The Handbook of Food and Anthropology 9780857855947, 9781350083332, 9781474298407, 9781350001138

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Table of contents :
Title Page
Copyright Page
Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Contributors
Introduction: Anthropology, Food and Modern Life
HISTORY OF FOOD STUDIES IN ANTHROPOLOGY
THE FUTURE OF FOOD ETHNOGRAPHY
THIS HANDBOOK
NOTES
REFERENCES
Part 1 Food, Self and Other
Chapter 1 Culinary Stereotypes: The Gustatory Politics of Gastro-Essentialism
FOOD AND STEREOTYPING: ANALYTICAL ISSUES
STEREOTYPES AND HISTORY
SPICE BOYS: THE HIDDEN DYNAMICS OF GLOBALIZED FOOD TRADITIONS
WHITHER GASTRO-ESSENTIALISM?
NOTES
REFERENCES
Chapter 2 Muslim Foodways
THE QUR’AN ON FOOD AND EATING
DEMOGRAPHY
SHARED PRACTICES IN THE ETHNOGRAPHY OF MUSLIM FOODWAYS
DIVERGENCE IN THE ETHNOGRAPHY OF MUSLIM FOODWAYS
DELOCALIZED MUSLIM FOODWAYS
REPERSONALIZATION OF MUSLIM FOODWAYS
MUSLIM FOODWAYS AND THE FUTURE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
NOTES
REFERENCES
Chapter 3 Food, Commensality and Caste in South Asia
INTRODUCTION

DEFINING CASTE
CASTE BOUNDARIES AND FOOD TRANSACTIONS
CASTE AND TYPES OF FOOD
FROM THE ONTOLOGICAL TO THE POLITICO-ECONOMIC
BEYOND CASTE
CONCLUSION
Notes
REFERENCES
Chapter 4 Jewish Foods at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century
FAITH AND FOOD: ‘EATING THE BOOK’
THE COLONIAL AND POST-COLONIAL REPUBLICAN CONTRACT IN THE KITCHEN AND ON THE TABLE
WHAT IS ‘TRADITIONAL’ SEPHARDIC FRENCH CUISINE?21
A CALENDAR OF JEWISH EATING
THE SEPHARDIC VERSION OF THE ‘RAW AND THE COOKED’: THE DIVISION OF LABOUR OF COOKING, MENU PREPARATION AND CONSUMPTION
THE TRANSLATION EFFECT: FROM JUDEO-ARABIC TO FRENCH
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: GLOBALIZATION OF JEWISH CUISINE
BY WAY OF CONCLUSION: THE POLITICS OF RELIGIOUS FOOD AND IDENTITY
NOTES
REFERENCES
Chapter 5 Approaches to Food and Migration: Rootedness, Being and Belonging
INTRODUCTION
BEING AND BELONGING: MIGRANT FOOD SPACES
ACCULTURATION, APPROPRIATION AND HYBRIDIZATION: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MIGRANT AND HOSTS
UPHOLDING HOME: GENDER, GENERATIONS AND FOOD LABOUR
RETHINKING FOOD AND MIGRATION: THE FLOWS BETWEEN HERE AND THERE
MIGRATION, FOOD AND THE BODY
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
Chapter 6 Local Food, Local Specialties and Local Identity
THE LOCAL SPECIALTIES OF HOI AN
BANH BAO BANH VAC AND THE HOIANESE-CHINESE IDENTITY
ON SIZZLING PANCAKES AND BEING LOCAL
STRANGERS AT HOME: THE LOCAL SPECIALTIES OF THE NEXT DOOR VILLAGE
THE VARIOUS MEANINGS OF ‘LOCAL FOOD’
NOTE
REFERENCES
Part 2 Food Security, Nutrition and Food Safety
Chapter 7 Observer, Critic, Activist: Anthropological Encounters with Food Insecurity
ANTHROPOLOGY, HUMAN RIGHTS AND ACTIVISM
FOOD (IN)SECURITY DEFINED AND MEASURED
AGRIBUSINESS AND LIVELIHOODS
GLOBAL CAPITALISM AND THE DEBATE ON GM CROPS
FOOD SECURITY IN PROTRACTED CRISES
URBAN FOOD SECURITY
CONCLUSION
NOTE
ABBREVIATIONS
References
Chapter 8 Feeding Farmers and Feeding the Nation in Modern Malaysia: The Political Economy of Food and Taste
REPRODUCING THE MODERN PEASANTRY
GETTING BY IN KELANTAN: PADI FARMING BEFORE THE GREEN REVOLUTION
RICE AS SELF IN MALAYSIA: FEEDING, SHARING AND RECIPROCITY
KELANTAN’S LONG GREEN REVOLUTION
RESOLVING CRISES
CONCLUSION
NOTES
ABBREVIATIONS
REFERENCES
Chapter 9 Children’s Food
INTRODUCTION
HOW ‘CHILDREN’S FOOD’ MAKES CHILDREN
HOW FOOD DEFINES FAMILIES AND PARENTHOOD
CHILD SOCIALIZATION AND POWER
THE POLITICS OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY
THE POLITICS OF SCHOOL FOOD
GLOBALIZING CHILDREN’S FOOD
WHITHER CHILDREN’S FOOD?
NOTES
REFERENCES
Chapter 10 Cow’s Milk as Children’s Food: Insights from India and the United States
INTRODUCTION
HISTORICAL CONTEXT: MEDICAL SYSTEMS, MILK AND THE FEEDING OF YOUNG CHILDREN
MILK AND CHILD GROWTH: MEANINGS IN THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY
BODY SIZE AND MILK: MEANINGS OF GROWTH
CONCLUSION
NOTES
REFERENCES
Chapter 11 Food, Borders and Disease
INTRODUCTION
BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE)
SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME (SARS)
INFANT FORMULA PARALLEL TRADING, 2008–134
CONCLUDING COMMENTS
NOTES
REFERENCES
Chapter 12 Rethinking Food and its Eaters: Opening the Black Boxes of Safety and Nutrition
WHAT IS CHEESE?
PROCESSING BLACK BOXES: THE HAZARDS OF ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL REGULATION
SWALLOWING BLACK BOXES: THE INDIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRITIONAL GUIDELINES
BEYOND EATING AS INCORPORATION: MATERIALIZING LOCAL ECOLOGIES AND BIOLOGIES
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
NOTES
REFERENCES
Chapter 13 Food Provisioning and Foodways in Postsocialist Societies:Food as Medium for Social Trust and Global Belonging
AGONY AND DESIRE: FOOD PROVISIONING IN SOCIALIST AND POSTSOCIALIST EUROPE
EVERYDAY FOOD PRACTICES AFTER SOCIALISM: QUALITY, RISK AND CONSUMER COMPETENCE
GLOBALIZING FOODWAYS IN POSTSOCIALIST EUROPE: IDENTITY POLITICS, VALUES AND MORALITY
REGULATION, THE STATE AND GOVERNANCE
FOOD AS MEDIUM FOR RESTORING SOCIAL TRUST IN A GLOBAL WORLD
NOTES
REFERENCES
Chapter 14 Feeding the Revolution: Public Mess Halls and Coercive Commensality in Maoist China
POLITICAL BACKGROUND: THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD
PUBLIC MESS HALL CAMPAIGN: THE COLLECTIVIZATION OF EATING
WOMEN’S LABOUR AND COMMUNIST CONSCIOUSNESS
TO ATTACK THE FAMILY, DESTROY THE KITCHEN
COMMUNIST UTOPIA: ALL YOU CAN EAT, THREE MEALS A DAY
TIME, LEISURE AND THE REGIMENTATION OF DAILY LIFE
AFTERMATH: THE POST-LEAP FAMINE
CONCLUSIONS: COERCIVE COMMENSALITY AND THE LIMITS OF SOCIAL ENGINEERING
NOTES
REFERENCES
Part 3 Food as Craft, Industry and Ethics
Chapter 15 Church Cookbooks: Changing Foodways on the American Prairie
TRENDS IN AMERICAN COOKING
INNOVATORS AND CRITICS: ‘EATING LIKE AN AMERICAN’
HENRY COUNTY, ILLINOIS: COOKBOOKS AND NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING
HENRY COUNTY FOODWAYS
CHURCH COOKBOOKS: LOCAL ADAPTATIONS AND NATIONAL TRENDS
CONCLUSION
NOTES
REFERENCES
Chapter 16 The Anthropology of Cooking
INTRODUCTION
ANTHROPOLOGICAL REFLECTIONS ON COOKING
ETHNOGRAPHIC FOREBEARS
WHAT IS COOKING?
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
NOTES
REFERENCES
Chapter 17 Supermarket Expansion, Informal Retail and Food Acquisition Strategies: An Example from Rural South Africa
INTRODUCTION
THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF SUPERMARKET EXPANSION
SUPERMARKET EXPANSION IN RURAL SOUTH AFRICA
RETAIL INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE SYNCHRONIZATION OF FOOD NEEDS
CONCLUSION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
NOTES
REFERENCES
Chapter 18 Ethical Consumption: The Moralities and Politics of Food
LOCATING ETHICAL CONSUMPTION
THE GLOBAL ECONOMY: PRODUCTIONS, DISTRIBUTIONS, MORALITIES
ETHNOGRAPHIC EXPLORATIONS OF ETHICS
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
Chapter 19 Artisanal Foods and the Cultural Economy: Perspectives on Craft, Heritage, Authenticity and Reconnection1
AUTHENTICITY, HERITAGE AND ARTISANAL FOODS
THE IDEA OF ARTISANAL FOODS
ARTISANAL FOODS IN THE CULTURAL ECONOMY
‘DISSONANCE AND CONTESTATION’, OR, DISCONNECTION, MISTRUST AND INAUTHENTICITY IN THE HERITAGIZATION OF ARTISANAL FOODS
THE REAL THING? ARTISANAL FOODS AND THE CRAFTING OF CULTURE
NOTES
REFERENCES
Chapter 20 Practising Food Anthropology: Moving Food Studies from the Classroom to the Boardroom
INTRODUCTION: GOING DOWN THE CORPORATE RABBIT HOLE
TRANSLATING FIELDS, TRANSLATING METHODS
RETHINKING THE FIELD AS AN EXERCISE IN TRANSLATION
WHAT IS THE ANTHROPOLOGIST’S ROLE IN THE CORPORATE SETTING?
TOWARDS AN ANTHROPOLOGY OF CORPORATE FOOD
CAUTIONARY TALES
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
NOTES
REFERENCES
Afterword
Index
Recommend Papers

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The Handbook of Food and Anthropology

ii

The Handbook of Food and Anthropology

Edited by Jakob A. Klein and James L. Watson

BLOOMSBURY ACADEMIC Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 50 Bedford Square, London, WC1B 3DP, UK 1385 Broadway, New York, NY 10018, USA BLOOMSBURY, BLOOMSBURY ACADEMIC and the Diana logo are trademarks of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc First published 2016 This edition published 2019 Copyright © Jakob A. Klein, James L. Watson and Contributors 2016 Jakob A. Klein and James L. Watson have asserted their right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act,1988, to be identified as Editors of this work. Cover image © James L. Watson All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publishers. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc does not have any control over, or responsibility for, any third-party websites referred to or in this book. All internet addresses given in this book were correct at the time of going to press. The author and publisher regret any inconvenience caused if addresses have changed or sites have ceased to exist, but can accept no responsibility for any such changes. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN: HB: 978-0-8578-5594-7 PB: 978-1-3500-8333-2 ePDF: 978-1-3500-0113-8 ePub: 978-1-3500-0114-5 Typeset by Deanta Global Publishing Services, Chennai, India

To find out more about our authors and books visit www.bloomsbury.com and sign up for our newsletters.

To the memory of Sidney W. Mintz (1922–2015) and Jack Goody (1919–2015), two pioneers in the field

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Contents

List of Figures

ix

List of Tables

x

List of Contributors

xi

Introduction: Anthropology, Food and Modern Life James L. Watson and Jakob A. Klein

1

PART ONE  FOOD, SELF AND OTHER 1 Culinary Stereotypes: The Gustatory Politics of Gastro-Essentialism  Michael Herzfeld

31

2 Muslim Foodways  Maris Gillette

48

3 Food, Commensality and Caste in South Asia  James Staples

74

4 Jewish Foods at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century  Joëlle Bahloul

94

5 Approaches to Food and Migration: Rootedness, Being and Belonging  Emma-Jayne Abbots

115

6 Local Food, Local Specialties and Local Identity  Nir Avieli

133

PART TWO  FOOD SECURITY, NUTRITION AND FOOD SAFETY 7 Observer, Critic, Activist: Anthropological Encounters with Food Insecurity  Johan Pottier

151

8 F  eeding Farmers and Feeding the Nation in Modern Malaysia: The Political Economy of Food and Taste  Francesca Bray

173

9 Children’s Food  Jennifer Patico and Eriberto P. Lozada Jr

200

viii Contents

10 Cow’s Milk as Children’s Food: Insights from India and the United States  Andrea S. Wiley 11 Food, Borders and Disease  Josephine Smart and Alan Smart

227 249

12 Rethinking Food and its Eaters: Opening the Black Boxes of Safety and Nutrition  Heather Paxson

268

13 Food Provisioning and Foodways in Postsocialist Societies: Food as Medium for Social Trust and Global Belonging  Yuson Jung

289

14 Feeding the Revolution: Public Mess Halls and Coercive Commensality in Maoist China  James L. Watson

308

PART THREE  FOOD AS CRAFT, INDUSTRY AND ETHICS 15 Church Cookbooks: Changing Foodways on the American Prairie  Rubie Watson

323

16 The Anthropology of Cooking  David Sutton

349

17 Supermarket Expansion, Informal Retail and Food Acquisition Strategies: An Example from Rural South Africa  Elizabeth Hull 18 Ethical Consumption: The Moralities and Politics of Food  Peter Luetchford

370 387

19 Artisanal Foods and the Cultural Economy: Perspectives on Craft, Heritage, Authenticity and Reconnection  Harry G. West

406

20 Practising Food Anthropology: Moving Food Studies from the Classroom to the Boardroom  Melissa L. Caldwell

435

Afterword459 Cristina Grasseni Index

465

LIST OF FIGURES

Chapter 4   4.1 A basket of challah rolls stored in a kitchen corner in preparation for a bar-mitzvah celebration.

102

  4.2 The weekly home baking of challah (in French, pain juif ) on Friday morning.

104

  4.3 Preparation of the traditional couscous for Friday dinner.

105

  4.4 The crowd in front of a falafel restaurant on Rue des Rosiers in Paris, on a Sunday afternoon.

107

Chapter 8   8.1 Peninsular Malaysia showing Kelantan.

176

  8.2 Map of the KADA area.

178

  8.3 Main village of Bunut Susu in 1976.

179

  8.4 Threading sireh leaves for market.

182

Chapter 10 10.1 Per capita intake of milk and changes over time in India and the United States.

229

10.2 A young child with the ideal meal, 1916.

233

10.3 A young Krishna is milking a cow, while his parents Yasoda and Nanda stand nearby.

240

LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER 8   8.1 Padi farming in KADA, 1976–2010.

181

  8.2 Direct subsidies and incentive payments in rice production.

189

  8.3 Average household income of KADA farmers by source, 1968–2010.

193

CHAPTER 11 11.1 Number of probable SARS cases, mortality figures, number of imported cases, and date of first onset for the SARS ‘outbreak period’ from November 1, 2002 until July 31, 2003.

256

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Emma-Jayne Abbots is Senior Lecturer in Anthropology at the University of Wales Trinity Saint David. Her research addresses the cultural politics of food and drink and the visceral practices of their production, preparation and consumption. She is broadly concerned with material engagements with food, the (re)production and mediation of food knowledges, particularly through the body and the ecologies in which knowledge-making takes place. Abbots is the author of The Agency of Eating (Bloomsbury, 201), and the coeditor of Why We Eat, How We Eat (Ashgate, 2013) and Careful Eating (Ashgate, 2015). Nir Avieli is an associate professor of anthropology in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Ben Gurion University, Israel. As a cultural anthropologist, Avieli is mainly interested in food and tourism. He has been conducting ethnographic research in the central Vietnamese town of Hoi An since 1998. His book, Rice Talks: Food and Community in a Vietnamese Town (Indiana University Press, 2012), is a culinary ethnography of Hoi An. Avieli has conducted ethnographic research in Thailand, India, Singapore, and Israel. His most recent book, Food and Power: A Culinary Ethnography of Israel, was published by The University of California Press in 2017. Joëlle Bahloul is a professor emerita of Anthropology and Jewish Studies at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana. She has conducted ethnography among Sephardic Jews of France, Israel, Italy and the United States for over forty years. She is the author of The Architecture of Memory (Cambridge University Press, 1996), Le culte de la Table Dressée (Editions A.M. Métailié, 1983), Lectures Précaires (B.P.I., 1987), and of a number of articles presenting her long-time ethnographic research on food and collective memory, Sephardic identity and kinship practices, and urban Jewish places. Francesca Bray, Professor Emerita of Social Anthropology at the University of Edinburgh, is an anthropologist and historian of technology and gender in China and Asia, with a special interest in agriculture and food. Fieldwork in Kelantan, a rice bowl region of Malaysia, during the Green Revolution led her to publish The Rice Economies: Technology and Development in Asian Societies (Blackwell, 1986; University of California Press, 1994). Her most recent publications on rice and society include ‘Rice as Self: Food, History and Nation-Building in Japan and Malaysia’ (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Halle, 2014) and a coedited volume, Rice: Global Networks and New Histories (Cambridge University Press, 2015).

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Melissa L. Caldwell is Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and Editor of Gastronomica: The Journal of Critical Food Studies. Her ethnographic research in Russia focuses on the entanglement of political systems in the most ordinary spaces and dimensions of people’s lives, with particular attention to food cultures. She has written on fast food and globalization, food nationalism, culinary tourism, gardening and natural foods, food insecurity and food relief programmes. Her publications include Dacha Idylls: Living Organically in Russia’s Countryside (University of California Press, 2011), Not by Bread Alone: Social Support in the New Russia (University of California Press, 2011), and the edited volume Food & Everyday Life in the Postsocialist World (Indiana University Press, 2009). Maris Boyd Gillette, Professor of Social Anthropology, School of Global Studies, the University of Gothenburg, is a sociocultural anthropologist and filmmaker who has studied urban Chinese Muslims in Xi’an (northwest China) and porcelain workers and entrepreneurs in Jingdezhen (southeast China). Her recent publications include ‘Gender in the Xi’an Muslim District’ in Contesting Feminisms: Gender and Islam in Asia, edited by Huma Ghosh (State University of New York Press, 2015) and China’s Porcelain Capital: The Rise, Fall, and Reinvention of Ceramics in Jingdezhen (Bloomsbury, 2016). In addition to her academic research, Gillette has participated in numerous community engagement initiatives, including the community history and digital media project Muslim Voices of Philadelphia, for which she received a Courage in Media Award from the Council on American Islamic Relations in 2012. Cristina Grasseni is Professor of Anthropology at the University of Leiden and Principal Investigator of the Project ‘Food Citizens? Collective Food Procurement in European Cities: Solidarity and Diversity, Skill and Scale’ (2017–2022), funded by the European Research Council. Her main research interests in the field of food and anthropology concern the politics of heritage foods, innovation for sustainability in grassroots economic networks, as well as the transformation of skills and the cultural ecology of food production, notably dairy farming. She is the author of The Heritage Arena: Reinventing Cheese in the Italian Alps (Berghahn, 2017), Beyond Alternative Food Networks: Italy’s Solidarity Purchase Groups (Bloomsbury, 2013), and Developing Skill, Developing Vision: Practices of Locality at the Foot of the Alps (Berghahn, 2009). Michael Herzfeld is Ernest E. Monrad Professor of Social Sciences in the Department of Anthropology, Harvard University; IIAS Visiting Professor of Critical Heritage Studies at the University of Leiden; Professorial Fellow, University of Melbourne; and Chang Jiang Scholar, Shanghai International Studies University. He has authored eleven books – including Siege of the Spirits: Community and Polity in Bangkok (2016) – and is the producer of two films (including Roman Restaurant Rhythms [2011]), and has served as editor of American Ethnologist (1995–98). His research in Greece, Italy, and Thailand addresses historic conservation and

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

xiii

gentrification, nationalism, bureaucracy, crypto-colonialism, commensality, and knowledge production among artisans and intellectuals.  Elizabeth Hull is a senior lecturer in Anthropology at SOAS University of London and Deputy Chair of the SOAS Food Studies Centre. She is author of Contingent Citizens: Professional Aspiration in a South African Hospital (Bloomsbury, 2017), published as part of the LSE Monographs on Social Anthropology series. Other publications include ‘The Social Dynamics of Labor Shortage in South African Small-Scale Agriculture’ (World Development, 2014) and a volume coedited with Deborah James on ‘Popular Economies in South Africa’ (Special Issue of Africa, 2012). Her research interests include agriculture, food systems, livelihoods and health in South Africa. Yuson Jung is Associate Professor of Anthropology at Wayne State University (Detroit, Michigan). Her research explores issues of consumption, food politics, globalization, and postsocialism. She is the author of Balkan Blues: Consumer Politics after State Socialism (Indiana University Press, 2019), which examines everyday consumer experience in postsocialist Bulgaria. Her work has also appeared in peer-reviewed journals and edited volumes, and she is the coeditor (with Jakob Klein and Melissa Caldwell) of Ethical Eating in the Postsocialist and Socialist World (University of California Press, 2014). Currently, she is working on a book project about the cultural politics and transformation of the Bulgarian wine industry, and a collaborative research project (with Andrew Newman) regarding food politics and urban governance in Detroit. Jakob A. Klein is Senior Lecturer in Social Anthropology at SOAS University of London and Chair of the SOAS Food Studies Centre. He has carried out ethnographic research in south China and has written on regional cuisine, food movements and food safety. Klein’s publications include several coedited collections: Consuming China: Approaches to Cultural Change in Contemporary China (Routledge, 2006), Ethical Eating in the Postsocialist and Socialist World (University of California Press, 2014), Food Consumption in Global Perspective: Essays in the Anthropology of Food in Honour of Jack Goody (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014), and Consumer and Consumed: Humans and Animals in Globalising Food Systems (Special Issue of Ethnos, 2017). Eriberto P. Lozada, Jr., is Associate Dean of Faculty and Professor of Anthropology and Environmental Studies at Davidson College, North Carolina, and Adjunct Professor of Anthropology at Fudan University, Shanghai. He has written on issues in Chinese society ranging from: religion and politics; food, the environment and globalization; sports and society; and the cultural impact of science and technology. His current research examines the growth of sustainable aquaculture in the rural areas around Shanghai. More can be found at https://lozada.davidson.edu. Peter Luetchford is Senior Lecturer in Anthropology at the University of Sussex, where he teaches political and economic anthropology and on the Development

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Studies program. In his fieldwork in Costa Rica and Southern Spain he has pursued his interests in moral economies, ethical consumption, and the political cultures of food provision. He is the author and coeditor of several volumes on these themes including a study on coffee and cooperatives in Costa Rica published as Fair Trade and a Global Commodity (Pluto, 2008), Ethical Consumption: Social Value and Economic Practice (Berghahn, 2012) and Food for Change: The Politics and Values of Social Movements (Pluto, 2014). Jennifer Patico received her PhD in sociocultural anthropology from New York University and is an associate professor of anthropology at Georgia State University. She is the author of Consumption and Social Change in a Post-Soviet Middle Class (Stanford University Press and Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2008), an ethnography of consumerism, shifting class identities and moral discourses in post-Soviet St Petersburg. Her current project, a book tentatively titled Sugar and Selfhood: Children’s Food and Middle Class Ways of Being (NYU Press), examines parenting practices, children’s food, and underlying concerns about self in urban Atlanta. Her work has been published in journals including American Ethnologist, Slavic Review, Ethnos, Critique of Anthropology, and Gastronomica. Heather Paxson is William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of Anthropology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she teaches courses on food, craft practice, and family. She is the author of The Life of Cheese: Crafting Food and Value in America, published by University of California Press in 2013, and winner of the 2014 Diana Forsythe Prize. She was an area editor for The Oxford Companion to Cheese (2016) and is now serving a four-year term as coeditor of the journal Cultural Anthropology. Johan Pottier is Emeritus Professor of Anthropology with reference to Africa at SOAS University of London. He specializes in the social dynamics of food security. He has researched in Central, East, and Southern Africa, and has published on locallevel perceptions of food security; food policy and land reform; post-drought and post-famine recovery; humanitarian aid; and most recently, on urban food security in Kampala and Lilongwe. He has also researched dimensions of the global food trade in relation to the consumption of Bangladeshi foods in East London (UK). His publications include Anthropology of Food: The Social Dynamics of Food Security (Polity Press, 1999) and Re-Imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the Late 20th Century (Cambridge University Press, 2002). Alan Smart (PhD, University of Toronto, 1986) is a professor at the Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Calgary. His research has focused on urban issues, housing, foreign investment, social change, food safety, zoonotic diseases and agriculture in Hong Kong, China, and Canada. He is author of Making Room: Squatter Clearance in Hong Kong (Hong Kong University Press, 1992), Petty Capitalists and Globalization (coedited with Josephine Smart, SUNY Press, 2005), The Shek Kip Mei Myth: Squatters, Fires and Colonial Rule in Hong Kong,

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

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1950–1963 (Hong Kong University Press, 2006), and numerous articles in journals and edited volumes.  Josephine Smart (PhD, University of Toronto, 1987) is Professor of Anthropology at the Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, University of Calgary. Her research and teaching interests include economic anthropology, food production and zoonotic diseases, social and economic development in post-1978 China, Chinese international migration, immigrant entrepreneurs and the international mobility of capital and labour. She conducts fieldwork in Hong Kong, South China, Canada, and, most recently, Central America. She is a coeditor of Petty Capitalists and Globalization: Flexibility, Entrepreneurship and Economic Development (SUNY, 2005), coeditor of Plural Globalities in Multiple Localities and New World Borders (University Press of America, 2001), and sole author of  The Political Economy of Street Hawkers in Hong Kong (University of Hong Kong Press, 1989), and has published numerous articles in journals and chapters in edited volumes. James Staples is Reader in Anthropology at Brunel University London. He is author of Holy Cows and Chicken Manchurian (Washington University Press, forthcoming), Peculiar People, Amazing Lives (Orient Longman, 2007), and Leprosy and a Life in South India (Lexington Books, 2014), as well as editor of  Livelihoods at the Margins (Left Coast Press, 2007), Extraordinary Encounters: Authenticity and the Interview (with Katherine Smith and Nigel Rapport, Berghahn, 2015), and several special issues of journals, including Consumer and Consumed (Ethnos, 2017, coedited with Jakob A. Klein). He has also published numerous journal articles and chapters on his work in South India. David Sutton is Professor of Anthropology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. Since the early 1990s he has been conducting research on the island of Kalymnos and has published two books on the food culture of the island: Remembrance of Repasts: An Anthropology of Food and Memory (Berg, 2001) and Secrets from the Greek Kitchen: Cooking, Skill and Everyday Life on an Aegean Island (University of California Press, 2014). These explore food practices in relation to questions of memory, the senses, gender, technology, and social change. He is also coeditor of The Restaurants Book: Ethnographies of Where We Eat (Berg, 2007). James L. Watson is Fairbank Professor of Chinese Society and Professor of Anthropology Emeritus at Harvard University. Watson’s research has focused on Chinese emigration, ancestor worship, popular religion, family life, village organization, food systems and the emergence of a post-socialist culture in China. He has worked with graduate students in Harvard’s Department of Anthropology to investigate foodways in China, Russia, Eastern Europe, South Asia, and North America. Among other publications Professor Watson is coeditor (with Melissa Caldwell) of The Cultural Politics of Food and Eating (Blackwell) and editor of Golden Arches East: McDonald’s in East Asia (Stanford University Press).

xvi

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Rubie Watson received her PhD from the London School of Economics and has taught anthropology at the University of Pittsburgh and Harvard University. From 1997 to 2004, she was Director of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University. She retired from Harvard in 2008 and now lives on a farm in Western Illinois. Harry G. West is Professor of Anthropology at the University of Exeter. He is author of numerous books, book chapters and journal articles based upon his extended study of the culture, history, and political economy of agrarian northern Mozambique. His current research focuses on artisan cheese, discourses of ‘terroir’ and ‘authenticity’, and the regulatory and marketing regimes giving shape to a growing global niche in ‘heritage foods’. Andrea S. Wiley is Professor of Anthropology and Director of the Human Biology Program at Indiana University, Bloomington. She is the author of four books: Cultures of Milk: The Biology and Culture of Dairy Consumption in India and the United States (Harvard University Press, 2014); Re-imagining Milk (Routledge, second edition, 2016); Medical Anthropology: A Biocultural Perspective (with John S. Allen, Oxford University Press, third edition, 2016); and An Ecology of High-Altitude Infancy (Cambridge University Press, 2004). Her current research focuses on the relationship between milk consumption and child health in the United States and in India.

Introduction: Anthropology, Food and Modern Life JAMES L. WATSON AND JAKOB A. KLEIN

The study of food and foodways has emerged as a core feature of twenty-firstcentury anthropology. Anthropologists play leading roles in degree programmes devoted to food and in food-related research institutes in North America, Europe and Asia. The Handbook of Food and Anthropology is designed to serve the needs of this growing academic enterprise, one that incorporates environmental studies, demography, science and technology studies, journalism, information/computer sciences, transnational business and global studies. Anthropology’s strengths lie in the study of everyday life. By focusing on the ordinary, seemingly unproblematic aspects of human interaction, anthropologists inevitably focus on food. Dining and provisioning reveal underlying, otherwise hidden, aspects of social stratification, hierarchy, gender divides, class differences, political divisions, ethnic and racial discrimination and economic inequalities. Food also reflects the warmth of human bonding and the strength of kinship; the celebration of marriage is, with very few exceptions, marked by a feast. Until recently, family life in many societies revolved around shared food, at ­regular intervals (meal time) in domestic kitchens. Is this true in ‘advanced’ capitalist societies today? Depending upon how one defines it, the family meal in parts of North America, Europe and Asia has on many accounts become a fragmented, feedyourself enterprise that would shock earlier generations.1 Simultaneously, wealthy urbanites who themselves do not have time for family meals, spend large sums in heritage restaurants that offer commercialized versions of nostalgia cuisine that represent what they imagine to be the simpler, rustic past of their predecessors. No serious social scientist or investment analyst can safely ignore changing food customs if she or he hopes to understand the structure of modern life. The contributors to this handbook are active researchers who have conducted original, on-the-ground, person-to-person studies in a wide range of societies. There are no armchair analysts among their number. The majority of our contributors are senior, internationally recognized scholars; the editors have also recruited several ‘rising stars’ in the field of food studies. Some of the best anthropological work on food is being done by younger anthropologists who are not afraid to go beyond received paradigms. The editors have also made a special effort to recruit several authors who work closely with colleagues from the ‘real world’ of business, consulting, health care, food provisioning, food policy and international development. As will become evident in the pages that follow, the anthropology of food has become a

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postdisciplinary field of study that cuts across the traditional boundaries of academe. This volume demonstrates that food anthropology is best done as a cooperative ­enterprise among researchers, practitioners and students who are eager to explore big issues in a turbulent and challenging new century. The Handbook of Food and Anthropology is divided into three sections, each reflecting a set of closely related research themes (see the overview at the end of this introductory chapter). Our goal is to give readers a brief introduction to earlier work in a specific domain of research and – equally important – to focus on future developments: Why is the production and marketing of children’s food so lucrative and yet so difficult to predict? What is the next phase in the development of transnational food industries? Are fast food and supermarkets destined to conquer the planet? What future is there for peasant and artisan food producers? Who will ensure the safety of the food supply? Why have school lunches become such a hotbutton issue in rural America? Will kitchens shrink and eventually disappear in the homes of Asian, North American and European elites? What’s in your refrigerator, and what does this say about you?2

HISTORY OF FOOD STUDIES IN ANTHROPOLOGY According to some accounts, food has ‘been central to the discipline of a­ nthropology from its earliest days’ (Tierney and Ohnuki-Tierney 2012: 118).3 A fundamental necessity of human life, food has long been recognized by anthropologists to be a cornerstone of culture and social organization. The classic ethnographic literature abounds with descriptions of food provisioning, production and exchange; of hosting, eating and drinking (but less often cooking, as Sutton observes in Chapter 16, this volume); and of the use of food and drink in ritual and symbolism. Food figures, more or less prominently, in anthropological theorizing of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, for example in William Robertson Smith’s (1889) discussion of the role in ‘Semitic’ religions of ‘commensality’ in creating bonds between worshippers and between the worshippers and God; in Mauss’s (1990) mid-1920s essay on gift exchange; in Malinowksi’s (1935) deliberations on Trobriand gardening, magic and language; in the Boasians’ development of the ‘culture area’ concept (e.g., Wissler 1926); in Evans-Pritchard’s (1940) study of the social structure and cosmology of the Nuer; and, most famously, in Lévi-Strauss’s (e.g., 1966, 1969, 1978) mythological explorations in search of the underlying structures of human cultures and thought. Nevertheless, the anthropology of food is in many ways a new field of study. Biological and nutritional anthropologists have of course long researched diet as a key dimension of human health, adaptation and evolution, and recent decades have also seen a rapprochement between biological and cultural approaches in these fields – a development reflecting and contributing to food studies in anthropology and beyond (Messer 1984; Ulijaszek 2007; Wiley 2015, and Chapter 10, this volume). Yet for much of the history of social and cultural anthropology, food and ‘foodways’ – the latter term used to denote the range of material and nonmaterial cultural practices in which food is embedded (Camp 1989) – were only

Introduction: Anthropology, Food and Modern Life

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exceptionally (notably, Richards 1932, 1939) the main focus of research. Indeed, given the extensive coverage of food in contemporary academic circles, younger scholars might be surprised to learn that the topic was overlooked, ignored and (sometimes) dismissed as a serious pursuit until the late twentieth century. College and university courses that included the term ‘food’ in their titles were rare in anthropology departments until the late 1990s.4 Marvin Harris, who played a key part in the rise of anthropological food studies, mentions ‘food’ only once in the index to his monumental survey, The Rise of Anthropological Theory, first published in 1968 (the reference is to ‘food taboos’ among East African pastoralists). The pioneers in this field were innovators of the first order; all had established their academic credentials in other fields before paying specific attention to the study of food: Mary Douglas (1966, 1971, 1984), Jack Goody (1982), K. C. Chang (1977), R. S. Khare (1976, 1992), Sidney Mintz (1985), Marvin Harris (1985a) and Arjun Appadurai (1981, 1988). As suggested by this list of pioneers, the period around 1980 saw the ­publication of a number of studies, which helped bring food to the centre stage of anthropology – a trend encouraged by the growing attention to ‘consumption’, including of food and drink, across the social sciences (e.g., Bourdieu 1984; Campbell 1987; Douglas and Isherwood 1979; Mennell 1985; Miller 1987). Two of the most important monographs, in terms of establishing an anthropology of food, were Mintz’s (1985) historical anthropology of sugar, which linked the political economy of sugar production in the Caribbean to its transformation in Europe (England, in particular) from an elite luxury to an everyday good, and Goody’s (1982) ‘comparative sociology’ of the culinary cultures of Eurasia and sub-Saharan Africa, which sets out to explain why only some societies develop ‘high cuisines’, and subsequently moves beyond this question to explore the development and diffusion of industrial foods through the ‘world system’. Characteristic of both these works was their attempt to move beyond entrenched debates between proponents of ‘symbolic’ and ‘materialist’ theories, advocating historically and ethnographically grounded studies that explored the relationship between material practices, power and meaning. Further, by using patterns of food and drink production, distribution, consumption, communication and taste to explore the increasingly transnational connections shaping social relations and everyday experiences, Mintz and Goody demonstrated that the study of food was in fact a key way into the study of modern life.5 The decades following the 1980s saw a wealth of ethnographies of food in the modern world. These explore how tastes and food practices, including cooking, eating, growing and exchanging, are profoundly shaped by and come to mediate experiences of the social and economic impact of structural adjustment, market expansion, industrialization, postsocialist reforms, development programmes and other projects and processes associated with recent global modernity (e.g., Weismantel 1988; Sutton 2001; Jing 2000; Farquhar 2002; Counihan 2004; Holtzman 2009). Several of these studies – notably Sutton (2001) and Farquhar (2002) – theorize the role of food in connecting the political-economic and experiential dimensions through a ­focus on food and the senses, memory and the body. More recent e­ thnographies

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have built on this work to show how attention to the material dimensions of food may be crucial to understanding its significance in contemporary societies, be it in the everyday life of South Asian cities (Janeja 2010) or among craftspeople and aficionados involved in North America’s artisanal food movement (Paxson 2012). Others have investigated the development and workings of the ‘global food system’ itself (see Phillips 2006). In a volume first published in 1997, Watson (2006a) and his colleagues examine localized cultural responses to the spread of McDonald’s in East Asia. Wilk’s (2006) historical anthropology of Belizean cuisine demonstrates that much of what is understood to be ‘local’ culinary culture is itself a product of a history of transnational connections. A number of studies investigate a single food commodity, following its movements through one or more phases from production, processing and packing, distribution and consumption, to shed light on the significance of transnational food trade for farmers, workers, traders, consumers, and for wider social and political relations in the countries of production and consumption (e.g., Barndt 2002; Gewertz and Errington 2010; Moberg and Striffler 2003). Others focus specifically on revealing the often highly exploitative conditions in the food industries of labourers and non-human animals (Striffler 2005; Pachirat 2011). A seminal work by Pottier (1999) – one of the two books to first use ‘anthropology of food’ in the title, both published in the same year (the other being Counihan 1999) – synthesizes and develops ethnographic approaches to food security and famine relief. These studies build upon and move beyond the foundations laid by the likes of Sidney Mintz, Jack Goody, Audrey Richards, Lévi-Strauss, Mary Douglas and Marvin Harris. The large – and growing! – number of studies investigating the role of food in the modern world, and the breadth of their discussions and theoretical specializations, reflect the growing maturity of the anthropology of food and food studies, apparent also in dedicated readers (e.g. Counihan and Van Esterik 2013; Watson and Caldwell 2005), journals (including Gastronomica, Food and Foodways and Food, Culture & Society), and degree programmes (e.g. Indiana University’s PhD programme in the anthropology of food, New York University’s master of arts in food studies, and the MA programme in the anthropology of food at London’s School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS)).

THE FUTURE OF FOOD ETHNOGRAPHY Anthropological research on food is on the threshold of a transdisciplinary ­revolution, a movement that migrates freely across (and often against) the academic boundaries established in the early- to mid-twentieth century. Guardians of disciplinary purity still exist in many universities, but most scholars have long since abandoned any pretence that anthropology is an academic subject grounded on notions of ‘fieldwork’ (usually in a foreign society) conducted by ‘participant-observers’ who worked alone to gather information from ‘informants’ who lived in ‘foreign’ (usually ‘non-Western’) ‘cultures’, preferably far from the anthropologist’s home (where he or she wrote about the experience, often in the ‘ethnographic present’ – as if the experience was locked in history, never to change).

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Anthropologists today are best described as omnivorous ethnographers who do not hesitate to cooperate (and often co-author published works) with local people and scholars, while they borrow freely from other researchers who describe themselves as sociologists, economists, psychologists, geographers, historians and environmental scientists. Ethnography is a style of research that places the analyst in the midst of the social issues under investigation – talking to people, living in their midst, digging into local archives, eating and drinking locally, interviewing leaders, attending meetings, listening to people complain/boast/worry, watching football matches, singing at weddings and sitting quietly at wakes. Ethnography is an allconsuming enterprise focused on the unremarkable, mundane, often boring lives of ordinary people: everything is important and nothing is irrelevant. Research among elites (in the business world, for instance) presents an additional, and usually far more challenging, set of restraints (see Caldwell, Chapter 20, this volume), but the fundamentals of ethnography remain essentially the same: focusing on what people, irrespective of income or education level, consider to be important. Everyone eats and, fortunately for anthropologists, most people like to talk about food. Over nearly five decades of ethnographic encounters in south China, James Watson has learned that the surest way to break the ice in unfamiliar settings is to broach the topic of food: ‘Last year I was in the mountains of western Jiangxi and I had steamed bean curd with catfish.’ Or, another sure-fire conversation starter: ‘Two years ago I was just in time for the harvest of first-crop rice, served with pop-eyed shrimp in the Pearl River Delta, just south of Guangzhou.’ After a few minutes of this, even the most hard-bitten, suspicious Communist Party official will be waxing lyrically about the noodles he ate as a youth in Shandong Province – and there will be tears in his eyes.6 Jakob Klein has similarly found it methodologically fruitful to investigate C ­ hinese society through its food and foodways, something he has been doing since the late 1990s. Not only may food practices reflect and channel wider social changes, but people also creatively use food as a medium for reflecting upon these changes in all their complexities, be it through material practices of cooking and sharing food or through ‘food talk’ (Mintz 1996; Klein 2007; Herzfeld, Chapter 1, this volume). Teahouse goers Klein met in Guangzhou (Canton) in the 1990s celebrated the diversity and innovative nature of the city’s dim sum and contrasted this to the austerity of the 1950s–70s, when the city’s few remaining establishments were all run by the state and offered only a small number of familiar snacks. On other occasions, however, the same informants would lament what they perceived to be a loss of local culinary traditions brought about by the closure or privatization of the state-run teahouses and the growing influence of Hong Kong-style Cantonese cuisine (Klein 2007, 2009). Similarly, people in the city pointed proudly to the variety of tasty mooncakes now offered by competing bakeries and companies in the run-up to the Mid-Autumn festival, yet comm