The Evolution of the Medieval World 0582092574


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Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Half Title......Page 2
Title Page......Page 4
Copyright Page......Page 5
Table of Contents......Page 6
List of maps......Page 12
Foreword......Page 13
Dedication......Page 16
Part One: The Precursors of a Civilisation......Page 18
Introduction......Page 20
From Republic to Empire......Page 21
The Governance of the Early Roman Empire......Page 23
Economic and Social Conditions......Page 24
The Crisis of the Third Century......Page 26
Diocletian and Constantine: The Administrative Achievement......Page 27
Diocletian and Constantine: Economic Policy and Social Regimentation......Page 29
The Last Century of the Western Empire: Militarisation, Localisation and Amalgamation......Page 32
The Survival of Rome......Page 34
The Birth of a Religion......Page 42
The Mission of Paul and the New Chosen People......Page 43
Christianity in the Roman World......Page 44
The Persecutions......Page 45
The Fourth Century: The Triumph of Christianity......Page 46
Heresy and Orthodoxy in the Late Empire......Page 48
The Christian Commonwealth: Church and State in the Late Empire......Page 52
The Rise of the Papacy......Page 53
Early Monasticism......Page 55
The Benedictine Rule......Page 57
Christianity and Classical Learning: The Man Comes to the Mountain......Page 59
A Discordant Classical Heritage: Augustine and Isidore......Page 62
The North before the Romans......Page 67
Warriors and Peasants......Page 70
The Migrations into Roman Territory......Page 71
The Visigoths......Page 73
The Ostrogoths......Page 75
The Collapse of the Rhine Frontier......Page 77
The Franks......Page 78
Land and Power: Frankish Kings and Aristocrats in the Sixth and Seventh Centuries......Page 79
Roman and early medieval Britain: Angles, Saxons and Jutes?......Page 81
Law, Family and Society in Germanic Europe......Page 84
Kingship and Lordship in Tribal Gaul......Page 88
Religion and Society in Tribal Gaul......Page 90
Celtic Monasticism and the Conversion of the North......Page 91
The Benedictines in the North......Page 92
Arts and Letters in Pre-Carolingian Europe: The Laity......Page 93
Arts and Letters in Pre-Carolingian Gaul: the Clergy......Page 95
From Rome to Byzantium......Page 99
The Reign of Justinian (527-65)......Page 100
Persians, Slavs and Muslims: The Assaults on the Empire in the Seventh Century......Page 102
The Isaurian Dynasty (717-842) and Iconoclasm......Page 103
The Byzantine Empire in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries......Page 104
The Governance of the Byzantine Empire......Page 105
Byzantine Culture: A Greek World......Page 108
The Byzantine Economy......Page 109
Russia......Page 110
Society and Belief in Early Arabia......Page 111
The Career and Message of Mohammed......Page 112
The Generation after Mohammed......Page 114
The Umayyad Caliphate (661-750)......Page 116
The Early Abbasid Caliphate (750-892)......Page 118
The Tenth-Century Crisis......Page 120
Western Islam: The Maghreb and Egypt......Page 122
Western Islam: Spain......Page 124
The Early Islamic Economy......Page 127
Islamic Culture......Page 128
Part Two: The Birth of a Civilisation: Early Medieval Europe, c. 700-920.......Page 132
Introduction......Page 134
The Emergence of a Dynasty......Page 135
The Revolution of 751......Page 136
The Career of Charlemagne (768/71-814)......Page 137
The Imperial Coronation of 800 and Theocratic Monarchy......Page 139
Government in the Carolingian Age......Page 141
The Carolingian Renaissance: Reviving and Securing the Classical Tradition......Page 144
The Later Carolingians......Page 151
The New Invasions......Page 153
The Scandinavians and the Carolingian Empire......Page 154
The Scandinavians and the Emergence of an English Monarchy......Page 155
The Genesis of Feudal Relationships in Early Medieval Europe......Page 158
Vassalage......Page 159
The Fief......Page 160
The Military Organisation of Frankish Europe......Page 161
Territorial Lordship and the Feudal Bond......Page 162
The Geographical Diffusion of Feudal Relationships......Page 164
Villa and Village in the Early Middle Ages......Page 168
The Economics of Farm Production......Page 171
Peasant Society......Page 173
The Diffusion of the Villa......Page 177
Women, Children and The Family......Page 178
Long-Distance Trade and Commerce in Early Medieval Europe......Page 180
Interregional Trade in the Eighth Century......Page 182
Trade in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries......Page 184
The Origins of Urban Life......Page 185
Part Three: The Maturity of a Civilisation: Europe in the Central Middle Ages, c. 920-1270......Page 192
Introduction......Page 194
7 Government and Politics: Emperors and Popes......Page 195
Royal Governance in Early Medieval Germany......Page 199
Lay Investiture and Church Reform......Page 201
Church and Politics in Eleventh-Century Italy......Page 204
The Investiture Contest: the First Phase......Page 205
The Resolution of the Investiture Contest......Page 207
Papal Monarchy and the Christian Community......Page 209
Italy and Germany in the Twelfth Century: Success and Failure of the Institutional-Territorial State......Page 213
The Reign of Frederick Barbarossa: The Reorganisation and Feudalisation of Germany......Page 215
The Germans in Italy......Page 216
The Age of Frederick II......Page 220
The Distintegration of the Hohenstaufen Empire......Page 225
The Germans in the Slavic East......Page 226
Russia......Page 228
Late Anglo-Saxon England......Page 231
The Norman Settlement in England......Page 234
Anglo-Norman England: The Second Generation......Page 238
Henry II (1154-89): The Birth of the English Common Law......Page 240
Richard I and John......Page 244
Magna Carta......Page 248
Henry III......Page 249
The Early Capetians......Page 252
Changes in French Government During the Twelfth Century......Page 253
The Reign of Philip Augustus......Page 255
Louis VIII (1223-26)......Page 257
Sainthood and Statecraft: The Age of Louis IX......Page 258
The Changing Nature of Law......Page 260
1. Nobility and Aristocracy: The Establishment and Composition of Europe's Ruling Elite......Page 265
The Noble Life......Page 268
The Noble Lady......Page 270
Changes in the Feudal Relationship: Vassalage......Page 272
Changes in the Feudal Relationship: The Fief......Page 275
Castles and Weaponry......Page 277
2. The Crusades......Page 278
The First Crusade......Page 280
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem......Page 283
The Second Crusade and Its Aftermath......Page 284
The Third Crusade......Page 286
The Fourth Crusade......Page 287
The Crusading Movement, 1204-44......Page 288
The Crusades of St Louis......Page 289
The Impact of the Crusades......Page 290
Spain During the Central Middle Ages......Page 292
Change in Al-Andalus......Page 293
From Toledo to Seville......Page 294
Law, Society and Ethnicity in Thirteenth-Century Spain......Page 296
1. The agrarian sector......Page 300
The Village......Page 301
The Peasant House......Page 302
Agricultural Technology and Farm Routines......Page 303
The Expansion of the Arable......Page 306
The Social Consequences of the Rural Economic Expansion......Page 309
A Half-Century of Crisis: 1175-1225......Page 310
The Overheating of the European Economy, 1225-75......Page 311
2. Urban life in the central Middle Ages......Page 314
Urban Industry......Page 316
Urban Society and Government in the Central Middle Ages......Page 317
The Guilds......Page 320
The Towns and the Development of an International Economy......Page 323
Scenes from the Medieval City......Page 324
The Fairs......Page 326
Banking and Credit......Page 328
Money and Minting......Page 329
The Baltic Sea Trade and the North......Page 330
Women During the Central Middle Ages......Page 331
The 'Ottonian Renaissance'......Page 337
The Changes After 1000......Page 339
The Evolution of the Vernacular Languages......Page 340
The Literary World of the Nobility......Page 341
The Epics......Page 343
The Romances......Page 344
Lyric Poetry......Page 346
The Romance of the Rose......Page 350
The Literature of the Burghers and Peasants......Page 351
The Birth of the Drama......Page 352
Music During the Central Middle Ages......Page 353
The Student at Play: Goliardic Poetry......Page 355
The Student at Work: Courses of Study......Page 357
The Triumph of Logic......Page 359
Peter Abelard (1079-1142)......Page 360
The Universities......Page 363
University Organisation......Page 364
The Spread of the Universities......Page 366
Student Life......Page 368
Philosophy and Theology: The Reception of Aristotle......Page 372
The Age of the Summae......Page 375
Art and Architecture: The Gothic and Romanesque Styles......Page 377
Monasticism, Old and New......Page 384
Hermits, Canons and Monks in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries......Page 385
The Cistercians......Page 386
The Regular Clergy......Page 388
Folk Religion......Page 389
The Waldensians......Page 395
The Cathars......Page 397
The Papal Inquisition......Page 399
The Mendicant Orders: The Legitimising of the Imitation of Christ......Page 400
The Beguines and Beghards......Page 406
The Jews During the Central Middle Ages......Page 407
Part Four: The Old Age of a Civilisation: The Late Middle Ages, 1270-1500......Page 414
Introduction......Page 416
The Origins of a Long-Term Problem......Page 418
The Black Death......Page 421
The Impact of the Plagues: The Agrarian Sector......Page 422
The Impact of the Plagues: The Cities......Page 424
The Problem of Poverty......Page 426
Society and Governance in the Towns......Page 428
The Nobility in the Later Middle Ages......Page 430
The Great Rebellions......Page 431
The Directions and Techniques of Commerce: The Italians and the South......Page 435
The Directions and Techniques of Commerce: The Italians and the North......Page 436
The German Hanse......Page 439
Families, Feuds and Civil Government......Page 441
Marriage and the Household......Page 442
Parents and Children......Page 444
Women in the Workforce......Page 446
Italy After the Angevins......Page 452
Princes and Politics in Post-Hohenstaufen Germany......Page 454
Regional Authorities and Institutions in the Late Medieval Empire......Page 457
Russia and the East......Page 458
Greeks, Muslims and Mongols......Page 459
The Ottoman Turks......Page 460
England and France Before the Hundred Years War......Page 462
The Hundred Years War (1337-1453)......Page 463
Revolution and Resolution: The End of the Hundred Years War......Page 466
The Iberian Peninsula......Page 470
England......Page 473
France......Page 476
The Development of Representative Institutions: England......Page 478
The Development of Representative Institutions: Spain......Page 481
The Development of Representative Institutions: France......Page 482
How Effective Was Late Medieval Government?......Page 483
Church and State......Page 488
The Great Schism......Page 491
The Conciliar Movement......Page 492
Political Thought......Page 494
Education and the Spread of a Lay Culture......Page 497
Music and Vernacular Literature......Page 500
Changes in Religious Expression......Page 503
Late Medieval Heresy......Page 507
The Orthodox Mind......Page 509
The Italian Renaissance and the End of the Middle Ages......Page 511
Maps......Page 518
Index......Page 541
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THE EVOLUTION OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD, 312-1500

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The Evolution of the Medieval World: Society, Government and Thought in Europt;, 312-1500

David Nicholas

First published 1992 by Longman Group UK Limited Published 2014 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OXI4 4RN 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017, USA Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

© Longman Group UK Lirnited 1992 Ali rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transrnitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without either the prior written permission of the Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licellsing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, W1P 9HE

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Nicholas, David, 1939The evolution of the medieval world, 312-1500 / David Nicholas. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-582-09256-6. -- ISBN 0-582-09257-4 (pbk.) 1. Middle Ages--History. 2. Civilization, Medieval. 1. TitIe. D117.N5 1992 940.1--dc20 Set by 7 in Bembo

ISBN 978-0-582-09257-0 (pbk)

91-45111 CIP

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