0.676 0.632 0.583 0.535 0.489 0.461 0.443 0.427 0.415 0.406 0.395 0.382 0.368 0.354 0.342 0.334 0.327 0.320 0.314 0.308 0.303 0.299 0.295 0.289 0.282 0.277 0.272 0.264 0.256 0.248 0.241 0.236 0.232 0.231 0.225

1972 1.096 1.043 1.000 0.947 0.869 0.794 0.750 0.705 0.659 0.609 0.558 0.510 0.481 0.462 0.446 0.433 0.423 0.412 0.398 0.384 0.369 0.357 0.349 0.341 0.334 0.327 0.321 0.316 0.312 0.308 0.301 0.294 0.289 0.283 0.276 0.267 0.259 0.252 0.246 0.242 0.241 0.235

1973 1.157 1.102 1.056 1.000 0.917 0.838 0.792 0.745 0.696 0.643 0.589 0.539 0.508 0.488 0.471 0.457 0.447 0.435 0.421 0.405 0.390 0.377 0.369 0.360 0.353 0.346 0.339 0.334 0.330 0.325 0.318 0.311 0.306 0.299 0.291 0.282 0.273 0.266 0.260 0.256 0.254 0.248

1974 1.261 1.201 1.151 1.090 1.000 0.914 0.864 0.812 0.759 0.701 0.642 0.587 0.553 0.532 0.513 0.498 0.487 0.747 0.459 0.442 0.425 0.411 0.402 0.393 0.384 0.377 0.370 0.364 0.360 0.355 0.347 0.339 0.333 0.326 0.317 0.308 0.298 0.290 0.283 0.279 0.277 0.271

1975 1.380 1.315 1.260 1.193 1.094 1.000 0.945 0.889 0.830 0.767 0.703 0.643 0.606 0.583 0.562 0.545 0.533 0.519 0.502 0.483 0.465 0.450 0.440 0.430 0.421 0.412 0.405 0.398 0.394 0.388 0.380 0.371 0.365 0.357 0.347 0.337 0.326 0.317 0.310 0.306 0.303 0.296

1976 1.460 1.391 1.333 1.262 1.158 1.058 1.000 0.940 0.878 0.811 0.744 0.680 0.641 0.616 0.594 0.576 0.564 0.549 0.531 0.511 0.492 0.476 0.465 0.455 0.445 0.436 0.428 0.421 0.416 0.410 0.402 0.392 0.386 0.378 0.367 0.356 0.345 0.335 0.328 0.323 0.321 0.313

1977 1.553 1.479 1.418 1.342 1.231 1.125 1.064 1.000 0.934 0.863 0.791 0.723 0.682 0.656 0.632 0.613 0.600 0.584 0.565 0.544 0.524 0.506 0.495 0.483 0.473 0.464 0.455 0.448 0.443 0.437 0.427 0.417 0.410 0.402 0.391 0.379 0.367 0.357 0.349 0.344 0.341 0.333

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

1978 1.662 1.583 1.517 1.437 1.318 1.204 1.138 1.070 1.000 0.923 0.847 0.774 0.729 0.702 0.676 0.656 0.642 0.625 0.604 0.582 0.561 0.542 0.530 0.517 0.507 0.497 0.487 0.479 0.474 0.467 0.457 0.447 0.439 0.430 0.418 0.406 0.392 0.382 0.374 0.368 0.365 0.357

1979 1.800 1.714 1.643 1.556 1.427 1.304 1.233 1.159 1.083 1.000 0.917 0.838 0.790 0.760 0.732 0.711 0.695 0.677 0.654 0.631 0.607 0.587 0.573 0.560 0.549 0.538 0.528 0.519 0.513 0.506 0.495 0.484 0.475 0.465 0.453 0.439 0.425 0.413 0.405 0.399 0.395 0.386

B–21

Table B.18 Gross National Product Implicit Price Deflator (Continued) From: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

1980 1.963 1.870 1.792 1.697 1.557 1.422 1.344 1.264 1.181 1.091 1.000 0.914 0.861 0.829 0.799 0.775 0.758 0.738 0.714 0.688 0.662 0.640 0.625 0.611 0.598 0.586 0.575 0.566 0.560 0.552 0.540 0.528 0.518 0.508 0.494 0.479 0.463 0.451 0.441 0.435 0.431 0.422

1981 2.148 2.046 1.960 1.857 1.703 1.556 1.471 1.383 1.292 1.193 1.094 1.000 0.943 0.907 0.874 0.848 0.830 0.808 0.781 0.752 0.724 0.700 0.684 0.669 0.655 0.642 0.630 0.619 0.613 0.604 0.591 0.577 0.567 0.555 0.540 0.524 0.507 0.493 0.483 0.476 0.472 0.461

1982 2.279 2.170 2.080 1.970 1.807 1.651 1.561 1.467 1.371 1.266 1.161 1.061 1.000 0.962 0.927 0.900 0.880 0.857 0.828 0.798 0.768 0.743 0.726 0.709 0.695 0.681 0.668 0.657 0.650 0.641 0.627 0.612 0.602 0.589 0.573 0.556 0.538 0.523 0.512 0.505 0.501 0.489

1983 2.369 2.256 2.162 2.048 1.879 1.716 1.623 1.525 1.425 1.316 1.207 1.103 1.040 1.000 0.964 0.935 0.915 0.891 0.861 0.830 0.799 0.772 0.755 0.738 0.722 0.708 0.694 0.683 0.676 0.666 0.652 0.637 0.626 0.613 0.596 0.578 0.559 0.544 0.533 0.525 0.520 0.509

1984 2.458 2.341 2.244 2.125 1.949 1.781 1.683 1.583 1.479 1.366 1.252 1.144 1.079 1.038 1.000 0.970 0.950 0.924 0.894 0.861 0.829 0.801 0.783 0.765 0.749 0.734 0.721 0.709 0.701 0.691 0.676 0.660 0.649 0.636 0.618 0.600 0.580 0.564 0.533 0.544 0.540 0.528

1985 2.533 2.413 2.312 2.190 2.009 1.835 1.735 1.631 1.524 1.407 1.290 1.179 1.112 1.069 1.031 1.000 0.978 0.952 0.921 0.887 0.854 0.825 0.807 0.789 0.772 0.757 0.743 0.730 0.722 0.712 0.697 0.681 0.669 0.655 0.637 0.618 0.598 0.582 0.569 0.561 0.556 0.544

1986 2.589 2.466 2.363 2.238 2.053 1.876 1.773 1.667 1.557 1.438 1.319 1.205 1.136 1.093 1.053 1.022 1.000 0.973 0.941 0.907 0.873 0.844 0.825 0.806 0.789 0.773 0.759 0.746 0.738 0.728 0.712 0.696 0.684 0.669 0.651 0.632 0.611 0.594 0.582 0.573 0.569 0.556

1987 2.660 2.533 2.428 2.299 2.109 1.927 1.822 1.713 1.600 1.478 1.355 1.238 1.167 1.123 1.082 1.050 1.027 1.000 0.967 0.932 0.897 0.867 0.847 0.828 0.811 0.794 0.780 0.767 0.759 0.748 0.732 0.715 0.702 0.688 0.669 0.649 0.628 0.611 0.598 0.590 0.585 0.572

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

1988 2.751 2.620 2.510 2.378 2.181 1.993 1.884 1.771 1.655 1.528 1.401 1.281 1.207 1.161 1.119 1.086 1.063 1.034 1.000 0.963 0.928 0.896 0.876 0.856 0.838 0.822 0.806 0.793 0.784 0.773 0.757 0.739 0.726 0.711 0.692 0.671 0.649 0.632 0.618 0.610 0.605 0.591

1989 2.855 2.719 2.606 2.468 2.264 2.068 1.955 1.838 1.717 1.586 1.454 1.329 1.253 1.205 1.161 1.127 1.103 1.073 1.038 1.000 0.963 0.930 0.909 0.889 0.870 0.853 0.837 0.823 0.814 0.803 0.785 0.767 0.754 0.738 0.718 0.697 0.674 0.656 0.642 0.633 0.628 0.614

B–22

Table B.18 Gross National Product Implicit Price Deflator (Continued) From: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

1990 2.966 2.824 2.707 2.563 2.351 2.148 2.031 1.909 1.784 1.647 1.510 1.381 1.301 1.252 1.206 1.171 1.145 1.115 1.078 1.039 1.000 0.966 0.945 0.923 0.904 0.886 0.869 0.855 0.846 0.834 0.816 0.797 0.783 0.767 0.746 0.724 0.700 0.681 0.667

1991 3.069 2.923 2.801 2.653 2.433 2.224 2.102 1.976 1.846 1.705 1.563 1.429 1.347 1.295 1.249 1.212 1.186 1.154 1.116 1.075 1.035 1.000 0.978 0.955 0.935 0.917 0.900 0.885 0.875 0.863 0.844 0.825 0.811 0.794 0.772 0.749 0.724 0.705 0.690

1992 3.140 2.990 2.865 2.714 2.489 2.274 2.150 2.021 1.889 1.744 1.599 1.462 1.378 1.325 1.277 1.239 1.213 1.180 1.141 1.100 1.059 1.023 1.000 0.977 0.957 0.938 0.920 0.905 0.895 0.883 0.864 0.844 0.829 0.812 0.789 0.766 0.741 0.721 0.706

1993 3.212 3.059 2.932 2.777 2.547 2.327 2.200 2.068 1.932 1.785 1.636 1.496 1.410 1.356 1.307 1.268 1.241 1.208 1.168 1.125 1.083 1.047 1.023 1.000 0.979 0.959 0.942 0.926 0.916 0.903 0.884 0.863 0.848 0.831 0.808 0.784 0.758 0.738 0.722

1994 3.281 3.124 2.994 2.836 2.601 2.377 2.247 2.112 1.974 1.822 1.671 1.527 1.440 1.385 1.335 1.295 1.267 1.233 1.193 1.149 1.106 1.069 1.045 1.021 1.000 0.980 0.962 0.946 0.936 0.922 0.903 0.882 0.866 0.848 0.825 0.801 0.774 0.753 0.737

1995 3.348 3.189 3.056 2.894 2.655 2.426 2.293 2.156 2.014 1.860 1.705 1.559 1.469 1.413 1.362 1.322 1.293 1.259 1.217 1.173 1.129 1.091 1.066 1.042 1.021 1.000 0.981 0.965 0.955 0.941 0.921 0.900 0.884 0.866 0.842 0.817 0.790 0.769 0.753

1996 3.412 3.249 3.114 2.949 2.705 2.472 2.336 2.197 2.052 1.895 1.738 1.588 1.497 1.440 1.388 1.347 1.318 1.283 1.240 1.195 1.150 1.112 1.087 1.062 1.040 1.019 1.000 0.984 0.973 0.959 0.939 0.917 0.901 0.882 0.858 0.833 0.805 0.783 0.767

1997 3.468 3.303 3.165 2.998 2.750 2.513 2.375 2.233 2.086 1.927 1.767 1.615 1.522 1.464 1.411 1.369 1.340 1.304 1.261 1.215 1.170 1.130 1.105 1.080 1.057 1.036 1.017 1.000 0.989 0.975 0.954 0.932 0.916 0.897 0.872 0.846 0.819 0.796 0.780

1998 3.507 3.340 3.200 3.031 2.780 2.540 2.401 2.258 2.109 1.948 1.786 1.633 1.539 1.480 1.426 1.384 1.354 1.318 1.275 1.228 1.182 1.143 1.117 1.092 1.069 1.047 1.028 1.011 1.000 0.986 0.965 0.942 0.926 0.907 0.882 0.856 0.828 0.805 0.788

1999 3.557 3.388 3.247 3.075 2.821 2.577 2.436 2.290 2.140 1.976 1.812 1.656 1.561 1.501 1.447 1.404 1.374 1.337 1.293 1.246 1.200 1.159 1.133 1.107 1.084 1.062 1.043 1.026 1.014 1.000 0.979 0.956 0.939 0.920 0.894 0.868 0.840 0.817 0.800

2009 2010

0.658 0.652

0.681 0.676

0.697 0.692

0.713 0.707

0.728 0.722

0.743 0.737

0.757 0.751

0.770 0.764

0.779 0.773

0.790 0.784

2011

0.637

0.660

0.676

0.691

0.705

0.720

0.734

0.747

0.755

0.766

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

B–23

Table B.18 Gross National Product Implicit Price Deflator (Continued) From: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

2000 3.635 3.462 3.317 3.142 2.882 2.633 2.489 2.340 2.186 2.019 1.851 1.692 1.595 1.534 1.479 1.435 1.404 1.366 1.321 1.273 1.226 1.184 1.158 1.131 1.108 1.086 1.065 1.048 1.037 1.022 1.000 0.977 0.960 0.940 0.914 0.887 0.858 0.835 0.817 0.808 0.801 0.783

2001 3.722 3.544 3.397 3.217 2.951 2.696 2.549 2.396 2.239 2.067 1.896 1.733 1.633 1.571 1.514 1.469 1.438 1.399 1.353 1.304 1.255 1.213 1.185 1.159 1.134 1.112 1.091 1.073 1.061 1.046 1.024 1.000 0.983 0.962 0.936 0.908 0.878 0.855 0.837 0.826 0.819 0.800

2002 3.787 3.606 3.456 3.273 3.002 2.743 2.593 2.438 2.278 2.103 1.929 1.763 1.662 1.598 1.540 1.495 1.463 1.424 1.377 1.326 1.277 1.234 1.206 1.179 1.154 1.131 1.110 1.092 1.080 1.064 1.042 1.017 1.000 0.979 0.952 0.924 0.894 0.870 0.851 0.839 0.832 0.813

2003 3.867 3.683 3.529 3.343 3.066 2.802 2.648 2.490 2.326 2.148 1.970 1.800 1.697 1.632 1.573 1.527 1.494 1.454 1.406 1.355 1.304 1.260 1.232 1.204 1.179 1.155 1.134 1.115 1.103 1.087 1.064 1.039 1.021 1.000 0.972 0.944 0.913 0.888 0.869 0.857 0.850 0.830

2004 3.977 3.787 3.630 3.438 3.153 2.881 2.723 2.561 2.392 2.209 2.026 1.852 1.745 1.679 1.618 1.570 1.536 1.495 1.446 1.393 1.341 1.296 1.267 1.238 1.212 1.188 1.166 1.147 1.134 1.118 1.094 1.069 1.050 1.028 1.000 0.970 0.939 0.914 0.894 0.882 0.875 0.854

2005 4.097 3.902 3.739 3.542 3.249 2.968 2.806 2.638 2.465 2.276 2.087 1.908 1.798 1.729 1.667 1.617 1.583 1.540 1.490 1.435 1.382 1.335 1.305 1.275 1.249 1.224 1.201 1.181 1.168 1.152 1.127 1.101 1.082 1.059 1.030 1.000 0.969 0.943 0.923 0.911 0.904 0.882

2006 4.237 4.035 3.867 3.662 3.359 3.069 2.901 2.728 2.548 2.353 2.158 1.972 1.859 1.788 1.723 1.672 1.636 1.593 1.540 1.484 1.429 1.380 1.349 1.319 1.291 1.265 1.242 1.222 1.208 1.191 1.166 1.138 1.119 1.096 1.065 1.031 1.000 0.974 0.953 0.941 0.933 0.911

2007 4.355 4.147 3.975 3.764 3.453 3.155 2.982 2.804 2.620 2.419 2.218 2.027 1.911 1.838 1.772 1.719 1.682 1.637 1.583 1.525 1.468 1.419 1.387 1.356 1.327 1.301 1.276 1.256 1.242 1.224 1.198 1.170 1.150 1.126 1.095 1.060 1.027 1.000 0.979 0.968 0.961 0.937

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

2008 4.449 4.237 4.061 3.846 3.528 3.223 3.047 2.865 2.676 2.472 2.266 2.071 1.952 1.878 1.810 1.756 1.719 1.673 1.617 1.558 1.500 1.450 1.417 1.385 1.356 1.329 1.304 1.283 1.269 1.251 1.224 1.195 1.175 1.150 1.118 1.083 1.049 1.022 1.000 0.988 0.982 0.958

2009 4.517 4.302 4.124 3.907 3.582 3.273 3.094 2.909 2.718 2.509 2.300 2.103 1.982 1.906 1.837 1.783 1.745 1.695 1.639 1.579 1.520 1.468 1.434 1.403 1.374 1.346 1.321 1.298 1.284 1.265 1.238 1.211 1.192 1.167 1.134 1.098 1.063 1.033 1.012 1.000 0.991 0.968

B–24

Table B.18 Gross National Product Implicit Price Deflator (Continued) From: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

2010 4.554 4.337 4.157 3.938 3.611 3.299 3.119 2.932 2.740 2.530 2.318 2.120 1.998 1.922 1.852 1.797 1.759 1.709 1.652 1.592 1.533 1.480 1.446 1.415 1.385 1.357 1.332 1.309 1.294 1.275 1.248 1.221 1.201 1.176 1.144 1.107 1.072 1.041 1.019 1.010 1.000 0.979

2011 4.658 4.436 4.253 4.029 3.694 3.375 3.192 3.000 2.804 2.588 2.372 2.169 2.044 1.966 1.895 1.839 1.800 1.749 1.691 1.629 1.569 1.515 1.480 1.448 1.418 1.389 1.363 1.340 1.325 1.305 1.278 1.249 1.230 1.204 1.171 1.134 1.098 1.067 1.044 1.033 1.021 1.000

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Survey of Current Business, Washington, DC, monthly.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

C–1

APPENDIX C

MAPS

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

C–2

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

C–3

Table C.1 Census Regions and Divisions Northeast Region New Jersey New York

Mid-Atlantic division Pennsylvania

New England division Connecticut New Hampshire Rhode Island Maine Vermont Massachusetts

South Region West South Central East South Central South Atlantic division division division Arkansas Alabama Delaware South Carolina Louisiana Kentucky Florida Virginia Oklahoma Mississippi Georgia Washington, DC Texas Tennessee Maryland West Virginia North Carolina West Region Pacific division Mountain division Alaska Oregon Arizona Nevada New Mexico California Washington Colorado Hawaii Idaho Utah Montana Wyoming Midwest Region West North Central division East North Central division Nebraska Illinois Ohio Iowa Kansas North Dakota Indiana Wisconsin South Dakota Michigan Minnesota Missouri Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

C–4

Figure C1. Census Regions and Divisions

Source: See Table C.1.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

C–5

Table C.2 Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) District

Subdistrict

States

PAD District 1 East Coast

Subdistrict 1X New England

Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont

Subdistrict 1Y Central Atlantic

Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania

Subdistrict 1Z Lower Atlantic

Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia

PAD District 2 Midwest

Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Wisconsin

PAD District 3 Gulf Coast

Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Texas

PAD District 4 Rocky Mountains

Colorado Idaho, Montana, Utah, Wyoming

PAD District 5 West Coast

Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon, Washington

Source: Energy Information Administration web site: http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/oog/info/twip/padddef.html

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

C–6

Figure C.2. Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts

Source: See Table C.2.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

C–7

Figure C.3. Map of Places where Reformulated Gasoline is Sold

Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, www.epa.gov/otaq/rfg/whereyoulive.htm. Note: Reformulated gasoline is a motor gasoline specially formulated to achieve significant reductions in vehicle emissions of ozone-forming and toxic air pollutants. The Clean Air Act of 1990 mandates reformulated gasoline use in areas with ozone-air pollution problems.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

C–8

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

G–1

GLOSSARY Acceleration power – Measured in kilowatts. Pulse power obtainable from a battery used to accelerate a vehicle. This is based on a constant current pulse for 30 seconds at no less than 2/3 of the maximum open-circuit-voltage, at 80% depth-of-discharge relative to the battery's rated capacity and at 20○ C ambient temperature. Air Carrier – The commercial system of air transportation consisting of certificated air carriers, air taxis (including commuters), supplemental air carriers, commercial operators of large aircraft, and air travel clubs. Certificated route air carrier: An air carrier holding a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity issued by the Department of Transportation to conduct scheduled interstate services. Nonscheduled or charter operations may also be conducted by these carriers. These carriers operate large aircraft (30 seats or more, or a maximum payload capacity of 7,500 pounds or more) in accordance with Federal Aviation Regulation part 121. Domestic air operator: Commercial air transportation within and between the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Includes operations of certificated route air carriers, Pan American, local service, helicopter, intra-Alaska, intra-Hawaii, all-cargo carriers and other carriers. Also included are transborder operations conducted on the domestic route segments of U.S. air carriers. Domestic operators are classified based on their operating revenue as follows: Majors - over $1 billion Nationals - $100-1,000 million Large Regionals - $10-99.9 million Medium Regionals - $0-9.99 million International air operator: Commercial air transportation outside the territory of the United States, including operations between the U.S. and foreign countries and between the U.S. and its territories and possessions. Supplemental air carrier: A class of air carriers which hold certificates authorizing them to perform passenger and cargo charter services supplementing the scheduled service of the certificated route air carriers. Supplemental air carriers are often referred to as nonscheduled air carriers or "nonskeds." Alcohol – The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The molecules in the series vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group. Alcohol includes methanol and ethanol. Alternative fuel – For transportation applications, includes the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures containing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); and electricity (including electricity from solar energy). The term "alternative fuel" does not include alcohol or other blended portions of primarily petroleum-based fuels used as oxygenates or extenders, i.e. MTBE, ETBE, other ethers, and the 10-percent ethanol portion of gasohol. Amtrak – See Rail.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

G–2

Anthropogenic – Human made. Usually used in the context of emissions that are produced as the result of human activities. Aviation – See General aviation. Aviation gasoline – All special grades of gasoline for use in aviation reciprocating engines, as given in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Specification D 910. Includes all refinery products within the gasoline range that are to be marketed straight or in blends as aviation gasoline without further processing (any refinery operation except mechanical blending). Also included are finished components in the gasoline range which will be used for blending or compounding into aviation gasoline. Barges – Shallow, nonself-propelled vessels used to carry bulk commodities on the rivers and the Great Lakes. Battery efficiency – Measured in percentage. Net DC energy delivered on discharge, as a percentage of the total DC energy required to restore the initial state-of-charge. The efficiency value must include energy losses resulting from self-discharge, cell equalization, thermal loss compensation, and all battery-specific auxiliary equipment. Btu – British thermal unit. The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit at or near 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit. An average Btu content of fuel is the heat value per quantity of fuel as determined from tests of fuel samples. Bunker – A storage tank. Bunkering fuels – Fuels stored in ship bunkers. Bus –A mode of transit service characterized by roadway vehicles powered by diesel, gasoline, battery, or alternative fuel engines contained within the vehicle. Intercity bus: A standard size bus equipped with front doors only, high backed seats, luggage compartments separate from the passenger compartment and usually with restroom facilities, for high-speed long distance service. Motor bus: Rubber-tired, self-propelled, manually-steered bus with fuel supply on board the vehicle. Motor bus types include intercity, school, and transit. School and other nonrevenue bus: Bus services for which passengers are not directly charged for transportation, either on a per passenger or per vehicle basis. Transit bus: A bus designed for frequent stop service with front and center doors, normally with a rear-mounted diesel engine, low-back seating, and without luggage storage compartments or restroom facilities. Trolley coach: Rubber-tired electric transit vehicle, manually-steered, propelled by a motor drawing current, normally through overhead wires, from a central power source not on board the vehicle. Calendar year – The period of time between January 1 and December 31 of any given year. Captive imports – Products produced overseas specifically for domestic manufacturers.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

G–3

Car size classifications – Size classifications of cars are established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as follows: Minicompact – less than 85 cubic feet of passenger and luggage volume. Subcompact – between 85 to 100 cubic feet of passenger and luggage volume. Compact – between 100 to 110 cubic feet of passenger and luggage volume. Midsize – between 110 to 120 cubic feet of passenger and luggage volume. Large – more than 120 cubic feet of passenger and luggage volume. Two seater – cars designed primarily to seat only two adults. Station wagons are included with the size class for the sedan of the same name. Carbon dioxide (CO2) – A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of the ambient air. Carbon dioxide is a product of fossil fuel combustion. Carbon monoxide (CO) – A colorless, odorless, highly toxic gas that is a by-product of incomplete fossil fuel combustion. Carbon monoxide, one of the major air pollutants, can be harmful in small amounts if breathed over a certain period of time. Car-mile (railroad) – A single railroad car moved a distance of one mile. Cargo ton-mile – See Ton-mile. Certificated route air carriers – See Air carriers. Class I freight railroad – See Rail. Coal slurry – Finely crushed coal mixed with sufficient water to form a fluid. Combination trucks – Consist of a power unit (a truck tractor) and one or more trailing units (a semitrailer or trailer). The most frequently used combination is popularly referred to as a "tractorsemitrailer" or "tractor trailer". Commercial sector – An energy-consuming sector that consists of service-providing facilities of: businesses; Federal, State, and local governments; and other private and public organizations, such as religious, social or fraternal groups. Includes institutional living quarters. Commuter rail – A mode of transit service (also called metropolitan rail, regional rail, or suburban rail) characterized by an electric or diesel propelled railway for urban passenger train service consisting of local short distance travel operating between a central city and adjacent suburbs. Compact car – See car size classifications. Compression ignition – The form of ignition that initiates combustion in a diesel engine. The rapid compression of air within the cylinders generates the heat required to ignite the fuel as it is injected. Constant dollars – A time series of monetary figures is expressed in constant dollars when the effect of change over time in the purchasing power of the dollar has been removed. Usually the data are expressed in terms of dollars of a selected year or the average of a set of years. Consumer Price Index (CPI) – A measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

G–4

Continuous discharge capacity – Measured as percent of rated energy capacity. Energy delivered in a constant power discharge required by an electric vehicle for hill climbing and/or high-speed cruise, specified as the percent of its rated energy capacity delivered in a one hour constant-power discharge. Conventional Refueling Station – An establishment for refueling motor vehicles with traditional transportation fuels, such as gasoline and diesel fuel. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards – CAFE standards were originally established by Congress for new cars, and later for light trucks, in Title V of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act (15 U.S.C.1901, et seq.) with subsequent amendments. Under CAFE, car manufacturers are required by law to produce vehicle fleets with a composite sales-weighted fuel economy which cannot be lower than the CAFE standards in a given year, or for every vehicle which does not meet the standard, a fine of $5.00 is paid for every one-tenth of a mpg below the standard. Criteria pollutant – A pollutant determined to be hazardous to human health and regulated under EPA's National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The 1970 amendments to the Clean Air Act require EPA to describe the health and welfare impacts of a pollutant as the "criteria" for inclusion in the regulatory regime. Crude oil – A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in the liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Crude oil production is measured at the wellhead and includes lease condensate. Crude oil imports – The volume of crude oil imported into the 50 States and the District of Columbia, including imports from U.S. territories, but excluding imports of crude oil into the Hawaiian Foreign Trade Zone. Curb weight – The weight of a vehicle including all standard equipment, spare tire and wheel, all fluids and lubricants to capacity, full tank of fuel, and the weight of major optional accessories normally found on the vehicle. Current dollars – Represents dollars current at the time designated or at the time of the transaction. In most contexts, the same meaning would be conveyed by the use of the term "dollars." See also constant dollars. Demand Response – A transit mode that includes passenger cars, vans, and small buses operating in response to calls from passengers to the transit operator who dispatches the vehicles. The vehicles do not operate over a fixed route on a fixed schedule. Can also be known as paratransit or dial-a-ride. Diesel fuel – See Distillate fuel oil. Disposable personal income – See Income. Distillate fuel oil – The lighter fuel oils distilled off during the refining process. Included are products known as ASTM grades numbers 1 and 2 heating oils, diesel fuels, and number 4 fuel oil. The major uses of distillate fuel oils include heating, fuel for on-and off-highway diesel engines, and railroad diesel fuel. Domestic air operator – See Air carrier.

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

G–5

Domestic water transportation – See Internal water transportation. E85 – 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. E95 – 95% ethanol and 5% gasoline. Electric utilities sector – Consists of privately and publicly owned establishments which generate electricity primarily for resale. Emission standards – Limits or ranges established for pollution levels emitted by vehicles as well as stationary sources. The first standards were established under the 1963 Clean Air Act. End-use sector – See Sector. Energy capacity – Measured in kilowatt hours. The energy delivered by the battery, when tested at C/3 discharge rate, up to termination of discharge specified by the battery manufacturer. The required acceleration power must be delivered by the battery at any point up to 80% of the battery's energy capacity rating. Energy efficiency – In reference to transportation, the inverse of energy intensiveness: the ratio of outputs from a process to the energy inputs; for example, miles traveled per gallon of fuel (mpg). Energy intensity – In reference to transportation, the ratio of energy inputs to a process to the useful outputs from that process; for example, gallons of fuel per passenger-mile or Btu per ton-mile. Ethanol (C2H5OH) – Otherwise known as ethyl alcohol, alcohol, or grain-spirit. A clear, colorless, flammable oxygenated hydrocarbon with a boiling point of 78.5 degrees Celsius in the anhydrous state. In transportation, ethanol is used as a vehicle fuel by itself (E100 – 100% ethanol by volume), blended with gasoline (E85 – 85% ethanol by volume), or as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate (10% by volume). Excise tax – Paid when purchases are made on a specific good, such as gasoline. Excise taxes are often included in the price of the product. There are also excise taxes on activities, such as highway usage by trucks. Ferry boat – A transit mode comprising vessels carrying passengers and in some cases vehicles over a body of water, and that are generally steam or diesel-powered. Fixed operating cost – See Operating cost. Fleet vehicles – Private fleet vehicles: Ideally, a vehicle could be classified as a member of a fleet if it is: a) operated in mass by a corporation or institution, b) operated under unified control, or c) used for non-personal activities. However, the definition of a fleet is not consistent throughout the fleet industry. Some companies make a distinction between cars that were bought in bulk rather than singularly, or whether they are operated in bulk, as well as the minimum number of vehicles that constitute a fleet (i.e. 4 or 10). Government fleet vehicles: Includes vehicles owned by all Federal, state, county, city, and metro units of government, including toll road operations.

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Foreign freight – Movements between the United States and foreign countries and between Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and foreign countries. Trade between U.S. territories and possessions (e.g. Guam, Wake, American Samoa) and foreign countries is excluded. Traffic to or from the Panama Canal Zone is included. Gas Guzzler Tax – Originates from the 1978 Energy Tax Act (Public Law 95-618). A new car purchaser is required to pay the tax if the car purchased has a combined city/highway fuel economy rating that is below the standard for that year. For model years 1986 and later, the standard is 22.5 mpg. Gasohol – A mixture of 10% anhydrous ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume; 7.5% anhydrous ethanol and 92.5% gasoline by volume; or 5.5% anhydrous ethanol and 94.5% gasoline by volume. There are other fuels that contain methanol and gasoline, but these fuels are not referred to as gasohol. Gasoline – See Motor gasoline. General aviation – That portion of civil aviation which encompasses all facets of aviation except air carriers. It includes any air taxis, commuter air carriers, and air travel clubs which do not hold Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity. Global warming potential (GWP) – An index used to compare the relative radiative forcing of different gases without directly calculating the changes in atmospheric concentrations. GWPs are calculated as the ratio of the radiative forcing that would result from the emission of one kilogram of a greenhouse gas to that from the emission of one kilogram of carbon dioxide over a fixed period of time, such as 100 years. Greenhouse gases – Those gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride, that are transparent to solar (short-wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus preventing long-wave radiant energy from leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net effect is a trapping of absorbed radiation and a tendency to warm the planet's surface. Gross National Product – A measure of monetary value of the goods and services becoming available to the nation from economic activity. Total value at market prices of all goods and services produced by the nation's economy. Calculated quarterly by the Department of Commerce, the Gross National Product is the broadest available measure of the level of economic activity. Gross vehicle weight (gvw) – The weight of the empty truck plus the maximum anticipated load weight. Gross vehicle weight rating (gvwr) – The gross vehicle weight which is assigned to each new truck by the manufacturer. This rating may be different for trucks of the same model because of certain features, such as heavy-duty suspension. Passenger cars do not have gross vehicle weight ratings. Heavy-heavy truck – See Truck size classifications. Heavy rail – A mode of transit service (also called metro, subway, rapid transit, or rapid rail) operating on an electric railway with the capacity for a heavy volume of traffic. Characterized by high speed and rapid acceleration of passenger rail cars. Household – Consists of all persons who occupy a housing unit, including the related family members and all unrelated persons, if any, who share the housing unit.

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Housing unit – A house, apartment, a group of rooms, or a single room occupied or intended for occupancy as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants do not live and eat with any other persons in the structure and which have either (1) direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hallway intended to be used by the occupants of another unit or by the general public, or (2) complete kitchen facilities for the exclusive use of the occupants. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated persons who share living arrangements. Hybrid-electric vehicles – Combines the benefits of gasoline engines and electric motors and can be configured to obtain different objectives, such as improved fuel economy, increased power, or additional auxiliary power for electronic devices and power tools. Hydrocarbon (HC) – A compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon. The simplest and lightest forms of hydrocarbon are gaseous. With greater molecular weights they are liquid, while the heaviest are solids. Income – Disposable personal income: Personal income less personal tax and non-tax payments. National income: The aggregate earnings of labor and property which arise in the current production of goods and services by the nation's economy. Personal income: The current income received by persons from all sources, net of contributions for social insurance. Industrial sector – Construction, manufacturing, agricultural and mining establishments. Inertia weight – The curb weight of a vehicle plus 300 pounds. Intercity bus – See Bus. Intermodal – Transportation activities involving more than one mode of transportation, including transportation connections and coordination of various modes. Internal water transportation – Includes all local (intraport) traffic and traffic between ports or landings wherein the entire movement takes place on inland waterways. Also termed internal are movements involving carriage on both inland waterways and the water of the Great Lakes, and inland movements that cross short stretches of open water that link inland systems. International air operator – See Air carrier. International freight – See Foreign freight. Jet fuel – Includes both naphtha-type and kerosene-type fuels meeting standards for use in aircraft turbine engines. Although most jet fuel is used in aircraft, some is used for other purposes such as generating electricity in gas turbines. Kerosene-type jet fuel: A quality kerosene product with an average gravity of 40.7 degrees API and 10% to 90% distillation temperatures of 217 to 261 degrees centigrade. Used primarily as fuel for commercial turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines. It is a relatively low freezing point distillate of the kerosene type.

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Naphtha-type jet fuel: A fuel in the heavy naphtha boiling range with an average gravity of 52.8 degrees API and 10% to 90% distillation temperatures of 117 to 233 degrees centigrade used for turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines, primarily by the military. Excludes ramjet and petroleum. Kerosene – A petroleum distillate in the 300 to 500 degrees Fahrenheit boiling range and generally having a flash point higher than 100 degrees Fahrenheit by the American Society of Testing and Material (ASTM) Method D56, a gravity range from 40 to 46 degrees API, and a burning point in the range of 150 to 175 degrees Fahrenheit. It is a clean-burning product suitable for use as an illuminant when burned in wick lamps. Includes grades of kerosene called range oil having properties similar to Number 1 fuel oil, but with a gravity of about 43 degrees API and an end point of 625 degrees Fahrenheit. Used in space heaters, cooking stoves, and water heaters. Kerosene-type jet fuel – See Jet fuel. Large car – See Car size classifications. Lease Condensate – A liquid recovered from natural gas at the well or at small gas/oil separators in the field. Consists primarily of pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons (also called field condensate). Light duty vehicles – Cars and light trucks combined. Light truck – Unless otherwise noted, light trucks are defined in this publication as two-axle, four-tire trucks. The U.S. Bureau of Census classifies all trucks with a gross vehicle weight less than 10,000 pounds as light trucks (See Truck size classifications). Light-heavy truck – See Truck size classifications. Light rail – Mode of transit service (also called streetcar, tramway or trolley) operating passenger rail cars singly (or in short, usually two-car or three-car trains) on fixed rails in right-of-way that is often separated from other traffic for part or much of the way. Liquified petroleum gas (lpg) – Consists of propane and butane and is usually derived from natural gas. In locations where there is no natural gas and the gasoline consumption is low, naphtha is converted to lpg by catalytic reforming. Load factor – Total passenger miles divided by total vehicle miles. Low emission vehicle – Any vehicle certified to the low emission standards which are set by the Federal government and/or the state of California. M85 – 85% methanol and 15% gasoline. M100 – 100% methanol. Medium truck – See Truck size classifications. Methanol (CH3OH) – A colorless highly toxic liquid with essentially no odor and very little taste. It is the simplest alcohol and boils at 64.7 degrees Celsius. In transportation, methanol is used as a vehicle fuel by itself (M100), or blended with gasoline (M85). Midsize car – See Car size classifications.

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Minicompact car – See Car size classifications. Model year – In this publication, model year is referring to the "sales" model year, the period from October 1 to the next September 31. Motor bus – See Bus. Motor gasoline – A mixture of volatile hydrocarbons suitable for operation of an internal combustion engine whose major components are hydrocarbons with boiling points ranging from 78 to 217 degrees centigrade and whose source is distillation of petroleum and cracking, polymerization, and other chemical reactions by which the naturally occurring petroleum hydrocarbons are converted into those that have superior fuel properties. Regular gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than or equal to 85 and less than 88. Note: Octane requirements may vary by altitude. Midgrade gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than or equal to 88 and less than or equal to 90. Note: Octane requirements may vary by altitude. Premium gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than 90. Note: Octane requirements may vary by altitude. Reformulated gasoline: Finished motor gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties of which meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Section 211(k) of the Clean Air Act. For details on this clean fuel program see http://www.epa.gov/otaq/rfg.htm. Note: This category includes oxygenated fuels program reformulated gasoline (OPRG) but excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB). MTBE – Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether–a colorless, flammable, liquid oxygenated hydrocarbon containing 18.15 percent oxygen. Naphtha-type jet fuel – See Jet fuel. National income – See Income. Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) – A nationwide survey of households that provides information on the characteristics and personal travel patterns of the U.S. population. Surveys were conducted in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, and 1995 by the U.S. Bureau of Census for the U.S. Department of Transportation. Natural gas – A mixture of hydrocarbon compounds and small quantities of various non-hydrocarbons existing in the gaseous phase or in solution with crude oil in natural underground reservoirs at reservoir conditions. Natural gas, dry: Natural gas which remains after: 1) the liquefiable hydrocarbon portion has been removed from the gas stream; and 2) any volumes of nonhydrocarbon gases have been removed where they occur in sufficient quantity to render the gas unmarketable. Dry natural gas is also known as consumer-grade natural gas. The parameters for measurement are cubic feet at 60 degrees Fahrenheit and 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute. Natural gas, wet: The volume of natural gas remaining after removal of lease condensate in lease and/or field separation facilities, if any, and after exclusion of nonhydrocarbon gases where they TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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occur in sufficient quantity to render the gas unmarketable. Natural gas liquids may be recovered from volumes of natural gas, wet after lease separation, at natural gas processing plants. Natural gas plant liquids: Natural gas liquids recovered from natural gas in processing plants and from natural gas field facilities and fractionators. Products obtained include ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, pentanes plus, and other products from natural gas processing plants. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) – A product of combustion of fossil fuels whose production increases with the temperature of the process. It can become an air pollutant if concentrations are excessive. Nonattainment area – Any area that does not meet the national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard established by the Environmental Protection Agency for designated pollutants, such as carbon monoxide and ozone. Oil Stocks – Oil stocks include crude oil (including strategic reserves), unfinished oils, natural gas plant liquids, and refined petroleum products. Operating cost – Fixed operating cost: In reference to passenger car operating cost, refers to those expenditures that are independent of the amount of use of the car, such as insurance costs, fees for license and registration, depreciation and finance charges. Variable operating cost: In reference to passenger car operating cost, expenditures which are dependent on the amount of use of the car, such as the cost of gas and oil, tires, and other maintenance. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) – Consists of Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States. Total OECD includes the United States Territories (Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands). Total OECD excludes data for Czech Republic, Hungary, Mexico, Poland, and South Korea which are not yet available. OECD Europe: Consists of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and United Kingdom. OECD Europe excludes data for Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland which are not yet available. OECD Pacific: Consists of Australia, Japan, and New Zealand. Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – Includes Saudi Arabia, Iran, Venezuela, Libya, Indonesia, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Iraq, Kuwait, and Qatar. Data for Saudi Arabia and Kuwait include their shares from the Partitioned Zone (formerly the Neutral Zone). Angola joined OPEC in December 2006, thus, beginning in 2007, data on OPEC will include Angola. Arab OPEC – Consists of Algeria, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Other single-unit truck – See Single-unit truck.

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Oxygenate – A substance which, when added to gasoline, increases the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Includes fuel ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Paratransit – Mode of transit service (also called demand response or dial-a-ride) characterized by the use of passenger cars, vans or small buses operating in response to calls from passengers or their agents to the transit operator, who then dispatches a vehicle to pick up the passengers and transport them to their destinations. Particulates – Carbon particles formed by partial oxidation and reduction of the hydrocarbon fuel. Also included are trace quantities of metal oxides and nitrides, originating from engine wear, component degradation, and inorganic fuel additives. In the transportation sector, particulates are emitted mainly from diesel engines. Passenger-miles traveled (PMT) – One person traveling the distance of one mile. Total passenger-miles traveled, thus, give the total mileage traveled by all persons. Passenger rail – See Rail, "Amtrak" and "Transit Railroad". Persian Gulf countries – Consists of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Emirates. Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE) – As used in the national accounts, the market value of purchases of goods and services by individuals and nonprofit institutions and the value of food, clothing, housing, and financial services received by them as income in kind. It includes the rental value of owner-occupied houses but excludes purchases of dwellings, which are classified as capital goods (investment). Personal income – See Income. Petroleum – A generic term applied to oil and oil products in all forms, such as crude oil, lease condensate, unfinished oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas plant liquids, and nonhydrocarbon compounds blended into finished petroleum products. Petroleum consumption: A calculated demand for petroleum products obtained by summing domestic production, imports of crude petroleum and natural gas liquids, imports of petroleum products, and the primary stocks at the beginning of the period and then subtracting the exports and the primary stocks at the end of the period. Petroleum exports: Shipments of petroleum products from the 50 States and the District of Columbia to foreign countries, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U.S. possessions and territories. Petroleum imports: All imports of crude petroleum, natural gas liquids, and petroleum products from foreign countries and receipts from Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the Hawaiian Trade Zone. The commodities included are crude oil, unfinished oils, plant condensate, and refined petroleum products. Petroleum inventories: The amounts of crude oil, unfinished oil, petroleum products, and natural gas liquids held at refineries, at natural gas processing plants, in pipelines, at bulk terminals operated by refining and pipeline companies, and at independent bulk terminals. Crude oil held in storage on leases is also included; these stocks are known as primary stocks. Secondary stocks–those held by jobbers dealers, service station operators, and consumers–are TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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excluded. Prior to 1975, stock held at independent bulk terminals were classified as secondary stocks. Petroleum products supplied: For each petroleum product, the amount supplied is calculated by summing production, crude oil burned directly, imports, and net withdrawals from primary stocks and subtracting exports. Plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs) — Hybrid-electric vehicles with high capacity batteries that can be charged by plugging them into an electrical outlet or charging station. There are two basic PHEV configurations: Parallel or Blended PHEV: Both the engine and electric motor are mechanically connected to the wheels, and both propel the vehicle under most driving conditions. Electric-only operation usually occurs only at low speeds. Series PHEVs, also called Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs): Only the electric motor turns the wheels; the gasoline engine is only used to generate electricity. Series PHEVs can run solely on electricity until the battery needs to be recharged. The gasoline engine will then generate the electricity needed to power the electric motor. For shorter trips, these vehicles might use no gasoline at all. Processing Gain – The amount by which the total volume of refinery output is greater than the volume of input for given period of time. The processing gain arises when crude oil and other hydrocarbons are processed into products that are, on average, less dense than the input. Processing Loss – The amount by which the total volume of refinery output is less than the volume of input for given period of time. The processing loss arises when crude oil and other hydrocarbons are processed into products that are, on average, more dense than the input. Proved Reserves of Crude Oil – The estimated quantities of all liquids defined as crude oil, which geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future years from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions. Quad – Quadrillion, 1015. In this publication, a Quad refers to Quadrillion Btu. Rail – Amtrak (American Railroad Tracks): Operated by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation of Washington, DC. This rail system was created by President Nixon in 1970, and was given the responsibility for the operation of intercity, as distinct from suburban, passenger trains between points designated by the Secretary of Transportation. Class I freight railroad: Defined by the Interstate Commerce Commission each year based on annual operating revenue. A railroad is dropped from the Class I list if it fails to meet the annual earnings threshold for three consecutive years. Commuter railroad: Those portions of mainline railroad (not electric railway) transportation operations which encompass urban passenger train service for local travel between a central city and adjacent suburbs. Commuter railroad service–using both locomotive-hauled and selfpropelled railroad passenger cars–is characterized by multi-trip tickets, specific station-to-station fares, and usually only one or two stations in the central business district. Also known as suburban railroad.

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Transit railroad: Includes "heavy" and "light" transit rail. Heavy transit rail is characterized by exclusive rights-of-way, multi-car trains, high speed rapid acceleration, sophisticated signaling, and high platform loading. Also known as subway, elevated railway, or metropolitan railway (metro). Light transit rail may be on exclusive or shared rights-of-way, high or low platform loading, multi-car trains or single cars, automated or manually operated. In generic usage, light rail includes streetcars, trolley cars, and tramways. Refiner sales price – Sales from the refinery made directly to ultimate consumers, including bulk consumers (such as agriculture, industry, and electric utilities) and residential and commercial consumers. Reformulated gasoline (RFG) – See Motor gasoline. RFG area – An ozone nonattainment area designated by the Environmental Protection Agency which requires the use of reformulated gasoline. Residential sector – An energy consuming sector that consists of living quarters for private households. Excludes institutional living quarters. Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS) – This survey was designed by the Energy Information Administration of the Department of Energy to provide information on how energy is used by households for personal vehicles. It has been conducted five times since 1979, the most recent being 1991. Residual fuel oil – The heavier oils that remain after the distillate fuel oils and lighter hydrocarbons are boiled off in refinery operations. Included are products know as ASTM grade numbers 5 and 6 oil, heavy diesel oil, Navy Special Fuel Oil, Bunker C oil, and acid sludge and pitch used as refinery fuels. Residual fuel oil is used for the production of electric power, for heating, and for various industrial purposes. Rural – Usually refers to areas with population less than 5,000. Sales period – October 1 of the previous year to September 30 of the given year. Approximately the same as a model year. Sales-weighted miles per gallon (mpg) – Calculation of a composite vehicle fuel economy based on the distribution of vehicle sales. Scrappage rate – As applied to motor vehicles, it is usually expressed as the percentage of vehicles of a certain type in a given age class that are retired from use (lacking registration) in a given year. School and other nonrevenue bus – See Bus. Sector – A group of major energy-consuming components of U.S. society developed to measure and analyze energy use. The sectors most commonly referred to are: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric power. Single-unit truck – Includes two-axle, four-tire trucks and other single-unit trucks. Two-axle, four-tire truck: A motor vehicle consisting primarily of a single motorized device with two axles and four tires.

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Other single-unit truck: A motor vehicle consisting primarily of a single motorized device with more than two axles or more than four tires. Spark ignition engine – An internal combustion engine in which the charge is ignited electrically (e.g., with a spark plug). Special fuels – Consist primarily of diesel fuel with small amount of liquified petroleum gas, as defined by the Federal Highway Administration. Specific acceleration power – Measured in watts per kilogram. Acceleration power divided by the battery system weight. Weight must include the total battery system. Specific energy – Measured in watt hours per kilogram. The rated energy capacity of the battery divided by the total battery system weight. Subcompact car – See Car size classifications. Supplemental air carrier – See Air carrier. Survival rate – As applied to motor vehicles, it is usually expressed as the percentage of vehicles of a certain type in a given age class that will be in use at the end of a given year. Tax incentives – In general, a means of employing the tax code to stimulate investment in or development of a socially desirable economic objective without direct expenditure from the budget of a given unit of government. Such incentives can take the form of tax exemptions or credits. Test weight – The weight setting at which a vehicle is tested on a dynomometer by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This weight is determined by the EPA using the inertia weight of the vehicle. Ton-mile – The movement of one ton of freight the distance of one mile. Ton-miles are computed by multiplying the weight in tons of each shipment transported by the distance hauled. Transmission types – A3 – Automatic three speed A4 – Automatic four speed A5 – Automatic five speed L4 – Automatic lockup four speed M5 – Manual five speed Transit bus – See Bus. Transit railroad – See Rail. Transportation sector – Consists of both private and public passenger and freight transportation, as well as government transportation, including military operations. Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS) – Survey designed to collect data on the characteristics and operational use of the nation's truck population. It is conducted every five years by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Surveys were conducted in 1963, 1967, 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, and 1992. For the 1997 survey, it was renamed the Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey in anticipation

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of including additional vehicle types. However, no additional vehicle types were added to the 1997 survey. Trolleybus – Mode of transit service (also called transit coach) using vehicles propelled by a motor drawing current from overhead wires via connecting poles called a trolley pole, from a central power source not onboard the vehicle. Truck size classifications – U.S. Bureau of the Census has categorized trucks by gross vehicle weight (gvw) as follows: Light – Less than 10,000 pounds gvw (Also see Light Truck.) Medium – 10,001 to 20,000 pounds gvw Light-heavy – 20,001 to 26,000 pounds gvw Heavy-heavy – 26,001 pounds gvw or more. Two-axle, four-tire truck – See Single-unit truck. Two seater car – See Car size classifications. Ultra-low emission vehicle – Any vehicle certified to the ultra-low emission standards which are set by the Federal government and/or the state of California. Urban – Usually refers to areas with population of 5,000 or greater. Vanpool: A ridesharing prearrangement using vans or small buses providing round-trip transportation between the participants’s prearranged boarding points and a common and regular destination. Variable operating cost – See Operating cost. Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey – See Truck Inventory and Use Survey. Vehicle-miles traveled (vmt) – One vehicle traveling the distance of one mile. Total vehicle miles, thus, is the total mileage traveled by all vehicles. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) – Organic compounds that participate in atmospheric photochemical reactions. Waterborne Commerce – Coastwise: Domestic traffic receiving a carriage over the ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Traffic between Great Lakes ports and seacoast ports, when having a carriage over the ocean, is also termed Coastwise. Domestic: Includes coastwise, lakewise, and internal waterborne movements. Foreign: Waterborne import, export, and in-transit traffic between the United States, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and any foreign country. Internal: Vessel movements (origin and destination) which take place solely on inland waterways. An inland waterway is one geographically located within the boundaries of the contiguous 48 states or within the boundaries of the State of Alaska.

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Lakewise: Waterborne traffic between the United States ports on the Great Lakes System. The Great Lakes System is treated as a separate waterway system rather than as a part of the inland waterway system. In comparing historical data for the Great Lakes System, one should note that prior to calendar year 1990, marine products, sand and gravel being moved from the Great Lakes to Great Lake destinations were classified as local traffic. From 1990-on, these activities are classified as lakewise traffic. Well-to-wheel – A life cycle analysis used in transportation to consider the entire energy cycle for a given mode, rather than just tailpipe emissions. The analysis starts at the oil well and ends with the turning wheels of the vehicle. Zero-emission vehicle – Any vehicle certified to the zero emission standards which are set by the Federal government and/or the state of California. These standards apply to the vehicle emissions only.

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TITLE INDEX

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Acquisitions Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions by Fuel Type, FY 2002– 2011 ................................................... 7–6 Advanced Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles and Characteristics........................................ 6–1 Federal and State Advanced Technology Incentives, 2012 ............................................................ 10–13 Age Cars in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 ........................................................ 3–12 Trucks in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 .................................................... 3–13 U.S. Average Vehicle Age, 1995–2011 ........................................................................................... 3–14 Average Annual Miles per Household Vehicle by Vehicle Age ...................................................... 8–13 Share of Vehicles by Annual Miles of Travel and Vehicle Age, 2009 NHTS ................................. 8–16 Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ........................................................................................ 8–18 Agency Federal Government Vehicles by Agency, FY 2011 .......................................................................... 7–7 Air Air Conditioning (SC03) Driving Cycle .......................................................................................... 4–34 Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 1970–2011 ............................................................................... 9–3 Criteria Air Pollutants ...................................................................................................................... 12–1 Total National Emissions of the Criteria Air Pollutants by Sector, 2011......................................... 12–2 Aircraft Aircraft – Exhaust Emission Standards .......................................................................................... 12–22 All All Highway Vehicles and Characteristics ......................................................................................... 3–1 Alternative Alternative Fuel and Oxygenate Consumption, 2003–2010 .............................................................. 2–5 Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles and Characteristics........................................ 6–1 Estimates of Alternative Fuel Highway Vehicles in Use, 1995–2010 ............................................... 6–3 Alternative Fuel Transit Vehicles, 2010 ............................................................................................. 6–4 Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012......................................... 6–5 Number of Alternative Refuel Sites by State and Fuel Type, 2012 ................................................. 6–10 Properties of Conventional and Alternative Fuels............................................................................ 6–13 Federal and State Alternative Fuel Incentives, 2012 ...................................................................... 10–12 Amtrak Summary Statistics for the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak), 1971–2010................................................................................................................. 9–11 Annual Average Annual Vehicle-Miles of Travel for Commercial Fleet Vehicles, 2010 .............................. 7–3 Average Annual Expenditures of Households by Income, 2010 ........................................................ 8–4 Annual Household Expenditures for Transportation, 1985-2010....................................................... 8–5 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ...................................................... 8–8 Average Annual Miles per Household Vehicle by Vehicle Age ...................................................... 8–13 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Annual (continued) Self-Reported vs. Odometer Average Annual Miles, 1995 NPTS and 2001 NHTS ........................ 8–14 Share of Vehicles by Annual Miles of Travel and Vehicle Age, 2009 NHTS ................................. 8–16 Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ...................................................................................................... 8–18 Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS............................. 8–19 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–13 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–14 Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975 and 2011 .............................. 11–15 Appendix Appendix A. Sources & Methodologies ........................................................................................... A–1 Appendix B. Conversions..................................................................................................................B–1 Appendix C. Maps .............................................................................................................................C–1 Attributes Driving Cycle Attributes .................................................................................................................. 4–32 Available Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012......................................... 6–5 Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012 ............................................ 6–8 Average U.S. Average Vehicle Age, 1995–2011 ........................................................................................... 3–14 Average Material Consumption for a Light Vehicle, Model Years 1995, 2000, and 2010 .............. 4–17 Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 ................................................................................................ 4–22 Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011........................................................................................ 4–23 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, 1983–2010 ....................................... 4–24 Average Length of Time Commercial Fleet Vehicles are in Service, 2010 ....................................... 7–3 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles of Travel for Commercial Fleet Vehicles, 2010 .............................. 7–3 Average Miles per Domestic Federal Vehicle by Vehicle Type, 2011 .............................................. 7–4 Average Annual Expenditures of Households by Income, 2010 ........................................................ 8–4 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS.......................................................................... 8–8 Average Number of Vehicles and Vehicle Travel per Household, 1990 NPTS and 2001 and 2009 NHTS ........................................................................................................................... 8–9 Average Vehicle Occupancy by Vehicle Type, 1995 NPTS and 2009 NHTS ................................. 8–11 Average Vehicle Occupancy by Trip Purpose, 1977 NPTS and 2009 NHTS.................................. 8–12 Average Annual Miles per Household Vehicle by Vehicle Age ...................................................... 8–13 Self-Reported vs. Odometer Average Annual Miles, 1995 NPTS and 2001 NHTS ........................ 8–14 Average Daily Miles Driven (per Driver), 2009 NHTS ................................................................... 8–17 Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ...................................................................................................... 8–18 Average Price of a New Car, 1913–2010 ....................................................................................... 10–14 Average Price of a New Car (Domestic and Import), 1970–2010 ................................................. 10–15 Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975 and 2011 .............................. 11–15

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Aviation Summary Statistics for General Aviation, 1970–2010 ....................................................................... 9–4 Refiner Sales Prices for Aviation Gasoline and Jet Fuel, 1978–2011 ............................................ 10–10 Barrel Refinery Yield of Petroleum Products from a Barrel of Crude Oil, 1978-2011............................... 1–15 Prices for a Barrel of Crude Oil and a Gallon of Gasoline, 1978–2011 ........................................... 10–7 Bicycle Bicycle Sales, 1981-2010 ................................................................................................................. 8–23 Bike Walk and Bike Trips by Trip Purpose, 2009 NHTS......................................................................... 8–24 Boat Recreational Boat Energy Use, 1970–2010........................................................................................ 9–7 Bus Truck and Bus Registrations for Selected Countries, 1960–2010 ...................................................... 3–4 Buses Summary Statistics on Transit Buses and Trolleybuses, 1994–2010 ............................................... 5–24 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses – Exhaust Emission Standards .................................................................................................... 12–16 CAFE Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 ............................................................. 4–22 Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 ............................................................. 4–23 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, 1983–2010 ....................................... 4–24 California California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards ...................... 12–21 Capita Vehicles and Vehicle-Miles per Capita, 1950–2010 .......................................................................... 8–3 Car Car Registrations for Selected Countries, 1960–2010........................................................................ 3–3 Car Scrappage and Survival Rates, 1970, 1980 and 1990 Model Years .......................................... 3–16 New Retail Car Sales in the United States, 1970–2011 ..................................................................... 4–5 Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011........................................................................................ 4–22 Average Price of a New Car, 1913–2010 ....................................................................................... 10–14 Average Price of a New Car (Domestic and Import), 1970–2010 ................................................. 10–15 Car Operating Cost per Mile, 1985–2011 ...................................................................................... 10–16 Fixed Car Operating Costs per Year, 1975–2011........................................................................... 10–17 California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards ...................... 12–21 Carbon Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Standards, Model Year 2012–2016 ....................... 4–20 Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Targets for Model Year 2016.................................................. 4–21 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Carbon (continued) U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1990–2010 ................ 11–6 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Transportation End-Use Sector .............. 11–7 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–13 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–14 Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975 and 2011 .............................. 11–15 Carbon Dioxide World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990 and 2008 .......................................................................... 11–2 Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared with Carbon Dioxide ................... 11–3 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Gallon of Fuel ......................................................................... 11–16 Carbon Monoxide Total National Emissions of Carbon Monoxide, 1970–2011 ........................................................... 12–3 Emissions of Carbon Monoxide from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 ............................................ 12–4 Carriers Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 1970–2011 ............................................................................... 9–3 Cars World Production of Cars and Trucks, 2000-2010............................................................................. 3–2 U.S. Cars and Trucks in Use, 1970–2010 .......................................................................................... 3–6 Cars in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 ........................................................ 3–12 Summary Statistics for Cars, 1970–2010 ........................................................................................... 4–2 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 ................................................................... 4–7 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–13 Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–15 Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1977–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–16 The Gas Guzzler Tax on New Cars .................................................................................................. 4–25 List of Model Year 2011 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes................................................................... 4–26 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–13 Census Household Vehicle Ownership, 1960–2010 Census .......................................................................... 8–6 Certificated Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 1970–2011 ............................................................................... 9–3 Certification California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards ...................... 12–21 Characteristics All Highway Vehicles and Characteristics ......................................................................................... 3–1 Light Vehicles and Characteristics ..................................................................................................... 4–1 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Characteristics (continued) Heavy Vehicles and Characteristics ................................................................................................... 5–1 Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles and Characteristics........................................ 6–1 Fleet Vehicles and Characteristics...................................................................................................... 7–1 Household Vehicles and Characteristics ............................................................................................ 8–1 Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density ................ 8–21 Housing Unit Characteristics, 2009.................................................................................................. 8–21 Long-Distance Trip Characteristics, 2001 NHTS ............................................................................ 8–26 Cities Clean Cities Coalitions ..................................................................................................................... 6–11 City City Driving Cycle ........................................................................................................................... 4–33 New York City Driving Cycle.......................................................................................................... 4–36 Class Light Vehicle Market Shares by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................ 4–11 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–13 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–14 Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–15 Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1977–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–16 Truck Statistics by Gross Vehicle Weight Class, 2002 ...................................................................... 5–6 Truck Harmonic Mean Fuel Economy by Size Class, 1992, 1997, and 2002 .................................... 5–6 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–13 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–14 Class 1 Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks ................................................ 4–4 Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks, 1989–1999 ................................... 4–4 Class 2a Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks ................................................ 4–4 Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks, 1989–1999 ................................... 4–4 Class 2b Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks ................................................ 4–4 Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks, 1989–1999 ................................... 4–4 Class 3-8 Summary Statistics for Class 3-8 Single-Unit Trucks, 1970–2010 .................................................... 5–2 Class 7-8 Summary Statistics for Class 7-8 Combination Trucks, 1970–2010.................................................. 5–3

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Class 8 Effect of Terrain on Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy ........................................................................... 5–14 Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ....................................................................................................................... 5–15 Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed .......................................... 5–16 Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ....................................................................................... 5–17 Class 8 Truck Weight by Component .............................................................................................. 5–18 Distribution of Class 8 Trucks by On-Road Vehicle Weight, 2008 ................................................. 5–20 Class I Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States Ranked by Revenue Ton–Miles, 2010.......... 9–8 Summary Statistics for Class I Freight Railroads, 1970–2010 ........................................................... 9–9 Classification Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975 and 2011 .............................. 11–15 Clean Clean Cities Coalitions ..................................................................................................................... 6–11 Coalitions Clean Cities Coalitions ..................................................................................................................... 6–11 Cold Cold Temperature (Cold FTP) Driving Cycle .................................................................................. 4–34 Collected Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, 1983–2010 ....................................... 4–24 Combination Summary Statistics for Combination Trucks, 1970–2010.................................................................. 5–3 Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ....................................................................................................................... 5–15 Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed .................... 5–16 Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination .............................................................................................. 5–17 Combined Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 1970–2011 ............................................................................... 9–3 Combustion U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Transportation End-Use Sector .............. 11–7 Commerce Tonnage Statistics for Domestic and International Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 .................. 9–5 Summary Statistics for Domestic Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 ............................................. 9–6 Commercial Average Length of Time Commercial Fleet Vehicles are in Service, 2010 ....................................... 7–3 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles of Travel for Commercial Fleet Vehicles, 2010 .............................. 7–3 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Commodity Growth of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys ............................................................................................................................. 5–22 Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys ................................................................................................ 5–23 Commute Workers by Commute Time, 1990, 200 and 2010 Census ............................................................... 8–22 Commuter Energy Intensity of Commuter Rail Systems, 2010 ......................................................................... 2–18 Summary Statistics for Commuter Rail Operations, 1984–2010 ..................................................... 9–12 Compared Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to Other Countries (in 2000 and 2010) ...................................................................................................... 3–7 Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared with Carbon Dioxide ................... 11–3 Comparison Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles......................................................... 4–38 Growth of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys ............................................................................................................................. 5–22 Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys ................................................................................................ 5–23 Component Class 8 Truck Weight by Component .............................................................................................. 5–18 Compounds Total National Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds, 1970–2011 ......................................... 12–7 Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 .......................... 12–8 Compression Heavy-Duty Highway Compression Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines – Evaporative Emission Standards.............................................................................................. 12–20 Compression-Ignition Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses – Exhaust Emission Standards ...................................................................................... 12–16 Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards ....................................... 12–23 Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards.................................. 12–28 Conditioning Air Conditioning (SC03) Driving Cycle .......................................................................................... 4–34 Consumed Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination .............................................................................................. 5–17 Fuel Consumed by Federal Government Fleets, FY 2000–2011 ....................................................... 7–6 Consumer Consumer Price Indices, 1970–2011 .............................................................................................. 10–18

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Consumption World Petroleum Consumption, 1960–2011 ...................................................................................... 1–5 World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010.................................................................. 1–6 World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010 ................................................... 1–7 Petroleum Production and Transportation Petroleum Consumption in Context .............................. 1–17 United States Petroleum Production and Consumption – All Sectors, 1973-2035 .......................... 1–18 United States Petroleum Production, and Transportation Consumption, 1970-2035 ....................... 1–19 Consumption of Petroleum by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 ............................................................ 1–20 Highway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010 ........................................ 1–21 Nonhighway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 1970–2009 .................................. 1–22 World Consumption of Primary Energy, 2009 ................................................................................... 2–2 U.S. Consumption of Total Energy by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 ................................................. 2–3 Distribution of Energy Consumption by Source, 1973 and 2011....................................................... 2–4 Alternative Fuel and Oxygenate Consumption, 2003–2010 .............................................................. 2–5 Ethanol Consumption, 1995–2010 ..................................................................................................... 2–6 Domestic Consumption of Transportation Energy by Mode and Fuel Type, 2010............................ 2–7 Highway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010............................................... 2–9 Nonhighway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010 ....................................... 2–10 Off-highway Transportation-related Fuel Consumption from the Nonroad Model, 2010 ............... 2–11 Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment, 2010.......................................................... 2–12 Average Material Consumption for a Light Vehicle, Model Years 1995, 2000, and 2010 .............. 4–17 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1990–2010 ................ 11–6 Context Petroleum Production and Transportation Petroleum Consumption in Context, 1950–2011 .......... 1–17 Conventional Conventional Refueling Stations, 1993–2010 .................................................................................. 4–19 Properties of Conventional and Alternative Fuels............................................................................ 6–13 Conversions Appendix B. Conversions...................................................................................................................B–1 Corporate Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 ............................................................. 4–22 Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 ............................................................. 4–23 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, 1983–2009 ....................................... 4–24 Corporation Summary Statistics for the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak), 1971–2009 ......... 9–11 Cost Car Operating Cost per Mile, 1985–2011 ...................................................................................... 10–16 Costs Costs of Oil Dependence to the U.S. Economy, 1970–2010 ............................................................ 1–12 Fixed Car Operating Costs per Year, 1975–2011........................................................................... 10–17 Countries Car Registrations for Selected Countries, 1960–2010........................................................................ 3–3 Truck and Bus Registrations for Selected Countries, 1960–2010 ...................................................... 3–4 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Countries (continued) Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to Other Countries (in 2000 and 2010) ...................................................................................................... 3–7 Vehicles per Thousand People in Other Countries, 2000 and 2010 ................................................... 3–9 Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 1990–2011 ........................................................................ 10–3 Diesel Fuel Prices for Selected Countries, 1998–2011 .................................................................... 10–4 Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2011 ................................................................... 10–5 Diesel Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2011 ....................................................................... 10–6 Country Imported Crude Oil by Country of Origin, 1973-2011 ...................................................................... 1–9 Criteria Criteria Air Pollutants ...................................................................................................................... 12–1 Total National Emissions of the Criteria Air Pollutants by Sector, 2011......................................... 12–2 Crude World Crude Oil Production, 1960–2011 .......................................................................................... 1–3 Imported Crude Oil by Country of Origin, 1973-2011 ...................................................................... 1–9 Crude Oil Supplies, 1973-2011 ........................................................................................................ 1–10 U.S. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 1987–2010 .......................................... 1–14 Refinery Yield of Petroleum Products from a Barrel of Crude Oil, 1978-2011............................... 1–15 Prices for a Barrel of Crude Oil and a Gallon of Gasoline, 1978–2011 ........................................... 10–7 Curb Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–15 Cycle Driving Cycle Attributes .................................................................................................................. 4–32 City Driving Cycle ........................................................................................................................... 4–33 Highway Driving Cycle.................................................................................................................... 4–33 Air Conditioning (SC03) Driving Cycle .......................................................................................... 4–34 Cold Temperature (Cold FTP) Driving Cycle .................................................................................. 4–34 High Speed (US06) Driving Cycle ................................................................................................... 4–35 New York City Driving Cycle.......................................................................................................... 4–36 Representative Number Five Driving Cycle .................................................................................... 4–36 Cycles Projected Fuel Economies from U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles .............................. 4–37 Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles......................................................... 4–38 Daily Average Daily Miles Driven (per Driver), 2009 NHTS ................................................................... 8–17 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel (per Vehicle) by Number of Vehicles in the Household, 2009 NHTS ................................................................................................... 8–18 Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ...................................................................................................... 8–18 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ............................... 8–19 Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density ................ 8–21 Dealerships New Light Vehicle Dealerships and Sales, 1970–2010 ................................................................... 4–18 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Definition Definition of Wagons in Model Year 2011 ........................................................................................ 4–8 Definition of Non-Truck Sport Utility Vehicles in Model Year 2011 ............................................... 4–9 Demand Summary Statistics on Demand Response Vehicles, 1994–2010 .................................................... 4–39 Demographic Demographic Statistics from the 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ................................................................................................................. 8–7 Density Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density ................ 8–21 Dependence Costs of Oil Dependence to the U.S. Economy, 1970–2010 ............................................................ 1–12 Diesel Highway Usage of Gasoline and Diesel, 1973–2010 ....................................................................... 2–13 Diesel Fuel Prices for Selected Countries, 1998–2011 .................................................................... 10–4 Diesel Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2011 ....................................................................... 10–6 Highway, Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine (NRLM) Diesel Fuel Sulfur Standards .................. 12–37 Dioxide Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Standards, Model Year 2012–2016 ....................... 4–20 Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Targets for Model Year 2016.................................................. 4–21 Distance Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed............. 5–16 Share of Vehicle Trips by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS..................................................................... 8–15 Share of Vehicle Trips to Work by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS ...................................................... 8–15 Long-Distance Trip Characteristics, 2001 NHTS ............................................................................ 8–26 Distribution Distribution of Energy Consumption by Source, 1973 and 2011....................................................... 2–4 Distribution of Trucks over 26,000 lbs. Less than Two Years Old by VehicleMiles Traveled ........................................................................................................................... 5–11 Domestic Domestic Consumption of Transportation Energy by Mode and Fuel Type, 2010............................ 2–7 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 ................................................................... 4–7 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................. 4–10 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–13 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–14 Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–15 Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1977–2011 .................................................................................... 4–16 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Domestic (continued) Average Miles per Domestic Federal Vehicle by Vehicle Type, 2011 .............................................. 7–4 Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 1970–2011..................................................................... 9–3 Tonnage Statistics for Domestic and International Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 .................. 9–5 Summary Statistics for Domestic Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 ............................................. 9–6 Average Price of a New Car (Domestic and Import), 1970–2010 ................................................. 10–15 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–13 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–14 Drive Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012 ............................................ 6–8 Driven Average Daily Miles Driven (per Driver), 2009 NHTS ................................................................... 8–17 Driver Average Daily Miles Driven (per Driver), 2009 NHTS ................................................................... 8–17 Driving Driving Cycle Attributes .................................................................................................................. 4–32 City Driving Cycle ........................................................................................................................... 4–33 Highway Driving Cycle.................................................................................................................... 4–33 Air Conditioning (SC03) Driving Cycle .......................................................................................... 4–34 Cold Temperature (Cold FTP) Driving Cycle .................................................................................. 4–34 High Speed (US06) Driving Cycle ................................................................................................... 4–35 New York City Driving Cycle.......................................................................................................... 4–36 Representative Number Five Driving Cycle .................................................................................... 4–36 Projected Fuel Economies from U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles .............................. 4–37 Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles......................................................... 4–38 Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density ................ 8–21 Dwelling Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density ................ 8–20 Each Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ...................................................................................................... 8–18 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ............................... 8–19 Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS............................. 8–19 Economy Costs of Oil Dependence to the U.S. Economy, 1970–2010 ............................................................ 1–12 Economic Oil Price and Economic Growth, 1970–2011................................................................................... 1–11 Economies Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 ................................................... 4–7

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Economies (continued) Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................. 4–10 Projected Fuel Economies from U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles .............................. 4–37 Economy Costs of Oil Dependence to the U.S. Economy, 1970–2010 ............................................................ 1–12 Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Standards, MY 2012–2016 .................................... 4–20 Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Targets for Model Year 2016.................................................. 4–21 Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011........................................................................................ 4–22 Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011........................................................................................ 4–23 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, 1983–2010 ....................................... 4–24 Fuel Economy by Speed, PSAT Model Results ............................................................................... 4–28 Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, and 1997 Studies ................................................................. 4–29 Steady Speed Fuel Economy for Vehicles Tested in the 1997 Study............................................... 4–31 Truck Harmonic Mean Fuel Economy by Size Class, 1992, 1997, and 2002 .................................... 5–6 Effect of Terrain on Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy ........................................................................... 5–14 Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ....................................................................................................................... 5–15 Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed .......................................... 5–16 Transportation and the Economy...................................................................................................... 10–1 Effect Effect of Terrain on Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy ........................................................................... 5–14 Electric Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012 ............................................ 6–8 Electronic Share of Heavy Trucks with Selected Electronic Features, 2002 .................................................... 5–12 Emission Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards ......................................................................... 12–14 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Evaporative Emission Standards................................................................... 12–15 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses – Exhaust Emission Standards ...................................................................................... 12–16 Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards ............................. 12–18 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines – Evaporative Emission Standards ............................................................................. 12–20 California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards ...................... 12–21 Aircraft – Exhaust Emission Standards .......................................................................................... 12–22 Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards ....................................... 12–23 Nonroad Large Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust and Evaporative Emission Standards ............. 12–25 Locomotives – Exhaust Emission Standards .................................................................................. 12–26 Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards.................................. 12–28 Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................. 12–32 Nonroad Recreational Engines and Vehicles – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................ 12–34

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Emissions Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Standards, Model Year 2012–2016 ....................... 4–20 Greenhouse Gas Emissions .............................................................................................................. 11–1 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990 and 2008 .......................................................................... 11–2 U.S. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, based on Global Warming Potential, 1990–2010................ 11–4 Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by End-Use Sector, 2010 .................................................... 11–5 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1990–2010 ................ 11–6 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Transportation End-Use Sector .............. 11–7 Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Mode, 1990 and 2010 ............................................. 11–8 Well-to-Wheel Emissions for Various Fuels and Vehicle Technologies ....................................... 11–11 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Gallon of Fuel ......................................................................... 11–16 Total National Emissions of the Criteria Air Pollutants by Sector, 2011......................................... 12–2 Total National Emissions of Carbon Monoxide, 1970–2011 ........................................................... 12–3 Emissions of Carbon Monoxide from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 ............................................ 12–4 Total National Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides, 1970–2011 .............................................................. 12–5 Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005............................................... 12–6 Total National Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds, 1970–2011 ......................................... 12–7 Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 .......................... 12–8 Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM–10), 1970–2011 ............................................ 12–9 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM–10) from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 ........................... 12–10 Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5), 1990–2011 .......................................... 12–11 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5) from Highway Vehicles, 1990–2005........................... 12–12 Employment Transportation-related Employment, 2000 and 2010 ..................................................................... 10–19 U.S. Employment for Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing, 1990–2010 ...................................................................................................... 10–20 End-Use Consumption of Petroleum by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 ............................................................ 1–20 U.S. Consumption of Total Energy by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 ................................................. 2–3 Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by End-Use Sector, 2010 .................................................... 11–5 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1990–2010 ................ 11–6 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Transportation End-Use Sector .............. 11–7 Energy World Consumption of Primary Energy, 2009 ................................................................................... 2–2 U.S. Consumption of Total Energy by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 ................................................. 2–3 Distribution of Energy Consumption by Source, 1973 and 2011....................................................... 2–4 Domestic Consumption of Transportation Energy by Mode and Fuel Type, 2010............................ 2–7 Transportation Energy Use by Mode, 2009–2010.............................................................................. 2–8 Highway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010............................................... 2–9 Nonhighway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010 ....................................... 2–10 Passenger Travel and Energy Use, 2010 .......................................................................................... 2–14 Energy Intensities of Highway Passenger Modes, 1970–2010 ........................................................ 2–15 Energy Intensities of Nonhighway Passenger Modes, 1970–2010 .................................................. 2–16 Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems, 2010 ..................................................................... 2–17 Energy Intensity of Heavy Rail Systems, 2010 ................................................................................ 2–18 Energy Intensity of Commuter Rail Systems, 2010 ......................................................................... 2–18 Energy Intensities of Freight Modes, 1970–2010 ............................................................................ 2–19 Nonhighway Energy Use Shares, 1970–2010 .................................................................................... 9–2 Recreational Boat Energy Use, 1970–2010........................................................................................ 9–7

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Engine Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–13 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–14 Engines Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses – Exhaust Emission Standards ...................................................................................... 12–16 Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards ............................. 12–18 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines – Evaporative Emission Standards ............................................................................. 12–20 Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards ....................................... 12–23 Nonroad Large Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust and Evaporative Emission Standards ............. 12–25 Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards.................................. 12–28 Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................. 12–32 Nonroad Recreational Engines and Vehicles – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................ 12–34 Equipment Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment, 2010.......................................................... 2–12 Estimates Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks, 1989–1999 ................................... 4–4 Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011........................................................................................ 4–22 Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 ............................................................. 4–23 Estimates of Alternative Fuel Highway Vehicles in Use, 1995–2010 ............................................... 6–3 Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared with Carbon Dioxide ................... 11–3 Ethanol Ethanol Consumption, 1995–2010 ..................................................................................................... 2–6 European Projected Fuel Economies from U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles .............................. 4–37 Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles......................................................... 4–38 Evaporative Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Evaporative Emission Standards................................................................... 12–15 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines – Evaporative Emission Standards.............................................................................................. 12–20 Nonroad Large Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust and Evaporative Emission Standards .................................................................................................................. 12–25 Excise Federal Excise Taxes on Motor Fuels, 2010 .................................................................................. 10–11 Exemptions State Tax Exemptions for Gasohol, 2010 ....................................................................................... 10–11

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Exhaust Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards ......................................................................... 12–14 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses – Exhaust Emission Standards .................................................................................................... 12–16 Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards ............................. 12–18 Aircraft – Exhaust Emission Standards .......................................................................................... 12–22 Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards ....................................... 12–23 Nonroad Large Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust and Evaporative Emission Standards ............. 12–25 Locomotives – Exhaust Emission Standards .................................................................................. 12–26 Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards.................................. 12–28 Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................. 12–32 Nonroad Recreational Engines and Vehicles – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................ 12–34 Expenditures Average Annual Expenditures of Households by Income, 2010 ........................................................ 8–4 Annual Household Expenditures for Transportation, 1985-2010....................................................... 8–5 Personal Consumption Expenditures, 1970–2011 .......................................................................... 10–18 Exports United States Petroleum Production, Imports and Exports, 1950–2011 .......................................... 1–16 Facility Percentage of Trucks by Fleet Size and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002 ........................................... 5–9 Share of Trucks by Major Use and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002................................................. 5–10 Features Share of Heavy Trucks with Selected Electronic Features, 2002 .................................................... 5–12 Federal Average Miles per Domestic Federal Vehicle by Vehicle Type, 2011 .............................................. 7–4 Federal Government Vehicles, 2001–2011 ........................................................................................ 7–5 Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions by Fuel Type, FY 2002– 2011 ................................................... 7–6 Fuel Consumed by Federal Government Fleets, FY 2000–2011 ....................................................... 7–6 Federal Government Vehicles by Agency, FY 2011 .......................................................................... 7–7 Federal Excise Taxes on Motor Fuels, 2010 .................................................................................. 10–11 Federal and State Alternative Fuel Incentives, 2012 ...................................................................... 10–12 Federal and State Advanced Technology Incentives, 2012 ............................................................ 10–13 Feedstocks GREET Model Feedstocks and Fuels............................................................................................. 11–10 Fines Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, 1983–2010 ....................................... 4–24 Five Representative Number Five Driving Cycle .................................................................................... 4–36 Fixed Fixed Car Operating Costs per Year, 1975–2011........................................................................... 10–17 Fleet Percentage of Trucks by Fleet Size and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002 ........................................... 5–9 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Fleet (continued) Fleet Vehicles and Characteristics...................................................................................................... 7–1 Fleet Vehicles in Service as of January 1, 2011 ................................................................................. 7–2 New Light Fleet Vehicle Registrations by Vehicle Type, Model Year 2010 ..................................... 7–3 Average Length of Time Commercial Fleet Vehicles are in Service, 2010 ....................................... 7–3 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles of Travel for Commercial Fleet Vehicles, 2010 .............................. 7–3 Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions by Fuel Type, FY 2002– 2011 ................................................... 7–6 Fleets Fuel Consumed by Federal Government Fleets, FY 2000–2011 ....................................................... 7–6 Flow Growth of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys.......................................................................................... 5–22 Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys.......................................................................................... 5–23 Footprint Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–13 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ............................................................. 11–14 Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975 and 2011 .............................. 11–15 Fossil World Fossil Fuel Potential ................................................................................................................ 1–2 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Energy Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1990–2009 ........... 11–6 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Transportation End-Use Sector .............. 11–7 Four-Tire Summary Statistics for Two-Axle, Four-Tire Trucks, 1970–2010..................................................... 4–3 Freight Energy Intensities of Freight Modes, 1970–2010 ............................................................................ 2–19 Growth of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys.......................................................................................... 5–22 Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys.......................................................................................... 5–23 Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States Ranked by Revenue Ton–Miles, 2010.......... 9–8 Summary Statistics for Class I Freight Railroads, 1970–2010 ........................................................... 9–9 FTP Cold Temperature (Cold FTP) Driving Cycle .................................................................................. 4–34 Fuel World Fossil Fuel Potential ................................................................................................................ 1–2 Alternative Fuel and Oxygenate Consumption, 2003–2010 .............................................................. 2–5 Domestic Consumption of Transportation Energy by Mode and Fuel Type, 2010............................ 2–7 Off-highway Transportation-related Fuel Consumption from the Nonroad Model, 2010 ............... 2–11 Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment, 2010.......................................................... 2–12 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 ................................................................... 4–7

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Fuel (continued) Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................. 4–10 Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Standards, MY 2012–2016 .................................... 4–20 Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Targets for Model Year 2016.................................................. 4–21 Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011........................................................................................ 4–22 Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011........................................................................................ 4–23 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Fines Collected, 1983–2010 ....................................... 4–24 Fuel Economy by Speed, PSAT Model Results ............................................................................... 4–28 Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, and 1997 Studies ................................................................. 4–29 Steady Speed Fuel Economy for Vehicles Tested in the 1997 Study............................................... 4–31 Projected Fuel Economies from U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles .............................. 4–37 Truck Harmonic Mean Fuel Economy by Size Class, 1992, 1997, and 2002 .................................... 5–6 Effect of Terrain on Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy ........................................................................... 5–14 Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ....................................................................................................................... 5–15 Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed .................... 5–16 Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ....................................................................................... 5–17 Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles and Characteristics........................................ 6–1 Estimates of Alternative Fuel Highway Vehicles in Use, 1995–2010 ............................................... 6–3 Alternative Fuel Transit Vehicles, 2010 ............................................................................................. 6–4 Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012......................................... 6–5 Number of Alternative Refuel Sites by State and Fuel Type, 2012 ................................................. 6–10 Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions by Fuel Type, FY 2002– 2011 ................................................... 7–6 Fuel Consumed by Federal Government Fleets, FY 2000–2011 ....................................................... 7–6 Diesel Fuel Prices for Selected Countries, 1998–2011 .................................................................... 10–4 Retail Prices for Motor Fuel, 1978–2011 ......................................................................................... 10–8 Refiner Sales Prices for Aviation Gasoline and Jet Fuel, 1978–2011 ............................................ 10–10 Federal and State Alternative Fuel Incentives, 2012 ...................................................................... 10–12 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1990–2010 ................ 11–6 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Transportation End-Use Sector .............. 11–7 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Gallon of Fuel ......................................................................... 11–16 Fueling Percentage of Trucks by Fleet Size and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002 ........................................... 5–9 Share of Trucks by Major Use and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002................................................. 5–10 Fuels Properties of Conventional and Alternative Fuels............................................................................ 6–13 Federal Excise Taxes on Motor Fuels, 2010 .................................................................................. 10–11 GREET Model Feedstocks and Fuels............................................................................................. 11–10 Well-to-Wheel Emissions for Various Fuels and Vehicle Technologies ....................................... 11–11 Function Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination..... 5–15 Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed .................... 5–16 Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination .............................................................................................. 5–17 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Gallon Prices for a Barrel of Crude Oil and a Gallon of Gasoline, 1978–2011 ........................................... 10–7 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Gallon of Fuel ......................................................................... 11–16 Garden Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment, 2010.......................................................... 2–12 Gas World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010 ................................................... 1–7 The Gas Guzzler Tax on New Cars .................................................................................................. 4–25 List of Model Year 2011 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes................................................................... 4–26 Tax Receipts from the Sale of Gas Guzzlers, 1980–2010 ................................................................ 4–27 Greenhouse Gas Emissions .............................................................................................................. 11–1 Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by End-Use Sector, 2010 .................................................... 11–5 Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Mode, 1990 and 2010 ............................................. 11–8 Gases U.S. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, based on Global Warming Potential, 1990–2010................ 11–4 Gasohol State Tax Exemptions for Gasohol, 2010 ....................................................................................... 10–11 Gasoline Highway Usage of Gasoline and Diesel, 1973–2010 ....................................................................... 2–13 Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 1990–2011 ........................................................................ 10–3 Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2011 ................................................................... 10–5 Prices for a Barrel of Crude Oil and a Gallon of Gasoline, 1978–2011 ........................................... 10–7 Refiner Sales Prices for Aviation Gasoline and Jet Fuel, 1978–2011 ............................................ 10–10 Gasoline Sulfur Standards .............................................................................................................. 12–36 General Summary Statistics for General Aviation, 1970–2010 ....................................................................... 9–4 Global Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared with Carbon Dioxide ................... 11–3 U.S. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, based on Global Warming Potential, 1990–2009................ 11–4 Glossary Glossary ............................................................................................................................................ G–1 Government Federal Government Vehicles, 2001–2011 ........................................................................................ 7–5 Fuel Consumed by Federal Government Fleets, FY 2000–2011 ....................................................... 7–6 Federal Government Vehicles by Agency, FY 2011 .......................................................................... 7–7 Greenhouse Greenhouse Gas Emissions .............................................................................................................. 11–1 U.S. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, based on Global Warming Potential, 1990–2010................ 11–4 Total U.S. Greenhouse Emissions by End-Use Sector, 2010 ........................................................... 11–5 Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Mode, 1990 and 2010 ............................................. 11–8 GREET GREET Model.................................................................................................................................. 11–9 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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GREET (continued) GREET Model Feedstocks and Fuels............................................................................................. 11–10 Gross Refinery Gross Output by World Region, 2001 and 2011 ............................................................... 1–13 New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the United States, 1970–2011.......... 4–6 New Retail Truck Sales by Gross Vehicle Weight, 1970–2011......................................................... 5–4 Truck Statistics by Gross Vehicle Weight Class, 2002 ...................................................................... 5–6 Gross Vehicle Weight vs. Empty Vehicle Weight ........................................................................... 5–19 Growth Oil Price and Economic Growth, 1970–2011................................................................................... 1–11 Growth of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys.......................................................................................... 5–22 Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys.......................................................................................... 5–23 Guzzler The Gas Guzzler Tax on New Cars .................................................................................................. 4–25 List of Model Year 2011 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes................................................................... 4–26 Guzzlers Tax Receipts from the Sale of Gas Guzzlers, 1980–2010 ................................................................ 4–27 Harmonic Truck Harmonic Mean Fuel Economy by Size Class, 1992, 1997, and 2002 .................................... 5–6 Heavy Energy Intensity of Heavy Rail Systems, 2010 ................................................................................ 2–18 Heavy Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates .................................................................................... 3–18 Heavy Vehicles and Characteristics ................................................................................................... 5–1 Share of Heavy Trucks with Selected Electronic Features, 2002 .................................................... 5–12 Heavy-Duty Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses – Exhaust Emission Standards ...................................................................................... 12–16 Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards ............................. 12–18 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines – Evaporative Emission Standards ............................................................................. 12–20 High High Speed (US06) Driving Cycle ................................................................................................... 4–35 Highway Highway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010 ........................................ 1–21 Highway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010............................................... 2–9 Highway Usage of Gasoline and Diesel, 1973–2010 ....................................................................... 2–13 Energy Intensities of Highway Passenger Modes, 1970–2010 ........................................................ 2–15 All Highway Vehicles and Characteristics ......................................................................................... 3–1 Shares of Highway Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Type, 1970–2010 ..................................... 3–11 Highway Driving Cycle.................................................................................................................... 4–33 Estimates of Alternative Fuel Highway Vehicles in Use, 1995–2010 ............................................... 6–3 Emissions of Carbon Monoxide from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 ............................................ 12–4 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Highway (continued) Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005............................................... 12–6 Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 .......................... 12–8 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM–10) from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 ........................... 12–10 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5) from Highway Vehicles, 1990–2005........................... 12–12 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses – Exhaust Emission Standards ...................................................................................... 12–16 Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards ............................. 12–18 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines – Evaporative Emission Standards ............................................................................. 12–20 Highway, Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine (NRLM) Diesel Fuel Sulfur Standards .................. 12–37 Household Household Vehicles and Characteristics ............................................................................................ 8–1 Annual Household Expenditures for Transportation, 1985-2010....................................................... 8–5 Household Vehicle Ownership, 1960–2010 Census .......................................................................... 8–6 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ...................................................... 8–8 Average Number of Vehicles and Vehicle Travel per Household, 1990 NPTS and 2001 and 2009 NHTS............................................................................................................ 8–9 Average Annual Miles per Household Vehicle by Vehicle Age ...................................................... 8–13 Household Vehicle Trips, 2009 NHTS ............................................................................................ 8–17 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel (per Vehicle) by Number of Vehicles in the Household, 2009 NHTS ................................................................................................... 8–18 Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ...................................................................................................... 8–18 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ............................... 8–19 Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS............................. 8–19 Households Average Annual Expenditures of Households by Income, 2010 ........................................................ 8–4 Housing Housing Unit Characteristics, 2009.................................................................................................. 8–21 Hybrid Hybrid and Plug-in Vehicle Sales, 1999-2011 ................................................................................... 6–7 Ignition Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses – Exhaust Emission Standards .................................................................................................... 12–16 Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards.................................................................................................................................. 12–18 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines – Evaporative Emission Standards.............................................................................................. 12–20 Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards ....................................... 12–23 Nonroad Large Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust and Evaporative Emission Standards .................................................................................................................. 12–25 Import Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 ................................................................... 4–7

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Import (continued) Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................. 4–10 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–13 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–14 Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–15 Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1977–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–16 Average Price of a New Car (Domestic and Import), 1970–2010 ................................................. 10–15 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–13 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–14 Imported Imported Crude Oil by Country of Origin, 1973-2011 ...................................................................... 1–9 Imports U.S. Petroleum Imports, 1960–2011 .................................................................................................. 1–8 United States Petroleum Production, Imports and Exports, 1950–2011 .......................................... 1–16 Incentives Federal and State Alternative Fuel Incentives, 2012 ...................................................................... 10–12 Federal and State Advanced Technology Incentives, 2012 ............................................................ 10–13 Income Average Annual Expenditures of Households by Income, 2010 ........................................................ 8–4 Index Transportation Services Index, January 1990–January 2012 ........................................................... 10–2 Indices Consumer Price Indices, 1970–2011 .............................................................................................. 10–18 Input U.S. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 1987–2010 .......................................... 1–14 Intensities Energy Intensities of Highway Passenger Modes, 1970–2009 ........................................................ 2–15 Energy Intensities of Nonhighway Passenger Modes, 1970–2009 .................................................. 2–16 Energy Intensities of Freight Modes, 1970–2009 ............................................................................ 2–19 Intensity Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems, 2010 ..................................................................... 2–17 Energy Intensity of Heavy Rail Systems, 2010 ................................................................................ 2–18 Energy Intensity of Commuter Rail Systems, 2010 ......................................................................... 2–18 Interior Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1977–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–16 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Intermodal Intermodal Rail Traffic, 1965–2010 ................................................................................................. 9–10 International Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 1970–2011 ............................................................................... 9–3 Tonnage Statistics for Domestic and International Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 .................. 9–5 Japanese Projected Fuel Economies from U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles .............................. 4–37 Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles......................................................... 4–38 Jet Refiner Sales Prices for Aviation Gasoline and Jet Fuel, 1978–2011 ............................................ 10–10 Large Nonroad Large Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust and Evaporative Emission Standards .................................................................................................................. 12–25 Lawn Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment, 2010.......................................................... 2–12 Length Average Length of Time Business Fleet Vehicles are in Service, 2010 ............................................ 7–3 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS.......................................................................... 8–7 Light Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems, 2010 ..................................................................... 2–17 Light Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates ...................................................................................... 3–17 Light Vehicles and Characteristics ..................................................................................................... 4–1 Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks ................................................ 4–4 Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks, 1989–1999 ................................... 4–4 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................. 4–10 Light Vehicle Market Shares by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................ 4–11 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–14 Average Material Consumption for a Light Vehicle, Model Years 1995, 2000, and 2010 .............. 4–17 New Light Vehicle Dealerships and Sales, 1970–2010 ................................................................... 4–18 Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011........................................................................................ 4–23 New Light Fleet Vehicle Registrations by Vehicle Type, Model Year 2010 ..................................... 7–3 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–14 California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards ...................... 12–21 Light-Duty Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards ......................................................................... 12–14 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Evaporative Emission Standards................................................................... 12–15

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List List of Model Year 2011 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes................................................................... 4–26 Locomotive Highway, Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine (NRLM) Diesel Fuel Sulfur Standards ....................................................................................................................... 12–37 Locomotives Locomotives – Exhaust Emission Standards .................................................................................. 12–26 Long-Distance Long-Distance Trip Characteristics, 2001 NHTS ............................................................................ 8–26 Major Percentage of Trucks by Size Ranked by Major Use, 2002 ............................................................... 5–8 Share of Trucks by Major Use and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002................................................. 5–10 Manufacturer Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012......................................... 6–5 Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012 ............................................ 6–8 Manufacturing U.S. Employment for Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing, 1990–2011 ...................................................................................................... 10–20 Maps Appendix C. Maps ..............................................................................................................................C–1 Marine Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards.................................. 12–28 Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................. 12–32 Highway, Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine (NRLM) Diesel Fuel Sulfur Standards .................. 12–37 Market Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 ................................................... 4–7 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................. 4–10 Light Vehicle Market Shares by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................ 4–11 Light Vehicle Market Shares, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................. 4–12 Material Average Material Consumption for a Light Vehicle, Model Years 1995, 2000, and 2010..................................................................................................................................... 4–17 Matter Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM–10), 1970–2011 ............................................ 12–9 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM–10) from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 ........................... 12–10 Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5), 1990–2011 .......................................... 12–11 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5) from Highway Vehicles, 1990–2005........................... 12–12 Mean Truck Harmonic Mean Fuel Economy by Size Class, 1992, 1997, and 2002 .................................... 5–6 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Means Means of Transportation to Work, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 Census .......................................... 8–20 Medium California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards.................................................................................................................................. 12–21 Medium-Duty Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards ......................................................................... 12–14 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Evaporative Emission Standards................................................................... 12–15 Methodologies Appendix A. Sources & Methodologies ............................................................................................ A–1 Mile Car Operating Cost per Mile, 1985–2011 ...................................................................................... 10–16 Miles Shares of Highway Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Type, 1970–2010 ..................................... 3–11 Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys.......................................................................................... 5–23 Average Miles per Domestic Federal Vehicle by Vehicle Type, 2011 .............................................. 7–4 Average Annual Miles per Household Vehicle by Vehicle Age ...................................................... 8–13 Self-Reported vs. Odometer Average Annual Miles, 1995 NPTS and 2001 NHTS ........................ 8–14 Share of Vehicles by Annual Miles of Travel and Vehicle Age, 2009 NHTS ................................. 8–16 Average Daily Miles Driven (per Driver), 2009 NHTS ................................................................... 8–17 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel (per Vehicle) by Number of Vehicles in the Household, 2009 NHTS ................................................................................................... 8–18 Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ...................................................................................................... 8–18 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ............................... 8–19 Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS............................. 8–19 Mode Highway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010 ........................................ 1–21 Nonhighway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 1970–2009 .................................. 1–22 Transportation Petroleum Use by Mode, 2009–2010 ....................................................................... 1–23 Domestic Consumption of Transportation Energy by Mode and Fuel Type, 2010............................ 2–7 Transportation Energy Use by Mode, 2009–2010.............................................................................. 2–8 Highway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010............................................... 2–9 Nonhighway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010 ....................................... 2–10 Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Mode, 1990 and 2010 ............................................. 11–8 Model Off-highway Transportation-related Fuel Consumption from the Nonroad Model, 2010 ............... 2–11 Car Scrappage and Survival Rates, 1970, 1980 and 1990 Model Years .......................................... 3–16 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 ................................................................... 4–7 Definition of Wagons in Model Year 2011 ........................................................................................ 4–8 Definition of Non-Truck Sport Utility Vehicles in Model Year 2011 ............................................... 4–9

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Model (continued) Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................. 4–10 Light Vehicle Market Shares by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................ 4–11 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–13 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–14 Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–15 Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1977–2011 .................................................................................... 4–16 Average Material Consumption for a Light Vehicle, Model Years 1995, 2000, and 2010 .............. 4–17 Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Standards, Model Years 2012–2016...................... 4–20 Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Targets for Model Year 2016.................................................. 4–21 List of Model Year 2011 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes................................................................... 4–26 Fuel Economy by Speed, PSAT Model Results ............................................................................... 4–28 Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012......................................... 6–5 Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012 ............................................ 6–8 New Light Fleet Vehicle Registrations by Vehicle Type, Model Year 2010 ..................................... 7–3 GREET Model.................................................................................................................................. 11–9 GREET Model Feedstocks and Fuels............................................................................................. 11–10 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–13 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–14 Modes Energy Intensities of Highway Passenger Modes, 1970–2010 ........................................................ 2–15 Energy Intensities of Nonhighway Passenger Modes, 1970–2010 .................................................. 2–16 Energy Intensities of Freight Modes, 1970–2010 ............................................................................ 2–19 Nonhighway Modes ........................................................................................................................... 9–1 Monoxide Total National Emissions of Carbon Monoxide, 1970–2011 ........................................................... 12–3 Emissions of Carbon Monoxide from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 ............................................ 12–4 Motor Retail Prices for Motor Fuel, 1978–2011 ......................................................................................... 10–8 Federal Excise Taxes on Motor Fuels, 2010 .................................................................................. 10–11 U.S. Employment for Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing, 1990–2011 ...................................................................................................... 10–20 National Summary Statistics for the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak), 1971–2010 ......... 9–11 Total National Emissions of the Criteria Air Pollutants by Sector, 2011......................................... 12–2 Total National Emissions of Carbon Monoxide, 1970–2011 ........................................................... 12–3 Total National Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides, 1970–2011 .............................................................. 12–5 Total National Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds, 1970–2011 ......................................... 12–7 Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM–10), 1970–2011 ............................................ 12–9 Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5), 1990–2011 .......................................... 12–11

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Natural World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010 ................................................... 1–7 New New Retail Vehicle Sales, 1970–2011 ............................................................................................. 3–15 New Retail Car Sales in the United States, 1970–2011 ..................................................................... 4–5 New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the United States, 1970–2011.......... 4–6 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 ................................................................... 4–7 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................. 4–10 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–13 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–14 Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–15 Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1977–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–16 New Light Vehicle Dealerships and Sales, 1970–2010 ................................................................... 4–18 The Gas Guzzler Tax on New Cars .................................................................................................. 4–25 New Retail Truck Sales by Gross Vehicle Weight, 1970–2011......................................................... 5–4 New Light Fleet Vehicle Registrations by Vehicle Type, Model Year 2010 ..................................... 7–3 Average Price of a New Car, 1913–2010 ....................................................................................... 10–14 Average Price of a New Car (Domestic and Import), 1970–2010 ................................................. 10–15 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–13 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–14 New York New York City Driving Cycle.......................................................................................................... 4–36 NHTS Demographic Statistics from the 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS........ 8–7 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ............................. 8–8 Average Number of Vehicles and Vehicle Travel per Household, 1990 NPTS and 2001 and 2009 NHTS ........................................................................................ 8–9 Trip Statistics by Trip Purpose, 2001 and 2009 NHTS .................................................................... 8–10 Average Vehicle Occupancy by Vehicle Type, 1995 NPTS and 2009 NHTS ................................. 8–11 Average Vehicle Occupancy by Trip Purpose, 1977 NPTS and 2009 NHTS.................................. 8–12 Self-Reported vs. Odometer Average Annual Miles, 1995 NPTS and 2001 NHTS ........................ 8–14 Share of Vehicle Trips by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS..................................................................... 8–15 Share of Vehicle Trips to Work by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS ...................................................... 8–15 Share of Vehicles by Annual Miles of Travel and Vehicle Age, 2009 NHTS ................................. 8–16 Household Vehicle Trips, 2009 NHTS ............................................................................................ 8–17 Average Daily Miles Driven (per Driver), 2009 NHTS ................................................................... 8–17 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel (per Vehicle) by Number of Vehicles in the Household, 2009 NHTS ................................................................................................... 8–18 Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ...................................................................................................... 8–18 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ............................... 8–19 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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NHTS (continued) Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS............................. 8–19 Walk and Bike Trips by Trip Purpose, 2009 NHTS......................................................................... 8–24 Long-Distance Trip Characteristics, 2001 NHTS ............................................................................ 8–26 Nitrogen Total National Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides, 1970–2011 .............................................................. 12–5 Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005............................................... 12–6 Nonhighway Nonhighway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 1970–2009 .................................. 1–22 Nonhighway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 1970–2009 ....................................... 2–10 Energy Intensities of Nonhighway Passenger Modes, 1970–2010 .................................................. 2–16 Nonhighway Modes ........................................................................................................................... 9–1 Nonhighway Energy Use Shares, 1970–2010 .................................................................................... 9–2 Nonroad Off-highway Transportation-related Fuel Consumption from the Nonroad Model, 2010 ............... 2–11 Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards ....................................... 12–23 Nonroad Large Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust and Evaporative Emission Standards .................................................................................................................. 12–25 Nonroad Recreational Engines and Vehicles – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................ 12–34 Highway, Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine (NRLM) Diesel Fuel Sulfur Standards .................. 12–37 Non-Truck Definition of Non-Truck Sport Utility Vehicles in Model Year 2011 ............................................... 4–9 NPTS Demographic Statistics from the 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ................................................................................................................. 8–7 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ................................................................ 8–8 Average Number of Vehicles and Vehicle Travel per Household, 1990 NPTS and 2001 and 2009 NHTS............................................................................................................ 8–9 Average Vehicle Occupancy by Vehicle Type, 1995 NPTS and 2009 NHTS ................................. 8–11 Average Vehicle Occupancy by Trip Purpose, 1977 NPTS and 2009 NHTS.................................. 8–12 Self-Reported vs. Odometer Average Annual Miles, 1995 NPTS and 2001 NHTS ........................ 8–14 Number Representative Number Five Driving Cycle .................................................................................... 4–36 Number of Alternative Refuel Sites by State and Fuel Type, 2012 ................................................. 6–10 Average Number of Vehicles and Vehicle Travel per Household, 1990 NPTS and 2001 and 2009 NHTS ........................................................................................ 8–9 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel (per Vehicle) by Number of Vehicles in the Household, 2009 NHTS ................................................................................................... 8–18 Refiner Sales Prices for Propane and No. 2 Diesel, 1978–2011 ...................................................... 10–9 Numerical Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared with Carbon Dioxide ................... 11–3 Occupancy Average Vehicle Occupancy by Vehicle Type, 1995 NPTS and 2009 NHTS ................................. 8–11 Average Vehicle Occupancy by Trip Purpose, 1977 NPTS and 2009 NHTS.................................. 8–12 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Odometer Self-Reported vs. Odometer Average Annual Miles, 1995 NPTS and 2001 NHTS ........................ 8–14 Off-highway Off-highway Transportation-related Fuel Consumption from the Nonroad Model, 2010 ............... 2–11 Oil World Crude Oil Production, 1960–2011 .......................................................................................... 1–3 World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010.................................................................. 1–6 Imported Crude Oil by Country of Origin, 1973-2011 ...................................................................... 1–9 Crude Oil Supplies, 1973-2011 ........................................................................................................ 1–10 Oil Price and Economic Growth, 1970–2011................................................................................... 1–11 Costs of Oil Dependence to the U.S. Economy, 1970–2010 ............................................................ 1–12 U.S. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 1987–2010 .......................................... 1–14 Refinery Yield of Petroleum Products from a Barrel of Crude Oil, 1978-2011............................... 1–15 Prices for a Barrel of Crude Oil and a Gallon of Gasoline, 1978–2011 ........................................... 10–7 On-Road Distribution of Five-Axle Tractor-Trailers by On-Road Vehicle Weight, 2008 .............................. 5–20 Operating Car Operating Cost per Mile, 1985–2011 ...................................................................................... 10–16 Fixed Car Operating Costs per Year, 1975–2011........................................................................... 10–17 Operation Cars in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 ........................................................ 3–12 Trucks in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 .................................................... 3–13 Operations Summary Statistics for Commuter Rail Operations, 1984–2010 ..................................................... 9–12 Summary Statistics for Rail Transit Operations, 1970–2010 ........................................................... 9–13 Organic Total National Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds, 1970–2011 ......................................... 12–7 Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 .......................... 12–8 Origin Imported Crude Oil by Country of Origin, 1973-2011 ...................................................................... 1–9 Other Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to Other Countries (in 1999 and 2010) ...................................................................................................... 3–7 Vehicles per Thousand People in Other Countries, 2000 and 2010 ................................................... 3–9 Output Refinery Gross Output by World Region, 2001 and 2011 .............................................................. 1–13 Ownership Household Vehicle Ownership, 1960–2010 Census .......................................................................... 8–6 Oxides Total National Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides, 1970–2011 .............................................................. 12–5 Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005............................................... 12–6

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Oxygenate Alternative Fuel and Oxygenate Consumption, 2003–2010 .............................................................. 2–5 Particulate Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM–10), 1970–2011 ............................................ 12–9 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM–10) from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 ........................... 12–10 Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5), 1990–2011 .......................................... 12–11 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5) from Highway Vehicles, 1990–2005........................... 12–12 Parts U.S. Employment for Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing, 1990–2011 ...................................................................................................... 10–20 Passenger Passenger Travel and Energy Use, 2010 .......................................................................................... 2–14 Energy Intensities of Highway Passenger Modes, 1970–2010 ........................................................ 2–15 Energy Intensities of Nonhighway Passenger Modes, 1970–2010 .................................................. 2–16 Summary Statistics for the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak), 1971–2010 ............................................................................................ 9–11 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards ......................................................................... 12–14 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Evaporative Emission Standards................................................................... 12–15 People Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to Other Countries (in 2000 and 2010) ...................................................................................................... 3–7 Vehicles per Thousand People in Other Countries, 2000 and 2010 ................................................... 3–9 Vehicles per Thousand People in the United States, 1990–2010 ..................................................... 3–10 Percent Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination .............................................................................................. 5–17 Percentage Percentage of Trucks by Size Ranked by Major Use, 2002 ............................................................... 5–8 Percentage of Trucks by Fleet Size and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002 ........................................... 5–9 Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed .................... 5–16 Period Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2010 ................................................... 4–7 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2010 .................................................. 4–10 Personal Personal Consumption Expenditures, 1970–2011 .......................................................................... 10–18 Petroleum Petroleum Production and Transportation Petroleum Consumption in Context ................................ 1–1 World Petroleum Production, 1973–2011 .......................................................................................... 1–4 World Petroleum Consumption, 1960–2011 ...................................................................................... 1–5 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Petroleum (continued) U.S. Petroleum Imports, 1960–2011 .................................................................................................. 1–8 U.S. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 1987–2010 .......................................... 1–14 Refinery Yield of Petroleum Products from a Barrel of Crude Oil, 1978-2011............................... 1–15 United States Petroleum Production, Imports and Exports, 1950–2011 .......................................... 1–16 Petroleum Production and Transportation Petroleum Consumption in Context .............................. 1–17 United States Petroleum Production and Consumption – All Sectors, 1973-2035 .......................... 1–18 United States Petroleum Production, and Transportation Consumption, 1970-2035 ....................... 1–19 Consumption of Petroleum by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 ............................................................ 1–20 Highway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010 ........................................ 1–21 Nonhighway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 1970–2009 .................................. 1–22 Transportation Petroleum Use by Mode, 2009–2010 ....................................................................... 1–23 Plug-In Hybrid and Plug-in Vehicle Sales, 1999-2011 ................................................................................... 6–7 PM-10 Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM–10), 1970–2011 ............................................ 12–9 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM–10) from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 ........................... 12–10 PM-2.5 Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5), 1990–2011 .......................................... 12–11 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5) from Highway Vehicles, 1990–2005........................... 12–12 Pollutants Criteria Air Pollutants ...................................................................................................................... 12–1 Total National Emissions of the Criteria Air Pollutants by Sector, 2011......................................... 12–2 Population Population and Vehicle Profile, 1950–2010 ....................................................................................... 8–2 Potential World Fossil Fuel Potential ................................................................................................................ 1–2 U.S. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, based on Global Warming Potential, 1990–2010 ................................................................................................................................. 11–4 Potentials Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared with Carbon Dioxide ................... 11–3 Pounds New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the United States, 1970–2011.......... 4–6 Distribution of Trucks over 26,000 lbs. Less than Two Years Old by VehicleMiles Traveled ........................................................................................................................... 5–11 Price Oil Price and Economic Growth, 1970–2011................................................................................... 1–11 Average Price of a New Car, 1913-2010........................................................................................ 10–14 Price (continued) Average Price of a New Car (Domestic and Import), 1970–2010 ................................................. 10–15 Consumer Price Indices, 1970–2011 .............................................................................................. 10–18 Prices Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 1990–2011 ........................................................................ 10–3 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Prices (continued) Diesel Fuel Prices for Selected Countries, 1998–2011 .................................................................... 10–4 Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2011 ................................................................... 10–5 Diesel Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2011 ....................................................................... 10–6 Prices for a Barrel of Crude Oil and a Gallon of Gasoline, 1978–2011 ........................................... 10–7 Retail Prices for Motor Fuel, 1978–2011 ......................................................................................... 10–8 Refiner Sales Prices for Propane and No. 2 Diesel, 1978–2011 ...................................................... 10–9 Refiner Sales Prices for Aviation Gasoline and Jet Fuel, 1978–2011 ............................................ 10–10 Primary World Consumption of Primary Energy, 2009 ................................................................................... 2–2 Percentage of Trucks by Fleet Size and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002 ........................................... 5–9 Share of Trucks by Major Use and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002................................................. 5–10 Production Petroleum Production and Transportation Petroleum Consumption in Context ................................ 1–1 World Crude Oil Production, 1960–2011 .......................................................................................... 1–3 World Petroleum Production, 1973–2011 .......................................................................................... 1–4 World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010.................................................................. 1–6 World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010 ................................................... 1–7 United States Petroleum Production, Imports and Exports, 1950–2011 .......................................... 1–16 Petroleum Production and Transportation Petroleum Consumption in Context .............................. 1–17 United States Petroleum Production and Consumption – All Sectors, 1973-2035 .......................... 1–18 United States Petroleum Production, and Transportation Consumption, 1970-2035 ....................... 1–19 World Production of Cars and Trucks, 2000-2010............................................................................. 3–2 Products U.S. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 1987–2010 .......................................... 1–14 Refinery Yield of Petroleum Products from a Barrel of Crude Oil, 1978-2011............................... 1–15 Profile Population and Vehicle Profile, 1950–2010 ....................................................................................... 8–2 Projected Projected Fuel Economies from U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles .............................. 4–37 Propane Refiner Sales Prices for Propane and No. 2 Diesel, 1978–2011 ...................................................... 10–9 Properties Properties of Conventional and Alternative Fuels............................................................................ 6–13 PSAT Fuel Economy by Speed, PSAT Model Results ............................................................................... 4–28 Purpose Trip Statistics by Trip Purpose, 2001 and 2009 NHTS .................................................................... 8–10 Average Vehicle Occupancy by Trip Purpose, 1977 NPTS and 2009 NHTS.................................. 8–12 Walk and Bike Trips by Trip Purpose, 2009 NHTS......................................................................... 8–24 Rail Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems, 2010 ..................................................................... 2–17 Energy Intensity of Heavy Rail Systems, 2010 ................................................................................ 2–18 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Rail (continued) Energy Intensity of Commuter Rail Systems, 2010 ......................................................................... 2–18 Intermodal Rail Traffic, 1965–2010 ................................................................................................. 9–10 Summary Statistics for Commuter Rail Operations, 1984–2010 ..................................................... 9–12 Summary Statistics for Rail Transit Operations, 1970–2010 ........................................................... 9–13 Railroad Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States Ranked by Revenue Ton–Miles, 2010 ........................................................................................................... 9–8 Summary Statistics for the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak), 1971–2010................................................................................................................. 9–11 Railroads Summary Statistics for Class I Freight Railroads, 1970–2010 ........................................................... 9–9 Ranked Percentage of Trucks by Size Ranked by Major Use, 2002 ............................................................... 5–8 Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States Ranked by Revenue Ton–Miles, 2009 ........................................................................................................... 9–8 Rates Car Scrappage and Survival Rates, 1970, 1980 and 1990 Model Years .......................................... 3–15 Light Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates ...................................................................................... 3–16 Heavy Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates .................................................................................... 3–17 Receipts Tax Receipts from the Sale of Gas Guzzlers, 1980–2010 ................................................................ 4–27 Recreational Recreational Boat Energy Use, 1970–2010........................................................................................ 9–7 Nonroad Recreational Engines and Vehicles – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................ 12–34 Refiner Refiner Sales Prices for Propane and No. 2 Diesel, 1978–2011 ...................................................... 10–9 Refiner Sales Prices for Aviation Gasoline and Jet Fuel, 1978–2011 ............................................ 10–10 Refinery Refinery Gross Output by World Region, 2001 and 2011 .............................................................. 1–11 Refinery Yield of Petroleum Products from a Barrel of Crude Oil, 1978-2011............................... 1–15 Refuel Number of Alternative Refuel Sites by State and Fuel Type, 2012 ................................................. 6–10 Refueling Conventional Refueling Stations, 1993–2010 .................................................................................. 4–19 Region Refinery Gross Output by World Region, 2001 and 2011 ............................................................... 1–13 Registrations Car Registrations for Selected Countries, 1960–2010........................................................................ 3–3 Truck and Bus Registrations for Selected Countries, 1960–2010 ...................................................... 3–4 New Light Fleet Vehicle Registrations by Vehicle Type, Model Year 2010 ..................................... 7–3 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Representative Representative Number Five Driving Cycle .................................................................................... 4–36 Reserves World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010.................................................................. 1–6 World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010 ................................................... 1–7 Response Summary Statistics on Demand Response Vehicles, 1994–2010 .................................................... 4–39 Results Fuel Economy by Speed, PSAT Model Results ............................................................................... 4–28 Retail New Retail Vehicle Sales, 1970–2011 ............................................................................................. 3–15 New Retail Car Sales in the United States, 1970–2011 ..................................................................... 4–5 New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the United States, 1970–2011.......... 4–6 New Retail Truck Sales by Gross Vehicle Weight, 1970–2011......................................................... 5–4 Retail Prices for Motor Fuel, 1978–2011 ......................................................................................... 10–8 Revenue Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States Ranked by Revenue Ton–Miles, 2010 ........................................................................................................... 9–8 Route Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 1970–2011 ............................................................................... 9–3 Sale Tax Receipts from the Sale of Gas Guzzlers, 1980–2010 ................................................................ 4–27 Sales New Retail Vehicle Sales, 1970–2011 ............................................................................................. 3–15 Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks, 1989–1999 ................................... 4–4 New Retail Car Sales in the United States, 1970–2011 ..................................................................... 4–5 New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the United States, 1970–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–6 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................. 4–7 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................. 4–10 New Light Vehicle Dealerships and Sales, 1970–2010 ................................................................... 4–18 New Retail Truck Sales by Gross Vehicle Weight, 1970–2011......................................................... 5–4 Hybrid and Plug-in Vehicle Sales, 1999-2011 ................................................................................... 6–7 Bicycle Sales, 1981-2010 ................................................................................................................. 8–23 Refiner Sales Prices for Propane and No. 2 Diesel, 1978–2011 ...................................................... 10–9 Refiner Sales Prices for Aviation Gasoline and Jet Fuel, 1978–2011 ............................................ 10–10 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–13 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–14

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Sales-Weighted Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 ...................................... 4–7 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 ..................................... 4–10 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–13 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–14 Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–15 Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1977–2011 .................................................................................... 4–16 Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 ............................................................. 4–22 Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 .................................................. 4–23 SC03 Air Conditioning (SC03) Driving Cycle .......................................................................................... 4–34 Scrappage Car Scrappage and Survival Rates, 1970, 1980 and 1990 Model Years .......................................... 3–16 Light Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates ...................................................................................... 3–17 Heavy Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates .................................................................................... 3–18 Sector Consumption of Petroleum by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 ............................................................ 1–20 U.S. Consumption of Total Energy by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 ................................................. 2–3 Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by End-Use Sector, 2010 .................................................... 11–5 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1990–2010 ................ 11–6 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Transportation End-Use Sector .............. 11–7 Total National Emissions of the Criteria Air Pollutants by Sector, 2011......................................... 12–2 Sectors United States Petroleum Production and Consumption – All Sectors, 1973–2035 ................................................................................................................................. 1–18 Selected Car Registrations for Selected Countries, 1960–2010........................................................................ 3–3 Truck and Bus Registrations for Selected Countries, 1960–2010 ...................................................... 3–4 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 ................................................................... 4–7 Share of Heavy Trucks with Selected Electronic Features, 2002 .................................................... 5–12 Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 1990–2011 ........................................................................ 10–3 Diesel Fuel Prices for Selected Countries, 1998–2011 .................................................................... 10–4 Gasoline Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2011 ................................................................... 10–5 Diesel Prices for Selected Countries, 1990 and 2011 ....................................................................... 10–6 Self-Reported Self-Reported vs. Odometer Average Annual Miles, 1995 NPTS and 2001 NHTS ................................................................................................................................ 8–14

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Service Fleet Vehicles in Service as of January 1, 2011 ................................................................................. 7–2 Average Length of Time Business Fleet Vehicles are in Service, 2010 ............................................ 7–3 Services Transportation Services Index, January 1990–January 2012 ........................................................... 10–2 Share Share of Heavy Trucks with Selected Electronic Features, 2002 .................................................... 5–12 Share of Vehicle Trips by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS..................................................................... 8–15 Share of Vehicle Trips to Work by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS ...................................................... 8–15 Share of Vehicles by Annual Miles of Travel and Vehicle Age, 2009 NHTS ................................. 8–16 Shares Shares of Highway Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Type, 1970–2010 ..................................... 3–11 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 ................................................................... 4–7 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................. 4–10 Light Vehicle Market Shares by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................ 4–11 Share of Trucks by Major Use and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002................................................. 5–10 Nonhighway Energy Use Shares, 1970–2010 .................................................................................... 9–2 Single-Unit Summary Statistics for Heavy Single-Unit Trucks, 1970–2010 ........................................................ 5–2 Sites Number of Alternative Refuel Sites by State and Fuel Type, 2012 ................................................. 6–10 Size Light Vehicle Market Shares by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................ 4–11 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–13 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–13 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–14 Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–15 Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1977–2011 .................................................................................... 4–16 Truck Harmonic Mean Fuel Economy by Size Class, 1992, 1997, and 2002 .................................... 5–6 Truck Statistics by Size, 2002 ............................................................................................................ 5–7 Percentage of Trucks by Size Ranked by Major Use, 2002 ............................................................... 5–8 Percentage of Trucks by Fleet Size and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002 ........................................... 5–9 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–13 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–14 Source Distribution of Energy Consumption by Source, 1973 and 2011....................................................... 2–4

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Sources Appendix A. Sources & Methodologies ........................................................................................... A–1 Space Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1977–2010 ............................................................................................................ 4–15 Spark Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards ............................. 12–18 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines – Evaporative Emission Standards.............................................................................................. 12–20 Nonroad Large Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust and Evaporative Emission Standards ............. 12–25 Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................. 12–32 Speed Fuel Economy by Speed, PSAT Model Results ............................................................................... 4–28 Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, and 1997 Studies ................................................................. 4–29 Steady Speed Fuel Economy for Vehicles Tested in the 1997 Study............................................... 4–31 High Speed (US06) Driving Cycle ................................................................................................... 4–35 Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ....................................................................................... 5–15 Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed .................... 5–16 Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ....................................................................................... 5–17 Standards Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Standards, Model Years 2012–2016...................... 4–20 Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 ............................................................. 4–22 Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 ............................................................. 4–23 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards ......................................................................... 12–14 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Evaporative Emission Standards................................................................... 12–15 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses – Exhaust Emission Standards .................................................................................................................. 12–16 Heavy-Duty Highway Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards ............................. 12–18 Heavy-Duty Highway Compression Ignition and Spark-Ignition Engines – Evaporative Emission Standards ............................................................................. 12–20 California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards ...................... 12–21 Aircraft – Exhaust Emission Standards .......................................................................................... 12–22 Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards ....................................... 12–23 Nonroad Large Spark-Ignition Engines – Exhaust and Evaporative Emission Standards .................................................................................................................. 12–25 Locomotives – Exhaust Emission Standards .................................................................................. 12–26 Marine Compression-Ignition (CI) Engines – Exhaust Emission Standards.................................. 12–28 Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................. 12–32 Nonroad Recreational Engines and Vehicles – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................ 12–34 Gasoline Sulfur Standards .............................................................................................................. 12–36 Highway, Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine (NRLM) Diesel Fuel Sulfur Standards .................. 12–37

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State Number of Alternative Refuel Sites by State and Fuel Type, 2012 ................................................. 6–10 State Tax Exemptions for Gasohol, 2009 ....................................................................................... 10–11 Federal and State Alternative Fuel Incentives, 2011 ...................................................................... 10–12 Federal and State Advanced Technology Incentives, 2011 ............................................................ 10–13 States U.S. Petroleum Imports, 1960–2011 .................................................................................................. 1–8 Costs of Oil Dependence to the U.S. Economy, 1970–2010 ............................................................ 1–12 U.S. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 1987–2010 .......................................... 1–14 United States Petroleum Production, Imports and Exports, 1950–2011 .......................................... 1–16 United States Petroleum Production and Consumption – All Sectors, 1973-2035 .......................... 1–18 United States Petroleum Production, and Transportation Consumption, 1970-2035 ....................... 1–19 U.S. Consumption of Total Energy by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 ................................................. 2–3 Vehicles per Thousand People in the United States, 1990–2010 ..................................................... 3–10 U.S. Average Vehicle Age, 1995–2011 ........................................................................................... 3–14 U.S. Cars and Trucks in Use, 1970–2010 .......................................................................................... 3–6 Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to Other Countries (in 2000 and 2010) ...................................................................................................... 3–7 New Retail Car Sales in the United States, 1970–2011 ..................................................................... 4–5 New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the United States, 1970–2011 .................................................................................................. 4–6 Projected Fuel Economies from U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles .............................. 4–37 Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles......................................................... 4–38 Growth of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys.......................................................................................... 5–22 Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys.......................................................................................... 5–23 Number of Alternative Refuel Sites by State and Fuel Type, 2012 ................................................. 6–10 Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density ................ 8–21 Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 1970–2011 ............................................................................... 9–3 Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States Ranked by Revenue Ton–Miles, 2010 ...................................................................................................... 9–8 U.S. Employment for Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing, 1990–2011 ...................................................................................................... 10–20 U.S. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, based on Global Warming Potential, 1990–2010 ................................................................................................................. 11–4 Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by End-Use Sector, 2010 .................................................... 11–5 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1990–2010 ..................................................................................................................... 11–6 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Transportation End-Use Sector .......................................................................................................................... 11–7 Stations Conventional Refueling Stations, 1993–2010 .................................................................................. 4–19 Statistics Summary Statistics for Cars, 1970–2010 ........................................................................................... 4–2 Summary Statistics for Two-Axle, Four-Tire Trucks, 1970–2010..................................................... 4–3 Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks ................................................ 4–4 Summary Statistics on Demand Response Vehicles, 1994–2010 .................................................... 4–39 Summary Statistics for Class 3-8 Single-Unit Trucks, 1970–2010 .................................................... 5–2 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Statistics (continued) Summary Statistics for Class 7-8 Combination Trucks, 1970–2010.................................................. 5–3 Truck Statistics by Gross Vehicle Weight Class, 2002 ...................................................................... 5–6 Truck Statistics by Size, 2002 ............................................................................................................ 5–7 Summary Statistics on Transit Buses and Trolleybuses, 1994–2010 ............................................... 5–24 Demographic Statistics from the 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ................................................................................................................. 8–7 Trip Statistics by Trip Purpose, 2001 and 2009 NHTS .................................................................... 8–10 Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 1970–2011 ............................................................................... 9–3 Summary Statistics for General Aviation, 1970–2010 ....................................................................... 9–4 Tonnage Statistics for Domestic and International Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 .................. 9–5 Summary Statistics for Domestic Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 ............................................. 9–6 Summary Statistics for Class I Freight Railroads, 1970–2010 ........................................................... 9–9 Summary Statistics for the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak), 1971–2010 ......... 9–11 Summary Statistics for Commuter Rail Operations, 1984–2010 ..................................................... 9–12 Summary Statistics for Rail Transit Operations, 1970–2010 ........................................................... 9–13 Steady Steady Speed Fuel Economy for Vehicles Tested in the 1997 Study............................................... 4–31 Studies Fuel Economy by Speed, 1973, 1984, and 1997 Studies ................................................................. 4–29 Study Steady Speed Fuel Economy for Vehicles Tested in the 1997 Study............................................... 4–31 Sulphur Gasoline Sulfur Standards .............................................................................................................. 12–36 Highway, Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine (NRLM) Diesel Fuel Sulfur Standards .................. 12–37 Summary Summary Statistics for Cars, 1970–2010 ........................................................................................... 4–2 Summary Statistics for Two-Axle, Four-Tire Trucks, 1970–2010..................................................... 4–3 Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks ................................................ 4–4 Summary Statistics on Demand Response Vehicles, 1994–2010 .................................................... 4–39 Summary Statistics for Class 3-8 Single-Unit Trucks, 1970–2010 .................................................... 5–2 Summary Statistics for Class 7-8 Combination Trucks, 1970–2010.................................................. 5–3 Summary Statistics on Transit Buses and Trolleybuses, 1994–2010 ............................................... 5–24 Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 1970–2011 ............................................................................... 9–3 Summary Statistics for General Aviation, 1970–2010 ....................................................................... 9–4 Summary Statistics for Domestic Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 ............................................. 9–6 Summary Statistics for Class I Freight Railroads, 1970–2010 ........................................................... 9–9 Summary Statistics for the National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak), 1971–2010 ......... 9–11 Summary Statistics for Commuter Rail Operations, 1984–2010 ..................................................... 9–12 Summary Statistics for Rail Transit Operations, 1970–2010 ........................................................... 9–13 Supplies Crude Oil Supplies, 1973-2011 ........................................................................................................ 1–10

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Surveys Growth of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys.......................................................................................... 5–22 Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys ................................................................................................ 5–23 Survival Car Scrappage and Survival Rates, 1970, 1980 and 1990 Model Years .......................................... 3–16 Light Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates ...................................................................................... 3–17 Heavy Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates .................................................................................... 3–18 Systems Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems, 2010 ..................................................................... 2–17 Energy Intensity of Heavy Rail Systems, 2010 ................................................................................ 2–18 Energy Intensity of Commuter Rail Systems, 2010 ......................................................................... 2–18 Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States Ranked by Revenue Ton–Miles, 2010 ........................................................................................................... 9–8 Targets Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Targets for Model Year 2016.................................................. 4–21 Tax The Gas Guzzler Tax on New Cars .................................................................................................. 4–25 Tax Receipts from the Sale of Gas Guzzlers, 1980–2010 ................................................................ 4–27 State Tax Exemptions for Gasohol, 2010 ....................................................................................... 10–11 Taxes List of Model Year 2011 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes................................................................... 4–26 Federal Excise Taxes on Motor Fuels, 2010 .................................................................................. 10–11 Technologies Well-to-Wheel Emissions for Various Fuels and Vehicle Technologies ....................................... 11–11 Technology Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles and Characteristics........................................ 6–1 Federal and State Advanced Technology Incentives, 2012 ............................................................ 10–13 Temperature Cold Temperature (Cold FTP) Driving Cycle .................................................................................. 4–34 Terrain Effect of Terrain on Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy ........................................................................... 5–14 Tested Steady Speed Fuel Economy for Vehicles Tested in the 1997 Study............................................... 4–31 Thousand Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to Other Countries (in 1999 and 2010) ...................................................................................................... 3–7 Vehicles per Thousand People in Other Countries, 2000 and 2010 ................................................... 3–9 Vehicles per Thousand People in the United States, 1990–2010 ..................................................... 3–10

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Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards ......................................................................... 12–14 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Evaporative Emission Standards................................................................... 12–15 Time Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to Other Countries (in 2000 and 2010) ...................................................................................................... 3–7 Average Length of Time Business Fleet Vehicles are in Service, 2010 ............................................ 7–3 Workers by Commute Time, 1990, 2000 and 2010 ......................................................................... 8–22 Tire Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination .............................................................................................. 5–17 Ton-Miles Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States Ranked by Revenue Ton–Miles, 2009 ........................................................................................................... 9–8 Tonnage Tonnage Statistics for Domestic and International Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 ................................................................................................................ 9–5 Total U.S. Consumption of Total Energy by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 ................................................. 2–3 Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed .................... 5–16 Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ....................................................................................... 5–17 Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by End-Use Sector, 2010 .................................................... 11–5 Total National Emissions of the Criteria Air Pollutants by Sector, 2011......................................... 12–2 Total National Emissions of Carbon Monoxide, 1970–2011 ........................................................... 12–3 Total National Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides, 1970–2011 .............................................................. 12–5 Total National Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds, 1970–2011 ......................................... 12–7 Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM–10), 1970–2011 ............................................ 12–9 Total National Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5), 1990–2011 .......................................... 12–11 Totals Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 1970–2011 ............................................................................... 9–3 Tractor-Trailer Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ....................................................................................................................... 5–15 Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed .................... 5–16 Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination .............................................................................................. 5–17 Traffic Intermodal Rail Traffic, 1965–2010 ................................................................................................. 9–10

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Transit Energy Intensity of Light Rail Transit Systems, 2010 ..................................................................... 2–17 Summary Statistics on Transit Buses and Trolleybuses, 1994–2010 ............................................... 5–24 Alternative Fuel Transit Vehicles, 2010 ............................................................................................. 6–4 Summary Statistics for Rail Transit Operations, 1970–2010 ........................................................... 9–13 Transportation Petroleum Production and Transportation Petroleum Consumption in Context, 1950–2011 .......... 1–17 United States Petroleum Production, and Transportation Consumption, 1970–2035 ...................... 1–19 Highway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010 ........................................ 1–21 Nonhighway Transportation Petroleum Consumption by Mode, 1970–2009 .................................. 1–22 Transportation Petroleum Use by Mode, 2009–2010 ....................................................................... 1–23 Domestic Consumption of Transportation Energy by Mode and Fuel Type, 2010............................ 2–7 Transportation Energy Use by Mode, 2009–2010.............................................................................. 2–8 Highway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010............................................... 2–9 Nonhighway Transportation Energy Consumption by Mode, 1970–2010 ....................................... 2–10 Off-highway Transportation-related Fuel Consumption from the Nonroad Model, 2010 ............... 2–11 Annual Household Expenditures for Transportation, 1985-2010....................................................... 8–5 Means of Transportation to Work, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 ....................................................... 8–20 Transportation and the Economy...................................................................................................... 10–1 Transportation Services Index, January 1990–January 2012 ........................................................... 10–2 Transportation-related Employment, 2000 and 2011 ..................................................................... 10–19 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Transportation End-Use Sector .............. 11–7 Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Mode, 1990 and 2010 ............................................. 11–8 Travel Passenger Travel and Energy Use, 2010 .......................................................................................... 2–14 Cars in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 ........................................................ 3–12 Trucks in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 .................................................... 3–13 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles of Travel for Commercial Fleet Vehicles, 2010 .............................. 7–3 Share of Vehicles by Annual Miles of Travel and Vehicle Age, 2009 NHTS ................................. 8–16 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel (per Vehicle) by Number of Vehicles in the Household, 2009 NHTS ................................................................................................... 8–18 Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ...................................................................................................... 8–18 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ............................... 8–19 Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS............................. 8–19 Average Number of Vehicles and Vehicle Travel per Household, 1990 NPTS and 2001 and 2009 NHTS............................................................................................................ 8–9 Traveled Shares of Highway Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Type, 1970–2010 ..................................... 3–10 Distribution of Trucks over 26,000 lbs. Less than Two Years Old by Vehicle-Miles Traveled ........................................................................................................ 5–11 Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed .................... 5–16 Trip Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ...................................................... 8–8 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ...................................................... 8–8 Share of Vehicle Trips by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS..................................................................... 8–15 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Trip (continued) Share of Vehicle Trips to Work by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS ...................................................... 8–15 Walk and Bike Trips by Trip Purpose, 2009 NHTS......................................................................... 8–24 Long-Distance Trip Characteristics, 2001 NHTS ............................................................................ 8–26 Trips Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ...................................................... 8–8 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ...................................................... 8–8 Trip Statistics by Trip Purpose, 2001 and 2009 NHTS .................................................................... 8–10 Average Vehicle Occupancy by Trip Purpose, 1977 NPTS and 2009 NHTS.................................. 8–12 Share of Vehicle Trips by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS..................................................................... 8–15 Share of Vehicle Trips to Work by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS ...................................................... 8–15 Household Vehicle Trips, 2009 NHTS ............................................................................................ 8–17 Walk and Bike Trips by Trip Purpose, 2009 NHTS......................................................................... 8–24 Trolleybuses Summary Statistics on Transit Buses and Trolleybuses, 1994–2010 ............................................... 5–24 Truck Truck and Bus Registrations for Selected Countries, 1960–2010 ...................................................... 3–4 Light Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates ...................................................................................... 3–17 Heavy Truck Scrappage and Survival Rates .................................................................................... 3–18 Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 ............................................................. 4–23 New Retail Truck Sales by Gross Vehicle Weight, 1970–2011......................................................... 5–4 Truck Statistics by Gross Vehicle Weight Class, 2002 ...................................................................... 5–6 Truck Harmonic Mean Fuel Economy by Size Class, 1992, 1997, and 2002 .................................... 5–6 Truck Statistics by Size, 2002 ............................................................................................................ 5–7 Effect of Terrain on Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy ........................................................................... 5–14 Class 8 Truck Fuel Economy as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination and Percentage of Total Distance Traveled as a Function of Speed .......................................... 5–16 Class 8 Truck Percent of Total Fuel Consumed as a Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ....................................................................................... 5–17 Class 8 Truck Weight by Component .............................................................................................. 5–18 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards ......................................................................... 12–14 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Evaporative Emission Standards................................................................... 12–15 California Car, Light Truck and Medium Truck Emission Certification Standards ...................... 12–21 Trucks World Production of Cars and Trucks, 2000-2010............................................................................. 3–2 U.S. Cars and Trucks in Use, 1970–2010 .......................................................................................... 3–6 Trucks in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 .................................................... 3–13 Summary Statistics for Two-Axle, Four-Tire Trucks, 1970–2010..................................................... 4–3 Summary Statistics on Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks ................................................ 4–4 Sales Estimates of Class 1, Class 2a, and Class 2b Light Trucks, 1989–1999 ................................... 4–4 New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the United States, 1970–2011.......... 4–6 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................. 4–10

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Trucks (continued) Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–14 Summary Statistics for Class 3-8 Single-Unit Trucks, 1970–2010 .................................................... 5–2 Summary Statistics for Class 7-8 Combination Trucks, 1970–2010.................................................. 5–3 Percentage of Trucks by Size Ranked by Major Use, 2002 ............................................................... 5–8 Percentage of Trucks by Fleet Size and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002 ........................................... 5–9 Share of Trucks by Major Use and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002................................................. 5–10 Distribution of Trucks over 26,000 lbs. Less than Two Years Old by Vehicle-Miles Traveled ........................................................................................................ 5–11 Share of Heavy Trucks with Selected Electronic Features, 2002 .................................................... 5–12 Fuel Economy for Class 8 Trucks as Function of Speed and Tractor-Trailer Tire Combination ....................................................................................................................... 5–15 Distribution of Class 8 Trucks by On-Road Vehicle Weight, 2008 ................................................. 5–20 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–14 Two-Axle Summary Statistics for Two-Axle, Four-Tire Trucks, 1970–2011..................................................... 4–3 Type Domestic Consumption of Transportation Energy by Mode and Fuel Type, 2010............................ 2–7 Shares of Highway Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Type, 1970–2010 ..................................... 3–11 Number of Alternative Refuel Sites by State and Fuel Type, 2012 ................................................. 6–10 New Light Fleet Vehicle Registrations by Vehicle Type, Model Year 2010 ..................................... 7–3 Average Miles per Domestic Federal Vehicle by Vehicle Type, 2011 .............................................. 7–4 Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions by Fuel Type, FY 2002– 2011 ................................................... 7–6 Average Vehicle Occupancy by Vehicle Type, 1995 NPTS and 2009 NHTS ................................. 8–11 Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density ................ 8–21 Unit Summary Statistics for Class 3-8 Single-Unit Trucks, 1970–2010 .................................................... 5–2 Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density ................ 8–21 Housing Unit Characteristics, 2009.................................................................................................. 8–21 United U.S. Petroleum Imports, 1960–2011 .................................................................................................. 1–8 Costs of Oil Dependence to the U.S. Economy, 1970–2010 ............................................................ 1–12 U.S. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 1987–2010 .......................................... 1–14 United States Petroleum Production, Imports and Exports, 1950–2011 .......................................... 1–16 United States Petroleum Production and Consumption – All Sectors, 1973-2035 .......................... 1–18 United States Petroleum Production, and Transportation Consumption, 1970-2035 ....................... 1–19 U.S. Consumption of Total Energy by End-Use Sector, 1973–2011 ................................................. 2–3 U.S. Cars and Trucks in Use, 1970–2010 .......................................................................................... 3–6 Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to Other Countries (in 2000 and 2010) ........................................................................................ 3–7 Vehicles per Thousand People in the United States, 1990–2010 ..................................................... 3–10 U.S. Average Vehicle Age, 1995–2011 ........................................................................................... 3–14 New Retail Car Sales in the United States, 1970–2011 ..................................................................... 4–5 New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the United States, 1970–2011 .................................................................................................. 4–6 Projected Fuel Economies from U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles .............................. 4–37 Comparison of U.S., European, and Japanese Driving Cycles......................................................... 4–38 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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United (continued) Growth of Freight in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys.......................................................................................... 5–22 Growth of Freight Miles in the United States: Comparison of the 1997, 2002 and 2007 Commodity Flow Surveys.......................................................................................... 5–23 Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density ................ 8–21 Summary Statistics for U.S. Domestic and International Certificated Route Air Carriers (Combined Totals), 1970–2011 ............................................................................... 9–3 Class I Railroad Freight Systems in the United States Ranked by Revenue Ton–Miles, 2010 ...................................................................................................... 9–8 U.S. Employment for Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing, 1990–2011 ...................................................................................................... 10–20 U.S. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, based on Global Warming Potential, 1990–2010 ................................................................................................................. 11–4 Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by End-Use Sector, 2010 .................................................... 11–5 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Consumption by End-Use Sector, 1990–2010 ................ 11–6 U.S. Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion in Transportation End-Use Sector .............. 11–7 Urban Heavy-Duty Highway Compression-Ignition Engines and Urban Buses – Exhaust Emission Standards .................................................................................................... 12–16 US06 High Speed (US06) Driving Cycle ................................................................................................... 4–35 Usage Highway Usage of Gasoline and Diesel, 1973–2010 ....................................................................... 2–13 Use Transportation Petroleum Use by Mode, 2009–2010 ....................................................................... 1–23 Transportation Energy Use by Mode, 2009–2010.............................................................................. 2–8 Passenger Travel and Energy Use, 2010 .......................................................................................... 2–14 U.S. Cars and Trucks in Use, 1970–2010 .......................................................................................... 3–6 Percentage of Trucks by Size Ranked by Major Use, 2002 ............................................................... 5–8 Share of Trucks by Major Use and Primary Fueling Facility, 2002................................................. 5–10 Estimates of Alternative Fuel Highway Vehicles in Use, 1995–2010 ............................................... 6–3 Nonhighway Energy Use Shares, 1970–2010 .................................................................................... 9–2 Recreational Boat Energy Use, 1970–2010........................................................................................ 9–7 US06 High Speed (US06) Driving Cycle ................................................................................................... 4–33 Various Well-to-Wheel Emissions for Various Fuels and Vehicle Technologies ....................................... 11–11 Vehicle Shares of Highway Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Type, 1970–2010 ..................................... 3–11 Cars in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 ........................................................ 3–12 Trucks in Operation and Vehicle Travel by Age, 1970 and 2001 .................................................... 3–13 U.S. Average Vehicle Age, 1995–2011 ........................................................................................... 3–14 New Retail Vehicle Sales, 1970–2011 ............................................................................................. 3–15 New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the United States, 1970–2011 .................................................................................................. 4–6 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Vehicle (continued) Light Vehicle Market Shares by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................ 4–11 Average Material Consumption for a Light Vehicle, Model Years 1995, 2000, and 2010 ........................................................................................... 4–17 New Light Vehicle Dealerships and Sales, 1970–2010 ................................................................... 4–18 New Retail Truck Sales by Gross Vehicle Weight, 1970–2011......................................................... 5–4 Truck Statistics by Gross Vehicle Weight Class, 2002 ...................................................................... 5–6 Distribution of Class 8 Trucks by On-Road Vehicle Weight, 2008 ................................................. 5–20 Hybrid and Plug-in Vehicle Sales, 1999-2011 ................................................................................... 6–7 New Light Fleet Vehicle Registrations by Vehicle Type, Model Year 2010 ..................................... 7–3 Average Miles per Domestic Federal Vehicle by Vehicle Type, 2011 .............................................. 7–4 Federal Fleet Vehicle Acquisitions by Fuel Type, FY 2002– 2011 ................................................... 7–6 Population and Vehicle Profile, 1950–2010 ....................................................................................... 8–2 Household Vehicle Ownership, 1960–2010 Census .......................................................................... 8–6 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ............................. 8–8 Average Number of Vehicles and Vehicle Travel per Household, 1990 NPTS and 2001 and 2009 NHTS............................................................................................................ 8–9 Average Vehicle Occupancy by Vehicle Type, 1995 NPTS and 2009 NHTS ................................. 8–11 Average Vehicle Occupancy by Trip Purpose, 1977 NPTS and 2009 NHTS.................................. 8–12 Average Annual Miles per Household Vehicle by Vehicle Age ...................................................... 8–13 Share of Vehicle Trips by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS..................................................................... 8–15 Share of Vehicle Trips to Work by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS ...................................................... 8–15 Share of Vehicles by Annual Miles of Travel and Vehicle Age, 2009 NHTS ................................. 8–16 Household Vehicle Trips, 2009 NHTS ............................................................................................ 8–17 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel (per Vehicle) by Number of Vehicles in the Household, 2009 NHTS ................................................................................................... 8–18 Daily and Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel and Average Age for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ...................................................................................................... 8–18 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS ............................... 8–19 Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel for Each Vehicle in a Household, 2009 NHTS............................. 8–19 Characteristics of U.S. Daily per Vehicle Driving vs. Dwelling Unit Type and Density ................ 8–21 U.S. Employment for Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing, 1990–2011 ....... 10–20 Well-to-Wheel Emissions for Various Fuels and Vehicle Technologies ....................................... 11–11 Average Annual Carbon Footprint by Vehicle Classification, 1975 and 2011 .............................. 11–15 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards ......................................................................... 12–14 Light-Duty Vehicle, Light-Duty Truck, and Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicle – Tier 2 Evaporative Emission Standards................................................................... 12–15 Vehicle-Miles Shares of Highway Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Vehicle Type, 1970–2010 ..................................... 3–11 Distribution of Trucks over 26,000 lbs. Less than Two Years Old by Vehicle-Miles Traveled ........................................................................................................ 5–11 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles of Travel for Commercial Fleet Vehicles, 2010 .............................. 7–3 Vehicles and Vehicle-Miles per Capita, 1950–2010 .......................................................................... 8–3 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles, Vehicle Trips and Trip Length per Household 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995 NPTS and 2001, 2009 NHTS ...................................................... 8–8 Vehicles All Highway Vehicles and Characteristics ......................................................................................... 3–1 Vehicles per Thousand People: U.S. (Over Time) Compared to Other Countries (in 2000 and 2010) ...................................................................................................... 3–7 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Vehicles (continued) Vehicles per Thousand People in Other Countries, 2000 and 2010 ................................................... 3–9 Vehicles per Thousand People in the United States, 1990–2010 ..................................................... 3–10 Light Vehicles and Characteristics ..................................................................................................... 4–1 Definition of Non-Truck Sport Utility Vehicles in Model Year 2011 ............................................... 4–9 Steady Speed Fuel Economy for Vehicles Tested in the 1997 Study............................................... 4–31 Summary Statistics on Demand Response Vehicles, 1994–2010 .................................................... 4–39 Heavy Vehicles and Characteristics ................................................................................................... 5–1 Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles and Characteristics........................................ 6–1 Estimates of Alternative Fuel Highway Vehicles in Use, 1995–2010 ............................................... 6–3 Alternative Fuel Transit Vehicles, 2010 ............................................................................................. 6–4 Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012......................................... 6–5 Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012 ............................................ 6–8 Fleet Vehicles and Characteristics...................................................................................................... 7–1 Fleet Vehicles in Service as of January 1, 2011 ................................................................................. 7–2 Average Length of Time Commercial Fleet Vehicles are in Service, 2010 ....................................... 7–3 Average Annual Vehicle-Miles of Travel for Commercial Fleet Vehicles, 2010 .............................. 7–3 Federal Government Vehicles, 2001–2011 ........................................................................................ 7–5 Federal Government Vehicles by Agency, FY 2011 .......................................................................... 7–7 Household Vehicles and Characteristics ............................................................................................ 8–1 Vehicles and Vehicle-Miles per Capita, 1950–2010 .......................................................................... 8–3 Average Number of Vehicles and Vehicle Travel per Household, 1990 NPTS and 2001 and 2009 NHTS............................................................................................................ 8–9 Share of Vehicles by Annual Miles of Travel and Vehicle Age, 2009 NHTS ................................. 8–16 Daily Vehicle Miles of Travel (per Vehicle) by Number of Vehicles in the Household, 2009 NHTS ................................................................................................... 8–18 U.S. Employment for Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Parts Manufacturing, 1990–2011 ...................................................................................................... 10–20 Emissions of Carbon Monoxide from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 ............................................ 12–4 Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005............................................... 12–6 Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 .......................... 12–8 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM–10) from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 ........................... 12–10 Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM-2.5) from Highway Vehicles, 1990–2005........................... 12–12 Nonroad Recreational Engines and Vehicles – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................ 12–34 Vessels Marine Spark-Ignition Engines and Vessels – Exhaust Emission Standards ................................. 12–32 Volatile Total National Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds, 1970–2011 ......................................... 12–7 Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Highway Vehicles, 1970–2005 .......................... 12–8 Wagons Definition of Wagons in Model Year 2011 ........................................................................................ 4–8 Walk Walk and Bike Trips by Trip Purpose, 2009 NHTS......................................................................... 8–24 Warming Numerical Estimates of Global Warming Potentials Compared with Carbon Dioxide ................... 11–3 U.S. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, based on Global Warming Potential, 1990–2010................ 11–4

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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Waterborne Tonnage Statistics for Domestic and International Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 ................................................................................................................ 9–5 Summary Statistics for Domestic Waterborne Commerce, 1970–2010 ............................................. 9–6 Weight New Retail Sales of Trucks 10,000 Pounds GVW and Less in the United States, 1970–2011 .................................................................................................. 4–6 Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–15 New Retail Truck Sales by Gross Vehicle Weight, 1970–2011......................................................... 5–4 Truck Statistics by Gross Vehicle Weight Class, 2002 ...................................................................... 5–6 Class 8 Truck Weight by Component .............................................................................................. 5–18 Distribution of Class 8 Trucks by On-Road Vehicle Weight, 2008 ................................................. 5–20 Weighted Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 ................................................... 4–7 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................. 4–10 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–13 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–14 Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................................... 4–15 Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1977–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–16 Car Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 ............................................................. 4–22 Light Truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards versus Sales-Weighted Fuel Economy Estimates, 1978–2011 ............................................................. 4–23 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2010 ................................................................................... 11–13 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2010 ............................................................. 11–14 Well Well-to-Wheel Emissions for Various Fuels and Vehicle Technologies ....................................... 11–11 Wheel Well-to-Wheel Emissions for Various Fuels and Vehicle Technologies ....................................... 11–11 Work Share of Vehicle Trips to Work by Trip Distance, 2009 NHTS ...................................................... 8–15 Means of Transportation to Work, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 Census .......................................... 8–20 Workers Workers by Commute Time, 1990, 2000 and 2010 Census ............................................................. 8–22 World World Fossil Fuel Potential ................................................................................................................ 1–2 World Crude Oil Production, 1960–2011 .......................................................................................... 1–3 TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

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World (continued) World Petroleum Production, 1973–2011 .......................................................................................... 1–4 World Petroleum Consumption, 1960–2011 ...................................................................................... 1–5 World Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010.................................................................. 1–6 World Natural Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption, 2010 ................................................... 1–7 Refinery Gross Output by World Region, 2001 and 2011 ............................................................... 1–13 World Consumption of Primary Energy, 2009 ................................................................................... 2–2 World Production of Cars and Trucks, 2000-2010............................................................................. 3–2 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990 and 2008 .......................................................................... 11–2 Year Definition of Non-Truck Sport Utility Vehicles in Model Year 2011 ............................................... 4–9 Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Standards, Model Years 2012–2016...................... 4–20 Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Targets for Model Year 2016.................................................. 4–21 List of Model Year 2011 Cars with Gas Guzzler Taxes................................................................... 4–26 Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012......................................... 6–5 Electric Drive Vehicles Available by Manufacturer, Model Year 2012 ............................................ 6–8 New Light Fleet Vehicle Registrations by Vehicle Type, Model Year 2010 ..................................... 7–3 Fixed Car Operating Costs per Year, 1975–2011........................................................................... 10–17 Years Car Scrappage and Survival Rates, 1970, 1980 and 1990 Model Years .......................................... 3–16 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Cars, Selected Model Years 1975–2011 ................................................................... 4–7 Definition of Wagons in Model Year 2011 ........................................................................................ 4–8 Period Sales, Market Shares, and Sales-Weighted Fuel Economies of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks, Model Years 1975–2011 .................................................................. 4–10 Light Vehicle Market Shares by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................ 4–11 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–13 Sales-Weighted Engine Size of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–14 Sales-Weighted Curb Weight of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–15 Sales-Weighted Interior Space of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1977–2011 ............................................................................................................ 4–16 Average Material Consumption for a Light Vehicle, Model Years 1995, 2000, and 2010..................................................................................................................................... 4–17 Distribution of Trucks over 26,000 lbs. Less than Two Years Old by Vehicle-Miles Traveled ........................................................................................................ 5–11 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Cars by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ................................................................................... 11–13 Sales-Weighted Annual Carbon Footprint of New Domestic and Import Light Trucks by Size Class, Model Years 1975-2011 ............................................................. 11–14 Yield Refinery Yield of Petroleum Products from a Barrel of Crude Oil, 1978–2011 .............................. 1–15

TRANSPORTATION ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 31—2012

USEFUL WEB SITES U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

www.energy.gov www.eere.doe.gov

Vehicle Technologies

www.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels

Fuel Cells Technologies Biomass

www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells www.eere.energy.gov/biomass

Alternative Fuels Data Center

www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc

Clean Cities Transportation Fact of the Week

www.eere.energy.gov/cleancities www.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts

Fuel Economy Vehicle Technologies Market Report

www.fueleconomy.gov www.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/2010_vt_market_rpt.pdf

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program Power Technologies Data Book

www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/hev/ www.nrel.gov/analysis/power_databook

Buildings Energy Data Book Energy Information Administration OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Center for Transportation Analysis Transportation Energy Data Book ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY GREET Model

www.btscoredatabook.net www.eia.gov www.ornl.gov cta.ornl.gov cta.ornl.gov/data www.anl.gov greet.es.anl.gov

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT - FEDSTATS

www.fedstats.gov

USA.GOV

www.usa.gov

U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS

www.iwr.usace.army.mil/ndc

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

www.bls.gov

U.S. CENSUS BUREAU

www.census.gov

Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Economic Analysis U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Bureau of Transportation Statistics

www.census.gov/svsd/www/tiusview.html www.commerce.gov www.bea.gov www.dot.gov www.bts.gov

Commodity Flow Survey Program

www.bts.gov/publications/commodity_flow_survey

National Transportation Library

ntl.bts.gov

Omnibus Monthly Survey

www.bts.gov/programs/omnibus_surveys

TranStats

www.transtats.bts.gov

Federal Aviation Administration

www.faa.gov

Federal Highway Administration

www.fhwa.dot.gov

Office of Highway Policy Information

www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation

Nationwide Household Travel Survey

nhts.ornl.gov

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

www.fmcsa.dot.gov

Federal Railroad Administration

www.fra.dot.gov

Federal Transit Administration

www.fta.dot.gov

Maritime Administration

www.marad.dot.gov

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

www.nhtsa.dot.gov

Research and Innovative Technology Administration

www.rita.dot.gov

The Volpe Center

www.volpe.dot.gov

U.S. Coast Guard

www.uscg.mil

U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

www.epa.gov

Office of Air and Radiation

www.epa.gov/oar

Office of Transportation and Air Quality

www.epa.gov/otaq

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