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AL-FARABI KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

D.N. Akbayeva Zh.T. Eshova

TEST TASKS ON DISCIPLINE «MAIN PROCESSES AND DEVICES OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY»

Educational and methodical manual

Almaty «Qazaq university» 2015 1

UDC 532. 5. 013 LBC 22. 253. 3 А 29 Recommended for publication by the decision of the Academic Council of the Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology and Editorial and Publishing Council of the National University of Kazakhstan named after Al-Farabi (Protocol №4 dated 09.04.2015 y.) Reviewers: doctor of chemical sciences, professor B.S. Selenova candidate philological sciences, associated professor A.A. Muldagalieva doctor of chemical sciences, head scientific worker G.O. Nurgalieva

Akbayeva D.N., Eshova Zh.T. А 29 Test tasks on discipline «The main processes and devices of chemical technology»: educational and methodical manual / D.N.Akbayeva, Zh.T. Eshova – Almaty: Qazaq university, 2015. – 102 p. ISBN 978-601-04-1325-2 This manual includes the test tasks on fundamentals of hydrodynamics and hydrodynamic processes: general questions of hydraulics, transportation of liquids and gases, separation of liquid non-uniform systems; heat-exchange processes: heat exchange bases, industrial ways of heating, process of evaporation and evaporating devices; mass-exchange processes: mass transfer bases, absorption, adsorption, distillation, rectification, drying, crystallization. The manual is intended for students of chemistry and chemical technology faculty of higher educational institutions. В учебно-методическое пособие включены тестовые задания по основам гидродинамики и гидродинамическиx процессов: общие вопросы гидравлики, транспортирование жидкостей и газов, разделение жидких неоднородных систем; теплообменные процессы: основы теплообмена, промышленные способы нагревания, процесс выпаривания и выпарные аппараты; массообменные процессы: основы массопередачи, абсорбция, адсобция, перегонка, ректификация, сушка, кристаллизация. Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов факультетов химии и химической технологии высших учебных заведений.

UDC 532. 5. 013 LBC 22. 253. 3 © Akbayeva D. N., Eshova Zh. T., 2015 © Al-Farabi KazNU, 2015

ISBN 978-601-04-1325-2

2

INTRODUCTION

The engineering discipline «The main processes and devices of chemical technology» considers the standard (main) processes which are present at the majority of chemical and technological productions. On purpose and a place in curricula of chemical and technological specialties this course gives basic engineering preparation and connects such natural-science disciplines as «General Physics», «Higher mathematics» and «Physical chemistry» with special technological courses. The lecture course corresponds to the approved syllabus on the discipline of the same name. Selection and material arrangement in the manual are that the test tasks are consistently given in it on hydrodynamic, thermal and mass-exchanged processes of chemical technology that corresponds to subject of the lectures course, presented in three main sections. It will allow to impart to students and young specialists skills of complex use of regularities of hydrodynamics and a heat-mass-exchange in calculations of the chemical equipment. During the manual writing the experience of discipline teaching on chair of physical chemistry, a catalysis and petrochemistry of the Al-Farabi Kazakh National University was used. The main objective of this manual was in acceleration of fixing of theoretical knowledge within modern credit technology of training and to formation at the reader of engineering views that will help, in turn, to its best adaptation in the conditions of constantly increasing requirements of the chemical industry. Therefore such test tasks which have most a general meaning were picked up and can be used for the solution of standard tasks on processes and devices of chemical technology.

3

1. HYDRODYNAMIC PROCESSES 1. A) B) C) D) E)

Hydrodynamic process is: Movement of liquids and gases Heating of liquids and gases Cooling of liquids and gases Condensation of vapors Boiling of liquids

2.

Liquids, in which movement of separate parts relative others happens without friction, and their volume and density don’t change, called: Real solutions Ideal solutions True solutions Colloidal solutions Saturated solutions

A) B) C) D) E) 3. A) B) C) D) E) 4. A) B) C) D) E)

The equation of stream continuity is expressed by a formula: V = wfρ V = w1f1 = w2f2 = w3f3 = … M = wfρ V = 0,785 d2w M = Vρ Specify the equation of a volume consumption of liquid for the pipeline with round section: V = wfρ V = w1f1 = w2f2 = w3f3 = … M = wfρ V = 0,785 d2w M = Vρ

5.

Specify the equation of a mass consumption of liquid for the pipeline with round section: A) V = wfρ 4

B) V = w1f1 = w2f2 = w3f3 = … C) M = 0,785d2wρ D) V = 0,785d2w E) M = Vρ 6.

Specify the formula of equivalent diameter for streams of not round section: V А) d = 0,785 w В)

d eq = rh

С)

d 4 f rh = П 4f d eq = П

D) E)

rh =

7. A) B) C) D) E)

Specify the equation of equivalent diameter: deq = 4П/S deq = П/S deq = S/П deq = 4S/П deq = S/4П

8.

In the equation for determination of liquid speed in an opening V = f 0εϕ 2 gH the size ε is: Speed coefficient Coefficient of a stream compression Expense coefficient Resistance coefficient Expansion coefficient

A) B) C) D) E) 9.

In the equation for determination of liquid speed in an opening V = f 0εϕ 2 gH the size ϕ is: A) Speed coefficient 5

B) C) D) E)

Coefficient of a stream compression Expense coefficient Resistance coefficient Expansion coefficient

10. In the equation for determination of liquid speed in an opening V = f 0εϕ 2 gH the size εϕ is: A) Speed coefficient B) Coefficient of a stream compression C) Expense coefficient D) Resistance coefficient E) Expansion coefficient 11. A) B) C) D) E)

Determine the hydraulic radius for round section: D − d/4 ab/2a+b d/4 a/4 h/6

12. A) B) C) D) E)

Determine the hydraulic radius for a rectangle: D − d/4 ab/2a+b d/4 a/4 h/6

13. A) B) C) D) E)

Determine the hydraulic radius for ring section: D − d/4 ab/2a+b d/4 a/4 h/6

14. Determine the hydraulic radius for square section: A) D − d/4 B) ab/2a+b 6

C) d/4 D) a/4 E) h/6 15. A) B) C) D) E)

Determine the fictitious speed of liquid: ρVS ρwS V/S wS wV

16. The volume consumption of liquid following through an opening at the constant level of liquid in a vessel is expressed by a formula: A) V = 0,785d 2 w

πd 2

B)

V=

C)

V = α 0,785d 2 2 gH

4

D) V = α E)

w

πd 2 4

2g

ρm − ρ h. ρ

V = α 0,785d 2 2 g

ρ sol − ρ h ρ

G) V = α 0,785d 2 2 gh

ρ sol − ρ ρ

17. The volume expense of a stream measured by means of a normal diaphragm and the differential manometer connected to it is expressed by a formula: A) V = α 0,785d 2 2 gH B)

V = 0,785d 2 w

7

πd 2

C)

V=

E)

V = ϕε 0,785d 2 2 gH

E)

V = α 0,785d 2 2 g

w 4 D) V = α 0,785d 2 2 gH ρ sol − ρ h ρ

18. The relation of dynamic coefficient of viscosity to density of liquid is called: A) Kinematic coefficient B) Diffusive coefficient C) Efficiency D) Friction coefficient E) Distribution coefficient 19. For the established mode the differential equation of movement carries the name of: A) Bernoulli B) Euler C) Navier-Stokes D) Newton E) Reynolds 20. A) B) C) D) E)

Bernoulli’s equation describes the law of: Weight preservations Energy preservations Structure preservations Impulse preservations Avogadro

21. Power of internal friction, showing the resistance to a movement of real liquids, is called: A) Pressure B) Viscosity C) Capacity D) Density E) Velocity 8

22. Unit of viscosity measure in absolute system of units of mechanical sizes (MS) is: A) g/cm3 B) N/m2 C) m/s D) Poise E) m3/s 23. Relative density is expressed by a formula: A) B) C) D) E)

∆=

ρ ρw

m V µ ν= ρ γ ρ= g γ = ρg ρ=

24. The kinematic coefficient of viscosity is expressed by a formula: A) B) C) D) E)

∆=

ρ ρw

m V µ ν= ρ γ ρ= g γ = ρg ρ=

25. Measure unit of kinematic viscosity coefficient is: A) Pa·s B) m2/s 9

C) m3/s D) N·m2/s E) m/s 26. A) B) C) D) E)

Measure unit of dynamic viscosity coefficient is: Pa·s m2/s m3/s N·m2/s m/s

27. Define the correct expression for absolute pressure with an excessive pressure: A) Рabs= Рatm – Рvac B) Рabs= Рatm – Рex C) Рabs= Рex – Рatm D) Рabs= Рatm + Рvac E) Рabs= Рex + Рatm 28. Define the correct expression for absolute pressure at vacuum: A) Рabs= Рatm – Рvac B) Рabs= Рatm – Рex C) Рabs= Рex – Рatm D) Рabs= Рatm + Рvac E) Рabs= Рex + Рatm 29. In the main equation of a hydrostatics Z1 + P1/ρg = Z2 + P2/ρg the relation P/ρg is called: A) Dynamic pressure B) Full pressure C) Kinematic pressure D) Piezometric pressure E) Geometrical pressure 30. Write Bernoulli’s equation for the ideal liquid: A) Z1 − P1/ρg − W21/2g = Z2 − P2/ρg − W22/2g B) P1/ρg + W21/2g = P2/ρg + W22/2g 10

C) Z1 + P1/ρg = Z2P2/ρg D) P1/ρg − W21/2g = P2/ρg − W22/2g E) Z1 + P1/ρg + W21/2g = Z2 + P2/ρg + W22/2g 31. A) B) C) D) E)

In Bernoulli’s equation the size W2/2g is called: Hydrodynamic pressure Static pressure Geometrical pressure High-speed pressure Hydrostatic pressure

32. A) B) C) D) E)

In Bernoulli’s equation the size W2/2g characterizes: Specific static energy Specific potential energy of situation in this point Total energy in this point Specific dynamic energy Specific kinetic energy in this point

33. In Bernoulli’s equation: Z + P/ρg + W2/2g characterizes P/ρg: A) High-speed pressure B) Static pressure C) Dynamic pressure D) Geometrical pressure E) Full hydrodynamic pressure 34. A) B) C) D) E)

The power balance allows to define: Weight expense Concentration expense Expense of all substance Warmth expense Expense of components

35. In the main equation of a hydrostatic Z1 + P1 / ρg = Z 2 + P2 / ρg the size Z is called: A) Piestic pressure B) High-speed pressure 11

C) Hydrostatic pressure D) Geometrical pressure E) Rush of pressure 36. The theoretical base of science about processes and devices of chemical technology is the following fundamental laws of the nature: A) Avagadro’s law B) Conservation laws of weight, energy and impulse C) Pascal’s law D) Stokes’s law E) Fourier’s law 37. A) B) C) D) E)

At a laminar current of liquids the … Particles of liquid move randomly in various directions. Particles of liquid move by parallel layers Liquid particles in the pipeline move irregularly Speed of the liquid movement in the center of the pipeline Speed of the liquid movement is minimum on the pipeline is maximum in any point

38. Viscosity of liquids and gases is a physical and chemical constant and it is defined by the: A) Volume of liquid and gas B) Temperature of liquid and gas C) Concentration of liquid and gas D) Density of liquid and gas H) Refraction index of liquid and gas 39. Average speed at a laminar mode of liquid movement is expressed by a formula: A) Wav = 0,85Wmax B) Wav = 0,25Wmax C) Wav = Wmax D) Wav = 0,5Wmax E) Wav = 0,75Wmax 12

40. Random motion of liquid with high speeds in various directions is called: A) Laminar B) Turbulent C) Established D) Unsteady E) Constant 41. Average speed at a turbulent mode of liquid movement is expressed by a formula: A) Wav = 0,85Wmax B) Wav = 0,25Wmax C) Wav = Wmax D) Wav = 0,5Wmax E) Wav = 0,75Wmax 42. The size, defining nature of liquid movement, is called as criterion of: A) Reynolds B) Euler C) Froude D) Nusselt E) Grasgof 43. The equation considering action of gravity, friction and hydrostatic pressure in a liquid stream at movement of real liquids, carries the name of: A) Bernoulli B) Euler C) Navier-Stokes D) Newton E) Reynolds 44. Value of Reynolds' criterion at a laminar flow of a film with a smooth interface of phases will be: A) Ref < ∼ 12 B) Ref > ∼ 12 13

C) Ref > ∼ 1600 D) ∼ 12 < Ref < ∼ 1600 E) Ref ≅ 12 45. Value of Reynolds' criterion at a laminar flow of a film with a wave interface of phases will be: A) Ref < ∼ 12 B) Ref > ∼ 12 C) Ref > ∼ 1600 D) ∼ 12 < Ref < ∼ 1600 E) Ref ≅ 12 46. Value of Reynolds' criterion at turbulent flow of a film will be: A) Ref < ∼ 12 B) Ref > ∼ 12 C) Ref > ∼ 1600 D) ∼ 12 < Reпл < ∼ 1600 E) Ref ≅ 12 47. Liquid movement with a small speed the parallel streams, which aren’t mixing up with each other, is called: A) Laminar B) Turbulent C) Established D) Unsteady E) Mixed 48. The relation of friction forces to forces of inertia and defining mode of liquid movement is called as criterion of: A) Froude B) Euler C) Reynolds D) Nusselt E) Grasgof

14

49. The relation of pressure forces to inertial forces is called as criterion of: A) Froude B) Euler C) Reynolds D) Nusselt E) Grasgof 50. A) B) C) D) E)

The forces relation of gravity to inertia is called as criterion of: Nusselt Euler Reynolds Froude Grasgof

51. Reynolds’ criterion is expressed by a formula: A) Re = dρw µ ∆p B) Eu = ρw 2 C) D) E)

w2 gd wτ Ho = l αl Nu = λ

Fr =

52. Euler’s criterion is expressed by a formula: dρw A) Re = µ ∆p B) Eu = ρw 2 C)

Fr =

w2 gd 15

D) E)

wτ l αl Nu = λ

Ho =

53. Froude’s criterion is expressed by a formula: dρw A) Re = µ ∆p B) Eu = ρw 2 C) D) E)

w2 gd wτ Ho = l αl Nu = λ

Fr =

54. The criterion of a homochronicity, considering unsteady movement of liquid, is expressed by a formula: dρw A) Re = µ ∆p B) Eu = ρw 2 C) D) E)

w2 gd wτ Ho = l αl Nu = λ

Fr =

55. Specify the formula characterizing Galilee’s criterion: dρw A) Re = µ 16

B) C) D) E)

Eu =

∆p ρw 2

w2 gd wτ Ho = l gl 3 ρ 2 Ga = µ2 Fr =

56. Specify the formula characterizing Archimedes’s criterion: dρw A) Re = µ ∆p B) Eu = ρw 2 C)

Fr =

w2 gd

D)

Ar =

gl 3ρ(ρ1 − ρ) µ2

E)

Ga =

gl 3 ρ 2 µ2

57. What value of Reynolds' criterion is characteristic for the streams passing on direct pipes at a laminar flow? А) Re ≤ 2300 В) Re ≥ 2300 С) Re > 10000 D) Re = 2300÷10000 E) Re > 100000 58. What value of Reynolds' criterion is characteristic for the streams passing on direct pipes at turbulent flow? А) Re ≤ 2300 В) Re ≥ 2300 17

С) Re > 10000 D) Re = 2300÷10000 E) Re > 100000 59. Choose expression for Newton’s criterion: A) ∆P / ρw 2 B) C) D) E)

w 2 / gl fτ / mw wdρ / µ wτ / l

60. A) B) C) D) E)

What does the criterion of a homochronicity characterize? Natural convection Action of gravity Resistance to a stream Unsteady movement Established nature of movement

61. A) B) C) D) E)

What does the Newton’s criterion characterize? The relation of force operating on a particle to inertia force Relation of inertial forces to gravity Relation of change of hydrostatic pressure force to inertia force Relation of inertial forces to friction forces Unsteady nature of movement

62. A) B) C) D) E)

Geometrical similarity is the relation: D1/D2 T1/T2 τ1/τ2 u1/u2 ρ1/ρ2

63. A) B) C)

Similarity of physical quantities is the relation: T1/T2 D1/D2 ρ1/ρ2 18

D) τ1/τ2 E) L1/L2 64. A) B) C) D) E)

Parametrical criterion is the relation: u1/u2 L1/D2 ρ1/ρ2 τ1/τ2 µ1/µ2

65. The relations of various sizes of the same name in nature and in model are called: A) Simplexes B) Physical parameters C) Chemical constant D) Diffusive criteria E) Similarity coefficients 66. A) B) C) D) E)

Functional dependence φ (Ho, Fr, Eu, Re) = 0 is called: The equations in the generalized variables Physical parameters Similarity constant Parametrical criteria Properties of substances

67. The mass velocity carried to all section of the device can be expressed in: A) kg/m2 B) kg/(м2⋅s) C) kg/s D) kg/m3 E) kg/min 68. The size, demonstrating in how many times the pressure lost on friction differs from a high-speed pressure, is called: A) Heat diffusivity coefficient B) Heat conductivity coefficient 19

C) Resistance coefficient D) Coefficient of dynamic viscosity E) Coefficient of kinematic viscosity 69. At laminar movement of viscous liquid the coefficient of friction is determined by a formula: 64 A) λ = Re B) λ = 0,316 0 , 25

Re C) λ = 128 Re 0 D) λ = ,316 0,5 Re E) λ = 0,158 0 , 25 Re

70. At turbulent movement of viscous liquid the coefficient of friction is determined by a formula: A) λ = 64 Re 0 B) λ = ,316 0 , 25 Re C) λ = 128 Re

D) λ = 0,316 0,5 Re E) λ = 0,158 0 , 25 Re 71. Darsi-Veysbah’s equation expressing resistance to a stream, has an appearance: λl w 2 ρ A) ∆P = d 2 20

B) C) D) E)

w2ρ 2 wµL ∆P = 2 d

∆P =

∆P =

4σ d eq

hп = ξ l .r .

w2 2g

72. Local resistance to a stream determine by a formula: λl w 2 ρ A) ∆P = d 2 w2ρ B) ∆P = 2 wµL C) ∆P = 2 d D) E)

∆P =

4σ d eq

hl = ξ l .r .

w2 2g

73. The repeated hesitation pumping of liquid or gas by means of pumps through a working zone is called: A) Mechanical hashing B) Circulating hashing C) Hashing with compressed air D) Hashing with inert gas E) Pneumatic hashing 74. A) B) C)

Hashing with rotary devices is called: Mechanical hashing Pneumatic hashing Circulating hashing 21

D) Hashing by means of fans E) Hashing with compressed air 75. Internal circulating hashing by means of propeller pumps is called: A) High-speed mechanical hashing B) High-speed pneumatic hashing C) Low-speed mechanical hashing D) Hashing by means of fans E) Hashing with bladed mixers 76. A) B) C) D) E)

Internal circulating hashing by bladed mixers belongs to: High-speed mechanical hashing High-speed pneumatic hashing Low-speed mechanical hashing Hashing by means of fans Hashing by means of propeller pumps

77. A) B) C) D) E)

Hashing in liquid environments is carried out for: Intensification of a mass exchange processes Reduction in the process velocity Increase of process velocity Pressure decrease Uniform crushing of solid particles in volume of liquid

78. A) B) C) D) E)

Hashing in liquid environments is carried out for: Uniform distribution of gas in volume of liquid Reduction in the process velocity Increase of process velocity Pressure decrease Viscosity increase

79. The criteria equation of hydrodynamics for hashing processes of liquid environments has an appearance: A) K N = f (Ga, Ar , Re) B)

K N = f (Re, Fr , Г D , Г b , Г H ...) 22

C) D) E)

K N = f (Nu , Re) K N = f (Pr, Ar , Nu , Re) K N = f ( Ho, Nu , Ga)

80. Specify a formula by which determine the equivalent diameter of channels in a granular layer: А)

d=

В)

d eq = rh 4ε d eq = σ

С)

V 0,785w

f П

D)

rh =

E)

d eq =

81. A) B) C) D) E)

Point to the Reynolds’ modified criterion for hashing process: nd 2 ρ / µ ndρ / µ n2d / g ∆P / ρ (nd ) 2 N / ρn 3 d 5

82. A) B) C) D)

Point to the Froude’s modified criterion for hashing process: nd 2 ρ / µ ndρ / µ

E)

N / ρn 3 d 5

4f П

n2d / g ∆P / ρ (nd ) 2

83. Point to the Euler’s modified criterion for hashing process: A) nd 2 ρ / µ 23

E)

ndρ / µ n2d / g ∆P / ρ (nd ) 2 N / ρn 3 d 5

84. A) B) C) D) E)

Point to the criterion of power for hashing process: nd 2 ρ / µ ndρ / µ n2d / g ∆P / ρ (nd ) 2 N / ρn 3 d 5

B) C) D)

85. The movement of particles in a fluidized layer is characterized by: A) Pseudo-liquefaction velocity B) Concentration change C) Difference of temperatures D) Change of volume E) Change of pressure 86. The surface of the material elements or particles which are in unit of volume represents itself: A) Specific surface B) Part of free volume C) Porosity D) Specific volume E) Surface area 87. Porosity of a layer at pseudo-liquefaction is calculated on a formula: А) (Vbulk − V ) / Vbulk B) Gl / S C)

4ε / σ

24

D)

( ρ − ρl ) g (1 − ε 0 )h0

E)

ρg (1 − ε 0 )h0

88. What limit is answered by value of free volume (porosity ε) layer of particles in the course of pseudo-liquefaction? A) ε = 1,0 – 2,0 B) ε = 1,5 – 2,0 C) ε = 0,5 – 1,0 D) ε = 2,5 – 3,0 E) ε = 3,0 – 3,5 89. The number of pseudo-liquefaction is calculated on a formula: A) KW = w / wcr B)

wv = w / ε

C)

h=

D)

ε 0 = 1 − ( ρ free / ρ ) d e = 4ε / σ

E)

1− ε0 h0 1− ε

90. The valid speed of a stream with free (live) section between particles of a layer is determined by the equation: A) KW = w / wcr B)

wv = w / ε

1− ε0 h0 1− ε D) ε 0 = 1 − ( ρ free / ρ ) C)

h=

E)

d e = 4ε / σ

91. The volume occupied by solid particles in the device is calculated by a formula: А) (Vbulk − V ) / Vbulk 25

B) C) D) E)

Gl / S

4ε / σ

fH (1 − ε ) ρg (1 − ε 0 )h0

92. Specify a formula by which the pressure losses in devices with a granular layer can be determined: λl w 2 ρ A) ∆P = d 2 w2ρ B) ∆P = 2 wµL C) ∆P = 2 d λlσρw 2 D) ∆P = 8ε 3 E)

hl = ξ l .r .

w2 2g

93. Specify a formula by which the pressure difference for the stream passing through the weighed layer of solid particles can be determined: λl w 2 ρ A) ∆P = d 2 B) ∆P = gH (1 − ε ) ⋅ ( ρ sol . part . − ρ av ) C) D) E)

wµL d2 λlσρw 2 ∆P = 8ε 3

∆P =

hl = ξ l .r .

w2 2g 26

94. A) B) C) D) E)

In technological operations liquids move with the help of: Pumps Compressors Vacuum pumps Centrifuges Cyclones

95. The cars which are soaking up the gases with a pressure lower than atmospheric and squeezing them up to the atmospheric pressure, are called: A) Pumps B) Compressors C) Vacuum pumps D) Centrifuges E) Cyclones 96. As a result of increase of what parameter the liquid energy changes when moving liquid by piston pumps? A) Volume B) Pressure C) Temperature D) Mass E) Viscosity 97. What parameter of the pump is defined by the liquid volume given by the pump to the pressure head pipeline in unit of time? A) Pressure B) Productivity C) Power D) Volume E) Efficiency 98. The specific increment of mechanical energy of the liquid proceeding through the pump, is called: A) Productivity B) Pressure C) Power 27

D) Volume E) Efficiency 99. A) B) C) D) E)

Measure unit of the power of pump is: m3/s N/m kW kg/m3 m2/s

100. Productivity of the piston compressor is determined by a formula: A) Q = fSnλ B) Q = fSn C) Q = fSn60 D) Q = fS E) Q = fSλ 101. Volume efficiency of the pump characterizes: A) The theoretical productivity B) The number of rotations of a shaft in one minute C) The theoretical pressure D) The absorption height E) The losses of power on mechanical friction 102. Hydraulic efficiency of the pump characterizes: A) The theoretical productivity B) The number of rotations of a shaft in one minute C) The theoretical pressure D) The absorption height E) The losses of power on mechanical friction 103. Mechanical efficiency of the pump characterizes: A) The theoretical productivity B) The number of rotations of a shaft in one minute C) The theoretical pressure D) The absorption height E) The losses of power on mechanical friction 28

104. Productivity of the pump is measured in: A) m3/s B) m2/s C) m/s2 D) kg/s E) m/s 105. If the average length of free run of molecules more than a size of a vessel or diameter of the pipeline, and work of pressure upon diameter of a vessel or the pipeline less than 18, vacuum is considered: A) High B) Low C) Average D) Big E) Small 106. If the average length of free run of molecules of the same order, as the vessel size, and work of residual pressure upon diameter of a vessel is in limits of 18 < Pd < 560, the vacuum is considered: A) High B) Low C) Average D) Big E) Small 107. If the average length of free run of molecules less than diameter of a vessel or the pipeline, and work of residual pressure upon diameter of a vessel more than 560, vacuum is considered: A) High B) Low C) Average D) Big E) Small 29

108. Power of the pump is determined by a formula: A) N = QρgH 1000η Q∆P 1000 η

B)

N=

C) D)

Q = fSn

E)

N=

Q = fSnλ

GL 3600 ⋅ 1000 η

109. Gases are compressed and moved with the help of: A) Pumps B) Compressors C) Vacuum pumps D) Centrifuges E) Cyclones 110. Productivity of the compressor is measured in: A) m3/s B) m2/s C) m/s2 D) kg/s E) kg/m3 111. The theoretical work spent by the multistage compressor at gas compression is measured in: A) J/kg B) J/s C) kW D) kJ E) J 112. Extent of compression at which the volume coefficient of the compressor becomes equal to zero is called: A) Harmful space B) Compression limit 30

C) Gas expansion polytrope indicator D) Productivity E) Indicator power 113. Choose a limit of residual pressure of system in the conditions of high vacuum: А) 10-3÷10-8 mm of mercury В) 1,0÷10-3 mm of mercury С) 1,0÷760 mm of mercury D) 560÷760 mm of mercury E) 760 mm of mercury 114. Choose a limit of residual pressure of system in the conditions of middle vacuum: А) 10-3÷10-8 mm of mercury В) 1,0÷10-3 mm of mercury С) 1,0÷760 mm of mercury D) 560÷760 mm of mercury E) 760 mm of mercury 115. Choose a limit of residual pressure of system in the conditions of low vacuum: А) 10-3÷10-8 mm of mercury В) 1,0÷10-3 mm of mercury С) 1,0÷760 mm of mercury D) 560÷760 mm of mercury E) 760 mm of mercury 116. The relation of power of the isothermic machine to the actual power of this machine working with gas cooling is called: A) Thermodynamic efficiency B) Isothermal efficiency C) Adiabatic efficiency D) Isoentropic efficiency E) Full isothermal efficiency 117. The work of isothermal and mechanical efficiencies is called: A) Thermodynamic efficiency B) Isothermal efficiency 31

C) Adiabatic efficiency D) Isoentropic efficiency E) Full isothermal efficiency 118. Productivity of the compressor is calculated on a formula: A) N = QρgH 1000η B) Q = fSn C) N = QγH 102η D) Q = fSnλ E) Q = ρgQH 119. Sedimentation by gravity is called: A) Upholding B) Separation C) Filtering D) Drying E) Centrifugation 120. Separation in limited volume at big concentration of a solid phase is called: A) Upholding B) Constrained sedimentation C) Filtering D) Drying E) Centrifugation 121. Separation process of heterogeneous systems by means of porous partitions which detain one phases of these systems and is passed by others, is called: A) Upholding B) Separation C) Filtering D) Drying E) Centrifugation 32

122. What kind of process the filtering belongs? A) To the physical B) To the hydrodynamic C) To the mass-exchange D) To the heat-exchange E) To the chemical 123. Separation of liquid heterogeneous systems under the influence of centrifugal forces is called: A) Filtering B) Upholding C) Centrifugation D) Drying E) Cleaning 124. Field intensity of centrifugal forces is characterized by a factor of: A) Filtering B) Upholding C) Separation D) Clarification E) Sedimentation 125. For purification of gases from a dust are applied: A) Centrifuges B) Filter presses C) Cyclones D) Pumps E) Compressors 126. Work of a separation factor into a surface of sedimentation of a solid phase in a drum of the centrifuge is called: A) Power B) Productivity index C) Pressure D) Tension E) Frequency

33

127. To what process movement of liquids and gases, and also separation of liquid heterogeneous systems belongs? A) To the hydrodynamic B) To the mass-exchanged C) To the heat-exchange D) To the chemical E) To the physical 128. The formula for the sedimentation speed of a spherical particle has an appearance: µ Re A) w = dρ µ B) w = dρ dρ C) w = µ dρg D) w = µ d 2 ρg E) w = µ 129. In the course of filtering precipitation the resistance is determined by a formula: A) R = rδ B) R = Rdep + Rpart C) R = ruq D) R = ∆PK E) R = ru 130. For filtering process the resistance has dimension: A) N⋅s/m3 B) N⋅s/m2 C) N⋅s/m D) N⋅s/m4 E) n⋅h/m3 34

131. For filtering process the specific resistance of sedimentation has dimension: A) N⋅s/m3 B) N⋅s/m2 C) N⋅s/m D) N⋅s/m4 E) n⋅h/m3 132. At centrifugation the factor of separation is expressed by a formula: ω 2r A) Ф = g wR B) Ф = g C C) ∆P = F mw2 D) C = r Mn 2 E) C = R 133. At centrifugation the centrifugal force is determined by a formula: ω2 r A) Ф = g wR B) Ф = g C C) ∆P = F mw2 D) C = r Mn 2 E) C = R 35

134. In cyclones the value of centrifugal force is determined by a formula: ω2 r A) Ф = g wR B) Ф = g C C) ∆P = F mw2 D) C = r Mn 2 E) C = R 135. Determine the material balance of separation process by total of substances: A) Gmix = Gcl. + Gdep B) Gmix xmix = Gcl. Xcl + Gdep xdep C) G = Gmix xdep – xmix/xdep – xcl D) G = Gmix xmix – xcl/xdep – xcl E) G = Gcl xcl – xmix/xdep – xcl 136. Determine the material balance of separation process by a disperse phase: A) Gmix = Gcl. + Gdep B) Gmix xmix = Gcl. Xcl + Gdep xdep C) G = Gmix xdep – xmix/xdep – xcl D) G = Gmix xmix – xcl/xdep – xcl E) G = Gcl xcl – xmix/xdep – xcl 137. Define the correct expression for resistance of a filtering partition: A) rs = ∆P/µhs B) rs = ∆P/µhsw C) Rf.p. = ∆P/µw D) rs = ∆P/µw E) rs = ∆P/hsw 36

138. Define the correct expression for the specific resistance of a precipitation: A) rs = ∆P/µhs B) rs = ∆P/µhsw C) Rf.p. = ∆P/µw D) rs = ∆P/µw E) rs = ∆P/hsw 139. Find the expression for size of a separation factor: A) FK sep B) C) D) E)

Gw 2 / gr 2πn / 60r

w 2 / gr G / gr

140. Find the expression for size of a productivity index: A) FK sep B) C) D) E)

Gw 2 / gr 2πn / 60r w 2 / gr G / gr

141. Determine the gas density (in kg/m3) at absolute pressure Rabs = 40,8⋅104 Pa, temperature = 98 oС. It is known that the gas density under normal conditions equal to 1,158 kg/m3. A) 6,86 B) 3,43 C) 5,15 D) 9,01 E) 8,62 142. Define the volume consumption of liquid (in m3/s) at a mass expense of 2,85 kg/s and density of 1230 kg/m3. A) 0,0033 37

B) C) D) E)

0,0023 0,0046 0,0017 0,0062

143.On a pipe with a diameter 48×3 mm the hydrogen passes with a velocity 15 m/s and density 0,09 kg/m3. Calculate the mass consumption of hydrogen (in kg/s). A) 0,187 B) 1,87⋅10-3 C) 1,87⋅10-1 D) 187 E) 1,87⋅102 144. On a pipe with a diameter 54×6 mm the nitrogen passes. The volume consumption of nitrogen is 0,0125 m3/s. Calculate the nitrogen velocity (in m/s). A) 9,06 B) 0,906 C) 90,6 D) 0,906⋅102 E) 9,06⋅10-2 145. Hot air is passed in ring space of the heat exchanger «a pipe in a pipe» made of pipes by diameters 100×5 mm and 36×1,5 mm. Calculate the equivalent diameter for ring section. A) 0,54 B) 0,054 C) 54 D) 5,4⋅10-1 E) 5,4 146. Determine the value of absolute pressure (in Pa) at excessive pressure Рex = 3,04⋅105 Pa. A) Рabs = 4,05⋅105 B) Рabs = 2,04⋅105 38

C) Рabs = 6,04⋅105 D) Рabs = 7,04⋅105 E) Рabs = 8,04⋅105 147. The relative density of substance eqal to 0,88. Determine the substance density in SI system. A) 440 B) 880 C) 980 D) 1080 E) 1520 148. Determine the specific weight of substance at the density 1000 kg/m3. A) 9810 B) 9829 C) 11772 D) 10000 E) 70250 149. Determine the value of absolute pressure (in Pa), if manometer pressure Рman = 440 mm of mercury. A) Рabs = 1,599⋅105 B) Рabs = 0,852⋅105 C) Рabs = 0,626⋅105 D) Рabs = 0,562⋅105 E) Рabs = 1,626⋅105 150. Determine the kinematic viscosity coefficient of carbon dioxide (in m2/s) at 30 °C and Rabs = 5,28 kgfs/cm2. It is known that the dynamic viscosity coefficient of carbon dioxide equal to 15 mPа·s. A) 16,6·10-2 B) 1,66·10-3 C) 1,66·10-5 D) 1,66·102 E) 16,6·103 39

151. Pressure on the vacuum gage 60 cm of Hg and barometric pressure 748 mm Hg are known. Calculate the absolute pressure (in Pa). A) 1970·10-2 B) 197·102 C) 1970·10-1 D) 1970·10-3 E) 197·103 152. Gas velocity 0,01 m/s, its density 1,91 kg/m3, viscosity 8,35⋅10-6 Pа⋅s are known, and diameter of a pipe is equal to 0,75 m. Calculate the Reynolds’ number. A) 1,716⋅105 B) 1716 C) 17,16⋅103 D) 1,716⋅104 E) 1,716⋅106 153. Average velocity at the laminar mode of the liquid movement is 10 m/s. Calculate the maximum velocity of liquid (in m/s). A) 200⋅10-1 B) 20⋅102 C) 200⋅10-4 D) 200⋅10-2 E) 0,2⋅105 154. Diameter of a pipe 0,046 m, density of air 1,2 kg/m3 and its dynamic coefficient 0,018 mPа⋅s are known. Calculate the air velocity (in m/s) at a transition period. A) 7,57 B) 0,757 C) 0,757⋅10-3 D) 75,7⋅10-1 E) 7,57⋅102 40

155. Liquid velocity 0,77 m/s, its density 1150 kg/m3, viscosity 1,2⋅10-3 Pа⋅s are known, and diameter of a pipe is equal to 25 mm. Calculate the Reynolds’ number. A) 18,45⋅104 B) 18450 C) 18,45⋅102 D) 1,845⋅102 E) 184500 156. Liquid velocity 2 m/s, its density 1200 kg/m3, viscosity 2,05⋅10-3 Pа∙s are known, and diameter of a pipe is equal to 0,88 m. Calculate the value of Reynolds’ criterion. A) 1030⋅103 B) 10,3⋅103 C) 1,03⋅103 D) 103⋅103 E) 1030⋅102 157. Average velocity at the turbulent mode of the liquid movement is 15 m/s. Calculate the maximum velocity of liquid (in m/s). A) 176,5 B) 1765⋅10-2 C) 1,765⋅10-3 D) 17,65⋅10-1 E) 176,5⋅102 158. Define the mode of liquid current at its velocity w = 0,525 m/s, density ρ = 1120 kg/m3, viscosity µ = 1,005⋅10-3 Pa⋅s. Diameter of a pipe makes d = 0,55 m. A) 161⋅103 B) 644⋅103 C) 322⋅103 D) 483⋅103 E) 805⋅103 41

159. Density of gas 1,25 kg/m3, velocity of gas 7 m/s and difference of pressure 5·103 Pa are known. Calculate the Euler’s number. A) 0,816·103 B) 0,0816·103 C) 0,816·105 D) 8,16·102 E) 0,816·103 160. Liquid velocity 15 m/s and length of a tube of 10 m are known. Calculate the Froude’s number. A) 2,29·10-2 B) 2,29 C) 229 D) 22,9 E) 2,29·103 161. Gas velocity 9 m/s and length of a tube 15 m are known. Calculate the Froude’s number. A) 0,551 B) 5,51⋅10-2 C) 551⋅10-2 D) 5,51⋅102 E) 5,51·103 162. Reynolds’ number is 1700. Calculate the friction coefficient. A) 3,76·10-1 B) 3,76·10-3 C) 3,76·10-2 D) 37,6·10-4 E) 376·10-2 163. Reynolds’ number is 15 000. Calculate the friction coefficient. A) 0,0286 B) 2,86·10-5 C) 2,86 D) 2,86·10-3 E) 286·10-3 42

164. The diameter of a steel pipe 43×2,5 mm, diameter of a coil round 1 m, liquid density 1200 kg/m3, velocity of the liquid expiration on a tube 1 m/s and coefficient of friction 0,03 are known. Calculate the loss of pressure upon overcoming of friction in a direct tube (in Pa). A) 473⋅10-2 B) 4,73⋅10-3 C) 473 D) 0,473⋅102 E) 47,3⋅102 165. Diameter of a pipe 0,025 m, length of a tube 10 m, velocity of the liquid expiration on a tube 1,8 m/s and coefficient of friction 0,04 are known. Calculate the loss of a pressure on overcoming of friction in a direct tube (in m). A) 2,64·10-1 B) 2,64 C) 0,264·102 D) 2,64·102 E) 26,4·102 166. Diameter of a coil round 1 m, internal diameter 39 mm, and loss of pressure in a direct tube 13,1 kPa are known. Calculate the loss of pressure upon friction in a coil (in Pa). A) 14,91⋅103 B) 1,491⋅102 C) 14,91⋅104 D) 14,91⋅102 E) 14,91⋅105 167. The loss of pressure upon friction in a coil 14,91 kPa and dimensionless correction coefficient Ψ = 1,138 are known. Calculate the loss of pressure upon friction in a direct pipe (in Pa). A) 131⋅103 B) 13,1⋅103 C) 1,31⋅103 43

E) 131⋅105 G) 131⋅104 168. Solution passes on pipe space with a velocity 0,3 m/s. Calculate the high-speed pressure in tubes (in N/m2), if density of solution equal to 1100 kg/m3. A) 49,5 B) 4,95 C) 4950 D) 49500 E) 4,95⋅103 169. Rotation frequency of the normalized mixer 3,0 rps, its diameter 0,3 m, density of acids mix 1600 kg/m3 are known. The difference of pressure equal to 2 kPa. Calculate the Euler’s criterion for hashing process of acids mix. A) 1,54⋅102 B) 1,54 C) 1,54⋅10-2 D) 0,154 E) 154⋅10-1 170. Rotation frequency of the normalized mixer 3,5 rps and its diameter 0,35 m are known. Calculate the Froude’s criterion for hashing process of acids mix. A) 0,437 B) 43,7 C) 4,37 D) 437 E) 43,7⋅10-3 171. The power consumed by a mixer 21 kW, diameter of a mixer 0,7 m, density of substances mix 1300 kg/m3 are known. The criterion of power is 7,3. Determine the rotation frequency of a mixer for preparation of substances mix. A) 234⋅10-3 B) 2,34 C) 23,4 44

D) 2,34⋅10-1 E) 234 172. The bulk density of silica gel ρbulk = 650 kg/m3, density of particles ρ = 1100 kg/m3 are known. Calculate the porosity of a motionless layer. A) 41 B) 410 C) 0,41 D) 4,1·10-4 F) 41·10-1 173. The height of a motionless layer 0,2 m, porosity of a motionless layer 0,4 are known. Density of particles equal to 1200 kg/m3. Calculate the hydraulic resistance of the weighed layer of particles (in Pa). A) 14,13⋅102 B) 1,413 C) 14,13·103 D) 141,3 E) 14,13·10-2 174. The height of a motionless layer 0,2 m, porosity of a motionless layer 0,4 are known. Porosity of the weighed layer equal to 0,47. Calculate the height of the weighed layer (in m). A) 2,26 B) 0,226 C) 0,226·10-1 D) 2,26·10-2 E) 22,6·10-3 175. Productivity of the piston pump 5·10-3 m3/s, gross head of the pump 24 m, efficiency of the pump 0,64, density of the pumped-over liquid 1120 kg/m3 are known. Calculate the power consumed by the pump (in kW). A) 2,1 B) 2,1·10-2 C) 210 45

D) 21 E) 21·10-3 176. The piston pump of simple action with a piston diameter 160 mm and a piston stroke 200 mm needs to be given 7⋅10-3 м3/s from the collection to the device. What frequency of rotation should be given to the pump (in rps) if to accept the general efficiency of the pump installation equal to 0,72. A) 24,2 B) 2,42 C) 24,2·10-3 D) 0,242 E) 242 177. Efficiency the pump is 0,8, transfer and the electric motor efficiency equal to 0,95. Calculate the total efficiency of the pump installation. A) 7,22 B) 722 C) 0,722 D) 7,22·10-3 E) 722·10-1 178. In the one-stage piston compressor the air compresses from 1 to 9 kgf/cm2. Initial temperature of air is 20 °C, an adiabatic indicator for air equal to 1,4. Calculate the air temperature after compression (in °C). A) 276 B) 27,6 C) 2,76⋅10-2 D) 0,276 E) 2760 179. In the piston compressor the ammonia compresses from 2,5 to 12 kgf/cm2. The harmful space made 8,5%, an indicator of a polytrope 1,29. Calculate the volume efficiency of the compressor. A) 8 46

B) C) D) E)

0,8 80⋅10-5 80 8⋅10-2

180. The area of the piston 0,1 m2, length of a piston stroke 200 mm, number of turns 250 rpm, coefficient of gas supply 0,725 are known. Calculate the compressor productivity (in m3/s). A) 605 B) 0,605 C) 0,0605 D) 605⋅10-5 E) 605⋅10-2 181. The dynamic coefficient of a suspension liquid phase 28⋅10-3 Pа⋅s, filtering velocity 0,04⋅10-3 m3/(m2⋅s) and difference of pressure 3⋅103 Pa are known. Calculate the resistance of a filtering partition (in m-1). A) 2,68⋅107 B) 2,68⋅109 C) 2,68⋅105 D) 26,8⋅1010 E) 268⋅105 182. The dynamic coefficient of a suspension liquid phase 25⋅10-3 Па⋅с, filtering velocity 0,05⋅10-3 m3/(m2⋅s), difference of pressure 3,5⋅103 Pа and a deposit height 0,01 m are known. Calculate the deposit resistance (in m2). A) 28⋅1010 B) 28⋅105 C) 2,8⋅105 D) 2,8⋅1010 E) 280⋅105 183. The dynamic coefficient of a filtrate 20⋅10-3 Pа⋅s, mass of dry solid substance 0,1 kg/m3 and specific resistance of a deposit 47

A) B) C) D) E)

7,6⋅109 m/kg of a dry deposit are known. Difference of pressure on the filter equal to 3⋅103 Pa. Calculate the filteringconstant (in m2/s). 0,395 0,395⋅10-1 0,395⋅10-3 3,95⋅10-3 3,95⋅10-5

184. The specific resistance of the filtering partition 2,7⋅108 m/m2, specific resistance of a deposit 7,6⋅109 m/kg of a dry deposit and mass of dry solid substance to 1 m3 of a filtrate 0,1 kg/m3 are known. Calculate the filtering constant (in m3/m2). A) 35,5⋅10-2 B) 35,5⋅10-1 C) 3,55⋅102 D) 3,55 E) 355⋅10-1 185. The mass of a deposit and the liquid which are in a drum of the centrifuge 400 kg, the rotation frequency of the centrifuge 1200 rpm, diameter of a drum 800 mm are known. Calculate the centrifugal force developed at centrifugation (in N). A) 2,56⋅10-8 B) 2,56⋅109 C) 256⋅10-3 D) 2560 E) 2,56⋅106 186. After filtering 5 kg of suspension a damp deposit 1,5 kg is formed. Determine the mass of a filtrate (in kg). A) 3,5 B) 35·102 C) 0,35·102 D) 0,35 E) 0,035·104 48

2. HEAT-EXCHANGE PROCESSES 1.

A) B) C) D) E) 2. A) B) C) D) E) 3. A) B) C) D) E) 4. A) B) C) D) E)

To what process in chemical technology the transfer of thermal energy which is carried out between considered system and environment belongs? To the heat-exchange To the hydromechanical To the mechanical To the mass-exchanged To the chemical Transfer process of thermal energy by direct contact between body particles with various temperatures is called: Convection Heat conductivity Radiation Heat exchange Heat emission Simultaneous transfer of warmth by convection and heat conductivity is called: Convective heat exchange Heat conductivity Radiation Heat transfer Heat emission Process of energy transfer in the form of electromagnetic waves is called: Convective heat exchange Heat conductivity Emission Heat transfer Heat emission

5. Driving force of heat exchange process is: A) Pressure difference 49

B) C) D) E)

Volume change Difference of temperatures Value of viscosity Weight change

6. A) B) C) D) E)

Set of all values of temperature in a body is called: Temperature field Thermal field Heat conductivity Heat emission Heat exchange

7.

Temperature derivative on a normal to an isothermal surface is called: Temperature field Thermal field Heat conductivity Heat emission Temperature gradient

A) B) C) D) E) 8. A) B) C) D) E)

The coefficient of heat conductivity is expressed by the Greek letter: α λ β κ ε

9. A) B) C) D) E)

Unit of measure for heat conductivity coefficient is: W/m2⋅K J/kg⋅К J/kg W/m⋅К kW

10. The coefficient of a heat emission is expressed by the Greek letter: A) α 50

B) C) D) E)

λ β κ ε

11. A) B) C) D) E)

Measure unit of heat emission coefficient is: W/m2⋅K J/kg⋅К J/kg W/m⋅К kW

12. The generalized equation of dependence between criteria of similarity in convective heat exchange has an appearance: A) Nu = f (Re, Pr, Gr) B) Nu = f (Re, Pr) C) Nu = f (Re, Gr) D) Nu = f (Pr, Gr) E) Nu = f (Re) 13. The quantity of energy radiated by unit of a surface in unit of time is called: A) Beam giving ability of a body B) Beam absorptive ability of a body C) Beam reflective ability of a body D) Beam passing ability of a body E) Beam emissive ability of a body 14. A) B) C) D) E)

If the body absorbs all energy falling on it, such body is called: Absolutely white Absolutely gray Absolutely black Absolutely transparent Absolutely colourless

15. If the body reflects all energy falling on it, such body is called: A) Absolutely white 51

B) C) D) E)

Gray Absolutely black Absolutely transparent Absolutely colourless

16. A) B) C) D) E)

If the body passes all energy falling on it, such body is called: Absolutely white Gray Absolutely black Absolutely transparent Absolutely colourless

17. If heat exchange between various heat carriers happens through dividing walls, such heat exchanger is called: A) Coiled B) Regenerative C) Casing-tubular D) Recuperative E) Mixing 18. If two or bigger number of heat carriers alternately adjoin to the same surface of heating, such heat-exchange devices are called: A) Coiled B) Regenerative C) Casing-tubular D) Recuperative E) Mixing 19. The non-stationary temperature field is described by the equation: A) t = f (x,y,z) B) t = f (x,y,z,τ) C) t = f (x,y) D) t = f (x,z) E) t = f (y,z) 52

20. The stationary temperature field is described by the equation: A) t = f (x,y,z) B) t = f (x,y,z,τ) C) t = f (x,y,τ) D) t = f (x,z,τ) E) t = f (y,z,τ) 21. The amount of heat transferred by means of heat conductivity through an element of a surface, perpendicular to a thermal stream during τ, in direct ratio to a temperature gradient, surface and time. This regularity carries the name of ... law: A) Newton’s B) Navier-Stokes’ C) Fourier’s D) Kirchhoff’s E) Stephan-Boltsman’s 22. At a usual temperature and pressure the best conductors of heat are: A) Metals B) Gases C) Liquids D Mixes E) Solutions 23. Heat conductivity of a flat wall at a stationary mode is defined by a formula: λ A) Q = (t1 − t 2 )τ δ dt B) Q = −λF dx l (t1 − t 2 ) C) Q = d 1 ln 2 2 πλ d 1 53

D) E)

λ F (t1 − t 2 )τ δ Q = KF∆t

Q=

24. Heat conductivity of a cylindrical wall is determined by a formula: λ A) Q = (t1 − t 2 )τ δ dt B) Q = −λF dx l (t1 − t 2 ) C) Q = d 1 ln 2 2 πλ d 1 λ D) Q = F (t1 − t 2 )τ δ E) Q = KF∆t 25. The heat amount, given unit of a surface in unit of time at a difference of temperatures between a firm surface and environment in one degree, is called as coefficient of: A) Heat transfer B) Heat conductivity C) Heat emission D) Viscosity E) Diffusion 26. The criteria equation characterizing compelled movement of liquid at convective heat-exchange has an appearance: A) B) C)

l Nu = c Re m Pr n d l Nu = cGr Pr d 3 2 gl ρ β∆t Gr = µ2 m

k

k

n

54

D) E)

αl λ µc Pr = λ Nu =

27. The criteria equation characterizing free movement of liquid at natural convection has an appearance: k l A) Nu = c Re m Pr n d B) C) D) E)

l Nu = cGr m Pr n d 3 2 gl ρ β∆t Gr = µ2 αl Nu = λ µc Pr = λ

k

28. The amount of heat transferred from a heat-exchange surface to the environment surrounding it, or, on the contrary, from environment to a heat-exchange surface, in direct ratio surface areas of heat exchange, a difference of temperatures between a heat surface, environment and time. This definition is called as the law of: A) Newton B) Navier-Stokes C) Fourier D) Kirchhoff E) Stephan-Boltsman 29. Beam emissive ability of a body is determined by a formula: Q A) E = F B) E = εE0 55

C) D) E)

E = K 0T 4 T E = C0 100 C0 = K 0 T 8

4

30. Regularity, at which beam emissive ability of absolutely black body is proportional to the fourth degree of absolute temperature of its surface, is called as the law of: A) Newton B) Navier-Stokes C) Fourier D) Kirchhoff E) Stephan-Boltsmana 31. Choose the main equation of a heat transfer: λ A) Q = (t1 − t 2 )τ δ dt B) Q = −λF dx l (t1 − t 2 ) C) Q = d 1 ln 2 2 πλ d 1 λ D) Q = F (t1 − t 2 )τ δ E) Q = KF∆t 32. Full thermal resistance to a heat transfer is described by the equation: 1 A) K = 1 δ 1 + + α1 λ α 2 1 1 δ 1 B) = + + K α1 λ α 2 56

C) D) E)

K=

Q F∆t

dQ∂n dFdτ∂t dQ α= dFdτ∆t λ=

33. The coefficient of heat conductivity is defined from the equation: 1 A) K = 1 δ 1 + + α1 λ α 2 1 1 δ 1 B) = + + K α1 λ α 2 Q C) K = F∆t dQ∂n D) λ = dFdτ∂t dQ E) α = dFdτ∆t 34. The coefficient of a heat emission is defined from the equation: 1 A) K = 1 δ 1 + + α1 λ α 2 1 1 δ 1 B) = + + K α1 λ α 2 C) D) E)

Q F∆t dQ∂n λ= dFdτ∂t K=

α=

dQ dFdτ∆t 57

35. The coefficient of a heat transfer is defined from the equation: 1 A) K = 1 δ 1 + + α1 λ α 2 1 1 δ 1 = + + B) K α1 λ α 2 C)

K=

Q F∆t

D)

λ=

dQ∂n dFdτ∂t

E)

α=

dQ dFdτ∆t

36. Any auxiliary covering which promotes decrease in loss of warmth in environment is called: A) Thermal isolation B) Heat emission C) Heat conductivity D) Heat transfer E) Heat carrier 37. The difference between boiling temperatures of solution and pure solvent with an identical external pressure is called: A) Hydrostatic depression B) Hydraulic depression C) Full depression D) Incomplete depression E) Temperature depression 38. Choose the equation describing the fundamental law of heat conductivity: A)

Q=

λ (t1 − t 2 )τ δ 58

∂t ∂n

B)

dQ = −λdFdτ

C)

dQ = αdF (t w − tl )dτ

D)

Q=

E)

Q = KF∆t

λ F (t1 − t 2 )τ δ

39. Choose the equation describing convective heat-exchange: λ A) Q = (t1 − t 2 )τ δ B) C) D) E)

∂t ∂n dQ = αdF (t w − tenv )dτ dQ = −λdFdτ

λ F (t1 − t 2 )τ δ Q = KF∆t Q=

40. Specify a formula by which determine an average temperature pressure: dQ А) dt1 = − G1c1

dQ G2 c 2 d (t1 − t 2 ) С) dQ = − m ∆t − ∆tc D) m = s Q В)

dt 2 =

E)

∆t m =

∆tin − ∆t f ∆t ln in ∆t f 59

41. Specify the formula for determination of the consumption of «deaf» steam at continuous heating: А) В) С)

G2t 2 − G1t1 G2 − G1 Gc(t 2 − t1 ) + Qs D= Is − I f

i fin =

D=

Gc(t 2 − t1 ) + Qs I s − c f t2 G (i − cwt f )

D) W =

сw (t 2 − t1 ) G (i − cwt 2 ) E) W = сw (t 2 − t1 )

42. Specify the formula for determination of the «sharp» steam at continuous heating: А) В) С)

G2t 2 − G1t1 G2 − G1 Gc(t 2 − t1 ) + Qs D= Is − I f

i fin =

D=

D) W =

Gc(t 2 − t1 ) + Qs I s − c f t2 G (i − cwt f )

сw (t 2 − t1 ) G (i − cwt 2 ) E) W = сw (t 2 − t1 )

43. By what formula the thermal resistance of a flat wall is determined? δ A) r = λ 60

B) C) D) E)

1 1 δ 1 = + + K α1 λ α 2 Q K= F∆t dQ∂n λ= dFdτ∂t dQ α= dFdτ∆t

44. By what formula the heat emission coefficient is determined at convective heat exchange? Nuλ A) α = l 1 1 δ 1 B) = + + K α1 λ α 2 Q C) K = F∆t dQ∂n D) λ = dFdτ∂t dQ E) α = dFdτ∆t 45. At the compelled movement of liquid Re > 100000 for determination of a heat emission coefficient Nusselt’s criterion determine by a formula: А) Nu = Aε l ⋅ Re 0 , 8 В)

Nu = 0,018 ε l ⋅ Re 0 , 8

С)

Pr Nu = 0,021 Re 0 , 8 ⋅ Pr 0 , 33 Prк

D)

Nu = 0,15 Re

Pr ⋅ Prк

0 , 33

⋅ Pr

0 , 43

⋅ Gr

0 ,1

0 , 25

61

⋅ εl

0 , 25

E)

Nu = 0,23ε ϕ Re

0 , 65

⋅ Pr

0 , 33

Pr ⋅ Prк

0 , 25

46. At the compelled movement of gas Re > 100000 for determination of a heat emission coefficient Nusselt’s criterion determine by a formula: А)

Nu = Aε l ⋅ Re 0 , 8

В)

Nu = 0,018 ε l ⋅ Re 0 , 8

С)

Nu = 0,021 Re ⋅ Pr

D)

Nu = 0,15 Re

E)

Nu = 0,23ε ϕ Re

0,8

0 , 33

⋅ Pr 0 , 65

0 , 33

0 , 43

⋅ Pr

Pr Pr к

⋅ Gr 0 , 33

0 ,1

0 , 25

⋅ εl

Pr ⋅ Prк

Pr ⋅ Prк

0 , 25

0 , 25

47. At the compelled movement of air Re > 100000 for determination of a thermolysis coefficient Nusselt’s criterion determine by a formula: А) Nu = Aε l ⋅ Re 0 , 8 В)

Nu = 0,018 ε l ⋅ Re 0 , 8

С)

Pr Nu = 0,021 Re 0 , 8 ⋅ Pr 0 , 33 Prк

D)

Nu = 0,15 Re

Pr ⋅ Prк

E)

Nu = 0,23ε ϕ Re

0 , 33

⋅ Pr 0 , 65

0 , 43

⋅ Pr

⋅ Gr 0 , 33

0 ,1

0 , 25

Pr ⋅ Prк

62

⋅ εl

0 , 25

0 , 25

48. Specify the equation characterizing the thermal resistance of the isolation layer: δ A) r = λ 1 1 δ 1 B) = + + K α1 λ α 2 C) D) E)

Ris =

1 2λis

ln

d2 d1

1 α2d2 dQ α= dFdτ∆t Rα =

49. Specify the equation, characterizing the thermal resistance of a heat emission in environment: δ A) r = λ 1 1 δ 1 B) = + + K α1 λ α 2 1 d C) Ris = ln 2 2λis d1 1 D) Rα = α2d2 dQ E) α = dFdτ∆t 50. Process of solutions concentration by boiling of liquid is called: A) Distillation B) Heat exchange C) Evaporation D) Distillation E) Rectification 63

51. A) B) C) D) E)

In expression E = εC0 (T / 100) 4 , the size ε is Relative coefficient of emission Emission coefficient of a gray body Coefficient of mutual radiation Emission coefficient of an absolute gray body Emission coefficient of an absolute black body

52. A) B) C) D) E)

In expression E = εC0 (T / 100) 4 , the size С0 is: Relative coefficient of emission Emission coefficient of a gray body Coefficient of mutual radiation Emission coefficient of an absolute gray body Emission coefficient of an absolute black body

53. Transfer of heat owing to movement and hashing of microscopic volumes of gas or liquid is called: A) Heat emission B) Heat conductivity C) Convection D) Thermal radiation E) Heat transfer 54. A) B) C) D) E)

Define the thermal balance of a heat transfer process: Q = G1⋅(I1i – I1f) = G2⋅(I2f – I2i) Q = G1⋅(I1i + I1f) = G2⋅(I2i + I2f) Q = G1⋅(I1f – I1i) = G2⋅(I2f – I2i) Q = G1⋅(I1f – I1i) = G2⋅(I2f + I2i) Q = G1⋅(I1i - I1f) = G2⋅(I2i - I2f)

55. To what group of heat exchangers the casing tubular heat exchangers belong? A) To superficial heat exchangers B) To mixing heat exchangers C) To regenerative heat exchangers D) To block heat exchangers E) To screw heat exchangers 64

56. To what group of heat exchangers the barometric condenser belongs? A) To superficial heat exchangers B) To mixing heat exchangers C) To regenerative heat exchangers D) To block heat exchangers E) To screw heat exchangers 57. A) B) C) D) E)

To what purposes the mixture condensers are applied? For creation of elevated pressure in installations For creation of exhaustion in installations For maintenance of atmospheric pressure in installations For temperature increase in installations For temperature decrease in installations

58. A) B) C) D) E)

What heat carriers bring heat for evaporation? By means of electric current By means of water vapor By means of solid heat carriers By means of currents of high frequency By thermal radiation

59. Steam, which is forming at evaporation of boiling solution, is called: A) Water vapor B) Heating C) Primary D) Extra steam E) Secondary 60. A) B) C) D) E)

Evaporation process is most widespread: At low temperatures Under vacuum With an atmospheric pressure With high pressures At high temperatures 65

61. Determine the material balance of drying by all amount of substances: A) G1 = G2 + W B) G1 a1 = G2 a2 C) G2 = G1 a1 /a2 D) W = G1 (1 – a1/a2) E) G2 = G1 – W 62. Determine the material balance of drying by the dissolved substance: A) G1 = G2 + W B) G1a1 = G2a2 C) G2 = G1 ⋅ a1/a2 D) W = G1 ⋅ (1 – a1/a2) E) G2 = G1 – W 63. Specify the formula on which the final amount of solution pays off: A) G1 = G2 + W B) G1 a1 = G2 a2 C) G2 = G1 ⋅ a1/a2 D) W = G1 (1 – a1/a2) E) G2 = G1 – W 64. Specify the formula on which the amount of the evaporated water pays off: A) G1 = G2 + W B) G1 a1 = G2 a2 C) G2 = G1 a1 /a2 D) W = G1(1 – a1/a2) E) G2 = G1 – W 65. At what way of evaporation the secondary steam isn’t used and is removed from the atmosphere? A) At evaporation under pressure above the atmospheric B) At evaporation under vacuum C) At evaporation under atmospheric pressure 66

D) At evaporation in evaporating installations with the thermal pump E) ZAt evaporation with natural circulation of solution 66. Point to the heat carrier which is applied when heating to 150-170 0С: A) Furnace gases B) Water vapor C) Electric current D) Diphenyl mix E) Mineral oils 67. Point to the heat carrier which is applied when heating to 1000 0С and above: A) Furnace gases B) Water vapor C) Electric current D) Diphenyl mix E) Mineral oils 68. Point to the heat carrier which is applied when heating to 250 – 300 0C: A) Furnace gases B) Water vapor C) Electric current D) Diphenyl mix E) Mineral oils 69. Point to the heat carrier which is applied when heating to 260 – 380 0C: A) Furnace gases B) Water vapor C) Electric current D) Diphenyl mix E) Mineral oils 70. On what formula Nusselt’s criterion pays off? A) Nu = c Re m Pr n ( dl ) κ 67

B)

Nu = cGr m Pr n ( dl ) κ

C)

Gr =

D)

Nu =

E)

Pr =

gl 3 ρ 2 β∆t

µ2

αl λ

µc λ

71. Prandtl’s criterion is expressed by a formula: k m n l A) Nu = c Re Pr d B) C) D) E)

l Nu = cGr m Pr n d 3 2 gl ρ β∆t Gr = µ2 αl Nu = λ µc Pr = λ

k

72. Grasgof’s criterion is expressed by a formula: A) B) C) D) E)

l Nu = c Re Pr d m

k

n

l Nu = cGr m Pr n d 3 2 gl ρ β∆t Gr = µ2 αl Nu = λ µc Pr = λ

k

68

3. MASS-EXCHANGE PROCESSES 1. A) B) C) D) E)

In chemical technology the substance transfer process of one phase in another is called: Hydromechanical process Mechanical process Chemical process Heat-exchange process Mass-exchange process

2. A) B) C) D) E)

Velocity of mass-exchange processes is defined by: Concentration Diffusion Time Viscosity Volume

3. A) B) C) D) E)

Substance transfer by molecular diffusion is defined by the law of: Newton Navier-Stokes Stephan-Boltsman Fourier Fick

4. A) B) C) D) E)

Measure unit of diffusion coefficient is: m3/kg m2/s m3/s m/s kg/s

5. A) B) C) D) E)

Designation of diffusion coefficient: K F D R B 69

6.

A) B) C) D) E)

The amount of the substance passing from one phase into another for a unit of time through unit of a phases contact surface at a driving force to equal unit, expresses coefficient of: Diffusion Mass transfer Mass return Friction Viscosity

7. A) B) C) D) E)

Measure unit of a mass transfer coefficient is: W/m2⋅K J/kg⋅К m2/s W/m⋅К kg/m2⋅s⋅(un.mov.force)

8.

Absorption process of gas or steam with liquid absorbers is called: Adsorption Absorption Extraction Crystallization Drying

A) B) C) D) E) 9. A) B) C) D) E)

If gas is passed over a free surface of motionless or slowly current liquid, such absorbing devices are called: Film Spray Superficial Bubbling Nozzle

10. If gas adjoins to the liquid moving in the form of a thin film, such absorbing devices are called: A) Film B) Spray C) Superficial 70

D) Bubbling E) Nozzle 11 If gas is distributed in liquid in the form of bubbles and streams, such absorbing devices are called: A) Film B) Spray C) Superficial D) Bubbling E) Nozzle 12. Redistribution process of components between phases as a result of contact a liquid and steam phase is called: A) Absorption B) Adsorption C) Extraction D) Distillation E) Crystallization 13. Process of single partial evaporation of liquid mix and condensation of being formed vapors is called: A) Absorption B) Adsorption C) Extraction D) Rectification E) Simple distillation 14. Separation process of liquid uniform mixes on making substances as a result of counterflow interaction of mix of vapors and the liquid which is turning out at condensation of vapors is called: A) Absorption B) Adsorption C) Extraction D) Rectification E) Distillation 71

15. In the course of rectification from the top part of a column vapors are condensed and allocated as: A) Distillate B) Extract C) Filtrate D) Rectificate E) Vat rest 16. Absorption process of one or several components of gas or liquid mix by a surface of solid substance is called: A) Rectification B) Absorption C) Adsorption D) Extraction E) Distillation 17. Adsorption, which is connected with transformations on a sorbent surface, is called: A) Physical adsorption B) Simple adsorption C) Complex adsorption D) Hemosorbtion E) Desorption

chemical

18. Dependence between the partial pressure of adsorbed substance and concentration of adsorbent is called: A) Adsorption isotherm B) Isochore adsorption C) Adsorption isobar D) Desorption isotherm E) Desorption isobar 19. Extraction process of one or several components of substances mix by processing by its liquid solvent is called: A) Absorption B) Adsorption C) Extraction 72

D) Crystallization E) Rectification 20. Solvent, which is applied in the course of extraction to processing of mix of substances, is called: A) Reagent B) Extragent C) Sorbent D) Sorbate E) Distillate 21. How has to differ the extragent from solution when carrying out the extraction process? A) Volume B) Concentration C) Density D) Temperature E) Molecular weight 22. How has to differ the extragent from solution when carrying out the extraction process? A) Volume B) Viscosity C) Concentration D) Temperature E) Molecular weight 23. Extragent, containing the taken component and part of initial solvent, is called: A) Reagent B) Raffinate C) Extract D) Distillate E) Rectificate 24. The initial mix, grown poor by the taken component and containing a some quantity of extragent, is called: A) Reagent 73

B) C) D) E)

Raffinate Extract Distillate Rectificate

25. The process, applied to the regeneration extragent from raffinate and extract, is called: A) Filtering B) Upholding C) Evaporation D) Drying E) Centrifugation 26. The process applied to the extragent regeneration from raffinate and extract, is called: A) Filtering B) Upholding C) Drying D) Rectification E) Centrifugation 27. The process applied for the extragent regeneration from raffinate and extract, is called: A) Distillation B) Upholding C) Drying D) Filtering E) Centrifugation 28. Removal of moisture from various materials and products in chemical technology is called: A) Filtration B) Rectification C) Drying D) Heating E) Distillation 74

29. Drying process, at which warmth transfer to a dried-up material is carried out directly from heat carriers, is called: A) Drying by evaporation B) Contact drying C) Convective drying D) Sublimative drying E) Drying by heating 30. Drying, at which warmth transfer to a dried-up material is carried out by heat conductivity through a wall, is called: A) Drying by evaporation B) Contact drying C) Convective drying D) Drying by heating E) Drying by sublimation 31. What has to be the pressure of moisture vapors at a surface of a dried-up material (Рm) depending on the partial pressure of water vapors in air (Рwv) for drying course? A) Pm < Pwv B) Pm > Pwv C) Pm ≤ Pwv D) Pm ≥ Pwv E) Pm = Pwv 32. What has to be the pressure of moisture vapors at a surface of a dried-up material (Рm) depending on the partial pressure of water vapors in air (Рwv) for the termination of drying process? A) Pm < Pwv B) Pm > Pwv C) Pm ≤ Pwv D) Pm ≥ Pwv E) Pm = Pwv 33. What type of moisture connected with a material, isn’t removed in the course of drying? A) Physico-mechanical 75

B) C) D) E)

Physical and chemical Chemical Mechanical Adsorptive

34. A) B) C) D) E)

To what drying of materials apply the vacuum drying? Steady against low temperatures Steady against high temperatures Unstable to low temperatures Unstable to high temperatures Independent of temperature

35. A) B) C) D) E)

What kind of process is the vacuum drying? Diffusive Condensation Thermal diffusion Absorption Adsorption

36. The way of the gases drying, based on moisture absorption from gases the liquid substances which the water solutions have the low pressure of water vapors, is called: A) Adsorptive B) Absorbing C) Physical D) Chemical E) Physical and chemical 37. The way of the gases drying, based on moisture absorption from gases by solids, is called: A) Adsorptive B) Absorbing C) Physical D) Chemical E) Physical and chemical 76

38. The way, based on cooling of drained gas with water or a coolant, is called: A) Adsorptive B) Absorbing C) Physical D) Chemical E) Physical and chemical 39. Process of a solid phase isolation from solution or allow, is called: A) Evaporation B) Drying C) Crystallization D) Centrifugation E) Sedimentation 40. Solution, which contains the greatest possible for this temperature amount of substance, is called: A) True solution B) Saturated solution C) Supersaturated solution D) Colloidal solution E) Mixed solution 41. The solution, containing the excess of dissolved substance in relation to a condition of saturation at this temperature, is called: A) True solution B) Saturated solution C) Supersaturated solution D) Colloidal solution E) Mixed solution 42. If transfer of substance is carried out by moving particles of the carrier and distributed substance, such process is called: A) Convective diffusion B) Molecular diffusion 77

C) Mass transfer D) Mass return E) Ionic diffusion 43. If at an interface of phases substance transfer is carried out by molecules, the mass-exchange is called: A) Convective diffusion B) Molecular diffusion C) Mass transfer D) Mass return E) Ionic diffusion 44. As measure unit of diffusion coefficient in system of mechanical sizes (MS) units serves: A) m2/h B) m2/s C) kg/s D) m/s E) m/h 45. A) B) C) D)

Specify the main equation of a mass transfer: dM = KdF∆

E)

dM = − D

dM = βdFdτ∆c

dM = G (−dy ) H = hn ∂c dFdτ ∂x

46. Substance transfer by molecular diffusion is defined by Fick’s law and is described by the equation: A) dM = KdF∆ B) dM = βdFdτ∆c C) dM = G (−dy ) D) H = hn ∂c E) dM = − D dFdτ ∂x 78

47. If the driving force of process is expressed through a difference of the partial pressure, the dimension of a mass transfer coefficient will be: A) s/m B) m/s C) kg/m2⋅s D) m2/s E) kg/m2⋅s⋅(molar shares) 48. If the driving force of process is expressed through a difference of volume concentration, the dimension of a mass transfer coefficient will be: A) s/m B) m/s C) kg/m2⋅s D) m2/s E) kg/m2⋅s⋅(molar shares) 49. If concentration of distributed substance is expressed through relative weight structures, the dimension of a mass transfer coefficient will be: A) s/m B) m/s C) kg/m2⋅s D) m2/s E) kg/m2⋅s⋅(molar shares) 50. What equation describes the modified equation of a mass transfer? A) dM = KdF∆ B) dM = βdFdτ∆c C) dM = G (−dy ) D) H = hn E)

dM = − D

∂c dFdτ ∂x

79

51. At convective diffusion the amount of transferable substance from one phase in another is described by the equation: A) dM = KdF∆ B) dM = βdFdτ∆c C) dM = G (−dy ) D) H = hn E)

dM = − D

∂c dFdτ ∂x

52. If the driving force of process is expressed through a difference of volume concentrations, the dimension of mass return coefficient will be: A) s/m B) m/s C) kg/m2⋅s D) m2/s E) kg/m2⋅s⋅(molar shares) 53. If concentration of distributed substance is expressed through relative weight structures, the dimension of mass return coefficient will be: A) s/m B) m/s C) kg/m2⋅s D) m2/s E) kg/m2⋅s⋅(molar shares) 54. If the driving force of process is expressed through a difference of molar shares, the dimension of mass return coefficient will be: A) s/m B) m/s C) kg/m2⋅s D) m2/s E) kg/m2⋅s⋅(molar shares)

80

55. If the driving force of process is expressed through a difference the partial pressures, the dimension of mass return coefficient will be: A) s/m B) m/s C) kg/m2⋅s D) m2/s E) kg/m2⋅s⋅(molar shares) 56. In a convective mass-exchange the generalized equation of dependence between criteria of similarity has an appearance: A) f (Pе’, Nu’, Re, Г) = 0 B) f (Re, Pr, Gr) = 0 C) f (Pе’, Nu’) = 0 D) f (Nu’, Re) = 0 E) f (Nu’, Re, Г) = 0 57. In a convective mass-exchange Nusselt’s criterion is expressed by a formula: A) B) C) D) E)

β⋅l D w⋅l ' Pe = D µ Pr' = Dρ Nu' D β= l d 3 ρ g ( ρl − ρ g ) g Ar = 2 Nu ' =

µg

58. In a convective mass-exchange Peclet’s diffusive criterion is expressed by a formula: A)

Nu ' =

β⋅l D 81

B) C) D) E)

w⋅l D µ Pr' = Dρ Nu' D β= l d 3 ρ g ( ρl − ρ g ) g Ar = 2 Pe ' =

µg

59. In a convective mass-exchange Prandtl’s criterion is expressed by a formula: A) B) C) D) E)

β⋅l D w⋅l Pe ' = D µ Pr' = Dρ Nu' D β= l d 3 ρ g ( ρl − ρ g ) g Ar = 2 Nu ' =

µg

60. The coefficient of mass return is determined by a formula: β⋅l A) Nu ' = D w⋅l B) Pe ' = D C) D) E)

µ Dρ Nu' D β= l d 3 ρ g ( ρl − ρ g ) g Ar = 2 Pr' =

µg

82

61. A) B) C) D) E)

In bubbling absorbing devices the: Gas is distributed in liquid in the form of bubbles Gas adjoins to the liquid moving in the form of a thin film Gas is distributed as a result of contact with liquid Gas is passed over a surface of slowly current liquid Liquid is sprayed by gas stream

62. A) B) C) D) E)

In superficial absorbing devices the: Gas is distributed in liquid in the form of bubbles Gas adjoins to the liquid moving in the form of a thin film Gas is distributed as a result of contact with liquid Gas is passed over a surface of slowly current liquid Liquid is sprayed by gas stream

63. A) B) C) D) E)

In film absorbing devices the: Gas is distributed in liquid in the form of bubbles Gas adjoins to the liquid moving in the form of a thin film Gas is distributed as a result of contact with liquid Gas is passed over a surface of slowly current liquid Liquid is sprayed by gas stream

64. A) B) C) D) E)

In spraying absorbers the: Gas is distributed in liquid in the form of bubbles Gas adjoins to the liquid moving in the form of a thin film Gas is distributed as a result of contact with liquid Gas is passed over a surface of slowly current liquid Liquid is sprayed by gas stream

65. A) B) C) D) E)

In what process the temperature below 100 °C is applied? At distillation with water vapor At equilibrium distillation At rectification At simple distillation At distillation

66. Ability of salt to form supersaturated solutions is the major factor, defining process of: A) Crystallization 83

B) C) D) E)

Extraction Rectification Absorption Adsorption

67. On what extent of binary mixes does the separation on making components and purity of received rectificate and the rest depend? A) From concentration of mix B) From boiling temperature C) From parts of a column D) From a surface of phase contact E) From condensation of vapors 68. What liquids divide by means of rectification process under vacuum? A) Viscous B) Low-boiling C) High-boiling D) The liquids containing gases E) Concentrated 69. A) B) C) D) E)

Dependence of absolute humidity on time carries the name: Drying kinetics Curve drying Drying isotherms Drying isobars Drying statics

70. The major factor, defining crystallization process, ability of the crystallizing salt to form serves: A) Supersaturated solutions B) Saturated solutions C) True solutions D) Colloidal solutions E) Mixed solutions 84

71. The method of crystallization applied to substances, which solubility depends on temperature a little, is accompanied by: A) Solvent cooling B) Evaporation of part of liquid C) Solution cooling D) Solvent heating E) Addition of impurity to solvent 72. The method of crystallization applied to substances, at which solubility decreases with temperature fall is accompanied by: A) Solvent cooling B) Evaporation of part of liquid C) Solution cooling D) Solvent heating E) Addition of impurity to solvent 73. Determine the by the rule of phases number of freedom degrees F if the system consists of two phases P = 2 and three components C = 3. A) F = 1 B) F = 3 C) F = 2 D) F = 4 E) F = 0 74. Determine the material balance of a mass transfer process by all substance: A) Gi + Li = Gf + Lf B) Giyi + Liхi = Gfyf + Lfхf C) у = Lх/G + (yf – L·хi /G) D) у = Lх/G - (yf + L·хi /G) E) у = Lх/G + (yf + L·хi /G) 75. Determine the material balance by a distributed component at a mass transfer: A) Gi + Li = Gf + Lf 85

B) C) D) E)

Giyi + Liхi = Gfyf + Lfхf у = Lх/G + (yf – L·хi /G) у = Lх/G - (yf + L·хi /G) у = Lх/G + (yf + L·хi /G)

76. Define the equation of working lines for mass-exchanged processes: A) Gi + Li = Gf + Lf B) Giyi + Liхi = Gfyf + Lfхf C) у = Lх/G + (yf – L·хi /G) D) у = Lх/G - (yf + L·хi /G) E) у = Lх/G + (yf + L·хi /G) 77. Define the working concentration of distributed substance in a gas phase: A) С B) Су* C) Су D) Сх E) Сх* 78. Define the equilibrium concentration substance in a liquid phase: A) С B) Су* C) Су D) Сх E) Сх*

of

distributed

79. Specify the mass transfer equation for absorption process at expression of a driving force through a concentration difference of a gas phase: A) М = Кy F (C* – C) B) М = Кх F (C – C*) C) М = Kу F(Р – Р*) D) М = Kх F(Р – Р*) E) М = КFΔ 86

80. Specify the mass transfer equation for absorption process at expression of a driving force through a pressure difference of a gas phase: A) М = Кy F (C* – C) B) М = Кх F (C – C*) C) М = Kу F(Р – Р*) D) М = Kх F(Р – Р*) E) М = КFΔ 81. Determine the mass return coefficient by a gas phase: A) K y B)

βy

C) D) E)

βx Kx K

82. Determine the mass return coefficient by a liquid phase: A) K y B)

βy

C) D) E)

βx K

83. A) B) C) D) E)

What process describes Fick’s first law: DM = − DdFdτdc / dn ? Convective mass-exchange Turbulent diffusion Molecular diffusion Molecular diffusion and turbulent diffusion at the same time Molecular diffusion and convective mass exchange at the same time

84. A) B) C)

Define the Biot’s diffusive criterion: β l / DM βl / K τDM / l 2

Kx

87

D) E)

wl / D µ / ρD

85. A) B) C) D) E)

Define the Fourier’s diffusive criterion: β l / DM βl / K τDM / l 2 wl / D µ / ρD

86. At a mass transfer to the firm phase, what way there is a movement of distributed substance in a solid body? A) Mass conductivity B) Molecular diffusion C) Turbulent diffusion D) Convective diffusion E) Molecular and convective diffusion at the same time 87. A) B) C) D) E)

Define the Henry’s law: р* = Еx P+D=C+2 р* = Px у* = mx p = Py

88. A) B) C) D) E)

Define the rule of phases: р* = Еx P+D=C+2 р* = Px у* = mx p = Py

89. A) B) C)

Define the Dalton’s law: р* = Еx P+D=C+2 р* = Px 88

D) у* = mx E) p = Py 90. A) B) C) D) E)

Define the Raul’s law: р* = Еx P+D=C+2 р* = Px у* = mx p = Py

91. At an absortion the content of gas in solution doesn’t depend from: A) Pressure B) Properties of gas and liquids C) Solution density D) Temperature E) Structure of a gas phase 92. Under what law equilibrium the compositions of vapors are put for the chart t – x – y? A) Under Raul’s law B) Under Dalton’s law C) Under the Henry’s law D) Under Konovalov’s 1 law E) Under Vrevsky’s 2 law 93. What device in rectifying installation creates the ascending stream of gas? A) Phlegm divider B) Dephlegmator C) Refrigerator D) Boiler E) Condenser 94. What device in rectifying installation creates the descending stream of liquid? A) Phlegm divider 89

B) C) D) E)

Dephlegmator Refrigerator Boiler Condenser

95. Determine the material balance of a rectifying column by a low-boiling component: A) FхF = РхР + WхW B) F = Р + W C) F + Ф = G + W D) G = Р + Ф E) Ф = РR 96. Define the equation of working lines for the top part of a rectifying column: A) у = R х /( R + 1) + хР/ (R + 1) B) у = Lх/ G + (уin – Lхf / G) C) у = (R + F)x/ (R + 1) – (F – 1)xw/(R+1) D) у = Lх/ G + (уf – Lхin / G) E) у = Мf/Мin · р/Р – р 97. Define the equation of working lines for the lower part of a rectifying column: A) у = R х /( R + 1) + хР/ (R + 1) B) у = Lх/ G + (уin – Lхf / G) C) у = (R + F)x/ (R + 1) – (F – 1)xw/(R+1) D) у = Lх/ G + (уf – Lхin / G) E) у = Мf/Мin · р/Р – р 98. For what the dephlegmator in the rectification process intends? A) For condensation of vapors and phlegm giving in a column B) For condensate cooling C) For heating of initial mix D) For transformation of liquid into steam E) For liquid evaporation 90

99. A) B) C) D) E)

Define the material balance of extraction process: F+S=R+Е F+P=G+W F=Р+W G = Р + Ph FхF = РхР + WхW

100. Determine the material balance of drying by all material: A) W = G1 – G2 B) G1(1 – u1) = G2(1 – u2) C) Lx2 = Lx0 + W D) G2 = G1 – W1 E) G1 = G2 + W 101. Determine the material balance of drying by absolutely solid: A) W = G1 – G2 B) G1(1 – u1) = G2(1 – u2) C) Lx2 = Lx0 + W D) G2 = G1 – W1 E) G1 = G2 + W 102. What is the relative humidity of air? A) ϕ = Рv / Рs.v. B) C) D) E)

х = M w/ М air ⋅ р / Р − р I = cair t + xiv x = 0,622ϕps.v. / P − ϕps.v. I v = r0 + cv t

103. What of following parameters doesn’t treat parameters of damp air? A) Enthalpy B) Relative humidity C) Relative concentration D) Moisture content E) Absolute humidity 91

104. What is the distribution coefficient? A) m = х/у B) m = х*/у C) m = у /х D) m = у*/х* E) m = у*/х 105. The mass return coefficient β is: A) Static characteristic B) Physical constant C) Geometrical size D) Dimensionless size E) Kinetic characteristic 106. Determine the height of transfer units: A) h = G / K yσfH B)

h = G /( yin − y f )

C)

h = G / K yσf

D)

h = K yσfH / ∆yav

E)

h = K yσf / G

107. Size of height of transfer units: A) It is inversely proportional to volume coefficient of a mass transfer B) It is inversely proportional to mass return coefficient C) It is directly proportional to volume coefficient of a mass transfer D) It is directly proportional to mass return coefficient E) It is directly proportional to a surface of phase transition 108. How the liquid enriched with the high-boiling component is called? A) Condensate B) Rectificate C) Rest D) Phlegm E) Distillate 92

109. On the essence the coefficient of a mass conductivity represents: A) Mass return coefficient B) Coefficient of external diffusion C) Mass transfer coefficient D) Coefficient of internal diffusion E) Heat diffusivity coefficient 110. What devices apply to rectification under vacuum? A) Nozzle columns B) Film and rotor C) Dish-shaped D) Bubbling columns E) Spraying 111. What of stages doesn’t treat carrying out process of adsorption with a motionless layer of an absorber? A) Absorber cooling B) Actually adsorption C) Desorption D) Absorber drying E) Absorber regeneration 112. In what drying devices the drying in the frozen state makes? A) In sublimation dryers B) In high-frequency dryers C) In thermoradiation dryers D) In the spraying dryers E) In pneumatic dryers 113. When filtering suspension by the mass Gsus. = 5 kg the Gprec = 1,5 kg of a damp precipitation is formed. Define the maintenance of a filtrate (in kg). A) 3,5 B) 6,5 C) 7,5 D) 4,0 E) 8,5 93

114. Determine the gas density (in kg/m3) with an absolute pressure Pabs = 20,5⋅104 Pa, temperature t = 27 0C. Gas density under normal conditions to accept equal 0,515 kg/m3. A) 0,948 B) 0,474 C) 0,711 D) 1,185 E) 1,659 115. Determine the value of absolute pressure (in Pa) with an excessive pressure Рex = 5,45⋅105 Pa. A) 5,05⋅105 B) 3,04⋅105 C) 6,46⋅105 D) 7,04⋅105 E) 9,46⋅105 116. The relative density of substance makes 0,105. Determine the substance density in SI system. A) 315 B) 210 C) 105 D) 420 E) 525 117. When filtering suspension by the mass Gsus.= 15 kg the Gpr = 5,0 kg of a damp precipitation is formed. Define the maintenance of a filtrate (in kg). A) 20 B) 10 C) 5 D) 3 E) 75 118. Define the volume of liquid consumption (in m3/s) at a mass expense 0,858 kg/s and density 0,615 kg/m3. A) 1,923 94

B) C) D) E)

0,528 1,395 0,792 1,322

119. Define the mode of a liquid current at a liquid velocity w = 10 m/s, density 1,325 kg/m3, viscosity 2,15⋅10-3 Pa⋅s. Diameter of a pipe makes d = 0,85 m. A) 5,24⋅103 B) 6,44⋅103 C) 3,22⋅103 D) 5,83⋅103 E) 7,05⋅103 120. Determine the specific weight of substance at density ρ = 900 kg/m3. A) 6810 B) 8829 C) 7572 D) 9645 E) 4025 121. Determine the value of absolute pressure (in Pa) at pressure indication by a monometer Рman. = 600 mm of mercury. A) 0,906⋅105 B) 1,813⋅105 C) 1,826⋅105 D) 0,562⋅105 E) 0,453⋅105 122. Define the mode of gas current at velocity w = 5 m/s, density of 0,925 kg/m3, viscosity 0,015⋅10-3 Pa⋅s. Diameter of a pipe makes d = 0,25 m. A) 74,2⋅103 B) 63,4⋅103 C) 53,2⋅103 95

D) 58,8⋅103 E) 77,1⋅103 123. Define the mode of a gas current at velocity w = 2 m/s, density of 1200 kg/m3, viscosity 2,05⋅10-3 Pa⋅s. Diameter of a pipe makes d = 0,88 m. A) 1030⋅103 B) 8245·103 C) 3123·103 D) 5683·103 E) 7205·103

96

CORRECT ANSWERS OF TEST TASKS Hydrodynamic processes: Question number 1

Correct answer A

Question number 48

Correct answer C

Question number 95

Correct answer C

Question number 142

Correct answer B

2

B

49

B

96

B

143

B

3

B

50

D

97

B

144

A

4

D

51

A

98

B

145

B

5

C

52

B

99

C

146

A

6

E

53

C

100

A

147

B

7

D

54

D

101

A

148

A

8

B

55

E

102

C

149

A

9

A

56

D

103

E

150

B

10

C

57

A

104

A

151

B

11

C

58

B

105

A

152

B

12

B

59

C

106

C

153

A

13

A

60

E

107

B

154

B

14

D

61

A

108

A

155

B

15

C

62

A

109

B

156

A

16

C

63

C

110

A

157

B

17

E

64

B

111

A

158

C

18

A

65

A

112

B

159

B

19

B

66

A

113

A

160

B

20

B

67

B

114

B

161

A

21

B

68

C

115

C

162

C

22

D

69

A

116

B

163

A

23

A

70

B

117

E

164

C

24

C

71

A

118

D

165

B

25

B

72

E

119

A

166

A

26

A

73

B

120

B

167

B

27

E

74

A

121

C

168

A

28

A

75

A

122

B

169

B

29

D

76

C

123

C

170

A

97

30

E

77

A

124

C

171

B

31

D

78

A

125

C

172

C

32

E

79

B

126

B

173

A

33

E

80

C

127

A

174

B

34

D

81

A

128

A

175

A

35

D

82

C

129

A

176

B

36

B

83

D

130

A

177

C

37

B

84

E

131

D

178

A

38

B

85

A

132

A

179

B

39

D

86

A

133

E

180

C

40

B

87

A

134

D

181

B

41

A

88

C

135

A

182

A

42

A

89

A

136

B

183

C

43

C

90

B

137

C

184

A

44

A

91

D

138

B

185

E

45

D

92

D

139

D

186

A

46

C

93

B

140

A

47

A

94

A

141

B

Correct answer B A C A D C C A B A A E E B

Question number 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Correct answer E B C E B C A A C A B C D C

Question number 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68

Correct answer A B B B E B A B C D C B A E

Heat-exchange processes: Question number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Correct answer A B A C C A E B D A A A E C

Question number 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

98

15 16 17 18

A D D B

33 34 35 36

D E C A

51 52 53 54

A E C A

Correct answer E C D C B A C C B C A B A A E A B C D B B C E A A A B C D A D

Question number 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93

Correct answer B E A A D C B A B C B A B C C D A C B C C A C A A B E C C A D

69 70 71 72

D D E C

Mass-exchanged processes: Question number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Correct answer E B E B C B E B C A D D E D D C D A C B C B C B C D A C C B B

Question number 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

99

Question number 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123

Correct answer B A A C A A E B A C E E C A C D B E A A A C C B C A B B E A

ЛИТЕРАТУРА

1. Фролов В.Ф. Лекции по курсу «Процессы и аппараты химической технологии». – Санкт-Петербург: ХИМИЗДАТ, 2003. – 608 с. 2. Ешова Ж.Т., Акбаева Д.Н. Методическое пособие к лабораторным работам по курсу «Основные процессы и аппараты химической технологии». – Алматы: Қазақ университеті, 2012. – 44 с. 3. Касаткин А.Г. Основные процессы и аппараты химической технологии. – М.: Химия, 1973. – 752 с. 4. Дытнерский Ю.И. Процессы и аппараты химической технологии. – М.: Химия, 1992. Часть 1. – 416 с; часть 2. – 384 с. 5. Романков П.Г., Фролов В.Ф., Флисюк О.М. Примеры и задачи по курсу процессов и аппаратов химической технологии. – Санкт-Петербург: ХИМИЗДАТ, 2009. – 544 с. 6. Общий курс процессов и аппаратов химической технологии / под ред. В.Г. Айнштейна. – М.: Университетская книга, Логос, Физматкнига, 2006. – Кн. 1. – 912 с; кн. 2. – 872 с.

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CONTENTS

Introduction .................................................................................. 3 1. Hydrodynamic processes .......................................................... 4 2. Heat-exchange processes .......................................................... 49 3. Mass-exchanged processes ....................................................... 69 Correct answers of test tasks ........................................................ 97 Literature ...................................................................................... 100

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Educational issue Dina Nauryzbaevna Akbayeva Zhaniya Turluhanovna Eshova

TEST TASKS ON DISCIPLINE «THE MAIN PROCESSES AND DEVICES OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY» Educational and methodical manual Computer page makeup: N. Bazarbaeva Cover designer: K. Umirbekova www.maths.york.ac.uk

IS No8416 Signed for publishing 29.07.15. Format 60x84 1/16. Offset paper. Digital printing. Volume 6,37 printer’s sheet. Edition: 70. Order No2258 Publishing house «Qazaq university» Al-Farabi Kazakh National University KazNU, 71 Al-Farabi, 050040, Almaty Printed in the printing office of the «Qazaq universitety» publishing house

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