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Table of contents :
PREFACE
THE AUTHORS' ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
PART I: BUILDING A COLLECTION
Chapter 1. SELECTION
Chapter 2. ACQUISITION
Chapter 3. FINANCE
PART II :ORGANIZING AND EXPLOITING THE MATERIALS
Chapter 4. CATALOGING
Chapter 5. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL CONTROL
PART III: SURVEY OF RESOURCES
Chapter 6. A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
Chapter 7 .THE QUALITY OF THE RUSSIAN COLLECTIONS
CONCLUSIONS
NOTES
APPENDICES
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX
Recommend Papers

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RUSSIAN AND EAST EUROPEAN PUBLICATIONS IN THE LIBRARIES OF THE UNITED S T A T E S

NUMBER ELEVEN Columbia University Studies in Library Service

Russian and East European Publications in the Libraries of the United States

Melville J. Ruggles and Vaclav Mostecky

I960 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS NEW YORK

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY STUDIES IN LIBRARY SERVICE BOARD

OF

J A C K DALTON,

To serve until June

EDITORS

Chairman

30,1960

ALLEN T . HAZEN, Professor of English, School of of Library Service, Columbia University RICHARD H . LOGSDON, Director of Libraries, Columbia University WYLLIS E . WRIGHT, Librarian, Williams College To serve until June

30,1961

JACK DALTON, Dean, School of Library Service, Columbia University EDWARD G . FREEHAFER, Director, New York Public Library MAURICE F . TAUBER, Melvil Dewey Professor, School of Library Service, Columbia University To serve until June

30,1962

SCOTT ADAMS, Program Director, National Foreign Science Information. National Science Foundation JAMES J . HESLIN, Associate Director, T h e New York Historical Society RAY L . TRAUTMAN, Professor of Library Service, School of Library Service, Columbia University

COPYRIGHT ©

1960

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS, NEW YORK

PUBLISHED IN GREAT B R I T A I N , INDIA, AND PAKISTAN BY T H E OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS LONDON, BOMBAY, AND KARACHI

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD N U M B E R : 6 0 - 1 3 8 8 7 MANUFACTURED IN T H E U N I T E D STATES OF AMERICA

PREFACE

As it h a s m o v e d beyond a long t r a d i t i o n of i n s u l a r i t y f r o m the m a i n c u r r e n t s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , the United S t a t e s h a s , in the p a s t two d e c a d e s , c o m e to a deep and m a t u r e i n t e r e s t in other nations. T h i s c o n c e r n h a s b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y evident in the c a s e of R u s s i a , b e c a u s e of the e x t r a o r d i n a r y r a t e at which the S o v i e t Union h a s developed and the p o l i c i e s i t h a s p u r s u e d . A s e n s e of u r g e n c y attended the A m e r i c a n and, indeed, the W e s t e r n w o r l d ' s r e a c t i o n to the c o u r s e of S o v i e t h i s t o r y and the s i m u l t a n e o u s a c c e l e r a t i o n of t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s throughout the w o r l d . The c l e a r r e q u i r e m e n t that the United S t a t e s m u s t u n d e r stand the S o v i e t Union and i t s p l a c e in c u r r e n t h i s t o r y b e c a m e a c u t e l y m a n i f e s t following World W a r I I . T h e e f f e c t of a l l t h i s was f e l t throughout A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , but the e f f o r t to cope with the new p r o b l e m s w a s c o n c e n t r a t e d in g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s and in the u n i v e r s i t i e s . The sudden, g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y of r e s e a r c h in R u s s i a n a f f a i r s c o n ducted by both t h e s e groups p l a c e d a h e a v y burden on A m e r i c a n r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i e s and at the s a m e t i m e p r e s e n t e d t h e m with a p r o m i s i n g opportunity. Many l i b r a r i e s had to build c o l l e c t i o n s of E a s t E u r o p e a n p u b l i c a t i o n s f r o m the ground up. The few that All faced had b a s i c c o l l e c t i o n s had to expand t h e m r a p i d l y . s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s in a c q u i r i n g and handling m a t e r i a l s f r o m the S o v i e t Union and i t s E u r o p e a n s a t e l l i t e s . The c o n t r i b u t i o n of both u n i v e r s i t i e s and g o v e r n m e n t to A m e r i c a n under standing of the Soviet Union was i m p r e s s i v e . T h e r o l e of the u n i v e r s i t i e s was p e r h a p s p a r t i c u l a r l y outstanding b e c a u s e they not only p r o d u c e d v a l u a b l e r e s e a r c h findings but a l s o t r a i n e d a l a r g e n u m b e r of people who expanded s e v e r a l dozen fold the s m a l l c o r p s of R u s s i a n e x p e r t s who had c a r r i e d the burden of r e s e a r c h on S o v i e t a f f a i r s in g o v e r n m e n t and the a c a d e m i c world until the end of World W a r I I . The r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i e s , both a c a d e m i c and g o v e r n m e n t a l , m a d e e q u a l l y i m p r e s s i v e p r o g r e s s in expanding t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s to m e e t the greatly increased demands. A f t e r a d e c a d e of such a c t i v i t y , a need was f e l t f o r a r e v i e w of ground gained, f o r a r e - e v a l u a t i o n of g o a l s , and f o r planning

f o r the f u t u r e . In 1957 the J o i n t C o m m i t t e e on S l a v i c S t u d i e s of t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l a n d t h e A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l of L e a r n e d S o c i e t i e s b e g a n a t w o - y e a r s t u d y , with f o u n d a t i o n s u p p o r t , of the e n t i r e p r o g r a m of R u s s i a n a r e a s t u d i e s .

R e c o g n i z i n g t h e e s s e n t i a l r o l e of l i b r a r i e s in s u c h s t u d i e s , the J o i n t C o m m i t t e e a s k e d the A s s o c i a t i o n of R e s e a r c h L i b r a r i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e in the r e v i e w t h e y w e r e u n d e r t a k i n g . The r e s u l t w a s t h e s t u d y which f o l l o w s . It w a s l a u n c h e d in S e p t e m b e r 1957 u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n of the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s C o m m i t t e e on S l a v i c and E a s t E u r o p e a n S t u d i e s . B y the e n d of F e b r u a r y 1958 m o s t of the data had been a s s e m b l e d . C o l l a t i o n and p r e l i m i n a r y e v a l u a t i o n of t h e s e d a t a w e r e c o m p l e t e d by M a y 1958. The r e p o r t w a s d r a f t e d d u r i n g the s u m m e r of 1958, s i n c e w h i c h t i m e it h a s b e e n m o s t h e l p f u l l y c r i t i c i z e d b y a v a r i e t y of s p e c i a l i s t s and f i n a l l y e d i t e d to f o r m the m a n u s c r i p t f o r the p r e s e n t b o o k . It i s a p l e a s u r e to r e p o r t t h a t s e v e r a l of the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n put i n t o e f f e c t . T h e C o m m i t t e e , in b e h a l f of the A s s o c i a t i o n of R e s e a r c h L i b r a r i e s and t h e a u t h o r s , w i s h e s to a c k n o w l e d g e with w a r m t h a n k s the g r a n t s of the S o c i a l S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l and the C o u n c i l on L i b r a r y R e s o u r c e s w h i c h m a d e p o s s i b l e the s t u d y of A m e r i c a n r e s e a r c h l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e s f o r Slavic a n d E a s t E u r o p e a n s t u d i e s and the p r e p a r a t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s volume. T h a n k s a r e a l s o e x t e n d e d a p p r e c i a t i v e l y to P r o f e s s o r C y r i l E . B l a c k of P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , c h a i r m a n of t h e S u b c o m m i t t e e on the R e v i e w of R u s s i a n S t u d i e s of the J o i n t C o m m i t t e e on S l a v i c S t u d i e s , a n d M r . J o h n M . T h o m p s o n , s t a f f a s s i s t a n t f o r the R e v i e w , f o r h e l p f u l a d v i c e and s u g g e s t i o n s ; to s e v e r a l o f f i c i a l s of v a r i o u s U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s ; t o d o z e n s of R u s s i a n and E a s t E u r o p e a n s p e c i a l i s t s ; a n d to the h u n d r e d s of l i b r a r i a n s w i t h o u t w h o s e w h o l e h e a r t e d c o o p e r a t i o n a n d s u p p o r t in i n t e r v i e w s and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e the p r o j e c t c o u l d n e v e r have been completed.

F i n a l l y , the C o m m i t t e e w i s h e s to r e c o r d i t s l a s t i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r M e l v i l l e J . R u g g l e s and V a c l a v M o s t e c k y f o r the c o m p e t e n c e , i m a g i n a t i o n , d i l i g e n c e , and good h u m o r w i t h w h i c h t h e y c a r r i e d out t h i s long and c o m p l i c a t e d s t u d y and t h e n p r e p a r e d t h e i r r e p o r t and finally this book. The C o m m i t t e e w a s s i n g u l a r l y f o r t u n a t e in s e c u r i n g t h e s e two m e n f o r the p r o j e c t , f o r f e w o t h e r A m e r i c a n l i b r a r i a n s p o s s e s s t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and

u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , a s w e l l a s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o b r i n g t h e s e q u a l i t i e s to b e a r , w h i c h i s s o a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r throughout the p a g e s that follow.

J o h n W. Dorothy Richard John H. Douglas

J a n u a r y 28,

I960

Cronin B. Keller H. L o g s d o n Ottemiller W. B r y a n t , C h a i r m a n

THE AUTHORS'

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

A u t h o r s a r e u s u a l l y g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y , t o w a r d the end of a P r e f a c e w r i t t e n by t h e m s e l v e s , t o e x p r e s s t h e i r g r a t i t u d e to t h o s e without w h o s e h e l p t h e i r book c o u l d not h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n . The A s s o c i a t i o n of R e s e a r c h L i b r a r i e s 1 C o m m i t t e e on Slavic a n d E a s t E u r o p e a n S t u d i e s w a n t e d to w r i t e t h e P r e f a c e , and we w e r e h a p p y to r e l i n q u i s h it to t h e m . We s o u g h t , h o w e v e r , s e p a r a t e s p a c e w h e r e we c o u l d e x p r e s s o u r a p p r e c i a t i o n to t h o s e w h o b e c a m e m o s t i n v o l v e d , v o l u n t a r i l y o r i n v o l u n t a r i l y , in the r e s e a r c h , w r i t i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p u b l i c a t i o n w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h i s b o o k . L i m i t a t i o n s of s p a c e r e q u i r e u s to m e n t i o n only t h o s e who w e r e e i t h e r m o s t f o r e b e a r i n g o r m o s t h e l p f u l ; e v e n m a n y of t h e s e m u s t be g r o u p e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e so numerous. F o r e m o s t a m o n g t h o s e to w h o m we a r e i n d e b t f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and e n c o u r a g e m e n t a r e o u r w i v e s , A l i c e R u g g l e s and I v a M o s t e c k y , and o u r c h i l d r e n , Iva M o s t e c k y a n d D e n n i s and Douglas Ruggles. We t e l l o u r s e l v e s t h a t o u r a b s e n c e , e i t h e r while travelling or while i n c o m m u n i c a t i v e at our d e s k s , was a sacrifice for them. D o u g l a s W. B r y a n t , C h a i r m a n of t h e C o m m i t t e e , w a s f a r s i g h t e d , a d r o i t a n d l o y a l a s an a d m i n i s t r a t o r of t h e p r o j e c t . He gave us his f r i e n d s h i p , a gift which is the m o s t valuable r e w a r d b y f a r w h i c h we h a v e r e c e i v e d f r o m o u r a s s o c i a t i o n with the project. O u r e m p l o y e r s — V e r n e r W. C l a p p , P r e s i d e n t of t h e C o u n c i l on L i b r a r y R e s o u r c e s , I n c . a n d t h e R e v e r e n d J a m e s J . K o r t e n d i c k , S . S . , H e a d of the D e p a r t m e n t of L i b r a r y S c i e n c e a t C a t h o l i c University — have our gratitude too. T h o u g h t h e s t u d y and book w e r e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on o u r p a r t , t h e y h e l p e d a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s and t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t n e v e r l a g g e d . To a l l m e m b e r s of the C o m m i t t e e — D o u g l a s W. B r y a n t (mentioned above), John Cronin, Dorothy Keller, Richard

L o g s d o n , J o h n O t t e m i l l e r — we a r e g r a t e f u l f o r g u i d a n c e t h r o u g h out the p r o j e c t a n d m o s t p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h o r o u g h and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m of o u r m a n u s c r i p t a t s e v e r a l s t a g e s of i t s d e v e l o p ment. I r e n e B r y a n t , o u r e d i t o r , d i d not m e r e l y e m p l o y h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l i n t r a n s f o r m i n g o u r m a n u s c r i p t into s o m e t h i n g p u b l i s h a b l e ; s h e d i d s o w i t h o u t o n c e r u f f l i n g the f e e l i n g s of e i t h e r a u t h o r . She m a d e o u r e d i t o r i a l c o n f e r e n c e s a p l e a s u r e . The s k i l l e d t e c h n i c i a n s w h o t r a n s m u t e the d i c t a t i o n o r s c r i b b l i n g s of a u t h o r s i n t o r e a d a b l e f o r m on t y p e w r i t e r s a r e t o o often unmentioned. We would l i k e to t h a n k M r s . C a r o l y n S h a r y B u t t s , M i s s B e r n a d i n e A . B r o o k s , and M r . J o h n E . M c H u g h , J r . for their excellent work. We o f f e r s p e c i a l t h a n k s a l s o to J o s e p h D a g n e s e , who p r e p a r e d the I n d e x t o t h i s book and to T h o m a s J . Whitby who g a v e u s h i s e x p e r t a d v i c e on s e v e r a l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g to Soviet b i b l i o g r a p h y , e d i t e d a n d r e v i s e d t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y of t h i s book a n d m e t i c u l o u s l y p e r f o r m e d the t e d i o u s t a s k of p r o o f - r e a d i n g t h e p r i n t e r ' s copy. The C o m m i t t e e h a s a c k n o w l e d g e d , in i t s P r e f a c e , the c o n t r i b u t i o n of f o u n d a t i o n s and t h e i r a f f i l i a t e s , of s c h o l a r l y s o c i e t i e s , of g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s , of R u s s i a n and E a s t E u r o p e a n s p e c i a l i s t s a n d of l i b r a r i a n s . The a u t h o r s r e d o u b l e t h i s a p preciation. T h e i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m t h e s e g r o u p s who gave u s g e n e r o u s a s s i s t a n c e a r e t o o m a n y to n a m e and the v a r i o u s w a y s i n which t h e y h e l p e d u s a r e a l s o too n u m e r o u s to m e n t i o n h e r e . We p a r t i c u l a r l y e n j o y e d w o r k i n g in c o l l a b o r a t i o n with the S u b c o m m i t t e e on t h e R e v i e w of R u s s i a n S t u d i e s of the J o i n t C o m m i t t e e on S l a v i c S t u d i e s d u r i n g the g e n e r a l s u r v e y it m a d e of R u s s i a n s t u d i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .

MELVILLE J . RUGGLES VACLAV

MOSTECKY

CONTENTS Page Preface

v

Authors' Acknowledgments

viii

L i s t of T a b l e s

xiii

L i s t of E x h i b i t s

xv

Introduction

1

P a r t I.

Building a Collection 1. 2. 3.

P a r t II.

Cataloging Bibliographical Control

115 136

S u r v e y of R e s o u r c e s 6. 7.

Conclusions Notes

15 31 103

O r g a n i z i n g and E x p l o i t i n g the M a t e r i a l s 4. 5.

P a r t III.

Selection Acquisition Finance

A Descriptive Analysis The Q u a l i t y of the R u s s i a n C o l l e c t i o n s . . . .

163 228

.

253 263

xii

Contents Page

APPENDICES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Questionnaire F o r m for Survey L i s t of L i b r a r i a n s I n t e r v i e w e d Interview Schedule M a j o r A m e r i c a n C o l l e c t i o n s of Slavic a n d East European Monographic Materials M a j o r A m e r i c a n C o l l e c t i o n s of M o n o g r a p h i c M a t e r i a l s P u b l i s h e d Within t h e P r e s e n t T e r r i t o r y of t h e S o v i e t Union M a j o r A m e r i c a n C o l l e c t i o n s of M o n o g r a p h i c M a t e r i a l s Published in E a s t e r n Europe Outside the P r e s e n t T e r r i t o r y of the S o v i e t Union . . . Russian Collections Belorussian Collections Ukrainian Collections Baltic Languages Collections C a u c a s i a n and C e n t r a l Asian Collections. . . . Judaica Collections Albanian Collections Bulgarian Collections Czech and Slovak Collections Hungarian Collections Polish Collections Rumanian Collections Yugoslav Collections B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l and R e f e r e n c e M a t e r i a l s . . . . Philosophy Religion Social Sciences Linguistics P u r e Science Applied Science Arts Literature H i s t o r y , G e o g r a p h y , and T r a v e l S a m p l e s of S o v i e t P r i n t e d C a t a l o g C a r d s I s s u e d b y the A l l - U n i o n and the R e p u b l i c Book C h a m b e r s

283 284 285-296 297-298

299-300

301-302 303-311 312 313-314 315-316 317 318 319 320 322-325 326-329 330-334 335-336 337-338 339 340 341 342-345 346-347 348-356 357-361 362-363 364-366 367-369

370-372

Selected Bibliography

375

Index

385-396

xiii

Contents Tables

Page 1.

The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Sample: R e t u r n s by Type of L i b r a r y 2. The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Sample: R e t u r n s by Region. . . 3. G e o g r a p h i c a l R e g i o n s 4 . I t e m s L i s t e d in the M o n t h l y I n d e x of R u s s i a n A c c e s s i o n s , 1948-1958 5. I t e m s L i s t e d in T h e E a s t E u r o p e a n A c c e s s i o n s Index, 1953-1957 6 . I t e m s L i s t e d in t h e E a s t E u r o p e a n A c c e s s i o n s I n d e x , b y C o u n t r y , 1953 a n d 1957 7 . P e r i o d i c a l s L i s t e d by the M o n t h l y I n d e x of R u s s i a n A c c e s s i o n s (By s u b j e c t , H o l d i n g s and R a t e of D u p l i c a t i o n ) 8. D e c i m a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n B r e a k d o w n of P e r i o d i c a l T i t l e s L i s t e d by the M o n t h l y I n d e x of R u s s i a n Accessions 9 . R e c e i p t s of S o v i e t P e r i o d i c a l s , b y L i b r a r y and Subject 10. P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r B o o k s a n d P e r i o d i c a l s , by C o u n t r y 11. A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y H o l d i n g s of E a s t E u r o p e a n M a t e r i a l s , by Language 12. E a s t E u r o p e a n Book P r o d u c t i o n a n d H o l d i n g s of American Libraries 13. T r a n s l a t i o n s P u b l i s h e d in C z e c h o s l o v a k i a f r o m 1946 to 1952

14. 15. 16.

Monographs: H o l d i n g s of A m e r i c a n L i b r a r i e s : b y T y p e of L i b r a r y a n d b y R e g i o n of t h e U. S. : R u s s i a n and Soviet East European C o m b i n e d R u s s i a n , Soviet and E a s t E u r o p e a n

17. 18. 19.

Periodicals: H o l d i n g s of A m e r i c a n L i b r a r i e s : B y T y p e of L i b r a r y and by R e g i o n of t h e U. S R u s s i a n and Soviet East European C o m b i n e d R u s s i a n , Soviet and E a s t E u r o p e a n

7 7 8 33 35 35

38-39

40 42 106 171 172 172

175

177

xiv

Contents T a b l e s (Continued) Newspapers

Holdings of A m e r i c a n L i b r a r i e s : By Type of of L i b r a r y and by Region of the U. S 20. R u s s i a n and Soviet 21. E a s t E u r o p e a n 22. Combined R u s s i a n , Soviet and E a s t E u r o p e a n 23. 24. 25.

26.

Metropolitan A r e a s Holding the L a r g e s t Collections of E a s t E u r o p e a n Publications A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y Holdings of E a s t E u r o p e a n M a t e r i a l s , by Type of L i b r a r y E a s t E u r o p e a n National Minority Groups and Public L i b r a r y Holdings of E a s t E u r o p e a n Publications within a Metropolitan A r e a : Cleveland, Ohio People and B o o k s : U . S . Population of E a s t E u r o p e a n Origin and Public L i b r a r y Holdings of B o o k s in C o r r e s p o n d i n g L a n g u a g e s

Page 179

182 185

189 191

L a n g u a g e Distribution of E a s t E u r o p e a n M a t e r i a l s in R e s e a r c h L i b r a r i e s : by R e g i o n s of the U . S . 27. Monographs 195 28. P e r i o d i c a l s 195 29. N e w s p a p e r s 195

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

Subject I n t e r e s t Index: A m e r i c a n L i b r a r i a n and E a s t E u r o p e a n Publications All S u b j e c t s , by B r o a d C a t e g o r i e s The S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , by Language P u r e Science, by L a n g u a g e Applied S c i e n c e , by L a n g u a g e The A r t s , by L a n g u a g e H i s t o r y and Geography, by Language All S u b j e c t s , by B r o a d C a t e g o r i e s , by Region of the U . S The S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , by Region of the U . S P u r e S c i e n c e , by Region of the U . S Applied S c i e n c e , by Region of the U . S The A r t s , by Region of the U . S History and Geography, by Region of the U . S . . . A. Relative Subject E m p h a s i s , Nationwide B . Concentration of Holdings, by Subject

203 204 205 206 207 207 208 211 212 213 215 215 217

xv

Contents Tables (Continued)

Page 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49.

E f f e c t of R e - A d j u s t i n g C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of 530 S a m p l e T i t l e s L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s H o l d i n g s of t h e S a m p l e T i t l e s C h e c k e d a t t h e New Y o r k P u b l i c L i b r a r y . . L i b r a r i e s Holding M o r e T h a n F i v e T i t l e s of The Total Sample T o t a l L o c a t e d T i t l e s , by I m p r i n t D a t e T o t a l L o c a t e d T i t l e s , by S u b j e c t R e l a t i v e S t r e n g t h of Nine L i b r a r i e s i n R u s s i a n P u b l i c a t i o n s of V a r i o u s P e r i o d s R e l a t i v e S t r e n g t h of the R u s s i a n C o l l e c t i o n s of N i n e L i b r a r i e s , by S u b j e c t

237 237 239 243 243 245 246

Exhibits 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

An A i l - U n i o n Book C h a m b e r C a t a l o g C a r d f o r Research Libraries An A n n o t a t e d L e n i n L i b r a r y C a r d f o r P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s , i s s u e d i n 1955 An A n n o t a t e d P o l i s h C a t a l o g C a r d A Czechoslovak Catalog Card for R e s e a r c h Libraries An A n n o t a t e d C z e c h o s l o v a k C a t a l o g C a r d f o r Popular L i b r a r i e s , Issued by the National L i b r a r y

131 131 132 132 132

INTRODUCTION Objectives. The objectives of this study a r e to survey the existing collections of E a s t European m a t e r i a l s in A m e r i c a n l i b r a r i e s , to d e s c r i b e and analyze the techniques employed in the handling of these m a t e r i a l s , and to recommend p o s s i b l e i m p r o v e m e n t s .

The

evaluation and the recommendations a r e b a s e d not only on current l i b r a r y p r a c t i c e s and current u s e of E a s t European publications, but on an e s t i m a t e of future needs of the r e s e a r c h community. Scope. F o r the p u r p o s e s of the study, E a s t European m a t e r i a l s a r e defined a s publications (monographs, p e r i o d i c a l s ,

serials,

n e w s p a p e r s , m a p s , sheet m u s i c , phonorecords, prints) i s s u e d anywhere in those p a r t s of e a s t e r n Europe which a r e at p r e s e n t under Soviet domination; both r e t r o s p e c t i v e and current m a t e r i a l s a r e included.

The survey does not cover E a s t G e r m a n p u b l i c a -

tions and, with minor exceptions, does not deal with Yugoslav m a t e r i a l s b e c a u s e the p r o b l e m s connected with the acquisition of books f r o m these two countries a r e different, and for the m o s t p a r t l e s s difficult, than those a s s o c i a t e d with publications i s s u e d e l s e w h e r e in e a s t e r n E u r o p e . Thus, the study concentrates on m a t e r i a l s published within the p r e s e n t geographical boundaries of the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, B u l g a r i a , and Albania.

How-

e v e r , much of the d i s c u s s i o n and the m a j o r i t y of the conclusions focus on R u s s i a n language publications. Although the needs of students, i n s t r u c t o r s , s c h o l a r s , and

Introduction

2

other r e s e a r c h e r s have been f o r e m o s t in the minds of the i n v e s t i g a t o r s , all types of l i b r a r i e s , including public, have been covered by the survey.

F i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have made it n e c e s s a r y ,

however, for the investigators to give l e s s attention than they wished to the special l i b r a r i e s of b u s i n e s s and industry. B e c a u s e of great d i s p a r i t i e s among l a r g e , s m a l l ,

specia-

l i z e d and g e n e r a l l i b r a r i e s , v e r y few of the conclusions and r e c o m mendations reached by the i n v e s t i g a t o r s apply a c r o s s the board to a l l types.

Most of the findings a r e , n e c e s s a r i l y , based on the e x -

p e r i e n c e of those l i b r a r i e s , usually the l a r g e r ones, which have been engaged in collecting E a s t European m a t e r i a l s for many y e a r s and which have on their s t a f f s e x p e r t t e c h n i c i a n s , b i b l i o g r a p h e r s , and linguists.

T h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , if communicated to l i b r a r i a n s in

s m a l l e r institutions or in institutions which a r e only beginning to build E a s t European c o l l e c t i o n s , might alleviate the l a t t e r ' s t a s k and improve both the quality and the r a t e of growth of our nationwide r e s o u r c e s of E a s t European m a t e r i a l s .

The investigators

have t h e r e f o r e attempted, when it seemed appropriate, to adapt conclusions based on findings regarding l a r g e r c o l l e c t i o n s to situations involving s m a l l e r ones.

M o r e o v e r , since the p r o b l e m s faced

by institutions with only n a s c e n t E a s t European c o l l e c t i o n s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y difficult and their solution p a r t i c u l a r l y important,

specific

recommendations for this group a r e presented. The requirements of s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and humanists for E a s t European publications have been analyzed m o s t thoroughly.

This

was due in part to the almost exclusive emphasis placed on these fields by the survey of the J o i n t Committee on Slavic Studies to which this study is a companion. ^

A relative l a c k of attention to

publications in the fields of natural s c i e n c e and technology was also forced upon the investigators by the fact that, within the l i m i t s of

Introduction

3

time and funds allotted f o r the study, only s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and hum a n i s t s were readily a c c e s s i b l e in n u m b e r s sufficient to constitute a r e l i a b l e sample.

R e s e a r c h e r s specializing in the h i s t o r y , law,

e c o n o m i c s , l i t e r a t u r e , or l i n g u i s t i c s of e a s t e r n Europe a r e r e a d i l y identifiable and a c c e s s i b l e b e c a u s e m o s t of them a r e a s s o c i a t e d with a rather s m a l l number of a c a d e m i c o r governmental c e n t e r s of a r e a studies.

These s p e c i a l i s t s in one a r e a of the world a r e a l s o

in command of the languages of that a r e a and usually a r e acutely conc e r n e d with the p r o b l e m s of acquiring and handling publications f r o m e a s t e r n Europe.

S c i e n t i s t s and e n g i n e e r s , on the other hand, a r e

s c a t t e r e d among hundreds of l a b o r a t o r i e s , testing stations and plants. T h e i r p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t is in the s u b j e c t m a t t e r of their discipline, not in a specific geographical a r e a o r in m a t e r i a l s in specific l a n guages.

Consequently t h e i r language a b i l i t i e s a r e often not adequate

to t h e i r actual needs, and, to a much g r e a t e r degree than t h e i r s o c i a l science c o l l e a g u e s , they must depend on i n t e r m e d i a r i e s and on translations - s e r v i c e s which a r e beyond the scope of usual l i b r a r y services.

T h e r e f o r e , while this book devotes as much attention to

the m a t e r i a l s of s c i e n c e and technology f r o m the l i b r a r i a n ' s point of view, as it does to m a t e r i a l s in other f i e l d s , it cannot undertake to suggest solutions to the s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s of a c c e s s to s o u r c e s 2 of information in the fields of s c i e n c e and technology. Two i s s u e s marginal to this study were also examined; the problem of paper deterioration and t r a n s l a t i o n s .

An a r t i c l e on paper

deterioration i s to appear in the A m e r i c a n Slavic and E a s t European Review, and another on t r a n s l a t i o n s in College and R e s e a r c h L i b r a ries.

Both have been written by M.

J.

Ruggles.

S o u r c e s and Method. Throughout, the investigators have made an effort to utilize

Introduction

4

published and unpublished m a t e r i a l s , whether the origin was in the United S t a t e s , w e s t e r n E u r o p e , o r the U . S . S . R . and its orbit, which related to various a s p e c t s of the problem at hand. Most of the data, however, were acquired by d i r e c t inquiry r a t h e r than by r e f e r e n c e to published s o u r c e s .

One r e a s o n for this

approach i s that no comprehensive survey of E a s t European c o l l e c t i o n s , and t h e i r handling and s e r v i c i n g in A m e r i c a n l i b r a r i e s , haB hitherto been undertaken.

Another r e a s o n is that the situation

under investigation i s so much in flux and so rapidly developing that up-to-date information could be obtained only by d i r e c t m e a n s . The p r i m a r y s o u r c e s of data for the p r e s e n t survey w e r e , t h e r e f o r e , a questionnaire sent to 1203 l i b r a r i e s , a s e r i e s of i n terviews with l i b r a r i a n s and l i b r a r y u s e r s , correspondence with United S t a t e s government a g e n c i e s , correspondence with E a s t European publishing houses and l i b r a r i e s , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e with international organizations, and informal d i s c u s s i o n s with individuals active in some aspect of the E a s t European publications field, including p r o c u r e m e n t , distribution, c o n t r o l , and u s e . The original purpose of the questionnaire (reproduced in Appendix l ) w a s to obtain a spot c h e c k of the extent to which A m e r ican l i b r a r i e s and their patrons have been i n t e r e s t e d and s u c c e s s ful in building collections of E a s t European m a t e r i a l s and to identify t h e i r m a j o r p r o b l e m s in doing so.

The investigators originally

in-

tended to follow up with a second, m o r e detailed, questionnaire which would amplify the data collected by the f i r s t inquiry.

How-

e v e r , the unexpected c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s of r e s p o n s e by the r e c i pients to the f i r s t query - in t e r m s of both s t a t i s t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the total sample and of c o m p l e t e n e s s of answer to each question - and the finding that the number of significant E a s t E u r o pean collections was r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , made a second questionnaire

5

Introduction unnecessary.

It b e c a m e apparent that m o s t of the n e c e s s a r y addi-

tional information could be c o v e r e d by p e r s o n a l interviews. The questionnaire was mailed in October and November, 1957; the r e s u l t s thus r e p r e s e n t the situation as of the autumn of 1957, and acquisitions not cataloged by the end of 1958 a r e not included. ^ The mailing l i s t was compiled f r o m the c u r r e n t editions of the A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y D i r e c t o r y and the D i r e c t o r y of S p e c i a l Libraries.

Included were a l l college and university l i b r a r i e s of

5 0 , 0 0 0 volumes or m o r e ; a l l public l i b r a r i e s with at l e a s t 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 volumes; and a l l governmental and s p e c i a l l i b r a r i e s listed a s hold4 ing a minimum of 5 , 0 0 0 volumes. Originally, 5 0 , 0 0 0 volumes had been contemplated as the lower l i m i t to be applied to l i b r a r i e s of a l l types.

This would have swelled the total sample, however,

by s c o r e s of s m a l l - c i t y public l i b r a r i e s with p r a c t i c a l l y no foreign language holdings; on the other hand, a number of s p e c i a l r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i e s which by r e a s o n of their subject concentration c o l l e c t foreign-language m a t e r i a l s , would have been omitted.

The r e t u r n s

have fully j u s t i f i e d the selection of the sample: with the exception of the s p e c i a l l i b r a r y category, no significant holdings of E a s t European m a t e r i a l s have been reported by any l i b r a r y of l e s s than 300, 000 volumes, and important collections of E a s t European m a t e r i a l s were found in s p e c i a l l i b r a r i e s with considerably l e s s than 50, 000 total holdings. 1 , 4 0 3 questionnaires were distributed among 1 , 2 0 3 i n s t i t u tions, including 200 copies which went to divisions, departments, o r b r a n c h e s which maintain separate m e m b e r s h i p in the S p e c i a l L i b r a r y Association and a r e t h e r e f o r e l i s t e d separately in i t s Directory.

The recipients returned 1 , 0 3 5 completed questionnaire

f o r m s , or a l m o s t three out of four (73. 8 p e r cent); 545 (38. 9 p e r

Introduction

6

cent) r e p o r t e d s o m e holdings of E a s t European publications or at l e a s t plans to s t a r t such c o l l e c t i o n s ; the remaining 490 ( 3 4 . 9 per cent) had no E a s t E u r o p e a n m a t e r i a l s and no immediate plans to begin collecting them.

The r e l a t i v e l y high proportion of the nega-

tive r e p l i e s indicates that the s a m p l e was sufficiently l a r g e and guaranteed that no significant collection was m i s s e d . The r e t u r n s f r o m the departmental, divisional, and branch l i b r a r i e s have been combined with those of the parent institutions. T a b l e s 1 and 2 show the distribution of the 1, 203 units of the s a m p l e r e s p e c t i v e l y by type of l i b r a r y and by geographical location, the p e r c e n t a g e of r e s p o n s e , and the breakdown of the r e p l i e s into p o s i tive and negative.

T a b l e 3 explains the regional division u s e d in

the v a r i o u s p a r t s of the r e p o r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y in Chapter 6. The r e s p o n s e of the a c a d e m i c and public l i b r a r i e s was p a r t i c u l a r l y gratifying: only 5 p e r cent of the university, 12 p e r cent of the public, and l e s s than 20 p e r cent of the college l i b r a r i e s f a i l e d to return the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .

It should be noted that the

" g o v e r n m e n t " and " s p e c i a l " c a t e g o r i e s a r e very s i m i l a r in nature: both include a few l a r g e collections ( L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s , National L i b r a r y of Medicine, Department of Agriculture on the one hand, and the Hoover Institution, John C r e r a r , and L i b r a r y f o r Intercult u r a l Studies on the other) and a l a r g e number of s m a l l l i b r a r i e s serving specialized r e s e a r c h laboratories.

It would s e e m , t h e r e -

f o r e , that the r a t e of r e s p o n s e was directly related to the s i z e of the l i b r a r i e s q u e r i e d and to the p r e s e n c e of E a s t European c o l l e c tions.

At one e x t r e m e , only one out of twenty university l i b r a r i e s

whose median s i z e i s undoubtedly the l a r g e s t , failed to reply while m o r e than four out of five of those which did reply reported s o m e holdings of E a s t E u r o p e a n publications.

At the other e x t r e m e , at

l e a s t one out of three s p e c i a l and governmental l i b r a r i e s , the

Introduction

7

Table 1 THE QUESTIONNAIRE S A M P L E : RETURNS BY T Y P E OF L I B R A R Y

Type of library

Units in sample

REPLIES Positive

%

Negative

%

Total

%

No reply

%

University

147

113

76.9

26

17.7

139

94.6

8

College

322

105

32. 7

153

47.5

258

80.2

64

19.8

Public

120

59

49.2

46

38. 3

105

87.5

15

12.5

Government

107

41

38. 3

27

25.2

68

63.5

39

36.5

Special

507

175

34.6

163

32. 1

338

66.7

169

33. 3

TOTAL

1, 203

493

41.0

415

34. 5

908

75. 5

295

24. 5

No reply

*

5.4

Table 2 THE

Region

QUESTIONNAIRE S A M P L E : RETURNS BY REGION

Units in sample

R EPLIES Positive

*

Negative

%

Total

*

New England

113

43

38. 1

44

39. 8

87

77.9

26

22. I

North-Central Atlantic

362

132

36.5

120

33.2

252

69.7

110

30. 3

East-North Central

235

94

40. 0

100

42.6

194

82. 6

41

17.4

West-North Central

91

39

42.9

38

41.8

77

84. 7

14

15. 3

South-Central Atlantic

137

58

42. 3

41

29.9

99

72.2

38

27. 8

South Atlantic

32

18

56.3

6

18. 8

24

75. 1

8

24.9

East-South Central

34

12

35. 3

12

35. 3

24

70. 6

10

29.4

West-South Central

54

29

53. 7

14

25.9

43

79.6

11

20.4

Mountain

30

18

60.0

6

20. 0

24

80. 0

6

20.0

Pacific

115

50

43. 5

34

29. 6

84

73. 1

31

26.9

TOTAL

1, 203

493

415

34. 5

908

75. 5

295

24. 5

41.0

Introduction

8

Table

3 REGIONS

1.

NEW ENGLAND

6. SOUTH A T L A N T I C

New H a m p s h i r e Vermont Massachusetts Rhode I s l a n d Connecticut

North Carolina South C a r o l i n a Georgia Florida Puerto Rico C a n a l Zone

2.

7.

Maine

NORTH C E N T R A L ATLANTIC

New Y o r k New J e r s e y Pennsylvania 3.

EAST SOUTH C E N T R A L

Kentucky Tennessee Alabama Mississippi

EAST NORTH C E N T R A L 8.

WEST SOUTH C E N T R A L

Ohio Indiana Illinois Michigan Wisconsin

Arkansas Louisiana Oklahoma Texas

4.

9.

W E S T NORTH C E N T R A L

Minnesota Iowa Missouri North Dakota South D a k o t a Nebraska Kansas 5.

MOUNTAIN

Montana Idaho Wyoming Colorado New M e x i c o Arizona Utah Nevada

SOUTH C E N T R A L ATLANTIC 10.

Delaware Maryland D i s t r i c t of Columbia Virginia West Virginia

PACIFIC

Washington Oregon California Hawaii Alaska

Introduction

9

m a j o r i t y of which a r e v e r y s m a l l in s i z e , failed to return the q u e s tionnaire; however, only slightly m o r e than o n e - t h i r d of those which responded reported any holdings.

A s i m i l a r pattern is ap-

parent in Table 2 , particularly in regions 2 (North Central Atlantic S t a t e s ) and 7 ( E a s t South Central S t a t e s ) where a considerable n u m b e r of s p e c i a l l i b r a r i e s is located.

This a n a l y s i s tends to indicate,

t h e r e f o r e , that the non-respondents were m o s t l y s m a l l l i b r a r i e s with l i t t l e , i f anything, to r e p o r t . A c a r e f u l scrutiny of the l i s t of non-respondents substantiated this tentative conclusion and thereby confirmed the validity of the questionnaire method used.

Only eight of those l i b r a r i e s

which had failed to report caught the attention of the investigators as potentially p o s s e s s i n g E a s t European c o l l e c t i o n s .

Their libra-

r i a n s were subsequently approached by p e r s o n a l l e t t e r s and t h e i r holdings which, incidentally, were not significant, were added to the survey. During the analysis of the quantitative data included in the returned questionnaires, it b e c a m e apparent that further checking of the a c c u r a c y of the reports was n e c e s s a r y .

Twelve respondents

had found it impossible to make any reasonable e s t i m a t e of the s i z e of their c o l l e c t i o n s .

At l e a s t twenty l i b r a r i e s lumped together in

one figure, m a t e r i a l s published in e a s t e r n Europe and E n g l i s h language publications about e a s t e r n Europe; and approximately the s a m e number reported the size of their holdings in volumes r a t h e r than t i t l e s .

To prevent a possible s e r i o u s distortion of the r e s u l t s ,

the investigators have made every effort to identify such i n a c c u r a c i e s and to c o r r e c t them by d i r e c t contact with the l i b r a r i e s conc e r n e d ; in a few instances, however, they had to make adjustments based on their own judgment.

Since few l i b r a r i e s maintain s t a t i s t i c s

of holdings by country of origin or language, the possibility of e r r o r

Introduction

10

r e m a i n s , of c o u r s e , a r e a l one, and the r e s u l t s must be examined with caution.

The presentation of the quantitative findings in ranges

r a t h e r than in absolute figures should, however,

substantially

reduce the margin of e r r o r . Holdings of three groups of l i b r a r i e s , belonging mostly to the category of s p e c i a l l i b r a r i e s , a r e r e p r e s e n t e d either inadequately or a r e totally absent f r o m the sample.

They include s c i -

ence and technology collections serving c l a s s i f i e d r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s c a r r i e d out by government agencies d i r e c t l y o r c o n t r a c t e d to private industrial c o n c e r n s , institutes, and u n i v e r s i t i e s ; l i b r a r i e s of r e ligious houses, s e m i n a r i e s , and c o l l e g e s which a r e not l i s t e d in the d i r e c t o r i e s f r o m which the sample was taken and which could not be identified through interview and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; and private collections of individuals and s o c i e t i e s of national minority groups. Within these limitations, which do not significantly distort the findings, the quantitative survey of holdings of E a s t European m a t e r i a l s , based on the questionnaire r e t u r n s , m a y be considered reasonably complete and r e l i a b l e . The group of l i b r a r i e s s e l e c t e d for intensive interviewing was constructed from the l i s t of academic institutions with a r e a study p r o g r a m s , which was made available by the staff of the J o i n t C o m m i t t e e ' s Review of Russian Studies, and f r o m the questionnaire returns.

F o r t y - s i x l i b r a r i e s were visited by the authors.

Of the

total, twenty-eight were university l i b r a r i e s , five c o l l e g e , t h r e e public, six governmental, and four l a r g e s p e c i a l l i b r a r i e s .

The

interview sample included the ten l a r g e s t collections of E a s t E u r o pean m a t e r i a l s in the United States and t h i r t y - s i x (or 51 per cent) of the seventy l i b r a r i e s with significant holdings in this field.

It

also included a balanced representation of l i b r a r i e s in c a t e g o r i e s of all s i z e s and types, in p a r t i c u l a r ten s m a l l collections serving

Introduction

11

either limited undergraduate or newly-introduced graduate p r o g r a m s of instruction and r e s e a r c h .

B u s i n e s s and industrial l i -

b r a r i e s were not visited, not only b e c a u s e , a s indicated above, financial r e s o u r c e s were inadequate for such c o v e r a g e , but a l s o b e c a u s e the data gathered by the questionnaires indicated either that the E a s t European collections of such l i b r a r i e s were too s m a l l , or that their p r o b l e m s were too s p e c i a l , or that their e x p e r i e n c e with handling E a s t European m a t e r i a l s was too limited.

One o r

m o r e of these f a c t o r s , or a combination of all of them, m a d e it i m p o s s i b l e or inadvisable to include b u s i n e s s and industrial l i b r a r i e s in the schedule of intensive interviews.

However, many

p r o b l e m s unique to s u b j e c t - s p e c i a l i z e d l i b r a r i e s have been encountered and c a r e f u l l y examined during the interviews with r e p r e sentatives of government a g e n c i e s and a c a d e m i c institutions. The complete l i s t of l i b r a r i e s included in the interview s a m p l e a p p e a r s in Appendix 2. The actual interviewing proceeded according to a detailed schedule of questions ( s e e Appendix 3) which were grouped under s i x general topics: collections, financial support, selection p o l i c i e s , acquisition p r o g r a m s , cataloging, and bibliographical cont r o l , including i n t e r l i b r a r y lending.

Typically, an interview began

with a conference with the chief l i b r a r i a n , which was followed by meetings with the heads of the S l a v i c , Acquisitions, Cataloging, and R e f e r e n c e D i v i s i o n s , a s well a s with departmental l i b r a r i a n s ; the information gathered f r o m the l i b r a r y staff was then supplemented by d i s c u s s i o n s with facility m e m b e r s interested in the E a s t European a r e a , l a n g u a g e s , or publications f r o m that a r e a .

When-

e v e r p o s s i b l e , both private c o n f e r e n c e s and group exchanges of i d e a s were a r r a n g e d . Without a single exception, the interviewers were r e c e i v e d

Introduction

12

most cordially and t h e i r questions w e r e answered in the s p i r i t of complete cooperation by l i b r a r i a n s and faculty a l i k e .

The l a t t e r

appeared p a r t i c u l a r l y e a g e r to a i r t h e i r p r o b l e m s , s h a r e their e x p e r i e n c e s , and l e a r n about the p r o g r e s s made at other institutions. In s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s , the visit of the i n t e r v i e w e r s for the f i r s t t i m e brought together l i b r a r i a n s and faculty m e m b e r s concerned with E a s t European a f f a i r s and publications.

Group m e e t i n g s of that

kind were found m o s t fruitful and stimulating for everyone p r e s e n t . It is chiefly the generosity and u n r e s e r v e d cooperation of these s p e c i a l i s t s , both l i b r a r i a n s and t e a c h e r s , that have made the present report p o s s i b l e . *

*

*

*

*

The t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n s y s t e m for the C y r i l l i c alphabet used throughout this book is a modified v e r s i o n of the s c h e m e adopted by the L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s : all symbols which do not affect the alphabetical arrangement of e n t r i e s w e r e omitted. Most of this book was jointly written by the authors whose names appear on the title page.

T h e r e was a division o f l a b o r

between them, however, with r e s p e c t to some p a r t s .

These are:

Chapter 2, P a r t 8 which was written by M. J . Ruggles, and Chapters 6 and 7 which were written by V. Mostecky.

PART I

BUILDING A COLLECTION

Chapter 1 SELECTION S e l e c t i o n of Soviet and E a s t European publications is of fundamental importance.

In the long run the quality as well as the

c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s of both l o c a l and national l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e s depend e n t i r e l y upon the foresight and c o n s i s t e n c y of s e l e c t i o n p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s . The investigators found, l a r g e l y on the b a s i s of the i n t e r views they conducted, that planned and s y s t e m a t i c s e l e c t i o n p o l i c i e s , a s applied to the E a s t European m a t e r i a l s to which this s u r vey was l i m i t e d , a r e simply n o n - e x i s t e n t in the g r e a t m a j o r i t y of r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i e s in the United S t a t e s . S p e c i a l difficulties, inherent in the c o m p l e x set of p r o b l e m s posed by E a s t European bibliography, explain in p a r t the d e f i c i e n c y . Various r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed f r o m t i m e to t i m e on the d i s s e m i n a tion of bibliographic information by the Communist governments, and the publication p r a c t i c e s of those governments which r e s u l t in many important m a t e r i a l s going out of print soon a f t e r publication, have made it very difficult to l e a r n what is being published and to l e a r n it in t i m e .

As a l i b r a r i a n of one of the United S t a t e s national

l i b r a r i e s put it: " T h e problem i s not to obtain the m a t e r i a l , but to get to know about it while it is s t i l l available. " At l e a s t equally r e s p o n s i b l e , however, a r e the customs of s e l e c t i o n which have developed in m o s t A m e r i c a n r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i e s . B e c a u s e of the variety of languages and s u b j e c t s involved, the p r o c e s s of s e l e c t i o n is usually d e c e n t r a l i z e d .

The r e s u l t is often poor

supervision and l a c k of coordination which c a u s e in turn both gaps in coverage and u n n e c e s s a r y duplication.

15

P a r t 1: Building A Collection

16

Very few l i b r a r i e s have a c l e a r acquisition policy, let alone a detailed set of c r i t e r i a for selection.

Many i m p r o v i s e or

follow the line of l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e , buying what i s readily a v a i l a b l e , i. e. o f f e r e d by their d e a l e r s . The l a c k of policy and s y s t e m in the selection p r o c e s s was p a r t i c u l a r l y evident among university l i b r a r i e s , p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e of the broad and often unpredictable i n t e r e s t s of facility and g r a d uate students.

Only one out of three institutions visited could p r o -

vide a statement of selection objectives.

Only one university l i -

b r a r y of those interviewed maintained an excellent and up-to-date d e s i d e r a t a file; it was divided into three headings: " m u s t h a v e " , "nice to h a v e " , and " l u x u r y " . Other types of l i b r a r i e s s e e m e d to follow m o r e definite selection c r i t e r i a , although too few of such institutions were v i s i t e d to p e r m i t valid conclusions on this point. Public l i b r a r i e s , in g e n e r a l , s e e m to concentrate on c l a s s i c s , works of outstanding contemporary n o v e l i s t s , history, b i o g raphy, and a r t ; they a l s o s u b s c r i b e to the b a s i c scientific j o u r n a l s and publications of the leading a c a d e m i e s and science institutes. One concrete and c l e a r selection policy statement was p r e p a r e d by the l i b r a r i a n of a college with a f a i r l y extensive R u s s i a n program.

Since it might s e r v e a s model for institutions newly

entering the field of E a s t European s t u d i e s , it i s reproduced h e r e in abbreviated f o r m . college;

The l i b r a r y c o l l e c t s :

1. Material directly related to the c o u r s e s o f f e r e d by the

2. C l a s s i c s of R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e and m a t e r i a l s connected with their h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l , philosophical, and religious background; tools;

3. B a s i c bibliographies, r e f e r e n c e a i d s , and language

Selection

17

4. B a s i c m a t e r i a l s for fundamental studies in the fields of s o c i a l s c i e n c e and humanities, not for extended r e s e a r c h ; and 5. M a t e r i a l s supplementing the existing s p e c i a l c o l l e c t i o n s . In n o n - a c a d e m i c l i b r a r i e s , the responsibility for s e l e c t i o n r e s t s with the l i b r a r i a n who may delegate it to a special a s s i s t a n t or divide it among the subject s p e c i a l i s t s on his staff who usually a r e c l o s e r to the u s e r s of the l i b r a r y .

In such l i b r a r i e s the s e l e c -

tion p r o c e s s is n e c e s s a r i l y supervised and coordinated by the l i b r a r i a n o r a m e m b e r of his staff. The t h r e e national l i b r a r i e s c o v e r in a comprehensive way the entire spectrum of subject fields. The L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s has 5 an explicit selection policy. Its scope, together with that of the Department of Agriculture and the National L i b r a r y of Medicine, c o v e r s m a t e r i a l needed by the C o n g r e s s and other agencies of the United States government; publications concerning the life and achievements of the people of the United S t a t e s ; and the written r e c o r d s of other s o c i e t i e s and peoples whose e x p e r i e n c e i s of c o n c e r n to the people of the United S t a t e s .

Excluded or d e - e m p h a s i z e d

a r e m a t e r i a l s written for children, ^ textbooks below college l e v e l , r e p r i n t s , e x t r a c t s , and t r a n s l a t i o n s .

Most of the other government

l i b r a r i e s a r e specialized and c o l l e c t within a limited subject a r e a . In theory, university l i b r a r i e s usually have r a t h e r c l e a r l y delineated divisions of responsibility for book selection.

The l i -

b r a r i a n is the responsible official and countersigns personally o r through a delegated a s s i s t a n t , all book o r d e r s .

The p r o c e s s of

selection, however, was found to be, in seventy-five p e r cent of the institutions surveyed, almost entirely in the hands of the faculty. As subject e x p e r t s , facility m e m b e r s n e c e s s a r i l y have an important part to play and under any s y s t e m must be depended upon to a s s i s t in the selection of instructional and r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s .

However,

as a l a r g e number of faculty m e m b e r s emphasized during the

P a r t 1: Building A Collection

18

interviews, the ultimate responsibility m u s t r e m a i n with the l i b r a r y , and selection by the ¿acuity m u s t be supplemented by a s y s t e m a t i c scanning of bibliographies and c a t a l o g s by the staff of the l i b r a r y . The i n t e r e s t s of a r e s e a r c h e r inevitably center on a n a r r o w field of specialization.

His selections m a y thus be " b i a s e d " and unbalanced;

they tend to include numerous " l u x u r y " i t e m s in one subject subdivision, while other a r e a s r e m a i n neglected.

When a new faculty m e m -

b e r i s appointed, the direction m a y shift and the l i b r a r y m a y be f o r c e d to spend considerable amounts of time and money to l o c a t e and p u r c h a s e m a t e r i a l s which a r e no longer available in the r e g u l a r market.

Dozens of such instances have been encountered by the

authors during their survey.

One l i b r a r i a n , for e x a m p l e , c o m -

plained that the budget of the R u s s i a n Department was b a r e l y touched in certain y e a r s , only to be heavily overspent in the following f i s c a l period.

One historian in a university was requesting books on the

seventeenth century alone, another was interested exclusively in the Soviet s y s t e m ; virtually no m a t e r i a l dealing with the l a s t 200 y e a r s of T s a r i s t R u s s i a found its way into the l i b r a r y .

In another

l a r g e university, no Hungarian books had ever been acquired b e c a u s e no one on the faculty had been interested in that country; the combination of the revolution in Hungary and the appointment of a new instructor suddenly resulted in a frantic s e a r c h for m a t e r i a l on Hungarian history.

Scientists and engineers on another c a m p u s

where E a s t European book selection was controlled by the R u s s i a n and E a s t European a r e a studies p r o g r a m , complained that the l i r a r y acquired only those science and technology monographs and p e r i o d i c a l s which were of interest to e c o n o m i s t s , l a w y e r s , and other s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s while other scientific and technical l i t e r a ture was neglected. Common s e n s e a s well a s good management indicates that

Selection

19

any university l i b r a r i a n should s e e k the invaluable a s s i s t a n c e of the faculty, a body of e x p e r t s who combine the m a s t e r y of a s u b j e c t with language p r o f i c i e n c y .

Many outstanding s p e c i a l l i b r a r y c o l l e c -

tions a r e a lasting tribute to the contribution of s c h o l a r s who d e voted a l i f e t i m e of effort and s o m e t i m e s p e r s o n a l s a c r i f i c e to book c o l l e c t i n g . L i b r a r i a n s should, however, recognize c l e a r l y the division of responsibility between t h e i r duties and those of the faculty.

The

l a t t e r ' s contribution to the p r o c e s s of s y s t e m a t i c building of R u s sian and E a s t European c o l l e c t i o n s can be g r e a t , but it i s outside t h e i r n o r m a l duties to expect them to c a r r y the full r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for selection. The p r i n c i p a l c a u s e underlying university l i b r a r i a n s ' abdication of s e l e c t i o n to the faculty i s the l a c k of qualified p e r s o n n e l on the l i b r a r y staff.

A few l a r g e university l i b r a r i e s have sought

a solution by c r e a t i n g a Slavic division o r at l e a s t a position of a " R u s s i a n (or S l a v i c ) b i b l i o g r a p h e r " .

Typically this m e m b e r of the

l i b r a r y staff i s a t r a i n e d l i b r a r i a n , proficient in two or m o r e E a s t European languages, o r at l e a s t in the Russian language.

He i s

given responsibility not only for coordinating publication s e l e c t i o n , but for the e n t i r e range of bibliographical activity in the E a s t E u r o pean field.

Thus he maintains c l o s e liaison with faculty m e m b e r s ,

c o n s t r u c t s a d e s i d e r a t a f i l e , supervises or advises on o r d e r s placed with book d e a l e r s specializing in E a s t European publications and on negotiations for e x c h a n g e s , and often s e r v e s as a consultant in the cataloging of E a s t European m a t e r i a l s and in r e f e r e n c e s e r v i c e to r e a d e r s involving such m a t e r i a l s . The authors a r e persuaded by the findings of t h e i r survey that it would be f e a s i b l e and advisable for l i b r a r i e s acquiring 1 , 0 0 0 o r m o r e t i t l e s annually in E a s t European languages to c r e a t e such

P a r t I: Building A Collection

20 a s p e c i a l s t a f f position.

S i n c e the p e r s o n would be a t r a i n e d l i b r a -

r i a n , s m a l l e r institutions could obviously u s e his s e r v i c e s in other c a p a c i t i e s if his full t i m e were not a b s o r b e d in m a t t e r s relating to E a s t E u r o p e a n publications. An alternative a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m e a s u r e would be the appointment to the l i b r a r y s t a f f , on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s , of a junior faculty member a s a Russian bibliographer.

Though this device was s u g -

g e s t e d m o r e than once, the authors a r e not p r e p a r e d to r e c o m m e n d it without r e s e r v a t i o n .

Though his dual status might well provide

a needed bridge between the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the l i b r a r y and the n e e d s of the faculty, his position would involve s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e hazards.

Among t h e s e might be a c e r t a i n estrangement f r o m the

r e s t of the l i b r a r y s t a f f , divided loyalties and p o s s i b l y p r e f e r e n t i a l d e c i s i o n s (or the a c c u s a t i o n of them) in favor of the faculty d e p a r t ment where half his divided existence belonged.

Nevertheless,

l i b r a r i e s of s m a l l e r institutions should not overlook the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of making good u s e (with a p p r o p r i a t e remuneration) of the s p e c i a l talents of individual faculty m e m b e r s , or s o m e t i m e s of students, for book selection, cataloging, r e f e r e n c e and other l i b r a r y t a s k s involving E a s t E u r o p e a n publications.

Even l a r g e r l i b r a r i e s , e s p e -

cially when faced with t e m p o r a r y s h o r t a g e s of personnel or with l a r g e b a c k l o g s of m a t e r i a l s to be cataloged, might turn to such resources. T h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s r e l a t e to internal l i b r a r y p r o c e d u r e s . They a r e intended to be supplemental to the traditional consultative and a d v i s o r y functions of the faculty in the a r e a of book selection. Without such g e n e r a l guidance and a s s i s t a n c e f r o m the faculty the university l i b r a r y could not adequately d i s c h a r g e its r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . S o m e of the inadequacies in the p r o c e s s of selection d i s c o v e r e d in many l i b r a r i e s were due to insufficient use of bibliographical guides.

The l a r g e m a j o r i t y of subject s p e c i a l i s t s , except

21

Selection

for those attached to Slavic departments and a r e a p r o g r a m s , cited, a s their m a j o r selection s o u r c e s , b i b l i o g r a p h i e s and footnotes in monographs and learned j o u r n a l s , a b s t r a c t s , and h e a r s a y .

Only a

s m a l l minority m a d e an attempt to follow r e g u l a r l y and s y s t e m a tically comprehensive bibliographies and d e a l e r s ' c a t a l o g s .

The

i t e m s r e q u e s t e d a s a r e s u l t of this haphazard selection w e r e , of c o u r s e , too often out-of-print and s w e l l e d the d e s i d e r a t a f i l e s of the acquisitions l i b r a r i a n . A theoretically p e r f e c t selection tool would be an a l l - i n c l u s i v e , s u b j e c t - a r r a n g e d bibliography, provided with d e s c r i p t i v e and evaluative annotations and distributed b e f o r e the i t e m s which it l i s t s a r e published.

Such a tool will, of c o u r s e , r e m a i n an unrealizable

goal, but its ideal attributes can be u s e d a s a m e a s u r i n g rod in evaluating the relative m e r i t s of existing a i d s . The national bibliographies published today in a l l E a s t E u r o pean c o u n t r i e s , with the exception of Albania, p a s s the t e s t of c o m p l e t e n e s s and provide a subject approach.

But they l i s t the v a r i o u s

i t e m s after they have been published, do not attempt annotation, and b e c a u s e of their c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s , a r e difficult and t i m e consuming to u s e ; many of the titles which they include a r e t r a n s lations of little interest to A m e r i c a n l i b r a r i e s , p a m p h l e t s , n e a r printed r e p o r t s , and unpriced r e l e a s e s which a r e not available through n o r m a l distribution channels, although they might be obtainable on exchange.

In view of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , national

bibliographies a r e perhaps not an ideal tool f o r the initial faculty selection, but they should be c a r e f u l l y and r e g u l a r l y checked, at 7 l e a s t in the l a r g e r institutions, by the l i b r a r y selection staff. Selective annotated l i s t s of t i t l e s recently published o r scheduled for publication a r e i s s u e d by the bibliographical c e n t e r s or by the official book export agencies of E a s t E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s , e. g. Novye knigi (New Books), i s s u e d weekly by the All Union Book

P a r t I: Building A Collection

22

Chamber in Moscow, and New Books Published in Czechoslovakia, i s s u e d monthly by A r t i a , P r a g u e and annotated in English.

Because

of the helpful annotations and the r e l a t i v e e a s e with which the i t e m s appearing in these bibliographies can be acquired, their s y s t e m a t i c checking by subject s p e c i a l i s t s and l i b r a r y s e l e c t o r s i s mandatory in any institution with an E a s t E u r o p e a n p r o g r a m .

Although Sovet-

skie knigi, a pre-publication l i s t i s s u e d until 1958, was not cons i d e r e d altogether comprehensive, many experienced l i b r a r i a n s believed that it contained a high p e r c e n t a g e of significant Soviet publications which might be p u r c h a s e d through n o r m a l channels and w e r e thus a c c e s s i b l e to the m a j o r i t y of l i b r a r i e s .

The l i b r a -

r i a n of one of the leading E a s t E u r o p e a n collections found that over eighty-five percent of works cited in footnotes and bibliographies of Soviet r e s e a r c h monographs were included in Sovetskie knigi, and apparently, Novye knigi i s at l e a s t a s s a t i s f a c t o r y in this r e g spect. In fact, Novye knigi i s c o n s i d e r e d by s o m e l i b r a r i a n s to be m o r e comprehensive in c o v e r a g e than was Sovetskie knigi. Novye knigi, i s s u e d weekly, contains three s e c t i o n s : 1) an annotated listing of books to be published which can be o r d e r e d f r o m Mezhdunarodnaia Kniga or its r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ; 2) notes f r o m v a r i ous publishing h o u s e s ; and 3) a p a r t i a l l y annotated listing of books i s s u e d during the week by the v a r i o u s publishing h o u s e s . in the data about each book i s its p r i c e .

Included

The D i r e c t o r of the Book

Chamber told one of the authors in November 1958 that on the a v e r age the books listed in Novye knigi a p p e a r there four months b e f o r e publication - - a distinct advantage for acquisitions departments of l i b r a r i e s , since Soviet books a r e sold out so quickly after they a p p e a r on the m a r k e t . Another important s o u r c e of information about Soviet books to be published a r e the o c c a s i o n a l , i r r e g u l a r l y published c a t a l o g s

23

Selection

issued by Mezhdunarodnaia Kniga (in the Russian language) which l i s t forthcoming books in s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t s - - o r s o m e t i m e s in s p e c i a l languages.

T h e s e catalogs often note that the i t e m s i n -

cluded will not be l i s t e d in Novye knigi. In a s i m i l a r category a r e the "thematic p l a n s " of Soviet publishing houses.

T h e s e a r e usually issued late in the autumn of

each y e a r and l i s t , with annotations, titles scheduled for publication during the following y e a r .

Most Soviet publishing houses a r e

highly specialized in subject m a t t e r and many a r e attached to i n stitutions o r m i n i s t r i e s . T h e s e " t h e m a t i c plans, " t h e r e f o r e , often constitute, in effect, subject publication l i s t s . Valuable as these Soviet compilations a r e for s e l e c t i o n , l i b r a r i a n s a r e conscious of the f a c t that the selection i s done by Soviet citizens and that it i s not wise to depend on t h e i r judgment and b i a s as a guide to the content of collections of A m e r i c a n r e search libraries.

The s e l e c t i o n guides mentioned above must

t h e r e f o r e , be supplemented by other s o u r c e s .

Probably the m o s t

important a r e d e s i d e r a t a l i s t s compiled by the facility. A m e r i c a n and West European book d e a l e r s ' catalogs - - none i s available f r o m e a s t e r n Europe o r the U. S . S . R . - - a r e a l s o an important source of selection, p a r t i c u l a r l y for r e t r o a c t i v e purchasing, although s e v e r a l d e a l e r s a r e good s o u r c e s for c u r r e n t m a t e r i a l s a s well.

Hundreds of such l i s t s a r e c i r c u l a t e d among l i b r a r i e s

and other i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s by specialized as well a s g e n e r a l book agencies.

T h e i r principal value i s the reasonable a s s u r a n c e that

the items offered will be available provided that the buyer a c t s quickly, although many complaints were heard that by the t i m e an o r d e r was placed the requested i t e m s were sold out. All other methods of s e l e c t i o n encountered during the survey a r e based on aids which a r e i s s u e d with a considerable time lag and consequently the i t e m s listed m a y no longer be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e .

P a r t I: Building A Collection

24

Many of these supplementary t o o l s , however, contain an e l e m e n t of evaluation, either in that the t i t l e s a r e annotated o r that they had already been s e l e c t e d by another l i b r a r y o r cited by a s u b j e c t s p e cialist.

Indexes, a b s t r a c t s , and review publications, p a r t i c u l a r l y

the L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s ' Monthly Index of R u s s i a n A c c e s s i o n s and E a s t European A c c e s s i o n s Index, the Soviet Referativnye zhurnaly, s u b j e c t bibliographies, such as the a g r i c u l t u r a l Selskokhoziaistvennaia l i t e r a t u r a SSSR (published annually by the Soviet M i n i s t r y of Agriculture), the L i b r a r y of Congress proof s h e e t s , innumerable bibliographies appearing in books and p e r i o d i c a l s , a s well as h e a r say, belong to this c a t e g o r y .

Selection f r o m t h e s e s o u r c e s will

have to be widely decentralized in most l i b r a r i e s , with a heavy r e l i a n c e on subject experts and the faculty. Selection guides for Soviet s e r i a l s p r e s e n t different p r o b lems.

The annual l i s t , P e r i o d i c a , i s s u e d by Mezhdunarodnaia

Kniga ÍB an adequate guide to Soviet p e r i o d i c a l s available to subs c r i b e r s outside the U . S . S . R . , and for l i b r a r i e s with s m a l l c o l l e c t i o n s may suffice.

L a r g e r l i b r a r i e s will find it n e c e s s a r y to

s e a r c h f u r t h e r , e s p e c i a l l y f o r s e r i a l s which a r e not available for subscription, many of which, however, can be obtained on exchange and some of which might be acquired on m i c r o f i l m .

Probably the

m o s t useful guide to Soviet s e r i a l s i s the annual (cumulated every five y e a r s ) Letopis periodicheskikh izdanii SSSR.

Issued in two

volumes each y e a r , it contains a l i s t of new, r e - n a m e d

and d i s -

continued newspapers and j o u r n a l s as of April 1 and a r e g i s t e r of the i s s u e s the y e a r .

of i r r e g u l a r

serials

which

were published during

Advance announcements of new p e r i o d i c a l s to which sub-

scriptions may be obtained a r e not likely to e s c a p e the attention of librarians.

They appear in s e v e r a l p l a c e s , including Novye knigi.

25

Selection

T h e r e i s no c o m p r e h e n s i v e , annotated l i s t of Soviet or other E a s t European s e r i a l s .

The contents of m o s t of them have to be g u e s s e d

f r o m the title o r found out i n f o r m a l l y f r o m l i b r a r i a n s o r s c h o l a r s f a m i l i a r with their n a t u r e .

In g e n e r a l , h o w e v e r , the p r o b l e m in

selecting Soviet s e r i a l s is not so much to find out what is published as to find out how to get t h e m . An e f f e c t i v e p r o g r a m must make use of a l a r g e v a r i e t y of sources.

F i r s t p r i o r i t y should be assigned to the checking of s e -

l e c t i v e pre-publication l i s t s , such as Novye knigi, announcements of v a r i o u s p u b l i s h e r s , a c a d e m i e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , and r e s e a r c h institutes.

The c o m p r e h e n s i v e national bibliographies should be used

to supplement this initial selection; d e a l e r s ' c a t a l o g s , the two L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s i n d e x e s , p e r i o d i c a l l y published subject b i b l i o g r a p h i e s , and j o u r n a l s devoted to E a s t European a f f a i r s should a l s o be r e g u l a r l y scanned.

Suggestions should be solicited on a s y s t e -

matic b a s i s f r o m subject s p e c i a l i s t s ; their s o u r c e s of information about valuable and u s e f u l t i t l e s a r e often quite different f r o m the b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l tools to which l i b r a r i a n s a r e , for the m o s t p a r t , limited. The p r o c e d u r e s suggested above a r e t i m e - c o n s u m i n g and somewhat complex.

T h e r e a r e no shortcuts, h o w e v e r , f o r l a r g e

research libraries. Some l i b r a r i a n s recommended that there be instituted (by some unspecified c e n t r a l organization) a p e r i o d i c a l l y - p u b l i s h e d - - weekly was the u s u a l suggestion — l i s t of i t e m s r e c o m m e n d e d f o r p u r c h a s e , with annotations in English.

Such a plan would be

u n r e a l i s t i c b e c a u s e of the c o s t of its compilation and d i s s e m i n a t i o n . It would also tend to develop a standardization of the nation's r e s o u r c e s in E a s t European m a t e r i a l s . would

F o r m o s t a l e r t l i b r a r i a n s it

r e p r e s e n t m e r e l y one m o r e l i s t added to the many which the

P a r t I: Building A Collection

26

l i b r a r y s e l e c t o r already must c h e c k , and would be so duplicatory of original bibliographical s o u r c e s a s to be of little m o r e than nuis a n c e value.

Nor would such a l i s t be m o r e valuable than a r e e x -

isting aids - - such as the proof sheets and the monthly indexes of the L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s - - for the purpose of drawing l i b r a r i a n s ' attention to i t e m s they may have m i s s e d .

B e c a u s e of the t i m e r e -

quired for i t s compilation, many of the i t e m s l i s t e d would be unavailable by the time they were s e l e c t e d and o r d e r e d .

If annota-

tions in English a r e important, l i b r a r i e s m a y use the E n g l i s h l a n guage translation of P a r t 1 of Novye knigi which i s entitled " B o o k s to be r e l e a s e d shortly. " This i s issued in a s u b j e c t - c l a s s i f i e d a r r a n g e m e n t by Mezhdunarodnaia Kniga in Moscow under the title New Soviet Books; Order Catalog.

The publication also includes a

l i s t of Me zhdunarodnaia Kniga's outlets in various c o u n t r i e s .

Li-

b r a r i a n s should always be aware, however, that the s e l e c t i o n r e p r e sented in this l i s t is a Soviet s e l e c t i o n , with a l l this fact i m p l i e s . The needs of n o n - r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i e s , m o r e limited than those of l a r g e r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i e s , do not r e q u i r e the c o m p r e h e n sive bibliographical searching d e s c r i b e d above.

Furthermore,

such l i b r a r i e s do not need a specially p r e p a r e d book selection l i s t . They can obtain adequate guidance f r o m existing s e l e c t i v e bibliographies published in e a s t e r n Europe and f r o m the s e r v i c e s of book dealers.

If they d e s i r e one further step toward wide c o v e r a g e , the

two a c c e s s i o n s indexes of the L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s should suffice. L i b r a r i e s faced with sudden demand for building E a s t E u r o pean collections de novo have s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s in selection which cannot be adequately handled by any m e a s u r e s mentioned in this chapter.

The s p e c i a l needs of such l i b r a r i e s , including suggested

tools for selection, a r e d i s c u s s e d l a t e r in this book. F r o m an o v e r - a l l national viewpoint, the s e l e c t i o n p o l i c i e s

Selection

27

of A m e r i c a n r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i e s t r a n s c e n d the i n t e r e s t s of individual scholars or institutions.

M a t e r i a l s which no l i b r a r y h a s happened

to add to i t s c o l l e c t i o n c a n l a t e r be added to our national r e s o u r c e s only at heavy e x p e n s e , o r often will be found unobtainable and t h e r e fore lost forever.

A l s o , u n n e c e s s a r y duplication of e x p e n s i v e

t i t l e s - - usually o c c u r r i n g i n a d v e r t e n t l y b e c a u s e of the independent and d e c e n t r a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r of our l i b r a r y s y s t e m - - adds c u m u l a tively to the heavy f i n a n c i a l burden which weighs upon m o s t l i b r a r i e s . The F a r m i n g t o n P l a n was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the p u r p o s e o f e n suring m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e n a t i o n a l c o v e r a g e of m a t e r i a l s published abroad.

It o p e r a t e s u n d e r the p r i n c i p l e that a l l fields of knowledge

r e c e i v e the attention of at l e a s t one r e s e a r c h l i b r a r y in addition to one of the t h r e e n a t i o n a l l i b r a r i e s .

The s p e c t r u m of human

knowledge was divided into s e c t o r s and v a r i o u s l i b r a r i e s a g r e e d to c o l l e c t intensively in t h o s e f i e l d s a s s i g n e d to t h e m whether o r not the r e s e a r c h and t e a c h i n g p r o g r a m s of t h e i r institutions w e r e c o n c e r n e d with the d e s i g n a t e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r .

The F a r m i n g t o n

P l a n , however, h a s n e v e r b e e n applied to E a s t E u r o p e a n p u b l i c a tions.

Most l i b r a r i a n s i n t e r v i e w e d took a v e r y negative view toward

the suggestion that the F a r m i n g t o n P l a n concept be extended to i n clude R u s s i a n and o t h e r E a s t E u r o p e a n m a t e r i a l s .

The r e a s o n m o s t

c o m m o n l y adduced was that t h e r e a r e so few l i b r a r i e s engaged in e x t e n s i v e a c q u i s i t i o n s p r o g r a m s in E a s t E u r o p e a n publications that the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o l l e c t i n g c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y in a s s i g n e d s u b j e c t fields would i m p o s e e x c e s s i v e burdens on e a c h of the p a r t i c i pants. While this a r g u m e n t m a y not be valid in a few y e a r s , a s the number of E a s t E u r o p e a n c o l l e c t i o n s g r o w s , t h e r e i s good r e a s o n to r e s p e c t its weight at the p r e s e n t t i m e .

F o r t u n a t e l y , f o r the p a s t

decade, the t h r e e n a t i o n a l l i b r a r i e s have b e e n fulfilling the p r i n c i p a l

P a r t 1: Building A Collection

28

objectives of the Farmington Plan with respect to publications i s sued in the U . S . S . R . and E a s t European countries.

These l i b r a r i e s

have achieved objectives which even coordinated effort of non-governmental r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i e s probably could not have c a r r i e d out: they have attempted, whenever possible, to make certain that at l e a s t one copy of every item of r e s e a r c h value published in eastern Europe would be available in the United States. The time may be fast approaching, however, when private and public r e s o u r c e s should share with government l i b r a r i e s the burden which the latter have c a r r i e d for so many y e a r s .

The rapid

expansion of E a s t European studies in private institutions makes it imperative, in any event, that they be l e s s dependent on U. S. government collecting in the development of basic source m a t e r i a l . Preliminary exploration should be started soon of some scheme whereby a cooperative program, involving division of r e sponsibility among United States r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i e s , could be e s tablished for the acquisition on a nation-wide b a s i s of E a s t European m a t e r i a l s . Experience with such specialization and division of r e sponsibility s e e m s to indicate that it can be successful only with l a r g e r research l i b r a r i e s or with those already p o s s e s s i n g highly specialized collections.

A five-year experiment involving three

undergraduate institutions, even though located in close geographical proximity, indicated that such a program will not work on that level; it proved too great a burden on the students and met with too much opposition from the faculty. Each library participating in such an arrangement would a g r e e to acquire not only the "must-have" and "nice-to-have", but a l s o the "luxury" items in one or more subject fields.

Responsi-

bility for collecting materials from the smaller countries of eastern Europe (Albania, Bulgaria, the Baltic republics) could be divided

Selection

29

by language rather than by subject.

The subject a r e a s assigned

should, of courses correspond a s closely a s possible to the already determined specialization or subject demand of the libraries involved. At the outset, the division by subject matter would have to be defined rather broadly.

As the number of libraries interested in E a s t Euro-

pean collecting grows, the division of subject fields could be r e apportioned and in the p r o c e s s each subject would be more fully covered while the burden on individual libraries would be somewhat reduced. The values of such a plan would extend beyond the b a s i c objective of ensuring a sound over-all, national reservoir of E a s t European m a t e r i a l s .

It would also exert a stabilizing influence on the

planning of library collections within each institution participating. It would tend to change the center of gravity a s between people and books.

In all but the major research l i b r a r i e s of this country, the

interests of individual faculty members or r e s e a r c h e r s attract to the r e s e a r c h library of the institution with which they a r e associated, publications in special fields of knowledge.

Conversely, a few major

library collections with heavy concentration in special fields attract specialists to the institution because of its possession of rich r e sources of recorded knowledge in their fields.

If the basic concept

of the Farmington Plan were applied to E a s t European materials for several y e a r s , the second of the above two directions of attraction would begin to overcome the f i r s t .

F r o m the viewpoint of the r e -

s e a r c h library administrator, at least, the principle of books attracting scholars would be healthier than the vice v e r s a situation. For depth, stability, and consistency in building a r e s e a r c h collection could be achieved if books were the mountain, scholars Mohammed, and if Mohammed were more mobile than the mountain. In recommending that study be made of the applicability of

P a r t 1: Building A Collection

30

the b a s i c principle of the Farmington P l a n to collecting E a s t E u r o pean m a t e r i a l s , the w r i t e r s do not n e c e s s a r i l y endorse all of the operational details of that P l a n as it has been applied to other publications.

In p a r t i c u l a r , delegating the function of selection of E a s t

European publications to foreign book d e a l e r s (especially d e a l e r s behind the Iron Curtain) would be either unfeasible or d i s a s t r o u s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e responsibility for studying the kind of cooperative s e l e c t i o n and acquisition p r o g r a m roughly outlined above would, it a p p e a r s , moBt appropriately be placed in the hands of the Coordinating C o m m i t t e e of the A s s o c i a t i o n of R e s e a r c h L i b r a r i e s and the J o i n t C o m m i t t e e on Slavic Studies, the creation of which is recommended e l s e w h e r e in t h i s book.

The kind of program en-

visaged h e r e involves long range planning at the outset, probably fund r a i s i n g to support i t s operations, and continuous supervision o v e r i t s execution.

Chapter 2 ACQUISITION 1.

T r e n d s in Acquisition S i n c e World W a r II Acquisition i s one of the m o s t c o m p l e x and challenging of

a l l l i b r a r y operations.

P r o b a b l y b e c a u s e i t s a s p e c t s a r e so i n t r i -

c a t e and protean, it is only r a r e l y taught in l i b r a r y school.

It is

often suggested in p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e that to be fully e f f e c t i v e , such c o u r s e s would have to be taught by book d e a l e r s o r private 9 collectors. on the j o b .

The l i b r a r i a n i s expected to l e a r n acquisition methods The acquisition of E a s t E u r o p e a n , e s p e c i a l l y Soviet,

publications i s further complicated by language d i f f i c u l t i e s , by the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of publishing and distribution in those count r i e s , and by r e s t r i c t i o n s which governments p l a c e on the flow of printed information.

It i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , that four out

of five l i b r a r i e s answering the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c i t e d acquisitions a s one of t h e i r m a j o r p r o b l e m s . The nation-wide picture of a c q u i s i t i o n s f r o m the S o v i e t - d o m inated part of Europe has undergone a striking t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n c e the end of World War n .

The rapidly i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t of A m e r -

i c a n s c h o l a r s and the public at l a r g e , the growing c o m p e t e n c e of l i b r a r i a n s and t h e i r s t a f f s , and a m a r k e d r e l a x a t i o n of Soviet c o n t r o l s a f t e r the death of Stalin have been chiefly r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the change. In 1947, A m e r i c a n r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i e s r e c e i v e d only nine p e r cent of the t i t l e s published in the Soviet Union and l i s t e d in 10 Knizhnaia l e t o p i s .

In the period f r o m A p r i l 1949 to October 1953,

the L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s and other A m e r i c a n r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i e s r e ceived only about thirteen p e r cent of the total Soviet book p r o d u c tion, with the b e s t coverage in the c l a s s e s of l i t e r a t u r e and l i n g u i s t i c s , a r t , and s c i e n c e (twenty or 3m 1 o r e p e r cent). * *

However, a

32

P a r t I: Building A Collection

c h e c k of

letopis f o r 1955 indicated that the L i b r a r y of Con-

g r e s s alone was receiving twenty-seven p e r cent of the monographs l i s t e d , a f t e r exclusion of textbooks, children's l i t e r a t u r e , d i s s e r t a t i o n s , books for the blind, and pamphlets under sixteen p a g e s .

Two

y e a r s l a t e r , the same l i b r a r y d i s c l o s e d that it was getting sixty p e r cent of Soviet monographs in the field of s c i e n c e , forty-one p e r cent of those in technology, and fifty-four p e r cent of the periodical t i t l e s 12 in t h e s e two subject a r e a s . At the s a m e t i m e , the r e c e i p t s of A m e r ican l i b r a r i e s in a l l subject f i e l d s , a s revealed by the Monthly Index of R u s s i a n A c c e s s i o n s , have been well over 1 0 , 0 0 0 monographic t i t l e s a y e a r , which would r e p r e s e n t between twenty and twenty-five p e r cent of a l l i t e m s l i s t e d in Knizhnaia l e t o p i s , and between 13 t h i r t y - f i v e and forty per cent of the " p r i c e d " Soviet publications. It would a p p e a r , t h e r e f o r e , that the r a t e of acquisitions f r o m the Soviet Union has i n c r e a s e d tremendously within the l a s t decade.

Assuming that

the proportion of " i m p o r t a n t " and "unimportant" m a t e r i a l s has r e mained the same as at the time of the " M c L a n e r e p o r t , " it may be concluded that A m e r i c a n l i b r a r i e s a r e receiving at l e a s t s i x t y - t h r e e p e r cent of the significant monographs published in the Soviet Union, o r possibly a s much as eighty-five per cent, if publication under 100 14 pages and a l l " u n p r i c e d " i t e m s a r e excluded f r o m the s t a t i s t i c s . J u s t a s the inclusion of pamphlets in the Soviet national b i b liography makes it difficult to determine with a c c u r a c y the total num b e r of monographs published in the Soviet Union, the existence of hundreds of provincial and l o c a l m a g a z i n e s , bulletins, and newspapers r e n d e r s the s e r i a l picture confusing. published exceeds 3 , 0 0 0 . conventional type.

The number of s e r i a l s c u r r e n t l y

About 750 of these a r e periodicals of the

The r e m a i n d e r a r e " a g i t a t o r ' s notebooks" (174

in 1957), almanacs and anthologies (1,235 in 1957), and i r r e g u l a r l y published bulletins (848 in 1957).

The number of newspaper t i t l e s

Acquisition

33

p u b l i s h e d in 1957 w a s 9 , 9 3 6 .

The p e r c e n t a g e of s e r i a l s r e c e i v e d

in A m e r i c a n l i b r a r i e s , on the b a s i s of f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e in the 16 Monthly Index of R u s s i a n A c c e s s i o n s , a p p e a r s to be about f o r t y p e r c e n t , o r in t h e s a m e r a n g e a s that of m o n o g r a p h s ; if only " s i g n i f i c a n t " s e r i a l t i t l e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d , ^ the p r o p o r t i o n would be considerably higher.

The c o v e r a g e of n e w s p a p e r s i s m u c h lowev,

p r o b a b l y in the neighborhood of five p e r c e n t .

Not a l l s e r i a l s p u b -

l i s h e d in the Soviet Union a r e , h o w e v e r , available f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n through regular channels.

The 1958 edition of N e w s p a p e r s and M a -

g a z i n e s of the U. S. S. R . , published by M e z h d u n a r o d n a i a Kniga i n Moscow, o f f e r s only 748 i t e m s f o r s a l e a b r o a d ; the l i s t of p e r i o d i c a l s and n e w s p a p e r s available f o r s u b s c r i p t i o n within t h e Soviet Union i t s e l f (the Soiuzpechat catalog) contains 711 t i t l e s (excluding foreign propaganda magazines).

Not all of the o m i t t e d i t e m s a r e

l o c a l p e r i o d i c a l s of little g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t f o r which t h e r e would be no d e m a n d , s i n c e m a n y a r e f r e e l y cited in Soviet s c i e n t i f i c a b s t r a c t s . T a b l e 4 shows the n u m b e r of m o n o g r a p h i c and p e r i o d i c a l Table 4 ITEMS LISTED IN THE MONTHLY INDEX O F RUSSIAN ACCESSIONS, 1948-1958 Year (Apr. -March)

Monographs (titles)

Periodicals (titles)

1948-49 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 1953-54 1954-55 1955-56 1956-57 1957-58

3,999 5,456 6,971 5,611 4, 710 4,879 7,276 9,368 11,079 11,209

333 368 392 568 501 720 708 811 1,148 1,348

P a r t I: Building A Collection

34

t i t l e s appearing in the f i r s t ten v o l u m e s of the Monthly Index of R u s s i a n A c c e s s i o n s published by the L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s .

Although this

l i s t includes a few publications originated by é m i g r é s in the United S t a t e s and other countries which modify the r e c o r d of publications acquired f r o m the Soviet Union i t s e l f , it i s n e v e r t h e l e s s indicative of the acquisition trends in A m e r i c a n l i b r a r i e s over the p a s t ten y e a r s a s they r e l a t e to Soviet publications.

The data c l e a r l y indi-

cate that r e c e i p t s of A m e r i c a n l i b r a r i e s have grown, in one decade, a l m o s t three t i m e s in monographs and three and a half t i m e s in periodicals.

A good part of the i n c r e a s e , at l e a s t for the mono-

g r a p h s , took place between 1953 and 1957 when a stabilization apparently began, although it i s still too early to conclude that the rising curve has flattened. A s i m i l a r experience has been reported by other Western l i b r a r i a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y B r i t i s h , who had been receiving in 1954, l e s s than one out of ten Soviet scientific publications, but were able 18 to i n c r e a s e the proportion to fifty p e r cent in 1957. A count of the l i s t i n g s of the E a s t European A c c e s s i o n s Index (Table 5) r e v e a l s a l m o s t the s a m e pattern for publications of other nations of e a s t e r n Europe (including those of E s t o n i a , L a t v i a , and Lithuania): within three y e a r s (1953-1956 for monographs and 1954-57 for p e r i o d i c a l s ) the receipt of these m a t e r i a l s m o r e than doubled.

Table 6 shows the country breakdown for 1953-1956 (the

number of p e r i o d i c a l s r e f e r s to i s s u e s , not titles).

The g r e a t e s t

i n c r e a s e s o c c u r r e d in Baltic publications, probably reflecting the relaxation of Soviet controls over provincial m a t e r i a l s , in acquisitions f r o m Czechoslovakia, and in Rumanian p e r i o d i c a l s ; the l a t t e r two countries have been following the Moscow line m o s t closely.

Receipts of monographs f r o m B u l g a r i a with which until

Acquisition

35

Table 5 ITEMS

L I S T E D IN THE E A S T E U R O P E A N 1953-1957

ACCESSIONS

INDEX

Year

Monographs (titles)

Periodicals (titles)

1953

3, 155

(not available)

1954

4,994

1,471

1955

6,128

2, 230

1956

7, 160

2, 703

1957

6,975

3, 357

Table 6 ITEMS L I S T E D IN T H E EAST E U R O P E A N ACCESSIONS INDEX, B Y COUNTRY, 1953 and 1957 Monographs (titles)

Periodic als (issues)

1953

1957

1953

1957

2

5

67

211

Bulgaria

628

253

1, 012

1, 285

Czechoslovakia

200

1, 621

1, 547

7, 785

39

153

38

920

668

669

1. 059

2, 132

Latvia

73

201

70

742

Lithuania

30

131

97

668

Poland

769

2, 023

4. 112

6, 955

Rumania

103

300

390

1, 663

Yugoslavia

643

1. 619

2, 140

4, 872

3, 155

6, 975

10, 532

27, 233

Albania

Estonia Hungary

TOTAL

P a r t I: Building A Collection

36

r e c e n t l y the United States has had no diplomatic, and very few c o m m e r c i a l , relations dropped about fifty p e r cent. Table 7 b r e a k s down c u r r e n t periodical r e c e i p t s f r o m the Soviet Union, a s reported in the Monthly Index of RuBBian A c c e s 19 sions,

by subject.

The number of l i b r a r i e s reporting holdings

in each category is shown on a cumulative b a s i s , e a c h l i b r a r y b e ing counted as many t i m e s as t h e r e a r e titles in i t s p o s s e s s i o n . Thus, the figure of 200 appearing under "Scholarly J o u r n a l s " must not be interpreted a s meaning that 200 l i b r a r i e s r e c e i v e periodicals in this category since a single institution may be getting a l l the fiftyfour titles l i s t e d and may thus account for m o r e than one-fourth of the figure of 200.

The entry shows, actually, that e a c h periodical

of the "Scholarly J o u r n a l " c l a s s is held, on the a v e r a g e , by about four l i b r a r i e s (200 divided by 54).

This "average duplication"

f a c t o r is shown, for the seventeen m a j o r subject groups, in the l a s t column of the table.

The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n follows that of the

Monthly Index, and is based on the L i b r a r y of C o n g r e s s schedule. Almost one out of five Soviet periodical t i t l e s c u r r e n t l y r e c e i v e d in A m e r i c a n l i b r a r i e s is in the field of technology, p a r t i c u l a r l y mining, metallurgy, m e c h a n i c a l , civil, and construction engineering; s c i e n c e and agriculture follow.

The s m a l l e s t number

of periodicals is r e c e i v e d in the fields of law, m u s i c , fine a r t s , philosophy and religion, and in the m i l i t a r y s c i e n c e s .

The most

popular subject a r e a is h i s t o r y where each title i s r e c e i v e d , on the a v e r a g e , by almost eight l i b r a r i e s ; s c i e n c e is second, p a r t i c u l a r l y its b a s i c and m o r e t h e o r e t i c a l components, m a t h e m a t i c s , p h y s i c s , and c h e m i s t r y ; law, education, geography-geology, and m u s i c - t h e a t e r follow.

The distribution of periodicals in the m i l i -

t a r y s c i e n c e s , philosophy and religion, fine a r t s , technology, and

37

Acquisition

and a g r i c u l t u r e i s l i m i t e d , on the a v e r a g e , to l e s s than t h r e e l i b r a r i e s for each title. T h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the Soviet p e r i o d i c a l t i t l e s in a few l i b r a r i e s which i s apparent f r o m T a b l e 7, i s even m o r e s e r i o u s than the a v e r a g e s would s e e m to i n d i c a t e .

Actually, a small num-

b e r of itemB within e a c h s u b j e c t c l a s s i s held by a s many a s ten t o twenty i n s t i t u t i o n s while the m a j o r i t y i s r e c e i v e d only by one. T h i s i s t r u e e v e n o f the m o s t " p o p u l a r " f i e l d s .

In h i s t o r y , f o r

e x a m p l e , w h e r e e a c h p e r i o d i c a l i s held by an a v e r a g e of a l m o s t eight l i b r a r i e s , the m e d i a n i s only four and a l m o s t o n e - t h i r d of the t i t l e s h a s a single r e c i p i e n t ; the m o s t frequently r e p o r t e d i t e m (by t w e n t y - f i v e l i b r a r i e s ) i s an ¿ m i g r é publication.

In m a t h e m a t i c s

where the a v e r a g e r a t e of duplication i s o v e r t e n , the m e d i a n i s l e s s than e i g h t , and again a l m o s t o n e - t h i r d of the i t e m s a r e r e c e i v e d in one single l i b r a r y .

In f a c t , a s T a b l e 7 shows, f o r t y - f i v e

p e r c e n t of a l l p e r i o d i c a l t i t l e s l i s t e d in the Monthly Index a r e a p p a r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e in the United S t a t e s in only one copy.

The c e n -

t r a l i z a t i o n i s s t r o n g e s t (with l e s s than o n e - h a l f of the i t e m s l o c a t e d in two o r m o r e l i b r a r i e s ) , in the g e n e r a l c l a s s , in p h i l o s o p h y - r e l i g i o n , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , law, fine a r t s , technology, and m i l i t a r y sciences.

R e l a t i v e l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d , with at l e a s t two l o c a t i o n s

f o r m o r e than t w o - t h i r d s of the t i t l e s , a r e the fields of h i s t o r y , m u s i c - t h e a t e r , l a n g u a g e - l i t e r a t u r e , s c i e n c e , and m e d i c i n e . In s o m e r e s p e c t s , t h e s e findings s e e m to c o n f l i c t with the c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d by the s u b j e c t a n a l y s i s of Chapter 6, in p a r t i c u l a r f o r the f i e l d s of r e l i g i o n , h i s t o r y , fine a r t s , and t e c h n o l o g y . T h e a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s explained in p a r t by the fact that the data c i t e d i m m e d i a t e l y above r e f e r to c u r r e n t r e c e i p t s of p e r i o d i c a l t i t l e s f r o m the S o v i e t Union, a s r e p o r t e d in the Monthly Index o f R u s s i a n A c c e s s i o n s , w h e r e a s the o v e r - a l l s u r v e y r e p o r t e d in

38

P a r t I:

Building A Collection

Table 7 P E R I O D I C A L S U S T E D BY THE M O N T H L Y INDEX OF R U S S I A N A C C E S S I O N S ( B y Subject, Holdings and Rate of Duplication)

Subject

Periodicals (titles)

General Scholarly journals Popular magazines

54 38 ( 9 2 ) *

Bibliography Bibliography L i b r a r i e s fe L i b . s c i e n c e P r i n t i n g b book t r a d e

N o . of libraries reporting

N o . of titles held by a single library

A v e rage duplication

200 86 (286)*

49

3. 1

25 2 5 (32)

81 13 9 (103)

14

3.2

P h i l o s o p h y and R e l i g i o n Philosophy Religion

3 16 (19)

3 35 (38)

12

2.0

History General A r c h e o l o g y & antiquities

28 6 (34)

193 64 (257)

10

7.6

Social Sciences Commerce Economics Finance Labor Sociology

8 12 4 8 12 (44)

33 62 19 21 30 (165)

19

3. 8

P o l i t i c a l Science

44 (44)

136 (136)

24

3. 1

5 (5)

21 (21)

Law Education General P h y s i c a l education It g a m e s

19 5 (24)

3

4.2

81 19 (100)

4.2

Music, Theater, Motion P i c t u r e s Motion pictures Music Theater

4 2 2 (8)

10 13 9 (32)

4.0

Fine A r t s General Architecture

8 6 (14)

15 21 (36)

2.6

13 54 (67)

51 188 (239)

Language, L i t e r a t u r e and F o l k l o r e Language L i t e r a t u r e