The Complete Works of Andrew Fuller: Volume 1 The Diary of Andrew Fuller, 1780-1801 9783110420050, 9783110412840

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Table of contents :
Contents
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Note on the Text
Abbreviations
1780
1781
1782
1784
1785
1786
1789
1790
1791
1792
1794
1796
1799
1800
1801
Appendices
Scripture Index
Index of Places
Index of Subjects
Person Index
Recommend Papers

The Complete Works of Andrew Fuller: Volume 1 The Diary of Andrew Fuller, 1780-1801
 9783110420050, 9783110412840

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The Diary of Andrew Fuller, 1780–1801

The Complete Works of Andrew Fuller

Edited by Michael Haykin In Cooperation with John Coffey, Crawford Gribben, Nathan Finn, Doug Sweeney

Volume 1

The Diary of Andrew Fuller, 1780–1801 Edited by Michael D. McMullen and Timothy D. Whelan

ISBN 978-3-11-041284-0 e-ISBN (PDF) 978-3-11-042005-0 e-ISBN (EPUB) 978-3-11-042018-0 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A CIP catalog record for this book has been applied for at the Library of Congress. Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at http://dnb.dnb.de. © 2016 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston Printing and binding: CPI books GmbH, Leck ♾ Printed on acid-free paper Printed in Germany www.degruyter.com

Michael McMullen would like to dedicate this volume to Amy; and to all the Congregation in Ferrelview, MO. Timothy Whelan would like to dedicate this volume in memory of the Rev. Dr. Roger Hayden, who was a great influence upon him in the study of British Baptist History and Andrew Fuller.

Contents IX

Acknowledgments Introduction

XI XLI

Note on the Text Abbreviations 1780

1

1781

22

1782

37

1784

38

1785

100

1786

164

1789

176

1790

178

1791

181

1792

183

1794

186

1796

190

1799

192

1800

212

1801

213

Appendices

XLIII

215

VIII

Contents

Scripture Index

239

Index of Places

246

Index of Subjects Person Index

249 251

Acknowledgments The editors wish to thank the Revd. Stephen Finamore, Principal of Bristol Baptist College, Bristol, England, and Dr. Michael Brealey, Librarian and Archivist, for permission to publish the text of the surviving volume of Andrew Fuller’s diary, now in the library’s possession, and for providing Timothy Whelan with digital images of Fuller’s manuscript list of the books in his library in August 1798 (see Appendix A), images that were invaluable in ascribing correct titles to Fuller’s abbreviated descriptions. Special appreciation is also due to the late Dr. Roger Hayden, who devoted much of his time in retirement to the Library’s archives and who graciously assisted Whelan in imaging the surviving volume of Fuller’s diary at the library and providing Whelan access since the late 1990s to many of the treasures in the library as well as those kept in the vault at Broadmead Baptist Church and now on deposit at the Bristol Record Office, and to whose expertise in all matters of Baptist history Whelan is greatly indebted. Appreciation is also due to David Milner, of the Fuller Church at Kettering, who graciously devoted the better part of a day in showing Whelan the church and surrounding neighborhood, including the homes of the Gotch and Wallis families and lunch in the Fuller Coffee House, as well as access to the Kettering Church Book and various other manuscripts still in the possession of the church. Our thanks as well to Emma Walsh, librarian, and the exceptional staff at the Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, University of Oxford; Dr. David Wykes, Director of Dr. Williams’s Library, London, for assistance in providing access to materials pertinent to this edition; and Dr. John Briggs, Professor Emeritus, the University of Birmingham, former editor of The Baptist Quarterly, and sometime Director of the Baptist History and Heritage Centre, Regent’s Park College, Oxford, whose careful reading of a preliminary version of the diary and notes led to corrections and insights that significantly improved the final text. McMullen would like to thank Amy Mendenhall, for her invaluable help in painstakingly comparing and re-comparing Fuller’s manuscript, the previously published Journal extracts, and the transcription. Whelan would like to thank his graduate research assistant at Georgia Southern University, Esther Stuart, for her diligent work during Fall 2015 in creating Appendix A and compiling all the scripture references in Fuller’s diary; and also to Joshua Temples, Whelan’s Research Assistant for Fall 2016, who prepared the final Scripture Index. The general editor, Dr. Michael A. G. Haykin, would also like to thank Mr. Roy Paul for his expert proof-reading.

Introduction Spiritual autobiography was a prevalent form of writing among Nonconformists between 1650 and 1850, open to male and female alike. Short accounts, often read before the congregation, were usually required for membership among Particular Baptist congregations in England in the eighteenth century. These informal “conversion narratives” can still be found preserved among family papers or embedded in church books and other collections. Many longer narratives, such as John Bunyan’s Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners (1666) and John Newton’s An Authentic Narrative (1765), appeared in print, sometimes published in the author’s lifetime and sometimes posthumously.¹ The primary aim of such narratives—whether informal or formal, short or long, read before a congregation or published for a reading audience that often crossed denominational and geographical boundaries—was to delineate the believer’s progress from an initial state of doubt and unbelief through the regenerative work of divine grace to a state of spiritual enlightenment, religious affection, and, eventually, some degree of assurance of faith. After conversion, the chief means used by Nonconformists for recording (for the purpose of examining and maintaining) one’s spiritual progress usually took the form of prose journals, of which the daily or weekly diary (the latter with entries only on Sundays) was the simplest and most common manifestation. In many of these diaries, however, the individual’s account of spiritual travails would blend seamlessly into the ups and downs of daily life in the home, community, and church. “Practitioners of vital religion demanded of themselves a relentless self-scrutiny,” Deborah Cohen argues, “a spiritual recordkeeping that has left to posterity tens of thousands of closely written diaries, filled with anguished reflections upon the author’s failings and exhortations for improvement.”² As Joseph Hughes wrote in 1790, near the end of his graduate work at Edinburgh and just prior to his return to Bristol where he would serve six years as assistant pastor to Caleb Evans and John Ryland at Broadmead before embarking on a significant pastorate at Battersea, London, religion “ought to be our constant companion, or rather it ought to incorporated and rendered, so to speak, a part of ourselves.” “Thus may trivial occurrences be sanctified,”³ he concluded, a conviction he would have shared with many of his Baptist contemporaries who kept daily diaries, a popular tool for effecting such sanctification in one’s life. To devout eight-

 Other important published spiritual narratives, diaries and journals that most likely were known to Fuller include works composed by the Quaker George Fox (), the Presbyterian Richard Baxter (), the American Congregationalists Jonathan Edwards () and David Brainerd (), the American Quaker John Woolman (). The diary of John Wesley, leader of the Methodists and Fuller’s contemporary for a time, was not published until .  Deborah Cohen, Household Gods: The British and Their Possessions (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, ), .  John Leifchild, Memoir of the Late Rev. Joseph Hughes, A. M. (London: T. Ward, ), ; quoted by Cohen, Household Gods, .

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Introduction

eenth-century Baptist saints, the keeping of a purely secular dairy, though it might hold much interest to a modern reader, would have seemed a waste of paper on their earthly pilgrimage to the Celestial City. For every eighteenth-century Baptist minister who published a few sermons in his lifetime, scores of his members and hearers were recording their spiritual thoughts informally in small bound volumes (usually duodecimo in size) kept in a safe (and possibly secret) place in their homes. A few of these narratives or diaries/journals appeared in print, but most remained in manuscript. Many of these were lost by family members during succeeding decades or destroyed during the lifetime of the writer or by request after the writer’s death, for such diaries and narratives were naturally of an intimate and private nature and materially fragile. Fortunately, a significant number of diaries survived.⁴ Andrew Fuller’s diary, presented here in its complete form for the first time, is one of those survivors.⁵ Fuller’s diary, a fitting example of the kind of informal spiritual autobiography described above, begins with short daily entries that eventually give way to more sophisticated narratives covering longer periods of time, delving into his private spiritual battles as well as concerns about his congregation, his family, his publications, and the larger work of the Particular Baptists in England and abroad. Within the pages of his diary, we see Fuller’s early struggles with a passive faith, uneasy assurance, and what seemed like an inscrutable will of God for his life (leaving Soham for Kettering) give way to the joys of an active faith, the “pleasures of religion” (as he puts it on May 12, 1786), and his invigorating work as secretary of the Baptist Missionary Society after 1792. Anxiety is present throughout his diary, but as the volume progresses Fuller shifts from an obsessive preoccupation with himself toward a compassionate vision encompassing the entire world—a world that, no matter how far his vision ultimately reached—whether to Scotland, Sierra Leone, India, or China—never strayed far during the years of his diary (1780 – 1801) from his immediate family, his local congregation, and the numerous Baptist churches throughout Northamptonshire

 Baptist women were prolific diary-keepers. For selections from seven such diaries, composed between  and , see volume  of Timothy Whelan, Nonconformist Women Writers,  – ,  vols (London: Pickering & Chatto, ).  It is likely that Fuller knew that his close friend, John Ryland, maintained a daily diary during his years at Northampton, though only small portions were preserved (now belonging to the collections at Bristol Baptist College) before Ryland destroyed all the early volumes in . For more on spiritual autobiography in its variety of forms in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century England, Scotland, and America, see Patricia Caldwell, The Puritan Conversion Narrative: The Beginnings of American Expression (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, ); Michael Mascuch, Origins of the Individualist Self: Autobiography and Self Identity in England,  –  (Stanford: Stanford University Press, ); Bruce Hindmarsh, The Evangelical Conversion Narrative: Spiritual Autobiography in Early Modern England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, ); David George Mullan, Narratives of the Religious Self in Early-Modern Scotland (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, ); and Kathleen Lynch, Protestant Autobiography in the Seventeenth-Century Anglophone World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, ).

Introduction

XIII

and the surrounding counties that experienced firsthand the transformational power of his evangelical Calvinism. The original manuscript of his diary consisted of three volumes. The first volume (no longer extant) commenced in January 1780 and ended in January 1782, a period in which Fuller was torn between leaving the small congregation at Soham for the Baptist church (known then as “the little meeting”) at Kettering, a move that produced inordinate anxiety in his personal and spiritual life. The second volume began in January 1782 and continued through the first week of April 1784. Fuller destroyed this volume sometime prior to his death, thus leaving a gap in the biographies of Fuller produced by John Ryland and John Webster Morris in 1816, Andrew Gunton Fuller c. 1831 and 1882, and Thomas Ekins Fuller in 1863, all of whom included excerpts from the first and third volumes of Fuller’s diary only.⁶ Had the second volume remained extant, it would be of considerable historical importance today, for it covered the period of Fuller’s soteriological shift from High Calvinism to evangelical Calvinism, a doctrinal and ministerial decision he shared with many of his friends within the Northamptonshire Association. The third volume begins on April 11, 1784, and continues into June 1786, after which Fuller provides only brief comments on the years 1789 – 1792, 1794, 1796, 1799 (a travel diary to northern England and Scotland on behalf of the Baptist Missionary Society), 1800, and 1801 (mostly in shorthand).⁷ Though quoted often by Ryland and A. G. Fuller, the third volume has never been transcribed in its entirety (or accurately) until the present edition, which includes more than 330 complete or partial entries previously unpublished.⁸

 See John Ryland, The Work of Faith, the Labour of Love, and the Patience of Hope, illustrated in the Life and Death of the Rev. Andrew Fuller, late Pastor of the Baptist Church at Kettering and Secretary of the Baptist Missionary Society, from its commencement in  (London: Button & Son, ; nd ed., ) (quotations below from the  edition unless otherwise noted); J. W. Morris, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the Rev. Andrew Fuller (London: T. Hamilton, ; nd ed., London, ; Boston, ); Andrew Gunton Fuller, ed. The Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller: With a Memoir of his Life,  vols (London: Holdsworth and Ball,  – ; nd ed., ; rd ed. [Bohn], ; Boston, ; ; Philadelphia, ) (quotations below from  American edition, vol. , hereafter AG Fuller); Andrew Gunton Fuller, Andrew Fuller, by his Son, Andrew Gunton Fuller (London: Hodder and Stoughton, ) (hereafter AG Fuller ); Thomas Ekins Fuller, A Memoir of the Life and Writings of Andrew Fuller (London: J. Heaton & Son, ).  During the height of his diary-keeping ( – ), Fuller averaged about four entries per page, usually writing his comments at the end of the day, whether at home in Kettering or away on business or preaching tours, for his diary at this time appears to have always been with him. After  the diary turns more toward reminiscences of important periods in his life, composed after the fact with evidence of more thoughtful composition.  All entries from the manuscript diary published by Ryland and A. G. Fuller have been corrected and presented in this edition as they appear in the surviving duodecimo volume of Fuller’s diary at Bristol Baptist College, titled on its spine, “Fuller—Diary and Spiritual Thoughts  – .” Originally, Fuller would have entered his diary entries on the blank pages of a volume bound along the narrow width of the paper (the top of the page), not the length (along the left hand side of the page). This was a common practice among diarists at that time. At some point after his

XIV

Introduction

In their excerpts from Fuller’s diary, Ryland, Morris, and A. G. Fuller regularly expunged personal names, locations, and other details, a common practice among biographers at that time though eschewed today. To their credit, Ryland and A. G. Fuller ignored Fuller’s instructions to destroy volumes one and three of his diary after his death. Fuller decided on Sunday, September 25, 1785, that in the future he would include in his diary only “some of the most material exercises & events of my life, which I mean merely for my own use. If I should die without having destroyed them I wish them to be destroyed.” He had already noted this wish in the entry for Friday, April 30, 1784: I earnestly desire these papers and books if I should not burn them in my lifetime may never be shown (supposedly) to very few persons after my death—for such a life as mine I wish never to be imitated. When I read the life of one whom I think was a good man I feel apt to account his acquisitions nearly the utmost that can be attained in this life. The fear lest any one should think thus of mine makes me write this desire.

As Ryland prepared his memoir of Fuller, he respected his friend’s concern yet refused to be bound by his wishes, adding a note to the entry quoted above in which he stated that he was not attempting to make Fuller appear better than he was, but he did hope his selections from Fuller’s diary would “tend to the honour of his blessed Lord, and to the benefit of candid and intelligent readers.”⁹ Fuller partially got his wish, however, for the whereabouts of volume one of his diary, despite remaining in the possession of his family for some time after his death, is now unknown, leaving only the third volume extant, residing among the collections in the library at Bristol Baptist College.¹⁰

Fuller’s move from Soham to Kettering One of the most important features of Fuller’s diary is the background it provides about his move from Soham to Kettering, a process that lasted nearly four years from his first invitation from the Kettering church late in 1779 (the church’s previous

death, however, Fuller’s original volume was rebound, as suggested by the formal title on the spine. Unfortunately, during the process of rebinding the pages were slightly cropped (all words are still readable when expanding the spine slightly) and, more importantly, mishandled to the point that a large section is now out of chronological order with some of the pages being reversed (literally, upside down), making the reconstituting of a chronological text difficult but not impossible. Ryland suggested that many pages of Fuller’s diary for the year  had been torn out of the volume that he had in his possession when he composed his biography of Fuller in , and he was probably accurate in his observation at that time. The rebound volume, however, does not reveal any missing pages, but that would be understandable because the remaining fragments of the torn pages would have been discarded during rebinding.  Ryland .  Shelfmark G b, Bristol Baptist College, Bristol, England.

Fuller’s move from Soham to Kettering

XV

minister, George Moreton, had resigned due to poor health) to his ordination at Kettering in October 1783. Fuller was torn between his home church, where his family and his wife’s family attended, and the financial security and ministerial advantage the Kettering church offered him. As Ryland prepared the portion of his memoir detailing Fuller’s departure from Soham, he had before him 28 letters that passed between Fuller and representatives of the church, primarily Beeby Wallis (1735 – 1792), a deacon and descendant of the church’s first pastor, William Wallis. Fuller’s diary, however, provides pertinent details of its own concerning this move. The first comment appears on June 30, 1780, when Fuller writes that he “has been much affected today, in thinking on my situation.” On November 10, he again noted: “O that I might be guided some way! My heart is much perplexed, but found liberty in prayer.” Later that month he fears his “talents” are being squandered at Soham, yet his uncertainty provokes an equivalent fear of “pride,” complicating his desire for God to reveal a “plainer path” before him (November 28). His love for the people at Soham and his sense of duty towards them was always paramount for Fuller, yet he could never completely eradicate from his mind the call from Kettering, an indecision that strained his relations with many in the Soham congregation, being accused by some of having “an irregular mind” (April 1, 1781). On April 21, 1781, he declared his intention to stay at Soham “even though it terminate in my temporal ruin,” yet his “fluctuating soul” led him two weeks later (May 4) to conclude that he “must leave Soham.” At the annual meeting of the Northamptonshire Association at Carlton, Bedfordshire, later that May, Fuller sought the advice of a large group of ministers concerning his decision, and they unanimously joined in recommending he leave Soham, though Fuller remained hesitant.¹¹ On July 12 he told his congregation that he thought it might be best to remove to Kettering, a confession that unfortunately turned the chapel into “a place of weeping,” he writes in his diary. He pursued further arbitration from three ministers, but they were not unanimous in their decision, leaving Fuller once again in the throes of doubt. In October 1781, he presented his case to Robert Robinson (1735 – 1790), the celebrated Baptist minister at St. Andrew’s Street in Cambridge, who told him to wait one year upon the condition of the church substantially raising his meager salary of £18 a year (£5 came from the Particular Baptist Fund). Fuller fulfilled his obligation, but in the absence of a sufficient change in his financial situation at Soham, he resigned as pastor in October 1782 and removed to Kettering, his formal letter of dismission from Soham arriving on August 10, 1783. He was admitted to the Kettering church on August 23, and was officially installed as pastor on October 7, 1783. His pastorate at Kettering constitutes a turning-point in the history of English Particular Baptists and, is in this sense, is unequalled by any other pastorate in the eighteenth century.¹²

 Ryland  – .  For accounts of this period in Fuller’s life, see Ryland  – ; AG Fuller  – ; AG Fuller   – . A number of more recent examinations of Fuller’s life and thought look closely at this same

XVI

Introduction

Composing, Publishing, and Defending The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation Fuller’s diary also provides important details about the composition, publication date, and reception, especially among Baptists, of his most important book, The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation (1785). Long before Fuller’s departure from Soham, he had debated, first in his mind and then on paper, the Biblical validity of the High Calvinism he had imbibed from his pastor John Eve (d. 1782) (minister at Soham from 1752 to 1771) and such prominent Baptist figures as John Gill (1697– 1771) and John Brine (1703 – 1765) of London (both former members of the Kettering church during the pastorate of Thomas Wallis, son of William Wallis). He eventually countered that position with a belief in the atoning work of Christ and human faith that would come to be known as evangelical Calvinism, though many in his day and well into the nineteenth century also referred to it as “Fullerism.”¹³ Fuller first put down his thoughts on this topic c. 1776, revised them in 1781, and finally prepared them for the press in 1784– 1785.¹⁴ His diary reveals the frequent doubts Fuller had about his ability to compose the volume and his fears that the book would receive a negative reception by many within his denomination. On July 19, 1780, he exclaims, “O how unfit am I for controversy!” adding the following day, “The Lord grant I may never enter the polemical lists!” Posterity can only be thankful that he did enter such “lists,” leaving behind a body of publications at his death in 1815 that had already significantly influenced Baptist faith and practice in England and America and would continue to do so into the twentieth century. No specific references to the book appear until August 20, 1784, when he writes that he is having “Many misgivings of heart about engaging in the defence of what I esteem truth, lest the cause of Christ should be injured through me. Surely were it not that I think that in defence of which I write to be important truth I would hide my head in obscurity all my days!” The next day he returns to the same theme, seeking divine direction “in respect to publishing! Surely he knows my end,” Fuller pleads,

period: Gilbert Laws, Andrew Fuller: Pastor, Theologian, Ropeholder (London: Carey Kingsgate Press, ); E. F. Clipsham, “Andrew Fuller and Fullerism: A Study in Evangelical Calvinism,” Baptist Quarterly  ( – ):  – ;  – ;  – ;  – ; Roger Hayden, “The Life and Influence of Andrew Fuller” in The Kettering Connection: Northamptonshire Baptists and Overseas Missions, ed. R. L. Greenall (Leicester: Department of Adult Education, ),  – ; Tom J. Nettles, “Andrew Fuller ( – ),” in The British Particular Baptists  – , ed. Michael A. G. Haykin,  vols (Springfield, MO: Particular Baptist Press, ), : – ; Michael A. G. Haykin, ed., The Armies of the Lamb: The Spirituality of Andrew Fuller (Dundas, Ontario: Joshua Press, ); Peter J. Morden, Offering Christ to the World: Andrew Fuller ( – ) and the Revival of Eighteenth-Century Particular Baptist Life (Carlisle, UK: Paternoster Press, ); Paul Brewster, Andrew Fuller: Model Pastor-Theologian (Nashville: B & H Academic, ); Keith Grant, Andrew Fuller and the Evangelical Renewal of Pastoral Theology (Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, ).  In  Fuller’s library included five works by Brine and three by Gill (see Appendix A).  AG Fuller ; see also Fuller’s “Preface” to the st edition of The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation.

Composing, Publishing, and Defending The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation

XVII

“is to vindicate the excellency of his character, and his worthiness of being loved!” His entry for August 23 is even more pressing, an overt repudiation of his earlier entry from July 1780: The weight of publishing still lies upon me—I expect I shall have a great share of unhappiness through it. Surely I had much rather go through the world in peace, did I not think that all things considered it was my duty to do as I do. Feel a jealousy of myself lest I should not be endowed with meekness and patience sufficient for controversy—The Lord keep me! Wish to suspect my own spirit, and go forth leaning upon him for strength!

A conversation with Beeby Wallis on August 25 made him “tremble about writing in a public way,” and he was feeling considerable “depression” after a church meeting the next day, despite his conviction that the “cause” he is about “to engage in is the cause of truth and righteousness” (August 26), a biblical reference he repeats on October 21, all the more striking for its connection to John Gill’s seminal work, The Cause of God and Truth (4 parts, 1735 – 1738).¹⁵ On September 22 Fuller writes that he is busy preparing “a MS. for the press on the Obligations of men in respect to the gospel of Christ,” the first indication of his title. He describes it again on October 21 as “the obligations of men to believe in Christ,” fearful that such a title might expose him “to plenty of abuse” among the Particular Baptists “which is disagreeable to the flesh.” He is “[c]hiefly employed in writing” on November 2, 9, and 11, as well as December 7, sometimes “all day,” he notes. He took a draft of his manuscript to Ryland at Northampton on November 22, the title now altered to “Faith in Christ being the duty of unregenerate sinners.” Fuller apparently did not leave his manuscript at this time with Thomas Dicey, the eventual publisher, but instead returned with it to Kettering for further revising. He continued “writing” on January 18, 1785, and “correcting” on January 20. He visited Northampton again on February 28, most likely planning to submit his manuscript to Dicey at this time, remaining there until March 9 to collaborate further with Ryland on his text. Word had apparently circulated among the Baptist congregations in the surrounding villages that Fuller’s controversial treatise against the teachings of Gill, Brine, and others would soon be published, a logical phenomenon given the lengthy gestation period of the book and Fuller’s already established practice of evangelical preaching. He experienced “a general lowness of spirit” on March 11, 1785, partly the result, he writes, of “hearing of the spirit of some ministers respecting my preaching & publication.”¹⁶ He returned to Northampton on April 25,

 Fuller had used the phrase previously on June , , when, in referencing some of the great Reformers of the sixteenth century, declared, “I think I feel their generous fervour in the cause of God and truth.” Fuller owned a copy of Gill’s volume, as well as Gill’s A Body of Doctrinal Divinity ( volumes) and his monumental Exposition of the Old and New Testaments ( vols) (see Appendix A).  Fuller had already published a circular letter and one sermon by this time: The Excellence and Utility of the Grace of Hope, considered in a Circular Letter from the Baptist Ministers and Messengers assembled at Olney, in Buckinghamshire, June , , and ,  (Northampton: T. Dicey, ) and

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Introduction

this time with his wife, possibly to examine the proofs of his volume and submit his Preface to Dicey, spending most of April 28 “writing” and in conversation with Ryland. No date appears on the title page of the first edition (hence the frequent addition of a question mark to the date in databases and library catalogues). Dicey published a notice on the second page of the Northampton Mercury for May 9, 1785, announcing Fuller’s volume (the price was sixpence) as The Gospel of Christ Worthy of All Acceptation: or the Obligations of Men fully to Credit, and Cordially to Approve, whatever God makes known. Wherein is considered the Nature of Faith in Christ, and the Duty of those where the Gospel comes in that Matter. The 1801 edition shortened the first part of the title to the one commonly used thereafter, The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation. Within a month of its publication, the work had gained some notoriety in London, mostly among those still adhering to High Calvinist leanings, like William Button (1754– 1821) at Dean Street, Southwark, the former classmate and close friend of John Ryland, Jr., at Northampton. Fuller received a letter from Button on June 24, “expressing his fears lest my publication should occasion some uncomfortable disputes,” Fuller wrote in his diary, an outcome he hoped to avoid, though that would not be the case.¹⁷ On August 26, he received a second letter concerning his book, this one from Joshua Thomas (1719 – 1797), the Baptist minister at Leominster. By December, Button had published his response to Fuller, a pamphlet Fuller described on December 7 as having an “abundance of things in it very foreign to the point, and very little evidence.”¹⁸ Previously, Fuller had learned that an obscure Anglican cleric named Philip Withers was threatening “to reduce to dust my late publication. I wish I may be kept in a right spirit,” he wrote in early August, not wishing to be drawn into a corresponding “spirit of contempt.”¹⁹ Withers’s pamphlet appeared just after Button’s, provoking Fuller to write, “What horrid sentiments does he advance! Much taken up this week in perusing it.”

The Nature and Importance of Walking by Faith: A Sermon delivered at the Annual Association of the Baptist Ministers and Churches met at Nottingham, June, ,  … To which are added, A Few Persuasives to a General Union in Prayer for the Revival of Real Religion (Northampton: T. Dicey, ).  Button’s differences with Fuller never led to any break with him; in fact, they progressively grew closer, with Button serving as the primary seller of the nd edition of Fuller’s The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation (), a supporter of the BMS, and later as first Secretary of the Baptist Union from  until his death in , a firm indication that the Union was indeed exactly what its name implied, an organization combining Fullerites and those who may have, at times, opposed certain aspects of Fuller’s teachings.  Remarks on a Treatise, entitled, The Gospel of Christ Worthy of All Acceptation; or, The Obligations of Men Fully to Credit and Cordially to Approve Whatever God Makes Known, by Andrew Fuller. Wherein the Nature of Special Faith in Christ is Considered, and Several of Mr. F.’s Mistakes Pointed Out, in a Series of Letters to a Friend (London, ).  See Fuller’s entry for August  – , . Withers’s pamphlet was titled Philanthropos; or, A Letter to the Revd. Andrew Fuller, in Reply to his Treatise on Damnation (London, ).

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About that time a third response appeared, this one by the General Baptist minister Dan Taylor (1738 – 1816), who had recently assumed the pastorate of a congregation in Whitechapel, London.²⁰ Of the three, Taylor would prove a more congenial opponent whose arguments, however, posed far greater difficulty to Fuller than either of the other pamphlets. After perusing Taylor’s pamphlet, Fuller wrote in early February 1786, “there is a good deal of plausibility in some things which he maintains. My mind has been much employed all the week in thinking on the above piece. The more I examine it, the more I perceive it is (though ingeniously wrought together) capable of a solid reply.” He began his reply to Button and Taylor on February 19, a reply that led to an important exchange of pamphlets between Fuller and Taylor, who remained friends thereafter.²¹ For all the clarity and conviction of his arguments against High Calvinism’s failure to extend an open call to unbelievers and its refusal to grant any degree of “duty” upon the individual in matters of faith, Fuller was not above doubts of his own in his ministry at Kettering, without any assistance from Dan Taylor. He writes in his diary on October 9, 1785, “I have for some time felt a kind of despair in preaching to sinners, thinking that on account of my carnality God would never bless any thing I said.” Some recent events, however, had encouraged him to the point of exclaiming in the same entry “that ’tis possible however for God to work even by me!—And that when I think nothing can be done, then it is possible for God to work! I have long sown in tears, O that I might in some degree at least, reap in joy!” The previous year’s controversy surrounding his book and its claims for “duty,” however, had also produced a considerable distraction at times from his ministry at Kettering, causing the ever-practical and pastoral-minded Fuller to opine on November 21, 1785, that it is one of “the Devil’s devices” to get ministers so absorbed in defending a truth that they hackney it out of its senses—dwelling always upon it to the excluding of other things, in every sermon or conversation. Thus the glorious doctrines of free and great grace have been served in

 Observations on the Rev. A. Fuller’s Late Pamphlet, entitled: “The Gospel of Christ Worthy of all Acceptation” … In Nine Letters to a Friend. By a Lover of all Mankind (London, ), and was signed “Philanthropos,” though Taylor should not be confused with Withers, who used the same nom de plume. John Martin, another Baptist minister in London, also wrote against Fuller in a pamphlet (published in two parts) titled Thoughts on the Duty of Man, Relative to Faith in Jesus Christ ( – ), to which Fuller responded with Remarks on Mr. Martin’s Publication entitled, Thoughts on the Duty of Man ().  Fuller responded to Button and Taylor collectively in  in A Defence of a Treatise, entitled, The Gospel of Christ Worthy of All Acceptation: Containing a Reply to Mr. Button’s Remarks, and the Observations of Philanthropos. Fuller replied again to Taylor in ; Taylor responded to Fuller in  and . For a discussion of these pamphlets, see Morden, Offering Christ  – , who correctly notes that Taylor forced Fuller to alter his views on redemption away from an emphasis upon divine decree (and its corresponding emphasis on the limiting effects of the “degree” of Christ’s sufferings) and toward a divine purpose which allowed for an open-ended, more “general” view of the application of the atonement to all who believe.

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the last age, and so have sadly fallen into disrepute. If we employ all our time in talking about what men ought to be and do, it is like we shall forget to put it in practice, and then all is over with us! The Lord deliver us from that temptation!

Fuller and the Northamptonshire Association Another important feature of Fuller’s diary is the primacy of the Northamptonshire Association in shaping his ministerial life, both practically and theologically, in the 1780s and ’90s. During that time, Fuller was a faithful attendant at the annual association meetings usually held in late May or early June (sometimes lasting for three days) and the occasional meetings of ministers held once or twice a year at various locations in Northamptonshire and sometimes neighboring counties, for membership in an association was not confined to churches within the geographical county. Ryland’s excerpts from 1780 and 1781 do not include any references to the association meetings held during those years at Carlton and at Kettering, though it seems unlikely Fuller’s diary was blank in that regard. At the 1780 meeting the ministers agreed to recommend to all who “love evangelical, experimental, and practical religion, and especially to our younger brethren in the ministry, The Account of the Life of the Rev. David Brainerd, Published by the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, of New-England, as eminently calculated to display the nature of true religion, and promote the power of godliness,” a volume especially dear to Ryland and Fuller.²² Fuller’s second volume of his diary, had he not destroyed it, would likely have included information about the 1782 meeting at Olney, Buckinghamshire, and the 1783 meeting at St. Albans, Hertfordshire. At the Olney meeting, Fuller preached on June 5 from 1 Corinthians 14:20, and later composed the circular letter, The Excellence and Utility of the Grace of Hope. Fuller’s surviving volume provides details about the 1784 association meeting at Nottingham, where Fuller preached on June 2 from 2 Corinthians 5:7; the 1785 meeting at Oakham, Rutlandshire, after which he noted in his diary on May 18, “I know not when I have enjoyed a happier Association than this” (he would also compose the circular letter for this meeting, An Enquiry into the Causes of Declension in Religion, with the Means of Revival); and the 1786 meeting at Northampton, where Fuller preached on June 7 from Ephesians 2:5, despite his “poor” spirits due to the impending death of his eldest child, Sarah (1779 – 1786). The final reference in his diary to an association meeting occurs on May 12, 1796, when, in reflecting upon the previous year, he writes, “I never lived a year in my life in which I enjoyed more of the pleasures of religion than that of 1795: especially at the Association which was held at Ket-

 Robert Hall, [Sr.], The Doctrine of Repentance briefly Considered: in a Letter from the Baptist Ministers and Messengers assembled at Carleton, in Bedfordshire May  and ,  (Northampton: T. Dicey, ), .

Fuller and the Northamptonshire Association

XXI

tering” June 9 – 11 (for which he again composed the circular letter).²³ Fuller usually preached at these meetings, and his diary often provides topics of conversation among the ministers (the conversation at Arnesby [Leicestershire] in April 1784, he writes, focused on “spiritual acts being incumbent on natural men”) as well as matters facing the association at that time, such as cases of church discipline, increases/ declines in church membership rolls, and doctrinal disputes both within and between the various congregations, often focused on issues raised by the spread of evangelical Calvinism as preached and practiced by Fuller, Ryland, Sutcliff, and Robert Hall, Sr.²⁴ Aside from the annual association meetings, Fuller also attended occasional ministers’ meetings, usually lasting one to two days, held at various locations several times a year (Ryland comments in a note on one of these meetings that occurred in October 1780).²⁵ A meeting was held at Arnesby in 1784, another one at Kettering that same October, and a third at Northampton the following month. In June 1785 Fuller traveled to a meeting at Clipston (just one month after the annual association meeting) and to Kettering on September 28, 1785, for another meeting. Two days later Fuller visited Northampton to attend yet another meeting at which the conversation among the ministers focused on the question, “To what causes in ministers may much of the want of their success be imputed?” Fuller and his ministerial friends agreed that the primary reason was “the want of personal religion—particularly the want of close dealing with God in closet prayer,” he writes on September 30, along with a need to read and study the Scriptures “more as Christians, for the edification of our own souls.” “We are apt to study them merely to find out something to say to others,” he contends, “without living upon the truth ourselves.” A final reason was too much “self-sufficiency,” which slights the Holy Spirit, so that “being grieved he should leave us to do our work alone! Besides, when this is the case, it is, humanly speaking unsafe for God to prosper us, especially those ministers of considerable abilities.”

 See Andrew Fuller, Why Christians in the Present Day Possess Less Joy than Primitive Disciples (). Fuller remained active within the association to the end of his life. Besides the circular letters mentioned above, he also composed letters for the association meetings in , , , , , , and .  For more on Fuller and the Northamptonshire Association, see T. S. H. Elwyn, Northamptonshire Baptist Association (London: Carey Kingsgate Press, ); idem, “Particular Baptists of the Northamptonshire Baptist Association as Reflected in the Circular Letters  – ,” Baptist Quarterly  ( – ):  – ;  ( – ):  – .  Ryland .

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Introduction

Monthly prayer meetings and church meetings Besides association meetings, Fuller’s diary also records the activities of all meetings of his congregation at Kettering, a meeting schedule that was mirrored by nearly all the organized churches in the association: a monthly church meeting (for conducting the business of the church), a prayer meeting for revival on the first Monday of each month, and the regularly scheduled services of the church on Sunday (morning, afternoon, and evening) as well as Monday and Friday of each week (excluding the Friday after the monthly church meeting). The prayer meetings were prompted by Jonathan Edward’s pamphlet, An Humble Attempt to Promote Explicit Agreement and Visible Union of God’s People in Extraordinary Prayer for the Revival of Religion, a copy of which circulated among Fuller, Ryland, Sutcliff and others in the Northamptonshire Association in the spring of 1784. At the association meeting held that June at Nottingham, the ministers decided to set apart the first Monday of each month “to pray for the revival of religion,” a decision that led to Fuller’s important discourse, A Few Persuasives to a General Union in Prayer for the Revival of Real Religion, which he attached to his publication of the circular letter for that meeting. Fuller and several other ministers had also agreed in May to fast and pray “for the revival of Christ’s kingdom in the world and in the churches” on the second Tuesday of every other month, a practice Fuller commenced on July 13, 1784, and continued for many years. As his diary reveals, Fuller’s typical church schedule at Kettering (five services each week), along with his preaching schedule outside of Kettering (often two or three days each week) makes the modern minister’s schedule seem light by comparison. Unfortunately, the demands placed upon Fuller’s physical and mental health by such a relentless schedule, especially after the formation of the Baptist Missioary Society, cannot be discounted in shortening his life. The church meeting was usually held on the fourth Thursday of each month, though occasionally Fuller’s preaching engagements would force the meeting to move to another day that week or to the previous Thursday.²⁶ Church meetings were used primarily for handling cases of discipline within the church, admitting members, and settling disputes that might arise among members of the congregation and between the congregation itself and other Baptist congregations in the area. Fuller’s diary provides glosses on several episodes (often involving his deacons) that appear in the Kettering Church Book, such as that of Thomas Benford and his inappropriate conduct with his servant girls. “O what dishonor is brought upon Christ’s cause! But what reason have I to be thankful that the case is not mine!” Fuller wrote in his diary on March 29, 1785. On April 1, 1785, he was somewhat encouraged, having heard through the church grapevine “that Mr. [Benford] confesses his guilt,  A church meeting was held on Wednesday, March , , because Fuller was scheduled to preach on the following day (which would have been the th Thursday of the month) at Woodford. The following month the church meeting was moved to the rd Thursday (April ) because Fuller had scheduled a preaching trip the next week.

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and weeps on account of it. The Lord give him true repentance! and cause the present reproach to be the means of reclaiming him!” Other cases involved John Smith disputing over the membership of William Dickens; Thomas Smith’s two sons stealing from the home of Joseph Timms, a deacon in the church; and Thomas Burditt arguing with Richard Life concerning their business partnership.²⁷ As Fuller makes clear, settling infractions and disputes was not the most pleasant aspect of being a pastor, though public acts of repentance and contrition erased considerable amounts of negative residue inhibiting the spiritual psyche of the church. Some disputes, however, needed little incentive to divide the congregation. Fuller writes of the Smith-Dickens affair on September 29, 1785, that he had “much ado today at church meeting to keep others within proper boundaries.” The Burditt-Life dispute was even worse, with Fuller taking some responsibility for it, as his diary for October 3, 1789, implies: “This year we have had great trials & disputes in the church, concerning the misconduct of one of our members. We have been in danger of being broken in pieces; nor is the danger yet over. And I think this may be one of God’s controversies with me.” Other disputes led to serious rifts at times between Fuller’s congregation and neighboring Baptist churches, especially the church at Rushden, led by William Knowles (d. 1794), who in the summer of 1785 refused to provide a letter of dismission to a Mrs. Wright to join the Kettering church. Difficulties between the two churches was evident as early as February of that year, when Fuller wrote in his diary that the people at Rushden carry their resentments very high on account of what they reckon my erroneous principles. I need grace not so much at present to keep me from resenting again as to keep me from rejoicing in their iniquity. Undoubtedly they could not take measures that would more conduce to the reputation of what I have written, and of what I preach, as well as against themselves.

On July 16 he wrote that “the system of religion which he [Knowles] and many others embibe enervates every species of vital godliness!” A letter from the Rushden church to the Kettering church in September 1785 complained about Fuller’s congregation “having gone off from their former principles.” Fuller interpreted this to mean that he and the church had departed from “Calvinistical principles,” to which the Kettering leaders responded in a letter to the Rushden church that they were “not conscious of having departed, or of being in the least inclined to depart from any one of them.”²⁸ Fuller and his congregation would eventually be vindicated, for Mrs. Wright was finally given her letter of dismission from Rushden in 1796. By that date, the kind of High Calvinist quibbles practiced by the Rushden church had been largely eradicated in the Northamptonshire Association through the preaching and writings of Fuller, Ryland, Sutcliff, and others, as well as the pas For Benford, see the Kettering Church Book, Fuller Baptist Church, Kettering, ff.  – ; for Dickens and Smith, see f. ; for Timms, see f. ; and for Burditt and Life, see ff.  – .  Kettering Church Book, f. . By , Fuller’s library had four works by Calvin, including the Institutes and Calvin’s volume on Psalms (see Appendix A).

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toral model their evangelical Calvinism fostered, all of which melded into Fuller’s new role as secretary of the Baptist Missionary Society (BMS).²⁹ His brief diary entry for the year 1792 ends in September, one month before the historic meeting at Kettering of Baptist ministers that led to the founding of the BMS, a meeting held in the home of Martha Wallis, widow of his friend and advisor, Beeby Wallis. Fuller would later write that the founding of the BMS played a key role in lifting him out of a spiritual lethargy that was, in many ways, connected with his High Calvinist past. He writes in his diary in 1794 about the BMS: “My heart has been greatly interested in this work. Surely I never felt more genuine love to God and to his cause in my life. I bless God that this work has been a good means of reviving my soul.” Fuller soon began traveling to raise funds for the new mission. His diary for the year 1796 provides an assessment of the previous two years that was dominated by his work on behalf of the BMS, so much so that maintaining his diary became increasingly difficult. He writes: For a long time past I have wrote nothing; not because I have been uncomfortable; perhaps I never lived a year in my life in which I enjoyed more of the pleasures of religion than that of 1795: especially at the Association which was held at Kettering. But my time has been so taken up about Mission and other public matters, and having so much writing on those subjects; and writing being against the complaint in my head, I have declined it in this book.

Fuller’s preaching tours Fuller’s diary provides a rare look at a preaching schedule that far exceeded the bounds of the typical eighteenth-century provincial Baptist minister.³⁰ Though Ryland routinely omitted many place names in his selections from Fuller’s diary, Fuller was meticulous in recording such details, naming more than 80 locations, of which 57 were specific places where he preached (sometimes on multiple occasions), beginning in the villages surrounding Kettering and expanding to the neighbouring counties in the Southeast Midlands, including Cambridgeshire, Rutlandshire, Buckinghamshire, Huntingdonshire, Leicestershire, Bedfordshire, and Nottinghamshire. Between 1784 and 1786 (the most detailed years of the manuscript diary), Fuller visited Northampton and Spratton the most times (13 and 7), followed by six locations— Arnesby, Bedford, Carlton, Irchester, Oakham, and Walgrave—at five visits each, with Cranford, Gretton, Loddington, and Naseby close behind at four (for a complete list and frequency of visits, see Appendix B). The distances between these locations and

 Fuller’s career as a model of pastoral behavior has been one of the primary emphases of recent scholarship on Fuller, especially Morden, Offering Christ; Brewster, Andrew Fuller; and Grant, Andrew Fuller.  Ryland was also a meticulous recorder of his preaching texts and locations (and distance traveled); see his voluminous manuscript volume now residing at the Northamptonshire Record Office, “Text Book John Ryland, D.D.  – ,” MS. CSBC.

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Kettering ranged from a mile to more than 50 miles, the latter a considerable distance on horseback, Fuller’s primary means of transportation. His favourite stop, Northampton, where he visited often with John Ryland, was a seventeen-mile journey. A journey to Arnesby, Leicestershire, to see Robert Hall, Sr., was a bit further at 25 miles. Other locations in or near Northamptonshire included Long Buckby (22 miles), Carlton (19 miles), and Spratton (14 miles). A visit to his family and former church at Soham, Cambridgeshire, was slightly more than a fifty-mile journey, a similar distance to that of Nottingham, where occasional meetings of the Northamptonshire Association were held. A visit to see his friend John Sutcliff at Olney, Buckinghamshire, required a journey of about 22 miles, a similar distance to that of Leicester (27 miles), Bedford (26 miles), and Oakham, Rutlandshire (20 miles). Surprisingly, London does not appear as a preaching destination in his diary between 1780 and 1786. The eighty-mile trek may have been prohibitive to Fuller given his salary, but his absence from London during those years may also reflect his position as a provincial Baptist minister espousing an evangelical Calvinism that stood at odds with the High Calvinism of some of London’s more prominent Baptist ministers. One particular preaching tour is worth noting. In May and June of 1784, Fuller combined visits to his family at Soham with preaching tours in several counties between Northamptonshire and Cambridgeshire. The tour consisted of two separate journeys, one to Soham and back to Kettering, and another one to Nottingham and the association meeting. Fuller left Kettering on May 16 and traveled first to Thrapston (5 miles), then to Haddenham (33 miles), arriving at Soham (12 miles from Haddenham) on the 18th. He traveled to Isleham (5 miles) and West Row (another 3 miles) in Cambridgeshire on the 20th, and to Wicken (10 miles from West Row) before returning to Soham (5 miles from Wicken) on the 23rd. The next day he set off for Fordham (3 miles), then to Burwell (another 4 miles) on the 25th, Cambridge (10 miles) on the 26th, Spaldwick (27 miles, formerly a part of Huntingdonshire but now in Cambridgeshire) on the 27th, and back to Kettering (another 20 miles) on the 28th, traveling a total of 137 miles on horseback during his twelve-day preaching excursion. After one day of rest, he traveled to Carlton, Bedfordshire (19 miles) on May 29, returning to Kettering on the 30th. The next day he set out for Nottingham, preaching at Oakham (20 miles) on the 31st before arriving at Nottingham on June 1 (another 30 miles). He left the association meeting on the 3rd, traveling to Leicester (22 miles) and then to Enderby (another 6 miles) before arriving at Kettering on the 4th (another 34 miles), a journey of about 140 miles in only seven days. During the next week he preached at Burton Latimer and at Olney, provoking Fuller to exclaim (quite understandably) on Sunday, June 13, “I am weary of being out from home so much—I want to be more at home that I may be more with God.”³¹ A decade later he expressed a similar complaint on October 27, 1794, now em-

 In  Fuller visited Soham again, leaving on May  and visiting Cambridge, Soham, Fordham,

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Introduction

ployed on behalf of William Carey and the BMS: “Of late I have been greatly employed in journeying and preaching, & endeavoring to collect for the East India Mission. I find a frequent removal from place to place though good for my health not good for my soul. I feel weary of journeys on account of their interfering so much with my work at home. I long to visit my congregation that I may know more of their spiritual concerns, & be able to preach to their cases,” a normal pastoral desire but one Fuller would find increasingly difficult to fulfill. Fuller generally preached in organized churches, both Baptist and Independent, but he also preached to small groups of believers in communities where no church existed at that time, usually meeting in houses that had been licensed for Nonconformist activities. Sometimes Fuller was merely supplying for a church temporarily without a pastor (Sutcliff and Ryland joined him in these endeavors), such as at Carlton prior to the arrival of William Clarke in August 1784. Clarke, formerly of Unicorn Yard, Southwark, did not become the church’s pastor (much to Fuller’s disappointment), an episode in Clarke’s ministerial career, however, that is unknown today outside of Fuller’s diary. At other times, Fuller was actively engaged in village preaching and church-planting, assisting small groups of like-minded believers in maintaining, growing, and eventually organizing into a Baptist church. During these tours, Fuller probably stayed overnight in the homes of individuals affiliated with these groups, or at an inn along the road, but his diary is largely silent regarding his accommodations and any remunerations he received for his labors. He is not silent, however, in recording the names of the ministers or lay leaders at these churches and gatherings of Baptists, though Ryland and A. G. Fuller omitted many of them. Fuller’s diary mentions nearly 90 ministers (mostly Baptists) and more than 70 laypersons, including some 40 persons associated with the Baptist churches in Soham and Kettering during Fuller’s tenure as minister in each place (all are identified in the footnotes). Among these are numerous members of the Gotch and Wallis families at Kettering, many of whom were also prominent citizens besides being leaders in Fuller’s congregation, such as Beeby Wallis and Thomas Gotch (1749 – 1806), the latter being particularly instrumental in the early ministry of William Carey. After 1792, Fuller’s role as secretary of the BMS significantly increased his preaching outside of Kettering, complicating an already difficult schedule. An example of the kind of promotional work Fuller did for the Baptist Missionary Society is evident in the selection (included in this volume) from the travel diary he kept during his first visit to the north of England and Scotland in the fall of 1799. Only a portion of the diary has survived, having been copied by Fuller into a separate volume and later transcribed by Ryland and inserted into his biography of Fuller in 1816. Subsequently, Fuller’s original manuscript volume has disappeared, as well as any other travel diaries he might have kept. Some accounts of later visits to Scotland have survived in

Isleham, West Row, Wicken, Littleport, Downham, Burwell, Stretham, Haddenham, Thrapston, before returning home to Kettering on June .

Fuller’s reading

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Fuller’s correspondence, but no journals remain extant. In the portion of the 1799 journal published by Ryland, Fuller preaches almost daily on his way from Kettering through Hull and Newcastle to Edinburgh, Glasgow, and various places in between. His purpose was to raise funds for the new printing press to be established at the Serampore Mission for the “translation of the scriptures into Bengallee,” he wrote on the opening page. Fuller’s travel diary reveals the persistent physical and mental demands that harmed his health after 1792, causing frequent headaches and fatigue. Fuller never relented, however, and during his 1799 trip preached to great numbers in churches across Yorkshire, Northumberland, and Scotland, meeting with leaders among the Scotch Baptists and evangelicals within the Church of Scotland, as well as several leading Independents, including Robert and James Haldane (they would later become Baptists). Fuller also copied into his travel diary his perceptive response to a letter published in the Quarterly Review by Dr. Charles Stuart of Edinburgh that had critiqued an earlier letter by Fuller concerning the Scotch Baptists’ doctrine of faith (essentially a Sandemanian position) and its weaknesses in relation to Fuller’s evangelical position. Fuller prefaced his response to Stuart (which he never published) with sentiments strangely reminiscent of his feelings and situation in 1784 and 1785 surrounding his publication of The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation. “There is no end of controversy,” he declares. I have been labouring for many years to bend religious people to what appears to me to be the truth; but that which is crooked, it seems cannot be made straight. This principle, commonly held by the Baptists in these parts, appears to me an important error, and I fear has an ill effect upon their religion, which leans more to the speculative, than to the affectionate.

Despite his differences with Archibald McLean, Stuart, and other Baptists and evangelicals in Scotland, Fuller remained on friendly terms with all of them, most of whom were faithful supporters of the BMS, especially Fuller’s close friend during his later years, Christopher Anderson (1782– 1852) of Edinburgh.

Fuller’s reading Within Fuller’s diary are more than twenty references to books he was reading at that time, many having been written by seventeenth-century Nonconformist divines, eighteenth-century Baptist writers, and Calvinists within the Church of England and various sects in Scotland. Most of these titles became a part of Fuller’s library, though some were probably borrowed from Ryland, Sutcliff, or members of his church like Thomas Gotch or Beeby Wallis (for a complete list of the titles in Fuller’s library, c. August 1798, see Appendix A). Among these writers are Jonathan Edwards, John Owen, Thomas Boston, John Maclaurin, John Mason, Cotton Mather, Archibald McLean, John Scott, Thomas Scott, Johann Mosheim, and John Gill. At the height of his work on The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation, Fuller found encouragement

XXVIII

Introduction

in a volume of sermons preached in London in 1730 – 1731 (they later became known as the Lime Street Sermons), particularly the sermons included in that collection by Thomas Bradbury (1677– 1759) and Samuel Wilson (1703 – 1750). He was also drawn to the writings of the great Nonconformist minister and theologian John Owen (1616 – 1683), whose Of the Mortification of Sin in Believers (1656), Of Temptation (1658), Phronēma tou Pneumatou: or, The Grace and Duty of being Spiritually Minded (1681), and possibly A Dissertation on Divine Justice, Or, the Claims of Vindicatory Justice Asserted (1770) all appear in Fuller’s diary, though only the latter volume belonged to Fuller’s library in 1798 (see Appendix A, which lists six volumes by Owen with one noted by Fuller as “missing”). Even more important than Owen, however, were the writings of the American theologian, pastor, and educator, Jonathan Edwards (1703 – 1758).³² Fuller listed eleven works by or about Edwards in his library in 1798, the most of any writer. Among those works receiving some notice by Fuller are A Divine and Supernatural Light (Boston, 1734), Treatise Concerning Religious Affections (1746), An Humble Attempt to Promote Explicit Agreement and Visible Union of God’s People, in Extraordinary Prayer, for the Revival of Religion and the Advancement of Christ’s Kingdom on Earth (Boston, 1746; Northampton, 1789), An Account of the Life of David Brainerd (Boston, 1749; Edinburgh, 1765), A Careful and Strict Enquiry into the Modern Prevailing Notions of that Freedom of Will (Boston, 1754; London, 1762), and some posthumous publications in Edinburgh, such as Practical Sermons, never before Published (1788) and Twenty Sermons, on Various Subjects (1789).³³ Ryland and Sutcliff came across the writings of Edwards primarily through these Edinburgh editions (many were published or edited by John Erskine) in the early and mid-1770s, and by the late 1770s Edwards was known to Fuller as well, remaining one of the most influential theologians on his life and ministry. As he writes on February 3, 1781, Edwards enabled him to “enter into the spirit of a great many important things” because he was such a “penetrating, edifying writer”; yet, as always with Fuller, his assent with Edwards is tempered, as he notes in that same entry, by the opening of his own “eyes” and the pursuit of his own enquiries into biblical truth. Ten years later, on March 27, 1790, after reading a sermon by Edwards on “divine truth,” he decided to “rise earlier, to read more, & make the discovery of truth more a business,” a “discovery” that would soon lead Fuller, Carey, Ryland, Sutcliff and other Baptists into a new sense of evangelical mission, not only among the English but throughout the entire world.³⁴

 For more on Fuller and Edwards, see Morden, Offering Christ  – ; also Chris Chun, The Legacy of Jonathan Edwards in the Theology of Andrew Fuller (Leiden and Boston, ).  All works by Edwards mentioned in the diary belonged to Fuller’s library in  except An Humble Attempt. Fuller also owned seven works by Jonathan Edwards, Jr. (see Appendix A).  Fuller’s last letter to Ryland, composed ten days before his death on May , , captures the importance of their first discoveries of Edwards some forty years earlier. “We have heard some,” Fuller writes, “who have been giving out of late” that if he and Ryland and other prominent Baptist figures, such as William Carey, the great missionary to India, “had preached more of Christ and less of

Fuller’s sermon texts

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Fuller’s sermon texts Fuller’s diary tells us much about his travels, his preaching schedule, and his reading habits, but, like any good spiritual diary from this period, it also tells us about his sermon texts and occasionally the chief points in the discourse and any needful applications for the diarist’s life. The only difference is that, unlike the typical diary of a layperson, when Fuller discusses a sermon, it is usually his own sermon and a text of his choosing. If Fuller’s diary reveals any one trait about his spiritual life and pastoral ministry, it is the biblicism that permeates it from beginning to end. More than 500 references drawn from 50 books of the Bible (27 from the Old Testament, 23 from the New Testament) appear in Fuller’s diary, divided almost evenly between each of the Testaments. Some books are more dominant than others, however, most noticably the Psalms (106 references), Matthew (35), John (30), Isaiah (29), Acts (23), Proverbs (22), and Hebrews (21). Job, Jeremiah, Hosea, Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Ephesians, 1 Peter, and 1 John all range between 11 and 17, with the remaining books in single digits. Many verses appear more than once, often as sermon texts and sometimes merely as part of Fuller’s devotional practice, such as Jeremiah 48:11 (4 times), Matthew 11:29 (4), Psalm 2:11 (3), Psalm 73:22; 1 Samuel 7:12 (3), Matthew 15:25 (3), 2 Corinthians 10:5 (3), 1 Peter 5:7 (3), with slightly more than 30 verses appearing twice (for a complete listing, see the Scripture Index). The Psalms dominates all other books (almost three times more references than its nearest competitor) and remained popular with Fuller after 1786, when the primary portion of the diary ends, for in April 1790 he notes that he began “to expound the book of Psalms, and some times have enjoyed pleasure therein,” an understatement for sure. A typical week of preaching for Fuller (often five or more services) could produce a wide range of sermon texts, as exemplified during the week of September 16 (Friday) and September 23 (Friday), 1785, in which he preaches eight times in eight days from the following texts: 1 Thessalonians 5:16, Hebrews 10:24, Isaiah 56:4, Acts 16, Proverbs 14:34 and 52, Psalm 138:6, and Matthew 11:29 (twice). Whether Fuller merely mentions a text or quotes from it, his facility with scripture references and texts speaks to his daily readings of the Bible and frequent preaching, serving him well in both his sermon preparations and personal meditations. Particular Baptists were committed readers of the Bible, and during the second half of the eighteenth century many began to find incentives for an experimental faith embedded in the texts preached from the church pulpit and contemplated in their private devotions. These beliefs and practices were usually acquired only after an intense examination of the scriptures themselves. Evangelical principles were not gained by mere intellectual assent, nor were they derived second-hand

Jonathan Edwards, they would have been more useful,” to which Fuller retorted: “If those who talk thus, preached Christ half as much as Jonathan Edwards did, and were half as useful as he was, their usefulness would be double what it is” (Ryland  – ).

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from the pen of such popular writers as Gill, Bunyan, Edwards, Scott, or Newton (Fuller’s library held 24 works by these writers in 1798). The Unitarians attempted to exalt reason as the final arbiter for both human and divine action, with rational assent equivalent to faith, but for Fuller and the growing army of evangelical Calvinists in the 1770s and 1780s, the goal of being merely a “rational Christian” was never satisfactory, especially as Joseph Priestley and his followers turned progressively toward Socinianism. Fuller’s disagreement with the Unitarians would eventually provoke him to write an answer to their viewpoints on the doctrines of Christ and salvation. His diary entry for 1791 notes, “I have lately been reading several Socinian writers—viz. Lindsey, Priestley, Belsham &c³⁵ and have employed my self in penning down thoughts on the moral tendency of their system. I felt an increasing aversion to their views of things, and feel the ground on which my hopes are built more solid than heretofore.” Fuller’s reading would result in his masterful treatise, The Calvinistic and Socinian Systems Examined and Compared as to Their Moral Tendency (1793). To Fuller and his evangelical friends, human knowledge and worldly endeavours were perfectly acceptable provided they did not exceed their proper bounds in relation to faith and Christian character. Reason had its place, but it should never be used to thwart “experimental” faith or scriptural truth (as the Deists and the Unitarians were accused of doing). After attending a ministers’ meeting in October 1784, Fuller became depressed over the conversation of one of the attendees, possibly a young and somewhat brash Robert Hall, Jr., at that time completing his master’s degree at Aberdeen while assisting Caleb Evans in Bristol. Writing in his diary on October 7, Fuller complained about “a spirit of levity and wanton folly in a certain person. My heart is sick of all knowledge, and all accomplishments unless they are made to subserve the cause of the blessed Redeemer. How empty and how frothy is it all unless it is sanctified by the grace of God! Felt my heart go out in prayer for that person.” Possessing a brilliant wit and intellect at the expense of true spirituality (a “spirit of levity” vs. a “heart” of “prayer”) was, to Fuller, foolish, not rational.

Fuller and spiritual life writing Fuller saw the human self not as innately good and capable of perfecting itself through human means but as fallen, innately corrupt, and in need of divine grace. It was a self not to be exalted but rather examined, analyzed, interrogated, humiliated, sometimes repressed (if necessary) and, if possible, exposed in the pages of a diary or spiritual autobiography with the hope that one day it would reflect the “mind of Christ” as an earthly “temple of the Holy Ghost” (1 Corinthians 2:16; 6:19). Fuller had commenced a full-scale examination of certain core doctrines con-

 See Appendix A for publications by these Unitarian divines residing in Fuller’s library in .

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cerning the work of Christ and personal faith at least five years before he began his diary, an examination that emerged from his own irrepressible desire for an experimental faith, something more satisfying to his heart and mind than the “warrant” from God he had been told to expect as the proper sign of election from his High Calvinist minister John Eve. During those five years, Fuller read Edwards, Owen, and others, but more importantly, he used those authors as aids in his own careful and exhausting examination of the biblical grounds for personal faith and its relation to divine grace. By 1780 he had arrived at most of the conclusions he would assert in The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation, yet he was still wary of his own understanding, writing in the initial entry for his diary (January 10, 1780), “Lord, thou hast given me a determination to take up no principle at second-hand; but to search for every thing at the pure fountain of thy word. Yet, Lord, I am afraid, seeing I am as liable to err as other men, lest I should be led aside from truth by mine own imagination.” A year later (February 3, 1781) he returned to the same theme, provoked by his reading of Edwards’s Religious Affections: “I had never entered into the spirit of a great many important things. O for some such penetrating, edifying writer on this subject! or, rather, O that the Holy Spirit would open my eyes, and let me into the things that I have never yet seen!” He was not alone in this concern and endeavor, as demonstrated in sermons published in the 1770s by such prominent Baptist ministers as Caleb Evans and Robert Hall, Sr., and, more importantly, in numerous diaries of Fuller’s contemporaries, most remaining in manuscript to this day.³⁶ More than two decades before Fuller’s famous treatise and the primary period of his spiritual diary (1780 – 1786) and more than a decade before Ryland and Sutcliff first discovered the writings of Jonathan Edwards, a Baptist minister at Hitchin, about sixty miles to the south of Kettering in Hertfordshire, published a work that, in some ways, struck a powerful blow against the bastion of High Calvinism among the Particular Baptists. In 1760 Samuel James (1716 – 1773), Baptist minister at Hitchin (1743 – 1773), brought forth An Abstract of the Gracious Dealings of God, with Several Eminent Christians, in their Conversion and Sufferings. Taken from Authentic Manuscripts, And Published For the Comfort and Establishment of Serious Minds, a volume of short spiritual narratives composed in the early eighteenth century by men and women mostly from small Calvinist congregations of Particular Baptists and Independents in various provincial locations. As his title makes clear, James’s purpose was to provide “for the Comfort and Establishment of Serious Minds,” indicating that among his members and within the denomination, an “effectual” calling through divine grace did not always bring with it a sense of assurance,

 See An Address to the Serious and Candid Professors of Christianity (Leeds, ; London, ) (attributed to Caleb Evans of Bristol by Fuller in his  edition of The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation, ; the reference is not present in the  edition); Robert Hall, Sr., Help to Zion’s Travellers (), originally preached in ; and John Ryland, Jr., God’s Experimental Probation of Intelligent Agents. A Sermon, preached at a Meeting of Ministers, at Kettering, in Northamptonshire, October ,  (Northampton, ).

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Introduction

the same situation Fuller discovered in his own life in the 1770s and in that of his father at the latter’s death in 1781. James sought to nudge his readers toward assurance, and if sola scriptura was not sufficient, then godly experience might make the difference for many suffering from perpetual doubt and anxiety. He found such “experience” in the lives of the men and women whose accounts comprised his thin volume. In his “Preface,” James exudes the kind of pastoral heart and evangelical appeal that would become a hallmark of Fuller’s ministry, especially concerning the importance of an experimental faith: There are some, indeed, who make a jest of christian experience; they term the Spirit’s work in the heart enthusiasm and madness, a sort of religious frenzy, or mere fiction, which hath no existence but in the disturbed fancies of melancholy minds; but, this is no wonder, since the Holy Ghost hath declared; that the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God; they are foolishness unto him, neither can he know them because they are spiritually discerned. Spiritual things must be viewed in the light of the Spirit, otherwise we are as incapable of knowing them, savingly and experimentally, as a man who was born blind is of describing the several sorts of colours, or one who had never any taste, is of distinguishing bitter from sweet.³⁷

James sympathized with those who struggled with nagging doubts about their faith, election, and sanctification, expecting a “warrant” from God that seemed oblivious at times to the experience of their own heart and eyes. Both James and Fuller were cognizant that no one experience of even the most godly of saints could stand for all “christian experience,” nor were they unaware that all Christians faced periods of doubt. “Assurance is not without faith,” James writes, “yet faith may be, and frequently exists, where assurance is wanting.”³⁸ As a way of countering what he and later Fuller and his Northamptonshire friends (as well as Caleb Evans and many in the West Country) saw as a debilitating spiritual cancer in the lives of too many of their members, James proposed “that the reading of these and such like experiences, may excite both myself and others, to press after a full persuasion of the love of God in Christ Jesus. We are commanded to give diligence to make our calling and our election sure, and if some complaining christians used more diligence, it may be presumed, that they would not be found so much in the dark.”³⁹ Printed diaries, journals and memoirs, like those published by James, were common reading for Nonconformists in the eighteenth century, as Fuller’s diary reveals.⁴⁰

 Samuel James, An Abstract of the Gracious Dealings of God, with Several Eminent Christians, in their Conversion and Sufferings, th ed. (London: H. Trapp … and sold by J. Buckland, G. Keith, J. Johnson, and B. Tomkins; also to be had of the Rev. Mr. Button …, ), ii–iii.  Ibid. v.  Ibid.  In his diary Fuller mentions reading a memoir of John Owen (October , ), the life of John Janeway (February , ), accounts of John Eliot and David Brainerd and their work among the Native Americans in America, and a biography of the seventeenth-century hymn writer John Mason. Fuller writes on April , , about the power of reading into the lives of other people: “When I

Fuller and spiritual life writing

XXXIII

Fuller and other eighteenth-century Baptist diarists were diligent in making their “calling” and “election sure,” always with the view of finding a degree of assurance fitting to both their spiritual knowledge (biblical doctrine) and experience (religious affections). Fuller combined these characteristics effectively in his opening entry on January 10, 1780, when he wrote that “holy practice has a necessary dependence on sacred principle,” requiring that God “open” his eyes to see the truth in Christian doctrines as well as give him a capacity to “feel their transforming tendency,” the emphasis clearly on seeing, knowing, and feeling aright. John Ryland expressed a similar emphasis on experiential faith in his diary, which he began in 1766 (he was just thirteen) and continued for several decades, eventually extracting highlights from his early volumes in 1807 before destroying them, much like Fuller.⁴¹ Ryland’s summary of his early diaries resides now at the Bristol Baptist College Library. At times his language of self-deprecation echoes that of Fuller. “There is, however, much sameness of course in these Volumes,” he writes, “and much that is too trifling to be transcribed, as well as some things of too private a nature to be preserved, or to be seen by any one else.” His frequent complaints of dullness and seasons of distress over his faith and election are further reminders of Fuller’s diary, yet, despite these “strong and coarse expressions,” since he is “going to burn” his diary anyway, he feels no compulsion to “apologize for it, much less … lessen the feeling of blame it excites, by transferring the blame to any one else.” His entry for April 26, 1768, is apropos, both in sentiment and the reference to John Owen (a favourite of Fuller): “I think I felt some strong desires after Holiness, this morning, while reading Dr Owen’s Evidences of the Faith of God’s Elect; with a comfortable persuasion that God has had mercy on me, and will never cast me off.”⁴² Fuller is no exception, especially during the early years of his dairy. As he writes on Sunday, September 12, 1780: Very much in doubt, respecting my being in a state of grace. I cannot see that I have, or ever had, for any constancy, such an idea of myself as must be implied in true humility. The Lord have mercy upon me, for I know not how it is with me! One thing I know—that, if I be a Christian at all, real Christianity in me is inexpressibly small in degree. Oh! what a vast distance is there, between what I ought to be and what I am! If I am a saint at all, I know I am one of the least of all saints: I mean, that the workings of real grace in my soul are so feeble, that I hardly think they can be feebler in any true Christian. There is not only an inexpressible distance between what I ought to be and what I am; but between what primitive believers, yea, the scripture saints in all ages, seem to have been, and what I am. I think, of late, I cannot, in prayer, consider myself as a Christian, but as a sinner, casting myself at Christ’s feet for mercy.

read the life of one whom I think was a good man I feel apt to account his acquisitions nearly the utmost that can be attained in this life.”  A voluminous writer even in his youth, Ryland filled five bound volumes with his diary between  and the end of .  Quotations from ff. , , ; for more on Ryland’s early diary keeping, see Timothy Whelan, “John Ryland at School: Two Societies in Northampton Boarding Schools,” Baptist Quarterly  ():  – .

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Introduction

And again that same November: Having been under heavy affliction for above a week, and incapable of writing, I only observe, that some days I seemed to feel no material workings of sin, nor exercises of grace: sometimes I felt worse. One day, I dreamed that I was dead: waking, and finding it but a dream, I trembled at the thought of what would become of such a sinful creature, were this dream realized! Here I stopped, painfully stopped: at length, I answered, “Lord, I have hoped in thy salvation.” Here I wept, and thought I would hope still. O that it may not be in vain!

Other diaries composed by Baptist men and women during Fuller’s lifetime (some were published but most have remained as unpublished manuscripts until recently) exhibit similar characteristics. Henrietta Neale (1752– 1802), a member of Ryland’s congregation in Northampton from 1775 to 1789 before removing to Luton, began her diary a year before she joined College Lane.⁴³ An entry from March 1775 reflects her search for assurance: I was very doubtful about my state; much distressed: but I said, I will seek God in prayer; and if I perish, I will perish at the feet of Christ.⁴⁴ I found a little comfort in prayer, but was still dark till this day … And this is my comfort, that as I feel a love to Christ, I know Christ loveth me; for Christ first loved me, or I should never have loved him: and though I cannot now feel the presence of Christ, yet I hope I shall before this day be over, that I may mark it as one of my happy

 Portions of Neale’s diary were published by Ryland in Experimental Religion Delineated; in a Selection from the Diary of the late Miss H. Neale, Author of “Sacred History in Familiar Dialogues,” &c (Dunstable: J. W. Morris, ) (Neale is incorrectly listed as “Hannah” in the catalogue of the British Library and various databases). Like Ryland’s edition of Neale’s diary, Fuller also promoted the publishing and reading of spiritual diaries of Calvinist women, joining with Ryland and Sutcliff in  to compose the Introduction to a new edition of The Life and Character of Miss Susanna Anthony, a volume printed by J. W. Morris at Clipston and reprinted the following year by William Button in London (the original edition was edited by the American theologian Samuel Hopkins and published at Worcester, Massachusetts, in ), an interesting example of the transatlantic nature of Baptist life c. . Though some diaries by Baptists (almost exclusively women) appeared in print during Fuller’s lifetime, the tradition of composing spiritual diaries was widely known and practiced among Baptists, so that the reading of someone else’s diary is less important in this context that the understanding by Fuller and his contemporaries that such writing was being performed on a regular basis by men and women in most Particular Baptist congregations at that time. Thus, a common form of prose writing (often dotted with poetic effusions) was used to promote the furtherance of a particular evangelical end, namely, spiritual maturity.  Fuller expressed similar sentiments as those found in Esther : in an account of his movement toward conversion during : “On a review of my resolution at that time, it seems to resemble that of Esther, who went into the king’s presence, contrary to law, and at the hazard of her life. Like her, I seemed reduced to extremities, impelled, by dire necessity, to run all hazards, even though I should perish in the attempt. Yet it was not altogether from a dread of wrath that I fled to this refuge; for I well remember, that I felt something attracting in the Saviour. ‘I must—I will—yes—I will trust my soul, my sinful, lost soul in his hands—If I perish, I perish!’” (Ryland  – ).

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days, in which I have found him who is the center of all my happiness; for I desire nothing but Christ.⁴⁵

Similarly, Mary Ludlow Jackson (1738 – 1807), a member of the Baptist congregation in the Pithay, Bristol, not far from the Broadmead church, kept a diary from 1755 to 1790, during the ministries of John Beddome and John Tommas. Her entry for February 24, 1782, despite its unpolished English, reflects this same introspective state bordering at times on spiritual flagellation: When I read the Diary & Experience of some Christians I am staggerd especially that of Mrs. Bury⁴⁶ her Great advances in Knowledge & Experience in Holiness & Hatred to Sin. I am afraid

 Ryland, Experimental Religion . Two other Baptist women diarists near Salisbury are apropos to this discussion. Anne Cator Steele ( – ), second wife of William Steele III, Baptist minister at Broughton, Hampshire, from  to , kept a diary from  until her death in . Compare her entry on Wednesday, June , : But this morning I could not [be] in prayer this very much discourag’d me & here I call’d in question whether I had truely Experienced some things which I have mentioned as my experience which bro’t that to my mind least any man should think of me above what he seeth me to be, sister Betty Steele was here & cousen Betty Gay came this day with whom I had a pretty deal of talk desireing it might be made usefull, after which I had conversation with a Christian friend which stir’d me up to desire that I might pray this evening that came to my mind O that I know where I might find him that I might come even to his Seat and I seem’d to have some liberty and access … . (Whelan, Nonconformist Women Writers, 8:71) Jane Attwater Blatch (1753 – 1843) was a relation of Anne Cator Steele and, like her, a devout Baptist and dedicated diarist. She began her immense diary in 1767 and maintained it into the mid-1830s, living all of her life in Bodenham, near Salisbury, and at Bratton, Wiltshire. Compare her diary entry for November 27, 1774, composed after reading Elizabeth Singer Rowe’s Devout Exercises of the Mind (1737): “… O how dead how cold are all my affections to hers wn shall my heart be thus filld with ye Love of God & his ways. Strange that so much deadness & stupefaction should still remain I am often ready to say to my self thou has neither part nor lot in this matter for thy heart is not right with God – was I once possessed of the grace of God in truth I think the work of sanctification would appear in me but I can perceive no change my evil powers & passions seem still to reign & I can most feelingly say that when I say feeble wishes tho’ tis too seldom that they thus arise but when I wish to do good evil is present with me whilst I daily feel such a backwardness to good such a mercenary principle prevailing in me I cannot hope I am one of those who are born again & if not how dreadful is my case knowing that then I cannot enter the kingdom of heaven in an unregenerate state …” (Whelan, Nonconformist Women Writers, 8:216)  An Account of the Life and Death of Mrs. Elizabeth Bury, who died, May the th, , aged : Chiefly Collected out of her own Diary (Bristol: J. Penn, ) appeared in two more “corrected” editions (, ) in Bristol before being published in Boston in . The opening epistle to the reader, composed by Samuel Bury (he was her second husband and orthodox minister to the Presbyterian congregation in Lewin’s Mead, Bristol,  – , prior to that congregation moving into Unitarianism), notes that she composed “several volumes” comprising more than thirty years of

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Introduction

to say I hate all Sin, as Sin & that I love God merely for his perfections & his own Excellency as I have been told this day, that the Love of Gods people is not merely for the Benefits received but for the Superexcellency there is in God above every Creature, He, Mr. Tommas, observed every Grace has its Counterfeit feigned a Faith & an insincere Love Lord grant me faith unfeigned & sincere Love!⁴⁷

John Ryland’s second wife, Frances Barrett Ryland (1761– 1840), also kept a diary, beginning in 1789 and ending in 1806. She writes from Northampton on Sunday, August 16, 1789: The late exercises of my mind convince me very forcibly, that of myself I am unable even to oppose or overcome the least temptation. The corruption of my nature is so deep-rooted and unholy that without divine grace operating upon my soul I should soon be drawn aside to evil practices and commit iniquity with all greediness … Alas! where is that breathing after conformity to the blessed God, that hungering and thirsting after righteousness—that feeding upon the divine word as the bread of life to my soul! … Thus each day would I cast all my care upon him who careth for me.⁴⁸

After they arrived at Broadmead in Bristol in December 1793, the Rylands may have met Mary Ludlow of the Pithay church, but they certainly became friends with Elizabeth Horsey Saffery (1762– 1798), daughter of Joseph Horsey (1737– 1802), Baptist minister at Portsea, and the first wife of John Saffery (1763 – 1825), Baptist minister at Brown Street in Salisbury. In her diary for Sunday, September 24, 1797 (less than a year before her death), she echoes the strains expressed already by Fuller and these other diarists: This Afternoon have been stupid & lifeless my body much indisposed & mind wandering tho I trust I felt a hope that by & by I should be relieved from every thing that interrupts my enjoyment of God & know something of the effects of that hope which is laid up on heaven that my dear partner been speaking from Colossians 1 & 5. But Ah what cause to complain I live no more by Faith on the Son of God how little do I enjoy of Spiritual things either publick or private Lord quicken me that I may not live at this poor dying rate—Very little enjoyment of God in the Closet to day.⁴⁹

Joseph Ash (b. 1771), the son of John Ash (1724– 1779), Baptist minister at Pershore, wrote in his diary on Thursday, January 25, 1799, about the upcoming membership of he and his wife at Broadmead: “O that the God of all grace may enable me to adorn

her life, penned “with great Sincerity, Humility, and Modesty, without any Art of Affectation,” with the design “to carry on the Interest and Power of Religion in her own Soul” (unpaginated).  Diary of Mary Ludlow ( – ) of Pithay Church, Bristol, Bristol Baptist College Library, FC  (), acc no. , ff.  – .  Whelan, Nonconformist Women Writers :.  Whelan, Nonconformist Women Writers :.

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the profession I am about to make for I know that without thy aid I can perform no good thing” (f. 34). He added on the following Monday: Tomorrow Even[ing] if spared I am with my Dear Wife & Sister to appear before the Church now under the care of Dr. Ryland—to give a reason of the hope that is in us—O gracious GOD assist us to do it with meekness & fear—not in our own strength but thine we wish to go—thou has promised to be with them that love thee at all times we plead thy promise & as we have found it fulfilled again & again in our experience we still confide in it—& now, (as we trust it ever will be) our hope is in Thee.⁵⁰

One last sample comes from the diary of George Wallis (1775 – 1869), Fuller’s friend and, like his relation Beeby Wallis, a deacon in the Kettering church. Wallis writes on Sunday, October 13, 1805: Have again assembled with the people of God, and have heard again the Gospel of the kingdom preached; the great things of which, though excite feelings of adoration and gratitude; but ah! my relapses into Sin, spread shame through my soul, so that my adoration & gratitude is rather that “of a Servant than of a Son”; and though I am not left destitute of all hope in God, yet there is a sad distance between him and my Soul! My “iniquities have separated betwixt me and my God.” O when shall I have done offending against him, against him who is daily laying me under greater obligations to devotedness to himself! O the enormity of my guilt! O the greatness of the grace, which yet holds out Mercy to me!!!⁵¹

The pursuit of assurance of faith necessitated repeated eruptions of uncertainty in the life writings of Fuller and his fellow Baptist diarists, not because they did not believe but precisely because belief and assurance were rarely attained in a straightforward, linear fashion. The process was inevitably discursive, with undulations the norm, demanding constant attention by the writer on his or her road to spiritual maturity. The progress, or “pilgrimage” (John Bunyan may have it right by conflating them into one inseparable title), of the saint through the temporal maze of this worldly “vanity fair” toward the eternal glory of the “celestial city” was difficult for all believers, whether male or female. Engaging in such a “Holy War” (to use another of Bunyan’s titles and a work mentioned by Fuller in his diary) required spiritual heroism, with incremental victories and setbacks the norm. Those victories, and Fuller had his share, became to the diarist a literary expression of a spiritual “Ebenezer,” an embedding in the “white stone” of one’s private diary or on loose sheets of paper the verbal pillars that stood as perpetual reminders of hard-fought spiritual

 Diary of Joseph Ash,  MS. vols, shelfmark ..( – ), : f., Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford.  Diary of George Wallis, Fuller Baptist Church, Kettering, unpaginated. Wallis’s diary has on a few occasions been confused with Fuller’s diary, though they reside now in separate locations (Kettering and Bristol). Wallis’s diary spans the years  through , providing an excellent gloss to the period after Fuller’s diary and is, in its own right, worthy of study within the history of Baptist diaries.

XXXVIII

Introduction

victories over temptations, trials, and afflictions.⁵² Attaining the “prize,” as Paul puts it in Philippians 3:14, required heroic effort, whether in the midst of health and human activity or the stillness of the deathbed, as Fuller so poignantly relates during the final illness of his daughter in 1786 and his wife in 1792. The pervasive presence of death is another dominant theme in Nonconformist diaries of this period. Death is no respecter of persons, encompassing the young and the old, the great and the small. Fuller records the deaths of more than twenty individuals in his diary, preaching the funeral sermon for many of them. Among these deaths is that of his close friend and early mentor, Joseph Diver of Soham, whose demise in July 1780 resulted in the loss of Fuller’s first spiritual father, a man old enough to be his physical father and with whom he “took sweet counsel together, and walked together to the house of God” (July 17, 1780). The death of his actual father, Robert Fuller, the following year was especially painful to Fuller, not merely because death had entered his immediate family but because of his uncertainty over his father’s spiritual state. Their conversation on January 26, 1781, reveals the anguish and futility of his father’s dependence upon a “warrant” from God for his faith. As his father relates to his son, “if I be saved, it must be by him alone. I have nothing to recommend me to his favour … but my hopes are very small,” a statement Fuller would long remember in his battles against the faulty theology of High Calvinism. Women dominated the membership rolls of Baptist congregations at this time, and accordingly, the burial rolls. Fuller conducted eight funerals for women in his church between April and October 1784 alone, including four in the month of May, a circumstance repeated the next year when three women died that same month. These events often took an emotional toll on the young pastor. As he writes of the death of a Mrs. Daniels in February 1785: “Feel my mind sadly unfit for visiting one in dying circumstances—conversed & prayed with her as well as I knew how, but with but little savor.” Some deaths affected the church body more than others, such as that of the stalwart deacon Beeby Wallis (he seems to have taken Joseph Diver’s place as Fuller’s lay-mentor), whose death in April 1792 provoked the church to keep the next church meeting “as a day of solemn fasting and prayer, and a very tender opportunity it was,” Fuller would later write in his diary. The most affecting descriptions of death, however, are reserved for his daughter, Sarah, in 1786, and his first wife, also named Sarah, in 1792. His daughter’s lingering illness and decline is chronicled throughout his entries for the first half of 1786, cul-

 Cf.  Samuel :; Revelation :; also the hymn, “I my Ebenezer raise,” by the Baptist minister John Fawcett ( – ) of Wainsgate, and the last portion of the second verse of Robert Robinson’s classic hymn, “Come, Thou Fount of Every Blessing”: Here I raise my Ebenezer; Here by Thy great help I’ve come; And I hope, by Thy good pleasure, Safely to arrive at home.

Fuller and spiritual life writing

XXXIX

minating at a time when death seems to surround Fuller and his ministry at every turn. He writes on May 14, 1786, less than one month before his daughter’s death: Death! Death is all around me! My friends die. Three I have buried within a fortnight and another I shall have to bury soon! Death & Judgment is all I can think about! At times I feel reconciled to whatever may befall me … I am not without good hopes of the child’s piety, and as to her life, desirable as it is, the will of the Lord be done! But at other times, I am distressed beyond due bounds.

Just after her death, he writes again in his diary on June 8, 1786: Today we had a very tender, affecting time in communicating experiences—for my part I have great reason to think something else, more awful than the death of the child awaits me. Though I have been in the fire my dross is not removed, but apparently increased! My family are now nearly throughout afflicted, and I need not wonder if something worse follows! For all this, his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still!

He seemed more reconciled to death in 1792 than in 1786, when his daughter’s death produced a period of depression resulting in what Fuller described in his diary on October 3, 1789, as “carnality” and “the lost joys of God’s salvation,” his spiritual “inactivity” leading to a “backslidden” state. On September 2, 1792, two weeks after his wife’s death, he is more positive and hopeful: My mind has been strangely agitated at times; but yet I have been supported on the whole. New scenes seem to be opening before me—new trials—O that I may glorify God in every stage! My dear companion enjoyed a calm resignation to God, while she retained her senses, and that habitual fear of death that attended her, was greatly removed the last half year. In burying our relations what an inexpressible difference does it make to have a good hope of their being gone to glory!

Despite his fears and vacillations, Fuller strove to find meaning through these two deaths, just as he would that of his son, Robert, in 1809, a son whose waywardness dominates Fuller’s diary entries for 1796, 1800, 1801. In all three instances, Fuller’s overriding sense of divine purpose never strays far from his Calvinistic roots. Fuller’s diary, like the others quoted above, is indicative of the way spiritual life writing was used among Nonconformists in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, especially the Particular Baptists. Though many twentieth-century critics of autobiographical writings have routinely viewed diaries and familiar letters as inferior aesthetic vehicles for an individual’s presentation of his or her life,⁵³ such a judg-

 Representative critical responses to diaries and other forms of life writing can be found in Donald Stauffer’s The Art of Biography in Eighteenth Century England (Princeton: Princeton University Press, ), ; William Matthews’s British Diaries: An Annotated Bibliography of British Diaries Written between  and  (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, ), ix; Sidonie Smith’s A Poetics of Women’s Autobiography: Marginality and the Fictions of Self- Representation (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, ), ; Felicity Nussbaum’s The Autobio-

XL

Introduction

ment is clearly belied by Fuller and others who were faithful diarists during at least a portion of their lives. Particular Baptists did not view their lives as fragmented or isolated in terms of providential purpose; instead, they espoused a worldview that saw all aspects of human activity as a whole, believing, with John Calvin, that all events— past, present, and future—were foreordained through the omnipotence and omniscience of a sovereign God and were worthy of contemplating and recording in their diaries. Confronting the text of another person’s spiritual travails, however, would have been secondary to Baptist diarists confronting their own text, a text that stood before them both as a record of their flawed physical self and a barrier to their ideal spiritual self. As Fuller writes on September 15, 1781, “What a difference between the book which I keep, and that which God keeps! Oh what an awful, black diary could he produce against me in judgment!” Thus, for Fuller, the practice of keeping a diary was as reflexive as it was constructive, and the clash between the two often formed the core of his spiritual introspection. His diary was a means whereby he could explore his progress in attaining a spiritual ideal, a place where he could record the height and depth of his own personal faith, and not that of anyone else. For the evangelical Calvinist such private spiritual “progress” recorded in a diary like that presented in this volume, was designed to produce a public manifestation, which, for Fuller after 1792, was embodied in his role as secretary of the Baptist Missionary Society, an activity and identity that served not only as a “means of reviving [his] soul” (July 18, 1794) but, in many respects, the spiritual life and thought of Baptists around the world for the next two centuries and beyond. Timothy Whelan Jacksonville, Florida

graphical Subject: Gender and Ideology in Eighteenth-Century England (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, ), , as well as Mascuch, Origins of the Individualist Self; Hindmarsh, Evangelical Conversion Narrative; Mullan, Narratives of the Religious Self; and Lynch, Protestant Autobiography.

Note on the Text When John Ryland published portions of Fuller’s diary in The Work of Faith, the Labour of Love, and the Patience of Hope illustrated in the Life and Death of the Rev. Andrew Fuller (London, 1816), he altered spellings, phrasings, and abbreviations, deleted some names, made additions and notations of his own (Ryland’s hand is quite distinctive), and omitted portions of entries that revealed information about Fuller and various members of his congregations at Soham and Kettering, information Ryland felt inappropriate for general consumption (some of these individuals or members of their immediate family were still alive in 1816). Ryland’s editorial practices were common to biographers in the early nineteenth century, and given the absence now of the first volume of Fuller’s diary as well as the section from Fuller’s 1799 journal of his visit to Scotland, an accurate transcription of those missing entries is impossible. However, given Ryland’s intimacy with Fuller and his penchant for Baptist historiography, the editors have chosen the 2nd edition of Ryland’s The Work of Faith (London, 1818) as the primary copytext for entries not in Fuller’s surviving manuscript volume. For Fuller’s 1799 journal, the editors have used Ryland’s 1st edition, which is more complete and representative of Fuller’s punctuation practices. Some diary entries have been taken from Andrew Gunton Fuller’s “Memoir” of his father, which first appeared in the The Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller, edited by Joseph Belcher (London, 1831– 1832; Philadelphia, 1845). All diary entries appearing in this volume have also been collated with two other biographies of Fuller: John Webster Morris’s Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the Rev. Andrew Fuller (London, 1816; Boston, 1830) and A. G. Fuller’s late work, Andrew Fuller, by his Son, Andrew Gunton Fuller (London, 1882). In contrast to Ryland’s text, the extant third volume of Fuller’s diary has been transcribed below as accurately as possible, remaining faithful to the text except where Fuller’s usage or punctuation create unnecessary problems for the modern reader. However, alterations have been made in the presentation of certain forms of words used by Fuller. Roman numerals have been changed to Arabic numerals. Superscripts and archaic letters have been dropped or modernized: i.e., Mr (Mr), ye (the), yr (your), wch (which), etc. Abbreviations have been rendered in their complete form: ie., Xt or Xt (Christ), Xtian (Christian), bro.r (brother), sis.r (sister), Ch: (Church), fm (from), thot (thought), brot (brought), tho’ (though), thro’ (through), boro (borough), etc. Books of the Bible abbreviated by Fuller and Ryland have been rendered in their full form. Some archaic spellings have been modernized: ie., Physitian (Physician), staid (stayed), tryals (trials), matterial (material), journies (jouneys), measels (measles), poyson (poison), affraid (afraid), publick (public), etc. Certain words that were traditionally hyphenated in Fuller’s time have had the hyphens removed, primarily “to-day” (today) and “to-morrow” (tomorrow). The archaic spelling of the possessive it’s has been replaced by its. Occasionally, some punctuation, such as missing periods, commas, and quotation marks, has been silently added to improve clarity for the reader.

XLII

Note on the Text

Whenever possible, dashes have been retained (a common practice of manuscript writing in the eighteenth century), though some have been converted to periods. Numerous words ending in “ed,” in which the e was omitted in favor of an apostrophe, have been transcribed in their complete form: i.e., chang’d (changed), mov’d (moved), work’d (worked), etc. Most of Fuller’s capitalizations have been retained, though some that might cause confusion have been silently dropped. Possessives without apostrophes (a common trait of manuscript writing at this time) have been silently added. Fuller’s aberrant spellings of certain place names have been corrected and made consistent, such as “Waldgrave” (Walgrave); “Clipson” (Clipston); “Okeham” (Oakham). Occasionally, Fuller used an ellipsis to indicate a break in his diary entry; these ellipses have been retained as they appear in the text without the addition of square brackets. Missing words added to the text by the editors have been placed within square brackets. Marked through words or phrases (i.e., home house), aberrant spellings (‘Xt’ for ‘Christ’), interpolations (noted by a circumflex [ ] before and after the word or phrase), abbreviated names (usually initials only), and some selected and clearly representative alterations by Ryland or A. G. Fuller on Fuller’s manuscript text, appear as textual notes at the foot of the page. In some cases “[Ed.]” has been used after a textual note to distinguish a comment by the editors from any variants employed by Ryland, Fuller, and A. G. Fuller. Variations between the edited text and earlier editions and the Fuller manuscript at Bristol are noted as follows: not study] AG Fuller 23; preaching on] Ryland 100; Felt My] MS Diary. The editorial notes primarily identify the source(s) for each diary entry and provide information on individuals named in the diary, the various churches Fuller visited, scripture references for his sermons and meditations, and an assortment of books Fuller was reading during the period of the diary, as well as a few notes by Ryland himself. The only portions of Fuller’s diary that have not been transcribed are the sporadic shorthand passages (usually only short phrases) which are often private thoughts by Fuller about a church member or member of his family. Most likely Fuller used the popular system created by the Baptist stenographer Thomas Gurney and his son, Joseph (1744– 1815), a member of James Dore’s congregation at Maze Pond, Southwark, who continued to publish his father’s work, Brachygraphy, into the 1790s, a volume that had found its way into Fuller’s library by 1798 (see Appendix A). Fortunately, these shorthand passages do not hinder the modern reader from an understanding and appreciation of the diary. They are marked within the text as . Fuller used an asterisk (*) within some diary entries to denote a shorthand passage affixed to the foot of the diary page. These and all other asterisks appearing in the text of the diary are by Fuller, not the editors, and are explained by an attached note. Following the text of the diary are two Appendices: Appendix A is an alphabetical listing of the books in Fuller’s library in 1798, compiled from his manuscript calendar; Appendix B is a list of the places where Fuller visited and/or preached between April 1784 and June 1786; see Scripture Index for a list of all the biblical texts cited or quoted in Fuller’s diary.

Abbreviations AG Fuller

Fuller, Andrew Gunton. “Memoir.” In The Complete Works of the Rev. Andrew Fuller: With a Memoir of his life by Andrew Gunton Fuller, ed. Joseph Belcher, 3 vols. Philadelphia: American Baptist Publication Society, 1845, reprinted from the 3rd London ed., revised, with additions. AG Fuller 1882 Andrew Gunton Fuller, Andrew Fuller, by his Son, Andrew Gunton Fuller. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1882. Morris Morris, J. W. Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the Rev. Andrew Fuller. Boston: Lincoln & Edmands, 1830 (1st American ed., from the last London edition). Ryland 1816 John Ryland, The Work of Faith, the Labour of Love, and the Patience of Hope, illustrated in the Life and Death of the Rev. Andrew Fuller. London: Button & Son, 1816. Ryland Ryland, John. The Work of Faith, the Labour of Love, and the Patience of Hope, illustrated in the Life and Death of the Rev. Andrew Fuller, late Pastor of the Baptist Church at Kettering and Secretary of the Baptist Missionary Society, from its commencement in 1792, 2nd ed. London: Button and Son, 1818.

1780 1780, January 10, Tuesday A solemn vow or renewal of covenant with God. O my God, (let not the Lord be angry with his servant for thus speaking,) I have, thou knowest, heretofore sought thy truth. I have earnestly entreated thee that thou wouldest lead me into it; that I might be rooted, established, and built up in it, as it is in Jesus. I have seen the truth of that saying—“It is a good thing to have the heart established with grace”;¹ and now I would this day solemnly renew my prayer to thee, and also enter afresh into covenant with thee. O Lord God! I find myself in a world where thousands profess thy name; some are preaching, some writing, some talking about religion. All profess to be searching after truth; to have Christ and the inspired writers on their side. I am afraid lest I should be turned aside from the simplicity of the gospel. I feel my understanding full of darkness, my reason exceedingly imperfect, my will ready to start aside, and my passions strangely volatile. O illumine mine understanding, teach my reason, reason, my will rectitude, and let every faculty of which I am possessed be kept within the bounds of thy service. O let not the sleight of wicked men, who lie in wait to deceive, nor even the pious character of good men, (who yet may be under great mistakes,) draw me aside. Nor do thou suffer my own fancy to misguide me. Lord, thou hast given me a determination to take up no principle at second-hand; but to search for every thing at the pure fountain of thy word. Yet, Lord, I am afraid, seeing I am as liable to err as other men, lest I should be led aside from truth by mine own imagination. Hast thou not promised, “The meek thou wilt guide in judgment, and the meek thou wilt teach thy way?”² Lord, thou knowest, at this time, my heart is not haughty, nor are mine eyes lofty. O “guide me by thy counsel, and afterwards receive me to glory.”³ One thing in particular I would pray for; namely, that I may not only be kept from erroneous principles, but may so love the truth as never to keep it back. O Lord, never let me, under the specious pretence of preaching holiness, neglect to promulgate the truths of thy word; for this day I see, and have all along found, that holy practice has a necessary dependence on sacred principle. O Lord, if thou wilt open mine eyes to behold the wonders of thy word, and give me to feel their transforming tendency, then shall the Lord be my God; then let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth, if I shun to declare, to the best of my knowledge, the whole counsel of God.⁴

   

Hebrews :. Psalm :. Psalm :. AG Fuller  – .

DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-001

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1780

1780, March 29, Wednesday I have been reading, in Josephus, the bloody reign of Herod.⁵ What pain is it to read those narrations, where truth and virtue fell to the ground, and were finally overcome. Methinks, it helps to enhance the idea of heaven, that this is a world where these shall everlastingly triumph.⁶

1780, June 14, Wednesday Went out to visit some fallen brethren. Convinced that no art was necessary in religion, resolved to proceed with all plainness and openness. Did so, and hope for good effects. Left each party with weeping eyes … But, oh! how liable to sin myself!⁷

1780, June 16, Friday Felt the importance of religion, and a desire of seeing the glory of Christ, and being conformed to his image. Saw a beauty in Ecclesiastes 12:13, “Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole of man.”⁸

1780, June 17, Saturday Some light; but little life. A great part of the day, how dull! O that what little light I have had, had been more transforming! Have been thinking on 1 Corinthians 3:18— but oh! how little changed! I think I have seen one thing today—that speaking ostentatiously of anything laudable in ourselves, is the way to mar all the peace or pleasure that we enjoy in it. I think I see that this is a sin which easily besets me, and which needs being guarded against.⁹

 Titus Flavius Josephus (–c.), was a first century Jewish historian and Roman citizen best known for Antiquities of the Jews. The Works of Josephus were published often in the eighteenth century, including a London edition in . No single work by Josephus belonged to Fuller’s library in  (see Appendix A).  Ryland .  Ryland ; AG Fuller .  Ryland .  Ryland ; AG Fuller  has, “I think I have seen one thing today—that speaking ostentatiously of anything laudable in ourselves, is the way to mar all the peace or pleasure that we enjoy in it. I think I see that this is a sin which easily besets me, and which needs being guarded against.”

1780, June 22, Thursday

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1780, June 18, Lord’s day I found a solid satisfaction today, in preaching in a searching manner, from 1 Corinthians 11:31, “If we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged:” but wish to feel it more.¹⁰

1780, June 20, Tuesday O how my days are spent! Grace, how inactive! Sin, how active! Surely, exaggeration is a sin that easily besets me. May I be more upon my watch against it! Woe is me, that I sojourn in Meshech! O my dear Brother Diver!¹¹ Six months ago, like an Hur, he supported my hands; but now he is gone, and they sink! O my dear sister K.! Twelve months ago, I witnessed thy patience and piety; but, ripe for glory, thou must stay here no longer: while I am yet in the chains of mortality, in a world of darkness and misery. May I follow you, who, through faith and patience, inherit the promises! I bless the Lord for a solemn savour enjoyed, in some good measure, this day. O that my heart could be oftener engaged in meditation on the things of God! O how happy to be so!¹²

1780, June 21, Wednesday What! have the powers of grace and sin concluded a truce? I feel, today, as if both lay nearly still; as if I were strangely destitute of all thought; devoid of pleasure, carnal or spiritual; of sorrow, whether godly or worldly.¹³

1780, June 22, Thursday O that I might feel more of the power of religion, and know more of the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge! I think I see divine excellence in such a life. O that thou

 Ryland .  Joseph Diver and “sister K.” (mentioned in the next line) were members of the Soham church where Fuller served as pastor from  to . Diver was baptized and joined the church at the same time as Fuller (April ) and they became close friends, sharing preaching duties for more than three years after the departure of John Eve in , leading to Fuller’s call to the ministry in January . Fuller found Diver’s conversation helpful during the years immediately following his conversion, functioning much like a father figure (Diver was more than twenty years Fuller’s senior). For more on Diver, see Ryland  – ; AG Fuller  – .  Ryland  (first paragraph); Ryland  –  (second paragraph).  Ryland ; AG Fuller .

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wouldest bless me indeed, and enlarge my coast! I am going, God willing, to visit a friend today. O that a spirit of watchfulness, savour, and fellowship with Christ, may attend me!¹⁴

1780, June 24, Saturday I see what a strait course it is, to steer between legality and libertinism. I have been, for some time, trying to walk more closely with God; and now I find the sparks of self-righteous pride begin to kindle. I have been thinking today of Isaiah 2:11. I have reason to be humbled, for having so little humility: yet I think I have tasted a sweetness in that plan of redemption which stains the pride of all flesh.¹⁵

1780, June 25, Lord’s Day Felt satisfaction in preaching, and in hearing J. F.¹⁶ relate his experience. O that I may feel more of the haughtiness of my heart brought down!¹⁷

1780, June 26, Monday Dull and unaffected. How soon do I sink from the spirit of the gospel! I have need of thine intercession, O Lord Jesus, that my faith fail not.¹⁸

1780, June 27, Tuesday O how difficult is my situation! Providence seems to go against me, yet I am in a strait what to do. Lord, and what shall I do? O that thine hand might be with me, and that thou wouldst keep me from evil, that it may not grieve me!¹⁹

 Ryland ; J. W. Morris, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the Rev. Andrew Fuller, (Boston: Lincoln & Edmands, , st American ed., from the last London ed.),  (hereafter Morris).  Ryland ; AG Fuller ; Morris .  Fuller’s brother, John, at that time still living at Soham.  Ryland .  Ibid; last phrase from Luke :.  Ryland .

1780, June 30, Friday

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1780, June 28, Wednesday Have found my heart tenderly affected several times, especially tonight, in prayer respecting my critical situation. Oh! Providence, how intricate! If rough roads are marked out for me, may my shoes be iron and brass! I found, today, a peculiar sympathy towards poor people under trying providences; thinking I may have to go that road. “Teach me to do thy will, for thou art my God: thy Spirit is good, lead me into the land of uprightness!”²⁰

1780, June 29, Thursday It is good to visit the poor, that we may know their cases, exercise sympathy and charity towards them, and learn gratitude, and many a lesson in the doctrine of providence. O what a horrid depth of pride and hypocrisy do I find in my heart! Surely I am unfit for any company. If I am with a superior, how will my heart court his praise, by speaking diminutively of myself, not forgetting to urge the disadvantages under which I have laboured, to excuse my inferiority; and here is a large vacancy left, in hope he will fill it up with something like this—“Well, you must have made good improvement of what advantages you have enjoyed!” On the other hand, when in company with an inferior, how full of self am I? While I seem to be instructing him, by communicating my observations, how prone to lose sight of his edification, and everything but my own self-importance; aiming more to discover my own knowledge, than to increase his! While I make these observations, I feel the truth of them. A thought has been suggested to write them, not as having been working in my heart today, but only as discovered today. Oh horridly deceitful and desperately wicked heart! Surely I have little else in my religious exercises, but these workings. I am afraid of being deceived at last. If I am saved, what must the Son of God have endured!!!²¹

1780, June 30, Friday My heart has been much affected today, in²² thinking on my situation. I prayed to the Lord earnestly, that, if there were any thing in this world which might direct me, he would lead my mind to it. Here I must wait. The Lord may have designed to lead me in a way that I have not known.²³    

Ibid; Morris ; AG Fuller  omits final sentence, mostly from Psalm :. Ryland ; AG Fuller  – ; Morris  – . Much affected to-day in] AG Fuller . Ryland ; AG Fuller .

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1780, July 1, Saturday My soul has been dejected today, in thinking on the plague of the human heart; but I have been sweetly refreshed tonight, by a hymn of Dr. Watts,²⁴ (85th, Second Book,) “Why does your face, ye humble souls,” &c. This was my dear Brother Diver’s funeral hymn. I had a sweet time in prayer, tonight. Through the glass of my depravity, I see, O I see the preciousness of that blood which flowed on Calvary! O that the ideas I have had tonight were written indelibly on my heart! But, alas! one hour of sin will, I fear, efface them all.²⁵

1780, July 2, Lord’s day Surely my views of myself, of divine love, and of the blood of Christ, never were clearer, nor yielded me greater satisfaction, than last night and today. I retained the savour throughout this forenoon, though it seems abated this afternoon. Well, it has been a time of refreshment to my soul. But, perhaps, I may have somewhat at hand to balance it. Oh that I could retain the ideas I have had today! I thought God was such an infinitely lovely being, that it was a great sin not to love him with our whole hearts. I thought one perpetual flame of supreme love was his natural due from every intelligent creature, and that the want of such love merits damnation. And I am under peculiar obligations to love him.²⁶

1780, July 4, Tuesday Alas! how strange it is! Those things, of which, a day or two ago, I could not think without a flood of tears, I now feel make little impression on my mind, which seems in a sluggish, jaded, and almost sceptical frame. Ah! how soon are those ideas effaced! When shall my love be one eternal flame? I fear some trial is at hand. O may the Lord keep me!²⁷

 Isaac Watts ( – ) was the leading Nonconformist hymn writer of the eighteenth century. His Hymns and Spiritual Songs as well as his Divine and Moral Songs went through numerous editions during his lifetime and beyond. Six works by Watts, who lived most of his life at Stoke Newington, belonged to Fuller’s library in , including a copy of The Psalms, Hymns, & Spiritual Songs, of the Old and New Testament, faithfully translated into English Metre.  Ryland  – ; AG Fuller .  Ryland ; AG Fuller .  Ibid.

1780, July 10, Monday

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1780, July 5, Wednesday I found some pleasure, today, in preaching from Hosea 13:9, “O Israel, thou hast destroyed thyself,” &c. I love to open the purity and extent of God’s righteous law, and thereby the depravity of human nature. Here I see the greatness of grace.²⁸

1780, July 6, Thursday Dull and unaffected. I sometimes feel a spirit of idle, sceptical despair; as if the difficulties that attend the finding out what is truth and duty were insurmountable. O Lord, keep up in me a spirit of activity, and teach me to know and do thy will. May I know what is that good, perfect, and acceptable will of God.²⁹

1780, July 7, Friday Heaviness of heart makes me stoop. O time, how clogg’d with cares! How pregnant life with ills! Sin, like some poisonous spring, my cup With dregs of sorrow fills.³⁰ But why do I cry by reason of my affliction? On account of mine iniquities do these things come upon me. O Lord, how justly mightest thou open ten thousand springs of woe, ten thousand floodgates of sorrow, and let them all in upon me. Yet thy mercies are new every morning: it is of the Lord’s mercies that I am not consumed.³¹

1780, July 10, Monday I had an affecting time, tonight, in going a road where, about twelve or thirteen years ago, I had many a season of sorrow and joy. O here I saw myself lost, there I had a sight of the Saviour; here I went bowed down with fear and despair, there I was sweetly checked with a view of the faithfulness of God; in this place I mourned my desolate state, in that the state of the church lay heavily upon me; yonder my hopes respecting the church were excited by thinking of Psalm 122:1, 2, 8, 9.    

Ibid. Ibid. These lines appear to be Fuller’s own composition. Ryland .

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O what strange events since! By the help of God I have continued to this day. When my soul is cast down within me, may I “remember thee from the land of Jordan, and of the Hermonites from the hill Mizar.”³²

1780, July 11, Tuesday O my dear Brother Diver! very pleasant hast thou been to me. I am distressed for the loss of thee! Earth seems a lonely place without thee! But, Lord, thy presence will more than make amends for his absence. Give me that, or I sink! The cares of the world have engrossed my attention this afternoon; but the cares of the church return this evening. O now I feel the loss of my dear Brother Diver!³³

1780, July 12, Wednesday O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death?³⁴ O mine iniquity! Surely I had rather die than feel again what I have felt of the odious risings of this unholy heart. Oh the wormwood and the gall!³⁵ Tremble, my soul, at the rising of that which has so often filled thy cup with bitterness; that which made thy Lord, as it were, shrink back from suffering! Oh may the remembrance of this make thee shrink back from sinning! Surely the renewal of a fresh conflict with old corruptions is not the trial I feared? Lead me not into temptation, but deliver me from evil, O Lord!³⁶

1780, July 15, Saturday Alas! with what can I go forth tomorrow? My powers are all shackled, my thoughts contracted. Yesterday and this morning, I seemed to feel some savour; but now, all is gone, like the seed by the wayside, which the fowls of the air devoured.³⁷ Bless the Lord! Tonight, I have felt a melting sense of the heinous nature of backsliding from the Lord, while thinking on Jeremiah 2:5, 31– 33. Bless the Lord, O my soul, and all that is within me, bless his holy name. He maketh me to renew my

     

Ibid; AG Fuller ; Morris ; final phrase from Psalm :. Ryland . Romans :. Lamentations :. Ryland ; AG Fuller  – ; final phrase from Matthew :. Matthew :.

1780, July 17, Monday

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strength like the eagle, dissolves my hardness, disappoints my fears, and touches my lips as with a live coal from his altar. Bless the Lord, O my soul!³⁸

1780, July 16, Sunday Last night, I thought I looked upon the approaching Lord’s day as wearing this motto —“Holiness to the Lord”; but, today, how have I been teased with vain thoughts that lodge within me. Yet, I was helped through the day, and found it, on the whole, “a good day,” though not so savory as I could have wished.³⁹

1780, July 17, Monday O my dear Brother Diver! When shall we recover our loss in losing you? What disorders have we now in the church! Our hands, heads, and hearts, how full! O my father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof! Like Jeremiah for Josiah, surely I cannot refrain from pouring forth my heart in doleful lamentations! Methinks, I shall go all my days, at times, in the bitterness of my soul. Ah! we took sweet counsel together, and walked together to the house of God; but all is over! As he said on his dying bed, “I have done with that life.” Alas! he has done his all with us!⁴⁰ O righteous Lord, thy sovereignty we own; His life, and all our lives, to thee resign: What if to chasten us, and him to crown, Thou hast decreed—our wills subdue to thine.⁴¹ Ah! Woe is me: I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips!⁴² My heart is ready to sink beneath its load! More bad conduct among my brethren. The Lord have mercy on them and me! Surely I labour in vain, and spend my strength for nought. All my warnings, instructions, reproofs, &c. whether in or out of the pulpit, seem to have none effect.⁴³

 Ryland  – ; AG Fuller .  Ryland .  Ryland ; AG Fuller .  According to Ryland , at this point Fuller inserted a number of verses, “very tender and pathetic, but inferior, as to poetical correctness, to some which he wrote on subsequent occasions.” Consequently, Ryland has inserted only “the concluding stanza” into his text. The verse is not included in AG Fuller .  Isaiah :.  Ryland  – ; AG Fuller .

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1780, July 18, Tuesday Great part of this day sadly misspent: but have had a sweet evening, in views of the latter-day glory, from reading Isaiah 11:12. How dark the day in which I live! “Watchman, what of the night? Watchman, what of the night?”⁴⁴

1780, July 19, Wednesday I have, this day, had a proof of my weakness. Being engaged in a controversy, I found my spirit too much stirred. O how unfit am I for controversy!⁴⁵

1780, July 20, Thursday O peace! thou inestimable jewel! The Lord grant I may never enter the polemical lists!⁴⁶

1780, July 21, Friday Dejected, through worldly and church concerns; but had some relief, tonight, in casting all my care upon the Lord, hoping that he careth for me.⁴⁷ The Lord undertake for me! O thou that managest worlds unknown, without one disappointment, take my case into thy hand, and fit me for thy pleasure. If poverty must be my portion, add thereto contentment.⁴⁸

1780, July 22, Saturday Ah! how heavily do I drag on without the Lord! I can neither think, nor do any thing to purpose. Lord, help me! Sin, how deceitful! While we may obtain an apparent victory over one sin, we may be insensibly enslaved to another: it may seem to flee before us, like the men of Israel before the Benjamites, and yet retain an ambushment, to fall upon our rear.⁴⁹

     

Ryland ; AG Fuller . Ryland . Ibid; AG Fuller .  Peter :. Ryland . Ibid.

1780, August 5, Saturday

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1780, July 27, Thursday O what an ocean of impurity have I still within me! What vain desires lodge in my sinful heart! Rich must be the blood that can atone, infinitely efficacious the grace that can purify, and inconceivable the love that can remain without the shadow of turning, amidst all this vileness! O! had every creature in heaven and earth joined in assuring me of God’s love to me, surely I could never have believed it, but for the assurances grounded on his own word!⁵⁰

1780, July 29, Saturday Surely I do not sufficiently study⁵¹ the cases of the people, in my preaching! I find, by conversation, today, with one seemingly in dying circumstances, that but little of my preaching has been suited to her case. Visiting the sick, and conversing sometimes even with the unconverted part of my hearers, about their souls, and especially with the godly, would have a tendency to make my preaching more experimental. Am not I a fool, and slow of heart to believe? Notwithstanding all the Scripture says of my impotency, all the experience I have had of it, and all my settled and avowed principles, how hard is it for me to believe that I am nothing! Ah! can I live near to God, set or keep the springs of godliness a-going in my soul, or investigate the things of God to any purpose? No, I cannot. When I am weak, then, and then only, am I strong. When Ephraim spake tremblingly, he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended in Baal, he died.⁵²

1780, August 5, Saturday Alas! how am I locked up! What an ocean of matter in the word of God, yet I can come at nothing! It seems to me like a frozen ocean, locked up from me. Oh my heart, how heavy!⁵³

 Ibid.  not study] AG Fuller .  Ryland  – ; AG Fuller  (last sentence omitted); Morris  (first paragraph only); scriptural references phrases from  Corinthians : and Hosea :.  Ryland .

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1780, August 6, Lord’s day Alas! how disconsolate, this morning! How foolish am I, to lay God under a necessity (if I may use such an expression) of leaving me to myself, to let me and others see that I am nothing.⁵⁴

1780, August 13, Lord’s day Had a poor, dull forenoon; but was disheartened in the afternoon, through the inattention and drowsiness of the people. However, I was much affected, towards the conclusion, in thinking of the importance of the subject, (the sufferings of Christ,) and the little attention that was paid to it. I had a sweet time at the ordinance, in thinking on these words: “We shall see him as he is.”⁵⁵

1780, August 16, Wednesday I had pleasure in reading Joshua 21:43 – 45, and in thinking of Psalm 16:11. How great is his faithfulness! How great will be our joy to see every promise fulfilled! Thought I saw a divine beauty in doing as Enoch did, who “walked with God.”⁵⁶ O that I may, till God shall take me! Some savour today, in reading Edwards on the Affections. ⁵⁷

 Ibid; AG Fuller .  Ryland ; final phrase from  John :.  Genesis :.  Ryland ; final sentence from Ryland . Jonathan Edwards ( – ), along with George Whitefield, was a major figure in the Great Awakening in America in the s and ’s and a significant influence on many Particular Baptist ministers in England in the s and ’s. He was a millenarian, a staunch Calvinist, and an advocate of the inward “supernatural sense” given to the redeemed by God as a means of assurance of grace. His Treatise Concerning Religious Affections (), Freedom of the Will (), and An Humble Attempt to Promote Explicit Agreement and Visible Union of God’s People, in Extraordinary Prayer, for the Revival of Religion and the Advancement of Christ’s Kingdom on Earth () were especially influential in moving Fuller, Ryland, and other Particular Baptists away from High Calvinism and toward a moderate, evangelical Calvinism. During his ministry at Soham ( – ), Fuller made considerable progress in Hebrew and Greek under the tutorship of John Ryland at Northampton, and he read voraciously in theology, enough so that by the time he arrived at Kettering he was already “established in those great truths with which his name is associated.” See AG Fuller   – .

1780, September 3, Lord’s day

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1780, August 30, Wednesday I found my soul drawn out in love to poor souls, while reading Millar’s account of Eliot’s labors among the North American Indians,⁵⁸ and their effect on those poor barbarous savages. I found also a suspicion, that we shackle ourselves too much in our addresses to sinners; that we have bewildered and lost ourselves, by taking the decrees of God as rules of action. Surely Peter and Paul never felt such scruples in their addresses, as we do. They addressed their hearers as men—fallen men; as we should warn and admonish persons who were blind, and on the brink of some dreadful precipice. Their work seemed plain before them. Oh that mine might be so before me!⁵⁹

1780, September 1, Friday Sorrow and savour, in thinking on the decline of religion, from Lamentations 5:16,17.⁶⁰

1780, September 3, Lord’s day Had a good day, in preaching from the above, and from Lamentations 3:40, 41. O that God might write the things delivered today, in indelible characters, on all our hearts! Found a⁶¹ heart to pray for the conversion of the congregation.⁶²

 John Eliot ( – ), a Puritan missionary to the natives of North America, recorded his experiences in A Brief Narrative of the Progress of the Gospel amongst the Indians in New-England, in the year  (), which never appeared in relation to an editor or printer/seller named Millar/Miller. Fuller may be thinking of a later work of a similar nature, The Conquests and Triumphs of Grace: being a Brief Narrative of the Success which the Gospel hath had among the Indians of Martha’s Vineyard (and the places adjacent) in New-England, which appeared in London in , printed for Nathaniel Hiller. Ryland may have mistranscribed Fuller’s manuscript, mistaking “Hiller” for “Millar”; or Fuller himself could have had a mistaken memory when composing his diary entry and put “Millar” in place of “Hiller” (the volume was not present in Fuller’s library in  [Appendix A]). Fuller was an avid reader of early missionary accounts, including Jonathan Edwards’s edition of An Account of the Life of David Brainerd (Boston, ; Edinburgh, ), a copy of which belonged to his library (see Appendix A). Brainerd, like Eliot, devoted his life to working among the native tribes of North America.  Ryland ; AG Fuller ; Morris . As the above entry makes clear, by  Fuller was already questioning the restraints of High Calvinism in addressing the multitudes of hearers throughout the world living apart from the Gospel.  Ryland .  an] Ryland .  Ibid.

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1780, September 5, Tuesday I longed, in prayer tonight, to be more useful. Oh that God would do somewhat by me! Nor is this, I trust, from ambition; but from a pure desire of working for God, and the benefit of my fellow sinners.⁶³

1780, September 10, Lord’s day Earnest in prayer with God, this afternoon. Humbled for our little love: yet found such desire, that, could I obtain my wish, the brightest seraph should not outvie me in love to my Lord. I saw, plainly, that my salvation must be, from first to last, of free grace. Low, and much discouraged in preaching: thought I must cease from preaching ere long.⁶⁴

1780, September 11, Monday Much affected, this morning, in reading Edwards’s thoughts on evangelical humility, in his Treatise on the Affections. Surely there are many that will be found wanting in the great day. “Lord, is it I?”⁶⁵

1780, September 12, Tuesday Very much in doubt, respecting my being in a state of grace. I cannot see that I have, or ever had, for any constancy, such an idea of myself as must be implied in true humility. The Lord have mercy upon me, for I know not how it is with me! One thing I know—that, if I be a Christian at all, real Christianity in me is inexpressibly small in degree. Oh! what a vast distance is there, between what I ought to be and what I am! If I am a saint at all, I know I am one of the least of all saints: I mean, that the workings of real grace in my soul are so feeble, that I hardly think they can be feebler in any true Christian. There is not only an inexpressible distance between what I ought to be and what I am; but between what primitive believers, yea, the scripture saints in all ages, seem to have been, and what I am. I think, of late, I cannot, in prayer, consider myself as a Christian, but as a sinner, casting myself at Christ’s feet for mercy.⁶⁶

   

Ibid; AG Fuller . Ibid; last sentence omitted in AG Fuller . Ryland ; final phrase from Daniel :. Ryland  – ; AG Fuller .

1780, October 3, Tuesday

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1780, September 22, Friday I was somewhat moved, this morning, in thinking of the mercy of God—how it was a hedge about us, preserving us from the ravages of the very beasts and birds; nay, from the very stones. The whole creation groans and suffers through us, and would retaliate the injuries we have done them, were not a covenant made, on our behalf, with them. See Hosea 2:18; Job 5:13. Much affected, today, in talking with a friend who had lately fallen into sin, but is, I hope, deeply penitent. He told me, that, when coming home, he feared to go through a pasture where some cattle were feeding, lest, like the disobedient prophet, he should be slain for his sin. Also, when coming to meeting on the Lord’s day, it thundered dreadfully, which he thought was all on his account, and that he should be struck dead; but he felt this turn of mind—“If he slay me, let him slay me, and get himself a great name, in making me, for my sin, a monument of his displeasure.”⁶⁷

1780, September 23, Saturday O blessed be God, he has appeared once again. Tonight, while I prayed to him, how sweet was Colossians 1:19 to me. That which has pleased the Father pleases me. I am glad that all fullness dwells in Him. It is not fit it should dwell in me, nor that I should have the keeping of my own stock. Expand thy powers, enlarge thy breast; For boundless fullness dwells in Christ.⁶⁸ O for some heavenly clue, to guide me to the fullness of Christ! O for an overcoming faith!⁶⁹

1780, October 3, Tuesday [Ryland writes: “He [Fuller] notices his spiritual enjoyment, under a sermon, at the Minister’s Meeting at Kettering, on Proverbs 17:3, which was afterwards printed, at his desire and that of the other ministers present, entitled, God’s Experimental Probation of Intelligent Agents.”]⁷⁰

 Ryland  –  and AG Fuller  (first paragraph only); Ryland  (last paragraph only); final phrase from Job :.  Lines appear to be Fuller’s own composition.  Ryland ; AG Fuller  –  (poetic lines omitted).  Ryland .

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1780, October 8, Lord’s day Bless the Lord, I have had a better day, today, than for some time. The “great things God hath done for us” have been sweet things to me.⁷¹

1780, October 11, Wednesday Surely my soul is, in general, like the earth when it was a confused chaos,—“without form and void,” and as when “darkness covered the face of the deep.”⁷² I think, I know but little of the power of religion. Surely I am a novice in experience! I find my heart somewhat tender, tonight; but feel myself full of darkness, deadness, and pollution. The Lord have mercy upon me! What an emptiness in all earthly enjoyments! Nothing therein is suited to my immortal thirst. I must go in quest of a better country, even a⁷³ heavenly one: there I shall be satisfied.⁷⁴

1780, October 12, Thursday O what a world is this; and what a life do I live! I feel myself the subject of much evil. Real religion seems to be something at which I aim, but cannot attain. I may say of it, as Solomon said of wisdom,—I thought to be religious, but it was far from me.⁷⁵

1780, October 13, Friday Much concerned with the state of things among us, and with my own state. Went to the Lord in prayer: found a solemnity of spirit. The Lord direct me to the land of uprightness!⁷⁶

     far 

Ibid; final phrase from Psalm :. Genesis :. an] Ryland, . Ryland ; final phrase from Hebrews :. Ibid. Final phrase from Ecclesiastes :, in which Solomon remarks, “‘I will be wise,’ but it was from me.” Ryland  – .

1780, October 24, Tuesday

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1780, October 14, Saturday Solemn thoughts, on the holiness, justness, and goodness of the law of God. Desirous of God’s presence tomorrow.⁷⁷

1780, October 22, Sunday This day we began our evening lectures. Having had a poor forenoon, and a worse afternoon, my heart was much dejected; supposing, my preaching answered no good end. Was in some doubt, whether I should preach any lectures at all: went to the Lord, laid the case before him, and had some freedom in pleading that he would bless me. Preached, this evening, from Romans 7:12, and had a very affecting time. I love to vindicate his equity, and “justify the ways of God to man.”⁷⁸

1780, October 23, Monday I was strengthened in reflecting on what I delivered last night, from Psalm 29:2, “Give to the Lord the glory due to his name.” Jude 15, and 1 Corinthians 16:22, were somewhat to me, on the same subject.⁷⁹

1780, October 24, Tuesday Observed our proneness to think of ourselves as others speak of us. For example, if I am praised at any particular place as a preacher, how prone am I, at that place to keep pace with their esteem, if not to outgo it, in the estimation of myself! On the other hand, at such places where I have felt myself embarrassed, how prone to despair, and so to take no delight in the work! O how much of self have I in me! how far from that excellent character, of being dead to the smiles and frowns of men! Somewhat concerned, today, about the state of the church, and my own state. Surely I do not pray to the Lord enough! Surely I am too careless about matters of so great concern!⁸⁰

 Ryland .  Ryland  – ; delivering semons, or “lectures,” on Sunday evenings became a common practice at this time among the Particular Baptists, the third service of each Sunday. The final phrase is from Milton’s Paradise Lost, Book , l. .  Ryland .  Ryland ; AG Fuller  (omits final paragraph); Morris .

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1780, October 27, Friday My heart often aches in thinking of my situation. Lord, what is duty? Oh that my ways were directed to keep thy statutes!⁸¹

1780, October 30, Monday Had some view, tonight, of the hardships of poverty. What mercies do I enjoy; yet how ungrateful am I! What a world of self-sufficiency is there in our hearts! Whence springs our desire of riches, dominion, &c. but from an idea of our sufficiency to manage each as we ought? At least, this is implied in those desires. Were we truly emptied of self-sufficiency, we should be, like Agur, afraid of these.⁸² I cannot help lamenting, in reading, in Mosheim’s Church History, ⁸³ how soon, and how much was the religion of Jesus corrupted from its primitive simplicity!⁸⁴

1780, November 4, Saturday How apt are we to think ourselves rather pitiable than blamable, for having such remains of corruption in us! Perhaps one cause of this may be our viewing sin in us as an army, or something we have to oppose and press through. These ideas are good, provided we remember that they are figurative, and that this army is nothing external, but internal; and that the opposition is not like that wherein the combatant’s inclination is all one way, but he finds himself wholly overcome, against his will: were this the case, we should be wholly pitiable. But it is as if a debtor were going to pay his creditor; but, by the way, found great struggles whether he should go forward, and behave like an honest man, or whether he should turn aside, and spend his money in riot and luxury. In this case, he certainly ought to have had no struggle, nor to have made a moment’s scruple. Neither ought we to make a moment’s scruple about loving the Lord with all our hearts, and refraining wholly from sinning against him. We may, indeed, be pitiable with respect to each other; but in the sight of God, we are wholly blamable.

 Ryland ; AG Fuller ; AG Fuller  ; final phrase from Psalm :.  Ryland ; AG Fuller ; for Agur, see Proverbs .  Johann Lorenz von Mosheim ( – ) was a German Lutheran church historian at Göttingen, best known for his two-volume An Ecclesiastical History, From The Birth of Christ to the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century: in which The Rise, Progress And Variation of Church Power Are Considered In Their Connection With the State Of Learning And Philosophy, and The Political History of Europe During that Period,  vols (London, ). Fuller may have borrowed his copy of Mosheim, for the volume does not appear in his  library catalogue (see Appendix A).  Ryland .

1780, November 11, Saturday

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A hard heart is a symptom of distance between God and us. As the Lord is nigh to those who are of a broken heart, so he is far from those who are of a hard heart.⁸⁵

1780, November 7, Tuesday Somewhat affected, in thinking on the annoyances of the spiritual life: stupidity, coldness, confusion, sin of all kinds—O what annoyances! Affected also, tonight, with the goodness of God to me, as a God of providence. I enjoy what the holy apostles, and what even the King of the universe, when an inhabitant here, did not enjoy … yet, O how ungrateful!⁸⁶

1780, November 9, Thursday Found a⁸⁷ heart to pray, today—Into thine hands I commit my spirit.—Enlighten my judgment, guide my choice, direct my conscience, and keep it tender. Found my heart disposed to ask counsel of God, and leave him to guide me in his own way.⁸⁸

1780, November 10, Friday O that I might be guided some way! My heart is much perplexed, but found liberty in prayer.⁸⁹ Towards night, was affected in reading the 23rd and 24th chapters of Jeremiah, and earnest in prayer.⁹⁰

1780, November 11, Saturday A gloomy day. The study, a prison; my heart as hard as the bars of a castle; and my mind exceedingly dull and dark.⁹¹

 Ryland  – ; AG Fuller ; Morris  (omits last paragraph); closing phrase from Psalm :.  Ryland .  an] Ryland .  Ryland ; Ryland  (last sentence only).  This entry and several that follow reflect Fuller’s mental turmoil about finding a “plainer path” (November ) to guide him as to whether he should leave Soham for Kettering.  Ryland ; Ryland  (first two sentences only).  Ryland .

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1780, November 12, Lord’s day Some sweet savour, this morning, in thinking on Ezekiel 34:16. The mercy of Christ our shepherd, to his wandering sheep. Had a pretty good day, in preaching on the subject.⁹²

1780, November 14, Tuesday Being on a journey, I was taken very ill by the way: thought, how sweet heaven would be to the weary, distressed traveler.⁹³

1780, November 17, Friday to November 25, Saturday Having been under heavy affliction for above a week, and incapable of writing, I only observe, that some days I seemed to feel no material workings of sin, nor exercises of grace: sometimes I felt worse.⁹⁴ One day, I dreamed that I was dead: waking, and finding it but a dream, I trembled at the thought of what would become of such a sinful creature, were this dream realized! Here I stopped, painfully stopped: at length, I answered, “Lord, I have hoped in thy salvation.” Here I wept, and thought I would hope still. O that it may not be in vain!⁹⁵

1780, November 28, Tuesday For some days past, have been tenderly concerned about my situation. O that the Lord would bestow upon me his counsels and his care! I am afraid of pride being in my motives, both ways. O that God would hear and help me! The parable of the talents has been something to me. I am frequently told, that my talents are buried here—but I do not know. Oh that I may not have to go upon this principle! O that some plainer path might appear, if I must go!⁹⁶

    

Ibid. Ryland . I only observe … I felt worse.] AG Fuller  omits. Ryland ; AG Fuller . Ryland ; AG Fuller ; AG Fuller  .

1780, December 26, Tuesday, to December 29, Friday

21

1780, December 22, Friday I am far from happy. I cannot feel settled where I am; yet I cannot remove. Lord, let not duty hang thus in doubt!⁹⁷

1780, December 26, Tuesday, to December 29, Friday Afflictions having returned, I think I might make too light of the former. This, though lighter on the body, yet seems heavier on the mind. I am sometimes pressed with guilt for my lightness under the other: sometimes ready to sink in a kind of despondency, almost like that of Jonah – that it will be “better for me to die than to live.”⁹⁸

 Ryland .  Ryland ; AG Fuller  – ; final phrase from Jonah :.

1781 1781, January 1, Monday Often dejected under my affliction; yet have felt my soul going out after the Lord, deprecating a life of distance from him. Alas! my affliction, instead of taking away sin, seems to be attended with new risings of evil. O wretched man that I am! Surely it does not seem consistent, that a¹ heart so full of stupidity and unholiness as mine, and in so constant a manner too, can be the residence of the Holy Spirit of God! Surely those great things said to be done in the hearts of the godly are not done in me! Yet I have found some outgoings of soul to God, after keeping and quickening grace. “Keep back thy servant from presumptuous sins,” &c. “O Lord, I beseech thee, deliver my soul!”²

1781, January 15, Monday Much disheartened in seeing the coolness of some in providing for the future welfare of the church.³

1781, January 22, Monday Visited my father today, who I fear, will die. Found a strong inclination to converse with him concerning his soul, but did not.⁴

1781, January 24, Wednesday Today, visited my father again, but he seems to have no thought of death. I found my heart much drawn out, tonight, to pray for him.⁵

 an] Ryland .  Ryland ; AG Fuller  (omits first and last sentence); final phrases from Psalm : and Psalm :.  Ryland ; AG Fuller .  Ryland ; Fuller’s parents, Robert Fuller ( – ) and Phillipa Gunton Fuller ( – ), were living at Wicken, near Ely, Cambridgeshire, at the time of Fuller’s birth in . Robert Fuller was a farmer and his two other sons, Robert, Jr. (d. ) and John, both followed his profession and became farmers, the former at Isleham and the latter at Little Bentley, Essex. Both brothers appear in Fuller’s diary, and both became deacons in Baptist churches (AG Fuller ).  Ibid. DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-002

1781, January 29, Monday

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1781, January 26, Friday Much affected, today, for my dear father. Oh his immortal soul! How can I bear to bury him unconverted! Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me! I have had many earnest outgoings of soul for him, and some little conversation with him. Son. “Have you any outgoings of soul, father, to the Lord?” Father. “Yes, my dear, I have.” Son. “Well, father, the Lord is rich in mercy to all that call upon him. This is great encouragement.” Father. “Yes; my child, so it is; and I know, if I be saved, it must be by him alone. I have nothing to recommend me to his favour … but my hopes are very small.”⁶

1781, January 27, Saturday Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me!⁷ Give me some good hopes of the welfare of his soul! then I could almost be willing to part with him. This would be letting the cup pass from me. “But, O the soul, that never dies,” &c.⁸ The woman of Canaan made her daughter’s case her own, and cried, “Lord, help me!” Surely I may do likewise by my father.⁹

1781, January 28, Lord’s day Affected with nothing else, today, but thoughts of my father’s death. This I know not how to bear! Preached somehow from Job 14:1, and Hebrews 2:14.¹⁰

1781, January 29, Monday O! he is gone! he is gone! for ever gone! His course is finish’d now, his race is o’er, The place that knew him knows him now no more; The tree is fall’n, and ever there must lie, To endless ages of eternity!¹¹

 Ryland ; AG Fuller  (without italics).  Matthew :.  John :.  Ryland ; AG Fuller ; final reference to Matthew :.  Ryland ; AG Fuller .  Ryland ; AG Fuller ; poetic lines are by Fuller.

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1781, February 3, Saturday I think I have never yet entered into the true idea of the work of the ministry. If I had, surely I should be like Aaron, running between the dead and the living. I think, I am by the ministry, as I was by my life as a Christian, before I read Edwards on the Affections. I had never entered into the spirit of a great many important things. O for some such penetrating, edifying writer on this subject! or, rather, O that the Holy Spirit would open my eyes, and let me into the things that I have never yet seen!¹²

1781, February 4, Lord’s day Some pleasure in preaching from Revelation 2:23, and Psalm 34:18, but I fear my ministry will never be of much use. I fear a dead weight of carnal-mindedness and stupor in me will always prove an obstruction to usefulness.¹³

1781, February 5, Monday A pulpit seems an awful place! An opportunity for addressing a company of immortals on their eternal interests—O how important! We preach for eternity. We, in a sense, are set for the rising and falling of many in Israel. And our own rise or fall is equally therein involved.¹⁴

1781, February 8, Thursday O would the Lord the Spirit lead me into the nature and importance of the work of the ministry! Reading a wise and spiritual author might be of use: yet, could I, by divine assistance, but penetrate the work myself, it would sink deeper, and be more durable.¹⁵

1781, February 13, Tuesday I think, when we are in company, and address ourselves to any one in particular, it too often happens, that the applause of the company, rather than the edification of

   

Ryland Ryland Ryland Ryland

; AG Fuller ; Morris . . ; AG Fuller ; Morris . ; AG Fuller .

1781, March 26, Monday

25

the person or ourselves, is the object. Hence witticisms, and such sayings as sting the party addressed, are introduced. Pride, how pernicious!¹⁶

1781, March 3, Saturday A very affecting time, in thinking on the growth of a Christian—that those who grow most in grace, are far from thinking themselves to be eminent Christians.¹⁷

1781, March 5, Monday Tonight it seems as if it would break my heart to remove. The seal and fruits of my ministry are dear to me. Yet how it can be otherwise I cannot see.¹⁸

1781, March 6, Tuesday A continual heaviness lies upon me. O that I could say, one way or other, upon solid grounds, “I have the mind of Christ!”¹⁹

1781, March 11, Lord’s day I had an affecting day, especially in singing and prayer. The revival of nature, at this season of the year, seemed to kindle an earnest desire for the revival of religion.²⁰

1781, March 26, Monday My soul is discouraged, because of the way. I am full of confusion: see thou mine affliction! O that I knew what was my duty! Let me not err for want of knowledge, and pierce myself through with many sorrows! I think my soul is like the body of an aged man: even a grasshopper becomes a burden! I seem unable to endure any thing more! I had an affecting time in prayer on these subjects. I thought, what an immense fullness of light and happiness dwelt in God; how easily could he inform my mind, and comfort my heart: what fullness in the Holy Scriptures, enough to fur    

Ryland Ryland Ryland Ryland Ryland

; AG Fuller  – ; Morris . . ; AG Fuller ; AG Fuller  . ; final phrase from I Corinthians :. .

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nish the man of God thoroughly, for every good work.²¹ All I want is to find something that suits my case.²²

1781, March 29, Thursday Thoughts on the advocateship of Christ, from John 16:7, and 14:2, have been precious to me: and of his prophetic office, from Matthew 17:5. “This is my beloved Son—hear him.” What a wonder am I to myself! Compared with what I deserve to be, how happy my condition; compared with what I desire to be, how miserable!²³

1781, March 30, Friday Much melancholy gloom today; yet some melting thoughts on the astonishing profusion of divine love. Several passages seemed sweet to me—“God is willing the heirs of promise should have strong consolation.—If any one sin, we have an Advocate with the Father.—Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me?—What have I done to thee, O my people? wherein have I wearied thee? testify against me.”²⁴

1781, April 1, Lord’s day It seems as if the church and I should break each other’s hearts! Tonight, I have been but truly charged with “an irregular mind.” How heartily could I embrace death, if it pleased God to send it! How far are peace and happiness from me!²⁵

  Timothy :.  Ryland ; AG Fuller  has, “My soul is discouraged, because of the way. I am full of confusion: see thou mine affliction! O that I knew what was my duty! Let me not err for want of knowledge, and pierce myself through with many sorrows! I think my soul is like the body of an aged man: even a grasshopper becomes a burden! I seem unable to do any thing more! I had an affecting time in prayer on these subjects. I thought, what an immense fullness of light and happiness dwelt in God; how easily could he inform my mind, and comfort my heart.”  Ryland ; AG Fuller  omits first paragraph; second paragraph reads: “What a wonder am I to myself! Compared with what I deserve to be, how happy my condition; compared with what I desire to be, how miserable!”  Ryland  – ; references from Hebrews :;  John :; Acts :; and Micah :.  Ryland ; AG Fuller ; AG Fuller  .

1781, April 19, Thursday

27

1781, April 2, Monday Affected in prayer. Oh for an unerring guide! Oh that I knew the Lord’s will! Verily, if I know mine own heart, I would do it. I had rather, I think, much rather, walk all my days in the most miserable condition, than offend the Lord, by trying to get out of it.²⁶

1781, April 10, Tuesday The thoughts of my situation now return, and overpower me. Tonight, I was exceedingly affected in prayer, earnestly longing that I might know the will of God. I have entered tonight into a solemn vow, which I desire it may please God to accept at my worthless hands. With all the powers of my soul, with the utmost effusion of feelings, I have vowed to this effect, before the Lord:—“O Lord! if thou wilt give me so much light as plainly to see in this case what is my duty in this case; then, if I do not obey the dictates of conscience, let my tongue for ever cleave to the roof of my mouth!²⁷ let my ministry be at an end! let me be made an example of thy displeasure against falsehood!” The case of those who asked counsel of Jeremiah (chapter 42) seemed to excite in me a jealousy of my own heart; but, so far as I know anything of myself, I am resolved to stay or go, as it should please God, did I but know his will.²⁸

1781, April 18, Wednesday Earnest outgoings to God, in prayer. Tomorrow seems a day of great importance. Then I must give my reasons to the church, for what I have intimated concerning my removal. The Lord guide and bless them and me!²⁹

1781, April 19, Thursday I went to the meeting, today, with very little premeditation, thinking, an upright heart would be prepared. I assigned two reasons for my removal—the complaints some have made of non-edification, and my wasting my property every year. Neither of these objections being answered, the church despairs. All is in confusion! Ah! what can I do? what can they do? My heart would say, Stay; would freely go and gather them together, and pour oil into their wounds. My judgment only forbids me …    

Ryland  – ; AG Fuller . Psalm :. Ryland ; AG Fuller ; AG Fuller   – . Ryland ; AG Fuller .

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No … No! Surely I cannot go! My heart is overwhelmed! Lead me to the Rock that is higher than I!³⁰ I have been pouring out my heart to the Lord, since I came from the meeting. Think I could rather choose death than departure! My heart is as if it would dissolve! It is like wax—it is melted in the midst of my bowels!³¹

1781, April 21, Saturday Vast are the trials tied to time, And all my thoughts confusion still!³² My spirit is overwhelmed within me: my heart within me is desolate. Now my mind seems to lean as if I must stay, even though it terminate in my temporal ruin. O fluctuating soul!³³

1781, May 1, Tuesday Have been praying to the Lord, that I may keep to that direction which has been so much to me ten or eleven years ago—“In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths.” This passage has been, several times, like a present help in time of need. O that it may be such now!³⁴

1781, May 2, Wednesday Affliction returns. How heavy! My heart and flesh faileth! O that God may be the strength of my heart, and my portion for ever!³⁵

1781, May 3, Thursday A painful melancholy lies heavy upon me all this day. Have been trying to pray, but can get no manner of ease. “Withhold not thou thy tender love,” has been my plea.³⁶

      

Psalm :. Ryland ; AG Fuller ; AG Fuller  . Poetic lines by Fuller. Ryland ; AG Fuller . Ryland ; AG Fuller  shortens the Biblical quotation from Proverbs :. Ryland ; final phrase from Psalm :. Ryland ; final phrase from Psalm :.

1781, May 7, Monday

29

1781, May 4, Friday All my powers of body and mind absorbed in my extreme affliction. I thought, towards night, that, as these limbs had been ingloriously employed in the service of sin, how reasonable, though pardoning mercy be extended, that they should be blasted, confined by a series of affliction, and, at last, ingloriously reduced to dust! I can think of little else now, but that I must leave Soham: yet it seems an affair of so much importance, I dread it.³⁷

1781, May 5, Saturday I am as if I thought death would soon take me out of the world; but God knows what is his will concerning me.³⁸

1781, May 6, Lord’s day Confined, by bodily affliction, from public worship this Lord’s day. Tonight, my heart melts with compassion towards the church. I think, after all, if I go from them, it is as if it must be in a coffin!³⁹

1781, May 7, Monday Tender thoughts towards the church. Several verses of the 122nd Psalm, towards the latter part, exceedingly move me. The welfare of this part of Zion lies exceedingly near me. Earnest, very earnest longings for it, and for direction to myself, in prayer. The 2nd chapter of Proverbs has been somewhat to me, tonight, on the subject of divine direction. The first nine verses seem to point out the way of obtaining it; and from thence to the end of the chapter, its manner of operation and effects are described. I have been trying to find out wisdom and the fear of the Lord, as there directed. O that I may search for it, as for hid treasure!⁴⁰

   

Ryland ; AG Fuller . Ryland . Ibid; AG Fuller . Ryland  – .

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1781, May 10, Thursday I seem now, in general, to think of nothing but departing from Soham. There are, however, many devices in man’s heart; but the counsel of the Lord, that shall stand.⁴¹ It seems to me now, as far as I can see, right that I should go; but, perhaps, in a few days I may think otherwise. O that I might arrive at a greater degree of satisfaction! Earnest longings for this, tonight, in prayer.⁴²

1781, May 14, Monday Oh my heart! It is as if it must break! Thought, this morning, “There is a way that seemeth right to a man, but the end thereof is death.”⁴³ This makes me jealous, lest specious appearances should beguile me. My load seems heavier than I can bear! O Lord, for thine own sake, suffer me not to act contrary to thy will! O for an unerring guide!⁴⁴

1781, May 20, Lord’s day Tonight, I stopped the church, and asked them, if they could prove it wrong for me to leave them. I assured them, if they could, I would abide with them whatever was the consequence.⁴⁵

1781, May 22, Tuesday One thing I desire of the Lord: whatever be my portion here—if it be to wear out my years in pining sadness—let me so walk, as to enjoy his approbation. Into thy hands I commit my spirit.⁴⁶

     

Proverbs :. Ryland . Proverbs :. Ryland ; AG Fuller . Ibid; AG Fuller   – . Ryland ; AG Fuller ; final phrase from Luke :.

1781, June 29, Friday

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1781, June 23, Saturday Some delight in reading Mosheim’s History of the Reformation. Several times in the day, had pleasant feelings, on dying in the Lord.⁴⁷

1781, June 26, Tuesday Have been reading Mosheim’s History, Centuries 13 and 14 today. Really I am sick in reading so much about monks, mendicant friars, &c. I could have wished the history had more answered to its title—a history of the church; but it seems little else than a history of locusts. ⁴⁸

1781, June 28, Thursday Some sacred delight, in reading more of Mosheim on the coming forth of those champions of the Reformation—Luther, Melancthon, Zuinglius, Calvin, &c. into the field.⁴⁹ I think I feel their generous fervour in the cause of God and truth.⁵⁰ How were the arms of their hands made strong by the mighty God of Jacob!⁵¹

1781, June 29, Friday The conduct and condition of some wicked people make me bless God, tonight, for conscious integrity. Christ’s yoke is truly easy. Purity carries its own reward with it. O the guilt, the misery, that results from a submission to the yoke of Satan! Well—it is by the grace of God I am what I am: nor is any sin so black or so detestable, but I am liable to fall into it. Lord, keep me!⁵²

 Ryland . Two weeks prior to this entry, on June , John Ryland was ordained as assistant pastor at College Lane, Northampton.  Ibid; AG Fuller .  Four of the giants of the Protestant Reformation in Europe in the sixteenth century: Martin Luther ( – ), Philip Melanchthon ( – ), Huldrych Zwingli ( – ), and John Calvin ( – ).  Fuller uses the phrase “the cause of God and truth” several times in his diary. Though slightly derivative of  Thessalonians :, the phrase is clearly a reference to John Gill’s famous work, The Cause of God and Truth, which appeared in four parts between  and .  Ryland ; AG Fuller  – .  Ryland ; AG Fuller .

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1781, July 1, Lord’s day A fervent day in prayer, and in preaching from Isaiah 53:6, and Ecclesiastes 8:11, the latter occasioned by reading in the public papers of a wretched man, (I think it was at Chatham,) who had been swearing for a wager, that was stricken speechless, and died in three hours.⁵³

1781, July 3, Tuesday I was taken up, today,⁵⁴ in reading Mosheim, whose partial account of the English Baptists would lead me to indulge a better opinion of various sects, who have been deemed heretics. Was very ill, tonight; but felt tenderhearted and earnest in prayer.⁵⁵

1781, July 12, Thursday Have been trying, today, to examine my heart by putting to myself such questions as these:—“Would it be most agreeable to my conscience to continue, after all, with my people?—Is it likely, in so doing, I should please God, and contribute to the welfare of his cause, on the whole?” To these questions, I could not see how I could, in any degree, answer in the affirmative. But God knows my heart. I have been trying to pray; and sure it is my sincere desire, if I am wrong, to be set right. I am now going to the church meeting. O for wisdom, and a quick understanding in the fear of the Lord! The meetinghouse has been a Bochim today—a place of weeping!⁵⁶ I have told the church to expect my removal, in a quarter of a year. Oh my soul! I seem unable to endure such attacks on my feelings!⁵⁷

1781, July 14, Saturday Waked, this morning with great heaviness of heart. Have been trying to pray, “O send out thy light and thy truth: let them lead me,” &c.⁵⁸ My soul seems at a distance from God. O Lord, if I have done aught amiss, teach me but the right way, and I am willing

     

Ryland . I was occupied to-day] AG Fuller, . Ryland ; AG Fuller  (omits last sentence). Judges :. Ryland ; AG Fuller . Psalm :.

1781, August 16, Thursday

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to follow it. Have been reading Hosea 12:8, 9. I think I can answer, from my heart, “Well Lord, if it be so, show me it, and I am willing to retract, willing to be any thing thou wouldest have me to be.”⁵⁹

1781, July 15, Lord’s day An affecting forenoon, in preaching from Ezekiel 10:13. An equally affecting afternoon from Psalm 125:1. It seemed needful to me, to contrast immovebleness with moveableness. Exceedingly affected, tonight, in a conversation with the church, on my going away. My heart, how it melts! A good spirit seemed to take place.⁶⁰

1781, August 11, Saturday Have been ravished, as it were, today, in reading the account of the council held by the apostles and elders, Acts 15. Oh the beauty and simplicity of primitive Christianity!⁶¹

1781, August 12, Lord’s day Had a sweet forenoon, in thinking on the mediation of Christ, and in preaching upon that subject, from Ephesians 2:13.⁶²

1781, August 16, Thursday Serious, and somewhat pleasant. Wrote some thoughts on the holy angels taking pleasure in looking into our redemption. In reading Dr. Owen, today, the end of predestination seemed sweet to me; namely, conformity to the image of God’s dear Son.⁶³  Ryland .  Ibid.  Ryland ; AG Fuller .  Ryland .  Ibid (first paragraph); Ryland  (last sentence). John Owen ( – ) was a Nonconformist writer whose works were widely read among Particular Baptists and evangelical Calvinists in the last half of the eighteenth century. Fuller refers to Owen often and may have had a copy of The Complete Collection of the Sermons of the Reverend and Learned John Owen, D.D., which appeared in London in , but more likely he owned reprints of Owen’s works that appeared in London and Edinburgh between  and . The work he may have in mind here could be A Dissertation on Divine Justice, Or, the Claims of Vindicatory Justice Asserted, which was republished in London in  and ap-

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1781, August 27, Monday I had pleasure in conversing on Romans 8:33. Methought, it indicated the fullness of the Redeemer’s righteousness; partly, from the character of the justified; and, partly, from that of the justifier—God, the all-scrutinizing, impartial Judge.⁶⁴

1781, September 2, Lord’s day A sweet savor of spirit, at night, in talking with Brother West,⁶⁵ on God’s justice and faithfulness, as discovered in the plan of redemption; and in repeating to him the substance of the afternoon’s discourse, on Romans 8:33, 34.⁶⁶

1781, September 15, Saturday What a difference between the book which I keep, and that which God keeps! Oh what an awful, black diary could he produce against me in judgment!⁶⁷

1781, September 21, Friday Earnestly affected in prayer, that, if it would be most pleasing to God for me to stay, I might do so after all. I should not be sorry if the arbitrators should judge this to be my duty.⁶⁸ My soul trembles for the ark of God. What will betide the interest of Christ here? “Unto thee I lift up mine eyes, O thou that dwellest in the heavens!”⁶⁹

pears in the list of books in Fuller’s library in . Several quotations from Owen appear in Fuller’s The Gospel of Christ Worthy of All Acception (Northampton: T. Dicey, ),  – , .  Ryland ; AG Fuller .  John West ( – ) was originally from the Baptist church at Soham; upon Fuller’s removal to Kettering, West assumed the pulpit. He removed to Carlton in , and eventually pastored congregations in Berkshire and in Ireland, working on behalf of the Baptist Irish Society between  and .  Ryland .  Ibid; AG Fuller .  Fuller’s advice from the arbitrators would not prove definitive at this time. Robert Robinson of Cambridge advised him to wait one year and seek a higher salary from the Soham church. Fuller remained for another year before resigning and moving to Kettering in October ; he was ordained there the following year. See Ryland  – ; AG Fuller  – ; AG Fuller   – .  Ryland ; AG Fuller ; final phrase from Psalm :.

1781, November 14, Wednesday

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1781, September 22, Saturday My heart much moved this morning. Psalm 123:1, 2, was somewhat to me. Overcome in prayer, that God would shine upon my path. O God, thou knowest that I am willing to be any thing. It is my unfeigned desire, that not my will, but thine be done.⁷⁰ Let not my ease, but thine honour be consulted. Yes, O thou Searcher of hearts!⁷¹ I humbly, earnestly, and unfeignedly desire of thee, that if my departure would issue in the failure of thine interest here, never let me depart. Let me rather go mourning all my days, in the bitterness of my soul!⁷²

1781, September 29, Saturday I seem very desirous to go more than I have done in a way of dependence on the Lord. In riding to Littleport, had much solemn exercise of mind, on almighty love.—“How shall I put thee among the children?”⁷³

1781, October 6, Saturday Very heavy in heart. Be not far off, O Lord, for trouble is near! Exceedingly melted in thinking on Hosea 6:4, “O Ephraim, what shall I do unto thee?”⁷⁴

1781, November 14, Wednesday My mind, today, seems bewildered. The lives of some poets have taken up my thoughts. The grandeur and stretch of thought in their writings seems rather to flatten my mind towards the simple truths of Christianity. But, alas! what am I after? what am I admiring? Pompous trifles! Great souls employed in dressing atoms! O religion, thy joys are substantial and sincere! When shall I awake, and find myself where nothing else shall attract the soul?⁷⁵

 Luke :.  Psalm :.  Ryland ; AG Fuller  omits “My heart much . . . upon my path.”  Ryland ; final phrase from Jeremiah :.  Ryland ; AG Fuller .  Ryland ; Morris  – . Ryland adds after his extract from the  diary, “Much more that is very good might have been extracted, but chiefly such things as are common to all Christians.”

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1781, November 15, Thursday This morning, had some interesting conversation with my wife, on little faith, great depravity, a great Savior, and genuine love to God, from a spiritual discernment of his glory, and delight in the character of the true God.⁷⁶

1781, December 20, Thursday Religion appeared to me to be full of greatness. A great God, possessed of great excellencies, whence arise great obligations: hence the great evil of sin; and hence the need of a Savior, and a great one. All in religion is great. O that I had a great sense of the importance of divine things! Lord, increase my faith!⁷⁷

1781, December 28, Friday Thought, today, on account of family circumstances, what a matter of importance is the birth of a child. Here its life begins; but where shall it end? Ah! no end to its existence! But, O that God would accept of my new-born child, and let its end be “to glorify God, and enjoy him for ever!”⁷⁸

 Ryland .  Ibid; Morris .  Ryland ; Morris  – .

1782 1782, January 3, Thursday This afternoon, being on a visit, as I stepped aside from the company, I overheard one of them saying, “I love Mr. Fuller’s company, it is so diverting.” This expression moved me much. O wretch that I am! Is this to have my speech seasoned with grace?¹ O Lord forgive me! Some humbling thoughts, tonight, for the above, in prayer.²

1782, January 4, Friday Very tender, this morning, in remembering the above circumstance. Lord, make me more spiritual in time to come!³

1782, January 9, Wednesday Thought, what an awful day will that be, when God searches Jerusalem, as with candles!⁴ O how many will then appear to have been religious through custom, shame, pride, or something short of the fear of God! Alas! how many have proved hypocrites, by the breaking up of a church! When the restraints of church-communion have been taken off them, how have they turned out! O to walk as in the sight of God! That is a spirit which would teach us to be holy, though there were no creature upon earth to watch us.⁵

 Colossians :, of which the first part reads, “Let your speech be always in grace seasoned with salt …”  Ryland ; Morris .  Ryland .  Zephaniah :.  Ryland ; Morris . DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-003

1784 1784, April 11, Lord’s Day¹ A tender forenoon in public prayer. My heart aches² for the congregation young and old, especially for some who seem to be under concern. O, if Christ might but be formed in them! But I am so carnal that I fear God will never do any thing by me! Had a pretty good forenoon in preaching on being sick, but a poor afternoon on Christ being the great Physician. ³

1784, April 12, Monday Visited today by Mr. Sutcliff.⁴ Heard him preach from—Whosoever hath learned of the Father cometh unto me. ⁵ Very little spirituality throughout the day.⁶

 The Manuscript Diary of Andrew Fuller, shelf-mark G b, Bristol Baptist College, Bristol, England (hereafter MS Diary). Fuller wrote the following heading for this volume of his diary: “Diary from Lords day April  .” A gap of slightly more than two years appears at this point because of Fuller’s destruction of the second volume of his diary at some point prior to his death in .  achs] MS Diary.  Ryland ; AG Fuller  ; AG Fuller  (omits final sentence); for the reference to “Christ the Great Physician,” see John : – .  John Sutcliff ( – ), originally from Yorkshire, was influenced in his youth by John Fawcett and Dan Taylor. He studied at Bristol Academy,  – , serving as a supply preacher at Trowbridge during part of his time at Bristol. After preaching at Shrewsbury for six months and Cannon Street, Birmingham, for another six months, he accepted the pastorate of the Baptist congregation at Olney in , remaining there until his death in . Influenced, as were so many other English Baptist ministers at this time, by the writings of Jonathan Edwards, he reprinted Edwards’s Humble Attempt (Northampton, ) and led the effort to promote an evangelical Calvinism among the Particular Baptist churches of the Midlands. He was a founding member of the Baptist Missionary Society and a devoted friend to Fuller and Ryland. He also kept a “residential academy” for many years at Olney, much like Fawcett’s in Hebden Bridge. See Michael A. G. Haykin, One Heart and One Soul: John Sutcliff of Olney, His Friends and his Times (Darlington: Evangelical Press, ); idem, “‘A Habitation of God, through the Spirit’: John Sutcliff ( – ) and the Revitalization of the Calvinistic Baptists in the late Eighteenth Century,” Baptist Quarterly  ( – ):  – .  John :.  MS Diary. DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-004

1784, April 14, Wednesday

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1784, April 13, Tuesday Rode with Mr. S.⁷ to Naseby—heard Mr. Ryland⁸ preach on God’s friends being the salt of the earth⁹—had a good time—heard Mr. S. in the evening on Moses smiting the Rock. ¹⁰

1784, April 14, Wednesday Rode this morning to Arnesby ministers’ meeting—preached there on determining to know nothing but Christ and him crucified. ¹¹ Not a very good time. Heard Mr. J—. & Mr. M— but little profit.¹² Conversation on various subjects profitable particularly on spiritual acts being incumbent on natural men. ¹³

 Sutcliff.  Most likely John Ryland, Jr. ( – ), Fuller’s friend and contemporary, although some of his references to “Mr. Ryland” could refer to his friend’s father, John Collett Ryland ( – ) (Fuller usually designates the younger Ryland by “jun.”). The elder Ryland was baptized at Bourton-on-theWater by Benjamin Beddome and trained for the ministry at Bristol Academy,  – . He spent thirteen years at Warwick as a Baptist minister and schoolmaster before removing to Northampton in , serving both as pastor at College Lane and headmaster of the academy. He resigned in November  amid some controversy and relocated to Enfield, near London, where he conducted a school until his death in . He turned the church and school over to the younger Ryland, who continued at Northampton as pastor until December , when he removed to Bristol as pastor at Broadmead and President of Bristol Baptist Academy. For more on J. C. Ryland, see William Newman, Rylandiana: Reminiscences Relating to the Rev. John Ryland, A.M. of Northampton (London: G. Wightman, ); James Culross, The Three Rylands: A Hundred Years of Various Christian Service. (London: Elliot Stock, ); and Peter Naylor, “John Collett Ryland ( – ),” in Haykin, British Particular Baptists, : – ; and Grant Gordon, Wise Counsel: John Newton’s Letters to John Ryland, Jr. (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, ).  Matthew :.  MS Diary; AG Fuller   has the following as the entry for that day, although it is not present in Fuller’s MS Diary: “Devoted this day to fasting and prayer, in conjunction with several other ministers, who have agreed thus to spend the second Tuesday in every month, to seek the revival of real religion, and the extension of Christ’s kingdom in the world.” Reference to Moses from Exodus :.   Corinthians :.  The two ministers’ names have been marked through after the first letter. The first minister is unidentified; the second one is possibly Martin Mayle of Blunham (see below, entry for November , ).  MS Diary.

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1784, April 15, Thursday Heard Mr. S.¹⁴ of Oakham this morning with some pleasure. Heard Mr. Sutcliff at Bosworth on the days of our mourning being ended.¹⁵ Had a good time. Rode home to Kettering with him.¹⁶

1784, April 16, Friday Very little exercise today—visited some friends. Somewhat unhappy at the spirit discovered in a letter from Mrs. T—.¹⁷ Heard Brother Heighton tonight.¹⁸

1784, April 17, Saturday Rode to Bedford today to supply for Mr. S.¹⁹ but little spirituality but much unholy and carnal mindedness. O what a beast I am!²⁰

 John Sharp ( – ) ministered to Baptist congregations at Oakham ( – ) and Manchester ( – ) before assuming pastoral duties at the Baptist meeting at the Pithay in Bristol in April , first as co-pastor with John Tommas and then, after Tommas’s death in , as senior pastor until his own death in November .  Matthew :.  MS Diary.  Elizabeth Timms, wife of Joseph Timms, a deacon in the Kettering church. According to the Kettering Church Book, still residing at the Fuller Baptist Church, she died on December , , aged , having originally been a member of the Baptist church at Foxton (f. ).  MS Diary. William Heighton (c.  – ) was called into the ministry under Andrew Fuller at Kettering. He had joined the church on November ,  (Kettering Church Book, f. ). By  he was beginning to exercise his gifts in preaching, having been authorized by the church to supply the small congregation at Winwick on February ,  (f. ). He would eventually minister at Roade (a church in the Northampton Association) from  until his death in  at the age of . He was one of the original ministers involved in the formation of the Baptist Missionary Society in . See Ernest A. Payne, College Street Church, Northampton,  –  (London: Kingsgate Press, ),  – ; idem, Roade Baptist Church  –  (London: Kingsgate Press, ).  Joshua Symonds ( – ) ministered to the Old Meeting (Independent/Baptist) at Bedford from  until his death in . He attended John Conder’s academy at Mile End in London in  and joined the Independent church at Stepney, under Samuel Brewer. He was originally a paedobaptist, but switched to believer’s baptism in  (the Old Meeting had a long tradition of being a “mixed” congregation). Some members, however, withdrew to form a new society in Bedford (which later became Howard Congregational Church) under Thomas Smith. John Ryland preached Symonds’s funeral sermon in .  MS Diary; final phrase from Psalm :.

1784, April 22, Thursday

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1784, April 18, Lord’s Day Some earnestness but very little if any spirituality in preaching today.²¹

1784, April 19, Monday Visited Mr. E.²² and rode to Carlton²³ today—preached there tonight with great tenderness of heart. Felt my heart very tender in prayer—and disposed to deal plainly with them as a people.²⁴

1784, April 20, Tuesday Rode home, but very little if any spiritual exercise. I feel myself a poor sluggish, stupid wretch!²⁵

1784, April 21, Wednesday Chiefly taken up in writing—find myself the subject of very much unholiness— O what a heart have I! Surely I have reason to be afraid of myself!²⁶

1784, April 22, Thursday Visited today by Mr. Hall²⁷ & Mr. Joshua Symonds. The former preached from “Be ye also ready!”²⁸ and a very solemn, painful, and yet pleasurable time I had! O how far

 Ibid.  Possibly John Evans of Northampton.  A village in Bedfordshire, about  miles to the south of Kettering.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid.  Robert Hall, Sr. ( – ) was originally from Newcastle-upon-Tyne; he was baptized and joined the congregation at Hexham in , after which he entered the ministry and pastored at Arnesby from  until his death in . He was one of the leaders in the movement that rejected the constraints of High Calvinism in favor of a more evangelical ministry, which he helped initiate in his influential work, Help to Zion’s Travellers (). See Michael A. G. Haykin, “Robert Hall, Sr. ( – ),” in Haykin, British Particular Baptists, : – .  Matthew :.

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am I from being ready—how little disengaged from what I must shortly leave! how little prepared for a better world!²⁹

1784, April 23, Friday This day wholly taken in conversation with Mr. Symonds. Some little pleasure, but I have so much of that in me that spoils all!³⁰

1784, April 24, Saturday Nothing material.³¹

1784, April 25, Lord’s day A very good forenoon both in prayer & preaching on walking by faith. But a poor afternoon—not much savor at the Lord’s Supper. Expounded the 4th chapter of Matthew this evening on Christ’s temptation. Took notice of its importance, time, circumstances, nature, and issue, & concluded with 2 uses—Christ did not run into temptation but was led up—let not us, Christ bids us pray that we enter not into it.³²

1784, April 26, Monday Visited several of our poor friends today—with some profit. Some fresh thoughts from “Take, eat”³³—O how desirable not to be a mere spectator in religion! Nor merely to partake of Christ but his ordinances. Some pleasure at evening meeting hearing friend Law speak.³⁴

 MS Diary; Ryland .  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid; Ryland ; AG Fuller . Fuller’s last line is somewhat awkward, which Ryland altered accordingly: “In the evening, expounded Matt iv. on Christ’s temptation. Noticed it’s [sic] importance, time, circumstances, nature, and issue. At the close, inferred, ‘As Christ did not run into temptation, but was led up of the Spirit; so we must not run into it, but pray, as he has directed us, that we may not enter into it.’” AG Fuller has, “Expounded Matt. iv. This evening, on Christ’s temptation; noticed its importance, time, circumstances, nature, and issue, inferring that as Christ did not run into temptation, but was led up, so we must not; but pray, as he has directed, that we enter not into it.”  Matthew :.  MS Diary. John Law began his ministry at Weston-by-Weedon, Northamptonshire, in , his ordination occurring on September , , with Fuller, Ryland, and Sutcliff present, one month after

1784, April 30, Friday

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1784, April 27, Tuesday Chiefly taken up in writing—nothing spiritual scarcely throughout the day. Concerned for Bro. H.³⁵ much fear on his account.³⁶

1784, April 28, Wednesday Rode to Winwick today—preached there tonight—felt³⁷ sacred pleasure in prayer. O, it gives me sweet pleasure to see any appearances of the prosperity of Christ’s kingdom! Had a good time in preaching from “Let us have grace &c.”³⁸

1784, April 29, Thursday A deal of wickedness at work in my heart today in riding home. O, what an accumulated load of guilt should I have if God were to enter into judgment with me!³⁹

1784, April 30, Friday Very little exercise today—what reason have I to pray for a revival in my soul! Surely I am to a sad degree sunk into a spirit of indifference! My soul cleaveth to the dust, quicken thou me.⁴⁰ I earnestly desire these papers and books if I should not burn them in my lifetime may never be shown (supposedly) to very few persons ⁴¹ after my death—for such a life as mine I wish never to be imitated. When I read the life of one whom I think was a⁴² good man I feel apt to account his acquisitions nearly

William Carey’s ordination at Leicester by the same three ministers. He remained at Weston until . See Joseph Lea, Historical Sketch of the Baptist Church at Weston-by-Weedon (Northampton: Taylor & Son, ), .  Heighton.  Ibid.  Preached at Winnick: felt] Ryland .  Ibid; Ryland  (omits last sentence); final phrase taken from Hebrews :. A Baptist interest began in Winwick in ; Ryland, Fuller, Sutcliff, and others in the association preached there often, with William Heighton becoming a regular supply minister there in February , about two months prior to the above entry. Fuller assisted in the formal organization of the church in October  (see below).  MS Diary.  Psalm :.  For added emphasis, Fuller has underscored the italicized words in this sentence with a thick black line.  think to have been a] Ryland .

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the utmost that can be attained in this life. The fear lest any one should think thus of mine makes⁴³ me write this desire.⁴⁴

1784, May 1, Saturday Rode to Bedford today—very little exercise of mind.⁴⁵

1784, May 2, Lord’s day A poor, wretched time in preaching today both forenoon and afternoon but some solemn longings after the salvation of souls this evening in preaching on Trust in Christ. ⁴⁶

1784, May 3, Monday Some tenderness in preaching today at Stagsden,—endeavored to speak plain & home to the understandings and consciences of some poor plain people, on Christ being a way that men know not. ⁴⁷

 of this mine makes] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland  omits “Very little … thou me”; AG Fuller  includes only “Very little … to the dust.” Ryland  –  adds some comments concerning Fuller’s intentions and his own role as editor/ biographer: “On this paragraph I would make two or three remarks, previously to my inserting any extracts from this volume. . I am strongly persuaded, that I am one of those few whom he would not have precluded from the sight of these papers. And I find sufficient evidence, in this very manuscript, of his affectionate regard for me, and his sympathy with me, under trials of my own, to confirm this opinion, if it needed confirmation. . That I wish, according to what I suggested in the former chapter, to guard against the abuse of his many complaints and conflicts. . That, all things considered, I found more to humble me, on the perusal of the whole, than to administer that despicable and pernicious comfort, which we both feared some professors would be tempted to extract from it. . That I sincerely wish, (as I am sure he would, still more earnestly than I,) to beware of any attempt to make others think more highly than they ought to think of my dear departed friend; or to lead them to imagine, that he was ‘exempt from the common infirmities of our corrupted nature.’ A sinner ready to perish, but saved by marvelous grace, was the only light in which he wished to be viewed, or in which I have attempted to exhibit him. I only add, . That I have made such a selection, according to the best of my judgment, as I thought would tend to the honour of his blessed Lord, and to the benefit of candid and intelligent readers; inserting nothing which I conceived he would have objected to insert, had he been the biographer of just such another man.”  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid; Ryland ; AG Fuller ; final phrase probably from Isaiah :. Many of the villages in which Fuller preaches (nearly sixty appear in the diary) have residents who are Baptists (or at

1784, May 7, Friday

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1784, May 4, Tuesday Rode to Buckby⁴⁸ today and preached on the all-sufficiency of Grace but had not a very good time. Very little if any profit in conversation.⁴⁹

1784, May 5, Wednesday Dejected in spirit owing to some debate with Mr. C.⁵⁰ O, how happy to be in that world where we shall see things as they are! Preached today at Elkington⁵¹ “Let us have grace &c.”⁵²

1784, May 6, Thursday Rode to Spratton & preached with some earnestness on men’s light being darkness. ⁵³

1784, May 7, Friday Rode home today⁵⁴—heard Mr. R. Hall, jun.⁵⁵ preach a good sermon from—“He that increaseth wisdom increaseth sorrow”⁵⁶—felt very solemn in hearing some parts. The Lord keep that young man!⁵⁷

least Calvinists) but not a sufficient number to support a minister and a church. Fuller, Ryland, and Sutcliff were indefatigable in their village preaching throughout their ministerial careers.  The Baptist church at Long Buckby was led at this time by William Cole ( – ) (not to be confused with William Coles, Baptist minister at Maulden, Bedfordshire). Previously Cole had served as the initial minister of a Baptist church meeting in Church Plain, Yarmouth, but after two years he removed to Long Buckby in , remaining there until his death in . See John Browne, History of Congregationalism and Memorials of the Churches in Norfolk and Suffolk (London: Jarrold and Sons, ), .  MS Diary.  Cole.  Elkington was a medieval village about five miles to the north of Long Buckby; the village no longer exists.  Ibid; final phrase from Hebrews :.  Ibid; final phrase taken from John :.  Rode home today] AG Fuller  and AG Fuller   omits.  Robert Hall, Jr. ( – ) was raised under the tutelage of his father, Robert Hall, Sr., in the Baptist church at Arnesby. After a brief stay at John Collett Ryland’s academy in Northampton, he entered Bristol Academy at the age of . He completed his A.M. at Aberdeen in  while serving as classical tutor and assistant pastor to Caleb Evans at Broadmead and the Academy (his position at the time of the above diary entry). After tensions developed between Hall and Evans in , Hall removed to Cambridge, where he succeeded Robert Robinson at the Baptist meeting in St. Andrew’s

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1784, May 8, Saturday Conversation with R. H.⁵⁸ on various subjects. Some tenderness and earnestness in prayer after his departure. O could I but keep more near to God! How good it is to draw near to him! “Where should my foolish passions rove? where can such sweetness be?”⁵⁹

1784, May 9, Lord’s day A good day in preaching on our need of correction, and of men being like Moab, at ease from their youth. ⁶⁰ This day we lost Mrs. Mee.⁶¹ The event had some effect upon my mind in prayer.⁶²

1784, May 10, Monday Very little exercise today—a poor, cold evening meeting.⁶³

Street in July . Like Robert Robinson and his former Bristol mentor Caleb Evans, Hall bore an outspoken allegiance to the fundamental principles of political dissent, as his pen soon demonstrated, resulting in two classics of dissenting literature from the s, Christianity Consistent with a Love of Freedom () and An Apology for the Freedom of the Press (). His radical positions altered in the late  s (as did many reformers), and he turned his focus toward religious concerns, as exemplified in his famous sermon, On Modern Infidelity (). He resigned from St. Andrew’s Street early in  after a second mental breakdown, but in  accepted the pastorate of William Carey’s former church in Leicester. He remained there until , at which time he returned to Bristol to succeed John Ryland, Jr., as pastor at Broadmead and president of the Academy, remaining there until his death in . See “Memoir of Robert Hall,” by Olinthus Gregory, ed., The Works of Robert Hall, A. M.,  vols, th ed. (London: Henry G. Bohn, ), :  – .  Ecclesiastes :.  MS Diary; Ryland  (omits last sentence and adds two sentences from the next entry, “O that I … near to him!”); AG Fuller  and AG Fuller , .  Robert Hall, Sr.  MS Diary; AG Fuller  –  omits final two sentences, which are from a hymn by Isaac Watts.  Jeremiah :.  Mrs. Mee does not appear in the member’s list of the Kettering church; she may have been a hearer at Kettering, or she may be a member at Fuller’s former congregation at Soham, though from the immediacy of his knowledge of her death, that seems unlikely.  MS Diary.  Ibid.

1784, May 14, Friday

47

1784, May 11, Tuesday This day I have devoted to fasting & prayer, in conjunction with several other ministers, who have agreed each at home by himself to fast & pray the second⁶⁴ Tuesday in every other month for the revival of real religion and the extending of Christ’s Kingdom in the world.—Feel very unhappy to think that my heart should be no more in it. But very little real prayer⁶⁵ throughout the day.⁶⁶

1784, May 12, Wednesday Chiefly taken up today in preparing for preaching this evening, a funeral sermon for Mrs. M.⁶⁷—Had a pretty good time in preaching.⁶⁸

1784, May 13, Thursday Rode this morning to Oakham—preached a funeral sermon there tonight for Mrs. Sharpe.⁶⁹ Had a good time.⁷⁰

1784, May 14, Friday Rode home. Some pleasant exercise by the way through viewing the Corn fields, and the Sheep from Isaiah 21:10. O, my Threshing, & the Corn of my floor and John 21— “Lovest thou me? feed my sheep.” Both how expressive of God’s great love! Spoke tonight at home with a good deal of freedom from—“It is good for me that I should draw near to God.”⁷¹ But ah, how self-condemned!⁷²

 agreed thus to spend the second] Ryland .  little of the true spirit of] Ryland .  Ibid; Ryland  and AG Fuller  (several alterations from the MS).  Mee.  MS Diary.  The Sharpes [also spelled Sharp] were among the earliest members of the Baptist congregation at Oakham, and were probably related to John Sharp, who succeeded William Smith as minister in . The Mrs. Sharpe mentioned here may have been the wife of William Sharpe, a cabinetmaker and a former leader of the parish church choir prior to joining the church at Oakham, or possibly the first wife of John Sharp, the minister.  MS Diary.  Psalm :.  MS Diary.

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1784, May 15, Saturday Much confusion today attending to the funeral of Mrs. Gotch, sen.⁷³ Interrupted as to my work tomorrow. What repeated calls by death and yet I [am] unaffected.⁷⁴

1784, May 16, Lord’s day A good forenoon—tender in prayer for the revival of religion and the carrying on of a good work in our young people. A good time in preaching about God’s church being his “threshing and the corn of his floor.”⁷⁵ But a poor afternoon on Hypocrisy. Very tender tonight, and very much concerned for the salvation of souls at Thrapston,⁷⁶ preaching on Sinners being like “Moab, at ease from their youth &c.”⁷⁷ Here I am child enough to think, surely some good must be done.⁷⁸

 The Gotches were, along with the Wallises, a prominent family in the congregation at Kettering. Ann Gotch ( – ) and her husband John Gotch ( – ) were the parents of Thomas Gotch ( – ), the wealthy tanner, who would play a key factor in the life of William Carey. He and his wife, Ann ( – ), both joined the church on August ,  (f. ), and they appear in several entries in Fuller’s diary. Thomas Gotch was a banker by trade but in  entered the shoe business as a leather tanner (currier), building a substantial business in Kettering (much of it with government contracts) and employing large numbers of local people. In , William Carey, a shoemaker by trade, trudged every two weeks from Moulton to Kettering with a wallet full of shoes for delivery to Gotch’s establishment, returning home with a load of leather sufficient for the next two weeks. Gotch soon promised to pay Carey  shillings a week if he would quit his shoemaking and devote his energies to his work as a Baptist minister (he was receiving about  shillings a week at that time for his preaching duties). See Ernest A. Payne and A. Rattray Allan, Clipston Baptist Church (Northampton: Billingham & Son, ),  – .  MS Diary.  Isaiah :.  Baptists began meeting at Thrapston c. ; a building was eventually erected and opened on March , , though the first stated minister was Reynold Hogg ( – ) in . He would remain at Thrapston until . Hogg was present at the founding of the Baptist Missionary Society at Kettering in  and served as the Society’s first treasurer. See Thrapston and its Baptist Church: An Institution of Historical Interest and Present Day Value (published by the church), undated, .  Jeremiah :.  MS Diary; Ryland  and AG Fuller  omit “A good… Hypocrisy”; final section from Ryland and AG Fuller reads, “Very tender to-night, at Thrapston, and greatly concerned for the salvation of souls while preaching on sinners being like Moab—at ease from his youth. Here I am child enough to think —surely some good must be done!”

1784, May 21, Friday

49

1784, May 17, Monday Rode on towards Soham. Slept tonight at Haddenham. Unhappy to hear some things . ⁷⁹

1784, May 18, Tuesday Got to Soham today. Conversed with W. Barret⁸⁰ and some others. Their concerns make me unhappy .⁸¹

1784, May 19, Wednesday Chiefly taken up in visiting friends but very little spirituality. Preached tonight with some tenderness of spirit at S—m⁸² on God’s Church being the “corn of his floor &c.”⁸³

1784, May 20, Thursday This morning went to Isleham—some conversation there but little or no spirituality. Preached tonight, but with little savor at Westrow⁸⁴ on our ignorance of “what is good for us in this life.”⁸⁵

1784, May 21, Friday Rode to Wicken today and preached Sister Irons’s⁸⁶ funeral sermon from Colossians 3 —When Christ who is your life shall appear, you shall appear with him in glory—but very little spirituality throughout the day.⁸⁷

        

MS Diary. Most likely a member of the church at Soham. MS Diary. Soham. Ibid. West Row, Cambridgeshire, just to the west of Soham. MS Diary; final phrase possibly from Romans :. Most likely a member of the Soham church living at Wicken or an attendant there. MS Diary.

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1784, May 22, Saturday This day but poorly spent.⁸⁸

1784, May 23, Lord’s day Heard Brother West this morning. Preached this afternoon on faith and sight—and this evening on Trust in Christ, but not much savor.⁸⁹

1784, May 24, Monday Much dejected to see and hear the dissatisfaction of the two E—s’s⁹⁰ with Bro. W.⁹¹ Surely those men are cut out to make work for other people. Preached tonight at Fordham on Carnal security with some satisfaction.⁹²

1784, May 25, Tuesday Went to Burwell this morning. Conversation with R. F.⁹³ by the way concerning Mr. W. makes me more unhappy. Preached at Burwell tonight with great tenderness of spirit on our need of correction. ⁹⁴

 Ibid.  Ibid.  Fuller is probably referring to two members in the Soham church whose names begin with “E,” possibly two brothers. A less likely scenario is that he is referring to two ministers, both named “Evans.” This could be John Evans, former minister at Foxton (then living at Northampton) and one of the founders of the Northamptonshire Baptist Association, composing the first circular letter in  and another one in . The other minister was David Evans, pastor of the congregation at Thorn, Bedfordshire, before the arrival in  of Robert Fawkner. See Baptist Annual Register, :; Payne and Allan, Clipston Baptist Church, ; Arthur S. Langley, “Baptist Ministers in England about  A.D,” Transactions of the Baptist Historical Society  ( – ): .  West.  MS Diary.  Possibly Fuller’s brother, Robert Fuller.  MS Diary.

1784, May 29, Saturday

51

1784, May 26, Wednesday Rode to Cambridge today. Some⁹⁵ sense of the importance of everlasting things occasioned by the conversation of some wicked men at Qui. ⁹⁶ O if I had an abiding sense of the danger and worth of souls surely I should feel more like Aaron when he ran with his Censer between the living and the dead!⁹⁷

1784, May 27, Thursday Rode to Spaldwick today, and preached for Mr. Ward⁹⁸—but a poor, cold, wretched opportunity. I feel discouraged on account of the little exercise of grace I find in my general walk.⁹⁹

1784, May 28, Friday Rode home today with Brother West in his way to the Association—but very little of any spirituality. Heard Mr. Gill¹⁰⁰ preach tonight on our being Christ’s, but no manner of profit.¹⁰¹

1784, May 29, Saturday Set out today for Carlton—some exercise by the way on Christ’s ordering Peter to feed his sheep. ¹⁰²

 Felt a] Ryland .  at Qui] Ryland  omits. Quy (modern spelling), often referred to as Stow cum Quy, is a small parish in Cambridgeshire located about four miles northeast of Cambridge.  Ibid; Ryland  and AG Fuller omit first sentence; final phrase from Numbers : – .  A Mr. Ward preached to a group of Baptists at Spaldwick, Huntingdonshire, from as early as , when he appears in John Collett Ryland’s list of Baptist churches and ministers in England, a manuscript now among the collections of Bristol Baptist College, shelfmark, G A/Ryl/.  MS Diary.  John Gill (d. ) was the nephew of John Gill, coming from his uncle’s congregation at Carter Lane, Southwark, to St. Albans, Hertfordshire, in ; the congregation joined the Northamptonshire Association in . Two annual meetings of the association took place at St. Albans in  and , with Andrew Fuller preaching at the latter. During the younger Gill’s ministry, which lasted until his death in , the church remained relatively small, with a membership of under . See David Watts, A History of the Hertfordshire Baptists ([Hertfordshire]: Hertfordshire Baptist Association, ), .  MS Diary.  Ibid; final phrase from John :.

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1784, May 30, Lord’s day Preached from the above in the forenoon at Carlton—but a poor, wretched time in the afternoon. I am as if I cannot preach at all. Rode home tonight—much dispirited on account of my Stupidity & Carnality. Some outgoings of heart to God in prayer.¹⁰³

1784, May 31, Monday Rode with Mr. Sutcliff to Oakham—both preached but I had a poor time in the whole.¹⁰⁴

1784, June 1, Tuesday Rode to Nottingham to the annual association—heard the Letters from the Churches. Found many of them are in a low condition, destitute of Pastors. The Lord see, and provide!¹⁰⁵

1784, June 2, Wednesday Much dispirited today on account of the absence of Mr. H. and Mr. R. jun.¹⁰⁶—had but little spirituality throughout the day. Heard Mr. Gill¹⁰⁷ preach on¹⁰⁸ hearing the word of God, and doing it—and Mr. Sutcliff on not being our own but bought with a price &c but little pleasure—after that I preached on faith and sight, but little spirituality.¹⁰⁹

 Ibid.  Ibid.  Ibid. The association met at Nottingham on June  – , ; Fuller preached on June  in the evening from  Corinthians . (see next entry). He wrote the circular letter for the meeting, published as The Nature and Importance of Walking by Faith ().  Robert Hall, Sr., and John Ryland, Jr.  John Gill of St. Albans.  preach from on] MS Diary.  Ibid; sermon texts from James :;  Corinthians : – ;  Corinthians :.

1784, June 6, Lord’s day

53

1784, June 3, Thursday Some sweet solemnity of spirit this morning hearing Mr. Hopper¹¹⁰ speak his exercise & conclude in prayer. O for a revival of real religion in the churches of Christ! Rode to Leicester tonight & preached and from thence to Enderby.¹¹¹

1784, June 4, Friday Rode to Kettering, but very little exercise all day.¹¹²

1784, June 5, Saturday But a poor day in meditation—what a poor, barren creature I am!¹¹³

1784, June 6, Lord’s day This morning baptized John Goodman and Eliz[abeth] Tebbut¹¹⁴ with some sacred pleasure. Preached twice and administered the Lord’s supper with some tenderness. Feel myself exhausted¹¹⁵ as to sentiments & subjects. I need some new track of thought to be opened to my view.¹¹⁶

 Richard Hopper ( – ) ministered at Friar Lane in Nottingham from  to . Previous to Nottingham, Hopper had preached at Bishop Burton, near Hull, prior to the arrival of David Kinghorn in . See John T. Godfrey and James Ward, The History of Friar Lane Baptist Church, Nottingham (Nottingham: H. B. Saxton, ),  – .  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid.  According to the Kettering Church Book (ff.  – ), a Joseph Tebbutt joined in  and died on April , , and a “Sister Tebbutt” (Hannah) joined in  and was later dismissed to the Baptist church in Eagle Street, London. A son, also named Joseph, died in September , aged  (Fuller Burial Register  – ). Most likely the Elizabeth Tebbutt mentioned above is their relation, for she was married to Abraham Tebbutt (f. ); she signed the Church Book after her baptism with an “x” (f. ), just beneath the signature of John Goodman, who was excluded from the church in  (f. ). Elizabeth Tebbutt died on August ,  (f. ).  myself as it were exhausted] MS Diary.  MS Diary.

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1784, June 7, Monday Rode to Gretton—preached there tonight with some earnestness but little pleasure. No manner of exercise throughout the day.¹¹⁷

1784, June 8, Tuesday Came home today, feel¹¹⁸ myself a poor, barren, stupid wretch! Visited a few friends this afternoon but no matter of real profit.¹¹⁹

1784, June 9, Wednesday Visited Mrs. W.¹²⁰ today and preached tonight at Burton¹²¹—a pretty good time on Jeremiah 24:7.¹²²

1784, June 10, Thursday Very little if any spirituality today—feel a sort of carnal, idle, stupid frame.¹²³

 Ibid.  but feel] MS Diary.  Ibid.  According to the Kettering Church Book, Joseph Wallis joined in  and died on April ,  (f. ). The Mrs. Wallis mentioned above is probably his wife, now a widow living at Barton Lodge. Most likely she is the widow Jane Wallis who died in  at the age of  (Fuller Burial Register). A Joseph Wallis (b. c.) of Barton Lodge, most likely her son, died in , also aged  (Fuller Burial Register). Joseph Wallis, Sr., was the brother of Samuel ( – ) and cousin of Beeby Wallis (c. – ), both of whom joined the church in  (f. ). Samuel became a deacon on February ,  (f. ), and died on October ,  (f. ). His wife, Mary ( – ), joined in  (f. ). Beeby Wallis’s wife, Martha ( – ), joined in  (f. ). George Wallis ( – ) of Wellingborough Mill, the son of Samuel Wallis and relation of Beeby Wallis, joined in  and later became a deacon (f. ). Mrs. Wallis of Barton Lodge, Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Wallis, and Mr. and Mrs. Beeby Wallis appear often in Fuller’s diary. The diary of George Wallis ( – ) remains in the possession of the Fuller Baptist Church.  Known as Burton Latimer today, it is located about two miles from the Fuller Baptist Church.  Ibid.  Ibid.

1784, June 15, Tuesday

55

1784, June 11, Friday Visited this morning by Mr. Ryland jun. The day chiefly taken up in conversation with him. Spoke tonight from, Learn of me—for I am meek & lowly of heart.¹²⁴ Indeed, I had need to learn more of this! I find applauses to be fiery trials.¹²⁵

1784, June 12, Saturday Rode to Olney today to supply tomorrow for Mr. Sutcliff. This day I think has been poorly spent. Indeed most of my days have been so of late.¹²⁶

1784, June 13, Lord’s day A poor,¹²⁷ cold day, except in the evening—I am weary of being out from home so much—I want to be more at home that I may be more with God.¹²⁸

1784, June 14, Monday All in Company today—preached at Carlton with some freedom tonight—but I wish to be more alone.¹²⁹

1784, June 15, Tuesday Returned to Kettering today. Various things concur tonight to make me exceedingly unhappy. The duplicity (and want of Christianity) in some distresses me.¹³⁰

 Matthew :.  MS Diary (Fuller begins a new line after the last sentence with “O,” but nothing follows thereafter); Ryland  and AG Fuller  omit first two sentences.  MS Diary.  At Olney. A poor] Ryland  and AG Fuller .  Ibid; Ryland ; AG Fuller . At some point Fuller inserted in the left margin references to James :, Jeremiah :, and Jeremiah :. Also inserted between this entry and the next two entries is an “x,” but without any reference at the foot of the page.  MS Diary.  Ibid; Fuller has added in the left margin, “Matt. ..”

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1784, June 16, Wednesday Set off this morning for Naseby. Preached there this afternoon on purity of heart—but had a poor time. Spoke a little this evening to a few friends. Very little if any spirituality.¹³¹

1784, June 17, Thursday Rode to Spratton this morning. Met several ministers there—grieved to find Mr. C.¹³² absent—heard Mr. Carver¹³³ on becoming all things to all men for the Gospel’s sake. ¹³⁴ Preached myself in the evening on the new birth, but a poor day. Rode to Northampton.¹³⁵

1784, June 18, Friday Conversation with Mr. Ryland chief part of the day—preached this afternoon a lecture with him at Bugbrook with some pleasure—returned—felt sweetly tonight in prayer for ardor in Christ’s cause.¹³⁶

1784, June 19, Saturday Tender in prayer again this morning—but O what a poor, carnal, stupid wretch nearly throughout the day. Some little fervor tonight in meditation on Christ’s mercy.¹³⁷

1784, June 20, Lord’s day A good forenoon—some tenderness in prayer, but feel myself wretchedly cold this afternoon. Tender again tonight on watchfulness from I Thessalonians 5.6¹³⁸  Ibid.  Cole.  John Carver ministered to the West End (Independent) Chapel, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, from  to  (he was ordained there in June ); previously he had been at Kirtling, Cambridgeshire,  – . A Baptist interest would form at Barton, near Wellingborough, and by  was led by Thomas Shrewsbury.   Corinthians :.  MS Diary.  Ibid; Ryland .  Ibid.  Ibid.

1784, June 25, Friday

57

1784, June 21, Monday Much affected today in visiting some poor friends to see a little boy of 7 or 8 years old in a decline not likely to continue long. My heart felt for his everlasting state. Conversed with him a little on those¹³⁹ subjects.¹⁴⁰

1784, June 22, Tuesday Rode to Irchester today and preached twice with much tenderness of spirit—much more than I expected—thanks be to God!¹⁴¹

1784, June 23, Wednesday Rode home. Some pleasant conversation with Mrs. W.¹⁴² at Barton Lodge¹⁴³ on my return. But O, what a poor, stupid creature I am!¹⁴⁴

1784, June 24, Thursday But a moderate opportunity at Church meeting. Preached on what I find by a experience, “a day of small things.”¹⁴⁵

1784, June 25, Friday Chiefly taken up in writing—very little exercise today of a spiritual nature.¹⁴⁶

 divine] Ryland ; AG Fuller ; AG Fuller  .  Ryland ; AG Fuller ; AG Fuller  .  MS Diary.  Wallis.  What is now known as Barton Seagrave lies about one and a half miles east of the Kettering town centre. Barton Lodge was the home of Joseph Wallis (d. ), a member of Fuller’s congregation, and his widow Jane, the resident at Barton Lodge at the time of Fuller’s diary, along with her son, Joseph.  Ibid.  Ibid; final phrase from Zechariah :.  Ibid.

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1784, June 26, Saturday I find a great deal of sluggishness to what is truly good. Have gone through the day with very little if any spirituality!¹⁴⁷

1784, June 27, Lord’s day A tenderish forenoon on waiting upon God—but a poor cold heart this afternoon even though commemorating the Lord’s death!¹⁴⁸

1784, June 28, Monday Chiefly taken up in writing—some pleasure therein. But I live in a poor, carnal manner.¹⁴⁹

1784, June 29, Tuesday This among many other days seems to have been almost misspent. I feel such an awful degree of indifference to spiritual things!¹⁵⁰

1784, June 30, Wednesday Some sort of pleasure, but I hardly know what today in writing.¹⁵¹

1784, July 1, Thursday Preached today at Cranford on the great trumpet being blown,¹⁵² but felt most wretchedly—I am as if I had lost all savor of religion. Returning home tonight, some exercise on David’s prayer renew a constant spirit within me!¹⁵³ O what need have I of that!¹⁵⁴

      

Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Matthew :. Psalm :.

1784, July 5, Monday

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1784, July 2, Friday Very little exercise—Mr. Sutcliff returned from a journey and called on me today. Feel myself a mass of iniquity. Preached tonight on the power of God.¹⁵⁵

1784, July 3, Saturday I feel as if carnality had got the dominion over me, and as if I should never be any otherwise. I feel such an inconstant heart. I find many sins very rife in me —!¹⁵⁶

1784, July 4, Lord’s day Preached this morning on a constant spirit with some freedom such as it was, but I find but little of what I preach in myself. A poor afternoon though preaching on a noble subject, “I shall be satisfied when I awake in thy likeness.”¹⁵⁷ Preached with some kind of earnestness this evening on obeying from the heart the form of doctrine &c.¹⁵⁸

1784, July 5, Monday Went this morning to Walgrave—heard Mr. Scott¹⁵⁹ a Clergyman of Olney preach two good discourses on Christ bearing our sins in his body on the tree &c and on his yoke being easy and his burden light,¹⁶⁰ but I very little profited.¹⁶¹

 MS Diary; Ryland .  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Psalm :.  MS Diary; final phrase from Romans :.  Fuller’s first introduction to Thomas Scott ( – ), an evangelical Anglican clergyman who would become a close friend of John Newton and John Ryland, Jr., as well as author of the immensely popular Family Bible and Commentary ( – ). After serving as vicar at Olney (where he first met Newton, Fuller, Ryland, and others in the Northamptonshire Association), Scott became chaplain of Lock Hospital in London in , remaining there until , when he moved to Aston Sandford, Buckinghamshire. There he served as vicar and assisted in the training of missionaries for the Church Missionary Society until his death in . As a writer, he espoused, in a more exegetical manner, the same evangelical principles that his friends, John Newton and William Wilberforce, had made popular in their preaching and writing. His popularity was great among both Anglicans and Calvinist Nonconformists, as demonstrated by his long-standing friendship with John Ryland, Jr., and the Baptist poet, Maria Grace Saffery, whom he befriended when she was in her late teens.

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1784, July 6, Tuesday This day seems poorly spent—preached tonight on being “Servants to sin &c”¹⁶² with a deal of earnestness but I want a holy, spiritual frame of heart.¹⁶³

1784, July 7, Wednesday Came home today. Very little spirituality but a great deal of carnality.¹⁶⁴

1784, July 8, Thursday My heart seems most wretchedly vain and foolish today. I am as if my heart were like the hearts of those which are set in them to do evil!¹⁶⁵

1784, July 9, Friday Some serious tenderness of spirit, and concern for the carnality of my heart for some days past. Read a¹⁶⁶ part of Mr. Edwards’s Attempt to promote explicit agreement in God’s people in prayer for the revival of religion to our friends this evening to excite them to the like practice.¹⁶⁷ Felt my heart profited by what I read, and much solemnized.¹⁶⁸

Five works by Scott belonged to Fuller’s library in , but surprisingly not his Commentary (see Appendix A).   Peter : and Matthew :.  MS Diary. The Baptist meeting at Walgrave was most likely between ministers at this time, with the departure of John Ayer [Ayre, Eayre] sometime in  for Braybrook and the arrival of his successor, Alexander Payne (d. ) in . Fuller would attend the ordination of Payne (see below, entry for July , ).  Romans :.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid.  Read to our friends, this evening, a] Ryland .  John Sutcliff received a copy of Jonathan Edwards’s An Humble Attempt to Promote Explicit Agreement and Visible Union of God’s People, in Extraordinary Prayer, for the Revival of Religion and the Advancement of Christ’s Kingdom on Earth () in  and, after devouring its contents, shared it with Ryland, Fuller, and others in the Northamptonshire Association, leading to the establishment of prayer meetings (the first Monday of each month) for revival in England and, eventually, throughout the world.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller .

1784, July 12, Monday

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1784, July 10, Saturday Find myself very barren of savory subjects—know not how to come at anything— some little tenderness towards afternoon in thinking of fellowship with Christ, together with his Advocateship. ¹⁶⁹

1784, July 11, Lord’s day A good forenoon in preaching from the first of the above subjects. Felt some tenderness of heart several times in the day—longing for Christ’s Kingdom coming, and for the salvation of my hearers. Some feelings in the afternoon sermon. Expounded the last part of the 5th chapter of Matthew this evening.¹⁷⁰

1784, July 12, Monday Read part of a poem of John Scott Esq. on the cruelties of the English in the East Indies causing artificial famines &c.¹⁷¹ My¹⁷² heart felt most earnest desire that Christ’s kingdom might come when all these cruelties shall cease. O for the time when neither the Sceptre of oppression nor heathen superstition shall bear¹⁷³ the sway over them! Lord Jesus set up thy glorious, peaceful kingdom all over the world! Found earnest desire this morning in prayer that God would hear the right in regard to them, and hear our prayers which the churches agree to unite in for the spread of Christ’s Kingdom.¹⁷⁴

 MS Diary.  Ibid; Ryland  –  and AG Fuller  omit final sentence.  The Quaker poet and humanitarian John Scott ( – ) of Amwell, near Ware, Hertfordshire, was best known for Four Elegies: Descriptive and Moral (London, ), Amwell, a Descriptive Poem (), Elegy, written at Amwell, in Hertfordshire,  (), and Poetical Works (), which included the poem mentioned above by Fuller: Serim; or, The Artificial Famine. An East-Indian Eclogue. This theme of forced famines created by the English in India is continued in On the Renewal of the East India Charter, a pamphlet by the radical bookseller William Fox, published in London in  by his friend, the Baptist printer/bookseller Martha Gurney ( – ), a member of James Dore’s congregation in Maze Pond, Southwark. Though the above work by Scott does not appear on the list of books in Fuller’s library in , Scott’s A Narrative of the Transactions in Bengal during the Administration of Hastings () is present (see Appendix A).  &c. Felt My] MS Diary.  shall shall bear] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller . Ryland adds a note that the Monday prayer meetings for revival originated at the Northamptonshire Association meeting at Nottingham on June , . The Warwickshire Association recommended similar meetings in , followed by the Western Association in . The practice soon spread extensively throughout England and beyond. For further detail, see Fuller’s Persuasives to General Union in Extraordinary Prayer, at the conclusion of his sermon

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1784, July 13, Tuesday Spent this day in fasting and prayer in conjunction with several of my brethren in the ministry, for the revival of Christ’s kingdom in the world and in the churches. Some¹⁷⁵ tenderness and earnestness in prayer several times in the day. Wrote some¹⁷⁶ few thoughts on the desirableness of the coming of Christ’s Kingdom.¹⁷⁷

1784, July 14, Wednesday Rode to Corby and preached there tonight with some earnestness on there being none that understandeth, and that seeketh after God ¹⁷⁸—but find but very little exercise of real grace.¹⁷⁹

1784, July 15, Thursday Rode to Spratton, and preached there tonight on God’s sowing his Church to himself, felt some little pleasure.¹⁸⁰

1784, July 16, Friday Rode to Arnesby this morning—Some profitable conversation with Mr. Hall. Came home this afternoon—heard Mr. K—s of R—n¹⁸¹ preach with grief—Surely the system

on Walking by Faith. As Ryland correctly notes, this proposal can be traced from a copy of Jonathan Edwards’s Humble Attempt received by Sutcliff from Dr. Erskine in Edinburgh in the spring of . Sutcliff republished the tract in Northampton in .  Found some] Ryland .  a few] Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller . As Fuller noted in his entry for May , , he and several other ministers in the association had agreed to set apart the second Tuesday of every other month for fasting and prayer, a practice he would continue for many years.  Romans :.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  At a later date, Ryland wrote over the blank lines, “Mr. Knowles of Rushden.” William Knowles ministered at Rushden, Northamptonshire, from  until his death in . The Rushden church was not a part of the Northamptonshire Association, although Fuller, Ryland, and others often preached there and were generally on good relations until the denial of a dismissal letter to one of its members in  led to a heated letter exchange between the two churches (see below, entry for August , ). See George E. Bayes, These Years Have Told: The Story of Park Road Baptist Church, Rushden (Rushden, Northamptonshire: Stanley L. Hunt, ), ; Kettering Church Book, ff.  – .

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of religion which he and many others embibe enervates every species of vital godliness!¹⁸²

1784, July 17, Saturday Hard work to think of anything to purpose this morning—Some little more liberty this afternoon.¹⁸³

1784, July 18, Lord’s day A good forenoon in preaching on All my springs are in thee,¹⁸⁴ but a better time in prayer—found my heart go out for the children and youth of the congregation— owing perhaps to my having spoke at the grave last night of the little boy mentioned June 21. Poor child! He seemed to like I should talk with him before he died. But a poor afternoon. Some earnestness this evening preaching at Loddington.¹⁸⁵

1784, July 19, Monday Chiefly employed in writing and visiting poor friends. Think I get good and hope I do some good by the latter of these practices. Feel grieved to find some effects of last Friday night’s sermon. Read some more of Edwards on prayer, as also last Monday night with sweet satisfaction.¹⁸⁶ Feel sweet serenity in my own mind for some days.¹⁸⁷

 MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller  – . For the last part of the entry, Ryland has: “Came back, and heard an aged minister, (deeply tinged with false Calvinism) with grief. Surely the system of religion which he, with too many others, has imbibed, enervates every part of vital godliness.” Similarly, AG Fuller  –  has: “Returned and heard Mr. ––, of ––, with grief. Surely the system of religion [false Calvinism] which he, with too many others, has imbibed, enervates every part of vital godliness.”  MS Diary.  Psalm :.  MS Diary; Ryland  –  and AG Fuller  omit last two sentences.  Inserted between the lines (possibly by Fuller, but the hand is uncertain) is the following: “His words eat as doth a canker.”  MS Diary; Ryland  has, “Chiefly employed in writing, and visiting poor friends. Think I get good, and hope I do some good, by the latter of these practices. Read some more of Edwards on Prayer, as I did also last Monday night, with sweet satisfaction. I have felt sweet serenity in my own mind, for some days.” AG Fuller  has, “Chiefly employed in writing and visiting poor friends. Think I get good, and hope I do some good, by the latter.”

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1784, July 20, Tuesday Read the 9th chapter of John this morning with pleasure—went to prayer after it with solemn pleasure. That passage seemed sweet to my mind Hitherto the Lord hath helped us!¹⁸⁸

1784, July 21, Wednesday Chiefly taken up in writing—very little exercise that I recollect.¹⁸⁹

1784, July 22, Thursday Some pleasure today at church meeting, speaking from 1 Peter 1:2. “Grace & peace be multiplied”¹⁹⁰—Feel my mind now generally serene, & peaceful.¹⁹¹

1784, July 23, Friday Nothing material that I can recollect; find myself I fear sinking into a state of indifference.¹⁹²

1784, July 24, Saturday Some little pleasure in meditation, but not much spirituality.¹⁹³

1784, July 25, Lord’s day Some goodish opportunities today in preaching—and some kind of serenity at the Lord’s supper, but not so affected as I could wish.¹⁹⁴

      

MS Diary; final phrase from  Samuel :. Ibid. “Grace …multiplied”] Ryland  omits. Ibid; Ryland . MS Diary. Ibid. Ibid.

1784, July 30, Friday

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1784, July 26, Monday Very little exercise today—and but a cold heart tonight at evening meeting.¹⁹⁵

1784, July 27, Tuesday I find myself so unaffected with things, nothing¹⁹⁶ seems to lay hold of me. Some fear tonight in prayer. An accident that has befallen my youngest child now lays sufficient hold of me—fear lest he should be taken from me. Very much moved in prayer for him. O Lord! I must have something trying to move me! How I shall endure this I know not! O prepare him, & prepare me!¹⁹⁷

1784, July 28, Wednesday Feel my heart tender today—and some thankfulness of heart for hopes afforded of the child. Ah, how easy to speak of resigning our whole selves and all that pertains to us to the Lord, but how difficult to do so when it comes to the trial!¹⁹⁸

1784, July 29, Thursday This being a day appointed for public Thanksgiving for the return of peace I preached, and had a pretty good time.¹⁹⁹

1784, July 30, Friday Recollect but little exercise today. Spake tonight in the vestry on “the Lord of peace giving us peace by all means”²⁰⁰—had a good time.²⁰¹

 Ibid.  Dull, and unaffected: nothing] Ryland .  Ibid; Ryland  and AG Fuller  combine Fuller’s entries for July  and  into one entry dated July .  MS Diary; Ryland .  MS Diary. Reference here is to the Treaty of Paris, which officially ended the hostilities between the American colonies and England. It was signed on September , , and ratified by England on April , . All parties officially accepted the treaty once again in Paris on May , .   Thessalonians :.  MS Diary.

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1784, July 31, Saturday A great deal of reluctancy to²⁰² close thought, and dealing with God! Alas, here I always have cause for reflection!²⁰³

1784, August 1, Lord’s day A very tender forenoon especially in prayer, occasioned²⁰⁴ by the death of Mrs. B’s child.²⁰⁵ Preached in the afternoon on the Gospel coming in power &c²⁰⁶ but what a poor, lifeless wretch I am! I know but little surely of that power!²⁰⁷

1784, August 2, Monday Some tenderness of heart today—especially tonight at evening meeting, when we met together to pray for the revival of religion. ²⁰⁸

1784, August 10, Tuesday²⁰⁹ Occupied in writing some²¹⁰ persuasives to united prayer for the revival of real religion, for the press.²¹¹

 Found great reluctance to] Ryland .  Ibid; Ryland .  A very tender forenoon espeically in prayer Very little exercise of Grace today owing to the occasioned] MS Diary.  Most likely a child of Benjamin and Elizabeth Benford; she would bury another child on December ,  (Fuller Burial Register  – ). Benjamin was most likely a relation [son? nephew?] of Thomas Benford, a member of the Kettering Church, and is probably the same person excluded from the church on May , , for defrauding his creditors (Kettering Church Book, f. ); Elizabeth Benford died on October ,  (f. ).  See  Timothy :.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  A gap occurs here in the Diary. It is possible that Fuller at some date removed the sheet (recto and verso) from the manuscript volume containing entries for August  – , but no signs of a removal are visible. It is more probable that, for whatever reason, he did not record any thoughts for that week.  writing for the press some] AG Fuller .  MS Diary; AG Fuller  omits italics. The work Fuller refers to in the above entry is The Nature and Importance of Walking by Faith: A Sermon delivered at the Annual Association of the Baptist Ministers and Churches met at Nottingham, June , . (Published at the request of the church and min-

1784, August 15, Lord’s day

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1784, August 11, Wednesday Rode to Northampton today. Find dear Brother Ryland’s mind very much depressed with some heavy concerns. Preached tonight from Ebenezer with some pleasure.²¹²

1784, August 12, Thursday Find my mind depressed with sympathy. Wish God may make a way in the wilderness.²¹³ Preached again tonight on Fellowship with Christ with some satisfaction.²¹⁴

1784, August 13, Friday Rode home today—very little exercise, unless it were in reflection on some foolishness of mine in applauding a person to his face, who is superior to my applause! Spoke tonight on thirsting for God from the 63rd Psalm v.1. with much earnestness and some pleasure.²¹⁵

1784, August 14, Saturday What a difficult thing do I find it to attend to everything in its season—when I should be thinking on the work of the Lord’s day how ready is my mind for other things. Some little freedom towards night.²¹⁶

1784, August 15, Lord’s day A sweet forenoon in preaching today on divine goodness as laid up for us and laid out upon us. But a poor afternoon. Preached this evening at Loddington, a sermon on Harvest. ²¹⁷

isters.) To which are added, A Few Persuasives to a General Union in Prayer for the Revival of Real Religion (Northampton, ).  MS Diary; reference to “Ebenezer” most likely from  Samuel :.  Isaiah :.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid.  Ibid; Ryland  has, “I feel myself so propense to sink into insensibility, that I am almost ready to despair of ever making any progress in real religion.”

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1784, August 16, Monday My heart how unholy today! Visited some poor friends, but know of no real good to them or me. Somewhat concerned tonight on account of . O for peace and love to be maintained in all the churches of Christ!²¹⁸

1784, August 17, Tuesday Chiefly taken up today in writing, very little exercise. Visited tonight by Mr. S.²¹⁹ of Oakham—concerned for the dissatisfaction that seems to prevail in some there.²²⁰

1784, August 18, Wednesday Parted with Mr. S. with some depression of spirit. Very little exercise—chiefly taken up in writing.²²¹

1784, August 19, Thursday Some exercise of a pleasant nature on the subjects of which I write. The love that the holy angels found increasing towards God as displayed in the gospel, was particularly affecting to me.²²²

1784, August 20, Friday Conversation with Mrs. W.²²³ has²²⁴ occasioned much concern of mind. I feel myself a poor, ignorant creature. Many misgivings of heart about engaging in the defence of what I esteem truth, lest the cause of Christ should be injured through me. Surely were it not that I think that in defence of which I write to be important truth I

      

MS Diary. Sharp. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid; Ryland  (misdated as August ). Wallis. with a friend has] Ryland .

1784, August 23, Monday

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would hide my head in obscurity all my days! Spake this evening with some tenderness of heart on the compassion of Christ from Matthew 11:28.²²⁵

1784, August 21, Saturday Much pained at heart today—read some of Dr. Owen—feel almost a sacred reverence for his character.²²⁶ Surely I am more brutish than any man,²²⁷ and have not the understanding of a man! O that I might be led into divine truth! “Christ, and his cross be all my theme.”²²⁸ Surely I love his name, and wish to make it the centre in which all the lines of my ministry might meet! The Lord direct my way in respect to publishing! Surely he knows my end is to vindicate the excellency of his character, and his worthiness of being loved!²²⁹

1784, August 22, Lord’s day Guilt shames me this morning. Through a breach of Mr. Boston’s advice,²³⁰ I am strangely damped in drawing near to God. But a poor cold day in preaching, on our need of divine influence to instruct us and direct us. Preached at Geddington tonight with some tenderness on man going to his long home! ²³¹

1784, August 23, Monday The weight of publishing still lies upon me—I expect I shall have a great share of unhappiness through it. Surely I had much rather go through the world in peace, did I not think that all things considered it was my duty to do as I do. Feel a jealousy of myself lest I should not be endowed with meekness and patience sufficient for con-

 MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller  and AG Fuller   omit first two sentences and last sentence.  Dr. Owen, for whose character I feel a high veneration.] Ryland .  Psalm :.  Taken from the first line of a hymn by Isaac Watts: “Christ and his cross is all our theme.”  MS Diary; Ryland  – ; AG Fuller ; AG Fuller   includes only final two sentences.  Thomas Boston ( – ) ministered at Ettrick, Scotland, and was a popular writer among eighteenth-century Calvinists. He was best known for Human Nature in its Fourfold State (), a copy of which resided in Fuller’s library, along with another work by Boston, An Illustration of the Doctrines of the Christian Religion with Respect to Faith and Practice (see Appendix A). His Memoirs appeared in .  MS Diary; final phrase taken from Ecclesiastes :.

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troversy—The Lord keep me! Wish to suspect my own spirit, and go forth leaning upon him for strength! Heard yesterday that Mr. W. Clarke²³² is likely to come to Carlton—the Lord grant he may! O that I were of such a meek and lowly spirit as that good man! A poor time at evening meeting.²³³

1784, August 24, Tuesday Some tenderness in prayer of late. Yet fear lest I should be blasted in my ministry on account of my barrenness.²³⁴ Conversation with Mr. T—r²³⁵ on various subjects affecting to me. The Lord keep me, and lead me into all truth!²³⁶

1784, August 25, Wednesday Some sweetness now for²³⁷ some days in reading over the Acts of the Apostles, before family prayer. Sweet times in that duty. O that we might see some such blessed times come over again! Conversation with Mr. W.²³⁸ makes me abhor myself, and tremble

 William Clarke ( – ) ministered to the congregation at Unicorn Yard, Southwark, from  to . He supplied for a time at Carlton before removing to Bampton, Devon, in . He left there early in  and spent his final years in Exeter. He never formally served as pastor at Carlton.  MS Diary; Ryland  and AG Fuller  omit last sentence; AG Fuller   omits final paragraph.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller .  Thomas Toller ( – ) came to the Independent chapel at Kettering (now called the Toller United Reformed Church) in October , just at the end of his studies at Daventry academy. He was officially installed as pastor on June , , ordained on May , , and continued in that capacity until . The church prospered greatly under Toller’s ministry, adding  members during his tenure. He was a highly respected minister among Calvinistic evangelicals. His publications include A Plain and Popular View of the Evidences of Christianity and a sermon on by the death of Samuel Palmer of Hackney, his close friend. Robert Hall wrote a popular memoir of him after his death. See Thomas Coleman, Memorials of the Independent Churches of Northamptonshire (London, ),  – .  MS Diary; AG Fuller .  Enjoyed delight for] AG Fuller .  Beeby Wallis ( – ) was a deacon in the Kettering church for  years, serving as interim minister for five years at one point. He was baptized by John Brown in  and would later serve as treasurer of the Northamptonshire Baptist Association Fund. His grandfather, Thomas Wallis, served as pastor at Kettering at the time John Gill and John Brine were members of the church prior to their careers as prominent London ministers. His great-grandfather, William Wallis, was the first minister and founder of the church in , followed by his grandfather, Thomas Wallis (d. ). It was in his home, about six months after his death, that the Baptist Missionary Society was formed. See “Mr. Beeby Wallis, A Deacon of the Church at Kettering,” Baptist Annual Register (), : – ; W. T. Whitley, “The Wallis House, ,” Baptist Quarterly  ( – ): .

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about writing in a public way. O how little real meekness, and lowliness of heart am I the subject of!²³⁹

1784, August 26, Thursday Some little tenderness²⁴⁰ today at church meeting—but much depression of spirit generally now attends me! I feel a solid satisfaction that the cause I am about to engage in is the cause of truth and righteousness, but I am afraid it should suffer through me.²⁴¹

1784, August 27, Friday Tenderness of heart, and some self-abasement generally now prevails.²⁴² The Lord keep me meek and lowly in heart!²⁴³

1784, August 28, Saturday My wandering mind how it roves after things when I should be attending to the work of the Lord’s Day. But very little profitable exercise throughout the day.²⁴⁴

1784, August 29, Lord’s day A very tender and affectionate time in prayer for the congregation, especially for the young people! Not a very tender day in preaching. Preached on²⁴⁵ the danger of having our own will, and on Christ’s calling us friends. Expounded and finished Christ’s Sermon on the Mount.²⁴⁶ Some caution that I had given me tonight, I wish I may attend to. The Lord lead me into the Spirit of the gospel, and keep me from extremes!²⁴⁷

 MS Diary; AG Fuller  omits final sentence of paragraph one and all of paragraph two; Ryland  –  has paragraph one; Ryland  has paragraph two, as follows: “Conversation with a friend, this day, makes me abhor myself, and tremble about writing in a public way. O how little real meekness and lowliness of heart do I possess!”  I felt some tenderness] Ryland ; AG Fuller ; AG Fuller  .  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller ; AG Fuller  .  generally prevalent now.] Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland .  MS Diary.  Not so well, in preaching on] Ryland .  Matthew  – .

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1784, August 30, Monday Visited several poor friends, particularly a Mrs. Julyan who has profited under my ministry, but is now going to live at Tharp near Thrapston. I feel concerned at her departure, as I think her a godly woman. But a coldish time at evening meeting.²⁴⁸

1784, August 31, Tuesday Chiefly taken up in copying, which is dry work. Some pleasure in family duty.²⁴⁹

1784, September 1, Wednesday An almost unprofitable visit to Mr. F—n’s²⁵⁰—Feel pain tonight in thinking of Mr. G.²⁵¹ lest he should be carried away with bad principles. The Lord keep us, and lead us into all truth. Feel much discouraged tonight—cannot tell whether I am of scarce any real use. Conversation with my wife more discouraging. My soul seems dried up like a potsherd! ²⁵²

1784, September 2, Thursday Low in my feelings today. O that God would bless me indeed! Wearied out today with writing.²⁵³

 Ibid; Ryland ; AG Fuller  has a shorter version, “A very tender and affectionate time in prayer for the congregation, especially for the young people.—Finished expounding Christ’s sermon on the Mount. Some cautions I had given me to-night I wish I may attend to. The Lord lead me into the spirit of the gospel, and keep me from extremes.”  MS Diary.  Ibid.  A Thomas Fidgen [Fidgeon] was admitted to the Kettering church on September , , became a deacon, and died on February , ; his wife, Mary, was admitted previously on June ,  (Kettering Church Book, ff. , ) and died on August , . Reference here is to Mary Fidgen, most likely their relation, who was baptized on September , , and died on September ,  (ff. , ).  Gotch.  MS Diary; Ryland  has only this: “I feel, tonight, much discouraged. I can scarcely tell whether I am of any real use. My soul seems dried up, like a potsherd.” Final phrase from Psalm :.  MS Diary; Ryland  reverses final two sentences.

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1784, September 3, Friday Engaged all day today nearly in searching Paul’s journeys into Asia, Macedonia and Greece. O that I might enter into the Spirit of that great man of God! Felt much pleasure in this day’s work. Spake tonight in the vestry from Psalm 122.6 as a stimulative to next Monday evening’s exercise.²⁵⁴

1784, September 4, Saturday Feel a great propensity to wandering of mind—seem as if I could think of almost anything but what I should. More pleasure towards night!²⁵⁵

1784, September 5, Lord’s day Some pleasure this morning, and in preaching this forenoon on²⁵⁶ the benefit of reflecting on past experiences. But a poor, stupid time this afternoon. A²⁵⁷ very earnest and fervent opportunity, however, this evening on Love to Christ’s ²⁵⁸ salvation. O if God would but make use of it!²⁵⁹

1784, September 6, Monday Feel myself vile before God. My vileness is as if it were restless—and could never lie still night nor day! But a poor evening meeting.²⁶⁰

 MS Diary; Ryland  omits last sentence; AG Fuller  has, “Very earnest and fervent this evening, preaching on love to Christ’s salvation. Oh if God would but make use of it!” which is actually from Fuller’s entry for September , . On the following Monday the church would hold the monthly prayer meeting for revival.  MS Diary.  preaching on] Ryland .  A poor, dull afternoon; but a] Ryland .  Xts.  Ibid; Ryland  incorrectly combines this entry with that of September .  MS Diary; AG Fuller .

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1784, September 7, Tuesday Set off this morning with Mr. and Mrs. W.²⁶¹ for Olney. Preached there tonight at Mr. H.’s²⁶² meeting, on God’s goodness, but had a poor, wretched time.²⁶³

1784, September 8, Wednesday Very little if any spirituality all day except in the evening, preaching at Mr. S.’s²⁶⁴ meeting on fellowship with Christ—there I had a sweet time.²⁶⁵

1784, September 9, Thursday Today we rode to Newport and spent the day with Mr. Bull.²⁶⁶ Heard Mr. S.²⁶⁷ preach tonight but a poor time. Some close conversation in return upon justification, & some other subjects.²⁶⁸

1784, September 10, Friday Returned to Kettering today—little or no exercise of mind. Spake tonight on God’s statutes being our song in the house of our pilgrimage. ²⁶⁹ His holy Word is the chief source of joy and comfort that we have in this life—especially his glorious gospel. ²⁷⁰

 Wallis.  Thomas Hillyard ( – ) ministered to the Independent church at Olney from  until his death in . His son, Samuel Hillyard ( – ), succeeded Joshua Symonds as minister at the Old Meeting at Bedford from  to . Both were evangelicals and friends of Sutcliff, Ryland, and Fuller from the mid-s onward.  MS Diary.  Sutcliff’s.  Ibid.  William Bull ( – ) was born near Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, and entered Daventry Academy in . In  he succeeded James Belsham as pastor of the Independent congregation at Newport Pagnell. Shortly after his arrival there, he opened a small academy and became friends with John Newton, then vicar at Olney. Bull was also a close friend of John Sutcliff, whose landlord in Olney between  and , Mrs. Mary Andrews, was Bull’s sister-in-law. Bull was the first President of the Bedfordshire Union of Christians ( – ). See Josiah Bull, Memorials of the Rev. William Bull of Newport Pagnell (London: Nisbet, ); Haykin, One Heart, .  Most likely John Sutcliff.  MS Diary.  Psalm :.  MS Diary.

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1784, September 11, Saturday Rode today to Oakham²⁷¹—little exercise by the way. The sight of a drunken man who was full of religious talk affecting to me.²⁷²

1784, September 12, Lord’s day But a poorish forenoon and afternoon—but much earnestness and love to souls tonight. Preached on loving God’s salvation! Am sorry to see the means enjoyed at Oakham²⁷³ so little prized.²⁷⁴

1784, September 13, Monday Rode home today, but no manner of exercise—unless it was in a carnal, foolish way. Alas, my spirit how vain today at Wing. ²⁷⁵

1784, September 14, Tuesday Heard Mr. Bull tonight at the Great Meeting²⁷⁶ with good satisfaction on sitting at Christ’s feet, clothed and in one’s right mind. ²⁷⁷ But very little spirituality through the day, though it was a day on which I fasted & prayed.²⁷⁸

1784, September 15, Wednesday–September 17, Friday Nothing of any²⁷⁹ remarkable exercise for these two or three days except some little tenderness in prayer. Last Tuesday I found some heart to pray for God’s Holy Spirit that it might not be taken from us, and on some seasons since then have felt that

 Okeham] MS Diary  Ibid.  Okeham] MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid.  The Independent meeting in Kettering was originally called the “Great Meeting”; the Baptist meeting, which left the Great Meeting in the s, became known as the “Little Meeting.”  Mark :.  MS Diary; Fuller is still joining with his fellow ministers in devoting the nd Tuesday of every other month to fasting and prayer.  No remarkable] Ryland .

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desire renewed.²⁸⁰ Very tender tonight in speaking on Christ’s legacy, My peace I give unto you &c.²⁸¹

1784, September 18, Saturday But a poor day. It seems almost impossible to get my sluggish soul to action.²⁸²

1784, September 19, Lord’s day A letter from Soham much depresses my spirits, to hear of their jarrings one with another. Know not how to preach. But a poor forenoon though the subject was great, He that overcometh shall inherit all things!²⁸³ In the afternoon preached a funeral sermon from Isaiah 35:10, for Mrs. Fidgen late of Oxen. She was a good woman I suppose, and a member of this church. Explained the general design of the Acts of the Apostles this evening and expounded the first chapter with some pleasure.²⁸⁴

1784, September 20, Monday Pretty much depressed in spirit on account of the state of S—m²⁸⁵ Church—But a poor evening meeting tonight.²⁸⁶

1784, September 21, Tuesday Taken up all day today in²⁸⁷ writing letters into Cambridgeshire. O may God bless them to their good! Very tender in writing them.²⁸⁸

 from us: have felt that desire renewed, at some seasons, since.] Ryland .  Ibid; Ryland  combined this entry with September ; final phrase from John :.  MS Diary.  Revelation :.  Ibid; AG Fuller  includes only the first two sentences.  Soham.  MS Diary.  Occupied all day in] AG Fuller .  Ibid; Ryland ; AG Fuller . As the previous entry reveals (which Ryland also notes), Fuller’s distress over disagreements among the members of the Soham church warranted his writing letters to several of them in an effort to settle their disputes.

1784, September 26, Lord’s day

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1784, September 22, Wednesday Chiefly employed today in preparing a M.S. for the press on the Obligations of men in respect to the gospel of Christ.²⁸⁹

1784, September 23, Thursday Spoke today at church meeting from the first 13 verses of the 4th chapter of Ephesians on Unity, with some pleasure. But very little exercise of grace in general.²⁹⁰

1784, September 24, Friday Taken up all day today in writing—felt some pleasure in the sentiments which I have written.²⁹¹

1784, September 25, Saturday I find it to be hard work to bend my mind to close thought. O what a poor, carnal creature I am! Very little spirituality throughout the day.²⁹²

1784, September 26, Lord’s day Some tenderness this²⁹³ morning in thinking and preaching on the poor and needy seeking water, and finding none &c. ²⁹⁴ Some tenderness too in the afternoon respecting the ordinance.²⁹⁵ This thought was moving, that our hardness of heart broke Christ’s heart, and our stupidity made his soul exceeding sorrowful even unto death! Expounded the 2nd chapter of Acts in the evening.²⁹⁶

 MS Diary; AG Fuller . Reference here is to Fuller’s seminal work, The Gospel of Christ Worthy of All Acceptation.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid.  Deeply affected this] Ryland ; AG Fuller .  Isaiah :.  respecting the ordinance] Ryland,  omits.  MS Diary; Ryland  and AG Fuller  omit last sentence.

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1784, September 27, Monday Taken up in writing. Feel myself tonight at evening meeting to be a poor, stupid, carnal creature—feel much dissatisfied with myself.²⁹⁷

1784, September 28, Tuesday Visited M. Mason today—a young woman of Cranford who is a member—think she will not be here long.²⁹⁸ She seems to be very happy upon the whole in the thoughts of dying. Wished me to preach her funeral sermon from, “The Lord liveth, and he is my Rock, &c.”²⁹⁹ Preached tonight at Burton from Philippians 3:7,8,9, on the excellence of Christ, but not a very good time.³⁰⁰

1784, September 29, Wednesday Rode to Braybrook,³⁰¹ and preached there with some pleasure, on the God of Israel hearing the poor and needy.³⁰²

1784, September 30, Thursday Preached today with some degree of earnestness, on the excellence of Christ at Oxon. Some conversation with a Mr. Broughton affords a sort, but I hardly know what sort of pleasure. Some revival of old things, conversation turning on my first conversion &c.³⁰³

 MS Diary.  Mary Mason joined the Kettering church in ; Fuller would prove correct, for Mason died on October ,  (Kettering Church Book, f. ).  Psalm :.  MS Diary.  Brabrook] MS Diary.  Ibid. John Ayer had recently left the Walgrave meeting for Braybrook, and may have already settled there by the time of Fuller’s visit. In , during Ayer’s ministry at Braybrook, Fuller would preach a funeral sermon for an Anglican youth in the local parish church (AG Fuller  – ).  MS Diary.

1784, October 4, Monday

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1784, October 1, Friday But little exercise today, except in speaking tonight at the vestry, on coming boldly to the throne of grace ³⁰⁴—here I felt some sweet pleasure, but ’tis commonly soon forgotten.³⁰⁵

1784, October 2, Saturday Rode to Northampton today for an exchange with Mr. R.³⁰⁶—but a poor day, except a little pleasure in reading some memoirs of the life of Dr. Owen. ³⁰⁷

1784, October 3, Lord’s day But little savor today, though some sort of pleasures. Preached three times, on the use of past experiences, our ignorance of what is good for us in this life and on carnal security. ³⁰⁸

1784, October 4, Monday Rode home today—meeting with some of the ministers particularly my dear brother West from Soham, somewhat reviving. Tomorrow we have a ministers’ meeting at Kettering—the Lord meet with us! Somewhat pained in hearing some things unbecoming tonight from a young man to his father. The ministers met tonight in the vestry being the monthly exercise of prayer for the revival of religion, and joined us in it. Heard Mr. Ryland jun. pray with much pleasure and satisfaction, and several others united.³⁰⁹

 Hebrews :.  MS Diary.  John Ryland, Jr.  Ibid. A “Memoir” of Owen was included in the  edition of his Collected Sermons; see also The Life of the Reverend and Learned John Owen, D.D. Sometime Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford, which was printed in  in London by George Keith, son-in-law to John Gill of Carter Lane. Neither book is listed among the volumes in Fuller’s library in , though Fuller does note that one volume of Owen is “missing.”  Ibid.  Ibid; AG Fuller  has a shortened version: “To-morrow, ministers’ meeting; the Lord meet with us. The ministers met to-night, it being the monthly exercise of prayer for the revival of religion.”

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1784, October 5, Tuesday Today we heard Mr. Evans preach on returning to our rest, Mr. Hall sen. on This being the true grace of God wherein we stand and Mr. Hall jun. on whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might. Some pleasure tonight on hearing Mr. Hall sen. speak on a right use of the law in preaching the gospel, and in concluding the opportunity in prayer.³¹⁰

1784, October 6, Wednesday Rode to Spratton today, and felt sweet pleasure in preaching there to a numerous auditory for that place, on the nature, necessity and desirableness of being led into the truth. ³¹¹

1784, October 7, Thursday Returned today—spent the day chiefly in company with some of the ministers. Much depressed in spirit and grieved tonight in seeing such a spirit of levity and wanton folly in a certain person. My heart is sick of all knowledge, and all accomplishments unless they are made to subserve the cause of the blessed Redeemer. How empty and how frothy is it all unless³¹² it is sanctified by the grace of God! Felt my heart go out in prayer for that person.³¹³

1784, October 8, Friday Waked exceedingly depressed in spirit partly from what grieved me last night, and partly from a dream, which though fictitious in itself, yet was the occasion of mind to awful realities.*³¹⁴ O the danger that mankind are in! What thousands of them

 MS Diary; Ryland  briefly summarizes the next four entries by Fuller and closes his entry for the th with two sentences from Fuller’s entry for October : “O the dangers that mankind are in! What thousands are every hour precipitated into an eternal world!” Speakers listed in the above entry by Fuller are, respectively, John Evans of Northampton, Robert Hall, Sr., of Arnesby, and Robert Hall, Jr. (at that time assisting Caleb Evans at Bristol). Scriptural references for the sermons are from Isaiah :,  Peter :, Ecclesiastes :,  Timothy :.  MS Diary; final phrase from John :.  How empty and frothy, unless] AG Fuller .  Ibid; AG Fuller . Ryland  has no entry of October , but includes “My heart… grace of God” in his entry for October . The “person” in the above entry, though unnamed, is most likely Robert Hall, Jr.  At the foot of the page is a passage in shorthand.

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are every hour precipitated into an eternal world!³¹⁵ Rose and went to prayer alone with some tenderness. Spoke tonight from Ecclesiastes 12:13, Fear God & keep his commandments &c this is the whole of man. The whole end of his existence—the whole of his bliss and worth. Pained tonight in hearing the immortality of the soul called in question.³¹⁶

1784, October 9, Saturday But little spiritual exercise today. Visited by Mr. and Mrs. Perkins.³¹⁷

1784, October 10, Lord’s day³¹⁸ Some little pleasure today in preaching on the reasons of the apostasy of some and of the perseverance of others from John 6:66,67. Some seriousness in speaking at the grave of Widow Tompson.³¹⁹ Preached tonight at Loddington on the great evil of not seeking the Lord from Zephaniah 1:6.³²⁰

1784, October 11, Monday Visited some few friends today but a very little real profit. But a poor cold time at the evening meeting.³²¹

 Previous two sentences included in Ryland’s entry for October , .  MS Diary; Ryland  includes “Spoke from … bliss and worth” but omits last sentence. The philosophy of materialism had gained considerable ground among rational Dissenters by the mid s, some of which had infiltrated the Particular Baptists. Fuller’s comment may be related to the previous entry, for it was about this time that Robert Hall, Jr., embraced (for a time) the materialism of Joseph Priestley and other Unitarians. Upon the death of his father in , however, he returned to his earlier belief in the immortality of the soul. See Gregory, “Memoir of Robert Hall,” in Works of Robert Hall, : – , .  MS Diary. No Perkinses appear in the Kettering Church Book at this time.  Fuller has dated this incorrectly as the th.  Mrs. Tomson was the wife of Daniel Tomson; she joined the church in  and died on October ,  (Kettering Church Book, f. ).  MS Diary.  Ibid.

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1784, October 12, Tuesday, and October 13, Wednesday But very little exercise for these two days—chiefly employed in writing.³²²

1784, October 14, Thursday Heard today of the death of M. Mason (see September 28). I think she was a gracious young woman. There is a pleasure as well as pain in parting with such characters.³²³

1784, October 15, Friday Chiefly employed today in meditation for preaching. Preached tonight with some pleasure on our being bought with a price &c.³²⁴

1784, October 16, Saturday But a poorish day—went to Cranford tonight and preached a funeral sermon for M. Mason but not much pleasure. Some exercise in riding home on the liberty of the gospel.³²⁵

1784, October 17, Lord’s day³²⁶ Preached this morning on the above subject with some pleasure. In the afternoon a funeral sermon for Widow Tompson on Christ being our judge. ³²⁷ Rode to Brigstock and preached this evening on Moab being settled on his lees &c, with some fervor.³²⁸

      

Ibid. Ibid. Ibid; final phrase from  Corinthians :. Ibid. Fuller corrects his dating on this day, which he began erroneously on the th. Most likely a reference to Psalm :, . MS Diary; final phrase from Jeremiah :.

1784, October 21, Thursday

83

1784, October 18, Monday Much depressed in spirit tonight on account of my little spirituality. Prayed at the evening meeting with³²⁹ tenderness of spirit—sensibly felt my entire dependence on the Spirit of God for the carrying on of the work of grace as well as for the beginning of it.³³⁰

1784, October 19, Tuesday Rode with Mr. Ryland jun. to Winwick in order to assist the good people there in being embodied into a church. Heard Mr. Ryland preach tonight on the gospel being foolishness to them that believe not, but the power of God to them that believe.³³¹ Heard some of their people speak their experiences tonight.³³²

1784, October 20, Wednesday This morning heard Mr. R. again on Baptism—Mr. Sutcliff of Olney baptized seven persons. Some tenderness and solemn pleasure in addressing them on the nature of what they were about to engage in—preached this afternoon on being knit together in love with some pleasure.³³³

1784, October 21, Thursday Rode home with Mr. R. Feel some pain in the thought of being about to publish something on the obligations of men to believe in Christ, as supposing I shall thereby expose myself to plenty of ³³⁴ abuse which is disagreeable to the flesh. Had I not a satisfaction that ’tis the Cause of God and truth, I would drop all thoughts of printing. The Lord keep me meek and lowly in heart!³³⁵

 spirituality; prayed with] AG Fuller .  Ibid; Ryland ; AG Fuller .  I Corinthians :.  MS Diary; Ryland  has “Rode with Mr. R. jun. to Winnick, to assist the good people there in forming themselves into a church. Heard him preach, and the people relate their experiences afterwards, more privately.”  MS Diary; Ryland ; final phrase taken from Colossians :.  to a good deal of] Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland  and AG Fuller  omit first sentence.

84

1784

1784, October 22, Friday This day the Lord has been merciful to me in delivering my wife who has miscarried. A saying of Mr. Hall’s has been pretty much to me of late which I heard him use in prayer, “Lord, said he, we are bound this night to love thee more than ever we were before!” Our sins and mercies how they accumulate! Spake tonight from “My words are Spirit & life,”³³⁶ occasioned by reading the Review. ³³⁷ O the Bible, the Bible!³³⁸

1784, October 23, Saturday Some pleasure, but not much today in meditation.³³⁹

1784, October 24, Lord’s day A good forenoon in preaching on being set as a seal upon Christ’s heart. But a poor afternoon on walking in the light of the Lord. ³⁴⁰ I have many fears concerning certain flesh-pleasing doctrines which have lately been agitated, particularly that of the final salvation of all men, and of devils. I have no doubt but that this notion will have a great spread in twenty years’ time, however contrary it is to the word of God, seeing it is what just suits the flesh. Tonight I expounded the 3rd chapter of Acts and took some notice of the 21st verse on which this opinion³⁴¹ is chiefly founded.³⁴²

 John :.  The Monthly Review; or, Literary Journal was published by Ralph Griffiths and was a popular periodical.  MS Diary; AG Fuller  omits reference to Fuller’s wife, recording the diary entry as follows: “This day the Lord has been merciful. A saying of Mr. Hall, which I heard him use in prayer, has been much to me of late, ‘Lord, we are bound this night to love thee more than ever we did before!’”  MS Diary.  Song of Solomon :;  John :.  on which they chiefly attempt to found this opinion.] Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland  (omits first two sentences); AG Fuller  also has a shortened version: “I have many fears concerning certain flesh-pleasing doctrines lately agitated, particularly that of the final salvation of all men and of devils. I have no doubt but that this notion will have a great spread in twenty years’ time, however contrary to the Word of God, seeing it is just what suits the flesh.” As Ryland notes ( – ), Fuller’s prediction was uncanny in its foresight. By the mid- s, through the work of the American Elhanan Winchester and William Vidler (a former visitor to meetings of the Northamptonshire Association during his tenure at Battle, in Sussex), the doctrine of universal restoration had circulated widely among the Unitarians and some General Baptists, eventually resulting in Fuller’s publication, Letters to Mr. Vidler, on the Doctrine of Universal Salvation ().

1784, October 30, Saturday

85

1784, October 25, Monday Very little exercise today. Chiefly taken up in writing.³⁴³

1784, October 26, Tuesday Visited Mrs. Wallis of Barton Lodge today who has got a hurt by a fall. Some pleasant conversation with them, and with W. Billing³⁴⁴ at night in walking home.³⁴⁵

1784, October 27, Wednesday Little or no spirituality throughout the day.³⁴⁶

1784, October 28, Thursday But a poor day at church meeting today. Spake on our being no more strangers and foreigners &c³⁴⁷ but I am as if I was a stranger to all that is spiritual!³⁴⁸

1784, October 29, Friday Chiefly taken up today at Mr. Wallis’s³⁴⁹ and Mrs. Gotch’s. Some tender conversation with Mrs. Gotch.³⁵⁰

1784, October 30, Saturday Some pleasure today, but not much in meditation, on the love of Christ.³⁵¹

 MS Diary.  William Billen (spelling used in the Church Book) was baptized and added to the Kettering church on February , , and was later dismissed to the church at Burton in  (f. ).  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ephesians :.  Ibid.  Beeby Wallis.  MS Diary.  Ibid.

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1784, October 31, Lord’s day Heard this morning that Mr. Gotch sen. is dying!³⁵² Last Friday night I saw him as usual; when he said to me to this effect, “Remember and pray for a poor old man for I cannot be long in this world!” Much affected with the news—sung the 90th Psalm—tender in prayer, and preaching on Uphold thou me according to thy word that I may live &c.³⁵³ Preached this afternoon on the breadth, and length, and depth, and height of Christ’s love.³⁵⁴ Some sweet pleasure at the ordinance of the Lord’s Supper. O, to know more of, and live upon Christ! He must be our daily bread! Sweet pleasure tonight—can hardly forbear singing as I go about, O for this love let rocks and hills Their lasting silence break; And all harmonious human tongues, His lasting praises³⁵⁵ speak. Angels assist our mighty joys! &c³⁵⁶

1784, November 1, Monday But little spirituality today. I seem almost to have lost my views of yesterday. Tonight we met for prayer for the revival of religion. Felt but a poor time compared with what I have heretofore.³⁵⁷

1784, November 2, Tuesday Chiefly employed in writing, but very little exercise.³⁵⁸

 John Gotch, whose wife, Ann, died in May  (see above, entry for May , ).  Psalm :.  Ephesians :.  The Saviour’s praises] Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland  – ; AG Fuller , after omitting the first three sentences, has, “Preached this afternoon on the dimensions of the love of Christ. Great delight at the Lord’s supper. Oh to know more of and live upon Christ! He must be our daily bread. Sweet pleasure to-night. Can hardly forbear singing as I go about, ‘Oh for this love let rocks and hills, Their lasting silence break,’ &c.” Closing lines are from a hymn by Isaac Watts, “Plunged in a Gulf of Dark Despair,” from Hymns and Spiritual Songs (1707).  MS Diary.  Ibid.

1784, November 7, Lord’s day

87

1784, November 3, Wednesday Some solemnity of spirit tonight at Mr. Gotch’s burial but little if any spirituality in the day time.³⁵⁹

1784, November 4, Thursday Rode this morning to Northampton to a meeting. Heard Mr. Williams ³⁶⁰ a young minister preach on—If they hear not Moses &c. … and Mr. Hall on our Soul cleaving to the dust &c. Preached in the evening myself on the nature and desirableness of being led into the truth. ³⁶¹ But felt my mind in a poor low state all the day.³⁶²

1784, November 5, Friday Rode home today. Find myself a poor, carnal creature!³⁶³

1784, November 6, Saturday Some pleasure today in meditation but not much. O wilt thou not revive us again? ³⁶⁴

1784, November 7, Lord’s day Preached from the above passage with a good deal of satisfaction but felt myself very unhappy in the afternoon on John 1:12, concerning receiving Christ. ³⁶⁵

 Ibid.  Possibly the Welshman Daniel Williams ( – ), who would later assume the pastorate at Unicorn Yard, Southwark, after William Clarke. Williams served there from  to  before removing to Fairford, Gloucestershire, where he preached from  to .  Texts are from Luke :, Psalm :, and John :.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid; final phrase taken from Psalm :.  Ibid.

88

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1784, November 8, Monday Visited some poor friends today with some pleasure, and tenderness of heart (). A tenderness of spirit tonight at evening meeting in relating Lord’s Day sennights³⁶⁶ feelings.³⁶⁷

1784, November 9, Tuesday Employed chiefly in writing. Some tenderness in private prayer.³⁶⁸

1784, November 10, Wednesday Rode to Braybrook and preached and prayed with a good deal of warmth of heart on Jesus crying to every one that thirsteth, let him come unto me and drink!³⁶⁹ Some profitable conversation with Mr. Fidgen going and coming ().³⁷⁰

1784, November 11, Thursday Employed all day in writing. Some difficulties proposed by a near friend very much try my mind.*³⁷¹ I find it hard work to be reconciled to God! O for every thought to be brought into captivity to the obedience of Christ!³⁷² How little do I know!³⁷³

1784, November 12, Friday Feel my mind earnestly engaged in longing for the salvation of souls—earnest in prayer for this. O what an awful thing it seems to me for sinners who are under a fatal disease not to desire a remedy! O to be a mere spectator of Christ, what a state is that! Heard Mr. Payne³⁷⁴ tonight—of whom the world was not worthy. ³⁷⁵  seven nights [Ed.]  Ibid.  Ibid.  Isaiah :.  MS Diary.  At the foot of the page is a passage in shorthand denoted by the asterisk.   Corinthians :.  MS Diary.  Alexander Payne (d. ) was supplying at this time after the departure of the previous minister, John Ayer. Payne came from Lawrence Butterworth’s congregation in Worcestershire and joined the Walgrave chuch on May , . He was ordained on July , with John Evans, Sutcliff, Ryland,

1784, November 17, Wednesday

89

1784, November 13, Saturday Much employed in meditation but little spirituality today.³⁷⁶

1784, November 14, Lord’s day Preached with but little pleasure this morning—more in the afternoon on the Thoughts being brought into Captivity &c and some tenderness in the evening on Behold the lamb of God!³⁷⁷

1784, November 15, Monday Chiefly employed in finishing a M.S. for the press. But a poor opportunity at evening meeting.³⁷⁸

1784, November 16, Tuesday Wrote some things on 1 Corinthians 16:22 but have great reason for shame and reflection. While I write on love to Christ, I feel a world of unlawful self-love and self-seeking working in me!³⁷⁹

1784, November 17, Wednesday Nothing of any account today.³⁸⁰

Jr., and Fuller attending. A new chapel was built at Walgrave the following year, with Fuller and Ryland preaching at the dedication service. Payne remained at Walgrave for  years, and during his ministry no less than nine men were called to preach among the Baptists. His son, Dr. George Payne (d. ), would later serve as President of the Western College (Congregational) at Exeter,  –  (AG Fuller , note by Belcher). See W.A. Wicks, Concise History of the Baptist Church, Walgrave (Northampton: Taylor & Son, ),  – ; also F. C. Lusty, Walgrave Baptist Church  – : A Brief Record of Two Hundred and Fifty Years Witness and Service (Northampton: Billingham & Son, ),  – .  MS Diary; Ryland  and AG Fuller  omit last two sentences; final phrase from Hebrews :.  MS Diary.  Ibid; sermon texts from  Corinthians : and John :.  Ibid.  Ibid; Ryland .  MS Diary.

90

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1784, November 18, Thursday My days, how uselessly are they spent. Nothing worth writing today neither.³⁸¹

1784, November 19, Friday Rode to Gretton today, to preach, and try and reconcile some people there. Felt very disagreeable³⁸² throughout the journey.³⁸³

1784, November 20, Saturday Thought on the first Psalm in my return from Gretton for tomorrow;³⁸⁴ but how unlike am I to the character there drawn! My leaf seems to wither every day, and scarce anything I do seems to prosper.³⁸⁵ Feel reflections for my want of close walk with God. Surely I need to renew Covenant, as it were, with God.³⁸⁶

1784, November 21, Lord’s day A good forenoon in preaching from the first Psalm—and some feelings in the afternoon on “wherefore doth the wicked contemn God?”³⁸⁷ Began tonight to catechize the children—felt some tenderness in talking to them. Expounded the 5th chapter of the Acts this evening.³⁸⁸

 Ibid.  disagreeably] MS Diary.  Ibid. The work at Gretton would continue and on June , , the Kettering church agreed to release a number of its members to form a church there (Kettering Church Book, f. ). William Butler would serve as their first pastor in .  Returning home from Gretton, thought on the First Psalm, upon which I intend to preach tomorrow;] Ryland .  Psalm :.  Ibid; Ryland .  Psalm :.  MS Diary.

1784, November 25, Thursday

91

1784, November 22, Monday Walked to Northampton today. Some prayer that God would bless that about which I am going—viz. the printing of a M.S. on Faith in Christ being the duty of unregenerate sinners. But feel myself a poor, barren creature.³⁸⁹

1784, November 23, Tuesday Taken up all day in Mr. R.’s³⁹⁰ company in looking over the M.S. Preached tonight— felt much depressed before preaching on account of my leanness in spiritual things. Felt however a good time in preaching from “Wilt thou not revive us again?”³⁹¹

1784, November 24, Wednesday But little tenderness of spirit or real progress in spirituality today—repeated a sermon at Mr. [P’s]³⁹² which I had preached at Northampton before—from Psalms 42. “O my God &c.”³⁹³

1784, November 25, Thursday Returned to Kettering today. Preached at church meeting on Love to one another ³⁹⁴ with pretty much tenderness, and pleasure.³⁹⁵

 Ibid; Ryland , AG Fuller , and AG Fuller   –  omit last sentence; AG Fuller  also omits first sentence. Fuller took his manuscript to Northampton to allow revisions (if necessary) by Ryland. Fuller may have presented his manuscript at this time to the Northampton printer/ bookseller Thomas Dicey, Fuller’s favorite printer, during this visit but most likely he continued to revise it, as his diary in January and February seems to suggest. Dicey published a notice in the Northampton Mercury on May ,  (p. ), announcing the publication of Fuller’s volume, though the imprint, unfortunately, did not include the year of publication. The book was sold in London by James Buckland, a frequent seller of Baptist books.  John Ryland, Jr.  MS Diary; final phrase from Psalm :.  The MS appears to be a “T” more than a “P,” but since no minister in Northampton had the initial “T,” it seems more likely Fuller is referring to Thomas Porter ( – ). In  Porter succeeded William Hextal ( – ) as minister to the Independent meeting in King’s Street, a splinter congregation from Hextal’s former congregation at Castle Hill, Northampton, formed in . Porter had previously served at Hinckley, Leicestershire ( – ) and Romsey, Hampshire ( – ), and left Northampton early in . See Coleman, Memorials  – .  MS Diary.  John :.  MS Diary.

92

1784

1784, November 26, Friday Some reflections of late in prayer for my strange propensity to depart from God—and many discouraging thoughts concerning praying and preaching for the promotion of Christ’s kingdom. It seems almost, as if the Lord, if he hath not forsaken the earth, has nearly forsaken me, and would not regard my petitions.³⁹⁶

1784, November 27, Saturday Some pleasure in some thoughts on the second Psalm, on joy & trembling. ³⁹⁷

1784, November 28, Lord’s day Much tenderness and pleasure in preaching on the above subject before the Lord’s supper. Tender also at the ordinance—especially in urging a thought of Ma’Claurin³⁹⁸ —How dreadful a thing to be a mere spectator at the Lord’s supper, and not a partaker of Christ’s benefits! Preached this evening on neglecting the great salvation.³⁹⁹

1784, November 29, Monday Chiefly employed today in reading some of the Lime Street Sermons. ⁴⁰⁰ Much dispirited tonight at evening meeting on account of my carnality⁴⁰¹ and perpetual propensity to depart from God. My life seems to have been one continued series of departure from God—can compare it to nothing but a great flood or tide that rolls perpetually

 Ibid; Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland  changes Fuller’s entry as follows: “Some pleasure in thinking on the Second Psalm; especially on the combination of joy and trembling.”  John Maclaurin ( – ), Scottish Presbyterian minister, was the author of a popular series of sermons titled Glorying in the Cross of Christ, published first in Edinburgh () and later in London (). Fuller owned a copy of his Sermons and Essays (see Appendix A).  MS Diary; Ryland  omits last sentence, which is primarily from Hebrews :.  Lime-Street Sermons on Important Doctrines of the Gospel was published in London in . These lectures were delivered weekly between November , , and April , , with the speakers drawn from Calvinistic ministers among various Particular Baptist and Independent congregations in London, including Robert Bragge, Abraham Taylor, John Sladen, Peter Goodwin, John Hurrion, Thomas Bradbury, Samuel Wilson, Thomas Hall, and John Gill.  Much dispirited, on account of my carnal-mindedness and perpetual propensity to depart from God.] Ryland .

1784, December 3, Friday

93

along! The sins of my life are many, but the sin of my nature seems to be but one, one continued disposition⁴⁰² to evil—and aversion to draw near to God!⁴⁰³

1784, November 30, Tuesday This day we visited Mrs. Wallis at Barton Lodge who is confined by an accident—her conversation is almost always savory and profitable. Some pleasure throughout the day.⁴⁰⁴

1784, December 1, Wednesday Employed today in writing over a sermon for Miss Deacon on the all-sufficiency of grace, which was preached at her mother’s funeral April 7 last.⁴⁰⁵ Much affected with some of the sentiments.⁴⁰⁶

1784, December 2, Thursday But little exercise today. Heard Mr. Robinson of Leicester⁴⁰⁷ this evening on Christ being all, and in all, but had a poorish opportunity.⁴⁰⁸

1784, December 3, Friday A tender evening meeting tonight in speaking from—Continue in prayer, and watch &c ⁴⁰⁹ but little of anything else all day.⁴¹⁰

 disposion] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland  –  omits first sentence.  MS Diary; Ryland  has, “Visited Mrs. W. at ––. Her conversation is almost always spiritual and profitable. Some pleasure throughout the day.”  The “Miss Deacon” is Rebekkah Deacon (later Gill), who joined the Kettering church on October , , and died on January ,  (Kettering Church Book, ff. , ). Her mother is described in the Church Book as “Sister Widow Deacon,” and her death recorded as April , . She had been a member of the church since  (f. ).  MS Diary; Ryland .  Thomas Robinson ( – ) was vicar at St. Mary’s, Leicester, from  until his death in . He was orthodox, evangelical, and a friend to many Dissenting ministers, including Robert Hall during his early years at Harvey Lane in Leicester. Among his publications is The Christian System Unfolded, or, Essays on the Doctrines and Duties of Christianity ( vols, ).  MS Diary; sermon text from Colossians :.  Colossians :.

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1784, December 4, Saturday No manner of spirituality, though some freedom in meditation.⁴¹¹

1784, December 5, Lord’s day A pretty good day—On the felicity of understanding in the morning, and of Ignorance in the afternoon. Preached at Geddington tonight on We hope fixed &c.⁴¹²

1784, December 6, Monday Some good conversation with friend S. Wright⁴¹³ on the general ignorance of that which constitutes the very essence of our depravity, our moral inability. ⁴¹⁴ A very tender evening meeting of prayer for⁴¹⁵ the revival of real religion. Much pleasure in singing, and freedom with God in prayer—prayed against my late sceptical feelings.⁴¹⁶

1784, December 7, Tuesday Taken up all day in writing therefore but little exercise.⁴¹⁷

 MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid; text from  John ..  Samuel Wright joined the Kettering church in  (Kettering Church Book, f. ).  The distinction between moral and natural inability came to Fuller, Ryland, and Sutcliff largely through the writings of Jonathan Edwards, especially his volume on Freedom of the Will, which Fuller first read c. . This distinction would form one of the central theses in Fuller’s Gospel of Christ Worthy of All Acceptation. As Fuller writes, “Natural ability, may in the stile of scripture be called, the power of the hand, and moral ability, the power of the heart. The former is not of itself sufficient for the performance of good. If a man have ever so much power of this sort to do good, yet if he have no disposition that way, it is to no purpose” (). Thus, though man does not have the capacity to will himself into a spiritual state apart from divine intervention, he nevertheless has a capacity to choose (a duty), but because of the hardness of his heart, chooses to reject Christ, and is thus morally responsible. For further discussion of this important topic in the life of Fuller, see the Introduction to volume  of this series.  An affecting meeting of prayer, this evening, for] Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland  omits first paragraph, then adds at the end of this entry: “Like variations of his frame of mind are noticed through the rest of the month, which I omit, on account of its similarity to what has been already inserted.”  MS Diary.

1784, December 12, Lord’s day

95

1784, December 8, Wednesday Some good conversation today with Mr. Wallis on particular redemption, the death and obedience of Christ and some other subjects.⁴¹⁸

1784, December 9, Thursday Rode to Irchester and preached twice—a good time in the evening … but little spirituality besides all day.⁴¹⁹

1784, December 10, Friday Rode to Olney—and preached tonight on the desirableness of being led into truth— but a poor cold heart.⁴²⁰

1784, December 11, Saturday Taken up today in visits—feel myself dissatisfied with such a way of spending the Saturday.⁴²¹

1784, December 12, Lord’s day Preached today on the dimensions of Christ’s love, on rejoicing with trembling, and on having our thoughts reduced to the obedience of Christ. ⁴²² Felt much liberty and pleasure in the evening but no other part of the day.⁴²³

     

Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Texts from Psalm : and  Corinthians :. MS Diary.

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1784, December 13, Monday Rode home today—heard Mr. Sutcliff tonight on pardoning grace, but felt poorly.⁴²⁴

1784, December 14, Tuesday Rode to Walgrave with Mr. S.⁴²⁵—some profitable conversation by the way. Heard him preach on the Day of Judgment.

1784, December 15, Wednesday Visited several friends today at Walgrave—pretty much conversation on church government—preached tonight on fellowship with Christ,⁴²⁶ but not much pleasure.⁴²⁷

1784, December 16, Thursday Rode to Northampton—and Spratton—preached there tonight but not happy. I seem jaded out in journeying & preaching.⁴²⁸

1784, December 17, Friday Rode home, and preached with some freedom out of the 4th chapter of Zechariah— “Not by might, nor by strength, &c.”⁴²⁹

1784, December 18, Saturday I feel myself today a poor carnal wretch! Casting my eye on “Wo to the idol shepherd &c”⁴³⁰ … thought that was my character! Reading in the Epistle of James “with meek-

      

Ibid. Sutcliff.  Corinthians :. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Zechariah :.

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ness receive the engrafted word &c”⁴³¹ methought there was something in that which I could not reach. Felt my heart go up to God that I might understand it.⁴³²

1784, December 19, Lord’s day Pretty much tenderness today in preaching on the above subject, and on girding up the loins of our mind &c.⁴³³ Some guilt tonight through an indulgence of improper conversation.⁴³⁴

1784, December 20, Monday Employed pretty much in reading the Lime Street Sermons and writing. Very little if any spirituality.⁴³⁵

1784, December 21, Tuesday Reading the above sermons all day today with some pleasure.⁴³⁶

1784, December 22, Wednesday Some tender feelings under my frequent indisposition of body. Thought how I should bear it if God should lay me by from the work of the ministry.⁴³⁷

1784, December 23, Thursday Employed in reading. Some of Mr. Bradbury’s sermons I find very profitable, and some of Mr. Wilson’s. ⁴³⁸  James :.  MS Diary; AG Fuller .   Peter :.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid.  Ibid; AG Fuller .  MS Diary. The two ministers are Samuel Wilson ( – ), pastor of the Baptist congregation in Goodman’s Fields (Little Prescot Street) ( – ), and Thomas Bradbury ( – ), Independent minister at New Street, Fetter Lane ( – ) and New Court, Tollington Park, London ( – ). Both ministers were involved in the Lime Street lectures that were published in ,

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1784, December 24, Friday Very little profit in reading today. Nothing that I know of worth writing.⁴³⁹

1784, December 25, Saturday Some pleasure today at church meeting. Spoke from 2 Corinthians 9, Thanks be to God for his unspeakable gift! but felt sadly carnal towards night—feel guilt on account of this.⁴⁴⁰

1784, December 26, Lord’s day A sweet day in preaching on Christ’s not failing, nor being discouraged &c and in administering the Lord’s Supper. Song [of Solomon] … his legs are as pillars of marble— and Hebrews, When he had by himself purged our sins, he sat down at the right hand of God—were sweet to me.⁴⁴¹

1784, December 27, Monday–December 31, Friday Chiefly employed this week in reading more of Bradbury’s Sermons—but very little spirituality. Tenderly affected I think on Wednesday night in singing Dr. Watts’s 47th Hymn 2nd book with my child Bobby in my arms. Could not help weeping while I sung concerning him— O mayst thou live and reach the place, Where he unveils his lovely face— Where all his beauties you behold And sing his name to harps of gold!

a volume Fuller is reading at this time. Wilson’s contributions were two sermons on The Doctrine of Efficacious Grace Asserted and Bradbury’s were three sermons on The Sufferings of Christ. When Fuller tallied all the books in his library in , he listed one volume of sermons by Bradbury, most likely The Mystery of Godliness, considered in Sixty-One Sermons (), and one volume by Wilson, Scripture Manual: or, a Plain Representation of the Ordinance of Baptism () (see Appendix A).  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid; sermon texts from Isaiah :, Song of Solomon :, and Hebrews :.

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If I should die before Bobby, let him remember this—and Sally the verses in the Diary of August 11, 1780.⁴⁴² Spake tonight on—The end of all things is ⁴⁴³ at hand! as a close to the present year.⁴⁴⁴

 The original diary entry Fuller is referring to is no longer extant, but Ryland  includes these verses: Mays’t thou live to know and fear him, Trust and love him all thy days; Then go dwell for ever near him, See his face, and sing his praise. And another verse: O may’st thou live to reach the place Where he unveils his lovely face; There all his glories to behold, And sing his name to harps of gold.  are is ] MS Diary.  MS Diary; a portion of this entry appears in Ryland ; AG Fuller  –  has, “Deeply affected on Wednesday night, in singing with little R. in my arms:— ‘O mayest thou live to reach the place,’ etc. If I should die before him, let him remember this, and S. the verses in the diary, &c.” Fuller’s sermon text from 1 Peter 4:7.

1785 1785, January 1, Saturday Some tenderness this¹ morning in reflecting on the past year. What good I have done I scarcely know. Great has been my sin against God. Feel myself a vile wretch!²

1785, January 2, Lord’s day. Preached this forenoon on Love to Christ, and in the afternoon a new-year’s sermon to the young people from Psalm 34:11, Come, ye children!—and I will teach you the fear of the Lord! Some sweet and solemn feelings sitting in the vestry while one of the³ Bristol new year’s Hymns⁴ was sung—felt a very tender heart and longing desire for the welfare of the young people. Preached to them with some earnestness from Psalm 34:11, Come ye children, &c. Very tender in reading more of Mr. Bunyan’s Holy War,⁵ particularly that part where the four captains agree to petition the King for more force. Felt a great satisfaction in my principles concerning preaching to sinners and a desire to pray like them for help from on high to render the word effectual.⁶

 Some emotions of affection, this] Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland  alters last line to “Behold, I am vile!”  of Mr. Newton’s the] MS Diary.  In , John Ash ( – ), Baptist minister at Pershore from  to , joined with his friend Caleb Evans ( – ) in publishing the first collection of hymns designed for use among the Particular Baptists, A Collection of Hymns Adapted to Public Worship (Bristol, ), a volume that soon became known by its shortened title, the Bristol Collection. In  Evans was assisting his father, Hugh Evans ( – ), Baptist minister at Broadmead in Bristol. Upon his father’s death, he became pastor of the church and President of Bristol Baptist College and leader of the Bristol Education Society, which he helped found in .  John Bunyan ( – ) ministered to the Old Meeting (later called the Bunyan Meeting) in Bedford from  to . His congregation consisted of Baptists and Independents, a mixture reflected in some of his own writings, especially his important pamphlet, Differences in Judgment about Water Baptism no Bar to Communion (). Today the Bunyan Meeting remains a member of both the Baptist Union and the Congregational Federation. During Bunyan’s twelve-year imprisonment in the Bedford Gaol, he wrote his most famous work, Pilgrim’s Progress (published in ), and his spiritual autobiography, Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners (). The reference by Fuller to the captains’s petition can be found in The Holy War, made by Shaddai upon Diabolus, for the Regaining of the Metropolis of the World, or, The Losing and Taking again of the Town of Mansoul (London, ; Edinburgh: W. Darling, ),  – , a volume in Fuller’s library (see Appendix A).  MS Diary; Ryland  – ; AG Fuller  is slightly condensed, with no reference to the Bristol Collection: “Preached this afternoon a new-year’s sermon to young people, from ‘Come, ye children,’ &c. Some sweet and solemn feelings, as I sat in the vestry, while a hymn for the new year was sung: felt my heart very tender, and a longing desire for the welfare of the young people: preached to them DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-005

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1785, January 3, Monday Felt very sensibly tonight at our monthly meeting for prayer, how far off a Christian life I live—how little real fellowship I have with Christ! How little of holy boldness can I use in prayer! Surely, if I were more to frequent the throne of grace in private it would be better with me!⁷

1785, January 4, Tuesday–January 5, Wednesday Employed in reading, but little profit.⁸

1785, January 6, Thursday Taken up in writing some thoughts on Satan’s Influence upon the human mind, in a letter to a friend. ⁹

1785, January 7, Friday But little spirituality in the day—but some tenderness in speaking tonight on Humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God and he shall exalt you in due time. ¹⁰

1785, January 8, Saturday Much affected today in hearing my little girl say, “How soon Sabbath day comes again!” Felt grieved to see the native opposition of the carnal heart to Christ and the gospel so early discovering itself in her!¹¹ Was led to importune God at a throne of grace on her behalf.¹²

with some earnestness. Felt much also this day in reading Bunyan’s Holy War, particularly that part where the four captains agree to petition the King for more force: felt a great satisfaction in my principles concerning preaching to sinners, and a desire to pray, like them, for help from on high, to render the word effectual.”  MS Diary; Ryland .  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid; final phrase from  Peter :.  Felt grieved to see the native aversion of the carnal heart from God so early discovering itself.] Ryland .  Ibid; Ryland ; AG Fuller .

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1785, January 9, Lord’s day A goodish day upon the whole. Preached in the forenoon on being quickened when we were dead in Trespasses and sins ¹³ and in the afternoon on the petition of the blind man in the tenth [chapter] of Mark. Expounded the 6th chapter of the Acts this evening. One verse in particular carries in it conviction to me, That we may give ourselves wholly to prayer and the ministry of the Word!¹⁴

1785, January 10, Monday Engaged chiefly in writing. A poor evening meeting. Dejected in spirit tonight.¹⁵

1785, January 11, Tuesday Some outgoings of heart in prayer today for the revival of real religion first in my own soul, and then in the churches in general. My own mental departures from God have been long and great! Went several times to the Lord with some satisfaction but not much tender nearness.¹⁶,¹⁷

1785, January 12, Wednesday Last night was visited by Brother West of Soham. Taken up today in conversation with him. Heard him preach this evening on All thy works shall praise thee, but thy saints shall bless thee!¹⁸

 Ephesians :.  MS Diary; Ryland  (with considerable variations); AG Fuller  only has, “This evening expounded Acts vi. One verse in particular carries in it conviction to me: That we may give ourselves wholly to prayer and the ministry of the word.”  MS Diary.  but found not such nearness of access as I could wish.] Ryland, ; AG Fuller, .  Ibid; Ryland ; AG Fuller .  MS Diary; final phrase from Psalm :.

1785, January 17, Monday

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1785, January 13, Thursday Low spirited in parting with dear Brother West. The Lord bless him, and me! Taken up today in correcting some J. E.¹⁹

1785, January 14, Friday Employed pretty much about the same today. Spoke tonight with some freedom on Psalm 116, I will walk before the Lord &c. Explained the thing as consisting in viewing ourselves as always in God’s sight, and not merely in the sight of creatures whether ungodly or godly—in striving to please God—and in attending in a constant way to the most spiritual duties. Observed the goodness of the resolution, because this road²⁰ was safe, honorable, and happy. ²¹

1785, January 15, Saturday But slow progress in real walking with God. Not much pleasure today in meditation.²²

1785, January 16, Lord’s day Some little pleasure today in preaching but not much—preached twice and expounded the 7th chapter of the Acts.²³

1785, January 17, Monday Employed today in reading Cotton Mather’s Student and Preacher,²⁴ with some profit —but a poor evening meeting.²⁵  Ibid.  course] Ryland .  Ibid; Ryland  and AG Fuller  omit first sentence.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Cotton Mather ( – ) ministered to the Second Church, Boston, in New England, from  to , publishing widely on numerous topics, including his famous account of the Salem witch trials in  (Wonders of the Invisible World) and his history of early America, Magnalia Christi Americana (). Reference here is to Mather’s Student and Preacher (originally titled Manuductio ad Ministerium) (), which was reprinted in London in  in an edition by John Collett Ryland, most likely the same edition of the work that belonged to Fuller’s library (see Appendix A).

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1785, January 18, Tuesday Chiefly employed in reading and writing—find somewhat more nearness and tenderness of heart than I have done for sometime past. It is good for me to draw near to God, and yet how strangely do I decline!²⁶

1785, January 19, Wednesday Nothing that I know of today of any account. Taken up in company at Mr. W.’s.²⁷²⁸

1785, January 20, Thursday Employed all day in correcting work. Tenderly affected tonight in recollecting my removal from Soham.²⁹

1785, January 21, Friday A poor state of mind all day today. Spake tonight on “My soul cleaveth to the dust &c”³⁰ but a poor opportunity.³¹

1785, January 22, Saturday My soul seems at such a distance from God, I know not how to attend to any thing. Have been meditating on some subjects for tomorrow, but make but poor progress.³²

       

MS Diary. Ibid. Wallis’s. Ibid. Ibid. Psalm :. MS Diary. Ibid.

1785, January 27, Thursday

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1785, January 23, Lord’s day Have been preaching today on our being a kingdom of priests—and on holding forth the Word of life,³³ with some earnestness but no manner of spirituality. Expounded the 8th chapter of Acts, but feel much dissatisfied with my own labors.³⁴

1785, January 24, Monday Employed chiefly today in reading the Monthly Review. ³⁵ Some pleasure at the evening meeting with a few Christian friends.³⁶

1785, January 25, Tuesday Read more of T. Bradbury’s Sermons³⁷ with some profit—but am still the subject of wretched coldness and carnality of heart!³⁸

1785, January 26, Wednesday Very little exercise today—heard from dear Brother Ryland—his concerns, how distressing!³⁹

1785, January 27, Thursday Some outgoings in prayer for Brother Ryland for the cause of Christ which suffers much by his father’s conduct.⁴⁰ Spake today at church meeting from Hebrews 13:1.⁴¹

 Texts from Exodus : and Philippians :.  MS Diary.  See entry for October , .  MS Diary.  Numerous volumes of Thomas Bradbury’s sermons were published in the eighteenth century; Fuller may be referring to Bradbury’s sermons on Christ’s sufferings delivered during the Lime Street Lectures (), a volume of sermons Fuller mentions on several occasions in his diary.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Reference here is to the difficulties affecting the church and school at Northampton due to some financial indiscretions by John Ryland, Sr., as well as ongoing concerns over his second marriage in , all of which eventually led to his resigning at Northampton in November  and removing to Enfield, near London. He opened a new school there, along with his assistant at Northampton, John Clarke. Ryland, Jr., assumed the pastorate of the church at Northampton.

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1785, January 28, Friday But little spirituality today.⁴²

1785, January 29, Saturday Some little exercise on Christ’s being the Great Shepherd of the Sheep &c⁴³ with some other things, but not much pleasure.⁴⁴

1785, January 30, Lord’s day Some earnestness and tenderness today in preaching and in administering the Lord’s Supper. But a poor time tonight on the vanity of man’s thoughts. ⁴⁵

1785, January 31, Monday–February 4, February But very little spirituality. I feel my heart so uncommonly prone to forget God, and leave off a close walk with him! … Was visited last night by my Brother R. Fuller and some other relations. Some conversation with them today. Spake this evening from Psalms 120, If thou Lord should mark iniquity &c with some freedom. We cannot plead innocent! Nor any excuse for our sin! ⁴⁶

1785, February 5, Saturday But a poor day in meditation. Surely mine is a wretched, barren life.⁴⁷

      

MS Diary. Ibid. Hebrews :. MS Diary. Ibid; final phrase from Psalm :. Ibid. Ibid.

1785, February 9, Wednesday

107

1785, February 6, Lord’s day Some pleasure in preaching on the Condescension & Grace of God in the morning— and on The turning aside of apostates to their crooked ways,⁴⁸ in the afternoon. Expounded the 9th chapter of the Acts this evening.⁴⁹

1785, February 7, Monday But little exercise today. Some tenderness this evening at the meeting of prayer for the revival of Christ’s cause.⁵⁰

1785, February 8, Tuesday Visited Mr. Toller today, who has been very ill. Some serious conversation with him on the importance of real religion in a dying hour. … Visited Mr. Benford’s this afternoon.⁵¹

1785, February 9, Wednesday This morning parted with our relations—some serious conversation with one of my wife’s sisters (Ann). Visited Mrs. Wallis at Barton today—some good conversation. Am sorry to hear the spirit of Mr. T. and his people,⁵² but feel a satisfaction in the cause in which I am engaged. … Some reflections on hearing an instance of a minister’s faithfulness (Mr. T. Cranford)⁵³ lest I should not be found faithful! ’Tis hard work to act faithfully in some circumstances. The Lord keep me!⁵⁴

 Psalm :.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid; Ryland  and AG Fuller  omit last sentence. Thomas Benford joined the Kettering church in , six years after his wife. She died in , aged ; he died on January ,  (Kettering Church Book, f. ).  Most likely a reference to some of the people in the Rushden church who were in open disagreement with Fuller’s theology.  Beneath the shorthand line in the MS (written in an unknown hand) is the following: “Mr. Tomlinson’s conversation with Mr. Wakeland of Cranford.”  MS Diary.

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1785, February 10, Thursday Nothing material in the day⁵⁵. Tender this evening when I was⁵⁶ going to rest, with one of my children (Sally) in my arms. Felt tenderly in thinking of Dr. Watts’s lines “May’st thou live to know & fear him, Trust & love him all thy days— Then go dwell for ever near him See his face & sing his praise!”⁵⁷

1785, February 11, Friday Read part of the life of Mr. John Janeway⁵⁸ today, with much conviction and tenderness. O, my life, how low to his!⁵⁹

1785, February 12, Saturday Feel desire to live like that excellent young man whose life I read yesterday—but O, how different is my spirit & life! Not much exercise of mind today. Feel much barrenness of spirit.⁶⁰

1785, February 13, Lord’s day Some earnestness today preaching on pressing forward, and on the desire accomplished being sweet to the soul, but very little spirituality. Very earnest tonight in preaching from What will ye do in the end thereof?⁶¹

 matterial in the to day] MS Diary.  this morn evening when I awaked in thinking was] MS Diary.  Ibid; lines are from Isaac Watts’s famous “Cradle Hymn” (). Six works by Watts belonged to Fuller’s library in .  An Extract of the Life and Death of Mr. John Janeway [ – ], Fellow in King’s-College, in Cambridge, was published in London in .  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller .  MS Diary; Ryland  omits “but O … barrenness of spirit.”  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller ; sermon texts from Philippians :, Proverbs :, Jeremiah :.

1785, February 17, Thursday

109

1785, February 14, Monday Not much exercise of a religious kind today. Some tenderness tonight at evening meeting wishing I could walk nearer to God—but it seems to be little more than wishing!⁶²

1785, February 16, Wednesday Visited Mr. S. Wallis⁶³ today in company with Mr. and Mrs. B. Wallis. Some good conversation, but no free, tender talk on things spiritual and experimental. I find Mr. Tw—e and the people at Rushden⁶⁴ carry their resentments very high on account of what they reckon my erroneous principles. I need grace not so much at present to keep me from resenting again as to keep me from rejoicing in their iniquity. Undoubtedly they could not take measures that would more conduce to the reputation of what I have written, and of what I preach, as well as against themselves.⁶⁵

1785, February 17, Thursday Chiefly employed today in reading Geography.⁶⁶ Visited Mrs. Gotch this afternoon— a .⁶⁷

 MS Diary.  Samuel Wallis (d. ), father of George Wallis the diarist, both of whom became deacons in Fuller’s congregation (for Samuel’s ordination, see Fuller’s diary entry for February , ).  Fuller has written “Tw” at the beginning of the name, possibly thinking of Robert Tweltree of Ringstead, but most likely having intended to write “Kw.” The minister at Rushden at that time was William Knowles. See below, entry for August , , for more on the animosity between the Rushden and Kettering churches.  MS Diary; AG Fuller  has, “In the company of Christian friends. Some good conversation, but no free tender talk on things spiritual and experimental. I find Mr. ______ and the people at_________ carry their resentments very high, on account of what they reckon my erroneous principles. I need grace not so much at present to keep me from resenting again as to keep me from rejoicing in their iniquity. Undoubtedly they could not take measures that would more conduce to the reputation of what I have written and of what I preach, as well as to their own detriment.”  Most likely Fuller is reading William Guthrie’s A New Geographical, Historical, and Commercial Grammar; and Present State of the Several Kingdoms of the World (London, ), which was still present in his library in  (see Appendix A).  MS Diary.

110

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1785, February 18, Friday (Forgot Tuesday the 15th.⁶⁸ Preached Sister Graves’s⁶⁹ funeral sermon, but a poor, cold opportunity). Little exercise today. Spoke tonight with some freedom on Lord, increase our faith! ⁷⁰

1785, February 19, Saturday Some tender and good feelings this morning, feel an earnest desire that my mind might be well furnished with gospel sentiments. Some meditations affording some pleasure on Revelation 1:18.⁷¹

1785, February 20, Lord’s day Some earnestness and pleasure today on the above subject. Some encouragement in observing several in the congregation likely to come forward in joining the church.⁷²

1785, February 21, Monday Last night read something of Mr. Scott’s writing upon⁷³ Repentance. ⁷⁴ Reflections this morning on the great cause I have of Repentance and the little I have of it! Every day furnishes reasons for it, but how seldom do I experience holy mourning! A poor evening meeting.⁷⁵

 Fuller has erroneously dated this entry as Tuesday the th.  The Kettering Church Book (f. ) list her as “Sister Graves,” and notes that she died on February , , aged , having joined the church in . A William Graves, possibly her son, joined in  and died in  (f. ).  MS Diary; final phrase from Luke :.  Ibid; Ryland  has, “Feel an earnest desire, this morning, that my mind might be well furnished with evangelical sentiments. Had some pleasing meditations on Rev.:.” AG Fuller  has, “Feel an earnest desire that my mind might be well furnished with gospel sentiments. Found encouragement in observing several in the congregation who are likely soon to join the church.”  MS Diary; Ryland  has, “Felt earnestness and pleasure in preaching on the above subject: found encouragement in observing several in the congregation who are likely soon to join the church.”  Last night, I was reading Mr. Scott on] Ryland .  Thomas Scott of Olney. Fuller is probably referring to Scott’s sermon, A Thanksgiving Sermon, preached July , : At the Parish Church of Olney, Bucks, by Thomas Scott, Curate of Olney and Weston-Underwood, published that same year in Northampton by Thomas Dicey, Fuller’s publisher.  MS Diary; Ryland  omits last sentence.

1785, February 25, Friday

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1785, February 22, Tuesday Some tenderness in private prayer—attended with shame. Had an agreeable visit with Mr. B. Wallis at Mr. Timms.⁷⁶ Found the conversation very serious & profitable chiefly on closet-prayer, and experimental subjects.⁷⁷

1785, February 23, Wednesday But little exercise that I recollect today,⁷⁸ though I experience a general calmness of spirit. Surely it is good for me to draw near to God! How strange it is that I should ever feel reluctant in that matter!⁷⁹

1785, February 24, Thursday Spoke today at church meeting with some freedom from Psalm 119:117, Hold thou me up. Found a strange mixture of carnality throughout the day, which seems to be coming in like a flood.⁸⁰

1785, February 25, Friday Employed this morning in finishing the J. E.’s poems.⁸¹ Visited M. Daniels of Burton⁸² this afternoon. Feel my mind sadly unfit for visiting one in dying circumstances—conversed & prayed with her as well as I knew how, but with but little savor.⁸³  Beeby Wallis and Joseph Timms, a grocer, were deacons in the Kettering church. Timms joined the church in  and died on September ,  (Kettering Church Book, f. ). His son, Joseph, Jr., joined the church in  and was one of thirteen signatories at the initial formation of the BMS in the house of Mrs. Beeby Wallis on October , , at Kettering. He was evenutally excluded from the church in  (f. ).  MS Diary; Ryland  and AG Fuller  use only initials of the individuals named in the entry, a typical device of nineteenth-century published diaries.  exercise of mind, today,] Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland .  MS Diary.  “J. E.” is unidentified. Possibilities near Fuller might be John Edmonds of Guilsborough or John Evans of Northampton, though neither is known to have published a volume of poems.  M. Daniels is the wife of John Daniels, who joined the Kettering church on August , , and was later dismissed to the church at Burton in  (Kettering Church Book, f. ). There is no record of his wife joining the church. An Elizabeth Daniels, most likely a relation of the Daniels mentioned above, joined the church in  and died on October ,  (f. ).  MS Diary.

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1785, February 26, Saturday Today I feel myself a poor, carnal, stupid wretch—utterly unfit for the work in which I am engaged. Some little tenderness towards night but very little.⁸⁴

1785, February 27, Lord’s day Preached today and prayed with some fervor, on Christ as the Wisdom and the Word of God. A good time at the Lord’s supper.⁸⁵

1785, February 28, Monday to March 4, Friday Very little spirituality this week. Went with Mr. W.⁸⁶ to Barton Lodge in order to admonish one of our members who lives at Burton. On Friday rode for Northampton. Called at Mrs. Hobson’s, with whom I had some savory conversation.⁸⁷ Riding from there to N——n⁸⁸ had some pleasant exercise from 1 Peter 1:6, If need be ye are in heaviness &.⁸⁹

1785, March 5, Saturday Much employed today in calls on friends. Some few hours in meditation.

 Ibid.  Ibid.  Wallis.  Inserted in square brackets is the following: “[ I am afraid I put Lord]”; underneath is the transcription: “What time I am afraid I will put my trust in the Lord” (Psalm :). A Susanna Hobson was baptized and added to the church at Kettering on February ,  (Kettering Church Book, f. ). A James Hobson, most likely her husband, joined at Kettering on November , , from Northampton (ff.  – ). She may have been related to Mary Hobson, who joined at College Lane in Northampton in  (College Lane Church Book, f. , shelfmark CSBC , Northamptonshire Record Office), and William Hobson ( – ) of Cottesbrooke, who married Ann Carey ( – ), William Carey’s sister. The sister of James Hobson (formerly of Walgrave Lodge) married a Captain Tomlin who eventually joined the church in Serampore in  under William Ward (AG Fuller  ). Andrew Gunton Fuller married Esther Hobson of Guilsborough, a member of the same Hobson family, in .  Rode to Northampton] Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland  includes only the last sentence.

1785, March 9, Wednesday

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1785, March 6, Lord’s day Preached on the above subject this morning with some pleasure. A⁹⁰ sermon to the young people in the afternoon—and on Love to God’s salvation in the evening. A pretty good day.⁹¹

1785, March 7, Monday Much employed in visiting—and in company with Brother R.⁹² Some tenderness tonight in the monthly⁹³ prayer meeting, in speaking a little on Continuing in prayer; and in going to prayer—though I felt wretchedly cold before I began.⁹⁴

1785, March 8, Tuesday Taken up much as yesterday. Preached tonight at Mr. H.’s⁹⁵ meeting on our need of being corrected. ⁹⁶

1785, March 9, Wednesday Took leave today of friends at Northampton with some heaviness in my spirits. Affected much with the death of a malefactor. Going by the gallows—O eternity! Eternity! Preached tonight on manifold temptations &c⁹⁷ at Walgrave with much tenderness.⁹⁸

 And A] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland  has, “Preached there on the above subject, with some pleasure. In the afternoon, a sermon to young people; and in the evening, love to Christ’s salvation. A pretty good day.”  Ryland.  Enjoyed divine assistance at the monthly] Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland  omits first sentence.  John Horsey ( – ) ministered to the Independent Meeting as Castle Hill, Northampton, from  until his death in . He also operated a ministerial academy there for several years. His ministry was popular at first, but charges of heterodoxy plagued Horsey throughout the late s and into the s, causing a decline in his congregation. Thomas Coleman contends that Horsey remained a pious minister throughout his career, though his position on the nature of Christ remained vague at best in regard to orthodox doctrines. Nevertheless, “Horsey manifested the spirit of devotion, and a humble reliance on Christ as the Saviour of sinners, and would be found ‘looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to eternal life.’” See Thomas Coleman, Memorials of the Independent Churches in Northamptonshire (London: John Snow, ),  – .  MS Diary.   Peter :.

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1785, March 10, Thursday Much concerned to see the state of things at Walgrave!—Rode to Spratton and preached tonight out of the first Psalm with some pleasure.⁹⁹

1785, March 11, Friday But little exercise of mind today—feel a general lowness of spirit—partly in hearing of the spirit of some ministers respecting my preaching & publication, and partly on account of the state of things where I have been.¹⁰⁰

1785, March 12, Saturday But a poor day thinking of Isaiah 35. An highway there, & some other things.¹⁰¹

1785, March 13, Lord’s day Some pleasure in preaching today on God’s working in us to will and to do ¹⁰² but a poor afternoon from Isaiah 35. Concerned today to see some undue warmth between two friends.¹⁰³

1785, March 14, Monday Chiefly employed in reading Geography but very little exercise of a spiritual nature.¹⁰⁴

 MS Diary; Ryland  has only this: “Returned from Northampton. Going by the gallows, much affected with the death of a malefactor. O eternity! eternity!”  MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland  (AG Fuller  –  is essentially the same) has, “Feel a general lowness of spirits; partly occasioned by the bitter spirit of some neighbouring ministers respecting my late publication and my preaching; and, partly, by sympathy with some of my friends under trials.”  MS Diary.  Phillipians :.  MS Diary.  Ibid.

1785, March 20, Lord’s day

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1785, March 15, Tuesday Visited a friend today with a view to reconcile some differences.*¹⁰⁵ Felt some grief in hearing certain expressions drop that indicated a very wrong spirit.¹⁰⁶

1785, March 16, Wednesday Visited Mr. Toller today & had some good conversation. Conversed also with Mr. Pay—¹⁰⁷ a little.¹⁰⁸

1785, March 17, Thursday Some more conversation with ¹⁰⁹ and hope things will soon be reconciled. But my life is strangely degenerated!¹¹⁰

1785, March 18, Friday Some little serenity today—spake tonight from James 1:1, James a servant of God. ¹¹¹

1785, March 19, Saturday But little exercise today.¹¹²

1785, March 20, Lord’s day Some feeling today in preaching on Temptations. Some little tenderness in the evening Lecture on Joseph’s blessing. ¹¹³

        

At the foot of the page Fuller has written: “Mr. G. & Mr. W.” MS Diary. Payne. Ibid; AG Fuller  omits last sentence. Most likely the shorthand reference is to the same Mr. Payne from the previous diary entry. MS Diary. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid; final phrase from Genesis :.

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1785, March 21, Monday Have been somewhat stirred beyond due bounds today in talk with J. T—b—t.¹¹⁴ It would have been better for me to have thought more of myself, and to have talked with him with more humility. Heard Brother Heighton speak tonight from Psalm 110:1,2,3, with great pleasure.¹¹⁵

1785, March 22, Tuesday Spent this day in company with Brother H.¹¹⁶ for whom I have great hopes .¹¹⁷

1785, March 23, Wednesday This day we kept church meeting—and heard Mr. S.¹¹⁸ speak from the Word, a gift in Gilsborough church, of whose qualifications for the ministry we are requested to give

 Joseph Tebbutt. Ryland  removes the name completely; AG Fuller  substitutes “a member of the church.”  MS Diary; Ryland  and AG Fuller  omit last sentence, with the latter altering the opening sentence as follows: “Have been somewhat stirred beyond due bounds to-day, in talking with a member of the church who has sinned.”  Heighton.  MS Diary.  Edward Sharman (d. c. ) helped found the Baptist church at Guilsborough in September , just to the northwest of Northampton. He later ministered to the Moulton church in the s after Carey’s removal to Leicester. He signed the minutes of the Northamptonshire Association for May , , the meeting at which Carey preached his famous sermon on missions. By  Sharman was out of the ministry, having been replaced at Moulton by John Barker and was no longer a Particular Baptist. Fuller, writing to William Carey in Bengal on May , , notes that Sharman, now at Cottesbrooke, had become a Unitarian and recently published a pamphlet against the divinity of Christ; he had also influenced several other Baptists known to Fuller and Carey. Fuller writes, “I reckon, though, it be a blundering performance, it must be answered, and if it be we will send you the book & its answer together, He has lately lost his wife. Some think him touched with insanity” (Fuller Correspondence,  – , MSS. BMS, Vol. , Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford). Sharman eventually emigrated to New England, and continued to engage in ecclesiastical and religious controversy there. Among his publications are A Letter on the Doctrine of the Trinity; Addressed to the Baptist Society at Guilsborough, Northamptonshire (); A Second Letter on the Doctrine of the Trinity; Addressed to the Baptist Society, at Guilsborough, Northamptonshire, Worship the Father (); A Caution against Trinitarianism (); A Second Caution against Trinitarianism; or, An Inquiry whether that System has not some tendency to lead people unto Deism and Atheism. In a letter addressed to the Rev. Mr. Fuller, Kettering. By a Northamptonshire farmer ().

1785, March 26, Saturday

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our opinion. Heard some allegations against J. T.¹¹⁹ and agreed to lay him under admonition.¹²⁰

1785, March 24, Thursday Set off this morning for Woodford—spent the day chiefly in company with Mr. Barnes¹²¹ & some other friends. Preached tonight on the ways of sin like the adulteress, being moveable &c¹²² some earnestness and solemnity of spirit in prayer and preaching.¹²³

1785, March 25, Friday Returned by Mr. Wallis’s—some Meditations on Christ’s care over his flock as a shepherd, on seeing some lambs exposed to the cold, and a poor sheep perishing from want of care. Called also at Cranford. Some tenderness in prayer with Mrs. Askew who is very ill. Damped in a little conversation with T. A.¹²⁴ whom I thought to be a good man but find it is very doubtful whether he ever prays either in his family or in private.¹²⁵ Some good conversation with Mrs. S. Wallis.¹²⁶

1785, March 26, Saturday Some little exercise today but O I want spirituality!¹²⁷

 Joseph Tebbutt.  MS Diary. The Kettering Church Book records on March , , that Tebbutt was accused of holding heterodox views on adultery and polygamy, treating his wife in “an unlovely manner,” and paying inappropriate “attentions” to another woman; the church voted to place him “under admonition” (f. ).  William Barnes of Woodford joined the Kettering church on July , , and was called to the ministry on April , ; he died on December , , having devoted his brief ministerial career to the congregation at Burton. According to the Kettering Church Book, Barnes was a “modest, upright, intelligent, and sociable man” (ff. , ).  Proverbs : – .  MS Diary.  Most likely a member of Mrs. Askew’s family.  “Sister Askew,” as the Kettering Church Book has it, joined the church in  and died in June . A John Askew (possibly her husband) joined in  (f. ).  MS Diary. Ryland  and AG Fuller  partially combine the entries for March  – , though “Called also … S. Wallis” is omitted.  MS Diary.

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1785, March 27, Lord’s day Not much pleasure today. Somewhat of heaviness of heart though the subjects I were upon (John 1:17 Grace & Truth by J. C.,¹²⁸ and Psalm 103:1—Bless the Lord O my soul!) required a different state of mind. Expounded the 11th chapter of Acts with some pleasure this evening.¹²⁹

1785, March 28, Monday Employed chiefly in reading. Some heaviness of heart because some of my friends do not take that freedom with me which I wish they did—at least it seems so to me.¹³⁰

1785, March 29, Tuesday Visited this morning by Mr. W.¹³¹ who told me of a very unhappy affair relative to Mr. B—d¹³²—This explains some things which I imputed to reserve. O what dishonor is brought upon Christ’s cause! But what reason have I to be thankful that the case is not mine! Spent the afternoon & evening in conversation on the subject, and enquiring after the truth of it. All grief and confusion!¹³³

1785, March 30, Wednesday Little exercise today but the above. My wife now lies ill of a miscarry, how does goodness and mercy follow us in delivering her in times of trouble!¹³⁴

 Jesus Christ.  MS Diary.  Ibid; Ryland  omits first sentence and final phrase; AG Fuller  omits first sentence only.  Wallis.  Benford.  MS Diary; Ryland  has, “Visited, this morning by Mr. W. who told me of a very unhappy affair that has taken place. This explains some things which I imputed to reserve. How grievous is it that the cause of Christ should be dishonoured! But what reason have I to be thankful that the case is not mine!”  MS Diary.

1785, April 3, Lord’s day

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1785, March 31, Thursday Felt myself vile tonight—Being at Mr. H.’s¹³⁵ and hearing of a meeting of prayer there. Surely my evidences of real Christianity are very small! What should I think if I knew¹³⁶ that of another which I know of myself! Should I think they had any real religion? Surely I could not!¹³⁷

1785, April 1, Friday Heard with much tenderness that Mr. B—d¹³⁸ confesses his guilt, and weeps on account of it. The Lord give him true repentance! and cause the present reproach to be the means of reclaiming him!¹³⁹—A very tender evening meeting speaking from For we live if ye stand fast in the Lord,¹⁴⁰ and concluding in prayer.—Much dejected tonight in seeing my dear wife so bad—fear she is dangerously bad.¹⁴¹

1785, April 2, Saturday A poor, barren heart today almost all day.¹⁴²

1785, April 3, Lord’s day But a poor day in preaching out of the 22nd Psalm, verses 27, 28, & 30 verses. Heard Mr. S.¹⁴³ after I had done with some pain. Expounded the 12th chapter of Acts this evening.¹⁴⁴

 Heighton’s.  know’dnew] MS Diary.  Ibid.  Benford.  According to the Kettering Church Book (ff.  – ), Thomas Benford, a deacon in the church, was accused of taking “great freedoms” with several of his female servants, though he denied “ever having been criminally conversant with any of them.” Though he was repentant “for the disgrace thereby brought upon the ways of God,” the church suspended him from communion and his position as deacon and placed him “under admonition,” with Samuel Smith and Thomas Burditt “deputed to wait upon him.”   Thessalonians :.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Most likely John Satchell ( – ), who joined the Kettering church in  and by the mid- s was exercising his gift in preaching (on this Sunday he would have preached the afternoon service). By  he was pastoring a group from Fuller’s church in what became briefly a sec-

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1785, April 4, Monday Employed today in reading—much affected tonight in seeing Mr. B—d¹⁴⁵ at evening meeting, ashamed to assemble with us yet could not keep away.¹⁴⁶

1785, April 5, Tuesday Rode to Oakley and preached from 2 Thessalonians—“They that sleep, sleep in the night.” Returned with Mr. T.,¹⁴⁷ and found Mr. Hall of Arnesby¹⁴⁸ at Kettering.¹⁴⁹

1785, April 6, Wednesday Taken up in Mr. H’s¹⁵⁰ company. Feel much dejected in viewing the state of the churches. O that God would revive us! O that we could pray for it with more fervor! Heard Mr. Horsey of N—n¹⁵¹ preach tonight on God’s immutability and veracity from “God is not a man that he should lie &c”¹⁵² with some profit.¹⁵³

ond Baptist church in Kettering, but the church dissolved in  and the congregation returned to Fuller’s church. Satchell’s son became one of Fuller’s deacons (AG Fuller  ). One work, Thornton Abbey, a Series of Letters on Religious Subjects, which appeared in several editions posthumously (one was edited in two volumes by Fuller), has previously been attributed to Satchell. However, in Fuller’s list of books in his library in , he notes that Satchell also authored an anonymous pamphlet on the followers of John Glas in  (see Appendix A). See also John Rippon, ed., Baptist Annual Register for , , , and part of  (London: J. Rippon [and others], ), .  MS Diary.  Benford.  Ibid.  Tebbutt.  Arnsby] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland  has, “Preached at Oakley: on my return, found Mr. Hall, of Arnesby, at Kettering.” Fuller’s memory is not quite correct; the passage he quotes is from  Thessalonians :, not from the second epistle.  Hall’s.  Northampton.  Numbers :.  MS Diary; Ryland  omits last sentence.

1785, April 11, Monday

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1785, April 7, Thursday This afternoon we met at Mr. G.’s¹⁵⁴—went to prayer and from thence Mr. Hall & I went to break the unhappy affair of Mr. B. to Mrs. B.¹⁵⁵—Found in her an amiable spirit indeed. A most affecting evening to us all!¹⁵⁶

1785, April 8, Friday Parted with Mr. H.¹⁵⁷ today. Not much exercise, but feel solemn. Spake tonight from Nahum 1:7. God is good & a stronghold in a day of trouble, but not much pleasure.¹⁵⁸

1785, April 9, Saturday Rode to Gretton this afternoon. Feel a strange emptiness of mind & heart in seeing some things there.¹⁵⁹

1785, April 10, Lord’s day Preached today on blind Bartimaeus in the morning, fellowship with Christ in the afternoon, and on the Word of the Lord being as the roaring of a lion in the evening.¹⁶⁰ Administered the Lord’s supper amongst them but feel but little pleasure.¹⁶¹

1785, April 11, Monday Time seems to hang heavy in my hands today, being detained at Gretton, and having nothing to do. Returned home this afternoon. But a poor time at evening meeting.¹⁶²

        

Gotch’s. The Benfords. MS Diary. Reference here is to the affair of Thomas Benford and his female servants. Hall. Ibid. Ibid. Sermon texts from Mark : – , I John :, Amos :. MS Diary. Ibid.

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1785, April 12, Tuesday Much dejected today . Somewhat more happy tonight.¹⁶³

1785, April 13, Wednesday Visited friend S. Wright¹⁶⁴—but little exercise today.¹⁶⁵

1785, April 14, Thursday to April 17, Lord’s day I have lived for these several days very low and carnal. Spake on Friday night from Songs, Draw me, we will run after thee. O how I want drawing! Preached on Lord’s Day on Enduring to the end, on speaking of the glory of Christ’s kingdom &c, and on not being offended in Christ. But had a poor, cold day.¹⁶⁶

1785, April 18, Monday Chiefly employed in reading. But a poor evening meeting. Feel low and discouraged.¹⁶⁷

1785, April 19, Tuesday Rode to Wellingborough today and preached with¹⁶⁸ some freedom on Christ’s command for us to watch. ¹⁶⁹ Some conviction by conversing with Mr. Carver,¹⁷⁰ whose carefulness not to circulate evil report I admire.¹⁷¹

        

Ibid. Samuel Wright joined at Kettering in  (Kettering Church Book, f. ). MS Diary. MS Diary; sermon texts from Song of Solomon :, Matthew :, and Matthew :. Ibid. Preached at Wellingborough, with] Ryland ; AG Fuller . Matthew :. See above, entry for June , . MS Diary; Ryland  and AG Fuller .

1785, April 24, Lord’s day

123

1785, April 20, Wednesday Returned today—had some good conversation with Mrs. S. Wallis, but especially with Mr. Burdit.¹⁷² … I feel here a mixture of pleasure & pain!¹⁷³

1785, April 21, Thursday At Church Meeting today Mr. B.’s¹⁷⁴ case was brought forward—feel somewhat sorry to see as I think the spirit of some hurt by others thinking different from themselves.¹⁷⁵

1785, April 22, Friday Very much dejected tonight through the above. What a pity that we cannot speak our sentiments on church matters, and allow others to do the same without giving or taking offence! Feel many uncomfortable workings of mind and some temptations to give over managing church affairs at all.¹⁷⁶

1785, April 23, Saturday No manner of spirituality. Feel hard work to think on divine subjects to any purpose.¹⁷⁷

1785, April 24, Lord’s day Preached today on The joy of dwelling in God’s presence and on Christ’s suffering Divine dereliction. But very little pleasure. Preached at Geddington tonight on Trust in the Lord for ever. ¹⁷⁸ Some outgoings of heart of late in prayer. Feel myself tender tonight in that duty.¹⁷⁹

 Thomas Burditt was a deacon in the Kettering church, having joined in , his wife joining in ; he died on January ,  (Kettering Church Book, f. ).  MS Diary.  Benford’s.  Ibid; for Benford, see Kettering Church Book, ff.  – .  Ibid.  Ibid.  Sermon texts for the day from Psalm :, Matthew :, and Isaiah :.  MS Diary.

124

1785

1785, April 25, Monday Rode to Northampton with my wife today. Attended their evening meeting, but feel much coldness of heart.¹⁸⁰

1785, April 26, Tuesday Today we rode to Milton & returned. For this day or two I have felt unhappy. I fear something of a trying nature will come out at home. Things seem to be making for something of that kind.¹⁸¹

1785, April 27, Wednesday Today we were chiefly taken up in company—but O, what a wretched carnality of heart do I feel, and how difficult does it seem for me to introduce any thing spiritual! Preached tonight on Christ’s charge to his disciples to watch. ¹⁸²

1785, April 28, Thursday Employed pretty much today in writing—some tenderness of heart but not much. Some conversation with Mr. Ryland profitable. I find it is often observed that persons in my condition and opportunities as to learning are apt in general to be more censorious than others whose learning is far greater. I wish I may be always on the watch here.¹⁸³

1785, April 29, Friday Rode home today. Spake tonight on the blessedness of dwelling in God’s house from Psalm 84. Somewhat unhappy tonight to see the disrelish, as I think, of one of my friends to the doctrines of sovereign grace. Oh that I may not only believe the truth, but love it.¹⁸⁴

 Ibid.  Ibid.  Ibid.  Ibid; Ryland , AG Fuller , and Morris  omit first portion of entry, retaining the latter portion with alterations. Fuller is composing his first draft of The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation.  MS Diary.

1785, May 2, Monday

125

1785, April 30, Saturday Thought today I could wish to die if I had but done my generation work. Last Monday I heard a young man at Northampton speak of the advantage of mixing prayer with reading the word. This morning I have been trying¹⁸⁵ to read in that way. Read over the second chapter of Hosea in this way. O that I could call him Ishi, my husband, in a way of sweet & holy freedom! Oh that I could dwell nearer to him! I fear something unhappy should take place ’ere long in the church. O that I may but be kept near to God—then I shall be able to bear any thing!¹⁸⁶

1785, May 1, Lord’s day Some sort of earnestness in preaching on God’s Word doing good to the upright, and on Christ being the same yesterday, today, & forever. ¹⁸⁷ Felt my heart go out in prayer this morning that God would make some use of me for good. Praying that I might not labour in vain and spend my strength for nought, I felt a check of this kind, “What then is my labour and of what account my strength?” On this I found much outgoing of heart in pleading Christ’s merits, and the welfare of souls as the ground. Heard Mr. Sharman speak tonight on Spiritual death. Rode to Brigstock & preached tonight on every thought being brought into Captivity to the obedience of Christ. ¹⁸⁸

1785, May 2, Monday Rode home this morning—some conversation with Mr. P—r¹⁸⁹ of Thrapston¹⁹⁰ makes me reflect upon myself for my imprudence. I feel how far off I generally am from being of a rightspirit.

 have been trying] MS Diary.  Ibid; Ryland  –  (as well as AG Fuller ) presents a distinctively altered text, another example of early nineteenth-century editing practices: “Thought today, I could wish to die, if I had but done my generation work. Last Monday, I heard a young man at N. speak of the advantage of mixing prayer with reading the word. This morning, I have been trying to read in that way. Read the second chapter of Hosea thus; longing to use that sweet and holy freedom which the Lord designs to encourage, when he directs the church to call him not Baali, but Ishi. O that I could dwell nearer to God! I fear some trials in the church; but, were I kept near to him, I should be able to bear any thing!”  Texts taken from Hebrews : and Psalm :.  MS Diary; Ryland  and AG Fuller  omit final two sentences. It is possible Fuller preached in the pulpit of the Independent congregation at Brigstock. His sermon text is from  Corinthians :.  Mr. Porter (d. ) (letters for the name were added by another hand in the MS, most likely that of Ryland) was a deacon and founding member of the Baptist church at Thrapston (AG Fuller ).  a friend at Thrapston] Ryland .

126

1785

Tonight we met for prayer for the revival of religion. Felt tender all the time; but in hearing Mr. B. Wallis pray for me I was overcome. His having a better opinion of me than I deserve cuts me to the heart! Went to prayer myself, and felt more than ordinarily drawn out in prayer for the revival of religion. I had felt many skeptical thoughts as “What¹⁹¹ profit shall I have if I pray to God?” for which I felt grieved. Found a great satisfaction in these monthly meetings even supposing our requests should never be granted. Prayer to God is its own reward! Felt many bitter reflections for my stupid, carnal way of living.¹⁹²

1785, May 3, Tuesday Very little exercise of any kind today, unless it be shame & self-reflection. Visited by Mr. Craps, went to see A. Parker¹⁹³—some freedom in conversation, but not much.¹⁹⁴

1785, May 4, Wednesday Went to Warkton & preached from Matthew 25:10—The door was shut! Some pretty good conversation with the people there.¹⁹⁵

1785, May 5, Thursday Nothing material today.¹⁹⁶

 as if “What] MS Diary.  MS Diary; once again, Ryland  (as well as AG Fuller  – ) presents an altered version (Morris  is essentially the same but omits the first two sentences): “Returning from Brigstock, where I preached last night, some conversation with a friend [AG Fuller identifies him as Mr. Porter] at Thrapston makes me reflect on myself for imprudence. I feel how far off from a right spirit I often am. This evening, I felt tender all the time of the prayer-meeting, for the revival of religion; but, in hearing Mr. Beeby Wallis pray for me, I was overcome: his having a better opinion of me than I deserve cuts me to the heart! Went to prayer myself, and found my mind engaged more than ordinarily in praying for the revival of religion. I had felt many sceptical thoughts; as though there were room to ask—What profit shall I have if I pray to God? for which I was much grieved. Find a great satisfaction in these monthly meetings: even supposing our requests should not be granted, yet prayer to God is its own reward. Felt many bitter reflections for my stupid, carnal way of living.”  Ann Parker was baptized on October ,  (Kettering Church Book, f. ).  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid.

1785, May 9, Monday

127

1785, May 6, Friday Visited by two ministers, Mr. Edmonds of Gilsborough,¹⁹⁷ and Mr. Gillard of Fawkstone in Kent¹⁹⁸—the latter preached from Isaiah 3. Say ye to the righteous &c. Some serious conversation. I think they are two worthy men.¹⁹⁹

1785, May 7, Saturday But little savour today. Dull and heavy chief part of the day.²⁰⁰

1785, May 8, Lord’s day Tender this morning in thinking on the wants of the people—how they probably would be coming from many places round in quest of spiritual food—while I was barren, and scarcely knew what to preach to them. Affected in thinking of Micah 7.14, “Feed thy people with thy rod &c.” Preached this morning from it with some freedom. A worse time in the afternoon from Proverbs 6.—In all thy ways acknowledge him &c—But a good time in the evening at Burton from Matthew 25:10.²⁰¹

1785, May 9, Monday Some profitable conversation this morning with Mr. Burdit. Chiefly employed in writing. Some pain of mind, as what I generally experience, at evening meeting.²⁰²

 John Edmonds (d. ) and his two brothers, Edward and Thomas, were called to the ministry out of the Baptist church in Cannon Street in Birmingham. John Edmonds came to the Baptist church at Guilsborough shortly after a new chapel was built in  and remained there until . See Rippon, Baptist Annual Register,  ( – ), .  Daniel Gillard served as minister at Folkstone, Kent, from  to , when he removed to Hammersmith, Middlesex. By  he was a druggist and no longer in the ministry. See Rippon, Baptist Annual Register,  ( – ), .  MS Diary.  Ibid.  MS Diary; Ryland  has, “Impressed this morning, in thinking on the wants of the people, how they would probably be coming from many places round, in quest of spiritual food, while I was barren, and scarcely knew what to say to them. Affected in thinking of Micah , ‘Feed thy people with thy rod,’ &c. Preached from it, this morning, with some freedom: not so well in the after noon; but a good time, in the evening, at Burton.” AG Fuller  omits final sentence of Ryland’s selection; Morris  omits second half of final sentence.  MS Diary.

128

1785

1785, May 10, Tuesday to May 14, Saturday Little or no exercise this week. Have been chiefly busied in preparing some papers for the Association. Very heavy in heart today riding to Clipston²⁰³—I expect troubles. Between Kilmarsh and Naseby felt my heart much broken, and contrite to what it usually is. Some enlargedness of heart for the work of tomorrow.²⁰⁴

1785, May 15, Lord’s day Preached at Clipston²⁰⁵ today on the Causes of declension, and on Watchfulness, but a poor day. Some tenderness this evening at Naseby. O that I were but such a Christian as the good man where I now am, Mr. Haddon of Naseby!²⁰⁶ What a humble and amiable spirit!²⁰⁷

 Clipson] MS Diary.  Ibid; Ryland  has the last two sentences dated under May , , as given by Fuller, except Ryland gives the place names as Clipston and Kelmarsh. The Clipston church, after Thomas Skinner’s departure in , was without a pastor for two years, during which time various ministers supplied the pulpit on Sundays, such as Fuller and Ryland. In  John Webster Morris arrived (only  years old), though not all the members appear to have approved of his ministry, as Fuller’s entry suggests. Nevertheless, he was accepted by the church and ordained by Fuller, Robert Hall, Sr., and Ryland, Jr., on June , , about a month after the above entry. See Payne and Allan, Clipston Baptist Church, .  Clipstone] MS Diary.  Ryland,  omits the name. John Haddon ( – ) of Naseby and Clipston. His wife was the former Elizabeth Clarke (d. ) of Market Harborough. Haddon became a Baptist in  through the ministry of William Cole of Long Buckby, about ten miles from Naseby. He married Miss Clarke (also a Baptist) in . In  the Haddon’s joined the Baptist church in Clipston, midway between Naseby and Market Harborough, where he became a deacon. He soon applied for a license to hold services in his house in Naseby, the very house in which Fuller had preached on the day of the above entry in his diary. In  Haddon encouraged the bailiff for his farms, John Chamberlain ( – ), to enter the ministry, supporting him for a year at Sutcliff’s academy at Olney and then for three years at Bristol Baptist College in preparation for joining William Carey as a Baptist missionary in India. Around  Haddon returned to the Clipston church, and spent his final three years living in that town. His obituary appeared in the June  issue of the Baptist Magazine. Haddon’s son, John, founded the London publishing firm of John Haddon & Co. in , publishing numerous annual reports of the Baptist Missionary Society and other publications during his lifetime. See W. G. Cruft, A History of the Haddons of Naseby (London: John Haddon & Co., ), ,  – .  MS Diary; Ryland .

1785, May 20, Friday

129

1785, May 16, Monday Returned home—met Mr. Ryland jun.—heard him preach tonight—but a poor time. Felt trembling on account of some things he delivered.²⁰⁸

1785, May 17, Tuesday Today we set off for the Association at Oakham. Arrived and met with several ministers—heard the letters from the churches with some tenderness.²⁰⁹

1785, May 18, Wednesday Met today and heard Mr. Ryland jun., Mr. Hall and Mr. Sutcliff preach. Had a pleasant time indeed, especially in hearing Mr. Ryland. He preached an excellent sermon indeed from Isaiah 26:18. Mr. Hall followed it by a very good sermon from Psalm 118:25. Save now &c And Mr. S.²¹⁰ by another from 1 John 3:3—He that hath this hope &c. I know not when I have enjoyed a happier Association than this.²¹¹

1785, May 19, Thursday Met again this morning. A goodish opportunity in speaking our exercises of the year past. Parted and rode home with Brethren West and Ryland. Some goodish conversation by the way.²¹²

1785, May 20, Friday Conversation with Brother W—²¹³ heard him preach tonight—but very little if any spirituality all day.²¹⁴

 MS Diary.  Ibid; Ryland  has, “Set off for the Association at Oakham: affected with the letters from the churches.”  Sutcliff.  MS Diary; Ryland  has summarily condensed it to the following: “Heard Messrs. Ryland, jun., Mr. Hall, sen. and Sutcliff. I know not when I have enjoyed a happier Association than this.”  MS Diary.  West.  Ibid.

130

1785

1785, May 21, Saturday A poor, cold day. I feel but very little of the power of godliness.²¹⁵

1785, May 22, Lord’s day Preached today on despising the chastenings of the Lord & fainting &c with some pleasure. Also on the precious blood of Christ.²¹⁶ Heard Mr. Horsey tonight …²¹⁷

1785, May 23, Monday This morning set off for Soham. Called on Mr. Dickens at Raso.²¹⁸ Felt glad of an hour’s conversation with him. Much carnality of heart today—arrived at Cambridge tonight.²¹⁹

1785, May 24, Tuesday Rode to Soham today—there met with Brother Sutcliff, and heard him preach from Psalm 107, A right way to a city of habitation. Some pleasure in meeting with my friends.²²⁰

1785, May 25, Wednesday Taken up this forenoon in company with Brother S. Went to Fordham tonight and preached with great tenderness of spirit from the case of Blind Bartimaeus crying,

 Ibid.  Fuller’s sermon texts from Proverbs : and  Peter :.  MS Diary.  According to the Kettering Church Book, an Edward Dickens was baptized and added to the Kettering church on October ,  (f. ) (also below, entry for October , ). However, the entry for October  (f. ) records a William Dickens being presented for baptism and having difficulties with another member of the church concerning his baptism and admission to the church (see below, entry for September , ). Fuller refers to this individual as both Edward (October ) and William (September ), though he appears to be one and the same person. Most likely this is the same William Dickens who would later serve as the minister to the Baptist congregation at Keysoe, Bedfordshire, in the s.  MS Diary.  Ibid.

1785, May 29, Lord’s day

131

Have mercy on me &c.²²¹ Feel sorry tonight to hear of the spirit of some of [the] F——m people.²²²

1785, May 26, Thursday Returned after some conversation with individuals, to Soham. After walking about all day, preached tonight on Manifold Temptations, but not much pleasure.²²³

1785, May 27, Friday Walked to Isleham today—preached there tonight on Will ye also go away? &c.²²⁴ Had a very tender opportunity.²²⁵

1785, May 28, Saturday Went to Westrow today. Feel much lowness of spirit—returned and came to Soham. Conversation with Brother R. about J. < >²²⁶ awful and affecting. That wretch seems going on in the road to hell, and yet expects to have heaven at last!²²⁷

1785, May 29, Lord’s day Heard Brother W.²²⁸ this morning on Charity. Preached myself in the afternoon on the dimensions of Christ’s love, but had a poor, wretched time. Preached this evening too at Wicken on Lion roaring with some earnestness.²²⁹

 Luke :.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  John :.  MS Diary.  In the MS Diary the surname has been crossed out and is illegible, but most likely someone in the Soham church.  MS Diary.  West.  Ibid; final phrase from  Peter :.

132

1785

1785, May 30, Monday Returned from Wicken and rode to Littleport this morning. Preached there today on the obligations of people who are scattered about in villages &c from Hosea 2:23. Some serious but painful conversation with the people there for their neglect of the Gospel of Christ. Unhappy too to hear of the spirit of the people at Downham.²³⁰

1785, May 31, Tuesday Returned and preached at Soham for the last time, from Hitherto the Lord hath helped us!²³¹ Not a very tender time. Some altercations tonight at T. E.’s make me unhappy.²³²

1785, June 1, Wednesday Rode to Burwell and preached tonight on Serving the Lord with fear &c.²³³ Had a very tender and earnest time. Parted with many of my friends tonight.²³⁴

1785, June 2, Thursday Today I go for home, laden with the burdens of others as well as some of my own!— preached in the day time at Stretham on Holding out to the end, with some earnestness; and in the evening at Haddenam on Joy & trembling, but a poor time there.²³⁵ Thought nobody so understood me as to feel the sentiments.²³⁶

1785, June 3, Friday Rode to Thrapston today—and preached there on the Church of God being sown in the earth,²³⁷ with some freedom. Rode home after preaching. Feel guilty tonight. My vain,

 Ibid.  I Samuel :.  MS Diary. “T. E.” is most likely a member at the Soham church.  Psalm :.  MS Diary.  Sermon texts from Matthew : and Psalm :.  MS Diary; Ryland  has the entry but without the scripture references and the closing section following “Haddenham”; AG Fuller  records only the first sentence.  Mark :.

1785, June 7, Tuesday to June 10, Friday

133

wandering heart hath this day sadly departed from the living God. O I tremble at myself!²³⁸

1785, June 4, Saturday An uncommon load lies all day upon my spirits. Alas I am forced to read my sin in my affliction of mind. I am incapable of all profitable meditation—feel pained for the people tomorrow. Some few exercises on Subjection to the father of Spirits—but very heavy in heart.²³⁹

1785, June 5, Lord’s day Feel myself quite ill with sorrow of heart. Had a very tender forenoon on the above subject, but a poor wretched afternoon on the Righteous shining as the Sun ²⁴⁰—and a poor time at the Lord’s supper. Very heavy in heart all day.²⁴¹

1785, June 6, Monday But little exercise till towards night, when the sorrows of ²⁴² yesterday returned, and for two hours preyed upon my heart stronger than ever, so as to make me very ill. Darkness and confusion of mind overwhelm me.²⁴³

1785, June 7, Tuesday to June 10, Friday Engaged in writing the Circular Letter for this year on Declensions in religion—found some very tender feelings towards the latter part of it; and enjoyed a good deal of pleasure upon the whole in writing it.²⁴⁴

 MS Diary.  Ibid; Ryland  and AG Fuller  omit second sentence, of which the text is from Hebrews :.  Matthew :.  MS Diary; Ryland  and AG Fuller  have, “Feel myself quite ill with sorrow of heart: had a very tender forenoon, on the above subject mentioned above; but a poor, wretched afternoon: very much depressed all day.” Sarah Fuller’s letter of “dismission” from the Soham church arrived earlier this week, on June  (see Kettering Church Book, f. ).  sorrows of heart of] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller .  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller . Fuller’s letter appeared as An Enquiry into the Causes of Declension in Religion, with the Means of Revival ().

134

1785

1785, June 11, Saturday Some little exercise today, but far from satisfactory. I feel an habitual discontentedness with myself, and my way of life.²⁴⁵

1785, June 12, Lord’s day A good forenoon on returning to our rest. ²⁴⁶ ’Tis rare for me to have so good an opportunity. Some earnestness & tenderness in prayer. But a poorish time in the afternoon from Psalm 65:2, Thou that hearest prayer &c. Preached in the evening with some earnestness from Psalm 139:3, Thou compassest my path &c.²⁴⁷

1785, June 13, Monday Visited this morning by Mr. Evans of Northampton and Mr. Hillyard of Olney—heard Mr. E. preach tonight on the Word being hid in the heart. ²⁴⁸ Very little if any spirituality all day. Visited tonight by Mr. R. Hall jun.²⁴⁹

1785, June 14, Tuesday Taken up in Mr. H’s company—feel²⁵⁰ much pain for him. The Lord, in mercy to him and his churches in this country, keep him in the path of truth and righteousness!²⁵¹

1785, June 15, Wednesday Rode to Clipston²⁵² Ministers’ Meeting. Heard Mr. Sutcliff preach on God tempting Abraham,²⁵³ Mr. Ryland jun. from John 8:45,46, Because I tell you the truth ye believe

 MS Diary.  Psalm :.  MS Diary; Ryland  provides a conflated entry, “A good forenoon, in preaching on returning to our rest. It is rare for me to have so good an opportunity. Rather a poor afternoon; but preached with some earnestness, at night, from Psa. :.”  Psalm :.  MS Diary.  Taken up with the company of Mr. Robert Hall, jun: feel] AG Fuller, .  Ibid; AG Fuller . Fuller continues to express a concern about Hall’s dabbling in Priestleyan materialism, and possibly Arianism.  Clipson] MS Diary.  Genesis :.

1785, June 19, Lord’s day

135

me not &c—and Mr. R. Hall from James—With him is no variableness nor shadow of turning. Had a pretty good day.²⁵⁴

1785, June 16, Thursday Rode to Naseby and Spratton. Somewhat dispirited in seeing the spirit of Mr. C.²⁵⁵ Heard Mr. Carver preach a good discourse from Isaiah 45:19. Preached myself in the evening from John 6:66, 67, Will ye also go away? &c but a poor time.²⁵⁶

1785, June 17, Friday Rode home with Mr. Sharpe of Oakham. Spoke tonight with some freedom from Proverbs 4:25 – 27 on the danger of erring by contrary extremes.²⁵⁷

1785, June 18, Saturday Not much pleasure or pain today.

1785, June 19, Lord’s day Some earnestness especially this afternoon on Israel being an empty vine. ²⁵⁸ A very earnest and tender opportunity in preaching tonight at Loddington on God being the friend of the stranger &c Psalm 146:9. Found my heart much drawn out in desire for the salvation of souls.²⁵⁹

     

MS Diary. Cole] MS Diary. Ibid. Ibid. Hosea :. Ibid.

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1785, June 20, Monday Visited this morning by Mr. Morris,²⁶⁰ a young minister just come out of Norfolk to Clipston²⁶¹ on trial. Some very agreeable conversation. Heard him preach tonight on God’s carrying on the good work—not much edified.²⁶²

1785, June 21, Tuesday Taken up today likewise in Mr. M.’s company—parted with him tonight at Loddington.²⁶³

1785, June 22, Wednesday Went to Walgrave today, to try and enquire into their affairs. They request my presence & assistance at an ordination shortly and some of the church are dissatisfied. Tried tonight to enquire the causes of their dissatisfaction. Heard Mr. Hillyard of Olney preach a good sermon from Hebrews 2, How shall we escape &c.²⁶⁴

1785, June 23, Thursday Returned home today—little if any spiritual exercise. Spoke at church meeting.²⁶⁵

 John Webster Morris ( – ) was a printer by trade (a vocation he maintained throughout his ministry). He began preaching at Clipston in , a village not far from Carey’s church in Moulton. Morris joined the Baptist Missionary Committee in , eventually editing and printing the BMS’s Periodical Accounts from  to . In  he removed to the Baptist church in Dunstable, Bedfordshire. After the death of his wife, he developed personal problems, mostly as a result of substantial indebtedness. He left the pastorate in , but continued to write and print religious works, as well as preaching on special occasions, much to Fuller’s dismay. Fuller wrote to William Ward on  July  that “Poor Morris …is ruined. His pride and extravagance since he has been at D. is beyond anything. He must have sunk the greater part of £ in those few years …And now he acts dishonourably to his creditors …and yet goes about preaching!” (BMS Correspondence, vol. , Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford). Among his publications are the Memoirs of… Andrew Fuller () and Biographical Recollections of the Rev. Robert Hall (). For Morris, see Payne and Allan, Clipston Baptist Church,  – .  Clipson] MS Diary.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid.  Ibid.

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1785, June 24, Friday Rode to Addington today and preached from Psalm 41:4. Heal me O God for I have sinned &c with some little pleasure. Returned by Barton Lodge. Some conversation with Mrs. W. Somewhat grieved to hear of the spirit of Mr. D—c—.²⁶⁶ Some pain of mind too through a letter from Mr. B.²⁶⁷ of London expressing his fears lest²⁶⁸ my publication should occasion some uncomfortable disputes. Some outgoings of heart to God that that might not be.²⁶⁹

1785, June 25, Saturday But a poor day today in meditation.²⁷⁰

1785, June 26, Lord’s day This day has been one of the best that I have experienced I think for years. Most tenderly and earnestly affected in prayer and in preaching both. Could scarcely go on for weeping in the morning, preaching from Acts 4:33, Great grace was upon them all! Not quite so tender in the afternoon, though on the excellency of the knowledge of

 Dickens.  William Button ( – ) attended the Baptist meeting at Unicorn Yard, Southwark. After completing his studies at Ryland’s academy in Northampton, Button returned to London for further study under his minister, William Clarke, and was called to the ministry by the congregation at Unicorn Yard on August , . In May  he became the initial pastor for the newly formed Baptist meeting at Dean Street, Southwark, a group that split from Carter Lane over the church’s call to John Rippon as John Gill’s sucessor. Button served at Dean Street until . He remained friends with Rippon (the latter was one of the speakers at Button’s ordination at Dean Street) and supportive of the work of the Particular Baptists through his work as a bookseller/printer in Paternoster Row. Button published a response to Fuller late in , titled Remarks on a Treatise, entitled, The Gospel of Christ Worthy of All Acceptation; or, The Obligations of Men Fully to Credit and Cordially to Approve Whatever God Makes Known, by Andrew Fuller. Wherein the Nature of Special Faith in Christ is Considered, and Several of Mr. F.’s Mistakes Pointed Out, in a Series of Letters to a Friend, but their differences were not sufficient to keep Button from appearing as seller on the title page of the nd edition of Fuller’s treatise, the title now changed to the one most commonly used today, The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation: Or, The Duty of Sinners to Believe in Jesus Christ (). For more on Button, see Unicorn Yard and Carter Lane Church Book, ff. , , and , Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford; a three-part biography of Button appeared in the Baptist Magazine  ():  – ,  – , and  – .  least] MS Diary.  MS Diary; AG Fuller  has the last two sentences of this entry but erroneously dated June , .  Ibid.

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Christ ²⁷¹—nor at the ordinance. Yet I felt a sweet serenity at the Lord’s Supper, and spake of it under the idea of a feast. ²⁷²

1785, June 27, Monday An agreeable visit () by Mr. and Mrs. Barnes. Visited this afternoon by Mr. and Mrs. Gotch.²⁷³

1785, June 28, Tuesday My mind all taken up this morning about what it might be better for me not to be so anxious about. ()—exceedingly heavy in heart all²⁷⁴ day. Some conversation with J. Garlick²⁷⁵ this afternoon.²⁷⁶

1785, June 29, Wednesday Very low and unhappy. Visited—Pywell this afternoon. Found great encouragement to hope that his wife if not he is a gracious person.²⁷⁷ Some pleasant conversation there. Heard Dr. Addington²⁷⁸ tonight on Our light afflictions &c²⁷⁹ with pleasure and profit. Walked alone in the field afterward exceeding disconsolate.²⁸⁰

 Philippians :.  MS Diary; Ryland  has, “But a poor day, yesterday, in meditation; yet this day has been one of the best that I have experienced I think for years. Most tenderly and earnestly affected, both in prayer and in preaching. In the morning, I could scarcely go on, for weeping, while preaching from Acts :, ‘Great grace was upon them all!’ Not quite so well in the afternoon, though I was upon the excellency of the knowledge of Christ. Yet I felt a sweet serenity at the Lord’s supper, and spake of it under the idea of a feast.” AG Fuller  has the same wording as Ryland, but provides the date as June , .  MS Diary.  exceeding depressed all] Ryland .  John Garlick joined the Kettering church on September ,  (f. ). He was guilty of some infraction against the church in  but on October , the Church Book notes: “Bro. J. Garlick confessed before the church the evil of his sin, and professing repentance for it, was received again to fellowship” (f. ).  MS Diary; Ryland  omits last sentence.  Samuel and Ann Pywell. They would join the Kettering church on October ,  (see below, entries for July  and October , ).  Stephen Addington ( – ), after completing his studies at Philip Doddridge’s academy at Northampton, began ministering at Spaldwick, Huntingdonshire, in , before removing to Market Harborough in , where he remained until . That year he removed to the Independent congregation at Miles Lane in London, where he also served as tutor at the Mile End Academy ( –

1785, July 3, Lord’s day

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1785, June 30, Thursday Very low chief part of the day—and scarce any spirituality. These lean kine devour the fat and well-fleshed!²⁸¹

1785, July 1, Friday Very much dejected all day. Spoke tonight from Jude 21. Keep yourselves in the love of God with pretty much freedom.²⁸²

1785, July 2, Saturday Some degree of calmness today—felt more disposed to cast my cares upon the Lord. An awful providence of a young woman’s poisoning herself at Weekley.²⁸³, Very²⁸⁴ affecting to me in the week past.²⁸⁵

1785, July 3, Lord’s day Another exceeding melting Sabbath—very tender and earnest in prayer & in preaching on casting our care on the Lord. And in the afternoon on Glory²⁸⁶ not in wisdom, strength, nor riches, but the knowledge of God. Preached this evening from Turn away mine eyes from beholding Vanity!²⁸⁷ This was occasioned by my own past exercises, and applied to the warning of people against the vanities of the world, particularly against improper behaviour at their feast which is tomorrow. Found great tenderness

). Among his works are The Christian Minister’s Reasons for Baptizing Infants () and A Letter to the Deputies of Protestant Dissenting Congregations, in and about… London and Westminster on their Intended Application to Parliament, for the Repeal of the Corporation and Test Acts (). For more on Addington, see Walter Wilson, The History and Antiquities of Dissenting Churches and Meeting Houses, in London, Westminster, and Southwark,  vols (London: William Button, ), : – .   Corinthians :.  MS Diary. Ryland  (AG Fuller  follows this) has, “Pleasant conversation with some persons newly awakened. Heard Dr. Addington tonight, on our light afflictions, with pleasure and profit; but walked alone, in the fields, exceedingly disconsolate.”  MS Diary; final phrase from Genesis :.  Ibid.  Weekly] MS Diary. A village situated a short distance to the north of Kettering.  at – was very] Ryland .  Ibid; Ryland .  afternoon, on the caution given, to glory] Ryland .  Fuller’s sermon texts from I Peter :, Jeremiah :, and Psalm :.

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particularly in warning the youth, from the example of the young woman who last week came to such an awful end!²⁸⁸

1785, July 4, Monday Very little exercise today and a poor time tonight at meeting though it was the night for the prayer meeting.²⁸⁹

1785, July 5, Tuesday Rode to Walgrave. Somewhat discouraged to see a disunion there. Called on one of the dissentients tonight and tried to bring about a reconciliation which I hope may be effected. Felt tender and much concerned.²⁹⁰

1785, July 6, Wednesday This morning a reconciliation was brought about—and Mr. Payne was ordained their pastor. Mr. Ryland jun. delivered the charge from Romans, Not slothful in business, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord. ²⁹¹ And I had a good time indeed in hearing him! I preached in the afternoon to the church from Hebrews 13:17, but had a poorish time. Heard Mr. Hillyard this evening on Taking counsel in our souls,²⁹² but a poor time.²⁹³

 MS Diary; Ryland  and AG Fuller  – .  MS Diary.  Ibid; AG Fuller  has, “Rode to Walgrave; somewhat discouraged to see disunion; attempted a reconciliation, which I hope may be effected; felt tender and much concerned.”  Romans :.  Psalm :.  MS Diary; Ryland  has, “Attended Mr. Payne’s ordination, at Walgrave. I had a very good time indeed, in hearing the charge. I preached, in the afternoon, to the church, from Heb. :.” AG Fuller  has a similarly truncated entry: “This morning a reconciliation was brought about, and Mr. Payne was ordained. Their pastor, Mr. Ryland, jun., delivered the charge, and I had much profit in hearing him.” Ryland  adds the following note after his entry: “He [Fuller] took much affectionate pains to bring about a reconciliation with some members who were dissatisfied, and succeeded.”

1785, July 11, Monday

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1785, July 7, Thursday Returned home today. Feel much carnality chief part of the day. Shocked tonight with an account of two more young women having poisoned themselves, one of whom is dead! N.B. This I have since heard is not true.²⁹⁴

1785, July 8, Friday Sadly carnal almost all day. O I find myself to be all but good! Spoke tonight from Proverbs 24:27 on attending to necessaries before conveniences (see note in interleaved Bible). Some free conversation with a friend tonight (J/C) affords me some relief.²⁹⁵

1785, July 9, Saturday Not much exercise today. Some thoughts on God’s dwelling in us, & walking in us,²⁹⁶ but no manner of spirituality.²⁹⁷

1785, July 10, Lord’s day A very good forenoon today on the above subject but not so tender and spiritual as I was the two Lord’s days past. But a poor afternoon on the joyful sound. ²⁹⁸ Rode to Thrapston this evening and preached from Psalm 119:37, Turn away mine eyes &c. ²⁹⁹

1785, July 11, Monday Spent this day I scarcely know how. Some part at Islip—rode home, had but a poor evening meeting.

 MS Diary.  Ibid; final phrase may refer to Fuller’s private prayer time, with “J/C” an abbreviation for “Jesus Christ.”   Corinthians :.  MS Diary.  Psalm :.  MS Diary; Ryland  has, “A very good forenoon, today, on God’s dwelling in us, and walking in us; though not equal to the two Lord’s-days past.”

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1785, July 12, Tuesday …³⁰⁰

1785, July 13, Wednesday Preached tonight at Cranford on fools making a mock at sin,³⁰¹ but little freedom— very little if any spirituality throughout the day.³⁰²

1785, July 14, Thursday to July 15, Friday I feel many wanderings of heart, and much forgetfulness of God. Expounded the 19th Psalm tonight.³⁰³

1785, July 16, Saturday Some pleasure in thinking on God’s power to do abundantly more than we can ask or think.³⁰⁴ Surely he had need have more power in giving than I have in asking.³⁰⁵

1785, July 17, Lord’s day A very good forenoon on the above subject—but a poor afternoon on the broad & narrow way. ³⁰⁶ Some³⁰⁷ earnestness in the evening on Ecclesiastes 8:12, Though a sinner do evil &c.³⁰⁸

        

MS Diary has entry other than the ellipsis. Proverbs :. MS Diary. Ibid. Ephesians :. MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller . Matthew :. subject: not so well the rest of the day; but felt some] Ryland . MS Diary; Ryland .

1784, July 24, Lord’s day

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1785, July 18, Monday A dull and heavy state of mind the chief part of the day. Somewhat revived in singing some cheerful hymns at evening meeting.³⁰⁹

1785, July 19, Tuesday–July 21, Thursday Some tender feelings about walking with God this week, but upon the whole a poor week. Walked down to the Mill with Mr. Timms on Wednesday. Some conversation on some observations made by Mr. S.³¹⁰ on my late publication. Feel my ignorance, and the power of prejudice. The Lord in mercy lead me into all truth! () Pretty much conversation on Thursday night with Mr. Dickens.³¹¹

1785, July 22, Friday Chiefly taken up in Mr. D.’s³¹² company today. Heard him preach tonight from Psalm 90:16. Let thy work appear &c. ³¹³

1785, July 23, Saturday Feel my soul much in prison today. Have been thinking of Psalm 142:7. Bring my soul out of prison &c but much locked up all day.³¹⁴

1784, July 24, Lord’s day A pretty good forenoon on the above subject. Much solemn feeling in prayer on the ruined state of man by nature—was helped to deplore it before God on behalf of myself and the congregation. Some earnestness in the afternoon on God’s being known

 MS Diary.  Sutcliff[?].  Ibid. William Dickens may well have been exercising his gift for preaching in , for he is probably the same William Dickens who ministered to the Baptist church at Keysoe, Bedfordshire, between  and .  Dickens’s.  MS Diary.  Ibid; Ryland .

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in Judah &c.³¹⁵ Went to Loddington and preached this evening from Hosea 1:7, I will save them by the Lord their God &c with some earnestness.³¹⁶

1785, July 25, Monday Very tender this morning in reading some remains of Mr. Mason’s, author of Songs of praise to Almighty God. ³¹⁷ This appeared to be a life of prayer! but mine, O what is it? Went tonight to see M. Daniels of Barton—poor woman she is not likely to be here long, and much in the dark. Very solemn and affected in conversing and praying with her.³¹⁸

1785, July 26, Tuesday Met Mr. Carver today at Barton Lodge; heard him preach tonight but no matter of pleasure or profit.³¹⁹

1785, July 27, Wednesday Chiefly taken up in visiting. Very little exercise throughout the day.³²⁰

1785, July 28, Thursday Spake today at church meeting from Acts 20:15 of Paul’s thanking God at the sight of some Christians from Rome “and taking courage.” Dwelt with some tenderness and pleasure on the encouraging nature of Christian society. Heard three persons speak

 Psalm :.  MS Diary; Ryland .  John Mason (?–), originally from Kettering and Wellingborough, was a Calvinistic Anglican divine best known for his Spiritual Songs, or, Songs of Praise to Almighty God, which was first appeared in  and was reprinted numerous times throughout the eighteenth century. The volume, however, does not appear on the list of books in Fuller’s library in .  MS Diary; Ryland  (AG Fuller  follows closely) has, “I was much impressed, this morning, in reading Mason’s Remains. Felt much affected and very solemn, in praying and conversing with a poor woman at Barton, who seems not likely to be here long, and is much in the dark as to her state.”  MS Diary.  Ibid.

1785, August 1, Monday

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their experience (T. Blundale,³²¹—Pywell and his wife). Heard Mrs. P. especially with pleasure and satisfaction.³²²

1785, July 29, Friday–July 30, Saturday Some serious reflections, but very little spirituality.³²³

1785, July 31, Lord’s day A pretty good forenoon in preaching out of the Revelation on the Rainbow round about the throne, but a poor afternoon our conversation being as becometh the Gospel of Christ. ³²⁴ Some tenderness in prayer. A poor time at the Lord’s Supper.³²⁵

1785, August 1, Monday Some very tender feelings and outgoings of heart in³²⁶ prayer tonight at the monthly prayer meeting. Surely Unbelief damps our near addresses to God—and something of that spawn “What³²⁷ profit shall we have if we pray unto him?”³²⁸ lies at the bottom of our indifference in this duty.³²⁹

 Thomas Blundel ( – ) was admitted to Bristol Academy from Fuller’s church in . He left Bristol in  and began supplying for the Baptist meeting at Arnesby, where Robert Hall, Sr. had ministered. After a year and a half of trial ministry, Blundel was ordained at Arnesby on April , , remaining there until the spring of , when he removed to Luton. During his tenure at Luton, he published several circular letters on behalf of the Northamptonshire Association as well as Sermons on Various Subjects (). He was excluded at Luton for adultery, but remained in the ministry. His final pastorate was at Keighley ( – ), after which, due to ill health, he returned to Luton, where he died in . See Roger Hayden, Continuity and Change: Evangelical Calvinism among Eighteenth-Century Baptist Ministers Trained at Bristol Academy,  –  (Chipping Norton, UK: Roger Hayden and Baptist Historical Society, ), .  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Texts from Revelation : and Philippians :.  MS Diary.  Some affectionate emotions of heart in] AG Fuller ; Ryland .  that ungrateful suspicion, which asks, ‘What] Ryland .  Job :.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller .

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1785, August 2, Tuesday Heard Mr. Carver today at Burton preach a funeral sermon for Miss Craps lately deceased. Was very much affected today in calling on J. Daniels’s wife and praying with her. She is a most wretched, miserable object indeed! Preached tonight at Burton from Revelation 22, “Surely I come quickly!” Had a very tender opportunity.³³⁰

1785, August 3, Wednesday Chiefly employed today in visiting poor friends—I have been too deficient in this practice.³³¹

1785, August 4, Thursday Visited several more poor friends. Some conversation profitable, but I mix all with sin!³³²

1785, August 5, Friday Nothing material today except a good opportunity at Meeting tonight in speaking from “Thou hast dove’s eyes.”³³³

1785, August 6, Saturday Some tenderness in thinking on Jonah 2:4,³³⁴ I said, I am cast out of thy sight: yet will I look again &c. We have had some awful providences of late. Mr. J—n a clergyman of Pitchly has hanged himself, and M. D—s³³⁵ of Barton seems in the very jaws of desperation. These things have led me to think³³⁶ on something that may be an antidote to despair.³³⁷

 MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller .  MS Diary. Ryland ; AG Fuller .  MS Diary; final phrase from Song of Solomon :.  Jonah  ii. ] MS Diary [correction made by Ryland].  Daniels.  preach think] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland  –  (AG Fuller  follows closely) has, “Some tenderness, in thinking on Jonah :, ‘I said, I am cast out of thy sight; yet will I look again,’ &c. We have had some awful prov-

1785, August 8, Monday–August 14, Lord’s day

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1785, August 7, Lord’s day A very good forenoon on the above subject—felt very tender, and I hope good was done. Some seriousness also this afternoon on Proverbs, Blessed is he that feareth always. Preached tonight on man being abominable and filthy,³³⁸ with much earnestness.³³⁹

1785, August 8, Monday–August 14, Lord’s day Some exercise of mind this week through an advertisement of Dr. Withers wherein I think he in a very vain manner threatens to reduce to dust my late publication.³⁴⁰ I wish I may be kept in a right spirit—I find myself on seeing what I have hitherto seen much subject to a spirit of contempt—but I wish not to indulge too much of that temper. Doubtless, I am wrong in some things; I wish I may be all along open to conviction. Found some desires go up to heaven for such a spirit as this.³⁴¹ Heard Mr. S—th of Bedford³⁴² on Wednesday night preach from Abram’s offering up his son Isaac, with some satisfaction. Visited J. Garlick on Friday—very sorry to see the situation of his mind. Spoke the same evening on The Speech of the church being comely. ³⁴³ Have obtained some relief from the executors of the late Mrs. Abney³⁴⁴ for two dear brethren in the ministry, for which I am heartily glad.³⁴⁵

idences of late. Mr. _______ of ______ has hanged himself, and a poor woman of B. seems in the very jaws of desperation. These things have led me to think on something that may be an antidote to despair.” AG Fuller has “Mr. —, a clergyman of C—, has …”  Job :; verse in previous sentence from Proverbs :.  MS Diary; Ryland  has, “A very good forenoon, on the above subject. Some seriousness also, this afternoon, on Proverbs :, ‘Blessed is he that feareth alway.’ Preached, tonight, on man’s being ‘abominable and filthy’ with much earnestness.”  Philip Withers, D.D. (d. ) was a clergyman who became chaplain to the Lady Dowager Hereford in ; he was convicted of libel in  and died in Newgate prison the following year. He responded to Fuller’s volume in a pamphlet titled Philanthropos; or, A Letter to the Revd. Andrew Fuller, in Reply to his Treatise on Damnation (London, ).  MS Diary; Ryland  –  and AG Fuller  omit last paragraph.  Three Smiths were associated in the s and ’s with Nonconformity in Bedford. At the Bunyan Meeting, a James Smith attended, as well as a William Smith, a deacon. A Thomas Smith served as pastor of the Third Meeting (Independent) in Bedford from  to  before leaving for the Independent chapel at Foulmire, near Cambridge, where he remained until October . He then returned to his former church in Bedford, only to die four months later. Which Smith Fuller hears in  is unclear. See The Church Book of Bunyan Meeting  –  [facsimile]. London: J. M. Dent, ), f. ; and Jane Gilmour and Janet Hurst, “Fowlmere Independent Chapel—The First  Years,” Journal of the Cambridgeshire Family History Society  (): .  Song of Solomon :.  Unidentified.

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1785, August 14, Lord’s day–August 20, Saturday But a poor day—I feel myself very unfit for preaching—All this week I have been in a poor, low, carnal state of mind, at least with but a very few exceptions. On Friday night ’tis true I felt something tender in speaking from Job, “Altho’ thou say’st I shall not see him, yet judgment is before him, therefore trust thou in him”³⁴⁶—but very little else. Rode on Saturday to Foxton to supply there tomorrow.³⁴⁷

1785, August 21, Lord’s day Had a poor, wretched day almost all day—the best time I had was in the evening, on Christ’s second coming.³⁴⁸

1785, August 22, Monday Rode to Arnesby³⁴⁹—had a very tender time in preaching there this evening—but a sinful heart spoils all!³⁵⁰

1785, August 23, Tuesday Rode to Bosworth today—tender hearted and sorry to hear of the conduct of one of the chief people there—preached with a good deal of tenderness there tonight.³⁵¹

1785, August 24, Wednesday Rode home—spake at church meeting from John 6, Except ye eat my flesh &c. Some pain of mind on account of a doubtful case in taking in some church members.³⁵²

 MS Diary.  Job :.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Arnsby] MS.  Ibid; Ryland .  MS Diary.  MS Diary. In July , a Mrs. Wright of Weekley had requested a letter of dismission from the Rushden church to Fuller’s church, only to be denied by Knowles “on account of the church at Kettering having gone off from their former principles, they [the Rushden church] could not grant her a dismission” (Kettering Church Book, f. ). Fuller advised her to request it once again at the next church meeting, and if denied, the Kettering church would write to Knowles concerning the matter.

1785, August 28, Lord’s day

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1785, August 25, Thursday Rode to Spratton & preached but not much pleasure or profit.³⁵³

1785, August 26, Friday Rode to Northampton taken up in conversation with Mr. R.³⁵⁴ A letter from Mr. T. of Leominster³⁵⁵ on the piece I lately published, has some effect upon my heart in a way of tender grief and fear. Rode home tonight.³⁵⁶

1785, August 27, Saturday Very little spirituality throughout the day—I know not how to think a good thought!³⁵⁷

1785, August 28, Lord’s day A pretty good day—in the morning, from Psalm 40:7, Lo, I come &c and in the afternoon from Psalm 94:19, “In the multitude of my thoughts” &c.³⁵⁸

She did, and was denied again, and the Kettering church responded to the Rushden church on August , defending their principles and doctrines and not wishing to have a break in fellowship with the Rushden church over these matters. The letter is included in the Church Book, ff.  –  (a note was added after the letter that “the substance of this Letter was drawn up by the church, and was signed by them without the pastor” [f. ). Neither church would budge on their constitutional rights concerning dismissing and admitting members, but Mrs. Wright, being “of a timid disposition,” the Kettering Church Book notes (f. ) declined to force the matter and continued at Rushden until , when she was finally dismissed to the Kettering church.  MS Diary.  Ryland.  Joshua Thomas ( – ) pastored the Baptist meeting at Leominster,  – . Originally from Wales, he joined the Baptist meeting in Leominster in , but soon returned to Wales and was preaching there by . He was eventually ordained and returned to Leominster in , remaining there until his death in . He was a Baptist educator and historian of some note, publishing A History of the Baptist Association in Wales from …  in . His son, Timothy ( – ), was pastor at Devonshire Square in London,  – .  MS Diary; Ryland  has, “At Northampton, I saw a letter, from a respectable aged minister, on my late publication, which has some effect on my heart, in a way of tender grief and fear.” AG Fuller  has, “A Letter from Mr. Thomas, of Leominster, on the piece I lately published, has some effect on my heart, in a way of tender grief and fear.”  MS Diary; Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland  has, “A pretty good Sabbath: in the morning, from Psalm , ‘Lo, I come,’ &c. and, in the afternoon, from Psalm :.”

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1785, August 29, Monday, to August 31, Wednesday For these two days past especially my mind has been wretchedly carnal. That passage has brought some conviction to me of late, “Are ye not carnal, and walk as men!”³⁵⁹

1785, September 1, Thursday Set off this morning for Olney. Slept tonight at Irchester—my mind but little exercised throughout the day.

1785, September 2, Friday Rode to Carlton. Am sorry to see their discontentedness with that eminently godly man Mr. Wm.³⁶⁰ Clarke, who has lately preached among them. Some agreeable conversation with him. Preached with pretty much earnestness tonight at Olney from Ephesians 3:20, 21.³⁶¹

1785, September 3, Saturday Some tenderness today alone but not so much as is desirable.³⁶²

1785, September 4, Lord’s day Had a poor, cold forenoon on Psalm 116:7. Somewhat better in the afternoon on Jonah 2 and a very earnest time in the evening from Proverbs 17:24.³⁶³

1785, September 5, Monday Feel myself guilty today on account of my barrenness in spiritual conversation. A tender opportunity tonight in prayer at the monthly prayer meeting.³⁶⁴

     

MS Diary; final phrase from  Corinthians :. William. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid.

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1785, September 6, Tuesday Rode to Carlton this afternoon in company with Mr. Sutcliff. Preached tonight there on watchfulness—had a pretty good time—returned to Olney.

1785, September 7, Wednesday Set off for home—preached at Irchester tonight on God being able to do more than we can ask or think. ³⁶⁵

1785, September 8, Thursday Visited Mr. Burdit & Mr. S. Wallis today. Some solemn thoughts in riding home on the case of those who are in utter despair—occasioned by M. Daniels. My wife seems dejected with this case.

1785, September 9, Friday Very little exercise of mind. Spake tonight on watchfulness.

1785, September 11, Lord’s day A pretty good forenoon in preaching on God being light, and in the afternoon on Christ being the light of the world,³⁶⁶ but not so tender as in the morning. Preached at Loddington tonight with a good deal of tenderness on the necessity of internal religion from Luke 11:37– 40.

1785, September 12, Monday Rode this morning to see Mrs. Hobson who is ill. Returned home—attended at evening meeting, but a poor state of mind.³⁶⁷

 Ephesians :.  John :.  MS Diary.

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1785, September 14, Wednesday Visited B. Benford & Mrs. Fidgen³⁶⁸ today—but my spirit is so carnal I am of no profit that I see any where.³⁶⁹,³⁷⁰

1785, September 15, Thursday Some conversation with S. Pywell & his wife also with Wm.³⁷¹ Dickens and his wife, I hope to profit.³⁷²

1785, September 16, Friday Spoke this evening on Rejoicing always, with some pleasure.³⁷³

1785, September 18, Lord’s day Had a poor forenoon on provoking one another to love &c but a good afternoon on Taking hold of God’s Covenant. ³⁷⁴ Expounded the 16th chapter of Acts tonight.³⁷⁵

1785, September 19, Monday If we cherish secret sins, we have reason to think they will not be secret long! I am afraid that will be the case with me! This fear might be of some use, but ah, I can see nothing but self in any of it! [The] sermon on Proverbs 14:34 & 52.³⁷⁶

        

Benjamin Benford and Mary Fidgen of the Kettering Church. see to any where I go] MS Diary. MS Diary. William. Ibid. Ibid; sermon text from  Thessalonians :. Hebrews : and Isaiah :. MS Diary. Ibid.

1785, September 28, Wednesday

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1785, September 20, Tuesday Today I thought to have devoted to fasting & prayer! but some complaints attending my body I dare not do the former—attended in some degree to the latter.³⁷⁷

1785, September 21, Wednesday Walked to Woodford today and preached in the afternoon and evening on God respecting the lowly—and on taking Christ’s yoke. ³⁷⁸ Had a good evening.³⁷⁹

1785, September 23, Friday Little or no exercise. Waited in expectation of hearing Mr. Ryland tonight, but disappointed—preached myself tonight in his stead from Matthew 11:29. Much dejected tonight.³⁸⁰

1785, September 25, Lord’s day But a poor day in preaching at Northampton. Surely it can answer no end to write, when there is nothing material to write about. In future therefore I think only to write some of the most material exercises & events of my life, which I mean merely for my own use. If I should die without having destroyed them I wish them to be destroyed.³⁸¹

1785, September 28, Wednesday Today we had a ministers’ meeting at Kettering. Mr. Sharp of Oakham preached on, “Are we blind also?”³⁸² Mr. Sutcliff from Psalm 51:5, “born in sin &c” and Mr. Ryland

 Ibid.  Psalm : and Matthew :.  MS Diary.  Ibid.  Ibid; Ryland  has a condensed entry, “It can answer no end to write, when there is nothing material to write about. In future, therefore, I think only to notice some of the most material exercises and events of my life, which I mean merely for my own use.”  John :.

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jun. from 1 Peter 5:10, “After ye have suffered a while &c.” Heard Mr. Heighton pray with most pleasure.³⁸³

1785, September 29, Thursday Much dejected on account of a difference in worldly matters between Mr. S. a member with us, and Mr. D.³⁸⁴ a candidate now waiting for baptism. Had much ado today at church meeting to keep others within proper boundaries.³⁸⁵

1785, September 30, Friday Today we had a ministers’ meeting at Northampton. I preached on being of one spirit with Christ ³⁸⁶—and heard Brother Sutcliff on divine Sovereignty from Romans 9 and Brother Skinner³⁸⁷ on Psalm 139, Search me & try me. But the best part of the day was I think in conversation. A question was put and discussed, to the following purport … “To what causes in ministers may much of the want of their success be imputed?” The answer much turned upon the want of personal religion—particularly the want of close dealing with God in closet prayer. Jeremiah 10:21 was here referred to—“Their pastors are become brutish, and have not sought the Lord; therefore they shall not prosper, and their flocks shall be scattered!” Another reason assigned was, the want of reading and studying the Scriptures more as Christians, for the edification of our own souls. We are apt³⁸⁸ to study them merely to find out something to say to others, without living upon the truth ourselves. If we eat not the book before we deliver its contents to others, we may expect the Holy Spirit will not much accompany us. If we study the Scriptures as Christians, the more familiar we are with them, the more we shall feel their importance; but if otherwise, our familiarity with the word will be like that of soldiers and doctors with death, it will wear away all sense of its importance from our minds. To enforce this sentiment, Proverbs 22:17,

 MS Diary. The Kettering Church Book records the following on September , : “An unhappy dispute about temporal affairs having just taken place between brother John Smith & William Dickens, one of the candidates for communion; it was agreed that his baptism should be suspended for this time, till the church could hear, and judge more satisfactorily about it” (f. ). Dickens was baptized and admitted to the church.  Smith and Dickens.  Ibid.  I Corinthians :.  Thomas Skinner ( – ) was originally from Devon. He was ordained in  as the first pastor of the congregation at Clipston, Northamptonshire. Between  and  he ministered to the congregation at Towcester, Northamptonshire (with Fuller attending his ordination, as he notes below in his entry for April , ) before ending his ministerial career at Newcastle.  too apt] Ryland .

1785, October 2, Lord’s day

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18 was referred to—“Apply thine heart to knowledge—the words of the wise will be pleasant if thou keep them within thee—they shall with all be fitted in thy lips.” To this might have been added Psalm 1:2, 3.³⁸⁹ Another reason was, our want of being emptied of self-sufficiency. In proportion as we lean upon our own gifts, or parts, or preparations, we slight the Holy Spirit, and no wonder that being grieved he should leave us to do our work alone! Besides, when this is the case, it is, humanly speaking unsafe for God to prosper us, especially those ministers of considerable abilities. Reference was had to an Ordination Sermon said to be lately preached by Mr. Booth³⁹⁰ of London to Dr. Gifford’s successor³⁹¹ from “Take heed to thyself!”³⁹² Oh that I may remember these hints for my good!³⁹³

1785, October 2, Lord’s day Today I had a good deal of pleasure—baptized S. Pywell & his wife & T. Blundell, and Joseph Henson a member of the Church at Wellingborough. The three first were added to the church.³⁹⁴ Preached in the morning from Acts 2:41, and in the afternoon from verse 42.³⁹⁵

 Final line in MS. added at a later date by Fuller.  Abraham Booth ( – ) was baptized in  and became associated with the Baptists in Nottinghamshire. He switched from an Arminian position to a strict Calvinistic one, and in  published his famous work, The Reign of Grace. He ministered at Little Prescot Street, Goodman’s Fields, London, from  to his death in . Among his other published works are An Apology for the Baptists (), Commerce in the Human Species (), Glad Tidings to Perishing Sinners (), and Pastoral Cautions (), the first three belonging to Fuller’s library in , as well as two other titles by Booth (see Appendix A). Booth would engage in a controversy with Fuller between  and  that caused Fuller considerable distress. See Ernest A. Payne, “Abraham Booth,  – ,” Baptist Quarterly  ( – ):  – ; Robert W. Oliver, “Abraham Booth ( – ), in Haykin, British Particular Baptists, : – ; for the controversy with Booth, see Morden, Offering Christ to the World,  – .  Andrew Gifford ( – ) was one of London’s leading Baptist ministers in the eighteenth century, serving the congregation at Eagle Street from  until his death in . For many years he also worked as the sub-librarian at the British Museum. His successor was Thomas Hopkins (d. ), who was ordained on July , , with James Dore, John Martin, Abraham Booth, John Rippon and several other Baptist ministers in attendance. See A. T. Ward, Kingsgate Chapel (London: Kingsgate Baptist Church, ), .  I Timothy :.  MS Diary; Ryland  – ; AG Fuller  – ; Morris  – .  Samuel and Ann Pywell (she signed with an “x”), along with Thomas Blundell, signed the Kettering Church Book (f. ) as new members after their baptism on October , .  MS Diary.

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1785, October 3, Monday This was the evening for our monthly prayer³⁹⁶ meeting. … I felt very tender, and was much affected in prayer. When I come to these opportunities it has been frequent for me to be much affected, and yet I have so little heart to wrestle with God alone. I cannot tell how to account for this!³⁹⁷

1785, October 5, Wednesday Rode to Corby, and preached tonight with much earnestness and tenderness from Isaiah 57:15. Felt some encouragement on hearing of a Mrs.–– of Corby to whose conversion (as it is hoped) my ministry had been made instrumental. The sermon was from Matthew 11:29, preached on January 22, 1784.³⁹⁸

1785, October 6, Thursday Returned from Corby & rode to Spratton. Preached there on Taking hold of God’s Covenant ³⁹⁹ with much pleasure. Felt a freedom in speaking to unconverted sinners.⁴⁰⁰

1785, October 7, Friday Went home by Northampton—spake at their church meeting, but no manner of pleasure. Some tremor of mind on hearing of Dr. Withers’s answer to my late publication being in the press. What I fear is lest his manner of writing should be provoking, and lest I should fall into an unchristian spirit.⁴⁰¹

 At the monthly prayer] Ryland .  Ibid; Ryland .  Ibid; Ryland ; AG Fuller  has a shortened version, but misdates the entry as October .  Isaiah :.  MS Diary; Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland  and ; AG Fuller . Ryland  in a note states that he knew some of the hearers at that meeting, and they thought his message “peculiarly striking. It was on the nature and advantages of true conversion” ().

1785, October 31, Monday

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1785, October 9, Lord’s day Some earnestness this morning on sin being a reproach, but a miserable afternoon from Psalm 32:6. Between afternoon and evening, I was told of a young man to whom I had been made useful about two years ago, having a desire to join with us. I have for some time felt a kind of despair in preaching to sinners, thinking that on account of my carnality God would never bless any thing I said. This instance and that of last Wednesday seems to afford some encouragement, and to make me think that ’tis possible however for God to work even by me!—And that when I think nothing can be done, then it is possible for God to work! I have long sown in tears, O that I might in some degree at least, reap in joy!⁴⁰² Preached tonight with an unusual affection of heart and sense of everlasting things, from Job 16:22, “When a few years are come” &c.⁴⁰³

1785, October 10, Monday This evening I was visited by the young man mentioned yesterday—heard him speak of God’s work upon his soul with some pleasure. His name is Tomb. ⁴⁰⁴

1785, October 31, Monday Within these last two or three weeks I have had some distressing feelings … Twice I dreamed that I had fallen into some great wickedness, and that it was known. And though I would not pay any superstitious regard to dreams; yet knowing what I am, I am afraid⁴⁰⁵ it should come to pass.⁴⁰⁶ I wish the sense I then felt of the painfulness of guilt may abide upon my mind, & serve to keep me from evil! On Lord’s day the 16th I preached on Peace in the morning & Joy in the afternoon, but had but little of that which I preached about. On the 23rd I preached on Putting on the Lord Jesus Christ &c with some freedom.⁴⁰⁷ On the 25th I went and preached at Walgrave on carnal-mindedness and at Scaldwell from Job 16.22. Rode also to Northampton on the 26th. Brother Ryland observed our need of watching

 Psalm :.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller  (with many alterations).  MS Diary; Ryland  omits the final sentence. There is no record of a Tomb joining the Kettering church.  affraid] MS Diary.  yet, knowing what a weak and sinful creature I am, I fear lest it should come to pass.] Ryland, .  Romans :.

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against being defenders of practical religion ministerially, while we neglected it practically ⁴⁰⁸—referring to a passage in Dr. Owen on Temptation.⁴⁰⁹ Yesterday I baptized Edward Dickens, Mrs. Johnson, & Ann Parker.⁴¹⁰ Preached on The fellowship of Christians affording joy to Ministers from Philippians 1.3 – 5. And in the afternoon from “Thy God thy glory.”⁴¹¹ A pretty good⁴¹² time at the Lords supper.⁴¹³

1785, November 21, Monday For above a fortnight past I have been chiefly out in journeys to Bedford, Arnesby,⁴¹⁴ Bosworth, Elkington, Gilsborough and Spratton—preached at each of the above places with more or less earnestness. At Bedford saw Mr. M. of Blunham.⁴¹⁵ Glad to see his spirit softened, & his prejudices I hope giving way. Am glad to see some work as I hope going forward at Bedford among their young people. At Elkington (the 15th) I felt a good deal of tenderness—much grieved to find the spirits of people hurt in that county by controversy. I find too there are several whose conversation almost entirely, and on all occasions, turns on these subjects. It seems to be one of the Devil’s devices in order to destroy the good tendency of any truth, to get its advocates to hackney it out of its senses—dwelling always upon it to the excluding of other things, in every sermon or conversation. Thus the glorious doctrines of free and great grace have been served in the last age, and so have sadly fallen into disrepute. If we employ all our time in talking about what men ought to be and do, it is like we shall forget to put it in practice, and then all is over with us! The Lord deliver us from that temptation! At Gilsborough (the 16th) I had a very good opportunity preaching on the great things God hath done for us. Came home on Friday night and spoke with some tenderness from “hold thou me up, and I shall be safe.”⁴¹⁶ On Lord’s day the 20th I preached on the evil nature &

 ministerially, we should neglect it personally;] Ryland .  Reference is to John Owen’s sermon, Of Temptation, originally published in  and reprinted in Paisley, Scotland, in  by A. Weir and Archibald McLean, Fuller’s friend by the late s. This volume of Owen, however, does not appear among the books in Fuller’s library in .  Susanna Johnson and Dickens were admitted to the church on October , , and Ann Parker on December ,  (Kettering Church Book, ff. , , ).  Isaiah :.  goodish] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland  –  omits “Yesterday… Lord’s Supper.”  Arnsby] MS Diary.  Martin Mayle (/ – ), Baptist minister at Blunham; he was originally from Cambridgeshire, where he had previously preached to a Baptist congregation at Cottenham.  Psalm :.

1785, November 29, Tuesday

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dangerous tendency of mental departures from God, from Prov. 14:14. Also, on soul prosperity from 3 John 2. Had a tender & earnest mind.⁴¹⁷

1785, November 22, Tuesday, to November 29, Tuesday, This week, I had some profitable conversation with Mrs. B. Wallis. An observation from her brought conviction to my mind—viz. “that Ministers were not now in general so spiritual in their conversation as formerly.” I wish this may do me good! I felt⁴¹⁸ very low in mind a great part of this week. It seems to me that when I was last at Northampton (the 18th Inst.) my spirit was so unfruitful & so carnal, that dear Brother Ryland was grieved and dispirited to see me!⁴¹⁹ On Friday [I] wrote to him on these subjects … and received an answer on Lord’s day in which he laments that “surely there is scarcely any thing worth the name of religion left on the earth!” Had some pleasure on church-meeting day (the 24th) in speaking from Isaiah 35.6, 7 … And on the Lord’s day at the Supper—preached with some considerable enlargement from Proverbs 18.10 before it—“The Name of the Lord is a strong tower &c.” Preached also in the evening on Salvation by grace from Acts 15.11, We believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved &c.⁴²⁰

1785, November 29, Tuesday Much affected this morning with a very awful affair which has turned up—two brothers, sons to T. Smith, one of our members, have broke open Mr. Timms’s house and repeatedly robbed it, for which they are this day apprehended & committed to prison. This is a great grief to their parents, Mr. Timms, and all of us.⁴²¹

 MS Diary; AG Fuller  and AG Fuller   omit final two paragraphs; Ryland  provides a severely truncated version: “For above a fortnight past I have been chiefly out, in journeys to Bedford, Arnsby, Bosworth, Eltington, Guilsborough and Spratton. Preached at each of these places, with more or less earnestness. Came home on Friday, and spoke, with some tenderness, from ‘Hold thou me up, and I shall be safe.’ On Lord’s-day, I preached on the evil nature and dangerous tendency of mental departures from God, from Prov. :. Also, on soul prosperity, from  John . Had a tender and earnest mind.”  feel] MS Diary.  Ryland has inserted in the MS Diary between this sentence and the following paragraph these words: “He [Fuller] prayed with great spirituality, his conversation edifying. The Lord preserve and sanctify our friendship.” See also Ryland , where the same comment appears as a footnote.  MS Diary; Ryland  –  (with numerous alterations).  The Kettering Church Book records the episode as follows on March , : “An awful affair of house-breaking having taken place in the family of our bror. Thomas Smith (that is two of his sons broke open, and repeatedly robbed the house of Mr. Timms) it was judged right and fit that an enquiry

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Preached tonight at Burton on God sending the rod of Christ’s strength out of Zion,⁴²² but not much freedom of Spirit. Some serious conversation with Mrs. Wallis of Barton Lodge on the danger of inordinate attachment to a minister &c.⁴²³

1785, November 30, Wednesday, to December 6, Tuesday Pretty much taken up in learning something of the Greek language. Many painful feelings for young people owing to what has lately taken place! O what an easy yoke is Christ’s! And what a grievous one is that of Satan! Preached on Lord’s Day from Revelation 2:19, Whom I love I rebuke and chasten &c, with some tenderness. Also from [Revelation 2:19] in the afternoon. I hope there is something of a work of God going forward amongst us. I have lately heard of several persons being observed to hear the Word with much attention & affections.*⁴²⁴ Had a very affecting time in prayer at our monthly prayer meeting. O for Christ’s sake was enabled to plead.⁴²⁵

should be made into the matter, whether our friend Smith, or his wife were any way privy to the affair, or any otherwise blameworthy? Brethren Burditt and Gotch were deputed to wait on them, and to make the enquiry. And as an offer had been made that if any of the church were dissatisfied they would withdraw from the Lords table, it was agreed that if they would for the next Sabath [sic] to withdraw, it would be thought lovely, though as there was nothing positively proved against them, we could not pretend to withhold them from communion” (f. ). On April  the church admonished Thomas Smith to pay “stricter attention to family government” (f. ).  Psalm :.  MS Diary; Ryland  has only, “Preached, at Burton, on Psa. cx. . Some serious conversation, with a friend, on the danger of inordinate attachment to a minister.”  At the foot of the page Fuller has written: “Mrs. Davie, A. Scroxam, one of Mrs. Roughton’s servant maids, Miss Deacon’s servant maid, Sam. Smith’s grandson, Thomas Abbot’s son of Cranford.” Elizabeth Davy (d. ) and Ann Croxen (Fuller’s spelling is not accurate) professed their faith before the church on June ,  (Kettering Church Book, f. ) and were later added to the church on August ,  (ff. , ) (Davy also appears in the entry for December , ). Samuel Smith, Jr., was added to the church on October , , but was excluded on December ,  (f. ). A Josiah Abbot was admitted on July , , and later dismissed to the church at Woodford (f. ).  MS Diary; Ryland  shortens the entry as follows: “Pretty much taken up, of late, in learning something of the Greek language. Many painful feelings for young people, excited by the misconduct of two persons, who though they never made any profession of religion, yet were brought up under the word. O what an easy yoke is Christ’s, and what a hard one is that of Satan. I hope there is something of a work of God going forward amongst us. I have lately heard of six or seven. Who have been observed to hear with much attention and affection.”

1785, December 13, Tuesday

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1785, December 7, Wednesday Visited Mrs. Collyer.⁴²⁶ Some⁴²⁷ tender conversation on the state of our young people —felt my heart go out for their salvation. The latter part of this week I received a treatise written by Mr. Button in answer to mine lately published. There seems to be abundance of things in it very foreign to the point, and very little evidence.⁴²⁸

1785, December 11, Lord’s Day I had a very good day in preaching today … on My God shall supply all your needs &c in the morning, and on the Gospel being a savor of life unto life, and of death unto death &c. The latter subject was exceedingly awful, and my spirit very solemn. Rode to Geddington and preached on Nathaniel’s question to Philip,⁴²⁹ with Philip’s answer.⁴³⁰

1785, December 13, Tuesday Set off today & preached at Irchester with Brother Ryland. The next day we rode to Carlton and visited dear Mr. Clarke. I hope he will stay there. Heard Brother Ryland preach tonight, but my heart is in a poor state either for preaching or hearing. Visited Mr. Sutcliff on Thursday and rode to Northampton. I preached there, but very little religious pleasure.⁴³¹

 Mary Collier was admitted to the church on June ,  (Kettering Church Book, f. ) and died on January ,  (f. ).  Visited one of our friends, and had some] Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland  includes only the first two sentences of this entry. Ryland  has this entry dated as December , not the th (as in Fuller’s MS), and has, “The latter part of this week, I received a treatise, lately published, in answer to mine. There seems to be much in it very foreign from the point, and very little evidence in favour of the writer’s sentiment.” AG Fuller  omits opening portion of the entry: “This week received a treatise written by Mr. Button in answer to mine. There seems to be an abundance of things in it very foreign from the point, and very little evidence.”  on Philips’ Nathaniel’s question to Nathaniel Philip] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland ; the three sermon texts are from Philippians :,  Corinthians :, and John :.  MS Diary.

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1785, December 16, Friday Set off for home with my little girl who has been ill with the measles at Northampton.⁴³² My heart much misgives me. I think if God should take either of my children from me, I seem as if I could scarcely sustain it. On this account I have many fears. O, I could give⁴³³ up their bodies, but I want to see piety reigning in their souls, before they go hence and are no more seen! Tried as I rode home to converse with my child, and to instill religious principles into her mind. O that God would bless my endeavors to that end!⁴³⁴

1785, December 18, Lord’s Day Today I had a very tender forenoon, in preaching from Jeremiah 50:4, 5, O how my heart went forth in desire after the salvation of souls, for some of the greatest of sinners; particularly for a poor wretch of a young woman, the daughter of one of our members.*⁴³⁵ She had through her own wicked conduct been kept away from public worship for a year past. I lately heard that she was in a wretched state of despair, and was resolved never to come to meeting again. But this morning she appeared in the meeting. The sight of her much affected me, and was the means of a very tender forenoon. In the afternoon, I preached on the great things of God’s law being counted as a strange thing⁴³⁶ and alas my heart is as strange and as alien from the spirit of true religion as any thing I can talk about! O what a poor mutable wretch I am! Somewhat revived tonight in hearing more about a Mrs. Davie. I hope she is a godly woman. I find also she had a daughter who died about a year ago, and who gave very good evidence of her piety while her father and mother were in ignorance. Her mother now says she believes her attending among other children on a child’s burial, and hearing me speak to the children on that occasion, was the means of her conversion. It seems a strange thing that God should do any thing by me, such is my carnality!⁴³⁷

 Why his six-year-old daughter was at Northampton is not clear, but she may have already been attending Martha Trinder’s boarding school connected with the College Lane church.  I could give] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland  and AG Fuller  have, “Set off for home with my little girl, who has been ill at Northampton. My heart greatly misgives me. If God should take either of my children from me, I seem as if I could scarcely sustain it. On this account I have many fears. Oh, I could give up their bodies, but I want to see piety reigning in their souls, before they go hence and are no more seen! I tried as I rode home, to converse with my child, and to instill religious principles into her mind. Oh that God would bless my endeavors to that end!”  At the foot of page is a shorthand passage by Fuller.  Hosea :.  MS Diary; Ryland  –  and AG Fuller  incorrectly cite the morning text as from Jeremiah :, ; they also omit the final clause of the entry (“such is my carnality”).

1785, December 31, Saturday

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1785, December 19, Monday Very much disturbed today on account of the illness of my dear little girl. I am not without fears of her dying! Was visited today by Mr. Butler,⁴³⁸ and also by a Mr. Greenwood,⁴³⁹ a minister of Dudley near Birmingham—heard him speak tonight with some pleasure. Bless the Lord, my child is revived tonight! Some desirable tenderness this week, especially on Thursday at church meeting. Spoke from Psalms. O Love the Lord all ye His saints! Some pleasant thoughts likewise on Hebrews 2—It became him for whom are all things &c preparative for the Lord’s Supper.⁴⁴⁰

1785, December 25, Lord’s Day A pretty good day on the above subject, and on Matthew 1. He shall save his people from their sins, in the evening. Very little exercise of a spiritual nature this week. Visited Mrs. Davie and some others. Felt tenderly in prayer with Mr. Lillyman who appears to be in dying circumstances. On Friday the 30th attended Mr. L’s funeral—heard Mr. Toller preach on the occasion.⁴⁴¹

1785, December 31, Saturday Felt very tenderly in meditation relative [to] the younger part of our congregation.⁴⁴²

 William Butler (d. ) ministered at Sutton, Leicestershire, before removing to Gretton, Northamptonshire, where he served between  and .  Abraham Greenwood ( – ) was originally from Barnoldswick and was one of John Fawcett’s first ministerial students at Wainsgate. Greenwood married Alvery Jackson’s daughter and became the first pastor at Rochdale in . He removed to Dudley in  and later to Oakham, where he ministered from  to . He then removed to South Killingholme, Lincolnshire, serving there until his death in . He was one of a select group of pastors who was present at the formation of the Baptist Missionary Society at Kettering in . See Arthur S. Langley, “Abraham Greenwood,  – ,” Baptist Quarterly  ( – ):  – ; E. Winnard, The History of the Baptist Church, Barnoldswick,  –  (Burnley: [n. p.], ) .  MS Diary.  Ibid. Lillyman’s death does not appear in the Fuller Chuch Burial Register; he was most likely a member of Toller’s congregation.  Ibid.

1786 1786, January 1, Lord’s day A good forenoon preaching from Psalm 130—“If thou Lord should mark Iniquity &c.” Felt tenderly this afternoon in seriously addressing our young people from Ecclesiastes 12:1.¹

1786, January 1, Lord’s day, to January 8, Lord’s day Some painful reflections in thinking on my vast deficiencies. Another year is gone, and what have I done for God?—O that my life was more devoted to God! I feel as if I could wish to set out afresh for heaven but alas my desires seem but too much like those of the sluggard! Exceedingly distressed on Wednesday night. I fear God will take away my little girl.² I have reason to fear some awful chastisement is at hand—either spiritual or natural. Methought I was like the Israelites who had little or no heart to call upon God except in times of trouble. I tried however to pray to him now. I think I could be willing to submit to God in all things, and bear whatever he should lay upon me, though it were the loss of one of the dearest parts of myself, provided I could but see Christ formed in her! I know also I have no demand on the Lord for this, but surely I ought to bless his name that he does not require me to be willing to be lost, or that that should be the end of any that he has put under my care! The chief exercise of my mind this week has been about my poor child. Methought I felt somewhat of resignation to divine providence, “The Lord liveth … and blessed be my rock” &c.³

1786, January 8, Lord’s day, to January 15, Lord’s day Very tender and earnest this morning at public prayer. O that God may work upon the tender minds of our youth and children. Some tenderness in preaching three times today: 2 Samuel 22:47, The Lord liveth &c … Psalm 45:10,11, Hearken O daughter &c…and Ephesians 2:12, Without God in the world.

 MS Diary.  Fuller’s six-year-old daughter, Sarah (b. ).  MS Diary; Ryland  (first paragraph only); Ryland  (second and third paragraphs); AG Fuller  has this entry listed under Fuller’s next entry for January  – ; final phrase above from Psalm :. DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-006

1786, January 15, Lord’s day, to January 22, Lord’s day

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I hope there is somewhat of a work of God going on amongst us. I have been visited by a young man (Samuel Smith)⁴ who gives very great evidence of being a subject of true religion, so far as can be judged by a conversation. Have also had the company of a young woman (servant to Mr. R—n)⁵ who appears to be very tenderhearted, meek, and lowly in mind. Some things of this sort somewhat encouraging.⁶

1786, January 15, Lord’s day, to January 22, Lord’s day Today I preached on Keeping to the Sabbath from Isaiah 58:13, 14. Tonight went to Warkton⁷ and with more than usual tenderness and affection preached from Luke 13:3, Except ye repent &c. Preached on Tuesday at Geddington from the account of blind Bartimaeus.—The next morning rode to Bedford and to Shefford in company with Brother Sutcliff. Preached there on “Putting on the Lord Jesus Christ.”⁸ Felt some pleasure there in company with some other ministers, in advising the people to moderation in respect to their opposition to a minister who preaches with them at Southill as a probationer.⁹ Heard Mr. Carver preach at Southhill on Thursday, and preached myself at Bedford in the evening on soul prosperity & I have since heard of the sermon being blessed to the conversion of a poor man. But a poor day throughout. I hear, this journey, that a piece is coming out against what I have written on the Arminian side. I have no fears as to the cause itself, but many as to my capacity to defend it. Returned on Friday—called at Barton Lodge. Had some very affecting conversation with Miss M. Wallis.¹⁰ I feel reluctant in being obliged to attend to Controversy. My heart seems to delight in my work, and I hope the Lord in some measure is owning it. Spoke tonight from Genesis: “If thou wilt bring me to my father’s house in peace &c” with much tenderness of heart.¹¹

 Samuel Smith, Jr., who joined the Kettering church on October , . His father, Samuel Smith, Sr. (d. ), joined in  (Kettering Church Book, f. , ).  Unidentified.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller  omits last sentence, but then continues with material taken from Fuller’s previous entry for January  – .  Wharkton] MS Diary.  Romans :.  Joseph King, Baptist minister at Southill, died on January , . Most likely the reference here is to his successor, John Gamby, who came from Stevington and eventually was installed as minister in , a position he held until his death in .  Most likely a daughter of either Beeby or Samuel Wallis.  MS Diary; Ryland  –  omits the first sentence and concludes with the second paragraph from Fuller’s entry at “conversion of a poor man”; Ryland  –  then includes the remainder of paragraph two, but uses only “My heart… owning it” from paragraph three. AG Fuller  –  includes only two sentences from paragraph two, but uses a portion of paragraph three and a portion

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1786, January 22, Lord’s day, to January 29, Lord’s day Preached with some freedom from 1 Peter 5:5, Clothed with humility. But a poor afternoon from Isaiah 27:13, Great Trumpet &c. This week I received Dr. Withers’s treatise against what I have written. What horrid sentiments does he advance! Much taken up this week in perusing it. Spake on Thursday at church meeting on the Prodigal’s return, on the Church of God being our Father’s house, and containing bread enough & to spare. ¹² Was visited on Saturday by my Brother R. Fuller. Some conversation with him on the speeches of some ministers in London*¹³ very affecting to me. Find hard work to bend my mind to the work of the Lord’s Day.¹⁴

1786, January 29, Lord’s day, to February 5, Lord’s day A good day in preaching on eating Christ’s flesh and drinking his blood,¹⁵ previous to the Lord’s Supper … but a very poor time in the evening though on so joyful a subject as life & immortality being brought to light by the gospel. Chiefly taken up this week in company with my Brother R. F.¹⁶ who left us on Friday morning. Our dear little girl has this week much alarmed our fears. On Thursday morning she broke out with the measles, and we hope the illness may be hereby carried off. As I sat by her that morning alone she requested me to go to prayer with her, saying though she was greatly afflicted with pain, “she would try to lie still.” I did so, and found some tenderness of heart on her behalf. My mind is generally much engaged now in perusing the treatises which are published against what I have written.¹⁷

of the first paragraph from Fuller’s next entry (January  – ) under a separate entry dated January .  Luke : – .  At the foot of the page Fuller has added a shorthand passage; Ryland has added at a later date beside the shorthand: “what’s this?”  MS Diary; Ryland  incorrectly dates the entry as January  and includes only this (AG Fuller  is similarly truncated, and dated January ): “This week, I received Dr. Withers’s treatise against what I have written. What horrid sentiments does he advance.”  John :.  Robert Fuller.  MS Diary; Ryland  –  has paragraph three only; Ryland  has last paragraph only (dated as February ); AG Fuller  has the final two paragraphs of this entry joined by the first paragraph of Fuller’s next entry (February  – ) in an entry dated February .

1786, February 12, Lord’s day, to February 19, Lord’s day

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1786, February 5, Lord’s day, to February 12, Lord’s day This morning I received another treatise written against me by Mr. Dan Taylor.¹⁸ It has rather tended to interrupt me in the work of the day, though I determined not to look into it till tomorrow. Monday I read the above piece. The author discovers an amiable spirit, and there is a good deal of plausibility in some things which he maintains. My mind has been much employed all the week in thinking on the above piece. The more I examine it, the more I perceive it is (though ingeniously wrought together) capable of a solid reply.¹⁹ On Tuesday rode to Oakley and preached on Death with much serious & tender feeling … And on Thursday to Spratton, when also I felt tenderly in preaching on the story of blind Bartimaeus. Some edifying conversation on Friday morning with Mr. Jones, a minister lately come to Creaton.²⁰ Spoke tonight on our bodies being the temples of the Holy Ghost.²¹

1786, February 12, Lord’s day, to February 19, Lord’s day A tender forenoon on God’s having held us up (Psalm 71:6). But not so desirably affected in the afternoon & evening.

 Dan Taylor ( – ) was originally from Yorkshire. He became a General Baptist in the  s and later helped form the more orthodox “New Connection” of General Baptists in . He served as chairman of this group repeatedly and as president of its academy at Mile End, London, from  to , as well as editor of the General Baptist Magazine from  to . He ministered at Church Lane, White Chapel, London, from  until his death in . Though he disagreed with their Calvinism, Taylor was on good terms with many Particular Baptists, especially John Sutcliff. His response to Fuller in  was titled Observations on the Rev. A. Fuller’s Late Pamphlet, entitled: “The Gospel of Christ Worthy of all Acceptation.” … In Nine Letters to a Friend. By a Lover of all Mankind (), and was signed “Philanthropos.” For more on Taylor, see Frank Beckwith, “Dan Taylor ( – ) and Yorkshire Baptist Life,” Baptist Quarterly  ( – ):  – ; and Frank Rinaldi, The “Tribe of Dan”: A Study of the New Connexion of General Baptists  –  (Carlisle, UK: Paternoster, ).  MS Diary; Ryland  and AG Fuller  include only the second paragraph under an entry dated February .  Rev. Jones and the former curate at Creaton, the Rev. Abraham Maddock, were both known for their evangelical ministries, assisting in the founding of several Baptist churches in the area from within their converts, some of whom eventually joined Baptist churches at Clipston and Walgrave, according to an entry in the Walgrave church book by Alexander Payne after Maddock’s death on May , . See W. A. Wicks, Concise History of the Baptist Church, (Walgrave (Northampton: Taylor & Son, ), ; AG Fuller  (note by Belcher).  MS Diary; AG Fuller  has only the first sentence of last paragraph (dated January ).

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Tonight my wife was taken ill, and early on Monday morning now happily delivered of a daughter.²² … Great are the mercies of the Lord towards us. Mercy & Judgment both visit us. Now my wife is delivered, my fears chiefly turn upon the little girl. But very little exercise this week. Pretty much employed in writing. Spoke on Friday night on God being a present help in time of trouble. ²³

1786, February 19, Lord’s day My Sabbaths are, I fear, spent to little purpose. So little love to God & the souls of men. Felt tender tonight in catechising the children. Thought & spoke to them about my own dear little girl! Chiefly employed this week in writing a reply to Mr. Button. ²⁴ Thursday being church meeting day I spoke on the qualifications of a deacon— after which Mr. Samuel Wallis was chosen to that office.²⁵

1786, February 26, Lord’s day Some tenderness in preaching today from Isaiah 24:16, Glory to the righteous &c. and Zechariah 13:1, A Fountain opened &c. And some sort of pleasure at the Lord’s Supper. But alas … where has my heart been tonight? …

 Mary Fuller.  MS Diary.  Fuller’s reply to Button and Taylor appeared late in , published first in London and later in Northampton, titled A Defence of a Treatise, entitled, The Gospel of Christ Worthy of All Acceptation: Containing a Reply to Mr. Button’s Remarks, and the Observations of Philanthropos. Taylor published a second response to Fuller in , Observations on the Rev. Andrew Fuller’s Reply to Philanthropos; or a Further attempt to prove that the universal invitations of the Gospel are founded on the universality of Divine love, to which Fuller responded under the nom de plume “Agnostos” in The Reality and Efficacy of Divine Grace; with the certain success of Christ’s sufferings, in behalf of all who are finally saved. Considered in a series of letters to the Rev. Andrew Fuller: containing remarks upon the observations of the Rev. Dan Taylor, on Mr. Fuller’s reply to Philanthropos. Taylor had the final word in his  pamphlet, The Friendly Conclusion: Occasioned by the Letters of Agnostos to the Rev. Andrew Fuller respecting the extent of Our Saviour’s death and other subjects connected with that doctrine in four letters to a friend.  MS Diary; Ryland  conflates portions of Fuller’s previous entry with the above entry: “Great are the mercies of the Lord towards us, who has now given me another daughter. Mercy and judgment both visit us. Now, my fears chiefly turn on the child that is afflicted. My Sabbaths, I fear, are spent to little purpose; I have so little love to God and the souls of men: but I felt much impressed, tonight, in catechising the children. Thought about my own little girl, and talked to them concerning her.” AG Fuller  follows Ryland’s text, but divides it into two entries, one for February  (“Great are … is afflicted.”) and another for February  (My Sabbaths… little girl.”).

1786, March 12, Lord’s day, to April 16, Lord’s day

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Except Thursday which I spent at Thrapston all this week has been miserably spent! I sin against God … repeatedly … & yet remain wretchedly insensible! I tremble at myself—and have reason to do so much more!²⁶

1786, March 5, Lord’s day Some little pleasure today in preaching on The Lord’s people being called trees of righteousness; and on our faith being the victory whereby we overcome the world —but alas, how far off I am from the spirit about which I preach!²⁷

1786, March 12, Lord’s day, to April 16, Lord’s day For this month past I have had great exercise of heart on account of my poor little girl … Sometimes pleading hard with God on her account, at other times ready to despair, and to fear God would never hear me. Lords day March 19 was a distressing day to me. My concern for the loss of her body is but trifling compared with that of her soul! Preached & prayed much from Matthew 15.25, Lord help me! On the Monday I carried her towards Northampton … was exceedingly distressed on the Monday night … Went to prayer with a heart almost broken. Some encouragement from a conversation with dear Brother Ryland. I observed “God had not bound himself to hear the prayers of any one for the salvation of the soul of another.” He replied, “but if he has not, he very frequently does so, and hence perhaps though grace does not run in the blood, yet we frequently see it does in the line. Many more of the children of God’s children are gracious than of others.” I know neither I nor mine have any claim upon the Almighty for mercy, but as long as there is life it shall be my business surely to implore it! Methought I saw on Tuesday (21st) the vanity of all created good. I saw if God were to cut off my poor child, and not to afford me some extraordinary support under it, I should be next to dead to the whole creation, and all creation dead to me ! O that I were but thus dead as Paul was by the cross of Christ!²⁸ On Thursday preached at Woodford from Psalm 50.15, Call upon me in the day of trouble &c. On Lord’s day the 26th had a pretty good day, & some pleasure at the Lord’s supper—but very much dejected towards night. Read a little account of a Miss Cunningham²⁹ who lately died, published by her uncle the Rev. Mr. Newton of London.³⁰ This was very affecting indeed.³¹

   

MS Diary; AG Fuller  omits first paragraph. MS Diary; sermon texts from Isaiah : and I John :. Ibid. Eliza Cunningham] Ryland .

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On Monday [March] 27th, riding towards Northampton I think I felt greater earnestness and freedom with God than I ever had before in this matter. I seemed likewise more willing to leave her in the hands of God. Some tender opportunities in prayer with her & for her. Returning on Tuesday (28th) I went to Arnesby³² on Thursday—I found there a house of mourning on account of the death of Mr. C.³³ in Jamaica. Returned to Northampton on Friday & stayed over the Lords day. I had some few pleasant thoughts on being crucified to the world, and on Casting all our cares upon the Lord.³⁴ On Monday April 3, rode to Bugbrook, and preached with a good deal of tenderness from Psalm 130.2, 3, If thou Lord shouldst mark Iniquity &c.³⁵

1786, April 9, Lord’s day Went to Gretton, spent the Lord’s Day with them—felt some tenderness in preaching on Crucifixion to the world by the cross of Christ—and administering the Lord’s Supper. I feel now somewhat more of an habitual resignation to God. If I could take the reins into my own hand, I would not. I feel a satisfaction that my times, and the times of all that pertain to me are in his hand! This likewise I have felt all along, never to desire the life of the child unless it be for her present and eternal good … Unless she should live to the Lord I had rather if it please God she might not live at all.³⁶

 John Newton ( – ) was originally a sea merchant trafficking in the slave trade. He was converted during a storm on a voyage in . From  to  he was surveyor of the tides in Liverpool and began to exercise his spiritual gifts in meetings in his home, even entertaining George Whitefield. He eventually attained the curacy at Olney in  and later served at St. Mary Woolnoth, London,  – . During his years in Olney, Newton became friends with the poet William Cowper (they collaborated on the Olney Hymns in ) and John Ryland, Jr., one of his favorite correspondents. His autobiography, An Authentic Narrative (), was immensely popular, as well as his hymn, “Amazing Grace.” See Gordon, Wise Counsel; L. G. Champion, “The Letters of John Newton to John Ryland,” Baptist Quarterly  ( – ):  – .  Reference is to Newton’s A Monument to the Praise of the Lord’s Goodness and to the Memory of dear Eliza Cunningham ().  Arnsby] MS.  Unidentifed.  Texts from Galatians : and  Peter :.  MS Diary; Ryland  – . Ryland converts Fuller’s narrative for March  through April  into traditional daily diary entries, altering the text in his usual manner; he omits in the penultimate paragraph “Returning on Tuesday … Jamaica,” and omits the final paragraph altogether. He then closes his entry at March  by adding a passage (“I feel now … live at all.”) from Fuller’s entry for April , though he does not designate the date as such.  MS Diary; Ryland  (omits first paragraph).

1786, May 7, Lord’s day

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1786, April 16, Lord’s day Today I felt some encouragement in my work from hearing of a young man Mrs. B—’s³⁷ brother of Woodford being hopefully converted in hearing me preach on March 26 from Colossians 1:13, “who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and translated us into the kingdom of God’s dear son.” (N.B. Ap. 23.) My time and attention is now much taken up with my poor little girl … particularly on the [sentence unfinished]³⁸

1786, April 28, Friday Riding to Towcester was exceedingly affected and importunate with God in prayer for her poor soul. I felt indeed the force of those words “To whom Lord shall we go? Thou hast the words of eternal life!”³⁹ The “words of eternal life,” O, of what worth to an immortal, guilty creature! a creature subject to eternal death! My heart seemed to be dissolved in earnest cries for mercy, particularly so on the other side of Blisworth. Enjoyed a good opportunity in hearing Brethren Sutcliff & Ryland jun. preach at Mr. Skinner’s Ordination.⁴⁰ The first to the pastor from Matt. 28:20, Lo, I am with you always to the end of the world—the other to the church from “Suffer the word of exhortation.”⁴¹ I preached in the evening from Psalm 1:2, 3, with some pleasure.⁴²

1786, May 7, Lord’s day I was tolerably supported under the approaching death of my poor child—I saw her drawing on apace—I saw I must shortly let her fall. With floods of tears with⁴³ all the

 Barnes’s.  MS Diary; Ryland  has only the following: “To-day, I felt some encouragement in my work, from hearing of a young man hopefully converted, by hearing me preach from Colossians ..”  John :.  Thomas Skinner, formerly at Clipston and now at Towcester.  Heb. :.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller  –  conflates portions of the previous four entries (March –April ) into one entry dated April . He includes the opening section of Fuller’s entry for March –April , omitting the final three sentences of paragraph two and the entirety of paragraphs four and five; he omits the opening paragraph in Fuller’s entry for April , includes most of Fuller’s entry for April , and omits the closing portion of his entry for April  (“particularly so… some pleasure.”).  tears of an afflicted father with] MS Diary.

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bitterness of an afflicted father mourning for his first born, I committed her to God … to his everlasting arms, when she should fall⁴⁴ from mine!⁴⁵

1786, May 14, Lord’s day, to May 21, Lord’s day Death! Death is all around me! My friends die. Three I have buried within a fortnight*⁴⁶ and another I shall have to bury soon! Death & Judgment is all I can think about! At times I feel reconciled to whatever may befall me … I am not without good hopes of the child’s piety, and as to her life, desirable as it is, the will of the Lord be done! But at other times, I am distressed beyond due bounds. On Thursday the 25th in particular my distress seemed beyond all measure—I lay before the Lord weeping like David, and refusing to be comforted.⁴⁷ This brought on I have reason to think a bilious cholic, a painful affliction it was, and the more so as it has prevented me ever seeing my child alive again! Yes, she is gone!⁴⁸

1786, May 30, Tuesday morning I heard as I lay very ill in bed in another room I heard a whispering. I enquired … and all were silent! … all were silent!—but all is well! I feel reconciled to God! I called my family round my bed—I sat up & prayed as well as I could. I bowed my head & worshipped, and blessed a taking as well as⁴⁹ a giving God.⁵⁰

1786, June 1, Thursday I just made a shift to get up today and attend the burial of my poor child. My dear Brother Ryland preached on the occasion from 2 Kings 4:26, It is well.

 she should fall] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller .  At the foot of the page Fuller has written: “Sampson Chapman, Mrs. Powell, and Mrs. White.” Sampson Chapman was buried on May , ; Elizabeth Powell, wife of Daniel Powell of Kettering, on May , ; and Elizabeth White, widow of Thomas White of Glenn, also on May ,  (Fuller Burial Register  – ).   Samuel : – .  MS Diary; Ryland  – ; AG Fuller  includes first two paragraphs under an entry for May  and the final paragraph as part of an entry for May .  a taking as well as well as] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller  (closing portion of his entry for May ); AG Fuller  ; final portion from Job :.

1786, June 4, Lord’s day

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I feel in general now a great degree of calm resignation. Surely there is solid reason to hope that she has not lived in vain—and if she is but reared for God, it matters not when she died. I feel a solid pleasure in reflecting on our own conduct in her education. Surely we have endeavored to bring her up in the nurture & admonition of the Lord;⁵¹ and surely our endeavors have not been in vain! Surely her visit to Northampton too was blessed for her good. She has certainly discovered ever since great tenderness of conscience, and much of the fear of God, great regard for the worship of God, especially for the Lord’s day, and great delight in reading, especially accounts of the conversion of some little children. Often she requested me to pray with her and for her that God, as she expressed it, would “bless her and keep her and save her soul!” She took great delight in some verses composed for her by Mr. Ryland.⁵² These she would repeat⁵³ over to herself prayer-wise, and would ask me to sing them to her when we were alone. Some times she would express a hope of living forever with Christ—at other times her fears ran high because as she said “she had sinned against the Lord.” To this I replied “That was true but such was the mercy of Christ that he was much more ready to forgive those who were grieved for offending him, than ever I was to forgive her when she was grieved for offending me.” But all is over now, and I am in a good degree satisfied; she was 6 years and nearly 6 months old when she died.⁵⁴

1786, June 3, Saturday Today I felt a sort of triumph over death—went and stood upon her grave with a good degree of composure! Returned and wrote ten or eleven verses to her memory which I intend to put in a frame and hang it in a room.⁵⁵

1786, June 4, Lord’s day Had a good day in preaching on These light afflictions &c.⁵⁶ My mind seems very calm and serene, in respect of the child.  Ephesians :.  In his youth, Ryland published seven poetical works (devoted to religious themes) between  and , and later a small volume of hymns for the use of his congregation in Bristol ().  she would repeat] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland  omits “Often she requested … little children.” Variations of this entry appear in AG Fuller  –  and AG Fuller  , with AG Fuller  providing an extensive note from another account by Fuller of his daughter’s death.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller  and AG Fuller   have, “To-day I felt a sort of triumph over death. I went and stood on her grave, with a great deal of composure! Returned, and wrote some verses to her memory.”   Corinthians :.

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But alas, I feel the insufficiency of trouble, however heavy to destroy or mortify sin. I have had great and awful experience⁵⁷ of my own depravity, even while under the very rod of God!⁵⁸

1786, June 6, Tuesday On Tuesday June 6th rode to Northampton to our Annual Association. Am glad to find the state of the churches upon the whole encouraging. The next day I preached from Ephesians 2:5, By grace ye are saved. Also heard Brother Hopper and Sutcliff, the one from Psalm 102, When the Lord shall build up Zion, he shall appear in his glory—and the other from Galatians, Wherefore then serveth the law?⁵⁹ But I had a poor day—I⁶⁰ wanted spirituality. ⁶¹

1786, June 8, Thursday Today we had a very tender, affecting time in communicating experiences—for my part I have great reason to think something else, more awful than the death of the child awaits me. Though I have been in the fire my dross is not removed, but apparently increased! My family are now nearly throughout afflicted, and I need not wonder if something worse follows! For all this, his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still!⁶²

1786, June 11, Lord’s day Had a good day on the Lord of peace giving us peace by all means. I know not how I go on. On Lord’s days I am tenderhearted, and seem disposed to lie low before God, and to be more watchful & spiritual; but alas how soon I forget God!

 great and awful experience] MS Diary.  MS Diary; AG Fuller ; Ryland  uses material from June  and creates a new entry for June , even though no such entry exists in Fuller’s diary: “Though I have felt resignation and serenity, as to the death of my child, since that event was decided by an infallible God; yet, alas! I feel the insufficiency of trouble, however heavy, to destroy or mortify sin. I have had sad experience of my own depravity, even while under the very rod of God!”  Psalm :; Galatians :.  The next day I and Mr. Hopper and Mr. Sutcliff preached; but I] AG Fuller .  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller .  MS Diary; AG Fuller ; Ryland  has the first sentence, with the remainder found on Ryland . Scripture phrase is from Isaiah :.

1786, June 18, Lord’s Day

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I have an ocean⁶³ of poison⁶⁴ in my very nature! Surely I am as a beast before God!⁶⁵ I have been to Moulton⁶⁶ and Hardingstone this week (the Wednesday & Thursday) and have felt some tenderness in preaching at both places—but yet I am far from a spiritual state of mind. I felt some tenderness in riding home on June 16, in thinking on Jeremiah 31:2, “The people that were left of the sword found grace in the wilderness.” ⁶⁷

1786, June 18, Lord’s Day Had a pretty good day in preaching from the above [Jeremiah 31:2]. I heard last week that Mr. Hall of Arnesby⁶⁸ preached from Proverbs 30:2. I am sure that passage is more suitable⁶⁹ to me than him. I therefore preached from it today. Yes, surely I am more brutish than any man!⁷⁰ Tonight I preached a very searching discourse from Lamentations 3:40, Let us search and try our ways &c chiefly for the purpose of self-conviction.⁷¹

 fountain] Ryland ; AG Fuller .  poyson] MS Diary.  Psalm :.  William Carey ( – ) had recently left Hackleton and moved to Moulton to commence work as a schoolmaster and minister of the Baptist church there, the same church Fuller mentions in the above entry. In , Carey would move to Leicester and the Harvey Lane Baptist Church, leaving there in  to establish, along with John Thomas, the first BMS outpost in Bengal and India, most notably the Serampore Mission () that served as the impetus to the founding of schools and churches throughout the sub-continent, as well as translating the Bible into numerous Eastern languages. For Carey, see S. Pearce Carey, William Carey, D.D. (London: George H. Doran, ); F. D. Walker, William Carey, Missionary, Pioneer, and Statesman (Chicago: Moody Press, ); Timothy George, Faithful Witness: The Life and Mission of William Carey (Birmingham AL: New Hope Press, ); idem, “William Carey ( – ),” ed. Haykin, in British Particular Baptists, : – .  MS Diary; Ryland  – ; AG Fuller .  Arnsby] MS Diary.  applicable] Ryland ; AG Fuller .  Psalm :.  MS Diary; Ryland  and AG Fuller . A significant gap in the diary occurs at this point. Ryland notes, “After this, sixteen or eighteen leaves have been destroyed” (). The current volume does not reveal any torn pages, which suggests that the surviving volume of Fuller’s diary was rebound at some time after .

1789 1789, October 3, Lord’s day For upwards of a year & a half I have wrote nothing.¹ It has seemed to me that my life was not worth writing. Two or three years ago my heart began wretchedly to degenerate from God. Soon after my child Sally died I sunk into a sad state of carnality;² and I have felt the effects of it ever since. I feel at times some longing after the lost joys of God’s salvation, but cannot recover them. I have backslidden from God; and yet I may rather be said to be habitually dejected on account of it than earnestly to repent for it. My heart is wretchedly hard; and a spirit of inactivity has laid hold of me. I feel that to be carnally minded is death! This year we have had great trials & disputes in the church, concerning the misconduct of one of our members. We have been in danger of being broken in pieces; nor is the danger yet over. And I think this may be one of God’s controversies with me!³ My spiritual enemies have been too much for me. Some time ago I set apart a day for fasting & prayer; and seemed to get some strength in pleading with God. The very next day, as I remember, I found my heart so wretchedly strayed away,⁴ such a load of guilt contracted, that I was frighted at my own prayer the preceding day, lest it should have provoked the Lord to punish me by leaving me so suddenly—and I have not set apart a day to fast and pray since. But surely this was one of Satan’s

 Fuller is referring to this volume of his diary. He did publish during that time some responses to John Martin and Dan Taylor concerning their remarks on his Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation, and one sermon, Paul’s Charge to the Corinthians Respecting their Treatment of Timothy, Applied to the Conduct of Churches toward their Pastors, published along with a sermon by John Ryland, both sermons delivered at the ordination of Robert Fawkner at Thorn on October , , and published in London that same year.  In the MS Diary, above the word “carnality,” Ryland has written “lukewarmness.”  Richard Life (d. ) joined the church in  (Kettering Church Book, f. ). During the summer of , he entered into a dispute with another member of the church, Thomas Burditt, to whom Life had previously been his servant. Burditt passed his business on to Life and another servant and member of the church, Thomas Fisher, but by  he believed that Life had “wronged the partnership” (f. ). A committee from the church was appointed to examine the matter, and they concluded that Life had indeed harmed the partnership, but, as the Church Book notes, “they could not obtain positive proof of it, much less could they say to what amount” (ibid). They suggested that Life and Fisher seek arbitrators to resolve the manner, which they did, but the two arbitrators, both from the church, could not reach an agreement. A third arbitrator was applied to, which became the majority of the church. The church decided against Life to the amount of £, hoping his actions had been done inadvertently (f. ). He complied and was eventually restored to communion in the church. The church book adds at the end of the account, “This unhappy had for nearly a year divided and distressed the Church. After it was settled, which was on the  of November, it was proposed that we should keep a day of fasting & prayer that God would heal every breach and return to bless us. Towards the latter end of January  a day of prayer was kept” (f. ).  so wandering from God] Ryland ; AG Fuller . DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-007

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devices by which I have been befooled.⁵ Perhaps also I trusted too much to my fasting & praying, and did not on that account follow it with watchfulness. In the month of May I preached with some tenderness⁶ from Job 29:2, O that it were with me as in months past &c. During this summer I have sometimes thought what Joy Christians might possess in this world were they but to improve their opportunities & advantages. What grounds of Joy does the gospel afford! What Joy was possessed by the primitive Christians! I have preached two or three times upon this subject. Once from John 15:11, These things have I spoken unto you, that my joy might remain in you, and that your joy might be full. Another time from Nehemiah 8:10, The joy of the Lord is your strength. And again from Mark 11:24, Whatsoever things ye desire when ye pray, believe ye shall receive them, & ye shall receive them. In which the chief sentiment on which I insisted was how confidence in God’s goodness was necessary to our success in prayer. Another time preached from James 1:2, Count it all Joy when ye fall into divers temptations. These subjects have tended sometimes to make me long after that joy & peace in believing which I have heretofore found. But joy of heart is a feeling I cannot yet recover.⁷

 imposed upon] Ryland ; AG Fuller .  feeling] Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland  –  has entire entry, but omits from first paragraph, “This year we… controversies with me.” Ryland  repeats portion of first paragraph only; also AG Fuller  – .

1790 1790, January 20, Wednesday During the last quarter of a year I seem to have gained some ground in spiritual things. I have read some of President Edwards’s¹ sermons,² which have left a deep impression upon my heart. Have attended more constantly than heretofore to private prayer, and feel a little renewed strength. Sometimes also I have been much affected in public prayer, particularly on Monday evening January 4, at the monthly prayer meeting. I felt much afraid lest our uncomfortable debates in the church, though now finished, should have grieved the Holy Spirit, and quenched our affection for each other, and so lest our spiritual welfare as a church should be essentially injured. Sometimes I have been discouraged, & have feared that God would never bless me again. In my preaching, though I sometimes am affected with what I preach, yet, as to doing good to others, I go as if I had no hope of it. Repeated disappointments, and long want of success makes me [feel] as if I were not to expect success. The worst part of my experience is hardness of heart, and a great degree of impenitence still hangs about me. Sin hangs heavy on my soul, but it is not sufficiently bitter to me; and I live almost a stranger to the joys of salvation. Last Friday evening I was affected with the subject of divine withdrawment—and especially with the thought of being contented in such a state. If we lose our daily bread we cannot live, if we lose our health we are miserable, if we lose a dear friend we are the³ same; and can we lose the bread of life, the health of our souls, our best friend of all, and be unconcerned! Last Lord’s day I preached upon the above subject (the desirableness of nearness to God) from Psalm 27:9, Hide not thy face from me; put not thy servant away in anger; thou hast been my help; leave me not, neither forsake me, O God of my salvation!⁴

 Jonathan Edwards’s] Ryland .  Fuller is reading from Practical Sermons, Never Before Published (Edinburgh: M. Gray, ), a posthumous collection of sermons by Edwards. More sermons by Edwards appeared the next year in Twenty Sermons, on Various Subjects (Edinburgh: M. Gray, ), both volumes belonging to Fuller’s library by  (see Appendix A). Recently, Michael McMullen has published two volumes of sermons by Edwards: The Blessing of God: Previously Unpublished Sermons of Jonathan Edwards (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, ) and The Glory and Honor of God: Volume  of the Previously Unpublished Sermons of Jonathan Edwards (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, ). Fuller and many of the English Baptists at this time often referred to Edwards as “President” Edwards, based upon his brief tenure just prior to his death as President of New Jersey College, now Princeton University.  are affected the] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland  –  and AG Fuller  omit first two sentences of paragraph three. DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-008

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1790, February 16, Tuesday For these last three weeks I have too much relapsed again into a state of ⁵ thoughtlessness. I have felt a little in preaching, but not much. One day I was looking over Dr. Owen on the Mortification of Sin. Speaking of the evil of sin in the soul unmortified, he says, “It will take away a man’s usefulness in his generation. His works, his endeavors, his labours seldom receive blessing from God. If he be a preacher, God commonly blows upon his ministry, that he shall labour in the fire, and not be honoured with success.” This in a great degree is realized in me!⁶

1790, March 27, Saturday Some weeks ago, I thought I felt to gain ground by closet prayer; but have lately relapsed again too much into indifference. Yesterday I read President Edwards’s two Sermons on the Importance of a thorough knowledge of divine truth, from Hebrews 5:12. I felt this effect, a desire to rise earlier, to read more, & make the discovery of truth more a business.⁷ This morning have read another of his sermons on God the Christian’s portion, from Psalm 73:25.⁸ The latter part of it comes very close, & I feel myself at a loss what to judge as to God being my chief Good. He asks whether we had rather live in this world rich, & without God, or poor & with him? Perhaps I should not be so much at a loss to decide this question as another—viz. Had I rather be rich in this world, and enjoy but little of God, or poor, and enjoy much of God? I am confident the practice of great numbers of professing Christians, declares that they prefer the former; and in some instances I feel guilty of the same thing. In the course of this summer (1790) I have sometimes enjoyed a tenderness of heart in preaching. On June 27, at the Lord’s Supper, I was affected with this subject—“Do this in remembrance of me.”⁹ I was also greatly affected on September 5, in preaching from Galatians 6:7, “Whatsoever a man soweth that shall he also reap.” But yet in general I go destitute of the joys of salvation.—I do not feel tempted to evil as I have been heretofore, but yet all is not right—O for a closer walk with God!

 kind of] Ryland .  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller  – ; Morris . Owen’s Of the Mortification of Sin in Believers was first published at Oxford in . Fuller is probably using the edition published in  by James Buckland in London (quotations by Fuller from  – ), although the volume does not appear on the list of books in Fuller’s library in  (it is possible, however, that it is the volume of Owen he notes as “missing”).  truth more a business] MS Diary.  See Edwards, Practical Sermons, Sermons  –  ( – ) and Sermon  ( – ).  Luke :.

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At the close of this year the review of my life afforded me no pleasure, nor what may be called pain, but rather a kind of dejection and discouragement too common of late with me. From April 1790 I have begun to expound the book of Psalms, and sometimes have enjoyed pleasure therein.¹⁰

 MS Diary; Ryland  – ; AG Fuller  – ; Morris  – .

1791 In the spring of this year there appeared a religious concern amongst five or six of our young people. I proposed to meet them once a week at the Vestry to talk and pray with them. I hope that has been of use to both me and them. I find also there is the same hopeful appearance of things at Northampton.¹ The Lord revive his own work! We this summer sent out two of our members into the ministry. I hope they may be useful men—I believe they are holy men. William Barnes of Woodford, sent out April 28, and Thomas ² Blundell of Kettering sent out July 5.³ I feel some return of peace, but am not as I would be. Reading Owen on Spiritualmindedness ⁴ I feel afraid lest all should not be right with me at last! What I have of spirituality, as I account it, seems rather occasional than habitual. Towards the latter end of this summer I heard of some revival of religion taking place in certain individuals about Walgrave and Guilsborough and that the means of it were their setting apart days for fasting and prayer. From hence I thought, we had been long praying for the revival of God’s cause, the spread of the gospel amongst the heathens &c and perhaps God would begin with us at home first. I was particularly affected with this thought by finding it in the 67th Psalm which I was expounding about the same time—“that God being merciful to us & blessing us might be the means of his way being known upon earth, and his saving health among all nations”; at least amongst a part of them. O to be spiritually alive amongst ourselves! One Monday evening meeting, I think in October, I told our friends of some such things—and prayed with them with more than usual affection—I was particularly encouraged by the promise of giving the Holy Spirit to them that ask. Surely if ever I wrestled with God in my life I did so then for more grace, for forgiveness, for the restoration of the joys of salvation; and that not only for myself, but for the generality of Christians amongst us, who I plainly perceived to be in a poor lukewarm state when compared with the primitive Christians.

 hopeful appearances in neighbouring churches.] Ryland .  Thos.] MS Diary.  For Barnes, see above, entry for March , . Ryland added the word “Alas!” at the end of Fuller’s paragraph in the MS. volume, though in his printed text he omitted the latter portion of this paragraph (“We this … Alas!”). Blundel’s adulterous affair at Luton c.  would have occurred just a few years prior to Ryland’s composition of his life of Fuller.  Owen’s Phronēma tou Pneumatou: or, The Grace and Duty of being Spiritually Minded first appeared in ; Fuller is probably using the edition printed in London by Edward and Charles Dilly in , but this cannot be known with certainty because the volume does not appear on the list of books in Fuller’s library in . DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-009

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I have lately been reading several Socinian writers—viz. Lindsey, Priestley, Belsham &c⁵ and have employed myself in penning down thoughts on the moral tendency of their system. I felt an increasing aversion to their views of things, and feel the ground on which my hopes are built more solid than heretofore. December 27th I set apart for fasting and prayer. I felt tender in the course of the day. Thought with some encouragement of Psalm 119:176, I have gone astray like a lost sheep; seek thy servant, for I do not forget thy commandments. I employed a considerable part of the day in reading over Owen on the mortification of sin. A review of the past year and of several past years tended to humble me. I felt tender on Friday evening (the 30th) in addressing my friends from Psalm 90:14, On the mercy of God as the origin of all solid joy.⁶

 Theophilus Lindsey, Joseph Priestley, and Thomas Belsham were three of the leading Unitarian (Socinian) ministers in London at this time. Lindsey ( – ), a former Anglican minister, founded the Unitarian congregation in Essex Street in London in , retiring in . Priestley ( – ) was the most famous scientist, philosopher, and Unitarian minister of his day. After a career as an Independent minister in Leeds, he accepted a position through the nd Earl of Shelbourne to pursue his scientific experiments. In  he returned to the ministry, this time as a devout Unitarian at the New Meeting in Birmingham. His home, along with his manuscripts and scientific apparatus, was burned during the Birmingham Riots in July , leading to his emigration to America in . Belsham ( – ) was an educator before serving as minister to the Unitarian congregation at Gravel-Pit, Hackney, and later at the Essex Street Chapel, succeeding John Disney.  MS Diary; Ryland  – , Ryland , and AG Fuller  –  contain all of the above entry except for paragraph two, which includes only the first two sentences.

1792 This year was begun, or nearly so, with a day of solemn fasting & prayer as a church. It was a most affecting time with me, and many more. Surely we never had such a spirit of prayer amongst us! On April 2 we lost our dear and worthy Mr. Beeby Wallis; the next church meeting was kept as a day of solemn fasting and prayer, and a very tender opportunity it was.¹ During this and the last year we have had a good deal of religious concern among the young people of the congregation. I set up a private meeting in which I might read and pray & converse with them—& have found it good both to them and me. This spring several of them joined the church.²

 Fuller preached the funeral sermon for Wallis, later published as The Blessedness of the Dead who die in the Lord. A sermon delivered at Kettering… at the Funeral of… Beeby Wallis who departed this life April d, . According to Ryland (), Fuller’s sermon gave an account of how he was loved and respected, together with details of his ancestors, who were the first pastors of Kettering Baptist Church. Wallis was buried under a sycamore tree, which he had himself planted in the meeting yard, ground which he himself had also previously donated to the church. The following epitaph, written by Fuller, was inscribed on his tomb: Kind sycamore, preserve, beneath thy shade, The precious dust of him who cherish’d thee; Nor thee alone: a plant to him more dear He cherished, and with fostering hand uprear’d. Active and generous in virtue’s cause, With solid wisdom, strict integrity, And affected piety, he lived Beloved amongst us—and beloved he died. Beneath an Allon-Bacuth Jacob wept: Beneath thy shade we mourn a heavier loss. His widow, Martha Wallis, described by Ryland as a valuable friend to Fuller and to the cause of Christ, lived for another twenty years, her death occurring on October 17, 1812. She was buried in the same vault with her husband, and Fuller amended the epitaph to read: Kind sycamore, preserve, beneath thy shade, The precious dust of those who cherish’d thee; Nor thee alone: a plant to them more dear They cherish’d, and with fostering hand uprear’d; Amongst whose fairest and most fruitful boughs The name of WALLIS has for ages ranked; And still it lives, and shall, for years to come, Live fragrant, in our recollecting thoughts.  MS Diary; Ryland  – ; AG Fuller . On May , , ten individuals joined the Kettering church, which would include the young people mentioned above (Kettering Church Book, f. ). DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-010

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1792, June 1, Saturday I seem to have trials before me in the afflictions of my family. It has of late been a thought which has much affected me, that our conduct in this world, under the various afflictions & temptations of life, is the seed of eternity! Have dwelt upon these thoughts in preaching from Matthew 6:19, 20, on February 5. It was a thought likewise that lately struck me, that we have no more religion than what we have in times of trial. On occasion of this I preached (on April 15) from Exodus 16:4. It seems as if these things were preparative to a time of trial to me.³

1792, July 10, Wednesday My family afflictions have almost overwhelmed me, and what is yet⁴ before me I know not! For about a month past the affliction of my dear companion has been extremely heavy. On reading the 4th chapter of Job this morning, the words in verses 3 – 5 affected me. My words have upholden many—O that now I am touched I may not faint!⁵

1792, July 25, Thursday O my God, my soul is cast down within me! The afflictions in my family seem too heavy for me. O Lord, I am oppressed, undertake for me! My thoughts are broken off, and all my prospects seem to be perished! I feel however some support from such Scriptures as these—All things shall work together for good &c. God, even our own God, shall bless us. It is of the Lord’s mercy that I am not consumed.⁶ One of my friends observed yesterday, that it was a difficulty in many cases to know wherefore God contended with us? But I thought that was no difficulty with me! I have sinned against the Lord; and it is not a little affliction that will lay hold of me, but it seems God is determined to prove me. Those words have impressed me of late, It was in mine heart to chastise them!⁷

 MS Diary; AG Fuller .  is yet is yet before] MS Diary.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller ; Morris .  Scriptural texts from Romans :, Psalm :, and Lamentations :.  MS Diary; Ryland  – ; AG Fuller ; Morris  (omits first sentence in paragraph one); final phrase from Hosea :.

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1792, September 2, Monday On August 23 my wife died! My mind has been strangely agitated at times; but yet I have been supported on the whole. New scenes seem to be opening before me—new trials—O that I may glorify God in every stage! My dear companion enjoyed a calm resignation to God, while she retained her senses, and that habitual fear of death that attended her, was greatly removed the last half year. In burying our relations what an inexpressible difference does it make to have a good hope of their being gone to glory!⁸

 MS Diary. Fuller’s comments concern the death of his first wife, Sarah Gardiner Fuller, formerly of Burwell and the Soham church, on August , , after a three-month illness during the last of her many pregnancies. They were married on December ,  (AG Fuller ); of their eleven children, eight died in infancy or early childhood, including the child that precipitated her own death. She suffered from dementia the last few months of her life (see his letter to her father, Mr. Gardiner, dated August , , in AG Fuller  – ).

1794 1794, July 18, Friday Within the last two years I have experienced perhaps as much peace and calmness of mind as at any former period. I have been enabled to walk somewhat more near to God than heretofore; and I find there is nothing that affords such preservation against sin—If we walk in the Spirit, we shall not fulfil the lusts of the flesh. ¹ This passage has been of great use to me ever since I preached from it, which was on June 3, 1792. The sentiment on which I then principally discoursed was, that Sin is not to be overcome so much by a direct or mere resistance of it, as by ² opposing other principles and considerations to it. This Sentiment has been abundantly verified in my experience—So far as I have walked in the spirit, so far my life has been holy & happy— and I have experienced a good degree of these blessings compared with former times; though but a very small degree compared with what I ought to be.³⁴ Of late my thoughts have turned upon another marriage. That passage, which has been with me in all my principal concerns through life—In all thy ways acknowledge him, & he shall direct thy paths ⁵—has recurred again. I have found much of the hand of God in this concern, both as to turning me from some quarters on which my thoughts were employed, and guiding me to others⁶ where I hope to⁷ find a helper to my soul. Within⁸ the last year or two we have formed a Mission Society; and have been enabled to send out two of our Brethren into⁹ the East Indies¹⁰—My heart¹¹ has

 Galatians :.  as by as by opposing] MS Diary.  Ryland has added in the right margin, “d Marriage.”  MS Diary.  Proverbs :.  Ryland has changed “others” to “ an others” in the MS Diary.  guiding me to one in whom I hope to] Ryland, .  Ryland has written to the left of the opening word in this line, “Mission.”  Ryland has changed “into” to “into” in the MS Diary.  The first two missionaries sent to Bengal from England under the Baptist Missionary Society were William Carey, previously of Moulton and Leicester, and Dr. John Thomas ( – ), who had been converted under the ministry of Samuel Stennett at Little Wild Street, London. He was trained as a surgeon and served a brief term in India in the  s, during which time he acquired considerable proficiency in Bengali. His inability to remain financially stable forced his return to England in , after which he met Carey, with whom he returned to India in  under the auspices of the BMS. Financial difficulties continued to plague Thomas, forcing both Thomas and Carey, through the assistance of Robert Udney, an indigo agent for the East India Company, to become managers of indigo plantations at Mudnabatty, Malda. Thomas died shortly after he and Carey moved to Serampore to establish the new mission there. Before his death, however, Thomas was instrumental in the conversion of Krishna Pal, the first Hindu convert for the mission. For more on Thomas and his work in DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-011

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been greatly interested in this work. Surely I never felt more genuine love to God and to his cause in my life. I bless God that this work has been a good means of reviving my soul. If nothing else comes of it, I and many more have obtained a spiritual advantage. My labours however in this harvest I have reason to think, brought on a paralytic stroke, by which in January 1793 I for a week or two lost the use of one side of my face. That was recovered in a little time, but it left behind it a headache which I have reason to think will never fully leave me. I have ever since been incapable of reading or writing intensely. At this time I am much better than I was last year, but even now reading or writing for a few hours will bring on the headache. Upon the whole however I feel satisfied. It was in the service of God. If a man lose his limbs or his health by intemperance it is to his dishonor; but not so if he lose them in serving his country. Paul was desirous of dying to the Lord—so let me!¹² My reflections¹³ on June 1, 1792, that we have no more religion than we have in times of trial, have again occurred. God has tried me within the last two or three years, by heavy and sore afflictions in my family; and by threatening complaints in my body. Of late trials have been of another kind: having printed Letters on Socinianism,¹⁴ they have procured an unusual tide of respect and applause. Some years ago I endured a portion of reproach on account of what I wrote against Antinomianism;¹⁵ now I am likely to be tried with the contrary and perhaps good report—though more agreeable may prove not less trying than evil report. I am apprehensive that God sees my heart¹⁶ to be too much elated already, and therefore withholds a blessing from my ordinary ministrations. I conceive things to be very low in the congregation. It has been a thought which has affected me of late: The church at Leicester have lost their pastor, as have also the church at Northampton, but neither of them have lost¹⁷ their God¹⁸—whereas at Kettering the man and the means are continued—we have the mantle, but where is the Lord God of Elijah! God has as it were

India, see Michael Whitfield, “Dr. John Thomas: The First Baptist Missionary to Bengal,” Baptist Quarterly  ():  – .  Fuller has inserted a drawing of a heart in place of the word.  Romans :.  Ryland has written above this line, “Relative to his publications.”  See Fuller’s entry above for  for comments on his reading of several leading Unitarians, all of which resulted in one of Fuller’s most popular polemical writings, The Calvinistic and Socinian Systems Examined and Compared as to Their Moral Tendency ().  Fuller’s reference is to The Gospel of Christ Worthy of All Acceptation, which was aimed at the High Calvinists, long accused of treading close to antinomianism through what Fuller and others believed was a perversion of the doctrine of grace.  Fuller has inserted a drawing of a heart in place of the word.  them of have lost] MS Diary.  Reference here is to decisions in  on the part of William Carey at Leicester and John Ryland, Jr., at Northampton to resign their pastorates, the former becoming a BMS missionary and the latter pastor of the congregation at Broadmead in Bristol and President of Bristol Baptist Academy.

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caused it to rain upon those cities, & not upon ours. They have had great increase though without pastors, whereas we have none—and many disorders among us. Am afraid I am defective in knowing the state of my own church, and looking well to their spiritual concerns. I have lately spoken some strong language against the Sin of Covetousness. O that I may never be left to that spirit myself! Have been affected this morning lest I should. We know but little of what we are till we are tried! I dreamed last night that a person of a religious and generous character was making his observations upon Dissenters, that there were but few eminently holy & benevolent characters amongst them. On waking, my thoughts ran upon this subject. I felt that there was too much truth in it (though perhaps no truth if they were viewed in comparison with other Denominations) and possessed an ardent desire that let others do what they would I & mine might live not to ourselves but to him who died for us! It seemed a lovely thing which is said of Christ, He went about doing good!¹⁹ O that whatever I may possess at any time of this world’s good, it might be consecrated to God! The Lord ever preserve me from the mean vice of Covetousness! I felt very tender last night in preaching from Job 29:2, O that I were in months past &c. I do think the last two years have been the two best years of my life; but within a few months I have felt a spirit of declension coming upon me.²⁰

1794, October 27, Monday Of late I have been greatly employed in journeying and preaching, & endeavoring to collect for the East India Mission.²¹ I find a frequent removal from place to place though good for my health not good for my soul. I feel weary of journeys on account of their interfering so much with my work at home. I long to visit my congregation that I may know more of their spiritual concerns, & be able to preach to their cases. I devote this day to fasting & prayer on account of my expected marriage, to entreat the blessing of God upon me, and upon her that may be connected with me, & upon all that pertains to us. This morning previous to family prayer I read the 8th chapter of the 1st Book of Kings, from verse 22 to the end. The 38th and 39th verses were much to me, as were also the 28th. I found a tenderness of heart in prayer after

 Acts :.  MS Diary; Ryland  (paragraph two),  (paragraphs three and four),  –  (paragraphs one, six through eight), and  –  (paragraph five); AG Fuller  –  begins with paragraphs three through five; then combines paragraphs one, six, and seven into one paragraph; and closes with paragraph two, omitting paragraph eight altogether; AG Fuller  includes only paragraph two.  Ryland has written “Mission” in the right-hand margin.

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reading. My house keeper, on perceiving that I fasted, requested to join with me, & that her future life might be remembered before God in the supplications of the day.²²

1794, December 30, Tuesday This day I was married: and this day will probably stamp my future life with either increasing happiness or misery. My hopes rise high of the former; but my times and the times of my dear companion are in the Lord’s hands. I feel a satisfaction that in her I have a godly character as well as a wife.²³

 MS Diary; Ryland  (first paragraph); Ryland  (paragraphs two and three, but omits last sentence of paragraph three); AG Fuller  contains only paragraphs one and two.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller . Fuller’s second marriage was to Ann Coles (d. ) of Maulden, Bedfordshire, daughter of the Baptist minister William Coles ( – ). Coles was converted in his late teens and called to the ministry, studying with John Butterworth at Coventry before removing to Northampton to work with John Collett Ryland in . After preaching in churches around Northampton for a year, he began ministering to the Baptist congregation at Newport-Pagnell in July , where he remained for  years. He settled at Maulden in October , preaching until his health forced his resignation in . Ryland adds some further comments from a letter by Fuller to him in early January , in which Fuller writes, “I bless God for the prospect I have of an increase of happiness. It is no small satisfaction that every one of our relations was agreeable; that there are no prejudices to afford ground for future jealousies. Two days after our marriage we invited about a dozen of our serious friends to drink tea and spend the evening in prayer; which they did, and Mr. Coles concluded” ( – ). AG Fuller  erroneously includes this latter portion as part of the original diary entry. For more on Coles, see Baptist Magazine  ():  – .

1796 1796, May 12, Thursday For a long time past I have wrote nothing; not because I have been uncomfortable; perhaps I never lived a year in my life in which I enjoyed more of the pleasures of religion than that of 1795: especially at the Association which was held at Kettering.¹ But my time has been so taken up about Mission and other public matters, and having so much writing on those subjects; and writing being against the complaint in my head, I have declined it in this book. I have found my marriage contribute greatly to my peace & comfort, & the comforts of my family for which I record humble and hearty thanks to the God of my Life.² This day my eldest son Robert³ is gone to London, upon trial at a Warehouse belonging to Mr. Burles.⁴ My heart⁵ has been much exercised about him. The child is sober, & tender in his spirit; I find too he prays in private: but whether he be really godly I know not. Sometimes he has expressed a desire after the Ministry, but I always considered that as arising from the want of knowing himself &c. About a year & a half ago I felt a very affecting time in pleading with God on his behalf. Nothing appeared to me so desirable for him as that he might be a Servant of God. I felt my heart⁶ drawn out much to devote him to the Lord in whatever way he might employ him. Since that time, as he became of age for business, my thoughts have been much engaged in his behalf. As to giving him any idea of his ever being engaged in the Ministry, I carefully shun; and whether he ever will is altogether uncertain: I know not whether he be a real Christian as yet; or if he be whether he will possess those qualifications which are requisite for that work: But this I have done—I have

 Fuller prepared the circular letter that year, Why Christians in the Present Day Possess Less Joy than Primitive Disciples ().  MS Diary; Ryland  (omits second paragraph). Ryland  later notes that Fuller and his second wife, Ann Coles, had six children, three of whom (all daughters), were lost in infancy.  Robert Fuller ( – ), Fuller’s eldest son, would be the source of considerable grief to Fuller, as the entries for  and  (see below) reveal.  William Burls ( – ) was a wealthy London merchant. He joined John Rippon’s congregation at Carter Lane, Southwark, on March , , and became a deacon in . He was a significant supporter of the BMS, serving as a trustee and the Society’s London agent and treasurer for many years, often allowing the missionaries to draw their bills on his own name and account. He personally collected over £ for the Serampore Mission after the  fire. He presided at the Birmingham meeting when the BMS was reorganized after Andrew Fuller’s death in . Burls was also the first treasurer of the Baptist Union. See Horsleydown and Carter Lane Church Book, f. ; “Calendar of Letters,” Baptist Quarterly  ( – ): ; Ernest A. Payne, The Excellent Mr. Burls (London: Kingsgate Press, ).  Fuller has inserted an image of a heart in place of the word.  Ibid. DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-012

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mentioned the exercises of my mind about him to Mr. Burles, who is a godly man: and if at any future time within the next 5 or 6 years he should appear a proper object of encouragement for that work, he will readily give him up. I felt very tenderly last night & this morning in prayer. I cannot say, God, before whom my Fathers Abraham & Isaac did walk; but I can say, God who hath fed me all my life long unto this day—The Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the Lad!⁷ On January 10 this year God gave⁸ me another child⁹ which I pray may also be the Lord’s.¹⁰

1796, May 29, Sunday Alas, Alas, I have seen that in the conduct of my poor boy since he has been in London, where I also have been, which has almost broken my heart. I thought he had been steady, tender and conscientious: but I find the contrary!¹¹

1796, July I perceive I have great unhappiness before me in my son Robert, whose unsettledness, and even want of principle, is continually appearing. He must leave London, & what to do with him I know not. I was lately earnestly engaged in prayer for him, that he might be renewed in spirit, and be the Lord’s. Those words occurred to my mind, and I prayed them over many times, Hear my prayer O Lord, that goeth not forth of my feigned lips!¹²

 Scripture reference from Genesis :.  God has given gave] MS Diary.  Ann Fuller.  MS Diary; Ryland  –  and AG Fuller  omit final sentence.  MS Diary; Ryland  omits final sentence.  MS Diary; Ryland ; AG Fuller  – ; final phrase from Psalm :.

1799 Written¹ in immediate prospect of going to Scotland Oct. 2 1799. I am going out for a month, altogether among faces which I have never seen. My spirits revolt at the idea, but duty calls. I go to make collections for the translation of the scriptures into Bengallee.² I am subject to many faults in company, and often incur guilt. The Lord keep me in the way I go, and enable me to keep my heart with all diligence. O that I may be spiritual, humble, and watchful, in all companies. May the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ³ prosper my way! May the God of Israel preserve my family, friends, and connections, during my absence.⁴ 1799, October 2, Wednesday Supped at an inn tonight at Bourne; and found myself very unexpectedly in agreeable company. A Mr. Shore, who rides for Collett and Cox, drapers, Cheapside,⁵ and hears Mr. Newton,⁶ sat with me during the evening. He travels much in this country, and agrees with others in his observations on its profaneness. Lincolnshire, Rutland, Huntingdonshire, and the Isle of Ely, are a kind of heathen parts of the land. Some of our farmers have observed, that if you go to a market from Bedford or Olney, on the South; to Nottingham, on the North, you will see business done in a still, civil, decent manner; but if you go to the markets of Uppingham, Oakham, Stamford, or any part of Lincolnshire, you will hear hundreds of oaths and lies. One swearing that he will take no less, another that he will give no more, and a third wishing himself accursed if he do otherwise than he has said he will, which yet in a few minutes he will do! These parts of the kingdom are nearly destitute of evangel Extract from a Written] MS Diary.  Fuller traveled to the north of England and Scotland in October  to raise funds for the translation work begun by Carey in India. William Ward, Joshua Marshman, and some other new BMS missionaries had set out for India the previous spring, and Fuller was in need of funds to pay for this new contingent of assistants to Carey and Thomas, as well as the establishment of a printing press. Ward and the others landed at Serampore on October , , with Ward designed to manage the printing press Carey had recently purchased for the new mission at Serampore. Carey had already translated much of the New Testament into Bengalee, and they soon set to work on preparing the work for publication, which they completed on February , . His journal was kept in a volume separate from the surviving volume of his diary, and even though his design was to copy that journal into his diary, he never did. See John Brown Myers, ed., The Centenary Volume of the Baptist Missionary Society  –  (London: Baptist Missionary Society, ),  – .  Lord J. C.] MS Diary.  MS Diary; John Ryland, The Work of Faith, the Labour of Love, and the Patience of Hope, illustrated in the Life and Death of the Rev. Andrew Fuller (London: Button & Son, ),  (hereafter Ryland ). AG Fuller  and AG Fuller   contain only a brief comment or two from Fuller’s  diary.  Collett, Cox, Shores, and Grand operated at  Cheapside, London (Holden’s Triennial Directory for , , ).  John Newton, at this time vicar at St. Mary Woolnoth, London. DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-013

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ical preaching: what they have which goes by that name, is mostly tinged either with Arminianism, or with Antinomianism; which systems paralyze⁷ practical godliness. In this, I refer chiefly to the state of things among the Dissenters; I have heard of some evangelical clergymen being settled hereabouts; but what their preaching is, I do not know. If it be good, yet it has had but little time at present to operate. Mr. Shore was observing how similar the excuses of all carnal men are, of whatever profession or country. A cannibal in the South-sea Islands, being reproved for the unnatural and atrocious nature of his conduct in eating human flesh, answered, “It is so sweet.” Such is the governing motive of most sinners. How sweet was the hope of getting what was not their own, to some hundreds of people at this town, when I entered it, who were all on edge in throwing up their shillings at the stage of a mountebank. I was told that a great many poor men had left their harvest work, and brought their earnings to try their good luck!⁸

1799, October 3, Thursday Travelled from Bourne to Barton-on-the-Humber in the Lincoln stage, with indifferent company. Between Lincoln and Brigg we had a Mr. Armfelt with us, a hearer of Mr. Burn of Birmingham,⁹ who seemed to know somewhat of the gospel.¹⁰

1799, October 4, Friday Sailed over the Humber to Hull, in company with Mr. Collins, a clergyman from Bath, who has changed his name to Berry. Preached¹¹ at Mr. Lyons’ meeting-house: several ministers in the town, or from the neighbourhood, attended.¹²

 paralyse] ibid.  Ryland   – .  Edward Burn ( – ) was a Calvinistic Methodist, trained at Trevecca College in Wales, a school established by the Countess of Huntingdon in . In the s he obtained a curacy at St. Mary’s, Birmingham, but regularly preached in Dissenting chapels. In  he earned a B.A. from St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, and returned as minister at St. Mary’s, remaining there for the next forty years. He was involved with the founding of the Church Missionary Society in , served as the first secretary for the Birmingham Auxiliary of the Society, and was sympathetic to the work of the Baptist Missionary Society.  Ryland  .  Sailed over the Humber, to Hull. Preached …] Ryland .  Ibid. James Lyons ministered to the Baptist congregation in George Street, Hull, from  to . He was originally from Devonport, where he was baptized by Isaiah Birt; he eventually became a Unitarian.

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1799, October 5, Saturday This morning I have been reading Soame Jenyns on the Internal Evidence of Christianity. ¹³ He seems according to his motto, almost a Christian. I question if miracles and prophecies be now wholly dependent for their validity on the truth of the Christian religion, as he suggests (p. 4.) They have each characters which prove them to be divine. As to prophecy, especially, its being fulfilled is sufficient still to establish its divinity, and consequently the divinity of the Christian religion. He seems undecided as to many of the doctrines of revelation. His answer to the Socinians, however (p. 24– 36.), is just and pointed. He appears to have made too much of the Christian religion being an entirely new system (under Prop. 2.) The same principles, though with less perspicuity, certainly run through the Old Testament. What he has said of active courage being no virtue, I hardly think is accurate. If aimed at a right end, and governed by the rule of right, it is right; and Christianity will celebrate it. “By faith they waxed valiant in fight.”¹⁴ No disposition of the mind, which is purely natural, can be either sinful, or otherwise than virtuous, if exercised to a right end, and by a right rule. Active courage is a quality of God’s creating, and when consecrated to him, and regulated by his revealed will, is virtuous. As to friendship, it has certainly been exemplified, not only between David and Jonathan, under the Old Testament, but by Christ and John under the New. It is true, however, that what frequently goes by that name among men is abhorrent to the New Testament. Christ wisely taught nothing, he thinks, on the duties of government (p. 53.). He taught that men should do to others as they would that others should do to them; a principle which, if acted upon by independent nations, as well as individuals, would render the world happy. I have no doubt but that magistrates and subjects might both clearly learn their respective duties from the New Testament. His doctrine of passive suffering I suspect is carried beyond the design of the New Testament; which is not to render us stoics, nor to set aside all resentments. Were not the reproofs of Christ to the Pharisees mingled with displeasure at their conduct? And Paul’s speech to the high priest, “God shall smite thee, thou whited wall,” appears to contain resentment. It is true, he made some apology for it; not, however for the spirit of it, but merely for its being inadvertently addressed to “the ruler of his people.” See also John 18:23; Acts 16:37. He represents a change of disposition as the effect of repentance (p. 66.), whereas it seems vice versa. It is common for writers so to explain the term faith as just to include their own, and no more. This writer thinks the atonement necessary to be believed. A Socinian would deny this; and others would plead that

 Soame Jenyns ( – ) was an Anglican writer; his View of the Internal Evidence of the Christian Religion was published in . Early in his career he was an MP for Cambridgeshire, and was best known for his early work, Free Inquiry into the Nature and Origin of Evil (). Jenyns’s View does not appear in the list of books in Fuller’s library in August , but he may have purchased it after that date and before October .  Hebrews :.

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more was included under the phrase “Jesus Christ is the son of God,” than Soame Jenyns would plead for. I have written my thoughts on this in my answer to Dr. Toulmin,¹⁵ towards the close. He is right, I think, on the moral nature of faith (p. 70, 71). Our “amusements” must not lead us “too far out of the way” (p. 75). May they lead us at all out of the way? No, whatsoever we do, must be done to the glory of God. He ascribes all civilization, arts, and sciences, to revelation (p. 100), but men without the light of the gospel may certainly attain these things. China, for example, had made progress in many things of a natural kind, and which could not, I should think, have been derived from revelation. He does not believe the scriptures to be inspired of God (p. 106). He appears to me but very little before the modern Socinians on this subject. Upon the whole, having read it through, though there be some excellent things in it, I could not forbear fearing that he is only almost persuaded to be a Christian.¹⁶ I knew the man about twenty years ago. He was a still, peaceable gentleman; but nothing more. He was a Member of Parliament, and though he writes against war, yet he voted with Lord North, I believe, during the American war.¹⁷

1799, October 6, Lord’s day Still at Hull, where I preached three times today, at Mr. Lambert’s place, at Salthouse Lane, and at George Street.¹⁸ I had good times in the morning and evening, and received much friendship from the people. Met with Mr. Longridge, a Methodist gentle-

 Joshua Toulmin ( – ) was trained for the ministry as an Independent, and though he had already adopted some heterodox opinions, he began his ministry at Colyton in a Calvinistic church. After only a year, though, he removed to the General Baptist chapel at Taunton, where he remained for forty years, becoming a leading Unitarian minister and author. He was an active political reformer during the s and s. In  he became senior pastor, working with John Kentish, at the New Meeting, Birmingham, Joseph Priestley’s former congregation. Toulmin published over sixty books and numerous periodical pieces. Fuller’s The Calvinistic and Socinian Systems Examined and Compared () and his Socinianism Indefensible: On the Ground of its Moral Tendency: Containing a Reply to two late Publications; the one by Dr. Toulmin, Entitled The Practical Efficacy of the Unitarian Doctrine Considered; the other by Mr. Kentish, Entitled The Moral Tendency of the Genuine Christian Doctrine () were both directed at the writings of Toulmin (as noted above by Fuller). For more on Toulmin, see David L. Wykes, “Joshua Toulmin ( – ) of Taunton: Baptist Minister, Historian and Religious Radical,” Baptist Quarterly  ( – ):  – .  Acts :.  Ryland   – .  George Lambert was the minister at the Independent congregation in Blanket Row (later Fish Street), Hull, from  until his death in ; the Baptist congregation at Salt-house Lane was led at this time by William Wade (?–), formerly of Accrington and Halifax; and the Baptist congregation in George Street, founded in , was under the ministry of James Lyons.

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man from Sunderland, who sometimes preaches.¹⁹ He gave me two guineas for our mission, and I hope for his company to Newcastle; he seems a serious, intelligent man. I visited many this morning to collect for the Bengalee New Testament: preached and collected in the evening, and then set off for York.²⁰

1799, October 8, Lord’s day I reached Newcastle, whither Brother Sutcliff had arrived before me; where we also met with Mr. Charles Whitfield, the Baptist minister of Hamsterly in Durham.²¹ Mr. Hassel from Plymouth is now with the Baptist church at Newcastle.²² I called there on a Dr. Greve,²³ who has been excluded from a Scotch Baptist church, merely for not agreeing with them in some matter of discipline. Surely such a uniformity leaves no room for free discussion. A church thus conducted must render all its members the slaves of terror, who agree because they dare not disagree. Such a system must fritter the church into endless parties. I perceive we are going among men where indeed we had need be wise as serpents and harmless as doves.²⁴

1799, October 10, Tuesday Rode to Edinburgh. A view of the sea and other objects was very agreeable. Arrived at Dr. Stuart’s²⁵ this evening. I find him an interesting man.²⁶

 Michael Longridge, a mercer and draper from Sunderland, served on the committee in  that formed the Itinerant Methodist Preachers Relief Society, along with Joseph Butterworth of London, son of a Baptist minister. See William Myles, A Chronological History of the People called Methodists, rd ed. (London: J. Butterworth, ), .  Ryland   – .  Charles Whitfield ( – ) served as the Baptist minister at Hamsterly, County Durham, from  until his death in .  Thomas Hassel ministered to the Baptist congregation at Tuthill Stairs, Newcastle, from  to .  George Greve, M.D., of Newcastle.  Ryland  ; final phrase taken from Matthew :.  Charles Stuart ( – ) resigned in the late  s as a parish minister in the Church of Scotland at Cramond over doctrinal differences and joined the Scotch Baptist congregation in Edinburgh. He was influenced by reading Archibald McLean’s Defence of Believers’ Baptism and later became a close friend of Fuller and an active supporter of the Baptist Mission, though the two men did not agree on all matters of doctrine. Fuller’s list of books in his library in  included one title by Stuart, a work published anonymously and not previously identified with him by scholars or librarians: Brief Thoughts: I. Concerning the Gospel, and the Hindrances to believe it: II. Concerning the Way in which a Believer comes at True Satisfaction about his State towards God (Edinburgh, ). Stuart edited the Edinburgh Quarterly Magazine from  to . In  –  he helped Fuller once again raise funds in Scotland for translation work at Serampore. See George Yuille, History of the Bap-

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1799, October 11, Wednesday Paid visits to many friends today; Dr. Erskine,²⁷ Mr. M’Lean,²⁸ Mr. Braidwood,²⁹ and others. Dr. Erskine in an excellent old man; several other ministers in the Kirk appear to be very worthy men. Supped with some of these, and Dr. Jamieson,-who is an Antiburgher.³⁰ The Baptists seem to be tinged generally with the sentiments of Glass and Sandeman.³¹ And all parties in Scotland, except those who meet at the Circus, appear to be insulated from all others.

tists in Scotland from Pre-Reformation Times (Glasgow: Baptist Union Publications Committee, ), , .  Ryland  .  John Erskine ( – ) was an evangelical minister and writer, serving a congregation at Old Greyfriars, Edinburgh, from  until his death in . He spent most of his career as a defender of religious orthodoxy (from a Calvinist perspective), promoting the work and writings of George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards from the s through the end of the eighteenth century and thereby establishing the latter as one of the leading influences upon Ryland, Fuller, and Sutcliff and their shift toward moderate, evangelical Calvinism in the late s and early s. Much of his theology can be gleaned from one of his last publications, Discourses Preached on Several Occasions () as well as his two-volume set, Sketches and Hints of Church History, and Theological Controversy ( – ), the latter a part of Fuller’s library by August , more than a year before he left for his tour of Scotland.  Archibald McLean ( – ) was a printer who came under the influence of the Sandemanian John Glas ( – ), retaining some of Glas’s principles throughout his ministry even after adopting Baptist convictions c.  –  and being baptized by John Gill in London in May . In  McLean moved to Edinburgh and became an elder in a Scotch Baptist church there. In  he entered the ministry full-time, and traveled widely in an effort to increase the Baptist witness in Scotland and elsewhere. Through his efforts, the Scotch Baptist Connexion came into being, aided by his The Commission Given by Jesus Christ to his Apostles, Illustrated (), which belonged to Fuller’s library in , along with six other works by McLean, including one  pamphlet not previously identified by libraries or databases with McLean (see Appendix A). Despite his differences with English Baptists, McLean remained a strong supporter of Fuller and the Baptist Mission from its early years. See “The McLeanist (Scotch) and Campbellite Baptists of Wales,” Transactions of the Baptist Historical Society  ( – ):  – .  William Braidwood, an ironmonger, joined the Scotch Baptist Church in Edinburgh in , eventually serving as an elder (pastor) alongside McLean. An edition of his theological writings appeared posthumously in . See Brian Talbot, The Search for a Common Identity: The Origins of the Baptist Union of Scotland  –  (Carlisle UK: Paternoster Press, ),  – .  John Jamieson ( – ) was a minister in the Church of Scotland, as well as a philologist, lexicographer, and antiquarian. He was ordained in  and became minister of the Anti-burgher congregation in Nicolson Street, Edinburgh, in . Among his writings was a work that would have been dear to Fuller, Socinianism Unmasked (). He is best known today for his Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language ( vols, ).  The Sandemanians originated in Scotland under the leadership of John Glas and his son-in-law, Robert Sandeman ( – ). Among their chief tenets was the complete separation of church and state; a belief in a “reasoned faith,” as opposed to emotion or “religious affections”; and the re-instituting of certain New Testament practices, such as the love feast, feet washing, a limited community of goods, and church governance by bishops, elders, and teachers. Fuller owned one volume

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We have been in company with persons favourable to the Church of Scotland twice, at Dr. Erskine’s. There are certainly some excellent men among them, particularly Mr. Black,³² and Mr. Buchanan,³³ as well as Dr. Erskine, who is made up of kindness and goodness. But these good men, I observe, generally look with a jealous eye upon the Circus; and they like to speak of the things done by the old Society for promoting Christian knowledge, which it is probable some others have too much undervalued. I have been also in company with Messrs. Robert and James Haldane,³⁴ Aikman, Innes, Richie, and some other leading men in the Circus connexion.³⁵ Certainly these appear to be excellent men, free from extravagance and nonsense, which infects

by Glas in his library at Kettering, The Testimony of the King of Martyrs Concerning His Kingdom (Edinburgh, ; ).  David Black ( – ) was ordained in the Church of Scotland in Edinburgh in ; he published Sermons on Important Subjects ().  Walter Buchanan ( – ) was a minister in the Church of Scotland in Glasgow, Stirling, and Edinburgh. He was a friend and correspondent of the evangelical Anglican minister at Cambridge, Charles Simeon, and a promoter of the Christian Knowledge Society in Edinburgh. Buchanan was also the author of a biography of the great Scottish divine, John Witherspoon, and was influential in his role as minister at the Canongate Parish Church in Edinburgh in the immediate aftermath of the conversion of the Haldanes.  Robert Haldane ( – ) and his brother James ( – ) were leading figures in the evangelical revival of Scotland in the late s and early s. They used their wealth to train ministers and establish evangelical churches throughout Scotland. Encouraged by their contacts with a number of English ministers, both Anglican and Nonconformist, in  the two brothers founded the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Home, evangelizing in the Highlands of Scotland (Fuller owned a copy in his library of Robert Haldane’s  essay on establishing a mission in Bengal by the time he left for his tour of Scotland in  [see Appendix A]). In  James became pastor of the Congregational church in The Circus in Edinburgh (Fuller mentions this in the previous paragraph above), and shortly thereafter moved into a new building (seating ) called the Tabernacle Church. Robert Haldane purchased another Circus in Glasgow and converted it into a church as well. Fuller and Sutcliff preached to  in Edinburgh and a similar number in Glasgow on this October  tour. In  Haldane led his congregation into adopting Baptist polity, initiating a significant revival of Baptist work in Scotland through his preaching, philanthropy and publications. See Yuille, History  – ; and George McGuiness, “Robert ( – ) and James Haldane ( – ),” in Haykin, British Particular Baptists, : – .  William Innes ( – ) was originally a minister in the Church of Scotland at Stirling; he was removed from his position in  and after a brief stint at Dundee, accepted the position as pastor of the Scotch Baptist congregation in Elder Street, Edinburgh (his sister was the first wife of Greville Ewing). He also operated as a bookseller and was the author of numerous theological publications. John Aikman (d. ) was a university student who joined with James Haldane and others in  in forming the Society for Propagating the Gospel at Home, devoting his time thereafter to evangelistic outreach, tutoring ministerial students, and preaching at the Independent church in North College Street, Edinburgh. According to John Julian, Aikman compiled A Collection of Hymns for the Use of Tabernacles in Scotland, published in Edinburgh in  by John Ritchie, the printer/bookseller mentioned above by Fuller; see Julian, A Dictionary of Hymnology (London: J. Murray, ), .

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some of the Calvinistic Methodists in England; and yet trying to imbibe and communicate their zeal and affection. Robert Haldane seems a very disinterested, godly man, and his wife as disinterested and amiable as himself. They have agreed to sell a large estate, to put the money into the funds, and to live as retired as possible, in order to have the more to lay out for the furtherance of the gospel. His brother James is a simple-hearted, affectionate, good man. He was a captain of an East Indiaman, and relinquished his post for the gospel’s sake. He is pastor of a church on the congregational plan, which meet at the Circus, and amount to near three hundred members. The forming of this church seems to have been the united work of Messrs. Ewing,³⁶ Innes, and the Haldanes; principally, for the sake of enjoying a greater degree of religious liberty, than could be obtained in any of their denominations, which are each ruled by their respective synods. They wished, as Mr. Ewing told me, “to be at liberty to preach in the villages,” without being accountable to any body of men, who were commonly averse to all extraordinary exertion, and contented to plod on in the path of their predecessors. They wished also to introduce English preachers, and to have places of worship to which they could invite them. And having, as I understood it, found the people willing at Edinburgh, they erected a place at Glasgow, which they call the Tabernacle. Here Mr. Ewing preaches, and has the tuition of twenty-five young men for the ministry, all at the expense of Mr. Robert Haldane. Here two queries may be proposed. First, Was this undertaking necessary? To this it is replied, That there appears a large proportion of formality to have affected the other denominations; both in the established Church of Scotland, and all the classes of Presbyterian Seceders. The ministers, even among the Seceders, must have bonds from their people for a certain salary. Nor do they, in general, go out of their own congregations; but each moves on in his way, without exerting himself for the conversion of the irreligious around him. In the Kirk, too many of the ministers are what is called Moderates, alias, mere worldly men, without any heart-felt religion. Yet in the way they go on in Scotland, there is little or no entrance among their peo-

 Greville Ewing ( – ) was originally a minister in the Church of Scotland. He took an active role in the formation of the Edinburgh Missionary Society in , serving as its first secretary and editor of the Missionary Magazine from  to . He became a Congregationalist minister in Glasgow in , remaining in that capacity until . Ewing, along with the Haldane brothers and Ralph Wardlaw, was instrumental in bringing Congregationalism and home missions into Scotland. He would later break with the Haldanes when they became Baptists, remaining loyal to Congregationalism. Despite his affiliations, Ewing eagerly supported Fuller’s efforts in Scotland, regularly collecting subscriptions and donations on the part of the Serampore Mission, especially after the great fire of March . Among his publications are A Defence of Itinerant and Field Preaching: A Sermon Preached before the Society of Gratis Sunday Schools, December , , at Lady Glenorchy’s Chapel, Edinburgh () and The Duty of Christians to Civil Government (). See Brian Talbot, The Search for a Common Identity: The Origins of the Baptist Union of Scotland  –  (Carlisle UK: Paternoster Press, ),  – .

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ple by village preaching. And as to the Seceders, both Burghers and Antiburghers,³⁷ though they retain the form of orthodoxy, yet they make no efforts to spread evangelical truth, and seem many of them to have very little life. Mr. Ewing told me that his grand motive for leaving the Church, and engaging in his present undertaking, was a desire to preach the gospel to people who heard it not, and could not hear it upon the old plan. To us there seems a goodly number of serious individuals of different denominations, but all parties are too cold and formal. If any thing could breathe the breath of life among them, or provoke them to jealousy, it had need be introduced. It may be asked. Secondly, Have the leading men engaged in it, conducted themselves with propriety? On this subject we have made inquiries of different parties. Some have attempted to insinuate that they are influenced by democratic principles, and must have some wrong political design. One of their leading men acknowledges, that heretofore, his mind was taken up with such subjects, soon after the French revolution, when he made a speech that gave considerable offence to many: but, he says, that he is now fully convinced of the folly of a Christian so employing himself, and that he is willing to make the fullest acknowledgment as to the duty of obedience to the powers that be. And this is the present mind of them all. The characters principally engaged in this new denomination, as far as we can judge, seem to be some of the best in Scotland; excepting a few individuals in other connexions, such as Dr. Erskine, Mr. Black, &c. The two Haldanes, with Messrs. Innes, Aikman, and Ewing, appear to us very intelligent, serious, and affectionate in their work; active, liberal, and indeed almost every thing that we could wish: no drollery in their preaching, but they seem very desirous to be and do every thing that is right. At Glasgow, where Mr. Ewing, about ten weeks ago, has opened a very large place of worship, an amazing congregation is gathered, and was gathered the very first Sabbath; and that chiefly from they know not where, from the highways and hedges. The other ministers in the town it is true have lost some: but all speak highly of Ewing. Dr. Balfour,³⁸ to his honor be it spoken, having lost one of his friends, and being asked whether it did not affect him, replied, “That may be the case; but though it be a loss to me, yet it will be none to him,” meaning his former friend, who now attends Mr. Ewing.³⁹

 In  a significant group seceded from the Church of Scotland over the issue of the Burgher Oath, which required, somewhat like the English Test and Corporation Acts, that public office holders affirm a loyalty to the established Church of Scotland. Proponents and opponents (primarily on theological grounds) became known as “Burghers” and “Anti-burghers.”  Robert Balfour, D. D. ( – ) was born in Edinburgh but spent most of his ministerial career in the Church of Scotland in the synod of Glasgow. He was ordained in  and eventually received an honorary doctorate from Princeton University and burial in the Glasgow Cathedral.  Ryland   – .

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1799, October 21, Monday Last week, we set off from Edinburgh to Glasgow: dined with David Dale, a venerable man, the first merchant in Glasgow, and yet always calm and composed. He is pastor of an Independent church in this city.⁴⁰ After dinner we set off in his carriage, with Mr. Ewing, for Paisley. Preached to a crowded auditory, and collected about twenty pounds for the Translation. Returning to Glasgow that evening, we heard of the death of our beloved Pearce!⁴¹ O Jonathan, very pleasant hast thou been to me. I am distressed for thee, my brother Jonathan! O Jonathan, thou wast slain on thy high places!⁴² On Thursday went to Greenock: met with kind treatment there. I preached in a Burgher or else a Relief meeting, and Brother Sutcliff stopped and preached there the next day. They collected us upwards of twenty pounds. I returned on Friday to Glasgow, and preached at the Tabernacle. On Lord’s day, I preached in the morning at the Tabernacle, to about four thousand people. In the afternoon Brother Sutcliff preached to the same number or rather more; and I went, with my friend Dr. Stuart, who came over to hear Mr. D. Dale, at the Independent place, where they collected for us upwards of £200. There is a mild sweetness about that venerable man, but I could wish that the congregation discovered more of the lively and affectionate spirit of Christianity. In the evening I preached again at the Tabernacle. It was said that many hundreds went away for want of room. It was the largest audience I ever saw. On Monday evening, I preached at the Relief meeting, in Campbell Street, with much affection. We met with great kindness from all parties; and they seem to have a good deal of brotherly kindness one towards another. I walked an hour or two with Dr. Stuart, and enjoyed much pleasure in his conversation. He is a very interesting

 David Dale ( – ) was a Glasgow linen-merchant, philanthropist, magistrate of Glasgow in  and , and minister to a Congregational church in Greyfriar’s Wynd, Glasgow (Dale seceded from the Church of Scotland in ). In  he sold his mills at Lanark to Robert Owen, who married Dale’s eldest daughter and who would later put his social theories into practice at New Lanark, Scotland, and New Harmony, Indiana. Dale made generous donations to the cause of the Baptist Mission. A short biographical entry on Dale has continued to appear in Chambers Biographical Dictionary since .  Samuel Pearce ( – ) was converted as a teenager in the Baptist church at Plymouth. He studied at Bristol Academy and in  became pastor of the Baptist congregation at Cannon Street in Birmingham. He was an ardent evangelical Calvinist, devoting himself to itinerant preaching and the establishing of Sunday schools around Birmingham. He wanted to join Carey in India but Fuller thought it best for him to stay at Birmingham, where he assisted Fuller in editing the Periodical Accounts and in fundraising. Though his health declined after , he remained active in promoting Baptist causes throughout England, Ireland, and Asia. Upon his return to Kettering, Fuller set about composing his Memoirs of the late Samuel Pearce, A.M. (Clipstone: J. W. Morris, ). See Arthur Mursell, Cannon Street Baptist Church, Birmingham. Its History from  to  (London: n.p., ); Tom Wells, “Samuel Pearce ( – ),” in Haykin, British Particular Baptists, : – .   Samuel : – .

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good man. While at Glasgow we had an interview with Dr. Watt,⁴³ who is one of the Baptists—a very mild, intelligent man. Our conversation turned a good deal on things wherein we differed. Brother S.⁴⁴ asked him if the religion of the Independents and Baptists, both of which are tinged with Mr. Sandeman’s peculiarities, allowed a proper and scriptural place for the exercise of the affections? To us it seemed that where these principles prevail, they operate to quench the religion of the heart. Many of them contend that there is nothing in the nature of the faith of Christians, different from the faith of devils; and that all the different effects arise from our different circumstances: that faith has nothing of the will or the affections in it, but is mere light in the understanding: or, as Dr. Watt expressed it, “It is truth revealed to the mind; and though believing is expressed by an active verb, yet we are no more voluntary in it, than we are in seeing or hearing, which are also expressed by active verbs.” But if this were true, how could faith be a duty? God requires nothing of us but that wherein the will or the heart are concerned. And how could unbelief be a sin? Unbelief is certainly the opposite of faith: if, therefore, the one be mere light in the mind, and include nothing voluntary, the other must be mere darkness of the mind, and be equally involuntary. I have stated some of these objections to my friend Dr. Stuart, in the Quarterly Magazine, No. VIII, p. 200, and he has attempted to answer them in the same number. There is no end of controversy. I have been labouring for many years to bend religious people to what appears to me to be the truth; but that which is crooked, it seems cannot be made straight. This principle, commonly held by the Baptists in these parts, appears to me an important error, and I fear has an ill effect upon their religion, which leans more to the speculative, than to the affectionate. As I have very few remarks to add on other things, I will here subjoin a reply to the above paper. My dear Friend, I thank you for having inserted my remarks on faith, in No. VIII of the Quarterly Magazine. Your candid reply affords me an opportunity of confirming those remarks. You admit that the design of the Apostle James, in introducing the faith of devils, is, to “make nothing of the faith of nominal Christians”: but you suppose he does this, not by a comparison of it with the faith of devils, but “by representing that faith, whether it be on earth or in hell, if it really existed, and was not merely pretended or professed, was always productive of corresponding works.” That is, you suppose that the Apostle does not compare but contrast the faith of the nominal

 Dr. James Watt (d. ) left his position within the Church of Scotland in , was baptized in Edinburgh, and soon began preaching as a Baptist. He traveled around Scotland on a preaching tour before settling in Glasgow, where he completed his M.D. in , performing pastoral duties thereafter for many years for two Scotch Baptist congregations in Glasgow until his death in . For more on Fuller and his Glasgow friends, see the series of letters between Fuller and James Deakin of Glasgow in the Baptist Quarterly  ( – ):  – ;  – .  Sutcliff.

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Christian, with that of devils. His was dead, being alone; but the other was living, and productive of corresponding works, even all that their situation would admit of, which is trembling. I hope I have herein stated your full meaning. To this I offer the following objections:— 1. The use of the term also, ver. 19, is manifestly expressive of likeness, and not of contrast. If και be rendered and, or even, it will amount to the same thing. “Thou believest that there is one God;” a great matter truly!*⁴⁵ and the devils believe and tremble: or even the devils believe and tremble. None of these forms convey the idea of contrast, but of likeness. Each of them is equal to saying, “This is no more than is true of devils; nor indeed quite so much; yet their faith amounts to nothing: what therefore can you think or yours?” 2. If the introduction of the faith of devils were designed as a contrast, the reasoning would admit of some other contrast, as well as this. Let us make the experiment. “Thou believest that there is one God, thou doest well; the sincere Christian also believes and obeys.” To make sense of this, it is necessary, that, instead of the conjunctive particle και, and, or even, or also, it should be the disjunctive, αλλα but; at least, to have comported with your idea, it should have been, the devils also believe, but tremble. On the other hand, make the experiment of an instance of likeness, and the language is plain and easy. “Thou believest there is one God; a great matter truly! Felix also believed and trembled.”⁴⁶ The ground on which your position rests, is the effect which is ascribed to the faith of devils—trembling, and which is not ascribed to that of nominal Christians. This effect you reckon among those corresponding works, which as you say always attend real faith. But this difference may not prove that the faith of devils was real, and that of nominal Christians a mere “pretence,” as you seem to understand it: it may only express a difference in the degree in which each party was impressed with the force of truth. The one was convinced that there was a God; but it was a mere speculation of the intellectual faculty, unaccompanied with love; and being in circumstances wherein he saw no remarkable displays of his divine majesty, it made little or not impression upon his mind. The others also were convinced that there was a God, and neither were their convictions accompanied with love; yet being placed in circumstances wherein the awful majesty of heaven was continually before their eyes, they knew already in part by sad experience the truth of his threatenings, and trembled at the approach of greater torments. There was no more goodness in this trembling than in that of a malefactor under the gallows. I am surprised therefore that you should reckon it among those “corresponding works which always attend faith, if it really exists.” What is it more than Felix felt under his convictions and apprehensions of a judgment to come; who notwithstanding was far from being

 At the foot of the page Fuller has written: “This is supposed to be the true meaning of the terms— thou doest well, which is ironical.”  Acts :.

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a believer, or possessing any of those corresponding works which the Scriptures represent as the fruits of faith. Nothing seems, (to you,) more certain, than that, when any person on earth believes Jesus, who is now invisible with equal assurance as the devils, he rejoices in hope, is animated by love to him, and feels disposed to obey his will, and to resist his own evil inclinations. If I were to say, few things appear to me more certain than the contrary, I should say the truth: but I wish to make what appears certain to me, evident, if it be possible, to my friend, and to his readers. If your position be true, the difference between believers and devils arises entirely from their different circumstances. But if so, let me entreat you to consider whether consequences will not follow which you would shudder to avow. 1. Will it not follow that the doctrine taught by our Lord, in the parable of the rich man and Lazarus, is untrue? Dives supposed, that the awful realities which he witnessed and felt, if they could but⁴⁷ be transferred to his brethren upon earth, must certainly induce repentance. But you know the reply of Abraham, which teaches that a change of circumstances would not effect that which is not effected by the Scriptures. 2. Will it not follow, that there is not absolute necessity of divine agency to renew the heart of a sinner? If a mere difference in circumstances were sufficient to cause that faith which produces trembling to produce sincere love and obedience, what necessity is there for divine influence? All that would be necessary, would be for sinners to be placed in such situations, (which they will be in the world to come, and might be in this world,) as that their assurance of the realities of religion should be equal to that of the fallen angels. And thus all those Scriptures which teach the necessity of being born of the Spirit, are set aside; all that is necessary being an exercise of divine providence, which shall place them in such circumstances as that truth shall become influential. 3. Will not such a representation of things reflect upon the divine character, and tend to excuse the sinner? The enmity of sinners, according to this position, seems to arise merely from their situation, as by a kind of natural necessity. Here they had an object of hope held up to them; but the means of inducing belief were not sufficiently impressive. There the means will be sufficiently impressive; but they have not object of hope: so that all they can do, is to tremble, and hate the Being who hath shut them up in despair. Surely such a view of things is not agreeable to the scripture account of the divine character, and of the unreasonable aversion of sinners. 4. Let me entreat you particularly to consider whether that love and obedience which arises merely from a change of circumstances, be any part of true religion. There are, I grant, sensations in the human mind, which arise merely from this cause, and which bear a resemblance to that love and obedience which are connected with eternal life; but they are not the same. Many a sinner in the hour of ap-

 not] Ryland  .

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proaching death is greatly affected; and, while he thinks he must die, and be lost for ever, he believes enough to make him tremble. At a time, however, when he has nearly given up all for lost, a favourable turn is given to his affliction. He is affected now in another way. He weeps, and thanks God for his hopes of recovery. He vows also, with great earnestness, that if the Lord will perfect that which concerns him, he will lead a new life, &c. But I need not tell you that all this may consist with an heart at enmity with the true character of God; and that it frequently proves so, by his returning, as soon as the impression wears off, like the sow that was washed, to her wallowing in the mire. The whole of this process is no more than an operation of selflove; which is very different from the love of God; yet this is all which a mere change of circumstances can possibly effect. The grand incapacity of men to believe the gospel as it is in Jesus, lies, as you acknowledge, in their “loving darkness rather than light, which blinds their minds, and perverts their judgments.” But the same incapacity in this respect attends devils as men, inasmuch as they love darkness rather than light, and perhaps in a greater degree than the other. And it is doubtless equally true of the one as of the other, that they “see no form nor comeliness in Christ, nor beauty that they should desire him.” As men are alike capable with angels of believing every thing pertaining to the gospel, which may be believed with a wicked state of mind; so angels are equally incapable with men of believing any thing beyond it. Moreover, if the love of darkness be the grand cause of unbelief, that effect will continue to be produced till the cause be removed. To suppose, as you do, that the gospel may be believed without love is the same thing as supposing it may be believed while under the dominion of aversion; and that is saying, either⁴⁸ that the love of darkness is, after all,⁴⁹ no bar to believing; or that God causes us to believe in some other way than by removing it. I observed, “All duty is comprised in love.” By this I meant, that God requires the heart, the whole heart, and nothing but the heart. This appears to me to be taught in the passages to which I referred. Love is the fulfilling of the law. All the law is fulfilled in one word … love. ⁵⁰ From hence I infer, that as faith is allowed to be a part of duty, it must in its very nature, contain a portion of holy love: and I may add, it is no farther a duty than as it is an exercise of it. So far as the belief of the gospel is influenced by the heart or will, so far it is duty, and no farther. The same may be said of its opposite: so far as a disbelief of the gospel is influenced by the heart or will, so far it is sinful, and no farther. You think there are duties which are not comprised in love, and instance in the fear of God. If by fear you meant that kind of dread which characterizes a slave, I should allow that love does not comprise it, but stands opposed to it. I John

 is either] Ryland  .  is after saying, all] Ryland  .  Romans : and Galatians :.

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4.18. But, then, this is no part of duty. If by fear, on the other hand, you mean a dread of offending and dishonouring God, which you certainly do, I contend that this is only a modification of love. Love to God considered as holy, operates in a way of complacency; considered as beneficent, in a way of gratitude; considered as a legislator, in a way of obedience; and considered as possessed of infinite glory and majesty, in a way of fear. The love contained in the true fear of God, is the very thing which distinguishes it from slavish dread, and denominates it both a duty, and a grace of the spirit. You acknowledge that unbelief is “more than a mistake of the judgment,” that it is “a sin;” and you prove it from its including an aversion of the heart. You also acknowledge faith to be a duty; and I attempt to prove it by your medium, from its including the acquiescence of the heart. But here your system is affected, and here you leave me. I have enjoyed so much in your company, that I am sorry for the loss of it; howbeit I am not alone. You add, “The exercises of the understanding are frequently enjoined in scripture.” O ye simple ones understand wisdom. Receive my instruction and not silver, and knowledge rather than choice gold, &c.⁵¹ Knowledge is of two kinds: that which is a simple exercise of the intellectual faculty; and that which is influenced by the state of the heart or will. The first is a mere natural exercise, equally so as the sight of the eye: it is essential to an accountable being; but is in itself neither good nor evil. It cannot therefore be the object of scripture injunction, neither has it any promise made to it in all the book of God. In good men it may increase love, but in wicked men it commonly heightens hatred. “Ye have seen and hated me and my Father.”⁵² When mentioned in connection with holy exercises, it is distinguished from them. “Do you know all these things? happy are ye if ye do them.”⁵³ The last is what the Scriptures call spiritual, or holy knowledge, which is meant in all those divine injunctions to which you refer, and has the promise of eternal life.⁵⁴ So far from this remark, therefore, invalidating my position, that all duty is comprised in love, it confirms it: for as ignorance is just so far a sin, so knowledge is just so far a duty, as it is influenced by the heart, and no farther. That spiritual discernment of Christ’s glory of which you speak has in it a mixture of holy love. Hence the thing that wisdom calls for is an understanding heart. Proverbs 8.5.

 Proverbs : and :.  John :.  John ..  Fuller is expatiating on a familiar theme among the Puritan writers and, later in America, in the writings of Jonathan Edwards: the distinction between natural, or human, knowledge, and spiritual, or divine, knowledge. The former is common to all human beings by means of the intellect and reason; the latter belongs only to those who have been quickened by the divine power of God, what Edwards calls “the divine and supernatural light.” That light stands apart from and above human reason, and thus to Fuller is the missing ingredient in the theology of the knowledge-based Sandemanians and the “rational” Unitarians.

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If it were allowed that knowledge is a mere intellectual exercise, and which taken in its literal sense, it certainly is, still it would not follow that the same is true of faith; for faith and knowledge are different, though, as I think, too much confounded by Mr. Sandeman and his admirers. To know the meaning of the testimony is necessary to faith, but is not faith itself; for it is equally necessary to unbelief, seeing no man can be said to disbelieve any more than believe that of which he has no idea. Knowledge is perception of what is affirmed: faith is practically treating God as the God of truth, and unbelief is treating him as a liar, which must therefore in both cases include the acting out of the heart. But not only does faith include an exercise of the heart, but knowledge itself if it be spiritual does the same. If no one can call Jesus Lord, but by the Holy Spirit, it is because there requires a holy influence from above, or an unction from the Holy One, by which we know all things, to this end. This is that spirituality by which alone spiritual things are discerned. If affords me pleasure that the light for which you plead is spiritual or holy; and that though you are unwilling to allow it to include any exercise of the heart, yet you do not mean to encourage mere speculators in religion to consider themselves as the children of God. Your hypothesis however would lead to it. If you are at a loss to conceive how knowledge of any kind should include an exercise of the heart, only inquire if there be no such thing as voluntary or wilful, ignorance; and whether the true distinction between natural and moral ignorance does not consist in this, that the one is owing to the want of powers or advantages, and the other to an aversion from the truth. You observe, from Dr. Erskine, that “the Holy Spirit uses words in their common acceptation—that faith does not signify choice, affection, temper, behaviour, in common language; but merely persuasion or assent, and commonly persuasion founded on testimony.” I do not contend that faith signifies affection, temper or, behaviour; but allow it to mean persuasion, or belief. That for which I contend, is, that it is such a persuasion as is influenced by a sense of the glory of the things believed, and which sense includes an affection of the heart; a persuasion which is effected by the removal of that which you say is their grand incapacity—“the love of darkness rather than light;” a persuasion which not only promotes repentance, but presupposes it.⁵⁵ Your system knows no repentance but what is the effect of believing the gospel; but the scripture system calls men to repent and believe the gospel. Mark 1.15. to repent, that they may believe. Matthew 21.32. If this were such a use of the term believe as is not common in natural things, it were no solid objection to it. The common use of the term justify, is to find a person innocent, and on that ground to acquit him; and so it stands opposed to finding him  Compare Fuller’s comments with Edwards’s definition of spiritual knowledge from A Divine and Supernatural Light (Boston: Manning & Loring, ): “a true sense of the divine excellency of the things revealed it the word of God, and a conviction of the truth and reality of them thence arising” ().

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guilty, and either condemning him or acquitting him: but justification in the scriptures includes forgiveness, as I believe you will allow. I question, however, whether the common use of the term believe, be not, in many cases, expressive of such a persuasion as is influenced by the state of the heart, and so includes it. If Mordecai had become a mediator for Haman, and Ahasuerus had sent a message to him, the implication of which, was, that he had been the vilest of traitors, and deserved to die; but that out of pure, undeserved favour, he had, at the instance of Mordecai, consented to pardon all his crimes, provided that in the presence of the whole city of Shushan he would confess his guilt, ask pardon in Mordecai’s name, and consent to serve the king all his future life, under him; and all this not merely in pretence, but cordially—Query, Could Haman have believed this message, in all its implications and bearings, to be good news, while he retained his enmity? And if he had been brought to believe it to be good that he should be thus humbled, and thus devote his future life, would that belief have included no exercise of the heart? You speak of our being “regenerated by faith.” I know of no scripture ground for such an idea. He that believeth that Jesus is the Christ is born of God; and the same language is used of him that loveth. I John 5:1, 4:5. But you would not say that we are regenerated by love. I allow, however, that regeneration is ascribed to the word of God, as a mean; but I apprehend that the scriptures seldom use words in the metaphysical, but, commonly in a popular sense; and that the phrase born again, &c. in 1 Peter 1.23 and James 1.18, is expressive of that whole change by which we become true Christians, including active conversion, or turning to God through Jesus Christ. If I allow the incorruptible seed an equal influence in regeneration, as the first principle of animal existence has in generation, I think I allow it all that the scriptures ascribe to it. But though man is truly said to be begotten by man; yet there is an inspiration of the Almighty, which giveth us life; (Job 33.4.) the breathing of him who quickeneth all things; [and who formeth the spirit of man within him, Zechariah 12.1]⁵⁶ and which is not by means of man. I suppose, there is something analogous to this in regeneration, and which is alike rational and scriptural, though to us alike incomprehensible. As to what you have quoted from Dr. Erskine, on “faith having no moral efficacy towards procuring our pardon and acceptance,” I readily admit it; but it does not follow that for this purpose it must contain nothing holy in its nature; for let it contain what holiness it may it can have no such influence. The reason why we are justified by faith rather than by hope or love, is not because the one is void of all holiness, and the other is not so; but because the former bears this peculiar relation to Christ, that by it we are united to him: rejecting all other dependencies, it embraces him as revealed in the gospel; thus bringing the sinner to become one with him, which oneness, or union, is represented as necessary to justification. Romans 8.1. 1 Corinthians

 The brackets inserted by Ryland.

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1.30. Phillipians 3.9. If we were justified by love, it must be on account of its moral excellency: but we may be justified by faith, though it be a moral excellency, on another account; in some such way as a person may be entitled to an estate by marriage. The act of marriage may include an acquiescence of the heart, and be a virtuous deed, as opposed to a lawless attachment to former lovers: yet it would not be by marriage as a virtuous deed, but as uniting the wife to her husband, that she would be interested in his estates. I find Mr. M’Lean, in a new edition of his piece on the Commission of Christ,⁵⁷ has introduced a part of the correspondence between him and me on this subject. He has given some of my words, though but few, and those not in their proper connection. He alleged, when in company with me, that, “by supposing faith to include any affection of the heart, I confounded what the scriptures distinguish; namely, faith, hope, and charity.” I answered, faith, hope, and charity, are doubtless distinguished, but they are not so distinct as your argument requires them to be. If they⁵⁸ were, each must contain nothing of the other. Faith must have no hope in it, any more than love; hope also must have no faith nor love in it; and love must include neither faith nor hope. But, to mention only hope, does it not include desire, and does not desire include love?” He owned it did, and that it was “a modification of love.” “Then, (I replied,) your argument is lost.” He made no other answer to this, than saying with an air of pleasantry, “You are a younger man than I,” meaning, I suppose, that I had more of an edge for dispute. Such was the connection of what he has introduced in his note, p. 76, of which nothing can be made as it there stands. I observe also, he has given the substance of his own letter to me, without noticing the answer to it, which was in his possession. I consider the whole note as a mangled and very partial representation of my sentiments: and the pertinacity with which he maintains his objection that I confound faith and charity, after it has been answered as above, affords but little encouragement to hope for any thing from him deserving the name of candid or brotherly discussion. P.S. If faith be wholly involuntary, and the mind be equally passive in it, as the eye is in receiving light, (such was the representation of your friend, Dr. Watt,) how is it that we read, as follows? “If thou wouldest believe.” John 11.40. “If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth.” Mark 9.23. Did Christ mean to say, If thou canst be the subject of an impression in which thou art passive and involuntary? or, if thou canst find in thy heart to credit my all-sufficiency? If the former, it had been tantalizing. If the latter, it tended to draw forth faith. How is it too that in answer to the question, What shall we do that we may work the works of God?

 Archibald McLean’s The Commission Given by Jesus Christ to His Apostles Illustrated was originally published in . Fuller is referring to McLean’s A Conversation between John, a Baptist, and Ebenezer, a Seceder, on the Faith of the Gospel () and A Second Conversation between Ebenezer, a Seceder, and John, a Baptist, on the Faith of the Gospel (), both of which were based upon his earlier work.  it] Ryland  .

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our Lord should say, This is the work of God, that ye believe in him whom he hath sent? If faith must be compared to any thing pertaining to the eye, it is not to that impression which light makes upon it, but to the voluntary exercise of looking, beholding the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world, and which stands opposed to shutting the eyes against the truth, which is descriptive of unbelief.⁵⁹ I find there are various things, besides the nature of faith, wherein the Scotch and English Baptists differ; and wherein I, as one of the English Baptists, feel myself obliged to differ from them. The principal of them are as follow:—⁶⁰ 1. They are mostly strenuous in contending that Christ is called the Son of God, merely as assuming human nature; or, that he was not the Son of God, antecedent to his incarnation. To me, this appears contrary to many passages of Scripture: particularly all those which speak of God’s sending his Son into the world; which manifestly imply, that he was his Son prior to his being sent:—also, those which speak of the Son of God being manifested, born of a woman, &c. which imply that he was the Son, antecedent to such manifestation, birth, &c. 2. They contend, that a plurality of bishops is essential to a regular Christian church. To me, it appears, that the number of bishops, as of deacons, is to be regulated by the largeness of the church; and that we might as well insist on having seven deacons, as a plurality of bishops. They consider the term elder as synonymous with bishops; but I think there were, in the primitive churches, elders who did not labour in word and doctrine. 1 Timothy 5.17. And it should seem, that the seven churches in Asia had each its angel, or bishop, in the singular. 3. They insist on the Lord’s supper being administered every first day of the week; grounding it on Acts 20.7. There can be nothing wrong in commemorating the Lord’s death weekly; but I see no authority to make it binding. We ought not to make laws, where Christ has made none. There is, certainly, no precept in this matter; and as to example, if that above cited was designed to teach us, that the first day of the week was the time which we ought to follow invariably, it must then be the only time; whereas it appears, that this was not the only time. The ordinance was first instituted and celebrated on a week-day, by our Lord and his Apostles; and, at the time of Pentecost, it has the appearance of

 Ryland   – . Ryland  –  adds, “How far this letter was satisfactory to the friend to whom it was addressed, and whom I also highly esteem, I am not sure. I unexpectedly met with it in Brother Fuller’s journal of his first visit to Scotland, and, as it exactly accords with my own decided views on the subject, I have inserted it in this place. I do not wish unnecessarily to offend any person or any party of Christians, but truth ought to be dearer to me than any thing that can be placed in competition with it.”  Ryland   has just prior to this section, “Mr. Fuller has added some other remarks [in his travel diary], on the peculiarities of our northern brethren, which I hope I may transcribe without displeasing any who have been cordial friends to our Missions.”

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being attended to daily. Acts 2.46. Probably, at the time when Paul visited Troas, it was a weekly practice; but, there is no reason to make laws, where Christ has not made them. They also practise the washing of feet, the holy kiss, &c. I think the form of these things may be preserved, (as it is by the Pope when he is elected,) while the spirit of them is lost. Neither the washing of feet, nor the kiss, were religious institutes; for they existed in the world before Christianity. They were expressions of kindness in those places and ages. Their feet required washing, which ours do not; and to perform that for a person which is unnecessary, in order to imitate a conduct which was necessary, is deviating from the spirit of it, while we retain the form. There seems to be but very little exercise of forbearance among them. Every difference in doctrine, or even in a case of discipline, seems as if it issued in a separation. There are many worthy characters now in Scotland and its vicinity, who stand excluded for no other reason, but that they could not approve of some of the proceedings of the church. If this plan of discipline were universal, it would be a source of divisions without end. Their plan seems to be but little calculated to diffuse the gospel; as, when ministers of other denominations join them, instead of continuing them in the ministry, and encouraging them to go every where preaching the gospel, they are generally silenced, and turn physicians, or follow some other temporal calling for their support. There are some things, however, in which they are worthy of imitation; particularly in their liberality in giving of their worldly property, and in their peaceable demeanour as subjects.⁶¹

 Ryland   has after this section on Fuller: “Such were the principal things which struck the mind of my departed Brother, when he first visited Scotland in .”

1800 1800, July 21, Monday The last four years I have written nothing here. My heart¹ has been tried and continually wrung with anguish about my unhappy son. Early in 1797 I got him a place in Kettering, apprenticing him to a Joiner and Cabinet-maker: but he has been every few months running away. I then changed his place to a Cabinet-maker in Wellingborough. In 1798 he enlisted for a Soldier, but was sent home, being understood to be an apprentice &c. In July 1799 he enlisted again among the Marines; and here he continued till May 1800. Then being weary he begged to be bought off. I bought him off, & he returned to his master; but discovered an idle, restless mind, and this day (July 21) I hear he is gone again.² The sorrows of my heart³have been increased to an almost unsupportable degree at different times. Yet I have hoped in God, and do still hope that I shall see mercy in the end. The Lord knows I have not sought great things for him; and that I have been more concerned when he has been among the soldiers, for the wicked course he was following than on account of the meanness of his taste. O may the Lord bring me out of this horrible pit, & put a new song in my mouth!⁴

 Fuller inserts an image of a heart in place of the word.  MS Diary.  Fuller inserts an image of a heart in place of the word.  Ibid; Ryland  –  (second paragraph only). Ryland  records the following as a diary entry for July , , but it is from a letter: “O, my dear Brother! My heart is oppressed; but yet I am supported. Yesterday, I fasted and prayed, the day through. Many Scriptures were sweet to me; particularly Matthew :, ‘Lord help me!’ a petition in which a parent was heard for a child, after repeated repulses. And Psalm :, I believe I shall live to see good, in some way, come out of it. My soul is at rest in God.” DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-014

1801 1801, June 18, Wednesday Last year as ¹

1801, June 26, Thursday ² Here the Diary ends.³

 MS Diary. What follows here is in shorthand, and is most likely a similar account of the trials of Fuller’s son as found in his letters to Ryland and others at this time.  Ryland  –  includes some additional material concerning young Robert Fuller taken from letters by Fuller to Ryland: Oh! … (says he,)… this is heart trouble! In former cases, my sorrows found vent in tears: but now, I can seldom weep. A kind of morbid heart-sickness, preys upon me, from day to day. Every object around me reminds me of him! Ah! … he was wicked; and mine eye was not over him, to prevent it … he was detected, and tried, and condemned; and I knew it not … he cried under his agonies; but I heard him not … he expired, without an eye to pity, or a hand to help him! … O Absalom! my son! my son! would I had died for thee, my son! Yet, O my soul! let me rather think of Aaron than of David; He “held his peace,” in a more trying case than mine. His sons were both slain, and slain by the wrath of heaven; were probably intoxicated at the time; and all this suddenly, without any thing to prepare the mind for such a trial! Well did he say, “Such things have befallen me!” Ryland notes that in a few days Fuller’s mourning was exchanged for joy: Blessed be God! (says he,) I find the above report is unfounded! I have received a letter from my poor boy. Well; he is yet alive, and within the reach of mercy!  The terseness of Fuller’s closing sentence reflects the abruptness of the cessation of his diary. Ryland  – , however, provides details about the history of Fuller’s son that is most likely contained in Fuller’s shorthand passages above, as well as in letters by Fuller to Ryland from this time period. Robert Fuller enlisted in the Army in , but was discharged because he had been previously apprenticed. The next year he enlisted in the Marines, a stint that lasted until May , when he returned to Kettering. He stayed only a month, however, before leaving home once again, his departure provoking Fuller’s entry for July , . He was eventually impressed as a sailor, which caused considerable anguish to his father, even more so after he learned in June  that his son had been found guilty of a misdemeanor, sentenced to  lashes, and immediately expired upon the execution of the sentence. Fuller’s grief (and guilt) can be seen in his final prose entry in the MS. volume of his diary, composed in June . The report, however, proved false, and Robert Fuller lived for several more years, though he would continue to cause his father considerable grief and trouble. He remained in the navy, but deserted while in Ireland and suffered a punishment in July  ( lashes) that seriously damaged his health. He was discharged and soon visited Ryland in Bristol and his father, but once again, after his health was restored, he enlisted again in the marines and was gone for another three years, finally contacting his father in December  just prior DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-015

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to departing on another voyage. He wrote to his father, asking forgiveness, and Fuller responded in kind, reminding his son, “I do, from my heart, freely forgive you. But that which I long to see in you, is, repentance towards God, and faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ; without which, there is no forgiveness from above” (Ryland ). Robert Fuller died on that voyage, just off the coast of Lisbon, in March . Ryland was optimistic from accounts of the captain of the ship and some of Robert Fuller’s shipmates, as well as the last letters he wrote prior to his death, that Robert Fuller died in a state of faith and grace (), having attended in his final year at a Baptist church in Falkirk when the ship was at port (AG Fuller  ). Nevertheless, Ryland notes the difficulty he has in recounting such a history from his friend’s life, but he hopes “so affecting an account may be, under a divine blessing, the means of reclaiming some unhappy youth in similar circumstances” (). Ryland was correct, for the story of Fuller’s son became widely known among Baptists in England and was used for evangelical purposes, as evidenced in the poetic treatment of the story by J. Dennant in The Affecting History of Robert Fuller, son of the late Rev. A. Fuller, of Kettering (London: Briscoe & Co., [n.d.]). As the author noted in his Advertisement, “No books, he conceives, are perused with more delight by youth in general, than affecting tales of real life; and when so adapted as to serve the cause of religion and virtue, they may be productive of the greatest and most lasting benefit to them, both here, and hereafter.” See AG Fuller  –  for a detailed account of Fuller’s son taken largely from Fuller’s letters to Ryland; also Haykin, Armies of the Lamb,  – .

Appendices A. Books in Fuller’s Library, 1798¹ On August 28, 1798, Fuller compiled a list of all the books in his library as they appeared on the shelves of his bookcases. He moved from “west” to “east,” as he decribed it (most likely left to right), along each shelf, numbering the first 203 books followed by shorter lists by categories and locations on the shelves. Fuller identified his books with terse abbreviations, sometimes by author and title and sometimes by other means. Some of his cryptic descriptions, which have been added below within quotation marks after each entry, are not easily ascertained today. More than 300 titles, however, have been identified and presented alphabetically in the following list, with about a dozen remaining unidentified. Fuller also listed some of his books and pamphlets within categories, simulating how they were situated on the shelf. Fuller’s categories included “Mission books & pamphlets,” “Circular Letters,” “Bundle of the most interesting or new pamphlets,” “American Debates & Constitution,” “Scotch Pieces,” “American Pieces,” “Old or less interesting pamphlets,” “Old manuscripts and bundles of letters,” books in his desk, and missing books. Many of these identifiers have been added in brackets after appropriate citation. In some instances, Fuller describes a volume on his shelf that is not an actual published work but rather a bound volume of pamphlets by a writer usually already mentioned by Fuller. For instance, Fuller lists a volume of sermons by Caleb Evans of Bristol, but no such volume of collected sermons was ever published, nor a collected volume of sermons and tracts by John Brine, though Fuller mentions two such volumes residing on his shelf. In each of these instances, Fuller probably had a number of printed sermons and tracts bound together into one volume and listed them accordingly in his catalogue of books in his library. Some of the books in Fuller’s list cannot be identified because they are too generic, described only as “an old atlas,” a Geneva Bible, a “small atlas of England,” a copy of the Greek New Testament, the Septuagint, the Book of Common Prayer, and a volume of Episcopal sermons, among others. Some books, he adds, are missing from his library in 1798, and several books mentioned in his diary are not found in his list at that time, which may suggest they were originally borrowed and never a part of Fuller’s library. We should not be surprised that the leading writer in his library in 1798 was Jonathan Edwards (11 titles), followed by Edwards’ son, Jonathan Edwards, Jr. (7), the Independent minister Samuel Palmer (7), the Scotch Bapist Archibald McLean (7), the great seventeenth-century Nonconformist divine John Owen (6) and early eighteenth-century hymnwriter and theologian

 Actual MS reads on first page: “List of books belonging to Andrew Fuller of Kettering Secy of Baptt Missy Society. The catalogue is in his own hand writing—A G Fuller.” See “Book list and other miscellaneous writings re Mr Aspland, and Dr J Ryland’s Hebrew notes on Psalms  & , plus meditation by Ann Fuller,” Bristol Baptist College Library, Shelfmark G  B, acc. no. . DOI 10.1515/9783110420050-016

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Isaac Watts (6), and a prominent group of Baptist ministers that included Abraham Booth (6), John Brine (5), John Ryland, Jr. (4), the American Baptist Stephen West (4), and the High Calvinist John Gill (3), as well as some prominent biblical commentators, such as Thomas Scott (5), Matthew Henry (4), the American Samuel Hopkins (4), and the Unitarian divine Theophilus Lindsey (4). What is of considerable interest to the student of Baptist history, however, besides the inherent value of knowing the extent of Fuller’s library in 1798, especially the inclusion of a surprisingly large number of works by American ministers (mostly Baptist), are the reference to John Fawcett’s little known Miscellanea Sacra, or, The Theological Miscellany (Halifax, 1797– 1799), and five works not previously identified by any library or database or present within any Baptist bibliographies. These works include a 1773 political tract by Fuller’s father-in-law, William Coles of Maulden; a 1776 pamphlet by Archibald McLean of Edinburgh; a 1790 pamphlet by Charles Stuart of Edinburgh (Brief Thoughts); a 1795 poem on missions by Thomas Williams of London, a leading writer among the Independents whose poem has been confused with a poem of a similar title by another London Independent minister, Thomas Beck; and a 1796 critique of the followers of John Glas attributed by Fuller to his friend and fellow Kettering Baptist, John Satchell.

1. Abbadie, Jacques. The Deity of Jesus Christ Essential to the Christian Religion … a New Edition of the English Translation Revised … by Abraham Booth (London, 1777). “Booths Abbadie” 2. Ainsworth, Henry. Annotations Upon the Five Bookes of Moses, and the Booke of the Psalmes: Wherein the Hebrew Words and Sentences Are Compared with and Explained by the Ancient Greeke and Chaldee Versions, and Other Records and Monuments of the Hebrewes (London, 1622). “Ainsworth on the Pentateuch and Psalms” 3. Ainsworth, Henry. Two Treatises: … the First, of the Communion of Saints. The Second, Entitled, an Arrow against Idolatry, Etc. To This Edition Is Prefixed, Some Account of the Life and Writings of the Author (Edinburgh, 1789). “Ainsworth’s 2 Treatises” 4. Austin, David. The American Preacher, or, A Collection of Sermons from Some of the Most Eminent Preachers now living in the United States of Different Denominations in the Christian Church (Elizabeth-town, NJ, 1791 – 1793). “Select Serms fm the American Preacher” 5. Bacon, Nathaniel. A Relation of the Fearful Estate of Francis Spira: After he turn’d Apostate from the Protestant Church to Popery (London, 1718; 1798). “Spira” 6. Backus, Isaac. A Church History of New England, with Particular Reference to the Denomination of Christians Called Baptists (London, 1793). “Backus’s History of American Baptists 2 Vols” [book is listed by Fuller as “missing” in 1798] 7. Backus, Isaac. True Faith Will Produce Good Works: A Discourse, Wherein Are Opened the Nature of Faith, and Its Powerful Influence on the Heart and Life (Boston, 1767). “Backus’s Discourse on Faith” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 8. Barclay, James. A Complete and Universal English Dictionary on a New Plan (London, 1774; 1782; 1792). “Barclays Dictionary” [This book included by Fuller in “Books at this time in Desk &c Aug. 28. 98”] 9. Barton, William. The Book of Psalms in Metre: Lately Translated, with Many Whole Ones, and Choice Collections of the Old Psalms Added to the First Impression (London, 1645). “Bartons Psalms”

A. Books in Fuller’s Library, 1798

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10. Bashaw, Ishmael. The Turkish Refugee: Being a Narrative of the Life, Sufferings, Deliverances, and Conversion, of Ishmael Bashaw, a Mahometan Merchant, from Constantinople, Who Was Taken Prisoner by the Spaniards, and Made a Wonderful Escape to England (London, 1797). “Turkish Refugee” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 11. Baxter, Richard. Christ the Pearl of Great Price: or, the Excellency of Christ to Believers set forth. Being a Divine Message from God to Poor Sinners; or a Dreadful Warning to all Impenitent Sinners (Edinburgh, 1747). “Pile of Pamphlets viz Message of God” 12. Bayley, Cornelius. An Entrance into the Sacred Language: Containing the Necessary Rules of Hebrew Grammar in English … Likewise, Some Select Pieces of Hebrew Poetry (London, 1782). ‘‘Baily’s Heb. Gramr“ 13. Bedford, Arthur. Eight Sermons Preached at the Cathedral-church of St. Paul: in the City of London, in Defence of the Trinity, and the Incarnation of the Son of God, From the Testimony of the most Antient Jews (London, 1741). “High Church Triny &c” [Fuller’s description is insufficient for a definitive title] 14. Bell, Benjamin. The Folly of Sinners, in Excusing Themselves from Blame, While Continuing in an Impenitent State: Illustrated; in a Discourse, on Genesis iii. 12, 13. Delivered at Cornish, (New-Hampshire) 1792 (Windsor, VT, 1793). “Bells Folly of Sinners” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 15. Bell, Benjamin. Sleepy Dead Sinners, Exhorted to Awake out of their Sleep and to Arise from the Dead: in a Discourse on Ephesians v. 14 (Windsor, VT, 1793). “[Bells] Sleepy dead Sinners” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 16. Bellamy, Joseph. An Essay on the Nature and Glory of the Gospel of Jesus Christ: as also on the Nature and Consequences of Spiritual Blindness: and the Nature and Effects of Divine Illumination (Boston, 1762; London, 1784). “Bellamy’s [?]. & Nat. & Glo. of Gosp.” 17. Bellamy, Joseph. True Religion Delineated; Or, Experimental Religion, As Distinguished from Formality on the One Hand, and Enthusiasm on the Other, Set in a Scriptural and Rational Light (Boston, 1750; Edinburgh, 1788). “Bellamy’s True Reln Delind” 18. Belsham, Thomas. The Importance of Truth, and the Duty of Making an Open Profession of It: Represented in a Discourse, Delivered on Wednesday the 28th of April, 1790, at the Meeting-House in the Old-Jewry, London; to the Supporters of the New College at Hackney (London, 1790). “Belsham’s Sermon on Truth” 19. Belsham, Thomas. A Review of Mr. Wilberforce’s Treatise, Entitled a Practical View of the Prevailing Religious System of Professed Christians (London, 1798). “Belsham Agt Wilberforce” 20. Birt, Isaiah. A Defence of Scripture Baptism: in Answer to a Pamphlet Addressed “to Those Who Esteem the Essence of Religion of More Importance Than the Forms and Ceremonies” (Plymouth, 1793). “Birt On Bapm” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 21. Booth, Abraham. An Apology for the Baptists. In which they are Vindicated from the Imputation of laying an Unwarrantable Stress on the Ordinance of Baptism, etc. (London, 1778). “Booths Apology, ‘Tracts’” 22. Booth, Abraham. Commerce in the Human Species: And the Enslaving of Innocent Persons, Inimical to the Laws of Moses and the Gospel of Christ. A Sermon, Preached in Little Prescot Street, Goodman’s Fields, January 29, 1792 (London, 1792). “Booth on Slave trade” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 23. Booth, Abraham. Glad Tidings to Perishing Sinners: Or, the Genuine Gospel a Complete Warrant for the Ungodly to Believe in Jesus (London, 1796; 1800). “Booths Glad Tidings” 24. Booth, Abraham. Pædobaptism Examined, on the Principles, Concessions, and Reasonings, of the most learned Pædobaptists (London, 1784; 1787). “Booths Pedobapm Exam. 1 Vol” [A

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second volume was also in his library, originally owned by the Kettering church, labeled by Fuller “Do in 2 Vol. (The Church’s)” 25. Booth, Abraham. The Reign of Grace, from its Rise, to its Consummation (Leeds, 1768; London, 1771; 1795). “Booths Reign of Grace” 26. Boston, Thomas. Human Nature in its Fourfold State of Primitive Integrity, Entire Depravation, begun Recovery, and Consummate Happiness or Misery, subsisting in the Parents of Mankind in Paradise, the Unregenerate, the Regenerate, all Mankind in the Future State. In Several Practical Discourses (Edinburgh, 1744; 17th ed., 1771). “Boston’s 4 Fold State” 27. Boston, Thomas. An Illustration of the Doctrines of the Christian Religion with Respect to Faith and Practice, upon the Plan of the Assembly’s Shorter Catechism: Comprehending a Complete Body of Divinity (Edinburgh, 1773). “Boston on Catem 3 Vols” 28. Bostwick, David. Self-Disclaimed, and Christ Exalted: A Sermon, Preached at Philadelphia, Before the Reverend Synod of New-York. May 25, 1758 … and a Short Extract of the Character of the Late Rev. Mr. Jonathan Edwards (London and Philadelphia, 1759). “Self disclaimed & Christ Exaltd by an American Baptist” [Book listed by Fuller as “added after” August 1798] 29. Bradbury, Thomas. The Mystery of Godliness, considered in Sixty-One Sermons (Edinburgh, 1795). “Bradbury’s Serms Vol. 2nd” 30. Brine, John. The Believer’s Triumph over Death. Considered in a Sermon Occasion’d by the Decease of Mr. Hugh Lloyd, who Departed this Life Feb. 11, 1735 (London, 1735). “[Brines] On the Resurrection” 31. Brine, John. The Certain Efficacy of the Death of Christ, Asserted: or, the Necessity, Reality, and Perfection, of his Satisfaction are pleaded for: … in Answer to a Book, called, The Ruin and Recovery of Mankind (London, 1743). “[Brines] Anss to Watts” 32. Brine, John. The Moral Law the Rule of Moral Conduct to Believers, considered and enforced by Arguments, extracted from the works of the late Rev. J. Brine and Vitringa. (Extracts from J. Brine’s Certain Efficacy of the Death of Christ and from Vitringa’s Observationes sacræ.) (London, 1792). “Moral Law or Rule Brine & Vitringa” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 33. Brine, John. A Treatise on Various Subjects, 2nd ed. (London, 1766). “[Brines] On Various Subjects” 34. Brine, John. A Vindication of Some Truths of Natural and Revealed Religion: In Answer to the False Reasoning of Mr. James Foster, on Various Subjects (London, 1746). “[Brines] Agt Foster” 35. Brown, John. A Dictionary of the Holy Bible. Containing, an Historical Account of the Persons; … and an Explication of the Appellative Terms mentioned in … the Old and New Testament, 2 vols (Edinburgh, 1769; 1778; 1789). “Browns Dict. 2 Volumes” 36. Brown, John. Sacred Tropology: or, a Brief View of the Figures; and Explication of the Metaphors, contained in Scripture (Berwick, 1791). “Browns Metaphors” 37. Bunyan, John. The Holy War, made by Shaddai upon Diabolus, for the Regaining of the Metropolis of the World, or, The Losing and Taking again of the Town of Mansoul (London, 1682; Leeds, 1792). “Bunyans Holy War” 38. Bunyan, John. Pilgrim Progress (London, 1678). [Numerous editions thereafter that Fuller might have owned, including a folio volume] “Bunyan Ditto” 39. Bunyan, John. Solomon’s Temple Spiritualiz’d, or, Gospel-light Fetcht out of the Temple at Jerusalem, to let us more easily into the Glory of New-Testament-Truths (London, 1688; 11th ed., 1770; Edinburgh, 1786). “Bunyans Temple” 40. Burgh, James, Thomas Field, and Charles Dilly. The Art of Speaking: Containing, I. an Essay; in Which Are Given Rules for Expressing Properly the Principal Passions and Humours, Which Occur in Reading, or Public Speaking; and II. Lessons Taken from the Ancients and Moderns (with Additions and Alterations, Where Thought Useful) Exhibiting a Variety of Matter for

A. Books in Fuller’s Library, 1798

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Practice; the Emphatical Words Printed in Italics; with Notes of Direction Referring to the Essay: to Which Are Added, a Table of the Lessons; and an Index of the Various Passions and Humours in the Essay and Lessons (London, 1781). “Art of Speaking (Mr Grant’s)” 41. Burnet, Gilbert. A Discourse of the Pastoral Care (London, 1692; Glasgow, 1762). “Burnets Pastor” 42. Burnet, Gilbert. A General History of the Reformation of the Church of England (London, 1752). “Burnets Histoy of Ref.” 43. Butterworth, Lawrence. The Super-Excellency of the Christian Religion Displayed, Or, a Treatise on Natural and Revealed Religion: Intended to Explain the Nature of Both, and Shew Their Essential Difference: to Which Is Added, an Answer to the Rev. Mr. Lindsey’s Popular Argument against the Divinity of the Lord Jesus Christ (London, 1781). “L. Butterworths Natl & Revd Rel.” 44. Calvin, John. The Commentaries of Mr. John Calvin upon the Acts of the Apostles (London, 1585). “Calvin On the Acts” 45. Calvin, John. A Harmony upon the Three Evangelists Matthew, Mark, and Luke (London, 1610). “[Calvin] On the 4 [sic] Gospels” 46. Calvin, John. The Institutes of the Christian Religion: In Four Books (Glasgow, 1762). “Calvin’s Institutes” 47. Calvin, John. The Psalmes of David in Meeter, with the Prose. Whereunto is added Prayers Commonly used in the Kirke, and Private Houses (Edinburgh, 1611; 1615; 1622). “Calvin on the Psalms Mr Barnes” [Book was listed by Fuller as “missing” in 1798] 48. Canne, John. The Holy Bible: Containing the Old and New Testaments (Amsterdam, 1664; London, 1700; 1796). “Canne’s Bible” 49. Cave, William. Primitive Christianity: or, the Religion of the Ancient Christians … In Three Parts, 7th ed. (London, 1728). “Caves Prim. Xianity” 50. Chambers, Ephraim. Cyclopædia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, 2 vols (London, 1728; 1751 – 52). “Chambers’s Dict. 2 Vols” 51. Characteristics in the Prophecies Applicable to and Description of, the Power and Duration of the French Republic: also, a few Observations Illustrative of the Probable Result of the Present Disordered State of the Civil, and Political World (New York, 1798). “Prophesies applic.ble to the French Rev.” [Listed under “A present fm Dr Erskine on Augt 28. 98”] 52. Charnock, Stephen. Works (London, 1684); or possibly Charnock’s Several Discourses upon the Existence and Attributes of God (London, 1682; a new edition, 1797). “Vol. of Charnock” 53. Clark, Samuel. Self Examination Explained and Recommended: In Two Discourses (London, 1761). “On Self-Examination 1611” [Date of 1611 not explained] 54. [Coles, William]. Opposition Opposed: or the Bedfordshire Minister’s Reasons for not Joining … with a Society … in an Opposition to a Late Application to Parliament in Favour of Dissenting Ministers, Tutors, and Schoolmasters (Bedford, 1773).² “Coles’s Opposition opposed” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 55. Collins, William. A Catalogue of Books, Books of Prints, Volumes of Scarce Tracts, Dictionaries and Grammars of Various Languages, &c. &c. which are now upon sale … by William Collins, etc. (London, [1793]). “Collins’s Catalogue for 93” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”]

 This work has been previously identified as “By a Bedfordshire Minister.” Coles does not appear in Edwin Starr’s Baptist Bibliography, but he did publish one other work: To All who Believe with the Heart on the Lord Jesus Christ, and who have Formed Themselves into Associated Bodies, to Promote his Cause; the Union of Christians, formed at Bedford, wish that Grace and Peace may Abound (Bedford, ).

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56. A Compendious Dictionary of the Holy Bible: Containing a Biographical History of the Persons, etc, (London: W. Button, 1796). “Button’s Dictionary. Button the Editor, Author unknown” 57. A Concise account of the Present State of the Missions of the United Brethren. (Commonly called Moravians.) “Moravian pieces 5” [These volumes were published annually by the Moravian church, beginning in 1796] 58. Crawford, William. Dying Thoughts; in Three Parts (Glasgow, 1789; Berwick, 1793). “Crawfords Dying Thoughts” 59. Crawford, William. The Works of the Truly Pious and Learned Mr. William Crawford … Containing … Zion’s Traveler, … Etc. (Edinburgh, 1748). ‘[Crawfords] Zions Traveller“ 60. Crisp, Tobias. Christ Alone Exalted; in the Perfection and Encouragements of the Saints, notwithstanding Sins and Trials. Being the Complete Works of Tobias Crisp . . . by the late Dr. Gill (London, 1791). “Crisps Works” 61. Crook, John. Truth’s Principles: or Those Things about Doctrine and Worship, which are most surely believed and received among the People of God, called Quakers (London, 1766). “Crook in the Lot” 62. Culpeper, Nicholas. The English Physician enlarged with Three Hundred and Sixty-nine Medicines, made of English Herbs, that were not in any Impression until this (London, 1770). “Culpeppers Physician” 63. Davies, Benjamin. Israel’s Testament. A Sermon Preached at Haberdashers Hall, London, on Account of the much Lamented Death of the Rev. Thomas Gibbons, D.D. who departed this life Feb. 22, 1785 (London, 1785). “Gibbons’s Funl Sermn” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 64. Dawson, John. Lexicon Novi Testamenti Alphabeticum (Cambridge, 1706). “Dawsons Gr. Lexicon” 65. Dickinson, Jonathan. Sermons and Tracts, separately Published at Boston, Philadelphia, &c. (Edinburgh and London, 1793). “Pres. Dickinson’s Sers & Tracts”³ 66. Doddridge, Philip. The Friendly Instructor: or, a Companion for Young Ladies and Young Gentlemen: … in Plain and Familiar Dialogues (London, 1741; numerous editions thereafter). “Friendly Instructor” 67. Doddridge, Philip. The Perspicuity and Solidity of Those Evidences of Christianity, to Which the Generality of Its Professors Among Us May Attain, Illustrated and Vindicated (London, 1742). “Doddridges Evidenes of Xnity” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 68. Doddridge, Phillip. The Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul: Illustrated in a Course of Serious and Practical Addresses (London, 1745; 1779; numerous reprints). “Doddridges Rise & Progress” 69. Dore, James. An Essay on the Resurrection of Christ: In Which Proofs of the Fact Are Adduced, Its Import Is Explained, and Its Beneficial Influence Illustrated (London, 1797). “Dore on the Resurrection” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 70. Dore, James. Letters on Faith: Addressed to a Friend (London, 1786). “Dore On Faith” 71. Dore, James. The Path of the Just Like the Shining Light: A Sermon Occasioned by the Death of Henry Keene, Esq. (London, 1797). “Dore’s Funerl Sern for H Keene” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”]

 Dickinson ( – ) was the first President of the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University).

A. Books in Fuller’s Library, 1798

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72. Dwight, Timothy. Greenfield Hill: A Poem, in Seven Parts (New York, 1794). “Greenfield Hill T. Dwight” [later, a second reference to what appears to be a second copy, “Rogers’s Dwight Greenfield Hill” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 73. Dwight, Timothy. The Nature and Danger of Infidel Philosophy, Exhibited in Two Discourses, Addressed to the Candidates for the Baccalaureate, in Yale College, September 9th, 1797. By the Rev. Timothy Dwight, D.D. President of Yale College, with a Recommendatory Address by the Rev. Dr. Ryland, and the Rev. Mr. Fuller (Bristol and New Haven, 1799). “Dwights Address to the Candidates on Infidelity” [Listed under “A present fm Dr Erskine on Augt 28. 98”] 74. Dwight, Timothy. The True Means of Establishing Public Happiness: A Sermon, Delivered on the 7th of July, 1795, Before the Connecticut Society of Cincinnati, and Published at Their Request (New-Haven, 1795). “Dwight on Pub. Happiness” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 75. Edwards, Jonathan. An Account of the Life of the Late Reverend Mr. David Brainerd: Minister of the Gospel, Missionary to the Indians, from the Honourable Society in Scotland, for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge, and Pastor of a Church of Christian Indians in New-Jersey (Boston, 1749; Edinburgh, 1765; Bristol, 1768 and 1771; Worcester, 1793). “Brainerd’s Life” 76. Edwards, Jonathan. A Careful and Strict Enquiry into the Modern Prevailing Notions of that Freedom of Will, which is supposed to be Essential to Moral Agency, Vertue and Vice, Reward and Punishment, Praise and Blame (London, 1762; 1768; 1775; 1790). “Edwards On the Will” 77. Edwards, Jonathan. A Dissertation on God’s Last End in the Creation of the World, by the Late President Edwards, A.M. (London, 1788). “Prest Edwards’s Last End of God &c.” 78. Edwards, Jonathan. A History of the Work of Redemption. Containing the Outlines of a Body of Divinity, in a Method entirely new (Edinburgh, 1774; London, 1788). “Edwardss Redemption” 79. Edwards, Jonathan. An Humble Inquiry into the Rules of the Word of God, Concerning the Qualifications Requisite to a Complete Standing and Full Communion in the Visible Christian Church (Boston, 1749; Edinburgh, 1790). “Edwards on Qualifas for Communion” 80. Edwards, Jonathan. The Life and Character of the Late Reverend, Learned, and Pious Mr. Jonathan Edwards: President of the College of New-Jersey: Together with Extracts from His Private Writings and Diary, and also, Eighteen Select Sermons on Various Important Subjects (Glasgow, 1785). “Edwards’s Life & Sermons” [Book was listed by Fuller as “missing” in 1798] 81. Edwards, Jonathan. Miscellaneous Observations on Important Theological Subjects, Original and Collected. By the late Reverend Mr Jonathan Edwards, President of the College of New Jersey (Edinburgh, 1793). “Edwards’s Miscellanies” 82. Edwards, Jonathan. Practical Sermons, never before Published (Edinburgh, 1788). “Edwards’s xxxiii Ser.s No. 50”⁴ 83. Edwards, Jonathan. Sermons on Various Important Subjects (Edinburgh, 1785). “Edwards’s 8 Sermons Justificatn &c’’ 84. Edwards, Jonathan. A Treatise Concerning Religious Affections (Boston, 1746; London, 1796). “[Edwards] On the Affections” 85. Edwards, Jonathan. Twenty Sermons, on Various Subjects (Edinburgh, 1789). “Edwards’s XX Sermons” 86. Edwards, Jonathan [the younger]. All Divine Truth Profitable: Illustrated in a Sermon Preached at Hamden, January 11th, 1792, at the Ordination of the Rev. Dan Bradley, to the Pastoral Charge of the First Church in Whites-Town, in the State of New-York (New-Haven, 1792). “Dr Edwards’s All Truth Profitable” [Listed under “American Pieces”]

 Sermon xxxiii was the final sermon in the book; Fuller’s reference to “No. ” most likely means that the same book was listed at no.  in his catalogue (the other volume was no. ).

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87. Edwards, Jonathan [the younger]. Faith, and a Good Conscience: Illustrated in a Sermon, Delivered at the Ordination of the Reverend William Brown, to the Pastoral Office in the First Church in Glastenbury [sic], on the 27th. of June, 1792 ; and Printed at the Request of the Hearers (New-Haven, 1792). “[Dr Edwards’s] Faith & a good Conscience” [2 copies] [Listed under “American Pieces”] 88. Edwards, Jonathan [the younger]. The Marriage of a Wife’s Sister Considered: In a Sermon Delivered in the Chapel of Yale-College, on the Evening After the Commencement, September 12, A.D. 1792 (New-Haven, 1792). “[Dr Edwards’s] Marriage of a Wife’s Sister” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 89. Edwards, Jonathan [the younger]. The Necessity of Atonement, and the Consistency between That and Free Grace, in Forgiveness: Illustrated in Three Sermons, Preached Before His Excellency the Governor, and a Large Number of Both Houses of the Legislature of the State of Connecticut, During Their Sessions at New-Haven, in October, [1785] (New-Haven, 1785). “[Dr Edwards’s] Atonement and free Grace” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 90. Edwards, Jonathan [the younger]. The Necessity of the Belief of Christianity by the Citizens of the State, in Order to Our Political Prosperity: Illustrated in a Sermon, Preached Before His Excellency Samuel Huntington, Esq. Governor, and the Honorable the General Assembly of the State of Connecticut, Convened at Hartford on the Day of the Anniversary Election. May 8th, 1793 (Hartford, 1794). “[Dr Edwards’s] Election Sermon” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 91. Edwards, Jonathan [the younger]. The Salvation of all Men strictly Examined: and the Endless Punishment of those who die Impenitent, argued and defended against the Objections and Reasonings of the late Rev[erend] Doctor Chauncey, of Boston, in his book entitled “The Salvation of all men,” &c. (New Haven, 1790). “Edwards (Dr) Agt Chauncey” 92. Edwards, Jonathan [the younger]. A Sermon Delivered at the Funeral of the Honorable Roger Sherman [sic] Esq. Senator of the United States of America: Who Deceased the 23 of July 1793 (New Haven, 1793). “[Dr Edwards’s] Sherman’s funl sermon” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 93. Ellis, William. The Due Method of Keeping the Sabbath, and Its Reward: A Sermon, Preached at the Parish Church of Stroud, Glocestershire, on the Day of Thanksgiving. July 29, 1784 (Gloucester, 1784). “Ellis on the Sabbath” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 94. Erskine, John. Sketches and Hints of Church History, and Theological Controversy: Chiefly Translated or Abridged from Modern Foreign Writers, 2 vols (Edinburgh, 1790 – 97). “Dr Erskines Sketches Vol. II” 95. Erskine, John. Theological Dissertations (London, 1765). “Erskines Dissertations” 96. Erskine, Ralph. A Collection of Sermons from Various Important Subjects and on Divers Occasions, 3 vols (London, 1762 – 63); or, The Sermons and other Practical Works: of the late Reverend and Learned Mr. Ralph Erskine, Minister of the Gospel in Dunfermline, 10 vols (Glasgow, 1777 – 1778). “Erskines Sermons” 97. Erskine, Ralph. Gospel-humiliation Grounded on Faith’s View of Divine Pacification: A Sermon preached before the Associate Presbytery on a Fast-day Appointed by them, viz. Tuesday August 28, 1739, in the Parish of Kinross (Edinburgh, 1741). “Publick Fast Sermon” [Listed under “Scotch Pieces”; most likely by Erskine] 98. Erskine, Ralph. Gospel Sonnets: or Spiritual Songs. In Six Parts (Edinburgh, 1726) [numerous editions thereafter]. “Erskines Scrip. Songs” 99. Eusebius. Eusebius Pamphilus his Ten Books of Ecclesiastical History, Faithfully Translated and Abridg’d from the Original (London, 1703; 1708). “Eusebius large folio” 100. Evangelical Magazine, volumes 1 – 4 (1793 – 1796). “Evan. Mag. 4 Vols” 101. Evans, Caleb. A Letter to the Rev. Mr. John Wesley, occasioned by his Calm Address to the American Colonies (London, 1775). “C. Evans’s Address”

A. Books in Fuller’s Library, 1798

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102. The Examiner Examined: in Six Letters to the Rev. John Martin, on the Subject of his Letter entitled Animal Magnetism Examined. By the Analyzer (London, 1791). “Lrs to Jno Martin” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 103. Fawcett, John. Hymns: Adapted to the Circumstances of Public Worship, and Private Devotion (Leeds, 1782). “Fawcets Hymns” 104. Fawcett, John. Letters to his Friends, by the Rev. John Parker … with a Sketch of his Life and Character (Leeds, 1794). “Parkers Letters” 105. [Fawcett, John.] Miscellanea Sacra, or, The Theological Miscellany (Halifax, 1797 – 1799). “Theol. Miscellans Vol VI” 106. Fell, John, and Henry Hunter. Lectures on the Evidences of Christianity: Four by the Late Rev. John Fell, of Homerton; and Eight by Henry Hunter, D.D. Minister of the Scots Church, London-Wall (London, 1798). “Fell & Hunters Lectures” 107. Fisher, Edward. The Marrow of Modern Divinity: Touching Both the Covenant of Works, and the Covenant of Grace: with Their Use and End, Both in the Time of the Old Testament, and in the Time of the New (London, 1645; London, 1781). “Marrow of Mod. Div.” 108. Francis, Benjamin. Conflagration. A Poem (Bristol, 1770; 1786; Philadelphia, 1787; New York, 1789). “Conflagrn a Poem” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 109. Fraser, James. The Scripture Doctrine of Sanctification: Being a Critical Explication and Paraphrase of the Sixth and Seventh Chapters of the Epistle to the Romans and the Four First Verses of the Eighth Chapter … : with a Large Appendix (Edinburgh, 1774). “[Fraser’s] On Sanctifican” 110. Fraser, James. Sermons on Sacramental Occasions (Kilmarnock, 1785). “Fraser’s Sers” 111. Fraser, James. A Treatise Concerning Justifying or Saving Faith: Wherein the Nature of Faith Is Largely Handled (Edinburgh, 1722); or, A Treatise on Justifying Faith: Wherein is Opened the Grounds of Believing, or the Sinner’s Sufficient Warrant to Take Hold of What is Offered in the Everlasting Gospel (Edinburgh, 1749). “Fraser on Justifying Faith” 112. Furman, Richard. A Sermon, on the Constitution and Order of the Christian Church, preached before the Charleston Association of Baptist Churches (Charleston, SC, 1791). “Furman on the Order of a Gospel Church” 113. Gailhard, Jean. Serious Advice to a Preservative against the Blasphemous Heresie of Socinianism (London, 1695); or another related title by the same author: The Epistle and Preface to the Book against the Blasphemous Socinian Heresie Vindicated, and the Charge therein against Socinianism, made good in Answer to Two Letters (London, 1698). “Gailhard agt Socinianism” 114. Gale, John. Reflections on Mr. Wall’s History of Infant-baptism. In Several Letters to a Friend (London, 1711). “Gales Ansr To Wall’’ 115. Gill, John. A Body of Doctrinal Divinity: Or, a System of Evangelical Truths, Deduced from the Sacred Scriptures, 2 vols (London, 1769). “Gill’s Bod. Div. 1,2” 116. Gill, John. The Cause of God and Truth, 4 Parts (London, 1735 – 1738). “Gill’s Cause of G. & Tr. Pt 1” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 117. Gill, John. An Expositon of the Old Testament, 6 vols (London, 1762 – 1765); and An Exposition of the New Testament, 3 vols (London, 1774 – 1776). “Gills Exposition 9 Vols (The Church’s)” 118. Gillies, John. Historical Collections Relating to Remarkable Periods of the Success of the Gospel, and Eminent Instruments Employed in Promoting It, 2 vols (Glasgow, 1754). “Gillies Histol Collecs 2nd Vol. (Mrs Wallis’s)” 119. Glas, John. The Testimony of the King of Martyrs Concerning His Kingdom (Edinburgh, 1729; 1776; 1777). “Glass’s Testimony of &c” 120. Godwin, Thomas. Moses and Aaron. Civil and Ecclesiastical Rites, Used by the Ancient Hebrewes; Observed, and at Large Opened, for the Clearing of Many Obscure Texts Throughout the Whole Scripture. Herein Likewise Is Shewed What Customes the Hebrewes

224

Appendices

Borrowed from Heathen People, Etc. (London, 1625). [many editions throughout 17th c.] “Godwin’s Mos. & Aaron” 121. Goodwin, Thomas. Christ set Forth in his Death, Resurrection, Ascension, sitting at Gods Right Hand, Intercession, as the Cause of Justification (London, 1642; 1651). “Goodwins Xts Death &c” 122. Goodwin, Thomas. The World to Come, Or, the Kingdome of Christ Asserted: In Two Expository Lectures on Ephes. I. 21, 22 Verses (London, 1655); or, An Exposition on the Epistle to the Ephesians (London, 1681). “Goodwin on Ephes (The Ch’s)” 123. Greville, Fulke. Maxims, Characters, and Reflections (London, 1756; 1768). “Fulke a folio” 124. Gurney, Thomas. Brachygraphy: or an Easy and Compendious System of Short-hand, adapted to the Various Arts, Sciences and Professions; Improved … by Thomas Gurney: and brought still nearer to Perfection … by Joseph Gurney, 11th ed. (London, 1789). “Gurney’s Shorthand” 125. Guthrie, William. A New Geographical: Historical, and Commercial Grammar ; and Present State of the Several Kingdoms of the World (London, 1774). “Guthrie’s Geography 2 Vols” [This book included by Fuller in “Books at this time in Desk &c Aug. 28. 98”] 126. Guyse, John. The Practical Expositor: Or, an Exposition of the New Testament: In the Form of a Paraphrase; with Occasional Notes in Their Proper Places for Further Explication, and Serious Recollections at the Close of Every Chapter, 4th ed. (Glasgow, 1792). “Guyse Paraphrase 6 Vol.” 127. Haldane, Robert. Memorial on the Subject of a Mission to Bengal, addressed to the Directors of the Honourable the East-India Company (London, [1797?]). “Prott Mission to the East” [This book included by Fuller in “Books at this time in Desk &c Aug. 28. 98”] 128. Hall, Robert [Sr.]. Help to Zion’s Travellers: Being an Attempt to Remove Various Stumbling Blocks Out of the Way, Relating to Doctrinal, Experimental, and Practical Religion (Bristol, 1781). “Halls Help to Zions Travs” 129. Hall, Samuel. Infant-baptism “from heaven,” and Immersion, as the only mode of Baptism and a Term of Christian Communion, “of men:” or, A Short Dissertation on Baptism, in Two Parts (Salem, Massachusetts, 1784). “Hall on Infant Bapm” 130. Harris, James. Three Treatises Concerning Art, Music, Painting, Poetry and Happiness (London, 1744; 1792). “Harris on Happiness (Mr. Satchells)” 131. Harris, John, [and Van der Gucht, among others]. Navigantium Atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca, Or, a Compleat Collection of Voyages and Travels: Consisting of Above Four Hundred of the Most Authentick Writers (London, 1705; 1764). “Harris’s Voyages (Mrs Wallis’s)” 132. Haweis, Thomas. Sermon the First: with an Introductory Address to the People of Israel, throughout the World, Soliciting their Earnest Attention to the Things which make for their Everlasting Peace (London, 1798). “Sermns to the Jews by Love & Haweis” [See below for companion volume by John Love; listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 133. Henry, Matthew. A Discourse concerning Meekness and Quietness of Spirit. To which is added, a Sermon on Acts xxviii. 22. shewing, that the Christian Religion is not a Sect (Berwick, 1795). “Henry’s Disc. on Meekness” 134. Henry, Matthew. An Exposition of All the Books of the Old and New Testament, 6 vols (London, 1721 – 1725; later editions 1737 – 1738, on through 1793). “Henry’s Commy 6 Vols Quarto” 135. Henry, Matthew. A Plain Catechism for Children: To Which Is Added, Another for the Instruction of Those That Are to Be Admitted to the Lord’s Supper (Boston, 1717). 136. Henry, Matthew. A Scripture-Catechism, in the Method of the Assemblies (London, 1703). “Henry on the Catechism” 137. Hervey, James. Meditations and Contemplations, 2 vols (London, 1761). “Hervey’s Meditas”

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138. Hervey, James. Theron and Aspasio: or, A Series of Dialogues and Letters upon the Most Important and Interesting Subjects (London, 1755, with numerous editions thereafter). “Harvey’s 11 Letters (not mine, but I know not whose it is)” 139. Hoadly, Benjamin. An Enquiry into the Reasons of the Conduct of Great Britain, with relation to the Present State of Affairs in Europe (London, 1727). “State of Europe in 1727” 140. Hopkins, Samuel. Sin, Through Divine Interposition, an Advantage to the Universe: And yet This No Excuse for Sin, or Encouragement to It. Illustrated and Proved, in Three Sermons, from Rom. iii. 5.6.7.8 (Edinburgh, 1773). “[Dr Hopkins’s] Sin thro’ Div. Interposn and advge” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 141. Hopkins, Samuel. The System of Doctrines, Contained in Divine Revelation, Explained and Defended: Showing their Consistence and Connection with Each Other (Boston, 1793). “Hopkins’s Bod. Div. 2 Vols” 142. Hopkins, Samuel. The True State and Character of the Unregenerate, stripped of all Misrepresentation and Disguise: A Reply, to Mr. Mills’s Inquiry concerning the State of the Unregenerate under the Gospel: containing Remarks on Mr. Hopkins’s Section on the Use of Means (New Haven, 1769). “Hopkins Agt. Mills” 143. Hopkins, Samuel. Two Discourses: I. On the Necessity of the Knowledge of the Law of God, in Order to the Knowledge of Sin. II. A Particular and Critical Inquiry into the Cause, Nature and Means of That Change in Which Men Are Born of God (Boston, 1768; New Ed., 1793). “Dr Hopkins’s 2 Sermons on the law & Regeneration” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 144. Horne, Melvill. A Sermon Addressed to Young People: Preached for New Year’s Day, 1797 (London, 1797). “Sermon to young people … by Mr Horne” [Fuller notes that this book was added after 1798] 145. Horne, Melvill. A Sermon on I Kings viii. 44,45: Preached before the Yeomanry: on Friday, the 10th of November, 1797 (London, 1797). “[Sermon] to Yeomanry by [Mr Horne] [Fuller notes that this book was added after 1798] 146. Horne, Melvill. Three Letters to a Lover of Truth: or an Answer to Sacred Politics (London, 1785). “Horne’s Ans. to Sac. Pol. And Comments on the War” [Listed by Fuller under “Bapt Registers— & Political Pieces”] 147. Hume, David. Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects, 4 vols (London and Edinburgh, 1760; 1770). “Humes Essays 4 Vols (Dr [?])” 148. Hussey, Joseph. The Glory of Christ Vindicated; in the Excellency of his Person, Righteousness, Love, and Power (London, 1761). “Hussey’s Gloy of Xt &c” 149. Inglis, Henry David. Two Letters to the Public; Containing a Narrative of the Case of William Mills: who was lately Executed in Edinburgh, for the Crime of House-breaking; with a Copy of his last Speech, and a Defence of the Doctrine on which his Hope was founded (Edinburgh, 1785). “Inglis’s Acct of Mills’s Convern” [Listed under “Scotch Pieces”] 150. Jenkins, Joseph. The Divine Testimony to the Character and Mission of Jesus Christ: Considered in a Sermon, Occasioned by the Death of the Rev. Mr. Samuel Ecking, Late Minister of The Gospel in Chester, who departed this life, Feb. 5, 1785, in The Twenty-Seventh Year of His Age (Shrewsbury, [1785]). “Scott Ecking & Jenkins” 151. Jennings, David. Christian Preaching, and Ministerial Service, Considered in a Sermon Preached … at the Ordination of … Mr. John Jennings … to Which Is Added, a Charge Delivered on the Same Occasion by P. Doddridge (London, 1742). “Jennings on Preaching Xt” 152. Jennings, David. Jewish Antiquities: or a Course of Lectures on the Three First Books of Godwin’s Moses and Aaron, 2 vols (London, 1766). “Jennings’s Antiquities 2 Vols” 153. Johnson, Samuel. The Life of the Rev. Isaac Watts, D.D. By the late Dr. Samuel Johnson, with notes. Containing Animadversions and Additions relating to Dr. Watts’s Character, Writings, and Sentiments, … By Samuel Palmer (London, 1791). “Palmers Life of Watts”

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154. Jones, Edward, translator. Cicero’s Brutus; or History of Famous Orators: also, his Orator, or Accomplished Speaker. Now first translated into English (London, 1776). “Cicero’s Orator” 155. Jones, William. Dissertations and Miscellaneous Pieces relating to the History and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences, and Literature, of Asia, 2 vols (London, 1792; vol. 3, London, 1796). “Asiatic Dissertas 3 Vols” 156. Kentish, John. Strictures upon the Reply of Mr. A. Fuller, to Mr. Kentish’s Discourse, entitled, The Moral Tendency of the Genuine Christian Doctrine (London, 1798). “Kentish’s Strictures— Martins Lr” 157. Kinghorn, Joseph. A Defence of Infant Baptism, its best Confutation: Being a Reply to Mr. Peter Edwards’s Candid Reasons for Renouncing the Principles of Antipaedo-Baptism on his own Ground (London, 1795). “Kinghorn on Bapm” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 158. Langdon, Samuel. Remarks on the Leading Sentiments in the Rev’d Dr. Hopkins’ System of Doctrines, in a Letter to a Friend (Exeter, New Hamphire, 1794). “Langdon’s Remarks on Hopkins” [possibly a second copy was in his library, for later Fuller writes, “Hopkintonians their tenets”] [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 159. Latimer, Hugh. The Sermons of the Right Reverend Father in God, Master Hugh Latimer, … Many of which were preached before King Edward VI. … on the religious and civil liberties of Englishmen, &c. To which is prefixed, Bishop Latimer’s life, 2 vols (London, 1758; 1788). “Latimers Serms 2 Vols.” 160. Leigh, Edward. Critica Sacra: Observations on All the Radices, or Primitive Hebrew Words of the Old Testament in Order Alphabeticall, Wherein Both They (and Many Derivatives Also Issuing from Them) Are Fully Opened Out of the Best Lexicographers and Scholiasts (London, 1641). “Legh’s Crit. Sacra Heb.” 161. Leland, John. Forms of Devotion for the use of Families: with a Preface recommending the Practice of Family Religion (London, 1766), and Leland’s Defence of Christianity (London, 1753). “Miscellas Pamphlets to Morgan, Doddridge, Leland, &c” 162. Leland, John. A View of the Principal Deistical Writers that have appeared in England in the Last and Present Century, 5th ed., 2 vols (London, 1798). “Leland …. (Mr Dores)” [A second copy appears as well, labeled by Fuller as “Leland’s Review (Mr Sutcliff’s)”] 163. Lindsey, Theophilus. The Apology of Theophilus Lindsey, M.A. on Resigning the Vicarage of Catterick, Yorkshire. (London, 1774). “Lindseys Apolg” 164. Lindsey, Theophilus. The Catechist: Or, an Inquiry into the Doctrine of the Scriptures, Concerning the Only True God and Object of Religious Worship (London, 1781; 1792). “[Lindseys] Catechist” 165. Lindsey, Theophilus. An Examination of Mr. Robinson of Cambridge’s Plea for the Divinity of Our Lord Jesus Christ (London, 1785; 1789). “[Lindseys] Ansr to Robinson” 166. Lindsey, Theophilus. A Farewell Address to the Parishioners of Catterick (London, 1773). “Lindseys Farewell Serm. At Essex” 167. Linn, William. A Discourse on National Sins: Delivered May 9, 1798; being the day recommended by the President of the United States to be Observed as a Day of General Fast (New York, 1798). “Linns Discourse of National Sins” [Listed under “A present fm Dr Erskine on Augt 28. 98”] 168. Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding: With Thoughts on the Conduct of the Understanding, 3 vols (London, 1795). “Lock on Hum. Underg” 169. Love, John. Sermon the Second: Christianity and Modern Judaism Discriminated; or, a View of the Leading Differences of Sentiment between Christians and Jews (London, 1798). “Sermns to the Jews by Love & Hawies”

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170. Lowell, Samuel. The Folly and Evil Tendency of Superstition Exposed: A Sermon; Suggested by the Late Consecration of Colours in Various Parts of This Kingdom (Cambridge, 1795). “Lowell on Superstin” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 171. Lowman, Moses. A Paraphrase and Notes on the Revelation of St. John (London, 1737; 1773). “Lowman on Revelation” [This book included by Fuller in “Books at this time in Desk &c Aug. 28. 98”] 172. Lowth, Robert. Isaiah: A New Translation with Preliminary Dissertation and Notes (London, 1778). “Lowth’s Isaiah” 173. Lowth, Robert. A Short Introduction to English Grammar: With Critical Notes (London, 1762; 1769; 1775). “Lowths Grammar” 174. MacLaurin, John. Sermons and Essays, 2nd ed. (London, 1772; Glasgow, 1782). “M’Laurins Sermons” 175. Manning, Henry. A Treatise on Female Diseases: In Which Are Also Comprehended Those Most Incident to Pregnant and Child-Bed Women (London, 1771; 1775). “Mannings Diseases of Women” 176. Martin, John. Queries and Remarks on Human Liberty (London, 1783). “Martin on Liberty” 177. Mather, Cotton. Dr. Cotton Mather’s Student and Preacher. Intituled, Manuductio ad Ministerium; or, Directions for a Candidate of the Ministry [edition by John Collett Ryland] (London, 1781) [originally published in Boston in 1726]. ‘‘Student & Pastor’’ 178. Maurice, Matthias. A Modern Question Modestly Answer’d (whether … God Does by His Word Make It the Duty of … Sinners … to Believe in Jesus Christ?) (London, 1737). “Maurices Mod. Quesn” 179. Mayo, Henry. An Address to Protestant Dissenters: on the Origin and Influence of the Regium Donum (London, 1792). “Regium Donum” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 180. McEwen, William. Grace and Truth, or, The Glory and Fulness of the Redeemer Displayed. In an attempt to explain, … the most remarkable Types, Figures, and Allegories of the Old Testament (London, 1764; 1771; Glasgow, 1787; Edinburgh, 1795; Boston, 1796). “M’Ewens Types 2” 181. McLean, Archibald. The Belief of the Gospel Saving Faith: Being the Substance of Two Discourses, Preached at the Meeting-House, High-Street, Kingston-Upon-Hull (Edinburgh, 1791). “[McLeans] Belief of the Gosp. Savg Faith” [Listed under “Scotch Pieces”] 182. McLean, Archibald. The Commission given by Jesus Christ to His Apostles Illustrated. In Three Parts (Edinburgh, 1786). “McLeans Commission” [Listed under “Scotch Pieces”] 183. [McLean, Archibald.] A Letter from Beelzebub, Addressed to a Christian Church in Edinburgh: or, a Supplement to a Pamphlet, entitled, Christ the True Rest; or, the Jewish Sabbath a Type of Christ (Edinburgh, 1776).⁵ “[McLeans] Lr fm Beelzebub” [Listed under “Scotch Pieces”] 184. McLean, Archibald. A Letter on the Sonship of Christ, Originally Addressed to some of the Members of the Baptist Church at Edinburgh. To which is added, a review of Dr. Walker’s Defence of the Doctrine of the Trinity and Eternal Sonship of Christ (Edinburgh, 1788). “[McLeans] Sonship of Xt.” [Listed under “Scotch Pieces”]

 This work appeared anonymously, but Fuller would easily have known of the author’s identity through his Edinburgh connections and through other ministers in the Northamptonshire Association, much the same for the works by Coles, Satchell, Williams, and Stuart. However, a clue to the author was provided in the sole response to McLean’s Letter, an anonymous tract titled A Letter to Mr. Beelzebub, alias M’Lean: Containing Some Remarks on his Two Late Performances: the First Intitled, a Letter to Messrs. Steedman and Pye; the Other Intitled, a Defence of Believer Baptism, &c. (Edinburgh, ).

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185. McLean, Archibald. A Narrative of the Proceedings of the Baptist Society in England for Propagating the Gospel Among the Heathen, since its Commencement in 1792 (Edinburgh, 1796). “[McLeans] Narration of the Bapt Socy” [Listed under “Scotch Pieces”] 186. McLean, Archibald. The Promise, that All Nations shall be Brought into Subjection to Christ, with the Reasons of it, briefly considered: together with a Short View of the Duty of Christians to use Means for its Accomplishment, and of their Encouragements in doing so. Being the substance of a Discourse, preached … December 27, 1795 (Edinburgh, 1796). [McLeans] Sermon on [Baptist Society]” [Listed under “Scotch Pieces”] 187. McLean, Archibald. Thoughts on the Calls and Invitations of the Gospel: Republished from the Missionary Magazine, with Some Additions (Edinburgh, 1797). “McLean On the Calls and Invis of ye Gosl” [Listed under “Scotch Pieces”] 188. Memoirs of the Society of Grub Street (London, 1737). “Life of S. Grub” 189. Millar, Robert. The History of the Propagation of Christianity and Overthrow of Paganism. Wherein the Christian Religion is Confirmed, 2nd ed. (London, 1726; 1731). “Millars Propagan of Xianity” 190. Milton, John. Paradise Lost. A Poem. In Twelve Books (London, 1785). “Milton’s Par. Lost” 191. More, Hannah. Sacred Dramas: Chiefly Intended for Young Persons: the Subjects taken from the Bible. To which is added, Sensibility, a Poem (London, 1782; 1791). “Miss Moore’s Sacred Dramas” 192. Morgan, James. The Crucified Jesus: To the Jews a Stumbling-block; and to the Greeks Foolishness: Considered in Three Discourses (London, 1772). “Miscellas Pamphlets to Morgan, Doddridge, Leland, &c” 193. Neal, Daniel. The History of the Puritans, 4 vols (London, 1732 – 38) “Neal’s Sacred History 3 Vols (1 missing)” 194. Newton, John. The Imminent Danger: and the only sure Resource of this Nation: A Sermon, preached in the Parish Church of St. Mary Woolnoth, Lombard Street, On Friday the 28th of February 1794, the Day Appointed for a General Fast (London, 1794). “Newton’s fast Sermon” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 195. Newton, John, and David Williamson. Political Debate on Christian Principles; or, the Substance of a Correspondence between … John Newton, … and … David Williamson (Edinburgh, 1793). [Listed by Fuller under “Bapt Registers—& Political Pieces”] 196. Nieto, Isaac. A Sermon Preached in the Jews Synagogue: on Friday, February 6, 1756; being the Day Appointed by Authority for a General Fast (London, 1756). “A fast Sermon in the Jews Synagogue” [Listed under “A present fm Dr Erskine on Augt 28. 98”] 197. Niles, Nathaniel. The Perfection of God, the Fountain of Good: Two Sermons, delivered at Torringford, in Connecticut, Lord’s Day December 21, 1777. And now published for a number of the hearers. (Norwich, CT, 1778; Norwich, CT, and Elizabeth-town, NJ, 1791). “Niles’s Perfecn of God the fountain of good” 198. Observations on 1st. the Chronology of Scripture. 2d. Strictures on the Age of Reason. 3d. the Evidence Which Reason, Unassisted by Revelation, Affords Us with Respect to the Nature and Properties of the Soul of Man. 4th. Arguments in Support of the Opinion, That the Soul Is Inactive and Unconscious from Death to the Resurrection, Derived from Scripture (New-York, 1795). “Observas on Scrip. Chronoy, the Soul &c.” [Listed under “A present fm Dr Erskine on Augt 28. 98”] 199. Owen, John. A Dissertation on Divine Justice, Or, the Claims of Vindicatory Justice Asserted (London, 1770; 1790). “Owen on Justice” 200. Owen, John. Of the Divine Originall, Authority, Self-Evidencing Light, and Power of the Scriptures: With an Answer to That Enquiry, How We Know the Scriptures to Be the Word of God (Oxford, 1659). “[Owen] On the Self-Evideng light of the Holy SP”

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201. Owen, John. Pneumatology: Or, a Discourse Concerning the Holy Spirit. Wherein an Account Is Given of His Name, Nature, Personality, Dispensation, Operations, and Effects … Abridged by George Burder (Coventry, 1792). “[Owen] On the Spirit Abridged” 202. Owen, John. Synesis pneumatikē, or, The Causes Wayes & Means of Understanding the Mind of God as revealed in his Word, with Assurance Therein (London, 1678). “Owen on Spiritl Gifts the Causes, Ways and Means of Underg the [Scriptures]” 203. Owen, John. Two Discourses Concerning the Holy Spirit and His Work: The One of the Spirit as a Comforter. The Other, as He is Author of Spiritual Gifts (London, 1693; Glasgow, 1792). “Owen on the Holy Spirit & on Spiritual Gifts” 204. Owen, John. Vindiciæ Evangelicæ or The Mystery of the Gospell Vindicated, and Socinianisme Examined: in the Consideration, and Confutation of a Catechisme, called A Scripture Catechisme, written by J. Biddle M.A. (London, 1655). “Owen Agt Biddle” 205. Paine, Thomas. The Age of Reason; being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology, Parts 1 and 2 (London, 1795). “Paines Age of Reason 2 Parts” 206. Palmer, Samuel. The Appearing of Christ the Chief Shepherd considered … in a Sermon occasioned by the … Death of … Samuel Sanderson Pastor of the Dissenting Congregation at Bedford (London, 1766). “[Palmers] Good Shepds Care of the Lambs” 207. Palmer, Samuel. The Calvinism of the Protestant Dissenters Asserted: In a Letter to the Archdeacon of St. Alban’s: Occasioned by His Remarks on Dr. Priestley’s Second Letters (London, 1786). “Palmers Calvinm of Dissenters” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 208. Palmer, Samuel. The Glory of the Second Temple Superior to That of the First: Or, the Edification of Christian Societies Promoted. Two Sermons Delivered to a Congregation of Protestant Dissenters, at the First Opening of a New Meeting-House, in Mare-Street, Hackney, October 13, 1771 (London, 1771). “[Palmers] Glory of 2nd Temple” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 209. Palmer, Samuel. God’s Care for his People: A Sermon, Preached at the Baptist Chapel, Bedworth (London, [?]). “Good Shepds Care of the Lambs” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 210. Palmer, Samuel. Mausoleum Sacrum, or, The Redeemer’s Sepulchre: A Sermon on the opening of a new Burying-Ground, Hackney, Preached at St. Thomas’s Square, Hackney (London, 1787). “[Palmers] Opening Burial Ground” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 211. Palmer, Samuel. The Nonconformist’s Memorial, 2 vols (2nd ed., London, 1778). “Palmers Non. Memol 2 Vol.” [This book included by Fuller in “Books at this time in Desk &c Aug. 28. 98”] 212. Palmer, Samuel. Thoughts on the Progress of Socinianism; … in a Letter … to … Ministers of all Denominations: with a Particular View to the Writings of Dr. Priestley … [with] a Letter to Dr. Price on his Late Sermons … (London, 1787). “[Palmers] Lrs to Dr Priestley” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 213. Parkhurst, John. A Greek and English Lexicon to the New Testament. … to This Work Is Prefixed a Plain and Easy Greek Grammar, Etc. (London, 1769; 2nd ed. 1794, printed by Jonas Davis; 3rd ed., 1798). “Parkhurst’s Gr. Lex.” [A second volume is also in Fuller’s library, described as “Davis’s Gr. Lexicon”] 214. Pearce, Samuel. The Scripture Doctrine of Christian Baptism: With Some Remarks on That Subject, in a Sermon: Preached at the Baptism of Twelve Persons on a Profession of Faith and Repentance, at the Baptist Meeting-House in Harvey Lane, Leicester (Birmingham, 1794). “Pearce on Baptism” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”]

230

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215. Penn, William. A Defence of a Paper, Entituled, Gospel-Truths: Against the Exceptions of the Bishop of Cork’s Testimony (London, 1698). “Penns Gospel Truths” 216. Pitt, Caleb. An Essay on the Philosophy of Christianity. Part the First (London, 1796). “Pitts Philoy of Xnity” 217. Pope, Alexander. An Essay on Man (London, 1733 – 1734; 1760; 1776). “Pope’s Essay on Man” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 218. Price, Richard. A Discourse on the Love of Our Country: Delivered on Nov. 4, 1789, at the Meeting-house in the Old Jewry, to the Society for Commemorating the Revolution in Great Britain (London, 1789). [Listed by Fuller under “Bapt Registers—& Political Pieces”] 219. Prideaux, Humphrey. Old and New Testament: Connected in the History of the Jews and Neighboring Nations from the Declination of Israel and Judah to the Time of Christ (London, 1717; numerous editions thereafter into the nineteenth century, usually in two volumes). “Prideaux’s Connecn 2 Vols’’ 220. Priestley, Joseph. The Doctrine of Philosophical Necessity Illustrated; being an Appendix to the Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit. To which is added, an Answer to the Letters on Materialism, and on Hartley’s Theory of the Mind, etc. (London, 1777). “Priestly’s Illuss of Necessity” 221. Priestley, Joseph. Familiar Letters, Addressed to the Inhabitants of Birmingham (Birmingham, 1790). “Priestley’s Famr Lrs” 222. Priestley, Joseph, and Richard Price. Sermons on the Christian Doctrine as received by the Different Denominations of Christians (London, 1787; 1791). “Priestlys Sermons (Mr Tollers)” 223. Prince, Thomas. Six Sermons: by the late Thomas Prince, A.M. one of the Ministers of the South Church in Boston. Published from his manuscripts, by John Erskine, D.D. One of the Ministers of Edinburgh (Edinburgh, 1785) “Prince’s Sermons” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 224. Quincy, John. Lexicon Physico-Medicum: or, A New Physical Dictionary, explaining the Difficult Terms used in the Several Branches of the Profession, and in such Parts of Philosophy as are Introductory thereunto (London, 1722, sold by William Taylor of Paternoster Row). “Taylors Lexicon 2 Vols” 225. Racovian Catechisme (Amsterdam, 1652). “Racovian Catechism” 226. Reynolds, John. A Compassionate Address to the World (London, 1730; 1761; 1767; 1785; 1791). “Compasste address to the World” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 227. Rice, David. Slavery Inconsistent with Justice and Good Policy: Proved by a Speech Delivered in the Convention, Held at Danville, Kentucky (Philadelphia, 1792; London 1793). “Dav. Rice on Slavery” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 228. Richards, William. A Review of the Rev. Mr. Carter’s Strictures on Infant Baptism (Lynn, 1781). “Richards on Bapm” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 229. Rippon, John. A Selection of Hymns from the Best Authors, intended to be an Appendix to Dr. Watts’s Psalms and Hymns (London, 1787; 1790; 1793). “Rippons Hymns—also 1 in Pulpit” 230. Rippon, John. The Baptist Annual Register, vol. 1, 1790 – 1793 (London, [1793]). “Rippons Regisr Vol. 1” 231. Robinson, Robert. A Plea for the Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ. In a Pastoral Letter addressed to a Congregation of Protestant Dissenters, at Cambridge (Cambridge, 1776). “Robinson’s Plea” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 232. Rodgers, John. The Faithful Servant Rewarded: a Sermon, delivered at Princeton, before the Board of Trustees of the College of New Jersey, May 6, 1795, Occasioned by the Death of the Rev. John Witherspoon, D.D. L.L.D. President of said College (New York, 1795). “Rogers’s Funl Sern for Witherspoon” [Listed under “American Pieces”]

A. Books in Fuller’s Library, 1798

231

233. Rowe, John. Emmanuel, Or, the Love of Christ Explicated and Applied in His Incarnation: Being Made Under the Law and His Satisfaction in XXX Sermons (London, 1680). “Rowes Sermons” 234. Rowley, Alexander. The Schollers Companion: Or, a Little Library Containing All the Interpretations of the Hebrew and Greek Bible by All Authors, First into the Latine, and Now, with the English of Every Latine Word Added Thereunto, Brought into a Pocket Book (London, 1648; 1673). “Rowleys Schollars Compann” 235. Ryland, John Collett. Contemplations on the Beauties of Creation, and on all the Principal Truths and Blessings of the Glorious Gospel, 3rd ed., vol. 1 (Northampton, 1780). “Rylands Contemplas Vol 1.” 236. Ryland, John. Christ Manifested: And Satan Frustrated. A Sermon, Preached at the Meeting-House, in College-Lane, Northampton, December 25, 1781 (Northampton, 1782). “Rylands Xt manifested” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 237. Ryland, John. The Earnest Charge, and Humble Hope of an Affectionate Pastor: Being the Substance of Three Discourses. Addressed to the Church, and Congregation, in College-Lane, Northampton, December 1, 1793 (Bristol, [1794]). “Rylands farewell Sermons” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 238. Ryland, John. Salvation Finished: As to Its Impetration, at the Death of Christ; and with Respect to Its Application, at the Death of the Christian: a Funeral Sermon, Occasioned by the Death of the Rev. Robert Hall, Sen. by John Ryland, Jun. M.A. To Which Is Annexed, Mr. Fuller’s Oration at the Grave, with an Appendix, Containing Some Brief Memoirs of Mr. Hall’s Life, and a Short History of the Baptist Church at Arnsby, Over Which He Was Pastor Seven and Thirty Years (London, 1791). “Hall’s Funl Sern by Ryland” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 239. Ryland, John. Seasonable Hints to a Bereaved Church; and The Blessedness of the Dead, Who Die in the Lord. Being the Substance of Two Discourses Delivered at Sheepshead, in Leicestershire, October 26, 1783; Occasioned by the Death of the Rev. William Guy, Late Pastor of the Baptist Church There (Northampton, [1783]. “[Rylands] Sheepshead Sermon” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 240. Salmon, Thomas. A New Geographical and Historical Grammar: Containing the True Astronomical and Geographical Knowledge of the Terraqueous Globe: and Also the Modern State of the Several Kingdoms of the World … (London, 1749; several editions thereafter through 1785). “Salmons Geogray (Mr. Wallis’s)” 241. [Satchell, John.] Serious Considerations Addressed to Glassites: and Other Congregational Separatists from the Church of Scotland (Edinburgh: J. Ogle, 1796).⁶ “Considers to Glassites by J. Satchell” [Fuller notes that this book was added after 1798] 242. Scott, John. A Narrative of the Transactions in Bengal during the Administration of Hastings (London, 1784). “Scott’s Narrative” 243. Scott, Thomas. The Aspect and Duty of the Times: A Sermon Preached at the Lock Chapel and Saint Mildred’s Church, Bread Street, on Friday February 28, 1794, the Day of the Late

 John Satchell (d. ) appears in Fuller’s diary and was a member of the Kettering church before ministering to a group from Fuller’s congregation briefly in the  s. Serious Considerations Addressed to Glassites was never reprinted and has never been attributed to Satchell or any other writer. Much of the pamphlet is based on a letter from a woman living in England addressed to the author (he does not name her but mentions the occasion in the Preface) written in such a manner that he felt its publication would be useful to the Baptist community in Scotland. The Preface is dated March , , from Edinburgh, and was probably written by one of Fuller’s friends in Edinburgh.

232

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General Fast (London, 1794). “Scotts Aspect & Duty of the times” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 244. Scott, Thomas. Essays on the Most Important Subjects in Religion (London, 1794); or, Two Essays on the Divine Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures (London, 1797). “Scott’s Nos of Essays” [appears in the list twice, second time noted as “Scotts Essays’’] 245. Scott, Thomas. The Love of Christ the Source of Genuine Philanthropy: A Discourse on 2 Cor. v. 14, 15 Occasioned by the Death of J. Thornton, etc. (London, 1791). “Scott’s Disc. on Jno Thornton” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”; a second copy appears in the list as well, oddly enough listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 246. Scott, Thomas. A Vindication of the Divine Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures, and of the Doctrines Contained Therein: Being an Answer to the Two Parts of Mr. T. Paine’s Age of Reason (New York, 1797). “Scotts Ansr to Paine” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 247. Scott, Thomas. The Warrant and Nature of Faith in Christ Considered, with Some Reference to the Various Controversies on That Subject (London, 1797). “[Scotts] warrant & nature of faith” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 248. Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper. Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times, 3 vols (London, 1711; 1773; 1790). “Shaftesburys Charactertcs 3 Vols Do” 249. Shepherd, James. Sermons (London, 1748). “Shepherd’s Sermons” 250. Sherlock, William. A Practical Discourse of Religious Assemblies (London, 1681, 1700). ‘‘Sherlock On Relis Assemblies’’ 251. Smalley, John. Eternal Salvation on No Account a Matter of Just Debt; Or, Full Redemption, Not Interfering with Free Grace: A Sermon, Delivered at Wallingford, by Particular Agreement, with Special Reference to the Murryan Controversy (Hartford, CT, 1785). “[Smalley’s] Salvan on no acct a matter of just debt” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 252. Smalley, John. The Law in all Respects Satisfied by our Saviour, in regard to those only who belong to Him; or, None but Believers Saved, through the all-sufficient Satisfaction of Christ: A Second Sermon, preached at Wallingford, with a view to the Universalists (Hartford, CT, 1786). “Smalley’s the End of the Law—to Believs” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 253. Smalley, John. The Perfection of the Divine Law; and its Usefulness for the Conversion of Souls: A Sermon, delivered in the College-Chapel, in New-Haven, on the Morning after the Commencement, [1787] (New Haven, 1787). “[Smalley’s] Perfecn of the law &c” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 254. Smith, Hezekiah. The Doctrine of Believer’s Baptism, by Immersion Only: Asserted and Maintained, against the Attempts of Mr. Jonathan Parsons, A.M. to invalidate it (Boston, 1766). “American piece on Bapm (Dr. Ryd)” 255. Spring, Samuel. Three Sermons to Little Children, on the Nature and Beauty of the Dutiful Temper (Boston, 1783; New York, 1790; 1811). “Spring’s Sermons to Chil.” 256. Stanhope, George. The Truth and Excellence of the Christian Religion Asserted: Against Jews, Infidels and Hereticks. In Sixteen Sermons, preached at the Lecture founded by the Honourable Robert Boyle, Esq; for the years 1701, 1702 (London, 1702). “Stanhopes Sermons 1701” 257. Steadman, William. Hearing the Voice of God’s Rod and the Safety of True Penitents in a Time of Public Calamity. The Substance of Two Sermons, preached at Broughton, in Hampshire. The former February 28, 1794. The latter February 25, 1795 (London, 1795). “Steadman’s Serns” 258. Stebbing, Henry. A Defence of the First Head of the Charge of the Committee of the Lower House of Convocation against the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Bangor: Being Remarks

A. Books in Fuller’s Library, 1798

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Upon Some Positions of His Lordship, Contained in His Sermon, in His Answer to Dr. Snape … by Henry Stebbing (London, 1718). “Defence of the Committee agt Hoadly” 259. Stennett, Joseph. Hymns in Commemoration of the Sufferings of Our Blessed Saviour Jesus Christ: Compos’d for the Celebration of his Holy Supper (London, 1697; several editions thereafter); or, Hymns compos’d for the Celebration of the Holy Ordinance of Baptism (London, 1712). “Stennets (Jos) Hymns” 260. Stennett, Samuel. An Answer to the Christian Minister’s Reasons for Baptizing Infants (London, 1775). “Dr Stennets Ansr to Addington” 261. Stoddard, Solomon. The Safety of Appearing at the Day of Judgement, in the Righteousness of Christ (Boston, 1687; Edinburgh and London, 1793). “Stoddards Safety of appg in Xts Rs.” 262. Stillingfleet, Edward. A Discourse concerning the Unreasonableness of a New Separation, on Account of the Oaths with an Answer to the History of Passive Obedience, so far as relates to them (London, 1680; 1689); or possibly another title by the same author: The Mischief of Separation. A Sermon preach’d at Guild-Hall Chappel, May II. MDCLXXX. being the first Sunday in Easter-term, before the Lord-Mayor, &c. (London, 1709). “Stillingfleet on Separation” 263. Stillingfleet, Edward. The Doctrine of the Trinity and Transubstantiation compared, as to Scripture, Reason, and Tradition. In a new Dialogue between a Protestant and a Papist (London, 1687). “Dialogue between a Conformt & Nonconformt I suppose by Stillingfleet” 264. [Stuart, Charles.] Brief Thoughts: I. Concerning the Gospel, and the Hindrances to believe it: II. Concerning the Way in which a Believer comes at True Satisfaction about his State towards God (Edinburgh, 1790).⁷ “Dr Stuart’s Hindrances of believs & way of Satisfaction” [Listed under “Scotch Pieces”] 265. Swain, Joseph. Experimental Essays on Divine Subjects, in Verse and Prose; and Hymns for Social Worship (London, 1791). “Swain’s Experl Essays” 266. Swain, Joseph. Redemption, a Poem: In Five Books (London, 1789); Redemption: a Poem: In Eight Books (London, 1797). “Swains [Redemption]o” 267. Symson, Andrew. Lexicon Anglo-Græco-Latinum Novi Testamenti, Or, a Complete Alphabetical Concordance of All the Words Contained in the New Testament, Both English, Greek, and Latine (London, 1658). “Symson’s Gr. Lexicon” 268. Taylor, Thomas. The History of the Waldenses and Albigenses, who begun the Reformation in the vallies of Peidmont [sic], and various other places, several hundred years before Luther (Bolton, 1793). “Hist. of Waldenses” [Another possibility is Jean Paul Perrin, The History of the old Waldenses and Albigenses, available in numerous editions in the 17th and 18th centuries] 269. Thomson, George. A Treatise on the Six Seals, Redemption, and the Magistrate’s Power, Circa Sacra: containing a Brief Illustration of the Four Beasts and Six First Seals in the Revelation, of the five Arminian Articles and Debates upon them at the Synod of Dort (Glasgow, 1780). “Thompsons 6 Seals &c” [Listed under “Scotch Pieces”] 270. Thoughts on the Plan for Social Prayer, Proposed by the Directors of the New-York Missionary Society (New York, 1797). “Thots on the plan for Social prayer” [Listed under “A present fm Dr Erskine on Augt 28. 98”] 271. Tytler, James. Paine’s Second Part of The Age of Reason Answered (Salem, MA, 1796). “Tytler’s Ansr to Paines 2nd pt A. of R.” [Listed under “A present fm Dr Erskine on Augt 28. 98”]

 This work also appeared anonymously, but Fuller could easily have known by  of Stuart’s authorship. This work was never reprinted. The Preface is dated July , , from Edinburgh, and has the same appearance as the  pamphlet by Satchell mentioned previously.

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272. Van der Gucht, Jan [engraver]. A Commentary upon the Books of the Old Testament, 2 vols (London, 1738). “Van der Hoot’s Heb. Bible 2 Vols” 273. Venn, Henry. Plain Proofs of the Deity of Christ, and of the Benefit Inseparable from Believing It, with a True Heart, and of the Pernicious Consequences of Denying It: Being the Substance of a Sermon, Preached Before the Reverend Michael Tyson, A.M. Archdeacon of Huntingdon, at His Visitation, Held There in the Church of All-Saints, May 12, 1785 (London, 1790). “Venns proofs of Xts deity” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 274. Vines, Richard. God’s Drawing, and Man’s Coming to Christ Discovered in 32 Sermons on John 6:44: with the Difference between a True Inward Christian, and the Outward Formalist, in Three Sermons on Rom. 2.28 (London, 1662). “Vines on God’s Drawg and Man’s Comg” 275. Voltaire. The Ignorant Philosopher, with an Address to the Public Upon the Parricides Imputed to the Families of Calas and Sirven. Translated from the French (London, 1767). “Voltaire’s Ignot Philosopher” 276. Wakefield, Gilbert. A Reply to Some Parts of the Bishop of Landaff’s Address to the People of Great Britain (London, 1798). “Wakefield’s Ansr” 277. Walker, Adam. Analysis of a Course of Lectures on Natural and Experimental Philosophy (Kendal, 1766; London, 1795). “Walker’s Analysis of Philoy” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 278. Warden, John. A System of Revealed Religion, Digested under Proper Heads and Composed in the Express Words of Scripture; Containing all that Sacred Records Reveal, with respect to Doctrine and Duty (London, 1769). “Warden’s Sysm” 279. Watts, Isaac. The Improvement of the Mind: or, a Supplement to the Art of Logick (London, 1741; also 1794). “Watts’s Improvet of the Mind 2 Volumes” 280. Watts, Isaac. Logick: or, the Right Use of Reason in the Inquiry after Truth (London, 1779). “Watts’s Logick” [multiple editions in the 18th c.] 281. Watts, Isaac. The Psalms, Hymns, & Spiritual Songs, of the Old and New Testament, faithfully translated into English Metre (Boston, 1758; 1773; Oxford, 1781). “Watts’s Ps. & Hys Do in Pulpit” 282. Watts, Isaac. The Redeemer and the Sanctifier: Or the Sacrifice of Christ and the Operations of the Spirit Vindicated (London, 1736; new ed. 1779). “Watts’s Redeemer & Sanctifier (Mr. Hobsons)” 283. Watts, Isaac. Reliquiae Juveniles: Miscellaneous Thoughts in Prose and Verse, on Natural, Moral and Divine Subjects; Written Chiefly in Younger Years (London, 1734; 1789). “Watts’s Miscellaneous Pieces” 284. Watts, Isaac. The Ruin and Recovery of Mankind, Or, an Attempt to Vindicate the Scriptural Account of These Great Events Upon the Plain Principles of Reason: With an Answer to Various Difficulties (London, 1740; 1742). “Watts’s Ruin & Recovery” 285. Webster, Stephen. This Farewell Address to the Inhabitants of the Parish of Cantley: Norfolk, is with Much Regard for Their Spiritual Concerns, Inscribed by Their Late Curate, Stephen Webster (Norwich, 1795). “S. Websters farewell address” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 286. Webster, Stephen. The Revelation of the Lord Jesus Christ from Heaven: Being the Subject of a Discourse Delivered June 19, 1792, in the Parish Church of Martham, Norfolk, at the Funeral of the Rev. Thomas Bowman, M.A. Late Vicar of That Parish, by Stephen Webster, M.A. Vicar of Claxton, Norfolk (Norwich, 1793). “Websters Funl Sern for Bowman” [Listed under “Old or less interestg pamphlets”] 287. West, Aaron. A Plain Address, &c. to the Churches of Christ, on the much Neglected Duty of Mutual Edification. In Two Letters to a Friend (London, 1797). “Aaron Wests Address” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”]

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288. West, Stephen. An Essay on Moral Agency: Containing Remarks on a Late Anonymous Publication Entitled an Examination of the Late President Edward’s Inquiry in Freedom of Will (Salem, 1794). “West on Agency” 289. West, Stephen. Grace a Necessary Qualification for the Gospel Ministry: A Sermon, Preached at the Ordination of the Rev. Gurdon Dorrance, to the Pastoral-Office in Windsor, July 1st, 1795 (Stockbridge, Mass., 1795). “West’s Grace Necessay for ye Miny” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 290. West, Stephen. An Inquiry into the Ground and Import of Infant Baptism: Interspersed with Arguments in Support of the Doctrine (Boston, 1794). Or possibly: 291. West, Stephen. The Scripture Doctrine of Atonement, Proposed to Careful Examination (New Haven, 1785); or Sermon: The Necessity of Atonement for Sin (Hartford, 1797). “[West’s] Atonement” [Listed under “American Pieces”] 292. Whiston, William. A Supplement to the Literal Accomplishment of Scripture Prophecies containing Observations on Dr. Clarke’s and Bishop Chandler’s late Discourses on the Prophecies of the Old Testament, with Four Dissertations: I. Upon Isaiah’s prophecy concerning a son to be born of a virgin; II. Upon Daniel’s 70 weeks; III. Upon the 4th Eclogue of Virgil as compar’d with the Sibylline oracles; IV. Upon the curses denounc’d against Cain and Lamech before the flood, proving that the Africans and Indians are their Posterity (London, 1725). “Whisten On Daniels Weeks” 293. Whitaker, Nathaniel. Two Sermons: on the Doctrine of Reconciliation: Together with an Appendix, in Answer to a Dialogue Wrote to Discredit the Main Truths Contained in These Discourses (Salem, 1770). “Whitaker on Reconciliation” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 294. Wilberforce, William. A Practical View of the Prevailing Religious System of Professed Christians in the Higher and Middle Classes in this Country, Contrasted with Real Christianity (London, 1797). “Wilberforce’s Practical Review” [This book included by Fuller in “Books at this time in Desk &c Aug. 28. 98”] 295. Williams, Edward. A Discourse on the Influence of Religious Practice Upon Our Inquiries After Truth, with an Appendix Addressed to the Rev. Mr. Belsham (Shrewsbury, 1791). “Dr Williams’s Ansr to Belsham” 296. Williams, Reeve. An Explanation of this Chart: in a Letter from a Merchant to a Member of Parliament, relating to the danger Great Britain is in of losing her Trade, by the Great Increase of the Naval Power of Spain ([London], 1718). “Dr Williams’s Explann of Charts” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 297. Williams, Thomas. The Age of Infidelity: In Answer to Thomas Paine’s Age of Reason, Part 1 (London, 1794); also, The Age of Infidelity: Part II. In Answer to the Second Part of The Age of Reason (London, 1796). “Williams’s Dictionary, 2 Vols. Age of Infidy” [another copy is listed by Fuller as “Williams’s [Ansr to Paine’s] 2nd Pt. Age of Infiy”] 298. [Williams, Thomas]. The Missionary: a Poem. To which are Subjoined, Hints on the Propagation of the Gospel at Home and Abroad. Respectfully inscribed to the New Missionary Societies (London: W. Button, 1795). “Missionary A Poem by T. Williams” [Fuller notes that this work was added to his library after 1798]⁸

 This work has been incorrectly catalogued under the name of Thomas Beck (b.), an Independent minister in London, who published a work titled The Mission: A Poem, (London: T. Chapman, ). That poem, however, should not be confused with the above work, which appeared anonymously the year before. Fuller, through Button, most likely knew Thomas Williams, who worked closely with Button and their American correspondent in Philadelphia, the Baptist minister and educator William Smith, who is mentioned in Williams’s essay on missions that accompanied his poem.

236

Appendices

299. Wilson, Samuel. Scripture Manual: or, a Plain Representation of the Ordinance of Baptism (London, 1769). “Wilsons Manual” 300. Witherspoon, John. Essays on Important Subjects, 4 vols, (Edinburgh, 1805). “Witherspoon’s Essays 4 Vols” 301. Witherspoon, John. An Inquiry into the Scripture-meaning of Charity (Edinburgh, 1768). “Witherspoon on Charity” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 302. Witherspoon, John. The Nature and Extent of Visable [sic] Religion. A Sermon (Edinburgh, 1768). “[Witherspoon] On Visible religion” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 303. Woodd, Basil. The Day of Adversity. Reflections suited to the Hour of Sorrow, the Bed of Sickness, or, the Loss of … Relatives. To which is added a Short and Plain Statement of the Way of Salvation (London, 1797). “Reflecs on the Day of Advery B. Wood” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 304. Woodd, Basil. A Funeral Sermon: on the Death of Mr. I. I. Jun. Preached at Bentinck Chapel, St. Mary-le-Bone; on Sunday Evening, February, the 23d. 1794 (London, 1794). “Funeral Serm by B. Woodd” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 305. Woodd, Basil. The Harmony of Divine Truth: A Sermon Preached before the University of Oxford, at St. Mary’s; on Sunday, the 10th of July, 1796 (London, 1796). “Sermon to the Univery B. Woodd” [Listed by Fuller as part of his “Bundle of the most Interestg or New Pamphlets”] 306. Worcester, Leonard. Infernal Conference, or, Dialogues of Devils (Worcester, MA, 1795). “Worcesters Dialogues” [Listed under “American Pieces”]

B. Places Fuller preaches (and number of visits) between April 1784 and June 1786. 1. Addington, Northamptonshire, 1784 (1) 1785 (1) 2. Arnesby, Leicestershire, 1784 (2) 1785 (2) 1786 (1) 3. Bedford, Bedfordshire, 1784 (2) 1785 (1) 1786 (2) 4. Blisworth, Northamptonshire, 1786 (1) 5. Bosworth, Leicestershire, 1784 (1) 1785 (2) 6. Braybrooke, Northamptonshire 1784 (2) 7. Brigstock, Northamptonshire 1784 (1) 1785 (1) 8. Bugbrooke, Northamptonshire, 1784 (1) 1786 (2) 9. Burton Latimer, Northamptonshire, 1784 (1) 1785 (2) 10. Burwell, Cambridgeshire, 1784 (1) 1785 (2) 11. Cambridge, Cambridgeshire 1784 (1) 1785 (2) 12. Carlton, Bedfordshire, 1784 (3) 1785 (2) 13. Clipston, Northamptonshire, 1785 (2) 14. Corby, Northamptonshire, 1784 (1) 1785 (2) 15. Cranford, Northamptonshire, 1784 (2) 1785 (2) 16. Downham, Northamptonshire, 1785 (1) 17. Elkington, Northamptonshire, 1784 (1) 1785 (1) 18. Enderby, Leicestershire, 1784 (1) 19. Fordham, Cambridgeshire, 1785 (2) 20. Geddington, Northamptonshire, 1785 (3) 21. Guilsborough, Northamptonshire, 1785 (1)

B. Places Fuller preaches (and number of visits) between April 1784 and June 1786.

22. Gretton, Northamptonshire, 1784 (2) 1785 (1) 1786 (1) 23. Haddenham, Buckinghamshire, 1785 (2) 24. Irchester, Northamptonshire, 1784 (2) 1785 (3) 25. Isleham, Cambridgeshire, 1785 (2) 26. Islip, Oxfordshire, 1785 (1) 27. Leicester, Leicestershire, 1784 (1) 28. Littleport, Cambridgeshire, 1785 (1) 29. Loddington, Northamptonshire, 1784 (2) 1785 (2) 30. Long Buckby, Northamptonshire, 1784 (1) 31. Milton, Northamptonshire, 1785 (1) 32. Moulton, Northamptonshire, 1786 (1) 33. Naseby, Northamptonshire, 1784 (2) 1785 (2) 34. Newport Pagnell, Buckinghamshire, 1784 (1) 35. Northampton, Northamptonshire, 1784 (5) 1785 (6) 1786 (2) 36. Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, 1784 (1) 37. Oakham, Rutlandshire, 1784 (4) 1785 (1) 38. Oakley, Bedfordshire, 1785 (1) 39. Olney, Buckinghamshire, 1784 (2) 1785 (2) 40. Scaldwell, Northamptonshire (1785) (1) 41. Shefford, Bedfordshire, 1786 (1) 42. Soham, Cambridgeshire, 1784 (1) 1785 (2) 43. Southill, Bedfordshire, 1786 (1) 44. Spaldwick, Cambridgeshire, 1784 (1) 45. Spratton, Northamptonshire, 1784 (4) 1785 (3) 46. Stagsden, Bedfordshire, 1784 (1) 47. Stretham, Cambridgeshire, 1785 (1) 48. Thrapston, Northamptonshire, 1785 (2) 1786 (1) 49. Towcester, Northamptonshire, 1786 (1) 50. Walgrave, Northamptonshire, 1784 (1) 1785 (4) 51. Warkton, Northamptonshire, 1785 (1) 1786 (1) 52. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, 1785 (1) 53. West Row, Suffolk, 1784 (1) 1785 (2) 54. Wicken, Cambridgeshire, 1784 (1) 55. Wing, Buckinghamshire, 1784 (1) 56. Winwick, Northamptonshire, 1784 (2) 57. Woodford, Northamptonshire, 1785 (2)

237

Scripture Index References to Books of the Bible in Fuller’s Diary.¹ OLD TESTAMENT Genesis 1:2 5:24 22:1 41:4 48:15 [2]

16n72 12n56 134n253 139n281 115n113, 191n7

Exodus 16:4 17:6 19:6

184 39n10 105n33

Leviticus Numbers 16:47 – 48 23:19

51n97 120n152

Deuteronomy Joshua 21:43 – 45

12

Judges 2:5

32n56

Ruth 1 Samuel 7:12 [3]

64n188, 67n212, 132n231

2 Samuel 1:25, 26 12:21, 22 22:47

201n42 172n47 164

1 Kings 8:22-end (28, 38 – 39) 187

2 Kings 4:26

172

1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah 8:10

177

Esther Job 1:21 4:3 – 5 5:13 14:1 13:15 15:16 16:22 [2] 21:15 29:2 [2] 33:4 35:14

172n50 184 15 23 15n67 147n338 157, 157 145n328 187, 177 208 148n346

Psalms 1 1:2,3 [3] 2 2:11 [3] 7:9 10:13 13:2 16:11[2] 17:1 17:15 18:46 [2] 19 19:13

215n1 90n385, 155 92 95n422, 132n233, 132n235 35n71 90n387 140n292 123n178, 12 191n12 59n157 78n299, 164n3 142 22n2

 Numbers in square brackets indicate repetitions in the Diary of the immediately preceding verse or passage.

240

22:15 22:27, 28, 30 25:9 27:9 29:2 32:6 33:22 34:11 34:18 [2] 40:7 40:11 41:4 42 42:6 43:3 45:10,11 51:5 51:10 61:2 63:1 65:2 67 67:6 71:6 73:22 [4] 73:24 73:25 73:26 73:28 76:1 84 84:11 85:6 [2] 87:7 89:15 90 90:14 90:16 94:11 94:19 98:9, 13 101:3 102:16 103:1 107 110:1,2,3 110:2 116 116:4 116:7 [2]

Scripture Index

72n252 119 1n2 178 17 157 212n4 100 19n85, 24 149 28n36 137 91 8n32 32n58 164 153 58n153 28n30 67 134 181 184n6 167 40n20,69n227,175n65, 175n70 1n3 179 28n35 47n71 144n315 124 125n187 87n364, 91n391 63n184 141n298 86 182 143 106n45 149n358 82n327 107n48 174n59 118 130 107n48 160n422 103 22n2 134n246, 150

118:25 119:11 119:25 [3] 119:33 119:37 [2] 119:54 119:116 119:117 [2] 119:176 122:1, 2, 8, 9 122 (latter part) 122:6 123:1 123:1, 2 125:1 126:3 126:5 130 130:2, 3 137:6 138:6 139 139:3 142:7 143:10 145:10 146:9

43n40 134n248 87n361, 104n30, 43n40 18n81 141 74n269 86n353 158n416, 111 182 7 29 73 34n69 35 33 16n74 157n402 164 170 27n27 153n378 154 134n247 143 5n20 102n18 35

Proverbs 2 3:6 [2] 3:11 4:25 – 27 5:3 – 6 6 8:5 [2] 8:10 13:19 14:9 14:12 14:14 14:34 17:3 17:24 18:10 19:21 22:17,18 24:27 30 30:2

29 28n34, 186n5 130n216 135 117n122 127 206n51, 206 206n51 108n61 142n301 30n43 159n417 152 15 150 159 30n41 155 – 56 141 18n82 175

Scripture Index

Ecclesiastes 1:18 7:23 8:11 8:12 9:10 12:1 12:5 12:13 [2]

46n56 16n75 32 143 80n310 165 69n231 2, 81

Song of Solomon 122n166 1:4 1:15 146n333 4:3 147n343 5:15 98n441 8:6 84n340 Isaiah 2:11 3 6:5 9:17 11:12 21:10 [2] 24:16 26:4 26:18 27:13 30:15 35 [2] 35.6, 7 35:10 41:17 42:4 42:16 43:19 45:19 53:6 55:1 56:4 [2] 57:15 58:13,14 60:19 61:3

4 127 9n42 174n285 10 48n75, 47 168 123n178 129 166 80n310 114 159 76 77n294 98n441 44n47 67n213 135 32 88n369 152n374, 156n399 156 165 158n411 169n27

Jeremiah 2:5, 31 – 33 3:19 5:31 9:23

8 35n73 108n61 139n287

241

10:21 23, 24 24:7 [2] 31:2 42 48:11 [4] 50:4,5

154 19 55n128 175 27 46n60, 48n77, 55n128, 82n328 162

Lamentations 3:19 3:22 3:40, 41 3:40 5:16, 17

8n35 184n6 13 175 13

Ezekiel 10:13 34:16

33 20

Daniel 5:27

14n65

Hosea 1:7 2 2:18 2:23 6:4 8:12 10:1 10:10 12:8, 9 13:1 13:9

144 125 15 132 35 162n436 135n258 184n7 33 11n52 7

Joel Amos 3:8

121n160

Obadiah Jonah 2 2:4 4:3

150 146 21n98

Micah 6:3 7.14

26n24 127

242

Nahum 1:7 Habakkuk Zephaniah 1:6 1:12

Scripture Index

121

81 37n4

Haggai Zechariah 4 4:10 11:17 12:1 13:1

96 57n145 96n430 208 168

Malachi

NEW TESTAMENT Matthew 1 163 4 (Temptation of Christ) 42 5 (last part) 61 5 – 7 (Sermon on the Mount) 71n246 5:4 40n15 5:8 55n130 5:13 39n9 6:13 8n36 6:19, 20 184 7:13 142n306 10:16 196n24 11:6 122n166 11:28 69 11:29 [4] 55n124, 153n378, 153, 156 11:30 60n160 13:4 8n37 13:43 133n240 15.25 [3] 23n9, 212n4, 169 17:5 26 21.32 207 24:13 [2] 122n166, 132n235 24:31 58n152 24:42 122n169 24:44 41n28 25:10 [2] 126, 127 26:26 42n33 26:39 23n7 27:46 123n178 Mark 1:15 4:31 5:15 9:23

207 132n237 75n277 209

10:46 – 52 11:24

121n160 177

Luke 11:37 – 40 13:3 15:11 – 32 16:31 17:5 18:38 22:19 22:32 22:42 23:46

152 165 166n12 87n361 110n70 131n221 179n9 4n18 35n70 30n46

John 1:12 1:17 1:29 1:46 5:1 – 9 6 6:33 6:45 6:56 6:67 6:66, 67 [2] 6:68 8:12 8:45, 46 9 9:41 11:26 11:40 13.17

87 118 89n377 161n430 38n3 148 84n336 38n5 166n15 131n224 81 171n39 151n366 134 64 153n382 23n8 209 206n53

Scripture Index

13:34 14:2 14:27 15:13 16:7 16:13 [2] 18:23 21 21:17

91n394 26 76n281 206n52 26 80n311, 87n361 194 47 51n102

Acts 1 2 2:41, 42 2:46 3:21 4:33 5 6 7 8 9 9:4 10:38 11 12 15 15:11 16 16:37 20:7 20:15 24:25 26:28

76 77 155 211 84 138n272 91 102 103 105 107 26n24 188n19 118 119 33 159 152 194 210 144 203n46 195n16

Romans 3:11 6:17 6:20 7:12 7:24 8:1 8:28 8:33 [2] 9 12:2 12:11 13:10 13:14 [2]

62n178 59n158 60n162 16 8n34 208 184n6 34 154 49n85 140n291 205n50 157n407, 165n8

14:8 34

187n12 34

1 Corinthians 1:9 1:18 1:30 2:2 2:16 3:18 6:17 6:19 – 20 6:20 9:19 11:31 16:22 [2]

96n426 83n331 208 – 09 39n11 25n19 2 154n386 52n109 82n324 56n134 3 89

2 Corinthians 2:16 4:17 [2] 5:7 [2] 6:16 9 10:5 [4] 12:10

161n430 139n279, 173n56 52n109 141n296 98 88n372, 89n377, 95n422, 125n188 11n52

Galatians 3:19 5:14 5:25 6:7 6:14

174n59 205n50 186n1 179 170n34

Ephesians 2:1 2:5 2:12 2:13 2:19 3:18 3:20 [2] 3:20, 21 4:1 – 13 6:4

102n13 174 164 33 85n347 86n354 142n304, 151n365 150 77 173n51

Philippians 1:3 – 5 1:27 2:13

158 145n324 114n102

243

244

2:16 3:7 – 9 3:8 3:14 4:19 Colossians 1:13 1:19 2:2 3:3 3:11 4:2 4:6

Scripture Index

105n33 78 138n271 108n61 161n430

171n38 15 83n333 50 93n408 93n409 37n1

1 Thessalonians 3:8 119n140 5.6 56 5:7 120n149 2 Thessalonians 3:16 65n200 5:16 152n373 1 Timothy 1:8 4:16 5:17

80n310 155n392 210

2 Timothy 1:10 3:17

66n206 26n21

Titus Philemon Hebrews 1:3 1:20 2 [2] 2:3 2:14 4:16 5:12 6:17 10:24 11:16 11:34 11:38 12:28 [2] 13:1 13:8

98n441 92n399 23 79n304 179 26n24 152n374 16n74 194n14 89n375 45n52 105 125n187

13:9 13:17 13:20 13:22

1n1 140n293 106n43 171n41

James 1:1 1:2 1:12 1.18 1:21 1:22

115 177 55n128 208 97n431 52n109

1 Peter 1:2 1:6 [2] 1:13 1:19 1:23 2:24 4:7 5:6 5:7 [3] 5:8 5:10 5:12

64 113n97, 112 97n433 130n216 208 60n160 99n444 101n10 10n47, 139n287, 170n34 131n229 154 80n310

2 Peter 1 John 1:6 1:7 2:1 3:2 3:3 [2] 3:19 4:5 4:18 5:1 5:4

121n160 84n340 26n24 12n55 94n412, 129 45n53 208 205 – 06 208 169n27

2 John 3 John 2

169n417

Jude 1:15 1:21 139 Revelation 1:18

17

110

Scripture Index

2:19 2:23 4:3

160 24 145n324

21:7 22

76n283 146

245

Index of Places Aberdeen 45n55 Accrington 195n18 Addington 137–139 Amwell 61n171 Arnesby 39, 41n27, 45n55, 62, 80n310, 120, 145n321, 148, 158, 170, 175 Aston Sandford 59n159 Bampton 70n232 Barnoldswick 163n439 Barton 106m 144, 146 Barton Lodge 54n120, 85, 93, 112, 137, 144, 160, 165 Barton-on-the-Humber 193 Barton Seagrave 57n143 Bath 193 Battle 84n342 Bedford 40, 44, 74n262, 100n5, 147, 158, 165, 192 Bengal 116n118, 175n66, 186n10 Berkshire 34n65 Birmingham 38n4, 127n197, 182n5, 190n4, 193, 195n15 Bishop Burton 53n110 Blisworth 171 Blunham 39n12, 158n415 Boston, New England 103n24 Bosworth 40, 148, 158 Bourne 192-193 Bourton-on-the-Water 39n8 Braybrook 59n161, 60n161, 78, 88 Brigg 193 Brigstock 82, 125, 126n192 Bristol 38n4, 39n8, 45n55, 80n310, 100n4, 128n206, 145n321, 187n10, 201n41, 213n3 Buckby 45 Bugbrook 56, 170 Burton 54, 111, 127n201, 146, 160 Burton Latimer 54n121 Burwell 50, 132, 185n8 Cambridge 34n68, 45n55, 51, 108n58, 130, 147n342, 198n33 Cambridgeshire 22n4, 76, 158n415, 194n13 Carlton 34n65, 41, 51, 52, 55, 70, 150, 151, 161 Chatham 32

Clipston 48n73, 50n90, 128, 134, 136, 154n387, 167n20, 171n40 Colyton 195n15 Corby 62, 156 Cottenham 158n415 Cottesbrooke 112n87, 116n118 Coventry 189n23 Cramond 196n25 Cranford 58, 78, 82, 107n53, 117, 142, 160n424 Creaton 167 Devon 154n387 Devonport 193n9 Devonshire Square, London Downham 132 Dudley 163 Dunstable 136n260 Durham 196

149n355

East Indies 61, 186 Edinburgh 196, 198-199, 200n38, 201, 202n43 Elkington 45, 158 Ely 22n4, 192 Enderby 53 Enfield 39n8, 105n40 Essex 22n4 Ettrick 69n230 Exeter 70n232, 89n374 Fairford 88n360 Falkirk 214n3 Folkstone 127 Fordham 50, 130 Foulmire 147n342 Foxton 40n17, 50n90, 148 Geddington 69, 94, 123, 161, 165 Gilsborough 111n81, 112n87, 116, 127, 158, 181 Glasgow 199–201 Greenock 201 Gretton 54, 90, 121, 163n438, 170 Hackleton 175n66 Hackney 70n235, 182n5 Haddenham 49, 132

Index of Places

Halifax 195n18 Hammersmith 127n198 Hardingstone 175 Hebden Bridge 38n4 Hexham 41n27 Hinckley 91n392 Hull 193, 195 Huntingdonshire 192 Irchester 57, 95, 151, 161 Ireland 34n65, 213n3 Isleham 22n4, 49, 131 Islip 141 Keighley 145n321 Kettering 12n57, 15, 19n89, 34n65, 40, 46n61, 48n73, 53, 55, 57n143, 66n205, 70n235, 72n250, 74, 75n276, 78n298, 79, 85n344, 90n383, 91, 93n405, 94n413, 107n51, 109n64, 111n76, 112n87, 117n121, 119n139, 120, 122n164, 123n172, 130n218, 138n275, 144n317, 148-149, 152n368, 153, 157n4-4, 163n439, 165n4, 181, 183n1, 187n10, 190, 212, 213n3 Keysoe 130n218, 143n311, 201n41 Kilmarsh 128 Kirtling 56n133 Leeds 182n5 Leicester 43n34, 46n55, 53, 93, 116n118, 175n66, 186n10, 187n10 Leominster 149 Lincoln 193 Lincolnshire 192 Lisbon 214n3 Little Bentley 22n4 Littleport 35, 132 Liverpool 170n30 Loddington 63, 67, 81, 135-136, 144, 151 London 91n389, 190-191 Long Buckby 45n48, 128n206 Luton 145n321, 181 Market Harborough 128n206, 138n278 Maulden 45n48, 189n23 Mile End 40n19, 138n278, 167n18 Milton 17, 124 Moulton 48n73, 116n118, 136n260, 175, 186n10

247

Naseby 39, 56, 128, 135 Newcastle 41n27, 154n387, 196 Newgate Prison 147n340 Newport Pagnell 74, 189n23 Northampton 12n57, 31n47, 34n63, 38–41, 43n34, 45n55, 48n73, 50n90, 56, 62, 67, 79, 80n310, 87, 91, 96, 105n40, 110–114, 116n118, 120n151, 124-125, 134, 137n267, 138n275, 149, 153-154, 156-157, 159, 161162, 167–170, 173, 174, 181, 187n10, 189n23 Nottingham 52, 53n110, 61n174, 66n211, 192 Nottinghamshire 155n390 Oakham 40, 47, 52, 68, 75, 129, 135, 153, 163n439, 192 Oakley 120, 167 Olney 38n4, 55, 59n159, 74, 83, 95, 110n74, 128n206, 134, 136, 150-151, 170n30, 192 Oxford 193n9 Oxon 76, 78 Paisley 201 Pershore 100n4 Pitchly 146 Plymouth 196, 201n41 Princeton University 200n38 Raso 130 Ringstead 109n64 Roade 40n18 Rochdale 163n439 Romsey 91n392 Rushden 62n181, 107n52, 109, 148-149 Rutland 192 Scotland 192, 198, 200, 202n43, 210n59, 211n61 Serampore 112n87, 190n4, 196n25, 199n36 Shefford 165 Shrewsbury 38n4 Soham 3n, 12n57, 19n89, 29n, 30, 34n65, 46n61, 49, 50n90, 76, 79, 102, 104, 130– 133, 185n8 Southill 165 South Killingholme 163n439 Southwark 51n100, 61n171, 70n232, 88n360, 137n267, 190n4 Spaldwick 51, 138n278

248

Index of Places

Spratton 45, 56, 62, 80, 96, 114, 135, 149, 156, 158, 167 Stagsden 44 St. Alban’s 51n100 Stamford 192 Stepney 40n19 Stevington 165n9 Stoke Newington 6n24 Stow cum Quay 51n96 Stretham 132 Sunderland 196 Sutton 163n438 Taunton 195n15 Tharp 72 Thorn 50n90, 176n1 Thrapston 48n76, 72, 125, 126n192, 132, 141, 169 Towcester 154n387, 171 Trevecca College, Wales 193n9 Trowbridge 38n4

Uppingham

192

Wainsgate 163n439 Walgrave 59, 78n302, 88-89, 96, 112–114, 136, 140, 157, 167n20, 181 Warkton 126, 165 Warwick 39n8 Weekley 139, 148n352 Wellingborough 54n120, 56n133, 74n266, 122, 144n317, 155, 212 Weston-by-Weedon 42n24 West Row 49, 131 Wicken 22n4, 49, 131-132 Wing 75 Winwick 40n18, 43n37, 83 Woodford 117, 153, 160n424, 169, 171, 181 Worcestershire 88n374 Yarmouth 45n48 York 196 Yorkshire 38n4, 167n18

Index of Subjects Affliction 21, 22, 28, 29, 84, 128, 133, 162, 163, 164, 166, 169, 170, 171, 173, 174, 184, 187, 191, 210 Antiburghers 197, 200 Antinomianism 187, 193 Arminianism 155, 165, 193, 233 Association, annual meeting 51, 52, 61, 62, 66, 116, 128, 129, 174, 190 Assurance of Salvation 11, 12, 14 Atonement 95, 194, 222, 235 Baptism 3, 39, 40, 41, 53, 70, 72, 83, 85, 98, 100, 112, 126, 130, 138, 154, 155, 158, 193, 196, 197, 202, 217, 223, 224, 226, 227, 229, 230, 232, 233, 235, 236 Bible 11, 25, 33, 70, 84, 141, 154, 155, 192, 196, 215 Bible translation 175, 192, 196, 201 Burghers 199, 200, 201 Calvinism 12, 31, 167 Calvinistic Methodists 199 Church discipline 117, 119, 123, 148, 162, 176, 196, 211 Church of Scotland 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 231 Communion 12, 42, 58, 64, 77, 86, 92, 98, 100, 106, 112, 119, 121, 133, 145, 158, 163, 166, 168, 169, 170, 176, 179, 210, 221 Covenant 1, 15, 90, 152, 156, 223 Death 8, 9, 23, 26, 28, 29, 31, 46, 47, 48, 49, 57, 63, 65, 76, 77, 82, 86, 87, 93, 99, 107, 110, 111, 113, 125, 139, 141, 146, 154, 162, 163, 164, 166, 167, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 176, 183, 185, 205 Devil 158, 176-177, 202-203 Doctrines of Grace 124, 158 Evangelical Calvinism 145, 197, 201

3, 12, 33, 38, 41, 70,

Fasting 39, 47, 62, 75, 153, 176-177, 181, 182, 183, 188, 189

General Baptists 84, 167, 195, 211 Greek 12, 160, 215, 216, 231 Guidance 5, 7, 15, 19, 20, 30, 69, 186 Heaven 2, 11, 20, 131, 147, 164, 203, 213, 234 Hell 131, 202 High Calvinism 12, 13, 41, 63 Immortality of the soul

81, 166

Lord’s Supper 12, 42, 58, 64, 77, 86, 92, 98, 100, 106, 112, 119, 121, 133, 145, 158, 163, 166, 168, 169, 170, 176, 179, 210, 221 Marriage 105, 186, 188, 189, 190, 209, 222 Meditation 3, 33, 35, 53, 56, 61, 64, 82, 84, 85, 87, 89, 90, 94, 103, 104, 106, 110, 112, 117, 127, 133, 137, 145, 163 Mission Society 38, 40, 48, 70, 128, 163, 186, 188, 190, 192, 193, 196, 201 Ordination 42, 43, 60, 109, 136, 137, 140, 155, 171, 221, 222, 225, 235 Particular Baptists 12, 17, 33, 38, 39, 41, 81, 92, 100, 116, 137, 155, 167, 175, 198, 201 Particular Redemption 95 Prayer 1, 5, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 37, 38, 42, 43, 46, 47, 48, 52, 56, 58, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 70, 71, 75, 80, 81, 83, 86, 88, 91, 92, 101, 102, 105, 111, 112, 113, 117, 119, 121, 123, 125, 126, 137, 139, 140, 143, 144, 145, 146, 150, 153, 154, 156, 160, 163, 164, 166, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 176-177, 178, 179, 182, 183, 188, 190, 191 Prayer Meeting 60, 61, 113, 140, 145, 150, 156, 160, 178 Preaching 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 20, 24, 33, 34, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 127,

250

Index of Subjects

128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 174, 175, 177, 178, 179, 180, 184, 186, 188, 195, 199, 200, 201 Predestination 33 Prophecy 194, 235

117, 125, 126, 129, 130, 138, 141, 145, 148, 152, 159, 161, 164, 168, 174, 175, 178, 179 Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge 198, 221 Society for Propagating the Gospel at Home 198 Socinianism 182, 187, 194, 195, 197, 223, 229 Suicide 139, 141

Reading 12, 13, 14, 18, 24, 31, 32, 33, 35, 43, 60, 61, 63, 64, 69, 70, 78, 84, 92, 97, 98, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 108, 109, 110, 111, 114, 118, 120, 122, 125, 144, 169, 173, 178, 179, 181, 182, 183, 187, 189, 194 Redemption 4, 33, 34, 95, 221, 233 Repentance 110, 119, 176, 194, 204, 207, 214, 229 Revival 12, 25, 39, 43, 47, 48, 53, 60, 61, 62, 66, 73, 79, 86, 94, 102, 107, 120, 126, 181, 198

Universalism 84 Unitarianism 81, 84, 116, 182, 187, 193, 195, 206, 216

Sandemanianism 197, 202, 206, 207 Satan 31, 101, 160, 176, 231 Scotch Baptists 196, 210 Secession Church 199, 200 Sin 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 18, 29, 34, 36, 40, 41, 43, 58, 59, 60, 92, 100, 106, 117, 133, 142, 147, 152, 157, 163, 169, 174, 178, 182, 184, 186, 188 Self-examination 32, 52, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 68, 72, 73, 87, 89, 90, 92, 105, 108, 112,

Visitation 2, 4, 5, 11, 22, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 49, 54, 55, 57, 63, 68, 72, 78, 81, 84, 85, 88, 91, 93, 95, 96, 102, 106, 107, 109, 111, 113, 115, 118, 122, 126, 127, 134, 136, 138, 144, 146, 147, 151, 152, 157, 158, 160, 161, 163, 165, 166, 168, 188, 196, 197, 213, 234 Will of God 27, 30, 65, 114, 164, 170, 172, 185, 189 Writing 1, 20, 41, 43, 57, 58, 63, 64, 66, 68, 71, 72, 76, 77, 78, 82, 83, 85, 86, 88, 91, 93, 94, 97, 101, 102, 104, 109, 114, 124, 127, 128, 133, 137, 143, 147, 149, 153, 156, 159, 161, 165, 166, 167, 168, 173, 176, 187, 190, 195, 202, 209, 212 Young people 38, 48, 71, 72, 100, 113, 158, 160, 161, 163, 164, 168, 171, 181, 183

Person Index Abbot, Josiah 160n424 Addington, Stephen 138 Ash, John xxxvi, 100 Ash, Joseph xxxvi Askew, John 117n125 Askew, Mrs. 117 Ayer [Ayre, Eayre], John 60n117, 78n302, 88n374

Clarke, William xxvi, 70, 87n360, 105n40, 137n267, 150, 161 Coles, Ann [see Fuller, Ann] Coles, William 45n48, 189n23, 216, 219, 227n5 Cole, William 45, 56, 128n206 Collier, Mary 161 Croxen, Ann 160n424

Balfour, Robert, D. D. 200 Barnes, William 117, 138 Barnes, Mrs. William 138, 171, 181 Belsham, James 74n266 Belsham, Thomas 182, 217 Benford, Benjamin 66n205, 152 Benford, Elizabeth 66 Benford, Thomas xxii, xxiii(n27), 66n205, 107, 118–121, 123 Benford, Mrs. Thomas 121 Billen, William 85 Black, David 198, 200 Blundel, Thomas 145, 155, 181 Booth, Abraham 155, 216, 217 Boston, Thomas xxvii, 69, 218 Bradbury, Thomas xxviii, 92n400, 97 f., 105, 218 Braidwood, William 197 Buchanan, Walter 198 Bull, William 74 f. Bunyan, John xi, xxx, xxxvii, 100 f., 218 Burditt, Thomas xxiii, 119n139, 123n172, 160n421, 176n3 Burls, William 190 Burn, Edward 193 Butler, William 90n383, 163 Button, William xviii, xix, xxxiv(n35), 137, 139, 161, 168, 192, 235n8

Dale, David 201 Daniels, Elizabeth xxxviii, 11182n, 146 Daniels, John 111n82, 146 Daniels, M. 111, 144, 146, 151 Davy, Elizabeth 160n424 Deacon, Rebekkah 93, 160n424 Dickens, Edward 130n218, 158 Dickens, William xxiii, 130, 137, 143, 152, 154n383 Diver, Joseph xxxviiii, 3, 6, 8 f.

Calvin, John xxiii (n27), xl, 31, 219 Carey, Ann, 112n87 Carey, William xxvi, xxviii, 43n34, 46n55, 48n73, 112n87, 116n118, 128n206, 136n260, 175n66, 186 f., 192n2, 201n41 Carver, John 56, 122, 135, 144, 146, 165 Chapman, Sampson 172n46 Clarke, Elizabeth 128n206 Clarke, Dr. Samuel 235

Edmonds, John 111n81, 127 Edwards, Jonathan xi(n1), xx, xxvii – ix, xxxi, 12–14, 24, 38n4, 60, 62n174, 63, 94n414, 178 f., 197n27, 206n54, 207n55, 215, 221 – 22 Eliot, John xxxii(n40), 13 Erskine, John 62n174, 197 f., 200, 207 f., 219, 221, 222, 226, 228, 230, 233 Evans, Caleb xi, xxx(ff.), 45n55f., 100n4, 215, 222 Evans, David 50n90 Evans, John 41n22, 50n90, 80, 88n374, 111n81, 134 Evans, Hugh 100n4 Ewing, Greville 198n35, 199–201 Fidgeon [Fidgon], Thomas 72 Fidgeon, Mary 72n250 Fuller, Andrew – Assurance and Doubts 14 – 15, 20, 176 – 8 – Diary and life writing xiii – xiv, xxx – xl, 43 – 44 – Family life 4, 36, 65, 101, 106 – 08, 162 – death of his father 22 – 23 – births and miscarriages 84, 118, 168 – death of his daughter 162 – 66, 169, 171 – 73, 176

252

Person Index

– death of his wife 184 – 85 – second marriage 186 – 89 – travails of wayward son 190 – 91, 212 – 13 – Kettering Ministry xxii – xxiv 39 – 214 – Ministerial Meetings 39 – 40, 79 – 80, 126, 134 – 35, 153 – 55 – Missions 13, 186 – 88, 190 – 1799 Scottish Tour for the BMS 192 – 211 – Monthly Prayer Meetings 47, 62, 101, 145, 150, 156 – Northamptonshire Association xx – xxi, 52 – 53, 129 – 30, 174, 190 – Pastoral Concerns 11 24, 42, 48, 57, 61, 63, 71, 76 88, 100, 109, 118 – 120, 123, 125 – 27, 139 – 40, 148, 154 – 55, 157, 165, 181, 183, 186 – 88 – Publications – Persausives to General Union in Extraordinary Prayer (1784) 61n174 – The Nature and Importance of Walking by Faith (1784) 66 – Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation (1785) xvi – xx, 69, 77, 83, 89,137n267 – An Enquiry into the Causes of Declension in Religion (1785) 133 – A Defence of a Treatise, entitled, The Gospel of Christ Worthy of All Acceptation (1786) 168n24 – The Reality and Efficacy of Divine Grace (1787) 168n24 – Paul’s Charge to the Corinthians Respecting their Treatment of Timothy (1787) 176n1 – The Blessedness of the Dead who die in the Lord (1792) 183n1 – The Calvinistic and Socinian Systems Examined and Compared as to their Moral Tendency (1793), 187n15 – Socinianism Indefensible: On the Ground of its Moral Tendency (1797) 195n15 – Memoirs of the late Samuel Pearce, A.M (1800) 201n41 – Letter to Dr. Stuart 202 – 11 – Reading xxvii – xxviii, 12 – 14, 18, 24, 31 – 33, 60 – 61, 63, 69, 79, 92, 97 – 98, 103, 105, 110 – 11, 114, 144, 158, 178 – 79 – Sermons xxix – xxx – Soham Ministry xiv – xv, 1 – 37 – conflict with leaving the church 25 – 30, 32 – 34 – death of Joseph Diver 3, 6, 8 – 9

Fuller, Andrew Gunton xiii, xli(ff.), 112n87 Fuller, Ann Coles (Andrew Fuller’s second wife) 189n23, 190n2, 215n1 Fuller, Ann 191 Fuller, John 4, 22n4 Fuller, Mary 168 Fuller, Phillipa Gunton 4n4 Fuller, Robert, Jr. (Andrew Fuller’s brother) xxxix, 22n4, 50, 106, 166 Fuller, Robert, Sr. (Andrew Fuller’s father) xxxviii, 22 – 23 Fuller, Robert (Andrew Fuller’s son) xxxix, 190 – 91, 212, 213n2f. Fuller, Sarah xxxviii(f.), 162, 164, 171 – 74 Fuller, Sarah Gardiner (Andrew Fuller’s first wife) xv, xviii, xxxviii(f.), 36, 72, 84, 118f., 124, 133n241, 151, 168, 185 Gamby, John 165n9 Garlick, John 138, 147 Gifford, Andrew 155 Gillard, Daniel 127 Gill, John [London] xvi(f.), xxvii, xxx, 31(n50), 51n100, 70n238, 79n307, 92n400, 137n267, 197n28, 216, 220, 223 Gill, John [of St. Albans] 31, 51f. Glas, John 120n143, 197 f., 216, 223, 231 Goodman, John 53 Gotch, Ann (wife of John Gotch) 48, 86n352 Gotch, Ann (wife of Thomas Gotch) 48n73, 85, 109, 138 Gotch, John 48n73, 72, 86f. Gotch, Thomas xxvi – xxvii, 48n73, 85–87, 109, 121, 138, 160n421 Graves, Mrs. 110 Graves, William 110n69 Greenwood, Abraham 163 Greve, George 196 Haddon, John 128 Haldane, James xxvii, 198ff. Haldane, Robert xxvii, 198 ff., 224 Hall, Robert, Jr. xxx, 45 f., 70n235, 80, 81n316, 93n407, 134f. Hall, Robert, Sr. xx(n22), xxi, xxv, xxxi, 41, 45n55, 46, 52, 62, 80, 84, 87, 120f., 128n204, 129, 145n321, 175, 224, 238 Hassel, Thomas 196 Heighton, William 40, 43, 116, 119, 154 Hillyard, Thomas 74, 134, 136, 140

Person Index

Hobson, Esther 112n87 Hobson, James 112n87 Hobson, Mary 112n87 Hobson, Susanna 112n87, 151 Hopper, Richard 53, 174 Horsey, John 113, 120, 130 Horsey, Joseph xxxvi Innes, William

198–200

Jamieson, John 197 Jenyns, Soame 194 f. Johnson, Samuel 225 Johnson, Susanna 158 Jones, Edward 226 Jones, Rev. 167 Josephus, Titus Flavius 2 King, Joseph 165 Knowles, William xxiii, 62, 109n64, 148n352 Lambert, George 195 Law, John 42 Life, Richard xxiii, 176n3 Lindsey, Theophilus xxx, 182, 216, 219, 226 Longridge, Michael 195 f. Luther, Martin 31, 233 Lyons, James 193, 195n18 Maclaurin, John xxvii, 92, 227 Maddock, Abraham 167n20 Mason, John xxvii, xxxii(n40), 144 Mason, Mary 78, 82 Mather, Cotton xxvii, 103, 227 Mayle, Martin 39n12, 158 McLean, Archibald 158, 196n25, 197, 209n57, 215 f., 227f. Melanchthon, Philip 31 Morris, John Webster xiii, xxvii, xxviii, xxxiv, xli, xlii, 128n204, 136, Mosheim, Johann Lorenz von xxvii, 18, 31 f. Newton, John xi, xxx, 39n8, 59n159, 74n266, 100n3, 169 f., 192, 228 Owen, John xxvii(f.), xxxi, xxxii(n40), xxxiii, 33 f., 69, 79, 158, 179, 181 f., 215, 228f. Owen, Robert 201n40

253

Parker, Ann 126, 158 Payne, Alexander 60n161, 88 f., 115, 140, 167n20 Pearce, Samuel 201, 229 Porter, Thomas 91n392 Porter, Mr. 125f. Powell, Elizabeth 172 Priestley, Joseph xxx, 81n316, 134n251, 182, 195n15, 229f. Pywell, Ann 138, 145, 152, 155 Pywell, Samuel 138, 145, 152, 155 Robinson, Robert xv, xxxviii(n52), 34n68, 45n55f., 226, 230 Robinson, Thomas 93 Ryland, John Collett 39n8, 45n55, 51n98, 103n24, 105n40, 137n267, 189n23 Ryland, John, Jr. xi – xv, xvii(f.), xx – xxix, xxxi, xxxiii – xxxvii, xli – xliii, 13n58, 31n47, 38n4, 39, 40n18, 43n38, 45n47, 46n55, 52, 55f., 59n159, 60n167, 61n174f., 67, 79, 83, 88n374f., 94n414, 105, 124, 128n204, 129, 134, 140, 149, 153, 157, 159, 161, 170n30, 171ff., 187n18, 197n27, 213n3f., 216, 221, 227, 231 Sandeman, Robert xxvii, 197, 202, 206n54, 207 Satchell, John 119 f., 216, 224, 227n5, 231, 233n7 Scott, John xxvii, 61, 231 Scott, Thomas xxx, 59f., 110, 216, 231f. Sharman, Edward 116, 125 Sharp, John 40, 47n69, 68, 135, 153 Sharp[e], Mrs. 47 Sharp[e], William 47n69 Skinner, Thomas 128n204, 154, 171 Smith, George 47, 119, 147 Smith, Hezekiah 232 Smith, James 147n342 Smith, John xxiii, 154 Smith, Samuel, Jr. 119n139, 160n424, 165 Smith, Samuel, Sr. 165n4 Smith, Thomas xxiii, 40, 147, 159 f. Smith, Thomas (of Bedford) 40n19, 147n342 Smith, William (of Oakham) 47n69 Smith, William (of Bedford) 147n342 Smith, William (of Philadelphia) 235n8 Stuart, Charles xxvii, 196, 201 f., 216, 227n5, 233

254

Person Index

Sutcliff, John xxi(ff.), xxv(ff.), xxxiv(n43), 38– 40, 42n34 f., 43n38, 45n47, 52, 55, 59 f., 62n174, 74, 83, 88n374, 94n414, 96, 128n206, 129f., 134, 151, 153 f., 161, 165, 167n18, 171, 174, 196, 197n27, 198n34, 201 f., 226 Symonds, Joshua 40–42, 74n262 Taylor, Abraham 92n400 Taylor, Dan xix, 38n4, 92, 167 f., 176n1 Taylor, Thomas 233 Taylor, William 230 Tebbutt, Abraham 53n114 Tebbutt, Elizabeth 53 Tebbutt, Hannah 53n114 Tebbutt, Joseph, Jr. 53n114 Tebbutt, Joseph, Sr. 53n114, 116 f., 120 Thomas, Dr. John 175n66, 186n10, 192n2 Thomas, Joshua 149 Timms, Joseph xxiii, 40n17, 111, 143, 159 Timms, Elizabeth 40 Toller, Thomas 70, 107, 115, 163, 222 Tomson, Daniel 81n319 Tomson, Mrs. 81 Toulmin, Joshua 195 Wade, William 195 Wallis, Beeby xv, xvii, xviv, xxvi(f.), xxxviii, 54n120, 70n238, 74, 85, 95, 109, 111f., 117f., 126, 183, 240 Wallis, George xxxvii, 54n120, 109 Wallis, Mrs. (Jane, most likely Mrs. Joseph Wallis) 54, 57, 68, 84, 93, 107, 160

Wallis, Joseph, Sr. 54n120, 57 Wallis, Joseph, Jr. 54n120 Wallis, Miss M. 165 Wallis, Martha xvii, 54n120, 74, 109, 111n76, 159, 183n1, 223f. Wallis, Mary (Mrs. Samuel Wallis) 54n120, 117, 165 Wallis, Samuel 54n120, 109, 123, 151, 165, 168 Wallis, Thomas xvi, 70n238 Wallis, William xvi, 70n238 Ward, William 136n260, 192n2 Watt, Dr. James 202, 209 Watts, Isaac 6, 46n59, 69n228, 86n356, 98, 108, 216, 218, 225, 230, 234 West, Aaron 234 West, John 34, 50 – 51, 79, 102 f., 129, 131 West, Stephen 216, 235 White, Elizabeth 172n46 Whitfield, Charles 196 Whitefield, George 12, 170n30, 197n27 Witherspoon, John 198n33, 230, 236 Williams, Daniel 87 Williams, Edward 235 Williams, Reeve 235 Williams, Thomas 216, 227n5, 235 Wilson, Samuel xxviii, 92n400, 97 f., 236 Withers, Philip xviii(f.), 147, 156, 166 Wright, Mrs. xxiii, 148 f. Wright, Samuel 94, 122 Zwingli, Huldrych

31