The Maronites in History: Second Edition 9781463208134

In making known the history of his people, Moosa brings the past to light for students and scholars of Christianity and

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THE

MARONITES IN HISTORY

é THE

MARONITES IN HISTORY

ÎJ3

Matti Moosa

A

1

GORGIAS P R E S S 2005

First Gorgias Press Edition, 2005. The special contents of this edition are copyright €> 2005 by Gorgias Press LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States of America by Gorgias Press LLC, New Jersey. This edition is a facsimile reprint of the original edition published by Syracuse University Press, New York, 1986.

ISBN 1-59333-182-7

ÖP GORGIAS PRESS

46 Orris Ave., Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA www.gorgiaspress.com

Printed and bound in the United States of America.

To the memory of my beloved Father ISHAQ M O O S A (d.

1960)

A token of filial love

is Professor of History at Gannon University, author of The Origins of Modern Arabic Fiction, and editor of The Wives of the Prophets. MATTI MOOSA

Contents

1 2 3 4 5 6

7 8 9

10 11 12

Preface Introduction Origin of the Term Maronite The Identity of the Ascetic Marun The Monastery of Marun Earliest Sources on the Monastery of Marun Maronite Claims and Sixth-Century Epistolary Documents The Council of Constantinople of A.D. 536 and the Letter of the Monks of Syria Secunda to Pope Hormisda The Maronites and Saint Simon the Stylite Peter the Fuller and the Trisagion Dispute Signatories to the Letter of the Monks to Pope Hormisda and Related Documents from the Council The Maronites and the Letters of the Monks from Syria Secunda Were the Monks of the Monastery of Marun Chalcedonians? Heraclius and the Monothelitic Formula of Faith

1 5 11 16 23 32 39

54 64 69

74 81 87 95

13

The Malkites, the Maronites, and the Sixth Council

103

14

Establishment of the Maronites as a Separate Church

110

15

Who is John Marun?

118

16

John Marun: Was He a Patriarch of Antioch?

130

17

John Marun's Writings

148

18

Was John Marun a Canonized Saint?

167

19

The Relation of the Maronites to the Mardaites and the Jarajima The Maronites and Monothelitism The Relation of the Maronites to the Church of Rome The Mission of Fra Gryphon and Other Franciscans to the Maronites

20 21 22

174 195 217 233

23

The Mission of Giovanni Battista Eliano to the Maronites

245

24

The Mission of Jerome Dandini to the Maronites

256

25 26

The Latinization of the Maronite Church The Maronites in Modern Times Notes Bibliography Index

267 279 305 363 381