The practical work on cultural studies: methodical guidelines 9786010447608

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А. Zholdubayeva S. Aubakirova


Almaty «Qazaq University» 2020


UDC 008 LBC 71.0 Zh 50 Recommended for publication by the decision of the Academic Council of the Faculty of Philosophy and Political Science and Editorial and Publishing Council of al-Farabi KazNU (Protocol No.4 dated 19.06.2020) Reviewer Doctor of philosophical, Professor А. Sagikyzy PhD A.A. Uyzbaeva Doctor of philosophical, Professor A.K. Abisheva

Zholdubayeva А. The practical work on cultural studies: methodical guideZh 50 lines / А. Zholdubayeva, S. Aubakirova. – Almaty: Qazaq University, 2020. – 154 p. ISBN 978-601-04-4760-8 The practical work on cultural studies is used to revise the training material for better digestion and systematization of the gained knowledge. The practical work on cultural studies allows identifying the extent to which students have mastered the knowledge of the basic scientific facts of cultural disciplines, their theoretical positions, social norms, as well as the ways of cognitive activity.

UDC 008 LBC 71.0 ISBN 978-601-04-4760-8

© Zholdubayeva А., Aubakirova S., 2020 © Al-Farabi KazNU, 2020



Foreword ............................................................................................................ 6 Culturology as a science and educational discipline ........................................... 10 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 11 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 11 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 14 Culture and its characteristics ............................................................................. 18 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 19 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 19 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 22 Primeval Culture................................................................................................. 25 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 25 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 26 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 27 Culture of Ancient Egypt ................................................................................... 32 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 33 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 33 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 35 Indo-Buddhist culture ......................................................................................... 38 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 39 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 40 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 42 Confucian type of culture ................................................................................... 45 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 46 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 47 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 48 Antique culture ................................................................................................... 51 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 52 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 53 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 55 Arabо-Islamic type of culture ............................................................................. 58 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 58 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 59 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 61


European-Christian type of culture ..................................................................... 64 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 65 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 65 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 67 Culture of the Renaissance and Reformation...................................................... 71 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 72 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 73 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 74 Culture of the New Time. Culture of European Enlightenment.......................... 78 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 79 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 80 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 81 Culture of the XIX century ................................................................................. 85 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 86 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 86 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 87 Kazakh culture.................................................................................................... 92 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 92 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 93 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 94 Modern socio-cultural situation .......................................................................... 100 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 101 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 102 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 104 Culture and man ................................................................................................. 107 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 107 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 108 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 111 Culture and Society ............................................................................................ 114 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 114 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 115 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 119 Culturogenesis .................................................................................................... 123 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 124 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 126 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 130


Religion as a specific area of the spiritual life of society.................................... 133 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 134 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 135 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 138 Dynamics of culture ........................................................................................... 142 Test questions ..................................................................................................... 142 Analytical tasks................................................................................................... 143 Test tasks ............................................................................................................ 151



Studying at the university is not a simple continuation of the school education. The main form of work in cultural studies is an independent work of students, which is not only the main means of conscious and continuous assimilation of the knowledge they acquired, the development of intellectual abilities, but also an indispensable condition for the formation of personality, the most important factor in social and psychological self-affirmation. It develops the culture of thinking, the ability to find new solutions, independent judgments, the criticality of the mind, contributes to the formation of a creative personality. The practical work is used to repeat the training material, better digestion and systematization of the knowledge gained. It contributes to: – the development of students' ability to consider events and phenomena in the life of society, using the techniques of a systematic approach, to clearly formulate their attitude to actual problems of the modern world; – the mastery of the ability to classify concepts, phenomena, sociocultural objects by establishing the correspondence of terms and their definitions, concepts and their signs; – the development of the ability to recognize signs of concepts, characteristic features of a sociocultural object, elements of its description and compare them; – the ability to recognize the structural elements of sociocultural objects using patterns; – the formation of skills to define terms and concepts of sociocultural phenomena that are appropriate to the proposed context; – gaining the ability to select the necessary positions from the proposed list, using knowledge of the characteristic features, signs of concepts and phenomena; – gaining skills in formulating one’s own reasoning (judgments and arguments) on a specific problem, relying on the knowledge of the course, facts of social life and personal experience; 6

– the development of the ability not only to briefly and correctly answer the posed questions, but also to check erudition and develop the ability to reason on a given topic. This practical work offers tasks of various types aimed at organizing students' independent work and contributing to the process of self-education: – Test questions. At the end of each topic questions for reflection, which are the result of the topic studied are given. Questions will not cause difficulties if the student has a good understanding of the topic. The answer to these questions involves the disclosure of various points of view regarding the problem under consideration. Questions can be used both for discussion at seminars and for self-monitoring. – Analytical tasks. In tasks of this type, it is necessary to confirm or refute the expressed idea with the help of own examples, someone’s opinions, quotes. Confirmation or refutation should affect the main idea of the statement. – Add a definition.  In the tasks of this type various kinds of dictionaries (explanatory, culturological, philosophical, sociological, etc.) are used, it is necessary to add a definition of the phenomenon under consideration, using the workpiece already available in the task. – Do you agree that ... In the tasks of this type, it is necessary not only to agree or disagree with the proposed statement, but also to justify your opinion, confirm it with various examples from scientific and fiction literature, the media and own experience. – Fill in the table. In this task, it is necessary to remember that the table contains the most important information, so from the material available to the student, the most important must be selected. When filling in the table, it is necessary to strictly follow the directions in its «header». – Uncover the meaning of these phenomena / concepts. Using dictionaries, reference books, textbooks, it is necessary to maximally and deeply reveal the meaning of the phenomenon / concept, since the proposed phenomenon / concept helps to more deeply comprehend the problem under consideration. 7

– Complete the logical series. Among the concepts proposed in the task, it is necessary to determine the type of relationship and, based on this, complete the logical series. For example, philosophy, law, science, religion, morality ... (a logical series must be completed with the concept of «art», since we are talking about the forms of spiritual culture). – Determine whether the statement is true or false. In this task, as a rule, the opinions of philosophers, culturologists, etc. are given. It is necessary, on the basis of your own experience, to determine whether the statement is true or false, and also confirm this with examples, other quotes. – Correct errors in the text, justify the corrections In the tasks of this type, you need to find a mistake and state why you consider this is a mistake. You must also propose the correct option. – Highlight the pros and cons of the phenomenon. To evaluate a phenomenon means to highlight its pros and cons. You must be able to express a point of view regarding a particular phenomenon. It is important to understand that the phenomenon is positive or negative from the point of view of its assessment by society. – Answer why? In this task, it is necessary to answer the question why this or that statement is true using different opinions, giving examples. – How do you understand the statements below. The purpose of this assignment is to find out the level of understanding of the topic by the student. If there is much incomeprehensibility in the statements, it is necessary to turn to the literature on this topic in order to better understand the studied problem. The statement is understood by the student when he can give examples illustrating the proposed idea. – Give examples. The task requires examples of a particular phenomenon that you can cite based on personal experience, fiction and scientific literature, media, television films. – Analyze the situation. The assignment contains situations which you are invited to assess. Ponder what kind of phenomenon is in question, whether you evaluate it positively or negatively. It is necessary to substantiate your opinion. 8

– Analyze aphorisms. Aphorism is a short expressive saying containing a generalized conclusion. Aphorism, as a rule, prompts further reflection. In the task it is necessary to express your attitude to certain judgments, reflect what thoughts this or that saying prompted you to. It is possible that in this task you will not analyze all aphorisms. It is important that the analysis touches upon the main idea of the aphorism and be as deep as possible. – What's the difference? In this type of tasks, it is proposed to compare two phenomena / concepts. It is important to remember that it is not surface differences that are important, but what fundamentally distinguishes phenomena from each other. To complete this task will be difficult if you do not know clear definitions of the phenomena in question. – Prepare a written message on the following topics. Using various sources, the student reveals a particular phenomenon. A written plan must be attached to the written message, a list of references. This written work consists of three parts: introduction, main part and conclusion. The message must necessarily contain the author's assessment of the phenomenon under consideration. The student prepares a message on one of the five topics proposed in the manual. The topic is chosen by the student independently or determined by the teacher. The message size should not be large. It is very important to reveal the topic, all parts of the message should serve precisely this task. All topics proposed in the collection are accompanied by the list of references. Using the sources listed, the student can deepen his knowledge in a particular topic.



Plan: – Development of cultural knowledge and the formation of the subject of research. – Goals and objectives of cultural studies. – Methodology of cultural knowledge. – The specifics of culturology as a science. Guidelines: When studying this topic, it should be borne in mind that culture is a multi-level system. It is customary to subdivide a culture according to its carrier. Depending on this, it is quite legitimate to single out world and national cultures. When studying basic concepts, in addition to the general assimilation of their content, it is necessary to pay attention to the particularities of the culturological approach, which determine the angle of vision of problems. This applies primarily to the following specific interpretations of concepts in cultural science: – to the concept of «civilization», which in a number of teachings is considered as a sunset stage in the development of culture or even its opposite in some way; – to the concept of «material culture, which in some of its modern aspects (media, technology, etc.) is understood as a threat to the existence of culture as the work of a free person; – to the concepts that determine the ratio of various cultural subjects. For a culturological approach that studies the development of holistic cultural systems, the basic subject is more likely a people than an individual who introduces innovations into culture. Moreover, the relations between «geniuses» and the people, the cultural system, are based, on the one hand, on some inconsistency, and on the other, on the division of labor, the complementarity of functions; – in accordance with this, in addition to the usual allocation of layers and concepts of «elitist» and «mass culture», cultural studies 10

pay a special attention to the remaining third, fundamental in meaning, layer – popular culture. The ratio of elitist and mass culture is also considered specifically. It is understood not as the opposite, but as complementarity. These are two interconnected layers of one type of culture of the era of crisis. Test questions: • Why for a long time did a man imagine the world around him and himself in it in a mythological form, what was this connected with? • Is it true that culture resists the natural basis of man? • What methods of cultural research do you know? • Why are there many different theoretical approaches, directions and schools in cultural studies? • What are the main stages in the development of cultural studies as a science? • What, in your opinion, is the relevance of culturological knowledge today? • Why did people in ancient times conceptualize their social life in mythological form? What is a myth? • What variations of the name of the cultural sciences do you know? What is each of them t focused on? • What is the main purpose of cultural studies? Show how you can apply it to the study of any cultural object. • What tasks does a culturologist set when examining cultural objects? Analytical tasks: • Make a comparative analysis of cultural studies with any academic discipline (sociology, political science, philosophy, law, psychology, etc.) and justify its specificity. CULTUROLOGY Subject The main aim Tasks Methods



• Prepare two or three theses on the basis of which you can show the importance of cultural studies for solving contemporary problems in the world and in Kazakhstan. • Make a table in the form of a brief description of the historical and cultural periods, indicating the specific features of the functioning of culture in different areas, the most striking achievements, the names of famous figures. The table should include the following periods: primitive culture, the culture of ancient civilizations of the East, ancient culture, medieval culture, Renaissance culture, modern culture, twentieth century culture. Type of culture

Chronological framework

Value system



Primitive culture Antique culture Medieval European culture Medieval Arab Muslim culture Renaissance Culture Culture of the New Age Modern culture

• Indicate to whom this statement belongs: «It is rare that a person full of filial piety and obedience to his elders would love to annoy the ruler». • Is the statement true? Justify your answer. Give examples. • In each society, their personal qualities are highlighted, the formation and development of which occurs, as a rule, through their targeted education, that is, transmission of norms, rules and types of behavior from the older generation to the younger one. • An artificially made object, an object of culture in three main areas of its existence: material, spiritual, human relations is the language of culture. • Indicate to whom this statement belongs: «When I became a king, I was among the countries mentioned above, one where there 12

was excitement. Then Ahura Mazda helped me. By the will of Ahura Mazda, I crushed this country and put it in its place». What are the dates of his life and summarize what he is famous for. • Find a match. Mentality Elements of cultural heritage that are passed down from generation to generation and persist in a particular society for a long time. Custom A combination of a specific way of thinking and feelings, value orientations and attitudes, ideas about the world and about oneself, beliefs, opinions, prejudices inherent in an individual or a certain social community. Tradition The totality of symbolic stereotypical collective actions embodying certain social ideas, values, norms, mass expression of religious or everyday traditions. Rite A form of action that is historically developed and widespread in a society or a collective, recurring in certain situations. – Is the statement true? Justify your answer. Give examples. – Art is a separate element of culture independent of its other components (politics, religion, science, technology). – Mass culture is a culture inherent in a certain people, present in the language, writing, beliefs, customs, traditions, folklore, symbolism and life. • Find a match. F. Grebner The Concept of the Semisphere J. Heyzinga The concept of local civilizations A. Toynbee The concept of cultural circles D. Yume Lotman Game Culture Concept • Match: Angra Mainyu Ancient India Rudra Ancient Mesopotamia Inanna Ancient Greece Artemis Ancient Iran • Find a match: Sculpture A print on paper obtained from a specially processed printed board. Decorative Arts Includes a number of industries that are aimed at creation of art products intended primarily for everyday life. 13

Engraving Wall paintings, panels, plafonds and other works that serve as decoration of architecture and are part of a single ensemble Monumental painting A kind of fine art whose works have a three-dimensional shape and are tangible. – Prepare abstracts for the discussion on the topic «Problems of national culture in the period of modernization of society and ways to solve them». Use for this purpose an article from periodicals of the 90s. • Find a match: Avesta Ancient India «What Hachi taught ...» Ancient Iran Enuma Elish Ancient Egypt «Yajurveda» Ancient Mesopotamia • Relate the forms and specific elements of culture: material culture science spiritual culture technique religion moral production area life support Test tasks: • He called the science of specifically human modes of activity «culturology»: – V. Ostwald – E. Fromm – Cicero – K. Marx – The founder of cultural science as an independent science is: – Plato – Cicero – L.A. White – G.V.F. Hegel • Indicate the section of culturology that studies the structure, types of culture, patterns and mechanisms of its functioning and development: 14

– history of culture – theory of culture – phenomenology of culture – sociology of culture • The methodology of cultural knowledge is: – psychology – anthropology – philosophy of culture – history of culture • Culturology as an independent science stood out from humanitarian knowledge in ... – XII century – VII century – XIX century – XX century • The functioning of culture in society is an object of the analysis of: – psychology of culture – sociology of culture – cultural history – cultural theory • The development of technologies for regulating cultural processes and predicting trends in their development is engaged in: – applied culturology – fundamental cultural studies – history of culture – psychology of culture • The simultaneous existence of the analyzed cultural phenolmena suggests: – synchronous method – diachronic method – structural method – systems approach • The meaning and purpose of each of the elements of culture helps to determine: – method of structural functionalism – comparative historical method – genetic method – heuristic method 15

• To study cultural phenomena in their genesis, development and change, the following is applied: – functional approach – dynamic approach – synergistic method – diachronic method • To analyze the cultural evolution of mankind as a single process, the following is used: – method of structural functionalism – comparative historical method – structural method – typological method • The concept of «culture» was introduced into scientific use by: – Plato – Cicero – Socrates – Democritus • According to the axiological approach, culture is defined as: – a certain stage in the life of society – inherited moral standards – a set of material and spiritual values – lifestyle followed by community or tribe • The function of culture, ensuring the accumulation, transmission and preservation of culturally significant public experience, is: – cognitive-informational – converting – educational – regulatory • The cultural function necessary for the implementation of the communication process is called ... – communicative – regulatory – educational – epistemological • Culture is a combination of sign systems that store and transmit information, according to: – semiotic approach 16

– an anthropological approach – axiological approach – sociological approach • The anthropological approach to culture indicates: – her human dimension – its material aspect – its religious dimension – its moral aspect • Culture is transmitted... – by inheritance (i.e. genetically) – through mechanical translation of knowledge – through world culture and art – through a special extrabiological mechanism of inheritance and memory • What features are inherent in world culture as a kind of integrity? – logic, self-evidence – unity of forms of social connection – extrabiological – manufacturability, productivity, stereotypicity – an objective, substantially general and sustainable relationship between phenomena • Middle culture is: – the dominant culture in society – a privacy culture – a form of organizing the life of a social group – a cross between traditional culture and subculture – synonymous with marginalized culture



Plan: – Approaches to understanding culture. – Characteristics of culture. – Mentality: definition, structure, examples of manifestation. – Type and genotype of culture. – Chronological typologies of cultures. – Non-chronological typologies of cultures. Guidelines: The familiarization with the course of cultural studies should begin with a definition of the concept of «culture», which is one of the fundamental in modern social science. The word «culture» is based on the Latin term. Etymologically, it meant «cultivating» and was originally used as an agrotechnical term – «cultivating the land, cultivating the soil». In modern cultural studies, three approaches are common: – technological, where culture represents a certain level of production and reproduction of public life; – activity, where culture is seen as a way and result of human life; – value (axiological), where culture is a kind of an ideal model that people should strive for. Next, it is necessary to proceed to the analysis of material and spiritual culture, highlighting their single source (man and his work), as well as the features of the difference between them. It is important to emphasize that it is spiritual needs that make up the fundamental difference between a person and an animal, and, therefore, form the «core» of culture. This position has an important methodological significance, because it allows distinguishing between the concepts of «culture» and «civilization», considering different points of view on the role of scientific and technological progress in society and its impact on the development of culture.


Test questions: • Why did the concept of «culture» arise at a certain stage of the development of mankind and why did its content change in subsequent historical periods? • What is the reason for the variety of approaches to the definition of culture? • Why did the concepts of «natural», «social» and «mental» occur as the components of the concept of «culture»? • List the functions of culture, show by examples, in what specific historical forms they can be implemented. • Describe the structure of culture, indicating its components and characterizing the relationships between them. • Give a brief description of the views of I. G. Herder, J. Condorcet, C. Marx. What are the similarities and differences between their concepts? • Analyze the theories of N. Ya Danilevsky, O. Spengler, A. Toynbee. What are the criteria followed by each thinker to distinguish between historical types of cultures? • What are the main features of the western and eastern types of culture. Try to give examples of their manifestation in the modern world. • How do you understand the expression: «Culture is a socially significant experience»? • Why are values the core of culture? What is their role in the life of a social subject? Analytical tasks: • Give an analysis of the following definitions of a cultured person: – a cultured person is an educated person, versed in music, painting, literature – a cultured person is a person who embodies the values and ideals of his people – every person is cultural, the phrase «cultural person» is meaningless – a cultured person is a synonym for a spiritually developed person • Give an analysis of the following definitions of culture: 19

– culture is a combination of material and spiritual values created by man – culture is the spiritual life of society – culture is everything created by man, and not given by nature – culture is a material activity of people – culture is an aesthetic activity of man, creation of the beautiful • What are the meanings of the word «culture» used in the following statements: – «pop culture» is not culture – «spheres of public life are economics, politics, culture» – «A depressed society does not need culture» • Which of the following are cultural backgrounds: – ethical standards – philosophy – Criminal Code – production equipment – murder weapons – scientific research – market exchange – perceptions of death – the human body – gardens and parks – natural landscape – virgin forest • What are the meanings of the word «culture» in the following statements: – «The world of culture and the world of man are one and the same» – «A culture of behavior exists where morality reigns» – «The life of people and culture are disjoint areas of life» – According to one of the characteristics, culture is the development of the ability to experience pleasure; in this sense, it is the opposite of exhaustion. Explain the meaning of this definition. • How do you understand the expressions: – low level of culture – high level of culture – necessary level of culture 20

– Show the relationship of culture with nature, society and the individual (its psyche). The assignment is to be carried out in writing. • Review the culture definitions below. Highlight common features in these definitions: – culture is everything created by people in the process of physical and mental labor to satisfy the diverse material and spiritual needs of society – culture is a socially inherited set of practices and beliefs that defines the foundations of people's lives – culture is a stream of ideas, passing from an individual to individual through symbolic actions, words or imitation – culture is the sum of all types of activities of people, customs, beliefs, knowledge – What is mentality? What are its elements? Illustrate the mentality of the people of Kazakhstan on the example of folk customs. • Relate national folklore and ethnicity: – Kazakh folklore Egyptian folklore – Russian folklore Japanese folklore – Italian folklore Indian folklore – Spanish folklore Chinese folklore • Prepare a report that will reveal the content of a particular cultural concept (optional). A variant of execution: outline briefly the points of view on the culture of four to five famous scientists. Use an example. The author of the concept Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900) – German philosopher

His ideas about culture The German philosopher approached the analysis of culture from the standpoint of pessimism and irrationalism. In European culture he saw the line of natural, spontaneous Dionysian origin and the line of Apollo with his statement of the cult of reason, art, proportionality. Man is initially anti-cultural, he is a natural creature, and culture was created to suppress and enslave all the vital, natural forces of man.

• Compile a table on the socio-historical schools of cultural studies (N.Ya. Danilevsky, O. Spengler, A. Toynbee, K. Jaspers, N. Gumilyev, P. Sorokin). 21

• Write a short essay-discussion on one of the proposed topics: • What achievements of human culture do you consider the most important and why? • What does a person need in order to find complete comfort? • Progress of civilization – is it good or evil? • Man and nature in the culture and civilization of the 20th century. • If there is an extraterrestrial mind, is civilization and culture necessary for it? • Make a summary table: «The structure of cultural studies as a science» (the form of the table is given below). In the table reflect the main features of each structural component, determine its role in the structure of cultural studies. The structure of cultural studies as a science The name of the structural component

Salient features

The role and functions of the component

Test tasks: • What does the Latin word, from which the science of cultural science got its name, mean in translation into Russian? – humanization – processing, cultivation – decoration, entertainment – all of the above • What is the meaning of the following definition: «Various superstitious actions of a person in order to influence a particular material object, phenomenon or person in a supernatural way»? – fetishism – occultism – religion – magic • What religions belong to the world ones? – Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism – Islam, Krishnaism, Baha'ism – Judaism, Confucianism, Islam – Buddhism, Christianity, Islam 22

• In what sense is the concept of «the second nature» used in the scientific literature? – society – culture – equipment – education • Languages are: – verbal and non-verbal – natural and artificial – all of the above – permanent and temporary • Choose the correct statement: – catharsis is purification through compassion and fear – catharsis is a system of norms and rules that prevails in the artistic direction – catharsis is harmony of the external and internal state of man – catharsis is historical and cultural research • What does the concept of «civilization» mean? – the level of social development – the stage of social development following barbarism – it is synonymous with culture – this concept is used in the scientific literature in all of the above senses, depending on the context and views of the author • What sciences are related to the humanities? – sociology, political science, economics – psychology, ethnography, linguistics – all listed – geography, biology, botany • Language is: – way of communication – means of thinking – a way of dividing reality into discrete concepts and their classification – all of the above • What is the name of an early form of religion, the essence of which consists in worshiping any animal or plant and in believing in one’s origin from them? – animism 23

– totemism – fetishism – magic • What is mimesis? – consonance – imitation – harmony – dance • Choose the correct statement: – science is the productive power of society – science is the field of human activity, the function of which is the development and theoretical systematization of objective knowledge of reality – both statements are correct – there is no right answer • Choose the correct statement: – technology is a set of human activities created for the implementation of production processes and maintenance of non-production needs of society – technique is a set of techniques used in any business, skill – both statements are correct – both statements are incorrect • What problems are global? – environmental and demographic – threat of nuclear war – depletion of natural resources – all listed



Plan: – Description of the main periods of primitive society. – Syncretism of primitive culture. – Primitive art and architecture. Guidelines: Starting to study this topic, we should proceed from the fact that primitive culture reveals for us the beginning of the development of mankind, the awakening of its thinking, the birth of speech and the occurrence of economic activity. In colloquial speech, the word «primitive» is often used in the meaning that has a connotation of underdevelopment and backwardness. However, one should not forget that the highest achievements of world culture became possible thanks to the primitive culture. Therefore, primitiveness means not so much underdevelopment as primacy – this is the first being of man, his «infancy» and «childhood», which took place among nature and wild animals; the struggle for survival required from our distant ancestors the maximum exertion of strength, patience, endurance and quick wit. Therefore, primitive culture must be considered as part of world culture. The second aspect of the study of primitive culture is associated with the complexity of understanding how a primitive man felt in the world around him, how he felt about him. First of all, it should be noted that scientists believe that a person did not have an individual consciousness, did not distinguish himself from the collective. He considered himself not «the king of nature» as a modern person, but part of the natural world, where he felt weaker and more defenseless than many other creatures. Therefore, he worshiped the power of nature and the beast, and for survival he created labor tools and hunting tools, a dwelling, clothes and utensils. Test questions: – What are the material foundations of primitive culture? – What are the features of the primitive worldview? 25

– Describe the forms of primitive culture. – What was the time of the primitive art and architecture? – Describe the worldview and religious views of primitive people. – What is the meaning of primitive culture? Is it really primitive? – What stages of biogenic development did a person go through from an anthropoid ape to Homo sapiens? – Where do we get information about the lives of our distant ancestors? – What form of family is characteristic of primitive society? – What are the reasons for the emergence of patriarchy? Analytical tasks: • Give an example of one of the rituals of primitive man. What, in your opinion, are the reasons for its occurrence. • Describe the features of primitive art. • Answer why: – at almost all sites of ancient people, starting from the Middle Paleolithic, were the objects of worship found? – man and culture do not exist separately? – is the study of primitive culture difficult? – Define the concept of «primitive» and highlight the sources of its study. – Describe the ideas of the ancients about the world. – Tell us about the origin of mythology and its role in the life of an archaic society. – Give a brief description of the early forms of religion: totemism, animism, fetishism, magic, ritual. – Highlight and justify the origins and manifestation of the cultural creativity of primitive man. – Make a presentation on the topic: «Primitive culture, its distinctive features, main directions and periodization (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Eneolithic)». – Give a brief description of the psychoanalytic version of the origin of the primitive art of Z. Freud. – Highlight and justify the reason for the existence of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic images of primitive art. 26

• Give examples of: – the structure of the world tree – funeral customs of primitive people – basic occupations of primitive man – cosmogonic myth • Is there a fact of reflection of ancient superstitions in modern culture? Justify the answer. Give examples. • Describe the totem cult of the beast in primitive art. Test tasks: • What is the name of an early form of religion, the essence of which is the worship of inanimate objects with supernatural properties: – animism – fetishism – totemism – magic • The largest representative of the intellectual direction of criticism of animism was the author of a number of works devoted to the study of beliefs, myths, rites, rituals of various cultures. The most famous of these works are Golden Branch, Folklore in the Old Testament, Totemism and Exogamy, Honoring Nature, Myths about the Origin of Fire, Fear of Death in a Primitive Religion ... – J. Fraser – L. Morgan – E. Taylor – C. Darwin • A symbol is: – a conventional sign – a non-expanded character, generalization – a sign that carries a generalized principle of the meaning contained in it – all of the above • Which thinker understood culture as «honoring the light»? – W. Wundt – N. Roerich – J.-J. Rousseau – L. Morgan 27

• Find the right definition for the concept of «animism»: – worship of inanimate objects attributed to supernatural properties – ceremonies associated with the belief in a person’s supernatural ability to influence on people and natural phenomena – faith in the spirits and souls that control people, objects and phenomena of the world; – the view that people, animals, plants and objects, along with the sensually perceived side, have an active principle, independent of body nature, – the soul • Choose the correct statement: – Golden ratio is a geometric, mathematical ratio of proportions in which the whole relates to its greater part, as the large to the smaller – Golden ratio is a way to build art space on a plane – Golden ratio is an essential aspect of culture and the cultural mode of activity – Golden ratio is the stage of mental development of mankind • The term «preanimism» in the article «Preanimistic religion» was first used by the English researcher ... – R. Marrett – C. Darwin – E. Taylor • Which of the following meanings correspond to the concept of «logo»? – language, word, speech – concept, judgment, meaning – a new life is being created with a logo – all of the above • To what historical type of culture may we attribute the characteristic given by A.F. Losev: «Culture is impersonal, was built on the perception of the cosmos by the objective material, animated, rational and sensual. Cosmos is absolute. Everything exists only in space and there is nothing except it»? – culture of ancient Egypt – ancient culture – culture of ancient India – European medieval culture 28

• What branches of knowledge study art? – aesthetics – sociology – psychology – all listed • Chronological framework of the European Middle Ages: – X-XV century – V-XVII century – XII-XIII century – IX-XIV century • What religion is based on the doctrine of reincarnation of souls (samsara), which takes place in accordance with the law of retribution (karma) for virtuous or bad behavior, determined by veneration of the supreme gods (Vishnu or Shiva) or their incarnations and observance of caste household rules? – Buddhism – Hinduism – Taoism – all listed • In what year was the main work of E. Taylor «Primitive Culture», that glorified his name, published? – 1871 – 1790 – 1820 • To whom the following words belong: «... among the benefactors of mankind, whom we are obliged to honor with gratitude, many, if not most, were primitive people. Ultimately, we are not so different from these people, and much of the true and useful that we so carefully preserve, we owe to our rude ancestors, who have accumulated and passed on to us the heritage of fundamental ideas that we tend to consider as something original and intuitively given». – J. Fraser – E. Taylor – N. Danilevsky • The most common subject in Assyrian art is: – war – travel – reprisals against prisoners 29

– bullfight – lion hunt – fishing – farming • What classifications of cultures are used in ethnography: – anthropological – linguistic – geographical and cultural-economic – all listed • What is the name of the early form of religion, the essence of which is the worship of inanimate objects, which are attributed to the possession of supernatural properties? – animism – fetishism – totemism • The lack of division, the cohesion of art, mythology, religion, characterizing the initial state of primitive culture – this is ... – animism – fetishism – syncretism • What is the name of an early form of religion, the essence of which is the worship of any animal or plant and belief in the origin of man from them? – animism – totemism – fetishism • What is totemism? – faith in the existence of the soul – faith in the blood-kinship of a man and animal – belief in the supernatural properties of objects • In which country did the Book of the Dead originate in antiquity? – China – India – Egypt – Babylon • What is fetishism? – faith in the existence of a soul in a person 30

– belief in the supernatural properties of inanimate objects – faith in the blood-kinship of humans and animals • Myths are: – archaic narratives about the origin of the world, about natural phenomena, about gods and heroes – one of the forms of culture – aesthetic culture of man – a kind of fiction



Plan: – The place and time of existence of Ancient Egypt. – The main features and characteristics of the culture of the period of Ancient, Middle and New Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt. – Organization of life of the ancient Egyptians. – A picture of the world in the representations of the ancient Egyptians. The main types of myths. – Gods and pharaohs as the rulers of the world and destinies. Guidelines: When studying the culture of Ancient Egypt, it is necessary to indicate that this culture was religious in nature, in addition, it was a despotic form of government, that is, the concentration of power in the hands of one person – the pharaoh, revered by the heir of God on earth. The division of the world into the earthly and the afterlife, which is an improved version of the earthly world, is characteristic of this culture, in connection with which, the earthly life of man was only a preparation for the future afterlife, but it was predetermined by the gods. Considering the culture of Ancient Egypt, consider the importance of the funeral cult in the spiritual culture of Ancient Egypt. Find out how the funeral cult came about, track its development. Show that in this cult are not only the Egyptians' ideas about overcoming death and the «other» world were synthesized, but also their rational knowledge, the titanic work of many generations of ancient Egyptians. Expand the features of the ancient Egyptian writing system, indicate the stages of its development. In addition to the texts of ritual, economic, and political importance, Egyptian literary texts have come down to us. On specific examples, show their importance for understanding the characteristics of ancient Egyptian culture, evaluate them from the standpoint of modern perception. Give information about the knowledge of the Egyptians in mathematics, astronomy, mineralogy, biology, medicine.


Test questions: • For a long time, there was a custom several times a year to present gifts to noble people. Peasants brought grain, meat, canvas, vegetables, fruits, etc. Gradually, these gifts ceased to be voluntary. Noble people had already demanded from the peasants constant offerings. Explain what is common in the situation of peasants and slaves. What is the name of the part of the products that noble people have arrogated to themselves? What is the name of the appropriation of products by noble people? • Imagine that during the flood of the Nile, one of the dams was destroyed by water. The peasants soon began to repair it. This work was hard and exhausting, which lasted many days. But noble people did not come to the restoration of the dam. They sent their slaves. Think about how these facts characterize the situation of slaves and peasants in ancient Egypt. What allowed noble people to exploit them? • Ancient Egyptian craftsmen were able to make beautiful linen, woolen and silk fabrics. They made paints of different colors, manufactured cane sugar, fruit and berry wines and other products. What sectors of the economy are these facts evidencing? What contributed to the development of agriculture and crafts in ancient Egypt? • In the «Tale of the Eloquent Villager» it is said: «Once, the villager loaded donkeys with food, salt, wood and other objects and went to the city. But when he drove through the land of a rich dignitary, the latter blocked the way for the villager, beat him and took away the donkeys and luggage. And this peasant came to the pharaoh with a complaint». Think how the pharaoh acted in relation of the criminal. Justify your opinion. Under what system could such an event have occurred? Why? • The art of the Egyptians has such features that it is easy to recognize it among the works of art of other nations. To do this, you do not have to be an Egyptologist or art critic. What is characteristic of the art of ancient Egypt? • The Egyptians had unique knowledge in medicine, mathematics, astronomy. What scientific achievements of the ancient Egyptians are known to you? Analytical tasks: • The document says about the work of artisans: «The blacksmith is black, smeared with soot, his hands are in calluses and he 33

works day and night. A stonemason knocks his fingers into the bloodstream to fill his stomach. The plaster finishing the capitals is sometimes blown away from the roof ridge. The weaver’s knees are always bent ... The weapons master wanders forever ... Such is the fate of people engaged in various crafts in ancient Egypt.» What crafts were developed in Egypt? What were the working conditions of artisans? Who got the wealth created by their labor and why? • It is known that agriculture and cattle breeding became the main occupations in Egypt more than 5 thousand years ago. In the same period of time, prisoners were turned into slaves. What conclusion can be drawn from these facts? How are they related? Justify your answer. • The Egyptian papyrus tells of the work of a craftsman: «I saw a brazier at work in the furnaces of his furnace. His fingers were like crocodile skin. It smelled worse than fish roe. Every artisan who worked as a chisel gets tired more than a plowman. His field is wood, his instrument is metal». On the basis of this document and your knowledge of history, describe the situation of artisans in ancient Egypt. Who exploited the artisans and how? Why did they fail to achieve justice? • Agriculture turned into the main occupation of the Egyptians much earlier than it happened in other regions of the world. What natural features of Egypt can explain this fact? Think, what environmental conditions contributed to increasing labor productivity and the development of the economy, which ones delayed this development. • In accordance with the floods of the Nile, the Egyptians divided the whole year into three parts, three times: «high water», «seedlings» and «dryness». Think, what natural features of Egypt it was associated with. How was this division of the year related to the agricultural work cycle? • In ancient Egypt, a hot wind blows from the desert 50 days a year – a dry wind. At the same time, the Egyptians belived that it was an evil god – Seth- with his 50 servants. He breathes anger like hot desert – heat. Can anyone agree with such an explanation of this natural phenomenon? Prove your opinion. What is common in the explanation of the causes of the Nile spates and the dry winds? What views of people in ancient times do they testify to? 34

• Imagine that you met an Egyptian and listened to his story: «In our tribe, men are engaged in hunting and fishing, and women are cultivating the land. Our grandfathers also worked on this beautiful land. And suddenly one warlike tribe wanted to capture it. In a fierce war, we won and took prisoners». Imagine how the winners did with the captives. What structure could it be? Prove your opinion. • The warlord of the pharaoh, a wealthy and noble slave owner, returned from the war. But, having entered the palace to report on his campaign, he does not even dare to stand in the presence of the king, but falls prostrate at his feet and lies until the pharaoh orders him to rise. How does this fact testify to the power of the pharaoh in ancient Egypt? What did he manage in the country? Why did even noble people tremble before Pharaoh? • Fill in the table «Religion in Ancient Egypt». Names of the Gods

What forces of nature and occupation did they reflect

How did they reflect the slave system

Test tasks: • In ancient Egypt they worshiped different gods, but the most revered were: – Seth – Anubis – Osiris • The tomb that escaped plunder belonged to the pharaoh... – Djoser – Mycerinus – Chephren – Tutankhamun • Who occupied the first place in the religious cult of the Egyptians? – Deified Pharaoh 35

– God of the moon, who was also the god of writing – God of the Sun – Ra, the king and father of the gods – God Osiris – the god of death and resurrection of nature – Isis – the goddess of fertility and motherhood • What was the expression of the idea of immortality of the power of the pharaoh? – Sphinx – Pyramids of Egypt – Hieroglyphic writing – Mummification – Temple • What monument of Egyptian architecture is a symbol of Ancient Egypt? – Pyramids of Egypt – Sphinx guarding the pyramid of Chephren – Sculptural portrait of Nifertiti – Alexandrian lighthouse – Hieroglyphs • What material was the famous Cheops pyramid made of? – from granite – from marble – from clay – from calcareous stones • What civilization developed later than the others – in the 2nd millennium BC? – civilization of Ancient Egypt – civilization of ancient India – civilization of Mesopotamia; – Mohenjo Daro and Harappa civilization – civilization of ancient China • What did the ancient Egyptians write on? – on paper – on papyrus – on parchment • The tomb of which pharaoh is located in Giza? – Cheops – Chefren – Mycerinus – all listed 36

• The most common cults in Egypt were: – cult of ancestors – cult of the dead – animal cult – cult of the pharaohs – all of the above • The standard form of the first Egyptian tombs is called ... – mastaba – pyramid – mine – tholos • The size of human figures in the fine arts of ancient Egypt depends on the... – position in space – social status – age • Architect-author of the ensemble of the pyramid of Djoser is: – Thutmose – Imhotep – Itkin – Amenhotep • Especially grandiose temples were built under the guidance of the most skilled architects in ... – Memphis – Thebes – Bubastis • The person who managed to decipher the Egyptian hieroglyphs was: – Jean Francois Champollion – Cheops – Tutankhamun



Plan: – Stages of the development of the Indo-Buddhist culture. – The ideal of man, a model of cultural man in the Indo-Buddhist culture. – Highest values of Hinduism and Buddhism. – Representations of the supernatural in the Indo-Buddhist type of mentality. – Attitude to life and death in the Indo-Buddhist type of mentality. – Contribution of India to world culture. Guidelines: Before starting work on this topic, you should study the periodization of the history of ancient India. Please note that the oldest Indian civilization is the third most ancient civilization in its history (its heyday was in the XXIII-XVIII centuries BC). Tell us about the emergence of an ancient civilization in the Indus Valley. What is the influence of natural conditions on the existence of this civilization? What do we know about the material culture, religion and way of life of the ancient people of the Indus Valley? What are the architectural features of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa? Tell us what the Indian system of four varnas was, using the «Laws of Manu». How do varnas and castes relate to each other? What are the features of the ancient Indian management system? The culture of ancient India was largely determined by its religion. The oldest known religion of India is Vedic religion, the name of which comes from the name of the holy books – the Vedas. By the beginning of our era, the Vedic religion was transformed into Hinduism, which is still the religion of the majority of the population of India. In the VI century BC. Buddhism arose in India and later became a world religion. Almost simultaneously with Buddhism, Jainism arises. Reveal the essence of each of these religious beliefs using passages from the sacred texts in response. Show what their influence on Indian culture and the life of Indians is. 38

When considering ancient Indian literature, it is important to consider its extreme diversity. Describe Vedic literature, the main body of which is the shruti (hearing) and smriti (memorization). Smriti literature is adjoined by epic poetry. Get to know the most famous ancient Indian poems Mahabharata and Ramayana. Also dwell on the literature of the Buddhist canon. Finishing work on the topic, show what the influence of Ancient India on modern Indian and world culture is. Test questions: • Explain the meaning of concepts: samsara; karma; moksha. • How to explain the phenomenon of mass suicides that took place in the history of India? • What is the nature of the relationship between Buddhism and Hinduism in medieval India? • What impact did Muslim conquest have on Indian culture? • How do you understand the phrase: «Zealously esteem the three treasures: Buddha, Dharma and Sangha» • What is the structure of the Vedic literature complex? What are the Upanishads, Vedangas, Upavids? • What are the four basic truths that made up the Buddha's covenant? • From ancient times, Indian merchants had a reputation as the most honest merchants. What explains this phenomenon? • Why did some of the wise men of India commit suicide? • Why are European travelers embarrassed when they enter the temples of India? • Hindus of pre-Muslim India did not create their history. Why? • What does prescription mean in Indian art: should the painter provoke a particular race with his work? • How did the art of traditional India embody the desire of Buddhism to release a person from the sensual foundations of the earthly world? • European thinkers called the Indo-Buddhist culture the culture of denial of life. Do you agree with this statement? • Which of the following gods were included in the pantheon of Hinduism: Hera, Krishna, Vishnu, Shiva, Zeus, Hermes, Agni, Varuna, Purusha? 39

– Which of the four Buddhist truths coincides with the moral efforts of man? – Why can an individual’s spiritual self-concentration to perfect equanimity be considered an ethically significant life program? – What is the unity of Indian culture, what theory can you name confirming this? Analytical tasks: • In Indian culture, it was believed that there are two types of knowledge: prajna – omniscience, holistic thinking and vijnana – conditional, symbolic knowledge that precedes true knowledge. What type of knowledge was valued higher in this culture and what are the implications of such an assessment for the culture? • Compare the «ideal of liberation» – «moksha» in Hinduism and nirvana in Buddhism. What do these phenomena have in common? • Is the coincidence of many words of the Russian language and Sanskrit accidental? Give examples. • Why was it possible in India that the ascetic Mahatma Gandhi without any coercion convinced the landowners to redistribute 35 thousand acres of land in favor of tenants? • In India, the types of commercial, technical knowledge are not developed. Why do you think it is so? Is this connected with the specific mentality of the traditional Indian society? • In the Indian miniature of the Mughal era, the decorativeness, conventionality and symbolism of the image were extremely developed. What is the reason for this? • The range of possible dates of the life of the great Indian poet Kalidasa is from the 1st century B.C. until the eleventh century A.D. What feature of the Indo-Buddhist culture is reflected in this fact? • In the history of India there have been almost no mass uprisings and not a single peasant war. How do you think why? Explain, paying attention to the specifics of the mentality. • Choose the correct name: Brahmanas ritualistic teachings Aranyaki forest books associated primarily with the symbols of the sacrificial act Upanishads secret instruction 40

• The Hindus of a traditional society is called the «homo hierarchy» – a man who loves to divide and subdivide. How can this be proved? • Set compliance: literary monuments – country: «Atharva Veda» Ancient Egypt «Harper's Song» Ancient India «The Epic of Gilgamesh» Ancient Iran Avesta Ancient Mesopotamia • Sansara (wandering) is staying in earthly sensual being, the sinful severity of which can be overcome by suffering and spiritual exercises. What symbol of this concept exists in ancient Indian culture? • All cultural scientists note the unhistorical approach of the Hindus to reality, the absence of historical chronicles, the inattention of the Indians to history. How can you explain this, bearing in mind the specifics of the mentality? • Buddhism is not a religion in the strict sense of the word, but the type of thinking, existence – the Way. Try to prove this point. • Match: Gods – Country: Amon Ancient Mesopotamia Enlil Ancient Egypt Humban Ancient India Indra Ancient Iran • Match: Gods – Country: Ahura Mazda Ancient China Ra Ancient Egypt Vishnu Ancient Iran Zao Wang Ancient India • Try to make a list of questions that Buddha would answer with «noble silence». • Explain the terms: Yoga Ren Brahman prana jian-qiao asura Samsara Islam Atharva Veda Li Sharia Nyaya Shen Sunna Buddha uwei ren sacred cow dharma adharma buddhi Vishnu yoga karma 41

Test tasks: • The Vedas are sacred texts in – Brahmanism and Hinduism – Buddhism – Taoism • Zoroastrianism – religions of ancient Egypt • «Daojing» is a sacred text in – Brazmanism and Hinduism – Buddhism – Taoism – Zoroastrianism • religions of ancient Egypt • Tripitaka is a sacred text in – Brazmanism and Hinduism – Buddhism – Taoism – Zoroastrianism – religions of ancient Egypt • The temple in the form of a high stepped tower, landscaped and crowned with a golden dome, in the Ancient Mesopotamia was called: – ziggurat – mastaba – stupa – pagoda • The epos of the Mahabharata and its main body of the Bhagavat Gita are the texts created in – Ancient Egypt – Ancient India – Ancient Iran – Ancient China • The guardian god in brahmanism is – Brahma – Shiva – Vishnu – Indra 42

• The founder of Buddhism is: – Siddhartha Gautama Sakyamuni – Samanatha – Vardhamana Mahavira – Panditacharya • The idea of saving a person in nirvana, through the «octal path» is the basis of – Vedism – Hinduism – Brahmanism • Buddhism • Does ancient Indian philosophy recognize the theory of soul transmigration? – yes – no • The most common religion in India is – Buddhism – Judaism – Vedism – Taoism – Confucianism • What is ahimsa? – Buddhist community of which monks are members – a symbol of spiritual essence and spiritual vision, depicted on the forehead of the gods of the rank of buddhas («third eye») – universal law ensuring the regularity of space processes – «non-damage» is a refusal to harm any living being • The Hindu God of truth, goodness and law, which can take the form of an animal or person is – Frame – Shiva – Buddha – Vishnu • What was done to the body of the Buddha after his departure to nirvana: it was – mummified – buried in the temple 43

– – • – – – –

crucified cremated What does the term mahayana mean: «small chariot» «narrow path» «main way» «big chariot»



Plan: – Genesis of Confucian culture. The era of cultural upsurge and decline. – The meaning-forming values of Confucian culture. Confucian and Taoist ideal of man. – Worldview foundations of the Confucian type of culture. – Attitude towards knowledge in Confucian culture. – Labor, property, wealth in the Confucian type of mentality. Guidelines: Ancient Chinese culture is of great interest to the history of culture, since it was created by the Chinese people in the conditions of relative isolation. Tell us about the natural conditions in which Chinese civilization arose. What are the specifics of the Chinese economic activities? Dwell on the cultivation of rice and breeding silkworms. Based on the material presented in the lecture, highlight the main features of ancient Chinese culture. They should be written out in a notebook in the form of a plan. Dwell on the concept of China-centrism. Show what role writing and rituals played in Chinese civilization. Tell us about the ancient Chinese rituals. What are the specifics of the writing of ancient China? Describe writing materials. What was the material for writing? What is the connection between Chinese poetry and calligraphy? Consider how the state structure in ancient China is changing. What role did the emperor play in the management system? What are the Chinese perceptions of politics and legislation? What are the causes of the cruelty of ancient Chinese laws? What place did the family take in the management system? Get to know Confucius’s teachings about the state. Describing the main philosophical schools of Ancient China, note the features of Confucianism, Taoism and Legism. What are their founders, the most important theoretical writings and main ideas?


Tell us about the scientific achievements and technical inventions of the ancient Chinese. What is the identity of Chinese medicine? What are the main inventions of the ancient Chinese? What influence did one of the fundamental ideas of Chinese civilization – the idea of the inextricable unity of man and nature – exert on the development of building art? What is a traditional Chinese house? Test questions: • At first it was used as a medicine and antidote. But from 50 BC the scope of its application expanded and spread from southern provinces throughout China. In 783, taxes were introduced on it, and in 818-908, the method of using it became an art. What is it? • In the crypt of Queen Fu Hao (Shang Dynasty, 1500-1000 BC), more than 7000 cowrie shells were found. What role did these shells play in her life? • The Chinese consider heaven as the father of their Celestial country, and the earth as their mother. Day and night, the father vigilantly watches the mother. What serves him as his eyes? • In 105 A.D. at the court of the Chinese emperor, the following phrase sounded: «Bamboo is heavy, and silk is too expensive. We need material that with dignity replaces silk and bamboo». What material was successfully able to replace the above? • The tomb of the first emperor of China, Qin Shihuangdi, is unimaginable. It is guarded by a strong army of 8,000 terracotta warriors. The tomb includes a mock empire with mercury lakes. The door to the tomb cannot be cut through with an iron cannon; soldiers in iron armor cannot pass through it either. How was this protection achieved? • What grandiose structure, constructed in 1090 by the astronomer Su Sun on the orders of Emperor Ying Zong, was called the «space machine» in China? • The ancient Chinese cultural hero Tsang Jie had four eyes (two one above the other) – a symbol of a special insight. What did he invent when he penetrated the deeper meaning of traces of animals and birds? • China is currently the main supplier of dinosaur eggs to the global market. But there were other eggs, which once formed the basis 46

of the country's welfare. Only in the IV century A.D. the Chinese princess decided to present them to her husband, the Bukhara emir. What kind of eggs are we talking about? • The Chinese prince Mode accustomed his warriors to unquestioning obedience, punishing with the death those who hesitated. From time to time he gave commands to shoot: at first – at his horse, then – at his falcon, then – at his wife. Where was the fourth shot directed by his command? • In the Chinese calendar, years are combined into 60-year cycles, and each of the names includes two concepts that correspond to one of the five «heavenly roots: wood, fire, earth, metal, water. Name both concepts. Analytical tasks: • Classify the listed qualities, referring them to either «yin» or «yang»: – rationality – prudence – fidelity – depth – gloom – joy – success • What is the meaning of the phrase: «Managing a large enterprise resembles cooking small fish dishes». What features of Confucian norms of behavior are read in it? • One Chinese emperor invited musicians to his garden in springtime to delight the ear of flowers. Explain this fact based on the principles of Taoism. • In the Far Eastern type of mentality, the sun is traditionally associated with the left side, the earth – with the right. Continue the series of associations and define the prescriptions of the ancient «Book of Establishments»: it is befitting for men to walk along the ..... side of the street, hold on ....., sitting down at the table and laying down in a conjugal bed. • In traditional Chinese medicine, anatomy had never been included in the curriculum of imperial medical schools. Why?


• What is the cultural and historical significance of the ancient Chinese cultural heritage? Give examples of the most interesting, in your opinion, monuments of ancient Chinese culture. • Why in Chinese poetry there is a line break where it would seem that there should be a few more lines, and in Chinese painting most part of the scroll remains blank (empty)? • Most martial arts have in their names the character «do» – judo, karate-do, taekwondo, aikido, kendo. What does this concept mean? • The goal of Chinese culinary art in ancient times was to achieve the most harmonious and pure blending of products, which would be a prototype of the «unchanging middle and harmony» of all things. What feature of the development of ancient Chinese culture reflects this ideal of cooking? • Why was it considered in China a state principle, contrary to the basic precepts of family cohesion, to move officials from one area to another? • In China, adherents of Mao honored the emperor Qin Shi-huang (who ruled in the II-III centuries B.C.). Why do you think it was so? • Explain the meaning of the following statement: «Overcome yourself and return whether or not there is zhen. When one day they overcome personal and whether they restore, the Celestial Empire will return to zhen. But zhen depends only on oneself, not on others?». • In the «Book of Changes» there is a list of 8 trigrams. Combinations of two trigrams form a total of 64 hexagrams, which, according to Chinese ideas, exhaust the whole variety of phenomena in the world. Chinese medicine distinguishes 64 joints in a person, corresponding to 64 hexagrams. Can you give examples of similar matches? Test tasks: • What is the meaning of the teachings of Confucius? – self-improvement – faith in the afterlife – respect of traditions – renouncing the worldly way of life • The Chinese kept their notes on ... – reed leaves 48

– split bamboo – clay tablets – on the sand • What was the name of writing in ancient China: – cuneiform – pictography – hieroglyphs – linear writing • Which of the explanations is more suitable for the Taoist principle of «non-action» (« u wei») – action without intent, unintended, spontaneous – following naturalness, merging with it – inaction, only contemplation of reality – immersion of a person in himself, inner contemplation • In China, there is a religion that states the following: the world is one, and it follows the intended path, but the wisdom is not to interfere in the course of being, but only to guess its place in it; all opposites by themselves pass into each other or coincide. It is called… – Lamaism – Buddhism – Confucianism – Taoism • Chinese art is characterized by painting with... – oil paints – gouache – watercolor paints – ink • The appearance of genuine drama and theatrical art in China took place: – in the Tang era – in the Sung era – in the Yuan era – in the Ming era • Choose the characteristic features of ancient Chinese culture: – progressiveness – hierarchy – individualism – conformism 49

– collectivism – leading policy role – dialogue • According to the concept of «heavenly mandate» the emperor of the Celestial Empire was elected by: – the most rich – the smartest – the most entrepreneurial – worthy – the most honest – visionary • The technical achievements of ancient Chinese civilization include: – water pipes – compass – umbrella – paper – gunpowder – all of the above



Plan: – General characteristics of ancient culture. The idea of man in ancient culture. – Greek mythology and its influence on Western culture. – Culture of the archaic period (architecture, sculpture, painting, literature). – The influence of Greece on Roman culture. The specifics of the culture of Ancient Rome, its main features. – Literature. Creativity of Apuleius, Virgil, Horace, Ovid. Guidelines: Before proceeding with the preparation of the answers, you should learn the periodization of the history of Ancient Greece and get acquainted with the summary of each period. Then highlight the distinctive features of ancient Greek culture. Expand in more detail such ones as the polis character, anthropocentrism, agonal character. Dwell in detail on ancient Greek mythology and religion. Note that myth in Ancient Greece was the basis of art, literature, philosophy. Myths allowed the antinomies of being, created an integral image of the world in which everything had its own meaning, place and explanation, determined lifestyle and human behavior. Show the features of the mythological thinking of the ancient Greeks. Give examples of heroic myths telling about exploits, and etiological myths, explaining the causes of events, customs, names. Name 12 Olympic gods. Show what the specificity of ancient Greek religiosity is. Show how the material culture of Ancient Greece changed over time. Tell about the development of crafts. Dwell on the achievements of the Greeks in the field of mechanics, the activities of Archimedes and his inventions. Tell about ancient Greek ceramics. A special place in the formation of the ancient model of the world belongs to the Greek theater. Show what lays at the origins of theatrical performances. Describe the building of a typical ancient Greek theater. Tell us what the ancient Greek tragedies and comedies were. Describe the work of outstanding playwrights. 51

Consider the daily life of the ancient Greeks, their main activities, traditional forms of leisure. Describe the ancient Greek dwelling and clothing. Finishing work on the topic, show the world-historical significance of the culture of Ancient Greece. The culture of Ancient Rome continued the Hellenistic tradition and at the same time acted as an independent phenomenon, determined by the course of historical events, the uniqueness of living conditions, religion and other factors. Show how the influence of Greek culture on the Roman one manifested. Highlight the specific features of Roman culture. Consider how the ancient Roman religion changed over time. Show the remnants of animism and totemism in the early Roman religion. What influence did the mythology of ancient Greece have on the religious beliefs of the Romans? Compare the pantheon of Greek and Roman gods. What role did priests play in ancient Rome? Around the second century B.C. the penetration of cults of the eastern gods into Rome began. What was it connected with and what was it manifested in? Test questions: • What social reasons contributed to the fact that it was ancient Greece where the European culture was born? • What did the ancient Greek culture borrow from the cultures of the countries of the Far East? • Was there a need for Greek warriors to hide inside the Trojan horse? • What prevented Thetis, the mother of Achilles, from washing the heel of her child with the water of Styx, what as a result led to the fact that his heel became his vulnerable spot? • Why do ancient Greek sculptures have expressionless, although beautiful faces? • It is known that a certain Herostratus burned one of the seven wonders of the world – the temple of Artemis of Ephesus. You must admit that the builder of this temple is worthier of the memory of mankind. What was his name? • Why is the fable genre, whose founder is Aesop, still considered popular?


• What is Sisyphus labor? What for was Sisyphus punished by the gods? • What is the torment of Tantalus? What was Tantalus punished for? • What was the name of the river, which, according to the ancient Greeks, surrounded the underworld? • Which planets bear the names of the ancient Greek and Roman gods? • Why did the ancient Greeks put a coin in their mouth? • Which of the ancient Romans said: «I came, I saw, I conquered»? Analytical tasks: • Once in Athens, clay sherds were used for secret voting – ostracons – on which the names of political figures were written. What procedure awaited the one whose name was most often found on these sherds? • In ancient Greece, a rock, from the crevices of which toxic gases escaped, was very popular. What is the famous place where the temple of Apollo stood, and what is the name of the priestess who, breathing these fumes, fell into a trance and predicted fate? • According to many encyclopedias, writing in Greece came from the East – from Phoenicia, due to a mythical hero named Cadmus. Tell me, given the mythological personification, what does his name mean in Phoenician? • What did Diogenes of Sinope ask Alexander of Macedon? And what would you ask the ruler if you were a cynic? • What arguments did Aristippus of Cyrena give in favor of the priority of bodily pleasures over spiritual ones? If you do not know them, try to come up with your own. • Socrates claimed: «I know that I know nothing». DI. Mendeleyev objected to him: «The ancient Greek sage said: I know that I know nothing. «Yes, he didn’t know, but we know...» («Fundamentals of Chemistry»). – Which of them is right? Rate and comment. • Why did ancient Greek warriors armed with bronze swords had to stop often during battles, while with iron swords they would not do this? 53

• According to legend, they should always bear the shame of the inhabitants of Caria – the only city of the island of Peloponnese, which completely sided with the Persians. What are these proud women called since then? • How can I comment on the graffiti of Roman Pompeii? • At the merchant’s house: «Profit is happiness». • Under the names of candidates for elected office: «All are lazy people, all are drunkards». • On the wall of the house where the girl lived: «My dear, you seem to me too ugly». • A critical resident of Pompeii: «Oh Wall, you are doomed to bear so much stupid chatter». • What episodes and heroes of the Trojan War and the adventures of Odyssey are related to: – Court of Paris – Apple of discord – Beautiful Elena – Trojan horse – Fear Danians bringing gifts – Achilles's heel – Circe turns men into pigs – She sings like a sweet-sounding siren • The myth of Daedalus and Icarus says that Icarus, flying on wings made by Daedalus of feathers and wax, rose high to the sun, the wax melted, and Icarus fell into the sea and perished. Do you think that the well-known test pilot M. Gallay is right when evaluating the story of Icarus as a technical specialist: «In essence, if we ignore the noble non-transferable meaning of the legend and analyze its content from the standpoint of, so to speak, professional flight, that Icarus is none other than the first emergency responder in the history of aviation and the founder of all subsequent emergency responders. Moreover, again, in full accordance with all subsequent aviation experience, the cause of the accident looks very trivial: failure to comply with the piloting instructions, violation of the received mission»? • What do the expressions mean: – Pyrrhic victory – Ariadne's thread – Augur's smile 54

Test tasks: • What does the term «antiquity» mean? – Greco-Roman antiquity – a term is equivalent to the Russian term «античность» – the term «antiquity» is used in both senses • What features are characteristic of ancient culture? – anthropomorphism of the gods – anthropocentrism – agonistics – mythology – all of the above • Goddess of love in ancient Greece is: – Aphrodite – Minerva – Lada • Goddess of wisdom in ancient Rome is: – Minerva – Aphrodite – Victoria • What was the name of the ancient Greek city, where, according to the preserved information, European philosophy was born? – Athens – Miletus – Mycenae • What class of society did Aristotle consider the most useful? – aristocracy – artisans – farmers • What forms of governance did Aristotle consider «good»? – democracy – aristocracy – politics • What ancient Greek policy became the standard of ancient Greek democracy? – Sparta – Athens – Corinth


• What is one of the «wrong» forms of state, from the point of view of Aristotle – monarchy – tyranny – polity • The most important art form of Republican Rome is considered to be... – architecture – sculpture – theater • What did the word «democracy» mean to the ancient Greeks? – power of people – equal rights – equal opportunity • What is the name of the famous Roman speaker. – Seneca – Marcus Aurelius – Cicero • Which strategist’s reign is called the «golden age» of Athens? – Theseus – Solon – Kleisthenes – Pericles • Choose the most suitable characteristic of the culture of Ancient Rome: – aestheticism – mythological – practicality – traditionalism • In ancient Rome, what was the name of the patron spirit of each individual person who was its life force? – Janus – Lar – Penates – Genius • What was the name of the patron spirit of each individual person in ancient Rome, who was his life force? – Janus 56

– Lar – Penates – Genius • On slave-owning democracy, he said: «The worst is the majority»: – Pyrrho – Diogenes – Socrates – Cleanthes • According to the Stoics, gloating refers to this kind of passion, such as: – pleasure – lust – fear – sadness • According to Aristotle, a person is: – two-legged animal without feathers – moral being – soul in the dungeon of the body – political animal • Socrates said: «I know that I know nothing, but ...» ... – to know everything is impossible – knowledge increases grief – I do not need to know anything at all – others do not know even this



Plan: – The emergence of the Arab-Islamic culture, the periodization of its history. – Features of social organization and statehood in the Islamic world. – Value orientations, the ideal of man in the Arab-Islamic culture. – Worldview foundations of the Arab-Islamic culture. – Attitude to knowledge in the Arab-Islamic culture. – Perception of life and death in the Muslim mentality. Guidelines: Pay attention to the ethnocultural situation of the 6th-7th centuries on the West coast of the Arabian Peninsula – the birthplace of Islam. Describe the characteristics of Islam as a creed. Tell us how the Holy Books of Islam were created. What features of Islam contributed to its rapid spread? How did Islamic architecture express religious ideology? What are the most prominent monuments of Islamic architecture. What is the reason for the prohibition of Sunni theology on the depiction of objects? In what cases was this prohibition overcome? What features are inherent in Muslim fine art? What explained the special attitude in Arabic Muslim culture to writing, book, and knowledge? What were the achievements of medieval Arab science? What do you know about the work of poets of the Islamic Middle Ages who wrote in Arabic, Farsi? How did prose develop in the literature of the medieval East? Provide data confirming the fact of a significant influence of Arab medieval culture on Western European culture. Test questions: • Researchers connect the emergence and development of the ideas of Islam as the youngest of world religions with already existing 58

religious beliefs: Zoroastrianism, Judaism and Christianity. What significance did these religions have for the development of Islamic ideas? • In Muslim countries, all actions of a person in the family and in society, property relations, rules of trade, marriage and burial are regulated, and these rules were developed in the 7th-10th centuries. What are the basic rules of Muslim behavior? Explain, why these rules exist to this day. • The fundamentals of the Islamic religion are known to every Muslim. Name the «five pillars» of Islam, the five main responsibilities of the believer. • Sometimes jihad is attributed to the pillars of Islam. Does jihad enter the «five pillars» of faith and what does it really mean? • Prove that «the East in the Muslim era continued cultural work, interrupted after the collapse of the Greco-Roman world, and for several centuries ranked the first in the cultural process». • Abu Hayyan-at-Tawhidi, the author of the Book of Delights and Entertainment, believed that the following factors gave the Arabs the right to consider themselves superior to others: natural intelligence, innate morality, natural eloquence and revelation of Muhammad. Do these factors speak of the cultural exclusivity of the Arabs? Analyze the statement of Abu Hayyan. • Only three centuries it took the half-wild nomads to turn their Arab-Islamic culture into a mature culture. Due to what factors does it occur? • Looking at the treasures of Iranian culture, we see that all of these areas are closely related to each other, starting from the poetic form of «messnevi» and ending with the pattern of the carpet, from talking with a neighbor and to preaching in a mosque. Together, they form a chain of deep spiritual connections ... (S.Kh. Nasser). Which ones? • Why do some Muslim theologians condemn accident insurance? Analytical tasks: • It is known that back in the 10th century, the Fatimid supreme judge, the Qadi, was investigating court cases in the Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo. What feature of the Arab-Islamic culture are we talking about? 59

• Once Muhammad, making a prayer in the room of his wife Aisha, saw a drawing of a bird on the curtain and ordered to remove the curtain. Aisha took off the curtain and sewed a pillowcase out of it for the «mittak» (round pillow), in this case the prophet did not mind. What feature of the Arab-Islamic tradition is reflected in this hadith? • Saffron is the perfume of virgins. Ink is the perfume of men. What kind of art are we talking about? What kind of mentality can we talk about? • Traditionally, it is not customary in Muslim families to keep a dog inside an apartment, no matter what breed it is. What feature of the Arab-Islamic culture can this tradition illustrate? • The laws of the Sultans should not be contrary to Sharia. The sultan had the power and rights of a caliph and a great imam – he had the right to confiscate the property of the guilty dignitaries, by law, he owned the entire state of the dignitaries deceased in the service . What features of the Arab-Islamic culture are we talking about? • Prove that the Muslim East, having absorbed the ancient heritage, developed it in its own way and reworked it. • Which of the following features of oriental culture can be attributed to the Arab-Islamic type: contemplation; introversion; passivity; traditionalism; dominance of community social ties? • The system of factors that influenced the formation of the Arab-Islamic type of mentality was built on: – climate – predominance of urban lifestyle – nomadic (nomadic) lifestyle of Bedouins – ethnic predecessors of the Arabs – Islam – a single Arabic language that had long existed as a single literary language • There is an old parable: The artist asked the sage: «Can't I draw animals anymore?» And he answered: «You can, but deprive their heads so that they do not resemble living beings or try to make them resemble flowers». In what culture is this parable possible and why? • One of the principles of literature in the Arab-Islamic world was the following one: «to educate without tiring, to instruct entertainning». Prove with the examples from the culture. 60

Test tasks: • Islam in translation from Arabic means ... – faith – salvation – reading – humility • The holy text of Islam is ... – Bible – Torah – Quran – Tripitaka • Quran translated from Arabic means ... – faith – salvation – reading – humility • The most widely spread direction of Islam is ... – Sunnism – Shiism – Sufism – Wahhabism • The mystical direction of Islam is ... – Sunnism – Shiism – Sufism – Wahhabism • This direction that unites all currents of Islam of the New and Modern times is... – Sunnism – Shiism – Sufism – Wahhabism • The cult building in Islam is ... – ziggurat – madrasah – mosque – pagoda


• How is the word translated from Arabic, from which the holy book of Muslims «Quran» got its name? – to read – shrine – speak • What is the name of the main holy book of Muslims? – Quran – Bible – Sunnah • The One God of Muslims is… – Buddha – Vishnu – Allah – Shiva • Translated into Russian, the name of this building means «a place of worship». What kind of building is it? – mosque – mausoleum – madrasah • The altar niche of a Muslim temple is called: – iwan – mihrab – apse • The tower from which the priest convened the Muslims to prayer is a: – mosque – minaret – madrasah – mausoleum • Iwan is: – an arched portal of large scale, designing the main facade – an altar niche in the mosque – a funerary tomb • In which city did the prophet Muhammad begin his sermon? – Mecca – Medina – Baghdad • What is Sharia? 62

– – – • – – – – – –

a philosophical doctrine Muslim law system theological teaching Choose the names of Muslim poets of the Middle Ages: Dante Rudaki Omar Khayyam Virgil Nizami Shahnameh



Plan: – Periodization of European-Christian culture. – The origins of European-Christian culture. – The ideal of man: from antiquity to the Middle Ages and modern times. – Perception of space in the European-Christian type of mentality. – Features of the social organization and statehood of the West. – Moral values of European-Christian culture. Guidelines: Starting work on the topic, you should highlight the history of the term «Middle Ages» and show how the attitude towards medieval culture has changed over time. Highlight the main features of the medieval type of culture. Show that it is based on the interaction of two principles: the own culture of the «barbarian» peoples of Western Europe and the cultural traditions of the Western Roman Empire – law, science, art, Christianity. It was the interaction of the Germanic and Romanesque beginnings that gave a powerful impetus to the formation of the West European medieval culture itself. During the high Middle Ages, cities became the centers of culture. Describe a typical medieval city and its population. Tell us about the medieval craft and how to organize it. Show the role of workshops in the Middle Ages. Tell us about the main technical inventions of the Middle Ages. In the spiritual culture of the Middle Ages, the Christian religion played a major role. Show what the church organization was. What was the political, economic and ideological power of the Christian church based on and how it was manifested? What are the sources of its wealth? What are the reasons for the struggle of the church and the state, which took place throughout the Middle Ages? Explain what heresy is, why it arises. What is the social essence and ideological foundations of heresies? Dwell on the methods of struggle of the Christian church with dissent. Tell us about the activities of the Inquisition. 64

Consider what knightly culture was. Who were the knights? What were their main occupations and sources of income. Describe the weapons, uniforms, lifestyle features and traditions of the knights. Tell us when and why the romanticization of chivalry occurred. In conclusion, show that in the Middle Ages there was a division of culture into official and popular, highlight the main contradictions of medieval culture. Test questions: • In antiquity, labor was not considered a virtue and an integral attribute of life: man was primarily homo politikus. How did medieval culture manage to change this attitude? • Is it possible to agree with the French cultural historian Le Hoff, who believes that in the Middle Ages there was no single idea of time and we can talk about the multiplicity of times as a reality of medieval consciousness? • How did the «ideal of evangelical poverty» and the desire to possess wealth combine in the minds of medieval people? • In the sources of medieval culture, the usual way to describe the value of the feud is to indicate the income that can be obtained from it, or the number of plows needed to cultivate it. • The monastic orders contributed to a shift in the attitude to work, since the life in them, work in them changed the ethical assessment of the benefits of labor, he contributed to self-control, selfeducation. Labor, a form of austerity, is the ideal of early medieval society. What opposed it? • In the XII-XIII centuries in the European Middle Ages there were changes in the system of orientations, values. They were figuratively called «from heaven to earth». How do you understand that? • Lapta, wrestling, hockey, football – all these games appeared in the so-called «dark era of the Middle Ages». How to explain this? Analytical tasks: • What types of feudal dependence do you know? What are the estates? What are the main classes of feudal society? • What was the manifestation of the economic, political, ideological power of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages? What 65

are the sources of its income? When and why did the Christian church divide into Catholic and Orthodox? What are the main dogmatic and religious differences between Catholicism and Orthodoxy. • The cathedral was a symbol of the universe in the Middle Ages. The portals of cathedrals and churches are the gates of heaven, these magnificent buildings themselves are the house of God. How can you decipher other details of the temple? • Imagine a dispute in which one side claims that Christianity is committed to entrepreneurship, the other one states the opposite. Will the contending parties find confirmation in the Bible? • Vassal unions, knights' associations and orders, monastic brethren and the Catholic clergy, city communes, guilds of merchants and craft workshops – how are medieval people connected with them? • Relate the judgments and their authors – Abelard, Anselm of Canterbury, Tertullian, Augustine: – «I believe in order to understand» – «Understand to believe» – «Understand to believe, believe to understand» – «I believe, for it is absurd» • What does the image of «Dance of Death» that is found everywhere in medieval Europe speak about? What feature of medieval culture is it connected with? • Wealthy parents are now giving newlyweds on the wedding day the keys of a car, boat, apartment. And what key was given in medieval Italy by every mother of the bride to a young man along with her daughter’s hand? • In the Middle Ages, puppeteers often performed at fairs with the plays on biblical themes. What was the name of the doll depicting the Virgin in them? • Many enlightened medieval Italians – wealthy citizens and representatives of art – were engaged in excavations aimed at extracting antique works. Why did the church cruelly persecute them? • What was the first firearm that appeared in the XIV century? • What institutions first appeared in the 15th century in France thanks to usurers from the northern Italian province? • Find the correspondence between the philosophical and religious movement and the age: 66

– – – – –

Neoplatonism Augustinism Neo-Thomism Thomism Fill in the table:


13th century III century V century 19th century

The main stages of medieval philosophy Representatives Main The prevailing goals philosophizing method

Apologetics Patristics Scholasticism

Fill the table:

Philosophical and religious worldviews (on the example of ancient and medieval philosophy) Worldview Type Content Aims Tools Methods Philosophical Religious

Test tasks: • The cultural-historical period considered by medieval studies is: – Antiquity – Middle Ages – Renaissance – Enlightment • Which of the listed books of the Bible contains the ten religious and moral commandments of Christianity? – Genesis – Exodus – Deuteronomy – Apocalypse • Choose a principle that is characteristic of the culture of the Middle Ages: – humanism


– anthropocentrism – theocentrism – tolerance • In which of the following cities was Jesus Christ born? – in Nazareth – in Jerusalem – in Bethlehem – in Carthage • Which of the books of the Bible sets forth the eschatological teaching of Christianity? – Genesis – Exodus – Deuteronomy – Apocalypse • Indicate when the first universities appear in Western Europe: – in the 5th century – in the XII century – in the XVIII century – in the 19th century • A negative assessment of the culture of the Middle Ages took shape in the era of: – Antiquity – Renaissance – Romanticism – Enlightenment • What is the chronological framework of the European Middle Ages: – VI-VII centuries – X-XV century centuries – V-XVII century centuries – XVII-XVIII century centuries – XVII-XX century centuries • What is the name of the religious worldview that prevailed in European medieval society and placed the transcendental personality of God above nature? – totemism – theism – atheism 68

– searh for God – symbolism • What were the names of wandering musicians and poets in France, the peculiarity of which was a bright anti-clerical orientation? – minnesingers – troubadours – trouvères – vagantes – knights • What were the indulgences originally? – absolution – exemption from repentance – penalty for committed sin • What are the mottos characteristic of medieval knights? – For God! – For the king! – For the homeland! – For a beautiful lady! • What is the dominant feature of medieval culture? – man's love for God – man’s love for himself – humanism – scholasticism • Choose the names of European medieval philosophers: – Pierre Abelard – Avicenna – Aurelius Augustine – Thomas Aquinas • What did monk T. Campanella name the book in which he outlined his project for an ideal social order? – Utopia – «Code of Nature» – «City of Sun» • What event is conventionally considered as the beginning of the history of the Middle Ages? – Transfer of the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople – Division of the Roman Empire into Western and Eastern parts – Fall of the Western Roman Empire 69

• In what sense did the poets and philosophers use the word «medieval»? – prehistoric – uneducated – cruel • Quintus Tertullian proclaimed: – «Christian revelation abolishes the wisdom of this world» – «I believe because it is absurd» – «The Divine and the Devil are constantly fighting each other» • How did they understand nature in the Middle Ages? – as a source of temptation and filth – as a source of harmony and beauty – as a source of world culture • What science did Thomas Aquinas consider the main servant of theology? – math – history – philosophy



Plan: – Periodization of the Renaissance culture. – Characteristics of the Renaissance. – Art is the main type of spiritual activity of the Renaissance. – The essence of the term «Reformation». Cultural and historical conditions and premises of the Reformation. – Interest in technical and experimental activities during the Renaissance and Reformation. Inventions. Guidelines: Revival and Reformation are a kind of sociocultural prerequisites for a new European civilization. Explain, how the term «Renaissance» is interpreted? When was it introduced into scientific circulation? Give the periodization of the Italian Renaissance. Highlight the features of the Renaissance culture. Tell us about the Renaissance humanism as the value basis of the culture of this period. Uncover the essence of the renaissance concept of man. The literature of the Renaissance is distinguished by a special focus on man, accented by a description of human beauty, human joy and sadness. The literature of this period is quite rich and diverse. Highlight its main features and genres. Dwell on the works of Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Shakespeare, Rabelais, Cervantes. The Reformation is a broad religious and socio-political movement that began in the 16th century in Germany and aimed at transforming the Catholic Church. What are the reasons for the Reformation, highlight its main directions, list the largest Protestant denominations. What is considered the beginning of the Reformation? Tell us about the activities of M. Luther, describe «95 theses». What is the differrence between the views of M. Luther and T. Münzer? Why didn’t T. Münzer’s ideas become widespread in Germany? Outline the basics of Lutheran dogma, based on the «Augsburg religion» by F. Melanchthon. 71

Consider the Reformation in England. What is the Anglican creed? Why did Puritanism spread in England? What did the Puritans demand, how did they substantiate their demands? Tell us how the Catholic Church reacted to the Reformation. Why, despite the active opposition of the Catholic Church, was it not possible to stop the Reformation? Explain why during the Renaissance and the Reformation, interest in technical and experimental activities increased. Tell us about the main technical inventions of this period. In conclusion, highlight the significance of the Reformation, and show what its impact on subsequent European and world culture is. What is the manifestation of the «spirit of capitalism» in economic and cultural life? Test questions: • What are the main stages in the development of the Italian Renaissance? • Who was the first human who used the term «Renaissance»? Why? • How did the close connection of science and art manifest in the work of Renaissance humanists? • Can it be considered that it was the intelligentsia of the Renaissance that preserved the works of ancient authors for posterity? • How do you understand the words of N. Machiavelli: «The best fortress for the state is the location of its subjects»? • What explains the morals of Renaissance Italy? • What did the Catholic Church create a tribunal inquisition for? • Is Marsilio Facino, an Italian philosopher of the fifteenth century right, saying about his time: «This is undoubtedly the golden age that returned the light to free arts»? • What are the reasons for the changes in culture that occurred during the Renaissance? • What is the best way to evaluate the Renaissance: as a stage in the development of medieval civilization or as the beginning of the New Age in European culture? • How much does the Renaissance justify its name? What aspects and forms of ancient culture were revived? 72

• What prominent figures of the Italian Renaissance do you know? • Why are Leonardo da Vinci, Rafael Santi, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Titian Vecellio called the «Titans of the Renaissance»? Analytical tasks: • Look for errors in the text. Justify them and correct: • The Renaissance is the Renaissance of medieval culture. The birthplace of the Renaissance is France, where it originated in the fourteenth century. A characteristic feature of this era is humanism – the recognition of the value of man as a person and anthropocentrism – the rule of the church. Rome becomes the center of the Italian Renaissance. The Renaissance in northern Russia is called the Northern Renaissance. • The great Renaissance artists include Leonardo da Vinci, Rafael di Bondone, Giotto Santi, Michelangelo, Eugene Delacroix, Titian. • The most famous painting by Leonardo da Vinci is the Sistine Madonna. Artists of the Northern Renaissance – P. Brueghel, A. Durer, I. Bosch and Giorgione Barbarelli da Castelfranco, P. Bruegel are known as masters of engraving. • The Renaissance has made a huge contribution to the development of the world culture. • Read the works of Dante's «The Divine Comedy», D. Boccaccio «The Decameron», F. Petrarca «The Lyric», F. Rabelais «The Gargantua and Pantagruel» (one piece of your choice) and write out the signs of a new worldview that are characteristic of the Renaissance, presented in these works. • View art albums and write down in the notebook the main works of artists of the Renaissance. Italian Renaissance: Raphael, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Paolo Veronese, Merisi da Caravaggio and others. Northern Renaissance: P. Brueghel, Jan Van Eyck, F. Hals, Rembrandt, P. Rubens, A. Durer, I. Bosch, L. Cranes. • Read the works of W. Shakespeare (Romeo and Juliet, King Lear, Macbeth, Hamlet) and answer the question: «What is the manifestation of human tragedy and schism in the works of Shakespeare?» • Legends about lovers who abandon their beloved have been known at least since antiquity, but they did not become cult heroes of 73

the era. Why did an unfaithful lover become a cultural symbol? What features of Don Juan contribute to this. Hint: think about this hero’s attitude to freedom, decide whether he is free. What is the hero’s understanding of freedom, does he believe in God? Justify you’re answer. • What are the methods of struggle of the Catholic Church against the Reformation. Test tasks: • The philosophers of the 18th century were called: – humanists – reformers – educators – theologians • The transitional type is the culture of: – Antiquity – Middle Ages – Renaissance – Enlightenment • Choose the principle most characteristic of the Renaissance culture: – anthropomorphism – anthropocentrism – theocentrism – tolerance • What is the relationship between the terms «Renaissance» and «the Epoch of Revival»? – complement each other – are synonyms – are antonyms – indicate different stages of the same era • Renaissance culture workers are called: – philosophers – humanists – scientists – educators • Indicate the chronological boundaries of the Renaissance: – V-XII century 74

– XII-XIV century – XV-XVI century – XVI-XVIII century • The fundamental principle of the Renaissance culture is: – anthropocentrism – anthropomorphism – dualism – theocentrism • What is the era in which the cult of antiquity was formed: – Middle Ages – Renaissance – Enlightment – Reformation • Choose a concept that defines the cultural movement of the Renaissance: – Freemasonry – Enlightenment – Humanism – Ecumenism • The periodization of history into «ancient», «middle» and «new» was adopted in: – Antiquity – Middle Ages – Renaissance – Enlightenment • To denote the process of liberating public life from church influence, the following term is used: – sacralization – secularization – stagnation – sublimation • What is the era in which the human mind is declared the driving force of history: – Antiquity – Middle Ages – Renaissance – Enlightenment 75

• Which of the following denominations arose as a result of the Reformation? – Catholicism – Protestantism – Orthodoxy – all listed • Choose the ideologist of the Reformation: – Voltaire – M. Luther – D. Diderot – P. Cornell • Which Christian denomination recognizes the dogma of the infallibility of the pope in the matters of faith? – Catholicism – Protestantism – Orthodoxy – all listed • The idea of cultural relativism is contained in philosophical doctrine of: – Socrates – Plato – Aristotle – I. Herder • Aesthetism as a form of philosophizing arises in the era: – Middle Ages – Renaissance – Enlightenment – Romanticism • The Master of the Knight Order who was burned in front of Notre Dame Cathedral: – Richard the Lionheart – Francois Villon – Jacques de Molay – P. Ronsard • The architectural style of Western Europe in the Middle Ages: – Baroque – Rococo – Empire – Gothic 76

• What stage of the Renaissance was designated by the term «Cinquecento»? – early Renaissance – high Renaissance – late Renaissance • What period does the works of F. Petrarca and J. Bocaccio belong to? – early Renaissance – high Renaissance – late Renaissance



Plan: – The origin and sociocultural components of the European culture of the new era. – The main features of the culture of Enlightenment. – Artistic culture of the 17th-18th centuries. Art is an exponent of the spirit and attitude of the era. – XIX century is the century of maturity of bourgeois civilization. – Artistic culture and its new decentralized type. Guidelines: Starting to consider this topic, you should disclose the essence of the concept of «new time» and determine its specificity. It is necessary to dwell on the development of capitalist relations in Western Europe, to show the influence of the Great geographical discoveries on the economic development of European countries and on the worldview of people of that time. Briefly describe the first bourgeois revolutions that destroyed the obstacles to the development of capitalism. Tell us about the development of industry. Dwell on such technical achievements as the inventtion of the mechanical spinning wheel, mechanical loom, and success in the field of metallurgy. Define the «era of Enlightenment», highlight the prerequisites of the culture of the Enlightenment and its main features. Show how value orientations change during the period under review. Consider the socio-political teachings of the Enlightenment. Expand the essence of the contractual concept of the origin of the state, the theory of «natural and inalienable human rights», the theory of separation of powers. Show how the enlighteners substantiate the need for bourgeois revolutions. The ideas of the enlightenment had a great influence on the literature of the era. Tell us about the works of Defoe, Swift, Milton, 78

Voltaire, Goethe. What literary genres were most popular in the 18th century? Please note that the theater in the Enlightenment becomes one of the most powerful means of ideology and propaganda of the ideas of enlighteners. The largest dramatists of the era were Beaumarchais, Goethe, Schiller, whose work should have been stopped. XVIII century is the heyday of musical culture. At its origins we see Bach and Handel. The so-called «Viennese classics» made the greatest contribution to the development of music: Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, whose music is close in its character to classicism. Finishing the work on the topic, determine what impact the culture of Enlightenment exerted on modern European culture. Test questions: • Why did the new European science, based on rationalism and the priority of experimental knowledge, led to a worldview collapse? Was it inevitable? Justify your position. • Why did Protestant ethics contribute to the emergence of civil society institutions? • Formulate the characteristics of the image of the world in European culture of the 17th century, which contradict the medieval picture of the world. • What social factors contributed to the transformation of the mechanistic and atomistic worldview into the core of the modern science research program? • Describe the changes that have occurred in the field of artistic culture of the New Age. Trace the evolution of the theme of man and his relationship to the world in the literature of the New Age. • Discover the aesthetic features of Baroque and Classicism in architecture, painting and music (on specific examples). • Do you agree with the opinion of many art historians that Baroque did not know the measure, sinned against good taste and elementary decency? • What changes occurred in literature and in the art of the Enlightenment? • What are the names of the most famous figures of philosophy and science of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? What is their contribution to the history of culture? 79

• What garden culture was recalled in the New Age to emphasize the wealth of man? • What is the name of a set of ideas and views that highlight a person, requiring respect for his dignity? • Who was the philosopher and theologian, one of the preachers of the ideas of a new humanistic culture, about which S. Zweig enthusiastically responds as a beacon of his century in the 20th century? • Who is the author of the following statement: «Expect everything from me, but just do not renounce your teaching, which I will recognize until the last day»? • What, according to Luther, can save a person? • Give the name of the English king, to whom the power formula belongs: «from God is the king, from the king is the law». • About whom did Prosecutor Cook say the following words: «He must die, and the monarchy must die with him»? • What impact did the Great Geographical Discoveries have on the development of the economies of European countries? Analytical tasks: • Reason who is right. Give a detailed answer. • People stop thinking when they stop reading (D. Diderot). • Read less! Those who read a lot lose their habit of thinking independently (D. Granin). • Give your explaination of the apparent contradiction of the two statements: – The truth is good, but happiness is better. – Platon is my friend but the truth is dearer. • Give your explaination of the apparent contradiction of the statements: – «Everything is relative». – «Comparison is always lame». – «Drop the comparisons, they are misleading». • Give your explaination of the apparent contradiction between the two statements: – ... There is much sorrow in much wisdom. – Who multiplies knowledge, multiplies sorrow. • Compare: – «Knowledge is power» (F. Bacon). 80

– «To know more today means to be stronger tomorrow» (E. Teller). • Some consider intuition the highest form of cognition, others – an atavism, inherited from animals. – And what is your opinion? Give a detailed answer. • What changes occurred in the mentality of a European person in the New Age? • What scientific problems were the focus of the thinkers of the New Age? • Relate the names and discoveries (inventions): N. Copernicus laws of motion of earthly and celestial bodies H. Columbus heliocentric theory discovery of America I. Newton • How do you assess the Machiavellian thesis: «The end justifies the means», in public administration? • What is the flaw in the following statement: «It’s human to be cruel with them and cruel to be human» (as said Catherine de Medici, mother of the French king Charles IX, in justification of the Huguenot massacre, which was organized on Bartholomew’s Night). • What is your explanation of the apparent contradiction of the two statements: – One mind is good, and two is better. – Better one bad general than two good ones. • Is O. Bismarck right when he says: «It is only fools who learn from their own experience. I prefer to learn from the experience of others» – Rate and comment. Test tasks: • What faculties existed in the first universities? – theological – philosophical – physical – chemical – astronomical – legal • Select the names of scientists who suffered from the Inquisition: 81

– Nikolai Copernicus – Galileo Galilei – Giordano Bruno • Who are vagantes? – knights – students – troubadours – school poets • What played the leading role in the great geographical discoveries? – familiarity with gunpowder – typography – familiarity with the compass • What sciences were included in the trivium? – grammar – arithmetic – geometry – logic (dialectics) – astronomy – music – rhetoric • What sciences were included in the quadrivium? – grammar – arithmetic – geometry – logic (dialectics) – astronomy, music • What cult was proclaimed during the Enlightenment? – cult of the mind – cult of personality – health cult • Give the name of the German philosopher, with the publiccation of whose article «The answer to the question: what is Enlightenment?», the name of the entire era has entered a wide circulation. – L. Feuerbach – A. Schopenhauer – I. Kant 82

• Indicate the name of the philosophical and worldview attitude, according to which Europe, with its inherent spiritual order, is the center of world culture: – Gnosticism – Westernization – Eurocentrism • Choose the name of the person who did not participate in the creation of the Encyclopedia of Sciences, Arts and Crafts (17511780): – D. Diderot – J. Locke – D’Alembert – C. Voltaire • Indicate the German thinker who in his work «Ideas for the Philosophy of the History of Mankind» preached the diversity of cultural development, believing that each of the variants is valuable. – I.G. Herder – F. Schiller – B. Spinoza • In the European culture of the XVII-XIX centuries, a new picture of the world was formed, according to which the Universe is: – a world ruled by the divine will – unknowable and uncontrollable phenomenon – a system where scientific laws apply • Which of the thinkers in the work «Sunset of Europe» predictted the death of Western culture, degeneration of this civilization? – O. Spengler – K. Marx – F. Nietzsche – C. Voltaire • What influenced the formation of the culture of the New Age? – bourgeois morality – philosophy of the French materialists – capitalist mode of production – political structure of society • What kind of art is associated with the name of François Boucher? – music 83

– architecture – painting • What style of European culture is characterized by an aversion to bourgeois reality, distrust of the cult of reason, and an interest in the past? – classicism – romanticism – realism



Plan: – The main features of the culture of the XIX century. The formation of an industrial society. – XIX century as the «century of science». The main scientific discoveries and their influence on the general sociocultural process. – Technical progress and its impact on the human environment. – Romanticism and realism as the main ideological and artistic trends in the spiritual culture of the XIX century. – New types of art – photography and cinema. Guidelines: In the XIX century, bourgeois civilization reaches maturity, and then enters the stage of crisis. Remember what historical events had the greatest impact on European and world culture of the XIX century. Highlight the main features of the culture of this period, reveal such ones as rationalism, scientism, Eurocentrism. Show how industrialization and monopolization influenced on the cultural development. What sciences were developing most intensively in the 19th century and why? Explain why the nineteenth century is called the «century of science». How did scientific discoveries affect the overall sociocultural process? Tell us how technological advances changed the human environment. Dwell on the development of mechanical engineering, the invention of the telegraph and telephone, the improvement of means of transport, the emergence of central water supply and heating. Tell us about the emergence of department stores and advertising. Show the impact of the first world industrial exhibitions on the formation of the objective world. The main ideological and artistic directions in the spiritual culture of the 19th century were romanticism and realism. List the distinguishing features of these areas, tell us when they arose, name their most prominent representatives in literature, music, and painting. Explain such concepts as «double world», «flight from reality», «romantic historicism», «individualistic subjectivism», «typification». 85

In the middle of the XIX century, photography appears, and at the end of the century – cinema. What do you know about these new art forms? Test questions: • What scientific discoveries made in the 19th century had the greatest impact on the general sociocultural process? What is the effect of this? • Industrial transformation is based on scientific discoveries. What fundamental discoveries were made in the nineteenth century? • In the nineteenth century a separation of natural science and humanitarian knowledge occured. Why? • What new styles in art appear in the nineteenth century? What styles were the continuation of past artistic trends, and which new styles denied the old rules and canons? • In the nineteenth century, photography emerges, which became a mass and everyday phenomenon. Is photography a subject of everyday life or an artistic culture? What were the main ideas for holding the World Exhibitions? • What is the name of the composer who carried out opera reform in the spirit of aesthetics of classicism, reflecting the new trends of the Enlightenment (his idea of subordinating music to the laws of poetry and drama had a great influence on musical theater of the 19th and 20th centuries; he is the author of the operas Orpheus and Eurydice, Paris and Elena, Iphigenia in Aulis)? • Which of the Italian sculptors masterfully decided the sculptural group «Kiss of Amur and Psyche»: it can be seen from all sides; Amur is full of movement, and therefore the impression that he had just flown to Psyche from Olympus? • Who is the main representative of impressionism, whose paintings were distinguished by subtlety of color, were full of light and air; an experimenter who sought to capture the state of the light-air environment at different times of the day (the series «Haystacks», «Rouen Cathedral»? Analytical tasks: • Describe the process of formation of an industrial society and the strengthening of civilizational interstate processes in Europe. 86

• Consider the course of the Napoleonic Wars as a socio-cultural phenomenon. • Analyze the system of specific values and determine the type of emotional-value orientation (indicating the nature of compensation) in the following cultures. • The culture of the revolutionary proletariat in Russia during the February Revolution, the October Revolution and the Civil War. • Culture of Nazi Germany. • Culture of the main characters of the novel of L.N. Tolstoy's «War and Peace» (Nikolai, Natasha and Peter Rostovs, Andrei Bolkonsky, Pierre Bezukhov, Anatole Kuragin, Berg, Sonya, Princess Marya, the old Prince Bolkonsky). • The culture of the «average» urban or rural person in Russia in the second half of the 20th century. • Your own culture. • Describe two points of view on the relationship between art and social life in the second half of the nineteenth century. Name the representatives of these points of view and analyze their views. • J.J. Rousseau called the distant past a golden age, he criticized civilization and progress. «Back to nature!» was his appeal. To this, Voltaire sarcastically remarked: «When I listen to Rousseau, I want to get on all fours and run into the forest». – Which of them is right? Rate and comment. • Which authors completed the theoretical design of the aesthetic concept that prescribes the role of «serving» the people in literature and art? • Reason who is right – I.G. Pestalozzi, the famous teacher, the founder of the theory of primary education, argued: «A person is formed by circumstances. «Marcus Aurelius advised: «If you can’t change the circumstances, change your attitude towards them.» Test tasks: • Which of these authors called culture a form of suppression of natural instincts? – N.A. Berdyaev – N.Ya. Danilevsky – Z. Freud – K. Marx 87

• Indicate the author of the ethics of «reverence for life»: – C. Levy-Strauss – R. Bart – A. Schweitzer – E. Fromm • The concept of «one-dimensional man» was introduced into the philosophy of culture by: – A. Toynbee – G. Marcuse – K.G. Jung – J. Vico • The author of The Sunset of Europe is: – A. Schopenhauer – O. Spengler – F. Nietzsche – I.G. Herder • Select the author whose cultural concept uses the concept of «archetype»: – E. Fromm – Z. Freud – A. Adler – K.G. Jung • The author of The Birth of the Clinic book is: – M. Foucault – R. Bart – L. Frobenius – L.N. Gumilyov • The following lines belong to this philosopher: «Two things always fill the soul with new and ever more powerful surprise and reverence – this is the starry sky above me and the moral law in me»: – Plato – Aristotle – I. Kant – G. Hegel – K. Marx • Of all the philosophical currents, the most significant impact on sociocultural changes was exerted by: – positivism – Marxism 88

– intuitionism – Freudianism • The type of cultural development, when literature is not limited to the the word of art, but partially replaces the tasks of philosophy and social thought, ideologically subordinating the remaining spheres of art is: – censorship – literature centrism – rococo • What names are associated with the achievements in philosophy in the 19th century? – Alambert, Antoine, Aristotle, Balzac – Beketov, Bely, Bergman, Byron, Archimedes – Hegel, Fichte, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Comte, Spencer – Bruni, Bacon, Wagner, Brueghel, Biruni – Gericault, Diogenes, Demosthenes, Defoe, Ibsen, Glinka • The direction in philosophy, which is based on the assertion that all real (positive) knowledge is the result of special sciences: – positivism – literature centrism – realism • The worldview principle of a rationalistic, pragmatic perception of life, on the basis of which the artistic language of realism is formed, which aims at the most accurate and plausible reflection of visible reality: – mobility – realism – positivism • The sociocultural community of artistic intelligentsia based on the avant-garde type of artistic communication, a carefree and hectic creative lifestyle with a focus on obligatory originality: – milestone – avant-garde – bohemia • The term assigned to the innovative movement of the 19101920s (futurism, cubism, cubo-futurism, primitivism, supremacism, constructivism, abstractionism, etc.): – decadence 89

– constructivism – avant-garde • The ideological stamp in progressive criticism, which often evaluate works with a pronounced pessimistic and individualistic mood. Historically, Soviet art criticism attributed this characteristic to a new direction of cultural creativity at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries: – decadence – constructivism – impressionism • In general, the desire to identify the connection of a stylistic idea and the forms of its expression in art. Historically perceived as an independent style in the composition of avant-garde: – impressionism – decadence – constructivism • A high level of philanthropy in the field of culture, which involves not only material assistance to art, but also the direct participation of the philanthropist in organizing the creative process, forming areas of creativity, presenting creative products: – patronage – paradigm • Which of the philosophers laid the foundations for the rationalism of the New Age? – Bacon  Descartes – Hobbes  Spinoza – Locke  Berkeley – Hume  Newton • Which of the philosophers is considered the «forefather» of the Enlightenment?  Bacon  Descartes  Hobbes  Spinoza  Locke  Berkeley  Hume  Newton • Which of the French enlighteners actively promoted Newton's physics?  Gassendi  Voltaire 90

 Diderot  Rousseau  Helvetius  Holbach • Which of the French enlighteners believed that the development of civilization is associated with the decline in morals?  Gassendi  Voltaire  Didro  Russo  Helvetius  Holbach • Who wrote the novel Candide?  Voltaire  Gassendi  Didro  Rousseau  Helvetius  Holbach • Who is the author of the Social Contract?  Gassendi  Voltaire  Didro  Rousseau  Helvetius  Holbach • Which thinker understood culture as the «veneration of the light?»  W. Wundt  N. Roerich  J.ZJ. Rousseau  L. Morgan • What new direction emerged in the art of the late 19th century that defended the cult of pure art?  realism  symbolism  naturalism • What direction of artistic creativity of the late nineteenth century was proclaimed as the source of the sphere of the subconscious?  symbolism  impressionism  surrealism



Plan:  The problem of the emergence of Kazakh culture. Stages of its development.  The problem of the identity of Kazakh culture.  Features of social organization and statehood in the Kazakh Steppe.  Value orientations in the Kazakh culture.  The ideal of human in the Kazakh culture. Guidelines: When working on the topic, remember the relevant topics in the «History of Kazakhstan», as well as the lectures in philosophy. Try to understand the characteristics of shamanism in comparison with other beliefs, and what they are caused by. For a better assimilation of material about Zhyrau, Abay, Shakarim Kudaiberdiev, one should turn to their works and find confirmation of the text of the lecture. Test questions: • In what year was the regional statistical committee opened in Semipalatinsk? • List the main sociocultural origins of the modern Kazakhstani society. • What are the negative and positive socio-cultural consequences of the Soviet period. • How did the contradictions of the modern process of modernization of Kazakhstani society appear? • What natural factors influenced the formation of Kazakh culture? • What values were formed in the Kazakh culture under the influence of external factors? • Who participated in the expedition exploring the north-eastern coast of the Caspian Sea in the first half of the XIX century? 92

• What are the main problems in the process of restructuring Kazakhstani society that researchers identify? • In what year the Asian school was opened in the Kazakh steppe, which trained translators and clerks from among the propertied layers of the indigenous population? • The first Kazakh secular school began to function in the Bukeyev Horde at the initiative of Khan Dzhangir. What year was that? • What city was considered one of the centers of scientific research in Kazakhstan in the second half of the XIX century? • Which Khan of the Younger Zhuz, who was killed by his political opponents in 1809, created the outstanding kyu «Shalkyma»? • Who was given a yurt, commissioned by Khan Zhangir and produced by a Zaisan Kazakh, embroidered with silk, silver, gold? • When did a Kazakh woman wear a kimeshek headdress? • In what year, on charges of the sons of the senior sultan of the Bayanaul divan Shorman, Jayau Musa was expelled to Tobolsk? • Who is the outstanding kyushi composer of the Kazakh people, one of the founders of classical dombra music? • Name the kyushi composer, a kobyzist who lived in the second half of the 19th century and revived the kobyz tradition from Korkut music. • How many kyuis of the ingenious composer-kyushi Kurmangazy, a classic of instrumental Kazakh music, reached us? • To whom of the Kazakh batyrs, according to folk tales, did the classic of Kazakh instrumental music Kurmangazy devote his first kyui «Kishkentai»? • Which of the 19th-century kyushi composers became the founder of the lyrical direction in dombra music? Analytical tasks • Kazakhstan is a Eurasian country geographically and geopolitically, but neither in its modern social structure, nor in culture, national mentality and spiritual disposition, it belongs to the Asian world. Is it possible to agree with this statement? • The border position of Kazakhstan between the East and the West creates a historical crossroads where two types of sociality clash – «individually productive» (typical for the West) and «corporate distribution», typical of traditional civilizations of the East. What is Kazakhstan gravitating to now? 93

• How would you define the type of Kazakh culture using M. Weber's classification? As a…  culture of owning the world  culture of flight from the world  culture of adaptation to the world Try to prove. • Do an introspection, try to determine:  to what extent are you socialized in modern society?  to what extent are you included in native culture (what do you know about native culture in various aspects: history, traditions, art, science, etc.; outstanding personalities)  with whom do you identify yourself for various reasons Test tasks: • The development of traditional musical culture was influenced by:  moral and ethical views of zhyrau  social songs  climatic conditions of life  art of folk craftsmen  social and climatic living conditions • What is the basis for the Kazakh worship of their ancestors?  cult of ancestors  faith in the patronage of their Aruakhs  unconditional respect for the elders  filial debt  the sense of duty • What is a characteristic feature of Kazakh society?  complex and ramified intra-ethnic structure  belonging to a particular genus  the value of the social status of the individual  the complex structure of the clan organization  the presence of a heroic ancestor • A set of men's winter national clothing of the Kazakhs consists of:  tymaқ, kүpi, ishik, etik  shapan, bөrіk, kүpi 94

 shekpen, taniya, etik  shapan, kebis, etik  үкі, tymaқ, shekpen • What century is the beginning of the spread of Islam in Kazakhstan?  8th century  Vth century B.C.  Xth century  t 11th century  VIth century • An archaeologist who discovered the «golden man» of the Saka period:  Akishev, the city of Issyk  Argymbayev, the city of Almaty  Kopylov, the city of Talgar  Mukanova, the city of Aktobe  archaeologist who hid his name • In what age did the Andronovo tribes live?  iron  bronze  stone  Cenozoic era  Neolithic • What is a folk musical instrument related to shamanism?  sybyzghy  kobyz  dombra  sherter  cheesy • Which of the ritual songs is performed by the bride?  korіsu  zhoktau  synsu  kara olen  fever 95

• The philosophy of the classics of the Kazakh Enlightenment is characterized by one of the most important features:  materialism  metaphysical view  irrationalism  humanism  teleologism • What part of the philosophical views of Ch. Valikhanov is the most developed?  philosophy of religion  epistemology  ontology  philosophy of history  axiology • The central problem of the philosophy of Abay is…  cognition  human  religion  ontology  methodology • How does Abay characterized the current state of the Kazakh society?  like a golden age  he does not give an assessment  as a given  as a step towards a specific goal  critically, as requiring transformation • Shakarim in 1898-1928 wrote one of his main philosophical books – «Three ...»  instructions  friends  misconceptions  truths  moral laws • Who was the adviser to the Kazakh Khan Ablai?  Tole bi  Asan Kaigi 96

   •      •      •      •      •      • 

Bukhar Zhyrau Kabanbai Kaztugan «Adam Bol!» is a principle which was first proclaimed by ... Abay A. Baitursynov C. Valikhanov A. Bukeikhanov Shakarim Which of European thinkers Abay knew well: A. Hegel V. Kant S. Descartes D. Bacon B. Spinoza The main paradigm of the Alash party in the political struggle was: non-violence connection with Sharia clear program consideration of the religiosity of the people education of the people in their native language The philosophy of the Kazakh Enlightenment is distinguished by: materialism metaphysical irrationalism humanism idealism The cult of ancestors among the Kazakhs is called: Umay Allah Dingir Tengri Aruah What type of civilization does Kazakh culture belong to? Western 97

 Eastern  Central Asian  Middle Eastern • «Archetypes» of Kazakh culture are:  nomadic culture  Islam  Zoroastrianism  folklore  Tengrianism and Turkic civilization • Who contributed to the development and spread of Sufism in Kazakhstan?  Al-Farabi  Ahmet Yugnaki  Ahmet Yassawi  Mahmut Kashgari  Al-Ghazali • Prominent representatives of the Kazakh Soviet culture are:  A. Kunanbaev, Zh. Zhabaev, M. Auezov  A. Kunanbaev, Y. Altynsarin, Ch. Valikhanov  S. Kudaiberdiev, M. Dulatov  J. Zhabaev, S. Seyfullin, M. Auezov  D. Nurpeisova, Kurmangazy, Dauletkerei • Well-known scientist who deeply researched Kazakh musical art (before the October Revolution)  Castan A.  Potanin G.  Zataevich A.  Eichhorn A.  Rybakov S. • Famous scientist, linguist, enlightener, editor of the newspaper «Kazakh»:  Zhumabayev M.  Aymauytov Zh.  Dulatov M.  Asfendiyarov S.  Baitursynov A. 98

• The reformer of the Kazakh alphabet was:  Baitursynov A.  Kunanbaev A.  Bokeikhanov A.  Kudaiberdiev Sh,  Altynsarin I. • The Kazakh epos does not include:  «Koblandy»  Alpamys  «Kyz Zhibek»  «Manas»  Ayman-Sholpan • Who is the author of the manifesto of the Kazakh people – «Oyan, Kazakh!» («Wake up, Kazakh!»)?  M. Dulatov  M. Mukatayev  K. Myrzaliyev  M. Zhumabayev  A. Zhumabaeyv • Who introduced the concept of «mankurt»?  R. Park  T. Parsons  C. Aitmatov  M. Mead  V. Pareto • Ancient nomads in Kazakhstan were:  Türks  Mongols  hired  Saka  Pashtuns • Kazakh writer, author of the epic novel «The Way of Abai» is:  M. Auezov  S. Mukanov  I. Esenberlin  G. Mustafin  S. Seyfullin 99


Plan:  Features of the modern cultural process.  Ideals and attitudes of modern culture.  The main contradictions of modern culture.  Problems of sociocultural forecasting. Guidelines: Modern culture is extremely complex and diverse. Highlight its main features and show what its inconsistency is. Tell us about the acceleration of scientific and technological progress in the twentieth century. Dwell on such significant scientific achievements as the development of nuclear physics, the creation of computers, space exploration, genetic research, and show their influence on the development of culture. See how life of the general population has changed in connection with mass urbanization. Explain the meaning of the concept of «consumer society.» When and in connection with what did it form? In the 60s of the twentieth century, a number of researchers noticed that the society was in the state of transition from an industrial society to a new «post-industrial» or «information» society. Consider the concepts of D. Bell, M. Castells, E. Toffler. Expand the essence of the theory of post-industrialism, highlight the main features of the information society. Tell us about new intelligent technologies, growth in the service sector, the network principle of organization of society. Consider the main approaches to the study of mass culture in the humanitarian knowledge of the twentieth century. Highlight the characteristics of mass culture. Show its connection with the media. What is the impact of mass culture on everyday life? Describe the main forms of mass culture and its specific genres: «female romance», comic book, western, melodrama, «horror movie», action film, musical, television series, talk shows, video clips, etc. Tell us about advertising as a phenomenon of mass culture, highlight its types and functions. 100

Test questions: • Describe the direction of youth subculture of the second half of the twentieth century. • What is the essence of the new cultural image of modern society? • What is the essence of the problem of the «book» and «screen» culture? • What are the reasons for the intensification of the dynamics of sociocultural processes today? • What is the manifestation of modernism in the architecture of Western Europe? • What problems world civilization faces when developing new information technologies and the Internet? • What is the inconsistency of «democratization» of cultural development in the Soviet country in the 50-60s? • What were the discoveries of Soviet scientists in the field of science and technology that had a world significance? • What is the significance of expanding cultural ties with foreign countries? • What are the historical and modern types of civilizations? • List the most important scientific discoveries and inventions of the twentieth century. • How may the naturalistic concepts of nature and man be characterized? • How may the concept of personality be defined? • What is the universalization of culture in the twentieth century and today? • What is the sociocultural role of science and technology in the twentieth century? • How did historical views change the relationship between man and nature? • What can be said about global problems and their importance for the world civilization? • What new types of art have appeared thanks to the development of science and technology? • What are non-traditional religions of the twentieth century? • Scientific and technological development has led to the creation of a computer. Does it enhance a personality culture or makes a person more primitive? 101

• Why is the transmission of cultural and historical experience so urgent in the 21st-century civilization? • Did only the 20th century in the history of culture perceive itself fundamentally «new» in relation to the previous tradition? • How did scientific and technical discoveries influence the formation of the ideas of modernism? Analytical tasks: • Determine what social function culture performs when:  international scientific conference is held  a student is studying the culture of another country  an action in defense of a natural site is taken  man is reading a book  a method for inventing a previously incurable disease is found  film festival is held  students communicate in a group  a new law is being adopted  the artist creates a new work  a concert is held in honor of a historical event  Highlight the pros and cons of mass culture: «Advantages» 1. Availability of information, a variety of sources of information 2. …

«Disadvantages» 1. The laws of the market have invaded culture: now cultural products should be marketed as wide as possible 2. …

• Each phenomenon has positive and negative sides. Highlight the pros and cons of the development of the phenomena of modern culture. Use the table: The phenomenon of culture


Powerful media development Rapid development of technology Large amount of advertising Information technology development



• Why, in your opinion, very rich people hang in their residences the pictures bought for a lot of money in the West, for example, the picture of American painter Warhol «Two hundred tins of canned Campbell Soup»? The picture shows these tins standing on top of each other. • Analyze the following texts from different authors and fill out the table: Author

Brief biographical information

Main ideas

Own opinion, remarks

F. Nietzsche Z. Freud C. Jung J. Heyzinga

Fill the table:

The author of the culturological concept N.Ya. Danilevsky A. Schweitzer O. Spengler

Brief biographical information

Main ideas

Own opinion, remarks

• Highlight the pros and cons of such a phenomenon as «specialization»: «Advantages» Specialization allows you to prepare a specialist who is well aware of one of the areas of scientific knowledge, since the amount of information contained in modern culture is unusually large …

«Disadvantages» Specialization destroys human integrity

• Real works of art are always empathy, co-creation. Give examples of elite culture. What thoughts did these works suggest to you? What caused the emotions? Fill in the table: 103

The work of elite culture …

Own assessment, comments, emotions …

• Establish a correspondence between the fact and the sphere of public life: Fact

The economic sphere of society

The spiritual sphere of society

• the invention of radio; • the provision of medical

services; • inflation growth; • exhibition of works of art.

Test tasks: • D. Bell, J. Galbraith, Z. Brzezinski, G. Kahn, O. Toffler – what unites these names?  these are scientists – supporters of the concept of «post-industrial society»  these are famous political figures of Western Europe  These are Marxist revolutionaries. • Which of the following theorists belongs to the symbolic direction in cultural studies?  L. Febvre and M. Block  C. Marx and F. Engels  J. Deleuze and F. Guattari  E. Cassirer, Yu.M. Lotman  M.K. Mamardashvili and A.M. Pyatigorsk • Which of the creators of semiotics considered natural languages as sign systems, and that the primary element of semiotic analysis and the model of any ongoing action was not the sign, but the process of communication, sign exchange?  C. Morris  C. Pierce  F. De Saussure • What is the name of the technique that entered the artistic practice in the twentieth century, which consists in introducing objects that are different in texture and color into works of fine art: pieces of newspapers, posters, wallpapers, etc.? 104

 surrealism  image  collage  design • Synergetics believes that for the self-organization, structuring of the system the presence of two opposite principles is required. What are these principles?  the beginning, creating structures, increasing heterogeneity due to the work of the source, and the beginning, eroding, dissipating heterogeneity  order and dissipative principle (chaos)  both positions are correct • Which of the philosophers, understanding culture as a special experimental field, where individual phenomena correspond to certain values, is the creator of the doctrine of values? Who identified six main categories of values, correlating them with six areas of being: logic – truth, aesthetics – beauty, mysticism – impersonal holiness, ethics – morality, eroticism – happiness, religion – personal holiness?  G. Rickert  G. Simmel  G. Hegel  F. von Humboldt • What are the methods of cultural analysis?  all of the following  comparative-historical, civilizational-typological  structurally functional, semiotic  morphological, structural, dialogical • Who is the author of the statement: «The world is trapped in a crazy race for images, fatally bewitched»:  J. Derrida  R. Bart  M. Weber  J. Baudrillard. • Which of the following models of sociocultural dynamics is historically the first?  evolutionary model  wave model


 cyclic model  social model • What is the name of the process of the emergence and development of man as a sociocultural being?  acculturation  anthropomorphism  anthropopathism  anthroposociogenesis • What is the name of the process of mutual influence of cultures, as well as the result of this influence, which consists in the perception of one of the cultures (usually less developed, although the reverse influence is possible) of the elements of another, or in the emergence of new cultural phenomena?  catharsis  conformism  mimesis  acculturation • What culture focuses on the «average consumer», standard perception and «momentary demands»?  elitist  folk  youth  mass • Find examples in the list that illustrate the economic activities of people:  gas field development  election of members of parliament  change in the bank interest rate  provision of insurance services  poem reading, art  car loan purchase



Plan:  The quest for human nature: a background.  Culture of the XXI century – a new concept of man.  Culture as a system of prohibitions.  The importance of culture in the formation and development of personality. Guidelines: It is more expedient to start discussion of the issues by defining a person’s culture and his relationship with the culture of other entities, especially with the culture of a group and society. Such an approach will make it possible to more clearly highlight the specifics of the content and manifestation of the culture of the individual. If the essence of personality culture consists in the assimilation of the culture of society, as the individual integrates into it and the correlation of the culural-social and subjective-individual in the functioning of the elements of the personality culture, then the content of the personality culture is very diverse. When discussing the ways and means of formation, development, as well as implementation of a person’s culture, it is important to pay attention to the twofold orientation of the manifestation of personal culture: a) in respect to the individual himself; b) in respect to other people and society. This proposition can be supported by the examples from the works of writers, poets, artists. It is also recommended to distinguish the features of the manifestation of a personality culture in communication, behavior and activities. The debate will become more acute and will be more effective if we discuss the manners and rules of interpersonal communication, behavior in youth groups, public places, classrooms. Test questions: • The American writer Mary Poole put it this way: «Culture is what the butcher lacks to become a surgeon». Is it right to define the term «culture» in this way? 107

• The word «civilization» comes from the term «civic». What is the meaning originally implied by the word «civilized»? • In the civilization of the South American Indians and Indians of Central America, the wheel was not known. Why do you think the Indians did not know it before the advent of the Spanish conquerors? • Why were the South American (Brazilian, etc.) television series popular in modern Kazakhstan in the 90th – early 2000? • A person is constantly given information (at school, university, on television). He learns something and at the same time forgets a lot. Is it possible to say that «human culture is what remains in his memory?» • G. Heine once said: «The first who compared a woman to a flower was a great poet. And the one who was the second to do it is an ordinary idiot» • The real poets were those nameless people who first saw that a clear sky has a delicate color of azure, that the brave man is like an indomitable lion ... And those who for the millionth time repeat these old discoveries, not knowing how to see in their own way, those are ... not poets.» • What qualities must a person have in order to be called a personality? • How was a person understood in the history of culture? What is the slogan of K. Marx and F. Engels that was parodied by Ilf and Petrov in the slogan «the rescue of the drowning is the work of the drowning themselves»? • Why does a significant part of society treat such heroes as Ivanushka the Fool, Chatsky, Don Quixote, Hamlet, Schweik as crazy people? Who are these characters really? • Show how you can use the algorithm for solving a problem situation using a concrete example from life. • Describe the type of a person who will be able to successfully adapt to the changing living conditions of modern Kazakhstan. Analytical tasks: • In ancient Greece and ancient China, craft was despised. Do the causes of this contempt coincide in Greek and Chinese cultures? • Is the phrase: «Low greed has been the driving force of civilization from its first to today» true? 108

• Imagine that you have become the manager of an international multidisciplinary concern. Which cultures and jobs will you choose? Explain the answer. • Which culture would approve the following advice: «Don't take care of your body more than of a kitchen rag»? • Where the book of the 15th century was written, which contains the following description of the decoration of the dwelling: «The walls were decorated with the landscapes painted by famous artists. Due to a light breeze the curtains of finest silk swayed». • Japanese kids' favorite foods are curry rice, hamburgers and spaghetti. Comment on this fact in terms of the trends in the development of world culture. • In which cultures do the following architectural forms exist:  pagoda, gothic cathedrals  synagogue  stupa, churches  rock temples  mosques, mausoleums • Classify architectural monuments according to all types of culture known to you:  rock temples  minarets  synagogues  cave temples  pagodas  stupas gothic castles  mosques  churches  tombs • Meritocracy was a factor in the stability of the Chinese traditional society. What was the factor of stability in the traditional society of India? • Do you agree that:  the most important means of influencing a person at the end of the 20th century are mass media


 a person living in a society always obeys the stereotypes and norms accepted in that society  mastery of knowledge is an important condition in the process of inculturation  modern society offers a wide range of ways of personal selfidentification  personality is determined by the culture in which it exists  a person correlates with the entire historical practice of mankind, thereby surpassing the ways in which a particular society exists • Compile a chronological table on the life and work of a creative, active person of any era, where the basic, fundamentally important facts of biography, aspects of the worldview and aesthetics of this creative person should be extremely briefly indicated. Dates …

Biographical data …

Professional activity …

Worldview and aesthetics of the personality …

Distribute the given examples by the spheres of public life:

Political …

Mobility President Property Art Parliament Authority Production

Spheres of public life Economic Social … …

Moral Profit Constitution Religion Youth Party Salary

Spiritual …

Marginals Enterprise School Elections Working Class Science Education

• Establish a correspondence between the concepts and definitions: 110

The concepts Nationalism

Internationalism Cosmopolitanism

Definitions The ideology of the so-called world citizenship, manifested both in the form of interethnic interaction, and denying other national cultures. An ideology based on the idea of national exclusivity and national superiority. The ideology of solidarity of cooperation between races, peoples, based on equality and common interests.

Test tasks: • A person’s awareness of his belonging to any group, allowing him to determine his place in the socio-cultural space, is defined by the term:  identity  specificity  tolerance  acculturation • The principle of personal freedom is first stated by the … culture:  primitive  antique  Middle ages  New time • The idea of the «total negation» of culture was preached by:  K. Marx  Z. Freud  K.G. Jung  G. Marcuse • The process of man’s entry into culture, his mastery of ethnocultural experience, is determined by the concept of:  assimilation  emancipation  inculturation  acculturation • «A person, creating a culture, simultaneously creates himself», – the philosopher stated:  Plato 111

 J.-J. Rousseau  I.G. Herder  L. Althusser • To determine the process of an individual's assimilation of social experience, knowledge, values, behavioral standards appropriate to a given society, the concept of  self-improvement  self-realization  socialization  individualizationis used. • Which of the thinkers investigated the phenomenon of language in the works «Language and Philosophy of Culture». «The Language of Culture», considering that the principles of comparative linguistics are interconnected with the philosophy of language and culture?  F. Grebner  V. von Humboldt  J. Vico  C. Snow • Choose the concept that characterizes the features of the production of spiritual values in a modern industrial society, designed for mass consumption, that is, subordinate to it as its goal?  elite culture  folk culture  traditional culture  mass culture • What term is used to denote religious beliefs in which everything specifically human, everything social, personal or «spiritual» is equated with the natural?  totemism  magic  polytheism  all of the above • Which of the culturologists linked the global change in the types of cultures with the change in communicative means and highlighted the preliterate, written, typographic and societal cultures with modern mass media?


 A. Kreber  X. Ortega y Gasset  Yu. Lotman  L. White • Who is the author of the work «Man and Machine»?  L. Gumilyov  N. Berdyayev  V. Soloviyev  P. Sorokin • What is the name of a religious worldview that places a transcendental personality of God over nature?  totemism  theism  seeking God  syncretism • In the framework of Marxist theory, it is argued that:  the result of material production is material culture, which is recognized as «primary» in relation to the spiritual culture  material culture ensures the accumulation and translation of progressive values and traditions  culture is understood as «the level of development of the essential forces of man» and as a «measure of human»  all of the above • Which of the thinkers is the author of the following statement: «A genuine culture cannot exist without a certain game content ... Culture still wants to play in a certain sense – by mutual agreement regarding certain rules»?  M. Weber  I. Huisinga  M. Bakhtin  L. White • O. Spengler especially noted that the following cultural type was in the stage of occurrence:  Slavic  American  Japanese  Russian-Siberian 113


Plan:  The cultural picture of the world and its functions.  The concept of «civilization». The main interpretations of this term in humanitarian knowledge.  The problem of correlation of culture and civilization.  Cultural and philosophical thought about the interaction of culture and nature. Ecology of culture. Guidelines: In cultural science, the concepts of society and culture are considered as interconnected and interdependent. Social life has a group character, determined by a particular system of norms, traditions, ideals – that is, culture. The problem of the interaction of culture and society is of interest not only for cultural experts, but also for every person who is a carrier of certain ethnic, national and group cultural values. Test questions: • What is subculture and counterculture? What approaches to understanding the subculture exist? What are the reasons for the increase in the number of subcultures, and what influenced the appearance of the phenomenon of youth subculture? What role do youth subcultures play both for the young and the cultural system as a whole? What changes have occurred in assessments of youth subcultures? How do you personally assess the place of subcultures in modern culture? • What features, according to different authors, characterize the current state of society? What problems do they name and what solutions are proposed? • What are the consequences of the development of modern technology? Why do you think that as the technological advances and material benefits of civilization develop, people become more and more lonely and tired? What examples can you give to confirm or refute the stated positions. 114

• Familiarize with the works of modern culture and determine by what signs all these works can be attributed to the postmodern trend. What feelings, thoughts, associations do these works evoke in you? • What does the term «cultural ecology» mean? Why do we need such a concept? From whom and from what should culture be protected? What examples of cultural and environmental problems can you give? • Give the characteristics of the historical types of a cultural man. What famous public and state figures, in your opinion, meet the requirements to a modern cultural person? • Consider values as an element of culture by group. Indicate, what values are decisive for the social subject. Show how needs determine the culture of the individual, society. Compare the manifestation of norms in the natural and social environment. • Do you agree that the difference in climate creates a difference in needs and lifestyle, and the difference in the laws of social structure depends on the latter? • What are the objectives of education as a cultural process in society? What is the significance of the game in human activity? Is it true that only a person can play? Why did culture emerge from the game and move away from it? • The modern era is often called the era of information. Determine the positive or negative, in your opinion, nature of the changes that have occurred in culture and in a person as a result of the development of information technology. What can you add yourself? Analytical tasks: • Fill in the table, recalling different approaches to understanding culture and civilization: Concept O. Spengler N. Berdyayev A. Toynbee

Culture …

Civilization …

• Here is a list of concepts that can characterize the picture of the world and the distinctive features of a particular historical stage of


culture. Fill in the table, correctly distributing these features according to stages. Expand the content of the concepts. Also specify on which centuries each of the periods falls. Documents containing the characteristics of historical types of cultures will help you complete this task: • authority of faith authority of knowledge • animism anthropocentrism • asceticism non-writing • voluntarism humanism • dualism historicism • canon cosmology • mythological consciousness monotheism • theocentrism polytheism • law practicism • rationalism symbolism • syncretism estate • competitiveness scientism • traditionalism utilitarianism • fatalism elitism • empiricism eschatologism Period Primitive culture Antique culture Medieval culture Renaissance culture Culture of the New Age

The concepts …

The content of the concept …

• Identify which of the following traits apply to ethnic or nationnal culture:  isolation, the desire for isolation  openness, willingness to exchange with other cultures  the presence of a developed personality  based on a consciousness of common origin  creativity is collective in nature, there is no authorship  exists within a sovereign state 116

 assumes the existence of a literary language  stored in the memory of the people and transmitted from generation to generation  special socio-cultural institutions (schools, libraries, archives, etc.) are are created to preserve and transfer knowledge Ethnic culture …

National culture …

Fill in the table:

Social Institute of Culture Family State Church Business Education

• • • •

Traits …



Define clothing style: classic style business style retro

country military casual


• Indicate which of the following concepts and definitions correspond to each other: The concepts 1 Antiquity is ...

The basilica is ...

The Vedas are ...

Renaissance is ...

Definitions 2 theory and history of culture, the subject of which are the most general laws of the development of culture, the principles of its functioning, as well as the interaction of various cultures the process of reducing the dependence of society and culture on church influence, the predominant reorientation from religious to secular ideas and images artistic direction prevailing in Western European culture in the late 60s. The nineteenth century, the central component of the worldview of which is a generalized and conditional sign, combining the properties of an abstract concept community of people, developing common features of the sociocultural mechanism of holistic functioning, which is either a symptom of cultural decline, or its highest stage

Gothic is ...

the principle of worldview, which is based on the belief in the infinite possibilities of man and his ability to improve.

Humanism is ...

the totality of the manifestations of life, achievements and creativity of the people; a way of social life that combines all types of human activity a special way of reflecting the world in human consciousness, characterized by sensually-shaped representations of fantastic creatures, phenomena and processes

Classicism is ...




The Qur'an is ...

ancient monuments of Indian literature

Culturology is ...

a type of worldview based on a belief in the supernatural, which is incomprehensible to the mind

Culture is ...

a concept introduced by the humanists of the Renaissance to define Greco-Roman culture

Test tasks: • How do the concepts of «culture» and «nature» relate?  are opposed to each other  are synonyms  the concept of culture includes the concept of nature  the concept of nature includes the concept of culture • N.Ya. Danilevsky called civilization as...  cultural and historical types  socio-economic formations  metacultures  cultural patterns • Negative phenomena in the spiritual life of society associated with civilization ...  Aristotle  J.-J. Rousseau  K. Marx  F. Voltaire • He called civilization the final stage in the development of culture, its entry into the phase of dying ...  P. Holbach  F. Guizot  F. Engels  O. Spengler • Cultural life is largely determined and limited by natural and geographical factors, according to the concept of ...  geographical determinism  technological determinism  ecumenism  anti-scientism 119

• P. Sorokin called civilization as...  cultural and historical types  socio-economic formations  metacultures  cultural patterns • The interaction of culture and the natural environment is studied by ...  ethnography  ethnology  environmental anthropology  social anthropology • The type of cultural change is not ...  stagnation  tradition  progress  regression • To indicate the process of the spread of cultural elements from the original center or more centers of their origin, the concept of ...  cultural diffusion  cultural isolation  evolution  inversions is used. • A steady state of culture in which its values, norms, traditions are reproduced unchanged over a long period of time is indicated by the term ...  inversion  diffusion  stagnation  regression • According to the concept of diffusionism, man is the...  creator of culture  «porter» of culture  cultural destroyer  initiator of cultural change 120

• Changes in the cultural life of unstable societies taking place in the form of «pendulum» transitions from one extreme state to another and vice versa are defined by the term ...  explosion in culture  inversion  diffusion  regression • To designate objects and phenomena that are culturally significant for a person and society, the concept … is used ...  symbol  artifact  value  ritual • A belief system that affirms the advantage of its own type of culture and its inherent value system and lifestyle over all others is called ...  ethnocentrism  relativism  ecumenism  racism • The lifestyle, social and spiritual condition of a nation is called ...  marginalized culture  esoteric culture  ethnic culture  popular culture • The established order of actions by which custom is committed and fixed is called ...  tradition  ritual  secularization  reformation • Cultural patterns enshrined in norms of behavior, values and beliefs are called ...  ritual


 rite  tradition  etiquette • The process of the interaction of cultures, as a result of which one ethnic group loses its originally existing culture and assimilates the culture of another ethnic group, is defined by the concept ...  assimilation  acculturation  socialization  inculturation • The culture of a specific, historically defined type of society, which has specific features, is defined by the concept of ...  local culture  corporate culture  mass culture  global culture • What attribute characterizes society as a system?  interaction with nature  immutability over time  availability of subsystems and institutions  the world of nature and things in general



Plan:  Modern ideas about the morphological and social evolution of primitive man.  The concept and indicators of the sociocultural process.  Tool-labor concept of the genesis of culture, separation from the animal world in the process of human labor.  Speech as a means of communication in joint activities. Guidelines: The purpose of the topic is the consideration and analysis of various theories of the origin of culture (cultural genesis), the identification of their strengths and weaknesses. Students should have a clear understanding of the essence of each of the concepts discussed; refer to the researchers who worked on the problem of the origin of culture; be able to formulate their opinion and attitude to the problem of cultural genesis. The most comprehensive tool-labor concept was developed by K. Marx and F. Engels. This concept was reflected in the article of F. Engels «The role of labor in the process of turning an ape into a manә, which is one of the chapters of his work «Dialectics of nature». Indicate the contradictions of this concept. How is this concept criticized by the scientists who hold different views on cultural genesis (V. Vilchek, L. Mumford, B. Malinovsky, I. Achildiev, etc.)? The author of the theory of the emergence of culture from magic is Lewis Mumford. Some scholars attribute authorship to T. Rozzac, J. Fraser, L. Levy-Bruhli and other famous scientists and philosophers. What is the essence of this concept? Is it possible to agree with the opinion that the appearance of primary religious ideas and experiences marks the birth of culture? A great contribution to the study of magic as the oldest institution of culture was made by Bronislaw Malinowski, who opposed evolutionary theories. What facts collected by Malinowski and set forth in the main works «The scientific theory of cul123

ture», «Dynamics of cultural change», «Magic, science and religion» confirm the theory of the emergence of culture from magic? What remains unclear in this hypothesis? The game concept of the origin of culture was developed by J. Huizinga (the main works: «In the Shadow of Tomorrow», «Autumn of the Middle Ages»), H. Ortega y Gasset («Dehumanization of Art», «Rise of the Masses»), E. Fink. What are the beliefs of the proponents of this concept that the game is older than culture? How did the game spawn sport, philosophy, art, religion, and other areas of culture? The symbolic concept of cultural genesis is represented primarily by the research of E. Cassirer (the main works: «Philosophy of Symbolic Forms», «Experience on Man»). Culture acts as a symbolic universe, and man is the creator of symbols. In addition, a significant contribution to the development of this concept was made by M. Heidegger, C. Jung and L. Mumford. Note criticism of L. Mumford's tool-labor concept of culture. Can we agree with his statement that «until a person made something of himself, he could do little in the world around him»? What is the meaning of the formula «man is a symbolic animal». Think about what symbols and symbolic systems man creates. Test questions: • What is culture genesis? • What are the characteristics of the primitive type of culture? • What are the characteristics and achievements of the culture of Ancient Egypt? • What does the concept of «antiquity» mean? • What are the features of the medieval type of civilization? • What is the essence of the New Age as an era and type of culture? • What are the characteristics of modern culture? • What is the definition of cultural genesis according to A.Ya. Flyer? • What is the peculiarity of updating culture through the transformational variability of existing forms and systems? Why did the proponents of such an understanding of cultural genesis get the name «evolutionists» (G. Spencer, L. Morgan, F. Engels)?


• What is the essence of understanding cultural genesis as a result of the emergence of new cultural phenomena (L. White, K. Klakhon, A. Kreber, L.N. Gumilyov)? • How is the genesis of cultural forms structured? • What are the specifics of normogenesis (genesis of cultural norms)? • What are the main stages in the genesis of sociocultural systems? • What are the phases of the genesis of ethnocultural systems? • What are the specifics of the concept of ethnogenesis of L.N. Gumilyov? • What are the three main ways of the genesis of interethnic cultural configurations? • What is a subculture? • What are the features of the interaction of subculture and elite culture in cultural genesis? • What are the main trends in the functioning of culture? What elements are they fixed in? • What is the difference between variations and innovations as the elements of cultural change? Give examples of them from practice. • What is the source of cultural dynamics? • What is the meaning of the concept of «model of sociocultural dynamics»? How did these ideas arise in human consciousness? • Why is the emergence of human culture associated with the Paleolithic era? What is this statement based on? • What is the historical origin of elitist culture? • What are the main directions of the genesis of modern mass culture according to A.Ya. Flyer? • What determines the diversity of understanding of culture? • What is the most general definition of culture? • Why was contemplation understood by Aristotle as the highest type of human activity? • Describe the four subsystems of the system-forming definition of culture:  «man is nature»  «man is man»


 «man is society»  «man is God» • What are the reasons for restricting the content of culture to the arts? What are the limitations of the art criticism approach? • What are the tasks of culturology as a science that studies the cultural system, its genesis, content and structure, laws, methods and forms of manifestation of human life? • What is the essence of the tool-labor concept of the genesis of culture? • What is the difference between synchronous and diachronous approaches to the study of cultural phenomena? • What is a type of culture and on what grounds can it be distinguished? What are the main options for typologizing cultures? • What is the effect of nature on culture? • What are the historical types of human attitudes toward nature? • What is the specificity of primitive culture? What are syncreticcultures? • What is the fundamental difference between culture and civilization? Analytical tasks: • In the study of cultural theory, you need to understand the concept of cultural-historical types that were proposed by O. Spengler and N. Danilevsky. Pioneers of ideas are highly regarded in culture. To whom of the authors of the idea of cultural-historical types does the primacy belong? • Fill the table: Historical type of culture 1 Primitive culture Antique culture

Spatio-temporal frame 2

Key Features 3 Syncretism Anthropocentrism, body cult


Cultural human Model 4

1 Medieval culture Renaissance Culture Culture of the New Age


3 Theocentrism, canonicity Elitism, anthropocentrism Scientism

•    

Match the pattern and picture... Russian fairy tale Chinese fairy tale Indian Tale Kazakh fairy tale

Fill in the table:

Historical type of culture 1 Antique culture Medieval culture


English fairy tale German fairy tale French Tale Japanese tale

Ideal beauty





1 Renaissance culture Culture of the New Age Modern culture



• Highlight the pros and cons of scientific and technological progress: «Advantages» The emergence of new forms of art associated with the use of technology (art photography, electronic music, etc.). …

«Disadvantages» Man himself acquires the features of a machine; personal connections are replaced by technological relations. …

• Prove or disprove that ...  the development of science has changed the relationship between man and the world, man and thing  science is socioculturally determined  a rapid development of science has led to a number of global problems  an increase in scientific knowledge should be accompanied by an increase in the spiritual potential of society  a rapid development of science has formed a «consumer society» • Without what can a person live? Arrange in ascending order of need:  money  labor  house  a family  other people  loneliness  love  Liberty  reading  contemplation 128

 movement to the goal  self-knowledge  thinking  sensuality  memory  history  pleasure  self-restraint  morality  body  soul  God  aging  death • Distribute into three groups the following concepts: law, rule of law, good, sin, jurisdiction, justice, prayer, contract, evil, property, freedom of conscience, trust, gratitude, sovereignty, referendum, repentance, conscience, crime, shame, love, communion, legal capacity, diocese, canonization, superstition, jihad, charter, freedom of speech–:  concepts related to the legal sphere  concepts related to the moral sphere  concepts related to the religious sphere. • Fill in the table: Historical type of culture Primitive culture Antique culture …

Images of nature


• Relate the keywords of the definitions of the concept of «culture» and the names of the scientists who put forward these definitions. Culture is: Dynamic organism G. Spencer Living unified system I. Kant Perfection of the mind Z. Freud Game O. Spengler 129

Mental stereotypes Practical activity of the way of thinking Semiosphere

K. Jung J. Huisinga E. Taylor F. Bacon Y. Lotman

Test tasks: • What does the concept of «civilization» mean?  the level of social development  the stage of social development following barbarism  the last (final) stage of cultural development  highly developed society based on reasonable principles, justice  this concept is used in scientific literature in all the senses listed, depending on the views of the author; • What gave rise to civilization?  Neolithic revolution  scientific and technological revolution  cultural revolution  technogenesis  development of art and literature • What features are characteristic of the world civilization?  generality and universality  national identity and originality  originality, uniqueness  inertia, disorder  instability, mobility • What types of civilizations were identified by Orientalists?  pre-written, written, typographic, informational  Egyptian, Asian, European  matriarchal, patriarchal  western, eastern  technogenic, psychogenic • How is the Latin word civilization translated?  equipment  science 130

 society  nature  art • What is the name of the scientist who believes that cultures should maintain their identity, advocates for the «tightness» and «impermeability» of cultures?  C. Levy-Strauss  M. Montaigne  G. Spencer  J. Gobineau  I. Kant • What is the name of the famous scientist, sociologist, philosopher of culture, author of the theory of «wave-like cultural change»?  O. Spengler  K. Jaspers  N. Gumilyov  N. Danilevsky  P. Sorokin • Which of the thinkers uses mythological images to distinguish between types of cultures?  J.J. Bachofen  L. Frobenius  F. Nietzsche  O. Spengler  K. Jaspers • What are the chronological frameworks for the «youthful age of mankind»:  from V to XII century  from XII to XV century  from the XV to the XVII century  from the XVII to the XVIII century  from the 18th to the 19th century  there is no right answer • What is the main meaning of humanism?


 This is the first prerequisite of the development of science, technology, industrial revolution, colonialism  It is an active development of philosophical knowledge  Faith in God gave way to faith in man and his mind. It is selfaffirmation of a person. Human and earthly values are above all  Publication of encyclopedias in Europe  This is the expansion of Western European culture to the East and other continents. • What are the main components of modern culture?  scientific and technological revolution, information society  religious values (including education, training, art)  religion, philosophy, morality, art, scientific and technological achievements, mass culture  political culture, sociology, cultural studies, history  fiction, theater, painting, sculpture



Plan:  The problem of determining the essence of religion in the history of social thought. The structure and functions of religion.  The place and role of religion in the system of spiritual culture.  Religion and science; the problem of the picture of the world, understanding of society and man.  Religion and morality; religion and universal values, specificity of religious morality.  Religion and art; similarities and differences in the ways of mastering the world. Guidelines: Studying this section requires students to know the origins, causes and essence of world religions. To comprehend this voluminous and complex material, it is necessary to turn to the indicated literature and prepare detailed presentations on all issues of the seminar. However, the purpose of the lesson is not only to get acquainted with the history of religion as such, but also to clarify its connection with various spheres of culture. The main attention should be paid to the relationship between religion and art (since religion has grown not only from philosophy, but also from magic, mysticism and mythology), the analysis of its interaction with various types of artistic creation. The theoretical basis that contributes to the solution of this problem, lays an understanding of the origin and essence of religion, as well as its connections and contradictions in relations with culture in the process of the development of man and society. Studying religion in the context of historical types of culture will help to get an idea of the interconnectedness and interdependence of all subsystems and forms of culture, in particular, the connection of religion with other forms of spiritual culture, with material culture, and the culture of everyday life. This will allow you to independently explain the events and phenomena of modern culture. 133

Test questions: • What are the main traditions of understanding the word «culture» in the history of Western European thought? • What is the peculiarity of reading culture in the understanding of Cicero? • What are the prerequisites for a broad interpretation of the concept of culture as upbringing and education in the interpretation of the ancient Greek theorists of Socrates and Plato? • Who was the first to introduce the concept of «civilization» in the history of culture? • What are the two traditions in the study of society in the New Age? Why did they take shape in the eighteenth century? • What are culturological schools and why do they study mentality? • What is the difference between a church and a sect in terms of cultural history? • What classifications of religion do you know? What are their features? • What types of religions of primitive society do you know? What is their essence? • The basis of every culture is the soul, O. Spengler believes, and culture is a symbolic body, the life embodiment of this soul. But all living things are mortal. This is the fate of culture. In what does O. Spengler see the causes of culture death? • Can the origin and development of culture be explained only by a person’s ability to symbolize? • Why is burial of corpses considered the source of spiritual culture? • What, in your opinion, are the reasons for people turning to religion? • Why is Buddhism, Christianity, Islam called «world religions»? Are there other types of world religions? • What social functions does religion perform? • What factors are decisive for the formation of religiosity of an individual? • What is the structure of mature religions? Explain your answer on the example of one of the religions existing in the world today. 134

• What is characteristic of non-traditional religious associateons? Give examples. • Why do you think Catholic priests take a vow of celibacy? Analytical tasks: • Compose a pantheon of pagan gods with a description of their functions, symbolic designation, hierarchy (main, minor gods). • Fill in the table of listed sects in imamite Islam (Shiites): Name of the sect Alawites Ismailis Sufis Assassins

The characteristic features of the sect …

• Explain the concepts that characterize pre-religious forms: fetishism, totemism, pantheism, polytheism. • Do you agree that ...  religion largely determines the culture of the nation, its values, and identity  religion offers ways of self-improvement of a person, ideals, values, as well as the ways of regulating social relations  religion is an important component of a person’s spiritual culture  a person is free to choose a religion, independently determine his religious position  religion determined and determines the consciousness and behavior of man, the meaning of his existence  Christianity and Islam do not allow their supporters to practice the ideas of any religious systems other than their own • The basis of ancient cultures was religious dogma. Indicate the dogma of which religion is set out in the following passage: «Know that life in this world is deceiving joy, seduction, vain attire, vanity between you, the desire to distinguish yourself with a lot of property and children: it is similar to those growths in the rain that captivate the farmer, then they fade, after you see them darkened, in the end they become dry stems. Life in this world is only deceptive pleasure»: 135

 Christianity  Buddhism  Shintoism  Islam • Do you agree that ...  religion largely determines the culture of the nation, its values, and identity  religion offers ways of self-improvement of a person, ideals, values, as well as the ways of regulating social relations  religion is an important component of a person’s spiritual culture  a person is free to choose a religion, independently determine his religious position  religion determined and determines the consciousness and behavior of man, the meaning of his existence  Christianity and Islam do not allow their supporters to practice the ideas of any religious systems other than their own • Fill the table: World religion

Time of occurrence, place of distribution

Main book

Branches of religion

Main ideas

Buddhism Christianity Islam

• • • •

Prove or disprove that ... religion is a set of superstitious provisions Buddhism is a religion without God culture needs sacred (sacred) landmarks, which means reli-

gion • religion is nothing but people's own fabrication (M. Montaigne) • religion is the last and highest sphere of human consciousness, it is that area in which a person enters, as in the field of absolute truth (G. Hegel).


• Is there a religion in the modern world? Does it continue to affect the minds of people, their morals, customs, relationships? Give examples confirming the influence of religion on politics and the economies of countries. • Find commonalities in the cult system of various religious denominations. How can this commonality be explained? • Analyze the moral principles put forward in various religious systems. What unites them, what are the differences? What is the general thing that can serve to unite people of different faiths? • In what areas of your life have you met with religion? What determines the increased interest in the emergence, development and understanding of the essence and role of religion and culture today? • Select examples from history when religion united people and when it disconnected them, decisively influencing the course of historical development. Can religion exist without ... • religious feeling • cult • priesthood • churches (as organizations of believers) • norms of behavior (morality) • Describe the main stages in the development of religious studies. What are the main distinguishing features of Darwinian and creationist religious concepts? • Align the proposed set of elements: Items

Proper match

Your Answer

1 general philosophical and socio-philosophical concepts concepts of logic, ethics, aesthetics

2 being, consciousness, society, illusion, spiritual culture, material production sign, meaning, meaning, conscience, mercy, compassion, responsibility era, law, faith, life, death language, communication system, structure, function, law


private science concepts general scientific concepts


1 religious concepts

concepts of the history of religions

2 theology, cult, church, denomination, god, bodhisattva, karma sacralization, secularization, church formation, sect formation, demythologization


Without which of the following can a person do perfectly in

life? drugs computer smoking tobacco city of music alcohol rest car clothes lifestyle prison psychotechnics loneliness work dreams language love science creativity

reading hypnosis travel other people time faith TV sport parents movie power advertising marriage experience education labor state test

Test tasks: • Religious culture:  coincides with the concept of «religion»  does not coincide with the concept of «religion»  coincides with the concept of «man»  coincides with the concept of «language»  something vague


makeup city money food society fame phone school himself disease children climate reflection sin nature education truth culture

• Which of the following meanings is characteristic for reading the word «religion» in culture?  courage  awe  hope  justice  beautiful • What is the name of an early form of religion, the essence of which is the worship of inanimate objects with supernatural properties:  animism  fetishism  totemism  magic • Confucianism is:  world religion  national religion  normal state of mind  Christianity  Japanese religion • In a scientific sense, religion is:  one of the areas of spiritual culture  basis of spiritual culture  the substance that nourishes the culture and gives it meaning • From a scientific point of view, historically the first area of spiritual life was ...  mythology  religion  art  philosophy  moral • The weakening of the influence of religion on public and individual consciousness, the restriction of religious sanctioning of institutions, the consciousness and behavior of individuals and groups is called:  sacralization  secularization 139

• He described religion as fear of God, fear and worship of gods, careful consideration of everything that is relevant to this worship ...  Cicero  I. Kant  G.V.F. Hegel  R. Otto • Extra-cult religious activity is:  worship  production of religious cult funds  performance of the sacraments • The subjects of a religious cult cannot be ...  a group  an individual  animals, plants • A house of worship, religious art, religious objects (cross, candles, chalice) are referred:  to the objects (objects) of worship  to the subjects of worship  to the means of worship  to cult methods • In various religions and religious areas, material things, animals, plants, nature, spirits, gods or the one God act as:  the objects (objects) of worship  the subjects of worship  cult means  cult methods • A religious group or believer, including a priest, is referred to:  the objects (objects) of worship  the subjects of worship  cult means  cult methods • Anthropomorphic gods are:  Gods whose appearance is like that of animals  Gods, representing the highest abstract power  Idols and amulets as carriers of supernatural power  Gods whose appearance is like that of a man 140

• Indicate in what order the surahs are located in the Quran:  in the content  in decreasing order of length  by the time of appearance • What religious system goes back to the tribal cults of the ancient Aryans, recognizes the Vedas, consolidates the tribal principle of belonging to a social group?  Brahmanism  Buddhism  Vedism • The division of Islam in the 7th century into two main areas was due to:  the interpretation of the main tenets  various approaches to the practice of worship  political struggle for the throne of the caliph



Plan:  The dynamics of culture as a process of its deployment in time and space.  The relationship of culture with social changes.  Circular and linear models of understanding the cultural process.  Culture as a world of signs. Guidelines: Studying the topic, it is necessary to understand that sociodynamics concerns the changes in the objective world created by man, as well as technology updates, the death and emergence of new social institutions, as well as norms, values and behaviors, i.e. all human culture. The root cause of changes in culture is a social challenge, i.e. new social or environmental situations that have arisen in society, which, firstly, threaten its existence, and, secondly, cannot be solved by people with the help of mastered cultural models (A. Toynbee). Test questions: • When and how did the formation of scientific knowledge about culture occur? • What is the essence of evolutionism? • What is the content of the theory of local civilizations? • What are the features of domestic cultural thought? • What are the similarities and differences of the concepts of «dynamics» and «difference»? • Describe the cyclical ideas about sociocultural dynamics. • What is the meaning of the theory of the «historical cycle» of J. Vico? • In what forms can a transition be made from the ideational to the sensual type of culture in the concept of P. Sorokin? • What is the essence of linear theories of sociocultural dynamics? 142

• What does the concept of «historical continuity» mean as a pattern of cultural development? • What is the essence of the concept of cultural progress and what are its criteria? • What is actual and potential, abstract and concrete culture? • Formulate the concept of cultural heritage. What are the forms of its development? • What is the specificity of continuity in the history of thought and the history of technology? • What is progressive and reactionary, continuous and discontinuous continuity? • What is the ratio of cultural fund and cultural background? • Give the concept of cultural disaster. • What is the significance of local cultural traditions as a resource of world cultural experience? • Describe the manifestation of cultural shock in different sectors of society. • Determine the stages of the passage of cultural innovations in domestic culture, determine their nature. • How in terms of the evolutionary school is it possible to explain the coarsening of morals in the modern cultural era? • What is the unity and diversity of cultures? • Describe cultural statics and cultural dynamics. • What is the difference between «cyclical» and «non-linear» views on culture? • What are the main features of eastern and western culture? • Identify the forms of spiritual culture that dominate the historical types of culture. Analytical tasks: • Relate the forms and specific elements of culture: material culture science spiritual culture technique religion moral production area life support


• The concept is given in the first column of the table, and its definition – in the second. Set the correspondence between them: First column Mass culture

Second column It declared human feelings «weaknesses», proclaimed the criteria of the beautiful «energy»; «speed», «strength»


A progressive direction in social thought, characterized by the protection of the dignity and rights of the individual


It is acting, manifesting itself as a real world

Specific music

The socio-cultural phenomenon that arose in the 50s of the XX century, refers to the manifestations of mass culture


Sound compositions created using magnetic tape recordings of various natural and artificial sounds.


A synonym for pseudo art, devoid of artistic and aesthetic value and overloaded with primitive details

Virtual world

This is a type of culture that is followed by the people imposing on everyone the stereotype and thinking of the crowd


The totality of the artistic directions of culture of the first third of the XX century, unified in the desire to break with realism

Rock culture

In such productions, the word should acquire the function of a gesture. It uses a special very specific language of expressions

Theater of cruelty

The most complex synthetic art

Describe approaches to social development. Use the table: Approach




• Do I need to join the samples of elitist culture? Read three different points of view on this issue. Fill in the blanks in the table:


Yes 1

No 2 1. It's boring, time consuming. In modern reality, you need to think about such qualities of character as practicality, determination, and not spiritual things. The desire to read classical literature and listen to classical music arises at an older age.

Neutral 3 1. If someone wants to develop spiritually, enrich their inner world, let them read classical literature and listen to classical music. But this is not necessary.

2. In classical literature, you can find answers to many questions, it can provide «guidance» to action in certain situations of life, help you take a decision


2. You need to choose a «middle ground». Of course, now a person needs a practical mind, but reading classical literature will not interfere with one’s development. In classical literature and music, you can still find something useful.

3. A person becomes a person in a true sense only when he renounces pressing everyday problems and reflects on the meaning of life, his place in the world, etc. Helpers in this can be the samples of an elite culture.





4. If the product of an elitist culture is not interesting for you, you can put it aside or turn to it at another time, when there may be a completely different understanding of the surrounding reality. There can be no harm in this case.


1 5. In modern reality, only an educated person can become a full-fledged member of society. Education is, first of all, the study of samples of an elitist culture. 6. Only an elitist culture allows a person to remain independent, to form his own opinion on certain issues, and supports the individuality of a person.

2 5. You can become educated by reading nonclassical literature, such as modern literature (listening to rock, rap, etc.). A lot of information can be gained from this. 6.

3 5.


• Relate the concepts and definitions: mythology figurative and symbolic reproduction of reality religion rational reconstruction of the world the art norms of behavior, relations between people science faith in the transcendental, supernatural absolute philosophy wisdom in the forms of thought, the theoretical soul of culture moral holistic, vivid perception of the world and nature • Distribute the following examples into three columns: Mass culture

• • • • •

Elite culture

Media culture

F.M. Dostoevsky, the novel «The Brothers Karamazov» advertising A. Tarkovsky, film «Andrei Rublev» D. Cameron, movie «Titanic» Picasso, painting «Dove of Peace» 146

• popular science magazine • pop music • detectives by D. Dontsova • Set the correspondence between painters and their works: H. Rembrandt «The Boy with the Dog» P. Rubens «Danae» H. De Ribera «Saint Inessa» B.E. Murillo «Las meninas» A. Vann Dyke «Union of Land and Water» Velazquez «Rest on the Flight into Egypt» • Set correspondence between writers and their works: G. Flaubert «Dombey and Son» C. Dickens «Madame Bovary» A.M. Stendhal «Red and Black» O. De Balzac «Father Goriot» K. Gamsun «Hunger» P. Merimee «Carmen» J. Galsworthy The Forsyte Saga G. de Maupassant «Dear friend» B. Show «Pygmalion» • Who are they? A. Vernadsky Scientist V. Astafiyev Poet M. Romm Film Director K. Paustovsky Writer R. Nureyev Artist I. Moskvin Composer S. Gerasimov Ballet Soloist I. Kurchatov N. Rubtsov R. Gliere • Literary works published during the years of perestroika. Match: A. Beck «Children of the Arbat» A. Rybakov «Doctor Zhivago» A. Platonov «New Appointment» V. Rasputin «Fire» B. Pasternak «Pit» 147

V. Grossman «Life and Fate» M. Gorky «The Life of Klim Samghin» • Which country do the following scientists belong to? I. Newton England M. Curie-Sklodowska Poland N. Copernicus Russia J. Bruno Italy D. Mendeleev France I. Kurchatov L. Pasteur N. Lobachevsky M. Lomonosov • Match: God of the daytime Sun Maahes God of Truth Osiris God of death Isis Goddess of fertility Horus God is the patron saint Ra of the pharaohs • Find matches: Belief Forms



2 the deification of an inanimate object, which is perceived as a carrier of supernatural magical power and serves as an object of worship belief in a supernatural connection and blood proxymity of the tribe with a totem (animal, plant, considered to be the ancestor of this people) faith in the existence of souls and spirits, in the animation of all objects and phenomena, in the presence of souls in people, animals, plants


Magic, «witchcraft»



Manifestations in modern culture 3 heraldry (coats of arms of cities), household symbols, a ban on the use of meat of certain animals amulets, crosses, icons

casting spells, rites (rituals), ritual state of the fortune-teller

1 Fetishism

2 a set of rituals and actions related to the belief in the possibility of influencing the surrounding reality with the help of supernatural forces

3 sacrifice

• From the gods listed below, choose the gods worshiped by the inhabitants of Mesopotamia: • Ra Shamash • Osiris Mitra • Venus Adad • Hermes Ishtar • Sin Wilga • Aton Maahes • Set the correspondence between the classes in ancient India and their names: Brahmins Warriors Kshatriya Farmers, Artisans and Traders Vaishya Priests Sudras Dependent artisans and farmers • Match: Tiger River Indus River Euphrates River Tang River

Ancient Egypt Ancient China Ancient India Mesopotamia

• Which of the 7 «wonders of the world» were in the territory of Ancient Greece?  Pyramids  The Colossus of Rhodes  Temple of Artemis of Ephesus  Zeus statue in Olympia  Halicarnassus Mausoleum  Hanging Gardens of Babylon  Alexandrian lighthouse 149

• Set the correspondence between the Greek and Roman gods: Zeus Venus Aphrodite Neptune Hermes Jupiter Poseidon Juno Hades Mercury Hera Minerva Athena Pluto • Which country owns the following works? Elder Edda France «Song of Roland» Iceland Song of the Nibelungs Norway Eric Redhead saga Germany Ballads of Robin Hood England • Set the correspondence of authors and their works: Abu-l' Alya al′-Maari «Shah-name Abu Bakr al Khorezmi «Mandatory is optional» Ibn Sina «Message» Omar Khayyam Rubai Firdousi «Canon of Medicine» • Align the authors and their works: Leonardo da Vinci «David» Michelangelo «Last Supper» Rafael «Venus in front of the mirror» Titian «Sistine Madonna» Jokonda •

«Athenian school» Distribute the listed social relations into three types:

Socio-cultural public relations

Political Public Relations

Industrial Public Relations

Creation of a political party, participation in a church choir, proposal of a new TV show project, holding a joint-stock company meeting, lobbying for a bill to reduce real estate tax, canceling a meeting of the communal workers union, adoption of a child from an orphanage, 150

transferring the building protected as a cultural monument to private ownership, establishment of a creative union of animators, sale of a controlling stake, replenishment of the fund of the municipal library. • Align the authors and their works: M. De Cervantes «King Lear» F. Rabelais «Utopia» E. Rotterdam Don Quixote T. More «Gargantua and Pantagruel» V. Shakespeare «Dance Teacher» U. von Hutten «Praise of Stupidity» Lope de Vega «Letters of Dark People» Test tasks: • The dynamics of culture is:  quantitative process  quality process  time-invariant process  what we want to see in it  lack of any patterns • Which of the following theoreticians criticized the theory of culture of O. Spengler?  J.E. Moore  G.V.F. Hegel  J.-J. Rousseau  G. Simmel  A.J. Toynbee • What phases of the long economic wave did N. Kondratyev single out?  rise, break, decline  progress, stagnation, regression, crisis  increase, fracture, decrease (depression), transition • Which scholars thought the process of cultural change was similar to the swing of the pendulum between liberalism and conservatism?  I. Prigogine  A. Schlesinger  P. Sorokin  O. Spengler 151

• Which of the modern representatives of cultural anthropology considers primitive culture and modern civilization as a form of human adaptation to the environment, defends the primacy of economic culture in the life of any ethnic group?  A. Moth  M. Harris  C. Levy-Strauss  M. Landmann • In which area of cultural studies is greater attention paid to the spiritual rather than material phenomena of culture and in which area of cultural studies is the historical-descriptive research methodology used?  social anthropology  cultural anthropology  diffusionism • Where is the Gothic style most represented?  in painting  in the theatre  in literature  in architecture  in philosophy • The following can be selected as the basis for typologizing cultures:  value basis  grounds for social action  formation base  historical and geographical basis  there are various principles of typology of culture; they are certain sets of indicators, including significant characteristics of the studied cultures in accordance with the tasks. • Which of the following authors defended the following views: «The new art divides the public into two classes – those who understand, and those who do not understand it, that is, artists and those who are not artists»?  A. Toynbee  P. Sorokin


 H. Ortega y Gasset  K. Jaspers • What languages are artificial?  specially designed languages of international communication  programming and machine languages  special information languages  all listed • The situation when one cultural group with superior technological resources destroys the members of another cultural group with whom it comes into contact is called ...  genocide  assimilation  separation  integration


Еducational issue

Zholdubayeva Azhar Aubakirova Saltanat


Editor: V. Popova Typesetting: U. Moldasheva Cover design: B. Malaeva Used the work of Salvador Dali. Bust Of Jella Lloyd, 1934. Painted plaster

IB No. 13874

Signed for publishing 18.10.2020. Format 60x84 1/16. Offset paper. Digital printing. Volume 9,62 printer’s sheet. 70 copies. Order No.12492. Publishing house «Qazaq University» Al-Farabi Kazakh National University KazNU, 71 Al-Farabi, 050040, Almaty Printed in the printing office of the «Qazaq University» Publishing House.

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