Science Dictionary 9780993261503


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Table of contents :
General Words
Living Things
Human Body
Food and Health of the Body
Plant Life
Animals
Materials
Solids and Liquids
Force
Electricity
Sound
Light and Shadow
Index
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Science Dictionary
 9780993261503

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For Teachers, Students & Parents

Fareeda Abbasi SCIENCE DICTIONARY

Youth Together for Human Rights Education

Youth Together for Human Rights Education The curriculum of Youth Together for Human Rights Education enables application of knowledge to life. It is designed to improve skills and bring about positive attitudes. We train teachers, students and parents on an ongoing basis across schools and universities. We are committed to creating a future where men, women and children grant respect to each other, irrespective of age, gender, race, religion, sect, ethnicity, nationality or class. A future where peace and tolerance prevails. A fair and just society, where students grow up reaching their full potential and are rewarded for their own efforts, skills and contribution. Our series of books forms the start of a journey, directed towards reaching this shared dream with you.

©2015 Fareeda Abbasi. All Rights Reserved. Printed in Pakistan by Youth Together for Human Rights Education

ISBN: 978-0-9932615-0-3 No part of this booklet may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, graphics, electronics, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or by any information storage or retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher.

This Book Just as without knowing the alphabet it is impossible to know the language, so, without fully understanding the words used to describe the subject of Science, we cannot expect the learner to master the subject. During the process of learning it is important to emphasise an understanding of the concepts of words. Words like “house”, “apple” are understood by the student. There is no need to memorise them. However, for words like “electricity”, “opaque”, “ characteristics”, the same clarity in understanding may not exist. This book helps to provide that clarity. It forms part of the resources needed by teachers, parents and students to put the child on the ladder of competence. We believe every student has the potential to master a subject and to be good in all subjects, not in just one or two. Our series of books aims to build a strong foundation of the subject for the learner. It is the duty of teachers and parents to provide the environment, tools and guidance that enables children to reach their full potential. If you wish for the child to become an independent learner and excel in Science, then this book belongs in your special tool-kit.

Dedication This book is dedicated to the teachers, parents and children of the world. Our sincere hope is that this book helps you and those you care about to understand and love the subject. Through a strong basic foundation of the subject and with your competence and imagination, may you help create a better and peaceful world for all. Our best wishes are for you.

Contents Topic Page General Words ..................................................................................... 6 Living Things ........................................................................................ 13 Human Body ......................................................................................... 15 Food and Health of the Body ........................................................ 17 Plant Life ................................................................................................ 20 Animals ................................................................................................... 24 Materials ................................................................................................ 27 Solid and Liquid .................................................................................. 29 Force ........................................................................................................ 31 Electricity .............................................................................................. 34 Sound ...................................................................................................... 36 Light and Shadow ............................................................................. 38

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

5

General Words science Science is knowledge about the natural world based on facts learned by experiments and observation.

natural Anything that comes from nature and not made by people.

different Not the same.

This is a pencil.

This is a pen.

A pen is different from a pencil.

6

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

identify

Identify the animal

To know or say what something is.

recognise

horse

owl

snake

squirrel

Do you recognise this animal?

To identify based on earlier knowledge. To know or say what something is, because of earlier knowledge.

It is a dolphin.

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

7

characteristic

One characteristic of living things is that they grow and develop.

An important part, ability or quality that belongs to a person or thing.

thing An object you can see and touch and that is not alive.

move

Move these boxes to your room.

To go, or to transfer something from one place or position to another.

8

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

change

When an ice cube melts it changes from a solid to liquid.

To become different. To make someone or something different.

The egg changes to a chicken.

specific Specific means that only one person or one thing is being talked about and not others.

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

I want the red apple that is by the tomatoes. Here the specific thing we are talking about is the red apple. This means that we are taking about one thing out of many. 9

external

Our nose and ears are external to our body.

Anything which is on the outside or is from the outside.

Our lungs are not external to our body.

function

The function or the job of the leaf is to provide food to the plant.

An activity that is a natural job or purpose of a person or thing.

10

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

sense Any of the five feelings, which are touch, smell, hear, see and taste. One of the five feelings through which you receive information of the world around you.

define

A dictionary defines words.

To say or explain the meaning of something.

habit Something that you do very often.

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11

develop

Babies develop.

To become bigger or more complete.

An egg develops into a chicken.

A seed develops into a plant.

12

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

Living Things living Having life. Anything which is not dead.

grow

A seed grows into a plant.

To become larger. To increase in size, amount, age, etc.

need Something that a person/animal must do or have.

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

13

food The things that people, plants and animals eat to grow and get energy.

breathe Taking air in and out of the lungs.

body 14

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

Human Body The part of a person or animal that relates to physical structure, including the bones, flesh and organs.

part

Feet and mouth are parts of the body.

A piece of something, but not all of it.

human being A man, woman or child.

physical SCIENCE DICTIONARY

15

The part of the body or something which you can see and touch.

The mind is not the physical part of the body as we cannot see or touch it.

A keyboard is a physical part of the computer.

Software is not a physical part of the computer.

organ A part of the body that has a special purpose. For example:- ear, nose, tongue and eye.

sense organ A part of your body that you use to see, hear, taste, smell or feel things.

16

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

Food and Health of the Body health How well and fit your body is.

healthy Having good health. Being strong. Not sick or injured.

care Things that are done to keep something healthy or something safe.

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

17

energy Ability to do work or the ability to move, or move an object.

strong Powerful.

food Anything eaten that helps to grow and gives energy. 18

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

live Not be dead. To be alive. To stay alive.

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

19

Plant Life plant Living thing that grows from soil and can make its own food.

root The part of the plant that is under the ground.

stem The long part of the plant above the ground, on which the flowers and leaves grow.

20

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

leaf The part that grows on a plant that is usually green.

flower The bright colourful part of the plant, from which the seed or fruit develops.

seed A tiny part of a plant which grows into a new plant.

fruit The part of the plant that has seeds in it and you can eat.

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

21

feed To give food to someone or something.

soil The upper layer of earth on which plants grow.

good soil Soil that is good for plant growth.

22

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

suck

The boys suck juice into their mouths.

To pull something upward.

The plant sucks water from the soil.

The man sucks drink through the straw.

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

23

Animals animals Any living thing which is a not a plant.

tame Not dangerous or frightened of people.

wild An animal living in nature without human control or care. Not tame.

24

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

land The part of the Earth that is not the sea.

flesh The soft part of your body under your skin. Meat.

flesh eater An animal that eats meat.

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

eagle

lion

wolf

shark

25

plant eater An animal that eats plants.

panda

grasshopper

deer

rabbit

26

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

Materials material Anything that we use to make things.

bricks

blocks

pipes

rope

rocks

wool

wood

metal

stones

man-­made materials/ objects Man-­made materials are things like nylon and plastic. These pictures show objects mostly made from man-­ made materials.

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

27

natural materials Materials from nature which man has not made.

Wood comes from trees.

We make chairs and table from wood.

Wool comes from the skin of sheeps and goats.

We make cloth and sweaters from wool.

28

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

Solids and Liquids solid Something that is hard and not like a liquid or gas.

liquid A thing that is able to flow freely like water.

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

29

gas Tiny things that fills the space available.

warm A little bit hot.

melt

Butter melts.

Ice melts to water.

To change or make something change from solid to liquid, usually because of heat.

freeze To change from liquid to solid by reducing the temperature.

force 30

Water freezes to ice.

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

Force We need force to play.

A push or pull of one object on another object.

Nails stick to a magnet because of force present in the magnet.

movement The act of moving people or things from one place to another.

push SCIENCE DICTIONARY

31

To move somebody or something strongly away from you.

pull To move somebody or something strongly towards you.

around 32

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

The flowers were all around the butterfly.

On all sides of something.

The water was all around the house.

twist To turn something strongly so that it changes shape.

electricity SCIENCE DICTIONARY

33

Electricity Electricity is a kind of energy that is carried through wires and is used to operate machines, lights, etc. It is also naturally produced in the sky as lightning.

waste Loss of something because we are using it too much or we are not using it in a good way.

save 34

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

To take somebody or something away from danger. To use less of something so that you can use it later.

fresh A thing which is made not long ago. Not old.

A fresh cake.

vibration SCIENCE DICTIONARY

35

Sound To move very quickly and continuously from side to side or up and down. The vibration of the strings produces sound. The vibration of the top of the drum produces sound.

sound Sound is a form of energy and it is something that you hear.

wave 36

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

A wave is a travelling disturbance that is transferring energy from one place to another.

light SCIENCE DICTIONARY

37

Light and Shadow Light is a kind of energy that makes us able to see.

shadow Shadow is the dark area formed when the source of light is blocked.

source

The sun is a source of light.

A place where something comes from.

block 38

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

To stop somebody or something.

The sunlight is blocked and the roads are blocked.

transparent object An object through which light can easily or completely pass. Something you can see through.

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

39

opaque object An object through which light cannot pass.

rays Straight lines of light.

40

SCIENCE DICTIONARY

Index animals

24

habit

11

around

33

health

17

block

39

healthy

17

body

15

human being

15

breathe

14

identify

7

care

17

land

25

change

9

leaf

21

characteristic

8

light

38

define

11

liquid

29

develop

12

live

19

different

6

living

13

electricity

34

man-made materials/ objects

27

energy

18

material

27

external

10

melt

30

feed

22

move

8

flesh

25

movement

31

flesh eater

25

natural

6

flower

21

natural materials

28

food

14

need

13

food

18

opaque object

40

force

31

organ

16

freeze

30

part

15

fresh

35

physical

16

fruit

21

plant

20

funtion

10

plant eater

26

gas

30

pull

32

good soil

22

push

32

grow

13

rays

40

recognise

7

root

20

save

35

science

6

seed

21

sense

11

sense organ

16

shadow

38

soil

22

solid

29

sound

36

source

38

specific

9

stem

20

strong

18

suck

23

tame

24

thing

8

transparent object

39

twist

33

vibration

36

warm

30

waste

34

wave

37

wild

24

In the making of this book the author acknowledges the efforts of: Staff of Azeem Paradise School, Youth Together for Human Rights Education and Mr. Usaid Ghauri. Your dedicated efforts will create brilliant students. Thank you!

Write to the author at [email protected]

Youth Together for Human Rights Education

For Teachers, Students & Parents

www.ythre.org [email protected]

www.ilovewords.org

0311-2050292

021- 34383909

ISBN: 978-0-9932615-0-3

44

www.ythre.org www.ilovewords.org

SCIENCE DICTIONARY