The Romance of the Rose 9780691044569, 0691044562

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Eg" Xo^onre of t$" ERor-

ceg" &o*once of t$"&o, BY GUILLAUME DE LORRIS

AND JEAN DE MEUN TRANSLATED BY CH/,RLES D/,HLBERG

TITTRD EDITION

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY

r

Copyright @ ryV by Princeton University Press Second edition preface @ 1983 by Princeton University Press Third edition preface @ 1995 by Princeton University Press Published by Princeton University Press, 4r William Street, Princeton, New Jersey o854o In the United Kingdom: Princeton University Press, Chichester, West Sussex

All Rights

Reserved

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Guillaume, de Lorris, fl. rz3o. [Roman de la Rose. English] The romance of the rose / by Guillaume de Lonis and Jean de Meun trmslated by Charles Dahlberg. 3rd ed.

P. r.

-

cm.

Indudes bibliographical references and index' ISBN o-59ro4456-z Romances-Translations into English. z. Courtly love-Poetry. I. Jean, de Meun, d. r3o5? II. Dahlberg, Charles, r9r9-

III.

Title.

PQ528.fu3 ryss

84r'.r-dczo

g5-tr748

Third edition, and first Princeton Paperback printing,

1995

Princeton University Press books are printed on acid-free paper and meet the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity ofthe Council

on Library Resources Printed in the United States of America

3579ro86+

;

TO A4T'FATHER AND A,TOTHER

CONTENTS Table oflllustrations

lx

Preface

xlu Edition

xv

Preface to the 1995 Edition

xl/ll

Preface to the 1983

Bibliographical Supplement

Introduction The Two Authors The Unity of the Two Parts The Technique of Irony Style and Theme The Thenie of Love The Illustrations The Present Translation

t$" Part

(r68rz97o)

Part

I I o

5

IO T2

22

26

8"o^arce of t$" 3.o5"

I ( r-4o58, by Guillaume de Lorris) : The Dream of Love r. The Garden, the Fountain, and the Rose ( r-r68o) z. The God of Love and the Affair of the Fleart 3.

)owii

The Involvement of Reason and the Castle of Jealousy (297r-4o58)

II (4o59-zr78o, by Jean de Meun): The Overthrow of Reason +. Discourse of Reason (4o59-74o) 5. The Advice of Friend (74r-rcaz) 6. The Assault on the Castle. False Seeming,s Contribution ( rooo3-r z38o) The Old Woman,s Intercession ( rz38 r-r48o7) 7. 8. Attack and Repulse (r48o8-r589o) 9. Nature's Confession ( 1589r-r9438)

29

3r 54 73

89

9r r38 r7g

zt6 253

270

f ontents

vl11

ro. Genius's Solution (r9439-zo7q) I I. Venus's Confagration and the Winning of the Rose

(zo7o4-zt78o)

32r 339

Notes

355

Appendix: Table of Concordances Between Line-Numbering in Langlois and Lecoy Editions

427

Bibliography Index Illustrations

+29 +39

+5r

I

LLUSTRATI ONS

THE illustrations follow p. 45o. The line number refers to the line immediately following the miniature,s position in the manuscript; captions are in most cases adapted from the manuscript rubrics where they exist. All illustrations are reproduced here in their actual sizes. Figs. t-zB reproduce the com2lete schedule

of illastrations from MS Paris. B. N. fr. j7S. End. ol the ,hirteenth centary.

r.

The Dreamer asleep (Langlois, line r). Fol. 13 R, col. r The author describes the images on the wall, Hatred first (r:g). Fol. r3 R, col. 3 (rSS). Fol. r3 V, col. r, top Felony 3. 4. Covetousness (169). Fol. r3 V, col. r, middle 5. Avarice (rgS).Fol. 13 V, col. z, top 6. Envy (235). Fol. 13 V, col. z, bottom 7. Sorrow (zgr). Fol. 14 R, col. r 8. Old Age (SSg). Fol. 14 R, col. z 9. Pope-Holiness (4o7). Fol. 14 R, col. 3 ro. Poverty (++r).Fol. 14 V, col. r rr. The Dreamer meets Idleness (582). Fol. r4 V, col. 3 rz. Diversion (8or). Fol. 15 V, col. r 13. The Fountain of Narcissus (r+5il. Fol. 17 R, col. 3 I4. The God of Love shoots at the Dreamer-Lover (168r). Fol. 18 R, col. r r5. The Lover kneels to the God of Love (r88r). Fol. r8 V,

z.

col. r

16. The Lover performs the act of homage to the God of Love (rgSS). Fol. 18 V, col. 3 17. Fair Welcoming and the Lover (zlgD. Fol. zr R, col. z 18. Resistance and the Lover (zg+i. Fol. zr Y, col. z tg. Reason and the Lover (zgg1). Fol. zr V, col. 3 zo. Friend and the Lover (grz:). FoI. zz R, col. z 2r. Openness and Pity speak to Resistance (SzSil. Fol. zz Y, col. r

22.

Venus and Fair Welcoming

(SUz). Fol. z3 R, col. z

x

I llustrations

23. Jealousy and the Lover (:SSS).FoI. z3 V, col. r, top 2+. Shame and the Lover (:S68). Fol. z3 V, col. r, bottom zS. Shame and Fear waken Resistance (566g). Fol. z3 V, col. 3, bottom

26. The Lover and Resistance (3755).Fol. z4 R, col. z 27. Towet of Jealousy and Resistance (3867). trol. z4 V, col. r 28. The poet at his desk (+oSg). Fol. z5 R, col. r ltom MS Oxf ord. Library. Douce rg5. French, r487-g5'

Figs. zg-58 are selected Bod.leian

Charles d'Orltians, Comte d'Angoubme, and his wife Louise de Saooie. The illaminations are arlr;bated to Robinet Testard.. Figs. 4j-58 coilst;tilte the com?lete sequence fron line zo47t to the end ol the Poem.

executed,

lor

29. The trial and death of Virginia (SSSS).Fol. 4I R 30. Fortune and the Lover (Sgzi.Fol. 43 R

Nero has Seneca murdered (6zrr). Fol- 45 R The story of Hercules (gr9l).Fol. 65 V 32. Wealth and the Lover (Ioo5r). Fol. 7r R, right 33. 34. The God of Love speaks to False Seeming (who appears as the Lover; ro93I). Fol. 77 V 35. False Seeming and Constrained Abstinence as pilgrims (rzo33). FoI. 86 V, bottom The OId Woman speaks to the messengers ( 1496)- Fol. 89 V 36. 37. The Old Woman comes to the Lover (t+6g+).Fol. Io5 R 38. Pity helps Openness (against Resistance; r539r). Fol. rro V, left 39. Venus speaks to Adonis (r5683). FoI. rr3 R, left 4c,. Origen castrates himself (the better to serve nuns; Empedocles jumps into fire; tTqg). Fol. rzz V 4r. Albumazar's prediction of the birth of Our Lady ( r9r77). Fol. r37 R 42. The God of Love vests Genius as bishop (rg+ll). Fol. r39 R, bottom right 43. The "Trinitarian" Fountain of Life (zo47r). Fol. r45 R 44. Venus before the Castle of Jealousy (zo7rt). FoI. r47 V 45. Venus shoots at the image in the sanctuary izo79r). Fol. r48 V, left

3r.

Illustrations

xi

people and image (at line 9 of the Medusa-head interpolation; see 2o8ro-rr n.). Fol. 148 V, right {1. Pygmalion caryes an image (zo8l7). Fol. r49 R, left 48. Pygmalion is overcome by the beauty of the image (2o836). Fol. r49 R, right 49. Pygmalion asks his image for grace (zo9o7). Fol. r49 V 5o. Pygmalion dresses the image (zogSl). Fol. r5o R 5r. Pygmalion plays his instruments before her (zrozr). Fol. r5o v Pygmalion lays her in his bed (zro59). Fol. r5r R, left 52. Pygmalion makes his petition to Venus (zto75). Fol. r5r R, 53. right 54. Pygmalion finds her alive (zrrz7). FoL r5r V 55. They return thanks to the gods (zrr7r). Fol. r52 R 55. Venus sets fire to the Castle of Jealousy (zrz5r). Fol. l5z V 57. The Lover gazes upon the sanctuary (21587). Fol. r55 R 58. The Lover enjoys the rose (zt7o5). Fol. r55 V

46. Three

Figs. 59-64 illustrate s?ec;al ?o;nts,

59. The Fountain of Narcissus

(see 14z5-1614

n.). MS B. N. fr.

136S), fol. o Y 6o. The God of Love shoots the Lover (168r; see 1593-95 n.). MS B. N. fr. 1559 (end of thirteenth century), fol. 15 R 6t. Genius, dressed as friar and seated on Nature,s anvil, hears her confession (16285; see 16z7z-84 n.). MS B. N. Rothschild z8oo (4zg), fol. roz R 62. Pygmalion as Dreamer (see zo8t7-2rr9r n.). MS B. N. fr. r565 Q35z), fol. 136 R Rose tree; the Lover, as pilgrim, approaches the sanctuary Q. (zt6r9; see zr3;4 n.). MS B. N. Rothschild z8oo (4zg), fol. r37 R 64. The Lover plucks the rose (zr7o5; see 2r777-8o n.). MS B. N. Rothschild z8oo (1329), fol. r37 V 12593 (e.

PREFACE

rF \-I \ZIUS

translation of the Romance of the Rose, thefirst in modern English prose, is one of nearly a dozen volumes during the past decade to present an edition, a translation, or a major commentary on the Old French poem. The aim of this book is to provide a clear, readable text that is as faithful as possible to the original, particularly in terms of imagery. Because translations

have their pitfalls and because thirteenth+entury assumptions about the use of imagery, indeed of poetry are very different from ours, I have provided a variety of materials that may help the reader to approach the poem with an approximation of the perspective of that time. The introduction, notes, and illustrations are designed primarily to elaborate and clarify such a view of the poem. If the book fulfills such an aim, it will do so in large part because of the help that many people have given, help that has forestalled errors and infelicities in both text and commentary; those that remain are mine alone. D. W. Robertson, Jr., has given freely of time, insight, erudition, food, and good fellowship; my debt to him will be obvious on page after page. John V. Fleming was generous of comment, particularly on the iilustrations, in the later stages of the preparation of the manuscript. Without their encouragement and that of other friends and colle4gues, progress would have been even more glacial than it has been. Mrs. Linda Peterson and Mrs. Polly Hanford of Princeton LJniversity press have been most helpful and encouraging at every stage of the book,s preparation; and the readers of the manuscript have made many valuable suggestions.

Various institutions have contributed their help in one way or another. Some of the preliminary work took place during a predoctoral Fulbright Fellowship; the bulk of the manuscript was completed in draft during a sabbatical leave from my post at Queens College; and the final stages occupied much of a later short leave. At all stages the Librarian, Professor Morris Gelfand, and the staff of the Paul Klapper Library at Queens College have been cooperative in every possible way.'In Paris, I have enjoyed the most cordial assistance from the staffs at the BibliothBque Nationale

xiv

?reface

and the other major collections in the city. The Institut de Recherche

et d'histoire des Textes of the Centre National de Ia Recherche Scientifique was particularly helpful in getting manuscripts from provinciil libraries for use in Paris. Princeton University provided iwo grants toward the expenses of obtaining Photographs and microfiIms.

The third volume of the Lecoy edition appeared too late to permit its use in the Introduction or Notes to this volume, but I have been able to correct the Bibliography and Appendix to acknowledge its existence. My wife is due thanks for much beyond the hours that we have shared in working on the manuscript; they have all been good hours. My fundamental and continuing debt is one that I am glad to acknowledge in the dedication. Scarsd,ale,

N.Y.,

t 969-7 o

CHARLES DAHLBERG

PREFACE TO THE r983 EDITION

oa

\-ZgfS paperback edition provides the opportunity to correct minor errors and to make a few additions to the bibliography. I have not attempted a thorough update of the bibliography, since Maxwell Luria's recent A Reat)er's Guide to tlte Roman d.e la Rosa has a convenient bibliography as part of an excellent guide. The Bibliographical Supplement, however,lists works that I mention in this preface and several that I omitted from my earlier Bibliography. Among these is Marc-Ren6 Jung,s critical bibliography of 1966rKDer Rosenroman in der Kritik seit dem r8. Jahrhundert." New editions and translations include Andr6 Lanlyrs French translation and Karl A. Ott,s edition with facing German

translation.

During recent years, a number of writers have reemphasized the contrast between the two authors in their treatment of the poem's allegory. Such is the case even in the relatively small space devoted to the poem in Jung's important book on Latin and French allegory, a work that parallels the series of essays by Hans Robert Jauss on the origins and development of allegorical poetry up to the Romance. In Paul Piehler,s survey of medieval allegory through Dante and Pearl, he contrasts Guillaume and Jean in their balancing of landscape and dialogue. In works specifically on the Romance, Daniel Poirion contrasts Guillaumers narrative dream

allegory with Jean's amplified discursive allegory. Ren6 Louis,s essay on the interpretation of the poemrs erotic allegory opposes Guillaume's idealized, refined love to Jeanrs emphasis on the iexual

and procreative aspects. Jean Charles Payen sees Jeanrs concern as sexual revolution and the longing for the ideal communal social

order. And Paul Zumthor establishes distinctions among emblem, symbol, and allegory, as well as among allegorical funitions (didactic, deictic, narrative) ; with these distinctions, he sees Guillaume's part of the Romance as narrative (rdcit) rin contrast to Jeanrs, which he views as antinarrative, a ((deconstruction, that remakes Guillaume's work ((on the level of explicative discourse,, (r97+, P. 2c,+)-

xvr

?reface to tlre r983 tdition

Such contrasts are traditional in Romance criticism. Others, however, see a greater degree of unity than has often been granted. Karl D. Uitti, on the basis of medieval attitudes toward myth and poetry, argues for the unity of the two parts. John Took, in the course of his work on the Fiore, supports the idea of the integrity of the Romance as a whole. And Maxwell Luria's edition of an important sixteenth-century gloss, in the Collins manuscript of Philadelphia, offers a medieval view of allegory, one that supports a unified reading. The Romanae's fourteenth-century reputation is the subject of Pierre-Yves Badel's recent book, an extended survey of allusions to the poem through the quarrel of the early fifteenth century. Other treatments of the quarrel appear in Eric Hicks' edition, in Peter Potansky's analysis, and in Joseph L. Baird and John R. Kane's translation of the documents. Interest in Christine de Pisan has helped to encourage this area of Rornance scholarship, as had John V. Fleming's 1965 article "The Moral Reputation of the Roman de lo Rose Before r4oo." Much of the controversy in the fifteenth-century debate centered on the validity of the character Reason, and the question is still with us. Fleming's book, The Roman de la Rose: A Study in Allegory and lconograph.y, has of course provoked a good deal of comment, not only from several of those whom I have cited above, but also from those who question his assumption that Reason's voice is authorial. Michael D. Cherniss, Winthrop Wetherbee, and Thomas D. Hill are representative of this skepticism and, with George D. Economou, reflect in difierent ways the notion of ((naturalism" or ((generation" as Jean's imperative. Fleming has presented his position more fully in a recent book, Reason and, th.e Lover. For help with corrections and many other matters I am grateful to John Benton, Alfred David, John Fleming, and Maxwell Luria. Mistakes and infelicities that remain are my responsibility.

Queens College,CUNY May rgB j; re,uised, October tg86

c.

D.

PREFACE TO THE ree5 EDITION

CArDE

from this preface and some further corrections, this edition reproduces the text and apparatus ofthe 1986 reprinting of the 1983 edition. Thanks are due to Lucie Polakfor a correction and to Suzanne Katz and Marianne Conti for help in obtaining books.

Here I review selected scholarship up to r99o (plus a few later tides) under the headings of basic materials, sources and influences, the two authors, the nature of the allegorical narrative, the use of first person, and the poem's early reception. References are to the new bibliographical supplement, which incolporates that of the earlier edition.

BASIC MATERIALS Heather Arden,s annotated, book-length bibliography (rSgl) gives an idea of the rapid $owth of interest in the Roman. Sylia Huot has been most active in the field of manuscript studies; in a series of papers (r987b to ry92) and a book (rgg:), she examines the relation of the manuscript tradition to the poem,s eady reception and to its modern interpretation. Accounts of individual manuscripts also

in Luria (r98zb), Mazznni Peruz.zi (1986), and Walters (1989, r99za-b). New editions include Poirion,s (rgZ+) and Strubel,s edition with a French translation (rggz; cited from fuden r9g3:ry), each in a single volume. Poirion,s text follows MS B. N. fr. 2554 Q974:33-35), and Strubel bases his telft on MSS B. N. fr. appear

n786 and 378 (Arden ryytg). Among guides to the poem, those of Luria (r98za) and Arden (rgSil provide outlines and narrative summaries. Poirion $9:3) and Stmbel (rq8+) emphasize the differences between the nvo authors in their critical analyses of the poem. Among reviews of scholarship, Ott (rq8o) explores recent attitudes that seeJean de Meun,s (JdM,s)

work as a sophisticated literary er 4z7t 433t 435 Lcece. See Joy, Legge, M. D, 362

LeMay, R.r 4r5

Lent,259

Leonard, St., r6l Leonce, r6o Letters of Abelard and Eloise, z Levy, R., 389, 435 Lewis, C. S., r, 3, 359t 367t 372t 39t-92r 406, +35

Hr

374>

379> 434

Lifard of Meun, St., zz7 lion, 4zt-zz

Livy, rr4, rS8, 226, 379, 388,

4o9

locus anoenusr 36z Lombard, Peter. .9aa Peter Lombard.

London, 248 Longinus, 3r7

Lorraine,4r Lorris, r

Louis IX, King, 395 love, 4, 7, tz-zz

Love, rrz-r3, 35g,

See

also God, of

love, chain of, z r love, courtly, z r love, cupidinous, r3-r5, 2o-zr love, five steps of, t6, 363 love, natural, r2-r4, 2o-zr love of God, 13 love, three steps of t5-t7, 368, 372, 37+

Lover, 5-9, rz-25, zt8-r9, zzt, zSo-Sz, 333-3+, 348, 357, 36o, 364-66, 368, 370-75t 377t 39o-9rt 4o3, 4o6, 415-t6, 4r8-t9, 4zr-24 3 7

r

Lucan, r r4 Lucina, r88 Lucrece, r58

Laxure. Sac Lechery. Lydia, rz6 McKenzie, K., and W. A. Oldfather, +38

Manfred, King of Sicily, 38

r,

rz9-3o,

r-82

Manheim, R.r 43o Manuscript. Arras. (Bibl. mun. 532 L8+S.l), 373t 375t 429London (B. M. Egerton 88r), 373,

Oxford (Bodleian. Douce r95), xlvr 2zr 42g) Paris (Arsenal 2988), 424, 4z9i (Arsenal 5zo9), 364, 4z9i Paris, (B. N. fr. r43), az3; (B. N. fr. 146), 36r, +zgi (B. N. fr. 378), xiii, zz, 36o, az9; (B. N. fr. 798), 4o8, 4z9i (B. N. fr. 8oz), 25, 3741 429) (B. N. fr. 8o3)r 359, 4zgi (8. N. fr. rr36), 3Z5t 429) (8. N. fr. rr59), xv,

zz, 365, 374t 429) (B. N. fr. r56o), 25, 359, 429; (8. N. fr. 1565), xyr 4zz, az9; (B. N. fr. 1573), 26, 36o, 362-63, 366-67, 369, 37rt 4z9t 433i

(8. N. fr. rSTS),25t az9; (B. N.

Love.

Loyalty,

rr3

+29 i

Liber Introd.uctorius in Eoangelium Aeternum. See Eternal Gospel.. Liebeschiitz,

++5

Malice,

tr. 9197),392; (B. N. fr. 12593), xv, +2g) (B. N. fr. r9t57)t 364, +29) (8. N. fr. 24390), lS6i (B. N. Rothschild z8oo [IV. z. z+)), x.v, +zgi (B. N. Rothschild z8or [I.

t6)), 25,

7.

4zg

Map, Walter, 387, 38g, +35 Marie de France, 4zz, 435 Mariella, Sister, 389, 435 Marietta,238 marigolds, 424

Marot, Cl6ment, 433 Mars,237-38, 242, 3oo-3or, 3g2, +o2 Marseilles, r 3o

Martin, J., 43o Martin IV, Pope, 395 Mas, zo, 249t 275> 343, 4o8,

423

Matthew of Vend6me, 359t +35 Mary, Virgin, 24, 16r, 3t6-r7, 4t5 May, 3r-32, 73t 27St 359 mean, the, 373 Meaux, 8r, 169 Medea, zz8-29, 246

Macrobius, A. T., 4, 6-7, tz, 3r, 358, 4o9-ro, +12, +r4, 42St 435 Maine, r48 Male aoenture. ,Saa Misfortune. Mile, E., 360, +35 Malebouche. Saa Foul Mouth.

mendicants,,Sea friars, mendicant. Menelausr 4zz

Maler, B., 4r1t 435

M esfaiz.,Saa Misdeeds.

Medusa, 4z r

Megara, 326

M6on, D.

Mt

Mercury, 246

375> 433

Index

++6 Meung-sur-Loire, r, r87 Micha, A., 366, 43r microcosm and megacosm, 4r4

Midas, 392 Migne, J.-P., 436

Milan, zo5 Miller, F. J., 435 Miller, R. P., 4ozr 4o5, 4ro, 4r8,

$546 Minorities.

Minos,

Miro,

.9ea

Franciscan Friars.

mirrorr

,Saa

3611 3gr

Misdeeds (Mesfaiz), 7o

Misfortune (Malc aoenture), t7r Mofiat, D. M,, 416, 429

Monfrin, J., 429

J.H" $6

Naples, 3 ro Narbonne, 4o4 Narcissus, So-54 334r

364-65,

422 8

Nativity, z4-25

naturalism, tg, ztr 384 natule,4o2 Nature, 4, 9-ro, r3r r8-2o, 50, 53, 73, 95-96, to9, tt6, t6z, zz4, 238'42, 27o-32+t 327t 33ot 337t 34o'4rt 3+8-+9, 36+, 366t 368, 374t 377t +o2, +o5-4o9, +15-zr natules, two, r8-r9r 375 Neo-Platonists, 3 8 z NePtune, t7t, 3gz

Nero, rzz-2,3, rz5-26, r3or 38o-8r New Thought (Nooiaus Penser!, arrow), 43 284

nightmares,

4t 7t 4r2 Nobility (Gentillesse), rz7-28 Nobility of heart, 186 Normandy, Normans, 86, r89, 2t+-rS, 237t 37o

Notre Dame de Paris, zo6 Nooiaus Pensers. .9aa New Thought.

D.,

435

Oenone, zz8 Obcuse. .9ea ldleness.

Orr, J., 397t

$6

Hcroid.es, +oo-+or

g4t,

narrative, fabulous (narratio fabulosa), 4, 5,

Opennes (Franchise, arrow), 43 Opennes (caroler), 46-47 Orguiauz. Saa Pride. Origen, 286, 4ro Orl6ans, r-2, 46 Orpheus, 3z4r 4t7-rB

4ot-+o2i Ars ancaloria, 36o, 384-86, 389, 399, 4oo-4o3' +r2-r3t 4241 Ex Pontor 36o1, Futi, 36oi

Myrrha, 346, 4zz-23

Nussey,

tcxutt 3gS (Franchitc), tSt 2s, 77-78,

Omnis utriusquc Openness

Ovid, r49, r87, 234, 33r, 349, 366, 436i Amorct, 39r-9zt 399t

mouse, 42 r-22

Night,

qoz-+o3t 4o5-4o6, 4tz olive treer 335-36 Omer, St., r35

359

Myrrha.

The Mirror for Looers, r88

Mozley,

359-60

Old Woman (La Vicillc),5, r7-r8, 251 86, 9r, r+or rgor t,t6-5t, 3zr, 36o, 366-67, 3?ot 39ot 399t

186, r9o, 26o-6rt 265, 347-48,

327

274

Mirrha.

Old Age (Vicillccc), 35-361 97-98t

i

MctamorPhoses,

36o, 363-64, 379, 386-87, 3go, +oo, 4o5r +rt-r2, 4r4, 4t6-r9, +22, +2+i Rcmed.ia aruork, 36t, 385 Pa€tow, L. J, 36+, +3+ pagan literature,", 383 Palinurus, z3z

Pallas, 325, 423

qallium, 394

Pan, 299 Paolo and Francesca, 376 Pope-Holines. Paphos (island), 3a6

P ap cl.ar d.ic. .9ae

Paphus

(King)t 346

Paraclete, r6o-6r Paradise, 36

Par6, G., 3t St 7t

fasim,

423

t8, zo, 357-425

436

Par6, G., A. Brunet, and P. Tremblay, 383, +36

Paris (city), z, 52., 16r, r8o, r98, 3ro, 3+3

Paris (son of Priam), zz8, z38r 4zz Paris, G., 3, 436 Paris, P., 3, 436 Paris, University of, z, zor, zo6, 35E, 393t 395'97t *r7 Park of the Lamb, tg-zo, 32818, 416-r9 Parrasiuq 274

Parry, J. J., 43o

Index Patch, H. R, 377t 38o, 382, 436 Patience, 186 Patrologiae cr.rtr.s con ?letuJ, +36

Paul, St., ,gg-2oo, 2oz, 39g Pavia, 52, 84, zrg Pcchicr.,!aa Sin.

Pecunc, Sza Riches. pederasty,

4r7-t8

Penelope, r58

Penrs,4rg

penitencer 4z3 Pentecost, 6o

Peor. See Fear. Pepin, 5o, 333 Perette,238 Perrod, M., 397t 436 Perseus,

4zr

Persia, r 3 r personifications, r5 Peter, zo7 Peter Abelard. Saa Abelard, Peter.

Peter Lombardt 4t 37St 436 Peter Riga, 362, 436 Peter, St., t68, 2351 279t 34o

Phania, rz7-28, 365 Philibert, r68 Phoebug rz7, 3gz Thc Phocnixr 436

++7

Priam, King, r3r

Pide (Orguiaaz), 17r Pride (arrow)r 43 Proteus, 196 Provence, rz9 fsychotnachia, 3,

7, t8,

z5

Ptolemy, t34r 234t 27$ 3o7t +r3, +2o Pygmalion, 2o-zr, 23, zz6, 274, 34o-46t 364, 4oo, +oS, +20-23

Pyrrha, 294

\thagoras, ro5 E.,

Quain,

38+, +32

Rabanus Maurus, 394

rabbit, 7, +o+, 4zr Rahner, Kr r7t 437 Rakon. See Reason,

F.,

Ranke,

366t 433

tazot, 393 reason (intellectual faculty), r5, r8, 372t 4r4 Reason (Raisoz), z, 5-6, Lz-rg,25, 7ot ?3-7Sr 9r-r37t r79, r8z, r84, r87-88, 255, 267, 287, 34ot 347t 3S4t 366t 368, 37t-77r 383-86, +o2-+o+r 4o6, Reese,

G., 37ot

4r8-r9, +2t,

+2+

437

Phoroneus, 16o Phyllis, zz8 Pierre de Blois, 13, 436

Refusal, z6o relics, 424 Remi, St., z5o-5r

Pirithous, r5r

Ranart-le-Nouocl, 397 Renouart de la Pole, z6o, 3rz, 4o4 Resistance (Dangicr), 18, z4-25, 7o-78r 83-841 85, 9r, r38, 144, rgo, 253-56t z6o-62, 267-68, 347, 367,

pilgrim, pilgrimage, zt, +oS, +2o, 424

Pity, 25, 77-j8, t86, r9o, z6r-62,

347-4\ 37r Place de l'H6tel de Ville, 378 Planchenault, R., 36r, 436

Plato, r35, 223, z7+, 3r5-r6, 382-83, +37

plentitude, 3, 5 Pluto, 327, 392

Poet, 6-9,23 poetic theory, 383

point of view, 6-7, z3-25 Polycletus,274 Pope, zo7 Pope-Holiness (Pa2elard.ie), 36t 3S9t

36rr 397-98 portraits,36z Postumus, r 6o

Poverty, 36-37, roz, t48-gz, 17t, r8o-82, r9r, 359, 36rt 385, 390 Preaching Friars, ,Sac Dominican Friars. predestination. Sce free will and predestination.

Renard, 256

370

Rhadamanthus, 327 Rhases,

z7

r

Richece. Sca Wealth. Riches (Pecune), ro}

Riedel, G., 43o Riga, Peter. Saa Peter Riga.

Right (Draiz), rro rind and marrow, 398

rivers, two, 38o, 382, +r5 Robbins, H. W., zz, 26, 37r, *z3t *33 Robert, r97, 394 Robert de Sorbon, z, 389 Robert of Artois, Count, 3o9 Robert U., 382 Robertson, D. W., Jr., 3-5, rr, 15, zo-22, 357-425 fa"ssim, 359, 363, 43ot 437

Index

4+8 Robertson,

Seiirt|. See Security.

D. W., Jr., and B. F.

Hupp6, r8' 437 Robichon,238

Seznec,

Robichonnet, r57

Shame

Robin, r97,

2rtt

39+

26v63, 339-4o, 347 (arrow), 43

Shame

166

Shepherd, Good, 328, 332 Shrine, 4zo, 424

Romagna, r69 Roman d.tEneas, 4oo Roman de Fauvel, 36r Romans, r58 Rome, 45, tt6, tzz-23,

tz6, t56, t6t,

zoTr 395 Roncesvallesr r47

rose, 3-4, t5, t8, zz-24, 367, +r7, +zot +z+

rose-chap1et. Sae chaplet

3r, 358t of

364,

roses.

Rufinus, 16o Rutebeuf, 358, 369-7o, 376, 378,

39r-94

395-98t +37

sack and staff, 4o5, 4t2, +zot +z+ Sack Friars. See Friars of the Sack. Sahlin, M., 362, +32

Saint-Amour, Lot, 395 Saint-Denis, Abbey of, r6r Saint-Gildas, Abbey of, 388 Saint-Jacques, Rue, z Saint-Marcel, ro5 Sallust, 258

t66, z8t

Samson,

sanctuary, +o5, 420-2rt +z+ Sanioris medicinae . . . t 4o7 Saracens, Saracen

land, 38, 46, r3o,

34zr 36t Sardinia,4rz

rr3, rgt,

329) 3791 3921 4r9

Scaglione, A. D., +o6, 437 Schleyer, K, 396, 437 Schoeck,

R.

!., zr,

437

Scipio, King, 3rr 3o5

Scotland, r8r criptores r erurn rrrylhicarur?t lat;ni

S

trcs.,,r+37 secular clergy, 393-98

Security (Seilrti), t86, t9o, 264 Segre,

river, 4rz

Seier,

z

Sibyl, r63, 3t6r 4t5 Sicilies, Kingdom of the Two, Sicily, rz9-3o,359 sight, r5-r6 Simplicity, rg, t86, 37t. Simplicity (arrow), 43, 54 Simson, O. von, +og, +37

r,

38r

37$

423

Sin (Pechiez), r7t

sin, three steps of, 4r rSt 357t Sinclair, J. D,' 376, 43t Singleton, C, 5., 4r9, 437 Sisigambis, r 3 r Sisyphus,

3r 8

Skiliful'Conc.alment 186, t9o, 263 sky,179 Sneyders de Vogel,

(B

ien

C el

Kr 4r4r

er),

437

Socrates, tt7, t22, 132, 378, 38o Socrates's'wanr rrr Solinus, rt7, 166, 38or 388 Solomon, r52, t77t rg8,276, z&t, 3oz somnium, 7, 358 Sorbonne, z

Sorrow (Tristece), 34-35

Spenser, E., 3 sphere, intelligible,

4r4-r5

springs, threer 4zo Stahl, W. H.r 3581 435

Satan, r5

Saturn,

423

W., 38o (Honte)t 7ot 74t 8o-83, 86, 9r, 98, r38, r44, rgor 253t 255t

Robinson, F. N., 357-58, 387, 43o

Roland, t47,

J.,

Shakespeare,

ro

Seine, z, 32, ro6 Seneca, rzz-24 senses, r5-r61 357

status, prelatical,

structurer 4 structure, rhetorical, 357 style, 4, to-r2, 372 Styx, r9r, zz7 Suetonius, rz6, 38o-8r

Sufiering (Douleur),

three steps of. Summa perf ectionis magistcrii, 4o7 Suspicion-of-Ostentation' 263

Swiet Looks (Douz Regart)t rSt 43t

bodily and spiritual, r6

48, 68-69,

senses,

6ve, 363

37r

Servius, 379t 392t 437

98

Suficiency, tTrt 373 suggestion, delight, consent. Sea sin,

senses,

September,3rT

r8

Strohm, P., 37o-7rt 438

9\ r79t 185, z5t,265,

Sweet TaIk (Douz 179

Parler), 68-69, 92,

Index Sweet

Thought (Doaz Pcnser), 67-69,

92; 179 Swift, Jonathan,

Ulysses, 246

unity, z, 4, rz, 368, 37zt 39r

5

Sybil. Saa Sibyl.

University of Paris. Saa Paris, University of. Urban, Pope, 38r Ursula, St., 393 utility and delight, 383-84

Tagliacozzo, 382 Tantalusr 3r8

Tarquin, King, r58 Tarsus, r4o

lfartarusr

++9

Uglines (Laideur), t63

3Tg

Valerius, t59-6o, t69, 387 Valerius Maximus, 387 Vatican Mythographer, First, 379, 38r Vatican Mythographer, Second, 379,

Tempier, E., 4r7 Templars, zoo Tcnt. See Time. Testard, Robinet, xiv

38r

testiclesr

4rg Tet, river, 4rz

Vatican Mythographer, Third, 379,

Thebes, 3251 343> 423 theme, ro-zz Themis, 294

Vegetius,

402

7, t8-zo, 5zr 7o, 79-Bo, rr3, t53, t64, r84, r9o-9r, zzt, 23718,

2+o, 242-+3, 265-68, 275, 3oo-3or, 3tg,32t, 338-40, 3++-47,

Thibaut, St., 167, 247

Thomas, 366, 438 Thomas Aquinas, 375; 4r7

437

Lr 4o3t 4r5r 438 Thuasne, Lt 3, 438 Thorndike,

Tibert,

r 95

Tibullus, r86 Timaeus, 383

Time (Tcns), 39-36, 36o

Titans, 379

Tityus,

3 r

8

torch, 4o5, 4zo T

ornoiemcnt

A

rrtecrisr, 362

Transgresion (Forfaiz), r r 3 Trask, W. R., 43o-3r tree

of

Jesse. Sea Jesse, tree of.

triangle, circular, +15, +zo Trinity, zo, 23, 2691 4o5, 4r4-r5, +17, +tg-2o

Triptolemus,

r8

Trhtece.

Sorrow.

.Saa

r

Triton, r 7 r Trojel, E., 43o

Trol

Doncr.,Saa Give-Too-Much.

Troy, zz8,

238

Truth, zoo tuns of Jupiter, two, 38o, 382, 4r5

Turnus, 4zz Tuve, R., 4-5t r6t 2c,, 22-23, 31l-+zs fassim, 438

382

Venus,

Theophrastus, r57t 387 Theseus, r 5 r Thesiphoner 3z6 Thibaut of Champagne, 37o

Thilo, G., and H. Hagen, 379t

z,

venery, z6

354, 362-64, 379-8o, 39r-92, 399, 4o2, +o1r 4t6-t7, +2t, +23-24 Venus, chamber of, z3o

verisimilitude, Verres, 359

rz

Vices, 359 Vicille, La.,9aa Old Woman. Vieillece..9aa Old Age. Villainy, 33, 36o, 366

Villainy (arrow), 43 Vincent of Beauvais, 4o7 Yirgil, 276, 27g, 3roi Acncid., t63,

357, 36\ 388, 4or, 4o5, 4og, 4t6, 4zzi Ecl.oqaes, 316, 33or 3481 4o9r 415i Georgics, 33ot 4r9 Virgin. Saa Mary, Virgin.

Virginia, r r4 Virginius, r r4 Vulcan, 237-38, z4zr 3oo-3or, 392

Ward, C. F., 4o4, 438 J. H, +lZ Weahh (Richece), 25, 44-45t r4lt r79-83, r86, t8g, tgt-gz, 3S+, 359, 36zt 3go, 3gg Waszink,

Webb, C.C.J., 382, +3+ wheel of Fortune. .Saa Portune, wheel of. Whore of Babylon, 36r whore, old, 399

Wife of Bath, 399

+So

Index

wife, wheedlingt

9t 277-?9

William of Saint-Amour. .SBa Guillaume de

Willis, J., 435

47 Xanthus, zz8

Windsor,

Saint-Amour.

Yotth (Jcnncce), 47-48,96-98, 359-60

Irofct-Aoiottttct, 4zz, 438 Zephirus,

Zeus, 379

r2o-2r, r55

Zetxis, 274

186,

9llu5teotions

r

th.rouglt. z8 and' 59 through 64 are re?rod,uced here permission of the tsibliothique Nationale, Paris. The rema.tning figures are re?rodaced, with tlte perrnission oJ

Figures

th.e ts od,leian Librory.

b1

r. The Drcamer asleep (Langlois, linc I )

'frurofru*rfr[r]q

fif.akil0.#&i1

i$}E

Atrrrr,*e,L,--b

z. The author describes the images on the wali, Hatred first (r39)

t.r\t*a=:l tr**km{t.fi

,

trmE

{*1 {il\@tnffmhh*,{M\mrffirs.3

"Srnu,r,&FW

ffii&

htg€rf*r

.*

3. Felony (r55)

tsru *sa.fin$Mrs Iflilm

slflgal,iftelrDel eia.€

*w#.i{*r,ffiilri}ffiq$,

{*.

Etftutqtrt tEffq.

s Are€r,'ecaq

4.

Covetousness

(r69)

$B{ne

,W Uetgr*tg

affingr r&ttrrtr-

5. Avarice (r95)

ctrrrflht * fillu&oraf,g [email protected],c, .*"

tthidkn$4rtrG$rr"u$ eleftAfigtte4drargl4O-ey,al4

t af faauomrt.rt &tc6rofiq O ,nilDro fl,;c.glrryurfrrrctrftnnr q, e, {r,fl*ue{#itlfr&ttrc&rt€ dl t|l4ldqpor#.tmry

*laennft{ftq&,lltt$q

6. Envy (45)

7. Sorrow (z9I) lft*rcararyteg r,r(rt gt +flrtrtt{fi tJ nr6r(raa .l,f &A lBrlttr dfidalortr ru* lc.lrr+r,t1 arr or$t-giriE

Eatour'

I Ct*rrirr,tl'r ourrf td{,a*trLu

8. OId Ag. (rrg)

{.8g.", &1n ra,,lrc Fr4rf,:l&trt ,f'- l{c afo*r tii pfarn p€ rErr:rtnt 'r) caf,com ctbloqoac 0 .Rtme0{tl#tqctFrrtrE '

.l

9.

.ir

i

lalu-lt4r1rnr E SIoIrc

out!

ltl$:orre

trttc

}rctr. a 6rtr,gurrc

to. durrhlflrE fir orr&ntrrrct.

truuiih3..l[r.y.f..rrl trtrtltr -i:i..i $rlh$rO Crt fc&rt} lErOrC Y' .rrtn fsrrttr trfi fa Cotctgrote

Itrrtoic nlc6pm\'n \ril? €

Pope-Holiness (4o7)

tl anro 6rth lralotr DrrNrO.

c.ruafuaorurarq,*'6td,

r

-"

=t

Poverty (44r)

lc +uort irlrtr.? su liK€lt'"

t{trc&lplt1gB Crt$,ttlal;rc

I

r. The Dreamer

n1616crro

meets

Idleness (582)

I

rtt{-dttiT J l+te:#,*:a* 6o -bt#'r {illi orfutfc

i.ii.f'{.rYu"

c rnc

lil$.4nt€!6 .Dlfit$tf4fif

$ ^$

r

z. Diversion

( 8o I

eggcnfqturltuccllarutottttrl ouhfif l^puoMrt aud,€ltorfilDt r^puoD&uauoot

)

f*ul

trauo.ttone ttr&{u ou\puorlrcrtdotf leurars

lql- SO,,,o Gr

," ,

t3. The

Fountain

of Narcissus (t +lS)

*f

:

& :;* f6 r.\ l*t tirlr [:t rr id tktl.sr{ie,_{

-Eatrrfir,

o ntre

*t"

fu tnrO &rrrorfiaud

.

.r--

tnr{Brcnrl Jlu4rr v u*tr'te

u&-,tru*

orgnrnetuat

faut

14. The God of Love shoots at the Dreamer-Lover ( r68 r)

W { r*rr torurr [S,i, "Ohrsrur lllort.r br6q torri. Jrqlra,rr , i,Fil

r d.hr$urfiu cfi Lr }plfl

hrtt

610fttt;t0tugt lomnrtt tuc+fr trrfiri Uurfnrc aur?

r5. The Lover

kneels to the

God of Love (r88r)

\ {L

16. The lover performs the act of homage to the God of Love (ISSS)

lotrtlC. nC rfl {gfhnfotl cltrruc $uutl4](U AFarttttt, r

t7.

Fair Welcoming and the Lover (rlgl\

'

\L rff:

iit

ltlry

hr*t"*

11

*Jrr

fn b;: **rrr[i

.

1o:a:*.

."-

!1a..e arnro Err+ fsrtt criptrrV 4rtmB laharc fotrr a6rsq

r

8.

Resistance and

the Lover

:iltr$t*

?aitlfrif,t{:# * *,$*w,,

'

IiHiffiffi.,; :tn€

4 'fr,

lnurnafr.aanfantrrr'

a'lqrn.m*&&

ltttE tuu

(zg+l\

L tltsq$Vrar{tm$pmr*tte

I9.

Reason and the

Lover (2998)

d

q dl3

4 ttll ,s

o,{E q rrEv aru#r! rn& ottntttcP{nul,.eddlol{Dll am,llr.ole;l,kd&#o'1.

zo. Friend and the Lover (1t27)

., l:''l*ar& otms foqlnb*rtt , , | ..fi,rtd ura FS trpOUrrl

,o

lli

.iry.rrc &tt!

d onrPuua_or fortf

iiro [email protected] ar oq ftu0 tt{*AC 1l1l Dfiqi!.vlsrasnt? arstoug otort/ l€ ,fl Jr- t.mu a lautrrc fla{bu}:ort?

tDrer'"oltury brlcnbtgr$ ttn&r8W rkutr€t$.

zr.

Openness and

Pity

to Resistance (lzSS)

4ttuo Ar Oqqgg, ltrd, aa,f{,,l{.,, t$ees*

,r.

V.rro, and Fair

Welcoming (l++z)

*" +

\\r'tt*tt] r{ [a:t .ts"trttiS rl,.*:- futrrr.}flf: i;r-*- {b-*o...-errt) firrtre tf t rarrc t

ft*Er

q.r[&l

fut ? \' st e;l,*t*tw G&rrgsrq$

speak

23. Jealousy and the Lover (3535)

filalw t

dl}

g

p*rotc 0{fdi[t ..**' d1, rrf,orrz' 6arlr

stor,4

fi€9 asola {atl

}mt 5ar'*ru=

'€rlr.a$x-torm{uo.

24. Shame and the Lover (3568)

.P

tn atctrnul2cleloengHro {th-}ro lpflo { 'f,/affir &ilr6pps+ rrLtli, bilInang ffttrc a ur&

25. Shame and Fear Resistance (1665)

"d :"r

oi,

r f

l,'rt{=€-ir*}t*i**1:irl \fit5a*;;fli

rr I!'rF,

]1S gtr

ora

*lcfrt..r11'-rarr?f- .' ae{&,nfr,t nueo

M,

1]fr purcor e'tfit ramrd' Elrttta ' 6'ronqnTrluatcaat19i2:tGrnd

.

,7 *l*tV!*yt;.

26. The Lover and Resistance ,l

f 1,il li ;

i- I r

rrrl +

I iiafl l

t*

f*.

:?1 +rt rl i

ii

Wcq*{.aryryeoag

i-

(IZSS)

waken

27. Tower of Jealousy and Resistance

(lg6i)

d .lr tC n l marf .lrllO16

28. The poet at his

desk

(+oss)

firmr*

"

29. The trial and death of Virginia (SSSS)

3O. Fortune and the Lover (5923)

{S*utfutaa'{r

3r. Nero has Seneca murdered (6zt t)

[r

€-F

fiff *n+urr. tffl{t ;i'1li { Itt t*eEq.l f;t'

32, The story of Hercules

brst)

]ti

;ttr=a{

&*t*mryru. €=3*l*Lt!€"

ft€s

reffi

cl{tlllt:=

33. Wealth ind the Lover

(Ioo5r)

34. The God of Love to False Seeming (who appears as the

speaks

Lover; Io93I)

trte aEatfuGrn$flifi,

06ll[f flEft'f-lr $dfr.

0rmrrtulr fi,re fort m4ritutti,,.

35. False Seeming and Constrained Abstinence as

pilgrims (rzo33)

fu+ummrumm.

Miililf*ffit'.

36. The Old Woman speaks to the messengers (I2396)

37. The Old Woman comes to the Lover

(r+6s+)

hr#,*.fuw*nfr. ff frfi fl{ *t*ix' .ll.tttr5(r?e. *ht'or fstfiaounillce.

38. Pity helps Openness (against Resistance; t S39r)

fll,ilt rn

39. Venus

rrt

6urr

speaks to

Adonis (r S683)

Et* t*'ifurrfr 'r rrilrrrrllo ,t ilwJt.

IPi;,Illll'Jli;Hfffi

4o. Origen castrates himself (the better to serve nuns; Empedocles

jumps into frre; t7o3))

4r.

Albumazar's prediction

of the birth of Our Lady (tgtll)

42. The God of Love vests Genius as

bishop

(tS+Zl)

43. The "Trinitarian" Fountain

of Life (zo47t)

ltr{!6fl p$6' c}rttnt. il wr fur#ue ffif*nrb0{t'or**e, 9 t rt anrar** t0u&sfsc}*l**.

I

44.

Venus before

the Castle of Jealousy

(zo7tt)

p*frtttit**t$fiff**y6*ffii

45.

Venus shoots

at the image

in the sanctuary (zo79t)

hfi{ pctrfCmr&re-x l'rar.bnr o rrcff* bcrlcr J0,ffi8 twftg.

46. Three

people and image (at line 9 of the Medusa-head interpolation ; see zo8ro-r r n,)

4V. Pygmelion an image

carves

(zo8t7)

'tl.

tr; ,!_:I

48.

Pygmalion

is overcome by the beauty of the image

(2o836)

#Effilrffr*

lpuA

&ffffi$fui. *,,ifu,qffiffi-

49. Pygmalion

asks

his image for grace (zogo7)

5o. Pygmalion dresses

the image

(zogsl)

mr&g,rrrarkbr*ftt .'A.Ar,r.* lii Ii..^ .-a,r l-rfli

5I.

Pygmalion plavs

his instruments before her (zrozt)

B

52. Pygmalion

*f :*

}ndf drl rru nr nilimmtl*. *'rrir*rt r{ u} 19111otfi[t$m

lays

her in his bed (zrosg)

*pmu.r*f*rtrFn frt. fs.tffir*r* d fi {rr rourfr' '

fuilf$(eds fn.rurrdlr

5

3.

Pygmalion

makes his

fs

Venus

petition to

(zIo75)

Bumrf mludr d Lrynrs lr $fr

54. P),gmalion, finds her alive

;.1figix*an t* tffi*nffi*;6ttr*.

rplbrcfrff,ftrfipmrrinw. fi$0e{e tu[fe tu\wnw. $pt wtiwfia h,trfir. it( fgll,rrt

(zrtz7)

55. They return thanks to the gods (zt17r)

lwrulv.i.gtflrffinsfl&

onrJurllr ftur frnut'

*'\*16*giff**mtwr'rrufivfrftu$. fruv*w&on*

fir6i-

,{r(\ I't

f t Nlrrrrr{{r *try milll rlDlt

rrl (t' lltl t$tlnf lll.

[J

nt{ hrrmrcrrird fi 6tr i}r,}rne

lis

ttr'rr

rorurflr. S( [a.rc]-c^-

rfrdfomr

t{r, r*- fl

56. Venus

sets

$r.r*l&n[e

trpri*r*fr1/t{ilt*..-*&* fire to the

Castle of Jealousy

(zrz5t)

I

,

*t*f***

57. The Lover

gazes

upon the

sanctuary

(2r587)

r;d fiurtrtttrrf*&

lb

f*m*t *txt.

fr*l;*J'llx;*tn:;

58. The Lover enjoys the rose (zt7o5)

f

nlll.

mYgsffi t ri f*nrnitrot,rrffik f.i

t guAt q, i. l*r*t **t rrr, $E${r

59. The Fountain of (see

Narcissus

I4z5-r6r4 n.)

6o. The God of Love shoots the Lover

(I68I;

see

I693-95 n.)

,9 roa rtdaurc lcsl,rLut

6r. Genius, dressed as friar and seated on Naturets anvil, hears her confession

(16285;

see

16z7z-84 n.)

62. Pygmalion (see

as Dreamer

zo8r7-zrr9I n.)

63. as

pilgrim,

Rose

tree; the Lover,

approaches

(z16tg;

plucks the rose see 21777-80 n-)

64. The Lover (zr7o5

;

the sanctuary 2I354 n.)

sec

I

sBN E 69

lil

I

A4456-7

lilllflililililIil llll ilffi

9 7aA69\ A44569

ilfiI1