The American Indian as Participant in the Civil War


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Table of contents :
I The Battle of Pea Ridge, or Elkhorn and its
MORE IMMEDIATE EFFECTS 13
II Lane's Brigade and the Inception of the Indian 37
III The Indian Refugees in southern Kansas . 79
IV The Organization of the first Indian Expedition
91
V The March to Tahlequah and the Retrograde
Movement of the "White Auxiliary" . . 125
VI General Pike in Controversy with General
Hindman 147
VII Organization of the Arkansas and Red River
SUPERINTENDENCY 171
VIII The Retirement of General Pike . . . 185
IX The Removal of the Refugees to the Sac and
Fox Agency 203
X Negotiations with Union Indians . . . 221
XI Indian Territory in 1863, January to June
inclusive 243
XII Indian Territory in 1863, July to December
inclusive 283
XIII Aspects, chiefly Military, 1864-1865 . . 313
Appendix 337
Selected Bibliography 353
Index 369
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The

Slaveholding Indians

(2)

As Slaveholders and Secessionists As Participants in the Civil War

(3)

Under Reconstruction

(i)

Vol. II

tf

X^^-

-T—

Facsimile of Negro Bill of Sale Slightly reduced

The American Indian as Participant in the Civil

War

BY

ANNIE HELOISE ABEL,

Ph.D.

Professor of History, Smith College

-

THE ARTHUR

H.

CLARK COMPANY

CLEVELAND:

1919

COPYRIGHT, 19 19, BY

ANNIE HELOISE ABEL

To

My

former colleagues and students

College

and

in

the

College

at

Goucher

Courses

Teachers, Johns Hopkins University this

book

is

affectionately dedicated

for

CONTENTS I

II

III

IV

The

Battle of Pea Ridge, or Elkhorn and its MORE IMMEDIATE EFFECTS Lane's Brigade and the Inception of the Indian The Indian Refugees in southern Kansas The Organization of the first Indian Expedi.

tion

V

The March

Tahlequah and the Retrograde Movement of the "White Auxiliary"

General Pike

in

.

125

Controversy with General 147

VII Organization of the Arkansas and Red River SUPERINTENDENCY VIII The Retirement of General Pike IX The Removal of the Refugees to the Sac and .

XI

79

to

Hindman

X

37

91

.

VI

13

.

.

Fox Agency Negotiations with Union Indians Indian Territory in 1863, January to June .

.

.

inclusive

XII Indian Territory in

171

185

203 221 243

1863,

July to December

inclusive

XIII Aspects, chiefly Military, 1864-1865 Appendix Selected Bibliography Index

283 .

.

313

337 353 369

ILLUSTRATIONS Facsimile of Negro Bill of Sale

Sketch

....

Map showing the Main Theatre

Frontispiece

of Border

Warfare and the Location of Tribes within the Indian Country

....

Portrait of Colonel W. A. Phillips Facsimile of Monthly Inspection Report of the Second Creek Regiment of Mounted Volunteers Facsimile of Monthly Inspection Report of the First

Creek Regiment of Mounted Volunteers

.

39 93

.

245

.

315

THE BATTLE OF PEA RIDGE, OR ELKHORN, AND ITS MORE IMMEDIATE

I.

EFFECTS The Indian

by the

alliance, so assiduously sought

Southern Confederacy and so laboriously built up, soon Direct and unmisrevealed itself to be most unstable. takable signs of its instability appeared in connection with the

ed, the Battle of

known

military test to which

first real

Pea Ridge or Elkhorn,

was

as

subject-

it is

better

in the South, the battle that stands out in the

history of the

War

of Secession as being the

cisive victory to date of the

and

it

Union

marking the turning point

as

most de-

forces in the

West

in the political rela-

tionship of the State of Missouri with the Confederate

government. In the short time during which, following the removal of General Fremont, General David Hunter

was and

it

command

Department of the Westwas practically not more than one week -he

in full

of the

completely reversed the policy of vigorous offensive that had obtained under men, subordinate to his prede1

In southwest Missouri, he abandoned the advanced position of the Federals and fell back upon Sedalia and Rolla, railway termini. That he did this 2 at the suggestion of President Lincoln and with the 3 tacit approval of General McClellan makes no differ-

cessor.

1

The Century Company's War Book,

2

Official

Records,

first

otherwise designated, the 3



Ibid., 568.

ser.,

vol.

first series

iii,

vol.

i,

314-315.

553-554.

Hereafter,

except where

will always be understood.

The Indian

14

ence now, as

it

as Participant in the Civil

made no

difference then, in the consid-

eration of the consequences

none the

less,

War

;

rather serious.

yet the consequences were,

They were

such, in fact,

very greatly the confusion on the border and to give the Confederates that chance of recovery which soon made it necessary for their foes to do the work of Nathaniel Lyon all over again. 4 It has been most truthfully said that never, throughas to increase

out the period of the entire war, did the southern government fully realize the surpassingly great importance of

its

Trans-Mississippi District; notwithstanding that

was originally organized, 5 in January, 1862, some faint idea of what it might, pejadven6 ture, accomplish did seem to penetrate, although ever It so vaguely, the minds of those then in authority. was organized under pressure from the West as was natural, and under circumstances to which meagre and

when

that district

tentative reference has already been

volume of were such

made

in the first

7

work. In the main, the circumstances as developed out of the persistent refusal of General McCulloch to cooperate with General Price. There was much to be said in justification of McCulloch's obstinacy. To understand this it is well to recall that, under the plan, lying back of this first 4

Official

Men, 5

this

Records, vol.

liii,

supplement, 781-782; Edwards, Shelby and His

105.



Ibid., vol. viii, 734.

6 It is

doubtful

if

even

this

ought

President Davis later admitted that

campaign

to

be conceded in view of the fact that

Van Dorn

entered upon the Pea Ridge

for the sole purpose of effecting "a diversion in behalf of General

[Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, vol. ii, 51]. Moreover, Van Dorn had scarcely been assigned to the command of the Trans-Mississippi District before Beauregard was devising plans for bring-

Johnston"

ing him east again [Greene, of

The

Mississippi, 11;

Roman, Military Operations

General Beauregard, vol. i, 240-244]. 7 Abel, American Indian as Slaveholder and

footnote 522.

Secessionist,

225-226

and

The appointment

to

Battle of

Pea Ridge

the Confederate

expectation that he

would secure

way

15

command, was

the

the Indian Territory.

do that was to occupy it, provided the tribes, whose domicile it was, were willBut, if the Cherokees can be taken to have voiced ing. the opinion of all, they were not willing, notwithstand8 Federal activity ing that a sensationally reported 9 under Colonel James Montgomery, in the neighborObviously, the best

to

hood of the frontier posts, Cobb, Arbuckle, and Washita, was designed to alarm them and had notably influenced, if it had not actually inspired, the selection 10 and appointment of the Texan ranger. Unable, by reason of the Cherokee objection thereto, Indian country; because entrance in the face of that objection would inevitably force the Ross faction of the Cherokees and, possibly also, Indians of to enter the

other tribes into the arms of the Union,

intrenched himself on

its

McCulloch

northeast border, in Arkan-

and there awaited a more favorable opportunity for accomplishing his main purpose. He seems to have desired the Confederate government to add the contiguous portion of Arkansas to his command, but 11 in that he was disappointed. Nevertheless, Arkansas early interpreted his presence in the state to imply that he was there primarily for her defence and, by the middle of June, that idea had so far gained general acceptance that C. C. Danley, speaking for the Arkansas Military Board, urged President Davis "to meet sas,

8

Official

9

The name

with.

Records, vol.

liii,

supplement, 679.

Montgomery was not one for even Indians to conjure James Montgomery was the most notorious of bushwhackers. For of

an account of some of his earlier adventures, see Spring, Kansas, 241, 247250, and for a characterization of the man himself, Robinson, Kansas Conflict,

435.

10 Official Records, vol. 11

liii,

supplement, 682.

Snead, Fight for Missouri, 229-230.

1

The Indian

6

as Participant in the Civil

the exigent necessities of the State"

general

officer

there,

northeastern part.

who

War

by sending

a second

command

should

in

the

12

McCulloch's relations with leading Confederates in Arkansas seem to have been, from the first, in the highest degree friendly, even cordial, and it is more than likely that, aside from his unwillingness to offend the neutrality-loving Cherokees, the best explanation for his eventual readiness to

make

his chief concern, instead of

complishment of that fact.

On

the defence of Arkansas

merely a means

may

be found in

May,

the Arkansas

his original task,

the twenty-second of

to the ac-

State Convention instructed Brigadier-general

N. Bart

command of the state troops, to cooperConfederate commander "to the full extent

Pearce, then in ate

with the

of his ability"

13

and, on the twenty-eighth of the same

month, the Arkansas Military Board invited that same person, who, of course, was Ben McCulloch, to assume command himself of the Arkansas local forces. 14 Sympathetic understanding of this variety, so early established, was bound to produce good results and McCulloch henceforth identified himself most thoroughly with Confederate interests in the state in which he was, by dint of untoward circumstances, obliged to bide his time.

was far otherwise as respected relations between McCulloch and the Missouri leaders. McCulloch had little or no tolerance for the rough-and-ready methods of men like Claiborne Jackson and Sterling Price. He regarded their plans as impractical, chimerical, and It

their warfare as after the guerrilla order, too 12 Official

— n— it

Records, vol.

Ibid., 687. Ibid.,

691.

liii,

supplement, 698-699.

much

like

The that to

Battle of

Pea Ridge

17

which Missourians and Kansans had accustomed

themselves during the period of border conflict, follow-

McCuling the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill. He believed in orloch himself was a man of system.

made

Just prior to the Battle of Wilson's Creek, he put himself on record as

ganization that

for efficiency.

strongly opposed to allowing

unarmed men and camp

followers to infest his ranks, demoralizing them.

15

It

be expected, therefore, that there could ever be much in common between him and Sterling Price. For a brief period, it is true, the two men did appar-

was not

to

was when the safety of Price's own state, Missouri, was the thing directly That was in early August of 1861. Price put in hand. himself and his command subject to McCulloch's or16 The result was the successful engagement, Auders. ently act in fullest

harmony; but

it

gust 10 at Wilson's Creek, on Missouri

soil.

On

the

fourteenth of the same month, Price reassumed control

Guard 17

from that time on, he and McCulloch drifted farther and farther apart; but, as their aims were so entirely different, it was not to be wondered at. Undoubtedly, all would have been well had McCul-

of the Missouri State

and,

make the defence of Missouri his only aim. Magnanimity was asked of him such as the Missouri leaders never so much as contemplated showloch been disposed to

ing in return.

It

seems never

to

have occurred

to either

Jackson or Price that cooperation might, perchance, involve such an exchange of courtesies as would require

McCulloch own particular

Price to lend a hand in some project that

might devise for the well-being of 15 Official 16

17

— —

Ibid.,

Records, vol. 720.

Ibid., 727.

liii,

supplement, 721.

his

1

The Indian

8

The

as Participant in the Civil

War

was eventually asked for and refused, refused upon the ground, familiar in United States history, that it would be impossible to get the

charge.

assistance

Missouri troops to cross the state line. Of course, His Price's conduct was not without extenuation. His position was not identical with MeCulloch's. force was a state force, MeCulloch's a Confederate, or

Missouri had yet to be gained, offiShe expected secession cially, for the Confederacy. states and the Confederacy itself to force the situation for her. And, furthermore, she was in far greater dana national. Besides,

ger of invasion than was Arkansas.

The Kansans were

her implacable and dreaded foes and Arkansas had

none like them to fear. In reality, the seat of all the trouble between McCulloch and Price lay in particularism, a phase of state rights,

and, in

its

last analysis,

provincialism.

Now

particularism was especially pronounced and especially pernicious in the middle southwest.

Missouri had

al-

ways more than her share of it. Her politicians were impregnated by it. They were interested in their own locality exclusively and seemed quite incapable of taking any broad survey of events that did not immediate-

own limited concerns. In issue between McCulloch and Price, this was all apparent. The politicians complained unceasingly

ly affect themselves or their

the too of

MeCulloch's neglect of Missouri and,

their case to headquarters,

finally,

taking

represented to President

Davis that the best interests of the Confederate cause in their state were being glaringly sacrificed by MeCulloch's too literal interpretation of his official instruc-

observance of which he was keeping close to the Indian boundary. President Davis had personally no great liking for tions, in the strict

The

Pea Ridge

Battle of

19

Price and certainly none for his peculiar method of Some people thought him greatly prejufighting. diced

18

against Price and, in the

instance, perhaps,

first

on nothing more substantial than the fact that Price was not a Westpointer. 19 It would be nearer the truth to say that Davis gauged the western situation pretty accurately and

knew where

That he did gauge the

command

to

combination.

and that accurately

situation

is

made in early DecemColonel Henry Heth of Virginia

indicated by a suggestion of ber, for sending out

the source of trouble lay.

his,

the Arkansas and Missouri divisions in 20

Heth had no

local attachments in the

region and "had not been connected with any of the troops on that line of operations."

21

Unfortunately,

for subsequent events his nomination

22

was not con-

firmed.

Two

days

later,

December

23

5,

1861, General

McCul-

proceed to Richmond, there to explain in person, as he had long wanted to do, all matters in controversy between him and Price. On the third of January, 1862, the Confederate Congress 24 called for information on the subject, doubtless under loch was granted

permission

to

pressure of political importunity.

The upshot

of

it

all

was, the organization of the Trans-Mississippi District

Department No.

of

Dorn

as

2

and the appointment of Earl Van

major-general

to

command

it.

Whether or

25

he was the choice of General A. S. Johnston, department commander, his appointment bid fair, at the no,

18 Official

19 20 21

22

— — —

Records, vol.

liii,

supplement, 816-817.

Ibid., 762.

Ibid., vol. viii, 725. Ibid., 701.

Wright, General

23 Official

Officers of the

Records, vol.

viii,

Confederate Army,

33, 67.

702.

24

Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States, vol.

25

Formby, American Civil War,

129.

i,

637.

The Indian

20 time

as Participant in the Civil

was made,

it

to

put an end

War

to all local disputes

and to give Missouri the attention she craved. The ordnance department of the Confederacy had awakened 26 at Granby and to a sense of the value of the lead mines Van Dorn was instructed especially to protect them. 27 His appointment, moreover, anticipated an early enIn preparation counter with the Federals in Missouri. for the struggle that all knew was impending, it was of transcendent importance that one mind and one interest should control, absolutely.

The Trans-Mississippi been constituted and

District

limits to

its

without adequate reference

The

limits were,

Red

north of

would appear

"That part

to

have

have been defined

to existing

arrangements.

of the State of Louisiana

River, the Indian Territory west of Ar-

kansas, and the States of Arkansas

and Missouri, ex-

cepting therefrom the tract of country east of the Saint Francis, bordering on the Mississippi River,

from the

mouth

of the Saint Francis to Scott County, Missou-

ri.

,"

.

district,

28

assuming command of the 1862, issued orders in such form

Van Dorn,

January

29,

in

was listed last among the limits 29 previous arrangement affecting Indian was most ignored in the whole scheme of

that Indian Territory

and

it

was

a

Territory that organization. It will

be remembered

that, in

November

of the pre-

ceding year, the Department of Indian Territory had been created and Brigadier-general Albert Pike assigned to the same. 30 26 Official

27

Records, vol.

Van Dorn's

His authority was not explicitly

supplement, 767, 774. protection, if given, was given to

mines were soon

liii,

abandoned

[Britton,

Border, 1863, 120]. 28 Official Records, vol. viii, 734. 29 Ibid., 30

— —

745.

Ibid., 690.

Memoirs of

little

purpose

;

for the

the

Rebellion

on the

The

Battle of

Pea Ridge

21

superseded by that which later clothed Van Dorn and yet his department was now to be absorbed by a military district, which was itself merely a section of another

The name and

department.

organization of the De-

partment of Indian Territory remained fusion, disorder, and serious discontent subsequent time.

Of

to

breed con-

at a slightly

course, since the ratification of

the treaties of alliance with the tribes, there

was no

question to be raised concerning the status of Indian

Territory as definitely a possession of the Southern Confederacy. Indeed, it had, in a way, been counted as

and prospective, ever since the enactment 31 of the marque and reprisal law of May 6, 1861. Albert Pike, having accepted the appointment of department commander in Indian Territory under somewhat the same kind of a protest- professed consciousness of unfitness for the post- as he had accepted the such, actual

earlier one of commissioner, diplomatic, to the tribes,

no time in getting into touch with his new duties. There was much to be attended to before he could proceed west. His appointment had come and had been accepted in November. Christmas was now near at hand and he had yet to render an account of his mission of treaty-making. In late December, he sent in his 32 official report to President Davis and, that done, held himself in readiness to respond to any interpellating call that the Provincial Congress might see fit to make. The intervals of time, free from devotion to the completion of the older task, were spent by him in close attention to the preliminary details of the newer, in securing funds and in purchasing supplies and equipment lost

31 32

Richardson, Messages and Papers of the Confederacy, vol. i, 105. The official report of Commissioner Pike, in manuscript, and bearing

his signature,

Department.

is

to

be found

in the

Adjutant-general's

office

of the U.S.

War

The Indian

22

as Participant in the Civil

War

generally, also in selecting a site for his headquarters.

By command Major N.

War, Judah P. Benjamin, was made chief commissary of

of Secretary of

B. Pearce

33

subsistence for Indian Territory

and Major G.

W.

and Western Arkansas

34

depot quartermaster. In the sequel of events, both appointments came to be of a Clarke,

significance rather unusual.

The

site

chosen for department headquarters was a

place situated near the junction of the Verdigris and 35 Arkansas Rivers and not far from Fort Gibson.

name

fortifications erected there received the

The

of Can-

tonment Davis and upon them, in spite of Pike's decidedly moderate estimate in the beginning, the Confederacy was said by a contemporary to have spent "upwards 36 of a million dollars." In view of the ostensible object of the very formation of the department and of Pike's appointment to its command, the defence of Indian Territory, and, in view of the existing location of

enemy

troops, challenging that defence, the selection of

the site

was

a reasonably wise one; but, as subsequent

pages will reveal, the as his headquarters.

commander did not retain it long Troubles came thick and fast up-

on him and he had barely reached Cantonment Davis before they began. His delay in reaching that place, which he did do, February 25, 3T was caused by various occurrences that

made

terials together, his

culties

it

difficult for

funds and the

him

like.

exaggeration 33 Official

Z5

The

very

ma-

diffi-

presaged disaster.

Pike's great purpose -and, perhaps,

34

to get his

to say, his

Records, vol.

Hii,

— Ibid, 770. — Ibid,

36 Britton, 37 Official

it

would be no

only purpose -throughout the

supplement, 764.

764.

Memoirs

of the Rebellion on the Border, 72.

Records, vol.

viii,

286.

The

Battle of

Pea Ridge

23

connection with the Confederacy was to save to that Confederacy the Indian TerriThe Indian occupants in and for themselves, tory. full extent of his active

unflattering

as

it

may seem

investigators to have to

to

admit

it,

them for were not

historical

objects of

his solicitude except in so far as they contributed to

and ultimate endeavor. He never at any time or under any circumstances advocated their use generally as soldiers outside of Indian Territory in regular 38 As guerrillas he campaign work and offensively. would have used them. 39 He would have sent them on predatory expeditions into Kansas or any other near-by state where pillaging would have been profitable or retaliatory; but never as an organized force, subject to the rules of civilized warfare because fully cognizant 40 of them. It is doubtful if he would ever have allowed them, had he consulted only his own inclination, to so much as cross the line except under stress of an attack from without. He would never have sanctioned their joining an unprovoked invading force. In the treaties

his real

38

The provision in the treaties to the effect that the alliance consummated between the Indians and the Confederate government was to be both offensive and defensive must not be taken too literally or be construed so broadly as to militate against this fact: for to tress later

truth Pike,

its

when

in dis-

on and accused of leading a horde of tomahawking villains, re-

peatedly bore witness.

The keeping back

of

a

foe,

bent upon regaining

Indian Territory or of marauding, might well be said to partake of the character of offensive warfare and yet not be that in intent or in the or-

dinary acceptation of the term.

Everything would have to depend upon the

point of view. 39

A

would Indeed, he seems even to have

restricted use of the Indians in offensive guerrilla action Pike

doubtless

have permitted and

recommended

it

in

Indian Territory.

the

No

first

justified.

days of his interest in the subject of securing

other interpretation can possibly be given to his sug-

gestion that a battalion be raised from Indians that

Kansas {Official Records, vol. iii, force he had reference to in his letter

to

vol. viii, 698] 40 Harrell,

was

581].

It

to Benjamin,

more

November

to be, in part, Indian.

Confederate Military History, vol.

strictly

belonged

also conceivable that the

is

x,

121-122.

27, 1861

[ibid. t

24

The Indian

as Participant in the Civil

which he negotiated he pledged

War

distinctly

and ex-

plicitly the opposite course of action, unless, indeed,

the Indian consent were

first

obtained.

41

The Indian

however and wherever raised under the provisions of those treaties, were expected by Pike to constiIf tute, primarily, a home guard and nothing more. by chance it should happen that, in performing their troops,

home

guard, they should have to cross their own boundary in order to expel or to punish an intruder, well and good; but their intrinsic character function as a

something resembling a police patrol could not be deemed thereby affected. Moreover, Pike did not believe that acting alone they could even be a thoroughly adequate home force. He, therefore, urged again and again that their contingent shoud be supplemented by a white force and by one sufficiently large to give dignity and poise and self-restraint to the whole, when both 42 forces were combined, as they always ought to be. At the time of Pike's assumption of his ill-defined as

command, or within

a short period thereafter, the In-

dian force in the pay of the Confederacy and subject to his orders

may be roughly

placed at four full regiments

and some miscellaneous troops. 43 The dispersion 44 of Colonel John Drew's Cherokees, when about to attack Opoeth-le-yo-ho-la, forced a slight reorganization and that, taken in connection with the accretions to the command that came in the interval before the Pea Ridge campaign brought the force approximately to four full 41 In illustration

of this, take the statement of the Creek Treaty, article xxx vi. 42 Aside from the early requests for white troops, which were antecedent to his own appointment as brigadier-general, Pike's insistence upon the need for the same can be vouched for by reference to his letter to R. W. Johnson, January 5, 1862 [Official Records, vol. liii, supplement, 795-796]. 43 Pike to Benjamin, November 27, 1861, ibid, vol. viii, 697. 44 Official Records, vol. viii, 8, 17-18.

The

Pea Ridge

Battle of

25

some detached compaThe four regiments were, the First Regiment nies. Choctaw and Chickasaw Mounted Rifles under Colonel Douglas H. Cooper, the First Creek Regiment under Colonel D. N. Mcintosh, the First Regiment Cherokee Mounted Rifles under Colonel John Drew, and the Second Regiment Cherokee Mounted Rifles under Colonel Stand Watie. The battalions were, the Choctaw and Chickasaw and the Creek and Seminole, the latter under Lieutenant-colonel Chilly Mcintosh and Major John Jumper. Major-general Earl Van Dorn formally assumed command of the newly created Trans-Mississippi Dis45 He was trict of Department No. 2, January 29, 1862. By February 6, he had then at Little Rock, Arkansas. moved up to Jacksonport and, a week or so later, to Pocahontas, where his slowly-assembling army was to rendezvous. His call for troops had already gone forth and was being promptly answered, 46 requisition having been made upon all the state units within the district, regiments, two battalions, and

Missouri, Arkansas,

Louisiana,

Territory, through Pike

47

and

also

Texas.

Indian

his subordinates,

48

was

communicated with; but Van Dorn had, at the moment, no other plan in view for Indian troops than to use them to advantage as a means of defence and as a corps of observation. 49 His immediate object, according to his own showing and according to the circumstances that had brought about the forma50 tion of the district, was to protect Arkansas against yet to be

45 Official

46 47

48

— — —

Records, vol.

Ibid., vol.

Ibid., vol.

liii,

viii,

745-746.

supplement, 776-779, 783-785, 790, 793-794.

viii,

749,

763-764.

Ibid., 764-765.

49

Van Dorn

50

Arkansas seemed,

to Price,

February at

the

14, 1862, ibid., 750.

time,

to

be but

feebly

protected.

Johnson deprecated the calling of Arkansas troops eastward.

R.

W.

They were

The Indian

26

as Participant in the Civil

War

invasion and to relieve Missouri; his plan of operations was to conduct a spring campaign in the latter state,

and to drive the Federals out; his ulterior motive may have been and, in the light of subsequent events, probably was, to effect a diversion for General A. S. Johnston; but, if that were really so, it was not, at the time, di"to attempt St. Louis," as he himself put

vulged or so much

as

hinted

at.

Ostensibly, the great object that

mind was

it,

the relief of Missouri.

Van Dorn had in And he may have

dreamed, that feat accomplished, that it would be possible to carry the war into the enemy's country beyond the Ohio; but, alas, it was his misfortune at this juncture to be called

upon

ture, the truth of

Robert Burns' homely philosophy,

The

best-laid

to realise, to his great discomfi-

schemes

Gang

o'

mice and

men

aft a-gley.

His own schemes and plans were all rendered utterly futile by the unexpected movement of the Federal forces from Rolla, to which safe place, it will be remembered, they had been drawn back by order of General Hunter. They were now advancing by forced marches via Springfield into northwestern Arkansas and were driving before them the Confederates under McCulloch and Price. The Federal forces comprised four huge divisions and were led by Brigadier-general Samuel R. Curtis. Towards the end of the previous December, on Christmas Day in fact, Curtis had been given "command of the Southwestern District of Missouri, including the needed

at

home, not only for the defence of Arkansas, but for that of the

adjoining territory [Official Records, vol.

liii,

supplement, 781-782].

There

only two Arkansas regiments absent and they were guarding the Mississippi River [ibid, 786]. By the middle of February, or there-

were, in abouts,

fact,

Price

and McCulloch were

in

desperate straits and were steadily

"falling back before a superior force to the Boston Mountains" [ibid., 787].

The

Battle of

Pea Ridge

27

country south of the Osage and west of the Meramec 51 Under orders of November 9, the old DeRiver."

partment of the West, of which Fremont had had charge and subsequently Hunter, but for only a brief period, had been reorganized and divided into two distinct departments, the Department of Missouri with Halleck in command and the Department of Kansas with Hunter. Curtis, at the time when he made his memorable advance movement from Rolla was, there-

under Halleck. In furtherance of Van Dorn's original plan, General Pike had been ordered to march with all speed and join forces with the main army. At the time of the issuance of the order, he seems to have offered no obfore, serving

own territory. him and he had

jections to taking his Indians out of their

Disaster had not yet overtaken them or

not yet met with the injustice that was afterwards his

were regarded as more or less of a puppet command, he was not yet aware of it and, oblivregular

lot.

If his

ious of all scorn felt for Indian soldiers, kept his eye single on the assistance he

was

to

render in the accom-

plishment of Van Dorn's object. It was anything but easy, however, for him to move with dispatch. He

had

difficulty in getting

such of his brigade

as

was

had collected at Cantonment Davis, a Choctaw and Chickasaw battalion and the First Creek Regiment, to stir. They had not been paid their money and had not been furnished with arms and clothing as promised. Pike had the necessary funds with him, but time would be needed in which to distribute them, and the order had been for him to move promptly. It was something much more easily said than done. Nevertheless, he did what he could, paid outright the Choctaws and Chickasaws, a performance that occupied Indian and

51

as

Official Records,

vol.

liii,

supplement, vol.

viii,

462.

The Indian

28

as Participant in the Civil

Creek regiment

pay Mcintosh's River. To keep that

and agreed

three precious days,

at the Illinois

War

to

promise he tarried at Park Hill one day, expecting there to be overtaken by additional Choctaws and Chickasaws who had been left behind at Fort Gibson. When they did not appear, he went forward towards Evansville and upward to Cincinnati, a small town on There his the Arkansas side of the Cherokee line. Indian force was augmented by Stand Watie's regiment 52 of Cherokees and at Smith's Mill by John 52

Watie's regiment of Cherokees was scarcely in either marching or

The

fighting trim.

following

letter

from John Ross

to Pike,

which

is

number

elucidative.

It is

a copy

used in the action against John Ross at the close of the war.

The

italics

nine in the John Ross Papers in the Indian Office,

is

were probably not in the original. Executive Department, Park Hill, Feb?

indicate underscorings that

To

Brig. Sir:

casion-

Com d y Indian Department. I have deemed it my duty to address you on You have doubtless ere this received my Gen l

.

25th, 1862.

A. Pike,

the present oc-

communication

enclosing the action of the National Council with regard to the final

our Treaty-

Drew's Regiment promptly took up the line of march on the receipt of your order from Fort Smith towards Fayetteville. / accompanied the Troops some 12 miles East of this and I am happy to assure you in the most confident manner that in my opinion this Regiment will not fail to do their whole duty, whenever the Conflict with the common Enemy shall take place. There are so many conflicting reports as to your whereabouts and consequently much interest is felt by the People to know where the Head ratification of

Col.

Qrs. of your military operations will be established during the present

emergencies -

Regiment;

/

had intended going up

also to visit the

Head Qrs

to

of the

Troops of our

see the

Army

view of affording every aid in any manner within Power to repel the Enemy. But I am sorry to say

at

Cane Hill

the reach of

in

my

have been disconsequence of some unwarrantable I

suaded from going at present in conduct on the part of many base, reckless and unprincipled persons belonging to Watie's Regiment who are under no subordination or redomineering over and trampling upon the rights of peaceable and unoff ending citizens. I have at all times in the most unequivocal manner assured the People that you will not only promptly discountenance, but will take steps to put a stop to such proceedings for the protection of their persons and property and to redress their wrongs- This is not the time for crimination and

straint

of

their

re crimination

\

leaders

at a

in

proper time / have certain specific complaints to Pardon me for again reiterating that

report for your investigation.

The

Battle of

Pea Ridge

29

The Cherokees had been in much confuCivil war within their nation imsion all winter. 54 None the less, Pike, assuming that all would pended. be well when the call for action came, had ordered all Drew's.

53

Cherokee and Creek regiments to hurry to the help 55 He had done this upon the first inof McCulloch. timation of the Federal advance. The Cherokees had proceeded only so far, the Creeks not at all, and the main body of the Choctaws and Chickasaws, into whose minds some unscrupulous merchants had instilled mercenary motives and the elements of discord generally, were lingering far in the background. Pike's white force was, moreover, ridiculously small, some Texas cavalry, dignified by him as collectively a squadron, Captain O. G. Welch in command. There had the

been even a pretense of giving him the three regiments of white men earlier asked for. Toward the close of the afternoon of March 6, Pike "came up with as yet not

be the very division he was

day

to

56

which proved to follow, but he was one

the rear of McCulloch's division," late for the fray.

The

Battle of

Pea Ridge,

was already being fought.

in It

its

was

preliminary stages, a three

day

fight,

counting the skirmish at Bentonville on the sixth between General Franz Sigel's detachment and General Sterling Price's advance guard as the work of the first 57 day. The real battle comprised the engagement at the mass of the People are all right in Sentiment for the support of the Treaty of Alliance with the Confederate States. I shall be happy to

hear from you -

I

have the honor

John 53 Pike's Report,

54

James Mcintosh

to Pike, 55 56

57

March

— — —

February

14,

to be

Ross, Print Chief, Cherokee Nation.

1862, Official Records, vol. viii, 286-292.

to S. Cooper,

January

4,

10, 1862, ibid., vol. xiii, 896.

Ibid., 819. Ibid., vol. viii, 287.

Ibid., 208-215, 304-306.

your ob 1 Serv*

1862, ibid., 732; D.

H. Cooper

The Indian

30

as Participant in the Civil

War

Elkhorn Tavern 58 on the eighth. At Leetown, Pike's Cherokee contin59 played what he, in somewhat quixotic fashion, gent the seventh and that at

Leetown on

The

perhaps, chose to regard as a very important part. Indians, then as always,

were

chiefly

pony-mounted,

"entirely undisciplined," as the term discipline

usu-

is

and "armed very indifferently with common rifles and ordinary shot-guns." 60 The ponies, in the end, proved fleet of foot, as was to have been expected, and, at one stage of the game, had to be tethered in the rear while their masters fought from the vantageground of trees. 61 The Indian's most effective work was done, throughout, under cover of the woods. Indians, as Pike well knew, could never be induced to face shells in the open. It was he who advised their climbing the trees and he did it without discounting, ally understood,

in the slightest, their innate bravery.

when he gave countenance

time, too, 58

The Elkhorn Tavern engagement

is

62

to

There came

another of their

sometimes referred

to,

and most

appropriately, as the Sugar Creek [Phisterer, Statistical Record, 95].

Eugene A. Carr of the Third

Illinois

Cavalry,

a

commanding

Colonel

Fourth

the

Division of Curtis's army, described the tavern itself as "situated on the west side of the Springfield and Fayetteville road, at the head of a gorge ." known as Cross Timber Hollow (the head of Sugar Creek) .

[Official

Records,

"extends for miles, It

of in

.

"Sugar Creek Hollow," wrote Curtis, ." [ibid., 589]. a gorge, with rough precipitate sides vol.

viii,

258].

.

.

was there the closing scenes of the great battle were enacted. 59 The practice, indulged in by both the Federals and the Confederates, greatly overestimating the size of the enemy force was resorted to even connection with the Indians. Pike gave the number of his whole com-

mand

as about a

vol. viii, 288

that he

;

thousand men, Indians and whites together

xiii,

820] notwithstanding that he had led

[Official Records,

Van Dorn

would have a force of "about 8,000 or 9,000 men and three

of artillery" [ibid., vol.

viii,

749].

to expect

batteries

General Curtis surmised that Pike con-

and Wiley Britton, who had excellent opportunity of knowing better because he had access to the records of both sides, put the figures at "three regiments of Indians and two regiments of Texas cavalry" [Civil War on the Border, vol. i, 245].

tributed five

regiments

[ibid.,

196]

60 Official Records, vol. xiii, 819. 61 Ibid., vol. viii, 288.



01— ./#&

The

Pea Ridge

Battle of

31

allowed Colonel Drew's men to fight 63 with bow and in a way that was "their own fashion," 64 This, as was only meet arrow and with tomahawk. it should, called down upon him and them the oppro-

He

peculiarities.

brium

and foes

of friends

whoop was indulged

in,

alike.

65

The Indian war-

enough

of itself

It

to terrify.

was hideous.

The

service that the Cherokees rendered at different

times during the two days action was not, however, to

be despised, even though not sufficiently conspicuous 66 At to be deemed worthy of comment by Van Dorn.

few Texans, they managed battery and to hold it against re-

Leetown, with the aid of to get possession of a

a

peated endeavors of the Federals of

McCulloch and

of

officer in his part of

The

to regain.

death

Mcintosh made Pike the ranking the field. It fell to him to rally

63 Official Records, vol. viii, 289.

64



65

The

Ibid., 195.

northern press took up the matter and the In

particularly virulent against Pike.

issue of

its

New York

March

Tribune was

27, 1862,

it

publish-

ed the following in bitter sarcasm:

"The Albert Pike who Scalpers at

Corps of Tomahawkers and the battle of Pea Ridge, formerly kept school in Fairhaven, Mass., led the Aboriginal

where he was indicted for playing and starving a boy in his family. and emigrated to the West, where

As

mirably enhanced. fought duels enough

his

name

to qualify

the part of Squeers, and cruelly beating

He

escaped by some hocus-pocus law,

the violence of his nature has been ad-

indicates,

he

is

a ferocious

pose that upon the recent occasion, he got himself up in good nose-ring,

and

the Gods' in

This new Pontiac Blackwood; but he has all.

betaken himself to spirits,

fish,

himself to be a leader of savages. style,

and has

We

sup-

war-paint,

and wrote 'Hymns to left Jupiter, Juno, and the rest, and the culture of the Great Spirit, or rather of two great is

also a poet,

whisky being the second."

66

Van Dorn did not make his detailed official report of this battle until news had leaked out that the Indians had mangled the bodies of the dead and committed other atrocities. He was probably then desirous of

the

being as

silent as

he dared be concerning Indian participation, since he, in

command, was the person mainly responsible preceding year, McCulloch had favored using

virtue of his being chief in it.

In October of the

Indians against Kansas [Official Records, vol. strongly to their being kept "at

home"

iii,

[ibid.,

719, 721].

for the

Cooper objected

614] and one of the leading

chiefs insisted that they did not intend to use the scalping knife [ibid., 625].

The Indian

32

as Participant in the Civil

War

McCulloch's broken army and with it to join Van Dorn. On the eighth, Colonel Watie's men under orders from Van Dorn took position on the high ridges where they could watch the movements of the enemy and give timely notice of any attempt to turn the ConColonel Drew's regiment, meanfederate left flank. while, not having received the word passed along the line to move forward, remained in the woods near Leetown, the last in the field. Subsequently, finding themselves deserted, they drew back towards Camp Stephens, where they were soon joined by "General Cooper, with his regiment and battalion of Choctaws and Chickasaws, and" by "Colonel Mcintosh with 200 men of his regiment of Creeks." 67 The delinquent wayfarers were both fortunate and unfortunate in thus tardily arriving upon the scene.

They had missed

but they had also missed the temptation the savagery that

was soon

to

to

the fight revert to

bring fearful ignominy

upon their neighbors. To the very last of the Pea Ridge engagement, Stand Watie's men were active. They covered the retreat of the main army, to a certain extent. They were mostly half-breeds and, so far as can be definitely ascertained, were entirely guiltless of the atrocities charged against the others.

General Pike gave the permission

own ed

to fight "in their

fashion" specifically to the First Cherokee

Rifles,

who

Mount-

were, for the most part, full-blooded In-

dians; but he later confessed that, in his treaty negotiations

with the

they should,

tribes,

if

they fought at 68

knew how. thereby, to commit as

al

they

Council 67 Official

68



lost

they had generally stipulated that

be allowed to fight Yet they probably did not mean, all,

and the Cherokee Nationno time, after the Indian shortcomings

Records, vol.

atrocities

viii, 292.

Ibid., vol. xiii, 819.

The

Battle of

Pea Ridge

33

Pea Ridge had become known, ting itself on record as standing opposed to the thing that had occurred,

at the Battle of

Resolved,

war now

That

in the opinion of the

existing between the said

in put-

sort of

National Council, the

United States and the Con-

federate States and their Indian allies should be conducted on

humane

the most

principles

among civilized nations, and mended to the troops of this

which govern the usages of war that

it

be and

is

earnestly recom-

nation in the service of the Con-

federate States to avoid any acts toward captured or fallen foes

would be incompatible with such

that

The

usages.

69

committed by the Indians became almost immediately a matter for correspondence between The Federals charged muthe opposing commanders. tilation of dead bodies on the battle-field and the tomahawking and scalping of prisoners. The Confederatrocities

recriminated as against persons "alleged to be

ates

The

Germans."

case involving the Indians

was

re-

ported to the joint committee of Congress on the Con-

duct of the Present War; 70 but at least one piece of evidence was not, at that time, forthcoming, a piece

might be taken to exonerate the whites. It came to the knowledge of General Blunt during the summer and was the Indians' own confession. It bore only indirectly upon the actual atrocities but showed that the red men were quite equal to making their own plans in fighting and were not to be relied upon to do things decently and in order. Drew's men, that, in a certain sense,

when

they deserted the Confederates after the skirmish

of July third at Locust Grove, confided to the Federals

the intelligence "that the killing of the white rebels

by the Indians in" the Pea Ridge "fight was determined 69

Official

70

By

furnish

Records, vol.

vote

of

xiii,

826.

committee,

General

had been instructed to information on the subject of the employment of Indians by the the

Confederates [Journal, 92].

Curtis

The Indian

34

as Participant in the Civil

upon before they went if

into battle."

71

War

Presumptively,

the Cherokees could plot to kill their

own

allies,

found despicable enough and cruel 72 enough to mutilate the dead, were the chance given them and that without any direction, instruction, or encouragement from white men being needed. The Confederate defeat at Pea Ridge was decisive and, as far as Van Dorn's idea of relieving Missouri was concerned, fatally conclusive. As early as the twenty-first of February, Beauregard had expressed a wish to have him east of the Mississippi 73 and March had not yet expired before Van Dorn was writing in such a way as to elicit the consummation of the wish. The Federals were in occupation of the northern part of Arkansas; but Van Dorn was very confident they would not be able to subsist there long or "do much harm in the west." In his opinion, therefore, it was incumbent upon the Confederates, instead of dividing their strength between the east and the west, to concen74 trate on the saving of the Mississippi. To all appearances, it was there that the situation was most critical. In due time, came the order for Van Dorn to repair eastward and to take with him all the troops that might be found available. they could

The

be

completeness of Curtis's victory, the

loss to the

Southerners, by death or capture, of some of their best-

loved and ablest commanders, McCulloch, Mcintosh,

Hebert, and the nature of the country through which the Federals pursued their fleeing forces, to say nothing of the miscellaneous and badly-trained character of 71 Official

72

Records, vol.

xiii,

486.

The same charge was made

against the Indians

who

fought at Wilson's

Creek [Leavenworth Daily Conservative, August 24, 1861]. 73 Roman, Military Operations of General Beauregard, vol. 74 Official

Records, vol.

viii, 796.

i,

240.

The

Battle of

Pea Ridge

those forces, to which, by the way,

much

35

Van Dorn

of his recent ill-success, all helped to

ascribed

make

75

the

retirement of the Confederates from the Pea Ridge

battle-ground pretty

From as

much

of a helter-skelter affair.

accounts, the Indians conducted themselves

all

The

well as the best.

get to a place of safety and that right speedily.

Watie and Stephens,

been

left

76

77

his

regiment

was

desire of everybody

made

way

their

to

Colonel to

Camp

near which place the baggage train had

and where Cooper and

Drew

with their

men

had found refuge already. Some two hundred of Watie's Indians were detailed to help take ammunition back to the main army. 78 The baggage train moved on to Elm Springs, the remainder of the Indians, under Cooper, assisting in protecting At Walnut Grove, the Watie deliver the

ammunition because

it

as far as that place.

detail,

having failed

79

to

of the departure of the

army prior to their arrival, rejoined their comrades and all moved on to Cincinnati, where Pike, who with a few companions had wandered several days among 80 the mountains, came up with them. In

Van Dorn's

calculations for troops that should

accompany him east or follow in his wake, the Indians had no place. Before his own plans took final shape and while he was still arranging for an Army of the West, his orders for the Indians were, that they should make their way back as best they could to their own country and there operate "to cut off trains, annoy the

enemy sible 75

76 77

in his

marches, and

from supplying

Official

—I —

Records, vol.

viii,

to

prevent him

his troops

as far as pos-

from Missouri and

282.

bid., 291.

Ibid., 317.

is-^lbid., 318. 79 80

— Ibid.;

Britton, Civil

War

on the Border, vol.

Official Records, vol. viii, 292.

i,

273.

The Indian

36

Kansas."

A

81

as Participant in the Civil

little

Dorn's summons

east,

later,

army

general

against the

the State.

impeding

Van

particulars of the

Maury

to Pike.

wrote,

commanding has decided to march with his enemy now invading the northeastern part of

Upon his

anterior to

still

more minute

programme were addressed The

but

War

you, therefore, will devolve the necessity of

advance into

this region.

you will give battle to a large

It

force, but

is

not expected that

by felling

trees,

burn-

ing bridges, removing supplies of forage and subsistence, attacking his trains, stampeding his animals, cutting off his detach-

ments, and other similar means, you will be able materially to

army and protect this region of country. You must endeavor by every means to maintain yourself in the Territory harass his

independent of

this

army.

In case only of absolute necessity

you may move southward.

If the

enemy threatens

to

march

through the Indian Territory or descend the Arkansas River

you may

call

on troops from Southwestern Arkansas and Texas

You may reward your Indian troops by stores as you may think proper when they

to rally to your aid.

giving them such

make captures from the enemy, but you will please endeavor to restrain them from committing any barbarities upon the wounded, prisoners, or dead who may fall into their hands.

You may

purchase your supplies of subsistence from wherever

You

draw your ammunition from Little Rock or from New Orleans via Red River. Please communicate with the general commanding

you can most advantageously do

when

so.

will

practicable. 82

was an elaborate programme but scarcely a noble The Inone. Its note of selfishness sounded high. dians were simply to be made to serve the ends of the white men. Their methods of warfare were regarded as distinctly inferior. Pea Ridge was, in fact, the first and last time that they were allowed to participate in the war on a big scale. Henceforth, they were rarely ever anything more than scouts and skirmishers and that was all they were really fitted to be. It

81 Official

82



Records, vol.

viii,

Ibid., vol. viii, 795-796.

282, 790; vol.

liii,

supplement, 796.

LANE'S BRIGADE

II.

AND THE INCEPTION

OF THE INDIAN The Indian Expedition had

its

beginnings, fatefully

or otherwise, in "Lane's Kansas Brigade."

On

Janu-

ary 29, 1861, President Buchanan signed the bill for the admission of Kansas into the Union and the matter

about which there had been so

much

of bitter contro-

versy was at last professedly settled; but,

alas, for the

peace of the border, the radicals, the extremists, the fanatics, call them what one may, who had been responsible for the controversy and for

its

bitterness,

were

James Lane was chief among them. His was a turbulent spirit and it permitted its owner no cessation from strife. With President Lincoln's

still

unsettled.

first call

for volunteers, April 15, 1861, Lane's martial

activities began.

together a

Within three

company

days, he

of warriors,

logically speaking, of

what was

hawking, marauding brigade.

83

to

had gathered

the nucleus, psycho-

be his notorious, jay-

His enthusiasm was

in-

communicated itself to reflective men like Carl Schurz 84 and was probably the secret of Lane's

fectious.

83

John

It

Hay

records in

his

Diary, "The White House

is

turned into

Jim Lane marshaled his Kansas warriors to-day at Willard's and placed them at the disposal of Major Hunter, who turned them to-night into the East Room. It is a splendid company worthy such an armory. Besides the Western Jayhawkers it comprises some of the best material in barracks.



the

East.

Senator Pomeroy and old Anthony Bleecker stood shoulder to

Jim Lane walked proudly up and down the ranks with a new sword that the Major had given him. The Major has made me his aid, and I labored under some uncertainty, as to whether I should speak to privates or not." Thayer, Life and Letters of John Hay, vol. i, 92. 84 It would seem to have communicated itself to Carl Schurz, although Schurz, in his Reminiscences, makes no definite admission of the fact. Hay shoulder in the ranks.



The Indian

38

as Participant in the Civil

War

mysterious influence with the temperate, humane, just, and so very much more magnanimous Lincoln, who, in the

days of the war, as in the later and the

first

last,

and deep depression. of any sort, the wild excitement and boundless confidence of a zealot like Lane must have been somewhat of an antidote, also a stimulant. The first Kansas state legislature convened March 26, 1 86 1, and set itself at once to work to put the new machinery of government into operation. After much political wire-pulling that involved the promise of 85 spoils to come, James H. Lane and Samuel C. Pom86 eroy were declared to be elected United States senators, the term of office of each to begin with the first session of the thirty-seventh congress. That session was

had his hours For dejection

of discouragement

"Going into Nicolay's room this morning, C. Schurz, and J. Lane were sitting. Jim was at the window, filling his soul with gall by steady telesays,

scopic contemplation

Alexandria. 'Let

in

got to

whip

stoning our

of a Secession flag impudently flaunting over a roof

me

tell

elegant Teuton, 'we have

you,' said he to the

these scoundrels like hell, C. Schurz.

men

at

They

did a good thing

Baltimore and shooting away the flag at Sumter.

set the

great North a-howling for blood, and they'll have

"

heard,' said Schurz, 'you preached a sermon to your

'I

" 'No, sir

!

this is not

time for preaching.

When

It

has

it.'

men

went than a week I

to

yesterday.'

Mexico there

were four preachers in my regiment. In less I issued orders for them all to stop preaching and go to playing cards. In a month or so, they were the biggest devils and best fighters I had.' "An hour afterwards, C. Schurz told me he was going home to arm his clansmen for the wars. He has obtained three months' leave of absence from his diplomatic duties,

make

a wonderful land pirate

be hard to control and ful

man." 85

and permission ;

to raise

bold, quick, brilliant,

difficult to direct.

— Thayer, Life

and

Letters of

Still,

the following

is

we

and

reckless.

He

shall see.

John Hay,

In Connelley's James Henry Lane, the

He He

a cavalry regiment.

vol.

"Grim

i,

is

a

will will

wonder-

102-103.

Chieftain" of Kansas,

quoted as coming from Lane himself:

fifty-six men in the Legislature who voted for Jim Lane, fivenow wear shoulder-straps. Doesn't Jim Lane look out for his

"Of the and-forty friends ?" 86

John Brown's rating of Pomeroy, as given by Stearns

in his Life

and

Public Services of George Luther Stearns, 133-134, would show him to have been a considerably less pugnacious individual than was Lane.

/

s

N

E

B

R A

S

K A

)

K

I

W

A

LOUISIANA Sketch

Map

showing the Main Theatre of Border Warfare and the Location* of Tribes within- the

Indian-

Country

Lane's Brigade

43

Immediately, a

the extra one, called for July, 1861. difficulty arose

due

to the fact that,

election to the senatorship

had accepted ton

87

and

in addition thereto,

a colonelcy tendered

of Indiana, his

own

subsequent to his

by Oliver P.

native state.

88

Lane Mor-

Lane's friends

very plausibly contended that a military commission from one state could not invalidate the title to represent another state in the Federal senate. The actual fight over the contested seat came in the next session and, quite regardless of consequences likely to prejudice his case,

Lane went on recruiting

for his brigade.

Indeed,

he commended himself to Fremont, who, in his capacity as major-general of volunteers and in charge of the Western Military District, assigned him to duty in Kansas, thus greatly complicating an already delicate

and immeasurably heaping up difficulties, embarrassments, and disasters for the frontier. The same indifference towards the West that characterized the governing authorities in the South was exhibited by eastern men in the North and, correspondingly, the West, Federal and Confederate, was unduly sensitive to the indifference, perhaps, also, a trifle unnecessarily alarmed by symptoms of its own danger. Nevertheless, its danger was real. Each state gave in its adherence to the Confederacy separately and, therefore, every single state in the slavery belt had a problem to solve. The fight for Missouri was fought situation

87

Morton, war governor of Indiana,

est in the struggle for

Kansas and

tion of the Republican party,

who had

taken tremendous inter-

in the events leading

was one

ing troops for the defence of the Union, especially of the war. 88

Some

his

birthplace.

Kentucky.

to the organiza-

in

the

men

in

earliest

rais-

stages

See Foulke's Life of Oliver P. Morton, vol. i. doubt on this point exists. John Speer, Lane's intimate friend

and, in a sense, his biographer, says as

up

of the most energetic of

By some

Lane claimed Lawrenceburg, Indiana, is thought to have been born in

people he

The Indian

44

as Participant in the Civil

The

on the border and nowhere

else.

squatter-sovereignty days was

now epidemic

War

great evil of in

most

its

malignant form. Those days had bred intense hatred between Missourian and Kansan and had developed a disregard of the value of human life and a ruthlessness and brutality in fighting, concomitant with it, that the East, in its most primitive times, had never been called upon to experience. Granted that the spirit of the crusader had inspired

many

a free-soiler to venture in-

trans-Missouri region after the Kansas-Nebraska

to the

had become law and that real exaltation of soul had transformed some very mercenary and altogether mun-

bill

dane characters unexpectedly into martyrs; granted, also,

that the pro-slavery

man

honestly felt that his

cause was just and that his sacred rights of property,

under the constitution, were being violated, his preserves encroached upon, it yet remains true that great crimes were committed in the name of great causes and that villains stalked where only saints should have trod. The irregular warfare of the border, from fiftyfour on, while it may, to military history as a whole, be as unimportant as the quarrels of kites and crows, was yet a big part of the life of the frontiersman and frightful in its possibilities. Sherman's march to the sea or through the Carolinas, disgraceful to modern civilization as each undeniably was, lacked the sickening phase, guerrilla atrocities, that in the

ence

West,

it

to those at least

at close range,

made

who were

the Civil

War

in line to experi-

an awful nightmare.

Union and

Confederate soldiers might well fraternize in eastern camps because there they so rarely had any cause for personal hostility towards each other, but not in western.

death.

The

fight

on the border was constant and

to the

Lane's Brigade

The

leaders in the

West

or

45

many

of them, on both

were men of ungovernable tempers, and unrestrained passions, sometimes of

sides,

lent

of

vio-

distress-

ingly base proclivities, although, in the matter of both vices and virtues, there was considerable difference of

Lane and Shelby and Montgomery and Quantrill were hardly types, rather should it be said they were extreme cases. They seem never to have taken chances on each other's inactivity. Their

degree

among them.

motto invariably was,

to

be prepared for the worst, and

their practice, retaliation.

was scarcely to be supposed that a man like Lane, who had never known moderation in the course of the It

long struggle for Kansas or been over-scrupulous about anything would, in the event of his adopted state's being exposed

anew

to

her old enemy, the Missourian, be

able to pose contentedly as a legislator or stay quietly in

Washington, his role of guardian of the White House being finished. 89 The anticipated danger to Kansas visibly threatened in the summer of 1861 and the critical moment saw Lane again in the West, energetic beyond precedent. He took up his position at Fort Scott, it being his conviction that, from that point and from the line of the Little Osage, the entire eastern section of the state, inclusive of Fort Leavenworth, could best

be protected. 90 89

the

As Villard

tells

us [Memoirs, vol.

i,

169],

Lane was

in

command

of

"Frontier Guards," one of the two special patrols that protected the

White House

in the early

resented

presence

however, who For example, note the diary entry of Hay, "Going to my room, I met the Captain. He was a little boozy and very eloquent. He dilated on the troubles of the time and bewailed the existence of a garrison in the White House 'to give eclat to Jim Lane.'" Thayer, op. cit, vol. i, 94. The White House guard was in reality under General Hunter [Report of the Military Services of General David Hunter, 8]. his

days of the war.

There were

those,

there.



90 Official

Records, vol.

iii,

453, 455.

The Indian

46

as Participant in the Civil

War

Fort Scott was the ranking town among the few Federal strongholds in the middle Southwest. It was within convenient,

if

not easy, distance of Crawford Semi-

nary which, situated to the southward in the Quapaw Nation, was the headquarters of the Neosho Agency; but no more perturbed place could be imagined than was that same Neosho Agency at the opening of the Civil War. Bad white men, always in evidence at

were known to be interfering with the Osages, exciting them by their own marauding to 91 deviltry and mischief of the worst description. As a

moments

91

A

of crisis,

from Superintendent

letter

W.

G.

Coffin

of date,

July,

30,

1861

[Indian Office Special Files, no. 201, Schools, C. 1275 of 1861] bears evidence of this as bear also the following letters, the one, private in character, from

Augustus Wattles, the other, without

specific date,

from William Brooks:

PRIVATE Mr. Dole Dear Sir,

Moneka, Kansas, May

A

messenger has

this

moment

left

20,

1861.

who came up forty miles. The

me,

from the Osages yesterday -a distance of about gentleman lives on the line joining the Osage Indians, and has, since my acquaintance with him about three years. A short time ago, perhaps three weeks, a number of lawless white men went into the Nation and stole a number of ponies. The Indians made chase, had a fight and killed several, reported from three to five, and retook their ponies. A company of men is now getting up here and in other counties, I am appealed to by the Indians to act to go and fight the Indians. as their friend.

They

represent that they are loyal to the U.S.

Government and

will fight for their Great Father, at Washington, but must be protected

from bad white men enemies when

at

home.

The Government must

not think them

they only fight thieves and robbers.

who was recently appointed Maj. General of this Gov. Robinson, has resigned, and is now raising volunteers to fight the Indians. He has always been a Democrat in sympathy with the pro-slavery party, and his enlisting men now to take them away from the Missouri frontier, when we are daily threatened with an attack from that State, and union men are fleeing to us for protecIt could opertion from there, is certainly a very questionable policy. ate no worse against us, if it were gotten up by a traitor to draw our Rob 1

B. Mitchell,

State by

men

off

on purpose to give the Missourians a chance when

we

are

unprepared. I

presume you have

it

in

your power

to prevent

any attack on the

Lane's Brigade

47

Osages were not very dependable of times and now that they saw confusion

at the best

tribe, the

Indians in Kansas

around

such time as they can be treated with.

Commander

such order to the

Army would

till

all

And

of the Western Division of the U.S.

stop further proceedings.

to-morrow for Council Grove and meet the Kansas Indians before General Mitchell's force can get there. As the point start

shall

I

of attack

is

secret,

I

fear

it

may

be the Osages, for the purpose of

creating a necessity for a treaty with himself by

which he can secure

a large quantity of land for himself and followers.

with

The

He

is

acquainted

the old Democratic schemes of swindling Indians.

all

necessity for

prompt action on the part of the Indian Depart-

ment increases every day. The element of discord in the communow, was once, the pro-slavery party. I see their intention They to breed disturbances with the Indians is malicious and selfish. are active and unscrupulous, and must be met promptly and decisively. nity here

I

a

hope you will excuse

little

out of

respectfully

my

this, as it

appears necessary for

orders to notify you of current events.

me to step I am very

Augustus Wattles, Special Agent

Your Ob 1 Ser vt

[Indian Office Special Files, no. 201.]

Grand

Falls,

Newton

Co.,

Mo.

Com. Indian Affairs Washington, D. C. Hon. Sir: Permit me to inform you, by this means, of the efforts (that have been and are now being made in Southern Kansas to arouse both the "Osages" and "Cherokees" to rebel, and bear arms against the U.S. Government- At a public meeting near the South E. corner of the "Osage Nation" called by the settlements for the devising of

some means by which to protect themselves from "unlawful characters," Mr. John Mathis, who resides in the Osage Nation and has an Osage family, also Mr. "Robert Foster" who lives in the Cherokee Nation and has a Cherokee family endeavered by public speeches and otherwise to induce "Osages", "Cherokees", as well as Americans who live on the "Neutral Lands" to bear arms against the U.S. Government - aledging that there Q w H O o H S3

o w PS

w w

u o

o u w

w K H b O fH OS

C cu w O >— H U w cu CO

J* pj

H V.

c cm

c

U


footnote;

65,

desert Opoeth-

main body of refugees in Kansas, 81; compose First Regiment Indian Home Guards, 114 and footnote; company authorized by Pike,

Springs,

Washita, 303, footnote; manifests great activity in

footnote

ammuni-

;

Honey

headquarters

300;

173,

le-yo-ho-la, 76, footnote; constitute

Boudinot and, intrigue togeth-

;

er,

at

of

gotiates treaty with,

Creeks: delegation

to take position

Cabin Creek, 284-285

tion

War

as Participant in the Civil

footnote;

refugee,

offered

home by Osages, 207 and

footnote;

refugee, given temporary

home by

173,

Sacs and Foxes of Mississippi, 213; unionist element attempts tribal re-organization,

views re228 accommodation of other Indians upon lands, 233; Senate ;

garding

treaty

ratifies

treaty,

234; reject Phillips sounds, 254;

235;

Phillips

with,

learns that defection has

begun, 256 refuse to charge, 272 nature and extent of disaffection ;

among, 272-273 and footnote; ad-

Maxey,

dress Davis, 278; bad conduct com-

333-334 Cooper, S: 29, footnote, 128, footnote Corwin, David B: 144 Corwin, Robert S: 231, footnote

plained of by Steele, 285, footnote; inevitable effect of Battle of Honey

Cottonwood River (Kans.)

proposals of Blunt

gins

of undermining

85, foot-

:

Cowskin Prairie (Mo. and Okla.) Stand Watie's engagement at, 113; encampment on, 119, 120, footnote; at,

Federal

erroneously victory,

Round Grove in

at,

reported

119,

on, 126

;

as

footnote;

scouts called

footnote,

194,

footnote,

footnote; at Battle of Fort

197,

Wayne,

Crawford Seminary:

46,

50

Creek and Seminole Battalion: 25 Creek Nation: 62, footnote, m, foot-

command

note;

Clarkson to take

of

forces within, 130; Pike ne-

all

;

301

known to have disperse among fast-

Timber Hollow

Cross

(Ark.)

:

30,

footnote Currier, C. F: 67, footnote

Samuel R:

Curtis,

in

charge of South-

western District of Missouri, 26estimate of

number

contributed by Pike,

30,

of troops footnote;

instructed to report on Confederate

use of Indians, 33, footnote; vicat Pea Ridge complete, 34; surmise with respect to movements

tory

of

197

defensive,

Steele's

nesses of mountains, 323

27;

138

Cowskin River: 197 Crawford, John: 48, 214, footnote Crawford, Samuel J: work cited, 101,

and

sive

reached, 302

note

affair

Springs upon, 290; Blunt' s offen-

Stand Watie and others, 120,

footnote;

resents

insinuations

against military capacity of Blunt

and Herron, 249 Lane opposed to Gamble, Schofield, and, 249, foot;

note;

regrets sacrifice of red

men

;

;

Index man's quarrel, 250;

in white

calls

377

opposed

surrendering

to

part

to

for Phillips to return, 259; succeeded by Schofield, 260; in com-

save whole, 297, footnote; consid-

mand of restored Department of Kansas, 321 arrives at Fort Gib-

emy

317; addresses Indians through principal chiefs, 318

son, 324

and footnote; objects making In-

;

George A:

Cutler,

held

council

at

Leroy by, 62, footnote; at Fort Leavenworth, 74, footnote; ordered by Lane

to transfer council to

Fort

74,

Scott,

Opoeth-le-yo-ho-la

in

refugees

footnote;

reports

footnote;

distress,

76,

complain

of

approves of early return of refugees, 209 calls Creek treatment,

87;

;

draft of treaty,

to consider

chiefs

ers resolutions of

Armstrong Acad-

council,

Territory

dian

separate

nomic and strategic importance of Indian Territory, 331 Davis, John S: 80, footnote Davis, William P: 80, footnote

Dawson, J 53>

Deitzler,

L:

C.

footnote,

150,

George

W:

Delahay, M. cation,

Dana, Charles A:

126, footnote, 324,

W:

Danley, C. C: 15 Davis, Jefferson: work cited,

14, foot-

note; urged to send second general

McCulloch's sac-

officer out, 15-16;

Confederate interests

of

Missouri reported

in

18; unfavor-

to,

able to Price and to his

method of

fighting, 18-19; report of Pike sub-

mitted

to,

21

Cooper, in name

;

of,

orders Ross to issue proclamation calling for fighting men, 137; cor-

respondence

with

Pike,

167-168;

recommends creation of bureau of Indian

affairs,

appoints Pike

172;

diplomatic agent to Indian 173, footnote; signs

bill

lishment of southern ency,

Pike

176;

suggestions ation

for

to,

tribes,-

for estab-

superintend-

makes important

179

;

offers explan-

non-payment of Indian

moneys, 179, footnote; inconsistency of, 187; refusal to accept Pike's resignation,

general

to

206

;

footnote

97,

222, footnote

store

(Kans.)

:

lo-

of Carney and

Co. on, 211, footnote

Delawares: interview of Dole with, 77, footnote; in First Indian Ex-

footnote

rifice

152,

footnote

i54>

Delaware Reservation

233

depart-

ment, 318-319; knowledge of eco-

190;

orders adjutantresigna-

accept Pike's

pedition,

113,

footnote,

115,

foot-

note; from Cherokee country made refugees, 116, 206; wandering, implicated

in

tragedy

at

Wichita

Agency, 183; eager to enlist, 207; request removal of Agent Johnson and Carney and Co. from reservation,

2ii, footnote; wild, involved

in serious trouble

with Osages, 274,

footnote

Democratic Party: 47, footnote De Morse, Charles: 266, footnote, 330, footnote

W: career, 70; popular rejoicing over prospect of re-

Denver, James call,

72,

footnote;

learns of pres-

ence of refugees in Kansas, 80; as-

signed by Halleck to

command

District of Kansas, 97;

Pomeroy

protest

against

of

Lane and appoint-

ment, 97; later movements, 98 and footnote; cooperates with Steele and Coffin to advance preparations

plaining matters to Holmes, 269

for First Indian Expedition, 102 removal from District of Kansas

Creeks address, 278

inaugurated "Sturgis' military des-

tion,

test

200;

lack

of candor

;

from Flanagin,

in

ex-

replies to pro287,

footnote;

potism," 104

;

;

The Indian

378

Department no. 2: 19 Department of Arkansas: 322 Department of Indian Territory: Pike in command, 20; relation to other military units, 21

sorption

of,

Pike deplores ab-

;

151

ment displeasing

appoint-

Pike's

;

Elias Rector,

to

181, footnote; created at suggestion

from Pike, 189 Department of Kansas: Hunter

command,

with Department of Missouri, 96

and

106

footnote]

Blunt assigned to command,

106,

command,

118; restored, Curtis in

West,

on

absent

footnote;

Indians, 61

Indians

mission

authority of U.

;

S.

Lane's plans appeal

61

72-73

to,

appointed over Stanton's

;

dis-

reversal

of policy for use of Indian troops,

countermands orders for en-

;

of

listment

army

that

be

Indians,

warned

77;

supplies to refugees to

discontinued,

83

and

Coffin

;

new

Ritchie apply for

instructions

regarding First Indian Expedition, 105-106

adversely

reports

;

subject of Lane's motion, 223

321

over

maintained,

be

to

to

new evidence affairs among

submits

60;

of serious state of

76 in

27, 61, 70; consolidated

reestablished,

War

as Participant in the Civil

;

upon mo-

Department of Mississippi: 96, 105 Department of Missouri: Halleck in

tives

considered,

views

on

command, 27, 61 consolidated with Department of Kansas, 96 Department of Mountain: 96

concentration of tribes, 230, footnote-, undertakes mission to West,

;

Smet, Father: 234 Soto (Kans.) 236, footnote :

M. C:

Dickey,

226 and footnote

Arkansas:

of

District

command, 192; Price during

illness

succeeds

299,

Holmes,

Frontier: Blunt in com-

mand, 286; McNeil 305

relieves Blunt,

114,

footnote;

Second Ohio

of

Weer

Cavalry,

to supersede, 119; pro-

poses to attempt to reach Fort Gib-

desirous

of

checking

Stand Watie, 119; indecisive engagement on Cowskin Prairie, 119 and footnote; ordered not to go in-

Kansas: Denver assigned

to,

98

;

of, 97; Sturgis assignchecks progress of First

Indian Expedition, complete

advises

105

;

Schofield

separation

Army

of Frontier, 248

tuted

with

;

headquarters

from

re-constiat

Leavenworth, 249 Texas: 306, footnote,

District of

Fort

318,

Dole, R.

W:

to

119;

Indian Territory,

74, footnote,

114, foot-

note

William P:

53,

footnote,

54,

120;

left

at

Baxter Springs by Weer, 121

Downing, Lewis:

231,

footnote, 255,

256

Drew, John: dispersion of regiment, 24, 132; movements of men at Pea Ridge, 32; Stephens,

footnote

Dole,

118;

Charles:

son,

command

ed

cessionist, 47, footnote

Doubleday,

Schofield institutes investiga-

District of to

J: mentioned, 263, avowed sefootnote; footnote, 264,

305, footnote

;

tion,

by, 234 et seg.;

Andrew

Dorn,

colonel

326 District of

made

234; treaties detained by

for

project

footnote; treaties impeachable, 241

Hindman in in command

Holmes,

of

Price

footnote)

Pomeroy's

submits

;

Delawares and by Quantrill's raid upon Lawrence, 238-239 and footnote; negotiates with Osages at Leroy, 239 and

Department of Potomac: 96 Department of West: 27, 61

De De

225

lough

finds

35;

men,

refuge at

authorized 111,

Camp

to

footnote;

fur-

regi-

ment stationed in vicinity of Park Hill, in, footnote; desires Clark-

;

Index placed

son

Cherokee

in

country,

Drywood Creek

(Kans.)

and

51

at,

breaks

camp

:

Federal dePrice

footnote;

52, footnote

at,

;

fugi-

tive Indians on, 195, footnote, 209,

camp raided by

footnote; Cherokee

Bose, J. J: 288, footnote

East Boggy (Okla.)

151, 194,

14,

198

Peter P: 48, footnote, 204; makes Fort Scott headquarters of Neosho Agency, 50; disputes with

Elder,

Coffin, 116-117, 207, footnote;

pre-

to extend hos-

refugees, 213,

footnote;

suspicious of Coffin, 229

Elk

Creek

home

(Okla.)

on,

153;

Tavern

Kiowas select Cooper encamps :

footnote,

131,

tachment

at

105,

Emancipation

opinion

Guards, 251

35

Leetown, 31;

at

in oc-

cupation of northern Arkansas, 34; defeat at Wilson's Creek, 49; de-

Drywood

Creek, 51-52 and showing unwonted vigor on northeastern border of Cherofeat at

footnote

;

kee country,

112,

113,

watch

for,

direct

flight,

Watie

defeat

130;

Newtonia,

notes;

footnote;

Stand

footnote;

in

on

Battle

and foottowards ar-

194-195 efforts

Hindman's progress, 218

resting

Red

River,

311;

to

fail

pursue

Stand Watie, 312 First Choctaw Regiment: under Col.

Sampson Folsom, 152; ordered

to

Fort Gibson, 155; men unanimously reenlist for duration of war,

demands, 328 Regiment: commanded by D. N. Mcintosh, 25 men gather at Cantonment Davis, 27; two 328

;

Creek

;

Proclamation:

Fre-

hundred

mont's, 57; Lincoln's, 234

Ewing, Thomas:

by Indians

First

48

:

footnote;

attempt to recover battery seized

de-

footnote;

Evansville (Ark.)

over-estimate 30,

with

219,

:

to

enemy,

of

drive from Fort Smith to

yo-ho-la,

El Paso (Tex.)

disposition

;

number

Price,

places

complains of Opoeth-le-

:

McCulloch and

115,

footnote;

Home

218, footnote

of,

footnote,

30

:

refugees at early date, 209-211 and

Springs (Ark.)

footnote,

Indian Territory, 250; foraging and scouting, 253; in possession of Fort Smith, 290; Steele

footnote;

about Indian

28,

and

Vann's Ford, 144; disapproves of attempting to return

Elm

:

to

(Ark.)

C:

footnote,

grants

footnote Ellithorpe, A.

(Ark.)

erates under

of

on, 287, footnote

Elkhorn

205,

236, footnote

26

:

pitality to

W:

H.

Farnsworth,

;

257, footnote

upon Ottawas

River

by Van Dorn, 20; expulsion from Missouri planned by Van Dorn, 26 drive back Confed-

Echo Harjo: 278, footnote Edgar County (111.) 84, footnote Edwards, John Newman: work cited on pages

(Washita)

(Okla.): 153

ticipated

Eaton, Rachel Caroline: work cited,

vails

Wichita

False

Federals: early encounter with, an-

296

:

footnote

31,

79, 81, 82, foot-

:

note, 84-85, 273, footnote

256; battle

Duval, B. G: 266, footnote Dwight's Mission: 217

in footnotes

(Mass.):

Fayetteville

guerrillas, 213-214

Du

Fairhaven

Fall River (Kans.)

159, footnote

feat

379

Stephens,

28

304,

footnote,

footnote

"Extremists": 305, footnote

321,

men 32;

gather

at

Camp

about to make ex-

tended scout westward, 112; under orders to advance up Verdigris to-

ward Santa Fe

road, 152

The Indian

380

First Indian Brigade: 327

in

vival

of interest

Lane's

commanded by John Drew,

Rifles:

had begin-

First Indian Expedition:

nings

War

as Participant in the Civil

re-

25; joins Pike at Smith's Mill, 28;

movements

and

conduct

Pea

project,

41

in,

Denver,

Ridge, 32; iniquitous designs, 33;

and Coffin cooperate to adarms go forward to vance, 102 time Leroy and Humboldt, 102

Park Hill, in, footnote; defection after defeat at Locust Grove, 132 First Regiment Choctaw and Chick-

99

;

;

Steele,

;

;

propitious for, 103

Steele,

policy of Stur-

;

103-104;

asaw Mounted by Cooper, 25

revealed,

yet

regarding, 103, footnote', Steele issues order against enlistment of Indians, 105

vigor restored by re-

;

Department of orders for resuming of

establishment

Kansas, 106

;

enlistment of Indians, 106-107; or-

proceeding

ganization

cidedly

command

113

Indians de-

117;

inferior,

pointed to

apace,

outfit of

and footnote;

Weer

ap-

117

and

of,

footnote;

Doubleday proposed for

command

of,

118; existence ignor-

ed by Missourians, 119, footnote; destruction planned by Stand Wa-

and

tie

Weer

120 and footnote;

others,

attempts to expedite move-

ment, 121 pany,

special

;

agents

accom-

121-122 and footnote; com-

ponent

encamp

parts

Springs,

125

Baxter

Brigade

First

;

at

put

Second Briunder Salomon, 125 gade put under Judson, 125; advance enters Indian Territory unmolested, 126; forward march and ;

route,

126

Hindman

;

check progress,

S.

;

ion,

;

respect

207

and

;

to abrupt

Kansas:

footnote;

ends of diplo-

macy between John Ross First

to

Pike's depreciatory opin-

serves

and, 271

97, footnote

Regiment

companies post themselves

upper part of Indian Territory,

encamp near

155; eight companies

Fort McCulloch, 155; fights valiantly at Battle of Newtonia, 194 Flanagin, Harris: 270, footnote, 287,

footnote

Folsom, Sampson: 152, 155 Folsom, Simpson N: 152

Foreman, John A: 144, 284, 285 Formby, John: work cited, 19, footnote

Fort Arbuckle (Okla.) Fort Blunt (Okla.)

Fort Cobb 112,

(Okla.)

153,

275,

x

footnote;

73>

260

:

:

60, footnote,

15,

footnote;

be abandoned by

to take

60, foot-

15,

:

and footnote

note, 184

Texan

McKuska

about to

volunteers,

appointed

charge of remaining prop-

erty, 174, footnote

Fort Davis

(Okla.)

Campbell

:

dis-

covers strong Confederate force

at,

Cherokee

port

and footnote, 254 Gibson (Okla.)

Fort

22;

head-

Choc-

taw troops guard road by Perryville

towards,

112;

Hindman

or-

ders Pike to establish headquarters at,

128,

footnote;

at,

136;

Weer

fortified,

Mounted

Pike's

:

quarters not far from,

260;

Campbell halts

inclined to

from straight road

First Missouri Cavalry: 113

First

in

two

>

Camp

at, 137; many of buildings destroyed by order of Phillips, 220

with

164 and footnote; Osages join

Gillpatrick

53

at

136; Cooper orders Indians to re-

supplies insufficient, 138

conditionally,

x

gathers

;

goes out of service,

;

march, 130;

original form brought

end, 143

Stephens, 32

commanded

Rifles:

proposes to

Indian policy, 134; troubles

begin, 138 in

129;

position

delicate

U.

stationed in vicinity of

Denver, and Wright in dark

not

gis

at

to,

wander

139; newly-

given name of Fort Blunt,

Blunt

undertakes

to

go

to,

;;

;

Index 261

Cooper learns of approach of

;

train of supplies for, 272, footnote

Creeks obliged to stay

at,

273, foot-

note; Phillips despatches

Foreman

Williams, 284; Steele's equipment inadequate to taking of

to reenforce

Fort

Gibson,

286,

lips

continues

in

Cherokees cations

charge

at,

commands Fort Larned

325 at,

333, 335

(Kans.)

Prince in charge

dered

at,

Fort McCulloch

;

Hunter staarms for

:

52

(Okla.)

:

construct-

under Pike's direction, no; Pike to advance from, 119, footed

note; Pike's force spised,

128

at,

not to be de-

Cherokees exasperat-

;

ed by Pike's continued stay

at,

159;

Pike departs from, 162 Fort Roe (Kans.)

Fort Scott 45,

:

80,

(Kans.): 213, 214; Lane chief Federal strong-

51;

Agency, 50; abandoned by Lane in anticipation of attack by Price, 52; Indian council transferred to, 74, footnote; Blunt succeeds

Denver

tri-weekly post between

St.

at,

Jo-

seph and, 116; supply train from,

waited

for,

in at, 132;

126; Indians mustered

Weer

cautioned against

allowing communication off,

138-139;

Phillips's

to

be cut

communi-

cation with, threatened, 272; Steele plans to take, 286

Fort Smith kees ville,

(Ark.): Drew's Cheromarching from, to Fayette28,

footnote;

for

plans

177;

push

to

northward and around,

Confederate

192; conditions

line

of,

in

247, 269, footnote;

Phillips

despairs

cruiting

while

Choctaw

of

re-

Confederate

in

Steele takes

;

troops ordered

Steele

expects Fed-

from, to

erals to attempt a drive

Red

River,

within

included

311;

Department

restored

of

Kansas,

dispute over jurisdiction

;

of,

324; included within re-organized Department of Arkansas, 325 In;

dian raids around, 331 Fort Smith Papers: work

cited,

150,

footnote

Towson

Fort

(Okla.)

Fort Washita

330

:

(Okla.)

:

Wayne

(Okla.)

foot-

60,

battle

October

of,

Delaware

in

:

District of Cherokee

Nation,

197;

1862,

197,

22,

216, 249

211,

Wise

Fort

15,

303, footnote

note,

;

;

and 176-

headquarters

Fort

85

hold in middle Southwest, 46 temporary headquarters for Neosho

98

Arkansas

Red River Superintendency,

321

Fort Lincoln (Kans.)

make permanent

attempt to

quarters, 304;

73, foot-

100

at,

note;

158; foot-

in, 162,

55; troops or-

:

Indian Expedition to be delivered at,

against Pike,

in,

protected, 45;

footnote;

69,

indignation

martial law instituted

command at, 261 door of Choctaw country, 290; becomes Blunt's head-

60, footnote

to,

tioned

at,

withdrawn from, 60, footnote; Choctaw troops watch road to, 112;

hands, 258-259;

152

112,

:

footnote;

123,

fortifi-

rapid changing of

;

Fort Leavenworth (Kans.) note,

305

recovery,

complete

to

Phil-

;

at,

upon

intent

Phillips

311;

290-291

381

Foster, R.

(Colo.)

D:

:

152

47, footnote

Foster, Robert: 47, footnote

Foulke,

William Dudley: work

cit-

ed, 43, footnote

Fourteenth Kansas Cavalry: 322 Fourteenth

Missouri

State

Militia:

"3 Fourth Kansas Volunteers: 117, footnote

Franklin County

(Kans.)

:

50,

foot-

note

Fremont, John C: removal of, 13; sends out emergency call for men, 48

;

failure

to

support Lyon, 49

no coordination of parts of army

;

The Indian

382

56; emancipation proclamation,

of,

put in charge of Department 57 of Mountain, 96 ;

Frontier Guards: 45, footnote Fuller, Perry: 88 and footnote, 211,

letter

W:

Robert Dole,

to

ranking

footnote

105,

107-108

officer in field,

;

becomes

;

143

made

;

commander of Indian Brigade, 144 Gamble, Hamilton R:

119, footnote,

249, footnote, 260

205

policy

;

Confeder-

of

government towards,

ate

note;

attacks

Cherokee refu-

236, footnote; raid

gee camp on tier,

205, foot-

Shawnees,

disturb

Drywood

Creek, 213-

everywhere on Indian fronr 260; perpetrate Baxter Springs

Massacre, 304; are recruiting stations in certain counties of Missouri, 304, footnote

Hadley,

Jeremiah: 236,

footnote

Henry W: in command of Department of Missouri, 27; plans

Halleck,

Gano, Richard M: 306, footnote, 332 Gano's Brigade: 306, footnote Garland, A. H: 148, footnote, 270,

Denver, 71 disparaging remarks, 75, footnote; probable reafor

;

son for objecting to use of Indians

footnote

Garland, Samuel: 312, footnote, 321 Gillpatrick, Doctor: sent under flag of

Olathe,

214;

footnote, 212, 233

Furnas,

War

as Participant in the Civil

truce to Ross,

bearer of

135;

in

war,

75, footnote;

Department

of

charge of

in

Mississippi,

Lincoln's estimate of, 96

;

96;

instruct-

verbal instructions, 193, 217, foot-

ed regarding First Indian Expedi-

note', death,

tion,

271

Granby (Mo.)

:

lead mines, 20; aban-

plan for re-

doned, 20, footnote', covery, 194

Grand Falls: Grand River Prairie

:

on,

Home Guards Salomon

126;

Second

119; to

Cowskin Indian

Indians

as

corps of observation on, 142, 144;

Grand

Saline (Okla.)

note,

:

112, 131, foot-

139

Grayson County (Texas) 190 Great Father: 46, footnote, 240-241, :

Greene, Francis Vinton: work

cited,

:

disregard of orders respect-

ing Indian Expedition, 109

Hallum, John: work note

G:

Halpine, Charles

Hanly,

Thomas B:

96 176

Hardin, Captain: 276, footnote Harlan, David M: 232, footnote Harlan, James: 214 and footnote mittee: 226-227

M: work

J.

on pages

272

cited in footnotes

23,

149,

284,

289

188,

Guerrillas: Indian approved by Pike,

Harris, John: 207, footnote

249,

22 and footnote, 112; not present interested

in

suppression

operations checked by

Indian and,

Territory,

raid

Black

Halleck of,

101

Hindman

194;

calls

cited, 149, foot-

Harris, Cyrus: 63, footnote

Sherman's march, 44;

;

for men, 259

Greeno, H. S: 136, 137 Greenwood, A. B: 222, footnote

in

suppres-

well rid of Kansas, 106, foot-

Harrell,

footnote

Greenleaf Prairie (Okla.)

interested in

;

Harper's Ferry Investigating Com-

footnote, 272-273, footnote

14,

;

note;

examine country,

places

101

sion of jayhawkers and guerrillas,

101 47, footnote (Okla.) 284;

100; opposed to arming In-

dians,

in

Quantrill

Bob lands

and

Harris,

251,

J.

Harrison,

190,

D: 152 J.

E:

footnote

267,

Harrison, LaRue: 259 Harrisonville (Mo.) 55 :

Hart's

Company:

Hart's Spies: 153

266, footnote

194,

Index Hay, John: work cited pages 41, 45, 96

in footnotes

on

383

mands ing

footnote; not friend

Hebert, Louis: 34 Helena (Ark.) 283

Honey Springs (Ark.)

Henning, B. S: 207, footnote Herndon, W. H: 214, footnote

Horton, Albert

of Steele, 311

:

Horse Creek (Mo.)

Herron, Francis J: 249, 260 Heth, Henry: 19

Hindman, Thomas C:

119, footnote;

appointment, 127, footnote; assumes command of Trans-Mississippi Dis186;

128,

trict,

command,

Pike's

128, footnote; or-

53

;

new

versy with Pike, 156; starts attack

upon Pike,

for

tion

treatment

161

;

of

Pike,

justifica-

162;

impossible to be reconciled to Pike, 163

withdraws approval of

;

resignation, 169;

in

Tahlequah,

moned by Holmes, go

to let Pike

Pike's

placed in charge

of District of Arkansas,

pears

headquarters ;

move

192;

193

ap-

sum-

;

194; instructed

free, 200;

resorts to

145

:

footnote

230,

:

Humboldt (Kans.) 52

Rock, 147; begins contro-

W:

288

:

Hoseca X Maria: 65, footnote Hubbard, David: 172, footnote Hudson's Crossing (Okla.) 126, 143

disparagement of

ders Pike's white auxiliary to to Little

Arkansas dur-

in District of

illness, 299,

54,

:

of

69, 79;

proposed

Neosho Agency,

sacked and burnt by marauders, Coffin's account of

burning

Kansas Seventh

footnote;

dered to give

to

relief

or-

refugees,

Kansas Tenth

82, footnote;

of,

at,

footnote; Jennison with First

82,

Kan-

Cavalry at, 99, footnote Hunter, David: falls back upon Sedalia and Rolla, 13, 26; in command of Department of Kansas, 27, 65-66; Lane places men at disposal, 41, footnote; guards White sas

House,

appointment

footnote;

45,

distasteful to Lane, 66-69;

station-

save expense, 247; recall demanded by Arkansas delegation, 270;

ed at Fort Leavenworth, 69, footnote; orders relief of refugees,

associates appraised by, 270, foot-

73,

note

dian delegation, 73, footnote; interviewed at Planter's House in St.

asks for

;

assignment

to

In-

dian Territory, 270, footnote; feeds indigents at cost of

army commis-

A:

98,

footnote

Ho-go-bo-foh-yah: 82 Holmes, Theophilus H: 127, footnote, 166, footnote; appointed to com-

mand

of

partment,

Trans-Mississippi 187;

against Pike, 188 of absence,

De-

develops prejudice grants Pike leave

;

real

190;

reasons for

unfriendliness to Pike, 198-199; or-

ders

arrest

to concede

of

Pike,

consideration, 200;

forced

199;

Indian claim

to

command

Louis,

74,

74"75>

tures

footnote;

Halleck's

upon command,

that

army

to

refugees

must cease, 83 relieved from command, 96 troubles mostly due to ;

;

local politics, 97 Hutchinson, C. C:

55,

footnote, 212,

213, footnote

some placed

Illinois Creek: battle of, 218, foot-

River: 28, 312

Indian

Alliance

Price

stric-

75, footnote;

supplies

displacement demanded by Arkan270;

be-

sends relief to refugees, 81; warns

Illinois

delegation,

friction

footnote;

under supervision of Kirby Smith, 269; relations with Hindman, 269; sas

passes to In-

tween Lane and, 74-76; suggests mustering in of Kansas Indians,

sary,

307 Hitchcock, E.

issues

footnote;

com-

note

conditioned

by

with stress

Confederacy: of

circum-

The Indian

384

and Choctaws disgusted with, 254; Cherokee Nastances, 134; Creeks

Council

tional

War

as Participant in the Civil

revokes,

256

In-

;

dians fear mistake, 273-274; effect of Battle of Honey Springs upon, 290; strengthened by formation of

Indian league, 317; revitalized by

composition,

troduced

innovations in-

252;

252; part placed at

into,

Scullyville, 325

Indian Protectorate: 175 Indian Indigents: 247,

307-308

262,

and footnote Indian

and

Refugees:

Opoeth-le-yo-ho-la

Indian Confederacy: formed by Choc-

men, 79; numbers justified use of Indian soldiery, 79 num-

Chickasaws, Creeks, Semin-

bers exaggerated, 81, 209 and foot-

Maxey's reforms, 326 taws,

his

;

oles and Caddoes, 317; Choctaws want separate from Southern, 321,

ministers to needs, 81-82;

footnote

Kansas gives

Indian Brigade: formed, 144; scouting of component parts of, 145146

white troops ordered

;

port

192-193

of,

command, 249

to sup-

assigned

250,

footnote;

250;

regarded by Phillips

sad

given

Phillips

;

integral parts, 249,

;

service,

as

in

251

state,

Indian Delegation:

note; destitution, 81; Dr. Campbell

describes

Coffin

Seventh

82, footnote;

relief,

pitiable

state,

82

and footnote; Snow furnishes details of destitution of

army

footnote;

continued,

83

distributing

Seminole, 83,

supplies to be dis-

made

Kile

;

agent,

special

much-dis-

84;

hominy, chief food,

eased, 85

;

footnote;

Neosho Valley

85,

selected as

73,

suitable place for, 86; complain of

Dole interviewed in Leavenworth, 94; Osage wants conference with Great Fath-

treatment, 87; Collamore and Jones

footnote,

er,

footnote

240,

with

Steele,

disregards,

262,

318

footnote,

62,

footnote

74,

;

Creek,

;

footnote

confers

remove to Sac and Fox reservation, 88 and footnote;

Davis

Creek request appointment of Car-

Regi-

ruth as agent, 89; manifest confidence in Lane's power, 94; unas-

;

and footnote

Home Guards:

Indian

Fifth

ment, 219 and footnote; First Regiment, ing,

Furnas,

107,

143

;

command-

colonel

muster

roll,

108-

footnote; composed of Creeks and Seminoles, 114; ordered to take position in vicinity of Vann's Ford, 144; demoralization, 145; compo109,

nent part of Phillips's Indian Bri-

gade, Creeks, at

249

composed

;

251;

Honey

fought

Springs,

mainly

of

dismounted 288

;

Fourth

Regiment, 219 and footnote; Second Regiment, 125 Third Regi;

ment,

formation,

132;

investigate condition, 87, footnote;

Phillips

unwilling to

suaged

grief,

money

to support of, 99

;

want

to

recovery of Indian Terri-

tory, 99

to furnish troops for First

;

Indian Expedition, 100; Halleck op-

posed to arming

of,

101

vises early return to

;

Blunt ad-

own

country,

136; numbers increase as result of

Salomon's 146, to

retrograde

footnote, 203

restore to

movement,

Blunt promises

;

homes, 196, 203

;

of

Neosho Agency, 204-207 and footCreek offered home by notes; Osages, 207 and footnote; condiCherokee on among, 208 tions

Drywood

Brigade, 249

over

largely Cherokee in

be-

subsistence

;

assist in

commissioned colonel of, 132; detachment at Fort Gibson, 144; engagement, 163-164, 194, 197; component part of Phillips's Indian ;

95

comes matter of serious moment, 99; Congress applies Indian annuity

;

Sac

Creek,

and

209;

distributed

Fox Agency, 212-

;

Index

385 inson not in favor

Hunter out of Kansas

213; collect on Neutral Lands, 213 and footnote', camp of Cherokee

suggests

raided by guerrillas, 213-214; Har-

tribes,

land and Proctor to look out for,

fuses to employ, 76

at

Neosho, 214; claim of Sacs and

Foxes against Creek, 235, footnote) Phillips's reasons for returning to

Neosho returned to cattle and footnote on return stolen, 274, footnote; journey preyed upon by compahomes, 258 homes, 273

at

;

triots,

Indian

;

Confeder-

in

180,

298-299,

279,

(Confederate)

Soldiers

Home Guard,

:

as

possible

as

23-24;

;

102, footnote; necessary

equipment,

preparations,

final

109;

scouting,

for

lent

Grove,

ap-

121;

125

Locust

at

;

accused

footnote;

131,

of

196

servation, 25

move un-

refuse to

;

conduct at Battle of

paid, 27;

Pea Ridge, 30-33; not included in Van Dorn's scheme of things, 35;

Van Dorn orders

return

to

own

country, 35; order to cut off sup-

from Missouri and Kansas, may be rewarded by Pike,

36; Pike's report on activity, 112;

do

footnote;

135,

scouting,

163;

tribute of praise for, 195, footnote;

made

to prey upon Kansas, and footnote; as corps of ob-

35-36;

and footnote; 79; economy, 99; to

form larger part of First Indian Expedition, 100; Halleck opposed Dole instructs offito, 101, 102 cers to report at Fort Leavenworth,

guerrillas

plies

74-75, footnote; Stanton re-

use justified,

23

til

;

outrages committed by white men,

footnote

Indian

57

pearance, 123 and footnote; excel-

332 Representation

Congress:

ate

making,

of,

Army

part of

diverted

;

of Frontier,

service

to

Mis-

in

and footCane Hill and

souri, 196; desertions, 203

note;

Prairie to

do well at Grove, 218-219;

disposed

take leave of absence, 252

;

to

help secure Indian Territory, 294; negro regiment compared with Indian, 295

Indian

(Ga.)

Springs

treaty,

:

255,

footnote

128, foot-

Indian Territory: McCulloch expect-

note; stigma attaching to use, 148,

ed to secure, 15; included within Trans-Mississippi District, 20;

Hindman's appraisement,

footnote; organized in military for

own

to

;

certain,

receive

Seminoles,

173,

footnote;

companies

five

173,

from Reserve footnote; Cooper

174,

as

from

48;

Leeper

footnote;

to enlist

all

Pike

Pike to endeavour 25 maintain, 36; attack from, exFremont calls for aid, pected, 48

do scoutSmith to raise and com-

protection, 159;

ing, 163

mand

way

Indian nations,

Home Guard,

tribes,

173-

calls

from

footnote;

174,

privations

189;

and desertions, 200; threw away guns at Battle of Honey Springs, 288;

recruiting,

317,

319;

results

under best conditions, 326-327; consider

reenlistment,

328

recogni-

;

tion of services, 330

Indian Soldiers ity

of,

50,

57

(Federal) ;

troops of,

;

to

;

situation

suggestion,

er's

feasibil-

Fremont and Rob-

59-60;

footnote;

75,

left

Hunt-

60;

first

refugees from, 79 "home," 93 early return promised, 94; expedi;

tions to recover, projected, 95

footnote; er,

99

113;

;

and

refugees want to recov-

Stand Watie returns

into,

Carruth and Martin to take

note of conditions note;

holding

Indian

in,

122 and foot-

Pike's force for defence of,

exclusively, :

delicate,

of protection,

destitute

its

129

own

;

Brigade

Indian there,

146

force ordered to

;

Pike's

northern

;

The Indian

386

as Participant in the Civil

border, 148; Pike attempts

retirement

of

cation

part, 151

justifi-

southern

to

Pike declares Indian of-

;

ficers peers of white, 158-159; de-

regarded by Pike

fence

chief

as

Creeks complaint to Davis, Confederate operations con^

300;

279

;

upon supply trains, removal of all Kansas In283 dians to, 294; roads and highways fined to attacks ;

duty, 159; strategic importance not

in,

unappreciated by Confederate gov-

Confederacy,

ernment, 171 attached for judicial purposes to western district of Ar-

enters, 300;

;

kansas,

ment

Confederate govern-

177; to

fails

footnote

177,

Pike

;

separation

plete

of,

in,

District of Arkansas, 192

warfare

la

Scott

179;

within guerril-

;

suppressed,

in,

to

181; Pike

included

190;

to,

com-

advises

investigate conditions

returns

promise,

carry out

194;

Federals in undisputed possession

Holmes

198;

of,

Indian alliance valuable, 201

Shawnees

sentee

return of refugees, 209

;

308-309

Maxey

;

in

command

Home Guards

Indian

311;

Federal forces

in,

312; granary of

within

department,

separate

Department of starts upon

restored

Phillips

;

expedition through, 322; Price asks for loan of troops from, 326 tegic importance of, 331;

Kansas, 223; Dole objects to regular territorial form of govern-

ous performances

Kansas tribes willexchange lands for homes

ing to in,

223

in,

;

227; project for concentration of

tribes in, 230, footnote; negotiations

removal of Kansas tribes

for

231;

of

depletion

resources,

to,

245,

247; organized as separate military

command, 245 and to

be

tised

250; t°>

318;

included

318-319;

objects,

Kansas, 321

requests be

council

footnote;

317,

troduces resolution for adding, to

ment

of,

only

Trans-Mississippi Department, 315; Boudinot's suggestions regarding,

from,

plan recovery, 218; Lane in-

ates

;

attached to District of Texas, 306, footnote; war measures applied to,

Davis

Confeder-

Scott

;

Ab-

205, footnote; Blunt advises speedy

footnote;

298,

command devolved upon Cooper, 303 made distinct from Arkansas, 303 Magruder wants

made

;

expelled

295-296, footnote; necessary to

199;

exploiting,

War

in,

;

stra-

scandal-

333

Indian Trust Funds: 173-174 Indians of Plains: regarding alliance with, 320, 335; harass

Kansas and

Colorado, 320 and footnote, 335 Interior

105

Department: and footnote;

among

profiteering

employees, 208

Wilder make

footnote,

73,

;

Lane and

request, 230, footnote

footnote; troops

Inter-tribal Council: at Leroy, 62-69,

unmounted, 247; adveras lost to Confederate cause,

footnotes; Lane's plans for at head-

all

conception

2 53

of

responsibility

Phillips's plans for recov-

J

ery not at present practicable, 257 strategic importance unappreciat-

ed by Halleck and Curtis, 259 Curtis to take consequences of giving ;

U P> 2 59 privilege of writ of habeas corpus suspended in, 269 5

Hindman

asks

270, footnote;

Cooper poses

for assignment is

as

mere

to,

buffer, 276;

friend

of,

278,

quarters, 69

place for,

;

Leroy selected as the sessions of,

69;

Hunter's plans

enworth,

70,

for,

74,

69-70;

Leavfootnote; Lane at Fort

orders transfer to Fort Scott, 74, footnote; at Belmont, 237, footnote; at

Armstrong Academy,

317,

320, 323

Iola

(Kans.)

:

88,

footnote;

Double-

day concentrates near, 120, footnote; Osages advance as far as, 207

footnote

;;

Index

387

87, footnote; accompanWeer, 121 entrusted with confidential message to John Ross,

Ionies: 274, footnote

refugees,

Iowas:

ies

77, footnote Ironeyes: 115, footnote

;

pleads for justice to In-

121-122;

Iroquois: 79

and footnote

dians, 225

Jackson, Claiborne:

i6, 17, 50, foot-

Jones,

note

Jackson County (Mo.) Jacksonport (Ark.)

:

:

304, footnote

offers to

;

negotiate about Neutral Lands, 231 J.

T:

213, footnote

M:

Jones, Robert

180 and footnote

Jon-neh: 108, footnote

25

M:

Jordan, A.

214, footnote

Jan-neh: 109, footnote Jayhawkers: 41, footnote,

97,

101,

Jordan,

footnote,

269,

273,

Journal of the Confederate Congress:

266,

251,

268,

work

footnote

Jayhawking Expedition:

73, footnote,

274, footnote

Jennison, C. R: 50, footnote, 52, footnote,

99,

footnote,

104,

Thomas: cited

128,

footnote

on pages

footnotes

in

172, 173, 174, 175, 278

Judson, William R: 134; in charge of Second Brigade of First Indian Expedition, 125

footnote

Jewell, Lewis R: 131

Jim Ned: 274, footnote Jim Pockmark: 65, footnote John Jumper: in command of Creek on and Seminole Battalion, 25 ;

Kansans: fighting methods, implacable and dreaded Missouri,

18

direction of Indian Territory, 48

among, 208

side of Confederacy, 62, footnote;

profiteering

ordered to take Fort Larned, 112;

dian lands, 221, 224

Seminole Battalion

ward

in

motion

to-

honour conferred upon, by Provisional Conrenegade gress, footnote; 174, members from Seminole Battalion of, involved in tragedy at Wichita Agency, 183; loyal to Pike, 200; Salt Plains, 152;

member 318,

of

delegation

to

Davis,

footnote; Phillips sends com-

munication

to,

323,

footnote

John Ross Papers: work

28,

Johnson County

(Kans.)

:

204,

235,

Johnston, Albert Sidney: 14, footnote, 19 and footnote, 26

33,

41

exposed to danger, 45

;

64,

bill

troops

;

Price has

;

no immediate intention of invading, 52; Indian enlistment, 57; be menaced by Southern

to

Indians,

Territory,

61;

sorely,

afflicted

93

refu-

70; ;

desire to

recover Indian Territory, 95 Halpine makes derogatory remarks ;

about, 96; not desired in Halleck's

to

96,

footnote;

have been expected, Pike's

revolution 104,

foot-

Indians to repel

in-

vasion of Indian Territory from, ;

Pike tries to prevent cattle-

driving

to,

173,

footnote;

failure

of corn crop in southern part, 209

footnote

Evan:

35-36;

by Buchanan,

called to Missouri, 48

148

War:

Joint Committee on Conduct of

from,

for admission signed

note;

footnote

33.

supplies

cut off

Indians to

footnote;

23,

command,

footnote, 175, 176

Jones,

;

battalion,

gees

footnote

Johnson and Grimes: 308, footnote Johnson, F: 207 and footnote, 211 Johnson, Robert W: 24, footnote, 25,

covet In-

;

Kansas: Indians on predatory expeditions into, 23 Indians to form

likely

cited,

44; of

from

attack

fears

;

17,

foes

footnote,

73,

note; investigates conditions

foot-

among

people want refugees removed from southern, 212; refugees plun-

; ;

;

The Indian

388 dering

resolution for ex-

218;

in,

tending

boundary,

southern

223

proposition to confederate tribes of

Nebraska and of, 227; negotiations begun to relieve, of Indian enproject to concumbrance, 228 centrate tribes of, in Indian Ter;

ritory,

with

tribes

squabbles,

political

231;

of,

footnote;

raid

note

Lane, H. S: 56;

Steele plans to

advisability of

considered,

Watie contemplates

home on Elk

Knights of Golden Circle: in, foot-

western frontier, 267, stolen property brought

273, footnote;

select

Creek, 153; friendly, 153, footnote; confer with Carruth, 274, footnote

Lane,

invade, 286;

ing

Kiowas: 112;

Wells's

footnote;

249,

command on into,

King, John: 269, footnote Kininola: 65, footnote

negotiations

footnote]

230,

War

as Participant in the Civil

Stand

320;

an

mak-

invasion,

332

146, footnote

James Henry: character, enthusiasm,

41,

influence

49;

41,

with Lincoln, 41-42; elected senator from Kansas, 42 accepts col;

and begins recruiting, 43

onelcy

not to be taken as type, 45 redoubles efforts for organizing bri;

gade, 49 empowered to recruit, 50; conceives idea of utilizing In;

Kansas Brigade: See Lane's Kansas Brigade Kansas Legislature: 42, 71, footnote,

abandons Fort Scott, throws up breastworks at Fort

dians, 50, 57;

52

;

Lincoln,

225

Kansas Militia: 50, footnote Kansas River: 206 Kansas Seventh: 82, footnote Kansas-Nebraska Bill: 17, 44 Kansas Tenth: 82, footnote Kaws: 226, 236 and footnote Kaw Agency (Kans.) 55, 205

venge

Kechees (Keeches?)

115,

:

proceeds to seek reof Robinson's

re-organization

gests

on

districts

op-

burns Osceola, 55;

towards slavery,

titude

frontier,

of 58

at-

sug-

56;

military ;

discon-

certed by appointment of Hunter,

66-69; plans for inter-tribal coun-

footnote

footnote

65,

;

spite

position, 55;

:

Ke-Had-A-Wah:

52

in

Denver had measured 69; swords with, 70; control over Fedcil,

Keith, O. B: 230

eral patronage in Kansas, 71

;

nom-

Ketchum, W. Scott: 119, footnote Kickapoos: reported almost unanimously loyal to U. S., 66, footnote;

inated brigadier-general, 71

;

fric-

in

First

footnote;

Indian

Expedition,

footnote; protests to Lin-

88,

coln

against appointment of Den-

183

;

fraudulent

confer with Carruth, 274, footnote William: special agent to refurefuses

appointment as

understanding

with

Coffin and, 208 208,

;

footnote; staff,

Phillips

126,

appointed

on

endorses

re-

footnote;

115,

tending southern boundary of Kan-

and footnote; resigfootnote;

succeeds in preventing ap-

;

pointment of Denver, 98 responsible for Blunt's promotion, 107,

betweeen

Ritchie,

estrangement

ver, 97

quest of Agent Johnson, 207, footnote; introduces resolution for ex-

quartermaster, 115, footnote; mis-

nation,

instructed by anti-Coffin conspira-

implicated in tragedy at

Kile,

footnote;

Hunter and, 74-76

tors,

negotiation with, 230 and footnote;

84;

between

115,

Wichita Agency,

gees,

tion

advises

speedy return of refugees, 209 Killebrew, James: 50, footnote

sas, 223

;

denounces Stevens as de-

opposed to and Curtis, 249, footnote; belongs to party of Exfaulter,

Gamble,

226,

footnote;

Schofield,

;;

Index tremists,

requests

footnote;

305,

summoned

that Blunt be

to

Wash-

ington for conference, 322, footnote

Lane,

W.

P: 266, footnote Brigade: 41, 43, 49, relation to Hunter's 59, 71

Lane's Kansas 51*

58,

5

command, rauding

and

72

committed,

footnote;

75,

Indian

prospective

ma-

footnote;

element

dis-

footnote,

62,

73,

upon,

raid

Dole

footnote;

238,

:

Quantrill's

footnote;

by

detained

raid upon, 239 43,

:

58,

Leased District (Okla.)

footnote footnote

181-182, 198

:

Leavenworth Daily Conservative:

58,

interview

peal

58

to,

attention

sickness

;

in

refugees ap-

footnote;

76,

to seek

appointment

;

mistake, 60;

by Dole, 61

solicited

family,

Lane urged

;

with,

Cameron

assert-

Fremont's

fears

;

87 and footnote;

of Halleck, 96; protests

Denver, Ross

97-98

estimate against

to,

to

inquires

216;

foot-

Cherokee

country,

to

succeed

Amnesty Proclamation

Curtis, 260;

among

distributed

192,

practicability

into

Schofield

selects

for

footnote;

107,

intercede with,

occupying

of

responsible

;

promotion,

Blunt's

Indians,

Linn County (Kans.)

Lee, Robert E: 186, footnote, 187

Lee, R.

W:

Leeper,

Matthew: authorized

men,

307, footnote to en-

173, footnote; departs for

Texas, 183

murder, 183

;

322

:

:

;

;

ler at, 62, footnote;

Humboldt

substituted for

as place for council, 69

of council,

sessions

Brigade

left,

Weer some Quapaws footnote;

at,

69-70;

Indian

Humboldt,

for

returns at,

204,

115,

121;

to,

footnote

207; Blunt thinks refu-

gees not properly cared

for,

Dole negotiates with Osages and footnote

215;

at,

239

:

Abraham:

71,

er's falling back, 13

unteers, 41

;

;

Band

Bear

Osages:

of

Blue River (Okla.)

Little

:

151, foot-

Little

Boggy (Okla.) 112 Osage River: 45, 52

Little

Rock (Ark.)

Little

:

36,

:

footnote,

63,

Van Dorn assumes command at, Hindman assumes com25 mand at, 128; Hindman orders Pike to move part of forces to, 190;

;

147

;

Scott endeavours to interview

Holmes

299

in,

Livermore,

William

cited in footnotes

33,

sary

(Okla.)

:

captured

at, at,

138;

counted

against Pike, 161 109,

Lo-ga-po-koh

:

footnote

Long Tiger:

103, footnote

109,

at,

commisdefeat

Lo-ka-la-chi-ha-go:

approached by Phelps

work

skirmish

Clarkson's

131-132;

Confederates

Roscoe:

on 260, 269, 270

Hunt-

calls for vol-

238,

note

72 and foot-

note, 211, footnote; suggests

footnote

footnote

Locust Grove

Lexington (Mo.) 52, footnote, 55 Limestone Gap: in, footnote Limestone Prairie: 328

101,

:

Lipans: 274, footnote Little Arkansas River: 275, footnote Little Bear: 240, footnote Little

Leetown (Ark.) 30, 31 Leroy (Kans.) 86, 229, 239 and footnote arrangements for keeping cattle, footnote; Lane builds 54, stockades, 55 council held by Cut-

Lincoln,

54,

supineness, 56

of

popularity

49;

footnote

Lindsay's Prairie: 216

footnote

Osages

Blair,

note;

Lawrenceburg (Ind.) Lawrence Republican:

list

and ed,

appointment of Denver, 97; wires Halleck to defer assignment of

pensed with, 77 Lawler, J. J: 204, footnote

Lawrence (Kans.)

389

of

heavily

footnote

;

The Indian

39°

Longtown Creek (Okla.)

295, foot-

:

note portion

District,

upon,

requisition

within

included

Trans-Mississippi

for

20;

troops,

25

TransMississippi Department, 192 and footnote', western, detached from within

included

portion

Trans-Mississippi Department, 246

William DeLoss: work

Love, in

footnotes on pages 118,

Lower Creeks: 14;

acter,

:

work

char-

death, 49

;

road, 152; conduct

commander,

285, footnote',

com-

manded First and Second Creek at Honey Springs, 288 Mcintosh, James: 34;

31, la

29, footnote', death,

defeated

Opoeth-le-yo-ho-

Chustenahlah, 79

in Battle of

Mcintosh, Unee:

footnote

62,

Mcintosh, William: 255, footnote Mackey's Salt Works (Okla.) 325 :

McNeil, John: 297 and footnote, 305 Magazine Mountains: 266, fotnote

be repeat-

to

insight into Indian

48

cited

138

footnote

62,

Lyon, Nathaniel ed,

ward Santa Fe as

Louisiana:

War

as Participant in the Civil

Magruder, John Bankhead:

mand

Trans-Mississippi

ment,

186;

delay,

to

com-

Departfootnote;

186,

appointment, rescinded, 187; orders

McClellan, George B:

13, 75, foot-

with Price,

56

14,

Arkansas,

15;

commands

footnote

62,

McCulloch, Ben: refuses

to cooperate

takes position

;

with

relations

leading Confederates in Arkansas

and Missouri, 16; little in common with Price, 17; indifference to-

wards Missouri, 18 proceeds Richmond to discuss matters ;

controversy,

19

;

driven back

footnote',

54,

had

Henry E:

in

di-

302; opinion of conditions in In-

dian Territory, 306, footnote McCurtain, J: 312, footnote 231,

25,

footnote

W:

329,

footnote

Marque and Reprisal Law: 21 Martial Law: 162 and footnote Martin, George W: work cited,

59,

footnote

Martin, H. sion

by

W:

entrusted with mis-

Coffin,

opinion

122

and

footnote,

regarding

refugees,

209, 217-218; arrangements for inter-tribal

council,

273,

footnote

Martin's Regiment: 308, footnote Marysville (Okla.) 112

ernment,

footnote;

47,

Osages S. gov-

death,

53

and footnote had commission from McCulloch, 54, footnote Maxey, Samuel B: assigned to com;

62,

footnote,

in

command

mand

of

Indian

Territory,

311;

ar-

project for sweeping reforms, 315

Stephens, 32; under

and footnote; delivers address at Armstrong Academy council, 320

of First Creek Regiment, 25

Camp

note

:

152

Mcintosh, D. N: colonel

ritory attached to Texas, 306, foot-

Matthews, John: incensing and Cherokees against U.

McDonald, Hugh: 173, footnote McGee's Residence: 47, footnote Chilly:

wants Indian Ter-

footnote;

133;

command

of Northern Sub-district of Texas,

McDaniel, James:

311,

;

Marston, B.

verted Pike's supplies, 147-148

McCulloch,

Gibson, 302 tries to deprive Steele of white force, 306,

in

into

dians against Kansas, 31, footnote; commission from, found on John

Matthews,

recovery of Forts

for

Smith and

to

;

rives at

assistance,

Steele's

Manypenny, George W: 221 Marmaduke, John S: 251, 327

northwestern Arkansas, 26 death, 31, 34; had approved of using In-

Mcintosh,

to

291-292; proposes consolidation of

note, 96

McClish, Fraser:

in

Bankhead

;

orders to advance up Verdigris to-

;

Index and footnote; thinks Indians

best

adapted for irregular warfare, 326;

with

cooperates

Price

rulings,

326-327;

willingly, foot-

329-330,

391

Missouri State Guard: 17, 158 Missouri State Guards: Eighth Division,

footnote

130,

Missourians:

customary fighting methods during period of border

sets up printing-press for propaganda work, 330; speaks in

warfare,

own

Kansas Brigade,

note

\

defense,

superseded by

334;

Cooper, 334 Maysville (Ark.)

Maremec River (Mo.): 27

Indian

Methodist Episcopal Church

South:

Mexican War: 70; Roane's conduct in, criticised by Pike, 149 Mexico: Lane in, 42, footnote] teams hauling cotton

footnote,

62,

Miles,

W.

Mills,

James K: 113

foot-

64,

:

296

152,

Porcher: 278, footnote River:

footnote,

14,

26,

footnote; decisive

173,

Pea Ridge, 13; expected Confederacy to force situation for her, 18 for troops, 25

by Van Dorn,

requisition up-

;

relief

;

supplies

from,

on

border,

43-44;

served

called in,

sionists,

no;

fight

35;

for,

from Denver

troops

to,

48

;

activity

70;

planned

Indians to cut

26, 34;

off

Kansas

Robert B: appointment by Robinson, 46, footnote; raises vol-

of

seces-

Payton, senator from,

Hindman and

176, footnote;

unteers to go against Indians, 46, footnote; needed by Halleck, 101

Charles

E:

footnote,

52,

Moneka: 46, footnote Montgomery, James:

others

15

and

Moonlight, Thomas: 322 Moore, Charles: 206, footnote

Moore, Frank: work cited in footnotes on pages 83, 84, 135, 184, 257, 287 Moore, Thomas O: 192, footnote

Moravian Mission: 194 Morgan, A. S: 291, footnote, 293 Morton, Oliver P: 43 and footnote Moty Kennard: footnotes on pages 62, 65, 262, 278, 302,

Mundy Durant:

320

235, footnote

Munsees: 212

Muskogee (Okla.) 288 Murrow, J. S: 162, footnote

Martin refuses to consider refugees living upon im-

Napier's

squabbles

of,

in,

217-218; po-

249,

Watie succeeds

in

western,

Boudinot

312;

arrangements Missouri 148,

:

;

poverished people litical

foot-

footnote

53,

plan to reenter southwest, 194, 218 Delaware Reservation not far distant from, 206

60,

208, footnote

note, 45,

result of Battle of

on,

footnote;

119,

footnote

footnote, 34, 268, footnote 17,

Expedition,

"Moderates": 304, footnote Mograin, Charles: 207, footnote, 241,

234

Middle Boggy (Okla.)

Missouri:

re-

battalion of, at Locust Grove, 131

Mix,

note, 108, footnote,

Mississippi

inroads

;

and footnote

266, footnote

to,

77, footnote

Mico Hatki:

51

Mitchell,

236, footnote

Miamies:

44; refugee, in Lane's

sented by various tribes, 77, footnote; intent upon ignoring First

131, 197

:

17,

for,

footnote;

entering southsuggests

317, footnote

Commandery: work

footnote

Missouri River: 53

cited,

study

Peninsular of,

War:

Pike's

163

Nebraska Territory: 227, 231 Neosho (Mo.) defeat of Federals :

113;

Ratliff

despatched

to,

at,

127;

Cherokee refugees removed from Drywood Creek to, 214, 217, 218; refugees footnote

at,

257, footnote, 273

and

:

The Indian

392

52

46, 50,

tribes included within, 48

;

in

great confusion, 115-116; changes in location of, 116-117

ref-

ugees, 86; refugees object to leav-

plans to replenish

Steele

;

Watie

resources from, 286; Stand

makes daring cavalry raid New Albany: 80, footnote New England Relief Society:

into,

312

addresses

89;

Indian Affairs: prompt ac-

Office of

ment

for

87, foot-

War

Depart-

of

military

restoration

force in Indian Territory, 60; Carruth,

special First

ies

and

agent

Indian

accompan-

of,

Expedition,

agents

footnote;

122

ignored

by

men

of First Indian Ex-

pedition,

133

and footnote; prof-

iteering

among

military

note

New

Creeks,

sought, 52; appeal to

:

88

refugee

"Our Father," 233 tion needed, 47, footnote; approval

Neosho Falls (Kans.) 213 Neosho Valley: suitable place for ing,

War

as Participant in the Civil

Neosho Agency: headquarters, ;

;

employees,

20S

61, 113, 152, 238, foot-

Wattles sent out by, 226; not yet prepared to treat with John Ross

Newton, Robert C: 266, footnote Newton County (Mo.) 47, footnote

for retrocession of Neutral Lands,

Newtonia (Mo.) battle of, 194-195 and footnotes New York Indian Lands: 79; intruded upon by white squatters, 80, 85

Oh-Chen-Yah-Hoe-Lah: 69, footnote Oke-Tah-hah-shah-haw Choe talk,

Mexico:

note

:

:

;

refugees upon, 79, 85 sy over, 85, footnote

;

controver-

;

Dole makes

treaty concerning, 235-236

New York footnote,

Tribune:

Nineteenth

31, footnote, 126,

G:

42, footnote

Regiment

of

footnote;

(Kans.)

Arkansas

Frederick Salomon,

Brigade of First Indian Expedition, 126 footnote,

171,

indifference towards West, 43

245; ;

re-

construction measures in favor of, ;

Indian

Territory

came

too

into reckonings of, 250 North Fork of the Canadian (Okla.) late

173, footnote

North

Fork

Village

(Okla.)

173,

:

Northern Sub-District of Texas: 286,

and

157

24,

:

footnote,

63,

footnote,

Chustenahlah, 79; lodges complaint against Coffin, 87; friends oppose election of Ock-tah-har-sas Harjo as principal chief, 89; interviews Lane, 94; Coffin talks with, on subject of Indian Expedition, 102-103,

wants

"wagons

that

Creeks under, offered home by Osages, 207 and footnote, shoot," 117;

229; Ellithorpe complains footnote;

of,

219,

death, 234

Osage County (Kans.) 80 Osage Nation: 47, footnote Osage Reservation (Kans.) :

condition

79; note;

part

302

Ock-tah-har-sas Harjo: 228, elected

S:

176, footnote

of,

55

;

:

exposed

refugees

cross,

intruders upon, 222 and foot-

footnote

note;

205

Opoeth-le-yo-ho-la

footnote;

North, The: 42,

:

Old George: 203 Oldham, Williamson

76 and footnote, 79; defeated by Mcintosh in Battle of

colonel, 118; part attached to First

228

Olathe

73,

Volunteers: 150, footnote Ninth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry: 119,

:

66, footnote

footnote,

226

Nicolay, John

231

principal

foot-

chief

by

owners of,

unwilling

to

Osage River: 27 Osages: 252; bad white men fering

cede

229-230

with,

46;

inter-

disturbances

;;

Index among,

footnote, 47,

46,

schemes

Mitchell

to

393

footnote

Parks, R. C: 113, footnote

negotiate

Parks,

Thomas

J: 248, footnote

treaty with, 47, footnote; offer as-

Parsons, Luke F: 285

49; John Matthews, trader among, 53, footnote;

Partisan Rangers: authorized by Con-

sistance to U.

S.,

loyalty asserted, 54, footnote; Coffin to

cooperate with Elder in ne-

gotiating with, 87-88, footnote; at-

tempt

persuade enlistment

to

for

federate

government,

company

Lane's

Texas,

266,

footnote,

236,

of

Paschal

Fish:

205,

footnote

Pascofa: 62, footnote

approached

Patton, James: 47, footnote

for

cause, 121

ment

of,

and

lands,

Confederate

Weer promotes

;

121

home

footnote,

memorialize

enlist-

service rendered by,

;

207, footnote; offer

207

of

cession

abandon

222;

to Creeks,

237-238;

229,

Congress,

229

dis-

;

gusted with Coffin's draft of treaty of cession, 229

Dole makes treaty

;

with, 235, 239 and footnote; massacre of Confederate officers, 237-

Great and

238, footnote; council of Little,

237,

vantage taken of U. of

S.

;

by

with,

treaty

footnote

;

terms

to

Pea-o-pop-i-cult:

footnote

65,

Pearce, N. Bart: 16, 22, 156, 158

Pea Ridge (Ark.) Pelzer, Louis:

work

cited,

260, foot-

note

Peorias: 77, footnote Perryville (Okla.) 112, 295-296 :

Pheasant Bluff (Okla.)

271, 327

:

Phelps, John S: 49, 199-200 Phil David: 68, footnote

Dole,

Phillips,

James A: 126, footnote William A: 126, 321;

Third Indian, 132;

ous

with those of Stand Watie,

difficulties

with, 274, footnote;

foot-

note; biographical sketch, 126, foot-

have funds for, 264, footnote Jim Ned's band involved in serito

197

13, 29, 34, 36,

:

Pegg, Thomas: 256

Phillips,

Dorn reported

;

Pawnee Fork: 112 "Paw Paws": 304, footnote Payton, R. L. Y: 176, footnote

foot-

239,

makes propositions

240-241,

ad-

representatives

government, 238

Dole's

note

unfair

footnote;

P.

footnote

First Indian Expedition, 115, 207;

116,

W.

112;

note;

commissioned

colonel

of

engage

forces

163-

invited to inter-tribal council, 274-

164; Indians under, fought well in

275, footnote

Battle of Newtonia, 194, 195, foot-

(Mo.)

Osceola

Lane burns, 55

:

included within Sac and Fox Agency, 212; receive refugees upon certain conditions, 212-213;

Ottawas:

note;

reconnoissances, 218;

orders

buildings at Fort Davis destroyed, footnote;

220,

command

given

of

extend further hospitality to refu-

Indian Brigade by Blunt, 249; reports Indian Brigade in sad state,

gees, 213, footnote

251

;

to

Indian

Pagy, A.

T:

65,

large view of responsibilities Territory,

overtures to Indians,

footnote

253

makes

;

254;

expos-

Park Hill (Okla.) Pike tarries at, 28 Drew's regiment stationed near in, footnote; Greene sent with detachment to Tahlequah and, 136;

tulates against delay in attempting

Blunt's expeditionary force reaches,

munication with Fort Scott threat-

:

;

193

;

Phillips has

Parke County

camp

(Ind.)

:

80,

at,

258

footnote

recovery of Indian Territory, 257; returning refugees, reasons for 258

;

moves over border, 258

;

com-

ened, 272; continues in charge at

Fort

Gibson,

305

;

Indian

Home

;;

The Indian

394

Indian Territory, 312; unextended expedition

dertakes

through

Indian

Territory,

322

gives

own

to

Lin-

coln's

Amnesty Proclamation,

322-

323

;

interpretation

differences between Blunt and,

163

publishes circular address to

;

Southern

Indians,

circular,

obligations,

work

cited

in

footnote

77,

work

Pickett Papers:

notes on pages Pike, Albert:

mand

of

cited

in

172,

175

171,

foot-

report submitted to

Davis, 21 report to be found in U. S. War Department, 21, foot;

makes headquarters

at Cantonment Davis, 22; anxious to save Indian Territory for South, 22-23 ordered to join Van Dorn with

note;

'>

Indians, 27; becomes ranking cer in

York

31; criticism in

field,

Tribune,

Indian

thorizes

Ridge,

fighting

receives

35;

Maury, 36;

talk

66,

offi-

New au-

Pea

at

Cin-

orders

from

with Comanches, with Up-

65, footnote; negotiations

per Creeks,

at

army

rejoins

32;

cinnati,

footnote;

31,

negotia-

footnote;

tions with Seminoles, 68, footnote

McCuI-

intrenches himself at Fort loch,

no;

report on Indian mili-

Rock, 147 protests against orders of May 31 and June 17, 154-156; ;

appointment of Pearce,

Ran-

to

as,

dians of Plains,

umbrage

takes

House:

Planter's

Pocahontas

(Ark.)

;

to

letter

student

of

art

Hindman, of

war,

25 :

battle of, 326-

C: 41, footnote; elected senator from Kansas, 42; John Brown's opinion of, 42, foot-

Samuel

endorses

note;

ing Fremont's

principle

underly-

emancipation proc-

lamation, 56-57 instructed by anticonspirators,

88,

footnote;

appointment

against

of

succeeds in preventDenver, 97 of Denver, 98 appointment ing responsibility for Blunt's promo;

tion,

107,

footnote;

of

224;

162-163

94,

327

Pomeroy,

of

conciliatory

:

Poison Spring (Ark.)

tration

indites

footnote,

74,

footnote

Lands,

;

335; Steele published state-

201,

at

ment, 286, footnote

159;

161

sums up

"Pins": 193, 268, footnote

to Stand Watie, 159, footnote; John Ross complains of, 160;

prepares resignation,

200;

Appendix; Kirby Smith attempts to reemploy for service among In-

by stay

Fort McCulloch,

rumors of

grievances in letter to Holmes, 201,

fiscation

at

198;

arrested,

199;

dolph, 156; Cherokees exasperated

letter

reenters

footnote;

Indian Territory,

protests

forces to Little

grievances

consid-

footnote;

175,

conspiracy with unionists in Tex-

more important of

reports

in-

financial

footnote;

174,

and

191

Coffin

156;

assuming

in

for leave of absence, 190; resigna-

tary activity, 112; ordered to send

objects to

exceeded

footnote;

remuneration,

ers

tion,

128; assigned to comDepartment of Indian

Territory, 20;

and

172

makes important recommendations to Davis, 179; applies to Holmes

footnotes on pages 30, 288

Piankeshaws:

of

on diplomatic career as agent of Confederate State Department, 171-

mand, 335 Frederick:

effect

spondence with Davis, 167-168; arrested by Cooper, 169; entered up-

structions

;

165;

and footnote; corre-

166

removed from command at 325 Fort Gibson, 333; restored to comPhisterer,

War

as Participant in the Civil

Guards under, only Federal troops left in

;

advocates con-

Cherokee

Neutral

recommends concen-

tribes

of

West

in

footnote;

dian Territory, 230, company of Dole at Leroy, footnote

Pontiac:

31,

footnote

Inin

239,

;

;

Index E: 329, footnote

Portlock, E.

Poteau River (Okla.) Pottawatomies:

and

234

footnote,

Prairie Creek

of Federal

216

:

Prairie d'Ane (Ark.)

no longer

Grove (Ark.):

battle of, 218

and footnote, 249

army, 204;

some, not

Quapaw

footnote

204,

Second Regiment of

in

Home

Indian

326

:

into ranks

refugees,

fide

become

footnote;

drawn

refugees or are

bona

(Ark.)

and

116

exile,

footnote

footnote

274-275,

Prairie

297,

:

395

Guards, 252 (Kans.)

Strip

126

:

Quesenbury, William: 158, 248, foot-

Prairie Springs: 279

note

Price, Sterling: 16, 17, 26, 29, 52, 55,

footnote,

127,

56,

185,

317,

foot-

note; tries to induce Quantrill and his

men

205, of,

to

regular service,

Rains, James S: 125; makes Tahle-

Hindman's opinion

quah headquarters of Eighth Division Missouri State Guard, 130,

enter

footnote;

commands

footnote;

270,

in

District of Arkansas, 299, footnote,

William E:

Proctor, A.

G:

55,

acts

58

214, 234, footnote

disgrace,

Randolph,

firm nomination of Heth, 19; calls

footnote

McCulloch-

Randolph,

on

information

Price

controversy,

19

;

established

precedents of good faith in Indian relations,

resolution

172;

author-

Missouri,

158; sympathy for Pike, sires

of,

173-175

considerations

garding 175,

committees

of

Indian

re-

superintendency,

M:

Red River:

C: 45; guerrillas raid Black Bob Lands and Olathe, 205 raid upon Lawrence, 238, footnote, 239;

work scorned and repudiated

by McCulloch,

303,

petrates Baxter

footnote;

per-

Springs massacre,

W:

121, footnote, 127

20,

footnote 248,

36,

112;

note;

volunteers

services of,

Quapaws:

48,

in

173-

among,

disorders

footnote;

uprising against and murder

of Leeper undertaken by, 182-183

Tonkawas almost exterminated

;

by,

companies organized among,

by contract, 308,

footnote

326

Quapaw Agency: Quapaw Nation:

foot-

authorized,

182;

266, footnote; fed

for

173,

174,

184;

repugnance

nego-

Pike

successfully with,

Maxey

no

315

311,

tiates

304; movements, 304 and footnote; feels

to

185, footnote

305,

Indians:

Reserve

W.

instructions

Rector, Elias: 175, 181, footnote

Pryor Creek (Okla.)

Quantrill,

reassures

footnote;

189;

Holmes, 189 Ratliff, Robert

"Red Legs":

142, 145

command under Ma-

186,

187,

Pryor, Nathaniel: 145, footnote :

de-

suggests that Price serve

gruder,

Rector, H.

176

156-

168;

terminate Magruder's de-

to

Pike,

in

Pike makes

Hindman,

complaint against

as second in

work

W:

George

er to Indian nations, 172, footnote, footnote;

197;

L: 267, footnote, 309,

J.

lay, 186;

x 73>

194;

198

izing Davis to send a commission-

and footnotes; confers honour upon John Jumper, 174, footnote;

reenter

Cooper

under orders from,

Provisional Congress: refuses to con-

for

to

attempt

to

footnote;

southwest

326 Prince,

Rabb's Battery: 114, footnote "Radicals": 305, footnote

Reynolds,

53, footnote 46,

50,

First

footnote

Indian

Ex-

pedition, 115, footnote; driven into

Thomas C:

Richardson, James footnotes

322

on

D

pages

:

footnote

287,

work 21,

cited

172,

in

278,

;

The Indian

396

Richardson, John

M:

Riddle's

(Okla.)

Station

Roman

113 foot-

276,

:

John:

to

Dole for

106;

appraise-

applies

new

instructions,

ment

of,

106, footnote; dilatory in

movements, agreement

with

Kile,

115,

from

dismissal

197;

ommended, 197; officer,

Roane,

rec-

ranking

325

Arkansas

J. S:

left in

care of,

asks forces of Pike, 149

128, 149

;

conduct

in

War

Mexican

by with Pike,

criticised

Pike, 149, footnote; fights duel

ter,

charac-

footnote;

149,

199; arrests Pike, 200

Roberts,

A:

S.

320,

footnote

Robertson,

W.

Robinson,

Charles:

S: 225 and footnote

work

cited

appointment of Mitchell,

footnote;

opposed

to

in

46,

Lane's plans

for revenge, 55; approves of principle

underlying

communicates with Pike

on movements of Cherokee troops, 28,

opposed

footnote;

secession,

to

reported to have host

63, footnote;

ready to do service for U.

Fremont's

proc-

S.,

66,

loyal to U. S., 74, footcommunication from Weer,

footnote; note;

and footnote, 135; reply to Weer, 135-136; submits documents justifying his own and tribal actions, 136; receives peremptory order from Cooper, 137; arrested by 134

Greeno,

137;

of

suspected

collu-

sion with captor, 137-138, 192; ad-

dresses himself to

Hindman

against

Washing-

192 and footnote; formally deposed by convention called by se-

ton,

Cherokees, 193; receives

cessionist

footnotes on pages 15, 70, 97, 98,

226;

John: attitude of faction of, towards proposed Confederate mil-

Pike, 160; on mission to

footnote,

308,

Ross,

15;

service

Phillip's

footnote

118,

tory,

Ford,

Shirley's

at

work

George:

Joseph

foot-

Humboldt, 115; commands SecIndian ond Regiment Home Guards, 115; conducts prisoners to Fort Leavenworth, 144; allows men

amuck

footnote

241,

occupation of Indian Terri-

at

run

foot-

87,

itary

note; slow in putting in appearance

to

121,

cited,

Mission:

Catholic

dis-

footnote;

114,

note,

Rosengarten,

note, 293, 295, footnote

Ritchie,

War

as Participant in the Civil

monetary assistance, 214 and footnote; makes personal appeal to Lincoln returned

homes,

to

ready

associates

refugees to be

enable

to

and

215-216; negotiate

to

for

retrocession of Neutral Lands, 231;

medium

diplomatic

lamation, 56-57; opposed to enlist-

Gillpatrick

ment of Indians, 57; seeks

intercourse between, and First In-

Prince,

58

;

responsible

aid of

Stan-

for

ton's contesting of Lane's seat, 59,

footnote; Lane has no intention of obliging,

71,

sions for

First

pouring for

in,

226,

footnote;

against

calls

footnote

Creek

Creek)

:

184,

note,

34, footnote

P: work

in,

cited,

footnote

Ross,

W. W:

Round Grove

234, footnote

(Okla.)

126

:

Russell, O. F: 152-153

Sac and Fox Agency

included pair

13, 26

Roman, Alfred: work

W.

114,

cited, 14, foot-

to,

(Kans.)

footnote;

removal of refugees

footnote

Rolla (Mo.):

Mrs.

footnote,

62, footnote

(Clear

dian Expedition, 271 Ross,

guerrillas,

relations with Stev-

Robinson, William:

Rocky

commis-

Indian Expedition

123,

volunteers

205, footnote; ens,

footnote;

of

within,

to,

212;

to confer with

:

54,

suggested 212; tribes

Osages

re-

Dole, 238

and footnote Sacs and Foxes of Mississippi: encounter refugees from Indian Ter-

Index ritory,

home

offer

80;

to

refugees,

86; reservation, 87; receive Creeks,

and

Choctaws,

Chickasaws,

213;

scheme of building houses for, 226 and footnote; Dole makes treaty with,

claim

235;

Creek

against

refugees, 235, footnote

some Sacs

;

confer with Carruth, 274, footnote] invited to inter-tribal council, 274-

St.

Francis River: 20

Joe

St.

Joseph)

(St.

74,

:

230 Louis Republican:

footnote,

75,

footnote

Salomon, Frederick: colonel of Ninth

Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, 118; in in

command command

Weer, 121

Fort Scott, 118;

at

left

with respect

to,

138;

203

147,

equipment

Weer,

arrest,

140-142;

movement

Camp Quapaw, Blunt

to

of,

establishes

;

to In-

government,

S.

arrests

gives reasons

trograde

146;

of

139;

142,

re-

143,

152,

commis-

full

reports

Holmes concerning neglect of dian

Territory,

reports

300;

to

Into

329

M:

Scott,

T.

Scott,

W. H:

Scott,

Winfield S: 48,

Scott

County (Ark.)

Scullyville

316, footnote

287, footnote

(Okla.)

footnote

56, 69,

20

:

155,

:

325,

and

footnote

to

dition: put

note

Second Indian Brigade: 327 Second Indian Expedition: Carruth

and Martin x

anticipation of,

act in

making plans

33» footnote; Blunt

for,

and

196

footnote,

208,

foot-

stipulate

267,

care

of

families

during

absence, 215

Second Indiana Battery: 118, 125 Second Ohio Cavalry: 118, 119, foot-

footnote)

advance toward,

152 268, footnote, 277, foot-

note, 125-126

Second Regiment Cherokee Mounted

commanded by Stand Wa-

Rifles:

joins

tie,

25

28

takes

;

emy,

;

32;

committed

note

Schaumburg, W. C: 305, footnote Schoenmaker, John: 241, footnote Schofield, John M: 106, footnote, 119, footnote, 196, 248, 249 and footnote, 260, 261, 293, 304 and foot-

way

to

sent

Pike

position

observe enof

guiltless at

Cincinnati,

at to

Camp

Stephens, 35; detail

ammunition

with

atrocities

Pea Ridge, 32; makes to

main

army, 35; scouting along northern line of

Cherokee country, 112; de-

sertions from, 145

Indian Home Regiment composiin miscellaneous Guards: tion, 114 and footnote; men not fills up after yet mustered in, 121

Second

note

Schurz,

Carl:

41

and footnote,

42,

footnote Scott,

made

footnote;

by

153

footnote,

Creek regiment

A:

299; 299,

ordered

Checote: 62, footnote Santa Fe Trail: to intercept trains

Scales, J.

sioner,

note; Blunt discovers that Indians

send troops to support of

129,

spection,

at

Sam

on,

184,

footnote; sets out upon tour of in-

himself

Indian Brigade, 192-193 Salt Plains:

harbor fugitive Tonkawas,

to

under Judson, 125 Second Choctaw Regiment: 312, foot-

deplorable

134;

Dis-

Governor Colbert

asks

charge of First Bri-

dian policy of U. troops,

hurries to Leased

;

184;

trict,

Second Brigade, First Indian Expe-

gade, First Indian Expedition, 125; instructions

181

Baxter Springs by

at

in

;

tory,

brigades,

116, St.

conditions in Indian Terri-

tigate

Seddon prospects for three Indian

footnote

275,

397

S.

Indian

marks

S:

acting commissioner of

affairs, of,

177,

172,

footnote;

re-

footnote; to inves-

;

defeat

Grove,

of

Confederates

132;

Corwin

at

takes

Locust

com-

The Indian

398

War

as Participant in the Civil

mand

dians seek refuge among, 204; are

ley's

depredated

of, 144; engagement at ShirFord, 197; component part of Phillips's Indian Brigade, 249;

Cherokee

composition,

in

Honey

Springs, 288; stationed at

Mackey's

Salt

(Mo.)

:

Seddon, James A: 270, footnote, 299,

Shians

instructs

footnote',

footnote,

Armstrong Academy, 320;

Scott

Indian brigades, 329 Seminole Battalion: 152, 312, footnote Seminole Nation: 130 (Confederate) 162,

tiates

treaty

with,

Murrow,

:

nego-

Pike

footnote;

agent,

footnote;

173,

agree to furnish five companies of mounted volunteers, 173, footnote; Creeks and, want separate military department made of Indian Terri-

Seminoles

Unionist)

or

(Federal

Carruth teacher among, 59;

desti-

footnote;

tution of refugee, 83,

:

in

Home Indian Regiment Guards, 114 and footnote; attempt

First

tribal

reorganization,

members,

bill,

176;

176, footnote

Seneca-Shawnees: refugees,

Wyandot

116, 204;

treaty, 237, foot-

note

Shawnee Agency (Kans.)

236, foot-

:

note

Shawnee Reserve (Kans.)

:

205

and

footnote

Shawnees: 48; footnote; tion,

loyal

footnote;

made

kee country implicated

Agency,

in

183

U.

First Indian

in

113,

to

;

(La.)

:

68,

footnote

303,

footnote

Franz: 29 Simms, W. E: 176, footnote Sigel,

Sixth

Kansas Cavalry: 249

Slavery: 298, footnote Smith, James M. C: 173, footnote Smith, Caleb P: 60, footnote, 61, 99; authorizes expenditure of funds for relief

of refugees, 83

Smith, John: 62, footnote Smith, E. Kirby: 317; seeks to reem-

among

service

In-

201, 335 and footnote; assigned to command, 269; approves

dians,

Steele's

adoption of Fabian policy,

297; reply to Stand Watie, 297-298, footnote; detaches

kansas, 303

command

of In-

S.,

66,

Expedi-

from Cherorefugees,

116;

tragedy at Wichita

Neosho Agency In-

;

subscribes to idea of

forming two Indian brigades, 310; is

Senecas: 48, 204 and footnote

object to

Shreveport

118, 120, footnote

dian Territory from that of Ar-

228

Senate Committee on Indian Affairs

(Confederate): Johnson's

:

Shoe-Nock-Me-Koe:

ploy Pike for

tory, 278-279; disperse, 323

footnote

274,

:

Ford (Mo.): 197

Shoal Creek (Mo.)

reports prospects of forming three

Seminoles

(Cheyennes)

Shirley's

317, Scott to attend meeting of council

at

foot-

footnote

13

:

205,

Sherman (Tex.) 190 Sherman, William T: 44

Works, 325

Sedalia

204,

makes treaty with, 235 Shelby, Jo: 45, 194, 200 Sheridan, Philip H: work cited, 296,

252;

at

dismounted

fought

upon,

note; Dole

stanchest of Steele's friends, 311;

opposed to three brigade plan and to promotion of Cooper implicit in it,

318;

commends work

of Steele,

318;

address emended by Maxey,

330;

friend of

Maxey, 334; holds

in

abeyance orders for retirement

of

Maxey,

to

convention with Canby, 335

334, footnote; enters in-

Smith's Mill: 28

Snead,

Thomas

footnote, 296,

Snow, George

L:

work

cited,

15,

footnote,

83,

footnote

C:

80,

footnote

Soda Springs (Okla.)

:

291,

footnote

;

;

Index The:

South,

West, 43

bulwark

home

love of

;

towards

indifference

great

state,

187-188; Choctaws re-

of,

ported as wavering in

allegiance

220; Indian Territory as sepa-

to,

comes too

rate military entity

late

into reckonings,

250 Confederacy:

Southern

re-

Pea Ridge, 13;

of battle of

sults

decisive

expected by Missouri to force

sit-

399

Speight,

of

treaties

alliance,

21

Pike's

;

ritory

22-23

for,

Weer

;

suggests

Cherokee Nation dissolve

that

management

alliance with, 134;

Indian

affairs

River:

Stand Watie Rifles,

position

32

;

lot

punish Indians for going over

ance

with,

faith

in,

bad

alli-

losing

with

by Cherokees, 279-281

devotion

command

establishment delayed by proof

Pike's

mission,

175;

for establishment of, 176

Southern Superintendency (Federal)

:

Honey

at

Kirby Smith,

plaints to

related

note;

Springs, 288

ment

309; 310;

Fork, 312;

has

military units

District

of

Missouri:

great raid Stanton,

Southwestern Division of District of

of,

;

au-

Cherokee

Steele's

appraise-

skirmish

Barren

at

command all

summoned

of First

Cherokee to

328

;

camp name

terror, 331; last

332

Edwin M:

refuses to

309

301

of

becomes source of

26-27

300;

appeals,

formation

of,

297, foot-

advancement,

proposed

com-

;

Boudinot,

to

on Limestone Prairie,

Southwest, The: 46, 70

Phil-

;

footnote;

262,

Indian Brigade, 327;

footnote

Southwestern

engage-

;

Brigade,

117,

127;

Steele's great reliance upon, 270; cavalry raids, 272, 312; forced to comretire from Cabin Creek, 285 manded First and Second Chero-

Southern Superintendency (Confeder-

bill

Stephens,

of First Chero-

Regiment,

kee

thorizes

:

observation,

Camp

makes reports and

323

longation

of

take

compels, to re-cross Arkansas,

Southern Expedition: 73 and footnote Southern Indian Regiments: 24-25 ate)

men

elected Principal Chief, 193

kee

re-asserted,

to,

Indians pledge anew loyalty

317; to,

charged

273-274;

faith

Indian

Indians

232;

poor trim

in

encampment on Cowskin Prairie, 119; home of, 127; successful skirmishing commented upon, 152;

want

Cherokees repudiate

corps

112,

35;

Kansas

224;

as

scouting,

with, 206; to

colonel of

;

28;

to

lips

to,

men

;

makes way

218; in

politicians

25

undisciplined,

refuse

in

159, footnote

:

Second Regiment Cherokee Mount-

respect to guerrillas, 205, footnote]

throw

Shirley's

Ford on, 197 Staked Plains: 153

Wyandots

to

126;

119,

ments, 112, 113, 119 and footnote',

with

policy

footnote',

174,

51 cited in foot-

of

view of obligations towards Indians,

26,

:

its

171;

149-150,

of,

foot-

notes on pages 15, 52, 97

Spring

and

great purpose to save Indian Ter-

of, 246,

work

Spring, Leverett:

dian

by

(Mo.)

Springfield

ed

determined

brigade

footnote

note, 267,

uation for her, 18; relation of In-

Territory

W:

J.

footnote, 76;

75,

countenance use of In-

dians as soldiers, 76 and footnote;

Missouri: 127

Spavinaw Creek (Okla.) 130, 138 Spavinaw Hills (Okla.) 127 :

:

efficient

administration

of,

96; dep-

recates interference in military af-

Spears, John: 279

fairs

Speer, John: 43, footnote

note

in

Kansas,

98

and

foot-

The Indian

400

Stanton, Frederick P: 59, 72, footnote State Department (Confederate) 171, :

172,

footnote

Large of Provisional Govcited,

174, footnote

Frank Preston: work

cited,

on pages 42, 87

in footnotes

226 and footnote

Thaddeus: 57, George W:

Stidham,

ernment: work Stearns,

Stevens, Robert S: 211, footnote, 212,

Stevens,

State Rights: 18 Statutes at

Steele, Frederick: in

War

as Participant in the Civil

command

footnote,

62,

footnote

173,

and footnote

Hall: 58

Stockton's

D: Lane ordered

Sturgis, S.

of District of Kansas,

coop-

to

command

erate with, 56; placed in

of De-

footnote

60,

98

policy

;

partment of Arkansas, 322; argues over military status of Fort Smith,

with respect to First Indian Expe-

321-322

of Indian expedition, 104; military

Steele,

fers

James: special agent, 100; inHalleck unfavorable to In-

dian

expedition,

101

presents

;

credentials at arsenal at Fort Leav-

enworth, 101

Sac and Fox chiefs

;

willing to abide by decision, 235, footnote Steele,

William:

Holmes

for

preferred

to

247;

duty,

245,

Cooper,

to

report

to

footnote;

246

sends

;

opposed

103-104;

dition,

despotism, 104; of

Indians,

state

Weer,

forbids enlistment

105

refusal

;

Sugar Creek (Ark.) 30, footnote Sumner, E. V: 260, footnote Susquehanna River: 232 :

Tahlequah

(Okla.): 132, 136; Rains

makes headquarters,

Hindman

responsibilities to Indian Territory,

Cherokee Nation, 193

and

difficulties

embarrass-

ments, 261-269; appeal for loyalty to

Confederate cause, 267-268, footex

note;

Indian

officio

affairs,

superintendent

of

275-276; regards In-

dian Territory as buffer, 276; influences to undermine, 278 makes ;

stand

Creek country, 291

in

command

;

op-

bad condition, 292; crosses from Creek position to, 310;

into

Choctaw country, 295

neys

to

Bonham

to

in

;

consult

jour-

with

McCulloch, 302-303 command detached from that of Arkansas, 303 305,

and

Cooper,

ed of tory,

;

;

treasury

of

Hindman

ap-

pearsin, 193; steamer, 263, footnote

D:

Talliaferro (Taliaferro?), T.

267,

footnote

Tandy Walker: er,

265

supporter of Coop-

recruits

;

among Choctaws,

265;

appointment,

asks

for

footnote;

265,

establishment

Indian

of

Territory as separate military department,

279

;

commanded Regi-

ment of Choctaws and Chickasaws at

in

Honey petty

Springs, graft,

306,

288

;

indulging

footnote;

Choctaws under,

in

ser-

Cam-

footnote;

den campaign, 326; has command of Second Indian Brigade, 327

work

disparaged

policy

command

and

archives

at,

force

vice of

by practice and 306 in matter of feeding indigents and refugees, 307 and footnote; relievdiscredited

expeditionary

Blunt's

;

;

size of force,

192;

fotnote;

130,

places white cavalry

seizes

253;

rein-

to

117, footnote

most of troops in direction of Red takes large view of River, 248 ;

idea

to

of Indian Terri-

311; Kirby Smith

commends

work, 318 Stettaner Bros: 211, footnote

Tawa Kuwus: Taylor, N.

G:

274, footnote

207, footnote

Taylor, R: 297, footnote Taylor, Samuel M: 279

Tecumseh: 73, footnote Te-Nah: 65, footnote Tenth Kansas Infantry: Texans: assist Indians

117, at

118

Leetown

;

Index engagement,

away

31;

fighting

"the cold weather people," 65, foot-

note

malicious

circulate

;

stories

about Pike, 160, footnote; disposi-

towards

;

not

possible to deal with Indians

ar-

tion

268

self-sacrifice,

bitrarily, 326

Texas:

troops, 25

from,

upon,

for

Pike to call for troops

;

way

36;

likely

to,

be

to

blocked by Southern Indians, 61;

Pike wants to be near, 151; antiPike

spreading

reports

through,

road from Missouri

169;

Trans-Mississippi footnote,

to,

173,

Oldham, senator from, footnote; rumors current that

Department: 168,

149,

186,

128,

187,

192,

245-246, 269, 270 and footnote, 315,

318-319

Trans-Mississippi District of Depart-

ment

no.

2:

footnote,

requisition

179;

401

14,

20,

19,

footnote,

128,

25,

127,

191

190,

Treaties of Alliance: 21, 23 and foot-

and footnote

note, 173

Trench, E. B: 215, footnote Turner, E. P: 292, footnote

Turner, John W: 83 and footnote Tus-te-nu-ke-ema-ela: 108, footnote Tus-te-nuk-ke: 108, footnote

footnote; 176,

Pike in,

conspiring with unionists,

is

Mississippi

Department,

speculation

cotton

from

detached

199;

245-246

alluring

men

west

of

virtual

Mississippi,

Bankhead

footnote;

alarmed

commissary

great

footnote;

depot

safety

for

chaos

in,

of,

303

;

268,

becomes 292; Steele con287,

tracts for clothing in northern, 308

Thayer, John M: 324 and footnote Thayer, William Roscoe: work cited in footnotes

on pages

41, 45, 96

Third Choctaw Regiment: 321 Thomas, L: 74-75, footnote, 100,

109,

footnote

Van Buren

(Ark.)

Van Dorn,

Earl:

26,

34,

35,

162, footnote, 177

:

14, footnote, 20, 25,

appointment,

36;

19;

failure to credit Indians in report,

and

31

footnote,

orders In-

148;

dians to harass enemy on of

own

country,

border

no;

35-36,

tele-

graphic request to Davis, 127, foot-

and appropriates and foot-

note, 186; diverts

Pike's

supplies,

147-148

note; hopes Price will be successor,

185

Vann's Ford: 144

Vaughan, Champion: Vaughn, Richard C:

305,

footnote

218,

footnote

Verdigris River: 76, 79, 80, 85, 142,

Throckmorton, James

W:

335,

foot-

note

144,

145,

210-211,

footnote,

273,

footnote; tributary of Arkansas, 22

Thurston's House:

54,

footnote

Timiny Barnet: 62, footnote Tishomingo (Okla.) 200 Toe-Lad-Ke: talk, 67, footnote;

Verdigris Valley: 79, 85

Vernon County (Mo.) Vicksburg

:

sig-

nature, 69, footnote

Tonkawas:

with

Pike,

surviving,

buckle,

flee

to

Fort

Ar-

184 and footnote

Toombs, Robert:

171,

footnote

Totten, James: 197

footnote,

(Miss.):

:

304, footnote

188,

footnote,

259, 260, 283, 301, footnote

Villard,

negotiations

182; about one-half of, butchered, 184;

62, footnote

Usher, John P: 231, 239, footnote

Trans-

with ready money, 248, footnote; public feeling towards deserters, 266,

Upper Creeks:

Henry: work

cited, 45, foot-

note Villard,

Oswald Garrison: work

cit-

ed, 226, footnote

Vore, Israel

G: 302 and

footnote

173,

Wakoes Wacoes) (

:

66, footnote; sent

out as runners, 274, footnote

;

The Indian

4-02 Walker,

as Participant in the Civil

L. P: 172, footnote

Walnut Creek (Kans.)

227 152,

85,

79,

:

205, footnote

Walnut Grove:

project

;

:

:

footnote, 73, footnote, 76, 99, 100

Warren (Tex.) 190 Warrensburg (Mo.)

Territory,

230,

footnote; keep too

many men

need-

in

desertions, 292

and

footnote

Western

Military

District:

43,

47,

footnote

West's Battery: 267, footnote

W:

Whistler,

69, footnote

White, George E: 157, footnote White Auxiliary (Confederate)

:

:

concentrating

for

Indian

tribes

lessly in, 259;

35

Walworth, E: 329, footnote War Department (Confederate) 127, 172 and footnote, 186, 318 War Department (Federal) 60 and

War

58

:

Washington (George) 65, footnote Washington Territory. 232

urged by Pike, 24 and footnote; ordered to Little Rock, 129, 147;

Wattles, Augustus: 46, footnote, 54, footnote, 57, 225-228

Kirby Smith thinks possible to separate from Indian troops, 310 White Auxiliary (Federal) Dole's recommendation regarding, 99

:

H:

Stephen

Wattles,

footnote,

131,

333 and footnote

Weas:

footnote

77,

Webber's 260, 271,

276,

287,

216,

:

255,

footnote

Weed, Thurlow: work William: 121,

ment,

and

footnote,

dians,

133;

ideas on

with Indian

communica-

footnote;

133,

govern-

S.

okee

Nation

vote,

134,

detachments

sends out two

reconnoitre,

to

by

slavery

abolish

footnote',

Cher-

136;

Campbell at Fort Gibson, 136137; faults and failures, 139, 140142; arrested by Salomon, 139; Ritchie's men run amuck and attack their comrades in brigade of, 197 Welch, O. G: 29 joins

J.

W:

West, The:

character of leaders,

federate fairs

in,

267, footnote

war 45

;

44; character of Con-

in,

criticism

management

of Indian af-

149-150; establishment of

Indian superintendency tled

by

174-175;

Provisional Price

operations for,

unset-

Government,

submits 186,

left

plan

footnote;

of cir-

cumstances and conditions concerning

migrations

of

eastern

tribes,

Indians ask

comcomparison with In-

123

movement, Blunt orders Salomon retrograde

support

Brigade,

Indian

of

203; send to

143, to

192-

193. 203

White Chief: 68, footnote White Cloud: 77, footnote White Hair: 207, footnote, chief

principal

note;

238, foot-

of

Osages,

240, footnote

Whitney, H. C:

50, footnote, 52, foot-

note, 54, footnote

Wichita Agency: edy,

indifference towards, 43;

;

and footnote; brigaded Home Guards, 125;

117

tion with Ross, 134; proposes

of

109 and footnote

for evidence of existence, 118;

130,

Indian relations with U.

Wells,

regarding, 102; orders

position, 118;

120,

119,

100; for,

cited, 60, foot-

note

Weer,

instructions

not heard from,

Stanton's

(Okla.)

Falls

:

footnote; trag-

64,

Belmont, temporary,

183-184;

274, footnote

Wichita Mountains: 153 Wigfall, Louis

T:

264, footnote, 277,

footnote

Wilder, A. Carter: 230, footnote, 322, footnote

Wilder,

D.

W:

footnote,

58,

footnote

Willamette River: 232 Williams, James

M:

Williams, the: 327

284, 285

305,

Index Williamson, George: 327 Wilson, Hill P: work

cited, 226, foot-

note

Woodruff's Battery: 147, 150, 154 Wright, Marcus J: work cited, footnote,

Wilson's Creek (Mo.): battle

of,

34,

Edward:

Wolf Creek (Ark.) Wood, W. D: 218,

83, :

135, 136, 145, 164

cit-

Dole's

:

204, footnote

secessionist In-

and footnote; escape

Kansas,

military

footnote

60, footnote

to

want

206;

service,

abortive

237, footnote

19,

footnote

City (Kans.)

dians, 206

footnote

Woodburn, James Albert: work 57, footnote,

Wyandot

187,

Wyandots: robbed by

footnote, 49

Wolcott,

ed,

403

206,

treaty

to

in-

render

footnote;

with,

236-