The Struggle of Imam Khomeini to Establish Islamic Republic of Iran 9798986194141

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Table of contents :
CONTENTS
Editor’s Preface I
Section 1: Speeches in Qom Before Exile
1st Speech 5
2nd Speech 6
3rd Speech 9
4th Speech 18
5th Speech 19
6th Speech 24
7th Speech 37
8th Speech 38
9th Speech 42
10th Speech 48
11th Speech 50
12th Speech 68
13th Speech 84
Section 2: Speeches in Najaf, Iraq
14th Speech 95
15th Speech 105
16th Speech 115
17th Speech 116
18th Speech 130
19th Speech 131
20th Speech 133
21st Speech 136
22nd Speech 145
23rd Speech 164
24th Speech 177
25th Speech 192
26th Speech 203
Section 3: Speeches in Neauphle-Le-Chateau, France
27th Speech 219
28th Speech 230
29th Speech 238
30th Speech 246
31st Speech 252
32nd Speech 262
33rd Speech 267
34th Speech 271
35th Speech 280
36th Speech 286
37th Speech 291
38th Speech 301
39th Speech 308
40th Speech 315
41st Speech 319
42nd Speech 325
43rd Speech 329
44th Speech 337
45th Speech 342
46th Speech 349
47th Speech 355
48th Speech 360
49th Speech 370
50th Speech 381
51st Speech 387
52nd Speech 397
53rd Speech 407
54th Speech 415
55th Speech 424
56th Speech 430
57th Speech 436
58th Speech 446
59th Speech 450
60th Speech 452
61st Speech 457
62nd Speech 461
63rd Speech 466
64th Speech 473
65th Speech 481
66th Speech 487
67th Speech 495
68th Speech 496
69th Speech 503
70th Speech 507
71st Speech 514
72nd Speech 525
73rd Speech 531
74th Speech 537
75th Speech 543
76th Speech 547
77th Speech 554
78th Speech 555
79th Speech 560
80th Speech 567
81st Speech 575
82nd Speech 580
83rd Speech 581
84th Speech 589
85th Speech 593
86th Speech 599
87th Speech 610
88th Speech 620
89th Speech 628
90th Speech 637
91st Speech 639
Section 4: Speeches in Tehran, Back Home from Exile
92nd Speech 649
93rd Speech 650
94th Speech 656
95th Speech 657
96th Speech 665
97th Speech 671
98th Speech 672
99th Speech 676
100th Speech 677
101st Speech 678
102nd Speech 680
103rd Speech 682
104th Speech 684
105th Speech 686
106th Speech 688
107th Speech 690
108th Speech 691
109th Speech 694
110th Speech 695
111th Speech 696
112th Speech 697
113th Speech 699
114th Speech 700
Last Message at the Victory of Islamic Revolution 702
Index 705
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THE STRUGGLE OF IMAM KHOMEINI TO ESTABLISH ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN

A collection of his 114 speeches from the start of Movement in 1962 from Qom until the success of Islamic Revolution in 1979

Revised and Edited

Dr. Abdul Latif Parsons

International Resistance Publishers

Book Title: The Struggle of Imam Khomeini to Establish Islamic Republic of Iran Original Source Title: Sahifeh-ye Imam English Translation / An Anthology of the Speeches of Imam Khomeini (ra) Editing and Revision: Dr. Abdul Latif Parsons Graphics and Composing: Chris Fatima Tanner Publisher: International Resistance Publishers ISBN: 979-8-9861941-4-1 Year: 2023

Copyright © 2023 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, scanning, or otherwise, without prior written permission of International Resistance Publishers.

Front Cover: Imam Khomeini’s return after nearly 15 years of exile at the Mehrabad airport, Tehran on 1st February, 1979. Back Cover: Imam Khomeini with his son Haj Mustafa Khomeini exiled in Turkey around November, 1964. Due to secular policy of Turkish government, Imam and his son were forced to remove their amama (religious turban of scholars).

CONTENTS Editor’s Preface ...................................................................................................................................................... I Section 1: Speeches in Qom Before Exile 1st Speech ............................................................................................................................................................. 5 2nd Speech............................................................................................................................................................. 6 3rd Speech ............................................................................................................................................................. 9 4th Speech ........................................................................................................................................................... 18 5th Speech ........................................................................................................................................................... 19 6th Speech ........................................................................................................................................................... 24 7th Speech ........................................................................................................................................................... 37 8th Speech ........................................................................................................................................................... 38 9th Speech ........................................................................................................................................................... 42 10th Speech ......................................................................................................................................................... 48 11th Speech ......................................................................................................................................................... 50 12th Speech ......................................................................................................................................................... 68 13th Speech ......................................................................................................................................................... 84 Section 2: Speeches in Najaf, Iraq th 14 Speech ......................................................................................................................................................... 95 15th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 105 16th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 115 17th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 116 18th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 130 19th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 131 20th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 133 21st Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 136 22nd Speech....................................................................................................................................................... 145 23rd Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 164 24th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 177 25th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 192 26th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 203 Section 3: Speeches in Neauphle-Le-Chateau, France th 27 Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 219 28th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 230 29th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 238 30th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 246 31st Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 252 32nd Speech....................................................................................................................................................... 262 33rd Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 267 34th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 271

35th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 280 36th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 286 37th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 291 38th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 301 39th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 308 40th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 315 41st Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 319 42nd Speech ...................................................................................................................................................... 325 43rd Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 329 44th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 337 45th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 342 46th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 349 47th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 355 48th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 360 49th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 370 50th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 381 51st Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 387 52nd Speech ...................................................................................................................................................... 397 53rd Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 407 54th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 415 55th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 424 56th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 430 57th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 436 58th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 446 59th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 450 60th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 452 61st Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 457 62nd Speech ...................................................................................................................................................... 461 63rd Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 466 64th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 473 65th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 481 66th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 487 67th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 495 68th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 496 69th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 503 70th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 507 71st Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 514 72nd Speech ...................................................................................................................................................... 525 73rd Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 531

74th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 537 75th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 543 76th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 547 77th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 554 78th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 555 79th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 560 80th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 567 81st Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 575 82nd Speech....................................................................................................................................................... 580 83rd Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 581 84th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 589 85th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 593 86th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 599 87th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 610 88th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 620 89th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 628 90th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 637 91st Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 639 Section 4: Speeches in Tehran, Back Home from Exile nd 92 Speech....................................................................................................................................................... 649 93rd Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 650 94th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 656 95th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 657 96th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 665 97th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 671 98th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 672 99th Speech ....................................................................................................................................................... 676 100th Speech ..................................................................................................................................................... 677 101st Speech ..................................................................................................................................................... 678 102nd Speech..................................................................................................................................................... 680 103rd Speech ..................................................................................................................................................... 682 104th Speech ..................................................................................................................................................... 684 105th Speech ..................................................................................................................................................... 686 106th Speech ..................................................................................................................................................... 688 107th Speech ..................................................................................................................................................... 690 108th Speech ..................................................................................................................................................... 691 109th Speech ..................................................................................................................................................... 694 110th Speech ..................................................................................................................................................... 695 111th Speech ..................................................................................................................................................... 696

112th Speech ..................................................................................................................................................... 697 113th Speech ..................................................................................................................................................... 699 114th Speech ..................................................................................................................................................... 700 Last Message at the Victory of Islamic Revolution ............................................................................................ 702 Index ................................................................................................................................................................. 705

EDITOR’S PREFACE All the recorded speeches of Imam Khomeini (ra) have been published twice in English by the Institute for the Compilation and Publication of the Works of Imam Khomeini and are also available on internet1. The speeches from the start of his revolutionary movement in 1962 until the dawn of success of Islamic Revolution in February 1979 were published under the title of An Anthology of the Speeches of Imam Khomeini (ra), volumes 1 – 3 in 1995. Then in 2003 whole Sahifeh-ye Imam was published in which, volumes 1- 6 have these speeches. These are also available online and in print in the 22 volume Sahifeh-ye Imam, completed in 2008. However, in addition to the speeches, the messages, letters, telegrams and other communications of Imam are all combined in the Sahifeh-ye Imam. This makes it difficult for a reader to find speeches especially at the different phases of his revolutionary movement. Thus, there was a need to separately republish Imam’s speeches from the start of his movement in October 1962 from Qom until the dawn of Islamic Revolution when he came back to Tehran on 1st February 1979 after nearly 15 years of hardships and exile. This endeavor attempts to highlight Imam’s struggle to establish Islamic Republic of Iran. The total number of Imam Khomeini’s (ra) recorded or preserved speeches from the start of his struggle until the success of Islamic Revolution is 114. To prepare this book, I have used both the above sources viz. Anthology of the Speeches (volumes 1-3) and Sahifeh-ye Imam (volumes 1-6) as there were minor differences in number of speeches and footnotes. While revising and editing the speeches for this book, the text was thoroughly checked for errors. Old and redundant footnotes were either updated or deleted, new footnotes were added as required with the passage of time or that were not found in the original versions. Sources to verses of Qur’an and Hadithes referred by Imam (ra) or added by the translators were checked and corrected wherever possible. Internet links were updated and new links to websites were added to the sources cited in the speeches and footnotes. Persian and Arabic transliteration symbols were mostly removed to facilitate easy reading by the native English readers. Similarly, spellings of names and places were corrected to match with current version of English. For better formatting, verses of the Holy Qur’an were typed in bold italics and hadiths and quoted statements in italics. In addition, places in the speeches where Imam (ra) expressed strong emotions were typed in bold fonts to attract attention of the reader. A comprehensive index was added at the end for easy search of names, places, events, terminologies and important facts mentioned in the speeches and footnotes. For the convenience of readers, Imam’s (ra) arduous journey from the beginning to the end in which he stayed at different places faced various challenges, the speeches of Imam (ra) were categorized into four sections. Section 1 has speeches from the start of his struggle in October 1962 until he was deported from Qom to Turkey in October 1964 and then to Najaf, Iran. It has 13 speeches. Section 2 has his speeches delivered in Shaykh Ansari Mosque, Najaf during nearly 13 years of stay there starting from October 1965 until October 1978 and it has also 13 speeches. Section 3 has his speeches delivered in Neauphle-leChateau, France from October, 1978 until February 1, 1979 when he left for Tehran. Interestingly most of his speeches, totaling 64, were delivered during this short period of about 4 months. Section 4 has his speeches on his return from exile during the 10 days of struggle to overthrow the tyrant regime leading to

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Available at: http://en.imam-khomeini.ir/en/c5_3240/Book/English/SAHIFEH-YE-IMAM

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The Struggle of Imam Khomeini to Establish Islamic Republic of Iran

success of Islamic revolution on February 11, 1979. It has 24 speeches. At the end, I have also included his first message to the brave Iranian nation after the success of Islamic Revolution. In his speeches, Imam has particularly focused on the personalities of Imam Ali (as) and Imam Husayn (as) as role models of resistance against the tyrant rulers of their time. He then mentions diverse roles, activities and ways of struggle of all the immaculate Imams (as) from 1st Imam (Imam Ali (as)) to the 11th Imam (Imam Hassan Askari (as)) against the oppressive rulers and their cruel practices. Imam then mentions role of pro-resistance ulama (scholars) and maraji (highest religious scholars and sources of emulation) in the history until the time of defunct Pahlavi regime against the anti-religious, secular, corruptive and externally dictated policies by hegemonic powers and the practices of tyrant rulers. Imam’s (ra) style was attractive, with very common language and idioms and examples, up to dated with information for the audience on diverse topics, focusing on the important problems and actively engaging with the audience with expression of emotions in such a way that they would also respond to Imam’s (ra) views and prayers by saying ‘amen’ or ‘inshaAllah’ and also to his satiric remarks against tyrant rulers by laughter. Imam (ra) spoke to the hearts with his divinely gifted style of oration. It is of particular importance and it is evident in the that Imam (ra) spoke from the depth of his heart, from his genuine concern for the oppressed people, from his great love and attachment to God, Islam and Ahlul Bayt (as) and from the deep pain he felt in his heart for the oppressed. Thus, he was able to successfully perturb emotions of his audience to the point that people attending his speech would cry and become sad and also otherwise. This was indeed a special blessing from God to Imam (ra) in the way of truth, to help the oppressed masses and awaken the students, intellectuals, academicians and scholars. It is hoped that the readers especially the younger ones will appreciate this effort and realize how Imam Khomeini (ra) had to go through very long and tough time facing extremely harsh conditions during the reign of oppressive Pahlavi regime when he was arrested and jailed for over 10 months, then in Iraq where he was under the constant supervision of Baathist Saddam’s intelligence services. Finally, in France where he had relatively more freedom to speak out about the crimes of Pahlavi monarchy and SAVAK, the active involvement of USA, Zionist entity and their allies in the internal affairs of Iran and their conspiracies against the Muslim nation of Iran, severe oppression, torture, assassinations and suffering of common people and the devastation caused to the economy of Iran by their oppressive dictation and support for the Pahlavi regime. In these speeches, Imam (ra) has mentioned the history of world especially Islam citing various examples of oppression during different periods from early Islam to the present day and the resistance by the Prophets (as), Imams (as) and scholars throughout the history against tyrant rulers. He also highlighted the consequences of invasion and oppression by the colonialists in the underprivileged developing countries during modern history and the resistance by the scholars and intellectuals against it. The name of Imam Khomeini (ra) will always be remembered in human history as an icon of divine scholar who showed all the oppressed nations of the world by his own struggle, a bright path. He gave them hope to liberate themselves from the clutches of arrogant and oppressive governments and alliances. Imam (ra) also uncovered and revived the true Islam brought by Prophet Muhammad (s) after 14 centuries. Dr. Abdul Latif Parsons June, 2023

SECTION 1

Imam Khomeini’s Speeches in Qom before his exile to Turkey and then to Iraq These speeches started in October 1962 from his residence and later in Azam Mosque adjacent to the holy shrine of Hazrat Masumah (sa) in Qom. The last speech was delivered on 26th October, 1964 after which he was exiled to Turkey on 4th November, 1964.

1st Speech Date: October 28, 1962/Sha’ban 6, 1341 SH1/Jamadi al-Awwal 28, 1382 AH Place: Imam Khomeini’s residence, Qum Subject: The need for the Provincial and District Councils Bill to be abolished Audience: 200 merchants from Tehran Bazaar, including Mr. Nilchi Husayn; Tawfiqi; Mazahiri; Mirza Ali Pishqadam; Lutfullah, the cloth dealer; Ali-Naqi, the cloth merchant; Mirza Abbas, the cloth dealer and Jawanmard2 In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful Should I thank you or you should thank me? None of us expects the other’s thanks, but rather it is the religious duty of us all to articulate and urge that the Women Suffrage Bill3 not be executed; and if this law is enforced, other things will follow. What matters here is the majority’s opinion; the majority of the people in this country resent this. I ask you not to go on a public strike for the time being. May God forbid the day when there is a public strike! I pray again that they may peacefully stop doing this. God forbid the day the ulama call for a strike! What is Asadullah Alam4 going to do in this country? He will be held accountable and questioned for that later. As I hear, they had asked Amini5 to do that, but he refused and resigned. Arsanjani6 will also be brought to justice someday. If the whole world unanimously says, “It should be done!” I will still say alone that it should not be. It is not just my duty, but it is the Shah’s duty and all the people’s to say that it is not something advisable to be done. [Addressing Hujjat al-Islam Ansari, the renowned preacher of Qum:]

1 2 3 4

5

6

SH refers to Solar Hijra. Iranian Islamic Solar Calendar starts from the year of Hijrah of Prophet Mohammad (s) from Mecca to Madina in the year 622 AD. According to a special agent of the Qum Police, Imam Khomeini delivered this speech at his home on 8/6/1241 SH at 10.00 am to a gathering of about 200 tradesmen from Tehran. It refers to the Provincial and District Councils Election Bill in which women, in a show of democracy, were given the right to vote (suffrage) and to be elected. Knowing the ultimate goals of the Shah's regime, the Imam declared his objection to the ratification and enforcement of this law. Asadullah Alam (1919-1978 AD) was the Prime Minister of the time from 19 July 1962 to 7 March 1964. He insisted on ratification and enforcement of the Provincial and District Councils Election Bill. Diaries of Asadullah Alam in 7 volumes exposing corruption of Shah and Pahlavi regime were published after his death and are available at: https://www.amazon.com/Diaries-Assadollah-Alam-1346-1356-19671977/dp/1588140970 Ali Amini (1905 – 1992 AD) the Prime Minister of Iran from 1961 to 1962 before Asadullah Alam. He held several cabinet portfolios during the 1950s, and served as a member of parliament between 1947 and 1949. Amini was widely regarded as “a protégé of the United States” and a “pro-American liberal reformer”. Interestingly, his PhD in economics from Paris was related to the foreign trade monopoly in Iran. After the victory of Islamic Revolution in 1979, Amini fled to Paris. There he headed the defunct Front for the Liberation of Iran, a monarchist opposition group. He wrote his biography that was published by Harvard University. He died in Paris on 12 December 1992, aged 87 and was buried in Passy Cemetery. Hassan Arsanjani (1922 – 1969 AD), journalist, editor of (Daria) newspaper, lawyer, elected by the people in the 15th Parliament, deputy prime minister (for 4 days), leader of National Front and the Minister of Agriculture who was the executor of the Shah’s Land Reforms. He was also Iran's ambassador in Italy.

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I hear that you7 have been tongue-tied for two evenings. What is wrong with it if we are handcuffed and jailed? We are not worthier than Husayn ibn Ali (as) and Imam al-Sajjad (as), are we? This affair is being criticized all over the country now, and the people have expressed their hatred toward this decision through letters to the Shah and the administration. The law of this country is that of Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (as). In this country, the nominal law is the law8 of Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (as) and it should be preserved until the advent of the twelfth Imam. Please urge all the ulama to demand it. Mr. Behbahani’s9 messenger came to me with the assertion that His Eminence would be standing up against this issue up to the last breath. The administration should indicate and confess in the national newspapers that this principle has been disregarded and announce this publicly. I have heard that the Governor (of Qum) has said that the government has other concerns. What is more important than satisfying a population of 20 million? For, out of the 10 million woman population in Iran, there are only some one hundred promiscuous ones who agree with doing this. The public sectors should communicate their opinion to the government and Ansari is the articulated tongue of the people of Qum and he is not alone; the crowd all supports him. You should give a speech on the pulpit this evening, explaining the whole story to the people so that they might be awakened.

2nd Speech Date: November 30, 1962/Azar 9, 1341 SH/Rajab 2, 1382 AH10 Place: Qum Subject: Abolition of the Provincial and District Councils Bill Audience: A group of Tehran residents In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful “Have you not seen how your Lord dealt with the owners of the Elephant? Did he not bring their stratagem to naught and send against them swarms of flying creatures which pelted them with stones of the baked clay and made them like green crops devoured (by cattle)?”11 After being informed that the administration has passed an enactment maintaining that the Provincial and Districts Councils Bill is not appropriate to be executed, I made sure that the issue is resolved; however, I feared again that the government was trying to deceive us and was trying to persuade the ulama somehow 7 8 9

10 11

Mr. Ansari, a preacher of Qum who was forbidden preaching by the SAVAK, the Intelligence Organization of the regime and the police headquarters at that time. It refers to the principle concerning “The supervision of five first-rate clergymen on the process of ratification of the laws”, as stipulated in the Constitutional [Mashrutah] Laws. Sayyid Muhammad Musawi Behbahani was the son of Sayyid Abdullah Behbahani (1840–1910 AD) who was one of the great ulama of Tehran and a prominent leader of the constitutional movement. He was born in Najaf and was educated by great scholars such as Murtaza Ansari. He was assassinated in 1910 and his body was transferred to Najaf and buried in the courtyard of Imam Ali Mosque. The written text of this speech was provided to the Institute for Compilation and Publication of Imam Khomeini’s Works by the author of Barrasi wa Tahlili az Nahzate Imam Khomeini (A Study and Analysis of Imam Khomeini’s Movement), Sayyid Hamid Rouhani. Qur’an, 105: 1-5.

SECTION 1: Speeches in Qom before exile

7

to stop them from holding the important religious session in Sayyid Azizullah Mosque12, and I am still suspicious because the administration did not keep its promise with regard to announcing the enactment in the radio and the press. They were just afraid of that session which was to be held in Tehran. They think holding such a session takes us a lot of money, just like when they want to organize an embarrassing meeting for themselves they have to expend thousands of tumans13 to gather a few people. No, that is not the case. All the people abide by their ulama and if the ulama summon the Muslims to gather on the outskirts of Tehran, they would obey and leave their businesses. Muslims would not leave the Qur’an for worldly offices and endanger the religion of God.

FOREIGNERS AIM AT ELIMINATING THE QUR’AN AND THE COUNTRY OF MUSLIMS We have so far advised the administration and meant peace, but they deceive us. They should know that the ulama of Islam are informed men and a discerning religious person cannot keep quiet when he sees the Qur’an and religion in danger. Any Muslim who has the faintest suspicion- even one in a thousand- that the Qur’an is in danger should not keep calm. People were robbed of their resources, and endured; they were deprived of material belongings, and bore it; but now they are encroaching on the Qur’an and the Muslims’ reputation. The provinces of this country should be directed and maintained by Muslims. They wanted to surrender the destiny of the Muslims to the non-Muslims, such as the Jewish Bahais, by passing the Provincial and District Councils Bill and eliminating the prerequisite condition of ‘Islam’ for the voters and the elected. If the provinces of the country are surrendered to the non-Muslims, it is not improbable that you would hear vocalizations other than the Qur’an from their cursed throats and that would be the day we are prone to great dangers. Not only will Islam and the Qur’an be maintained, but also you will lose all your dignity. The economy, the business and the resources of the country will all be ruined. Beware, O the faithful! The foreigners are dreaming of ruining Iran and the Muslim nation. There is no hindrance to them except the Qur’an. They have ordered their agents to eliminate the Qur’an in any way they can. They are unaware of the sacred blood and invaluable lives it has cost the Muslims to protect it. It is Friday today and anyone who is listening should communicate it to the others and make people informed so that they might tell the government: “We will not readily hand over the provinces of this country to the Jews disguised as Bahais.” Beware! Great is the danger and grave is the duty. We owe a lot to the Qur’an and the religion of Islam; it would not be easy to repay. Anyway, the enemies of the religion and country should understand that they encounter a nation that possesses discerning scholars, economically educated traders, and doctors, and they will never be deceived; but they will defend Islam and their country with all their power. My faithful brothers! They have made a plaything of our national and religious sanctities. They force the press to write articles against the religion and the public interests. You can observe the newspapers are writing about the scandalous and shameful acts of Dey 1714 that has sparked the corruption everywhere. They allocate a whole page to advertising alcoholic drinks. They display symbols of sex and obscenity 12 13 14

This old mosque was built in 13th Hijri century during the kingship era of Fath Ali Shah Qajar. It is located in the Bazaar of Tehran. Every tuman is equivalent to 10 Iranian rials. Parades and celebrations were planned to commemorate 7th January 1935 (17th Dey 1314 HS), the day in the history of Iran when the law calling for the unveiling of women was implemented by Reza Khan.

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The Struggle of Imam Khomeini to Establish Islamic Republic of Iran

everywhere in their newspapers and magazines and lead the Muslim society to immorality and indecency, but they do not include in them even a word about the Islamic laws and the public feelings.15

THE REGIME’S PLOT AGAINST THE CLERGYMEN In order to ruin the clergymen’s reputation, they dress a number of their fellows as members of the clergy and the Intelligence Organization forces the press to print their pictures and introduce them as drug dealers and malefactors so that they could discredit the clergymen. But the public and even they themselves (the government) know better that the clergymen make their own frugal living and defend Islam, independence, the reputation of Islam and Muslims and consequently they continue to be honorable in front of God and the Prophet and among themselves. Dishonorable and ashamed in front of God and the people are those who build multi-story palaces after a few days being in office and ministry and bring misery to the nation. Shame deserves those few whose16 is celebrated by the nation, I do not know what the nation will do out of happiness when they fall.

MAINTAINING THE PRESTIGE OF ISLAM AND CLERGYMEN Anyway, the ulama of Islam will not mean any harm. We are on our way to protect Qur’an and the nation and will not spare any needed efforts. I have been told by a number of people that they were ready to be killed. I told them if we see that our Qur’an is in danger, we ourselves will step forward and will not let the people volunteer. Let us be killed before our Qur’an is destroyed [the audience weeps]. We will not readily watch the honor of clergymen and Islam shattered in front of our eyes by the rule of just a few persons, or our religion and the Holy Qur’an destroyed. We are fully prepared. We should join hands and not let this ship sink. We should not permit the traitors against religion and clergymen to freely do whatever they wish; we will not, God willing; just as they have tried before many times to conspire for achieving their evil ends, but they failed. First in Qum and once again in Mashhad they ordered their agents to tell people that the issue was resolved, to stop people from uprising, but they failed.

WARNING THE SHAH So far, we have been amiable toward them and confined ourselves to advice and admonition, and did not allow the people to get furious but if someday the nation will leave their homes in fury, things will be quite different then. At that time, the soldiers will throw their bayonets away and the gendarmes will reject their rifles. The day comes when neither the palaces of Alam nor the places higher than that would be saved. I have no correspondence with the Shah, so I send him the verbal message that the country is in danger. He had better order Alam to take notice of the nation’s requests or just keep aside, letting us to negotiate with them ourselves; and if he wants to be obstinate, he should know that a group of few cannot spite a whole nation. At the end, I have to notify you of the point that the foreigners and enemies of the religion and nation who seek their interests in the elimination of the Qur’an and religiosity, mistakenly believed that they were free to achieve their vile ends and there was no force to stop them. Yet, this movement taught them that the 15 16

Ansari, A. M. The Myth of the White Revolution: Mohammad Reza Shah, “Modernization” and the Consolidation of Power. Middle Eastern Studies, 2001;37 (3):1–24. Illegible word.

SECTION 1: Speeches in Qom before exile

9

ulama of Islam and the Muslims are alive and awake and will powerfully prevent their intrusions. They are like an injured snake now, waiting for the opportunity to find the Muslims negligent in order to bite Islam and Muslims. You should be vigilant. Strengthen your unity and set protecting the Qur’an as one of your daily concerns. Beware! The Qur’an is the trust of God and the Prophet, and it has been handed down to us at the price of the Prophet’s beloved and holy person’s blood and we should protect this trust strongly and hand it to the Muslims after us. We are in the Presence of God. If we fall short, we are guilty in front of the Exalted Truth. You are like our brothers and children and we mean good to you. You are uncomfortable and our house is small. You took the trouble and I could not even entertain you as my guests. I pray for you and all the Muslims in this Friday evening. May the Lord offer you all good in this world and in the hereafter! O God! Grant glory to Islam and its followers and bring despise to atheism and its followers. O God! Bring disgrace to whoever disgraces Islam and the Muslims. O God! Bring their stratagem to naught. O God! Send against them swarms of flying creatures, and pelt them with stones of baked clay. O God! Make them like green crop devoured (by cattle).17

3rd Speech Date: Before noon, December 2, 1962/Azar 11, 1341 SH/Rajab 4, 1382 AH Place: Azam Mosque, Qum Subject: The deplorable socio-political conditions and announcement of the Shia clergy services and struggles; the anti-religious policy of the Shah regime Occasion: The commencement of lessons at the Qum theological center after the conclusion of the Provincial and District Council disturbances Audience: The ulama, instructors and students of religious sciences and residents of Qum In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

THE UPRISING OF THE COMMANDER OF THE FAITHFUL (AS) AGAINST MU’AWIYAH18 ... meanwhile this was a necessary reminder that all governments should heed. From the advent of Islam, Muslims have been the guardians of the true religion of Islam even when they lost their rights for the sake of protecting the religion. Hazrat Amir al-Mu’minin, the Commander of the Faithful (as), co-operated with 17 18

Allusion to Qur’an, 105: 1-5. Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan was the first caliph of the Umayyad dynasty (40 AH/662 AD), who ruled the Muslim world after the martyrdom of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali ibn Abi Talib and the five-month rule of the second Imam, Hasan ibn Ali (as). As the founder of the Umayyad dynasty (Bani Umayyah, the name of the tribe to whom he belonged), Mu’awiyah revived hereditary monarchy and aristocracy in sharp contrast and opposition to the fundamental precepts of Islam. History is replete with innumerable instances of cruelty and oppression perpetrated in the world of Islam during the reign of the Umayyads including the murder, banishment and imprisonment of the followers of the Prophet's Progeny [Ahl al-Bayt (as)] as epitomized by the tragedy in Karbala (61 AH) and destruction and desecration of Madina and Holy Kaaba in Mecca during the reign of Mu’awiyah's son and self-appointed second Umayyad caliph, Yazid.

10

The Struggle of Imam Khomeini to Establish Islamic Republic of Iran

the caliphs because they outwardly followed the religious precepts, and chaos did not prevail until Mu’awiyah came to power and he deviated from the path and customs of the caliphs and transformed the caliphate into a monarchy. Under such circumstances, Imam Ali (as) had no choice but to rise up against him, for according to the rules of religion and logic, he could not tolerate Mu’awiyah to remain in that post for a single day. Those of his advisers who out of ignorance advised Imam Ali (as) to wait until his rule became stronger and then depose Mu’awiyah did not know that had he waited, he would have met with objections from the Muslims and after strengthening his position, he would not have been able to dismiss Mu’awiyah.19 Nowadays, there may be some uninformed people who believe it would have been better if Imam Ali (as) had made his position stronger and then deposed Mu’awiyah, but they are mistaken. Thus, when Imam Ali (as) realized that a cruel government was coming to power, revolt was a divine duty and he carried it out. In this way, too, the infallible Imams revolted; even if they were few in number, they would fight to death in order to carry out their religious duties. Whenever one of the Imams saw that revolt was not appropriate, he stayed at home and propagated Islam instead. This was the way from the beginning of Islam.

ACTION OF MIRZA THE GREAT The ulama and leaders of Islam have always advised the people to maintain their composure. It was not so long ago that Mirza the Great, the late Haj Mirza Muhammad Hasan Shirazi20 lived. He was a great intellectual thinker who lived in Samarra’21 and although he advocated quietism and reconciliation, when he realized that Islam was in danger and the cruel king at that time wanted to wipe out Islam by using foreign companies, this old man sitting in a small city with only three hundred of tullab (seminary students) around him was forced to admonish the despotic king. His writings have been preserved. That king did not listen and with offensive and impolite statements he defied the lofty position of this great scholar until the latter was forced to say a word so that independence could be restored.

19

20

21

Mu’awiyah opposed the expulsion order. Mughira ibn Shu’bah and Ibn Abbas (Imam Ali's cousin) did not agree with Mu’awiyah's expulsion and recommended that Imam Ali (as) be lenient and condescending for two years until the people of Syria swore allegiance to him, and then take action against him. But Imam Ali (as) would not accept that Mu’awiyah rule over the lives and wealth of the Muslim people for even a short period of time. Mirza Muhammad Hassan Shirazi (1812- 1894 AD), better known as Mirza Shirazi the Great I, was the most learned marja' of his era and was one of the highest ranking ulama. He issued the famous order for the tobacco boycott. Early in his life he left Shiraz and went to study with the ulama in Isfahan; from there he went to Iraq (to the Atabat, i.e. the major centers of Shia learning in Iraq: the holy shrines in Karbala, Najaf and Kazmayn). There he studied under Shaykh Murtaza Ansari, before he himself began to teach. During the period that he was marja’ at-taqlid in 1891, the Qajar Shah, Nasiruddin, signed a contract with an English company granting it a fifty-year monopoly over the distribution and exportation of tobacco. As concern over the concession swept through the country, Ayatullah Shirazi issued a fatwa stating that the use of tobacco in whatever form was forbidden [haram] and was tantamount to declaring war with Imam of the Time (the Twelfth Imam) in order to curtail the spread of British influence in the country. Consequently, Nasiruddin Shah was faced with no alternative but to annul the concession. The city of Samarra' is of interest to Muslims and is a famous place of Shia pilgrimage. This city is located in Iraq, 120 km north of Baghdad and lies on the east bank of the Tigris River. Several times the ancient city of Samarra' has been destroyed and rebuilt. It is the burial site of Imam Ali an-Naqi (as), the tenth Imam, and Imam Hasan al-Askari (as), the eleventh Imam. There is also a famous basement there which is said to be the place where the twelfth Imam, Imam al-Mahdi (may God expedite his glorious advent) went into occultation. The ancient name of this city was “Surra man ra'a,” which means “Whoever sees it shall be gladdened”.

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After realizing that Iraq was exposed to danger, the late Mirza Muhammad-Taqi Shirazi22 spoke out in support of the Arabs and changed matters. If he had not done so, Iraq would have been destroyed. All Muslim states are indebted to this group of men (the clergymen); it is they who, up until now, have guarded their independence. They are one of the resources of the Islamic countries, and it is through their counsel that arrogant people are silenced. By the same token, when the clergymen see that Islam is in danger they strive as much as possible and if they feel that by making issues public knowledge, by giving speeches and sending messages the danger can be averted, so be it, but if not they have no choice but to rise up and take action. The clergymen wish to see harmony and unity exist among all Muslims; however, they can only maintain their silence insofar as national independence is not endangered by things that even the government may be unaware of or may not understand. These duties are determined by religion, it is not that the ulama say something of their own accord; this kind of uprising is that which is stipulated by religion and the Holy Qur’an.

DIVINE GRACE FOR THE GOVERNMENT AND THE SHAH On the evening before the people were to go to the Sayyid Azizullah Mosque to pray for the awakening of the government,23 I was informed that the state was planning to resist. Under such circumstances, I realized that the ulama had another duty. I made the final decision while praying24 and beseeching the Almighty God and I told no one, but God was gracious towards the Shah, the state and the nation. If, God forbid, any disrespect had been aimed at the ulama of Tehran, I would have made a grave decision, but around midnight, the administration realized that it could not withstand the power of the people, and that same night it took a document from the great ulama of Tehran so that the problem would be resolved.25 The following morning

22

Mirza Muhammad-Taqi Shirazi (1840 - 1921 AD), better known as Mirza Mujahid al-Thani, was a senior Iranian-Iraqi jurist and political leader. He was also one of the great Shia marja' and student of Mirza Shirazi the Great. He (after Ayatullah Sayyid Kazim Tabatabai) led the Iraqi revolt of 1920 against British rule in Iraq at the end of the First World War. His requisition reads as follows: “It is the religious duty of the Iraqi people to demand their rights.”

23

The numerous telegrams sent from the ulama to Alam's government requesting the abolition of the Provincial and District Councils Bill and the government's refusal to reply, forced the clergy of Tehran to seek assistance from Almighty God and in order to remind the people of important matters they decided to hold a gathering at the Sayyid Azizullah Mosque on Thursday morning, November 29, 1962 (Azar 8, 1341 SH). This information was disseminated among the people by way of leaflets. The great elderly clergymen Ayatullah Behbahani and Ayatullah Tonekaboni decided to remain in the Sayyid Azizullah Mosque until the Provincial and District Councils Bill was annulled. This news caused public uproar, and the pious people, who could not bear to see their marja' and religious leaders inconvenienced and dissatisfied in this way, decided to join them in the mosque to express their opposition to the government. The Sayyid Azizullah Mosque is one of the major mosques in Tehran and was an Islamic revolutionary base during the time of the resurgence and is located within Tehran's main bazaar.

24 25

Praying and weeping. As the Provincial and District Councils disturbances continued and the ulama of Tehran issued an invitation to the people to join them in a protest gathering at the Sayyid Azizullah Mosque on November 29, 1962 (Azar 8, 1341 SH), Alam's government felt increasingly threatened. That same night it held a meeting during which the Provincial and District Councils Bill was rescinded and notification was sent to the ulama of Tehran. Also, in order to prevent the prayer gathering of the next day, the government decided to send Imad Turbati, the Prime Minister's representative, in the middle of the night to the homes of the respected clergymen Behbahani, Khwansari, Amoli, Tonekaboni, to obtain their signatures at the bottom of a document declaring the cancellation of the aforementioned gathering. At 5 am this document was distributed in the Tehran Bazaar and the surrounding streets. It stated: “The Prime Minister has announced that the bill concerning the election for Provincial and District Councils which was ratified by the government will not be implemented. Therefore,

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The Struggle of Imam Khomeini to Establish Islamic Republic of Iran

a telegram also arrived in Qum while I was at Mr. Shariatmadari’s home.26 The telegram was a good sign, but there was fear of deceit until news of the annulment of the Provincial and District Councils Bill was published in the newspapers after several communications between here and Tehran.27 However, they are not finished speaking yet.

ANTI-QUR’ANIC LAWS ARE ILLEGAL Concerning these municipality laws that, he claims, have been accepted by the ulama, they have not been accepted, they have been objected to. Furthermore, the laws governing the Provincial and District Councils cannot be compared with those for the municipalities, which are said to be “similar”, and to make such a comparison is erroneous.28 However, in both cases, being male and Muslim has been included and stipulated in the text of the law. In addition to this, we are the ones to compel them to uphold what they themselves are committed to.29 Not that the constitutional law is complete and final in our opinion, but if the ulama refer to the law it is because of the second article of the amendment to the Constitution which invalidates

26

thanks to all the Muslims’ efforts, the gathering on Thursday, Rajab 1, (November 29) which was supposed to be held in the Sayyid Azizullah Mosque is no longer necessary.” The telegram containing the news of the abolition of the Provincial and District Councils Bill was sent to Sayyid Kazim Shariatmadari and the great Ayatullahs Golpaygani and Najafi-Mar’ashi in Qum from the Prime Minister's palace. Refraining from sending a telegram to Imam Khomeini was evidence of the regime's anger regarding his stance.

27

Even though the government had promised to publish news of the bill's annulment in the newspapers, it considered it sufficient merely to send telegrams to the great maraji' and ulama. This greatly angered the Imam and the other clergymen. Thus, by sending a letter and special messenger to Tehran and other cities, Imam requested that the clergy continue in their opposition until news of the annulment be published in the newspapers. This action forced the Prime Minister to announce the abolition of the bill during an interview on December 1, 1962 (Azar 10, 1341 SH). After this, the newspaper headlines read: “The government has revoked the bill dated October 6, 1962 (Mehr 14, 1341 SH).”

28

After the clergy and the people had waited one month for an answer regarding the government's opinion, on Monday, October 14, 1962 (Mehr 22, 1341 SH) the Prime Minister in a telegram to Sayyid Kazim Shariatmadari and the Grand Ayatullahs Najafi-Mar’ashi and Golpaygani stated: “... concerning the government's silence on the issue of the non-participation of women in the Provincial and District Councils, I must remind the worthy gentlemen that the conditions concerning this bill are the same as those which apply to the elections for the town councils' bill which was ratified seven years ago and to which no opposition has ever been raised.” Imam Khomeini in reply to questions put to him by the merchants and businessmen of Qum regarding his views on the Prime Minister's interview dated December 12, 1962 (Azar 21, 1341 SH) rejected Alam’s claims concerning the similarity of the bill with the town council bill. His statements in this regard were later published as his declaration in reply to the Prime Minister. See Nahzat-e Ruhaniyyun-e Iran, vol. 3, pp. 112- 115. This phrase is contained in the irrevocable law and is one of the major rules of religious jurisprudence, according to which in legal and juristic issues the people are expected to comply with the precepts of their religion and the laws which they themselves have chosen. Imam's intention here is to draw attention to the contradictory nature of the Provincial and District Councils Bill with the constitutional law which the government is bound to. By referring to the aforesaid rule, he emphasized that his words did not constitute a recognition of the legitimacy of the constitutional or any other law, for that came from the law's compliance with the laws of the religion. For further information concerning irrevocable laws see Wasa’il al-Shia, vol. 15, Kitab at-Talaq, Abwab Muqaddamat wa Shara’itah, chap. 30.

29

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13

the legality of any law which opposes the Holy Qur’an.30 For we do not concern ourselves with these laws,31 we are concerned only with the Islamic laws. The ulama of Islam are interested in the laws of the Qur’an and the traditions of the Prophet and Imams, anything that agrees with the Qur’an we will humbly submit to and anything which is incompatible with the religion and violates the Islamic laws, be that the constitutional law or even international laws, we will oppose.32

BRAWL IS PEACEFULLY ENDED WITH THE EFFORT OF THE ULAMA Praise be to God the matter is now over; Mr. Asadullah Alam was warned that this matter must be ended and thanks to God it has ended. We are grateful that (praise be to God) it ended without a battle or war, without a drop of blood being shed. Such a matter, which could have ended in a great national uprising and could have moved nomads, ended with not even one person being slapped! During small, local uprisings and wars which involve thousands of people often a few are killed, and several are wounded, it is not possible that during an uprising of twenty million not even one person’s nose bleeds! The state does not realize who prevented chaos or battle from occurring. They should come and see what has been written in the letters we have received and what has been said by the people who came to talk to us.33 They came to us with tears in their eyes, “Give us an order, a word from you that our souls will have everlasting life and see what happens.” We told them that we did not ask that of them. But if a single word had been issued, there would have been an explosion. Who put out this fire? Why does the state not want to believe this? Why is it trying with all its might to destroy this great force (the clergy) which is the support of the independence of the country? God knows I am filled with sorrow. It is the clergy who have adapted to this situation and are serving the independence of this country. Why does the government not understand what it has done to our education? Why does it not rely on the clergy? Why does the world become

30

The second amendment to the constitutional law declared that: “The Holy National Consultative Assembly, which has been established through the assistance and favor of the twelfth Imam (may God expedite his glorious advent), should not at any time allow any of its articles of laws to contradict the rules of Islam or the laws of Hazrat Khayr al-Anam (the Best of Beings) (i. e., Prophet Muhammad (s)). It is obvious that the responsibility for determining which laws are at variance with the laws of Islam is and has been with the most learned ulama, (may God prolong their beneficial existence). Therefore, it is officially decided that in any period of time a group of not less than five Islamic jurisprudents (mujtahids and fuqaha) who are aware of current events will be selected to do this. Thus, the most learned ulama and maraji' at-taqlid will introduce twenty names from amongst the ulama, who are qualified, to the National Consultative Assembly. Five or more will be chosen by unanimous vote or by drawing lots, and will be recognized as members so that all the articles proposed to the Majlis are carefully analyzed and negotiated, and every article which is at variance with the holy laws of Islam is rescinded. The vote of this group of ulama must be obeyed and followed, and this article is irrevocable until Imam Mahdi's appearance.”

31 32

Meaning that we will not accept any law except Islamic law, the laws of the Constitution which follow religious law are accepted by us. The Shah and Alam's government wanted to pass the Provincial and District Councils Bill and violate Islam and the Constitution in the name of progress and using the excuse of the prevailing circumstances and their international obligations. The Shah in answer to a telegram sent by the maraji' announced these changes to be trivial and to have arisen from the current situation. In one of his speeches, Alam, while condemning any revolt, implicitly described the current activities of the ulama as being reactionary measures and added that the wheels of time could not be turned back and the government would not change its mind concerning the reform programs. The high-ranking ulama of the theology centers inside the country, clergymen, scholars, preachers, merchants, tradesmen and religious groups supported the actions of the maraji' of Qum for the abolition of the Provincial and District Councils Bill in successive letters, telegrams and papers which contained thousands of signatures. They regularly expressed to the Shah and the government, and especially the maraji', the aversion and apprehension of the local citizens concerning the bill, and requested the abolition of the bill.

33

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The Struggle of Imam Khomeini to Establish Islamic Republic of Iran

devastated,34 with the death of one scholar but when the government fails, the people celebrate?35 The government should be such that if it suffers a failure the people mourn and rise up to protect it.

THE CLERGY AS THE BACKBONE OF THE COUNTRY It cannot attract support itself, maybe it could if the people saw that it wanted what was best for Muslims; if the people saw that the government protected the interests of the Muslims, they would buy bonds and sell their homes and use the money for the good of the Muslims. Why is the press allowed to say such things?36 Why are they so discourteous and unjust? If the clergymen were to go,37 the country would have no backbone. Why is the press free to say whatever it wants (against the clergy)?38 Why the events of January 7 (Dey 17) are freely celebrated?39 These things create hatred. Do not make the country’s king hated. We advise you not to turn January 7 into a day of celebration.40 We believe this to be a heinous act. Protect this country. The events of January 7 do not signify progress. The progress of a nation lies with its universities and look at what you have done to them.

34 35

36 37

It refers to the funeral and burial ceremony of the great Shia Authority, Ayatullah Burujerdi, the death of whom millions of Shia Muslims throughout the world mourned. It refers to the defeat of Alam's government by the clergy over the Provincial and District Councils Bill. After its annulment, people in many cities put up lights and celebrated the victory of Islam and the clergy. Some of the poets even composed poems to mark the occasion. To see the role of the leadership of Imam Khomeini at that time refer to the poem on page 205 in the book Barrasi wa Tahlili az Nahzate Imam Khomeini, vol. 1. Also see Nah-at-e Ruhaniyyun-e Iran, vol. 3, pp. 185- 193. The Imam's criticism is aimed at the freedom allowed the press at that time to speak about the clergy and sacred things in an insolent manner. The government-controlled press wrote: “If the ulama are against the progress and advancement which His Highness proclaims, then they can leave the country.”

38

The Pahlavi regime used propaganda and false rumor in its fight against the clergy in the Provincial and District Councils Bill disturbances in order to make the clergy and the maraji''s non-reactionary struggle look despicable and portray the clergy's uprising as being instigated by the feudal landowners and capitalists, and in this way turn the peasants against the clergy. The magazine Kh’sheh wrote: “One of the great landowners living abroad has sent large sums of money from Europe as Sahm-e Imam money to be put at the disposal of the clergy so that they can take action on behalf of the landowners.”

39

After the Constitutional Revolution from the middle of 1927, some circles close to Reza Khan began talking about the forced removal of the women's Islamic veil (kashf-e hijab) and by the New Year of 1928 [1307 SH], Reza Khan's wife and daughters appeared in public without the Islamic covering. The law calling for the removal of hijab was implemented after Reza Khan's return from Turkey (in 1934) on January 7, 1935/Dey 17, 1341 SH. On this day, Reza Khan, accompanied by his wife and two daughters, attended the opening ceremonies for a college along with his ministers and their wives who had removed their Islamic covering. At this ceremony, Reza Khan addressed the women saying: “We have broken the prison bars! Now the freed prisoners can make beautiful homes instead of cages.” See Hijab wa Kashf-e Hijab dar Iran, Khatirat-e Taj as-Saltanah. Following the regime's defeat in the Provincial and District Councils Bill disturbances, the government tried to distract public attention from this disgrace by making plans to commemorate January 7, 1935/Dey 17, 1341 SH and turn it into a day of national celebration employing women of doubtful propriety and women with connections to imperialist circles who planned a parade, celebrations and demonstrations. When Imam became aware of the decision, he sent a message to government officials stating that if the government decided to carry out its demonstration on January 7, the ulama would announce a national day of mourning in commemoration of the disaster at the Goharshad Mosque and would request the public to stop work and participate in a street demonstration to express their hatred of those who caused that bloody disaster. This message was so effective that the regime was forced to change its plans.

40

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A HUNDRED-YEAR-OLD UNIVERSITY, YET IN NEED OF FOREIGN ASSISTANCE For over a hundred years, we have had universities and yet when a king wants to have a tonsillectomy we must bring a doctor here from another country. Foreigners must build the Karaj Dam.41 Foreigners must come even to build a road. Do international obligations demand this? If you have doctors and engineers you have education. If you say you have education, you have wealth, you have students, and you have doctors and engineers, so why do you hire them from outside the country? Why do you pay foreigners a hundred thousand tumans a month?! Answer this! If you have no answer, then pity this country! For a hundred years it has had universities but it has no doctors, no engineers.

DISTORTING THE AIMS OF THE CLERGY This is what the clergymen have to say. The clergy are not against the economic development of this country, they have been slandered. For five hundred years, the clergymen have administered and protected the entire world.42 One only needs to look at history. Even though the caliphs themselves were oppressors, they governed the world through an Islamic system. Does Islam not have a way for development? Which economic matter did the ulama oppose? You wanted to build dams; did they stand in your way? You wanted to import industries, did they stop you? We said, “Do not destroy the steel plant”. Do you think that we do not know what you have done to the Karaj Steel Plant?43 The ulama are not against independence; the creed of the ulama is independence and religion demands that we call for it. But we have no means at our disposal; we do not govern the newspapers, and they have introduced the ulama in an unfavorable light.

THE OUTCOME OF THE ALLEGED EMANCIPATION OF WOMEN Twenty odd years have passed since the scandalous forced removal of the Islamic veil (kashf-e hijab) took place.44 Check and see what you have done. You have put women into the offices, and every office they have been put into has become paralyzed. For the moment, this is not a common practice, the ulama say, “Do not let it become so; do not spread it to the provinces”. If women are put into an organization, it will upset conditions there. Do you want women to provide your independence?45 Those that you follow are exploring space while you fool around with (the rights of) your women. Do not present your ulama

41

42 43

44 45

The Karaj Dam was built on the Karaj River, seventeen kilometers from Karaj, sixty-three kilometers from Tehran, in December 1958 [Azar 1337 SH]. Initial construction work began in 1952 [1331 SH], then in 1956 [1335 SH] the International Engineering Company [Harza] was assigned to the project. After the foreign consulting engineers accepted Harza's proposals, the dam's building contract was ratified by the Planning Organization. It means the period of Islam's power to the 4th and 5th centuries after hijrah (i.e., 11th and 12th centuries AD). Reza Khan, who dreamt of attaining power similar to that of Hitler's Germany, ordered the construction of a steel mill by the German company Krupp. The Krupp Co. chose the Karaj River as a suitable area to build the factory because it was near the Alborz mines. Most of the equipment and tools needed to build the factory were brought in from Germany at great expense and taken to the Karaj area. But after Iran was occupied by the Allied Forces, not only did the Germans stop working and sending the remainder of the equipment but it is said that they made the Iranian government destroy the equipment they had already sent. In this way, great sums of money paid by the oppressed people of Iran were completely wasted. Twenty-seven years had passed since the issuance of the decree for the removal of the Islamic covering [kashf-e hijab] up until the time of this speech. The Shah's emphasis on the presence of women in the offices was merely to cloak imperialist Western policies, spread corruption, narcotize the youth and promote Western culture. The status of women was lowered during the time of Reza Khan and his son, first by British and then American schemes which isolated Muslim women from social activities.

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unfavorably to the world. This is a shameful act on your part. These are the problems, this is the advice, but what good is it? Those who should hear it are not here, and even if there were someone here who could make the government understand that which pains our hearts, he would not do so.

DUTY OF THE ULAMA: PRESERVING THE PRESTIGE OF ISLAM But you the clergymen, your responsibility, at any post which you might hold is to guard Islam’s reputation. If even one of your people acts dishonorably, the ulama in general will be seen in an unfavorable light. Just because others speak unfavorably, do not present yourselves in a bad light.

INSIGNIFICANCE OF THE OUTWARD DEFEAT Our involvement in these events has brought about some sweet experiences and some bitter ones. We have just mentioned the sweet ones, which were the sentiments of the people, may God grant them predominance and victory. The bitter ones came from the actions of a few people, may God forgive them.46 It is God’s will that the life and independence of the nation lies in your hands. Whatever happens is either for or against you. If events go against you, do not let this defeat you psychologically. An outward defeat is not important, what is important is a psychological defeat. If a person is defeated spiritually, he is as good as dead. For you that have support from God, you that are the clergy, you that your hearts are otherworldly, there is no defeat in this world; this world is nothing, whosoever is connected to God, he shall never suffer defeat. Defeat belongs to those whose aspirations are worldly. When one’s aspirations are of this world, one shall be defeated. If one’s aspirations are the unseen and the mysteries behind it, there is no failure. Failure is for the desperate, it belongs to those who trust the Devil and to those whose hearts have been filled with love for the wealth of this world. If you are defeated in some way, your hearts should be strong, stand firm until the last person. Do not believe that if so-and-so fails, it is finished. No! You are a monotheist. You are a Muslim. You are connected to God and God cannot be defeated. “Do not weaken or grieve: you shall have the upper hand, should you be faithful.”47

EDUCATION AS THE GREATEST WORSHIP If you win, do not lose your heads, be strong. You should neither be filled with fear nor be too daring. It is not right now to shout obscenities at the administration. You are above saying that which is unbefitting your position. From today, we are setting about our business. Over the two months since this event occurred, we have not been able to work properly, there were nights when I slept for only two hours. From now on, we should occupy ourselves with studying which is greater than any other means of worship, if the heart is pure. Once again if we see a foreign devil focusing on our nation, we will act in the same way, the state will be the same and the nation will be the same.

46

47

After the abolition of the Provincial and District Councils Bill, some of the ulama considered the struggle over and in a telegram to the Shah, thanked him for repealing the bill. However, the Imam was convinced that the struggle must continue until news of the bill's annulment was printed in the newspapers. This difference of opinion resulted in contradictory rumors and news which confused many people. The people went to Qum to clarify their obligations and the Imam gave the government the ultimatum that it must announce the annulment of the bill in the national newspapers. Qur’an, 3: 139

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THE CLERGY BACK UP THE PEOPLE Such a gathering which is costly for others can be arranged by us with a single word. The people realize that we are their friends, and they are fond of their friends. The clergymen are the fathers of the people, and they are fond of their children. In the middle of the night, an old man48 announces, “Let us gather and pray and Tehran moves!” Another old man here writes, “We want to have a prayer gathering and see what happens!” Why? Because the people perceive that the ulama have their best interests at heart, the ulama are righteous people; they are not corrupt. We would like the state to be like this also. We would like it when a day of national mourning is announced, everyone mourns, and they do not oppose it. And just as the hearts of the people are attentive to the clergymen and gather at their bidding, we would like them to be like this also with the government.

ADMONISHING THE SHAH From Shahr-e-Rey, they wrote, “We are five thousand people clad in shrouds.” From Japalaq,49 “We are one hundred thousand individuals awaiting your orders.” From Lorestan, they wrote, “We are tribes ready with our shrouds.” The people are awakened. Can a nation which is awakened be backward? Get rid of your weapons and then in Tehran, for example, announce that you will hold a gathering in the east, and we will announce one in the west; announce a gathering in Qum and we will announce one twelve kilometers from there in Khak Faraj50; you hold one close by and we will hold one far away. Go to Khuzestan, anywhere, and do the same so that you will see just how important this support is for you. I advise the king of this nation not to lose this force. Two events occurred; one was the death of Ayatullah Burujerdi51 and the other was the death of one of their people; and we all saw what happened. They say the akhunds are nothing. How can they say this?! You say that you do not have anything to do with the akhunds,52 well the akhunds have something to say to you! Religious counsel is compulsory; to abandon it might even be a capital sin. It is the duty of the ulama to counsel everyone throughout the nation, from the Shah down.

THE WAY TO WIN HEARTS This is the way to the people’s hearts; the Muslim people’s hearts will be won over through Islam. We understand what makes their hearts beat, the hearts of the Muslim people must be attracted by means of

48

It refers to the elderly clergymen such as Ayatullah Tonakaboni and Ayatullah Behbahani who were over ninety years of age.

49 50 51

Japalaq is an area in Isfahan. Khak Faraj: one of Qum local areas. Ayatullah Burujerdi [1873- 1961 AD] was the leader of the theological center of Qum (after Ayatullah Ha’iri), founder of the Azam Mosque of Qum, and highest ranking Shia marja' at-taqlid (since September 1941 [Shahrivar 1320 SH]) during the reign of Muhammad Reza Shah. After his preliminary studies in Burujerd, he went to Isfahan and taught religious jurisprudence and philosophy there for eight years. He then studied for another eight years with akhund Muhammad Kazim Khorasani in Najaf. He returned to Iran and began teaching logic and doctrinal scriptures in Burujerd. In 1944 [1323 SH], he was invited to Qum by Imam and the other ulama. The defeat of the constitutional movement and events such as the execution of Shaykh Fazlullah Nuri, as well as the troubles arising from unsuccessful political actions taken against Reza Khan, led Ayatullah Burujerdi to avoid involvement in political matters wherever possible, out of fear that such involvement would prove to be detrimental to the Muslims. For this reason, he was sometimes the object of criticism. In order to take advantage of the reputation of this great man, Muhammad Reza would visit him frequently and in a show of piety for the people would announce his readiness to disseminate Islam.

52

One of the Shah's statements.

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Islam for “without doubt in the remembrance of God, do hearts find satisfaction”.53 All hearts are in God’s hands. The converter of all hearts is God. Focus your attention on God so that the hearts of the people will focus on you. The people of learning do this; you (the statesmen) must also be like this. We are not saying, “Wear a turban;” rather, we say, “Come to understand that which the clergymen have understood.” We say the government should govern the people well so that they would understand that the government has their best interests at heart. But if the people see that is not how it really is, they will begin to ask, “When will this government be destroyed?” O government, O wretched ones! The conquest of a country is nothing and fortunately you have not achieved this, what is important is the conquest of hearts. If you want to, then do it. If not, do not do so. It is up to you.54 May God’s peace, mercy and blessings be upon you.

4th Speech Date: February 26, 1963/Esfand 7, 1341 SH/Shawwal 1, 1382 AH Place: Qum Subject: The need to resist against the regime’s illegal acts Occasion: The arrival of Eid al-Fitr Audience: A group of tullab, clergy, residents of Qum, and pilgrims visiting the holy shrine of Hazrat Fatima al-Masumah (sa) In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

FAILURE OF THE SHAH’S REFERENDUM ... Respected men, whatever your position, make a determined stand against the illegal and sacrilegious activities of this government. Do not let these rusty bayonets frighten you, they will soon be broken. This government cannot oppose the demands of a great nation with bayonets, and sooner or later it will be defeated. Even now it is defeated and hopeless; the uncivilized acts that you have witnessed were exercised out of hopelessness. We did not wish the regime to be brought to this level of disgrace. Why must the king of a nation be so detached from the people that when he makes a suggestion the people ignore him or respond negatively? A king must behave in such manners that when he makes a suggestion or a request the people agrees to it whole-heartedly, not rise up against it. The Shah’s referendum enjoyed the support of no more than 2, 000 people in the whole country. We did not want the leaders of this country to ever become so disgraced.

INEFFECTIVENESS OF THE BAYONETS This should serve as a lesson to make them awaken and change their policy. Instead of breaking the law and sending the ulama and other respected citizens to prison, instead of bullying and using bayonets, they 53 54

Qur’an, 13:28 This was said in admonition.

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should yield to the wishes of the people and realize that they cannot silence the people or make them surrender with bayonets, nor can they use coercion to prevent the clergymen from performing the duties with which Islam has charged them. Even though they stopped Mr. Islami from speaking out on the pulpit in Tehran55, they saw how he spoke out on the pulpit in Bandar Pahlavi56 and revealed the truth there. Moreover, if they had stopped him speaking there, he would have continued elsewhere, has no doubt about that. Wherever he could, he would get his message across to the people. Even though they have prevented many ulama and preachers from speaking out by putting them in prison, the remaining clergymen who have not been arrested will speak out and will make the people aware of what is happening. Do you honestly believe that you can silence the clergymen?

5th Speech Date: March 20, 1963/Esfand 29, 1341 SH/Shawwal 23, 1382 AH Place: Azam Mosque, Qum Subject: The imperialist plots against Islam; the grave duty of religious scholars Occasion: Arrival of Nouruz festival, 1342 SH Audience: A group of the clergy, tullab and people of Qum In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

DECLARING A NATIONAL MOURNING This year,57 we have no New Year festivities and we declare it a national mourning not because it coincides with the martyrdom anniversary of Hazrat Sadiq (as); Hazrat does have a lofty and exalted standing; both his birth and martyrdom improved and consolidated Islam. As Sayyid ibn Tawus (may God’s blessings be upon him) said: “Martyrdom of (the likes of) Imam al-Sadiq must be commemorated.”58 We are mournful this New Year for the catastrophes and harms brought upon Islam. This year59 was a good one neither for Muslims nor for the clergy. Islam was violated in the past year. The ulama of the religion and the clergy were humiliated and disgraced. The imperialists made plots against Islam in the past year; the defiled agents of imperialism insulted the Qur’an, made plans for abolishing the luminous laws of the Qur’an; they made plans and set plots. If the Muslims do understand what plots and plans are going on against the dignity of Islam, the welfare of the Muslim nations and independence of Muslim countries, they 55

Haj Shaykh Abbas Ali Islami, a renowned preacher and scholar was prohibited from speaking out from the pulpit during this time. He travelled secretly to the north of Iran and enlightened congregations from the pulpit in Bandar Anzali during Ramazan, 1963. He was then expelled from Anzali; however, he continued his activities and travelled undercover throughout Iran in different cities.

56

It refers to Bandar Anzali which had been named “Bandar Pahlavi” during the Pahlavi era.

57 58

Nouruz (the beginning of Iranian New Year festival) 1342 SH. It refers to a quotation from Sayyid ibn Tawus (1193-1266 AD), who was a Shiite jurist, theologian, historian and astrologer his book alLuhuf 'ala Qatlay al-Tufuf, published by Dar al-Uswat-u li’t-Tiba’ah wa’n-Nashr, first edition, p. 83. The year 1341 SH/1962 AD, in which the affairs concerning the illegal Provincial and District Councils Bill and the show-off referendum by the Shah took place.

59

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will never celebrate a New Year, but rather they will rise up according to their religious duties. The ulama and the Muslim nations are shouldering a heavy duty. It is everybody’s duty to defend Islam, to stand up against conspiracies and oppose them. Those who do not rise up, do not oppose the dangers threatening Islam, or do not defend it, are among the dead.

THE SEMINARIES, STRONGHOLDS FOR DEFENDING ISLAM The Islamic clergy has been serving Islam and the Muslims until this moment in the history of its brilliant existence, and have struggled and fought to defend the religion of God and the rights of the nations. They have made people aware of the dangers threatening Islam and the independence of the Muslim countries whenever the occasion arose. They have never stepped back and kept silent facing the pressures, oppressions and threats directed to them by the despotic rulers and tyrants, and have not given up the pursuit of their obligation and have not surrendered to the tyrants, facing terror and threat. It is not possible to terrorize the clergymen with threats and bullying them into accepting the dominance and power of the despotic and oppressors. The clergymen do not fear the bayonet of the tyrants and villains, and will not give up their duty. “Lo! Those who say: ‘Our Lord is Allah’ and afterward are upright, the angels descend upon them, saying: Fear not nor grieve, but hear good tidings of the paradise which ye are promised.”60 So why should we fear and what for to grieve; they are not humans, not even worthy to be afraid of. What can they threaten to do to us? The clergymen need not to be afraid of anything; they should not be frightened by the hollers, savagery and uproar of a bunch of ruffians and hooligans. The clergymen should sacrifice even their last drop of blood for Islam, for the Qur’an and for exalting the Word of Allah. If some day- may God forbid- there is going to be no Islam, no laws of the Holy Qur’an, and the Ja’fari (that of Imam Ja’far Sadiq) creed is going to be made unofficial in the country, we will not need the clergy at all, (then) we will not want the seminaries to be. We need the seminaries for protecting Islam, promoting divine and Qur’anic laws, but if the despotic regime is going to make the holy religion of Islam unofficial, to eliminate the laws of Islam and to make the Qur’an obsolete and suppressed, then what will be the point of the seminaries and what will be their use?61 We do not need them just to discuss abstracts, do we? The seminaries should be alive and stand up against the enemies of Islam like a mountain and roar like a lion. This corrupt government is using all its means and power to attack Islam and the Muslims and every day it is expanding the range of its oppression and crime. It is our duty to stand up against these criminals and not to be silent. Should we be silent when imperialism is distorting the Qur’an? Should we be silent while the oppressor regime assaults the religious schools, beats up the students, plunders their belongings, jails the distinguished ulama, disgraces, threatens and insults them? Should we keep silent while the ulama of Tehran are being imprisoned and disgraced? Should we be silent when the ulama of Qum are under severest insults, and allegedly saying, “Allah is our Lord”, our Lord is not America, our Lord is not Britain, our Lord is not Israel; our Lord is Allah.

60 61

Qur’an, 41:30 It refers to the opinion of some clerics of that time who believed that because struggling with the Shah’s regime might do harm to the seminaries, so it had to be averted.

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DANGEROUS DREAMS The ulama and the clergy’s ‘crime’ is defending Islam, defending the laws of Islam, confronting the tyrants and oppressors eye to eye and shouting at them not to violate the laws of Allah, not to make a plaything of divine traditions. You can never change the laws of God and you are not permitted to do so. The divine laws belong to the prophets who have brought them for the welfare of humankind and the distinguished ulama are obliged to keep them and express them for the nation. We have the divine rule, so we do not need the rule of the tyrant and puppet governments. They want to enforce their master’s laws of bondage in our country. We know what evil plans they have in mind. We know the treacherous hands of the imperialist agents want to pass a law against the laws of the Qur’an, to make the Qur’an unofficial, and to give the Qur’an the same legal status as the other heretic books. We can understand what dangerous dreams the despotic regime has against Islam, when they drop the prerequisite of being a Muslim for voting and candidature; it is to pave the way for the heretic sect and to give them dominance over the Muslim nation’s destiny and Islamic countries. We have heard their demonic voices around the country many times, saying, sometimes explicitly and sometimes implicitly, that they do not want Islam, that Islam belongs to the Arabs. These are their spiteful words about the Muhammadan religion (may God’s salutations be upon him and his progeny) and this kind of profane and scandalous talk helps us better understand their anti-religious nature and know them more closely. They are the imperialist functionaries; they are agents of the foreigners. They are dominating our country to eradicate Islam. We have witnessed their criminal acts for many years. It is our duty to awaken the nation and to notify the people of this, as an ultimatum.

THE MOTIVE FOR PROTESTING AGAINST THE PROVINCIAL AND DISTRICT COUNCILS BILL O Muslims of the world! Know that the reason why the ulama of Islam protested against the Provincial and District Councils Bill was not the issue of the women’s suffrage. This was too unimportant to entail the general uprising. The point was that the ulama and the clergy perceived that the tyrannical regime was meant to distort Islam with a demonic scheme and to restore the old ways. In the conditions where they have made a plaything of the holy laws of Islam, can we keep silent, not protest, and not ask why they pressurize the preachers and orators of Islam? Why do they silence the preachers of Islam? Why do they apply censorship on printing houses and prevent Islamic writings from being printed and published? Why do they restrict the press? They want to oppose Imam al-Sadiq’s (as) creed under his own name. Under the name of Imam al-Sadiq, they want to eliminate the holy laws of the Qur’an and to eradicate its luminous teachings. Their motto is respecting Hazrat Sadiq’s status, while at the same time they speak of equality between the rights of men and women. The equality of men and women’s rights means violation of the Qur’an; it means putting aside the Ja’fari creed; it means forsaking the Qur’an and replacing it with heretic books; it means taking girls to barracks; and other things which threaten the reputation of Muslims. The equality of rights between men and women, and its consequences is abandoned and condemned in the opinion of the twenty million Iranians. They want to drive our nation into accepting it by using force, bayonets, pressure, and bullets. If they are under pressure from Britain or America, they have to let us know, so that we can confront those countries ourselves. If it is an international obligation, again they have to tell us to find a way out. Why do

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these illegal governments not leave us alone? Why does this malicious ill-educated Prime Minister62 not leave this people alone? Why does he not resign so that a wise and well-educated person who is sympathetic toward this nation can take office? Do we have to remain quiet and say nothing while they attack the Fayziyyah Madrasah, break window glasses, beat up tullab and plunder their belongings,63 imprison the ulama of Tehran, assault the shops in Qum and break shop windows and pillage people’s properties? These wretched ones assume that they have made a great conquest and ranked the country among the developed countries of the world, by beating defenseless people and innocent tullab!

I WILL BE LYING IN AMBUSH FOR THEM The tyrannical regime should know that if they try to violate Islam and enforce the laws of atheism in the Muslim countries, I would be lying in ambush for them. I will not be silent and I will not hesitate to oppose treason to Islam, according to the law of Islam that has ordered us jihad and defense. If they want to get rid of a nuisance like me, they need to banish me from this country. As long as I am here, I will not let nonIslamic laws be passed and enforced; as long as I am here, I will not let the despotic regime dissipate the independence of the country. The Islamic nation is also awakened, committed and sensitive to their religion and creed. They like their ulama; they back the ulama of Islam and surely they will not be quiet facing treachery to Islam and the Qur’an, and will not permit the despotic and oppressors to do whatever they wish to Islam and will cut off any hands trying to encroach on the sacred domain of the Qur’an.

INVITATION TO SELF-SACRIFICE AND RESISTANCE You clergy should also be vigilant. You are obliged to reveal the facts to the people and inform different the classes of people of what they are planning against Islam and the independence of the country and of the harms they are doing to Islam. Do not supplicate; do not surrender to pressure and violence of the taghut64 and strengthen your unity. Be lively people. Be strong when incidents happen and be one of those about whom the Lord has said: “Lo! Those who say: ‘Our Lord is Allah,’ and afterward is upright; the angels descend upon them, saying: ‘Fear not nor grieve, but hear good tidings of the paradise which you are promised’.” God will send the angels down upon you and calm down your hearts so that you would no longer be worried about being killed or executed. Your eternal abode is ‘the Garden of Eden’, which is promised unto those who ward off (evil).”65 The day of our happiness and prosperity comes when we are freed from the defiled world that is full of pain, suffering and tragedy. Our festivity and auspicious time comes when we are martyred. Living is not enjoyable and delightful for a Muslim in these times. We do not like to live under the auspices of the tyrants and oppressors and we are ready for any kind of incidents.

62 63

Asadullah Alam It refers to the assault of Qum gendarmes and police forces to Fayziyyah Madrasah and stores on Bahman 30, 1341 SH. See Barrasi va Tahlil az Nahzat-e Imam Khomeini, vol. 1, p. 249.

64

Taghut: The government of Tyrant. One who surpasses all bounds in his despotism and tyranny and claims the prerogatives of divinity for himself whether explicitly or implicitly. Qur’an 25:15

65

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You have to be ready too. If you are really a clergyman, do not be afraid, do not be anxious, and strengthen your hearts. Prepare yourselves for being killed; prepare yourselves for being arrested; prepare yourselves for being taken to the military service; prepare yourselves for being insulted and beaten; prepare yourselves for enduring the anguishes awaiting you for defending Islam and independence. Tie up your belts and be ready for imprisonment, exile, military service and insult; do not be afraid and anxious. When they insult me, you need not be grieved. Why should you grieve? Why do you collect the papers from around?66

THE MUSLIM PREDECESSORS SUFFERED MANY A TORTURE AND GRIEF Am I worthier than Hazrat Ali (as), the Commander of the Faithful? Mu’awiyah insulted Hazrat Ali for several years but he was patient. Did Hazrat Ali says anything other than what we are saying now? We say the laws of the Qur’an should be enforced in our country. Hazrat also said the same thing. Are you worthier than the companions of Hazrat Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, who sacrificed their lives for the sake of their religion? Our predecessors, the great men of our religion and the Infallible Imams (as) were disgraced, slapped and martyred for defending Islam; they were imprisoned and poisoned. The followers of Hazrat Ali (as) and Hazrat Fatima (sa) and their spiritual and physical children have always been opposing the despotic rulers. Ammar Yasir.... 67 spent all his blessed life struggling until he was martyred by “firqaye baghiyyah” (a band of villains)68 when he was ninety years old. Maytham Tammar, the eloquent tongue of Islam talked on until his tongue was cut off, his hands were amputated and he suffered the worst torments ever, by the executioners of Mu’awiyah (may he be damned). The progeny of Hazrat Fatima (sa) have always stood up against the tyrannical and oppressive regimes and defended Islam, all along the history of Islam. They were much tortured, insulted, were killed by being put among building stones of a wall; they were decapitated in vast numbers, massacred and martyred, but they resisted and did not let Islam and God’s laws be ruined and demolished. O followers of Fatima! Thanks to God, the children of Fatima are still alive today; Fatima’s children are in Qum, Fatima’s children are in Mashhad, Fatima’s children are in Najaf, Fatima’s children are in other cities; they will not tolerate any treachery to the laws of the Qur’an by the government. As long as Fatima’s children are alive, they will not permit the enemies to encroach on the Islamic sanctities or to hand over the fate of the Muslims to the Jews or to Israel. O followers of Fatima! Hurry to assist Islam. I will be sixty-three years old this year. The Holy Prophet (may God’s salutations be upon him and his progeny) passed away when he was sixty-three; Hazrat Amir (as), was martyred at the age of sixty-three. We are the followers of the Holy Prophet; we are the followers of Hazrat Amir; we are the followers of the Aba Abdillah (Imam Husayn). People who are the followers of those great men will never be afraid; fear deserves those

66

67

It refers to a declaration by SAVAK under the false name “Organization of Iranian Women” in which the most degrading, disgraceful and inflame insults were directed to the Imam. Members of the Police and SAVAK agents posted them at night on the walls of the streets of Qum. Tullab and the clergy collected them from around the city. In a gathering outside his house, the Imam objected to the tullab who had torn-off the declarations, asking them to leave the papers on the walls so that the people would know the real nature of the oppressive regime. The voice on the tape is rendered unclear.

68

The Holy Prophet (s) had said this about ‘Ammar.

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who do not believe in the afterworld. Worry and grief belongs to those who only have this world and find their ultimate wishes in this very world. Those who know that their abode will be the plentiful Paradise and the Worthy Status (beside God), what do they have to be afraid of? “Lo! Those who say: ‘Our Lord is Allah,’ and afterward are upright, the angels descend upon them, saying: ‘Fear not nor grieve, but hear good tidings of the paradise which ye are promised’.” May God’s peace and mercy be upon you.69

6th Speech Date: May 2, 1963/Urdibehesht 12, 1342 SH/Dhul-Hijjah 8, 1382 AH Place: Azam Mosque, Qum Subject: Assessment of the nation’s uprising and both the sweet and bitter events of 1962 and the beginning of 1963 (1341 and 1342 SH) Occasion: Commencement of lessons at the theological institution following the fortieth-day commemoration for the martyrs of Fayziyyah Madrasah Audience: A group of religious students, clergy and people of Qum In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful O Lord, save us from vain discourse and lies [the audience cries “Amen”]. O Lord, illuminate our hearts with the light of Islam and spirituality [the audience cries “Amen”]. Grant a listening ear to the heads of universities of Muslim governments; to the Presidents of Muslim governments; to the representatives of Muslim governments; to the ministers of Muslim governments; to the prime ministers of Muslim governments; and to the leaders and workers of Muslim governments. O Lord, grant them!

CRIMES MASQUERADED AS PROTECTION OF ISLAM I have to say that in one sense this was an extremely bad year for the clergy, yet in another it was a good year. It was bad because Iran, instead of being presented to the world as a just country which enjoys a good

69

In the book Kawthar: An Anthology of the Speeches of Imam Khomeini (r), Including an Account of the Events of the Revolution, first Persian edition, vol. 1, p. 52, excerpts of this Speech are included based on the notes and memories of a few who were among the audience and had witnessed the session. Recently, the text of this speech along with a copy of Qum Police report and a copy of its Arabic translation from the book Kafah al-ulama al-A’lam, published in Najaf, was presented to the Institute for Compilation and Publication of Imam Khomeini’s Works by Mr. Sayyid Hamid Rouhani, the author of the book, Barrasi va Tahlili az Nahzat-e Imam Khomeini [A Survey and Analysis of Imam Khomeini’s Movement]. On recording and preparation of this speech he writes: “This speech was recorded by one of the tullab named Sayyid Hasan Tahiri, and was taken out to Najaf secretly through the Abadan border. There it was transcribed and translated into Arabic by some of the diligent clergymen, and the main parts were printed in the book Kafah al-ulama al-A’lam, published in Najaf. During my residence in Najaf, I (the writer) could not find the tape or the text of this speech, and I have not been able to find it since the victory of the Islamic Revolution till now. So I translated the Arabic text into Persian from the mentioned book and incorporated the parts cited in Qum Police report as far as I had heard myself and could remember. Qum Police report estimates ‘about 4,000’ attended the speech, but in my opinion the number was much greater than that. I arrived at the place after the Imam’s speech had begun and I could not make a way to go inside the building, so I stood outside among the people gathering to hear the Imam’s speech.”

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and honest judiciary and which has judicial courts, a judicial tribunal and an administration of justice, or as a country whose economy is healthy and whose agriculture is thriving, or again as a country which is known for its equity and integrity- instead of these, she has been introduced to the world as a center of corruption and even worse still. Were we to say that the present resembles the time of the Mongols, it would be wrong to insult the Mongols so. They were a people who perhaps believed it acceptable to spill our blood which they regarded as heathen.70 They entered the country (Iran) as a part of their crusade to seize foreign states and even then it was a country which didn’t hold the same beliefs as they did. The crimes they then went on to commit here are well-known.71 Those here72 today however, claim to be Muslims. They claim to have a faith and to be Shia; and while making these assertions time passes by and they continue to live their everyday lives unchallenged. Theirs are the deeds that one would expect to see from the Mongols, or from Genghis Khan. They storm the centers of learning73; they spill the blood of sixteen- and seventeen-year-old youngsters74; they destroy the centers of learning; they affront the ulama and vilify their honor; they imprison, persecute, wound, kill and commit atrocities, yet at the same time they deliver speeches, feign Islamism75 and Shi’ism and pretend to have realized greatness.76 The Mongols (at least) never professed to be Shia. They were our enemies, having entered our country by invasion. These here, however, committed crimes and still continue to commit crimes while at the same time they avouch friendship and profess to be Shia or even a station higher still.

70

Mahduruddam: Someone whose murder is regarded as permissible.

71

Genghis Khan (1162-1227 AD), the Mongol commander, in the year 1197 AD invaded Iran’s inhabited cities of that time while shouting the slogan, “I am the torment of God.” He firstly slayed the inhabitants of densely populated cities such as Marv, Bukhara, Nishapur, Rey, Qum, Azerbaijan, and Khiva, and then killed all else that lived. He set fire to the trees and demolished any signs of civilization such as libraries, schools, mosques, ancient building, houses, gardens, and shops. He then cultivated the remaining land and grew crops there. See Iran va Jahan az Mughul ta Qajariha. The Shah and his agents. A reference to the regime’s assault on Fayziyyah Madrasah on the afternoon of March 22, 1963 (Farvardin 2, 1342 SH); the attack on the same madrasah on March 23 of that same year; and other similar raids on Islamic centers such as the Talibiyyah Madrasah in Tabriz.

72 73 74 75

A reference to the young religious students of Fayziyyah Madrasah. The Shah on January 16, 1963 (Dey 26, 1341 SH), at the National Congress of Iranian Farmers said: “No one can claim to be nearer to the Imams or to God than I with regard to performing deeds, since I have done all I possibly could. I have ordered for the repair and maintenance of all those shrines in need of such attention. Every night before I sleep I talk to my God in prayer. I believe that what I am now doing for the country is favored by God and the Imams more than any other possible deed”!

76

In the year 1962 (1341 SH) the Shah, in a speech addressing the Iranian Muslim farmers, stated: “I must have been six or seven years old when I became ill with typhoid and my condition was critical. Most of the doctors who were treating me had lost all hope. One night I dreamt that I was sitting before (Imam) Ali (as) on whose lap lay a sword. On the other side of the room there was a jug and he told me: ‘Drink from this jug and you will be cured tomorrow’. That very same night my fever cleared and I gradually recovered. My other experience occurred maybe six months or a year later as I was walking down a steep pebble-stoned alleyway with my nanny. I suddenly saw a holy-looking man approaching me from around whose head a halo of light seemed to emanate. I asked my nanny: ‘Did you also see the Imam of the Age? ‘She said: ‘No, I never saw anyone’; but I had seen him. A child aged six or seven years old doesn’t normally invent such things and especially not in a lonely alleyway accompanied by a nanny.” The Shah in the book entitled Mission for My Country, pp. 6672, claims to have met the Imam of the Age (may God expedite his advent) and Hazrat Abul-Fazl, the brother and standard-bearer of Imam Husayn at Karbala’.

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CONSPIRACY AGAINST THE THEOLOGICAL CENTER IN QUM That which I would like to say is not a recent matter relating to the past few months only, but rather it is one which has a long history, having first developed several years ago. If not forty-odd years, then it was at least twenty years ago that it was decided that Qum must be wiped out. It was during the lifetime of the late Ayatullah Burujerdi (may he rest in paradise) that they in fact decided to do away with both the Ayatullah as a religious authority and Qum as a religious center.77 They believe Qum is against their interests. Qum is the center of truth. Satan’s followers believe that their aims are opposed by the followers of truth. Hence, at the time of the late Ayatullah Burujerdi, the latter was seen by some in a certain light; but this is not the place to elaborate upon this. It was at this time that foreigners were also against the continued existence of Qum, because without it they would be free to do as they wished without anyone objecting, criticizing or protesting. Therefore, it is safe to say that if not forty-odd years ago then at least twenty years ago, from the time of the late Ayatullah Burujerdi this intention was harbored by them; yet they realized that trouble would arise if they took action whilst he was alive. Once he had ascended to the abode of the blessed, they immediately began to attack this religious center of Qum under the pretext of respecting another religious center, in Najaf. This they did, not because they felt any affection for that center since these people feel no affection for any religious center, and again, not because they were fond of Najaf, but rather these attacks were made because they wanted Qum not to exist. Qum was a thorn in their flesh; being close to them (in geographical proximity) it was able to quickly discover their corrupt dealings. Hence, they were against Qum, but because they couldn’t openly say “no” to Qum, they instead said “yes” to Najaf and “yes” to Mashhad. At first they imagined that nothing important ever really happened in Qum,78 but then they realized that certain things indeed were happening; certain things were seen, said and heard. Thus, they came to realize that things weren’t as they initially believed them to be. Thenceforth they made plans to destroy the clergy and then to destroy Islam and afterwards to realize the interests of Israel and her agents.

ILLITERATE ELEMENT AT THE HELM OF GOVERNMENT This was the case from the beginning but it was concealed, their plans not being publicized. To a certain extent they had in fact informed the public of their intentions, but they spoke of their infidel program in

77

Following the uprising of the Isfahan ulama and the tragedy at the Goharshad mosque, the theological center of Qum benefiting from such religious scholars as Ayatullah al-Uzma Burujerdi and Ayatullah al-Uzma Hairi became the largest Shia center of its kind and brought honor and repute to other such centers in Iran. Muhammad Reza at the onset of his reign tried to forge a closer relationship with Ayatullah Burujerdi in order to benefit from the influence he held, but he was often deterred and discouraged by His Eminence. After the eminent scholar’s demise, the Shah, who regarded the rank of marja’iyyah as an obstruction to imperialist rule, took steps to prevent the reestablishment of this office in Qum and hence made every effort to transfer the clergy to the noble city of Najaf. It was for this reason that he sent a telegram expressing his condolences on the demise of Ayatullah Burujerdi to Ayatullah Hakim, the great marja’ in Najaf. The Iranian clergy considered this an act of disrespect to the maraji’ of Qum, the aim of which was to weaken the position of the clergy there. On another occasion, following the discovery of oil in Qum, the prospect of transferring the theological center of Qum to the holy city of Mashhad was discussed. Due to the high salt density of the soil in Qum, however, the government decided not to go ahead with the oil-drilling project and consequently the subject of the transference of the theological center was also buried. See Inqilab-e Islami va Risheha-ye aan, pp. 484- 485.

78

This remark of the Imam’s refers to a comment made by the Shah: “There doesn’t seem to be anyone in Qum who can bear the responsibility of the office of marja’iyyah.”

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very mild, diluted terms. Following the demise of Ayatullah Burujerdi, they initially devised an evil scheme which involved Iran as a whole. From what I was told, they wanted people to promise to send telegrams to other theological centers79 and especially to one other city in particular, not because they were actually fond of that center but because they weren’t fond of this one. However, the people disregarded them. Subsequently other schemes were devised and there was in fact a change in government.80 Who knows, perhaps the proposals were presented to these governments and were dismissed by them because they found such indecency to be beyond even them. Perhaps they were indeed virtuous, learned intellectuals who could not bring themselves to oppose all of the centers of learning. However, the conclusion eventually reached was that the government should be an ignorant, unlearned one; one which does not realize or appreciate the value of learning and one whose members have not received education above that offered in the fifth gradeeven then having acquired their qualification certificates fraudulently.81 These members of the government are not to know the meaning of learning nor of religiousness and honesty. They are not to know of the preservative role played by the clergy in this country. They are not to be aware of what is happening. They are to be dictated to as if blind and are not to really understand what is being said; and they are to be given orders, but must act without being fully aware of what they are doing. We saw that the target of this illiterate and dishonorable government from the very onset of its involvement was Islam. In the press they wrote in bold print that ladies have been given the right to participate in elections.82 In fact this was part of an evil plan to distract the public’s attention away from the main issue; that being the elimination of Islam and the Qur’an. For this reason, as soon as they became aware of the situation, people banded together and the ulama formed a united front in order for appropriate steps to be taken. Initially our attention too had been drawn to the issue of the female vote, but on closer inspection we realized it was not just a matter concerning women for this was only a minor concern (by comparison). The

79

80

81

82

Subsequent to the demise of Ayatullah Burujerdi, the Shah’s regime tried to persuade the Iranian people to forward their messages of condolence to Ayatullah Hakim in Najaf rather than to the maraji’ of Qum. This it did with the intention of weakening the position of the theological centers of Iran and strengthening that of the ulama in Najaf. Within the period stretching from the beginning of the Shah’s reign until the time when Alam was appointed as Prime Minister, twentyfive different governments actually took office! These prime ministers, whose terms of office in some cases lasted no longer than a week, are as follows: Muhammad Ali Furuqi (Zaka al-Mulk), 1941 (1320 SH); Ali Sohayl, 1941-42; Ahmad Qavam (Qava as-Saltanah), 1942; Ali Sohayl, 1942-43; Muhammad Said, 1943-44; Murtada Qulibayyat (Saham as-Saltanah), 1944-45; Ibrahim Hakim (Hakim al-Mulk), 1945; Sayyid Muhsin Sadr al-Ashraf, 1945; Ibrahim Hakim, 1945; Ahmad Qavam, 1945- 47; Ibrahim Hakim, 1947-48; Abdul-Husayn Hajir, 1948-50; Husayn Ali, 1950-51; Muhammad Musaddiq (Musaddiq as-Saltanah), 1951-52; Ahmad Qavam, 1952; Muhammad Musaddiq, 1952-53; Fazlullah Zahedi, 1953-55; Husayn Ali, 1955-57; Manuchehr Iqbal, 1957-60; Ja’far Sharif Imami, 1960-61; Ali Amin, 1961-62; Amir Asadullah Alam, 1962- onward. See Az Sayyid Zia ta Bakhtiyar. It has been reported that Asadullah Alam, the head of the government at that time, had only actually received a few years education, eventually “graduating” from a school in Karaj! Of course he later succeeded in obtaining his National Diploma in Agriculture from the Karaj Education Authority, but he did so by fraudulent means. See Az Sayyid Ziya ta Bakhtiyar. On October 8, 1962 (Mehr 16, 1341 SH), at the beginning of Asadullah Alam’s term of office, a report headed “Women’s Right to Vote” appeared in bold print in the press. The right for women to vote was legislated by the Provincial and District Councils. The regime used the women’s voting issue as a cover behind which to pursue its other ambitions. The Imam on several occasions during that period emphatically proclaimed that not even men enjoyed the right to vote let alone women. It is clear that his objection to this issue in fact constituted opposition to the regime’s sinister objectives, because since the triumph of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, women actually do enjoy the right to vote, as do men, and they also may be elected to the Majlis.

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The Struggle of Imam Khomeini to Establish Islamic Republic of Iran

real issue was about opposition to Islam.83 Thus it was not necessary for either the voter or the candidate to be Muslim; nor was belief in the Qur’an a prerequisite- what was the Qur’an needed for anyway?! However, when dealt a slap in the face from the Muslim nation they changed their tune, maintaining that by “Holy Book” they had meant the Qur’an; and according to our religious law we of course had no choice but to accept their assertion. Once again however, as soon as they saw a group of ignorant people gathered around them shouting “long live this” and “long live that” they resumed their fiendish campaign, restating all that which they had previously revoked. They yet again espoused full and identical rights of the sexes which in fact is to deny several of the most unequivocal and imperative Qur’anic injunctions. Afterwards, they again saw that this was the cause of certain resentment, objection and difficulties and so once more they denied the issue; it was disclaimed by the minister in one place and by the commanding official in another.84 In the press it was quite explicitly reported that women’s conscription was in the process of being legislated. Nevertheless, when they saw that the matter gave rise to opprobrium and that the people and even the regime’s henchmen were truly perturbed, again they said that it was a lie.85 Indeed, they wanted to open a lawsuit because of it- a most foolish, ludicrous intention.86

THE SHAH AND THE ASSAULT ON THE CENTER OF RELIGION AND LEARNING This was a bad year because Islam and the Qur’an too came under increasing attack. They ravaged the centers of learning mistakenly believing that they are destructible; they beat and broke the limbs and necks

83

When the announcement of the Provincial and District Councils Bill appeared in the Tehran evening press, it was noted that the word “Islam” had been omitted from the conditions pertaining to the voter and candidate, and that the oath sworn had been sworn on the “Holy Book” rather than on the “Holy Qur’an”. On reading this announcement Imam Khomeini immediately called for a meeting with the high-ranking ulama of Qum to discuss this matter. Ayatullah Murtaza Ha’iri, Ayatullah Golpaygani and Mr. Shariatmadari participated in this meeting. See Barrasi va Tahlili az Nahzat-e Imam Khomeini, vol.1 p.148-149.

84

Imam Khomeini, in his New Year declaration of 1963 (1342 SH) entitled “The Clergy of Islam Does Not Hold New Year Celebrations This Year”, objected very strongly to the legislation calling for the compulsory conscription of eighteen- year-old girls for military service. As a result of this objection, despite the fact that this news had already been published and that speeches and interviews had already been given on the radio, the Shah and his government were forced to deny what they had formerly said. In fact the Shah denied the validity of the news reports on two different occasions before the end of that month. In an interview he gave, Jahangir Tafazzuli, Minister of State in charge of publications and broadcasting, described the news concerning women’s conscription as totally unfounded. Refer to the speeches delivered by the Shah on April 1, 1963 (Farvardin 12, 1342 SH) in Mashhad and April 2, 1963 in Birjand; also refer to the 11,056th issue of the Ittila’at newspaper dated March 31, 1963 (Farvardin 11, 1342 SH). Tehran evening press, April 1, 1963 (Farvardin 12 1342 SH), the Shah: “A publisher has recently reported that they are trying to conscript eighteen-year-old girls for military service- how ridiculous! We are in no way short of military personnel. Such falsities are a sign of the weakness of those who are responsible for fabricating this news. Our girls must continue their education and pursue their female responsibilities. We have enough people to safeguard the security of this land.”

85

86

The publication of Imam Khomeini’s declaration and the determined stance taken by him in opposition to the conscription of young girls left the Shah with no alternative but to request that the judiciary make the necessary enquiries and prosecute those responsible for circulating such news. In turn, the judicial system filed a lawsuit against the movement’s leadership and proceeded to arrange for its arrest, although this never actually amounted to anything. It is worth mentioning that the official, who actually delivered the summons to the Imam’s house, entered the building with tearful eyes saying: “They have ordered me to obtain the Imam’s signature for this letter and I feel that as a follower of the Imam I must apologize for this.” He left the house, however, without having obtained a signature. (Quoted from the memoirs of Hujjat al-Islam wal-Muslimin Haj Sayyid Ahmad Khomeini).

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of our children and loved ones, killing some87 by flinging them from the roof.88 If the perpetrators of these crimes were peasants as you claim, then why were members of the armed forces helping them?89 This was something plain for all to see. A hundred thousand people from the streets and from within the courtyard and madrasah clearly witnessed the police force’s direct support of the peasants. If, as you claim, it really was the peasants who did all this, then why did the police attempt to intimidate those in the hospitals where our injured had been taken, saying: “How dare you have taken His Majesty’s enemies to hospital? We will make you pay for this. They must be discharged at once”? If it was the peasants who were to blame then where does His Majesty come into all this? If, however, it was in fact paratroopers and those who work for him (the Shah) and are a part of his regime who committed the assault, then was it his doing? Did he give the command for this action or did it take place without his knowledge and without his having given the order? If he was aware of the affair, then inform us so we know where we stand with him; so we may know if we are confronting one person or more than one. If it is more than one person, then tell us so that we may realize that these paratroopers came of their own volition without any reason whatsoever; or maybe the security forces90 sent them, or the police force, or perhaps the Prime Minister gave the orders, or a certain minister or commanding official. Come on; tell us who is responsible for these crimes. Why do they deny it? Whoever is approached for an answer lays the blame on someone else. Whoever we voice objections to denies involvement and implicates another. The police force accuses the security forces and vice versa; and both of them claim that it was His Majesty who ordered for the attack to be made. Is it really true that His Majesty gave instructions for such a thing? Does His Majesty oppose the religion of Islam? Is His Majesty

87

For further information regarding the bloody tragedy of Fayziyyah Madrasah, see Barrasi wa Tahlili az Nahzate Imam Khomeini, vol. 1. pp. 337- 370; Nahzat-e Ruhaniyyat-e Iran, vol. 3, pp. 260- 358; Zindagi nameh-ye Siyasi-ye Imam Khomeini, pp. 205- 211.

88

During the incident at the Fayziyyah Madrasah a blind theological student who had been hiding in a residential chamber was thrown down from the balcony to the yard by the Shah’s commandos; while another religious student aged fifteen or sixteen years old was flung from the rooftop.

89

On March 22, 1963 (Farvardin 2, 1342 SH), the Shah’s regime dispatched officers dressed as peasants to the Fayziyyah Madrasah in order to quash the Islamic movement. The hair of the members of the armed forces, however, was styled like that of German soldiers, which gave away their true identity! These undercover servicemen continually recited salawat during the delivery of a speech until they succeeded in totally disrupting the meeting and fighting broke out. At this moment, other servicemen who were lying in wait nearby also joined in. The Prime Minister, Amir Asadullah Alam in a subsequent interview maintained that the skirmish was in fact between those clergymen who opposed “land reform” and some peasants who were visiting Qum on a pilgrimage and that during this encounter a peasant had been killed by the religious students! See Nahzat-e Ruhaniyyat-e Iran, vol. 3, p. 265; and see the Ittila’at newspaper of March 26, 1963 (Farvardin 6, 1342 SH). The bill for the formation of SAVAK, The State Security and Intelligence Organization, was passed by parliament in 1956 (1335 SH) and the organization was subsequently officially established in 1957 (1336 SH). SAVAK’s mission was to quash and confront any Islamic struggles or opposition to the regime. SAVAK was closely linked to the intelligence agencies of both America and Israel (CIA and MOSSAD) and gradually it turned into a terrorist organization. This institution, which in fact served as the CIA’s headquarters, possessed several investigative and detective teams. In order to obtain information from those they had arrested, SAVAK would firstly send the latter to torture chambers, after which it would hand its captives over to rubber-stamp courts where, after the passing of a predetermined court verdict, the accused would be convicted and taken to horrendous prisons. The cruelty and callousness of SAVAK was so great that the Secretary General of Amnesty International, in a report made in 1975 stated: “No country in the world has a worse record in human rights than Iran. In order to obtain confessions the torturers of SAVAK subjected its captives to beatings and electric shocks. It employed all kinds of horrendous and inhumane methods to achieve its ends; the inflicting of agonizing pain on the sexual organs and the sexual assault of the wives and daughters of the captives before the latter’s very eyes, are but two of such atrocities perpetrated.” The Shah was fully aware of SAVAK’s practices. This organization was abolished by Iranian Muslims in 1978 (1357 SH) and its torturers were prosecuted in revolutionary courts. For further information refer to Ayandegan newspaper April 7, 1979 (Farvardin 18, 1358 SH); Inqilab-e Islami va Risheha-ye aan [The Islamic Revolution and Its Roots], p. 491; The Rise and Fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty, vol. 1, p. 379.

90

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The Struggle of Imam Khomeini to Establish Islamic Republic of Iran

truly hostile to the Qur’an as their claims would suggest? If this is so, then what were those things you said before in favor of Islam? What were those revelations and miracles of which you spoke? If His Majesty is not hostile then why doesn’t he prevent such savagery? Why doesn’t he chastise these policemen, organizations and prime ministers? He who is in supreme command enjoys absolute authority to do as he will. He should scourge those who firstly commit misdeeds and act against religion and Islam, and then lay the blame on him. He should exonerate himself. How can the sultan of Islam be opposed to Islam? Surely this is not feasible. Then if he does not oppose Islam let him show it; let him show his regret and sorrow that a reprobate91 has gone and demolished the Fayziyyah Madrasah.

A VISIT TO THE BLOOD-STAINED FAYZIYYAH I myself have not yet seen the graves of our dear youngsters, but I intend to do so once this session 92 is over. I shall go and recite a chapter of the Qur’an (Surah al-Fatihah) for the repose of the souls of those they killed [the audience weeps]; and I shall publicly demonstrate my grief for them. We are not even allowed to hold a mourning ceremony for them [the audience weeps]; but why is this so, if, as you say, it was the peasants who committed this atrocity [the audience weeps] ? Why do you disrupt the mourning ceremonies held in Tehran [the audience weeps]?93 Yes, indeed, it was a bad year because the rulers of the day were disgraced and the tyrannical system shamed; and this is not what we wanted. We don’t want our country to be introduced abroad as a country ruled by evil elements; this is not what we wanted. We would like everyone in our country without exception to behave and live in such a way as to be a source of pride and honor; to proudly boast such

91 92 93

Colonel Mawlawi, the deputy-director of SAVAK in Tehran and the commander-in-chief of the Fayziyyah operation, was later killed in an air crash. The Imam in referring to the “session” actually means his lesson. A mourning ceremony was arranged by Ayatullah al-Uzma Hakim on May 11, 1963 (Urdibehesht 21, 1342 SH) at Ark Mosque in Tehran in commemoration of those who had been martyred at Fayziyyah. SAVAK prevented the holding of this ceremony and police surrounded the building allowing no one to enter the mosque. People became angered and fighting broke out with the police. See Nahzat-e Ruhaniyyune Iran, vol. 3, p. 358.

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scholars as Amir Kabir.94 In fact, in the past it was the ulama such as Ali ibn Yaqtin95 and at times even the Immaculate Imams,96 who were the ministers and advisers to the Muslim rulers.97

94

Mirza Taqikhan Farahani (1807- 1852 AD) was referred to as Amir Nizam and Atabak Azam, later becoming famous as Amir Kabir. During his youth he served Nasiruddin Mirza. After the death of Muhammad Shah Qajar he took the successor to the throne from Tabriz to Tehran and arranged for his coronation, after which he served him as his prime minister. At a time when Iran was in a deteriorating state due to the incompetence of the Qajar administration, Amir Kabir took effective measures to implement reforms for its development. This he managed to achieve despite the close presence of influential enemies. He succeeded in many areas such as in suppressing rebellions and in particular those of the Bahais; and in strengthening national security; in reforming the system of taxation; in combating bribery; in reorganizing both the national budget and the civil and military administrations; in establishing the Dar al-Funun School; and in developing science, industry, agriculture and health care. These were but some of the reforms achieved by this most competent of ministers. Eventually, both the conspiracy of those servants of imperialism within the country and the repeated slanderous statements uttered by Nasiruddin Shah’s mother, led the Shah to issue the order for his dismissal, exile and eventual murder. Sharh-e Hal-e Rijal, vol. 1, p. 209.

95

Ali ibn Yaqtin (742 – 798 AD) and his father were particularly close to the Bani Abbas caliphs (Saffa, Mahdi and Mansur) and hence could take effective measures for strengthening the Shia position. Following his father’s death, the influence of Ali ibn Yaqtin in no way diminished and he was appointed as a minister by Harun ar-Rashid. He was one of the outstanding student of the Imam Musa Kazim (as), and he was a highly esteemed and pious companion who enjoyed a special place in Imam’s eyes. He succeeded in promoting the affairs of the Shia by holding secret meetings with the seventh Imam (Musa Kazim (as)), during which he received guidance and enlightenment. On several occasions he requested permission from the Imam to resign from the Abbasid government, but this permission was not granted since his resignation was not considered to be in the interests of the Shia. Umar (582 - 644 AD), the second caliph, often called on Hazrat Ali (as) for important consultations and he had said many times that had it not been for Ali he would have perished. The Immaculate Imams (as) were always highly respected and their advice was often sought by the Abbasid caliphate, so much so that the caliph appointed Imam Reza (the eighth Imam (as)) as his successor to the throne and in fact gave his own daughter’s hand (Umm al-Fazl) in marriage to Hazrat Jawad (the ninth Imam (as)) from whose great knowledge and insight he benefited immensely. During the caliphates of Mustasim, Mutawakkil, Muntasir, Mustasin and Al-Mustaz, Imam Hadi (the tenth Imam (as)) enjoyed the support and following of many important and influential members of the government. Imam Hasan al-Askari (the eleventh Imam (as)) was particularly honored by the Abbasid caliph Muhtadi and his standing was higher than that of all other dignitaries of the Quraysh, including even that of the ministers and army commanders. Of course the prime reason for the respect paid to these Immaculate Imams by the caliphs (which was often superficial only) was because the latter were well aware of the spiritual influence held by the Imams among the people. See Da’irat al-Ma’arif-e Tashayyu’, pp. 364- 373.

96

97

Abu Ali Muskuwiyyah (930-1020 AD), the outstanding eleventh century Islamic philosopher and physician has several works of philosophy and ethics to his credit. He was the special intimate friend and confidant of Amir Azidud-Dawlah Daylami and also held the office of chancellor to the Muslim treasury. In the tenth century Abu Ali Sina was the personal consultant to Nuh ibn Mansur Samani, a minister of Shams ad-Dawlah Daylami and the doctor and consultant of Sultan Ala’ad-Dawlah. Khwajah Nizam al-Mulk at-Tusi, the great thinker and intellectual of the eleventh century and the founder of Nizamiyyah (Madrasah) in Baghdad, Isfahan and Nishapur, was the minister to Ali Arslan and Malik Shah Saljuqi. Khwajah Nasiruddin at-Tusi, the illustrious thinker and intellectual of the thirteenth century and the founder of Maraghah observatory, has many books to his credit in various scientific fields, while also having been a consultant for HulaquKhan. In addition, one could name Allamah Hilli, Muhaqqiq Karaki, Allamah Majlisi and many other prominent ulama. Imam Khomeini, in reply to the question, “Why do the ulama cooperate with the systems of tyrannical kings?” writes in his book, Kashf al-Asrar: “We believe that it is not only permissible but on occasion essential that we involve ourselves in the affairs of dictatorial regimes, in order to prevent corruption and alleviate the people’s suffering.”

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THE DANGER POSED BY THE ISRAELI AGENTS But who are the advisers now? Israel! Our counselors are Jews! In the Dunya newspaper they themselves acknowledged a donation of five hundred dollars to each of two thousand Bahais98 (the wretched99 hadn’t better deny this since it was actually in the press); that’s five hundred dollars from the wealth of this Muslim nation- in addition to offering a one-thousand-and-two tumans discount on each of their air fares. And what was this for? It was for their journey to London to participate in an anti-Islamic meeting. They were thus afforded the highest respect. On the contrary, our pilgrims have to bear the most severe hardships and sometimes even have to offer bribes just to obtain permission100 for their journey; and even then only a few are actually successful. What intimidation they are subjected to on the outward journey and how many difficulties they have to face during their return journey! Moreover, whilst there at Mina and Mecca, they have to tolerate the objections and protests of a contemptible official who demands the apprehension of someone for truthfully stating that Islam is threatened by the Jews. My God! man, are you indeed a Jew? And our country, is that Jewish too?

DEADLY SILENCE AND SUPPORT TO THE TYRANNICAL REGIME Woe to this country and to the regime in power! Woe unto us and to the rest of the world! Woe to those mute ulama and to the silent cities of Najaf, Qum, Tehran and Mashhad. This deadly silence will cause our country and our honor and dignity to be trampled beneath the boots of the Israelis by means of these very Bahais. Then woe to us; woe to this Islam; woe to these Muslims. O you ulama, do not remain silent; don’t

98

In the year 1840 AD, a man named Ali Muhammad Bab introduced himself as the people’s leader and as the intercessor between the people and the Imam of the Age. He then claimed to be the awaited savior (Mahdi) and promised that in the near future a prophet would arise from among the followers of Bab who would introduce a new religion. Under the instruction of Nasiruddin Shah and Amir Kabir, many of the followers of Bab were arrested and executed, while the rest were exiled to Iraq. The Bab himself was also killed (1850). Two brothers from among his devotees later professed to be his successors, but differences broke out between the two. Those who followed the first brother became known as Babis (Sobh Azal) and those who followed the second brother became known as Bahais (Baha’ullah). A serious conflict arose between the two groups and as a result many lives were lost from both sides. The Ottoman State sent them all into exile in Adarna (Asia Minor) where fighting between the two sides continued. This left the Ottoman State no alternative but to send the Bahais to Akka (occupied Palestine) and the other group to Cyprus. The later activities of the Bahais in Akka attracted the following of most of the Babis and especially those who were Iranian. According to the Bahai belief marriage to any woman (mother, sister, niece, cousin) was considered permissible other than to the step-mother. The Russians played a particularly significant role in the formation of this religion. The British, however, propagated Baha’ism throughout the Muslim countries and especially in Iran. Therefore, Baha’ism from its conception until the present has managed to serve the “superpowers” under the guise of a religious belief, whereas it in fact constitutes a political party. The United States of America and Zionist Israel are currently strong supporters of this school. The Bahais held particularly high positions during the reign of Muhammad Reza and despite the clergy’s conflict with this party, the Shah always benefited from his relationship with them. Their most prominent members were always present in the Royal Court and were active in political decision-making, operating in favor of world Zionism. See Bahaigari, pp. 181- 238, and Az Sayyid Ziya ta Bakhtiyar, p.530. For further information regarding the role and influence of the Bahais in the Pahlavi regime read the disturbing statements made by the Shah’s closest associate Husayn Fardoust, in the book: The Rise and Fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty, vol. 1, p. 372.

99 The Shah 100 Passport.

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claim to be following in the Shaykh’s path may he rest in paradise)101. I swear by God that if the Shaykh102 was now among us he too would adopt this stance.103

SILENCE! Do not choose to remain silent since to do so today is to support the tyrannical system. I was informed that Sabet Pasal104 was given a discount in a deal made between himself and the Oil Company, in which he made a profit of twenty-five million tumans; or in truth it was those who were sent to the anti-Islamic meeting in London who actually profited. That is the current state of our oil industry, our foreign currency, our national airline and our ministers; and that is how things are for all of us. Then are we still to say nothing?! Ought we really remain silent and not complain? They destroy our homes, yet we are not to make a murmur?!

OUR CONDITION WITH THIS “HIS MAJESTY” That good-for-nothing sends the chief of police, the head of that rotten institution,105 to the homes of the ulama106 to threaten that if they, the ulama, should so much as breathe a word about certain matters,107 then 101 Here, reference is made to Shaykh Abd al-Karim Ha’iri Yazdi, the founder of the theological center in Qum. He held moderate political views and refrained from interfering in politics. The late Ayatullah Burujerdi (may he receive God’s mercy) adopted a very similar stance. The Imam here is trying to make the clergy aware of the fact that such a stance ought not be adopted under the prevailing circumstances. See Kashf al-Asrar (Imam Khomeini) and Barrasi va Tahlili az Nahzat-e Imam Khomeini. 102 Ayatullah al-Uzma Haj Shaykh Abdul-Karim Ha’iri Yazdi (1859- 1937 AD): considered to be one of the most outstanding maraji’ of the Shia. Initially he began his studies in Yazd and then in the holy cities of Baghdad, Karbala’ and Najaf (Atabat Ayliyat). Studying alongside such eminent scholars as Sayyid Muhammad Faysharaki, Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi, Mirza-ye Bozurg Shirazi and Akhund Khorasani, he achieved the noble rank of ijtihad and successfully initiated religious classes in Karbala’. In 1912 he traveled to Arak and brought high repute to the theological center there. In 1920 he visited the holy city of Qum with the intention of making a pilgrimage. While there, local ulama insisted on his remaining in order to establish a religious learning center. Many distinguished jurisprudents have received training and education from his classes, they include Ayatullah al-Uzma Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari, Ayatullah al-Uzma Sayyid Ahmad Khwansari, Ayatullah al-Uzma Sayyid Sadruddin Sadr, Ayatullah al-Uzma Shaykh Muhammad Ali Araki and Ayatullah al-Uzma Sayyid Muhammad Reza Golpaygani. Among his students was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Ayatullah al-Uzma Imam Khomeini. His Eminence Ayatullah Ha’iri was able to retain his extremely modest way of life even when he was recognized as the marja’ at-taqlid and much has been related with regard to his moral and ethical virtues. The grave of this magnanimous and honorable scholar is situated by the holy shrine of Hazrat Masumah (sa) in Qum. 103 Here, The Imam means that if the late Haj Shaykh Abdul-Karim Ha’iri were alive, his duty would be to struggle against the government in power. 104 Sabet Habib Pasal (1903 -1990 AD), a renowned capitalist of Iran, was a follower of a misled sect of Baha’ism and converted to become Zionist Jew. He was among those who played a major role in the administration of both political and economic institutes during the Shah’s reign. Like many relatives of the Pahlavi family such as Farman Farma’iyan, Khiyamin, Rezai and Akhawan, Sabet Habib Pasal held shares in most banks, firms and companies, whilst being seen as one of the main shareholders of foreign investment in Iran. The Anglo-Iranian Bank and the banks of Iran and the Middle-East, Iranian industry, Iranian mines and industrial development as well as commercial enterprises such as Pepsi Cola, Volks-Wagon, Mashhad Cement, Plasco Kar, General Tyres and Rubber, Iran Farwag, Siycup and France Payk were but some of the areas in which this Zionist agent was active. After the Islamic Revolution occurred and all of his assets in Iran were confiscated. He fled to New York and died on a trip to Los Angeles on 22nd February 1990. See Dawlat va Huk’mat dar Iran, pp. 263267. More details on: https://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/sabet-habib 105 Here reference is made to Colonel Partow, the chief of police in Qum and Colonel Badi’, the head of SAVAK in Qum, both of whom went to the homes of the maraji’ (March, 1963) under the Shah’s instructions. 106 A reference to Mr. Shariatmadari. The Shah’s envoy, achieving nothing by going to the home of the Imam, then visits Mr. Shariatmadari’s place of residence. 107 Reference here is made to Ayatullah al-Uzma Hakim, who had sent a telegram to the entire ulama of Iran inviting them to immigrate to the holy cities of Baghdad, Karbala’ and Najaf. Once informed of this telegram, the Shah sends both the chief of police and the head of SAVAK to Imam’s home, where they are not received. These envoys then go to the home of Mr. Shariatmadari to deliver the Shah’s

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the police have been ordered by His Majesty to ransack their homes, assault their families and to kill the ulama themselves. Unfortunately, on that day when they came to my home I turned them away. I now wish I had allowed them to enter so that I could have punched them in the mouth. This is what we have to tolerate from His Imperial Majesty; that is of course if what they say is true. If they are lying however, then let him state that this is the case. Let him declare that the governors of Qum108 have told lies so that I can give those governors what for! Let him tell us that the chief of police has told lies, so that I can send some religious students to teach him a lesson. The problem is of course that he makes no such claim. There again, this year was a good year because the clergy let the world know of its value and significance. It made the world realize that it is the clergy alone which speaks out against and confronts both oppression and the oppressor and injustice and the unjust. It is the clergy and the theological centers which take the beatings, cry out, sacrifice their lives and make protests. They destroy the clergy’s Fayziyyah Madrasah but the clergy continue relentlessly. The clergy say what they believe must be said regardless of what happens to them. The clergy have made the entire world aware of their existence. Therefore, it could be said that this year was a bad year since Iran became an object of ridicule throughout the world because of the regime in power; or again, it could be said to have been a good year because the propriety of the clergy was proven to the world. The clergy let the world know that we (too) are human; we are spiritual leaders. We don’t just concern ourselves with preaching and praying, but we also make our voices heard. We serve to admonish and advise you, the people.

THE SHAH’S DISGRACEFUL REFERENDUM I gave the Shah some advice; I sent someone to see him.109 In the days before the referendum I sent messages to him via Behbudi110 and Pakravan111 advising him not to hold a referendum nor to attempt to alter the

ultimatum. In this message, the Shah had said that the migration of ulama to Najaf would only be acceptable on condition that no political activities would be undertaken; otherwise the ulama would encounter severe reprisals from the government. 108 The chief of police (Colonel Partow) and the head of SAVAK (Colonel Badi’). 109 Once the intention to hold a referendum on the “White Revolution” was announced, the Imam, in a meeting with high-ranking ulama and maraji’ of Qum, comprehensively elaborated upon the real objectives of the Shah and America with regard to the “six points” of the “revolution”. Subsequently, the Imam along with other maraji’, asked the government to send a representative to Qum to hold negotiations on the “six points” and in turn convey the opinion of the clergy to the government. The envoy sent by the government was in fact a person named Behbudi with whom negotiations turned out to be unproductive. Following this, the Leader of the Revolution, having received approval from other maraji’, called on Ayatullah Ruhullah Kamavand, the influential religious scholar of Lorestan and revered teacher of the theological center in Qum, to go to the Shah to deter him from opposing Islam and to inform him of the views of the ulama in Qum with regard to the state of the country. However, neither the Imam’s warning nor the meeting held between the late Kamalvand and the Shah were to any avail, other than to provide an opportunity to voice objection to the referendum and to point out its illegality due to the fact that it was not accounted for in the constitutional law. See Inqilab-e Islami va Risheha-ye aan, pp. 448-449. 110 See the previous note. 111 Major General Hassan Pakravan served as the army commander-in-chief and the deputy Prime Minister during the terms of office of Dr. Ali Amini and Alam. He was also the head of SAVAK from 1960 to 1964. As a close friend and confidante of the Shah, he negotiated with Imam on the Shah’s behalf on several occasions before the success of Revolution. After revolution, he was arrested, tried in the court and was executed in April 1979.

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law112 since it was not in his interests to do so. I warned him that if today Arsanjani113 can bring a group of peasants and make them do as he tells them so that they cry “long live so and so”, then tomorrow another group can be brought to cry “death to so and so”!114 So again I advised him not to go ahead with this since it was not in his interests. However, he didn’t listen and we all saw what happened. They didn’t even manage to win two thousand votes; and those they did obtain were obtained by force. It is common knowledge that the bazaars of Tehran and Qum closed down in order to avoid having to vote and that in other cities too, the turnout was extremely poor. They couldn’t even attract two thousand votes without the need for force. We didn’t want you to suffer such humiliation in this way; neither did we wish for the nation’s repudiation of you. We wanted you to be the kind of person who, when he cries out to his nation, receives a wholehearted response from all of the people. This is how we would like our Shah to be. We would also like our minister to be a person in whose opinions the entire nation had confidence, rather than one who insists that six million votes were cast115 whereas I guarantee you they failed to amount to even a few thousand- the ballot boxes having been filled by the regime itself. Perhaps the Shah didn’t actually hear the truth of the matter. Maybe he was told that an “overwhelming majority” vote of six million had been achieved. Since the Shah doesn’t tell lies then this must be the case, otherwise why should he make claim to an” overwhelming majority” throughout the entire country of Iran? What about the bazaars of Tehran? Aren’t they a part of the country? The streets of Tehran, the city of Qum, other provinces, the clergy, are these not all parts of Iran? Where is this Iran that you refer to? Where did all those votes that you lay claim to actually come from? It was unfortunate that such events should have occurred this year. Yet it was fortunate that you, the respected clergy, by confronting oppression gave new life to Islam. Had you not shown resistance, God knows that by now they would have fully executed all of their evil schemes. It was your resistance which caused them to deny their former intentions, whereby they said: “Of course divorce is a man’s prerogative,

112 The constitutional law and its amendments. According to the articles of this law, the safeguarding of the religion of Islam and Shi’ism as well as the clergy’s continual supervision of the legislative procedure have been emphatically stipulated. 113 Sayyid Hasan Arsanjani (1922- 1969 AD), a law graduate who made great financial profits from the “land reform” program. He held several positions including publisher of the Dariya newspaper, Member of Parliament during the Majlis’ fifteenth assembly, political deputy of Qavam as-Saltanah and Agricultural Minister in the cabinets of both Ali Amini and Alam. 114 On January 9, 1963 (Dey 19, 1341 SH) Arsanjani, the Minister of Agriculture, assembled in a park gymnasium several thousands of those peasants who had ostensibly been given land through the land reform program. A number of high-ranking governmental officials, army commanders, officials of the Royal Court and both Iranian and foreign journalists were present at this assembly. As the peasants were busy cheering and applauding, the Shah, who was surrounded by security officers, entered the gathering to announce the “six points” of his “White Revolution”. See the newspapers of January 9 and 10, 1963 (Dey 19 and 20, 1341 SH). 115 The Shah in all of his speeches and interviews most unashamedly insisted that the number of votes cast in the referendum of January 1963 (Bahman 1341 SH) was in the” millions”. In Kerman on May 27, 1963 (Khordad 6, 1342 SH) he made claim to 5,600,000 votes; on June 9, 1963 (Khordad 19, 1342 SH), whilst addressing students who were about to go to America, he cited six million votes; and on July 27, 1963 (Mordad 7, 1342 SH), in an article which appeared in the American journal Life, he maintained that ninety-five percent of the population took part in the referendum. See the Kayhan and Ittila’at newspapers of the aforementioned dates.

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when did we ever say otherwise?”116 Whilst one voice from the “People’s Party”117 can be heard advocating full and equal rights, another voice from the other Party asks: “When did we say that divorce is a woman’s prerogative?” Hence, on one occasion they espouse equality in all spheres of life, but on another they advocate something quite different. Again, they speak in similar terms with regard to inheritance and women’s conscription, advocating one thing one minute and denying it the next. As for women’s conscription, we read about it in your (the Shah’s) very own newspapers which write whatever the security forces dictate to them. The editor-in-chief of Kayhan118 is said to have remarked that the paper’s journalists now have no problems to contend with, because in the past they were the ones who did the writing and certain persons 119 would make “comments” of approval or disapproval, but now these persons actually do the writing themselves, thus easing the task of the journalist. Here, however, I feel an objection must be voiced asking this person where his self-respect is if he allows others to dictate to him whilst he merely writes. Why should our press be so abject?

THE DANGER POSED BY ZIONISM So why don’t you (the ulama) speak out and say what they are actually doing?120 Now that Islam is threatened by Judaism and the Jewish Party, which in fact constitutes the Bahai Party, it is time for all of the ulama of Islam to speak with one voice; and for the orators, speakers and religious students to jointly declare unequivocally that they don’t want Judaism to determine the destiny of their country; nor do they want their country to align itself with the Jews in opposition to an Islamic alliance.121 Whilst elsewhere the Muslims are uniting, those here are making pacts with Judaism! What state of affairs is this? If you must

116 By adopting the blanket phrase “full and equal rights” the ground was laid for the elimination of Islam and the propagation of Western culture. The granting of women’s divorce rights was initially denied by the Shah, his Prime Minister and other officials. However, several years later during Hoveyda’s premiership a law was ratified in Parliament entitled “The Family Protection Law” according to which women were permitted to divorce their husbands on the approval of the law courts. The authority of the judges of these courts was not recognized by Islamic law according to which a husband is able to endorse a women’s right to divorce on condition that this stipulation has been included in the marriage vows. Needless to say, this legal ruling which is currently in operation in the Islamic Republic of Iran bears no relation whatsoever to the aforementioned “Family Protection Law” which was approved by the Shah’s Parliament. 117 In the year 1960 (1339 SH), a time of international political upheaval, the Shah was compelled to reconsider his style of government and his domestic policies. He therefore called on his Prime Minister, Dr. Iqbal and his Royal Court adviser Alam to form two political parties called “The National Party” (Hizb-e Milliyyun) and “The People’s Party” (Hizb-e Mardom) both of which were to give the appearance of being mutual rivals. In 1974, however, when the “National Resurgence Party” (Hizb-e Rastakhiz) was founded by the Shah himself, the two aforementioned parties were abolished. See I’tirafat-e Shah-e Makhlu, p. 66. 118 Kayhan, the socio-political newspaper, which was launched in 1942 (1321 SH) in Tehran with the publication of a twelve-page edition of the paper. Its proprietor was Mustafa Misbahzadeh and its editor-in-chief from its birth until 1974 (1353 SH) was Mahdi Semsar. For information concerning Misbahzadeh’s thirst for power, his dedication to the Pahlavi regime and the biography of a man who, for years propagated the plans, aims and ambitions of the Shah’s regime through one of the largest publishing institutes, see The Rise and Fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty, pp. 131- 133. The current website of Kayhan International English edition is at: https://kayhan.ir/en 119 The press board of censors. 120 The Imam is addressing those clergymen who chose to remain silent, arguing that struggle would result in nothing but torture and imprisonment. 121 In this treaty the countries of Iraq, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan had united against Zionism; whereas the Shah, under America’s instructions, gave direct support to Israel and was thereby an ally of Zionism. He indirectly lent support to certain treaties which served the interests of American policies; and not only did he not represent the slightest threat to Israel, but on the contrary he served to safeguard the territory of the Zionist regime.

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be a lackey to others, then why must you be such a dedicated one?! I shall end here so that I can go to the Fayziyyah Madrasah to recite a surah of the Qur’an (Surah al-Fatihah) for the repose of the souls of those who died in the assault. May God grant you good health both now and in the future [the audience cries “Amen”] and may He grant victory to Islam [the audience cries “Amen”].

7th Speech Date: May 13, 1963/Urdibehesht 23, 1342 SH/Dhul-Hijjah 19, 1382 AH Place: Qum Subject: The religion is in danger Occasion: Arrival of the blessed Eid al-Ghadir122 Audience: A group of the clergy and people of Hamadan123 In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

THE GOVERNMENT IS STRENGTHENING ISRAEL AND BAHAIS I am much obliged to you for taking the trouble. Please give my regards to the people and the clergy of Hamadan and say that the religion of you Muslim people is in danger of being assaulted; your administration intends to destroy you by Bahais and Israelis. Be informed that your state has furnished 2000 Bahais with 500 each for the air tickets to London so that they can gather and make decisions against the Qur’an and your Prophet. In a trade contract between Oil Incorporation and Sabet Pasal124 for selling him oil and petroleum, your state has granted him a profit of five million tumans, through a discount, which provided for the Bahais trip to London and for their propagations. Please tell the people that your state expends on strengthening the Jews, the Israelis, and Bahais from the taxes it exacts from you Muslims. I am fully informed that they are going to officially recognize the Israeli Government, in spite of the wishes of the Muslim Iranian Nation and other Islamic and Arab nations. However, it seems that they are afraid of you and are not sure yet whether to announce it officially. They attempted it two years ago, which was protested by ulama and the Muslim people and they had to deny it soon. They are planning to do it again. Please inform the others and they will in turn inform the rest; all of you should tell everybody

122 Eid al-Ghadir is celebrated throughout Muslim world by the Shia’s. Prophet Muhammad (s) appointed Imam Ali (as) as his successor while returning from his last Hajj. For details and analysis of this incident, please visit: https://www.al-islam.org/ghadir/ 123 Qum section of Intelligence and Security Organization (SAVAK), in its report sent to its headquarters writes: “Information on 2/23/1342 SH shows that a great number of tullab, tradesmen, and bazaar merchants from Tehran, Qum, Isfahan, and Hamadan have entered Qum to visit and greet Khomeini on the occasion of Eid al-Ghadir. At about 5 pm, a group of about 100 from Hamadan arrived at his home. After being introduced to Khomeini, a person read out a statement on behalf of the crowd which said: “We have come to meet you on behalf of the people of Hamadan, its clergymen and tradesmen, both to have the honor of meeting you and greeting you on the occasion and to announce the support of Hamadan people for Your Eminence. We are representing the people of Hamadan to announce to you that they will support you to the last, for destroying the Mu’awiyah of our time”. Then Imam Khomeini gave the short speech. 124 He is a famous Bahai capitalist. He owned the Pepsi Cola Beverage Company, and several other factories and commercial centers in Tehran and other provinces. His employees were all Bahais.

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to be ready, be united, until the day, it is the time to strike this government, which is a servant to the foreigners and an enemy of Islam, a blow to the mouth. God supports us and we will move forward.

8th Speech Date: Afternoon, June 3, 1963/Khordad 13, 1342 SH/Muharram 10, 1383 AH Place: Fayziyyah Madrasah, Qum Subject: The Shah and Israel, the root of the Iranian nation’s sufferings Occasion: The arrival of Ashura Audience: The clergymen, tullab, people of Qum, and pilgrims of the holy shrine of Hazrat Masumah (sa) In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

THE REGIME’S OPPOSITION TO THE FOUNDATION OF ISLAM It is now the afternoon of Ashura. Sometimes when I reflect upon the events of Ashura, a question occurs to me: If the Bani Umayyah and the regime of Yazid ibn Mu’awiyah were at war with Husayn, then why did they commit such savage and inhuman crimes against defenseless women and innocent children on the day of Ashura? What were the women and infants guilty of? It seems to me that their concern was far more basic; they did not wish the Bani Hashim to exist; the Bani Umayyah were hostile toward the Bani Hashim as a whole and their goal was to root out this goodly tree (Shajarah Tayyibah).125 The same idea prevailed in Iran. What business did they have with our sixteen- and seventeen-year-old youngsters? What had the Sayyid aged no more than sixteen or seventeen years done against the Shah?126 What had he done to upset the government? What had he done to upset the tyrannical regime? One is led to conclude that it is toward underlying principles that they are hostile rather than children. They do not wish these principles to exist, nor do they wish any of us to exist; the young and the old alike.

ISRAEL IS THE ENEMY OF ISLAM AND IRAN Israel does not wish there to be any learned men in this country. Israel does not wish the Qur’an to exist in this country. Israel does not wish the ulama to exist in this country. Israel does not wish to see Islamic

125 Shajarah Tayyibah phrase is taken from Holy Qur’an, alluded to in Surah Ibrahim, verses 24 and 25: “Have you not considered how Allah sets forth a parable of a good word (being) like a good tree, whose root is firm and whose branches are in heaven?” It refers to God, Prophet Muhammad (s), the Ahlul-Bayt (as), who are the progeny of Banu Hashim, perfect human beings, faith, monotheism, light, etc. In traditions from Shia sources, Shajarah Tayyibah refers to Ahlul-Bayt (as). For example, Imam Sadiq (as) in the exposition of the verse 24 of Surah Ibrahim said: “The Prophet of Islam (s) is the root of this tree, and the Commander of the Faithful (Imam Ali (as)) is its branch, and the Imams who are their descendants are the smaller branches, and the knowledge of the Imams is the fruit of this tree, and their faithful followers are the leaves of this tree.” (Al-Kafi, vol. 1., p. 428). 126 It refers to the late Sayyid Yunus Husayni Rudbari (Sept. 1932 – April 1963), one the martyrs of the Fayziyyah tragedy. He was the first martyr of Imam Khomeini’s (ra) revolutionary movement. He was repeatedly tortured by SAVAK commandoes and passed away because of severe injuries. He was buried in Imamzadeh Husayn Cemetery in his hometown Rudbar, province of Gilan. When Imam Khomeini (ra) met his father Sayyid Yunus, while weeping, he said: “My this weeping is not for you! It is for one of my best and dearest that I have lost.”

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precepts in this country. It was Israel that assaulted the madrasah127 by means of its sinister agents. It is assaulting us too and you, the nation; it wishes to seize your economy, to destroy your trade and agriculture and to appropriate your wealth leaving this country without. Anything which proves to be a barrier, or blocks its path is to be removed by means of its agents. The Qur’an is blocking its path; it must be removed. The religious establishment is blocking its path, it too must be removed; Fayziyyah is blocking its path, it must be destroyed. The religious students might later prove to be barriers; they must be flung from the roof and their arms and necks broken. We are affronted by our very own government, which assists Israel in achieving its objectives by obeying her command.

WHO IS THE PARASITE? You respectful people of Qum! On the day that mendacious, that scandalous referendum took place- that referendum which only a few thousand were in favor of and which was carried out contrary to the interests of the Iranian nation- you witnessed how certain persons were let loose onto the streets of Qum, and in this center of religious learning which stands beside the shrine of Fatima Masumah (sa); and how thugs and ruffians were picked up and driven around the streets in cars, yelling, “Your sponging days are over! Your days of good living are at an end!” You look around; take note of the condition in which Fayziyyah Madrasah finds itself; take a look at the residential chambers. Those who spend the best and most active part of their lives in these small chambers, their monthly allowance not exceeding between 40 - 100 tumansare they parasites? How about those who have one account containing 1000 million tumans, while thousands of millions more are elsewhere in other accounts- are they not parasites?! Is it we (the ulama) who are parasites- people like the late Haj Shaykh Abdul-Karim whose sons possessed nothing, not even food to eat on the night of his death [the audience weeps intensely], or the late Burujerdi who was six hundred thousand tumans in debt at the time of his demise- was he a parasite?! Yet those who have filled banks all around the world, who have erected great towering palaces, who refuse to leave this nation alone and who continue in their endeavors to fill their own pockets and those of Israel with profits taken from the remainder of the national resources- they are not parasites?! It is for the world and the nation to judge who is parasitic.

ADVICE AND WARNING GIVEN TO THE SHAH Let me give you some advice Sir, Mr. Shah! Your Majesty! My advice to you is to abstain from such acts; you are being deluded. I would not like to see everyone rejoice if your departure was arranged. I will tell you a story that will be familiar to those aged thirty or forty years or more. Three foreign countries once attacked and then occupied Iran: the Soviet Union, Britain and America. The property of the people was exposed to danger and their honor was imperiled; but God knows how elated the people were when they saw that Pahlavi128 had gone. I do not want you to end up this way. Stop acting thus. It is not my wish that the same happens to you. Do not annoy the people so. Do not oppose the clergymen so. If what they say is true and you indeed oppose them, then it is wrong of you to think this way. If they hand you formerly-

127 It refers to the Fayziyyah Madrasah in Qum and Talibiyyah Madrasah in Tabriz that were simultaneously subjected to the savage attacks of the Shah’s agents. 128 Reza Shah

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prepared material and then tell you to read it, give it some thought first. Why do you speak without first thinking? The ulama and the religious scholars of Islam, are they really defiled animals?! Does the nation see them in this light?! If they truly are defiled animals then why do people kiss their hands? Is it the hand of a defiled animal they kiss? And why do they regard the very water they drink as blessed? Is this the treatment afforded a defiled animal! [the audience weeps intensely] Sir, are we really defiled animals? I hope to God that this is not what you mean. God forbid that you were referring to the ulama when you said, “The black reaction129 is like a defiled animal which is to be avoided by the people,” because if this is so then our task is made more difficult and so is yours. You will not be able to live. The nation will not allow you to live. Do not continue in this way; heed my advice. You are now forty-three years old; enough is enough. Do not listen to what others tell you. Think a little; ponder about where all this is leading you. Learn at least something from your father’s fate. Do not continue in this way. Listen to what I have to say; listen to what the ulama have to say; listen to what the religious scholars have to sayit is they who seek the welfare of the country and the nation. Are we reactionaries? Is the doctrine of Islam reactionary; and a “black reaction” at that? Is it you then who turned the “black” revolution into a “white” one?! Did you create a White Revolution? Which White Revolution did you make sir? Why do you try to deceive the people so? I swear by God, Israel is of no use to you, it is the Qur’an which can be of help to you. I was informed today that a number of preachers were taken to the offices of SAVAK and were told that they could speak about anything they chose other than three subjects: they were not to say anything bad about the Shah; not to attack Israel; and not to say that Islam is endangered. The problem is that if we don’t concern ourselves with these three subjects then what else is there to talk about? All of our difficulties without exception stem from these three issues. Sir, they themselves say this; it is not I who says it. Whoever you ask tells you that it was the Shah who ordered for such action to be taken; the Shah ordered for Fayziyyah Madrasah to be destroyed; the Shah ordered for those people to be killed That man130 - I will mention his name at the appropriate time when he has been duly punished [an outburst of emotion from the audience] - who came to Fayziyyah Madrasah, whistled to signal for the commandos to gather, and shouted, “What are you waiting for? Plunder the entire residential chambers and destroy whatever is there.” He gave the order to attack and they attacked; but when he is asked, “Why did you do such a thing?” He replies, “I was acting on His Majesty’s orders.” Are these (religious students) His Majesty’s enemies? Is Israel His Majesty’s friend? Israel will cause the country’s collapse. Via its agents, Israel will cause the dissolution of the monarchy. 129 The Shah refers to those clerics who struggled in opposition to the regime as the “black reaction”. In the interviews, speeches and messages given by him from the year 1962 (1341 SH) onward, he names the “black reaction” and the “red reaction” as opposes of the “White Revolution”. At the Farmer’s Congress held in January 1962, he said, “There is no doubt that the “black reaction” and the subversive “red” forces will not desist in their attempt to check Iran’s reforms. Indeed, they will make every effort to avert them!” Once again in a speech delivered in Qum a short while later, he insulted the ulama and most distinctly called the clergymen “black reactionaries”. Again, in the book Inqilab-e Sefid (The White Revolution), with regard to the great uprising of Khordad 15 we read: “The shambles of Khordad 15, 1342 SH (June 5, 1963) was the best illustration of the unholy union between the “black reaction” and the “red” subversive forces, that took place financed by a group of land owners whose interests were detrimentally affected by the laws of land reforms”! See DayiratulMu’arif-e Tashayyu’, pp. 566- 567; Musahibeh, Nutqha va Payamha-ye Muhammad Reza Shah, pp. 3087, 3089, 3284; Farhang-e Siyasi, p. 5. 130 Colonel Mawlawi (deputy-director of SAVAK)

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THE SHAH UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF BAHAIS Beware, for one thing is certain- if you take a look at the Bahai almanac of two or three years ago, you will read, Abdul-Baha131 advocates “equal rights for men and women”; and this is the line that has been adopted by them. Then the ignorant Mr. Shah also steps forward and talks of equal rights for men and women! You poor wretch, they have purposely set you up so that they can say that you are a Bahai, and so that I in turn can denounce you as an unbeliever and you are finally got rid of. Do not continue in this way, you fool; do not do it. Conscription for women is what Abdul-Baha advocates. The almanac in question is available, so why not read it. Has the Shah not seen this?! If not then those who have seen it and have set this poor wretch up to say these things are to be rebuked. I swear by God that I have heard that the security police have plans to ensure that the people see the Shah in a bad light, so that he can be expelled; and it may be for this reason that some of these matters are in fact kept from him. There are many such matters, more than you can possibly imagine. Both our country and our religion are in jeopardy. You repeatedly tell the ulama not to mention that our religion is endangered; but if we do not say this, does that mean that our religion is in fact not in danger? If we do not mention what the Shah is like, does that mean he is really not like that? Indeed, you must do something to change this situation. You are being blamed for everything. You helpless creature, you do not realize that on the day when a true outburst occurs, not one of these socalled friends of yours will want to know you. They are all friends of the dollar. They hold no belief or moral principles and they have no sense of loyalty.

THE SHAH’S LINK TO ISRAEL We feel particularly emotional at present, not because of the fact that today is Ashura’ (although to a certain extent that is the case) but because of what is in store for this nation; because of that which is about to take place. That is the real cause of our extreme sorrow; we are truly apprehensive. What exactly is the relationship between the Shah and Israel anyway, which causes the secret service to tell us neither to speak of Israel nor of the Shah- what is the connection between the two? Can it be that the Shah is an Israeli? Does the secret service believe him to be Jewish? Surely this cannot be so; he professes to be a Muslim. He who claims to be a Muslim, according to the laws of Islam, is thereby a Muslim. The connection between us and Israel perhaps this concerns some kind of confidential matter. Maybe there is truth in what they say about certain organizations wanting to destroy the Shah. Do you not consider it a probability? If so then resolve the matter in some way. Somehow inform this man of these issues; it may cause him to wake up and become somewhat aware of the situation. However, they have ensured that he is under constant surveillance and they might therefore prevent such words of advice from reaching him. We are full of regret and sorrow. We truly regret the state in which Iran finds itself. We regret the state of our ruined country, of this cabinet and of those running our government. Kindly ask Mr. Shirazi132 to come and recite a prayer. I feel truly tired. 131 Abbas Effendi, the notorious “Abdul Baha” (1844-1921 AD), son of Mirza Husayn Ali (Baha’ullah) became the leader of the Bahais after his father. He was amongst the British government’s active spies who actually worked for the British in Palestine. The services rendered by Abbas Effendi to the British government made him worthy of a knighthood and the title of “Sir”. Abdul-Baha published Talim-e Bahaiyyat [The Teachings of Bahaism] in which he addressed the issue of full and equal rights of the sexes. 132 Sayyid Ghulam Hasan Shirazi

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9th Speech Date: Morning, April 10, 1964/Farvardin 21, 1343 SH/Dhul-Qadah 26, 1383 AH Place: Qum Subject: The clergy opposes the Shah’s White Revolution Occasion: The Imam’s return to Qum after release from prison Audience: A group of Tehran University students, tullab and people of Qum In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

THE TARGET IS ISLAM AND INDEPENDENCE OF THE COUNTRY Do not be disheartened by the incarceration of Mr. Taleqani133 and the engineer.134 We will not succeed without the occurrence of such incidents. The ultimate goal which must be borne in mind at all times is more important than the release of a group of people. The objective is Islam; it is the country’s independence; it is the proscription of Israel’s agents; it is the unification of Muslim countries. The entire country’s economy now lies in Israel’s hands; that is to

133 Ayatullah Sayyid Mahmoud Taleqani (1910- 1979 AD/1289- 1358 SH) after having acquired education in Islamic sciences at the madrasahs of Razawiyyah and Fayziyyah in Qum, went to Tehran in the year 1938 (1317 SH) to preach and lecture in Islamic teachings. In 1939 he was arrested and imprisoned, charged with opposing the Pahlavi regime. From 1948 (1327 SH) onward, his classes were held at Hidayat Mosque in Tehran which was the central gathering place for religious intellectuals and the religious members of the National Front (Jebhehye Milli), who later established themselves as the Liberation Movement (Nahzat-e Azadi). In the years 1951 and 1952 (1330 and 1331 SH) he traveled to Jordan and Egypt. He participated in the struggle for the nationalization of the oil industry and was arrested following the coup d’état of Mordad 28 (August 19) accused of hiding Nawwab Safavi, the founder and leader of the Fida’iyan-e Islam [Devotees of Islam] in his home. The late Taleqani was repeatedly imprisoned because of his activities and this was the case yet again in 1964 (1343 SH) due to his support of Imam Khomeini’s movement, his release being granted in the year 1967 (1346 SH). In 1971 (1350 SH) he was exiled to Zabol and then to Baft (a town in the province of Kerman); and in 1975 (1354 SH), having been betrayed by one of the Munafiqin (MKO) he was arrested and sentenced to ten years imprisonment. On November 9, 1978 (Aban 18, 1357 SH) he was freed along with Ayatullah Muntaziri and a group of other political prisoners. Following the victory of the Islamic Revolution he was appointed as head of the Revolutionary Council and selected as a member of the Assembly of Experts; and following the Imam’s request he led the first congregational Friday prayer which was held at Tehran University. Among the many literary legacies of the late Ayatullah Taleqani are expositions of the Qur’an and books concerning Islamic teachings and socio-political issues. He passed away on 9th September, 1979 after suffering heart attack. He is buried in famous Beheshte Zahra cemetery of Tehran. Imam Khomeini (ra) mentioned him as Abuzar of the time. 134 Here, the Imam is referring to engineer Mahdi Bazargan. Mr. Bazargan (b. 1907/ 1286 SH) held official positions during Dr. Muhammad Musaddiq’s government at the Tehran Water Board and the National Oil Company, while also holding posts in education as an academic member of staff and as head of the Faculty of Engineering at Tehran University. He had played a significant role in founding the Liberation Movement of Iran and had spent many years in the regime’s prisons. At the height of the Islamic uprising in the year 1978 (1357 SH), he was sent by the Leader of the Revolution along with others to attend to the affairs concerning the National Oil Company workers’ strike. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution, the chairmanship of the provisional government was consigned to him; and the day after the occupation of the American Embassy (the Den of Espionage) by the Muslim students following the Imam’s line, he resigned from his post as Prime Minister. Later, however, he became the Member of Parliament for Tehran during the first session of the Islamic Consultative Assembly.

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say it has been seized by Israeli agents. Hence, most of the major factories and enterprises are run by them: the television, the Arj factory, Pepsi Cola, etc.135 The two passenger planes scheduled to commute hajj pilgrims to Mecca belonged to Israel! Saudi Arabia objected to them and they inevitably stopped doing it. Today, even eggs are imported from Israel.136 Make firm your ranks. These are the agents of imperialism and imperialism must be uprooted.

THE NEED TO HOIST THE BANNER OF ISLAM IN THE UNIVERSITIES Gentlemen, do your utmost to raise the banner of Islam in the universities, to promote religion, to build mosques, to perform prayers in congregation and to let the act of prayer be seen by others. Religious unity is of the essence. It is religious unity that makes this society so great and firm; if you like Iran to be independent, then be united in religion.

THE REGIME IS FORCED TO RELEASE THE IMAM The regime came to realize that it could no longer bear such opprobrium.137 It sensed the resentment felt toward it by the Muslim countries and was subjected to pressures from all quarters of the Islamic and nonIslamic world.138 Thus, in acknowledging the hopelessness of the situation, it decided that I was to be brought here during the night,139 “to ensure my safe arrival,” as they put it. They repeatedly said that they must offer me protection and that they feared people might harm me!! Having suffered so many public scandals, they realized there was nothing more they could do. They did not enjoy the favor of any nation or foreign government; and when they saw that the period of hajj and the month of Muharram were approaching, during which time nothing was predictable, they chose to release me. However, shortly after, they decided to turn public opinion against me, believing that via the press they could make me despised and could create a rift between the people and the clergymen.

135 The Sabet Habib Pasal and Elqaniyan families were among those mediators of world Zionism who resided in Iran. They engaged in certain joint ventures with the Pahlavi family and with both indigenous and foreign capitalist networks. Elqaniyan was the owner of Iran Leyland Motor Company, Iran Goodrich, the factories of Pars and America, the SRS Company and dozens of other factories, companies and mother companies. See Dawlat va Hukumat dar Islam, pp. 264- 267. 136 During the Shah’s “land reform” program the country’s agriculture and dairy farming were gradually ruined and what remained of the oil revenue was spent on the purchase of wheat from America, oranges from South Africa, chickens from Holland, eggs from Israel and other needs from various other countries. The cost of eggs imported from Israel in the years 1976, ‘ 77 and ‘ 78 (1355- 1358 SH) amounted to two hundred and twelve million, two hundred and fifty-four million and one thousand and twenty-two million rials, respectively; figures that had been continually on the rise. See Iran: Taswir-e smari-ye Bazargani-ye Khariji, p. 264. 137 It refers to the confinement and detention of Imam Khomeini. 138 Maraji’, clergy, politicians, bazaar merchants, students, and other sectors of society had persistently requested that the Shah and the government grant Imam Khomeini’s release from prison. Likewise, prominent religious figures from countries such as Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Kuwait as well as those from several other countries had pressed the Iranian government for the Imam’s release, certain personages such as Shaykh Muhammad Shaltut, the distinguished Egyptian thinker and clergyman, making great efforts and actually taking action to secure the Imam’s freedom. See Barrasi va Tahlili az Nahzat-e Imam Khomeini, vol. 1, pp. 516- 555. 139 Having undergone ten months detention, the Imam eventually entered his home in Qum at 10 pm on Tuesday, April 7 (Farvardin 18, 1343 SH). He did so under the watchful eye of the regime’s officers who were concerned to ensure that no one yet found out about his release. Later that night, cars and taxis repeatedly beeped their horns and by doing so informed every one of the affair. Once informed, people immediately advanced toward the Imam’s home and they, along with the theological center in Qum and people of Tehran and other cities, held celebrations for his homecoming which in fact lasted for several days, people actually traveling from all quarters of the country to Qum to visit their leader.

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A CONSPIRACY LABELED AS “HOLY ALLIANCE” A few days have now passed since my release but I have not in fact had the opportunity to read a newspaper. In prison, however, I was entitled to leisure-time and so I used to read; or so it was, until I was handed the Ittila’at newspaper dated Tuesday, Farvardin 18, 1343 SH, (April 7, 1964). I am upset with the ulama for not having given this paper to me sooner. In the editorial of this abject newspaper, under the heading “Holy Alliance”, it was asserted that a compromise had been reached with the clergymen; furthermore, the clergymen are in favor of the ‘White Revolution’ of the Shah and the nation. Which Revolution? Which nation? Does this revolution really have anything to do with the clergymen and the people?!140

THE CLERGY OPPOSES THE WHITE REVOLUTION Those of you who are in the universities,141 let the clergymen’s opposition to this” revolution” be known to everyone. Unfortunately, we do not possess the media necessary for such publicity. They have taken everything from us. They have taken the television and radio from us. The television lies in the hands of that fraud142 and the radio is in the hands of the regime itself; and as for the press, that too is corrupt. Whatever they write or say immediately travels to the most remote of places; and knowing no better, people think that they speak for the clergymen, too. Let it be known, the clergymen do not favor such scandalous deeds, and as far as the Ittila’at newspaper is concerned, if it does not make amends for its misdeeds, then it will have to contend with the tough counteractive measures taken by us. [A member of the audience: “Boycott it!” The Imam: “No, this is not the time. There is a right time for everything.”]

KHOMEINI WILL NOT COMPROMISE Even if they threaten to hang Khomeini, he will not compromise. Reforms cannot be made at gun point; nor will the country be reformed by writing” Khomeini, the traitor” on the walls of Tehran!143 Now do you see that you were wrong? Do you realize that you made a grave mistake? Submit to the doctrines of Islam. We will help you in this; but if by releasing me you have other ideas in mind, if you actually want to have a riot on your hands, then so be it- go ahead.

140 The editorial of the Ittila’at newspaper dated April 7, 1964 (Farvardin 18, 1343 SH) carried an article entitled “Holy Alliance” in which was written: “It was the Shah himself who personally engineered the “six- point program” on the basis of which a new society was to be formed according to modern ideas and traditional cultures. This program in fact deserved to be carried by twenty million votes, for it was for everyone; for people from all walks of life. Everyone has a part to play in this national endeavor, no matter what sector of society they are from, or what class they belong to. How fortunate it is that the clerical community has also now joined forces with the people in executing the programs of the Shah-People Revolution, for indeed this revolution has been founded on the most worthy ambitions of the early leaders of Islam. It is also fortunate that the present government is fully aware of the public’s support, and it spares no effort in achieving” national unity for the national program” and in attaining the mutual understanding of different sections of society.” 141 It is to be noted that the present speech was delivered at the Imam’s home in Qum, in the presence of a group of Tehran University students, among others. 142 Sabet Habib Pasal, the renowned Baha’i capitalist who was also responsible for the television’s executive affairs at the time of the Shah. 143 After the event of Khordad 15, 1342 SH/June 5, 1963 the Shah ordered for certain insulting remarks against the Imam to be written on the walls. However, when confronted by the people’s anger he was forced to order for their erasure! Barrasi va Tahlili az Nahzat-e Imam Khomeini, vol. 1, p. 565; also certain instructions given by the SAVAK in this regard can be found in the file compiled on the Imam at the offices of the SAVAK.

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When I was brought from Qeytarieh prison144, the newspaper of August 4, 1963 (Mordad 13, 1342 SH) wrote something to the effect that the clergymen will not interfere in politics.145 I will now tell you the truth of the matter. A person who will remain anonymous once said, “Take it from me, politics involves nothing but lying, deceiving, cheating, misleading: in brief, politics means chicanery! And you should leave that to us!”146 Because the time was not right I did not want to argue with him, so I merely commented, “From the very beginning, we played no part in the kind of politics of which you speak.”

ISLAM IS POLITICS IN ITS ENTIRETY Today, however, because the time has come, I say, “this is not Islam”. I swear by God that Islam is politics in its entirety but it has been misrepresented. Political science originates from Islam. I am not one of those mullahs who merely sit with rosary beads in hand. I am not the Pope to perform certain ceremonies on Sundays only, spending the rest of my time imagining that I am a sultan and not concerning myself with any other affairs.147 This is where the key to Islamic independence lies. This country must be rescued from these difficulties. They do not want this country to be reformed. The foreigners do not want this country to flourish. Even water has not been provided for this nation! The water used by us in Qum would not even be given to animals in Europe!148 If they are truly in earnest, then they ought to provide jobs for the 144 Notorious prison located in the Qeytarieh neighbourhood of Tehran. 145 The article, “Religion and Politics” printed in the Ittila’at newspaper of August 4, 1963/Mordad 13, 1342 SH reads: “Some believe that the government is out to weaken the position of the clergy and they have thus based their judgments accordingly; but this is not the case. The Shah himself holds a special respect for the clergy. He worships Almighty God and is proud of the fact it is the clergy who have exchanged their true mission to guide and lead the people with the sordid world of politics. That is to say, instead of offering people leadership and guidance they become involved in matters well below their station and dignity one hundred and fifty years ago in certain countries it was rightly realized that religion and politics should be separated and hence His Imperial Majesty, the King of kings, the sole Shia Muslim ruler in the world, warned the clergy to dissociate themselves from those clergymen who are involved in non-religious activities. Therefore, it is essential that the eminent ‘ulama and fuqaha, and in particular their eminencies Ayatullah Khomeini, Ayatullah Qummi and Ayatullah Mahallati, who have now agreed to compromise, accept this point and ensure that others accept it for the sake of glorifying the standing of both the clergy and Islam.”! 146 Pakravan, the then commander of the army and head of SAVAK, during an audience with the Imam on August 2, 1963 (Mordad 11, 1342 SH) at ‘Ishratabad garrison said: “I took great pains to obtain a document confirming the relationship between a great marja’ and a foreign country; and to this end I even sent an Arab person to see you but I didn’t find the least evidence of a relationship between your great eminence and foreign agents Your eminence is about to be released, but before this I have to tell you that politics means cheating and deceiving; politics means lies, hypocrisy and trickery. In brief, politics means chicanery. These matters are our concern and the leaders of the clergy must not soil themselves with these things; they must in no way indulge in politics.” The Imam in response to the latter part of Pakravan’s comments said: “From the very beginning we played no part in the kind of politics of which you speak.” See Barrasi va Tahlili az Nahzat-e Imam Khomeini, vol. 1, p. 575. 147 Another part of the article, “Religion and Politics” printed in the Ittila’at newspaper of August 4, 1963/Mordad 13, 1342 SH, reads: “The truth of the matter is that His Imperial Majesty has realized that the foundations of religion have become weak in this country. The mosque and the pulpit have both been forgotten and in comparison to other Muslim nations, the Muslim nation of Iran is in a (spiritually) distressed condition. The Shah has realized that part of this moral and spiritual backwardness and depression is due to the fact that some individuals among the clergy have sacrificed their true mission of leading and guiding the people for politics and the sordidness which accompanies it Thus, to rescue both the country and the nation from this group, he has adopted an approach to achieve that which the churches actually achieved one hundred and fifty years ago and that is to separate the Church from politics. As a result of this measure, no Christian now slights the fundamental precepts of his religion. They all attend church and perform their prayers and they listen with enthusiasm to the preachers’ sermons and act accordingly”! 148 Among the serious problems faced by the people of Qum was the severe shortage of water, the high salt content of the water, the unhygienic state of water held in reservoirs and the ill health which ensued from that very situation. Although this city is densely populated,

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unemployed. After twenty years of studying, this young man wants a job.149 When he graduates in the near future, he will be left wandering aimlessly. If he is not provided with a means of living, then he will not be able to retain his religious beliefs. Do you really believe that the thief that climbs walls at night in spite of the dangers entailed, or the woman who sells her honor, is really blameworthy? No, it is a low standard of living which gives rise to all of these crimes and vices of which one reads in both the morning and evening press.

COLD WEATHER OF HAMADAN AND IMPORTING FLOWERS FROM HOLLAND While I was in prison, they informed me that the temperature in Hamadan had reached thirty-three degrees below zero.150 Then they brought the news that two thousand people had lost their lives due to the cold. I was unable to do anything under the circumstances. What could I have done? This was the state of affairs in Hamadan, but in Tehran and other cities too further lives were also lost. In spite of all this, however, what action did the government take? Under such dreadful circumstances they had flowers flown in from Holland with which they could receive their masters from abroad. How they squander the money of this poor nation! To hire the airplane in question actually cost these country three hundred thousand tumans!151 For God’s sake, make amends for your misdeeds; observe the laws of Islam. While in captivity, I read something about the state of hygiene and the material conditions endured by those living in southern Iran. I was surprised at how they had allowed such a thing to be written. After having made investigations about the living conditions of people living in the south, a reporter had written that in the rural areas in southern Iran there was absolutely no evidence of health care; there was no current water, and in one village the majority of people were actually blind.152 In short, they were deprived of all basic is significant from both a geographical and a religious point of view and caters for many visiting pilgrims, it nevertheless lacked a current drinking-water supply. 149 Indication is made to a student. 150 The winter of 1963 (1342 SH) in Iran was extremely severe and many lives were lost due to the acute poverty and hardship faced by the people as well as road obstructions resulting from bad weather conditions and the neglectfulness of the regime’s functionaries. At the same time, however, the governmental officials and their coworkers in these districts were in fact supplied with their needs by helicopter. See the press reports of winter 1963. 151 The splendid ceremonies of jubilation and festivity were meant to beguile and divert the Iranian people. The year 1966 (1345 SH) witnesses the commemorative ceremony of a quarter of a century of Muhammad Reza’s reign; in 1967 the royal coronation ceremony was held; and four years later we saw the celebration of two-and-a-half millennia of monarchical rule as well as other festivities. Great expense was afforded for each of these affairs, but the actual figures involved were never published. Moreover, these celebrations were in addition to the routine galas and parties of the Royal Court. A major item of expense in these celebrations was having the most expensive flowers flown in from Holland. In his description of the two-thousand-five-hu festivities, Pierre Blanchet, the French author, writes in his book entitled, Iran: La Revolution Au Nom De Dieu: “Private Boeing airplanes made daily deliveries of fresh flowers from Holland.” 152 With regard to the health and material conditions of Iranian villages at the time of the Shah-People Revolution, a report by one of the head supervisors of the organization established for the program of the Shah’s regime reads: “In the villages, the father, mother, daughters, sons, grandfather, grandmother, groom, and bridegroom, all live together in one small room. The centre of this room is reserved for the cattle whose filth and putrid stench permeates everyday village life facilities include: a few dirty, torn quilts which have never seen soap and water, a metal kettle and teapot, a few tumblers and a copper saucepan Food at the best of times is merely bread with milk, yoghurt or even watered-down yoghurt boiled millet and sometimes cooked turnips In most of the villages things like doctors, medicine, shops, and bathing facilities just do not exist. The villagers’ income is extremely low and the best part of this is handed out to brokers, intermediators and pre-emptors. As a result, the village population comprises a wretched group of ailing and backward people who have neither food nor clothes.” For the details of this report refer to Iran va Tarikh, pp. 179- 182; also refer to the Ittila’at newspaper of July 19,

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facilities and the very bare necessaries of life. At the ECAFE153 conference, however, where delegates of world states had assembled to find a solution to the global economic situation-if they should ever wish to implement it-as participating members from countries both large and small discussed their economic problems, the Iranian body of delegates declared that our economic situation was wholly favorable and was without drawbacks! Is the economic situation in Britain bad and that of Iran good?! Is the state of India’s economy after making such great progress bad, while that of Iran is good?! Likewise, is Japan’s economy in an unhealthy state whereas the economy of Iran is healthy?!

“PROGRESSIVE NATION” Those lords seated in their palaces speak of “the progressive nation”; does a “progressive nation “Die of starvation?! Ali (as) the amir (Leader, Caliph) of Islam, used to eat barley bread, but now they spend 500,000 or 1,000,000 tumans, if not more,154 for the receptions arranged in honor of their masters; and all they ever talk about is the “Development” program! They maintain that our country is on a par with advanced countries, but how can the admission of a few women to Parliament cause a country to be developed?155 You will not put the country right by implementing Israel’s policies.

KHORDAD’S MASS MURDER Islam calls for man to abide by certain rules and regulations during his life. These apply to all stages of man’s life; that is from the day he is born until the day he is buried. It is not a question of opposing a 1967 (Tir 28, 1346 SH) (“Five Years after the White Revolution”) in which an open letter to the Shah can be found that was written by a group of villagers from northern Iran describing their way of life. 153 ECAFE is the United Nations’ acronym for the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East. This commission was set up by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations Organization in the year 1947. Its function was to bring about integration between the governments of Asia and the Far East in order to raise the level of their economic activities and to step up relations both between the countries of this region and between these countries and the rest of the world. The members of this commission are from the Far East and Asian member-countries of the United Nations. Other regional commissions of the UN include the economic commissions of Europe, Latin America and Africa. In the twenty-fifth edition of the journal Pasdar-e Islam, a close associate of the Imam is quoted as saying: “Colonel Pakravan (commander of the army), who at that time was the head of SAVAK in Tehran, would visit the Imam from time to time while he was in Qaytariyyah. One evening, Pakravan’s visit to the Imam coincided with the time when the ECAFE economic conference was in progress in Tehran. I distinctly remember the Imam’s words to Pakravan on that evening and I hereby relate them to the reader. The Imam stated: ‘These economic delegates who have gathered here from all over the world, without exception spoke of the economic difficulties suffered by their home countries. The Iranian representative, however, who was the Minister of Economic Affairs (Dr. Alikhani) had said: ‘Thanks to His Majesty! all of our economic problems have been solved! The Imam then asked Pakravan, what exactly had been solved and continued by saying: ‘Which part of the country’s economy is healthy? Where is this healthy economy of ours? What do we have that can be called an economy?” 154 In 1963 (1342 SH), after twenty-two years of monarchical rule, at a time when the Shah could see that his ambitions were being fulfilled, many world leaders were invited to Iran to experience the stately banquets of Iran’s Royal Court. These leaders included figures such as Heinrich Luebke, the West German President; De Gaulle, the President of France; and Leonid Brezhnev the Soviet Union’s Head of State. Whenever any of these guests visited Iran the world’s press, radio and television were filled with reports, pictures and accounts of afterdinner speeches which were invariably given in recognition of the progress achieved by Iran and the leading role played by the Shah. In addition to the world’s leaders, American consultants and experts in various fields also traveled to Tehran on a regular basis, and whilst receiving and entertaining them, the Shah made efforts to change his administrative systems to their liking. See Az Sayyid Ziya ta Bakhtiyar, p. 485. 155 According to the precept “Reforming the Electoral Law”- one of the underlying principles of the Shah’s “White Revolution”- both the right to vote and the right to be elected to the Majlis had been given to women. In the first election to follow the “White Revolution” a number of women from the Royal Court and upper-classes entered the Majlis as parliamentary representatives. These included: Shawkat JahanBani, Farukhrow Parsa (the wife of General Shirinsokhan), Hajar Tarbiyyat, Mehrangiz DawlatShahi, and several others. Az zuhur ta Suqut, publication of the Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam, p. 130.

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particular person. At the end of the previous government’s term of office, I was approached by someone in prison who criticized the said government claiming that the new government (by contrast) had some progressive policies.156 I told him that we the clergymen have no personal grievance with anyone and that we are concerned with the deeds of individuals. This poor nation needs to be rescued. Yesterday I held an audience here with the families of those martyred on Khordad 15. I was most disturbed by the fact that I was not informed of the event of Khordad 15 until I came out of prison. Unlike the first time that the madrasah was attacked, when I was in fact informed of the affair on the afternoon of that very same day. The slaughter which took place on Khordad 15 was worse than the behavior exhibited by a military force toward a foreign nation. At least they would not have killed the women and children. Today is no time to celebrate.157 As long as the nation lives, it will mourn the events of Khordad 15. A government official once said in a speech that Khordad 15 was a disgrace to the Iranian nation; I wish to complete this statement: Khordad 15 was a disgrace to the nation because weapons were procured with the money of this nation and it was with these very same weapons that they killed the people!

10th Speech Date: 9 am, April 10, 1964/Farvardin 21, 1343 SH/Dhul-Qadah 26, 1383 AH Place: Qum Subject: The crimes of the Shah’s regime and the divine duty of the seminaries Audience: A group of the ulama, clergymen and people of Shiraz In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

ENGENDERING DISPARITY BETWEEN THE ULAMA AND THE NATION Please give my regards to the ulama of Shiraz, especially to Ayatullah Mahallati.158 Kiss His Eminence’s hand for me and say: “You suffered much; your imprisonment and your efforts will never be forgotten; the

156 After Alam’s dismissal, Dr. Sadr the Interior Minister of the former’s replacement Hasan Ali Mansur, visited the Imam at Qaytariyyah. At this meeting, as well as announcing the Imam’s imminent release, Dr. Sadr, in order to please the Imam, strongly criticized Alam’s government, blaming it for the periods of the Imam’s detention and incarceration; whereas he spoke highly of Mansur and described the new government as completely different to the previous one. In reply the Imam offered him a few words of advice and added: “We were neither the enemy of that government nor have we signed a contract of fraternity with this one. If you behave as the government before you did, then we will oppose you also.” 157 On Tuesday evening, April 7, 1964/Farvardin 18, 1343 SH, Imam Khomeini entered the city of Qum after a lengthy period of detention and imprisonment. His return was celebrated in such a way that some historians have reported it as being beyond description. People from the capital city and elsewhere hastened towards Qum to meet the Imam, and both the Khan and Fayziyyah madrasahs held non-stop celebrations for three days and three nights. These historic festivities culminated in the reading of a ten-point declaration in the presence of the Imam and ulama from the theological center. Matters stressed in this declaration included the making of necessary changes in the theological centers; the implementation of both the Islamic and constitutional laws; the abrogation of the Provincial and District Councils Bill; the annulment of both the upper- and lower-Majlis; the release of all political prisoners; the elimination of corruption; and the arrest of the regime’s anti-Islamic campaigns. Programs similar to this were also held in other cities of Iran. For further information refer to Nahzat-e Ruhaniyyun-e Iran, vol. 4, p. 274 onward. 158 Ayatullah Baha’uddin Mahallati (1897 -1981 AD) was one of leading scholars and maraji taqlid. He was at the forefront in struggle against defunct Pahlavi regime and Bahai-Zionist lobby in Iran. He was embodiment of piety and wrote several books. He died on 23rd July, 1981

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thirteen days you spent in a place which is made for the ruffians will be remembered by the Master of the Age (may God Almighty expedite his advent).” Now you should know and inform the honorable people of Fars province and other places that they cannot advance, control the emotions of the Muslims or destroy Islam by using bayonets, killing and imprisoning and other brutal actions which are not practiced anywhere in the world today, not even in Africa or other places. They will be defeated. Now they have made a more prominent plot. It is not killing, imprisoning, or other harsh treatments for the time being. Of course, there was nothing wrong with it. Let them arrest everyone, take everyone away, kill some people. There will be still some more and more; but their major plan is to engender disparity between the ulama and the Islamic nation. They want to pretend that the ulama agree with the Shah’s revolution so that they turn people away from them and deprive the ulama of their public support. Please tell Ayatullah Mahallati and the other ulama of Shiraz to notify the tullab of this and to unify the people. Be wary and watchful. Inform all people that they are the enemies; enemies of Islam; enemies of the whole nation.

WE ALL BELONG IN THE SAME RANK The Prophet of Islam was an Arab. We have no disagreement, and we should not be dispersed. There is no difference between our younger and older ones. No one is higher or lower than the others are; prior or posterior to others. We all belong in the same rank. We are all rising for the sake of Islam and God, and it should be for God’s sake too, not for the sake of the world. No one ranks above the other. It is not just the duty of the seminary but everybody is responsible. They thought Islam was dead as well, when Ayatullah Burujerdi died. They were wrong; they are mistaken. The Prophet (s), Ali and the other Imams (as) all passed away but Islam remained. Khomeini will also die. My life is coming to an end. There remain only a few days of my life. You young tullab and the scholars, have to carry on. I will die; others will take over. They will depart and someone else will take over again. It is Islam that should be protected. Hand kissing, putting up someone’s pictures, or using titles before or after somebody’s name does not matter at all Seminaries should be all useful to Islam. If the Seminary does not prove to be useful for Islam, it will be futile, worthless. It is the religious obligation for everyone, for all orators and all Muslims to inform the people, because the basis of Islam is in danger. We all concur in the essentials. Are there any secondary things at all to disagree about? Are they not sure that Islam is in danger? Nobody should recommend silence. Nobody should think it is advisable.

PEOPLE’S FONDNESS OF RELIGION I suffer from seeing some excessive prejudices. When I hear some of the young tullab’s ideas, it gives me a headache. What is this superstition about my picture? People will destroy even Khomeini, if he doesn’t work honestly for the sake of God... One should seek God’s satisfaction, and working for the spirituality of the people, not for the worldly gains. By God, that those who kept silent- who will also lose their worldly gain- will become wretched. People esteem religion. The ulama and clergymen are servants of the religion, so they are liked by all. But if the people know that their effort is for the gain of the world and out of ambition or the like, they will not pay them any attention. I any more cannot collect the money

in Tehran heart hospital due to heart ailment and was buried in the vicinity of holy shrine of Imamzadeh Ali bin Hamza (as) his hometown in Shiraz. Imam Khomeini (ra) issued statement praising this great scholar and his contribution to the movement of revolution.

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and give it to tullab while people are hungry and miserable and the religion is being destroyed. They (tullab) should destroy and forsake me if I do that. People are quite aware. Faithful people need a person who serves the religion; they will like him who is more prominent. People like us because of religion. They express their fondness because they are fond of religion. Those who try to cause division among the ulama, people, and in the religion are badly mistaken. Their intentions have been revealed to us. Sayyid Ziya159 told the Shah that it has been a mistake to arrest this man and another mistake to release him. They have become disgraced. Although our press does not write about it, the foreign press does. I receive the news of their becoming scandalized abroad. It was proved to the whole world how the people hate them. Whosoever tries to deceive people is a traitor. The press here is a traitor. Answering my telegram, His Eminence Ayatullah al-Uzma Khui160, has made a big mistake. He had expressed what he meant in a few sentences and had refuted my words. He has said, “The ulama have not understood the truth of Islam. I understand the philosophy of Islamic laws.” He has said that the Prophet wished for equality of rights (between man and woman). They (the government) don’t mean social justice when they talk about the equality of rights. Maybe if the ulama become quite, they will start talking about inheritance, divorce and equality in other rights. They are the enemies; you have to unite. Leave your disputes. Do not be afraid of imprisonment. Elimination of Islam is161 Islam has to be preserved, as well as the Qur’an. It doesn’t matter if Khomeini is lost; if someone else is lost. Our aim is to preserve Islam and the Qur’an, not our worldly lives. We all have the same goal. We all share the same thing. There is no disagreement among us, and there should not be. I thank the whole nation of Iran, especially the ulama and the clergymen, as well as the people of Fars Province, its clergymen and ulama. May God assist all and make them victorious. May God’s peace, mercy and blessings be upon you.

11th Speech Date: 8 am, April 15, 1964/Farvardin 26, 1343 SH/Dhul-Hijjah 2, 1383 AH Place: Azam Mosque, Qum

159 Sayyid Ziyauddin Tabatabai (1888-1969 AD), the experienced pro-British Iranian politician. He conspired with Reza Khan and the British in Esfand 1299 SH (1921 AD) coup which caused the fall of the Qajar dynasty and the formation of Pahlavi dynasty and Reza Khan’s succession to the throne in which he became prime minister. Tabatabai’s political carrier started during World War I as the editor of a proBritish newspaper, Raʾd (“Thunder”). In 1919 he joined a secret nationalist society, Anjuman-i Fulad (“The Steel Committee”), created a coalition of anticommunist politicians, and masterminded the British orchestrated coup d’état of February 21/22, 1921, that made him prime minister of Iran. Soon after assuming that office, he quarreled with the coup’s military leader, Colonel Reza Khan (who in 1925 became Shah of Iran), and in May was forced into exile. Tabatabai spent the next 20 years in Palestine; after the abdication of Reza Shah in September 1941, he returned to Iran. In 1942 he was elected to the Iranian Parliament, and in 1943 he founded the pro-British, anticommunist political party Iradah-yi milli (“The National Will”), which was active until 1951, at which time Tabatabai faded from the political scene. 160 Ayatullah Sayyid Abu al-Qasim al-Musawi al-Khui (1899 – 1992 AD) was the leading marja and scholar of Iraq, expert in Kalam (Scholastic Theology), Fiqh (jurisprudence) and Rijal (biographies of transmitters of hadithes) Sciences. 161 An illegible word

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Subject: Analysis of the Khordad 15 uprising; performance of the government and the mission of the ulama and the clergy Occasion: Imam Khomeini’s release from prison Audience: Ulama, clergymen, merchants, students and people from other sectors of society I take refuge in God from the accursed Satan In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful We belong to God and to Him we shall return.

SIGN OF CIVILIZATION, THE MASS MURDER OF KHORDAD 15! [the audience weeps bitterly] I have never felt so weak and incapable in speech before; I feel quite incompetent today. I am unable to express the sadness I feel for the general state of Islam and in particular for the state of Iran, as well as for the events which took place during the course of this illfated year162 such as the storming of the centers of learning and the affair of Khordad 15. It was only when my imprisonment turned into detention that the outside news reached me and I became aware of what had occurred on Khordad 15. God knows how devastated I was on learning of this incident [the audience weeps bitterly]. Now that I have returned from my detention in Qeytarieh, I see young children without fathers [the audience weeps], mothers who have lost their children, women who have lost their brothers and people with missing limbs [the weeping continues]. Much despondency prevails. Indeed, this is the imprint of their “civilization” and our “reaction”. It is a pity our voice does not reach the outside world. It is a pity that the sound of weeping of these bereaved mothers does not reach the outside world [the audience weeps intensely].

SINISTER PROPAGANDA AGAINST THE CLERGY They introduce us as traditionalists, as reactionaries; they regard the ulama of Islam as “black reaction”. Those heavily-subsidized foreign newspapers which have set out to ruin us,163 introduce us abroad as anti-

162 Among the major events of that year were: the assault made by the Shah’s agents on the Fayziyyah and Hujjatiyyah madrasahs and the killing and wounding there of a large number of clerics and religious students; the conscripting of academic students and students of religious learning centers to military service; the detention of Imam Khomeini; the holding of mass demonstrations and protests against the detention of the Imam and the quelling of demonstrations held in Qum, Tehran, Shiraz, etc.; the incarceration of Ayatullah Qummi in Mashhad and also Ayatullah Bahauddin Mahallati, the latter’s brother and son, the son of Ayatullah Dastghayb and others in Shiraz, all of whom were sent to Tehran as was Ayatullah Sayyid Abdul-Husayn when he too was arrested ten days later; the journey made by distinguished Ayatullahs and clergy to the capital city in protest against the detention of the movement’s leader and the confinement of university lecturers and a great number of clergy from all over the country; and in addition to all of these events was the regime’s increasing cooperation and collaboration with Israel. 163 The Shah used to spend part of the country’s revenue on heavily financing propaganda campaigns. Both ambassadors and the Royal Public Relations Bureau gave millions of dollars to writers and publicity agencies and to the press, radio and television, to ensure that the Shah’s crimes and treacherous activities remained concealed and that instead he was introduced as one of the world’s great politicians and outstanding thinkers. Le Point, printed in France, voted the Shah as “The man of the year”! Barry Rubin, the American researcher, in his book The Power Struggle in Iran writes: “The extensive nature of the propaganda which was spread by the regime was one of the main reasons why the latter’s shortcomings remained hidden.” The sums of money given by the Shah for propaganda purposes were so vast that rivalry broke out between Iranologists from America, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Holland over the translation of materials such as the Shah’s own book or the Muarrifi-ye Tamaddun va Shahan-e Gozashteh. Such payments were made in absolute secrecy and hence the exact amounts involved for these or other payments offered as bribes for propaganda are not yet known. Documents uncovered since the

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reformists, as those opposed to modernization.164 Akhunds are presented as those who travel on donkeys and who argue that they don’t want electricity nor do they need airplanes. It is said that they want to return to the Dark Ages, that they are reactionaries. In fact it is this dark period brought about by you (the Shah) in this country to which the akhunds are opposed. Is this traditionalism? The virtuous ulama oppose these beatings and murders, and this autocracy, dictatorship and despotism. Do you call this traditionalism? It was the ulama of Islam who, at the dawn of Constitutionalism,165 fought against the evils of despotism and procured freedom for the nation. They ordained laws which were in the interest of Islam and benefited the nation and which enhanced the country’s independence, for they were Islamic laws. They ordained these laws with the blood that they sacrificed, the burdens that they bore and the trials that they endured. Are these akhunds reactionaries? Today also, the clergy is rising up in revolt; it is embarking upon a movement and in following the clergy the nation too is rising up in revolt. Now, the Islamic nations are awakened, they are engaged in revolution. The clergy wants the laws of Islam to be implemented. Is this reactionary?!166 Inviting others to abide by the holy laws of Islam, these divine laws for which we undergo so much hardship and bear so many insults; is this in fact reaction? Is God, the Blessed and Exalted, a reactionary?! The virtuous (archangel) Gabriel, the mediator of divine revelation, is he a reactionary?! Is the Holy Prophet a reactionary?! Are the exemplary Imams reactionaries?! From the advent of Islam it has been the sole function of the ulama, those who themselves possess nothing, to convey the laws of Islam- the divinely-revealed laws- to the people. Is it reactionary to convey these holy laws?

victory of the Revolution however, both in Iran and in Iranian embassies abroad, indicate that these amounts had been quite substantial. In America alone, millions of dollars were spent each year on popularizing the Shah’s regime. Among the contracts made to this end, was the five hundred and seventy thousand dollar contract made with the New York public relations counseling agency, Ruder and Finn, Inc.; the agreement to pay Marion Javits, the wife of Senator Javits, an annual sum of sixty seven thousand five hundred dollars; and the regular payment of exorbitant sums to William Rogers, the former US State Secretary. Following his departure from Iran in November 1978/Aban 1357 SH, Siyamak Zand, the head of the press section of the Royal Public Relations Bureau, stated in an interview that he used to bribe most of the foreign journalists. In the same interview, he clearly named four of the journalists in question to be the editor-in-chief of the American magazine Newsweek; two journalists from The Daily Telegraph and The Times; and the French reporter Gerard de Villiers. Refer to The Power Struggle in Iran, p. 117; In The Service of the Peacock Throne, p. 310; and the Herald Tribune newspaper of November 17, 1978/Aban 26, 1357 SH. 164 Time magazine, June 14, 1963/Khordad 24, 1342 SH, reads: “For three days during the past week, Tehran became a battleground. People were screaming, machine guns were rapping and how ironic that this was a fight against ‘development’. Powerful opposition to him (the Shah) includes the corrupt leaders as a whole, big landowners and the mullahs who believe that his program entails non-Muslim involvement.” United Press International writes: “Demonstrations have taken place due to incitement by religious figures: those who are opposed to the Shah’s reforms since their interests have been damaged by them.” Moscow radio, on the eve of June 6: “The reactionary elements in Iran who are unhappy with the land reforms held a demonstration today in the streets of Tehran, Qum and Mashhad. Certain religious leaders were the directors and main instigators of this unrest.” 165 Here, reference is made to the militant ulama such as the martyr Ayatullah Haj Shaykh Fazlullah Nuri, Ayatullah Sayyid Abdullah Behbahani, Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Tabatabai, Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Hasan Ashtiyani, Shaykh Muhammad Khayabani, and Sayyid Jamaluddin Isfahani. 166 In a speech given a few days prior to this address, the Shah had said: “We condemn traditionalism and reactionary thinking”; and similarly, he later wrote in the book The White Revolution: “The unrest of Khordad 15, 1342/June 5, 1963, which was financed by a group of landlords who had been hit by the Land Reform Bill was the best illustration of the ‘unholy’ alliance which exists between two camps: the black reaction and the red destructive force.”

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ISLAM APPROVES TRUE FREEDOM If you truly believe in the precepts of Islam then this is what you should believe in: Islam has afforded man freedom and made him the master of his possessions, his family and his own self. In fact Islam demands man’s freedom and self-determination. In Islam man is free to choose where he lives, what he eats and drinks and how he conducts his everyday life, as long as the holy laws are not breached. It is the law of Islam which affords one, whose home has been attacked, the right to kill the attacker. This is the extent to which Islam values freedom. So can Islam be described as ‘black reaction’? The ulama do not speak for themselves, but merely quote God’s Prophet, who in turn quotes the Almighty Lord. Thus, if we are reactionaries then the Holy Prophet must be a reactionary too. If you regard us, who merely repeat the words of God and His Prophet, as traditionalists- as that foolish man persistently insists on calling us- then you consider the Holy Prophet a traditionalist too! The Devil takes this ‘civilized’ thinking! If however, you have faith in Islam and its laws- Islam which is the source of all freedom, dignity, glory, self-determination, and independence- and if we are the followers of Islam, then you have to accept that these are the precepts of Islam. In what way can they be said to be reactionary? Exactly what is it about the precepts of Islam that these gentlemen regard as black reaction? Why not come and discuss this issue with us? It really isn’t right for you167 to make speeches here and there saying, “We condemn traditionalism” and so on and to persist in your swaggering. Why not come forward and say that you believe what the Prophet has said to constitute black reaction, so that we may examine the validity of your claim and may prove that to the contrary it is not reaction?

ABIDE BY THE LAW We say: “Don’t be the slave of others.” We want you to be honorable and dignified. We suggest sir, that as a Muslim government and as the so-called ruling body of the Muslims, you should be reverent, noble and great. You are to safeguard independence and to be your own master. At whichever meeting you attend you request more financial assistance.168 Don’t degrade yourself for the sake of begging for a few dollars. These are in fact the things that we oppose. If this is reaction then yes we are reactionaries; and if that is what being civilized is, then you are undoubtedly civilized. If you believe in the laws of Islam then they are as we have explained and you are fully aware of them. And if you say you prefer to rely on the constitutional law instead, then that too has given the right of freedom to people, be it with regard to their abode, their occupation, their wealth or their souls; and it in fact prohibits coercion. It isn’t that you don’t accept the constitutional law because you do; although even then some time ago you murmured something about it being fifty-years-old and so on. What nonsense! How can a constitution which argues for the freedom of the people and the press be criticized for being ‘fifty-years-old’? All we are saying is that you should act according to the law. Let us take a good look at the constitutional law; you send your representative and we shall send ours. O you, who lay claim to being law-abiding, democratic, reformist and progressive, let us

167 A reference to the Shah. 168 John F. Kennedy (then US President) had given the Shah his word that Iran would receive both loans and foreign capital investment in return for the implementation of “reforms”. By the word “dollar” the Imam means the American financial aid for which the Shah used to appeal. The New York Times with reference to the Shah’s referendum and implementation of reforms writes: “Iran has discovered more suitable terms for the receipt of American aid.”

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examine the constitutional law. You’ll see that if you act according to this law then we won’t say anything more. Abide by the Supplementary Constitutional Laws which were achieved through the ulama sacrificing lives and delivering nations from captivity. The constitutional law grants freedom of the press; but are you prepared to free it? Is it we, the ones who say allow the constitutional law to be implemented, grant the press freedom and permit the press to enjoy freedom of expression, who is the reactionary? The press may well be corrupt, but in spite of all their malice, they still would prefer not to poison people’s minds to the extent to which you force them.

DISGRACE OF THE GOVERNMENT Now you, gentlemen and people of Iran, you must have seen the editorial of the Ittila’at on Tuesday Farvardin 18 (April 7). You read about the plans they had intended to carry out and the one which they now have in mind.169 They saw that whatever move they made backfired. They used force, intimidation and threats; they brought about the episode of Khordad 15; they destroyed the Fayziyyah and Talibiyyah madrasahs;170 they affronted the ulama; they banished, deported, imprisoned, and much more. Not only did things go wrong, but they went so very wrong that even he171 came to know about them. Indeed everyone knew about them. Moreover, objections raised by the outside world put the regime in a very embarrassing position. 172The events of Khordad 15 had truly disgraced the government. We hadn’t wished for them to be so disgraced, but the shame brought about by the events of that day was so deep that it irrevocably stained this country. This affair will be recorded in history. Even some members of the regime have themselves admitted what a disgrace Khordad 15 was and I too say this. But they failed to say why, so I will now do so: it was a disgrace because they had actually purchased the machine guns, tanks and bullets that they fired at the poor Iranian people with the wealth of this very same nation. They trampled this poor nation underfoot. Could anything be more disgraceful than this? Tell us exactly what these poor victims had done to deserve this? What could they possibly have done?

WHO IS THE REACTIONARY? We only gave you a piece of advice; surely it didn’t warrant such a reaction. Our argument is quite logical. We merely say that we have laws and that they should be implemented. Is it that you don’t recognize the

169 The leading article of the Ittila’at newspaper on April 7, 1964/Farvardin 18, 1343 SH reads: “How fortunate it is that the clerical community has also now joined forces with the people in executing the programs of the Shah-People Revolution.” 170 Early in the year 1963 AD/1342 SH], at the time of the Fayziyyah incident, the Talibiyyah Madrasah was also attacked. A number of SAVAK agents and police officials in Tabriz proceeded toward this madrasah with the intention of tearing down Imam Khomeini’s declaration which had been posted upon the wall there. However, on arrival they encountered the resistance and protests of the religious students. A violent scuffle broke out between the latter and the officials during which one police officer was killed. In the meantime, further officials surged towards the madrasah and employing both fire- and side-arms they destroyed whatever they came across. They beat and swore at the theological students and clergy, towards whom they fired, killing some and injuring others. 171 The Shah. 172 The tragedy of Khordad 15, 1342 SH/June 5, 1963 was so great that news of it spread beyond the Iranian borders, the millions of dollars of money spent annually by the Shah on self-publicity failing to keep this horrifying news veiled. On June 6 and 7, 1963 the newspaper Al-Ahram took to describing the tragedy; an article entitled “The Great Deceit” was carried by the weekly The Arab Observer on June 17, 1963; on July 10, 1963 Shaykh Mahmoud Shaltut, the head of Al-Azhar University in Egypt issued a statement with regard to this event; and “The Lebanese Islamic Scientific Society”, the youth of Kuwait, Iranian Muslim students in Germany and other groups responded and voiced their objection by issuing statements, wiring telegraphs and sending open letters to both Muslim and international leaders.

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constitutional law? If so, then get your governmental employee173 to go to the Majlis and announce that this is the case so that you can then return to primitive times if that’s what you really want. Are we, the ones who ask for the implementation of the constitutional law, reactionaries, or you, who imprison people and order for their exile? Your prison cells are packed with prisoners, with people of distinction, religious people, ulama, professors; and places such as Bandar Abbas are full of exiles whose only crime was to have said, “We don’t want to be slaves; we don’t want to be the captives of imperialism.” What they said of us lately? Are you reactionaries as we say that you have to abide by the Constitution? Lay down the Constitution and let all of us abide by it; you accepted it. We say, observe the religion (religious precepts); you say that the Holy Prophet is a reactionary (we seek refuge in God). You do not speak literally; it means so. You do acknowledge the Constitution, yet at that time they used to utter that it is fifty-years old, so on and so forth. It is a constitution that has more than the affair of fifty years ago- a constitution that stipulates that the nations should be free; that the people of Iran should be free; that press should be free; that no one has the right to hinder others to write.

SLANDERING THE CLERGY You no doubt read in the Ittila’at newspaper of Tuesday Farvardin 29 (April 18): “What welcome news it is that the clerical dignitaries have reached an agreement with the government concerning the Shah-People Revolution”- of course the same was written in other papers but this particular newspaper has a wider readership. Following this, some people who went to Tehran to voice objection requested that this clergyman be identified174, saying: “Is the person in question Khomeini? Please tell us so that we might execrate him; or is it perhaps another ‘alim of Islam? Come now, indicate who it is!” Some of our highranking ulama are with us here today, may God preserve them [the audience cries “Amen”]. Others are to be found in Tehran, Mashhad, Najaf and in other Muslim lands. May God praise them all [the audience cries Amen]. Now then, these ulama of whom you speak, do they exist out in space? Well if not, why do you not name those who have secretly made a deal with you? Name them if you dare. Tell us, was it Khomeini who made concessions while in prison? He had no right whatsoever to do something so contrary to Islam. How can Khomeini compromise with the cause of oppression? It would be damned wrong of him to do so. Could he do other than to preserve the dignity of Islam while he was in prison?- which is in fact what he did. Could Khomeini and others like him possibly bring themselves to say something which was to the detriment of Islam: this Islam for which the Holy Prophet and the Immaculate Imams (as) labored so hard and for which the ulama have exerted so much effort? Indeed if Khomeini actually did do such a thing, then he would be cast out from the society.

173 Reference here is made to the head of the government of the day (Hasan-Ali Mansur). 174 Following the publication of the article, “Holy Alliance for a Holy Cause” (Ittihad-e Muqaddas beh Khatir-e Hadaf-e Muqaddas) in the Ittila’at newspaper of April 7, 1964 (Farvardin 18, 1343 SH) covering the alleged unity between the Shah and the clergy over the “White Revolution”, Imam Khomeini sends Hujjat al-Islam Fazlullah Mahallati to the newspaper’s office to ask who these “clergy” are. The editor-in-chief of Ittila’at states that the article was sent to the newspaper from high-ranking government officials and that they had no choice but to publish it. The Imam demands that the editor-in-chief refutes the report in question in his paper and that he follows up and acts upon his own decision with the utmost strength and firmness. Eventually the government is forced to send a representative to Qum to visit the Imam and apologize to him; and as well as asking forgiveness the representative was to give assurances that henceforth the publication of lies and defamatory statements pertaining to the clergy would be prevented.

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THE PLOT TO INTRODUCE THE ULAMA AND THE CLERGYMEN They have hatched a plot which is to introduce the ulama of Islam to the people as like them. They are ostracized by the society, and they like us also to be ostracized. The society does not accept them, and they like it (the society) also to say that it does not accept us. Through this sinister plot they like us to be hated by the society What a calamity! Could I tell the corruptions of this country to this Majlis, its two, four chambers? Today, I am not also feeling well. Last night I slept only a little. Nevertheless, well, a general issue must be stated. Don’t we have any right to defend ourselves?

HELPLESSNESS OF THE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF OF ITTILA’AT These same people visited the editor-in-chief of the Ittila’at175 and asked him: “Who actually told you of this matter concerning the alleged concessions made by a clergyman? Let us know who this treacherous176 spy is who has accepted your terms and has compromised against the interests of Islam.” Initially the poor wretch said in embarrassment that he hadn’t been there at the time. Then, after giving a detailed account to absolve himself from the matter, an account which is far too lengthy to recount here today, he added: “This is the article which I had prepared for that day.” He then showed it to those present and continued: “But some officials brought several attached sheets to me and told me that I must print those instead. It was an order; what could I do?” I will tell him what he can do. If the editor-in-chief of Ittila’at is someone who truly regrets such obtrusions, then luckily, being financially comfortable and not in need as such, he can quit journalism and become a minister. Fortunately, it is the done thing here [the audience laughs]; so you too become a minister or a Member of Parliament or something. Of course you won’t get the people’s vote, but you can still be appointed to the office. It’s not necessary for people to favor this appointment, since they have no mandatory rights anyway. No, there’s no doubt that they will appoint you as a Member of Parliament, or they will nominate you as a senator.177 So if you genuinely deplore these obtrusions, then why not quit journalism and find a better occupation? It must also be said however, that I actually sent a message to this editor-in-chief telling him to repudiate the article in question and from what I was told last night, he had said that he could no longer show his face to the nation or the clergy and that he would come up with an article which would refute the former one. Now, is it we who are reactionary or you?

SHEER LIE You are mistaken to lay such a lie at our door as if we are deceased. Indeed, praise be to God, we have a large number of ulama. We have both distinguished and pre-eminent maraji’; we have many great philosophers and scholars of the religious sciences in theological centers and throughout the land. They will not just sit by while someone writes such a great lie in one of the popular newspapers stating, “Thank goodness they have compromised”. However, even if we scream and cry out, they will ensure that our voices are not heard. Now you178, the one who either yesterday or last night declared that you will curb

175 Abbas Masudi, the proprietor and editor-in-chief of Ittila’at. 176 In the text reference is made to “ruhani-ye sazmani” meaning the pseudo-clergy agents of SAVAK. 177 The “Senate” (or Upper House) was the second Majlis of the late regime which was established according to Articles 43 and 45 of the constitutional law and comprised sixty members (senators): thirty members appointed by the Shah and thirty members popularly elected. 178 The Shah.

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traditionalism, are not your censoring of and obtruding upon the press in itself a form of traditionalism? And don’t claim that we are falsely accusing you because we have evidence of your actions. This is no lie. The very article which you ordered to be printed and which you later refused to allow to be refuted, now lies in the editor-in-chief’s office of the Ittila’at newspaper.

I AM NOT AFRAID AND HAVE NEVER BEEN AFRAID All we are asking is that you abide by the constitutional law. If you have a faith then act according to its ordinances; and if you regard religion as reaction then at least act according to the constitutional law instead. Allow freedom of the pen. This poor editor-in-chief was truly in a wretched state. I sent word to him that I am not one of those who make empty demands. No indeed, I follow my demands up. God forbid, but if I ever feel that I have to say something to defend the interests of Islam, then I shall surely say it and follow it through without fear. I swear by God that I have never experienced fear [an outburst of emotion from the crowd]. Even on that day when they were taking me away, it was they who were frightened, whereby I comforted them by telling them not to be afraid [the audience laughs]. Don’t you see that if we fear while striving for the goals of Islam then we in fact have no faith. These are the goals for which the prophets made unrelenting efforts and for which great men of Islam gave their lives. In striving for these goals the noble ulama of Islam have been set on fire; they have lost their lives, been imprisoned and exiled and have served long sentences. Hence, if we fear for ourselves more than we are concerned about the interests of Islam then we cannot be said to have faith. Would anyone with faith be afraid to leave this world? In fact if we really believe in the afterlife then we should pray to be killed in the path of God and so join the martyrs. One who has no faith in the afterlife should fear, not us. We have been assured a good place (in the next life) by our Lord, the Exalted, the Merciful, as long as we live according to His religion; and we hope and believe that this is in fact what we are doing. Of what should we be afraid? Why should we fear you? The most you could possibly do would be to execute us, in which case our life of ease would then commence. We would leave all these iniquities behind us; we would be relieved of all the pains and anguish of this life. Our beloved master (Imam Ali (as)) has said: “I swear by God that Abi Talib’s son (Imam Ali himself) is as fond of death as a suckling baby is fond of its mother’s breast.”179 Of course we cannot make such a claim, but nevertheless we are his followers. To fear death is to have no faith in the hereafter.

THEY MADE A MISTAKE IN RELEASING ME Are we, who say the press must be free, traditionalists, while those who use force to demand that certain things be reported are progressivists? Unfortunately, however, whereas our voice doesn’t go beyond these four walls, their voice reaches as far as America as well as the other countries from whence they obtain their dollars. They spend the wealth of this nation on the foreign press- a press which writes articles disparaging our clergy, Islam, our nation, and everything we have. I used to read these stories when I was in captivity. What a blunder they made in releasing me. They certainly made a grave mistake. In fact I told them while I was there that if they intended to continue with their scheming then it was best for them that I remained imprisoned, for my release would only create further unrest. Now I am telling them again, we are

179 Nahj al-Balaghah, Sermon 9.

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not reactionaries in the sense that you mean. Islam does not disapprove of the fruits of civilization and neither do we.

ISLAM AS THE FORERUNNER OF INDEPENDENCE AND POWER Islam would like nothing more than for you to be in command over all of the world powers for after all it was Islam that drew its sword and conquered half or even more than half of the globe. Can this Islam be called reactionary? Islam once governed all of these countries that you are now governed by.180 The sheer fact that those countries which implemented the commandments of Islam (of course this only applies to one or two Muslim governments, the rest never having really implemented Islamic precepts) considered themselves to be carrying the banner of Islam and to be identified with it; and the very fact that they implemented Islamic principles, even if only in appearance, meant that they were able to achieve such power and might that an army of a mere twenty-odd thousand Arabs succeeded in trampling such a vast country as Iran underfoot. This it did in order to make human beings out of its inhabitants and to bring civilization to the country, which indeed it succeeded in doing. The lofty thoughts held by the ulama and maraji’ in our country are all due to the light of Islam. They all come from Islam. The rotten and traditionalistic minds of this regime however, are the cause of the nation’s servitude to all; offering this country lock, stock and barrel to foreigners and thus giving the country’s entire wealth to others. This is true reaction. Shame on it!

THE ITTILA’AT EDITOR-IN-CHIEF TO ABIDE (BY HIS PROMISE) The Prime Minister sent someone to me yesterday who said: “We ask for your forgiveness, there has been a mistake. Please do your best to ensure no further unrest breaks out and we shall do as you ask,” thereby uttering the usual rhetoric. In reply I said: “The Ittila’at newspaper maintains that it is not to blame for the article, but that it is in fact your fault; and you claim that you regret your past behavior. Therefore, you must promise that such things won’t reoccur, because if they do then the consequences will be far worse next time. Don’t persist in calling us reactionaries, for if you do we have no choice but to expand on the issue in order to determine who the real reactionaries are, the dear ulama of Islam who ask that you don’t oppress the people so, or yourselves.”

STARVATION AND HUMILIATION IN THE “PROGRESSIVE” COUNTRY We were deeply distressed by the winter just passed, when lethally cold weather struck Isfahan, Hamadan, Tehran, Qum and elsewhere; but did you show any consideration or make any arrangements for those poor victims in this our “developed” society? I was told that in Hamadan more than two thousand people died due to cold weather which reached forty-three degrees below zero. O you who have caused our country to “develop”, did you do anything for these people? We are not against development, in fact we truly want you to be modern, but please do something for these poor wretches. Must they suffer both from the pain of starvation and the pain of humiliation? Must they both walk barefoot and be struck on the head too? All we say is don’t do this. Is it reactionary to say don’t suppress people so;

180 At the onset of Islam’s period of expansion, the Muslim armies captured Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Iran, Tripoli, Cyprus, and Punjab; and subsequently they went on to take Egypt, North Africa, Spain, Portugal, south-west Europe (the Iberian Peninsula), south-east France, and Athens. Refer to Faraz va Nashib-e Tamaddun-e Islami dar Espanya, p. 6; and Inqilab-e Islami va Difa’i Muqaddas, p. 274.

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don’t beat or insult them so; or to ask that you act according to either Islamic law or the constitutional law? You, however, the agents of despotism, who use force, intimidation, banditry and whatever other practices you choose against these people; you who violate the constitutional law and totally disregard Islamic ordinances, are you the progressivists?

ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY OF THE GENTLEMEN! It’s preposterous I know, but they have decided to establish an Islamic university.181 Apparently they have allocated a budget of a few million tumans for this purpose. Well, those of you responsible for this scheme, if you really are sympathetic toward Islam then why do you demolish our university; yes look, the one standing over there? If you have genuinely reached the conclusion that Islam, Islamic precepts and the ulama of Islam must remain, then although it’s true we don’t expect any goodwill from you, at least don’t subject us to your malevolence. Just give us a chance to render you a service. Fortunately, we don’t receive a penny from the national budget. Instead we have to endure poverty and tolerate your mean treatment of us. Whoever so wishes is free to witness for himself the living conditions of these students of the religious sciences. Go and see how they have lived both before and after their rooms were plundered. What did these agents of the regime want to plunder; an old rug maybe or perhaps a broken samovar? Are these what they were after? God knows this is not the case. Their intention was to intimidate the religious students. Why not go and see our madrasahs and homes for yourselves? We have nothing to hide. Our entire annual budget which consists of money donated to us with the utmost sincerity by these indigent people for the safeguarding of Islamic principles, doesn’t amount to the money spent on even one of the parties given by you in honor of a foreign guest. If our entire annual budget can be said to equal the cost of one of your parties, then you are entitled to say: “Fie to you reactionaries!”

THE CLERGY IS AFTER THE INTERESTS OF THE NATION AND COUNTRY We argue that you ought not to squander so much of this country’s budget. What is the point in holding so many parties? Is it reactionary of us to suggest that you be your own master and don’t beg from people so much or that you don’t incur unnecessary expenditure in the first place which indeed brings about the need to beg? If you come to believe in the precepts of Islam, all of us, the whole nation, will be behind you. Have we ever bribed this nation to love and support us to the extent that they do? No, in fact they have realized that all of us, the clergy, the great maraji’, this religious student Khomeini, we all feel affection for them and seek their interests and the interests of the country and nation. People truly believe this. This belief sits firmly in their hearts; and man generally follows his heart. That is why they support us.

HEED MY ADVICE Why don’t you begin to heed my advice? Just as I told those who were sent by the regime to speak to me, so too I am now telling you that you must change the way you tackle things. You saw that by inflicting pain, by beating, torturing, imprisoning, exiling and throwing insults, nothing was achieved. Indeed you

181 Toward the beginning of the 1960’s the regime decided to establish a university by the name of “The Islamic University”! Imperialist policies required that the religious and scientific teaching centers lay under government control and that the clerical community became attached to the government administration departments. The clergy of Iran, however, ever- vigilant, did not allow the Shah to succeed in this.

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saw that the nation deeply resents such behavior; and that you cannot suppress a nation forever. You witnessed all this for yourselves so why not change your policy somewhat and see what happens? Why, you are the ones who claim to be rational! So try out a new approach for a change and show people a little benevolence, a little courtesy. See here, the government actually belongs to the people. The national budget comes from the people’s pockets. You are a servant of the people and governments are their attendants. Don’t continually assert that you are the people’s servant, while in practice you hit the people on the head; don’t trample these poor people underfoot. You obtain your means of livelihood from the nation’s budget, and you enjoy a comfortable life. Very well let’s regard that as a gift to you. You live in whatever manner you want and can have whatever you desire. The kind of life led by these people is inconceivable; you couldn’t possibly imagine how they live. We still have difficulty in comprehending how an airplane can actually make a return journey from here to Holland in order to bring flowers for a party. I have heard that the rent for this airplane has been three hundred thousand tumans. This is something widely discussed and well-known, but we still find it hard to grasp. Even so, let us again look upon all of this as a gift to you. In fact it is from the wealth of this nation that you feed; from the wage of this laborer and this farmer. If, as you maintain, you feel for the laborers and farmers then why not throw a few crumbs to the poor? With as little as one million tumans almost everyone could have been saved from the bitter cold of last winter; after all one million tumans is a mere drop in the ocean for you. Therefore share out some of the money you have appropriated from the nation amongst these poor people. With a little help they could be active and earn themselves an honorable living. Such actions would safeguard your future. Not only would you not meet with opposition, but the people would warm to you. Then, just as I am sitting here talking and people are listening and trusting in what I say, so too, people will find confidence in what you have to say. As things stand however, no one has faith in you. Even if you were to say two times two is four, people would say that this is too obvious to be true.

THE CLERGYMEN OPPOSE THE VIOLATION OF ISLAM AND THE LAW Someone approached me and apologized for the wrongdoings of the previous government. He thanked God that this government had eventually been dissolved; and he claimed that by comparison the members of the latest government were in fact religious people whose fathers had mostly been clergymen. In reply I said: “We were neither the enemy of that government, nor have we signed a contract of fraternity with this government. It is your deeds with which we are concerned and which we monitor. If you repeat the deeds of your predecessors then we shall relentlessly oppose you as we did them, for we are the same as we were before. Your names too will be blackened as were theirs. Nevertheless, if you change your attitude, then we are all Muslims and brothers together. Not only will we not oppose you, but we will lend you our support. I told you before and I will tell you again, you must bow in humility before Islamic precepts, that is, if you really are the Muslims that you claim to be. Yes, you must submit to the precepts of Islam and of course abrogate those laws which contradict them.” Have we ever argued that there should not be a government? No indeed, but what we do say is that the government must obey the laws of Islam, or if not, then at least the laws of the Constitution. Neither have we ever advocated living the kind of life lived thousands of years ago, when people made their homes in caves. Which clergyman has ever said such a thing? Just name one clergyman who maintains that we are hostile to the signs of civilization.

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TURNING THE SIGNS OF CIVILIZATION INTO CORRUPTION When such signs arrived in this country, you tampered with them while in their unadulterated form, thereby transforming them into something unacceptable and prohibited according to Islam. Our radio service for example, is its purpose really that for which it is used here in Iran? Similarly, with regard to the television, should it be abused as it is here in Iran? Indeed, these modern devices are in fact also utilized by civilized countries in the same way as they are utilized here. The education and training received in this country is truly bad. Our educational system182 is not capable of answering the needs of this country. It is incapable of rearing strong athletic youths who would confront the forces of imperialism, clench their fists, be killed and rescue the nation. No, our system of education is incapable of this. They undermine people’s resolve with this situation that they have brought about and by the kind of programs broadcast by our radio, television, etc. Our newspapers, our magazines, our books, in fact our entire publications, are in the hands of imperialists. It is the imperialist powers which vulgarize our newspapers in this way in order to poison the minds of our youth. It is they who organize our cultural programs in such a way as to ensure that we have no capable, virile youngsters. It is the imperialist powers who arrange such radio and TV programs so as to weaken people’s resolve and to make them lose their vigor, their potency. All this is the doing of the imperialists and it is to such imperialist manifestations that we object. Does that then make us reactionaries? What we have to say is extremely simple and doesn’t warrant aggression or hostility. Why not sit down and talk rationally? There is no need for anger and rage. There is no need to throw insults. All you have to do is to send some sensible representatives to talk with us and explain exactly what it is about cultural development and progress that we supposedly take issue with. What we do object to is all forms of corruption. We believe that your reform programs are in fact devised by Israel and it is to Israel that you turn for help and advice whenever you want to draw up a plan. You bring military advisers from Israel into this country.183 You send students from our country to Israel. If only they were sent elsewhere; to America or even to Britain for example. But no, you send them to Israel! These are the kinds of issues we dispute.

THE MUSLIM COUNTRIES ON ONE FRONT, IRAN AND TURKEY ON THE OTHER We argue that the entire Muslim countries have formed a united front on one side, in opposition to infidelity and Israel, while you yourself and the Turkish government are stationed on the other side in support of Israel. We hold that this is ill-advised. For God’s sake man, don’t go against the sensibilities of the Muslim peoples so, for I swear by God this is suicidal. All of the Muslims on one side and Iran on the other! If this

182 It refers to the Ministry of Training and Education that was called the Ministry of Education at that time. 183 The political relationship between Iran and Israel dates back to the post-1953 (1332 SH) years. In 1960 (1339 SH) the government of the day in Iran gave official recognition to Israel and a friendly relationship between the Shah and Israel got under way. During these years of friendship many army officers and SAVAK agents were sent to Israel to receive training from MOSSAD (the Israeli intelligence agency) agents, and hundreds of Israeli officers and agents came to Iran to supervise the army and the Shah’s intelligence agency (SAVAK) and to assist the Shah’s agents. Toward the end of the Shah’s reign the transactions which passed between Iran and Israel had reached an annual sum of four hundred million dollars. The Shah had himself ordered for an arms purchase worth six hundred million dollars in one go alone. According to the documents which were obtained from the American “den of espoinage” after the victory of the Islamic Revolution, the Shah’s regime had in fact, since 1958 (1337 SH), been a member of an official tripartite organization composed of the security services of Iran, Turkey and Israel which was named “The Triple-Headed Bayonet”. Refer to Documents from the US Espionage Den, Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam.

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is to be the case, then the nation of Iran will become reproachable and our Sunni brothers will think that Shia are Jew-worshippers.

VOICING OUT THE OPPOSITION TO ISRAEL O people of the world! Let it be known that our nation condemns any alliance made with Israel. It is neither our nation nor our clergy who have made such an alliance. Indeed our religion beseeches us not to join hands with the enemies of Islam; just as our Qur’an implores us not to align with the enemies of Islam against the Muslim front. This is what we maintain. Can you call this being reactionary? If so then come and explain to us in what way this can be said to constitute reaction. You who boast a history of two-and-a-half millennia of sovereign rule and endlessly crow about those rotten bones which have decomposed and are no more184 and which you now want to dig up from beneath the soil to use in your confrontation with Islam, have you now at this late hour joined forces with Israel against the precepts of Islam and against the Muslims?! We are the ones who advocate your non-involvement with Israel, yet you now try to accuse us of collaborating with others and of being involved with so-and-so and whatever he brought with him.185 The Devil takes this reasoning! Shame on you! Yes, this is what we have to say. Now in what way can this be called traditionalism, as that stupid man persists in asserting? What is traditionalist about our argument?

ISLAM AT A SUPERIOR LEVEL OF CIVILIZATION We enjoy a superior level of civilization; Islam enjoys a superior level of civilization; the greatly-esteemed maraji’ of Islam also enjoy a superior level of civilization. You may go and see them for yourselves. They can be seen here or in Mashhad, Tehran, or Najaf. Go and see which of these great men is reactionary. Those in power travel around by air or by car and expect the nation to travel by donkey. Earlier this year however, we all saw how one of these respected maraji’ traveled to Mashhad by air186 and everyone knows that the other maraji’ always travel by car. Again this year we witnessed how the maraji’ journeyed to

184 The Shah had given himself the title “Aryamehr” meaning “light of the Aryan race” and had tried to give a new lease of life to the history of the Iranian monarchy. He also went through with the two-and-a-half-millennium celebrations in an attempt to bring to life the Iran of the past as well as its kings and to destroy Islamic culture and its teachings. In the book Mission for My Country, the Shah has immeasurably glorified past kings of Iran, kings not at all much different from himself. 185 From the movement’s onset admirers of the Imam both from within and without the country would come to see him in a show of support, and these would include outstanding national and revolutionary figures. On one occasion a person introducing himself as an Egyptian diplomat in Lebanon managed to meet with Imam with the help of an Iranian cleric who acted as intermediary. At this meeting this person said that he was commissioned by Jamal Abdul Nasir, the head of the Egyptian government, to convey the latter’s gratitude to the Imam for his having revolted against Israel. There is reason to believe that this man had probably been sent on behalf of the Shah’s intelligence service. Jamal Abdul Nasir was one of Israel’s major enemies, while the Shah was regarded as one of its staunch supporters and the propaganda spread by the Shah persistently presented Egypt as Iran’s enemy. With the intention of plotting against Imam and of generating suspicion toward him, the regime published this concocted report in the press of June 1963/Khordad, 1342 SH): “On June 1, a person named Abdul-Qays Jowjow (or Muhammad Tawfiq al-Qiyasi) arrived at Mehrabad airport in Tehran from Lebanon. Since he was viewed as being suspicious by the custom officers he was taken for questioning and enquiries were held. As a result, a sum of about one million tumans was taken from him which, subsequent to investigations, he confessed to have brought from Jamal Abdul Nasir to give to certain persons in Iran.”! 186 Sayyid Hadi Milani was one of the maraji’ of that time who was resident in Mashhad and who, along with other migrant ulama and maraji’ of Tehran, had gone to the home of Ayatullah Khwansari. The Imam’s address indicates the extent of the regime’s anti-clergy propaganda in that Imam was forced to make mention of something that seemed so trivial and obvious.

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Tehran where they all assembled187 I would later like to praise this move- but the question is, did they go by donkey? Are these men hostile to the effects of development and progress?

THE CLERGY AS THE USUAL SUPPORTER OF THE COUNTRY We ask you not to behave in this manner. We are after all members of the same family; we are all fellow countrymen. So why do you want to divide us? We lend this country our unconditional support without making any demands upon her budget; and despite the beatings, insults, abuse, imprisonment, and torture we are made to bear, we still remain a solid column which remains standing at the service of our country. If, God forbid, any danger ever threatened this country, then we would stand steadfast in readiness to fearlessly confront it.

THE AKHUND REMAINS WHILE YOU FLEE There are those who say that they want to protect this country and who brag about their courage and valor. But do you recall how, when the Allied Forces came to Iran, it was these very poor souls who fled even as far as Yazd?188 Can you name even one akhund who fled the scene; just one? On that day when airplanes were flying over Tehran in order to intimidate and terrorize the people, the late al-Shaykh Husayn Qummi189, may his soul rest in peace, and I, were somewhere in the vicinity of Shapur Square.190 As these aircraft were ominously hovering above, his eminence was twiddling his moustache as if absolutely nothing was happening; and I likewise was very calm and collected. On the contrary, however, if the shoe was on the other foot, then the first ones to flee would be those decorated heroes who are so puffed up with selfesteem and who constantly boast of the services they render to the country. It is only when oppression reigns and when it is in their own interests that they are strong. Thanks to God, however, that we are the

187 Following the arrest of the Leader of the Islamic Revolution and the radio broadcast of Alam’s (the Prime Minister) speech in which he gave notice that those who had been arrested would be tried and executed, the clerical community in Iran converged on Tehran from all over the country: from Qum, Ayatullah Marashi, Mr. Shariatmadari, Ayatullah Murtaza Hairi; from Mashhad, Ayatullah Milani and Shaykh Mujtaba Qazvini; from Hamadan, Akhund Mulla Ali Masumi; from Ahwaz, Haj Sayyid Ali Behbahani; from Isfahan, Haj Husayn Khadimi and Baqir Zand Kermani; from Khorramabad, Ayatullah Kamalvand; from Yazd, Ayatullah Sadiqi and other ulama from all over the country. Refer to Nahzat-e Ruhaniyyun-e Iran, vol. 4, p. 132. The aforementioned clergy having assembled, issued a declaration entitled, “The declaration of the clerical community in Iran,” the complete text of which is to be found in ibid., vol. 4, p. 134. 188 At 4 am on August 25, 1941/Shahrivar 3, 1320 SH, the British and Russian ambassadors went to the home of Ali Mansur, the Prime Minister of the day, to inform him of the Allies’ attack on Iran. On the eve of September 13 (Shahrivar 22), Reza Khan (Shah) was informed that the Russians had entered Karaj and that they were advancing toward Tehran with great speed. On hearing this news the royal family and Reza Khan himself all made for Isfahan. Reza Khan went from Isfahan to Kerman and then to Bandar Abbas from where he was then taken to his place of exile by ship. Ministers, parliamentary representatives and army commanders too- i.e., those who make claim to being the country’s protectors!- every one of them slithered into some hole or other! The commander of the Khuzistan troops surrendered without hesitation whilst the Americans, who were situated at the Ahwaz-Dezful frontier, continued to advance; the military commanders of Tabriz along with their soldiers and officers laid down their arms and fled toward the mountains and the Russians took over the region without meeting any opposition; the army of Gilan, whose commander was later decorated for bravery, fired a few cannon balls and then fled! The commander of the First Division which was stationed at Marzanabad lay in hiding and the troops of Mashhad fled toward the salt desert without water or food. Refer to The Memoirs of General Fardoust, vol. 1, p. 87 onward. 189 Sayyid Husayn Tabatabai Qummi (1865 - 1946 AD), known as Haj Agha Husayn Qummi was a famous scholar and jurist. He protested the actions of Reza Khan and was exiled from Iran to Iraq. Haj Qummi's arrest by the order of Reza Khan's government became the basis for the gathering and incident of Goharshad Mosque (June 1935 AD) in Mashhad. 190 Shapur Square (currently named Wahdat-e Islami Square), is situated in one of the old areas of Tehran, which, due to urban expansion, is now to be found in the south of the city immediately north of the railway station.

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ones who will always remain until the very end. Unless of course they come and take us away; otherwise you can be sure that we will be here.

RELIGION VERSUS RELIGION Don’t be mistaken in thinking that their plan to establish an Islamic university is due to their reconciliation with Islam; this is not at all the case. Instead, it is but a repetition of the time when the Qur’an was raised at the end of the bayonet in the confrontation with Amir al-Mu’minin (the Commander of the FaithfulImam Ali (as)).191 Mu’awiyah defeated Amir al-Mu’minin by taking advantage of the power of the Qur’an and using it as a weapon. Yes, by using the Qur’an as a weapon! Otherwise there is no doubt that it would have taken a maximum of a few hours only to wipe the Bani Umayyad off the face of the earth. They drew up a plan, however, whereby the Qur’an was brought forward and they said: “We are Muslims and you too are Muslims. We both bear witness to the same God and quote this Qur’an saying: There is no god but Allah.” No matter how much Amir al-Mu’minin insisted on being patient and not rushing into war, arguing no good would come from it, the foolish Kharijites192 who were the Imam’s friends and companions (although they never really came to know him) ignored the Imam’s pleas claiming that according to the Qur’an it was incumbent upon them to fight. They thought of an artifice: they fastened copies of the Qur’an onto their lances and raised them up into the air declaring: “The arbitrator between ourselves and yourselves is the Book of Allah; the arbitrator is the Book of Allah.”193 Hazrat Imam sent after those of his companions who were actually engaged in battle, telling them to cease fighting and to return. His companions however, returned a message stating that they needed to fight for a further hour. Thus, the Imam explained to them that the Kharijites, having been deceived by the enemy, had now surrounded him and with swords drawn were about to kill him unless they returned from the battle front. Hence, we see how Islam was defeated by misuse of the Qur’an.

THE CONSPIRACY TO DEFEAT ISLAM IN THE NAME OF “ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY” Do you truly believe you can defeat Islam by establishing an Islamic university? Do you imagine we will sit back and permit you to execute your plans? Indeed, we shall anathematize whosoever enters that university. The people themselves will bring it down. Could they conceivably allow the religion, believers and ulama of Islam to be under the auspices of the Ministry of Culture? The Ministry hadn’t better make the fatal mistake of interfering with our religion or with Islamic issues, because only if Khomeini or God forbid, all the maraji’ of Islam actually passed away could they continue to see this program through. Even when we have gone and are thereby relieved of our Islamic duties, the nation of Islam will live on; it has been revived and given a new lease of life. May God reward all those responsible for this revival.

191 In the battle of Siffin, Mu’awiyah’s soldiers, seeing that they were in danger of defeat, fixed copies of the Qur’an to the end of their spears under the orders of Amr ibn al-Aas and proposed to Ali (as) that God’s Book be the arbiter between them. The purpose of this ploy was to sew discord amongst Ali’s troops and indeed resulted in the latter ceasing to fight in the battle. No matter how much Hazrat Ali counseled them it was to no avail. Eventually the matter was taken to arbitration and Ali’s near-victory turned into defeat. Refer to Waqi’at al-Siffin and Al-Imamah wal-Siyasah. 192 Khawarij (Kharijites) is the plural of Khariji (“foreigner/dissenter”); someone who turns against the government. After the battle of Siffin, a group of the Muslims who were later called the Kharijites left their ranks and chanting, “No arbitrator other than Allah” they held that the murder of Ali and Mu’awiyah was a religious duty. 193 Refer to the book Waqi’at ul-Siffin, p. 481.

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THE NATION AS UNCOMPROMISING The nation of Islam has arisen and will never again acquiesce. Even if I make a U-turn or compromise with you (the Shah), the nation surely will not. We still adamantly retain our stance in opposition to those laws which counter Islam and to unwarranted incarceration and all kinds of compulsion and pressure exerted upon the nation. Are we reactionaries because we ask why certain people had been imprisoned, or ask what those poor souls in Bandar Abbas had done to deserve banishment there or indeed to deserve execution; or what they had done to deserve detention?194 Supposing their crime had been to utter a few words concerning your duty to abide by the law, do those few words warrant a life sentence in Bandar Abbas?

SAVAGERY OF THE MIDDLE AGES You ought to reconsider your stand somewhat. Amend your behavior and abandon this reactionary attitude of yours. Try not to behave so savagely. Make efforts to leave these medieval practices behind. Don’t be so reactionary; be civilized, be progressive. Allow the country to develop and afford its people respect. Don’t subject the people to such hardships. Ensure that university curricula are such that our youth receive good moral and educational instruction. Train them to be combatants so that they refuse to tolerate imperialism.

“PROGRESS”, OR DEBAUCHERY, CORRUPTION AND DESPOTISM This is what we the reactionaries urge. If you still call this being reactionary then so be it. But it is you, the “progressivists”, who are systematically causing (moral and intellectual) damage to our youth by the score. As for your schools, they are not upright, thus rendering them untrustworthy. The educational programs implemented are in fact imperialist. Schooling entails nothing but games and football. Is this the situation in other countries? If so then who made all those major scientific discoveries? Who invented the airplane? It was the developed nations of course. Even the water-pipe installed in Qum is unfit for use because it was made in Iran. You and your “developed” country are not even capable of manufacturing a water-pipe.

194 It refers to the unfortunate episode of 1963. This episode concerns the execution at dawn of two combatants on November 2, 1963/Aban 11, 1342 SH) - Tayyib Haj Rezai and Haj Ismail Rezai- their crime having been their participation in the Khordad 15 uprising. During this event, Tayyib caused the gang of Sha’ban Ja’fari (known as “bi mukh” (brainless) ) to flee: a group established by Ja’fari in support of the Shah’s regime. Haj Ismail Rezai was another of the devout, free-minded people of Tehran. By administering both mental and physical tortures to these two combatants the regime hoped that they would declare their receipt of a monetary payment from the Imam. Eventually, due to the resistance they exhibited they were both tortured to death. Once the news of their martyrdom broke, the theological center closed down and all religious classes were cancelled. On the seventh day following their martyrdom a group of well-known religious merchants and clerical combatants issued a declaration headed, “The United Islamic Councils”. Part of this declaration reads: “Following the mock trial held on Saturday 2, two of the bravest of Iran’s children who were not prepared to accept the false charges made against the clergy by the security organization, despite the most inhuman tortures they were made to endure, lost their lives under the gunfire of the slaves of bloodthirsty foreigners. Their names however, now adorn the pages of a history of struggle against foreigners.” With regard to the Bandar Abbas exiles and those imprisoned in Tehran, it must be remembered that the number of those arrested in the event concerning Tayyib and Haj Ismail was seventeen in all, for each of which the military courts’ prosecutor requested execution. Five people were sentenced to death in court but this sentence was later commuted for three of the convicted in a second court. A number of those arrested remained incarcerated until the victory of the Revolution. This account is verified by a confession made by Marshal Davallow Qajar (the adjudicator of Tayyib and Haj Ismail), who was a trial witness in the Islamic Revolutionary Court of Tehran, and it has been recorded in the newspaper Jumhuri-ye Islami of November 25, 1979/Azar 4, 1358 SH).

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Interestingly, Razmara195 made the claim: “We don’t know how to manufacture anything other than pipes” and he was subsequently killed as a result. How can you call a country which is totally dependent upon foreign trade for its every need, developed? You bring specialists to Iran from Israel and I believe it was the Ustavar196 newspaper that carried an astounding report which told of people actually being sent to Israel from Qum in order to “learn something”. God only knows what kind of things they can learn from the Jews, other than the art of cheating, deceiving and betraying. What is there for this “developed nation” to learn? What do you think? What’s your opinion? Do you really think that words are sufficient? Can development result from sending a few women to the Majlis? Have the male members of the Majlis actually accomplished anything for you so far which leads you to believe that your women may now do so? We believe that sending women to the Majlis will result in nothing but immorality and we believe that in ten, twenty or thirty years’ time you will see that we were right. We in no way oppose women’s progress, but we do oppose fornication and other such sinful deeds. It’s all too easy to talk about “men’s freedom” and “women’s freedom”, but will it be achieved by mere words; and anyway, do men themselves really enjoy “freedom” in this country that you now want to offer “freedom” to women? Exactly what is it men are free to do? I am unable to adequately thank all of the Muslim nations; the great nation of Iran; all the members of different sects and groups and all of those who joined forces with us and shared our grief. Particular recognition must be given to those most revered maraji’ at-taqlid, who took the trouble to travel to Tehran, where they experienced insults and abuse and truly went to great lengths. The eminent maraji’ from all over the country assembled in the capital city having traveled from the cities of Mashhad, Ahwaz and Qum. Cooperation was forthcoming from all quarters, such as Najaf and even from the one person who had remained in Qum.197 Everyone united and worked together thus proving the vitality and consciousness of the nation. We are prepared to endure anything for the liberty of this nation, whether it involves imprisonment, undergoing torture or bearing insults and abuse. I am pleased to say that those same distinguished maraji’ are present with us today, may God multiply their like [the audience cries, “Amen”], including those from Najaf, Mashhad and Tehran, may God multiply their like [the audience cries, “Amen”]. Islam is not a forlorn religion with merely one or two devotees, but rather every Muslim is a soldier of Islam. We must praise God that the ulama have joined hands and are prepared to sacrifice their lives in the path of Islam. It would be impossible for them to be any other way. We are all organs of the same body; we are as one, whether it be the person who considered it wiser to act temperately or the person who believed it better to take a dynamic course of action. I cannot adequately express my gratitude to these noble people. May Almighty God save them all [the audience cries, “Amen”]; and may their protective shadow remain above us and 195 Marshal Ali Razmara (1901-1951 AD), the supreme army commander during the time of Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, who became Prime Minister in July of 1950/Tir, 1329 SH) advocating reforms in the system of government and a strengthening of the judicial system. He was among those who opposed the ratification of the bill to nationalize the Iranian oil industry, and in the National Consultative Assembly he said: “How can an Iranian who even manufacture an ewer (a jug), run the oil industry can’t should it become nationalized?” On March 7 (Esfand 16) of that same year Razmara was assassinated in the Shah Mosque (current name: Imam Khomeini Mosque) by Khalil Tahmasbi of the Fadaiyan-e Islam group. 196 Refer to the local Qum-based Ustavar newspaper, No. 16, 3/5/1964 (12/25/1343 SH). 197 Following the Imam’s arrest, Ayatullah Golpaygani did not travel to Tehran along with the other ulama and maraji’ but instead he remained in Qum.

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above all the Muslims [the audience cries, “Amen”]. Although we are many in number yet we are but one unit. Let no one presume that they can cause a rift between the ulama via mischievous propaganda, for this is not so. We are all together as one entity to fight in defense of Islam and its honor and in defense of Iran and the nation’s independence. We are unified and have but one voice.

INSULT TO THE MARAJI’ MEANS TERMINATION OF WILAYAH I feel I must offer a word of advice to the young theological students who have recently joined the clergy and who are full of vigor and vitality. They need to be aware that the least insult aimed by them at any of the maraji’ of Islam would mean the termination of the wilayah between themselves and God. I assure you that to slight a distinguished marja’ is no trivial matter, so much so that if this great movement was to be impaired in any way as a result of such ignorance, then you would be chastised by God Almighty and the acceptance of your repentance would be problematic, for it is the honor and dignity of Islam that would have been damaged. I swear that if my children or myself were slapped in the face by someone, an act of retaliation would not please me and I would not agree to it, 198for I am aware that there are those who would like to create discord within this circle, be it through ignorance or by intent. Such discord, God forbid, would be most injurious to Islam whereby the wishes of the imperialists would materialize. We must all sacrifice ourselves for Islam. We must sacrifice our aspirations and desires for the sake of Islam. All of the maraji’ are over sixty years old. Is it conceivable that someone who has grown old devoting his life to Islam can then act to the detriment of Islam? Of course not. If at any time a disagreement does arise however, concerning the ijtihad of the maraji’, as may also occur with any other Islamic issue, then the youngsters must not become involved or interfere in any way, for this would present danger. The enemy is vigilant and awaiting. Hence, be aware that to insult one member of the clergy is to insult the entire Muslim community and to weaken the Muslim society.

EXTENDING A BROTHERLY HAND TO THE MUSLIMS I who am now seated here before you, humbly kiss the hands of all the maraji’, wherever they may be; be it in Najaf, Mashhad, Tehran, or right here (in Qum). I kiss the hand of the entire ulama of Islam. It is the ultimate goal which is of primary importance. I extend a brotherly hand to all Islamic nations and to all the Muslims of the world, be they in the East or the West. We humble ourselves before all the ulama of Islam. You too must humble yourselves; all of you without exception. We are all from one nation and one country and we all have one religion. We are all seated at the table of the mercy of God, the Blessed and Exalted. We must thank God and be appreciative of the great maraji’ with whom we are blessed. To honor them is to honor Islam and to insult them is to insult Islam. Bear it in mind never to insult a marja’ or indeed any Muslim, for that would deeply displease Almighty God and I fear He might at some time chastise us; akhdha azizin muqtadir.199

198 A number of religious students objected to the uncooperative and cautious behavior of some of the maraji’. They thus behaved insolently towards the latter protesting that they did not confront the Shah in the way that the Imam did. In defending the maraji’ and the unity of the religious teaching centers, the Imam reminded them of the aforementioned issues. 199 Ma’khudh or “overtook,” from Qur’an, 54:42: “Who denied all of Our signs. So We seized them with the seizing of One [who is] All-mighty, Omnipotent.”

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May Almighty God grant success to all of the ulama in their service to Islam [“Amen”]. May God keep all the maraji’ of Islam in the shelter of His protection [“Amen”]. May the protective shadow of all the maraji’ remain over all the Muslims [“Amen”]. May God grant strength to the religion of Islam and may the hands of those who seek to betray this nation’s independence and her economy be severed [“Amen”]. May peace be upon you.

12th Speech Date: September 9, 1964/Shahrivar 18, 1343 SH/Jamadi al-Awwal 2, 1384 AH Place: Azam Mosque, Qum Subject: The danger of the penetration of Israeli influence in Iran and the plots perpetrated by the imperialists in the Muslim countries Occasion: The beginning of lessons at the theological center Audience: Religious students, clerics, merchants of the bazaar and other residents in Qum In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful Verily, we are from God and to Him we shall return. O God, preserve our tongues from vain discourse and lies. O God, enlighten our hearts with the light of Islam and devotion. O God, grant a listening ear to the kings of the Muslim governments, to the presidents of the Muslim governments, to the members of parliaments of Muslim governments, to the prime ministers and ministers of Muslim governments, to the heads of the universities of Muslim governments, to the employers and employees of Muslim governments. O God, place them amongst those who listen to all that is said and choose the best of it.200

MUSLIM STATES BEING UNDER THE IMPERIALIST INFLUENCE In this short time, and because of the chest pains from which I am suffering, 201 I cannot convey all that has been on my mind; but I will talk about the important matters. I am deeply distressed about the general situation of the Muslim countries, and especially about the situation in Iran. The Muslim governments, whether led by Muslim kings, Muslim presidents or prime ministers, under the influence of imperialism are ignorant of the aims of the religion of Islam. They are not aware of Islamic affairs. They do not want to be aware of the Islamic laws. They cannot, in their present situation, be aware of what Islam has brought for humanity and to what heights mankind will reach if the tenets of Islam are obeyed. 200 In the existing recordings of the speeches, this prayer is recorded at the beginning of another speech. However, from the point of view of style and content it is related to this speech. Some books such as Sahifeh-ye Nur have included it in both speeches. Refer to Qur’an, 39:18. 201 The unpleasant events of 1962 (1341 SH), 1963 (1342 SH) and 1964 (1343 SH), the problems and difficulties of the Islamic world, the anti-Islamic agreements made by the Shah’s regime, and especially the tragedy of Khordad 15 (June 5, 1963) all affected Imam greatly, both mentally and physically, and placed him under severe mental strain. Physical illness and the pains in his chest had bothered him for years. For further information on this subject refer to the book Barrasi va Tahlili az-Nahzat-e Imam Khomeini, vol. 1, pp. 305- 6.

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CREATION OF DISCORD AS AN IMPERIALIST DESIGN The imperialist governments, those governments that seek to plunder the wealth of Muslims, deceive the Muslim countries, the heads of Islamic countries, through different means and numerous tricks. Sometimes they create differences in the name of Shia and Sunni. Even in the East those who are not Muslims have been deceived. It has been said that in India on the Festival of Sacrifices202 a large number of cows, which are sacred for the cow worshippers203, are brought to the Muslims and sold to them very cheaply. They make them slaughter these cows and then they tell them: “The Muslims have slaughtered your sacred cows.” Disturbances are created between Hindus and Muslims, between the Indian sects, resulting in disputes which attract a lot of attention. They use these disputes to devour the East. Acting in the name of Islam and religion, they spread ideas amongst the Muslim sects in the Islamic countries, they sow dissension so that the Muslim sects start fighting each other, so that they discover differences between the Shia and the Sunni. Thus, they find a way to get their hands on the wealth of the Muslims, and the Muslims cannot do anything about it.

THE MUSLIM CIVILIZATION AS ABOVE OTHER CIVILIZATIONS The Muslims are those whose greatness once conquered the world. Their civilization excelled all others; their spirituality was of the highest caliber; their officials were the best; the vastness of their lands was greater than all others; the power of their government dominated the world. They (the imperialists) saw that with this power, with this unity of the Islamic lands, they could not impose whatever they wanted on them; they could not seize their wealth, their black gold and their yellow gold, so they thought of a solution. The solution was to create divisiveness between the Muslim countries.

DIVISION OF THE OTTOMAN STATE Maybe some of you remember the international war, the First World War, and what they did with the Muslims and the great Ottoman State.204 The Ottoman State was that state which would sometimes prevail in its conflicts with Russia, while other governments could not stand up to her. The Ottoman State was a Muslim state, whose power spread almost from East to West. They realized that as long as this Muslim state with such power existed, they could not do anything, they could not rob the region of its wealth. So after their victory in the First World War, under those circumstances, they divided the Ottoman State into a number of petty states. At the head of each of these states they placed a king, an amir, a sultan or a president, and each of these was in the grip of the imperialists just as the helpless nation was in their grip. In this way, they destroyed the Ottoman State which had such greatness; and the Muslim governments did not stir from their slumber, or they pretended to be still asleep. This Ottoman State acquired such greatness 202 Eid al-Qurban. 203 It refers to the Hindus. Hinduism is one of the religions of India whose followers are greater in number than those of any of the other religions in that country. The cow in Hinduism is held as being holy and sacred; to kill a cow and eat its meat is considered unlawful and a sin. 204 After the assassination of the Prince of Austria and the declaration of war by the Austrian Empire on the government of Serbia in 1914, the First World War began between the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, joined later by Ottoman Turkey, and Bulgaria) and the Allies (France, Britain, Russia, and minor European nations, joined later by Italy and America). The war ended in 1918 with the defeat of the forces of the Central Powers. The victors then proceeded to dismember the Ottoman Empire. All that has remained of the Turkish Ottoman Empire, which had survived for five hundred and fifty years, is the present day state of Turkey.

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under the patronage of the Islamic leadership (khilafah) and by relying on the Holy Qur’an. After it was divided, in our time, at the time of the evil Ataturk205, they destroyed Islam there and now the Turkish government is not an Islamic government; it does not take Islam into account; there are no religious ceremonies. The government does not have religious laws, but the noble nation of Turkey is a Muslim nation, and it is they who circumambulate the Ka’bah in Mecca at the time of the pilgrimage in relatively larger numbers than pilgrims from other nations. Yet, their government is such a government. That former greatness was acquired by relying on Islam, and when the imperialists saw that reliance on Islam was a very important element, that with this reliance they could not destroy the Muslim governments, they separated religion from the state in Turkey with the result that now, when some of the Turks are killed in Cyprus, there is not one Muslim who expresses sorrow. It is distressing when a government acts in such a way and other Muslim governments are indifferent when it is defeated by the Christians or some of its people are killed by them.206 You may only find one person who expresses sorrow, someone like an old akhund like me. The governments of Muslim countries do not express sadness because they have lost the greatness of Islam.

ANNIHILATION OF ISLAM IN THE NAME OF ISLAM The leaders of the Muslim countries should bear in mind that the differences that are created in Iraq, Iran and other Islamic countries are differences which will destroy their existence. They should act wisely and prudently and realize that the imperialists want to destroy Islam in the name of religion and in the name of Islam. The wicked hands that create differences between the Shia and Sunnis in these countries, belong to neither Shia nor Sunni. They are the hands of the imperialist agents who want to seize the Islamic countries from them. They want to take their resources and create a black market for these so-called advanced countries. They want to create a market in the East for the things that they have an excess of, that they normally throw away, throw into the sea, and the East buys them at a good price, at a satisfactory price. It was in the Ittila’at newspaper a few days ago that the amount of food the Americans waste in three days, the amount which they throw away, is equivalent to the amount of food the whole of the Chinese nation, 650 million people, use in a day! Three days wastage of American food, just the leftovers that they normally throw away, 650 million people can use in one day. So why shouldn’t they bring the East under their own power, why shouldn’t they subjugate them so they can sell their refuse to the East at a suitable price and 205 In the First World War, Mustafa Kemal, later Kemal Pasha 1881- 1938 known as “Ataturk” (i. e. father of the Turkish nation) was the commander of forces of resistance at the Dardanelles. Incited by the British, Ataturk rebelled against the authority of the Ottoman government and eventually turned the constitutional Ottoman Sultanate into the Republic of Turkey with himself as President. During his years as President, a post he held from 1923 until his death in 1938, Ataturk wielded almost dictatorial powers in his quest to westernize the new republic and in his battle with Islam. Separating religion from politics, which in effect eradicated the influence of religion; the unveiling of women; prohibiting the clerics from wearing their traditional clerical dress; changing the national script into Latin; closing down religious schools and mosques were just a few of the steps taken by Ataturk in his campaign against Islam. 206 The conflict between the Muslim Turks and the Christian Greeks has its historical roots in Cyprus. From medieval times the island was ruled alternatively by the Christian Front and the Ottoman Empire (the Islamic Front). In 1878, according to the Treaty of Berlin, the Ottoman government, while preserving its rights and receiving an annual capitation in return, handed over administrative control of Cyprus to the British. In 1882, Britain established a governing council on the island made up of six English men, three Turks and nine Greeks. The greater number of Greeks on the council brought about the idea of union with Greece. In 1925, Cyprus was made a Crown Colony by the British. In 1960, it became an independent republic within the Commonwealth. The island’s recent history has been dominated by tension between the two major communities, the Christian Greek Cypriots and the Muslim Turkish Cypriots over the Greek Cypriots desire for union with Greece. The problem has still not been solved.

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turn it into gold and take the gold back? Why shouldn’t they do this? Our governments, the Muslim governments, do not pay attention to these matters, they do not understand what happens to them, they do not realize that by neglecting the Qur’an and no longer relying on Islamic laws these disadvantages come about. The imperialists weaken the Muslim governments with the creation of religious differences so they can take away their ideology and religion. I seek refuge with God.

WARNING TO THE HEADS OF MUSLIM COUNTRIES Shouldn’t the heads of the Muslim governments, the presidents, the Muslim kings, the ministers and members of parliament of the Muslim governments, be vigilant? Really don’t they know what is happening, or do they know but their desire for rank and office compels them to follow orders? You sirs, do you believe that those who are aware of the course of events, or claim to be, have not understood this simple matter that one Sayyid from Khomein has understood? Do you think that this is possible? If they have understood it, God forbid, they are either besotted by them or there is fear involved. Why should they be afraid? They are afraid because they have been divided into groups. The Ottoman state which covered such a vast area has been divided into how many states? Each one of them is smaller than the other. They have put the poor people- this multimillion nation- under the yoke of a few godless people and then they colonize them and these heads of state abase their own nation. Shouldn’t these Muslim governments wake up? What misfortune have they experienced because of Islam? The West has used one great deception to influence, tempt or intimidate the governments of Islamic countries. We can see it in our newspapers and magazines, in their propaganda and in their radio broadcasts.

THE RACE BUSINESS That great deceit which debases the Muslim governments and distances them from the Qur’an is this race business. This man is from the race of Turks, he has to do his ritual prayers in Turkish. This one is from the Iranian race; his alphabet should be as such. That one is from the Arab race, Arabism should govern not Islam. The Aryan race should govern not Islam. The Turkish race should govern not Islam. Let us see where this racism, which is being developed amongst these men and is increasing and is encouraged, leads us. This racism is a childish affair and it is as if they are making children play their games. They are making the heads of the governments play their games. You are Iranian, sir. You are Turkish, sir. You, sir, are Indonesian. Sir, what are you, where are you from? We should do such and such for our own country! They say all this and ignore that pivotal point which existed in the lives of all Muslims. Alas, alas, that pivotal point has been taken away from the Muslims and they are still distancing them from it, and I don’t know where it will lead to. Islam came and drew a red line across racism and allowed no differentiation between black and white, between Turk and Iranian, between Arab and non-Arab. The only distinction it made between men stemmed from piety, fearing God, true devoutness, political piety, material piety and spiritual piety. This is the difference that was established: “Verily the most honored of you in the sight of God is he who is the most pious.”207 There are no Turks and Iranians, Arabs and non-Arabs. Islam is the pivotal point for all

207 Qur’an 49: 13

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Muslims. The matter of racism is retrogressive, these men see us as reactionaries, but they are retrogressing to two thousand five hundred years ago. Are we the reactionaries?

NEGLIGENCE OF THE MUSLIM GOVERNMENTS Why should the Muslim governments be ignorant of these matters? Why should these kinds of revolutions be created in each of these countries? Why should fronts be created between Muslim governments? One lot forms a “Triple Alliance”208 against the other and the other creates another alliance against them, and each of them curses the other. Shouldn’t they wake up? The Muslim kings who think of themselves so highly, shouldn’t they pay attention to these matters? The Muslim presidents who have taken complete control of the Islamic countries, shouldn’t they wake up?

IMPERIALISM AS THE CAUSE OF WARS AMONG MUSLIMS Are these things of which I speak untrue? Don’t they accept this reality that I am telling them with deep sorrow? One of the realities is that they encourage animosity between the Muslim governments, arraying one group against the other, and how they equip their armies on the borders! Now, as I speak to you, I have been informed that the Turks have massed 200, 000 troops on one of their borders. Why? With whom do they have a quarrel? Why are the Muslims fighting one another? What has made the Muslims fight amongst themselves other than the hands of imperialism? If you remove the hands of imperialism from the Muslim governments then you will see what kind of government takes control, what kind of government comes into being. Protect your borders all of you. If it is supposed to be an Islamic government, if Islam is supposed to govern, then all the borders will be protected. There won’t be one government attacking another. They will all be Muslim; they will all be united under the banner of Islam. The reason why you see this government attacking the other, this one sending arms for that one’s army and that one sending arms for the other one’s army is because they are not united under the banner of Islam. It is misfortunate for the Muslim governments, for the Muslim countries and nations, that the imperialists began laying their plans many years ago. For a long time, the imperialist governments were busy trying to belittle the Prophet of Islam. Then they endeavored to propagate the idea that Islamic laws belong to a thousand years ago and now such and such has happened and the country has progressed and etc., etc. and now Islam cannot satisfy the needs of the nations. Sirs209, what have you seen of Islam? All your media, all your television programs, all your radio broadcasts, all your discourses, all your speeches in the Parliament are aimed at smashing the laws of Islam. If you do not do this purposely and have no evil intentions, then you have been made to do it, they have threatened, enticed, or deceived you. God willing, you have been deceived, and treason is not involved. You do not allow us to introduce Islam to the world.

208 Here “Triple Alliance” refers to the CENTO agreement. In 1964, at the time of Hasan Ali Mansur’s premiership, the Shah suggested the formation of a grouping within CENTO and America welcomed the idea. The agreement for the formation of the Regional Cooperation for Development organization (RCD) was concluded by the heads of Iran, Turkey and Pakistan. Led by Iran, the RCD was introduced as a non-military organization; Afghanistan and the Shaykhdoms in the Persian Gulf were also expected to join it. This organization split the Muslim countries at a sensitive time in Middle Eastern politics. 209 Addressed to the heads of the Muslim countries.

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ADVISE TO THOSE WHO ARE COMPLACENT Only three or four days ago I received a letter from one of the students in America. I am not acquainted with him personally, but apparently he is a religious person who is distressed at the existing situation. He wrote that unfortunately the students, the university students there (in America) say that all our misfortunes stem from Islam. O you misfortunate students! The Islam that is introduced to you from the radio is not Islam. The Islam that you get from the newspapers is not Islam. That Islam which has been introduced to you is defective, it’s something that none of the Muslims accept. I do not accept it, and the other clergymen do not accept it. This is not Islam. They do not let us introduce (true) Islam. In this country, the television is independent and is controlled by an Israeli.210 He says whatever he wants. The radio too, they produce its programs and its advertisements, and what good use they put it to! Not just in this country, in all Muslim countries; I am talking about all Muslim countries but I keep coming back to our own country.

THE ALLEGATION OF ISLAM AS “WORSHIPPING THE OLD” One of the ruses of the imperialists is to introduce Islam as an old defective truth in the Muslim countries. The heads of these countries say that Islam is “worshipping the old,” it’s “retrogressive”; this is how they introduce Islam to the people. Give us one radio transmitter so our preachers can introduce Islam to the world. Our voice does not reach the world. Our words do not leave this mosque. All this that I am saying now, and which is reasoned and rational, is illegal, it is smuggled out of this mosque. No one knows which of these men will be arrested when he leaves here and which one will be left alone. No one knows where these tape recorders (which the people bring with them to record the speech) will be seized. We are not speaking out against somebody here; we are speaking about the welfare of Islam and Muslims. This is not a tirade leveled at one person, it is a sermon meant to offer advice and it is directed at everyone. Its aim is to do good. God knows we want your wellbeing. So then give us a radio transmitter as well. Let the Muslims organize a radio transmitter themselves and I guarantee that it will not be entirely to your detriment. Yes, this idea conflicts with the interests of the big bosses and they do not and will not allow this to happen. Here, somebody “worse than a Jew”211 should control the television and propagate whatever he wishes, yet we are not free to propagate our ideas! “Oh no, these reactionaries should not speak,” is what they say, but where is the reaction?

UNITY OF THE NATION OF ISLAM All we are saying is that you should be united; all Muslims should be united; we do not have relations with that one, 212 with you213, nor with anybody else, and yet we have relations with everybody. We see you all as being the same. All Muslims, in our view, if they act upon Islamic laws, are dear to us. We hold dear the nation of Islam, whether it be Turkish, Arab, Iranian, or from any other country, Africa, America, or wherever. We are saying join hands together; do not make a triple front and join

210 It refers to Habib Sabet Habib Pasal, who for years was the owner and head of the Iranian television. He was one of the main figures in international Zionism. 211 “Worse than a Jew” meaning in his animosity toward Islam. 212 Asadullah Alam and the previous government. 213 Mansur, the Prime Minister at the time, and the new government.

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Israel against another alliance, and the other Muslim countries too should not make an alliance against you. You should all form one alliance, you are all Muslims, you should rely on the Qur’an. But you do not know what the Qur’an is. All you do is put the Qur’an into your pocket! I don’t have a Qur’an in my pocket, yet all the officials have a Qur’an in their pockets! They seem to show a greater interest in the Qur’an than we do! Do you really believe in the Qur’an? You just want to deceive us. Whenever you stand up to speak you take the Qur’an out and hold it up high for all to see. You put the Qur’an in your pocket and you want to destroy it.

THE IMPERIALISTS AS AIMING TO PLUNDER THE MUSLIMS’ RESOURCES Now, are we being reactionary when we say that all of you should form one alliance, that you should stop them from plundering your resources? More important than the underground resources are those which lie above the ground: our youth. They are taking our youth; God knows they are taking the youth from the Muslim countries. One group is in America, one somewhere else and another I don’t know where! And now our youth are going to Israel. I have in my house at present a journal; the journal of the Iranian Students Organization in Israel. It exists now. These youth are our resources. Our youth are being deceived. They are being injected with the idea that whatever misfortune befalls their people comes from Islam. What have you seen of Islam that you say Islam brings misfortune? You have seen the Muslims here who are a poor, unfortunate, beggared people- and the government proclaims loudly that, praise be to God, nobody goes to sleep hungry- praise be to God, I hope that this is so! But do these words change the reality? Does that which was reported about the southern ports of the country a short while ago in Ittila’at214 - and Ittila’at is the government’s official mouthpiece- change the reality? This will not change anything. These poor students of ours, they have seen that here the Muslims are hungry, helpless and misfortunate, their mosques are dilapidated, their places of worship are such and such. Then when they go to America and visit a church or a synagogue, they see that it is all neat and tidy, everything well-kept, everything just right, and they think that it is the laws of the Bible or the Torah that have brought these people to this stage, while the laws of Islam have kept the Muslims back.

THE REASON BEHIND THE MUSLIMS’ BACKWARDNESS No, it is the governments of the Islamic countries which have made us like this. These poor, deceived governments have brought us to this. They say that Islam is like this. There was a time when Islam held sovereignty over half of the world and was progressing farther and farther. Gustav Lebon215, in his book, The Civilization of Islam, looks at the Islamic civilization from a materialistic point of view; he doesn’t know what Islam is. He believes neither in Jesus nor in Islam. He understands civilization to consist of the pillars of ancient buildings, just as our children do. So when our youth go abroad, they see all the

214 In the Ittila’at newspaper of December 25, 1963/Dey 4, 1342 SH, it was reported that in the villages in the south of Iran there were no doctors or drinking water, and in one of the villages most of the people had lost their sight because of a lack of adequate sanitation. 215 Gustav Lebon (1841- 1931 AD), a French doctor, sociologist and historian who was also the author of a number of literary works. His most important work The Civilization of Islam and the Arabs was published in 1884 in French. He traveled widely in Arabia and other Islamic countries.

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ceremonies, all the magnificence, they see the Vatican216 in all its splendor, while all our mosques are dilapidated and impoverished, and they think this is because of Islam. This has not come about because of Islam; the heads of the Muslim states have brought this about. The heads of the Muslim states that are under the domination of the imperialists have done this to us. They have given our resources to others and we have become unfortunate, impoverished and hungry.

COMPARISON OF ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY It is said that there (in the West), the great heads of state attend religious ceremonies on Sundays. Do you ever see any of our Muslim leaders in the mosque? Can you find them there at all? Yes, sometimes you can when his father dies or his brother dies or something else happens and he struts through the mosque on a fleeting visit. But this is not what going to the mosque is all about. Do they ever come to attend the daily prayer services? Over there, their presidents and kings attend the prayer services, and these are the services of a religion which today is nothing compared to what it was. They think that the Christian religion is that which exists today. Of course, at its own time it was right. Look at that which exists today of the Christian religion and Christian laws, you students study Christianity, study what that is and what the Qur’an is. Study what the Christian laws are and what the Islamic laws are. The Islamic laws run into the millions; there are millions of Islamic laws which cover everything. There is not a single topic in human life for which Islam has not provided instruction and established a norm. In Islam a law exists for it even before it happens. Whatever happens, Islam has a law for it, even today. Is this a religion which is “worshipping the old” and “defective”? Are all our misfortunes created by Islam? It is the Muslim leaders who create our afflictionsthese helpless heads of state who pay no attention to the welfare of their own nations, or who simply do not want to pay attention. They are the cause of our wretchedness. They have created dark days for our people. And still they don’t leave us alone; they continue to make problems for us.

THE EAST’S RESISTANCE AGAINST THE WEST These things of which I speak refer to matters which are the concern of the governments of the Islamic countries, and this is as much as I, as a member of the clergy and a seminarian, can offer by way of advice to the Muslim governments. I hope this advice reaches them. These are important matters; it is imperative that the Muslim governments pay heed to them. I hope that they come to understand this and that they create a real Islamic union. They should set some of their desires aside and extend the hand of brotherhood to one another. One shouldn’t be superior to the other; they should be brothers, united against the West. They shouldn’t be xenomaniacs (westoxicated), smitten by the West.217 The governments of the East should stand up to the West; even the Buddhists218 should stand up to the West. They should push the West back and

216 The Vatican, the official residence of the pope, is an independent papal state in Rome, the seat of government of the Roman Catholic Church and one of the greatest Christian spiritual centers in the world. It has its own flag, anthem, postal service, stamps, radio station and police force which is formed by Swiss youths. St. Peter’s Basilica, the largest Roman Catholic church, the Lateran Palace and the Castle Gandolfo villa all fall under papal authority. 217 Xenomaniacs: those infatuated with foreign and especially Western models of culture. This is a translation of the Persian term, gharbzadehha, popularized by Jalal Aali Ahmad in his book Gharbzadegi [Occidentosis, Westoxicosis]. 218 It refers to the followers of an Indian prince, Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, who founded the religion of Buddhism in north east India in the 5th century BC. The teachings of Buddha overshadowed “Hinduism” in India for a long period, but eventually its influence

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then create a stable government and a peaceful society amongst themselves. All the countries should retain their statehood, but none should act aggressively against the other. All should be as brothers. If they are attacked by others, they should all form a united front and go forward together. If all the Muslims unite, no government can defeat them. It is wrong to think that the West has this and that. No, this is not the case. You do not have the courage to stand up to the West, you have been deceived.

BOGUS PARTIES When it comes to our own country, however, we cannot talk about the problems which afflict it in one or two days. The governments come and go, and each government creates a party. One makes a Hizb-e Mardum (“People’s Party”), one such and such a party; one makes the Hizb-e Iran-e Novin (“Modern Iran Party”)219, and the other such and such a party. They are just creating parties all the time. Political parties have no meaning in Iran. A one-party state has no meaning anywhere in the world except in those countries which are like Iran. A party which is forced upon us has no meaning. They take the identity cards off the people of the villages. Go to these villages and see for yourselves, they take their identity cards off them and register them in the party. The poor person who has been registered doesn’t even know what “Modern Iran” means let alone understand its charter. This poor person doesn’t even know what a charter is. All that these irreligious people want from these poor souls is to gather them in a place and make them shout, “hurray” and “long live”. This is all they want from these poor people.220

THE TRUE PARTY IN TODAY’S WORLD In those countries which espouse a multi-party system, the governments are created from the parties. The government doesn’t come before the party is formed and then the latter finds itself dependent on the former! But here, well you can see for yourselves, first the government is formed, and there is no relationship between the government and the Parliament, or the government and you and I. First the government is formed and then they say- and these are their words, not mine- “We came upon orders and we’ll go upon orders, and nobody can do a damn thing about it!” No member of the Parliament can do a damn thing about it; not one of them dares to either. First the government is formed, and when it has gained control, then the party is formed. And then that party becomes the one from which the government was formed! Thus, our government is a party government! The government of these men represents a party system! Sir, who are you trying to fool? I as an akhund know what is really going on, don’t you think that the world governments waned in that country and it spread to other countries. Buddhism is one of the great religions of the world with over 500 million followers, who live mainly in the Far East. 219 The Iran-e Novin party was formed by Hasan-Ali Mansur and a group of Iranians educated in America and Europe under the directorship of “Rockwell”, the charge-d’affaires of the US Embassy in Iran, for the purpose of carrying out the policies of Kennedy in Iran. The role of this party was to guard the Shah-People Revolution and to implement its principles. Iran-e Novin had the most seats in the government and Parliament, and high officials with key posts were members. With the assassination of Hasan-Ali Mansur, Ataullah Khosravani took his place as Secretary General of the party. The Iran-e Novin party was dissolved after the formation of the “Rastakhiz” or National Resurgence Party when the Shah finished his charade of a party system and a one-party system was officially acknowledged in the country. Refer to Az Zuhur ta Suqut, p. 207 and The Spy Nest Documents, vol. 7, p. 103. 220 The Imam is referring to the comments made by Hasan-Ali Mansur (the then Prime Minister) who said in a meeting of the members of the central committee of the Iran-e Novin party on August 26, 1964 (Shahrivar 4, 1343 SH): “Fortunately, in this brief period of time, the advocates of the Iran-e Novin party have been able to establish their ideas in the most remote areas of the country and amongst people of all classes of society and bring them together under one banner Our party has been established in the hearts of the villages and has penetrated into the heart of the centers of the working class.” Khorasan newspaper, August 27, 1964.

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also know!? They actually want you to be like this; they want you to be backward. Cast off this backwardness. Protect your country’s greatness. If you want to form a party, form it before your government is formed, and then let your party propose representatives for the Parliament the way that they should be proposed, according to the Constitution and other laws. The ministers and Prime Minister should be selected from the representatives that have been proposed by the party and elected by the people. Then you have a party system, a system which depends on the choice of the people. But you form the government first. First you appoint your Prime Minister then you form the party; and this is supposed to be the party system!? The newspapers cannot write about these things, they might want to, but you do not let them. We, however, are theologians; we do not have the same concerns as the newspapers. If the government wants to bother us then we are ready once more. They put on such a show, a show of parties, just what we are witnessing now. Every day they set off somewhere at the expense of this misfortunate nation. This hungry nation God knows that sometimes when I think about our future, when I think about what next winter will bring, it saddens me, it saddens us all. Will the people have bread this year or won’t they? This year our food situation is not good. There isn’t even enough fodder for the animals. What will happen in this black winter for this misfortunate, poor nation? I don’t know what will happen. Is the government going to do something about it? Now that they have ruined the agriculture221 they should at least get the agricultural goods from the black market which has come into being and fill the stomachs of these poor souls. Or should they still sleep with an empty stomach, and should it still be said that there is not another person who goes to sleep hungry!? Every day a number of these people come to me, to me who is in no position to do anything about this problem.

REVEALING THE SHAH’S REGIME’S RELATIONS WITH ISRAEL This is the state of the party system in Iran; this is the state of the Iranian Parliament which we all know about; this is the state of their relations with Israel. When one of the country’s top-ranking officials met me he told me that the Israeli problem was finished with, it was over and done with, it didn’t exist anymore. How powerful they are in lying! They are so powerful that they even deceive me who is careful and vigilant. He told me that the Israeli problem is solved and now that Israel is finished with in Iran, now as I am sitting here speaking to you, many of the good farms of Iran are in the hands of Israel! People have written to me from 2lam and told me that the good farms of this place have been given to Israel for farming sugar beets, and at the side of the road, these people who say we have nothing to do with Israel have placed a sign which

221 Land Reform was one of the main principles of neo-colonialism, which was urged on all the countries under the dominance of colonialism, from Latin America to Asia and Africa, and was implemented by the governments of these countries in a very similar manner. In 1962 [1342 SH], the Shah launched the land reform program as the first tenet of his six-point ‘White Revolution’, later renamed the ‘ShahPeople Revolution.’ This ‘Revolution’ was not a revolution at all, rather it was put into effect on the one hand to win the confidence of American capitalism; to show his approval of and co-operation with the new strategy; and to open a new market for the Western economy, and on the other to curb internal discontent and actually prevent a revolution! The reform program, which was dependent on foreign, especially American investment, dragged the Iranian agrarian economy into bankruptcy, such that a few years after its implementation the country had been changed from a wheat exporter to a major wheat importer. In addition, as a result of the migration of villagers into the towns and cities and their attraction as a cheap work force to the industries and the service sector, over a period of eleven years from 1966- 1977 [1345- 56 SH], 20, 000 Iranian villages became uninhabited! Refer to Farhang-e Danestaniha, p. 239 and Tarikh-e Novin-e Iran [The Modern History of Iran], p. 219.

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reads: the Iran-Israel Joint Farming Project.222 In an Israeli newspaper which was given to me recently, it was written about the Israeli ambassador in Tehran! And they say that we have nothing to do with Israel! A couple of days ago on Shahrivar 16 SH (September 7) in the Darvaz-e Dawlat district of Tehran, the Jews created such a hullabaloo. Four or five hundred thieving Jews gathered together, and all that their speeches boiled down to was a eulogy to one and a tirade against another, and then they proclaimed that greatness belongs to the Jews, the Jews are chosen by God, we are a people who should govern, we are against dictatorship, we are against Hitlerism, and so on and so forth. This was the content of their speeches. These people come with the full knowledge of our government and openly say these things. Well, if dictatorship is prohibited and they are against it well, why don’t you stop them? Don’t let them say these things. They say all these things just for the sake of praising one person and abusing somebody else. It’s wrong for a country to rely on the Jews. Is this that we say now very bad? Of course it’s a bitter pill to swallow, it’s bitter for you. Nevertheless, it is disastrous for a Muslim country, for Muslims, to rely on, to have relations or make agreements with a government which is now the enemy of Islam, which opposes Islam and has usurped Palestine.

WARNING TO THE MUSLIM STATES CONCERNING THE PALESTINIAN QUESTION I ask the Muslim governments, why do you fight over rivers?223 The land of Palestine has been usurped. O you hopeless ones, you should be throwing the Jews out of Palestine, instead you are fighting each other! Palestine has been usurped and you are squabbling over a river! While you dispute over a river, the Israelis have established a government in Palestine. They have driven those misfortunate Arabs out, and now a million or more of them are sleeping in deserts, hungry and bereft. They have become completely homeless and wretched. Shouldn’t the Muslim governments raise any objections? Shouldn’t they say something? Should you enter into an alliance with a government which has thrown one million Muslims out of their homeland and made them homeless? If you have not formed an alliance with them, well announce that you haven’t in your newspapers; allow that which I am saying now to be published. If you refuse to do so, then obviously you have aligned yourselves with them, you have aligned yourselves with the Jews, with Israel! You see what the agents of Israel do in this country. Recently, I heard that now, because the regime has asked me not to say anything, I won’t say anything. The government officials have said that they’ve corrected it.224 Well, last night on the radio they spoke about this matter and announced that it won’t be

222 Also the fertile, water-abundant lands of Qazvin were in the hands of the Israelis for creating modern farming corporations. All of the fertile lands of Khorasan province around the Bujnurd road to Mashhad were owned by Hujabre Yazdani who exploited those lands through his “Hujabre Yazdani Farming and Industry Company”. 223 At the conference of Arab heads of state, which was held on September 5, 1964 in Egypt, in addition to discussing the differences that Egypt had with Yemen and Saudi Arabia, and the aims which each of the Arab governments had in their relationship with the newly established Palestinian Liberation Organization (which formally announced its existence in 1964), the most important matter discussed was how to divert the sources of the river Jordan in order to forestall the Israelis’ irrigation scheme. The Israelis had at that time completed the work needed to enable them to divert some of the waters of the river Jordan, which runs through Syria, Occupied Palestine and Jordan, to irrigate the Negev Desert. The disagreement between the Arab countries was so intense that at the beginning of the conference the open session was closed and the heated discussions carried on behind closed doors. The conference eventually ended with no results. 224 The Imam here is referring to the change in the method of swearing in the army personnel. According to the formal pledge of allegiance in use at that time, all of the army personnel, after a few months of training and after receiving their ranks, had to take an oath on the Holy Qur’an that they would be the guardians and protectors of the integrity of the country and the independence of the state, etc. At the time of the Imam’s anti-Israeli struggle, the Shah, prompted by America, changed the words of the oath from “I swear on the Holy Qur’an” to

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changed. But I don’t believe a lot of what they say. It takes me a while to believe them. When they found out that I intended to preach today they said that this matter (the pledge of allegiance) has been corrected and shouldn’t be spoken about. This is what they said on the radio last night as well.225 But I don’t believe them; and if they don’t prove it to me I’ll return another day to speak about this matter again.

THE ISRAELI AGENTS OCCUPYING THE STRATEGIC CENTERS IN IRAN These people, these Israeli agents in Iran, wherever you look in the country they are there. They occupy all the key posts, the sensitive posts in the country, and this, by God, could prove to be dangerous for the throne of this man.226 They do not realize this. It was these people who plotted in Shemiran (a district in northern Tehran) to kill Nasiruddin Shah and take control of the country. Look at history; it relates how they plotted, how a few people tried to assassinate Nasiruddin Shah in Niyavaran, and how a group of people in Tehran tried to seize power.227 These people think that they should govern. They have written in their books, in their articles, that governance belongs to them, that they should create a new monarchy, a new government, a just government. 228These people who have such malicious ideas and evil intentions are found throughout the country from the court down.

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“I swear on the Holy Book”. With this change, he lays the way open for Zionism to enter the Iranian army and occupy the sensitive posts. Refer to the book Barrasi va Tahlili az Nahzat-e Imam Khomeini, vol. 1, p. 695. After the Imam’s warning, the regime sent a representative to him. The representative claimed that the news that the words of the pledge of allegiance had been changed had no foundation. The Imam asked the government to formally announce that a change had not been made, consequently, in an interview on Radio Iran with one of the army heads on the evening of September 8, 1964 (Shahrivar 17, 1343 SH), it was categorically denied that the oath had been changed. The Shah. In 1852, three followers of Mirza Ali Muhammad of Shiraz (1819- 1850), the founder of the Babi religious eclectic sect in Iran, made another attempt on the life of Nasiruddin Shah. Declaring himself to be the expected 12th Imam (Mahdi) long awaited by the Shia Muslims as the herald of the manifestation of God’s will, Mirza Ali Muhammad, known as the Bab (gateway), commanded the Shah of Iran, his subjects and even the kings and princes of the earth to follow him. During the short ministry of the Bab (1844- 1850), Iran witnessed serious risings by his followers. In 1848, the Babis embarked on a series of revolts; the first in Mazandaran lasted from December 1848 to July 1849. It was followed by a second in Zanjan (May-December 1850) and a third in Neyriz. An attempt was also made on the life of the Friday Prayer leader in Tehran in a bid to seize the central positions of the country. The Babis, who were foiled in all their attempts, met with persecution and prejudice wherever they went in the country. In 1850, the Bab, who had been arrested in 1847, was executed in Tabriz on the orders of Amir Kabir, the Shah’s Prime Minister, and on the religious decree [fatwa] of the country’s religious authorities. One of his devoted disciples, Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri (1817- 1892), known as Baha’ullah, continued the Bab’s teachings and in April 1863, he announced himself to be the new leader foretold by the Bab, henceforth his followers became known as Bahais. The followers of Baha’ullah consider him to be the cofounder with the Bab of their faith and believe him to be a messenger of God, a “divine manifestation”. In 1880, Baha’ullah took up residence near Haifa in present day Israel which is today the location of the administrative centre of the Bahai community; he died there in 1892 following a short illness. The leadership of the Bahai community then passed to his eldest son Abbas Effendi (1844-1921) who adopted the name Abdul-Baha. In Iran, Abdul-Baha co-operated closely with both military and non-military British personnel, and in 1920 he was knighted by the British government. Upon his death, his body was buried on Mount Carmel the site of the shrine containing the remains of the Bab, overlooking the city of Haifa. In his will, Abdul-Baha named as his successor his eldest grandson Shoghi Effendi Rabbani (1899-1957). The third leader of the Bahais worked resolutely for the perpetuation of Baha’ism, overseeing the creation of its administrative and educational institutions and establishing an international organization known as the “Universal House of Justice” which is the seat of its governing body and is also situated in Haifa, Israel. A Bahai community was set up in the United States in 1912, and in 1953, a temple was completed in Wilmette, Illinois. Effendi chose as his successor an American, Charles Mason Rimi, who worked closely with him in his plans for the establishment of a Bahai government. In 1957, Effendi traveled to Britain and died, in mysterious circumstances, only one week after entering London. Charles Mason Rimi, the son of a bishop, took his place calling himself the “Shepherd” of the Bahais. An insurrection which was started in Shiraz ended up as an established religio-politico organization in Israel and the US!

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DANGER OF THE PENETRATION OF THE ZIONIST AND BAHAI INFLUENCE Sir, you should be afraid of these people, they are such animals. Some of them can be found in the ministries. I pointed one of them out to one of the ministers and he told me I was mistaken. Then I sent him documented evidence to prove my claim, but the man, I shall not mention his dirty name, is still there. They are in the ministries and they are in the army. O you respected army personnel, you are Muslim, hit these people in the mouth! A lot of the army leaders are good people and they sometimes contact me, they send messages to me. Most of them are good people, and so they should intervene and stop these people who are against their religion, who are against their throne and crown, their country, their independence, their economy. You have to stop them. Go and ask that they be thrown out of the army, ask your superiors to throw them out. I swear to God I want your well-being. I am worried that one day you will open your eyes and see that they have destroyed your wealth, your being. I’m worried about this. If you will not stop them, then let us destroy them. I shall destroy them one day. I do not want to create disturbances. If you do not want to have trouble you should destroy them yourself; if you do not, you’ll see that one day something else happens in some other way and at that time neither I can neither stop them nor you. This is the situation that we are faced with; you see it and we see it. I don’t know what we should do about it or how we should put it right.

SOUND COUNTRY WITH A SOUND CULTURE The way to ameliorate the country is to correct its culture. The correction must start with the culture. The hands of imperialism are very active in our culture. They do not let our youth grow up to be independent; they do not let our youth at the universities develop correctly. They do something to them from childhood so that when they grow up, Islam means nothing to them and they (the West) mean everything. If the culture is put right, the country is put right. For it’s the culture which creates the ministers for the ministries; it’s the culture which creates the representatives for the Parliament; it’s the culture which creates the office workers. Either create an independent culture or give it to us to create. You are afraid of America; you are afraid of others. Give it to us to correct. Give us control of the culture.

CREATION OF ENDOWMENT MINISTRY Now the gentlemen (i.e., the government) want to create an Endowment Ministry!229 It thinks it can copy the practices of other countries and bring the clergy under the authority of this ministry. You will take this dream to the grave with you, (God willing). Do you think that you can make the Muslim clergy become like the Christian clergy? It’s impossible. The Shia clergy are independent; they do not depend on any country. Let them come forward and tell (the world) whom they depend on. This is an independent clergy. We do not have to worry as to whether these respected religious students, who live with only thirty or forty tumans each month and work very hard, are supporters of another government or country. They are independent in their own ideas. It is amongst these people that human beings are found, that the Mudarrises230 of this world are found. They won’t let this happen. We won’t be brought under this and that minister. To hell with what that minister says. The government is mistaken, it is mistaken once again.

229 A ministry entrusted with government supervision of estates in mortmain. 230 Sayyid Hasan Mudarris (1859- 1938 AD) was one of the greatest religious and political figures in the recent history of Iran. He received his elementary education in Isfahan and then traveled to the cities of the holy shrines (the cities of Iraq where certain of the imams are

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There should be a Ministry of Culture, but a ministry of correct culture, a culture which should be in our hands. Shouldn’t we have a ministry in this country? All the ministers are from America, well, one should be from us. Put the culture in our hands. We’ll appoint somebody as the Minister of Culture and we’ll administer it ourselves. If we do not administer it better than you after ten or fifteen years, sack us. Give it to us to handle for a time. Appoint a Minister of Culture from amongst us and give us some time so we can do the job right. Then you’ll see whether we tell you not to study, not to study well, not to travel to the skies. By God, you are not able to do these things, and because you cannot do them you say it is the clergy who do not let you. You tell me who is stopping you. Build your foundry. Which clergyman told you not to? Whoever he is tell us, so we know him. Start building your airplanes and your cars. Sir, you are not able to do these things. You poor people. You are a hopeless administration. Why? It’s not because you are intrinsically hopeless, it’s because the hands of imperialism have made you like this. You are xenomaniacs (westoxicated). Is that which we say so outdated and time-worn that nobody will buy it anymore?! I promise you that even Germany will buy it. You don’t buy it. Give us a ministry. Give us a few hours on the radio; this radio which is driving our youth toward moral corruption with music and other things. Give us a few hours but leave us free to do it our way. Do not write the program yourself and then tell us to speak in such and such a way. We’ll prepare the program and I promise you that it won’t oppose your kingdom, your ministry or your leadership. It won’t oppose any of them. If only the Ministry of Culture and the radio transmitters were in our hands for a short while. We would introduce the people and the world to Islamic laws and Islam. We would make the culture an independent culture, an Islamic culture, a culture that when one of its Arabs stands in front of the emperor he takes out his sword and pushes aside the fine silk and says: “The Prophet has said that we should not wear silk clothes nor sit on silk.”231 We nurture such men. buried: Najaf, Karbala and Kazimayn, and to a certain extent some others) where he received further education from such scholars as Mulla Muhammad Kazim Khorasani and, after graduation to the level of ijtihad, he returned to Isfahan and began teaching Islamic jurisprudence [fiqh] and principles [usul]. In 1909, at the time of the Second National Assembly, he entered Parliament having been chosen by the maraji’ at-taqlid and the ulama of Najaf as one of the five mujtahids who were to oversee the law-making procedures. At the time of the Third National Assembly, he was chosen as a Member of Parliament. When Reza Khan carried out his coup d’état, Mudarris was arrested and sent into exile, but after being freed he was again chosen by the people and again entered Parliament. In the Fourth National Assembly, he headed the opposition majority against Reza Khan. At the time of the Fifth and Sixth National Assemblies, he opposed the proposal for the establishment of a republic, which Reza Khan was in favor of, to replace the constitutional government, and he dissuaded the Parliament from approving it. He was resolute in his stand against the stubborn Reza Khan, such that the Shah hired an assassin to kill Mudarris and when he escaped the attempt, he sent him first into exile in the remote town of Khaf near the Afghan border, and later in Kashmar, where eleven years later in Ramazan 1938, the agents of the Shah poisoned him. In this way, one of the greatest political and religious personalities of Iran was martyred in the way of Allah. Mudarris possessed outstanding qualities, and even though he was a man of great political and religious influence, he lived very simply. Imam Khomeini always spoke of him with a great deal of respect. The Leader of the Revolution, on the occasion of the renovation of Mudarris’ grave, wrote: “At a time when pens were broken, voices silenced and throats gripped, he never ceased from revealing the truth and abolishing falsehood.... this feeble scholar, weak in body but strong in a spirit joyful from belief, sincerity and truth, and possessing a tongue like the sword of Haydar Karrar (Imam Ali), stood in front of them and shouted out the truth and disclosed the crimes, making life difficult for Reza Khan and blackening his days. Finally, he sacrificed his own pure life in the way of dear Islam and the noble nation, and was martyred in exile at the hands of the oppressive Shah’s executioner and joined his virtuous forefathers.” For further information on the Imam’s views on Mudarris see the Imam’s historic decree dated September 19, 1984 (Shahrivar 18, 1363 SH). 231 In his history book, Tabari describes the meeting of Rabi’ ibn Aamer, one of the three representatives of the Muslim armies, with Rustam, the commander of the Yazdagird army, before the al-Qadisiyyah battle: Rab’i set off to Rustam’s camp and those who were on the bridge stopped him while they sent somebody to Rustam to inform him of Rab’i’s arrival. Rustam discussed his arrival with the Persian leaders and asked what they thought they should do, give a display of wealth and refinement or simply disregard him. All of them were in favor of the latter, so they brought all kinds of ornaments, silk cloth and carpets to adorn the room, omitting nothing. They set a golden chair in place for Rustam and decorated it and laid down carpets and spread cushions woven with gold. Rab’i arrived, riding on his small horse.

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Then you’ll see when one such man is nurtured by our school of thought and by our culture whether or not he will fall under the influence of imperialism. But the imperialists won’t allow us to do this. The malicious hands of imperialism won’t let them give us the Ministry of Culture. Otherwise, it is our right, we should see to the culture. If you want to create an Endowment Ministry,232 then we should organize it, not you. We should appoint people for it, we do not accept your appointees. You are not eligible to appoint people for it, we have to do it. Let us select the head of cultural affairs. Let us select the Endowment Minister, then you’ll see what will happen: everything will be as it should be, it will not be as it is now with all these misappropriations. Then you’ll see how we eliminate this poverty with these very same endowments. Submit to a few Islamic laws, give us permission to take Islamic taxes off the people, just as Islam took it off them by the sword, then you’ll see if there remains one poor person (in this country). We’ll build roads for you; we’ll buy ships for you, just let us handle the religious endowments. But you won’t allow it. I know that this that I say now falls on deaf ears. Nothing will happen. You people will leave here and I will leave too and nothing will happen. They won’t do anything about this matter. This is a pain which we all have to suffer. What should we do?

PROPAGANDA AND THE CLERGY The country’s propaganda mechanisms should be controlled by us. Sir, we are the preachers, we are the ones with a message, not you. We should be given a program on the radio to convey our ideas, to propagate our message. Whatever you propagate is not Islamic propaganda, it is anti-Islamic. You have introduced Islam in such a way that an (Iranian) student in America writes to me saying that the other students over there believe that all misfortunes stem from Islam. O misfortunate students. All our miseries are caused by the heads of Islamic states, the Muslim governments. As God is my witness, Islam has not been put into practice in our country, even for one day. So what can I do now that the government has neither the time

He carried with him a sharp, shiny sword in a sheath made from a piece of material taken from old clothes. His spear was cracked and his shield was made of cow hide which had red leather on it which resembled bread. He carried his bow and arrows with him and when he got near Rustam, where the carpets were spread, they told them to dismount, but he rode his horse on the carpets and then he dismounted and he fastened his horse to two of the cushions, ripping them. They could not stop him so they pretended not to see him. He knew what they were trying to do and wanted to annoy them. He wore a chain-mail which seemed to be made of knitted hair. His kaftan was made from the cloth he used to cover his camel and which he had torn and put on himself. His belt was fastened with bark from a tree and he wore a head band which was part of his camel’s rope. They said to him: “Lay down your sword.” He said: “I did not come here upon your orders, so why should I lay down my sword? You invited me here and now if you do not accept me as I am, then I’ll go back.” They reported this to Rustam and he said: “Let him come to me; he’s alone isn’t he?” Rab’i went forward and as he did so he used his spear, which had a sharp point, as a kind of walking stick, taking small steps and making a hole in all the carpets as he went. There were no carpets or silk cloth which weren’t torn or ruined. When he got close to Rustam the guards forced him to sit on the floor; he pushed his spear into the carpet and when they asked him why he had done this, he said: “I do not wish to sit on your adornments.” Rustam asked him: “Why have you come here?” He answered: “God has created us and he has brought us here to take whomever He wants away from worshipping the servants of God to worshipping Him, from the poverty of this world to the wealth, and from the oppression of the religions to the justice of Islam. He has sent us to the people with his religion so that we can invite them to accept God’s religion; whoever accepts us, we will accept him, and we will return and leave him with his country to rule it, and whoever rejects us we will fight him all the time until we attain God’s promise.” He asked: “What is God’s promise?” Rab’i answered: “Heaven for those who get killed in the war with unbelievers and victory for those who remain.” Refer to Tarikh-e Tabari, vol. 5, pp. 1690- 92. 232 Khorasan newspaper reported on September 1, 1964 (Shahrivar 10, 1344 SH): “There is talk that the Endowment Organization is to be separated completely from the organization of the Ministry of Culture. It has been known for some time now that a new ministry with the name of the Endowment Ministry is to be established.” (The State Security and Intelligence Organization (SAVAK) of the Shah’s regime)

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nor the energy to discuss such things? As soon as it is known that I want to say a few words, suddenly we see that a few thousand people are sent with the National Bus Company to Qum.233 Do you have a quarrel with us, sir? Do you want to force a quarrel between us and the National Bus Company? Take away this knife which you hold at its throat and see how it comes out in support of us. Do you want to administer a country through force? By God, you cannot do it through force. Reform yourself a little. Put your house in order just a little. Now, when we call for reform, the gentlemen say they have already reformed! One of their great reforms was making Friday a public holiday. 234 Take heed of what I say, you are duty bound to let everybody in Iran know that Friday has been made a holiday by force without the poor hungry shopkeeper wanting it. If they do not close on that day, they are fined a penalty of eighty tumans or so, and yet the centers of corruption stay open. The cinemas have to stay open, the theatres also, they say the other centers of corruption have to remain open too- I’ll not mention their names but the newspapers have written about them. These places have to stay open from morning till night, while all kinds of shops, including the bazaar, have to close. Tomorrow the government will apply the law to Qum as well, and will say that Qum requested this also, just as Tehran did. Qum also wanted this misfortune. These people who “requested” this will wake up in the morning and ask “When did we request this?” The government quickly writes about this supposed request, the newspapers also write about it. Some of these newspapers betray the country. These centers of corruption remain open, Friday is made a holiday and they provide all kinds of bacchanalian pursuits for the young people at the threshold of their lives. May God curse the traitors [the audience replies with “Amen”]. Ten years from now there will not be one virtuous youth left for this country; all of them will have been dragged into these centers of corruption.

HOLDING RELIGIOUS GATHERINGS I advise you gentlemen to make the country realize what is happening, make all those living in this country realize what is happening, in order to confront what they are doing with your youth and in order to stop them from taking your youth off you in droves you should hold religious meetings. On those Fridays that they want to entice the people into the centers of corruption, you should hold meetings, in which you propagate religion, invite people to religion, invite them to do good and dissuade them from that which is evil. It is our duty to do this. You have to do this, if you do not, they will take your youth away from you. Organize some centers for these young people so they can receive guidance there, so they can be told about the state of affairs, so they can be told, as much as that organization (SAVAK) allows them to be told, about the corruption which is being established in this country. This holiday on Friday, observation of which is obligatory, is not to give the working class a day of rest,235 it has been made into a holiday for the reasons I gave above. Perhaps, God willing, this is not their aim, but the outcome will still be the same. When the centers of corruption are open and everywhere else is closed, 233 On the day that Imam was due to deliver this speech, a few thousand commandos and soldiers were sent to Qum on buses of the National Bus Company in an attempt to intimidate him. They surrounded the Azam Mosque (where the Imam was to deliver his speech), Fayziyyah Madrasah, Astaneh Square, the courtyard of the holy mausoleum of Hazrat Masumah (sa) and other sensitive centers of the city. 234 It was announced to all shops by the government that according to the law, working on Friday was prohibited. 235 As the Imam pointed out, the merchants were also against the obligatory holiday and this was reflected in some of the regime’s local media. Khorasan newspaper wrote on September 6, 1964/Shahrivar 15, 1343 SH: “As was predicted, the law obliging shops to close on Friday was not implemented as expected; especially last Friday when most of the shops in Tehran were open.”

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then naturally our youth will be enticed there. In these few weeks since they made Friday a holiday, the poor people, who need to go and earn some money for bread on this day and are not allowed to do so, have been made more impoverished, the youth, the fruit of the people, have been blighted. Go and see how the cinema has changed from one month ago. Perhaps there is some kind of collusion between those who propagate these things and the cinemas and centers of corruption. Perhaps they are getting something from these places to do this, otherwise, why wasn’t some healthy form of entertainment first provided for the people? A legitimate, healthy form of entertainment should have been arranged for these poor people before the shop doors were closed, to attract them towards that. But you haven’t done this, you’ve left the corruption centers open and you’ve closed the shop doors. You may not have had any bad intentions, but now I’ve told you what the outcome of your actions will be, and if after these words of mine reach the administrative centers in charge of this matter the situation remains the same, then it will be clear that there is malice involved, that yet another “order” has been given. O God, awaken these people [Shouts of “Amen” (so be it) from the audience]. O God, humble the enemies of Islam [“Amen”]. O God, make the heads of Muslim countries aware of their duties [Amen]. O God, sever the hands of the imperialists [“Amen”]. O God, sever the hands of those who want to appropriate the wealth of this country through imperialism [“Amen”]. May God’s peace, mercy and blessings be upon you.

13th Speech Date: October 26, 1964/Aban 4, 1343 SH/Jamadi al-Thani 20, 1384 AH Place: Imam Khomeini’s home in Qum Subject: Uprising against the approval of the Capitulation Bill and announcement of public mourning Audience: Clerics, seminary students, merchants of the bazaar, university students, and people of Qum and other towns In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful Verily, to Allah we belong and to Him we shall return.

THEY TURNED THE IRANIAN FESTIVAL INTO MOURNING I cannot express the sorrow I feel in my heart. My heart is heavy. Since the day I heard of the latest developments affecting Iran,236 I have barely slept. I am profoundly disturbed. With sorrowful heart, I count the days until death shall come and deliver me [the audience weeps]. Iran no longer has a

236 It refers to the Capitulation Bill approved by the Shah’s Parliament on October 13, 1964/Mehr 21, 1343 SH. Capitulation is the name of all agreements that give the consular judicial rights or the extraterritorial judicial rights of a country within that country to a foreign government. According to this agreement, the citizens of the foreign country have legal immunity from the criminal and civil laws of the host country and the special courts of their sovereign government in the host country hold the right to judge their lawsuits and trials when they stand accused. According to the Capitulation Law and the Vienna Convention, these political and judicial immunities not only cover the American political agents, diplomats, military advisers and personnel, but their families and relatives also.

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festival to celebrate; they have turned our festival into mourning.237 They have turned it into mourning and have lit up the city; they have turned it into mourning and are dancing together with joy. They have sold us, they have sold our independence, and still they light up the city and dance. If I were in their 238 place, I would forbid all these lights; I would tell the people to raise black flags over the bazaars and houses, to hang black awnings. Our honor has been trampled underfoot; the dignity of Iran has been destroyed. The dignity of the Iranian army has been trampled underfoot!

DESCRIPTION OF THE CAPITULATION BILL They have taken a law to the Parliament according to which first of all we are to accede to the Vienna Convention,239 and secondly we have to add a provision that all American military advisers, together with their families, technical and administrative officials, and servants- in short, anyone in any way connected to them- are to enjoy legal immunity with respect to any crime they may commit in Iran! If some American’s servant, some American’s cook, assassinates your marja’ at-taqlid in the middle of the bazaar, or runs over him, the Iranian police do not have the right to apprehend him! Iranian courts do not have the right to judge him! The dossier must be sent to America so that our masters there can decide what is to be done! The previous government240 approved this measure without telling anyone, and now the present government just recently introduced a bill in the Senate and settled the whole matter in a single session without breathing a word to anyone. A few days ago, the bill was taken to the lower house of the Parliament and there were discussions, with a few deputies voicing their opposition, but the bill was passed anyhow. They passed it without any shame, and the government shamelessly defended this scandalous measure. They have reduced the Iranian people to a level lower than that of an American dog. If someone runs over a dog belonging to an American, he will be prosecuted. Even if the Shah himself were to run over a dog belonging to an American, he would be prosecuted. But if an American cook runs over the Shah, or the marja’ of Iran, or the highest official, no one will have the right to object. Why? Because they wanted a loan from America and America demanded this in return! This is apparently the case. A few days after this measure was approved, they requested a 200 million loan from America and America agreed to the request. It was stipulated that the sum of 200 million would be paid to the Iranian government over a period of five years, and that 300 million would be paid back to America over a period of ten years. Do you realize what this means? In return for this loan,

237 The regime made sure that the news of the approval of the disgraceful Capitulation Bill was not divulged. On the day which coincided with the anniversary of the birth of Hazrat Fatimah (sa) and which under normal circumstances would have been an occasion for rejoicing, with the announcement that “our day of festivity has been turned into a day of mourning,” The Imam unveiled the shameful act of the regime. 238 The Shah and the government of Hasan Ali Mansur. 239 After the Second World War, the United Nations set its International Law Commission the task of preparing and codifying a general and international agreement on the political relations between the countries of the world. After years of discussion and study, the draft of this Commission, including one introduction, fifty-three articles and two protocols (on how the agreement was to be implemented) was approved by the General Assembly, at the Vienna Conference, and was designated the Vienna Convention. From March 5, 1965 its stipulations became compulsory in Iran. The shortcomings of the Vienna Convention were corrected in 1967, with the general plan being preserved, and it was proposed by the UN in seventy-nine articles and was approved by the members. Two articles of the seventy-nine, Articles 32 and 37 were those to which Imam Khomeini objected. 240 The government of Amir Asadullah Alam.

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America is to receive 100 million- or 800 million tumans- in interest! But in addition to this, Iran has sold itself to obtain these dollars! The government has sold our independence, reduced us to the level of a colony, and made the Muslim nation of Iran appear lowlier than savages in the eyes of the world! They have done this for the sake of a 200 million dollar loan for which they have to pay back 300 dollars! What are we to do in the face of this disaster? What are our clergymen to do? Where shall they turn to for help? To what country should they present their appeal. Other countries imagine that it is the Iranian nation that has abased itself in this way. They do not know that it is the Iranian government, the Iranian Parliament- this Parliament which has nothing to do with the Iranian people. This is a Parliament elected at bayonet point; what does such a Parliament has to do with the people? The Iranian nation did not elect these deputies. Many of the high-ranking ulama and maraji’ ordered a boycott of the elections, and the people obeyed them and did not vote.241 But then came the power of the bayonet, and these deputies were seated in the Parliament.

THE CONSPIRACY TO CURTAIL THE CLERGY’S INFLUENCE According to a history textbook printed this year and now taught to our schoolchildren, one containing all kinds of lies and inaccurate statements: “It has now become clear that it is to the benefit of the nation for the influence of the religious leaders to be rooted out.” They have come to understand well that: If the religious leaders have influence, they will not permit this nation to be slaves of Britain one day, and America the next. If the religious leaders have influence, they will not permit Israel to take over the Iranian economy; they will not permit Israeli goods to be sold in Iran- in fact, to be sold duty-free! If the religious leaders have influence, they will not permit the government to impose arbitrarily such a heavy loan on the Iranian nation. If the religious leaders have influence, they will not permit such misuse to be made of the public treasury. If the religious leaders have influence, they will not permit any government to do whatever it wants, whatever is against the interests of the nation. If the religious leaders have influence, they will not permit the Parliament to come to such a miserable state as this; they will not permit the Parliament to be formed at bayonet-point, with the ignominious results that we see. If the religious leaders have influence, they will not permit girls and boys to wrestle together, as recently happened in Shiraz.242 If the religious leaders have influence, they will not permit people’s innocent daughters to be under the tutelage of young men at school; they will not permit women to teach at boys’ schools and men to teach at girls’ schools, with the resulting corruption. If the religious leaders have influence, they will strike this government in the mouth; they will strike this Parliament in the mouth and chase these deputies out of both its houses! If the religious leaders have influence, they will not permit a handful of individuals to be imposed on the nation as deputies and determine the destiny of the country. If the religious leaders have influence, they will not 241 The high-ranking ulama and the clergy called for a boycott of the twenty-first round of parliamentary elections in September 1963/Shahrivar 1342 SH and the people, without delay, started a general strike and did not participate in the referendum. For example, of the 300,000 people eligible to vote in Tabriz, the Member of Parliament with the highest vote in this city won only 2,283 votes. 242 The meaning here is the corruption which was created by allowing the establishment of mixed schools. The Shah, in his book Mission for My Country, said that in the fields of teaching and education he wanted to implement the Western method. He wrote: “In my country, the existence of women teachers for educating girls is not obligatory. In most schools and universities the classes are mixed and the lessons are given by both male and female teachers and lecturers without discrimination and sexual preference, the only concern being their expertise. I would also like to test the method which is customary in America (i. e. girls and boys live together without marrying while studying at the university) in establishing mixed universities where young girls and boys are educated together for the job of teaching.”

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permit some agent of America243 to carry out these scandalous deeds; they will throw him out of Iran. So, the influence of the religious leaders is harmful to the nation? No, it is harmful to you, harmful to you traitors, not to the nation! You have realized that as long as the influence of the religious leaders exists you cannot do everything you want to do, commit all the crimes you want, so you wish to destroy their influence. You thought you could cause dissension among the religious leaders with your intrigues, but you will be dead before your dream can come true. You will never be able to do it. The religious leaders are united! Once again I esteem all religious leaders; I kiss the hand of all the religious leaders. If, in the past, I kissed the hands of the maraji’, today I kiss the hands of the religious students. I kiss the hands of the simple grocer [the audience weeps intensely].

WARNING OF DANGER! Gentlemen, I warn you of danger! Iranian army, I warn you of danger! Iranian politicians, I warn you of danger! Iranian merchants, I warn you of danger! ulama of Iran, maraji’ of Islam, I warn you of danger! Scholars, religious students! Centers of religious learning, Najaf, Qum, Mashhad, Tehran, Shiraz! I warn you of danger! It is a dangerous situation. It is clear that there are things kept under cover that we know nothing about. In the Parliament they have said that they have to be kept secret!244 It is evident that they are dreaming up further plans for us. What else can they do that is worse than this? What are they planning? What will this loan inflict on this nation? Should this impoverished nation now pay 100 million in interest to America over the next ten years and at the same time should you sell us for this?

THE COUNTRY UNDER THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION What use to you are the American soldiers and military advisers? If this country is occupied by America, then what is all this noise you make about progress? If these advisers are to be your servants, then why do you treat them like something superior to masters, superior to a Shah? If they are servants, why not treat them as such? If they are your employees, then why not treat them as any other government treats its employees? If our country is now occupied by the US then tell us outright and throw us out of this country! What do they intend to do? What does this government have to say to us? What has this Parliament done to us? This illegal, unlawful Parliament; this Parliament that the maraji’ at-taqlid have declared illegitimate with their edicts and decrees; this Parliament which not one of its representatives has been chosen by the people; this Parliament which makes such empty claims about independence and revolution saying: “We have undergone a White Revolution!” Where is this ‘White Revolution’? They have made these people suffer! God knows that I am aware of what is happening (and my awareness causes me pain), I know what is happening in the remote villages and provincial towns, in this our own impoverished city of Qum [the audience weeps]. I am aware of the hunger of our people and the depressed state of our agrarian economy.

243 The Shah. 244 Nasir Behbudi, in a meeting of the National Assembly on October 13, 1964/Mehr 21, 1343 SH said of the Capitulation Bill: “Please agree to discuss this matter in the uncomplicated and private atmosphere of the commission. Do not let more than this be revealed in the Parliament.” Parliamentary Proceedings, 21st session, meeting 104.

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SILENCE AS A GRAVE SIN Do something for this country, for this nation, instead of piling up debts and enslaving yourself. Of course, taking the dollars means that someone has to become a slave; you want to use the dollars and we have to become the slaves! If an American runs over me with his car, no one will have the right to say anything to him! So you use the dollars; this is the issue. Should I not be saying this? Those gentlemen245 who say we must hold our tongues and not utter a sound- do they still say the same thing on this occasion? Are we to keep silent again and not say a word? They sell us and still we are to keep silent? They sell our Qur’an and still we should hold our tongues? By God, he who does not cry out in protest is a sinner! By God, he who does not express his outrage commits a major sin!

COME TO THE AID OF ISLAM! Leaders of Islam! come to the aid of Islam [the audience weeps]! ulama of Najaf, come to the aid of Islam! ulama of Qum, come to the aid of Islam! Islam is destroyed! O Muslim peoples! Leaders of the Muslim peoples! O presidents and kings of the Muslim peoples! O Shah of Iran! Look at yourselves; look at us. Are we to be trampled underfoot by the boots of the Americans simply because we are a weak nation? Because we have no dollars? America is worse than Britain, Britain is worse than America and the Soviet Union is worse than both of them. Each one is worse than the other; each one is more abominable than the other. But today we are concerned with this malicious entity which is America. Let the American President know that in the eyes of the Iranian nation, he is the most repulsive member of the human race today because of the injustice he has imposed on our Muslim nation. Today, the Qur’an has become his enemy; the Iranian nation has become his enemy. Let the American government know that its name has been ruined and disgraced in Iran.

IMMUNITIES FOR THE AMERICAN ADVISERS You get immunities for the advisers? Those helpless deputies in the Parliament who shouted out “ask our friends (the Americans) not to make such impositions on us,246 not to insist that we sell ourselves, not to turn Iran into a colony, “Did anyone listen to them? There is one article in the Vienna Convention they did not discuss at all- Article 32.247 I don’t know what article that is; in fact, the speaker of the Parliament himself doesn’t know. The deputies also don’t know what that article is; nonetheless, they went ahead and approved and signed the bill. They passed it, even though some people said, “We don’t know what is in

245 Referring to those maraji’ who believed in keeping silent. 246 Mr. Sartipur, in a speech given at a parliamentary meeting on October 13, 1964/Mehr 21, 1343 SH, in which the Capitulation Bill was discussed, said: “He, Mr. Mansur, the Prime Minister, has the opportunity to discuss this and ask our friends to keep us in a favorable position. One of the conditions of our friendship is that our friends should respect our loyalties to that which we regard as sacred.” Parliamentary Proceedings, 21st session, meeting 104. 247 It was pointed out earlier that one of the seventy-nine articles of the Vienna Convention, Article 37, stipulates that the diplomats of each country are granted certain immunities in other countries, and sometimes this implies legal immunity. If a diplomat, who enjoys this immunity, commits a crime in the host country, he is exempt from legal prosecution and punishment and his case will be handed over to the courts in his own sovereign state for them to deal with. However, in the first paragraph of Article 32 of the said convention, permission has been given to the sending state to waiver the immunity from jurisdiction of diplomatic agents and of persons enjoying immunity under Article 37. The omission of Article 32 prepared the grounds for Iran’s unconditional surrender.

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Article 32.” Perhaps those who objected did not sign the bill. They are not quite so bad as the others. Those who did sign are a group of illiterates. One after the other, our statesmen and leading politicians have been set aside. Our patriotic statesmen are given nothing to do. The army should know that it will also be treated the same way: its leaders will be set aside, one by one. What self-respect will remain for the army when an American errand boy or cook has priority over one of our generals? If I were in the army, I would resign. If I were a deputy in the Parliament, I would resign. I would not agree to be disgraced. The influence of the Iranians should be rooted out! American cooks, mechanics, technical and administrative officials, together with their families, should enjoy legal immunity, but Mr. Qazi248 should be imprisoned! Mr. Islami should be taken in shackles from this place to that! These servants of Islam, the ulama and preachers of Islam should be imprisoned. The supporters of Islam should be imprisoned in Bandar Abbas249 because they are religious leaders or the supporters of the religious leaders. These are the ones who gave the history of Iran to the people! The government clearly documents its crimes by putting out a history textbook that says: “It is to the benefit of the nation to root out the influence of the religious leaders.” This means that it is for the benefit of the nation that the Messenger of God should play no role in its affairs. For the religious leaders of themselves have nothing; whatever they have, they have from the Messenger of God. So the government wants the Messenger of God to play no role in our affairs, so that Israel can do whatever it likes and America likewise.

ALL OUR TROUBLES ARE CAUSED BY AMERICA All our troubles today are caused by this America. All our troubles today are caused by this Israel. Israel itself derives from America. These deputies and ministers derive from America. They have all been appointed by America. If they were not, then why don’t they stand up and protest?

A CLERIC VIS-A-VIS THE RUSSIAN ULTIMATUM I am now thoroughly agitated, and my memory is not working so well. I cannot remember precisely when, but in one of the earlier parliaments, where Sayyid Hasan Mudarris was a deputy, the government of Russia gave Iran an ultimatum- I can’t remember its exact content- to the effect that: “Unless you accept our demand, we will advance on Tehran by way of Qazvin and occupy it!” The government of the day put pressure on the Parliament to accept the Russian demand. According to an American historian,250 a religious 248 Qazi Tabatabai was one of the famous ulama and preachers of the province of Azerbaijan and the city of Tabriz, and was the leader of the Islamic movement in that district. This clergyman, along with many others who were arrested and imprisoned both before Imam’s arrest and after it in the bloody uprising of Khordad 15, 1342/June 5, 1963, was in prison at the time of this historic speech. Throughout the course of the Islamic movement and his short life after the victory of the Islamic Revolution, Ayatullah Qazi was in the front line of the Revolution. He was martyred by the Mujahidin-e Khalq (the Munafiqin) on Eid al-Qurban [Feast of Sacrifice], November 1, 1979/Aban 10, 1358 SH. 249 Bandar Abbas: A port on the northern shore of the Persian Gulf to which opponents of the regime were frequently banished because of its remoteness from all urban centers as well as its inhospitable climate. 250 The American historian Morgan Shuster, in his book, The Strangling of Persia, writes: “A venerable priest of Islam arose. Time was slipping away and at noon the question would be beyond their vote to decide. This servant of God spoke briefly and to the point: ‘It may be the will of Allah that our liberty and our sovereignty shall be taken from us by force, but let us not sign them away with our own hands! ‘One gesture of appeal with his trembling hands, and he resumed his seat.

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leader with trembling hands came up to the tribune and said: “Now that we are to be destroyed, why should we sign the warrant for our own destruction?” The Parliament took courage from his act of opposition, rejected the ultimatum, and Russia was unable to do anything! This is the conduct of a true cleric; one feeble, aged cleric in the Parliament, a mere heap of bones, rejected the ultimatum and demand of a powerful state like Russia.251 This is why they realize that they should destroy the influence of the clergy in order to attain their aims and desires!

THE NEED TO INFORM THE PEOPLE What should I say? There is so much to be said, there are so many instances of corruption in this country that I am unable in my state at the moment to present to you even what I know. It is your duty, however, to communicate these matters to your colleagues. It is your duty to inform the people; the ulama must enlighten the people, and they in turn must raise their voices in protest to the Parliament and the government and ask, “Why did you do this? Why have you sold us? Are we your slaves that you sell us? We did not elect you to be our representatives, and even had we done so, you would forfeit your posts now on account of this act of treachery.”

THIS IS HIGH TREASON! DISMISSAL OF THE MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT O God, they have committed treason against this country. O God, this government has committed treason against this country, against Islam, against the Qur’an. All the members of both houses who gave their agreement to this affair are traitors. Those old men in the Senate are traitors, and all those in the lower house who voted in favor of this affair are traitors. They are not our representatives. The whole world must know that they are not the representatives of Iran! Or, suppose they are, now I dismiss them. They are dismissed from their posts.

ILLEGALITY OF THE PARLIAMENTARY BILLS All the bills they have passed up until now are invalid! From the very beginning of the constitutional period in Iran according to the text of the law, according to Article 2 of the Supplementary Constitutional Law, no law is valid unless the mujtahids (Islamic jurisprudents) exercise a supervisory role in the Parliament. Which mujtahid is supervising the Parliament now? They have to destroy the influence of the clergymen! If there were five clerics in this Parliament, if there were only one clergyman in this Parliament, he would punch them in the mouth! He would not allow this bill to be enacted. ‘Simple words, these, yet winged ones. Easy to utter in academic discussions; hard, bitterly hard, to say under the eye of a cruel and overpowering tyrant whose emissaries watched the speaker from the galleries and mentally marked him down for future imprisonment, torture, exile or worse ‘And when the roll call was ended every man, priest or layman, youth or octogenarian, had cast his own die of fate, had staked the safety of himself and family, and hurled back into the teeth of the great Bear from the North the unanimous answer of a desperate and downtrodden people who preferred a future of unknown terror to the voluntary sacrifice of their national dignity and of their recently earned right to work out their own salvation.” The Strangling of Persia, p. l82. 251 On November 29, 1911, the Russian empire, which exerted great influence in Iran, sent troops into Iranian territory and delivered an ultimatum to the Iranian government which was supported by Britain. The ultimatum called for the dismissal of the American advisory group led by Morgan Shuster; a guarantee that no foreign adviser would be hired in future without the consent of Russia and Britain; and payment of an indemnity to the Russian troops in Iran. The ultimatum was discussed in a meeting of the Second National Assembly on December 1, 1911 and was met with strong opposition from Ayatullah Mudarris and other members of Parliament.

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As for those deputies who apparently opposed this affair, I have this to say to them: “Why did you not do something? Why did you not stand up and seize that despicable man252 by the collar?” Is this how you show your opposition; you simply sit there and say: “We are not in agreement,” and then continue your flattery as usual. Is this opposition?253 You must create an uproar, right there in the Parliament. You must not allow them to pass this bill when you are opposed to it. Is it enough to say simply I am opposed? Well, we see that when you do they pass it anyway! You must not permit there to be such a Parliament. Kick these people out of the Parliament. We do not recognize this bill they have passed- as they claimed- as a law. We do not recognize this Parliament as a true Parliament. We do not recognize this government as a true government. They are traitors, traitors to the people of Iran! O God, remedy the affairs of the Muslims [the audience replies with” Amen”]. O God, bestow majesty on this sacred religion of Islam! [“Amen”] O God, destroy those individuals who are traitors to this land, who are traitors to Islam and to the Qur’an. [“Amen”]

252 Mansur. 253 Details of the parliamentary proceedings of October 13, 1964/Mehr 21, 1343 SH, which resulted in the Capitulation Bill being approved show how the Pahlavi regime had for years allowed the Americans to exploit the Constitution, the sanctities and the Islamic and national affairs of the country in order to satisfy their avaricious desires. The manner in which the Capitulation Bill was presented to the Parliament went against normal legal procedures and the charter of the Parliament. The contents of the bill grossly contradicted the numerous articles of the (former) constitutional law. This bill was nothing other than a bill of sale of the judicial and hence the political independence of the country. Apart from those who approved the bill in the parliamentary discussions, who with closed lips or shouts of ‘bravo’ voted in favor of the bill, the method of opposition of a few representatives- even then this opposition was not to the bill itself rather to how it was presented to the Parliament- was the cause of great surprise and regret and served as another example of the injustice suffered by the Iranian nation throughout the fifty years of Pahlavi rule. On this day, October 13, 1964/Mehr 21, 1343 SH. Mr. Sartipur, as an opponent of the bill, said that the aforesaid bill conflicted with three articles of the Constitution. At the end of his speech he said: “I would like Mr. Mansur, who really wishes to adhere to the law and respect the Constitution, to find the opportunity to discuss this matter with our friends (meaning the American government) and ask them to keep us in a favourable position.” Mr. Sadiq Ahmadi, another opponent of the bill, after some initial adulatory remarks said: “I still cannot say whether I am for or against because my investigations are incomplete.” The third opponent, Mr. Fakhr Tabatabai, said: “The respectful advisers who have been given technical jobs are necessary for our country, we want to make use of these advisers and we employ these respectful advisers, they are our employees. I want to see whether it is wise to give them such immunities; this most certainly does not have an international aspect Mr. Mansur’s government does not think of anything but the good of the country and whatever service the government gives or whatever positive steps it takes, I approve of.” Mr. Nasir Behbudi said: “My request is this that you agree to discuss this bill in the uncomplicated and private atmosphere of the commission. Do not let more than this be revealed in the Parliament.” The most comprehensive speech in opposition to the bill was from Mr. Zahtabfard. Announcing that he was at one with Mr. Mansur and was not ready to oppose the matter, he presented some of the facts, intertwining them with flattering remarks and allusions. He said: “Mr. Mansur, everyone has the right to ask yesterday’s Dr. Musaddiq and today’s Mr. Mansur what is the reason for granting such privileges to the American technical advisers. I am speaking logically, and I am not afraid of anybody because I rely only on God, the king, the nation and the Constitution.” Mr. Zahtabfard ended his speech with this conclusion: “We must give this assurance to the public, who are our family, that if, God forbid, the Parliament takes steps towards approving this bill, it also acts for the benefit of this great nation of Iran.” See Parliamentary Proceedings, 21st session, meeting 104, pp. 16- 64.

SECTION 2

Imam’s Speeches in Najaf, Iraq Imam Khomeini (ra) was exiled to Najaf, Iraq on 5th September 1965. He stayed there until Saddam Hussein deported him on 6th October, 1978. These speeches started in October 1965 in Shaykh Ansari Mosque in Najaf, near the Holy Shrine of Imam Ali (as). Total 13 speeches were recorded during this long period. Imam Khomeini also led congregational prayers in this mosque for about 13 years.

14th Speech Date: Circa October 1965 - September 1967/Circa Aban 1344 - Shahrivar 1346 SH Place: Shaykh Ansari Mosque, Najaf, Iraq Subject: Self-purification and preservation of unity Addressees: The ulama, scholars and students of Najaf Religious Seminary I seek refuge in God from the accursed Satan In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

BASELESS DIFFERENCES AS CONSPIRACY OF THE ENEMY I had intended today to proceed with my scheduled seminar, however yesterday two of the gentlemen came to me and told me things which caused me distress and so I deemed it necessary to take the opportunity to remind you of a few matters. It has even been said, privately, that if the situation is not controlled, it could cause severe disagreements and in some cases even fighting. I don’t know what these disagreements are about.1 Are they about worldly things? If so, you have nothing in this world. What do we have in this world to disagree over? If they put all our possessions together, they would not be enough to provide a comfortable life. Was it necessary for the gentlemen to rise up and form factions over such a meaningless and insignificant matter and for it to be feared that three of these factions may start fighting each other over some matters? Is it not possible that there are other hands involved here- hands which seek to bring shame on the theological schools, to bring more shame than this? Do you not think that this is what your enemies are after and they are involved in this in a way that you cannot see? Your enemies work furtively, they are clever, cunning and deceitful. There is a hand behind all this, an impure hand which seeks first to besmirch you and then destroy you so the people will thank them for destroying the akhunds. Is it not possible that they penetrate your groups by pretending to be religious, holy and pious or that they deceive some of you and place some of these gullible people among you to spread ideas which lead to vitiation and aggravate the already demoralized state of the theological schools?

CONSPIRACY TO CREATE CHAOS IN THE RELIGIOUS SEMINARIES How many do we in fact number? Those of us presently at the Najaf center and the Shia theological schools of other cities and countries, how many are we? Does our number reach twenty thousand? Let us suppose there are two hundred thousand of us, including the village akhunds and others, if these two hundred thousand people had a consensus of opinion and followed that which Islam has demanded, then they could achieve much. But when among these two hundred thousand people- even if we say they don’t have two hundred thousand differing opinions- each person, each front, as you say, has an independent view and according to that the opinions of other fronts are attacked, we can achieve little. Is this how our community is to act? Are we to humiliate one another in this way, our old men humiliating old men, our young men humiliating young men, our young men humiliating the old men and our old men humiliating the young 1

For further information on the circumstances surrounding this speech, refer to Barrasi va Tahlili az Nahzat-e Imam Khomeini (Study and Analysis of Imam Khomeini’s Movement), the section “Imam Khomeini in exile in Iraq,” vol. 2, pp. 117- 148 and “The beginning of a mission in Najaf,” vol. 2, pp. 151- 227.

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men, while one group looks for an excuse to add to the already sullied state of the theological center and excite discord in the name of this and that front!? The outcome of this discord will be to the benefit of those who view the schools as being detrimental to their interests and who seek their annihilation. They will acquire a favorable outcome from this, and the nation will not express distress at your plight, the people will say this was the situation in the schools and it has not changed; this is still the situation that you see now.

BOGUS FACTIONALISM It saddens me when a young man2 comes here from Europe and stays with us for only a short time, only six to eight days, and comments on the situation here. He didn’t say anything to me personally, although he visited me once or twice during his stay, but he told one of the gentlemen here that: “It’s fortunate that it was I, the son of an akhund, who came to Najaf; if somebody else had have come and seen the situation here what would he have made of it?” I do not know what, in these few days, a person who is studying abroad and who is not of our occupation, even though his father is, has seen in this blessed school to make him comment so! Who was he in contact with and what have they told this student of modern sciences to dishearten him so about the situation in Najaf? If there are some hands involved here and these hands force you to say “I am from this faction, he is from that faction and so-and-so is from the other faction,” and God forbid this becomes so and factions are created even in one school, and one day a dispute erupts in one school which affects all the other schools and the impure hands fan the flames of this dispute, then this will besmirch us in the eyes of the world, it will bring disrepute not only on me and you, but on a one-thousandyear-old theological center3 and the pious religious scholars who, praise be to God, are many in society. In addition to this, how will we answer to God for allowing this to happen?

THE DEFECT OF KNOWLEDGE WITHOUT PRACTICE Our traditions tell us that the dwellers of Hell are vexed by the stench which emanates from an ‘alim who does not act according to his knowledge. Why do you think this is so? It is because there is a difference 2 3

It refers Mr. Sadiq Tabatabai, the son of Ayatullah Sultani, who at that time was studying in Germany. The establishment of the theological center at Najaf should, in truth, be attributed to Shaykh Tusi (1201- 1274 AD). In 1258, the Mongol invader Hulaku (Hulagu), grandson of Genghis Khan, invaded Baghdad giving the city over to plunder and flames. With the help of the opponents of the Shia, he wreaked destruction on the centers of Shia learning and religion in the city and burnt down the great library of Baghdad which housed thousands of volumes of precious and unique books. In the wake of the devastation, Shaykh Tusi found conditions unpropitious for the continuation of his social and scientific endeavors in Baghdad and thus moved to Najaf. Gradually, a large group of students joined him there and the foundations of the great theological center of Najaf were laid. Shaykh Tusi was an erudite, innovative religious scholar whose legacy includes many scientific works. He is one of the most outstanding and influential scientific figures of Shia history, such that even today the Shia religious schools are influenced by his work. He is known as the “Shaykh of the people”. After his death, his son Shaykh Abi Ali Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan, who later became a famous authority on the science of the traditions, acquired the leadership of the school. Abi Ali was known as “Mufid al-Thani” because of his asceticism and immense knowledge. After Shaykh Abi Ali and his son, the theological center entered a more lustrous phase of its history through the presence of leading scholars of Islamic jurisprudence [fiqh], principles of jurisprudence [usul or usul al-fiqh], etc. Then for a while the center fell from the limelight, and this remained the situation until the migration of the students of the late Ayatullah Wahid Behbahani to Najaf, and consequently the beginning of the center’s period of scientific movement with the appearance of such distinguished scholars as Sayyid Bahr al-Ulum, Muhaqqiq-e Damad, Kashif al-Ghita, Muhammad Hasan Najafi (the writer of Jawahir al-Kalam) and Shaykh Murtaza Ansari. In a short period of time, the theological center became renowned as one of the highest possible caliber.

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between someone who is an ‘alim and someone who is not. There is a difference in some aspects. If, God forbid, an ‘alim deviates from the right path, he could lead an ummah astray. I have seen this for myself in some of the provincial towns which I used to visit in the summer time. In some of these towns, for example Mahallat4, I saw that the people were well-instructed in their duties; the community was well-trained in its religious duties. If one looked a little closer, one saw that these towns had a righteous ‘alim to instruct them. If there were just a few righteous, devout clergymen in a society, in a town, a few clergymen who were attentive to their religion, who were aware of what their knowledge meant and acted accordingly, then there wouldn’t be any need to preach at all, the very existence of such men would be like a sermon. We have seen people whose mere existence has had a beneficial effect on others. There were clergymen in Qum whose mere existence served as a lesson to others. Tehran, on the other hand, as far as I know, is quite different. The situation there differs according to the different areas of the city. In one area you see that a corrupt person wears a turban or has become the congregational prayer leader and he has led a group of people astray! And how strong is the stench that emanates from him! It’s a stench which affects us even here, a stench that we produce in this world, not that which someone else adds to that we already have. This is a stench of our own making. Whatever happens in the Hereafter is what we have prepared here and what we take with us to the Hereafter. We shall not be called to account for anything other than our deeds; these are our own deeds.

CORRUPTION OF THE SCHOLAR (‘ALIM) MEANS CORRUPTION OF THE WORLD (‘ALAM) When an ‘alim is corrupt and puts a theological center in danger, this stench which emanates from him pervades not only a theological center but an ummah too. It is this stench that now our sense of smell cannot properly perceive. If we go to Hell, God forbid, there we will perceive this stench. And it is this stench which will vex the people of Hell. In the same tradition it is related that the most distressed people on the Day of Judgment are those who spoke of justice and good conduct but acted to the contrary.5 These people invite others to do good, and those who heed their call and act accordingly; they are the ones who will go to Heaven. But the person who makes the call, the ‘alim who does not act according to his knowledge, he will go to Hell! So one may see, for example, that the grocer who listened to my guidance, my instructions and interdictions enters ‘eternal happiness,6 and it is I who, because I did not act according to my own knowledge, enters Hell. How distressing this is!

THE ETIQUETTES AND DUTIES OF THE PEOPLE OF KNOWLEDGE The responsibilities of an ‘alim are truly great. Just as the scholar is spoken very highly of in the traditions (Hadiths), so too is he spoken highly of in the Qur’an. Concerning the duties (of the ‘alim) which have

4 5 6

Mahallat: a town southwest of Qum. It is a saying of Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (as); al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 229. “Eternal happiness” is a reference to Qur’an, Surah al-Tawbah 9: 21. “Their Lord gives them the good news of His mercy and [His] pleasure, and for them there will be gardens with lasting bliss.”

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appeared in our holy traditions refer to the appropriate sections of the books al-Kafi7 and Wasa’il8. Refer especially to Usul al-Kafi concerning these matters, the duties of clergymen, the duties of an ‘alim, those rules pertaining to the instructors and the instructed. God knows that all these terms9 tie us down. However much we delve into the terminology of the religion it will be to the detriment of the Muslims in this world and the next if we don’t practice self-purification. Words alone have no effect. If the science of Tawhid10 is accompanied by a sinful soul, then this very science of Tawhid will be harmful to the human being! There were some people who were erudite in the science of Tawhid, and yet they misled people, causing some to stray from the right path. There were some people who knew more (about your subject) than you do, but because they themselves had deviated from the right path when they entered a society they caused that society to digress also.

DEVIATION OF THE ‘ALIM IS A BLEMISH TO ISLAM AND THE RELIGIOUS SEMINARIES One should be careful about these things. The point is that the position of the ‘alim is such that he has to be careful about these things. If a grocer does something wrong, the people say that such and such a grocer is a bad person. The same applies to an herbalist, an office worker, whoever. But the position of the clergyman among the people is such that if an akhund does something wrong the people say the akhunds are like this, they don’t say that one particular akhund is bad. They make no distinction between the akhunds. But the akhunds are humans too; there are good and, God forbid, bad among them also, however the people don’t make any distinction between them. If I do something wrong they say the akhunds are like this, and this is a blow to Islam, the theological schools and the Islamic laws. If we destroy our standing in society, if the centers of learning begin fighting one another and cause one another to be eliminated from the minds of the people, if we curse each other, accuse each other of being unrighteous, call each other unbelievers and 7

Al-Kafi: one of the most important collections of Shi’i Hadith compiled by Shaykh Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Yaqub ibn Ishaq al-Kulayni (864 - 941 AD). Al-Kafi includes 16,199 traditions that can be traced back to the Prophet and his family by an unbroken chain of transmission. The traditions in this book cover ideological, ethical and jurisprudential matters to name but a few. Kulayni lived relatively close in time to the period of the Prophet and the twelve Imams, this, along with the method of gathering, classifying and specifying the chain of transmission, has given al-Kafi a special importance among the collections of traditions and puts it alongside three other books as the most important collections of Shi’i traditions collectively famous as the Kutub al-Arba’ah [The Four Books]. It is not claimed, however, that all the traditions contained therein are authentic [sahih]. Al-Kafi is divided into three sections: Usul al-Kafi; Furu al-Kafi and Rawzah al-Kafi. Usul al-Kafi covers ideological and ethical matters and consists of the books of: Reason and Ignorance; the Excellence of Knowledge; Divine Unity; Divine Proof; Belief; Unbelief; Qur’an and supplementary Prayer. Furu’ al-Kafi, on the other hand, consists of books and sections on jurisprudence and is one of the authoritative reference books for deduction and independent reasoning [ijtihad] from Islamic law for the Shi’i jurisprudents. Rawzah al-Kafi comprises different traditions on numerous matters. The grand book al-Kafi has for centuries been used by the Shi’i ulama and jurisprudents as a reference book. Muslim scholars have written extensive expositions on al-Kafi, among them Mulla Sadra Shirazi and Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi.

8

The book Wasa’il al-Shia compiled by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Hurr al-Amili (1624-1693 AD) is one of the best collections of traditions [hadiths] ever compiled in recent centuries. Wasa’il is of immense importance to the Shia ulama and numerous expositions have been written on it so far. Wasa’il includes traditions from the Prophet of Islam and the Imams which are quoted in the Four Books and in many other Hadith collections. The classification and sectioning of the traditions of this book are especially noteworthy. Wasa’il al-Shia comprises more than fifty-one books from Kitab at-Taharah to Kitab ad-Diyat and provides a comprehensive review of matters concerning jurisprudence, laws, ethics and practices of the Ja’fari school of thought. It refers to the preoccupation of the ulama in the theological schools with the study of the terminology and sciences covering the fields of jurisprudence [fiqh], principles of jurisprudence [usul], philosophy, the Qur’an and others. The science of Tawhid is that discipline of theology which seeks to establish the doctrine of divine unity and related doctrines by means of rational argument.

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create a great hullabaloo, if we disparage one another and destroy one another, then Islam will no longer be strengthened in society through our teachings, we can no longer disseminate Islam. Islam is a trust in our hands. God, the Blessed and Exalted, has entrusted His religion to us, to all of us here and others in other places. Do not betray this trust. This factionalism is tantamount to treason. Are you of two different religions? Does your religion have different denominations? Does each of your teachers invite you to join one of the denominations? What does all this front-making mean? This one supporting that teacher, that one supporting another teacher! This is wrong. This is unbelief. This is a great sin, of the mortal kind if this corruption results from it. Don’t act in this way.

RELIGION MEANS NO QUARREL! These are very petty disagreements over very insignificant and meaningless matters! If we look at them from a materialistic point of view, then you have nothing to disagree over. How much stipend do you get? The money is only enough for your cigarettes. I once read in a newspaper or a magazine, I can’t remember where, that the budget the Pope has for a priest in Washington- I can remember I worked it out- came to more than the entire budget received by the Shia theological centers! You have nothing to fight over. If you are fighting over religion, then religion gives you no cause to fight. Praise be to God, you have religion, but religion is no cause for argument. The underlying reason of all these disagreements goes back to this world. One deceives oneself by thinking: “Religious duty demands that I join such and such a faction!” Does religious duty demand that you abuse Muslims, affront your teachers, and insult another human being like yourself? Do these constitute your religious duty? Gentlemen, these are things of this world! These come from satisfying one’s carnal desires.11

IMPURE HANDS ARE BENT ON SILENCING THE RELIGIOUS SEMINARIES If, while studying, one takes a step towards self-purification... these theological centers are found wanting in this area. Very little attention is paid to self-purification; this matter is hardly discussed in the centers. Those people who hold classes dealing with self-purification, moral edification and spiritual counsel are very few. Some impure hands have caused these matters to be omitted from the schools’ curriculum, they have sullied the schools. Oh gentlemen, why do you say, in a derogatory tone, that so-and-so is a ‘devotee of the pulpit’?!12 Well, what of it; let him be a devotee of the pulpit, Hazrat Amir (Imam Ali) was a devotee of the pulpit also. This has all come about so the theological schools will be deprived of their spirituality. In material terms, the schools have nothing, they have (only) their standing in society, their reputation, and it is this that the governments are afraid of. The governments are not afraid of you or I; you and I have no power. If governments are afraid of an akhund or a marja’, it’s not because of his prayers or curses; since when have they believed in prayers or curses? They are afraid of the people. They are afraid of what the people will do if they offend a marja’. If we start fighting each other, if I accuse him of being an infidel and

11

Carnal desires: desires that degrade man down to the level of beasts if submitted to.

12

It refers to the usage at the Najaf theological center of the derogatory term, “ahl-e minbar” (translated as “devotee of the pulpit”) which was used to describe those not seen as being learned in jurisprudence [fiqh] and principles of jurisprudence [usul] but who preferred to preach and teach moral edification. At the center, the exposition of the Qur’an and Nahj al-Balaghah was not even considered as being a science but was described as “a matter of secondary importance”. Science was confined to the fields of jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence.

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he accuses me of the same, we will destroy one another, we will lose our reputation among the people, as has already happened. Our standing in society has diminished; now all we hear from the people is that the problem is that the akhunds are like this and the akhunds are like that.

CONDITION OF THE NAJAF SEMINARY (Take) Najaf in particular. There are things peculiar to Najaf that are not found anywhere else. The theological center at Najaf is one thousand years old, while the centers in other places are relatively new. The Najaf center is situated in the vicinity of Imam Ali’s shrine, the others are not. So we should study this great man’s life a little. We claim to be Shia. What kind of Shia are we? Imam Ali was ascetic; I’m not, am I still a Shia? He was pious, we’re not, are we still Shia? His life was such, ours isn’t, are we still Shia? You are a Shia but you should have followed his example in some things, you should have adhered to some of his teachings to call yourself a Shia.

HASTE IN REPENTANCE I’m afraid that when our time comes to die we will leave this world, God forbid, having departed from the Shia school of thought and Islam. If we continue to act in this way, continue to live our lives in this manner, then we should fear that, God forbid, at the end of our lives when there is a tradition which says that when the last breath of an alim reaches here, and the Imam pointed to his throat, he can no longer repent13! Because in the Holy Qur’an it is written that those who act through ignorance can repent. As long as he has time, the alim can repent; but have you been given an assurance that you have time? You may not even leave this gathering alive! You may be struck down by lightening. Have you been given a guarantee that you will be alive tomorrow? Perhaps you won’t be. Have we been given a guarantee that we will be alive in ten years’ time? We may not be. The young should begin to think about self-purification now. I have reached old age and I know how difficult it is to do this when one is old. That isn’t to say that now I am speaking to you as a perfect human being, to attain this state, as the late Mr. Haj Shaykh14 used to say, is impossible. As I said before, I am a little older than you and as you come here to listen to me so I will tell you that while you are still young you can accomplish something. The roots of corruption are weak in the hearts of the young, but as man’s age advances according to a certain tradition: “The heart of the human being is at first white (pure and unsullied). Then, whenever he commits a sin, a black spot appears on it and the more he sins, the more the black spots increase.”15 The heart of the young is subtle and pure, but then when a youth enters the community, when he becomes involved in the community, gradually, God forbid, his heart becomes sullied, he starts to sin, he commits sins continuously until neither a 13

14 15

In one of the traditions it is related: I heard from Imam al-Sadiq (as) that: When the last breath reaches here- and he pointed at his throatthe alim can no longer repent. Then he read this verse from the Qur’an: “ God will accept repentance from those who did wrong through ignorance.” The late Mulla Muhsin Fayz al-Kashani (1598 -1680 AD), an outstanding authority on Shi’i Hadith, said on this tradition: “When the last breath reaches the throat, repentance by an alim who recognizes the signs of death and who loses hope of staying alive will not be accepted, but he who is ignorant of these signs and still hopes to live, his repentance will be accepted.” Al-Wafi, vol. 1, p. 21. The late Haj Shaykh Abdul-Karim Hairi, the teacher of Imam and the founder of the Qum theological center said: “It is very difficult to become a mullah, but to become a perfect human being is impossible!” A tradition from Imam al-Baqir (as) relates: “Each man’s heart is white. Whenever he commits a sin, a black spot appears on it, if he repents that black spot disappears, but if he continues to sin, the black spots increase until the whole of his heart is blackened, and when that happened he can no longer turn to good. And these are the words of God, the Glorious and Dignified, which state: “By no means! But on their hearts is the stain of the ill which they do!” (Surah al-Mutaffifin [Dealing in Fraud] 83: 14). Refer to Bihar al-Anwar compiled by Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, vol. 73, p. 332.

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day nor a night passes without his sinning against God. Well, this black spot appears on his heart, not on this (physical) heart, on that heart which is spiritual and purified, and gradually the more he sins, the more the black spots increase until when he reaches old age the whole of his heart is blackened. When this happens, it is difficult for man to restore his heart to its original state. But you young men can do this. You have the ability, the ability which accompanies youth. On the one hand, you have this ability, and on the other the corrupt impulses within your hearts are weak. However, the older one becomes and with each step that one takes towards the Hereafter, the obstacles to man’s happiness in the Hereafter increase and his strength to resist them decreases. One cannot repent when one reaches old age.

THE TRUE MEANING OF REPENTANCE Repentance is not accomplished simply by saying: “I turn to God in repentance!” It requires regret and such regret is impossible for persons who have engaged in backbiting and slander for fifty years, whose beards have grown grey in the commission of slander and backbiting! Such people cannot repent. They will be caught up in sin to the end of their lives. Sometimes the youth become involved in backbiting- they should not, they should not even allow someone else to backbite. It is related in a tradition that a member of the Prophet’s household said that if someone attends a gathering where backbiting takes place, that person should get up and leave that gathering. One of the people listening to this said that such an action could not be done, the reply given was: “If they were abusing your father wouldn’t you get up and stop them? You would!” There is another tradition which says that one should not allow backbiting to take place, that he who listens to backbiting is one of the backbiters.16 So we don’t need to backbite to be one of the backbiters, it is sufficient for us just to listen to the backbiters. Do not let this corruption come about; advise each other against doing such things.

TRUSTWORTHY AND TEMPORARY FAITH How many of you young people have spent your lives doing this? It has no great benefit for you. You are wasting your youth. If you give this youth to the cause of God, spend it in the way of God, then it will not be wasted, you will not lose anything. If, God forbid, you spend your youth like those attached to this world, you will have squandered your youth and you will have nothing of this world either. At least they will have enjoyed this world and its goods. The same cannot be said of you. You will be in a state of loss both in this world and the Hereafter.17 We are in a state of loss if the love of this world and the love of the self-gain dominance over us and prevent us from perceiving truths and realities and hinder us from the path of guidance. Gradually this love of the world and self-love will begin to increase in us to the point where Satan asks for our faith. It is said that all the efforts of Satan are devoted to this one goal: to snatch away men’s faith. He may succeed in taking it from us at the very end of our lives. No one has been given a guarantee that he will retain his faith permanently. Our faith may only have been given to us on trust.

16

17

The Holy Prophet (s) said: “The hearer of backbiting is one of the backbiters.” For further information, refer to Al-Mahajjat al-Bayza’, vol. 5, p. 260 and Imam Khomeini’s Sharh-e Chehel Hadith [Forty Hadith: An Exposition], p. 270. For full text visit: https://www.al-islam.org/fortyhadith-exposition-second-revised-edition-sayyid-ruhullah-musawi-khomeini “In a state of loss in this world and the Hereafter,” is from Qur’an, Surah al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage) 22:11: “And among the people are

those who worship Allah on the [very] fringe: if good fortune befalls him, he is content with it; but if an ordeal visits him he makes a turnabout, to become a loser in the world and the Hereafter. That is manifest loss.”

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THE STENCH OF A CORRUPT ALIM IN THE HELL I should strive to purify myself just as you should strive to purify yourselves. You should purify your friends also. Your sins are not like the sins of others. It is related in a tradition that when an alim transgresses, it is not merely a case of him committing a sin, rather he corrupts a whole society because of his transgression. “The worst person is the corrupt alim.”18 It is a well-known fact that the extent of an alim’s corruption reaches as far as his influence. Today, in Tehran or in other places, you find corrupt alims whose stench has pervaded that place. This is the stench which will reach the dwellers of Hell and vex them.

HOLY QUR’AN AS A TRUST TO US Gentlemen, do we not have a duty to perform? This Holy Qur’an has been given to us as a trust. Is it not, therefore, our duty to preserve it? Is it not our duty to preserve the laws of Islam? Is it merely our duty to discuss matters of jurisprudential principles (usul) till the end of our lives and then in fifty years when many of these matters are settled we still find ourselves wanting in morals and religious behavior? You should take this matter into consideration from the very beginning. You are young and you can do it. From the beginning, for each step that you take in your quest for knowledge, take one in search of piety, selfpurification and lessening one’s carnal desires.

MAJOR SINS: DIFFERENCE OF THE ULAMA What are you quarrelling over? What is the matter with you? What animosity do you have towards each other? You are all from one community. You are all scholars and you are all, God willing, good people as well. Why then is it that they say if something is not said, if a word of warning is not given then an explosion could possibly occur, that the students may start fighting each other. Why? What are you fighting over? Do you think that your fight is between two heroes? Your fight before God is the greatest of all sins because you corrupt a society; you destroy Najaf in the people’s eyes. If Najaf is destroyed the religion of Islam will be destroyed. During your time at the center you must purify yourselves so that when you leave here for another town or city, the people there will benefit from your knowledge, your morals and your deeds; they must learn from you. Do not suppose that you can make everything alright for yourselves by being hypocritical for the rest of your lives. Do not think that now while you are here you can do whatever you want, but when you leave you can through hypocrisy deceive the people into thinking that you are a good clergyman. You cannot do this. The corruption will be discovered eventually. Even if we suppose that you can, how long do you expect to live your life of hypocrisy, deceit and slandering people? A hundred and twenty years? We do not have a person who is one hundred and twenty years old among us, and one is rarely found anywhere else either. But let us suppose that you could live your life for one hundred and twenty years deceiving people, and that your life is what- a student’s life; an ordinary kind of life? Let’s

18

Imam Ali (as) said: “The lapse of an ‘alim corrupts worlds.” Ghurar al-Hikam, compiled by Amidi, Section “Zallah”. It was asked of the Prophet (s) who the worst people in the world were, and he replied “The ulama (scholars) when they become corrupt.” Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 74, p. 138.

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suppose you live a life like that of Harun ar-Rashid19 for one hundred and twenty years. What is one hundred and twenty years when compared to infinity; when after that time you will be punished for an eternity? God, the Blessed and Exalted, has mercy upon his servants. He has given them intelligence, He has given them the ability to purify themselves, and He has not stopped there. He has sent prophets, books, awliya’,20 and purified people. If these have no effect he brings about pressures for them in the world. These are acts of mercy by God, the Exalted, which limit men’s actions, which restrain him. The clergy have their turbans removed, they are humiliated in a thousand ways, these are all acts of mercy by God and yet we do not see this. If these pressures do not make man a human being, then He creates pressures through illness. If again these illnesses do not make him a human being he is put under a lot of pressure at the time of his death. Again if that does not work, then he is pressured to purge himself in those stations that he must pass through (‘aqabat)21 after death, and if this does not prove to be successful then he is put under a lot of pressure to purify himself on the Day of Judgment. However, if none of these prove to be successful then the final remedy is the fire22, and God forbid that this should happen, for, as it is related in a tradition “they will dwell therein for ages”23. This fate of which I speak awaits many of us, even those who accept guidance and guard their religion. It awaits you and me. Each period of time there24 lasts for many thousands of years. Gentlemen, in this world you cannot bear to hold a warm stone in your hand, in the Hereafter it is fire that awaits you. Be afraid of that fire! Throw these fires out of the schools; throw these differences out of your hearts. Purify yourselves. You intend to enter a society, to purify the people, but you cannot do this (if you remain in your present state). How can he who is not able to set right his own affairs do this for anybody else!? This factionalism is wrong, it is sinful. These actions will destroy the schools. Stop this hooliganism.

THE DANGER OF THE ENEMY’S INFLUENCE IN THE SEMINARY I am very much afraid that some people are attending these gatherings who do not belong to the center. Perhaps the students of the center are themselves all purified, good people and it is these people who, by using others, create ‘religious duties’ so that the students believe that what they’re doing is in accordance with their religious duties. Thus, they manage to create corruption in the Najaf religious seminary. These people are afraid of true human beings. They want true human beings to be destroyed. These hands work

19

20

21

22 23

24

Harun ar-Rashid (763-809 AD), the fifth and most famous Abbasid caliph who reigned from 786- 809 AD and was the contemporary of the seventh and eighth Imams, Musa al-Kazim and Ali Ibn Musa al-Reza (as). This caliph is renowned for his wealth and for the opulence and magnificence of his court in Baghdad. He martyred Imam al-Reza (as) with poison. The word awliya’- like the cognate wilayah- has numerous different meanings. It is used here in the general sense that can be deduced from Qur’an 10: 62- 63: “Verily the friends [awliya’] of God- those who believe and guard against evil- shall suffer no fear nor shall they grieve.” ‘Aqabat is the plural of ‘aqabah meaning a difficult place on the mountain; a steep track or incline; a mountainous pass. In religious terminology these ‘aqabat’ refer to the stations or stages of the Day of Judgment where one is required to halt and then pass through, and because passing through these stages is very difficult, they have been called ‘aqabat’. “The final remedy is the fire.” Nahj al-Balaghah, Sermon 167. It is one of the famous sayings of Imam Ali (as). In Surah an-Naba’ (The Great News) 78: 23, it is said: “They will dwell therein for ages.” Imam al-Sadiq in his commentary on this verse has said: “Ages [ahqab] here means eighty long periods of time [huqb] and each huqb is eighty years, each year is three hundred and sixty days and each day is like one thousand years that you know of as a year.” Ma’ani al-Akhbar, p. 220, the section on the meaning of al-ahqab. It is the name given to a long stretch of time of unspecified length. In some traditions it has been described as being eighty years of the years of the Day of Judgment and each day of these years is one thousand of the years of this world. Mufradat ar-Raghib, p. 126.

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in the schools such that they destroy the standing in society of whoever is useful for the future of Islam so that he can no longer be beneficial to Islam and Muslims. You should be beneficial to Islam. What effect does a useless creature who neither studies here nor teaches, who does nothing, have on people? Those who have finished their studies, those who have nothing to do here, well they should go and begin their work, begin instructing and purifying the people.

MORAL PROGRAM FOR THE FUTURE OF SEMINARY STUDENTS You young people should prepare yourselves for the future. Your future will be much more difficult than ours. We no longer have a future. How much longer am I going to live? I’m seventy years old, I’m at the end of my life; perhaps I only have a few more days left to live. You should make yourselves beneficial for the future of Islam. Your future is a difficult future; you should be prepared for it. The hands of many enemies await you from all classes. Prepare yourselves, reform yourselves, and purify your morals. Throw the love of the world, this world that we don’t have, out of your hearts. Those attached to this world have (the pleasures of) this world too, but we only have the love of this world, we only have this corruption, we don’t have this world or its pleasures. The source of all sins is the love of the world25. It is related in a tradition that two fierce, bloodthirsty wolves who attack an untended flock of sheep from the front and back, take longer to destroy that flock than it does for love of wealth and position to destroy the faith of the believer.26 And apparently, according to some other traditions, it is from the love of the self and the love of the world that these transgressions occur. Even if the traditions do not actually say this, the truth is such. This love of the self, this love of position destroys Islam, destroys our religion. Think a little bit and throw this love out of your hearts. This world is nothing. It’s not right for you to bind yourself to this world in love, especially this world of yours. It was my duty today to speak to you gentlemen on this matter, to the extent that I am able, so that you will pay more attention to what is happening and what is likely to happen. These actions will not only cause loss of face for those perpetrating them, but to a society, a country and to Islam as well. You will be held gravely responsible in this matter if you do not stop this corruption. Stop these petty differences and the like, for they are very insignificant. We ourselves are insignificant; we don’t understand just how insignificant we are. We seem to have put this world of ours before everything. This love of the self that we harbor we have nothing! They have taken everything away from us. They have pushed us into the corner of a school, into the corner of a house. Are we now going to fight over this corner?! Is this worth fighting over? Gentlemen, what are these things that you are saying? You should show compassion and understanding towards others. Everyone has the right to do what he wants. What has it got to do with you if it’s against the shari’ah?27 Your duty is to enjoin the good and forbid that which is evil- so carry it out. Advise one another to do good; there is no cause for fighting or anything else.

25 26

Imam al-Sadiq (as) says: “The source of all sins is the love of the world.” Usul al-Kafi, vol. 2, pp. 131, 315. It is a saying of Imam al-Baqir (as). Usul al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 315.

27

In effect Imam here is warning the students against unwittingly joining those elements of questionable intent in the school who stipulate religious duties for the students and cause disruption and factionalism in the name of the shari’ah

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May God, the Blessed and Exalted, grant success to all of you. May He guide the Islamic schools towards reform and prepare us for the Hereafter. This world slips through our fingers and will continue to do so. It is nothing, nothing important; one shouldn’t give one’s heart to it. That which is important is the Hereafter. May God bless you in the next world. May God grant you success in serving Islam and the Muslims. May God guide you towards purification and towards another way of thinking. God willing, tomorrow we will continue with our discussions.

15th Speech Date: November 14, 1965/Aban 23, 1344 SH/Rajab 20, 1385 AH Place: Shaykh Ansari Mosque, Najaf, Iraq Subject: Duty of the heads of Muslim countries and the responsibility of the ulama in introducing Islamic programs Occasion: Commencement of Imam Khomeini’s classes in Najaf Religious Seminary Audience: ulama, scholars and students of Najaf Religious Seminary In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful O God, preserve our tongues from vain discourse [the audience replies with Amen]. Turn our hearts towards You [Amen]. Keep us from depending on anyone other than You [Amen]. Cast the love of this world out of our hearts [Amen]. Endow us with a moral disposition [Amen]. Keep us from all evil in the care of the Commander of the Faithful (Imam Ali (as) [Amen]. Make us servants of Islam and Muslims [Amen]. Make us appreciative of the ulama of Islam [Amen]. Protect the ulama of Islam wherever they may be [Amen]. Let the religion of Islam, the word of Islam, take precedence over all others [Amen]. O God, render the word of Islam elevated and predominant.28

THE SUFFERING OF THE PROPHET (S) WHILE INVITING TO MONOTHEISM You gentlemen know that the Prophet of Islam (may God’s peace and salutations be upon him and his descendants) rose up for God alone in a hostile environment. He rose up and endured great hardships, troubles and suffering until he conveyed the message of Islam to the people. He invited the people to the right path, he invited them to monotheism, he withstood such great hardships that I think it is beyond the ability of anyone else to endure the same. After the death of the Most Noble Messenger (may God’s peace and salutations be upon him and his descendants) the Muslims carried out their duties to a certain extent. They strengthened Islam; they spread Islam such that a great Islamic state was established in the world which was superior to all others. The Prophet himself wrote a letter to Heraclius29 which is preserved in the 28

“Word” in the Qur’an has been used for various meanings, among them: the promise of truth; monotheism; Islamic call. Refer to the translation of the commentary of Al-Mizan, vol. 6, p. 91 and vol. 14, p. 188.

29

Heraclius the First (circa 575- 641 AD) defeated Phocas the Byzantine (Eastern Roman Empire) emperor in 610 AD and succeeded him as emperor. Initially, Heraclius was defeated in his war with the Persians and lost Syria, Palestine and Egypt. However, he mustered his army and once again attacked the Persians and retrieved his lost lands. The war between the Sasanian (Sassanid) and Byzantine empires

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book Sahih al-Bukhari;30 and in fact, as is recorded in history, he wrote four letters to four rulers, the rulers of Iran, Rome, Egypt and Abyssinia.31 These letters, if I am not mistaken, have been preserved, and I have seen his actual letter in a Turkish museum, if I remember rightly.32 In these four letters, the contents of which are the same, he invited the four rulers to Islam and monotheism. This was the first step; this was the basis from which to convey the truth of Islam to the entire world, to all the empires of the world, and to introduce true Islam to the people. Unfortunately, apart from the Abyssinian king, none of the rulers gave a positive reply and so the Noble Messenger’s invitation, his attempts to introduce Islam to them ceased. Still, through numerous hardships, the Noble Messenger himself, and those who were responsible for the leadership of Islam after him, strengthened Islam, and it was passed down through the generations until now when it has been entrusted to us. Islam is now entrusted to this generation which exists now. This generation is responsible for Islam and the Islamic laws, and this responsibility changes according to the different classes of people. The responsibility of some is very great and that of others not so great.

PROGRAM FOR LIFE AND GOVERNMENT IN ISLAM Those whose responsibility is very great are the Muslim governments, the Muslim heads of state and the Muslim kings. Their responsibility is great and perhaps greater than all other classes. Islam is now entrusted, ended with the death of Khosrow II, also known as Khosrow Parviz, who was considered to be the last great Sasanian king of Iran, ruling from 590 to 628 AD, with an interruption of one year. Khosrow II was the son of Hormizd IV, and the grandson of Khosrow I (Anushirvan), the Persian king. In the last years of his reign, Heraclius remained in his palace eventually dying in 641 AD. After the rise of Islam, in 628 and 629 AD, the Prophet began to disseminate the message of Islam outside of Arabia and to invite the kings and leaders of the neighboring countries to Islam. For example, the Most Noble Messenger in the letters that he wrote to the Byzantine emperor and the king of Persia asked them to free the servants of God and allow them to worship the one God who has no partner and is the True Monarch. The letter that the Prophet sent to the emperor Heraclius read thus: “In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful. From Muhammad the Prophet of God to Heraclius the Great Emperor of Rome. Greetings to him who is the follower of righteous guidance. Verily, I bid you to hear the divine call of Islam. Turn to Islam so that you may be saved and God rewards you both in this world and the Hereafter.” Say: O People of the Book! Come to common terms as between us and you that we worship none but God and ascribe no partner unto Him and that none of us shall take others for lords besides Him. And if they turn away then say: ‘Bear witness that we are they who have surrendered unto Him’.” [Italics are from Surah Aali ‘Imran (The Family of ‘Imran) 3: 64. Refer to Tarikh-e Yaqubi, p. 443]. 30

The third Muslim century saw the compilation of the various Sunni collections of Hadiths (sayings or traditions of the Prophet) into six books recognized as containing authentic or” sound” Hadiths and which have since become standard. Of these six collections, referred to as as-Sihah al-Sittah, the “Six Authentic Collections”, the most famous and most authoritative is that of Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari (810- 870 AD), Sahih al-Bukhari. Bukhari, who was a Persian, selected out of the 600, 000 traditions he collected from 1, 000 shaykhs in the course of sixteen years of travel and labor in Persia, Iraq, Syria, the Hijaz and Egypt some 7397 traditions which he classified according to subject-matter such as prayer, pilgrimage and jihad. Bukhari’s tomb outside of Samarqand is still visited by pilgrims today.

31

After the conclusion of the Treaty of al-Hudaybiyyah which ensured a period of peace between the Muslims and their enemies, the Prophet of Islam sent letters to the kings and rulers inviting them to embrace Islam. The letters of the Prophet were divided into several categories. One category contains his letters to the kings and princes of different countries, amongst them the four letters of the Prophet of Islam to the rulers of the day: Khosrow Parviz, the Shah of Persia; Heraclius, the Roman Emperor; the Negus (Najashi) of Abyssinia; and Cyrus (al-Muqawqis), the Egyptian ruler.

32

In Turkey there are two museums called Istanbul Museum and Ankara Museum which were established in 1846 and 1923, respectively. They contain many historical artifacts and works of art. In 1964, Imam visited these two museums. When he first arrived in Turkey, Imam began to learn the Turkish language by the teach-yourself method and on the third day of his exile he visited the mosques, historical centers and other parts of Ankara. Imam’s visits were made under the watchful eye of the Iranian and Turkish security agents. Toward the end of his period of exile in Turkey and while visiting some parts of the city of Izmir, Imam Khomeini saw the graves of forty clergymen. When he asked his Turkish companion the reason for their deaths, he was told that these clergymen were executed on the orders of Ataturk because they opposed his policies and defended Islam. Imam refers to this subject in his later speeches.

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according to the will and ontological command of God33, the Blessed and Exalted, to the hands of these people. They are responsible for protecting Islam, for guarding its laws and preserving ideological unity under Islam. They are also responsible for introducing Islam to the civilized world so that it won’t be thought that Islam is like Christianity (nominal, not true Christianity): a spiritual relationship between the people and God, the Blessed and Exalted, and nothing more. Islam has a program for life, a program for governance. Islam ruled for five hundred years or more, it reigned even though the laws of Islam at that time were not put into practice as they should have been. Still, even with only half of them in implementation, Islam administered vast state with honor and dignity in all aspects, in all matters. One shouldn’t suppose that Islam is like the other religions which exist today. These religions, especially Christianity which has nothing except for a few moral codes, have no program pertaining to the politics and administration of countries. Perhaps at their own time they did, but no longer. Islam is not like these religions, it has a program for these things. Islam has laid the foundations of man’s life from before his birth. It has established the social foundations of the family and has laid down injunctions for man for the time that he lives in the family to the time that he enters into education, to the time that he enters society, to the time that he has relations with other countries, with other governments, with other nations; all of these have a program, the holy laws contain provisions for all of these things. Islam does not constitute just praying and making pilgrimage, the laws of Islam are not concerned merely with performing the mandatory ritual prayer (namaz), supplicatory prayer and pilgrimage; these form just one section of the laws of Islam. Praying and making pilgrimage are just one concern among a number covered by Islam. Islam deals with politics, with administering a country. Islamic laws can administer large countries. It is the responsibility of the presidents of Islamic countries, the kings of Islamic countries, the governments of Islamic countries to introduce Islam to the world.

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CHURCH AND MOSQUE Christians should not imagine that Islam is like Christianity or that the mosque is like the church. When namaz was held in the mosque, duties were assigned, the principles of war were decided there, and the administration of countries was planned there. The mosque is not like the church. The church, as they say, represents a personal relationship between the people and God, the Blessed and Exalted, however the mosque of the Muslims at the time of the Messenger of God (may God’s peace and salutations be upon him and his descendants) and at the time of the caliphs- however they were- was the center of the politics of Islam. On Fridays, the Friday prayer sermon was political, it was concerned with wars, with the administration of cities, these all came from the mosque, the foundations were laid in the mosque at the time of the Messenger of God and at the time of Hazrat Amir, (Imam Ali (as)) may God’s peace be upon him, and at other times.

33

Takwini: meaning “ontological command”. Philosophers and theologians distinguish this, which refers to the laws of creation and which all must obey by the very nature of things, from the “legislative [tashri’i] command,” which refers to the laws set down by God in revelation and which man can obey or disobey according to his own free will. The “ontological command” is referred to in such verses as: “All His command, when He wills something, is to say to it ‘Be,’ and it is.” Surah Ya-Sin 36: 82.

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THE NEED TO INTRODUCE ISLAM Islam should be introduced as it really is; the leaders are charged with a duty to perform. Those to whom God, the Blessed and Exalted, has given leadership have a responsibility to carry out. They have to introduce true Islam. They should organize a radio program for the introduction of Islam. They should consult the ulama so they can explain to them the truth of Islam and then they should propagate this truth by means of the radio and other methods of communication.

THE GOAL OF THE PROPHET OF ISLAM (S)34 The Prophet of Islam wanted to create ideological unity in the world. He wanted to bring all the countries of the world, all the inhabited regions of the earth, together under the banner of monotheism. But the great desires of the kings of that time on the one hand and the prejudice of the Jewish and Christian clergy and others on the other were obstacles to his plans. Even today they form obstacles, they create problems for us. Even today the Jews prevent us from spreading Islam. Even now the Christians prevent us from introducing true Islam. Even today they form an obstacle.

THE DUTY OF THE HEADS OF ISLAMIC COUNTRIES IS TO BE UNITED Today it is the duty of the heads of Islamic countries, the kings and the presidents of Islamic countries to put aside these petty differences which occasionally arise between them. There are no Arabs and non-Arabs, Turks and Persians; there is only Islam and unity under Islam. They should adopt the same method of struggle that the Prophet of Islam used in his struggle; they should follow the way of Islam. If they guard their ideological unity, if they put aside these petty differences, if all the Muslims join together, then, according to estimations,35 there will be a community of seven hundred million. But seven hundred million people divided are not as great as one million united. Seven hundred million divided people are of no use, thousands of millions of divided people cannot do anything either. However, if these seven hundred million, if only four hundred million of them, two hundred million of them, were to unite together, join hands in brotherhood together, protect each other’s borders, protect their own boundaries, if they were to unite in the Islamic community which is common to us all, in the religion of monotheism which is common to us all, in the Islamic interests that we share, then the Jews would no longer covet Palestine and India would no longer have designs on Kashmir.36 That is why they don’t let you unite. The hands that want to take your 34 35

36

The abbreviation, “s”, stands for the Arabic invocative phrase, sallallahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam [may God’s salutation and peace be upon him and his progeny], which is used after the name of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (s). Seven hundred million is the estimated number of Muslims in the world at the time of the speech. The exact number of Muslims in the world is not known. Statistics on this are in no way accurate because in some countries the Muslim population has not yet been counted; in some other countries people cannot reveal their religious convictions; in a number of countries the enumerators try to present the number of Muslims as being less than it really is for political or ideological reasons. In Europe and America only the sex, age and occupation of the people in the census are often taken into consideration, no interest being shown in their religious convictions. Therefore, it cannot be said with certainty how many Muslims live in those countries. In countries like America and India, converts to Islam are also not considered in the census. Whatever, the number of Muslims in the world exceeds one billion and without a doubt over the past decade that figure has been on the rise. Kashmir is situated in north-west India and neighbors Pakistan and Afghanistan. It is a mountainous region of great natural beauty and fertile land covering an area of 242 square kilometers and with a population of about five million people. The majority of Kashmiris are Muslim and because they converse mostly in the Persian language Kashmir is also known as “Iran Minor”. Before colonization by the British, Kashmir had an independent government, but at the time of the British assault on India, this country was also occupied and until 1947 was controlled by the British. After the division of the Indian subcontinent into two independent states of Pakistan (Muslim) and

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resources away from you, that want to take your wealth free of charge, that want to plunder both your underground resources and those that lie above the ground, they won’t let Iraq and Iran, Iran and Egypt, Turkey and Iran unite together. They won’t let them join forces. It is the duty of the leaders to sit down together and reach a mutual understanding. They should protect their own borders; each one should preserve their boundaries and territorial integrity then join forces against that foreign enemy who causes you so much harm. There is a group of thieving Jews in Palestine who have kept more than a million Muslims dispersed for ten years, more than ten years, and have occupied Islamic lands. All the Muslim leaders do is mourn over their plight, but if they unite, how can this bunch of thieving Jews take Palestine from you and drive the Muslims out of Palestine while you look on helplessly? If they unite, how can the poor, wretched Hindus take our dear Kashmir from us while the Muslims look on helplessly? These matters are all too clear, but sometimes one needs reminding of them. The leaders themselves know these things, but they should give them more thought. They should sit down together in meetings; they should come together, reflect on these matters and put aside these petty differences. Islam is now in your hands. The heads of Islam, the kings of Islam, the presidents and the shaykhs of Islam, those who have leadership in Islam should realize that God, the Blessed and Exalted, has given them this leadership and now they have a responsibility. Becoming the head of a nation, the leader of a people carries with it a responsibility for those people, for the life of the people, for what happens to those people.

PROTECTING THE WEALTH OF MUSLIMS Wealth lies in the hands of the East. Oil, this important resource, is in the hands of the East, in the hands of the Muslims- that which lies in Islamic lands. The world has progressed because of these important reserves of oil. Others need this oil. Every country which has progressed has done so through these reserves, every country which has won a war has done so because of oil. These oil reserves are in your hands. Praise be to God, Iraq has oil. Praise be to God, Iran has oil; Kuwait has oil; Hijaz has oil. This is one of the astounding things, the oil is in the hands of the Muslims so others should come and bow down before you, they should kiss your hands, kiss your feet and buy these reserves at the highest price; you shouldn’t bow to them. God willing you don’t. The wealth lies in your hands, they should be the ones who flatter you, but unfortunately we see that this is not the case. The imperialists have dealt with this matter, they have deceived some countries into thinking that they should flatter them, that they should pay them compliments and offer them something so that they come and take their wealth away (as they have done in other areas of the world). This is distressing.

SUPREMACY LIES IN THE UNITY OF EXPRESSION As long as there is no unity, as long as the heads of Islam don’t create unity, as long as they don’t think about the misfortunes of the Muslim nations, about the problems that Islam and the laws of Islam have to India (Hindu), the state of Kashmir with over 77% Muslim population was supposed to be incorporated into Pakistan, however, India would not relinquish it and this annexation did not take place. Consequently, in 1949 Kashmir was partitioned, the north-west area becoming Azad Kashmir [Free Kashmir] controlled by Pakistan, and the remainder being incorporated into India as the State of Jammu and Kashmir. However, the dispute over Kashmir did not end with partition and both Pakistan and India continued to lay claim to the other’s portion. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India, against his moral inclinations, opposed the vote of the United Nations Security Council which recommended that the future of Kashmir be determined by a plebiscite. Nehru approved the laws that the Parliament of Kashmir, which was an artificial Parliament, had ratified calling for union with India (1957).

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contend with, about the alienation of Islam and the Holy Qur’an, they cannot have sovereignty. They should think, they should act so they find supremacy. If they consider this matter, if they act on it, then they will become masters of the world. If they introduce Islam to the world as it truly is, and if they put it into practice as it should be, then leadership will be yours, greatness will be yours. “Greatness belongs to God, His Messenger and to the believers”.37

THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE ULAMA OF ISLAM So far I have spoken about that group, which constitutes our political leaders. The other group which also bears a responsibility is the ulama of Islam and the great maraji’. Their responsibility is very great, extremely great, perhaps in one way the responsibility of the ulama of Islam is greater than that of anyone else. It is up to them to introduce the Islam that they know to the world. Of course we don’t have the means to do this, and this too is due to our incompetence. We don’t have the means, all the means are in the hands of others. The Muslims and the ulama, the true Muslims and true ulama that is, don’t have the means to propagate Islam and tell the world what Islam really is. You have such a good commodity and you cannot tell the world about it. The Christians, on the other hand, have spread the word of their Gospel, and you are aware of its contents, it is not an original account of the life and sayings of Jesus. They have spread the word of a false gospel38 the whole world and their missionaries have traveled all over the world preaching its message. It is said that as the Islamic countries, those countries which were under the yoke of imperialism, one by one in recent years broke free from the imperialist's grasp,39 so the Pope’s missionaries entered these countries and began to convert the people there to Christianity. Yet we, even in our own communities cannot do this, we cannot present the laws of Islam as they truly are even to our own society.

37 38

Qur’an 63: 8 After the divine ascension of Jesus, many of his followers began to record accounts of his life and teachings and these were called Gospels. However, the only known surviving Gospel written by a disciple of Jesus, that is, by a man who spent most of his time in the actual company of Jesus during the three years in which he was delivering his message, is the Gospel of Barnabas. This Gospel was accepted as a canonical Gospel in the churches of Alexandria until 523 AD when the famous Council of Nicea was held and the doctrine of the Trinity was declared to be the official doctrine of the Pauline Church. One of the consequences of this decision was that out of the three hundred or so Gospels extant at that time, four were chosen as the official Gospels of the Church; these were the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John which the Christians of today follow. The remaining Gospels, including the Gospel of Barnabas, were ordered to be destroyed completely. An edict was issued stating that anyone found in possession of an unauthorized Gospel would be put to death. This was the first well-organized attempt to remove all the records of Jesus' original teachings, whether in human or book form, which contradicted the doctrine of the Trinity. In the case of the Gospel of Barnabas, these attempts were not entirely successful and mention of its continued existence has been made up to the present day. It has been banned by the Popes over the centuries and is included in the list of Apocryphal] hidden from the people [and forbidden books. Those who have studied the Evangelium Barnabe remark on the fullness of its account of Jesus' life and teachings and how different this account is from that given in the four accepted Gospels. The Gospel of Barnabas declares the unity of God, foretells the coming of the Prophet of Islam and states that Christ was not crucified by the Romans but that Judas, the betrayer of Christ, was transformed by the Creator to resemble Jesus and was crucified in his stead. In the Gospels accepted today, many of the laws and injunctions are ignored, except for a few cases, and the main message contained in them is to obey God and His commandments, refrain from sin, to be kind and humble, not to be proud, to boast or be unjust. For more information on this subject, refer to Jesus - A Prophet of Islam by Muhammad `Ata ur-Rahim; The Gospel of Barnabas translated by Lonsdale and Laura Ragg (2017). Both books are available at amazon.com

39

Some of the Islamic countries which have freed themselves from the direct domination of foreigners and have apparently regained their independence in the last half a century are listed: Algeria, Tunisia, Chad, Djibouti, Sudan, Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger, from French colonialism; Bahrain, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Gambia, Maldives, Sierra Leone, Oman, Kuwait, Malaysia, Nigeria, South Yemen, from British colonialism; Libya from Italian colonialism; and Somalia from British and Italian colonialism.

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We do not take our debates beyond the bounds of the book on ritual purity or the book on khums40 or whatever. We don’t talk about the politics of Islam. We don’t talk about the divine ordinances of Islam. Not being able to implement the divine ordinances does not mean that we shouldn’t present them to the world. We should propagate them. The world should know that Islam has a program. Islam has a program for everything, for all kinds of life. Who should introduce this other than the ulama? The ulama of Islam (may God increase their number) go through much trouble (for Islam) and endure many hardships, nevertheless their responsibility demands more from them than this. God, the Blessed and Exalted, has given might to the ulama; He has given them greatness; men listen to them; nations obey them. Their position brings with it responsibility; just as the Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him and his descendants) had responsibility and rose up for his responsibility, so too they must rise up for their responsibility. They should introduce Islam and Islamic laws as they truly are, not that Islam which is in the hands of a few pseudo-saints and consists of just a book of prayers.41 We should tell the world about this great commodity and about the progressive laws that we have. We don’t need to refer to anybody else’s laws. We’ve got laws for everything. Islam has prescribed man’s duties; it has laid down the laws. The Muslims do not need to follow anybody else’s laws. Now our youth, these young people in the universities, whether here, in Iran or in other countries, they don’t know what true Islam is, or they don’t even know what Islam is at all. They don’t perceive Islam as being anything other than namaz and a few laws for ritual purity and so on. They think that if they want to become practicing Muslims and act according to Islamic precepts, there is nothing for them to act on. They believe this because Islam has not been presented properly. They ask: “What program does Islam have for us to act on? Such and such a group has a program, such and such a creed has a program, it has a program for life and we want a program for life, but Islam is just something individual between man and God, the Blessed and Exalted, and nothing more than this. Islam has no program for us to act on.” They think this because they don’t know Islam. They have no knowledge of the laws of Islam; they think Islam has no program for life. It is up to the ulama of Islam to rectify this. Of course they can’t do it by themselves because of the problems they have, but it is their responsibility to set this matter right. They must explain Islam, all aspects of Islam, all doctrines of Islam, all ordinances of Islam, to the world. They should write and publish books concerning the laws of Islam. If they are successful in securing a radio program for themselves to convey their message, then they should use it to present Islam accurately to the world, so the world will understand what we have (in Islam), and even though we have this, still we live as we do. This is a great responsibility on the shoulders of the

40

41

Khums: literally means one-fifth. According to the Shia school of jurisprudence [fiqh], this one-fifth tax is obligatorily levied on every adult Muslim who is financially secure and has surplus in his income out of annual savings, net commercial profits, and all movable and immovable properties which are not commensurable with the needs and social standing of the person. Khums is divided into two equal parts: the Share of the Imam [sahm al-Imam] and the Share of the Sayyids/Sadat (descendants of the Prophet) [sahm as-Sadat]. Accordingly, the Share of the Imam is to be paid to the living Imam, and in the period of Occultation, to the most learned living mujtahid who is the giver’s marja’ at-taqlid [Source of Emulation]. The other half of the khums, the Share of the Sayyids/ Sadat, is to be given to needy pious Sayyids who lack the resources for one’s year respectable living in consonance with their various statuses. For more information, see Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi, Khums- An Islamic Tax, https://www.al-islam.org/khums-islamic-tax-sayyid-muhammad-rizvi. Mafatih al-Jinan [Keys to the Gardens of Paradise]: the standard manual of Shia devotion containing the supplicatory prayers of the Imams, as well as formulae for recitation at particular times or during visitation of the tombs of the Imams. Its compiler, Shaykh Abbas Qummi (1877 -1941 AD) was a scholar of vast learning from Qum who died in Najaf. He was also teacher of Imam Khomeini and gave him permission to cite and authenticate hadithes.

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distinguished ulama (may God elevate their word). And you, the distinguished religious scholars and young ulama, also have responsibility. The responsibility of the future of Islam is on your shoulders, and it is a very heavy responsibility.

SELF-PURIFICATION You should begin from now to meet this responsibility; these young sixteen-year-old men, these twentyyear-old men who are studying in the religious schools, in all schools, should begin from now, in accordance with the will of God, in accordance with the divine commands. They should be such that for each step they take for the acquisition of knowledge, they take one for self-reform and moral purification. If, God forbid, there is an alim who has not reformed himself, not purified himself; if, God forbid, there is an alim who is not as Islam requires him to be, then this is more of a loss than a benefit. All the false religions which have been invented or created were founded by educated people, people who were educated in the religious schools but who had not purified themselves. If you take note, you will see that all the heads of false religions are from amongst those who have studied, who are clergymen, but those who have not purified themselves.42

A GLANCE AT IMAM ALI’S CONDUCT This place is in the sanctuary of Hazrat Amir (Imam Ali), may God’s peace be upon him. Being here in the holy land of Najaf, in the sanctuary of Hazrat Amir, may God’s peace be upon him, also carries with it many responsibilities. Just being here in Najaf is different than, for example, being in Kuwait, Tehran or Baghdad. Being in Najaf is itself something else, it carries with it responsibility. One should look at what conditions Hazrat Amir, may God’s peace be upon him, lived under; how he conducted himself in private and in public. One should think about the life of Hazrat Amir, may God’s peace be upon him. One should take note of all the troubles he went through for Islam, how many times he was wounded, how much he suffered, how many times he fought in battle, how thirsty he went. One should consider these things. One such Islam has been entrusted to us, has been entrusted to you gentlemen. You have a responsibility. God forbid that in your quest for knowledge you think to comprehend the subtleties of the religious sciences but overlook spiritual refinement. Reform yourselves; purify yourselves through the teachings of Allah, through the laws of Allah. If you do not do this, then knowledge is of no use. If there is no purification, then that light which God, the Blessed and Exalted, places in the hearts of those He pleases will not be placed.43

PURIFICATION FOR UNDERSTANDING THE DIVINE LIGHT That knowledge which brings illumination, that light which God, the Blessed and Exalted, grants, calls for expertise. It will not be granted to just any heart. Not every heart is worthy of it. If one does not purify himself, if one does not empty his heart of ugly morals, does not correct his vile deeds, if one does not turn to God and does not surrender his whole heart to Him, God the Blessed and Exalted will not place this light in his heart. This is not vain talk. You cannot turn around and say: “No, I know the intricacies of the religious

42 43

Refer to the biographies of people such as Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab, the founder of Wahhabism; Shaykh Zaynuddin Ahmad Ihsaei, the leader of the Shaykhi sect and Sayyid Kazim Rashti, his successor. It refers to the Hadith: “Knowledge is a light which God places in the heart of those He wishes.” Al-Mahajjat al-Bay-a’, vol. 5, p. 45.

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sciences so I’m all right.” No, many knew the intricacies of religious sciences. Ghazzali44 knew them very well. Abu Hanifah also knew them well.45 There are many people who know the intricacies of the religious sciences better than any, yet God the Blessed and Exalted has not placed that light in their hearts. This light calls for purification, for suffering and self-discipline. Gentlemen, you have come here and joined this group, now you have to discipline yourselves, you have to take pains, you have to observe your duties, and you have to call your soul to account.46 In the evening, when you have finished your studies, late at night, consider how many wrong deeds, God forbid, you carried out that day; God willing there won’t be any. Consider how many times, God forbid, you spoke ill of someone that day; how many times you were impudent to the religious scholars. Do you realize what it means before God if one word of insolence is spoken to the maraji’ of Islam? One has openly waged war with God! They are the friends (awliya)47 of God. For every step taken in the quest for knowledge, there should be at least one step taken towards moral purification, towards strengthening one’s faith, towards establishing faith in one’s heart. These matters need thinking about; they call for self-examination and guarding against evil. You gentlemen should be on your guard; you should guard yourselves against evil from morning till night. Man’s soul is rebellious, if it is neglected for one moment, God forbid, it will draw the human being towards unbelief not just sinfulness. If the human being is neglectful, Satan won’t be satisfied with his moral depravity, he wants man’s unbelief. His ultimate goal is to create unbelief. It begins with small sins which gradually grow into bigger sins until 44

Hujjat al-Islam Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Ghazzali at-Tusi was born in Iran in 1058 in Tus, Khorasan, where he died in 1111 AD. AlGhazzali is recognized by many as a great theologian of Islam and the final authority for Sunni orthodoxy. Starting his religious life as orthodox, al- Ghazzali soon turned to Sufism. He spent many years roaming from place to place before eventually going to Baghdad to preach and teach. It was there that he composed what many see as his masterpiece, Ihya’ Ulum ad-Din [The Revivification of the Sciences of Religion]. His other well-known works include: Fatihat al-Ulum; Tahafut al-Falasifah; Al-Iqtisad fil-Itiqad and Kimiya-ye Sa’adat [Alchemy of Happiness] which is Ihya’ Ulum ad-Din re-presented on a smaller scale for Persian readers. Al-Ghazzali was, however, among a number of classical Sunni authorities who attempted to legitimize both the hereditary caliphate and the usurpation of power by military dynasties, by means of their political theories. The influence of these theories has far outlived the circumstances that produced them and it continues to affect the political attitudes of Sunni Muslims, although it is now diminishing.

45

Al-Nu’man ibn Sabet Habib (669- 767 AD), also known as Abu Hanifah the founder of the Hanafi school of thought, was of Iranian origin and was born in Kufah. Although a merchant by profession, Abu Hanifah learnt Islamic jurisprudence [fiqh] in his youth and became an influential jurist. However, he regarded the Qur’an as being created and he did not attach special importance to the Hadiths [sayings and traditions] of the Prophet rejecting many (about four hundred) and only accepting a few as being” sound” or correct and thus applicable. He insisted on the right of qiyas or analogical deduction in his teachings, leading to what we call legal fiction. In all fields, he exaggerated some points and ignored others. Abu Hanifah was a student of Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (as) for two years. One day Imam alSadiq found Abu Hanifah’s answer to a question on Islamic jurisprudence to be incorrect. He reproached him and said: “Woe unto you. What is your reference? Fear God and do not apply analogical deduction based on your own reasoning.” Calling one’s soul to account is examining one’s deeds, one’s thoughts and one’s heart in order to purify one’s soul. Imam Khomeini, in his ethical and mystical work, Sharh-e Chehel Hadith [An Exposition of Forty Hadiths], cites the examination of one’s soul as well as binding oneself with the resolve not to do anything against God’s commands [musharatah] and guarding against evil [muraqabah] as necessary acts of a seeker of truth who is battling with his self [mujahid]. The word awliya’ has been retained here because of the depth of its meaning. Normally translated as helpers, friends, guardians, administrators, Hamid Algar in his book Islam and Revolution p. 361, n. 2, informs us that the word awliya’ also refers to those who possess the quality of intrinsic wilayah i.e. governance. In Shi’i belief, they are the foremost among the prophets and the Twelve Imams who succeeded Prophet Muhammad (s). The word awliya’ indicates primarily their spiritual rank, whereas the word Imam designates their function of leadership. According to some theologians, the awliya’ are those whose belief is sound, who perform their religious duties and who as a result have attained proximity to God. In the general sense that can be deduced from the Qur’an, 10: 62- 63: “Verily the friends [awliya’] of God- those who believe and guard against evil- shall suffer no fear nor shall they grieve,” it means “friends.”

46

47

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eventually it reaches the stage when, God forbid, it turns the human being away from Islam. You should be on your guard. From the minute you wake up in the morning, from when the call to prayer (adhan) is made, or, God willing, even before that, you should be on your guard against evil. In these gatherings you have, whether with two people, four people, ten or a hundred people, you should guard yourselves against committing evil acts. Respect you elders, respect your friends, and respect the believers. You should not have an evil tongue, God forbid. You should not create problems and arguments. If you think that someone is doing something that in your opinion he shouldn’t be doing or he does not do something that you believe he should do, take him as being correct in his course of action or lack of action as the case may be. One should not, without giving the matter due attention, be insolent, God forbid, to a believer, a Muslim, a religious student, a seeker of knowledge, let alone a religious scholar or a marja’. One should guard oneself against doing such things. One should be careful and observe all these points if one is to be favored by God.

PURIFICATION WHILE STILL YOUNG Later on you will have a weighty responsibility. If you become the ‘alim of a city, you have responsibility for that city. God willing, if you become the ‘alim of a country, you have responsibility for that country. If you become the marja’ of an Islamic community, you have responsibility for that community. You should begin now laying the foundations for the time that you will carry out this responsibility and fulfill your obligation. From now you should think about this. Don’t say: “Well no, we’ll study our lessons now and later on, God willing, when we are older, we will turn to moral purification.” This is not possible. You can reform yourselves while you are young, but if, God forbid, you do not begin to purify yourselves now, then you will find it very difficult to do so when you are old, when your will power is weak and the enemy strong. As man’s age advances, his will power weakens and the army of Satan in his heart becomes strong. Then it will be impossible to purify oneself, and even if it were possible, it would be very difficult. You should begin now, begin while you are young. Every step you take now is towards the grave. There is no time to waste; there is no reason to hold back. Every minute which passes of your honorable lives takes you a little bit closer to the grave, to the place where you will be asked questions, where you will be called to account. You should not neglect this task for you are getting closer to death. No one has given you a guarantee that you will live for a hundred and twenty years. We don’t have a hundred and twenty years, maybe one dies at twenty-five, maybe at fifty, maybe sixty, perhaps, God forbid, just now. There is no guarantee. You should think about this. You should guard yourself against evil. You should purify your morals, God willing purify them even more than they now are. Act according to the teachings of Islam, according to the laws of Islam, so that, God willing, you will be favored by God and, under the pure dome of the shrine of Imam Ali (as), you will be granted the light of that knowledge which has the approval of God, that knowledge which is light, that knowledge which brings you close to God, the Blessed and Exalted. This knowledge calls for self-discipline and sacrifice. You are already making sacrifices, so add this one to the others. I pray to Almighty God that He grant you success [the audience replies with “Amen”]. I pray to Almighty God that He grant glory and greatness to Islam and the Muslims [“Amen”]. I pray to Almighty God that He grant glory and greatness to the maraji’ of Islam [“Amen”]. I pray to Almighty God for the

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long life of the maraji’ of Islam [“Amen”]. I pray to Almighty God for the moral purification of the students [“Amen”].

16th Speech Date: September 8, 1967/Shahrivar 17, 1346 SH/Jamadi al-Thani, 1387 AH Subject: Plot by the regime to annihilate Islam and make the country dependent (on others) Occasion: SAVAK’s assault on the religious schools in Qum Audience: Clergies and seminary students of Najaf In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

AWAKENING OF THE CLERGY AND THE NATION The scheme of the government in Tehran is more serious than first imagined. Their design in closing the Fayziyyah Madrasah and imprisoning the ulama and religious students is to cause disruption in the Madrasah and to destroy Islam and the clergy. They want neither Islam to exist nor the clergy, for they realize that as long as Islam and the clergy exist in the country they cannot implement the orders of their masters and make Iran completely dependent on foreigners. By the festivals48 that they create every day and the weaponry that they are constantly buying from this place and that,49 by their wasteful spending and extravagance, they are trying to drive the Iranian nation towards calamity and bankruptcy and, God forbid, to make us the beggars of America and Israel. But be assured, they will not succeed. Praise be to God, the nation is awake and the Iranian clergy know what their duties are. The imperialists have not been able to deceive the clergy of Iran and put them to sleep, and, God willing, with this awareness they will sever the hands of the traitors to Islam and the country. You have a duty to help your brothers in Iran in whatever way possible. Persevere in the face of difficulties and be steadfast; even this expression of sympathy

48

Holding ceremonies and festivals was one of the ploys used by the Shah for both amusing and deceiving the people and covering up his weaknesses, defeats and disappointments and those of his regime. Included among these festivals are: The Shah’s birthday on October 26 [Aban 4, SH]; the anniversary of the White Revolution on January 26 [Bahman 6, SH]; Women’s Emancipation Day on January 7 [Dey 17, SH]; the Shah’s escape from danger on February 4 [Bahman 15, SH]; the anniversary of the coup d’état of June 18 [Khordad 28, SH]; the liberation of Azerbaijan on December 12 [Azar 21, SH] and the costly and extravagant international festivals like the 25th anniversary of the Shah’s rule; the anniversary of the crowning ceremony; the festival marking two-and-a-half millennia of monarchy; and dozens more like these. More than thirty different festivals and anniversaries were held during the 60’s and 70’s, all of them very costly and all of which were related to the Shah’s family and the monarchical system. On different occasions, Imam issued proclamations and delivered speeches severely condemning these festivals, which were paid for from the earnings of the deprived masses.

49

The Shah purchased arms from all Eastern and Western arms-manufacturing companies. In 1966, the Pentagon agreed to sell Iran the latest models of F-4 D Mac Donald Phantom jet fighters. After this purchase, which also included the purchase of other numerous and diversified military equipment, the Shah placed a big order with Britain and France. In 1967, on a trip to Moscow, the Shah announced that he had signed an agreement with the Russian government for the purchase of 110 million dollars’ worth of Soviet military equipment including personnel carriers, trucks and anti-aircraft weapons. The Shah’s moves toward closer relations with the Russians prompted America to bolster its military relations with Iran, such that the sale of American arms to Iran in 1970 was more than 113.2 million, rising to more than 1.3 billion in 1975 and reaching 4 billion in 1976.

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and support for the oppressed people of Iran will itself be effective. May God awaken everyone from the slumber of ignorance50

17th Speech Date: June 22, 1971/Tir 1, 1350 SH/Rabi’ al-Thani 28, 1391 AH Place: Shaykh Ansari Mosque, Najaf, Iraq Subject: Economic problems of the people; the holding of festivities to mark the 2,500 years of monarchy; the incumbency of the ulama’s uprising Occasion: Holding of festivities to mark the 2,500 years of monarchy Addressees: Clergy and seminary students of Najaf I seek refuge in God from the accursed Satan In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful I feel it is my duty on certain occasions to draw the gentlemen’s51 attention to some aspects of the problems facing the people of Islam and it may be that you will consider it your duty also to attempt to aid your Muslim brothers, even if only by way of propagation, telegrams and letters.

USURPATION OF RULE FROM HAZRAT AMIR (AS) AS THE GREATEST DISASTER THAT BEFELL ISLAM From the beginning, the Muslims and Islam were plagued by the carnal desires of some people which, after the death of the Prophet (s), prevented the true Islamic government from being set up and which are the cause of our problems today. If they had allowed the government that Islam calls for to be set up, the ruler that God, the Blessed and Exalted, had designated, that the Most Noble Messenger had appointed52 to rule, if they had allowed that system to come into being, the government to be an Islamic government, the governor to be he who was designated by God, then the people would understand what Islam really is and know the true meaning of an Islamic government. Unfortunately, after the death of the Prophet the people were led away from that which he had ordered, and this deviation was not only confined to that time, rather it prepared the grounds for a permanent deviation such that throughout subsequent Muslim history, apart from the short time that Imam Ali (as) ruled,53 a true Islamic government could not be established.

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Barrasi va Tahlili az Nahzat-e Imam Khomeini, vol. 2, p. 257. It refers to the great ulama and maraji’ of the theological centers in Najaf (Iraq) and Iran. It refers to the event of Ghadir Khumm where the Prophet appointed Imam Ali as his successor based on a divine instruction. For detailed information on sources and narrators, as well as maps of Ghadir Khumm, visit: “Ghadir Khumm in the Qur’an, Hadith and History,” https://www.al-islam.org/ghadir/ On June 24, 656 AD, Imam Ali was proclaimed caliph at the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina. Practically the whole Muslim world acknowledged his succession and he was the first and only caliph in whose selection a great majority of the community took an active part. He was martyred on January 25, 661 AD, after governing for only four years and nine months.

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What Mu’awiyah54 did, with the help of those personalities and elders from before the time of Islam, brought about these troubles for the Muslims and Islam. This internal conflict, which was worse than any other conflict, embroiled Imam Ali, and after his rule, the system of government lost its Islamic character entirely and was replaced by a monarchical regime. However, the short time that Imam Ali ruled and determined his own governmental policies even with all the problems he faced: the Battle of the Camel55; the Battle of Siffin56; the battle with the Kharijites57 - served as a lesson for the Muslims and they came to understand what Islam really is, to a certain extent at least. 54

During the caliphate of Abu Bakr, the first of the four ‘rightly-guided’ caliphs, Mu’awiyah ibn Abu Sufyun was the head of a battalion in the caliph’s army, and Abu Bakr never gave him a position higher than that. However, under the rule of the second caliph, ‘Umar ibn alKhattab, he was appointed governor of Jordan and Damascus. Mu’awiyah gradually strengthened his position until at the time of the third caliph, Uthman ibn al-Affan, he became governor of all of Syria. As governor of Syria, Mu’awiyah began to act more and more like a monarch, such that Imam Ali (as) upon assuming his position as fourth caliph, issued orders for his dismissal.

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In the aftermath of the murder of the third caliph, Uthman, Imam Ali was forced to accept caliphate, but from the moment of his accession he had to face opposition within the Muslim community from many different areas and shades of opinion. The first challenge to his authority came from within the Quraysh itself. Imam Ali’s close identification with the Ansar (the helpers: those who had given the Prophet and his followers shelter and home at the most critical moment of his mission) and his reluctance to accept the nomination of Abu Bakr as first caliph, had alienated him from many of the Quraysh who now felt they had to challenge him to preserve the position their tribe had won. The rebellion centered on Zubayr ibn al-’Awwam, Talha ibn Ubaydullah and the Prophet’s wife, A’ishah. Zubayr and Talha were both early converts to Islam and supporters of the caliph Uthman during whose caliphate they had acquired position and great wealth. They were ambitious for the caliphate and did not wish to see power pass from the Quraysh tribe, to which they belonged. ‘A’ishah who was the daughter of Abu Bakr, refused to return to Medina from the ‘Umrah [lesser pilgrimage] when informed of the nomination of Imam Ali. Sometime later, Talha and Zubayr, with the excuse of going to perform the ‘Umrah, joined ‘A’ishah in the holy city of Mecca and planned for battle. Their aim was to capture Basra- which they achieved massacring many people and unceremoniously throwing out the governor in the process- divide Iraq and bring an end to Imam Ali’s rule. After much hesitation, Imam Ali finally marched to Kufah, accompanied by his three sons Hasan, Husayn and Muhammad, Abdullah ibn Abbas, ‘Ammar ibn Yasir, and Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (the brother of ‘A’ishah) and there he succeeded in gathering a strong force. On December 9, 656 AD outside of Basra at a place called Kharaba, Imam Ali met and defeated the coalition in a battle styled, ‘The Battle of the Camel’, after the camel on which ‘A’ishah rode which was the rallying-point for the rebels. Both Talha and Zubayr fell, and Imam Ali magnanimously mourned the fallen and had them honorably buried. ‘A’ishah was captured and sent back to Medina accompanied by her brother. This victory strengthened Imam Ali’s position in Iraq, Iran, Yemen, Mecca and Medina and consolidated his authority in Egypt and Africa.

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Upon assuming his position as new caliph, Imam Ali inaugurated his rule by dismissing most of the provincial governors appointed by his predecessor and exacting the oath of fealty from the others. However, Mu’awiyah, the governor of Syria, refused to be dismissed and, withholding his homage from Imam Ali, he tried to implicate him in the murder of the third caliph, ‘Uthman, and on the pretext of avenging his death, he rallied his forces and set off toward Kufah to do battle with him. On the plain of Siffin south of ar-Raqqah, on the west bank of the Euphrates, the two armies stood face to face. Skirmishes, said to be about ninety in all, dragged on for weeks as neither side seemed anxious to fight. The final encounter took place on July 28, 657 AD. Under the leadership of Malik al-Ashtar, Imam Ali’s forces were on the point of victory when the shrewd, wily ‘Amr ibn al-Aas, Mu’awiyah’s leader, resorted to a ruse. Copies of the Qur’an fastened to lances were suddenly seen thrust in the air- a gesture interpreted to mean an appeal from the decision of arms to the decision of the Qur’an. Urged by his followers, Imam Ali accepted Mu’awiyah’s proposal to arbitrate the case. Hostilities ceased after a confrontation which had lasted one hundred and ten days and left 70, 000 dead, 45,000 being from Mu’awiyah’s army. The acceptance of the principle of arbitration was to prove disastrous for Imam Ali and it alienated the sympathy of a large body of his own followers. For more information refer to Philip K Hitti’s History of the Arabs, pp. 178-186.

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The Kharijites or al-Mariqin (a name given them by Imam Ali and meaning “those who missed the truth of religion”) were a group of quasi-holy, narrow-minded Muslims who were originally followers of Imam Ali and fought with him at the Battle of Siffin. Initially they supported arbitration, pushing Imam Ali to accept it; however, later they revolted against it arguing that because God was the only true arbitrator, Imam Ali and those who agreed with him in the arbitration were not just wrong they were unbelievers, hence they could have no dealings with them. On Imam Ali’s return to Iraq from Siffin, this group split off from his army and set up camp on the banks of the Nahrawan canal. The Kharijites (or seceders) became a fierce group who believed that they were the only true Muslims, and as such they began terrorizing the people whom they regarded as unbelievers. Imam Ali was at first able to talk to them and persuade some of them to

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A MANIFESTATION OF ALI’S (AS) ISLAMIC GOVERNMENT If they had allowed the government to retain its Islamic form and the people to live in the shelter of an Islamic government, perhaps all these misfortunes which afflict us in the present day would not have come about. The governor who was chosen by God, the Blessed and Exalted, to exercise rule over that ummah was a person who, when he became ruler, when everyone gathered around him and swore allegiance to him, lived more frugally than the most impoverished of our religious students or grocers. His food was stale oaten bread, and it is said that at the end of his life the bread that he ate was so hard and dry that he had to break it with his knee and eat it with water.58 It is related that Imam Ali used to say: “I am afraid that in some corner of my realm there is a hungry person and how can I sleep with a full stomach when one of my subjects goes hungry.” This was what an Islamic system of government meant. The greatest disaster that befell Islam was the usurpation of rule by Mu’awiyah from Imam Ali. This disaster was even worse than the tragedy of Karbala, and the misfortunes that descended upon Imam Ali and Islam at that time were worse than those which befell the Doyen of the Martyrs (Imam Husayn (as)). The greatest disaster of all at that time was that they did not allow the people to perceive the true meaning of Islam. Even today the people are unsure of what Islam really is, what an Islamic government is, what Islam requires and what programs Islam has for governance. Even today, Islam remains obscure. The people of Islam should mourn the usurpation of rule from Imam Ali and commemorate those five or six years when he governed, when even with all the problems he faced and all the troubles that were created for him he maintained a true Islamic system. They should commemorate his justice, the fact that he was at one with his people, that his standard of living was lower than that of others while his spirit rose ever higher above the horizons. They should commemorate God. They should commemorate a ruler who, when he hears that an anklet has been stolen from a non-Muslim woman living under the protection of Islam,59 wishes to die of shame.60

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FAITHFUL AND THE LAW “As for those who disbelieve, they engage in pleasure and in eating as the beasts eat, and the fire shall be their abode.”61 This is the distinguishing feature. One who eats and takes his pleasure with no concern for what is permitted or forbidden (haram), who pays no attention to the condition of the people or to the ordinances of the Islamic laws, such a person is like an animal, he eats as the beasts eat and the “fire shall be his abode.” According

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cease in their hostilities, but eventually he was forced to take up arms against them. In 659 AD he attacked their army under the leadership of Abdullah ibn Wahab al-Rasibi at Nahrawan almost annihilating them. Nahrawan was the third and last battle Imam Ali had to partake in with his internal enemies. ‘Utba ibn ‘Alqama said: “I entered Imam Ali’s house and saw that he was eating dry bread with stale milk. I asked: ‘Oh Commander of the Faithful, how do you live off such food?’ He answered: ‘The Prophet of God ate bread which was drier than this and wore clothes which were coarser than these that I wear. I am afraid if I do anything other than this I will not be reunited with the Messenger of God’.” The word used is dhimmi meaning a non-Muslim citizen of a Muslim state whose rights and obligations are contractually determined. They have to pay the jizyah tax in exchange for the protection they receive and in lieu of the taxes, such as zakat, that only Muslims pay. It refers to the attack of Sufyan ibn ‘Awf on the city of Anbar that took place at the time of Imam Ali’s rule. One of the soldiers stopped two women, one a Muslim and the other a dhimmi and robbed them of their anklets, bracelets and earrings. Qur’an 47:12

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to a tradition, the unbeliever eats with seven stomachs, whereas the believer eats with only one.62 The believer has just one stomach which accepts only that which is lawful. He adapts his appetite, his other desires to the laws of Islam so that he does not violate those laws. But the unbeliever eats with seven stomachs. Satiating one’s lusts without concern for the laws of Islam, this constitutes one stomach. Satiating one’s anger without concern for the law, this is another stomach. Satisfying one’s carnal desires, this is another. Another three are created from a mixture of any two of the above three, and another one comes from all these three together. That makes seven. The unbelievers have seven stomachs but the believer has no more than one, and his stomach is satisfied in the way of the law. Islam has commanded just one way. It’s not the case that the believer follows his anger or his lusts, these are controlled by him. All these forces within him are subordinate to the power of wisdom, and this itself is subject to the law of Islam. The Muslims should mourn the passing of that government of wisdom, that government of justice, belief and God; they should commemorate those few years of Imam Ali’s rule. Gentlemen, these matters of which I am to speak are not imaginary. Unfortunately, I have received letters and complaints from Iran about the situation there which do not cease to trouble me. One of the respected ulama of Shiraz has written saying that famine has afflicted some families in the south of the country to the extent that hunger has forced them to sell their children.63 One of the ulama from Fasa64 has also written to me about the situation in the country saying that he wanted to arrange some food and clothes for the impoverished people, and I agreed that he could use money from the charitable contributions65 for this purpose. Letters have also arrived from Tehran telling me that there is famine in Baluchistan and Sistan and in the outlying regions of Khorasan such that the people have swarmed into the major cities and because of hunger they can no longer keep their livestock. While these tragic circumstances and conditions prevail around the country, millions of tumans are to be spent celebrating in honor of the monarchy.66 According 62 63

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The word used is mi’a meaning stomach. The Prophet (s) said: “Soon after I leave you, there will be food that the believer will eat with one stomach and the unbeliever with seven.” Wasa’il al-Shia, vol. 16, p. 406. Some of the disasters that Imam refers to here were reported in the newspapers of the day. Kayhan newspaper dated May 31, 1971/Khordad 10, 1351 SH reported: “Many deprived people are so poor that with heavy hearts and tearful eyes they are abandoning their beloved children on the wayside and street corners so that they do not have to witness their gradual death. Their pictures and particulars continually appear in the newspapers.” Small city near Shiraz. Share of the Imam: Sahm-i Imam, moneys paid to the Imam, or, in the period of his occultation, to the ulama, for charitable disbursement. After the arrest and exile of Imam Khomeini in 1963 [1342 SH], the opponents of the Shah’s regime embarked on an underground struggle. From 1966 onwards, the Shah, in a bid to demonstrate his power and position, and also to distract the people and keep them amused and occupied, began to hold many festivals. The most important of these was the celebration marking 2,500 years of monarchy in Iran. For the holding of this festival, which is remembered as the greatest show on earth, a city comprising portable palaces and tents furnished with the most expensive decorations was erected beside the ancient site of Takht-e Jamshid (Persepolis). Nine kings, five queens, twenty-one princesses and numerous presidents, vice-presidents and prime ministers from different countries of the world attended the ceremonies. The food at Persepolis was prepared by the expensive, international restaurant “Maxim’s” of France aided by other leading French and Swiss chefs and caterers. The only food on the menu that was Iranian was caviar (which the Shah would not touch); almost everything else came from France. The dishes, cutlery, wine glasses and tea cups used were the best of their kind and the most expensive in the world. All this was taking place at a time when the majority of Iranian people did not enjoy such basic amenities as water, electricity and medical care. Time magazine, in its August 4, 1980 edition wrote: “Even the story-teller Shahrzad, in her one-thousand-and-one tales, could not bring alive the magnificent scenes of the celebrations for 2,500 years of Iranian monarchy at the ruins of Takht-e Jamshid. When the Shah held this great show at Takht-e Jamshid, he saw himself as the inheritor of one of the oldest monarchical regimes in the world which would endure for centuries and even till the end of history. Which one of his distinguished guests could have imagined that the history of 2,500 years of monarchy in Iran would end with Muhammad Reza Shah himself?”

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to reports, 80 million tumans are to be spent on Tehran alone preparing the city for the festivities. Experts have been invited from Israel to take care of the arrangements for the celebrations; from Israel, that country which is the enemy of Islam, which is at present at war with Islam, which destroyed the al-Aqsa Mosquea crime which some people sought to cover up.67 In addition, according to the world’s major radio stations, Iranian oil tankers are on their way to Israel filled with Iranian oil for a country which is at war with the Muslims!68 These are the actions of the kings that we have to hold festivals for!

DISGRACED MONARCHY Since its inception to the present time, the Iranian monarchy has befouled history. The crimes of the kings of Iran have blackened the pages of history. It is the kings of Iran who massacred their own people, who beheaded them and built towers with their skulls.69 Should the Islamic nation now honor the rule of such monarchs with a celebration?! Should the merchants of the bazaar in Tehran now be forced to contribute to such festivities?! One should commemorate the ruler in whose shelter the Muslims lived comfortably. One should commemorate a ruler who, when he hears that an anklet has been stolen from a non-Muslim woman living under the protection of Islam, wishes to die of shame, not he who, because a slogan is uttered in the university which runs counter to his carnal desires, sends his men to the university to beat the students. Gentlemen, according to reports that have reached here, some female students needed surgery as a result of 67

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The al-Aqsa Mosque: the site in Jerusalem where the Prophet ascended to heaven in the eleventh year of his mission (Qur’an 17: 1); also the complex of mosques and buildings erected on the site. The chief of these was set aflame by the occupiers of Palestine on August 21, 1969. The day after this disaster, the Iranian newspapers led their readers to believe that the fire had not been started intentionally and that the Zionist regime was also shocked and saddened by the event. It was also announced through an official declaration that: “The Shah and the people of Iran, like other Muslims, will be among the first to compensate for the damage done by this fire and will proudly pay their share for rebuilding the al-Aqsa Mosque- the qiblah of the Muslims” A bank account was subsequently opened and the people were asked to donate money to pay for the damage. At that time, Imam was opposed to the mosque’s repair for he wanted this crime of the Quds usurpers to remain for all the Muslims of the world to see and for it to act as a further provocation for the Palestinian combatants. After the defeat of the Arab governments in the Six Day War with Israel in 1967, the Arab world witnessed an increase in anti-Western, especially anti-American, sentiment among its people. America had always shown itself to be Israel’s patron and main supplier of arms, thus, the Arab countries decided that in the event of another war with Israel, they would cut the production and export of oil to the West. Later, in October 1973, the Arab oil weapon was unsheathed on behalf of the Egyptians and Syrians who had once again embarked on a war with Israel in an attempt to free their territories from Israeli occupation. The Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, meeting in Kuwait on October 17, 1973 decided to cut production and bring about a total embargo on all oil for the US and the Netherlands until Israel withdrew from all occupied Arab territories. The rich industrialized countries were at first appalled by this action which threatened to place their economies in jeopardy. However, the US and its allies were only marginally affected by the embargo because the Shah announced his opposition to it and agreed to increase production of Iranian oil to meet the needs of the Western market. One of the fundamental aims behind this increase was to meet the requirements of Israel and South Africa. The history of monarchy in Iran has been marked by atrocities. To cite just a few: In 1356, Teymur, among the most celebrated practitioners of the custom of building skull-pyramids, slaughtered 70,000 people in Isfahan and built a pyramid with their skulls. The eighteenthcentury monarch Nadir Shah Afshar in 1744 set off to crush a rebellion against him led by the Governor-General of Fars Province, Qia Quli Aqa. As he approached the rebel’s base in Shiraz, the people of that town, afraid for their lives, seized the Governor-General and handed him over to Nadir Shah’s troops. The monarch then decided not to carry on to Shiraz, but went to Kerman instead to where he summoned all the aristocrats, officials and leaders of Fars province and, along with the leaders of Kerman, had most of them killed and built two towers from their heads. Shiraz was sacked by his soldiery anyway and they pillaged every house and slaughtered many citizens. In 1794, Aqa Muhammad Khan Qajar attacked the city of Kerman in a bid to capture his adversary, Lutf Ali Khan Zand, who had sought refuge there. He proved successful in entering the city and Lutf Ali Khan fled to Bam where he was later captured, blinded and put to death. Aqa Muhammad Khan then killed or gouged the eyes out of numerous people in vengeance for their giving shelter to Lutf Ali Khan. He then transferred the bodies of the dead to the city of Bam where he had a number of skull-pyramids erected. Refer to Sharh-e Hal-e Rijal-e Siyasi-ye Iran, vol. 3, pp. 246- 377 and Shaytan-e Sabz, p. 190.

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the blows and wounds they received. This crime happened just recently but here in Najaf no one is aware of it [the audience weeps]. I am not able to mention the other shameful deeds that they perpetrated. Why did this happen? Their only crime was opposing the twenty-five hundredth anniversary celebrations and saying: “We have no need of this festival; we are hungry; put an end to the hunger of the Muslim people; do not celebrate over the corpses of the people.” Gentlemen, let the world know about these things. Why is Najaf so sound asleep? Do we not have a responsibility? Is our only duty to study? Should we pay no attention to the problems of the Muslims? Are we not to protest that the oil belonging to Iran and Islam is sent to a country which is at war with Muslims? Is there no cause for protest here? Should we not speak about this?70 Which kings are we to commemorate? What happiness have kings ever brought the people? Should we commemorate Aqa Muhammad Khan Qajar?!71 Even in my time the Qajars were still committing atrocities. Should we commemorate the monarch who massacred the Muslims in the mosque of Goharshad in such numbers that the walls were stained with blood and the gates of the mosque had to be closed so that none see the spectacle?72 Should we celebrate the rule of that monarch who was responsible for the events of Khordad 15, who killed, according to one of the ulama, four hundred people in Qum alone, who had fifteen thousand people massacred throughout Iran? Should we commemorate the rule of these people?! Even those that were reputed to be ‘good’ were vile and cruel. It is related that one such ‘good’ monarch, for whose soul prayers are said, once on the way to ‘Abd al-’Azim ordered a group of poor hungry soldiers, who had dared to assemble about his coach to ask for bread and because a stone thrown by one of them had struck his carriage, to be strangled with a rope.73 The order was carried out in part before one of 70 71

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Here Imam is alluding to the quietism of the maraji’ and ulama of Najaf and their opposition to his policies and his involvement in such matters. Muhammad Khan Qajar (1741-1797 AD) was the founder of the Qajar dynasty. After the merciless killing of Lutfullah Khan Zand in 1794, he made Tehran his capital and crowned himself king. Aqa Muhammad Khan was a fearless, bloodthirsty and cruel man. When in his battle with Lutfullah Khan Zand he captured the city of Kerman and failed to find Lutfullah Khan, the latter having fled to the city of Bam, he ordered the massacre of the people of Kerman. Some inhabitants escaped with their lives only to be blinded under the personal supervision of the Shah. His soldiers gouged 35,000 eyes out of their sockets and took 30,000 women and children prisoner. Aqa Muhammad Khan went mad at the end of his life and met his death at the hands of three of his servants. Refer to Sharh-e hal-e Rijal-e Siyasiye Iran, vol. 3, pp. 246-257. In late 1935, Reza Khan gave orders for strict enforcement of his decree requiring men to wear Western headgear and the Islamic veils of women to be removed. This move angered the people and prompted opposition from the clergy. Ayatullah Haj Aqa Husayn Qummi, a religious leader of Mashhad, traveled to Tehran in protest. He set up residence in the vicinity of the shrine of Abdul-Azim (a descendant of Imam Hasan) and when the people heard of his arrival, they rushed from all areas of Tehran to the shrine to see him. The gathering of people there worried Reza Khan, and he gave orders that the residence of Ayatullah Qummi and the shrine be surrounded and no one be allowed to enter. When news of this occurrence reached Mashhad, the people held a large gathering in the new courtyard of the shrine of Imam Reza (as) and immediately orders were given to shoot those gathered there. After this event, Bahlul, a famous preacher of Khorasan province, called the mourners of those murdered in the incident to come together at the mosque of Goharshad, part of the shrine complex in that city. Upon hearing of this second large gathering, Reza Khan ordered that machine-gun fire be used to disperse the crowd and that mercy be shown to no one. Police in Mashhad, along with the infantry, entered the mosque and massacred several hundred people. The bodies of the martyrs and even the wounded were then mercilessly loaded onto trucks and taken out of the city where they were buried in a mass grave. The site of this grave is known as the ‘seat of carnage’.

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It is written that Nasiruddin Shah had set off to make a pilgrimage to the shrine of Abdul-Azim. Along the way, his entourage was stopped by a group of soldiers who had gathered on the road to complain to the Shah about their commander ‘Ala ad-Dawlah, who had stolen from their rations and wages. Their commander, who was accompanying the Shah, came forward and began to shout at the soldiers, but they abused him and threw stones at him. One of the stones struck the royal carriage, angering the Shah. On his return to the city, he ordered that the soldiers be summoned into his presence. In a bid to prevent the killing of the poor soldiers, the courtiers brought a number of those who were young, tall and handsome before the Shah so that he might spare them because of their youth. But the Shah

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the great ministers, one of the noblemen of Iran,74 objected saying that they were only poor servants of God and shouldn’t be treated so. His intervention caused the rest to be spared. This was one of the ‘good’ monarchs; the deeds of the evil monarchs are much worse, as we are witnessing now.

WE SHOULD MOURN FOR THESE GOVERNMENTS They eat with seven stomachs! They pay no attention to the nation, to the elementary needs of the nation. People address themselves to us constantly from all over Iran asking permission to use the charitable taxes for the building of bathhouses. So what is all this talk about the Iranian people being prosperous and content? Are they prosperous when they sell their children because of hunger?! Is Iran now prospering? They are now extorting money by pressure and force from the merchants of the bazaars of the country so they can spend some of it on these shameful festivities and use the rest for themselves or their agents. They spend the wealth of the poor people and Muslims for these celebrations, and from the country’s budget they spend millions, tens of millions on such an amusement, such an idiotic spectacle. For what? To satisfy their carnal desires. So that it can be said that we are the people who have celebrated; we are proud that we had Aqa Muhammad Qajar, we are proud that we had Nadir Quli. God knows what a ruthless butcher he was.75 Should we commemorate these people? The Muslims must mourn the existence of such rulers. They should commemorate a ruler who, when he thinks that someone may be going hungry in a far corner of his realm, suffers hunger voluntarily himself. His seat of government was the mosque in Kufah, his bench of judgment was situated in one corner of the mosque and he “ate food as a slave eats and sat as a slave sits.”76 According to tradition, he once bought two tunics, and finding one of them better than the other, he gave the better one

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ordered that they all had to be strangled. News of this event was reported in the European newspapers of the time, and the Shah, in an attempt to cover up his crime, dismissed the commander of the soldiers. Refer to Ahzab-e Siyasi-ye Iran, p. 226. The person referred to is Mirza Yusuf Ashtiyani (1812- 1886 AD) known by the title Mustawfi al-Mamalik and nicknamed ‘Aqa’. Nadir Quli Afshar Qarakhlu (1687- 1747), one of the kings of Iran and the founder of the Afsharid dynasty, was a prisoner of the Uzbeks in his youth and after escaping from them, he entered the service of the governor of Abivard. While in his service, Nadir Quli showed great expertise, and for this reason as well as his success in crushing the governor’s enemies, he was promoted to a position close to the governor and married his daughter, Gauhar Shad. A short while after, Nadir led a successful uprising against his master and ordered that he be skinned alive in front of him. Following these events, Nadir Quli entered the service of the Safavid ruler Shah Tahmasp and, as head of his army, he won back all the Safavid territories which had fallen into the hands of the Russians, Ottomans and Afghans and crushed all his internal and external enemies. In 1732, Nadir Quli deposed Tahmasp in favor of his infant son Abbas and in 1736 he formally assumed power himself and became known as Nadir Shah. His constant campaigns were paid for by enormous taxes and heavy contributions and were, on numerous occasions, the direct cause of famine in many areas of the country. Indeed, his bloody assault on India in 1738-39 was prompted by the promise of an immense booty to replenish his depleted treasury. Nadir Shah’s rule, like that of most of the Persian kings, was marked by atrocities, bloodshed and oppression. Eighteen years of war during his reign wreaked destruction and famine on the country and brought much suffering to the people. His lust for blood led him to murder on a mass scale; the slaughter of the people of Shiraz in 1744 and the erection of two grim towers made from their heads serves as just one example of the atrocities he committed against the people. Intrigues against him were rife, and when in 1741/2 an attempt was made on his life, he had his own son, Reza Quli Mirza, blinded because he suspected him of complicity in the plot. At the end of his life he went insane and killed a great number of his tribal chiefs and courtiers. However, his intention to kill some of his army heads and relatives was not realized as in 1747 he met his death at the hands of a group of chiefs from his own tribe of the Afshar who conspired together with some of the Qajar chiefs. Refer to Sharh-e hal-e Rijal-e Siyasi-ye Iran, vol. 4, p. 193. A tradition related by Imam al-Baqir (as) on the personality and behavior of the Messenger of God says: “The Messenger of God ate food as a slave eats and sat as a slave sits.” Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 16, p. 225.

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to his servants Qanbar.77 The other he kept for himself, and since its sleeves were too long for him, he tore off the extra portion and in this torn garment the ruler of a country ten times the size of Iran went out to deliver his sermon. This gives cause for celebration.

AWAKEN NAJAF Gentlemen, come to your senses; awaken Najaf. Protest against these crimes. If one hundred telegrams were sent from Najaf in a polite form and showing full respect, even using the title ‘His Most Exalted Highness’,78 requesting that these hungry people be fed, that all this expense that the government wants to pay out on these affairs be spent on this misfortunate hungry nation, on this poor, bankrupt people some of whom have run away from Iran and some of whom are here; if one hundred telegrams were sent to Iran by the religious scholars and students here, it may have some effect. But unfortunately, such an idea occurs to no one and I should be only too grateful that no one complains to me about my criticisms of the Iranian government! Really, don’t we have a duty to perform here? Should we just sit back and pay no attention to the circumstances of the people or to what tragedies befall them? Is it enough for us to simply go to Imam Ali’s shrine, pray for them and come back? We who depend on Islam for our living- even though our budget may only be little, still we are living off that- are we not to lift a finger for the sake of Islam? Is tarattub79 Islam? Well fair enough, in its place it is; but is that enough? Is it enough that we gather in such and such a mosque and study Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) and dogmatic theology (usul) but remain unaware of the concerns of Muslims? Are we to ignore this Jew who wants to seize all the lands of Islam up to Iraq and destroy these shrines? Is then that person80 who gives him oil a Muslim? Do we not have cause to object, to ask why sir are you giving the oil of Muslims to the unbelievers? Why are you giving the oil of Muslims to a people who are at war with the Muslims? Of course he will answer: “I’m a servant, I’ve been given orders and I have to carry them out.” Naturally, a servant has no other choice but to obey his masters. He said himself in one of his speeches81 that the Allies had installed him on the throne: “The Allies, after occupying Iran, thought it fitting that I should be in control of affairs, and they agreed to my accession to the throne.” May God curse them for thinking it fitting. Someone who is a puppet has to serve his masters; he cannot do otherwise. All this stems from following carnal desires. Attacking the universities comes from 77

The true name of Qanbar was Abi ash-Sha’ta Mawli ibn Mu’ammar. He was an African slave who was freed by Imam Ali. Qanbar was the name that Imam Ali gave him. Qanbar was very devoted to Imam Ali and was dedicated in his service to him. For his part, Imam Ali trusted Qanbar greatly. After Imam Ali’s martyrdom, Qanbar entered the service of Imam Hasan and just before the uprising of Imam Hussayn, he was imprisoned by the Umayyads and was eventually martyred during the reign of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan at the age of sixty-five by Hajjaj ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi. For more details please visit: https://en.wikishia.net/view/Qanbar

78

It refers to the title the Shah used for himself.

79

Tarattub is one of the subjects discussed in the study of the principles and ordinances of Islamic law that the Usuls have referred to in their investigations into commands (to prevent the contradiction of two commands). Refer to the book by Akhund Khorasani (1839 – 1911 AD), Kifayat al-Usul.

80 81

The Shah. On January 26, 1965/Bahman 6, 1343 SH, the Shah, in a message delivered to the people of Iran on the occasion of the anniversary of the announcement of the White Revolution (January 26, 1963), said: “He (Reza Khan) had to go. They felt that his son and successor was of the same sentiment as he, and of course this was so. So what was to be done? For two or three days the Allies of that time and the occupiers of Iran were hesitant about recognizing the new Iranian regime, that is my rule.... but then they said well, the king must remain but the role of the king must be that of a powerless overseer.” This confession was later concealed from the public and all copies of it were collected. Refer to The Rise and Fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty, Memoirs of General Fardoust, vol. 1, p. 100.

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nothing other than carnal desires. Attacking the Fayziyyah Madrasah and the perpetration of such unthinkable, opprobrious deeds there stem from carnal desires. They insulted the Qur’an and Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq82 in this attack, they set fire to the students’ turbans and threw some of them off the roof of the building. One young sayyid was brought to our house with a broken back after they had thrown him off the roof. Should we now celebrate the rule of such a person? There is nothing for us to celebrate. What is there for the Iranian nation to celebrate? It’s the duty of the Iranian nation to engage in passive struggle against this festival, acts of violence are not necessary. They should refrain from participation in these festivities and remain indoors during the days of the festival. They should avoid participating as far as possible. If all the ulama of Iran were to protest collectively against these celebrations would the authorities arrest them all, banish them or execute them all?! If all the ulama of Iran, who number at least 150,000, all the mullahs, maraji’, Hujjat al-Islams and Ayatullahs were to protest and break this seal of silence, this silence which in fact endorses these atrocities, would the authorities destroy them all? If they were able to do this, they would first destroy me, but their interests do not permit them to do so. If it would be only in their interest to destroy me! What life is this that I lead? Death to this life of mine. They imagine that I am very happy and content with my life and so they think that they can threaten me. Let them come, the sooner the better.83 Death as soon as possible would be better than this life; then I might join the presence of the Most Noble One in the Hereafter, where nobleness and kindness reign supreme, and be delivered from this life of misfortune. What life is this that I lead, constantly hearing the cries and moans of our oppressed and tyrannized people? Every day news arrives of the atrocities they have committed against the young women. How they have killed some of them, how bandits and ruffians attacked the university at lunch time and poured boiling liquid from the pans over the students’ heads. For what? Because they said down with so-and-so and long live so-and-so. Should they kill people because of this? They said why do we need a 2,500 years of monarchy celebration? Those people should celebrate who have some kind of life, who have a government under whose protection they are happy and comfortable. One should celebrate the rule of 82

83

The assault on the Fayziyyah Madrasah took place on March 22, 1963/Farvardin 2, 1342 SH and coincided with the anniversary of the martyrdom of Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (as). The Shia theological centers have been recognized for many years as being the centers for the teachings of Imam al-Sadiq, and because of this, Imam saw this shameful act on the part of the regime, in which copies of the Qur’an were also set alight, as an affront to Imam al-Sadiq. Here Imam is giving his reply to the threats made against him by the regime and which Hujjat al-Islam wal-Muslimin Haj Sayyid Ahmad Khomeini has written about in his memoirs: “Following the killing of America’s pawn, Teymur Bakhtiyar- who was made the Military Governor of Tehran after the coup d’état of August 19, 1952/Mordad 28, 1332 SH and later became the first head of SAVAK- by SAVAK agents in a completely secret operation (refer to the Memoirs of General Fardoust, vol. 1, p. 415) while he was out hunting in Iraq and as he was being closely guarded by the Iraqi Ba’ath party, the deputy head of SAVAK in Qum came to the house of Mr. Ishraqi, Imam’s sonin-law, to deliver, as he put it, a very important message from SAVAK headquarters to myself and Mr. Ishraqi. He spoke for more than an hour, but the gist of his message can be summed up in a few sentences: “After killing Mr. Bakhtiyar, the Iraqi government now intends to assassinate Mr. Khomeini in Najaf and lay the blame for it on us- the Iranian government! Tell Mr. Khomeini about this.” As he was leaving, he said: “If you wish, you can also divulge this matter to the public, it will be alright!” After his departure I told Mr. Ishraqi: “SAVAK has a particular aim and wants everyone to know about this.” I told Imam about the matter, but I did not tell anyone else. Our silence compelled SAVAK to go to Mr. Falsafi, the famous preacher, and tell him what they had told me. Mr. Falsafi, who was not aware of the truth of the matter, made it public in one of his sermons. Imam Khomeini’s understanding of this message was that the regime had threatened him and in effect what they were saying was: “We killed Bakhtiyar even though he was closely guarded by Iraq; you have no one to guard you!”

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Imam Ali whose people were protected within the shadow of his sword, whose people were secure; no one was afraid of his rule. No one was afraid of the government because it was a government of justice and a government of justice excites no fear. But is this the case with the Iranian government? In our country circumstances are such that everyone lives in fear waiting for the government agents to burst into their homes. They may be innocent, but the authorities attack, arrest and torture now on the strength of mere suspicion. It is just like the time of Ibn Ziyad and Hajjaj when if it was even suspected that someone might be a follower of Imam Ali he was seized and destroyed.84 If someone offers them a word of advice or publishes a few copies of an admonitive pamphlet, they arrest him and take him off to some unknown destination. If someone utters a word from the pulpit, if he says something which does not even have much impact on the people, still he is arrested and carried off to prison. Don’t we have a duty to at least expose these crimes?

THE NECESSITY OF THE CLERGY’S COLLECTIVE PROTEST AGAINST THE HOLDING OF CELEBRATION MARKING THE 2,500- YEARS OF MONARCHY. What do I consider as my duty? I consider it my duty to remind you that such things are taking place, to cry out with all the strength at my command and to write and publish with whatever power my pen may have. If my colleagues too consider it proper, if they regard the nation of Islam as their own nation, if they consider that nation to comprise of their followers then let them do the same. And if they do not consider it proper, they must decide for themselves, and may God watch over them. What are we to do in the face of all these problems? Even though we have still not purified ourselves, for if we had we would be thinking about these problems, should I now sit and speak to you about ethics and self-purification while the Muslims and the foundations of Islam are being destroyed!? You have a path of action open to you. Each of you writes a letter of protest to the government of Iran. A stamp doesn’t cost much, even though your income is very little; write a letter for God’s sake. Tell them to abandon this festival, to feed the hungry. Ask the learned scholars and authorities of Najaf to give some advice to the Iranian government. I do not even say they must protest, rather, by way of exhortation and counsel let them ask very politely that they cease behaving towards our people in this way.85 They are making the people suffer, and if they are allowed to continue unrestrained still worse misfortunes will descend upon us. Every day new events are created. They even have special experts for dreaming up these

84

After the martyrdom of Imam Ali (as) in 40 AH, the Shia suffered persecution at the hands of subsequent rulers on numerous occasions. ‘Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad (died 686 AD), one of Yazid’s henchmen, from the beginning of his governorship over Kufah when he martyred Muslim ibn Aqeel to the end of his life, killed, tortured or imprisoned twelve thousand Shia for the crime of devotion to Imam Ali. It was on his orders that many followers of Imam Ali had their hands and feet severed and their tongues cut out. Maytham Tammar (d. 680 AD)was one who suffered this cruel fate at the hands of Ziyad because he refused to curse Imam Ali and continued in his unswerving loyalty to him and his house even after Imam Ali’s death. Ziyad participated in the battle against Imam Husayn at Karbala. Another ruthless, bloodthirsty governor at the time of the Umayyad caliphate was Hajjaj ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi (661- 714 AD) who considered the non-believers and fire-worshippers to be superior to the followers of Imam Ali. He was infamous for the cruelty he displayed on behalf of his masters in both Iraq and the Hijaz, and killed thousands of people simply because they were Shia. Refer to Tarikh al-Shia, p. 40.

85

Here Imam’ words show quite clearly his isolation in the struggle and his alienation in Najaf. The prevailing atmosphere of quietism and indifference in the school is also made quite obvious.

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events. Every day they create a new festival, a new idiotic spectacle. If matters continue on their present course, we will be faced with events in the near future that none of us can even imagine. It may be effective if we make our protests known to the Islamic countries which plan to take part in these vile festivals, if we ask them not to partake in these sordid celebrations, not to participate in the murder of the Iranian nation. Tell the Islamic countries to shun all participation in this festival that is being arranged by Israeli experts and engineers on the outskirts of Shiraz.86

ISRAEL’S CONSPIRACY AGAINST ISLAM Experts from Israel are taking care of the arrangements- from Israel, that enemy of Islam and the Qur’an which a few years ago attempted to corrupt the text of the Qur’an87 and now imputes to the Qur’an unworthy statements. Just recently the Israelis claimed that Surah Five Verse Six of the Qur’an says that after easing nature, the Muslim does not have the right to wash his hands with soap only with water, and that this has been the cause of some of the diseases in Germany. This matter created such a hullabaloo in that country. What is Verse Six of Surah Five? It is a verse which talks about ritual cleanliness.88 This is what the Israelis are like. They bear so much animosity towards Islam. Our students abroad vigorously protested against this and refuted these statements, may God strengthen and assist them. They wrote to the newspapers, but some of the government-controlled press did not accept their arguments and those which did, did not really give enough publicity to their counter-arguments. They met with the authorities and told them that this was a lie; they proved its falsehood in articles in their newspapers and magazines. They performed such a great service for Islam. Can the same be said about us? They are the students of the modern sciences, but they are Muslim, they are awake while you and I as students of the traditional sciences are asleep or involved with other things. One should not speak out about the situation here! Speaking out is incompatible with the position of a marja’ or an akhund! Shouldn’t the akhunds speak out?!89

INTERFERENCE IN POLITICS AS DUTY OF THE CLERGY Were not the Prophet and Imam Ali, religious scholars? and did they not preach long sermons? How is it that now, when it is the turn of the present generation of religious scholars to speak out, we make excuses so we can shirk our responsibility. Gentlemen, do not let allow yourselves to be taught to think like this. It 86 87 88

It refers to the celebrations of 2,500 years of Iranian monarchy which were held at Takht-e Jamshid, fifty-six kilometers north-east of Shiraz on the Marv Dasht plateau. Soon after the Six Day War, it was reported that copies of the Qur’an were circulating in the territories seized by the Zionists, as well as in African countries, from which all verses critical of the Jews had been excised. Surah al-Ma’idah 4: 6: “O you who have faith! When you stand up for prayer, wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows,

and wipe a part of your heads and your feet, up to the ankles. If you are junub, purify yourselves. But if you are sick, or on a journey, or any of you has come from the toilet, or you have touched women, and you cannot find water, then make tayammum with clean ground and wipe a part of your faces and your hands with it. Allah does not desire to put you to hardship, but He desires to purify you, and to complete His blessing upon you so that you may give thanks.” In 1971, a West German newspaper claimed that the spread of a contagious disease among Muslims was due to their lack of personal hygiene and that this had been brought about because the Qur’an had prohibited Muslims from washing themselves with soap. The article cited Verse Six, Surah Five in support of its claim and stated that because Muslims wash themselves without the use of soap or any other cleansing agent, bacteria was not killed and disease followed. This article was not left without answer and the Muslim students in Europe wrote articles refuting the claim and held a seminar on hygiene from an Islamic point of view. 89

It points to the quietism of the Najaf theological center.

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is your duty to serve Islam, and service to Islam does not just mean studying, this is only one aspect of it. You have a duty to concern yourselves with the problems of the Muslims. You have a duty to interfere. How often we have been told we must not interfere in affairs of state. It seems that we have in fact come to believe that we should not interfere in the affairs of government, we should not object. Yet since the very beginning of history the prophets and scholars of religion have stood up to tyrannical governments. Did they not realize that they were not supposed to do this? When God the Blessed and Exalted sent Moses to destroy Pharaoh, didn’t He know that one must not struggle against kings? It is related in a tradition and quoted in either the work of Tabari90 or Ibn Athir91, that the Prophet said that the title of ‘King of kings’ is the most repugnant of all titles in his eyes.92 It is one of the most hated titles given to a human being. This title is for God. From the very beginning, the prophets and after them the Imams (as) all rose up against kings and tyrannical governments, not relinquishing the struggle even under conditions of extreme difficulty or imprisonment. Musa ibn Ja’far continued his struggle even in prison.93 Abi ‘Abdillah94 practiced dissimulation (taqiyyah) and related the maqbulah tradition95 and at the same time he confronted them; he confronted them with words and propaganda and by this means he urged the people on in their struggles against the king. Imam

90 91 92 93

94 95

Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838- 923 AD) who was born in Tabaristan in Iran is one of the great Muslim historians and the writer of Tarikh-e Tabari. ‘Izzuddin ibn al-Athir (1160- 1234 AD) is one of the great Muslim historians and transmitters of Prophetic traditions. His history entitled Kamil at-Tawarikh and famous as Tarikh-e ibn Athir is one of the famous history books. It is related in a tradition accounted to the Prophet of Islam, thus: “The most hated of all titles in the sight of God is ‘King of kings’. Refer to Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, p. 1688 Imam Abul-Hasan Musa al-Kazim (as), son of Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (as), was the seventh of the Twelve Imams, and generally known as Imam Musa al-Kazim. He was born in Medina in 744 AD and martyred in prison in Baghdad in 799 AD. In the book Durr at-Tanzim, an example of Imam Musa ibn Ja’far’s opposition to Harun ar-Rashid is cited. Harun ar-Rashid sent Fazl ibn Rabi’ to Imam Musa (as) in prison to give him a message. Fazl said: “I saw Imam at prayer. I stood waiting a while for him to finish. After finishing one prayer, he immediately began another, and repeated this act several times until I began to speak. I said: “The Commander of the Faithful sent me to you and ordered that I tell his brother to command anything he wants and bring it for him.” Upon hearing this Imam said: “Neither have I money that will be of benefit, nor has God created me as one who pleads.” Then he said: “Allahu Akbar” [“God is Great”] and began to pray again.” The fourth Imam, Ali, known as Zayn al-’Abidin and Imam al-Sajjad (658- 712 AD) even from his prison cell kept in contact with the combatants of his time and led the struggle against the repressive regime. For more details on the life of Imam al-Kazim (as), please see: The Life of Imam Musa Ibn Ja’far al-Kazim by Baqir Sharif al-Qurashi, available at: https://www.al-islam.org/life-imam-musa-bin-jafar-alkazim-baqir-shareef-al-qurashi In the language of the traditions and Islamic jurisprudence, “Abi ‘Abdillah” is the title by which the sixth Imam, Ja’far ibn Muhammad alSadiq (as) is known. The maqbulah tradition is the tradition of ‘Umar ibn Hanzalah who asked Imam al-Sadiq (as), the sixth Imam, whether it was permissible in the event of a disagreement between two Shia concerning a debt or a legacy to seek the verdict of the ruler or judge. He replied: “Anyone who has recourse to the ruler or judge, whether his case be just or unjust, has in reality had recourse to the taghut (i.e. the illegitimate ruling power). Whatever he obtains as a result of their verdict, he will have obtained by forbidden means, even if he has a proven right to it, for he will have obtained it through the verdict and judgment of the taghut, that power which God Almighty has commanded him to disbelieve in: “They wish to seek justice from illegitimate powers, even though they have been commanded to disbelieve therein.” [Qur’an 4: 60]. Imam al-Sadiq then advised the Shia to refer to one of the fuqaha i.e. one learned in the principles and ordinances of Islamic law, or, more generally in all aspects of the faith. Those learned in the study of traditions have called this tradition the maqbulah tradition, and even though its chain of authorities [isnad] is weak, still it is accepted and referred to by the fuqaha. Refer to Wasa’il al-Shia, vol. 18, the section on the attributes of judges, pp. 98- 99; Imam Khomeini, Kitab al-Bay’, vol. 2, p.

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Hasan rose up against the king of his day, Mu’awiyah, as far as he was able,96 even though at that time most people had sworn allegiance to Mu’awiyah and recognized him as their king. And when he was betrayed by a group of self-seeking, opportunistic followers and left without support, the very conditions of the peace treaty that he signed with Mu’awiyah disgraced that monarch97, just as later, the bloody revolt of the Doyen of the Martyrs (Imam Husayn) disgraced Yazid. The confrontation has always continued. Later on the great scholars of Islam fought against the tyrants who spent the wealth of their country on debauchery and trivial

96

During the last year of Imam Ali’s caliphate, Mu’awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan, the governor of Syria and the main challenger of Imam Ali, managed to bring a large part of the Muslim lands under his control. Nevertheless, he could not claim for himself the title of “Commander of the Faithful” while Imam Ali was still alive. Immediately after Imam Ali’s death, the office of caliph was passed on to his eldest son Imam Hasan (as). His acclamation as caliph by the people was a great cause of alarm to Mu’awiyah who had been working for the office for many years and who with the death of Imam Ali at last saw a clear path to undisputed authority. He lost no time in taking action, he denounced the appointment, sent many of his agents and spies to arouse the people against Imam Hasan, gathered an army of 60,000 men and marched against the new caliph. When Mu’awiyah’s warlike intentions became clear, Imam Hasan had to prepare for battle. In a sermon delivered in the Friday Mosque, he invited the people to take part in a jihad against Mu’awiyah. Initially the people showed fickleness and lack of enthusiasm to do battle with Mu’awiyah. It was only when people such as ‘Adi ibn Hatam, an old and devoted follower of Imam Ali and chief of the tribe of Tayyi, and Qays ibn Sa’d ibn ‘Ubada al-Ansari, a trusted commander of Imam Ali’s army, addressed the people urging them to respond to the call of Imam Hasan, did they come out to participate in the war. When the people announced their readiness to fight, Imam Hasan sent a vanguard of between 12,000 to 14,000 men under the command of Ubaydullah ibn al-Abbas. Soon after, Imam Hasan left Kufah with his main army. However, before he reached his vanguard, some of the troops accompanying him began to show signs that they lacked the necessary ardor and were not ready to make sacrifices in a jihad for their faith. Mu’awiyah’s machinations brought about mutiny in Imam Hasan’s army, his army heads received bribes and one after the other left the battlefield, leaving Imam Hasan to stand alone. Under such circumstances, Imam Hasan was forced to come to terms with Mu’awiyah. For a more detailed account of this event see The Origins and Early Development of Shi’a Islam. S. H. M. Jafri, pp. 130-148.

97

The terms of the peace agreement which was signed by Imam Hasan and Mu’awiyah are as follows: 1) Governance lies with Mu’awiyah on condition that he rules according to the Book of God, the Sunnah (i.e. the practice) of the Prophet and the conduct of the righteous caliphs. 2) The caliphate will be restored to Imam Hasan after the death of Mu’awiyah and if anything were to happen to him, it would pass to Imam Husayn. Mu’awiyah does not have the right to select a successor after him. 3) Mu’awiyah will stop reviling and cursing Imam Ali and he will not mention him in any other than good terms. 4) The treasury of Kufah which contains five million dirhams will not be handed over to Mu’awiyah. Mu’awiyah will send two million dirhams annually for Imam Husayn. Preference will be given to the Bani Hashim over the Bani Umayyah in the granting of gifts and awards. One million dirhams will be divided among the relatives of those martyred while fighting for Imam Ali in the battles of the Camel and Siffin. All this will be paid from the revenues of the district of Darabjird. 5) The people from all over the land- Syria, Iraq, Yemen or the Hijaz- will be secure and this includes every race, black or red. Mu’awiyah will overlook any offences pending against them and no one will be called to account for past offences. The people of Iraq will not be punished in revenge for their past. The companions and followers of Imam Ali, wherever they are, their lives, properties, women and children will be guaranteed and they will be kept safe and secure. They will not be persecuted, injured or deprived of their rights or privileges nor dispossessed of anything which they possess. No dangerous plot will be made for killing Imam Hasan ibn Ali (as) and his brother Imam Husayn, or anyone from the family of the Prophet and nowhere in the regions of the Islamic land will they be intimidated or threatened. In his first speech in the mosque at Kufah, Mu’awiyah dismissed the agreement. However, at the same gathering, Imam Hasan delivered a speech in which he spoke of Mu’awiyah’s treason. His speech was so effective that some of the people gathered there stood up and began to curse Mu’awiyah. Refer to Sulh-e Imam Hasan [The Peace Treaty of Imam Hasan], pp. 353- 358; 385- 392; Shaykh Radi Al-Yasin, Sulh al-Hasan: The Peace Treaty of Al-Hasan, translated by Jasim al-Rasheed (Qum: Ansariyan Publications, 1998). Full text available at: https://www.al-islam.org/sulh-al-hasan-shaykh-radi-aal-yasin.

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enjoyment abroad. One person in particular borrowed great sums of money and went to Europe twice, three times- but are human desires ever satisfied? The ulama opposed his actions.98 At that time they were strong. The nation was vital and alert, the people supported them and they were successful in their struggle. If we too are vital and alert, we will be successful. But unfortunately each one of us persists in his own individual opinion, and naturally, if one hundred million people have one hundred million different opinions, they will be unable to accomplish anything, for “the hand of God is with the group.”99 Solidarity and unity are essential, and isolated individuals can achieve nothing. If the ulama of Qum, Mashhad, Tabriz, Isfahan and the other cities in Iran were to protest collectively today against this scandalous festival and this debauchery that they are about to bring about, if they were to condemn these crimes and extravagances which are destroying the people and the nation, all for the sake of satisfying their own carnal desires, be assured that results would be forthcoming. But as long as each one of us persists in his own individual opinion, persists in thinking that his religious duty is one thing while another believes it to be something else, this is disastrous for Islam. It is disastrous for Islam to have such clergymen. Such clergymen like me are disastrous for Islam. I say these things because an even darker future, God forbid, lies ahead of you.

THE DOYEN OF THE MARTYR’S UPRISING WAS ALSO MEANT FOR SETTING UP A GOVERNMENT You should give these matters some consideration. Do not spend your time creating religious duties for yourselves. It is the apathetic person who says it is not his religious duty to rise up against tyranny. You have more forces at your disposal than the Doyen of the Martyrs did, and he rose up and opposed the king of his time until he was killed. Had he been apathetic, God forbid, he could have said it was not his religious duty to rise up. His enemies would have been only too happy for him to remain silent so that they could attain their vile goals; they were afraid of his rebelling. But he dispatched Muslim100 to procure the people’s allegiance to him so that he might overthrow that corrupt government and set up an Islamic government. If he had stayed in some corner in Medina and had nothing to do with anyone, and when that wretch101 told him to pledge allegiance he had done so, God forbid, they would have shown him a great deal of respect, they would have come to kiss his hand and carry him on their shoulders for he was the grandson of the Prophet. And if you sit silently by, you too will be respected, but it will be the kind of respect that is given to a dead saint. A dead saint is respected by everyone, but a living saint or Imam who speaks out has his 98

During the reign of Muzaffaruddin Shah (1896- 1907 AD), unrestrained spending, the plunderings of corrupt courtiers and the costs of the Shah’s extravagant European tours, emptied the country’s treasury. Circumstances were ripe for exploitation by the imperialist governments of Russia and Britain who, in attempts to increase their influence in the country, stepped in with offers of heavy loans to the bankrupt monarch. In return, they took control of the customs revenues, income from the northern fisheries and the telegraph office as well as some other privileges as insurances against the loans. Money received in loans amounted to more than two million English pounds and thirty-eight million Russian rubles. Active elements among the clergy of the time such as Ayatullah Tabatabai and Ayatullah Behbahani, brave preachers and even the newspapers of the day, objected to these measures and called on the people to stand up for their rights. Refer to Ikhtinaq dar Iran, pp. 13,19.

99 “The hand of God is with the group”: a statement attributed to the Prophet, Sahih Tirmidhi, vol. 9, p. 10. 100 Muslim Ibn Aqil: a cousin and votary of Imam Husayn and was martyred by the Umayyad forces in Muharrum, 61 AH. . 101 Walid ibn Utba (d. 684 AD): The governor of Medina at the time who was told by Yazid, the new Umayyad ruler, to forcibly get pledge of allegiance for Yazid from Imam Husayn (as). Walid belonged to the Umayyad clan and was a son of Utba ibn Abi Sufyan and thus was a paternal nephew of Caliph Mu'awiyah.

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head cut off. God knows were Imam Ali to stand up to them today, they would do the same to him. This all stems from following their desires, “they eat as the beasts eat”: they care not where their nourishment comes from or how it is obtained. As long as their needs and requirements are met, the world may drown in blood and entire peoples may be destroyed. They are animals. Let them know that the fire shall be their abode, that they are despised by the Islamic community and by all alert peoples throughout the world, and that the Muslims are repelled by the very notion of monarchy. May God strengthen and assist you all. May He awaken you all. May He strengthen and aid Islam, the theological schools and the great ulama and make them aware of these evils. It is your duty to pray for Islam and your fellow Muslims- those poor, hungry, wretched people in Iran- for those who suffer imprisonment, torture and banishment, for those who are in hospital and for those innocent girls who had such severe wounds inflicted on them. Pray for them, they are Muslims and they are oppressed. May God’s peace, mercy and blessings be upon you.

18th Speech Date: October 19, 1971/Mehr 27, 1350 SH/Sha’ban 28, 1391 AH Place: Najaf, Iraq Subject: Self-purification Occasion: Arrival of the Holy Month of Ramazan Addressees: A group of clergymen and students of the religious sciences In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

RAMAZAN THE MONTH OF PURIFICATION AND REPENTANCE God willing, you will meet the month of Ramazan with a healthy spirit. During the blessed month you will see yourselves in the banquet of God, the Blessed and Exalted, and you will see Him as your Host and to be really present. If, God forbid, once you wanted to insult an individual; you have to understand that you are insulting the servant of God in His Presence. If you backbit a believer, you have to know that in God’s Presence you backbit a believer. Your deeds- according to the Prophetic traditions- are to be presented before the Messenger of God (s). If your deeds are presented and the Messenger of God sees that you are a wrong doer, how upset would he be? You do not want the Messenger of God to be upset; so do not offend his blessed heart. If one day your and my records of deeds are taken and the Messenger of God sees them full of backbiting, slander, abusive language, and the like; in respect to the heart, as he is aware of, it is giving all attention to the world, and in respect to behavior, it is full of corrupt morals, malice, jealousy, and vengeance, and I say, pessimism toward the people, then perhaps seeing such things in the presence of God’s angels and in the presence of God, the Blessed and Exalted, he will be ashamed that this person is his follower, his Shia and a member of his ummah. If a person is related to another person, he is connected to him. Take for example, the brother of a person, son of a person, relatives of a person, and servant of a person; if the other person related to him commits something bad, the person would be ashamed of the

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people. You are all related to the Messenger of God. By your coming to these theological schools, you have connected yourselves to the jurisprudence of Islam. You have connected yourselves to the Messenger of God and the Qur’an. It is possible for the Messenger of God to be offended by a bad deed. It is possible, God forbid, for him to curse us. God willing, compensate during the month of Ramazan. If you have committed something, compensate for it. If, God forbid, you have committed a sin, repent before the arrival of the month of Ramazan; turn away from it. You have to know that there is a lot of dangers; you have to know that there are a lot of places that we must enter; there are a lot of dangers for us. By the will of God, you will enter the month of Ramazan with a wholesome and clean soul, and will act upon its duties during the month of Ramazan. By His will, God will grant you all with success; place you all among the knowledgeable scholars; purify you all; purify the society through you; and remove the calamities from you.

19th Speech Date: December 23, 1971/Dey 2, 1350 SH/Dhul-Qadah 4, 1391 AH Place: Shaykh Ansari Mosque, Najaf, Iraq Subject: Possible migration of Imam Khomeini to Lebanon Occasion: The deportation of Iranians from Iraq Addressees: Clergy, seminary students and Iranians residing in Iraq In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

LEAVING IRAQ When I sent the Iraqi officials a telegram stating my views concerning their behavior, not only did they ignore my counsel; they reacted by taking the harsh measures that we all saw.102 After this I decided I need no longer remain. Tomorrow I shall request to leave, but wherever I may be, my affections will remain with you my brothers, just as if I were here. As for those of you remaining here, be you clergymen of Afghanistan, India Iraq or wherever, our relationship will remain the same once I have gone as it was when I was here I hope that the Iranian clergymen will safely achieve their goals and, God willing, will find a position in one of the religious centers, either in Qum, or, if this is not possible, then in Mashhad, in order to protect the religious centers of learning. I also hope that just as the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him and his descendants, left Mecca one day, thinking that he would never return, so you too who are being forced to leave this place, you whose ultimate desire is to be near Imam Ali and the religious center of learning in 102 Relations between Iran and Iraq following the Ba’athist coup were reaching a critical state and the Ba’athist regime was deporting groups of Iranians from Iraq in the middle of winter to areas near the border. Imam Khomeini, in spite of all the limitations confining him as an exile, sent a telegram to the Iraqi President sketching the unpleasant political outcome of this action, and detailing the role played by Iranians in helping Iraq to achieve liberation. He then voiced his opinions with regard to the Ba’athist officers’ actions towards Iranian residents in Iraq. In his telegram Imam wrote: “It is my opinion that the harsh behavior of the officers has placed women and children in danger of the deadly cold, while it has also damaged the country’s political reputation and the nation’s economy. In closing, keeping this point and others in view, I advise you to reconsider your options and to maintain the Islamic brotherhood which God, the Exalted, and the Holy Prophet (s) have specifically ordained.” However, in spite of this, the anti-Islamic Ba’athist regime ignored Imam’s advice and continued exiling Iranians as before.

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Najaf, will also one day be able to return. I hope that God, the Blessed and Exalted, will protect this place, for there still remains a group of clergymen here... and this is where Islamic teachings have been compiled.

THE BA’ATHIST REGIME OF IRAQ’S BEHAVIOR TOWARD THE VICINITY OF THE IMAMS’ (AS) GRAVES This theological center shall not be broken up; it cannot be broken up. All that can happen is that people can be changed around. Perhaps I am not worthy to be in the vicinity of the shrine of Imam Ali (as), but God willing, He shall choose from those who deserve to be near the Hazrat (Imam Ali) and can defend Islam and the Shia school of thought. In any case, no matter how much I think about it, it is not right for me to stay at a time when my friends are leaving, when our religious brothers are being sent away in such a manner. By comparison, I was told that when it was decided to throw the Jews out of Baghdad some time ago, they were given six months prior notice and an official body was set up to ensure that the property of the Jews would be bought from them at a fair price. Yet this is the manner in which they behave with you and with the Iranian Shia here. It is deplorable that this country should act in this way with those living in the vicinity of the holy shrines of the Twelve (Immaculate) Imams, peace be upon them, and it is no longer right for me to remain here. Tomorrow therefore, I shall request permission to go to Lebanon where, just as the two martyrs103 (may God bless them) attained martyrdom, so too, God willing, [the audience weeps heavily for a considerable length of time]

ENDURING UNPLEASANTNESS AND SERVICE TO ISLAM Wherever you gentlemen may be, wherever we may be, our hearts must be brave and we must be ready to endure whatever unpleasantness may come our way, be it in Iran or here in Iraq, and we must serve Islam. Do not imagine that this kind of hardship is detrimental to you, for this is not so. It is to your benefit, for not only will you be favored by God, the Exalted, but your deeds will achieve favorable results here in this world. Look how we are treated in Iran, and in what manner we are treated in Iraq. For a certain group of Shia the situation is like that in Iran and like this in Iraq. These people, these merchants, businessmen, women and children, are now being sent to the borders in the bitter cold of winter, and there they meet with people who treat them more severely still. These poor, unfortunate people are worse off than you, and I truly feel sorry for them.

103 The two martyrs: the first martyr, Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Makki al-’Amili and the second martyr, Zaynuddin ibn Ali al-Amili. The first martyr was born in 1333 AD (734 AH) in Jezzine, one of the Jabal Amil villages in Lebanon. He was an eminent Shia religious scholar who was an exceptional master of religious jurisprudence, Qur’anic commentary, hadiths and doctrinal theology. Some of his most famous writings include Al-Lum’at al-Dameshqiyyah; Ad-Durus al-Shar’iyyah fi Fiqh al-Imamiyyah; Kitab adh-Dhikri; and Al-Ulfiya fi-Fiqh as-Salat alYawmiyyah. He died on Thursday, Jamadi al-Awwal 9, 786 AH (1384 AD), after having been imprisoned for one year in Syria, during Sultan Barquq’s term of office as governor of Damascus. In accordance with a judicial decree issued by Judge Burhanuddin Maliki and ‘Ibad ibn Jama’ah Shafi’i, he was imprisoned for one year, then beheaded by sword. His corpse was then crucified and stoned in Damascus whereby it was burned and the ashes were discarded into the air. The second martyr was born in the year 1505 (911 AH) in Jabal Amil, Lebanon. He was a senior Shia canonist and was proficient in most of the popular sciences such as religious jurisprudence, principles of jurisprudence, Qur’anic commentary, philosophy, discourse, gnosticism, astronomy, and medicine. His most important works include Ar- Rawzat al-Bahiya fi Sharh al-Lum’at al-Dameshqiyyah and Masalik al-Afham. He was arrested at the age of fifty-four in 1559 (965 AH), by order of Judge ‘Uthman and while being transferred from Istanbul was killed by one of the enemies of the Shia who had been sent by King ‘Uthman.

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BE STRONG In any event, you must be strong. Prepare yourselves and remember God the Blessed, the Most High, for He is your benefactor [the audience weeps bitterly] You have God on your side and He will help you; and God willing, this theological school will remain secure. The day that Haj Shaykh ‘Abd al-Karim passed away (may he rest in peace), it was said that there were more than one hundred religious students in the theological center but they were redundant religious students soon afterwards however, once the oppressor was gone the theological school came to have fivethousand members, and now, praise be to God, it is still going strong and hopefully always will. God willing, the Blessed and Supreme Lord shall give you strength and will protect this theological school. I hope He will allow you to return to your homes and that you will strengthen your souls in order to endure hardships for the sake of God. In return, God the Blessed and Exalted will reward you. God willing, tomorrow I shall determine my future course. Tomorrow I shall hand in my passport and if they accept it so be it, but if they do not accept it then I shall remain here. May God keep and protect you all. It will be difficult for me to leave you gentlemen [the audience weeps] but it is my destiny, it is something which has occurred and I submit to God’s will...104

20th Speech Date: December 31, 1971/Dey 10, 1350 SH/Dhul-Qadah 12, 1391 AH Place: Shaykh Ansari Mosque, Najaf, Iraq Subject: The necessity of preserving the religious seminaries Addressees: Clergy, seminary students and Iranians residing in Iraq In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

THE PROPHET’S (S) PROGRAM IN MECCA During his time in Mecca before his migration to Medina, the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him and his descendants) was concerned only with propagating the word of God and acquainting the people with God the Exalted and with Islam. He had no assistant to help him combat the polytheists and spread Islam. Just as one sees in the Holy Qur’an, the Surahs which were revealed to him in Mecca concern the aspects of introducing Islam, preaching and guidance alone, there is no mention of disagreements or war and even the laws are spoken of less.

THE EXPANSION OF ISLAM IN MEDINA AND THE CONQUEST AND FALL OF MECCA The ordinary man who looks only at the surface of things could not have predicted what benefits his migration from Mecca, under such unpleasant circumstances and having suffered a defeat, would hold for him. However, when he went to Medina, then the results of his migration became clear and he was able to 104 At the end of this speech several sentences were spoken between Imam and a member of the audience which were not intelligible on the tape recording possessed by the Institute.

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spread the word of Islam and find followers there, eventually returning victoriously and successfully to Mecca in such a way that the elders of the Quraysh tribe were humbled before him, and even though this was so, the Prophet set them free.105 Now, even though a great many Iranians have become the scapegoats in the dispute between the governments106 and have been turned out of this country under such tragic circumstances107, there may well be some great benefits to come from this action of which we are, as yet, unaware. May God, the Blessed and Exalted, return you all to this theological center just as the Holy Prophet (s) returned victoriously and triumphantly to Mecca, and may the day arrive when this theological center becomes even stronger than it is now. I am sure that, sooner or later, the theological center will return to its former state, and, God willing, if you act upon your religious and scientific duties, you too will return to Najaf.

RESPONSIBILITY OF THE SEMINARY STUDENTS The burden of knowledge is a heavy burden which is upon your shoulders. Not only is it your responsibility to learn a handful of terms and their meanings, but you have also been given the responsibility for preserving Islam and its precepts. You are the trustees of a divine revelation, and you must purify your souls while at the same time acquiring knowledge. And as you propagate your knowledge to others, you must also ameliorate your soul. Never fail to remember your obligations, be amicable and pleasant to one another, put aside your differences, be to one another as brothers, and with a spirit of unity and purity work for Islam. You are all scholars, you are all the leaves of one tree and all from one root, and if you are faithful to your vow, God, the Exalted, shall be loyal to His vow and shall return you to the theological center. God 105 During the eighth year after hijrah (630 AD) the Prophet set out for Mecca. The Prophet’s uncle Abbas left the camp to find someone from Mecca to send a message to the Quraysh telling them to present themselves to the Prophet or be destroyed. That night Abbas met Abu Sufyan, gave him shelter and took him to the Prophet. Abu Sufyan became a Muslim that night. Abbas said: “Abu Sufyan is a man who would like to benefit.” The Prophet said: “Whoever goes to his own home and closes the door shall be safe; whoever seeks shelter in the home of Abu Sufyan shall be safe; and whoever goes to the Masjid al-Haram shall be safe.” The way that the Prophet dealt with the people of Mecca revealed the beneficence of Islam and the generosity of this religion’s Prophet to those who once opposed him. The Quraysh had tormented Prophet Muhammad and his followers for twenty years and they feared the consequences, but when they had been conquered by him when they heard him say: “I free all of you.” See Tarikh-e Tahlili-e Islam, pp. 79- 80; Ja’far Subhani, The Message, available at: https://www.alislam.org/message-jafar-subhani; Syed Saeed Akhtar Rizvi, The Life of Muhammad the Prophet, available at: https://www.al-islam.org/lifemuhammad-prophet-sayyid-saeed-akhtar-rizvi. 106 Historical records of the dispute between Iran and Iraq date back to the Safavid era, a period in which Iraq had still not reached independence and was part of the Ottoman Empire. However, the dispute between the two countries to which Imam is referring concerns the superpower conflict over the Ba’athist coup d’état in Iraq. On July 17, 1968/Tir 26, 1347 SH, the British coup d’état in Iraq brought the Ba’ath Party to power. After a series of political changes and transformations, the American wing of the Iraqi government was cast aside and in reality the covert disagreements between Britain and America regarding their interests in the Persian Gulf became the basis of future disagreements and struggles between Iran and Iraq. These differences, which grew with every passing day with the unilateral abrogation of the Iran-Iraq border agreement by the Shah’s regime, reached a climax and resulted in worsening political relations between these two countries. Meanwhile, the Iraqi people and Iranian residents of that country became the scapegoats of these disagreements. The differences continued as long as the superpowers had disagreements concerning their interests in the Persian Gulf and after that peace prevailed. 107 The Iranians were banished from Iraq during the freezing cold of winter. They were not even given permission to take with them food, clothing and the other necessities required for a winter trip. They were taken in groups from their homes and picked up off the streets and packed into military trucks and then abandoned in the wilderness and mountainous areas. These Iranians had lived and worked long years in Iraq to become homeowners, then in a very brief space of time, all their possessions were confiscated and they were banished from their homes.

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willing, we shall meet again here. If I reach the end of my days and am not here with you, you all shall be here and gather together once again.

IMPOSSIBILITY OF THE THEOLOGICAL CENTER’S DECLINE In any event, this theological center will not sink into decline; it will remain in its place. Irrespective of the spiritual and divine aspects, even according to the laws of nature the theological centers will not vanish because they are held in esteem by all Muslims, especially the Shia, and they have the support of the nation, and that which the nations support the government cannot oppose. Governments are transient, their lives short. The support for Najaf comes from great nations and because of this it will be preserved. Now in our theological center there are students from Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Iraq and other Arab nations all acquiring knowledge, and this government,108 which certainly cannot be called a government, does not have the power to stand up to these nations, even though it may oppose you and I it cannot oppose the nation. If the Iranian gentlemen are sent away, the others must remain and uphold their obligations to their religion. For you are like regiments of soldiers, if one regiment is attacked and defeated by the enemy, then another steps in to take its place and resolutely stands up to the enemy. It is the enemy’s wish that when one regiment is defeated the rest retreat leaving the battlefield deserted.

VICTORY IS WITH THE OPPRESSED The gentlemen who are here from other countries must stand firm and continue with their studies and with the purification of their souls. And if I, a student of religion, and the maraji’ leave, you must remain and continue with your duties. Of course, my leaving has reasons that maybe many of you are not aware of, but others must remain and not desert the fortress, for we have seen what can happen. The theological center in Qum was destroyed- such destruction! A few who were always under pressure and harassed put up resistance and soon there came a turnabout: the previous oppressor109 was removed and the defeated center of that era110 became the six-thousand-strong theological center of today. You have not been defeated. If you look at the history of the oppressors and those oppressed around the world, you will see that the oppressed are always victorious. Mu’awiyah with all the power, wealth and greatness which he possessed was obliterated and today in Syria, the center of his realm, there is not even a trace of his grave111 108 The Ba’athist regime of Iraq. 109 Reza Khan. 110 In one of Imam Khomeini’s writings he described the destruction of the theological center in this way: “Everyone has seen that the antireligious propaganda was so widespread that most of the national newspapers occupied their own time and that of their readers with this matter and in whatever way possible they instilled irreligious ideas into the people. Propagation by the clergy was impossible during those twenty years. Holding gatherings for the propagation of religion was viewed (by the authorities) as being as bad as if not worse than, drug smuggling. Theological centers throughout the country which were the fountainhead of this propagation were taken over and either shut down or turned into centers of corruption for the youth. The Marvy Religious School, from which thousands of clergy had graduated, was converted into a place for a few Armenians. The Sepahsalar Religious School was given over to a few young people and renamed the Mawqufa School for their reform training and remains so even now.” See Nahzat-e Ruhaniyyun-e Iran, vol. 2, p. 337. 111 Mu’awiyah is quoted as saying: “I am immersed in worldly riches!” And so he was. He was the first to create an empire of Arab aristocracy. The Green Palace, where he lived, was luxurious. It was a wonder to the eye. The walls, columns and floor of the palace hall were inlaid with expensive stones of yellow, black and white. His throne was carved out of white marble. In the year 680 AD when Mu’awiyah wanted to celebrate the twentieth year of his rule, half his body was paralyzed and he spoke with difficulty. When he died he was buried in a small grave.

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The situation of these poor merchants who have stayed long years in Iraq and who have no friends, family, acquaintances, not even a single relation in Iran, is extremely sorrowful and it is my hope that the people of Iran will treat them well. They are guests and I expect the noble Muslim people of Iran to be kind to their guests and their brothers. Give them shelter, food and clothing. Help them to solve their problems and more importantly, familiarize them with the Iranian situation with which they are unfamiliar. You gentlemen, who leave for Iran, send my regards to our Iranian brothers, tell them that I personally request that they help these brothers who number approximately a hundred thousand and have been expelled from Iraq and scattered throughout Iran and that they show them kindness.

21st Speech Date: September 28, 1977/Mehr 6, 1356 SH/Shawwal 14, 1397 AH Place: Shaykh Ansari Mosque, Najaf, Iraq Subject: Warning on misconceptions on Islam Addressees: Clergymen and students of Najaf theological center I seek refuge in God from the accursed Satan In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

TIME MANAGEMENT, OBLIGATION ON NOT WASTING THE AFFLUENCE OF YOUTH Yesterday, I discussed the issue of usurpation (ghasb). After the discussion, one of the gentlemen pointed out that I had previously spoken on this issue and was repeating myself. This is not unusual for people such as myself, for as man ages all his faculties become weak, and just as physically, he becomes frail, so too his mental and spiritual powers, his ability to worship, become impaired. All of these are strong in youth, and that is why I have told you gentlemen many times that now that you enjoy this blessing of youth make use of it and do not waste it. I am not saying that the young people should not have any kind of recreation, or that they should study all the time, what I mean is that they should divide their time between recreation and study and that most of their time should be spent on the latter. You, gentlemen, who are devoting your life to study, now that you enjoy the blessing of youth, divide your time and spend the better part of it on debate, discussion, study, lessons and teaching. Do not suppose that you can squander your youth and put off worship and study until the end of your lives, for when one reaches that stage in one’s life, one can neither worship nor study, nor is one’s cogitative faculty strong or clear enough for one to be able to understand scientific matters. It is now in youth that you should strengthen your understanding of the fundamentals of science and religious jurisprudence so that when you reach old age and you have mastery over these, your knowledge will bear fruit and you will be able to utilize it. But if you squander your youth and waste this blessing, you will not be able to compensate for this later. So, you, gentlemen, should bear this point in mind that the period of old age is a period of forgetfulness, thus you see that I begin to discuss a matter which I have already discussed. This is due to the weakness that comes to man in old age.

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DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF THE HUMAN BEING Another matter which I think is very important and which I feel should be given due attention is that manthis creature which is the essence of all creation- is himself a multi-dimensional creature possessing as he does different qualities. From one aspect, he is similar to vegetables; just as vegetables need water and the nutrients they get from the earth to grow, so too man depends on the earth and the blessings of God, the Blessed and Exalted, for his growth. In addition, he has an animalistic aspect just like other animals; he has eyes, ears and so on, and other senses which he shares with other animals. That which is more predominant in him- although it can be found to a lesser degree in animals too- is his ability to ideate112 at which level other things are added to the animalistic qualities that he possesses. The human being is characterized by his reasoning, spirituality and the “immateriality of his rational soul”113 which other animals do not enjoy. The Holy Qur’an, which is supreme among all other ideologies and books, was revealed to develop man, to turn a potential human being into an actuality. This was the reason behind the revelation of the other divine books also. The missions of all the prophets, regardless of the period, were to turn the human being into a true human being. All the sciences, the acts of worship, the religious learning and the rules for worship are all a means to turn a defective human being into a perfect human being. The Qur’an is a book of human perfection which, when turned to, provides for every stage of man’s development. Islam and other divine religions do not envisage a government which is like other governments; the government of Islam is not like other governments. The materialistic governments- whatever their leaningsare only concerned about preserving order in their own countries. If the government is a true exponent of justice, it will attempt to guarantee that oppression does not exist outside its own boundaries, and if the rulers are themselves just, they will not tyrannize others. But in principle, such governments only guarantee order in their own countries and whatever happens within the home is of no concern to them so long as it poses no danger to the regime. The people can drink wine, gamble, perpetrate all kinds of scandalous deeds within their homes and the government will not interfere. However, if they come out of their homes and start to riot, then the government will clamp down on them for then they are going against the order of things. Whether the government is just or unjust, it will not interfere in that which people do in their own homes, unless an oppressive act takes place in the home and somebody complains to the authorities, in which case the government may decide to do something about it. However, such is not the case with Islam and divine governments. They have rules for everyone wherever they are. So if someone wishes to carry out a vile and unlawful act in his own home, the Islamic government will have something to say about this. Although corruption within people’s homes will not be purposely sought out by the Islamic authorities, still, unlawful acts are forbidden and a ruling has been given that they should not be carried out. Those who

112 This is the ‘mithali’ stage which is between nature [tabi’at] and reasoning [‘aql]. At this stage, physical images and perfect forms exist but there is no matter which force or effect has. This world, which is the stage between reason and matter, exists for some animals too, for example some animals have the intelligence of knowing their master, but this stage is stronger in human beings. 113 In the explanation for the ‘mithali’ stage of the human being, it was said that some intelligent animals also experience a weak form of this stage, but the stage of reason [‘aql] and that of immateriality of the rational soul which perceives the ‘whole’ belongs only to human beings and the animals do not possess it. The highest stage of an animal’s existence is the ‘mithali’ stage and the ideational stage.

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perpetrate such acts are made punishable by the law, and if the government finds out about their actions then it has to follow its legal rulings and mete out the necessary punishment.

ISLAM’S ATTENTION ON ALL ASPECTS OF MAN Islam as well as other divine governments and calls involve themselves with all aspects of man’s development, from the lowest level up to the highest to which he can ascend. It is not like those governments which only concern themselves with the governing of a country, for Islam, in addition to having many rules pertaining to the politics of a country, also has spiritual laws. It deals with both the material and the spiritual. It has rules pertaining to man’s spiritual education, his spiritual development, and, at a more mundane level, which concerns man’s character; it has rules for his moral edification. Islam has moral teachings and it has rules which govern his social relations, his relationship with himself, his wife, his children, his neighbors, his friends, his fellow countrymen, his co-religionists, and people of a different religion. Islam has rules for man which extend from before his birth until after his death. It contains provisions relating to the preliminaries of marriage and the form in which it should be contracted, and others relating to the development of the embryo in the womb until birth. It specifies how the child should be reared, it has rules for him at puberty, in his youth, in old age, when he dies and is laid in his grave and even after that, for this is not the end; it is only the beginning. These rules pertain to all aspects of man’s life here, to his intellectual and moral education, but they don’t end here, they are continued even when he enters the grave, when he is separated from this world114 and reaches the realm of perfection and incorporeality. For the world of the grave is itself the beginning of another life, it is the beginning of the spiritual life of the grave, the spiritual life in the intermediate area between Heaven and Hell (barzakh)115, and then the spiritual life on a level even higher still. Islam and its laws which God, the Blessed and Exalted, has sent for man are not confined merely to this world or the next.

THE DISASTER OF A ONE DIMENSIONAL LOOK AT ISLAM Throughout the ages, there have been many groups of philosophers, gnostics, Sufis, Muslim scholastics and others who looked for the spiritual aspects of life and found them, each according to his own level of perception, and who then charged the so-called ordinary people with error for looking only at exoteric meanings. They considered anybody apart from themselves as being ‘exoterics’ and charged them with error. In their exegeses of the Qur’anic verses too they explained most, if not all, of the verses in mystical, philosophical and spiritual terms, and they ignored those aspects which referred to the worldly life and those teachings which are needed for this temporal life. Based on their own ideas, they sought meanings which were above the understanding of the so-called ordinary people, and, in addition, they saw themselves as being endowed with a special knowledge and rejected all others apart from themselves. At the same time, another group of people existed who busied themselves with matters of jurisprudence and worship; they rejected the first group and regarded their ideas as erroneous, denouncing them as heretics or unbelievers, among other things. However, both these two groups were unrealistic, one confined Islam to the branches

114 When the soul leaves its material shell. 115 For details on barzakh (purgatory), see Ayatullah Sayyid Abdul Husayn Dastghaib Shirazi, Barzakh (Purgatory), available at: https://www.alislam.org/barzakh-purgatory-sayyid-abdul-husayn-dastghaib-shirazi

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and secondary aspects (furu’) of the laws and the other to spiritual laws. One group believed Islam to be concerned only with the supernatural and the other believed that Islam was all about the laws of nature and jurisprudence, that everything else was irrelevant. Recently another situation has arisen whereby some good, pious people, writers who work for the people just as the religious jurisprudents (fuqaha), the scholastics and philosophers do, wish also to serve Islam. They too, based on their own individual understanding of the subject, wish to explain the laws of Islam to the people and expound on them. Now this new group of writers, who write very well, is doing the opposite to that which the philosophers and gnostics did; they are now trying to make the verses of the Qur’an conform to their own materialist notions. The philosophers and gnostics believed that Islam had come to instruct man in monotheism and other divine and theoretical matters and that anything else was merely an introduction to these. They said that one should ignore these other matters and concentrate only on the divine aspects of Islam.116 Because of these ideas, some of them, not all of them of course, paid no attention to religious jurisprudence or to the jurisprudents, the traditions, the literary meaning of the Qur’an and many of the Qur’anic laws. They did not reject them; they simply ignored them, which is the same as rejecting them. When one has nothing to do with these things, when one is indifferent and rejects those who believe in these matters calling them ‘exoterics’ this means that one has not accepted these things and “we believe in some of God’s prophets but reject others.”117 Materialism has now gained predominance across the globe creating a garish, gaudy world and the proponents of this ideology have also increased greatly in number. Recently, a group of people have appeared who say that the reason for all Islamic laws is nothing more than to create a just society and do away with classes. They claim that the monotheism (Tawhid) of which Islam speaks means that all peoples should live equally, as one, as a single unity, and that Islam’s justice seeks to create a just and egalitarian society. In other words, Islam seeks to create an egalitarian but animalistic life whereby everyone eats the same grass, everyone lives together as equals and no one has anything to do with anybody else, everyone eats from the same trough. As for all the verses which have been revealed about the Day of Resurrection and about monotheism (Tawhid), and all those proofs which have been given for the existence of another life, these are all ignored by those who are religious but who espouse certain principles of materialism. They close their eyes to such verses and concentrate on other verses, while those people who espouse such views and are not so religious simply explain such verses away. During my youth, I met a few religious students who said that they had discovered something new and that was that the Day of Judgment took place here, in this life, that whatever was to happen, happened here, the punishment was meted out here and everything ended here. Of course in those days there were people who had deviated from what is right, but such ideas were not very common. They believed in an animalistic life which ended with death. They did not actually say that they did not accept the Day of Judgment or the

116 “Pay attention to the objectives and ignore the principles” is one of the generally known proverbs and is cited when one wants to emphasize the importance of outcome. 117 Qur’an 4: 150

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verses in the Qur’an which pertain to it, but they believed the Day of Judgment to be a thing of this life and the verses referring to it to mean something which would happen here.

NEGLIGENCE OF THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL VIEW ON ISLAM This group which has appeared now is a group of people who are religious and who attract many followers, but they are in error. In their books and writings, in the articles that they have written in magazines and the suchlike, they say that Islam came to develop the human being, but they maintain that it aims only to create a classless human being. In other words, Islam did not come to develop man spiritually and take him from his animalistic stage to a higher one, but only to make him classless, to make all men live equally under one governing system which pays everybody equally and which in return is to be served by everyone. It is as if they ignore all the proofs which are found in all religions, and, as far as they can, they interpret the verses of the Qur’an according to their own beliefs; those that they cannot explain in this way they just ignore completely, they simply forget about them. The other group (the philosophers and mystics) do likewise, they speak of those verses which they can relate to the spiritualism and mysticism that they understand, but they too ignore the rest. Look at how those who believe in these matters have interpreted the story of Moses and Khizr.118 God only knows where they got their ideas from. When man reaches this stage whereupon his whole attention is focused on the unseen and he completely ignores those teachings which are for this earthly life, when he reads into things that are not there, as in the case of the story of Khizr and Moses, when he sees only the spiritual aspects and nothing else, then his heart becomes totally engrossed in spiritual matters and he does not concern himself with the fact that worldly affairs and the teachings for this temporal life form one aspect of the religion, just as prayer and worship are another. He interprets everything to suit his own particular point of view, and those things which oppose his viewpoint he does not try to understand at all. On the other hand, when he understands nothing other than this material world, then his ability to perceive is defective; he cannot understand how anything can exist beyond this. These people are not concerned about ‘proof’, one cannot demonstrate something to them with proofs, they are people of ‘exposition’ and they want to present an eloquent exposition. They can perceive nothing beyond this world and so they either explain the verses in accordance with their own beliefs in a bestial, worldly life, a classless prosperous life where, if possible, everyone lives as equals, or else they don’t accept those verses which pertain to spiritual matters- of course they haven’t the nerve to say they don’t accept them- and if they do accept them, the degree of their acceptance is very weak. They have a strong belief in their hearts about this life but they cannot properly perceive the existence of the unseen, their hearts are defective and their belief weak in this regard.119

118 According to the traditions, Khizr was a prophet who had the power to perform miracles. His name derives from an Arabic root meaning ‘green’ and it is said he was called this because wherever he went became green. His real name was Tali ibn Malikan ibn Afkhashad ibn Sam ibn Nuh. According to the traditions, Khizr had eternal life due to drinking the water of life. Refer to the translation of Tafsir alMizan, vol. 26, pp. 243- 245. 119 Imam refers to Qur’an, 18: 60-82

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ISLAM CONTAINS ALL THE MATERIAL AND SPIRITUAL ASPECTS It must be stated that Islam was unknown at the beginning and even now it is unknown.120 Throughout Islamic history, Islam has remained unknown among men. The mystic recognizes Islam to be concerned only with mysticism and the unseen, whereas that group of people who are found today who write in newspapers and magazines, they understand Islam in terms of what its form of government is, what its teachings, manifestations and justice comprise of. They understand it only in terms of this material, natural world, and they believe it to go no further than this. Islam then for them does not go beyond the bounds of creating a prosperous, animalistic life whereby man lives like other animals which graze on the mountainside eating grass equally and having nothing to do with one another, a life like that at the time of primeval man when, according to them, the fish of the seas, the deer and other animals hunted in the wilderness were equally at the disposal of everyone. They claim that this was the best period of man’s history and Islam seeks to re-create this period. In their view, Islam and the other divine religions came to return the people to that time when life was a prosperous, animalistic life. At that time they lived off the fish from the sea, and now they live off chicken and fish! All that matters is that man has a prosperous life, that he eats the right food and wears the right clothes. These people have nothing other than knowledge of God; they cannot understand anything apart from this world, this natural realm. They cannot perceive anything beyond this. The existence of another world and what kind of a world it is lie beyond the scope of their perception. So what are they to do when they don’t have this perception? Consequently, such groups do not have the right to tell you gentlemen who are busy with your studies here, who really understand Islam and know what Islam is, nor do they have the right to say that the bearded and turbaned men are good for nothing and these lessons are of no use anymore. Such things are said by those who do not understand Islam properly. Likewise, you too do not have the right to impose your ideas of the divine sciences on them, and if you do you will be no different from them. Neither group has the right to do anything like this. You cannot condemn them for saying that there should be no oppression and that justice should prevail, for this is true, Islam calls for this too, but it is not confined to this. Islam aims to develop a human being who is a seeker and protector of justice, who has high morals and divine knowledge so that when he leaves this world he will enter the next as a true human being. The understanding of those who see only one side of the coin and are blind to the other is incomplete: “Show us the straight way, the way of those on whom You have bestowed Your grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath and who go not astray.”121 There is a tradition, I’m not sure whether it is correct or not, but they say that according to the exegetes of the Qur’an, those who have brought about the wrath of God consist of the Jews, and those who go astray consist of the Christians. In another tradition it is said- and again I cannot say whether this is truly a saying of the Prophet or not, I am simply repeating what I have heard- that the Prophet said: “My brother Moses was blind in his right eye and my brother Jesus was blind

120 Referring to a Prophetic tradition which says: “Islam was a stranger at the beginning and will return to that state again. Blessed are the strangers.” Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. 121 Qur’an, 1: 6-7

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in his left, but I have sight in both my eyes.”122 Those who wish to expound on this say that Moses was blind in his right eye because his teachings as laid out in the Torah concentrate mainly on the material world and political and worldly affairs- and as you see the Jews have grasped the world with both hands and are devouring it with an insatiable appetite, they are devouring America and have now turned their attention to Iran and still they are not satisfied- and Jesus (as) was blind in his left eye, which represents the realm of nature, because his book (the Bible) pays more attention to spiritual matters. “But I have sight in both my eyes.” The Prophet of Islam, however, paid attention to both aspects, both the material and the spiritual. The rules of Islam testify to this as do its policies.

SEPARATION OF RELIGION FROM POLITICS Of course, in the opinion of many of the educated class, and especially many of the religious scholars, Islam has nothing to do with politics. They believe Islam and politics to be issues separate from one another. This is what the governments would like us to think; this is the idea that the foreigners have instilled in us from the beginning. Many promote the notion that the akhunds should have nothing to do with political matters. When they want to defame an akhund they say: “This is a political akhund!” They say that Islam is separate from politics; that religion is separate from politics, but these people haven’t understood Islam. The government of Islam was formed at the time of the Prophet and was continued after him, whether in a just or unjust manner. At the time of Imam Ali (as), however, the government was a just, Islamic one. It had policies for everything. Just what is politics? Politics is the formation of policies dealing with the relationship between a ruler or government and the people or other governments, and with the prevention of corruption in society. In Islam, all these policies exist. In fact, Islam has more rules pertaining to politics than it does to worship. The books relating to the political aspects of Islam by far outnumber those concerned with worship. This mistaken notion has been put into our minds so that now some of the gentlemen (the clergymen) believe that Islam has nothing to do with politics, that it consists of a few ordinances concerning worship which is itself a personal matter between God and man. You can go to your mosques and pray as much as you like, read the Qur’an to your hearts content and the governments will leave you alone. But this is not Islam. Islam stands up to the oppressor, it orders the people to do battle with the taghut (oppressor), with the unbelievers who reject divine guidance, and with those who rebel against God. So with all these rules for battle, for jihad and so on, is Islam so far removed from politics?! Does Islam mean nothing other than going to the mosques, praying and reading the Qur’an?! Islam is not only this. Islam has political laws which must be implemented.

THE NECESSITY OF GIVING ATTENTION TO SPIRITUALITY At this stage then one may ask that if this is the case and Islam is concerned with political affairs, then what is the point in going to the mosque? What’s the use of performing the ritual prayer (namaz)? This view is a mistaken one also. Islam is concerned with prayer; Islam is based on prayer.123 Islam is not concerned only

122 This is said to be a saying of the Prophet. Imam Khomeini refers to it in the book Sirr as-Salat (p. 92) and interprets it thus: “Moses’ multiplicity dominated his unity, and Jesus’ unity dominated his multiplicity; the Prophet of Islam was the great isthmus (between the two) which is the middle road and the right path.” 123 “Islam is based on five things: prayer, alms-giving [zakat], hajj and governance [wilayah] and nobody is invited to anything more than governance.” A tradition from Imam al-Baqir (as), the fifth Imam from the Prophet’s Progeny. Usul al-Kafi, vol. 3, p. 29.

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with this worldly life, with an animalistic life whereby one questions the need for prayer once one’s life is put right. If one denies the existence of anything other than this worldly life, then he is right to question the reason behind prayer, for it no longer matters. If one is only aware to this extent, then everything ends once social justice has been created among men and the world has been set right. But when there is another world, when proof exists, when all religions assert the existence of a world beyond this corporeal one, then just as this material world should be reformed with its own tools and social justice should be spread among the people by a just government, so too the tools which exist for the other world should be put to use. For according to the proof and according to all religions, there is another world apart from this one, there is eternal life after death, and the tools for that life have been brought by the prophets. Supplicatory prayer, invocation of God (dhikr), the Qur’an and the ritual prayer (namaz) are all tools for the other life. The rules for worship are tools for the afterlife, the divine sciences likewise. These are to help man in his life in the next world, to illuminate his life there. So those whose predilections tend toward the material aspects of this natural realm should not charge those who incline toward mysticism with error. To find fault with them is a mistake and is adopting a narrowminded attitude. Likewise, the mystics and philosophers also do not have the right to charge with error those who say that we should struggle against tyranny and oppression and establish social justice. Do not say that your only duty is to sit down and study. No, it is the duty of all Muslims to both implement and study Islam, to study it and fight against oppression with all their might. If everyone were to observe this duty, then no government could tyrannize its people or another government. Tyranny occurs when the people do not support their government, when they follow one path and the government another. This happens when the government has not treated the people in a way so as to secure their support, when those in authority have done things that turned the people against them.

THE GULF BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND THE NATION OF IRAN Just look at the situation in our own country. The regime there has created such a gulf between it and the people that if, God willing, it is brought down, the people will light up the streets in celebration. Why should this be so? If someone such as Imam Ali were overthrown, would the people act the same way? No, but the regime in Iran is now greatly out of touch with the people, it is not concerned about the people, it has nothing to do with the people apart from oppressing, tyrannizing and spreading corruption among them.

OBSCENITIES AT THE SHIRAZ ARTS FESTIVAL You do not know what kind of obscenities have been started in Iran recently. You have not been informed about it, and it is difficult to speak of. Indecent acts have taken place in Shiraz124 and it is said that such acts will soon be shown in Tehran too, and nobody says a word. The gentlemen (clerics) in Iran don’t say anything. I cannot understand why they don’t speak out! All this corruption is taking place and I don’t know

124 In the art festival of Shiraz, two artists, a man and a woman, performed sexual intercourse in front of a live audience. The act was so obscene and shameful that Anthony Parsons, the British ambassador to Iran at the time, in his memoirs writes: “The effect of this bizarre and disgusting extravaganza on the good citizens of Shiraz, going about their evening shopping, can hardly be imagined. This grotesquerie aroused a storm of protest which reached the press and television. I remember mentioning it to the Shah, adding that, if the same play had been put on, say, in the main street of Winchester, the actors and sponsors would have found themselves in trouble. The Shah laughed indulgently.” For more on Anthony Parsons’ comments on this incident refer to pages 54- 55 of his book The Pride and Fall.

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if it will end with this or not. They put on a show which included the sex act itself, the actual act itself was shown in front of a live audience and nobody breathed a word. What are they waiting for? When and where are they going to speak out, to object? Interestingly enough, all the organizations which arrange such events, including the government itself, do everything with his (the Shah’s) permission. Nothing can be done without his approval; such lewd acts cannot be shown without his permission. He arranges for such things to be shown and then orders the newspapers to condemn them as shameless acts so that the people themselves will not take any action, so that if passions are inflamed they will be tempered by this press criticism. God forbid, in the not too distant future such shows will take place in Tehran too. Yet nobody objects, no akhund, no politician, no doctor, no engineer. They should voice their opposition, if all the people objected together, if they all stood up for the Islamic laws and spoke out then such events would never occur. They take place now because of our indolence and our weakness which are played upon by others. They call you (the clergy) a group of weak and hopeless people, whereas in fact you are powerful, you command the support of the nation. The nation is Muslim and the Muslim nation is devoted to Islam and to the clergymen of Islam. The clerics must in turn serve the nation, and if they do not then the people will no longer give them their support. Be that as it may, Islam is concerned with all of these matters; it comprises of both material and spiritual aspects, and deals with both the unseen and the manifest. For man is a multi-dimensional being and the Qur’an is a book designed to produce true human beings, the book of God was revealed to bring the true human nature of man forth from a potentiality into an actuality, and as it corrects society, so too it takes man to a higher stage of human perfection. So these groups should not oppose one another. The spiritual and material are both separate matters. If you are unable to comprehend what fiqh is then why do you belittle it so, when in reality you simply do not understand it. Likewise philosophy, if you do not understand philosophy and transcendental philosophy then why do you belittle the philosophers so when you simply don’t understand what they are saying? Simply because one does not understand what a certain group is saying and what it is aiming at does not give one the right to oppose it. Maybe this shows narrowmindedness. All groups should join hands and unite. Islam’s jurisprudents (fuqaha) with its engineers, its doctors, its university and school students, should all join hands together so that they can achieve something, so they can escape from these pressures which are being exerted upon them more and more with each passing day. But they do not unite, and I can’t understand why! They have begun to a certain extent in Iran now. An opportunity has presented itself and the people have taken it and we hope, God willing, that more opportunities present themselves in the future. May God, the Blessed and Exalted, grant you all success. May He assist Islam, the ulama of Islam, the students and all Muslims.

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22nd Speech Date: November 1, 1977/Aban 10, 1356 SH/Dhul-Qadah 18, 1397 AH125 Place: Shaykh Ansari Mosque, Najaf, Iraq Subject: The power of the clergy and the political, intellectual and religious services rendered by the Shia ulama Addressees: Religious students, clergymen and Iranians residing in Iraq I seek refuge in God from the accursed Satan In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful I must firstly thank all the different strata of society; I must thank the various orders of the religious ministry in whichever country they may be- be they in Iraq, in Iran or elsewhere- for showing such concern. I must thank everyone including the maraji’ of Islam, may blessings last long; the learned ulama both in Iran, here in Iraq, or elsewhere, may esteem their esteem last long; the accomplished orators; the students, both from within the universities and from elsewhere; and those who have shown concern from various countries abroad- countries such as America, Europe and India for example. I thank them all and pray for their success and good health. I thank all of those who have shown their concern and have organized gatherings and I ask them to forgive me if, because of my old age, I have been unable to visit them or to participate in all of these gatherings. I hope that they will accept my apologies.

GOD’S HIDDEN FAVORS These kinds of affairs126 are of no real importance; these things happen. Everyone experiences this kind of thing at some time. God, the Blessed and Exalted, shows His mercy in ways both manifest and hidden. He

125 In Sahifeh-ye Imam (22- volume), vol. 1, p. 255 and in the new edition, vol. 1, p. 427, the date of the present speech is given as December 31, 1977/Dey 10, 1356 SH. 126 It refers to the martyrdom of Haj Aqa Mustafa Khomeini (1930- 1977 AD/1309- 1356 SH), Imam’s eldest son, who began studying Islamic sciences at the age of fifteen and attained the level of ijtihad at the age of twenty-seven. He became an expert in Islamic sciences in his youth, his teachers being Imam himself, Ayatullah Burujerdi and Haj Sayyid Muhammad Damad. On November 4, 1964/Aban 13, 1343 SH, he was arrested on the orders of the regime and imprisoned in Qezel Qal’ah prison for fifty-seven days. After his release, he went to Qum, where he was given a grandiose welcome by the clerics and people there. Hujjat al-Islam Haj Sayyid Ahmad Khomeini who was present during a telephone conversation between Mawlawi- the head of SAVAK in Tehran- and Haj Aqa Mustafa, relates the story of the latter’s release and his expulsion from Iran to Turkey as follows: “In prison, the head of SAVAK in Tehran proposed that they would release Mustafa on condition that a few days later he would leave the country to join his father in Turkey. Haj Aqa Mustafa at first agreed to do this, but upon being released he met with his mother who advised him that such an action was not right and thus he decided to remain in Iran. When Colonel Mawlawi found out about this, he telephoned Haj Aqa Mustafa and while uttering obscenities and abuse, he threatened him. My brother answered him in a similarly harsh tone. At 10 am the following morning (January 3, 1965/Dey 13, 1343 SH) he was arrested again and sent into exile first in Turkey and later in Iraq along with Imam. Haj Aqa Mustafa, like his distinguished father, was of an uncompromising nature and he believed that in order to sweep away the Pahlavi regime, an all-encompassing uprising was required, and he himself took great pains to realize this. However, in 1969 (1348 SH), the Iraqi secret police, who were keeping a close eye on things, arrested him and took him to the presidential palace in Baghdad. Hasan al-Bakr, the Iraqi President of the time, who was well aware of Haj Mustafa’s secret meetings with Ayatullah Hakim, threatened Haj Mustafa and then suggested that he embark on a struggle against the regime in Iran with the help of the Iraqi Ba’athist regime. Although Haj Mustafa rejected this proposal of cooperation, nevertheless the Shah’s regime began a propaganda campaign against him in Iran, accusing him of collaboration with the Iraqi government. Haj Aqa Mustafa was martyred on November 23, 1977/Azar 2, 1356 SH at the age of forty-seven, just over a year before the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran.”

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has a hidden beneficence of which we have no knowledge; a beneficence about which we are uninformed. It is because we are deficient with regard to knowledge, with regard to our deeds, and indeed in every respect that we grieve and make a fuss when these kinds of matters arise. We show no tolerance at such times. This is due to a lack of understanding on our part with regard to God the Exalted. If only we were aware of that hidden beneficence which God the blessed, the Most High shows toward his servants- And surely He is Gracious to His servants127 - and if only we had a true understanding of these occurrences, then we would not show such a lack of tolerance in the face of such affairs- affairs which are indeed trivial and unimportant. We would realize that some kind of divine grace is involved in all this; that this is some form of guidance.

THIS WORLD AS THE PASSAGE TO THE HEREAFTER This world is one through which we must pass. It is not a world in which to abide forever; it is a path. If we are able to tread this path correctly, as did God’s prophets- “Juzna wa hiya khamidah”128 - and we are able to travel this path safe and sound, then we shall attain salvation. But God forbid, should we slip and stumble along the path of this world, then the same will occur when we cross over the Sirat129 in the Hereafter; there too we will stumble and run into problems. I pray that God, the Blessed and Exalted, may awaken us; that he may make us aware of those hidden blessings of which we are now unaware, so that God willing, we may succeed in attaining the stage of awareness attained by those who have grasped both the heights of divinity and the various stages of mankind- those who do not overestimate the world; who do not view the world as an independent entity; who do not regard their worldly ambitions as ends in themselves but instead regard this world as a means of reaching other places, of attaining other, higher forms of bliss and felicity. May God allow us to reach such higher stages. Indeed, we cannot perceive these higher stages. While here in this world we cannot fully comprehend the various stages which exist, the various worlds which exist, or the true magnitude of this world. How deceptive this world is- this world, which is the only world we have ever been able to see; a world which according to a tradition: “Ma nazarallahu ilayhi mundhu khalqih”;130 a world of matter which God, the Blessed and Exalted, held in contempt after having created it, even though the little that they have so far been able to discover and to grasp shows this universe to be so stupendous that it lies beyond the powers of the human intellect. So far they have reached a stage where they have now realized the mind-boggling and inexplicable nature of this world of matter, yet this is a realization which will indeed grow in intensity as time goes by. They have so far been able to conclude that there are certain stars whose light takes six billion years, yes, six billion years to reach the earth. Such a figure is beyond our imagination. Some have written that if certain stars were to be split open, 500 million

127 It refers to Surah ash-Shura 42: 19: “Gracious is God to His servants. He gives sustenance to whom He pleases, and He has power and can carry out His will.” 128 It is transmitted in a tradition that one of the Imams (as) was asked to explain the meaning of Surah Maryam 19: 71: “ There is none of you but will come to it: a [matter that is a] decided certainty with your Lord.” He said: “We were allowed to pass through Hell while the fire was out.” Refer to ‘Ilm al-Yaqin, vol. 2, p. 971. 129 A kind of bridge which only the righteous can cross on the road to Paradise. 130 Imam Ali, in denouncing the world, said: “The world has no value or esteem before God, the Glorious and Dignified, and from among all that He has created and we can perceive, nothing is more odious in the sight of God than the world; and from the time that He created it, He has not looked upon it.” Kanz al-’Ummal, vol. 3, p. 214.

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suns could be accommodated inside them; and there are some stars which are so big that were they to be placed at the sun’s center, they would extend as far as the earth. This vastness, which is beyond human comprehension and which is inaccessible to human investigation, constitutes the cosmos of the ‘world’; it constitutes the meanest of worlds. Indeed, some of those who were acquainted with these matters used to say that this world has been designated as the ‘Earth’ to reflect God’s disdain toward the essential nature of this world. This world which is so vast and so immense is yet but the ‘Earth’; and the heavens, along with all that has so far been discovered to lie therein, are but the “nearest of heavens” according to the Qur’an which states: “Surely We have adorned the nearest heaven with an adornment, the stars.”131 Thus, the Qur’an speaks of the skies and all that lies within them as the “nearest” Heaven; nothing yet having been discovered by man about the more distant heavens. But even so, despite such magnitude the tradition tells of how God, the Blessed, the Exalted, “held the world in contempt” after He had created it; while the Qur’an speaks of the life of this world as but “a provision” (for a time). Indeed, life in the Hereafter is true life. That is where everything is really alive. We are not really in a state of life here; we are in a state of death. True life is to be found in the Hereafter- the next abode “that most surely is the life”.132 But we are not now able to grasp this fact.

DIVINE DUTIES: GOD’S FAVORS TO HIS SERVANTS While we are here in this world, God, the Blessed and Exalted, has given us certain missions to accomplish. While here in this worldly existence, we have certain duties to fulfill- duties assigned to us by God, the Blessed and Exalted, to which we must attend. We must not neglect our religious duties. All religious duties are in fact blessings from God, blessings which we mistakenly regard as duties. They constitute blessings, whether they are individual duties assigned to train the individual and to enable him to mature- there being no other means of attaining maturity or of improving the self, and there being certain stages of human development which are unattainable other than by following this path- or whether they are social duties which we are obliged to fulfill, duties to which we must attend in order to regulate society. Both the prophets and the Qur’an have spoken of those things which concern the spirit, things which concern the different stages of understanding and which relate to the realms of the unseen. The traditions and the Holy Qur’an have spoken both of issues which concern individual duties and which play a part in man’s development and maturation, and of political issues, economic issues; issues which concern society and are to do with the regulation and moral teaching of society. We, and all of mankind, have a duty to pay due attention to all of these stages, to all of these different levels of human development and we are not to concentrate solely on one aspect alone.

THE ROLE OF THE CLERGY IN PRESERVING ISLAM Let me now discuss the sense of attachment that I feel toward all of the various fronts which serve Islam, be they those clerical fronts which have always served Islam from the beginning, or other fronts which are also now actively serving Islam; fronts which are composed of intellectuals and of those who are involved in politics. I am fond of all these fronts, but at the same time I have a grievance to voice against them all. 131 Qur’an. 37: 6 132 Qur’an 29: 64

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Indeed, when any Muslim, any human being, sees how these people are serving humanity and the human cause, and therefore how they are serving Islam- the school of thought which has come to develop true human beings- he cannot help but feel a sense of attachment toward these people or groups; groups which are serving Islam either by their use of the pen or by taking certain actions. There is nothing wrong with him feeling this sense of attachment. But, nevertheless, there is a grievance which must be voiced against these various groups; a well-intentioned grievance. I have a complaint to make against those intellectual and academic groups and those students who are striving in the path of Islam- may God always assist them; and this complaint concerns their having overstepped the mark in some of the things they have written about the Faqih, about fiqh, and about the ulama of Islam- a complaint about them having said things on occasion which were uncalled for. The people who have said these things do not mean ill. I know that on the whole it is not that those who want to serve Islam are spiteful and therefore say something out of bad faith, but rather they do so because they are insufficiently informed. Similarly, my knowledge of history is lacking. I am now eighty years old. I have been among academic circles for almost sixty years and have taken an active interest in current affairs for almost thirty years. I have also probed into the history of the last one hundred and odd years, but my knowledge of history prior to this time is slight. My knowledge of foregone eras, of bygone ages, of the period which stretches from the beginning of the Islamic era down to the recent past, is rather superficial. Nevertheless, even a cursory glance at past history reveals how the clergy have been the ones who have preserved this Islam in all of its dimensions. That is to say, the gnosticism of Islam has been preserved by the clergy; the philosophy of Islam has been preserved by the clergy; the ethics of Islam have been preserved by the clergy; the fiqh of Islam has been preserved by the clergy; the political precepts of Islam have been preserved by the clergy. All of these fields of knowledge have been preserved due to the painstaking efforts of those in the clergy. This rich science of fiqh that we now enjoy- the fiqh of Shi’ism being truly the most comprehensive in the world- is a set of religious laws, the exposition and analysis of which has been due to the efforts of the Shia ulama.133 The fiqh of Shia Islam is the most comprehensive of all the religious jurisprudence. There is not another set of religious laws in the world which is so comprehensive. Those religious laws outside Shia Islam which were initially divine laws and which, like the fiqh of Shia Islam, were also comprehensive at one time, have not survived. They have been substituted by terrestrial laws, laws which have been devised by the earth’s inhabitants, by people whose understanding is so little that traditions relate how the human brain would not even satisfy the appetite of a sparrow.134 Yes, these terrestrial laws have sprung from such brains, or more precisely from those brains which function correctly, for those which do not function correctly are indeed void of knowledge, period. All of these man-made laws are defective. These laws are defective regardless of where they may have been devised; and moreover, they are laws which have been devised to suit a particular environment, or a particular situation. They have been devised to regulate the affairs of a particular country, for example or to regulate the political relations between one country and another; but apart from this, their laws serve no other purpose. The place where other laws can be found, laws to suit all

133 Deducing secondary aspects [Furu’] from the principles and fundamentals [Usul] of Islam. 134 A saying from Imam al-Sadiq: “Oh son of Adam, if a bird were to eat your brain, it would not be satiated.” Refer to the book, Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 126.

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purposes, is in Islam; and the most comprehensive of Islamic fiqh, is that which is found in Shia Islam. The fiqh of Shia Islam is unique in the world- it is not to be found among other Muslim sects, may God increase them in number, nor is it to be found elsewhere, among the non-Muslims. And this fiqh has developed because of the painstaking efforts made by the Shia ulama’. From the advent of Islam, that is, throughout the Prophet’s lifetime and after that, during the time of the Immaculate Imams, peace be upon them, it was these Shia ulama who would gather around the latter and would record the Islamic precepts narrated to them. Subsequently, the ulama compiled four hundred different works from these recorded utterances; works which became known as the Usul (the Principles).135 Later still, various compendiums were made from these Usul, such as Al-Kutub al-Arba’ah.136 These have all been the results of efforts made by the Shia ulama. All of the different dimensions of Islam and the Qur’an, those dimensions which can be grasped by man’s narrow understanding that is, have been preserved and expounded by the ulama, by these “bearded men who wear turbans”, to quote the words of these intellectuals and academics. It is the ulama who have managed to keep Islam alive until the present. It is they who have written books on any topic you care to mention; on the subject of theology; on the science of Islam; on Islamic sciences; and it is they who have taken great pains to this end thus enabling the fruits of their labor to now be passed on to this present-day clerical order.

ULAMA COMPROMISE WITH THE KINGS FOR THE SAKE OF SHI’ISM’S PROPAGATION With regard to political affairs, as I mentioned before, my knowledge of history is slight and I can no longer remember everything that I may have read or seen in the past; but even so, the history of the past one hundred years or so is something which is known to us all. If we were to go back a little further in time however, we would see how a certain section of the ulama had made self-sacrifices and had had connections with certain kings. Although these ulama could see that the people disapproved of this situation, they still had connections with the kings of the time; but they did this in order to propagate faith, to propagate Shia Islam, and to propagate the religion of Truth, for whether they liked it or not, the kings were obliged by these ulama to go along with the propagation of faith, of religious faith, of the faith of Shi’ism. Thus, these were not akhunds of the Royal Court, as some of our writers mistakenly claim. On the contrary, it was the kings who followed and paid allegiance to the ulama. The sanctum of Shah Sultan Husayn137 can still be

135 A large number of the disciples and students of Imam al-Sadiq wrote down his replies to various questions and collected them together in book form. These sayings, which fill four hundred volumes, later became famous as Usul al-Arba’ami’ah. Shahid al-Awwal in his book Dhikrah and Muhaqqiq Hilli in his book Mu’tabar and a number of other writers in their literary works have explained certain factors concerning the above-mentioned principles [usul]. A number of these principles were used by the authors of al-Kutub al-Arba’ah in their compositions, and some of them have not yet been explained. Refer to al-Mu’tabar fi Sharh al-Muktasar, p. 15 and Dirasa Hawl al-Usul alArba’ami’ah, p. 12. 136 Al-Kutub al-Arba’ah [The Four Books] are the most reputable of the Shia Hadith sources. These books are (1) al-Kafi fi ‘Ilm ad-Din [The Sufficient in the Knowledge of Religion] by Thiqat al-Islam Muhammad ibn Yaqub al-Kulayni (d. 940 AD); (2) Man la Yah-duruhu al-Faqih [For Him Not in the Presence of a Jurisprudent] by Shaykh as-Sadduq Muhammad ibn Babiyah al-Qummi (d. 991 AD); (3) Tahdhib alAhkam [Rectification of the Statutes] by Shaykh at-Ta’ifah Muhammad at-Tusi (d. 1068 AD) and (4) al-Istibsar fi ma Ukhtulif fihi min alAkhbar [Reflection upon the Disputed Traditions] also by Shaykh at-Tusi. 137 Among the rooms of the Chahar Bagh Madrasah the first room in the north-west wing is a special room famous as the Shah Sultan Husayn room. Shah Husayn (1688- 1726), one of the Safavid rulers, spent a lot of his time in this room in consultation with the great ulama of his time.

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seen in the Chahar Bagh Madrasah in Isfahan138 even today; and it was they, the ulama who led him to use such a chamber. It wasn’t a case of him holding sway over the ulama. There were political motives behind the ulama’s behavior; there were religious motives. Thus, when one hears for example that Majlisi139, Muhaqqiq ath-Thani140, or Shaykh Bahai141, may God be well pleased with them, held ties with the kings of their time, that they cooperated with them and accompanied them, one must not assume that the ulama continued attachment to the court was for the sake of obtaining position and status and that they were in need of some favor or other to be bestowed upon them by Shah Sultan Husayn and Shah Abbas! This was not at all the case. These ulama made self-sacrifices; they both sacrificed and struggled against the self so that they could propagate this religion of Islam by means of the kings themselves. These ulama even managed to continue their crusade to preserve Islam and the Shia faith within an environment where cursing the Commander of the Faithful (Imam Ali (as)) was a common occurrence and at a time when there was no mention or sign of Shi’ism. I even heard somewhere that once, when the authorities had decided to desist from making such curses against the Imam, people from an Iranian city requested permission to continue with this practice for a further six months. Yet in spite of such difficult circumstances and such a hostile environment, the ulama continued with their struggle. They humbled themselves before the people and continued with their mission although the latter at that time were hostile toward them- a hostility which probably stemmed from the people’s ignorance.

138 The Chahar Bagh Madrasah which is also famous as the “Shah’s Mother’s” Madrasah was built during the Safavid era on the orders of Shah Sultan Husayn. 139 Muhammad Baqir Majlisi (1625/6- 1698/9 AD), commonly known as “the Second Majlisi”, was one of the great Shia ulama and transmitters of Prophetic traditions during the Safavid period. He compiled more than sixty books, the most famous of which is his Bihar al-Anwar [Oceans of Lights], a monumental encyclopedia of traditions and narratives which attempts to present all Shia traditions in a single work, classifying them by subject matter. Since its compilation, its value as the standard reference work for all Shia studies can hardly be overemphasized. One indication of its popularity is that despite its enormous size, it was published twice in lithographed form in the nineteenth century. The modern edition of the work fills 110 volumes of approximately 400 pages each. His other works include: ‘Ayn alHayah; Mishkat al-Anwar; Hilyat al-Muttaqin; Hayawat al-Qulub; Tuhfa az-Zayir; Jala al-’Uyun; Miqyas al-Masabih; Rabi’ al-Asabi’; Zada al-Mu’ad; Haqq al-Yaqin. Majlisi lived during the Safavid era. His great personality and position among the Iranian Shia and his sittings with the Safavid king, Shah Sultan Husayn Safavid (1688- 1726 AD), even though these lasted for only four years, constituted one of the causes of Iran’s stability at the time and contributed toward the preservation of her territorial integrity. Not long after Majlisi’s death, and due to the incompetence of the king, Iran fell into anarchy, Ghilzai Afghans (one of the largest of the Pashto-speaking tribes in Afghanistan) took control of Isfahan, the Safavid capital, in 1722 and the south of the country fell under their control, while the Russians and Ottomans controlled the north. ‘Allamah Majlisi’s grave is situated in the Jami’ ‘Atiq of Isfahan. Refer to Danesh-e Muslimin, p. 222. 140 Shaykh Zayn al-Abidin Abul-Hasan Ali ibn Husayn ibn Abdul-Ali known as ‘Muhaqqiq Karaki’ or ‘Muhaqqiq ath-Thani’ (1465 - d. 1534 AD in Najaf) was one of the famous ulama of the Safavid period at the time of Shah Tahmasp (1524- 1576 AD) and held the position of Shaykh al-Islam or Chief Jurist-consult in Iran. His most important works include: Jami’ al-Maqasid fi Sharh al-Qawa’id; and commentaries on Sharayi’ al-Islam and Sharh al-Fih Shahid al-Awwal and the book Tahrir by ‘Allamah. 141 Muhammad ibn Husayn Amili known as Shaykh Bahai was an outstanding scholar at the time of Shah Abbas Safavid (1588- 1629 AD). He went to Iran from Lebanon in his youth with his father Husayn ibn ‘Abdus-Samad who himself was one of the Shia ulama. He learnt fiqh, usul, literature, the science of religious traditions and Qur’anic exposition from his father. He later benefited from the teachings of such scholars as Mulla Abdullah Yazdi and when he himself reached the position of professor [ustadh], religious scholars such as Mulla Muhsin Fayz Kashani, Makki Amili, Shaykh Muhammad Taqi Majlisi (the father of Muhammad Baqir Majlisi) and many others studied under him. Shaykh Bahai was an expert in fiqh, mathematics, physics, mechanics and astrology. He was the author of 88 books and treatises in Persian and Arabic. His most important works are: Jami’ Abbasi (concerning fiqh); Khulasah al-Hisab (mathematics); Tashrih al-Aflak (astrology); Kitab Arba’in; Kashkul (narratives, traditions, science and poems); Mathnawi Shir va Shikar; and Mathnawi Nan va Halva. He died in Isfahan and, according to his own will, was buried near Imam Reza’s (as) shrine.

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Similarly, today, if anyone objects to and criticizes the ulama it is because they are not aware of the facts. It is not that they cherish a grudge against the ulama, but rather it is a case of them not understanding the situation. At the time of the Immaculate Imams the case was the same. People were unaware of what was really going on and wrongly accused the ulama- ulama such as Ali ibn Yaqtin who served as a minister of the Royal Court; or even the Commander of the Faithful (as), he too can be cited as such an example. For twenty-odd years the Commander of the Faithful joined in with the rulers of the land when they performed their prayers and he paid them his allegiance.142 But he did these things for the good of Islam, because there were certain benefits to be gained for Islam which overrode these side-issues. The other Immaculate Imams (as) fraternized with the sultan of the day at times; but when this was an impossibility then they behaved otherwise. The interests of Islam are of far more importance than we imagine. They override any other concern that we may consider important. The reason that you now criticize these ulama who put their lives in danger for a certain cause and who were forced in the past to behave in a certain manner to this end, is because you are unaware of the truth of the matter. It is not that you bear malice or have bad intentions; it is that you are unaware of the actual facts. If I thought I could guide an unjust sultan to the straight path, then I too would fraternize with the king. You too would have a duty to do the same if, as a result, you could reform an unjust, cruel sultan. It is not a question of being attached to the court; it is a question of reforming individuals. These ulama did not join the Royal Court as such, instead their intention was to reform individuals; and I therefore have a grievance to voice against those who state otherwise.

THE CLERGY AT THE FOREFRONT OF THE UPRISINGS AND MOVEMENTS So far I have discussed the ulama with regard to fiqh and concerning their association with the authorities of the day, and I have done so to the best of my knowledge. Now, I shall turn to political aspects and to the ulama’s involvement in the political affairs of recent history; and again I shall discuss this matter to the best of my knowledge. One of the movements that occurred during the past one hundred years or so in opposition to certain things which were detrimental to Islam, was the movement concerning the tobacco issue143 - an 142 It refers to the three caliphs before Imam Ali (as). 143 In 1891, Nasiruddin Shah granted yet another in a long line of concessions he had already given to foreigners in return for money to satisfy court consumption and to finance his tours of Europe. This time, in return for a personal gift of twenty-five thousand pounds, an annual rent of fifteen thousand pounds to the state and a twenty-five percent share of the profits for Iran, one Major Gerald Talbot acquired a fifty-year monopoly over the distribution and exportation of tobacco. Akhtar [Star], a liberal Persian paper published in Istanbul at the time, expressed the general concern of Iranian merchants: “It is clear enough that the concessionaire will commence the work with a small capital and will purchase the tobacco from the cultivators and sell it to the merchants and manufacturers for higher prices, and all the profits will remain in the purse of the English. As the Persian merchants have no right to export tobacco from Persia, those who were formerly engaged in this trade will be obliged to give up their business and find some other work. The concessionaire does not take into consideration how many merchants who were engaged in this business will be left without employment and will suffer loss in finding other occupations.” The clergymen and maraji’ of the time immediately opposed the concession and demanded its cancellation. Ayatullah Mirza Shirazi, the maraji’-e taqlid, determined the destiny of this struggle. He issued a religious fatwa stating that the use of tobacco in whatever form was haram [forbidden] and was tantamount to declaring war with Imam az-Zaman (the Twelfth Imam). The bazaar in Shiraz, the main tobacco-growing region, shut down and a general strike of the leading bazaars particularly Tehran, Isfahan, Tabriz, Mashhad, Qazvin, Yazd and Kermanshah ensued which spread into a state-wide consumer’s boycott. Ayatullah Shirazi’s representative in Tehran, Mirza Hasan Ashtiyani, led the protest there. Hookahs were smashed and tobacco was set on fire as the consumer’s boycott received support from practically all classes of Iranian society, even members of the royal harem. Consequently, Nasiruddin Shah, seeing his position threatened by this rebellion was forced to annul the concession and pay the penalty. See Nikki Keddie, Religion and Rebellion in Iran- The Tobacco Protest of 1891- 92.

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issue with which you are all familiar. The great Mirza Shirazi, may God rest his soul, issued a decree of prohibition and, led by Mirza Ashtiyani144 in Tehran, the ulama of Iran, the ulama from all over Iran, may God rest their souls, embarked on their crusade, rescuing the fallen Iranian government as a result. The government had collapsed because of a certain few who had sought revelry and pleasure and who had wanted to peddle the wares of the country. These people had sold Iran to the foreigners. Hence, Mirza Shirazi, may Allah be pleased with him, issued a decree and the other ulama of Iran, in obeying this decree, laid their lives on the line. They endured hardships, went to great lengths, rose up in opposition and persuaded the rest of the people to rise up, until eventually the tobacco concession was annulled. So much for the movement which fought against despotic rule. As for the fight for constitutionalism, this involved a movement which in fact sprung from Najaf and which once more was pioneered by the ulama.145 Here again, the ulama in Iran rose up against despotic rule, against ruthless despots who did as they pleased and killed as they pleased. On one occasion, a group of poor soldiers who were not even given bread to eat, had assembled in the street to protest. At the same time, His Majesty was passing by in the royal carriage on his way to pay a visit to the shrine of Hazrat Abdul-Azim. At this point, one of the aforesaid soldiers threw a stone. According to historical accounts, these soldiers were brought before the king as a result, and the latter ordered for their execution! A great number of soldiers were therefore executed, until someone known as Mustawfi al-Mamalik146 interceded and spoke out against these measures taken by the king. These are the kind of despotic people, the kind of despotic kings they were. Muhammad Ali Mirza147 was yet another of 144 Mirza Muhammad Hasan Ashtiyani (1832-1902 AD) was a famous mujtahid and one of the Usulis* of Nasiruddin Shah’s reign. He was a student of Shaykh Murtaza Ansari and attained the level of ijtihad in Najaf. He came to Tehran in 1865 and began teaching the religious sciences. His grave is situated in Najaf. His works include: Kitab al-Waqf; Kitab al-Awani ath-Thahab wa’l-Fiza and Kitab al-Qaza. Refer to the Encyclopedia of Shi’ism, vol. 1, p. 116. *The adversaries of the Akhbaris. They hold that the Faqih may legitimately apply rational exertion to the solution of legal problems. The Iranian religious scholars have been overwhelmingly Usuli since the late 18th century. See Hamid Algar’s Religion and State in Iran, 17851906 pp. 33- 36. 145 The Iranian constitutional movement (1905- 1911 AD) greatly benefited from the support and co-operation it received from such personalities as Akhund Mulla Muhammad Kazim Khorasani and Aqa Shaykh Abdullah Mazandarani both maraji’ of Najaf, and from Sayyid Abdullah Behbahani and Sayyid Muhammad Tabatabai, two of Tehran’s prominent ulama. Akhund Khorasani issued a fatwa [decree] about the importance of the Constitution and in this way made the constitutional movement in Iran indebted to him. Shaykh Abdullah Mazandarani was one of Akhund Khorasani’s close associates throughout the movement. A proclamation issued by these two religious scholars read: “The Constitution of each country limits and conditions the will of the ruler and the offices of government so that the divine ordinances and common laws based on the official religion of the country are not transgressed.” 146 Mirza Yusuf Ashtiyani (1810- 1886 AD) known as “Mustawfi al-Mamalik” or “Aqa” was one of the leading personalities of the Qajar period. He was a noble, virtuous man who was a close associate of Mirza Taqi Khan (Amir Kabir). 147 Muhammad Ali Shah, the sixth monarch of the Qajar dynasty and the son of Muzaffaruddin Shah, ruled for only two years from January 1907 to July 1909. At the beginning of his rule he was sympathetic toward the demands of the constitutionalists. However, he soon began to oppose the movement. On June 23, 1908, with the help of the Cossack Brigade commanded by its Russian colonel named Liakhoff, he staged a successful coup d’état against the first Iranian Majlis; the Majlis building was bombarded and closed, and a number of political figures were arrested and executed including Malik al-Mutakallimin and Mirza Jahangir Khan, the editor of the paper Sure Israfil [Trumpet Call of Israfil]. Ayatullahs Behbahani and Tabatabai, the two prominent ulama of the movement, were arrested and sent into exile. In 1909, as forces loyal to the constitutional movement converged on Tehran and the royalists fled in disarray, Muhammad Ali Shah sought sanctuary in the Russian legation. Five hundred delegates, drawn from the dissolved parliament, from the Bakhtiyari and guerrilla forces, from the bazaar and from the liberals in the court, met promptly in Tehran and declared themselves a Grand Assembly. Functioning as a constituent body, the assembly deposed Muhammad Ali Shah, nominated his twelve-year-old son, Ahmad, to be the new Shah, and elected ‘Asd al-Malik, the aged but liberal ilkhan of the Qajar tribe, to serve as royal regent. Subsequently, Muhammad Ali Shah sought refuge

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these despots, and indeed everyone is aware of the kind of person, the kind of beast he was. Other kings have also been the same. And it was this kind of despotism that the ulama rose up against at the time when they formed a movement in the struggle for constitutionalism. They were the ones who, more than anyone else, wanted to achieve constitutional rule; but they did not succeed in this. No, they were unsuccessful. Had they succeeded, all would have been well, but they were unable to do so. This was through no fault of their own however. Indeed, they tried their best, and because of their efforts the resultant situation was at least an improvement on the former state of affairs when those in authority were unaccountable for their deeds. Things did not turn out as the ulama had wanted though, because even though the ulama’s efforts had brought about the drafting of the Supplementary Constitutional Laws, these were not in fact adhered to. This present-day government of Iran is unsanctioned; it is illegal. These parliamentary deputies in Iran are illegal; they are not sanctioned. According to the laws of the Constitution, this present-day Majlis is not sanctioned. The Constitution states that the Majlis of Iran must lie under the supervision of five fuqaha; but can even one such person now be found to occupy such a role? Indeed, can any kind of supervision of the Majlis be seen to exist at all? Is there any kind of true popular representation there at all? Or is it a Majlis which has been set up without popular approval? Yes, it is a case of it having been forcibly installed. Therefore, we see that although the ulama tried their utmost to achieve constitutionalism, they were prevented from doing so. Having said that, it was nevertheless the clergy who, as always, were the vanguards of the movement and who brought about changes, albeit ones which fell short of their initial objectives. Once again it was the clergy’s endeavors which were paramount, other forces playing a supportive role only. Needless to say, others did in fact play a part in this movement, but as ever, it was the clergy who were in the forefront.

THE STRUGGLES OF THE ULAMA IN IRAQ Again, what would have happened had the ulama not engaged in combat in Iraq?148 On this occasion, the son of the Sayyid149 was killed in the war; the son of the late Sayyid Muhammad Kazim150 was killed in abroad. Throughout the reign of Muhammad Ali Shah, the Russians directly interfered in the internal affairs of the country and were the instigators of many outrages. Among these was the bombardment of the holy shrine of Imam al-Reza in Mashhad and the slaughter of a large number of Iranians there. See Ervand Abrahamian’s, Iran Between Two Revolutions, Chapter Two. 148 During the First World War, the Ottoman government sided with Germany against the armies of Britain and France. As the war spread to Iraq, which at the time formed part of the Ottoman Empire, and the situation became critical, the great Shia ulama of the time, residing in Iraq, declared jihad against the British and eminent mujtahids and scores of religious students led the army in defense of their Islamic homeland. Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi (d. 1921) an important Shia jurisprudent and marja’ of the time, encouraged the people to rise up through his stirring proclamation in which he stressed the incumbency of jihad against the British. He was a leading force in the resistance staged by the Shia ulama opposed to the imposition of British rule on Iraq at the end of World War I. Among other ulama who took part in the jihad the following can be cited: Mirza Shirazi’s son; Ayatullah Sayyid Mustafa Kashani and his son Ayatullah Sayyid AbulQasim Kashani; Ayatullah Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim; Ayatullah Shaykh Muhammad Husayn Kashif al-Ghita and Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari. 149 Imam is referring to Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Tabatabai Yazdi, the son of Ayatullah Muhammad Kazim Tabatabai Yazdi. Sayyid Muhammad Tabatabai was one of the famous ulama residing in Iraq and was the marja’ of the Shia there. He proclaimed jihad against the British in Iraq and was one of the leaders in the Iraqi uprising (1920) in which he himself was killed. 150 Imam here is once again referring to Sayyid Muhammad Tabatabai (see previous footnote). His father Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Tabatabai Yazdi (d. 1920) was one of the great Shia ulama and maraji’ and was a student of Mirza Hasan Shirazi. His most famous work is ‘Urwat al-Wuthqa. After the death of Mulla Muhammad Kazim Khorasani he attained the position of marja’iyyah (authority). As a marja’ he issued

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the war. Yes, the ulama there, in Iraq, shouldered arms and went into combat. The late Mr. Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari151, may Allah be pleased with him, was imprisoned; that is, he was taken captive along with a number of others and was sent abroad. He himself told of how they were counted one by one as they were handed over by the foreigners into the custody of others, and of how the latter explained to him that this was a precaution which had to be taken for his own safety since it was believed that cannibalism was practiced by the inhabitants of that region. During this period, it was the second Mirza Shirazi, that outstanding personality, that great man who shone both in learning and in deeds, who rescued the country of Iraq. He issued the order for jihad and called on the people to participate in this crusade. People therefore responded to this call, for at that time, unlike today, people used to take their lead from the ulama. Hence, in answering the call to war made by Mirza Shirazi, the people fought; they gave lives and battled on throughout the traumas of the crusade until they eventually won back Iraq’s independence. Had it not been for their efforts we would now be captives; we would now be a British colony; but yet again, the vigorous efforts of the ulama saved the day. The reason why certain ulama in Iraq were sent into exile in Iran was because of their opposition to foreign forces. The late Messrs. Sayyid Abul-Hasan152, Naini153, Shahrestani154, and Khalisi155 were all sent into exile in Iraq because they spoke out against these forces and their agents; and I myself can vouch for this.

a number of fatwas ordering his followers to resist the foreign imperialists. Consequently, at the time of the occupation of Iraq by the British and of Libya by the Italians, and the Russian and British invasion of Iran, it was the fatwas of this great clergyman which encouraged the people to free their lands from foreign occupation. 151 Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari (1888- 1952 AD) was one of the great religious scholars of Iran. He studied the science of usul under Ayatullah Akhund Khorasani and combined militancy with learning. He fought against the British occupiers of Iraq under the leadership of Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi and spent a period in exile on the island of Hengam in the Persian Gulf. For a period of eight years (five years during the reign of Reza Khan and three years during that of Muhammad Reza Pahlavi) he administered the theological center in Qum alongside Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Hujjat and Ayatullah Haj Sadruddin Sadr, two great jurisprudents and theologians of the time. Ayatullah Khwansari struggled alongside Ayatullah Kashani in the movement for the nationalization of oil in Iran. 152 Sayyid Abul-Hasan Isfahani (1858- 1946 AD) was educated initially in Isfahan but traveled to Iraq in 1889 to complete his education under the tuition of Akhund Mulla Muhammad Kazim Khorasani and Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi. He attained the position of marja’iyyah in 1921. His ‘practical treatise’ [Risalah al-’Amaliyyah] is known as Sirat an-Najah. He participated in the Iraqi revolution of 1920 as one of the leaders of the Shia population and was banished from Iraq for a while. 153 Mirza Muhammad Husayn Naini (1860- 1936 AD) was one of the great mujtahids and religious jurisprudents of the early twentieth century. He studied under Mirza Shirazi and proved to be one of the latter’s most outstanding pupils. He played a crucial role in the progress of the constitutional movement, and was one of those Iranian maraji’ residing in Iraq who was sent back to Iran after the Iraqi uprising of 1920. However, after six months he returned to Iraq and took up residency in Najaf. His most famous work is Tanbih al-Ummah wa Tanzih al-Milla which discusses Shia political theory including government from the Islamic point of view and which he wrote at the beginning of the constitutional movement in Iran. He was famous for his eloquence of speech and his fine handwriting and is recognized as one of the great scholars of the science of usul (principles of religion or dogmatic theology). 154 Ali Shahrestani was one of the famous Iranian mujtahids and one of the Shia leaders during the Iraqi revolution of 1920. He was exiled to Iran by the British after their occupation of Iraq, and he spent the rest of his life in Bakhtaran (Kermanshah). 155 Ayatullah Khalisi (d. 1925 AD) was one of the Shia religious scholars and a leader of the movement in Iraq against the British occupation of that country. In 1922, the Iraqi monarch King Faysal banished more than forty of the Shia ulama from Iraq. Ayatullah Khalisi was sent into exile in the Hijaz for ordering a boycott of the elections and for suspected opposition to the heads of Iraq. His expulsion from Iraq sparked strong opposition from the ulama and Muslim people of Iran, such that the Iranian government was compelled to hold talks with British and Iraqi officials to try to persuade them to allow Ayatullah Khalisi to travel to Iran from the Hijaz and the other ulama to return to Iraq. The Iranian government was successful in its efforts, but as Ayatullah Khalisi stepped onto Iranian soil at Bushehr, he was martyred by a follower of the British govt. His works consist of Al-’Anawin fi’l Usul and Mukhtasar ar-Rasa’il wa’l-Wusul ila Kifayat al-Usul.

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THE CLERGY’S STRUGGLES AT THE TIME OF REZA KHAN Again, at the time of that man from Savadkuh156, that abhorrent ruffian Reza Khan, the ulama once more rose up and this time they did so in the city of Isfahan.157 I was present on this occasion. Both the ulama from Isfahan and those from other Iranian cities, converged on Qum where they assembled and rebelled against the regime. However, the regime resorted to trickery and the movement was crushed. Whether defeat in fact resulted from the regime’s trickery or whether it was due to other factors, the point is that it was indeed defeated. Yet another movement was embarked upon by the ulama of Khorasan.158 The late Messrs. Aqazadeh159 and Sayyid Yunus160 along with other of their contemporaries, were arrested and taken to Tehran where they were imprisoned. I myself saw how the late Aqazadeh, may Allah be pleased with him, was seated on the ground with his turban removed, and how no one was allowed to go near him. He

156 Reza Khan was born in the town of Alasht in Savadkuh County, Mazandaran Province in 1878, to son of Major Abbas-Ali Khan and Noush-Afarin who was a Georgian Muslim immigrant from Georgia (then part of the Russian Empire). 157 In September 1927, Reza Shah issued a decree which implicitly prohibited the clergy from carrying out some of their duties and from involvement in the country’s affairs. His decree was in fact a declaration of war against the clergy. First reactions came when protests against the military service law were held by the people of Isfahan and about one hundred ulama and mujtahids of Isfahan, together with a group of other inhabitants of that city, traveled en masse to Qum. The “Qum migrants” as they became known, were led by one Haj Aqa Nurullah Ruhani. Upon arrival in Qum, the migrants called on the ulama and maraji’ from across the country to join them in Qum in their show of opposition. About seven hundred clergymen responded to their call. Contemporaneous with this event, people in different Iranian cities held anti-government demonstrations. The spread of this opposition to his new policies compelled Reza Khan to respond. He sent some of his representatives along with his Prime Minister and Court Minister to Qum to speak with Haj Aqa Nurullah and the other ulama. Eventually, the government was forced to give in to the migrants’ demands which included a review of the military service law; the selection of five ulama to take seats in the Parliament and the appointment of an overseer of Islamic laws in the towns and cities of Iran. However, Haj Aqa Nurullah, who had stipulated that the migrants would return to Isfahan only when their conditions were met and officially ratified, died under mysterious circumstances during the night of December 25, 1927. Subsequently, with the death of their leader, the protesters dispersed, returning to their respective home. 158 After the enforcement of Reza Khan’s decree requiring everyone to wear uniform dress and the Islamic veils of women to be removed, the ulama in Khorasan rose in revolt. In order to suppress the uprising, Reza Khan ordered his agents to attack the protesters who had gathered at the mosque of Gauhar Shad in the city of Mashhad. A great number of innocent people were massacred in this incident and about one hundred clergymen and other influential people were arrested. Some of the great ulama of the time, such as Aqa Sayyid Yunus Ardebili and Aqazadeh were taken to Tehran to stand trial. See Nihzat-e Ruhaniyyun-e Iran, vol. 2, p. 165. 159 Mirza Muhammad (Aqazadeh) Najafi Khorasani (1877- 1938 AD) the son of Akhund Khorasani began his studies with his father and received the authorization for becoming a mujtahid from him. In 1907, he left Najaf for Khorasan in Iran and took up residence in Mashhad where he taught usul and fiqh for a while. He was a staunch supporter of the constitutional movement and with the rise to power of Reza Khan and the establishment of his despotic rule, he continued struggling against oppression and called upon the people to rise up against the first Pahlavi monarch. After the barbaric events at Goharshad Mosque in Mashhad, Khorasani was arrested and sentenced to death. However, measures taken by those at the Najaf theological school forced Reza Khan’s regime to commute his sentence. Consequently, he was held in prison for a while and upon his release he was expelled from Mashhad and forced to move to Tehran. There his home was kept under constant surveillance. It is believed that he died at the hands of one Doctor Ahmadi who killed him while treating him for an illness. His body was laid to rest at the shrine of Abdul-Azim. Some of his most notable works are Kitab al-Qaza; Ash-Shahadat and Mabhath al-Fazz. Refer to Tarikh-e Bist Saleh-ye Iran, vol. 6, p. 252. 160 Sayyid Yunus Ardebili (1876- 1959 AD) was one of the famous Shia maraji’. He left his place of birth (Ardebil) for Zanjan to study fiqh and usul under Akhund Mulla Qurban Ali Zanjani, and rational sciences [ulum al-maqul] under Akhund Mulla Sabz Ali Hakim. In 1892, he traveled to Najaf where he attended the theological centre studying under notable instructors. He later moved to Karbala to study with Mirza Shirazi the second, eventually returning to Ardebil in 1916. In 1923, at the time of the struggle against Reza Khan, Sayyid Yunus went to Mashhad. Following events at the Goharshad Mosque, he was arrested and sent to Ardebil. In 1938, he once again returned to Mashhad where he began teaching. He died there not long after his return. His body is buried in the Dar as-Sa’adat at the shrine of Imam Reza (as). He is famous for authoring such books as Daura-ye Kamil-e Fiqh and Risalat dar Qa’idah al-Zarar. Refer to the Encyclopedia of Shi’ism and Tarikh-e Bist Saleh-ye Iran.

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was led through the streets in this state, with his turban removed, and was taken to a court of law where he was tried. Throughout the whole of this time however, there was no sign of these political parties. These parties were not at all in evidence during these uprisings which were staged by the ulama. Yes, they existed, but they were inert. Azerbaijan161 was the spring-board of yet another movement during which the late Messrs. Mirza Sadiq Aqa162 and Angaji163 were arrested and exiled for their participation in this campaign. Following a long period in exile, the late Mirza Sadiq Aqa never actually returned to Azerbaijan although he was held in high regard by the people there. Instead however, he came to Qum where I would occasionally pay him a visit and where he in fact remained until the end of his life.

RESISTANCE OF MUDARRIS AGAINST REZA KHAN’S OPPRESSION Someone else with whom I was acquainted, was the late Mudarris, may he rest in peace. He was yet another ‘alim who stood in confrontation against oppression, against of the oppression of that man from Savadkuh, that ruffian Reza Khan. He stood up in opposition in the Majlis Other ulama had sent him to Tehran as a leading representative of theirs, yet he traveled to Tehran in a horse-drawn carriage. According to a reliable source, Mudarris had bought this carriage in Qum, and had personally ridden the horse several times during his journey to Tehran. Having reached the capital, he bought a modest house in which to live, where I would often go to visit him. I visited Mudarris, may Allah be pleased with him, regularly. He was the most popular Member of Parliament in Tehran. He used to stand alone and fearlessly speak out against oppression; and he enjoyed a following which included people like Malik ash-Shu’ara’164. But in spite of this following, it was he who stood up and spoke out against oppression and against the injustices committed by that man (Reza Khan). This all happened during the time when the Russian government had sent an ultimatum to Iran and when its soldiers had entered Iran, advancing as far as Qazvin. I can’t remember exactly what it was that Russia wanted from Iran, but it is documented in history, and it concerns a matter which would have more or less reduced Iran to servitude; a matter which the Russians insisted on being ratified in the Iranian Majlis. The matter was taken to the Majlis and everyone there was at a loss as to what course of action they should take,

161 One of the freedom movements during the despotic reign of Reza Khan was that of the ulama of the Iranian province of Azerbaijan. This movement was led by Mirza Sadiq Aqa and Angaji, two of the great religious jurisprudents [fuqaha] and maraji’ of the people of Azerbaijan. In order to suppress the movement, Reza Khan sent these two theologians first to Kurdistan and then to Qum. Angaji was able to return to Tabriz after a while, but Sadiq Aqa remained in exile in Qum until the end of his life. 162 Mirza Sadiq, the great religious jurisprudent [Faqih] and marja’ of the people of Azerbaijan province, resided in Tabriz. He was one of the great theologians and mujtahids of the Shia during the first half of the twentieth century. 163 Mirza Abul-Hasan Angaji (1862- 1937 AD) the son of Sayyid Muhammad Shaykh Shari’at was one of the religious jurisprudents and maraji’ of Tabriz. He studied under Haj Mirfattah Sarabi and Mirza Mahmoud Usuli in Tabriz until 1884 when he went to Najaf to study under Fazil Irvani, Haj Mirza Habibullah Roshani and Aqa Shaykh Muhammad Hasan Mamqani. Four years later, toward the end of 1888, he returned to Tabriz and began teaching. In 1933, he was arrested and sent into exile first in Sanandaj and then in Qum. He died in Tabriz in 1937. His works include Kitab-e Hajj and Hashiyeh. 164 Muhammad Taqi Bahar known as Malik ash-Shu’ara’ was a great Iranian poet and scholar. During the Constitutional Revolution, he was one of the friends and followers of Sayyid Hasan Mudarris. His revolutionary essays and poems written at the time of Reza Khan’s suppression were the cause of his incarceration and banishment from one town to another on many occasions. Bahar was elected to the Parliament on several occasions.

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hence, they remained silent in their stupor. A foreign journal recounts how a clergyman came and stood at the back of the speaker’s platform, his hands trembling from age and infirmity; and the journal quotes him as saying something along these lines: “It may be the will of Allah that our liberty and sovereignty shall be taken away from us by force, but let us not sign them away with our own hands,” He then cast a negative vote, and others, finding courage, followed suit, thus dismissing the ultimatum. As for the Russians, there wasn’t a damned thing they could do about it.165 This is the policy politicians usually follow. Firstly they play the bogeyman to see how their opponent reacts. Should their opponent stand up and confront them, then they beat a retreat; but should the poor opponent step back, then they close in. Animals also behave in this way. An animal also has this property, whereby it comes forward at first to sass out its opponent. If the latter takes the offensive, then the animal runs away; but if its opponent flees, then the animal chases after it. This is normal practice for an animal. And so we see what a fearless opponent this clergyman, Mudarris, was. He was someone who would stand up to a great power, who confronted a power as great as Russia. He was someone who, to quote the aforementioned journal, stood up with trembling hands and said: “It may well be the will of Allah that our liberty and sovereignty shall be taken away from us by force, but let us not sign them away with our own hands.” He then cast a negative vote; and others, finding courage, did the same. Now, wouldn’t you say that this clergyman is worthy of appreciation? And what about these past movements and this recent movement which led to the event of Khordad 15 and the forefront; it was the ulama; and this has continued to be the case right down to the present. Even now it is the religious scholars who create uproar and make their voices heard more than anyone else. Of course some of those from the university are also now involved in this struggle; they too are playing a part in the movement as are the rest of the people. But it is the ulama that they follow and not anyone else. A great number of the ulama from Tehran have been imprisoned by the regime; many of the preachers and the ulama have been arrested and sent to prison where they have been kept for several days and where they have undergone persecution.166

165 In May 1911, the Iranian government recruited sixteen American financial experts- headed by Morgan Shuster- to reorganize the tax administration in the country. The Russians were strongly opposed to the presence of the Shuster mission in Iran and in October of the same year they threatened to occupy northern Iran if Shuster, who was seen to be treading on Russia’s toes, were not brought to heel. In November the Russians introduced fresh troops into the country and made further demands that: the Shuster mission be dismissed; the appointment of other foreigners be made subject to British and Russian consent and an indemnity be paid to the expeditionary force which had occupied Anzal3 and Rasht near the northern Iranian border! They threatened to occupy Tehran without further ado unless these demands were met within forty-eight hours. The ultimatum was discussed in a meeting of the Second National Assembly on December 1, 1911 and was met with strong opposition from Ayatullah Mudarris in particular, whose brave stance in the face of the threatening ultimatum encouraged other members of the Assembly to oppose it. Three hundred women marched into the public galleries with pistols hidden under their long veils, and threatened to shoot any deputy willing to submit to the Russian ultimatum. Angry demonstrators attacked the city trams that were partly owned by the Russians, and a huge crowd, described by one eyewitness as the “largest up to that point in Iranian history,” gathered outside the parliament building shouting, “Independence or Death”. However, Premier Samsam as-Saltanah, along with the regent (of Ahmad Shah who was still a minor), the Cabinet and Yeprem Khan with his fighters from the Caucasus, decided to accept the ultimatum to avoid a Russian occupation of the capital. As the Prime Minister accepted the Russian demands and as the regent accused the deputies of acting unconstitutionally, Yeprem Khan barred shut the doors of Parliament and the Second National Assembly was dissolved. See Ervan Abrahamian, Iran Between Two Revolutions, pp. 108- 110 and Tarikh-e Bist Saleh-ye Iran. 166 Nearly fifty-three clergymen were arrested and imprisoned during the bloody events of June 5, 1963/Khordad 15, 1342 SH.

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INVALIDITY OF THE THEORY, ISLAM WITHOUT THE CLERGY My good men, you are mistaken in believing that you want Islam but not the mullah. How can you have Islam without the mullah? Again, it is these very mullahs who step forward and who get things done. It is they who sacrifice their lives. Even now some of our mullahs are in prison; some of our ulama, our selfsacrificing ulama, are in prison as we speak, refusing to give in to these acts of oppression. They are approached by agents of the regime who ask them to express regret for their actions, but they do not comply. The things I have so far discussed are just some of the things that I have personally witnessed during my lifetime, many other such things having by now escaped my memory; and as for incidents from an earlier period in history, since I am no historian I am not really in a position to discuss them. However, with regard to the grievance I wish to voice against these intellectuals, I would ask them not to brush aside this powerful force which has the support of the nation; and not to dismiss the ulama arguing that: “We want Islam, but we don’t want the mullah”. This is against reason; it does not make political sense. You must welcome the ulama with open arms; and should they be found wanting in their knowledge of political affairs, then come together and give them the political instruction they need. The relationship they have with the people is much better than yours. They command a greater influence over the people than you do, indeed, you have no such influence. They are influential among the people. Each mullah carries weight within his own parish. Those of you, who are concerned about Islam and who say that you want Islam, are not to say that you want Islam but that you don’t want the Akhund. You should say that you want Islam and that you want the Akhund too. If an Akhund is unaware of certain political issues for example, then you are to make a joint effort to help him. You are to teach him about these political issues so that he may then practice what he has learnt, and as a result, is able to retain the nation’s support thus enabling you to administer the country. If you want to engage in struggle alone, without assistance from the akhund, then you will remain oppressed by others till doomsday. You are to come together, to unite, to be brothers together. Don’t spurn those within the clergy. The latter constitute an imperishable force; they constitute the power of the nation. Therefore, do not brush the power of the nation aside by saying that you don’t want to have anything to do with the clergy. No matter how much you may say this, the fact remains that the people certainly do want the clergy to be involved. You are but an isolated group compared to the rest of the people, people who indeed want the ulama to be involved in things. People such as those in the bazaar or the ordinary man in the street, they all want the ulama to be involved. Therefore, while I feel a sense of attachment and fondness toward certain intellectuals- intellectuals who serve Islam, and in particular those who are abroad, those in America, Europe and India for example, with whom I correspond and who are at the service of Islam, who want to serve Islam, who have a love of Islam, and who want to eliminate oppression, on occasion having firmly resolved certain difficulties which have arisen abroad in the past- at the same time, I believe that they should not disregard those services rendered by the ulama of Islam and the akhunds, arguing that “We want Islam minus the akhund”. Don’t you see that this is not possible? Islam and the akhund are inseparable entities. To say “We want Islam minus the akhund”, is like saying “We want Islam, but an Islam which does not concern itself with politics”. Indeed, this is the extent to which Islam and the akhund are intertwined. There is no way that you could have Islam without the akhund. The Holy Prophet (s) was also an akhund; he was one of the greatest akhunds of all

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time. The Prophet was the akhund above all akhunds. And Hazrat Ja’far al-Sadiq (as), he too was an ‘alim of Islam. These men were the fuqaha of Islam; they stand supreme among the fuqaha of Islam. So how on earth can you now say “I don’t want the akhund”?! Indeed, this is why I nurse a grievance against these intellectuals. However, I also have a complaint to make against the honorable gentlemen of the clergy. They too are guilty of overlooking many factors. They too, because of their purity of heart, are influenced by the malicious propaganda which is put out by the regime. The latter dreams up some machination or other daily. It continually makes an issue out of nothing so that the prime cause of our suffering will be overlooked and the ulama will become inattentive. That is to say, there are certain elements which often purposely create a sensation, thus causing some predicament or other to arise. Every so often some kind of trouble crops up in Iran; and at such times, instead of the honorable preachers, the learned ulama, concerning themselves with the political matters found in Islam, with the economic matters found in Islam, they spend their time talking about “this person” being a heathen, “that person” being an apostate, and “so-and-so” being a Wahhabi. They accuse the scholar who has toiled hard for fifty years, and whose knowledge of fiqh is more thorough than that of the majority of themselves, of being a Wahhabi.167 But it is wrong of them to say such things. You are not to create a rift between yourselves. If you continually reject people one by one by saying that this person is a Wahhabi, that person is an unbeliever, and so-and-so is whatever, then at the end of the day who will remain?

TWO LESSONS FROM THE PROPHET (S) I mentioned earlier that I am no expert as far as history is concerned, but nevertheless there are certain things which I have seen or heard in the past and have committed to memory. One such thing concerns something which the Noble Prophet, may peace and blessings be upon him and his family, did following his capture of Hunayn168; something from which two lessons can be learned for those who are keen to understand. On the occasion in question the Noble Prophet did two things: firstly, according to historical accounts, when he heard that one of the leaders of these unbelievers had got away and fled to Jeddah and that he had boarded a boat there with the intention of escaping, the Prophet handed his ‘aba (cloak) to someone, ordering for it to be taken to the escapee and for the latter to be brought back for he had been

167 It refers to Ayatullah Muntaziri. 168 Hunayn is a location in the Hijaz, Saudi Arabia between Mecca and Ta’if in the Sarawat Mountains. The location, on the Road from Mecca to Ta’if Road, is a wide arid valley surrounded by barren, rocky mountains. The Battle of Hunayn took place here in 630 AD.

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spared169; and secondly, he again behaved in a similar manner with Abi Sufyan170 (and later with Abi Sufyan’s offspring), a person who throughout his whole life continually refused to accept the faith of Islam. Thus, when the spoils which had been won during the Battle of Hunayn were brought forward for distribution, in spite of all that this Abi Sufyan and those pagans of the Quraysh had done in the past, the Prophet gave generously to them all, giving as many as a hundred camels to one, three hundred camels to another, and goodness knows how many camels and other things to the rest. And he did this even though he knew that they were pagans; even though he was well aware of them being polytheists. As a result however, the devotees protested that their own share of the spoils had been inadequate and that these unbelievers had been too greedy. In reply to these protests the Prophet said: “They (the unbelievers) have taken camels away with them whereas you have got me with you. Wouldn’t you prefer to have the Prophet of God with you rather than some camels?!”171 Hence, we see what a noble person this man was. Irrespective of his prophetic role, we can see what an exalted mind he had. And at the same time we see how the beneficence shown by the Prophet toward the pagans of the Quraysh led the latter, who were probably impure at heart, to at least make an outward appearance of being Muslim, and to therefore join the fold of Islam. Furthermore, we see how admirably, how marvelously, the Prophet replied to those who voiced protest, thus making them content.

169 This was Safwan ibn Umayyah, one of the leaders of the unbelievers who, upon the Prophet’s triumphant return to Mecca in 630 AD, fled the city for Jeddah from where he hoped to go on to Yemen. ‘Umayr ibn Wahb approached the Prophet and told him of Safwan ibn Umayyah’s flight, saying: “Oh Messenger of God, Safwan is one of the elders of this city who because of his fear of you has fled to Jeddah to throw himself at the mercy of the sea. Grant him quarter.” The Messenger of God replied: “It is granted.” ‘Umayr ibn Wahb then said: “Oh Messenger of God, give me a token that I may take to him so that he will believe he has been granted amnesty.” The Prophet handed him the turban he had worn upon his head when he had entered Mecca after the city had surrendered to him. ‘Umayr took it and set off to Jeddah. He arrived there just as Safwan was about to board a ship. Safwan returned with him to Mecca and went to the Prophet and said: “This man tells me that you have granted me quarter.” The Prophet replied: “That is so.” Safwan ibn Umayyah said: “Grant me a two-month respite. The Prophet answered: “I will grant you a four-month respite.” 170 Abi Sufyan was one of the aristocratic and influential figures of the Quraysh tribe during the Age of Ignorance (before the dawn of Islam). It is said that he was an exciter of discord and was either the instigator of each disagreement which occurred among the Quraysh or played an active role in the dissension. According to one narrative, he lost the sight of both his eyes during the course of two battles. Abi Sufyan opposed the Prophet and the message of Islam until the defeat of Mecca in 630 AD when he embraced Islam and was granted amnesty by the Prophet. He died circa 651 or 654 AD. 171 After his victory in the Battle of Hunayn, the Prophet gave most of the spoils to the Quraysh and the Meccans for he knew that this would reconcile them to Islam. However, the Ansar (the helpers, the epithet given to the Medinans who helped Muhammad after his migration to Medina) received only a small portion of the booty and this caused them much discontent. When the Prophet of God was informed of their objections, he gathered them together and said: “Are you now upset over a small amount of the wealth of this world that I have used to reconcile some hearts and thus strengthen Islam and you don’t consider important the great blessings that God has bestowed upon you and the fact that he has guided you to Islam? Oh Ansar, are you not content that some take with them camels and sheep while you take with yourselves the Messenger of God? I swear by God in whose hands lies my life that if the people had all gone along one path and the Ansar along another, I would have gone along the path of the Ansar. And had I not migrated here, I would still have been one of the Ansar. Oh God, grant forgiveness to the Ansar and the sons of the Ansar and their grandsons.” These words of the Prophet had such an effect on the hearts of the Ansar that they began to weep aloud. Their shaykhs and leaders stood up before him and kissed his hands and feet. Then they said: “We are content with God the Almighty and with your mission and are happy with this portion.” Refer to Kitab alIrshad (The Book of Guidance) by Shaykh al-Mufid translated by I. K. A. Howard, p. 90; The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates by Hugh Kennedy pp. 43- 44 and Tafsir al-Mizan, vol. 18, p. 62.

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THE NECESSITY OF THE CLERGY’S ATTENTION TO THE INTELLECTUALS Returning to the present-day situation, if some patent error is to be found in the work of those who are currently striving for the sake of Islam, and who are writing material to this end, then you are to rectify this error. As ones who are learned, you are to rectify this error and are not to ostracize the persons concerned. Do not drive them away. Indeed, today we need the support of as many people as possible. Right now, we are to make the most of every single person. At times like this, when whatever the regime writes is against us; when all its measures and propaganda are aimed against us; when neither the press nor the radio are free to convey our message or to broadcast even one word of our argument; at a time when our hands our bound and we have been placed in a strait-jacket whereby we cannot get our message across and have no means of propagation at our disposal; indeed, we need every single person we can get. Therefore, even supposing that there are a few mistakes to be found in the work of those who are writing to promote Shi’ism, you are to rectify these mistakes. Do not ostracize these people; do not drive them away. Do not reject those from the university. These are the people in whose hands this country’s destiny will lie in the future. It is not you who will become a government minister in the future. You and I are not the country’s future ministers. We are in a different profession. Tomorrow, this country’s destiny will lie in the hands of these people from the university. It is they who will become Members of Parliament, government ministers or whatever. Therefore, you are to be on friendly terms with these people. Do not persist in your rejection of them. Do not continue to mount the pulpit and denounce them. Mount the pulpit and advise them instead of reviling them. Where will reviling people get you? Advise them. Welcome these credit-worthy fronts which are currently active. Like yourselves, their members have also suffered imprisonment and persecution; they too have suffered exile; they too have been forced to live abroad and are afraid to return to their own country. If you ostracize those who are currently writing and publishing material abroad on Islamic and religious issues, then tomorrow, should the country’s destiny fall into the hands of some of these people, what will they do with the future generation of akhunds having been tormented so by akhunds in the past? Everyone must join hands together.

THE MEANING OF THE SHAH’S REGIME’S ‘LAND REFORMS’ LAW Both the country of Iran and the Islamic countries as a whole, of which Iran is but a member, are hovering on the brink of a disaster. God knows how distressed and worried I sometimes become when I think of how many days Iran would be able to survive on its own supplies, if, God forbid, it should become involved in a war. Experts say that were these ‘supplier countries’ to cut their supplies to Iran, then the latter would only be able to sustain itself for a thirty-three-day period. Yet what kind of a country are we talking about here? We are in fact talking of an Iran whose province of Khorasan alone was capable of supplying the country’s needs all year round, in addition to producing a surplus for export to others. Yes, just one of its provinces- the province of Khorasan. But what did they do? They went and implemented land reforms! They implemented those damned land reforms, and as a result all the land has been taken from the people and we have now reached a stage where Iran’s total agricultural produce is enough to suffice for a mere thirty-three-day period- if the published figures are accurate that is, otherwise the period could in fact be even shorter still.

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What would happen if, for just one day, these ships and those people172 who have built a market here in which to sell their goods did not come to Iran? Yes indeed, that is what ‘land reforms’ actually means: the opening up of a market here for use by foreign countries. These countries have been known to have poured wheat into the sea in the past; they have had a wheat surplus and so they have poured it into the sea.173 But why should they do this when instead they can implement ‘land reforms’ in Iran and export this wheat surplus to her, receiving cash payment in return? They have left our agriculture in a paralyzed state, everything now coming to us from there, from abroad. Just take a look at the various journals. In them you can sometimes see with what swelling pride the government boastfully brags about how much wheat it has imported, how much barley it has imported and so on. But you bungling idiots, don’t you see this is in fact something of which you should be ashamed! You are the ones who should be exporting wheat. You are the ones whose province of Azerbaijan alone was once enough to supply you with all of your agricultural needs as well as producing a surplus for you to export. Yet now you sit and boast about being the ones who have to import goods! Yes indeed, you should be ashamed of these ‘land reforms’ of yours and of whatever other ‘reforms’ you have brought about.

THE NEED FOR COLLABORATION BETWEEN THE CLERGY AND THE INTELLECTUALS To return to my grievance against the honorable gentlemen of the clergy, I ask them not to divorce these other fronts from themselves, but instead to bring all the different fronts together. Moreover, those in the clergy must value this group of people who are striving in the path of Islam and who are writing material to this end. They (the clergy) must make use of these people. My good men of the clergy, extend the right hand of fellowship. Do not talk of a deprave, libertine university and do not continually divorce other fronts from yourselves. And the same goes for the members of other fronts; they too must not divorce the clergy from themselves by saying, for example, that they are reactionaries and old-fashioned. In what way can the akhund be said to be reactionary? How can the akhund be said to be reactionary when he stands as a forerunner of progress? Thus, we have a situation where one front accuses the clergy of reactionism and so on, while another front makes defamatory statements about those in the university saying so-and-so is an atheist and so on. But this is totally wrong. Both fronts are to extend a brotherly hand to each other, so go ahead and do this and set out a joint course of action which you can both follow. Today we have been presented with an opportunity. Iran would not be in the terrible state it is now if this were not the case. This is an opportunity which has been granted us and which, if capitalized upon, presents us with an ideal opportunity. The gentlemen must avail themselves of this opportunity. They must protest in writing. Some writers from certain parties are already busy making such written protests to which they are also adding their signatures. Such people write, air their views and sign their work.174 You are to do the same, and you are to get a hundred ulama to sign your work. You 172 The Americans. 173 According to a United Nations Organization report, while millions of people in developing countries were dying from malnutrition because of the shortage of food, America decided not to cultivate millions of hectares of farmland in order to stop the decrease in the price of agricultural commodities. America controls the distribution and price of wheat by destroying it (throwing it into the sea) or preventing its cultivation. See The Food Crisis, p. 16. 174 By way of example one can cite the Iranian Society for the Defense of Freedom and Human Rights affiliated to the International Committee for Human Rights in America, the Assembly of Iranian Writers and the Assembly of Attorneys. Two months before the

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must hammer the message home; you must come out with the problems which are facing Iran. Now is the time to say these things; and if you do so then you will achieve results. However, my concern is that should this opportunity be wasted and should this man’s175 position be strengthened, then the regime will come down on the people so hard that they won’t know what hit them; and it is you clergymen who will bear the brunt of this attack. This is what is worrying me. Therefore, do not waste this opportunity. All fronts must unite and write about the problems facing Iran. Announce them to the world. If it is not possible to do so in Iran, then send what you have written abroad; they will publish it there for you. Somehow send your work here (abroad) and we will send it to be published. Get your criticisms down on paper; protest against the regime itself as others have We ourselves have seen how several people have already criticized the regime in writing; we have seen how they have got away with saying many things to which they have given their signature. This is an opportunity not to be missed so do not let it slip by.176 The regime in Iran is now doing its best to straighten things out with the imperialist powers. It is seeking to fully establish its puppet status with these powers once and for all, for it has not yet been given their full assurance on this. It is therefore busy making plans either to bring the representatives of these powers over here or for its own representatives to go there or whatever in order to straighten things out for good.177 And present speech, Iranian writers, academics and politicians issued a statement in which, without mentioning the Shah’s name, they called for the government to act according to the constitutional law and for the rights and freedom of the people to be respected. Refer to Zendegi-ye Siyasi-ye Imam Khomeini [The Political Life of Imam Khomeini], p. 366. 175 The Shah. 176 James Earl Carter Jr. (b. 1924) popularly known as Jimmy Carter, the Democrat candidate in the US presidential elections, was voted in as the new American President over his rival from the Republican Party on November 3, 1976/Aban 12, 1355 SH. He took office on January 20, 1977/Dey 30, 1355 SH espousing defense of human rights as one of the main planks of his platform. This may have been a customary gesture expected by the audience at home, but the reasoning behind the emphasis on human rights was prompted by other objectives too, among them the need to: improve America’s image, particularly in the wake of the brutal events of the Korean and Vietnamese wars, and mollify the still strong global anti-US feelings brought about by those events; increase the propaganda against and psychological pressure on the Kremlin and attract disgruntled Russian elements to the American side; and to place US-installed or backed dictators in a favorable light by making them appear to be making strides toward the improvement of human rights and the democratization of their countries and thus meriting further US support or aid- in this way, the US government hoped to prevent uprisings against dictators in its client states and thereby secure its own interests in the various regions of the world. Throughout the presidential campaign, the Shah had put his support and oil money firmly behind the Republican candidate, Gerald Ford. The Shah’s ambassador in London wrote in his diary on August 8 that the Shah “fears that Jimmy Carter may have ‘Kennedy-type pretensions’ and would much prefer to see Ford re-elected.” (p. 23 of Parviz Radji’s In the Service of the Peacock Throne, The Diaries of the Shah’s Last Ambassador to London). In his many years of dealing with US Presidents, the Shah had found his despotic nature and policies were less censured by the Republicans than the Democrats. This was confirmed throughout the 1976 campaign when the Democrats criticized the torture and political repression which was increasingly becoming more commonplace under the Shah in Iran and used his abuse of human rights to discredit the Republicans in their support of him. Upon assuming office, Carter, confident in the stability of the Shah’s regime, placed Iran at the top of the list of those countries which were expected to at least put on a show of liberalization and present some modicum of respect for human rights (although, as was to be seen, Carter would in no way allow abuse of the latter to stand in the way of US lucrative ties with Iran). Hoveyda was then dismissed from office and Jamshid Amuzegar took his place. A Society for the Defense of Human Rights was formed by some of the more moderate elements of the opposition. The administrating body of this society comprised of Mahdi Bazargan, Hasan Nazi, Ali Asghar, Haj Sayyid Jawadi, Ahmad Sadr Haj Sayyid Jawadi, Rahmatullah Muqaddam Maraghi’i, Lahiji and Minachi. 177 Initial doubts which hung over the future course of US-Iran relations upon the new President assuming office were cleared up when in November 1977 the Shah traveled to Washington to seek further support for his regime from the Carter administration. Carter had earlier approved billions of dollars’ worth of military sales to Iran signaling that no drastic change in the relationship was to come about even in the light of scant improvement in Iran’s human rights record. Gary Sick in his book All Fall Down, p. 78 says: “The tone of policy in Washington had changed sharply from the days of Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger, but the emphasis was definitely on gentle persuasion, not heavy pressure or fundamental shifts of alliances. If that was not evident to the Shah prior to his arrival, there could have been little doubt in his mind after the nearly five hours of face-to-face meetings with President Carter on November 15 and 16.”

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my worry is that, God forbid, should this opportunity be lost, and should this regime receive the assurance it is seeking from the imperialist powers, then unlike former times, untold damage will be inflicted upon Islam. I beseech Almighty God to grant success to you all; and to grant glory to Islam. O God, in the name of the Immaculate Imams, exalt Islam; bestow dignity and greatness upon it; awaken us from the slumber of ignorance; bring together all of our different fronts; and enable us to speak with one voice. May God’s peace mercy and blessings be upon you.

23rd Speech Date: Circa January 1978/End of Dey 1356 SH/Safar 1398 AH178 Place: Shaykh Ansari Mosque, Najaf, Iraq Theme: Crimes of the Pahlavi regime Occasion: Tragedy of the massacre of people of Qum on Dey 19, 1356 SH [January 9, 1978] Addressees: Clergy, theology students and a group of people I seek refuge in God from the accursed Satan In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

CONDOLENCE ON QUM TRAGEDY I am at a loss as to whom I should offer my condolences on this tragedy, this great tragedy. 179 Should I offer them to the Most Noble Messenger, peace be upon him and his family, to the Masumin, peace be upon them, to Hazrat Hujjat (the Twelfth Imam) peace be upon him, or to the Islamic ummah, to the Muslims, to the oppressed in all countries of the world, or should I offer them to the oppressed nation of Iran or the respected people of Qum. Should I condole with the bereaved, with the fathers and mothers who have borne so much suffering, or with the theological schools and the ulama? To whom should I offer my condolences and whom should I thank for these events that have come about for Islam. The awakened nation of Iran is plundered and dishonored, it suffers many tragedies and yet it stands firm in the face of these and it sacrifices lives. They have opened up fire on the people with machine-guns without right or reason, and so far, according to the information that we have received, they have killed seventy people.

178 In Sahifeh-ye Nur, vol. 1, p. 267, the present speech is said to have been delivered on January 9 [Dey 19], but in view of Imam’s remarks this is a definite mistake, the said speech having been made at least several days following the event which occurred on January 9. 179 It refers to the killings of January 9/Dey 19] which took place following the printing of the defamatory article entitled: “The Red and Black Reaction in Iran” which appeared in the Ittila’at newspaper of January 7, 1978/Dey 17, 1356 SH. The said article which openly insulted both Imam Khomeini and the other maraji’, carried the fictitious author’s name” Ahmad Rashidi Mutlaq”; and after its publication, the people were so enraged that they immediately collected all of the newspapers in question, set them ablaze, and then began to shout out anti-Shah slogans in the streets. Two days later, on January 9, the theological teaching centers closed down and the general public, including those from the bazaar, headed for the homes of the maraji’ to demonstrate their support for the clergy. On their way however, they were suddenly attacked by armed troops who immediately opened fire on them.

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However, we have been given varying reports and some news agencies report that a hundred people have been killed; the most oft-repeated figure is one hundred or two hundred and fifty dead, but some telegrams that have arrived here from European countries or America speak of three hundred dead, so it is still not clear how many have actually been killed. The number of injured is also not yet known. The correct figure will probably come to light later, if that is possible, if the regime has not thrown the bodies of the people into the Hawze Sultan Lake, as they did on Khordad 15 (June 5, 1964)180. I wonder if the true figure will ever be discovered. We have received confirmed reports that some people went to the hospitals to donate their blood, but they were arrested and hence some of those in need of blood died. The regime’s agents didn’t give the bodies of those killed to their relatives, and if the latter persisted, they made them pay five hundred tumans before they handed the bodies over to them.181 Whom should we thank for this and with whom should we condole? We should be thankful to the Iranian nation. It is an awakened nation; it is a vigilant, renitent nation in the face of oppression. The Iranian people witness so much injustice, they sacrifice so many lives yet still they resist, still they persevere, and this perseverance will bear fruit. There is no doubt that when a nation awakes, when even its women rise up against the government and against these oppressors, it will be victorious, God willing.

WEAPONS IN THE HANDS OF THE WICKED I have heard that at the time of Reza Khan, the father of this Khan, the late Mudarris told him that he believed Shaykh ar-Ra’is182 had once said that he feared a bull with horns for it had a weapon but no intellect or wisdom (‘aql). Even if this does not prove to be a saying of Shaykh ar-Ra’is, it is still a wise adage, for what heinous acts are perpetrated when weapons fall into the hands of the impious and the unworthy. From the very beginning, man has suffered because weapons have been in the hands of impious, unsuitable people. From the very time that man became civilized, as he believed, weapons have been in the hands of the impious and all the problems which mankind has had to suffer stem from this. So long as these unworthy weapon-bearers remain armed, mankind will not find its ultimate destiny. One of the missions of the prophets was to disarm the unworthy, injudicious weapon-bearers, but they could not, for these people held power and authority. Worthy people too in every age tried to wrest the arms from the hands of the unworthy, but they were also unsuccessful. So it has been the unworthy, injudicious and ungodly people who have always been armed and this is the cause of all the problems that you witness (in the world). From the very beginning, when man first came to this earth and the door of struggle between the just and the unjust was opened, and throughout all ages, arms have been in the hands of the unjust- very rarely has it been otherwise. We don’t need to delve far back into history to see what crimes have been committed because of this; we only need to look at the wars which have occurred over the past hundred years. The

180 The Hawze Sultan (Qum Lake) is situated on the lowest stretches of the plain which lies between the cities of Tehran, Qum and Saveh; and it is a well-known fact that the corpses of the victims of Khordad 15 were dumped into this lake by government agents. 181 Those who came to claim the corpses of either the people killed during the demonstration or those who had been executed following a predetermined trial, were asked by the Shah’s agents to make a payment which would cover what they termed ‘bullet costs’. 182 Avicenna also known as Ibn Sina (980-1037 AD), the great Persian Physician. His magnum opus The Canon of Medicine was taught in European universities for 600 years. He is buried in Hamadan, Iran.

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First World War183, the Second World War184, the Vietnamese War185 of recent history and the killings that accompanied them, these all came about because the arms were in the hands of the unworthy, they were the ones who had the weapons.

THE CRIMES OF REZA KHAN I myself can remember and have witnessed the bloodshed that has occurred over the past fifty years in Iran because of the unlawful rule of these criminals. Such sorrow and bitterness it has caused us. Perhaps some of you too share this sorrow or perhaps you are too young to know of everything that has happened, but I am old, I have witnessed the people’s misfortunes and the crimes and killings perpetrated by these unjust weapon-bearers from the time that the first coup d’état was carried out.186 I was in Arak then,187 and the English criminals, the unjust British who possessed arms, armed an unworthy, ignoble Reza Khan and 183 World War I, which broke out in 1914 and came to an end in 1918, was initially sparked off by an Austrian attack against Serbia, other countries, including the Soviet Union, Germany, France, Belgium, Britain, Japan, America, Finland, Bulgaria, Italy and Hungary also later becoming involved in the battle. This war left almost 13,500,000 people dead and numerous cities razed to the ground. 184 World War II broke out in 1939 with a German attack on Poland; and in support of the latter, the French and British governments subsequently declared war on Germany. Italy, Somalia, India, Libya, Yugoslavia, Greece, the Soviet Union, Iran, America, Japan, Algeria, Morocco, Romania, and several other countries were all involved in this war. On August 6, 1945/Mordad 15, 1324 SH, America dropped the first atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima, and this, together with a second attack on Nagasaki three days later, led directly to Japan’s surrender and to the end of the Second World War- a war which claimed the lives of 39,000,000 people. 185 Vietnam was occupied by the French in 1880, but in 1940, following the defeat of France in Europe, the reins of the government in this country were seized by the Japanese. In 1945, the year of Japan’s surrender to the Allies, France yet again set its sights on Vietnam but this time it experienced a defeat at the hands of the latter. In 1954, as a result of the agreements concluded at the Geneva Conference, the temporary partition of Vietnam into two areas of North Vietnam and South Vietnam came about. An American-backed government was installed in South Vietnam which, in its attempts to consolidate the regime’s position, came down hard on all dissidents who were thus sent to labor camps. Between the years 1956 and 1960, as much as one billion dollars was given by America to the South Vietnamese government by way of military and economic aid, in addition to military equipment which was also dispatched by the US to support the regime there. In 1960 a guerrilla campaign was launched against the Vietnamese regime by South Vietnamese guerrilla forces known as the ‘Vietcong’. Thousands of Vietcong members were either arrested or killed by both government and American forces throughout the following four years, until in 1964, America officially waged war with both North Vietnam and the Vietcong of South Vietnam. During the period which stretched from 1962 until 1968, more than 400,000 Vietcong members and North Vietnamese combatants were killed in war and conflict. From February 1965 until January 1968 alone, 2, 582,000 bombs were dropped on the defenseless people of this country during 107,700 air raids which were carried out by US aircraft on North Vietnam; and in 1969, hundreds of the inhabitants of Mylai, a small village situated in South Vietnam, were killed in a general massacre which was carried out by American troops there. On August 10,1969, approximately 500,000 young people from North Vietnam were reported to have been killed in the war. From 1971 until 1973 the Vietcong managed to topple down the South Vietnamese regime with several severe blows; and eventually in 1975, a defeated America was forced to withdraw from Vietnam. This withdrawal was concurrent with an all-out attack on South Vietnam which was staged by both the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese forces, and which resulted in the collapse of the South Vietnamese regime, the liberation of South Vietnam, and the latter’s unification with North Vietnam. According to Western sources, the killing of each Vietcong member cost America as much as 350,000 dollars, let alone the moral, social and psychological damages inflicted upon the American nationdamages which were in fact far greater than any economic losses it sustained. 186 Reza Khan Mirpanj, who held military command over a Cossack unit in Qazvin, occupied Tehran in 1920 [1299 SH] in accordance with a plan devised by the British government, and by carrying out a coup d’état he forced Ahmad Shah to appoint Sayyid Ziyauddin Tabatabai as the Prime Minister. Reza Khan gradually consolidated his position and took steps to establish a unified national army. In 1923, Ahmad Shah appointed Reza Khan to act as Ministerial Chairman after which he then left Iran to visit Europe. Eventually, in 1925 [1304 SH], parliamentary representatives were pressurized by Reza Khan into presenting a single article to the Majlis by virtue of which Ahmad Shah was ousted from the throne and Reza Khan became elected as monarch. This article was ratified by the Majlis in spite of opposition voiced by the clergy and certain crusaders such as Mudarris. 187 In 1920 (1299 SH- the year of Reza Khan’s coup d’état), having received an education in Khomein, Imam Khomeini went to the theological center of Arak where he continued his studies.

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imposed him on the people. After World War Two began, and the British had kicked him out of Iran for disobeying them, they admitted in a broadcast over Radio Delhi that they had engineered the rise to power of this blackguard.188 At the time, the people suspected this to be the case, but they didn’t know all the facts because the evil propaganda of the time did not allow it. I have witnessed the indescribable crimes that he committed during his stay in power.

THE CONSPIRACY OF “REMOVAL OF THE ISLAMIC VEIL” (KASHF-E HIJAB) I cannot describe for you the sorrows of those days. I’m sure his heinous deeds have been recorded in the annals of history and God willing, after the overthrow of this evil monarchy, the historical facts will be disclosed and the records will be made available for you or for future generations to read. Then you may be able to understand a little better, that is if these accounts can describe what bloodshed he caused, how many of the ulama he incarcerated, how much pressure he brought to bear on this poor nation in order to impose uniform dress, how he hit the oppressed, how he humiliated the ulama and how many turbans he removed from the heads of the religious scholars. It is said that when this ungodly man went to Turkey and saw what misdeeds Ataturk had done there, he sent a telegram to his agents in Iran telling them to make the people wear uniform dress. At the time, he used the excuse that the farmers who worked out in the sun should wear a peaked cap so that they wouldn’t be troubled by the sun- however, it was obvious that this was not the real reason for imposing this law. When he returned from his trip, then the pressures began in earnest.189 A series of intense pressures and outrageous atrocities followed the issuance of this Uniform Dress Law. The ulama were tormented greatly because of this law, many of them were sent into exile and some of them

188 On November 5 1941/Aban 14, 1320 SH, two months after Reza Khan had fled Iran, British Radio, in one of its political commentaries, openly spoke of Britain’s tendentious friendship with Iran and of having brought Reza Khan to power. In this regard it stated: “British political policy in Iran is one based upon friendship: both a friendship with an underlying purpose and a friendship without an underlying purpose. As for the friendship which has no underlying purpose, this is enjoyed by the learned men only, for other than this the friendship held between the British government and Iran or any other country for that matter is not and cannot be void of personal motives Once we saw how suspicious the Iranian nation was towards the treaty concluded in 1919, believing it to be based upon ulterior motives, we annulled the treaty and instead gave the Iranian government help and encouragement to establish order in its own country. The underlying reason why we gave help and encouragement to Reza Khan was that our opponents used to accuse us of controlling Reza Shah’s actions and claim that whatever he did was in compliance with our instructions. But this was not in fact the case! When we realized however that Germany’s evil designs and the Shah’s negligence were endangering our interests, then we were forced to reluctantly take this course of action (i. e. the sending of Reza Khan into exile)”. Refer also to Tarikh-e Siyasi-ye Mu’asir-e Iran, vol. 1, pp. 127- 128. 189 When Reza Khan returned to Iran having visited Turkey and talking with Ataturk, he began to speak of modernization. Ataturk had taught him that the greatest barrier preventing the Westernization of a nation was the ulama and the clergy, and that only by foreshortening the arms of the latter was he himself able to persuade the men to wear a neck- or bow-tie and a hat and to prohibit the women from wearing the Islamic covering! Hence, in following Ataturk’s example, and after consulting with Britain, Reza Khan also embarked upon a new program of “reforms”. In a personally-issued writ, Reza Khan banned the donning of religious dress for all clergymen save a few who had been made an exception. Other steps taken by him in bringing about uniformity of social dress included the compulsory wearing of the Pahlavi hat (semi-brimmed), and later the Chapeau hat (full-brimmed), frock-coat and jacket. Regulations concerning the compulsory wearing of a hat, and the color and type of shoes and clothing which were to be worn, were conveyed via the governors of the various provinces in the form of official notices which were handed down to the latter from the Ministry of the Interior! But even this did not satisfy Reza Khan, who then began to consider further measures which could be taken to crush Islam and the Muslims in Iran. However, having been discharged from this mission, he did not actually get the chance to implement these measures but instead left his son to carry out the rest of his proposed plans.

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were killed because of their objections to it.190 The second excuse used to bring pressure on the people came when he called for the unveiling of women, which again he did in imitation of the ungodly Ataturk, the unjust, armed Ataturk. What a shameful act this was. God only knows how this nation of Iran suffered when he forced the women to remove their veils.191 The veil of humanity was rent asunder. God knows which women he dishonored in this way, which people he humiliated. He forced the ulama at bayonet-point to attend celebratory parties with their wives, which they did with heavy hearts and which ended with the people crying. Other people as well, different groups in turn, were invited and obliged to attend parties with their wives. This was the freedom for women which Reza Shah enforced. He used bayonets and the police to compel the respected people, the merchants and the ulama, to attend these parties on the excuse that he himself had organized them. At some of these celebrations- as the regime called them- the people cried so much that those agents with a sense of shame regretted having forced them to attend. This was just one way he used to put pressure on the people, and God only knows what repercussions this measure had.

PREVENTION OF RAWZAH ASSEMBLIES Another way was he stopped the clergymen from going to the pulpits and delivering sermons of any kind.192 He also prevented them from holding rawzahs- indeed at one time in Iran no rawzahs assemblies were held at all during Ashura. Some fearless people did however dare to hold assemblies, but these had to be held late at night or in the early hours of the morning and they had to end before the call to morning prayer was

190 In 1935 AD/1314 SH, Reza Khan forced the people of Iran to abandon the national and traditional form of dress for a foreign one. The writ which was issued in this regard was called the “Uniformity of Appearance Writ” and it applied to everyone including even the clergy. The people, who were truly angered by these measures, turned to the clergy for guidance and the latter thus commanded them to rise up in opposition. In the struggle which ensued, Ayatullah Husayn Qummi was sent into exile in Iraq (the home of the holy shrines of some of the noblest figures of Islam); and Yunus Ardebili, Muhaqqiq Khorasani and the latter’s son were tried in court and sentenced to imprisonment, Ayatullah Khorasani’s son actually dying shortly after having been forcibly divested of his religious garb. Furthermore, about one hundred of the country’s most distinguished clergymen and preachers were also arrested and imprisoned during the course of this protest. 191 On December 2, 1935/Azar 11, 1314 SH, Mahmoud Jam, who had been appointed by Reza Khan to form a Cabinet, was asked by the latter: “How can we get rid of this chador (a full-length veil worn by women)? Ever since I went to Turkey and saw how the women there have discarded the black veil and the Islamic form of covering, I have come to despise any woman who wears the chador. Indeed, the chador is the enemy of progress and development. It has assumed the exact properties of a boil, in that it must be lanced with great care.” On January 7, 1936/Dey 17, 1314 SH, after having consulted with Jam, Reza Khan escorted his wife (Taj al-Muluk) and daughters (Shams and Ashraf) to a Teachers’ Training College ceremony, the latter having discarded their Islamic covering. Consequently, the wives of both ministers and certain figures of high national standing also attended this official function alongside their husbands, while lacking any form of Islamic covering. Once the occasion had drawn to a close, Reza Khan ordered Jam (the Prime Minister) to arrange for other such gatherings so that the women of Iran could get used to the new state of things in the country and could become accustomed to fraternization between the sexes! Hence, from that time onwards, many such social functions were organized to this end, and government officials received strict orders to treat those women who appeared in public wearing Islamic dress with the utmost harshness. 192 The law which was established to bring about uniformity of social dress applied to everyone except those muftis who were Sunni and a limited number of clergymen who, prior to this law, had obtained government permission to don the religious dress. Other than these exceptions, no one had the right to wear religious garb unless they possessed a certain certificate which was issued by the Ministry of Education. Subsequent to the announcement of this law, disciplinary officers and gendarmes would interrogate any clergyman on sight, and should the latter not possess the aforementioned certificate, then they would remove his turban from his head in full view of the public and summon him to the police station. Moreover, the officers at police headquarters would sometimes disregard the certificate in question and would take those wearing turbans into custody anyway and force them to shave off their beards. These measures became so strict that the clergy could rarely be seen in the streets, only venturing out from their homes after nightfall and only using those alleyways which were less crowded and busy; and following the quelling of the popular and clerical uprising in the Goharshad Mosque in Mashhad, even more pressure was brought to bear by Reza Khan on those who belonged to society’s clerical class.

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sounded. In this way, he kept everybody in Iran from this divine bounty, from commemorating the sufferings of Imam Husayn and reciting narrations (of the martyrdom of the Imams). This came about because the weapons were in the hands of the injudicious. Arms should be borne by those who are worthy of bearing them. When weapons are in the hands of the unjust, then iniquities ensue. The crimes that have occurred! The mass murder that took place in the Goharshad Mosque and the subsequent arrest of the ulama of Khorasan and their incarceration in Tehran, the trial, imprisonment and murder of some of the great ulama; these events came about because the weapons were in the hands of the injudicious. The ulama of Isfahan and the ulama of Azerbaijan were arrested and banished merely for uttering a word or standing up to Reza Shah. Apparently the ulama of Azerbaijan were forced to stay in Sunqur193 and the late Aqa Mirza Sadiq, may God grant him mercy, never returned to Tabriz.194 This was another way through which that evil man repressed the people. The atrocities that he committed cannot be spoken of in one or two meetings.

MASSACRES BY SHAH’S ORDERS And now, during your own lifetime, you too are afflicted with misfortunes inflicted upon you by another injudicious horned beast.195 For do not be mistaken in thinking that even one bullet is fired without the Shah’s permission. Do not suppose that the head of Qum’s police or the head of Qum’s SAVAK, or any of Qum’s policemen have the nerve to open fire on the people and kill them without his permission. No wise person should suppose that this could be so. All these incidents are reported to him and clearly this evil man has to give the orders to shoot. It is said that on Khordad 15, he circled above the demonstrators in a helicopter and gave the command to open fire, as if he were giving the command to open fire on foreign armies!196 On armies that were attacking Iran!197 This useless lot is so humble and meek before the kings 193 Sunqur is the capital city of Sunqur County, Kermanshah Province. It is located in the Zagros Mountains, about 90 kilometers from the province's capital city Kermanshah. The inhabitants of Sunqur city are generally trilingual in Sunquri, Kurdish and Persian. 194 In 1934 [1313 SH], Reza Shah’s Minister of Education, Ali Asghar Hikmat, was at a ceremony in Shiraz when, to the surprise of most of those present, a group of girls began to dance before the audience. As a consequence, those guests who had not expected to witness such a spectacle left the ceremony and since the public had also become aware of what had taken place, they arranged for a protest demonstration to be held. Sayyid Hisamuddin Fali, an influential cleric and alim of Shiraz, voiced strong objection to the Iranian government concerning the behavior witnessed at the ceremony, and he was then arrested and sent to prison. The news of events in Shiraz and the arrest of Sayyid Hisamuddin reached the ulama in the theological centers of Qum, Mashhad and Tabriz. In Tabriz two distinguished ulama, their eminences Sayyid Abul-Hasan Angaji and Aqa Mirza Sadiq Aqa, remonstrated with the government and as a result were also arrested and banished, firstly to Kurdistan (Sanandaj) and several days later to Qum. After a while Ayatullah Angaji eventually returned to Tabriz, but Ayatullah Aqa Mirza Sadiq Aqa actually passed away while still in exile in Qum. 195 The Shah. 196 Imam sarcastically calls those people of Iran who had risen up to demand justice “an army of foreigners” in scoffing at the government’s claims. 197 It is said that on Khordad 15 and 16, 1342 SH/June 5 and 6, 1963, the Shah had given his military commanders the permission to “shoot as they saw fit”, and he had stressed that soldiers were not to waste their bullets, nor to fire into the air, but instead, they were ordered to target the upper-part of the body when firing. Furthermore, it is also said that on Khordad 15 the Shah actually flew above the city of Tehran in a helicopter from where he personally took it upon himself to command the operations in progress. In his memoirs (p. 51), General Fardoust writes: “On the morning of Khordad 15, 1342 SH (Pakravan) spoke with Muhammad Reza (Shah) over the telephone, and the latter gave orders for Oveissi to assume responsibility for the operation to exterminate and suppress the people who had risen up in revolt and for him to maintain direct and frequent contact with the Shah in this regard At twelve noon on that same day, Oveissi telephoned me and said: ‘I have been put in a helpless situation! I don’t even have one military company fully under my command; and should a group of demonstrators attack me or my company, then they will all be destroyed outright!... ‘ I must add that up until midday of

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and presidents of other countries, especially the American President, they flatter them and align themselves with them, but in their dealings with their own people, because of the authority they exercise over them, they harass them and cause them suffering. When they go abroad they spend their time groveling and eulogizing, but when they return to their own country, they begin their wickedness. Previously, when it was said that the Shah had granted some freedom in Iran, I told the gentlemen here that if this man reaches an agreement with this evil Carter198 and strengthens his servile position, he will hit the people harder than ever before. But I didn’t think he would do it as soon as this. Almost immediately after he had finished his talks with Carter and had confirmed his servitude, he created a pretext for showing some muscle. He created a pretext for attacking the people in Qum. Pay no attention to what is written in the regime’s press, those who were there say that the people were marching peacefully to give their requests to the ulama when one of the regime’s own men threw a stone smashing something, the regime’s agents then attacked and began shooting at the people. This is what happened on Khordad 15 too. Of course the people had themselves risen up to call for the injustices to be redressed, but the demonstrations were peaceful 199 until a group of the regime’s own agents in Tehran set a library on fire and looted a shop. This created the pretext for the regime to open fire on the people with machine-guns. They created the pretext then just as they did for this most recent outrage200, otherwise the people did not want to do battle with the regime. Someone who is unarmed cannot fight an armed bull. The people had no intention of doing battle with the regime. But he had to make us see that he is no longer the man he was before he met Carter, that now that he has met with Carter and smoothed out any differences, now that he has consolidated his servile position,201 the people should no longer suppose that he has lost his support, Khordad 15, both Muhammad Reza, the Americans and the British, had perceived the demonstrations as a grandiose, well-thought-out plan to topple the Shah and thus they were extremely nervous about the whole affair. It is also interesting to note that at that time there was an American adviser who worked in Headquarters No. 3, as a member of SAVAK, and who was the most intelligent and pre-eminent person within America’s advisory body there.” 198 James Earl Carter Jr. (Jimmy Carter) was the thirty-ninth President of the United States. He won his way into the White House (1977) by advocating “the defense of human rights”! His diplomatic record tells of many ventures undertaken by him including his role in the establishment of political relations with China; his efforts towards the drawing up of the scandalous Camp David Accord between Egypt and Israel; his role in concluding the Nuclear Arms Reduction Pact with the Soviet Union; his hardline stance in opposition to the Islamic Revolution; and his involvement in the failed military attack on Tabas. 199 In order to check the escalation of the Iranian nation’s struggle, an escalation which in fact began in 1962 [1341 SH], the Shah’s regime intended to create an atmosphere of terror and to kill the people en masse; and hence, it was in accordance with this plan that the dreadful crime which took place on Khordad 15 (June 5) was actually perpetrated by the regime. In a speech delivered on June 8, 1963/Khordad 18, 1342 SH in Hamadan, the Shah invents lies and makes false accusations in a bid to gain the people’s support, whereby he explains: “When I spelt out the six tenets of our very own national revolution to the peasants and the people of Iran, I pointed out that there were two forces which would not remain silent: the Black Reaction and the Red Reaction. That which we witnessed in Tehran on Wednesday, Khordad 15, was a manifestation of one of these two forces- the Black Reaction. On that day, the Black Reaction set fire to the library in city Park as well as a sports arena, various vehicles of transport and bus-ticket kiosks. Members of this Black Reaction attacked buses carrying school girls and it assaulted defenseless women in the streets of Tehran. It argues that you peasants who have been given freedom must once more become bondsmen. The reason why the Black Reaction attacked the power station was to halt production in Iran”! 200 It refers to the tragedy which occurred on Dey 19 [January 9] which has been mentioned earlier. 201 In 1976 (1355 SH) the Shah spent enormous sums of money to support the Republican Party candidate in the run-up to the American elections. However, the Democratic Party actually won the election and the newly-elected President, Jimmy Carter, entered the White House from where he announced: “We do not supply arms to just anybody irrespective of who they may be, nor do we offer our support to just anybody”. The Shah, who could not maintain his rule even for one day without American support, repeatedly sent congratulatory messages to Carter and voiced his support for Carter’s ideas and policies for fear of what might happen otherwise. But in spite of this, Carter paid no attention to the Shah until the time when, on the advice of Kissinger, America’s Foreign Minister at that time, Farah (the

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no, he still has it, and thus he will carry on killing! These vociferations and these threats are made in order to show the people that he has not lost his might. But he has made a mistake; he doesn’t realize what ignominy he has brought upon himself with these killings. The people have now risen up against him, against the man who once said that the whole nation was in agreement with him202, that everyone voted in support of his bloody White Revolution. The uprising began in Qum then spread to Tehran, to Khorasan, Azerbaijan, Kerman, Ahwaz, Abadan until now the whole of Iran is in revolt. The whole of the nation has risen up against this man who claims that everyone is in agreement with him, that the nation wants him, that the people support him. But if one day the bayonets of America were to be removed, then the courtiers themselves would skin this man alive. Carter should put this to test one day, were he to leave this weak nation alone, leave these people alone, then he would soon see what would happen. These organizations that we hear about are nothing more than a ploy to deceive the people. They are not bothered about security, so why do they send a representative of the Security Council here? It is just a show to beguile the people.203

COMMUNISM IS AN OPIATE They want to deceive the people, just as the Communists do communism is the opiate of the people, it cannot solve their problems. Is it possible that someone who himself is not a human being would want to serve mankind? Would an unjust armed person ever work for the sake of the oppressed? I know that this is not possible. During World War Two, when the heads of the Allied governments were to meet in Tehran,204 Shah’s wife) made a trip to America. Following a sixteen-day stay in Washington, during which Farah held talks with Carter, differences were settled, and the latter even extended an invitation to the Shah to visit the US. Subsequently, in the hope of gaining Carter’s support, the Shah signed various agreements worth billions of dollars with America; and with the same end in mind, he also guaranteed a price freeze on oil in OPEC and granted large concessions to American companies. Eventually these “gestures” made by the Shah paid off whereby Carter consented to visit Iran and to declare his support for the Iranian monarch! 202 With regard to the “patriotism” shown by the Iranian people during the events of September, 1941, the Shah had said: “The Iranian people’s patriotism was plain to see when I attended the Majlis to take the oath of sovereignty. On that day, the people carried their young sovereign on their shoulders both to and from the Majlis. This was the greatest reassurance that I have ever been given”. Furthermore, with relation to events which occurred in 1953 [1332 SH] concerning his return to Iran, the Shah said: “The people once again asked for their Shah, the affection and support they showed to me being so great that I again felt that I shouldered an added responsibility- a responsibility other than that stipulated in the Constitution and other than that of a constitutional monarch. I was made to feel that I am a monarch which the people had again asked for to determine the country’s fate and to safeguard its interests”. Concerning the ‘White Revolution’ he said: “In order to unfold the secret which lies behind the revolution and the harmonic relationship which exists between the Shah and the people, one needs to examine the ancient history of Iran, its royal history, and the sense of attachment felt by the Iranian people towards the monarchy in this country”; and in another speech he claimed: “No matter which part of this country I visit, I receive a warm welcome from the people and I encounter the enthusiastic support of the nation. The people feel attached to me and this gives me a sense of pride”. This was said however, at a time when the Shah was afraid to go among the people without protection from the most highly-trained security guards! During the last days of his reign, when the country of Iran resounded with the slogan “Death to the Shah”, a correspondent for Der Spiegel asks Farah (the Shah’s wife): “Did you expect to see such hatred from the people?”, to which she replies: “Not at all; I am absolutely astonished”. And when the Shah is asked by a correspondent what he felt about the situation, he says: “I feel a great sense of sorrow”. See Bistopanj Sal Hakimiyyat-e Amrika dar Iran, pp. 103- 106; and Nutqha va Payamha-ye Shah, p. 3233. 203 On January 9, 1978/Dey 19, 1356 SH, the day of the tragedy in Qum, Kurt Waldheim, the then Secretary-General of the United Nations, visited Iran, supposedly to examine the situation there with regard to human rights. After attending several receptions and holding talks with the Shah, Farah and Ashraf (the Shah’s wife and sister, respectively) however, Waldheim concluded his ‘investigation’ and left Iran! See the press from January 9- 20, 1978/Dey 19- 30, 1356 SH. 204 While World War II was still being fought, Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin, the leaders of America, Britain and the Soviet Union, gathered in Tehran to hold a conference. This conference lasted from September 2 until September 7, 1943, and once it had ended two declarations were issued. The first declaration announced the unanimous agreement reached by the three governments concerning the future strategy to be adopted in the war; and the other declaration announced the promise of economic aid to Iran both during and after the war. At the

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the American and British leaders arrived in a conventional manner and went to their embassies, but it was said, and God knows that this is true, that Stalin205, who at the time was the Russian leader- the same Stalin whose pictures we still see here and there although in recent years his reputation has been sullied somewhatwho was supposed to be equal with everyone else and whom everyone called brother, brought his own milch cow along on the plane so he would not have to drink the milk from Iranian cows! They were both injudicious, armed creatures, but God knows he was worse than his cow! I myself witnessed the state of his troops in Iran. While he entered Iran with his cow, his troops, who controlled the Khorasan region- for at that time Iran was divided into a few regions of control and that particular region was in the hands of the Russians- were begging along the roadside. I myself saw this, we were traveling by bus to Mashhad to make a pilgrimage and on the road to Mashhad just outside Shahr1d, Russian soldiers were begging in front of cars; it made them so happy if someone gave them just one cigarette that they went away whistling! Communism is a means of beguiling the people, nothing else. Is it possible for someone who does not believe in the unseen to think about the people and about remedying their affairs? No, it is a deceit. On certain occasions, these armed people deliver blows, and on others, they deliver both the blows and the propaganda. The propaganda machinery is in their hands. Now you see that in addition to beating up the people and killing them, in addition to all these crimes, they propagate that all the blame for these acts lies on the shoulders of the people, that only six people died in this incident and a few of them, including a thirteen-year-old child, were trampled to death by the people, and that the regime itself had committed no crime! On the one hand they create such propaganda and on the other they commit mass murder. All these heinous acts stem from the unjust being armed; it is the just who should be armed.

JUSTICE, THE PRIMARY QUALIFICATION OF ISLAMIC RULERS The God of Islam is just, the Prophet of Islam was just and free from sin, the Imams of Islam were just and free from sin. The judges of Islam should be just, its fuqaha should be just, the person who witnesses a divorce should be just, Islam’s prayer leaders should be just, its Friday prayer leaders should be just, its leaders should be just, its provincial governors, those who were sent to this place and that in the early days of Islam and who also acted as the prayer leaders, had to be just. They are only valid when they are just. If there is no justice and if those who exercise authority are not righteous, then such malicious acts as those we are now witnessing are perpetrated. The arms are in the hands of the unworthy, the unjust.

CLAIM OF LAND REFORMS AND WOMEN’S FREEDOM On the one hand they massacre the people, and on the other they shout about ‘social justice’206. On the one hand they force the women to remove their veils and on the other they shout about the ‘freedom of women’! time, northern Iran was under Soviet occupation, southern Iran was under British control, and Iran’s communication routes were controlled by American forces. 205 Joseph Vissarionovich (1879- 1953 AD), known as Stalin (the Iron Man), became the leader of the Soviet Union following Lenin. 206 The Shah constantly played with the words ‘justice’ and ‘social justice’ as can be seen in the following example: “Despite the urgency of military matters and the pressing nature of issues relating to the war, I began to discuss the need to establish social justice in my country How can one accept a situation where some become ill from overeating while others fall into such a sorry state due to a lack of food I have not relaxed my efforts for even one moment in achieving my aim, that being, the establishment of social justice in my country. Each and every one of the proposals that I have made concerning the establishment of social justice, has, thanks be to God, been put into operation”! The kind of justice which had been put into operation however, was one whereby desperate poverty had forced a certain section of the population to send their children to work in carpet-weaving factories where they earned less than 15 rials per day for their

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It’s ridiculous. This kind of freedom is ludicrous, it can’t be called freedom. On the one hand they carry out ‘land reforms’, and on the other they create a market for America! This has been the result of the land reforms. At one time just one of our country’s provinces met the needs of the whole of the country, and what remained was exported. But now whatever you want has to come from abroad! And the regime is proud of this and boasts: “We import our wheat from abroad; we import our barley, our oranges, and our eggs from abroad”! This should be lamented. The regime has no shame. This is what its land reforms entailed- all this destruction. Yet the Shah and his regime claim that all the ulama agree with the reforms and the White Revolution. If you can find just one ‘alim anywhere in Iran who is in agreement with your bloody revolution, then you have the right to say all the ulama are in agreement with you. Try to find one congregational prayer leader from among the prayer leaders of Tehran who is in agreement with you and will say that he concurs with you, aside from those whose turbans you yourselves have placed on their heads, whom you yourselves have created, and who dance to whatever tune you play, for they are not true religious scholars, but of course one or two of them can be found everywhere in the country. Try to find one from among the provincial prayer leaders who will say he is in agreement with you. Try to find a mullah in Qum who will say he is in agreement with you. The Shah and his regime have no shame. They carry out all kinds of heinous acts, all kinds of wrongdoings and then in order to deceive the people they say: “All the ulama are in agreement with us; only one who is not from this country disagrees with us”.207

THE ARMS ARE IN THE HANDS OF THE UNJUST AND THE IGNOBLE Consider all weapons, the pen itself is a kind of weapon, which must be in the hands of the just and worthy people, for when it is in the hands of the depraved, corruption and scandalous deeds will increase. At the present time, and in some societies and certain aspects, the pen is in the hands of the depraved who gloss over whatever the head of these profligates does and who palliate his crimes by means of their literary eloquence. This is a crime which is perpetrated against this nation by dint of the pen. These unworthy writers sit at home with this weapon in hand and with their eloquent style they whitewash the corruption, the crimes and the massacres and present everything to the contrary, they turn everything round. So the pen too should be in the hands of the just people.

efforts; or again one where an entire family had to survive from one year to the next on the produce obtained from a single walnut tree or from a goat. Indeed, justice had been put into operation to such an extent that those in both the north and the south and in the east and west of Iran were suffering from poverty and destitution, from pain and sickness. There was neither water nor any signs of development; neither electricity nor health care. Meanwhile however, the Shah and his loyal followers owned 50 of the shares in private banks! On one occasion alone (according to a petition made by the government of the Islamic Republic), Muhammad Reza and his wife stole 35 billion dollars of the people’s money! Iran’s foreign trade (according to statements made by the provisional government’s Trade Minister) more or less lay in the hands of only 60 people; major company shares were held by a mere 50 families; and tens or perhaps hundreds of checks, each worth so many millions of dollars, were cashed daily for members of the royal family and for the Shah’s courtiers and attendants, from a joint account numbered: 214895- 20 (the account number of the Pahlavi Foundation) in a Swiss bank in Geneva! Refer to Nutqha va Payamha-ye Shah, pp. 2793- 2966; Raz-e Biliyun Dular, p. 7; Dawlat va Huk’mat dar Iran, pp. 251, 266 and 281. 207 The Kayhan newspaper of June 5, 1963/Khordad 15, 1342 SH read: “Only two members of the ulama of Qum and Mashhad have voiced opposition, the rest of the ulama are in complete agreement with the government”- the two members in fact having been Imam Khomeini and Ayatullah Hasan Qummi.

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CULTURE, THE SOURCE OF BOTH HAPPINESS AND MISFORTUNE Culture is the source of a nation’s happiness or misfortune. If the culture is not sound then the youth who are trained in this unsound culture will, in the future, create corruption. The imperialist culture produces imperialist youth for the country. A culture which is created by the designs of others- and it is the foreigners who lay their plans for us then hand them over to our society in the form of culture- is an imperialist and parasitic culture. Such a culture is a weapon more lethal than anything else; it is even worse than the arms of these ruffians, for their weapons eventually fall to pieces, as they have done now. But when the culture is corrupt, our youth, who form the foundations of our society, are lost to us; they are trained to become parasites, to become infatuated with the West. They are trained in this way from the very first day that they enter school and this continues into higher education. If the culture is a correct culture, then our youths will be trained correctly. If the culture is a culture of truth, a divine culture, a culture which is of use to the nation, which is advantageous for the Muslims, then it does not produce such people as those who now exercise authority over us. But our culture is an imperialist culture, our culture does not lie in the hands of suitable people, the just do not administer it.

IMPERIALISTIC UNIVERSITIES If our universities were correct, independent universities and those who taught there were just and were free to do as they saw fit and what was right to do, then our country would not have got into the state it is in today nor would it reach a potentially worse stage tomorrow, God forbid. Some people have seized control of our universities who are themselves parasites, who are themselves supporters of the imperialists and possess a servile attitude. All this is because of one person, for if a lecturer or a professor at the university wishes to speak out, he is not able to, because the security organization, acting on the orders of ‘His Imperial Majesty’ does not allow him to do so. If our universities were proper universities then when the students there try to speak a word of truth, the police would not suppress them so. The things they do to them! They beat the girls, they beat the boys, and they beat our youth and imprison them. This is because our universities are not independent. We don’t have universities. Universities which are controlled by one person cannot be called universities. The learning environment should be a free environment.

FOLLOWING AN IMPROPER AND NOT NATIONALLY-BASED PARLIAMENT If this Parliament were a proper, just Parliament, and were a tool in the hands of the just, would the members have allowed such laws as have passed already through Parliament to have been ratified? Would they have allowed the Capitulation Bill granting immunity to the American military advisers, a bill which caused great humiliation for Iran, to have been ratified208 ? We don’t have a Parliament. The members of Parliament are appointed; they are just a group of agents, functionaries of the security organization who call themselves a ‘Parliament’. All of them are agents. If they were independent and if they had been selected by the people, if the Parliament were a national Parliament, then they would never let the regime

208 The Capitulation Bill.

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buy all these arms as it does209 , they would never give away our oil and buy weaponry in return- weaponry which we ourselves don’t know how to operate. This weaponry baffles us so they have to bring in American advisers and experts to show us what to do with it. But these experts won’t show us how to operate it. They are such animals; they will not be satisfied with this. They come here and are paid such exorbitant wages. We do not know how much they are paid every month, and cannot even begin to imagine, we only know that there are very many of them in the country. Their number, including their relatives, probably runs into the hundreds or thousands. It used to be said that there were sixty thousand of them in Iran getting huge salaries from this nation. The regime takes the money from the pockets of this poor, wretched nation and pours it into the pockets of these wealthy people. And even then they don’t train our military properly! They want our armed forces to remain in their present state, so that they can do whatever they want with them.210

THE SHAH IS THE SOURCE OF ALL CORRUPTIONS If we had an independent army instead of a parasitic one, it would not allow these advisers to come into the country and give the orders; the army officers would not simply be puppets in their hands. But our army is not a true army. All the armed forces are controlled by one man, one corrupt man who has corrupted everything. As it is said, one bad apple can spoil the whole barrel. The corruption in Iran stems from him, but no one can say this because of the suppression which exists. Instead they keep saying the agents the agents! Who gives these agents the order to kill the people? Who gives them the order to attack the Hujjatiyyah Madrasah and kill the religious sciences students there? Who gives them the orders to position their machine-guns at the crossroads and open fire on the people?211 Can anybody, other than this vile man, order such things? All the corruption stems from him. Does the Parliament have the right to say a word without the permission of this vile man? Does the army have the right to say anything without his

209 The bilateral agreement signed in 1959 [1338 SH] between Iran and the US left Iran lying firmly in America’s clutches. Following this agreement, America gained a free hand to interfere in all of Iran’s affairs and an influx of foreign specialists flooded into the country. Moreover, the country’s system of defense, the organization of its armed forces, and in short, all of the army’s administrative and executive affairs were supervised by American military advisers. In addition, the army’s supreme commanders were in a subordinate position to that of the American advisers; and the opportunity for America to make inroads into the country became so great that in 1976 and 1977 [1355 and 1356 SH] weapons purchased by Iran from America amounted to 12 billion dollars compared to a former figure of 4 billion dollars! Refer to Bistopanj Sal Hakimiyyat-e Amrika dar Iran, p. 63. 210 Prior to the Islamic Revolution approximately 30,000 American military advisers were working in Iran and the US Senate had announced in a report that by the year 1980, there would be 50- 60,000 American residents there. Those foreign residents who already resided in Iran lived in modern apartments and grand, luxurious villas in the north of Tehran, and the salaries and fringe benefits they received were many times greater than those received by their Iranian counterparts, amounting to more than 1,000,000 rials per month. The consumer items they required were supplied to them via stores which were exclusively for their use. In Tehran there was a large American school, a hospital, a psychiatric clinic and a general support center in addition to special clubs for American citizens only. One of Iran’s radio stations and at certain times one of its television channels were given over to the broadcasting of certain programs in English for foreigners and especially for Americans. America’s overwhelming presence in Iran can be explained not only by military issues and Iran’s employment of American arms and equipment in her army, but also by the development of mutual ties between the CIA and SAVAK; the installation of surveillance equipment to procure Russian intelligence in various places throughout Iran; and the industrial and commercial activities undertaken by American companies and individuals there. See Dawlat va Hukumat dar Iran, p. 231; Mission to Iran, pp. 15- 42; I’tirafat-e Shah, p. 78; Siyohaft Ruz Pas Az Siyohaft Sal, p. 110. 211 It refers to the event which occurred in Qum on Dey 19, 1357/January 9, 1978, when agents of the regime attacked the religious students and the people killing and wounding many of them.

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permission? Do our judges have freedom? Do we have an independent judicial system? Our judges have the weapon of judgment in their hands, but they do not have the justice. They say they cannot dispense justice, so we have to ask them then why did you become a judge? You made a mistake in becoming a judge so leave this profession. Now everywhere in our country the weapons are in the hands of the unjust and all this corruption goes back to the court and to that man. He should be removed. I don’t know why this army is asleep. Why do they allow themselves to be humiliated so? Only a few days after that abominable Carter left, the regime carried out such actions. And this is only the beginning, if the people let him, the Shah will carry on, unless he is made aware of the consequences of his actions. The people are creating a clamor which is being heard across the world, the radios everywhere are speaking about it. The regime’s own radio can say whatever it likes; the people will no longer be deceived by their words. The nation has awakened. Sir, the people have awakened, if they had not then the bazaars would not have closed down as they have done. It has been said and officially confirmed by the regime, that Tehran bazaar closed down on Thursday in a show of protest. The closure of Tehran’s bazaar is not a common practice, it is a very uncommon event, no one can just close down the bazaar.212 It has been achieved because of the feelings and vigilance of the people. This gentleman who used to say” all concur with me” should look around him, the bazaars in Tehran, Ahwaz, Isfahan and Shiraz are actively protesting against him, and this has become our way of life now.

THE NEED FOR UNITY AMONG ALL CLASSES I hope that all classes, whether the ulama and mujtahids, the religious students or the merchants of the bazaar, the traders, army personnel or civil servants, who are sorely grieved by this wicked man will unite together and that our political groups will not work alone but they will cooperate with others just as in this most recent incident when this expression of antipathy was supported not only by some political groups213, but the ulama, the merchants of the bazaar, students... all classes came together. Telegrams were even sent

212 On January 17, 1978/Dey 27, 1356 SH, merchants and tradesmen of the bazaar in Tehran issued a statement in which they declared Thursday, January 19, 1978 to be a day of a general shutdown and called on all of those in the bazaar to refrain from opening up their shops and stalls for business on this day. This statement was made in protest to and condemnation of the regime’s killing of defenseless people, and in support of the popular and clerical uprising in Qum; and the proposed day for a general shutdown coincided both with the final day of a week-long period of mourning and protest by the clergy and with the day when memorial ceremonies were to be held for the martyrs of Qum. Refer to Nihzat-e Ruhaniyyun-e Iran, vol. 7, p. 38. 213 The statement made by the Iranian Laborers’ Party on January 18, 1978/Dey 28, 1356 SH, serves as an example of the revulsion which was expressed by certain political parties against the regime’s activities. This statement, which was addressed to the country’s AttorneyGeneral, accused the government’s executive body of felony and stressed the party’s support for the people of Iran and the faith it had both in the Shia maraji’ and the religious and clerical orders in Iran. Another such example was the statement issued on January 30, 1978/Bahman 10, 1356 SH by Ittihad-e Niruha-ye Jebhe-ye Melli-ye Iran, which again underlined this party’s support for the various popular fronts and endorsed the action taken by those in the bazaar. This statement also spoke of the shutdown proposed for Thursday, January 19, 1978/Dey 29, 1356 SH which was to be observed by the merchants and tradesmen in the bazaar of Tehran- a shutdown which, it stated, was to be a demonstration of the disgust felt towards the killing of a defenseless group of people in Qum, and was to be a show of support for the country’s progressive clergy. In addition to the aforementioned parties, other groups also issued statements which expressed support for the proposed shutdown- groups such as the ulama and preachers of Tehran and its suburbs; the natives of Shiraz in the bazaar of Tehran; the merchants and tradesmen who were natives of Isfahan but who resided in the country’s capital; the natives of Azerbaijan in the bazaar of Tehran; the lecturers and scholars from the theological centre of Qum; and the Muslim Movement both at home and abroad. Refer to Nihzat-e Ruhaniyyun-e Iran, vol. 7, p. 55 onwards; and Do Sal-e Akhar, the section concerning Dey and Bahman 1356 SH.

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by foreigners, from America and Europe, expressing their antipathy towards the regime and telling us that three hundred people were killed in this recent event.

GLAD TIDINGS OF THE ERADICATION OF THE ROOT OF CORRUPTION I hope that all the fronts will join hands together. If the nation unites in all aspects then these unjust people will be disarmed and the horns of this bull will be broken. They should not disagree with one another or purposely seek reasons for dissent. They should not start fighting one another over insignificant and childish matters. Differences are created by those who want to keep the people busy, and it is they who benefit from disunion among the people. The people should wake up to these things and, God willing, they have already done so. They should unite together, all of them. They should join hands together and, God willing, by the power and strength of God and through your unity, the root of all this corruption will soon be eradicated. I ask for everyone’s well-being from God the Most High. I express my thanks to all classes of people for standing by the ulama of Islam. I thank all fronts, especially the great ulama and the noble merchants of the bazaar. I thank them all and call upon them to pray for Islam, to strengthen and unify their fronts, and to come together for one aim which should be the severance of the hands of the oppressors and foreigners so that this country may prosper. The hands of the foreigners should be foreshortened, the resources which exist in our country should be used for the weak and for the good of the country, and all the country’s affairs should be rectified and put in order. This will not happen unless this regime is disarmed, and I hope, God willing, that it will be. May God’s peace and mercy be upon you.

24th Speech Date: February 18, 1978/Bahman 29, 1356 SH/Rabi’ al-Awwal 10, 1398 AH Place: Shaykh Ansari Mosque, Najaf, Iraq Subject: The crimes of the Shah and of those who claim to support human rights Occasion: The fortieth day following the martyrdom of those killed in Qum in the tragedy of Dey 19 [January 9] Addressees: Religious students, clergymen and members of the public In the Name of God, the Comp assionate, the Merciful “And there is no power and no strength save in God, the Most High, the Great and surely we are God’s and to Him we shall surely return.” As we are gathered here, according to the information reaching us, all the major cities of Iran such as Tehran, Tabriz, Mashhad and Qum are closed down. Some cities, such as Qum, are completely closed down while in others, the bazaar and other centers of activity are closed. We hear that the bazaar in Tehran is completely closed except for a few merchants who may have some connection with the regime. From what we are told, these closings represent a form of active protest against the Shah himself. The people have

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identified the true criminal. Of course his identity was obvious before but no one dared to speak out. Now however, by God’s grace, this barrier of fear has collapsed and people have succeeded in the main task of identifying the true criminal and realizing who is responsible for the misery of our nation. Forty days have now passed since the death of our young ones, our students of the religious sciences, our clergy and our devout youngsters of Qum. How people have wept and mourned during these forty days; and what courage- the like of which has rarely been equaled in history- was displayed by the people of Qum and the students of the religious sciences who fought bare-handed against the government and the Shah’s agents and yielded their martyrs. According to reports, the agents of the regime spilled into the streets and alleyways of Qum and attacked the people; but the latter resisted to the best of their ability, both before and after the massacre, thus proving they are alive and not dead!214 Likewise, the great maraji’ of Islam in Qum, have expressed themselves courageously215 both in their speeches and in their declarations, including the one issued two or three days ago on the occasion of the fortieth day following the massacre and the general strike ordained for that day. In this declaration they addressed the main issue and stated who is responsible for the crime, albeit not explicitly but rather by implication which is in fact more effective. May God keep them steadfast.

QUM, THE CENTER OF BOTH KNOWLEDGE AND ACTION The students of the religious sciences, despite living in a place which is subject to attack by those bandits, yesterday organized an impressive mourning ceremony which was attended by a large number of people, and at which several vigilant and active youngsters fearlessly gave a truthful account of the state of affairs. According to reliable information, as we sit here in Qum, a great meeting is taking place at Azam Mosque in this city. I don’t know what the government intends to do about this meeting. I wonder whether the regime’s agents have once more gone on the rampage, killing and plundering? This is now a matter of grave concern to us. We are anxious and concerned for the people of all the major cities in Iran; cities like Mashhad, towards which the government shows a particular sensitivity; or Azerbaijan and Tabriz, which are under government observation. And I wonder what lies in store for Qum, which is the center of all our struggles and the center of learning from whence knowledge is disseminated to all lands, (just as was predicted by the Prophet’s family (as)), what danger awaits her? In fact, we now see that not only is knowledge disseminated from Qum, but action too, whereby it is now the center of Islamic activity- the

214 It refers to the tragedy of January 9, 1978/Dey 19, 1356 SH. 215 The Clergy Society of Iran, in a declaration beginning with the holy verse: And reckon not those who are killed in Allah’s way as dead... (Qur’an. Surah Aali ‘Imran 3: 169), asked the entire nation to rise up once more against the illegal, anti-Islamic programs of the Iranian government, and to answer the ruling system in Iran with a punch in the mouth by closing down the theological centers, universities and shops on Saturday, February 18, 1978/Bahman 29, 1356 SH in observance of a national day of mourning. Ayatullah al-Uzma Golpaygani also issued a declaration concerning this day and called to mind that: “Commissioned officers, instead of making amends for what they had done and attending to the damages inflicted, banished a group of believers and learned men without reason”. In yet another declaration, Ayatullah al-Uzma Najafi Marashi also requested that the authorities desist from their tyranny and from their encroachment upon people’s rights. In the declaration issued by the maraji’, February 18 [Bahman 29] had been declared a day of public mourning. Furthermore, in a public statement Mr. Shariatmadari announced: “We declare Saturday, February 18, 1978- the fortieth day following this grave tragedy- a day of public mourning. We expect the Muslim community to remain absolutely calm and composed while conducting the aforesaid ceremonies”.

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center of the Islamic movement.216 The movement emanates from Qum, from the city itself, from the religious students, from the ulama, from the teachers (may God support all of them), from the masses of its people who are the faithful soldiers of Islam, and it spreads throughout the country. It remains to be seen whether it will spread to us here in Najaf or not; God only knows what will happen.

THOSE WHO TRAMPLE ON HUMAN RIGHTS All the miseries that we have suffered, still suffer and are about to suffer in the immediate future, are caused by the heads of those countries that have signed the Declaration of Human Rights, but that at all times have denied man his freedom. The declaration’s maxim is “freedom of the individual”. Each individual human being is born free and must remain free. Everyone must be equal before the law; they must be free in their choice of residence and occupation, and they must enjoy freedom in their everyday lives. This is what the Declaration of Human Rights advocates. From the time that this declaration came into being not only Muslims but mankind as a whole have suffered at the hands of those states that signed and ratified it. The US is one of the signatories of this document. It has agreed that the rights of man must be protected and that freedom is one such right. But just look at what crimes the US, this so-called signatory of the Declaration of Human Rights, has committed against mankind. For as long as I can remember- and I can remember back further than many of you, for you are younger than I- America, one of the countries which gave its signature to the issue concerning human rights, has been the cause of disasters for mankind. It has appointed its agents in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries to deprive everyone living under its domination of his freedom. The imperialists advocate man’s freedom in order to deceive the masses; but people can no longer be deceived. All of these issues to which they give official sanction, of which the Declaration of Human Rights is but an example, are mere acts of deception and hold no authenticity. They draw up some pleasant-looking, high-sounding declaration with thirty articles relating to human rights, but in practice they neglect to enact a single one of them! This Declaration of Human Rights is but a fallacy; it is the opium of the masses.

THE CRIMES OF BRITAIN AND AMERICA What we have said is true not only of America but also of Britain, another country that signed and ratified the Declaration of Human Rights; a country whose civilization and democracy are so highly praised by those who Britain itself has convinced of its praise worthiness via effective propaganda and cunning. Indeed, it has succeeded in convincing people that it is the leader of democracy and the home of true constitutionalism. But we have all seen what crimes and atrocities Britain has committed in India, Pakistan

216 ‘Allamah Majlisi writes: “Imam al-Sadiq (as) said: ‘Very soon Kufah will become devoid of believers and it will lose its position as the seat of learning. This will occur in such a manner that the snake will hide in its own pit. Subsequently, a region by the name of Qum will arise as the new seat of learning. Qum will become the center of knowledge and learning until a time when religious learning will be available to all without exception. This event will take place at a time when the twelfth Imam’s manifestation draws near”. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 57, p. 213.

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and its other colonies.217 The imperialist states like America and Britain brought Israel into existence218, and we have seen what misery they have inflicted and continue to inflict on the Muslims there, and in particular on the Shia Muslims. Meanwhile, they have installed an agent in Egypt named Sadat219, whose every act is devoted to serving imperialism and who, only a short time ago, visited Israel where he gave it official recognition and approved of every word the Israelis had to say.

BRITAIN, REZA KHAN’S MASTER For as long as I can remember during the past fifty years- fifty years of national mourning and tragedy inflicted on our nation by this disgraceful family- it was Britain, this democratic lover of mankind and 217 In 1615, the British ambassador to India registered the right for his own government to trade and he gained concessions for the establishment of the commercial company by the name of East India Company. This is how British penetration got underway in the Indian subcontinent. This colonial company fortified British rule in India by intensifying the activities in which it engaged. Meanwhile, because of racial, religious and linguistic diversity and in particular the intense discord which prevailed between the Hindus and Muslims in India, this newborn British colonization was strengthened by force of circumstances. This occurred in such a manner that eventually in 1839 India became a British protectorate. It was after this that the British government began to take harsh measures and thus came to dominate India’s affairs; and from 1857 India officially became an addition to the British dominion. During the First World War, one million Indian soldiers were sent to the front line to fight for Britain, tens of thousands of whom were killed as a result. The compulsory provision of food by India for the British army led to a severe famine there. Eventually the Law of Independence for the Indian subcontinent was passed in the British House of Commons on July 4, 1947, by virtue of which in August of that same year, the two countries of Pakistan and India emerged from the British dominion in the subcontinent. 218 In 1907, at a conference held in Britain, the most powerful colonialist government of the day (Britain) declared to the government heads of Holland, Belgium, Portugal, Spain, and Italy that if the surrounding coasts of the Mediterranean Sea- situated between the East and the West and lying in Muslim hands- were to be taken from their grasp, then this would present a serious danger for the aforementioned countries. It was this concern that caused the colonialist governments of the day to consider setting up a government in a strategically important part of the Mediterranean Sea- a government which would be at variance with and opposed to the Islamic countries, so as to create a rift in the unity of the Muslims. Earlier in 1897, Theodor Herzl (1860 – 1904), journalist and publisher of Die Welt newspaperthe official Zionist mouthpiece- had organized a conference in the Swiss city of Biel in order to discuss the issue of an Israeli government. He was also the author of a book entitled Jewish Government, in which he appealed to his own nation to help in the establishment of such a government in Palestine or Argentina. With the outbreak of World War I, American leaders, under the tutelage of the Jews, agreed to American participation in the war on the side of Britain on condition that Britain took steps to settle the Jews in Palestine and to set up an independent government for them. The collapse of the Ottoman Empire during the First World War also gave Britain the opportunity to settle a large number of Jews in Palestinian land. In 1948, America gave its open support to a state in Palestine by the name of Israel, following which the bloody war between the Arabs and the Jewish settlers in Palestine broke out. During a Security Council meeting, the United Nations Organization, under the pretext of preventing further killing and bringing an end to the Arab-Israeli war, gave its approval in a written declaration to the partition of Palestine into two areas: one for Muslim residents and the other for Jewish residents. Thus, the State of Israel was officially established with the backing of the imperialist powers. The usurper Israeli government occupied a large part of Palestine, driving 1,200,000 Muslims from their homes. 219 Anwar al-Sadat was born in 1918 in Egypt and having completed his basic education, entered the Officers’ College where he joined the officers’ corps of Jamal Abdul Nasir’s group. These officers took part in covert operations and Anwar al-Sadat was later arrested, expelled from the army and imprisoned. Sometime later he was released from prison and became a member of the Iron Guard, whose duty it was to safeguard the Egyptian king’s life and crush opposition forces. Later, on the insistence of Nasir, he again joined the Free Officers’ Movement which was conducting a covert operation against the ruling system of the day. In 1952, with the victory of the Egyptian revolution, Nasir became the President and Anwar al-Sadat initially became Parliamentary Speaker and then, following Nasser’s illness, he became the country’s vice-president. After Nasir’s death in 1970, Anwar al-Sadat, in accordance with the Constitution, became responsible for the country’s affairs for a sixty-day period, after which he was elected as the official President of Egypt. He annulled the treaty between Egypt and the Soviet Union and despite the fact that Egypt had assumed the responsibility of Arab leadership during the Arab-Israeli war, he nevertheless signed a bilateral treaty with America. When he then made a unilateral peace agreement with Israel, he in fact dashed all of Egypt’s hopes. Sadat was eventually assassinated by a young Muslim officer named Khalid Islambuli during the annual victory parade on 6th October 1981.

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signatory to the Declaration of Human Rights, that kept the Iranian people suppressed and afflicted. In fact it was Britain, according to its own admission, that brought Reza Shah to power. For almost twenty years, we, the religious scholars, and the Muslim nation as a whole were subject to intense pressure. Reza Shah wished to expunge every trace of the shari’ah. Of course, he did not succeed but this was his intention. Hence, anything which bore the remotest resemblance to Islamic propagation was prohibited. As for America, that other signatory to the Declaration of Human Rights, it imposed this Shah upon us; a worthy successor to his father. During his period of rule he has turned Iran into an official colony of the US. What terrible crimes he has committed in the service of his masters! Indeed, what terrible crimes both he and his father have committed against us all since their appointment by these signatories to the Declaration of Human Rights- these very signatories who have brought such misery and suppression to mankind, of which we have heard and witnessed but a fraction. However, one cannot truly understand a situation by hearing about it alone. You may hear of what this nation experienced at the time of Reza Shah, but you cannot actually conceive what the people themselves in fact felt and experienced, or what they suffered at the hands of these people. You are only able to appreciate and sense what this man is doing now, at the present time, and then only insofar as you are now physically present.

THE NATION’S AWARENESS You are thus aware of the present situation in Iran. You can appreciate what this man (the Shah) has done to this nation during the past few days. Even now it would not surprise me if at this very moment some confrontation or conflict is taking place between the people and the Shah’s agents, although we have not yet in fact received any reports to this effect. What we do know however, is that agents of the regime have attacked the forecourt of the Shah Mosque220 in Tehran and have forced a few shops there to open up for business, but the Tehran bazaar as a whole has not surrendered. Even though the government has sent a circular to all the bazaars in Iran forbidding anyone to close his shop and threatening severe punishment for disobedience, nevertheless, not a single bazaar in the country has paid any attention to this threat, not even the bazaar in Tehran which lies within close range of the regime. People no longer pay any attention to these empty noises. Gone are the days when they could intimidate people and frighten them into heeding their warnings... today people are being killed, yet they refuse to heed any threats.

THE ALIVE AND AWARE NATION It is now forty days since the massacre in which many of the ulama and the young and devout people of Qum were killed. May God preserve the Iranian people and the theological center of Qum, both of which in proving how fully alive they are have ensured the recording of their names in the annals of history. Even now as we calmly sit here, these people are in a state of intense activity. You can’t imagine the condition Mashhad is now in. I have no detailed information of its present state but I do know that until recently everything was closed down there. The same is true for Azerbaijan; there too everything was closed, but more than this I cannot say. According to the reports we have received, a general shutdown prevails in Qum whereby not even a single grocer’s shop is open. Even Tehran is ninety percent closed and to achieve this is not as easy as one may imagine. In fact the closure of Tehran is a smack in the mouth for those babblers. 220 Shah Mosque in Tehran (the present-day Imam Khomeini Mosque) is situated south of the main bazaar of Tehran.

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THE ‘WHITE REVOLUTION’ REFERENDUM They are those who once said that they had the backing of six million people who had voted in favor of their White Revolution! That was a foolish claim to make. I was in Iran at the time, and sent some people to Tehran to find out what this ‘referendum’ of theirs was that they wanted to stage. When they returned they told me that no more than 2,000 people had gone to cast their votes, and that even these were in fact their own agents. Yes, they once said: “Six million of the Iranian people have given us their vote, and since the rest of the people are either elderly, women or infants and hence unable to vote, the six-point program has been given unanimous approval.” The Shah too would repeatedly claim in his speeches that: “The people are with me. Only a handful of people voice objection every now and then and they are the Islamic Marxists221, otherwise the nation is behind me!” Now you will see the uproar that the regime will cause following this national shutdown. They will object and behave as they did previously after the week-long closing in Qum, the eight-day closing in Isfahan, and the two or three days of partial closing and the one day of complete closing in Tehran. On the latter occasion some unsuspecting wretches were seized by the Shah’s agents and loaded onto buses; whilst another group of the regime’s officials sent circulars to government offices and schools demanding that they close down and participate in a government-staged demonstration. This is what you call freedom, demanding that people ‘freely’ participate! Notwithstanding, most government offices ignored the circulars they had received. As for those poor wretches who had been loaded onto the buses, they were falsely told that they were being taken on a pilgrimage to Qum, and on realizing the truth of the matter during the journey, those who were able to, fled. From what I was told, those who remained behind and who were compelled to take part in the demonstration behaved as though they were participating in a funeral ceremony. However much they were told to shout “Long live the Shah”, they remained silent. The whole crowd was as silent as if it was attending a funeral! Indeed this was in fact the case, for they were attending the Shah’s funeral.222 221 “Islamic Marxist”, an expression coined by the Shah, has been thus defined in a book he is believed to have authored: “There is a number of people who, to the detriment of their own country engage in violence and murder. Modern democracy in Iran however, neither allows acts of violence or treachery against people nor does it permit reactionary or retrogressive campaigns. A sinister and profane alliance almost always emerges between these two extremes, producing an incredible and incompatible combination of Islamic Marxism between the atheists and those who claim to be the defenders of religious principles. This is in spite of the fact that the revolutionary freedom seeking of the former group is as far away from real freedom and true revolution as is the Muslim adherent of the latter group from the essence and spirit of Islam.” From thenceforth the Shah used this expression many times. During a later speech, having forgotten that this ‘ideology’ was in fact his very own brainchild, he explicitly called it an ‘absurd ideology’!: “Those misled, insane or self-seeking men who are to be found in many of the developed countries and who, unfortunately, engage in a kind of international terrorism have no place in this country. These people under the pretext of absurd ideologies such as “Islamic Marxism”, turn to violence and sometimes murder to the detriment of their own homeland”! This ludicrous expression became a weapon in the hands of the Shah’s agents whereby they were able to arrest any dissident against whom they held no evidence and send him to the torture chamber for the crime of having an involvement in the campaign and the ‘absurd ideology’ of Islamic Marxism. 222 A few days after the tragedy of January 9, 1978/Dey 19, 1356 SH, SAVAK, without prior notice, boarded employees of the Ministry of Education, members of the Rastakhiz Party, and other office employees onto several buses and told them that they were going on a pilgrimage to the holy shrine of Hazrat Masumah in Qum! However, having almost arrived in Qum, the people were forced to alight from the buses and were told to march towards the holy shrine while shouting “Long live the Shah” and exhibiting impassioned affection for His Imperial- Majesty! This demonstration, despite the agents’ threats, took place with such dispassion and indifference that, to quote

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THE SHAH, ANTI-ISLAM AND ANTI-CLERGY Those who rule us do not appreciate the situation and once again we have failed in our attempts to reform them. If only they had compromised somewhat with the people; if only they had heeded the people’s demands; if only they had performed their duties; if only they had shown sympathy towards Islam and the laws of Islam then the people would not have opposed them so. But the people see that ‘His Imperial Majesty’ is against whatever they attach value to. He is against the Islamic calendar which means he is against Islam itself. In fact the worst thing that this man has done during his reign is to change the calendar223. Changing the calendar is even worse than these massacres; it is an affront to the Most Noble Messenger himself (s). In spite of such plans however, they will never achieve ultimate success. Just as they tampered with the Islamic calendar which meant so much to the people, so too they attacked the centers of learning. They have raided and plundered our madrasahs several times now. Before, it was the Fayziyyah Madrasah that they stormed and made the scene of their crimes, but now it is the Hujjatiyyah Madrasah, the Khan Madrasah and the Haqqani Madrasah which are the targets of their attacks- or in fact any madrasah whose gates are open and where gatherings take place, however small. We are told that the entire doors and windows of the Khan Madrasah have been knocked in and smashed by rifle butts, and that a student of the religious sciences was shot and killed at the gate of the Hujjatiyyah Madrasah. One of the ulama who went to visit the scene told me on his return that a stream of blood ran from the place where the student had been shot to the edge of the pool in the madrasah courtyard224.

THE SHAH, THE PRIME CULPRIT AND INSTRUMENT OF THE ALLIES Do you suppose the chief of police in Qum is responsible for such actions? No, he is not capable of doing such things. Don’t repeatedly put the blame on the officials of the regime. The Shah himself is the culprit. He is the one who gives the orders and tells them to kill. If he didn’t give the command to kill, there would be no killings. Do you imagine it is a trivial affair to open fire on a whole nation with rifles and machine guns, or to make an armed attack on the theological center in Qum which is so loved and highly respected Imam: “It was as if they had participated in a funeral procession”. At the end of this ‘demonstration’, governmental agents issue a statement in which, while condemning foreign incitement, it is declared: “We, members of the Iranian people’s Rastakhiz Party in the holy city of Qum, vow never to permit the enemies of the nation and of the Shah’s revolution to violate the law” (Khorasan newspaper, January 13, 1978/Dey 22, 1356 SH, p. 12). Likewise, a similar engineered demonstration was arranged by the Women’s Organization of Khorasan in Mashhad to counteract a magnificent demonstration held by the Muslim women of Mashhad on January 7 (Khorasan newspaper, January 12, 1978, p. 1). During another such demonstration held in Tabriz, a clergyman who was known to be a fifth-columnist says: “Imperialism in the guise of religion and faith wants to threaten the unity and unanimity of the Iranian nation”; while a women’s representative also says: “The women of Iran will stifle the sound of reaction before it is voiced”. Accounts of other similar comments and incidents are to be found in the newspapers of the day. 223 Toward the end of 1975, on the anniversary of Reza Khan’s birthday, both the Consultative Assembly and the Senate agreed in a joint meeting that the official calendar of Iran was to be changed. Until then, time had been reckoned from the migration of the Prophet from Mecca to Medina (in 622 AD). The new calendar however (known as the Imperial calendar), took as its point of departure the founding of the Iranian monarchy by the Achaemenid emperor Cyrus, fixed somewhat arbitrarily at 529 BC. Following this change, it wasn’t long before the self-absorbed monarchial regime in Iran was uprooted. 224 On January 9, 1978/Dey 18, 1356 SH, the Shah’s agents opened fire at Hospital Crossroads on rows of religious students and people of Qum who were conducting a peaceful demonstration in protest against the defamatory article (concerning Imam Khomeini) carried by the Ittila’at newspaper. During this incident a young religious student who was shouting slogans from the second floor of Hujjatiyyah Madrasah was wounded by the agents’ gun-fire and was carried by other religious students to the pool of the madrasah where he finally attained martyrdom.

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by the people? Do you imagine that the command for such action could be given by the head of SAVAK in Tehran, the head of SAVAK in Qum or even the Prime Minister? No, it is the Shah himself; he is the prime culprit! And who is responsible for imposing him on us? The Shah himself stated in his book225: “The Allies, after occupying Iran, thought it fitting that I should be in control of affairs, and they agreed to my accession to the throne.” May God curse them for thinking it fitting. Later, on realizing the mistake in having mentioned this matter, it was erased from the text. Those Allies, those who signed the Declaration of Human Rights, it is they who appointed such a person to reign over us, and it is they who brought about such repression. You say mankind is free! But what about the Iranian people? Yes, the imperialists appointed a man to rule in Iran, as they had his father before him226; the latter also having denied the people all kinds of freedom. But the situation was different then, either people were unable to confront the regime then as they can now or their consciousness was not yet truly awaken.

QUM THEOLOGICAL CENTER, THE REVIVER OF ISLAM AND IRAN The theological center in Qum has brought Iran back to life; it has performed a service to Islam that will endure for centuries. This service must not be underestimated; we must pray for the theological center in Qum and pray that we will come to emulate it. This center’s name will remain inscribed in history for all time. In comparison to Qum, we here in Najaf are dead and buried227; it is Qum that has brought Islam back to life. It is the center in Qum and the preaching of its maraji’ and ulama that have awakened the universities, those same places where we religious scholars used to be accused of being the opium of the people and the agents of the British and other imperialists. No, all that was the propaganda of Britain, Germany, the Soviet Union and others, designed to misrepresent us and make the ulama and their institutions appear to be the opium of the people. They spread such propaganda because they know full well how active the religious scholars are and what a dynamic and militant religion Islam is. They drew up a plan to bring the religious scholars into disrepute, and propagated the notion that religion must be separated from politics.

RELIGION AND POLITICS This campaign has been in operation for many years now, whereby even the akhunds themselves have now become convinced by it and ask the question: “What business do we have with politics?” But to pose such a question is in fact to abandon Islam, to bury it in our chambers in the madrasah and in our books of religious learning. The imperial powers dearly wish that religion could be separated from politics and politics from religion. From the very beginning this is the idea that our politicians have promoted, until it has reached the stage where even we, the clergy, have come to believe that politics is none of our concern, and must be left to the politicians; and that we must concern ourselves with matters of religion only and turn the other cheek if they slap us in the face.228 This idea of turning the other cheek has been wrongly 225 The Shah, in his book: Mission for My Country. 226 Reza Khan. 227 It refers to the quiescent climate of the Najaf theological center. Imam’s remarks are indicative of the unfavorable circumstances prevalent in the Najaf theological center and of the indifference demonstrated by the latter. 228 In the Gospel of Saint Matthew 5: 38- 40 it reads: “You have heard it said an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth, but I say unto you, that ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also, and him that taketh away thy cloak forbid not to take thy coat also.”

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attributed to Jesus (as) and yet again this too has been the doing of these imperial beasts. Jesus (as) was a prophet, and no prophet can be so illogical. Look at the history of the prophets. We see how Jesus did not remain among his people very long before his ascension to heaven.229 You are all aware of the history of the prophets. It is well known that the exalted prophet Abraham (as), one of the earliest true prophets of God, took up his axe and shattered all the idols. He was not afraid of being cast into the fire and burned. If he had been afraid of such things then he would not have been a prophet. This man who stood alone before such great forces and who was then cast into the fire, he could not follow a logic that required him, if slapped on one cheek, to turn the other cheek for it also to be slapped. That is the logic of the indolent, the logic of those who do not know God and who have not studied the Qur’an. Then look at Moses (as), a simple shepherd with nothing but his staff in hand. He too fought single-handed and he did so against Pharaoh who made claim to divinity. Here too, the Shah would like to make such a claim but he realizes that now is not the right time, for people would not believe him. Nevertheless, should he detect the least relaxation in our vigilance then he too would cry: “I am your Lord, the Most High”.230 There have always been those who have made such absurd claims in the past, and there always will be. And then there is the Most Noble Messenger (s). As you well know, he began his mission alone, prepared himself for the struggle to come for thirteen years and then fought for a decade. He did not ask: “What business do I have with politics?” But rather he administered the entire Islamic realm. The same was true of the Commander of the Faithful (‘a). He ruled, engaged in politics and fought wars. He never said: “Let me sit at home and devote myself to prayer and worship and not concern myself with political issues.”

COMPROMISING WITH THE OPPRESSIVE KINGS, CONTRARY TO THE QUR’AN But now we find one of the ulama (may God grant him mercy) saying: “If the Imam of the Age (as) considers it to be the appropriate time then he will come. I cannot claim to be more concerned for Islam than he is and he is well aware of the present situation. Thus, he is the one who must make the first move to remedy our affairs and not I!” This, however, is the logic of those who want to shirk responsibility231, it is not a logic of which Islam approves. Islam does not acknowledge such reasoning. Those who reason in this way conduct diligent searches in order to come up with a couple of religious traditions which tell us, for example, to make our peace with kings or to pray for them. But this is contrary to the teachings of the Qur’an. They have obviously not read this holy book. Even if they could find a hundred such traditions, it would not further their argument232 for such traditions are in discord with the Qur’an and the custom of the 229 Imam here is referring to Qur’an, Surah Aali ‘Imran 3: 55: “And when God said: O Jesus, I am going to terminate the period of your stay (on earth) and cause you to ascend unto Me”; Surah an-Nisa’ 4: 158: “God took him up to Himself”. 230 Qur’an, Surah an-Nazi’at 79: 24: “Then he (Pharaoh) said: I am your Lord, the Most High”. 231 A group consisting of both ulama and clergymen as well as others, because of an erroneous interpretation of the principle of ‘expectation’ [intizar], have adopted the belief that no one has a duty to do anything about oppression, corruption and the non-performance of Islamic duties. These people hold that one must wait (in expectation) until oppression, injustice and corruption reach a climax, when the Imam of the Age, may God hasten his manifestation, will appear and fill the world with justice and redress. Not long ago the holders of this view became involved in an extensive operation to form an organization and a collective body; but due to basic organizational disorder and an inability to defend the organization’s unsound principles, this group inevitably gave up its overt activities. 232 Here, the Iranian text reads: “It will be struck against the wall”, meaning it will be of no worth. In an Islamic tradition the Prophet (s) said: “When you hear a tradition which is said to be from me, assess it according to the Book of God (Qur’an). That which agrees with the Book of God you are to accept and that which disagrees with the Book of God, you are to strike against the wall”. Tafsir-e Safi, vol. 1, p. 21.

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prophets. There is a tradition that says: “Whoever wishes long life for a king will be resurrected along with him.”233 Could a Muslim possibly wish long life for a king, whereby that king might commit more injustice? Could anyone wish to maintain relations with someone who slaughters people; who slaughters the ulama? Are you aware of how many of our great ulama, our valued teachers, are now living in prison or in exile? These are the very same ulama and religious scholars who, until recently, were living in exile and who, on being released, returned to their home towns, clenched their fists and began to speak out against the government and the Shah. Once again they were arrested. The honorable young gentleman who delivered a speech at the commemorative gathering yesterday afternoon had previously endured imprisonment and banishment; and it is quite likely that he has been arrested again now, or that he will be tomorrow. This is what true Muslims are made of. He is the true Muslim, who, when he comes out of prison, clenches his fist and resumes his struggle. The Prophet (s) stated in a tradition that even if a Muslim constantly says: “La ilaha illal lah” (there is no God but Allah), but he shows no concern for the affairs of his fellow Muslims, he is not a Muslim.234 A Muslim is the person who works to benefit Islam and his fellow Muslims; fellow Muslims such as those killed by the Shah. They kill our young men and yet we shouldn’t care? They kill our ulama and yet we shouldn’t care? Are we supposed to agree to all this, or to behave as if we are in agreement? If this is so then we must become different human beings! In Iran our young men were imprisoned and banished and now they are subject to the same measures again. But when these courageous youths return from prison or exile they recommence their struggle, returning to the themes of their earlier preaching. Again they are sent into exile. But even if they were to be banished or imprisoned and then released ten times over they would still be the same people that they were in the beginning. This is because they have received true Islamic training. Similarly, if the Commander of the Faithful (as) were to be killed and then brought back to life a hundred times over, he would still be the same Commander of the Faithful. But take some apathetic person and kill him, if you were to bring him back to life, he would still be as apathetic as before.

AMERICA AND RUSSIA IN COMPETITION IN PLUNDERING IRAN We have suffered and continue to suffer all these misfortunes at the hands of those government heads who have signed the Declaration of Human Rights and who loudly proclaim man’s right to freedom. Before, it was the British that brought us misfortune (until the time when they no longer held such influence in our country), and now it is the Russians on the one hand and the Americans on the other. These are the ones who are responsible for all our miseries. If only they were to withdraw their protection and backing of those in the Iranian government, the people would skin them alive. It is the government of Iran which granted absolute immunity to the American advisers, for which it got a few dollars in exchange; and one can see how many American officials there are in Iran now and what huge salaries they receive! That is our problem- everything in our treasury has to be emptied into the pockets of America, and if there is any 233 In quoting verse 113 of Surah Hud 11: 113, Imam al-Sadiq (as) states: “And do not incline to those who are unjust, lest the fire touch you”. Here, reference is made to one who inclines towards his sovereign and prays for his longevity so that the sovereign may grant him a gift.” Refer to Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 72, p. 369. 234 “Whosoever rises in the morning and does not strive to help in the affairs of the Muslims is not a Muslim”: a tradition from the Prophet (s). A similar tradition has been quoted by Imam al-Sadiq (as). Refer to Usul al-Kafi, Kitab al-Iman wal-Kufr, the chapter entitled “IhtImam bi Um’r alMuslimin”.

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meager amount to spare, it has to go into the pockets of the Shah and his gang. They buy themselves villas and goodness knows what else abroad and stuff their bank accounts with the people’s money while the nation lives in poverty. At the same time, they constantly proclaim: “Iran is one of the most advanced countries in the world. It is now on a par with America, or at least Japan” (and maybe even a little more advanced than Japan). But the absurdity of these words and the warped thinking that underlies them has become apparent to everyone. Even the corner grocer will tell you that the Shah is talking nonsense but that “He is quite unashamed and goes right on talking, so what can be done about it?” After these events, the general strike and shutdown, you will see in tomorrow’s newspapers that they’re back to their old bombastic claims: “We hold the support of all the nation; all the people are with us except for a few misguided individuals; those clergymen who are truly enlightened support us, as for the rest they are all reactionaries including the ulama and the great maraji’ of Qum who announced a general shutdown, the ‘true’ religious scholars- that’s what they call them- are all in agreement with us.” The only problem is that these ‘true’ religious scholars are only to be found in the newspapers. To which ‘true’ religious scholars do they refer? How can any Muslim ever agree with you or consent to the killing of these people?235 Yes, the case may be that sometimes a Muslim or a scholar is afraid and says nothing, whereas at other times he is not afraid and speaks out; at times a student of the religious sciences is afraid and does not leave his home, whereas at other times he is not afraid and cries out in protest! But ‘agreement’, that is the wrong word.

MISBEGOTTEN MONSTER OF THE IRANIAN REGIME! What scholar could possibly agree with you? Could someone be a religious scholar and agree with a massacre? Is it at all possible? Can someone believe in Islam and yet agree with abolishing the Islamic calendar in favor of the calendar of the unbelievers? Could any Muslim agree with this scandalous uncovering of women? The women of Iran have themselves risen up against the Shah and landed him a blow by crying: “We don’t want to live this way! We want to be free!” To which this good-for-nothing replies: “But you are free! The only thing is that you cannot go to school wearing a chador or headcovering!” You call this freedom? I can’t make this state of affairs out in Iran. This Shah and his government are some kind of misbegotten monsters236 that are difficult to identify. Our country is in such a terrible state and we are faced with so many difficulties.

EXAMPLES OF POVERTY IN IRAN God only knows the kinds of problems the people are experiencing and only a fraction are referred to me. For example, they tell me: “We want to build a water-storage tank at such-and-such a place, because the people have no water there and women have to travel about six kilometers to fetch water.” Now if people don’t even have water, how about electricity or decent roads, do they have these? No, in fact they have nothing! Don’t look at the part of Tehran where, on the face of it at least, things have been put in order,

235 It refers to the religious students and those people who attained martyrdom during the event of January 9. 236 This is an expression for anything disturbed and distressed whose internal disturbance has brought about an abnormal state. “Shutur, gao, palang” (Camel, Cow and Leopard) is an expression used in the Persian language to refer to a combination of heterogeneous things or something of incongruous composition. Amthal va Hikam-e Dehkhoda, see under the word “shutur” [camel].

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take a look at the other part of the city. Go look at those pits, those holes in the ground in which people live, dwellings you reach by descending about a hundred steps into the ground. What a terrible place to live! Homes that people have made from rush matting or clay so their poor children can have somewhere to live. Yes, I am talking about Tehran and not some remote village or town; this is how things are in Tehran. When you enter the city you see all the cars and that deceptive exterior, but you haven’t seen the state the other side of town is in. The people who live there have no current drinking water in their homes. They have to take their pitchers and climb up those hundred steps until they come to a water tap, then fill their pitchers and climb down again. Picture some poor woman in the middle of the biting winter climbing up and down those steps to fetch water for her children. A reliable informant, the congregational prayer leader of Pamnar, told me of how one of the families that was driven out from one such hole went and sat down in the middle of Pamnar Avenue.237 This poor man with his wife and children sat there until finally people gathered around and helped to find them a place to live. They weren’t even allowed to live in that hole in the ground. Even that was taken from them! That is our ‘progressive’ country for you, and its capital city of Tehran. In one of their very own newspapers they wrote that in some parts of the country- I can’t remember exactly where, I think maybe it was in the region of Shushtar238 - when the people wake up in the morning they wash the trachoma-infected eyes of their children with urine so they can open their eyes. This is the state of our advanced and progressive country! Urine is used to wash their infected eyes because there is a lack of water!

IGNOMINY OF AMERICA’S PROCLAMATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS Is our country really so poor? What happens to all of its money? Our country possesses an ocean of oil. It has iron, precious metals, and much more. Indeed, Iran is a rich country. But those so-called ‘friends of mankind’ have appointed their agent to rule this country in order to prevent the poor from benefiting from its riches. Everything must go into his masters’ pockets and be spent on their enjoyment. Should a small portion of this wealth be left over, then even that goes to the Shah and his gang. Although a trifling amount by comparison, still there is enough for them to have a villa, a palace and an estate239 awaiting them wherever they travel, in addition to enjoying healthy bank accounts- yes they are truly well-off.240 They fooled people for a time with this Carter by saying that he would do such-and-such and would take all kinds 237 Pamnar is one of the oldest streets of Tehran which is situated in the city center near to the main bazaar. 238 Shushtar is one of the cities of the province of Khuzestan which at one time was one of the most inhabited cities of this province. This city covers an area of 3,528 square kilometers and lies 128 kilometers from Ahwaz (the provincial capital). 239 Authors have said that to determine precise statistics with regard to the land and property owned abroad by the Shah and his close relatives is by no means an easy task; and that moreover, a complete list of such possessions is not in fact available. A few examples of such possessions which were owned by the Shah are as follows: several hectares of land in Australia; several large islands in Italy owned by Farah (the Shah’s wife); vast areas of the banks of Geneva Lake; four glorious places in the highly sought-after areas of Paris and Switzerland; the village of Saint Moritz; an entire ski slope and a winter palace in Switzerland; several large palaces in California, Texas and Florida. Refer to Masud Ansari, Man va Khandan-e Pahlavi- Pas az Suqut; Husayn Fardoust, The Rise and Fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty; Kayhan newspaper, February 25, 1979; and William Shawcross, The Shah’s Last Ride, the Fate of an Ally, to name but a few. 240 In footnotes yet to come, indication will be made to the amount of foreign currency held by the Shah as is recorded in the official report made by the Central Bank. During the months of Shahrivar and Mehr 1978 alone [circa August-October], a substantial amount of money was sent out of the country, seventeen entries having been politically-coded credit transfers which were deposited into the Shah’s private accounts in Swiss, French and American banks and which amounted to 30,750, 000, 000 rials (over 2, 000, 000, 000 dollars). Gam beh Gam ba Inqilab, pp. 95- 102.

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of positive measures if he came to power.241 Once in power however, he said clearly- liars have short memories after all-” There can be no question of human rights in countries where we have military bases; human rights must not even be mentioned”. For after all freedom is part of human rights. First he says human rights are inalienable and then he says: “I don’t want to hear about human rights”. Of course he’s right from his own point of view; he uses the logic of bandits. The head of a government that has signed the Declaration of Human Rights says: “We have military bases in Iran; we can’t talk about human rights there. Respect for human rights is feasible only in countries where we have no military bases”. But for all its boasting about human rights, what miseries America has inflicted on the peoples of Latin America, in its own hemisphere!242 Again we see what it has done to Lebanon. There too it installs an agent and reduces the country to its present miserable state; and in Egypt it installs another, by the name of Sadat, whose every act is devoted to serving imperialism. A short time ago the latter went to Israel and gave it official recognition whilst approving of whatever the Israelis had to say. The Shah of Iran also says that it is necessary to make peace with Israel. In fact this wretch243 gave Israel recognition twenty years ago. I was in Qum at the time when he gave recognition to this government of infidels- and Jewish infidels at thatthereby affronting Islam, the Qur’an, the Muslim governments and the entire Muslim people. The name of Israel was not openly mentioned at first, but later it was. Shah’s ‘human rights’ Indeed, this person was a slave from the very beginning as he himself later made clear. This man (the Shah) who openly raises the question of human rights is in fact quite right to ask what it is all about.244 What do

241 After ten years of military intervention in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, during which hundreds of thousands of trained military forces were dispatched, and the most sophisticated of arms employed, America was finally defeated, tens of thousands of its men having been killed, wounded or captured and tens of billions of dollars have been spent. As a consequence, in 1975 America was forced to leave this territory. The defeat of this military operation and the innumerable crimes and inhuman acts perpetrated by the American troops as well as the psychological and sociological damages incurred, had made the American people strongly in favor of a peace-loving government which would defend human rights. Furthermore, the American government, having witnessed the overthrow of its agents following the discontinuation of the war in South-East Asian countries such as Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, believed the solution to lie in the creation of a politically-open climate and in allowing conservative and liberal fronts to play a role in Third World countries. In the meantime, the Watergate Scandal of 1974 had truly brought the Republican Party into disrepute both in America and across the world, thus leaving the US government no alternative but to allow a representative of the Democratic Party to win the vote in the presidential elections, by which means it kept alive the possibility of reaching its goals. It was because of this policy that the Zionist front and the global capitalism espoused by Carter were ushered into the political arena along with the argument for ‘human rights’. 242 As soon as a freedom-fighting movement appeared in Chile, America- the defender of human rights- staged a coup, killed Salvador Allende, and resumed its domination of that country. US espionage agencies and terrorist organizations are currently conducting intense operations against the freedom-seeking people of Nicaragua and El Salvador. Again it was American military intervention which brought about the defeat of the revolutionary regime in Granada. Yet, despite all of this, this country claims to respect human rights and freedom! 243 The Shah. 244 On October 25, 1976/Aban 3, 1355 SH, the Shah quite clearly expressed his views on ‘human rights’ and ‘democracy’ in response to the attacks made by Carter during his presidential campaign on the dictatorial and savage actions of the former. In an interview with Kayhan newspaper, the Shah said: “They want to question us on democracy and human rights. This is truly ridiculous. Why, does democracy simply mean to shout abuses? Does democracy amount to creating a hullabaloo? Is democracy only killing? What other meaning can democracy possibly have- if indeed it still exists- other than the policy pursued by us?” Once Carter had taken office and had forced the Shah to see things his way and to agree to the announcement of a politically-free climate in the country, and following an intensification of popular demonstrations and the failure of both the Shah and Carter to keep things under control, the Shah in an interview with Radio France on June 19, 1977/Khordad 29, 1356 SH, confesses that: “If our defense of human rights leads to our fall and our subjection, then

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human rights mean? It means the logic of bandits! It is nothing to do with human rights. The logic of bandits cannot be other than banditry, expressed with machine guns and rifles, by gunning down the religious scholars, by the destruction of the Fayziyyah Madrasah, and the subsequent closing and sequestration of this center of Ja’fari Shi’ism. Fayziyyah Madrasah has been closed for several years now. They plundered the madrasah and robbed its students; they burned the turbans of the religious students and even burned their books! They insulted the Qur’an itself! That is the logic of bandits. As you know, the students in Qum then made their headquarters in the Hujjatiyyah and Khan Madrasahs, and there too they have been attacked and beaten. But if they are beaten and expelled from their madrasah a hundred times over, they will establish their base in yet another madrasah, for they have come to life, they have awakened! At any rate, these are the difficulties we face. As we sit here, we don’t know what is happening to our Muslim brothers in Iran. It is a cause for anxiety; but we shall have to wait until tomorrow to see what happens and how events evolve. One thing that is for certain is that an impressive ceremony was organized yesterday afternoon in memory of those who were killed in Qum. And today too, Azam Mosque245 in Qum is full of people and the bazaars and shops of Qum are all closed down. The bazaars in other towns too have also been closed, according to what I have been told. There is no news yet from Shiraz and Isfahan but I have no doubt that there too the bazaars are closed. This is a bewildering situation. Their logic is the logic of the machine-gun, and the logic of all too many of us is silence. Some say there is no alternative but to remain silent. Their logic is to slap us, and our logic is to be slapped! They claim Jesus (as) recommended turning the other cheek. But he would never do such a thing for that is the logic of the apathetic! Jesus was a great prophet. He began his struggle in the cradle when he said: I shall rise up to establish prayer and worship. According to the Qur’an246 he was a prophet while still in the cradle. Is it possible that such a person could utter such apathetic, cowardly words? This recommendation to turn the other cheek was invented by those who claimed some affiliation to Jesus (we cannot call them Christians). They deceived the Christians and made them completely passive towards their governments.

THE IMAMS STRUGGLED AGAINST OPPRESSION THROUGHOUT THEIR LIVES There are people among us who tell us we must swallow whatever poison the ‘holders of authority’ wish to force down our throats, simply because they are the ‘authorities’. We must not say a word against these tyrannical ‘authorities’. But if what they say is true, then why did Imam Husayn (as) oppose the authorities? Why did he confront Yazid247 and his government “tutil-mulk man tasha” (You give sovereignty to

that can no longer be said to be human rights!” He then warns America saying: “We can purchase goods from wherever we please, but who can replace a friendly Iran for America?”! 245 The Azam Mosque, situated beside the holy courtyard of Hazrat Masumah, was established in 1954, due to the efforts of the late Ayatullah Burujerdi. The architect of this mosque was Husayn Lurzadeh and the glazed tiles were laid by Husayn Burhani Isfahani. The mosque is about 11,000 square meters in area, of which 4,000 square meters is actually built upon. Imam’s speeches from 1962 until 1964 [13411343 SH] were delivered in this mosque. 246 Imam refers to Qur’an, Surah Maryam 19: 29- 33. 247 Yazid ibn Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan succeeded Mu’awiyah as the caliph. During his initial year of rule he brought about the event which occurred at Karbala. During his second year as caliph, he raided Medina (the incident of Harra). His third year as caliph saw him attacking Mecca when the Ka’bah actually caught fire; and it was in this same year that he was overtaken by death. For more details please see: Battle of Harrah by Muhammad Ali Chenarani available at: https://www.al-islam.org/battle-harrah-muhammad-ali-chenarani

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whomever You wish) !?248 A certain akhund wrote to me a few years ago to ask me: “Why do you oppose the government? Do you not know that God gives authority to whomever He wishes?” I didn’t even answer him. He wasn’t worth answering. But his question involved a clear denial of the Qur’an. In a way, it can be argued that God gave kingship to the Pharaoh, but didn’t Moses (as) oppose him? Nimrod’s249 kingship was also a divine gift in the sense that everything is from God, but didn’t Abraham (as) oppose him? Why is the Prophet in opposition? Why was Hazrat Amir against Mu’awiyah? Mu’awiyah also represented the ‘holders of authority’, so why did first the Commander of the Faithful and later Imam Husayn (as) oppose him? And then Imam Husayn (as) rounded up his family and fifty or sixty followers and rose up in revolt against another ‘holder of authority’, Yazid. Why did he do that? Clearly those who disagree with revolt against the authorities talk sheer nonsense! Those ‘holders of authority’ who are mentioned immediately after God and His Messenger in the Qur’an250 must also be close to God and His Messenger in their practice. They must be the shadow of God and his Messenger. Yes, the Islamic ruler is the shadow of God251, but that which is meant by shadow is something which of itself has no motion. Your shadow does not move by itself, it moves only when you move. Islam recognizes that person as the ‘shadow of God’ who abandons all individual volition in the sense that he acts only in accordance with the ordinances of Islam, his motion therefore being dependent and not independent. The Messenger of God (s) was indeed a true shadow of God. But can the same be said for this vile man, the Shah? Yes, a few thoughtless people among us say so; but that would mean that anyone who rebelled against Yazid who was also a ‘holder of authority’ deserved to be killed! In fact, at the time of Yazid, the Umayyad judges delivered a verdict that Imam Husayn, the Doyen of the Martyrs, deserved death! We have not read the Qur’an properly, and have not understood its logic. Above all else, we must study the Qur’an. The Qur’an has given instructions for everything and has made clear what our duties are. It has told us how we are to treat kings.

OPPOSITION IN THE LOGIC OF THE QUR’AN AND THE PROPHET’S SUNNAH Why does the Qur’an repeat the story of Moses (as) so frequently? Is it just meant to be an entertaining story? If the Qur’an wanted to tell us a story, one recitation would be enough. So what is the purpose behind the Qur’an’s insistence on repeating the story of Moses and his opposition to the Pharaoh? It is to make us understand! The Qur’an constantly discusses warfare against the unbelievers and mentions the affair concerning the hypocrites (Munafiqin). Is this purely for the purpose of telling us a story? Is the Qur’an a

248 It refers to Surah Aali ‘Imran 3: 26: “Say, ‘O Allah, Master of all sovereignty! You give sovereignty to whomever You wish, and

strip of sovereignty whomever You wish; You make mighty whomever You wish, and You degrade whomever You wish; all choice is in Your hand. Indeed You have power over all things.”. A group of people, by reason of this verse, consider it incumbent

to obey the command of anyone in authority- even someone like Yazid. 249 Nimrod reigned in Chaldeah under the name of Keykawus. He was an idolater and a relentless tyrant and despot who possessed idol temples of gold, enjoyed a great amount of wealth and had a very large army. Tarikh-e Anbiya’ az -dam ta Khatam (History of the Prophets from Adam to the Seal of the Prophets), p. 289. 250 In Qur’an, Surah an-Nisa’ 4: 59, obedience towards those in authority is shown to be in conjunction with obedience towards God and the Prophet (s). 251 When the ruler of Islam is a person such as the Prophet (s), his government is referred to as the shadow of God. Hence, in certain traditions the sultan and ruler of Islam has been referred to as the same. Imam Khomeini, by virtue of the rare and gnostic insight with which he was blessed, has explained the meaning of this concept in his speeches.

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story-book? The Qur’an is a book designed to produce true human beings; it is a book intended to create active human beings. It is a book that deals with everything in this world, from beginning to end, and covers all the stages in man’s development. It is a book that regulates man’s spiritual life and orders its government. Everything is there in the Qur’an, in the traditions of the Most Noble Messenger (s) and in the traditions of the Immaculate Imams (as). But careful study of all these sources is needed for us to understand what our duty is. We repeatedly read in the Qur’an that the Pharaoh behaved in one way and that Moses behaved in another, but we do not consider why the Qur’an tells us all this. It tells us this so that we too may act like Moses towards the Pharaoh of our age. Let us take up our staffs and oppose this vile man252. At the very least, let no one support this regime. May Almighty God grant you all success. May Almighty God remove this evil rule from the Muslims [the audience cries Amen]. May God, Exalted and Almighty, preserve our people in the midst of their tribulation [Amen]. May God, Exalted and Almighty, grant a favorable end to this struggle both to the Muslims and to Islam.

25th Speech Date: May 13, 1978/Urdibehesht 23, 1357 SH/Jamadi al-Thani 5, 1398 AH Place: Shaykh Ansari Mosque, Najaf, Iraq Subject: Situation in Iran; general and people’s uprising; guidance to the revolutionaries Addressees: Religious students, clergymen and a number of Iranians residing in Iraq I seek refuge in God from the accursed Satan In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful I do not know where to begin. Should I talk about the people’s misery, or about glad tidings? At present misery prevails throughout Iran, and yet it is a misery which constitutes glad tidings. As I had formerly predicted, when these dictators, these despots and ruffians, anticipate and actually see their own fall and their own death toward the end of their lives, and when the end of their political power is in sight, they become mad. They completely lose all self-control and act in a state of madness and insanity when dealing with people. The Iranian people are currently eye-witnesses to this; and even you too gentlemen, witness it to a lesser degree.

QUM OCCUPIED BY THE SHAH’S ARMY At present, Qum, the center of the religious institution, the center of Islamic jurisprudence, lies in the clutches of the well-furnished Mongolian army. The well-furnished army of Muhammad Reza Shah is worse than that of Genghis (Khan). People’s homes, according to what we have been told, are being searched one by one, and no one knows what they are looking for. Army troops are now stationed in Qum with guns, tanks and machine guns, and all of the theological centers and the homes of the ulama are, as is

252 The Shah

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often the case, under police and army observation. They have invaded the homes of the maraji’, committing murder and perpetrating crimes there.253 Going by information received today, certain ulama are in hospital right now.254

THE PAHLAVI DYNASTY AND 50- YEAR DEFEAT This is the insanity which has befallen this person (the Shah), and I don’t know where it will end. It is a nervous condition which has come about because he sees himself as fallen, although as far as the nation is concerned, indeed he was fallen from the very beginning. From the very beginning, on the day when Reza Shah, under Britain’s orders, attacked Iran and carried out a coup d’état, those who were aware of what was going on realized that he was fallen. It was later on, when he (Reza Shah) began to throw his weight around, and his police behaved the way they did with the people, with the ulama and with women, with the religious teaching centers and with religious propagation, that people then recognized the monstrosity and the beast with which they were to contend. So we see that this dynasty was fallen in the nation’s eyes from the start. Its fall is not a thing of the present, for it was fallen fifty years ago as far as the people are concerned. However, the nation has now become aroused and word has it that more than thirty cities in Iran have demonstrated against this man, shouting “Death to the Shah”.

BETRAYAL TO THE NATION According to the Shah’s reasoning, the people of these thirty cities and of the country as a whole have all come from abroad and have entered Iran with forged passports! Furthermore, they are a ‘handful’ of rioters!255 The entire maraji’ of Islam and the ulama from all regions of the country have risen up against this person; and from what we were told today, fifty-six of the ulama in Tehran have refrained from attending the mosques, declaring that they have done so in protest to the regime’s behavior. Yet it is claimed that they have all come from outside Iran via forged passports!- that they are a handful of rioters!- that they are troublemakers! The ulama of Tehran, the ulama of Qum, the ulama of Khorasan, the ulama of Azerbaijan, the ulama of Yazd, the ulama of Kerman, the ulama of wherever, these are all a bunch of

253 Imam Khomeini and other maraji’ declared May 9, 1978/Urdibehesht 19, 1357 SH, a day of a general strike to commemorate the holding of mourning ceremonies forty days after the martyrdom of those killed in Yazd, Jahrom, Qazvin, Ahwaz, Isfahan and other provinces; and they also call for the nation to conduct further mourning ceremonies on this very day. The people of Qum also participate in the numerous gatherings which are held in the homes of the maraji’. This is when the regime’s agents attack the defenseless people. A number of people flee to the home of Ayatullah Golpaygani for refuge, and the regime’s agents have the audacity to invade the privacy of the Ayatullah’s home, beating and injuring the people right there and then. As a result of this incident, the Ayatullah suffers a heart-attack and is taken to hospital. The following day, armed agents savagely attack the people again at Eram Square, striking and cursing them. A group of people found shelter in Mr. Shariatmadari’s home which agents then storm. The latter begin to fire at the people killing a young religious student as a result. 254 It refers to Ayatullah Golpaygani. 255 During a telephone conversation held in Shahrivar [August/ September] between the Shah and Carter (the US President), the former refers to the popular revolution as a riot which has been arranged in accordance with devilish plans. During parliamentary proceedings, the Minister of State says: “It is not clear when and over which border those who caused the riot in Tabriz crossed into Iran”! A political forecaster for the Rastakhiz Party (Ja’farian), maintains that the ‘riot’ in Tabriz was the work of people who bore no relation to the nation of Iran. A pseudo-clerical representative of Parliament for Tabriz says: “Islam categorically forbids rioting”! In the Majlis, Senator Ali Rezai states: “The rioters were a gang of inexperienced youngsters and it is not clear which border they crossed or what means of identity they used when entering Iran”! Cited from page 13 of the book, Khatirat-e Brzezinski (Brzezinski’s Memoirs).

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rioters!! The one who is not a rioter is Muhammad Reza esquire! This person is not a rioter! He is a peacelover! He is taking us through the gateway of a ‘great civilization’!

THE BOOK ATTRIBUTED TO THE SHAH AND THE PAHLAVI DYNASTY’S 50- YEAR DEFEAT As for this book that they have written for him on his behalf256 - he hasn’t got the intelligence to write it himself, it is they who write it for him257 - I don’t know whether he has taken the trouble to read it to see what nonsense it contains, or whether he hasn’t even read it let alone write it. If anyone were to take a look at this book he would truly be ashamed at how a pen could write with such abandon in referring to so much suppression, so much hardship suffered by the people, so much killing, so many conspiracies, so many deals to sell the nation to foreigners, and so many acts of betrayal toward the Muslim nation of Iran- in referring to all of these as the “rendering of a service”! There is freedom in Iran! A freedom of which no one is aware! Were someone from the planet Jupiter to read this book, he would think that its contents resemble Plato’s thinking!258 He would be convinced that Iran is another world! A world in the beyond! If he were to actually enter Iran however, and see what kind of government it has, if he were to see what the Shah’s government is like, then he would realize that everything contained in the book is an exaggeration; it is empty talk. You ought to read this book. Of course the one who wrote it must have been a well-informed person- whether he (the Shah) has actually read it or not I don’t know, but in any case the writer himself has been someone possessed of some knowledge. Nevertheless, he has sat and written about the beyond; about somewhere beyond this world. As for him (the Shah), he wants to take us to the gateway of a ‘great civilization’; or rather, this is what he has already achieved! We are now at the gateway of a ‘great civilization’! We are presently within a city which is situated in the beyond! We have now entered a ‘great civilization’! But what do we have to show for it? Name one thing that is ours other than the lying and exaggerated talk in which we indulge; other than this what do we have? What do we have other than these crimes, these killings, this suppression, and this lying? Even the press reporters who have behaved the way they have for some forty to fifty years, even they have now objected to their having to tell so many lies. Yes, press reporters have argued “Don’t force us to tell so many lies”. Going by what some have said, university professors have voiced objection saying

256 The book Toward the Great Civilization was published under the name of Muhammad Reza Shah in 1977 (or, as some contend, in 1976), by “The Center for Research into and Publication of Political Culture Prevalent during the Reign of the Pahlavis”. The false, mendacious and fanciful issues raised in this book even came under criticism from the Shah’s own partisans and supporters abroad. Fereydun Hoveyda, who translated the book into French writes: “In my opinion, the book Toward the Great Civilization is no more than a world of fantasy and it is a far cry from reality”. Similarly, the Iranian ambassador to England said that “in a way the book amounted to the depiction of a hallucination which was the outcome of the mental discharge of a demented, infirm individual.” 257 The Shah made claim to being the author of three ‘great and important’ books, and he was convinced that the leaders of underdeveloped countries ought to read these works and achieve development and prosperity for their own countries by adopting the principles and sociopolitical theories found therein! These books, which were all the product of a specific period of the Shah’s reign, are entitled: Mission for My Country, White Revolution, and Toward the Great Civilization. It seems likely that the author of the latter book was Shuja’uddin Shafa’, who had been in charge of cultural affairs during Reza Shah’s reign, and was Muhammad Reza Shah’s ambassador to London. 258 That is, whoever read this book would think that in Iran the Shah had managed to bring about that very utopia which Plato had strived to accomplish!

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that they will not attend classes and lectures while the universities are in their present state- a state brought about by the regime.259 But then again, these professors are also probably a gang of rioters!

THOSE WHO OPPOSE DICTATORSHIP FROM THE DICTATORS’ VIEWPOINT These ulama in Tehran who, according to reports received today, intend to refrain from attending congregational prayers as a form of protest, and also those at the theological center of Qum, which is presently closed down and has been brought to a standstill, these are all a bunch of rioters who have crossed over the border into Iran by using forged passports! And all of the people of Azerbaijan- those who have conducted such an uprising, the likes of which has rarely been witnessed before, and who have engaged in such an unprecedented shutdown260 - these too were a bunch of hooligans! The same goes for the people of Yazd261, and for Iran as a whole. All the people of Iran are a ‘bunch of hooligans’, to quote them, “Who don’t understand what they are saying”! According to the regime, those who oppose dictatorship, those who oppose the traitors to Islam and those who have betrayed this nation, those who oppose such things are but a bunch of hooligans who have come from abroad! Even now, in spite of the set-up that has come about in Iran, and in spite of all this opposition to the regime from thirty-odd cities as well as villages- yes, in spite of all these issues with which the regime is confronted, whenever he (the Shah) speaks, he in no way stands down from his initial claim that: “The entire nation of Iran is with us! All of the various guilds are with us”! Only last night we were all told of how the heads of a hundred and twenty-odd various guilds had said that they remain loyal to the regime, that they are behind the Shah-People Revolution, and that they object to these rioters and have asked the government to punish them!262 Are these a hundred and twenty-odd guilds outside Iran? No, they must be in Tehran and probably

259 In April/May of 1978/Urdibehesht, 1357 SH, the majority of the country’s universities closed down and university professors stopped attending their lectures. On May 13, 1978 (Urdibehesht 23, 1357 SH), the Kayhan newspaper wrote: “In a letter addressed to the head of the university, one hundred and seventy professors from various faculties of Azerbaijan University have expressed their regret with regard to the recent predicament (the regime’s attacks on student demonstrations and its turning a deaf ear to the students’ requests) and have warned that should this state of affairs continue, then they, the lecturers, will refuse to attend lectures”. 260 On February 18, 1978/Bahman 29, 1356 SH, which corresponded to the fortieth day following the martyrdom of those killed in Qum, the clergy of Tabriz declared a general strike. People intended to gather at Haj Mirza Yusuf Aqa Mosque on that day, but the regime’s agents closed the mosque doors on them. When confronted by the people’s severe reaction, police troops opened fire, and in response people then charged toward the officers causing them to flee. Then, a crowd of people who were carrying the corpses of martyrs and shouting” Death to the Shah”, took to holding a demonstration in the high streets. As they walked, they demolished a range of buildings: those Saderat banks which belonged to Bahai capitalists; the Rastakhiz Party’s central headquarters; a statue of the Shah which stood in Khaqani Square; the Bahai-owned Pepsi Cola factory; and many cinemas and liquor stores. They also set several of the officers’ vehicles on fire. For a few hours the city lay in the hands of the people, but fresh governmental troops as well as military forces resumed their attack and reclaimed the city having killed and wounded hundreds of people. By the end of the day, Tabriz had taken on the appearance of a war-stricken city. 261 Following the Tabriz uprising, the ulama and clergymen of Iran declared the fortieth day after the martyrdom of those killed during that event, a day of public mourning. In the majority of Iranian cities, people assembled and engaged in anti-Shah demonstrations. On March 30, 1978/Farvardin 10, 1357 SH, once the splendid mourning ceremonies held by the people of Yazd in Rawzah-ye Muhammadiyyah Mosque had drawn to an end, military troops surrounded those who had poured into the streets, killing and wounding a number of them. By way of retaliation, the enraged people then broke the windows of governmental offices and the headquarters of the Rastakhiz Party, and overturned a statue of the Shah. 262 On May 13, 1978/Urdibehesht 23, 1357 SH, the Ittila’at wrote: “Following the statement issued by the government concerning punitive measures to be taken against the rioters and saboteurs, the leaders and representatives of one hundred and forty-five trade unions in Tehran have today issued a statement in which they express their disgust with regard to the recent incident involving riots and disturbances

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in the bazaar of Tehran. But if they are indeed in Tehran and in its bazaar, then how come they say that this bazaar has now been closed for four days? I don’t know about now, today, but for the past four days they say it has been closed. These people in the bazaar were in protest. Indeed, it is usually the case that social uproars initially emerge from the bazaar. The source of the outcry is the university and the bazaar. Have those in the universities come from abroad?! And those in the bazaar of Tehran, have they come from abroad too?! These a hundred and twenty-odd guilds that have all allegedly expressed their loyalty to the regime are, it seems, located beneath the ground! We who are abroad cannot see them! Anyone who is right-minded and upright cannot see them! These guilds all support you!! The entire thirty-odd million population of Iran is behind you!! Only a few thousand, only a few in numbers oppose you! Initially it was said that the number of the opposition could be counted on one hand. Gradually they increased this figure somewhat; and now it has reached the thousands- those who oppose the regime now number two or three thousand! Millions of the remaining population are all in favor, and support the regime! But where exactly these people are, we don’t know! Are they in Yazd? Are they in Qum? Are they in Tehran? Are they in Mashhad? Are they in Azerbaijan? Are they in Kurdistan? Are they in Ahwaz? Where are they? Where is this place that is beyond the reach of this present-day population of Iran?

COUNTRYSIDE ERUPTION, CONSEQUENCE OF HALF A CENTURY’S STUBBORNNESS However, the people that now live in Iran are well aware of what is going on. Those reports which ought to have been made by news agencies concerning the present situation in Iran have indeed been made. These reports have cited some twenty-odd Iranian cities- some have said twenty-five, others thirty-three- as being on strike. People in these cities have all demonstrated against the Shah. Even radio reports attest to this. It is said that these, the Shah and his government, hold a certain theology student (talaba) - meaning myselfresponsible for all this; but I say it is all his own doing. All of these thirty-odd cities which have risen up have done so as a result of his own provocative behavior. Were a thief to say that a judge has severed his hand, he is to be told: “No, you yourself have severed your own hand. You are the one who thieved; and whoever thieves loses his hand.” Just give it some thought; that is, if you still have the ability to think. You are actually witnessing your fall with your own eyes and so you have lost the ability to think straight. Just think of what you and your father brought upon this nation over the last fifty years; of what this nation went through, firstly because of your father and afterwards because of you. Think of what you did to this nation; of all the pain which sits in the hearts of the parents of those killed by you throughout this period; from the time when that villain, may Allah’s curse befall him, perpetrated that crime in Goharshad Mosque, until today, when we see the same crime being committed by you yourself. Do you expect the nation not to erupt? Does it take someone to act as the detonator before the eruption can take place? This country is presently a tinderbox on the verge of

in Tehran and other cities; and they have requested that the government immediately silence and punish the rioters.” In acknowledgement, a written statement released by the government read: “The guilds of Tehran are unanimously and firmly prepared to make any kind of offering or self-sacrifice in order to silence the saboteurs and to crush the enemies of this land and frontier. Each of these guilds constitutes a stronghold for the protection and safeguard of the monarchy, the Constitution, and the Shah-People Revolution.”

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erupting anyway. Do you think that this eruption can be prevented by these profligate acts whereby one day a ‘Revenge Group’ is formed and another a ‘Paykar Committee’ is formed and other such absurdities?263

FLATTERERS TAKE THE SEAT OF MUDARRIS THE CHAMPION When you attend their parliamentary sessions, just listen to how these four wretches talk in order to ensure their re-election to the Majlis next year- a matter concerning which even they themselves have spoken of. Even the Member of Parliament for Azerbaijan itself says: “These people are not from Azerbaijan. That anyone from Azerbaijan would oppose the Shah is impossible.” So where are these people from then? Where are the people of Tabriz from Mr. Member of Parliament?! That is the state of our Parliament and the deterioration that has come about therein. One day it is Mudarris who is in the Majlis, and another day it is these that you see for yourselves. One day it is Mudarris who stands before all those present and speaks in opposition to Reza Shah- of course they eventually killed him but he stood in opposition until his last breath- and another day it is these, who, for the sake of being re-elected to Parliament, say the sort of things that they all know themselves to be lies, that others know to be lies, and that they themselves know that everyone knows to be lies. They say them nevertheless. In order to further their own interests and to secure the approbation of Reza Shah and Muhammad Reza Shah, they incur the wrath of Almighty God. This is the state of our Majlis; that is the state of our religious laws; that is the state of our bazaar; that is the state of our oil; and that is the state of our independence.

ORDER TO OUST THE SHAH AND AMERICA God is my witness to how deeply grieved some of these high-ranking officers are who sometimes come to see me incognito. They are grieved by these American advisers who, every so often, come here to Iran in fresh troops to play such havoc with us; and they are grieved by the deals these good-for-nothings strike with them. And I don’t know, it is truly beyond me why these high-ranking officers of ours are so incompetent. Why are they so incapable? Why have they remained seated at home and taken no action thus allowing others to impose upon them so? Why do they allow these American advisers to treat them as they do? Why don’t they kick this reprobate out?264 They said to us: “Well, if he (the Shah) were to go, who would replace him?” I told them that if he were to go and even ‘Ubaydullah265 were to take his place, then that would be better than him staying, because whoever were to replace him would at least pay this country some attention. He has now become worn out. He is reaching the end of his life and has become neurotic and mad. He has lost all self-control, and continues killing people; and God only knows where it will all 263 Having sensed its impotence vis-a-vis the people’s strength, the regime sought to terrorize people and to oust them from the field of combat by planting bombs in various parts of the city and conducting secret attacks. To this end, agents of the regime and SAVAK members coalesced to accomplish these operations by forming clandestine groups called “The Underground Organization of Revenge” and “The Paykar Committee”. Included in their operations were the planting of a bomb in the homes of Dr. Matin Daftari and Daryush Furuhar, and the attack made on a high school in Najafabad in Isfahan. This underground organization asserted that its prime objective was to protect the country’s open political climate! See the Ittila’at newspapers of May 1- 2, 1978/Urdibehesht 11- 12, 1357 SH. By terrorizing well-known figures, this organization aimed on the one hand to intimidate the combatants and to oust them from the field of combat, and on the other hand it aimed to draw public attention toward those who had been the victims of the regime’s aggression and hence to divert public attention from the true leaders of the movement. 264 The Shah. 265 It refers to ‘Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufah during Yazid’s caliphate. It was because of the former’s acts of conspiracy and his direct involvement in affairs that the tragedy of Karbala came about.

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end. If he goes however, people will be granted a respite, no matter who his replacement may be. But not even one hour of relief can be had while he remains. If he goes and someone else takes his place, at least the people will be at ease for a while. Don’t imagine that if he goes then the world will come to an end, for his going will upset nothing. Where are these high-ranking officials- General so-and-so, Lieutenant General so-and-so, Major General so-and-so? These titles are mere words. These people are just like Members of Parliament who keep bragging that they are the representatives of such-and-such a place, and that they each speak “on the nation’s behalf”. This good-for-nothing stands alone, and then he talks about “myself and the entire nation” as if the two were united!

AMERICAN REVOLUTION OR “THE SHAH-PEOPLE REVOLUTION” How can it be said that this nation, a nation which has now risen up against this reprobate, a nation which can see how this person has given away and destroyed whatever it had, a nation which sees how he has corrupted its youngsters and how he wants to corrupt its girls, how can this nation be said to fully support the idea of the revolution- the “Shah-People Revolution”?! Yes, despite everything they still have the audacity to talk of the Shah-People revolution!! Why not call it the American revolution and come right out with it? Why not speak of American commands, of the American revolution? What a state to be in! As he (the Shah) himself stated in something he wrote: “They (the foreigners) thought it fitting that I should be in control of affairs”. May God curse those who took it upon themselves to consider such a thing fitting for us.

LAST DAYS OF THE DYNASTY Qum is now under martial law, and from what we hear so too is Tabriz and Mashhad, or rather they are under something even worse for this surely does not constitute martial law! Martial law is a kind of social order whereby certain social intercourse and social gatherings are contained. But is bursting into people’s homes martial law?! Bursting into people’s homes to conduct searches, is that martial law? They say that government agents have surrounded the entire city of Qum and are busy conducting searches there. They are looking for arms. They are afraid of their own shadows, the poor wretches! Don’t be fooled by such acts of violence. Don’t let it intimidate you in any way. These agents right now are frightened of their own shadows. They are so beset by fear that just like a cat which, when all else is lost, attacks everything in a fit of panic using its paws, claws and anything else it can use, so they too, having reached that stage, now attack the people using hands, arms, legs and all kinds of things such as machine guns, tanks, artillery and the like. They attack the defenseless people. In Qum, they are searching homes, and they have said that they intend to do the same in Azerbaijan; indeed, the whole of Iran is to be searched by them.

THE ROOTS OF ERUPTION AND REVOLUTION He (the Shah) himself is the one who has provoked all this; not I. I am a mere theology student (talaba), who, like other honorable religious students, likes others in other cities, voices grievances about the regime. The one who lies at the heart of the matter, at the core of this revolution and these outbursts is he, the Shah himself. He is the very person who plays a central role in all this. It is a mistake for the one who is committing treason to believe that when the people shout out against this treason then a third party must have provoked them to do so. You yourself are the instigator. You provoked the people with your acts of treachery. You are the one who betrayed this nation, and in return, people have risen up and raised objection.

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There is plenty about which to object. What do you expect these poor people to do? You have marred and destroyed whatever reputation this Islamic nation had, and now you are busily engaged in bringing further loss and ruin. People have now been driven to extremities; they have been driven to lay their lives on the line. Youngsters are killed and their parents then step forward to take their place in the struggle. The regime’s agents kill people in Qum, and these people are then replaced by others, both young and old, from other parts of the city. People are tired of living. They are now tired of this situation, of this state of affairs that you have brought into being here. For whom is there any comfort? Who can be at ease for a day or even an hour, let alone have some kind of a life? People prefer not to have an existence in this world rather than to live this kind of life. So the blame lies at your own door and there is no longer anything that you can do to put things right.

THE NATION REJECTS RECONCILIATION Your repentance means nothing to the nation. You may well truly repent and give people that which is rightfully theirs and attempt to make up for all the crimes you have committed. It is possible that God may accept your repentance, for He is Magnanimous, but the nation will not. We cannot accept your repentance. Your repentance spells death. The repentance of a wolf spells death. Now, at this late hour, he has resorted to claiming that he has issued orders for the people not to be treated so badly. Only last night he said that he had instructed so-and-so to no longer maltreat the people and so on. And so there you have the wolf’s repentance of which I just spoke. Doubtless, you (the Shah) are now employing other means to try to pave the way for further crimes to be perpetrated; for there is no way that you would ever give up committing crimes. You are someone whose nerves have been truly shattered and destroyed, and who can see that the entire nation is against him. Moreover, you fear that a prolonging of the nation’s opposition may mean a withdrawal of your masters’ support of you, and God only knows that this iniquitous America would leave nothing behind for you should it one day withdraw its backing. Under such circumstances your associates would devour you.

THE WEAPON OF FAITH, THE MOST POWERFUL WEAPON But what is the nation to do now? Foreign advisers have poured into the country and everything is in their hands. They are the ones who hold the power; the nation is powerless. These people who rant about human rights are the same people who have dragged our nation into such a mess. What is a powerless nation which possesses neither arms nor anything else to do? However, no weapon can compare to faith. No weapon can present a challenge to the nation’s uprising. Today, no matter how many people they may kill, no amount of weapons can present a challenge to this popular uprising. As you now see, every city is beset by misery. Every day the people of these cities are harassed by the police, or harassed by soldiers and the military with tanks, artillery and guns; or they have to put up with a certain group of people who come and stage demonstrations shouting “long live this” and “up with whatever”. A certain reprobate actually entered the homes of some of the maraji’, drew his gun and threatened to kill everyone present unless they cried “long live such-and-such”. And from what I hear, those present did not comply but instead put him in his place good and proper. This is what they have to endure- having to shout “long live whatever”. But does shouting “long live” something actually afford that something a long or eternal life? Things have gone too far now; he ought to leave well alone and look out for himself. If he can save himself from being killed by this nation,

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then he ought to run away secretly. He unduly cancelled his trip abroad thinking that he could control affairs himself266 - supervise the killings personally- only too aware that were he to go away, someone else might replace him. But whether you go or not, you are all washed-up, you poor wretch. And this is of your own doing. We didn’t do it. The nation didn’t do it. You did it yourself; you sowed the seeds. Would this situation ever have arisen if the government was a legitimate government, a legitimate power and a legitimate administration- if it showed sympathy and concern toward the nation and toward Islam? Would such a situation ever have arisen? Would the people have demonstrated against you? No; in no way would this have happened. So you should realize that these affairs and this unanimous and unidirectional demonstrating that you witness against you are of your own making; you yourself have brought all this about. These are disasters and yet glad tidings for us. Glad tidings can be found in all of these affairs: the glad tidings of the nation’s ultimate victory; the glad tidings of the severance of foreign influence, God willing; the glad tidings of the overthrow of this (Pahlavi) dynasty and of their departure from this country or from this world. This is all good news, and people must be strong, optimistic and fearless.

ISLAM THE RELIGION OF OPPOSITION AND RESISTANCE Certain factors are intrinsic to any Islamic revolution. Killing and suffering are integral parts of an Islamic revolution. We are to discover how Islam in fact came about. This religion of Islam, and this Holy Prophet, may peace and blessings be upon him and his family, suffered all kinds of calamities while reforming the community. When it became possible to rise up against polytheism, atheism and injustice, what great battles were engaged in by the Holy Prophet, what numerous lives were lost, to what great lengths the Prophet himself went and what wounds he bore. From the advent of Islam, from that day when it was declared that henceforth one must rise up against tyrants, such as these we now face, the Holy Prophet followed a policy of fighting, killing and being killed. He did so for the sake of social reform and in order to sever the hands of these thieves and traitors and to put an end to their lives, for such people are harmful to society. Those members of the tribe of Quraysh, who owned gardens and caravans, were harmful to society; they had to be annihilated. So in fact, in the beginning this was the approach adopted by Islam. By the time it reached you and me however, Islam had become transformed whereby we now do nothing other than study literary works and desist from advising the people to do anything about their situation. God knows how much I lament the state of the theological centers. I feel grief for the theological center of Najaf which is now losing its good name; it is losing its reputation before the Muslims. I truly regret this. A theological center which is one-thousand-or-more years of age is losing its good name. Just take note of how, throughout this whole affair, in all of the statements made, be they from religious, intellectual or academic fronts, no mention is any longer made of Najaf. Najaf is falling into oblivion. O you honorable members of the clergy, come to the rescue of this theological center at Najaf!

266 The Shah had intended to make an official visit to Bulgaria in May of 1978, but the expansion and intensification of the revolution led him to dispense with this plan. Thus, on May 11, 1978, it was announced that the Shah had postponed his official visit to Bulgaria due to his having caught a cold. With tongue-in-cheek, Parviz Raji, the Shah’s last ambassador in London, writes in his book: “Everyone suspected that the germs which had caused this cold had probably come from Qum”!

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QUM THEOLOGICAL CENTER IS ALIVE The theological center of Qum however, is a center which is alive. It gives lives, kills and gives more lives. Presently it is under pressure but nevertheless it is alive; it has risen up in spite of everything. The religious students from Qum have arisen, natives of Qum have arisen, the community of Qum as a whole has arisen. Qum takes the blows but it continues to stand up in confrontation. The religious student of Qum loses members of his family, but he continues to stand up in confrontation. Thus, he is alive. In fact, people believe that Qum is all that they have. Yes, I feel regret for Najaf. I myself belong to the city of Qum but I feel regret for Najaf. I and others like me feel attached to all such centers. We feel attached to a theological center such as this which is over a thousand years of age. Don’t allow this center to be destroyed. Don’t allow this theological center to fall into oblivion.

INSISTENCE ON ORGANIZING THE MOVEMENT Now that the people of Iran have risen up, may God grant them divine guidance, this uprising must be organized; it must not lack organization. There must be links between the theological centers of Qum, Tehran and all other cities. Links are needed; you must give this movement some organization. This movement must not be something dispersed. It must be well organized so that if the people of Qum rise up one day, then the entire nation will rise up with them. Don’t be dispersed. Different fronts must all unite together.267 Some fronts are mistaken in no longer making mention of the clergy, which is in fact the case according to reports which have reached me today from certain clerical figures. These fronts don’t realize. They don’t know that without the clergy they are of no worth. If it is not the case that a dirty hand is involved which has forced these fronts to dissociate themselves from the clergy in whatever they write, and if it is not the intention of these fronts to create differences or divergences between themselves, but rather their actions are due to ignorance, misconception, or selfish motives, then they are to reform themselves and to put themselves right. All of the various fronts must unite. The organization must form an alliance; it must be a religious party which stands in opposition to the Rastakhiz Party.268 Everyone must unite in the Party of God, ‘Hizbullah’.269 Everyone must speak out together. Everyone must rise up together. Everyone must follow a policy of passive resistance together. It is wrong under the present circumstances for each group 267 Both nationalist and religious groups and parties. 268 The Shah had ordered for various parties to be formed such as the Mardom Party, the Milliyin Party and the Iran Novin Party. In 1974 (1353 SH) however, he announced that the Rastakhiz Party was to be regarded as the country’s only legitimate party and he made membership of it obligatory. He demanded that anyone who was opposed to this party should leave Iran! The Rastakhiz Party was established on the basis of three principles: allegiance to the constitutional law; allegiance to the monarchical regime; and allegiance to the Shah-People Revolution. Hoveyda, the Prime Minister of the day, was elected as Secretary General of the Rastakhiz Party and ‘Rastakhiz’ became the focal attraction for those who sought power or influence. No sooner had this party been established than Imam declared its illegality according to religious law. He thus issued a religious decree forbidding anyone to become a member of this party and he argued that to demand compulsory membership was a violation of the Constitution. On the party’s first birthday following its establishment, the regime announced that this party enjoyed a membership of twenty-three million people; the total population of Iran at that time was thirtythree million people! The Shah forbad the party’s members to discuss or hold meetings about oil, the White Revolution, the procurement of arms and equipment, and the country’s foreign policy. Six months after its establishment, high-officials of the American embassy in Iran reported to Washington that this party played no practical role in the politics of Iran. Refer to Tarikh-e Novin-e Iran, p. 257. 269 It refers to Surah al-Ma’idah 5: 56: “Then surely the party of God are they that shall be triumphant”; Surah Mujadilah (The Pleading One), verse 22: “Know that surely the party of God are the successful ones.” Imam Sadiq (pbuh) said: “We and our followers are the party of God and the party of God is victorious.”

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to act independently and to make separate demands for itself. The clergy must be united with these groups, and they with the clergy; those in the universities must be united with you, the clergy, and you must be united with them; those in the bazaar must be united with everyone else; the workers must be united with everyone else. All of you are experiencing the same hardship. All of you are troubled by the same suffering. The suffering among you is a common suffering. We have all been overtaken by a great misfortune. It is not something which pertains exclusively to the clergy, or to the various parties, or to those in the universities. This is not an exclusive matter which involves any one particular group. If they take the country’s oil, it is everyone’s oil that they are taking. If they foolishly bring a load of scrap iron270 into the country, this is something which affects us all; it is a disaster for everybody. Bringing American advisers here is a disaster for us all, and not just for a few of us. If they establish a military base here for America, this is something which affects us all. If they (the regime) betray us, or betray the nation, it is everyone’s concern. Everyone join hands together. It is wrong for everybody to set up his own outfit. Looking out for oneself is wrong; it means defeat. Organization must be given to this uprising, to this movement which is already under way. Those who lead the people, those who are judicious among the people, they must give this movement organization. That is to say links must be established between all of the various fronts. There must be links between all of the small provinces. Meetings held in these different provinces must be held on the same day. Links must be established like those that I previously sought to establish in Qum but which they prevented from materializing, may God guide them on the straight path. My intention had been for meetings to be held throughout Iran on a specific day, so that, for example, on a Friday or Saturday evening a meeting of learned people would be held in Tehran, and the same in Khorasan, and in such-and-such a village and such-and-such a place. This is what I mean when I talk of organizing the movement. But they prevented it. They didn’t understand.271 Now it is time to wake up gentlemen; it is time to be vigilant. Your adversary remains formidable. He has now brought knives to the fight; he has now introduced tanks and guns into the contest. But you are not to be afraid of these guns; guns are nothing. You are on the side of Truth. You are in the right and Almighty God is with you. Organize this movement which has now emerged in Iran. You must liaise with each other. The honorable clergy must liaise with all other fronts and all other fronts with the honorable clergy. The entire nation must cohere together. Leaders of the people must hold meetings together at a given time, so that if one day an announcement is made from a certain quarter, then all leaders would speak out in unison; all Iranian citizens would act in unison.

270 Guns and military equipment. 271 In 1964 [1343 SH], just after his release from prison and subsequent to the events which took place in 1962, Imam Khomeini proposed that weekly meetings should be held by the clergy nationwide on a specific day in order to analyze political issues and review interrelations between the theological centers. However, because of a lack of foresight on the part of the maraji’ and the ulama toward the positive outcome which could have been achieved from acting upon this proposal, and due to a lack of support, and even in certain cases, a show of opposition by these members of the clergy, by and large this constructive proposal was not heeded; and when Imam went into exile it was totally forgotten.

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GLAD TIDINGS OF VICTORY I give all of those fronts which have risen up for the sake of Islam and for the sake of establishing the truth, the glad tidings that, God willing, ‘Inna’s-subha laqarib’ is near.272 God willing, you will triumph, but only on condition that heterogeneous elements are not involved, and that selfish desires- snatching this for oneself and snatching that for oneself- do not intrude. We are all each other’s brothers. I am a mere religious student (talaba), you are an honorable clergyman, he is a merchant, he is from the university, he is a doctor, he is an engineer, he is an intellectual- we are all suffering from one and the same misfortune; we all have to sit down and grieve together. May God grant success to all of the opposition fronts. May He bestow good health on us all [Amen]. I pray to God that He foreshorten the arms of foreigners from this Islamic country [Amen]. May God’s peace, mercy and blessings be upon you.

26th Speech Date: May 31, 1978/Khordad 10, 1357 SH/Jamadi al-Thani 23, 1397 AH Place: Shaykh Ansari Mosque, Najaf, Iraq Subject: Religious duty; to rise up against the Shah Occasion: The arrival of the anniversary of the bloody uprising of Khordad 15, 1342 SH Addressees: Religious students, clergy and a group of Iranian residents in Iraq I seek refuge in God from the accursed Satan In the Name of God, t he Compassionate, the Merciful Iran is an exemplary country; and I think it unlikely that another country like Iran or another nation like the oppressed nation of Iran can be found to exist among all countries of the world, or that there are many examples of such a country even ever having existed at all. It is recorded in history how Genghis (Khan), despite his savage and barbaric temperament and all the bloodshed that he caused, governed according to a system of law which was known by others as ‘the great code of laws’273 - a code which neither Genghis nor any other Mongol ever violated. Some have even suggested that the respect held by the Mongols for their law was like that held by the Muslims for the Qur’an at the advent of Islam; for the Mongols to violate their law meant death. So we see that even a people like the Mongols and a man such as Genghis abided by some kind of law. But let us now see, in this present day and age in which we live, which law can this regime of Iran, this Shah of Iran be said to abide by? Is there any law at all governing Iran? Does any law actually command respect? Does this regime and those who run it hold respect for the various social sectors 272 This refers to Qur’an, Surah Hud 11: 81: “Is not the morning nigh?” 273 “The code of laws” was a set of laws devised by Genghis Khan which were implemented in his name by Mongolian kings. According to this set of laws, offences such as adultery, theft, pederasty, bearing false witness, and witchcraft, called for the death penalty. Those offences which were severely punishable were the showing of disrespect towards parents; exhibiting ascendancy over or disobedience and distrust towards a spouse; and refusing to help the needy. Furthermore, war regulations demanded that the various Mongolian tribes come to each other’s assistance during battle; and each individual soldier was allowed to take those spoils he had obtained from war for himself.

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in the country? Let’s consider these questions one by one. Let’s see whether Iran and this regime of hers abides by the law of Islam. They say that throughout the city of Tehran liquor stores outnumber book stores, and that these stores carry on their business in safety and freedom, doing as they please. If one voices objection to this situation then he is denigrated and penalized.

THE REGIME’S DISRESPECT TO ISLAM AND THE CLERGY Which of the laws of Islam is presently enforced in Iran and within its system of government? Much mention is made of oppression in the verses of the Qur’an and in the ordinances of Islam, and the same goes for those who oppress, but all the same can Iran and the Iranian regime be said to be guardians of justice?- of social justice?- of Islamic justice? Are they fooling themselves or are they trying to fool the nation? To what extent do the Shah and his gang value the Qur’an? Does holding respect for the Qur’an mean having it printed and then distributing it to the people in order to fool them274 - like the kind of respect shown by Mu’awiyah when he fixed the Qur’an to the end of a lance pleading that everyone should act according to its teachings? Can such people be said to hold respect for the Qur’an? Do they hold respect for the clergy? Just consider the extent to which Islam has praised and singled out the clergy as people worthy of respect; yet are they actually respected and held in high regard by these people? Do they respect the maraji’ of Islam? Indeed, it was only a few days ago that they stormed the homes of the honorable maraji’, breaking the doors and windows, killing people and brawling. Even now commandos are in the homes of some of these honorable gentlemen. They tell us that commandos are present in these homes in order to monitor the activities of the maraji’. What have the honorable gentlemen done to deserve to be treated with such disrespect? Do they (the Shah and his regime) act in accordance with the constitutional law? Even Genghis acted according to the ‘code of laws’, and so did others like him and the Mongol people themselves. Does this present-day Genghis275, do these Mongols respect the constitutional law? Do their elections comply with legal standards? Do their parliamentary candidates meet stipulated criteria?276 Is their Majlis one which obeys the law?277 Which of their affairs can be said to be remotely in accordance with any law, be they religious laws or secular and constitutional laws? 274 In order to promote his popularity, the Shah would sometimes put on a false show. Thus for example, he would make pilgrimages to the Holy House of God (Ka’bah) and to the shrines of the Immaculate Imams; he held discussions with certain religious figures; he organized mourning ceremonies sponsored by the Imperial Court; he formed the Religious Corps and promoted religious programs on both the television and the radio; and he renovated places of pilgrimage. The printing of the Aryamehr Qur’an was another such act of deception to which he resorted. 275 The Shah. 276 The majority of Majlis representatives were not elected in accordance with legal criteria or via the electoral system, but rather most of them were imposed upon the people. These very representatives were the ones who carried out the Shah’s orders. Members of Parliament would go to Muhammad Reza Pahlavi on specific days to ascertain where the Shah stood on certain issues in order to be sure of which way to vote in the Majlis. Many bills which contravened the constitutional law were in fact passed in Parliament due to the fact that these representatives used to allow the executive council to have a say in those affairs which concerned the legislative council. Refer to Tarikh-e Siyasi-ye Mu’assir-e Iran, vol. 1, p. 121; the article entitled: “Qanun-e Asasi-ye Iran ba’d az Tawallud Teror Shud,” in Kayhan, October 10, 1978/Mehr 18, 1357 SH; and to the interview held with Mazhari, a Majlis representative, in Kayhan, October 9, 1978/Mehr 17, 1357 SH. 277 In a confession printed in the Ittila’at newspaper of October 23, 1978/Aban 1, 1357 SH, Mazhari, a Majlis representative, stated: “The Parliamentary Speaker conducted the entire Majlis proceedings in such a way as to leave no time for questions to be raised and discussed. That is to say that the government, in accordance with the Majlis’s internal regulations, would announce its readiness to answer questions, but the agenda prepared by the Speaker of the Majlis would be so heavy that there would not be enough time to actually raise any questions.

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Do they have any regard for our education system?278 If they do, then why are the schools in Iran either totally or partially closed? And why do the university lecturers suspend their lectures? It is because the government won’t leave the university alone. What have these students done to deserve being deprived of education?279 What kind of respect does this regime show for education? What kind of respect do they afford the army? Those who mistakenly regard the army as a part of their own outfit, just what kind of respect do they afford it? We have an army which serves under American advisers- the latter being granted immunity whilst the former is placed under their command! Why humiliate the army in this way? Do you realize what an affront this is to the Iranian army- how humiliating this is for the army of Iran- for its commanders? Why do these commanders allow themselves to be humiliated so? How come they don’t wake up and see to this man280 sending him to where he belongs? Just what do they hold in respect? What law do they abide by? At least let them abide by a law like that of Genghis when dealing with us; at least let them act according to some kind of principles; let some law come into play somewhere. Anarchy! Iran is currently in a state of anarchy. Arresting people for fear of Khordad anniversary! It even reached the stage where the most well-known Member of Parliament warned that whoever should raise a question in Parliament would not find himself as a parliamentary representative in the future, since it was the regime which made decisions about the government and the political parties.” Abbas Akhbari, another Member of Parliament, said: “On one occasion when a car tax bill was under discussion, Riyazi declared that the bill pertaining to this tax had been ratified, in spite of the fact that only a few representatives had actually cast their votes! When Rastam Raf’ati voiced objection asking how the bill could have been ratified when an insufficient number had voted, he was told: “Don’t come out with wisecracks during an open parliamentary session”! 278 With regard to the damage caused to national and religious education in Iran by the Pahlavi regime, Imam Khomeini, in his religio-political last will and testament writes: “One of the imperialists’ major intrigues concerns taking control of the educational institutions and especially the universities, for a country’s destiny lies in the hands of those who graduate from the universities the plan is to turn the youngsters in universities away from their own culture, customs and values, and to draw them towards the culture, customs and values found in the East and the West. The imperialists plan to select those who are to run the country from among these youngsters, placing the latter in strategic governmental positions. In this way, the imperialists will be at liberty to do whatever they like by means of these hand-picked stooges An example of this are those plans which have regretfully had a great impact on our own dear country as well as on other countries plans which entail the self-alienation of those countries which have been smitten by imperialism, and the resultant infatuation of these countries with both the East and the West. These plans have succeeded to the extent where those smitten countries now see themselves, their culture, and their own capabilities as worthless, whilst regarding the East and the West- the two ‘superpowers’- as a superior race with a superior culture Those nations which have suffered oppression under foreign rule have been held back by the imperialists in all things, whereby they have been turned into consumer societies. And they have made us so afraid of their achievements and their demonic power that we daren’t attempt to our own initiative in anything. We submissively obey their every command, having surrendered whatever we have to them, and having entrusted in their hands both our own and our country’s destinies. This forged intellectual void has led us not to rely on our own ideas and capabilities in any of our affairs; and it has meant that we blindly follow the East and the West. Whatever culture, customs, technology and initiative we may have possessed, have been mockingly referred to as worthless by those writers and broadcasters who themselves lack knowledge and understanding, and who are infatuated with the East and the West; and they have presented and continue to present our way of thought and our national strength as all washed up. Furthermore, they have promoted foreign customs, however trite and disgraceful, by the things they do, say and write and have passed these customs on, and continue to pass them on, to each and every country, making them out to be truly praiseworthy.” 279 As a consequence of the disturbances which occurred in 1977 [1356 SH], the universities were closed as if on strike. During the 1977- 78 academic year, lectures were boycotted by the students. Many universities, such as Tabriz University, Tehran University and Sharif University of Technology (formerly Aryamehr University) announced that they had prematurely ended their academic term. Towards the end of the year, the crisis in the universities became so intense that on May 8, 1978/Urdibehesht 18, 1357 SH, severe clashes broke out between the security guards and students of Tabriz University. At Sharif University of Technology, members of the academic staff came out on strike and likewise, students boycotted lectures in support of their professors. See the article in Kayhan, October 5, 1978/Mehr 13, 1357 SH, entitled: “How calm is maintained in the universities”. 280 The Shah

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Khordad 15 has not yet arrived, but even so, well in advance, well before this day approaches, they are busy making arrests for fear that on Khordad 15 a few people might speak up and voice some kind of objection with regard to the killings which occurred on this day (in 1963) - that they might speak of the crimes that were perpetrated and murders committed on the orders of the Shah himself, the very one who commanded the troops during these killings. They have already arrested a number of people in Tehran. In Qum a large number of religious students have been arrested as well as ordinary people and even youngsters, children. They arrest anyone they come across- or so it is said- and the governor-general’s prisons in Qum are so full of people that there is no room for any more; they’ve become absolutely chock-a-block.

BASELESS CLAIMS What state of affairs is this that we now see in Iran? What kind of freedom is this that His Imperial Majesty has granted us?!281 Indeed, is freedom something to be granted?! To say that it is, is in itself a crime. To say “we granted freedom” itself constitutes a crime. Freedom belongs to the people. The law has given freedom to people. God has given freedom to people. Islam has given freedom. The constitutional law has given freedom to people. What on earth is meant by “we granted” (freedom) ? Who the deuce are you to do the “granting”? What the dickens had it got to do with you anyway? “We granted freedom to the people”!! The granting of freedom means this that we now see; it does not in truth concern freedom at all but instead concerns what we are now witnessing- it is something to fool the people.

AMERICA THE PRIME CRIMINAL, THE SHAH THE SECONDARY ONE The regime, after deliberation, has formed a group from within its own gang which is to write something every now and then to give the impression that there is in fact freedom of the pen; that people are free to write what they wish. Of course there are some honorable people amongst those who write, who come from all different walks of life and who continue to write despite the dangers facing them. A great number of scholars and academics in Qum write about the tragic events which occur here, may God always assist them, and more or less all of the religious students also write reports of these events, which they then sign and publish. Again such writers can also be found within political groups and associations who bravely document what is going on and publish their work, although in so doing, they subject themselves to danger and harassment. Of course amongst these, within these so-called political fronts, there are also those who wish to draw a red herring by diverting attention from the main culprit to these lesser mortals; to those in the government for example. The regime would like nothing more than for the blame to be placed on the government, for anyone to say whatever they like about the government, and for His Imperial Majesty to go unnoticed; for the real culprit to be overlooked. On one occasion when I had intended to speak out, they sent someone to tell me that I was not to speak of the Americans, but that apart from this there would be no objection to my speaking of anyone else, even the Shah. I told them that all of our problems are due to Americans; all of the misery we suffer is America’s doing. Are we to leave the main culprit alone and to turn our attention to the henchmen and stooges instead? Right now in Iran, it is America that is the prime

281 Following the uprising in Tabriz, the Shah, finding himself under tremendous pressure, made the decision to “grant political freedom”; and in an address made in Esfand 1356 SH [February/ March 1978], he said: “We have decided to give people as much individual freedom as possible. It is likely that some may wish to take advantage of this freedom and pull out all the stops, but no matter what they might say, it won’t have the slightest effect on the resolute nation of Iran.”

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culprit while this Shah of ours plays a secondary role. We are now suffering at the hands of this lesser culprit and the rest of those who are involved are not worth considering! Neither does his Prime Minister deserve mention, nor do his ministers and Members of Parliament; none of these are in any way worthy of mention. He himself is not worth talking about either, but we have no choice but to speak of him. The ulama of Iran are now suffering. Indeed, the Iranian people as a whole are presently suffering. They are not allowed to breathe. At present the streets of Iran are swarming with commandos. Two or three days ago, some people told us that commandos are within the homes of the high-ranking clergy, and that they are amongst the people too; and they say that the streets are full of guns and tanks and the like. What has happened? What has this nation done? Has it done anything other than to say let us breathe?

SLUM-DWELLERS IN THE CAPITAL OF ‘GREAT CIVILIZATION’ This Mr. Gateway to a Great Civilization!282 He has not taken a proper look at Tehran and its various districts. Written reports made by certain gentlemen tell of forty-odd districts (in Tehran) in which one finds these slum-dwellers, these tent-dwellers, who either have no home at all, or have made some kind of tent for themselves, or again who have found a hole in the ground and thus live like animals, the poor souls. A great number of districts, forty-odd in all, have been named in the reports. I have the list in front of me right now. This Mr. Great Civilization has not taken a look at this city of Tehran with its forty-odd wretched districts, where they are deprived of whatever civilization has to offer. They have no water or electricity, and there is no trace of such things as tarmacked surfaces; they have absolutely nothing, the poor wretches. They drove these poor souls out of the villages appropriating the land there for themselves; and as a result the villagers came to Tehran. And this is now the state of Tehran, with its forty-odd districts and its slumand tent-dwellers who are living in pain and misery, who are living in a desperate state. The reports state that in order to obtain water, these poor women have to climb a hundred steps or more to where a water tap is situated. Just imagine having to carry a water jug all this distance, and having to descend all these steps, especially during the winter. Imagine how often they must fall down and what pains they must take for the sake of obtaining a drop of water for their children. Can this Mr. Great Civilization see all this from where he is sitting? Is he really unaware of these things or does he turn a blind eye to them? Only three or four days ago, he visited the holy shrine in Mashhad where, as usual, he went through the motions of devout worship. Afterwards he came and spoke of a great civilization before a group of poor people who had been assembled there by the regime’s agents. He spoke of what we will have achieved in a few years’ time, and amongst other remarks made he stated that in the near future Iran’s population will have reached sixty-five million and its oil will have run out.283 Who on earth is exhausting our oil supply? He repeatedly 282 The Shah 283 A report which appears in the Ittila’at on May 29, 1978/Khordad 8, 1357 SH concerning the previous day’s visit by the Shah and Farah, reads: “... Beneath the blessed propylaeum of the holy shrine’s oratory, where the Shah was welcomed by a group of clergymen and ulama, Mr. Nawqani, having given a welcoming address, stated with the utmost deference: “Moreover, the spiritual effects which emanate from Your Royal Highness are also in evidence in other Islamic countries of the world; and everywhere shines alluringly with the august name of Shahanshah! Your Highness King of kings whatever we behold compels us to say: may you continue to reign ever glorious, for now is but the dawn.” In response to Mr. Nawqani, 7ryamehr, the Shahanshah, made the following comments: “You are all aware of my own personal faith in the true religion of Islam and of the way in which I run a country. Twenty years from now, the time will have come when this nation’s population will have more or less reached its peak- that is to say, it will have reached sixty-five million people- and that is also the time when our oil will have run dry.”

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says that there is no oil. But there is oil and it is you who is sucking our oil supply dry. You are pumping oil down the throats of America and other countries. It is not that there is no oil. We have many oil reserves, but you are using them up such that in a few years’ time they will run dry and people will be left in despair. After this he intends to use solar energy! Why, for goodness sake what on earth are you talking about? Be ashamed of yourself! You want to use solar energy?! Will we have no need for oil later?! Are we to use other sources of energy?! For whom are you saying these things? At least tell them not to say these things over the radio. Let them say these things to the peasants but not over the radio where people and even those in Najaf can hear them, and where those in Europe can hear them and laugh at them. I now have in my possession the names and particulars of the forty-odd districts of Tehran which they listed and brought to me- Tehran, a city which stretches all the way from Hazrat Abdul-Azim (in the south) to Shemiran (in the north). Such far-off districts as these are all a part of Tehran. And there are places which are even worse than Tehran. Certain gentlemen, certain honorable merchants who came to see me, spoke of a place other than Tehran saying: “Permit us to add something to the charitable tax which is demanded of us by Islam, and to use this money to make a water tank for these poor souls whose wives have to travel a distance of six kilometers- I believe that was the distance quoted if my memory serves me right- to find water to bring back for their children and families to drink”; and I accordingly gave them permission. Whether they have now made the water tank or not, I don’t know. It is the same in every district. Don’t imagine that group of people who are loyal to the regime and who lead a prosperous life are typical. When certain people who know no better see the kind of lives these people have, they think that Iran is a prosperous country, and that everyone is fortunate enough to own a car, a garden and so on. The people who own these kinds of things are in fact the very members of his (the Shah’s) own gang; they are the very plunderers who are fleecing the people. Can the ordinary people ever hope to enjoy a life like theirs? Go and take a look at the slumdwellers. Go and look at the tent-dwellers. Go and look at the south of the city. Such deprivation can even be found in the north of the city too. Eisenhower Street is another of the places where slum- and tentdwellers can be found.284 Go and take a look at these people and then talk of progress made and of how we are about to reach the gateway to a great civilization- for which occasion we are in fact about to hold a commemorative celebration!

NATIONALIZATION AS COVER UP IN STEALING THE COUNTRY’S RESOURCES That is how things stand on one front, with regard to the slum-dwellers and the down-and-outs in Iran. On the other front however, the regime has handed wherever and whatever is of value over to large American, Zionist or British companies; and they have done so in the name of nationalization. They have handed over our forests, pastures, water sources, rivers, subterranean waters and so on. I have a copy of a report which explains how these grazing pastures had been such that during a visit to Iran by the Queen of England’s husband, the latter, after merely seeing the Arjan Plain285, had remarked that this was the finest place in the world, the best pasturage for the farming of any kind of livestock. Yet they nationalized this land and

284 Today’s Azadi Street. 285 The Arjan Plain is a vast plain situated in the rural outskirts of the small province of Kazerun. Embraced by a mountainous range, it is the repository of the water of numerous streams which runs into it from all sides via waterfalls, forming a lake of clear water in its centre. The lush, verdant land of Iran, like that in Kazer1n, was given over to the British to do with as they pleased.

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afterwards gave it to the British. And now, according to the written report given to me, the Queen of England along with some of the British plutocracy and British companies, are doing something or other with the animal husbandry carried out on these pastures in order to produce meat. Now whether they are producing meat for export abroad, or whether they also intend to give a little of it to us, only God knows. They say that the ‘Umran Plain286, situated on the outskirts of Qazvin, is the best place for cultivation. They have forced the people there to migrate elsewhere and have handed this land over to the Jews, the Zionists. Yes, they have given it to the Jews who are now using it to their own ends, American and Zionist companies reaping the benefits. These pieces of land which are second to none are now theirs to farm and cultivate whilst this poor, downtrodden nation still goes hungry. This nation remains in a wretched state and is at a loss as to what it should do about it. This is our ‘great civilization’ for you!! People haven’t got bread to eat but the gentleman (the Shah) speaks of civilization! He speaks of our enjoying a great civilization; of wanting to take us to a great civilization! The Mughan Plain287 is yet another of the plains which they have nationalized. Its people have been driven away and its farmers ruined. And again they have handed this over to yet another group of foreigners. Similarly, the Dez Dam288, which cost seven hundred million to build and on which they spent one billion two hundred million dollars- or perhaps tumans, I can’t remember- in order to build a canal system which would feed water into the dam: this too is another gift which has been graciously presented to His Imperial Majesty and his gang. One hundred and fifty villages have been brought to ruin. They have destroyed these villages and have nationalized the land there, which ought in fact to mean that this land is for the whole nation, but instead it is owned by His Imperial Majesty and his gang only. These are the things which have been documented and spoken of and which can be verified by witnesses.

KHORDAD 15 MUST BE KEPT ALIVE This is the kind of life we have and this is the kind of great civilization we enjoy where our youngsters are arrested and detained before the arrival of Khordad 15. I doubt whether even the law of the jungle is like this. Indeed, the Mongols were not, for they at least had their ‘code of laws’; they at least had a law by which to abide. But in Iran, according to which law is so-and-so to be arrested? According to which law must so-and-so be killed? Which procedure must be followed and according to which law? As for you (the Shah), you kill people and illegally enter the homes of the ulama of Islam. Should someone speak up proclaiming the people’s innocence, he is beaten and killed by some reprobate or other; and there is no one to speak out and ask why!

286 Situated in the north of the Bu’in Zahra region, the ‘Umran Plain (Qazvin Plain) is one of the extremely fertile plains of the Zanjan province. The Shah agreed to give this plain over to Israel where it could establish modern agricultural organizations. See Az Sayyid Zia ta Bakhtiyar, p. 495. 287 The Mughan Plain, one hundred thousand hectares in area, is situated alongside the Aras River in the province of Azerbaijan. This vast, flat plain is one of the most favorable grazing pastures on which to raise cattle. Mughani sheep, one of the best and purest breeds of sheep, are bred by the Shahsavan tribe who take their flock to the Mughan plain to graze during the winter season. See Jugrafiya-ye Mufassal-e Iran, vol. 3. 288 The Dez Dam was constructed on the River Dez, fifteen kilometers north of Dezful, and was put into operation from the year 1962 [1341 SH]. Ibid., vol. 3, p. 218.

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It is unlikely that history has ever before witnessed such events as the crimes committed by that man (the Shah) on Khordad 15; and if it has then they have been very rare cases. They just mowed down innocent people at random. Those who were witnesses to this said that these military trucks just kept coming; these armored vehicles just kept mowing the people down, leaving them lying in the streets. The regime won’t allow anyone to make the slightest murmur with regard to Khordad 15; but the nation of Iran must not allow Khordad 15 to fade from their memory. Khordad 15 must be kept alive.289 This event constitutes a crime whose imprint must not be allowed to fade away. Now, thanks be to God, they themselves are causing this day to become revitalized to a certain extent because these preventative measures and these arrests and other such steps taken by them, infuse Khordad 15 with a new life and vitality. The nation of Iran must not allow Khordad 15 to fade from their memory, nor must they allow any of the crimes which have been committed subsequent to Khordad 15, or those committed prior to it by the Shah’s father, to be forgotten. These crimes must serve as a portrait of what went on during the Pahlavi reign so that there is no chance of any misconceptions occurring, and so that it is well understood that these affairs were the doing of the heads of the Pahlavi family. People must preserve the memory of Khordad 15. If possible they are to do so by raising a hue and cry, creating uproar and holding demonstrations; if not, then they are to do so by passive resistance and by staging sit-ins in their homes. If the regime’s forces are seen to make a savage wolf-like attack against the people during demonstrations with the intention of arresting the youngsters, then the people are to remain in their homes. Let them show the abhorrence they feel towards this regime and this person (the Shah) by remaining in their homes by way of protest. If possible then, they are to hold demonstrations; but whatever happens this day must not be forgotten; it must stay alive and, God willing, so it shall. At the same time, it is important for all of the various groups, whichever groups are in the country, to consult each other, be it the scholastic and clerical front or the military and merchant fronts; the academic and university fronts, or the nomads and those who live in shacks- all of these fronts must consult each other and take each other into account.

UNITY A RELIGIOUS DUTY Furthermore, the leaders of the various groups must liaise with each other; they are not to go their own way. Now is not the time for you to act in isolation. If you lack solidarity then not only will your lot remain as it is now, but it will become even worse. It is a bounden duty, a sacred duty, for you to be united. The senior members of these fronts must establish secret links with each other. These links must not be open but rather must remain underground. But in any case, these members must liaise with each other so that should they decide to make some kind of statement, then they all do so together; should they decide to stage an attack, then they all do so together; should they decide to remain silent, then they all do so together. They must act in unison and not in isolation. It is wrong for one person to want to form a party, whilst another wants to form whatever else. We must all unite as one. Muslims must all form a corporate body. If the Muslims were as one then no one could stand up to such a multitude of people; there isn’t a damned thing they could do about it. Not only these here, but large powerful countries wouldn’t be able to do a damned thing either if

289 Imam Khomeini, in an address delivered in 1979 [1358 SH] in commemoration of Khordad 15, said that he regarded Khordad 15 of 1963 as the day when the Islamic Revolution got underway; and he declared each subsequent anniversary of Khordad 15 to be a day of public mourning.

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the Muslims were to unite. However, the regime sows discord between the various fronts and we mistakenly believe this discord to be genuine. But we must stop being taken in so easily. We must stop believing in their ostensible propriety. We must consider what Hazrat Reza (as) would say to this person, who, in a sham of piety visits Mashhad once or twice a year and stands before the tomb of the Hazrat . God knows that if the Hazrat were alive he would not allow him to enter his shrine. How could Hazrat Reza possibly permit a libertine debauchee to enter his shrine? However, the Hazrat is not here with us now. They bring some akhund or other to eulogize, depicting him (the Shah) in glowing terms and declaring the sincere love and devotion felt towards him by the people. Yet just look what he has been up to elsewhere! Just look at the things he has said! There must be a liaison between you, your activities being undertaken in an organized way via an interrelated network and based upon certain criteria. Muslims must act according to a program. The various parties must join together. It must not be a case of every party for itself. They must point out who the murderer is, if possible directly, if not then indirectly, and if this too is not possible then at least they are not to pin the crime on someone else. To relate these crimes to anyone but the Shah is in itself a crime. Supposing you were to say: “The government has done such-and-such a thing”, what is the government anyway other than the Shah’s mouthpiece? Or again supposing you were to say: “The police have done such-and-such a thing”, what is the police force anyway other than a tool at the Shah’s disposal. It was only yesterday that certain clergymen told me of how seventeen of these officers- or maybe they were both officers and some other kind of functionaries- had been brought to Qum to commit some kind of felony. All seventeen of them have gone into hiding taking their weapons with them; and according to the aforementioned clergymen, this search which is being conducted in Qum and this comprehensive inspection which has been carried out, have in fact been in order to trace these arms which the officers have taken along with them. This is the present state in which our army finds itself. Do you think that the army is fond of these peoplepeople who have handed over control of the entire army to a few Americans, a few American advisers in whose hands the whole world lies and as a result of which those in the army receive harsh and unfair treatment? Are those in the army fond of these people? This could only be the case if these servicemen had no sense of honor; for there is no way that anyone with a sense of honor could feel kindly towards them. As with the other fronts, those in the army must not remain silent either. They too must liaise with others.

CLOSED IS THE PATH OF RECONCILIATION BETWEEN THE SHAH AND THE NATION There must be links between the various parties and those in the army, and between the latter and the clergy. Everyone must liaise together and mark out a course to bring about this person’s downfall. The Muslim people and the nation of Iran will not become reconciled with this person. If someone should speak of reconciliation, know that he is a traitor. There can be no reconciliation with him. The door to reconciliation is now closed. How could there possibly be reconciliation? Which doors have they left open for him that would make reconciliation possible? Can one still talk of reconciliation after all those youngsters of ours have been killed? Can one still talk of reconciliation in spite of all that profanity towards that which we hold sacred? Forget it! There is no way that we could consider reconciliation. The claim that the clergy spoke of reconciliation is but a lie. No one is prepared to consider reconciliation with this regime.

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It is preposterous to imagine such a thing. How could this nation possibly become reconciled with a person who has thrown away everything it ever had, including its honor and whatever it had of spiritual or material worth? A prominent diplomat was right when he said that Muslims, Iranians, can choose one of two options: either freedom, or permitting him to remain.290 They must either choose to allow him to stay, and therefore remain in a state of suppression for ever more, or they must opt for freedom and therefore get rid of him. And since they are sure to opt for freedom, then they are sure to get rid of him, God willing. Indeed, it is a solemn duty for us all: a solemn duty, a sacred duty. A nation has been and is still being divested of all it possesses, yet striving to ameliorate the affairs of the Muslims is amongst the most pressing of religious obligations. You must pay due attention to this ordinance, otherwise wa illah fa laysa bi Muslim.291 This is one of the commands which applies to us all. We are all obliged to ensure the continued existence of Islam in Iran. This person neither favors Islam, nor the Qur’an, nor Hazrat Reza (as). Someone who inclines towards Islam does not act with such impertinence towards it. It is the duty of us all to rise up against this person, be it by the written word, by word of mouth, or, whenever the situation demands, by armed revolt. When that time comes, I will be the first to shoulder arms. But whilst armed revolt is not possible we shall revolt by speaking out.

PLOT TO DESTROY AGRICULTURE After causing us to lose all our prestige and after bringing about the destruction of our pastures, reports state that almost forty thousand aqueducts have dried up in Iran due to their having closed the dams or whatever it is they have done. Naturally, when the aqueducts dry up, the land cannot be cultivated; and when the people there cannot cultivate the land they migrate to Tehran or some other city, where they fall into a state of poverty and misery. This constitutes a deliberate measure to move people to the cities in order to ensure that no insurgence breaks out in the villages where it is difficult to keep the people in check. Anyone with the slightest political awareness can tell that the idea is to force the villagers to migrate- those who live in mountainous regions, such as the Bakhtiaris, or the Baluchis, who are to be found in both mountainous and desert regions- they want such people to migrate to the cities where they can be controlled and monitored more easily. That is to say that should these people ever be about to voice opposition to the regime then they could be brought under control by deploying guns and tanks against them. If these people were in the highlands however, it would be impossible to bridle them there. But the time will come when people from all sectors of society will rise up in opposition to the regime, and this uprising will then spread throughout the country. So far we have dealt with one aspect, but there is another aspect which concerns

290 It refers to Mahdi Bazargan. In reply to a question posed during an interview with a reporter for Belgian television asking whether the current practices of the regime could coexist with freedom, Mr. Bazargan replied: “No! One of these two must be sacrificed for the sake of the other. Iran will not taste freedom while His Imperial Majesty remains in this country.” Refer to Tarikh-e Siyasi-ye Mu’assir-e Iran, vol. 9, p. 229. It must be pointed out that Mr. Bazargan’s demand for the Shah’s dethronement and the toppling of the monarchy, did not carry the same resolve and immediacy as that made by Imam. In an interview with Hamid Algar, Mr. Bazargan confessed that he and his sympathizers (both among the clergy and elsewhere) felt it unwise for the Shah to be dethroned straight away. Refer to Khat-e Sazesh, p. 102, and read the introductions to those speeches delivered by Imam in Paris. 291 In relating a tradition of the Holy Prophet (s), Imam al-Sadiq (as) said: “He who arises in the morning and gives no thought to the affairs of the Muslims is not a Muslim. And he who does not respond when he hears the cries of a man pleading for assistance from the Muslims, is not a Muslim.” Usul alKafi, Chapter “Al-IhtImam bi Umur al-Muslimin.”

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profit-seeking: their handing everything over to the plunderers in both the East and the West- everything, whatever there is to give.

EXCEPTIONAL EXAMPLES OF CRIMES AND LOOTING OF THE COUNTRY Iran has never before experienced the situation in which it finds itself today. That is, there may have been crimes, murders and the like in the past, but you cannot find another time when Iran’s resources have been given away to such an extent. You can go back to foregone eras and work your way as far back in history as you like, but you will not find a time when all of the good pastures in Iran had been given over to outsiders and foreign companies as they now have. All of our fisheries, all of Iran’s fisheries in both the north and the south, have been taken from the people and are being run by foreign companies. The report states that seven thousand people were killed in the north of Iran before the government was able to ‘nationalize’- to use its own words- the fisheries, which it then appropriated and handed over to giant companies.292 Just consider our oil, our fishing industry and fisheries, our pastures, our bountiful forests. People were under the impression that the forests had been nationalized, that is, that the forests were now for the benefit of the nation! But this is mere rhetoric. “Nationalization” is like that gateway to civilization that he (the Shah) talks about; these also being mere words which the regime comes out with, but which bear no truth. They have given some of those splendid forests, with their fine-quality wood, to a Romanian company; and the latter is now enjoying the returns on them.

SHAH’S CLAIM OF “SAVING IRAN” He had said in a speech that at one time, some years ago, Iran had been divided into two regions: one belonging to Russia and the other belonging to Britain, and that he had done this and that to free the country. Well, it’s really beyond me how he hasn’t got more sense than to say such things! Or maybe he does know better but he is trying to fool a certain few. If this is the case however, why does he say these things over the radio? “We rescued Iran from its divided state”! Very well, so how exactly did you rescue Iran- you, whose pastures are in part serving to feed the English lady293 and her gang, in part the Americans and Zionists, and in part yourself and your offspring? What kind of “nationalization” Do you call this?! What kind of rescue is this which entails us handing over all our national resources to them and being their servants again? Is our nation to serve others and to surrender whatever resources it may have to them, be they physical or intellectual “We rescued Iran”! In what way did you rescue Iran? You have given Iran and all it has away to others; you have completely ruined the education in Iran. Nowadays, if we need the

292 In order to secure exclusive fishing rights and to be able to assure the safety of profits made by foreign caviar-producing companies, the regime had set up a security guard called The Fisheries’ Coastguard. This guard had its own information network and was given a free hand to kill poachers. As a result trouble would sometimes arise between the coastguards and those local fishermen who had no choice but to turn to poaching to earn a living. On one particular night, coastguards fired at a number of fishermen, who, along with their wives and children, were sailing out to sea in the north of Iran to cast their fishing nets. A large number of these people were killed as a result. SAVAK even prohibited the survivors of this incident from holding a mourning ceremony for those killed. See Az Sayyid Zia ta Bakhtiyar, p. 56l. 293 The Queen of England, Elizabeth Alexandra Mary (1926 – 8 September 2022) also known as Elizabeth II. The expenses of her monarchy and her lavish funeral ceremony were paid by the taxes collected from the citizens of England. Recent eruption of public protests against monarchial system of government in England show general discontent of citizens of England against so-called democracy that is under tight control of Queens, Kings and the Royal Family.

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services of a physician, we have to go to England. Every few days someone heads for England for medical treatment. But if we had doctors of our own then why would we need to go to England? The universitiesthese too have been destroyed by you. We no longer have universities. On the face of it there are universities, but you won’t even allow this semblance of a university system to go unthreatened. What are the poor university students and professors to do about these monstrosities (the Shah and his regime) ? Whatever Iran stands for has now become a mockery. This person has destroyed whatever dignity Iran had, and has made a mockery of it. He has given whatever is of any use to giant companies, he and his select circle of followers having permission to feed from the small shares apportioned to them. As for those poor souls who once lived in the villages, and whom they claim to have transformed into farmers, they have been forced to migrate to the cities. The tent- and slum-dwellers now living on the outskirts of Tehran were those very same farmers, poor souls, who used to raise cattle and supply the country of Iran with wool, oil, meat etc. Now, all of them have been lost. Whatever we need has to come from abroad. Meat has to come from abroad. Wheat has to come from abroad. He has completely destroyed our agriculture. He has destroyed our education system. He has destroyed our army; our army’s honor. And he means to destroy our religious establishment, but, God willing, he will not succeed in this.

UNITY OF EXPRESSION IN OUSTING THE SHAH The immediate duty of all Muslims now must be to speak with one voice, and that which must be pronounced by them before all other unanimous statements made is: “Let us get rid of him first, then we can sort ourselves out afterwards”. And should anyone fail in this duty, then he has betrayed Islam. If you should read anything written by some party that suggests we are demanding nothing more than the implementation of the constitutional law, then this is as good as saying that he (the Shah) must remain, and this therefore constitutes perfidy. As for those who call for an observance of the constitutional law and human rights,294 they must press for a constitutional law from which those articles included therein by force have been expunged. I myself witnessed how these articles which sanction the present evil monarchy were introduced at bayonet-point- that is, at the point of Reza Khan’s bayonet. It is not the case that people had a say in this or were involved in any way the people had no say in the matter. These undertakings were accomplished at bayonet-point. These are articles which are unacceptable to the people of this country. Hence, these articles which have given legal sanction to this regime must be done away with. We too have no qualms with a constitutional law which has been amended via supplementary constitutional laws, but it must be an amended Constitution. You must be aware that he who advocates constitutional law without stipulating that it is to be an amended Constitution- or even if he does make such a stipulation but he does so in ambiguous terms- is either following a misguided path or does not appreciate the situation. Now that I have clarified the situation however, there is no longer any excuse for him not to understand the situation.295 294 Those in favor of the constitutional law included the majority of hardline politicians in the National Front; the senior members of the Freedom Movement; all of the groups, parties and societies which eventually broke their long-held silence during the last year of the Shah’s regime; the moderate clergy front; and others such as Mr. Shariatmadari. 295 Mr. Sayyid Kazim Shariatmadari (1906 -1986 AD) was an ex-Iranian Ayatullah who was defrocked from his position as marja’ and mujtahid in 1982. In April 1982, Sadegh Ghotbzadeh (ex-Foreign Minister after Revolution) with the help of few military officers conspired with Shariatmadari to bomb Imam Khomeini's home and overthrow the Islamic government. Ghotbzadeh was executed and Shariatmadari

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THE NEED FOR LINKS BETWEEN THE ULAMA AND THE PARTIES IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH AN ISLAMIC GOVERNMENT We all have a duty to liaise with each other. There must be links between ourselves and those abroad; between active groups at home and active groups abroad; between the ulama of Islam and other ulama; between eminent religious figures in major Islamic centers and the ulama in the provinces; and between the ulama of Islam and the various parties. Now is not the time for parties to act in isolation, nor for the ulama to act in isolation. A party cannot achieve anything in isolation; and as for the ulama, they too need the various parties to be involved in affairs. It is up to these two communities to bring Muslims together. They are to ensure that Muslims in Iran enjoy solidarity, and that all groups liaise with each other whilst also having links with high-ranking governmental officials. Relations must be established with those officials in top governmental positions who have not lost their sense of honor and who remain men of integrity. Many such men are still to be found in the governmental sector. There are many such men who are pained by this wretched state of affairs. Relations must be established with these men so that the day will arrive when we are able to rise up, and by so doing get rid of this person, set up an Islamic government, and, God willing, start putting the laws of Islam into practice, for at the moment there is no trace of such laws in Iran. Do divorce proceedings under the present system conform to the laws of Islam? Do the present marriage proceedings conform to the laws of Islam? Do business transactions conform to the laws of Islam? Just what is in accordance with Islam? Does going on a pilgrimage to the shrine of Hazrat Reza (as) make everything alright?! Can an act of hypocrisy put everything right?! Do you think that you can continue to fool the people?! I pray that God may awaken the Iranian people [Amen], and that He may increase their present awareness [Amen]. May He preserve the theological centers [Amen]. May He foreshorten the arms of the foreigners and their agents from this country [Amen], and grant unity to all the Islamic countries [Amen]. May God’s peace, mercy and blessings be upon you.

was defrocked. Shariatmadari favoured the traditional Shiite practice of keeping clerics away from governmental positions and was a critic of Imam Khomeini, denouncing the taking hostage of American diplomats at the US embassy (Den of Spies) in Tehran. He, when enjoyed power and influence as a marja’ al-taqlid, would have been content with the implementation of the statutes contained in the constitutional law of 1906: statutes which gave the clergy a say in those laws ratified in the Majlis. He asked for nothing more than this. For details of this person’s underhand dealings with the Shah’s agents, SAVAK, and foreign elements, and of the acts of sabotage in which he engaged during the most critical stage of the Muslims’ struggle in Iran, refer to “Shariatmadari dar Dadgah-ye Tarikh,” in Daftar-e Asnad-e Inqilab-e Islami [“The Documentary Registrar of the Islamic Revolution”], 1982 [1361 SH].

SECTION 3

Imam Khomeini’s Speeches at his residence in exile at Neauphle-le-Chateau, Paris, France These speeches were delivered at Imam Khomeini’s rented home in the village of Neauphlele-Chateau in the suburbs of Paris after he was exiled from Iraq to France in early October, 1978. Interestingly most of his speeches, totaling 64, were delivered during the short period of his stay (nearly 4 months) in France until February 1, 1979 when he left for Tehran.

27th Speech Date: October 9, 1978/Mehr 17, 1357 SH/Dhul-Qadah 6, 1398 AH Place: Neauphle-le-Chateau, Paris, France Subject: Monarchial regime the source of all corruptions; glad tidings of victory Addressees: A group of Iranian students and residents in France and other countries In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful From what some have said, it seems that a number of gentlemen had come to see me when I was not here, and that they kicked up a fuss somewhat, believing that this must be someone’s doing.1 However, this had not been the case. My present state of health does not permit me to remain here for any length of time, and because of this, a place on the city’s outskirts has been found for me where I will be able to rest. I came today because I heard that some gentlemen were going to come here to visit me and I wanted to be here to receive them.2 I am not used to formalities such as having someone act as mediator, a curtain, between myself and another person for example. This is contrary to the civility taught in Islam. Health permitting, I am at the service of all the honorable gentlemen; but there comes a time when one’s strength is taken from one. Fortunately you are all young but (God willing) should you reach old age then you will realize that an old person does not enjoy the same state of health as do young people. I have now reached the final stages of my life but I pray that I, along with you all, will be able to serve Islam; that we can serve the Muslims and our homeland.

“IRANIAN REVOLUTION” AS GOD’S PLAN Iran is now in a distressed state. It suffers a kind of distress which it has probably never experienced before throughout its entire history. If you take a look at history, you will see that there have been revolutions and other such things in the past, but they were not such that malevolent troops savagely attacked the people on

1

In this regard Hujjat al-Islam wal-Muslimin, Sayyid Ahmad Khomeini writes: “Once Imam had gone to Mr. Ghazanfarpur’s house in Paris, it was decided that a home should be found for him. Mr. Bani Sadr said: ‘A friend by the name of Mr. Asgari has a house on the outskirts of Paris which I suggest we should look at. ‘ I went with Mr. ‘Asgari and Mr. Bani Sadr to see the house in question which stood fortytwo kilometers outside Paris in Neauphle-le-Chateau. The following day we again went there to survey the area with Imam, who subsequently gave his approval, firstly, because the house lay outside Paris; secondly, because his staying there would not inconvenience the owner, and thirdly because it was sufficiently large in size. Thus, having approved of the house Imam then remained there. The following day news that Imam was staying in Paris spread amongst the students who then made for Mr. Ghazanfarpur’s house; but when they saw that Imam was not there, they thought that Dr. Ebrahim Yazdi, Messrs Bani Sadr, Ghazanfarpur and Qutbzadeh must have purposely taken Imam somewhere out of their reach. Word spread among the Iranian people who reacted badly to the news. The next day Imam returned to the home of Mr. Ghazanfarpur in Paris, where he announced that he had moved to Neauphle-le-Chateau. He stated that there was no danger of him being influenced by others and that all were welcome to visit him at his home, but that his age did not permit him to constantly be among his visitors.”

2

Three small houses in Neauphle-le-Chateau were provided for Imam Khomeini and his companions. Imam and his family-members resided in house number one which was an extremely small building. House number two, situated opposite house number one, was used for gatherings, for meetings with Iranian students, and for members of Imam’s staff- congregational and midnight prayers were also performed here by Imam. House number three served as a place in which those students and followers of Imam who had traveled from Paris could rest or sleep. Whoever traveled to Paris to visit Imam was allowed to remain in this latter house for a forty-eight-hour period.

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one front, whilst on the other, the people gave their lives and the lives of their children and stood up in resistance. Iran’s present state is such that wherever one looks one sees signs of a revolution taking placean Iranian revolution; that is. According to what they tell me, it is as if everyone, everywhere in Iran, is now a party to some kind of divine plan: everyone, from infants who have just learned how to talk, to adults, both young and old; from boys and girls to women and elderly ladies and gentlemen. Mankind does not have the power needed to awaken people in this way, whereby members of all social classes and age groups have such unity of purpose. This is something extraordinary, as if it were divinely inspired. It is the will of God, the Blessed and Exalted, that the Iranian nation should stand up in resistance (which, God willing, is indeed what they will do) by means of this movement that they have embarked upon and this unity of expression that they hold.

MONARCHIAL REGIME, THE SOURCE OF ALL CORRUPTIONS As for this degeneration that has come about in Iran, this is something for which the imperialist regime holds full responsibility. Throughout history, from the birth of the Iranian monarchy to the present day, whatever depravity prevailed was brought about by the imperialist regime. This has always been the case, but it has taken different forms depending on the exigency of the time. Each period has demanded a certain approach. The period through which I have lived, but through which I believe none of you honorable gentlemen have, is a period which has been haunted by Reza Khan. During this period the British stagemanaged a coup d’état and brought Reza Khan forward imposing him upon the Iranian people as their ruler.3 He was the one appointed to accomplish the aims of his masters, but in order to succeed in this, he realized that it meant having to silence and crush those sectors of society comprising the intellectuals, the ulama and the religiously devout.4 At the same time, his ability to net any profits also depended upon him taking this course of action, so he set to it, pouring any profits netted into his masters’ pockets. God only knows what miseries we suffered during the time of that father of his (the Shah), and the miseries we are all suffering now during the reign of this son: a son befitting of such a father. There can be no doubt that he is Reza Khan’s son; that is to say, whatever undesirable qualities were to be found in the father, are also to be found in him, with the added quality of him being a hypocrite. Reza Khan was a tyrant, who constantly bullied the people, and the nation at that time did nothing to resist him- or rather they did very little. Of

3

4

During the reign of Ahmad Shah Qajar, a contract known as “The Contract of Wuthuq ad-Dawlah” (the Prime Minister of the day) was concluded between Iran and Britain (1919), according to which Britain was obliged to pay a loan of two million pounds sterling to Iran and was to be responsible for organizing and administering the Iranian army. In effect, this contract rendered Iran a subject of British sovereignty whilst also serving to protect the country from Russia. Ahmad Shah Qajar, for reasons too lengthy to mention here, opposed this contract and thus the British government decided to remove him from their path- a task not too difficult for he was not very popular with the people anyway. Therefore, in 1920 [1299 SH], a coup d’état was staged by Reza Khan Mirpanj which not only resulted in Ahmad Shah’s dethronement, but also paved the way for the overthrow of the Qajar dynasty and the establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty; and indeed, shortly afterwards, it led to Reza Khan being placed on the imperial throne. The reign of Reza Khan was ushered in by repeated acts of intimidation and terrorism. If one of those who sought freedom opposed Reza Khan, he found himself confronted by the bayonet of Reza Khan’s officers. If a newspaper proprietor were to voice objection towards the oppression which prevailed and the illegal offences which were committed, he became the object of Reza Khan’s terror tactics. On numerous occasions Reza Khan was heard to have said: “I shall break the pen of those who oppose me!”; “I shall cut out the tongue of he who voices criticism!”; “I shall smash the teeth of those who oppose me!” During the very first week following the coup, a large number of political activists, intellectuals, clergymen and other people were arrested and sent to prison, such as Sayyid Hasan Mudarris, Shaykh Muhammad Hussayn Yazdi and Shaykh Muhammad Hussayn Estarabadi.

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course there was some resistance at that time, but it was minimal and unlike that which we are now witnessing today. But at least Reza Khan did not falsely adhere to Islam and the Qur’an and the true ordinances of Islam; at least he did not play the hypocrite.5 He was a spearhead who attacked and retreated. At least this much can be said for him, that although he battered the people with the bayonet, he did not kill on the same scale as this one (the Shah) does. Reza Shah was responsible for a massacre in Goharshad Mosque, a massacre which was carried out by a group of wicked people; but this gentleman6 has been responsible for several massacres in the past, and God forbid, should he be granted a respite by God, the Blessed, the Exalted, then he will be responsible for more massacres in the future.

THE SHAH’S PRO-ISLAM’S CLAIM While he has ruined our youth, leading them into corruption, at the same time whenever he gets the chance to speak, like two or three days ago when he spoke in the Majlis, he rants on about how the ordinances of Islam must be protected and so forth.7 But don’t you see you foolish man, it was you who only recently changed the official calendar of Iran, discarding the calendar which was based upon the history of Islam- a history which testifies to a nation’s glorious past- and replacing it with a calendar based upon another form of history; until you were delivered a blow in the mouth that is, after which you dispensed with the newlydecreed calendar.8 Freedom! The man continuously talks of freedom!9 With regard to the Rastakhiz Party, you have repeatedly stated in speeches that everyone is to join it, and that if anyone, through malicious intent, does not join it then you will come down hard on him, beat him and so on; or if not this, then you will provide him with a passport with which to leave the country, for you will have him kicked out.10 Freedom! Where in this country can freedom be said to exist? Do people enjoy freedom of the pen? Do people enjoy freedom of 5

6

It refers to the periods both at the height and towards the end of Reza Khan’s reign. During the time when he was commander-in-chief of the nation’s armed forces, he would make a public show of his religious faith and would sometimes take part in rawzahkhwanis (i.e. meetings held to commemorate the martyrdom of the Immaculate Imams, during which narrations are recited, often in verse). The Shah.

7

In Mehr 1357 SH [September/ October, 1978], during the opening ceremony of the National Consultative Assembly, the Shah said: “It goes without saying that in our endeavors to fortify the foundations of religious faith, the sublime mores and principles of Islam will always be our greatest source of guidance and inspiration. An outline of the resolutions which are to be passed during the coming year can be clearly defined from our overall objectives and proposed policy Obviously as a Muslim country, one of our prime objectives and aims is to strive for the advancement of the Islamic world and for its ever-increasing development and greatness”! Again, on the occasion of the seventy-third anniversary of constitutional government, he had said: “From the beginning of my childhood, religion and Islam were an integral part of my life. That is to say that I am a devout Muslim. And as the nation’s leader I state with conviction that a society needs to have a spiritual faith, and most essentially it needs to have a religious faith, for it is this which affords order and stability. So I, who have sworn to preserve the Constitution, to defend the country’s frontiers and boundaries, and to safeguard the twelve-Imami religion of Shi’ism, have certain obligations to fulfill- obligations which the people must also fulfill in another way”!

8

In August of 1978, following the tragedy at the Rex Cinema Abadan (August 19, 1978/Mordad 28, 1357 SH), Jamshid Amuzegar’s government was dissolved, and on August 27, 1978, Sharif Imami formed a new Cabinet. On his first day in office, Sharif Imami issued a statement in which he announced a change in the calendar whereby the officially-recognize basis of time calculation in Iran was once more to be in accordance with the solar calendar of Hijrah (calculated from the date of the migration of the Prophet Muhammad (s) from Mecca to Medina) rather than the imperial calendar (calculated from the coronation of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Iranian monarchy). Refer to the Tehran evening newspapers of August 6, 1978 (Mordad 15, 1357 SH- the Shah’s speech to commemorate the seventy-third anniversary of constitutional government), and August 19, 1978 (the press conference held by the Shah to mark the anniversary of the coup of Mordad 28). The Shah had said that whoever does not join the Rastakhiz Party clearly feels indifferent towards Iran!

9

10

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speech? What kind of freedom do they enjoy that he keeps on ranting about people’s freedom? Do they have freedom to observe the ordinances of Islam- the true religion of Islam and its ordinances? What on earth gives you the right to talk of Islam? What qualifies you to continuously rant on about the true religion of Islam. Indeed, you are the one who is causing its destruction.

PERPETUATION OF THE SHAH’S ATROCITIES, PRODUCT OF AMERICA’S SUPPORT This is the situation with which we are all now faced. Our youth in Iran are suffering at the hands of this corrupt regime; they are shedding their blood and losing their lives. Only a few days ago, a large number of our youth were killed in Kermanshah,11 and so too in Kurdistan; and they say the same has also been the case in other parts of the Kurdistan province. And you saw for yourselves what they did a few days ago in Tehran; what they did in Tabriz; what they did in Mashhad. The towns, in which they have conducted wholesale massacres and have gone on the rampage, are too many to enumerate.12 And now he is clinging on to power via military rule.13 If the military, if this God-forsaken America, were to withdraw their 11

12

13

A report carried in the Ittila’at newspaper of October 2, 1978/Mehr 10, 1357 SH, read: “On Sunday, October 1, 1978, over eight thousand people in Bakhtaran took part in demonstrations and rallies. At 4 pm of that day, the demonstrators assembled in Burujerdi Mosque and in the surrounding streets to protest against the house arrest of Imam Khomeini in the holy city of Najaf. At 6 pm this group then set off on a demonstration march while shouting slogans, their intention being to go to Jami’ Mosque. On the way however, they were confronted by government troops who opened fire on the innocent people bringing about a bloody tragedy which left thirty-four people dead or injured. Again, ceremonies held to commemorate the third night following the martyrdom of the aforesaid victims also resulted in fresh clashes breaking out between the people and government troops, in which yet further numbers were killed and wounded”. Newspapers of the day reported the holding of massive demonstrations in the major cities of Iran on August 31, and September 1, 1978/Shahrivar 9- 10, 1357 SH, in which large numbers of people were killed and wounded, and some arrested. Although demonstrations in a few cities were held without incident, according to reports, the majority of demonstrations held throughout the country resulted in scuffles and clashes between troops and demonstrators. The exact number of those killed was never ascertained, but newspapers of the time claimed that the death toll was in the tens. Cities which were affected included Tehran, Miyana, Shahriyar, Kermanshah, Ardebil, Tabriz, Babulsar, Mashhad, Amul, Abadan, Zanjan, Qazvin, Kashan, Shiraz, Hamadan, Kerman, Jahrom, Arak, Ilam, Rafsanjan, and Zahedan and in Tehran, Kerman, Mashhad, Shiraz and Tabriz many were killed, wounded or arrested during demonstrations which took place on Monday, September 4, 1978/Shahrivar 13, 1357 SH. These events led to the bloody event of September 8, 1978/Shahrivar 17, 1357 SH when thousands were left lying in a blood bath at Zhaleh Square. In the wake of this incident, on Wednesday, September 16, 1978, a number of people were killed and injured in Tabriz. On October 1 and 2, large demonstrations were held in a number of major Iranian cities during which violent clashes broke out leaving many killed, wounded or arrested. During these two days, in addition to the aforementioned cities, demonstrations were also to be seen in Zanjan, Ur’miyyah, Bana, Durud, Kashan, Semnan, Kermanshah, Aqlid and Arsanjan in the province of Fars, Dezful, Amul and... in which a number of people were killed and wounded. Isfahan was the first city in which martial law was declared. On Thursday and Friday, August 10 and 11, 1978/Mordad 19- 20, 1357 SH, huge demonstrations and marches were staged in this city, which, due to the intervention of government troops, resulted in a vast number of demonstrators being killed and wounded and a number being held in custody. It was following this that on August 11, 1978, martial law was declared in Isfahan. The first statement to be made by the military governor of Isfahan (Major General Reza Naji), announced the imposition of a curfew which prohibited the circulation of people between 8 pm and 6 am, and declared the formation of any kind of social grouping in excess of three people categorically forbidden. The following day, Saturday, August 12, 1978, martial law was also declared in Najafabad. Due to the movement’s expansion and the continued demonstrations, on September 8, 1978/Shahrivar 17, 1357 SH, an official statement was issued which announced that in addition to Isfahan, martial law was also to be declared in Tehran, Qum, Tabriz, Mashhad, Shiraz, Kazerun, Abadan, Ahwaz, Karaj, Qazvin and Jahram. Between 2 pm on Saturday, February 9, 1978, and the morning of Sunday, February 10, the military governor of Tehran issued four different statements numbered 40, 41, 42, and 43. Statement number 40 specified that the hours of curfew were to be from 4. 30 pm until 5 am. However, word immediately spread throughout the city that Imam Khomeini had proclaimed the military governor to be without legitimate authority, and thus people were not to obey these regulations. On hearing this, people began to collect sand and sacks and by building barricades across the streets they in effect broke the imposed curfew. Some of these people carried side arms and were covered by a group of youngsters who were equipped with firearms, and who turned the streets into fields of combat during the hours of the curfew.

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protection of him for ten days, these royal guards of his would devour him. There would be no need for you, the people to do it. If America were to withdraw its support of him, those Royal Court attendants, the very ones who now guard him in the court, would put an end to him. His life is in no way secure. 14

THE SHAH’S TROUBLESOME CONDITION Believe me, you and I are more at ease than he. He is now knee deep in trouble. He has caused misery for the people, but now he is the one who is in such a sorry state that he cannot distinguish between day and night. He probably cannot sleep. Now whenever he speaks he trembles. He can’t put four words together coherently.15 This is the state in which he now finds himself, but at the end of the day, God willing, he will be in a worse state; and as for the Hereafter, things will be even worse still for him.

OUR DUTY OUTSIDE IRAN, ASSISTING THE MOVEMENT So much for the present situation in Iran. However, both we here and others who are presently abroad, we are all duty-bound. It is not a question of us having left Iran and therefore having no obligation towards it. We all have an obligation to fulfill- that is to say that reason, the conscience and religious law all tell us that we have a responsibility to meet. Wherever we may be, it is our duty to help this sacred movement of Iran both collectively and individually; both alone and as a member of a group. It is not good enough to say that although they are shedding blood on the battlefield, we are abroad and cannot therefore be with them. No- we too must engage in combat abroad. We too must all fulfill this obligation to the best of our abilityeach person, however much or to whatever extent he is able- by speaking out, by writing, by demonstrating. We now have a religious duty to perform for the nation of Iran. We are now under a religious obligation to help its people. We are indebted to them, for they are making sacrifices for the sake of Islam and the nation. We too are a part of the nation; we too belong to the nation of Iran. So they have in fact made sacrifices for our sakes, shedding their blood and suffering imprisonment. Just consider how many of our ulama are now in prison; how many of our ulama, our intellectuals, our doctors, our engineers, our students, our merchants, people from all sectors of society, are currently in prison. A number have been killed and a number are prisoners. These self-sacrifices have all been made for the sake of the nation, for the sake of Islam; and we who are Muslims and who are the fellow countrymen of those who have made sacrifices, we who belong to this nation, have a religious duty towards these people. We must do what our religion demands of us. I

14

Such as on April 10, 1965/Farvardin 21, 1344 SH, when one of the guards at Marble Palace fired at the Shah.

15

In his book Mission to Iran, William Sullivan, the last American ambassador to Iran writes: “On the day that I went to see the Shah he seemed to be extremely depressed... throughout the duration of our talks, the Shah was listless, dejected and disturbed, and unlike previous meetings when he had always tried to monopolize the talks, discussing the subjects of interest to him, his only verbal contribution on that day was to give short, confused and overlapping responses which were sometimes incoherent”. A reporter for the journal Der Spiegel, who was on intimate terms with the Shah, held an interview with the latter during the Shah’s final days in Iran. He writes: “The Shah, looking old and worn, with white hair, a haggard face and heavy eyes, managed with difficulty to bring a grim smile to his lips when he said that he was keeping himself going by taking drugs. The Shah said: ‘People are truly ungrateful and unappreciative; they neither have patience nor the ability to reason’.” When the reporter of the journal asks him about his friends, he replies: “Friend? Which friend? My friends left me months ago and went to America and Europe with stolen money. They are now enjoying themselves in the Champs Elysees and in California. My foreign friends have also deserted me. It is as if they have never seen or heard of me before. Whenever they see me they look the other way. I am alone, and have nobody other than a few distant acquaintances who have remained and who themselves have been left alone, without anyone. All those around me did all they could to take care of themselves. Even certain members of my family didn’t have pity on me either- stealing and plundering as much as they could and defaming myself and my poor wife. They ought to be hunted down and given what for!”

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as a theology student (talaba), fulfill my religious duty by writing, holding discourses like the one I am now holding with you, and by making statements and speeches. You, as students, regardless of your subject of study, must also fulfill the religious obligation you have towards these people of Iran- people who have been crushed under the boots of this regime. I pray that the Lord may crush them, and so He shall, God willing. Therefore, it is incumbent upon us all to show our concern for this nation and to do whatever we can for them. Obviously, there is a limit to what we can do, but we are to carry out our religious duty and to serve this nation and its people to the best of our ability.

THE SHAH’S SALE OF THE COUNTRY’S RESOURCES Indeed, besides this religious obligation, we too belong to this nation and we can see how all of our national resources are being given over to America and its comrades. If Muhammad Reza (Shah) were not to give our oil away so generously, then it would not dry up so soon; our reserves would not be exhausted within such a short space of time. But they have put our oil up for sale and are letting it go for a song. They are taking the lot, pocketing whatever there is- the British on the one hand16 and other parties on the other. As for the Americans, they are worse than any of them.17 The Russians too are involved.18 They have all borne

16

Iranian oil reserves were first discovered at the beginning of the twentieth century by the British who were the first to exploit these excessively abundant reserves. During the First World War the fuel used by British warships was changed from coal to oil, and Iranian oil became the most important source of fuel for these ships and constituted one of the reasons which drove the British to occupy Iran at the beginning of the Second World War. 1909 saw the establishment of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and oil extraction in Iran rose rapidly. Not only did the capital investment programs and the operations carried out by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company not result in the development of the Iranian economy and industry, but rather these programs and operations themselves were in part the cause of an economic decline and economic bondage which came about in Iran. The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company sold oil to Iran at a higher price than that it sold to Britain, making a five-hundred percent net profit on the oil and oil products it supplied to the consumer. The plunder of Iranian oil during the reign of Reza Khan continued in such a way that within a thirty-nine-year period the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company exported 338 million tons of oil from Iran, paying the Iranian government a total of 118 million pounds, which on average worked out at 7 shillings per ton or 19 cents per barrel. The total amount of capital invested by the British Oil Company in Iran amounted to 21. 6 million pounds, in lieu of which company shareholders received 115 million pounds- a further 175 million pounds going to the British government by way of taxes. A further 400- 500 million pounds of the company’s profits went towards expanding the company’s installations and assets across the globe. Thus, Britain held a massive share of Iran’s oil reserves following the drawing up of a contract by the oil consortium: a consortium which took as much as 13.3 billion barrels of oil from Iran throughout an eighteen-year period!

17

Following the coup d’état of Mordad 28 [August 19], Iran’s oil was left in the hands of the consortium. The main shareholders of the consortium were American and British oil companies which, with each other’s help, took part in the extraction, processing and sale of Iran’s oil. In 1954 (1333 SH), the National Iranian Oil Company was established under the auspices of the consortium. In principle this company was responsible for running the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company’s administrative affairs and had absolutely nothing to do with the extraction and refinement of oil. The NIOC’s share in oil exports from 1969 until 1973 was 0.3, whereas that of the consortium during the same period was as high as 92 (!) (the remainder belonging to other foreign companies outside the consortium). Iran’s oil revenue in 1975/ 76 reached 17, 441 million dollars, 15, 867 million dollars of which came from oil exported via the consortium. The NIOC received 874 million dollars, 700 million dollars going to other oil company shareholders! A comparison of these figures reveals how the consortium, after nationalization of the oil industry in 1973, had more or less retained its powerful position, while also showing the extent to which America and Britain were busy plundering the oil reserves of Iran. In accordance with the fifteen-year contract which was concluded between Iran and the Soviet Union in 1967, Iran was to export gas to the Soviet Union via a gas pipeline which was to be constructed. The amount of gas piped was to have reached 10 billion cubic meters by 1975 meaning that the amount stipulated in the original contract would have to be doubled annually. The Soviet Union had undertaken to pay Iran a sum of 6 dollars and 6 cents in exchange for every 1,000 cubic meters of gas.

18

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down on this nation and have joined hands in order to keep this good-for-nothing in power so that they can carry on with their plunder.19

CHINESE LEADER’S SUPPORT FOR THE SHAH’S ATROCITIES You all saw how the Chinese Premier, the leader of one billion people, came to Iran to discuss the Chinese people, Communism and the nation of Iran! This villain came to Iran and met with someone who is responsible for several wholesale massacres. He flew over our dead by helicopter. They couldn’t drive him through the streets because people would have raised an uproar; all hell would have been let loose. The villain was aware of all this, it is not as if he was oblivious to it; and what a large body of escorts accompanied him. They flew him over our dead and took him there (to the palace) where he and the Shah shook hands and continued with their program of talks together in the most cheerful of spirits. He, this person, and others like him are deluding the people.20 At the same time, we saw how such a vast number of the Iranian people were killed on Khordad 15, and how afterwards in the Russian press, the Soviet Union expressed its support for the Iranian regime saying that those killed had been a bunch of reactionists or what have you, who had intended to do this and that. And now the Russians express their support for him (the Shah) again as they did then. As for America, well, its position goes without saying.

THE SHAH’S CLAIMS ON SOLAR ENERGY! They (the imperialists) want to take all of our national resources for themselves. And just what is this sorry nation to do once its oil has gone and its assets have been destroyed? God only knows what it is to do. This gentleman (the Shah) says that we must derive energy from the sun! You want to derive energy from the sun when you can’t even light a kerosene lamp? What on earth are you talking about? You only say these things to fool the people. This whole scenario is being set up by them to enable the imperialists to keep this reprobate in power.

“THE SHAH’S SHOULD STAY” MEANS BETRAYAL Within the country too, whoever says that he (the Shah) must remain or that it is better that he remains, does so because he is a traitor, for everyone within the country has seen what this person is doing, what he 19

Carter agreed to an audience with the Crown Prince of Iran, Reza Pahlavi, in the White House, addressing whom he said: “Our friendship and alliance with Iran is one of the important bases on which our entire foreign policy depends.” As Carter congratulated the Shah for October 26 (Aban 4- the Shah’s birthday) he again pledged his support for the latter. During the critical days of 7ban 1357 [October/ November 1978], the National Security Council of America held a meeting after which William Sullivan was instructed to inform the Shah that the USA would give him their unlimited and unconditional support throughout the current crisis. Concerning the need to support the Shah, David Owen, the British Foreign Minister said: “True friends are those who think of each other in times of need. I believe we must make a choice, and my view is that we should back the Shahanshah of Iran. The toppling of the regime in Iran means a defeat for the ideals of human rights”! Hua Kuo-feng, the Chinese Premier, demonstrated his support for the Shah by visiting Iran during the final days of the regime, when he officially announced that he supported the Shah. Brezhnev, the Soviet Premier, also declared his country’s support for the Shah and offered his congratulations to the latter for his birthday.

20

On August 29, 1978/Shahrivar 7, 1357 SH, just when the movement was escalating, Hua Kuo-feng, the Chinese Premier, came to Iran by invitation of the Shah on a four-day visit. His stay coincided both with the dissolution of Jamshid Amuzegar’s government and the appointment of Sharif Imami’s government, and with the burning of the Rex Cinema in Abadan. The Shah boastfully sensationalized the fact that great nation states such as China still regarded him as a powerful sovereign and that they had pledged their support for him. Hua Kuo-feng, however, was hopeful that by accepting the Shah’s invitation to come to Iran, he would be able to gain further important concessions from her.

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has done to the people, what he has done with our resources, what he has done with our wealth. God knows what vast amounts of the nation’s wealth have been appropriated by members of this family, whereby abroad they now own villas and real estate and so on and so forth. These have all been paid for by the nation’s wealth.

RUMOR OF COMMUNIST PENETRATION Indeed, I was around when Reza Khan came to power: a mere soldier suddenly appeared on the scene and things led to the stage where now each of his descendants has become billionaires.21 This money belongs to the nation. These family members have shares in every company; they own a part of every established company in Iran.22 And as for oil, the Shah is just giving it to the imperialists ad libitum, retaining a small share which he then gives to them in exchange for ironware23 - something which is of no use to us at all. Yes, these guns are of no use to us but they are to him, for he can use them to beat and kill the people. Our nation can do without such things. A certain amount of the nation’s wealth also goes into the pockets of both the Shah himself and the members of his family, who then spend it on propaganda abroad- heaven knows how much they actually spend in this way. It is said that a budget of one hundred million dollars is spent abroad on propaganda for the regime- and what is propagated?- that it is vital to Iran that this man stays; that if he were to go then Iran would become a communist state.24 21

22

23 24

Reza Khan, who before the coup d’état had been a simple Cossack, became the owner of a vast fortune after having seized power. He founded a commission called “The Royal Estates Bureau”, and instructed it to buy the most coveted regions in the north of the country for him at a low price. He was prepared to commit any crime in order to take possession of the people’s property. At the time of his banishment from Iran his possessions comprised: 44,000 plots of inhabited land; 360 million dollars cash in foreign banks; 68 million tumans in deposit accounts at home; centers such as the silk-weaving factory at Chalus, several rice refineries, cotton-mills, stonemasonries, the textile factory at Ali abad, the hotels of AbAli, Gachsar, Ramsar, Darband in Shemiran, and Ferdowsi; as well as owning the villa complex at Mabarakabad, etc. A British Member of Parliament, who had been a close acquaintance of Reza Khan, wrote: “Reza Khan cleared the Iranian highways of thieves and bandits, and he let the Iranian people know that henceforth only one bandit exists in Iran!” See Zindagi nameh-ye Siyasi-ye Imam Khomeini, p. 88, and The Rise and Fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty, vol. 1, p. 111. There was not one major economic organization in Iran- whether in the department of trade or in the areas of agriculture and industryin which the Shah and his family were not shareholders. Through “The Pahlavi Foundation”, “The Imperial Organization”, and “The Social Services”, the Shah was one of the major shareholders of ‘Umran Bank, Iranshahr Bank, Dariush Bank, The Development and Investment Bank of Iran, and Shahryar Bank, while he also held major shares in the Kurush Savings and Mortgage Bank and the Ekbatan Savings and Mortgage Bank. The Shah had substantial investments in companies and organizations such as General Motors of Iran, Iran Metal Industries Co., and Iran Aluminum Co. In addition, he was a major shareholder in companies which were involved in trade, production, industry, and distribution, such as: the Ahwaz Pipe Construction Company; the Bridgestone Company of Iran; Kiyan Tyre Manufacturers; Pars Paper Mills; the Darupakhsh Company; the Fars and Khuzestan Cement Plant; Abyek Cement Plant in Qazvin; Tehran Cement; Western Cement Industries; Tehran Plaster; Iranite; West Tehran Land Construction and Development Organization; Kish Development Organization; Atisaz Company; Eskan Housing Development Company; Karaj Cane Sugar Mill; Pars Sugar Mill; Marvdasht Company; Ahwaz Cane Sugar Mill and Refinery; Dezful Cane Sugar Mill; Shahabad Sugar Mill; Fasa Cane Sugar Mill; Kermanshah Cane Sugar; Luristan Cane Sugar; J3ruft Agriculture and Industry; Iran-America Agriculture and Industry; Ziyaran Meat Production and Packing; Karun Agriculture and Industry; Iran Dam Construction; Iran Sea Water Services; Afset Company and the list goes on. The Shah did not even overlook investments in hotels and restaurants! This unchallenged sovereign pocketed a huge share of the returns made from dozens of restaurants, casinos and night-clubs and from the following hotels: Babulsar; Vanak; Ramsar; Arya Sheraton; Chalus; Gamran; Bandar Abbas; Nowshahr; The Hayt in Khazar; The Hayt in Mashhad; and The Tehran Hilton! Furthermore, each member of the Pahlavi family was also involved more or less to the same extent as the Shah in commercial-business enterprises. For further information refer to The Rise and Fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty, Vol. 1, p. 216. Guns and military equipment. The Shah and his agents called the revolutionary people of Iran communists! During an interview to mark Mordad 28 [August 19], in reply to a question as to whether a bunch of hooligans and the Islamic Marxists group had been responsible for recent events, the Shah said: “Without question! Islamic Marxists are undoubtedly to blame”! Eight days after the bloody event of September 8, Sharif Imami announced that” Undeniable facts and incontestable circumstantial evidence testify to the fact that the Marxists were the central cause of

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But why on earth should Iran become communist? The nation of Iran is a Muslim nation. The rallying cry of the Iranian people is Islam; the people call for religion. Why should they become communist if the Shah were to go? This continued propaganda campaign of theirs however, is to no avail. It is now said that the regime has recently arranged for a group of people to shout out communist slogans in the university when it reopens, in order for the people to believe that it is now the communists who pose a threat to the regime! But this is not the case at all. These people are members of SAVAK and not communists. The imperialists’ aim to keep him in power even if it means having to resort to every trick in the book; and this is because he serves them better than anyone else could.

IRAN IN THE HANDS OF IRANIANS From the very beginning our argument has been and still is that we have a country of our own which we want to keep for ourselves. We don’t want America to be our guardian. We don’t want all of the nation’s assets to be taken by America, or for the Soviet Union to take them away. We don’t want our gas to be taken by the Soviet Union and our oil to be taken by America. Tell me, is it an open house here where anyone can take whatever he wants!? We don’t want it to be like this. We are a nation in our own right, and whether you like it or not, we want to be the ones who benefit from our own land, from our own water, from our own oil and from our own resources, each of which are in bounteous abundance. Yes, we want to benefit from all of these resources and to drive away those thieves who continually eat them up and take them away. We want to drive this regime out too, and to administer our own country ourselves. We are not in need of a guardian. Whether we run the country badly or we run it well, at least we will have done it ourselves. This is the case we argue. Who has the right to say” No, someone else has to come and control your affairs”? What business is it of theirs? Whether we want to administer the country or are in fact able to do so is beside the point; our demand is that you all get out. As for what would happen once these have gone, once we have driven out these parasites and these gluttons for oil- the ‘superpowers’ being both parasites and gluttons for oil, and this Pahlavi family along with all those who have had dealings with this family over the past fifty years, being the parasites who are benefiting from the wealth of our very own country whilst our youngsters are paying the price with their lives- we argue that were we to drive these out, we would then be able to fully administer this rich nation of ours unaided. It is not that our national budget is inadequate; it is that those who partake of it are many! Paying for those public relations officers both at home and abroad to uphold the Shah’s regime and for others such as these advisers they bring in from abroad, takes a tremendous amount out of the budget. All of these people have poured into this country for our resources which they are now busy plundering and taking away. If we foreshorten the arms of these people, which indeed we shall, God willing, and if the nation which has risen up in revolt foreshortens their arms and drives out the main culprits- if we succeed in this, then we will have enough oil and will achieve autonomy. Who asked you or your agents to come and run our country anyway? Continuation of the movement till the severance of the hands of superpowers from Iran What do

the violence”. Moreover, Dr. ‘Amili, the regime’s Minister for Information and Tourism said: “We are in no doubt that a communist campaign is directing this movement, since the slogans used and procedure followed by those concerned are communist.”

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we want with all of these foreign advisers?!25 They are all here to keep him and his regime in power and to plunder us. They prop him up so that they can plunder. The regime must also be in favor of them plundering the nation otherwise the imperialists would get rid of him (the Shah) and replace him with someone better. It’s not that they are really keen on him, but it is a question of not being able to get rid of him. In any case, they would still have us to contend with no matter who they put in his place. Should they decide to stage a coup and install a military government, then he will have no choice but to kill or to leave.26 And in fact that is just how the situation now stands. He either has to pull the trigger and kill the whole nation, or he has to abdicate. Until the time when America leaves us alone, and these ‘superpowers’ take their hands off our country, our movement shall continue and so shall our slogans and activities; and God willing, we shall eventually triumph.

WORLD’S PUBLIC OPINION FOCUSED ON IRAN Do not be afraid of these ‘superpowers’, gentlemen. If ever we were to go to war with foreign countries we would lose because they would be in a better position than we; we are nothing, whilst they have everything. But there are times when a nation must speak out; when it has something to say- something which makes sense to the entire world. And now what we have to say is that we are a nation in our own right and we do not want foreigners to be in our country, to be in our home: so they must get out. No one can dispute this argument, and if anyone were to dispute it their challenge would inevitably be short-lived anyway for they would have to take on world opinion, which is something no power can challenge. We have now managed to draw the world’s attention towards Iran. Iran is now the centre of everyone’s attention. That is to say everyone is busy researching about Iran; they are probing into it. They do so however, for the purpose of making inroads into the country, although it is true some intentions may in fact be honorable whereby research is conducted which asks questions about the nation’s make-up, and about what has happened there and why. In time, once everyone has become aware that the people of a nation have risen up to demand what is rightly theirs, and not to demand that which belongs to others, then inevitably they will lend their support to this cause. If you join hands together as you have done so far, pushing differences aside and getting on well with each other, if you remain united, then I give you the glad tidings that, God willing, you will pull it off: you will get rid of this regime and the foreigners and the country will become yours.

THE NEED TO RESOLVE PETTY DIFFERENCES There is just one more thing that I would like to say to you Iranian gentlemen who are not in Iran, and that is I sometimes hear of there being some trivial differences, some petty grievances between you- I sometimes 25

26

An American researcher writes: “24,000 Americans were reported to have been working in Iran in July 1976, and even then this figure was rising. Some of these, such as the 1,700 American workforces at the Bell helicopter manufacturing company, worked directly under the supervision of their own American bosses, and had little contact with Iranians. The majority of Americans however, worked with Iranian officers and workers, whether they were employed in military organizations or in technical and administrative sectors; and here the difference in the salaries, fringe benefits, and material comforts enjoyed by the Americans was a cause of Iranian discontent”. A report made by the Foreign Affairs Committee in the American Senate, stated that the number of American residents in Iran was expected to rise from 24,000 in the year of the report (1976), to 50- 60, 000 in the year 1980”. The staging of a military coup and the enforcement of a military government was among the solutions discussed in political circles- a solution which was reached by the Shah’s supporters during the final months of his reign to combat the popular demonstrations and the Islamic Revolution. However, both the Shah’s mistake in imposing a military government under General Azhari, and Imam’s timely warning that “A military government amounts to nothing less than a military coup”, denied this policy a chance of working.

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heard of such things whilst I was in Iran, and I may well have heard of them here too. If this is the case then I believe something is amiss. 27You are all each other’s brothers. Why, and over what do we differ? We must all join hands together to destroy he who is the common enemy. If we are going to be at variance among ourselves he will remain comfortably seated on the throne and our energy and efforts will be wasted. This is yet another of the tricks that they (the imperialists) have always had up their sleeves and that is to create divisions between the different segments of society. They create two parties with two different names, sow discord between the two and thus render the people inert; or, for example, they may build someone up to be the centre of attraction and place him in the spotlight, thus causing the people to become preoccupied as they enter into debates with regard to this person. As a result their energies become dissipated whilst the imperialists sit back and take advantage of the situation. You gentlemen who are currently outside the country must be each other’s brothers. Resolve your differences. If you have seen a brother doing something which troubles you, then you are to approach him in a brotherly manner and tell him that he has done something to upset you. Let the matter be settled. I pray that God, the Blessed and Exalted, grant you all success. May you complete your studies here having attained honorable results and then return to your homeland. And may the time come when our country’s affairs are handled by accomplished, righteous people. And I pray that all of you, all of us, may serve our people, our homeland and Islam. I must also add that my health as it is at present doesn’t permit me to come here every day. Even before speaking to you here today I felt a little tired, but having come here I saw there was no alternative but to speak with the gentlemen present. I must apologize for not having been able to come here sooner. However, let me first of all say that from the time that I first became involved in this struggle I never allowed anyone to interfere in my affairs, including those closest to me. I was independent in whatever I did. I did or didn’t do things as I saw fit and I acted according to my own reason and discretion. Don’t be mistaken in thinking that my coming here must be due to some sort of special relationship between myself and someone else for example, or that there is someone who influences what I do and whose judgment I accept unquestioningly. This is not the case. Don’t take offence for example because I may have gone out somewhere for a welcome rest, believing that this must have been something planned in order for me not to welcome and speak to the gentlemen visitors; for me not to be available for them. I am always available for the gentlemen and the door to my home is open to them all. Whichever of them would like to come to my home is welcome to do so. However, as far as my coming here to stay or my traveling here every day is concerned, I am sorry to say that the state of my health just doesn’t permit me to do these things. I have to return to where I am staying in order to rest and, God willing, to make myself fit enough to be at the service of all of the gentlemen who wish to see me.

27

Due to an absence of governmental pressure, political differences outside the country were far greater than those within it. Disagreements existed between the various groups such as the National Front- to which Bani Sadr paid allegiance- the European branch of the Freedom Movement Abroad, the American branch of the Freedom Movement Abroad, and other religious and non-religious groups. The most serious disagreements however, existed in Europe between Messrs Qutbzadeh, Bani Sadr and Dr. Yazdi. It is to these disagreements that Imam refers here.

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EXTENT OF HIJAB One of the ladies present at the gathering: [With regard to the issue of women’s Islamic covering [hijab], this matter has been bothering those sisters who are living over here. That is to say they would truly like to know whether this form of covering is acceptable or not?] Imam: You mean in the manner that you are now dressed? The lady: [Yes.] Imam: There is no objection to this. If it has no ill effect then there is no objection to this form of covering. You must decide for yourselves whether dressing in this manner has any ill effects or not, or whether it causes an affront to your dignity say, or other such concerns. If your form of covering causes an affront to your dignity then you don’t need anyone else to tell you whether it is correct or not, for you yourselves should know. But if it does not cause an affront then it fulfils the condition required for a woman’s dress to be Islamic: that is all a woman’s Islamic covering amounts to and nothing more. The lady: [Also, in Iran...?] Imam: The situation in Iran today differs from the situation here (in France). There, in Iran, more ill effects may possibly result, so it is not a case of the Islamic covering worn by women in Iran having to be worn here too. The Islamic covering required for women in Iran and that which conforms to Islamic requirements is to the extent that you are now wearing. Islam does not change according to where it is practiced. However, sometimes external factors are involved which have to be taken into consideration- factors which cause ill effects, moral discrepancies and other such things to arise from the use of a certain kind of covering, and when this is the case, women’s Islamic covering must take a different form. However, under different circumstances, this covering can be as simple as it is elsewhere- no, there is no objection to a woman not wearing a chador.28

28th Speech Date: October 11, 1978/Mehr 19, 1357 SH/Dhul-Qadah 8, 1398 AH Place: Neauphle-le-Chateau, Paris, France Subject: Migration to Paris; the Shah’s crimes; objectives of the Revolution Addressees: A group of Iranians residing in Paris In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

EXPLANATION OF MIGRATION FROM IRAQ AND ARRIVAL IN FRANCE Then the head of Iraqi intelligence came to me saying that it was best for me not to incite the people of Iran and not to continue with my activities. He said that Iraq had a certain commitment toward the Iranian government to which I said that they may well have a certain obligation toward the Iranian government,

28 The chador is a traditional form of covering for women constituting a long veil worn over the head which stretches to the ground.

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but that I am under no obligation toward it. I said that we too have certain obligations to fulfill but these are toward Islam and toward our nation, so we shall carry on with what we are doing, and they too are to do whatever they will. Then he said: “But every day you issue statements and send recorded messages and so on. At least scale this down.” I said: “No! I shall continue to issue statements and also to record messages and send them abroad; and should I ascend the pulpit, then I shall speak out. When it comes to these things, I cannot do otherwise.” He then left and things worsened whereby I could tell they were at the end of their tether. Since the head of Intelligence had previously said that for the time being they would leave so-andso alone but that they intended to do some-thing about our friends, I thought that our friends may possibly be harmed by them. Hence, because it makes no difference to me where I actually reside as long as I can continue with my mission, I decided to go to Kuwait from where I could later travel to one of the Islamic countries. Even though we had visas, the Kuwaiti government prevented us from crossing its national frontier and entering the country. They did not even allow us to use their airport from where we could fly elsewhere. We returned to Iraq again. It became clear that those in Iraq also knew what was going on for they were expecting us on our return. The same group of people who had escorted us from Iraq were again standing there waiting for us! Thus, having returned to Iraq they at first took us to Basrah and then, several hours later, to Baghdad. While in Baghdad we made the decision to come here where we could choose some place or other from where to continue our activities. Hence, for the time being we have come to France.29

29

On September 18, 1978/Shahrivar 27, 1357 SH, the Iranian ambassador to Iraq met with Saddam Husayn, the then Iraqi vice-president, and requested the Iraqi government to arrange for stringent restrictions to be placed upon Imam Khomeini’s activities in Najaf. Toward the end of Shahrivar [September] 1978, the Iranian Foreign Minister went to America to attend the general joint assemblies held by the United Nations Organization. Throughout the course of these meetings, he held talks with the Iraqi Foreign Minister on three different occasions, during which he petitioned Iraq to expel Imam. He succeeded in gaining the approval of the American and Israeli Foreign Ministers with regard to the outcome of the discussions he had held, and at the end of the talks stated that steps to expel Imam were already being taken. Once this agreement had been reached, on September 23, 1978/Mehr 1, 1357 SH, Imam’s home in Najaf was surrounded and placed under the surveillance of Iraqi troops, and Imam was asked to desist from giving interviews to news reporters and from delivering speeches and writing statements. However, he paid no attention to the warning given by Iraq. News of Imam’s house arrest in Najaf prompted a wave of protest among the revolutionary Muslims worldwide, and in particular among the Muslim people of Iran who were in the midst of an Islamic movement. Maraji’, ulama, clergymen and political figures both from inside Iran and from abroad objected to the measures which had been taken in Najaf by publishing announcements and sending telegrams to various societies; while bazaar merchants, workers, members of the university and those from other sectors of society went on strike and took to holding protest marches, blaming the Iranian regime for the measures taken by Iraq. As the situation deteriorated, bloody clashes broke out on several occasions between demonstrators and government troops. In the meantime, SAVAK, in an effort to deceive the people, announced that there was no truth in the claim that Imam’s movements had been restricted or that he was under house arrest. The people however, who closely followed any news and events with regard to Najaf, would not be brought to rest, and thus the Iranian regime was forced to turn to the Iraqi authorities for help. On October 2, 1978/Mehr 10, 1357 SH, an Iranian delegation of top security officials arrived in Baghdad and met with Sadun Shakir. After talks, it was decided that to continue taking restrictive measures was to no avail, but that at the same time neither would it be in the interests of Iran or Iraq to allow Imam complete freedom. Hence, they planned to indirectly force Imam to leave Iraq by bringing pressure to bear on his close relatives and friends. Eventually Imam left Iraq with the intention of heading for Syria via Kuwait. The Kuwaiti authorities did not permit Imam to enter their country however, leaving Imam no choice but to return to Iraq. Since Imam knew that none of the Islamic countries would permit him to engage in political activities, both because of the influence wielded by America within the Islamic states, and the latter’s friendly relations with the Shah, he eventually went to Paris.

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RELIGIOUS AND MORAL DUTY I consider myself duty-bound. That is, I believe I have a religious and moral duty toward the nation of Iran at a time when the Iranian people have risen up and are sacrificing lives; when their youngsters have been arrested- some having been killed by the regime and others having been incarcerated; when some of our ulama are in prison and a large number of them are in exile; and when all of the people, small children and old men alike, are standing up to the Shah’s regime crying out in unison: “We don’t want the Shah.” At such a time we all become answerable to this nation. And this nation, or indeed any other nation, has the right to determine its own destiny. This is a human right; a right which is stipulated in the Declaration of Human Rights. Any person, any nation, must determine his or its own destiny; it must not be determined by others. And so too our nation has now risen up to demand that it determine its own destiny. This is why we who are abroad have a duty to cry out in unison with these people- people who are sacrificing lives to this end and who have risen up against this man30 who has betrayed us and our religion of Islam; this man who is giving our national resources away to foreigners and who, in return, procures arms with which to kill the people, or who receives a sum of money which in part he spends on the procurement of arms and the suchlike while the remainder is used up by himself and his friends. Have no doubt that right now, even as we sit here, Iran is in an explosive state. Right now people are being killed, as they were a few days ago in many different Iranian cities when the resultant death toll was extremely high! Even as we sit here I wonder whether such outbursts are occurring in Iran, and I feel sure that they are. But as to whether people are now being killed or not we don’t yet know. And why don’t we know? Because we are too far away. Such incidents occur on a daily basis. But while they, the people of Iran, are at the battlefield engaged in battle, are we here to remain unconcerned and to carry on living our normal everyday lives?! To do this would be totally unfair and inhuman, and it would be against the canons of Islam.

OUR DUTY IS TO ASSIST THE MOVEMENT Everyone is obliged to do their utmost to help these people in whatever way they can. Right now, I am able to speak to you and to urge you to offer your support irrespective of which front you may belong to abroad. I can appeal to you to join hands with your own people who have risen up in the interests of us all, including yourselves. I shall speak as much as I can regardless of the size of the audience present; and I shall write material and have it circulated, again, as much as I am able. You too must play your part and do whatever is within your power- demonstrating whenever it is called for and is opportune; writing; speaking; talking to press reporters; doing anything that is within your power. Everyone must contribute as much as he can and help this oppressed nation which is now being trodden underfoot by these merciless beings. I believe history has never before witnessed an uprising like the one currently in Iran where there is such unity of purpose. Now everyone, including those children who are not yet themselves aware of what they are saying, cries out: “We don’t want the Shah!” Or maybe these children do so in imitation of what everyone else is saying; a five- or six-year-old child- just imagine! Even those who have just learned how to speak now cry: “Death to the Shah” in imitating what everyone else is crying. Everybody is saying the same thing. Everybody is 30

The Shah.

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making the same argument. There has probably never been another time in history when everybody has united to make the same cry- when the claims raised in the farthest reaches of Iran, in the most distant Iranian cities, have been the same as those raised in the country’s capital. But this is exactly the case now; and it is when a nation reaches this stage that it is sure to succeed. There is no way that this nation can now be defeated when it is standing up to oppression, confronting the tyrants and those with tanks and cannons with its bare hands and refusing to give in.

THE ENEMY’S PROPAGANDA AIMED AT CREATING DIVISIONS Various propaganda campaigns have now got under way. In fact these campaigns were already under way before but they have now been stepped up in an effort to break this unity between the people, to disband the various fronts, and to make certain people knuckle under. It has even been said that they intend to arrange for a group of SAVAK agents disguised as students to shout communist slogans in the university, when the university opens; that is in order to give the impression that if the Shah were to go then communist rule would take his place! But this Shah is even worse than the communists. Anybody would be better than this person, this Shah! What has this man ever done for our country? Has he done anything other than churn out false propaganda? What vast sums of money go toward propaganda, both at home and abroad, so that the foreign and national press will write lies for him. These are the kinds of things he gets up to, as well as being engaged in the accumulation of wealth and the acquisition of land and luxury for himself throughout the world. This is all he does! Other than this, what else does he do?... He is either busy killing and beating the people or busy using them for his own gain! He is taking advantage and is squandering this nation’s wealth. We have one thing to say and that is that those who are seated at the head of this table of spoils called Iran, along with the people and countries who have come from all over to join them, are feeding from this table of spoils while this nation of ours goes hungry. We argue that this must not be so. We say that this country of ours which is rich in oil and other resources must be left to us. We will run it ourselves. And should we want to enlist the help of experts, we will do the enlisting. Why should you do the enlisting, paying God knows how many hundreds of thousands of tumans per month to those enlisted?! We shall recruit experts without the need to resort to such measures. We shall recruit a different kind of expert, ones that we have trained ourselves.

THE IMPERIALISTIC CULTURE, OBSTACLE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF TALENT From the time when Amir Kabir founded Iran’s first university some seventy years ago31 right up to the present, they prevented our youth from receiving adequate education and training, and from being able to perform a job of work competently. They impeded the progress of our youth. They ensured that no one could receive adequate education in our universities. They prevented those in the armed forces from receiving proper military training. American supervisors mislead these servicemen, that is, they instruct

31

Founded in 1848 by Amir Kabir, Dar al-Fun1n in Tehran was the first modern madrasah to be established in Iran. The two other madrasahs, which had been founded prior to this in Iran, were that in Urumiyyah, founded in 1835 by an American named Parkins, and the madrasah in Tabriz, set up in 1836 by a French man named Eugine Buret. These two so-called ‘religious’ madrasahs had been established by foreigners to serve the particular interests of their own sovereign states.

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them in a way beneficial to themselves! Our culture has become that of the imperialists. We must have our own indigenous culture. These foreign cultures are ones which prevent our children from being properly educated. Now, even when he (the Shah) needs a tonsillectomy, he has someone brought in from Europe to perform the operation!32 You are the one who talks of how you took the country to a great civilization and yet even your tonsillectomy is performed by someone from abroad. So evidently you can’t do anything for yourselves! They want to lay a railway track from ‘a’ to ‘b’, so they bring someone from abroad to do it! Then they sign a contract with a company like the one which laid so many meters of track and then made off with the money leaving the job uncompleted! This is the kind of havoc they play with this country. The Soviet Union takes its gas33 and America takes its oil!34 When we say we want an Islamic government, we want a stop to be put to these libertines. It is not that we want to return to the kind of life lived 1, 400 years ago, as the Shah alleges. It is the judicial laws of 1, 400 years ago to which we want to return and not the lives of those who lived then. No indeed, we gladly welcome and accept any signs of civilization; but what they have to offer are not such signs. Are all of these murders a sign of civilization?! Enforcing martial law and attacking the people tooth and nail, are these signs of civilization?! Is giving away our oil to others in return for arms which we are incapable of using a sign of civilization? We don’t have the trained personnel who know how to use these arms they bring to Iran! Foreign consultants have to supervise the use of these weapons themselves!35 They have formed a military base here- an American military base under the pretext of wanting to do this and that for our country! An American military base, here, in Iran! We argue that we don’t want our country to be in the shambles that this man, this servant, has created for the sake of his masters.

THE PAHLAVI’S REGIME IS THE FOREIGNERS’ PUPPET You who are young cannot remember, but I (who am older) can recall that from the very beginning, from the very first day of Reza Khan’s coup d’état, it was the British who actually conducted the coup! And once 32 33

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This is probably a reference to Dr. Fulandir, the famous French hematologist who came to Iran to treat the Shah. In accordance with the fifteen-year contract which was concluded between Iran and the Soviet Union in 1967, Iran was to export gas to the Soviet Union via a gas pipeline which was to be constructed. The amount of gas piped was to have reached 10 billion cubic meters by 1975 meaning that the amount stipulated in the original contract would have to be doubled annually. The Soviet Union had undertaken to pay Iran a sum of 6 dollars and 6 cents in exchange for every 1,000 cubic meters of gas. Following the coup d’état of Mordad 28 [August 19], Iran’s oil was left in the hands of the consortium. The main shareholders of the consortium were American and British oil companies which, with each other’s help, took part in the extraction, processing and sale of Iran’s oil. In 1954 (1333 SH), the National Iranian Oil Company was established under the auspices of the consortium. In principle this company was responsible for running the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company’s administrative affairs and had absolutely nothing to do with the extraction and refinement of oil. The NIOC’s share in oil exports from 1969 until 1973 was 0.3, whereas that of the consortium during the same period was as high as 92 (!) (the remainder belonging to other foreign companies outside the consortium). Iran’s oil revenue in 1975/ 76 reached 17,441 million dollars, 15,867 million dollars of which came from oil exported via the consortium. The NIOC received 874 million dollars, 700 million dollars going to other oil company shareholders! A comparison of these figures reveals how the consortium, after nationalization of the oil industry in 1973, had more or less retained its powerful position, while also showing the extent to which America and Britain were busy plundering the oil reserves of Iran. Before the revolution, the Iranian army was unable to use any weapons bought from America without the help of American specialists and advisers. This was due to inadequate training both with regard to the quality and the amount of training given; a deficiency in introductory and foundation course training; and other issues of political concern. The extent of Iran’s military dependency on America was so great that the Iranian army was incapable of managing its own affairs without the daily assistance of America, any kind of aviation or aircraft maintenance only being possible under American supervision and with the help of their technical expertise. Today, the Iranian army employs military equipment without foreign assistance, and indeed its experts train others in the use of advanced equipment and arms.

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Reza Shah had gone, having been taken to some island or other,36 I myself heard the British state over Delhi Radio that they had placed Reza Shah on the throne, but that they had later got rid of him because he had betrayed them!37 Mr. Muhammad Reza Khan himself also attested to this in something he wrote- it may have been in that book “Serving My Country”38 - but realizing that this was an improper thing to say, they later had it erased from the text! He had written that: “The Allies, after occupying Iran, thought it fitting that I should remain, and they agreed to my accession to the throne.” But be that as it may, it is you, your eminence, who is the puppet! To say that: “They saw it fitting that I should remain,” is to say: “They placed me on the throne,”39 We argue that we don’t want that person who the Allies have seen fit to bring here, and who is now working for them and doing all he can for them, pouring whatever we have down the drain. We have no independence; we have no freedom of speech; we have no freedom of the pen. We have nothing.

DESTRUCTION OF AGRICULTURE AND INCREASE IN POVERTY In an agricultural country such as this, which should be exporting its agricultural produce on a grand scale, an official report stated that there were only enough crops in Iran to suffice for something like thirty-three or thirty-four days’ consumption, the remaining food requirements of the country having to be imported from abroad. Everyone can see how heaps of wheat, barley, eggs and so on are now continually brought in from abroad as well as all other kinds of things. They ruined Iran’s agriculture in the name of ‘land reforms’; that is to say they rendered the poor farmers and peasants helpless whereby they were no longer able to continue working their own fields. These poor farmers thus migrated and came to the outskirts of Tehran where they now live under miserable conditions; in a truly deplorable state. According to an account given to me in Najaf listing the number of people who live under such conditions and their whereabouts, a large 36 37

The island of Mauritius. On November 5, 1941/Aban 14, 1320 SH, two months after Reza Khan had fled Iran, British Radio, in one of its political commentaries, openly spoke of Britain’s tendentious friendship with Iran and of having brought Reza Khan to power. In this regard it stated: “British political policy in Iran is one based upon friendship: both a friendship with an underlying purpose and a friendship without an underlying purpose. As for the friendship which has no underlying purpose, this is enjoyed by the learned men only, for other than this the friendship held between the British government and Iran or any other country for that matter is not and cannot be void of personal motives Once we saw how suspicious the Iranian nation was toward the treaty concluded in 1919, believing it to be based upon ulterior motives, we annulled the treaty and instead gave the Iranian government help and encouragement to establish order in its own country. The underlying reason why we gave help and encouragement to Reza Khan was that our opponents used to accuse us of controlling Reza Shah’s actions and claim that whatever he did was in compliance with our instructions. But this was not in fact the case! When we realized however that Germany’s evil designs and the Shah’s negligence were endangering our interests, then we were forced to reluctantly take this course of action (i. e. the sending of Reza Khan into exile) ”. Refer also to Tarikh-e Siyasi-ye Mu’assir-e Iran, vol. 1, pp. 127- 128.

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Referring to the first book attributed to the Shah: Mission for My Country. The Shah made claim to being the author of three ‘great and important’ books, and he was convinced that the leaders of underdeveloped countries ought to read these works and achieve development and prosperity for their own countries by adopting the principles and socio-political theories found therein! These books, which were all the product of a specific period of the Shah’s reign, are entitled: Mission for My Country, White Revolution, and Toward the Great Civilization. It seems likely that the author of the latter book was Shujauuddin Shafi’, who had been in charge of cultural affairs during Reza Shah’s reign, and was Muhammad Reza Shah’s ambassador to London. On January 26, 1965/Bahman 6, 1343 SH, the Shah, in a message delivered to the people of Iran on the occasion of the anniversary of the announcement of the White Revolution (January 26, 1963), said: “He (Reza Khan) had to go. They felt that his son and successor was of the same sentiment as he, and of course this was so. So what was to be done? For two or three days the Allies of that time and the occupiers of Iran were hesitant about recognizing the new Iranian regime, that is my rule.... but then they said well, the king must remain but the role of the king must be that of a powerless overseer.” This confession was later concealed from the public and all copies of it were collected. Refer to The Rise and Fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty, Memoirs of General Fardoust, vol. 1, p. 100.

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The Struggle of Imam Khomeini to Establish Islamic Republic of Iran

number of people are scattered throughout Tehran in something like forty different areas where they live in small hovels and tents. In Tehran, the country’s capital city, things are such that these people are living in hovels and tents! The report stated that in order to obtain a pitcher of water for their children, these people have to ascend a hundred steps or more from the deep hole in the ground in which they live, to reach this water tap which has been put there. In the bitter cold of winter, a woman has to carry her water pitcher all the way up those steps and then carry it back down again so as to take a jug of water to her children!

EXISTENCE OF THE PAHLAVI REGIME, CONTRADICTORY TO FREEDOM AND INDEPENDENCE We say that this distressing situation must be rectified. Meanwhile however, the amount of money that they spend on themselves reaches exorbitant levels. The latest example of such expenditure about which I read concerned a certain villa which was bought for one of the Shah’s sisters at heaven knows what price. I can’t now recall exactly how much it cost but I know that it was a great amount of money. Five million dollars! Five million dollars on flower beds and floral displays!40 And so we see the kind of lives they live. They are in fact much better off than this, so much so that it surpasses the imagination. Yet we also see how, even in the city of Tehran, a great number of people are living in a tent or a hovel, without any facilities. They have neither electricity for lighting nor water. As for tarmacked surfaces and the like, these poor people don’t know the meaning of such things! When we say we want an Islamic government, we are saying that this situation must be done away with. The Shah says: “They say we must return to the time when donkeys were the means of transport!”41 But when we talk of an Islamic government this is not what we mean at all. Who has ever said that you must travel by donkey?! What we do say is that this situation must come to an end; and while Muhammad Reza and the Pahlavi dynasty remain in power we don’t see how our country can enjoy any kind of freedom or independence. This man is a puppet who has been put here by the imperialists. He is a man with a ‘mission’ for his country! He himself talks of having a “Mission for My Country”! And he is right in this; but it is a mission which has been assigned to him by America! He is commissioned by America to accomplish a mission for his country- a mission which requires that he prevent this poor country both from growing spiritually and from benefiting from its own wealth and resources. The wealth of this country is to go to America.

ISLAMIC GOVERNMENT MEANS GOVERNMENT OF JUSTICE When we speak of an Islamic government, we are speaking of a government based on social justice. We maintain that we must have a ruler who will not fraudulently take from the treasury of the Muslims; who will not transgress by dipping into the treasury of the Muslims. This is the one argument by which we firmly stand. It is a reasonable argument which is acceptable to anyone no matter in which part of the world it may be raised. Today, the people of our country have risen up in revolt due to this person’s betrayal of us. This 40

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The Shah’s elder sister Shams had a fabulous palace named “Pearl” constructed on the moorland of south Karaj. This palace was built with the help of the most esteemed of British architects and the land on which it stood was bedecked with a multitude of beautiful plants and trees. To the west of this palace SAVAK built “Qezel Hisar,” one of the most modern prisons in the country. On June 8, 1963/Khordad 18, 1342 SH, while presenting title deeds to farmers, the Shah made an address in which he said: “Just what did the Black Reaction do on Wednesday, Khordad 15, 1963? It set fire to the library in Shahr Park because it has no use for anything based on knowledge and learning which answers today’s needs. It set fire to the sports arena, to vehicles, and to bus ticket booths; and it did this in all likelihood because it believes that in this century, when the world is conquering space, we ought to be riding on donkeys or mules!”

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person has misappropriated our wealth; he has taken our wealth from this country and bought villas 42 for himself elsewhere, his family and devoted followers thereby living in grand style while we here remain hungry. But now those who are hungry have united to say that they don’t want this person to remain; so now what do you (the Shah) have to say for yourself? This is all we are arguing; this is all we have to say and nothing more.

BLACK PROPAGANDA Le