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Table of contents :
Front Cover
Copyright
Table of Contents
LIST OF FIGURES, MAPS AND PLATES
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ABBREVIATIONS
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER I: SMALL FARMSTEADS
CHAPTER II: FARM AND HOUSE
CHAPTER III: RURAL VILLAS
CHAPTER IV: SLAVERY AND FARMS
CHAPTER V: PRESS-ROOMS
CHAPTER VI: GRANARIES, STORE-ROOMS AND CATTLE SHEDS
CHAPTER VII: CHRONOLOGY
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Roman Farm Buildings in Italy

J. J. Rossiter

BAR International Series S 2 1978

B.A.R.,

B.A.R.

122 Banbury Road,

Oxford OX2 7BP, England

GENERAL EDITORS A. R • Hands, B • Sc • , M.A., D • Phi 1. D. R . Walker, M.A.

B .A.R. International Series (Supplementary) 52, 1978: "Farm buildings in Roman Italy. '' © J. J. Rossiter, 197 8.

The author’s moral rights under the 1988 UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act are hereby expressly asserted. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be copied, reproduced, stored, sold, distributed, scanned, saved in any form of digital format or transmitted in any form digitally, without the written permission of the Publisher. ISBN 9780860540403 paperback ISBN 9781407348230 e-book DOI https://doi.org/10.30861/9780860540403 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library This book is available at www.barpublishing.com

CONTENTS

Page L ist o f F igures

i i

Abbrev iat ions

v i i

I n tr o duct ion

1

CHAPTER I I

Sma l l Far msteads

5

Far m a nd House

1 8

I I

Rura l V i l las

2 9

I V

S lavery a nd Far ms

4 0

P ress-Rooms

4 9

Granar ies , S tore-Roo ms a nd C a t t le-Sheds

5 7

Chrono logy

6 3

V V I V I I Append ix A

Append ix B

An a lphabet ica l c ata logue o f f ar m b u i ld ings d iscussed i n t he t ex t

6 7

O ther S ites

7 3

B ib l iography

7 6

1

L IST OF F IGURES , MAPS AND PLATES

Page

F igure 1

2

A .

Mon te F orco .

C .

N axos I .

B . Enclosure f ar m n ear L ucer ia .

A .

Posta Crusta.

4 B .

S ambuco .

C .

S ou th V il la ,

O lyn thus. 3

7

A .

S elvasecca .

C .

To lve — Mo l tone.

4

A .

P osto .

5

A .

Boscorea le P isanel la .

6

Camerel le

7

A .

8

S an Rocco

3 0

9

Russi

3 2

1 0

V il la Magna

3 5

1 1

Cugno d e i V agn i

3 6

1 2

A .

V il la o f T iber ius C laud ius Eu tychus.

1 3

A .

Boscorea le G iu l iana .

1 4

Press-roo ms

1 5

S tore-roo ms.

B.

B .

' V i l la o f Good Fortune ', O lyn thus. 8

Boscorea le S taz ione. B .

1 3

Boscorea le G iu l iana .;

1 9 2 3

P ortacc ia .

B .

V il la o f Publ ius Fann ius S in istor.

B .

B .

Gragnano.

V icovaro .

2 5

4 1 4 4 5 1

Cat t le-sheds.

5 8

Map I Map s how ing t he l oca t ion o f t he f ar m b u ild ings l i sted i n Append ix A . Map I

6 6

Map s how ing t he l oca t ion o ft he l i sted f ar m b u ild ings i nt he r eg ion o f V esuv ius.

P la te I A .

7 2

Wa l l p a in t ing f ro m t he House o f t he Sma l l F oun ta in a t Po mpe i i.

B.

Wa l l p a in t ing f ro m t he V illa o f Publ ius Fann ius S in istor a t Boscorea le.

3 9

1 11

AC KNO W LE DGE ME NTS

I n t he p repara t ion o f t h is s tudy Ih ave r ece ived h elp a nd e ncourage men t f ro m an u mber o fp eop le t o w ho m Is hou ld l ike t o e xpress my s incere t hanks; Dr. R . J . Buck a nd Dr. R . C . Sm i th o f t he D epar tmen t o f C lass ics, The Un ivers ity o f A lber ta ; Dr. D . G . S teele o f t he Depar tmen t o f An thropo logy , The U n ivers ity o f A lber ta; a nd i n p ar t icu lar Dr. A . M. Sma l l , D irector d es igna te o f The C anad ian A cade m ic C en tre a t R o me , whose r ecen t e xcavat ions o f R o man f ar m b u i ld ings i n S ou thern I t a ly p rov ided t he i n i t ia l s t i mu lus f or t h is s tudy. t he f o l low ing ;

F or p er m iss ion t o r eproduce t he p la tes Is hou ld l i ke t o t hank The Ox ford Un ivers i ty P ress ( P la te l a ) a nd The Metropo li tan

Museum o f Ar t , N ew York ( P la te l b ) .

The f igures h ave b een r edrawn b y t he

a u thor f ro m p rev ious ly p ub l ished p lans i n o rder t o e s tabl ish a u n i for m s ca le t hroughou t .

V

ABBREVIA T IONS

Boeth ius a nd Ward-Perk ins ERA

A . Boeth ius a nd J . B . Ward-Perk ins , E truscan a nd Ro man Arch itecture, Har mondsworth , 1 969.

Carr ing ton 1 931

R . C . Carr ing ton , ' S tud ies i n t he Ca mpani an V i l lae Rust icae ' , J .R .S . XX I ( 1931 ), p p. 1 10-30.

1 934

I de m , ' So me a nc ien tI ta l ian c ount ry h ouses ' , An t iqu ity V I II ( 1934 ), p p. 2 61-280.

Cato DA

Marcus P orc ius Cato , De Agr icu l tura. b y R . Gou jard , Par is :

Ed.

L es Bel les L et tres ,

1 975. Co lu me l la DRR

L . J un ius Moderatus Co lume l la , De Re Rust ica

Ed. b y H . B . Ash , Ca m. Mass.:

L oeb C lass ica l l ibrary , 1 941. C rova Ed i l iz ia

B . Crova , Ed i l iz ia e t ecn ica r ura le d i Ro ma a n t ica.

D rachmann AO MP

M ilan :

A . G . D rach mann , Anc ien t O i l Mi l ls a nd P resses.

F rank ESAR

Copenhagen , 1 932.

T . Frank , An e cono m ic s urvey o f a nc ien t Ro me.

Ba lt i more :

s ity P ress. P a l lad ius O p.Ag.

Fratel l i Bocca , 1 942.

J ohns Hopk ins Un iver-

1 933-40.

1 959.

Rut i l ius Taurus Pa l lad ius, Opus Agr icu lt urae.

Ed. b y R . H . Rodgers , L e ipzig :

Teubner , 1 975. R ick man G ranar ies

G . R ickman , Ro man g ranar ies a nd s tore b u ild ings.

Ca mbr idge Un ivers ity Press,

1 971. Rostov tzef fS EHRE

M. Rostovtzef f , A s oc ia l a nd e cono m ic h istory o f t he Ro man emp ire.

2 nd e d.,

r ev ised b y P . M. Fraser , Ox ford Un ivers ity Press 1 957. Varro RR

Marcus Terent ius Varro , Reru m Rust ic arum l i br i I I.

Ed. b y H . B . Ash. L oeb

C lass ica l L ibrary , 1 934. V itruv ius DA

V itruv ius Po l l io , D e Arch itectura. b y F . G ranger.

N ew York :

s ica l L ibrary , 1 931. v i i

Ed.

L oeb C las-

K . D . Wh ite , Ro man Far m ing.

Wh ite RF

L ondon :

T ha mes a nd Hudson , 1 970. I de m , Far m e qu ip men t o f t he Ro man world.

Wh ite FER W

Ca mbr idge Un ivers ity P ress, 1 975. PER IOD ICA L S A -LA

Amer ican J ourna l o f Archaeo logy .

AV IS MG

A t t i e Me mor ie d el la S oc ietä Magna Grec ia.

B .3nn .Jahr.

Bonner J ahrbücher.

BSA

Annua l o f t he Br it ish S choo l a tA thens.

C IL

Corpus I nscr ipt ionu m L at inarum.

, T RS

J ourna l o f Ro man S tud ies.

MA

Monu men t i An t ich i.

MAAR

Me mo irs o f t he Amer ican Acade my a t Rome.

MEFR

Melanges d 'archeo log ie e t d 'h isto ire ( Eco le França ise d e Ro me ).

N Sc

Not iz j e d eg l i S cav i.

P T 3SR

P apers o f t he Br it ish S choo l a t Ro me.

PP

L a Paro la d el Passato .

Rend.L inc.

Rend icont i d el l 'Accade m ia N az iona le d e i L ince i.

Rev . Arch.

Revue Archeo log ique.

RPAA

Rend icon t i d el la Pon t if ica Accade m ia Ro mana d i Archeo log ia. M it th.

M it the ilungen d es d eu tschen a rcheo log ischen I nst ituts Rö m ische Abte ilungen .

The f o l low ing s y mbo ls h ave b een u sed i n t he b u ild ing p lans t o d enote d i f feren t p ave men t ma ter ia ls :

Opus s ign inu m.

A w a terproof c oncrete made w ith a n

a gg lo mera te o f c rushed b r ick o r s tone.

Opus s p ica tu m. p a t tern.

A p av ing o f b r ick s l a id i n ah err ing-bone

Mosa ic.

' W M

Marble s labs.

v i i i

I NTRODUCT ION

T he s tudy o f Ro man f ar m b u ild ings i n I ta ly i s o ne wh ich , l ike o ther a spects o f a n t iqu ity , h as g one i n a nd o u t o f f ash ion . To a l arge e x ten t t h is p at tern o f i n terest h as r e f lec ted t he e bb a nd f l ow o f a more g enera l i n terest i n P ompe iana s ince , u n t i l r elat ively r ecen t ly , most o f o ur k now ledge o f Ro man f ar ms i n I ta ly

w as d er ived f rom a sma l l g roup o f e xcava ted s i tes i n t he

r eg ion s outh a nd e ast o f Vesuv ius, t he s o-ca l led ' Ca mpan ian v i l lae r ust icae t. Towards t he e nd o f t he n in e teen th c en tury , a cco mpanying a f l urry o f a rchaeo log ica l a ct iv i ty i n a nd a round P o mpe i i , s everal i mpor tan t w orks a ppeared i n p r in t , w h ich d escr ibed t he e xcava t ions o f an u mber o f Ro man f ar mhouses i n t h is r eg ion .

Fore most amongst t hese works was t he v o lu me b y M. Rugg iero ,

Deg l i s cav i d i S tab ia d a l 1 749 a l 1 782 ( Nap les, 1 881). A lso o f g rea t importa nce w as a r eport o f t he n ow w el l-known f ar mhouse f ound a t Boscoreale : A . P asqu i , ' La V il la Po mpe iana d e lla P isane l la p resso Boscorea le ' , M.A. V I I ( 1897 ).

The e xcavat ions , o f ten o n ly p art ia l , wh ich w ere u ndertaken a round

t he t urn o f t he c en tury o f many o ther Ca mpan ian f ar ms w ere n ot , h owever , p ub l ished u n t il t he 1 920s w hen M. De l la Corte p roduced a l ong s er ies o f a rt icles d ea l ing w ith t hese f ar ms.

Un fortunate ly much d es irab le d e ta il , i n

p art icu lar o n p o int s o f c onstruct ion ma ter ia ls , i s l ack ing f ro m t hese r epor ts. By t he l ate 1 920s a bou t f orty o f t he Ca mpan ian f ar ms h ad b een p ub l ished a nd i t was t hen t hat Eng l ish-speak ing s cho lars f i rst b egan t o t ake a n i n terest i n t he m.

The f i rst w as Rostov tzef f who d iscussed t he f ar ms i n h is S oc ia l a nd

E cono m ic H istory o f t he Ro man Emp ire ( Oxford , 1 926 ).

Th is was f o l lowed

b y v ar ious a r t icles d ea l ing s pec if ica l ly w ith t he Ca mpan ian f ar ms, most n o tab ly R . C . Carr ing ton 's ' S tud ies i n t he Ca mpan ian v i l lae r ust icae ' , J .R .S. XX I ( 1931) a nd J . Day 's ' Agr icu l ture i n t he l i fe o f Po mpe i i ' , Ya le C lass ica l S tud ies I I ( 1932 ).

L ater, a f ter a l apse o f s o me y ears, a no ther i mportan t work

a ppeared i n I t a l ian ;

t h is w as a monograph b y B ice Crova e n t it led Ed il iz ia e

t ecn ica r ura le d i Ro ma a n t ica ( M ilan , 1 942 ), wh ich p rov ided a c o mparat ive a na lys is o f n early a l l t he Ca mpan ian f ar ms a nd i ncluded d iscuss ion o f d if fere n t k inds o f a gr icu l tura l f ac il it ies. I n n orth I ta ly a n umber o f r ura l v i l las w ere u near thed i n t he e arly p art o f t he n ineteen th c en tury a nd t he ir p lans , o f ten n o more t han t he b arest o u t l ines , w ere p ub l ished b y M . Del la Torre i nA lbum d e i d isegn i ( Museo C iv ida le ), 1 827. These b u i ld ings h ave more r ecen t ly b een r econs idered b y G . A . Mansuel l i i n t he l igh t o f t he v aluab le e v idence t hat h as b een a cqu ired f ro m t he e xcavat ions a t t he l arge r ura l v i l la a t Russ i i n Em il ia-Ro magna ;

G . A . Mansue l l i , ' La

v i l la r o mana n e lP I ta l ia s et ten tr iona le ' , P .P . LVI I ( 1957 ) a nd i de m , U rban ist ica ea rch itet tura d el la C isa lp ina r o mana , Brusse ls 1 971. O ther r ecen t s tud ies o f f ar m b u ild ings i n I ta ly h ave i nc luded a monograph b y J . E . S kydsgaard , Den Ro merske V i l la Rust ica ( Copenhagen , 1 961) a nd c hapters i n K . D . Wh ite 's Ro man Far m ing ( London , 1 970 ) a nd J . P erc iva l 's 1

The Roman V il la ( London , 1 977 ).

Wh ile t hese s tud ies h ave a pprec iated t he

n eed t o e xtend t he f i e ld o f r esearch b eyond t he C a mpan ian f ar ms, t hey h ave t ended t o r ely h eav ily o n t he t rad it iona l a rchaeo log ica l e v idence a nd t o r eprod uce t he k ind o f a na lys is i n it iated b y Rostov tzef f.

Bo th Rostov tzef f a nd h is

immed iate s uccessors a tte mpted t o c lass ify t he C a mpan ian f ar ms i n to n eat ly p ackaged c a tegor ies;

ap ressure t o w h ich t he f ar ms , w ith t he ir immense

v ar iety o f d es igns, d o n o t c om fortably s ub m it . On ly r arely i s i tp oss ible t o mark o ut a g roup o fb u ild ings wh ich h ave a d ist inct ive c ommon c harac ter ist ic. For e xa mp le i n c hapter W o f t h is s tudy Ih ave g rouped t oge ther a n umber o f b u ild ings wh ich a re d ist ingu ishab le b y ac om mon a rch itectura l f eature , i n t h is c ase t he e x istence o f s lave c el ls. I n t he f i rst t hree c hapters, h owever, t he d iv is ions t hat h ave b een imposed a re b ased o n t he s i mp le c r iter ion o f s ca le. Far ms a re d ea l t w ith more o r l ess a ccord ing t o s ize. Chapters V a nd V I d ea l w ith d i fferen t k inds o f f ar m f ac il ity w h ich h ave b een f ound i n e xcava ted f ar m b u ild ings. Ih ave t r ied t o c oncen trate ma in ly o n t he more r ecen t a rchaeo log ica l e v idence f or f ar m b u ild ings , s ince i ti s i n t h is r espect p art icu larly t hat o ther s tud ies h ave f a iled t o k eep p ace w ith t he e ver i ncreas ing q uan t ity o f ma ter ia l. Thus o f t he f orty o r s o f ar m b u ild ings d iscussed h ere a bou t h a l f h ave b een e xcava ted w ith in t he l ast t wen ty-f ive y ears. On ly t we lve d er ive f ro m t he c orpus o f Campan ian v i l lae r ust icae wh ich h as f or med t he b as is f or n early e very p rev ious s tudy o f Roman f ar m b u i ld ings.

Ih ave t r ied t o c ons ider t he a rchae-

o log ica l e v idence f ro m e very p art o fI t a ly a nd h ave i fa ny th ing emphas ised t he n on-Campan ian ma ter ia l i n a n a t te mpt t o c oun ter t he b ias wh ich t h is h as c reat ed i nI t a l ian v i l la s tud ies. S tandards o fe xcavat ion a nd p ub l icat ion h ave o f c ourse c hanged c ons idera b ly s ince t he e ar ly p art o f t he c en tury . The s cope o f i nvest iga t ion h as b eco me f ar more c o mprehens ive. Thus, w hereas a n e arly r eport o f t he e xcava t ion o f af ar m b u ild ing may p rov ide l i t t le more t han a p lan o f t he b u i ld ing— o f ten _ w ith n o a t te mpt t o d ist ingu ish b u i ld ing p hases —and p erhaps s ome i n forma t ion o nt he o b jects r e tr ieved f rom t he v ar ious r ooms , a modern e xcava t ion w i l l a im t o p rov ide i nfor mat ion n ot o n ly o n t he f or m a nd d ate o f t he s tructures e ncoun tered , b u t a lso a n a na lys is o f a l l t he f inds i nc lud ing t hose, s uch a s b ones a nd s eeds, wh ich w i l l h e lp t o r econstruct t he a gr icu l tura l e conomy o f t he f ar m. The t er m " v il la s tud ies" n ow c overs a b road a rea o f r esearch , i nc lud ing n o t o n ly p r i mary a na lys is o f e xcavated mater ia l b ut c ons iderat ion o f as ite i n i t s b roader e cono m ic a nd s oc ia l c ontext . The p resen t s tudy , h owever , i s r estr icted t o ac ons idera t ion o f t he a rch itecture , a nd s pec if ica l ly t he l ay-ou t , o f Ro man f ar m b u i ld ings a nd t he ir v ar ious f ac il it ies. A g lance a t a ny o f t he ma jor w orks o n Ro man a rch itecture w il l s how h ow n eg lec ted h as b een t he s tudy o f Roman r ura l a rch itecture. O ver t he y ears f ar m b u i ld ings h ave b een u nearthed i n a l most e very r eg ion o f I t a ly b u t t he r eports o f t hese e xcava t ions h ave r e ma ined s ca t tered a nd s ad ly n eg lecte d. T he ma in d if f icu l ty f ac ing a s tudy o f t h is k ind i s t he v ary ing n a ture o f t hese r eports.

I nev i tab ly a s e xcavat ion t echn iques h ave b ecome more s c ien-

t i f ic , t he r eports h ave b eco me more c o mprehens ive.

Y et e ven f rom t he

e ar l ier a nd l ess d e ta i led r eports s ometh ing o f v a lue c an g enera l ly b e e xtracted o n t he q uest ion o f d es ign . Thus i th as b een p oss ible t o a t te mpt a c omparat ive s tudy o f f ar m a rch itecture , mak ing u se o f e xcavat ion r eports p ub l ished 2

t hroughou t t he l ast o ne h undred y ears. F ina l ly a w ord must b e s a id c oncern ing t er m ino logy.

By c onven t ion

t he t er m " v i l la r ust ica" h as o f ten b een u sed t o r efer t o a Ro man f ar m b u ild ing. T h is i s s tr ict ly i ncorrect s ince t he t er m i s u sed b y t he Ro man a grono m ists t o r efer o n ly t o t hat p art o f t he f ar m wh ich w as u sed p urely f or a gr icu l tura l f unct i ons.

The word " v il la" o n t he o ther h and , a s J . Har mand ( ' Sur l e v a leur

a rchto log ique d u mo t " v i l la" ' ,i tev. Arch. 3 7 ( 1970 ), p p. 1 55-8 ) h as p o in ted o u t w as u sed f a irly f ree ly i n a n t iqu ity t o r efer t o a ny r ura l b u ild ing ( or e ven t he l and i to ccup ied ) much a s t he w ord " far m" i s u sed t oday. w ord " v i l la" h as ,

I n Eng l ish t he

It h ink , c erta in c onno tat ions wh ich make i ti napp l icab le t o

most f ar m b u ild ings, e xcep t p erhaps t hose b u ilt o n ag rand s ca le a nd i ncorporat ing l av ish r es iden t ia l f ac i l it ies.

Thus Ih ave u sed t he word " v il la" t o r efer

t o t he l arge b u ild ing c o mp lexes d iscussed i n c hap ter I I.

E lsewhere Ih ave

p re ferred t o u se t he Eng l ish w ord " far m" a nd i t s c o mpound f or ms " far ms tead" , t o r e fer t o t he sma l ler f arm b u i ld ings , a nd " far mhouse" where a gr icu l tura l a nd r es iden t ial f ac il it ies a re i n tegra ted i n ac o mpact s ing le s tructure.

3

F IG 1

A

Mon te F orco

B



O

O

O

O

C

:

i _ _

I

E nc lo sure f a rm n ear L ucer ia

I I I I I

v ineyard / •

l

( D r. 1. 1 d o l i a

O

O

O

O

O

O



















Naxo s 1

F 8 1

t ow er , e nc lo sure

s c a le 1 :5 00

4

CHAPTER I SMA LL FAR MSTEADS

A l though a n i ncreas ing n umber o f sma l l f ar m s i tes h ave b een i den t if ied f rom t opograph ica l s urveys i n v ar ious p arts o f I t a ly , v ery f ew o f t hese s ites h ave b een s yste ma t ica l ly e xcavated . 1 For a k now ledge o f t he a rch itecture o f t he sma l l f ar ms o f Roman I t a ly o ne h as , t herefore , t o d epend o n i n for mat ion f rom a l im ited n umber o f f ar m s i tes, wh ich may b e r epresen tat ive o f a more g enera l p at tern . The f armhouses d iscussed i n t h is c hapter a re a l l o f a n u ns oph ist icated c haracter , t hough t hey v ary c ons iderably i n t he ir a rch itectura l f orm.

The s ize a nd q ua l ity o f t he b u ild ings n o d oub t r ef lect t he e cono m ic

r eturn o f t he f ar ms a nd , a ccord ing ly , t he a rea o f t he l and h o ld ings a ssoc iated w ith t he m.

We d o n o ty et k now n early e nough a bou t t he r o le t hat t he smal l

f ar m p layed i n t he p a t tern o f l and u se, p art icu lar ly t o wha t e x ten t i ts urv ived a longs ide t he l arger f ar m u n its o f t he Caton ian t ype. There i s , t herefore , much n eed f or t he c arefu l s tudy a nd d at ing o f sma l l f ar mstead s i tes t o h elp r econ struct t he a nc ien t l andscape. Av ery s imp le t ype o f f ar mhouse i s p robab ly r epresen ted b y t he e xcava ted s i te o n Mon te F orco i nt he Ager Capenas ( Cat . 1 8. F ig. l a ).

Here were f ound

t he r e ma ins o f ar ectangu lar s tructure ( 10.95 x 5 .10 m ), b u i l t i n o pus r et icu lat u rn w ith t ufa q uo ins, w h ich a ppears t o d ate i n o r ig in t o t he l ate I st c en tury B .C. By i t s r e lat ion t o n e ighbour ing s ites , i ts ee ms t o h ave b een t he f ar m b u i ld ing o f a smal l-ho ld ing o f a round f ive o r s ix i ugera , a nd i th as b een s ugg es ted b y t he e xcava tor t hat t h is h o ld ing may h ave b een c onnec ted w ith t he l and d istr ibu t ions t o Caesar 's v eterans af ter 4 6 B. 0 .2 The b u i ld ing h ad a s i mp le r ectangu lar p lan , b u t i t s r estorat ion i n e levat ion must r e ma in u ncerta in . The t h ickness o f t he w a l ls ( 0 .47 m ) d oes n ot r u le o u t t he p oss ib i l ity t hat t he b u i ld ing was o f t wo s toreys . 3 The e v idence o f wal l-pa in t ings s uggests t ha t s i mp le t wo-storeyed f arm b u ild ings w ere a c ommon f eature o f t he Roman l an d scape ; 4 a s f or e xamp le i n t he w el l-known w a l l-pa in t ing f rom t he h ouse o f t he ' S ma l l F oun tain ' i n P o mpe i i ( P la te l a ) , wh ich d ep ic ts a r ura l s cene w ith t wo a pparen t ly r ectangular t ower-l ike s tructures. 5

I n b o th t hese b u ild-

i ngs i ta ppears t hat o n ly t he u pper s toreys h ave w indows, wh ich s uggests t hat t he g round f l oors w ere u sed f or p urely a gr icu ltura l p urposes , s uch a s t he s torage o f f ar m t oo ls o r t he s ta l l ing o f b arnyard a n i ma ls.

The u pper f l oors

may h ave s erved a s s torage l of ts o r e lse h ave c on ta ined modest l iv ing q uar ters. The b u ild ing i n t he f oreground o ft he p a int ing h as what a ppears t o b e a wooden b a lcony a t f i rst f l oor l evel ;

a ccess t o t he u pper s torey may t herefore h ave

b een b y means o f a n e x terna l l adder .6 A r ud i men tary t ype o ft wo-storeyed t ower may a lso h ave e x isted w ith in s ome o f t he f ar m e nc losures d etected b y a er ia l p hotography i n t he c en tur iated l andscape n orth-east o f Lucer ia i n Apu l ia. 7

I ft h is c ou ld b e s hown b y e xcava-

t i on , o ne m igh t w itness h ere i n s ou th I ta ly a n a rrange men t o f t ower a nd 5

e nc losure w h ich wou ld e cho t he s i mp le s che me o f c ompound a nd t ower , wh ich J . H . Young h as i den t if ied a s ac om mon f eature o f t he c oun trys ide o f G reece " between t he l ate s ix th a nd ( earl ier ? ) t h ird c en tur ies B .0 C ."8 The s ize o f t he e nclosure s een i n P late I IB o f Brad ford 's a r t icle ( r eproduced h ere a s al ine d raw ing , F ig. 1 b ) i s a pprox i mately 3 6 metres s quare. Th is c o mpares f avourab ly w ith Young 's N axos Ie nc losure wh ich measures 3 5 x3 2 me tres ( Fig. i c ).

Th is c on ta ined a s ing le c ircu lar t ower s tructure a bout 8 .5 m i n

d iameter.

The e nc losures w ere p resumab ly d es igned t o a ct a s f o lds f or l ive-

s tock , f or wh ich t he s ix f oot d itch o f t he Ro man e xamp le, p robably r e in forced b y f enc ing , w ou ld h ave s erved a dequately . Many o f t he f ar ms o f t he a ger c en tur iatus o f L ucer ia , most o f wh ich i s d ated t o t he 2 nd c entury B .C ., w ere a pparen t ly t en i ugera i n s ize , t hough s ome e arl ier a l lotmen ts may n o th ave g reat ly e xceeded t he t rad it iona l t wo i ugera p lot , w h ich r epresen ted t he d iv is ion o f t he c en tur ia o f 2 00 i ugera i n to o ne h undred e qua l a l lotmen ts . 9 T he f ar m i l lustrated s ee ms t o h ave f unct ioned o n am ixed e conomy ; i n a dd it ion t o k eep i ng l ivestock , t he f ar mer w as d oubt less r espons ib le f or t he c u lt ivat ion o f t he a d jacen t v ineyard . The t ype o f sma l l f ar m u n it s een h ere i n t he c en tur iated l andscape n ear Lucer ia may h ave b een a f eature o f o ther c en tur iated a reas i n I t a ly t hough more e v idence wou ld b e r equ ired t o s ubstan t iate t h is. Ano ther k ind o f sma l l f ar mstead i s r epresen ted i n I t a ly b y t wo b u i ld ings w h ich , a l though f ound i nd if feren t r eg ions a nd d a t ing f ro m d if feren t c en tur ies , h ave a s tr ik ing ly s im ilar d es ign .

One i s t he V il la S ambuco e xcavated n ear

B lera i n s ou thern E trur ia a nd d at ing f rom t he 2 nd c en tury B .C. ( Cat . 2 6.Fig. 2 b ); t he o ther a r ecen t ly e xcava ted b u ild ing a t Posta C rusta n ear O rdona i n Apu l ia ( Cat . 2 2. F ig. 2 a ) , w h ich , i n i t s p hase I f orm , wh ich i n teres ts u s h ere , h as b een d a ted t o t he e ar ly Emp ire. o f t he r ooms i s s im i lar.

I nb oth t hese b u i ld ings t he a rrangemen t

A c en tra l c orr idor , e x tend ing a l most t he c omp lete

l eng th o ft he b u ild ing , s eparates r anges o f r ooms t o t he n orth a nd s ou th . A t t he V i l la S a mbuco t he n orthern r ooms ( rooms 1 -4 o n t he p lan ) a ppear t o h ave b een s tore r ooms wh i le t hose t o t he s ou th w ere f or d omest ic u se. 1 0 The p roposed r estorat ion o f at ower f or r oom 1 0 s eems d oubt fu l , g iven t he r oo m 's l im i ted d i mens ions ( on ly 1 .22 m m i n w id th ) .

C ou ld a t ower a s n arrow

a s t h is h ave s erved a u sefu l f unct ion " for d e fence"? T he s ugges tion o f a s econd s torey o ver p ar t o f t he h ouse s ee ms more l i ke ly .1 1 The b u i ld ing a t Post s . Crusta p resent s av ery c lose p ara l le l i n i t s p lan . With t he e xcep t ion o f r oo m 8 , w h ich s erved a s a modest t abl inum , t he r ooms t o t he n orth o f t he c ent ra l c orr idor ( 2 o n t he p lan ) w ere u sed f or a gr icu l tura l p urposes.

T hey i ncluded f ac il it ies f or t he p rocess ing o f o l ive o i l ( rooms 9 ,

1 0 , 1 1 ). The r oo ms t o t he s ou th o f t he c orr idor f ormed t he d omest ic p art o f t he h ouse 1 2 •The d i mens ions o f t he t wo f ar msteads c orrespond c lose ly ( see b e low , p . 1 0 ) .

Whether o r n o t t he c en tra l c orr idor o f e ither b u ild ing w as

e nc losed u nder a p itched r oof i s n o t c erta in . De Boe p o ints o u t t he d iff icu lt i es o f l i gh t ing t hat wou ld h ave r esu l ted h ad t h is b een t he c ase a t t he Post a . C rusta f ar m. O stenberg , h owever, p roposes a s ing le r oof o ver t he who le b u i ld ing f or t he V i l la S a mbuco. 1 3

I t s ee ms l ikely i nb o th c ases t hat t he c or-

r idor s pace w as a t l east p art ia l ly o pen t o t he s ky a nd f or med a smal l i n terna l c ourtyard.

Even i ft he e nd r oo ms w ere r oo fed t he a rea o f t he c ourtyard w ou ld

s t i l l h ave b een a round 4 0 s quare me tres. k nown f ro m o ther s i tes. 1 4 6

Courtyards sma l ler t han t h is a re

F IG 2

P osta C rusta P er iod 2

S ambuco

1 0

S outh V i lla O lynthus

• • • 8

1

&

1

2 « 0 a il l ai

1 2

1 3

6

7

3

« 4 00

7

4

5

F IG 3

A S e lvasecca

r s O

0

0

O

0

O

0

0

" ELL B

1 2

V i lla o f Good F ortune O lynthus

1 1 1

4 C

1

m

.m i j

7 i .1 4

D

0

3

: 0 0

C T o lve Mo ltone

I

8

F ig . 2 a .

P os ta C rus ta ( a f ter De Boe ).

S cale 1 :500.

P er iod 2 . 1 . 2 .

C orr idor ( ? c our t )

3 -7.

Do mes tic r oo ms

8 .

Tablinu m

9 . 1 0 .

F ig . 2 b.

F ig . 2 c .

? Mi l l ing r oo m

1 2-13 .

Uncer tain u se

S a mbuco ( a f ter Os tenberg ) .

S cale 1 :500.

1 -4.

S tore-roo ms

5 .

C orr idor ( ? c our t )

6 .

?S table

7 .

S tairwel l

8 .

En trance h al lway

9 .

?K i tchen

1 0 .

( ? t ower )

1 1.

S tore s hed

S ou th V i l la , O lyn thus ( a f ter R obinson ).

S ca le 1 :500.

Uncer ta in u se

2 /6.

C our tyard

3 .

F ron t h a l l ( ? s hop )

4 .

K i tchen

5 .

B a throo m

7 .

Oecus

8 .

Uncer tain u se

9 . 1 0-13 .

F ig . 3 b.

P ress-roo m S tore-roo m

1 1.

1 .

F ig . 3 a .

En trance h al lway

nacT6g Do mes t ic r oo ms

S e lvasecca ( a f ter B erggren ). p .

? Press-roo m

s .

S tore-roo m/barn

S cale 1 :500 .

V i l la o f G ood F or tune , O lyn thus ( a f ter R obinson a nd G raha m ). S ca le 1 :5 00 .

F ig . 3 c .

1 .

Andron

2 .

K i tchen

3 .

G ues t r oo m

4 .

S tore-roo m

5 .

Do mes tic r oo ms

To lve- Mo ltone ( a f ter T occa ). 1 -3 .

B a th r oo ms

4 .

? Tower

5 .

Impluv iu m

6 .

L ives tock p en 9

S ca le 1 :500 .

The c onstruct ion mater ia ls emp loyed a t t he t wo f ar msteads w ere d iffere n t , n o d oubt r ef lect ing t he r elat ive a va i lab i l ity o f g ood b u i ld ing s tone. A t t he V i l la S ambuco t he wa l l s ocles w ere c onstruc ted w ith s quared b locks o f t u fa , l oca l ly q uarr ied. These s upported a s uperstructure o f p lastered mudb r ick a nd a t i led r oo f. A t Posta Crusta t he s oc les f or t he mud-br ick wa l ls w ere c onstruc ted w ith mor tared r iver s tones a nd r ubble. The w id th o f t he wa l ls, c . 0 .50 m a t e ach s ite , i nd ica tes t he l oad-bear ing p o tent ia l f or a s econd s torey b u t t here i s n o c lear i nd ica t ion t ha t s uch e x isted i n e ither c ase. The s im i lar ity i n d es ign o f t he V il la S a mbuco a nd t he Posta C rusta f ar ms tead i s s uch a s t o s uggest a c om mon a rch itectura l s ource f or b o th . T ha t t wo b u i ld ings i nd if feren tp arts o fI ta ly , a pparen t ly b e long ing t o q u ite d i f feren t p er iods, s hou ld b ear s uch a s tr ik ing r esemblance t o o ne a no ther c anno t b e c o inc iden ta l . The s ource f or t he ir d esign i s s ure ly t o b e f ound i n t he d o mest ic a rch itecture o f t he Greek world. I t must b e r emembered t hat many G reek t own h ouses i nf act f unct ioned a s f ar m b u ild ings i n c ond it ions where t he c oun trys ide w as f ar med f ro m t he t owns.

I n t he i n terna l c orr idor o f t he I t a l ian f ar m-

s teads t here wou ld s ee m t ob e ar ef lect ion o f t he G reek T ra cr räg ,a n i n terna l c ross-ha l l e x tend ing a cross t he h ouse i nf ron t o f t he n orthern r ange o f r ooms , wh ich i s f ound c om mon ly i n Greek h ouse p lans .1 5 A p art icu larly c lose p ara ll el c an b e s een b e tween t he d es ign o ft he I t a l ian f ar ms a nd t hat o f t he S ou th V il la a t O lyn thus .16

The e xcavators o f t h is h ouse c om men t o n t he u nco m mon

a bsence o f a ni n terna l c ourt wh ich , a ccord ing t o t he u sua l O lynth ian h ouse t ype , n orma l ly e x isted t o t he s outh o ft he n o c cr u&g Th is a bsence , h owever, may i nd icate t hat t he c en tra l c orr idor i n f act s erved i np lace o f t he u sua l c ourt , a s a n o pen s pace f or k eep ing b arnyard a n i ma ls a nd f ar m e qu ip men t . The r e lat ive d i mens ions o fh ouse a nd c orr idor o ft he S ou th V il la a t O lyn thus c orrespond c lose ly t o t hose o f t he I ta l ian f ar msteads a s f o l lows ( measure men ts i n met res ) :

House

Corr idor

S ou th V il la V il la S a mbuco

2 1.1 x 1 7.0 2 2.6 x 1 7.3

1 5.0 x 3 .8

Posta Crusta

2 0.8 x 1 9.2

1 5.7 x 3 .5

1 4.8 x3.1

Ano ther f ar mstead f ound i n t he r eg ion o f B lera i s t he s o-ca l led V i l la S e lvasecca ( Ca t . 3 3. F ig. 3 a ). A lthough a s l igh t ly more e labora te s tructure t han t he t wo f ar msteads d iscussed a bove, t h is w as a b u i ld ing o f modest p roport i ons a nd a n e ssent ia l ly s i mp le l ayout. The p lan o f t he f ar mstead w as i n t he f or m o f as quare ( 36.0 x 3 5.5 m ) w ith r ooms a rranged a round a c en tra l p er is ty le. The a rch i tecture o ft he b u ild ing a nd t he ma ter ia ls o f c onstruct ion r evea l t he owner 's i n ten t ion o f p rov id ing h i mse l f w ith a h ouse wh ich w as b o th af unc t iona l f ar m b u ild ing a nd a c omfortable , t hough n ot o pu lent , dwe l l ing. The p er isty le a nd c our t w ere c onstruc ted w ith c are a nd t he mater ia ls emp loyed— t he s quared t u fa p av ing s tones o f t he c ourt a nd t he s tone c o lu mns a nd c ap ita ls o f t he c o lonnade—suggest t hat t he c ourt w as n o t u sed f or a gr icu ltura lp urposes. Most o f t he a gr icu l tura l a ct iv ity w ith in t he f ar mhouse s ee ms t o h ave b een c onc en trated i n t he n orthern a nd e astern w ings. The l ong o u ter r oom o n t he n or th s ide o ft he b u ild ing w as p robably a b arn o r s tab le , h av ing a ccess d irect ly t o

1 0

t he o u ts ide t hrough o ne l arge o r t wo sma l l s eparate d oorways 1. 7 T he d iscovery a t t he V i l la S e lvasecca o f a workshop f or t he manu factur ing o f r oof t i les r ev ea led o ne a spect o f t he f ar mstead 's e conomy . Th is a t a ny r a te was t he i n terp retat ion g iven b y t he e xcavator o f t he v ar ious s tone-cu tb as ins a nd mou lds f ound i n t he r ooms o n t he n orth s ide o f t he h ouse .1 8 O ther f inds f ro m t hese r ooms i nc luded f rag men ts o f d o l ia a nd amphorae a nd t he b ases o f p resses. The s outh-west c orner o f t he b u ild ing c on ta ined t he r oo ms f or d omest ic u se. Here t races o fp a in ted w a l l-p laster a nd o f w h ite mosa ic i nd icated t hat t he r es iden t ia l p art o f t he f ar mstead d id n o t l ack i n ter ior d ecora t ion , a lthough i t i s p oss ible t hat s o me o f t he d ecorat ive f eatures w ere a dded af ter t he o r ig ina l o ccupa t ion o f t he h ouse i nt he mid-2nd c en tury B .C.

The f ar m 's l i fe e x tended

i n to t he e arly I mper ia l p er iod a nd t he d o mest ic q uarters a re u n l ikely t o h ave e scaped r edecorat ion . The c onstruct ion o f t he w a l l s oc les was s im ilar t o t hat a t t he V il la S a mbuco , u s ing b locks o f l oca l ly q uarr ied t u fa.

A t t he V il la

S e lvasecca, h owever , i ta ppears t hat t he mud-br ick s uperstructure w as h eld i n af ra mework o ft imber.

A s er ies o f h o les was d r il led a t i n terva ls i n to t he

f l at u pper s urface o f t he t u fa s ocle i n o rder t o s ecure t he t imbers, a b u ild ing t echn ique wh ich i s f ound i nb u i ld ings i n E trur ia a t a n e arl ier p er iod. 1 9 The w a l ls c ou ld h ave s upported a n u pper s torey t hough a ga in i ti s u ncerta in whether s uch e x isted o r n ot .

The r oof w as t i led , u s ing t erraco t ta t egu lae a nd imbr ices

e v iden t ly p roduced a t t he s i te . 2 0 I ti s t o O lyn thus t oo t hat w e s hou ld l ook f or t he t ype o fb u i ld ing wh ich p rov ides t he model f or t he a rch itecture o f t he V il la S e lvasecca.

A n umber o f

t he h ouses f ound a t O lyn thus c on ta ined i n t he ir p lan a c omp lete i n terna l p ens ty le

2 1

One o f t hese, t he s o-ca l led " Vil la o f Good Fortune" ( F ig. 3 b ) , p resen ts

a marked s im i lar ity i np lan t o t he V i l la S elvasecca.

I n e ach c ase t he p er isty le

i s p laced more o r l ess c ent ral ly , o n ly n earer t o t hat s ide o f t he h ouse o n wh ich t he ma in e n trance l i es. h ouses.

The e n trance i s s im ilarly s i ted a nd d es igned i nb o th

The d oorway i s s et b ack f ro m t he f ron t wal l o f t he h ouse , c reat ing

a sma l l p orch ( 7 up $56upov )i nf ron t o f t he d oor.

A lso s im ilar i s t he t reatmen t

o f t he c ourtyard f l ooring , i n t hat t he c en tra l a nd e xposed a rea o f t he p er isty le i s g iven a p av ing wh ich s tops a t t he l ine o f t he c o lonnade a nd d oes n ot e x tend b eneath t he s urround ing p ort icos . 2 2 Ap art ia l p ara l le l c an a lso b e s een b etween t he a rch itecture o f t he V il la S e lvasecca a nd t hat o f ar ecen t ly d iscovered sma l l Hel len ist ic f ar mhouse a t To lve i n Bas i l icata ( Ca t . 3 6.Fig. 3 c ).

The To lve f ar mhouse was s im i lar ly

d es igned i nt he f or m o f as quare a round a n i n terna l c ourtyard , wh ich i nt h is c ase h ad a c en tra lb r ick-paved i mp luv ium , s upp l ied b y means o f a n a queduc t f rom a n earby s pr ing. The ma in e n trance l ay t o t he s outh b u t , u n l ike t hat o f t he V il la S e lvasecca , i tw as s i ted c en tra l ly .

An i n terest ing a rch itectura l

f ea ture o ft he b u ild ing i st he t wo p ro ject ing r ooms wh ich f lank t he ma in e n trance. The i ncreased t h ickness o f t he w a l ls o f t he r oom wh ich p ro jects t o t he w est o f t he e n trance ( Fig. 3 c , 4 ) s ugges ts t hat i t may h ave s upported a g reater l oad a nd t hat t here may t herefore h ave b een a t ower a t tached t o t he f ar mhouse a t t h is p o in t.

Tha t s uch t owers w ere of ten i ncorporated i n to Greek f ar mhouses

i s w e l l a t tested f ro m a rchaeo log ica l , l i terary a nd e p igraph ic e v idence. 2 3 Moreover t h is s tructura l f eature a lso a ppears i n s evera l Greek c o lon ia l f ar mh ouses, i nc lud ing o ne a t CPSSATII9SSirr ia a1C ampagno lo i n Bas il icata . w ith in t he c hora o f t he Greek c i ty o f Me tapon tu rn. 2 4 1 1

To t he s ou th-west o f t he c ourtyard w as a s u ite o fb a th r ooms ( F ig . 3 c , 1 ,2 ,3 ) w ith p lastered w a l ls a nd o pus s ign inum f l oors . T races o f p a in ted p las ter i nd ica ted t hat t he r ooms t o t he n orth a nd w es t o ft he c ourtyard w ere p robab ly f or d omest ic u se , wh ile t hose t o t he e ast , w here f inds i nc luded p ieces o f i ron t oo ls a nd p art o f al oom , w ere a pparen t ly u sed f or t he a gr icu ltura l a nd i ndu st r ia l f unct ions o f t he f armstead . 25 T o t he v ery e ast o ft he b u ild ing w as a n o pen-ended e nc losure ( Fig. 3 c ,6 ) w h ich may h ave s erved f or p enn ing l i ves tock . An earby k i ln e v iden t ly p roduced t he t i les a nd v ar ious t erraco t ta mou ld ings u sed i n t he c onstruct ion o f t he h ouse . 2 6 More e v idence f or t he a rch itec ture o f t he sma l l f arm c o mes f rom C amp an ia. O f t he many f arms t hat h ave b een e xcava ted i n t h is r eg ion , t wo i n p art icu lar s tand o u tb y v irtue o f t he ir r elat ive s imp l ic ity a nd t he e ssen t ia l ly "r ust ic" c harac ter o f t he ir d es ign a nd c onstruc t ion . One o f t hese i s t he P osto V i l la a tF ranco l ise ( Cat . 2 3. F ig. 4 a ), w h ich i n i t s e arl iest p hase d a tes t o t h e e nd o f t he 2 nd c en tury B .C. A t t h is t ime, t he b u i ld ing h ad a n u npreten t ious a nd h igh ly f unc t iona l a spect . T he l ay-ou t w as i n t he f orm o f al arge o pen c ourty ard , r ound w h ich w ere r anged , o n t hree s ides a t a ny r a te , t he f arm b u i ld ings. O n t he w est s ide o f t he y ard s tood a r oo fed p ort ico , wh ich p erhaps s erved a s as tab le f or c at t le o r o ther a n i ma ls. That t he f ar m 's e conomy w as i np art b ased o nt he r ear ing o f l i vestock i s s uggested b y t he s ize o f t he y ard ( 5 32 m2 a pprox .) , i n wh ich h erds o r f l ocks c ou ld e as i ly b e p enned . The l i v ing q uar ters o f t he f arm w ere a pparen t ly a long t he n or th s ide o f t he y ard , where t he r e ma ins o f t wo r ooms w ith o pus s ign inum f l oors w ere f ound . Here s o me i nd ica t ion i s g iven o fh ow t he b u i ld ing w as c ons tructed i n e leva t ion . Above a s oc le o f s quared t u fa b locks t he w a l ls w ere made o f l imes tone r ubb le p acked i n to a t imber f ramework ( opus c rat ic ium ), a t echn ique s omewha t s im ilar t o t hat u sed i n t he V i l la S e lvasecca ( above , p . 1 1). The l ay-ou t o f t he Posto f ar m b ears s ome r ela t ion t o t he t ype o f " enclosure f arm" w h ich w e h ave e ncoun tered i n Apu l ia a nd w h ich , Ih ave s uggested , may d er ive f rom t he " enclosure-andt ower" a rrangemen t f ound i n n umerous G reek f arms. I n t he Posto f ar m w e f i nd n o t at ower-l ike s tructure , b u t ar ange o f r ooms u sed f or d if feren t a gr ic u ltura l a nd d omest ic p urposes. Ra ther t han ab u i ld ing w ith in a ne nc losure , w e s ee t he e nc losure a nd b u i ld ing i ncorporated i nt o a n i n tegrated u n i t . The f ar m r ema ined i n i t s o r ig ina lf or m f or a bou t f i f ty y ears , b u t a round t he m idd le o f t he I st c en tury B .C., i tw as r econst ructed a nd e n larged , p robab ly i nd ica t ing , ac hange o f o wnersh ip . P erhaps t he c apac ity o f t he f ar m h ad t o b e i ncreased t o meet t he r equ iremen ts o f al arger l and h o ld ing. An e qual ly u npreten t ious f ar mhouse i s t hat e xcava ted i n 1 903 n ear t he r a ilway s tat ion a t Boscorea le n ear P ompe i i ( Cat . 4 . F ig. 4 b ).

T he r oo ms o f

t h is b u i ld ing w ere s imp ly c onstructed w ith p la in p lastered w al ls a nd t rodden e arth f l oors 27 The f armhouse w as d es igned p r i mar i ly a s af unct iona l u n it a nd i ncorpora ted o n ly modest l iv ing q uarters. Most o f t he r oo ms w ere e v id en t ly u sed f or t he p roduc t ion o r s torage o f a gr icul tura l p roduce. I ti s i n tere st ing t o o bserve t ha t t he l argest r oom i n t he f armhouse i s t he k itchen ( No . 1 2 o nt he p lan ). T h is r eca l ls Varro 's c la im t ha ti n t he o ldfash ioned a nd s imp le t ype o f f armhouse , ag ood k itchen w as a p r i mary f eature . 2 8 I ts erves t oo t o i l lustrate Mau 's i dea t hat t he a tr ium , w h ich b eca me t he p r inc ipa l r oom o f t he Roman t own h ouse , h ad i t s c oun terpart i n t he f ar mhouse k itchen w ith i t s c en tra l h earth . When , i na nu rban c on tex t , t he a tr ium l ost i t s c en tra l 1 2

F IG 4

• •

iz i o n im m

E

9 •

A P osto

P er iod I

( after V on B lankenhagen,

C otton a nd W ard-Perkins)

S cale 1 :500.

1 /2

E ntrances t o c ourtyard

3

S ettling t ank

4

C attle s talls

4

8

6

5

9 7

B oscorea le

S taz ione

( after D ella C orte). 1

C ourtyard

1 1

2

G arden

1 2

K itchen

3

M ain e ntrance

1 3

U ncertain u se

4

D omestic r oom

1 4

S heep f old

5

P ress-room

1 5

T riclinium

6

S torage b arn

7

S tore-room

8 -10

13

S cale 1 :500.

D omestic r ooms

S tore-room

h earth , i ta lso l ost i t s o r ig ina l f unct ion.

The k i tchen i n t he t own-house n ever

r ega ined i t s importance , b u t w as a rb itrar ily a cco m moda ted. 29 S torage f ac il it ies w ere s pread t hroughou t t he f ar m.

No d oubt u se w as

made o f t he l ong b arn ( No. 6 ) f or t h is p urpose , a s w e l l a s r oo ms 7 ( "tet to ia c on d o l ia" ) a nd 1 1 ( horreu m ).

A l l t hese r oo ms h ad d irec t a ccess t o t he o u t-

s ide , o n t ha t s ide o f t he f ar mhouse wh ich f aced t he c oun try . 3°

Th is wou ld

mean t hat c art s c ou ld l oad a nd u n load r igh t a t t he d oor o f t he s tore-roo ms. The e xcavat ion s howed s igns o f am ixed f ar m e cono my. I n r oo m 2 w ere f ound t he r e ma ins o f a sma l l w ine preis. i 12,, 4 1p resses c ou ld n ot h ave b een c heap i n a n t iqu ity , a nd a p r ivate ly-o , v r ied p ress s uch a s t h is o ne s uggests t ha t t he owner o f t he f ar m must h ave h ad r easonable r eturns f ro m t he s a le o f h is w ine , s o me o f w h ich w as a pparen t ly s o ld o n t he p re m ises ( reduc ing t ransportat ion c osts ).

I n a dd it ion t o p roduc ing w ine, t he f ar m r eared s heep a nd c h ickens,

w h ile t he l ong b arn may h ave b een u sed f or s tab l ing l arger h erds o f l ivestock .3 1 The l ocat ion o f t he s heep-pen n ext t o t he k itchen ( Fig. 4 b. 14 ) r eca l ls V it ruv ius ' a nd Varro 's i nstruct ions t hat t he war mest p art o f t he h ouse , t hat p art n earest t o t he k itchen , s hou ld b e u sed t o s tab le l i vestock ( bo th a u thors r ecom mend c ows , h owever ) .3 2 The d ate o f t he Boscorea le S taz ione f ar m w as n o t s c ien t if ica l ly e stab l ished b y t he e xcavator.

The p lan a ppears t o b e o f a n i n tegrated s tructure , a nd s ug-

g ests a s ing le b u ild ing p hase.

Del la Corte d escr ibes t he b u ild ing a s " very

s im i lar" t o a no ther f ar mhouse i n t he s a me r eg ion ( Cat . 2 ) , wh ich w as c onst ructed i n o pus i ncertu m , a nd i ti s p oss ib le t hat t h is s im ilar ity i nc luded a l i ken ess i nb u i ld ing t echn ique. 33

I f s o , t he f ar mhouse may d ate f ro m t he e arly

p art o f t he I st c en tury B .C., p erhaps f rom t he p er iod f o l low ing t he e stabl ishmen t o f t he S u l lan c o lony i n 8 0 B .0 C. A n umber o f t he sma l l f ar msteads d iscussed i n t h is c hapter h ave b een d ated t o t he 2 nd c entury B .C. ( Cat . 2 3, 2 6 , 3 3 ).

S evera l o thers w ere c ons-

t ructed i n t he i st c en tury B .C. ( Cat . 4 , 1 8 , ? 22 ).

O ccupat ion , h owever, o f

most o f t he b u ild ings , a pparen t ly w ithou t a ny ma jor a rch itectura l mod i f icat ions, s ee ms t o h ave c on t inued i n t he i s t c en tury A .D . ( Ca t . 4 , 1 8 , 2 2 , 2 6 , 3 3 ). Fur ther r econs truct ion a nd e n large men t o f t he o r ig ina l b u i ldings i s a t tes ted a t o n ly t wo o f t he s i tes ( Ca t . 2 2 , 2 3 ) .

The b u i ld ings a re o f c ourse f ew i n

n umber a nd p rov ide i nsu f f ic ien t e v idence t o d raw a ny f ir m c onclus ions a bou t t he r o le o f t he sma l l f arms tead i n t he d eve lop ing p a t tern o f l and t enure. The e v idence t hey p rov ide , h owever, d oes s uggest t hat u nder t he e arly Emp ire , a l though t he g row th o f l arger e states may h ave afected t he s tatus o f s o me smal lho lders , t h is p rocess d id n o t n ecessar ily b r ing a bout a d ec l ine i n t he o ccupat ion o f smal l f ar mstead s ites i nI ta ly . The a rch itecture o f t he b u ild ings d iscussed v ar ies c ons iderab ly .

We

h ave o bserved t he a pparen t i n f luence o f Greek d omest ic a rch itecture i n t he d es ign o f an umber o f t he Roman f ar msteads ( Ca t . 2 2 , 2 6 , 3 3 ) a nd h ave a lso s ugges ted a p oss ible l ink b etween t he k ind o f f arm c o mpounds d etected i n Apul ia a nd a t F ranco l ise a nd t he t ype o f " enc losure f ar m" k nown i nG reece. The Greek c o lon ia l f ar msteads wh ich a re n ow b e ing i ncreas ing ly s tud ied i n S ou th I t a ly may p rov ide s ome e v idence f or t he means whereby t hese p at terns o f G reek f ar mhouse a rch itecture f ir g t f o l ird u la. 3 4

w « )- ; • 4 .n t he "-; 11 . ,n 7 . en ins_

Wh i le mak ing u se o f t hese i mported t rad it ions , ar eg ioha l c haracter 1 4

was g iven t o t he Ro man f ar msteads b y t he v ar iety o f t he a va ilab le ma ter ia ls u sed i n t he ir c onst ruct ion .

NOTES 1 .

T he ma jor work i n I t a l ian i s t he s er ies o f t opograph ica l s tud ies p ub l ished b y t he I st ituto d i Topograf ia An t ica d el l 'Un ivers itä d i Ro ma , u nder t he t i t le For ma I ta l iae.

I n Eng l ish t he p ioneer ing s tud ies b y J ohn B radford

R e ma in o f g rea t v a lue, t hough t he r esu lts o f r elated f i e ld work h ave y e t t ob e p ub l ished ;

J . B rad ford , Anc ien t L andscapes, L ondon 1 957;

' S it icu losa Apu l ia ' , An t iqu ity ) 0 ( ( 1946 ), p p. 1 91-200 ;

i de m , ' Bur ied

l andscapes i n s outhern I ta ly ' , An t iqu ity XX I I I ( 1949 ) , p p. 5 8-72; ' The Apu l ian e xped it ion : 8 4-95.

i de m , i de m ,

a n i n ter im r eport ' , Ant iqu ity XX IV ( 1950 ), p p.

O ther s tud ies o f r ura l s ett le men t i nc lude :

G . Duncan ,

‚ S u tr i—

n otes o n s ou thern E trur ia-3' , P .B. S . R. X I I I ( 1958 ), p p. 6 3-134;

G . D.B.

J ones, ' Capena a nd t he Ager Capenas ' ( 2 p arts ), P .B.S.R. XVI I ( 1962 ), p p. 1 16-207 , XVI I I ( 1963 ) , p p. 1 00-158;

A . K ahane, L . M. Thre ip land ,

J . B. Ward-Perk in s , ' The Ager Ve ien tanus, n orth a nd e ast o f Ro me ' , P .B.S .R. XXI I I ( 1968 );

D . S cag l iar in i, Ravenna e l e v i l le r o mane d i

Ro magna ( Co l l. q uadern i d i a n t ich ita Ravenna t i , N o. X ), Ravenna 1 968; P . V inson , ' Anc ien t r oads b etween Venosa a nd G rav ina t , P .B.S .R. XXV I I ( 1972 ), p p. 5 8-90. 2 . 3 .

J ones, 2 2 .c it . ( 1963 ), p . 1 57. For a d iscuss ion o f t he l oad-bear ing a b i l it ies o f mud-br ick w al ls s ee J . E . J ones , A . J . G raha m a nd L . H . S acket t , ' An A t t ic c ount ry h ouse b e low t he c ave o f Pan a t Van' , B .S .A . 6 8 ( 1973 ), p p. 4 25-7, 4 38-40 , where t he a u thors p o in t o u t t hat " a v ery c o m mon u n it f or t he s ocles o f mud-br ick h ouse w a l ls was a w id th o f 0 .40-0.50 m , t hat i s , o ne c ub it o r af oot a nd ah a lf o n a l most a ny Greek s tandard ;

a nd V i truv ian p recep t ( 11.18.17 )

a nd modern e xamp les s uggest t hat t h is wou ld s upport o ne u pper f loor , b u t n o more". 4 .

For t he e v idence o f w a l l-pa in t ings s ee P . Gr i ma l , ' Les ma isons ä t our Hel len ist iques e t Ro ma ines

M.E . F. R. ( 1939 ) , p p. 2 8-59.

l ar s ect ion B-11e s gr ie , p p. 3 4-8;

I n p art icu-

R . L ing , ' S tud ius a nd t he b eg inn ings

o f Ro man l andscape p a int ing ' , J . R.S. 1 . 4 )0 (VI I ( 1977 ) , p p 1 -16. e v idence f rom mosa ics must b e t reated w ith c au t ion . p rov inc ia l a nd much o f i tl ate.

The

Most o f i ti s

The A fr ican mosa ics h ave b een s tud ied

b y T . P recheur-Canonge , L a V ie Rura le e nA fr ique d 'apres l es mosa iques ( Publ ica t ions d e l 'Un ivers ite d e Tun is ), P ar is 1 962, who s uggests t hat most o f t he sma l l s tructures t hat a ppear i n l andscape s cenes a re p roba bly t he d ependen t o u tbu i ld ings , b arns, g ranar ies, d oveco tes e tc. o f l arge v i l las.

S uch t ower-l ike s t ructures a s a ppear o n t he Z l iten mosa ic

( S. Aur ige m ma , I t a ly i nA fr ica : Vo l. I .

a rchaeo log ica l d iscover ies 1 911-1943.

P art I . , Ro me 1 960 , P la te 1 25 ) h ave a d ist inct ly N orth A fr ican

c haracter , wh ich p robably d er ives f ro m t he a rch itecture o f Hel len ist ic Egyp t , a nd wh ich man ifests i t self i n l a te Ro man A fr ica i n t he f or m o f

1 5

t he g asr , at ype o f f ort if ied t ower;

S . S tucch i , Arch itettura C irena ica ,

Ro me 1 975, p p. 5 18-20. 5 .

Rostof tzef f S EHRE, p . 6 5 , P late X .1; i de m , ' D ie h el len ist isch-ro m ische Arch itek turlandscha f t ' , Rö m. M itth. XXVI ( 1911), p . 9 5 , P la te X I. 1; S . Re inach , Reperto ire d e p e in ture Grecque e t Ro ma ine , Par is 1 922, p . 3 86 , N o. 2 .

• 6 .

Co mpare t he p roposed r econstruct ion o f t he t ower-l ike f ar m b u i ld ing a t K ö ln- Mungersdorf ; H . H inz , ' Zur Bauwe ise d er V i l la r ust ica ' , Gymnas ion V I I ( 1970 ), p . 2 4.

7 .

Bradford , 9 2 .c it . ( 1949 ), p p. 5 8-72, e spec ia l ly P lates I IA a nd B ; E . T . S a l mon , Ro man c o lon isat ion u nder t he Repub l ic , L ondon 1 969 , P late 6 ; Wh ite R .F., P late 1 2;

A . H . McDona ld , R epub l ican Ro me, L ondon 1 966 ,

P late 7 1. 8 .

J . H . Young , ' S tud ies i n s ou th At t ica : Hesper ia XXV ( 1956 ), p . 1 42;

c oun try e states a t S oun ion ' ,

c f . J . P ec irka , ' Ho mestead f arms i n

c lass ica l a nd Hel len ist ic Hel las ' , i n M. I . F in ley , Prob le mes d e l a t erre e n Grece a nc ienne , Par is 1 973, p p. 1 13-147. 9 .

A . Toynbee , Hann iba l 's L egacy.

Vo l. I , Ox ford 1 965 , p . 5 63f f .;

M.

W. F reder iksen , ' The c on tr ibut ion o f a rchaeo logy t o t he a grar ian p robl em i n t he Gracchan p er iod ' , D ia logh i d i Archeo log ia 3 43-4.

( 1970-1 ), p p .

For t he t rad it iona l 2i ugera p lo t , E . T . S a l mon , 9 _ p _ .c it ., p .

1 68 , n o te 2 1, w ith a l i st o f a nc ien t s ources.

For t he s ubd iv is ion o f

c en tur iae i ng enera l , 0 . A . W. D ilke, The Roman L and s urveyors , N ew ton Abbot 1 971, p p. 9 3-6. 1 0.

C . O stenberg , ' Lun i a nd V il la S a mbuco ' , i n E truscan c u l ture ,l and a nd p eop le , Ma l mo 1 960 , p p. 3 18-9.

1 1.

I b id., p . 3 19.

1 2.

G . De Boe ,

r o mana i n l oca l itä " Posta C rusta".

Rappor t e p rov i-

s or io s u l le c a mpagne d i s cavo 1 972 e 1 973' , N .Sc. 1 975 , p . 5 21. O stenberg ,

2 2. c it ., p . 3 17.

1 3.

I b id., p . 5 21;

1 4.

For e xa mp le i n t he G reek f ar m a t T ag° d el L upo i n t he c hora o f Metap ontum , w here t he i n terna l c ourt measures a pprox i ma te ly 8 .3 x 4 .5 m ( 37.4 m 2 ) .

1 5.

D . M. Rob inson a nd J . W. Graha m , Excavat ion s a t O lyn thus , Par tV II I : The Hel len ic House , Ba l t i more 1 938;

J . W. G raha m , ' Or ig ins a nd i n ter-

r elat ions o f t he Greek h ouse a nd t he Ro man h ouse ' , Phoen ix XX ( Spr ing 1 966 ), p p. 3 -31. 1 6.

D . M. Rob inson , Excavat ions a t O lyn thus , Part X I I : P ub l ic Arch itecture, Ba l t i more 1 948 , p p. 2 59-63.

Do mest ic a nd P late 2 22.

1 7.

For c o mparat ive s tore-roo ms a nd b arns s ee b elow , Chap ter V I.

1 8.

E . Berggren a nd A . Andren , Slera ( l oca l itä S elvasecca ) —v i l la r ust ica e trusco-ro mana c on man ifat tura d i t erraco t te a rch itet ton ich e , N .Sc. 1 969 , p p. 5 5-6.

1 6

1 9.

E . Berggren , ' A n ew a pproach t o t he c los ing c en tur ies o f E truscan h istory ' , Arctos V ( 1967 ), p . 3 3;

K . Hanel l , ' San G iovena le :

t he Acropo l is ' , i n

E truscan c u lture , l and a nd p eop le , p . 3 01. 2 0.

Berggren ,

p . 3 6.

2 1.

Rob in son a nd Graha m , 2 2 .c i t . , p . 1 60.

2 2.

Con trast , f or e xa mp le , t he c ourtyard p av ing o f t he Van iHouse ; Graham a nd S acket t ,

2 3.

J ones ,

. c it ., p . 4 33.

For a f u l l d iscuss ion o f t he e v idence , w ith b ib l iography , s ee J ones , G raha m a nd S acket t , 22 .c it ., p . 4 37 , n o tes 2 30-34.

2 4.

G . Ugger i ,

KAHPOI a rca ic i eb on if ica c lass ica n el la

P .P . CXX IV ( 1969 ), p . 5 2. 2 5.

G. Tocca ,

X S 2 .PA d i Metapon to ' ,

n ote 4 .

a rcheo log ica n el la Bas il ica ta s et ten tr io 'na le ' , i n

At t i d e lX I II c onvegno d i s tud i s u l la Magna G rec ia , N apo l i 1 974, p . 4 62. 2 6.

I b id., p . 4 65.

2 7.

Crova , Ed il iz ia , p . 4 4.

2 8.

Varro , R . R ., I . XI I I.2, I .XI I I.6 ( ' il l ic l audabatur v i l la s i h abeba t c u l inu m r ust ica m b ona m in t hose d ays a f ar m w as t hough t h igh ly o f i fi th ad a g ood r ust ic k i tchen ' );

c f. Co lu me l la , D .R.R., I . V I. 3 C at i n r ust ica p arte

magna e t a lta c u l ina p onetur -and i n t he a gr icu ltura l p art o f t he h ouse t here s hou ld b e al arge k itchen w i th a h igh c e i l ing ' ). 2 9.

A. Mau a nd F . W. K e lsey , Po mpe i i , i t s l i fe a nd a rt , N ew York 1 899 , p p. 2 53-4, 2 66-8.

3 0.

Crova , Ed il izia , p . 4 3, F ig. 1 ( Al) , c a l ls t he e n trance i n to r oo m 7 ' i ngress° v erso l a c ampagna '.

3 1.

S heep i n r oo ms 1 0 a nd 1; Del la Corte , N .Sc. 1 921, p . 4 39; c h ickens a ccord ing t o ag raf f ito f ound i n t he f ar mhouse ( C. I .L . I V. 6873 ); t he e x istence o f t hree d oors i n to t he b arn s uggests t hat i t may h ave b een d iv ided i nterna l ly w ith w ooden f enc ing s o t hat p art o f i tc ou ld b e u sed f or s tab l ing a nd p art f or s torage.

3 2.

Varro , R . R., I . X I II. I ;

V it ruv ius, D .A., I . V I. I .

3 3.

Del la Corte , N .Sc. 1 921, p . 4 36 ;

i b id., p p. 4 23-6 ; C rova , Ed il iz ia ,

p . 4 5 , s i mp ly r efers t o t he f ar m a s ' Repub l ican '. 3 4.

Recen t s tud ies i nclude D . Ada mesteanu , ' Le s udd iv is ione d i t erra n el Me tapon t ino l , i n M. I . F in ley ,

. c it ., p p. 4 9-61;

( no te 2 4 ).

1 7

G . Ugger i , o p .c it .,

CHAPTER I FAR M AND HOUSE

C en tra l t o as tudy o f f arm b u i ld ings i n I t a ly i s t he t ype o fb u i ld ing w h ich c o mb ines i n a n i n tegra ted s tructure t he f unct iona l r equ ire men ts o fb o th a w ork ing f arm a nd a f ash ionab le r esidence . T h is t ype o f f arm b u i ld ing i s we l l r epresen ted b y e xcava ted e xamp les i n I t a ly , t hough t he l ay-out o f t he d i f feren t f arms v ar ies c ons iderab ly , a ccord ing t o l oca l t rad it ion , p ersona l t aste a nd t he t ype o f a gr icu lture p rac t ised . T he c o mbina t ion o f w ork ing f ar m a nd r esidence s uggests t ha t t hese f arms were o ccup ied b y t he ir o wners f or most o f t he y ear , in ot p ermanen t ly , a nd r un a s f ami ly c oncerns. T he c ap ita l o ut lay o n t he a gr icu ltura l f ac i l it ies o ft he f ar ms i s ma tched b y e xpend i ture o n t he r es iden t ia l q uar ters .

T here c an b e l i t t le d oubt t ha t t he owners o f t hese f ar ms w ere

wea l thy men , a nd i ts ee ms r easonab le t o s uppose t ha t t he ir wea lth , f ro m wherever i t may h ave d er ived , was ma in ta ined b y t he e f f ic ien t r unn ing o f t he ir f arms . The l ocus c lass icus o f t h is t ype o fb u i ld ing i s t he f a mous f ar mhouse a t B oscorea le P isane l la ( Ca t . 3 . F ig . 5 a ) . Excava ted t owards t he e nd o ft he 1 9th c entury , t he f armhouse h as b een f requen t ly d iscussed , f or e xamp le b y Mau , C rova a nd Wh ite .

1

A t ten t ion h as b een f ocused o n t he a rrangemen t a nd

r e la t ionsh ip o ft he d iferen t r oo ms o f t he f arm , a nd o n h ow t h is c orresponds t o t he r eco m menda t ions g iven b y t he v ar ious R o man wr iters who d iscuss f arm b u i ld ings. Day h as a t te mp ted t o c a lcu la te t he s ize o f t he f arm o n t he b as is o f t he s torage f ac i l it ies w ith in t he e xcava ted b u i ld ing .2 O n ly Crova h as o bserved t ha t t he B oscorea le f armhouse i s r e markab ly s im i lar i n d es ign t o a no ther f armhouse e xcava ted a round t he s ame t ime a t B oscorea le ( con trada G iu l iana ) ( Ca t . 1 . F ig . 5 b) .3 T he s im i lar ity i s u n l ike ly t o b e c o inc iderta l, c ons ider ing t he p rox im ity o f t he t wo f arms, a nd o ne may s uppose t ha t e i ther t he o ne d irect ly i n f luenced t he d esign o f t he o ther , o r t ha t b oth r ef lect a l oca l t rad it ion o f f arm d es ign wh ich may h ave b een e choed i n s evera l f armhouses i n t he s a me r eg ion .

I ts ee ms a ppropr ia te t herefore t o d iscuss t hese t wo f arms t oge ther .

The c en tra l f ea ture o f e ach i s a n o pen c our t wh ich , t o s o me e x ten t , s epara tes t he d o mest ic a nd a gr icu ltura l q uar ters o f t he f arms.

T he f ormer a re r anged

t oge ther b eh ind ap or t ico . I n e ach c ase , t he p ro m inence o f t he k itchen i s n ot iceab le ( F ig . 5 a , 7 ; F ig . 5 b, 9 ) , r eca l ling t he p recep ts o f Varro a nd C o lume l la .4 T he o ther ma jor r oo m o f t he r es iden t ia l a rea i s t he t r ic l in ium ( F ig . 5 a , 3 ; F ig . 5 b , 2 ) .

I nb oth h ouses, t he wa l ls o f t h is r oo m were d ecora ted

w ith p a in ted p laster . Many f rag men ts o f t he p a in t ings f ro m t he V i l la P isane l la a re n ow i n t he F ie ld Museu m o f Na tura l H istory i n C h icago .5 T he r oo ms d evo ted t o t he n eeds o f a gr icu lture o ccupy t he l arger p ar t o f t he f arms . L argest o f t hese i n e ach c ase i s t he s torage r oo m f or w ine a nd o i l ( t he c e l la v inar ia o r o lear ia : F ig . 5 a , 2 1; F ig . 5 b, 7 ) . T hese c on ta ined 1 8

F IG 5

A B o scorea le P is ane ll a

B o scorea le G iu l iana

1 9

F ig . 5 a .

B oscoreale P isanel la ( a f ter P asqu i ) . 1 .

C our tyard

2 .

An teroo m

3 -5 .

Do mes t ic r oo ms

6 .

T oo l-roo m

7 .

K i tchen

8 .

?S table

9 -12.

B a th r oo ms

1 3 .

F ig . 5 b.

S ca le 1 :500 .

P ress-roo m

1 4/15 .

P ressing p lat for ms

1 6.

R oo m w i th h and mi l l

1 7.

Mi l l ing r oo m

1 8 .

P ress-roo m

1 9 .

B arn

2 0 .

Thresh ing f l oor

2 1.

D o lia s tore

B oscorea le G iu l iana ( a f ter S og l iano ). 1 .

L arar iu m

2 /3 .

Do mes t ic r oo ms

4 .

P ress ing p la t for m

5 .

P ress-roo m

6 .

C our tyard

7 .

D o lia s tore

8 .

S tore-roo m

9 .

K i tchen

1 0 .

L a tr ine

1 1-13 .

Uncer ta in u se

1 4 .

C ubicu lu m

1 5 .

Uncer ta in u se ( ? b arn )

1 6

Thresh ing f l oor

1 7.

B arn

S ca le 1 :500 .

n u merous d o l ia

s e t i nto t he g round , wh ich s erved a s f ermen ta t ion v a ts f or

w ine, o r s torage j ars f or o i l . r oo ms ( F ig . 5 a , 1 3 ;

C lose t o t he s torage r oo ms a re t he p ress-

F ig . 5 b, 5 ) , c on ta in ing l ever p resses a nd more d o lia

u sed a s r eceptac les f or t he g rapeju ice o r o i l .

T he a bsence i n t hese r oo ms

o f d ecan ta t ion v a ts a nd m i l ls , f ound a t n umerous o ther f arms a nd a ssocia ted w i th t he p rocess ing o f o l ive o i l ( s ee b e low , C hap ter V ) s ee ms t o i nd ica te t ha t a t t hese B oscorea le f arms t he ma in p roduc t w as w ine a nd n o t o i l . T he V i l la P isane l la , h owever , must h ave p rocessed s o me o i l t o j udge f ro m t he p resence o f as econd sma l ler p ress-roo m a nd a d join ing m i l l ing-roo m ( Fig . 5 a , 1 7 a nd 1 8) ; t he o i l was p robab ly a l lowed t o s et t le i n t he c o l lect ing v esse l b eside t he p ress a nd t hen t ransferred t o t he d o l ia s tore . Tha tb oth t hese f arms p roduced g ra in i s e v iden t f ro m t he p resence a t e ach o f at hresh ing f l oor ( F ig . 5 a , 2 0 ;

F ig . 5 b, 1 6) a nd b arn .

I n t he o ne c ase

( F ig . 5 b , 1 7) , t he i den t i f ica t ion o f t he b arn s ee ms c er ta in . I ti s p laced a t a d istance f ro m t he ma in f arm b u i ld ing a s ap recau t ion a ga inst f ire , a nd i s c onv en ien t ly p laced n ex t t o t he t hresh ing f l oor ( Varro, R .R .

1 .13 .5) .

6

The r oo m

im med ia te ly a d jo in ing t he t hresh ing f l oor o f t he V i l la P isane l la ( F ig . 5 a , 1 9) may a lso h ave b een ab arn ( nub i lar iu m ) . I tc on ta ined f ragmen ts o fb ean-straw a nd p ar ts o f a wagon . 7 O ver t h is r oo m , a nd e x tend ing o ver t he e ast c orner o f t he b u i ld ing , was a n u pper s torey , wh ich may h ave b een u sed a s s leep ing a cco mmoda t ion f or s o me o f t he f arm ' sp ersonne l, o r a s s torage s pace f or d ry p roduc ts .

An u pper s torey a lso e x isted o ver p ar t o f t he p or t ico , t o t he s outh-

west o ft he c our tyard a nd h ere , i n v iew o f i t s p rox im i ty t o t he r es iden t ia l r oo ms o ft he g round f l oor , were p robab ly t he owner ' ss leeping r oo ms.

There

i s n o r eason t o s uppose t ha t t he u pper s torey h ere h oused a r oo m f or a v i l icus .

8

I n f ac t , t he a ssoc ia t ion o f t h is f arm , where t he manage men t was

p robab ly i n t he h ands o ft he owner a nd h is f am i ly , w ith t he Ca ton ian t ype o f s lave-run f arm u nder t he c on tro l o f as lave manager — s uch a s Brehaut makes 9 — i s s ure ly i ncorrec t . I tw i l l b e s een l a ter ( be low , Chap ter I V ) t ha t t he c ap it a l is t e n terpr ise , w ith i t s s lave-gangs a nd s lave manager , r equ ired a d if feren t s or t o f a rch itec ture . A no ther f armhouse w h ich , a l though o n ly p ar t ia l ly e xcava ted , a ppears t o h ave h ad a c haracter s im i lar t o t hese B oscorea le f arms i s o ne n ear C iv itavecc h ia i nE trur ia ( Ca t . 1 7 ) . I den t if iab le i n t he n or th-west c orner o f t he b u i ld ing a re al arge k i tchen a nd a n a d jacen t b a th s u ite . T he l a t ter f orms p ar t o f a ma jor r econstr uct ion o ft he f armhouse a round t he midd le o f t he i st c en tury B .C .

T he l oca t ion o ft he b a th n ex t t o t he k i tchen i s s im i lar t o t he a rrange men t

i n t he V i l la P isane l la a t B oscorea le .1 0 T he f arm may h ave h ad a n i n terna l c our t a nd p ort ico, j udg ing f ro m t he s ca t tered r e mnan ts o f wha t a ppear t o b e s tone p ier- o r c o lu mn-bases. T he n or th-east w ing o f t he b u i ld ing p erhaps c on ta ined t he w ork ing f ar m . A s h as b een n oted a bove , al arge b arn s tood a par t f ro m t he f armhouse, a nd t h is may i nd ica te t ha t c erea l c rops were a n impor tan t p roduct . T he a rchaeo log ica l e v idence , h owever , i s i nsuf f ic ien t t o a ssess t he a gr icu ltura l f unct ions o f t he f arm . Wha t a re t he a rch itectura l t rad i t ions b eh ind t he d es ign o f t h is t ype o f f arm , a nd h ow d oes t h is r ura l a rch i tecture o f t he l a te R epub l ic c orrespond t o t he d omes t ic a rch i tec ture o f t he s a me p er iod? F irs t ly , t here a ppears t o b e i n t he d es ign o f t he B oscorea le f ar ms , a s i n t he c ase o f s o me o f t he sma l l f arms teads d iscussed i n t he l as t c hapter , a n e cho o f c er ta in f ea tures e ncoun tered i n t he 2 1

d o mest ic a rch i tecture o f t he G reek w or ld . T he a rrange men t o f c our t , p or t ico a nd r es idence r ef lects a n a rrangemen t s een i n many o f t he h ouses a tO lynthus . T he p or t ico o f t he R o man f arms f u lf i ls a f unc t ion s im i lar t o t ha t o ft he Greek Ta c e T6 g„ l y ing b e tween t he r ange o f d o mest ic r ooms a nd t he c our t . L ike t he T x xcT6S, the p or t ico g enera l ly l i es o n t he n or ther ly s ide o f t he c our t , a s i n t he V i l la P isane l la ( F ig . 5 a ) a nd i n o ther p ar t ia l ly e xcava ted f armhouses i n t he r eg ion s ou th o f V esuv ius, s uch a s t hose i n t he c on trada S p ine l l i ( Ca t . 3 1) a nd c on trada M inu te l la ( Ca t . 3 7 ) . Where t he l Dr t ico e x tends a round a s econd o r t h ird s ide o f t he c our t , t he n orthern p art o f i tr e ta ins ap os i t ion o fp redo m inance , a s i n t he c ase o f t he G reek m ac T ö cg / per isty le h ouses . As econd f ea ture o f t he f arms i s t he ir l arge k i tchens, wh ich o ccupy ap os i t ion o f i mpor tance i n t he l i v ing q uar ters . T h is i s e v iden t n ot o n ly i n t he t wo B oscorea le f arms , b ut a lso i n o ther f armhouses i n t he v ic in ity , s uch a s t he o ne i n c on trada S p ine l l i , ment i oned a bove , a nd i n a no ther i n c on trada C rapo l la ( Cat . 3 0 ) . These k i tchens, a s h as b een n oted a bove , may r epresen t t he s urv iva l o f a n o lder r ura l a rch it ecture , c o mpr is ing a h a l l w i th c en tra l h ear th a nd o pen r oof , a n a rrange men t wh ich h ad b y n ow b een a dap ted a nd a ss im i la ted i n to t he v ocabu lary o fd o mest ic t own a rch i tecture i nt he f orm o f t he t own-house a tr ium . D iscuss ing t he p lans o ft he B oscorea le f arms, R . C . Carr ing ton s uggests t ha t "t h is t ype o f f armhouse s hows n o t race o f h av ing b een i n f luenced b y t he p lan o ft he t own h ouse" .1 B y t h is, o ne may s uppose t ha t h e means t ha t t hese f arms l ack t he p r inc ipa l f ea tures a nd c harac ter ist ics o f c on temporary u rban dwe l l ings, s uch a s t he ir a x ia l a rrangemen t , t he d eve loped a tr iu m a nd t ab l inum . C er ta in ly , t hese f ea tures a re c onsp icuous ly a bsen t i nt he B oscorea le f arms . T here a re , h owever , o ther f armhouses, s o me o f t hem c on temporary , i n wh ich t hese f ea tures o f t he t own h ouse d o a ppear . O ne o ft hese i s t he f armhouse a t C amere l le i n Ca labr ia ( Ca t . 9 . F ig . 6 ) . T he h ouse was b u i l t a round ac en tra l p er is ty le , a nd p reserves i n i t s p lan s o me d egree o f a x ia l s y mme try . T o t he west o ft he p er isty le was a r oo m ( F ig . 6 , 1) wh ich may h ave b een a n a tr iu m . I t s c en tra l f ea ture was d escr ibed b y t he e xcava tor a s a n i mp luv iu m , t hough s he s uggests t ha t t h is a rea was p oss ib ly a n o pen c ou r t .1 2 T he f unc t ion o f e ach o f t he o ther r ooms o ft he f armhouse was n o t e stab l ished w i th c er ta in ty , t hough i t d oes a ppear t ha t t he r oo ms t o t he n or th o ft he p er isty le were f or t he most p ar t u sed f or a gr icu ltura l p urposes. A p ress-roo m i n t h is p ar t o f h e f arm ( F ig . 6 , 7 )p robab ly c on ta ined t wo p resses , wh i le i n a no ther r oo m ( F ig . 6 , 2 ) as econd p ress a nd f ragmen ts o f d o l ia were d iscovered .1 3 T here a re s evera l o ther f armhouses w h ich i nc lude a n a tr iu m a nd i mp luv iu m i n t he i d iom o ft own h ouse a rch itecture . T hese i nc lude af arm a tV it t imose , n ear B ucc ino ( Ca t . 4 1) , o ne a t G ragnano ( Ca t . 1 3 ) a nd o ne e xcava ted n ear t he V ia T iber ina i nt he v ic in i ty o f R ome ( Ca t . 3 8 ) . T he d a tes o f t hese a tr ium/ i mp luv ium f armhouses s how a n i n terest ing r ange ; t he Camere l le f arm d a tes f ro m t he i s t c en tury B .C. wh i le t he a tr ium O f t he V ia T iber ina f ar m may b e p re-Augus tan . T he G ragnano a nd V i t t imose f arms w ou ld s ee m b o th t o b e long t o t he i s t c en tury A .D . Ano ther a tr ium f armhouse , h owever , e xcava ted a t S a lap ia i n A pu l ia ( Ca t . 2 9 ) c an b e d a ted a t l eas t t o t he e ar ly s econd c en tury B .C .

C arr ing ton ' sc la im t ha t "i n t he f i rst c en tury A .D ., a s t he i nf luence o f

t he t own h ouse g rew s tronger , t he a tr ium t oo f ound i t s way i n to t he c oun try" n eeds t o b e r ev ised ;1 4 t he a tr iu m i n f act a ppears i n f armhouses o f a n e ar l ier p er iod , a nd was e v iden t ly a f ea ture o f f armhouse a rch i tecture o f t he Repub l ican a s w e l l a s t he I mper ia l p er iod . 2 2

F IG 6

C amere l le

i

I I

F T

I I I wee

I 5 I I

1

r i m

A r

3

4

s

S

4 e

L L

I I I

I— _ I I 1 1 1 1

_ a • •

MI I IS i l. 1M

h r

Lm m m m m m m m « e mi ll a r m m m ada li M a l l

• • • • • J

I I

. I

I

l a b

2 3

!

F ig . 6 .

C a mare l le ( a f ter B er tocch i ). 1 .

S e tt ling t anks

2 .

P ress-roo m

3 -6.

Uncer tain u se

7 .

P ress-roo m

8 -10 .

S et t l ing t anks

1 1. F ig . 7 a .

F ig . 7 b.

S ca le 1 :500 .

?A tr iu m

P or taccia ( a f ter Ro manel li ). 1 .

S tore-roo m

2 .

S e t t l ing t ank

3 .

? Press-roo m

4 .

K i tchen

S ca le 1 :500 .

V i l la o f Pub l ius F ann ius S in is tor ( a f ter B arnabei ). S ca le 1 :500 . 1 .

? Un load ing b ay

2 .

P ress-roo m

3 .

L arar iu m

4 .

?B arn

5 /6.

K i tchen

7 .

L a tr ine

8 -10 .

B a th-roo ms

1 1/12/14. 1 3 .

Do mes t ic r oo ms

Tabl inu m

F IG 7 A

P ortaccia

«A men

. ma r a uf ii

i w p

IM F



B

V il la o f P ub l ius F ann ius S in is tor

2 5

An a rch itectura l c oncep t s im ilar t o t ha t a t C amarel le c an b e s een i n a p oorly r ecorded f ar mhouse a t Por tacc ia n ear T arqu in ia ( Ca t. 2 1. F ig. 7 a ). Here a ga in t he b u i ld ing i s c haracter ised b y i t s a x ia l p lan , w ith a c en tra l ly p laced p er isty le a nd e n trance.

T hough a d e ta i led r eport o f t he e xcava t ion i s

l ack ing i ta ppears t ha t ak i tchen ( F ig. 7 a , 4 ) a nd p erhaps o ther d omest ic r ooms w ere l oca ted t o t he s outh o f t he p er isty le, w h i le t he r ooms t o t he n orth w ere u sed f or a gr icu l tura l p urposes. These i ncluded a l ong r oo m ( F ig. 7 a , 1 ) w h ich c on ta ined f rag men ts o f d o l ia a nd s ee ms t o h ave s erved a s ab arn o r l arge s torer oom.

To t he e ast o f t h is w ere f ound t he r e ma ins o f wha t a ppears t o b e a n o i l

s et t l ing t ank ( F ig. 7 a , 2 ) a nd i tw ou ld t herefore s ee m p robable t ha t t he r oo m a d jacen t t o t he t ank ( room 3 ) h oused t he f ar m 's p ress ing mach inery . S uch a x ia l ly p lanned p er isty le f ar mhouses a s t hose a t Ca marel le a nd Por ta cc ia , a nd t he f ar ms l ike t hose a t V itt i mose a nd S a lap ia wh ich i nclude i n t he ir d es ign a n a tr ium , d isp lay s o me o f t he c haracter ist ics o f c on te mporary t own h ouse a rch i tecture. I n t h is r espect t hey c on trast w ith t he Boscorea le f ar mh ouses wh ich w e h ave e xam ined . I ndeed t here s eem t ob e t wo d ist inct a rch it ectura l g enres , t wo k inds o f r ura l a rch itecture , o f wh ich V itruv ius , w r it ing a t t he e nd o f t he f i rst c en tury B .C., was c lear ly aware. Hav ing o u t l ined t he r equ ire men ts o f t he v i l la r ust ica , h e a dv ises ( D .A . V I.6 . 5 ) t ha t af armhouse d es igned t o i nclude s ome o ft he a rch itectura l e legance o f at own h ouse b e b u i l t a ccord ing t o t he s y m metr ica l c anons o f t he l a t ter : s i q u id d el ica t ius i n v i l l is f ac iendum f uer it , e x s ym metr i is q uae i n u rban is s upra s cr ip ta s un t c onst itu ta , i t a s truantur , u t i s ine imped it ione r ust icae u t il ita t is a ed if icen tur. F or V itruv ius t hen a f ar mhouse may b e b u i l t w ith s ome o f t he c haracter ist i cs o ft own h ouse a rch itecture , b u t c lear ly t h is i s a n o p t ion . A t l east a s e ar ly a s t he m id i st c en tury B .C., a nd p robably e ar l ier, t h is o p t ion was b e ing a dop ted i n s ome f ar m a rch itecture.

2 6

NOTES

1 .

F or a f u l l b ib l iography o ft h is, t he b est k nown o f t he C a mpan ian " v i l lae r ust icae", s ee Append ix A .

2 .

J . Day , Agr icu lture i n t he l i fe o f Po mpe i i ', Ya le C lass ica l S tud ies I I ( 1 932) , p . 1 80 f . H is e st i ma te o f c . 1 00 i ugera i s v ery s uspect . I t p resupposes t ha t a l l t he d o l ia were f i l led t o c apac i ty e ach y ear , wh ich may n ot h ave b een t he c ase .

The e st i ma te a lso e xc ludes t he p oss ib i l ity

o ff ur ther ( unexcava ted ) s torage f ac i l it ies. Day ' sc a lcu la t ions a re r ej ec ted b y F rank , E .S .A .R . V , p . 1 72 , p . 2 64f ., who l owers t he s ize o f t he e sta te t o 1 0 -1 5 i ugera , a nd b y R . Duncan-Jones, The e cono my o f t he Ro man Emp ire , Cambr idge 1 974, p . 4 5, n o te 3 ; c f . P . Castren , O rdo Popu lusque Po mpe ianus, Ro me 1 975, p . 5 3 . 3 .

C rova , Ed i l iz ia , p . 7 7 .

4 .

S ee c hap ter 1 , n o te 2 8 .

5 .

H . F . De C ou , An t iqu it ies f ro m Boscorea le i n t he F ie ld Museu m o f Na tura l H istory , C h icago 1 912 .

6 .

V i truv ius, D .A . ,V I . V I . 5( 'Horrea , f en i l ia , p istr ina e x tra v i l la in f ac ienda v iden tur , u t a b i gn is p er icu lo s in t v i l lae t ut iores — g raner ies, h aylof ts a nd b aker ies s hou ld b e away f ro m t he f armhouse , s o t ha t t he h ouses a re s afer f rom t he d anger o f f ire ' ) ; f or e xa mp le t he b arn o f t he l a te Repub l ican f arm a t Monna F e l ice ( Ca t 1 7 ) , wh ich i s a t ag ood d istance f ro m t he f ar mhouse .

7 .

Wh ite , R . F ., p . 4 25 .

T he word n ub i lar iu m l i tera l ly means a s hed o r

b arn i n wh ich t o s tore c orn o u t o f t he r a in .

Varro , R . R . ,I . X I I I .

5

( 'I d s ecundu m a rear a f ac iendu m , u b i t r iturus s is f ru men tu m , magn itud ine p ro modo f und i, e x u na p ar te a per tu m , e t i d a b a rea , q uo e t i n t r ituram p roruere f ac i le p oss is e t , s i n ub i lare c oep i t , i nde u t r ursus c e ler iter r e icere — i t ( Sc . t he s hed ) s hou ld b e b u i lt n ex t t o t he t hresh ing f l oor , o f as ize i n p ropor t ion t o t he f arm , o pen o n t he s ide f ac ing t he t hresh ing f l oor , s o t ha t y ou c an e asi ly t hrow o ut t he c orn f or t hresh ing a nd , i fi tb eg ins t o g e t c loudy , t hrow i tb ack i n a ga in i n ah urry ' ) . 8 .

T hus Wh ite , R . F ., p . 4 25 .

9 .

E . Brehaut , Ca to t he C ensor o n f arm ing , New York 1 933 , p . 3 0 .

1 0 .

V itruv ius, D . A ., V I .6 .2 .

( 'Ba lnear ia i t em c on iuncta s in t c u l inae — t he

b a throo ms s hou ld b e n ex t t o t he k itchen ' ) . S ee f ur ther , E . F abbr icot t i , Ib agn i n e ue p r i me v i l le r o man& ,Cronache Po me iane I ( 1976) , p p . 2 911. 1 1.

C arr ing ton , 1 934 , p p . 2 61-280 ;

i de m , P o mpe i i, Ox ford

2 7

1 936, p . 9 0 .

1 2 .

Ber tocch i, o p .c i t ., p . 1 43 .

1 3 .

B er tocch i ,

1 4 .

Carr ing ton , o p .c i t . ( 1936) ,

c i t ., p . 1 47;

s ee a lso b e low C hap ter V . P .

9 4 .

CHAPTER I I RURAL V ILLAS

T he k ind o f f arm d escr ibed b y C o lume l la ( D .R .R ., I .V I ) c o mpr ises s evera l d ist inc t p ar ts ; ar es idence ( v i l la u rbana ) , aw ork ing f arm v i l la r ust i ca ) a nd s torage f ac i l it ies ( v i l la f ructuar ia ) . T hese t hree e lemen ts were , o f c ourse , c o mmon t o mos t f ar mhouses o f wha tever s ize , a l though t he means b y w h ich t he a rch i tect c hose t o i ncorpora te t he m i nto h is f arm d es ign c ou ld v ary g rea t ly . T he c o mpac t s ing le-struc ture f arms, where t he d i f feren t f ac il i t ies w ere a l l c o mbined i n to a s ing le a rch i tectura l d es ign , h ave b een d iscussed i n t he l a st c hap ter . We must n ow c ons ider ag roup o f v i l las b u i l t o n al arger s ca le , w here in t he d if feren t p ar ts o f t he v i l la e ach c onst itu te a s epara te s truct ure o rg roup o f s truc tures . T he s i mp lest f orm o f s epara t ion c an b e s een a tt he S an R occo v i l la ( Ca t . 2 7 , F ig . 8 ) , where t he r es idence a nd t he w ork ing f arm f orm a rch i tectura l ly i ndep enden tu n its p laced s ide b y s ide a nd s epara ted o n ly b y ar oadway wh ich g ives a ccess t o t he ma in e n trance o ft he r es idence a nd t o o ne o f t he t wo f armyards. T he w ho le c omp lex t hus f orms t wo d ist inct p ar ts: t he r es idence , i n t he f orm o f as er ies o f r oo ms r anged a round a c en tra l p er isty le , a nd t he f arm , w ith i t s v ar ious f ac i l i t ies f l ank ing t wo i n terconnected y ards. T he p resence o fp or t icos o n t he s outhwest a nd n or thwest s ides o ft he r es idence , t oge ther w i th t he i n terna l p er is ty le , r eca l ls t he ambu la t iones p rescr ibed b y C o lume l la f or t he v i l la u rbana ( D .R .R . ,I . V I .2 ) . S im i lar ly , t he c ub icu la o n t hese s ame s ides o f t he b u i ld ing , wh i le n ot n ecessar i ly a rranged f or s easona l u se , a s C o lume l la s uggests, n evert he less f orm a n impress ive r ange . T he t wo f armyards a ppear t o h ave b een u sed f or s epara te a gr icu ltura l a ct iv i t ies . 1 Tha t t o t he w es t was p robab ly u sed f or l i vestock : i ti s l oca ted c lose t o t he ma in n orth e n trance a nd t hus a f fords e a sy a ccess t o t he c oun try ; t here i s al arge c ister n o n i t s s ou th s ide a nd , a d jacen t t o t h is, ap or t ico wh ich c ou ld h ave b een u sed f or s ta l l ing a n i ma ls .

T he r oo ms t o t he n orth o f t h is y ard may

h ave b een u sed t o s tore e qu ipmen t o r a s a cco mmoda t ion f or p ersonne l .

T he

s econd y ard c on ta ined a n o i l p rocess ing p lan t w i th , t o t he n or th , t he p ressr ooms a nd t o t he s ou th t he s et t l ing t anks . L oca ted b etween t he t wo y ards was ap o t tery workshop a nd k i ln . U n for tuna te ly , t he e xcava t ion o f t he w ork ing f arm a t S an R occo h as n o t y e t b een p ub l ished i n d e ta i l .2 N o t f ar r e moved f rom t he p lan o f t he S an R occo v i l la i s t ha t o f av i l la e xcav a ted a t Russ i n ear Ravenna ( Ca t . 2 5 . F ig . 9 ) . T he e xcava ted r oo ms o f t he v i l la u rbana o ccup ied t he n or th p ar t o f t he v i l la , b e ing r anged ma in ly t o t he s ou th a nd w est ( and p erhaps t o t he n or th , t hough t h is a rea was n o t i nvest iga ted ) o f ap er isty le . T h is w as f l anked t o t he e ast b y al arge b arn ( f or d e ta i ls o f wh ich s ee b e low , p . 5 9 ). I mmed ia te ly t o t he s ou th o f t he v i l la u rbana was a s econd c ou rtyard a round w h ich most o f t he a gr icu ltura l f ac i l i t ies o f t he f arm a ppear 2 9

F IG 8 S an R occo

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F ar myards

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S et t l ing t anks

5 /6 .

K i lns

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S tal ls

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t o h ave b een l oca ted . These i ncluded a g ranary ( F ig. 9 , 6 ; b elow , p . 5 7 ) a nd a l arge r oo m ( F ig. 9 , 5 ) , p erhaps u nroofed , c onta in ing a c en tra l b as in wh ich , l o ca ted j ust t o t he e as t o f aw el l h ead , may h ave b een a d r ink ing t rough f or l ivestock o r e lse p erhaps u sed f or s oak ing l up ines f or manure o r f odder. T o t he s ou th-east o f t he v i l la was l ocated a s epara te b a th b u i ld ing. T he s epara t ion o f t he b a th h ouse f ro m t he v i l la u rbana , p ar t ly a s ap recau t ion a ga inst f i re , i s af ea ture w h ich w e s ha l l f ind r epea ted a t an u mber o f l arge v i l la s i tes. 3 Ano ther s im i lar ly d es igned v i l la i s t he s o-ca l led " V i l la o f Publ ius F ann ius S in istor" e xcava ted t owards t he e nd o f t he n ineteen th c entury a t Boscorea le n ear P ompe i i ( Ca t . 5 .

F ig. 7 b ).

A l though n o t f u l ly e xp lored , t h is v i l la ,

c onstructed a round t he m idd le o f t he I st c en tury B .C., a ppears t o h ave b een p lanned , l ike t he S an Rocco a nd Russ i v i l las, a s a n i n tegra ted c o mp lex w ith t wo a d jacen t a nd i n terconnect ing c our ts.

To t he n orth t he r oo ms o ft he v i l la

u rbana e x tended r ound t hree s ides o f ap er isty le.

These i ncluded a c en tra l ly

p laced t abl inu m ( F ig. 7 b , 1 3 ), more t han o ne t r icl in ium ( 1 1 a nd 1 2 ) a nd a s u ite o f ba th r oo ms ( 8 , 9a nd 1 0 ).

Most o f t he r oo ms o f t he r es iden t ia l p ar t o f t he

v ila w ere s u mp tuously d ecora ted w ith mosa ics a nd mura ls.

To t he s outh ,

a t al ower l eve l , was a s econd c o lonnaded c our tyard wh ich a ppears t o h ave b een f l anked b y t he f ac il it ies o f t he w ork ing f ar m. One o f t hese r ooms ( F ig. 7 b, 2 ) , l oca ted b etween t he p er isty le o f t he v i l la u rbana a nd t he c ourtyard o f t he v i l la r ust ica , was t he v i l la 's p ress-roo m wh ich c on ta ined t wo p resses o f t he p la t for m t ype ( see b elow , c hap ter V ).

To t he w est o f t he p ress-roo m was

a sma l l r oo m ( F ig. 7 b , 1 ) wh ich may h ave s erved a s a n u n load ing b ay f or c ar ts b r ing ing o l ives o r g rapes t o t he p ress-roo m. A lso f l ank ing t he c ourtyard was al arge r oo m , o n ly p ar t ia l ly e xcava ted ( F ig. 7 b , 4 ) , w h ich was p erhaps a s torage b arn . T h is c onn ected w ith t wo sma l ler r ooms ( 5 a nd 6 ) wh ich a ccordi ng t o Barnabe i f or med t he v i l la 's k i tchens. T hese t hree v i l las a l l s hare a s im ilar a rch itectura l p lan ;

av i l la u rbana

w ith ac en tra l p er isty le f or m ing o ne o f t he v i l la 's t wo ma in n ucle i a nd a w orki ng f arm a round a s econd c ourtyard f or m ing t he o ther. T he t wo a re j ux taposed t o c rea te a n e x tens ive c omp lex wh ich w ou ld s ee m t o c orrespond t o t he t ype o f e labora te r es iden t ia l f arm e nv isaged b y Co lu mel la . A t o ther s i tes a much l ooser a rrange men t s ee ms t o h ave b een t he c ase. S evera l v i l la s i tes h ave b een i den t if ied b y s cat tered s tructura l r e ma ins, w h ich s uggest a n u mber o f i ndepend en tb u ild ings s pread o ver a w ide a rea.

An e xamp le o f t h is t ype o f " frag men ted"

v il la i s t o b e s een a t V il la Magna n ear Anagn i i n t he Roman Campagna ( Ca t . 4 0. F ig. 1 0 ). An i nscr ip t ion o f 2 07 A . D., f ound a t t he s i te , r ecords t he c onst ruc t ion o f ar oad ( dever t icu lu m ) w h ich l ikely s erved a s ad r iveway f or t he v i l la .4

O f t he v i l la i t se l f s o me s urface r e ma ins s urv ive a nd t hese s uggest t he

p resence o f an u mber o fb u ild ings s pread o ver a n a rea o f a bou t 0 .5 s q km . T he s tructura l v est iges t o t he s ou th o f t he s i te ( F ig. 1 0.B ) may b e t he r e ma ins o f ar es iden t ia l c o mp lex ( v il la u rbana ). H ere a sma l l e xedra a nd r ela ted a rch i tectura l f rag men ts s uggest ab u ild ing o f s o me r ef ine men t. T he c onstruct i on o f t he wa l ls i s i n o pus r et icu latum i nd ica t ing a l a te Republ ican o r e ar ly Imper ia l d a te f or t he b u ild ing. N earby was a s er ies o f c isterns c apable o f r et a in ing a l arge wa ter s upp ly f or t he v i l la . A t t he n or th o f t he s i te more u ps tand ing masonry r e ma ins ( F ig. 1 0.A ) i nd ica te a s econd g roup o fb u i ld ings. T he c onstruct ion h ere i s i n o pus r et icu latum w ith b ond ing c ourses o f b r ick ,

3 3

s uggest ing a d a te i n t he l a ter i st o r f i rst h a l f o f t he 2 nd c en tury A .D . 5 The f unct ion o f t hese b u ild ings i s q u ite u ncer ta in. They may h ave b elonged t o a b a th c omp lex o r w ere p erhaps a ssoc ia ted w ith t he a gr icu l tura l work ing o f t he e s ta te. Ac o mparable v i l la s i te i s t ha t o f " i l Casa lacc io" r ecorded i n t he A ger V e ien tanus s urvey ( Ca t . 7 ) . H ere a ga in , t he v i l la w as p rov ided w ith i t s own p aved d r iveway , n ear ly 1 km i n l eng th , w h ich l ed f rom t he V ia F lam in ia . The v i l la c ons isted o f an u mber o f i ndependen t ly-sited b u i ld ings , w hose p rec ise f unct ion c anno tb e d eterm ined w ithou t a more d eta i led s tudy . The s tructures wh ich f or med t he s outh g roup o fb u ild ings w ere c lear ly c onnected w ith t he wa ter s upp ly o f t he v i l la , w h i le t he n orthern b u ild ing may h ave b een r es ident ia l—the s urface f i nds f ro m t h is a rea i ncluded ma ter ia ls f or f l oor mosa ics. At h ird b u ild ing , l oca ted b etween t hese t wo , c on ta ined wa l l mosa ics t o j udge f rom t he s urface f i nds o f g lass t esserae , b u t i t s f unct ion c an o n ly b e g uessed. Another l arge " frag men ted" v i l la i s t he e arly I mper ia l v i l la a t Cugno d e i V agn i ( Ca t . 1 0. F ig. 1) i n t he S ir is-Heraclea d istr ict o f Bas il icata. T he v i l la h ere s ee ms t o h ave e x tended o ver a w ide a rea , t hough t he s cat tered s truct ura l r e ma ins wou ld r equ ire a more t horough e xam ina t ion t o d eter m ine t heir r e la t ionsh ip .

O ne g roup o fb u i ld ings was e xam ined b y Lacava i n t he 1 9 th

c en tury a nd more r ecen t p lans o f t h is c o mp lex h ave b een p ub l ished b y Q u i l ici a nd Adamesteanu .6 T h is was ab a th b u i ld ing s itua ted o n t he s outheast s l opes o f t he h i l ltop o n wh ich t he r es iden t ia l p ar t o f t he v i l la was s i ted . I fi tb e s upposed t ha t s uch v i l la s i tes were t he c en tres o f f a ir ly e x tens ive e sta tes, o ne must t hen a sk o n wha t b as is t he ir a ssoc ia ted l and h o ld ings w ere f armed . I n many c ases, e xcava t ion o r s ur face s urvey h as r evea led e v idence o f e labora te r esiden t ia l b u i ld ing g roups, b u t a gr icu ltura l f ac i l i t ies h ave n o t b een d e tec ted w i th a ny d egree o f c er ta in ty . Th is may b e d ue t o l ack o f e xcav a t ion a nd o ne c ou ld a rgue t ha t a ssoc ia ted f arm b u i ld ings must h ave e x isted i n p rox im ity t o t he v i l la u rbana .

T he l arger t he e sta te , h owever , t he l ess

p rac t icab le i t wou ld h ave b een t o f arm t he l and f ro m ac en tra l l oca t ion . T he l a t ifund ia o f t he I mper ia l a ge , many o f wh ich were p robab ly c rea ted b y t he a bsorp t ion o f sma l ler h o ld ings a nd f armsteads, were more p robab ly f armed f ro m an u mber o f s ca t tered f armsteads s pread o ver t he e x ten t o f t he e sta te , a nd o pera ted b y t enan t c o lon i . 7 We may t hus b e wrong i n e xpec t ing a lways t o f i nd a gr icu ltura l f ac i l it ies a ssoc ia ted w ith t he r es iden t ia l v i l la wh ich f ormed t he n uc leus o f t he e sta te .

Ra ther , t he f arm e qu ip men t a nd s torage f aci l it ies

may h ave b een l oca ted i n sma l l f armsteads wh ich r e ma ined t he c en tres o f o pera t ion f or t he f ar m ing o f t he d i f feren t p ar ts o f t he e sta te . Wha t o f t he a rch itecture o f t he b ig c oun try f arms ? H ow d oes i tc o mpare w ith t ha t o f t he l uxur ious mar it i me a nd s uburban v i l las , a bout wh ich we a re r easonab ly we l lin formed a s ar esu lt o f e x tensive e xcava t ion ( much o f i ti n t he 1 8 th a nd 1 9th c en tur ies) a nd f ro m r epresen ta t ions i n R o man mura l a r t? 8 G r i ma l h as s u mmar ized t he ma in a rch itectura l f ea tures o f t hese v i l las; p or t icos, t owers, p av i l ions, b a ths a nd r ecrea t iona l f ac i l i t ies .

t he

S ome , s uch

a s t he g y mnas ia a nd s tad ia , b e long c lear ly t o t he wor ld o f l uxury a nd e ntert a inmen t .9 O thers, h owever , a l though s een i n t he ir most e xaggera ted f orm i n t he p leasure v i l las o f t he C a mpan ian l i t tora l, a lso f i nd e xpress ion i n t he a rch itecture o ft he l arger R o man f arms . 3 4

F or e xamp le , t he ambu la t iones

F IG 1 0 V i l la Magna A n orth b u i ld ing

I I 0

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v i l la u rbana ?

C . I .

c i sterns

3 5

F IG 1 Cugno De i V agn i

n or th b u i ld ing

c i stern

b a ths

s ou th b u i ld ing

0

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( c o lonnaded p ro menades) s een i n n umerous l uxury v i l las a re a lso f ound o n a r educed s ca le i n s o me o ft he r ura l v i l las .

A s men t ioned a bove , C o lume l la

a dv ises t he i nc lus ion o f s uch i n t he v i l la u rbana o f h is mode l f arm ( D .R .R ., I .V I . 2 ) . The f l ank ing p or t icos o f t he S an R occo v i l la h ave a lready b een ment i oned i nt h is r espec t ; a t R uss i , t oo , t hree s i des o f t he c o mp lex w ere f l anked b y l ong c orr idors o r w a lkways , wh ich a ppear t o h ave b een c o lonnaded . T he r ura l v i l la a t S a lap ia ( Apu l ia ) ( Ca t . 2 9) , H e l len ist ic i n o r ig in , wh ich s ee ms t o h ave i nc luded a gr icu ltura l b u i ld ings s i ted i ndependen t ly f ro m t he v i l la u rbana , a l so h ad a l eng thy c o lonnaded wa lk e x tend ing a long t he e astern p er i me ter o f t he c omp lex . A no ther f ea ture o ft he l uxury v i l las w ere t he d iae tae , wh ich G r i ma l a ssoc ia tes w i th t he v ar ious t owerl ike p av i l ions wh ich , a s we k now f ro m e xcava t ion a nd f ro m wa l l-pa in t ings, g raced t he g ardens o ft he mos t l uxur ious v i l la s .1 0 T ha t t owers e x is ted i n f arm a rch i tecture t oo s ee ms f a ir ly c er ta in . Varro ( R .R . ,1 1 .3 .6 . )s peaks o fp igeons i n t urr ibus, a nd t he k ind o f r us t ic t owers d ep ic ted am idst t he a rch itec tura l f orms i n a mura l f ro m t he V i l la o f P ubl ius F ann ius S in is tor may r e f lec t a n a c tua l f ea ture o f c on te mporary f ar m d es ign ( P la te 1 b ) .

1

T he t owers h ave s l op ing t i led r oofs , w i th p igeon c o tes

l oca ted b enea th t he e aves , a bove wha t s ee m t o b e s torage l of ts. More c er ta in ly i den t i f ied a re t he i ndependen tb a th b locks wh ich h ave b een f ound i n t he v ic in ity o f s o me o ft he l arger f arms, s uch a s t hose a t R uss i a nd a t C ugno d e l Vagn i . T he s epara t ion o ft he b a th f rom t he ma in b ody o f t he v i l la was ap lann ing f ea ture wh ich b eca me i ncreas ing ly c o mmon w i th t he l uxury v i l las, a ccord ing t o G r ima l .1 2 T he i so la t ion o f t he b a ths r esu lted b o th f ro m t he ir g rea ter a rch i tectura l e labora t ion a nd i ncreased s oc ia l i mpor tance , a nd f ro m t he f act t ha t t he h ea t ing s yste ms p resen ted s o me th ing o f af i re h azard a nd w ere t here fore we l l l oca ted a way f ro m t he ma in b ody o ft he v i l la . T he l arge v i l la c o mp lexes d iscussed h ere i l lustra te h ow wea l thy l andowners i n t he I mper ia l p er iod s ough t t o b r ing a d egree o f l uxury a nd f ash ionab le e leg ance t o t he ir c oun try e s ta tes, at endency wh ich h ad b een c ondemned b y Varro ( R .R . ,1 .13 .6 ) i n t he e ar ly Augustan p er iod , b u t wh ich was r egarded b y C o lume l la a s a ccep tab le a nd n ecessary f or t he s ta tus- m inded l andowner . T he f arm e nv isaged b y C o lume l la i s more t han j ust a n a gr icu ltura l c en tre . I ti s a lso a c oun try r es idence o f s o me e legance , where a i r a rch i tec tura l s ty le wh ich h ad b eco me e stab l ished i n t he s uburban a nd mar it i me v i l las o f I t a ly was i n troduced i n to t he r ura l e s ta tes o f t he r ich .

NOTES 1 .

Varro , R .R ., I . X II I . 3 , s uggests t wo c our tyards f or a l arge f arm , o ne w ith a c en tra l d r ink ing p ond f or l i vestock , t he o ther w ith a c istern f or s oak ing l up ines ( u sed f or c a t t le f odder ) .

2 .

W ith t he e xcep t ion o ft he o i l s epara t ion t anks, o f wh ich a p lan h as b een p ub l ished i n t he i n ter im r epor ts ; P .B .S .R . XX ( 1 965 ) p p . 6 2-5 ; N . S c . 1 965 , p . 2 46 .

3 .

S ee b e low p . 3 7.

4 .

C .I .L . X . N o . 5 909 .

3 7

5 .

C o mpare , f or e xa mp le , s im i lar c oncrete f acing a t t he Imper ia l v i l la a t C as te l G ando l fo ( A lbanum ) ; M. E . B lake , R o man C ons truc t ion i n I t a ly , V o l . I ( 1 959 ) , p p . 1 34-5 , 1 61 ; V o l . I I ( 1 973 ) , p p . 2 57-8 .

6 .

M . L acava , T opograf ia e s tor ia d i Metapon to , Napo l i 1 891, p p . 1 7-20 ; Adamesteanu , Bas i l ica ta An t ica , R o me 1 975 , p . 2 24 ; L . Q u i l ic i , S ins - Herac lea :

7 .

F orma I t a l iae R eg . I I . V o l. I . , R o me 1 967 , p p . 1 36-8 .

c f . H orace , Ep ist les I . X IV . 2 , where h e p ra ises h is 'q u inque b on i p a tres '. The e xcava t ion o f al arge r ura l v i l la n ear L icenza , r epu ted ly b e long ing t o t he a u thor , r evea led n o t races o f a n a gr icu ltura l q uar ter o r o f f arm e qu ip men t ;

G . L ug l i , 'L av i l la S ab ina d i Oraz io ', M .A . XXX I ( 1926-7 ) ,

p p . 4 57-599 ; 8 .

i de m , L av i l la d ' Oraz io n e l la v a l le d e l L icenza , R o me 1 930 .

F or g ood s um mar ies o f t he l uxury v i l las s ee : P . Gr i ma l, L es J ard ins R o ma ins ( 2nd . e d . ) , Par is 1 969 ; J . D ' A rms, Ro mans o n t he Bay o f Nap les, C a mbr idge , Mass . 1 970 . On t he g raph ic e v idence : M . R ostov tzef f , ' D ie h e l len is t ich-rö m ische a rch i tek tur landscha f f ' , R öm . Mi t t . XXVI ( 1 911) , p . 1 f f .;

i de m , 'P o mpe ian ische l andscha f ten u nd r öm ische V i l len ', J ahr .

Deu t . Arch .I nst . X IX ( 1904) , p p . 1 0-126 . 9 .

Gr i ma l , o p .c i t . ,c hap ters 7 -8 .

1 0 .

Gr i ma l , o p .c i t ., p p . 2 59-262 ;

c f . P . L ehmann , Ro man wa l l p a in t ings

f ro m B oscorea le , Cambr idge , Mass . 1 953 , p p . 1 06-8 ; Ward-Perk ins, E. R . A .,p . 5 83 , i n terpre ts t he word a s s imp ly mean ing a l i v ing-roo m ; c f . A .W . Van Buren , 'Lauren t inu m P lin i i M inor is ', R .P.A .A . XX ( 1943-4) , p p . 1 65-192 , o n P l iny 's mean ing o f ' turres '. 1 1.

L eh mann , o p .c i t . ,P la tes X IV - XV , p . 9 9 f .

1 2 . Gr i ma l , l oc .c i t ., p . 2 58 - ' pu ts, p eu ä p eu , l es b at hs f in issen t p ar s e d e tacher d e l a ma ison e t p ar f ormer d es e nsemb les c o mp le ts e tb ien d ef in is ' .

3 8

A .

Wa l l p ain t ing f ro m t he H ouse o f t he Smal l F oun tain a t P o mpei i .

Later

i st c en tury B .C. o r f irs t h al f o f t he i s t c en tury A . D.

B . Wall p a in t ing f ro m t he V i l la o f Pub lius F ann ius S in is tor a t B oscorea le . S econd h a lf o f t he i s t c en tury B .C.

CHAPTER I V SLAVERY AND FARMS

The emp loymen t o f s laves a s as ource o f l a bour o n f arms i s af unda ment a l p r inc ip le i nt he w orks o f t he Ro man a gronom ists.

The s yste m o f i n tens ive

p lan tat ion a gr icu lture o u t l ined b y Cato d epended o n as lave w ork force a nd a s lave o verseer , a nd t he s lave-run f ar m r e ma ined t he b as is f or t he w orks o f Cato 's s uccessors. Co lume l la , w r it ing i n t he i st c en tury A .D., p resen ts h is r eaders w ith a c o mprehens ive a na lys is o f t h is t ype o f s lave-operated e state .1 The s ources i mp ly t wo c ategor ies o f r ura l s laves, s erv i s o lu t i a nd s erv i v inct i. 2

Whether t he l at ter 's c ond it ion w as p ermanen t o r n o t i s u ncerta in .

Cato men t ions c ha ined s laves o n ly o nce, i n t he c on tex t o f r at ions ( D .A. 5 6 ). Co lumel la i nd ica tes t hat s hack ling was a p un i t ive measure ( D. R .R . 1 .8 .17) , b ut t h is d oes n ot mean t hat i tw as n ot a p er manen t c ond it ion f or s ome. The c onstruct ion o f a n u nderground d ungeon ( ergastu lum ), wh ich Co lu mel la r ecommends ( D.R.R. 1 .6.3 ), w ou ld r equ ire c ons iderab le e xpense, wh ich c ou ld h ard ly b e j ust if ied f or o ccas iona l c on f ine men t. 3 However, i t may b e s upposed t hat t he s tructura l r equ ire men ts o f af ar m h ous ing l arge n umbers o f s laves , o f wh ichever k ind , w il l h ave b een d i fferen t f rom t hose o f t he f am ily f ar m o pera ted b y ar es iden t owner w ith a f ew f am ily s laves a nd h ired l abour. 4 The n eed t o a ccom modate t he s l ave f orce w ou ld d oub t less h ave a n impor tan t e f fec t o n t he d es ign o f t he f ar m b u i ld ings.

Cato a nd V arro b o th men t ion t he s laves '

c el lae ( D.A. 1 4; R .R. 1 .13 ) , r eferr ing t o t he smal l r ooms i n wh ich s erv i s o lu t i w ere h oused. The l iv ing c ond it ion s o f t he s laves w ere d oub t less r ud imen tary , c ons ider ing t he a t t itudes o f s ome o f t he s ources : ' The s laves d if fer o n ly f ro m t he work ing a n i ma ls i n t he f act t hat t he f or mer a re g if ted w ith s peech , w h i le t he l a t ter a re i nart icu late. ' 5 A l though a f ew f ar m b u i ld ings d o p rov ide s ome e v idence f or t he w ays i n wh ich a s lave f orce migh t b e a cco mmodated , s tudy o f : hese r e ma ins h as b een q u ite i nadequa te , a nd Robert E t ienne i s r igh t i n s tress ing t he n eed f or ' une a na lyse a rchjo log ique d es v i l las d ' Ita l ie e t d u monde Roma in p our m ieux c erner l e p rob leme d e l ' extens ion d u mode d e p roduct ion e sc iavag iste ' .6 S lave a ccom modat ion i s p erhaps b est s een i n t he s o-ca l led ' V il la o f L . C laud ius Eu tychus ' e xcava ted a t Boscorea le i n 1 903-5 ( Ca t . 6 . F ig . 1 2a ). T he e xcavated p ort ion o f t h is b u ild ing a ppears a s t wo d ist inct p arts : f i rst ly t here w as a r es iden t ia l q uarter , al av ish ly d ecora ted v i l la u rbana , wh ich , i th as b een s uggested , a t o ne t ime b elonged t o Agr ippa P ostumus. Immed iately a d jacen t t o t h is , o n as l igh t ly l ower l eve l , w as a c ompound wh ich c on ta ined t he s laves ' q uarters. There w as n o e v idence h ere o f a ny a gr icu ltura l f ac il it ies, a nd i ti s p oss ib le t hat t he c ompound h oused a f orce o f d omest ic r ather t han a gr icu l tura l s laves.

W ith o n ly a p art ia l e xcavat ion o f t he b u ild ing i ti s i mpos-

s ib le t o d ist ingu ish .

The ma in e n trance t o t he c ompound w as f l anked t o t he 4 0

F IG 1 2 A V illa o f T iber ius C laud ius E u tychus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 0 1

Gragnano

r 1 5

L 1

1 4

1 0

00 0 1 2

0 0

C 9 8

1 1 1 1

0

7

0

6

0 0

1 6

0

1 7

0

0

C

0

C



0



1 3

a

• • 0

0

0

0

f 3

f i rm

4 1

b

1 2

F ig . 1 2a . V i l la o f T iber ius C laud ius Eu tychus ( a f ter Del la C or te ). S cale 1 :5 00 . 1 -9.

S taves ' c el lae

1 0 .

S table

1 1-12.

? Overseer 's r oo ms

1 3 .

? Mas ter 's o f f ice

1 4.

Ovens

1 5 .

S tairs

1 6.

L a tr ine

F ig . 1 2b . G ragnano ( a f ter De l la C or te ). 1 .

Dr ink ing t rough

2 .

C a t t le-shed/S table

3 .

S tairs

4 .

B akery

5 -9 .

S laves ' c el lae

1 0 .

P ress-roo m

1 1.

S tore-shed

1 2.

Do lia s tore

1 3 .

S tairs

1 4-17.

Uncer tain u se

1 8 .

Oven

S cale 1 :500.

F ig . 1 3a . B oscoreale G iu liana ( a f ter De l la C or te ). 1 -4.

?S laves ' c el lae

5 .

L a tr ine

6 .

?K i tchen

7 .

Mi l l ing r oo m

8 711.

Uncer tain u se

1 2.

S tore-roo m

1 3 .

B arn

F ig . 1 3b . V icovaro ( a fter G at t i ). 1 .

S tore-roo m

2 .

G ranary

S cale 1 :500 .

3 /4.

P ress-roo ms .

5 .

S et t l ing t ank

6 -8 .

?S lave a cco m moda t ion

9 -12.

Uncer tain u se

S cale 1 :500.

e ast b y a sma l l r oo m ( F ig . 1 2a , 1 1 ) f ro m wh ich move men ts t hrough t he g a teway c ou ld e as ily b e o bserved .

Th is may w e l l h ave b een o ccup ied b y t he o verseer,

t hus a ccord ing w ith Varro 's a dv ice :

' v il ic i p rox i me i anua m c e l la m e sse o por-

t et , e umque s c ire, q u i i n troet a u t e xeat n octu q u idve f era t ' ( R.R. 1 .13 ).

The

d iscovery h ere o f as et o fi ron s tocks may imp ly t hat t he r oom w as u sed t o c on f ine s laves, t hough i tw as n o t a n e rgastu lum i n t he Co lume l lan s ense o f t he word. The r oo m o n t he o ther s ide o f t he g a teway ( F ig . 1 2a , 1 3 ) i s more p robl e mat ic ; u n l ike a ny o ther r oo m a round t he c o mpound , i t s w a l ls w ere d ecorat ed w ith f igured p a in t ings , wh ich w ou ld s eem t o r elate i t more t o t he r es ident ia l p art o f t he v i l la t han t o t he s laves ' q uarters. The r oo m g ave a ccess t o a l at r ine a nd t o t he c ha mbers b enea th t he t errace o f t he r es iden t ia l r ooms. was most p robably a n o f f ice u sed b y t he master o f t he h ouse .7

I t

The most i n terest ing f eature o f t he c o mpound i s t he r ow o f n ine sma l l ( 2.8 x 1 .9 m) a nd u n ifor m r oo ms w h ich o ccupy t he e ast s ide.

These , i tw ou ld

s ee m , w ere t he s laves ' c el lae. Each i s i den t ica l i n p lan a nd s i mpl ic i ty. The f loors w ere o f t rodden e arth , t he w a l ls f aced w ith p la in monochrome p laster. Each r oo m h ad a s ing le w indow , a nd a sma l l n iche i n t he w a l l f or a l a mp. There w as a lso a sma l l h earth n ear t he e n trance t o e ach r oom.

Above t h is

r ow o f c e l lae w as a s econd s torey r eached b y as ta irway , t he b ase o f wh ich was f ound d ur ing e xcavat ion ( F ig . 1 2a , 1 5 ). 8 Ap ara l le l s ort o f a rrange men t c an b e s een i n a nother o f t he Ca mpan ian f ar ms , f ound a t G ragnano ( Ca t. 1 2. F ig. 1 2b ) .

R os tov tzef f c a l led t h is f arm

' an a gr icu l tura l f actory r un b y s laves '. 9 To t he w est o f t he ma in c ourtyard ( Fig . 1 2b , a ) w as a r ow o f sma l l u n i for m r oo ms ( Fig . 1 2b , 5 -9 ) wh ich c ou ld w el l h ave b een s lave a ccom modat ion . They c orrespondin s ize f a irly c losely w ith t hose o f t he Bosco trecase f ar m ( t he c el lae a l l measure a pprox i ma tely 3 x 2m ). An u pper s torey i s a ga in e v iden t. S o me o f t he r ooms s urround ing t he sma l l c our t ( F ig . 1 2b , b ) may a lso h ave h oused p ar t o f t he s lave f orce . The d iscovery o f as e t o f s t ocks i n t he s econd sma l l c our t ( F ig . 1 2b , c ) s ugg es ts t ha t f ac il it ies e x isted f or s hack l ing s laves , t hough a ga in n o t a n e rgastul um i n t he Co lumel lan s ense , s ince t here w as n o r oom f l ank ing t he c ourt w h ich r e mote ly c orresponds t o C o lu mel la 's s lave d ungeon . A t t he s ou th s ide o f c ourtyard C a s ta irway l ed t o a n u pper s torey , p oss ib ly u sed f or t he s torage o f g ra in f or u se i n t he b akery b elow ( F ig. 1 2b , 4 ). 1 0 Here n o d oubt p art o f t he s lave f orce w as emp loyed. 1 1 O thers w ere e ngaged i n t he v ar ious o ther a gr icu l tura l a ct iv it ies o f t he f ar m , w h ich i nc luded v it icu lture a nd d a iry. C rova h as s uggested t hat t he G ragnano f ar m r epresen ts o n ly a p art o f al arger c o mp lex , wh ich w ou ld h ave i ncluded t he owner 's r es idence ( t he v i l la u rbana ). 1 2 However i n d e fau lt o f e v idence t o s uppor t t h is i t may a lso b e h ypot hes ised t hat t he e xcava ted b u ild ing a t G ragnano , i n e very r espect a u t i l itar ian b u i ld ing , w as t he work ing c en tre o f af a irly l arge e state ( ' no t more t han 2 50 i ugera i n e x ten t ' ); 1 3

t ha t o perat ion o f t he e state was e n trusted t o ar es iden t

v i l icus ( overseer ) w ith a l abour f orce o f s laves who w ere h oused w ith in t he f ar m i n an u mber o f p urpose ly c onstructed c el lae; t ha t t he e state w as r un a s ac ap ita l ist e n terpr ise a nd owned b y a n a bsen tee l and lord , who made p er iod ic t ours o f i nspect ion ( Cato D .A. 1.1 ). 1 4 Two sma l ler f ar m b u i ld ings d eserve men t ion h ere i n a s much a s t he ir e xcava ted r e ma ins s uggest t hat t hey t oo w ere o perated i n t he ir owner 's 4 3

F IG 1 3

A B oscorea le

G iu l iana

1 0

1 2

9

1

7

1 3 0

V icovaro

0

0

0

0

0

C I

0

0

0

0 1 . .

7 0

C 1

0

0

C 1

0

E I

0

0

0

0

2 W 5

1 2

4 4

a bsence b y a sma l l w ork force o f s laves.

One i s ab u i ld ing e xcava ted a t P rato

L a Corte , n ear V icovaro i n L azio , a nd p ubl ished b y L ug l i i n 1 926 ( Cat . 3 9. F ig . 1 3b ) .1 5 T he l arges t f ea ture o f t he b u i ld ing i s as pac ious g ranary ( F ig . 1 3b , 2 ) -d iscussed b e low i n C hap ter V I -r eca l l ing C a to 's emphas is o n t he n eed f or g ood s torage f ac i l it ies, s o t hat p roduce may b e k ep t t o awa it a g ood market p r ice ( D.A. 1 1.2 ). T o t he s ou th o f t h is a re r anged a s er ies o f sma l ler r ooms , s ome o f w h ich s how c lear e v idence f or t he ir 'use :

p ress-roo ms ( 3 a nd 4 ) a nd

a n o i l s et t l ing v a t ( 5 ). 1 6 The s ou th w ing o f t he b u ild ing c on ta ined t hree r ooms ( F ig . 1 3b , 6 , 7a nd 8 ) wh ich , a ccord ing t o t he e xcava tor , f or med t he l i v ing q uarters o f t he f ar m. 1 7 I ndeed t hey c ou ld h ave p rov ided a s i mp le f or m o f a ccom modat ion f or t he p ersonnel o f t he f ar m. The measure men ts o f t he t wo sma l ler r ooms ( 6 a nd 7 ) , 3 .3 x 2 .6 m, c ompare w e l l w ith t hose o f t he s lave c e l lae o f t he f ar ms a t B osco trecase a nd G ragnano d iscussed a bove.

Deta ils

o f c onstruct ion a re n o tp rov ided i n L ug l i 's a ccoun t , t hough i ts ee ms t hat t he r ooms l acked p aved f l oors a nd t hat t he w a l ls w ere u np lastered. S im i lar c ond it ion s a ppear t o h ave e x isted a t af ar m e xcava ted a t Boscor ea le i n 1 904 ( Cat . 2 . F ig . 1 3a ). The p lan i s o f t he i s t c en tury A .D . b u i ld ing , a nd s hows h ow a n e arl ier b u ild ing was e n larged t o p rov ide c ons iderably more s torage s pace.

The t hree l argest r oo ms ( F ig . 1 3a , 1 0 , 1 2 a nd 1 3 ) were u sed

t o s tore p roduce a nd e qu ip ment :

1 0 may h ave b een a w ine s tore , wh ile i n 1 3

as tock o f c hestnu t s takes was f ound , wh ich w ere b e ing s tored f or u se a s v inep rops ‚ 18 The l ine o f smal l r oo ms, measur ing 3 .0 x 3 .5 m , a long t he n orthe as t s ide o f t he b u ild ing p rov ided l iv ing q uarters f or t he f ar m 's p ersonnel . These r oo ms w ere a pparen t ly c rudely f in ished ( ' rust ica e d isadorna ' ) a nd t he ir u n ifor m s i mp l ic i ty s uggests t hat t hey c ou ld h ave b een c el lae f or a r es id en t s lave f orce. N e ither o f t hese sma l ler f ar ms i s f urn ished w ith t he k ind o f ' s lave d orm itor ies ' w h ich a re t ob e s een i n t he Boscotrecase a nd Gragnano f ar ms. However, t he s er ies o f sma l l , u n ifor m a nd u ndecorated r ooms wh ich t hey b o th c on ta in , t hough n o t g rea t i n n umber, may h ave b een s laves ' c e l lae.

A t e ach

f arm t he owner o f t he l and a ppears t o h ave i nvested h is c ap ita l ma in ly i n t he a gr icu l tural e qu ip men t o f t he f ar m , p rov id ing o n ly r ud i men tary a cco m moda t ion f or t he f ar m 's p ersonne l ; t h is wou ld s uggest t hat t he f ar ms w ere d es igned t o b e o perated i n t he ir owner 's a bsence b y a sma l l s lave f orce u nder s uperv is ion . R e ference may a lso b e made h ere t o t he r ecen t e xcava t ions o f t he r ura l ' V i l la o f t he Vo lus i i S a turn in i ' a t L ucus F eron iae , n or th-eas t o f R o me .1 9 A l though t he f u l l e x ten t o f t h is b u i ld ing h as n o t y e t b een e s tab l ished , e xcavat ion h as u ncovered t he r e mains o f al arge r es iden t ia l b u i ld ing wh ich i s a n Augus tan r econs truc t ion a nd e n large men t o f a n e ar l ier R epub l ican v i l la . T he r ebu i ld ing i nc luded t he a dd i t ion o f as izeable c o lonnaded c our tyard , f l anked o n a t l eas t t wo s i des b y r anges o f sma l l u n i form c ha mbers . T hese r oo ms , i th as b een s ugges ted , w ere d es igned t o h ouse t he v i l la 's r es iden t w ork force o f s laves . 2 ° More r oo ms o f as im i lar s ize f l ank a s econd p i l lared c our tyard , a d jacen t t o a nd c onnect ing w i th t he l arge y ard , a nd t hese t oo may h ave p rov ided f ur ther a cco m moda t ion f or t he v i l la 's p ersonne l Th is s econd c our tyard was p aved , p robab ly t o f ac i l i ta te t he move men t o f c ar ts a nd a n i ma ls . F or d eta i ls o fa ny f ar m ing e qu ipmen t a nd f aci l i t ies f ound a t t he s i te , h owever , a nd a n i n terpreta t ion o f t he a gr icu l tura l e cono my o f t he v i l la , we mus t a wai t af u l l r epor t o f t he e xcava t ions .

4 5

The p reva lence o f t he s lave-run f ar m i n I t a ly c annot b e d eter m ined f ro m t he sma l l amoun t o f a rchaeo log ica l e v idence d iscussed a bove. Rostov t zef f u sed t he G ragnano a nd Boscorea le f ar ms a s s u ff ic ien t e v idence t o c rea te h is c ategory o f ' f actory f ar ms ' , ac lassi f icat ion a dop ted b y Carr ing ton a nd o thers. Certa in ly t here i s e nough l i terary e v idence t o s uggest t hat s lave-run f arms w ith a bsen tee l and lords w ere a p art o f t he I t a l ian l andscape , b u t u n ti l e xcav at ion h as p rov ided more e v idence f or s lave a ccommoda t ion o nf ar ms o ur i n for mat ion c oncern ing t he w ays i n w h ich t h is t ype o ff ar m w as a rranged a nd c onstructed w il l r e ma in v ery l im ited. t he b est c lue.

The Gragnano f ar m p rov ides p erhaps

For h ere t here i s e v idence b o th o f t he s lave c e l lae a nd o ft he

a gr icu ltura l f ac il it ies i n w h ich t he s lave f orce w as emp loyed. f ar m i s u n ique ;

However t h is

o thers l ike i t may h ave e x isted i nC ampan ia a nd e lsewhere,

b u t u n t il t h is c an b e s hown b y e xcavat ion t he ma jor s ource o f e v idence f or t he emp loyment o f s laves o n f ar ms must r e ma in i n t he l i terary t ex ts.

4 6

NOTES

1 .

On c ap ita l ist s yste ms o f f ar m ing i n Ro man I ta ly s ee :

Wh i te , R .F. p .

3 89 f., p p. 4 01-5 ;

i de m , A B ib l iography o f Ro man Far m ing , Read ing

1 970 , p p. x i i-x iv ;

i de m , ' Ro man a gr icu l tura l w r iters

Au fst ieg u nd

N iedergang d er Rö m ischen Wel t 1 : 4, Berl in 1 973, p p. 4 39-497; i de m , F .E.R. W ., p . 2 13ff .; 1 965 , p . 2 91f f .;

A . Toynbee , Hann iba l 's L egacy ( 2 v o ls ) , Ox ford

M . W. Freder iksen , ' The c on tr ibu t ion o f a rchaeo logy

t o t he a grar ian p roble m o f t he G racchan p er iod ' , D ia logh i d i Archeo log ia ( 1970-1), Ro me 1 972, p . 3 34ff . 2 .

On c ha ined s laves s ee :

R . Duncan-Jones, The e cono my o f t he Ro man

E mp ire , Ca mbr idge 1 974, p p. 3 23-4; Mart in , ' Fa m i l ia r ust ica :

Wh ite , R .F., p p. 3 61-2;

R .

l es e sclaves c hez l es a grono mes l at ins ' ,

Actes d u c o l loque 1 972 s ur l ' esc lavage ( Un ivers ite d e Besangon ) , P ar is 1 974, p p. 2 67-297. 3 .

Co lumel la i s t he o n ly a gr icu ltura l a u thor t o r efer s pec if ica l ly t o a n e rgastu lum , wh ich h e d escr ibes a s f o l lows ( D. R .R. 1 .6.3 ) : ' qua m s a luberr i mum s ub terraneum e rgastu lu m , s i tque i d a ngust is i n l ustratu m f enes tr is a tque a t erra s ic e d it is n e manu c on t ing i p oss in t— a n u nderground d ungeon , a s who leso me a s p oss ible , l i tb y n arrow w indows f ar e nough o f f t he g round t ha t t hey c annot b e r eached b y h and '. N oth ing c orrespond ing t o t h is h as b een f ound b y e xcavat ion .

E lsewhere

( D.R.R. 1 .3.12 ) h e u ses t he word t o r efer t o t he a ctua l s lave g angs ;

c f .

Apu le ius , Apo log ia , 4 7 ( 'Qu indec im l i ber i h om ines p opu lus e st , t ot ide m s erv i f am i l ia , t ot idem v inct i e rgastu lum—f if teen f ree men make a c rowd , f i f teen s laves make a d isc ip l ined c rowd , f i f teen c ha ined s laves a w ork f orce' ) . For a d iscuss ion o f t he d if feren t u ses o f t he word s ee R . E t ienne , ' Recherche s ur P ergastu le ' , Actes d u c o l loque 1 972 s ur l ' esc lavage , P ar is 1 974, p p . 2 49-266. 4 .

J . E . S kydsgaard , D en Ro merske V il la Rust ica , Copenhagen 1 961, p . 9 5f ., s ees t h is a s t he ma in d ist inct ion b etween Ro man f ar m t ypes;

o n t he o ne

h and t he f am ily-run f ar m , o n t he o ther t he s lave-run f ar m w ith a n a bsen tee l and lord. 5 .

Wh ite , 2 p.c it . ( 1973 ) , p . 4 53;

Varro , R .R., 1 .17.

6 .

E t ienne, 22 .c it ., p . 2 66.

7 .

A s im ilar w el l-decorated r oo m w h ich ' i n trudes i n to t he s erv ice q uarter ' w as f ound i n t he Casa d e i D ioscur i i n P o mpe i i;

L . R ichardson J r., The

Casa d e i D ioscur i a nd i t s p a in ters , M.A.A.R. XX I I I 1 955.

R ichardson

s uggests t hat t he r oo m h ere w as u sed b y t he mistress o f t he h ouse a s a p lace w here s he ' cou ld w ork a nd s uperv ise h er s laves a t t he s a me t ime '. 4 7

8 .

The ma in o bstac le t o t he i n terpretat ion o f t hese r ooms a s c e l lae f or s laves i s t he n ature o f t he e xcavated c on ten ts o f s ome o f t he r oo ms. These i nc luded p ieces o f g o ld a nd s i lver , a nd e ven s o me g e ms a nd c a meos ( De l la Corte , N .Sc. 1 922, p . 4 63 ). h ave b een t he p roperty o f r ura l s laves.

S uch o b jects c ou ld h ard ly

They may p erhaps h ave f ound

t he ir w ay i n to t he s erv ice q uarters i n r edepos ited e arth. 9 . 1 0.

Rostov tzef f S EHRE, p . 5 03 n . 2 1;

Carr ing ton , 1 931, p . 16.

On u psta irs s torage : Varro , R .R., I .LVI I.I ( ' granar ia s ubl im ia ' ) ; P l iny Ep . I . 1 7.13. ( ' horreu m , s ub h oc t r ic l in ium ' ), d iscussed b y S herw in- Wh ite , The l et ters o f P l iny , Ox ford 1 966 , p . 1 94f f.

1 1.

c f . Pa l lad ius , Op.Ag. I .42.

1 2.

C rova , Ed il iz ia , p . 7 0.

1 3.

K . D . Wh ite , ' Lat ifund ia :

ac r it ica l r ev iew o f e v idence o n l arge e states

i n I t a ly a nd S ic ily u p t o t he e nd o f t he I st c en tury A .D.'

Bu l l. I nst . C lass.

S tud. X IV ( 1967 ) , p . 7 3. 1 4.

De l la Corte g ives n o i nd icat ion o f t he f unc t ion o f r oo ms 1 4-17.

R oo m 2

w as a s tab le , f or w h ich s ee b elow , c hap ter V I. 1 5.

The b u i ld ing p oss ibly r epresen ts a p ar t ia l e xcava t ion o f al arger c o mp lex , w i th a c our tyard t o t he s ou th-wes t , o n to wh ich r oo ms 6 -12 o pened . I ti s t here fore p oss ible t ha t t he r es iden t ia l p ar t o f t he f ar m b u i ld ing r e ma ins u nexcava ted .

As i t s tands , h owever , t he b u i ld ing c an b e i n-

t erpre ted a s p rov id ing a cco m moda t ion f or a sma l l work f orce o f s laves . 1 6.

On t he p ress-roo ms s ee c hap ter V .

1 7.

C . F . G iu l ian i , T ibur —part I :

For ma I t a l iae Reg. I . 3 ., Rome 1 966,

p . 7 5 , f o l low ing Gat t i. N o p ubl ished r ecord e x ists o f t he e xcavated c on ten ts o f t hese r oo ms. 1 8.

Del la Corte ,

!.c it .,

p . 4 24;

P l iny r ecom mends t he u se o f c hestnut

w ood f or v ine-props ( N .H. 1 7.147 ), a s d oes Co lumel la ( D.R.R . 4 .30. 2 ).

For d iscuss ion s ee W. F . J ashe msk i , ' Un ivers ity o f Mary land

e xcava t ions a t Po mpe i i ' , A. J .A . 7 4 ( 1970 ), p . 6 5 ;

M. Bonn ing ton ,

' Trees , s hrubs a nd p lan ts a s s ources o f r aw ma ter ia ls ' i n Wh ite , F .E.R. W ., p . 2 35ff . 1 9 .

Ap lan o f t he v i l la ( un for tuna te ly w i thou t as ca le ) a ppears i n R . B . B and ine l l i a nd M . T ore l l i , L 'Ar te d e l l 'An t ich i tä C lass ica 2 : E trur ia R o ma , Tur in 1 976 , n o . 6 5 ; I t a l iano ;

2 0 .

s ee a lso , T our ing C lub

R oma ( 7 th e d .) , R o me 1 977 , p p . 6 58-9 .

T hus B andinel l i , 9 2 .c i t .

4 8

CHAPTER V PRESS-ROOMS

Renewed i n terest h as r ecen t ly b een s hown i n t he p rocesses a nd a pparatus u sed b y t he Romans i n t he p roduct ion o f o l ive o i l a nd w ine.

However , s ince

D rach mann 's ma jor s tudy o f t he s ub ject , more r ecen t d iscuss ions h ave t ended t o c oncen trate e ither o nt he l i terary e v idence, o r o n a rchaeo log ica l ma ter ia l f rom o uts ide I t a ly. 1 T he w el l-known p assage i n Cato ( D.A. 1 8-19 ), i n w h ich h e g ives s pec if ica t ions f or t he c ons truct ion o f al arge p ress-room , h as r ece ived r en ewed c r it ic is m , b u t i nt h is l i t t le ment ion h as b een made o f t he more r ecen t a rchaeo log ica l mater ia l f ro m I ta ly. 2

Y et t hroughou t t he I t al ian c ountrys ide ,

a s t h e n u mber o f Roman f ar m s i tes t hat a re i den t i f ied a nd e xcavated c on t inues t o g row , t he r e ma ins o f n umerous p ress ing i nsta l la t ions h ave c o me t o l i ght . The i mportance o f o i l a nd w ine p roduct ion i n Ro man f ar m ing mean t t ha t many f arms c on ta ined f ac il it ies f or t he p rocess ing o f t hese p roducts. S pecia l p ressr ooms ( t orcu lar ia ) w ere b u ilt t o h ouse t he a pparatus r equ ired f or t he v ar ious p rocesses o f e x tract ion a nd r ef in ing.

However n o c ompara t ive s tudy h as h ither-

t o b een a tte mpted o f t he r ecorded r e ma ins o f t he many p ress-rooms t hat h ave b een f ound a t I t a l ian s i tes. The s cope o f s uch a s tudy i s l im ited b y t he r ange o f t he s urv iv ing mater ia l ;

g enera l ly t h is i s r estr icted t o t hose p arts o f t he

p ress ing e qu ipmen t wh ich w ere c onstructed i n d urable mater ia ls a nd a ssoc iated w ith t he f loor l evel o f t he p ress-room.

However i n t he s urv iv ing p ieces o f

e qu ipmen t ac ons iderab le v ar iety i n d es ign c an b e d etected . Wh ite, f o l low ing D rach mann a nd b as ing h is a na lys is o n t he l i terary e v id ence , d iv ides Roman p resses i n to f ive mechan ical t ypes : t he l ever-andd rum p ress, t wo t ypes o f l ever- a nd-screw p ress, t he f i rest s crew p ress , a nd t he ' congeries' p ress. The a rchaeo log ica l e v idence c an b e l ess f inely c lass if i ed , ow ing ma in ly t o t he l ack o f s urv iva l o f t he wooden p arts o f t he p resses . 3 N everthe less f rom t he e xcava ted p ress-rooms i n I t a ly t wo d ist inc t ive t ypes o f l ever p ress c an b e r ecogn ized .4 a nd ( i i ) c i rcu lar-bed p resses.

These may b e t er med ( i ) p lat for m p resses,

P lat for m p resses a re k nown f rom s evera l Campan ian s i tes , most n otab ly f ro m t he p ress-rooms o f t he V i l la P isanel la a t Boscorea le a nd t he V i l la o f The Myster ies a t Po mpe i i. 5 The d es ign i s s im ilar i n e ach c ase; t he p ress w as moun ted o ver a n e leva ted p la tfor m , wh ich w as f l anked b y ar a ised c urb t o f or m as hal low b as in , w ith i t s f loor i ncl ined t o a l low t he e xtracted l i qu id t o d ra in a way i n to n earby r edeptacles. The mechan ics o f t hese p resses i s i nd ica ted b y t he s quare s lots w h ich h e ld t he v ert ica l wooden b ea ms o f t he p ress; o ne i n t he p lat for m a t t he r ear o ft he p ress t o h o ld t he ma in s tandard , a nd t wo i n t he p ress-roo m f loor i n f ron t o f t he p la tfor m t o h o ld t he u pr igh t t imbers o f t he w inch ing d ru m. o r c ross-p ieces.

The b eams w ere s ecurely a nchored b y u nderground b o l ts

S urv iv ing e xamp les o f t h is t ype o f p ress h ave g eneral ly

4 9

b een w el l r ecorded , a nd i ti s t herefore o n t he n ex t t ype o f p ress t hat t h is c hap ter w il l c oncen tra te. The s econd t ype o fp ress i s k nown f ro m many e xcavated r ema ins i n I t a ly , b u th as b een p oor ly d ocumen ted. The p ress i s c haracter ized b y ac irc u lar p ress-bed , w h ich i s u sua l ly f ound i n c on junct ion w ith a s tone a nchor b lock w h ich s erved a s af oo t ing f or t he v ert ica l b ea ms a t t he r ear o f t he p ress. Drachmann s upposes t hat p ress r e ma ins o f t h is t ype , c ons ist ing o n ly o f ar ear a nchor-stone a nd a p ress-bed , w ith n o e v idence f or w e igh tstones o r d rum s upp orts, must i nd icate a t ype o f l ever-and-screw p ress , b u t s uch r e ma in s c ou ld a lso i nd icate t he e x istence o f a more s i mp le manua l ly c on tro lled l ever p ress. A lthough r e ma ins o f t h is k ind h ave b een f ound a t n umerous I ta l ian s i tes , s tandards o f r ecord ing t hese h ave v ar ied g rea t ly . I n s o me c ases i mp ortan t d eta ils h ave b een om i t ted , w h i le i n o thers t here h ave b een b as ic m isi n terpretat ion s o f t he e v idence a nd c on fus ion o f t erm ino logy. 6 A t most s i tes w here p ress-rooms h ave b een f ound t he p ave men t s urroundi ng t he p ress b ase h as b een a t l east p art ia l ly p reserved. The p lat form p resses u sua l ly o ccup ied much o ft he r oo m i n w h ich t hey w ere h oused.

The p lat for ms

t he mselves, o ver w h ich t he e x tracted l i qu id f lowed , w ere c usto mar ily made o f o pus s ign inum , w h ile a t g round l evel t he f l oor o n w h ich t he o perat ing p ersonnel w a lked w as more c om mon ly s i mp ly o ne o f t rodden e arth.

W ith t he c ircu lar-

b ed p resses , h owever , t he p ave men t a round t he b ase o f t he p ress, b e ing a t g round l evel , w as s i mp ly t he f loor c on ta ined b y t he w a l ls o f t he p ress-roo m. The most c om mon ma ter ia l f or t he f l oor s urface w as a ga in o pus s ign inu m. 7 Founda t ion ma ter ia ls h ave r arely b een n o ted , e xcep t a t T it ignano where a r ubb le a nd mortar b ase b eneath a n o pus s ign inum s urface w as r ecorded. 8 Th is w ou ld s ee m t o c orrespond c losely t o t he k ind o f p ave men t r ecommended f or t he p ress-roo m b y Cato ( D.A. 1 8 .7 ). A t o ther s ites b r ick p avemen ts h ave b een f ound , w ith t he b r icks u sua l ly l a id i n t he p at tern o f o pus s p icatu m. 9 One p ress-room , a t Granaracc io n ear T ivo l i, h ad a p ave men t made o f t u fa p av ing s tones , w h ile a t t wo s i tes p ave men ts o f monochrome mosa ic w ere f ound. T he l a t ter c ou ld , h owever, b e d ue t o t he c onvers ion o f d omest ic r ooms t o a gr icu l tura l u se. 1 ° S et i n to t he p ave men t a t t he r ear o f most e xcavated c ircu lar-bed p resses w as a r ectangu lar s tone b lock w h ich a c ted a s t he f oot ing f or t he u pr igh t t imbers. S uch b locks h ave b een f ound a t many s i tes a nd c an b e e as i ly r ecogn ized b y t he t wo s quared r ecesses c u t i nto t he ir u pper s urface , i n to w h ich t he u pr igh ts c ou ld b e s lot ted. S urv iv ing e xamp les, made f rom t u fa o r t ravert ine, r ange i n l eng th f rom 1 .23-1.86 m , a nd i n w id th f rom 0 .37-0.74 m;

t he t h ickness o f

t he b locks h as n ot o f ten b een r ecorded ( t hey h ave g enera l ly b een l e f t i n s itu ) , b u t , w here n oted , r anges f ro m 0 .15-0.53 i n. The b locks may b e r ela ted t o Cato 's f orum ( D.A. 1 8.3 ), w h ich h e d escr ibes a s t he f oot ing f or t he r ear u pr igh ts o f t he p ress a nd f or wh ich h e g ives measure men ts o f 5x 2 .5 x 1. 5 p edes ( 1 .48 x 0 .74 x 0 .44 m ). Cato a lso men t ion s t he u se o f p oured l ead a s as ea l a t t he b ase o f t he t imbers.

A t Granaracc io a nd Gu idon ia , n ear R ome, t races

o f l ead w ere f ound a round t he i n s ide e dges o f t he r ecesses o f t he a nchors tones .1 1 The c ircu lar p ress-bed c ou ld b e c onstructed i n an umber o fd ifferen t w ays. I n s o me c ases i tw as a f l at c y l indr ica l s lab o f s tone f orm ing a sma l l 5 0

F IG 1 4

Gu id°n ia

rm T ell'e e r Jer e r e: l er

Granaracc io

• P aret i

Grotta d e l Ma lcons ig l io

5 1

D

C

e levated p lat for m ; b ases o f t h is t ype h ave b een f ound a tT it ignano a nd Gu ido n ia. E lsewhere s quared s tones h ave b een f ound w ith c ircu lar d ra inage g rooves c u t i n to t he ir u pper s urface. 1 2

A t G ranaracc io a c ircu lar c hanne l ,

0 .08 m w ide , w as c u t i n to t he f l a t s urface f or med b y t wo c on t iguous b locks o f t u fa. Where t he p ress-room p ave men t w as made o f b r ick , t he p ress-bed w as g enera l ly c onstructed i n t he s a me mater ia l , t he b r ick s l a id t o f or m a c ircu lar f oo t ing , a s a t Pare t i , Mon te Can ino a nd G ro t ta d el Ma lcons ig l io. D if feren t methods w ere emp loy J f or d ia in irg f rom t he p ress-bed.

h e e xtracted l i qu id away

S omet i mes t he e n t ire p ave men t w as i nc l ined s o t hat

t he l i qu id c ou ld r un o f f i n o ne d irect ion .1 3

A lternat ively t he p ress-bed w as

s urrounded b y ac ircu lar d ra inage c hannel , Cato 's c ana l is r otunda ( D.A. 1 8.6 ), a nd t he l i qu id p assed f rom t h is i n to a c ondu it w h ich l ed t o t he c o l lect ing v ats. The c onstruct ion o f s uch c ondu its v ar ies i n t he s urv iv ing e xamp les; a t Gu idon ia i tw as b u ilt i nb r ick w ith a mortar l in ing , w hereas a t G ranaracc io a c hannel w as c u t i n to t he t u fa p av ing o f t he p ress-room f l oor. For t he i n it ia l e x tract ion o f t he j u ice f rom g rapes , t read ing t anks w ere c om mon ly u sed. O f ten t hey w ere p ortab le a nd made o f wood , b u t a t f ar ms w here w ine p roduct ion w as c arr ied o ut o n ac om merc ia l s ca le more p er manen t t ypes o f t ank a re f ound. 1 4 A t G ranaracc io t he b ase o f as tone-bu ilt t ank , meas ur ing 2 .25 x 1 .40 m , a nd l i ned w ith o pus s ign inum , w as f ound c lose t o o ne o f t he p resses .1 5 Tha t t h is w as a t read ing t ank i s c lear f rom t he f act t hat i t s f l oor was a t ah igher l evel t han t hat o f t he p ress-room , a nd a lso was i nc l ined s o t hat t he j u ice c ou ld r un o u t t hrough a h o le a t t he b ase o f t he t ank i n to a c hannel wh ich j o ined t he r un-of f d uct l ead ing f ro m t he p ress. t read ing t ank , 3 .35 x 2 .63 m, w as e xcavated a t G u idon ia . b u il t a nd l ined w ith o pus s ign inum.

Another l arge

T h is was b r ick

I tw as l inked b y means o f ac hanne l i n t he

p ress-roo m f loor w ith a c o l lect ing v at a t al ower l evel . L arge s unken e arthenware j ars w ere s omet imes p laced i m med iately b es ide t he p ress t o r ece ive t he e x tracted l i qu id. 1 6 More c om mon ly t hough , r ec tangu lar v at s , u sed f or t he p rocess ing o f o l ive o i l , h ave b een f ound l ocated n ear t he p resses.

The more e labora te p lan ts p reserve a s er ies o f t hree

v ats, d es igned s o t hat t he s et t l ing p rocess w h ich a l lowed t he h eav ier l ees t o s eparate o u t o f t he o i l , c ou ld b e r epeated more t han o nce.

The o il w as e ither

b a led o r p assed b y c ont ro l led o verf low f rom o ne v a t t o t he n ext . 17 S yste ms u s ing t hree v at s h ave b een f ound a t S an Rocco ( Francol ise ) a nd a t G ranaracc io . O f ten t wo a d jacen t v a ts w ere emp loyed , o r e ven a s ing le v at w ith a c en tral d iv is ion .

I n s ome c ases , a s a t V icovaro a nd S ca lea , as ing le v at s u f f iced. 1 8

I nvar iably t he v a ts w ere l ined w ith o pus s ign inum.

S omet i mes s teps a re

f ound b u ilt i n to o ne c orner , p resu mab ly t o f ac i l itate t he b a l ing p rocess , wh ile a t many s i tes t he v ats c on ta in a c ircu lar s ump i n t he m idd le o f t he f l oor, d es igned t o s erve a s ac atchmen t f or t he impur it ies a s t hey s ank t o t he b ot tom. 1 9 C ato i ncludes i n t he e qu ip men t t o b e h oused i n t he p ress-room t he mil l u sed f or b ru is ing t he o l ives p r ior t o p ress ing ( D.A. 1 8.5 ).

The mechan ics

o f t he d if feren t t ypes o f Ro man o l ive m il ls h ave b een o f ten d iscussed , most t horough ly b y D rach mann . 2 ° However l i t t le c ommen t h as b een made c oncerni ng t he l ocat ion o f t he m i l ls i n r elat ion t o t he p resses w h ich t hey s erv iced. A t o n ly o ne s i te i nI t a ly h as a m il l b een f ound l ocated , a s Cato wou ld w ish , 5 2

a ctua l ly i n t he p ress-roo m i t sel f.

Th is w as a t af ar m e xcavated n ear S tab iae,

r ecorded b y Rugg iero a nd d iscussed b yR ich. 2 1 c en tra l ly b etween t wo p la t for m p resses.

Here t he m il l w as p laced

More c om mon ly , h owever , m il ls

w ere h oused i n ar oom a d jacen t t o t he p ress-roo m , i n as ort o f p ress-roo m a nnexe.

Th is a rrange men t h as b een f ound a t s evera l f ar ms;

a t t he V il la

P isanel la a t Boscorea le, a t Granaracc io , a nd p oss ib ly a t ar ecen t ly e xcavated f ar m a t S an S ebast iano a l Vesuv io , w here p art o f am i l l w as f ound a tor i d el l 'a mb ien te E ' ( t he p ress-roo m ), a nd may h ave b een l oca ted i n an earby o r a d jacen t r oo m .22

NOTES 1 .

A. G . Drach mann , Anc ien t O il M i l ls a nd P resses, Copenhagen 1 932. For r ecen t d iscuss ion o f t he l i terary e v idence s ee K . D . Wh ite , Far m Equ ipmen t o f t he Ro man World , Ca mbr idge 1 975 , p p. 1 07-17 , 2 25-33; H . P lo m mer , V itruv ius a nd L a ter Ro man Bu i ld ing Manua ls , Ca mbr idge 1 973, p p. 8 -11.

O n t he a rchaeo log ica l e v idence f ro m t he Roman

p rov inces s ee , f or e xa mp le, H . Ca mps-Fabrer , L 'o l iv ier e t l 'hu ile d ans l 'Afr ique Ro ma ine , A lger 1 953;

D . O ates , ' The T r ipo l itan ian Gebel :

s et t le men t o f t he Ro man p er iod a round Gasr e d-Daun ' , P .B.S . R. XX I ( 1953 ) , p p. 8 1-113;

M. P ons ich , Recherches Archeo log iques a Tanger

e t d ans s a Ret ion , P ar is 1 970 , p p. 2 71-83;

L . Maur in , ' Etabl isse men t

v in ico le äA l lasles-M ines ' , Ga l l ia XX I I ( 1964 ) , p p. 2 18-21;

E . Cata .n i ,

' If ran to i d el la f a t tor ia b izan t ina d i E l-Be ida ' , Quadern i d i a rcheo log ia d el la L ib ia 8 ( 1976 ) , p p. 4 35-448. 2 .

J . Horle , Catos Hausbucher , Padeborn 1 925 , p . 1 77f f .; A .O .M .P ., p . 9 9 f f .;

D rachmann ,

E . J ungst a nd P . Th ielsher , ' Catos K el tern u nd

K o l lergange r,Bonn . J a lu 'b. 1 54 ( 1954 ), p p. 3 2-93;

R . Gou jard , ' Etude

c r it ique d e q uelques p assages d e Caton , De Agr icu ltura P h i lo log ie 4 6.2 ( 1972 ) , p p. 2 66-74;

i de m , Caton :

Rev. d e

De l 'Agr icu l ture,

( Ed . Bu g ) , P ar is 1 975. 3 .

Wh i te F . E.R. W ., p . 2 29ff .

At te mpts t o r econstruct p ress mechan is ms

f rom s urv iv ing a rchaeo log ica l r e ma ins h ave n o t b een c onclus ive ;

f or

e xamp le t he w e igh tstones f ound a t n u merous T r ipo l itan ian s ites w ere i n terpreted b y Drachmann , A .0 . M. P . p . 9 7 , a s p arts o f l ever a nd s crew p resses , b ut b y O ates,

a .c it ., p . 8 6. F ig. 3 , a s p arts o f l ever

a nd d ru m p resses. 4 .

Examp les o f d irect s crew p resses h ave r are ly b een f ound i n I ta ly .

I

k now o f o n ly t wo s ites a t wh ich p ress b ases a pparen t ly b e long ing t o t h is t ype o fp ress h ave b een f ound ;

a t t he Posto v i l la ( Cat . 2 3 ), a nd a t

Luogosano , E . Gabr ic i , ' Luogosano—avanz i d i c ostruz ion i d i e ti . Ro mana s u l Mon te S an S tefano ' , N .Sc. 1 901, p p. 3 33-6. 5 .

Boscorea le P isanel la ( Cat . 3 ); 1 947 , p p. 9 6-102.

A . Ma iur i , L a V il la d e i M isten, Rome

O ther p lat for m p resses h ave b een f ound a t S tab iae

( Cat . 3 4 ) , i n Po mpe i i , I ns. 1 .5 ( W . F . J ashe msky , ' Un ivers ity o f Mary land e xcava t ions a t P o mpe i i , 1 968 ' , A .J .A .7 4 ( 1970 ), p p. 6 2-7 ), a nd a t a nother f ar m a t Boscorea le ( M. De l la Corte , ' La v i l la r ust ica 5 3

N . P op id i F lor i e sp lorata d a l la s ignora G iovanna Z urlo-Pu lzel la n e l f ondo d i s ua p ropr ie t h i n c on trada P isane l la l ' anno 1 906 ' , N .Sc. 1 921, p p. 4 42-60. 6 .

For e xa mp le t he p ress-bed ( ara ) i s r eferred t o a s at rapetu m (m i l l ) a t Gu idon ia a nd V ia T iber ina a nd a s a mo la ( m il l ) a t T it ignano.

7 .

e .g. a t Ca mere l le ( Cat . 9 ) , Gu idon ia ( Cat . 1 1 ) , P osta Crusta ( Per iod I ) ( Cat . 2 2 ) , S a lap ia ( Cat . 2 9 ), T i t ignano ( Cat . 3 5 ) , a nd V ia T iber ina ( Cat. 3 8 ).

8 .

M in to ( Cat . 3 5 ), p . 1 67.

9 .

E .g. a t G rot ta d el Ma lcons ig l io ( Cat . 1 5 ), P osta Crusta ( Per iod V ) ( Cat . 2 2 ), V icovaro ( Cat . 3 9 ) , a nd Monte Can ino ( M. P a l lot ino , ' Capena— r est i d i c ost ruz ion i r o mane e med ioeva l i i n l oca l ith "Mon tecan ino" ‚ , N .Sc. 1 937 , p p. 7 -28 ).

A t P aret i ( Cat . 2 0 ) t he b r icks o f t he f l oor were

l a id i n as i mp le b lock f or ma t ion. 1 0.

T ufa p av ing s tones a t G ranaracc io ( Cat . 1 4 ) ;

mosa ic a t S calea— fondo

Mar ig l iano-Filard i ( Cat . 3 2 ) a nd a t S an S ebasteano a l Vesuv io ( Cat . 2 8 ). 1 1.

Faccenna ( Cat . 1 4 ), p . 1 52;

Capr ino ( Cat . 1 1) , p . 4 7.

1 2.

E .g. a t O rbetel lo , G . Maetzke, ' Orbetel lo—trova ment i a rcheo log i v ar i ' , N .Sc. 1 958 , p p. 3 4-49 ( d i mens ions :

5 1.5 x 3 8.5 x 0 .21 m);

a t Tarqu in ia

( Loca l itä S an G iorg io ) , M. P a l lot ino , ' Tarqu in ia —r inven i men t i f ortu it i n el la n ecropo l i en el t err itor io , 1 930-38' , N .Sc. 1 943, p p. 2 55-6 ( d i mens ions : 1 .77 x 1 .70 x 0 .40 m ). Th is i s t he k ind o f p ress-bed f ound f requen t ly i n N orth A fr ica. 1 3.

E .g. a t G rot ta d e l Ma lcons ig l io a nd a t T i t ignano.

1 4.

Wh ite F .E.R. W ., p p. 1 64-5.

An e laborate t read ing-f loor d escr ibed

b y P a l lad ius ( Op . A. 1 .18.1) i s d iscussed b y P lo m mer , 9 _ 2 .c i t . ,p . 8 f f . a nd R . Mart in , Pa l lad ius. T ra its d 'Agr icu lture ( L ivres Ia nd I ), P ar is P ar is ( Les Bel les L et tres ) 1 976 , p p. 1 26-7. 1 5.

Faccenna ( Cat . 1 4 ) , p . 1 51.

1 6.

E .g. a t Boscorea le P isanel la ( Cat . 3 ) a nd S tab iae ( Cat . 3 4 ).

1 7.

Wh ite F .E.R. W ., p . 1 59 ;

1 8.

S an Rocco ( Cat . 2 7 ).

Co lu mel la D .R .R. 1 2.52.11-12.

The most c o m mon a rrange men t s eems t o b e t he

t wo-vat s yste m , f ound f or e xa mp le a t P osto ( Cat . 2 3 ), Gu idon ia , G ro t ta d el Ma lcons ig l io , Ca merel le , V ia T iber ina.

The s ingle v at w ith a

c en tra l d iv is ion r ecorded a t S a lap ia ( Cat . 2 9 ) may c orrespond t o Co lumel la 's g e me l lar ( D. R.R. 1 2.52.10 );

Wh ite F .E. R. W ., p p. 1 49-50 s .v.

g e mel lar , q uo tes a nother a rchaeo l ig ica l f ind , a lso f ro m A pu l ia , w h ich , h e s uggests , c ou ld e xe mp l ify Co lu me l la 's d ev ice. 1 9.

A t af ew s i tes , f or e xa mp le a t Ca merel le , Paret i a nd Gro t ta d el Ma lcons ig l io , l arge d o l ia w ere f ound s tand ing i nt he s et t l ing v a ts. The r eason f or t hese i s =certa in , t hough t hey may s i mp ly h ave b een p ut i nb ecause t he v ats b egan t o l eak .

5 4

2 0.

D rach mann A . 0 .M .P ., p p. 7 -49 ;

c f. Wh ite F .E.R. W ., p p. 2 26-9 ;

R . J . Forbes , S tud ies i n a nc ien t t echno logy I I , L e iden 1 955 , p p. 1 46-8. 2 1.

M. Rugg iero , D eg l i s cav i d i S tab ia d a l 1 749 a l 1 782 , N apo l i 1 881, p . 3 5if f .;

A . R ich , A D ict ionary o f Ro man a nd Greek An t iqu ity2 , N ew

York 1 901, s .v . ' t orcu lar iu m t ;

C rova Ed il iz ia , p p. 1 44-6 ;

Wh ite

F .E. R . W ., s .v . l acus '. 2 2.

G . C . I rel l i , ' S . S ebast iano a l Vesuv io—v il la r ust ica r o mana ' , N .Sc. 1 965 , S upp l., p . 1 75.

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Th is l i st d oes n ot i nclude t he n u merous s ites a t wh ich r andom f i nds o f as ing le p iece o f p ress-roo m e qu ip men t h ave o ccurred.

Travert ine

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8 .50 x 8 .30 m

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Ca marel le ( 2 ) Cat .9.Fig.6

D i mens ions o f

Type I p resses

5 c ) i n. . : • c r i

CHAPTER V I GRANARIES , S TORE-ROOMS AND CATTLE S HEDS

The f unct ion wh ich t he i nd iv idual r ooms o f af ar m s erved i s n ot a lways p rec isely d e f ined b y e xcava t ion .

S ome c lue t o t he u se t o w h ich d if feren t

r ooms w ere p u t may b e p rov ided b y a n a na lys is o f t he e xcavated c on ten ts. B u tp erhaps t he c learest i nd icat ion e x ist s i n t he c ase o f f ar m f ac il it ies wh ich , f or a s pec if ic f unc t ion , r equ ired p art icu lar f eatures i n t he ir d es ign .1

Th is

h as a lready b een i l lu strated w ith r espect t o f ac il it ies b u ilt f or t he p rocess ing o f o l ive o i l a nd w ine.

D ist inct ive s tructura l e lemen ts c an a lso h elp i n i den t i-

f y ing r oo ms u sed a s g ranar ies , s tore-rooms a nd c a t t le s heds. G ranar ies R ickman 's s tudy o f Ro man p ubl ic g ranar ies i n t he n orthern p rov inces o f t he emp ire h as p rov ided a s ynopt ic a ccoun t o f b u ild ing t ypes i n t ha t a rea. 2 The N orth European c l i mate made i t imperat ive t hat t he f l oors o f g ranar ies b e r a ised a bove g round l evel.

Th is c ou ld b e d one i n an umber o f d if feren t

ways , e ither b y s ett ing t he f loor o n as er ies o f dwarf p iers , r ather i n t he manner o f ah ypocaust , o r b y r a is ing i to n an umber o f t ransverse o r l ong it ud ina l s leeper b ea ms . 3 I n a sma l l g ranary t he f l oor c ou ld a lso b e r a ised b y l ay ing i to n a masonry o f fse t p ara l le l t o .the w a l l , a s i s s een i n t he Roman v i l la a t S troud ( Ha mpsh ire ) i n Eng land. 4

Both Co lume l la a nd V itruv ius emph-

a s ize t he n eed f or a g ranary , e ven i n a Med iterranean c l i mate , t o h ave a n e leva ted , a nd h ence w el l v en t ilated f loor . 5

Co lume l la g ives d eta ils o f t he

way i n w h ich t he g round b enea th may b e t reated t o p reven t t he i n trus ion o f v er m in .

He s uggests c over ing t he e arth w ith a l ayer o f o pus s ign inum a nd

s ea l ing t h is a ga inst t he s ide wa l ls o f t he r oom a t g round l c .ve l. N e ither a u thor , h owever , g ives d eta ils o f h ow t he f l oor o f t he g ranary i s t o b e s upp orted . F ac i l it ies a t o n ly t wo f ar m s i tes i n I t a ly c an b e i den t if ied w ith c erta in ty a s g ranar ies. O ne o f t hese i s ar oom i n af ar m b u ild ing a t V icovaro ( Fig. 1 3b ,2 ) , t h e o ther a t Russ i ( F ig. 9 ,6 ). N e ither o f t hese g ranar ies w as b u i lt a t ad istance f rom t he r est o f t he f ar m , a s V itruv ius a dv ises ( D. A. V I. 6.5 ) , b u t e ach f or med p art o f al arger c omp lex o f r ooms. The g ranary a t V icovaro w as a l arge r oo m measur ing 2 9.5 x 1 4 m w ith w a l ls i n r et icu la te. The i n ter ior o f t he r oom c on ta ined a t r ip le s er ies o f dwarf p iers, whose p urpose, i t wou ld s ee m, w as t o s upport a n e leva ted p lat for m. The s pace b e tween t he p iers i s t ransverse ly 3 .0 m a nd l ong itud ina l ly 2 .8 m. The l arge d i mens ions o f t he g ranary wou ld s ee m t o s uggest t hat t he e sta te f or w h ich i te x isted w as e x tens ive .6 A t Russ i a sma l ler g ranary , measur ing 7x 9 .9 m , f l anked t he ma in e n trance t o t he s ou th c ourtyard .

Th is r oo m c on ta ined t wo s er ies o f d warf

5 7

F IG 1 5

S tore-rooms

S ca le 1 :500

1 00000 ma m a 0 .00

A

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B

P rate lla

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L uc in ico

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0

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I

2

1

5 8

3

I 4

1 5 161

7 1

8

i

9

p iers, a rranged i nd ouble l ines a long e ach s ide o f t he r oo m.

The d istance

b etween t he r ows i s a pprox i mately 0 .60 m , w h i le e ach p a ir o f p iers i s l ong it ud ina l ly a bou t 2 .50 m a part . A c en tra l a isle , 3 .0 m w ide , s eparated t he t wo s er ies o fp iers. T he p iers w ere c onstructed u s ing f l at t i les s uper i mposed o n ab ase o f mortared b r ick r ubble.

Most p robab ly t hey wou ld h ave s uppor ted

awooden s uperstructure d es igned t o p rov ide f or t he d ry s torage o f g ra in . T he g ranary w ou ld t hus h ave c on ta ined t wo r ows o f b ins r anged a long e ach s ide o f ac en tra l a isle.

T he l ocat ion o f t he g ranary , f l ank ing t he ma in e n trance

a nd w ith a ccess d irec t ly i n to t he c ourtyard , a l lowed f or e asy l oad ing a nd u nl oad ing o f s upp l ies. The l arge b arn a t Russ i ( Fig. 9 , 1 ) may a lso h ave c on ta ined g ra in b ins a l ong i t s w estern s ide. I n t h is r oo m t wo d i f feren t s er ies o f i n terna l p iers, b o th made o fb r ick , w ere i den t if ied. r oo f s upports.

The l arger o f t hese p robab ly s erved a s

The s econdary s er ies o f sma l ler p iers a long t he w est wa l l o f

t h e r oo m ( Fig. 9 , 2 ) may o n t he o ther h and h ave s upported a r a ised p lat for m w ith s torage b ins. T he p iers h ere a re 2 .0 m a part l ong itud ina l ly , o n ly s l igh t ly c loser t han t hose i n t he t wo g ranar ies d iscussed a bove.

The p resence o f

w ha t a ppears t o b e a n o i l s et t l ing t ank i n t he s ou th-east c orner o f t he b arn i nd ica tes a no ther a spect o f t he f ar m 's e cono my. S tore-roo ms Af ew f ar ms i n I t a ly i nc lude i nt he ir p lans l ong s tore-rooms

wh ich , a l-

t hough t hey w ere p robab ly u sed f or s tor ing a v ar ie ty o f p roducts a nd e qu ip men t , c an b e c on s idered h ere a s ag roup , ow ing t o t he ir s im ilar ity o f d es ign. These r ooms c haracter ist ica l ly h ave a l ong r ectangu lar f or m , w ith a s ing le r ow o f p iers d own t he c en tre t o s erve a s b ases f or t he u pr igh t t imbers wh ich h e ld t he wooden f ra mework o f t he r oof.

I n s o me c ases, f or e xa mp le a t Casa lot to

( Cat . 8 . F ig. 1 6a ) a nd P rat el la ( Ca t. 2 4. F ig. 1 6b ), t he r oo f s upports r ested o n as er ies o f c losely s paced p iers. A t t he V il la S e lvasecca ( Fig. 3 a , s)t he t wo s urv iv ing b ase-b locks p robably f or med p art o f as er ies r unn ing c en tra l ly d own t h e l ong a x is o f t he s tore-roo m. E lsewhere t he i n terna l s upport f or t he r oo f w as l im ited t o t wo w idely s paced p iers. Th is a rrange men t i s s een i n t he s tore-room o f t he Boscorea le S taz ione f ar m ( Fig. 4 b , 6 ) a nd may a lso h ave e x isted i nt he l ong r oo m t o t h e s ou th o f t he V i l la o f Publ ius Fann ius S in istor a t Boscorea le ( Fig. 7 h , 4 ) a nd i n t he o u tbu ild ing a t Monna F el ice ( Cat . 1 7 ). D ifferen t ma ter ia ls a nd modes o f c onstruct ion w ere emp loyed t o make t he p iers i n t hese v ar ious s tore-rooms.

A t Pratel la t hey w ere f or med b y p ack ing

smal l s quared s tones a round a r ubble c ore. • A t Casa lotto t he p iers w ere b u ilt o f mortared b r ick , w h ile a t t he V i l la S e lvasecca s quared t u fa b locks w ere u sed. The u se t o wh ich t hese r ooms w ere p ut d oubt less v ar ied f rom s i te t o s i te. S torage o f f ar m p roduce a nd e qu ip men t s ee ms a l ike ly f unct ion. C erta in ly t h is was t he c ase a t Casa lot to , w here t he r oo m w as f ound t o c on ta in n umerous s unken d o l ia , a nd c lear ly s erved a s as tore-room f or w ine o r o i 1. 8 The s torer oom o f t he B oscorea le S taz ione f ar m s ee ms t o h ave s erved a d oub le f unct ion , b o th a s as tore f or w ood a nd h ay a nd a s as tab le .9

The d i mens ions o f t he

v ar ious s tore-roo ms c orrespond a s f o l lows ( d i mens ions i n metres ) :

5 9

S i te Boscorea le S taz ione Boscorea le ( Vi l la o f Pub l ius Fann ius S in istor ) Casa lot to

Externa l

I n terco lumnar

measuremen ts

s pace

2 1.8 x 5 .8 x6 .3 x5 .1

Monna F el ice P rate l la

1 6+ x 3 .2+ x1 3.5

S e lvasecca

2 8.5 x 6 .0

6 .3 2 .20-2.50 2 .10-2.30 2 .70

Ca t t le-sheds Fac il i t ies f or s hel ter ing c a t t le h ave s o met i mes b een i den t if ied i n e xcava ted f ar m b u i ld ings i n I ta ly . A t Gragnano ( Ca t . 1 2 ) o ne o f t he l arger r oo ms ( F ig. 1 3b , 2 ) was f ound t o c on ta in t he s ke leta l r e ma ins o f an u mber o f o xen a nd h orses. A t t he t ime o f t he e rupt ion , t herefore, i t was c erta in ly b e ing u sed a s as he l ter f or l i vestock a nd i ts ee ms p oss ib le t ha t t h is was t he r egu lar f unct ion o ft he r oom . Ag ood e xa mp le o f t h is k ind o ff ac il ity h as b een f ound i n ap art ia l ly e xp lored f arm b u i ld ing a t L uc in ico i n V enez ia G iu l ia ( Ca t. 1 7. F ig. 1 6c ).

The f unct ion

o f t he l arge r oo m h ere i s s trong ly s uggested b y i t s i n terna l f ea tures a nd i t s l oca t ion. A long t he n or th wa l l o f t he r oom r an a w a ter t rouch wh ich w as b r idged a t r egu lar i nterva ls b y h or izon ta l s labs o f s tone, l eav ing a s er ies o f o pen ings a pprox i ma tely 1 .30 m a par t .

T hese o pen ings wou ld c onven ien t ly h ave

a l lowed f or t he wa ter ing o f ad ozen a n i ma ls. The r oom was l ocated n ex t t o t he f ar m 's b a th r oo ms a nd c ou ld t hereby b enef it f rom t he w ar mth o ft he l at ter 's h ea t ing s yste m. F or t he s ame r eason V itruv iu s ( D .A . V I. 6 .1) r ecommends t ha t t he c a t t le-shed s hou ld b e l oca ted n ex t t o t he f arm 's k i tchen .

T he e xcava-

t ed c on ten ts o f t he r oo m a t L uc in ico i nc luded n umerous a n i ma l b ones o f wh ich ah igh p roport ion w ere f rom o xen ; t he ir p resence c an b e a ccoun ted f or by t he f act t ha t t he b u i ld ing was d estroyed b y as udden f i re . 1° Oxen w ere g enera l ly s ta l led i np a irs.

An i nd ica t ion o ft he s ize o f s ta l l

r equ ired f or t h is p urpose i s g iven i n s evera l o f t he l i terary s ources. V itruv ius ( D A . V I.6 . 2 ) r ecom mends a w id th o f 1 0-15 p edes ( 2 .96-4.44 m ) p er s ta l l. Co lu mel la ( D .R.R. 1 .6.6 ) s uggests a s l igh tly n arrower s ta l l measur ing 2 .662 .96 m i n w id th. A ccord ing t o V itruv ius t he d ep th o f t he s ta l l s hou ld b e a t l east 2 .07 m.

The c ons iderable w id th o f t he r oom a t G ragnano ( 6 .0 m ) s uggests

t ha t i tc on ta ined a d ouble s er ies o f s ta l ls , p erhaps p rov id ing f or t he s tabl ing o f o xen o n o ne s ide o f ac en tra l a isle a nd h orses o n t he o ther. 1 1 T he measuremen ts g iven b y t he l i terary s ources h ave h e lped t o i nterpret a f arm b u ild ing f ound a t Mon te I rs i i n Bas il ica ta ( Ca t. 1 9. F ig. 1 6d ). T he b u i ld ing h ere , c onst ructed i n t he m id 2 nd c en tury B .C., c onsis ted o f al ong s er ies o fo pen-ended r ooms. T he wa l ls w ere r ough ly b u il t o f e ar th-bonded s andstone s labs a nd most o f t he r oo ms h ad at rodden e ar th f loor.

T he b u i ld ing was p robably

c overed b y as i mp le s lop ing t i led r oof a nd i t s g enera l c haracter s uggested t ha t i t was a n a gr icu l tura l o u t-bu ild ing o f s ome k ind .1 2 T he d i mens ions o f t he r ooms ( 3 .5-5.25 m i n w id th , 3 .25-3.5 m i n d ep th ) l ed t o t he c onclusion t ha t t hey w ere p robably s ta l ls f or c a t t le , wh ile t he sma l l e nclosed r oo m ( room 7 ) was u sed b y t he h erds man. 1 3 6 0

Another b u i ld ing wh ich may h ave p rov ided s hel ter f or l i vestock i s t he p ort ico a long t he n or th-west s ide o f t he c our tyard o ft he Posto f ar m ( per iod I ) a t Franco l ise ( Ca t . 2 3. F ig. 4 a , 4 ). Th is h ad a d ep th o f 3 .6 m a nd t he s pace b etween t he s uppor ts r anged f ro m 2 .3-3.2 m, p robably a l low ing f or a d ouble s ta l l ing o f o xen b e tw een e ach. The d i mens ions o ft he d if feren t e xcava ted c a t t le-sheds c orrespond a s f o l lows ( d i mens ions i n metres );

S ite

D i mensions o f c a t t le-shed

Wid th o f s ta l l

G ragnano

1 3.0 x 6 .0

L uc in ico

2 1.0 x 1 0.85

1 .3 ( s ingle )

Mon te I rs i P osto

5 5+ x 3 .25-3.5 1 6.8+ x 3 .6

3 .5-5.3 ( double ) 2 .3-3.2 ( double )

NOTES 1 .

S . App lebau m , ' Far ms a nd t he ir u ses ' , i nH . P . F inberg ( ed ), The Agrar ian H istory o f Eng land a nd Wa les :

Vo l. I , Ca mbr idge 1 972, p .

1 51f f . 2 .

G . R ickman , Ro man Granar ies a nd S tore -bu ild ings , C a mbr idge 1 971. c f. A . P . Gen try , Ro man M il itary S tone-bu i l t Granar ies i n Br ita in , Oxford 1 976 ;

3 .

Wh ite R .F

,p p. 1 89 , 4 27-8.

R ickman Granar ies , p . 2 13f f .

I n Br ita in o n ly f our s tone g ranar ies

h ave f loors r a ised o n dwarf p iers. S h ie lds , Cast lecary a nd R ibchester.

These a re a t Housesteads , S outh The r est emp loy s leeper b ea ms.

I n Ger many , h owever , t he p reference i s r eversed. 4 .

Applebaum , 9 2 .c i t . , p . 1 75.

5 .

C o lu me l la D . R.R . I .6. 1 2f. V itruv ius i s h ere c orrup t.

V itruv ius D .A. V I. 6.4.

The t ex t o f

The e d itor o f t he L oeb t ex t p refers t he

r ead ing s ubl ina ta , aw ord mean ing ' s meared ' ( f ro m t he v erb l ino ). H owever , t he r ead ing s ubl i mata , mean ing ' e leva ted ' , s ee ms more a pp ropr iate i n t he c on tex t. 6 .

T he w idth o f t he g ranary ( 14.8 m ) f ar e xceeds t he a verage w id th o f p ubl i c g ranar ies i n n orthern Europe , wh ich i s a round 6 .09 m.

R ickman

G ranar ies , p . 2 28. 7 .

T he g ranary w as e xcava ted i n-1 969 ;

f or d eta ils s ee D . S cag l iar in i , ' La

V i l la Ro mana d i Russ i ' i n G . C . S usin i, L a V il la Ro mana , Faenza 1 971, p p. 1 23-4. 8 .

O n s tore-roo ms c on ta in ing s unken d o l ia , s ee R ickman Granar ies , p p. 7 3-6.

6 1

9 . 1 0.

Crova Ed il izia , p . 4 5. S . S tucch i , ' Luc in ico ( Gor iz ia ) —v il la r ust ica r o mana ' , N .Sc. 1 950 , p p . 8 .16.

1 1.

App lebau m , 2E .c it ., p . 1 49.

1 2.

A . M. Sma l l , Mon te I rs i , S ou thern I ta ly , ( B. A .R . S upp . V o l. 3 6), Oxford , 1 977 , p p . 4 4-7 , F igs. 8 a nd 9 .

1 3.

Sma l l , i b id., p p . 4 7-8.

6 2

CHAPTER V I I CHRONOLOGY

A t o n ly a f ew o f t he s i tes d iscussed i n t h is v o lume h as t he c o mp lex s truct ura l h istory o f t he f arm b u ild ings b een a ccura tely d eter m ined b y ac arefu l a na lys is o ft he e xcava ted d a t ing e v idence.

D esp ite t he sma l l n umber o f s uch

s ites , h owever , ac o mpara t ive s tudy o f t he ir d a t ing e v idence may p rov ide s o me t en ta t ive c lues t o t he c hrono log ica l d evelop men t o f r ura l c onstruct ion i n

The o r ig ina l c onstruct ion o f an u mber o f t he f ar ms c an b e d a ted t o t he 2 nd c en tury B . C. ( Ca t . 2 0.23.26.33.41).

The b u i ld ings d a table t o t h is c en tury

a re g enera l ly o f modest p ropor t ions a nd f or t he most p art r e ma ined i n t he ir o r ig ina l f or m t hroughou t t he f o l low ing c en tury .2

Af ew o f t he Ca mpan ian f ar ms

i n t he r eg ion o f V esuv ius may a lso h ave b een b u i l t i n t he l a ter 2 nd c en tury B .C. ( Ca t . 3 ) a l though c ons truct ion o f t he ma jor ity h as b een p laced s o mewhere i n t he i s t c en tury B .0 .3

Dur ing t he i st c en tury B .C. t here i s e v idence f or

c ons iderable b u ild ing a c t iv ity e lsewhere i n r ura l I ta ly , i nclud in g t he i n it ia l c onstruc t ion o f an u mber o f l arger f ar mhouses a nd v i l las ( Ca t . 9 .25.27.38 ) w h ich , e ven i n t he ir e arly p hases, c an p robably b e a ssoc ia ted w ith s izeable e sta tes. Dur ing t he I st c en tury A .D. s evera l o f t he f ar ms e xam ined u nderwen t e xt ensive a nd e labora te r econstruct ion ( Ca t . 1 5.23.27.41 ) a nd t here may a t t h is t ime h ave b een a c orrespond ing i ncrease i n t he s ize o f t he f ar ms ' l and h o ld ings. S urface ma ter ia l s uggests t ha t c onstruct ion o f t he v ery l arge ' f rag men ted ' v i l las d iscussed i n c hap ter I I ( Ca t . 7 .10.40 ) s hou ld a lso b e d a ted t o t he e ar ly Imperi a l p er iod .

These v i l las t oo c an p robab ly b e a ssoc ia ted w ith l arge e sta tes

w hose c rea t ion may h ave i nvo lved t he a bsorb t ion o f s o me sma l ler p roper t ies. I ti s i nterest ing t o n o te t ha t , b yt he e nd o f t he I st c entury A . D., o n ly o ne ( Ca t . 1 8 ) o f t he sma l l f ar msteads d iscussed i n c hap ter 1 a ppears s t il l t o h ave b een o ccup ied i n i t s o r ig ina l f or m;

t he o thers h ad b y t h is t ime e ither b een e n larged

( Ca t . 2 3 ) o r a bandoned ( Ca t . ? 22.26.33 ). Wh ile o ccupa t ion o f many f arms a nd v i l las i s a t tested d ur ing t he 2 nd c en tury A .D . ( Ca t . 7 .9.16.18.20.23.25.27.40.41 ) n ew b u i ld ing d ur ing t h is p er iod a ppears l im i ted. There i s, h owever , e v idence f or r econstruct ion a t s o me o f t he l arger v i l las ( Ca t . 2 5.40 ). A ga in d ur ing t he 3 rd c en tury A . D., a l though t here i s f ur ther e v idence f or o ccupa t ion a t many s i tes ( Ca t . 7 .9.16.20.22.23. 2 5.40.41 ), t here i s l i t t le f ir m e v idence f or r ebu ild ing a t a ny o f t hese s i tes . 4 The s ubsequen t h istory o f t he b u ild ings i s o f ten f ar f ro m c er ta in . I n an umber o f c ases l i fe a tt he f ar ms s ee ms t o h ave c eased a t s o me p o in t d ur ing t he 4 th c en tury ( Ca t . 7 .22,25.41).

Ev idence f or t he c ont inua t ion o f r ura l s e tt le men t

b eyond t he 4 th c en tury A . D. h as b een a ccu mu la ted i n r eg iona l s urveys i n d iff eren t p arts o fI ta ly b u t t he d eta iled h istory o f i nd iv idua l f ar m b u ild ings i n l a te 6 3

a n t iqu i ty h as r are ly b een d ec iphered .5

S ome f arms, l i ke t ha t a t Mon te Can ino

i n t he Ager Capenas, w ou ld s ee m e ventua l ly t o h ave b ecome a ssoc ia ted w i th n ew e ccles iast ica l b u ild ings; 6 wh ile e lsewhere i ti s p oss ible t ha t s o me r ura l p roper t ies may h ave d eveloped i n to t he t ype o f d e fens ible s trongho ld f or w h ich t here i s s o me e v idence f ro m t he Roman p rov inces i n l a te a n t iqu ity .7 F ro m t he c hrono logy o ft he d i f feren t f ar ms t ha t h ave b een d iscussed i ti s p oss ib le t o make s o me c o m men t o nt he d evelop ment o f r ura l a rch itecture i n I ta ly . We h ave n o ted e ar l ier ( above p p . 2 2-6 ) h ow , a t l east b y t he a ge o f A ugustus , c erta in d es ign f ea tures c om mon i n Roman d o mest ic a rch itecture— a x ia l p lann ing , t he d eveloped a tr ium , e legan t p er isty les —were b e ing emp loyed i n t he c onstruct ion o f r ura l b u ild ings.

The f ar m b u i ld ings o f t he e arly I mper ia l

p er iod r evea l t he e x ten t t o wh ich t h is t rend c on t inued. Many o ft he f armhouses a nd v i l las b u i l t o r r ebu il t d ur ing t he I st c en tury A .D . w ere d es igned w ith r ef i ned a rch itectura l f ea tures;

b u ild ings w ere c onstruc ted w ith e legan t p er isty les

a nd c o lonnades ( Ca t . 2 7 ), a tr ia ( Ca t. 1 3.41 ) a nd e labora te b a th r oo ms ( Ca t. 2 3.27 ). A t t he s ame t ime t he s urface r ema ins o f a sma l l n umber o f v ery l arge e ar ly Imper ia l v i l las ( Ca t .7.10.40 ) t est ify t o t he e x istence o f al ooser t ype o f v i l la p lann ing i n w h ich c er ta in o f t he v i l las ' f ac il it ies , i n p art icu lar t he b a th r oo ms , were l oca ted i n s epara te a nd i ndependen t b u ild ings.

T he

r ura l v i l las a t Russ i ( Ca t . 2 5 ) p rov ides f ur ther e v idence f or l uxury a nd f ragmen ta t ion i n v i l la a rch i tecture o f t he 2 nd c en tury A .D. A lso d ur ing t he i st a nd 2 nd c en tur ies A . D. more s oph ist ica ted a gr icu l tura l f ac il it ies a ppear a t many s i tes;

as crew p ress was i nsta l led a t Posto ( Ca t . 2 3 );

s tone g ranar ies were

b u i l t a t Russ i a nd V icovaro ( Ca t . 2 5.30 ); 8 a n i rr iga ted c a t t le-shed w as c onst ructed a t L uc in ico ( Ca t . 1 6 ). T here i s a t p resen t l i t t le e v idence f or a rch it ectura l i nnova t ion i nt he c onstruct ion o f f ar m b u ild ings i nI ta ly af ter t he 2 nd c en tury A .D . Th is p icture may , h owever , b e a l tered b y f ur ther e xcava t ion .

9

NOTES I .

The n on-stra t igraph ic e xcava t ions i n t he n ineteenth c entury a nd t he e ar ly p ar t o f t h is c entury o ft he s o-ca l led " Campan ian v i l lae i ust icae" d id n o t p roduce a r e l iable c hrono logy f or t hese s i tes. Wh i le l i fe a t t he f ar ms c ame t o a n a brup t e nd i n 7 9 A . D., t he e ar ly h istory o f t he i nd iv idua l b u i ldi ngs i s g enera l ly o bscure. An a t te mp t t o d a te s ome o f t he f arms o n t he r ecorded e v idence o f wa l l p a in t ings a nd c ons truct ion ma ter ia ls w as made b y Carr ing ton , 1 931 p p . 1 25-9. The more r ecen t ly e xcava ted f ar m a t S an S ebast iano a l V esuv io ( Ca t . 2 8 ) h as p roduced e v idence f or r eoccupa t ion a f ter t he e rup t ion o f 7 9 A .D., b u t t h is b u ild ing , wh ich i s l oca ted t o t he n orth-west o f t he moun ta in , e v iden t ly e scaped t he worst o f t he v o lcan ic d epos its wh ich d estroyed t he f ar ms t o t he s ou th ( see map I ); G . I re l l i , N .Sc . 1 965 ( Supp. ), p . 1 61f f .

2 .

On ly a t Posto ( Ca t . 2 3 ) i s t here e v idence f or ma jor r ebu ild ing d ur ing t he i st c en tury B .C.

3 .

Carr ing ton 1 931, p p. 1 25-9 ; Rome 1 957 , p p . 4 26 , 5 05.

G . L ug l i , L a t ecn ica e d il iz ia r omana ( 2v o ls.),

6 4

4 .

The c onstruct ion o f ar oad , f or wh ich t here i s e p igraph ic e v idence ( see a bove , c hapter I I n o te 4 ) a t V il la Magna ( Ca t . 4 0 ) may h ave b een a ssoc ia ted w ith o ther b u ild ing a ct iv ity a t t he s ite i n t he e ar ly 3 rd c en tury A . D.

5 .

Reg iona l s tud ies o f r ura l s et t le men t i n l a te a nt iqu ity i nclude;

G . B . D .

J ones , o p .c it . ( 1963 ), p p . 1 34-5; A . Kahane , L . M. T hre ip land a nd J . B . Ward-Perk ins, o p.c it . ( 1968 ), p p . 1 52-3; L . Rugg in i , E cono m ia e S oc ietä n elP " Ita l ia a nnonar ia" , M ilan 1 961, p p. 5 27-30. 6 . 7 .

J ones, L 2.c it . ( 1962 ), p . 1 62. For a d iscuss ion o f t he e v idence f or f ort if ied v i l las i n t he Ro man p rov inces i n l a te a n t iqu i ty s ee Ward-Perk ins, E . R. A . ,p p. 5 26-7;

M. Cag iano d e

A zevedo , ' V i l le r ust iche t ardoan t iche e i nstal laz ion i a gr ico le a l to med ieva l i ' S et t i mane d i S po leto X I I I ( 1966 ) , p p . 6 63-94.

O f p art icu lar i n terest i s a

t ype o f f or t if ied v i l la w ith a f ron ta l c o lonnade a nd c orner t owers;

t h is

a rch itectura l t ype i s d ep ic ted o n aw el l-known 4 th c en tury mosa ic f ro m Carthage ( Bardo Museu m , Roo m X . A 7 ) a nd i s r ef lected i n t he a rch itecture o f t he 4 th c en tury I mper ia l p a lace a t S p l it i n Yugoslav ia .

Cag iano d e A ze-

v edo p o ints t o t he s a me a rch itectura l t ype r ecurr ing i nt he 5 th/6th c en tury v i l la a t Me leda ( M l je t ) i n Yugoslav ia , a nd i n t he 6 th c en tury ' V i lla o f T heodor ic ' a t Ravenna . 8 .

T he r e t icu la te wa l ls o f t he V icovaro g ranary s uggest a l a te Repub l ican o r e ar ly Imper ia l d a te f or t he b u ild ing ;

9 .

G . L ug l i , M .A . XXX I ( 1926 ) p . 1 26.

F or e xamp le b y t he c urren t U n ivers i ty o f A lber ta e xcavat ions o f al a te Ro man f ar mhouse a t S an G iovann i d i Ruo t i i n Bas i l ica ta ;

f or a n i n ter im

r eport o f t he f i rst s eason 's f inds , s ee A . M. Sma l l a nd R . J . Buck , ' San G iovann i d i Ruo t i , S ou thern I ta ly ( 1977 )' C lass ica l N ews a nd V iews XX I I.I ( Jan . 1 978 ), p p . 5 -8 ;

ar epor t o f t he s econd s eason 's f i nds i s f or thco m ing

i n C .N .V . XX I I I ( 1979 ).

6 5

Map I

Map s how ing t he l o ca t ion o f t he f a rm b u i ld ings l i s ted i n Append ix A

6 6

APPEND IX A

An a lphabe t ica l c a ta logue o f f arm b u i ld ings d iscussed i n t he t ex t , w ith b ib l iograph ica l r e ferences . 1 .

Boscorea le ( c on trada C iv itä . G iu l iana ) , Campan ia : A . S og l iano , N .Sc . 1 895, p . 2 14 , N .Sc . 1 897 , P . 3 91;

Crova ,

Ed i l iz ia , p . 7 7 , F ig . 9 ; Rostov tzef f S EHRE, p . 5 52 No . 1 4 . 2 .

Boscorea le ( con trada C iv itä G iu l iana ) , Campan ia : M . De l la C or te , A ltra v i l la r ust ica , s cava ta d a l s ig . c ay . Car lo Ross i-F i lang ier i n e l f ondo d i Ra f fae le Brancacc io, n e l la s tessa c on trada C iv ita G iu l iana ( c o mune d i Boscorea le) n e i mes i d a g enna io a marzo 1 904 ', N .Sc . 1 921, p p . 4 23-6;

Carr ing ton , 1 931, p . 1 22 ;

Crova ,

Ed i l iz ia , p p . 1 77-8 ; R ostov tzef f S EHRE, p . 5 52 N o . 2 6 . 3 .

Boscorea le ( P isane l la ) , Campan ia : For t he e xcava t ion s ee A . Pasqu i, 'L a v i l la Po mpe iana d e l la P isane l la p resso Boscorea le ', M .A . V I I ( 1897 ) , p p . 3 97-554 ; N .Sc . 1 876, p . 1 96, N .Sc . 1 877 , p . 1 7 , 9 6, 1 28 ; 1 895, p . 2 07 ; A . Pasqu i, N .Sc . 1 896 , p . 2 34 .

G . F iore l l i,

A . S og l iano , N .Sc .

F or t he t reasure f ro m

t he v i l la , n ow i n t he L ouvre , s ee A .H . d e V i l lefosse , L e t resor d e Boscorea le ', Monu men ts P lot V ( 1899) , p . 7 f f . F or c o mmen t Cagn .a t a nd Chapot , Manue l d ' Archeo log ie R o ma ine , Par is 1 916 , l a p . 3 02-6 ; Carr ing ton , 1 931, p . 1 19 ; i de m , P o mpe i i, p . 8 9f ; Crova , Ed i l izia , p p . 4 7-54 ;

J . Day ,

Agr icu lture i n t he l i fe o f Po mpe i i ', Ya le C lassica l

S tud ies I I ( 1932 ) , p p . 1 80-4 ; S EHRE, R ust ica

P .

Frank E SAR V , p . 1 72 , p . 2 64f f ; Rostov tzef f

5 52 N o . 1 3 , p . 5 64;

J . E. S kydsgaard , Den Ro merske V i lla

C openhagen 1 961, p . 1 2f ;

C .A . Yeo ,

T he e cono m ics o f Ro man

a nd Amer ican S lavery ', F inanzarch iv X I I I ( 1952 ) , p . 4 45f f ; Wh ite, R .F ., p . 4 22f f . 4 .

B oscorea le ( S taz ione ) , Campan ia : M . De l la C or te , 'V i l la Rust ica , e sp lora ta d a l s ig . F errucc io De Pr isco n e l f ondo d ' Acunzo, p osto immed ia tamen te a mezzog iorn9 d e l p iazza le d e l la s taz ione f errov iar ia d i B oscorea le ( Ferrov ia d e l lo S tat e ) , 1 'a nno 1 903 ' ,N .Sc . 1 921, p p . 4 36-42 ; Crova , Ed i l iz ia , p . 4 3f , F ig . 1 ; R ostovtzef f S EHRE, P . 5 52 No . 2 8 ; Day , o p .c it ., p p . 1 67-208 ; C arr ing ton , 1 931, p p . 1 16-22 ; Wh ite , 1 970 , p . 4 30 , F ig . 7 .

5 .

B oscorea le ( V i l la o f Pub l ius Fann ius S i r k istor ) , Campan ia : F . Barnabe l, La v i l la p o mpe iana d i P . F ann io S in istore , R o me 1 901; P . L eh mann , Ro man Wa l l Pa in t ings f ro m Boscorea le , Cambr idge , Mass . 1 951; Rostov tze f f S EHRE, p . 5 52 N o . 2 6 ; M . Rober tson , 'The B socorea le f igure p a in t ings ', JRS XLV ( 1955) , p p . 5 8-67 .

6 7

6 .

B oscotrecase ( V i l la o f T iber ius C laud ius Eu tuchus ), Campan ia : M . De l la C or te , 'L av i l la r ust ica "T i . C laud i . Eutych i , Caesar is 1 ( iber t i )" e sp lora ta d a l s ig . c ay . Ernesto S an t in i , n e l f ondo d e l la s ua p ropr ie tä a l la c on trada R ota ( Co mune d i Boscotrecase ) , n eg li a un t 1 903-5 ' ,N .Sc . 1 922 , p p . 4 59-79 ; Carr ing ton , 1 931, p . 1 12 ; i dem 1 934 , p . 2 73 ; Day , o p .c it ., p . 1 76 ; Crova , Ed i l izia , p . 6 8 , F ig . 7 ; Rostov tzef f S EHRE, p . 5 52 N o . 3 1.

7 .

Casa lacc io ( Ager Ve ien tanus) , L az io : A . K ahane , L .M . Thre ip land , J .B . Ward-Perk ins, 'T he Ager Ve ien tanus N or th a nd East o f R o me ', P .B .S .R . XX I I I ( 1 968) , s i tes 5 40-541, p p . 1 39-44, 1 57 .

8 .

Casa lot to ( V ia C orne l ia ) , L az io : P . R o mane l l i , V ia C orne l ia - r est i d i v i l la r ust ica ', N .S c. 1 933 , p p . 2 46-8 .

9 .

Castrov i l lar i ( con trada Camere l le ) , Ca labr ia : F .T . Ber tocch l, 'L av i l la R o mana d i Camere l le ', K learchos V ( 1963) , p p . 1 35-152 ;

C . Pepe , Me mor ie s tor iche d e l la c it tä d i Castrov i l lar i,

( 1880 ) , p . 6 4 . 1 0 .

C ugno d e l Vagn i* ( S ir is/Herac lea ) , Basi l ica ta : M . L acava , T opograph ia e S tor ia d i Metapon to, Napo l i 1 891, p p . 1 7-20 ; L . Q u i l ic i , F orma I t a l iae , R eg io I I Vo l . I : S ins - Herac lea , Ro me 1 967 , p p . 1 23-132 ; p . 2 24f .

1 1.

D . Ada mesteanu , L a Basi l ica ta An t ica , R o me 1 975

Qu il ic i r efers t o t he s i te b y 't he ' n ame C ig l io d e i V agn i.

-

G u idon ia ( aeropor to d i) , R o ma : C . Capr ino ( Gu idon ia -v i l la r ust ica c on t orcu lar iu m ' N .Sc . 1 944-5 p p . 3 9-51.

1 2 .

Gragnano ( c on trada Car i tä ) , Campan ia : M . De l la C or te , 'V i l la r ust ica e sp lora ta d a l s ig . c ay . Car lo Rossi -F i lang ier i i nu n f ondo d e l s ig . c omm . A gne l lo Marchet t i , p osto immed ia tamen te a d o vest d e l la V ia S cafa t i - Gragnano, n e l la c on trada Car itä , i n c o mun .e d i G ragnano ', N .Sc . 1 923 , p p . 2 ' 45-80 ; C arr ing ton , 1 931, p . 1 22 ; i de m , 1 934 , p . 2 72 ;

Crova , Ed i l iz ia , p p . 7 0-2 ;

Day ,

o p .c i t ., p . 1 85 ; Rostov tzef f S EHRE, p . 5 53 No . 3 4 ; Wh ite RF, p p . 4 37-8 ; Yeo , o p .c i t . ,p p . 4 49-51. 1 3 .

Gragnano ( c on trada Mess igno) , Campan ia : M . De l la C or te ,

V i l la r ust ica e sp lora ta d a l s ig . G iaco mo Ma trone

i nu n f ondo d i s ua p ropr ietä , p osto immed ia tamen te a d O cc idente d e l la v ia v ic ina le c he a t traversa , i n d irezione N ord - S ud , l a c on trada Mess igno, i n c o mune d i Gragnano ' .,N .S c . 1 923 , p p . 2 71-4 ; 1 931, p . 1 21; i de m ., 1 934, p . 2 75 ; Rostov tzef f S EHRE p . 5 53 N o . 3 3 . 1 4 .

Carr ing ton ,

i de m ., 1 936, p p . 9 4-5;

Grannarac io ( T ivo l i) , Laz io : D . Faccenna , T ivo l i ( Loca l i ta Grannarac io) - r est i d e l la p ar te r ust ica d i u na v i l la ' ,N .Sc . 1 957 , p p . 1 48-53 .

1 5 .

Grot ta d e l Ma lcons ig l io ( Sybar is) , C a labr ia : E . Ga l l i ,

Due v i l le r o mane i n a gro S ybar itano ', A t t i d e l I lnd C ongresso 6 8

n az iona le d i s tud i r o man i :

I , R o me 1 931, p . 2 67 f .; i de m .,

La v i l la

r ust ica d e l la G rot ta d e l Ma lcons ig l io ', A .M .S .M .G . 1 929, p . 4 6f ; E . Maga ld i , L ucan . ia Ro mana R o me 1 947 , p p . 6 2-3 . 1 6 .

L uc in ico ( Gor iz ia ) , Venez ia G iu l ia : S . S tucch i ,

L uc in ico ( Gor iz ia ) -v i l la r ust ica r o man .a ', N .Sc . 1 950 ,

p p . 1 -16 . 1 7 .

Monna Fe l ice ( C iv itavecc ia ) , Laz io : 0 . To t i,

C iv itavecch ia - e d if ic io r ust ico r o mano i n l oca l i tä Monna

Fe l ice ', N .Sc . 1 966 , p p . 7 9-90 ; o log ia a l la s tor ia s oc ia le :

M . T ore l l i,

C on tr ibu to d e l l ' a rche-

1- 1 ' Etrur ia e 1 ' Apu l ia ', i n D ia logh i d i

Archeo log ia , Anno I V-V ( 1970-1) , p p . 4 31-442 . 1 8 .

Mon te F orco ( Ager Capenas) , Laz io: G .D .B . J ones ,

Capena a nd t he Ager Capenas :

XVI I ( 1962) , p p . 1 72-3 , s i te No . 1 54 ;

Par t 1 ', P .B .S. R .

i de m ., P .B .S .R . XV I I I ( 1963 ) ,

p p . 1 47-58 . 1 9 .

Mon te I rs i ( I rs ina ) , Basi l ica ta : A . M . Sma l l, Mon te I rs i, S ou thern I ta ly , ( B .A .R . S upp . Vo l . 3 6) , Ox ford , 1 977 , p p . 4 4-48 .

2 0 .

Pare t i ( Bucc ino) , Campan ia : S . L . Dyson , 'Excava t ions a t Bucc ino, 1 971 ', A .J .A . 7 6 ( 1972 ) , p p . 1 61-3 .

2 1.

Por tacc ia ( Tarqu in ia ) , Laz io : P . Ro mane l l i,

Tarqu in ia - r inven i men t i f or tu i t i n e l la n ecropo l i en e l

t err itor io ( 1930-38 ) ' ,N .Sc . 1 943 , p p . 2 13-261. 2 2 .

Posta Crusta ( Fogg ia ) , Pug lia : G . De B oe , 'V i l la r o mana i n l oca l itä "Posta Crusta" ,Rappor to p rov isor io s u l le c ampagne d i s cavo 1 972 e 1 973 ', N .Sc . 1 975, p p . 5 163 0 ;

2 3 .

J . Mer tens, Ordona V , p p . 1 9-22 .

P osto ( Franco l ise ) , Campan ia : P . Von B lankenhagen , M .A . C ot ton , J .B . Ward-Perk ins, v i l las a t Franco l ise ', P .B .S .R . XX ( 1965) , p p . 5 5-69 ;

Two Ro man

i de m .,

Franco l ise ( Caser ta ) -R nppor to p rov isor io d e l 1 962-4 s ug l i s cav i d i d ue v i l le r o mane d e l la Repubb l ica e d e l Pr i mo Impero ' ,N .Sc . 1 965, p p . 2 37-252 . 2 4 .

Pra te l la ( Imo la ) , Em i l ia e R o magna : D . S cag l iar in i, Ravenna e l e v i l le r o man .e i n R o magna , ( Co l lana d i q uadern i d i a n t ich i täRavenna t i, . cr ist iane eb izan t ine d iret ta d a l p rof . G . Bov in i d e l l ' Un ivers itä d i Bo logna . p p . 1 6-21, F ig . 1 0 ;

Quaderno No . X ) , Ravenna 1 968 ,

G .A . Mansue l l i , 'La v i l la r o mana n e l l ' I t a l ia

s e t ten tr iona le ', P .P . LV I I ( 1957 ) , p p . 4 54-55. 2 5 .

R uss i ( Ravenna ) , Em i l ia e Ro magna : G .A . Mansue l l i, L av i l la r o mana d i Russ i , Faenza , 1 962 ;

i de m .,

R uss i ( Ravenna ) -s cavo d i u . na v i l la r o mana ( 1953-5) ', Bo l le t ino d 'A r te I ( 1956) , p p . 1 51-57 ;

i de m ., L e v i l le d e l mondo Ro mano ,

M i lano 1 958 , p p . 7 7-8 ; D . S cag l iar in i , o p .c i t ., p p . 1 2-28 ; i de m . , 6 9

L a v i l la r o mana d i Russ i ( Ravenna ) : Campagna d i S cavo 1 969 ' i n G . S us in i ( ed .) , L a V i l la R o mana , Faenza 1 971, p p . 1 17-142 . G . Mon tanan ie t a l . 2 6 .

Russ i :

l a v i l la r omana , l a c i te a , Faenza 1 975.

S ambuco ( B lera ) , L az io : C . O stenberg ,

L un t a nd V i l la S ambuco ', i n E truscan Cu lture , L and

a nd Peop le , Ma l mo 1 960 , p p . 3 13-20 ; E . B erggren ,

An ew a pproach

t o t he c los ing c en tur ies o f E truscan h istory ' ,Arctos V ( 1967 ) , p p . 2 9-43 . 2 7 .

S an R occo ( Franco l ise ) , Campan ia : P . V on B lankenhagen , M .A . C ot ton , J .B . Ward-Perk ins, Two Ro man v i l las a t Franco l ise ', P .B .S .R . ) (X ( 1 965) , p p . 5 5-69, i dem ., Franco l ise ( Caser ta ) - Rappor t° p rovv isor io d e l 1 962-4 s ug l i s cav i d i d ue v i l le r o mane d e l la Repubb l ica e d e l Pr i mo Impero ', N .Sc . 1 965 , p p . 2 37-252 , J .B . Ward-Perk ins, E .R .A., p . 3 19, F ig . 1 24 .

2 8 .

S an S ebast iano a l Vesuv io, C a mpan ia : G .C . I re l l i, S . S ebast ian° a l Vesuv io -v i l la r ust ica r o mana ', N .S c . 1 965, S upp l ., p p . 1 61-178 .

2 9 .

S an V ito ( Sa lap ia ) , Pug l ia : M . D . Mar in , S cav i a rcheo log ic i n e l la c on trada S . V ito p resso 1 l ago d i S a lp i ' ,Arch iv io S tor ico Pug l iese 1 964, p . 1 71f f .

3 0 .

S ca fa t i ( c on trada Crapo l la ) , Campan ia : M . De l la C or te , 'V i l la r ust ica p arz ia lmen te e sp lora ta d o l l ' o n . s ig . V incenzo De Pr isco i nu n f ondo d i s ua p ropr ietä a l la c on tradaCrapo l la ( co mune d i S ca fa t i) ' ,N .S c . 1 923 , p p . 2 84-7 ; Rostov tzef fS EHRE, P . 5 53 N o . 3 6 .

3 1.

S cafa t i ( con trada S p ine l l i) , Campan ia : M . De l la C or te , 'V i l la r ust ica s cava ta d a l s ig . i ng . Gennaro Ma trone i n i m f ondo d i s ua p ropr ie täs itua to n e l la c on trada S p ine l l i ( c o mune d i S ca fa t i) a s ud d e l p or te l lone n .27 n e l R . C ana le d e l S arno ', N .S c . 1 923 . p p . 2 80-284 ; R ostov tzef f S EHRE, p . 5 53 No . 3 5 : S kydsgaard , Den R o merske V i l la Rust ica , C openhagen 1 961, p . 1 7 f ., F ig . 7 .

3 2 .

S ca lea ( Cosenza ) , Ca labr ia : G . Pesce , ' Sca lea -t rovamen t i v ar i l ' ,N .Sc . 1 936, p p . 6 7-74.

3 3 .

S e lvasecca ( B lera ) , Laz io : E . B erggren a nd A . Andren ,

B lera ( l oca l itä S elvasecca ) —V il la

r ust ica e trusco-ro mana c on man i fat tura d i t erracot te a rch i tet ton iche ' N .S c . 1 969 , p p . 5 1-71; B erggren , ' A new a pproach t o t he c losing c en tur ies o f E truscan h istory , Arctos V ( 1967 ) , p p . 2 9-43 . 3 4 .

S tab iae/Gragnano , Campan ia : M . R ugg iero, Deg l i s cav i d i S tab ia d a l 1 794 a t 1 782, Nap les 1 881, p . 3 51f f ; A . R ich , AD ic t ionary o f R oman a nd Greek A n t iquity ,2 N ew York 1 901, s .v .

3 5 .

t orcu lar iu m '.

T i t ignano ( co mune d i O rv ie to) , Umbr ia : A . M in to , T it ignano ( f raz ione d e l c o mune d i Orv ieto ) -a vanz i d i u n t orcu lar iu m d i e täro mana ', N .Sc. 1 914, p p . 1 67-8 .

7 0

3 6 .

T o lye - Mo ltone ( To lve ) , Bas i l ica ta : G . T occa , L ' a t t iv itä a rcheo log ica n e l la Basi l ica ta s et ten tr iona le ', i n A t t i d e l X I I I c onvegno d i s tud i s u l la Magna Grec ia , Napo li 1 974, p p . 4 61-7 . P la tes 1 02-5 ; D . A da mesteanu , La Bas i l ica ta An t ica , Ro me 1 975,

P .

2 19 .

P la te p . 2 20 ;

P opo l i a ne l len ic i i n Bas i l ica ta ,

1 971, p . 9 0 f . P la te XXXV . 3 7 .

Va l le d i Po mpe i i , Ca mpan ia : M . De l la C or te , 'Va l le d i P o mpe i .

Parz ia le e sp loraz ione d i u na v i l la

r ust ica , n e l la c ava d i l ap i l lo d i Ange lanton io De Mar t ino ', N .Sc . 1 929, p . 1 9Of f . 3 8 .

V ia T iber ina , R o ma : B . M . F e l le t t i Ma j. , 'R o ma ( V ia T iber ina ) -v i l la r ust ica ', N .Sc . 1 955, p p . 2 06-16 .

3 9 .

V icovaro ( L icenza ) , Laz io : G . L ug l i, L av i l la S ab ina d i Oraz io ', M .A . XXX I ( 1 926) , p . 1 25f f , p . 5 02 , N o . 1 4 ; C .F . G iu l ian i , T ibur : p ar t I . F orma I t a l iae Reg . 1 .3 . R o me 1 966, p . 7 4 , N o . 7 0 .

4 0 .

F ig . 7 3 .

V i l la Magna ( Anagn i ) , L az io: M. Mazzo lan i, A nagn ia : F orma I t a l iae Reg . I . V o l . 6 ., R o me 1 969, p p . 1 33-8 , N o . 1 04; T . A shby , 'T he c lass ica l t opography o f t he Ro man Campagna - I I ( t he V ia L a t ina ) ', P .B .S .R . V ( 1910) , p . 4 25.

4 1.

V it t i mose ( Bucc ino) , Campan ia : R . Ross Ho l loway a nd S .L . Dyson , ' Excava t ions a t Bucc ino, 1 970 ', A .J .A . 7 5 . ( 1 971) , p p . 1 51-54 ; R oss H o l loway , V i l la r o mana ', i n A t t i d e l I X c onvegno d i s tud i s u l la Magna Grec ia , Napo l i 1 970 , P . 2 03; S . Dyson , ' A S ilenus mask mou ld f rom t he e xcava t ions a t Bucc ino ( Sa lerno ) ', Arch. C lass. XX IV ( 1972 ), p p . 2 69-82.

7 1

Map I

Map

s how ing t he l o cat ion o f

f arm b u i ld ings i n t he r eg ion o f V esuv ius ( see Append ix A) 0

1 0 km

•:

e I .0

• ' A 2 8

. _ -'_

-_ _ _ -: . • _ .

. • \ ' ‘ ,41 .41 . •• 4 . ,

7• . , t , : ; • , . . . .-- . ••

H ercu laneu m

A

A5

3 1

A30

B ay o f N ap les

A

3 4

S tab iae

APPEND IX B

O ther s ites :

af urther c a ta logue o f e xcavated ( or s urveyed ) f ar m b u ild ings. *

Akra i ( S iracusa ), S ic i l ia : G . Gurc io , ' Akra i ( S iracusa ) —r icherche n el t err itor io :

l a f at tor ia t ardo-

e l len ist ica ' , N .Sc. 1 970 , p p. 4 47-465. B enzone ( Co l laz ia ) , L az io : L . Qu il ic i , Co l lat ia—For ma I ta l iae Reg. I . Vo l. 1 0 , Ro me 1 974, N o. 1 06 , p p. 2 42-5 ;

R . L anc ian i , N .Sc. 1 883, p p. 1 69-70.

Casa l i d i Men tana ( Men tana ), L az io : C . P a la , N omen tum —For ma I ta l iae R eg. 1 . Vo l. 1 2, Ro me 1 976 , No. 1 102, p p. 7 5-9. Cas ignana ( B ianco ), Ca labr ia : G . F ot i , At t i d e l V c onvegno d i s tud i s u l la Magna Grec ia , N apo l i 1 966 , p . 2 25f. Cecch igno la ( Via Ardea t ina ), Ro ma : P . E . Ar ias , ' V il la r epubb l icana p resso L a C ecch igno la ' , N .Sc. 1 939 , p p. 3 51-60. Co l le Faust in iano ( Praeneste ) , L az io : M. P . Muzz io l i , P raeneste —For ma I t al iae Reg. I . Vo l. 8 ., Ro me 1 970 , N o. 1 06 , ' Vi l la e c isterna ' , p p. 1 03-4. F iumana ( For l i ) , Em i l ia eRo magna : G. Mon tanan, ' La v i l la r o mana d i F iu mana ' i n G . S us in i ( ed ), L a V i l la Ro mana ' , F aenza 1 971, p p. 5 1-73. Grot te S . S tefano ( V iterbo ) , L az io : G. Co lonna , ' Vi l la r ust ica e a ltr i r est i i n l oca l ita P ian i d i Magugnano ' , N .Sc. 1 975 , p p. 5 3-8. L ivastr ito ( Cor i ), L az io : P . B . V ittucc i, Cora —For ma I ta l iae Reg. I . Vo l. 5 ., Ro me 1 968 , n o. 3 2, p p . 13-6. Lucus F eron iae , L azio : R . Band inel l i a nd M. Tore l l i , L 'Ar te d e l l 'An t ich ith C lass ica 2 : E trur ia Ro ma , Tur in 19 76 , N o. 6 5.

* Th is c a ta logue d oes n o t i nclude t he r e ma in ing ' Campan ian v i l lae r ust icae ' l i sted b y J . Day , ' Agr icu l ture i n t he l i fe o f Po mpe i i ' , Ya le C lass ica l S tud ies I I ( 19 32 ) , Table C , p p . 2 02-3.

The l i st i s s elect ive; i ti ncludes b u ild ings

t ha t h ave b een e xcava ted , o r t hose wh ich h ave b een s urveyed t o p rov ide a n a dequa te p lan o f t he ir ma in f ea tures.

I t a lso c on ta ins r eferences t o r ecen t

e xcava t ions whose d eta iled p ubl ica t ion may b e f or thco m ing.

7 3

L uogosano ( con trada S . S tefano ), Ca mpan ia : E . Gabr ic i, ' Luogosano-avanz i d i c ostruz ion i d i e tä r omana s u l Mon te S . S tefano ' , N .Sc. 1 901, p p. 3 33-6. Macerata ( Anagn i ) , L az io : M. Mazzo lan i, Anagn ia —For ma I t a l iae Reg. I . Vo l . 6 ., Rome 1 969 , N o. 3 5, p p. 1 13-4. Mensa Mate l ica ( Ravenna ), Em i l ia e Romagna : G . A . Mansue l l i , ' Ravenna ( f raz ione Mensa ) —ab ita to p reistor ico.

C asa

r o mana ' , N .Sc. 1 959 , p p. 3 1-5. Metauros ( Sybar is ), Ca labr ia : A . De Francesc is , 'Metauros :

l a c asa r omana ' , A . M.S . M.G . I I ( 1960 ),

p p. 5 2-6. Mon tecan ino ( Capena ) , L az io : M. P a l lott ino , ' Capena—rest i d i c ostruz ion i r o mane e med ioeval i i n l ocal itä "Mon tecan ino" ‚ , N .Sc. 1 937 , p p. 7 -28. Mon te Cucu lo ( Capena ), L az io : G .D.B. J ones ' Capena a nd t he Ager Capenas :

P art I ' , P .B.S. R. XVI I ( 1962 )

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7 4

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P late CXXXVI I I.

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7 5

B IBLIOGRAPHY

T h is b ib l iography d oes n ot c on ta in t he e xcava t ion r epor ts o f i nd iv idua l s ites, wh ich h ave b een l i sted i n A ppend ices A a nd B . h ave b een c onsu lted o r c i ted i n t he n otes.

I ti s al i st o f t hose w orks wh ich

Af ur ther l i st o f f requen t ly c i ted

works w i l l b e f ound u nder A bbrev ia t ions ( pp . v i i i-x ) .

Ih ave e xcluded a ny works

r e la t ing t o v i l la s tud ies o u ts ide I t a ly ( t hey a re f ar t oo n u merous) u n less t hey h ave b een c i ted i n t he n otes . Adamesteanu, D . A damesteanu , D .

L a Basi l ica ta An t ica .

S a lerno:

D i Mauro, 1 974 .

L a s udd iv isione d i t erra n e l Me tapon t ino ' i n Prob le mes

d e l a T erre e n Grece Anc ienne .

Ed . b y M . I . F in ley .

Par is :

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'Far ms a nd t he ir u ses ' i n :

a nd Wa les:

Vo l . I I I .

C a mbr idge :

The A grar ian H istory o f Eng land U . P ., 1 972 , p p . 1 51-205 .

Baste t , F . L . V i l la r ust ica i n c on trad .a P isane l la ', Cronache Pompe iane ( R iv ista d e l l ' A ssoc iaz ione I n ternaz iona le "Am ic i d i Po mpe i" )I ( 1976 ) , p p . 1 12-143 . Berggren , E . 'A n ew a pproach t o t he c los ing c en tur ies o f E truscan h istory ', Arctos V ( 1967 ) , p p . 2 9-43 . B lake , M . E .

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S venska I nst itu te t

'S i t icu losa A pu l ia ', A n t iqu i ty XX ( 1946) , p p . 1 91-200 .

Brad ford , J . 'Bur ied l andscapes i n s outhern I t a ly ', A n t iqu ity XX I II ( 1949) , p p . 5 8-72 . Bradford , J . The Apu l ian e xped i t ion : ( 1950) , p p . 8 4-95 .

a n i n ter im r epor t ', An t iqu i ty XX IV

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7 6

G . Be l l a nd S ons , 1 957 .

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