The Architectural Ornament of Diocletian's Palace at Split 9780860548232, 9781407349466


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Table of contents :
Front Cover
Title Page
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ILLUSTRATIONS
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION
Chapter I: THE PALACE
Chapter 2: THE DECORATIVE VOCABULARY
Chapter 3: THE DECORATION IN CONTEXT
REGISTER
Appendix One: THE FRIEZE INSIDE THE MAUSOLEUM
APPENDIX TWO: HE COFFERS OF THE TEMPLE OF JUPITER
BIBLIOGRAPHY
CHARTS
FIGURES
DRAWINGS
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The Architectural Ornament of Diocletian's Palace at Split

Sheila McNally

BAR International Series 639 1996

Published in 2019 by BAR Publishing, Oxford BAR International Series 639 The Architectural Ornament of Diocletian’s Palace at Split © Sheila McNally and the Publisher 1996 The author’s moral rights under the 1988 UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act are hereby expressly asserted. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be copied, reproduced, stored, sold, distributed, scanned, saved in any form of digital format or transmitted in any form digitally, without the written permission of the Publisher. ISBN 9780860548232 paperback ISBN 9781407349466 e-book DOI https://doi.org/10.30861/9780860548232 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library This book is available at www.barpublishing.com BAR Publishing is the trading name of British Archaeological Reports (Oxford) Ltd. British Archaeological Reports was first incorporated in 1974 to publish the BAR Series, International and British. In 1992 Hadrian Books Ltd became part of the BAR group. This volume was originally published by Tempvs Reparatvm in conjunction with British Archaeological Reports (Oxford) Ltd / Hadrian Books Ltd, the Series principal publisher, in 1996. This present volume is published by BAR Publishing, 2019.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

L i s to fI lu s t ra t ion s

p .v

P reface

p .1

I n t roduc t ion

1 1 3

C hap te rO ne : T he P a lace

p .8

C hap te r Two : T he D eco ra t ive V ocabu la ry

p . 13

C hap te rT h r ee : T he D eco ra t ion i nC on tex t

p .2 3

R eg is te r

p .4 0

Append ix O ne : T he F r ieze i n s ide t h e Mau so leum

p .5 4

Append ix Two : T he C of f e r so ft h eT emp le o fJ up i te r

p .6 1

B ib l iog raphy

p .6 6

C ha r t s

p .7 2

F igu res a nd D raw ing s

a f te rp . 77

1 1

I LLUSTRAT IONS

C ha r t si nt e x t P ropor t ion so fe n tab la tu re s F r ieze o f Mau so leum C of f e r so fT emp le o fJ up i te r

p .1 9 p .5 4 p .6 2

C ha r t sf olow ing t e x t C ha r t One . D i s t r ibu t ion o fB and P a t te rn s K ey t oC ha r t s Two a nd T hree C ha r t Two . P a t ter n so nC on so le s C ha r tT h ree . P a t ter n so nE n tab la tu re sa nd R e la ted E lemen t s

7 2 -73 7 4 7 5 7 6 -77

F igu re s f i g . 1 . T he P a lace a tS p l i t ,v i ew f r om b ay . f i g . 2 . T he P a la ce a tS p l i t ,w a l l sk nown i n1 993 : D iv i s ion o fa r ea su sed i nt h i s d i scu s s ion ( B rad K a spa r ia f t e r Ma ra sov id a nd Ma ra sov id 1 994 ) . f i g . 3 . E nce in te ,n o r th a nd s ou th w a l l s : P la cemen to fd eco ra t ion ( Brad K a spa r i a f te rH 6b ra rd 1 912 ) . f i g .4 . R e s idence ,v e s t ibu le a nd p o r ch : P lacemen to fd eco ra t ion ( Brad K a spa r i a f t e r Ma ra sov id a nd Ma ra sov id 1 994 ) . f i g . 5 . Mau so leum e l eva t ion ,n o tt os ca le : P l acemen to fd eco ra t ion ( Brad K a spa r i ) . f i g . 6 . T emp le o fJ up i te r ,n o tt os c a le : P lacemen to fd eco ra t ion ( Brad K a spa r i ) . f i g . 7 . I .A a nd I . C .E nce in te : n o r th a nd s ou th f a cade , r e con s t ruc t ions ( H6b ra rd ) . f i g . 8 . I .A .2 .a . E nce in te : s ou th f a cade : p o r ch ( H6b ra rd ) ,l e a fa nd d a r t p robab ly w rong . f i g . 9 . I .A .2 .a .E nce in te : s ou th f a cade : w e s tp o rch . f i g .10 . I .A .2 .a .2 .E nce in te : s ou th f a cade : w e s tp o rch ,C o r in th ian iz ing c ap i ta l ( Zvon im i rB u l jev id ) . f i g . 1 . I .A .2 .b .E nce in te : s ou th f a cade : a r cade ( H6b ra rd ) . f i g . 1 2 . I .A .2 .b . E nce in te : s ou th f a cade : a r cade ( Zvon im i rB u l jev id ) . f i g . 1 3 . I . B .2 . E nce in te : e a s tw a l l : s t r ing c ou r se o nw a l la nd o c tagona lt owe r . f i g . 1 4 . I . B .2 a nd 3 . E nce in te : e a s tw a l l : s t r ing c ou r se a nd n or th n i che ( Zvon im i rB u l jev id ) . f i g . 1 5 . I . B .4 . E nce in te : e a s tg a teway ,c en te rr e s to red ( Zvon im i rB u l jev id ) , f i g . 1 6 . I . B .4 .a a nd b . E nce in te : e a s tg a teway : f l a ta r ch , ( vous so i ra tr i gh t r e s to red )a nd a r ch ivo l t . f i g . 1 7 . I . C .3 t o6 . E nce in te : n o r th g a te a r ea i n1 910 ( N iem a nn ) . f i g . 1 8 . I . C .3 t o6 . E nce in te : n or th g a te a r ea . f i g . 1 9 . I . C .2 . E nce in te : n o r th w a l l : s t r ing c ou r se ,p l a in a nd p a t te rned . f i g . 2 0 . I . C .3 .b . E nce in te : n or th g a te : e a s tn i che , s i l l . f i g . 2 1 . I . C .4 .a .and b . E nce in te : n o r th g a te : f l a ta r ch a nd a r ch ivo l t . f i g . 2 2 . I . C .5 . E nce in te : n o r th g a te : u ppe ra r cade ( H6b ra rd ) . f i g . 2 3 . I . C .5 .c a nd d . E nce in te : n o r th g a te : u ppe ra r cade .

f i g . f i g . f i g . f i g .

2 4 . 2 5 . 2 6 . 2 7 .

I . C .5 .a . E nce in te : n o r th g a te : c on so le . I . C .5 .a . E nce in te : n o r th g a te : c on so le . I . C .5 .a . E nce in te : n o r th g a te : c on so le . I .D .2 . E nce in te : w e s t w a l l , s t r ing c ou r se ,p l a in a nd p a t te rned ( N iemann ) . f i g . 2 8 . I .D .4 .a . E nce in te : w e s t g a te , f l a ta r ch . f i g . 2 9 . I . E . E nce in te : n o r thwe s tt owe r : t o pa nd c or n e r mo ld ing s . f i g . 3 0 . I . E . E nce in te : n o r th w e s tt owe r : c or ne r mo ld ing . f i g . 3 1 . I .A .1 . R e s idence b lock : c o r r ido rd oo rf r am e( Zvon im i rB u l jev id ) . f i g . 3 2 . I LA .1 . R e s idence b lock : c o r r ido rd oo rf r ame ( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g . 3 3 . I .B .1 . R e s idence b lock : v e s t ibu le : d oo rf r ame ( 1 16b r a rd ) . f i g . 3 4 . I .B .1 . R e s idence b lock : v e s t ibu le : d oo rf r ame ( Zvon im i rB u l jev id ) . f i g . 3 5 . R e s idence b lock : p o rch : d oo rf r ame ( He ra rd ) . f i g . 3 6 . I .C .2 . R e s idence b lock : p o rch : c o lumn s ,e n tab la tu r e ,a nd r ak ing c or n ice ( He r a rd ) . f i g . 3 7 . I .C . , I I .A . R e s idence b lock : p o r ch .T emeno s a r ea : P e r i s ty le c o lonnade s( Zvon im i rB u l jev id ) . f i g . 3 8 . I I .A ,I V .C .3 a nd E . 1 . T emeno sa r ea : P e r i s ty le c o lonnade ; S t r ee t s : D ecumanu s ,s i de p o r ch e n t ry a nd c ro s s ing p i l la r( embedded i ns i de o f B a roque c hape l ) ( I 16b ra rd ) . f i g . 3 9 . I .C .2 ,I I .B .1 . R e s idence b lock : p o r ch e n tab la tu r ec on t inua t ion a t s ou thea s t . T emeno sa r ea : i n te r io ro fe a s tc ou r tya rd ,a r ch ivo l ta nd e n tab la tu r e . f i g .4 0 . I .C .2 . R e s idence b lock : p o rch e n tab la tu re c on t inua t ion a t s ou thea s t ,d e ta i l . f i g .4 1 . I I .A .1 ,2 .T emeno sa r ea : P e r i s ty le c o lonnade : a n ta o nn o r thea s tp i l la r a nd c o lumn c ap i ta l s . Mo ld ing o np i l la r . ( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g .4 2 . 1 1 .A .1 . P e r i s ty le : a n ta c ap i ta l ( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g .4 3 . I I .A .4 a nd 5 . P e r i s ty le : a r ch ivo l ta nd c rown mo ld ing ( 1 16b ra rd ) . f i g .4 5 . I I .C . Mau so leum ( v iew f r om n o r thwe s t ,w i th c o lumn o fd ecumanu s , I V .C .1 , i nf o reg round ) . f i g .4 6 . I I .C . Mau so leum : r e con s t ruc ted s e c t ion e a s tt ow e s t( 1 16b ra rd ) . f i g .4 7 . I I .C .2 . Mau so leum : p o r t ico ( H6b ra rd ) . f i g .4 8 . I L LC .2 .a . Mau so leum : p o r t ico a ng le c ap i ta l ,d e ta i l . f i g .4 9 . I : LC .2 . Mau so leum : p o r t ico a ng le c ap i ta l , s o ff i t ,a r ch i t rave . f i g . 5 0 . I I .C .2 .b . (1) Mau so leum : p o r t ico ,c o rn ice f r agmen t : c on so le sa nd c yma r e c ta w i th a n them ion . f i g . 5 1 . I I .C .2 .b . Mau so leum : p o r t ico ,c or n ice f r agmen t : c on so les a nd c yma r e c ta w i th a n them ion . f i g . 5 2 . H I .C .2 .b . Mau so leum : p o r t ico ,c o rn ice f r agmen t : c on so le sa nd c yma r e c ta w i th a n them ion . f i g . 5 3 . I E LC .2 .d . Mau so leum : p o r t ico ,c o f f e r s : f i ve s ided s l ab f o rc or n e r , f r agmen to fr e c tangu la rs l ab n o . 1( N iemann ) . f i g . 5 4 . I I .C .4 .b . Mau so leum : d oo r( 1 16b ra rd ) f i g . 5 5 . I I .C .4 . Mau so leum : d oo rf r ame ,c or n ice a nd p a r to fu ppe rl e a fa nd d a r tr e s to red ,c onvex p ane lo r ig ina l( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g . 5 6 . I I .C .4 .b . Mau so leum : d oo rf r ame ,d e ta i lo fc onvex p ane lo nn o r th s i de ( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g . 5 7 . Mau so leum : d oo rf r ame ,d e ta i lo fc onv ex p ane lo ns ou th s i de ( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g . 5 8 . I I .C .6 . Mau so leum : C rown mo ld ing o no u te rw a l lo fc e l la ( 1 16b ra rd ) . f i g . 5 9 . I I .C .4 .b . . Mau so leum : d oo rf r ame ,c or n ice f r agm en ti nl a p ida r ium o f A r chaeo log ica l Mu seum . f i g . 6 0 . I I .C .7 .a . . Mau so leum : i n te r io r , i mpo s ta nd s t r ing c ou r se ( Zvon im i r B u l jev id ) . f i g . 6 1 . I I .C .8 . Mau so leum : i n te r io rl owe ro rde r( I 16b ra rd ) . f i g . 6 2 . I I .C .8 .a . . Mau so leum : i n te r io rl owe ro rde r ,c ap i ta li nl a p ida r ium o f A r chaeo log ica l Mu seum . v i

f i g . 6 3 . I I .C .8 .c . . Mau so leum : i n te r io rl owe ro rde r ,c o rn ice f r agmen tn ow b y n o r th w a l lo fP a la ce ,d e ta i lo fa n them ion . f i g . 6 4 . I I .C .8 .c . Mau so leum i n te r io r : l owe ro rde r ,r e s sau l tb l ock o ff r ieze n ow b yn o r th w a l lo fP a la ce . f i g . 6 5 . I I .C .9 .a . Mau so leum : i n te r io ru ppe ro rde r ,c ap i ta li nA r chaeo log ica l Mu seum . f i g . 6 6 . I I .C .9 . Mau so leum : i n te r io ru ppe ro rde r( H6b ra rd ) . f i g . 6 7 . I I .C .9 .c . Mau so leum : i n te r io ru ppe ro rde r ,f r agmen to fa r ch i t rave n ow b yn o r th w a l lo fP a lace . f i g . 6 8 . I I .C .9 .c . Mau so leum : i n te r io ru ppe ro rde r ,f r agmen to fc or n ice n ow b yn or th w a l lo fP a lace . f i g . 6 9 . Mau so leum : i n te r io rf r ieze : H e rme sa tl e f t ,P r i sca a tr i gh t . Mo s to fr ema in ing d eco ra t ion r e s to r ed ( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g . 7 0 . I I .C .10 . Mau so leum i n te r io r : f r ieze : D io c le t ian t or i gh to fl e f th and c o lumn . Mo s to fr ema in ing d eco ra t ion r e s to r ed ( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g . 7 1 . I I .D . T emp le o fJ up i te r : r e con s t ruc ted s e c t ion ,e a s tt ow e s t ( H6b ra rd ) . f i g . 7 2 . I I . D .2 , 5 . a , 6 ,7 .T emp le : s ou thwe s tp i la s te rc ap i ta l ,c r own mo ld ing , r ak ing c o rn ice ,p ed imen t ( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g . 7 3 . I I .D .5 .b . T emp le : c rown mo ld ing o ns ou th s i de ( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g . 7 4 . T emp le : d oo rway ( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g . 7 5 . I I .D .8 . T emp le : d oo rf r ame : c on so le ,l i n te l ,c or n ice o ns ou th s i de ( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g .7 6 . I I .D .8 . T emp le : d oo rf r ame : c on so le ,l i n te l ,c or n ice o nn o r th s i de ( Zvon im i rB u l jev id ) . f i g . 7 7 . I I .D .8 . T emp le : d oo rf r ame : c on so le s ,j amb ,l i n te l ,c or n ice ( N iemann ) . f i g . 7 8 .I I .D .8 .a . T emp le : d oo rf r ame : s i de c on so le ,d e ta i l ( Zvon im i r B u l jev ie ) . f i g . 7 9 . I I .D .8 .c . T emp le : d oo rf r ame : c or n ice :c on so le w i th h ead o fH e r cu l e s ( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g . 8 0 .D I .D .8 .c . T emp le : d oo rf r ame : c o rn ice : c on so le w i th l e a f yh ead ( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g . 8 1 . I I .D .8 .b . T emp le : d oo rf r ame : d e ta i lo fj amb o ns ou th s i de ( Zvon im i r B u l jev ie ) . f i g . 8 2 . f f l .D .9 a nd 1 0 . T emp le i n te r io r : c r own mo ld ing a nd c of f e r s( Zvon im i r B u l jev id ) . f i g . 8 3 . I I .D .10 . T emp le i n te r io r : c o f f e rw i th r o se t te b o s s ( He inz K äh le r ) . f i g . 8 4 . M .D .10 . T emp le i n te r io r : c of f e rw i th h ead b o s s( He inz K äh le r ) . f i g . 8 5 . I I .D .9 a nd 1 0 . T emp le i n te r io r : c r own mo ld ing a nd c o f f e r( He inz K äh le r ) . f i g . 8 6 . I I .D .10 . T emp le i n te r io r : c of f e rw i th h ead b o s s( He inz K äh le r ) . f i g . 8 7 .I I .D .10 . T emp le i n te r io r : c of f e rw i th " vo lu te " b o s s( He inz K äh le r ) . f i g . 8 8 .1 1 .D .10 . T emp le i n te r io r : c of f e rw i th h ead b o s s( He inz K äh le r ) . f i g . 8 9 . T emp le i n te r io r : c o f f e rw i th f u l lb a ske tb o s s( He inz K äh le r ) . f i g . 9 0 . I I .D .10 . T emp le i n te r io r : c of f e r ,d e ta i lo ff r ame s how ing b a ske t i n s t i r rup shaped l e a fa nd d a r t( He inz K äh le r ) . f i g . 9 1 .I I .D .10 . T emp le i n te r io r : c of f e r ,d e ta i lo ff r ame s how ing b i rd i n s t i r rup shaped l e a fa nd d a r t .. f i g . 9 2 .I I .D .10 . T emp le i n te r io r : c o f f e r ,d e ta i lo ff r ame show ing f i gu re h o ld ing t o r ch i ns t i r rup s haped l e a fa nd d a r t . f i g . 9 3 . I I .D .10 . T emp le i n te r io r : c of f e r ,d e ta i ls how ing h ead b o s s ,d o lph in i ns t i r rup -f ramed l e a fa nd d a r t . f i g . 9 4 . I I .E .1 . S ou ther nr ound b u i ld ing : b a se mo ld ing ( med ieva la r ch i n f o reg round ) ( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g .9 5 .I I .E .3 . S ou the rn r ound b u i ld ing : f r ieze f r agmen t( Zvon im i rB u l jev ie ) . f i g . 9 6 . I I .E .2 . S ou ther nr ound b u i ld ing : c of f e r si ns l ab a( Zvon im i r B u l jev ie ) . f i g . 9 7 . I V .C .1 . D ecumanu s : c o lumn c ap i ta l . V I

f i g .9 8 . I V .C .1 . D ecumanu s : c o lumn c ap i ta l( p o r t ico o f Mau so leum i n b a ckg round ) . f i g . 9 8 . I V .E .1 . S t ree t s :c en t ra lc ro s s ing : n o r th ea s tp i l la r( Zvon im i rB u l jev i) . DRA W INGS 1 . I . E .1 . E nce in te : n o r thea s tc o rne rt owe r ,m o ld ing o nn o r thea s tc or n e ro f t owe r . 2 . I .C .2 .d . R e s idence : p o rch , r ak ing c or n ice . 3 . I .C .2 .c .1 R e s idence : p o rch ,e n tab la tu r ef a c ing o u t ,s t ra igh ts e c t ion ( a t e a s t ) . 4 . f f l .A . 4a nd 5 . P e r i s ty le , a r ch ivo l ta nd c r own mo ld ing ( ove rs e cond a r ch f r om n o r th ,c o lonnade i nf r on to f Mau so leum ) . 5 . I I .B .1 a nd 2 . E a s ter nt emeno s ,i n t e r io r ,a r ch ivo l ta nd c r own mo ld ing ( ove rs e cond a r ch f r om n o r th ) . 6 . I I .C .2 .b .1 Mau so leum :p o r t ico e n tab la tu r e ,o u te rf a ce ( s ou thea s ter ns i de ) . 7 . I I .C .4 .b . Mau so leum : d oo rf r am e ,c o rn ice f r agm en ti nl a p ida r ium o f A r cha eo log ica l Mu seum ( s ee a l so f i g . 5 9 ) . 8 . I I .D .6 . T emp le o fJ up i te r : r ak ing c or n ice o nw e s te nd . 9 . I I .D .5 .a . T emp le o fJ up i te r : c r own mo ld ing o nw e s te nd ( s ec t ion n ea rn o r th c or n e r whe r ec ave t to i sp l a in a nd e r o t e sr e p la ce g r if in si nt h e f r ieze . 1 0 . I I .D .5 .b . T emp le o fJ up i te r : c r own mo ld ing o ns ou th s i de . 1 . f f l .D .9 a nd 1 0 . T emp le i n te r io r :c r own m o ld ing a nd l owe s tv ou s so i r . 1 2 . I I .E .2 . S ou the rn r ound b u i ld ing : c of f e rf r agmen t s ( t op , s l ab a ,b o t tom , s l ab b ) . 1 3 . A n th em ion . F rom t o pt ob o t tom : I .C .2 .d .p o r ch o fr e s idence ( s ee d raw ing 2 ) ; I I .D .6 .T emp le o fJ up i te r ,r a k ing c o rn i ce ( s ee d r aw ing 8 ) ; I I .D .5 .b . T emp le o f J up i te r , c rown mo ld ing o ns ou th s i de ( s ee d r aw ing 1 0 ) ; T emp le o f J up i te r ,c rown mo ld ing o fi n t e r io r( s ee d r aw ing 1 ) . 1 4 . V a r iou sp a t te rn s . F rom t op t ob o t tom : r i nceau w i th s e conda ry s t em ,I .C .2 .d . p o r ch o fr e s iden ce ,r ak ing c o rn ice ( s ee d r aw ing 2 ) ; s h ea r shaped l e a fa nd d a r t , I .C .2 .c .1 ,p o r ch o fr e s idence ,s t ra igh te n tab la tu r e( s ee d raw ing 3 ) ; e ro te sw i th k an tha ro s ,I I .D .5 .a , T emp le o fJ up i te r ,c r own mo ld ing o n w e s te nd ( s ee d r aw ing 9 ) .

v i i i

PREFACE I n t h e s p r ing o f 1 992 Iv i s i ted S p l i t t o d i scuss w i th J e rko Ma ra sov id w ays o fc on t inu ing o u r l ong -s tand ing c oope ra t ion a nd c omm i tmen t t o p ub l ica t ion . When h e s ugges ted t h a t I u nde r take as t udy o ft he a r ch i tec tu ra ld eco ra t ion i nt h eP a lace ,I a g reed w i th b o th e n thus ia sm a nd c l ea r r e se rva t ions . H e inz K äh le r h ad b egun a s t udy o f t he d ecora t ion i n t h e 1 930 's . Dur ing t h e s ummers t ha t t he Un ive r s i ty o f M inne so ta w as e xcava t ing i nS p l i t , Käh le r w a s a l so t h ere , ama ss ing d e ta i led d ocumen ta t ion f o r av o lume h e wa s n o t t oc omp le te . Mo s t o f h i s d ocumen ta t ion c an n o l onger t o b e f ound . Ih ave n o t a sp i red t ot h e d ep th o r b read th o ft h e s t udy h e w a s p repa r ing . A s p l ans f o r g ene ra l p ub l ica t ion h ave c hanged , s o t oo h a s t h e s hape o ft h is s t udy , b u t i tr ema ins modes t . Ih ope i tp rov ides af ounda t ion f o rf u tu re wo rk .

F rench s cho la r s : t h e C roa t ian -F rench S c ien t if ic R esea rch P ro jec t o n t h e a queduc t o f D ioc le t ian 's P a lace . More e xcava t ion may b e f e a s ib le w i th in as ho r tt ime . P e rhaps mo s t i mpor tan t o fa l l , t h e Mun ic ipa l i ty o fS p l i t a nd t h e R epub l ic o f C roa t ia a r e s uppo r t ing p repa ra t ion o ft he d e ta i led p ub l ica t ion s o s o re ly n eeded . T he f i r s t v o lume w i l l b e J e rko Ma ra sov id 's l o ng a wa i ted a ccoun t o ft h e f a b r ic o ft h e P a lace . Much o ft h e d ocumen ta t ion h a s b een c omp le ted . We h ope t ha t , w i th c on t inued i n terna t iona l s uppor t , t h e b ook c an b e p ub l ished i n s eve ra l l a nguage s . Mo re v o lume s b y T om is lav Ma ra sov id , myse lf , a nd o the r s a r ep lanned . T he p re sen td ocumen ta t ion o f t h eo rnamen ti s af i r s t s t ep t owa rd al a rge g oa l . T hank s t ot h e g ene ro s i ty a nd c omm i tmen to fo rgan iza t ions i n s ide a nd o u t s ide C roa t ia , t hank s a bove a l l t o t h e v i s ion o f J e rko Ma rasov id , t ha t g oa l s eem s much c lo se r t h an w e c ou ld h ave h oped j us t a f ew y ea r sa go .

T h rough t he l a s t t wen ty y ea r s , t wo ma jor p rob lems h ad l o omed i n c rea s ing ly l a rge rf o r l over s o ft he P a lace : s cho la r ly p ub l ica t ion a nd p opu la r p resen ta t ion . Bo th a rose f r om t h e s ame c ause . A p er iod o f i n tense a r chaeo log ica l a nd u rban r enewa l b egan a f ter t he S econd Wor ld Wa r . E conom ic a dve r s i ty b rough t i tt o a n a b rup t e nd i n t h e 1 970 's , l e av ing r e con s t ruc t ion p ro jec ts h a lf f i n i shed . B r ie f ly i nt h e l a te 8 0 's i t s e emed t h a t ab oom ing p r iva te e conomy a nd e xpanded c u l tu ra l c on ta c t s w i th t h e o u ts ide w o r ld w e re p repa r ing t h e g round f o r e x ten s ive c onserva t ion a c t iv i ty , f o r ama jo r e f fo r t t oi n te rp re t t h e s i te t o t h e p ub l ic , a nd f o r c onso l ida t ion o f s cho la r ly d ocumen ta t ion a nd p repa ra t ion o f d e ta i led p ub l ica t ion . A l l t h is , o fc ou r se , f e l l v ic t im t ot h e u ncer ta in t ie s o ft h e 1 990 's .

B e tween 1 992 a nd 1 994 I c omp i led a r eg is ter o f t he a r ch i tec tu ra ld eco ra t ion i np l ace ;i d en t if ied f r agmen t si ng a rden s o ft h e A rchaeo log ica l Museum , o u t s ide t h e N or th w a l l o ft h e P a lace , a nd i n t h e Mauso leum t emenos ; a nd o b ta ined mea su remen t s , p ho tograph ic d ocumen ta t ion , a nd d raw ings . T he w o rk h a sb een f unded b yt h eN a t iona lE ndowmen tf o rt h e Human i t ies , a nd t h e G radua te S choo l o f t h e Un ive r s i ty o f M inne so ta . T he b u lk o ft h e w o rk o n s i te w a sd one i nt h e s umme ro f 1 993 . My p r inc ipa l a s s is tan t wa s P au la W i l la rd f r om t he Un ive r s i ty o fM inne so ta , h e lped b y T a jma R ismondo . Mos t o fS p l i t h ad e l ec t r ica l p owe r o n ly f o r l im i ted h our s i n t h e e ven ing a nd mo rn ing . If e e l u nusua l i n deb tedne s s t ot h e g eneros i ty s hown b y a l l o fJ e rko Ma ra sov id 's a s soc ia te s i n s ha r ing t h e i r s ca rce r e sou rce s , a nd t h ee ndu rance d emon s t ra ted b yP au la W i l la rd i n d o ing c ompu te r w o rk w i th a n i n f requen t a nd u n re l iab le p owe r s upp ly . Ic anno t p ra ise t oo h i gh ly h e r c ommon s ense u nde r p re s su re .

I n 1 992 w e made p lans i n ac i ty a cce ss ib le o n ly b y b oa t , i t s a i rpo r t o u t o f c omm iss ion a nd t h e r oad s n or th a nd s ou th s ub jec t t o i n term i t ten t s he l l ing . S p l i t h ad i t se lf b een b omba rded i n 1 991 . T he ma in t a rge t s s eem t oh ave b een t h e c omme rc ia l h a rbor a nd s h ipya rds s ome d i s tance f r om t h e o ld c i ty . O n ly o ne s he l l f e l l w i th in t h e l im i t s o ft h e P a lace , d o ing s l igh td amage , a nd n one t ot h e R oman s t ruc tu re . D e sp i te a l l a dve r s it ies , t h e c i ty c on t inued t oc oncern i t se lf w i th t h e s t udy a nd c on se rva t ion o fi t s P a lace . Mee t ings w i th t h e Mayo r , t h e M in i s te r o fC u l ture , a nd t h e R ec to r o f t he Un ive r s i ty l e f t n o d oub t a bou t t he h igh p r ior i ty g iven t o t he s i te . I n t he f o l low ing y ea r s , t he f l ood o f r e fugees a nd r e la ted p rob lems made f unds f o r t he P a lace h a rde r a nd h a rde r t oc ome b y , b u t J e rko Ma ra sov i ' s wo rk s omehow a lways c on t inued . T oday , work o n t h e P a lace f l ou r ishes a ga in t o ad egree h a rd ly e nv i saged w hen t h is s t udy b egan .

A rch i tec t s f r om t h e I ns t i tu te f o r P rese rva t ion i n S p l i t t ook many o ft h e mea su remen t s , c heck ing d raw ings p ub l ished i n 1 910 a nd 1 912 a nd f i nd ing t h em a ccura te . I v ica J ambros id o f t h e C roa t ian I n s t i tu te f o r t h e P reserva t ion o f Monumen t s p repa red n ew d raw ings . H e o ve rcame many l i tera l a nd f i gu ra t ive o bs tac les , f r om l a dde r s t o m i l i ta ry s e rv ice , w i th c hee rfu lness a nd i ngenu i ty . H e e n l is ted a n a r t is t t o s how d e ta i ls t h a t h e d id n o t t h ink e me rged c l ea r ly e nough i n h i s d raw ings . It h ank t h e I n s t i tu te , p a r t icu la r ly V las ta B egov id , f o r mak ing h i s p a r t ic ipa t ion p oss ib le . J e rko a nd M ir i jana Ma ra sov ij g enerous ly made f i n ished d raw ing s a nd wo rk ing s ke tches f o rh i sp l anned p ub l ica t ion a va i lab le f o rc onsu l ta t ion . Ih ave a l so made u se o fs ome o ft h ed ocumen ta t ion g a the red b y H e inz K äh le r f o r t he s t udy t h a t h e w a s u nab le t o f i n ish . Z von im i rB u l jev id , t h e t a len ted p ho tog raphe r o f t h e I n s t i tu te f o rt h eP ro tec t ion o f Monumen t s ,p rov ided m any p ho tog raph s . A s s he h a s f o r many y ea r s , L i l jana P rebanda s o lved c l e r ica l a nd b u reauc ra t ic p rob lem s w i th h e r i n compa rab le m ix tu re o f e ff ic iency a nd h i gh s p ir i t s .

N ew s uppo r t i s b e ing p rov ided , w i th r ea sonab le h ope t h a t mo re w i l l f o l low . T he P a lace i s aUNESCO Wo r ld H e r i tage S i te . I tn eed s p reserva t ion , a nd p resen ta t ion t o aw ide p ub l ic , b o th s cho la r ly a nd l a y . T he c i ty o fS p l i tp lan s t oc e leb ra te t h e s even teen h undred th a nn ive r sa ry o f t h e P a lace f r om 1 995 t o 2 005 . R es to ra t ion , e xp lo ra t ion , a nd p ub l ica t ion a l l f o rm p a r t o ft h ec e leb ra t ion . W i th t h e g ene rous s uppo r t o f t h e J .P au l G e t ty T rus t , ma jo r r e s to ra t ion i so ccur r ing f o rt h e f i r s t t ime i n many y ea r s . S ome o ft h e w a te r -soaked r ooms a r e d ry ; s l ipp ing v au l t s a r e s e cu red ; l ong los t s paces r ega in t h e ir s hape . P resen t e xp lo ra t ion f ocuses o n t h e wa ter s upp ly s ys tem i n c oopera t ion w i th

I n 1 993 Iv i s i ted R ome , i n 1 994 G reece , a nd i n 1 995 T u rkey t ol ook a ts ome o ft h e c ompa rab le monumen t s . F o r d i f fe ren t 1

PREFACE r ea sons , Ih ave b een u nab le t ov i s i tG amz ig rad , o rt h et emp le t omb a tS ide . Ih ave a l so n o tr e ce ived p e rm i s s ion t op ub l i sh s ome o f t h e p ho tog raph s t h a t Ih ave t aken . I ts eemed b e s t t he refo re t o d evo te a l l t he i lu s t ra t ions a nd mo s t o f t h e d i scu ss ion h e re t o t h e a bundan t ma te r ia l f r om S p l i t . Al a te r p ub l ica t ion o f c ompa ra t ive ma te r ia l w i l l a l so p rov ide a n o ppo r tun i ty f o rd e ta i led d ocumen ta t ion o ft e chn ique . T he h o sp i ta l i ty o f t he Ame r ican S choo l i n A then s a nd t h e B yzan t ine R esea rch L ib ra ry a tD umba r ton O ak s h a s p rov ided n o t o n ly t h e s cho la r ly r e sou r ce s , b u t t he amb iance , b y t u rn s t r anqu i l a nd s t imu la t ing , t ha t f o s te r s r e sea rch . Iw i sh Ic ou ld t hank e ve ry o ne i nd iv idua l ly f o rt h e i r man ifo ld k i ndne s se s ,b u t Iw i l l c on ten t myse lf w i th men t ion ing my a pp rec ia t ion o ft h e w a rm w e lcome a fo rded b yI r ene V a s lef i n Wa sh ing ton ,a nd t h e p a t ien t h e lpfu lne ss o f Ma rk Z apa tka , a nd i n A then s B ob B r idge s ' r e sou r cefu l a nd e n thu s ia s t ic a s s i s tance . As abba t ica l l e ave f r om t h e Un ive r s i ty o fM inne so ta h a s p e rm i t ted me t o b r ing t h is s t age o f wo rk t o ac onc lu s ion .

I np repa r ing t h et e x t Ih ave g r ea t ly b enef i ted b y a dv ice g i ven b y Wi l l iam L . MacDona ld , J ames P acke r , a nd t h ree a nonymou s r e ade r s . Iam p a r t icu la r ly g ra tefu l t o MacDona ld f o r t he p a t ience , t a c t a nd a cumen t ha t h e d evo ted t oa n e a r ly v e r s ion . T he p resen t o ne w ou ld b y n o mean s m ee t h i s h i gh s t anda rd s ,b u ti tw ou ld c er ta in ly b ew o r se w i thou th i sp r ecep t s . It hank J ohn W i lke s a nd O l ive r N icho l son f o r t he i r l u c id d iscuss ions o f h is tor ica l i s sues , a nd t he i r h e lp w i th b ib l iog raphy . J ohn Wi lke s h a s r ecen t ly s ugge s ted t o m e f r u i tfu l d i rec t ions f o r f ur the r r e sea rch o n r e la t ions b e tween o rnamen t i n S p l i t a nd i n t h e D anube r eg ion s . G e rha rd Koeppe l r ead i ly t ook t ime i nt h e m idd le o f ab u sy t e ach ing s chedu le t or ead a nd c ommen t . C a ro l ine S n ive ly a l so r e ad t h rough a g rea t d ea l o f t he t ex t , made many h e lpfu l s ugge s t ion s , a nd h e lped t r ack d own e l us ive b ib l iog raphy . A l l

t h e se e xper t s a r e o f c our se b lame le s s f or t he e r ro r s a nd i n f e l ic i t ie st h a tr ema in . Ih ave b een mo s tf o r tuna te i nf i nd ing d ed ica ted a nd r e sou r ce f u l e xper t s t o a s s i s t m e i n c ompu te r wo rk . P au la Wi l la rd a nd S co t tK a ra I ca se ach c on t r ibu ted t ot he c ha r t mak ing . R icha rd P ianka p u t c ha r t s i n to f i na l f o rm f o r p ub l ica t ion . W i th D iane K a t s ia f ica s ' a dv ice a nd e ncou ragemen t , B rad K a spa r i p u tt h ei lu s t ra t ion so nt ape , af a r mo re c omp l ica ted t a sk t h an e i the ro fu sh ad a n t ic ipa ted .

L ucy R a s te l l i , w ho h a s wo rked l ong a nd h a rd o n o u re a r l ie r p ub l ica t ion s a bou tt h e P a lace , o nce mo re g ave t he b ene f i to f h e r e d i to r ia l s k i l l s . P roof read ing , p a r t icu la r ly r epea ted c heck ing o f t h e c ha r t s a nd t h e r eg is te r , w a s c a r r ied o u t b y S co t t K a raka s , b eg inn ing when h e w a s ag radua te s t uden ta t t h e Un ive r s i ty o f M inne so ta , a nd c on t inu ing a t N or th C a ro l ina . Wi thou t h i s c a re , many mo re e r ro r s wou ld b e p r e sen t . T he g if t ed a nd d evo ted s ec re ta r ie so ft h e Depa r tmen t o fC la s s ica l a nd N ea r E a s te rn S tud ie s a tt he Un ive r s i ty o f M inne so ta , J udy S cu l l in a nd Amy P a teyuk , h ave c on t inua l ly g i ven h e lp f a r b eyond a ny c a l l o f d u ty . Much a s t h e i r p rac t ica l a s s is tance i sa pp rec ia ted , t he i rs e em ing ly u nf a i l ing i n te re s ta nd c once rn h ave b een o fe ven g r ea te rv a lue . A sf a s t a sp roof reade r s e l im ina te e r ro r s , Ii n t roduce mo re , s o Ia m v e ry g ra tefu l t o C a ro l ine N icho lson f o r me t icu lou s f i na l r e ad ing . F ina l ly It hank D av id a nd R a jka Dav i son o f t he B r i t i sh A rchaeo log ica l R epor t s f o r t he ir s uppo r t , p a t ience , a nd e ncou ragemen t .

2

I NTRODUCT ION T he P a lace o f D ioc le t ian a t S p l i t i s at r ea su re h ou se o f a r ch i tec tu ra l d ecora t ion . No o the r R oman monumen t h a s a c ompa rab le a moun to fc a rved o rnamen tf r om as i ng le b u i ld ing c ampa ign s t i l l i n p lace . I n a dd i t ion , many s ubs tan t ia l f r agmen t s l i e w i th in t h e P a lace a nd i t s s ur round ing s . T h i s r i chne ss e s tabl i she st h e a im s o fp ub l ica t ion .

o ft h e w o rk a tS p l i t . P a ra l le l s f o ri nd iv idua lp a t te rn s o r mo t if s a r en o th a rd t of i nd ,b u tt h eo ve r -a l la pp roach i su npa ra l le led . T he t e x t b eg in s w i th ar ev iew o f r e levan t i s sue s r a ised a nd c onc lu s ions r eached b y p rev ious s cho la r s . C hap te r O ne i n t roduce s t h eP a lace . I tb eg in s b y c on s ide r ing t h ef unc t ion o f t h e P a lace a nd o f o rnamen t w i th in t he P a lace , f o l lowed b y e nume ra t ion o fi t sp a r t s . C hap te r Two p re sen t s t h eo rnamen ta l v ocabu la ry : t he p a t te rns , t he e l emen t s o rnamen ted , t h e ma te r ia ls a nd t e chn ique s . C hap te r T h ree c ons ide r s t he o rnamen t i n i t s s t ruc tu ra l c on tex t . I t c onc ludes b y s umma r iz ing s ome o f t h e b a s ic p r inc ip les o f s e lec t ion a nd a r rangemen t , a nd i nd ica t ing h ow t h ey c ompa re t ot h ose i no the r p la ce s . F ina l ly , i ta sk s h ow much a l l t h is t e l ls u s a bou t t h e p eop le w ho d id t h e w o rk . AR eg i s te r l i s t s a l l t h e p iece s n ow i np o s i t ion , o r d ef in i te ly a sc r ibed t o ap o s i t ion , a nd i n c lude s d e ta i led d i scu s s ion o fs pe c if i ce l emen t s w he re n ece s sa ry . When t h e d e ta i ls t h rea tened t o c l og t h e who le f o rma t , t h ey w e re r e lega ted t oa ppend ice s . T he refo re ,o ne a ppend ix c on s ide r st h e f r ieze i n s ide t h e Mau so leum a nd as e cond p rov ide si n fo rma t ion a bou t ap rev iou s ly u nexam ined a r ea , t h ec of f e red c e i l ing o ft h e T emp le o fJ up i te r .

A IMS F i r s t , t h e p os i t ion o f t h e o rnamen t i n s i tu p rov ide s ar a re o ppor tun i ty t oc ons ide ri t sf unc t ion : t os e ee a ch p a t te rn a sp a r t o fa na s semb lage ,a nd t h a ta s semb lage a sp a r to f ac on s t ruc t ion p rog ram . A p r ima ry a im o f t h is r e po r t i st o c on s ide r t he c on t r ibu t ion o ft he d eco ra t ion a s aw ho le , a s ag rand n e two rk a n ima t ing i t s s t ruc tu ra lc on tex t . S econda r i ly , d ocumen ta t ion o fd e ta i l h a s i mpo r tance i ni t se lf i n p rov id ing f i xed p o in ts o f c ompa r ison f o r l e ss w e l l d ocumen ted f r agmen t s a nd b u i ld ing s . D ioc le t ian w en t t ol i ve i nt h e P a la ce i n AD . 3 05 , s o h e p robab ly b egan t ob u i ld i ta f ew y ea r s e a r l ie r a nd f i n ished i t , o r l e f t i tu nf in ished , af ew y ea r s l a te r . ' F o r many s ucceed ing c en tu r ie s , s ma l l a dap ta t ion s o ccur red , b u t n o ma jo r c ons t ruc t ion . A l l t h e ma te r ia l d e sc r ibed h e re t he refo re d a te s t o ac l ea r ly d ef ined p e r iod . I t s how s u s s ome o ft h e w ay s i n wh ich m en w o rked t o ge the r a t t h e b eg inn ing o f t h e f ou r th c en tu ry . L ook ing a t av a r ie ty o f p a t te rn sa pp l ied t o amu l t i tude o fa r ch i t ec tu ra lm embe r s , w es e e w ha t c ommon s t anda rd s , a nd wha t r ange o f p os s ib l i t ies , o b ta ined .

S TATE OF S CHOLARSH IP Or namen ta tS p l i t T he t wo monog raph sp ub l ished o n t h eP a lace p re sen tt h eb a s ic c o rpu s o f a r ch i tec tu ra l d ecora t ion . T he b ook s b y G eo rg N iemann ,D er P a la s tD iok le t ian si nS pa la to w h ich a ppea red i n 1 910 , a nd b y E rne s t H 6b ra rd a nd J acque s Z e i l le r , S pa la to : L e p a la i s d e D ioc ld t ien , p ub l ished t wo y ea r s l a te r , c on ta in p rec ise ly d e ta i led d raw ings a nd p ho tog raphs o f ma jo r e l emen t s .2 T hey r ema in r e l iab le s ou rce s , b u t i n comp le te . T hey s e lec ted a nd g ene ra l ized . B efo re t h e i ra ppea rance , much r e s to ra t ion h ad a l ready t a ken p lace . Mo re h a s o ccu r red s i nce . S ub s tan t ia la dd i t iona l ma te r ia l h a s b een d i scove red , a nd s ome h a s u nfo r tuna te ly b een l o s t . T he p resen t d i scus s ion a im s t o i nd ica te wha t o r ig ina l ma te r ia l n ow s u rv ives , men t ion ing d i scove r ie sa nd r e s to ra t ion s .

T h i s r ange r a i ses f u r the r q ue s t ion s . I ti sn o to bv iou s h ow t h e w o rk f o rce w as a ssemb led a nd o rgan ized , b u t c e r ta in s ugge s t ion sm ay b e made . T hey r e la t ei nt u rn t ob roade ri s sue s a bou tt h ep l ace o ft h i sp a r t icu la rb u i ld ing c ampa ign i n aw o r ld w he re c en te r sa nd p e r iphe r ie sw e re c hang ing d r a s t ica l ly . T h is p ub l ica t ion c oncen t ra tes o n t h e f i r s t t wo a im s : o n d ocumen t ing wha t o rnamen t e x is t s , a nd o n a na lyz ing i t s r e la t ion sh ip t ot he s t ruc tu re . Ma jo r c ompa ra t ive ma te r ia l i s b r ief ly n o ted , a nd ma jo r c u r ren t s m en t ioned . E xam ina t ion o f c ompa ra t ive ma te r ia l s e rve s ma in ly t ou nde r l ine t h eo r ig ina l i ty

P rev ious d i scuss ions o f t he a r ch i tec tura l o rnamen t h ave c oncen t ra ted o n t wo t hemes : i t s c h rono log ica l a nd i t s g eog raph ica l p o s i t ion . C h rono log ica l ly , t h e P a lace s t and s a ta c ruc ia l p o in t i n ag ene ra l e vo lu t ion f r om t he a nc ien t t ot h e med ieva l w o r ld . Ways o f ma in ta in ing p owe r w e re c hang ing . G eog raph ica l ly , i ta ppea r s a t a momen t when g eog raph ica l n e two rk s w e re i n r ea l ignmen t a s c en ter s o f p owe r w e re s h if t ing , a nd mu l t ip ly ing .

'W i l l iam s ( 1985 : 2 56 , n . 1 ) q uo te s T om is lav Ma ra sov ie a s s ay ing t h e w o rk mu s t h ave b egun i n t h e 2 90 's i ft h e b u i ld ing w a s r e ady f o r o ccupancy b y 3 05 , b u t p robab ly t h e b eg inn ing o f t h e f ou r th c en tu ry w ou ld h ave b een t ime e nough . K äh le r s e t 3 03 a st h e l a te s t b eg inn ing d a te , p robab ly t oo l a te ( 1974 : 8 11) . D ioc le t ian w a s a n e n thus ia s t ic b u i lde r , who s eem s t o h ave e n joyed k eep ing N icomed ia i n as t a te o ff l ux ( Lac tan t iu sd e Mor t . P er s . 7 ) , a nd may w e l l h ave w an ted t o b e i nr e s idence w h i le s ome o f t h e w o rk w en t o n . H e m ay a l so h ave r e t i red e a r l ie rt h an h ei n tended b ecau se o fh i s i lne ss (W i l l iam s 1 985 : 1 86 , n . 2o n p .2 56 ) . K ah le r a r gued t ha t much o ft h ei r regu la r i ty w e f i nd i nt h eP a lace r e su l ted f r om a n e f fo r t b y t h e w o rkmen t o b r ing t h e wo rk t o ah a s ty c onc lu s ion i no rde r t o c ause t h e l e a s t d i s tu rbance t o a n i l m an ( 1953 : 3 4 ) . H e t hough t t h e w o rkmen h ad l e f t b y 3 07 t o g o t oR ome , b u t h i s v i ew s b o th o n D ioc le t ian 's h ea l th a nd o n t he l a rge -sca le movemen t o f w o rkmen c an b e q ue s t ioned , s ee b e low , n o te 9 a nd p .3 9 .

S cho la r sc once rned w i th e i the rt h eme , t h ec h rono log ica l a nd /o r t h e g eog raph ica l , h ave c a r r ied o u t c lo se f o rma l a nd t e chn ica l 2T he P a lace w a s a l ready f amous l ong b efo re t h ey b egan t h e i r f undamen ta l s t ud ies . F o r ab r ief h i s tory o f s cho la r sh ip o n a l l a spec t s o f t h e c omp lex , s e e McNa l ly 1 989 .

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I NTRODUCT ION " a l a ndma rk o fR oman a r t i ni t s t r an s i t ion f r om t h e O r ien t t o t h e We s t ." H i sa r gumen tp roceed sf r om c ompa r ison o fs pec if ic d e ta i ls t oc ompa r i son o fp lans . H e w a s n o t i n te re s ted i nt h e p a t te rns u sed , b u t r a the r s t ressed c e r ta in t r ea tmen t s o f c o lonnade sa nd e n tab la tu re s , t ha ti s , t h ec o lonnaded s t ree t sa nd t h e a r che s o n c o lumns , a tS p l i t . H e t r a ced t h em u l t ima te ly t o Me sopo tam ia , mo re i mmed ia te ly t o S yr ian s i te s s uch a s P a lmyra . We n ow r ea l ize t ha t t he se f o rm s w e re w ide ly d i s t r ibu ted ,a l though t h e i rg r ea te rp opu la r i ty i nt h ee a s tr ema ins c l ea r .

a na lys i s . T hey h ave t e nded t oc oncen t ra t eo nc e r ta in d e co ra t ive p a t te rn so ra r ch i tec tu ra l e l emen t si ni s o la t ion . L i t t le e f fo r th a s b een made t os e e t h e se p a t te rn s a nd c on s t ruc t ion s a sp a r t o fa who le c o rpu so fo rnamen t , s t i l l l e ss t or e la te t ha tc o rpu s t ot h e s t i l l l a rge r w ho le , t h e c ons t ruc t ion . I conog raph ic a na lys i s o f t h e o rnamen th a s b een l e s s c ommon , b u tw hen i th a s o ccu r red i th a sr e la ted d eco ra t ion t oa na r ch i tec tu ra lc on tex t . T he e a r l ie s ts t ud ie so ft h ea r ch i tec tu ra ld e co ra t ion o ft h eP a lace a r e t hose o fA lo is R ieg l , who u sed e l emen t s o ft h ed eco ra t ion a s e xemp la r s i n h i s t wo i mmense ly i nf luen t ia l b ook s S t i lf ragen ( 1 898 , E ng l ish t r an s la t ion 1 992 ) a nd S pä tröm ische K uns t indus tr ie ( 1901 , E ng l i sh t r ans la t ion 1 985 ) . I n b o th b ook sh eu pho ld st h ei mpo r tance o fc on s ide r ing a l lf o rm so fa r t t oge the r , n o ts epa ra t ing " f ine " f r om " app l ied ," a nd c on s ide r ing o rnamen t am a jo r a r t f o rm . H e wa s a l so among t h e f i r s t t o a rgue f o r ap o s i t ive a t t i tude t ot h e a r t is t ic c hange sa tt h e e nd o f t h e a nc ien t w o r ld . H is u nde r ly ing t heo r ie s h ave b een much d i spu ted , b u t h i s c ha rac te r iza t ion o f ac hange f r om t a c t i le t o o p t ic v a lue s ,f r om t h ree d imen s iona l t ot wo d imen s iona l , f r om w o rk s t h a tn eed t ob e s een c l o se a th and t o wo rk s mean tt ob e s een f r om ad i s tance , h a s e f f ec ted a l l s ub sequen th i s to r ian s o f l a te R oman a r t .3

S t ryzgowsk i ' s " O r ien t " l a y o n t he b ounda r ie s o f t h e R oman Emp i re o r b eyond , a nd h e c once ived i ta s ac oun te r f o rce t o G reek a s w e l l a s Wes te rn R oman d eve lopmen t s . C lose r s ou rce s , r oo ted i n t he H e l len is t ic p a s t , h ave p roved mo re s i gn i f ican t . Z e i l le r , a l so s ee ing S p l i t a s aman if e s t a t ion o ft h e s h if t ing b a lance b e tween t he w es t a nd t h e o r ien t , g rouped " he l len i s t ic a nd o r ien ta l" i nf luences t o ge the r ( He ra rd -Ze i l le r : 1 54 ) . A l though R ieg ld id n o tc on s ide rr e g iona ld i f f e rence sa nd i n te rac t ion s t o b e i mpo r tan t f ac to r s i n t h e d eve lopmen t h e t r aced , h e may h ave b een t he f i r s t t o p o in t t o aw e s te rn Ana to l ian p a ra l le l , t he Nymphaeum a t A spendo s , f o r t he d eco ra t ion o f t h e P a lace ( 1893 : 2 54 , n . 6 4 ) . I n 1 921 v on G e rkan f ound s im i la r i t ie s b e tween t h e o rnamen t i nS p l i t a nd t h a t o n t h e L a t e A n t ique g a teway o f t h e S tad ium a tM i le tu s . H i s g ene ra l t e rm s s u i t much wo rk o ft h ep e r iod . O rnamen ti n b o th p la ce s w a s , h e s a id , s ke tch i ly e xecu ted , mean tt ob e s een a s aw ho le r a the r t han a s s epa ra te e l emen t s , d om ina ted b y a " d r ive t op a in t e r l ine ss " ( 32 ) : ad e sc r ip t ion r oo ted , a th oweve r many r emove s , i nR ieg l 's a na lys is .

I nS t i lf ragen , R ieg l c i ted t h ep a lme t te -acan thu s c ha in s a tS p l i t ( an them ion : b e low , p . 1 4 ) t oi lu s t ra te t h e f r ee ing o fa r t f r om i m i ta t ion o fn a tu re . F o re v idence h e u sed f ou rd raw ing s t a ken f r om R obe r tA dam ' s 1 764 p ub l ica t ion ; s ome o ft h ed e ta i l s a r e i naccu ra te , b u t t h ey d o n o t a f f ec t h i s t h eo ry ( 1893 : 2 53 -256 , f i gs . 1 31-134 ; 1 992 : 2 24 -226 ) . L a te r , when h e w ro te S pä tröm i sche K uns t indus t r ie , h ec ou ld d raw o nc l o se f i r s thand o bse rva t ion . D iscu s s ing a r t i s t ic d eve lopmen t s i nt h e l a te t h i rd c en tu ry ,h ec i ted t h ea can thu so n ac on so le f r om t h eT emp le o f J up i te r , a nd t h e f r ieze i n s ide t h e Mau so leum ( con so le : 1 901 : 7 6 , 1 50 -151 , f i g . 1 ; 1 985 : 4 7 , 8 8 , f i g . 4 a ; f r ieze : 1 901 : 1 61-162 , 1 67 ; 1 985 : 9 4 -95 , 9 7 -98 ) . H e h ad n o t me re ly l ooked a tt h ef r ieze , b u tt ouched i t ,w a lk ing o u to n t h e n a r row c orn ice p ro jec t ing b e low , a n a c t t ha t r equ ires s o me d e te rm ina t ion . I n t h e c on so le h e d rew a t ten t ion t o t h e d r i l l w o rk , i nt h e f r ieze t ot h e u nde rcu t t ing , t wo t e chn ique s i nt h e f o ref ron to fa l l a te ra na ly se so fL a te A n t ique c a rv ing .

I tr ema ined f o r We igand i n 1 924 t oi n s i s tt h a tl i nk s w i th A s ia M inor , s pec if ica l ly w i th w es te rn A na to l ia , w e re mo re i mpor tan t t h an a ny c onnec t ions f u r the r e a s t . H e d i d s o wh i le r ea s se s s ing t h e i s sue o f i nven t ion v s . d ependence . H e t ook e xcep t ion b o th t o t he c l a im o f Z e i l le r a nd o the r s t h a t t he b u i lde r s o f S p l i t h ad i nven ted f orm s s uch a s t h e a r cua ted l i n te l s , a nd t oS t ryzgow sk i 's s ea rch f o r o r ig ins i nS y r ia a nd Me sopo tam ia . F o r h im , t h e e ssence o f R oman i mpe r ia l a r t l a yi nt h ew ay w o rke r sc on t inua l ly me lded f o rm sf r om d i f f e ren t t r ad i t ion s i n to n ew who le s . T he o r ig ina l i ty o f S p l i t l a y i ni t s e f f ec t ive a ma lgama t ion o fp re -ex is t ing e l emen t s . T o t r ace t h e g eog raph ica lc u r ren t sb r ing ing t ho se e l emen t s ,h er e l ied h eav i ly o n a na lys is o f o rnamen t ( 1924 : e sp . 9 9 ) , p a r t icu la r ly t h e c o lumn c ap i ta l s a nd t he l e af a nd d a r t . A l though h e d e tec ted m ino r l i nk s w i th t h e c i ty o fR ome , mo s t o ft h e f o rm s l e d h im t op ropo se A na to l ia ( he s pec if ica l ly c i ted N icea , M i le tu s , a nd E phe su s ) a s t h e p robab le s ou rce f o r mo s t o f t h e w o rkmen . T he i ro r ig in sm a t te red l e s st h an t he i rc r ea t iv i ty a tS p l i t .

A f te r R ieg l , a t ten t ion t u rned ma in ly t o t r ac ing g eog raph ica l c onnec t ion sf o rt h eP a lace o rnamen t . T he o n ly o the ra u tho rt o c i te i ta s a n i mpor tan t i n s tance o f o ve r -a l l c h rono log ica l d eve lopmen t w a s L 'O range . I n h i s b ook o n A r t F orm s a nd C iv ic L if e i nt h eL a te R oman Emp ir e ( 1965 ) , h e s ea rched f o r o rgan iz ing p r inc ip le sc ommon t ov a r iou sa c t iv i t ie so ccu r r ing a t t h e s ame t ime . H e s aw b o th t h e l a you t a nd t he o rnamen t o f t he P a lace a s r e semb l ing c on tempora ry s oc ie ty . H i s t e rm s , e . g . , p lana r , i no rgan ic , d o n o t d i f f e r g rea t ly f r om R ieg l 's , b u t h i s c onc lu s ion s d o . R ieg l s aw t h e c hange s i nt h e l a te R oman w o r ld a s at u rn f r om p hy s ica l t o s p ir i tua l r ea l i ty . L 'O range s aw t h em l i nked t o amo re t i gh t ly c on s t r ic ted o rde ro fs oc ie ty .

H e inz K äh le ra g reed w i th We igand 's c ha rac te r iza t ion o fR oman a r t , a nd h i s c onc lus ions c once rn ing S p l i t ( 1953 : e sp . 3 4 ) . A l though K äh le r w o rked o n t he P a la ce o rnamen t o ve r many y ea r s , h i s c onc lu s ion s r ea ched p r in t ma in ly a s t h ey r e la ted t o o the r monumen t s . I n 1 936 h e a rgued t h a t s ome o ft h e P a lace w o rkmen h ad g one o n t o work i n R ome . H i s e v idence c on s is ted ma in ly o f a can thu s l eave s c a rved o n c on so le s f r om t h ree R oman b u i ld ings : t he B a s i l ica o f Maxen t ius a nd C on s tan t ine , C on s tan t ine 's A rch , a nd a n u n iden t if i ed t omb . I n 1 952 h e r e i te ra ted h i s t h es is , c oncen t ra t ing o n t h e A rch o f C on s tan t ine , a nd m ak ing amo re p e r sua s ive a rgumen t t h a t t h e l e a fa nd d a r t a nd s ome a can thu s o n t h e A rch w e re c a rved b y w o rkmen f r om t h e P a lace i n S p l i t . I n t h e 1 960 ' s a nd 7 0 's h e s t re s sed o ne p a r t icu la r Ana to l ian c onne c t ion , t h eq ua r r ie so nt h e

T he s ea r ch f o r g eog raph ica l o r ig in s b egan e a r ly i n t h is c en tury . I n 1 906 J oseph S t ryzgowsk i a t temp ted t op lace t h e P a lace i n ad eve lopmen ta l s chema c aused b y as h if t i n r e la t ion sh ip s a mong g eog raph ica l a r ea s . H e s aw t h eP a lace a s 3T he r e cen t a ppea rance o f E ng l ish t r an s la t ion s t e s t if ie s t o t h e r e levance o f R ieg l 's t h ink ing t o c ur ren t r eexam ina t ion s o f a r t h i s to r ica l m e thod s . T he t r an s la to r s ' i n t roduc t ions a nd n o te s g ive s o me i nd ica t ion o ft h e c omp lex i ty a nd i mpo r tance o fh i s i d ea s , a nd t he ma jo r b i b l iog raphy .

4

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNAMENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT i s land o fP roconne so s ( Ma rma ra ) t h a tw e re p roduc ing c ap i ta l s f o r e xpo r t . H e n o ted s im i la r i t ie s b e tween c ap i ta l s i n S p l i t , G a le r ius ' p a lace a tT he s sa lon ike , a nd wha t h e b e l ieved t ob e a no the rT e t ra rch ic v i l la a tP iazza A rme r ina . H ep ropo sed t ha t t h e se a l l c ame n o t o n ly f r om P roconnesos , b u t f r om t h e s ame w o rk shop ,a nd , f u r the r , t h a t wo rkmen f r om P roconne so s , o ra t l e a s tm a s te r sa nd f o r emen ( "Le i te ru nd Vo ra rbe i te r " ) , w e re s en t b y t h e Empe ro r t oS p l i t ( 1964b : 1 76 ; s ee a l so 1 961-62 : 1 0 11 02 , 1 06 ; 1 973 , 2 0 -25 ) .

F reye rbe rge r 1 990 ; L eon 1 971 : 2 2 -25 , 1 36 -139 , 2 42 -243 ; M i le tus : Kös ter 1 986 ; Wegne r 1 989 ; Aph rod is ias : S qua rc iap ino 1 991 : e sp . 1 25 ) . R a the r t h an a s sume as udden s h if t f r om d om inan t w e s ter n t o d om inan t e a s te rn c ha rac te r is t ics , s cho la r s h ave i n c rea s ing ly e mpha s ized t h ec on t inued i n te ra c t ion o ft h et wo . T ou nde r s tand t h e w o rk a tS p l i t , w e n eed t o c on s ide r n o t o n ly wha t l o ca l d i f f e rence s e x i s ted , b u th ow much p eop le o fo ne a r ea k new o r c a red a bou t w o rk i no the r a r ea s , w ha t d eg ree o f i n te rchange t ook p l ace , a nd b y wha t mean s . T he mos t t ho rough a na lys i s o f l o ca l wo rk shop s h a s f ocu sed o n s a rcophag i , a nd i th a s y i e lded i n fo rma t ion o n t he o the r p o in t s a s w e l l . R e sea rch s umma r ized b y K och a nd S i ch te rmann ( 1982 , Koch 1 993 ) a s se r t s t h e d om inance o f af ew ma jo r w o rk shop s ( e .g . , R ome , A then s , Do l c ime ion ) , w i th d ependen t l o ca l w o rk shops i nA s ia M ino r . S k i l led l o ca lp roduc t ion d i dn o te x is ti ni s o la t ion . N o t o n ly d id t h e c en te r s e xpor t t o d ependen t a r ea s , b u t t h ey e xchanged p roduc t s . No tab ly , e ven r e s iden t s o f t he c i ty o f R ome , w i th s k i l led wo rk shop s a th and , o f ten c ho se t o b uy p roduc t s f r om A t t ica o r A s ia M ino r . Wo rke r s moved f r om p la ce t op lace . S ome t ime s t h ey moved o u t f r om ac en te r t o d ependen ta r ea s . S oK och s peak so f" wande r ing ma son s "f r om Dok ime ion who c a rved s a rcophag i i n o the r p lace s w i thou t c omp rom i s ing t h e d i s t inc t ion b e tween l o ca l i t ie s ( 1993 : 1 48 ) . P amphy l ia , wh ich h ad n o ma rb le a nd n o n a t ive t r ad i t ion o f ma rb le c arv ing ,h ad p a r t icu la rn eed f o ro u t s ide c r a f t smen ( 1 993 : 1 83 -4 ) . S ome t ime s wo rke r s w en t f r om o ne ma jo r c en te r t o a no the r i ns ea rch o fo ppo r tun i t ie s . E conom ic d ec l ine i nA s ia M ino ri nt h et h i rd c en tu ry may h ave c aused s a rcophagu sc a rve r s t og o t oR ome .

S ince much o f K äh le r 's e v idence c ame f r om c ap i ta ls f r om P roconnes ian wo rk shop s , h e i d en t i f ied P roconne so s a s t h e c en te r f r om wh ich a l l t h e c a rve r s c ame . I n 1 959 , h oweve r , Man se l p o in ted o u tt h e i mpor tance o fP amphy l ia , a n o p in ion h e r e pea ted i n 1 963 . H e c ompa red d e ta i ls a tS p l i t a nd i n a t emp le tomb i nt h e We s tN ec ropo l i so fS ide ( 1959 : 4 02 , 1 963 : 1 87 ) . B r enk a g reed t h a tt h e s ou th c oa s to f Ana to l ia s eemed t o t a ke t h el e ad i na r t i s t ic i nnova t ion i nt h e T e t ra r ch ic p e r iod , b u t e mpha s ized t ha t c u r ren t s o f a r t i s t ic d eve lopmen t i n w e s te rn A s ia M ino r w e re c omp lex a nd u nc lea r ( 1968 ) . H e men t ions S p l i t o n ly i n p a s s ing ( 256 ) . H e d i s t ingu ishe s f o rma l a nd t e chn ica l c ha rac te r is t ics t ha t a ro se i nt he c i ty o fR ome f r om t ho se t h a t a ro se i nt h is p a r t o fA s ia M ino r i no rde r t o a s se s s c omb ina t ions i ns pec if ic monumen t sf r om e i the rp l a ce .

A l l t h e a na lyses s umma r ized s o f a r r e la te t o f orm a nd t e chn ique . Mos ti c onog raph ic a na ly s is h a s f ocused o n af ew f i gu ra l e l emen t s , p rom inen t ly f e a tu r ing s ome t h a t d o n o t e x i s t n ow ,i ft h ey e ve rd id . D e ta i led d i scu s s ion b eg in sw i th C onze ' s e s say ( i n N iemann 1 912 ) d emons t ra t ing t he f unera ry s i gn i f icance o f t h e f r ieze i n t h e Mauso leum . N iemann a nd Z e i l le r b o th a s sumed t h a t m is s ing s cu lp tu re wou ld h ave h ad p o l i t ica l mean ing , p ropo s ing q uad r iga s a nd t r oph ie s . K äh le r w en t f u r the r , a rgu ing t ha t s t a tue s o f t he f ou r T e t ra rch s a nd J up i t e rh ad s t ood o ve rt h en o r th g a te ( 1961-2 : 1 06 -107 ; 1 964a : 6 -7 ; 1 973 : 3 6 ) . H e t ook amo re c on tex tua l a pp roach w hen h e p u t t o ge the r mo t if s i nt h e e x te r io r e n tab la tu re , i nt h e c o rn ice o ve r t h e d oo r , a nd i n t h e c e i l ing o f t he s o -ca l led T emp le o f J up i t e rt oi d en t if yt h eb u i ld ing a sb e ing at emp le f o rt h ed e if ied e mpe ro r ( 1975 : 3 6 -37 ) . I n 1 981 Wrede i n s i s ted t ha t t h e b u i ld ing h ad b een d ed ica ted t oJ up i te r , b u t r e in te rp re ted t h e f i gu re s b y t he d oo r t o r e fe r t o t h e o ve r -a l l t r iumph o f t h e T e t ra r ch s ( s ee a l so K o lb 1 987 : 1 04 , 1 69 ) . Mo re r e cen t ly , C amb i h a s r ev iewed t h e f i gu ra l s cu lp tu re f r om t h e P a lace t o a r gue t h a tt h e re w a s ap rog ram t h a t s t re s sed d i f f e ren ti s sue s i n d i f f e ren t a rea s , i . e . , p o l i t ica l p ropaganda a t t h e g a te s a nd r e l ig iou s b e l ief i nt h e c en t ra l b u i ld ings . I n t h e l a t te r h e h a s t r ied t o s epa ra te s i gn ify ing e l emen t s f r om t ho se t ha t a r e d eco ra t ive ( 1989 ) . J oanne Manne l l h a s t aken amo re h o l i s t ic a pp roach . S he h a s c a l led o n a na ly s i so f" s ty le " o n t h e T emp le o f J up i t e r f o r h e lp i n i d en t ify ing t h e b u i ld ing a nd t he t wo n e ighbo r ing s t ruc tu re s ( Manne l l 1 992 , 1 995 ) .

O the r c a rve r s p robab ly a l so moved f r om t ime t o t ime , f o r v a r iou s r ea son s , i n g roup s o r i s o la t ion , i nv i ted t o e ngage i n l a rge p ro jec t s , o r mo re r andom ly . L i t t le d o cumen ta t ion e x i s t s . I n 1 980 ,q uo t ing B ianch iB and ine l l i ' sc ommen tt h a t " s ty le d oe s n o t s p read l i ke mea s le s ," J ohn Wa rd -Pe rk in s e xp lo red t h e " comme rc ia l , s oc ia l a nd e conom ic f a c to r s " t h a t s haped " t he d i f fu s ion o f ' A s ia t ic ' s cu lp tu ra l mo t if s a nd t e chn ique s o ve r a l a rge p a r t o f t h e e a s ter n a nd c en t ra l Med i te r ranean " ( 1980 , 1 992 : 1 05 ) .4 H ec ou ld g ive i n sc r ip t iona le v idence t h a t w o rke r s f r om N icomed ia w o rked i nf a r f lung p la ce s ,a nd s ugge s ted t h a t w he reve rP roconne s ian ma rb le w a s s h ipped , w o rke r s f r om t h e r eg ion w ou ld a l so g o . H e t hough t t ha t h ad h appened i n P amphy l ia ( 1980 : 6 0 ) , s o t h e re n eed b e n o c onf l ic t b e tween K äh le r ' sa nd Man se l ' sv i ew s . Mo s ta na ly se sd epend o nf o rma ld i s t inc t ions r a the rt h an w r i t ten e v idence . T hey l e d We iga r tz t oo ppo se m any o f Wa rd -Pe rk ins ' s ugge s t ions ( 1974 ) : We iga r tz ' i n s is tence t ha t l o ca l i t ie s d eve loped w e l l t ra ined w o rke r s d oe s n o t e xc lude i n te rm i t ten t P roconnes ian o ro the ro u t s ide i n vo lvemen t . A s Wa rd -Pe rk in s n o ted " impo r ted t r ad i t ions a cqu i r ed amomen tum o ft h e i ro wn " i n v a r ious l o ca l i t ie s ( 1992 : 1 02 ) . Mo re p rob lema t ic i s h i s b e l ief t h a t w o rkmen i nvo lved i nP roconne s ian c a rv ing w ou ld p robab ly c ome f r om N icomed ia . O the rp l ace s e qua l ly c l o se t o t h e i s land q ua r r ie s s eem e qua l ly l i ke ly s ou rce s f o r s ome o f t h em ( Wa rd -Pe rk in s 1 992 : 6 1 ,E d i to r s 'N o te ) .

C ompa ra t ive Ma te r ia l : G ene ra l Many s cho la r s h ave , l i ke We igand a nd B renk , w o rked t o d i s t ingu i sh r eg iona lc ha rac te r i s t ic si nt h e Emp i re a nd t oa na lyze r e la t ion sh ips b e tween t h em i n as i ng le s i te o r b u i ld ing . T he re i sc on s ide rab le a g reemen t a bou t c ha rac te r is t ics o ft h e c i ty o f R ome a nd o fA s ia M ino r , a nd v a ry ing s ucce ss i ne s tab l i sh ing s ma l le rg roup ing s . We l l -def ined e xamp le s a r e t h e w o rk shop s i nt h e c i ty o f R ome ( r ef e r red t oh e re a s c i ty -Roman ) o f t h e s e cond c en tu ry , t h e s omewha t i s o la ted wo rk shop s o fM i le tu s a nd t h e h igh ly i nf luen t ia l s choo l o f Aphrod is ia s ( Rome :

4A f te r t h is i n i t ia l r e f e rence , r e f e rence s t o t h is 1 980 a r t ic le w i l l b e t o t h e 1 992 r ep r in t , t o w h ich t h e e d i to r s h ave a dded s ub sequen t b ib l iog raphy .

5

I NTRODUCT ION I n e xcep t iona l c a se s , aw ho le work shop m igh t t r ave l t o p a r t ic ipa te i n as pec ia l c omm is s ion . T ha t m igh t r e su l t i n i n te rac t ion , o r i n i s o la t ion . Aph rod is ian s may h ave b een b rough t e n ma sse t o w o rk a tL ep t is Magna . A t t ic s cu lp to r s may a l so h ave b een i nvo lved , w o rk ing o nA t t ic ma rb le (Wa rd P e rk in s 1 992 : 1 03 -105 ) . L oca l s cu lp to r s w e re r ecep t ive t o o u t s ide i n f luences (Wa rd -Pe rk in s 1 992 : 1 03 -105 ) .5 A nA t t ic wo rk shop may h ave g one n o r th t o w o rk o n Ga le r iu s ' P a lace b es ide o ne o r t wo o the r w o rk shop s o f u nknown o r ig in , b u t L aubsche ri mp l ie sl i t t le i n te r change b e tween t h em ( 1975 : 1 40 ) . Mo re mode s t ly , Ovad iah a nd T u rnhe im ( 1994 ) s ugge s t t h a t a c i ty m igh t s end workmen t os ome f amou s c en te r t o l e a rn o r i nv i te ama s te rt op ar t ic ipa te i nt h e i rw o rk . T he S un T emp le b u i l t b y A u re l ian i nm id th i rd c en tu ry R ome p rov ide sa ni n te re s t ing e xamp le o fi n te rchange . T he l o ng h i a tu s i n p ub l ic b u i ld ing may h ave b een o ne c ause l e ad ing t h e empe ro r t ob r ing i nw o rke r s f r om t h e e a s t . I ft h e t emp le p l an i ndeed d e r ived f r om P a lmy ra ,w h ich A u re l ian h ad j u s ts ubdued , t hen mo re c omp lex r e l ig iou sa nd p o l i t ica l mo t ive s w e re a l so a t wo rk . N eu a na lyzes t h e e f f ec t s o f emp loy ing w o rke r s f r om d if e ren tt r ad i t ion ss i de b y s i de ,a nd o fa sk ing e a s te rn ma son st o c opy c i ty -Roman e xemp la r s( 1 972 : 8 8 -90 ) . P a t tern b ooks p robab ly p rov ided a no ther means o f d i ssem ina t ing mo t if s a nd c ompo s i t ions . T he i mpo r tance o f p a t te rn b ook s t o mosa ic m ake r s h a s b een e x ten s ive ly d eba ted , b u t o n ly o cca s iona l ly c on s ide red f o r c a rve r s ( no tab ly b y T oynbee 1 972 , s ee a l so O vad iah a nd T u rnhe im 1 994 : 9 3 a nd p a ss im ) . T oynbee s how s t h a t c a rve r s mus t h ave u sed t h em , b u tp e rhap so n ly f o rt h e mo re c omp l ica ted p a t te rn s . S p l i t w a s i n t he R oman p rov ince o f D a lma t ia , a c ro s s t h e Ad r ia t ic f r om I t a ly . S ince t h e l a te R epub l ic , i t s a r ch i tec tu re h ad b een c l o se ly l i nked t o t ha t p en insu la , a nd t he c i ty o f Rome . I n 1 924 We igand r e f e r red t o t h e D a lma t ian s i te s o f A sse r ia a nd S a lona t oi lu s t ra te t h e r e la t ion sh ip . S ub sequen t f i nds f r om t h ese a nd o the r s i te s h ave c onf i rmed h i s o p in ion . C amb i h a s s hown a l so t h a t t h e o ve rwhe lm ing ma jo r i ty o f i mpor ted s a rcophag i f ound i nD a lma t ia c ame f r om A t t ica , a r e spec tab le n umbe rw e re c i ty -Roman , a nd , al i t t le s u rp r i s ing ly , a lmo s t n one c ame f r om A s ia M ino r ( Camb i 1 977 , 1 988 ) . I n L a te An t iqu i ty , o n t he o the r h and , mo re P roconne s ian e xamp les , i nc lud ing t he r ema rkab le Good S hephe rd s a rcophagu s f r om S a lona , w e re i mpo r ted , a nd i n f luenced l o ca l wo rkmen (Wa rd -Pe rk in s 1 975 , 1 992 : 16 ) .6 A t t h e t ime t h e P a lace w a s b u i l t , t he a r t is t ic a ff in i t ie s o f t h is a r ea w e re c hang ing . No t o n ly d oe s S p l i t h ave t i es w i th A s ia M ino r , b u t t ho se t i es c an a l so b ef ound i nc on tempo ra ry w o rk f r om S a lona ( s ee b e low , p . 3 9 ) . R e la t ionsh ips w i th a c t iv i t ies i n mo re i mmed ia te r eg ions , t he D anube l ands , w i l l d ese rve c on s ide ra t ion t h ey h ave n o ty e tr e ce ived ( s ee a bove ,p .2 ) .

c en te r -pe r iphe ry r e la t ionsh ip s imp l is t ica l ly a so ne i n wh ich t h e " cen te r " i si nven t ive , a nd t h e " per iphe ry" r e cep t ive t o t ha t i nven t ion , t h e r e la t ionsh ip b e tween t h e c i ty o fR ome a nd t h e c i t ie s o fA na to l ia n eve r f i t t h a t mode l . R a the r , i ts eem s t h a t t h e c ap i ta l t e nded t oe s tab l ish a nd t r y t op e rpe tua te n o rm s f o r d eco ra t ion ( F reye rbe rge r 1 990 ) . Th is p rac t ice i nt u rn l e d i tt o s eek o u t s ide t r an sfus ions t o mee t n ew c ha l lenges . Wha t h appened i nL a te A n t iqu i ty w a s n o t as h if t i nt he b a lance o f e a s t a nd w e s t . S t ryzgowsk i 's " a l ien e a s t" n ever e x is ted . I n te rpene t ra t ion a nd e xchange , n o t o n ly b e tween t he w es t a nd A s ia M ino r , b u t w i th t he f u r the r e a s te rn r eg ions , w e re c on t inua l . S ome th ing , h oweve r , d id c hange i nt h el a te emp i re . T he n umber o f " cen te r s" mu l t ip l ied . T hey s h if ted u np red ic tab ly , f o r aw h i le a tl e a s t . N e two rk s t h e refo re b ecame mo re p o rou s , p romo t ing movemen t o fw o rke r s a nd i dea s o n a l a rge s c a le a nd i nl e s so rgan ized w ay s . C ompa ra t ive Ma te r ia l : S pec if i c R e la t ive ly f ew b u i ld ings o f t he T e t ra rch ic p er iod , o r i mmed ia te ly b efo re a nd a f te r , o f fe r i n s t ruc t ive p o in t s o f c ompa r i son w i th t h e P a lace a t S p l i t . ( B ib l iography f o r b u i ld ing s men t ioned h e re i s g iven w hen t hey a re c i ted s pec if ica l ly b e low . ) F o r t h e c i ty o fR ome , R icha rd son ( 1992 : 4 57 ) l i s t s t h e d a tab le wo rk s . O n ly t he " Temp le o fR omu lu s " a nd A rch o f C on s tan t ine s t i l l s how t h e i r o r ig ina l d eco ra t ive s y s tem s . T he f i r s ti se n t i re ly d eco ra ted w i th s po l ia . T he s e cond i sa l so ma in ly d eco ra ted w i th e a r l ie r o rnamen t , e x ten s ive ly r ewo rked b y t h eC on s tan t in ian wo rkmen a nd s upp lemen ted b y s ome c op ie s o f t h e o lde r p ieces a nd a f ew c on tempo ra ry a dd i t ions .7 A t t h e C u r ia , t h e r ebu i l t T emp le o f Venu s a nd R oma , t h e B a s i l ica Nova a nd t he B a th s o f D ioc le t ian , s ome e l emen t s o ft h e i n te rna l a nd e x terna l a r ch i tec tu ra l d eco ra t ion r ema in i np l ace . T he r ema in s o fD ioc le t ian 's t wo monumen t s , t h e D ecenna l ia o r F ive C o lumn Monumen t a nd t he A rcus N ovu s ,d on o ti n c lude a r ch i tec tu ra l d eco ra t ion . I nt he e nv i rons o fR ome t wo T e t ra rch ic t omb s , t he " To r d iS ch iav i" a nd t h e Mau so leum o n t h e v i a App ia p robab ly b u i l t f o r Maxen t ius , h ave l i t t le s u rv iv ing d eco ra t ion . L i t t le o rn one o ft he s cu lp tu re a nd or namen t f ound i nt h e e nv i rons o ft h e v i l la o f Maxen t iu s o n t h e v i a A pp ia o r ig ina l ly b e longed t ot h a t b u i ld ing ( P i san i S a r to r i° 1 976 ) . A no the r v i l la f r om I t a ly , a tP iazza A rme r ina i nS i c i ly , d oe s p rov ides u sefu l i n forma t ion , d e sp i te i t s s l igh t ly l a te rd a te , b ecau se o fi t sr e la t ive c omp le tene s s . I n G reece , o n ly i s o la ted f r agmen t s o fd eco ra t ion h ave s o f a r b een r e cove red f rom G a ler ius ' b u i ld ing p rogram a t T he s sa lon ike . P o r t ions o f ag rea t T e t rapy lon , t he A rch o f G a le r iu s , s u rv ive . F rom i n s ide t h er e s idence c ome f ou rp i la s te r c ap i ta l s a nd t h e s o -ca l led " Sma l l A rch ." T he se p iece s s ha re s i gn if ican t p a t te rns a nd o the r mo t if s w i th S p l i t , b u t mos t o f t h e e xecu t ion d i f f e r s . D ioc le t ian 's c on s t ruc t ions i n P a lmy ra a nd i n L uxo r h ave s ome s im i la r a r ch i tec tu ra l e l emen t s , b u t l i t t le o r n o o ve r lap i n d eco ra t ive d e ta i l . I n r ecen t y ea r s R omu l iana i nD ac ia -R ipen s i s , i . e . , Gamz ig rad i n Yugo s lav ia , h a sp rov ided aw ea lt ho ff r agmen t sf r om t h e ma in c omp lex ,a nd af ew mo re f r om t h e f une ra ry c omp lex , b o th a s soc ia ted w i th G a le r iu s . None o ft h e d eco ra t ion w a s i ns i tu , a l though s ome c ompo s i t ion sc ou ld b er e con s t ruc ted . D e sp i te s ome i n te re s t ing

T he mode lo fd om inance b yo ne a r ea o ve ra no the rs ugge s ted b y S t ryzgowsk i , Z e i l le r , a nd o the r s h a s g iven w ay t o a mo re c omp l ica ted p i c tu re ( s ee L eon 1 971 : 2 85 ) . I fw e c once ive a

5T hese p ages a dm irab ly i lus t ra te t he c omp lex i ty o f t he i s sue s . Wa rd -Pe rk ins ' d i scus s ion i nd ica te s b o th a v a r ie ty o f w ays i n wh ich i n te rac t ion s m igh t h ave o ccur red , a nd a v a r ie ty o f t ype s o fe v idence modern s cho la r s c an u se t ot r y t ot r ace t h e i n te rac t ion s .

7F or a b r ief b u t t horough t echn ica l a na lys is o f t he r e la t ion sh ip b e tween e a r l ie r a nd Cons tan t in ian c ons t ruc t ion i n t h is a r ch , i nc lud ing t he C ons tan t in ian r ewo rk ing o f e a r l ie r o rnamen t , s e e P anne l la e t a l . 1 995 .

6A f te r

t h is i n i t ia l r e f e rence , r e fe rence s t o t h is 1 975 a r t ic le w i l l b e t o t he 1 992 r ep r in t , t o w h ich t he e d i to r s h ave a dded s ub sequen t b ib l iog raphy .

6

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNAMENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT B o th h ave s ome r e levan t f ea tu re s , b u t n o o bv ious ly c l ose s im i la r i t ies t ot h e w o rk a t S p l i t . S ad ly , n o i nves t iga t ion h a s b een u nder taken a tt h e s i te o fD ioc le t ian 's P a lace a tN icomed ia , moder nI zm i t ( s ee b e low , p .3 8 ) .

p a ra l le ls i np a t tern s , t h eo ve r -a l l w o rkmansh ip a nd d ep loymen t o f t h e p a t tern s i ss o d i ss im i la r t h a t t h e c on tempo ra ry d a te i s s u rp r is ing . C i t ies o fw e s ter n Ana to l ia ( ma in ly i nt he R oman p rov ince s o f B i thyn ia , A s ia a nd P amphy l ia ) , o n t he o ther h and , h ave p roduced many f r agmen t s o f s im i la r workmansh ip . S eve ra l b u i ld ings c ou ld b e s uff ic ien t ly r e cons t ruc ted i n d raw ings t o a l low c ompa r ison o f c ompos i t ion a s w e l l a s d e ta i l . N o tab le a mong t hese a r e ag a teway a nd c o lonnaded h a l l f r om M i le tus . At emp le tomb a tS ide , a nd ag a te a tP e rge , h ave s i gn if ican t s im i la r i t ies i nd e s ign , a l though b o th w e re p roba ly b u i l ts eve ra l g enera t ions e a r l ie r . T he re h a s b een n o d e ta i led p ub l ica t ion o f t h eo rnamen tf r om t h eT e t ra rch ic N ymphaeum a tH ie ropo l is , o r t h eb a s i l ica w i th t he t e x to ft h eE d ic to n P r ices a tA ph rod i s ia s .

T he c a rv ing a tS p l i t , w i th i t s u ndoub ted p red i lec t ion f o r f o rm s f r om A s ia M inor , c anno t b e e xp la ined b y l o ca l t r ad i t ion . I t c anno t b e t r aced t o a ny s i ng le l oca l i ty . I t i nd ica tes a p a r t icu la r ly l i ve ly p roce ss o fi n te rchange . A s We igand a r gued l o ng a go , h oweve r many s ou rces w e f i nd f or t he p a r t s o f t h e P a lace , w ee nd u p w i th ah igh ly o r ig ina l w ho le . Ana lyz ing t h e or namen t d oes n o t e nab le u s t os ay t ha t t h e workmen mus t a l l h ave c ome f r om s uch a nd s uch a p lace . I f a ny th ing , i t u nde r l ines t h e l i ke l ihood t ha t t h e workmen h ad n o t t r a ined t o ge the r , o rw o rked t o ge the rv e ry l o ng ( s ee b e low , p .3 9 ) .

7

C hap t er I

THE PALACE PURPOSE

" I n L a te A n t iqu i ty t h e i d ea l v i l la w a s o ne b u i l t o n t h e c oa s t f r om w he re i tw a s p o s s ib le t o s ee s imu l taneous ly b o th t h e s h ips a ts e a a nd t h e w ood s o ft h e l a nd " ( Ca rand in i 1 982 : 8 8 , c i t ing G e ron t ius , L if e o fS t . Me lan ia 1 8 ) . A R oman v i l la s hou ld a l so l o ok o ve rl a nd made f r u i tfu l b yh uman h and s . T he P a lace i so n t h e s ou th s i de o f ap en insu la , o n a n o pen b ay l ook ing t o ac ha in o f i s land s . S h ipp ing a long t h e A d r ia t ic f avo red t h es he l te red p a ssage b e tween i s land sa nd c oa s t . Af ew m i les i n land , f o re s ted moun ta ins f o rmed ab a ckd rop . N ea re r , a bou t s i x km a way ( an e a sy h ou r 's w a lk ) , l a y t h e c i ty o f S a lona w i th i t s f i ne h a rbo r o n b usy s ea a nd l a nd l a ne s» T he p la in b e tween t he P a lace , t he c i ty , a nd t he moun ta in s w a s p lan ted w i th v i neya rd sa nd g rove so fo l ive a nd f i g .

I nA .D . 3 05 ,a f te r ap ro longed a nd s e r iou si lne s s , t he Empe ro r D ioc le t ian a bd ica ted . H eh ad r u led f o rt wen ty y ea r s , a nd w a si n h i s e a r ly s i x t ie s . F rom h i s a bd ica t ion u n t i l h i s d ea th h e l i ved " hau tp rocu l aS a lon i s i nv i l lae s uae p a la t io ," i no the r w o rd s , i n as p lend id r e s idence o nh i sc oun t ry e s ta te o u t s ide S a lona ,t h e t h r iv ing R oman c i ty whe re h e may h ave b een b o rn . 8 Many t h ing s i nt h ed e s ign a nd o rnamen ta t ion o ft h is r e s idence t e l lu s t ha th el o ok ed f o rwa rd t oa nh ono red , i n f luen t ia l , a nd p ea cefu l o ld a ge , t o b e f o l lowed b y a ccep tance among t h e g od s , a nd c on t inued v ene ra t ion o n e a r th .9 S ome d eco ra t ion i n h i s Mauso leum s ugge s t s t ha t h e w a s p repa red t o a ccep t o r e ven l augh a t t h e mu tab i l i ty o f l i f e : c e r ta in ly h i s r e t i remen t d emon s t ra t ed i t .1°

T he w o rk o f g ene ra t ions o f s cho la r s , b u t p a r t icu la r ly o f t h e Aus t r ian a nd F rench t e ams a c t ive a t t h e b eg inn ing o f t h i s c en tu ry , h a s e s tab l ished t h e e s sen t ia l i mage o ft h e P a lace t h a t w e f i nd i n e ve ry t ex t b ook , u sua l ly i n t he e voca t ive r econs t ruc t ion o f 1 6b ra rd : t owe red w a l l s a nd c o lonnaded s t ree t s , at omb , at emp le , a nd as ea s ide r e s iden t ia l b l ock . T he who le c omp lex c ove red a bou t n ine a nd ah a lf a c re s (W i lke s 1 993 : 2 5 ) w i th a n e x t rao rd ina ry c omb ina t ion o f f am i l ia r b u i ld ing t ype s i n u nfam i l ia r r e la t ion sh ips .1 2 I t s o rnamen t h e lps t og i ve i tmean ing .

8T he q uo ta t ion f r om S t . J e rome C hron icon , a nn . Ab raham , 2 332 , h a s b een much d eba ted . F ou r manusc r ip t s g ive t he r e ad ing c i ted a bove , a nd a f i f th g ive s " i n v i l la s ua S pa la to ." L ong a go Z e i l le r a rgued t h a t t h e l a t te r p h ra s ing w a s t o b e p ref e r red ( Ze i l le r 1 912 ) . S o i tc ou ld b e s a id t h a t a l l a nc ien t r e f e rences c a l l t h is s t ruc tu re a v i l la : Z e i l le r c i te s mo re a u tho r s u s ing s im i la r p h r a se s , E u t rop iu s , P ro spe r o f A qu i ta ine , e t c . , a l l n ow a na lysed i n d e ta i l b y Z awadzk i ( 1987 ) . On t he b a se s b o th o f g ramma r a nd o f t h e manu sc r ip t t r ad i t ion , Z awadzk i h a s d en ied t he v a l id i ty o f Z e i l le r 's a rgumen t s ( 1987 : 2 29 -230 ) . H e h a s a l so s hown h ow u se o f t h e word s " v i l la " a nd " pa la t ium " c hanged i n L a te An t iqu i ty . A v i l la mean t ac oun t ry e s ta te . P a la t ium , w h i le r e ta in ing amean ing a st h e c en te r o f g ove rnmen t , a l so b ecame a t e rm f or " une p res t ig ieu se r e s idence c on s t ru i te p ou r l er epo s e tl e s p l a is ir s d e s empe reu r s o u d es r i ch iss imes p a r t icu l ie r s ." T he v e ry v a luab le i nfo rma t ion g a the red i n h i s a r t ic le s ugge s t s f u r the r i s sue s f o r e xp lo ra t ion , e . g . t he c onnec t ion o f t h e c hang ing u sage w i th t h e d i sappea rance o f a s ing le c en ter o f g overnmen t , a nd w i th a c hange i n t he r e la t ion sh ip s o f c oun t ry a nd c i ty .

A s n o ted a bove , s cho la r s h ave s ough t " mean ing " p r ima r i ly i n f i gu ra l s c u lp tu re ,e x tan to rp ropo sed . A na ly s is h a se mpha s ized f une rea l a nd p o l i t ica l r e f e rence s . T he l a t te r c on s i s t o f mo t if s r e semb l ing t h o se f ound i n mo re o bv iou s ly of i c ia lp l a ce s , f r om c o ins t ot h e F ive -co lumn Monumen t i nt h e R oman F o rum . I n t h is s e t t ing , s ome o ft h e se mo t if s may r e cu r l e s s a s w ha t w e wou ld c a l l p o l i t ica l p ropaganda , r e fe r r ing t o p a r t icu la r

1 A l though t h e P a lace w a s p robab ly d e s igned f o r D ioc le t ian 's r e t iremen t , i t s r emo teness f r om c en te r s o f p owe r h a s b een o ve r s ta ted . I ts t ood o n a ma jo r s eaway , w i th e a sy a cce s s t o l a nd r ou te s s uch a s t he v i a E gna t ia . D ioc le t ian may w e l l h ave c ho sen i t n o t f o r p oss ib le c h i ldhood memo r ie s , b u t a s ap lace e a s i ly a ccess ib le t o t he s h if t ing c en te r s w he re p ower w a s c on t inua l ly b e ing r e s i tua ted d u r ing t h i s p e r iod .

9D epend ing o n h ow t hey e va lua te t he a nc ien t s ou rce s , s cho la r s h ave s ha rp ly d i f f e r ing v i ews a bou t D ioc le t ian 's r e a son s f o r r e t i r ing , a nd t h e f r ame o f m ind i n w h ich h e l e f t o ff ice . Mo s t n ow a g ree t h a t h e p lanned r e t iremen t a s p a r t o f t he T e t ra rch ic s ys tem , r a the r t han b e ing f o rced i n to i ta s L ac tan t iu s c la im s ( de Mor t . P er s . 1 8 ) . T hey s t i l l d i sag ree a bou t when h e a dop ted t h e p lan , a nd w he the r h e h ad a s pec if ic d a te i n m ind . T he P a lace i s o f ten u sed a se v idence . S cho la r s a s sume t h a t i t s r emo tene s s m ean s t ha t h e c ou ld n o t h ave m ean t t o u se i tf o r t empo ra ry r epo se a nd p lea su re w h i le h e w a s s t i l l Empe ro r , s o i t s c on s truc t ion p rove s h i s i n ten t ion o fr e t i r ing , a nd i t s r e ad ine s s m igh t h ave e f f ec ted t h e d a te h e c ho se ( W i l l iam s 1 985 : 1 86 ; Ko lb 1 987 : 1 50 -151) . B a rne s g ive s t h e ( s l igh t ly c on f l ic t ing ) e v idence f o r h i s a ge ( 1982 : 3 1 ) .

F o r t h e p rospe r i ty o f S a lona a tt h is t ime , s ee Mahn 1 994 : 2 4 2 5 . 1 2 A g rea t d ea l o f d i scu ss ion h a s t a ken p lace i n r e cen t y ea r s o ve r t e rm s f o r t h e c omp lex : P a lace , v i l la , c ha teau o r f o r t if ied v i l la . Ih ave d i scu s sed s ome o ft h e i s sue s i n McNa l ly 1 989 . N oe l D uva l h a s p o in ted o u t t ha t D ioc le t ian l i ved t h e re o n ly a f te r h e h ad r e t i red , a nd a rgued a ga in s t e xagge ra t ing i t s c e remon ia l f unc t ion s ( Duva l 1 961 , 1 961-62 , mos t r e cen t ly 1 991 , s ee a l so b e low , n o te 2 0 ) . O the r r e cen t i n te rp re ta t ion s i n c lude F e l lmann 1 979 , e mpha s iz ing m i l i ta ry p a ra l le ls , a nd S ande r s 1 989 , a rgu ing a ga in s t am i l i ta ry i n terp re ta t ion a nd d eve lop ing Wi l l iam MacDona ld 's a rgumen t t h a t v i l las r e semb le t o3 /ns . Z awadz ik i 's c i ta t ions s uppor t t ha t a pp roach . R ecen t ly e lre i6 h a s a l so empha s ized t h e mu tab i l i ty o f a rch i tec tu ra l c a tegor ie s , a nd t he n eed t o emp loy t hem mo re f l ex ib ly t h an h i the r to . H e s ugge s t s t h a t p a lace s o f L a te A n t iqu i ty w e re i n ten t iona l ly s haped a s s ma l l c i t ie s ( 1993 ) . S p l i t p rov ide s much o f t h e e v idence f o r h i s a rgumen t s . T h is i s n o t t h e p l ace t o d i scu s s t h em f u l ly , b u t h i s o p in ion s o n t h e f r ieze o ft h e Mau so leum ( I I I .C .10 ) a nd t h e p os s ib le T e t rapy lon ( IV .E .2 ) w i l l b e m en t ioned b e low .

1° D ioc le t ian s eem s t o h ave r ega ined h i s h ea l th t o s ome d eg ree , t r ave l ing t o C a rnun tum a nd t a k ing a h and i n p lan t ing h i s own v ege tab le s . W i l l iam s p a in t s ap lea san t p i c tu re o f h i s e a r ly r e t i remen t . K o lb s t re s se s h i s r e ten t ion o f p owe r a nd s ome r ank ( Augu s tu s , c on su l i n 3 08 ) , a nd a s pec ia l r e la t ion sh ip t o t h e g od s ( 1987 : 1 43 , 1 51-152 ) . We d o n o t k now h ow l ong h e l i ved a t S p l i t : c e r ta in ly u n t i l 3 11 , p e rhap s a s l a te a s 3 16 ( Ba rne s 1 982 : 3 3 g ive s s ou r ce s ) . A nc ien t a u tho r s d i f f e red a bou t t h e d a te o fh i s d ea th , s how ing h ow h e h ad s l ipped f r om p rom inence , e ven i fL ac tan t ius may h ave e xagge ra ted h i s f i na l d espa ir ( de Mor t P er s . 4 2 ) . E u t rop iu s s ugges t s aq u ie te r s equence , mo re i n k eep ing w i th w ha t D ioc le t ian h ad c e r ta in ly e xpec ted ( s ee b e low , p .9 ) .

8

ARCHITECTURAL ORNA MENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT c on tempo ra ry p eop le a nd e ven t s , t h an a sr e cogn i t ion o fe t e rna l f o rces o rde r ing t h e Un ive r se . E ven s o , t he a na ly s is may b e l o p s ided . T he P a lace c omp lex a tS p l i th ad mu l t ip le p u rpo se s . I tw a s c e r ta in ly a s e t t ing f o r c e remon ia l , b u t i t s c e remon ie s w ou ld c e r ta in ly h ave d i f f e red , i fo n ly i ns i ze , f r om t ho se a ta g r ea t c ou r t . I tw a s a l so t h e v i l la w he re D ioc le t ian g rew o ld i n h ono red r e po se , a nd d i ed a s ap r iva te i nd iv idua l : " . .p raec la ro o t io c on senu i t . . . .Con t ig i t i g i tu r e i , q uod n u l l i p os t n a to s h om ine s ,u tc um p r iva tu so b is se t ,i n te rD ivo s t ar n en r e f e r re tu r" ( Eu t rop iu sB r ev iarum I X :2 8 ) .

c omm i ss ioned ag rand , d e ta i led p o l i t ica l monumen t , t h e A rch o n t h e v i aE gna t ia . Mo s to fi t s r e l ief s r e f e rt os pec if ic h i s to r ic e ven t s , a l though t h e s cene o f s acr if ice i nc lude s ab roade r me s sage a bou tt h eo rgan iza t ion o ft h es t a te a nd i t s r e la t ion sh ip t o t h e g od s . O nce i n s ide t h e r e s idence , h oweve r , t h e f ew s u rv iv ing f r agmen t s b ecome mo re p e r sona l a nd r e l ig iou s . I t make s l i t t le r e f e rence t o o the r t e t ra rch s o r h i s to r ica l e ven t s , s ome r e f e rence t o s t reng th a nd mo re t o e n joymen t . F ou r p i la s te r c ap i ta ls f ound i n t h e o c tagon o f t he P a lace s how f i gu res o f J up i te r , Hyge ia , Me rcu ry o r aC ab i rus , a nd a D io scu ru s ( Brenk 1 968 : p l s . 7 4 , 2 ;8 0 , 2 ;8 1 , 1 ;8 3 , 1 ;V icke r s 1 973 : 16 -118 ( w i th e a r l ier b ib l iography ) , p l . X IV ; G rammeno s a nd K n i thake s 1 994 , n o s . 5 63 , 5 64 , 5 65 , 5 67 , p p . 2 07 -210 , p l s . XV II I , X IX , 7 1 , 7 2 ) . J up i te r a nd t h e D io scu r i a ppea r a l so i nt h e mo re o ve r t ly p o l i t ica l a r t o ft h e T e t ra r chy , e . g . , t he c o in s , b u t h e re t h e i r c ompan ions c rea te a b roade r c on tex t . V icke r s c onnec t s t h em a l l w i th c u l t s p opu la r i nt h e c i ty .1 3

THE ROLES OF ORNA MENT O u rd i s t inc t ion so fp ropaganda f r om r e l ig ion ,o ro fp ub l ic f r om p r iva te , a r e n o to r iou s ly m i s lead ing f o ro the rt ime s a nd p lace s . H a rmony i nt h eR oman s t a te c ame f r om h a rmony w i th i t s g od s a nd b o th w e r en ece ssa ry p recond i t ion sf o rp e r sona le n joymen t . A l l t h ree d e s ired s t a te s may b e i nvoked t oge the r i n t h e d eco ra t ion o fb u i ld ing s ; o n ly t h eb a lance s b e tween t h em may c hange . P ub l ic b u i ld ing s , s uch a st h e C u r ia a nd t h e B a s i l ica N ova , p u t mo re empha s i s o n p owe r t han o n p l ea su re ( s ee b e low , p .4 2 ) . C oun t ry h ou se s may d o t h e r eve r se . S t i l l , g rand v i l la s b e long ing t o " pr iva te i nd iv idua ls " a r e i n ev i tab ly p ub l ic s t a temen t s . I n s ome , d eco ra t ion r e f e r red o n ly t o t h e s phe re s o fr e l ig ion a nd i d ea l s . T ha tw ou ld s eem t ob et r ue , f o r i n s tance , a tl e a s t o f t h e s cu lp tu ra l d eco ra t ion o f t he P iazza Anne r ina . I na tl e a s t af ew o the r s , c e leb ra t ion o fd iv in i ty , a nd o ft h ep l ea su r e so fl i f ew en tt oge the rw i th a l lu s ion st oi mpe r ia l p owe r i n t h e f o rm o f p or t ra i t s o f membe r s o f t h e i mpe r ia l f am i ly . S uch p o r t ra i t s , h oweve r , s eem mo s t l i ke ly t o a ppea r i nv i l la s b e long ing t oe mpe ro r s o r t h e i r r e la t ive s ( Neudecke r 1 988 : 8 4 -91) .

N ea rt h eo c tagon ,t h e s o -ca l led " Sma l lA r ch " w a sf ound ( Ca lza p l . XXXV I , 1 00 , 1 0 1 ; G ranuneno s a nd Kn i thake s 1 994 : n o . 6 43 , p .2 35 , p l s . XX I I . 8 2 -83 ) . T he f r on t o ft h e Sma l l A rch p ay s h ono rt oG a le r iu s a nd p robab ly o r ig ina l ly t oh i s w if e ( s ee A ppend ix O ne ) . T he s i de s a nd s off i t p rov ide ac on tex t o f D iony s iac f r u i t fu lne s s a nd r eve l ry . O n t h e f r on t , s ea ted e r o te s h o ld ag a r land o ve rt h ea r ched o pen ing a nd b e tween t h eb u s t so f G a le r iu s a nd ac i ty g odde s s , p robab ly r e cu t . T he b u s t s a ppea r i n meda l l ion su phe ld b y f i gu re si ne a s te rn g a rb .1 4 O ne s i de o f t h e a r ch s how s P an a nd t h e o the r ad anc ing w oman , b o th o n p od ia ( a l ta r s? ) . I n t he s off i t , t wo g rape v ine s r i se f r om k an the ro i t o mee ta t ac en t ra l meda l l ion c on ta in ing t h e b u s t o f D ionysus . T he b u s t s a r e f r equen t ly d i scussed , b u t l i t t le a t ten t ion h a s b een p a id t o t h e r ema inde r o f t h e d eco ra t ion . S cho la rs t e nd t op ref e r t h e s pec if ic a nd t he p o l i t ica l . T he e xcep t ion sa r eT o rp ( 1974 )a nd S re jov id . P resumab ly S re jov i& h a s t h is p iece i n m ind w hen h e s peak s o f t h e i mpor tance a cco rded D iony su s i nG a le r iu s ' P a la ce a tT he ssa lon ike ( 1993 : 4 3 ; 1 994 : 1 54 : s e e Addendum b e low ,p .1 2 ) .

T he P a la ce a tS p l i t made r oom f o r many t ype s o f b u i ld ing , s e rv ing m any p u rpo se s , a nd wou ld p re sumab ly h ave h ad r oom f o r many r e f e rence s i n i t s d eco ra t ion . C o inage a nd p ub l ic monumen t s o ft h e t ime g ive u sefu l c l ues t o s ome a spec t s o f t h e P a la ce d eco ra t ion , b u t d o n o t e xhau s t t h e p o s s ib i l i t ie s . I f w ew e re t ol o ok a tt h ed e co ra t ion w i thou ta ny k now ledge o ft h e o wne r , w e w ou ld c e r ta in ly n o te m any B acch ic e l emen t s , a si n s o many c oun t ry h ou se s . A l l t h rough t h e c a rv ing r uns a d e l igh t i ni n ven t ion , i n mu l t ip l ic i ty , i nf e cund i ty : c e leb ra t ion o f t he b oun t ies o f n a ture , a nd o f h uman i mag ina t ion . K now ing w ha t w e d o o f D ioc le t ian a nd h i s b u i ld ing may e nab le u st op u tt h a tc e leb ra t ion i n amo re s pec if ic c on tex t , b u t n o t t oo ve r look i t .

G amz ig rad p rov ide s s t i l l mo re e v idence a bou t t h e a pp rop r ia te r a nge o fa l lu s ion s . T h i s r a the r i s o la ted s i te o fG a le r iu s ' b u r ia l c on ta ined s t r ik ing r e f e rence s t ot h e T e t ra rchy . T h ree p i la s te r s s howed g roup s o f T e t ra rch s , b u t , s i gn if ican t ly , t h ese , o r a t l e a s t t h e b e s t p r e se rved o ne s , s howed n o t f ou r b u t s i x f i gu re s . I no the r w o rd s , i n s tead o f as pec if ic h i s to r ica l s i tua t ion , t h ey d ep ic t t he c oncep t o f c on t inuous s ucce s s ion ( S re jov id 1 994 : 1 45 -146 , f i g s 1 4 , 8 ,9 ;S re jov ie 1 993 : p l s . 5 0 , 5 1 ; S re jov ie , J ancov ie a nd L a lov ie 1 978 : 1 5 ) . A l l t h ree p iece s w e re a ppa ren t ly a t t h e ma in g a te . T he re t hey w e re p robab ly a ugmen ted b y a t l e a s t o ne p i la s te r w i th a c omp l imen ta ry p u rpo se , s how ing f r u i t fu lne s st h rough t wo h a rve s t ing p u t t i a nd a na g r icu l tu ra ls c ene ( ? )( S re jov ie 1 993 , f i g . 5 2 ) . T he g a te w a s f u r the r a do rned b y a r ch ivo l t s i n w h ich p eacock s h o ld l a u re l

Two c on tempo ra ry i mpe r ia l r e s idences p rov ide s ugge s t ive c ompa r i son s , i nd ica t ion s o f w ha t m igh t b e t hough t s u i tab le . T hey a r e t he c omp lexes a s soc ia ted w i th G a ler ius a t T he ssa lon ike a nd R omu l iana ( Gamz ig rad ) . G a le r iu s b ecame D ioc le t ian 's j un io rc oho r t ,h i sC ae sa r ,i n2 93 , s ucceeded h im a s A ugu s tu s i n 3 05 , a nd d ied i n 3 11 . H e w a s p robab ly a t T he s sa lon ike b e tween 2 99 a nd 3 05 ( Ba rne s 1 982 : 6 1) . H e w a s b u r ied a tR omu l iana , a l though i ti sn o t c l ea rt h a th e h ad s pen t o rp lanned t os pend much t ime t h e re .

1 3 V icke r s m en t ion s t wo f r agmen t s b e long ing t o t h e s ame s e t o f c ap i ta ls , o ne s how ing T yche a nd t h e o ther a n u n iden t if iab le m a le . H e l i s t s o t he r p i ece s o f a r ch i tec tu ra l d ecora t ion f ound n ea r t h e o c tagon , s ome b u t n o t a l l o f w h ich a r e p robab ly i n c luded i n t h e c a ta logue o f G rammeno s a nd Kn i thak is . I n a dd i t ion t o t h e f i gured c ap i ta ls a nd t he Sma l l A rch , t hey l i s t f ou r c ap i ta l s o r c ap i ta l f r agmen t s a s p robab ly b e long ing t o t he P a lace , n o s . 5 49 , 5 51 , 5 58 , 5 62 .

T he P a lace i n T hessa lon ike w as , u n l ike S p l i t , t he g ove rnmen ta l c en te r f o r ar e ign ing empe ro r . A l though v e ry l i t t le o fi t s d eco ra t ion r ema ins , t h a t l i t t le s how s a n i n te re s t ing r a nge o fr e f e rence s . S ome o ft h e se h ave a t t rac ted much mo re a t ten t ion t h an o the r s , s how ing t h e p red i lec t ion o fs cho la r s f o r p o l i t ica l t h eme s . A t t h e a pp roach t o h i s P a lace , Ga le r ius

1 4 D aux c a l l s t h em b a rba r ian s ( 759 ) , C a lza f i gu re s o fP h ryg ian c u l t ( 141) , s o t h ey may a dd a p o l i t ica l r e fe rence o r e x tend t h e r e l ig ious o ne s .

9

THE PALACE w rea th s . O ne w rea th c on ta in s t he i n sc r ip t ion F e l ix R omu l iana ( S re jov ie 1 993 : f i g s . 4 8 , 4 9 ; S re jov id 1 982 -1983 , f i g . 3 ;1 985 , f i g . 1 , S re jov id ,J ancov id a nd L a lov id 1 978 : 3 ,1 6 ) .

moun ta ins , n o t b ecau se t he l e af c ha in s o ver t ly s ymbo l ize moun ta in d e i t ie s , b u t b ecause t hey c on t r ibu te t o a n u nu sua l amb iance .

S re jov ie i n terpre ts t he who le c omp lex o f b u i ld ings a t Gamz ig rad a s d es igned t op re se rve G a le r iu s ' d iv in i ty , a nd t h e T e t ra rch ic s ucce ss ion ( 1982 -83 ; 1 993 : 5 2 -53 ) . H e may b e r i gh t , a nd S p l i t may h ave b een b u i l t w i th s im i la r c once rn s (McNa l ly 1 989 : 3 5-36 ) .1 5 Wha t i s b e ing p re se rved a t G amz ig rad i s , h oweve r , much mo re t h an t he s t a tu s o f f ou r s pec if ic men . Wha t i sb e ing c e leb ra ted t h e re i se mpha t ica l ly n o tt he i rh i s to r ica la ch ievemen t s . G amz ig rad a nd T he s sa lon ike c on ta in s im i la r mo t if s , b u t w i th a c hange i n w e igh t . T he empha s is o n l a s t ing t r u th s , s pec if ica l ly t he l i nk b e tween h a rmon iou s g ove rnmen t a nd e n joymen t o f f e cund n a tu re , a l ready p re sen t a tT he s sa lon ike , d om ina te a tG amz ig rad . T he p eacock s a nd w rea th s , w i th t h e i ra n t ic ipa t ion o fl a te rC h r is t ian monumen t s ,t u rn v i c to ry i n to e t e rna lp ea ce .

Many p i ece s a tG amz ig rad c an b e a t t r ibu ted t o t h e g a te s . Unfo r tuna te ly , i n o the r c a se s w e o f ten d o n o t k now whe re e voca t ive p i ece sw en t , o rh ow t h ey r e la ted t oe ach o the ra nd t o t h e b u i ld ing s . A t S p l i t w e c an s ee t ho se r e la t ionsh ips . T he P a la ce c omb ine s s t ruc tu re s w i th v a r ied u se s , s o me c l ea re rt h an o the r s . T he c a rved d eco ra t ion , b o th f i gu ra l a nd n onf igu ra l , h e lped t h em a ch ieve t h e i rp u rpose s . I tc an h e lp u s u nde r s tand w ha tt h o se p u rpo se sw e re . " Pu rpo se " n eed n o ti nc lude s pec if ic n ame . I nC hap te rT h ree , d i scu ss ion o fs pec if ic b u i ld ing s w i l l c on s ide rh ow much t h ed e co ra t ion a l low su st os ay a bou tt h em . O ne p i e ce o ff i gu ra ld eco ra t ion of e r sc onc lu s ive e v idence a st o t h e f unc t ion o ft h e b u i ld ing i n wh ich i tw a s p laced , b u t t h a ti s e xcep t iona l . Mo s t o f t h e c a rv ing c ha rac t e r ize s b u i ld ing s i n w ay s t h a t c ou ld b e s u i tab le f o r mo re t h an o ne i den t if ica t ion . F ina ln am ing h a st od epend o n a r ch i tec tu ra lt ype a nd h i s to r ica l p robab i l i ty .

F rees tand ing s cu lp tu re f ound i n s ide t h e w a l ls o f G amz ig rad i n c lude s af i ne p o rphy ry h ead o fG a le r iu s w ea r ing s ma l l b u s t s i den t if ied a s t he T e t ra rch s i n h i s c rown , ah and w i th a n o rb ( S re jov ie 1 994 , 1 44 -45 , 1 46 -152 , f i g s 6 ,7 , 1 0 -17 : S re jov ie 1 996 :p 1 .28 ) ,a nd t h ed amaged h ead o fa no the rt e t ra r ch ( Ga le r iu s a ga in? ac o l league? ) . I na dd i t ion , t h e re w a s p robab ly as t a tue o fJ up i te r ( a ssum ing t h a t ah and h o ld ing a n e ag le w en tw i th a b ea rded h ead f ound n ea rby ) , ah ead ma t ched w i th ab a se w i th a l i on s k in a nd i den t if ied a s H e rcu le s , af i gu re i d en t if ied a s Aescu lap ius , a nd t h ree h ands h o ld ing t o rches , p o ss ib ly c onnec ted w i th t he c u l t o f C ybe le ( S re jov ie , L a lov ie a nd J ankov id 1 978 : 5 8 -59 ; S re jov id 1 993 , p l s . 7 6 , 7 7 , 7 8 ) . D ionysu s a ppea r s i n af i ne mosa ic i n al a rge a p sed h a l l . T he med ium i ss i gn if ican t . Mo sa ic i st h e a pp rop r ia te f o rm , a nd D iony su s a na pp rop r ia te s ub jec tf o rt h ed om inan td eco ra t ion i n t h is k ind o fs pace , p robab ly f o r d in ing o r r e cep t ion , n o t i na mo re s pec if ica l ly s ac ra lo ne . A tS p l i tw ec an s peak o n ly a bou t c a rved d eco ra t ion . Any mo sa ics t h a tm igh t h ave e n r iched t h e r e s iden t ia la r ea a r et o ta l ly l o s t .

T he f i r s t c onc lu s ion w e c an d raw i st ha t t he b u i lde r s u sed d eco ra t ion b o th t o u n if y t h e c omp lex , a nd t o empha s ize t h e r ange i ni t s f unc t ions . N o t o n ly a r e s ome a r ea s embe l l ished a nd o t he r s l e f t p la in ; s t i l l more s i gn if ican t ly s ome mo t if s empha s ize p o l i t ica l a ch ievemen t , s ome r e l ig iou s c e remony , s ome ah e ro iza t ion o ft h e d ead , a nd s t i l l o t he r s e n joymen t o f t h i s w o r ld o r a no the r . F igu re s a nd p a t te rn s e voke p l ea su re a s w e l l a se xe r t ion ,r e f e rt oj oy a sw e l l a st ov i o lence , n o ts i de b y s i de ,b u tc a re fu l ly a l loca ted a nd i nb a lance . PARTS T oa l low a no rde r ly s umma ry , t h eP a lace h a sb een d iv ided i n to e i gh t s e c t ion s ( f ig . 2 ) .1 6 T he d iv i s ion i sa tt ime s a rb i t ra ry . I t t r ie s t ot a ke i n to a ccoun t b o th u n i t s o fe xe cu t ion a nd u n i t s o f v i s ion , b u ti td oe s n o tp rec i se ly r ef lec te i the ro ne . B ounda r ie s b e tween u n i t s may b e o bv ious , b u t s o a re t h e mu l t ip le i n te ra c t ion st h a tc on t inua l ly a f f ec ted b o th w o rke r sa nd v i ewe r s . A n i n i t ia l c ap i ta l l e t te r i su sed h e re ( a s i n McNa l ly 1 989 ) t o i nd ica te c onven t iona ln ame s( Pa lace , Mau so leum ,P e r i s ty le )f o r t h e c omp lex a nd i t s p a r t s . T hey h ave v a ry ing c l a im s f o r v a l id i ty , wh ich w i l l b e m en t ioned b e low . L owe r c a se l e t te r s ( ve s t ibu le , t emeno s , g a te ) i nd ica te i d en t if i ca t ion b y f unc t ion , a nd q uo ta t ion ma rk s i nd ica te ar e cen t i d en t i f ica t ion Iq ue s t ion ( " t r ic l in ium " ) . Mo re a na lys is w a sp re sen ted i n McNa l ly 1 989 , wh ich w i l l n eed e xpand ing a nd u pda t ing i nt he f u tu re . H e re , o n ly t h e b a s ic s ke le ta l s t ruc tu re i sp re sen ted . E v idence f o r f unc t ion o rd e ta i l so fp l an s a nd e l eva t ion s f r equen t ly r e la te s t o u se o fo rnamen t , a nd s ot h ey a r e d i scu s sed t o ge the ri nC hap te r T h re e .

T hese r ep re sen ta t ion s o f g od s a nd h umans p rov ide t h e mo s t u nequ ivoca le v idence f o rt h ei dea st h a tt h eb u i lde r si n co rpo ra ted i nt hese t wo r e s idence s , b u t t hey a r e n o t t h e o n ly s i gn ify ing p a r t s o ft h e d eco ra t ion . A t T hessa lon ike , l a u re l w rea th s w i th f i l le t s p re ss ing i n to t h em w ind a round t he l a rge A rch o f G a le r iu s . O n t h e Sma l l A rch , as ma l l g a r land h ang s b e tween t he p o r t ra i t s , a nd a n e l egan t d oub le v i ne s c ro l l s u r round s t h e D ionysus . S im i la r l e af c ha ins o ccu r ac oup le o f t imes a t G amz ig rad ,o u tnumbe red b y l e ss f o rma li nvoca t ion so fn a tu re . S imp le v ine r i nceaux a bound , w i th l a rge l e ave s a nd o cca s iona l g rapes . C ap i ta ls w i th a n e x t rao rd ina ry c omb ina t ion o fp lan t s ( i vy , g rape s , whea t ) a nd h ead s r ema in t ob ei n te rp re ted . Many a r ch i tec tu ra l f r agmen t s , e spec ia l ly c on so le s , p i la s te r sa nd d oo r f r ames , i ncorpo ra te b o th c onven t iona l a nd i nnova t ive l e af p a t te rn s . One , f r om t h e e a s t g a te , s hows o ak l e ave s ( s ee o ver lapp ing l eaf , C hap te r Two ) . T hey r em ind u s t ha t Ga ler ius ' mo the r wo r sh ipped t he g ods o f t he ( f o re s ted )

1 6 T he l a ck o fd e ta i led , l a rge s ca le p lan s o ft he P a lace i sf i na l ly t ob er emed ied ( s ee P re f a ce ) . T he p lan u sed h e r ew as d rawn b y B rad K a spa r i u s ing t wo , o ne o f t h e s ubs truc tu re s a nd o ne o f t h e ma in f l oo r l e ve l , p ub l i shed b y J e rko a nd T om is lav Ma rasov ie i n 1 994 i n A n t iqu i te T ard ive . T ho se a r e t he mos t a ccu ra te p lan s t o a ppea r s i nce t h e o ne i n McNa l ly , Ma ra sov ie a nd Ma ra sov ie 1 976 . I ti s u nfo r tuna te t ha t t he se p lans h ave b een s l ow i n r ep lac ing p reconcep t ion s . A r e cen t a r t ic le u se s ap l an i ncorpo ra t ing l ong o u tda ted g ue sse s a nd om i t t ing l ong k nown f a c t s , a l though t ho se e r ro r s a r e n o t p e r t inen t t ot h e s ub jec t o ft h e a r t ic le .

1 5 S re jov ie a sse r t s t ha t Ga le r ius p l anned t o b e b u r ied a t G amz ig rad , a nd t ha t t h e who le c omp lex , a l though c l ea r ly o f t wo p ha se s , wa s b u i l t f o r h i s f i na l r e s t ing p l ace . H e s ugge s t s t h a t t h e empe ro r 's v i c tory o ve r t he P e r s ian s ( 297 /8 ) , a nd d ec is ion t or e t i re ( t aken i n 3 05 ) w e re d e te rm in ing i nf luence s o n t h e p rog ram ( 1996 : 2 5 ) . T he o n ly s uppor t ing e v idence , h e re o r a t S p l i t , c ome s f r om e l abo ra t ion o f t h e c on s t ruc t ion i t se lf .

1 0

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNAMENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT f r on t o f ar e c tangu la r s pace , o r t emenos , c lo sed o n t h e o the r t h ree s i de sb y w a l ls ( B ) . T he e a s ter nt emenos c on ta ins as i ng le l a rge b u i ld ing , t h e Mauso leum ( C ) . T he w es te rn t emenos i s l e ss w e l l p re se rved a nd e xp lo red . I tc er ta in ly c on ta ined t h ree s t ruc tu re s : t h e T emp le o fJ up i te r , s e t o n t he c en t ra l a x is n ea r t h e b ack o ft h e s pace ( D ) , a nd t wo r ound s t ruc tu re s c l ose t ot h e f r on tc o lonnade ( E ) .C on s ide rab le s pace r ema ins emp ty b e tween t h ese t h ree . O the r s t ruc ture s , s uch a s a n a l ta r , may y e t b e f ound t h e re .

I . Ence inte : w a l ls a nd t owers A . S ou th w a l l B . E a s tw a l l C . N or th w a l l D . We s tw a l l E .C o rne rt owe r s T he P a la ce i se nc losed b y ac i r cu i to fw a l ls w i th g a tes , e x terna l t ower s , a nd s ma l l i n te rna l r oom s o r " magaz ines ." T he o u te r w a l ls mea su re a bou tt wo h und red a nd s i x teen m e te r so n t h ee a s t a nd w es ts i de s , o ne h und red e i gh teen me te r s o n t h e n or th , a nd o ne h und red s even ty -f ive me te r s o n t h e s ou th . T he re i sa g a teway i nt h ec en ter o fe ach w a l l .

I V .

B .T e t rapy la C . D ecumanus D .C a rdo

S ix teen t owe r s p ro t ruded f r om t h e w a l ls . T hey w e re p laced a t t h ef our c or ne r s , o n e i the rs i de o ft h el a nd ( i . e . , n o r th , e a s t , a nd w e s t ) g a te s , a nd m idway b e tween t hose g a te s a nd t h e c orne r s . T he t owe r s f l ank ing t h e g a te s a r e c ons ide red w i th t hose g a te s . T hey w e re o c tagona l . T he o the r s , o f wh ich t h ree c o rne r o ne s ( E )s u rv ive ,w e re s qua re .

E . C ro ss ing a r ea F .S ide s t ree t s Two ma in s t ree t s p lay a d om ina t ing r o le i n o rgan iz ing t he s pace i n s ide t h e p e r ime te r w a l ls . Sma l l c our t s ( A ) l i nk t he t h ree l a nd g a te s w i th t he se s t ree t s . T he l onge r s t ree t ( C ) r uns b e tween t h e e a s t a nd w es t g a tes ; t he o ther ( D ) r uns f r om t h e n or th g a te u n t i l i ti n te r sec t s t h e e a s t w es t s t ree t . ( Sou th o ft he i n te r sec t ion , t h e l i ne o f t he n o r th -sou th s t ree t c on t inue s , f i rs t b e tween r ow s o fc o lumns s uppor t ing a r ches , t h en t h rough t h e r e s iden t ia l b l ock o n b o th l e ve ls . ) Bo th s t ree t s w e re l i ned b y c o lumns b e tween t h e p ie r s o f t h e t e t rapy la ( B) a nd o f t he c en t ra l c r o s s ing ( E ) . T he w id th o ft h e o pen s t ree t s i sa bou tt e n me te r s ,o ve rt wen ty i ft h ep o r t ico so n e i the rs i de a r ei n c luded .

B u i ld ing s l i ned t he i nner f a ce s o ft he w a l ls i na l l p a r t s o ft h e P a lace . I n t h e n or thern h a lf ( V I I , V I I I ) , t h e se c ons is ted o f s ma l l r oom s p receded b y ad eep p a ssageway b eh ind p ie r s . A long t h e s ou thern w a l l r un s t h e ma in p a r t o ft h e r e s iden t ia l b lock ( I I ) . I .

S treets

A . G a te c our t s

R es idence

A . Ma in b lock

I nt h e n or the rn h a lf o ft he P a lace , s ubs id ia ry s t ree t s ( F ) s t a r ted f r om t h e t e t rapy la ( B ) a nd r an i nf r on t o f t h e magaz ine s t ha t l i ne t h e p e r ime te r w a l ls . O n t h a t s i de t hey w e re b o rde red b y r ows o fp i e r s t h a t c r ea ted p a ssageways i n to a d jo in ing r ooms . T he se s t ree t sw e re a bou th a lf t h ew id th o ft he c en t ra l s t ree t s .

B . V e s t ibu le C . N o r th p o rch S ome w a l ls o f t he ma in s t ory s u rv ive , b u t t h e p lan o f t h e r e s idence i sk nown ma in ly f r om i t s s ubs t ruc tu res . I t s ma in e n t rance w a s f r om t he n or th , t h rough af ou r -co lumned p o rch ( C ) , v i sua l ly l i nked t ot h e T emenos a rea ( I I I ) , b u t s t ruc tu ra l ly a t tached t ot h e r es idence . B eh ind i t s c o lumns al a rge , o rna te d oo rway o pens i n to a c i rcu la r r oom i n scr ibed i n r e c tangu la r w a l ls t h a t p rov ide s pace f o r f ou r n i ches , t h e v es t ibu le ( B ) . A s econd d oo r o n t he s ame a x is l e d i n to al a rge ( t h ir ty -one b y t we lve m e te r s ) r ec tangu la rh a l l r unn ing t h rough t h e c en te ro fa r e c tangu la r b lock o f r ooms ( A ) . A t t he f a r e nd o f t he h a l l , a t h i rd l a rge d oo rway o pened o n to t h e s ou the rn c o r r idor , wh ich r an mo s t o f t h e l eng th o f t h e b l ock . A long o ne s i de o f t h e c o r r idor as e r ie s o fa r ches l o oked o u tt ot h eb ay a nd t h e i s land s b eyond . I t s i n ner s i de g ive s a c ce ss t ol i v ing , d i n ing , r e cep t ion , a nd s e rv ice a r eas ( no t a lway s c l ea r ly s epa rab le : T . Ma ra sov i 1 969 ; McNa l ly 1 989 : 2 5 -29 ) . T hey d i f f e r w ide ly i n s i ze a nd s hape , d emons t ra t ing at a s te f o r c omp lex d e s ign , a nd u nu sua l j ux tapos i t ions . Unfor tuna te ly , t h ey p reserve f ew t r ace s o f d eco ra t ion .

C ommun ica t ions i nt h e s ou thern h a lf o ft he P a lace mus t h ave b een c on s t r ic ted a nd w ind ing . N ol ong s i de s t ree t s e x is ted , a nd p a ssageways h ave y e tt ob et r aced . V . S outheas tern a rea b e tween t e menos , wa l l , a nd r es idence A . B a th B . Mo sa ic c ou r tya rd I n t h is a r ea , p ar t s o f t wo s t ruc tures h ave b een u ncove red , w ide ly s epa ra ted f r om e ach o the r , a nd a f ew t r aces o f o the r r ooms . T hey may h ave o r ig ina l ly f o rmed p a r t o f o ne l a rge b a th ing c omp lex e n tered f r om j us t i n s ide t he e as t g a te ( McNa l ly 1 989 w i th e a r l ie rl i t e ra tu re ; McNa l ly 1 994 ) . V I . S ou thwestern a rea b e tween t e menos , wa l l , a nd r es idence

II . T emenos a rea

O n ly o ne b u i ld ing , ab a th w i th s ma l l , c omp lex r ooms , h as b een t r a ced i nt h is a r ea . A l l t h e r oom s s o f a r u ncovered w e re h ea ted f r om af u rnace a tt h e n or th . I t mus t ma rk t h e e nd o ft h e b u i ld ing i nt h a t d i rec t ion , s op r esumab ly t he u nhea ted s e c t ions e x tended b e tween t h e t emeno s a nd t he r es idence t o t h e e a s t . Wha t l a y t ot h e n or th , b e tween t h e b a th a nd t h e g a te , r ema ins t ob ed i scove red ( McNa l ly 1 989 ; McNa l ly 1 994 ) .

A . P e r i s ty le c o lonnade s B . I n ter io ro ft emeno sc ou r tya rd s C . Mauso leum D . T emp le o fJ up i te r E . R ound b u i ld ings T he p o rch o f t he v es t ibu le i s a bu t ted o n e i ther s i de b y c o lonnades s uppor t ing a r che s ( A ) . E ach c o lonnade f orm s t h e

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THE PALACE V I I . Nor thea s tern a rea

V I II . Nor thwes tern a rea

L i t t le b y l i t t le , mo re t h rough r emode l ing o r r ebu i ld ing o f e x is t ing dwe l l ing s t han t h rough p lanned i nves t iga t ions , a dd i t iona l r ema in s a r e a ppea r ing i nt h i s a r ea a nd i n V II I ( J . Ma ra sov id 1 989 : 2 25 ; Ma ra sov id a nd Ma ra sov id 1 994 : 9 6 ) . R ema ins o f w a l ls , a nd p a r t icu la r ly o f t wo s im i la r w a l l c ro ss ing s , p o in t t o as imp le a nd s ymme t r ica l l a you t o f t h is q ua r te r . I ft h ek nown p a r t s w e re o r ig ina l ly d up l ica ted ,t h en t h e a r ea w i th in t h es t ree t sc ons i s ted o f al o ng o pen c ou r td iv ided b y p i e r s f r om p o rche s a l ong i t s l ong s i de s , a nd w i th ar ow o fa t l e a s tt h ree r oom sa l ong e ach n a r row e nd . T ra ce s o f an o r ther n a nd aw e s te rn e n t rance f r om t h es i de s t r ee t sh ave b een f ound .

T he p lan f o r t h is a r ea s eem s mo re c omp le te t han t ha t o fV I I , b u t s i nce t h e s pace s s o f a r d e l inea ted a r e v ery l a rge , t h e p o ss ib i l i ty o f mo re i n te r io r d iv is ion s c anno t y e t b e r u led o u t . T he re i sn oe v idence f o rr oof ing . S ome s pa ces r e f e r red t oh e r e a s " r oom s " may h ave b een o pen . T he re s e ems t oh ave b een o ne r oom o rc our tr ough ly f o r ty -f ive b y t wen ty me te r s r unn ing a l ong t h e n or the rn s i de s t ree t . F rom o ne e nd o fi t ad oo rway l e d i n to t h e w e s ter nmos t o ft h ree p a ra l le l r e c tangu la r r oom s , t h e c en t ra l o ne o f wh ich w a s s l igh t ly l a rge r t han t ho se o n e i the r s i de . T he re s eem t oh ave b een d oo rways i n to t h e s i de r oom s f r om t h e c a rdo a nd t h e e a s t s i de s t ree t . A t t h e s ou th o f t h e se t h ree t h e re w e re a tl e a s tt wo mo r er oom s (Ma ra sov id a nd Ma r a sov id 1 994 : 9 6 ) .

ADDENDU M Av e ry v a luab le t h o rough p ub l ica t ion o ft h e Sma l lA rch o f Ga le r iu s a tT he s sa lon ike h a s n ow a ppea red : T heodos ia S tephan idou T ibe r iou , 1 995 , T o M ikro T oxo t o u G a ler iou s t e T hes sa lon ike ( G reek w i th G e rman s u mma ry ) . I tb ecame a va i lab le a f te r t h i s manu scr ip t h ad b een g iven t ot h e p r in te r s , s o Imus t p o s tpone t oa no the r t ime f u l l c ons ide ra t ion o fi t s s i gn if icance f o r s eve ra l i s sue s , i . e . , t h er a nge o fr e f e rence s s u i tab le f o ri mpe r ia l r e s idences , d i scu s sed i nt h is c hap te r ; t h e f o rma t ion o fw o rk f o rces d u r ing t h eT e t ra rchy ,d i scu s sed i nC hap te rT h ree ; a nd s pec if ic c ompa r i son sb e tween t h ei c onog raphy a nd f unc t ion o ft h e Sma l lA r ch a nd t h e F r ieze o f t h e Mau so leum a tS p l i t , d i scussed i n A ppend ix O ne . T he a u tho r s hows t ha t t he Sma l l A rch c ame f r om a " r ep re sen ta t iona l " r oom i nG a le r iu s ' P a la ce , s ou th o ft h e o c tagon , w h ich s he c on s ide r s t ob e C ons tan t in ian . H e r i n te rp re ta t ion s t re s se sp o l i t ico -h i s to r ica lr a the rt h an mo re b road ly r e l ig iou s mean ings . T he A r ch , s he a rgue s ,i n c luded b a rba r ian sa sr e f e rence st o G a le r ius 'P e r s ian v i c to ry ,h ono red G a le r iu sa nd G a le r ia V a le r ia a f te rt h el a t te rh ad b een n amed Augus ta a tC a rnun tum ,a nd h ono red D ionysu s b ecau se o fh i si mpo r tance i nT he ssa lon ike . S he t h ink s t h ea r ch c r owned a n a ed icu la f r am ing as t a tue , mo s tp robab ly o f t h eT yche o fT he s sa lon ike . F ina l ly s he a r gue s t h a tt h e monumen ta lA r ch , t h e Sma l lA rch , a nd t he c ap i ta l sf r om t he o c tagon w e re a l l p roduced b y t h es ame g roup o fa r t i san s , w ho c omb ined t r a i t s t h a to r ig ina ted i nA t t ica w i th o ne s t ha to r ig ina ted i nA s ia M ino r , a nd who c ame t oge the r i n T he s sa lon ike s pec if ica l ly f o r t he T e t ra rch ic b u i ld ing p rog ram . T ha t i n te rp re ta t ion s uppo r t s my i mp re s s ion ,a nd p rov ide s ap a ra l le lf o rt h ef o rma t ion o ft h ew o rk fo rce a tS p l i t( s ee b e low ,p p . 3 8 -39 ) .

1 2

C hap ter 2

THE DECORAT IVE VOCABULARY mo re s u rpr is ing ly , t he h o l low t ongue a nd t h e o ve r lapp ing l e af . E xecu t ion o f t hese p rom inen t p a t terns s hows more i d iosyncras ies t han e xecu t ion o f t he m inor o nes . T he d escr ip t ion s i mmed ia te ly b e low p o in t o u tt hose i d iosync ra s ies , b u t t hey d o n o t d oj us t ice t ot h e amoun t o f v a r ie ty t h a t o ccu r s i nt he e xecu t ion e ven o fc ommon mo t if s s uch a s t h e a can thus . Add i t iona l d e ta i l i n t he R eg is te r a nd , mos t i mpo r tan t , t h e i lus t ra t ions g ive more i d ea o f t he w ide r ange t h a t c an s ome t imes o ccu re ven w i th in as i ng le mo ld ing .

C ha r ts One t h rough T h ree i nd ica te s ome th ing o f t he o ve ra l l n a tu re , a nd t h e s pec if i c r e la t ionsh ip s o f o rnamen t w i th in t h e P a lace . C ha r t One s hows t h e d i s t r ibu t ion o f p a t terns t ha t a ppea r i n b and o rnamen t s ; C ha r t Two s how s p a t terns i n t h e c onso les ; C ha r t T h ree s hows p a t te rn s a nd s ome p rof i le s i n e n tab la tu re sa nd r e la ted f e a tu re s . ( Cha r t s Two a nd T h ree f o l low t h e mode l g i ven b y N eu 1 972 , B e i lage XV I I I , b u t t hey h ave b een a dap ted t o c over a more h e terogeneous g roup o f mo ld ings . ) C ons idera t ion o f o the r s i gn if ican t a r ch i tec tu ra l members , s uch a s s i l ls a nd c of f e r s , r e info rce s t h e p ic tu re t h e c ha r t sp re sen t .

P r inc ip le t e rm s u sed f o rp a t te rn s a r e : a can thu s

When Cha r t T hree i s c ompa red w i th Neu 's c ha r t o f t h e e n tab la tu re s f r om t h i rd a nd e a r ly f ou r th c en tury R ome ( 1972 : B e i lage t XV I I I ) , s ome i d io sync ra s ie s o fS p l i t e me rge c l ea r ly . C a rvers l i ke c omp lex a n ima te f o rms , t r ad i t iona l a nd i n nova t ive , s t y l ized . a nd d e sc r ip t ive . F avo red p a t terns i n c lude a n the m ia w i th v a r ious c omb ina t ions o fl o tus a nd p a lme t te , a nd av a r ie ty o fl e a fp a t tern s : s hea r -shaped l e af , s hea r -shaped l e af a nd d a r t , s t i r rup -f ramed l e a fa nd d a r t , s i ng le a nd o ve r lapp ing l e a f c ha ins , az i gzag p a t tern a b s t rac ted f r om i n te r sec t ing l e ave s a nd , i nc onso le s a nd s of f i t s , many v a r ia t ions o n f o l ia te s hapes . A p red i lec t ion u nde rs ta ted o n t h e c ha r t s i s t he u se o f h ead s : a n ima l , h uman , a nd l e ss o r mo re t han h uman . B es ides t h e c on so les a nd s o ff i t s s hown o n C ha r t Two , c of f e r s o n b o th t h e T emp le a nd t h e Mau so leum c on ta in h ead s .

a n them ion b e ad b ead a nd r e e l c ab le d oub le l e a fb und le e gg a nd d a r t h e ad h o l low t ongue g u i l loche i n hab i ted s c ro l l l e a f ,s hea r shaped l e af , s i ng le c ha in

E xecu t ion o f p a t terns i sa s d i s t inc t ive a s t h e ir s e lec t ion a nd p l acemen t . P a r t icu la r ly i nt h e a n them ia a nd t h e s t ir rup -f ramed l e af a nd d a r t ,c a rve r s l o osen r e la t ionsh ip si no rde rt oa n ima te o r e l abo ra te s pec if ic e l emen t s . I n te res ted i nt h e p a r t r a the r t h an t h e who le , t h ey s e ize o n t h e c onso le s a nd c onso le s of f i t s a s p l aces t oi mp rov ise .

l e af ,o ve r lapp ing l e a f ,z i gzag l e a fa nd d a r t , s hea r shaped l e a fa nd d a r t , s t i r rup -f ramed m eande r p l an tf o rm s

H e igh t , a nd p l ay w i th c hang ing o ro ve r lapp ing h e igh t s , a t trac t s t h e se d es igne r s a nd c r a f t smen . I ne n tab la tu re s , t h ey c oncen t ra te p a t terns a bove t h e f r ieze , n o t o n ly i nt h e a r ea o ft h e c onso les , b u t i n t he c yma r ec ta ( o r t h e c ave t to t h a t s ome t ime s r ep lace s i t ) . O f ten t h ey p resen t s eve ra l l a ye r s o fe n tab la tu re s o rr e la ted e l ement s f o r v iew . T hey c urve e n tab la tu res u pwa rd f o r e mpha s i s . A lmos t a l l t h is w o rk i sd one i nl o ca l l ime s tone .

r i nceau w i th s e conda ry s t em r o se t te v o lu te s , l i nked C ha rac te r is t ics a canthus

PATTERNS

T he a can thus a ppea r s s i ng ly o n c onso les , i n c o rona s o f c ap i ta ls , o nce f o rm ing ab and , a nd o nce a ccen t ing ab and o f h o l low t o ngue s .

T he c ommon d iv is ion o f p a t te rns t h a t a r e " c anon ica l" f r om t h o se t ha t a r e " non -canon ica l" w ou ld b e a nach ron is t ic a tS p l i t . Al ook a tt h e l i s t b e low s how s af am i l ia r g roup , n o t e x tens ive w hen t he n umbe ro fd eco ra ted e l emen t si sc ons ide red . S ome o f t h e se p a t te rn s a r e c ommonp lace t h roughou t t h e R oman w o r ld . O thers o ccu r mo re f r equen t ly i nA s ia M inor , a l though a l l c an b e f ound e l sewhere . L ook ing a t w h ich p a t te rns a re mos t f r equen t y i e ld s o n ly a c oup le o f s u rp r ises : h eads a re v ery f r equen t , a nd r i nceaux a r e r a re . ( Cha r t One i nd ica tes t h e f r equenc ie s o f t h e b and o rnamen t s . ) L ook ing a tp rom inence r e vea ls mo re p ecu l ia r i ty . T he p a t te rns p l aced e mpha t ica l ly o n l a rge , s t rong ly p rof i led mo ld ings i n c lude t h e a n them ion , a nd ,

On t he l ime s tone c ap i ta ls , t h e l e af h a s ab road c en t ra l s t em , s o me t imes d iv ided b y ac en t ra l g roove a nd c u lm ina t ing i n b owed o ve rl e ave s ( u sua l ly t h ree : n ow o f ten b roken a way ) . O n e i the r s i de i s al owe r b und le o f f i ve l e aves t ha t f a n o u twa rd d iagona l ly s o t ha t t he l owe r t h ree l e aves u sua l ly t ouch t h e l owe r t h ree l e ave s o f t h e n ex t a can thus . Above t h is as e cond b und le o f f i ve l e aves f a n s im i lar ly , s o t ha t t h e l owe s t a nd s ome t ime s t h e s econd l owes t l e aves t ouch . Wedge -shaped d ep ress ions a r e c u t i n to e ach l e a f . I n t he u ppe r c o rona t h e

1 3

THE DECORAT IVE VOCABULARY g o i nd i f f e ren td i rec t ion s . T he s u rf a ce s o ft he l o tu se s , u n l ike t ho se o ft h ep a lme t te s , a r eg rooved t o ag rea te ro rl e s se re x ten t . T he p o r t ico o ft h e Mau so leum ( II .C .2 ) s hows aw ide r ange o f p oss ib i l i t ies w i th in o ne mo ld ing : On s ome s l abs t he a n them ion h a s s im i la r c ons t ruc t ion , b u t d if f e r en t d ep ths o f c a rv ing , a nd d i f f e ren t d eg ree s o f c u rva ture . O n o the r s , a d if e ren tl a you ta ppea r s .

l owe r b unche s t ouch i n t he s ame manne r , b u t t h e u ppe r b unche s d o n o t . C a lyces r i se b e tween t h em f r om ar ough ly f o rmed b a se . D e ta i ls , p a r t icu la r ly o ft he t ouch ing o fl e ave s , v a ry f r om e xamp le t o e xamp le ( e .g . , T emp le o f J up i te r ,

Sma l le r a can thu s l e aves , f o r i n s tance o n a n ta c ap i ta l s , h ave f ewe rp a r t s ,b u tt ho se t ha ta r ep re sen ta r e s haped l i ke t h el a rge r o ne s . T he re a r e s o me e xamp les whe re d iv is ion s b e tween p o in t s c on s i s t o fr ows o fd r i l l h o le s , r a the r t h an ac on t inuou s l i ne ( a d e ta i l e mpha s ized b y R ieg l , s ee a bove , p . 4 , b e low I I .D .8 .a , s ee a l so d i scu ss ion u nde r Ma te r ia l a nd T echn ique b e low ) . Ma jo r d ivergence s f r om t he n orm c ome i n t he a can thu s i n t h e h o l low t ongue b and i n s ide t h e Mau so leum ( I I I .C .7 .a ) , a nd o n t he t wo P roconne s ian c ap i ta ls o f t h e d ecumanu s( IV .C .1 ) .

O the rv a r ia t ion s i n c lude s ome d e l ica te a nd o rna te f o rms o n t h e T emp le o fJ up i te r , a s w e l l a s t he s imp le r f orm s o n t he s ame b u i ld ing t h a tK ah le rl i nked w i th l a te rw o rk i n t h ec i ty o f Rome ( s ee a bove ,p p .4 -5 ) . Du r ing t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t he t h i rd c en tu ry , t he a n them ion w a s t h e mo s tc ommon d eco ra t ion o ft h ec yma r ec ta i nR ome , b u ti t t h en c ea sed t oa ppea r( Neu 1 972 : 1 24 -125 a nd B e i lage I ta ppea r s i n s eve ra l p oss ib ly t h i rd c en tury monumen t s o f w e s te rn A na to l ia , i . e .t h ec o lonnade a nd g a teway f r om M i le tu s , a nd t h et emp le tomb a tS ide ( Man se l 1 978 , f i g . 4 4p .5 1 ; n ow g ene ra l ly d a ted i nt h ep reced ing c en tu ry ,K rame r 1 983 )

L eave s s im i la rt ot he " no rm " a tS p l i t , tha t i s , t h e a can thu s o f mo s to ft he c ap i ta ls -a l so a ppea ri nt h e a can thu sr ow a tt h et o p o f t he p ier s o n t he A rch o f G a le r ius a t T hes sa lon ike , p a r t icu la r ly t ho se o f P ie r A r a the r t han t h e s l igh t ly mo re v e r t ica l , s l ende rl e aves o n P ie rB ( Laub sche r 1 975 : 1 41 : P ie r A , p l . 1 4 , P ie r B , 2 ,p l . 4 5 , 2 ; K äh le r 1 953 : 3 6 ) . T hey a r e p a r t icu la r ly c l o se t ot he a n tae o ft h e P e r is ty le ( I I I .A .1) . T he r e semb lance w a s ama jo rf a c to ri nc au s ing L aub sche rt os peak o fa n " ea s te rn f o rma l l anguage " t h a tT he ssa lon ike s ha red w i th S p l i t , a l though t h e wo rkmen w e re n o tt he s ame ( 1 975 : 1 41) .

T he f l a t , s imp le , s t rong ly r ounded p a lme t te f o rm f o und a tS p l i t a ppea r so n an umbe ro f Ana to l ian e xamp le s , e . g . ,t h e f r agmen t f r om t h e t h ea t e ra tM i le tu s o nce d a ted t ot he l a te t h i rd c en tu ry ( A l tenhöf e r 1 986 : p l . 2 1 , 4 ) . T he r ebu i ld ing o ft h e t h ea te r i s n ow d a ted t ot h ee nd o ft h es e cond c en tu ry ,b u tl a t e rr ewo rk ing c anno t b e e xc luded . T he c on s t ruc t ion o f t he a n them ion i s s im i la r t o t h a t i n s o me p laces i n t he P a la ce , b u t t he h ybr id iza t ion o f t h e d ownwa rd p o in t ing e lemen t h a s n o t p roceeded a s f a r . I n b o th o ft h e se e xamp les , t h e a l te r na t ing mo t if , t h e " l o tu s , " i sa n o n ly s l igh t ly e l abo ra ted p a lme t te . O n ac o rn ice f r om L aod icea ( no . 1 7398 , G ineuve s -Ma r t in p l . 6 3 , 8 ) , t h ep a lme t te a nd t h el o tu s -acan thu sa r es im i la r ,b u ts imp le r , w i th f ewe r ,l a rge ri n d iv idua lp ar t s . A l though d if e r ing i n many r e spec t s , aw es te rn a n them ion o n af r ag men t f r om P iazza A rme r ina ( Ca rand in i 1 982 : f i g s . 1 04 , 1 05 ) a l so h a s r e la t ive ly s imp le " l o tu se s ." T he d eg ree o fa can thu s l ike d e ta i l ing f ound a tS p l i t i su nu sua l .

a n them ion ( G ineuves - Ma r t in I :1 78 . ) I nt h eP a la ce t h ea n them ion , o f ten r e f e r red t oa sl o tu s -pa lme t te o r a can thu s -pa lme t te , u sua l ly a ppea r s a s a l te rna t ing c ha in , e xcep t o n t he n o r th wa l l s t r ing c ou rse , whe re t h e re w a s p robab ly ar ow o fp a lme t te s . I ti st he p ref e r red f o rm t ot op a n e n tab la tu re , a nd a l so o ccu r s i nt wo s t r ing c ou r se s a nd as off i t . I tc on s i s t s o ft wo e l emen t s : ap a lme t te a nd a" l o tu s . "1 7 T he p a lme t te c on s is t s o fb road , f l a t , w ide -sp read f r ond s w i th l i t t le o r n o i n te r io r d e ta i l ing . As hor t c en t ra l f r ond e nd s i na c urve , ap o in t , o r , o cca s iona l ly as epa ra te k nob . T h ree f r ond s o n e i the rs i de c u rve w e l lo u t , t h en c u r li nwa rd a tt h et o pt oe nd i n r ough ly c i r cu la r l obe s . Two o f t he se s i de f r ond s a nd t h e c en te ro ne a r e a lways t i ed a tt h e b o t tom b y ab and : T he o u te r f r ond s may o r may n o tb ec l ea r ly i n c luded i nt h et i e . T he l a t te r f o rm v o lu te s a tt h e b o t tom b efo re c on t inu ing t oc onnec tt ot h e n ex tp a lme t te o ra can thu s / lo tu s . T ha t c onnec t ing l i nk may b e s moo th l i ke t h ep a lm f r ond s ,o ra r t icu la ted l i ke al e a f .

b ead A b and c on s i s t ing o n ly o f b eads a ppea rs i n ac oup le o f i n con sp icuou s p l a ce s . T he b ead s a r e r ounder a nd l a rge r t han t ho se i nt h eb ead a nd r e e l . S ome a ppea ra sf l a td i sc s ,p oss ib ly d ue t ow ea r ; o t he r sa r e mo re s phe r ica l . b ead a nd r ee l

A l though t he f r ond s s p read w ide ly , t he p a lme t te i sa lways c lo sed , t ha t i s , t h e s i de e l emen t s c u rve i n t owa rd t h e c en t ra l o ne . T he " l o tu s , " w i th i t s a can thu s l ike d e ta i l ing , i so pen . I n s ome b and s i tc l ose ly r e semb les t he p a lme t te i n h av ing a c en t ra l s p ine w i th t wo e s sen t ia l ly v e r t ica lf r ond so ne i the rs i de . E ach o ft hem c u rves f i r s ti na nd t h en o u t , c u lm ina t ing i nt h ree p o in t s . T he t h ree l owe rp o in t s u sua l ly c u r l d own , t h e m idd le p o in t s t ick so u ta nd t he u ppe ro ne c u r l s u p . I no t he re xamp le s ( some t imes i n t he s ame b and ) , t he s i de f r ond s g o o u t h o r izon ta l ly . T hey a ga in d iv ide i n to t wo o r t h ree p o in t s t h a t 1 7 G ineuve s - Ma r t in c a l l t he f orm t ha t a l te rna te s w i th t he p a lme t te a " l o tu s" e ven when c l ea r ly i ti s n o t . T he a l te rna t ive s s eem n o b e t te r . T he mo t if i s ah ybr id p a lme t te -acan thus , a nd c a l l ing i te i the r a n a can thus , s ugge s t ing t he l e a f f ound e l sewhe re , o r ap a lme t te s eem s a s m is lead ing a s c a l l ing i t al o tu s .

T h is i st h e mo s tp opu la rb and o rnamen t , u sed i nm any p lace s . O r ig ina l ly mo s to ft h eb ead s w e re mo re g l obu la rt h an t h ey n ow a ppea r . Wea rh a si n c rea sed t h e i ra ngu la r i ty . On ly a tt h e No r th G a te a r e t h ey o f ten n a r row , a pp roach ing p o in t s a tb o th e nd s . R ee ls a r e s t ra igh t s i ded ; o cca s iona l ly t h e n a r row e nd may a pp roach a w edge s hape . U sua l ly ac l ea r ly d ef ined t h read c onnec t s t h e p a r t s ; s ome t ime s t h ey a bu t d i rec t ly . P ropor t ion s v a ry : t h el e ng th o ft h er e e l c an a pp rox ima te ly e qua lt h el eng th o ft h e t wo b ead s a nd s t rand s , o r c an b e a s much a so ne t h i rd l onge r . A lmo s t i n va r iab ly , t h e re a r e t wo b ead s b e tween t h e r e e l s . O cca s iona l ly at h i rd i sa dded . c ab le ( G ineuve s -Ma r t in I :1 84 -5 ; p l . 5 3 , n o . 4 ) T he c ab le i su sed t od iv ide f a sc iae i na n a rch i t rave a nd t wo a r ch ivo l t s , a nd b e tween s e c t ion s o fd oo rf r ame s . I tc on s is t so f ar ounded mo ld ing w i th d eep d i agona l c u t s a tc l o se i n te rva ls .

1 4

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNA MENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT O ccas iona l ly ( e .g . , t he p od ium o f t h e Mauso leum ) more u neven o u t l ine sc rea te g rea te rr e semb lance t o ar ope .

p a t tern s i nt h eP a lace a r ef a rf r om s t e reo typed a nd f o rmu la ic i n e xecu t ion .

Wegner ( 1 989 : 1 63 ) c on s ide r s t h is s imp le p a t tern R oman , n o t G reek , i no r ig in , a ppea r ing f i r s tb e tween t h ec of f e r so ft h eA rch o f T i tus , a nd a ga in o n d ecora ted b a ses (Wegne r : 1 965 ) . H oweve r , L eon men t ions i t s e a r l ie r a ppea rance i n t h e E a s t ( 1 971 : 2 76 ) . Whereve ri tb egan , i tc e r ta in ly f l ou r ished i nA s ia M ino r . N eu c a l ls i t " a lmos t c anon ica l " i ne n tab la tu res f r om A s ia M ino r . Wegne rd i scusses i t s p opu la r i ty a tS ide f r om t he s e cond c en tury o n ( 1989 : 1 63 ) . N eu n o te s i t s r e la t ive r a r i ty i n e n tab la tu re s f r om t he c i ty o f Rome . I ta ppea r s o n aH ad r ian ic e n tab la tu re , a nd a ga in i n f r agmen t s f r om Aure l ian 's S un T emp le ( 1 972 : 1 43 ) . B y t h e T e t ra rch ic p e r iod i th a s b ecome more c ommon , a ppea r ing i n t he B a ths o f D ioc le t ian , t he B a s i l ica N ova , a nd t h e Maxen t ian r e bu i ld ing o ft h e T emp le o f V enus a nd R oma ( Neu 1 972 : n o . 4 9 , p l . 2 8 a ,b ; n o . 5 5 p l s . 3 4b , 3 5b ) . I t s p opu la r i ty a tS p l i t may s ugges t i n f luence f r om A s ia M ino r , b u t i s c e r ta in ly s ha red w i th o the r p laces . A t G amz ig rad i to ccur s s eve ra l t ime s : o n ad oo r f r ame , w he re t h e s t rand i sd iv ided i n to t h ree r i dges b e tween t h e c u ts (anak Med ia n o . 1 98 , f i gs . 1 03 , 2 05 ; n o . 1 99 f i g s . 1 02 , 1 04 , 2 06 ) , a n a r ch ivo l t( S re jov i 1 993 : p l . 4 9 ) , a nd ac or n ice ( S re jov i 1 993 : p l . 6 1) .

T he p a t te rn a ppea r s i n av a r ie ty o f p o s i t ions : o ve r s ome a r ch i t rave s , o ver t wo a r ch ivo l t s , a s af r ame f or s i l ls a nd c onso les , a nd i n c or n ice s a nd ad oo r f r ame . I n t he s i l ls a nd c onso le s i ta ppea r s o n e i the r s i de o f ac en t ra l mo t if , s o t h e p a t tern p o in t s b o th u p a nd d own . T h is e x t raord ina ry u se i s p a ra l le led o n t h ree p i ece s f r om G amz ig rad , ab eam o n wh ich t h e e gg a nd d a r t s p o in t o u t a way f r om t h e c en t ra l o ve r lapp ing

d oub le l e af b und le

h ead

O n c on so le s i n c orn ices o r s uppo r t ing c o lumns ( Cha r t Two ) , b a lus ter s s how t wo o u twa rd -po in t ing b und le s o fl e ave s , t i ed i n t h e c en te r s ome t imes b y o ne b and , s ome t ime s b y t wo , o r b y a d oub le r ow o f b ead s . T he l eaves u sua l ly h ave t h e s ame c omp l ica ted c on tou r a st ho se o ft h eo ve r lapp ing l e af c ha in , b u t o cca s iona l ly h ave s t ra igh ter s i de s . U sua l ly t h ey o ve r lap d a r t s o r s econda ry l eaves . T hey c an r e semb le o ne o f t wo I on ic b a lus te r mo t ives f r om A s ia M ino r i lus t ra ted b y B ingö l , t he p o in ted l e aves ( 1980 : " Sch i lfb lä t te r " f i g . o n p .8 5 , p l . 2 5 -26 ) , o r t he " ho r izon ta l l e aves l i nked t oge the r a tt h e b o t tom " f i g . p . 11 a nd p l s . 3 6 -38 ) . A t S p l i t t he t i e i sn eve r a s w ide a s i n mos t o f t h e se e xamp le s . ( For c ompa r ison s w i th G amz ig rad , s e e c onso les b e low . )

C a rve r s p u t h eads o n e ve ry r i ch ly d eco ra ted s t ruc ture i n t h e P a lace . T hey a ppea ri np rom inen tp o s i t ions a nd i n consp icuou s o ne s , o n c onso les , t h e s of f i t s b e tween c onso les , c of fe r s , a f r ieze , a nd ad oo rf r ame . T hey f a l l i n to f ou rb road g roup s , e ach d i scussed mo re f u l ly b e low a s i to ccu r s . 1 ) T he s o -ca l led " m ino taur s ," m ix tures o f h uman a nd a n ima l r epresen t ing D ionys iac o rn a tu re d e i t ie s .T he se a ppea ro nt h ec onso les o ft h e n or th g a te , a nd mo re i n consp icuous ly o n c onso les o f t h e v es t ibu le p orch a nd t h e Mauso leum . 2 ) " Leafy h eads" w i th h uman n o se , e yes a nd mou th , a nd l e aves g row ing f r om t h e s ku l l , c h in , a nd f a ce . T hey a ppea ro n t h eo u t s ide o ft h eT emp le o fJ up i te ro n t wo c onso les a nd t h e f r ieze , a nd p robab ly a l so i n ac of f e ro ft h e Mau so leum . 3 )H ead s w i th h o l low mou th s a nd e ye s , t h a t c ou ld b e u sed a s t hea t r ica l ma sks . 4 ) H eads w i th s o l id e yeba l ls a nd mou th s , u sua l ly w i th s ome i nd iv idua l iz ing f e a tu re s t h a t a r e n ow i n d i s t inc t . T he l a s t t wo t ypes a ppea r t o b e i n te rchangeab le o r c l o se ly r e la ted i n mean ing , s i nce t h ey o ccu r t o ge the r h e re , a nd o f ten i n R oman a r t ( s ee Append ix O ne ) . O n t h e Mau so leum t h e se t wo t y pe s o ccur o n t h ei n te r io r f r ieze , t h e p o r t ico c of f e r s , a nd t h e c onso les o f t he p or t ico . T hey a l so o ccu r i nt h e c on so le s o ft h e v e s t ibu le p o rch , a nd t h e c of f e r s o ft h e i n te r io ro ft h e T emp le o fJ up i te r . T he t h i rd t y pe o ccu r so n t h e o u t s ide o ft h eT emp le b e tween t h e c onso le s o ve r t h e d oo r ( I I I .D .8 .c ) a nd i nt h e c rown mo ld ing o f t h e i n te r io r

l e af ( tanak -Med i 1 978 : n o . 2 4 , f i g s . 4 9 , 1 68 ) a nd p i la s te r s o n w h ich t h ey p o in t i nwa rd ( no . 3 6 , f i g s . 4 0 , 1 51; n o . 13 , f i gs . 4 2 , 1 5 1) . T he w e l l -def ined a r rows i nt h e e gg a nd d a r t a t G amz igrad r e semb le t ho se a tS p l i t . D e ta i ls o fe xecu t ion d i f f e r . Of t en t h e s he l l f l a re s a way f r om t h ee gg . T he d ar t s s p read o u t b road ly a tt h eb a se .

g u i l loche ( G ineuvs - Ma r t in I :1 79 , p l . 5 3 , 3 ) T he g u i l loche h a s t wo s t rand s , s moo th , b u t w i th s l igh t ly r a ised e dges , l oop ing a round h o les t ha t a r e n ea r ly c i rcu la r , o r e l onga ted h or izon ta l ly . I ta ppea r s f ou r t imes i n t he p a lace , t w ice o n d oorways i n t h e R es idence a nd t w ice i n t h e e n tab la tu re si n s ide t h e Mau so leum .

e gg a nd d ar t T he e gg i sc omp le te , t yp ica l ly r ounded a t t op , w i th g en t ly c urved s i de s a pproach ing a p o in t a tt h e b o t tom . T he g roove b e tween e gg a nd s he l l i s n a r row . T he d a r ts a re t yp ica l ly s harp ly d i v ided i n to a r row a nd s ha f t . T he a r row i sa n a lmos t e qu i la te ra l t r iang le , i t s s i de p o in t s e l im ina ted b y c on tac t w i th t h e e gg she l l . I t may make u p a bou t h a lf t h e t o ta l l e ng th , o r o n ly a t h i rd . S ome t imes a s ha l low g roove c r ea te s an a r row f r ame a r ound t h ed a r t . T h is p a t te rn p rov ided ma jo re v idence i nL 'O range 's d i scuss ion o f t he r e la t ionsh ips b e tween " a r t f o rms a nd c i v ic l i fe ." H e c on t ra s ted a n e gg a nd d a r t mo ld ing f r om t h e P a lace w i th o ne f r om t h e f i f th c en tury B .C . " Compa re t h e w onder fu l p la s t ic , f u l l -bod ied e gg -and -da r t mo t if i nt h e c l a ss ica l c ap i ta l w i th t h e b od i less c l a ir -obscure o f t he . . .o rnamen t i n t h e l a te a n t ique c o rn ice . A t t he s ame t ime t ha t t h e f o rm t he reby b ecome s i n crea s ing ly i n subs tan t ia l , i tg radua l ly l o ses i t s i nd iv idua l n a tu re a nd b ecomes s t ead i ly mo re s t anda rd ized ,b u tw i th a ne ve r more f i rm ly c rys ta l l ized s i gn if icance . . .. The o b jec t . . .become s a s i gn . .. a lways i den t ica l , f ormu la l ike , s t e reo type " ( L 'Orange 1 965 : 2 2 -23 ) . He h ad t oc hoose h i s e xamp le w i th c a re . Mo s t

1 5

A l l o f t h e se f ou r t ypes a r e d i s t inc t f r om b us t s , i . e . , h eads a t tached t os ome d eg ree o fs hou lde ra nd c hes t . Bus t sr ep re sen t i mpor tan t f i gu res , h uman a nd d iv ine . T hey w ere mean t t ob e c l ea r ly i d en t if iab le i n d iv idua ls , wh ich mo s t o ft he h ead s w e re n o t . B u s t s a ppea r o n t h ree c onso les o ve r t he d oo r i n to t h e T emp le o fJ up i te r , a nd i nt h ef r ieze o ft h e Mauso leum . h o l low t ongue ( G ineuvs - Ma r t in I : 1 71 , p l . 5 0 , 6 ; w i th c r e scen tb a se : p l . 5 0 , 7 ) E l sewhe re , t h is mo t if o ccu r s f r equen t ly o n c oncave s u rface s o r r een tran t c urves ( s uch a s s imas ) , a s i t d oes o n t h e

THE DECORAT IVE VOCABULARY d i s sem ina t ion o fd e ta i l c ou ld o n ly b e e xp la ined b yt h e u se o f p a t ter nb ook s .1 9

C o r in th ian iz ing c ap i ta la nd p i las te rc ap i ta l s a nd t h ec ompo s i te c ap i ta l s a t S p l i t . Mo re u nusua l i si t s u se h e re o n c onvex s u r f ace s , i . e . t h ei mpo s t mo ld ing i n s ide t h e Mau so leum a nd t h e s i l ls o f n i che s . T he p a t tern o n t h e s i l ls d i f f e r s f r om t r ue h o l low t ongue b ecau se t h e f r ame r un s c omp le te ly a r ound e ach h o l low . T he p a t te rn o n t he i mpos t mo ld ing c ons is t s o f o rd ina ry h o l low t ongues w i th c re scen t s , b u t a ccen ted b y a can thu sl e ave s . A can thu sl e ave sh ad o f t en o ccu r red a tc o rne r s o f h o l low t ongue b and s ( e .g . , L eon 1 971 : p l . 1 33 , Augu s tan a nd T ra jan ic ) ,b u tn o ta st h er egu la ra ccen t st h ey a r eh e re .

S p l i t i sn o tab le f o r i t s s e lec t ive u se o f r i nceaux o r r unn ing s c ro l ls . T h i s f am i ly o fp a t ter n s c on s t i tu te t h ep ref e r red f r ieze p a t te rns i n mo s t a r ea s o f t h e Emp i re (Wegne r 1 993 , p a s s im : s ee Kö s te r 1 986 o n o ne s i te ) . A t S p l i t t he r i nceau a ppea r s o n ly o nce o n at r ue f r ieze ( c f . r inceau , b e low ) . T he r a r i ty o f t h e a can thu s a nd v ine s c ro l ls , t he n a tu re o f t h e i r i nhab i tan t s , a nd t he i r p o s i t ion s p o in t t os y mbo l ic i n ten t d i scu s sed f u r the r b e low .

On t h e A rch o f Ga le r iu s h o l low t ongue s a ppea r b eh ind t h e a can thu s l e ave s , a s t h ey d o o nt h ea n ta c ap i ta l s o ft h eP e r is ty le ( I I I .A .1) a tS p l i t( Laub sche r 1 975 : p l s . 3 0 , 2 ;4 0 ,2 )

l eaf , s hear -shaped T h i si s as imp le rv e r s ion o ft h es hea r shaped l e a fa nd d a r tl i s ted b e low , u sed l e s so f ten , b u ti ns im i la rp l a ce s .

i nhab i ted s cro l l T he re a r ef ou rr unn ing s c ro l l sc on ta in ing f i gu re s . A l lo ccu ro n s ac ra l b u i ld ing s : t he Mau so leum , t h e T emp le o fJ up i te r , a nd o ne o ft h e s ma l l b u i ld ing s i nt h e s ame t emeno s . A l l f ou r a r e s i ng le r unn ing s c ro l l s , b u t t h ey f a l l i n to t wo s ha rp ly d i f f e r ing c a tego r ie s . Two a re v i ne s c ro l ls , l o o se ly c on s t ruc ted r i nceaux w i th s e conda ry s t em . I n o ne , b i rd s f e ed o n g r ape s ; i n t h e o the r , p u t t i h a rve s tt h em . T he o the rt wo a r e a can thu s s c ro l l s . T hey b e long t o ab road g roup i n wh ich " t he t e nd r i l s . .c u r l i n to a n a lmos t c omp le te c i rc le , g iv ing t he i mp re ss ion o f meda l l ion s " ( Toynbee a nd Wa rd -Pe rk in s 1 950 : 2 0 ) . A t S p l i t , t he t e nd r i l se me rge f r om at h ree -pe ta l led c a lyx ( " a can thu sc up , " Ovad iah a nd T u rnhe im 1 994 : 9 7 ) . T h i s " cup " f o rma ta ppea r s o n e a r l ie r f r iezes o ft h e e n t rance t ot h e T emp le o fJ up i te r a t Dama scu s ( Ovad iah a nd T u rnhe im 1 994 : f i g . 1 6 ) a nd f r om Aph rod i s ia s( Toynbee a nd Wa rd -Pe rk in s 1 950 : p l .2 3 ) . I nb o th o ft ho se e xamp les t h e s t ruc tu re e me rge sc l ea r ly b ecau se o ft h e r e la t ive s i ze so fs t em s , l e ave s , a nd a n ima l s . A tS p l i t , t h el e a fy t end r i ls a r e l a rge r a nd mo re e l abo ra te i n p ropor t ion t o t h e who le , o b scu r ing t he u nde r ly ing s t ruc tu re t o s ome e x ten t . S uch l u shne ss h a sb een c ons ide red c ha ra c te r i s t ic o fA s ia M ino r ( S trocka 1 981 : 2 6 -27 ) .1 8 T he a can thu s s c ro l l s a tS p l i tc on ta in ( 1 )a n ima lp ro tome sa nd h uman h ead s , ( 2 )a n ima lp ro tome sa nd af l owe r . ( The p a t te rn o n t h e f r ieze a round t h e o u t s ide o ft h e T emp le o fJ up i te r , I n .D .5 , a l so u l t ima te ly d e r ive sf r om af o rm o fa can thu ss c ro l l . )

l e af , s ing le c ha in ( s im i la r t o G ineuve s - Ma r t in I" b ranch" : 1 83 , p .6 3 , 6a ) T h is p a t te rn i sf o rmed o f ar ow o fo u twa rd c urv ing s hape s ,e ach d iv ided b y ac en t ra l g roove s im i la r t ot h a t u sed t od iv ide t he o ve r lapp ing l e ave s d escr ibed b e low . I tr e semb le s ar ow o f c l osed b uds a s much a s al e af c ha in . I n a dd i t ion t oi t s r a re a ppea rance s a s ab and , t h i s p a t te r n a l so make s u p t h e w rea th s i nt h e Mau so leum f r ieze . l e af , o ver lapp ing ( G ineuve s - Mar t in I :1 80 , p l . 5 3 , 1 ) T he o ve r lapp ing l e af c ha in h as u nu sua l p rom inence i n t he d ecora t ion a t S p l i t . C a rve r s u se i tt o o rnamen t c onvex s u r face s , i nf r ieze s a nd e l sewhere , w he re t h e s t rong p rof i le o f t h e mo ld ing empha s ize s t h e p a t te rn . T h ree l e ave s i no ne r ow o ve r lap t wo i nt h e n ex t . T he e dge s o ft h e l e ave s a r e s l igh t ly r a i sed , a nd e ach l e a fh a s as l igh tp eak r unn ing d own t h ec en te r , a nd c ome s t o ap o in t . T he e dges a r e s ha l low ly S -cu rved , f o rmed b y as i ng le g roove , o rb y as ho r te rg roove f o l lowed b y as epa ra te s ma l l c i rc le . T h i s o u t l ine i sc l ea re s t o n t h e l a rge r e xamp le s , n o tab ly t h e i nne r o rde r o ft h e Mau so leum . O n t he s ma l le r e xamp le s , t h e c urve t o a n i nne r c i rc le i ss t i l l p re sen t , a nd u sua l ly t h ree l e ave so ve r lap t wo a nd t wo h a lf l e ave s . I n Roman a r t g enera l ly , t he o ve r lapp ing l e a f b and i s p a r t icu la r ly c ommon i n s of f i t s , whe re i th a s af l a t o r o n ly s l igh t ly c u rved s u rface , a nd o f ten h a s b and s a c ro ss i t , t o c ha rac te r ize i ta s aw rea th (Wegne r 1 957 ; O vad iah a nd T u rnhe im 1 994 ) . I to f ten o ccu r s o n t h e s ma l l n umbe ro fI on ic b a se s t ha th ave d eco ra t ion . T he re i ti s ac onvex mo ld ing , o n a t o rus , a nd t ake s n ume rous f orms , w i th a nd w i thou t b ands (Wegne r 1 965 ) . I t i s p rom inen t o n s ome Ana to l ian s a rcophag i , mo s t o r a l l e a r l ie r t han S p l i t (We iga r tz 1 965 : p l s . 1 0 , 1) . D in s t lh a s s u rveyed o the r , p robab ly a l l much e a r l ie r , A na to l ian e xamp le s o f g a r lands i n f r ieze s a nd s off i t s . T he l a rge r o nes a r e o f ten v a r iega ted g a r land s , t h e s ma l le r o nes o ve r lapp ing l e ave s . N e i the rp resen t s an o tab ly c onvex s u r face ( D ins t l 1 986 -87 : 1 58 -170 , f i gs . 9 -18 ) .

T oynbee a nd Wa rd -Pe rk in sf i r s ti s o la ted a nd a na lyzed t h i sg roup o fp a t te rn s , wh ich t h ey c a l led t h ep eop led s c ro l l , a nd s ke tched i t s g eograph ica l a nd c h rono log ica l d i s t r ibu t ion ( 1950 ) . Ovad iah a nd T urnhe im h ave r e cen t ly g i ven amo re d e ta i led a na lys is o f i nhab i ted a can thu s s c ro l ls , a nd a s u rvey o f s cu lp tu red e xamp le s f r om A s ia M ino r ( 1991) . T hey c on s ide r t he f o rma t i n wh ich a n a can thu s s c ro l l s p r ing s f r om at h ree p e ta l led c a lyx l i ke t h a ta tS p l i t , t ob ec ommon i nl a te rR oman a r t( 97 , n o te 2 3 ,p . 1 56 ) . T oynbee ( 1972 ) n o ted t h a tc a rve r s a t g rea td i s tance sf r om e ach o the rw e re u s ing t h e s ame i nd iv idua l mo t if s , a nd b y i mp l ica t ion t h e s ame l a you t s , i ns c ro l l s . T h i s

1 8 1 ti sc e r ta in ly f ound i n R ome , f o r i n s tance o n t h e f r agmen t o ft h e s a rcophagus o ft h e w if e o fH e rode s A t t icu s , w h ich , a l though much e a r l ie r t han t he S p l i t e xamp le s , h a s t he s ame d ens i ty o f f o l iage . T he s c ro l l w i th h un t ing p u t t i f r om t h e C on s tan t in ian wo rk o n t h e B a s i l ica Nova , o n t h e o the r h and , s how s at h in s c ro l l , s t em s mo re i mpor tan t t han l e ave s a nd f i gu re s d om inan t ( Toynbee a nd Wa rd -Pe rk ins 1 950 : p l . X I , p l . XX I , 1 ) . C ove r ing t h e r e l ief g round , a s a t S p l i t , h a s b een c ons ide red a c h rono log ica l d eve lopmen t , a tl e a s t i nA s ia M ino r : T he r e l ief g round i sc l ea r o n t he f r agmen t f r om t he B a s i l ica Nova .

Two T e t ra rch ic monumen t s , o ne f r om T he ssa lon ike a nd o ne f r om w e s te rn A na to l ia , emp loy t h is p a t ter no nl a rge h o r izon ta l , c onvex mo ld ings l i ke t hose a t S p l i t . I n e ach o f t hose

1 9 D auph in ( 1978 ) s t re sse s t he i mpo r tance o fp a t te rn b ook s i n t r ansm i t t ing t h e i nd iv idua l mo t if s o f i nhab i ted s c ro l ls a mong mosa ic is ts .

1 6

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNA MENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT s t ruc tu res , h oweve r , t he mo ld ing s , i n s tead o ff o rm ing p a r t o f a ne n tab la tu re ,s t and a lone a nd f r ame f i gu re s , s ot h e i rt r iumpha l a s soc ia t ion sb ecome i mpo r tan t . O nt h el a rge c onvex mo ld ing s o n t h e p ie r so ft h eA rch o fG a le r iu s a tT he ssa lon ike t h e c ha in h a s s imp le r l e aves a nd mo re o ve r lapp ing , w i th f ou r o r f i ve l e aves a c ro s s ar ow ( Laubsche r 1 975 : p i e r A , c l ea re s t o n p l . 4 6 ; p ie r B , p l . 4 2 , 2 ) . ( Laub sche rp o in t s t oa n a ppea rance o f t h is p a t te rn o n t h e Sma l l A r ch f r om T he s sa lon ike , b u t t h e re i t i s ag a r land h e ld b y e ro te s , s e e A ppend ix O ne . ) On t h e T e t ra rch ic a dd i t ions t ot h e T emp le o fH ad r ian a tE phe su s t h e mo ld ing i sb ad ly d amaged , b u t s e em s t oc on s i s t o fl ong t h in l e ave s ,w ide ly s epa ra ted f r om e a ch o t he r ,w i th o cca s iona lr ound b e r r ie s o n s t a lk s ( Brenk 1 968 : p l . 7 3 , 1i sc l ea re s t ) . A l l t h e se l e af c ha ins h ave f i l le t s , u nde r l in ing t h e i r d e r iva t ion f r om w rea th s . T he c omp le te a b sence o f f i l le t s a t S p l i t r a ise s a q ue s t ion a s t ow he the r t h e c a rve r s r e cogn ized a ny t r iumpha l c onno ta t ion .

I n t h e s econd t y pe , t h e o u te r c u rve s o f t he s t i r rup mee t t he e dge s o f as imp l if ied c en t ra l e l emen t s o t ha t t h ey a ppea r t o f o rm t wo l ow a r che s u nde r ah ighe r c anopy f o rmed b y t he c on t inua t ion o ft h ec en t ra le l emen t . ( I ns ome p lace st h ec en t ra l e lmen t d i sappea r s c omp le te ly . ) T h i s " we i tau sgedehn te " f o rm ( D in s t l 1 986 -87 : 1 85 ) a ppea r s s eve ra l t ime s a t Gamz ig rad , a lways w i th e ach p a r ts haped s imp ly , a st hey o f ten a r e a tS p l i t : e xamp le s i n c lude o ne o f t h e p i la s te r s w i th f i gu re s ( Sre jov ie 1 993 : 5 1 ; S r e jov ie 1 986 f i g s . 5 -6 ; S re jov ie 1 994 : f i g . 8 ) ; a s e cond p i la s te r( tanak -Med ie , M . T he o t he rf o rma ta l so a ppea r s .

1 978 : n o . 7 8 , f i gs 6 4 , 1 53) .

meander ( swa s t ika A w i th f i l l o rnamen t , s im i la rt oG ineuve s Ma r t in Is wa s t ika a nd s qua re s : p l . 5 2 , 7 ,1 2 ) A t S p l i t t h i s p a t te rn a ppea r s o n ly i nd oo r f r ame s . Ad oo r i n t h eA r chaeo log ica l Mu seum i nS p l i t s how s a n e a r l ie rl o ca l u se o ft h e s ame p a t te rn i nt h e s ame p o s i t ion . T ha t f r ame i s much s imp le r : S tanda rd ized r o se t te s f i l l t h e s wa s t ika , wh ich i st he o n ly p a t te rn o n t h ej amb ( Ge rman A r chaeo log ica l I n s t i tu te i n R ome n ega t ive 8 2 .2685 ,I ndex o fA nc ien tA r ta nd A rch i tec tu re f i che 1 028 ) .

A t Gamz ig rad o ve r lapp ing l e ave s a r e p opu la r i n av a r ie ty o f f o rm s a nd c on tex t s . Mo s t b ea rl i t t le o rn o r e semb lance t ot h e e xamp le s a t S p l i t : c onso le w i th " oak l e ave s a nd a co rn s " ( S re jov id „ 1993 : p l . 5 4 ) ; c on so le w i th d i f f e ren t ly s a ped l e ave s ( p l . 5 5 , C an ak - Med ie 1 978 : f i g . 1 36 ) ; b eam ( a n ak -Med i e 1 978 : n o . 2 4 , f i gs 4 9 , 1 68 ) ; p a rape t b lock s (a nak -Med i e 1 978 : n os . 2 0 , 2 1 , f i g s . 1 42 , 1 43 ) . S eve ra l p i la s te r s h ave l e aves o u t l ined l i ke t he o ne s a t p l i t , a l though t h e e xecu t ion i s c rude ra nd t h ec urva tu re s l igh t( Canak -M ed i e 1 978 : n o . 1f i g . 6 5 ; n o . 5 ,f i g . 1 89 ; n o . 1 7 [ a l so g i ven a s 7 1 ] , f i g s . 6 6 , 1 90 ; i d en t if ied a sl a u re l l e ave s ) . O no ne p i la s te r , s ma l l , much mo re s imp ly a ped l e ave sc r ea te ab o ld r ounded p ro t ru s ion t i ed w i th f i l le t s (a nak -Med ie 1 978 : n o . 7 8 , f i g s . 6 4 , 1 53 ) .

p lan t f orms Aw ide r ange o f mo t if si n sp i red b yf l owe r sa nd l e ave sa ppea ra s i s o la ted e l emen t so nc on so le s , s of i tc of f e r s a nd c e i l ing c of f e r s . T h i s r ange i nt h e se p os i t ion s h a s p a ra l le ls i n many w e s te rn A na to l ian e n tab la tu re sa nd c of f e r s . r inceau w i th s econdary s t em ( G ineuves - Ma r t in I : 1 84 , p l . 6 3 , 4 ) T h i s p a t ter n a ppea r s o n c on so le s , i no ne c o rn ice , a nd a s t he b a s is f o r t wo i nhab i ted v ine s c ro l ls . T h is w ho le f am i ly o f p a t ter n s , t h er i nceaux , a ppea r sr ema rkab ly i n f requen t ly a tS p l i t ( s ee i nhab i ted s cro l ls a bove ) .

l eaf z igzag T h is p a t te rn i sc ommon , p a r t icu la r ly f r am ing c on so le s ( Cha r t Two ) . T he d eg ree o fa b s t rac t ion v a r ie s . When t h e re a r e d r i l l h o les a tt h ei n te r sec t ion s , o r a n i n te r io r g roove , t h ed e r iva t ion f r om t h e s hea r shaped l e af p a t te rn i sp l a in . I no t he rc a se s o n ly t h e s l igh t ly c u rved s i de s s ugge s t t h eo r ig in . As im i la r p a t te rn a ppea r s i nt h e Maxen t ian d eco ra t ion o ft h e B a s i l ica Nova i n R ome ( Neu 1 972 : n o . 5 6 , p l . 3 6b )

r osettes T h i s t e rm i su sed f o rt h er a re e xamp le so fs ymme t r ica l f l owe r s s een f r om t h e f r on t , u sua l ly b u t n o t a lways q ua t refo i ls . F lowe r s s een i n s i de v i ew a r e c ons ide red w i th p lan t f o rms b ecause i ti so f ten u nc lea r w he the r l eaves o r f l owe r s a re i n t ended .

l eaf a nd d ar t , s hear -shaped ( G ineuve s - Ma r t in I :1 83 , p l . 5 3 , 1 2 ) T h is p a t te rn o ccu r s o n af ew c on so le s . I ta ppea r s a s t h e t op p a t tern o n t wo c o rn ice s a s am ean s t o s ubo rd ina te t h em t o h ighe r c o rn ice s w i th t h e u sua l a n them ion . T he s hea r -shaped l e af a nd d a r ta ppea r s mos tp rom inen t ly i ns eve ra lb and sa round t h ed oo ro ft h e Mauso leum .

v o lutes ,

l eaf a nd d ar t , s t irrup -framed ( G ineuve s - Ma r t in I :1 83 , p l . 5 3 , 1) T h is p a t te rn a ppea r s i n S p l i t i n t wo f o rma t s . I n o ne , t h e s t i r rup f o rm s aw ide a r ch w i th ac en t ra l g roove . I t s t op i sa n i ndependen t c i rc le w i th as ma l l i n te r io r k nob . V a r iou s p lan t f o rm s a ppea r u nder t h e s t i r rup ( " cen t ra l e l emen t , " s e e s e cond t ype b e low ) . S ome c en t ra l e l emen t s , u sua l ly t h ree -par tf o rm s , s eem t o g row o u t o f t h e t op o f t h e a r ch , o the r s t o g row u p f r om t h e g round b enea th , a nd o t he r s s uch a s r o se t tes a r e i ndependen t . B e tween e ach s t i r rup , as hor t s t em s uppo r t s a v o lu te l ike b l oom . We igand c on s ide red " t u l ip shaped " b loom s i n t h is p o s i t ion a c i ty -Roman c ha rac te r is t ic i n t h e P a lace w o rkman sh ip ( 1924 : 1 01) .

1 7

l i nked

T h is p a t te rn o ccu r s o n ly o nce , o n t h e d oo r o f t h e t emp le o f J up i te r( IRD .8 .b ) . A nS -cur ved b and w i th s l igh t ly r a ised e dge s n a r row s a te a ch e nd a nd c o i l s a r ound t of r ame af i ve p e ta l led r o se t te . At h ree -pe ta l led f l owe ri ns i de v i ew i st u cked i n to t he s pa ce s b e tween t h e r o se t tes a nd t h e c en t ra l c u rved f o rm . T he s ame mo t if i sr e pea ted i nr eve r se ,a nd t h e t wo S -cu rves a r et i ed b y ad oub le o rt r ip le b and . T he b and e nds o n e i the r s i de i na s ma l l r ose t te . O ve r t he c en te r o f t he d oo r t h e S ' s d o n o t c omp le te ly f r ame t h e c en t ra l r o se t te s . I n s tead t he i r l i nes c on t inue , i n te r tw in ing w i th e ach o t he r t o make as ho r t d oub le g u i l loche .

THE DECORAT IVE VOCABULARY p ro t ru s ion l i ke as pea r h ead . T h is f e a tu re a l so a ppea r s o n t h e P roconnes ian e xamp les , b u t i s l e ss p ronounced . T he P roconne s ian c ap i ta ls , s o f a r a s o ne c an t e l l f r om t h e t wo d amaged s u rv ivo r s a r es l ende re r .

DECORATED ELE MENTS T he p r inc ip le e l emen t so nw h ich p a t te rn sa r ec a rved a r ec of f e r s , c o lumn s , c onso le s ( Cha r t Two ) , a nd e n tab la tu re s a nd r e la ted e l emen t s ( Cha r t T h ree ) . " Re la ted e l emen t s " i n c lude c rown mo ld ing s , d oo rf r ame sa nd a r ch ivo l t s . M i sce l laneou sd eco ra ted e l emen t s i n c luded i nC ha r t O ne b u tn o tC ha r tT h ree a r e s t r ing c ou r se s , s i l ls , a nd i mpo s t s .

K äh le ra na lyzed t h e se c ap i ta l s i nd e ta i l( 1 953 : 3 4 -35 ; 1 973 : 2 12 2 ) . H e s t ressed t he r esemb lance b e tween t he t wo P roconne s ian a nd t h e l ime s tone e xamp le s , a l though s t a t ing i n 1 973 ( 39 ) t ha t t h ey w e re n o t made b y t h e s a me a r t i s t s . H e n o ted a d i f f e rence i n t h e s hape o f t h e " eyes" b e tween t h e t ouch ing a can thus t i p s : l ong a nd s t ra igh t o n t h e l ime s tone p iece s , r ounde r o n t he i mpor ted o ne s ( 1953 : 3 5 ) . As t r ik ing c ha rac te r i s t ic o f t he l ime s tone c ap i ta l s i st h e b read th o f t he u ppe rc o rona . K äh le rs aw t h i s a ss epa ra t ing t h em f r om c ap i ta ls made i nt h e e a s t , i nc lud ing t he i mpo r t s a tS p l i t . H e f ound s ome o ft h ep ecu l ia r i t ie s o ft h e l ime s tone c ap i ta ls r e cu r r ing o n ap i la s te r c ap i ta l o n t h e A rch o f C on s tan t ine . H e f u r the r s t re ssed s im i la r i t ies b e tween t he l ime s tone c ap i ta l s a nd t h e P roconne s ian o ne sf ound a tt h eP iazza Anne r ina a nd t h eP a la ce o f G a le r iu s a tT he ssa lon ike ( s ee a l so L aub sche r 1 975 : 1 41) . H e t h ough tt ha tt h ei mpo r ted c ap i ta ls f r om a l l t h ree s i te s c ame f r om t h e s ame w o rk shop i nP roconne so s . T he e v idence f r om S p l i ts e em s i n su f i c ien tt os uppo r t h i s c onc lus ion .

c o lu mns T he P a lace c on ta ined many f r ee s tand ing c o lumn s , a nd s ma l le r n umbe r so fe ngaged c o lumn s( on t h es ou th f a cade a nd c r o ss ing p i e r s ) ,p i la s te r s ( on t h ec ome r so ft h eT emp le o fJ up i te r , i nt h e u ppe r o rde r i n s ide t h e Mau so leum , c ap i ta l s o n ly i n l owe r o rde r ) , a nd a n tae . T he f r ee s tand ing c o lumn s o fe ach t emeno s , t h e Mau so leum p o r t ico , a nd t h ep o r ch o ft h ev e s t ibu le s t and o n p ede s ta l s . B a se sa r es imp le v e r s ion so fA t t ic . V a r ia t ion o ccu r s i nt h e p rof i le s a nd s i ze s o ft h e s ma l l mo ld ing s s e t t ing o f ft h e s co t ia f rom t he t o r i . T he u ppe r o ne may b ecome q u i te p rom inen t . I t s t r ea tmen t s e em st od epend , i np a r t a tl e a s t , o n t h e h e igh t o ft h e b a se , w h ich v a r ie s i na ny r ow o fc o lumns t o a ccommoda te d i f f e ren th e igh to fs ha f t s . S haf t so ff r ee s tand ing c o lumns a re p robab ly a l l s po l ia . A l l a r e mono l i th ic , a nd a l l b u t t wo , b o th i n t he Mauso leum p o rch , a r e u ndeco ra ted . M im ik ( 1990 : 4 4 )n o te s s ome o the rd eco ra ted s haf tf r agmen t s , t h e i ro r ig ina l p o s i t ion s u nk nown .

H e a l so t hough tt ha t P roconnes ian w o rkmen h ad g one t oS p l i t t oc arve t h e l ime s tone c ap i ta ls . T he c ap i ta l t ype w i th l e ave s b eg inn ing t o t o uch , a nd " spea r s" ( Kah le r 1 973 : 2 1 " sma l l t h ree c o rne red b a se " ) i s mo re c ommon t h an h e h ad r e a l ized , f ound m any p l ace s i nw e s te rn Ana to l ia ,p o s s ib ly a s ar e su l t o f w ide m ig ra t ion o fB y th in ian wo rkmen , p o s s ib ly t h rough s ome o the rm ean s . E gge r s a nd D yggve i d en t if ied s im i la rc ap i ta l s a t S a lona ( s ee b e low , p .3 9 ) . I ts eem s t h a t t h e P a lace w o rkmen , whe reve r t h ey o r ig ina ted , a l so wo rked a to t he r p ro jec t s i nt h e a r ea

C ap i ta ls c ons t i tu te t h eo n ly a r ea w i th c a rved d e ta i l . O r ig ina l ly t h e re w e re t wo f o rms o fC o r in th ian c ap i ta l i n s ide t h e P a lace , b o th a ppa ren t ly w ide ly u sed : o ne l o ca l ly made ,o f wh ich many e xamp le s s u rv ive ,t h eo the ri mpo r ted f r om t h eP roconne so s , o f w h ich o n ly t wo s u rv ive . O ne o rt wo o the ri mpo r ted t ype s , a nd aw ide v a r ie ty o fl o ca la dap ta t ion s ,c an a l so b ef ound . O ve r c o lumns t h e re w e re P roconne s ian c ompos i te c ap i ta l s ( i ns ide t he Mauso leum , I I .C .9 .a ) , P roconnes ian C o r in th ian c ap i ta l s ( a long t h ed ecumanu s , I V .C .1 ; p re sumab ly a l so o nt h e c a rdo ) , a nd l o ca ll ime s tone C o r in th ian c ap i ta l s( r e s idence p o rch t emeno sc o lonnade s , Mau so leum e x te r io ra nd i n te r io r , I I .C .2 .a , I I .C .8 .b ) . V a r ian t s , s ome t imes d ra s t ic , o f C o r in th ian o ccu ro ve rt h ec o lumn sa nd t h ee ngaged c o lumn so f t h e f a cade , o n t h e e ngaged c o lumn s o ft h e p i e r s o ft h e s t ree t c ross ing , o n t h e a n tae o f t h e t emeno s c o lonnades , a nd t h e p i la s te r s a nd a n tae o f t h e T emp le o fJ up i te r . U sua l ly t h e se c ap i ta l s c on s is to f ac omb ina t ion o fo ne o rt wo l e a fr ow s w i th h o l low t ongue s . T he b a re k a la tho s o ve rt h e e ngaged c o lumn s o ft h es ou th f a cade r e semb le sc ap i ta l sa tL uxo ra nd e l sewhe re i n E gyp t , a nd may owe s ome th ing t o D ioc le t ian 's t ime t h e re . B o th h i st r an sfo rma t ion o ft h eL uxo rt emp le ,a nd t h ec o l lec t ion o fs ph inxe sf o rt h eP a lace s how t h a th ew a si mp re ssed b yw ha t h e s aw ( Luxo r : e l -Sagh i r e ta l . 1 986 , e sp . M iche l R edd6 3 1 ; s ph inxe s : S e lem 1 970 ) .

T he f ew ma rb le c ap i ta ls f r om Gamz ig rad b ea r ag ene ra l r e semb lance t o t he P roconnes ian c ap i ta l s a t S p l i t , b u t t h e f r ond sa ppea rs omewha tb l un te r ,a nd t h ej o in ing o fl e ave s mo re r egu la r . T hey a r e much s hor te r , w i thou t af u l l u ppe r c o rona ( de ta i ls a r e n o t e a sy t om ake o u t : c l ea r e s t , a nak -Med i e 1 978 n o . 1 5 , f i g 17 , 2 12 ; S re jov ie 1 993 : f i g . 5 7 ; as econd , mo re d amag ed p i ece , ta nak -Med id 1 978 : n o . 4 ,f i g . 1 63 . )

c offers P a t te rned c of f e r s w e re p robab ly emp loyed i nf ou rp l ace s : t h e p o r t ico o f t he Mauso leum ( I I I .C .2 ) , i t s n ow d es t royed p o rch ( I I I .C .3 ) , t h e i n te r io r o ft h e T emp le o fJ up i ter ( I I I .D .10 ) , a nd t he s ou the rn s ma l l r ound b u i ld ing i n f r on t o f t he T emp le o f J up i te r ( I I I .E ) . S hape s i n c lude r ec tang le s i n c u rved s l abs ; r e c tang le so rt r apezo id si nf l a ts l ab s ; a nd d i amond s in squa re si n b o th c u rved a nd f l a t s l abs . B osse s i n b o th T emp le a nd Mau so leum i n c lude r o se t te s , p lan t f o rm s , a nd h ead s . F rame s v a ry f r om b u i ld ing t ob u i ld ing ( s ee Append ix Two ) .

T he l a rges t s u rv iv ing g roup o f c ap i ta ls a r e t he l ime s tone C o r in th ian . No t wo a r e p rec ise ly a l ike , b u t a l l s ha re s t r ik ing c ha rac te r is t ics . T hey d i f f e r f r om t h e P roconne s ian C o r in th ian n o t o n ly i n t he i r l e ave s ( s ee a canthus a bove ) b u t i n t h e i r p ropo r t ions . T hey a r e b roade r , t h e ir w id th a t t he h e l ice s u sua l ly j u s t al i t t le l e ss t h an t o ta l h e igh t o ft h e c ap i ta l . T he l e aves ( u sua l ly b roken o f f ) c u r l w e l l o u t . T he l e ave s o ft h e s e cond c o rona e x tend o u tw e l l o ve rt h e f i r s tc o rona , u sua l ly a s f a r a s o r f a r the r t h an t h e h e l ice s . T he l e aves o f t he s e cond c o rona a nd t h e c a lyx a bove t h em s pr ing f r om a r i dged

T anke s umma r ize s l a you t s a nd f r am ing m o t if s o fs t one c of f e r s ( 1989b : 6 0 -69 ) . T he s hape s a nd b o s se s f ound a tS p l i t f i nd s ome p a ra l le ls i nw es te rn A na to l ia . N o c e i l ing t h e r e s u rv ive s i n tac t , b u t n ume rous f r agmen ts e x is t . I ft he re i sa ny c i ty R oman c onnec t ion , i ti sw i th t he t r ad i t ion o f monumen ta l a r che s . T he g rea t v au l ted c e i l ings c on s t ruc ted d u r ing t h e T e t ra r chy i nt h eT emp le o fV enus a nd R oma , a nd t h eB a s i l ica Nova w e re b o th o f c onc re te a nd c ame f r om a n e s sen t ia l ly

1 8

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNAMENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT s epa ra te l i ne o f d eve lopmen t , w h ich m ay p os s ib ly h ave h ad s ome p er iphe ra l e f f ec to n t h e c of f e r s o ft h e T emp le o fJ up i te r ( s ee Append ix Two ) .

e x te r io r . T hey s u rv ive , b ad ly w o rn , f r amed b y w ha ta ppea r st o b e al e a fz i gzag ( Ba r to l i 1 963 : f i g . 1 ,p l . X1 11 ) Two c onso le s r ema in i n p lace i n s ide t h e R o tunda ( po ss ib le b u i l t t o b e G a le r iu s ' Mauso leum ) a tT hessa lon ike : t h ey a r e p l a ine r t han t ho se a tS p l i t , w i th u npa t ter ned f r ame s ( Paza ra s 1 985 : p l . 4 ) . Ac on so le f r om G amz ig rad h a s as im i la r f o rm , w i th s i de v o lu te , b o t tom l e a f , a nd d oub le l e a fb und le i nf r on t , n o v i s ib le f r am ing p a t te rn ( S re jov ie 1 993 : f i g . 5 6 ) . Mos t c on so les t h e re h ave mo re u nu sua ll e af a nd v ine p a t te rn s( f ou ri n

c onso les ( Cha r t Two ) C onso les a ppe a ri nt h ree c on tex t s .V e r t ica lc on so le sf l anked t h e d oor s i n to t h e Mauso leum a nd t h e T emp le , b u t o n ly t he l a t te r s urv ive . H o r izon ta lc on so le sw e re u sed e x ten s ive ly i nc o rn ice s a nd o cca s iona l ly t o s uppor t c o lumn s . T he se c on so le s h ave a l e af b und le o n t he b o ls te r , av a r ie ty o ff r am ing mo t if s , a nd a t t he b o t tom o f ten a n a can thus . O the r f o l ia te f o rm s c an a l so a ppea ro nt h eb o t tom so rh ead s . ( A lway sa l ter na t ing w i th o the r p a t terns , h ead s a ppea r i n t wo c o rn ice s a nd o n t wo o f t h e c o lumn s uppo r t s ) . Many o ft h e se c on so le sh ave v o lu te so n t h e s i des , o f t en o n ly l i gh t ly c u t i n to t h e s u r f ace . P robab ly s uch s ke tchy v o lu te s , n ow a b raded , o r ig ina l ly a ppea red o n mo re c onso les .

a nak - Med i e 1 978 : 1 79 -180 , o ne o f t hose a nd a f i f th i n S re jov id 1 993 : f i g s . 5 4 , 5 5 ) . e n tab la tures a nd r e la ted f orm s N eu n o tes g rea t v a r ia t ion , n o t l i nked t o c h rono logy , i n t he p ropor t ions o f c i ty -Roman e n tab la tu res . T he f r ieze i s , h oweve r , u sua l ly n o tab ly s ma l le rt h an t h e a r ch i t rave , wh ich i s o f ten r ough ly t h e s ame h e igh t a st h e c or n ice ( Neu 1 972 : 1 28 1 29 , f i g . 3 ) . T hose t wo r u le s h o ld t r ue a tS p l i t , w he re mos t e n tab la tu re sh ave r ough ly c on s i s ten tp ropo r t ion s . C or n ice sa nd a r ch i t rave s a r e u sua l ly e ach mo re t h an t w ice t h e h e igh to ft h e f r ieze . T he re a r et wo e xcep t ion s . O nt h ec rown mo ld ing o ft h e T emp le o fJ up i te r ( II .D .5 ) t h e c or n ice i sn o tab ly h ighe r t h an t h e a r ch i t rave . O n t he s t ra igh t e n tab la tu re o f t h e r e s idence p o rch ( I I .C .2 .c , o ne p a r t ) t h er e ve r se i st r ue . ( I n t h is c ha r t , t h e mo ld ing sa bove t h ef r ieze a r ei n c luded i nt h ec or n ice . )

C onso le st os uppo r tc o lumns o ne i the rs i de o fn i che sr ema in i n p lace i nt wo D ioc le t ian ic b u i ld ing si nR ome : t h eC u r ia r e s to red a f te r A .D . 2 83 , a nd t he B a ths o f D ioc le t ian ( da ted b y R icha rd son A .D . 3 05 -306 ) . T hey a r e v e ry s im i la r t o e ach o the r , c l ea r ly d one b y t h e s ame h and s , b u t t h ey d i f f e r f r om t hose a tS p l i ti np a t ter n sa nd c a rv ing . T hey h ave a can thu s r ow f r ame s , l e ave s i n s tead o f al e a f b und le , t h in s i de v o lu te s i n f r on t o fm a jo r s c ro l l o rnamen t , a nd e l abo ra te e ag le s o r b u s t s i mmed ia te ly b e low t h e b o ls te r s ( Ba r to l i 1 963 : 5 8 -60 , f i g . 3 2 , p l s . L -LV I I ) . T he C u r ia a l so h ad c on so le so fl ime s tone o n t h e

A r ch i t rave ,C o rn ice a nd F r ieze : Ab so lu te Mea su remen t s

C o rn ice

I I .C .8 .c Mau so leum I n te r io rL owe rO rde r

Mau so leum C rown

• I I

P ropo r t ion so fC o rn ice ,A rch i t rave ,a nd F r ieze ( F r ieze t a ken a sc on s tan t )

1 9

F r ieze

A r ch i t rave

THE DECORAT IVE VOCABULARY T h ir ty s ix e xamp le s a ppea r o n C ha r tT h ree . Mo s to ft h e se a r e n o t " t rue " e n tab la tu re s , a l though t h ey h ave many mo ld ing s i n c ommon . I fa n e n tab la tu re i sc ons ide red a s ac omb ina t ion o f a r ch i t rave , p oss ib ly b u t n o t a lways f r ieze , a nd c o rn ice t h a t mos t t yp ica l ly r uns o ve r c o lumn s , b u t c an r un o ve rp i la s te r s , o re ven b e tween v e r t ica l u p r igh t membe r s , t hen t h e r ea r e n i ne : o n t he s ou th p o rche s , t h e s ou th a r cade s , t he v e s t ibu le p o rch , t h e wa l l a bove t he P e r is ty le c o lonnades , t h e Mau so leum p or t ico , i t s t wo i n te r io r o rde r s , t he e x te r io r o ft h e T emp le o f J up i te r , a nd t he d ecumanus . G ineuve s - Mar t in I : 10 make p a r t ic ipa t ion i na n o rde rt he c r i te r ion . T he c rown mo ld ing o n t h e e x te r ior o f t h e T emp le o f J up i te r r uns b e tween a n tae , s a t i sfy ing t ha t s t anda rd . T he c rown mo ld ing o ft h e P e r is ty le d oe s n o t , s i nce i tr un s b e tween p ie r s , w e l l a bove t h e c o lumn s s uppo r t ing a r ch ivo l t s . None the le s s , i tc on ta in s a n a r ch i t rave , a f r ieze , a nd a c o rn ice . S o d oe s t he c rown mo ld ing o n t h e e x ter io r o f Mau so leum , i s o la ted a tt h e t op o f t h e c e l la w a l l . D oo rf r ame sa nd a r ch ivo l t sh ave c l o se ly r e la ted f o rma t s .

Ma jo r d iv is ion s a r e d eep ly p rof i led , b u t i n terven ing mo ld ings may b e l e s s d i s t inc t . C a rve r sp ref e rb o ld c u rves o r f l a t b and s , s o t h ey o f ten c u t p a t te rn s c ommon ly a s soc ia ted w i th c u rved p rof i le s , s uch a se gg a nd d a r t , w i th f l a to rn ea r ly f l a ts u r f ace s . T he d eg ree o f c u rva tu re may v a ry a l ong t he l e ng th o f a mo ld ing , s o t h a ti ta ppea r sc onvex a to ne p l ace , f l a ta ta no the r . Mea su remen t s a l so v a ry a l ong t he l e ng th o f a mo ld ing . N iemann 's a nd H 6b ra rd ' sm ea su remen t s w e re b o rn o u t b y t he c heck ing d one f o r t h i s p ro jec t i n 1 993 b y t h e I ns t i tu te f o r t he P re se rva t ion o f Monumen t s , b u t v a r ia t ion sb e tween o ne p o in t o f mea su remen t a nd a no the r a r e p robab ly g rea te r t h an w ha t i s u sua li nR oman a r ch i tec tu re . T ex ta nd r e g i s ter s pec if yp rof i les p r ima r i ly w hen t h ey a r ec l ea ra nd s t r ik ing o ru nexpec ted . B lu r r ing o f mo ld ing p rof i le s i sc ommon i nt he l a te t h i rd a nd e a r ly f ou r th c en tu r ie s : e . g . , t h e C on s tan t in ian mo ld ing s o ft he A rch o f C ons tan t ine ( Käh ler 1 952 : 2 1-23) . L e ssen ing d iv is ions b e tween p a t te rn s t o e nhance o ver -a l l e f f ec t s i s f r equen t ly men t ioned a s ac ha rac te r i s t ic o f L a te A n t ique a r ch i tec tu ra l d eco ra t ion , b u t i to ccu r s d i f f e ren t ly i nd i f f e ren t b u i ld ings , a nd p robab ly a lways p r ima r i ly i n t he s ma l ler mo ld ings . A t S p l i t , c l ea r d iv is ions a nd s t rong t h ree d imens iona l e f f ec t s a r e c r ea ted b y t h e f r ieze a nd c yma r e c ta . B o ld ly c onvex mo ld ing s a l so o ccu r o u t s ide t h is g roup o f e l emen t s , a sn i che s i l l s a nd i mpo s t s .

E n tab la tu re s a tS p l i t a r e u sua l ly c a rved f r om t h ree b l ock s , t h e a r ch i t rave , t he f r ieze w i th b and o rnamen t s a bove i t ,a nd t h e c orn ice . I n R ome a t t h is t ime , o n t he o the r h and , t he a r ch i t rave a nd f r ieze a r eo f ten c a rved f r om o ne b lock . T he re i s a lways ab reak i mmed ia te ly a bove t h ef r ieze ( Neu 1 972 : 19 ) . A t S p l i t , t h e b reak c omes a bove t h e mo ld ing s c rown ing t h e f r i eze . E n tab la tu re s may c on ta in t wo o r t h ree f a sc ia . T hey u sua l ly h ave c onvex ( pu lv ina ted ) f r ieze s , d en t i ls , a nd c o rona s w i th h i gh ly v a r iega ted d eco r o n c on so le s a nd i ni n te rven ing s off i t c of fe r s . F r ieze s a r e u sua l ly p la in , b u t may b e d eco ra ted w i th o ve r lapp ing l e ave s o r af orm o f r i nceau ( s ee u nde r t he se p a t te rn s , a bove ) . N eu s peak s o ft h e p opu la r i ty o ft h e c onvex f r ieze a t t he b eg inn ing o f t he f ou r th c en tu ry , c i t ing t he e n tab la tu re o fJ anus Quad r ifons , whe re t he c onvex f r ieze i s , l i ke s eve ra la tS p l i t ,u npa t terned ( 1972 : 11) . Wegne rs ay s t h e e a r l ies t i sH ad r ian ic , f o l lowed b y t h e A rch o ft h e A rgen ta r i i , a nd l a te e xamp le s o fJ anu s Quad r ifon s a nd S an ta C o s tanza ( 1993 : 1 ) . Nume rou se xamp le s s urv ive f r om w e s te rn A na to l ia , b u t s i nce t h ey a r e l e s s s ecu re ly d a ted a nd c ome f r om many p laces i t may n o t b e s a f e t o s ay t h a t t h ey a r e mo re p opu la r t h e re t h an i nR ome . T hey a l l t end t oh ave g en t le rc u rve s t h an t hose a tS p l i t ( e .g . , t h e f r ieze f r om t h e t emp le tomb a tS ide , Manse l 1 978 , f i g . 4 4 ) . P la in f r iezes a re s l igh t ly mo re c ommon i n R ome i n t h is p e r iod t han t hey w e re e a r l ie r . I nhab i ted s c ro l ls a r e c ommon d eco r o n f r ieze s t h e re . T he o ve r lapp ing l e a fp a t te rn d oe s n o to ccu ro n f r ieze sf r om t h ec i ty o fR ome .

e n tab la tures : a rcua ted l i n te ls As t r ik ing f e a tu re o ft h ee n tab la tu re s i st h ea r cua ted l i n te l s , n o t i n d ica ted o nt h ec ha r t s . G ineuve s - Ma r t in d i s t ingu ish " a r cua ted l i n te ls " w h ich r e f e r t oa ny a r ch ing e n tab la ture o r a r ch i t rave , o f ten i n i s o la t ion ( I I : 1 43 ) , f r om " a rcua ted p ed imen t s ," i n w h ich t h e e n tab la tu re r un s s t ra igh t o n t h e s i de s a nd c u rve s u p i nt h e m idd le t of o rm t h eb o t tom o f ao f at r iangu la rs hape ( I I : 1 28 ) . T h is s econd mo t if , o f c ou r se , a l so may o ccu r i n a bb rev ia ted f o rm , w he re s hor t s t re tche so fs t ra igh t l i n te l f r ame ac en t ra l c u rved l i n te l o n c o lumns t o make a c omp le te c ompo s i t ion , b u t n o p ed imen t t op s i t . ( Th i s i s wha t i so f ten m ean t b y t h e t e rm " a r cua ted l i n te l ," f o ri n s tance a s d ef ined b y B rown 1 942 : 3 89 . ) W i th i n comp le te s t ruc tu re s , i t may n o t b e p oss ib le t o b e s u re w he the r t he f o rm w a s o nce p a r t o f a p ed imen t . A tS p l i tt h e re a r e : o ne a r cua ted p ed imen to ve rf ou rc o lumns i nt h e v e s t ibu le p o rch ;

C o rn ice s a tS p l i t a lmo s t i nva r iab ly h ave c onso le s . I mpo r tan t c o rn ice s a r e t opped b y as t rong , o f ten s l igh t ly a ngu la r c yma r e c ta w i th a n a n them ion . S econda ry c o rn ices s ub s t i tu te a c ave t to w i th l e a fp a t te rn s . I n R ome a tt h i s t ime , b y c on t ra s t , c onso le s b ecome l e s s c ommon t han t h ey h ad b een , a nd c yma r e c ta s a r e o f ten l e f t p la in ( Neu 1 972 ) . S o f a r a s o ne c an t e l l f r om t h e f ew d a ted monumen t s , c on so le s w i th v a r iega ted p l an t p a t tern s i nt h e s off i t sc on t inue t ob ep opu la r i nA s ia M ino r . T he a ng le so ft h e i n Rome c ha r ted t h e c o rn ice o ve r d eg ree s . S eve ra l a nd f o r ty -seven .

J up i te r a nd t h e Mau so leum a nd o n t h e S ou th f acade p ro t rude f a r the r . Two c o rn ice sf r om t h eg a te sh ave v e ry s t eep a ng le s .

S p l i tc or n ice sd i f f e rc on s ide rab ly , a sd ot ho se b y N eu ( Neu 1 972 : 1 28 -129 , f i g . 4 ) . O ne , t h e i nne r d oo r o f t h e v es t ibu le i sf o r ty -f ive o the r s a r ev e ry c l o se : mo s ta r eb e tween f o r ty C o rn ices o ve r t h e d oo r s o f t h e T emp le o f

t h ree s im i la re n tab la tu re sw i thou tp ed imen t so ve r c en t ra lc o lumn sa nd s i de a n tae o nt h e s ou ther nw a l lo ft h eP a la ce ( poss ib ly o nce p a r t so fp ed imen t s ,o fw h ich n oe v idence r ema in s ) ; t wo a r ched e n tab la tu re so ve re ngaged c o lumn si nt h e s ame w a l l ; f r ee s tand ing r ow so fa r che so ve rc o lumns f o rm ing o ne s i de o ft h et wo c our tya rd sa r ound t h es a c ra l b u i ld ing s( s ide s o ft h eP e r i s ty le ) ; a pp l ied r ow so fa r che so ve rc o lumn sa tt he n o r th g a te . T he a r ch ivo l t s o ve rt h e l a nd g a te s a l so f i tt h e b road d e f in i t ion o fa r cua ted l i n te l g i ven b yG ineuve s - Ma r t in .

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ARCH ITECTURAL ORNA MENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT e qua l ly c l ea r ly t h a tt h ep ed imen t 's e x i s tence o n ab u i ld ing d oe s n o tg ua ran tee w ha tw ou ld h ave t a ken p lace t h e re .

A no the re xamp le o ft h ea r cua ted l i n te li nt h ef o rm o fa r che so n c o lumn s o ccu r s i n t h e g a te o f t h e S t ad ium a t M i le tu s ( s ee b e low , p . 3 6 ) . A rcua ted p ed imen t s , a l so c a l led S y r ian p ed imen t s b ecau se o f t h e ir a ppea rance t h e re a s e a r ly a s t h e n i n th c en tu ry B .C . , w e re a th ome i nw e s te rn A na to l ia a tl e a s t f r om t he t ime o f Had r ian ( Temp le o f H ad r ian , E phe sos ) . S eve ra l b u i ld ings f r om M i le tus , P e rge a nd S ide s eem , a s r e cons t ruc ted ,t ob ea rc on s ide rab le r e semb lance t oe xamp le si n t h e P a lace ( f o rr e fe rence s , s ee e x tended d i scu ss ion b e low , p p . 3 6 -37 ) . T he t h i rd c en tu ry P ropy lon o f t h e N or thea s t a r ea a t M i le tu sa nd g a teway a tP e rge h ave " s imp le "a r cua ted p ed imen t s l i ke t he o ne a t S p l i t . T he t emp le tomb a t S ide , p robab ly s omewha t e a r l ier , h as a n " a rcua ted p ed imen t w i th d i scon t inuous b ase " ( G ineuves - Ma r t in I : 1 28 , p l . 5 6 , 5 s imp le ; 6 -d iscon t inuou s ) . V e ry much a bb rev ia ted " s imp le " f o rm s o ccu ri ns t ruc tu re s b u i l tf o rT e t ra r ch ic c u l ta tP a lmy ra i n S y r ia a nd L uxo r i n E gyp t ( be low ) . B y c on t ra s t , t h e e a r l ie s t e v idence f o r t h is f orm n ea r t he c i ty o f R ome i s al i n te l f r agmen tw i th t he " s imp le " f o rma tf r om O s t ia d a ted b y K äh le r t ot h ee a r ly f ou r th c en tu ry ( 1953 : 3 2 ,B e i lage 8 ,3 ) .

MATER IALS AND TECHN IQUES A lmo s ta l l t h ed eco ra t ion w a sc a rved i nl o ca l l ime s tone . Mo s t o f t h e s t one c ame f r om q ua r r ie s o n t he i s land o f B rae , a nd s ome , i n c lud ing t h a t u sed f o r t h e n or th g a te , f r om a s ma l le r q ua r ry n ea r T rog i r , s l igh t ly n or th o fS p l i t (W i lke s 1 993 : 1 8 ) . T he R eg is te r o n ly s pec if i e s ma te r ia ls o the r t han l imes tone . I mpo r ted s t one a ppea r sp r ima r i ly i nc o lumn s haf t sa nd c ap i ta ls , a nd a l so i nt h ee l abo ra te o pu ss e c t i le , n o l onge ri np os i t ion .2 1 A l l c o lumn s ha f t s n ow i np l ace a r e o f i mpo r ted s t one , a nd p robab ly a l l a r e r eused p i ece s . C ap i ta ls o f P roconnes ian ma rb le w e re u sed i nt wo p l ace s .2 T he d ec is ive f a c to r i n d ec id ing t ou se i mpo r ted c ap i ta l s s eem st oh ave b een t h es i ze o f t h e p iece , r a the r t han i mpor tance o f i t s p o s i t ion . M im ik ( 1990 : 1-12 ) d i scu sse s t h e ma te r ia ls u sed f o r c o lumn s haf t s a nd c ap i ta ls , i n c lud ing s ome s ma l l l ime s tone s haf t s a s y e t u na s s igned . P i ece s d amaged i n c u t t ing s how t ha t i mpor ted c o lo red s t one f o r o pus s e c t i le w a s wo rked w i th in t he P a lace ( Ma ra sov id e t a l . 1 972 : 2 6 ) . A l l o f t he p a t tern a nd f i gu re c u t t ing d one o n s i te w a s i nl ime s tone .

L a rge ly b ecau se o f i t s o ccu r rence i nt h e p o r ch a t S p l i t , t h e s imp le a r cua ted p ed imen t h a s f i gu red p rom inen t ly i n d i scus s ion s o fa r ch i tec tu ra l i conog raphy . D yggve c l a imed i t w a s as e t t ing f o r i mpe r ia l c ou r t c e remon ia l ( 1941 ) . H e may h ave b een p a r t ia l ly r i gh t , e ven i ft h a tu se w a s n o ta se xc lu s ive a sh e t hough t . Two T e t ra rch ic c on s t ruc t ion s f o ri mpe r ia l c u l t make l im i ted u se o f t h e f orm : t h e g a teway o f t h e c amp o f D ioc le t ian a tP a lmy ra h a s a n a r cua ted p ed imen t d i f f e r ing i n many d e ta i l sf r om t ha ta tS p l i t ( Gaw l ikowsk i 1 984 , 8 3 -84 , f i g . 1 9 ) . Ag rea t ly a bb rev ia ted f o rm f r ame st h eI mpe r ia lc u l tn i che a tL uxo r ( Decke r s 1 979 : f i gs . 1 02 , 1 03 , r e p r in ted i ne l -Sagh i r 1 986 :p l . XX I I ) . An a l ter na t ive r e s to ra t ion o f af ou r -co lumned b a ld ich ino , p roposed i n e l -Sagh i r 's t e x t ( 1986 : 2 9 ) , i s u nfor tuna te ly n o t i lu s t ra ted . C lo se r p a ra l le ls o ccu r i n t h e b u i ld ings f r om A s ia M ino r men t ioned i nt h e l a s t p a rag raph , w h ich h ave n o i mpe r ia l c onnec t ion s . P i c to r ia l e v idence , mo s t n o tab ly b u t n o t e xc lus ive ly t h e M isso r ium o f T heodo s ius , s how s c l ea r ly t ha tt h ea r cua ted p ed imen ti nf u l l o ra bb rev ia ted f o rm w a s c ons idered b y L a te An t iqu i ty t ob e as u i tab le f r ame f o r ac e r emon ia la ppea rance . 2° A rchaeo log ica le v idence s how s 2° McNa l ly 1 989 : 1 8 -2 1 s umma r ize s s ome o f t he d i scu ss ion o n t h e a r cua ted p ed imen t a lone , a nd i n as pec if ic a r ch i tec tu ra l c on tex t . Many s cho la r s f o l lowed Dyggve i n mak ing v e ry s pec if ic c l a im s , o the r s s ee mo re n uanced mean ing , a nd o the r s d eny a ny s pec ia l s i gn if icance i n t he f orm . K äh le r s ays t ha t t he f o rm s ymbo l ize s t h e h eaven s , a nd r evea l s t h e empe ro r ' s d iv ine m a je s ty , a n e f f ec t i n c rea sed a t S p l i t b y t he f a c t t h a t t h e e mpe ro r w ou ld a l so s t and o ve r a n a rch , t h e o pen ing i n to r oom s b e low ( 1973 : 3 7 ) . B rown ( 1942 ) s u mma r ize s t he e v idence f r om a r ch i tec tu re a nd m ino r a r t s t o r each much l e s s s pec if ic c onc lu s ion s t h a t s t i l l empha s ize a p ecu l iar d ign i ty a ssoc ia ted w i th t he f orm . Duva l a rgues s t renuou s ly a ga in s t " 'appa r i t ion s ' s ou s u n a r c s ymbo l ique " a tS p l i t ( 1961-62 , 8 0 ) o n s eve ra l g rounds : f i r s t t he u n re l iab i l i ty o f Dyggve 's c omparanda , s econd t he much l a te r d a te a t wh ich c eremon ia l a ppearance i s f i rs t a t tes ted , a nd , f i na l ly , t he i napp rop r ia teness o f a ny i mper ia l c e remony f o r t he r e t ired D ioc le t ian ( i n many a r t ic le s : i n a dd i t ion t o t h e o ne c i ted a bove , e . g . , 1 960 , 1 981) . T he l a s t p o in t r ema in s u nc lea r : Ko lb e choe s p a r t o f D yggve 's i n te rp re ta t ion , a rgu ing t h a t D ioc le t ian r ema ined " j ov iu s , " a nd t he refore t h a t " de r P a la s t D ioc le t ian s i n S pa la to m i t f as t ig ium , s acra p r inc ip ia u nd J up i te r tempe l w a r e in s acrum p a la t ium" ( 1987 : 1 51) .

A l though c e r ta in ly o ve r s ta ted b y D yggve a nd K äh le r , t h e i conog raph ic i n terpre ta t ion r ema in s p opu la r : S ee C rum a nd S a tkowsk i ' s r e cen t d i scus s ion o f t h e r o le o f t h e " s e r l iana , " aw ord

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T he d r i l l i s u sed s pa r ing ly . B renk ( 1968 ) c on t ra s ts t he " po in t i l l i sm " o fR ome w i th t h e mo re r e s t ra ined u se o ft he d r i l l i nA s ia M ino r , w h ich t h i s mo re c l o se ly r e semb le s . K äh le r h a s s poken o f u nf in i shed a r ea s i nt h e P a lace ( 1953 : 3 4 , d r i l l i n c yma o fT emp le o fJ up i te r ; 1 973 : 4 5 , n o te 1 53 , d oo r f r ame i n t h e v e s t ibu le , b u s t s i n t h e Mau so leum f r ieze ) . H is c r i te r ia s eem t o b e v i s ib le t oo l m a rk s o n s u rface s , o r r ow s o f d r i l l h o le s . R ecen ta u tho r sh ave c au t ioned a ga in s tc on s ide r ing e i the r o ft h e se a s s i gn s t h a t w o rk h a s n o t b een c omp le ted . E ichne r h a s d i scu s sed t h e t e chn ique s o f s t one c u t t ing , d iv id ing t h em i n to as e r ie so fs pec ia l t ie st ob ee xecu ted o ne a f te rt h eo the r , s o many p eop le w ou ld w o rk o n o ne p iece . H e c ommen t s s pec if ica l ly o n t h e u se o fr ow s o fi nd iv idua l d r i l l h o le s , wh ich m igh t h ave b egun a s c a re le ssnes s , b u t b ecame a d e l ibe ra te mean s f o re f ec t( 1 981 : 1 09 ) . T he re i sc on s ide rab le v a r ie ty , a s K äh le r n o ted , i nt h e r ow s o f d r i l l h o le s a tS p l i t , w i th s ome a ppea r ing t ot h e mode rn e ye mo re d e s i rab le t h an o the r s . A l l o r u sed f o r t h e ' a bb rev ia ted ' f o rm , b o th s imp le a nd d i scon t inuous ( Crum 1 989 , 1 990 ; S a tkow sk i 1 990 w i th b ib l iog raphy ) . " The s i gn if icance o f t h e s e r l iana i s a ppa ren t i n t h e R oman Empe ro r D ioc le t ian ' s f ou r th -cen tu ry p a lace a t S p l i t , w he re t he p e r is ty le c ou r tya rd c u lm ina te s i n a monumen ta l s e r l iana . I ti sk nown t ha t d ur ing c er ta in c e lebra t ion s t h e empe ro r a ppea red w i th in t he s e r l iana , e nf ramed b y t he l a rge l a te ra l c o lumn s a nd a r ch " ( Crum 1 989 : 2 4 1) . T he l a s t s en tence q uo ted c e r ta in ly g oe s b eyond w ha t o u r e v idence a l low s . C rum a nd S a tkows l c i b o th o f f e r e v idence t h a t R ena issance a r ch i tec ts a s s igned p a r t icu la r s i gn if icance t o t he f orm , p o ss ib ly b e l iev ing t h ey w e re r ev iv ing " Roman i mper ia l c e remon ie s " ( Crum 1 989 : 2 44 ) . 2 1 F o r d i scu s s ion o f t ype s o f s t one u sed i n t he P a lace , s ee M im ik 1 990 : 2 2 -24 . T h i s i s sue n eed s mo re w o rk i nl i gh t o fr e cen t p rog re ss i n d i f f e ren t ia t ing a nd i d en t ify ing s t one t ype s : s ee H aze l Dodge ' s A ppend ice s Aa nd B t o Wa rd -Pe rk in s 1 992 . 2 T he mos t t horough d iscuss ions o f P roconnes ian manufac tu re o f c ap i ta ls r e f er p r ima r i ly t o a l a ter p er iod : D e ichmann 1 989 , r ev iew b y S od in i 1 991 w i th a dd i t iona l r e f e rence s ; s ee a l so A sga r i 1 989 , W i l son J one s 1 991 .

THE DECORATTVE VOCABULARYPM 1 960 : 2 27 -242 ; T ancke 1 989b : 1 45 -147 ) .2 3 Ar e cen td e ta i led d i scu s s ion o fc o lo r o n ma rb le s a rcophag i may n o t b e d i rec t ly a pp l icab le t on on -f igu ra l a r ch i tec tu ra l d eco ra t ion e xcep t a si t p rov ide s s ome e v idence t ha t t h e c o lo r s cheme p opu la r a tt h i s p e r iod c on s i s ted o fr ed a nd g o ld p a in t a nd wh i te ma rb le ( h e re s t ucco? )s u r f ace ( Sape l l i 1 993 ) .

a lmo s ta l lp robab ly s uf i ced t o make t h ed a rk d i v i s ion sb e tween p a r t s t ha t t h e c a rve rs wan ted . R ockwe l l a r gue s a ga ins t a s sum ing a ny th ing i s u nf in i shed s o l ong a s t h e p a t tern o r f i gu re i s" c lea ra nd e a sy t or ead " ( 1990 : 18 ) . H es t re s ses t h a t w e s hou ld n o t a s sume t ha t c a rve r s w ou ld n o t l e ave t r ace s o f t oo l wo rk v i s ib le o n s u rf ace s t h ey c on s ide red f i n i shed . T he l a t te r p o in t i ss t reng thened w hen t he f i na l r o le o f p a in t i s c on s ide red . E ichne r l i s t s t h ep a in te ra st h el a s tc on t r ibu to rt o s t one w o rk ing . I n s ome p a r t s o ft h e P a la ce s t ucco may a l so h ave b een i mpo r tan t , p reced ing p a in t ( s ee A ppend ix O ne ) . I n t h eP a lace t h e re i s much t ha ti sr ough ly d one . S ome a r ea s , f o r i n s tance i n t h e f r ieze o f t h e Mau so leum , l o ok u nf in ished b ecau se t h ec a rve r sl ef tt h em f o rp l a s t e re r sa nd p a in te r st o make p resen tab le , a nd t h e i rf i na l t ouche s h ave v an i shed . T ha t much i su nf in ished i nt h e s ense o f i n te r rup ted o r a bandoned s eem s u n l ike ly .

P a in t a nd s t ucco w ou ld b e p ar t icu la r ly i mpor tan t o n t h e se l ime s tone s u r f a ce s . T he u se o fl ime s tone f o rt h i s d eco ra t ion i s wo r thy o f n o te . Wa rd -Pe rk in s men t ion s s eve ra l p lace s w i th a cce s s t of i ne l ime s tone t ha tt h ey u sed i ni mpor tan tb u i ld ing s , b u t w h ich n one the le s s a f te r t h e f i r s t c en tu ry A .C . i n c rea s ing ly t ended t o u se i mpo r ted ma rb le f or d eco ra t ion . H e l i nks d ependence o n ma rb le , f o rd e ta i l ing a tl e a s t , w i th p rox im i ty t o ac oa s t , mak ing i mpo r ta t ion c heape r (Wa rd P e rk in s 1 993 : 6 9 , 8 1-84 ) . P robab ly e xpense w a s n o t ac ons ide ra t ion i n t h is p ro je c t , b u ti na ny c a se , S pl i tl i es o n ama jo rs ea r ou te t h a tt h e b u i lde r s e xp lo i ted t ob r ing i ns t one c o lumn s ha f t s , s ph inxe s , a nd ma rb les f r om many p lace s f o r r eve tmen t s . T he e x ten s ive u se o f l imes tone o f d ecora t ion i s u npa ra l le led i n i mpo r tan t b u i ld ing o f t h is p er iod , e xcep t a t G amz igrad . ( The c on tempora ry o u tf i t t ing o f t he Cu r ia i n R ome h a s m ino r l ime s tone a ccen t s o n t he e x te r io r , a nd ma rb le o n t h e i n te r io r , i lu s t ra t ing t h e g ene ra l s h if t i ni mpo r tance o fd eco ra t ion f r om o u t s ide t oi n s ide . ) B o th i nS a lona a nd i nP amphy l ia , h oweve r , l o ca l v e r s ion so fi mpor ted s a r cophag i w e re made i nl ime s tone , s o a r t i s t s h ad e xpe r ience i nc a rv ing e l abo ra te p a t ter n s i nt h a t ma te r ia l ( Sa lona , C amb i 1 988 : 1 5 , f i g . 5 2 ; P amphy l ia , K och 1 993 : 1 83 -184 ) . T he wo rk a t t he P a lace w a s p re sumab ly u nde r taken wh i le D ioc le t ian w a s a tt h e h e igh to fh i s a b i l i ty t o a ccumu la te money f o r b u i ld ing , a nd s pend i tl a v i sh ly . H is r e l iance o nl o ca ls t one f o rd eco ra t ion m igh tb et a ken t oi n d ica te t ha t h e w a s l e ss i n te res ted i n h i s c oun t ry h ouse t h an i nh i s c on tempo ra ry p ro jec t s a th i s c ap i ta l c i ty ( o rc i t ie s , N icomed ia a nd A n t ioch ) . T ha th ypo the s i s wou ld h ave i mp l ica t ion sf o rh i s p lan st or e t i re , a nd h i s i d ea s a st oh ow h i sc oun t ry h ou se w ou ld f unc t ion . I ti sn o tl i ke ly t ob ec o r rec t .

T he q ue s t ion o f f i n ish r e la te s t o t h e q ue s t ion o f " qua l i ty c on t ro l ," a nd u l t ima te ly t o t h e o rgan iza t ion o ft h e w o rkmen . T he re a re many g aps i n e xecu t ion o f p a t te rn s a nd many v a r ia t ion si nd e s ign . C la r i ty o fc a rv ing d i f f e r s . S ome t ime st h e h e igh to ft h ee l emen t s may d e te rm ine t h et r ea tmen t . T he f r ieze o f t he Mauso leum i s made b o ld a nd s imp le b ecau se i th igh o ve rhead . T he c of f e r s o ft he T emp le o fJ up i te r , o n t h e o the r h and , s eem t ob e a l lowed t oo ve r f low w i th i mp rov i sed d e ta i l f o rt h es ame r e a son ( Append ix O ne a nd A ppend ix Two ) . S uch i r regu la r i t ie sh ave b een s e en a sr e f lec t ing ag ene ra ld e c l ine i n s t anda rd s , o r p a r t icu la r p rob lem s t ha t a r o se d u r ing t h e c on s t ruc t ion o ft h eP a lace ( s ee n o te 1 ) . T hey a r e ,h oweve r , n o t w i thou t p a ra l le l s i n o the r p lace s a nd p e r iod s o f t h e R oman Emp i re . R ockwe l l n o te s many i n con s i s tenc ie s , a nd v a r ia t ion s i n q ua l i ty o n t he S erape ion a t Aph rod is ia s . S im i la r i n cons i s tenc ie s h ave b een n o ted a t B aa lbek . N eu n o tes t h e v a r ia t ion s i nt h es ma l l amoun to fo rnamen ts u rv iv ing f r om t h e T emp le o f t h e S un i n Rome , v a r ia t ion s c aused b y u s ing w orkmen f r om d i f f e ren t t r ad i t ion s ( Neu 1 972 : 8 7 -88 ) . T he amoun t o f w e l l -p reserved o rnamen t a t S p l i t makes t h e i r regu la r i t ie s p a r t icu la r ly n o t iceab le . S t i l l , t h e i r e x ten t s ugges t s t h a t t h e wo rke r s d id n o t b e long t o o ne o r mo re h omogenou sw o rk shop s ( s ee b e low ,p .3 9 ) .

T he l a you t a tS p l i t i nd ica te s t ha t h e v e ry much w an ted t h e P a la ce t oi mp re s s , a nd t ha t h e t hough t d e co ra t ion c on t r ibu ted i mpo r tan t ly t o i mp re s s ivene s s . He mu s t h ave b e l ieved t h a t l ime s tone c ou ld c on t r ibu te s a t i sf ac to r i ly . Many o ft h e v i sua l e f f ec t s s ough ti nL a te An t iqu i ty , a s c ha rac te r ized b yR ieg l a nd L 'O range a nd m any o the r s , c ou ld b e a ch ieved i nl ime s tone a s w e l la si n ma rb le . Mo re a nd mo re , a r ch i tec tu ra ld eco ra t ion w a s c om ing t os p read o ve rs ur f ace sr a the rt h an d if e ren t ia te t h em . I t w a sc r ea t ing e f f ec t sb ys ma l ld r i l lh o le s ,d eep ly d r i l led l i ne s ,o r u nde r cu t t ing ,t e chn ique st ha tc r ea ted s t rong l i gh t -da rk c on t r a s t s o f ten c a l led " co lo r i s t ic ." P a in t p robab ly a dded s t reng th a nd v a r ie ty t ot h e se e f f ec t s . T he a dvan tage so f ma rb le a r ei t sc o lo r , i t s s heen i fp o l i shed , a nd i t s a b i l i ty t o t a ke f i ne ly r ounded d e ta i l . T he l a s t a dvan tage w a s n o t u t i l ized a tS p l i t . T he f i r s t t wo w e re , i n o pus s ec t i le . Ma rb le o nce a ppea red i n g rea t a bundance s hea th ing w a l l s , c r ea t ing s h imme r ing s u r fa ce s i na v a r ie ty o f c o lo r s . T he r e la t ion b e tween u se o f ma rb le a nd l ime s tone p repa res t he w ay f o r t he r ep lacemen t o f c a rved d eco ra t ion b yp a in t ing a nd mo sa ic t ha tw ou ld o ccu ri nt h en ex t g ene ra t ion .

R ockwe l ld i s t ingu i she sb e tween t h ef r eedom a l lowed i n d iv idua l c a rve r s , t h e c ommon d ec is ion s r e ached b y aw o rk shop , t h e " de s ign d e c i s ion s ," a nd t h e " con s t ruc t ion d e c i s ion s , " i . e . t ho se made i n a dvance a nd t hose m ade a s w o rk p rog re ssed , b y s upe rv iso r s o f s ome k ind ( 1990 : 18 ) . T he a c t iv i t ie s a nd c ond i t ion s h ea na lyzes d i f f e rf r om t h o se a tS p l i t , b u tt h e s ame c ons ide ra t ion s c on t inued t o g ove rn r e la t ion sh ip s b e tween s t anda rd iza t ion a nd f r eedom . P a in t c e r ta in ly o nce e n l ivened t h e c a rv ing , a l though n o t r ace n ow r ema in s . T ancke 's r ev iew o ft h ee v idence f o rp a in t ing o n c e i l ing c of f e r sm en t ions s i ng le p a t ter n s p a in ted as i ng le c o lo r , w i th s t rong c on t ra s t s b e tween p a t ter n a nd p a t te rn , p a t te rn a nd g round . Much o fh e r ma te r ia lc ome sf r om B aa lbek ,w h ich may n o t b e c l o se ly r e la ted . S t i l l i ts ugge s t s t h a t t h e t e ndency o f mosa ic i s t s t o p i ck o u t p a r t s o f as i ng le p a t te rn i n d i f f e ren t c o lo r s p robab ly d id n o t a pp ly t oc a rv ing . F igu re s , b u t n o t p a t te rn s , h ad d i f f e ren t p a r t s p i cked o u t i n d i f f e r ing c o lo r s . R eu te r swä rd c i te s o ne e xamp le o f p a t te rn s p a in ted r ed , a nd a no the r o f ap a t te rn p a in ted i nc on t ra s t ing c o lo r s ( 1960 : 2 32 , s e e a l so 2 40 -24 1 , b u tc f . S ape l l i 1 993 : 2 25 ) . B o th T ancke a nd R eu te r swä rd a r gue t ha t g i ld ing w a s c ommon ( Reu te r swä rd

2 3 R eu te r swä rd c i te s t en R oman g a te s o r a r che s , i n c lud ing t he n or th g a te a tS p l i t , t h a t a re c a l led " au rea , " a nd s ugge s t s c au t ious ly t ha t t h e wo rd m ay s ome t ime s i nd ica te e x ten s ive g i ld ing ( 1960 : 2 28 -229 ) .

2 2

C hap t er 3

THE DECORAT ION I N CONTEXT GENERAL I ti sc l ea rt h a ts ome c on s t ruc t ion i nt h eP a la ce w a so rnamen ted e l abo ra te ly , s ome mo re s imp ly , a nd s ome n o t a ta l l . H ow t o i n te rp re ta b sence o fe v idence f r om s ome a r ea s i so fc ou r se l e s s c l ea r . T he f o l low ing t e x t s umma r ize st h e w ay t h e d e co ra t ion w a s e mp loyed , a nd t h en d e sc r ibe s t h e e v idence a r ea b y a r ea . R ef e rence s b eg inn ing w i th aR oman n ume ra l f o l lowed b y a c ap i ta l l e t te r c o r respond t o t h e l i s t o f p lace s g iven a bove . T hey i nd ica te whe re i n t h e R eg is te r mo re i n fo rma t ion a nd i lu s t ra t ion c an b ef ound . E x ten s ive d eco ra t ion r ema in s i np l a ce o n t h eo u te r s i de s o fa l l f ou r p e r ime te r wa l ls , o n t h e Mau so leum a nd t h e T emp le o f J up i te r , i n t h e P e r is ty le b e tween t h em , a nd o n t h e p orch l e ad ing i n to t h e v es t ibu le o f t h e r e s idence . I n e ach o ft ho se a r ea s t h e o ve ra l l s cheme o f d eco ra t ion e me rges c l ea r ly , w ha teve r q ue s t ion s r ema in . A l though t h e g r ea te r p a r t o f t h e s t ree t s h a s b een d es t royed , t h e i rs cheme t oo s e em s c l ea r . F o r t h e r e s iden t ia l b lock p rope r , t h e t wo b a th s , a nd t h e r ound b u i ld ing sb yt h eT emp le , o n ly m ino re v idence s u rv ive s . S ome o f t ho se s t ruc tu res p robab ly o nce h ad s i gn if ican t c a rved d eco ra t ion , b u t o the r s may n o th ave . N o c a rved d eco ra t ion , i f o ne e x cep t st h e s imp le mo ld ing s a tt h et op s o fp i e r s , a ppea red i nt h eb a semen t su nde rt h er e s iden t ia lb l ock ,o ri nt h ec r yp t so f t h e Mau so leum a nd T emp le o fJ up i te r . I nt h en o r the rn h a lf o f t h eP a la ce ,o n ly t he s imp le s t mo ld ing sh ave b een f ound a nd n o t r a ce o fp a t te rn s .

An o ve rv iew l e ad st oc e r ta in c onc lu s ion sa bou tt h ec omponen t s o f t he P a lace c omp lex a nd a bou t w orke r s ' a t t i tudes a nd p rocedu re s . F ou rb road p r inc ip le sw i l le me rge i nt h ef o l low ing t e x t . F i r s t , a s a l ready n o ted , t h e a moun t a nd e l abo ra t ion o f d eco ra t ion d i f f e rf r om b u i ld ing t ob u i ld ing , d epend ing o n t h e i r r o le s a nd r e la t ionsh ip s . P a t te rns l i nk s ome s t ruc tu res a nd s epa ra te o the r s . T hey a l so g i ve d i f f e r ing c ha rac te rt od i f f e ren t s t ruc tu r e s . S econd , f undamen ta lc ha rac te r i s t ic so fs e lec t ion a nd e xecu t ion r e cu r t h roughou t t h e p a lace . T he r e cur rence s a r e s uff ic ien t ly w ide r ang ing t os how t h a t o ne p e r son o r ac l ose ly r e la ted g roup o fc ra f t smen made d ec i s ion s a nd e xecu ted t h em . Va r ia t ions i n c ho ice o f mo t if a r e mo re r e s t r ic ted , i nd ica t ing d i f f e rence sb e tween a r ea sr a the rt han b e tween w o rke r s . T h i rd , i r regu la r i t ie s a r e r i f e . A t f i r s t i ts eem s e a sy t o d iv ide t h e i r regu la r i t ie s i n to m is take s a nd d e l ibe ra te v a r ia t ions . G rea te r f am i l ia r i ty w i th t he i r r ange s ugge s t s , h oweve r , t ha t a l l a r i se f r om t h e s ame p e rva s ive a t t i tude , i g no r ing c on s is tency i nf avo r o fp rof u s ion a nd i nven t ion . T h i s t h i rd c onc lu s ion r e la te s t oa f i na l o ne c oncern ing p lann ing a nd i mprov isa t ion . A rch i tec tu ra l ly , t he P a lace i sn o tab le f o r i t s t i gh t b ond ing o f d i spa ra te p a r t s . F o r t h e d eco ra to r s , t h is m ean t l im i ted i n i t ia l p lann ing , l e av ing d e ta i l s f o r l a te r . P lan s i n c luded f r eedom t o i mp rov i se , s ome t imes t oe n r ich o ne a r ea , s ome t ime s t or e la te a r ea st oe a ch o the r . F rom t h eb eg inn ing t h ed eco ra to r s d ef ined a r ea s t h ey w i shed t ol i nk a nd t ho se t h ey w ished t od i s t ingu i sh . I n te r se c t ion sw e re a dd re s sed a dh oc ,a st h ew o rk p rog re s sed . S PEC IF ICS I . The Ence inte ( f ig . 3 )

E xecu t ion o fb o th p a t te rns a nd s hape s , a nd c ho ice o fs hape s , r ema in b road ly c on s is ten t t h roughou t . T he mo s t o bv iou s d if e r ence sl i ei nt he c ho ice o fp a t ter n s . C ha r t s Two a nd T h ree i nd ica te t h e ma jo r g roup s o fp a t ter n s : o ne a tt h e t h ree g a te s , a nd a no the ri nt he v e s t ibu le ,P e r i s ty le a nd c o lonnade sa l ong t h e a d ja cen tc ou r tya rd s . W i th in t h e s e cond g roup , t h e T emp le o f J up i te r s t ands s l igh t ly a pa r t , a s al o ok a t t h e c on so le c ha r t s how s . S ome p rac t ice sl i nk t h et wo g roup s , n o tab ly t h eu se o f h ead so nc on so les ( no r th g a te I . C .5 .a , v e s t ibu le p o r ch I .C .2 .d , Mau so leum I I .C .2 .b ) ,o fo ve r lapp ing l e ave s o nc onvex f r ieze s ( no r th g a te I .C .4 .b , Mauso leum I I .C .8 .c , T emp le o f J up i te r I I .D .9 ) , a nd o fs t i r rup -f ramed l e a fa nd d a r t t opp ing ac or n ice ( ea s t g a te I .B .4 .a , n o r th g a te I . C .4 .a , T emp le o f J up i te r

D eco ra t ion o n t h e s ou the rn w a l l d i f f e r s f r om t h a t o ft h e t h ree o ther w a l ls , r e f lec t ing d i f ferences i n h ow i t wou ld b e a pp roa ched , a nd i n wha tl a yb eh ind i t . I .A . S ou th Wa l l ( He ra rd -Ze i l le r 1 912 : p l . V ; N iemann 1 910 : p l . X IX , XX . ) T he s ou the rn w a l l f a ce s t h e b ay , a nd f o rmed o ne s i de o ft h e r e s iden t ia l b lock . I t s l a you t h a s t wo p u rpo se s : t oc onvey t h e d ign i ty o ft h a t b lock t o ad i s tan t v i ewe r , a nd t oc r ea te p a t terns i ni mpo r tan tr oom s t ha tr a na l ong i t si n ne rs i de . I tw a s f l anked b y c o rne rt owe r s , b u tt h et owe r sp robab ly d id n o tc onnec t w i th t h e r e s idence ; c e r ta in ly , t h e d eco ra t ion o f t h e r e s idence w a l l t e rm ina te sa b rup t ly when i tr eache st h em .

D eco ra t ion o n t he s ou th f a cade d i f f e r s f r om b o th o f t h ese g roup s , d e sp i te t he a ppea rance o fs im i la ra r cua ted l i n te l s t h e re a nd i nt h e p o rch b y t h e P e r i s ty le . T he o n ly s ha red p a t te rn i s t h es t i r r up -f ramed l e a fa nd d a r tu sed a s am ino re l emen ta bove t h e f r ieze ( s ou the rn p o rche s I .A .2 .a .3 , p o rch o f r e s idence , I .C .2 .c ) .

T ha t w a l l n ow r i se s t o ah e igh t o f t wo s t o r ie s . I n t h e l owe r s t ory , as i ng le c en t ra l d oo rway o pened i n to r ough ly c on s t ruc ted r oom su nde rt h er e s iden t ia lb l ock . Un l ike t h eo the r g a te s w he re i mpo r tan t v i s i to r s , o r D ioc le t ian h im se lf , h av ing l a nded i nt h eb e t te rp o r to fS a lona , m igh tb ee xpec ted t oa r r ive , t h is e n t rance mus t h ave b een u sed p r ima r i ly t o b r ing i n s upp l ie s . No t s u rp r is ing ly , t h e o n ly d eco ra t ion w a s ap rof i led l i n te l ( I .A .1 .a ) .

I n t h e v e ry l im i ted d eco ra t ion s u rv iv ing f r om t h e r e s iden t ia l b l ock p rope r ,d i f f e rence sa ga in d om ina te .

2 3

DECORAT ION I N CONTEXT e a s t a nd n o r th w a l l s , i n c lud ing s i gn if i can t a moun t s o f t h e i r g a teway s ,a nd t r ace so ft h e i rc en t ra lt owe r s .

T he s t o r ie s a r e s t rong ly d iv ided b y as t r ing c ou r se ( I .A .1 .b ) s uppo r t ing c on so les . Abou t t h ree q ua r te r s o f i t s o r ig ina l l e ng th s u rv ive s , o f ten b ad ly b a t te red . O n ly a bou t h a lf o ft h e o r ig ina l d eco ra t ion o ft he u ppe rs t o ry ( I .A .2 ) s u rv ive s , b u tt h a t r evea ls t h e o r ig ina l l ayou t . I ts p read a r ches , c o lumn s , a nd e n tab la tu re sa c ro s st h ew ho le s u r face , w i th ma jo ra ccen t s a tt h e c en te ra nd t h ee nd s ,a nd m ino ra ccen t sb e tween t h e ma jo ro ne s . T he ma jo r a ccen t s c ons i s ted o f t h ree o pen p o rche s ( I .A .2 .a ) . T he ir e n tab la tu re s , s t rong ly p rof i led , b u t a lmos t t o ta l ly u npa t te rned , f o rmed a r cua ted l i n te ls o ve r c o lumns b e tween a n tae . T he s y s tem n ow eme rge s mos t c l ea r ly i n t h e much r e s to red w e s tp o rch , l e s sc l ea r ly i nt h e e a s tp o rch , wh ich i ss t i l l i mbedded i nl a te rc on s t ruc t ion . T he c en t ra lp o rch h a sv an i shed .

T he r ema in s o f t he e a s t g a te , w i th i t s o c tagona l t owe r s a nd n i che s , w e re u ncove red s ho r t ly a f te r t h e S econd Wo r ld Wa r ( F i skov id : p l s . o n p p . 4 9 -62 , u nnumbe red d raw ing i n p la te v o lume , " I s todna V ra ta P o r te E st" c f . H 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : 4 2 -43 ; N iemann : 3 7 ) . R e s to ra t ion o ccur red s imu l taneous ly w i th c l ea rance , s o t h e e a r l ie s t p ho tog raph s i n c lude s ome mode rn b lock s . O r ig ina l p i ece s o fa l l t he d eco ra t ion o n t h e o u te r s i de o f t h e g a te s urv ive ( f ig . 4 ) . T he n o r th g a te h a s m inor r e s to ra t ion i n t he v ousso i r s . I ti s b ad ly d amaged i n af ew p la ce s . T he w e s tg a te may h ave b een w e l lp re se rved u p t ot h e e nd o ft h ee i gh teen th c en tu ry . I ta ppea r sf a i r ly c omp le te i nt h e p o s s ib ly o p t im is t ic d raw ing C a s sa s m ade i n 1 782 ( p r in ted i n L ava 1 16e 1 802 ,r ep r in ted i nW i lke s 1 993 : p l . V II I ) . T oday o n ly t h e c en t ra l o pen ing c an b e s een , a nd s ome f r agmen t s i n t h e f l ank ing h ou se s .

B e tween t h e se t h ree p o rches , e ngaged c o lumns a nd a n a bb rev ia ted e n tab la tu re f r ame a r ched o pen ing s ( I .A .2 .b ) . T he e n tab la tu r e r un s s t ra igh t o ve r mo s t o ft he c o lumn s b u t c u rve s o ve r t he w ide r s pace b e tween t he t we lf th a nd t h i r teen th c o lumn s f r om t h e c en te r o n t h e e a s t . I to nce c u rved u p a ga in o ve rt h es im i la rs pace t h a to ccu r s( a symme t r ica l ly )b e tween t h e e l even th a nd t we lf th c o lumn so nt he w e s t . An a t t ic a lmo s t c e r ta in ly c rowned t he se e n tab la tu res , b u t n o i nd ispu tab le t r ace o f i tr ema ins . Ha ra rd b e l ieved t h a t s cu lp tu re s h ad o nce s t ood a bove t he c o lumns , b u t N iemann d i sag reed ( H6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : 4 8 -49 ; N iemann : 9 4 -95 ; c f . A dam 1 764 : p l . V I I I ; p o ss ib le e v idence f o r t h e a t t ic , McNa l ly , Ma ra sov id a nd Ma ra sov id , 1 976 :4 4 w i th r e f e rence s ) . T he s t rong ly d ef ined p rof i le s a nd a lmo s t c omp le te a b sence o f p a t te rn ing a l ong t h i s f a cade a re c a lcu la ted f o r v i ew ing a ta d i s tance . O n ly t he c ap i ta ls o ft he p o rche s , wh ich w ou ld b e s een f r om t h e i n te r ior , h ave c a rved d e ta i l ( I .A .2 .a .2 ) . T he e ngaged c ap i ta ls , v i s ib le o n ly f rom t h e b ay , a re s t a rk ly s moo th . T he c u r sory ma rk ing o ft he l owe r d oo r i nd ica te s i t s l a ck o fi mpo r tance . A l l a t ten t ion f ocu se s o n t h e u ppe r s t o ry . I t s d e s igne rc o r re la ted i t sd i f f e r ing o pen ing sw i th t h ed i v i s ion s i n t he r e s iden t ia l b lock b eh ind i t ( s ee b e low , p . 2 6 ) . T he a symme t r ica l p lacemen t o f t h e a rched l i n te l s c onf irm s t h e p recedence t h o se i n te rna le f ec t sh ad o ve re x ter na lp rec i s ion .2 4 I . B , C , D . T he L and Wa l l s Un l ike t h e s ea w a l l i n a lmo s t e very r e spec t , t he l a nd w a l ls empha s ized v er t ica l d iv is ions o ver h o r izon ta l o nes , a nd c on t ra s ted r i ch e n t ry w ays w i th a us te re b ounda r ie s . F rom a d i s tance , t h ey p ro jec ted a n i mpress ion o fe nc losed s t reng th : c l o se ra pp roa ch r evea led t h ee l abo ra t ion p i e r c ing t h ec en te r . T he s ucce s s ion o f t owe r s , s i x o n e ach w a l l , f ormed s t rong v e r t ica l a ccen t s . As t rong c rown mo ld ing , ab u lky c yma r e c ta a nd f i l le t , c ons t i tu ted t h e o n ly d eco ra t ion o f t h e w a l l s a l ong mos t o f t h e i r e x ten t . P la in a r ched o pen ing s r an a l ong t h e u ppe r l e ve l . T he mo ld ing o nce c on t inued a round t h e c o rne r t owe r s ( I .E ) a nd p re sumab ly a round t he w a l l t owe r s a s w e l l . O n ly o ne i n te rmed ia ry t owe r n ow s u rv ive s a bove f ounda t ion l e ve l , s u r rounded b y l a te rc on s t ruc t ion a l ong t h e w e s t w a l l , s o i t s o u te ra sp ec tc anno tb es e en . S ucce ss ive c l ea rance sf r om t h e n ine teen th c en tu ry t ot he 1 950 's h ave e xpo sed t he r e s t o ft h e

A l l t h ree g a te a r ea s h ave s im i la r mea su remen t s , l a you t s , a nd , t o al e s se r d eg ree , p a t te rn s . I ne ach t h e g a teway p rope ro pen s u nde r af l a t a r ch a nd ar e l iev ing a r ch . I ti sf l anked b y n i che s a nd o c tagona l t owe r s . T he s i ze a nd s hape o ft h o se t owe r s w a s c ho sen f o r p ropaganda , " r ep re sen ta t iona l " r a the r t h an t a c t ica l p u rpose s ( McNa l ly 1 989 : 1 2 ) . T hey d om ina te t h e o the r t owe r s , s ot h ey h e lp t h e g a te a r ea s t od om ina te t h e w a l ls . T he o c tagon s s e rved b o th a s f unne ls a nd a ss c reen s , d i rec t ing t h e v i s i to rt owa rd g a te a r ea st h a to n ly eme rged f u l ly a tc l o se r ange . T he b ounda r ie s o f t hese a r eas w e re m a rked b y as ma l l i n te rmed ia te mo ld ing o r s t r ing c ou r se t h a t r an a bove t he a r chways a nd a round t he f l ank ing t owe r s . T he s u rv iv ing s t re tche s o ft h i s mo ld ing s how t he s ame i n con s is tency a round a l l t h ree g a te s : o ve r t he o pen ings t h ey a r e p l a in , b u t a tt he s i de st h ey h ave c a rved p a t te rn s . T he p a t ter n sb eg in a td i f f e ren t p o in t s o n e a ch w a l l . T h is r e pea ted i n con s i s ten cy i ss i gn if ican t f o ra n u nde r s tand ing o fw o rk ing p rocedu re s . F i r s t , i ts how s a ma s te r p lan d i c ta t ing c a refu l modu la t ion o f ac on t inu ing e l emen t t od i f f e ren t s i tua t ion s . P rof i le s a ppea r s imp le i nt he e l abo ra ted a r ea b y e ach g a teway , a nd c hange t o p a t te rned mo ld ing s w hen t h ey r each t h eo therw i se p l a in t owe r s . S econd , i ts hows t h a t t he p lanne r s d id n o t c a re whe re t h e c hange o ccu r red . E ach w o rk c r ew m anaged i td i f f e ren t ly . ( O rt h es ame c r ew h and led i td i f fe ren t ly e ach t ime . ) T h is r e la t ion sh ip b e tween c a lcu la t ion a nd i mp rov isa t ion r e cu r s many t ime s i n t h eP a la ce . T oday , t h e mo s t s t r ik ing f e a tu re s o f t h e s i de n i che s a r e t h e i r s t rong s i l l s . H o l low t ongue s f r amed b e tween t wo i nwa rd p o in t ing e gg a nd d a r t b and s d eco ra te c onvex p rof i le s b e tween c onso les t ha t s uppor t a n tae . C ha r t Two s hows t he r e semb lance s b e tween t h e c onso le s , o n w h ich s ome o ft h e s i l l p a t te rn s c on t inue . T he i mpo s t mo ld ing s a r e i n con sp icuous , b u tJ e rko Ma ra sov id b e l ieve s t h a t i mpo r tan t o rnamen t may b e m is s ing f r om t h e t op s o ft h e n i ches ( c onve r sa t ion , J u ly 1 993 ) . H e p ropo se s t h a t ap eaked d eco ra t ion , n ow m i s s ing , may o nce h ave t opped t h e n i che s o ft h e e a s t g a te ( I .B .3 ) . T he re i sr oom f o ri ta tt h e n o r th a sw e l l ( I .C .3 ) . P a t ter n so nt h ef l a ta nd r e l iev ing a r che so ft h et h ree g a te sd i f fe r i nm ino r w ay s . O n t h e f l a t a r che s o ft h e e a s t a nd n o r th g a te s c a rve r s p l aced s im i la r v e r s ion s o fs t i r rup -f ramed l e a fa nd d a r t , b u to n t h e w e s tg a te t h ey u sed t h e a n them ion t h a tp e rvade s t h e c e remon ia l a r ea s i n s ide t h e P a lace ( Cha r t T h ree : I I .C .6 h a s s im i la rw o rkmansh ip : t h e re m ay h ave b een a no the r a n them ion

2 4 Z e i l le r r e la te s t he a r ched e n tab la tu re s t o t he h ighe r r oof s t ha t w ou ld h ave c ove red t h e i mpo r tan t s t ruc tu res b eh ind t h em ( H6b ra rd -Z e i l l er 4 7 ) .

2 4

ARCHITECTURAL ORNA MENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT i nt h e s t r ing c ou r se o n t he n o r th g a te , I .C .2 ) . T he f a sc iae o n t h ea r ch ivo l t so ft h ee a s te rn a nd w e s te rn r e l iev ing a r che sd if e r s l igh t ly ( I .B .4 .b , I .D .4 .b ) , b u t t he mo s t i mpo r tan td i f f e rence i s t h e c o rn ice a dded a t t he n or th g a te ( I .C .4 .b ) . I tc on ta ins a c onvex o ve r lapp ing l e af f r amed b y s i ng le l e af c ha in . T he s i ng le l e af c ha in e xh ib i t s at yp ica l i r regu la r i ty i ne xecu t ion : O n t he l owes t v ousso ir s , as moo th , s l igh t ly c onvex b and r e p lace st h el e aves . T he c onvex o ve r lapp ing l e a fa l so o ccu r si n t h e s t r ing mo ld ings o f n or th a nd w es t , a nd i n s ide t h e Mauso leum a nd T emp le o f J up i te r ( I .C .2 , I .D .2 , I I .C .8 .c ,

T he c or n ice i so n ly o ne w ay i nw h ich c a rve r s a tt h en o r th g a t e e n r iched t h ec ommon s ys tem . T he c on so le s b y t h es i de n i che s a r el a rge rt h an a to the rg a te s , a nd m ay h ave s uppo r ted c o lumn s i nf r on t o ft h e p i la s te r s . T he p re sence o ft he se w a s s ugge s ted b y S chu lz ( 1906 : 4 6 -47 ) , b u t N iemann a rgued t h a t t h e re w a s n or oom f o ra ne n tab la tu re s uppo r ted b y t he p ropo sed c o lumn s ( 1909 : 3 40 -342 , c f . N iemann : 2 3 , H 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : 3 9 ) . T he r e i s ,h oweve rr oom f o r ad iagona l mo ld ing , n o ts uppo r ted o nf r ee s t and ing c ap i ta l s ,s im i la rt ot he o ne Ma ra sov ie s ugge s t s f o rt h e e a s t g a te . T he s t r ing c ou r se b e tween l e ve ls ( I .C .2 ) h a s g rea te r v a r ia t ion , p o s s ib ly d ue i np a r t t ot h e o r ig ina l p re sence o fs uch a no rnamen t .

A s t a tue o f G a le r iu s s t ood i n t h e v e s t ibu le o f t h e p a lace a t An t ioch ( Amm ianu s Ma r ce l l inu s 2 5 .10 .2 , c i ted b y S re jov ie 1 994 : 1 50 )b u tw ou ld D ioc le t ian c on t inue t oi n c lude h i sf o rme r c o l league si nh i sp l ace o fr e t i remen t? Appa ren t ly G a le r iu sd id , i fG amz ig rad w a s d e s igned f o r r e t i remen t ( s ee a bove , p . 9 ) . B o th T hes sa lon ike a nd G amz ig rad s ugge s t t h a t t h e g a te i st h e a pp rop r ia te p l ace f o rs uch p o l i t ica l s t a temen t . T ha t means t h a t i tw a s n o t ap la ce t of i nd s t a tue s o f w ive s . I f women w e re i n c luded a nywhe re , i tw ou ld p robab ly b e mo re f r om p r iva te a f ec t ion , o r d e s i re t od emon s t ra te p r iva te v i r tue t han p ub l ic p o l icy . T he T e t ra r ch s ' w ive s a r e n o tab ly r a re i nt h e ir c o inage ( Ko lb 1 987 , B e rgmann 1 989 ) . Women , w h i le s t i l l u sefu l i n c emen t ing a l l iance s , l o s t much i mpo r tance when h e red i ty c ea sed t ob e ab a s i sf o rs ucce s s ion . Many v i l la -f r iend ly f i gu re s s uch a sP eace ,P l en ty ,H ea l th a nd C onco rd a r ea tl e a s ta sl i ke ly t oh ave a dor ned t h eg a t e s . W i lke sh a sp ub l i shed ar e s to ra t ion l im i ted t ot h ef ou rs urv iv ing b a se s . H is d raw ing s hows f ou r s t and ing f i gu res o n t h e p edes ta ls , t wo mo re i n t h e d eep u ppe r n i ches , t wo s ea ted f i gu re s i nt h e l owe r n i che s , a nd n o th ing i nt h e s ha l low c en t ra l u ppe r n iche ( 1993 : 3 5 , f i g . 3a nd 11 , n o te 9 8 ) . T h is a dm i rab ly n on -comm i t ta l d raw ing s hows f i gu re s w ho c ou ld b e p o r t ra i t s , g od s , p e r son if i ca t ion s , o r a ny m ix tu re . C amb i h a s r ev iewed t h e v a ry ing d imen s ion s o ft h e f i ve n i che s , b u t f ound n ow ay t od ec ide w ha tt h ey m igh th ave c on ta ined ( 1989 : 1 4 ) .

T he p r ima ry d i s t inc t ion o f t he n o r th g a te , h oweve r , i si t s p rov is ion f o r a dd i t iona l f i gu ra l s cu lp tu re o n u ppe r l e ve l s . I n a dd i t ion t ot h e u sua l t wo s i de n i che s t h e re w e re t h ree o n t h e n ex t l e ve l , a nd a ppa ren t ly f ou r o rf i ve f r ee s t and ing p ede s ta l s a bove t h em , o n t op o ft he w a l l . O ve r t h e e a s t a nd w e s t g a te s t h ep l a in w a l la r cade c on t inued , b u ta tt h en or th i tw a sr ep laced b y n i che s u nde r a n e ngaged a r cade ( a no the r v a r ia t ion o n t h e a r cua ted l i n te l , s ee a bove , p . 2 0 ) r i s ing f r om c on so le s . T he o u te rt wo n i che sa r es em ic i rcu la r , s im i la ri nw id th a nd d ep th t o t hose d i rec t ly b e low t hem , b u t t a l le r . T he c en t ra l n i che i s r e c tangu la r a nd s ha l low . P resumab ly t hey o nce h e ld f i gu re s a nd s ome f l a t te rc en t ra le l emen t .

I n a ny c a se , t h i s g a te h ad f r ee s tand ing e l emen t s i n t h e t wo l owe r n i ches , i n t h e t h ree u ppe r n i che s , a nd p robab ly o n p ede s ta ls ; a n e l abo ra te p rog ram t o w h ich w e h ave n o s ub s tan t ive c l ue .

Mo re f i gu ra l s cu lp tu re may h ave o r ig ina l ly s t ood a bove t h e w a l l , w he re f our s imp le p ede s ta l s n ow s t and b r icked i n to a r e cen t w a l l a bove t h e c rown mo ld ing ( I .C .6 ) . I ti sh a rd t os e e w hy t h ey w ou ld h ave b een l i f ted t o t ha t p os i t ion i n p o s t R oman t ime s , b u ti ts eem s t ha t t h ey mu s t h ave b een moved t o s ome e x ten to u to ft h e i ro r ig ina la l ignmen t . H 6b ra rd s ugge s ted t h a t t h ey m igh t h ave s uppo r ted t h e b ronze t r oph ie sa nd e ag le s o f i mpe r ia l t r iumph . K äh le r p ub l ished a n o ld p ho tog raph , men t ioned b y N iemann ( 24 ) , s how ing t ha t t h el a rge s tp ede s ta l o r ig ina l ly s t ood i nt h e c en te r , w i th t wo c lo se t o ge the r o n o ne s i de a nd t h e f our th i s o la ted o n t h e o the r s i de ( 1960 -61 : 1 06 , f i g . 4 ,p . 1 00 ) . H e u sed t h is e v idence t oa rgue t h a t t h e re h ad o r ig ina l ly b een f i ve p ede s ta ls , d i spo sed s y mme t r ica l ly . T he s u rv iv ing f ou r h ave t h ree d i f f e ren t s i ze s , s ugge s t ing t h a t t h ey s uppo r ted t h ree r ank s o ff i gu re s . K äh le rp ropo sed t h a tJ up i te r s t ood h e re b e tween t he T e t ra rch s , Augus t i a nd C aesa r i , p os s ib ly w i th t he i r w ives s t and ing a nd s i t t ing i n t he f ou r n i che s b e low ( 1960 -61 : 1 06 -17 ; 1 964 : 6 -7 , f i g . 1 ;1 973 : 3 6 ) . T h i s n ea t p rov is ion f o r t h e n umbe r o f b a se s a nd n i che s f i nd s l im i ted s uppor t i n a r rangemen t s a tL uxo r a nd R ome .2 5 I t 2 5 K äh le r s uppor ted h is a rgumen t b y r e fe rence t o t h e D ecenna l ia o r F ive -co lumn Monumen t i n t he R oman F orum , ( 1964a ) w i th i t s r ep re sen ta t ion o f t h e se f i ve f i gu r e s , i lus t ra ted , a s L 'O range h ad a l ready r e cogn ized , o n t h e A rch o fC on s tan t ine . T he

r a i se s t wo q ue s t ion s : h ow much i n te re s td i dD ioc le t ian h ave i n c e leb ra t ing t h eT e t ra r chy a tS p l i t , a nd h ow i mpo r tan t wou ld t h e w ive so ft h eT e t ra rch sb ei ns uch ac e leb ra t ion?

O n a l l t h ese l a nd w a l l s , d eco ra t ion s t re ssed e n t ry , b u t made t h e a rea s o f e n t ry i n to i ndependen t s t a temen t s , r a the r t han r e f lec t ions o f w ha t l a y b eh ind t hem . Wha t s u rv ives w a s d e s igned t o f r ame f r ee s tand ing e l emen t s , b u t n o t t o b e a n u nob t rus ive f r ame . T h roughou t , b u t p a r t icu la r ly i n t he e l abora te a rcad ing o f t h e n o r th g a te , i ti s c l ea r t ha t t h e d eco ra t ion h ad i t so wn r o le t op l ay i ni mp re s s ing t h ev i ewe r . S eve ra l f i gu re s , o r p a r t s o f f i gu re s t ha t r ema in may p rov ide s l igh t c lues t o a l t h a t h a s v an i shed . T he w ing o f aV ic to ry s t i l l s urv ive s o n t h e p ro t rud ing k ey s tone o ve r t he w es t g a te . T he V ic to ry p rov ide s s ome s uppo r tf o rZ e i l le r 's s ugge s t ion so f e ag le s a nd t r oph ie s a tt h e n o r th g a te . T he c on so le f i gu re s o ve r t h e n o r the rn e n t ryway s ugge s t a no the r p o s s ib le d i rec t ion f o r i mage ry . T hey s e em t o b e D ionys iac i no r ig in ( I .C .5 ) , a nd i n tended , l i ke D iony s iac f i gu re si no the rc oun t ry r e s idence s , t o r e f e rt ot he p l ea su re s ,t h e " D iony s iac p a rad i se , " w a i t ing w i th in . T he u sua l i n te rp re ta t ion s a s sume a s t ra igh tfo rwa rd p o l i t ica l me s sage , b u tt h ec omp lex c e r ta in ly embod ied a n i n te rwoven s e t o fc once rns . Am ix tu re o fm e ssages s e em s t oh ave b egun a t i t s g a te s .

p a in t ing i n t h e i mpe r ia l s h r ine a tL uxo r s how s a n e ag le h o ld ing a w rea th o ve r t h e f ou r T e t ra rchs . A s ma l l b u s t b e tween t hem h a s b een t hough t t o r e p re sen t J up i te r ( Decke r s 1 979 : f i g s . 1 02 , 1 03 , r ep r in ted i n e l -Sagh i r 1 986 : p l . XX I I ) .

2 5

DECORAT ION I N CONTEXT H .A . Ma in b lock

F ragmen t sn ol onge ri ns i tu p rov ide s l igh t ly mo re e v idence f o r p o l i t ica l i c onog raphy i nt h e P a lace . Two h ead s a r e b u i l ti n to wa l l s n ea rt h ew e s tg a t e . C amb i s ugge s t s t h a tt h ey m igh th ave o r ig ina l ly b een p a r t o fi t s d ecora t ion . H e p o in t s t o t h e s ho r t h a irdo o f o ne a s i nd ica t ing a T e t ra rch ic p o r t ra i t , w h i le t h e l onge r h a i ro ft he o the ri nd ica te s a n i d ea l f i gu r e , p robab ly o ne o f t he D ioscur i ( 1976 ; 1 989 : 1 5 -16 ; K o lb 1 987 : 1 05 ) . L 'O range t h ough t t ha t ar e l ief f r agmen t i nt h e A rchaeo log ica l Mu seum a tS p l i t s how ing a n a rmed man h ad p robab ly c ome f r om t h e P a lace ( 1965 : p l . XXV II I , e ) . I ts ugge s t s am i l i ta ry mo t if t h a t f i nd s n o o bv iou s p lace t he re . I tc ou ld e qua l ly w e l l h ave c ome f r om S a lona , w he re b u i ld ing w a s a l so g o ing o n a t t h is t ime ( Mar in 1 994 : 2 4 -25 ) .

T he r ough ly w a l led a nd f l oo red b a semen t r oom s h ave n o e mbe l l i shmen t . P ie r s e nd i n s t rong o b l iques o r r ak ing f i l le t s t h a t d i f f e r i n s i ze , a l l d es igned t o s uppo r t c ons t ruc t ion s c af f o ld ing r a the rt h an t od eco ra te . O n t h e ma in f l oo r , t h eb e s tp reserved w a l l i st h e s ou th f a cade , w h ich f o rmed o ne s i de o f t he l ong c o r r ido r f r om w h ich d oo rways o pened i n to t h e o the r p a r t s o f t h e r e s idence . T he ma in a cce s s t ot h e r e s idence a s awho le w a s t h rough ac en t ra l h a l l l e ad ing t o t h is c o r r ido r . T he d oo r o f t ha t h a l l o pened o ppo s i te t h ec o lumn so ft h ec en t ra lp o rch ( I .A .2 .a ) i nt h es ou th w a l l . S a f e ty w ou ld h ave d i c ta ted p lacemen to f ag r i l la c ro s st h e b o t tom o ft h ep o r ch . S uch ag r i l l wou ld h a rd ly h ave i n h ib i ted t h e o penne ss t h a t a dm i t ted l i gh t v i s ib le a l ong t he a x i s o ft h e h a l l , f o l lowed b y as udden v i ew o ve r t h e b ay a s o ne e me rged i n to t h ec o r r ido r .

I . E . C o rne rt owe r s . T he s ou thwe s tc o rne rt owe r i sg one . T he o t he rt h ree s u rv ive , t he i r u ppe rl e ve ls r ebu i l tt ov a ry ing d eg ree s . T hey c a r r ied o ne f o rm o fd eco ra t ion p ecu l ia r t ot hem , a nd o ne c on t inu ing f r om t he i r s e t t ing . T he p ecu l ia r f o rm i s ac o rne r mo ld ing l i ke t h e c ap i ta l o fa na n ta ,p laced r ough ly a ts t ing c ou r se l e ve l b u tn o t r e la ted t oa ny s t ruc tu ra ld i v i s ions ( I .E .1) . T h i sc or ne r mo ld ing s urv ive s , i ns l igh t ly d i f f e ren t v e r s ion s , o n a l l t h ree r ema in ing t owe r s .

R a the rt h an c omp le t ing t h e c o r r ido r , t he e nd p orche sp robab ly f o rmed t h e o u te r s i de s o f s epa ra te r oom s . A t t h e w e s t , t h e p o r che s c o r re spond i nw id th t o ab a semen t r oom p re sumab ly o nce s uppo r t ing a s im i la r s pace a bove . I tw a s al i gh t -f i l led a ppendage t ob o th t h e c o r r ido r a nd t he g roup o f s ma l l r oom s u sua l ly i d en t if ied a s t h e Empe ro r 's p r iva te a pa r tmen t s . T he c o r re spond ing a r ea a tt h ew e s th a sn o ty e tb een c l ea red .I tf r on t s ag roup o f r e c tangu la r r oom s f o r wh ich n o p u rpo se h a s y e t b een s ugge s ted .

C on t inu ing f r om t h e a d ja cen t wa l ls , t h e c yma r e c ta c rown ing t he l and w a l l s r un s a round t he o n ly t owe r t h a t p re se rve s i t s R oman ma son ry t ot h a t h e igh t , t he n o r thwe s t . P re sumab ly i t o r ig ina l ly r a n a round a l l t h e t owe r s . T he e n tab la tu re s o n t h e s ea wa l l , o n t he o the r h and , s t op a b rup t ly . T he o r ig ina l e x is tence o f ah ighe r mo ld ing o n a na t t ic a l ong t h a ts i de c anno t b er u led o u t( s ee a bove ,p .2 4 ) , b u tt h ed eco ra t ion t h a ts u rv ive s h a s t he e f f ec to f d raw ing t h e t owe r s i n to t h el a nd s y s tem a nd s epa ra t ing t h em f r om t h es ou th f a cade . E ach t owe rh ad o ne d oo r l e ad ing t ot h e o u t s ide . S o f a ra sw e n ow c an t e l l , t hese d oo r s o pen t he o n ly p a s sage s t h rough t h e e nce in te b e s ide s t h e c en t ra l g a te s . T he o ne s u rv iv ing d oo r , i n t he s ou thea s t t owe r , h a s at o ta l l a ck o fd eco ra t ion i nd ica t ing a f unc t ion e ven mo re i n s ign if ican to r u t i l i ta r ian t h an t h a to ft h e s ou ther nb a semen td oo r( I .A .1 .a ) . I . Res idence ( f ig . 4 ) L i t t le a r ch i tec tu ra l d eco ra t ion s u rv ive s f r om t h e ma in l i v ing a nd r e cep t ion a rea s , a nd p e rhaps l i t t le e x is ted . T he i mpe r ia l r e s idence c ons is ted o f ar e c tangu la r ma in b lock a l ong t h e s ou ther np e r ime te rw a l l ( I I .A ) , w i th ap ro t rud ing v e s t ibu le a nd p o rch o n t h e n o r th ( I I .B , I LC ) . Bo th b lock a nd v es t ibu le h ad t wo s t o r ie s . T he l owe rs t o ry ,o f ten r e f e r red t oa st h eb a semen t , r ema ins w e l l -p rese rved i n many p lace s . ( I t h a s a l so b een e x tens ive ly r ebu i l t d u r ing t he l a s t f o r ty y ea r s . ) I ts e rved p r ima r i ly t os uppo r t t h e l i v ing a nd r e cep t ion q ua r te r s o n t h e f l oo r a bove .2 6 T he u ppe r l e ve l o f t h e r e s iden t ia l b lock h a s b een e n t i re ly b u i l t o ve r , s o f ew Roman w a l l s s u rv ive t oa ny h e igh t ( s ee f i g . 1 , f i g . 5 ) , a nd o n ly o ne p i ece o f c a rved d eco ra t ion r ema ins i np l ace . T he v es t ibu le o n t h e o the r h and h a s p re se rved i t s b a s ic s hape . T he d oo r f r om t h e v e s t ibu le t o t he p o rch , a nd t he p o rch i t se lf , s t i l l r e ta in much o f t h e i r o r ig ina lc a rv ing .

I n t he se p o rches . t he b u i lders p laced c o lumns w i th C o r in th ian iz ing c ap i ta l s ( I .A .2 .a .2 ) , n o t f ound e l sewhe re i nt h e P a la ce , a tt h ec en te ro ft h ec o r r ido r , a nd o ft h ef l ank ing r oom s . T he s u rv iv ing e n tab la tu re s a re embedded i nl a te rc on s t ruc t ion , mak ing i ti mpo ss ib le t od e te rm ine whe the rt h ey w e re c a rved o n t h e i nne r s i de s a s o the r f r ee s t and ing p o r ch mo ld ing s w e re ( I I .C .2 .b , I I .B .2 , I I .C .2 .b . [2 ]) . T he i nne r f a ce o ft h e a r cade a l ong t h ec o r r ido rc an b es e en i ns ome p l a ce s , much r ebu i l ta nd r e s to red , b u t w i th n o s i gn o f d ecora t ion . ( An u n re s to red , u na r t icu la ted i n ne rf a ce c an b es een i n McNa l ly , Ma ra sov id a nd Ma ra sov ie 1 976 : A1 o n D raw ing 1 5 , p l . 1 5b ) . O n e i the r s i de , l i gh t c a s t b y t h e r ow o fa r ched o pen ing s w a s b roken b y s t ronge r l i gh t whe re a c u rved l i n te l s panned a w ide r , t a l le r s pa ce . O n t h e e a s t , t h i s a ccen t f e l l o ppo s i te t h e d oo rway i n to t h e c omp lex k nown a s t h e " t r ic l in ium ." O n t h e w e s t , i tf e l l o ppo s i te t h ed oo rway i n to al a rge a psed h a l l . T he t h ree d oo rways h igh l igh ted b y t he c en t ra l p o rch a nd t h e t wo a r ched e n tab la tu re s a r e d oorways i n to t he t h ree mo s t " r ep re sen ta t iona l" s paces o f t he r e s iden t ia l b lock . J e rko Ma r a sov id p ropo se st h a ta l lt h ree h ad s im i la rc a rved d e co ra t ion . T he o n ly e xamp le s t i l l i np lace i st he f r ame o ft he d oo r f r om t h e c o r r ido r i n to t h e c en t ra l h a l l ( I I .A .1) . O ne j amb a nd t h e l i n te l a r e w e l l p re se rved , b u t p o s t -Roman w a l l ing a bove t h em l e ave s n o i nd ica t ion w he the r t he re w a s ac orn ice l i ke t h a t a t o the r d oo r s ( I I .B .1 , I .C .1 , I I .C .4 , L I I .D .8 ) . T he c a rve r s u sed d i s t inc t ive p a t te rns , ag u i l loche a nd a m eande r , n o t p opu la r e l sewhe re i n t h e P a lace . T he g u i l loche r eappea r s o n t h e v e s t ibu le d oo r a nd i n t h e t wo o rde r s i n s ide t h e Mau so leum ( Cha r t T h ree , I .B .1 ; I I .C .9 ) . T he meande r d oe s n o t o ccu r o u t s ide t h e r e s iden t ia l b lock . Un t i l r e cen t ly t h i s f r ame w a s t h e o n ly e xamp le k nown i n t he P a lace , b u t af r agmen t d i scove red i n 1 992 n ea r t h e " t r ic l in ium " h a s as im i la rp a t ter n ( I I .A .2 ) . J e rko Ma ra sov id h a s i den t if ied t h e n ew f r agmen t a s

2 6 T he se r ooms w ou ld h ave b een o f l im i ted u se , s i nce t h e f l oor s a r e v e ry r ough ly f i n ished , w i th r ock c ropp ing u p i n to t h em , a nd t he w ho le wou ld h ave b een b o th d amp a nd d a rk .

2 6

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNAMENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT b e long ing t o t h e d oo r i n to t h a t c omp lex , a nd p roposed a s im i la rd eco ra t ion o nt h ew e s te rn c o r r ido r . I ti sh a rd t oe s t ima te h ow much a r ch i tec tu ra ld eco ra t ion may b e m i s s ing f r om t h e i n te r io ro ft h e r e s idence .2 7 L es s i mpo r tan t d oo r s may a l so h ave h ad p a t te rned o ra tl e a s tp rof i led f r ame s . S ome d eco ra t ion p robab ly ma rked n i che s a nd a p se s ( s ee n o te 2 7 ) . T he p i e r sd i v id ing s ome b a semen tr oom s m ay o rm ay n o t h ave s uppo r ted c o lumn so rp i e r so nt h es t o ry a bove .2 8 V a r ied r oo f h e igh t s a nd l i gh t w e l ls g ua ran tee s ome c on t inua t ion t h rough t h e i n te r io r o f t he p lay o f l i gh t i mpor tan t i n t he a r t icu la t ion o ft h e c o r r ido r . Much o ft h e d eco ra t ion m ay h ave c on s i s ted o fc o lo red ma rb le s , w h ich i n c lude t h er ema in so fo ne p i la s te r b a se , a nd r ounded meda l l ions ( M im ik 1 990 : 2 4 ) m o sa ic , a nd p a in t ing .2 9 H .B .V e s t ibu le 2 7 P e rhap s t h e b es t g u ide i st h e s l igh t ly l a te r v i l la a tP iazza A rme r ina , b ecau se o fi t s r e la t ive ly c omp le te p re se rva t ion a tg round l e ve l . T h ree -d imens iona l d eco ra t ion ma rked d oo r s a nd a p se s , a nd p r obab ly a r t icu la ted t he wa l l o f o ne r oom . P a t te rned e n tab la tu re s m ay h ave b een l im i ted t o e x ter io r s . I n a dd i t ion t o n ume rous c o lumns i n s ma l l a nd l a rge c our tya rd s , t h is v i l la h ad ( 1 ) c u t t ing s f o rj amb s b y a l l d oor s e xcep t t ho se o f s ome s e r v ice a r ea s , b u t n o i n d ica t ion o f t he n a ture o f t he j amb s ( 2 ) c o lumns ( none f u l ly p r e se rved ) o n e i the r s i de o f t he e n t rance t o e ve ry a p se o r e xed ra ; ( 3 ) s evera l f r agmen ts o f p i las ter c ap i ta ls l e ad ing t o t he s uppos i t ion t h a t a t l ea s t o ne r oom , t h e " ba s i l ica , " h ad p i la s te r s a l t er na t ing w i th ma rb le p ane l s a l ong i t s w a l l s ; ( 4 ) ac or n ice t ha t h a s b een a sc r ibed t o t he b a s i l ica , b u t t h a t C a rand in i s ugge s t s may h ave b e longed t ot he p or t ico o u t s ide ; a nd ( 5 ) af r ieze f r agmen t w i th r i n ceau a nd b i rd ( Ca rand in i 1 982 : 4p i la s te r c ap i ta l s : f i g . 6 9 ; f i g . 1 34 [ f rom t h e b as i l ica p . 2 31 ; Mi l le r 1 973 : p 1 .12 e , s how ing m o re f r agmen t s ] ; f i g . 1 79 [ pe rhap s i n p or t ico , p . 3 00 ] ; f i g . 1 82 [ p e rhaps f r om s ame p or t ico , p . 3 00 ; K äh le r 1 973 : p l . 1 2 c ] : c o rn ice f r agmen t , f i g s . 1 04 , 1 05 [ pe rhap s i n p o r t ico , p . 1 97 ; K äh le r 1 973 : p l . 1 2 f ] : f r ieze f r agmen t [ f ound i n l ong c or r ido r p aved w i th " G rea t Hun t , "p . 1 97 ; G en t i l i 1 950 : 3 14 , f i g . 1 4 ] ) .

T h is r oom f o rm s t h e t r an s i t ion b e tween t h er e s idence a nd t h e s a c ra l a r ea s . D eco ra t ion s eem s t ol i nk i t mo re w i th t h e l a t te r . I ti s ac i rcu la r s pace w i th f ou r n iches a nd t wo o ppos ing d oo rway s , o ne o pen ing s ou thwa rd i n to t h e c en t ra l h a l l o ft h e r e s idence a nd o ne n o r thwa rd i n to t he p o r ch . T he o r ig ina l w a l l a nd c e i l ing s u r f a ce sh ave d i sappea red , b u tt r a ce so f mo sa ic w e re f ound i nt h ed ome . 3° S im i la r c i rcu la r s pace s w i th n i che s a nd mu l t ip le d oo rway s r e cu r i nt h e " t r ic l in ium " a nd i nt h e e a s te rn b a th c omp lex . None o f t he e xamp les p rov ide s e v idence f o r t h e i r d eco ra t ion . C a rved d eco ra t ion s u rv ive s i n s ide t h i s r oom o n ly i nt he f r ame f o rt h ep o r ch d oo r . T ha tr e semb le s t h eo u te r f r ame o f t he s ame d oor ( I I .C .1) a nd e n tab la ture s o f t he P e r i s ty le , Mau so leum , a nd T emp le o fJ up i te r ( Cha r t T h ree ) . . T he c omb ina t ion o ff a sc iae , b ead a nd r e e l , c ab le , a nd s t i r rup f r amed l e a f a nd d a r t r e cu r s ( i n d i f f e ren t o rde r ) i n t h e u ppe r e n tab la tu re i n s ide t h e Mau so leum ( I I I .C .9 .c ) . P robab ly t h is r oom , l i ke i t s p o rch , w a s p lanned t oge the r w i th t h e a d jo in ing s a c ra l a r ea s r a the r t h an w i th t h e r e s idence p rope r . T he n i che s a dd s uppor tt ot h i sv i ew : T he re may h ave b een f i gu ra ls cu lp tu re h e re , a s t he re c e r ta in ly w a s o u t s ide ( on I .C .3 , p o ss ib ly o ve r m .A . 5 ) . 31 H .C . P o rch B u i lde r s i nt h eB a roque p e r iod a dded t wo c hape l s a nd ac en t ra l a r ch t ot h e o u te r w a l l o ft h e v e s t ibu le . A round t h em , much o f t h e R oman s t ruc tu re r ema in s . T he f r ame o ft h e R oman d oo r ( I I .C .1) i sp a r t ly b u i l to ve r . No r th o fi t ,f ou rc o lumn s s uppor t a n e n tab la ture t ha t r uns s t ra igh t o ver t he o u ter i n te r co lu r rm ia t ion s ,a nd c urve so ve rt h ec en tra lo ne . T he f a cade r e semb le s t ha t f ound a tt h e o the r e nd o ft h e n o r th sou th a x is t h rough t h e v i l la , b u t o n ag rande r s ca le . I th a s ap ed imen t , f ou rc o lumn si n s tead o ft wo ,a nd r i ch p a t ter n ing . T he e n tab la tu re i sp rof i led o n b o th s i de s ( H .C .2 .b a nd c ) . O n t h es i de f a c ing t h er e s idence ,f a sc iae a nd ac onvex f r ieze a ppea r o ve rt h e c o lumn s . F ac ing t h e P e r is ty le , t h ey r e cu r w i th a dded c omp lex i ty a nd f i n ished b y ac orn ice . T he re , at yp ica l i r regu la r i ty o ccu r s . T he c a rve r s d iv ided t h e f a sc iae o f t h e s t ra igh t a r ch i t rave w i th p a t te rns t h a t t h ey om i t ted o n t h e a r ch . T h is s imp l if ica t ion i sn o tj u s t c a re le s sne s s , b ecau se i to ccu r s o n a l l f i ve b lock s : o n t h e t wo l a rge s i de s l ab s t ha t f o rm b o th t h es t ra igh te n tab la tu re a nd t h e b eg inn ing o ft h e u pwa rd c urve , a nd o nt h et h ree c en t ra lv ou s so i r s .

I n e xecu t ion t h is d eco ra t ion d i f f e r s n o tab ly f r om t h a t a tS p l i t . T he p i las te r c ap i ta ls d isp lay i nnova t ive c ompos i t ions o n ly l o o se ly r e la ted t o Cor in th ian a n teceden ts . I nd iv idua l f o rm s a re s imp le , b road a nd b lun t , a nd s ome t ime s s t rong ly r y thm ica l . S eve ra l f r agmen t s o ff r ee s tand ing f i gu ra l s cu lp tu re w e r e f ound . P i e ce s t ha t c an b e a ss igned s t ood i n t h e e n t rance , i n t h e g a rden , a nd i n t he a p se s o f t he t r iconch . A l l a r e " i dea l :" d rape ry , f ound i n e n t rance c ou r tya rd p . 13 , f i g . 3 2 ; a n u n iden t if ied f r agmen t , f i g . 3 ; as t a tue t te f ound i nt he g a rden f oun ta in , w he re t h e r e w e re b a se s f o r t wo mo re , p . 1 27 f i g . 4 3 ; A po l lo , f ound i n a n a p s ida l r oom p o s s ib ly f o r d i n ing p . 1 40 , f i g . 6 3 ( Gen t i l i 1 950 , f i g . 2 7 ) ; an ude m a le t o r so , p robab ly f ound n ea r t h e t r iconch , w he r e t h e re w e re s t a tue b a se s i nt h e n iche s p . 3 12 , f i g . 1 95 ( Käh le r 1 973 : p l . 5 5 , d f ) ; a" co lo ssa l h ead o f H e rcu le s " p . 2 31 , f i g s . 1 32 / 133 ( i t s a s s ignmen t b y K äh le r 1 973 : 3 5 t o t h e a p se o f t h e l a rge a ud ience h a l l b ased o n " s lende r e v idence " a cco rd ing t oC a rand in i ) .

T h i s e n tab la tu re , l i ke t ho se o ft h e a d jacen tc ou r tya rd s ,r ema ins s imp le a nd b o ld u p t o t h e l e ve l o f t he c on so le s , w he re i ti s l o aded w i th d e ta i l . T he c a rve r s s ubo rd ina ted i tt ot h e r ak ing c or n ice a bove b yu s ing s hea r shaped l e a fa nd d a r to nt h ef o rme r , a n them ion o n t he l a t te r .3 2 ( They e s tab l ished a s im i la r

"Ze i l le r m en t ion s r ema in s o f g reen , r ed , a nd wh i te t e sse rae f ound i n t he d ome d ur ing r epa ir s ad ozen y ea r s p rev iou s ly , p re sumab ly i n t he 1 890 's ( He ra rd -Ze i l le r : 11-112 ) . T hey a r e i lus t ra ted b y B u l i4 ( 1927 , 1 929 : p l . 6 2 ) , b u t h ave n ow d i sappea red .

A n umber o f a rch i tec tu ra l e l emen t s , i n c lud ing c o lumn s , b e long ing t ot h e p a lace b u t w i thou t a s s igned p o s i t ion s w e re f ound i nt h e Mau so leum t emenos ( M im ik 1 990 : 114 ) . C o lumn s f r om t h e P a lace w e re u sed i n t he B ened ic t ine c onven t o u t s ide t h e n or th w a l l , a nd ac eme tery c hurch ( s ee b e low , p p . 4 5 -46 ) . I ti su nc lea r h ow many f r agmen ts i n t he l a p ida r ium b eh ind t h e A rchaeo log ica l Mu seum may a l so b e long t o t h e P a lace ( s ee b e low , p .3 9 ) . 2 8

3 1A s ag ene ra l r u le -neve r s af e t o a pp ly t o t he P a lace -n iche s t h a t d o n o t s e rve t op rov ide w a te r h ave d eco ra ted f r ame s , p o s s ib ly c o lumna r f r ames , a nd c on ta in s t a tues . I n i n te r ior s , n i che s d es igna te a " Rep re sen ta t ionsraum" whe ther s ac ra l o r p rofane : Ho rnbos te l -Hü t tne r 1 979 : 1 53 -154 .

2 9 0 pu s s e c t i le r eve tmen t s h ave b een f ound i n s i tu o n ly i n t h e c en t ra l c o r r ido r a nd t he r oom g iv ing a cce s s t ot h e " t r ic l in ium " ( t he t wo r ooms w i th c a rved d oo r f r ame s , I .A .1 , I .A .2 ) . Many f r agmen t s h ave b een f ound t h roughou t e xcava t ion s ( M im ik 1 990 : 2 -24 ) . E v idence f o r w a l l p a in t ing c ou ld n o t b e e xpec ted i n t h e se c ond i t ions .

2 7

3 2 N iemann ( 47 ) p o in t s o u t t ha t t he t wo s e t s o f mo ld ing s d o n o t m ee t o n as i ng le b lock , a s o ne m igh t e xpec t . T he r ak ing c or n ice b eg in s o n as epa ra te s l ab s e t a bove t h e e n tab la tu re . B lun t j ux tapo s i t ion s c ha rac te r ize w o rk i n t he P a lace : c f . t h e r e la t ion sh ip

DECORAT ION I N CONTEXT r e la t ion sh ip b e tween t h ec rown mo ld ing a nd t h er ak ing c o rn ice o ft h eT emp le o fJ up i te r ,C ha r tT h ree , 6 . )

t hough t m i l i ta ry s uccess t o b e t he c rown ing e l emen t i n d emon s t ra t ing a nd ma in ta in ing a ny s uch b a lance .

T h is e n tab la tu re r eappea r s o n t he o u te r e a s t w a l l o f t he v e s t ibu le . R ebu i ld ing p reven t s u s f r om s e e ing h ow f a r i tr an , a nd w he ther i t a l so a ppea red o n t he w es t wa l l . T he r eappea rance h a s b een t a ken a s e v idence t h a t t he a r ch i tec t s c hanged t h e i r p lan s . C rema t hough t t h a t t h ey i n tended t he r e s idence t oh ave ag rand f a cade ,a nd d id n o to r ig ina l ly e nv i sage t h e a bu tmen t o ft h e c ou r tya rd s ( i . e . o ft h e s i de c o lonnade s o f t h e P e r i s ty le ) a ga in s t t h e p o r ch ( C rema 1 956 ; 1 959 : 6 14 -15 ) . O the r s h ave s een t h ec on t inua t ion o ft he mo ld ing a s am is take t yp ica lo f many i nt h eP a lace .3 I fi tw a s am i s take , i tw a s a n a ccep tab le o ne ,s how ing t h el a t i tude a l lowed . Mo re p robab ly i t w a s d e l ibe ra te , i nd ica t ing t h e b u i lde r s ' a t t i tude t owa rd t he i n te r lock ing o f a r ea s . P o rch a nd t emeno s w e re c on s ide red s epa ra te ly , b u t w he re t h e s i de o f t he p o rch a l so b ecame t he t emeno s b ounda ry , i t s t wo r o les w e re b o th s t a ted . T he p ro t rud ing e n t rance w a s n o t c on s ide red p a r t o f a n e x tended f a cade , b u t , l i ke t h e p o rche s o fP e rge , M i le tus , a nd S ide ( s ee b e low , p p . 3 6 -37 ) , a s as epa ra te s t ruc tu re , t ob e d eco ra ted o n t h ree s i de s .

S ome s kep t ic ism , h oweve r , i si no rde r . T he q uad r iga r ema in s h ypo the t ica l . A w ooden p la tform w ou ld n o t b e t h e b es t s uppo r t f o r m a jo r b ronze s cu lp tu re . A t t h e p re sen t t ime , t h i s n a r row s t one s l ab i su sed a s ap lace t oa ff ix p ennan t s o ro the r s t age p rop sd u r ing p e r fo rmance s i nt h eP e r i s ty le , a nd p e rhap si t m igh t h ave s e rved o r ig ina l ly f o r s ome s im i la r ly l i gh t , p oss ib ly t empo ra ry f e s t ive g ea r . T he p rob lem h e r e , a sa tt h e n or th g a te , i st h a t o nce w e q ue s t ion a n o bv iou s ly p o l i t ica l i conog raphy , t he p oss ib i l i t ies b ecome i mmense a nd i mpond e rab le .

B eh ind t h ep eak o ft h ep ed imen t , ar ough r e c tangu la rs t re tch o f g ray m a son ry c an b es een c l ea r ly f r om b e low . I ti st hough tt o h ave f o rmed t h e f r on t s uppo r t f o r ap la tfo rm e x tend ing b ack o ve rt h ep o rch ,u sua l ly r e s to red a sb ea r ing aq uadr iga ( 1 .C .3 ) .

II . T emenos a rea I n f r on to ft h e p o r ch , s t ep s s e t of a n o pen s pa ce b e tween t wo c our tya rd sc on ta in ing s a c ra lb u i ld ing s ( s tep sr e con s t ruc ted a f te r t he S econd Wo r ld Wa r (McNa l ly 1 989 : 1 9 -20 , w i th b ib l iog raphy ) . E a ch t emeno si sd ef ined b y ac o lonnade i nf r on t ( L ELA ) ,a nd w a l l so ns i de sa nd b ack ( 1 1 .B ) . T he c o lonnade sa r e u nu sua l w ay s o fb o rde r ing c our tya rd s a r ound s a c ra l b u i ld ing s . H e re t h ey a r e c l ea r ly u sed t oh a rmon ize w i th t h ep o r ch o ft h e r es idence , a nd t o a l low v iews o f s evera l b u i ld ings s imu l taneou s ly . I nt h i s w ay t h e c on s t ruc t ion e s tab l i she s b o th c onnec t ion a nd s epa ra t ion b e tween t h e b u i ld ing s . S im i la r i t ie s a nd d i f f e r ence si nt h e or namen tr e info r ce t h e se r e la t ion sh ip s . T he e a s ter n t emeno s c on ta ins t he Mau so leum o f D ioc le t ian ( I I I .C ) . T he w e s ter n t emeno s c on ta ins t h e T emp le o fJ up i te r ( I I I .D ) a nd t wo r ound b u i ld ings ( I I I .E ) . T h is d om ina t ing c omp lex h a s t h e g r ea te s t c oncen t ra t ion o fc a rved o rnamen t i n t h e P a lace . P a t ter n s b r ing t oge the r p lan t , a n ima l , a nd h uman f o rm s . ( Cha r t s Two a nd T h ree i nd ica te s ome o f t h e r ange , a l though t h ey om i t t h e n ume rous c of f e r s a nd o the r d e ta i l s . ) T he a n them ion o n ab o ld c yma r ec ta t op st h e mo ld ing s ,e xcep t whe re ar ak ing c o rn ice i sp re sen t . T hen , t h e t op o ft h e l owe r mo ld ing i ss imp l if ied . O n a l l t he e x te r io r s , c on so le s a nd i n te rven ing s of i t sp rov ide ak a le ido scope i nw h ich p l an tf o rm s s h if t f r om n a tu ra l is t ic t o b iza r re . O n t h e p o rch o f t h e r e s idence , t h ep o r t ico a round t he Mauso leum , a nd t h e d oo r t o t h e T emp le c on so le s a nd s of f i t s a l so c on ta in f i gu r e s . H ead s a ppea r o n a l l t h ree , a nd t h e T emp le d oo rway h a s a dd i t iona l f i gu re s( I I I .D .8 .b ) .

C o in ss upp ly many i mage so fq uad r iga so ve rp a ssageway s s uch a st r iumpha l a r che s a nd t h e e n t rance s t ot h e F orum o fT ra jan a nd t h e B a s i l ica U lp ia . T he l a s t t wo l e ave n o d oub t t h a t t he c ha r io t w a s a pp rop r ia te n o t o n ly t oc ommemo ra te ap a r t icu la r t r iumph , b u t a l so t o s umma r ize a l i f e t ime 's a ch ievemen t s . H e re a t S p l i t aq uad r iga m igh t b e s een a s c e leb ra t ing t he a c t iv i t ies o f t he p e r son l i v ing i n t he r e s iden t ia l b lock , D ioc le t ian a nd p o s s ib ly s ucce s so r s , a nd r e la t ing t os cu lp tu red t h eme s i nt h e t wo a d jacen t b u i ld ing s . V ic to ry a ppea r s o n t h e k ey s tone o ve r t h e w e s t g a te ( I .D .4 .a ) , a nd o n t he d oo r o ft h e T emp le o f J up i te r ( I I I .D .8 ) . Wrea th s a ppea r i n t he r ea r p ed imen to ft h eT emp le o fJ up i te r( I L I .D .7 )a nd t h ef r ieze i n s ide t he Mauso leum , wh ich a l so s hows a t r iumphan t h un te r ( I I I .C .10 ) . T he t h eme o f v i c to ry c an e a s i ly b e i mag ined t o h ave r un , w i th a pp rop r ia te modu la t ion s , t h rough t he e n t i re c omp lex .

F rom ad i s tance , p a r t icu la r ly when p a t te rn s h ad c r i sp o u t l ine s a nd a dded c o lo r s , t h ep rofu s ion o fp lan t -ba sed f o rm s w ou ld b e s t r ik ing , a nd w ou ld t i et h eb u i ld ing s t oge the r . C lo se r , e ven a n i n cu r iou s g l ance w ou ld n o te t h e v a r ie ty , t h e s u rp r i se s . A t t h e d oo r s , p rofu s ion r e ache s i t s h e igh t . T he i n t e r io r s , w h ich mu s t b ee xpe r ienced c l o se ly a nd f o r al onge rt ime , s l igh t ly r e lax t h e p re s su re ,b u te a ch p rov ide s an ew s e to fr e f e r ence s— the f r ieze i n t he Mau so leum , t h e c of f e r s i n t he T emp le -bo th r a i sed h igh o ve rhead t oa s se r t a u tho r i ty w i thou t o ve rwhe lm ing w ha teve r s t ood i n s ide t h o se b u i ld ing s . ( I ft he u sua li d en t if i ca t ion so ft h e b u i ld ing s a r e c o r rec t , t h e T emp le wou ld h ave h e ld as t a tue o f J up i te r , a nd t h e Mau so leum a tl e a s to ne s a r cophagu s ,d i scu s sed b e low . ) A t t h e d oo rway s a nd i nt he i n te r io r s , t h e c a rve r s p i le u p c on t ra s t ing a nd c omp l imen ta ry r e f e rence s t ot h e b oun ty o f n a tu re a nd i t s w i ldne s s , t oh un t ing a nd h a rve s t ing , t os avage a n ima l s a nd c u l t iva ted p lan t s . T he mo t if s h ave b een a l loca ted t oc r ea te ac on t ra s tb e tween t h et wo ma in b u i ld ing s .

Aq uad r iga o ve rt h ep o r ch w ou ld d om ina te t h e w ho le a r ea , a nd b e v i s ib le t h roughou t mo s t o ft h e P a lace , p robab ly a s s oon a s o ne p a s sed t h rough t h e e n t rance g a te s . T he r e s t o ft h e P a lace d eco ra t ion s o f a r a s w e k now i ts eems t o a im a ta b a lance b e tween e n joymen t a nd e ndeavo r , b e tween h uman e f fo r t a nd d iv ine c oncu r rence . T he se t h eme s wou ld a l lb eo ve r shadowed i n t h e mo s t l i te ra l s ense b y t h e t r iumphan t a s se r t ion o f t h is p roposed q uad r iga . I ti sc e r ta in ly p o s s ib le t ha t D ioc le t ian b e tween t h e p o rch e n tab la tu re a nd t he t emeno s c rown mo ld ing o n s i de s f a c ing b o th P er is ty le a nd e a s tern t emeno s ( no e v idence f o r w e s t ) . 3 N iemann 4 7 -48 . D uva l s u mma r ize s o the r o p in ions a nd c ons ide r s t h is me re ly o ne o f t he many " impe rfec t ions e t n ig l igence s" i n t he P a lace , p e rhaps r e su l t ing f rom l a ck o f c oo rd ina t ion b e tween w o rkmen ( Duva l 1 965 : 7 9 -80 ; McNa l ly 1 989 : 1 9 ) . L ack o f c oo rd ina t ion s eem s t o h ave b een a d e l ibe ra te p a r t o f t he b u i ld ing p rocedure , b u t t h is d ecora t ion i s n o t n ece s sa r i ly a n e xamp le .

2 8

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNA MENT OF D IOCLETIAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT t wo o r a t mos t f ou r , p e rhap s f l ank ing d oo rway s . P robab ly t h ey a l l o r ig ina l ly s t ood i n t h i s v i c in i ty , b u t t h ey mus t h ave f o rmed as t ronge rp re sence t h an h ad b een t h ough t . 3 6

M .A .P e r i s ty le ( t emeno s )c o lonnade s T he o pen s p a ce c a l led t h eP e r is ty le i so ne o ft h eb e s tp re se rved p a r t s o ft h eP a la ce . I tw a s n o tl a id o u t , a si t s n ame i mp l ie s , a s au n i t , b u t c ame i n to b e ing t h rough t he i n te r sec t ion o f t h e r e s idence , t h e t wo c ou r tya rd s w i th s ac ra l b u i ld ings , a nd t h e ma in s t ree t s . T ha td oe s n o t mean ( a s h a s b een s ugges ted , s ee a bove , p .2 8 ) t h a t i tw a s a n a cc iden ta l r e su l t o f ac hange i n p lan . T h e c ho ice o fc o lonnade s f o r o ne s i de o fe ach t emeno s i nd ica t e st h ed e s i re t of r ame t h es pa ce w ec a l lt h eP e r i s ty le w i th d i s t inc t b u t h a rmon iz ing c o lonnade s . L im i ted s im i la r i t ie s i n d eco ra t ion c r ea te a n o ve ra l l u n i ty w i th in wh ich t h e c our tya rd s p re se rve a ni d en t i ty s epa ra te f r om t h a t o ft he r e s idence p o rch . A t t he e dge s t h e s t ra ins o f t h e u nu sua l c ompo s i t ion eme rge ( one i nt h ep o r ch e n tab la tu re , a l r eady n o ted a bove ,p .2 8 ;o the r s o n t h ec o rne rp i l la r s ) .

I I .B .I n te r io ro fc ou r tya rd s S ince t he p os i t ion ing o f b u i ld ing s w i th in t h e t emenos b ounda r ies d if e r s ma rked ly o n t h e t wo s i de s , t h e b ounda r ie s t h em se lve s may h ave b een t r ea ted d i f f e ren t ly . U nfo r tuna te ly , w e k now a lmo s t n o th ing a bou t t h e w e s te rn t emeno s . Mo s t o f t h e Mau so leum t emeno s w a sc l ea r ed d u r ing t h ef i r s th a lf o ft h i s c en tu ry , b u t t h e w e s ter n t emeno s i ss t i l l i nv i s ib le e xcep t f o r a s ma l lp a r to ft h eb ack o ft h ea r cade a nd c r own mo ld ing . I ne ach t emeno s , t h e a r ch ivo l t s a nd c r own mo ld ing s o ve r t h e c o lonnade sr e appea rf a c ing i nwa rd . T he c r own mo ld ing sd i f f e r s l igh t ly ( I I I .B .2 ) . O n t h ep i l la ra tt h ec o rne ro ft h e Mau so leum t emeno s ,t h ec a rve r sd ev i sed ac a re fu lt r an s i t ion . T he p i l la r sb y t h e c ro s s s t ree t w e re o r ig ina l ly v i s ib le f r om ad i s tance a bove s t ree tc o lonnade s , a nd t h i s o ne n ow a ga in s t and s c l ea r o fl a te r c on s t ruc t ion . T he c rown mo ld ing c hange s a si tw rap s a round t h e p ie r : o n t h e n o r th f ace , ap la in c o rona r ep laces t h e c on so le s , a nd o n t h e w e s ts i de , f a c ing t h e t emeno s , t h ec onvex f r ieze d i sappea r s . T he f l a t tened p ro f i le t h en c on t inue s a st h e i n te r io rc rown mo ld ing o ft h ec ou r tya rd . T h is f i na lc hange d id n o tr e cu ri nt h et emenos a round t h eT emp le , w he re t h ei n te r io r c r own mo ld ing s t i l lh a s ac onvex f r ieze , a nd o t he rv a r ia t ion s .

On e i the r s i de , s i x c o lumn s ( I I I .A .2 ) b e tween a n tae ( I I I .A .1 ) s uppor ts e ven a r che s ( I I I .A .4 ) a nd aw a l l a bove t h em ( I I I .A .5 ) . T he e a s t e rn a r cade i sw e l l p re se rved , a nd t h e t r an s i t ion t ot h e c ross s t r ee t w a s c l ea red i nt he 1 920 's . O n t h e w e s t , t he p a r t s a r e embedded i nl a te rs t ruc tu re s . A l l t h ec o lumn s s u rv ive , a nd mo s to ft h e mo ld ing s . T he e a s ts i de so ft h en o r th p i l la r , a nd o f p a r t o ft h e s ou th s pu r w a l l , a r e v i s ib le . S lab s c a r ry ing b a se mo ld ing s a nd s uppor t ing a g r i l le a ppa ren t ly f i l led a l l t h e i n te rco lumn ia t ions e xcep tt he e n t rance s o n e ach s i de ( I II .A .3 ) . N ew s l ab sh ave n ow b een p u ti n to p l ace . T he a n ta e m a rk t he b eg inn ing s o fc omp l ica ted t r an s i t ions t o t h e v e s t ibu le a to ne e nd , a nd t h e c ros s s t ree to n t h e o the r . A t t h e s ou th , t h ey r i se f r om l ow s pu rw a l l s .3 4 T he w a l ls r un o u t f r om t h e v e s t ibu le t o h a lfway a c ross t he s haf t o f t he f i r s t c o lumns . A tt h e n o r th , t he a n tae a r e o n t h e i nne rf a ce o f( t he o ne s u rv iv ing ) p i l la r s t and ing b e tween t he t emeno s wa l l a nd t h ep o rch a l ong t h es t ree t . T he a s t raga l sa tt h et o po ft he a n tae s haf t sc on t inue as ho r tw ay b ack o ne ach a d jo in ing s u r face , i . e . t h e s ou th w a l la nd t he n or th p i l la r( c f . I V .C .3 ) .

I nt h e Mau so leum t emeno s , t h ec r own mo ld ing c on t inued o n ly a sf a r a st h e a n ta , w he re i tc ame u pa ga in s t t h e c on t inua t ion o f t h ep o r ch e n tab la tu re ( s ee a bove ,p .2 8 ) ,j u s ta st h eo u te rc rown mo ld ing c ame u p a ga ins t t h e p o r ch i t se lf . T he v e s t ibu le w a l l f o r as ho r ts t re t ch f o rm st h et emeno sb ounda ry . T he o the r t h ree s i de s o fe ach t emenos w e re w a l led . T he t wo c ou r tya rd s d i f f e red i nd ep th , ad if e rence n eve ra ppa ren t t ot h e v i ewe r s . T hey a l so d i f f e red i nt h ea moun to fs pace a round t h e b u i ld ing s . T he Mau so leum a lmo s t e n t i re ly f i l l s i t s t emenos . T he i n ne rs pace o ft h et emeno s i sa pp rox ima te ly t h i r ty -f ive b y t h i r ty -n ine me te r s . T he s ou the rn a nd w es te rn w a l ls w e re a r t icu la ted b y as e r ie s o f n i che s , a l ter na te ly r e c tangu la r a nd c u rv ing ( H6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : 9 9 , N iemann : f i g . 9 7 , p .7 7 ) . T ho se o nt h es ou th h ave b een r ebu i l ta f t e rt h eS econd Wo r ld Wa r . N o i nd ica t ion o ft h e i ro r ig ina lh e igh t ,o ra ny d eco ra t ion o rc on t en t s h a s s u rv ived . T hey s t ood c l o se t o t h e p o r t ico a round t h e Mau so leum ( unde r t wo me te r s d i s tan t a tt h e s ou th , l e ss a tt h e e a s t ) , s o t h e i r c on ten t s w ou ld h ave b een v i s ib le p r ima r i ly t o v i ewe r s i nt h a tp or t ico . I ti sp o s s ib le t h a t t h e c ou r tya rd w a s a g a rden , a nd b a re ly p o ss ib le t h a t s ome o ft h e n i che s c on ta ined f oun ta in s . T hey w e re n o t w e l l p re se rved , b u t p robab ly s ome t r a ce so fp lumb ing w ou ld h ave r ema ined ,a nd n one w a sf ound .

O n e i the rs i de ,t h et wo n o r the rn c o lumn s haf t sa r ec i po l l ino , a s i sa tl e a s t o ne o n t he n e ighbo r ing d ecumanu s ( IV .C .1) . T he f ou r s ou the rn c o lumn s haf t s a r e A swan g ran i te , l i ke t ho se o f t he a d jacen t p o rch . Above s imp le a rch ivo l t s t he c rown mo ld ing sr un a tt h e s ame l e ve l a st h ee n tab la tu re o ft h e p o rch . T hese m o ld ings r esemb le t he e n tab la tu re i n h av ing b o ld p rof i le sb e low e l abo ra te p a t te rn s ,b u tp rof i le sa nd p a t ter n sd if e r ( Cha r t s Two a nd T h ree ) . T h i s a r ea m ay h ave h e ld ama jo rc oncen t ra t ion o ff r ee s tand ing s cu lp tu r e i ns t one o r b ronze . S ome s cu lp tu re p robab ly s t ood o n ap l a t form o ve r t he p o rch ( I I .C .3 , s ee a bove , p . 2 8 ) . H 6b ra rd r e co rded s ee ing b a se s f o r s t a tue s a bove t he c rown mo ld ing so ft h es i de c o lonnade s .3 5 As ph inx n ow r e s t s o n t h e e a s ter ns pu rw a l l . F ragmen t s , mo s to ft h em d i scove red i nt h i s v i c in i ty , i n d ica te t ha t e i gh t t ot e n s ph inxe s w e re b rough t f r om E gyp t t ot h e P a lace ( Se lem 1 970 , McNa l ly 1 989 : 3 0 ) . T he p re sen tw he reabou t s o fs eve ra l i su nknown . E a r l ie r e f fo r t s t o f i nd p l a ce s f o rt hem r e s ted o n t h e a s sump t ion t h a t t h e re w e re 3 4

T he P a la ce i ss of a rc omp le te ly l a ck ing i nd emon s t rab le s pa ce s f o r t h e p lan t ing a nd w a te r t h a t w e re i n t r ins ic p a r t s o f a l l

3 6 T hey c ou ld n o t h ave b een p l aced b e tween t h e c o lumn s b ecau se o ft h e g r i l le s . I ti sa l so u n l ike ly t h a t t h ey w ou ld b e p l aced w he re t h ey c ou ld o n ly b e s een f r om t h e s i de . T hey c ou ld b e p l aced i n ar ow i n f r on t o f t h e s i de c o lumn s , l e ad ing u p t ot h e p o rch , b u t movemen t w ou ld b e c onge s ted . T he re i se nough s pace f o r t h em t o f o rm a d oub le r ow b eh ind t h e t wo s ma l l b u i ld ing s l e ad ing t o t h e T emp le o f J up i te r , b u t t hey wou ld b e r e la t ive ly i n consp icuous t h e r e . P e rhap s t h ey w e re d i s t r ibu ted a ts t a teg ic p o in t s i nt h e c en t ra l c our t a nd t h e a pp roache s t ot h e b u i ld ing s a r ound i t .

N iemann f i gs . 6 1 , 6 2 s how s t h e c on s t ruc t ion .

3 5 " Su rl ed e s sus d e l ac orn iche , a u d ro i t d e c haque c o lonne , d e s d tfoncemen t s c a r rts , r ema rqut s p a r E . H tb ra rd , ma is n oyts d epu is d ans u ne n appe d i c imen t , tmo ignen t q u 'une r angte d e s t a tue s c omp le ta i t l ' en semb le o rnemen ta l d e l ap l ace " ( Htb ra rd -Ze i l le r 6 5 ) . B u l ie s a id t h a t h eh ad s uperv ised t h i s c emen t w o rk , a nd s aw n o s uch t r ace s ( 1 927 : 6 2 ; 1 929 : 3 4 ) .

2 9

DECORAT ION I N CONTEXT s i gn if ican t r e s iden t ia l a r ch i tec tu re . I ti se a sy a nd p l ea san t t o i mag ine t h e Mauso leum p o r t ico a s b r ing ing v i s i to r s i n to a s a c red g rove : c r ea t ing as haded w a lkway b e s ide f l owe r ing t r ee s , t h rough w h ich t h et emeno sb ounda ry a ppea red n o tp r ima r i ly a s a wa l l , b u t a s a n a l te rna t ion o f s t a tue s a nd f l ow ing w a te r . S uppor t ing e v idence d oe sn o te x is t . M im ik h a ss ugge s ted t h a tf ou rf r agmen ta ry b lock sf ound i nt h e t emeno s s t ood t h e re o r ig ina l ly ( 1990 : 1 9 ) . T hey wou ld f u r the r c on s t r ic tt h es pace ,b u tt h a t may h ave b een d e s i rab le .3 7 T he t h ree s t ruc tu re s s of a rf ound i nt h eo ppo s i te t emeno sl e ave much s pace f r ee . T he c en t ra l t emp le i sa s c lo se t ot h e b ack w a l l a st h e Mau so leum i ni t s s ma l le rc ou r tya rd , i . e . a bou t t wo me te r s ; t h e t wo s ma l le r s t ruc tu re s s t and a bou t t h ree m e te r s b ack f r om t h e c o lonnade . T hey a r e a bou t s even me te r s a pa r t , a nd a lmo s t f i f teen me te r s i nf r on t o ft h e t emp le . ( A l l o ft h e se measu remen t s a re a pp rox ima t ions d e r ived f r om p ub l i shed p lans . T hey c ou ld n o t b e c hecked o n t h e s i te . ) I n s tead o ft h e i n te rac t ion o f p o r t ico w i th o u te r w a l l f ound i n t h e e a s te rn t emeno s , t h e w e s te rn t emenos h a s a ni n te rac t ion b e tween t h ree b u i ld ing sp re ssed a ga in s ti t sb ounda r ie s . I fa na l ta rl a yb e tween t h e b u i ld ing s , t h e who le w ou ld h ave b een a sd en se ly p a cked a s t h e e a s t . A round t h i s t emenos , o n ly s ma l l r emnan t s o fe ach w a l lh ave b een t r aced . T hey g ive n oi n d ica t ion o fd eco ra t ion .

S ince t h eP a la ce d id h o ld t wo t emp le l ike b u i ld ing s , a nd g ood l i t e ra ry e v idence s howed t h a t b o th at emp le a nd a t omb h ad e x i s t ed t h e re , R obe r t Adam a nd o the r s n a tu ra l ly t ook t h el a rge r b u i ld ing t o b e t h e T emp le o f J up i te r . I n c rea sed k now ledge a bou tt h e f o rm s o fR oman t ombs a nd f une ra ry r e l ief s l e d l a te r s cho la r s , i n c lud ing N iemann , He ra rd a nd Z e i l le r , a nd B u l id t o i d en t ify t h e C a thed ra l a s t he Mau so leum , a nd t h e s ma l l r e c tangu la rb u i ld ing a st h eT emp le . T he t omb s eem s t oo ve r shadow t he t emp le , g iv ing D ioc le t ian mo re p rom inence t han J up i te r , a nd c aus ing s cho la r ly m i sg iv ing s . O ne s o lu t ion w ou ld b e t os uppo se t ha t t h e t omb w a s a l so t he T emp le o f J up i te r , a nd t h a t t h e s ma l le r t emp le w a s d ed ica ted t os ome o the rd e i ty . A lf red F raze r w e ighed t he p o ss ib i l i ty t ha t t h e Mau so leum m igh t b e a l so a t emp le o f J up i te r , b u td i scoun ted i t( F raze r 1 966 , 3 88 ,a ppa ren t ly a r gu ing a ga in s t t h e i d ea t h a t t he g od wa s " i ncarna te i nt he e mpe ro r ," r a the r t h an t ha t t h e t wo m igh t s ha re h ono r s i no ne b u i ld ing ) . T he d i scove ry o f t wo mo re p oss ib le t emp le s i n t he w e s te rn t emeno s h a s r e shaped t he p rob lem ( s ee I I .E ) . T om is lav Mar a sov id h a sr ev iewed t h e i s sue s , s ugge s t ing r eeva lua t ion o f a c cep ted i d en t if i ca t ion s( T . Ma ra sov id 1 989 : 3 76 ) . D uva l h a s g one f u r the r , a sk ing w he the r we k now t h a t D ioc le t ian w as b u r ied i n s ide t h eP a lace w a l ls ( 1991 : 3 80 ) . T he i n te r io rf r ieze ( I I I .C .10 ) p rov ide s t h e b es t e v idence : i tf o l lows c l ea r , a lmos t b ana lf u ne ra ry c onven t ion st ob ed i scu s sed f u r the rb e low .

I I . C . Mauso leum ( f ig . 5 ) S cho la r sh ave c a l led t h i sb u i ld ing t h e Mau so leum s i nce t h el a te n ine teen th c en tu ry . I ti sn ow t he C a thed ra l o f S p l i t . Wh i le s e rv ing t ha t p urpose i th a s e xpe r ienced many a l te ra t ions , i n c lud ing t h ec ons t ruc t ion o f ac ampan i le a nd s acr i s ty , a nd t h e a dd i t ion o fi n te r io rc hape l s .3 8 I n t h e n ine teen th c en tu ry t h e c ampan i le w a s e n t i re ly r e cons t ruc ted , a nd t h e who le i n te r io r d ra s t ica l ly r e s to red . E v idence s u rv ive sf o r mos t , b u tn o ta l l , o f t h eo r ig ina ld eco ra t ion . T he i d en t if ica t ion o ft h eb u i ld ing a st h e empe ro r 's b u r ia l p l ace i sa l l b u t c e r ta in . I tr e s t s o n w eak d ocumen ta ry e v idence , s t ronge re v idence f r om b u i ld ing t ype , a nd mo s ts t rong ly o nt h e i conog raphy o f t he f r ieze , a nd t h e d i scovery o f p o rphy ry s a rcophagu s f r agmen t s i n t he t emeno s . I ti sc ha l lenged b y mo s to ft h ed ocumen ta ry e v idence , a nd b y q ue s t ion s a bou tt h e f o rm o fi mpe r ia li n te rmen t .

K äh le r t hough t t h e c onc lus ive e v idence c ame f r om t he p o rphy ry f r agmen t s f ound o u ts ide i n t h e t emenos . B u lk r epo r ted t h e e xcava t ion o ft h e se b e tween 1 920 a nd 1 923 , a nd r e g re t t ed t h a tt h ey d i dn o ti n c lude s a r cophagu sf r agmen t s( 1927 : 9 0 ; 1 929 : 5 2 : K äh le r a dd s s pecu la t ion a bou t t he p rec i se f i nd s po t ) . K äh le r n o ted o ne c o rne r p iece , t h en a nd n ow i n t he l a p ida r ium b eh ind t h e A rchaeo log ica l Mu seum , w i th a 1 80° a ng le t h a t h e t hough t c ou ld o n ly b e long t o t he l i d o f a s a rcophagus . T he a ng le c o inc ide s p rec i se ly w i th t h a t o n a p o rphy ry s a rcophagu s i nf r on t o ft h e A r cha eo log ica l Mu seum i n I s tanbu l . O the r f r agmen t s o f t h e s ame d i s t inc t ive d a rk p u rp le w i th s ma l l w h i te f l eck s a nd p o l i shed o n o ne s i de a nd

No o ne d i spu te s t h a t D ioc le t ian d i ed a tS p l i t a nd w a s b u r ied t he re . S t . J e rome a nd o the r a u tho r s ( r ef e r red t o i nn o te 1 0 ) men t ion h i sd ea th .L e s st h an ac en tu ry a f te rh ed ied , Amnüanu s Ma rce l l inu s t e l ls u s t ha t h i s t omb w a s i n S p l i t ( r erum g es tarum l i br i , x v i .8 .4 ) . T he q ue s t ion r ema ins , w he r e? T he t e n th c en tu ry B yzan t ine e mpe ro rC on s tan t ine P o rphy rogen i to s s ays t ha t t h e empe ro r h ad b een b u r ied i n t he b u i ld ing t ha t b ecame t h e c hu rch o f S a in t Domn iu s , t h a t i s , i n t h e p r e sen t d ay C a thed ra l ( de a dm in . i mp . 2 40 -42 ) . O n t he o t he r h and , t h ree a u tho r s men t ion aT emp le o f J up i te r i n t he e mpe ro r 's P a lace , a nd e qua te i tw i th t he b u i ld ing w e n ow c a l l t he Mau so leum . T he n in th c en tu ry a u tho rA dam o fP a r i ss a y st h a t

3 9 A dam o fP a r is w ro te ab iog raphy ( i nc luded i n F a r la t t i 1 751 , 4 06 , 4 09 ) o f S a in t Domn iu s , p a t ron o f S p l i t . B u l ie s ugge s t s a m ed ieva l m isunde r s tand ing c hanged " t emp lum j ov i i" t o " t emp lum j ov i s " ( 1 929 : 3 7 ) . T he m isunder s tand ing may h ave o ccur red i nt he t r ansm iss ion o f t h is t ex t . A s cr ibe u nawa re o f D ioc le t ian 's a ppe l la t ion may w e l l h ave t hough t j ov i i a n o bv ious m is take , a nd a mended i t .

3 7 T wo b lock s may c ome f r om c r own mo ld ing s o f p i l la r s , a nd t wo a r e p i l la r ( o r p l in th ) b a se s . At h i rd p i l la r b a se w i th a n e ngaged c o lumn ( F iskov ie : 7 6 , f i g . 7 3 , p . 1 6 ) h a s b een r e s to red a s p a r t o f t he n o r thwe s t p i l la r o ft h e s ou th t e t rapy lon b y t he e a s t g a te . 3 8

t h e b u i ld ing t h en f unc t ion ing a s t h e C a thed ra l o f S p l i t w a s " t emp lum o hm j ov i d ica tum" ( once c a l led t he t emp le o f J ove ) .3 9 T hen , i nt h e t h ir teen th c en tu ry , T homa s , A rchdeacon o f S p l i t , s a id t h ree t emp le s h ad e x is ted , d ed ica ted t o J ove , A e scu lep iu sa nd Ma r s . H ea ga in e qua ted t h eC a thed ra lw i th t h e T emp le o f J up i te r ( Thoma s A rchd iaconu s 1 894 : c ap . i v ) . F ina l ly , i n as peech i n 1 558 , An ton io P rocu l iano l i s ted f ou r t emp le s , d ed ica ted t oJ up i te r , J anu s , C ybe le a nd V enu s . T he T emp le o fJ up i te r , h e s a id , w a s o c tagona l , a st he C a thed ra l i s ( P rocu l iano 1 880 I I : 1 97 -238 ) .4 0 No s ou r ce men t ion s b o th a t omb a nd at emp le i nt h eP a lace .

4° Bu l i e t hough t t ha t P rocu l iano h ad m is in terpre ted s eve ra l g rand s paces i n t h e P a lace a s t emp le s ( 1927 : 6 4 ; 1 929 : 3 6 ) T he r e cen t f i nds s ugge s t t ha t h e w a s i n s tead d raw ing o n at r ad i t ion a bou t d e s t royed b u i ld ing s . T he ir n ame s , h oweve r , p robab ly owe mo re t oR ena is sance s pecu la t ion t han t r ad i t ion .

M irn ik s umma r ize s t h e c hange s ( 1990 : 1 4 -16 ) .

3 0

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNAMENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT r ough o nt h eo the r , p robab ly a l so b e longed t ot h es a rcophagu s ( Kah le r 1 974 : I , 8 14 , L I I , p l . 2 71) . T he s a r cophagu s mu s t h ave b e longed t oD ioc le t ian . T he o n ly o the rc and ida te w ou ld b e t h e much l a te r empe ro r , J u l iu s N epo s . S i nce J u l iu s N epo s f l ed t ot h eP a la ce a nd w a sa s sa s s ina ted t h e re ( W i lke s 1 993 : 8 4 ) , i ti su n l ike ly t h a th e w a s b u r ied i np u rp le .

d i s tance , a nd a lmo s t o verwhe lm ing , b ecause c ons t r ic ted , r i chnes s w hen t h ee i the rt h e t emenos o rt h eb u i ld ing i t se lf w a s e n te r ed . Ap od ium c on ta ins a n u nf in i shed , u ndeco ra ted c ryp t . O n t h e p od ium a r e la t ive ly n a r row c e l la i s s u r rounded b y ab road e x te r io r p or t ico a nd w a s o nce a pp roached b y ag rand p o rch . T he p o r t ico h a s aw id th o ft h ree a nd ah a lf me te r s , a nd t h ec e l la i n te r io r ad i ame te r o fj u s t u nde r t h i r teen a nd ah a lf me te r s .4 3 T he c e l la w a l ls c on t inue h igh a bove t he p o r t ico , d raw ing a t ten t ion f r om ad i s tance t ot h e ir s t a rk e x te r io r s u r f ace s , wh i le a f fo rd ing a ne x ten s ive f i e ld f o rd eco ra t ion o nt h e i n te r io r . T he c e l la r i se s h ighe r t han t he w a l ls o f t he e nce in te , a nd i t s r oo f r e ache s a bou t t h e h e igh t o f t h e o u te r t owe r s , s o i ts t ood o u t f r om ad i s tance mo re t h an a ny o the rp a r to ft h e P a lace . R a sch s how s t h a tt h er e la t ion sh ip o fc o lumn h e igh t t op od ium h e igh t a tS p l i t ( a bou t 1 : 2 ) r e semb le s t ha t o f Maxen t iu s ' t omb o n t h e v i a App ia a nd t h e Mau so leum a tt h e T o rd iS ch iav i ( 1984 : 7 8 , n o te 6 97 ) . T he e x ten s ion o ft he c e l la w a l l a bove t he r oof o f t h ec o lonnade t h en r ough ly d oub le st h et o ta lh e igh th e re .

' Ca l le r a na lyzed t he p h ra s ing o ft h e s t o ry t o ld b y Amm ianu s Ma rce l l inu s( xv i 8 ,3 -6 ) . H em en t ion s ap u rp le c l o th s t o len " a s epu lch ro , " w h ich K a h le r s ay s c an o n ly mean f r om a n o b je c t , n ame ly t h es a rcophagu s . I f ab u i ld ing w e re m ean t , " ex " w ou ld h ave b een u sed ( 1974 : 8 18 -819 ) . T h is c l o th s ugge s t s t h a t t h e c e remony o fk i ss ing t he p u rp le m igh t h ave b een e x tended t o t h e s a rcophagu s . P rov i s ion f o rt h a tc e remony m ay e xp la in t h e u se o fp o rphy ry ,a ppa ren t ly f o rt h ef i r s tt ime ,f o r as a rcophagu s n e ed ing n oa dd i t iona lc a rved d e co ra t ion . R ecen t ly i th a s b een a rgued t h a t empe ro r s w e re n o t i nhumed b efo re C on s tan t ine . T he e v idence s eem s t oi n d ica te t h a t t h ey w e re ,b u t at h o rough r e con s ide ra t ion mu s tb em ade .4 1 T he Mau so leum c ons is t s o f many s egmen t s , w i th n ume rou s o rnamen ted z one s . T he c en t ra l ized , d omed p l an f i t se a s i ly i n to l a te a n t ique t o mb t ype s , b u t t he p lanne r s i n t roduced p ecu l ia r i t ie s t o d ef ine i t s u nusua l p os i t ion i n t h is t i gh t c omp lex .4 2 T hese a d jus tmen t s e nsu red p rom inence f r om a

4 1 J ohn son r ev iews t he e v idence f o r b u r ia l o f t h e l a te r empe ror s , n o t ing h ow i nadequa te i ti s ( 1986 : e sp . 2 12 -2 13 ; s e e a l so A rce 1 988 , ar efe rence f o r w h ich It hank G e rha rd K oeppe l ) . An ton inus P iu s s eems t o h ave b een i nhumed . T he S eve ran s r eve r ted t o c r ema t ion . Many t h ird c en tury e mpe ror s d ied i n d i sg raced o r o bscu re c i rcum s tance s . One p re sumab ly i mpe r ia l s a rcophagu s , o f B a lb inu s , h a s s u rv ived ( doub ted b y P r ice 1 987 : 9 6 -97 , c i t ing R .R .R . Sm i th ) . Amb rose t e l ls u s t h a t D ioc le t ian 's c o l league Max im ian w a s b u r ied i n ap o rphy ry s a r cophagu s ( Ep i s t . 5 3 , 4 ) , mak ing i ta lmos t c er ta in t h a t D ioc le t ian w ou ld h ave b een a s w e l l . H oweve r , Gamz ig rad ( Romu l iana ) h a s n ow p rov ided c l ea r e v idence f o r i mper ia l c rema t ion , w i th c on sequen t monumen t s e rec ted a t s ome d i s tance f r om t h e r e s idence . T he d rama t ic f i nd s v iv id ly i lu s t ra te o u r l a ck o fk now ledge o f r i tua l a nd b el ie f a tt h i s t u rn ing p o in t i n Roman h i s to ry . S re jov ie s ugges t s t ha t w e r eexam ine t h e a ssump t ion t ha t a ny T e t ra rchs w e re i nhumed ( Sre jov ie 1 994 ) . P r ice ( 1987 ) c i tes c o in s r ep re sen t ing p y re s t o s how t h a t c r ema t ion c on t inued t h roughou t t h e t h i rd c en tu ry a nd t h e T e t ra rchy . H e a l so , h oweve r , c i te s H e rod ian 's m en t ion o f s epa ra te c e remon ie s f o r a n empe ro r 's b ody a nd f or h i s w ax i mage , a nd wonder s w he the r t he i mage m igh t b e c rema ted a nd t he b ody i nhumed . T he t h ird c en tu ry h i s to r ian s H e rod ian a nd D io b o th d e sc r ibe l a v ish p yres b u i l t f o r w ax i mage s ( He rod ian I V .2 ; D io LXXV ) . D io s ays t he c rema t ion o f a n i mage c omp le ted t h e a po theo s is o ft h e empe ro r P e r t inax . H e rod ian s ay s mo re g ene ra l ly t ha t t he b ody o f a n empe ro r i s b u r ied i mmed ia te ly , a nd t h en c e remon ia l c rema t ion o ccur s . U s ing t he i r t e s t imony , A rce e spouse s t h e s o lu t ion P r ice t e n ta t ive ly a dvance s . A cco rd ing t o A rce ' s p e r sua s ive e xp lana t ion , t h e w ax i mage b ecame n ece s sa ry o n ly w hen i n huma t ion b egan , b ecause c r ema t ion w a s n ece s sa ry f o r t he " consec ra t io ," t o e f fec t t he a po theos is ( 1988 : 1 29 -131) . Q ue s t ion s r ema in a s t o w ha tc u l to b se rvance w ou ld b e l o ca ted a tt h e p lace o fc on sec ra t ion , a nd w ha t a tt he t omb . T he t r ad i t iona l v i ew t ha t l a rge t omb s d eve loped f o r i n c rea sed r i tua l s t i l l s e em s l i ke ly . 4 2 R ecen t d oub t s a bou t t h is t ypo logy n eed t o b e men t ioned a l though t h i s i s n o t t he p lace t o d i scuss t h em i n d e ta i l . T he c ommon a pp roach g roup s t oge the r s i x o r s even s t ruc ture s f r om t h e t h ird a nd f ou r th c en tur ie s , mo s t o ft h em n ea r R ome , a s r ep re sen t ing t he s ame t omb " t ype , " d e scended f r om t he P an theon ( McNa l ly 1 989 : 2 2 -23 w i th b ib l iog raphy ) . I n 1 986 , J ohn son c ha l lenged

T he p o rch a nd p o r t ico l i nked t he Mauso leum t o a d jacen t s paces , b o th o u t s ide a nd i n s ide t he t emeno s . T he o u te r c o lonnade d id n o t e mbe l l ish ad i s tan t v i ew o ft he b u i ld ing a s p e r is ty le s h ad d one f o r c en tu r ie s . T oday , w i th t he t emeno s w a l l g one , w e c an s ee t h e b u i ld ing f r om t h e s t ree t w i th t h i s c o lonnade a round i t . T ha t v iew wou ld n eve r h ave b een p o s s ib le i nA n t iqu i ty . T he p o r t ico w ou ld h ave b een h idden b y i t s s u r round ing s . We d o n o t k now t he h e igh t o f t he t emeno s w a l l , b u t w e d o k now t h e s t ree t c o lonnade s w e re o n ly al i t t le l e s s h igh t h an t h e p or t ico , s o i tc ou ld o n ly b e s een when t h e P e r is ty le w a s r eached . E ven t hen , o n ly p a r t w a s v i s ib le , r e a ch ing o u tt owa rd i t s s u r round ings . T ho se w ho moun ted t h e s t ep s a nd w a lked i n s ide t h a tp or t ico , d u r ing s ome c e remony o r mo re c a sua l ly , c ame i n to c lose c on tac t w i th t he s c reen o f n i ches d e scr ibed a bove : w i th s t a tues , f oun ta ins , o r o the r e mbe l l i shmen t s . T he r i che s t d eco ra t ion w a s r e se rved f o r t h e d oo r ,a nd t h ei n te r io r .

t h e u n i ty o f t h is g roup , i n s tead d i s t ingu i sh ing a s ma l le r n umbe r o f t omb s t ha t mo s t c l o se ly r e semb le t h e P an theon f r om o the r t omb s w h ich h e t h inks h ad d if fe ren t d er iva t ions . He c oun t s t he Mau so leum a mong t h e " o the r s ." H e t h ink s t h e b u i lde r s mean t i tt o b e r e cogn ized a s at emp le t ype , a l though f unc t ion ing a s at omb . H e c i tes C e l t ic t emp les t ha t w e re o c tagona l w i th e x te r io r c o lonnade s , b u t i t i s q ues t ionab le h ow b road ly f am i l ia r t ha t t emp le t ype wou ld h ave b een . A s t i l l mo re d ra s t ic c ha l lenge h a s r e cen t ly b een made b y S re jov ie , who q ues t ion s w he the r a ny o f t h e T e t ra rchs h ad l a rge t omb s , o r t omb s c lo se t o t h e ir r e s idence s . I n a dd i t ion t o t h e r o tunda a t S a lona , a lways a d oub tfu l e xamp le , h e d oub t s t ha t e i the r t he Mau so leum o r t he s uppo sed Mauso leum o f Maxen t iu s o n t h e v i a A pp ia w e re t ombs ( S re jov ie 1 994 : 1 35 , 1 56 a nd p a ss im ) . T he c hange s t o i nhuma t ion a nd t o b u r ia l n ea r a r e s idence w ou ld t hen b o th b e Cons tan t in ian i nnova t ions . ( On b u r ia l n ea r r e s idence s , s ee Waur ick 1 973 . ) S o f a r , t he t r ad i t iona l a pp roach s eem s t o h ave mos t t o r ecommend i t , b u t t he n ew e v idence p romp t s c a re fu l c on s ide ra t ion o f t he r e la t ionsh ip b e tween s i te s o ft h e i n i t ia l r i te s a nd o f l a te r c ommemo ra t ion . 4 3 T h i s d iame te r d oe s n o t c rea te a n u nsua l ly c on s t r ic ted f l oo r s pace . T he s o -ca l led t omb o f G a l l ienu s h ad a n i n te r io r d iame te r o f c . 1 .2 m , t he s o -ca l led t omb o f Max im ian i n M i lan 1 4 .6 m , t h e t omb a tT o r d i S ch iav i 1 3 .7 m ( J ohn son 1 986 , 4 4 , 5 7 , 6 9 ) . O n ly t h e Mau so leum o n t h e v i a App ia , a nd t he R o tunda a tT he s sa lon ike , w h ich J ohn son a rgue s w a s n eve r i n tended a s at omb , h ave n o tab ly l a rge r i n te r io r s ( v ia App ia , 2 4 .04 , J ohnson 1 986 : 6 4 ; R o tunda , 2 4 .15 , P a s sue lo n . d . , 8 5 ) .

3 1

DECORAT ION I N CONTEXT

H igh a bove t h e o r ig ina l p o s i t ion o ft he p o r t ico r oof , t h e w a l ls e nd i n ac rown mo ld ing w i th o n ly t wo c a rved p a t te rn s , az i gzag a nd t he u b iqu i tou s a n them ion ( I I I .C .6 ) . T he m in ima l d eco ra t ion a cknow ledge st h ed i s tance f r om v i ewe r s ,r a the rt h an a t temp t ing t oc oun te ri t .

T he p od ium ( I I I .C .1) s t and s o n s eve ra l c ou r se s o fr ough s t one t h rough wh ich a d oo rway l e ad s i n to a n u nf in ished c ryp t . F in i shed s t one w o rk a nd d eco ra t ion b eg in a bove t h el e ve lo ft h e d oo r l i n te l . T he s imp le b a se mo ld ing r e semb le s t ho se o n t he p ede s ta l s a bove t h en or th g a te a nd t he p l in th sf ound i no rn ea r t he t emenos . I n c on t ra s t , t h e c o rn ice , u n l ike t ha t o n t he p od ium o ft h eT emp le o ppo s i te , i n c lude sc a rved p a t te rn s .

I n s ide t he b u i ld ing , r i ch d ecor d om ina te s t h e h igh , n a r row s pace . T he d eco ra t ion i se l abo ra te ly l a ye red i n h e igh t a nd d ep th . I ti n c lude s n i che s , t wo s upe r impo sed o rde r s , a nd a s epa ra te f r ieze . D e sp i te e x ten s ive r emode l ing a nd r e s to ra t ion , s ome o ft he n i che s a nd mo s t o f t he f r ieze s u rv ive . O r ig ina l p a r t s o f b o th i n te r io r o rde r s r ema in i n p lace . F ragmen t s o f e ve ry p a r t e xcep t t h e a r ch i t rave o ft he l owe r o rde rc an s t i l l b e f ound i nt h e t emeno s , o u t s ide t h e n o r th w a l l o ft h eP a lace , a nd i nt h el a p ida r ium b eh ind t h eA r chaeo log ica l Mu seum .4 5

N ine teen c o lumn s , s ome f r eed b y d emo l i t ion i n t h e 1 930 's , n ow s t and i nt h ep o r t ico a round t h ee x te r io r( 11 .C .2 ) . T he r i ch o u te re n tab la tu re c l o se ly r e semb le st h ee x te rna lc rown mo ld ing o f t h e t emeno s ( I I I .A .5 ) . H e re t he c a rver s h e igh tened c omp lex i ty i nt h ec o rona b y i n c lud ing h ead s a s w e l l a sf o l ia te mo t if s o n b o th c on so les a nd s off i t c of f e r s . T he e xecu t ion o f t h ea n them ion v a r ie sg rea t ly f r om o ne p lace t oa no the r . O nt h e s ou thea s t , i ti s o n ly l i gh t ly s ke tched o n o ne b lock , a nd c omp le te ly m i s s ing f r om t h en ex t . '4

A tf l oo rl e ve l , t h e re w e re o nce s even n i che s ( I l l .C .7 )t opped b y s imp le a r ch ivo l t s . T he e l abo ra te c onvex i mpo s t s c on t inue a l ong t he i n te rven ing w a l l s urfaces , c on t r ibu t ing t o t he u ndu la t ion o f s pace . T he i mpos t mo ld ing s c a r ry h o l low t o ngue sw i th c r e scen t s . A f te re ve ry t h ree r egu la rt o ngue sc ome t wo t h a tf r ame d ynam ic , a lmo s t " w indb lown " a can thu s l e ave s . B e tween t h e n i che s s t and t h ee i gh tc o lumn so ft h e l owe ro rde r ( I I I .C .8 ) , s uppo r t ing t h e r e ssau t s o f a n e n tab la tu re t h a t h a s a b u lky c onvex o ve r lapp ing l e a fp a t ter ni nt h ef r ieze . B eh ind t h e f r ee s tand ing c ap i ta l sa r ec ap i ta l s ( t hey n eve rh ad s ha f t so rb a se s ) s e ti n to t h ew a l l . T he u ppe ro rde r( E LLC .9 ) c on s is t so fp i la s te r s b eh ind c o lumn s u nde rr e ssau t s , a nd al i gh te r e n tab la tu re , w i th n oc on so le sa nd , mo s tu nusua l f o rt he P a lace , af i a tf r ieze .

T he f o l ia te a nd h uman mo t if s r e cu r red i n t h e c e i l ing o f t he p or t ico . T he b o s se so fi t sc of f e r s ( I I I .C .2 .d ) c on s i s to fr o se t te s a tt h e a ng le s , a nd b e tween t h em amed ley o f l e a f a nd f l o ra l d ev ice s , h uman h ead s , e ven ar am 's h ead o n o ne o ft h e s l ab s s t i l l i n p lace . A pa r t f r om t ho se b osse s , t h e i n te r io r o f t he p or t ico w a s p la in . I t s c of f e r s a r e l a rge r t han t ho se f r om t h e b u i ld ing si nt h eo ppo s i te t emeno s ,b u th ave f ewe rp a t te rn s , a nd mo re s moo th s u r f ace s . T he c of f e red s l abs r an b e tween t wo a r ch i t rave s ,o ne o ve rt h ec o lumns a nd as im i la ro ne s e ti n to t h e Mau so leum w a l l . Ab a se mo ld ing a l ong t h ew a l lc o r re sponded t ot h e s o c le sb e low t h ec o lumn s . Once , ac on sp icuou sp o r ch ( E L I .C .3 ) ma rked t h ea pp roach f r om t h e P e r i s ty le t ot h ec e l la d oo r . T he b u i lde r s o ft h e c ampan i le mu s th ave d e s t royed t h is p o rch i nt h et h i r teen th c en tu ry . I th a s b een r e cons t ruc ted a s t e t ra s ty le , b u t t h e re i su nce r ta in ty o ve r t he r oof ing . N iemann w an ted i tt o e cho t he p o rch o f t he r e s idence , b u t a pa r t f r om t e chn ica l c ons ide ra t ion s , ag ene ra l p o l icy o fd i f f e ren t ia t ing b u i ld ing ss eem s t o make t h a tu n l ike ly . T he d oo r ( I I I .C .4 ) s t i l l h a s mo s t o f i t s o r ig ina l j amb s a nd l i n te l : l e af p a t te rn s o n s ha rp ly c an ted mo ld ings f r ame a p u lv ina ted f r ieze d ense ly c ove red b y w i ld a n ima l p ro tome s c ha rg ing f r om al e af s c ro l l . A t t h e t op o fe i the r s i de a r e t wo f r on ta l h ead s ,o ne s e em ing ly r e carved d u r ing t h eM idd le Age s . H ead sa nd a n ima l ss t r ike n o te st ob er epea ted a nd d eve loped i n t h ef i gu ra l f r ieze ( I I .C .10 ) i n s ide t h e b u i ld ing . H un t ing i so ne o f t h e mo s t c ommon t h eme s i n i nhab i ted s c ro l l s , a nd t he se a n ima l p ro tome s ma in ta in t he c onnec t ion , emp loy ing g ame a n ima l s . T he a bb rev ia t ion i s made s o t h a t t h e h un t i t se lf c an a ppea ra s ac l imax i nt h ei n te r io r . T he c on so le s o ne i the rs i de o ft h ed oo r , a nd t h e c or n ice a bove i t ,d a te t ot h en i ne teen th c en tu ry . Af r agmen to ft h ec o rn ice i n t h e l a p ida r ium o f t h e A rchaeo log ica l Mu seum c onf i rm s t h e a ccu racy o f t h a t r e cons t ruc t ion . Appa ren t ly n o e v idence s u rv ive sf o rt h ec on so le s .

I n a n i ndependen t p o s i t ion b e low t h is e n tab la tu re i s af i gu ra l f r ieze . T h is u nu sua l f e a tu re c l ea r ly r e s ta te s t h e mo t if s o ft h e d oo r f r ame ( p lan t s , w i ld a n ima l s , h ead s ) w i th mo re s pec if ic r e f e rence t ot h ef unc t ion o ft h ei n te r io r . I nb o ld , c r ude o u t l ine s i tp re sen t s f ou r t h eme s , a l l i nvo lv ing e ro te s . T hey r a ce , h un t , h o ld g a r land su nde rm a sk s , a nd w rea th sa round t h eb u s t so ft h e p eop le who se c of f in s w e re t o l i e b e low . T he se s ub jec t s a r e s u rp r i s ing ly o ld -f a sh ioned , mode s t , a nd c omfo r t ing . T hey a r e a mong t h e mo s t c ommon i nf une ra ry a r t , b u t mo s tp opu la ro n s a rcophag i o fe a r l ie r g ene ra t ions . T hey make n o c l a im s f o r t h i s l i f e o r t h e n ex t t h a t h ad n o t b een p re sen ted r epea ted ly o n t h e monumen t s o f o rd ina ry R omans . Wha teve r r ea sons R oman s may h ave h ad f o ru s ing y oung w inged c h i ld ren i ns uch c on tex t s , t h ey c e r ta in ly l i gh ten t h e mood , p e rhap s l a ugh ing a t t h e r i go r s o f t h is w o r ld , p e rhaps p rom is ing a " chee r fu l , p layfu l" wo r ld t o c ome ( A l tenhöfe r a nd B o l 1 989 : 3 1 ; S chauenbu rg 1 995 : 5 7 ; s ee Append ix O ne ) . T he s ub jec t ma t te rm ake s n or e f e rence t oi mpe r ia la ch ievemen t o ra po theos i s . I ts e em s mo re a pp rop r ia te t o at omb t h an t oa t emp le d e s igned f o ri mpe r ia l c u l t . I tc e r ta in ly d oe s n o tb e long i n aT emp le o fJ up i te r . We re D ioc le t ian s ha r ing h ono r s h e re w i th J up i te r , w e m igh t e xpec t s o me a cknow ledgmen t o f t h e g od 's i nvo lvemen t w i th h i s p ro tégé , a l though t h e m i ss ing

4 5 0 n t he r emode l l ing , s ee H auser 1 883 a nd 1 890 . I van M imik h a s d i scu s sed m any o f t h e se p iece s ( 1990 : 1 6 19 ) . I n 1 993 I mapped t he p re sen t p os i t ion s o f a s many p i ece s a s Ic ou ld i d en t ify : s ee c a ta logue . S ome p iece s t ha t N iemann a nd H 6b ra rd s aw h ave v an ished . O the r s a r e d i s in teg ra t ing . O r ig ina l p i eces i n s i tu i nt h e i n te r io r h ave b een i den t if ied i n ad e ta i led p ub l ica t ion n ow i n p repa ra t ion .

S ince t h e se b locks a l so p rov ide a r a re c a se o f ac on so le d iv ided b e tween t wo b lock s , t h ey w e re p re sumab ly e xecu ted b y t h e s ame w o rkman . T hey p re sen t t h e c l ea re s t e xamp le o f i r regu la r i ty c aused b y p u t t ing u nf in ished b locks i n to p os i t ion , a nd n o t c on t inu ing t o w o rk t h em . Mo s t o f t he i r regu la r i t ie s c i ted i n t h is t e x t o ccu r o n f i n ished p iece s . 4 4

3 2

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNAMENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT c e i l ing m o sa ic d ep r ives t ha t n ega t ive a rgumen t o f much w e igh t .

T he f r on t s t ep s a nd p o rch h ave d i sappea red ,4 7 b u t t h e h eavy d eco ra t ion o f t h e d oo r ( I I I .D .8 ) s u rv ive s . T he s ma l l i n te r io r h a s w a l ls u ndeco ra ted u p t o ar i ch c rown mo ld ing ( I I I .D .9 ) u nde r ac of f e red v au l t( 1 1 .D .10 ) .

I I . D . T emp le o fJ up i te r ( f ig . 6 ) As i ng le w e l l -p re served b u i ld ing n ow s t and s i nw ha t w a s o nce t he w e s t e rn t emenos . T h i s b u i ld ing i sc er ta in ly at emp le . I t s a t t r ibu t ion t o J up i te r r ema in s p robab le , b u t u nce r ta in . T he d ocumen ta ry e v idence ( c i ted a bove , p .3 0 ) i su n sa t i sf a c to ry i n t ha t t h e r e f e rences t o aT emp le o f J up i te r e qua te i tw i th t h e C a thedr a l , o r w i th a n o c tagona l b u i ld ing , i . e . t h e C a thed ra l . T hey m ay a l l r e su l t f r om s imp le t e x tua l e r ro r . A dam o fP a r i s m igh th ave t hough tt h ee mpe ro r 's t omb w a s t h et emp le o fJ ove b ecau se h eh ad b een m is led b y t h ee p i the t " j ov iu s ," a pp l ied t o D ioc le t ian t oi nd ica te h i s r e la t ion sh ip t oJ ove ( s ee a bove , n . 3 9 ) . I fs o , T homa s a nd P rocu l iano p re sumab ly a dop ted t h e m is take , a nd w e h ave n o l i te ra ry e v idence f o r aT emp le o f J up i te r . S ince T homa s men t ioned t emp le s o f Ma r s a nd Aescu lap iu s , Adam a nd o the r s c a l led t h i s t h e T emp le o f Aescu lap ius . I n 1 989 T om is lav Ma ra sov id r ev ived P rocu l iano 's r e f e rence t o ar ec tangu la r t emp le o fJ anu s , a nd c ons ide r ed t h a t t he mos t p robab le d ed ica t ion ( 376 ) . T he re i s c er ta in ly a n a l lu s ion t oJ up i te ri nt h ed eco ra t ion , b u tt h e re a r e o the r a l lu s ion s a s w e l l . C amb i a ccu ra te ly c ha rac te r ized t h e d eco ra s" po ly the i s t ic " ( 1989 : 1 7 ) . T he b u i ld ing h a se l abo ra te a nd w ide rang ing o rnamen t . Ana ly s is o f i t s a l lu s ion s s hows t ha t t h e b u i lde r s w an ted t o g ive t h e b u i ld ing a s pec if ic c ha ra c te r , ac ha rac te rt h a tw ou ld n o tb eu n su i ted t o ad ed ica t ion t o J up i t e r . T ha t i s a s much a s t h e o rnamen t c an t e l l u s . J up i te r i st h e mos t o bv ious g od f o r D ioc le t ian t oh ono r , a nd t h i s i sl i k e ly t ob e h i s t emp le .4 6

E xcep t f o r t h e p o rch a nd t i le s t ha t o nce p ro tec ted t h e b a r re l v au l t , t h is b u i ld ing i s w e l l p reserved t hroughou t . I t s t r ansfo rma t ion i n to a b ap t is te ry d id n o t r equ i re s t ruc tu ra l c hange . R ecen t b u i ld ing s c ove r t h e n o r thwes t c or ne r a nd p a r t o ft h en o r th s i de . T he e xecu t ion ,p a r t icu la r ly o n t h ee x te r io r , s ome t ime s s hows a d e l icacy n o tf ound e l sewhe re , c omb ined w i th a tl e a s t a s much i r regu la r i ty . T h ree i r regu lar i t ie s , a l l o f k ind s p a ra l le led e l sewhe re , o ccu rj us t i nt h e c rown mo ld ing . T hey r ange f r om c a sua l t op rob lema t ic t oc a refu l ly p lanned . C a sua l ly , a tt h e b a ck o f t h e b u i ld ing , p a t te rns i n b o th f r ieze a nd c ave t to o n s ome s l abs a r el a ck ing o n o the r s . C a sua l ly o ri n ten t iona l ly , a t t h e f r on t , p a t ter n s d iv id ing t he f a sc iae o f t he a r ch i t rave d i sappea r when a c o rne r i st ur ned ( I I I .D .5 , n o t i nd ica ted i n C ha r t T h ree ) . C a lcu la t ion c er ta in ly c aused t he d i f fe rence b e tween t h eu ppe rp a r t so ft h ec rown mo ld ing u nde rt h er ak ing c o rn ice o ft h e b a ck ( Cha r t T h ree , c rown mo ld ing a )a nd t ho se a l ong t he s i de s , whe re t he mo ld ing s t ands a lone ( c rown mo ld ing b ) . I n t he i n te r io r , c of f e r f r ames c on ta in many v a r ia t ion s ,a nd h aphaza rd t r ea tmen to fc or ne r s . T he c rown mo ld ing c on ta ins o ne o f t h e f ew f r ieze s i n t h e P a la ce w i th f i gu re s : I tc on s is t s o f af o rma l s ucce ss ion o fl e a fy h ead s b e tween p a i red g r if f ins g ra sp ing c ra te r s . T he d oorway h a s m o re d eco ra t ion t h an t ha t o ft h e Mau so leum , a nd s t r ike s a d if e ren tt one . I t s f r ame i sa n e xube ran t c e leb ra t ion o fn a tu re . T h ree b and s , e ach d i f f e ren t , e ach u n ique i n t he P a lace , e cho e ach o the r i n t h e ir u se o f l ong s l ow ly r een t ran t c u rve s t o p rov ide f r ames f o r r ep resen ta t iona l e l emen t s , a nd i n t h e i r e mpha s i so nf r u i ta nd f l owe r .

T he T emp le i t se lf , a l though a s r i ch ly d eco ra ted a s t he Mau so leum , i ss ma l l a nd s imp le i nl a you t . I t so n ly s t r uc tu ra l o dd i ty , i t sv au l ted c e i l ing , t u rns i nwa rd . L ike t h e Mau so leum , i th a s a ni n te r io r a sr i ch a si t s e x te r io r , b u t i tmake s n o c l a im t o b e s e en f r om a d i s tance a nd i sc omp le te i n i t se lf , n o t r each ing o u tt ot h es u r round ing s pace . A s i n t h e Mauso leum , ap od ium ( I I I .D .1) c on ta ins a n u nf in ished , u ndeco ra ted c ryp t . H e re t h ec e l la o ccup ie st h ef u l l e x ten t o ft h a tp od ium . I t s w a l ls h ave p i la s te r s ( I I .D .2 ) a tt h e b ack c or ne r s ( one v i s ib le ) , a n tae ( I I I .D .3 ) a tt h e f r on tp o r ch , a b a se mo ld ing ( I I I .D .4 ) a nd a c rown mo ld ing ( I I I .D .5 ) . T he r ak ing c o rn ice o f t h e p i tched r oof s u rv ive s o n t h e Wes t ( 1 1 1 .D .6 ) , a nd t h e re i sd eco ra t ion i nt h e t ympanum ( I I I .D .7 ) .

'Two e igh teen th c en tury a u tho r s men t ioned a s t a tue o f J up i te r i nt h e C ape l lo Mu seum i n V en ice t h a t h ad c ome f r om S p l i t , a nd " qu i a va i t 6 t 6 a do rte o r ig ina iremen td an s l et emp le d u p a la i s d e D ioc l6 t ien " ( 1 46bra rd -Ze i l le r 1 04 -106 ) . Z e i l le r a rgue s i tc ame f r om t h is b u i ld ing , b ecause t h e Mau so leum h ad b een c l ean sed o f p agan monumen t s w hen i tb ecame a c a thed ra l , w h i le t h e T emp le d i d n o t , h e t hough t , b ecome a b ap t is te ry u n t i l t he f ou r teen th c en tury . Bu l ie , h oweve r , c i te s ad ocumen t o f 141 c a l l ing i t ac hu rch , a nd g ive s r e a son s f or t h ink ing i th ad b ecome o ne l ong b e fo re ( 1927 : 2 31; 1 929 : 1 6 1) , s o t h e s t a tue i sn o t l i ke ly t o h ave r ema ined h e re e i the r . T he a u tho r s a r e P ie t ro N ico l in i , c i ted i nF a r la t t i 1 751 , a nd a nd L o r enzo V i t te l le sch i , w ho se u npub l ished manu sc r ip t w a s u sed b y L anz a i nt h e g u ide h e p ub l ished i n 1 855 . Ih ave n o t s e en e i the r a ccoun t , b u t a ppa ren t ly n e i the r s pec if ie s w he re t h e s t a tue w a s i n S p l i t , o r w hen i tw a s r emoved t o V en ice . I tc ou ld h ave c ome f r om t h is b u i ld ing , o r f r om s omewhe re e l se i nt h e P a lace . I tc ou ld e ven h ave b e en f r om t he n o r th g a te .

C lo se s t t o t h e d oo r , av ine s c ro l l l oop s a round p u t t i t h a t , a ccompan ied b y d ogs a nd b i rd s , p luck g rapes t o f i l l b a ske t s . V a r iega ted b i rd s h ove r a mong t h e g rape s o ft he o u te rr i nceau . B e tween t he t wo s c ro l l s ap a t tern o f l i nked v o lu te s s p rou t s r o se t te s a nd o the r s ma l l f l owe r s . I n t h e p a t ter n c rown ing t h e c o rn ice b o th p a lme t te a nd l o tu s c u r l a nd f l owe r i nu nexpec ted w ay s , a nd t h e t i e s e nd i nr o se t te s . R ieg l p ra ise s t h e d eg ree t o wh ich t h e a nthem ion i nt h e P a lace e scape s f r om i m i ta t ion o f n a tu re ( s ee a bove , p . 4 ) . H e re i ta ch ieves i t s mo s t i n ten se e xp re s s ion o ft h ep owe ro fb loom w h i le d epa r t ing mo s tw i ld ly f r om d e scr ip t ion o fa ny a c tua l b loom . B e tween t h e d oo r f r ame a nd t he c yma o rnamen t t h e c on so le s i n te r jec tn o te s o fg rav i ty , l a y ing o u t t h e s t ruc tu re t h a t s u s ta in s a l l t h i s b oun ty ( con s ide red i n mo r e d e ta i l b e low a sp a r t o ft h e c o rn ice , I I .D .8 .e .) . V ic tor ies ma rk t he a ng le c onso les . B e tween t h em c ome f ou r r e f e rence s t oe a r th , a nd f ou r t ot h e p owe r s t ha t r u le i t . A p rog re ss ion o f m ixed c rea tu re s a nd d e i t ie sb a lance v io len ta nd b enevo len ta spec t s o ft h e e a r th a nd 4 7 T he re i sl e s s e v idence f o r t h is p o rch t han f o r t h e o ne o n t h e Mau so leum , a nd i th a s p rovoked l e s s d i scus s ion , a l though t h e re i s u nce r ta in ty a bou t d e ta i l s . I ti su sua l ly r e s to red a s t e t ra s ty le w i th t wo c o lumn s b e tween t h e c or ne r c o lumn s a nd t he a n tae , N iemann : 8 0 -86 , p l . XV I -XV I I I , f i g s . 1 02 -110 ; 1 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r 1 912 : p l . X I I I ; S t ra t im irov ie 1 9 13 : 1 77 ; Ma ra sov ie 1 968 : f i g s . 3 3 a nd 3 4 .

3 3

DECORAT ION I N CONTEXT t h eg od s . B enevo lence c ome si nt h et wo l e afy h ead s ,t h rea tened c hao s i nt wo w r igg l ing g i an t s . T hen d iv ine f o r ce s a l te rna te : b enevo len tS o l , s t r iv ing H e rcu le s , a n e ag le w i th t hunde rbo l t s , a nd a c a lm J up i ter . T he i magery e choe s t ha t o f many T e t ra r ch ic monumen t s a nd p ronouncemen t s . H e re , h oweve r , i t r e f e r s n o tt o as pec if ic T e t ra r chy b u tt ot h ee t e rna lv e r i t ie s t h a t s u s ta ined t h es y s tem .

w i th c a rved or namen t f ound n ea rby p robab ly b e long t ot h i s b u i ld ing . Two s l ab s h ave c of f e r s s im i la rt o , b u t s imp le r t h an t ho se i n s ide t h e T emp le . As hor t f r agmen to f ac onvex f r ieze s hows a n ima l p ro tome s e me rg ing f r om l e a f y s c ro l l s l i ke t h o se o n t he f r ieze a r ound t h e Mau so leum d oo r , b u t w i th s t i l l mo re l uxu r ian tv ege ta t ion . I t s w i ldne ss e choe st h e Mauso leum , a nd c on t ra s t s w i th t h e mo re f o rma l o r p eace fu l f i gu re s o n t h e T emp le .

D IE .R ound b u i ld ing s I V .

S tree ts

B eh ind e a ch o ft h el a nd g a te s ac our t( IV .A )o pen s i n to o ne o f t h ec ro s s s t ree t s . C on f igu ra t ions t ot h er i gh t a nd l e f t , r e f e r red t o a s t e t rapy la , f o rm t h e i n te r sec t ion b e tween t h e s i de s t ree t s a nd t he p o r che s a l ong t h e ma in s t ree t s ( IV .B ) . T he m a jo r s t ree t s , t h e d ecumanu s ( IV .C ) a nd t he c a rdo ( IV .D ) m e t a ta c ro s s ing m a rked b yp i l la r s( IV .E ) . S econd a r ys t ree t sr an a r ound t h e p e r ime te r o ft h e n o r th h a lf o ft he P a la ce ( IV .F ) . C a rve r s u sed av a r ie ty o f mo ld ing s ,r ang ing f r om t h ef u l l e n tab la tu re o f t he d ecumanu s t os imp le f a sc iae , t oa ccen ta nd t ol i nk . T hey d id n o tc a rve p a t te rn s , e xcep ti nt he i mpo r t ed c ap i ta l sa l ong t h e ma jo rs t ree t s ( IV .C ; I V .E ) .

J e rko Ma r a sov ie d i scove red t wo s ma l l ,c en t ra l ized b u i ld ing si n t h is t emeno s (Ma ra sov id - Ma r a sov ic ' : 1 9-20 , f i g . 3 6 ; T . Ma ra sov ie 1 982 : 1 21-122 ) . E ach h a s a n e x te rna l d iame te ro f 9 . 25 m (W i lke s 1 993 : 5 5 ) . T he i r e x te r io r s w ou ld h ave b een s ma l le r , b u t n o t ma rked ly s ma l le r , t h an t ha t o f t h e T emp le . N o d e ta i l sa bou tt h ef ounda t ions h ave b een p ub l i shed , b u tt h ey s eem t oa l low t he r e s to ra t ion o fo ne b u i ld ing a sc i rcu la r , t h e o the r a sp o lygona l . O n t h e e v idence o fP rocu l iano ( above , p . 3 0 ) , t h ey h ave b een c a l led t h e T emp le s o fC ybe le a nd V enu s , b u t l i t t le s uppor t s t h is i d en t if ica t ion . T hey a r e s ma l le r t h an mos t o ft h e s urv iv ing c i r cu la rt ho lo i o r monop te ro i . I n 1 991 , Duva l s ugge s ted t ha t t h ey m igh t b e n ymphaea , t r opaea , o r t ombs ( 380 ) . T he l a t te r s ugge s t ion r ece ives s ome s uppo r t f r om t h e f i nd s a t Gamz ig rad . I n b ot h s i ze a nd s hape t h e se b u i ld ing s r e semb le t he c en t ra l ized p e r ip te ra l s t ruc tu re c a l led Mau so leum 2 ,a nd i den t if ied a s t h e t omb o fG a le r ius . I tw a s s l igh t ly l a rge r , w i th at o ta l d i ame te ro fc .1 0 .30 m , a nd ac e l la d iame te ro f4 . 56 m ( S re jov ie a nd V a s ie 1 994b : 8 9 -101) . Two t omb s a tt h i sp o s i t ion i nt h eP a lace , i na dd i t ion t o at omb o ra t l e a s t ac en te r o f f une ra ry c u l t i n t he Mau so leum , s eem u n l ike ly .4 8 Manne l l t h ink s t he p od ia s uppo r ted c o lumns a round s t a tue s( s ee R eg is te r ) . T om is lav Ma ra sov id n ow e choe s Wi lke s 'e a r l ie rb road f o rmu la t ion , s ugge s t ing t h a tt h eb u i ld ing s w e re s h r ine s( c onve r sa t ion ,O c tobe r 1 995 ) .

I V .A .G a te c ou r t s Wha t s u rv ive s o ft h e e a s t c ou r td oe s n o tg i ve a ny e v idence o f i t s o r ig ina l a r t icu la t ion . B o th w es t a nd n o r th c ou r t s a r e w e l l p rese rved . B o th h ave a c rown mo ld ing , a n i n te rmed ia te mo ld ing o rs t r ing c ou r se , a nd a r ch ivo l t s o ve r t he t wo a r ched g a teway s . T he e x ten to ft h e mo ld ing sd if e r sf r om g a te t og a te . W.B .T e t rapy la T he re w e re a n tae o nt h es t ree ts i de so ft h ec ou r tya rd w a l l s ,a nd a rches l e ad ing t o p i l la r s a t t he b eg inn ing o f t he s t ree t s . P robab ly t h e re w a s a lway s as econd a r ch o np i l la r s o ra n tae a t t h ee n t rance t ot h e s e conda ry s t ree t s , t h ew ho le g roup o fa r che s a nd s uppo r t s f o rm ing as imp le t e t rapy lon ( Hdb ra rd -Z e i l le rf i g . 7 3 , p .5 6 s how s ar e con s t ruc t ion ) . P a r t s o ft h e c o rne r a n tae s u rv ive o n a l l t h ree c ou r tya rd s . P a r t s o f t h e t wo o ppo s ing p i l la r s s u rv ive b y t h e e a s tg a te , o fo ne p i l la rb y t he n o r th g a te , a nd ap a r t ia lp i l la rb yt h ew e s tg a te . O n ly o ne a r ch s u rv ive s , a t t h en or th s i de o ft h ew e s tg a te .

O n ly t h ef ounda t ions o ft h e n or the rn b u i ld ing s u rv ive . Ap aw c a rved f r om l ime s tone ,i d en t if ied a s al i on 's p aw ( po s s ib ly f r om as ph inx? ) , i s s a id t o h ave b een f ound h e re . I th a s b een p ho tog raphed b u t r ema in s u npub l ished . P a r t o f t he e l egan t b a se mo ld ing o f t he s ou the rn b u i ld ing s t i l l s t and s . B lock s 4 8 0 n t he b as is o f t he Gamz ig rad f i nd s , t wo r ad ica l r e in te rp re ta t ion s o f t he b u i ld ing s a tt h e P a lace m igh t b e p ropo sed . One p ropo sa l w ou ld a s sume , a s S re jov i6 s eems t o d o ( Sre jov i6 a nd V a s ie 1 994b : 1 56 ) , t h a t t h e p lace o f b u r ia l w ou ld h ave b een w e l l a way f r om t h e c omp lex . T he Mau so leum , w i th i t s u ndoub ted ly f une ra ry f r ieze , wou ld t h en b e t he t emp le o f t he d e if ied empe ro r . T he re w ou ld b e l i t t le b a s i s f o r i den t ify ing t he b u i ld ing s i n t h e o ppos ing t emenos , b u t many a ccep tab le p o ss ib i l i t ie s . T he f r ieze ( s ee A ppend ix One ) s eem s t oo mode s t f o r t ha t i n te rp re ta t ion . I t wou ld a l so r equ ire a no the r e xp lana t ion o f t he f r agmen t t ha t l ook s l i ke t h e c o rne r o f as a rcophagu s l i d . A s econd r e in terp re ta t ion w ou ld c on f la te e l emen t s k ep t s epa ra te a t Gamz ig rad . T ha t w ou ld b e i n k eep ing w i th t he g ene ra l t endency a t S p l i t t o p ush d i spa ra te u n i t s t oge the r . At e t rapy lon , s uch a s S re jov i6 c on s ide r s e s sen t ia l , c ou ld h ave b een p lanned f o r t h e c ros s ing a rea ( s ee b e low , I V .E .2 ) . I t wou ld l e ad t ot wo s ma l l g rave s i no ne t emeno s a nd t h e t emp le o f t he i mpe r ia l c u l t i n t he o ppo s ing t emeno s . T he f unc t ion o f t h e " Temp le o fJ up i te r " wou ld b eu nc lea r . T he f une ra ry e mpha s is w ou ld b e i n ten se . T h is " so lu t ion " r a ise s mo re q ues t ion s t h an i ta n swe r s . A t h i rd r e in te rpre ta t ion i d en t ify ing t he t wo s ma l l b u i ld ing s a s t omb s ( o f D ioc le t ian a nd P r isca? ) , t he T emp le o f J up i te r a s t h e T emp le o ft h e d e if ied empe ro r , a nd t h e Mauso leum a st h eT emp le o f J up i te r h a s as educ t ive i n ter na l c ons is tency . I t i s u n l ike ly o n s eve ra l g rounds , a nd i s r u led o u t b y t he f r ieze i n s ide t he Mauso leum .

I V .C .D ecumanu s O f t he s i x ty o r ig ina l c o lumn s , t wo a nd ab roken s ha f t h ave b een r e e r ec ted . As t re tch o fe n tab la tu re s u rv ives b u i l ti n to t h e w a l l o f ac hape l s ou thea s t o ft he c en t ra l c r o ss ing . Mo re l a rge b lock s , r e cove red d u r ing c l ea rance o f t h e a r ea i n t h e 1 920 's , n ow l i e i nt h e t emeno s a nd o n i t s w a l l . T hey r e semb le t h e s imp l if ied f o rm t a ken b y t h eP e r is ty le c r own mo ld ing w he re i t t u rn s s ou th a r ound t h ee nd p i l la r , a nd t h ee n tab la tu re o ft h e s e a f a cade . T he c o lumn c ap i ta l s c on t ra s tw i th t h is a u s te r i ty . T hey a re o f P roconne s ian ma rb le , u sed f o r c ap i ta l s o n ly h e re a nd ( p robab ly ) i nt h e u ppe ro rde ro ft he Mau so leum . I ts e em s t h a t s ma l le rc ap i ta l sw e re i mpo r ted , l a rge ro ne sm ade o ns i t e ,s ot h e d e te rm inan tw a sp rac t ica l i ty r a the rt han i mpo r tance o fp o s i t ion . P o rche s ( IV .C .3 ) r an a l ong t he s i de s o f t he c a rdo a nd d ecumanu s , b e tween t h e t e t rapy la ( IV .B ) a nd t he c en t ra l c ross ing . T he i r w a l ls s u rv ive o n ly i n s ma l l s t re tches a t f ounda t ion l e ve l ,g i v ing n oi n d ica t ion o ft h e i ro r ig ina ls u r f ace s , o rt he i rr oof ing . A rch i t rave s f a ced i no ve rt h ec o lumn s . N o r th o ft h e c en t ra l c r o ss ing , t h e p o rches i n te r se c ted b eh ind p i l la r s . On t h e s ou th , t h ey t e rm ina ted i n a r chways c onnec t ing t h e

3 4

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNA MENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT p i l la r s o ft h e P e r is ty le t ot he p i l la r s o ft he c ro s s ing . On t h e P e r i s ty le p i l la r( I LLA .1 ) , t h ea s t raga lo ft h ea n ta s ha f tc on t inue s a c ro s st h ep i l la rt ot he p o in t whe re aw a l l a bu t si to nt h e n o r th . T ha t w a l l c a r r ies a s imp le c rown mo ld ing a bove t he u nde co ra t ed a r chway .° On t he n o r th f a ce o ft h ep i l la r ,t h e re i s as e cond mo ld ing b e low t h ec rown .

V . The s ou theastern a nd r es idence

t emenos , w a l l ,

I n t h e s ou thea s te rn q ua r te r o f t h e c omp lex , t h e r e s iden t ia l b lock , t he Mau so leum t emeno s , t h e d ecumanu s a nd t he p e r ime te r w a l l s u r round a n L shaped a r ea . I n i t , ac ou r tya rd w i th mo sa ic p avemen t s , as ma l l t r a ce o f as econd mo sa ic a ta d i f f e ren tl e ve l ,a nd p a r to f ab a th h ave b een e xcava ted ,s epa ra ted b y u nexp lo red s pa ce s . No a r ch i te c tu ra ld eco ra t ion r ema ined i n p o s i t ion , b u ts ome o ft he n ume rou sp i ece s f ound n ea rt h e b a th p robab ly b e longed t oi t . Ap robe c u tt h rough t h e mode rn s t ree t e a s to ft h eb a th u ncove red t h ree R oman b l ock s ,o ne p o s s ib ly i n s i tu , a nd t he o the r s , b o th c o lumn b a se s , r eu sed i n h ouse f ounda t ion s ( McNa l ly , Ma ra sov ie a nd Ma ra sov id 1 976 : 6 0 , f i g . 2 8 , p l . 2 8 b ) .

I V .D . C a rdo A lmo s t n o t r a ce o f t he n o r th -sou th s t ree t s urv ives . J e rko Ma r a sov i e r epo r t s t ha t " . . as t y loba te a nd r ema in so fc o lumn b a se s a l so w e re u ncove red . . ." n ea r t he P apa l ie p a lace , t he p re sen t Mu seum o ft he C i ty o fS p l i t ( t ha t i s , p robab ly r ough ly h a lf w ay a l ong t he c a rdo o n t h e w e s t s i de ) , a nd t ha t t he se r ema in s c on f i rm t he c o lumn s pa c ing t ha t h ad b een p rev iou s ly a s sumed ( Ma ra sov ie 1 989 : 2 25 ) . T om is lav Ma rasov ie m en t ions " t race so fc o lumns" ( 1989 : 3 75 ) . C o lumn sa l ong t h e s t ree t s d o n o t a ppea r o n t he mos t r ecen t ly p ub l ished p lan ( Ma ra sov ie a nd Ma ra sov ie 1 994 : f i g . 2 ) .

V .A .B a th

I V .E .C ro s s ing a r ea T he c r o s s ing a ppea r st oh ave b een as imp le o pen a r ea , w i thou t e mbe l l ishmen t . A t e ach c orne r s t ood a n L shaped p i l la r . I t s a r t icu la t ion f a ced t he s t ree t s r a the r t han t he c ro s s ing i t se lf . P a r t s o ft h e p i l la r s a tt h e s ou thea s t a nd w e s t r ema in i n l a te r b u i ld ing s , a nd N iemann u sed t h em i nd raw ing a nd mak ing a mode lo ft h ea r ea . S ome d e ta i l s o fh i sr e con s t ruc t ion mus t b e c hanged b ecau se o f t he d i scove ry , s hor t ly a f te r t h e S econd Wo r ld Wa r ,o f at h i rd p i l la ro nt h en o r thea s t . I ti ss ma l le rt han t h et wo a tt h es ou th ,a nd s haped d i f f e ren t ly b ecau se i ts e rved a s t h ee nd o ft wo s t ra igh te n tab la tu re s , r a the rt han a n e n tab la tu re a nd a na r ch a sa tt h es ou th ( N iemann 7 9 ,p l . XV : mode l : B u l ie 1 929 : f i g . 3 8 , n ow i nc hape l a tc ro s s ing ) . P ub l i shed p lan s o f t h e w ho le P a lace a re t oo sma l l i n s ca le t o s how t h e se p ie r s c l ea r ly , b u tG ab r ieev id ' sp lan s how s t h er e la t ive s i ze s ( 19616 2 : f i g . 4 ;a l so W i lke s 1 993 : f i g . 5 ) .

N ea r t h e r ema in s o ft h e w e s te rn b a th , s ubs tan t ia l e n tab la tu re b lock s , p robab ly b e long ing t o t h a t b a th , w e re b u i l t i n to a m ed ieva l w a l l ( M i mik 1 990 : p l . 5 7 a nd F ron t i sp iece ; McNa l ly 1 994 : 14 ) . N iemann h ad f ound ab l ock , n ow i nt h e t emeno s o f t h e Mauso leum , t ha t r e semb le s t wo o f t h e se . A f i ne ly d e ta i led a n ta c ap i ta l l a y a tt h ei n t e r sec t ion o ft h eb a s in a nd t h e h o t r oom (M im ik p l . 1 3 ; McNa l ly 1 994 : f i g . 6 ) . M im ik b e l ieve s ama rb le f r agmen tf ound n ea rby may h ave b e longed t o ap a rape ti n s ide t h eb a th ( 19 -20 ) . V .B . Mo sa ic c ou r tya rd B e tween t he e a s te rn b a th a nd t h e e a s t g a te l i e s ac our tya rd s u r rounded b y mo sa ics . As t y loba te s u rv ive s , b u t n o p o s s ib le s haf t s o rc ap i ta ls r e la ted t oi th ave s o f a r b een i d en t if ied ( f o r p o s s ib i l i t ie s , s e e n o te 2 2 ) . V I . S outhwes tern a rea b e tween t emenos , wa l l , a nd r es idence I nt h ec o r respond ing L -shaped a r ea o nt h es ou thwe s t ,e x ten s ive r ema in s o f as e cond b a th h ave b een u ncove red . I t s f u l l e x ten t i sn o t y e t k nown . T he f ounda t ion s c on ta ined f r agmen t s o f mo sa ic a nd o pu ss e c t i le , b u tn ot r a ce o fc a rved d eco ra t ion . T he b a th h a s as ma l le r , mo re c omp lex p l an t han t h e e a s te rn b a th , a nd may h ave b een embe l l ished l e s s w i th c a rv ing t h an w i th mo sa ic .

S o f a r a s w e c an t e l l , t he p i l la r s s e rved t o c onc lude t he s i de c o lonnade s r a the r t han t o embe l l i sh t h e c ros s ing i t se lf i na ny w ay . F rom t ime t ot ime t h e refo re , t h ep o s s ib i l i ty o fa dd i t iona l c on s t ruc t ion h a sb een d i scu ssed ,a nd t wo s cho la r sh ave r e cen t ly a dvo ca ted i t . J e rko Ma ra sov ie u ncove red f ounda t ion s t ha t h e , G ab r ieev id a nd W i lke s , i n te rp re ta su sed i nl a y ing o u tt h e p lan

u r i é

o f t h e P a lace . S ande r s a nd s ugge s t t h ey w e re r a the r f ounda t ion sf o r ac en t ra lt e t rapy lon ,p os s ib ly n eve rb u i l t . S uch as t ruc tu re w ou ld i n te r rup tt he v i ew , a nd p hys ica lp rog re s s ion , f r om t h e s t ree t s i n to t h e s ac ra l a r ea s . I t wou ld i s o la te t h em mo re s ha rp ly f r om t he r e ma inde r o f t he P a lace . T he a r chaeo log ica l e v idence f o r at e t rapy lon d oes n o t s e em s t rong ( Ma r a sov ie a nd Ma ra sov ie 1 961-62 : 3 2 ; Ma ra sovi Ma r a sov id 3 2 , f i g . 2 7 ; G ab r ieev ie 1 961-62 ; Dyggve 1 961-61 ; Wi lkes 1 993 : f i g . 5 p . 4 0 ; S anders 1 989 : 2 7 ;

V II . Nor thea s tern a rea I nt h en o r thea s ter nq ua r te ro ft h eP a la ce , n o mo ld ing so rc a rved p a t ter n s h ave b een f ound . Mo sa ic f l oo r s a r e a t te s ted i nt wo p l a ce s . B o th a r e s imp le , a nd n eed n o t s ugge s t af o rma l u se f o r t h es pa ce s . 5° V I II . N or thwes tern a rea

u r e i d 1 993 : 6 8 ; f u l le r d i scuss ion i nR eg is te r .

F ive p i e r s t ha to nce r an a l ong o ne s i de o ft h ec en t ra l s pace ( a n o pen c ou r t? ) s u rv ive w i th amo ld ing a bove t h em . T he w e s ter n f a ce o f t wo p ie r s a nd mo ld ing n ow f r ame a R ena is sance f oun ta in ( F iskov ie f i g . 9 4 , p . 8 8 ) F ur the r n o r th , t h e e a s te rn f a ce o ft h es ucceed ing p i e r s a nd t h e mo ld ing a bove t h em c an b e

I V .F . S ide s t ree t s T he s imp l ic i ty o f t he s i de s t ree t s s hows t h e i r u t i l i ta r ian p u rpo se . T h ree s u rv iv ing p ie r s a l ong t h ep re sen tJ u l iu s N epo s s t ree t c a r ry a n a r cade , w i th n o d eco ra t ion e xcep t t h e s imp le r a k ing f i l le to nt op o ft h ep ie r .

4 9 N iemann : f i g s . 6 1 , 9 1 ; c f . B u l ie 1 927 , 1 929 : Ma ra sov ie : p l . 5 0 .

a rea b etween

"N iemann f ound a mo sa ic w i th a p a t ter n o f i n te r lock ing c i r c le s n ea r t h e p re sen t c hu rch o f S t . P h i l ip ( N iemann : 8 6 -9 , f i g s . 13 -115 ; B u l ie 1 927 , 1 929 : f i g . 6 7 ) . As t re tch o f w h i te mo sa ic o f " ve ry mode s t w o rkman sh ip " w a s d i scove red r e cen t ly u nde r t h e C i ty Museum : ( Ma ra sov ie 1 989 : 2 25 ) .

f i g . 2 7 ,

3 5

DECORAT ION I N CONTEXT s een b u i l t i n to h ou se s . T he p ie r s h ave s imp le r ak ing f i l le t , n o b a se mo ld ing . Above t h em ab u lky c yma r e c ta a nd f i l le tf o rm t h e s t r ing c ou r se b e tween t h e s t one l owe r w a l l a nd t h e b r ick u ppe rs t o ry . I ti st h es ame o n b o th s i de so ft h e w a l l .

T he o the r t h i rd c en tu ry g a teway a t M i le tus b ea r s mo re r e semb lance st oS p l i t , s pec if ica l ly t ot h ep o rch o ft h e v e s t ibu le ( I I .C ) . T he d oo r w a l l s t h em se lves d i f f e r . A t M i le tu s , p i la s te r s a nd a f r ieze f r ame t h ree d oor s , wh ich h ave u npa t terned mo ld ing s . B o th p o rche s o n t h e o the rh and h ave f ou r c o lumn s s uppo r t ing at r ue a r cua ted l i n te l w i th ap ed imen t a bove i t( c f . K le ine r 1 968 : 6 4 -65 ) . A t M i le tus , t h e a r ch i t rave , f r ieze a nd c o rn ice o ft h e e n tab la tu re a r e o n t h ree s epa ra te b lock s , a st h ey u sua l ly a r e a tS p l i t . ( Th i s p o rch i se xcep t iona l i nh av ing t h e f r ieze a nd a r ch i t rave c a rved f r om o ne b l ock . )

T he s imp l ic i ty o ft h i s mo ld ing , s im i la r t ot h e c rown mo ld ing o f t he e x te r io r w a l l , s uppo r t s t h e u sua l i n te rp re ta t ion o ft h i s h a lf o f t h e P a lace a s u t i l i ta r ian , i nc on t ra s t t o s ou the rn a r ea s w i th e l abo ra te d eco ra t ion . CO MPARANDA

T he e n tab la tu re c on s i s t so f : f a sc ia ,c ab le ,f a sc ia ,b ead a nd r e e l ,f a sc ia b ead a nd r e e l , e gg a nd d a r t , a n them ion .

Many o ft h ei d io sync ra s ie s o ft h i sa r ch i tec tu re p rov ide l i nk st o w e s te rn A na to l ia , e spec ia l ly t oM i le tu s , P e rge a nd S ide . Two w e l l -pub l i shed b u i ld ing s o fT e t ra rch ic d a te a tM i le tus p rov ide a lmos t t h e o n ly o ppor tun i ty t o c ompa re who le s ys tem s o f d eco ra t ion i nc on tex t . B o th s how s ome b road s im i la r i t ie s w i th t h e P a lace a tS p l i t i n t h e u se o f a r ch a nd c o lumn , a nd af ew d ecora t ive d e ta i ls . T hey a l so h ave ma rked d if f e rence s i n c ompo s i t ion . T hey a r et h e n ew g a teways f o rt h e S tad ium , a nd f o rt h eN o r thea s te rn a r ea .

s t rong ly c onvex f r ieze w i th r i nceau ,b ead a nd r ee l ,e gg a nd d a r t ,f i l le t . d en t i l s ,e gg a nd d a r t ,t a en ia ,a can thus l e a fr ow , h o l low t o ngue ,u ndeco ra ted l e sb ian c yma mo ld ing , b ead a nd r e e l , a n them ion ( f i l le t? ) . T he r ak ing c o rn ice d up l ica te st he c o rn ice o ft h ea r cua ted l i n te l . N e i the r h a s c on so le s ( Knackfuss 1 924 : f i gs . 2 52 , 2 54 , 2 55 , 2 60 -263 ; K ö s te r 1 986 : 1 61-162 , p l . 1 8 , 2 ; 1 9 , 1 2 ) .

T he f o rme rb ea r s s ome r e semb lance t ot h ec o lonnade sf r on t ing e ach t emeno s a tS p l i t , i n t ha t i tc on s i s t s o fr ow s o fc o lumn s o np ede s ta ls ( e igh ta tM i le tu s , s i xa tS p l i t ) t h a ts uppo r ta r che s i n al ow s t re tch o fw a l l u nde r ac rown mo ld ing . A tM i le tu s , a s t ra igh t e n tab la tu re r e s t s d i rec t ly o n t h e c o lumns : i tc on t inue s o ve rs ome i n te rco lumn ia t ion s ,a nd d i sappea r sf r om o the r s . T he a r che s b eg in a bove i t ,a nd c u ta c ro s st h ec rown mo ld ing . B o th t h eb reak si nt h ea r ch i t rave a nd t h eo ve r lapp ing c rea te p owe r f u l b a roque e f f ec t s . A t S p l i t , e l im ina t ion o ft h e e n tab la tu re a nd s epa ra t ion o f a rch f r om c rown mo ld ing c rea te a mo re c on t inuou s p lane . T h is e xp resse s t he f unc t ion o f t h e se c o lonnade s , a nd a l so make s t hem s ubo rd ina te i n c omp lex i ty b o th t o t h e b u i ld ing s b eh ind t h em , a nd t o t h e p o rch a tt h e i r s ou the rn e nd .T he d eco ra t ion a tM i le tu sc on s i s t s o f : e n tab la tu re : f a sc ia , f a sc ia , f a sc ia , ab ead a nd r e e l , e gg a nd d a r t , d en t i l , l e af a nd d a r t , r unn ing d og , a n them ion ( a l te rna t ing p a lme t te s? )f i l le t . a r ch mo ld ing : f a sc ia , c ab le , f a sc ia , b ead a nd r e e l , l e a f a nd d a r t ,f i l le t .

O nce a ga in , t h e or namen t i ss p read mo re e ven ly t h an a tS p l i t . T he c onvex f r ieze p rov ide s a n o bv iou s p a ra l le l , b u t n o t i t s d eco ra t ion w i th ar i nceau . T he s c ro l l i t se lf d if e r s f r om t ho se f ound o n t h e d oo r s a tS pl i t , b e ing mo re t i gh t ly o rgan ized i n to meda l l ion s f i l led w i th f l owe r s . A t S p l i t , o n ly e xcep t iona l f r ieze s a r et opped b y t wo p a t te rned mo ld ing s : o n d oo rj amb s , a nd i nt h eo ne e n tab la tu re w i th af l a tf r ieze . T he s off i t s o ft h e e n tab la tu re s a tb o th S p l i t a nd Mi le tu s a r e d eco ra ted w i th l e a f p a t te rn s , a l though n o t t h es ame o nes . An umbe ro fo ve r lapp ing f e a tu re s , i . e . f i r s t , ab a s ic i n te re s t i n p o ss ib i l i t ie s o fc omb in ing c o lumns , a r che s , e n tab la tu res , a nd o the r mo ld ing s , t h en s pec if ica l ly t he c u rved f r ieze a nd t h e c u rved c of e r s ,a l l s ugges tt h a t wo rkmen a tM i le tus a nd a tS p l i t p a r t ic ipa ted i n as i ng le c ommun i ty o fi d ea s c i r cu la t ing i nl a te t h i rd c en tu ry A na to l ia ,b u tp robab ly h ad n od i re c tc on tac t . B u i ld ing sa tP e rge a nd S ide h ave b een r e s to red w i th v e r s ion so f a r cua ted l i n te l s . B o th h ave b een c on s ide red T e t ra rch ic , b u ta r e u sua l ly t h ough tt ob ec on s ide rab ly e a r l ie r ,p e rhap sf r om t h ee nd o f t h e s e cond o r t h e b eg inn ing o f t h e t h i rd c en tury . On ly f r agmen t sr ema in , a nd t h er e cons t ruc t ion sa r en o ta sd e ta i led a s t ho se a tM i le t t i s . T he se b u i ld ings s ha re mo re mo t if s w i th S p l i t : n o tab ly u se o fc on so le s ,a nd e l abo ra te a nd v a r ied p a t ter n s i nc on so le c of f e r s , b u ts eem t os how t h es ame b a s ic d if e rence i n c ompo s i t ion t ha t M i le tu s d oe s , a n e ven d i s t r ibu t ion o f p a t te rn sw i thou t ma jo ra ccen t s .

c rown mo ld ing : f a sc ia , f a sc ia , b ead a nd r ee l , e gg a nd d a r t , f i l le t . T h is s ys tem s p read s t he p a t te rn s mo re e ven ly among t h e mo ld ing s t h an i sd one i nt h e t emeno s c o lonnades , o r i nS p l i t g ene ra l ly . T he a r ch mo ld ing a tM i le tu s i sn o tu n l ike t h el owe r p a r to ft h ep o rch a nd v e s t ibu le d oo r s a tS p l i t , b u tt he l a t te ra r e s u rmoun ted b y c on so le s a nd a c yma r e c ta . On t he t emeno s c o lonnade s , t h e c rown mo ld ing d om ina te s t he a rche s . I th a s a l l t h ree p a r t so f ac anon ica l e n tab la tu re , w h i le t he e n tab la tu re a tM i le tu sl a ck s af r ieze ,p re sumab ly t ok eep i tf r om b e ing t o o s t rong i n c ompa r ison t o t h e a r ch mo ld ing a nd t he c rown mo ld ing , b o th o f wh ich r e semb le a r ch i t rave s ( von G e rkan 1 921 : 3 2 -37 , p l . I V , V ) .

T he p o r ch i n s ide t h e c i ty g a te a tP e rge i sr e s to red a sh av ing a s imp le a r cua ted p ed imen t , s l igh t ly s ma l le r t han t h e p o rch o f t he r e s idence a tS p l i t ( Man se l 1 975 : 6 3 , r e con s t ruc t ion f i g . 2 5 , f r agmen t s o f or namen t f i g s . 2 3 , 2 4 ) . T he e n tab la tu re h ad t h ree f a sc ia s epa ra ted b yr e cu r r ing b ead a nd r e e l ,t h en t opped b y e gg a nd d a r t b efo re a f r ieze w i th s ma l l r i nceau , a nd ah eavy c o rn ice t h a t a ppea r s i n t h e p ho tog raph t o h ave b een b a re . C a rve r sc r ea ted as ucce s s ion o fd e l ica te , s ma l lp a t ter n s t ha ta r e a lmo s te qua l ly w e igh ted .

T he c ompa r ison u nde r sco re s t h e g ene ra l t o p -heavy q ua l i ty o f S p l i t : t h e a r che s s t rong b u tw i thou tp a t te rn ing , s u rmoun ted b y t h e c ommon c onvex a nd u npa t ter ned f r ieze , w i th e l abo ra t ion whe re t he c o rn ice s l an t s f o rwa rd . A t M i le tus n o o ne a r ea d om ina te s . A rea s i n te r sec t w i th e a ch o the r . A t S p l i t , t h e re i s s epa ra t ion a nd s e lec t ive e mpha s i s .

T he t omb temp le a t S ide h a s b een r e s to red a s h av ing t wo a r cua ted p ed imen t s w i th d i scon t inuou s b a se ( s ee a bove , p .2 1) a s i t s p o r ch , a nd a s ap o rch i n f r on t o f i t s t emeno s (p lan o f

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ARCH ITECTURAL ORNAMENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT who le c omp lex , Manse l 1 963 : f i g . 1 46 ; 1 978 : f i g . 3 38 r econs t ruc t ion s , Man se l l 1 963 : f i g s . 1 47 , 1 52 ; 1 978 : f i g . 3 49 , 3 51 , 3 52 , 3 59 ; K rame r 1 983 : f i g . 1 .• T he se l e d Man se l t o c ompa re i tw i th S p l i t . A no the r s im i la r i ty i st h ec of f e red b a r re l v au l ted c e i l ing , af ea tu re i ts ha re s w i th t h e T emp le o fJ up i te r ( Append ix Two ) .

c on s t ruc t ion , made i ta n a t t ra c t ive r e s idence b eau se o ft h ew ays i nw h ich i tr e info r ced i mpe r ia l p owe r , a l though w e h ave n o d i re c td ocumen ta ry p roof t ha tt h a tw a s s o . F rom t h es e a ,t r ave le r sw ou ld r e cogn ize a ni mpo r tan tr e s idence . T hey w ou ld s e e t h e s t anda rd f o rm s o f av i l la f a cade , h igh a nd e mpha t ic . N o th ing wou ld i nv i te t hem t o s a i l c lose r , t o o b se rve t h e s imp le d e ta i l a nd p la in l ower s t o ry . T he a r ea d i rec t ly i n f r on t o f t he wa l l c an o n ly h ave b een u sed f o r b r ing ing i ns upp l ie s , n o ta s al a nd ing p lace f o rv i s i to r s .5 2

K rame r a na lyzed t he a r ch i tec tu ra l o rnamen t t os how t h a t t h e t emp le tomb w a s n o t a s l a te a s Man se l h ad t hough t . ( He i s c er ta in ly c o r rec tt ha tt h ef o rm s h ave e a r l ie rp a ra l le l s , b u t u n t i l t he re i s ac l ea re r p ic tu re o f w ha t T e t ra rch ic o rnamen t i nt h i s r eg ion d id l ook l i ke i ti sn o t e a sy t ok now h ow much c hange h ad o ccu r red . ) H e re o n ly t h ed i s t r ibu t ion o fp a t t e rn sn eed sb r ief men t ion . T he t e ndency t o make s ma l l ,d e l ica te p a t te rn sa l ready n o ted a tP e rge g oe s much f a r the r i nt he d oo r f r ame ( Manse l l 1 963 : f i g . 1 50 ; 1 975 : f i g . 3 53 ; K rame r 1 983 : f i g . 1 0 ) . A l though i th a sf a sc ia a nd d en t i l s , i tl a ck sc l ea rd ema r ca t ion o f b e tween a r ch i t rave ,f r ieze , a nd e n tab la tu re . I np l ace o f af r ieze t he re i s as ucce ss ion o fb and p a t te rn s . Af r agmen t f r om t h e c en t ra l c u rv ing l i n te l h a s c l ea re r d iv is ion s , b u t s t i l l a n e ven s p read o f a ccen t s (Man se l l 1 975 : 3 56 ) . A bove t h ree f a sc ia s epa ra ted a nd t opped b y b ead a nd r ee l , t h en e gg a nd d a r t , p a lme t te s ,a nd f i l le t ,c ome s ar i nceau o n af r ieze ,g en t ly c u rved a nd a bou t e qua l t o t he h e igh t o f t he g roup o f p a t te rns i mmed ia t e ly b e low i t ,t h en a n e gg a nd d a r t , f i l le t ,d en t i l , f i l le t , b ead a nd r ee l , a nd f i na l ly a l o tu s -pa lme t te a n them ion t ha t h a rmon ize sw i th t h ep a t te rn o ft h ef r ieze .

T he b o ld ly a ccen ted m i l i ta ry f o rmu la o ft h el a nd w a l l s made a n e ven s t ronge r i mp re s s ion f r om a d i s tance , a nd t h en f ocu sed a t ten t ion a t t h e c en t ra l g a teways . T he re , c a rve r s c rea ted s y s tem s t ob e c omp rehended a ts hor t r ange , a nd q u ick ly : t o p rov ide a n a pp rop r ia te ly l av ish s e t t ing f o r t he f r ees tand ing e l emen t s , b u t n o t e c l ipse t hem . T hey t he refo re u sua l ly p r e f e r red mode s t p lan t -ba sed o rnamen t s t o t h e a n them ion s o c ommon i n s ide . T hey s eque s te red t h e i r f ew f i gu ra l e l emen t s , i . e . t h eh ead s a tt h e n or th g a te a nd t h e v i c to ry a tt h e w e s t , a nd p l a ced t h em j u s ta bove t h ep o in to fp a s sage . Ad eco ra ted g a teway i st o b e e xpec ted , b u t n o t t h ree s im i la r s y s tem s . C lea r ly v i s i to r s o fi mpor tance m igh tc ome f r om e a s t o r w es t , p o ss ib ly e ven l and ing b y t he s i de o f t h e P a lace . E qua l ly c l ea r ly , t h e ma in r oad c ame f r om S a lona a tt h e n o r th . L a te r R oman s ou rces men t ion v i s i t s b y membe r s o f t h e i mpe r ia l f am i ly t o S a lona , b u t s e ldom s pec if ica l ly t o t h e P a lace . P robab ly i tw a s t aken f o r g ran ted a s t h e o bv iou s i mpe r ia l a d junc t t o t h e c i ty . T he p owe rfu l f ace i tt u rn s t o S a lona i nd ica te s t h a t t he mo s t i mpor tan t v i s i to r s o r r e s iden t s w ou ld l a nd a tt h a th a rbo r .

CONCLUS IONS Deco ra t ion i s b y d ef in i t ion s ome th ing t ha t embe l l ishe s s ome th ing e l se . I n t h eo ry , t h e s ame o b jec t may b e s een a s i ndependen to ra sd eco ra t ion u nde rd i f f e ren tc i r cum s tance s . A l l t he p iece s d i scussed h e re h oweve r w e re c once ived a s , a nd r ema in , s ubo rd ina te p a r t so fc ons t ruc t ion .

F rom a n i mp re ss ive g a teway t h ey wou ld e n te r a n a us te re ly d ef ined c ou r t ,p e rhap sf o rf o rma l i t ie s ,b efo re p a s s ing t o aw ide r a r ea b o rde red b yt e t rapy lon a r che s . I ft h ey t u rned t h rough t ho se a r che s , t h ey w ou ld e ncoun te r l a rge p ie r s a nd s t r ing c ou r se s m a rk ing s e conda ry s t r ee t sa nd au t i l i ta r ian c ou r tya rd .5 3

R oman a r ch i tec tu re r equ i re s c er ta in d eco ra t ion o n c e r ta in b u i ld ing s . D ecora t ion a nd c on s t ruc t ion a r e t hu s mu tua l ly d ependen t , b u t t he s c rappy r ema in s o f ten f o r ce u s t o r e la te d eco ra t ion t oo the rd eco ra t ion r a the rt han t ob u i ld ing s .5 1 A t S p l i t w e h ave a n u npa ra l le led o ppor tun i ty t o s ee h ow a r ch i te c tu ra ld eco ra t ion c hange sc on s t ruc t ion . T h is b u i ld ing wou ld mos t c ommon ly b e v i ewed f r om a d i s tance b y t h e many s h ip s p a ss ing i n t h e c oa s ta l c hanne l , whe re r t o S a lona o r mo re d i s tance h a rbo r s . S ince i tl i es a t s ome d i s tance f r om t h e c i ty , c l o se r v i ew ing w ou ld h ave b een r e s t r ic ted t o t hose h av ing r ea son t o g o t h e re . Du r ing D ioc le t ian 's l i f e t ime , i tw as v i s i ted b y em i ssa r ie s f r om t h e c ou r t . A f te r h i s d ea th , i tr ema ined a va i lab le a s at empo ra ry r e s idence f o r membe r s o f t h e i mpe r ia l f am i ly . P robab ly i t s magn if i cance , a nd p a r t icu la r ly i t s c o re n uc leau so fc e remon ia l 5 1 A n e xemp la ry e xcep t ion i sR icha rd B r i ll ian t , T he A r ch o f S ep t im iu s S everus i n t h e R oman F orum . MAAR XX IX ( Rome 1 967 ) . I ti s i n s t ruc t ive t o c ompa re h i s s umma ry o f t h e u se o f d eco ra t ion o n t h e A rch ( 7 3 ) w i th p rac t ice a tt h e P a lace . H e s peak s o f i t s " r o le . . . in o rgan iz ing t he f a cade ." I t " e s tab l ish (ed ) a nd r e la t (ed ) d iv is ion s " a nd a l so u n if ied t h e who le monumen t " i n aw eb o fc ohe ren t a nd p red ic tab le b and s o fo rnamen t ( 73 ) . " A t S p l i t t oo , i n as i ng le f a cade l i ke t h e n or th g a te , a nd o n aw ide r s ca le t h e o rnamen t b o th d iv ides a nd r e la te s . I tb r ings u n i ty t o t h e w ho le , b u t i n al oose r n e two rk : i td oe s n o t s t r ive f o r c ohe rence , a nd d e l igh t s i n u np red ic tab l i ty .

T he b road c en t ra l s t ree t s w ou ld p rov ide a mo re i nv i t ing p ro spec t . H e re f o rt h ef i r s tt ime v i s i to r s w ou ld f i nd t h em se lve s b e s ide c o lo red s t one a nd c a refu l ly c a rved ma rb le . T he j ux tapo s i t ion o ff i ne c o lumns w i th as eve re e n tab la tu re m igh t n o t s t r ike t h em . I n t h e s t ree t o r i t s p o rche s t hey wou ld p a s s c l o se t ot h ec o lumn s w i thou th av ing t ime o r av an tage p o in t t o v i ew t h ee n tab la tu re . T he w ide ,p la in c ros s ing p rov ide s s uch a v an tage p o in t , b u t t h e re i s l i t t le o f i n te res t t o b e s een b y l o ok ing b a ck a l ong t h e s t ree t s . T h is i st h e p o in t a t wh ich t h e i n te r sec t ion o f s a c red a nd r e s iden t ia l a r ea s b ecome s e v iden t , p a r t icu la r ly i n t h e o ve r lapp ing mo ld ings r evea led b y t h e s uccess ive e l eva t ions o f t he c ross ing , t he P e r is ty le , t h e p ed imen t s , p o rche s a nd p or t icos a nd f i na l ly t h e Mauso leum 's c r own mo ld ing .

5 2 T om is lav Ma ra sov i C ( 1989 , 3 75 ) men t ion s t he d i scove ry o f a" wha r f " i nf r on t o f t h e w a l l . T he n a tu re o f t h e r ema in s i sn o t s p e c if ied . T he i r f u l l e x ten t wa s n o t t r aced . 5 3 A t o ne t ime Ih oped t o f i nd t h e Empe ro r 's g a rden s i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e P a lace , b u t t he a ppa ren t l a ck o f d eco ra t ion make s t h a t u n l ike ly .

3 7

DECORAT ION I N CONTEXT o lde r m en f r om t he s ame c ommun i ty . T here i s p l en t ifu l e v idence f o r s uch u n i t s , b o th l i te ra ry a nd a r chaeo log ica l , a t e a r l ie rp e r iod s ( e .g . , F r eye rbe rge r 1 990 : p a ss im , e sp . 1 33 -134 o n t h e t i gh t o rgan iza t ion ; L eon 1 971 : 2 83 -285 o n p robab le i mpe r ia lw o rk shop sc l ea r ly d i s t ingu i shab le f r om o the rg r oup s ) . T he s y s tem c er ta in ly c on t inued l a te r . A t M i le tus f o r i n s t ance , t he c l ea r ly d ef ined l o ca l t r ad i t ion c on t inue s i nt h e b u i ld ing o f t he P ropy lon o ft h e N o r thea s te rn Qua r te r ( Kös te r 1 986 : 1 611 63 , d a ted e a r ly t h i rd c en tu ry ) . B y t h ee nd o ft h et h i rd c en tu ry , p re ssu re so n manpowe r may h ave b een t h rea ten ing i t s s t ab i l i ty . ( On s u rv iva l o fw o rk shop o rgan iza t ion f a ri n to L a te A n t iqu i ty d e sp i te d i s rup t ive f o r ce ,s e eL eon 1 971 : 2 3 . )

T he o ve r lay o fs t ruc tu re s , mo ld ing s ,a nd p a t te rn s wou ld d eepen a s o ne e n te red t h e P e r is ty le . T he b u i lde r s l oaded d eco ra t ion a bove t h e c o lumn s a nd o n t h e b u i ld ing s b eh ind t h em . T hey u sed ac oo rd ina ted v ocabu la ry . H e re t h ey s howed mo s tc l ea r ly h ow d eco ra t ion , f a rf r om b e ing mean ing le ss , c an a dvance t h e mean ing o f b u i ld ing s i n t h ree w ay s : F i r s t , R oman c us tom d i c ta te s ac e r ta in f orma l g a rb f o r c eremon ia l s t ruc tu res . T emp le s s hou ld h ave s ome f o rm o fG reek t r abea t ion . G a te s n eed n i ches . T he amoun t o f e l abora t ion n eed n o t e x tend b eyond s imp le mo ld ing s : p a t ter n s a r e o p t iona l , a l though s ome a r e t o b e e xpec ted .5 4 S econd , a t S p l i t t h e s e lec t ion o f p a r t icu la rp a t te rn sa nd mean s o fe xecu t ion i mpa r t s ap a r t icu la r f l avo r , o r m ing l ing o f f l avo r s . S o i n t h e s acra l a r ea s , t he a n ima te mo t if s , t h e l oose ly w r igg l ing l i ne s a nd t he i nven t ive med ley c rowd ing c o rona s ,d oo rj amb sa nd c of f e r s ,c r ea t e aw ide a nd p owe r fu l f r ame o fr e f e rence . F ina l ly ,s ome e l emen t sc a r ry mo re e xp l ic i t mean ing : a t l e a s t t h e f i gu ra l f r ieze i n t he Mauso leum a nd t h e c o rn ice a t t h e d oo r t o t h e T emp le o f J up i te r ,p robab ly a l so t h ed oo r mo ld ing s o fb o th b u i ld ing s .

N ew f o r ce sw e re e ncou rag ing mob i l i ty o fw o rkmen . T hey m ay h ave t r ave led s ome t ime s i n s t ab le g ang s , b u t s u re ly a l so a s i nd iv idua l s , o r i ns ma l l g roups l ook ing f o r n ew a s soc ia t ion s . B y t h e t ime t h e P a lace w a s b u i l t , D ioc le t ian h ad s pen t a bou t t wen ty y ea r s o n t h e move , w i th al a rge e n tou rage . Whe r eve r h ew en t ,h en eeded g rand q ua r te r s . I nt h el a te e i gh t ie sa nd mo s t o f t he n ine t ie s h e w a s i n S i rm ium a nd N icomed ia , t h en f o r t h ree y ea r s i n An t ioch , a nd t hen i n N icomed ia f r om 3 02 t o 3 05 . Meanwh i le , t h e re c ame t ob e t wo e mpe ro r s , a nd f i na l ly f ou r , a l lc r ea t ing n ew g over nmen ta lc en te r s ,o f ten i nc i t ie sw i th n o g rea t t r ad i t ion o f b u i ld ing ( f o r t h e movemen t s o f t h e T e t ra r ch s , s e eB a rne s 1 982 : 4 7 -49 ) .

A f te rt h es pec ta to rp a ssed t h rough t h e v e s t ibu le ,p robab ly o nce a se l abo ra te a si t s p o rch , a nd t h en a l ong t h e c en t ra l h a l l a bou t w h ich w ek now n ot h ing ,a nd e me rged i nt h es ea s ide c o r r ido r ,i t s eem s t h a t t h e d eco r c ea sed t od raw o n t h e t wo l a s t w ays o f mean ing men t ioned a bove . V a r ied p a t tern s o fl i gh t f l i cke red o ve r ma rb le s u r face s a s o ve r t h e s ea o u t s ide . C a rve r s s eem s a t i sf ied t o o b se rve p rop r ie t ie s , n o t l e nd ing f l avo r o r a dd ing mean ings t o a r ch i tec tu ra l e l emen t s . F o r d oo r f r ame s , t hey r e jec ted p l an t mo t ive si nf a vo ro ft h e meande r : r e c tangu la r , f l a t a nd t i dy , i ts i t s f l a t a ga in s t t h e w a l l , ma rk ing r a the r t han i nv igo ra t ing . O n ly t h e v a r ied f i l l ing o rnamen t s , s im i la r t o t ho se i nc o rona s e l sewhe re i nt h e P a lace , g ua ran tee t h a t t h e s ame h and sw e r ea tw o rk .

Humph rey t h ink s D ioc le t ian w a s b u i ld ing ap a lace " a t h i gh s peed " i nN icomed ia b e tween 2 93 -294 ( 1986 : 6 33 -34 ) . T he p ace o fw o rk d id n o t much a ba te . T o ma in ta in i t ,D ioc le t ian e ngaged i n " l im i t les s s cour ing o f t h e p rov inces t o r a i se wo rke r s " ( La c tan t ius , d e Mor t . P er s . 7 ,t r .C reed ) . H i s l a s t c on s t ruc t ion a tN icomed ia , t h e h ippod rome , w a s d ed ica ted i n 3 04 ,j u s t b efo re h i s a bd ica t ion . I n t h e m ean t ime h e c e r ta in ly b u i l t o n ag rand s ca le i n An t ioch , whe the r t ak ing w o rkmen w i th h im o ra s semb l ing n ew c rew s . No t r a ce s o ft h i s a c t iv i ty h ave b een i d en t if ied ( s ee b e low , n o te 6 6 ) . M imik ( 1990 : 1 3 , c f . 1 8 ) m en t ion s b u td oe s n o td e sc r ibe s im i la r i t ie s b e tween t h e a rch i tec tu ra l d eco ra t ion o f S p l i t a nd p i ece s f r om N icomed ia ( mode rn I zm i t ) . P ieces v i s ib le i n t h e g a rden o f t h e I zm i t museum i n t he s umme r o f 1 995 s howed o n ly g ene ra l r e semb la n ce s. 5

L ooked a ta s aw ho le , t h e d eco ra t ion a tS p l i t h a s as t r ik ing c on s i s tency . I t s i d io sync ra s ie s a r e s o e ven ly d i s t r ibu ted o ve r t he c omp lex t h a t t h ey p rov ide l i t t le i nd ica t ion o f w ha t w a s d one f i r s t o r l a s t , o r h ow j ob s w e re d iv ided among g ang s o f w o rkmen . I n as i ng le p la ce , s uch a s t h e e n tab la tu re o f t he Mau so leum p o r t ico ( f ig s . 5 0 -52 ) , o rt h e c e i l ing i nt h e T emp le o f J up i te r , d i f f e ren t h and s c an b e d e tec ted , b u t wo rk b y t h e s ame , o r c l o se ly r e la ted h and s r e cu r s i n s eve ra l p l ace s . T he p o r t ico f r agmen t si ff ound o u to fc on tex tw ou ld b ea t t r ibu ted t o t h es ame w o rk shop ,p robab ly n o tt ot h e s ame d a te .

Ga le r iu s w a s b u i ld ing i nT he ssa lon ike , ac i ty u n l ike ly t oh ave h ad l a rge t r a ined c r ew s . L ook ing a tt h e f ew w e l l -p re se rved

T he mu l t ip le s im i la r i t ie s i nd ica te o ne a u tho r i ty a nd o ne g roup o fa r t i san s . Who w e re t h ey? I ti sf r equen t ly a s sumed t h a tt he P a lace wo rkmen c ame f r om t h e e a s t ( McNa l ly 1 989 : 3 1 ,32 w i th r e f e rence s ) . T he re a r et wo r ea sons : man ifo ld s im i la r i t ie s i n d e ta i l , a nd t h e a ppea rance o f G reek l e t te r s o n b u i ld ing b lock s . Wi lke s i n ser t s an o te o f c au t ion o n t h e l a t te r ( 1993 : 2 3 ) . I tw ou ld b e am is take t o p h ra se t h e i s sue s h e re i n t e rm s o f wo rk shop s : o f i d en t ify ing d i f f e ren t w o rk shop s i n d i f f e ren t a r ea so ft h eP a la ce ,o rl ook ing f o rt h e g eog raph ica lo r ig in so fa w o rk shop . Aw o rk shop , i nt h eR oman w o r ld , u sua l ly m ean s a s t ab le g roup o fc r a f t smen ,t r a ined b yt h e i rf a the r s ,o ra tl e a s tb y 5 4 N o te t he p la in ma rb le p rof i les r ecovered f r om t he Mauso leum o n t h e v i a App ia , w he re o n ly o ne c a rved p a t te rn , a n u na ss igned a nd u n i l lus t ra ted meande r f r agmen t , h a s b een f ound ( Ra sch 1 984 : 5 0 w i th r e f e rence s t o o the r u npa t te rned c i ty -Roman mo ld ing s o f t h e p e r iod , p l . 5 1) .

3 8

5 T he s t a f fo ft h e e t hnog raph ic mu seum i nI zm i t w en t o u t o f t he ir w ay t o h e lp me l o ok a t Roman ma te r ia l , a nd v ery k ind ly h e lped me o b ta in a cce s s t o t hese p iece s o n t h e g round s o f t h e ( c lo sed ) a r chaeo log ica l mu seum , a nd t o p ho tog raph t h em . Id i d n o t h ave a cce ss t o i n forma t ion c oncern ing t h e i r p rovenance , a nd I h ave n o t r e ce ived p e rm i s s ion t o p ub l ish t h e p ho tog raph s . Ma jo r p iece s f o r c ompa r i son c on s is t o f ap i la s te r c ap i ta l a nd a c o lumn c ap i ta l , b o th o f w h ich h ave a n u ppe r c o rona r i s ing f r om af o rm o f " spea r ," b u t h e l ice s r i s ing f r om c a lyce s . T he a can thu s f r ond s d o n o t t ouch . A c o rn ice h a s a n a n them ion i n t h e c yma r e c ta w i th s l ende r , l i gh t ly u ndu la t ing p a r t s , e gg a nd d a r t s w i th w ide ly s p read s he l l s , n ea t ly c oo rd ina ted w i th t he a ccompany ing b ead a nd r e e l . T he c onso le s h ave s eve ra l s e ts o f s ma l l o ver lapp ing l e aves w i thou t c en t ra l t i e s , a nd t h e a can thus i sc u t v e ry d i f fe ren t ly t h an t hose a t S p l i t . O the r f r agmen t s i nc lude a mo ld ing w i th h o l low t ongue s ,and o ne w i th a s l ende r r i nceau b e tween " w ide sp read " s t ir rup shaped l e a f a nd d a r t . A l l a ppea r l i ke ly t o b e o lde r t h an t h e work a tt h e P a lace , a l though s t y l is t ic d a t ing s , a nd p a r t icu la r ly t h e a ssump t ion t ha t u n ive r sa l r ad ica l c hange o ccur red d u r ing t he T e t ra rchy , a re r i sky . I t i s p oss ib le t ha t N icomed ia w a s mo re c onse rva t ive t h an S p l i t .

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNAMENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT p iece sl e dL aub sche rt os ugge s tt h ei n vo lvemen to fa tl e a s tt wo w o rk shop s . H ed oe sn o tt h ink a ny o ft h e wo rkmen w e re l o ca l , a s o the r s h ave d one . P o s s ib ly i f mo re e v idence e x is ted w e wou ld f i nd , n o t t wo c l ea r ly d ef ined g roups , b u t am ix tu re o f h e te rogeneou s e l emen t s a nd t e chn ique s , a s a tS p l i t . T he f ou r p i la s t e rc ap i ta ls f r om t h e o c tagon ,p re sumab ly made a sp a r to f as i ng le b u i ld ing a c t iv i ty , a l ready p o in tt owa rd t h a tc onc lu s ion : B renk h a s a na lyzed d i f fe rences b e tween t h em , n o t ing i n p ar t icu la rh ow s ome f e a tu re sp o in te a s ta nd o the r s w es t ( 1968 : 2 49 ) .

I t s eem s v e ry l i ke ly t ha t s ome o r many o f t he a r t isans o r ig ina ted i nS a lona . R i s ing t o an ew c ha l lenge , s a rcophagu s c a rve r s m igh t h ave p a r t ic ipa ted . T hey , l i ke c a rve r s f r om P amphy l ia , h ad e xpe r ience c a rv ing o rnamen ti nl ime s tone ( s ee a bove , p . 2 2 ) . Many o f t he mo t if s w ere i n t h e f am i l ia r r epe r to ry o ff une ra ry a r t . O the r s w e re n o t , a nd D a lma t ia h ad n o t , a ppa ren t ly , b een a n a r ea i n te re s ted i nt h ep roduc t s o fA s ia M ino r b efo re t h i s t ime . C hange s i n t ha t r e spec t may h ave b een u nde rway b efo re D ioc le t ian b egan h i s b u i ld ing , b u t t h en s ome n ew i n f luence , p o ss ib ly s t rong -m inded o ve r see r s , b u t p robab ly a l so w o rke r s ,w a si n t roduced .

I n R om e , D ioc le t ian a nd Maxen t ius w e re b u i ld ing o n as ca le u np receden ted f or many y ea r s . N eu c ommen t s t ha t " t he i mmense b u i ld ing p ro jec t s a t t h e b eg inn ing o f t he f ou r th c en tu ry p rove t ha t , d e sp i te a l l t h e p o l i t ica l c onfus ion , t h e empe ro r s p o ssessed a n e x t rao rd ina r i ly g rea t p owe r t o c a r ry t h rough t h e i r p lan s" ( 1972 : 1 44 ) . C a rve r s f r om t h e e a s t h ad b een w o rk ing i n t he c i ty f o r s ome t ime . I n m idcen tu ry , t h e o rnamen to fA u re l ian 's S un T emp le h ad s t r ik ing v a r ia t ion sd ue t om ing l ing o fc i ty -Roman a nd e a s te rn wo rkmen ( Neu 1 972 : 8 8 -90 , 1 43 , n o t s pec ify ing t he o r ig in o f t h e l a t ter ) . T he e a s te rne r s may h ave b een b rough t f o rr ea son s s pec if ic t ot h a t p ro jec t ( s ee a bove , p .6 ) , r a the r t h an b ecau se R ome c ou ld n o t p rov ide s uf f ic ien t l a bo r . B y t h e e nd o f t h e c en tu ry , t he w o rk shop si nR ome w e re e qua l t ot h et a sk , wh ich t h ey c a r r ied o u tw i th t h e i ru sua lr e spec tf o rt r ad i t ion .

P amphy l ian w o rkmen w e re a lmos tc e r ta in ly r e spon s ib le f o rt h e b r ickwo rk o ft h e d ome o ft h e Mau so leum . Man se l p o in t s o u t t h e s im i la r i t ie s t or oof ing i n at omb a tS ide ( 1963 :188 ; 1 978 : 3 18 ; K rame r 1 983 : 1 62 ) . I ts e em s u n l ike ly t h a t w hoeve r w a s i nc ha rge o fo pe ra t ion s w ou ld h ave g one s o f a r a f ie ld t of i nd c ra f t smen j u s t f o r t ha t t a sk , a nd more l i ke ly t h a t t h ey w e re d raw ing o n P amphy l ia g ene ra l ly . T he s im i la r i t ie s t h a t K äh le r n o te s w i th e a r ly f our th c en tu ry b u i ld ings i n R ome c e r ta in ly s ugge s t t h a t w o rkmen f r om S p l i t w en t t h e re , b u tn o t t h a t t h ey d id s o a s ag roup . T he s im i la r i t ies r e s ide i n af ew t ouche s , r ef le c t ing t h ep re sence o f ac oup le o fc a rve r s , n o t ab and . T he l a te T e t ra rch ic b u i ld ing s i nR ome t h e refo re d o n o t n ece s sa r i ly i nd ica te t h ed a te w hen w o rk a tt h eP a lace s t opped , b u tp e rhap s r a the rw hen i ts l owed d own ,p romp t ing s ome w o rke r s t o move o n .

Wh i le a l t h e T e tra rch ic b u i ld ing w a s g o ing o n , who w en t t o S p l i t? I tc ou ld h ave b een s ome p re -ex is t ing g roup , l o ca l o r i mpo r ted , b u tt h e v a r ia t ion i ne xecu t ion s hows t h a ti twa s n o t . R ecen t ly ,T a jma R ismondo ( 1994 )p ub l ished h e rf i r s tr epo r to n t he m a son s ' ma rk s i n t h e P a lace . O f f i ve h und red a nd f i ve s i gn s s h eh a s r e co rded , s he a t t r ibu te s s i x ty -one t ot h e o r ig ina l b u i lde r s . T hey e xh ib i t mo re v a r ie ty t h an t he ma rk s p ub l i shed p rev iou s ly . O n t ha t b a s is , s he a rgue s t ha t t h e w o rkmen c ame f r om aw ide r ange o fp l ace s . H e r e v idence w i l l n eed f u r the r s i f t ing , b u t t h e v a r ie ty d e se rve s a t ten t ion , e ven i fw i th s ome e l im ina t ion a nd r e in te rp re ta t ion . I td oe s s eem l i ke ly t ha t t h e a r t isans a tS p l i td id n o tb e long t oo ne o r mo re l o ng e s tab l i shed wo rk shop s . Many may w e l l h ave c ome f r om A s ia M ino r , s ome f r om S a lona ,p e rhap ss ome f r om o the rp la ce s .

T hey h ad p robab ly n eve rw o rked t o ge the rb e fo r e ,a nd s ome m ay n eve rh ave c a rved o rnamen t ,o r or namen ti nl ime s tone . K äh le r w a s r i gh t t os peak o f " Le i te r u nd Vo ra rbe i te r " ( above , p .5 ) b e ing s en tf r om N icomed ia . D ioc le t ian s en t g ood s upe rv i so r s t oS p l i t . T hey a d ju s ted t h e i r d emand s t ot h e s i tua t ion . T hey c a refu l ly w o rked o u tt h ec ompo s i t ion : T hey t r ied t os t re s s t h e n a tu re o fe a ch b u i ld ing , a nd c ons ide rr e la t ion sh ip s . T hen t h ey c ompen sa ted f o rt h e f a c t t h a tt h e men h ad n o tt r a ined t o ge the r b y a l low ing t h em c ons ide rab le l a t i tude i n e xecu t ion . S uch l a t i tude w a s n o ta n u nu sua l a r rangemen t , a sR ockwe l l n o ted i n a na lyz ing w o rk a t t h e S e rape ion i n Aph rod is ia s ( 1990 ) . I mpe r ia l w o rk shop s i nt h e c i ty o f R ome m igh t w o rk h a rd t o ma in ta in u n ifo rm i ty ( F reye rbe rge r 1 990 ) , b u t t h a t s eem s t o h ave b een t h e e xcep t ion n o t t h e r u le . C ommon p rac t ice l e f t much r e spon s ib i l i ty t ot h e i nd iv idua l c ra f t smen e ven i nw e l l e s tab l ished g roup s . I t w a s t ha t h ab i tude t h a t made t h i s p a r t icu la r ly d i f f icu l tu nde r tak ing p o s s ib le . C a rve r s c ou ld f o rm t he l e a fy h ead s o n t h e T emp le o fJ up i te r o r t h e a n them ion o n t h e Mau so leum p o r t ico i nv a r iou s w ays . S ome l a id o u tc of f e r f r ame s n ea t ly , a nd o the r s d id n o tb o the r . A l l c on t r ibu ted t oa n o ve ra l l v i ta l i ty , w i th in t h eo ve ra l l g u ide l ine s .

I f t h e c a rve r s .c ame f r om t h e e a s t , t hey s t ayed t o work a t S a lona . E gge r sa nd D yggve b o th n o ted d eco ra t ion f r om S a lona r e semb l ing t h a t f r om S p l i t .5 6 I nt h ep i les o ff r agmen t s i nt h e l a p id a r ium b eh ind t h eA rchaeo log ica l Museum t h a ta re s a id t o c ome f r om S a lona , t h e re a r e a tl e a s tt wo p iece s c e r ta in ly f r om t h e P a la ce , a nd o the r s t h a te a s i ly c ou ld b e . G iven t he a moun t o f s h if t ing t ha t h a s o ccur red o ve r many y ea rs i n t he a r rangemen to ft h e se u n reco rded p i ece s , i tw i l l n o tb e p o s s ib le t o d e te rm ine whe the r t hose o the r s b e long t o l o s t a rea s o f d eco ra t ion i n s ide t h eP a lace ,o r t ow o rk b y t h es ame c a rve r si n S a lona ( e .g . , I .A .2 .a .3 ) .

S cho la r s h ave c ommen ted r epea ted ly o n t h e a r t isans ' c a re lessne s s a nd l a ck o f r e f inemen t . B o th c ommen t s a r e m i s lead ing . P lanne r sa nd c a rve r sh ad t h e i ro wn c l ea r ly d ef ined n o rm s . T hey w o rked h a rd a nd i n gen iou s ly t oa ch ieve c a lcu la ted e f f ec t si nu nu sua ls i tua t ion s . T hey made t h ee gg a nd d a r tp o in t u p a s w e l l a sd own t of r ame ac en t ra l p ane l . T hey r a i sed t h e P e r is ty le c r own mo ld ing w e l l a bove t h e a d jo in ing w a l l s , a nd a d ju s ted t h ep rof i le s a tt wo c o rne r s . T hey n o to n ly made r oom f o r i n con s i s tency , t h ey a c t ive ly p romo ted v a r ie ty . T hey w e re o f t h e i r t ime : f undamen ta l ly n on -c la ss ica l . Mo s t i mpo r tan t , t h ey u nde r s tood t h e i rj ob . T he d e s igne r sl a id o u t ag rea th yb r id c omp lex , a nd t h e d eco ra to r s b rough t i t s p a r t s t ol i f e , a nd g ave t h em p e r sona l i ty w i th t h e i rb o is te rou s ly h yb r id f o rm s .

5 6 E gg e r s m en t ion s c ap i ta l s r e u sed i n al a te r c hu rch ( Egge r s 1 926 : 2 0 , f i g . 1 5 ; K au tzsch 1 936 : 5 -6 , p l . 1 , 1) . Dyggve s a id n ume rou s f r agmen t s , i n c lud ing c ap i ta l s , f r om t h e D ioc le t ian ic r enova t ion o f t he t hea te r r e semb led work a t S p l i t ( Brons ted , Dyggve a nd We i lbach 1 933 " avan t -p ropos " ( no p age n umbe r ) , c onve r sa t ion c i ted b y K au tz sch 1 936 : 6 ) . O the r s h ave r epea ted Dyggve ' s o p in ions , b u t n o d e scr ip t ion o f t he t hea te r r ebu i ld ing , o r o f t h e f r agmen t s , h a s b een p ub l ished ( Rend ie -M ioeev ie 1 981 : 8 4 ) ) .

3 9

REG ISTER R ef e rence s t oi lus t ra t ions a r e g iven f i r s t . T ho se i nb o ld t ype r e f e r t ot h i s v o lume . T hey a r e f o l lowed b y i nforma t ion a bou t p rese rva t ion ,d e sc r ip t ion ( /i nd ica te sd i v i s ion sb e tween b lock s ) ,t h en a ny c ommen t s . I . Ence inte : s outh wa l l , wes t wa l l , c orner t ower s .

e ast

wa l l ,

n or th

c ap i ta l : N iemann : f i g . 1 28 , p . 9 4 ; H era rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 6 4 , p . 5 0 .

wa l l ,

C o r in th ian iz ing . One c o rona , . t hen f ou r c omp le te a nd t wo p a r t ia l t ongue s b e tween c a lyx l e ave s , n o h e l ix , a bacus d eco ra t ion s d i f f e r .

I .A . S ou th wa l l ( f ig . 7 ) : l owe r s t ory , u ppe r s t o ry .

N iemann 's a nd H ib ra rd 's d raw ing s d i f fe r i n s how ing t he f l eu ron . T hey may h ave b een d raw ing d if fe ren t c ap i ta l s . T he re i sn ow ( Summe r 1 993 ) ac ap i ta l i n t he l a p ida r ium b eh ind t h e A rchaeo log ica l Museum t h a t m igh t b eo ne o ft he m iss ing c ap i ta ls , a ssum ing s ome v a r ia t ion i n t he ir e xecu t ion . I th a s o n ly f ou r t ongue s , n o p a r t ia l s i de o ne s : I th a s t h e a can thu s c a lyx c om ing o u t o f as ma l l a can thus b a se . I tm ea su re s 0 .62 m o n t h ree s i de s a nd 0 .60 m o n t he f ou r th . 1 . 1 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r g ive s a mea su remen t o f 0 .66 f r om t h e b o t tom o f f i r s t c o rona t o t op o f a bacus o ft h e c ap i ta l h e d r ew .

I .A .1 . L owe rs t o ry : c en t ra l d oo ra nd s t r ing c ou r se I .A .1 .a . C en tra l d oo r , l i n te l . L in te l r ep laced , o r ig ina l p iece s i nw a l l o n e ach s i de o ft h e d oo r . F i l le t , c ave t to ,

f i l le t .

I .A .1 .b . S t r ing c ou r se , a nd c on so le s : N iemann : f i g . 1 21 , p . 9 1 ; F l 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 6 5 , p . 5 0 . Abou t t h ree q ua r te r s p re served , o f ten i n p oo r c ond i t ion . F i l le t , c yma r ec ta , i n ter rup ted b y r e c tangu la r p ro t ru s ion s o r s imp le c onso le s .

I .A .2 .a .3 . E n tab la ture : 3f a sc ia , r ak ing f i l le t , c onvex f r ieze , r a k ing f i l le t w i th s t i r rup -f ramed l e af a nd d ar t o n t he o b l ique i n s o me p laces ,5 8 d en t i ls , p la in c o rona , a s t raga l , c yma r ec ta , f i l le t ( N iemann : f i g . 1 24 , p . 9 3 ; H eb ra rd -Ze i l le r f i g . 6 3 , p .4 9 ) .

Con so le s : f i l le t a nd r ak ing f i l le t u nde r e ach e ngaged c o lumn o ft he u ppe r s t o ry .

I .A .2 . U ppe r s t ory : p o rche s a nd a r cade s . I .A .2 .a . P orche s ( f ig . 8 ) :5 7 An tae a nd t wo f r ee s tand ing c o lumn s , e n tab la tu re s t ra igh t f r om a n ta t o c o lumn a nd a r ched b e tween c o lumn s : I 1 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 6 3 , p .4 9 .

I .A .2 .b . A rcade s ( f ig s . 1 , 1 2 ) : H era rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 6 5 , p . 5 0 ; N iemann : f i g s . 1 21 , p . 9 1 , 1 25 , p . 9 3 ; Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie : p l . 4 ; McNa l ly , Ma ra sov ie , a nd Ma ra sov ie 1 976 : d raw ing 1 6 . L ong s t re tches o f e n tab la tu re p re se rved , i n c lud ing a r ched s ec t ion o ve r t we lf th i n te rco lunm ia t ion f r om t h e c en te r o n e a s t s i de . S im i la r w ide r s pace o n w e s t s i de a t e l even th i n te rco lumn ia t ion f r om c en te r : a rcua ted e n tab la ture n o t p re se rved . F o r ty c o lumns p re se rved t o v a ry ing e x ten t s , s ome r e s to r a t ion . F ou r c o lumn s m i s s ing , a l l o n t h e w e s t s i de .

We s t p orch : N iemann : f i g . 1 26 , p . 9 3 s how s s t a te , i nc lud ing c ap i ta l , b efo re r e s tora t ion ; Ma ra sov ie - Ma ra sov ie P l . 3 , p resen t s t a te . R es to red 1 905 , d e ta i ls u n re l iab le . C o lumn s ha f t s , w es t a n ta a nd p a r t o fe n tab la tu re o r ig ina l . E a s tern p orch ( f ig . . 9 ) : N iemann : f i g . 1 25 , p . 9 3 . We s te rn a n ta a nd t he who le e n tab la tu re o r ig ina l , b u i l t i n to l a te r c on s t ruc t ion . N iemann s aw t he a n tae , a nd " pa r t ly p re se rved " c o lumn s f r om t he i nne r f a ce o ft h e m ed ieva l w a l l . I n 1 992 o ne c ap i ta l embedded i nt h e w a l l w a s u ncove red.

I .A .2 .b .l .

C en t ra l p o rch : N iemann : 9 4 ; He ra rd 4 6 . N iemann r eco rd s s ee ing t he l owe r p a r t s o f t he a n tae o f t h e c en t ra l p orch ; I 6bra rd s ays n o th ing o f t ha t p orch s u rv ive s , a nd n o th ing i st o b e s een t oday . E x i s tence i nd ica ted b y c o lumn s pac ing s im i la r t o t he o the r p o rche s . I .A .2 .a .l . b a se : s ha f t :

s haf t s : a s t raga l a nd o u twa rd c u rve a tt o p . c ap i ta l s :

An tae .

I .A .2 .b .2 . E n tab la tu re ( corn ice a nd a rch i t rave i n o ne b lock , n o f r ieze ) : N iemann : 9 2 , f i g . 1 22 , p rof i le f i g . 1 23 , F l 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 6 5 , p .5 0 . Abou t 9 6 m p re se rved i n 6 s t re tche s : a r ch a te a s t p re se rved .

a s t raga l .

c ap i ta l : r ak ing f i l le t , a s t raga l , o vo lo , c ave t to , f i l le t , l a rge f i l le t : N iemann : f i g . 1 24 , p .9 3 ; F l 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 6 3 , p .4 9 : N iemann make s t h e mo ld ing s l o ok s t ra igh te r , He ra rd s hows c u rve s , r ef l ec t ing t yp ica l v a r ia t ion i ne xecu t ion r a the r t h an i n accu racy i ne i the r d raw ing .

2f a sc ia e , r ak ing f i l le t , d en t i l s , s imp le c o rona , c yma r e c ta , f i l le t .

I .B .

A t t ic .

s ha f t :

a s t raga l

E as t w a l l :

C rown mo ld ing , s t r ing c our se , n iches ,

g a teway .

C o lumn s ( f ig . 1 0 ) :

b a se :

N iemann : f i g . 1 23 , p . 9 2 .

u nador n ed C o r in th ian k a la thos : h igh r ec t i l inea r a bacus w i th n o f l owe r ( 1 /6 th h e igh t o f w ho le c o lumn a cco rd ing t o Hara rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 6 5 , p .5 0 ) .

A t t ic .

I .A .2 .a .2 .

C o lumn s :

b a se s : A t t ic

I .B .1 . C rown m o ld ing : N iemann : p l . I , He ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 2 7 , p p . 2 8 -29 . A bou t 5 5 m p rese rved i n f our o r f i ve s t re tches . C yma r e c ta , f i l le t .

5 7 I 1 6b ra rd 's d raw ings a re u sed h ere t oge the r w i th t he p ho tog raphs i n o rde r t o s how t he s cheme o f aw ho le a rea . N iemann 's d e ta i l s a re mo re c on sc ious ly f a i thfu l t o t h e o r ig ina l s . I I 6bra rd 's l i ne s a re s ha rpe r t han N iemann 's , a nd h i s s t y le s ome t imes c auses h im t o s ys tema t ize a nd s ha rpen p rof i le s a nd p a t te r n s . T he s ca le a t wh ich h i s d raw ing s a r e r ep roduced h e re d oe s n o t a l low t h e mea su remen t s t ob e r e ad . Mea suremen t s a nd s pec if ic d e ta i l a r e p rov ided b y t h e n ew d raw ing s a tt h e e nd .

5 8 N ow o n t h e r e s to red mo ld ing o f t h e e a s t p o rch : o n t he o r ig ina l w e s t p o rch o n ly o n t h e w e s te rn s e c t ion o f s t ra igh t l i n te l , o ne o f s eve ra l i n s tance s w he re t he e xecu t ion o f s i ng le mo ld ing c hange s . H 6b r a rd -Ze i l le r s how t he p a t te rn o n t he a r ch a nd s t ra igh t s ec t ion , p robab ly i n e r ro r , p os s ib ly s how ing a n o r ig ina l f r agmen t f r om t h e w e s t , f i g . 6 3 , p .4 9 .

4 0

ARCH ITECTURAL DECORAT ION OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT SPL IT

I .C .2 . S t r ing c our se ( f ig . 1 9 ) : N iemann : p l . I I , C ; p os i t ion s hown o n H eb ra rd p l . I V . We l l p re se rved o n w a l l . P la in e xcep t f o r as ma l l d amaged s t re tch a tt h e e as t e nd , c lose t o t he b eg inn ing o f t h e t owe r .

I .B .2 . S t r ing c our se ( f igs . 1 3 , 1 4 ) : F i skov ie f i g . 4 4 , p .6 6 . P re served a l ong w a l l a nd o n i nne r w a l l s u r face o fn or th t owe r . Ove r g a te a nd u p t o s ou th o c tagona l t owe r : r ak ing f i l le t

f i l le t , c onvex ,

P la in mo ld ing :

On w a l l o f n or th o c tagona l t owe r : f i l le t , p rof i le b e tween o b l ique a nd c ave t to n o t c l ea r , o ve r lapp ing l e af o n c onvex , e gg a nd d a r t , t op f i l le t a lmos t t c omp le te ly d es t royed .

P a t ter ned mo ld ing : r ak ing f i l le t , o ver lapp ing l e af o n c onvex , b ead a nd r e e l , f i l le t , p oss ib le a n them ion o n c yma r ec ta ( f i l le t g one ) t o p n o t w e l l p reserved , o n ly o ne s ma l l p a lme t te ( up ) s urv ive s .

Ag ap i n t he mo ld ing s o ve r e ach o f t h e n i ches s ugges t s s ome a dd i t iona l d eco ra t ion w a s o nce i n ser ted t h e re .5 9

B eg ins o n w a l l b y g a te , r uns o u t t o b eg inn ing o f o c tagona l t owe r s , a nd o nce w en t a round t h em a s o n t he e a s t w a l l ( N iemann : 2 4 ) . T he l owe r r a k ing f i l le t r e appea r s u nde r t h e c en t ra l c onso le s o f t h e u ppe r o rde r a nd u p t o t h e r e l iev ing a r ch o f t he g a te : n o t a ppa ren t ly u nde r t he o u te r c onso les , o r b e tween t h em a nd t h e f ou r i nne r o ne s ( s ee I . C .5 .a ) . I ti sc a rved o n t wo b locks o f s t one : t h e l a rge mono l i th ic n i che v au l t b lock a nd a s ma l l s ubs id iary b lock . O n t h e l a t te r t h e mo ld ing s t op s i mmed ia te ly a t t he e dge o f t h e c on so le . O n t h e o t he r s i de o f t h e s ame b lock t h e mo ld ing r eappea r s a tt h e e dge o f t h e n ex t c on so le , p robab ly t o l e ave s pace t o i n se r t a mo ld ing o ve r t h e a r ch ( s ee I . B .2 a bove ) .

I .B .3 . N iches o n e i ther s i de o f g a te ( f ig . 1 4 ): S i l ls w e l l p reserved , p i las te r s a nd c onso le s p ar t ia l ly , s t r ing i mpos t r e s to red , o rnamen t o ve r n iche g one . I .B .3 .a . P i las te r s : F iskov ie : f i g . 4 6 , p .6 2 . A l l d amaged t o s o me d eg ree , s haf t o f n or th p i la s te r o n e ach n iche p ar t ia l ly r e s tored . b a se s :

A t t ic .

s haf t s :

4b locks , a s t raga l a tt op .

c ap i ta ls :

a l l d amaged , o ne g one .

l owe r c o rona : 4a can thus , 2q uar te r a can thus , o ne e ach s i de .

I .C .3 . N iche s ( F igs . 1 7 , 1 8 ) : H ebrard -Ze i l ler : f i gs . 4 1 , 4 2 , 4 3 , p . 3 7 ; N iemann : f i g . 2 0 , p . 2 2 .

u ppe r c orona : 1m idd le a can thus , 1o n e ach c or ne r , 1o n e ach s i de ; c a lyx ; h e l ice s ; a bacus n ow b ad ly p rese rved o n a l l ( s tem f r om n euron v i s ib le o n s i de o f n or th n i che ) .

I .C .3 .a . P i la s te r s : 3w e l l p re se rved , t he f a r thes t w es t b ad ly d amaged , l a ck ing c ap i ta l a nd p a r t o f s ha f t .

I .B .3 .b . S i l ls a nd c onso les : F i skov ie : f i g . 4 5 , p . 6 2 . S i l l s w e l l -preserved ; c onso les : t wo s ou th s i des 1 / 2 p rese rved ; o the r s g one .

I .B .3 .c .

d oub le l e af b und le .

s i l l : c ab le , e gg a nd d ar t ( dar t p o in t ing u p ) , b ead a nd r e e l , f i l le t , h o l low t ongue ( va r ian t ) , b ead a nd r e e l , e gg a nd d a r t ( d a r t p o in t ing d own ) , f i l le t .

a can thus .

I mpos t i n s ide n iche . P robab ly e n t ire ly r e s to red (? ) .

G a teway ( f igs . 1 5 , 1 6 ) :

c onso les :

Ma rasov ie - Ma rasov ie : p l . 9 . f r on t : d oub le l e a fb und le .

F iskov ic ' : f i g . 3 4 .

f r ame : u ppe ra nd l owe re gg a nd d a r t a nd b ead a nd r e e l o f s i l l .

I .B .4 .a . Corn ice o n f l a t a r ch . One v ousso ir a nd s i de s ec t ion s r unn ing i n to w a l ls o r ig ina l , r ema inder r e s to red .

s i de s : d oub le v o lu te w i th p lan t f o rms i n i n te r s t ice s ( bo th s i des ) .

b ead a nd r ee l , c ave t to w i th s t ir rup -f ramed l e af a nd d a r t ( f orm a s o n Nor th Ga te I .C .4 .b ) , I .B .4 .b . A rch ivo l t o n r e l iev ing a r ch : 1 2 v ousso ir s , 6 l owe s t o n e ach s i de , o r ig ina l ; 5c en t ra l v ousso ir s r e s to red . ( P ro trud ing k ey s tone r e s tored o n t h e b a s is o f t he w es t g a te , s ee I .D .4 .a ) . f a sc ia , c ab le , f a sc ia , b ead a nd r e e l , f a sc ia , b ead a nd r e e l , e gg a nd d a r t , f i l le t . I .C . North wa l l: c rown g a teway , u ppe r a rcade ( f ig .7 ) .

s C i T IKO; , c u t i n to o ne c ap i ta l , H ebra rd -Ze i l le r :

I .C .3 .b . S i l l a nd c on so le : E as t s i l l a lmos t c omp le te ( f ig . 2 0 ) , w es t s i l l a bou t 2 / 3 p re served . Wes ternmos t c onso le g one , o the r t h ree b ad ly d amaged , b u t t wo , t h e e a s tern o ne o n e ach n i che , p rese rve ac omp le te p rof i le .

r ak ing f i l le t . I .B .4 .

p la in .qw

f i g . 4 2 , p . 3 7 . Wi lkes n o tes t h is i s ar e la t ive ly c ommon n ame , a t te s ted s eve ra l t ime s f r om S a lona ( 1993 n . 8 5 p . 1 09 ) . A no the r G reek n ame i sf ound o n I I .C .2 .a .

d oub le v o lu te ( one w i th t r ace o f t ucked i n n o t w e l l p rese rved ) .

b o t tom :

A t t ic o n s ma l l p l in th .

s haf t :

G reek n ame ,

f r ame : e gg a nd d ar t , b ead a nd r e e l , f i l le t ( damaged ) : p a t te rns f r om s i l l c on t inue , b u t b ead i s r ep laced b y p l a in f i l le t , c f . I .C .3 .b . s i des : v ege ta t ion :

b a se :

c ap i ta l : t h ree r ows o f a can thus , p ronounced d oub le h e l ices , a bacu s w i th t h ree p ar t f l owe r , l o ng s t em .

s i l ls : b ead ( we l l p reserved o n n or th , d amaged b u t p re sen t o n s ou th ) , f i l le t , e gg a nd d ar t ( dar t p o in t s u p ) , b ead a nd r e e l , f i l le t , h o l low t ongue ( va r ian t ) o n c onvex , f i l le t , b ead a nd r e e l , e gg a nd d a r t ( da r t p o in t s d own ) , d amaged f i l le t . c on so le s :f ron t :

r ak ing f i l le t , c onvex , r ak ing f i l le t .

b o t tom :

a can thus .

C ab le u nde r n i che s i l l d oes n o t g o u p a round c onso le f r ame , w h ich h a s aw e l l -p reserved s moo th f i l le t o n o u te r e dge H eb ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 4 3 p .3 7 , c f . I . B .3 .b ) . I .C .3 .c .

S t r ing c ou r se .

We l l p rese rved .

e gg a nd d a r t d i v ides v au l t f r om n i che . I .C .4 . G a teway ( f igs . 1 7 , 1 8 , 1 9 ) : 4 0 , p . 3 6 .

mo ld ing , s t r ing c ourse , n i ches ,

H eb ra rd -Ze i l ler : f i gs . 3 9 ,

I .C .4 .a . C or n ice o n f l a t a r ch . M ino r d amage . b ead a nd r e e l , e gg a nd d a r t , s t ir rup -f ramed l e af a nd d ar t ( f orm s im i la r t ot h a t o n t h e e a s t g a te ) , f i l le t . E x tend s i n to t h e w a l l e i the r s i de u nder d eco r o f t he r e l iev ing a r ch .

I .C .1 . C rown mo ld ing : H eb ra rd -Ze i l le r : p l . V , N iemann : p l . I . C omp le te e xcep t whe re t owe r s s t ood , a nd a tt h e e x t reme e a s t e nd o f t h e w a l l .

I .C .4 .b . A rch ivo l t o n r e l iev ing a rch : N iemann : f i g . 1 9 , p . 2 2 . V e ry w e l l p rese rved : o ne r e s tored s l ab . f a sc ia , c ab le , f a sc ia , o ver lapp ing l e af o n c onvex , b ead a nd r e e l , e gg a nd d a r t ; s i ng le l e af c ha in , f i l le t .

1o we t h is o bserva t ion t o J e rko Ma ra sov ie , w ho p o in ts t o a s harp ly a ngyd d ecora t ion o ve r n i ches o n t he ma in g a te a t G amz ig rad : C anak - Med ie 1 978 : f i gs . 3 4 , 4 4 , 6 0 .

5 9

4 1

Two r ows o f l e ave s r un i nwa rds f r om c orne r s , mee t ing i n t h e m idd le . L eaf c ha in om i t ted o n l owe s t v ousso ir s .

REG ISTER I .C .5 .

Uppe r a rcade ( f ig s . 1 7 , 1 8 , 2 2 ) .

I .C .5 .a . t hem .

c a r r ied o u t e a r l ie r t h an t h e P a lace , a f te r A .D . 2 73 . T he p a t te rn s , c ompos i ton , a nd c a rv ing t e chn ique s how n o r e semb lance s t o t he se . On t he c on so le s f i gu re s a ppea r i mmed ia te ly b e low t he b o l s te r s ( Ba r to l i 1 963 : 5 8 -60 , f i g . 3 2 , p l s . L -LV I I ; K äh le r 1 964a : P l s 2 0 , 2 1) . B y t h e s i de n i che s w e re e ag le s w i th t hunde rbo l t s , b y t he c en t ra l n iches , b us t s o f t he f ou r s ea son s . I n t h is o f f ic ia l b u i ld ing , r e f e rences t o d iv ine p owe r f r ame r e ference s t o t he e n joymen t i tb r ing s . I n al e ss o f f ic ia l r e s idence , t h e re s hou ld b e a t l e a s t t h e s ame b a lance , i fn o t g rea te r empha s is o n e n joymen t .

S ix c on so le s w i th a mo ld ing u nde r a nd b e tween

mo ld ing : r ak ing f i l le t . U nde r t h e o u te r t wo , a nd t h en u nde r a nd b e tween t he i nne r o ne s , c on t inue s t h e l owe r p a r t o f t h e mo ld ing n ea r t he t owe r s . c onso les ( f igs . 2 4 -26 ) : N iemann : f i g s . 2 1 , 2 2 , p . 2 3 , d escr ip t ion 2 3 ; H era rd -Ze i l ler : f i gs . 4 6 , 4 7 p . 4 0 ; Ma ra sov id - Ma rasov e p l s . 1 0 , 1 . E x t reme w es t b ad ly d amaged , o the r s g ood c ond i t ion .

I .C .5 .b . C o lumn s : s ha f t s a nd c ap i ta ls m i s s ing : Adam a nd C a ssa s b o th s how s ome s urv iv ing , b u t t he ir a ccu racy m ay b e d oub ted .

f r on t : d oub le b ud . s i de s : d oub le v o lu te w i th v a r ied p l an t f o rm s i nc o rne r s . f r ame s ,f r om R ( E )t o L( W ) :

b a se s : N iemann : f i g . 2 2 , p . 23 . t he c on so le s .

( 1 ) s hea r shaped l e a f( no d a r t ) , l i nked ;

A t t ic , c arved t oge the r w i th

I .C .5 .c . I mpos ts a nd s t r ing c ou r se ( f ig . 2 3 ) : He ra rd Z e i l le r : f i g . 4 3 p . 3 8 ; N iemann : f i g s . 2 3 , p .2 3 , 2 4 , p .2 4 .

( 2 ) s hea r -shaped l e a f( no d a r t ) , l i nked , b ead a nd r ee l ; ( 3 ) z igzag ( l i t t le r e semb lance t ol e a f ) w i th b ead a nd r ee l ;

r i nceau w i th s econda ry s t em , f i l le t , b ead a nd r ee l , r ow o f a can thu s l e ave s o n c ave t to ,

( 4 ) r i nceau w i th s e conda ry s t em ( t refo i l f l owe r ) ;

I .C .5 .d .

( 5 ) s hea r shaped l e a fa nd d a r t ;

A rche s ( f ig . 2 3 ) .

3f a sc ia , r ak ing c o rn ice .

( 6 ) p la in

F a sc iae o ve r e ach a r ch c onnec ted b y s t ra igh t l i ne ; f i l le t s m ee t a t ap o in t , a s o n P e r is ty le a r cade .

c on so le s b y t owe r s a r e n o t c a rved o n o u te r s i de s . b o t tom : f our o u te r c on so le s a can thu s , t wo i nne rmo s t , h or ned h umano id h ead ( s a ty r ) .

r ak ing

I .C .6 . P edes ta ls ( f igs . 1 7 , 1 8 ) . 4 p rese rved , o r ig ina l p os i t ions u nce r ta in ( Kah le r 1 964a : f i g , 1 ; W i lke s 1 993 : f i g . 3 ) . r ak ing f i l le t a tt o p a nd b o t tom

T he h eads u nde r t he c en t ra l c on so le s , l ook ing d own o n p eop le p ass ing t h rough t he g a te , a r e s ome t ime s r e f e r red t o a s b u l l -men , a nd s a id t o b e a po t ropa ic . T he o bv ious c ho ice f o r a n a po t ropa ic h ead w ou ld b e Medu sa , a s s he a ppea r s , f o r i n s tance , o n c on so le s a t G amz ig rad . I fs ome th ing e l se i su sed h e r e , t h e re mu s t b e ag ood r ea son . T he h ead s a r e h e re t ow e lcome t h e v i s i to r , a nd p roc la im t h e n a tu re o f t he s pace w i th in t h e w a l l s . T hey a r e n o t b u l l -men , b u t D ionys iac f i gu re s . T he s ho r t h o rn s , e a r s , a nd s ma l l t u f t s o n t h e f o rehead , a r e a l l f ound o n b u l l s ' h ead s . T he s ame h or n s a nd e a r s a l so a ppea r o n y oung h ead s p robab ly b e s t i d en t if ied a s s a ty r s , o r n ea r r e la t ions o f s a ty r s , i . e . , h ead s f r om t he A rchaeo log ica l Museum i n Z ada r a nd f om Aph rod is ia s ( Zada r A rchaeo log ica l Mu seum , G e rman A rchaeo log ica l I ns t i tu te i n R ome n ega t ive 8 2 .3949 , I ndex o f Anc ien t A r t a nd A rch i tec ture f i che 1 028 ; Aph rod is ia s , n ega t ive n o . 1 0083 ) .

H e igh t s : 2a lmos t t he s ame , 0 .61 , 0 . 62 , 0 .72 , 0 . 82 m ; P o s s ib ly o r ig ina l ly a f i f th mea sur ing a round 0 .72 , a l l f i ve a r ranged s ymme t r ica l ly ( Käh le r 1 964a : 7 -8 c f . 1 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : 4 1 a nd f i g . 3 7 , p . 3 4 ; N iemann : 2 4 ) . Käh le r a rgue s t h a t o r ig ina l ly f i ve p eda s ta l s s uppo r ted s t a tue s o ft h e T e t ra rchs a nd J up i te r ( s ee a bove , p .2 5 ) .

I .D .

West Wa l l :

c rown

mo ld ing ,

s t r ing c our se , n i ches ,

g a teway . I .D .1 . C rown m o ld ing : No e xpo sed s t re tche s o f w a l l e xcep t o ve r g a te , w he re t h eu sua l c rown mo ld ing a ppea r s w e l l p r ese rved I .D .2 . S t r ing c ou r se ( f ig . 2 7 ) : I 1 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i gs . 5 6 , 5 7 , p . 4 6 ; N iemann : f i g . 3 , 7 , p . 3 2 . S urv ive s o ve r g a te ,whe re l i t t le c an n ow b e s een . O ne s t re tch o n n o r the rn o c tagona l t owe r p re se rved o n at e r race .

On t h em t oo , h a i r c ove r s t h e f o rehead , o n ly mo re l a v ish ly c a rved i n to s epa ra te l o ck s , a nd c ome d own i n " s idebu rn s " u nde r t h e e a r s . I n t he ir u sua l w ay , D ioc le t ian 's c a rve r s h ave s imp l if ied t he r ep resen ta t ion t o i t s e ssen t ia ls . F igures f r om t he c i rc le o f D ionysu s o f ten a ppea r n ea r t h e e n t r ies t o r e s idences t o i nd ica te t ha t t h e v i s i to rc ome s t o ap l ace o fs a c red r e f r e shmen t .

p l a in mo ld ing :

r ak ing f i l le t ( va r ian t ) , c onvex , r ak ing f i l le t .

p a t te rned mo ld ing : r ak ing f i l le t , o ve r lapp ing l e a f o n c onvex , b ead a nd r e e l , a n the rn ion o f a l te r na t ing l o tu s / lo tus . Two d i f fe ren t p rof i les , s o p a t ter n ed mo ld ing i sn o t " f in i shed " p l a in mo ld ing .

I n 1 931 L 'O range i den t if ied t h e se f i gure s a s r i ve r g od s ( s ee a l so L 'O range 1 965 : 8 5 -86 ) .6 0 H e c i te s r e f e rence s i n P anegy r ic s t o r i ch h a rve s ts e t c . ( 1965 : 8 5 -86 ) . R ive r g od s d o n o t s eem p a r t icu la r ly a pp ropr ia te t o t h i s g a teway . T he re a re n o n o tab le r i ve r s n ea r t he s i te . T he t heme s o f p eace a nd f r u i t fu lne ss t ha t L 'O range a s soc ia te s w i th t he r i ve r g ods a r e h oweve r a pp rop r ia te t heme s n o t o n ly f o r a ny c oun t ry r e s idence , b u t f o r i mpe r ia l s e lf c ong ra tu la t ion . T he p h ra se s h e c i te s f r om P anegyr ic s c an s t i l l p rov ide a g u ide t o t he mood u nde r ly ing t h e se n a tu re f i gu re s , a nd s ome o the r d eco ra t ion i n s ide t h e P a lace .

I .D .3 . N iche s . I n 1 993 , P a t te rn s o n s ou th n iche a lmo s t t o ta l ly a b raded . S i l l : t r ace s s ugge s t h o l low t ongues l i ke t ho se o n t he s i l l s o f t he E a s t a nd No r th g a te s . N iemann d rew b o th n iches . He ra rd -Ze i l le r men t ioned b o th , p ho tog raphed o ne , or namen t u n readab le . I n 1 993 , s ou ther n n i che s urv ived i n s ide a n o ff ice , d eco ra t ion s l igh t ly l e ss c l ea r t h an i n H 6b ra rd . I n 1 967 , n or the r n n i che w i th o ne ( s ou thern ) p i la s te r r e co rded w i thou t f u r the r d e ta i l i n d raw ing s b y t h e I n s t i tu te f o r t h e P re se rva t ion o f C u l tu ra l Monumen t s o f S p l i t . P e r son r en t ing t ha t s pace i n 1 993 s a id n i che n o l onge r e x is t s , b u t t ha t c ou ld n o t b e c onf i rmed .

C on so le s t o s uppo r t c o lumn s o n e i the r s i de o f( i n te r io r ) n i che s h ad b een i nc luded i n D ioc le t ian 's r e s to ra t ion o f t h e C ur ia i n R ome ,

I .D .4 . Ga teway . 1 e i d en t if ied t h e s omewha t s im i la r b u s t s o n d oub le h e rm s i n t he n ea rby t own o f S o hn a s r i ve r g od s p a i red w i th T e t ra rch ic p or t ra i t s t o c e leb ra te t h e f e r t i l i ty o f t he e a r th . T he i n terp re ta t ion o f t h e h erm s i sq ue s t ionab le . T he f i gu re s a tS p l i t d o n o t c l o se ly r e semb le t ho se o n t h e h e rm s .

I .D .4 .a .

6 0

C or n ice o n f l a t a r ch

( f ig . 2 8 ) . We l l p re se rved .

b ead a nd r e e l , o vo lo , e gg a nd d a r t , a n them ion o f a l terna t ing p a lme t tes , f i l le t .

4 2

ARCH ITECTURAL DECORAT ION OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT b o t tom :

C en t ra l v ousso ir ( k eys tone ) p ro trude s : c a rved v i c tory n ow d e s t royed e xcep t f o r o ne w ing ( 1 16b ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 5 8 , p . 4 6 ) T he a l te rna t ing p a lme t te p a t tern r eappea r s o n E xecu t ion s im i la r t oo ne o f t h e s t y le s i nt h e l a t te r . I .D .4 .b .

a can thus .

I .C . Nor th Porch : c orn ice ,p od ium .

I I .C .6 .

A rch ivo l t .

d oor , c o lonnade a nd e n tab la ture , r ak ing

I .C .1 . D oo r f r ame ( f ig . 3 5 ) : H ebra rd -Ze i l ler : f i g . 1 51 , p . 13 . f i g . 1 53 , p . 14 . E n t ire p rof i le a bove d oo r s urv ive s , b ad ly d amaged . j amb s c ove red b y l a te r c on s truc t ion e xcep t f o r n a r row s t r ip o n w e s t .

3f a sc iae , r ak ing f i l le t . I .E . Corner Tower s : c orner mo ld ings , u pper mo ld ing . ( f igs . 2 9 , 3 0 , d raw ing 1 ) .

j amb : o n v i s ib le s t r ip , o ne f a sc ia e dged w i th c ab le o n a s t raga l . I .E .1 . C o rne r mo ld ing s : O n S E t owe r , c o rne r mo ld ings s u rv ive o n 2c orne r s , SW a nd S E , b u t n o t o n NE . On NE t owe r , c o rne r mo ld ing s o n a l l 3c o rne r s . O n N or thwe s t t owe r c o rne r mo ld ing s o n NE , NW : SW n o t v i s ib le .6 1

l i n te l : f a sc ia , c ab le , f a sc ia , b ead a nd r e e l , e gg a nd d a r t , f i l le t . p a t ter n s s im i la r t o a r ch ivo l t s o f e a s t g a te a nd c rown mo ld ing o f T emp le o fJ up i te r . c or n ice : f i l le t , d en t i l s , c on so le s , c o rona f a ce , c ab le , c yma r e c ta w i th a n them ion o f a l ter na t ing p a lme t te ( up ) , l o tu s ( down ) , f i l le t .

E a s t c orne r o f NW t owe r : f a sc ia , f a sc ia , c ave t to , o vo lo , f i l le t , c yma r e c ta , l a rge f i l le t .

c on so le s : f r on t : d oub le b ud .

C u rva ture s n o t c l ea r : o f ten a pp roach o b l ique .

f r ame : l e a fz i gzag ( l i t t le r e semb lance t ol e a f ) .

A l l p re se rved c o rne r s t h e s ame e xcep t n o t a l l w i th f a sc iae .

b o t tom :

I .E .2 . U ppe r mo ld ing o n l i ne o f w a l l c r own mo ld ing s . P re se rved o n ly o n NW t owe r . I . Res idence : ( Prothyron ) H .A .

ma in

b lock ,

v est ibu le ,

I .C .2 . Z e i l le r : 4 6 .

p orch

Ma in b lock : c or r ido r d oo r , f r agmen t .

5i n te rven ing c of f er s w i th p l an t mo t if s

C o lonnade a nd e n tab la ture ( f ig s . 3 6 , 3 7 ) : Hera rd f i g . 1 48 , p . 10 , f i g . 1 50 , p . 12 ; N iemann : f i g . 5 6 , p .

I .C .2 .a . Ages

c o lumns :

p l in ths b e low b a se s :

w e l l p re se rved , s ome r epa i r i n M idd le p l a in

b a se s : N iemann : f i g . 5 5 , p .4 4 . A t t ic , d i f f e r i nh e igh t , t h i rd f r om E a s tr e pa i red i nM idd le A ge s ( N iemann : 4 5 ) .

I .A .1 . C o r r ido r d oo r ( f igs . 3 1 , 3 2 ) : H eb ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i gs . 1 62 , 1 63 , p . 19 , f i g . 1 64 , P . 1 20 ; N iemann : f i g . 1 39 , p . 1 06 . U ppe rp a r to ff r ame w e l lp r e served o nc o r r ido r( s ou th ) s i de .

s ha f t :

J ambs a nd l i n te l ( f rom i n s ide o u t ) :

A ssuan g ran i te : a s t raga l , b o t tom r i ng

c ap i ta ls : l owe r c o rona , u ppe r c o rona ,c a lyx , h e l ix : i n ne r t e nd r i l s s ha l low , a bacus o rnamen t 2p reserved a r e v e ry d i f f e ren t , v ague ly f o l ia te

2f a sc iae , b ead a nd r e e l , s wa s t ika A m eande r f i l led b y v a r iou s f l o ra l f o rm s , b ead a nd r e e l , g u i l loche o n r ak ing f i l le t . I .A .2 . F ragmen t ( o f d oo r j amb? s ee a bove , p p . 2 6 -27 ) : U npub l ished . N ow i n o f f ices o f T own P lann ing I n s t i tu te o f D a lma t ia .

h e igh t s v a ry s t r ik ing ly : 1 .05

3a r e 0 . 95 m h igh , 2 nd f r om e a s t i s

I .C .2 .b . E n tab la tu re ( a r ch i t rave o n ly ) o ve r c o lumn s , b ack ( s ou th ) s i de : He ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 1 50 , p . 112 ( s t ra igh t p a r t ) , o u t l ine o n l e f t s i de o fd r aw ing ; N iemann : f i g . 5 9 ( c u rved p a r t ) , p . 4 8 .

c ab le , s wa s t ika A meande r w i th d i sc l ike f i l l ing m o t if . Mea su remen t s a g ree c l o se ly w i th t ho se o f t h e meande r a nd f i l l ing o rnamen t o n t h e h a l l d oo r . T he c ab le t a ke s t h e p l ace t h e b ead a nd r e e l h a s o n t h e h a l l d oo r . I .B .

a can thu s .

s o ff i t b e tween c on so le s : s urv ive .

c urved mo ld ing : f i l le t

Vest ibu le : d oo r f r ame .

s t ra igh t mo ld ing :

2f a sc iae , r ak ing f i l le t , c onvex , r ak ing f i l le t , 2f a sc iae , r a k ing f i l le t

I .C .2 .c . E n tab la tu re o ve r c o lumn s , f r on t : s l igh t a b ra s ion

I .B .1 . D oo r f r ame ( f ig s . 3 3 , 3 4 ) : H eb ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 1 52 , p . 13 , f i g . 1 54 , p . 14 , f i g 1 55 , p . 15 ; N iemann : f i g . 7 0 , p .5 7 ; Ma rasov ie -Ma rasov ie : p l . 4 6 ) . N o t w e l l p re served : s ma l l p a r t o f j amb , a bou t t wo t h i rd s o fl i n te l i n c lud ing f u l l p rof i le .

w e l l p re se rved ,

1 .s t ra igh t mo ld ing ( draw ing 3 ) : : f a sc ia , h a lf r ound , f a sc ia , h a lf r ound , c ave t to , f i l le t /konvex f r ieze , c ave t to w i th s t ir rup f r amed l e af a nd d a r t , f i l le tf iden t i l s , c onso les , c o rona f a ce , c yma r e c ta w i th s hea r shaped l e a fa nd d a r t , f i l le t .

j amb : f a sc ia , b ead a nd r e e l , f a sc ia , o vo lo w i th g u i l loche , s t i r rup f r amed l e a fa nd d a r t , f i l le t :

2 .c urved mo ld ing : 2f a sc iae , c ave t to , t h en a s s t ra igh t

l i n te l : s epa ra te p i ece o fs t one . P a t ter n s a so nj amb s .

c on so le s : f r on t : d oub le l e a fb und le .

c o rn ice : d en t i l s ( ex tend ing p a s t e dge o fj amb ) , c on so le s ( e x tend p a s t d en t i l s ) , c orona f r on t , o vo lo w i th s hea r -shaped l e af , f i l le t , c yma r e c ta w i th a n them ion o f a l ter na t ing p a lme t te s , f i l le t .

f r ame : l e a fz i gzag . s i de s :

p l a in .

b o t tom : l e ave s a nd o t he r p l an t f o rm s .

c onso les :

s off i t c of f e r s : l e ave s a nd o t he r p l an t f o rm s .

f r on t : d oub le l e a fb und le .

s off i t u nde r a r ch i t rave : a n them ion o f a l terna t ing p a lme t te s .

f r ame s : l e a fz i gzag .

E n tab la tu re c on t inue s a r ound c orne r o n to e a s tern w a l l o f v es t ibu le ( f igs . 3 9 , 4 0 ) : s ee a bove , p . 2 8 . I .C .2 .d . R ak ing c orn ice ( draw ing s 2 , 1 3 , 1 4 ) : p re se rved , s l igh t a b ra s ion .

M ir i jana Ma ra sov ie g ene rou s ly s howed m e d e ta i led d raw ing s o f t h e t owe r s s he h a s p r epa red f o r p ub l ica t ion . T hey s how c l ea r ly t h a t t h ese mo ld ings d i d n o t c or re spond p rec ise ly e i the r t o t he i n te r io r d i v is ion s o ft h e t owe r , o r t om o ld ing s a pp l ied t ot h e w a l l s . T he d r aw ing s a l so s how b a se mo ld ing s n o t n ow v i s ib le . 6 1

We l l

r ak ing f i l le t , d en t i l s , c on so les , c o rona f r on t , r a k ing f i l le t w i th r i nceau w i th s e conda ry l e af o n o b l ique , f i l le t , c yma r e c ta w i th a n them ion o f a l ter na t ing p a lme t te ( up ) , l o tu s ( down ) .

4 3

REG ISTER T h is mo ld ing r un s a pp rox ima te ly l e ve l w i th t h e e n tab la tu r e o ft h e p o rch , w h ich d i f f e r s i nh av ing m o re p rof i le s , a nd s hea r shaped l e a f a nd d a r t a st h e t o p p a t te rn . V a r ia t ion s i n e xecu t ion o f a n them ion , f o r i n s tance w he r e b and p l aced , s hown i n1 1 6b ra rd -Z e i l le r : f i g s . 8 9 9 2 , p p . 6 6 -67 . K äh le r c ons ide r s t h e se p a lme t te s c l o se t ot h o se o n c on so le s f r om t h e B a s i l ica o f Maxen t iu s i nR ome ( 1936 : 1 84 ) . T he s im i la r i ty d oe s n o t s e em t on ece s s i ta te t h e s ame h and s .

c onso les : f r on t : d oub le l e a fb und le . f r ame : l e a fz i gzag . b o t tom : p lan t f o rm s , f ou r h ead s o n t h e e a s te rn s i de . s off i t c o f fe r s : I .C .3 .

p lan t f o rm s .

P l in th o ver p o rch .

N iemann : 4 8 -49 , f i g s . 5 9 , 6 0 .

N a r row p i ece o f s t one 4 .26 m . l o ng w i th f ou r c u t t ing s r e c tangu la r c u t t ing s e qua l ly s paced a tt h e t o p o f t he b ack ( n o c u t t ing s o n t h e n a r row t op ) . N iemann v ery p l aus ib ly i n te rp re ted t h e se a s s ocke t s f o r w ooden b eam s t o s uppor t ap l a tform r unn ing t h e d ep th o f t h e p orch . N o t r ace o f as uppo r t f o r t he o the r e nd o f t h e s upposed b eams s urv ives . P la tform c ons is ten t ly r e s to red a s h av ing s uppo r ted aq uad r iga ( 1 16b ra rd -Ze i l le r : 10 ; Ma ra sov ie - Ma ra sov ie : f i g . 3 2 . ) , p robab ly b ecau se o f t h e d ep th , 4 . 60 m , w h ich N iemann p ropo sed f o r t h e w ho le p l a tfo rm . B o th t h e a pp rop r ia tene ss o f a q uad r iga i n t h is p os i t ion , a nd t he p rac t ica l i ty o f u s ing s uch a p l a tfo rm t os uppo r t o ne , a r e o pen t oq ue s t ion ( s ee a bove , p .2 7 ) . I II . Te menos a rea : P er isty le c o lonnades , Mauso leum , T emp le o fJ up i te r , t wo r ound b u i ld ings . I II . A . P er is ty le c o lonnades ( f igs . 3 7 , 3 8 ) : b ase s l abs , a r ch ivo l t s , c rown m o ld ings .

wa l ls ,

a n tae , c o lumn s ,

c ap i ta l : s i ng le c o rona : c en te r l e a f , c orne r l e a f ; 1 / 2 l e a f e ach s i de ; a bove t h a t , h o l low t ongue w i th c r e scen t b a se ; f i l le t .

b reakage .

C o lumns .

p od ium b a se : r e ve r se r a k ing f i l le t . P od ium c orn ice . We l l p reserved w i th s o me 1f r agmen t b y n o r th w a l l , 1i nl a p ida r ium .

II .C .2 . P or t ico ( f igs . 4 7 , 4 9 ) : c o lumns , o u te r e n tab la ture , a r ch i t rave o n i n ne r f a ce o f e n tab la ture , a r ch i t rave i n Mauso leum w a l l , c of f e r s .

p od ium b a se s : N iemann : f i g . 6 6 , 6 7 , p .5 3 . P oo r c ond i t ion . One c i po l l ino s ha f t h a s ah ighe r b a se , o r d i f f e ren t b o t tom o fs ha f t , t h an t h e o the r s ( N iemann : f i g . 6 6 , a : E x t ra p i ece i n se r ted b ecause t h e s ha f t w a s s hor t , P . 5 2 ) .

II .C .2 .a . C o lumn s : n ow 1 0 o n n or th , 9o n s ou th : 1o n s ou th , a nd 2 a te a s t r emoved , a s w e l l a s t ho se i nf r on t o f t h e d oo r .

b a se : A t t ic . a s t raga l .

b a se s : N iemann : f i g . 8 6 , p .6 8 . A t t ic , c u t t oge the r w i th l ow s oc le s w i th r e ve r sed r ak ing f i l le t a nd r egu la r r ak ing f i l le t . D if f e r en t h e igh t s o f b o th b a se s a nd s o c le s t o c ompen sa te f o r d i f f e ren t h e igh t s o f s ha f t s .

H 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g s . 8 6 , 8 7 , 8 8 , p . 6 5 .

l owe r c o rona 8 ,u ppe r c o rona 8 ,c a lyx , f l a t h el i ce s , l e a fo n a bacu s . B a se s l abs w i th mo ld ings , r e s to red .

s ha f t s : v a r iou s h e igh t s a nd m a te r ia l s : r ed E gyp t ian g ran i te , g rey E gyp t ian g ran i te , g r ey n on -Egyp t ian g ran i te , b recc ia c o ra l l ina , P roconne s ian ( 2o f t h em f l u ted ) , " nonde sc r ip t g rey m a rb le o r l ime s tone " ( Wa rd P e rk in s 1 992 : 16 -117 , f i g . 1 02 . N umbe r s o f s ha f t s a r e n o t g i ven h e re , s i nce 16 a nd f i g . 1 02 d o n o t e n t ire ly c o inc ide , a nd 2 0 s ha f t s a r e l i s ted o n 16 , a l though o n ly 1 9 s u rv ive ) .

Ou t l ine s s een b y N iemann a ga in s t c o lumn b a se s ; a bou t h a l f w id th o f c o lumn b a se s ; s a id t o s uppor t ag r i l le o f w h ich A dam s aw f r agmen t s : A dam 1 764 : p l . XX ; N iemann : 5 3 ; H eb ra rd -Z e i l le r 6 4 .

2f a sc iae , r ak if ig f i l le t : g a te .

B a se f r agmen ts , o r ig ina l p os i t ion u nknown

( d ie ) b ead a nd r e e l , e gg a nd d a r t , f i l le t , a s t raga l w i th c ab le , c ave t to w i th s hea r -shaped l e a f , f i l le t .

S pu r w a l l c r own mo ld ing : f i l le t , f i l le t , c yma r e c ta ( sma l l ) .

II .A .4 . A rch ivo l ts ( f ig s . 4 1 , 4 4 ; d raw ing 4 ) : He ra rd 8 9 p .6 6 . w e l l p r ese rved .

f a sc ia , f a sc ia , r ak ing f i l le t , f l a t f r ieze ( e as tern s i de , f a c ing Mauso leum ) c onvex f r ieze ( we s ter n s i de , f a c ing T emp le ) , r ak ing f i l le t ( p la in c o rona o n w e s t , f i l le t a nd w eak o vo lo o n e a s t ) , c yma r e c ta , f i l le t .

I I .C .1 .a .

Wa l l a nd p i l la r b eh ind a n ta : a s t raga l o f a n ta s ha f t c on t inue s b ack a round p i e r , a nd o n t h e o ne o r ig ina l s t one o ft h e w a l l .

I I .A .3 .

II .B .2 . I nne r f a ce s o f c rown mo ld ing s : ( f ig . 3 9 , d raw ing 5 ) N iemann : f i g . 6 3 , p .5 1 , Ma ra sov ie - Ma ra sov id : p l . 4 9 . C omp le te o n e a s t , s ma l l p a r t i ng ood c ond i t ion v i s ib le o n w e s t .

I I .C .1 . P od ium d eco ra t ion : I 1 6b ra rd f i g . 1 04 , p . 7 6 , N iemann : f i g . 7 7 , p .6 3 , McNa l ly , Ma rasov ie a nd Ma ra sov ie 1 976 : d raw ing 1 9 .

a s t raga l .

c ap i ta ls ( f ig . 4 1 ) :

I nne r f a ce s o f a r ch ivo l ts : ( f ig . 3 9 , d raw ing 5 )

f a sc ia , f a sc ia , r a k ing f i l le t .

I II .C . Mauso leu m ( f igs . 4 5 , 4 6 ) : p od ium , p or t ico , p orch , d oo r , b a se , c rown , i n ter io r n i che s , i n te r io r l owe r o rde r , i n te r io r u ppe ro rde r , f r ieze .

b a se : d amaged .

s ha f t :

c rown mo ld ing , p l in ths ,

r eve r se r ak ing f i l le t .

An tae : We l l p re served o n n o r thea s t a nd s ou thea s t , f u l l h e igh t o f o ne s i de v i s ib le o n n or thwe s t ( Ma ra sov ie - Ma ra sov id : p l . 4 8 ) .

II .A .2 .

I II .B .1 .

I I .B .3 . P l in th s . ( s up ra p .3 0 ) .

II .A .1 . A n tae a nd r e la ted p ar t s ( f igs . 4 1 , 4 2 ) : N iemann : f i gs . 6 1 , 6 2 , 6 3 p p . 5 0 -51 ; f i eb ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 8 3 , p . 63 , Ma ra sov ie -Ma ra sov id : p l . 4 8 , 4 9 , 5 1 .

s haf t :

II .B . I nter ior o f c our tyards : n o i nforma t ion o n wa l ls .

f i g .

J o in s s im i la r t o t ho se o n a r cade o ve r n o r th

C ap i ta l s ( f igs . 4 8 , 4 9 ) : 1 6bra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g s . 1 01 , 1 02 , p . 7 5 . O ne m is s ing , f ound i ne xcava t ion o fe a s ter nb a th a nd n ow i n s ou thea s t t emeno s o f Mauso leum ( M im ik 1 990 : n o . 2 1 , p l . 1) .

II .A .5 . C rown mo ld ing (f igs . 4 3 , 4 4 ; d raw ing 4 ) H arard Z e i l le r : f i g . 9 0 , P . 6 6 . We l l p r e served . 2 f a sc iae , r ak ing f i l le t / /convex f r ieze , r ak ing f i l le t / /den t i ls , c onso le s , c o rona f r on t , c yma r e c ta a n them ion w i th a l te rna t ing p a lme t te ( up ) l o tus ( down ) , f i l le t .

L owe r c o rona 8 ,u ppe r c o rona 8 i n c lud ing f ou r t h a t g o o u t t o f o rm c a lyx , h e l ix w eak i n ne r t e nd r i l , a bacus w i th v a r iou s l e a f p a t ter n s i nf l eu ron

c onso le s : f r on t : d oub le l e a f b und le . f r ame : l e af z i gzag .

C o lumn c ap i ta l s a tc or n e r s h ave f i ve s i ded a bac i ( f ig 4 9 ) .

b o t tom :

A G reek n ame , ( D i .lox , i sc u t i n to o ne o f t h e c o lumn b a se s u ncove red w hen s a c r is ty w a s p u l led d own i n 1 937 ( F iscov ie f i g . 8 0 , Ma ra sov ie f i g . 1 6 ) .

s off i t c of fe r s :

a can thu s . p l an t f o rm s .

4 4

ARCH ITECTURAL DECORAT ION OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT SPL IT Wi lke s c a l l s i t" a w e l l -a t te s ted f r eedman o r s l ave n ame " f ound a t S a lona . H e a l so s ugges t s t h a t i tm igh t h ave b een c a rved b efo re t he s haf t a r r ived i n D a lma t ia ( 1993 , n o te 8 5 p . 1 09 ) . I tc ou ld a l so h ave b een c u t l a te r , p a r t icu la r ly d u r ing t h e p e r iod o f B yzan t ine r u le . I ti s o ne o f t wo G reek n ame s c a rved o n d eco ra t ion i nt he P a lace ( c f . I . C .3 . a ) . II .C .2 .b . (1 ) E n tab la ture , o u te r f a ce ( r igs . 5 0 , 5 1 , 5 2 : d raw ing ) : H 6bra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 1 00 p .7 4 , N iemann : f i g . 8 4 , p . 6 8 . Much o f a r ch i t rave w e l l p r e se rved i n p l ace : 9c or n ice b lock s a nd 2 f r ieze b lock s i n t emeno s .

P l s 5 , 1 2 .

T he f a ce l o ok s l i ke ap appa s i lenu s , b u t b ecause o ft h e h igh s t ra igh t h eadgea r ( c rown? ) M im ik s ugges ts t he h ead may r ep re sen t S e rap is . ( Fo r S erap is o n t he A rch o f Ga ler ius , L aub sche r 1 975 : e sp . 1 07 ; K o lb 1 987 : 1 63 ) . 5 .b ad ly d amaged , h ead o u t l ine c l ea r ( M im ik 1 990 : n o . 4 6 ) . 6 .t o ta l ly d e f aced , s i ze s ugge s t s h ead .

c onso le s : f r on t : v a r ious -doub le b ud , q ua t refo i l ( l ook s l i ke t wo x ' s ) , p l a in .

7 .h ead w i th w ing s p ro t rud ing F i skov ie : 7 5 , f i g . 7 0 .

f r ame : l e af z i gzag .

M im ik i d en t if ie s t h i s a sH e rme s ,b ecau se o fi t s s im i la r i t ie s t o ah ead i n t h e i n te r io r ( I I I .C .10 ) , b u t t ha t i d en t if ica t ion c an b e q ues t ioned .

b o t tom : f ace s , f l owe r s ( N iemann : f i g . 8 5 p .6 8 ) . One f a ce r e semb le s t h e f ace s o n t h e n o r th g a te c on so le s ( N iemann : f i g . 8 4 , p . 6 8 ) .

8 . b ad ly b roken , f a ce h a s h o l low e yes a nd h o l lowed s l i t mou th : w edge shaped c u t s u nde r t he mou th i nd ica te a b ea rd , u neven p ro t rus ion s o n c heek s , t he e dge s o f t he h ead a re f o rmed b y c u rv ing s hape s . A bove t he l e f t e ye t r ace s o f w ave s g o ing o u t t owa rd t h e c u rved e dge ( Ma ra sov ic - Ma ra sov ic 4 3 ) .

f ace s , f l owe r s .

E n tab la tu re c l ose ly r e semb le s l owe r o rde ro fi n te r io r . B o th a lmo s t t he s ame h e igh t . Ma in d i f f e rence s a r e a l te rna t ion o f l o tus a nd p a lme t te , a nd c on so le s .

M im ik i n te rp re t s t h e s hape s a s r ays a nd s ugge s t s t ha t t h is m igh t b e S o l , w ho a ppea r s o n t h e o ppo s i te b u i ld ing . P e rhaps mo re l i ke ly av ege ta t ion f i gu re , i tr e semb le s t he f o l ia te h ead s o n o ppo s i te b u i ld ing . T he c heek p ro t rus ion s l ook l i ke t he b eg inn ing o f l e ave s , a s o n t h e f o l ia te h eads o n Aure l ian 's T emp le o ft h e S un i nR ome ( Toynbee a nd Wa rd -Pe rk in s 1 950 : p l . X I , 3 ;N eu 1 972 : p l . 2 6a ) .

I nne r s i de , a rch i t rave o n ly .

f a sc ia , h a lf r ound , f a sc ia , o vo lo , c ave t to , II .C .2 .c

M im ik i d en t if ie s a s " t rag ic m a sk ," b u t t he re i s n o t e nough d e ta i l t o s uppo r t t h is i d en t if ica t ion , c ou ld e qua l ly b e c om ic m a sk , s e e A ppend ix O ne . M im ik 1 990 :

s off i t : N iemann : f i g . 8 9 , p .7 0 : g rooved b and w i th a r c a te ach e nd c o r re spond ing t ot he a r c o ft h e a bacu s d eco ra t ion .

II .C .2 .b . (2 )

3 . s imp le f a ce , l a rge e ye a nd mou th h o les , l i ne s e ts o f f s moo th h a i r a tt op ( M im ik 1 990 : n o . 2 8 , P is 3 , 1 2 ) .

4 .r e c tangu la r f a ce , b ea rded , h igh p o los l ike h a t o rd i adem

f a sc ia , h a lf r ound , f a sc ia , o vo lo , c ave t to , f i l le t / /convex f r ieze , r ak ing f i l le tf iden t i ls , c on so les , p la in c o rona f ace , c yma r ec ta w i th a n them ion : a l te rna t ing p a lme t te ( up ) , l o tus ( down ) , f i l le t .

s off i t c of f e r s :

2 . s im i la r , o n ly h a ir a nd f o rehead , o ne e ye s u rv ive -bad ly d amaged , b u t s t i l l mo re s ugges t ion t ha t t he h a ir -a rea i s d i v ided i n to t wo p a r t s ( M im ik 1 990 : p l s . 2 , 1 2 ) .

a r ch i t rave o n wa l l :j u s t a s I I .C .2 .b .

f a sc ia , h a lf r ound , f a sc ia , o vo lo , c ave t to , II .C .2 .d . C of fe r s ( f ig . 5 3 ) : N iemann : f i g . 8 8 , p . 7 0 , f i g . 9 1 p . 7 2 , F i skov ie :1 950 p . 7 3 , f i g . 7 6 ; M im ik 1 990 : 1 7 , p l s . 2 -6 , 1 , 1 2 . Nor th s i de , 4f our -s ided b lock s i n p l ace . s ou th s i de , 1f i ve s i ded b lock p ushed o u t o f p l ace . n ume rous p rese rved f r agmen t s , m any r e covered i n t h e 1 920 's ( M im ik 1 990 : 1 7 1 8) . A l l h ave s im i la r mo ld ing s : f ou r s ma l l f i l le t s , ab road f i l le t , a s ma l l f i l le t , ab road f i l le t ( s ome t ime s ab road c onvex ) , as ma l l f i l le t . F ive - s i ded s l abs h ave t h ree c o f f e r s : 2a r et r apezo id s a nd o ne i s f i ve s i ded . 2f r agmen t s i n t emeno s o f Mau so leum ; 1o u t s ide n or th w a l l . A l l p re served b o s se s r o se t te s , e ach d i f f e ren t .

T he c omb ina t ion o f v ege ta l , a n ima l , a nd a n thropomorph ic f o rm s f i nd s i t s b e s t p a ra l le ls i n Ana to l ia , e .g . , t h e c of f e r s f r om t he t emp le tomb a t S ide ( s ee b e low , p . 6 3 ) . Wi thou t mo re i nforma t ion a bou t t he t o ta l r eper to ire , a nd i t s a r r angmen t p i ece s , i n te rp re ta t ion i sr i sky . I n Append ice s One a nd Two i ti sa rgued t h a t , d epend ing o n t he ir p re sen ta t ion , h ead s c an h ave s pec if ic s i g if icance , o r a mo re g ene ra l o ne . T he i n ten t h e re may h ave b een s imp ly t o e n l iven t h e p o r t ico w i th av a r ied a r ray o fv i ta l f o r ce s . I I .C .3 . P o rch . O u te r e n tab la tu re c on t inued e n tab la ture o f t he p o r t ico : a ng le v i s ib le o ver c o lumns e i the r s ide o f d oo r . B eg inn ing o f i n ne r e n tab la tu re r ema ined i n Mau so leum w a l l u n t i l t h e n ine teen th c en tu ry r enova t ion s .

F our -s ided s l abs h ave 2 c o f f e r s , c on ta in ing f l o ra l f orm s , a n th ropomo rph ic h ead s ( s ee b e low ) , a nd o ne r am ' s h ead .

II .C .3 .a . Mo ld ing s a bove d oor : a rch i trave a nd f r ieze e x ten s ive ly r e s to red , c or n ice c omp le te ly n ew . r ak ing f i l le t , / convex f r ieze , o vo lo / /den t i ls , c onso le s , p la in c o rona f a ce , c yma r e c ta , f i l le t .

Two c of f er s hapes : A t a ng le s , f i ve -s ided b lock s d iv ided i n to 3 c of fe r s b y r ough ly Y -shaped mo ld ing . B e tween t hem , f our -s ided b lock s d iv ided i n to t wo c of fe r s . O r ig ina l ly f o r ty two o f t h e se f ou r s ided b lock s o n s even s i de s . He ra rd -Ze i l le r a nd N iemann b o th r e s to re s i x mo re b lock s d i rec t ly i n f r on t o f t h e d oo r . F ou r s t i l l i n p lace , a l l o n t he s ou th s i de . E igh teen f r agmen t s i n t he Mau so leum c ou r tya rd , o ne b y t h e N o r th G a te , a nd e l even i n t h e l a p ida r ium b eh ind t h e A rchaeo log ica l Mu seum . I n a dd i t ion , t wo h eads i n t h e l a p ida r ium h ave t h e r i gh t mea su remen ts a nd c ha rac te r is t ic s t o h ave b een b osses i n t hese c o f fe r s .

N iemann ( 72 ) s ay s t h a t c ompa r ison w i th f r agmen t s s t i l l t o b e s e en i nt h e a r ea s how s r e s to ra t ion i sw rong i n mea su remen t s , i mp ly ing t h a t p a t te rn s a re a ccu ra te . No f r agmen t s n ow i d en t if iab le : U na s s igned b lock s o u t s ide t he n or th w a l l o f t h e P a lace w ou ld f i t , b u t h ave d i f f e ren t p a t te rn s . I I .C .3 .b . c o lumn s . n one i n p lace . B u l ie i den t if ied s ome t h a t H 6b ra rd a nd K au tzsch a g ree c ome f r om P a lace , n o t n ece ssa r i ly f r om t h i s p o rch ( Bu l ie 1 927 : 8 4 , c f .1929 : 4 4 ; H 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : 9 0 , K au tzsch 1 936 ) .6 2 K äh le r b e l ieved t h a t

E igh t h ead s u sed a s b o s se s s u rv ive t os ome d eg ree : 1 .f ema le h ead , r ound f ace , f u l l c u r ly h a ir j us t c ove r ing h e r e a rs , 3 /4 v i ew ; p oss ib le t opkno t , s nakes , o r d iadem ; ( N iemann : f i g . 9 1 ; M im ik 1 990 : p l . 1 2 ; T ancke n o . 7 7 , p l . XCV I I I [ N iemann 's d raw ing ] ) . M im ik i den t if ie s t h is a s Medu sa . T he p i ece i ss im i la r t o o ne i nt he mu seum a tS ide .

4 5

6 2 K au tz sch s peak s o f c o lumn s " . .d ie i n d e r K ape l le d es s chönen H aup tf r iedhof s b e i S p l i t w iede rverwende t s i nd . S ie s t ammen n ach g l aubwü rd ige rÜ be r l ief erung a u s d e r v e r schwundenen k l e inen K i rche S t . S t ephan s u nd l e tz ten e nde s woh l e benfa l l s a u s d em D iok le t ian spa la s t . A uch d i e B la t tzunge ü ber d em m i t t le ren H ockb la t t k eh r t a n i hnen w iede r " ( 6 , n . 1) . I n 1 814 t h e E a r ly C hr is t ian c hu rch o f S t . S t ephen o n t he Ma r i jan p en in su la w a s d emo l i shed a nd r e p laced b y t h e c eme te ry c hu r ch . T he a r ea i sn ow a

REG ISTER p orphyry c o lu mn f r agmen t s f ound i nt h e t emeno s d ur ing t h e 1 920 ' s m u s t h ave c ome f r om t h e p o r ch ( 1 974 : 8 10 ) . I I .C .3 .c . c of fe r s . N one i n p l ace . N iemann t hough t 3 f r agmen t s o f c u rved c o f f e r b lock s b e longed t ot h e r oof o f t h e p o rch . N ow 3 i n t emeno s , 1n ea r n or th w a l l , a nd 2 w i th n o c u rva tu r e i nl a p ida r ium b eh ind A rchaeo log ica l Mu seum . c of f e r s hape , d iamond i n s qua re . B u l ie t hough t t h e c of f e r b lock s c ou ld h ave b e longed i n t h e r e s iden t ia l b lock . M im ik d i sag ree s ( 18 -19 ) . S ome f r agmen t s o f d i amond in squa re c of f e r s n ow i nl a p ida r ium a r e f l a t ; s ome a r ec u rved .

o n ar e ve r sed a can thus c hal ice . I n mo s t o f t h e meda l l ion s a n ima l p ro tomes eme rge f r om a f l owe r c a lyx , i . e . , a n a r c o f r ough ly r ounded p e ta l s . T o t h e e x ten t t ha t t h e se c an n ow b e i d en t if ied , mo s t s eem t o b e g ame a n ima l s r ang ing f r om l i on s a nd p an the r s t h rough s t ag s t or a bb i t s . One h o r se i si n c luded . S ome a n ima ls a r e v iv id ly r ende red , o ther s mo re s ke tch i ly . Many a r e w o rn a nd d i sco lo red . D irec t ion o f movemen ts c hange s f r equen t ly . One m eda l l ion c on ta in s af l owe r i n s tead o fa n a n ima l p ro tome . T he s e cond m eda ll ion f r om t h e t op o n b o th s i de s c on ta in s af r on ta l h uman h ead . T he h ead s h ave s moo th f a ce s , a nd a s moo th c ap o f h a i r f r am ing t h e f a ce t ot h e l e ve l o ft he m ou th , ah a i rdo a l so f ound o n t h e f r ieze i nt h e i n te r io r ( I I I .C .10 , s ee A ppend ix O ne ) . T he h ead o n t h e l e f t h a s h o l low e ye a nd mou th o pen ing s ; t h e h ead o n t h e r i gh t h a s s o l id e yeba l l s a nd mou th . T he h ead o n t he r i gh t h a s mo re d e ta i l , p robab ly a dded b y m ed ieva l a r t is t s .

T h is c ommon c of f e r s hape a ppea r s i n t h e L a te A n t ique g a teway a t P e rge ( Manse ! 1 975 6 3 , f i gs . 2 2 a , b , 2 3 ; T ancke 1 989b : p l . XL IV , 4 ) N iemann r e s to red t he p o rch w i th ac en t ra l v au l t b e tween f l a t s i de s , mak ing a no the r a r cua ted p ed imen t i nt h e P a lace ( 6 9 -72 , f i g . 9 0 , p . 7 1) . P o rche s a tM i le tu s , P e rge , a nd S ide h ave n ow b een s hown i n

I I .C .5 .

r e s to ra t ion d r aw ing s a s h av ing t h e s ame c onf igu ra t ion ( s ee a bove , p p . 2 1 , 3 6 -37 ) . S t ra t im i rov ie o b jec ted t ot h e c en t ra l v au l t , i np a r t b ecau se o f r ema in s h e h ad b een a b le t o o b se rve d ur ing t h e n ine teen th c en tury d emo l i t ion ( 1913 , w i th r e fe rence s t o e a r l ie r a r t ic les ) . We igand ( 1924 ) a l so d i sag reed w i th N iemann . Ma ra sov ie s r e cons truc t ion d raw ing ( Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie : f i g . 3 5 ) s how s af l a t r oof . M im ik a rgue s f o r ac en t ra l v au l t ( 1 990 : 1 8 1 9) . C a refu l s t udy o f t h e n ume rous p o s s ib le f r agmen t s c ou ld p rov ide ac l ea re ra n swe r .

B a se m o ld ing o n o u te r w a l l .

f i l le t , r ak ing f i l le t . II .C .6 . C rown mo ld ing o n o u te r w a l l ( f ig . 5 8 ) N iemann : f i g . 7 9 , p .6 5 , I 1 6b ra rd f i g s . 1 09 , 10 , p .7 9 . D if f e rence s b e tween r ef lec t u nevenne s s i n p re se rved mo ld ing . a d jo in s , a nd i ns ma l l

N iemann 's a nd He ra rd ' s p rof i le s p robab ly c a rv ing , b u t N iemann i sc l ose r t om o s t o ft h e V ery w e l l p reserved e xcep t w he re s acr is ty b roken a r ea s .

f a sc ia , o vo lo , f a sc ia , o vo lo , c ave t to , f i l le t / /f la t f r ieze , r ak ing f i l le t / /den t i l s , s imp le c o rona , r ak ing f i l le t w i th l e af z i gzag o n t h e o b l ique , c yma r e c ta w i th a n them ion o f a l terna t ing p a lme t te s , f i l le t .

I I .C .4 . D oo r ( f ig . 5 4 ) : X I , N iemann : f i g . 8 1 p .6 6 .

He ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 11 p . 8 0 , p l .

II .C .4 .a . Conso le : e v idence f o r o r ig ina l .

n ine teen th c en tury r e s to ra t ion : n o

I I .C .7 . I n te r io r n i che s : C urved n i che s e i the r s i de o f d oo r w e l l p re se rved , o t he r s a l te red b y i n se r t ion o fd oo r s a nd a l ta r s .

s c ro l l w i th t wo e qua l v o lu te s , f l owe r t u cked i n to u ppe r o ne , a can thu s c u r l ing o u t b e low l owe ro ne .

II .C .7 .a . I mpo s t s ( f ig . 6 0 ) : N iemann : f i g . 9 5 , p . 7 5 , He ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g s . 14 , 15 , p .8 2 .

II .C .4 .b .

f i l le t , c onvex p ane l o n w h ich t h ree h o l low t ongue s w i th a r c a l ter na te w i th t wo h o l low t ongue f r ame s c on ta in ing a can thu s l e ave s , a nd a can thu s a t c orne r s ; b ead a nd r e e l ; l e af z i gzag ( c lo se t os hea r -shaped l e a f ) o n c ave t to ; f i l le t .

F rame ( f igs . 5 5 , 5 6 , 5 7 ) .

J ambs a nd l i n te l : much o r ig ina l a nd w e l l -p re se rved , s ome r e s to ra t ion , e spec ia l ly o f s hea r -shaped l e af a nd d a r t o n o b l ique .

E ach a can thus c on ta ins a l owe r l e af s l an t ing o u t w i th a c u rv ing o r d i agona l c en t ra l g roove i n s teadof a s t em , a nd a n u ppe r l e af w i th a s t em r i s ing f r om t h e f l oo r , s l an t ing t h e o ppo s i te d i rec t ion . T hey a r e a r t icu la ted n ea t ly b y d r i l l h o le s . K äh le r c ompa re s t h e se t o l e ave s o n t h e A rch o f C on s tan t ine , c a l l ing t h e l a t te r w eake r a nd l e ss t a u t ( 1 953 : 3 5 , B e i lage 6 ,2 ) .

f i l le t , s hea r -shaped l e a f a nd d a r t ( on s i de s , n o t o ve r t op ) i n hab i ted s c ro l l o n c onvex f r ieze , s hea r shaped l e a f a nd d a r t , f i l le t . s c ro l l i n g ood c ond i t ion , s ome w ea r , o ne h ead a ppa ren t ly r e ca rved i nM idd le A ge s . C orn ice ( f ig . 5 9 ; d raw ing 7 ) : i n p lace , n ine teen th c en tury : o r ig ina l f r agmen t , i n g ood c ond i t ion b eh ind A r chaeo log ica l Mu seum , c onf i rm s a c cu racy o fr e con s t ruc t ion .

I I .C .7 .b .

c on so les : f r on t : d oub le l e a fb und le .

I I .C .8 .a . C ap i ta l s i n w a l l b eh ind c o lumn c ap i ta l s . f i g . 16 , p .8 3 : O r ig ina l .

f r ame : l e af z i gzag . b o t tom :

( N iemann : p l . X I I )

II .C .8 . I n te r io r l owe r o rde r ( f ig . 6 1 ) : N iemann : f i g . 9 3 p . 7 4 , He ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g s 16 , 17 p .8 3 , f i g . 18 P . 8 4 , f i g . 19 p . 85 . E x ten s ive n ine teen th c en tury r e s to ra t ion . N iemann d rew f r agmen t s i nt h e A rchaeo log ica l Museum .

s hea r shaped l e af a nd d a r t , f i l le t , d en t i l s , c on so le s , f i l le t , b ead a nd r e e l , c ab le , f i l le t , s hea r -shaped l e a f a nd d a r t ( a can thu s a t c or ne r s ) , f i l le t .

s of f i t c of f e r s :

A rch ivo l ts

t wo f a sc ia , r ak ing f i l le t .

a can thu s .

He ra rd

l owe r c o rona 4 a can thus , u ppe r c o rona 3 f r on t , 1 / 2 o n s i de s , n o c a lyx , s t rong v o lu te s a nd i nne r h e l ice s t h a t b end o u t ;ve ry s ha l low , n o p i la s te r s b e low .

l e af m o t if s .

T he s c ro l l a r ound t he d oo r o f t h e m au so leum i s as i ng le a can thus s c ro l l o ft h e c ommon c on s t ruc t ion i nw h ich t e nd r i l s e me rge f r om a t h ree -pe ta l led f l owe r c a lyx , a nd c u r l t i gh t ly t of o rm c l ea r ly -def ined meda l l ions ( s ee a bove , i nhab ited s cro l l ) . B es ide a c en t ra l k an tha ro s , b u t n o t r i s ing o u t o fi t ,f i ve m eda l l ion s g o t oe i the r s i de o f t h e l i n te l . On e i the r s i de o f t h e k an tha ros , l i on p ro tome s c ha rge t owa rd i t( r e semb l ing g r iff in m o t if i n c r own m o ld ing o f T emp le o f J up i te r , I I .D . 5 ) . Two mo re s c ro l l s , o f 1 m eda l l ion s e ach , r un a l ong t he j amb s . T hey r i se f r om a n a can thu s c ha l ice s e t

p a rk : G od i gn jak z ag t i te s pomen ika k u l ture h r va t ske 2 3 ( 1 976 -77 ) 1 01.

4 6

II .C .8 .b .

C o lumn s .

b a se s : A t t ic . s ha f t s : o r ig ina l , a l l A s suan r ose g r an i te ( N iemann : f i g 9 3 , p . 7 4 ; Wa rd -Pe rk in s 1 992 : 16 -117 ) . c ap i ta ls ( f ig . 6 2 ) : N ow ( s umme r 1 994 ) f i ve c ap i ta ls i n t h e l a p ida r ium b eh ind t h e mu seum , f ou r b ad ly w o rn , o ne i n f a i r c ond i t ion , a s w e l l a s s ma l le r f r agmen t s . l owe r c o rona 8 ,u ppe r c o rona 8 ,c a lyx f r om " s pea r " s t em a so n P er is ty le c o lumn s , n orma l h e l ice s , a bacu s o rnamen t v a r ie s : f l owe ro rl e a f .

ARCH ITECTURAL DECORAT ION OF D IOCLETIAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT II .C .8 .c . E n tab la ture ( f ig s . 6 3 ,64 ) : O r ig ina l p a r t s o f e n tab la tu re u p t o g u i l loche o ve r f r ieze r ema in i n p lace : 1 f r agmen t o f c o rn ice i n b ad c ond i t ion i nl a p ida r ium b eh ind t h e A rchaeo log ica l Museum ; o the r s t he re c ou ld b e long t o t he a rch i t rave , b u t a r e t oo b ad ly d amaged t o g i ve i n forma t ion ; 5 c orn ice b lock s i n f a ir t o b ad c ond i t ion , a nd 3 f r ieze b lock s f r om r e ssau t s i ng ood c ond i t ion o u t s ide n o r th w a l l o fP a lace

a can thu s .

b a se s :

r ound ,

b a se : r ak ing f i l le t , c ave t to , f i l le t? b ad ly d amaged , c ou ld h ave b een c u rved . a s t raga l .

1 1 .D .3 . N iemann : f i g . 9 4 , p .

An tae b o th w e l l p re se rved .

b ase : f l a t tened A t t ic : b ad ly d amaged , p rof i le s u nc lea r : maybe t o rus a tt op , d amaged , s co t ia , c e r ta in ly t h en r ak ing f i l le t c e r ta in ly i n s tead o f at o ru s . S im i la r t o p i la s te r b a se , wh ich i s mo re b ad ly d amaged .

C o lumns .

t r ipa r t i te , b u t n o t t r u ly A t t ic :

h a lf

i mmed ia te ly a bove t h e u ppe r c o rona .

p lan t f o rm s .

E x ten s ive ly r e s to red , b u t n ume rou s o r ig ina l f r agmen t s s urv ive . II .C .9 .a .

f i l le t ,

T he a can thus l e ave s h e re a re mo re v e r t ica l t h an o n t h e c ap i ta l s o ve r c o lumn s . T he re i sl e s s d iv is ion b e tween t h e s i de b und le s , a nd t h ey t ouch t he n ex t a can thus mo re c on t inuous ly . T he re i s n o g ap b e tween l eaves f or t he b eg inn ing o f t h e c a lyx , wh ich r i se s

f r ame : l e a fz igzag .

I I .C .9 . I n te r io r u ppe r o rde r ( f ig . 6 6 ) : 7 5 , I 1 6bra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 1 20 , p .8 6 .

r ak ing

c ap i ta ls : Marasov ie - Ma ra sov ie : p l . 9 5 . t wo c o rona s , c a lyx w i th c en t ra l l e af ,h e l ice s , f l eu ron l e a f a te a s t , d e s t royed a ts ou th .

c onso les : f r on t : d oub le l e a fb und le .

s off i t c of f e r s :

o vo lo ,

I I .D .2 . Corne r p i la s te r s ( f ig . 7 2 ) : t wo , o n b ack c o rne r s : o ne v i s ib le , c omp le te b u t d amaged .

s ha f t :

2f a sc iae , e gg a nd d a r t , f i l le t / /ove r lapp ing l e af o n c onvex f r ieze , r ak ing f i l le t w i th g u i l loche o n o b l ique / /den t i ls , c on so le s , c o rona f a ce . f i l le t , a n them ion w i th a l ter na t ing l o tu s ( up ) p a lme t te ( down ) o n c yma r e c ta , f i l le t .

b o t tom :

II .D .1 .b . c orn ice : c ave t to , f i l le t .

s haf t :

v e ry s l igh t c urva tu re .

p la in , a s t raga l a tt op .

s haf t s : a l l o r ig ina l : 4p o rphy ry ,3 g rey E gyp t ian g ran i te , 1 u n iden t if ied (Wa rd -Pe rk in s 1 992 ( 1 16 -117 ) .

c ap i ta l : l owe r c orona 4 , u ppe r 4 ( on ly o n c or ne r s ) -ca lyce s , h e l ice s , a bacus n o s urv iv ing n eu ron .

c ap i ta ls ( f ig . 6 5 ) : 2o r ig ina l c ompo s i te i n g a rden i n f r on t o f

II .D .4 .

A rchaeo log ica l Museum .6 3

i nve r ted r ak ing f i l le t a nd f i l le t .

marb le ( now d i sco lo red , b lack ) : P roconne s ian?

II .D .5 . C rown mo ld ing : I 1 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 1 40 , p . 1 04 , N iemann : f i g . 1 07 , p . 8 3 , a l so 1 05 , p . 8 2 . We l l p rese rved , b u t b ad ly wor n i n p lace s . C hange s b e tween l ong a nd s hor t s i de s , i n c ave t to o fw e s t , a nd i na r ch i t rave a te a s t .

s i ng le a can thu s c o rona , h o l low t ongue w i th c re scen t b a se ( t ips c ur l ing o ve r ) ,b ead a nd r e e l , v o lu te s , c en t ra l e gg a nd d ar t , e gg a nd d a r t o n o ne a bacus , r ow o f p a lme t tes o n t h e o ther . II .C .9 .b . P i la s te rs ( f ig s . 6 9 , o r ig ina l , a l l o t he r s may b e r e s to red .

7 0 ) :

Two

f a sc ia , b ead a nd r e e l , f a sc ia , c ab le , f a sc ia , b ead a nd r e e l , e gg a nd d ar t , f i l le t / /on c onvex , l e afy h ead s b e tween g r if f ins c lasp ing c r a te r s , r ak ing f i l le t w i th s t ir rup -f ramed l e a fa nd d a r to n t h e o b l ique f a ce , d en t i ls , c onso le s , s moo th c o rona f a ce , t hen d i f f e r s o n l ong a nd s hor t s i de s :

c er ta in ly

n o b a se : b o t tom s t one o f s ha f t b roade rt h an t h e u ppe r o ne s . s haf t :

p la in .

c ap i ta l s : o ne c o rona : h e l ix , a bacu s .

I II .D .5 .a, a t w e s t ( f ig . 7 2 , d raw ings 9 , 1 4 ) , c ave t to s ome t imes w i th s t ir rup -f ramed l e af a nd d ar t , s ome t ime s p la in , f i l le t .

s i ng le l e a f , 2h a lve s o n c or n e r s ; d oub le

II .C .9 .c . E n tab la tu re ( f ig s . 6 7 , 6 8 ) : O ne f r agmen t o f a rch i trave a nd f r ieze i n p oo r c ond i t ion a nd 6 c orn ice f r agmen t s i n f a ir c ond i t ion o u t s ide n o r th w a l l . Ano the r p oss ib le o ne i nt he l a p ida r ium o ft h e A r chaeo log ica l Museum :

II .D .5 .b , o n s ou th a nd n or th ( f ig . 7 3 , d raw ings 1 0 , 1 3 ) , s ma l le r , p la in c ave t to s urmoun ted b y c yma r e c ta w i th a n them ion o f a l ter na t ing p a lme t te ( up ) a nd l o tus ( down ) , f i l le t ( c on t inua t ion o f t he r ak ing c orn ice t op : Ma ra sov ie - Ma ra sov ie : p l . 9 5 s hows c hange a tc o rne r ) .

f a sc ia , c ab le , f a sc ia , b ead a nd r e e l , s t ir rup -f ramed l e a fa nd d a r t , f i l le t , f l a t f r ieze , b ead a nd r e e l , s hea r shaped l e af ( no d a r t ) f i l le t / /gu i l loche , d en t i ls , p la in c o rona , r ak ing f i l le t , c yma r ec ta w i th a n them ion o f a l ter na t ing l o tu s ( up ) a nd p a lme t te ( down ) , f i l le t .

a tc or ne r , ar am 's h ead ( a l so ar am ' s h ead i n ac of f e rs t i l l i np l ace o n t h e p or t ico o f t h e Mauso leum , I I .C .2 .d , n o t i lu s t ra ted ) . c on so le s : f r on t : d oub le l e a fb und le . f r ame : e gg a nd d a r t .

II .C .10 . F igu ra l f r ieze ( f igs . 6 9 , 7 0 ) : Marasov ie Ma ra sov id : p l s . 6 1-89 , N iemann : p l s . XX I I -XX I I I . I n v a r ied c ond i t ion : 2 b ad ly a braded ( o r u nf in ished? ) , mos t i n g ood c ond i t ion . One p i ece a tw e s t l o s t .

b o t tom : s of f i t c of f e r s :

p lan t f o rm s .

I n t h e c yma r e c ta , p a lme t te s a r e s l ende r , " l o tu se s " h ave a can thus f r ond s e x tend ing h o r izon ta l ly , t he i r s t em s e nd ing i n as ma l l d ownwa rd c u r l .

I I .D . T e mp le o f J up i ter ( f ig . 7 1 ) : P od ium , p i la s te r s , a n tae , b a se mo ld ing , c rown mo ld ing , r ak ing c orn ice , b ack p ed imen t ,d oo r ,i n te r io rc rown ,i n te r io rc of e r s . P od ium :

a can thus .

A rch i t rave w rap s a round f r on t , g o ing o ve r d oo r , o nce s uppo r t ing r oof c of fe r s . T he d iv ide r s b e tween t h e f a sc iae a r e p rof i led a l l a round , b u t p a t te rn s c an d i sappea r : C ab le m is s ing i nw ho le p o rch a r ea , b ead a nd r ee l a tb o t töm o n t h e s i de , n o to ve r d oo r .

p u t t i r ace , h un t , h o ld b u s t s i n m eda l l ion s , a nd h o ld g a r land s u nde r h ead s : s ee Append ix One .

I I .D .1 .

B a se mo ld ing .

I n t h e f r ieze , l e a fy h ead s h ave s l igh t ly p a r ted mou th s . One b und le o f a can thu s c ome s d own a nd o u t f r om t h e c h in . As e cond f o rm s a c on t inuous s e r ie s o f h or izon ta l p ro jec t ion s a long t h e s i de o f t he mou th a nd n o se u p t h e e ye s : s ome t ime s s imp le p a ra l le l f r ond s , a t o the rt ime s mo re d iv ided . At h i rd b und le b eg in s a bove t h e e ye s a nd c u r l s o u t t ob o th s i de s o ft h e h ead .

N iemann : f i g . 1 06 , p . 8 3 .

II .D .1 .a . b ase : i nve r ted r ak ing f i l le t a nd f i l le t .

L eafy h eads i no the r p l ace s c an b e s haped i n v a r iou s w ays , b u t t h e l e ave s d o n o t u sua l ly c ove r a s much o f t h e f a ce a s h e re . U sua l ly , t h ey r ep lace b ea rd a nd h a ir , l e av ing mo s t t h e f o r ehead a nd c heek c l ea r . Ac lump o fa can thus o f ten b eg in s t o g row o u t o f t h e c heek n ea r t he n ose a nd mou th , l i ke w h iske r s . Mazza ( 1982 : 2 8 )

H6bra rd -Ze i l ler ( 9 ) s ay f ou r a r e N eo -Co r in th ian , f ou r c ompo s i te . T hey i lus t ra te o ne o f t h e t wo c ompo s i te c ap i ta l s n ow p r e se rved i n t h e A rchaeo log ica l Mu seum . N o e v idence f o r a no the r t y pe s urv ive s . 6 3

4 7

REG ISTER u nde r t h e f o re leg s . T he g r if f in s n eve r a c tua l ly a t tack t h e se s ke tchy f i gu re s .

d e sc r ibe s t h e u sua l c on f igu ra t ion o fc arved h ead s , c on t ra s t ing t h em t o t ho se i n mosa ic . A c of f e r b oss f r om t h e Mauso leum p or t ico ( I I I .C .2 .d , b o ss 9 ) f i t s t he n orm mo re c lo se ly t han a ny h ead s i n t h e T emp le f r ieze , b u t t h e l a t te r d if e r among t h em se lve s . T he t wo c on so le s ( I I I .D .8 .e ) a r e m idway b e tween t h e t wo .

Wegne r ( 1993 : 8 0 ) i n c lude s g r if f in s a mong mo t if s i n d eco ra t ion t ha t a r e c l ose ly l i nked t o c u l t c e remony , b u t d oe s n o t e xp la in h i s r ea son ing . Mi l le r c on s ide r s t h e se g r iff in s f une rary ( 1975 : 3 6 -37 ) . G r if f in s a r e a ssoc ia ted w i th Apo l lo a nd t h rough h im w i th S o l ; w i th D iony su s ; a nd w i th N emes is . I n a l l t h e se a s soc ia t ion s t h ey c an h ave i mpe r ia l s i gn if icance , a nd t h e f i r s t g ive s t hem a c onnec t ion w i th a po theo s is ( S imon 1 962 ) .

T he b o t tom a nd t op l e ave s o f t he h eads o n t h e f r ieze e x tend o u t o ve ra nd u nde r t he g r iff in s . T hey s t and o n t h e i rh ind l eg s o n e i the r s i de o f ak an tha ros . B o th f o re leg s a re o f f t h e g round , s ome t ime s t ouch ing t he v a se . A can thu s l e aves u nde r t h e ir b e l l ie s a nd f r on t l e g s s ome t imes c u lm ina te i n a n ima l p ro tome s .

S ome r a the r l oose p r eceden t s e x i s t f o r t h e c omb ina t ion o f g r iff in s w i th f ol ia te b e ing s . I n S eve ran r e l ief s f r om t he Au la R eg ia i n R ome af ema le f i gu re ( "Rankengö t t in " ) r i se s b e tween g r if in s t ha t s he g ra sp s ( von B lanckenhagen 1 940 : 9 5 , p l . 3 2 ) . I n f r agmen t s f r om T ra jan 's f o rum , e ro te s eme rg ing f r om l e ave s f e ed g r iff in s . B ecau se t h e r e l ie f i n c lude s ak ra te r , S imon c on s ider s t h i s s cene t o b e D iony s iac , b u t t oi n c lude r e f e r ence t oN eme s is , who c an a l so b e a s soc ia ted w i th t h e c omb ina t ion o f e ro te s a nd g r if f in s ( 1962 : 4 9 , 7 79 ) . S imon t h ink s t h a t i n f une ra ry a r t t h e a s soc ia t ion s o fg r iff in s w i th A po l lo a nd D iony su s b ecame b l ended , a nd t ha t s ome i mpe r ia l a r t s im i la r ly c omb ined a ssoc ia t ion s w i th D iony sus a nd N emes is .

T he s imp le r f o rm o fa can thus f r ond u nde r t h e g r iff in s , a nd c om ing o u t f r om t h e l e afy h ead s r e cu r s o n t he f r ieze f r om o ne o ft h e r ound b u i ld ing s ( I I I .E .3 ) . T h is i so ne o f t he f o rm s f r om t h is T emp le t h a t r e cu r o n c on so les i n R ome t h a t Käh le r t h ink s w e re made b y t h e s ame c a rve r s ( 1936 : 1 86 -187 ) . F o l ia te h ead s u sua l ly o ccu r a s p a r t o f i nhab i ted a can thu s s c ro l l s , a nd t h e f o rma t h e re s how s t h a t o r ig in . S ome c a rve r s s eem mo re c on sc iou s o fi tt han o the r s , m ak ing mo re e f fo r t t ou se t he a can thu s t o t i e t h e mo t if s t oge the r . On t he A rch o f S ep t im ius S eve ru s i n R ome ( A .D . 2 03 ) t he ir f o l iage f l ows o u t , a nd o n s urv iv ing s l ab s f r om t h e t h e Au rel ian T emp le o ft he S un ( a f te r A .D . 2 73 , e xecu ted b y E a s ter nc a rve r s ) , i tc on t inue s i n to R inceaux ( Toynbee a nd Wa rd P e rk in s 1 950 : 2 3 p l . X I , 1 ;B r i ll ian t 1 967 : 8 1 ; N eu 1 972 : c a t . n o 4 4 ; 1 43 , 1 79 l i s t o f c arved e xamp les w i th b ib l iog raphy ; Mazza 1 982 : n o te 6 ,p . 3 0 ) I n A s ia M ino r af i ne e xamp le c ome s f r om t h e t h ea te r a tP e rge . T he f i ne ly d r i l led a can thu s f l ow s i n to a s c ro l l t h a t l ook s a s t hough i t a l so may h ave c onnec ted w i th a f r ieze o f h un t ing e ro tes , Ö zgür 1 988 : f i gs . 5 7 a nd 5 8 ) . F ine ly w o rked i s o la ted f r agmen t s c an b e f ound i nt he Mu seum o f An ta lya .

Wegne r , Mazza a nd o the r s h ave t r aced t h e o r ig in o f l e afy h ead s t o D iony s iac r i tua l , w he re t hey c an r e fe r f i r s t t o " c ic l ico e p e renne r i gene rar s i d e l la n a tu ra ," t hen p oss ib ly t o h uman i mmo r ta l i ty , w h ich c ou ld a ccoun t f o r t he mo t ifs a ppea rance o n s econd c en tu ry s a r cophag i ( Mazza 1 982 : 2 3 -24 ; Ovad iah a nd T u rnhe im 1 993 : p . 9 8 , b u t s ee v on B lanckenhagen 1 940 ) , Mazza a nd Ovad iah a nd T u rnhe im t h ink many l a te r a ppearance s i n f r iezes may b e " exc lu s ive ly d eco ra t ive " ( Ovad iah a nd T ur nhe im 1 993 : 9 8 ) . T he re i sn o t a n u nb roken l i ne o f d e scen t f r om t h e e a r l ier ma sk s t ot ho se i n R oman o rnamen t . Wegne r may b e mo re a ccu ra te ( 1935 : 4 6 , 4 9 ) : A l though s ee ing p receden t s i n G reek a r t , h e c on s ide r s t h e R oman l e a fy h ead i t se lf a f o rm b eg inn ing i n t he F lav ian p e r iod , m ean t t oi mbue d eco ra t ion w i th f r e sh l i fe , a nd g iv ing r i se t om any l a te r p e rmu ta t ion s . B r i l l ian t c i tes e xamp le s f rom B aa lbek , A n t io ch i nP s id ia , a nd O s t ia a s w e l l a s R ome . H e i sc au t iou s a bou t a t t r ibu t ing mean ing t o t hem , b u t s ugges t s t h a t t he ir p re sence o n t h e A r ch o f S ep t im ius S eve rus may d eno te " t he g ene ra l c ond i t ion o ff e r t i l i ty a nd a bundance " o ft h e Emp i re u nde r S ep t im iu s ( B r i l l ian t 1 967 : 8 1-82 . T he d eg ree o f s pec if ic mean ing wou ld v a ry , b u t a t S p l i t t h e mo t if h a s c er ta in ly n o t b een c ho sen " . .pe r i n teg ra re e c oord inare e legan temen te l e c ompos iz ione d i c a ra t te re or n amen ta le " ( Mazza 1 982 : 2 4 ) . De sp i te v a ry ing d eg ree s o fe f fo r t t o u se t he a can thus f o r i n teg ra t ion , t he h ead s a nd t he g r if f in s r ema in r a the r s t ubborn ly s epa ra te mo t if s . T he re mus t h ave b een s ome o ve r r id ing r ea son f o r d ec id ing t oc omb ine t hem h e re .

On t h e b ack o f t h e T emp le o fJ up i te r a tS p l i t , e ro tes t w ice r ep lace g r iff in s i n s uppo r t ing t he k an tha ro i . ( D raw ing 9 s hows o ne e xamp le : t h e d e ta i l o n d raw ing 1 4 i sa n a r t i s t ' s a t temp t t od ec iphe r t h e w or n a nd d i sco lo red d e ta i l s . ) T he c omb ina t ion o ff o rm s i n t h e f r ieze , i . e . , l e afy h ead s , k an tha ro i , g r if f in s a nd e ro te s , s eem s t o c on ju re u p s ome b road s en se o fD iony s iac w e l l -be ing , w h ich c ou ld b e f une ra ry o r n o t . H e re i tp robab ly i sn o t ( s ee a bove , n o te 4 8 ) , b u t n o th ing i n t h e or namen t make s t ha t c l ea r . T he g rape v i ne s a nd v in tag ing f ound a t t he d oo r a l so c a r ry D ionys iac o ve r tone s ( L I I .D .8 ) . I fi tt r ue t h a t t h e R oman s ee ing g r iff in s i n t h i s c ompany w ou ld t h ink o f N eme s is a s w e l l , t h a t d ua l i ty wou ld b e i n a cco rd w i th t h e o rnamen t a round t h e d oo r . T he re , p eace r e ign s t oge the r w i th f o r ce , b u t p eace d om ina te s . ( The b ack o ft he T emp le w a s c l o se t ot h e t emeno s w a l l . We d o n o t k now t h e h e igh t o f t h e l a t te r , s o w e d o n o t k now w he the r t he se e ro te s a nd t h e w rea th i nt h e p ed imen t a bove t h em wou ld h ave b een v i s ib le f r om a d i s tance . We d o n o t e ven k now wha t w a s i n t ha t s ec t ion o ft h e P a lace ( V ) . T he t e t rapy la a nd t h e e n tab la tu re o f t h e c a rdo w ou ld p robab ly p reven t a ny v iew f rom t he ma in t ho roughfa re s . I ft h e c a rve r s r e a l ized t h a t , a nd t he b l ank mo ld ing s a tt h e b ack s ugge s t t h a t t hey d id , t h en t h e e ro te s a nd t h e w rea th d id n o t c onvey i mpor tan t me s sage s . We d o n o t k now w ha t k ind o f e l eva t ion d raw ing s o r mode ls t he b u i lde r s u sed . O f ten t he d eco ra to r s t ook h e igh t s i n to a ccoun t , b u t o cca s iona l ly t h ey may h ave b een w rong a bou t wha tc ou ld b e s een w he re . )

II .D .6 . d amage .

R ak ing c o rn ice a t w e s t ( f ig . 7 2 , d raw ing 8 ) s ome

r ak ing f i l le t , d en t i l , c on so le s , p la in c o rona f ace , c ave t to , c yma r e c ta w i th a n them ion , f i l le t . c on so le s a s i n c rown mo ld ing . II .D .7 .

B ack P ed imen t ( f ig . 7 2 ) : w rea th i n l ow r e l ie f , a b raded .

II .D .8 . Doo r ( f ig s . 7 4 , 7 7 ) : N iemann : p l . XV I I , f i gs . 1 09 , 10 , p .8 5 ; He ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 1 35 , p . 1 0 1 . We l l p r e se rved . II .D .8 .a .

P a i r ed g r iff in s c on f ron t ing ac en t ra l e l emen t a r e ac ommon mo t ive i nf r ieze s a nd e l sewhe re . Mo s t f r equen t ly , a so n t he f r ieze f r om t h e F o rum o fT ra jan , t h ey a re s ea ted o n e i the r s i de o f ac and le s t ick o r k an tha ro s , b u t as t and ing p o s tu re i sn o t u ncommon . T he p o se h e re w i th o n ly t h e h ind f e e t o n t h e g round , g iv ing t he i mp re s s ion t h a t t h e a n ima l s l unge f o r t he v e s se l r a the r t han s imp ly g rasp ing i t , i s u nu sua l . T he d e s igne r a nd s ome o f t he c a rve r s w ere t h ink ing o f i n hab i ted s c ro l ls , w he re a n ima ls l e ap o u t o f a can thus meda l l ion s . H e re t h ey d e l ibe ra te ly e nhance t he p owe r o ft h e g r iff ins b y t ur n ing s ome o f t h e a can thus i n to s ubm iss ive a n ima l p ro tome s , s up ine

C on so les a t s i des ( f igs . 7 5 -76 ; 7 8 ) :

d oub le v o lu te w i th a can thus i n i n te r s t ice s , a can thus u nde r f r on t l i ne s o ft h e v o lu te II .D .8 .b .

J amb s a nd l i n te l ( f igs . 7 5 -77 , 8 1 ) :

p l a in f a sc ia , b eads , v ine s c ro l l i nhab i ted b y b i rd s , b ead a nd r e e l , l i nked v o lu te s , i nhab i ted v ine s c ro l l w i th h a rves t ing p u t t i , b a ske t s , b i rd s , d og s o n r ak ing ( f la t o ve r d oo r ) f i l le t . O ne v ine s c ro l l h a s s ha l low c u rve s , e l abo ra te f l owe r -bea r ing s e conda ry s t em , t i ny g rapes , b i rd s d i f f e ren t ia ted i n s i ze a nd

4 8

ARCH ITECTURAL DECORAT ION OF D IOCLETIAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT s hape , a l though n o t i d en t if iab le s pec ie s . T he o t he r v ine s c ro l l i s mo re d eep ly c urved , w i th l a rge l e ave s . P u t t i c rouch o n o ne k nee , o r b end t o f i l l b a ske t s , a ccompan ied b y d og s a nd b i rd s . T h is s c ro l l r i ses f r om a s l ende r v a se a t t he b o t tom o f e ach j amb . T he b eg inn ing o ft h e o t he r t wo p a t te rn s i sd e s t royed o n t h e r i gh t s i de , a nd o n t h e l e f t c ove r ed b y as a r cophagu s n ow s t and ing t he re . I n t he c en te r o f t h e l i nked v o lu te p a t te rn o ve r t h e d oo r t he t e nd r i l s f o rm a d oub le g u i l loche i d en t if ied b y K ah le r a s a H e rcu le s k no t , p a r t o f t he T e t ra rch ic i c onog raphy h e s ee s i n t he d eco ra t ion o f t h is t emp le , a nd a l i nk t o t he P iazza A rme r ina , where i ta ppea r s o n c ap i ta l s ( Kah le r 1 960 -6 1 : 1 06 , f i g . 1 3 ( Temp le o fJ up i te r ) , f i g . 1 4 ( P iazza A rme r ina c ap i ta l ) . II .D .8 .c .

Corn ice

( f igs .

7 9 , 8 0 )

T he l e afy h eads embody t h e f r u i tfu lness o f n a tu re ; t he g ian t s s ugge s t i t s c hao t ic e l emen t s . S o l embod ie s t he e f for t le ss f o rce t ha t p romo tes t he f e r t i l i ty , a nd H e rcu le s t h e e ne rgy t ha t d om ina te s t he e v i l . F ina l ly J up i te r 's p owe r i s s hown t o b e c apab le o f v io lence , w i th t he t hunde rbo l t s c l a sped i n t h e e ag le 's c l aws , b u t e t e rna l ly c a lm , i nt h e b ea rded h ead . T he f r equen t ly c i ted s t a temen t t ha t " J up i te r r u le s t h e H eaven s , a nd H e rak le s p ac if ies t he E a r th " i nd ica te s h ow s e rene ma je s ty a nd a c t ive i n te rven t ion c omp l imen t e ach o t he r ( Pan .La t . X ( 2 ) 1 , 6 -7 ( 289 ) t r an s la ted b y W i l l iam s 1 985 : 4 1 , c f . Ko lb 1 987 : 9 6 ) .

C or n ice : H 6bra rd -Ze i l le r : d raw ing s p . 1 0 1 s i ng le l e af c ha in , e gg a nd d a r t , d en t i l s w i th s pec tac le s , 8c onso le s , c o rona f a ce , c yma r e c ta w i th a n them ion , f i l le t . L ea fc ha in s r un f r om e i the r s i de t o ac en t ra l r o se t te . C on so le s : f r on t : d oub le l e a fb und le . f r ame: s hea r shaped l e a fa nd d a r t . b o t tom: f i gu re s ( s ee b e low ) . s o f f i tc of f e r s : h ead s a nd f l owe r s . a ng le c onso les , v i c tor ie s ; b e tween t hem , l e f t t o r i gh t , 2 f o l ia te h eads , 2s nake legged men ( t i tan s o r g ian t s ) l ong h a ired ( ? ) h ead w i th emana t ing r ay s , h ead w i th l i on ma sk , e ag le w i th t hunde rbo l t s , b ea rded h ead . A n them ion i n c yma r e c ta i n c lude s u nu sua l ly r i ch d e ta i l . T he se a r e t he o n ly d en t i ls w i th s pec tac le s i nt h e P a lace . B i rd s p eck ing a t g rape s a r e a mong t h e e a r l ie s t mo t if s i n i nhab i ted s c ro l ls , a ppea r ing o n t h e T emp le o f B e l i n P a lmy ra ( Sey r ig 1 934 XV , p l s . X IX , XX ; T oynbee a nd Wa rd -Pe rk in s 1 950 : 2 3 ) . V in tag ing p u t t i a re a mong t he l a te s t . I n t h e e a s t , t h ey a ppea r i n l i nea r c ompo s i t ion s l i ke t h is o ne . I n t h e w e s t , t h ey u sua l ly s p read o u to ve r l a rge r s ur face s .

II .D .9 . C rown mo ld ing o f i n te r io r ( f igs . 8 2 , 8 5 , d raw ing s 1 1 , 1 3 ) : N iemann : f i g . 1 04 , p . 8 2 ; H 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 1 4 1 , p . 1 04 . V e ry w e l l p re se rved . o ve r lapp ing l e ave s o n c onvex , e gg a nd d a r t , f i l le t , s t ir rup -f ramed l e af a nd d a r t o n c oncave , c on so le s , f i l le t , b ead a nd r ee l , c yma r e c ta w i th a n them ion o f a l te rna t ing p a lme t te ( up ) l o tu s ( down ) , f i l le t .

6 4 M uch a s Iw e lcome Manne l l 's a pp roach , a nd a g ree t h a t d eco ra t ion c on t r ibu te s t o ab u i ld ing ' s mean ing , Id o n o t t h ink i t c an g ive u s an ame . Id o n o t s ee au n if ied " s ty le " i nt he d eco ra t ion o n t h is b u i ld ing .

Wrede ( 1981) a rgued t h a t t h is w a s t h e T emp le o fJ up i te r , b u t t h a t t he c onso le s p resen ted f a vo red t h eme s i n T e t ra r ch ic p ropaganda .

6 5 I van t ica S chrunk h a s r a ised t h e p os s ib i l i ty ( conve r sa t ion , Novembe r 1 995 ) t h a t t h e m e ssage m igh t b e a n t i -Chr is t ian . T ha t may w e l l b e i nd irec t ly t r ue . D ioc le t ian 's p o ly the ism i nvo lved a b e l ie f t h a t t he c oope ra t ion o f s epa ra te i den t i t ie s w a s e ssen t ia l t o ma in ta in b a lance a nd o rde r i nt h e u n ive r se , a nd i nt h e Emp i re .

F o r

h im , t he " t i tans" a re g i an t s , t he n ex t f i gu re S o l I nv ic tus , t h en H e rcu les , a nd a ga in t wo r e f e rence s t o t h e p owe r o f J up i te r . H e p o in ted o u t t h e u se o f t h e g igan tomachy , i n wh ich b o th H e r cu le s a nd J up i te r t ook p a r t , i n t he p ropaganda o f t he T e t ra rch s . T he T e t ra rch s i nvoked a q ua r te t o f g od s : J up i te r , H e r cu le s , S o l , a nd

I t h as r ecen t ly b een a rgued t ha t t h is i s t he T emp le o f A e scu lap iu s , o r a tl e a s t t h a t s uch aT emp le wou ld b e a pp rop r ia te i n t he r e t i remen t h ome o f as i ck man ( K ra l jev i ie 1 995 ) . T he t emp le wa s p robab ly p lanned b efore D ioc le t ian b ecame i l , b u t A e scu lap iu s r ema in s as u i tab le f i gu re f o r v ene ra t ion i n ar e s idence . G a le r iu s ' c ons t ruc t ion p rov ides p a ra l le l s : Hyge ia w a s among t h e f ou r d e i t ies c e leb ra ted o n p i la s te r c ap i ta ls f r om t he o c tagon a t T he s sa lon ike , a nd a f i gu re o f A escu lap iu s h a s b een i den t if ied a t G amz ig rad ( s ee a bove , p p . 9 -10 ) . S o f a r , h oweve r , a t S p l i t n o r e f e rence s t o t h e c u l t h ave b een f ound . No th ing i n t he d eco ra t ion o f t h is b u i ld ing p o in t s t owa rd A e scu lap ius , o r t he r a the r l e ss a pp rop r ia te J anus .

Ma r s . T he a bsence o f Ma r s h e re m igh t , Wrede t hough t , b e c onnec ted w i th s pec if ic p rob lem s i nt h e T e t ra rchy i n 3 08 . H e d id i nc lude t h e l e afy h ead s , c on s ide r ing t h em a l so a s g ian t s , a nd s peak ing o ft h e ir o bv iou s u g l ine s s . T ha t t h e l e af y h ead s r ep re sen t e v i l f o rce s s eem s u n l ike ly , g iven t h e i r r e appea rance b e tween t he g r iff in s i n t h e c rown mo ld ing .

T he mo t if s o f t h e c on so le s e cho t h roughou t t he b u i ld ing . T he l e afy h ead s r ecu r o n t h e e n tab la tu re . I n t h e s of f i t s b e tween t h e c on so le s , r o se t te s a ppea r b e tween t h e e a r th f i gu re s ( t he l e a fy h ead s a nd g ian ts ) , wh i le masks a nd b aske ts a ppear b e tween t he d iv in i t ie s . No t o n ly d o r o se t te s a nd b a ske ts r ecur i n t he d oo r j ambs , b u t , t oge the r w i th m a sk s , t h ey d om ina te t he c e il ing i n s ide . Aw e l l in teg ra ted m e s sage i sp re sen ted , b u t i sn o t e a sy t o i n te rp re t . I ti so fl i t t le u se i n d e te rm in ing t h e d ed ica t ion o f t he t emp le .64 A c a se c ou ld b e made f o r H e l io s /Apo l lo , f o r D iony su s , f o r f une ra ry r i tua l , a s e a s i ly a s f o r J up i te r . G iven D ioc le t ian 's c losene s s t o h im , J up i te r r ema in s t h e mo s t p robab le , b u t o n ly t ha t . C amb i r i gh t ly s ee s a" pan the is t ic r e l ig iou s c oncep t . " H e g oes o n t o s ay t ha t r e l ig ious mo t if s a r e m ixed w i th p u re ly d eco ra t ive o ne s ( 1989 : 1 7 ) . I t wou ld b e b e t te r t o s ay t h e r e l ig ious r e fe rence s i n t h e d eco ra t ion e xpand f r om s pec if ic t og ene ra 1 .6 5

V a r iou s i d en t if ica t ion s h ave b een p ropo sed f o r t h e f i gu re s o n t he c on so le s . K äh le r d id n o td i scu s s t h e l e a fy h ead s . H e i d en t if ied t h e n ex t f i gu re s a s t ian s , f o l lowed b y H e l io s i d en t if ied b y a wh ip a nd r ay s , H e r cu le s , a nd t wo a l lu s ion s t oJ up i te r : h i s e ag le , a nd t h e g od h im se l f . H e n o ted t h e r e semb lance s t oT e t ra r ch ic p ropaganda , b u t t hough t t h e c ho ice h e re r e fe r red t o D ioc le t ian 's o wn v i r tue s . F o r i n s tance , h e c i ted E n s s l in f o r e v idence t h a t D ioc le t ian h ono red t h e s un g od a s much a s h e d id J up i te r . T oge the r w i th f une rea l r e f erence s h e s aw i n t h e g r if f ins a nd t h e ma sk s i n s ide , t he c on so les l e d h im t o i d en t ify t h e T emp le a si n tended f o r t he c u l t o f t h e d ead e mpe ro r ( 1973 : 3 6 -37 ) .

H is i d en t if ica t ions s ub s tan t ia l ly c oncu r w i th t ho se o f K äh le r .

I n h i s d i scuss ion o f T e t ra rch ic r e l ig ion , Ko lb a l lude s s eve ra l t ime s t o Wredes i n terp re ta t ion ( 1987 : 1 04 , 1 69 ) . H e t end s t o d e empha s ize s pec if ic r e f e rence t oo ne g roup o fr u le r s . H e a rgue s t h a t t h e p l ace g iven i nc o in s a nd monumen t s a nd t e x t s t o t h e f ou r ma jo r d iv in i t ie s w a s n o t m e re ly a p o l i t ica l c onven ience , b u t r ep re sen ted D ioc le t ian 's d eep b e l ief t h a t t he se p owe r s d om ina ted t he u n ive r se . T h is s eems t he b e s t l i gh t i n wh ich t o i n terp re t t he f i gu re s h e re . T he n on -appea rance o f Ma r s t hen i nd ica te s n o t d i sp lea su re w i th a p a r t icu la r T e t ra rch , b u t d e s ire t o s t re ss p eace o n t h is w ho le b u i ld ing a s a who le , a nd t o b a lance p eacefu l w i th e ne rge t ic e l emen t s i n t h e c on so le s a s o n t he f r ieze .

T he h ead s o n t h e c on so le s d i f f e r

f r om t ho se o n t he f r ieze ma in ly b y a ppea r ing s l igh t ly more h uman , w i th a rea s o f c heek v i s ib le b e tween t he u ppe r a nd l owe r l e ave s ( f ig . 8 0 ) .

4 9

REG ISTER L eaf c ha in s r un f r om s i de s t owa rd m idd le ( a s o n n o r th g a te ) . I no ne p lace t h ey r un o u t f r om a s ma l l h ead o r ma sk . I th a s h o l low e ye s a nd mou th , a nd a v e i l o ve r t he f o rehead a nd h ang ing o n b o th s i de s ( Kah le r 1 961-62 : 1 08 , f i g . 1 7 ) . P a lme t tes i n a n them ion d i f f e r f r om o the r s i n t he P a lace . T hey h ave more s l ende r p a r t s , a nd s i x r a the r t han f i ve s i de p iece s . S ide p i ece s c urve l e ss , e nd i n l i t t le c i rc les w i th d r i l led c en te r s i n s tead o f f l a t l obe s . Wh i le t h e p a lme t te s a ppea r mo re v e r t ica l t han i n o the r p lace s , t h e " l o tu s " a ppea r s more h or izon ta l , w i th a t h in c en t ra l s p ine a nd t h ree o u twa rd c ur l ing f r ond s , e ach w i th t h ree ma jo r p o in t s a nd a n e nd

' ILEA . 3 6 .

c u r l icue .

f r ame s : [ a ] 1 .b ead a nd r e e l , f i l le t , s t i r rup f o rmed l e a fa nd d a r t , c ab le , e gg a nd d a r t . 2 .b ead a nd r e e l , f i l le t , s t ir rup -fo rmed l e a fa nd d a r t , o vo lo ; [ b ] b ead a nd r e e l , f i l le t , s t ir rup -fo rmed l e a f a nd d a r t , c ab le , e gg a nd d a r t .

K ah le r n o ted s im i la r i t ie s b e tween t h is b and a nd l e ave s o n c on so le s i n Rome ( 1936 : 1 86 , f i g . 7 ) ; l a te r h e c i ted t he d r i l l h o le s h e re a s i nd ica t ion s t ha t t he wo rk wa s l e f t f i n ished , c ompa r ing t hem w i th t he s im i la r b u t " comp le ted" f o rm s o n t he n or th g a te ( 1953 : 3 4 , B e i lage 7 , 2 , 3 ) . T he c u t t ing o n t h e t wo i s d i f f e ren t i n many r epec t s , a nd t he re i s n o r eason t o t h ink t he d r i l l h o le s a re n o t i n ten t iona l , s ee a bove , p p . 2 1-22 . H e i den t if ied t h e h ead a s a t r ag ic ma sk , a nd c on s ide red i tp a r t o f t he e v idence i d en t ify ing t h e b u i ld ing a s d ed ic ted t o t he f une ra ry c u l t ( 1961-62 : 1 07 ) . T he h o l lowed s ocke t s o f t he e ye s s uppo r t t he i den t if ica t ion a s am a sk . T he v e i l d oe s n o t r e semb le a ny t r ad i t iona l p rope r ty o f ac ha rac te r f r om c l a ss ica l d rama . T ancke c anno t e s tab l ish t h e i d en t i ty o f t h e v e i led h ead w i th o pen mou th i n ac of fe r f r om t h e t hea te r a t A spendo s ( Tancke 1 989b : 3 03 n o . 4 6 .5a , p l . LXXV l a . ) T he v e i l may u l t ima te ly d e r ive f r om t h e t y p ica l h a irdo o f at r ag ic ma sk , b u t h ere d emons t ra tes ma in ly h ow r emo te s uch c onven t ion s h ad b ecome . T h is i mage c ou ld embody ap os i t ive , r a the r t h an n ega t ive f o rce ( s ee d i scu ss ion o f ma sk s i nA ppend ix One ) . c on so les : f r on t :

s off i t c of f e r s :

s l ab [ a ] ( f ig . 9 6 ) w edge s hape , t wo c of f e r s n ea r o u te r e dge , c u t t ing n ea ri nne re dge . S lab [ b ] s ma l le r , o ne c of f e r p r e se rved .

b o sses :

II .E .3 . C onvex f r ieze f r agmen t ( f ig . 9 5 ) . ( now i nb a semen t r oom ) .

We l l p reserved

f i l le t , c onvex f r ieze , d amaged a r ea . a n ima l p ro tome s i na n a can thu s s c ro l l c on s truc ted l i ke t ha t i n f r ame o f Mau so leum d oo r ( I I I .C .4 .2 ) . t r ipa r t i te " a can thus c up s " p o in t a l terna te ly u p a nd d own . o rgan iza t ion l e ss e as i ly r ecogn izab le t h an o n t h e Mauso leum b ecau se l e ave s l a rger i n p ropo r t ion t o w ho le . T hey r e semb le t he s imp le r a can thu s f r ond s i nt h e f r ieze o ft h eT emp le o fJ up i te r .

D oub le l e a fb und le .

a can thu s . l e ave s .

A t l e f t ac u r ly -ha i red , c o l la red d og l e aps t owa rd t h e n ex t a n ima l , p os s ib ly ag oa t? T he t h i rd a n ima l i s ac ame l , f ac ing t h e f i na l l oop o n t h is f r agmen t , w h ich c on ta in s aw ide ly o pened f l owe r . Mazza 's s t a t is t ica l s u rvey o f B yzan t ine i nhab i ted s c ro l ls f i nd s t h e c ame l a ppea r ing o n ly o nce , b u t i t w a s mo re f r equen t i n t he e a r l ie r i nhab i ted s c ro l l s d i scu s sed b y O vad iah a nd T u rnhe im 1 994 : 9 5 . I t s r e la t ive r a r i ty i nv i te s s pecu la t ion t ha t i t m igh t b e i nc luded d e l ibe ra te ly t oi nd ica te t h e g eog raph ic e x ten t o f t h e R oman p owe r . Hun ts , t herefore a n ima ls , i n s cro l ls o f ten d er ive f rom r ep re sen ta t ion s o f t h e a r ena , a nd e xo t ic a n ima ls p re sen t i n a rena s b o re w i tne s s t o R ome 's p owe r . Mo re a n ima ls f r om t h is f r ieze w ou ld b e n eeded t oc onf i rm s uch s pecu la t ion .

f a ce s , b a ske t s , r o se t tes , l e ave s a nd r e la ted f o rm s .

Con s ide rab le v a r ia t ion i n d e ta i l s , s uch a s e xecu t ion o f f r ame p a t te rn s , e spec ia l ly a tc or ne r s ( s ee A ppend ix Two ) .

Two

u n recogn izab le .

T he f r ame s r e semb le t ho se i n s ide t h e T emp le o fJ up i te r , b u t a l l h ave l e ss mo ld ing s , a nd a re s ha l lowe r . On a s i ng le b lock t he n umbe r o f mo ld ing s d i f f e r s . T he l e a fa nd d a r t i sa lway s " ex tended , o f ten s o f a r t h a t t h e re i sn o s epa ra te " cen t ra l e l emen t " a tt he t op ( s ee a bove , p . 17 ) . D e ta i l s v a ry : t h e c of f e r o n s l ab ( b ) h a s 8u n i t s , o n ly 2 o ft h em a l ike . T h i s v a r iab i l i ty i sf ound a ga in i nt h e c of f e r s o ft h e T emp le , s e e A ppend ix Two , b u t n o t u sua l ly t ot h is d eg ree i n as i ng le c of f e r .

f r ame : f i l le t , b ead a nd r ee l , f i l le t , s t ir rup -formed l e af a nd d a r t , c ab le , f i l le t , e gg a nd d a r t , b ead a nd r e e l .

II .E .

f i g .

A t t ic b a se w i th d eep s co t ia .

II .D .10 . C of fe r s ( f igs . 8 2 -93 , d raw ing 1 1 ) : N iemann : f i g . 1 04 p . 8 2 ; H 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r : f i g . 1 42 P . 1 04 . A l l b l ock s s t i l l i n p lace : f o r ty v ousso ir s , e ach w i th t wo c of fe r s . F rame s a l l w e l l p rese rved , s ome b o sse s b ad ly d amaged .

b osse s :

Mara sov ie - Ma ra sov ie

II .E .2 . C of f e r f r agmen ts ( draw ing 1 2 ) : Ma ra sov ie a nd Ma ra sov ie : 1 96 1-62 ( 1966 ) u nnumbe red f i g . , p . 3 1 . 2p a r t ia l f l a t s l ab s , d amaged . n ow i n c our tya rd o f b u i ld ing s ou th o f s t ree t l e ad ing f r om P e r is ty le t oT emp le o fJ up i te r .

f r ame s : e gg a nd d a r t . b o t tom :

B a se mo ld ing ( f ig . 9 4 ) :

r ound

b u i ld ings :

Base

mo ld ing ,

c of fer

I V . S tree t s : Gate C our ts , T e trapy la , D ecumanus , C ross ing , S ide S tree t s

f ragmen t , f r ieze b lock . B ase mo ld ing o f s ou thern r ound b u i ld ing s u rv ives i n g ood c ond i t ion f o r a bou t o ne t h ird o f o r ig ina l c i rcumf e rence . No o the r p iece s i n p lace . A t tr ibu ted f r agmen t s : 2c of fe r s , f r ieze b lock . T om is lav Ma ra sov ie men t ions a b a se a nd c o lumn f r om t h is b u i ld ing ( 1989 : 3 76 ) . T he se may b e among t h e f r agmen t s n ow ( 1995 ) i n t he b a semen t s o f t he r e s iden t ia l b lock . Manne l l a rgue s o n i conog raph ic r a the r t han s t ruc tu ra l g rounds t h a t t h e b u i ld ing s w e re monop te ro i t ha t h e ld s t a tue s ( 1995 ) . S he i sc e r ta in ly r i gh t t ha t t he se t wo b u i ld ing s w e re s ubo rd ina te t o t h e r e c tangu la r o ne , a l though t he p o ss ib l i ty t ha t a l l t h ree f r amed a c en t ra l s t ruc tu re , p re sumab ly a n a l ta r , s hou ld b e k ep t i n m ind . T ho lo i n eed n o t b e t emp le s . I mag in ing p od ia t opped b y c o lumn s w i thou t w a l l s i s a t t rac t ive , b u t p rema tu re w i thou t c on s ide ra t ion o f t h e e ng inee r ing : Any r econ s truc t ion mus t p rov ide s uppor t f or t he f l a t s t one c e i l ing c of fe r s , s eem ing ly d es igned f o r ap e r ip te ros ( I I I .E .2 ; T . Ma ra sov ie 1 989 : 3 76 ) . T he l a rge s t s urv iv ing f r agmen t i s a bou t 1 . 5 m a cros s , a nd mus t o nce h ave b een a t l ea s t 2m . A p e r ip te ra l r econ s t ruc t ion r e su l t s i n an a r row p or t ico a round a s ma l l i n te r io r s pace . Wou ld t he c of f e r s h ave b een v i s ib le p r ima r i ly f r om o u t s ide , b y p eop le l ook ing u p a t t he s t ruc tu re s? Mea su red d raw ing s a nd s t ruc tu ra l e va lua t ion o ft he se b u i ld ing f r agmen t s a r e o ve rdue .

I V .A .

C ardo ,

Ga te C our t s

I V .A .1 . E a s t g a te c ou r t : n o t p rese rved t o ah e igh t t o s how mo ld ing s . S o f a r a s c an b e d i scove red f r om F i skov ie , t h e p re sen t i n te r io r o f g a te w a l l i sa lmo s t e n t i re ly r e con s t ruc t ion . I V .A .2 .

N or th g a te c ou r t

I V .A .2 a . I n te r io r : Ma ra sov ie - Ma ra sov ie I V .A .2 .a .l . s i de .

N iemann : p l . 1 3 .

f i g s . 2 7 , 2 8 , p p . 2 6 -27 ;

C rown mo ld ing p rese rved o n ly o n n o r th

c yma r e c ta . I V .A .2 .a .2 . S t r ing c ou r se p re se rved o n n o r th a nd s ou th , a t t h e n or th a nd s ou th e nd s o f t he w e s t w a l l , a nd a t t h e n or th e nd o ft h e e a s t w a l l . c yma r e c ta . I V .A .2 .a .3 . s ou th

5 0

a r ch ivo l t s w e l l p re se rved a t b o th n o r th a nd

ARCH ITECTURAL DECORAT ION OF D IOCLE11AN 'S PALACE AT SPL IT f a sc ia , h a lf r ound , f a sc ia , h a lf r ound , f a sc ia , c ave t to , f i l le t ( we s t g a te c our t h a s t wo f a sc iae a nd ar ak ing f i l le t ) .

b roken s ha f t h a s b een s e t o n ab a se o n t he n or thea s t s i de ( i ns ide b u i ld ing ) .

I V .A .2 .a .4 .

b a se :

A t t ic .

o vo lo , b eve l , c ave t to , f i l le t .

s ha f t :

m a rb le :

On ly o n t he n o r th a nd s ou th w a l l s , c on t inu ing o u t f r om t h e

c ap i ta l s ( f igs . 9 7 , 9 8 ) : 6 2 : 1 02 , f i g . 6 ) .

I mpo s t . s o me d amage .

a rches . IV.A.2 .b. E x ter ior , f ac ing Mara sov ie - Ma rasov ie : p l . 1 3 . I V .A .2 .b .l .

m a in

s t ree t

( f ig .

a rch ivo l t s w e l l p re se rved .

We s t g a te c our t .

I V .A .3 .a . I n te r io r : N iemann : f i g s . 3 5 p . 3 1 , 4 3 , 4 4 , Mara sov ie - Ma ra sov ie : p l . 1 9 . I V .A .3 .a .l .

P roconne s ian ( Käh le r 1 961-

I V .C .2 . E n tab la tu re ( f ig . 6 2 ) : N iemann : f i g s . 9 8 , 9 9 , p . 7 8 : p i ece s b u i l t i n to ac hape l , r e cove red i n 1 924 d emo l i t ion : 8b lock s n ow i n t h e t emeno s , a nd 5 , p o s s ib ly mo re , o n s ou th w a l l o f t emeno s . Mo s t i np oo r c ond i t ion .

i mpos t .

p re se rved o n o ne s i de , r e s to red o n t h e o the r . I V .A .3 .

ma rb le :

C ompa r ed w i th t h e l ime s tone c ap i ta ls , t hese h ave b u lk ie r l e ave s w i th l e s s s ubd iv i s ion s . I nden ta t ion s w i th in i nd iv idua l s p ike s a re n o t s o s ha rp , a nd t h e c en t ra l s t em i sn o t s o d om inan t . T he c a lyce s h ave am o re r ounded f o rm .

5 9 ) :

s ame a s i n s ide : w ou ld u sua l ly b e s e en t oge the r . IV .A .2 .b .2 .

c i po l l ino?

P .

f a sc ia , f a sc ia , r ak ing f i l le t , c onvex f r ieze , r ak ing f i l le ti lden t i l , s imp le c o rona , o vo lo , c yma r e c ta , f i l le t .

3 5 ;

I V .C .3 . S ide p o rche s ( f ig . 6 3 ) : E n t ry w e l l p re served n or th o f Mauso leum . A rched o pen ing u ndeco ra ted , mo ld ing a bove i t . Mo ld ing a l so p re ser ved o n o ppo s i te s i de . No e v idence f o r o r ig ina l a ppea rance o f w a l l b eh ind c o lonnade s .

C rown mo ld ing c omp le te a l l f ou r s i de s .

c yma r e c ta . I V .A .3 .a .2 . I n te rmed ia te mo ld ing c omp le te o n w es t , s ou th a nd e a s t , m iss ing o n n or th .

mo ld ing : h a l fr ound , v e ry w eak c yma r e c ta .

c yma r e c ta . I V .A .3 .a .3 .

a rch ivo l t s we l l p re se rved .

IV .D .

3f a sc iae , r ak ing f i l le t s ha rpe r t h an t he c ave t to o n t he n or th . IV .A .3 .a .4 .

IV .E .

i mpos t s we l l -prese rved

Cardo : N o p ub l ished e v idence ( s ee a bove , p . 3 5 ) .

Cross ing a rea :

p i l lars ,

p oss ib le

t e trapy lon .

2f a sc iae , c ave t to , f i l le t , o vo lo , c ave t to , f i l le t : I V .E .1 . P i l la r s : T h ree p re served i n p a r t : S E a lmos t c l ea r o f b u i ld ing , SW embedded . NE p i e r p re se rved w i th r e s to ra t ion , NW

T he mo ld ing s d o n o t c on t inue o n to t h e w a l l a s t h ey d o a t t he n or th g a te . F a sc iae may h ave c on t inued t h rough t he g a te o pen ing s u p t o t he s im i la r a r ch ivo l t o n t h e o t he r s i de , a nd t h en a l ong t h e o u te r wa l l u p t ot h e s t ree t a r che s , b u t t h e c u t t ing s a r e d amaged a nd may b el a te r . I V.A .3 .b . Mara sov ie

e x ter ior f ace , p l . 1 8 .

t owa rd s t ree t :

g one . A l l L shaped . P i l la r s a ts ou th : s uppo r ted a r che s ( IV .C .3 ) o n t h e ir s ou ther n s i de s , p robab ly h ad e ngaged c o lumn s o n t h e i r e a s te rn /we s te rn s i de s . P a r t o ft h e SW p i l la r c an b e s e en i n s ide b u i ld ing , mo s t o ft h e S E p i l la r n ow e xpo sed . N iemann : f i g . 9 8 , p .7 8 a nd He ra rd -Ze i l le r : p l . V I I s how s t i l l embedded i n B a roque c hape l d emo l ished b efo re 1 927 ; Ma ra sov ie - Ma ra sov id : f i g . 5 0 s how s p re sen t a ppea rance .

Ma rasov ie -

3f a sc iae , r ak ing f i l le t ( a s o n i n te r io r a r che s ) I V . B .

Tetrapy la :

o r ig ina l ly , 2a t t he c orners o f e ach

P i l la r s a tn or th :

c our t . I V .B .1 . E a s t T e t rapy la : Ma ra sov ie -Ma ra sov ie : p l s . 1 4 , Much r e s to red , c f . N iemann : f i gs . 4 7 , p .3 7 , 4 8 -49 , p . 3 8

1 6 .

Engaged c o lumn b a se s a nd s haf t s we l l p reserved , c ap i ta ls e x ten s ive ly r e s to red ( c f . F i skov ie : f i gs . 8 6 , 1 00 s how ing s t a te a s f ound , Ma ra sov ie -Ma ra sov ie : f i g . 2 9 s how ing p re sen t s t a te ) .

A h a lf p i l la r f ound i n t he t emeno s o f t h e Mauso leum ( F iskov ie 1 950 : 1 8 , f i g . 7 4 , p . 7 7 ) h a s b een p l aced a ga in s t t h e r ebu i l t n o r the rn p i l la r o f t h e s ou the rn t e t rapy lon , o n t he f a ce t owa rd t h e s t ree t c o lonnade , w he re t he re wou ld p robab ly o nce h ave b een a n e ngaged c o lumn l i ke t ha t o n t h e NE c ro s s ing p i l la r , I V .E .1 . I V .B .2 .

No r th t e t rapy la : n o v i s ib le r ema in s o f mo ld ing s .

I V .B .3 .

Wes t t e t rapy la .

I V .B .3 .a .

b a se : s imp le r ak ing f i l le t w i th al i gh t ly c u rved s l an t s haf t :

I V .B .3 .b .

I V .E .2 . P oss ib le t e trapy lon . Dyggve 1 961-62 : f ig . 7 ; Ma ra sov ie - Ma ra sov id : f i g . 2 7 ; G ab r ieev ie 1 96 1-62 : f i g . 1 ; Wi lke s 1 993 : f i g . 5 .

A rch ivo l t s ( Ma ra sov ie - Ma ra sov id : p l . 1 9 ) . I mpo s t .

p rese rved o n o ne s i de , r e s to red . I V .B .3 .c .

a s t raga l .

c ap i ta l s : c o rona o f s moo th l e ave s , t wo c o rne r c a lyce s , d amaged h e l ice s , a bacus f l owe r .

3f a sc ia , r ak ing f i l le t , a s i n s ide c ou r t .

S ince G ab r ieev ie ' s a r t ic le ( 1961-62 ) i s h a rd t o o b ta in , t h e i s sue s w i l l b e s umma r ized h e re . I n t h e c ro ss ing a r ea , 0 .75 t o 0 .80 m b e low t h e R oman s t ree t p av ing , al a ye r o f s ma l l s t one s i n mo r ta r a d jo in s al a ye r o fl a rge r , i r regu la rb l ock s i n mo r ta r . T he l a t te r h ave b een f ound b y t h e S E c or n e r o f t h e c ro ss ing , a nd i n t wo o r t h ree s ma l l p robes t o t h e n o r th . T he l a rge s ec t ion a t t he S E a ppea r s c l ea r ly i n Ma ra sov ie - Ma ra sov ie , f i g . 2 7 . E xac t ly wha t w a s f ound i n o ne o f t h e p robe s a tt h e n o r th i sn o t s t a ted . N iemann ( 54 ) h ad f ound s ome o f t h e s ou thea s ter n b locks , a nd i n terp re ted t hem a s f ounda t ion f o r t h e s t ree t p av ing , w h ich s t i l l s eems p o ss ib le . N ew i n te rp r e ta t ion s h ave b een o f f e red b ecau se o ft h e d i scove ry t h a t t h e d iv is ion b e tween t h e l a rge b lock s a nd t h e s ma l le r s t ones h ad s t ra igh t e dges w i th c o rne r s , s o t ha t t he s ma l l s t ones c ou ld b e

An tae a nd p i l la r s .

I V .B .3 .d . A rche s : A rch o n n o r th p re se rved ( Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie , p l s . 1 8 , 2 0 ) . 3f a sc ia , r ak ing f i l le t , a s a r ch ivo l t s . I V .C .

e ngaged c o lumn s o n b o th p ro jec t ion s .

NE p i l la r ( f ig . 9 9 ) : u ncove red a f te r S econd Wor ld Wa r , s t and s c l ea r i n s ide moder n b u i ld ing .

Decu manus :

C o lonnade , e n tab la tu re , p o rch e n t r ie s .

I V .C .1 . C o lumns : Ma rasov ie - Ma ra sov ie p l . 1 5 , f i g . 2 6 . O r ig ina l ly 3 0 c o lumns o n e ach s i de ( 6 0 i na l l ) b e tween p i l la r s o f t e t rapy la a nd c ro ss ing . N iemann ( 78 ) s aw o ne c o lumn o f s ou thea s t r ow s t i l l e mbedded i nw a l l , f r om wh ich n ow f r eed . Ano the rc o lumn a nd t wo b a se s f ound i nc l ea rance o fa r ea ( F iskov ie f i g s . 6 0 , 6 5 ) . A

5 1

REG ISTER I V .F .

S ide s t ree ts i n Nor th : Ma ra sov ie - Ma ra sov ic ' : p l . 9 8 i nne r f a ce , B ul ie 1 927 , 1 929 : f i g . 2 5 , o u te r f a ce .

r econ s truc ted a s h av ing o nce f o rmed a c ro s s w i th i in a s qua re o u t l ined b y t h e l a rge s t one s . S u ie s ugge s ted t oG ab r ieev ie t ha t t h e w ho le m igh t b e a mundus , i . e . , s a c r if ic ia l p i t u sed i n c on sec ra t ion r i tua l .O the r s h ave i den t if ied ad ecu ss is ( empha s iz ing t h e c en t ra l c ross ) , o r f ounda t ions o f at e t rapy lon ( empha s iz ing t he c o rne r s qua res ) .

T h ree p ie r s s uppo r t ing a rches we l l p re se rved , w i th mode rn r e s to ra t ion o f p a r t o f mo ld ing .

G ab r ieev ie a rgue s f o r t he d ecu s s is . T ha t t e rm i su sua l ly u sed f o r a c ross -shaped ma rk e s tab l ish ing t wo a xe s , a nd p l aced o n s t one s w hen a s i te w a s l a id o u t . H e i sp ropo s ing a n e x ten s ion o f t h e t e rm t o c ove r w ha t h e -t ake s t o b e ad eve lopmen t o f t h a t p rac t ice . H e p roposes t ha t ar ec tangu la r s t one h ad b een p u t i n p lace i n t h e c en te r o f t h is a r ea t o s uppor t t h e g roma w hen t h e P a lace w a s l a id o u t . T he c ros s -shape o f s ma l l s t ones i n mo r ta r t hen f orm s a c on t inua t ion o f l i ne s b egun i n t h a t c en t ra l s t one . T h is e x ten s ion w ou ld b e mo re e l abora te t han a ny k nown e xamp le s o f s u rveyo r s ' c rosse s ( Adam 1 994 : 1 0 -12 s u rvey ing p rocedu re ,10 -12 ; t yp ica l d ecus s i s f i g . 6 ) .

r ak ing f i l le t s ( pa r t ly r e s to red ) a tt op , n o b a se mo ld ing s , n o d eco r o n a rche s . L ike b a semen t c on s t ruc t ion . N o o rnamen t . I V .F .1 . a rche s

We l l p r ese rved o ve r t h e se t wo

c yma r e c ta , f i l le t : f i l le t n o t w e l l p re se rved L ike e x te r io rc rown a nd s t r ing c ou r se s i n No r thwe s t ( V I I I )

V . The s outheastern q uarter b e tween wa l l , a nd r e s idence : b a th , c our tyard . V .A .

G ab r ieev ic s t re s se s ac o r re spondence b e tween t h e w id th o ft h e a rm s o f t he c ro ss a nd t he w id th o f t he g a te s ( s ee a l so Ma ra sov ie -Ma rasov ie , t e x t b y f i g . 2 7 ) . H e g ive s t h e w id th o f t he a rm s a s 4 . 50 m . T he w id th o f t he g a te o pen ing s i ss ma l le r t h an t h a t , s o i t i sn o t c l ea r w ha t c o r re spondence h e mean s .

s t r ing c ou r se o ve r a r che s :

t e menos ,

B a th : e n tab la tu re b lock s , a n ta c ap i ta l , p a rape t .

V .A .! . B lock s a t tr ibu ted t o o u ter f ace . M im ik 2 0 , F ron t isp iece . p l . 5 0A . V .A .2 . C u rved mo ld ing a t t r ibu ted t o i n te r io r : 2i n w a l l ( M im ik , f r on t isp iece a nd p . 5 0a ) , 1i n Mau so leum t emeno s ( N iemann : f i g . 1 43 , p . 1 09 ) .

S ande r s ( 1989 ) a rgue s t ha t s uch al a rge c ruc ifo rm c en t ra l a r ea w ou ld n o t b e u se fu l i n s u rvey ing . H e s ee s t he l a rge r b lock s n ea r t h e c orne rs o f t he c ross ing a s t h e d om inan t f ea tu res , p robab ly s uppor t s f o r t h e p ie r s o f at e t rapy lon . D yggve h ad a l ready s ugges ted t h is p oss ib i l i ty ( 196 1-62 : 5 9 ; 1 962 : 4 -5 ) , a dvoca t ing i tb ecau se i tw ou ld h ave s e t o f ft h e P e r is ty le c l ea r ly f r om t h e s t ree t s l e ad ing u p t o i t . H e n o ted t h e i mpor tance o f t e t rapy la i n L a te An t iqu i ty . S re jov ie h a s p laced r enewed s t r e s s o n t h e i mpo r tance o f T e t rapy la i n T e t ra rch ic s t ruc tu re s , c i t ing L uxo r , P a lmy ra , a nd T he ssa lon ike a s w e l l a s Gamz ig rad ( Sre jov ie a nd V a s ie 1 994b : 13 , 1 23 -125 ) . T he p re sence o f " a monumen ta l q uad r ifon s a r ch " a t t h e c ro ss ing a tS p l i t i si n teg ra l t o tu r t ie 's r e cen t i d en t i f ica t ion o f i t a s a " sma l l c i ty ." I n a dd i t ion t o T hessa lon ike . h e c i tes D ioc le t ian 's p a lace a t An t ioch a s a,p a ra l le l , f i nd ing l i te ra ry

Ou te r f a ce : f a sc ia , f a sc ia , r ak ing f i l le t , c onvex f r ieze . I nne r f ace : o the r f a ce , f a sc ia , f a sc ia , f a sc ia , f a sc ia , c yma r eve r sa , f i l le t . V .A .3 . A n ta c ap i ta l M im ik 1 9 -20 , p l . 1 3 ; McNa l ly 1 994 f i g . 6 . C o rner p i ece w i th t wo c a rved s i de s . We l l -p re se rved e xcep t f o r o u twa rd t u rn ing t op s o f a can thu s . P re sen t whe reabou t s u nknown . One c o rona w i th a c en t ra l l e af o n e ach s i de a nd c o rne r l e ave s ; s t rong v o lu tes a nd h e l ice s r i s ing f r om s ma l l " spea r ' b e tween a can thu s l e ave s . H e l ices o n s i de s l an t o u twa rd , m ee t ing a t a n a ng le . On f r on t , p omeg rana te , l e a fa nd q ua t re f o i l t u cked i n to s pace b e tween v o lu te a nd h el ix . c a refu l ly c a rved p i ece ,j o in s o f a can thu s l e ave s n ea t ly p lo t ted a nd e xecu ted . i nc lu s ion o f e x t ra e l emen t s p a ra l le led o n ly i n t h e c of f e r s o f t he T emp le o f J up i te r , w he re t h e c a rv ing i s much l e s s p rec ise .

e v idence f o r at e t rapy lon t h e re a s w e l l ( tu re ie 1 993 : 6 8 . f i g s . 1 3 s how t h e p o s i t ions o ft h ese t wo p ropo sed t e t rapy ia ) .66

V .A .4 .

G r i l l .

2p o ss ib le f r agmen t s : S o f a ra so ne c an t e l l f r om Gab r ieev ic 's p lan , t h e b e s t e xp lo red a r ea o fl a rge s t one s i sa bou t 4m s qua r e , a nd t h e s pa ce b e tween t h e a r ea s i sa bou t 5m , g iv ing a n i dea o f t h e p os s ib le s i ze o f p ie r s a nd a n o pen ing b e tween t hem . T he p ropo sed t e t rapy lon w ou ld h ave b een r ough ly s im i la r i n s i ze t o t he T e t rapy lon a t G amz ig rad , b u t o f c ou r se i t s p o s i t ion wou ld b e q u i te d i f f e ren t . T he p i e r s wou ld b e p l aced a wkwa rd ly c l ose t o t h e p i e r s o ft h e c r o s s ing .

M im ik 1 990 :

2 0 .

V .B . Mo sa ic c our tyard : S ty loba te . o rc o lumn s t h a ts t ood o n i t .

n o e v idence o fp i e r s

V I . S ou thwes tern a rea b e tween t emeno s , wa l l , a nd r es idence .

G ab r ieev ic o u t l ined s eve ra l a rgumen t s a ga in s t at e t rapy lon . Mos t i mpo r tan t i s t h e 'l a ye r o f L a te A n t ique mo r ta r f i l l ing t he e n t i re s pace b e tween t he c ross in -squa re a nd t h e R oman p av ing , i nd ica t ing t h a t , i f at e t rapy lon h ad b een b u i l t , i tw ou ld h ave t o h ave b een d emo l ished f a ir ly s oon . T he e v idence d oe s n o t c l ea r ly s uppor t a ny o ne i n te rpre ta t ion , b u t t he t e chn ica l a rgumen t s a ga in s t at e t rapy lon s eem s ound .

No c a rved d eco ra t ion h a sb een f ound . V II .

N or theas tern a rea .

No c a rved d eco ra t ion h a sb een f ound . V III . Nor thwes tern a rea . F ive p ie r s s uppor t ing a rche s a nd t opped w i th a s t r ing c ou r se s u rv ive b y t h e w e s te rn s i de o fa n o pen c our t ( ? ) i nt h e m idd le o ft h e q uar ter ( f ig . 6 4 ) : N iemann : f i g . 16 , p . 8 8 s hows o ne a r cade , t hose t on o r th w e re u ncove red l a te r .

6 T he p a lace a t An t ioch i sk nown t ou s o n I f r om t h e a ccoun t o f L iban ius . L ike a lmo s t a l l o the r s cho la r s , c u riá d er ive s h i s r e s to ra t ion f r om Downey 's a na lys is . S ande r s , h oweve r , r e e xam ined t h e p a s sage a nd c ame u p w i th ad i f f e r en t r e s to ra t ion t h a t w i l l d e se rve c ons ide ra t ion i n af u l le r s t udy o f t h e a r ch i tec tu re a t S p l it .

p i e r s ; r ak ing f i l le t s a tt op , n o b a se mo ld ing s , n o d eco r o n a r che s . L ike b a semen t c on s truc t ion .

5 2

N o o rnamen t .

ARCH ITECTURAL DECORAT ION OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT SPL IT V II I .A . S t r ing c ou r se ( f ig . 6 5 ) : O u te r f a ce , N iemann : f i g . 16 , p .8 8 . I nne r f a ce n ow v i s ib le o ve r p i e r s t ot h e n o r th

c yma r e c ta a nd f i l le t .

5 3

A ppend ix O ne

THE FR IEZE I NS IDE THE MAUSOLEUM A f i gu ra l f r ieze r un s a round t h e i n s ide o f t h e Mauso leum .

I ti s

T he f r ieze c on s is t s o f p ane l s s e t i n g roup s o ft h ree , d iv ided b y t he p i la s te r s o f t h e l owe r o rde r . Twen ty th ree p ane ls s u rv ive . A

t we lve m a bove t he f l oo r , j u s t b e low t he a r ch i t rave o f t he u ppe r

t wen ty -four th , t he

o rde r . B y p lac ing i to u t s ide t he b a s ic d eco ra t ive f r amewo rk o ft h e t wo i n te r io r o rde rs , t he b u i lde r s s howed t he i mpo r tance t hey a t tached t o i t .

c en te r o f t he i n te rco lumn ia t ion d i rec t ly

o ppos i te t h e e n t rance , w a s d e s t royed when a w indow w a s c u t t h rough t h e e a s t w a l l .

T he f o rm s , s u i t ing t he a ng le a t wh ich t hey mu s t

b ev iewed , a r e s imp le a nd b o ld . When p icked o u t w i th s t rong c o lo r t h ey w ou ld h ave b een c l ea r ly l eg ib le f r om b e low . T he ir c onf iden t me s sage s w ou ld h ave b een e qua l ly c l ea r . T he mode rn v iewe r f i nd s

T he f r ieze i n c lude s s evera l d i sc re te t h eme s , i . e . , e ro te s r a c ing , e ro te s h un t ing , g a r land s w i th m a sk s , w rea th s w i th b u s t s . T he f i r s t

s ome amb igu i ty , b u t n o s ub t le ty .

f u l l p ub l ica t ion a ppea red o n t h e o cca s ion o f t h e mee t ing o f t he F i r s t C ong re s s o f C hr is t ian A r chaeo logy a tS p l i t ( J e l ie a nd B u l ie

R ieg l c ommen ted o n t h e u nde rcu t t ing ( s ee a bove , p .4 ) . F igu re s a r e

1 894 ) .

b locked o u t i n b road c hunk s . S ur f ace s a r e s t rong ly c onvex , w i th

d escr ip t ion b y C onze ( 1910 : 13 -115 ) . I n 1 968 t he Ma ra sov ie b ro the r s ' b ook made d e ta i led p ho tog raph s e a s i ly a cce s s ib le f o r t h e

m in ima l d e ta il ing b y l i gh t s ur face l i ne s o r w edge -shaped c u t s . T he

f i r s t t ime .

d r i l l i su sed o ccas iona l ly o n h a i r . S imp l if ica t ion o f s ur face a nd o u tl ine , a s i n t h e s t r id ing f i gu re f l a t tened i n to ap a t te rn ( pane l 1 5 ) ,

b een r a i sed r e cen t ly b y S lobodan &re ie ( s ee b e low ) .

h ave b een c a rved b y wo rkmen n o t t r a ined i nf i gu ra l s cu lp tur e . T he f i n ish i s r ough , more s o i n s ome p laces t han o the rs . K äh le r

C onze g ave e ach g roup o fs l ab s aR oman n ume ra l , s t a r t ing w i th t h e

b e l ieved t ha t t he d e ta i l s s uch a s t he h ead o f P r isca w e re l e f t

s cene s o ve r t he d oo r a s o ne e n te r s .

More l i ke ly t he f i n ish wa s p rov ided b y s t ucco

o ccur s i n t h e m idd le o f o ne s i de .

A p u t to o n a

r a ce .

p a in t a nd g i ld ing t ha t g ive s ome i dea o f t he s t rong , l im i ted c on t ra s t s f avored i n t he l a te t h ird c en tury , a nd p robab ly o nce c r ea ted h e re ( Sape l l i 1 993 : 2 25 -226 , p l . 9 7 , 1 3 ) .

M a sk H e rm e s H un t

C D

E ach p ane l i sc ha rac te r ized b y

t h eme a s as pec if ic f i gu re ( o r w rea th ) , m a sk ( o r g a r land ) , h un t , o r

r ough ly c on tempora ry s a rcophagu s f r om R ome r e ta in s t r ace s o fr e d

I I

H e re i nd iv idua l s l ab s a r e

n umbe red c on secu t ive ly , b eg inn ing w i th a ma jor d iv is ion t ha t

p reced ing p a in t ( L 'O range 1 985 : 2 1 ; Wa rd -Pe rk in s , c onve r sa t ion c i ted i n McNa l ly 1 971 : 1 06 ; s ee a bove , p p . 2 1-22 ) .

I n 1 971 Ip ub l ished a s hor t d i scu s s ion t ha t Iw i l l d raw

o n a nd r ev ise h ere . S cho la r s h ave g ene ra l ly a ccep ted t he i n te rp re ta t ion s o f B u l ie a nd C onze . T he o n ly s e r iou s q ue ry h a s

i s n o t s urp r is ing a t t h is p er iod . S ome t imes i t b ecomes a wkwa rdne ss , f o r i n s tance i n p ane l n o . 1 5 . T he f r ieze a ppea r s t o

u nf in ished .

N iemann p ub l ished p ho tog raph s o f a l l p ane l s w i th a b r ief

0 C D

7 :1 c ) C D

DOOR AT WEST

5 4

ARCH ITECTURAL DECORAT ION OF D IOCLETIAN 'S PALACE , S PL IT D i rec t ion s a re g i ven f r om t he o bse rve r ' s p o in t o fv iew e xcep t w hen

Above t he g a r land i s ama sk w i th s ma l le ye s ocke t s a nd al a rge

p ronoun s i nd ica te o t herw ise , i . e . , af i gu re s t r id ing t o t h e l e f t a nd h o ld ing u p h i s r i gh t h and h o ld s u p h i s h and i n t he s ame d i rec t ion

i nd ica te u pwa rd f l a r ing b row s . T he h a i r r i se s a nd s l an t s b ack

h e moves .

a bove t he s ku l l , t h en make s as ha rp c or ne r .

1 . Wrea th : Ma ra sov ie -Ma ra sov ie f i g . 8 3 , N iemann p l . XX I I ,

c ome d own t ot h e l e ve l o ft h e b o t tom o ft h e n o se .

a lmo s t s qua re mou th o pen ing .

A ma rk o n t he f o rehead may S t ra igh t e dges

i , c en te r Two p u t t i s t and h o ld ing a l a rge c i rcu la r w rea th ( s ing le l e a f

7 .T he m is s ing s l ab . 67

c ha in ) w i th t h e ir i nne r h and s . I n t h e i r o u te r h and s t h ey h o ld s ma l l g a r land s .

8 .G a r land : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g . 6 3 .

I n s ide t he w rea th i s af r on ta l h ead w i th t wo c u rv ing w ing s

P u t t i h o ld g a r land s w i th i nne r h and s a s i nn o . 6 . Ou te r a rm o f

r i s ing f r om t h e c en te r o f t he s ku l l , e x tend ing t o t h e s i de s j u s t

o ne p u t t i b roken o f f , o u te r a rm o f o the r p u t t i h o lds a l a rge o b jec t , a lmo s t c e r ta in ly at o r ch p o in t ing u pwa rd .

as ho r t w ay b eyond i t .

2 .G a r land : Ma r a sov ie -Ma ra sov ie f i g . 8 4 ; N iemann

P l .

A bove t he g a r land i s a ma sk w i th s ma l l e ye s ocke t s , mou th

XX I I ,

o pen ing a bou t t h e s ame s i ze , a nd h eav i ly r ounded c heek s . T he

i , r i gh t .

h a i r h as i nden ta t ion s a round t h e t op o f t h e h ead , s t opp ing a t e ye l eve l . A bove i ti s a no the r f o rm , b e long ing t o e i the r a

Two p u t t i s t r id ing a way f r om e ach o the r h o ld a t h in g a r land ( s ing le l e a f c ha in? ) w i th b o th h and s . T he c ha in g oe s a c ro s s t he i r n ea re r s hou lde r s a nd b eh ind t he i r h ead s . T he ir n ea re r

c omp l ica ted h a i rdo o r ah ead re s s .

h and s r e s t o n t he l oop ; t he ir o u t e r h and s r a ise t h e e nd s i n t h e

9 . Wrea th : C a lza 1 972 :

a i r .

1 06 , p l . X I I , 3 5 -36 ; L 'O range 1 984 :

P l . 1 3 a -b ; Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g s . 6 1 , 6 4 ; p l . XX I I I , v i , l e f t .

Above t h e g a r land i s a ma sk w i th s ma l l h o l low e ye s ocke t s a nd h o l low mou th . T he mou th make s ah a lf c i rc le . T he f a ce i s

N iemann

P u t t i s t r id ing i nwa rd s a s i n n o . 5 . h o ld a w rea th w i th b o th

f u l l a nd s moo th , t he h a ir a s moo th c ap t ha t c ome s d own o n e i t he r s i de t oj us t b e low t he l e ve l o ft h e n o se .

h and s . I th a s c l ea r ly d ef ined o ve r lapp ing l e ave s . I n t h e w rea th i st h e b u s t o f am an i n al o o se ly d raped g a rmen t , a nd a k nob ( b rooch ) o n h i s r i gh t s hou lde r . H e h a s ar ounded

3 . Ga r land ( Bad ly wo rn , o ru nf in ished ) : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g . 8 5 ; N iemann p l . XX I I , l v , l e f t .

f a ce a nd s ho r t h a i r , c om ing d own i nw ave s .

H e a ppea r s t ob e

b ea rd le ss , u n le s s r ough c h ise l m a rk s o n t h e s i de o f t he f a ce

Two p u t t i t ouch f e e t a tt he b o t tom , t h en l e an a way s o t h a t t h ey

i nd ica te a b ea rd . H e w ea r s as ha l low , s t ra igh t s i ded c ap o r

s eem t o f l oa t , h o ld ing a s hor t g a r land b e tween t hem .

d i adem .

S ome th ing may b e h ang ing d own f r om t he c en te r o f t h e g a r land .

1 0 . G a r land : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g s . 6 5 , 6 8 ; N iemann p l . XX I I I , v i , c en te r .

O ve rt h e g a r land i s ar ough o va l p ro tru s ion .

Two p u t t i s t r ide o u twa rd . L ike t h o se i n p ane l s 2a nd 4 , t h ey h o ld a g a r land b eh ind t h e i r s hou lde r s a nd r a ised i nt he i r o u te r

4 .G a r land : Ma ra sov ie - Ma ra sov ie f i g . 8 6 ; N iemann p l . XX I I , l v , c en te r .

h ands .

Two p u t t i s t r id ing a way f r om e ach o the r h o ld a g a r land . I t , p robab ly p a ssed b eh ind t he i r s hou lde r s a nd w a s h e ld i n t h e ir

A bove t he g a r land i s ama sk w it h. aw ide o pen mou th ( w ide a t

o u t e rh and s a s i nn o . 2 .

i n as moo th s hape c om ing w e l l d own a l ong t h e c heek s .

s i de s , n a r row ing i n c en te r ) a ppa ren t ly s ol id e yeba l l s , a nd h a i r

A bove t he g a r land i s ah ead w i th s o l id e yeba l l s a nd c lo sed , f u l l - l i pped mou th , h eavy e yeb row s , a nd a f u l l h ead o f h a i r

1 . G a r land : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g . 6 6 ; N iemann p l .

r i s ing h igh a bove t h e s ku l l a nd c om ing d own t ot h e t op o ft h e

XX I I I , v i , r i gh t .

c heekbones .

P u t t i h o ld g a r land s a s o n n o . 3 . T he ma sk i ss ma l l , a s i tw ou ld h ave b een i n n o . 3 . T he e ye s

5 . Wr ea th ( Ou te r h and s o fb o th p u t t i r e s to red ) : C a lza 1 972 :

a r e s o l id a nd t h e mou th i sc l o sed . T he h a i r i sa r ranged i n a h igh , s qua r ed -o f fs hape l i ke n o . 6 ,b u t s ma l le r .

18 , p l . 2 1 , 5 2 ; L 'O range 1 984 : p l . 1 3 , c . Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g . 8 7 , 8 9 ; N iemann p l . XX I I I , l v , r i gh t . P u t t i s t epp ing t owa rd e ach o the r h o ld a l a rge f r ame : s l igh t i n den ta t ion s s ugges t t ha t i ti s mean t t o b e aw rea th . One

1 2 . H un t : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g . 6 7 ; N iemann p l . XX I I I , v i i , l e f t

h o ld s ag a r land i n h i s o u te r h and , t he o the r al o ng o b jec t

Ap u t to s t r ide s f r om t h e r i gh tt owa rd aw i ld g oa tr unn ing a way

( g a r land? t o rch? ) .

t owa rd a n a bb rev ia ted t r ee a tt h e e dge o ft h e p ane l . T he p u t to f l our ishe s i n h i s r i gh t h and a s pea r t ha t h e i sa bou t t o d r ive

I nt h ew rea th i s ab u s to f aw oman . S he w ea r s al o o se ly d raped g a rmen t , h a s h a i r i n t h ick w ave s f a l l ing o n to h e r s hou lde r s , a nd ac omp l ica ted k no t o n t op o fh e r h ead .

6 .G a r land :

i n to t he g oa t ' s b ack .

Ma ra sov ie -Ma ra sov ie f i g s . 6 2 , 8 8 . ; N iemann P l .

6 7 Käh le r , s t re ss ing t he i mpo r tance o f S o l i nv ic tus t o D ioc le t ian , s ugges t s t ha t t he re m igh t o r ig ina l ly h ave b een a s ma l le r w indow t h e re , t o a dm i t t h e l i gh t o f t he r i s ing s un . A l ter na t ive ly , h e t h ink s t h e re m igh t h ave b een a b us t o f t h e s un g od " ove r t he n i che w i th t h e s a r cophagu s o f t h e empe ro r " ( 1974 : 8 17 ; c f . K ah le r 1 973 d i scu s s ing S o l o n t h e T emp le o fJ up i te r ) .

XX I I I , v i , r i gh t . S t and ing p u t t i t u rn s l igh t ly i nwa rd , h o ld t he e nd s o f as hor t g a r land i n t h e ir o u t s t re tched n ea r h and s s o t ha t i td oe s n o t t o uch t he ir b od ie s . T he ir o u te r a rm s h ang b y t h e i r s i de s .

5 5

MAUS OLEUM F R IEZE 1 3 . H un t : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g . 6 9 ; N iemann p l .

2 3 . H un t ( r igh t a rm a nd t o r so o fp u t to r e s to red ) :

XX II ,

Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g . 8 0 ;N iemann p l . XX I I I , i , r i gh t

v i i , c en te r . Ap u t to a tl e f t s i de h a s f a l len t o h i s r i gh t k nee , w i th h i s r i gh t h and t ot h e g round . I n h i s l e f t h and h e h o ld s h i s s h ie ld t ow a rd

S t epp ing t owa rd t he l e f t , ap u t to l ook s s t ra igh t o u t . H is r i gh t h and i sn ow r a ised , p a lm o u twa rd s , a s i fa ccep t ing a pp lau se .

o f ft h e o n s laugh t o f af el ine t ha t h a s i t s p aw s o n t h e s h ie ld .

1 4 . H un t : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g . 7 0 ; N iemann p l .

N o r ea son f o r t h is e voca t ive r e s to ra t ion i s d ocumen ted . H i s l e f t h and h o ld s as h ie ld . He p ay s n o a t ten t ion t o a n a n ima l

XX I I I ,

( bea r? ) l e ap ing i n f r om t he r i gh t , muzz le a nd f o re leg s

v i i , r i gh t .

o ve r lapp ing t h e s h ie ld .

Two d og sr un f r om t h er i gh tt owa rd as ma l l d ee rt h a ta ppea r s t o b e b ound ing u pwa rd o ve r r ock s i n f r on t o f at r ee . One o ft h e

2 4 . H un t ( b ad ly d amaged , u nc lea r ) : Ma r a sov ie -Ma ra sov ie :f i g . 8 1 , N iemann p l . XX I I , i i , l e f t .

d og s i sj u s t g ra sp ing t h e d ee r w i th i t s t e e th a nd p aw .

Ap u t to s t ep s t o t he r i gh t , p robab ly s pea r ing a n a n ima l t ha t

1 5 . Hun t ( a rm a nd h and r e s to red ) : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g .

l u nge s f r om t h e o the r d i rec t ion . ( Conze s ays h e i ss pea r ing a

7 1 ; N iemann p l . XX I I I , v i i i , l e f t .

b oa r . ) T he re a r er ema in so f at r ee a tt h es i de

T he p u t to h a s o n ly o ne w ing , a nd o ne a rm a nd h and , w h ich h ave b e en r e s to red . H e move s a nd g e s tu re st ot h e

T he s ub jec t ma t te r o f t he se p ane l s d iv ide s a symme t r ica l ly i n to t wo

r i gh t , u rg ing o n al a rge d og t ha t c rouche s t os p r ing o u t o ft h e

p a r t s , e ach d iv ided a ga in .

p ane l .

I n t e n ( p robab ly o nce e l even ) p ane ls a t

t h e e a s t , t he e ro te s a re s ubo rd ina te .

T hey h o ld g a r land s b e low

s even h ead s , a nd t h ree w rea th s a round o ne h ead a nd t wo b u s t s . T he 1 6 . H un t : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie :f i g . 7 2 ;

N iemann p l .

h ead s a nd b u s t s d om ina te t h e p ane ls . T hey w ou ld b e t h e f i r s tf o rm s

XX I I I , v i i i , c en te r .

s een b y a nyone e n te r ing t h e b u i ld ing , a nd i n ev i tab ly b rough t i n to

Aw i ld b oa r( ? ) move s t ot h e l e f tb e tween t wo t r ee s .

c onnec t ion w i th a s a rcophagus i fi t s t ood p rom inen t ly b e low . 68 I n t h ir teen p ane l s , ma in ly a tt he wes t , e ro te s p lay t he ma jo r r o le .

1 7 . Hun t : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g s . 7 3 , 7 5 ; N iemann P l . XX I I I , v i i i , r i gh t .

T hey e ngage i n t wo d if f eren t a c t iv i t ies : t h ree p ane l s s how r ac ing 6 9 a nd t e n s how h un t ing . T he a c t ion i su sualy c omp le te i n as i ng le p ane l . P ane ls 1 5 t o 1 7 , i n o ne i n te rco lumn ia t ion , f o rm

Ap u t to s t r ide s t ot h e l e f t , l ook ing o u twa rd . O n h i s l e f t a rm h e

o ne s c ene . S o d o p ane ls 2 1 a nd 2 2 .

b ea r s as h ie ld . H i s r i gh t a rm i sr a ised t ou rge o n ad og , w ho se muzz le a nd f o repaw s t ouch at r ee a tt h ee dge o ft h ep ane l .

A l l t h e se t h eme s o ccu r f r equen t ly i n f une ra ry a r t , a s w e l l a s o the r p lace s .

1 8 . R ace : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g . 7 4 ; N iemann p l . XX I I , i ,l e f t .

t heme w ou ld a wake e lude p rec ise d ef in i t ion . T oo g rea t p r ec i s ion wou ld p robab ly b e m is lead ing . B e l ief s a nd h ope s c an b e d eep ly

Ap u t to r i de s ah o r se t ot he r i gh t .

mean t a tt h e s ame t ime t h a tt h ey a r e b road ly f o rmu la ted .

1 9 . R ace : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g s . 7 6 , 8 2 ; N iemann P l . XX I I , i ,c en te r .

One o ft h e mo s t f am i l ia r , b u t l e a s t w e l l e xam ined c ha rac te r i s t ic s o f

A p u t to s t and s w i th o ne k nee b en t , f oo t b raced a ga in s t t h e f r on t o f ac ha r io t .

T he o n ly l i nk s t ha t w ou ld c ause t h em t o b e p u t t o ge the r ,

h oweve r , a r e t he i r f une ra ry mean ing s . T h i s c on ten t w a s a l ready r ecogn ized i n t h e i n 1 894 p ubl ica t ion . T he a s soc ia t ion s t h a t e ach

R oman a r t i si t s a f f ec t ion f o r s ma l l , p lump , w inged b oy s e ngag ing i n a du l t a c t iv i t ie s , o r s e rv ing a s s uppo r t s . S cho la r s s ome t ime s c a l l

H e h o ld s t he r e in s o f t wo h o r ses t h a t h e

d r ive s t o t he r i gh t .

t hem g en i i o r p u t t i ( B lanc a nd Gury 1 986 : 1 042 ) t o a vo id i den t ify ing t h em w i th t he s on (s ) o f V enus . B lanc a nd G u ry p o in t o u t t h a t R oman a u tho r s n eve r d esc r ibe Amo r a s p e rfo rm ing m any

2 0 . R ace : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g . 7 7 ; N iemann p l . XX I I , i ,r i gh t .

o ft h e a c t s t ha t g roups o fl i t t le w inged b oy s p e r fo rm i n R oman a r t .

A w inged p u t to i n al ong d re ss ( t he o n ly w inged , c l o thed

T ha t l a ck i sm i t iga ted b y t h e f ac t t ha t t he re i sl i t t le r e f e rence t o t he se b oy s b y a ny n ame . T hey f orm a n o tab le e xamp le o f t h e

f i gu re , p o s s ib ly ap syche b u t n o t , a s C onze s ugge s ted , an ike ) d r ive s at wo h or se c ha r io t t o t he r i gh t . H e l e an s f o rwa rd t o wh ip t he h o r se s . T he r e in s r un b ack t o h i s b ody , b u t h e d oe s

d ive rgence b e tween p opu la r r e l ig ion a nd w ha t i sd ocumen ted i n w r i t ing . S cho la r s o f s a rcophag i u sua l ly c a l led t h em e ro te s . T ha t t hey a r e s omehow c onnec ted w i th E ros o r Amo r s eems g ua ran teed

n o t h o ld t h em .

b y t h e f a c t t ha t , i n t he h ou se o f t he Ve t t i i a nd e l sewhe re , t h ey a ppea r t o ge the r w i th f ema le f i gu re s w ho h ave b u t te r f ly w ing s , i . e . ,

2 1 . Hun t : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g . 7 8 ; N iemann p l . XX I I I ,

p syche s ( a s G e rha rd t Koeppe l p o in ted o u t t o m e ; s ee K och a nd

i , l e f t .

S ich te rmann 1 982 : 2 06 , c f . Hane l 1 985 : 2 03 , b r ing ing t o ge the r r a the r l o o se ly c onnec ted p henomena ) . S chauenbu rg t r ace s o ne o f

Ap u t to s t r ide s t ot h e r i gh t , h o ld ing ad og o n al e a sh . T he d og l e ap s f o rwa rd i nf r on t o f at r ee . H i s f o repaw s t o uch a s e cond

t he

2 2 . H un t : Ma ra sov ie Ma ra sov ie f i g . 7 9 ; N iemann p l . c en ter .

a c t iv i t ies

s hown

h e re ,

c ha r io t

r ac ing ,

b ack

t o G reek

r ep re sen ta t ion s o f E ro s ( 1995 : 2 2 -25 ) .

t r ee a tt h e e dge o ft h e p ane l .

6 8 K äh le r ( 1974 ) t h ink s t ha t i tw en t i n t h e n i che o ppo s i te t h e d oo r , l i ke t h e s a rcophagu s o fC o s tanza i n Rome af ew y ea r s l a t e r .

XX I I I , i ,

6 9 A p u t to r i d ing h o r seback , a s i n p ane l 1 8 , c ou ld a l so a ppea r a s p ar t o f ah un t ing s cene . H e re i tc rea tes a t r an s i t ion b e tween h un t ing a nd r a c ing . I n t h e R oman wor ld t h e t wo a c t iv i t ie s a r e c onnec ted b y b o th a r t is t ic c onven t ion s a nd u nde r ly ing mean ing s .

Ad ee r b e tween t wo t r ee s , f a c ing l e f t , b eg in s t o r i se f r om t h e g round , r a is ing o ne f r on t k nee .

5 6

ARCH ITECTURAL DECORAT ION OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE , S PL IT s how s h ow much t h e R oman s n eeded t h is " Ve rk lä rung " ( 1989 : 3 2 ) . S chauenburg , o n

E ro te s i sw ha t t h ey a r e c a l led i n t h e mo s t a ppo s i te l i t e ra ry t e x t . I n i n ap a in t ing .

w e i tgehend s p ie le r isch b e s t imm te We l t " w he re t h e d ead w i l l l i ve p l ea san t ly among s uch s p ir i t s . H e i sp uzz led , h oweve r , b y s cene s

I ts how s w inged b oy s p e r fo rm ing t h e

v ar ie ty o f a c t iv i t ies c ommon ly s hown i n b o th p a in t ing a nd s cu lp tu re , w i th t h e s ame b o rde rl ine s e r iou snes s .

o fh un t ing o r c ha r io t r a c ing w he re p u t t i f a l l , a s o ne d oe s o n ap ane l

Mo s t o f t h em d o

a t S p l i t . B o l 's a pp roach may i lum ine s uch i nc iden t s , whe the r p ro jec ted t owa rd t he p a s t o r t he f u tu re . P h i los t ra tu s ' d e sc r ip t ion

p rac t ica l w o rk w i th e a se a nd e l egance ; s ome f r o l ic , s ome c ompe te w i thou t h os t i l i ty ; o the r s c ompe te more s e r iou s ly , w i th p a in a nd

s how s h i s a wa rene s s a nd e n joymen t o f t he c on t rad ic t ion s a r is ing w hen i mmor ta l c h i ld ren p e r form s e r ious a c t iv i t ies . A t temp ted

a nge r ; wh i le s t i l l o the r s h un t , l a ugh ing a tt h e s ame t ime t h a t t h ey f e e l d i sappo in tmen t . P h i los t ra tu s r e cogn ize s s ome th ing o dd i n s how ing s o m any sma l l w inged c rea tu res , a nd s pec if ica l ly d i s tance s t h em f r om Amo r o r E ro s , s on o f V enu s .

I n 1 995 h e r e i te ra ted a n

o p in ion h e h ad a dvanced i n 1 976 , t ha t t hey p rom i se a " he i te re ,

T he p a in t ing i s i mag ina ry , b u t i t s d e ta i l s c l ea r ly

d e r ive f r om t h e v i sua l a r t s .

t he o ther h and , ma in ta ins t ha t e ro tes o n

s a rcophag i p o in t t owa rd t he f u ture .

t h e f i r s t p a r t o ft h e t h i rd c en tury A .C . , P h i lo s t ra tu s d e sc r ibe s e ro te s

e xp lana t ion s b y moder n s cho la r s u nde r l ine t he b a s ic p a radox t ha t i sb o th s o d i ff icu l t t o d i ssec t , a nd s o o bv ious ly n ece ssa ry t o t he

H e s ay s . . . . if

t h e re a re many o ft hem , d o n o t b e s u rp r ised . F o r t h ey a r e c h i ld ren o f t he Nymph s , a nd g ove rn a l l mo r ta l k ind , a nd t h ey a r e many

R oman s , a nd t o D ioc le t ian .

b ecause o ft h e many t h ing s men l ove . . . ." I mag ines I :6 ,F a irbank s '

T he i r s econda ry r o le a tS p l i t i sa l so c ommon e l sewhe re . F rom t he

t r ans la t ion .

H ad r ian ic p er iod , e ro tes a re t he mos t c ommon s uppo r t s f or g a r land s i n t h e c i ty o fR ome ( Hon ro th 1 971) . T hey a ppea r o n u rn s a nd a l ta r s a nd e l sewhe re , b u t o ne o f t h e i r mo s t f r equen t v enue s i s

P ic tu re s o f e ro tes p lay ing w i th t he a rmo r o f Ma r s , o r b e ing

t h e s a rcophagu s .

f r igh tened b y ac u l t ma sk s how t h e R oman s ' d e s i re t ot r ea t s e r iou s

i nA s ia M ino r , w h ich t ook t he l e ad i n p roduc ing t h em ( I 5 ik 1 986 : 1 81) , T hey s eem t od i eo u t i nA s ia M ino rb efo re t h ee nd o ft h e t h i rd c en tury , wh i le t h e R oman p roduc t ion c on t inue s i n to t h e T e t ra rch ic

o ver n ine teen h undred s a rcophag i w i th e ro te s , c ompa red t o b e tween f ou r a nd

P o se s , a s i n t he a c t ive s cene s , a r e c onven t iona l

( L IMC ) . G a r land s a rcophag i w e re p opu la r i nR ome , i nA then s , a nd

t h ing s l i gh thea r ted ly , w i th g a ie ty . T he i r v e ry g rea t p opu la r i ty i n f une ra ry a r t m ay s t em f r om t he s ame mo t ive . S chauenbu rg c oun t s f i ve h und red D iony s iac , o r s l igh t ly o ve r s i x

h und red s ea son s s a rcophag i ( 1995 : 5 7 , c ommen t ing t h a t L I MC

p e r iod ( Koch a nd S ich termann 1 982 : 2 30 ; H ane l 1 985 c i te s 4 ik 's

g ives a m is taken i mpress ion o f t he n umbe r ) . Koch a nd S ich te rmann d i s t ingu ish b e tween s a r cophag i i n w h ich t h e e ro te s h ave a s ubo rd ina te r o le , s uch a s g a r land s a r cophag i , a nd t ho se i n

T he g a r land s t a ke many d i f f e ren t f o rm s .

s t i l l u npub l ished s t udy o f t ho se f r om A s ia M ino r ) .

wh ich t h ey p l ay t he d om inan t r o le ( 1982 : 2 07 ) ." T hey g roup t h e l a t te r i n to e i gh t t heme s . T he t wo t h eme s r e p re sen ted o n t h e f r ieze

A s ia M ino r t han i n Rome , b u t i n a l l a reas f r u i t d om ina te s

a tS p l i t , h un t ing a nd r a c ing , a re among t h e mo s t p opu la r .

T he t h eme s a ppea r i n many o the r p l ace s b e s ide s s a rcophag i .

A t S p l i t , t h ey c on s is t o f

l e ave s , r a the r t h an f r u i t . L ea fg a r land s s eem t o b e mo re p opu la r i n e xpen s ive p iece s . On t h e s econd c en tu ry s a rcophagu s f r om L i my ra , f o r i n s tance , f r u i t a ppea r s o n t he f r on t a nd t he s imp le r l e ave s o n t h e s i des . T he c a rve r s a t S p l i t may p ref e r l e af g a r land s e i the r

I n

b ecau se t he i r r e a l i n te re s t l i e s i n t he h ead s , o r b ecau se t h ey a r e n o t

a dd i t ion t o t h e i r a ppea rance o n t h e f r ieze a t S p l i t , h un t ing e ro te s a ppea r o n f r ieze s f r om t h ea te r s , i n t h e P iazzo d 'O ro a tT ivo l i , a nd o n a n e xamp le f rom Aphrod is ia s t h a t c anno t b e a s s igned t o a s pec if i c b u i ld ing ( A l tenhöfe r a nd B o l 1 989 : 3 0 -31 ) . T hey a r e v e ry

h i gh ly e xpe r ienced , a nd c an b es t e xecu te ar epe t i t ive mo t if . I ft h ey w e re t r y ing t oe mpha s ize t r iumph , t h ey w ou ld p robab ly make mo re empha t ic l au re l l e aves .

T he g a r lands i n t he Mau so leum a re

u nu sua l ly t h in a nd p l a in . On mo s t s a rcophag i , t h ey b a lance o r e ven o u tdo t h e h eads i n i mpo r tance . H e re a t ten t ion f ocusses

p opu la r i n i n hab i ted s c ro l ls f r om m any c on tex t s , f o r i n s tance t h e p a lae s t ra o f t he B a th s o f C a raca l la , t h e T emp le o f S un , a nd t h e Maxen t ian p a r t ( pe rhap s n ea r t h e n o r th a p se ) o f t h e B a s i l ica N ova

e n t ire ly o n t he l a t te r .

( The g a r land o n t he Sma l l A rch a t

Ovad iah a nd T ur nhe im p a ss im ) .

T he ssa lon ike , s ee a bove , p . 9 , i s s im i la r i n f o rm , a nd e qua l ly u nde r s ta ted i n r e la t ion t o t h e who le c ompo s i t ion . )

T he s imp le e x tended p o se s f ound i n many p ane l s o f t h e f r ieze i n t he Mau so leum , a nd t he t r ee s i nd ica t ing s e t t ing , s eem t o d e r ive

o f t hese , p a r t icu la r ly t hose r ep resen t ing Medusa , a re u sua l ly

i n R ome ( Neu 1 972 : p l . 1 4 a ,2 7 b ,n o . 5 5 p l . 3 4 b , c f . p l . 1 8b ;

H ead s o f ten , a s h e re , f l oa t f r ee i n s pace a bove t h e g a r land s . r e f er red t o a s h ead s , a nd o the r s a s ma sk s .

f r om d ep ic t ion s o f t he h un t s s t aged i n a r ena s , p opu la r i n l a te R oman t h ea te r s a s w e l l a s amph i thea te r s .

S ome

T he f o rma t o ccur s o n

s a rcophag i f r om many p laces , b u t may b e mos t p opu la r i n A s ia M ino r . T he h ead s i n t he f r ieze a t S p l i t s hou ld p robab ly a l l b e

A t S p l i t t h e a r t is t s d o

n o t s how t h e t wo a c t iv i t ie s t ha t B o l c onnec t s s pec if ica l ly w i th s uch p rof e s s iona l p e r formance s , i . e . , f i n ish ing o f f af a l len a n ima l

c on s ide red ma sk s , b u t t h a t t e rm mu s t b eu sed w i th c au t ion .

a nd u s ing t wo h and s t o s pea r a n a n ima l f r om b eh ind ( A l tenhöf e r a nd B o l 1 989 : 2 9 ) . I ft h e p ane l s a tS pl i t w e re e xpec ted t or em ind

A ma sk may b e c ha r ac ter ized a s a n o b jec t made i nt h e s hape o f a

v i ewe r s o ft h e a rena ,

t h en t he se f i gu re s p robab ly r e f e r t ot h e p a s t

f a ce w i th h a i r , o f ten b u t n o t a lway s i n tended t ob e w o rn . G reek a nd

r a the r t han t he f u tu re , t o e xe r t ion s r equ ired i n t h is w o r ld , r a the r t han p l ea su re s e xpec ted i n t he n ex t . B o l t h ink s t ha t s cene s o f

R oman a r t is t s r ep re sen t t wo g roups : t hea t r ica l ma sks a nd c u l t ma sk s . T hey a r e c l ose ly r e la ted , b o th o r ig ina t ing i n t he c u l t o f

h uman h un ter s e ncouraged d emons t ra t ions o f v i r tus a nd o ve rcom ing f ea r o f d ea th ( A l tenhöf e r a nd B o l 1 989 : 3 1 w i th r e f e rence s ) .

D ionysos .

T hea te r ma sk s w e re o f c ou r se mean t t o b e wo rn : c u l t

m a sk s , t o b e m an ipu la ted a nd s ome t ime s , n o t a lway s w o rn . Ma sk s w i th s o l id e ye s a nd s o l id o r s l igh t ly p a r ted mou ths , l i ke t h e s a ty r

S he t h ink s t ha t R oman a r t is t s u sed e ro te s t o make

g r im t h eme s mo re p a la tab le a nd s ympa the t ic . M i shap s a nd d ange r c an b e b orn e a s i ly b ecause n o l a s t ing h a rm c an o ccu r . T he p opu la r i ty o f h un t ing e ro tes i n d ome s t ic p a in t ing a nd mosa ic

h ead i n t he D iony s iac f r e sco i n t h e V i l la o f t he My s te r ie s , f a l l i n to t h e s econd c a tego ry .

T he c l ea re s t t h ea te r ma sk s h ave a ) g ap ing e ye s ocke t s a nd mou th s

7° They

t h ink t he s a rcophag i o n w h ich e ro te s p l ay ad om inan t r o le w e re i n tended ma in ly f o r c h i ld ren , wh ich S chauenbu rg d i spu te s , p robab ly r i gh t ly ( 1995 : 1 8 -21) .

b ) c on tor ted f a ce s c ) d rama t ica l ly s t y led h a ir . When a l l t hose t h ing s a re p re sen t , t he ma sk s c an o f ten b e i d en t if ied w i th a

5 7

MAUSOLEUM F R IEZE p a r t icu la r r o le o r e ven c ha rac te r .

d i s ser ta t ion " Kopf u nd Ma ske : Un te r suchung z u d en A k ro te rdecke ln

( Thea t r ica l ma sk s o f ten r e f e r n o t

a n S a rkophage " ) .

o n ly t o t ype s b u t a l so t o c ha rac te r s , e . g . , Medea , H e rcu le s . ) We t h en h ave s ome r e a son t o t h ink t ha t t h ea t r ica l ma sks a re i n tended , a nd t o c on s ide r t h e p oss ib i l i ty t ha t t h e a r t is t s mean t o r e f e r t o a v a r ie ty o f r o le s , c ha rac te r s o r t ype s o f d rama . I n l a te r R oman e xamp le s , w e c anno t a ssume t ha t t he ir r ef e rence s a re e xac t , o r

Ma sk s c ou ld s e rve a ny o ne o fs eve ra l p u rpo se s . T hey c ou ld r e f e rt o t h e t h ea te r a s am e tapho r f o r h uman l i f e . T hey c ou ld r e f e r t oc u l t p rac t ice . F ina l ly , t h ey c ou ld e voke H e l len ic c u l ture . 72 T he l a s t

i d en t if iab le .

p urpo se w a s i mpor tan t i n t h e f i r s t c en tu ry A .C . i n t h e t h ea te r o f

We a l so c anno t b e s u re t ha t t h e p r ima ry r e f e rence i st ot hea te r : i ti s

P ompey a nd , e ven mo re , a t Aphrod is ia s ( Cha isema r t in 1 991 : 4 40 ) . I t c on t inued t o b e i mpor tan t i n L a te A n t iqu i ty t o s t re ss t h e

a tl e a s t e qua l ly l i ke ly t o b e t o o the r c u l t a c t iv i t ie s ( Ca in 1 988 : 1 81

e rud i t ion o f i nd iv idua l s , l i v ing o r d ead .

a nd p a s s im ) . " Thea t r ica l " ma sk s a ppea r i n v a r ied c u l t s cene s f r om t h e H e l len i s t ic p e r iod o n , f o r i n s tance , t h ey a r e d e sc r ibed a s p a r t o f

s a rcophagu s f r om t h ee nd o ft h et h i rd c en tu ry , a nd ac a ske t f r om t h e E squ i l ine T rea su re ( G reen a nd Hand ley 1 995 : f i g s . 7 6 , 7 7 ) . T he se

t h e p roce s s ion o f P to lemy P h i lade lphu s .

M ix tu re s o f h ead s w i th

e xamp le s s how u s t ha t d evo t ion t o t he c l a s s ica l p a s t d id n o t

s o l id e yes a nd mou th s , a nd t hose w i thou t , a l ready a ppea r f r equen t ly i nl a te r H e l len i s t ic a nd e a r ly R oman a r t . T hey p robab ly r ef lec t c u l t

i n c lude k now ing w ha t ma sk s h ad o nce l ooked l i ke . T he c a rve r s o f t he s a r cophagu s c l ea r ly mean t o s how a t r ag ic a nd ac om ic m a sk , b u t t hey c onfu se t r a i t s o f d i f fe ren t o r ig in s , t e s t ify ing t o " t he

p r ac t ice t ha t m ing led w ea rab le w i th n on -wea rab le ma sk s .

v aguene s s o f r e f e rence i n t h e m ind o f b o th m a son a nd p u rcha se r " ( 101) . D isp lay o f e rud i t ion d oe s n o t e xp la in t h e ma sk s a t S p l i t .

N o t e ve ry h ead i nR oman a r t r ep re sen t s ama sk . F rom Aph rod is ia s c ome h ead s t h a t a r e a bb rev ia ted r e f e rence s t o s t a tue s . h ead s a l so d o n o t s imu la te o b jec t s made a s ma sk s .

E xamp les i n c lude amu se

We h ave n o r e a son t o t h ink D ioc le t ian h ad a n i n te re s t i n H e l len ic c u l tu r e , o ra ny d e s i r e t oa ppea ra s aman o fl e t te r s .

Medusa

Me tapho r ica l r e f e rence s t o t he s t age t ake t h r ee f o rm s : t h ey s peak o f l i v ing a s p lay ing a r o le , o f l i fe a s am ime , a nd o f l i f e a s a m ix tu re o fc omedy a nd t r agedy . R ef e rence s t ol i v ing o ne ' l i f e l i ke

I n t he p ane ls i n s ide t he Mauso leum , mou th s , e yeb rows , a nd h a i rdos r e semb le t ho se f ound o n " c la s s ica l " t hea te r ma sk s .7 1 T he e n t ire c onf igu ra t ion o f ah ead n eve r c o r re spond s d ef in i t ive ly w i th a

a n a c to r p l ay ing a r o le n eed n o t b e c yn ica l . P anegy r ic s r e f e r t o i mpe r ia l a ppea rance s i n t hea t r ica l t e rm s . I ti s n eve r , h oweve r ,

s i ng le r o le . We c anno t i den t ify t h em , o r e ven s ay c e r ta in ly t ha t a l l a r e c om ic , o r a l l t r ag ic , o r t ha t t hey a re a m ix tu re . T h is i ndef in i tene s s i sn o t s urpr is ing . T he t r ad i t iona l ma sk s w e re t h ing s

s ugges ted t ha t o ne man i n h i s l i fe p lays many p a r t s .

T ha t

me tapho r c an n o t , t h e refo re , e xp la in t he m a sk s a t S p l i t . T hey s t and o u t f r om mo s t ma sk s i n f une ra ry c on tex t s b ecau se o f t h e i r

o f t he p a s t . F ew p eop le o f D ioc le t ian 's t ime h ad s een a p l ay p e r fo rmed w i th m a sk s . T he p opu la r m ime w a s p e r formed w i thou t

n umbe r a nd v a r ie ty . Mo s t s a rcophag i d o n o t , o fc ou r se , h ave r oom

m a sk s , t he p an tom ime p e rhap s w i th ma sk s w i th c l o sed mou ths a nd o pen e ye s ocke t s ( A l l roggen -Bede l 1 974 , B eacham 1 991) .

f o r mo re t h an t wo o rt h r ee e xamp le s . T ho se a r e o f ten mo re u n if ied i n t ype t h an t h e o ne s a tS pl i t . A s econd p o s s ib le r e fe rence m ay b e t o t he " m imus v i tae " ( Seneca a d L uc . 7 7 , 2 0 : t h is a nd s im i la r

Mo re t t i c on t ra s t s t h e " emba r ra ssmen t " o f a r chaeo log is t s t r y ing t o

p h ra se s a r e d i scu s sed b y A nd reae 1 963 : 7 7 -79 ) . F ina l ly , t h e a r t i s t s

i d en t ify s econd c en tury p ic tu re s o f ma sks w i th t he ir e ase i n

may h ave w ished t o c ha rac te r ize l i fe a s am ix tu re o f c omedy a nd

i d en t ify ing e a r l ie r o nes ( 1993 : 2 17 ) . H e a s sumes t ha t s econd c en tury a r t is t s s t i l l a imed t o p o r t ray t he c harac ter is t ics o f

t r agedy .

t r ad i t iona l r o le s , b u t h ad l e s s k now ledge o f h ow t hey s hou ld l ook .

i su nfo r tuna te t h a t w e c anno t b e s ur e whe the r t h e c a rve r s h e re d id , i n f a c t , s e ek t om ix t h o se t wo g en re s .

T ha t b l end w ou ld a ccord w i th t h e h un t ing a nd r a c ing

s cene s , w he re s e r iou s a c t iv i t ie s a re p re sen ted w i th a l i gh t t o uch . I t

B y t h e e nd o ft h e t h i rd c en tury , a tl e a s t a tS pl i t , i t may b e d oub ted h ow much s cho la r ly c on s ide ra t ion s ma t te red .

T he r ema in ing p oss ib le p urpose i s r ef lec t ion o f c u l t . T h is p os s ib i l i ty i sa t t rac t ive , b u t o n ly i f ab road c u l t ic u se i sp ropo sed .

U se o ft h e t r ad i t iona l ma sk s i na r t r ema ined v e ry p opu la r , b u t o f ten v e ry i nexac t . I n A na to l ia , t hey a ppea red i n f r ieze s o n b u i ld ing s .

Many

r e f e rence s i n a r t r ef lec t a c t iv i t ie s i n t h e c u l t o f D ionysus

I n I t a ly a nd s ome a d jacen t a rea s , t h ey a ppea red o n f r ee -s tand ing r e l ief s . T hey w e r e mo s t p opu la r o n s a rcophag i . T he l a t te r c on tex t

( A l l roggen -Bede l , C a in ) . N one o ft h e ma sk s a tS p l i t s eem s t oh ave

c aused t hem o f ten t o b e i n terp re ted b y modern s cho la r s a s

b u t s a ty r ic q ua l i t ie s a r e n o t d om inan t .

i lu s t ra t ing p hra se s i n wh ich a nc ien t w r i te r s c ompa red l i fe t o t h ea te r : T he i r a ppea rance s o u t s ide s a rcophag i h a s l e d r e cen t ly t o a

D ioc le t ian w a s p a r t icu la r ly i nvo lved i n D iony s iac c u l t , a nd t h a t i s

s e r ie s o f s t ud ie s p o in t ing o u t t h e v a r ied mean ing s t h ey c ou ld h ave ,

t o men t ion .

a nd i n s is t ing t ha t c on tex t , a nd s pec if ic u sage , b e c ons ide red

t o c e leb ra te t h e j oy s o f t h is wo r ld , a nd o f t h is d we l l ing p l ace .

( A l l roggen -Bede l 1 974 , C a in 1 988 , C ha isema r t in 1 991 , Mo re t t i

wou ld r equ i re a no the rk ind o fc omm i tmen t t ou se t h em h e re a sk ey s

1 993 : u nfor tuna te ly Ih ave n o t s een T . B rennecke 's 1 970 B e r l in

t o i mmor ta l s t a tu s .

7 1 T he ma in l i t e ra ry s ource f o r ma sk s i s t h e s econd c en tury A .C . a u tho r P lancu s . H is d e sc r ip t ion o f f o r ty -four ma sk t ypes i s a l ready w o rk o f s cho la r sh ip , p re sen t ing ma te r ia l n o l onge r i n c ur ren t u se . I t i s b orn o u t a nd s upp lemen ted b y many r ep re sen ta t ion s f r om t he p e r iod s i n w h ich t he ma sks w e re s t i l l c ommon ly wo rn . Web s te r h a s c o l lec ted many e xamp le s o f c om ic m a sk s a nd l e s s o f t r ag ic a nd s a ty r m a sk s ( com ic , 1 978 : e sp . 1 5 -26 ; o t he r s , 1 962 ) . H a i rdo s , mou th s , a nd e yeb row s o n t h e f r ieze p ane l s c an e a s i ly b e ma tched w i th h i s i lu s t ra t ion s , b u t u sua l ly mo re t han o ne i d en t if ica t ion s eem s p o ss ib le .

• 72 S peak ing o f a n e a r l ier t ime , Mo re t t i s umma r ize s t he s i tua t ion w i th a s l igh t ly d i f f e ren t r ange o f r e f e rences :" . . . le mo t if d u masque n es t n i i n s ign if ian t , n i u n ivoque . . . .Symbo le d u mou s ikow a nh r au n u n ive r s c u l tu re l h e l len ique e tc l a s s ique , i mage d u monde d u b anque t d on t i lo rna i t s ouven t l e s s a l le s , i lu s t ra t ion d u t h eme d u m imu s v i tae o u i n s igne d ' un d iony s isme e scha ta log ique . . i l ap u s ' in teg re r äd i ve r s p rog ramme s i c onog raph ique s r e ve tan t i c i e tl äd e s s i gn if ica t ion s p a r t icu l ire s q u ' i l c onve in t d e d ech if f r e r c a s p a r c a s ." 1 993 : 2 17 .

c ha rac te r i s t ic s s ugge s t ing t h a t c u l t .

S ome c ou ld b e s a ty r m a sk s , T he re i sn o e v idence t h a t

s ome th ing w e m igh t e xpec t L ac tan t ius , h i s b i t te r C hr is t ian c r i t ic ,

5 8

I ti so ne t h ing t o u se D ionys iac r e f e rence s g ene ra l ly I t

ARCH ITECTURAL DECORAT ION OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE , S PL IT Ma sk s , h oweve r , c ame t o h ave mo re g ene ra l u se a s t a l isman s . w e re m ean t a s s y mbo l s o f l uck , a nd o f " e ine r f r iedvo l le u nd

T he w rea th a round t he w inged h ead a ppea r s o n many f une ra ry monumen t s a s aw ay o f h e ro iz ing t h e d ead . S ince i th e re f r ame s a c l ea r ly s upe rna tura l f i gure , i t p resumab ly p rom ises s im i la r

s o rgen f re ien We l t " ( 187 -188 ) .

H e i st a lk ing a bou t a no the r t ime

i mmor ta l i ty , p e rhap s e ven s im i la r d iv in i ty , t o t h e t wo o the r

a nd p l a ce , b u t g l ad ia to r s may w e l l h ave c on t inued t h e p rac t ice . T he h un t ing a nd r a c ing s cene s h e re c er ta in ly r e la te t o s ome d eg ree t o

f i gu re s i n t h e s ame f r am ing d ev ice . T hey a r e b u s t s , w h ich s i ng le s t h em o u t a s mo r ta l s f r om t h e r e s t o ft h e c ompany .

C a in a rgue s t h a t t he c om ic ma sk s f ound o n g lad ia to r s ' w eapon s

a c t iv i t ie s i n t h e a r ena , a nd t r y t o move t hem t o ac a ref ree wo r ld . T h i s u sage m ay n o t h ave b een l im i ted t o c om ic ma sk s . T he re i s

We h ave l i t t le i nd ica t ion o f w ha t D ioc le t ian l ooked l i ke , a nd s ome d i f f icu l ty i n i d en t ify ing h i s p o r t ra i t s ( Ca lza 1 972 , L 'O range 1 961 :

s ome e v idence t h a t t r ag ic ma sk s a l so t ook o n n ew l i f e a s o b jec t s t h a t h e lped w a rd of e v i l . D in s t l n o te s t he c on fus ion t h a t d eve lop s

9 5 -103 ) . T he ma le b u s t i n t h e w rea th d oe s n o t r e semb le a ny o the r h ead t hough t t or ep re sen t h im , w i th t h e e xcep t ion o fo ne o n ah e rm

b e tween Medu sa h ead s a nd t r ag ic ma sk s ( 1986 -1987 : 2 12 , n . 19 ) . S ince t h e Medu sa h eads w e re n o t u sed i n p lay s , t he c onfu s ion

( s ee a bove , n o te 6 0 ) . T he i den t if ica t ion o ft h e l a t te r s e em s d oub t f u l ( a s L aubsche r h a s n o ted , 1 975 : n o te 5 63 ) . T he f u l l , r ounded f a ce

s ugge s t s t h a t t r ag ic ma sk s c ou ld b e u sed a po t ropa ica l ly , t ow a rd o f f h a rm . T he m a sk s a bove g a r land s a tS p l i t , w he the r t h ey a re c om ic

s hown o n t h e p ane l i nt h e Mau so leum c ou ld b e t h e r e su l t o fi lne s s , b u t t h e f ema le b u s t h a s as im i la r a ppea rance , s o i ti sm o re p robab ly

o r t r ag ic , o r am ix tu re , may t hen b e d e s igned t o p re sage g ood f o r tune . I tw a s c l ea r ly i mpo r tan t t h a t t hey b e v a r ied , t o mu l t ip ly t h e f o r ce s i n vo lved . I tm ay n o t h ave b een i mpo r tan t t ha t t hey b e c l ea r ly r e cogn izab le a s b e long ing t o o ne o r a l l o f t he c l a ss ica l g enre s. 7 3

t h e i d iosync ra sy o f c a rve r s n o t t r y ing t o f o l low a n a ccep ted p o r t ra i t t ype . T he b road , s t ra igh t -s ided f o rm o nh i s h ead c ou ld b e a c r ude g a r land l i ke t h e o ne s w o rn b y t h e V a t ican T e t ra r ch s , o r ac ap

Wrea th s s e t t h r ee f i gu re s a pa r t . One i s ah ead p l aced i nt h e m idd le

s im i la r t ot ho se w o rn b y t he V en ice T e t ra rch s , a nd t h e o ve r lo rd i n t h e G rea t H un t a tP iazza A rme r ina . T he g r ea te s t p uzz le i st he l a ck o f ab ea rd . G a le r ius a ppea r s b ea rd less i n t h e Sma l l A rch a t

o f a n i n te rco lumn ia t ion , a tt he e nd o f ah un t s equence . T he o the r

T he ssa lon ike , p o ss ib ly t o c ha rac te r ize h im a s aj un io r r u le r .

t wo a r e b u s t s , p laced among t he h ead s , a nd s ymme t r ica l ly i n t h e b u i ld ing . T he h ead h a s b een i den t if ied a s H e rme s P sychopompo s ,

f i gu re may o nce h ave h ad ab ea rd . P e rhap s t h er ough t o o l ma rk s o n

t h e ma le b u s t a sD ioc le t ian , a nd t h e f ema le b us t a s P r isca ( J e l ie a nd B u l ie 1 894 , C onze 1 910 ) . T he i den t if ica t ions a re p robab ly

w ou ld f i n ish t h e p i c tu re .

T h is

h i s c heek s c an b e t a ken a s g u ide l i ne s f o r t h e s t ucco a nd p a in t t h a t

c o r rec t , a l though t he re i s ap rob lem w i th e ach o ft hem .

We h ave n o p o r t ra i t s o f D ioc le t ian ' s w if e P r isca w i th wh ich t o c ompa re t h e b us t o f t he woman i n t h e t h i rd w rea th ( Ca lza 1 972 , Wegne r 1 984 ) . We d o n o t k now h ow much t ime P r i sca s pen t a t S p l i t , b u t w e c an a s sume t ha t s he w a s t o h ave b een b ur ied t h e re .

T he w ing s o nt h e h ead o f" He rme s " a r e o dd ly p l aced . I n mo s t c a se s w he re w ing s c ome f r om H e rme s o r Me rcury 's h a ir , t hey a r e s e t 4 16 ) . T he r oundness o f t h e f ace a nd t he p o s i t ion o f t he w ing s u sua l ly c ha rac te r ize Medu sa , b u t h e r s nake -kno t i sm is s ing . I f , a s

A f te r h e r h u sband ' s a bd ica t ion , w e o n ly h ea r o f h e r i n N icomed ia w i th t he i r d augh te r Va le r ia . S he s ha red V a le r ia ' s s ubsequen t d ange r s a nd d ea th ( de Mor t . P er s . 5 1) . D ioc le t ian t r ied t oh e lp h i s

D in s t l s ay s , a r t is t s f rom t h e t h ird c en tury o n c onfu se t hea tr ica l

d augh te r , b u t i fh e w a s a l so c once rned a bou t h i s w if e L ac tan t ius

ma sk s w i th h eads o f Medu sa , t hey may h ave b ecome u nconce rned a bou t s how ing a l l o f Medu sa 's c ha r ac te r is t ic s . T he ma in r ea son f o r

d oe s n o t m en t ion i t . S he n eve r b o re t h e t i t le o fA ugu s ta , s o i tm ay b e d oub ted t h a t a ny s pec if ica l ly i mpe r ia l h ono r s w ou ld a ccrue t o

r e ta in ing t h e t r ad i t iona l i d en t if ica t ion a s H e rme s i s t h e w ay t he

h e r a f te r h e r d ea th . T he w rea th s i gn if ie s at ype o fh e ro iza t ion t h a t

f i gur e i ss eque s te red i n aw rea th . I th a s s ome d ign i ty g rea te r t han t ha t o ft h e n e ighbo r ing h ead s . We c anno t u se a n i d en t if ica t ion o f

many R oman s c ou ld s ha re . I tn eed n o t p o in t t o a ny s pec if ica l ly i mpe r ia l c u l t . T he T e t ra rch ic e d ic t o n ma r r iage s how s D ioc le t ian

t h i s f i gu r e a s P sychopompo s t o c a l l t h e w ho le f r ieze f une ra ry , b u t i f w e f i r s t a ccep t t he f une ra ry p urpose o f t he f r ieze , t he i den t if ica t ion b ecome s p robab le i n c on tex t .

e age r t o p re se rve t r ad i t iona l v a lue s i n f am i ly l i fe . T ha t wou ld i n c lude s ha r ing f une ra ry r ep re sen ta t ion s w i th h i s w if e .

w ide ly a pa r t , b u t t he re a r e e xcep t ion s ( LI MC V I , 2 , 2 28 , 3 95 ,

R ecen t ly &r e ie h a s c ha l lenged t h e i d en t if ica t ion o f t h is woman a s P r isca ( 1993 : 6 9 ) . H ec on s ide r s t h e f o rm o nt op o fh e r h ead t ob ea mu ra l c rown . I ti st a l le r a nd n a r rowe rt h an t h e u sua l h a ir -do , a nd i n

O f a l l t h e s ub jec t s d i scu s sed s o f a r , t h is w rea thed h ead i st h e f i r s t t ha t u nequ ivoca l ly p o in t s f o rwa rd , t owa rd t he a f te r l if e . S ince i t b eg in s t h e s equence o f h eads , i t s ugges ts t ha t t hey t oo b e

s ome p ho tog raph s may a ppea r t o h ave t h ree v e r t ica l s ubd iv is ion s .

i n te rp re ted p rophe t ica l ly , a s w ish ing o r o b ta in ing g ood f o r tune a f te rd ea th r a the r t han a sc ommen t ing o n t h is l i f e . T he h un t ing a nd

I n t he Mauso leum i t c an o n ly b e s e en o r p ho tog raphed f r om a wkwa rd p o s i t ions . T he c lea re s t p ho tograph , p ub l ished b y Wegne r ( i n L 'O range 1 984 : p 1 .13c ) , i s ah ead -on s ho t o f ap la s te r

r ac ing s c ene s c ou ld s t i l l b e r ead e i the r w ay , a s v a r ia t ions o n t h e s ame p rom ise o f ah appy f u tu re , o r a s as econd , s ubo rd ina te me s sage , p l ea san t ly r e in te rp re t ing t h e e f for t s o f l i f e i n t h e l i gh t o f

c a s t o nce i n t h e A rchaeo log ica l Mu seum a tS p l i t . I tc l ea r ly s hows o ne b road , l a rge l owe r ma s s , t h en t wo i n te r sec t ing o ne s a bove : a

e t er n i ty . I ti sn o t n ece s sa ry t o make ad ec is ion , o r e ven t o a s sume

b ra id o fh a i r , c rude ly c a rved a s a r e mo s td e ta i l s h e r e .

t ha t t h e c a rve r s h ad d one s o . T ran sf igu ra t ion o f h uman e f for t , a s ser t ion t h a t v io lence c an l i ve w i th me r r imen t , a r e t he e s sen t ia l s ,

u riê c ompa r e s t h e b u s t s i nt h is f r ieze t ot hose o n t h e Sma l l A r ch

n o t t h e i r p rospec t ive o r r e t rospec t ive a pp l ica t ion .

o fG a le r iu s i nT he ssa lon ike ( 6 1 re ie 1 993 : f i g s . 7 a , b , 8 ;s ee a bove p . 9 ) . T h is i s av a luab le c ompa r ison , a l though i tp o in t s i n t h e o ppo s i te d i rec t ion f r om t he o ne h e s ugge s t s . D e ta i led i lu s t ra t ion s o f t he Sma l l A rch h ave b een p ub l i shed w i thou t d e ta i led s t udy ( Grammeno s a nd Kn i tha l ce s 1 994 : b u t s ee n ow S tephan idou T ibe r iou , 1 995 , c i ted i n Addendum , a bove , p . 1 2 . S he e s tab l i she s

7 3 I fm a sk s a nd Medu sa h ead sb ecame c onfu sed , a nd ma sk s h ad b ecome s i gns o f g ood f o r tune , t ha t c ou ld p ave t h e w ay f o r s t i l l l oose r u se , a s semb l ing h ead s t oge ther w i th o the r b enevo len t f o rce s , t h a t may e xp la in t he m ix ture o f c of fe r b osses i n t h e Mauso leum p or t ico , o r t h e T emp le o f J up i te r , I I .C .2 .d a nd Append ix Two .

5 9

MAUSOLEUM F RIEZE t h e s pace , a nd p robab ly t h e n i che , w he re t h e p iece w a s o r ig ina l ly

w rea thed d iv in i ty , D ioc le t ian a nd h i s w if e a l so a ch ieve w rea thed s t a tu s . T he e xpec ta t ion t h a t w hen h e h ad d i ed ap r iva te c i t izen , h e

p laced ) . 74

w ou ld b e i n c luded among t h e g ods ( c f . E u t rop ius , a bove p . 9 ) i s e xp re s sed c onf iden t ly b u t u np re ten t iou s ly .

I tp robab ly o r ig ina l ly c rowned as t ruc tu re c l o se t oe ye l e ve l , s o t h e c a rv ing i s mo re d e ta i led t han i nt h e f r ieze a tS p l i t .

T he mo t if s o n

d e te rm ina t ion .

t h e f ron t h ave s i gn if ican t s im i la r i t ies t o t ha t f r ieze : ag a r land , e ro te s , t wo h ead s i n c i rc le s . T he o ve r lap i n i c onog raphy o nce w a s s t i l l c lo se r .

T he h eads r ep re sen ted a n i mpe r ia l c oup le .

T he c i ty

g odde ss i ss ma l l i nc ompa r ison t oG a le r iu s , a nd a l l a round h e rh ead i n s ide t he meda l l ion c an b e s een t h e t oo l ma rk s whe re s ome th ing w as c h ipped a way ( c lea r i n D aux 1 958 : 7 57 , f i g . 5 ) . F o r t h e se r easons C a lza a rgues c onv inc ing ly t ha t t he b us t o r ig ina l ly p o r t rayed G a le r iu s ' w if e , D ioc le t ian 's d augh te r , G a le r ia V a le r ia .

I t

w a s r ecu t a f te r L ic i rüus h ad h e r k i l led , s i nce h e c on t inued t oh ono r t h e memo ry o f h e r h usband ( Ca lza 1 972 : 2 1 , a , b . ) .

Wegne r 1 984 :

1 51 , p l .

I tw a s L ic in ius , n o t G a le r iu s h imse lf , w ho l i nked t h a t

h ono r w i th a l o ca l i ty , w i th T he ssa lon ike .

&re ie u se s t h e f r ieze a nd t h e Sma l l A rch i n h i s a rgumen t t h a t G a le r ius a nd D ioc le t ian w e re b u i ld ing p a lace s d e l ibe ra te ly i mbued w i th t he d ign i ty o f c i t ies . On o the r g round s , G raba r l ong a go s ugge s ted t h a t t h e Mau so leum , a nd t h e G a le r ian R o tunda b e v i ewed a s t he h e roa o f c i ty f ounde r s ( G raba r 1 946 I :2 20 -229 ) . F raze r a rgued a ga in s t t h is i n terp re ta t ion , p robab ly r i gh t ly ( 1966 : 3 87 3 88 ) . 75

N e i the r r e s idence i sr e a l ly ac i ty . I ti sh a rd t ob e l ieve t h a t

b u i ld ing t h i s c omp lex a t S p l i t w ou ld h ave s eemed s o i mpo r tan t t o D ioc le t ian t h a t i tw ou ld b e t h e s i ng le p e r sona l a ch ievemen t a l luded t o i n t he f r ieze .

A l l t he s ub jec t ma t te r i s p re sen ted i n g ene ra l

t e rms , w i thou t s pec if ic b iograph ica l c la ims . P ersona l a ch ievemen t a nd amb i t ion h ave b een a bsorbed i n to w e l l e s tab l ished f o rmu lae .

B o th t he p o s i t ion a nd t he c omb ina t ion o f s ub jec t s i nt h e f r ieze a r e s uff ic ien t ly u nu sua l t o s ugge s t D ioc le t ian 's d i rec t i n te re s t i n t h e p ro jec t . T he m e s sages a r e b lun t ly c on se rva t ive , w h ich w e w ou ld e xpec t f rom h im , a nd modes t , wh ich w e m igh t n o t . M ino r u ncer ta in t ie s d o n o t o b scu re t h e ir b a s ic c on ten t .

T hey w e re n eve r

i n tended t o d i sp lay i n tr ica te a rgumen ts o r d e l ica te n uance s . Hun t ing a nd r a c ing d isp lay v i r tus among d ange r s t ha t c an u l t ima te ly b e s hrugged o f f . A p anop ly o f f o rce s embod ied i n masks p rom ise g ood f or tune t o c ome .

T he f r ieze make s i t s

p o in t s w i thou t n uance o r g race , b u t e xuberan t ly a nd

I n t he c ompany o f a

7 4 D aux g i ve s mea su remen t s : 2 .4 3 m w ide , 1 . 15 m h igh , 0 .45 m t h ick , ( 1958 , s ee a l so G rammeno s a nd Kn i thake s 1 994 : 2 35 ) . T hey d o n o t m en t ion t he w id th o f t h e o pen ing , o r t h e c ond i t ion o f t h e b ack ,wh ich c anno t b e e xam ined a s t h e a r ch i sn ow d i sp layed i n t he museum a t T hessa lon ike . C a lza ( 1972 : 1 41) r epea ts t he r e f e rence t o af i ndspo t n ea r t h e o c tagon , b u t a dd s t ha t t h e a r ch w a s f ound n or th o ft h e R o tunda ( S t . G eo rge ) , a nd s o p os s ib ly b e longed t o t ha t b u i ld ing w hen i tw a s t h e Mau so leum o f G a le r iu s . S uch a f une rary u se c an b e r u led o u t , n o t b ecause t he Ro tunda d id n o t b ecome t he t omb o f Ga le r ius , s i nce h i s b u r ia l a t R omu l iana may r ep resen t ac hange o f p lan , b u t r a the r b ecause t he f i nd spo t w a s f a r s ou th o f t he r o tunda ( V icke r s 1 973 : 17 -118 ; G rammenos a nd Kn i thakes 1 994 : 2 35 ; n ow , mos t f u l ly , S tephan idou -T iber iou , 1 995 , c i ted a bove , p . 1 2 ) . G iven t h e i mpo r tance o ft h e o rnamen t i nt he s of f i t , i ts eem s p os s ib le t h a t t h e a r ch may h ave b een p a r t o f ab a ldach ino l i ke t h e o ne r e cen t ly p ropo sed a s p a r t o f t h e i mpe r ia l c u l t s pace a t L uxo r ( e l -Sagh i r 1 986 : 2 9 ; T orp 1 974 s ugge s ted a b a ldach ino i n t he o c tagon : S tephan idou -T ibe r iou p re sen ts o ppos ing e v idence ) . 7 5 H e s ee s t h e Sma l l A rch a s p rov id ing s o me s uppo r t f o r G raba r 's p os i t ion , mak ing t wo a s sump t ions : t ha t i tb e longed t o t he Ro tunda , a nd t ha t t he p resen t c omb ina t ion o f h ead s i s t he o r ig ina l o ne . B o th a re a lmo s t c e r ta in ly f a lse .

6 0

w i th

APPENDIX TWO

THE COFFERS OF THE TE MPLE OF J UP ITER T he T emp le o fJ up i te r i so ne o ft h e l a s t t emp le s b u i l t i nt h e R oman

T he s t ir rup -shaped l e af a nd d a r t s hows a w ide r ange o f v a r ia t ion s ,

w o r ld , a nd o ne o f t he b e s t p re se rved .

I t s s ma l l i n te r ior i s

f r om t h e n ar row ly c ons t r ic ted v e r s ion t ha t s ha rp ly d ef ine s d eep

d om ina ted b y a n i n tac t v au l ted c e i l ing , v i b ran t a bove a n e l egan t

l obe s o n t h e t op s o f t he a r che s ( f ig . 8 3 ) , t o av e r s ion t ha t s p raw l s

c rown mo ld ing .

s o t h e re i sl i t t le o rn o t op d e ta i l ( f ig . 8 6 ) . T ho se e x t reme s o ccu r o n

T ha t c e i l ing makes a p owe r fu l v i sua l e f f ec t

c of f e r s a to ppo s i te e nds o f t h e b u i ld ing , w i th v a r ian t s i n b e tween . I ti sn a tu ra l t oa s soc ia te t h e se d i f f e rence s w i th d i f f e ren t c a rve r s , b u t

t h rough t he c l a r i ty o f t he o ve r -a l l g r id , t h e mu l t ip l ic i ty o f t h e f r am ing p a t te rn s , a nd t he v a r ie ty o f t h e b o s se s . C of fe r s a r e r a r e i n b a r re l v au l t s , p ar t icu la r ly s o i n b a r re l v au l ted c e i l ing s .

s a f e r s imp ly t o n o te t ha t t h e c a rve r s f e l t q u i te f r ee t o e xpe r imen t .

T he

S peak ing o f f r eedom r a the r t han c a re le ssne ss , o r i n a dd i t ion t o c a re le s sne s s , b ecome s j us t if ied when w e l ook a t a no the r a r ea o f

c omb ina t ion o fg r id , f r ame , a nd b o s se s h e re i su n ique . T he o dd i t ie s o fd e s ign a r e e mpha s ized b y ap a r t icu la rf r eedom i ne xecu t ion . T he

i mprov isa t ion , n ame ly , t he p a t te rn s u nde r t h e h a lf a r che s . B e s ide s

c e i l ing s eem s t od raw o n t wo o r t h ree d i sc re te b u i ld ing t r ad i t ion s , t a k ing s ome c omponen t s f r om w e s te r n Ana to l ia , a nd o the r s f r om

av a r ie ty o f p l an t f o rm s w e f i nd ( f ig . 4 ) ab road s ha l low b a ske t ( f ig . 9 0 ) , ap eck ing b i rd ( f ig . 9 1) , ad o lph in ( f ig . 9 3 ) , a nd a f i gu re ,

t h e c i ty o f R ome a nd i t s e nv irons . T he d e s igne r may h ave w an ted

p robab ly aw oman , h o ld ing at o rch ( f ig . 9 2 ) .

t o i nvoke t h e a u tho r i ty o f monumen t s a s soc ia ted w i th t h e i mpe r ia l p a s t , b u t i n fu se i tw i th ad i f f e ren t l i f e . 76

I r regu la r i ty o ccu r s f r equen t ly i n t he d ecora t ion o f t he P a lace b u t

S ince t he o r ig ina l r oof h a s g one , t he c on s t ruc t ion o f t h e c e i l ing c an n ow b e s een c lea r ly f r om t he o u t s ide (W i lke s 1 993 , p l .

s e ldom t o t he s ame d eg ree t h a t i to ccu r s i n t h is c e i l ing , o r s o r ough ly r e nde red . When t h e c of f e r s a r e s een i nc on tex t , f r amed b y t he c rown mo ld ing , s t r ik ing ly d if fe ren t d eg ree s o f d i sc ip l ine eme rge ( f ig . 8 2 ) . T he c arve r s l a id o u t a nd e xecu ted t h e b and mo t if s

XV I) . 77 I ti s as t one b a r re l v au l t o f e i gh t a rche s . E ach a r ch c on s is t s o ff i ve u nu sua l ly b road v ou sso ir s , p re sumab ly d e s igned t o a l low c of f e r s o f ad e s ired s i ze . E ach v ou s so i r h a s t wo c of f e r s c u t i n to i t s i nne r f ace : t e n c of f e r s a c ro s s e ach o f t h e e i gh t a r che s , e igh ty c of f e r s i n a l l ( s ee c ha r t , p . 6 2 ) . E ach c of f e r i sa bou t n i ne ty c en t ime te r s s qua re a nd a bou t s i x teen c en t ime te r s d eep .

o n t he c o rn ice w i th ar egu la r i ty a nd p rec is ion t h ey d id n o t a pp ly t o t he c of f e r s . T he g rea te r h e igh t m igh t b e ar ea son f o r r oughe r workman sh ip ( Tancke n o tes t ha t t he h ighe r c of fe r s a t t h e A spendo s t h ea te r a r e l e ss c a refu l ly wo rked t han t he l owe r o ne s [ 1989b : 11 ] ) , b u t i td oe s n o t a ccoun t f o r t h e d ive r s i ty .

7 8

T he f r ame s h ave s even l e ve l s , f i ve o ft h em p a t ter ned : a n o u t e r b ead a nd r e e l i sf o l lowed b y af i l le t , t h en as t i r rup -shaped l e a fa nd d a r t , a c ab le , af i l le t , a n e gg a nd d a r t , a nd af i na l b ead a nd r e e l . Much o f

a nd t he o r ig ina l l i gh t ing w ou ld h ave b een d imme r , b u t p a in t p robab ly a dded s ome c la r i ty o f d ef in i t ion . G i ld ing , ar e la t ive ly

t he s pace o ft he c of f e r s i so ccup ied b y t h e se p a t te rn s , w h ich c r owd i n u pon t h e c en t ra l b oss .

T h ir ty -fou r o f t he e igh ty b o s se s a r e

c ommon p rocedu re , s eem s p a r t icu la r ly a pp rop r ia te f o r t h is c e i l ing .

r ose t te s . Twen ty -seven a r e h ead s , s ome w i th e ye s a nd mou th , a nd o ther s w i th g ap ing s ocke t s ( e .g . , f i g s . 8 4 , 8 6 , 8 8 , 9 3 ) .

I ti st r ue t h a t e ven w i th e l ec t r ic l i gh t ing a v i ewe r b e low c anno t s e e d e ta i l s s uch a s t he d o lph in s , t h e p eck ing b i rd , o r t he t o rch h o lde r ,

Maybe p a in te r s p i cked o u t d e ta i ls , b u t e ven i f , f o r i n s tance , t h e l e a fa nd d a r t w a s a l l o ne c o lo r , i tw ou ld h ave e xh ib i ted a n i r regu la r

F ive a r e

b a ske t s o f f r u i t ( e .g . , f i g . 8 9 ) , a nd t h e re a r e s eve ra l o the r v a r ian t s

t e x ture w he re d i f fe r ing f orm s a ppea r .

o f p lan t f o rms i nc lud ing t wo v o lu te s ( e .g . , f i g . 8 7 ) , an umbe r o f

w ou ld h ave b een e ven mo r e o bv ious . D isc repanc ies o n t h e s ca le f ound h e re s eem n o t me re ly p e rm i t ted , b u t d e s i red , t o p roduce a n

' wh i r l ig ig s , ' a nd a l e af .

S eve ra l b osse s c an b e o n ly t e n ta t ive ly

i mp re s s ion o f r i ch , i r regu la r g row th a nd a n ima t ion .

i den t if ied , a nd o ne h a s b een c omp le te ly d e s t royed .

T he se b o s s mo t if s a r e d i s t r ibu ted a t r andom .

T h is c on s t ruc t ion a nd d eco ra t ion w e re , a s f a r a s w e c an n ow t e l l ,

S ome t ime s b o th

u n ique i nt h e P a lace . T he re w e re b a r re l v au l t s i na tl e a s t f ou ro t he r

c of f e r s i n as i ng le v ou s so ir h ave t h e s ame p a t te rn , s ome t ime s n o t .

p lace s .

T he b a ske t s a l l o ccu r i no ne q ua r te r o ft h e c e i l ing , i mmed ia te ly t o t he l e f t o f t he d oo r a s o ne e n te r s t he r oom .

T he v a r ia t ion i n b o s se s

T h ree a r e a t t he e n t rance g a te s . T he g a te s h ad e l abo ra te

d eco ra t ion o n t he e x ter io r , b u t t he ir p a ssageways w ere

One m e thod o f

p l a in

a r che s , m ade o fs ma l le r v ou s so i r s t han t ho se u sed i nt h e t emp le . A

e xecu t ing t he f r am ing s t ir rup -shaped l e a f a nd d a r t c oncen t ra te s i n

f ew r ounded c of f e rf r agmen t s , h oweve r , s how t ha t t h is w a s n o t t h e

t he s ame r ow s o fc o f f e r s .

o n ly c o f f e red b a r r e l v au l t a tS pl i t .

T he o the r w a s e i the r t h e p o rch

l e ad ing t o t he Mauso leum , o r s o me i n ter io r i n t he R e s idence ( I I I .C .3 .c ) .

I t s c of f er s w e re s ma l ler , more i n t r ica te ly s haped b u t

d eco ra ted o n ly b y b osses , t h e f r ames u npa t te rned . T he f l a t c of f e r s o ft h e Mau so leum a l so h ad u npa t ter ned f r ame s ( I I I .C .3 .d ) .

H av ing

f r om t h r ee t o f ou r f r am ing p a t te rn s , t he t h ree s urv iv ing c of f e r s o f

T he r e la t ionsh ip b e tween t h is c e i l ing a nd t he t h ree t r iumpha l a rches w a s e xp lo red i n ap ape r g ive a t t h e A nnua l Mee t ing o f t he A rchaeo log ica l I n s t i tu te o f Ame r ica i n 1 991 ( McNa l ly 1 992 ) . 7 7 S ince t he b lock s a r e d e te r io ra t ing , i n 1 995 p l an s w e re m ade t oe r e c t ap ro tec t ive r oof o ve r t h em . 7 6

t h e s ou the rn r ound b u i ld ing mo s t c lo se ly a pp roach t he c omp lex i ty o ft h eT emp le c of f e r s ( I I I .E .2 ) .

6 1

COFFERS

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6

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B a sk e t

e e ) de ) F o l ia te F o rm s( v a r ied ) H e ad R o se t te

C of f e rb o sse s : d i s t r ibu t ion o f mo t i f s . 6 2

ARCH ITECTURAL DECORAT ION OF D IOCLETIAN 'S PALACE , S PL IT C e il ing c o f f e r s e l sewhe re p rov ide o n ly l im i ted p a ra l le l s f o r t h e se

p robab ly b e long ing t o t h e Mauso leum p or t ico ( Man se l 1 975 : 6 3 ,

e f f ec t s .

f i g s . 2 2 a ,b ) .

R oman c of fe red c e i l ing s c an b e d iv ided a cco rd ing t o

m a te r ia l a nd t e chn ique i n to t h ree g roup s .

F i r s t , f l a t s t one r oof ing

s l ab s w i th c of f e r s a ppea red i nc l a s s ica l G reece a nd c on t inued t ob e p opu la r , p a r t icu la r ly i n t he E a s tern Emp i r e .

T he ma in p receden t s f o r s t one b a r re l v au l ted i n te r io r s w i th c of f e r s

S econd , a r che s a nd

s eem t o b e t wo t omb s f r om A s ia M ino r t h a t h ave f i gu re s i n t h e i r

v au l ts w i th c of fe r s b egan t o a ppea r i n c oncre te , p e rhaps i n P a les tr ina , a nd c on t inued i n t he We s te rn Emp ire .

c e i l ings .

T hey w e re

H e s sbu rg n o ted t h e p rom inence o f t omb s a mong t h e

b u i ld ing s i n I t a ly w i th f i gu red c of fe r s , a nd s ugge s ted t ha t s uch

d eco ra ted w i th s t ucco a nd o the r a pp l ied ma te r ia l s . T he t h i rd g roup ,

p r iva te e ndeavo r s e ncou raged i mp rov isa t ion ( 1991 : 7 40 ) .

t o wh ich t h e c e i l ing a t S p l i t b e long s , t h e g roup o f s t one v au l t s

T he

n ec ropo l i s a tI s au ra ( i n land i nC i l ic ia , n or thea s t o f S ide ) c on ta ined

w i th c of f e r s , i s much s ma l le r t han t h e f i r s t t wo . I tc on s is t s ma in ly

r ema in s o f as ma l l t omb , 4 . 56 b y 9m , w i th af l a t r oof ed p o rch a nd

o f g a te s a nd monumen ta l a rche s i n t wo s epa ra te t r ad i t ion s , o ne

b a r re l v au l ted i n te r io r . T he p ub l ica t ion i n c lude s d raw ing s s how ing

e a s ter n a nd o ne w e s ter n .7 9

t he f r on t s o f v au l t c of f e r s , b u t g ives n o i nd ica t ion o f t he ir p lacemen t i n v ousso ir s .

T he c of f e r s h ad r ound meda l l ion s

i n sc r ibed i n r e c tang le s , e a ch c on ta in ing a f r on ta l h ead ( Swoboda ,

D ecora t ion c r ea te s o the r g roup ing s . D i scuss ing R oman u se o f f i gura l e l emen t s i n c of f e rs , T ancke d i s t ingu ishe s t h ree ma jo r

K e i l , K no l l 1 935 :

c en te r s o f a c t iv i ty : c en t ra l I t a ly d u r ing t h e l a te R epub l ic a nd e a r ly

6 3 .6 , p l . XC I I , 5 10 ) .

1 39 142 , f i g s . 6 9 -72 ; T ancke 1 989b : n o .63 .1-

Emp ire , S y r ia i nt he l a te s e cond a nd e a r ly t h ird c en tu r ie s A .C . , a nd A s ia M ino r c on t inua l ly s i nce H e l len is t ic t imes , b u t w i th s pec ia l

T he T emp le o fJ up i te r i so n ly s l igh t ly l a rge r t h an t h e I s au ra t omb .

v i go r i nt h e s e cond h a l fo ft h e s econd c en tu ry A .C . i nt h e Meande r

T he T emp le c e i l ing s panned a n a rea 7 .27 b y 5 . 86 m ( N iemann :

v a l ley , P amphy l ia , P is id ia ." T he f i gu ra l e l emen t s i n t h e c e il ing o f t he T emp le c onnec t i tw i th t he l a s t g roup , b u t i th a s o the r a f f in i t ies a sw e l l .

8 0 ) . T he t emp le tomb a tS ide w a s i t se lf l a rge r , 2 2 .30 b y 1 .20 m ( Man se l 1 963 :

1 77 ) , a nd w a s s ur rounded b y al a rge r t emeno s ( s ee

a bove , p .3 6 ) . T he c omp lex h ad s eve ra l d i f f e ren t t ype s o f c of f e r s , s u mma r ized b y K rame r ( 1983 : 1 62 -163 ) :

[ 1 ] b lock s p robab ly

T he w e s t e rn e xamp les o fb a r re l v au l t s w i th c of f e r s l i s ted b y T ancke

r oof ing t h e c e l la o f t h e t omb , o f t wo k ind s : a ] w i th s im i la r -s ized

b ecause t h ey c on ta in f i gu re s a re a r che s i nP u la , R e im s , R ome ( t he

s qua re c o f f e r s s ome t ime s d i v ided b y d eep ly r e ce s sed b and s ( Man se l

A rch o fT i tu s ) , a nd B eneven tum ( t he A r ch o fT ra jan ) . An umbe r o f

1 956 : p l . 2f i g . 5 ; Man se l 1 959 : f i g . 3 0 ; K rame r 1 983 :f ig . 5 ) b ]

o ther a r che s , i n c lud ing t ho se i n G lanum , O range , a nd a no the r i n

w i th c of f e r s o f d i f f e r ing s i zes ( Man se l 1 960 : f i g . 3 0 , 1 978 : f i g s .

R ome ( t he A rch o f S ep t im ius S eve rus ) , a l so h ave c of f e red b a r re l v au l ts , l a ck ing f i gure s ( P fanne r 1 983 : n o te 3 9 ,

p . 3 3 ) .

3 57b , 3 58 )

T hese

r ange i nd a te f r om t h e f i r s t t o t he e a r ly t h ird c en tu r ie s A .C .

T he

f i g . 4 ;

e v idence f o rb a r re l v au l t s w i th c of f e r s i nA s ia M ino r s urv ive s o n ly i n f r agmen t s .

Man se l 1 963 : f i g . 1 48 ; 1 978 : f i g . 3 45 ;

[ 3 ] o ne b lock

a s s igned b y Man se l t ot h e p o rch o ft he e nc lo su re a r ound t h e t omb ,

T ancke l i s t s s econd a nd e a r ly t h ird c en tury A .C .

h av ing s eve ra l r ows o f c of f er s (Man se l 1 975 : f i g . 3 73 ) .

e xamp le s , t h e n ymphaeum a nd p o rch a tP e rge , t he t emp le tomb a t S ide , a s w e l l a s a n u nda ted mau so leum a tI s au ra .

[ 2 ] b lock s a s s igned b y Manse l t o t h e p o rch o f t h e

t omb , h av ing s qua re c of f e r s , 3i n av ou sso i r , Man se l 1 956 : p l . 2

T he

s econd a nd t h i rd t ype s b ea r s ome r e semb lance t o t h e r e c tangu la r

T he T emp le o f

c of f e r s o f t h e T emp le c e i l ing , a l though a t S ide t h e re a r e a lway s

J up i te r a tS p l i t a nd t h e Sma l l A r ch o fG a le r iu s a tT he s sa lon ike ( no t

mo re c of f e r s o n as i ng le b lock .

t r u ly c of f e red b u t i n c luded b ecau se o f i t s c en t ra l m eda l l ion , s ee a bove , p .9 ) c omp le te h e r l i s t ( 1989b : 6 3 -65 ) .

T he e a s te rn a nd

T he s i gn if ican t r e semb lance l i es i n t he b o sse s . Ana to l ia h a s a h i s to ry o f d ive r s i ty i n c of f e r a nd s of f i t b o sse s , c on t inued i n t h e t emp le tomb . " Meh re re m i t Men schenköpf en , T ie ren , F ruch t - u nd B la t tmus te rn v er sch iedens te r A r t v er sehene K a sse t tenp la t ten k onn ten b e i d e r G rabung z u tage g efö rde r t w e rden " ( Man se l 1 963 :

w e s tern g r oup s d i f f e r i nt h e r o le o ff i gu re s . I n t he w e s t t h ey o ccu r a s i mpo r tan t f oc i , b u t i nt h e e a s t u sua l ly f o rm i n teg ra ted p a r t s o fa n e x tens ive v ocabu la ry .

1 84 ) .8 1 T he i n c lu s ion o fa n ima l s c rea ted e ven g rea te r v a r ie ty t h an i n t h e c o f f e r s o ft h e T emp le o fJ up i te r . ( The o n ly p a ra l le l a tS pl i t i st h e r am ' sh ead i n ac o f f e r o ft h e Mau so leum p o r t ico , I I .C .2 .d . ) One o ft h e c of f e r f r agmen t s f r om S ide h a s ar o se t te b o ss n o t u n l ike t he o ne s a tS p l i t ( Man se l 1 975 : f i g . 3 73 ) .

S urpr i s ing ly f ew c of f e red c e i l ing s o f t h e R oman p e r iod w e re l a id o u t w i th s imp le g r id s .

I n te r lock ing l a you t s t end t o p redom ina te

b o th i nc o f f e r s o n f l a t t o ne s l ab s a nd , t o a n e ven g rea te r d eg ree , i n c oncre te v au l ts .

E ven o n t he v ou sso ir s o f s t one v au l t s s uch

i n te r lock ing p a t te r n s a ppea r . T he e a r ly c of f e red a r che s a tG lanum , P u la , a nd O range h ave l a you ts p robab ly i n f luenced b y c oncre te

A ma jo r d i f f e rence i n d e s ign c omes i n t h e f r ame s .

c of f e r ing .

c of f e r s e mp loy t h e e gg a nd d a r t , wh ich i st h e mo s t c ommon p a t ter n

S eve ra l o f t h e Ana to l ian b a r re l v au l ted c of f e r s a l so

B o th s e t s o f

h ave c omp lex s hape s r e semb l ing t ho se f ound o n t h e f l a t c of f e r s i n

e ve rywhe re f o r f r am ing c of fe r s , b u t a t S ide i ti st h e o n ly p a t ter n .

t h e s ame a r ea .

T he c o f f e r s a r e s ha l low , a sa r e a l so mo s t f l a t c of f e r s f r om Ana to l ia .

T he p o r ch a tP e rge , p e rhap s ac en tu ry e a r l ie r t han

t he c e i l ing a t S p l i t , h a s c of f e r ing i n ad e s ign o f i n te r sec t ing r hombo id s a nd r ec tang le s , r ough ly s im i la r t o t he l a you t o n c of f e r s

T he f r ame s o f t h e c of f e r s a t S p l i t s ugge s t w e s ter n c onnec t ion s . Mu l t ip l ic i ty o f f r am ing p a t terns , ar ec tangu la r g r id o ve r al a rge a r ea , a nd r o se t te b o s se s a l l r ecu r o n t h ree a r che s f r om t h e I t a l ian

D e ichmann h a s p o in ted o u t t he i mpor tance o f a no the r g roup , a r gu ing t ha t c o f f e red c e i l ing s o f w ood mu s t a l so h ave b een c ommon i n l a te a n t iqu i ty , a l though l i t t le e v idence s urv ive s ( 1972 ) . 7 9

p en in su la . T he l o ca t ion a nd d ed ica t ion o ft h e se a r che s g ave t h em a

"She l i s ts e a r l ie r d i scus s ion s o f c of f e r ing i n n o te 4 05 o n p .

8 1 T ancke h a s a ppa ren t ly n o t b een a b le t o s ee t h e se , a nd Ia w a s u nab le t od o s o w hen Iv i s i ted S ide i n 1 995 .

1 81 .

6 3

COFFERS d ign i ty n o t b e long ing t o t he o the r we s te rn o r Ana to l ian e xamp le s .

Mauso leum , 8 4 a nd t h e t r iumpha l a rche s p robab ly c on t r ibu ted t o t h e f o rm o ft h e c e i l ing o f t h e t emp le o ppo s i te t ha t Mau so leum . I n b o th t h e Mau so leum a nd t h e T emp le , h oweve r , ab a s ic l ayou t s uf f iced t o e s tab l ish t h e a l lu s ion t o t r ad i t iona l a u thor i ty , a f te r w h ich t h e b u i lde r s s ough t d i f f eren t v i sua l e f fec ts a nd a dd i t iona l

T hey a re t h e A rch o f T i tu s ( a f te r A .D . 8 1 ) , t h e A rch o f T ra jan a t B eneven tum ( A .D . 14 ) , a nd t h e A rch o fS ep t im ius S everus i nt h e R oman F orum ( A .D . 2 04 ) .

A l l o f t he se a r che s h ave w ide r s pan s

t han t he T emp le a tS pl i t , s o b o th t h e n umbe ro fc of f e r s a nd t h e s i ze

a l lus ion s .8 5 D ioc le t ian 's d e s i re t o p e rpe tua te t r ad i t ion i si nd ica ted b y h i s o wn e r ec t ion o f a n a r ch i n Rome , t h e A rcus Novu s , a t t he s ame t ime t h a t h e w a s b u i ld ing t he P a lace a tS p l i t , i . e . , A .D . 3 03 3 04 . O n ly f r agmen t s s urv ive , p rov id ing n o e v idence f or t he r oof ing .

o fi nd iv idua l c of f e r s a re g r ea te r .

C of f e r s o n a l l t h ree I t a l ian a r che s c on s i s t o f c en t ra l r ose t te s a nd t wo d eco ra ted f r am ing mo ld ing s ( A rch o fT i tu s : P f anne r 1 983 : p l s 2 5 -30 ;

A rch o f T ra jan a t B eneven tum , B r i l l ian t 1 967 : f i g . 1 3 ;

T he p l anne r s o f S p l i t may h ave b een i mp re s sed b y a no the r f ea tu re

P f anne r 1 983 : B e i lage 5 , 1 ; A rch o f S ep t im iu s S everus , B r i l l ian t 1 967 : p ls . 2 2 , 2 4 , 4 1 a , d ) .

o ft h e A r ch o fT i tu s , e choed o n t he A r ch o fT ra jan a tB eneven tum .

S p l i t h a s a n u np receden ted f i ve

B o th e xp l ic i t ly l i nk a n empe ro r w i th J up i te r .

f r am ing p a t ter n s , b u t t he a r che s o f T i tus a nd T ra jan b o th h ave , i n

t h e e mpe ro r i nt h e r e a lm o ft h e g od s :

a dd i t ion t o t h e f r am ing p a t te rn s p rope r , at h i rd p a t te rn o n t he f l a t

a f te r h i s d ea th ,

a rea b e tween t he c of fe r s , s o t hey g ive a s im i la r i mpre ss ion , w e igh t ing t h eb and s a s much a st h e b o sse s . T he A r ch o fT i tu s h a s a p a r t icu la r ly s im i la r g roup o f mo ld ing s :

t h e c ab le o n t h e o u t s ide a s

t r iumpha l t one , b u t u n l ike t h e t h ree a rche s t h is b u i ld ing d oe s n o t

A t S p l i t , r ose t te s

c e leb ra te a s pec if ic e ven t o r e ven t s :

a re t he mo s t f r equen t mo t if , b u t s t i l l a ccoun t f o r l e s s t h an h a lf o f

I td oe s n o t p resen t an ea t ly

p rog rammed p a s t , b u t a n a c t ive b reed ing g round , t o moder n e yes

T h is v a r ie ty , t h e mo re e l abo ra te f r am ing , a nd t h e

p e rhap s ar a the r a l a rm ing b reed ing g round , f r om wh ich a lmos t

i r regu la r e xecu t ion g ive t he c e i l ing a t o ta l v i sua l e f f ec t t ha t i s

a ny th ing m ay e me rge .

T he r e semb lance s s ugge s t a P fanne r

S uch e xp l ic i t p ra ise o f t he empe ro r m igh t n o t b e s u i tab le

T he f r amewo rk o f t h e c e i l ing , t hen , may e s tab l ish a t r ad i t iona l ,

C ompa red t o t ho se a t S p l i t , t h e b o s se s o ft h e R oman g roup a ppea r

c onnec t ion , b u t as t r ic t ly l im i ted o ne .

ac oncep t i t s e a r l ies t

b e f i t at emp le d ed ica ted t oJ up i te ra s p a t ron o f empe ro r a nd emp i re .

f r am ing e l emen t s .

c omp le te ly u n l ike t ha t o f t h e a r che s .

F rom

i n s ide a t emp le , b u t t h e g ene ra l a ssoc ia t ion s o f t he a r che s wou ld

c lo se ly , a nd t h e A rch o f S ep t im iu s S ever u s h a s s l igh t ly s imp le r

t he b osse s .

D ioc le t ian c ou ld c e r ta in ly a pprec ia te .86 J up i te r .

T he A rch o f T ra jan f o l lows t h is mode l f a ir ly

s imp le a nd s t anda rd ized . On ly r o se t te s a ppea r .8 2

a nd T ra jan c rowned s o t ha t , a s S imon s ays :

" a l ready i n h i s l i f e t ime h e i s e qua l t o t h e g ods :"

i n cep t ion t h e c e remony o f t r iumph a ss im i la ted t he t r iumpha to r t o

d iv ide r , t hen e gg a nd d ar t a nd l e a fa nd d a r t ( s hea r shaped r a the rt h an s t ir rup -formed ) .

B o th v au l t s p lace

T i tu s b or n a lof t b y a n e ag le

t h ink s t ha t t h e

c a rve r s o f t h e A rch o fT ra jan d e l ibe ra te ly a dop ted a nd a dap ted t h e

T he b u rgeon ing v ege ta t ion a nd mu l t ip l ic i ty o f f o rm s i n t h e t emp le

p receden t o ft h e A rch o fT i tu s ( 1983 :

c e i l ing c anno t c ome f r om t h e t r iumpha l a r che s .

4 4 ) . B r i l l ian t s ays t ha t t h e

T he d ep th o f t he

c e i l ing c of f e r s r e semb le c onc re te v au l t s mo re t han a ny o the r s i n

c a rve r s o f t he A rch o f S ep t im iu s f o l lowed t h e f o rmu la f o r t h e c of f er ing s e t b y t he f i r s t t wo a r che s ( 1967 : 8 4 ) . I ts eem s t ha t a n

s t one .

a u tho r i ta t ive t r ad i t ion h ad b een e s tab l ished , t o b e r e cogn ized a s

p romp ted b y

s uch b y D ioc le t ian 's a rch i tec t , w ho , h oweve r ,

c on tempo ra ry d e co ra t ion i n p a in t a nd s t ucco i n t he c i ty o f R ome

e c ided t o e n r ich i t

H e re , t h ey may w e l l b e a n i ndependen t d eve lopmen t t h e

p a r t icu la r s i tu ta t ion .

H owever ,

r ough ly

m ay h ave s ome p e r iphe ra l i mpac t , e ncou rag ing d ep th a nd mu l t ip le

b o ld ly .

f r am ing mo t if s .8 7 On Novembe r 1 7 , 3 03 , D ioc le t ian c e leb ra ted a t r iumph i n R ome . H e w ou ld h ave n o t me re ly s een t h e A rche s o fT i tu s a nd S ep t im iu s

a s soc ia t ion s t h ey w ou ld h ave h ad f or R oman s : " Da s eh r v i e le o f f iz ie l le B ögen w egen s o lcher m i l i tä r ischer E re ign isse e n t s tanden , w u rde d i e t r iumpha le Au sges ta l tung i m L auf e d e r Z e i t b e s t immend f ü r d a s B ogenmonumen t a n s i ch , d as d an s oga r a l lgeme in a r cu s t r iumpha l i s h e is t " (1983 : 9 7 ) .

S everus a t t ha t t ime , b u t e xpe r ienced t h e i r r e la t ion sh ip t o h i s c e lebra t ion ,

t he

a ch ievemen t .

c on tr ibu t ion

o f

t he ir

p receden t

t o

h i s

P erhaps h e t h en r ea l ized , o r p e rhaps i t w a s h i s

a r ch i te c t who r e a l ized , t ha t t wo g roup s o fb u i ld ing s i na nd n ea r t h e

"John son ( s ee a bove , n o te 4 2 ) d i sag ree s , b ecause h e t h ink s t h e p lan w a s f a i r ly c ommonp lace . I n t h is s i tua t ion , h oweve r , i t s r e semb lance t o t h e P an theon a nd o ther i mpe r ia l t o mbs wou ld c e r ta in ly s p r ing t ot h e m ind o ft h e b eho lde r .

c ap i ta l c i ty embod ied t he i mpe r ia l c oncep t w i th p a r t icu la r f o rce : t he P an theon w i th i t s f une ra ry p rogeny , a nd t he " t r iumpha l " a rches .8 3

T he P an theon p robab ly i n sp ired t he p lan o f h i s

8 5 T h i s w ou ld b e al a te d a te f o r ma jor d e s ign d ec is ion s i nt he P a lace ( s ee a bove , n o te 1 ) . Wo rk w a s p robab ly w e l l u nde r w ay . I f g round p l an s h ad ' a l ready b een c omp le ted , e f f ec t s f r om t h is v i s i t m ay h ave b een f e l t p r ima r i ly i nt h e d e s ign o ft h e c e i l ing .

T he re i s v ar ia t ion i n t h e b osse s o f t h e e a r l ie r a rche s , a l though i ti sn o t s o p rom inen t a s a t S p l i t . I n a l l t h ree c e i l ing s t he r ose t te s a re e xecu ted a cco rd ing t o s eve ra l d i f fe ren t d es igns " d is t r ibu ted a ppa ren t ly a t r andom " ( Br i l l ian t 1 967 : 7 9 ) . P fanne r i lus t ra tes c on s ide rab le v a r ia t ion i n t he r o se t te s o f t he A rch o f T i tus ( 1983 : 3 1-2 , p ls . 2 6 -27 ) . H e s t res ses t he l a ck o f s upe rv is ion , t he f r eedom t o i mp rov ise o f t h e c a rve r s o f t h is a r ch ( 32 -33 , 4 3 ) . I tp rov ides a u se fu l c ompa r ison w i th S p l i t . On t h e A rch , t h e f r eedom s t ays w i th in much f i rme r b ound s . F ram ing mo t if s , f o r i n s tance , a re a lway s l a id o u t s o t h a t al e af ma rk s t h e c or ne r s b e tween e gg a nd d a r t . S ome c of f e r s a t S p l i t h ave n ea t ly ma rked c o rne r s , b u t i n o the r s p a t ter n s s imp ly s t op , o r c o l l ide , s o i t s eem s t h a t t h e w o rke r s d id n o t l a y t h em o u t i na dvance . 8 2

8 3 T he re h a s b een c on s ide rab le s cho la r ly d i scuss ion o f t h e p rope r d es igna t ion f o r t he se a r che s . P fanne r s umma r izes t he

8 6 T he c o r re spond ing p l ace o n t h e A rch a tB eneven tum s how s T ra jan c r owned b y v i c to ry , a nd S imon s ay s : " So i s t e s k e in Z u fa l l , d a ss i m S che i te l d e s K a sse t tendecke d es D u rchgangs T ra jan t a t säch l ich i nT rach t u nd H a l tung d e s Romu lusf igu r v on d e r A t t ika z um V e rwechse ln ä hn l ich i s t . An d iese r d en " H imme l" s ymbo l is ie renden D ecke s chweb t T i tus i n s e inem B ogen a uf d em f o rum a l s A d le r re i te r empo r . D e r g epanze r te T ra jan , d en V ic to r ia b ek ränz t i s t s chon z u L ebze i ten d en Gö t ter n g l e ich ." ( 1981 , 1 2 ) . T he t wo c en t ra l c o f f e r s a r e T ancke 1 989b : n o . 1 4 , p l . XLV I I 1 2 , a nd 1 5 , p l . XLV I I 3 4 .

6 4

8 7 T he c e i l ing s o ft h e B a th s o fD ioc le t ian w e r e p a in ted . S ome o ft h e d eco ra t ion t o ok t h e f o rm o fc of f e r s w i th e gg a nd d a r t a nd l e a f

ARCH ITECTURAL DECORAT ION OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE , S PL IT T he v ar ie ty o f b oss mo t if s c er ta in ly h ad i t s o r ig in i n Ana to l ia .

I n

t h is c e i l ing t h ey f orm a c l imax f or f orces b u i ld ing u p i n t h e d eco ra t ion o n t h e o u ts ide o f t h e b u i ld ing .

S ome e l emen ts o f t h e

c of fe r s , l i ke t h e b i rd a nd t w ig , a l so a ppea r i n t h e v ine s a round t h e d oo rway , w he re p u t t i f i l l t h e t a l l b aske ts t ha t r e appea r , f i l led , a s r oof b os se s . T he h eads a nd f l owe r s e xpand a p re sence f ound i n a s ubo rd ina te p o s i t ion o u t s ide , w he re t hey f i l l c onso les o f t h e d oor ( I I I .D .8 .c ) .

s of f i t s b e tween t he

T he h eads , l i ke t hose i n t he

Mau so leum f r ieze , c omb ine r ep resen ta t ion s t h a t c ou ld b e w orn i n t h ea tr ica l p e r formances w i th s o me t ha t c ou ld n o t .

T hey a r e l i ve ly

a nd e ven m o re v a r ied t han t ho se i nt ha t f r ieze , b u t t h e ir mean ing i s a l tered b y t h e ir s urround ings .

I ns tead o f b e ing i s o la ted a nd

empha s ized , t h ey a re embedded i n f i e lds o f s t rong p a t te r n ing , a nd s ca t te red a mong o the r , e qua l ly w e igh ted b o ss mo t if s . T hey a r e f a r f r om t h e v i ewe r .

T hey p robab ly s upp ly a n a dd i t iona l d eg ree o f

v i ta l i ty w i thou t more s pec if ic s i gn if icance .

T hey b roaden t he

a wa rene ss o f l i fe 's many man ife s ta t ions , s upp lemen t ing f r u i t s a nd f l owe r s w i th a n thropomorph ic e ne rg ies .

H e t ty J oyce s ay s o f a n e a r l ie r p er iod ,

" t he c e i l ing a ppear s t o b e

v i ewed a s an eu tra l amb ience , ac ompos i te r ea lm i n w h ich a l l N a tu re 's c r ea tu res f l our ish" ( 1990 : 3 75) .

S he g oe s o n t o s peak o f

" t he B acch ic j oy i n t he f e cund i ty o f e ar th , s ea a nd s ky" t ha t t ho se e ar l ier

a r t is ts

e xpressed ,

c omb ina t ions o f c rea tures .

p ar t icu lar ly

t h rough

i mag ina t ive

T he c a rve r s a t S p l i t c rea te d i f feren t

c omb ina t ion s , b u t a n e qua l ly v i ta l j oy , a nd a f e cund i ty t h a t k nows n o l im i t s o f c l a ss ica l p ropr ie ty .

No o t he r c of f er s , whe the r i n b a r re l v au l t s o r f l a t , a nd i n c lud ing s of f i t c of f e r s , h ave t h e r i chness o f d ecora t ion , i n c lud ing t h e r ange o f b o ss m o t if s a nd t h e n umber o f f r am ing mo t if s t h a t a r e f ound a t S p l i t .

A rch i tec ts a nd c a rve r s m ade c a lcu la ted c ho ices .

F i r s t t h ey

l a id o u t as t rong ly d i sc ip l ined f r amework a nd t h en f i l led i tw i th s t r ik ing d ens i ty a nd d iver s i ty o f d e ta i l .

T hey e s tab l ished t he

g rav i ta s o f i mper ia l t r ad i t ion t h rough t h e b a s ic g r id .

T hen , p a r t ly

p e rhap s i n sp ired b y c onc re te o r p a in ted c of fer ing , a nd s u re ly i n p a r t b y A na to l ian p receden t s , t h ey a l lowed t he ir i mag ina t ions t o r oam .

a nd d a r t f r ame s . M ie lsch ( 1978 :158 ) s ees s im i lar i ty b e tween t h e se p a in ted c of f e r s a nd t he c onc re te a nd s t ucco c of fe r s i n t h e B a s i l ica o f Maxen t ius a nd C on s tan t ine a nd t h e T emp le o f V enus a nd R oma . T hese t wo b u i ld ings , af ew y ea r s l a ter t han t h e P a lace a t S p l i t , p rov ide t yp ica l e xamp les o f t he t h ird t ype o f c of f er ing , c onc re te w i th s t ucco o r o ther a pp l ied d eco ra t ion . B o th h ave d eep ly r e ces sed c of f e r s , w i th sma l l s t ucco d ecora t ions , a nd n o t r aces o f t he o r ig ina l c en t ra l b osses . T he b ar re l v au l ts o f t he B as i l ica o f Maxen t ius a nd Cons tan t ine h ave c of fer ing i n ap a t tern o f l a rge h exagons i n ter sper sed w i th s ma l l l o zenges . Sma l l r emnan ts o f s t ucco p a t te r n s r ema in o n t h e mo ld ings . T he Maxen t ian c of fe r ing o f t h e T emp le o f Venus a nd R oma h a s l o zenge s i n t h e a pse a nd s qua res o n t he b ar re l v au l t ing . T he s t ucco p a t terns a re s ma l l a s t raga l s ( Bara ta l lo 1 973 ; 1 982 ; R onczewsk i 1 903 , 8 , p 1 .2 ) . T he b a r re l v au l t c of fers a re t oo p oo r ly p reserved t o a l low a c lose c ompa r ison w i th S p l i t .The v a r ie ty o f s hapes , a nd t h e p a t terns o f i n te r lock ing f o rms f ound i n b o th o f t hese b u i ld ings d o n o t o f c ou r se o ccur a tS p l i t , b u t t h ey s ugges t ap oss ib le s ou rce i nc onc re te o rp a in ted c e i l ings f o r t h e u nusua l d ep th o ft h e c of f e r s t h e re .

6 5

B IBL IOGRAPHY

ABBREV IAT IONS p e r iod ica l s : AA

A r chäo log ischer A nze iger

A c ta a dA r ch

A c ta a dA rchaeo log iam e tA r t ium H i s tor iam P er t inen t ia

AJA

Amer ican J ourna lo fA r chaeo logy

B J

B onner J ahrbücher

I s tM i t

D eu t sche sA rchäo log ische sI n s t i tu t : A b te i lung I s tanbu l . I s tanbu ler M i t te i lungen

JDAI

J ahrbuch d es Deu t schen A rchäo log i schen I n s t i tu t s

J RA

J ourna lo fR oman A r chaeo logy

Ö . lh

J ahr e shef td er Ö s ter r e ich i schen A r chäo log i schen I n s t i tu t s

PB S R

P aper so ft h eB r i t i sh S choo la tR ome

RM

M i t te i lungen d es Deu t schen A rchäo log i schen I n s t i tu t s . R öm ische A b te i lung

b ooks : C a rand in i 1 982

C a rand in i , And rea , A nd re ina R icc i , Ma r ie t te d eV os . 1 982 . F i losof iana , T he V i l la o fP iaz za A rmer ina : T he i mage o fa R oman a r i s tocra ta tt h e t i me o fC ons tan t ine . W i th t h e c o l labora t ion o f Maura Med r i . P a le rmo .

F i skov id

F i skov id , C . 1 950 . " P r i log p roudavan ju iz a s t i t i D io ldec i janove P a la e u S p l i tu , " R ad J ugos lavenske a kad em i je z nanos t i i um je tnos t i 2 79 . Z ag reb .

G ineuvs - Mar t in I ,I

R en6 G ineuvs a nd R o land Ma r t in . 1 985 , 1 992 . D ic t ionna ire n ithod ique d el ' ar ch i tec ture g r ecque e tr oma ine.

H 6b ra rd -Ze i l le r

E rne s tH 6b ra rd a nd J a cque sZ e i l le r . 1 912 . S pa la to , L ep a la i sd e D ioc l& ien . P a r is .

L I MC

L ex icon i c on igraph icum m y tho log iae c l a s s icae .

Ma ra sov id - Ma ra sov id

Ma ra sov id ,J e rko a nd T om is lav Ma ra sov id . 1 968 . T he D ioc le t ian P a lace . Z ag reb .

N iemann

N iemann , G eo rge . 1 910 . D er P a las tD iok le t ian s i nS pa la to . V ienna . B a ra t to lo , A . 1 973 . " Nuove r i cherche s u l l 'a rch i te t tura d e l t emp io d i V ene re e R oma i n e t a a d r iana ," RM 8 0 : 2 43 -296 .

Adam , J ean -P ie r re . 1 994 . R oman B u i ld ing : Ma ter ia l s a nd T echn ique s . t r . An thony Ma thew s . L ondon . Adam , R obe r t . 1 764 . T he R u ins o ft h e P a lace o ft h e Emperor D ioc le t ian a tS pa la tro i n Da lma t ia . L ondon .

B a ra t to lo , A . 1 982 . " Af rod is ia eR oma . Nuova t e s t imon ianza

A l l roggen -Bede l , Agnes . 1 974 . Maskendar s te l lungen i nd er r öm i schen -kampan i schen Wandma ler i . Mun ich .

p e r l as t o r ia d e l la d ecoraz ione a r ch i te t tonn ica ," RM 8 9 : 1 33 -151 .

A l tenhöf e r , E r ich . 1 986 . " Da se r s te r öm ische B ühnengebäude d es T hea ters v on M i le t ," Mi le t 1 899 -1980 : E rgebn isse , P rob leme u nd P er spek t iven e iner A usgrabung ; K o l loqu ium F rankf ur t am Ma in 1 980 . I s tM i tB e ihef t 3 1 . T üb ingen : 1 65 -173 .

B a rne s , T imo thy D . 1 982 . T he N ew Emp ire o fD ioc le t ian a nd C ons tan t ine . C amb r idge , Ma ss . B a r to l i , A lfonso . 1 963 . R e s tauro . R ome . B eacham , R icha rd . 1 991 . A ud ience . L ondon .

A l tenhöf e r , E r ich a nd R ena te B o l . 1 989 . "D ie E ro ten -Jagdf r ie s d es T hea te r s i nM i le t " I s tM i t3 9 : 1 7 -48 .

A sga r i , Nu5 in . 1 989 . " Zwe i We rk s tücke f ü r Kons tan t inope l a us d en P rokonne s ischen S te inbrüchen ," I s tM i t 3 9 : 4 9 -64 .

L o S cavo e i l

T he Roman T hea tre a nd i t s

B e rgmann , Ma r ianne . 1 989 . " D ie Na se d e rF aus ta u nd F lav ia Max ima T heodo ra ," F e s tschr if tf i ir J a le Man A rmagan i e d . N ez ih B a s s2e len a nd M ih in L uE ,,a l . I s tanbu l : 3 27 -

And reae , B erna rd . 1 963 S tud ien z ur r öm ischen G rabkuns t . RM E rgänzungshef t9 .H e ide lbe rg . A rce , J av ier . 1 988 . F unus i mpera torum . L os f unera le d e l o s e mperador e sr omano s . Mad r id .

C ur ia S ena tus :

3 36 . B in2ö l , O rhan . 1 980 . Das I on ische Norma lkap i te l l i n h e l len i s t i scher u nd R öm ischer Z e i t i n K le inas ien . I s tAl i f B e ihef t 2 0 .

6 6

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNAMENT OF D IOCLETIAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT B lanc , N ico le a nd F ranço ise Gury . 1 986 . C up ido ," L IMC I I , 1 :9 52 -1049 .

" E ros /Amor ,

D aux , G eorges . 1 958 . " Ch ron iques d es f ou i l les e n 1 957 : Mac6do ine o cc iden ta le e t c en tra le ," B u l le t in d e C or r espond ence He l len ique 8 2 : 7 56 -760

B lankenhagen , P e ter v on . 1 940 . F lav ische A rch i tek tur u nd i h r eD ekora t ion u n ter such t am N er vaf orum . B e r l in . B renk ,

D ecke r s , J .G . 1 979 . " D ie Wandma lere i i m Ka iserku l t raum v on L uxo r , " JDAI 9 4 : 6 00 -652 .

B ea t . 1 968 . " D ie Da t ierung d e r R e l ief s am H ad r ians tempe l i n E phesos u nd d a s P rob lem d e r t e t ra rch ischen S ku lp tu r d a s O s tens ," i s tM i t 1 8 : 2 38 2 58 .

D e ichmann , F .W . 1 972 . " Ka sse t tendecken ," F es t schr if tf ür Q t to Demus z um 7 0 . G ebur ts tag . J ahrbuch d er Ö s terr e ich i schen B yzan t in i s t ik 2 1 : 8 3 -107

B r i l l ian t , R icha rd . 1 967 . T he A rch o fS ep t im ius S everus i n t h e R oman F orum . Memo ir s o f t he Amer ican A cademy i nR ome XXX IX .

D e ichmann , F .W . 1 989 . R avenna , Haup t s tad td es S pä tan t iken A bend länd es H I . G e sch ich te . T opograph ie , K uns t u nd K u l tur . S tu t tga r t .

B rons ted , J . E jna r Dyggve a nd F ranz We i lbach . R echerche s äS a lona I C openhagen .

D in s t l , A l ice . 1 986 -87 . " Bauornamen t ik am T hea te r v on L imy ra ," Wi z 5 7 , B e ib la t t : 1 41-220 .

1 933 .

B rown , Dona ld F . 1 942 . " The A rcua ted L in te l a nd I t s S ymbo l ic I n te rp re ta t ion i n L a te An t ique A r t ," A JA 4 6 : 3 89 -99 . B u l id , F rane . 1 927 . P a Ia & . c ara D iok lec i jana uS p l i tu ( w i th a c on t r ibu t ion b y L jubo K a raman ) . Z ag reb . F rane . 1 929 . K a iser D iok le t ians P a las t i n S p l i t ( s ho r tened t r ans la t ion o f B uk 1 927 ) . Z ag reb .

D yggve , E jna r . 1 941 . R avenna tum P a la t ium S acrum : L a b a s i l ica i p e tra le p er c er imon ie : S tud i i s u l l 'ar ch i t e t tura d e ip a laz z id e l la t a rda a n t ich i tä . C openhagen

C a lza , R a issa . 1 972 . I conograf ia r omana i mper ia le d a C araus io aG iu l iano ( 287 -363 d .C . )R ome . C amb i , N enad . 1 976 . " Two H eads o fT e t ra rch ic P e r iod f r om D ioc le t ian 's P a lace a t S p l i t ," " Ar chaeologia J ugos lav ica 1 7 : 2 3 -28 .

D yggve , E jna r . 1 961-1962 ( 1965 ) . " 0I zvornom I zg ledu A n t iekog P e r is t i la " ( w i th E ng l ish s umma ry ) , U rbs 4 :5 5 -60 .

C amb i , N enad . 1 977 . " D ie s t ad t röm ische S a rkophage i n D a lma t ien ," AA 4 44 -478 .

D yggve , E jna r . 1 962 . " Nouve l le sr e che rche s a up 6 r is ty le d u p a la i s d eD ioc le t ien äS p l i t "A c ta a dA rch . 1 : 1 6 .

1 988 . A t i e .k i S arkof az i uDa lmac i j i . S p l i t .

C amb i , N enad . 1 989 . " P r is tup R azma t ran ju s ku lp tu ra lnog p rog rama d iok lec i janove p a laee u S p l i tu ," K u l turna Ba t ina 1 4 / 19 : 1 2 -22 .

E gge r s ,R udo lph . 1 926 . Der a l tchr i s t l iche F r iedhof Manas ter ine . F or schungen i nS a lona I . V ienna . E ichne r , K lau s . 1 981 . " D ie P roduk t ionsme thode d e r s t ad t röm ische S a rkophagfabr ik i nd e rB lü teze i tu n te r K on s tan t in ," J ahrbuch f ür A n t ike u nd C hr i s ten tum 2 4 : 8 4 -113 .

a nak -Med i d , M . 1 978 . " Gamz ig rad , k a snoan t ieka p a la ta . A rh i tek tura i p ros torn i s k lop ," S aopg ten ja X I R epub l i &og z avoda z a za t i tu s pomen ika k u l tur e S R S rb i je . 1 -241 .

e l -Sagh i r , Mohammed e ta l . 1 986 . L e C amp R oma in d e L ouq sor . C a i ro .

Cha isema r t in , Na tha l ie d e . 1 991 . " Les modMe sg recs c l a s s ique s d e st 8 tes d el af r i se d uP or t ique d eT ibre , "A phrod i s ia s P aper s : R ecen t Work o n S cu lp ture a nd A r ch i tec ture e d . Cha r lo t te R ouech6 a nd K en in T . E r im . Ann A rbo r . 19 -132 .

F a r la t t i , D an ie l . 1 751 . I l lyr icum S acrum . Ven ice . F e l lmann , R udo lph . 1 979 . " De r D iok le t ianspa la s t v on S p l i t i mR ahmen d e rs pä t röm i schen M i l i tä ra rch i tek tu r ," A n t ike We l t 1 0 : 4 7 -55 .

Conze , A lexande r . 1 910 . "Wandf r iese i m Mauso leum , " N iemann 1 910 : 13 -115 . C rema , L u ig i . 1 959 . L 'arch i te t tura r omana . C lass ica 3 : 1 2 : 1 .T ur in .

D uva l , N oe l . 1 961-62 ( 1965 ) . " La p lace d e S p l i td ans l ' a rch i tec tu re a u l ique d uB a sEmp i re ," U rbs 4 :6 7 -95 . D uva l , N oe l . 1 991 . R ev iew o fD ioc le t ian ' sP a lace : Amer ican -Yugos lav J o in tE xcava t ions V a nd V I . J RA 4 : 3 78 -384 .

C a in , H an s -U lr ich . 1 988 . " Ch rono log ie , I konog raph ie , u nd B edeu tung d e r r öm ischen Ma skenre l ief s ," B J 1 88 : 1 07 -221 .

Camb i , N enad .

D uva l , N oe l . 1 961 . " Le « pa la i s» d e D ioc l6 t ien äS pa la to äl a l um ire d e sr i cen tes d&ouve r tes ," B u l le t in d el a s oc ie ti n a t iona le d e sa n t iqua ir e sd eF rance 8 0 : 7 6 17 .

F raze r , A lf red . 1 966 . " The I conog raphy o ft h e Empe ro r Maxen t iu s ' B u i ld ings i nV ia App ia ," A r tB u l le t in 4 8 : 3 85 -92 .

E nc ic loped ia

F reye rbe rge r , K lau s S . 1 990 . S tad tröm i sche K ap i te l le a us d er Z e i tv on Dom i t ian b i sA lexander S everus : Z ur A rbe i t swe i se u nd O rgan i sa t ion s t ad tröm i scher W erk s tä t ten d er K a i ser ze i t . Ma inz .

C rum , R oge r L . 1 989 . "' Cosmos , t h e Wo r ld o f C os imo ' : T he I conog raphy o f t h e U f f iz i F açade ," A r t B u l le t in 7 1 : 2 37 -253 . C rum , R oge r L . 1 990 . " Rep ly" t o S a tkowsk i 1 990 , A r t B u l le t in 7 2 : 1 33 -135 .

G ab r ieev id , B ran im i r . 1 961-62 ( 1969 ) . " Decuss is D iok lec i janove p a laee u S p l i tu" ( w i th F rench s umma ry ) ,V jesn ik z aA rheo log i ju iH is ton ju D a lma t insku 6 3 -64 : 13 -124 .

S lobodan . 1 993 " La te A n t ique P a lace s : T he Mean ing o fU rban C on tex t ," A r s O r ien ta l i s 2 3 : 6 7 -90 .

G aw l ikow s l c i , M icha l . 1 984 . L e sp r inc ip ia d eD ioc lg t ien ; " T emp le d es E nse ignes ," P a lmyre 8 . Wa r saw .

Dauph in , C laud ine . 1 978 . " Byzan t ine p a t te rn b ook s : ar e e xam ina t ion o f t he p rob lem i n t h e l i gh t o f t h e ' i nhab i ted s c ro l l ,- A r tH i s tory 1 : 4 00 -423

G e rkan , A rm in v on . L e ipz ig .

6 7

1 921 . Das S tad ion . M i le t 11 . B e r l in ,

B IBL IOGRAPHY Deut schen A rchäo log ischen I ns t i tut s 9 . B e r l in , L e ipz ig .

G en t i l i , G ino V in ic io . 1 950 . " P IAZZA ARMER INA . G rand iosa v i l la r omana i nc on t rada ' Ca sa le ' ," No t iz ie d eg l i S cav i d iA n t ich i tä s e r ie s 8 , 4 :2 91-335 .

K le iner , G e rha rd t . 1 968 . D ie R u inen v on M i le t . B e r l in .

G rammenos , D im i tr ios B . a nd G iann is Kn i thakes . 1 994 . K a ta logos t on A rch i tek ton ikon Me lon t ou Mouse iou T hes sa lon ike s . T he ssa lon ike .

Knackfuss , H uber t . 1 924 . Der S üdmark tu nd d i eb enachbar ten B auan lagen . M i le tI ,7 . B e r l in : 2 29 -261 .

G raba r , And re . 1 946 . Mar tyr ium . P a r is .

Koch , Gun t ram a nd H e lmu t S ich termann . S arkophage . Mun ich .

G reen , R icha rd a nd E r ic Hand ley . 1 995 . I mages o ft h e G reek T hea t er .L ondon .

Koch , Gun t ram . 1 993 . S arkophage d er r öm ischen K a i ser ze i t . Da rm s tad t .

H ane l , And rea . 1 985 . " E in Ma rmo r -G ir landen -Sa rkophag a u s L imy ra ," Ö . 1 1 1 5 6 : 1 07 -210 .

Ko lb , F rank . 1 987 . D ioc le t ian u nd d i e e r s te T e trarch ie : I mprov i sa t ion o der E xper imen t i n d er O rgan i sa t ion monar ch i scher H er r schaf t . B e rl in .

H ause r , A lo i s . 1 883 . " D ie R e s tau r ie rung d e s Do rns z u S pa la to ," Zwe i V or t räge g eha l ten am 1 7 . F ebruar 1 876 u nd 1 . J anuar 1 883 . V ienna .

1 982 .

R öm ische

Kös te r , R . 1 986 . " Röm ische B auornamen t ik i nM i le t , " M i le t 1 899 -1980 : E rgebn i sse , P rob leme u nd P er spek t iven e i ner A usgrabung . K o loqu ium , F rankf ur t aM 1 980 . I s tM i tB e ihef t 3 1 . 1 57 -164 .

H ause r , A lo i s . 1 890 . " D ie R e s tau r ie rungs -A rbe i ten i m Do rn z u S pa la to ," M i t te i lungen d er K .k . C en tra l C omm i ss ion n . s . 1 6 : 8 5 . H e sbe rg , H . v on . 1 991 . R ev iew o fT ancke 1 989b . B J 1 91 : 7 37 -740 .

K ra l jev id , L jubom ir . 1 995 . " 0 E sku lapovu H ramu u D iok lec i janovo j P a lae i uS p l i tu , "L i je M ia i V jesn ik 1 7 : 9 7 -101 .

Hon ro th , M . 1 971 . S tad tröm i sche G ir landen . S onde r sch r if ten d e sÖ s te r re ich ischen A r chaeo log ischen I n s t i tu t s 1 7 .

K ramer , J oach im . 1 983 . " Zu e in igen A rch i tek tu r te i len d es G rab tempe ls w es t l ich v on S ide ," B J 1 83 : 1 45 -166 .

H ornbos te l -Hü t tne r , G er t rau t . 1 979 . S tud ien z ur r öm ischen N ischenarch i tek tur , S tud ie so ft h eD u tch A r chaeo log ica l a nd H i s to r ica l S oc ie ty 9 . L e iden .

L ac tan t ius . 1 984 . D e Mor t ibus P er secu torum , e d . a nd t r .J .L . C reed .O xfo rd . L aubscher , H .P . 1 975 . Der R e l ief schmuck d es Ga ler iusbogens i n T hessa lon ik i . D eu t sches A rchäo log i sches I n s t i tu t ,A rchäo log i sche F or schungen I . B e r l in .

Humph rey , J ohn H . 1 986 . R oman C ircuses : A renas f or C har io tR ac ing . B e rke ley . I 5 ik , F ah r i . 1 986 . " E in w iede rgefundene rG i r landensa rkophag i nM i le t ," i s tM i t 3 6 : 1 61-181 .

L ava l lde ,J . 1 802 . V oyage p i t toresque e th i s tor ique d e l ' I s tr ie e t d e l a Da lma t ie r ed ige a prs l ' i t inera ir e d e L .F . C assas . P a r is .

J eU ,L uka a nd F rane B u i ld . 1 894 . G u ida d iS pa la to e S a lona . Z ada r .

L eon , Ch r is tophe F . 1 971 . D ie B auornamen t ik d es T ra jansf orum s u nd i h re S te l lung i n d er f rueh - u nd m i t te lka iser ze i t l ichen A rch i tek turdekora t ion R oms . V ienna .

J ohnson , Ma rk J . 1 986 . " La te A n t ique I mpe r ia l Mauso lea ," P h .D . t h es is , P r ince ton U n iver s i ty . J oyce , He t ty . 1 990 . " Had r ian 's V i l la a nd t h e ' Dome o f H eaven ' ," RM 9 7 : 3 47 -381 .

L 'O range , H an s P e te r . 1 965 . A r tF orms a nd C iv ic L if e i nt h e L a te R oman Emp ire . P r ince ton .

K äh le r , H e inz . 1 936 . " Deko ra t ive A rbe i ten a u s d e r We rk s ta t t d e s K ons tan t insbogen s , " JDAI 5 1 : 1 80 -201 . K äh le r , H e inz . 1 937 . 5 2 : 9 4 -105 . K äh le r , H e inz . 3 73 .

L 'O range , H an s P e te r . 1 961 . " D ie B i ldn isse d e r T e t ra rchen , A c ta A r chaeo log ica 2 :2 9 -52 .

" Zum S onnen tempe l Au re l ians ," RM

L 'O range , H ans P e te r . 1 965 . " Nuovo c on t r ibu to a l b os t ud io d e lP a lazzo E rcu l io d iP iazza A rme r ina , "A c ta a dA r ch I : 6 5 104 .

1 939 . " T r iumphbogen ," R ea l lex ikon V I I A 1 :

L 'O range , H ans P e te r , R . Unge r u nd M . Wegne r . 1 984 . Das s pä tan t ike H err scherb i ld v on D iok le t ian b i s z u d en

K äh le r , H e inz . 1 953 . R öm i sche G ebä lke I : D ie Gabä lke d es K on s tan t insbogens . H e ide lbe rg .

K ons tan t in -Söhnen. B e r l in .

K äh ler , H e inz . 1 961-62 ( 1965 ) . " Sp l i t iP iazza A rmer ina : r ez idenc i je d va ju c a reva te t ra rha " ( w i th E ng l ish s umma ry ) , U rbs 4 :9 7 109

Manne l l , J oanne . 1 992 . " The A rch i tec tura l O rnamen t o f D ioc le t ian 's P a lace a tS p l i t ," P h .D . d i s s . , Un ive r s i ty o fM inne so ta .

K äh ler , H e inz . 1 964a . Das F ünf säu lendenkma l f ür d ie T e trar chen a uf d em F or um R omanum . C o logne .

Manne l l , J oanne . 1 995 . " The Monop te ro i i n t he We s t P rec inc t o fD ioc le t ian 's P a lace a tS p l i t ," J RA 7 :2 35 2 44 .

K äh ler , He inz . 1 964b . " Zu r D a t ie rung d e s S a rkophags v on Mana s te r ine i m A r chäo log i schen Museum v on S p l i t ," Mu l lus , F es t schr if t T h . K lauser . J ahrbuch f ür A n t ike u nd C hr is ten tum . E rgän zungs B and 1 :1 73 -180 .

Manse ! , A r if Müf id . 1 959 . " D ie G rabbau ten v on S ide , P amphy l ien ," AA : 3 64 -402 .

K äh ler , He inz . 1 973 . D ie V i l la d es Maxen t ius b e i P iazza A rmer ina . Monumen ta A r t i sR omanae X I I . B e r l in .

Manse ! , A r if Müf id . 1 963 . D ie R u inen v on S ide . B e r l in .

K äh ler , He inz . 1 974 . " Domk irche " Manse l 'e A rmagan : Mé langes Manse l . A nka ra 8 09 -820 .

Manse ! , A r if Mü f id . 1 975 . " Be r ich t ü be r Au sg rabungen u nd Un te r suchungen i nP amphy l ien i n d e r J ah ren 1 957 1 972 ," AA : 4 9 -96 . -

K au tzsch , R udo lf . 1 936 . K ap i te l l s tud ien : B e i träge z u e iner G esch ich te d es s pä tan t iken K ap i te ls i m O s ten v om v i er ten b i s i n s s i eben te J ahrhunder t . S tud ien z ur s pä tan t iken K uns tgesch ich te i m Auf trage d es

Manse ! , A r if Müf id . 1 978 . " S ide : 1 947 -1966 ," Y i l lar i K az i lar i y e A ra , s t irma lar in in S on iq . lar i T ürk T ar ih K urumü B as imev i , 5 th S e r ies , 3 3 .

6 8

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNA MENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT Ma ra sov id , J e rko a nd T om i s lav Ma ra sov id . 1 961-62 ( 1 965 ) . " P reg led r a dova U rban i s t idkog b i roa n a i s t ra i ivan ju , z a ' g t i t i iu red jen ju D iok lec i janove p a lade o d 1 955 d o 1 965 g od ine" ( w i th E ng l ish s umma ry ) , U rbs 4 :2 3 -54 .

N eudecke r , R icha rd . 1 988 . D ie S ku lp turenauss ta t tung R öm i scher V i l len i nI t a l ien . Ma inz . N iemann , G eo rge . 1 909 . " Zu rP or ta Au rea ," a lh 1 2 : 3 40 3 42 . Nock , A r thu r D a rby . 1 946 . " Sa rcophag i a nd S ymbo l ism ," A JA 5 0 : 1 40 -170 .

Ma ra sov id ,J e rko a nd T om is lav Ma ra sov id . 1 994 . " Le R iche rche n e !P a lazzo d iD ioc lez iano aS p l i tn eg le u l t imo 3 0 . Ann i ( 1964 -1994 ) , " A n t iqu i tg T ard ive . 8 9 -106 .

Ö zgü r ,M .Ed ip . 1 988 . P erge : AT rave l Gu ide . Ovad iah ,A she ra nd Y ehud i tT u rnhe im . 1 994 . " Peop led" S cro l l si nR oman A rch i tec tura lD ecora t ion i n I s rae l , t h eR oman T hea ter a tB e th S hean , S cy thopo l is . R ome .

Ma ra sov id ,J e rko . 1 989 . " Re sea rch i nD ioc le t ian 's P a lace a f te r 1 974 , " D ioc le t ian ' sP a lace : Amer ican -Yugos lav J o in t E x cava t ions V : 2 25 -228 . D ubuque .

P ane l la , C . e t . a l . 1 995 . " Scavo n e l l 'a rea d e l la Me ta S udans e r i ce rche s u l l 'a rco d iC o s tan t ino ," A rcheo log ia L a z ia le X I I : 4 1-62 .

Ma ra sov id ,J e rko e t . a l . 1 972 . D ioc le t ian ' s P a lace , Amer ican Y ugos lav J o in tE xcava t ions i nS ou theas t Q uar ter . I . S p l i t .

P a s sue lo , F rancesco . 1 976 . IMauso le i i mper ia l i r oman i t emp l id e lS o l : l ar o tunda d iT e ssa lon ica . F lo rence .

Ma ra sov id , T om is lay . 1 969 . " G l i Appa r tamen t i d e l l ' Impera to re D ioc lez iano n e ! s uo P a lazzo aS p l i t ," A c ta a dA rch 4 : 3-40 .

P aza ra s , T heocha r is . 1 985 . T he R o tunda o fS a in tG eorge i n T hessa lon ik i . T he s sa lon ik i .

Ma ra sov i d ,T om is lay . 1 982 . D ioc le t ian ' sP a lace . B e lg rade .

P f anne r , M ichae l . 1 983 . D er T i tusbogen . Ma inz .

Ma ra sov i d , T om is lay . 1 989 . R ev iew o f J .J . Wi lke s , 1 986 . D ioc le t ian ' s P a lace , S p l i t : R es idence o f ar e t ired Emperor ( f i r s te d i t ion ) . J RA 2 :3 74 -377 .

P h i lo s t ra tu s . 1 931 . P h i los tra tus 'I mag ines ; C a l l i s tra tus ' D e scr ip t ions , w i th a n E ng l ish t r ans la t ion b y A r thu rF a i rbank s . L ondon a nd N ew Yo rk .

Ma r in , Em i l io . 1 994 . " C iv i tas s p lend ida S a lona ," S alona C hr is t iana , e d . Em i l io Ma r in 9 104 . S p l i t .

P i san i S a r to r io , G iusepp ina a nd R a issa C a lza . 1 976 . L a v i l la d i Mas senz io s u l la v i aA pp ia : I ./p a /az zo . I . L e o pere d ' ar te d e l la v i l la . I Monumen t iR oman i V I . R ome .

Mazza , A . 1 982 . " La Ma sche ra F og l l ia ta : u na F igura d e i R epe r tor i E l len is t ico -Or ien ta l i R ipros ta i n Amb i to B izan t ino ," XV I I n terna t iona l B yzan t in is tenkong ress A k ten , J ahrbuch d er Ö s ter r e ich ischen B yzan t in is t ik 1 /5 : 2 3-32 .

P r ice , S imon . 1 987 . " F rom Nob le F une ra l t oD iv ine C u l t : t h e C onsec ra t ion o fR oman Empe ro r s ," R i tua l s o f R oya l ty : P ower a nd C er emon ia li nT rad i t iona l S oc ie t ies , e d .D av id C annad ine a nd S imon P r ice . C ambr idge ,N ew Y o rk : 5 6 -106

McNa l ly , S he i la , J e rko Ma rasov id , a nd T om is lav Ma rasov ic i 1 976 . D ioc le t ian ' s P a lace : Amer ican Y ugos lav J o in t E xcava t ion s H . S p l i t .

P rocu l iano , A n ton io . 1 880 . " O ra t ione a lc l a r iss imo m . G iovann i B a t t is ta C a lbo d egn iss imo r e t to r , e t a la magn if ica c ommun i t ta d iS pa la to ,d e t ta d a A n ton io P rocu l iano ,c ana l l ie re d ie s sa c ommun i tä .Venez ia 1 567 , " Monumen ta s pec tan t ia h i s tor iam S l avorum Mer id iona lum . C omm is s ione s e tR ea l t iones V ene tae 3 :1 97 -228 . Z ag reb .

McNa l ly , S he i la , J e rko Ma ra sov id a nd T om is lav Ma ra sov id . 1 989 . D ioc le t ian ' s P a lace : Amer ican -Yugos lav J o in t E xcava t ions V . D ubuque . McNa l ly , S he i la . 1 971 . " The F r ieze o ft h e Mauso leum a t S p l i t ," S tud ie s P re sen ted t oG eorge M .A . Hanfmann . Ma inz . McNa l ly , S he i la . 1 989 . " I n t roduc t ion : S ta te o fS cho la r sh ip ," D ioc let ian ' s P a lace : Amer ican -Yugos lav J o in t E xcava t ion sV : 3 -36 . Dubuque .

R a sch ,J ürgen J . 1 984 . Das Maxen t ius - Mauso leum a nd er V ia A pp ia i nR om . S pä tan t ike Z en tra lbau ten i nR om u nd L a t ium 1 . Ma inz .

McNa l ly , S he i la . 1 992 . " The C e i l ing o f t he T emp le o f J up i ter , D ioc le t ian 's P a lace , S p l i t ," AJA 9 6 : 3 60 3 61 .

R end id -M iodev id , D . 1 981 . " Tea ta r uS a lon i so sob i t im o bz irom n an eke n j egove k ompoz ic i jske it e hn iN ce k a ra l c te r is t ike , " A n t ia i t e a tar n a t l uJ ugo s lav i je . Nov i S ad .

McNa l ly , S he i la . 1 994 . " Jo in t Amer ican-Croa t ian e xcava t ions i nS p l i t ( 1965 -1974 ) ," A n t iqu i ti . T ard ive . 2 : 1 07-122 . Mie l sch , H ara ld . 1 978 . " Zur s t ad t röm ischen Ma le re i d es v i e r ten J ah rhunder ts n ach C hr is t i ," RM 8 5 ( 1978 ) 1 51-207 .

R eu te r swä rd , P a t r ik . 1 960 . S tud ien z ur P o lychrom ie d er P la s t ik G r iechen land u nd R ome : U n ter suchungen ü ber d i eF arbw irkung d er Marmor - u nd B ronze sku lp tur en . S tockho lm .

M inop r io , An thony . 1 932 . " A R e s to ra t ion o ft he B a s i l ica o f C ons tan t ine , R ome ," PBSR 1 2 : 1 25 .

R icha rd son , L aw rence . 1 992 . AN ew T opograph ica l D ic t ionary o fA nc ien tR ome . B a l t imo re .

M imik , I van . 1 990 . " Roman A rch i tec tu ra l F ragmen t s ," D ioc le t ian ' sP a lace : Amer ican -Yugos lav J o in t E xcava t ion s . V I : 1 56 . D ubuque .

R ieg l , A lo is . 1 893 . S t i lf ragen : G rund legungen z u e i ner G e sch ich te d er O rnamen t ik . B e r l in . R ieg l , A lo is . 1 90 1 . S pä tröm ische K uns t indus tr ie n ach d en f unden i nÖ s ter re ich -Ungarn . V ienna .

Mo re t t i ,J ean -Cha r le s . 1 993 . " Des Ma sques e td e s t ha t re s e n G r ce e te nA s ie M ineu re , " R evue d es E tude s A nc iennes 9 5 : 2 07 -223 .

R ieg l , A lo is . 1 985 . L a te R oman A r t I ndus try , t r . R o lf W inkes . R ome .

N eu , S t efan . 1 972 . " Röm ische s O rnamen t : S tad t röm ische Ma rmo rgebä lke a us d e rZ e i t v on S ep t im ius S everus b i s Kons tan t in , " P h .D . d i ss . , Müns te r (We s tf . ) .

R ieg l , A lo is . 1 992 . P rob lems o f S ty le : F ounda t ions f or a H is tory o fO rnamen t , t r .E ve lyn K a in . P r ince ton .

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B IBL IOGRAPHY R ismondo , T a jma . 1 994 . " K lesa r sk i z na l cov i n a z idov ima D iok lec i janove p a late u S p l i tu" ( w i th German s umma ry ) , S a lona C hr is t iana , e d . Em i l io Ma r in . S p l i t . 1 97 -212 .

S re jov id , D ragos lav a nd .' e dom i r V a s id . 1 994a . " Empero r G a le r iu s ' sb u i ld ing si nR omu l iana ( Gamz ig rad ,e a s te rn S e rb ia ) ," A n t iqu i td T ard ive 2 :1 23 -142 S re jov id , D rago s lav a nd C edom ir V a s id . 1 994b . I mper ial Mauso lea a nd c onsecra t ion Memor ia l s i n F e l ix R omu l iana ( Gamz igrad , E a s tS erb ia ) . B e lg rade .

R ockwe l l , P e te r . 1 990 . " F in i sh a nd U nf in ish i nt h e C a rv ing o ft h eS eba s te ion ," A phrod i s ia sP aper s : R ecen t Work o nA rch i tec tur ea nd S cu lp tur e , e d . C ha r lo t te R oueche a nd K en in T . E r im . J RA S upp lemen ta ry S e r ies 1 : 1 0 1-118 . Ronczewsk i , Kons tan t in . 1 903 . G ewö lbeschmuck r öm i schen A l ter tum . B e r l in .

S re jov id , D r ago s lay . 1 996 . " Serb ie : F e l ix Romu l iana , l a R e s idence d e l ' Empe reur G a le re ," Archdo log ia n o . 3 19 : 2 0 -27

i m

S t ra t im i rov id , G . v on . " Bemerkungen z u G . N iemann 's R ekons truk t ion d es D iok le t ianspa las ts i n S pa la to , "1913 . ö Jh 1 9 . B e ib la t t . 1 69 -178 .

S ande r s , G uy Dom in ic . 1 989 . " The P a lace o f D ioc le t ian a t S p l i t , " M .A . t he s i s , Un ive r s i ty o fM is sou r i .

S t rocka , V . M . 1 981 . "Da s Ma rk tor v on M i le t ," W inke lmannsprogram d er Archäo log ischen G e se l l schaf tz uB er l in 1 28 : 3 -6 1 .

S ape l l i , Ma r ina . 1 993 . " IS a rcof ag i d e l Museo N az iona le R omano : Cons ide raz ion i s u C on te s t i d iP roven ienza eD a t i T ecn ic i ," Grabeskunst d er R om ischen K a i se r ze i t , e d . Gun tram K och . Ma inz . 2 23 -228 .

S t ryzgow sk i , J o seph . 1 906 . " Spa la to , e in Ma rk s te in d e r r im i schen K uns t b e i i h rem -U be rgange v om O r ien t n a ch d em Aband lande ," S tud ien a us K uns t u nd G e sch ich t e F ranz S chne ider g ew idme t . F re ibu rg i m B re i sgau . 3 26 -36 r ep r in ted a s " Spa la to , u na t appa d e l l 'a r te r oman ica n e l s u p a s sag io d a l l ' O r ien te n e l l 'O cc iden te ," B o l le t ino d iA r chaeo log ia eS tor ia D a lma t ia 3 1 ( 1908 )S upp lemen t ;e xce rp tr ep r in ted i n 1 961 ,B u l le t in d e l as oc id td n a t iona le d es a n t iqua ires d eF r anc e .

S a tkowsk i , L eon . 1 990 . " On t he i c onog raphy o f t h e U f f iz i f a çade ," l e t te rt ot h ee d i to r ,A r tB u l le t in 5 2 : 1 31-132 . S chauenbu rg , K onrad . 1 995 . D ie s t ad tröm i schen E ro ten S arkophagen . : F a sz ike l3 .Z irku sr ennen u nd v erwand t e Dar s t e l lungen . B e r l in . S chu lz , B runo . 1 906 . 2 4 : 4 6 -47 .

" D ie P or ta A u rea i n S pa la to ," JDAI

S e lem , P . 1 970 . " S tan je i s t rai ivan ja s f inge c a r ske p a late u S p l i tu" ( w i th F rench s ummary ) , Adr iat ica p raeh i s tor ica e ta n t iqua : Z born ik R adova p osvee e n G rg iN ovaku . Z ag reb . 6 39 -56 .

Swoboda , H e inr ich , J osoph Ke i l , F r i tz Kno l l . 1 935 . D enkmä ler a us L ykon ien , P amphy l ien u nd I s aur ien . P rague ,L e ipz ig , V ienna . T ancke ,K a r in . 1 989a . " Deckenka sse t ten i nd e rg r ie ch i schen B aukuns t , " A n t ike W e l t2 0 : 2 4 -35 .

S eyr ig , H en r i . 1 934 . A n t iqu i tde s S yr ienne s . 1 7B a s r e l ief s monumen taux d u t emp le d eB e l aP a lmyr e , S yr ia .

T ancke , K a r in . 1 989b . F igura lkas se t t en g r iech ischer u nd r öm i scher S t e indeck en . E u ropa i sche H och s chu l sch r if ten , s e r ie s 3 8 , 2 0 . F rank fur t .

P a r is : 1 58 -186 . S imon ,E r ika . 1 962 , " Zu rB edeu tung d e sG re if en i nd e rK un s t d e rK a ise rze i t . L a tomus 2 1 : 7 49 -780 .

T homa s S pa la ten s i s , A rchdeacon . 1 894 . H i s tor ia S a lon i tana , e d .F .R atk i . Monumen ta S pec tan ta h i s tor iam s l avorum m er id iona l ium 3 0 CV I . Z ag reb .

S imon , E r ika . 1 979 -80 . " D ie G ö t te ra mT ra jan sbogen z u B eneven t , " T r ier er W inke lmann sprogramme 1 2 : 1 1 5 .

T o rp , H j . 1 974 . " Den K e i se r l ige D ionyso s : F es t sa l i P a la s se t iT he ssa lon ik i , " K uns to gK u l tur 5 7 : 1 53 1 64 .

S od in i , J ean -P ie r re . R ev iew o fD e ichmann 1 989 .J RA 4 ( 1991) 3 98-409 . S qua rc iap ino ,M . F lor ian i . 1 991 . " La S cuo la d iA ph rod i s ia s ( dopo 4 0 a nn i ) , " A phrod i s ias P aper s 2 ,e d . R . R . R . Sm i th a nd Kenan T .E r im . J RA S upp lemen ta ry S e r ie s2 . Ann A rbo r : 1 23 -126 .

T oynbee , J oce lyn a nd J ohn Wa rd -Pe rk in s . 1 950 . " Peop led S c ro l l s : AH e l len is t ic Mo t if i nI mpe r ia l A r t , " PBSR 8 :1 43 . T oynbee , J oce lyn . 1 972 . " Some P rob lems o f R oman P a r th ian S cu lp tu re a tH a t ra ," J RS 6 2 : 1 06 -110 .

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Wa rd -Pe rk ins , J ohn B .

1 970 . " Da lma t ia a nd t he Ma rb le

T rade , " D i spu ta t ione s S a lon i tanae I :3 8 -44 ( r ep r in ted i n Wa rd -Pe rk in s 1 992 ) . Wa rd -Pe rk ins , J ohn B .

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" N icomed ia a nd t he Ma rb le

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7 0

ARCH ITECTURAL ORNA MENT OF D IOCLET IAN 'S PALACE AT S PL IT We igand , E dmund . 1 924 . " D ie S te l lung Da lma t iens i n d e r r öm ischen R e ich skuns t ," S trena B u l ic iana . Z ag reb : 7 7 -105 .

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C o logne .

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M ino r ," ( 1 1h

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" Soff i t ten v on E phesos u nd A s ia

5 2 : 9 1-107 .

Wrede , H enn ing . 1 981 . " E ine t e t ra rc l i ische G igan tomach ie i n S pa la to ," J ahrbuch f ür A n t ike u nd C hr is ten tum 2 4 : 6 7 -70 .

Wegne r , Max . 1 984 . " D ie B i ldn is se d e r F rauen u nd d e s J u l ian ," i nL 'O range 1 984 : 1 4 1-165 . Wegne r , Max .

1 989 .

" Bauschmuck v on S ide ,"

f ür J a le man A rmagan i M ih in L uga l . Wegne r , Max .

1 992 .

D ioc le t ian a nd t he R oman

F es t schr if t

Z awadzk i , T adeusz . 1 987 . " La r e s idence d e D ioc le t ien ä S pa la tum : S a d enom ina t ion d ans l ' an t iqu i te ," Museum He lve t icum 4 4 : 2 22 -230 .

e d . N ez ih B a s5ge len a nd

I s tanbu l : 1 61-167 .

Z e i l le r ,J acque s . 1 912 . " Su rl ' o r ig ine d e S pa la to ," Mé lange s C agna t . P a r is : 4 19 -426 .

G eba lkf r iese r ömer ze i t l icher B au ten .

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D raw ing 1 4 . V a r ious p a t terns . F rom t op t ob o t tom : r i nceau w i th s e conda ry s t em , I .C .2 .d , p o rch o fr e s idence , r ak ing c orn ice ( s ee d r aw ing 2 ) ; s hea r shaped l e af a nd d a r t , 1 .C .2 .c .1 , p o r ch o fr e s idence , s t ra igh te n tab la tu re ( s ee d raw ing 3 ) ; e r o tes w i th k an tha ro s , 1 1 .D .5 .a , T emp le o fJ up i te r , c r own mo ld ing o n w e s t e nd ( Ar t is t 's a t temp ta td ec iphermen t : s e ed raw ing 9 ) .