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The Expression of Emotions in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia offers an overview of the study of emotions in ancient texts

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Table of contents :
‎Contents
‎Notes on Contributors
‎Chapter 1. The Expression of Emotions in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia: An Introduction (Hsu and Llop Raduà)
‎Part 1. The Expression of Emotions in Ancient Egypt
‎Chapter 2. History of Horror: A Diachronic Overview of Fear(s) in Ancient Egyptian Texts (Eicke)
‎Chapter 3. “I Wish I Could Die”: Depression in Ancient Egypt (Hsu)
‎Chapter 4. Royal Rage and Private Anger in Ancient Egypt (Köhler)
‎Chapter 5. Everybody Hurts: Understanding and Visualizing Pain in Ancient Egypt (Prakash)
‎Chapter 6. “Without You I Am an Orphan”: Exploring Emotion and Interpersonal Pragmatics in the Late Ramesside Letters (Ridealgh)
‎Chapter 7. Indexes of Emotions in Pianchy’s Great Stela with Some Cultural Comparisons (Spalinger)
‎Chapter 8. “Do Not Cast an Eye on Another One’s Goods …!”: Aspects of Envy, Jealousy and Greed in Ancient Egypt (Verbovsek)
‎Part 2. The Expression of Emotions in Ancient Mesopotamia
‎Chapter 9. Depression at the Royal Courts of Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal (Van Buylaere)
‎Chapter 10. Shaping Gender, Shaping Emotions: On the Mutual Construction of Gender Identities and Emotional Roles in Ancient Mesopotamia (Garcia-Ventura)
‎Chapter 11. Emotions and Their Expression in a Religious Historical Perspective in Ancient Mesopotamia (Jaques)
‎Chapter 12. Expressions of Joy and Happiness in Neo-Assyrian (Luukko)
‎Chapter 13. From Landscape to Ritual Performances: Emotions in Sumerian Literature (Rendu Loisel)
‎Chapter 14. Jealousy in Akkadian Love Literature: Zarpanītu in the Divine Love Lyrics (Da Riva)
‎Chapter 15. Visible Death and Audible Distress: The Personification of Death (Mūtu) and Associated Emotions as Inherent Conditions of Life in Akkadian Sources (Sibbing-Plantholt)
‎Chapter 16. Gilgamesh and Emotional Excess: The King without Counsel in the SB Gilgamesh Epic (Sonik)
‎Chapter 17. Pounding Hearts and Burning Livers: The “Sentimental Body” in Mesopotamian Medicine and Literature (Steinert)
‎Chapter 18. Fear in Akkadian Texts: New Digital Perspectives on Lexical Semantics (Svärd, Alstola, Jauhiainen, Sahala and Lindén)
‎Index of Sources
‎Index of Words
‎Index of Subjects and Names
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The Expression of Emotions in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia

Culture and History of the Ancient Near East Founding Editor M.H.E. Weippert

Editor-in-Chief Jonathan Stökl

Editors Eckart Frahm W. Randall Garr B. Halpern Theo P.J. van den Hout Leslie Anne Warden Irene J. Winter

volume 116

The titles published in this series are listed at brill.com/chan

The Expression of Emotions in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia Edited by

Shih-Wei Hsu Jaume Llop Raduà

LEIDEN | BOSTON

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Hsu, Shih-Wei, editor. | Llop-Raduà, Jaume, editor. Title: The expression of emotions in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia / edited by Shih-Wei Hsu, Jaume Llop Raduà. Other titles: Culture and history of the ancient Near East ; 116. Description: Boston : Brill, 2020. | Series: Culture and history of the ancient Near East, 15662055 ; 116 | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2020036025 (print) | LCCN 2020036026 (ebook) | ISBN 9789004430754 (hardback) | ISBN 9789004430761 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Emotions in literature. | Egyptian literature–History and criticism. | Assyro-Babylonian literature–History and criticism. Classification: LCC PJ1488 .E97 2020 (print) | LCC PJ1488 (ebook) | DDC 893/.1–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020036025 LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020036026

Typeface for the Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic scripts: “Brill”. See and download: brill.com/brill‑typeface. ISSN 1566-2055 ISBN 978-90-04-43075-4 (hardback) ISBN 978-90-04-43076-1 (e-book) Copyright 2021 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands, except where stated otherwise. Koninklijke Brill NV incorporates the imprints Brill, Brill Hes & De Graaf, Brill Nijhoff, Brill Rodopi, Brill Sense, Hotei Publishing, mentis Verlag, Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh and Wilhelm Fink Verlag. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Requests for re-use and/or translations must be addressed to Koninklijke Brill NV via brill.com or copyright.com. This book is printed on acid-free paper and produced in a sustainable manner.

Contents Notes on Contributors 1

ix

The Expression of Emotions in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia: An Introduction 1 Shih-Wei Hsu and Jaume Llop Raduà

Part 1 The Expression of Emotions in Ancient Egypt 2

History of Horror: A Diachronic Overview of Fear(s) in Ancient Egyptian Texts 25 Sven Eicke

3

“I Wish I Could Die”: Depression in Ancient Egypt Shih-Wei Hsu

4

Royal Rage and Private Anger in Ancient Egypt Ines Köhler

5

Everybody Hurts: Understanding and Visualizing Pain in Ancient Egypt 103 Tara Prakash

6

“Without You I Am an Orphan”: Exploring Emotion and Interpersonal Pragmatics in the Late Ramesside Letters 126 Kim Ridealgh

7

Indexes of Emotions in Pianchy’s Great Stela with Some Cultural Comparisons 144 Anthony Spalinger

8

“Do Not Cast an Eye on Another One’s Goods …!”: Aspects of Envy, Jealousy and Greed in Ancient Egypt 169 Alexandra Verbovsek

52

88

vi

contents

Part 2 The Expression of Emotions in Ancient Mesopotamia 9

Depression at the Royal Courts of Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal Greta Van Buylaere

201

10

Shaping Gender, Shaping Emotions: On the Mutual Construction of Gender Identities and Emotional Roles in Ancient Mesopotamia 220 Agnès Garcia-Ventura

11

Emotions and Their Expression in a Religious Historical Perspective in Ancient Mesopotamia 238 Margaret Jaques

12

Expressions of Joy and Happiness in Neo-Assyrian Mikko Luukko

13

From Landscape to Ritual Performances: Emotions in Sumerian Literature 283 Anne-Caroline Rendu Loisel

14

Jealousy in Akkadian Love Literature: Zarpanītu in the Divine Love Lyrics 306 Rocío Da Riva

15

Visible Death and Audible Distress: The Personification of Death (Mūtu) and Associated Emotions as Inherent Conditions of Life in Akkadian Sources 335 Irene Sibbing-Plantholt

16

Gilgamesh and Emotional Excess: The King without Counsel in the SB Gilgamesh Epic 390 Karen Sonik

17

Pounding Hearts and Burning Livers: The “Sentimental Body” in Mesopotamian Medicine and Literature 410 Ulrike Steinert

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contents

18

Fear in Akkadian Texts: New Digital Perspectives on Lexical Semantics 470 Saana Svärd, Tero Alstola, Heidi Jauhiainen, Aleksi Sahala and Krister Lindén Index of Sources 503 Index of Words 509 Index of Subjects and Names

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Notes on Contributors Tero Alstola University of Helsinki, Finland [email protected] Greta Van Buylaere Würzburg University, Germany [email protected] Sven Eicke University of Cologne, Germany [email protected] Agnès Garcia-Ventura IPOA, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain [email protected] Shih-Wei Hsu Nankai University, Tianjin, P.R. China [email protected] Margaret Jaques University of Zurich, Switzerland [email protected] Heidi Jauhiainen University of Helsinki, Finland [email protected] Ines Köhler Free University of Berlin, Germany [email protected] Krister Lindén University of Helsinki, Finland [email protected]

x

notes on contributors

Jaume Llop Raduà Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain [email protected] Mikko Luukko University of Helsinki, Finland [email protected] Irene Sibbing-Plantholt Freie Universität Berlin, Germany [email protected] Tara Prakash College of Charleston, USA [email protected] Anne-Caroline Rendu Loisel University of Strasburg, UMR 7044 ArcHiMedE, France [email protected] Kim Ridealgh University of East Anglia, UK [email protected] Rocío Da Riva University of Barcelona, Spain [email protected] Aleksi Sahala University of Helsinki, Finland [email protected] Karen Sonik Auburn University, USA [email protected] Anthony Spalinger University of Auckland, New Zealand [email protected]

notes on contributors

Ulrike Steinert Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany [email protected] Saana Svärd University of Helsinki, Finland [email protected] Alexandra Verbovsek Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany [email protected]

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chapter 1

The Expression of Emotions in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia: An Introduction Shih-Wei Hsu and Jaume Llop Raduà

1

Definition and Concept of Emotion

The word “emotion” derives from the middle French émotion (16th century), which in turn derives from the old French emouvoir “stir up” (12th century), from the Latin emovere “move out, remove, agitate”, and from the assimilated form of ex “out” + movere “to move”.1 “Emotion” denotes a wide range of phenomena including all the perceptions of bodily changes. Emotions are based on our awareness, our thoughts, feelings, and ideas, and also on real or unreal events in our past, present and future. Today, the word “emotion” is very commonly used to refer to theories that actually concern “passion”, “affection” or “sentiments”.2 “Emotion” can be differentiated into its extensions and intensions. Its extensions comprise varying feelings categorized as appetites (e.g., lust), or affections (e.g., religious feelings), or sentiments (e.g., sympathy). Its intension differs from the intension of “passion”: it is an autonomous physical or mental state characterized by vivid feeling and physical agitation, while the latter is a disobedient and morally dangerous movement of the soul.3 Today, emotions can be defined from diverse points of view and based on various theories in use.4 In the history of research into emotions,5 classical historians and philosophers (see below) have treated human emotional life as the expression of mind and body. In 1890, based on a study of facial expressions, Darwin proposed that human emotions depend on mental states with bodily movement, and 1 From the online Etymology Dictionary: https://www.etymonline.com/word/emotion (March 9, 2018). The verb emovere means in German “aufwühlen—hinaustreiben—herausheben— erschüttern—in Bewegung setzen”; emotion can be seen from the outside, changing the bodily condition, or as the effect of inner feelings that affect our “movement”. Kienlin and Koch 2017, 2. 2 Dixon 2003, 11–12. 3 Dixon 2003, 18. 4 https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/emotion/ (March 23, 2018). 5 Oatley 2004; Plamper 2015.

© koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2021 | doi:10.1163/9789

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are genetically determined, deriving from purposeful animal actions.6 Ekman doubted Darwin’s evidence and distinguished between human and animal facial behaviour, and also between cultures.7 Yu deals with Chinese expressions of emotions through external body parts, such as the head (tóu [頭]/shǒu [首]) and neck (bózǐ [脖子]) combined with the face, forehead, brows etc.8 Ekman and his team classified six basic emotions: joy/happiness, sadness/distress, fear, anger, disgust and surprise,9 and described many characteristics which are useful to distinguish one emotion from another and allow them to be expressed in different degrees. Basic emotions evolved to serve as motivators which instruct us to pursue or avoid certain courses of action.10 Plutchik took up Ekman’s suggestion and created a wheel of emotions, which includes eight primary emotions with positive and passive sides: joy versus sadness; anger versus fear; trust versus disgust; and surprise versus anticipation. These emotions are based on the ten postulates of his theory.11 He also proposed another ten postulates about cognition-emotion relations,12 and explained that “cognition developed in order to predict the future”.13 The cognitive process causes the evaluation of stimulus events and the generation of predictions, so that emotional behavior is ultimately related to stimuli. Therefore, cognitions are at the service of emotions.14 In the last decade, however, from the perspectives of affect programs15 and homology,16 researchers have come to divide emotions into at least two distinct classes: basic and higher cognitive. These higher cognitive emotions include: love, guilt, shame, embarrassment, pride, envy and jealousy. Today, emotions are studied in different fields (anthropology, sociology, biology, psychology, physiology, neuroscience of the brain, etc.) and from different perspectives (gender, language, cognition, conceptual metaphors, etc.). Kövecses explains that the basic emotions are anger, sadness, fear, joy and love, less basic ones include annoyance, wrath, rage, indignation for anger, and terror, fright, horror for fear.17 From the

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Darwin 2009, 368–387. Ekman 1999b. Yu 2002, 342–349. Ekman 1999a; Evans 2001, 5; Plamper 2015, 149. Evans 2001, 26. Plutchik 1980, 8–9. Plutchik 1980, 10. Plutchik 1980, 13. Plutchik 1980, 12–15. Velásquez 1999, 114–120. Clark 2010, 75–94. Kövecses 2007, 3.

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point of view of conceptual metaphor theory,18 the most typical metaphorical characteristics of emotion concepts are the following:19 emotion is a fluid in a container ( filled with emotion) emotion is heat/fire (burn with emotion) emotion is a natural force (be overwhelmed by an emotion) emotion is a physical force (be struck by an emotion) emotion is a social superior (be governed/ruled by an emotion) emotion is an opponent (be overcome by an emotion) emotion is a captive animal (let go of an emotion) emotion is a force dislocating the self (be beside oneself with an emotion) emotion is a burden (be weighed down by an emotion) Emotions can be conceptualized in different domains, for example: anger is fire; fear is illness, happiness is health, sadness is captive animal, love is war, lust is a game, pride is a fluid in a container, shame is a decrease in size, surprise is a natural force, etc.20 The source domains are mainly of two types: causes of emotions for the emotions, and effect of emotion for the emotions.21 In a particular situation, emotions are caused to affect a set of feelings and responses. At the same time, emotions are conceptualized by a “domain matrix”, because they evoke different notions, such as social or bodily notions, or right and wrong.22 These emotional concepts can occur in any language. For instance, the “anger metaphor” may appear as different models in different cultures:23 the German term “Angst” has two particular points of view: “Existenzangst” or “existentielle Angst”. The English angst, however, reflects the links between the German Angst in general and existential insecurities and concerns.24 In addition, emotions themselves are universal phenomena, and they are always influenced

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“Conceptual Metaphor Theory” (CMT) was proposed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), who suggest that metaphors are pervasive in our everyday life and are used in speaking, thinking and acting. The mapping between conceptual domains corresponds to the neural mapping in our mind. Kövecses 2014, 16–17. Many other examples see Kövecses 2007, 20–34; also Kövecses 1986, 1988, 2000. Kövecses 2014, 17. Kövecses 2014, 23–25. Kövecses 2007, 166–173, e.g. concept of anger in Japanese “ikari (怒り)”/“hara (腹)”, in Chinese “nù (怒)”, in English “angry” and Hungarian “düh”. Wierzbicka 1999, 123–167.

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by culture and strongly marked by our biological nature. Each culture has its own rule for acceptable expression of emotions in society. Therefore, there are some emotions which don’t belong to the “basic emotions”, because they are neither universal nor innate, e.g., emotions “amae” (甘え)25 and “being a wild pig”26 are special cultural emotions. These emotions can be understood by taking into consideration the culture in which they occur.27 Chinese people show relaxation or relief when they reach their goals, and show anxiety when they don’t. Americans show happiness when they reach their goals and show sadness when they don’t. In addition, researchers have distinguished between the different “self-construals” in Western and Eastern cultures.28 Westerners are more independent and consider themselves as individual human beings; they are willing to express their inner states and feelings, as well as to influence other people, in what is referred to as the independent self-construal. In contrast, Easterners are interdependent or connected to others. They are always in groups and involved with each other, because Eastern cultures are more dependent on the collective. In this context, harmony plays an important role, so that people don’t express their inner states and feeling as easily. This is called interdependent self-construal. In this comparative view, cultural differences actually cause the physiological and behavioural aspects of emotion. Emotions can be affected by colours as well. The meanings of colours are always different depending on evolution, culture, and personal experience.29 Goethe proposed “sinnliche-sittliche Wirkung der Farbe”30 and categorized colours into a plus part and minus part, which can stand for positive and negative traits and emotions.31 Many studies prove that the colours have a strong impact on emotions and feelings, for instance, the colour red is associated with “exciting” and “stimulating”; blue is associated with “secure/comfortable” and “tender/soothing”; orange with “disturbing/distressed/upset”; black with “powerful/strong/masterful”.32 The relationship between colour and emotion is

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“Amae” is a Japanese emotional expression which is difficult to define for Westerners. It refers to an emotion that a person holds toward another person, an interpersonal relationship, a behaviour, or even a belief. For more information: http://emotionresearcher.com/ wp‑content/uploads/2015/08/AmaeI.pdf (March 8, 2018). “Being a wild pig” is an emotion felt by the Gururumba people of New Guinea; people who experience it behave just like wild pigs. Evans 2001, 13–15. Mesquita and Haire 2004, 735. Lim 2016, 106. Cuykendall and Hoffman 2008, 1. Goethe 1812. Nijdam 2003, 3.1 and especially table 1. Valdes and Mehrabian 1994, 396.

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culture-dependent. In general, each colour can stand for positive and negative emotions; the positive representations of the colour “blue” include coolness, comfort, peace, and calm, but its negative representations are sadness, loneliness and depression; red can be seen positively as love and romance, but negatively as fight, anger and blood; purple has the feeling of relaxation and calmness, but also of sadness, tiredness, fear, etc.33 The appearance of a colour then can be associated with different emotions, in a way that is dependent on habits of visual communication and cultural transmitting values.34 The animated movie of the Pixar Animation Studio “Inside out”35 is a good example of the use of colours and gender to represent emotions. In this film, the five basic emotions are metaphorically personified by genders and colours: the female yellow and bright figure is “joy”, the male red figure is “anger”, the female green figure is “disgust”, the female blue figure is “sadness and melancholy”, and the male purple figure is “fear”.36 The American pop singer Taylor Swift shares in her song “Red” the ideas of colour associated with her emotions to describe love and loss in a relationship:37 Losing him was blue like I’d never know, Missing him was dark grey all alone, Forgetting him was like trying to know somebody you never met, But loving him was red, Loving him was red. The examples above show clearly the pervasive influence of metaphors and colours to express emotions in our everyday life. With the increasing use of social networks (blog, Facebook, twitter, Instagram, weibo etc.) and instant messaging (Skype, WhatsApp, Line, WeChat, iMessage, Telegram etc.) communication between people has become much easier. Although people might not see each other face to face, they can directly send different emoticons,38

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Kaya and Epps 2004, 399 and especially tables 2 and 3. Kienlin and Koch 2017, 8–9. Inside out. Directed by Pete Doctor. Produced by Jonas Rivera. Walt Disney Pictures; Pixar Animation Studio, 2015. Also see Kienlin and Koch 2017, 9. Written by Taylor Swift. Produced by Dann Huff, Nathan Chapman and Taylor Swift. Released June 21, 2013. YouTube website: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zlot0i3Zy kw (April 28, 2019). E.g. happy, happy, happy, sad, happy, sad, sad: :-), :-), :-), :-(, :-), :-(, :-(. http://www.nytimes .com/2007/07/29/fashion/29emoticon.html?_r=1&ref=style&oref=slogin (April 24, 2019).

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emojis,39 smileys40 and show their emotions immediately. The expressions of emotions are greatly diversified today.

2

Emotions in Ancient Civilizations

In the last two decades, the study of emotions in the past has established itself as a field of research. Scholars study the expression of emotions in the Greek and Roman worlds, and in the Middle Ages.41 For instance, a research group in Oxford led by Chaniotis, which specializes in the social and cultural history of the Hellenistic Greek and the Roman East, has been working on the project “The Social and Cultural Construction of Emotions: The Greek Paradigm” since 2009.42 This research group has published its results in a series of books.43 Since 2014, the University of Illinois Press has been publishing a series on the history of emotions.44 In addition, similar studies have researched emotions from different points of view: “Emotions in the Classical World”45 deals with the poetics of emotional expression, philosophical theories of emotions, the role of emotion in historiography, intertextuality and the emotions, and the role of art and material culture in the representation of ancient affectivity. “Emotion and Persuasion in Classical Antiquity”46 explores the performance of emotions, the choice between emotional and rational argumentation, the emotions of the gods and a concern with a secondary “audience”. “Die Tränen der Mächtigen und die Macht der Tränen”47 analyses the influence of tears shed by powerful rulers on the imperial historiography, from the point of view of the emotions. “Affect and Emotion in Greek Literature”48 examines the way the Greeks conceived the emotions. “From Architecture to Graves”49 studies the development of emotion in Greek sculpture in the Early Classical period and its zenith during

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E.g., happy 😀, sad 😢, angry 😠, afraid 😨, surprised 😮. E.g., white smiling face ☺ and black smiling face ☻. Knuuttila 2004; Kaster 2005; Konstan 2006a; Rosenwein 2006; Campeggiani and Konstan forthcoming. http://emotions.classics.ox.ac.uk/project/team/chaniotis.html (March 13, 2018). Chaniotis 2011; 2012; Chaniotis and Pierre 2013; Chanitotis et al. 2017. https://www.press.uillinois.edu/books/find_books.php?type=series&search=HOE (March 15, 2018). Cairns and Nelis 2017. Sanders and Johncock 2016. Hagen 2017. Konstan 2015. Heller 2015.

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the Hellenistic Age. “Emotions between Greece and Rome”50 aims to compare the differences between the Greek and Roman emotional repertoires. Today, research on emotions is a popular topic. Ancient historians like Herodotus (480–425 BCE) and Tacitus (AD 55–120) were already aware that there were different ways of speaking, eating, living and even different ways of feeling across Europe.51 The Agathyrsians are the most luxurious of men and wear gold ornaments for the most part: also, they have promiscuous intercourse with their women, in order that they may be brethren to one another and being all nearly related may not feel envy or malice one against another. In their other customs, they have come to resemble the Thracians.52 In Homer’s poems, the “inner wind” of thumos, which was similar to “grief, fear, anxiety, hope, desire, love, anger, joy, delight, and so on”,53 is often located in the chest. The heart (kardia) referred to anger, courage, fear, joy, pain and patience. However, none of these concepts were systematized until Plato (427– 347 BCE). For him, pathos meant something similar to emotions,54 and he also defined emotions as something that were external, and not something produced within men themselves.55 After him, Aristotle (384–322BCE) found that pathē (the plural form of pathos) were more rational, and he named fourteen pertinent emotions: anger (orgē) and its opposite, mildness (praotēs); love (philia) and hate (misos); fear (phobos) and its opposite, confidence (tharrein); shame (aischunē) and shamelessness (anaischuntia); benevolence (charis) and lack of benevolence (acharistia); pity (eleos) and indignation (nemesan); and lastly, envy (phthonos) and desire to emulate (zēlos).56 Aristotle stated that certain feelings were always accompanied by pain, such as pity,57 50 51 52 53 54 55 56

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Cairns and Fulkerson 2015. Plamper 2015, 80. Herodotus, Histories, Book IV, 104. http://www.sacred‑texts.com/cla/hh/hh4100.htm (March 12, 2018). Rosenwein 2006, 32–33 with n. 1. Rosenwein 2006, 32–33 with n. 6. Plamper 2015, 14–15. Plamper 2015, 36. Aristotle, Rhetoric, Book II, 3.1–11.7. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopp er/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0060%3Abook%3D2%3Achapter%3D3%3Ase ction%3D1 (March 13, 2018). “Let pity then be a kind of pain excited by the sight of evil, deadly or painful, which befalls one who does not deserve it; an evil which one might expect to come upon himself or one of his friends, and when it seems near”. Aristotle, Rhetoric, Book II, 8.2. http://www .perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0060%3Abook%3D2% 3Achapter%3D8%3Asection%3D2 (March 14, 2018).

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envy58 and others. The emotions of the Greek world are closely connected with socio-cultural norms (friendship, pity, honour, shame, pride), and with basic emotions (fear and courage, joy and grief, hope and pride, affection and hatred, love and jealousy, desire and disgust, gratitude and envy, contempt, anger, and indignation).59 So the Ancient Greek world was aware of emotions. However, some specific emotions differed from the ones we conceive today: in the Greek world, the term orgē (anger) “is just the desire to restore the state of affairs prior to the insult by depreciating the offender in turn”.60 This concept is quite different from what we mean by “anger”, which is a strong feeling of annoyance, displeasure or hostility.61 There are also studies of emotion in other civilizations. Houston studied the visual treatment of emotions in classic Maya.62 The human body could reflect different “affects”, which are expressed in visual displays. Ramaprasad gave an overview of emotions from the Indian perspective, with emphasis on desires as the root cause of emotional upheavals.63 Toske made a contribution to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy about the concept of emotion in Classic Indian philosophy.64 He explained the terms referring to emotions in Sanskrit and discussed the differences in the philosophy of emotions between Indian and Western cultures. Emotions in China are always linked to Confucianism. Fu65 explained that the classification of emotion in Confucianism is in accordance with the term “Qing” (emotion = 情), which can be divided into “four Qing” (delight, anger, sorrow and happiness), “six Qing” (like, dislike, joy, anger, sorrow and pleasure) and “seven Qing” (joy, anger, sadness, fear, love, dislike and like). “Seven Qing” could also represent the emotional energetics: each “Qing” is described in a pathological and non-pathological manner along with its relationship with “zangfu” (organs = 臟腑).66 Sundararajan67 provided a good overview of the understanding of emotions in the Chinese culture, such as 58

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“If envy is a kind of pain at the sight of good fortune in regard to the goods mentioned; in the case of those like themselves; and not for the sake of a man getting anything, but because of others possessing it”. Aristotle, Rhetoric, Book II, 10.1. http://www.perseus.tufts .edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0060%3Abook%3D2%3Achapter% 3D10%3Asection%3D1 (March 14, 2018). Chaniotis 2012b; Chaniotis 2017. Konstan 2006b, 55. Rosenwein 2006, 37. Houston 2001, 206–219; Houston et al., 2006, especially Chapter Five Emotions, 180ff. Ramaprasad 2013, 153–156. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/concept‑emotion‑india/ (March 23, 2018). Fu 2012, 78–93. Larre et al. 1996. Sundararajan 2015.

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the foundation of emotions in Confucianism and Daoism and emotions in daily life. Studying emotions in early Chinese philosophy, Virág68 explains that emotions were central preoccupations among early thinkers, and discusses them as representing patterned inclinations in human beings and as part of a major conceptual shift toward recognition of the natural world. A recent comparative study on India, China and Japan offers intriguing case studies of moments of change in community or group-based emotion practices, including emotionally coded objects.69

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Emotions in the Biblical World

Research into emotion in the Old Testament is also a popular topic. The most emotional scenes are described in highly figurative language,70 such as metaphorical references to body parts and the physiological changes that accompany the experience of certain emotions;71 metaphorical conceptions represent particular emotions (joy, sorrow, courage, fear, pride, humility, love and hatred).72 Wagner73 explores the study of emotions in the Old Testament, focusing especially on the representation of God’s feeling, emotions and language with the method of container metaphors, such that the body appears as a “container” of emotions. Kruger74 focused on emotions from the perspective of cognition and conceptual metaphors, looking into emotions such as “anger”, “fear” and “depression”. Wälchli studied God’s anger in the Biblical Psalms.75 In the project “emotions in the Old Testament” at the University of Bern, Switzerland, Kipfer investigated Amnon’s love for his half-sister and the way in which love turns into deep hatred both in paintings and texts.76 In addition, she also analysed the emotions of anxiety, fear and terror in the Hebrew Bible using cognitive linguistic methods,77 and has recently edited a book on the visualization of emotions in the Ancient Near East (see below).

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Virág 2017. Schuler 2017. Kruger 2015, 396. Kruger 2015, 402. Kruger 2015, 402. Wagner 2006; Wagner 2011, 27–68; Wagner 2014. Kruger 2000; Kruger 2001; Kruger 2005; Kruger 2015. Wälchli 2013. Kipfer 2009. Kipfer 2016, 15–79.

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Emotions in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia

In comparison to the Ancient Greek, Roman and Biblical worlds, very little research has been carried out into emotions in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. In Egyptology, there are few studies about emotions. In the Lexikon der Ägyptologie (LÄ), Altenmüller surveyed the term “Gefühlsbewegungen”78 to show the nature of emotions in Egyptian culture which relied mainly on physical movements, and to discuss how emotions appear in the different text genres. Joy (Freude) and mourning (Trauer) are shown by certain gestures and poses in art; reverence (Ehrfurcht) and loyalty (Treue) in instructions and biographies; love (Liebe), gratitude (Dankbarkeit) and admiration (Verehrung) in love songs and in cultic, royal and divine stelas and statues. Middle Egyptian has some words indicating emotions:79 nšny “rage (Wut)” (Wb II, 341:1–16);80 sbšw “disgust (Ekel)” (Wb IV, 93:9); snḏ “fear (Angst)” (Wb IV, 182:2–183:22);81 msḏyt “hate (Hass)” (Wb II, 154:10–11); mrwt “love (Liebe)” (Wb II,102:1–103:10); ꜣwt-jb “joy (Freude)” (Wb I: 4:17–19); jꜣkb “mourning (Trauer)” (Wb I, 34:5–12).82 El-Kholi83 studied the role of the heart as a sense organ, which stands on the one hand for thinking and understanding, and on the other for feelings such as courage, joy, sadness, surprise, and so on. Furthermore, Toro-Rueda84 investigated Ancient Egyptian emotional vocabularies in her thesis, which presents a thesaurus of emotions in contrast to five basic emotions: joy, grief, hate, fear and love. Examining positive and negative aggression and aggressive emotions, Effland85 found that the Egyptians had their own rules for expressing socially acceptable aggression. Tait86 looked into some of the uses of the concept of anger in Egyptian demotic narrative texts, using the word ḫꜥr as an example to show that anger is not so much an emotion as an expression, or a demonstration, of emotion. Egyptian kings used anger as an aspect of their agency, that is, their authority and power. Verbovsek studied “fear” and “fright” in Ancient Egyptian culture, and particularly the examples from the Story of Sinuhe. Within the concept of “fear” she distinguished between the German terms “Furcht”, “Angst” and “Panik”, all of which are felt by Sinuhe and drive 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86

LÄ II, 508–510. Köhler 2017, 227. More words for “rage” see Köhler’s article in this volume. More words for “fear” see Eicke’s article in this volume. More words for “sad” see Hsu’s article in this volume. El-Kholi 2003, 165–175. Toro-Rueda 2004. Effland 2003. Tait 2009.

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his actions throughout the story.87 Furthermore, she discussed emotions in their correlation with rituals and literature: for instance, mourning rites show emotional states of sadness, yearning, crying, grief and feelings of lonesomeness and desperation. The coronation ritual shows emotions of astonishment, joy, and euphoria.88 Köhler89 focused on the emotion of “anger”, categorizing a spectrum of variations such as anger, rage and wrath, and conceptualizing them with metaphors: anger is the heat of fluid in a container, anger is combat, anger is elemental and physical power, anger is insanity and anger is a dangerous animal. Hsu90 studied the usage of figurative expressions often used to describe the emotions of lovers, such as impatience, desire, love-sickness, and so on. A very recent paper by Baines91 explores the pictorial representation of emotions in Ancient Egypt, such as the captions of “scenes of daily life” in the tombs, images of humiliation, facial expressions, bodily communication, and scenes of mourning and funerals. Di Biase-Dyson92 recently dealt with three conceptual metaphors antagonism is heat, restraint is cold and restraint is silence, and discussed the metonymic “effect of the emotion for the emotion causing it”, such as emotion is heat (ḫt “fire”). The authoritative Reallexikon der Assyriologie (RlA) gives a first impression of the scarce treatment of emotions in Assyriology up to today. If one looks at the list of the encyclopaedia’s entries,93 few of them are related to causes or effects of emotions or moods, such as superstition (Aberglaube), feud (Fehde), vengeance (Rache), insult (Schimpfwort), suicide (Selbstmord), sin (Sünde), and death (Tod), which are categorized by this encyclopaedia either as “miscellaneous” or as “religion; literature”. In previous volumes, Biggs wrote an article on love magic (Liebeszauber). Love is linked to sexual attraction and to incantations for obtaining the loved one in the texts from Mesopotamia.94 However, the RlA does not provide entries for the “basic” emotions according to Ekman (see above), i.e., anger (Zorn), disgust (Ekel), fear (Angst), happiness (Glück), sadness (Traurigkeit) and surprise (Überraschung). Unlike LÄ (see above), the RlA lacks an article dealing with emotions. The panorama is 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94

Verbovsek 2009. Verbovsek 2011. Köhler 2011; Köhler 2012; Köhler 2016. Hsu 2014, 413–414; Hsu 2017, 62–63. Baines 2017. Di Biase-Dyson 2018. A list of entries can be seen at the Reallexikon Website: https://rla.badw.de/reallexikon .html (accessed February 29, 2020). RlA VII, 17–18.

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similarly sparse when we look for entries related to emotions in the bibliographical tools of Assyriology (i.e., the Register of the journal Archiv für Orientforschung and the Keilschriftbibliographie published by Orientalia). Nonetheless, we should also note some studies which did treat the subject of emotions, e.g., related to humor (evidently associated with happiness);95 character,96 or daily life in Mesopotamia.97 Curiously, humor is a subject that has attracted more attention among Assyriologists such as D’Agostino, Frahm and Madreiter.98 But other emotions, such as fear in relation to the possibility of being forgotten, have also been explored by Corfù.99 Rendu-Loisel researched anger in Mesopotamia.100 Musche studied love in Ancient Near Eastern poetry.101 Riley102 dealt with divine emotions, particularly with divine and human “hate”, through the methodology of a lexical study of Hebrew, Ugaritic and Akkadian for hate originating in divine figures. His study also compares and contrasts examples of divine and human hate in Biblical and cognate writings. Jaques103 focused on the vocabulary of emotions in the Sumerian textual evidence. Steinert104 treated shame in the last part of her book on person and identity in Mesopotamia during the second and first centuries BCE. A recent publication,105 edited by Kipfer, explores the visualization of emotions in the Ancient Near East. It includes emotions referred to in texts (Biblical, Sumerian and Akkadian texts) and images/art (facial expression, body postures etc.).

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Overview of This Volume

There is no doubt that Ancient Egyptians, Sumerians, Assyrians, and Babylonians had their own cultural models which influenced the ways they expressed their emotions. This volume aims to present an overview of the emotions in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Articles written by scholars from the fields of Egyptology and Assyriology, some of them specialists in the study of emotions

95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105

Foster 1974. Freydank 1993. Klengel 1993. D’Agostino 2008; Frahm 2008; Madreiter 2014. Corfù 2015. Rendel-Loisel 2010. Musche 1999. Riley 2017. Jaques 2006. Steinert 2012, especially pp. 405 ff. Kipfer 2017.

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in ancient texts, discuss the concept of emotions in these civilizations, and how emotions are described in the ancient texts. This volume is divided into two parts: emotion in Ancient Egypt and emotion in Ancient Mesopotamia. 5.1 Part 1: The Expression of Emotions in Ancient Egypt In the section dedicated to Ancient Egypt, scholars discuss emotions such as fear, depression, anger, feeling of pain, envy, jealousy and greed, using evidence from different text genres. Additionally, two articles focus especially on text genres, such as the Late Ramesside Letters and royal inscriptions, in which emotions are analysed. Sven Eicke discusses the “History of Horror: A Diachronic Overview of Fear(s) in Ancient Egyptian Texts” (pp. 25–51) on the ambivalent concepts of Egyptian fear(s) from the point of view of conceptual metaphor theory and emotionology. He differentiates between the terms “fear”, “horror” and “awe”, and provides their lexemes. Through the aspects of conceptual metaphor theory and emotionology, Eicke gives examples from a variety of texts ranging from the Old Kingdom to Graeco-Roman times, which belong to funerary(-religious), literary, historical(-political) and religious genres. He analyses the ambivalence of fear in society. Shih-Wei Hsu investigates in “ ‘I Wish I Could Die’: Depression in Ancient Egypt” (pp. 52–87) the concept of depression among the Egyptians, particularly its definition, cause, description, treatments and solutions in the pessimistic literature. Although the definition and symptoms of depression are different in ancient civilizations, the description “the heart is ill” is a common phenomenon. Features of the First Intermediate Period, such as the decline of kingship, the failure of crops, famine, and chaotic social structures may have been the reasons for depression. The pessimistic texts reflect these feelings of misery and depressive thoughts, and many passages show evidence of depression. Hsu gives examples to prove that Ancient Egyptians had depressive feelings, just as we do today. In “Royal Rage and Private Anger in Ancient Egypt” (pp. 88–102), Ines Köhler researches the emotion “anger” in certain types of episode, and the conceptualization of anger regarding (proto)typical processes and culture-specific expressions and actions. She gives an overview of the processes involved in experiencing and perceiving anger, and focuses on the Egyptian lexical field [ANGER]. [ANGER] can be conceptualized by a body part (heart), facial expression, colour (red), the deity (Seth), opponents and animals. [ANGER] is regarded as an important fighting quality of Maat and Isfet. Tara Prakash discusses pain in Ancient Egypt in “Everybody Hurts: Understanding and Visualizing Pain in Ancient Egypt” (pp. 103–125). She gives exam-

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ples of three types of scenes from the private tombs of the Old Kingdom, such as scenes of beating, scenes of landowners or herdsman being forced to pay taxes, and mourning scenes, to show visualizations of pain. With the help of short captions, these scenes also provide particular cues indicating different feelings. Prakash indicates that Egyptians conceived of pain as an experience that had both physical and emotional components, which were related to each other and which could coexist. Using frameworks from pragmatics, Kim Ridealgh argues in “ ‘Without You I Am an Orphan’: Exploring Emotion and Interpersonal Pragmatics in the Late Ramesside Letters” (pp. 126–143) that the Late Ramesside letters viably demonstrate the role of emotion in maintaining interpersonal relationships. She presents three cases that highlight the role of emotions in restoring and maintaining interpersonal relationships, prove that emotions are linguistically signalled via different aspects, and show that emotion and interpersonal relationships are inextricably linked. Anthony Spalinger focuses on “Indexes of Emotions in Pianchy’s Great Stela with Some Cultural Comparisons” (pp. 144–168) during Pianchy’s Great Campaign, and on his concepts of warfare and women. Through narrative techniques and Sargent’s methodology, he analyses the language of the Great Stela of Pianchy, the Dream Stela of Tanwetamani, the Inscriptions of Taharqo, and the Enthronement Stelae of Aspelta and Amannote-erike. He focuses on the emotions of Pianchy in the Great Stela elicited by the deeds of Namlot and Tefnacht. Pianchy was wise and mighty, but also careful, perspicacious and sharp-witted, even growing angry when he heard of the siege of Hermopolis. Spalinger indicates that the Stela was not an emotionally played out interpretation, because it proves the sober generalship of Pianchy, and his careful plans and desire for victory. In “‘Do Not Cast an Eye on Another One’s Goods …!’ Aspects of Envy, Jealousy and Greed in Ancient Egypt” (pp. 169–197) Alexandra Verbovsek reviews the categorization of the emotions “envy (Neid)” and “jealousy (Eifersucht)” in Ancient Egyptian culture, and presents different textual examples from the Old Kingdom down to the Late Period. She examines lexemes related to jealousy and envy, as well as the term ꜥwn-jb (greedy) and its negative effects on social relations. She explains that the Egyptians perceived emotions not only as manifestations of misbehavior but also as character traits that make up a human being. She calls for a comparison of Egyptian emotive scripts to those of other cultures.

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5.2 Part 2: The Expression of Emotions in Ancient Mesopotamia In the section dedicated to Mesopotamia, scholars discuss the expression of emotions through analyses of textual examples. The authors of the articles in the present volume present a wide range of studies in terms of textual evidence (Sumerian and Akkadian documents), genres (literary and archival texts), the emotions treated (sadness, happiness, fear, jealousy, anger), periods (from the third millennium to the first millennium BCE), as well as perspectives. In “Depression at the Royal Courts of Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal” (pp. 201–219) Greta Van Buylaere introduces several depressed men living at the royal courts of Esarhaddon (680–669 BCE) and Assurbanipal (668–631? BCE). She examines the triggers of their depression (illness, grief, stress, job loss, social pressure, etc.) and the reactions of the kings and scholars to their sorrow. In “Shaping Gender, Shaping Emotions. On the Mutual Construction of Gender Identities and Emotional Roles in Ancient Mesopotamia” (pp. 220–237) Agnès Garcia-Ventura analyses how the shaping of certain emotions influences the shaping of masculinities and femininities, and how some features of specific gender roles reinforce the characterization of some emotions, with special attention to grief. She focuses on administrative texts from the funeral of queen Baranamtara, and a selection of excerpts from the Death of Urnamma and the Epic of Gilgamesh, which portray a variety of scenarios with regard to the interactions between the construction of gender identities and the shaping of emotional roles through wailing, mourning and lamenting. Margaret Jaques, in “Emotions and Their Expression in a Religious Historical Perspective in Ancient Mesopotamia” (pp. 238–254) reviews the expression of joy, fear and sadness in diverse Mesopotamian literary sources. She stresses the difficulties for a historian of assessing emotions in old languages. In “Expressions of Joy and Happiness in Neo-Assyrian” (pp. 255–282) Mikko Luukko focuses on the expression of happiness and joy in the Neo-Assyrian archival texts and beyond. He collects and analyses the attestations in the domain of happiness and observes that these expressions are mainly linked to the interaction between members of the Assyrian elite. Anne Caroline Rendu-Loisel studies emotions related to the experience of the environment in the corpus of the Sumerian literature of the Old Babylonian period in “From Landscape to Ritual Performances: Emotions in Sumerian Literature” (pp. 283–305). According to Rendu-Loisel, emotions such as awe and joy play an important role during the ritual activities conducted in the temple. In “Jealousy in Akkadian Love Literature: Zarpanītu in the Divine Love Lyrics” (pp. 306–334), Rocío Da Riva discusses the elusive figure of the Babylonian goddess Zarpanītu, the spouse of Marduk, in Akkadian Love Literature. Da Riva illuminates this figure through a ritual in which the goddess plays the

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leading role. Zarpanītu is betrayed by her unfaithful husband, which triggers a firestorm of emotions fuelled by jealousy towards her rival Ištar. Irene Sibbing-Plantholt examines Death (Mūtu) and the emotions it arouses in “Visible Death and Audible Distress: The Personification of Death (Mūtu) and Associated Emotions as Inherent Conditions of Life in Akkadian Sources” (pp. 335–389). Firstly, she differentiates between two personifications of Death, Mūtu and Namtar. Then, she discusses the multifaceted personifications of Mūtu, and the emotions he evokes, such as fear, sadness, sorrow, anguish and distress. Karen Sonik deals with the Mesopotamian hero par excellence in “Gilgamesh and Emotional Excess: The King without Counsel in the SB Gilgamesh Epic” (pp. 390–409). She presents the physically powerful Gilgamesh as the king without counsel and too weak to cope with overwhelming emotions, which lead him to act impulsively and to his detriment. According to Sonik, it is through the act of taking counsel that he will rein in these emotions and measure his acts. Ulrike Steinert focuses on four emotions: joy, sorrow, fear and anger, and investigates their conceptualization in Akkadian texts in “Pounding Hearts and Burning Livers: The ‘Sentimental Body’ in Mesopotamian Medicine and Literature” (pp. 410–469). She underlines the relationship between the vocabulary and expressions of emotion and its bodily signs. She analyses metaphors in Akkadian texts that conceptualize the emotional experience, as well as the social and evaluative aspects of Mesopotamian discourses on emotions. Further, she discusses developments and specificities regarding the evaluation of emotions in the medical texts of the first millennium BCE, as well as evaluative and socio-moral aspects of emotions in literature. Finally, Steinert proposes a middle path in the debate between the universalist and social-constructivist approach to emotion. Saana Svärd, Tero Alstola, Heidi Jauhiainen, Aleksi Sahala and Krister Lindén focus on “Fear in Akkadian Texts: New Digital Perspectives on Lexical Semantics” (pp. 470–502). In their article, they examine the semantic field of this emotion in Akkadian. They apply linguistic and technological methods and network analysis to study the verbs referring to this emotion in Akkadian (i.e., adāru, galātu, palāḫu, parādu and šaḫātu). They analyse and highlight the similarities and differences in the semantic fields of verbs of fear, creating for the first time a semantic map based on a statistical analysis of how these five verbs relate to each other and other lexemes.

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17

Concluding Remarks

Emotions can definitely cross cultures, civilizations and languages, and they remain invariant over time. As long as people are alive and perceive, they always express their feelings, whether in facial, psychical, physical or oral ways. People in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia had similar emotions to the ones we have today, although they expressed them in different ways. Although emotions in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia have been studied, we think that this subject needs more investigation. This is why we embarked upon publishing the present volume with the hope of making up this deficiency. We would like to thank all participants for their contributions to this volume. Thanks to their great efforts, we have been able to present a diverse range of studies on emotions from the civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia, and provide different points of view on each particular emotion and the role that emotions played in specific text genres. We would also like to express our gratitude to the editors of the series Culture and History of the Ancient Near East for their permisson to publish, as well as to Benedict Davies for reviewing the whole manuscript of this volume. Tianjin—Madrid 2020

Bibliography Baines, J. 2017. �