Readers guide to intermediate Japanese

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Readers Guide to Intermediate Japanese A Quick Reference to Written Expressions

Yasuko Ito Watt and Richard Rubinger yMIVr' 3 ' ; ^ , rv OF NORTHERN :

UBRARY Prjncs George, BC

University of H aw aii Press HONOLULU

© 1998 University of Hawaii Press All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America 98 99 00 01 02 03

5 4 3 2 1

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Watt, Yasuko Ito, 1944Readers guide to intermediate Japanese : a quick reference to written expressions / by Yasuko Ito Watt and Richard Rubinger. p. cm. ISBN 0—8248- 1993-4 (alk. paper) — ISBN 0-8248- 2047-9 (pbk.: alk. paper) 1 . Japanese language—Terms and phrases. I. Rubinger, Richard, 1943. II. Title. PL685 IN PROCESS 495.6'82421— dc21 97-41208 CIP

Camera-ready copy prepared by the authors.

University of Hawaii Press books are printed on acid-free paper and meet the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Council on Library Resources.



A ck n o w led g m en ts




Entries A p p en d ix A


A p p en d ix B




W e are grateful to many people for their help in the preparation o f this book. Anonym ous readers for University o f H aw aii Press made many constructive suggestions. Professor Tim othy V ance made exten sive improvements in an early draft for which we are indebted. Professor Jurgis Elisonas put some life into the example sentences. Professors Koichi Miura, Edith Sarra, and Natsuko Tsujimura made helpful comments. Professors Akiko Kakutani and Junko Suzuki provided guidance for the appendixes. Despite all the expert help we have had, errors will inevitably remain. These are, o f course, the responsibility o f the authors alone. Technical help from Oda Hiromi and Sara Langer, graduate students at Indiana University, was indispensable. For financial assistance we wish to thank the Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures at Indiana University. Finally, we wish to extend our gratitude to all o f our students over the years who have puzzled over complexities in written Japanese and asked the questions this book was written to answer.


The goal o f this book is to help students who are learning to read Japanese. We do not mean learning to read conversational Japanese written in Japanese script, however. Rather, our objective is to make it easier to understand texts that are written in Japanese and intended to be read. In recent years considerable attention has been given to improving the teaching o f spoken Japanese. The movement for “communicative competence” has made great strides in pedagogical practice in the development o f oral/aural skills. It seems to us, however, that students who seek to advance in their studies o f the language to the point o f doing research in Japanese sources have not been sim ila rly supported by a d van ces in p e d a g o g ic a l p ractice. Supplementary materials that would aid in the difficult process o f attaining functional competence in written Japanese remain scarce. This book seeks to address that need. Some excellent grammatical dictionaries have appeared in recent years, including the two volum es by Seiichi M akino and M ichio Tsutsui, A

Dictionary o f Beginning Japanese Grammar (The Japan Times, 1986) and A Dictionary o f Intermediate Japanese Grammar (The Japan Times, 1995). The present work differs from them in several important respects. This book specifically targets problems in written Japanese. We have avoided entries that w e considered to be elementary and conversational, those typically covered during the first two years o f most university programs. Thus, many entries found in the Makino and Tsutsui volum es are not included here, but many not included there can be found in this book. Unlike the M akino and Tsutsui volum es, ours is not intended to be a full grammatical reference. Consequently, the grammatical explanations are shorter here. We highly recommend reading Makino and Tsutsui for general


review and for fuller discussions o f those few entries that may appear in both. This book is addressed to students learning to read Japanese, typically in the third or fourth year o f university courses, and to those who already have some facility but need a handy reference for complicated structures that they may have forgotten. Since entries are not tied to any particular textbook, a reader need not be enrolled in a formal course of study to benefit. Entries were selected on the basis o f the two authors5 accumulated experience in teaching intermediate reading courses, an aggregate o f some forty years. We have undertaken no system atic analysis o f how often particular forms appear in written Japanese, nor have we done a systematic error analysis o f learners' writing samples. We have included entries that, in our ex p er ie n c e, students seem to h ave d iffic u lty learning and remembering. W e have placed emphasis on items that cannot easily be found in the indexes o f textbooks or in conventional dictionaries, either because the items are not included at all or because one cannot figure out how to look them up. Verb endings are a good example o f the latter. We have included many verb endings that cause trouble for students, such as -zaru o enai, for example. We have not neglected patterns such as koto ni suru/naru or yd ni

suru/naru, which appear frequently in written Japanese and cause difficulty because they are not readily accessible in standard reference works. We have included many cross-references to ensure that entries lacking a standard dictionary citation form can be located easily. In some cases an idiom is entered under a particle, a practice we followed when we determined that the particle was a grammatically determining factor. Thus, ni oite and

ni kakete are listed under the particle ni because the focus is on the idioms rather than on the gerund form o f the verbs. In such cases, however, we have also included cross-references from oite and kakete, where students might also be tempted to look. Ease o f access is another area in which we b e lie v e this book marks an im provem ent over other gram m atical

dictionaries.W e hope that the numerous cross-references w ill alleviate problems caused by multiple possibilities in listing Japanese phrases and idioms that make standard references so inadequate for students. The format for entries, with the exception o f those in the appendixes, is as follow s. A ll entries are listed in alphabetical order in romanization followed by the entry in Japanese script. The romanization is the so-called modified Hepburn system used in Kenkyusha, Sanseido, and other standard Japanese-English dictionaries. Where Chinese characters exist but are not commonly used, we have supplied them in brackets. Parentheses indicate a word or words that have optional usage. Cross-references appear in bold type on the same horizontal line as the entry and indicate an alternate entry listed elsewhere in the book. Except for these cross-references, the entry line is fo llo w ed by a box con sistin g o f E nglish renderings (where appropriate), Japanese synonyms (where possible), and brief comments on structure. Finally, there are example sentences meant to illustrate how the entry is used in context. A full entry looks like this:

Entry in romanization

entry in Japanese script


English rendering (where appropriate) Similar to: Japanese synonyms (where possible) Structure Structural notes See also: Additional references Example sentences

W e have not always provided English renderings where we felt they could be m isleading or where usage in a full sentence provided a more accurate indication o f meaning than a sim ple translation. Beneath the

English renderings (follow ing “Sim ilar to:”) w e give in italics sim ple Japanese synonyms, if any, that readers could be expected to know after two years’ study of Japanese. The idea here is to provide meanings o f more com plicated expressions in terms a reader might already know, thus enhancing his or her vocabulary in the language. In describing the structure o f an entry w e have provided a sim ple grammatical paradigm that we have found to be pedagogically useful. This is followed by an English description and further comments on structure. The paradigm consists o f a shorthand where the capital letter “V ” indicates verbs; the capital letter t4N ,5 indicates ordinary nouns, pronouns, nanominals, and noun phrases. The capital letter “X ” (and occasionally “Y ” and “Z”) indicates all other parts o f speech and entire sentences. In the case o f verbs, wherever possible we have specified the past (V-ra), the stem (Vstem), and the gerund form (V-te). V alone indicates the citation form o f the verb or its negative. Additional references following “See also:’’ are words or expressions related to the main entry (not necessarily exact synonyms) that might also be useful to the reader. The bold type indicates that they are listed elsewhere in the dictionary. The example sentences are original. Recognizing that readers will have diverse skills, we have provided both simple sentences and more difficult examples that will challenge more advanced readers. All sentences are in written style, and the level o f difficulty has been keyed to intermediatelevel students, recognizing that this covers broad ground and a range of skills. W e hope that reading some o f the more difficult sentences w ill increase students’ reading skills. In this connection please note that wherever p o ssib le w e have included in the exam ple sen tences for one entry illustrations o f the usages described in other entries. We have found such

multiple reinforcing to be essential in the mastery o f written forms at the intermediate level. In the example sentences, readings o f Chinese characters are provided in furigana for all but the simplest characters, and English renderings are provided as well. In the translations we have tried to walk the delicate line between acceptable English and renderings into English that w ill aid in understanding the structure of the Japanese original. Where that line was especially difficult to toe, we have provided an alternative translation in parentheses. In addition to the entries in the alphabetical sections, we have added appendixes for idioms using mi(M') and k i(M ) . We have found these to be particularly troublesome for students. They are difficult to locate in standard reference works, as they are often embedded in brief entries that fail to include all the necessary permutations. We no doubt have left out entries that ought to be included in this book and are guilty o f other errors o f om ission and com m ission. W e would appreciate com m ents and suggestions from readers that w ill aid us in compiling a better, revised edition in the future.


ageku (no hate) ( n i ) あ げ く (の 果 て )(に ) finally; in the end; to make matters worse W-ta ageku (no hate) (ni) N no ageku (no hate) (ni) In the end, after V (and to make matters worse); in the end, following N (and making matters worse). No hate ni adds additional force to the StatementComparable to 似ど("mj,which also indicates an end to something but not necessarily an unfortunate result as with ageku. See also: sue ui り 父は小さな会を経営していたが、

金したあげく( の果て)( に)



My father ran a small company, but after falling deeply into debt he ended up going bankrupt. ぬ

jT H いのあげく(の果て)(に)、幼ぃ孚供を备 して夭折した。

After suffering from illness for a long time, leaving ner little children behind.

the end) she aied young,

akatsuki ni wa

akatsuki ni w a あ か つ き に は [ 暁 に は ] in the event of; in case of W-ta akatsuki ni wa N no akatsuki ni wa In the event that V occurred; in case of N. Comparable to baai ni wa, which indicates a neutral case, but here there is the suggestion of something positive, in the sense of an event being completed with a successful outcome. この研究が一 r f の本としてめでたく^B版のあかつきには、教授に 昇進可能である。

In the event of this research being successfully puoiished as a bo〇K, there is a possibility of promotion to full professor. この—

參 り に 行 く も の と 決 ま っ て い る 。

Dunng the Bon festival, it is tne practice to visit the graves of one's ancestors.

日 本 で も ア メ リ カ で も 、結 婚 式 が す ん だ ら 新 婚 旅 行 に 行 く ものと 決 末 つ て V 、る。

in Doth Japan and the United States, it is tne practice to 20 on a nonevmoon tnp after one’s wedding ceremony.


mo shinai

mo shinai


absolutely not; certainly not V-stem mo shinai A very strong negative. See also: te i wa shinai; wa shinai 田中さんはよく

りも し な い こ と に つ い て ペ ラ ペ ラ し ゃ べ る か ら


I am disgusted with Tanaka because s/he talks glibly of things s/he knows nothing about.

彼女'の 苦

Sが 分 か り も し な い く せ に 口 を 出 す の は kん だ 方 が い い 。

Since you have no idea what she went through, vou ought to keep your mouth shut.



originally; in the beginning Similar to: ganrai., hajime karcr, izen kara; mae kara X wa motomoto Y, where X and Y are both nouns. X is originally Y. Should not be confused with mottomo. あ の 人 は もともと下 品 な 人 間 な の だ か ら 、今さら上品に振る舞え むり


Because that person is vulgar oy nature, it will do no good at this late date to tell him/her to behave m a refined manner.


moto yori


豆 腐 は もともと中国のものであると言われている。

It is said that tofu was originally a Chinese dish.

moto ni suru


based on Similar to: motozuku N o moto ni suru Based on N; taking N as the basis. See also: ni suru; ni yotte (4) この作品は源氏物語のある部分をもとにして^ かれている。

This work was written on the basis of a certain section of The Tale of Genji.

i 、s のほ資為不均衡つが補s に な っ て い る が 、 ど

の を も とにし


The traae lmoalance between the United States and japan has Decome a problem, out 1 don't know upon what numbers this discussion is based.

moto vori


originally; from the beginning Similar to: hajime kara\ izen kara\ mae kara Serves the same function as motomoto but is not generally used in conversation. Also, moto yori has connotations of ufrom a starting point onward,^ whereas motomoto points more directly at the starting point itself. Moto yori is favored in academic writing.



今 回 の 不 始 ^ は も と よ り 私 一 人 の 眚 仵 で 、 グ リ ー ン ^;に は 货 の かんけい


The recent mismanagement was my responsibility from the outset. It does not involve Mr. Green in any way.

jlし た が 、 も と よ り 学 校 を 退 学 さ せ ら れ て も 仕 方 が な い と い う 覚 f善 の う え で あ っ た 。 大学紛争のころストライキに参力

During the period of university disturbances I participated in strikes, prepared from the outset to accept expulsion from school.


もつて See o motte

motte ninjiru

もっとも[尤 も ]

mottomo ⑴

もって任じる See o motte ninjiru

understandable; reasonable Similar to: atarimae; dori ni atte iru\ muri mo nai\ tadashi N wa mottomo da Used to confirm that N is understandable, reasonable, or a matter of course for the reasons given. さいとう



斉 藤 さ ん は 全 然 勉 強 し な か っ た か ら 、試 験 に 落 ち た の は も っ と と だ 。

Saito aidn't study at all, so naturally s/he failed the exam.



健裏に留意しない山本さんが病気になってしまったのは玉 だ と 言 え ば も っ と も だ.

It stands to reason that \ amamoto, who is not attentive to his/her health, became ill.

to be sure; although; yet Similar to: shikashi; so wa iu mono no\ tadashi; tokoro ga X. Mottomo Y. Used as a connector to begin a new sentence Y that contradicts what came, before in X. 日 本 に は 四 季 の 変 化 が あ る 。 もっとも北 海 道 や 沖 縄 は 少 し 異 な る が 。

In Japan there are rour distinct seasons.1 o be sure, Hokkaido and Okinawa are slightly different.

このクラスの学生は優秀である。 もっとも山本さんだけは少し他 の学生より成績がおちるが。

The students in this class are outstanding. To be sure, Yamamoto has a record that’s a bit lower than the other students’.

N n a d o など ( 1 ) X (Y, Z) nado, where X, Y, and Z are nouns. Things like X (Y, Z).



昨日、デパートへ行って笑など去って夹 た。

Yesterday I went to the department store and bought an umbrella and other things.

最 近 ア メ リ カ で 、 日本語、 中国語、 韓 国 語 な ど を 勉 強 す る 学 生 が 増えている。

The number or students studying Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and such languages has been increasing in America recently.

( 2)

Similar to: nante X nado X is something that is unexpected, unfortunate, or not particularly hignly valued. もんだいすうがく

この問題は数学専門の人 が 出 来 な い の だ か ら 、私などに出来るは ずがない。

This problem cannot be solved by mathematicians, so there is no way someone like me can do it.

ドルの価値がこんなに下がるなど、誰も思いも し な か っ た に 違 い ない。

I am sure that no one could have imagined that the value of the dollar would have decreased so much.

大 学 を す る ま で よ ど 、


Until I graduated from college, I never even thought about things like traveling abroad.



n a g a r a ながら The use of nagara in the pattern V-stem nagara X, meaning t4doing X while simultaneously doing V,” is well known. There are two additional uses of nagara: ⑴

even though; despite; while; although Similar to: keredomo., no ni X nagara (mo) Y Despite one’s expectations for X, there is an unexpected and adverse result (Y). See also: mono no 佐 藤 さ ん は 手 伝 う と 約 束 し て お き な が ら 、約 束 の 時 間 に 去 な か っ た 。

Although Sato promised to help, s/he didn't come at the appointed time.


It is regrettable, but I don't know anything about that matter.

彼の病気は少しずつながら、 よくなっている。

His health is improving, even if only bit by bit.

我 が 家 は 貧 し い な が ら も、 皆 幸 せ に 基 ら し て い る 。

Even though my family is poor, we all live happily.

¥ 度 の 台 風 は 小 型 な が ら も、 大 き な 被 害 が 出 た 。

Even though the last typhoon was small, there was a lot of damage.


nai koto wa nai

( 2)

Similar to: no mama; to kawaranai; to onaji X nagara no Y Y is as it was when it was X. Thus, as seen in the examples, mukashi nagara no Y means ktY as it was long ago/* and means “at birth” or “by nature.” ふじん





In that woman's language you can notice characteristics of Japanese as it was long ago.


She is a natural-bom genius.

nai koto wa nai な い こ と は な い See aru ni wa aru

naishi 乃至 or Similar to: arui wa; mata wa

( 1)

X naishi Y X or Y. 今 晩 、鹿児島の南、乃至南西から台風が上陸するということである。

The report is that the typhoon will nit from the south or southwest of Kagoshima tomgnt.


It is not necessarily the case that the British monarchy or the Japanese emperor system will last forever.



from . . . to Similar to: X kara Y made X naishi Y From X to Y. 明日乃至明後日にかけて大雨注意報が出ている。

There is a heavy ram wamine extending rrom tomorrow until the day at ter tomorrow.

こ の 会 場 に は 百 人 乃 至 百 五 十 人 、入 れ る は ず で あ る 。

I expect that anywhere from 100 to 150 people can fit insiae this meeting hall.

-nai uchi ni -な い う ち に Derore V nai uchi ni X Before V, X. V represents something beyond the speaker’s control. 子供が

I を覚さないうちに新聞を読もう。

Before my child wakes up, Fll read the paper.

雨 が ら ないうちに、買物に行って桑よう。

Before it starts raining, Fll go shopping.

naku なく See ni (mo) naku



n a m a j i なまじ not fully; not thoroughly; not completely An adverbial form that suggests that an action or state is incomplete or insufficient. Namajii is an alternate form of namaji. Namajikka na is used as a noun-modifying form. 外国づくに つ れ ( て )、 街 が ざ わ つ い て く る 。

\Vith the approach of New Year s, the town begins to stir.

ni wa

には See koto ni (wa); no ni (2)

ni y o r a z u に よ ら ず no matter; not only X ni yorazu Not only in X; not just with X; not limited to X. Also, often used with interrogatives such as donna X ni yorazu (whatever X), nanigoto ni yorazu (no matter what), dokosoko ni yorazu (no matter where), darekare ni yorazu (no matter who).

m yoru

ジ ョ ー ン ズ さ ん は 日 本 の こ と に 篇 す る -4 と

f 出かけて行く。

I く や 、 何 事 によら

As soon as Jones hears of a lecture concerning Japan, s/he goes to it no matter what it is about.

禾1 ¥ 大 学 に よ ら ず 、



The nse m tuition has been remarkable not just at private universities but at national universities as well recently.

ni vori


See ni yotte

ni y o r u による ⑴

due to; because of (X wa) N /?/ yoru X (either stated or implied) is due to N; X is caused by N. See also: ni yotte (1) かのじよ



彼女が司法試験に合格したのは彼女の努力に よ る ものである。

That she passed the bar exam is due to her effort alone. うんどうかいちゆうし



The sports day was canceled because of bad weather.

ni yoru to


depend upon (X wa) N ni yoru X (either stated or implied) depends upon N. See also: ni yotte (2) 降雨量が多いか少ないかは、年 による。

Whether rainfall is light or neavv depends on the year.

u 故 で tjsirの?!



In this company the amount of one’s salary does not depend upon one’s age.

ni yoru t o によると according to N ni yoru to X . . . so da. According to N, X is the case. N represents a source of information. So da indicates information reported from an outside source. 手 レ ビ の ニュースに よると、今 年 の 夏 は 例 年 に な く 暑 く な る そ う だ 。

According to the news on TV, the summer this year will be hotter tnan usual.

ぶ ん ( 7 ? 為こよると、

さ ん は 来 年 〇ン ド ン に 転 勤 す る こ と


According to Oda, it was arranged that next year Honda will transfer to London.


ni yotte

ni yotte ( 1)


because of Similar to: no okage de; no sei de N ni yotte Because of N. This meaning of ni yotte is similar to that of ni yoru (1), but ni yotte is used adverbially. せんげつ





More than one hundred people died in the avalanche last month.

高 杈 の -校 長 先 生 の 推 '薦 に よ っ て 、 こ の 大 学 に 入 る こ と が で き た 。

I was able to get into this university thanks to the recommendation from my hign school principal.


depending upon N ni yotte Depending on N. This meaning of ni yotte is similar to that oini yoru (2), but ni yotte is used adverbially. See also: ni yoru (2) 降雨量は年によって違う。

The amount of rainfall varies depending upon the year.

この会社では給料の額は年令によって乐 められるのではない

In this company salary is not determined by age.



m yotte

チップをいくら釔うかはき基くによって鲨 ぅ。

How big a tip is left differs according to the customer.


through; by means of; via (agency) Similar to: de N ni yotte By means of N. そ の 事 件 に 関 し て は 、テ レ ビ の ニ ュ ー ス に よって、知 っ た 。

I learned about that incident througn the news on TV.

そんな些細なことは裁判沙汰にするよりも話し合いによって、 解決すべきだ。

You should resolve such trivial matters by talking them over rather than bv a lawsuit.

on the basis of Similar to: m motozuite N ni yotte On the basis of N. See also: moto ni suru もとやま



Motoyama makes it a practice to buv books on the basis of book reviews.

こ の 大 学 で は 、両 親 の 収 入 に よ っ て 、学 生 の 奨 学 金 額 が 決 め ら れ る 。

At this university the size of a student's scholarship is determined on the basis of the parents income.



no amari ( n i ) の あ ま り (に ) See amari (ni)

nodew aarum aika の で は あ る ま い か Seedew aarum aika

no koto (de)

のこと( で)

X no koto (de) No koto de adds emphasis to the adverb represented by X. 私はやっとのこと( で )、 司 法 試 験 に 合 格 す る こ と が 出 来 た 。

Fmallv, I was able to pass tne bar exam.

ようやくの こ と ( で )覚 え た 暗 号 を ど う し て も 思 い 出 せ な い 。

For the life of me, I can't recall the code that I had mastered with such effort.

nomi のみ only; just; merely Similar to: bakari\ dake X nomi Only X; just X; merely X. Nomi emphasizes a limit, indicating that X is the only possibility. Similarly, dake also suggests extent or limit. Bakari comes from the word hakari (scales), and it indicates degree in comparison with other possibilities. Nomi is more of a written form than dake or bakari.




“Man cannot live by bread alone•”


k 覧 会 に 行 っ た 。 あ ま り の 素 ^ら し さ に 目 を 見 張 る


The other day I went to a Van Gogh exhibit. It was so wonderful that I could only gaze in awe.


Although my daughter is as tall as I am. she's just (physically) big and is still (emotionally) a child.



not only . . . but also Similar to: dake de naku; sono ue X nominarazu Y Not only X but Y as well. Thus, both X and Y. Similar to ;?/ kagiram and dake de naku but slightly different from X bakari ka Y. With X bakari ka Y, Y is more important than X; in X 二 w Y, X and Y are equally valued. See also: bakari de naku; bakari ka; ni kagirazu; ni todomarazu 学期末になると、学 生 のみならず教師も疲れてくるものだ。

By the end of the semester, it's not just the students but the teachers, too. who get tired.


no ni

^ は日本の政治経済に精通しているのみならず、文学もよくふつ ている。

He is not only familiar with Japanese politics and economics, but literature, too.

あ の 学 生 は 成 績 が 抜 群 で あ る のみならず、 スポーツも万能である。

That student not only has the best grades but is also good at sports.

no ni ( 1)


despite; in spite or; although Similar to: keredo(mo) X no ni Y Y occurs in spite of or despite X. See also: ni mo kakawarazu まいにちかんじ




Although I practice Chinese cnaracters every day, I can’t rememoer them easily.

こ の 時 計 は 非 常 に 高 か っ た の に 、す ぐ 壊 れ て し ま っ た 。

In spite or its nigh price, this watch broke right away.


in order to V (no) ni (wa) X In order to do V, X is necessary or advisable. See also: tame (m j(l)


ケ ー キ を #る ( の )に は 、

ifや バ タ ー が 必 要 で あ る 。

In order to make a cake, flour and butter are required. その大学の艾学試験に

g格 す る (の )に は 、 毎 日 十 時 間 ぐ ら い 勉 強


In order to pass the entrance exam for that universitv. vou must study for about ten hours everv day.



A classical rorm or the negative sufrix, -nai. With the irregular verbs suru and kuru, the negative forms become senu and konu, respectively. はっきりしないことは軽々しく 口にせぬこと。

You should not speak lightly about things of which you are not certain.

“ についてよから迨うわさが広まっている。

Nasty rumors about him are spreading.


My time was taken up unexpectedly, and I ended up being late for my train home.



o -6 - う V-o/yo Whether the verb ends in -6 or -yd depends on the type of verb. RU verbs: taberu, for example, becomes tabeyd. U verbs: nomu, for example, becomes nomd. Irregular verbs suru and kuru become shiyo and koyd, respectively. The popular form used for suggestion or invitation, as in iko or tabeyd, is well known. In addition, this form is also used as follows: ⑴

intend to; plan to Similar to : tsumori W-o/yo Intend to V. 今年こそ本を二冊ほど备 こ立と思っている。

This year Fm thinking of writing as many as two books.


Fm going to watch TV after finishing my homework.


o ba

probably; perhaps Similar to: dard \ - 〇lyd Perhaps V. Usually appears in sentence-ending position. Often used in combination with the potential form of verbs. May also be used with adjectives such diSyokaro. See also: de aro; -karo せかい


コンピューターなしの世界はもはや套えられないということがで きよう。

You can probably say that a world without computers is alreadv inconceivable.


You can probably say that exercise is indispensable from the standpoint of health.

〇b a をば

An emphatic equivalent of particle o, o ba occurs frequently in classical Japanese. Ba is etymologically the particle wa but is pronounced ba following o. O ba generally follows nouns but may also follow verbs, in which case a nominalizer such as koto is implied. 今年の十

一 月 に

大統領選挙ギ 行われるが大統領為補の不法移民に


There will be a presidential election this November, but I will have a hard time voting without hearing the candidates’ policies on illegal immigration nrst.


-6 de wa nai ka

その当時アメリカの指導者たちは日本国民に無条件降伏し つ け る よ り 外 に 戦 争 を 終 結 さ せ る $ は な い と ^^え た 。

American leaders at that time thought that there was no other way to end the war than to impose unconditional surrender on the Japanese people.

そ の 当 時 ま だ /テ レ ビ が 普 及 し て お ら ず 、 日 曜 日 に 家 族 そ ろ っ て 映

gに 行 く を ば み し み に し て い た も の で あ る 。 In those days TV was not widespread, and I used to look rorward to going to a movie with my whole family on Sundays.

-5 de wa nai ka •うではないか Similar to: -masho; -o W-d/yd de wa nai ka Invitation to others to V; seeking agreement to V. も う ゴ 垄 苔 の を じ っ く り 検 討 9し て み よ う で は な い か 。

Why don't we carefully examine the problems between the United States and Japan once more?

そ ん な つ ま ら な い こ と を と り あ げ て 問 顆 に す る の は や め ようでは ないか。

Why don't we quit raising questions about such trifling matters?


-o ga … -mai ga

ga • • • -mai ga - う が 〜 - ま い が Similar to: ni shiro . . . -nai ni shiro; -d to . . . -mai to; -te mo . . . -nakute mo X-dlyd gaX-mai ga Whether or not you X. -0/yo represents the affirmative form of verbs in most cases; -mai is the negative form. Can also be used with adjectives and the copula, however. 貴 方 が 行 こ う が 行 く まいが、私 は 田 中 さ ん の 昏 式 に 出 席 す る つ もりだ。

Whetner or not you go to 1 anaka's wedding, I plan to go.

総 理 ぶ 臣 の 名 前 な ど 知 っ て い よ う が い ま い が 、我 々 に は 関 ^の な いことである。

Whether or not they know the pnme minister's name is something that doesn’t concern us.

今1 の

K画 は お も し ろ か ろ う が お も し ろ か る ま い が 备 業 k二環と


Whether today's mm is interesting or not, I nave to watcn it as part or my class assignment.



-6 ga • • • -5 ga

- うが〜-うが

whether or not Similar to: -o/yo to . . . -d/yd to; -te mo . . . -te mo X-d/yd ga .. . \~ 〇lyd ga Whether X or Y, where X and Y are paired words and are usually verbs but can also be adjectives or the copula. See also:

d e aro; -karo; n i sh iro . . . ni sh iro ; -5



f 吸おうが私の知ったことではない


It's not my business whether you dnnk or smoke, but you should take care of vour health. 中 華 料 理 で あ ろ う が 和 食 で あ ろ う が 、御 飯 さ え あ れ ば た い て い の 日本人は満足するものだ。

Whether it is Chinese tooa or Japanese food, most Japanese will be satisfied as long as nee comes with it.

o ite

o jite

お いて See n i o ite

応 じ て See n i d jite



o k a g e おかげ due to; thanks to X okage. When X is a noun, it is followed by the particle no. Thanks to X. X is usually a favorable situation. See also: sei 私がシカゴ大学の大学院で勉強することが出来たのは両親のおか ]£だ 。

Thanks to my parents, I was able to study at the graduate school of the University of Chicago. から春休みが二週間に延びたおかげで、ゆっくり休むことが でき


I was able to take a good rest thanks to the fact that from this year onward spring break has been extended to two weeks.


おける See ni okeru

-6 koto nara -うことなら if possible Similar to: dekiru koto nara \ -6lyd koto nara X If V were possible, then X. Limited in usage to a very small number of verbs. See also: -o


o motte

な ろ うことなら、一日も早く仕事をやめてゆっくりしたいもので ある。

If it could be done, Fd like to quit work as soon as possible and take it easy. いま

で き よ う こ と な ら 、今 す ぐ に で も 日 本 に 行 き た い と 思 う の で あ る が 。

Ir it were Dossiole, Fd like to go to Japan this moment.

-5 mono nara

- うものなら See mono nara (2)

o m o tte をもって[を以て] in; at; on; because of Similar to: de N o motte Similar in usage to N de, where N is a cause, situation, or time. In the latter case, o motte indicates the time when sometning happened. の か ど を も っ て が島に流された0

Shunkan was exiled to the island of Kikaigashima on suspicion of treason.

1 9 8 9 年 をもって昭和は終わりになった。 The Showa era ended in 1989.


o motte mnjiru

o motte n in j ir u を も っ て 任 じ る [ を 以 て 任 じ る ] profess to be; lay claim to be N o motte ninjiru Profess to be N. N is something desirable and positive that one professes to be, thinks oneself to be, lays claim to be, and so forth, but which is not, in actuality, the case. 中^]•さんはたいした研€ もし て い な い が 、 学 者 を も っ て 任 じ て い る „

Nakamura has not done research of any importance but professes to be a scholar.

あの 会 社 は @ 産 し か け て い る に も か か わ ら ず 、 この国一の をもって任じている。

That company lays claim to being the strongest business organization in the country, although it is (actually) on the verge of bankruptcy.



o •. • ni suru

See to onajiku

を〜にする See ni suru


-d to . . . -d to

•6 to -うと no matter (how, what, who, when) Similar to: -te mo X 6 to, where X is usually a verb but can also be an adjective stem followed by -kard, as in the third example below. Preceded by an interrogative word.

pん な に 疲 れ て い ようと、 ど ん な に 遠 い 所 で あ ろ 立 上 、 彼は 彼女に頼まれればすぐにどこにでも出かけて行く。

No matter how tired he may be, no matter how distant the place, if asked by her he will go anywhere right away.

あ の 人 が 何 を 飲 も う と 何 を 食 べ ようと私 の 知 っ た こ と で は な い 。

Whatever s/he may annk, whatever s/ne mav eat is not mv concern.

お 暴 く に 招 か れ た は 、出された4 事 が ^^こ ま ず かろうと、食 ほう


When vou are invited as a guest, it is better to eat everything that is served, no matter how baa it may be.

-6 to • • • -mai to - うと〜-まいと See -6 ga • • • -mai ga

-6 to • • • -6 to - うと〜-うと See -6 ga • • • -6 ga


-6 to shinai

-〇to shinai


Y-o/yo to shinai Subject of V is unwilling to do V; does not want under any circumstances to do V. See also: -6 あ 人 は 人 の 言 う こ と を 聞 こ うとしないか ら 、 いくら忠告しても 無駄である。

Since that person is not willing to listen to wnat other people say, no matter how much one may advise him/her, it is all m vam.

姉はたばこは体に悪いと知りながらも、な か な か や め ようとしない。

Even though she knows tnat smoKing is bad tor her health, my older sister is unwilling to quit.


を通して Seetsdjite

•6 to suru -うとする ⑴

try to; intend to V-d/yd to suru Try to V; intend to V, where the attempt is usually unsuccessful. See also: de aro to suru; -6 (1)


o towazu

明 治 維 新 を 題 材 に し た 歴 史 小 説 を 書 こ うとしたが 、 うまくいかな かった。

I tried to write a historical novel with the Meiji Restoration as the subject matter, but it didn’t go well.

夕 べ 八 時 ご ろ 電 話 を か け ようとしたが 、電話が故障し て い て 連 絡 できなかった。

I tried to call around eight o'clock last night, but the phone was out or order ana i couldn’t get through.

be about to W-o/yo to suru Be about to V. See also: -o いえ



家 を 出 よ うとした時 に 電 話 が か か っ て き て 、会 議 に 遅 れ て し ま っ た 。

Just as I was about to leave nome, the telephone rang, and i ended up being late ror the meeting.

テニスの試 合 が 始 ま ろ うとしてい る と こ ろ へ 大 雨 が 降 っ て き た 。

Just when the tennis match was about to start, it began to rain heavily.

o • • • to suru

o towazu

をとする See ni suru

を 問 わ ず See towazu

o tsujite

o tsujite


を通じて See tsGjite

をや See iwan ya . . . ni oite o ya

o y o b u 及ぶ reaching, extending to (X wa) Y ni oyobu, where X and Y are both nouns describing times, places, or situations. X extends to Y; X reaches as far as Y. Ni may be replaced by made or ni made. 桜が満開になり、f

e s





となり、 そ の 篆 は 数 ふ こ 及 ん


The cherry blossoms are in full bloom, and yesterday there were the largest crowds of all. They say that the numbers reached into the tens of thousands.

テ レ ビ の ニ ュ ー ス に よ る と 、 g 風 の 被 - は 九 州 k 端 か ら 本 州 9にま で 及んだそうだ。

According to the news on TV, the typhoon damage extended from southern Kyushu to Honshu.

o yoso ni

をよそに See yoso ni



P -ppanashi


Similar to: mama W-stQm-ppanashi V continues as it was. The verb suffix -ppanashi is a form of the verb hanasu (to let go). 昨日はひどく疲れていて、電気をつけっぱなしで寝てしまった。

I was so tired last night I fell asleep with the lights still on.

ここじし备 备 ん2娑と毎もちテニスをしているが、 こ う 4 け っ ぱ な し で は、や る 気 が し な く な る 。

Every day this week Fve been playing tennis with ner, but because I keep losing, I don’t reel like playing anvmore.

^の 部 屋 の ド ア を あ け っぱなしにして大きな声で話していたとこ ろ、 隣 か ら 文 句 を 言 わ れ た 。

When I was talking in a loud voice with mv dorm room door open, there was a complaint rrom next door.



R -ra - ら Similar to: -tachi N-ra A noun pluralizer such as sorera (those), kodomora (children). Often used with personal pronouns such as warera (we), karera (they). Can also be attached to a person's name such as Sato-sanra. where it suggests uSato and his/her crowd.M 彼ムによると坂田さんムは今日は毒ないそうだ。

According to them, Sakata and his/her group will not be coming today.

子 供ち_は そ の 人 達 に 対 し て あ ら ゆ る 限 り の い た ず ら を し た 。

The cmldren played all Kinds of pranks on those people.

rashii ( 1)


seems that; appears to be Similar to: yd da X rashii Seems to be X; is apparently X. A conjecture based on reliable information that the writer has heard or read but that is not firsthand information. Similar to yd da, but yd da is conjecture based on firsthand information, usually visiole. 明 日 も ま た 雪 が 降 る らしい。

It seems that it is going to snow tomorrow, too (according to the information I have from news reports, etc.).






東 示 の 冬 は ニ ュ ー ヨ ー ク の 冬 に 比 べ て そ れ ほ ど 寒 く な い ち 丄 ^。

Compared to winters in New York, winters in Tokyo are apparently not as cold (based on wnat I have read or heard).

( 2)

X rashii Y Y has qualities appropriate to X or expected of X. X and \ may be the same word, as otoko rashii otoko (a man worthy of being described as a man, manly), Nihonjin rashii Nihonjin (a real Japanese). Or X and Y may be different, as otoko rashii hito (a manly person). X rashiku nai (without Y) can also be used, as seen in the second example below. 中村さんはお茶もお花も習字もなんでも日本的なことのよく出来 る本当9に 日 本 人 ら し い 日 本 人 で あ る 。

Nakamura is a truly Japanese-like Japanese who can do all manner of Japanese things such as the tea ceremony, ikebana, calligraphy, and so on.

日 本 で は 大 声 で 話 す の は 女 らしくな い と 考 え ら れ て い る 。

In Japan, speaking in a loud voice is thought to be unladylike.


sae … -ba

s sae • • • -ba

さ え 〜 -ば

if only X sae … -ba If only X; X alone is sufricient and nothing else is necessary. When X is a verb, the pattern is V-stem sae sureba, as in the third example below. 明 自 の パ ー テ ィ ー に 、秋 さ ん さ え 4 てく れ れ ば 、4 の人が桑な くてもいい。

If only Akiyama comes to tomorrow^ party, it will be all nght ir no one else shows up.

この仕事さえしてしまえば、 あとはゆっくりできる。

If we can just finish this worK, we can relax afterwards.




Ir I just get through nnal exams, I can do such things as eo to the movies and read detective stones.


sai (ni)

sae ( m o ) さ え (も) even Similar to: mo X sae (mo) Even X. See also: sura ジョンソンさんは外国の話をよくするが、実はカナダ( に )さえ l


)行 っ た こ と が な い 。

Johnson is always talking about roreign countnes, but actually s/he has never even been to Canada.

最 近 は ア メ リ カ ;T ? も 日 本 語 を 教 え る 大 学 が 増 え 、 中 西 部 の 小 さ な 大 学 (で )立 主 、 講 座 を 開 い て い る 。

Recently, the number of universities where Japanese is taught nas increased m tne United States as well. Classes are held even at small colleges in the Midwest.

sai ( n i ) 際 (に ) when; at the time when Similar to: toki ni X (no) sai (ni), where no is used when X is a noun. At the time when one did or is going to do X. See also: ni atari; ni saishite; ni tsuke(te)



日 本 語 の 备 ^ が い る の で 、 今 度 東 京 に 行 っ た 際 (に ) S って泰よう と思っている。

I need a Japanese dictionary, so I am thinking of buying one the next time I go to Tokyo.

私の大学の図書館には日本語の本がたくさんあるので、必要の膣 (に )は 遠 慮 な く 知 ら せ て 欲 し い 。

My university's library has many Japanese books, so wnen you need one, I hope you won’t hesitate to let me know.


際して See ni saishite


さ れ ね ば な ら な い See -nebanaranu

•saru - さ る [- 去 る ] completely; to the end Similar to: kanzen n i . . . sum; shite shimau W-sitm-saru V completely; V to the end. 小鳥がたくさん木のS


ると 、 一 吝 に 飛 び 去 っ て しまった。

Manv birds were percned on tne tree branches, but as soon as the rifle shots sounded, they all flew away.





彼 女 と 私 の 間 に は い ろ い ろ な 誤 解 が あ っ た が 、 過 ぎ 去 っ た ことは 過ぎ去 っ た こととして余しく出直すことにした。

She and I had had many misunderstandings, but we decided to start over again, letting bygones be bygones.



Derives rrom the classical rorm sesasu and is otten used in place or the causative saseru. Can appear alone or attached as a suffix to the stem of a verb. 留守番を小さい子供にさすのはよくない。

It is not good to have a small child look after one's house while one is away.

子供が病気にならないように栄養のあるものを食べさすようにし ている。

We are trving to make our child eat nutritious foods so that s/he does not become ill.

-sei _せ い !;-性 ] N-sei A noun suffix that makes the noun abstract. “Unique” becomes “uniqueness” た becomes ^necessity'* (hitsuyd-sei).

• “necessary”

この仕事は将来性がないので、 どうしようかと思案中である。

This work has no future, so I am in the midst of considering what to do.



山田さんがやって来る可能性がないことはないが、あまりあてに ほう


It’s not that there’s no possibility of Yamada’s coming, but I wouldn’t depend too much on it.

s e i せい due to; because of X sei. When X is a noun, it is followed by the particle no. Due to X. X represents an unfavorable situation, and sei often places blame. See also: okage 大 久 保 さ ん が 大 事 な 会 議 に 遅 れ た の は 電 車 が 桑 な か っ た :^で 、 わる


Okubo^ late arrival at the important meeting was because the train didn't come. It wasn’t his fault.


She says it is the teacher's fault that she failed.

seyo せよ See ni shiro

seyo . . . seyo せ よ 〜 せ よ See ni shiro … ni shiro



sh ik a

only; just Similar to: bakari; dake; nomi X shika Only X; just X. Always followed by a negative expression. The essential difference between X shika nai and X dake aru is that in the former the lack of something is emphasized, and in the latter the existence of something is emphasized. このクラスでその漢字が読めるのはスミスさんしかいない。

In this class there is no one but Smith who can read those kanji.

この学校の日本語の授業では日本語しか使ってはいけないことに なっている。

It's been arranged that in Japanese classes in this school you must use Japanese only.

sh im a i

sh in a i

sh ir o

sh ita g a i

しまい See w a sh im a i

しない See m o sh in ai; w a sh in a i



ni sh iro

したがい See ni sh ita g a i





したがって See ni shitagai

して See ni shite; -zu shite

shite hajimete

して初めて See ni shite hajimete

shite mireba

してみれば See ni shite mireba

shite miru to

してみると See ni shite mireba

shite mo

しても See ni shite mo

shite mo ••• shite mo

shite wa

しても〜しても See ni shiro

しては See ni shite wa


ni shiro

so ka to itte

soba k a r a そばから no sooner than; immediately after Similar to: no sugu ato de; sugu ni; suru ka shinai ka no uchi ni V soba kara Immediately following V. Resembles ya ina ya, but whereas ya ina ya is used for onetime occurrences, soba kara is used for frequent occurrences. See also: ga hayai ka; ka to miru to; nari (1); ya ina ya 学生というものは、習うそばから忘れてしまうものである。

Students are the type who forget things as soon as they learn them.



ら か し て し ま う か ら #っ て し ま う „

Tm upset because as soon as I straignten things up, my child messes tnem up.

4 私 は 金 遣 い が 荒 い の か 、稼 ぐ そ ば か ら 遣 ってしまう。

Coula it be that Fm a SDendthrift? I spend money as soon as I earn it.

so ka to i t t e そ う か と 言 っ て however; even so; for all that Similar to: keredo(mo); shikashi X so ka to itte Y Having said X, one follows with Y, which contains information that either qualifies or contradicts X. Y may be a new sentence, as in the first example below.






らすのは面倒臭い。 そうかと言って一 人 で 暮 ら す の は が


It is a nuisance to live with one^ parents, bven so, it is expensive to live alone.

あ の 人 は 非 常 に 齒 が い い が 、 そ う か と 言 っ て 学校の成~績 が 特 別 に わけ


That person is very smart. Still, that aoes not mean that his/her school grades are particularly good.

•sokonau -損なう fail to; miss W-sicm-sokonau Fail to V; miss V-ing. 今 日 は あ ま り の 忙 し き に お 昼 を 食 べ 損 な っ て しまった。

I was so busy today that i missed lunch.

いつも八時の電車に乗るのだが、今朝は少し寝坊をして乗り遺 なった。

I usuallv take the eight-o’clock tram, but 1 woke up a little late this morning, so I missed it.

-sokoneru -損ねる See -sokonau


sore de ite

s o n o im id e そ の 意 味 で in that sense X. Sono imi de Y X. In that sense Y. Y is taken into consideration with the limitations or information stated in X. 人 文 系 の 研 究 p 対 す る 政 府 の 檫 助 金 が 年 々 削 減 さ れ て い る 。 その 意味で今年、 当大学が日本文化研究のために多額の援助を妾けた ということは注目されるべきである。

Financial support rrom the government ror research m the humanities is decreasing year after year. In this context, special attention should be paid to the fact that this year our university received a large grant for research on Japanese culture.

近年、国 民 の に


する信束f は 餐 れ て き て い § 〇 そ の 意 味 で 、


Recently, the people's trust in government has been undermined, in this context, the current prime minister’s efforts to restore public trust must be highly regarded.

sore de i t e そ れ で い て even so; and yet; nevertheless Similar to: sore na no ni X sore de ite Y X and yet Y. Y does not reflect what one might have expected from what is known from X. Sore de ite may be used to begin a new sentence.


sue (ni)

4 裝 さ ん は ク ラ ス で 一 番 成 績 が 誓 い が 、 そ れ で い て 、 勉強しよう としない。

Sato's grades are tne worst in the class, ana yet s/ne doesn't try to study.

スミスさんは立派な体格をしている。それでいて、スポーツは全 くだめだ。

Smith has a great physique, and vet s/he is not good at sports at all.

sue ( n i ) す え (に)[ 末 ( に ) ] after; finally W-ta sue (ni) N no sue [m) After V; after N. Compared with ageku (no hate) (ni), where the result is always unfavorable, with sue (m), the result may or may not be unfavorable. See also: ageku (no hate) (m) は 私 の や り 方 に 4 •、 し て 未 革 不 満 を S ベ た す え (に)、

を£ て


After expressing his dissatistaction witn the way i was doing things, he left the room.

経、 # 的 な 理 由 で 大 学 を 止 め よ う と 思 っ て い た が 、~考慮のすえ D

、 あと一年ほど頑張ってみることにした。

I was thinking about quitting school for financial reasons, but upon consideration I decided to try and persevere for another year.




過 ぎ な い See ni suginai

■sugi mo sezu ••• -sugi mo sezu/shinai - 過 ぎ も せ ず 〜 - 過 ぎ も せ ず / し ない

X sugi mo sezu Y sugi mo sezu/shinai Neither X nor Y. The shinai form may only be used in sentencefinal position. このアパートは大き過ぎもせず小さ過ぎもしない。学生のアパー 卜としては最適である。

This apartment is neither too large nor too small. As a student apartment, it is just perrect.

私 の 家 は 学 校 か ら 遠 過 ぎ も せ ず 近 過 ぎ も せ ず 、便 利 で あ る 。

My house is convenient, being neither too far from nor too near school.


す ま い See wa shimai


済 ま せ る See sumasu




make do with; get by with X sumasu. Make do with X; get by with X. When X is a verb, it is often in the negative form W-nai de or V-zw ni, as shown in the last example. In adaition to the common meaning of sumasu (to tinish something), there is another meaning that suggests “gettting by” or “managing” with something that is not the best possible choice. Sumasu is a causative form of sumu with the same meaning as sumaseru. See also: sumu 今日のお昼はホットドッグで済ました。

For today’s lunch, I got by with a hotdog. アルバイトの学生の面接は電話で済 ま す ことにしよう。

Let's (decide to) take care of the part-time student help interviews over the telephone.


I caught a cold and had a fever, out I got by without going to the doctor by taking some medicine.



s u m u 済む make do with; get by with; manage with X sumu, where X may be an adjective, a verb gerund, or a noun followed by de or dake de. Make do with X. When X is negative, the form is either W-nakute or W-naide/V-zu ni. Sumu is an intransitive form that is similar in meaning to sumasu. See also: sumasu 夏 は 胴 が 長 い の で 、電気 代 が 安 く て 済 む 。

Since the days are longer in summer, we get by with cheaper electric bills.

4 と卓f





少 な い の で 、き ‘ ¥ ほ ど 1 金を1 2 わ な く て 嘉 む だ ろ う 。

: 丨

This year my income has gone down, so Ym apt to get by with paying less tax than last year. Hi


I was caught speeding but luckily got away with a warning.


s u r a すら even Similar to: mo; sae X sura Even X. See also: sae (mo)


sureba suru hodo




大 学 生 (で )す ら 出 夹 な い 問 -に 中 学 生 が 答 え る こ と が で き た 。

Junior high students were able to answer questions that even university students couldn’t handle.

忙 し く て 新 聞 (で )す ら 読 む 時 間 が な い の に 、 小 説 な ど と ん で も な はなし


Novels are simply out of the question when Tm so busy I don't even have the time to read tne newspaper.

sureba suru h o d o す れ ば す る ほ ど See -b a… hodo


する See m suru


suru to

す る ま い See wa shimai

すると See to suru to


tabi ni

T tabi n i 度に every time Similar to: goto ni X (no) tabi ni Y, where no is used when X is a noun. Every time X occurs. The emphasis is on frequency of occurrence ofX. ニューヨークに行く度ぬメトロポリタン美術€ に行くことにして いる。

bvery time I go to New York,i make it a practice to go to the Metropolitan Museum. や まだ




山 田 さ ん の 顔 を 見 ,る 度 に 早 死 に し た 山 田 さ ん の お 姉 さ ん の こ とが 思い出されて仕方がない。

bvery time I look at ifamada's face, I can't help recalling his/ner older sister who died young.



しの’ &

、暴を齧った¥ がぃぃ。

You had better wash your hands every time you eat.


tada … dake

t a d a ...d a k e た だ 〜 だ け only Similar to: tada . . . bakari tada X dake Only X; one only does X. Addition of tada adds emphasis. あ の 学 生 は た だ い い ^ 績 を も ら う こ と だ け (を )考 え て 勉 強 し て い る点取り虫である。

That student is a grind who studies trunking only of getting good grades.


The only thing left after the tornado was the basement.

私 の 会 社 の 忘 年 会 で は 、 た だ 飲 ん で 騒 ぐ だ け で あ る か ら 、 あまり 行く気がしない。

All that's going to go on at my company's vear-end party is dnnking and lots of noise, so I don’t feel much liice going.


対 し て See ni taishite


対する See nitaisuru





W-sttm-taku This form is well known in negatives of the desiderative (as in tabetaku nai or ikitaku nai)%but it also has the following usages: (1)

Equivalent of V-reform in the desiderative (takute). 来 € の 会 議 に つ い て 占 !り た ぐ 電 話 を し た が 責 任 i が 席 を は ず し ていた。

Wishing to find out about the meeting next week, I telephoned, but the person responsible was not in.

違 に 笛 す る し し た く 、签 く の へ 行 っ た が 残 ‘ ながらそれらしいものは何もなかった。

I wanted to buy a book about environmental protection and went to a nearby bookstore, but unfortunately nothing like that was available.

Equivalent of V-stem-taz to wnen followed by omou, zonjiru, or the like. 司法試験合格の暁には、お世話になった人々を招待してお礼を申 し上げたく思 つ て い る 。

On the occasion of passing the bar exam, Fd like to extend an invitation to the people who have helped me and to express my gratitude to them.


By usine my vacation time, Fd like to make up for the delay as much as possible.





cannot bear; cannot stand Similar to: gaman dekinai X-te tamaranai, where X is an adjective. N de tamaranai. Cannot stand X or N; cannot bear X or N. N represents nouns that express feelings, such as sninpai (worry), fuan (insecurity), iya (distaste), kawaiso (sympathy). あつ


The air conditioner is out of oraer, so the heat is unbearable.

今 朝 コ ー ヒ ー を 飲 ま な か っ た の で 、授

〖 こ眠くてた ま ら な か っ た 。

I didn't nave any coffee tms mommg, so I was unbearably sleepy m class.


I was overcome with worry that my younger brotner had failed the exam.

日本語のしA 富 で 人 の M

に s て 会 話 の 暗 ‘ を さ せ ら れ る の が s ?で 迄


I coulan't stand being made to get up m front of people and recite dialogues in Japanese class.


tame (ni)

tame ( n i ) た め (に ) ⑴

in order to; for the purpose of Similar to: yd ni V tame (ni), where V is a nonpast verb. For the purpose of V; in order to V. See also: no ni (2) あま

やせるた め ( に )#い も の を 食 べ 過 ぎ な い よ う に し て い る 。

In order to lose weight. Pm making it a practice not to eat too many sweets. ジュリアー

ドに入るた め ( に)、 毎 日 ピ ア ノ の 練 習 を し て い る 。

In order to get into Junliard, I practice the mano every day.

because Similar to: kara; no de X tame (ni), where X is a verb or an adjective. Because of X. ゆ う あ め



夕べ雨が降ったため( L こ) 、野球の試合が中止になった。

Because it rained last night, the baseball game was canceled.

気分が悪かったた め ( に)、 待 望 の コ ン サ ー ト に 行 く こ と が で き な かった。

Because I didn't feel well,I couldn't go to the concert that I had been eagerly anticipating.



この辺は一年中温暖であるた め ( に)、 植 物 の 種 類 が 多 く 見 ら れ る 。

Because it is warm all year round here, many varieties of plants can be seen.


N no tame (ni) The context determines whether the meaning is “because” or “for the purpose of.” しようらい



将来のため( に).、 貯 金 を し て お い た 方 が い い 。

One ought to put aside some savings ror the future.

大雪のた め ( に)、 電 車 が 遅 れ て し ま っ た 。

The train was late because of heavy snowfall.

-tari -たり X-ri suru, where X is the informal past {-ta form) of a verb, an aajective, or the c 〇Duia . Do things like X. Often nado is added to suggest further that it is not just X but other tmngs as well. じ じ


人のことばかりうらやましがつ: ^ し な い で 、 自分のやるべきこ とをやるのがよい。

Rather than envying others and so rorth, it’s better just to stick to one’s own business. 日 本 は 二つに 分 か れ て 二つの 国 家 が で き た り ( な ど )す る こ と も な かったと考えられている。

Some think that Japan nas never experienced anything like being divided in two with two aistmct governments operating.



-tari • • • -tari

- たり〜-たり

X-ri Y-ri suru, where X and Y are the informal past (-ta form) of verbs, adjectives, or the copula. Do things like X and Y, among other things. Where X and Y are opposites, the suggestion is that things keep on going back and torth between X and Y, as seen in the third and fourth examples below. 日本語はテープをI いたりビデオを見たりして勉強した。

I studied Japanese by doing things like listening to tapes and watching television.


み の 日 に は 、 映 ^に 行 っ た り 公 園 に 散 歩 に 行 っ た り す る 。

On days off, I do things like going to tne movies ana walking m the park.

このところ、変な 天 気 が 続 き 、暑 か っ た り 寒 か っ た り し て い る 。

In this area the unusual weather continues—sometimes hot, sometimes cold.

子供らが部屋を & たり入ったりしているので、 この部屋はなかな あたた


Because the children keep going in and out, tms room is not going to get warm easily.


足 り な い See ni tarinai




Similar to: de aru N-taru A classical equivalent of de aru. 学生たる

s s 、篇 苍


As long as one is a student, one should go to class every day.

* 川さんはi





益 に も か か わ ら ず 、S





をA んだこと


I hear that Furukawa, despite being a Japanese literature specialist, has never read The Tale ofGenji.



のi に お い て は 2 馨 S

を、 ふろI f け と す べ し 。

One who is a wamor must chensh tne role or oeing first to attack the enemy on the field of battle.



W-tashi A classical sentence-ending form that appears in letters and memos. It is used often in making requests and is the same as -tai in modem Japanese. 会 議 に に 合 う よ う 、二時までにはおいでいただきたし。

I would like you to come by two o'clock in order to be on time ror the meeting.


tatoe . . . -te mo こころ

こ の こ と は 、 くれぐれもお2ヽに:f e 留 め い た だ き た し 。

I earnestly beseecn you to bear this matter in mind.

tatoe ••• -te mo


even if; no matter how (with interrogatives) Similar to: kari n i . . . to shite mo; moshi. . . da to shite mo Tatoe X-te mo, where X is a verb or adjective. Tatoe X de mo, where X is a noun. Even if X. See also: ni shiro; ni shite mo (2); tokoro de たとえ一億円もらっても、そんな危ない仕事はしたくない。

Even if I were to get a hundred million yen,i wouldn't want to do dangerous work like that.

た と え ど ん な こ と が あ っ て も 、私 の 考 え は 変 わ ら な い 。

No matter what happens, my ideas won’t change.

た と え ど ん な に 忙 し く て も 、 新 聞 を ^む く ら い の 時 間 は と っ て お くべきである。

No matter how busy you may be, you ought to set aside time at least to read the newspaper.

その考えにたとえ反対でも、みんなで決めたことであるから守ら ねばならない。

Even if you are opposed to the idea, you should support it because it was decided upon by everyone.


-te habakaranai

-te habakaranai

-te hajimete

-て は ば か ら な い See habakaranai


W-te hajimete X It is only with or after V that X occurs or is experienced. See also: ni shite hajimete 病気になって 初 め て 自分が随分無理な生活をしていたということ に気がついた。

It is only when I oecame ill that I realized I had been leading an extremely dissolute life.

子をもつて初めて親のありがたさが痛感されるとはよく言われる ことである。

It is often said that one learns to appreciate one s parents only after having a child or one’s own.

-te hoshii


want someone else to Similar to: -te moraitai W-te hoshii One wants someone else to do V. The someone may be identified by either ga or ni. -Te hoshii contrasts with the -tai or desiderative form of verbs, which express what one wants or wishes to do oneself.


-te i wa shinai




大切な会議なので時間通りに来て 欲 し い と何度も言っておいた が、何人かやはり遅れてきた。

I told them any number of times that I wanted them to come on time because it was an important meeting, but some came late anyway.

家 を £ る時に父にビールを買ってきて 欲 し い と頼まれた。

As I was leaving the house, my father asked me to get him some beer.


-て 以 来 See irai

-te i wa shinai

-て い は し な い

W-te i wa shinai Absolutely not V. A more emphatic form of -te inai. See also: wa shinai あ の 人 は 口 先 で は 親 切 そ う な こ と を 言 う が 、心の中では人のこと かんが


That person says nice-sounding things, but at heart s/he doesn't have any consideration tor others at all.

市 川 さ ん は 私 に 怒 っ て い る そ う だ が 、彼女に怒られるようなこと なに


Fm told that Ichikawa is angry with me, but Fve done nothing at all about which she could be angry.

-teki ni itte

-的 に 言 っ て

■teki ni itte

if Similar to: moshi. . . tara X-te wa, where X is a verb or adjective in the -te form. N-de wa If X; when X. 今 、 新 し い イ タ リ ア の 映 画 を 見 せ て い る が 、 芸 術 的 に 言 っ て あま り感心できない。

They are showing a new Italian movie now, out artistically speaking it aoesn t appeal to me.

あ の 学 校 で は 授 業 4 9、 学 生 は 二 切 質 問 を し て は い け な い こ と に なっているそうだが、教育的に言って問題がある。

Tm told that students are not allowed to ask any questions at all in classes at that school, rrom an educational point of view, this is a problem.

-te mo -ても See tatoe • • • -te mo

ten de wa

点 で は See to iu ten de wa


-て た ま ら な い See tamaranai

-te wa

-te wa -ては ⑴

if Similar to: moshi.. . tara X-te wa, where X is a verb or adjective in the -te form. N de wa If X; when X. こ え は な



If you speak in that quiet a voice, no one can hear you.

この会話はやさしくないから、テープのス ピ ー ド が 早 く て は わ か りにくいだろう。

This conversation is not easy, so it'll probably be difncult to understand if the tape speed is fast. この本は今売れっ子の作 家 の 書 い た も の で あ る が 、 こうつまらな くてはあまり読む人がいないだろう。

This book is written by an author who is very popular right now, but if it is this boring, I suspect that there won’t be many people who’ll read it.

そ ん な 1^ 礼 ^ 話 し 方 で は 、 誰 も 雇 っ て く れ な い で あ ろ う 。

If you speak so rudely, no one is likely to hire you.


keep … ing and . . . ing W-te wa X Keep V-ing and X-ing.


-te wa naru mai ka


しては、 泣いてばかり


Kimura Keeps recalling the child who passed away, and cryine. りようしん

お し か た

あの子の両親は私の教え方が気にいらないらしい。電話をかけて き て は 、 文 句 ば か り Ifeベ た て る 。

It appears that that child's parents do not like the way I teach. Thev keen calling and complaining.

あのバ ス ケ ッ ト ボ ー ル の コ ー チ は 大 き な 声 で どなっては、選手を きたえようとするが、チームは負けてばかりいる。

That basketball coach keeps hollering and shouting and trying to tram his/her players, but the team keeps losing.

-te wa naru mai ka ■てはなるまいか perhaps one must; probably one ought to similar to: -te wa naranai dard ka W-te wa naru mai ka, where V is in the negative -te form (-nakute). of a verb. Perhaps one ought to V. -Mai adds negative conjecture, making the meaning similar to the more familiar -nakereba naranai dard. 折角いとこが遊びにi

る の だ か ら 、 飛 行 場 ま で 迎 え に 行 か な く :^


Because my cousin is coming all the way to see me, I guess I should go to the airport to meet him/her.


to bakari ni


e S r f

の は 退 屈 で あ る が 、指導教官であるから出席しなく


Professor Yamada's lectures are boring, but since s/he is my adviser, I should probably attend.

-te yamanai

-て や ま な い

W-te yamanai One does not stop doing V; one keeps on doing V. 私 は 渡 辺 さ ん の 成 功 を 祈 っ て や ま な い ものである。

I continually wish for Watanabe's success.

人 が 何 と 言 お う と 、私 は 夫 の 無 実 を 信 じ て や ま な か っ た 。

Regardless of what peooie said, I keDt on believing in my husband's innocence.

to aro

とあろう See to (mo) ard

to bakari ni

とばかりに See bakari ni (2)

to demo

to demo


something like X to demo Something like X. See also: demo; nari (2) 日米関丨系は!]つても切れない l




One might think of the U.S.-Japan relationship as something like the mutually dependent relationship or a husband and wife, inseparable even ir tested severely. 日本のバーはサラリーマンに対して家庭以上の憩いの場を提供し て き た とでも言 え る で あ ろ う 。

It can probably be said that bars in Japan have assumed a role somewhat akin to providing the Japanese business employee with a place to relax better tnan s/he can at home.

彼女は自分で出来ることでも何でも私に言いつける。お手伝い上 でも思っているのであろうか。

She orders me to do even those tilings she can do by herself. She must think I am her maid (or something).

to d o m a ra z u

と ど ま ら ず S ee ni to d o m a r a z u

to ieba … ( da)

to i e b a と言えば speaking of; concerning Similar to: no koto ni tsuite iu to X to ieba When it comes to X; concerning X; speaking of X. おお

ワ イ ン と 言 え ば 、 「フ ラ ン ス 」 と 思 う 人 が 多 い に ち が い な い 。

When you mention wine, most people will certainly think of France.

ロ ス と言えば、す ぐ に 「 危ないところ」 と多くの日本人は考えて しまう。

When the subject of Los Angeles comes up, most Japanese immediately think “dangerous place.”

to ieba… ( d a ) と言えば〜( だ) X to ieba X (da), where da is used when X is a noun. Although strictly speaking X can be said to be X, yet it is not fully the case. 外 国 で 育 っ た 井 上 さ ん が 外 交 官 に な っ た と い う の は 自 然 (だ )上 ヒ えば自然だ。

In some sense, it is natural that Inoue, who was brought up overseas, became a diplomat.

to ieba ieru

日本人の¥ に は 仏 壇 の 先 祖 に 向 か っ て 報 告 し 、 そ れ か ら 教 会 へ 行 っ て 結 婚 式 を ^げ る 人 が い る と い う の は 奇 妙 ( だ )と い え ば 奇 妙 (な こ と )で あ る 。

It may in some sense seem strange, but among Japanese there are those who will race the household Buddhist altar to report to their ancestors and then go to a church to have a (Christian) wedding ceremony. ほう

日本人の私よりアメリカ人のスミスさんの方がおすしをよく食べ る。 お も し ろ い と 言 え ば お も し ろ い 。

Smith, who is an Amencan, eats sushi more otten than I who am Japanese do. Ir you trunk about it, it’s funny.

to ieba i e r u と言えば言える Strictly speaKing, you can say . . . Similar to: id to omoeba iu koto ga dekiru X to ieba ieru While you may say that X is the case, it is not definitively so and there are qualifications to the statement. こ の 教 科 書 は 大 学 生 に 適 切 で あ る と 言 え ば 言 え る 。 しかしながら 少し文法の説明が長すぎる。

It can be claimed that this textbook is appropnate for university students. However, the grammatical explanations are a bit too long.

、 な制度だと言えば言えるが、いろいろな問題がある。

Aithoueh you can say that the entrance exam system is a rair one, there are many problems with it.


to ittara nai

to iedomo


even if; although; while Similar to: to itte mo X to iedomo Even lr one can say X, some qualification to it follows. ザ ス ト ン は 大 都 市 で あ る と言えども、 ニューヨークに 比 べ る と 地 方都市のようなものだと言ってもいい。

Although Boston is a large city, one may say that compared with New York it is more like a provincial citv.

笑 は に 又 蘇 の の 銎 と 言 え ど も 、S





While dogs are said to be ua man's best friend,'' they may suddenly turn into wild animals, so nothing is more important than to be on one's guard.

to ittara n a i と 言 ったらない N to ittara nai There is nothing like N. Strong emphasis on what is said in N, a descriptive noun. Can be used for both favorable and unfavorable situations. 彼 は 長 い 間 タ イ に i ん で い た だ け あ っ て 、 彼 の タ イ #の 素 睛 し さ と言ったらない。

Because he lived in Thailand for a long time, the excellence of his Thai is unparalleled.


to itta yd na mono




されて、 そ の 心 細 さ と 言 っ た ら な か っ た 。

There was nothing like the feeling or loneliness I had when left alone in a big house ror many days.

to itta yo na mono


N to itta yd na X X is a person or thing that is something like N. N and X can be linked by to iu or to itta, but the usage of N to iu X is broader than that of N to itta X. Compare the following two sentences, for example: (a) (b )

日 本 の 伝 統 芸 ^ こ は というものがある。 日本の伝統 芸 術 に は 能 といったものがある。

In (a), the phrase simply means “the thing called Noh.” In (b), Noh is iust one of the traditional Japanese arts—there may be others. To itta is used when giving examples, kinds of things. The addition of yd makes the statement less definite. うパんは日本のスパゲッティといったようなものと言えるであろ うか。

Udon is something like Japanese spaghetti, I suppose you might say.




い といったような人たちである。

My parents are easy to get along with. They are the kind of people with whom you can readily talk on the phone.


to itte (mo) ii kurai

この町は田舍町なので、二 十 四 時 間 オ ー プ ン し て い る 喫 茶 店


い っ た よ う な ものはない。

This town is a country town, so there is nothing like an all-night coffee shop here.

to itte (mo) i i と 言 っ て (も)いい X to itte (mo) ii It is all right to say X; you can say X. Makes any expression softer, less firm, less direct. ロ シ ア の 社 会 に は ま だ ま だ 昔 な が ら の 悪 が 残 っ て い る と言って (也)上 い 。

One may say that bad customs ot the past still remain in Russian society.

み 日 の ア メ リ カ に お い て は 蓄 く の \ 々とが/了、 勘谖 を篇している


言 っ て (も)い い 。

It is fair to say that in the United States of today many people are driving compact cars.

to itte (mo) ii k u r a i と 言 っ て (も)い い く ら い Similar to: to itte (mo) ii hodo X to itte (mo) ii kurai Although one cannot state that something is X, it is nearly equivalent to X. See also: kurai


to itte (mo) yoi



ス ミ ス さ ん は 日 本 人 と 言 っ て (も)い い く ら い 上 丰 に 日 本 語 を 話 す 。

Smith speaks Japanese almost like a Japanese.

田中さんは非常に早く泳ぐことができる。オリンピックの選手に な れ る と 言 っ て (も)い い く ら い だ 。

Tanaka can swim very fast. It’s fair to say that s/he is of Olymoic caliber.

to itte (mo) yoi と 言 っ て (も)よい See to itte (mo) ii

to iu fO n i という風に Similar to: to iu yd ni N to iufu ni In the way, manner of N. ア メ リ カ の 多 く の 大 学 に お い て は 、九 十 点 か ら 百 点 ま で は A 、八 十点から八十九点まではB 、七十点から七十九点まではC


凰! ^成 績 の 基 準 が 決 ま っ て い る 。

At most universities in the United States, the standard for grades is set out in this way: from 90 to 100 is an “A,” from 80 to 89 is a “B,” and from 70 to 79 is a “C.”

た い て い の 劇 は 、2


い ® 、$

いう風にi f の方からそれぞれ値k がi

くらいの席、一 i l



、 席上


At most theaters prices differ with distance from the front in the following manner: most expensive, moderately expensive, and cheapest.


to iu ka

(to iu ) h o d o n o • • • nai



Similar to: to itte (mo) ii hodo X to itte (mo) u kurai Although one cannot state that something is X,it is nearly equivalent to X. See also: ノ ー ^ ル 1i

k u ra i



がら条1S や っ て 来 る が 、

しは、 授 業 を 菜 ん で

まで 聞 き に 行 く (と い う )ほ ど の こ と は な い 。

The autnor who won the Nobel Prize will come next week, but her talk is not (important) enough for vou to skip classes.

“ の ^^の 劇 は 非 常 に 面 白 い が 、 ブロードウエーに由してもいい (と い う )ほ ど の 劇 で は な い 。

His recent play is very interesting, but it is not so good that it could make it to Broadway. t o iu im id e

to iu k a

と い う 意 味 で See im id e


X to iu ka Raises doubts as to whether X is the appropriate word to use. の テ ス ト は 難 し か っ た と い う か 、$ 業 で 習 わ な か っ た こ と ば かり出て全然出来なかった。

I don’t know if “difficult” is the right word for the test we had yesterday, but it was made up entirely of things we hadn’t leamea in class, and I couldn’t do it at all.


to iu koto

親友だと思っていた中山さんが私のことをS て、び っ く り す る というか、



Hearing that Nakayama, who I thought was a good friend, nad been saying Dad things about me, I was surprised一 it that is the right word— and felt sad.

to iu koto


Similar to: so da; to no koto da X to iu koto I hear X; I am told X, where X is secondhand information. 国 体 の 開 会 式 に こ の 県 の 知 事 が 出 席 す る ということだ 。

Fm told that the prefectural governor will attend the opening ceremony of the national athletic meet.

来年はまたしs 業

ということだ 。

I hear that tuition will go up again next vear.

to iu koto ni naru to


when it comes to Similar to: to iu koto m Kakete wa N to iu koto ni naru to When it comes to N. See also: to kitara; to kuru to; to naru to

to iu no wa

こ ぢ •も き_^,う_^く


か ね お

子供の教育ということになる扣山 □ 六んけ舍を惜しまない。

When it comes to his/her children's education, Yamaguchi doesn't care how much it costs. 車 の 修 理 ということになると力ーターきんを : いて他にない。

When it comes to repairing cars, there is no one better than Carter.

to iu no wa ⑴


X to iu no wa The thing called X; that which we call X. See also: to iu no wa … ( no) koto o iu “Sexual harassment” というのは、 日本語でセクハラという0 “Sexual harassment” in Japanese is

M g というのは、



Tofu is a representative soybean product.

X to iu no wa X. To iu no wa The reason for X. Can be used, as in the third and fourth examples below, as the continuation or elaboration of information contained in a previous sentence or passage, in the sense of “That is to say,” “What I mean to say is … or “The reason is … ” Often paired with kara when giving explanations or reasons.


to iu no wa … ( no} koto o iu

大都会にi み た く な い というのは、大気汚染で頭がi




The reason I don't want to live in a big city is that the air pollution gives me a headache.

私にとってはスペイン語より日本語を勉強する方がずっと面白い というのは、 日本語は私の母語である英語とあまりにも違ってい るからである。

The reason I prefer studying Japanese to Spanish is that Japanese is so difterent rrom English, my native tongue. ,とi す*" 4 年 、 ヨ ー ロ ッ パ に 行 か な い こ と に し た 。 と い う の は 、 もう少し お金をためてから行きたいからである。

I decided not to go to Europe this year. The reason is that I want to go atter I save a little more money.

今 晚 映 画 を 見 に 行 く 約 束 を し て い た が 行 け な く な っ た 。 というの りょうしんきゅう

这 、両 親 が 急 に や っ て 来 る こ と に な っ た か ら で あ る 。

Although I promised to go to the movies tonight, I can7t. The reason is that at the last moment it turned out that my parents are coming over.

to iu no wa . . . (no) koto o i u と い う の は 〜 (の)こ と を H う X to iu no w aY (no) koto o iu, where no is used when Y is a noun. X is defined by Y. See also: to iu no wa (1)



to iu ten de wa


じ よ う じ け ん だ い ざ い

歴 史 小 説 というのは歴 史 上 の 事 件 を 題 材 に し た 小 説 の こ と を 言 う 。

What we call the historical novel refers to a novel that takes historical events as its subject matter.

ブ ラ ン チ と い う の は 朝 食 と 昼 食 ‘二 ぬ こ し た 食 事 の こ と を 言 う 。

“Brunch” refers to Dreakfast and lunch combined.

to iu ten de wa


With respect to; in that Similar to: to iu koto ni kanshite wa X to iu ten de wa Y With respect to X, \ is the case. Other aspects of a matter are unknown but at least as far as X is concerned, we can say Y.

f 本 は 学 歴 社 会 で あ る という点では、



japan is not all that different from other Asian countnes in tnat its society is based on academic qualifications.

い つ も 忙 し く て 暇 が な い という点では、 田中さんも山田さんも同 じである。

With respect to their being alwavs busv and never having free time, lanaka and Yamada are identical.

政 治 に 関 す る 知 識 という点では、 力ーターよりクリントンの方が 上だといえる。

With respect to knowledge about politics, one can say that Clinton is superior to Carter.



to iu wake de wa nai

芸 術 的 効 果 という点では、カラーより白黒の映画の方がいいこと もある。

In terms of artistic effects, black and white films are in some respects superior to color.

to iu wake de wa nai

と い う わ け で は な い See wake de wa nai

to iu wake ni wa ikanai

というわけにはいかない See wake ni wa ikanai

to iu y6 na k oto というようなこと things like X to iu yd na koto, where X can be a phrase or a sentence. Things like X. See also: to itta yo na mono; yo na あ の 魚 嫌 い の 渡 辺 さ ん が 、 い か の さ し み を 食 べ る というようなこ 上はないと思う。

Watanabe, who hates seafood, Drobably wouldn’t do something like eat raw squid.

今経済が安定していないから、 ドルの価値が急激に変化するとい うようなことが あ る か も し れ な い 。

Because the economy now is unstable, something like a dramatic fluctuation in the value ot the dollar could occur.


to iwarete iru

to iu yo na mono

と い う よ う な も の See to itta y6 na mono

to iu yori hoka ni michi wa n a i と い う よ り ほ か に 途 は な い

See (yori)

hoka inu michi ga nai

to iwarete i r u と言われている It is said that. . . X to iwarete iru X is said; it is said that something is X. キムさんはこの学校で一番よく出来る学生だと言われている。

It is said that Kim is the best student in this school. この大学には山本さんくらい上手にピアノがひきこなせる人はい な い だ ろ う と言われている。

It is said that in this university there is not likely to be anyone wno can plav the piano as well as Yamamoto.


to iwazu . . . to iwazu

to iwazu . . . to iwazu


whether … or … Similar to: demo … demo X to iwazu Y to iwazu, where both X and Y are nouns. Whether X or Y. X and Y are given as examples in what could be a much longer list. Often X and Y are pairs, such as adult and child, male and female, and so forth. See also: ni shiro … ni shiro 養 は 大 人 と言わず子 供 と言わず、誰 で も 楽 し め る も の で あ る 。

The game of go is fun for everyone, whether aault or cnild.



ちと 言 わ ず



で も す る が あ る 。

Everyone, whether rich or poor, has the right to vote.



Similar to: to yara X toka X or something/someone. Used when one is not entirely sure of X. See also: yara l u

口 さ ん と か い う 学 生 が こ の レポート を に 西 山 教 授 "に 渡 し て m



A student whose name was Yamaguchi or something left this report, saying that s/he wanted it given to Professor Nishiyama.


to kitara

松本さんが柔道部をやめるとか| いたが、本当だろうか。

I heard sometnmg about Matsumoto quitting the judo club. Could it be true?

to kitara


when it comes to; as for N to kitara X When it comes to N, X. To kitara functions similarly to to kuru to, but it has an additional usage: N to kitara X is used when expressing something unfavorable such as a complaint or a criticism, either about the speaker him/herselfor about someone else. See also: to kuru to; to naru to 大 江 さ ん の お ^^さ ん と き た ら 、 う る さ く て い つ も 妹 さ ん の 心 配 ば かりしている。

for Oe's older brother, he is very fussy and is always worrying aoout his younger sister. as

今 度 の 領 事 ときたら、英語もろ く に 話 せ な い 。

When it comes to the new consul, s/he can't even speak English very well.


tokoro de

tokoro de


even if; no matter \- ta tokoro de X Even if V takes place, the result will be a none-too-favorable X. Often used with constructions such as donna n i . .. W-ta tokoro de and tatoe .. N-ta tokoro de. See also: ni shiro; ni shite mo (2); tatoe . . . -te mo どんなにi 張 っ て み た ところで、締 I


り ま で あ と 主 :日 し か な い の

だから、 どうにもなるまい。

No matter how hard I work, only two days are left until the deadline, so there is nothing I can do about it now.

青 島 さ ん は も と も と あ ま り 賢 く な い の で 、 大 学 に 行 っ た ところ で 、 另IJに 役 に 立 つ と い う わ け で も な い と 思 う が 。

Aoshima is not very bright, so even ir s/he goes to college, I don't think it will do her/him any particular good.

tokoro ( g a ) と こ ろ (が ) although; even though V-ta tokoro (ga) X When V was done, X—something contrary to one's expectations—happened. せ っ か く 時 間 を か け て パ ー テ ィ ー の 準 備 を し た ところが、誰も来 てくれなかった。

Although I spent time preparing for the partv, nobody came.


to mini to

徹 夜 で 準 備 し て 授 業 に 出 た ところ、 試 験 は 来 週 に な っ た 。

I studied all night before going to class, and then the test was put off until next week!

to kurabete

to kuru to

と比べて See ni kurabete


as for; when it comes to N to kuru to X When it comes to N, X. Sets off N as the focus or topic of further comment. See also: to iu koto ni naru to; to kitara; to naru to 母 の 日 の 花 とくると、 日本ではやはりカーネーションである。

When it comes to flowers for Mother's Day, carnations are given in Japan.


華 蚪 S の 中 で 一 番 お い し い も の とくると、 どうしても鴨料理と


When it comes to the most delicious of Chinese foods, one has to say that it is duck.

to mireba

とみれば See ka to miru to

to miru to

とみると See ka to miru to


to (mo) ard

to (mo) a r o と(も)あろう N to (mo) ard X X who is expected to be N. N represents someone or something worthy of high expectations. X is usually mono or hito. The writer conveys his/her displeasure that a person (X) who is supposed to be N has fallen short. Often used with nanigoto da to express uWhat is the world coming to when … See also: to wa nanigoto da 大 学 教 授 と (も)あ ろ う も の が 人 殺 し を す る と は 何 事 だ 。

What are we coming to when someone who is a university professor commits a murder!

日 本 語 の 五 年 生 と (も)あ ろ う も の が こ ん な や さ し い 文 が 蠢 め な い とは何事だ。

What’s going on when fifth-year students can’t read sentences as easv as these?

to (mo) naku


X to (mo) naku, where X is an interrogative. To (mo) naku adds uncertainty, as in itsu kara to (mo) naku (I don't know when). 野 球 の 試 合 の 後 で 、 バ ー へ 行 っ て 飲 も う と 誰 か ら と (も)な く 言 い だ


After the baseball game, someone or other started talking about going to a bar for a drink, so all of us went.


to nareba

ス ー パ ー マ ン は ど こ か ら と (も)な く や っ て 来 て 艾 軔 け を す る 。

Superman will come rrom somewhere and save people.

春 う ら ら か な 午 後 、 小 鳥 が 一 羽 、 P こ か ら と (も)な く 飛 ん で き て 、 ど こ へ と (も)な く 飛 ん で 行 っ た 。

On a nice spring afternoon, a small bird flew up to me from somewhere and then flew off again.

to mo natte iru


N to mo natte iru Become N, among other things. Thus, the topic is not limited to N and is more encompassing than N. この店のおかしはこの町の名物ともなっている。

This store’s sweets have become one ot this town’s famous products. あ の 先 生 の 講 義 は 非 常 に 面 白 く て 、 この 大 学 の よ び も の ともなつ ている。

Beine extremely interesting, that professor's lectures have become one of tne attractions of this university.

tomo ni 共 に See to tomo ni

to nareba

となれば See to naru to


to naru to

to naru to


as for; when it comes to Similar to: to natte wa; to nareba N to naru to When it comes to N. This pattern differs from the simple topic marker wa in that it does more than single out a topic. It suggests something like ‘‘1 am not interested in other matters, but when it comes to X . . . M To naru to may be replaced by either to natte wa or to nareba. See also: to iu koto ni naru to; to kitara; to kuru to 指 導 教 官 の ブ ラ ウ ン 教 授 の 意 見 となると、 無 視 するわけにはいか ないだろう。

When it comes to my adviser Professor Brown's opinion, I can't verv well ignore it.

あの先生のクイズはとてもやさしいので、全然勉強しなくても百 点 が と れ る が 、 期 末 試 験 となると少し勉 強 し て お い た 方 が い い か もしれない。

That professor's quizzes are very easv, so you can get a perfect score on them even if you don’t study at all. But when it comes to the final, it’s probably a good idea to study a little.

to natte wa


See to naru to


to onajiku


to no koto da

I hear that; I am told that Similar to: so da X to no koto da I hear X; I am told X, where X is secondhand information or hearsay. 為 ^の


は 例年になく

な る とのことである。

The report is that it will become unusually cold this winter.

i r

らんはき g 梁 /の + ニ

^ だ


I am told that Murakami has been ill since last December.

to onajiku


in the same way Similar to: to doyo ni; to onaji yd ni N to onajiku In the same way as N; similar to N. A classical adverbial form of onaji. 日 本 語 の 二 年 生 の ク ラ ス で も 一 年 生 の ^と 同 じ く ほ と ん ど 毎 日 ク イズがある。

In the second-year Japanese class, too, there are quizzes almost every day, just as in the first year.

今 日 も 昨 日 と同じく晴天である。

Todav is a clear dav, too~just the same as yesterday.



と お り [通 り ]

as; in the same way as Similar to: to onaji yd ni X tori As X; in the same way as X. When X is a noun, the pronunciation is dori unless no follows the noun. When X is a word such as sono or kono, the expression is sono tori or kono tori. こ の 仕 事 は 言 わ れ た とおりに や る 限 り 、 全 然 問 題 が な い は ず で あ る 。

long as you do this work the way you were told, I expect there will be no problems at all. as

約 東 ど お り 、 ど ん な こ と が あ っ て も こ の 仕 事 は 来 週 ま で に ; f t わる つもりだ。 as

promised,i plan to finish the work bv next week no matter what.

あ な た の 計 画 の とおりに 全 て う ま く い く は ず だ 。

I expect everything to go successfully according to your plan.

tori mo naosazu

と りもなおさず

namely; that is to say; in other words Similar to: sunawachi X tori mo naosazu Y X. Tori mo naosazu Y. X, that is to say, Y. X is explained in other words in Y.


to suru

ジョーンズさんは何でもよくふっている。 扣りもなおさず、‘ き 字引である。

Jones knows everything—in other words, s/he is a living dictionary.

学 費 を 払 っ て く れ て い た 父 が な く な っ た 。 父 の 死 は とりもなおさ : £ 自活しなければならないことを意味する。

My father, who was paying my tuition, died. Mv father’s death, in other words, means that I have to support myself.

としたら See to suru to

to shitara

toshite 通 し て See tsOjite

to shite mo

to sureba

to suru

としても See ni shite mo (1)

とすれば See to suru to

とする See ni suru


to sum to

to suru to


assuming that; if we assume that Similar to: to shitara: to sureba X to suru to Y Assuming that X is the case, Y; if X is the case, then Y. To suru to may be replaced by to sureba or to shitara. こ の 件 に -し て は 、 山本さん と 私 だ け し か ふ ら な い は ず で あ る が 、 も し 西 田 さ ん が 知 っ て い る とすると、 大 変 で あ る 。

I expect that only Yamamoto and I Know about this matter. But ir we assume that Nishida knows, it’s a problem.

彼 の い う こ と が 真 実 だ としたら、非 常 に め で た い こ と で あ る 。

If we could assume that what he says is true, it would be a wonderrul thing.

totan ( n i ) と た ん (に)[ 途 端 (に ) ] immediately after; as soon as Similar to: suru to sugu ni; to hotondo doji ni W-ta totan (ni)X Immediately after V, X occurs. Although the verb is in the -ta form, X can be past, present, or future. See also: ga hayai ka; ka to miru to; nari (1);ya ina ya 才 4 の蓮餐で私はK S

望 餐 を す る と 言 っ た と た ん に 、 笑 は 1S な


soon as I said that I would support the Democratic party in the upcoming election, my rather made a race. as


to wa

授 業 が 終 わ つ た とたんに、子 供 た ち は 4 ぶ よ う に S に 幫 っ て し ま う 。 as

soon as classes are over, the children will race home.

to tomo ni


with; together with Similar to: to issho ni X to tomo ni Y Y along with X; Y together with X. 『風 と 共 に 去 り ぬ 』 は 日 本 で も よ く 読 ま れ て い る 。

Gone with the Wind is widely read in Japan, too.

日本は S








にぉぃてしi っ 4 ^ 4 4 を


As Japan has developed economically, it has come to occupy an important place in the international community.


to wa

とつて See ni totte


X to wa Used in defining X or setting it off as the topic of discussion. See also: to iu no wa (1); to iu no wa . . . (no) koto o iu

to wa le

ブランチ上这 朝食と昼食を一緒にしたものである。

“Brunch” is breakfast and lunch combined.


“Higo” refers to present-dav Kumamoto.

to wa ie


however; althougn; but Similar to: to itte mo; to iu keredomo X to wa ie Y X is true, but what follows in Y may be contradictory. 岡 田 さ ん は い く ら い い 人 だ とは言え、全 財 産 を 大 学に寄付してし まうほどお人好しではない。

No matter how nice a person Okada may be, s/ne is nonetheless not so naive as to donate his/her entire fortune to the university.

あ の 大 学 は 大 き な 州 立 大 学 で あ る とは言え、一人一人の学生を 大切にする。

Althougn tnat university is a big state university, it values each individual student.

東京9の 冬 は そ れ ほ ど 寒 く な い と は 言 え 、 セ ー タ ー な し で は 生 ^ さ


Although 1 okvo winters are not that cold, you can't get along without a sweater.


to (wa) kagiranai

to (wa) iwanu made mo

と(は)言 わ ぬ ま で も

V to (wa) iwanu made mo X, where V is negative. The suggestion is that one need not go as far as V for X to be the case. 彼女は天 才 だ と( は )言 わ ぬ ま で も 、 非 常 に 頭 が い い と 言 え る 。

Without going so rar as to say she is a genius, I must admit that she is nevertheless very smart. いちりゅう




は)言 わ ぬ ま で も 、 た し か に 立 派 な 設 備 が



While Fm not saying that hotel is first class, it certainly is well-equipped.

to (wa) k a g ir a n a i と(は)限らない not necessarily the case Similar to: to (wa) kimatte inai X to (wa) kagiranai X is not necessarily the case, despite general expectations. Suggests that there is more to a matter than merely X. Very frequently occurs with kanarazu shimo. あたま

頭がいいからといって、成 功 す る と( は)限 ら な い 。

Because one is smart does not necessarily mean that one will be successrul. 休の大きい人が必ずしも力があると( は )限 ら な い 。

Large people are not necessarily strong.


to wa nanigoto da

誓 さ ん は 非 常 に 頭 が い い が 、い つ も 百 点 だ と( は )限 ら な い 。

Yoshida is extremely onght, but it is not necessarily the case that s/he always gets penect scores.

to wa nanigoto da


X to wa nanigoto da A strong emphatic statement that X is unacceptable. See also: to (mo) aro 面接に遅れてi

る とは何事だ。

How dare you come to an interview late?

警 官 で あ り な が ら 、盗 み を は た ら く とは何事だ。

What have we come to when even police officers commit robberies!



without regard to; regardless of Similar to: m kankei naku ichio m\ o mondai m sezu N o towazu Without regard to N; regardless of N. N is often a kanji compound of complementary opposites such as danjo (men and women) and naigai (inside and outside; inner and outer). See also: ni kakawarazu こ の 仕 事 は男女の別を問わず、誰 で も 応 募 で き る 。

Anyone, regardless of gender, can apply for this job.



駅 前 の デ パ ー ト は 、 週 末 、 週 日 を 問 わ ず 、t i わ っ て い る 。

The department store in rront of the station is busy regardless of whether it is a weeKend or a weekday.

to vara

tsujite ⑴

とやら See yara


similar to: ni watatte N o tsujite Throughout N, where N is a place or a time interval. この地方は一年を通じて、雨が多い。

In this area there is a lot of rain all year long.

日 本 列 ^ を 通 じ て 、 台風9の 被 害 が 見 ら れ た 。

Damage from the typhoon was seen throughout the Japanese archipelago.


tsuke . . . tsuke

by means of; through Similar to: Keiyu shite; shudan to shite; toshite

( 2)

N o tsiijite Through N; by means of N, where N acts as an agent. Toshite and tsujite are often interchangeaDle. For example, both toshite and tsiijite can be used in the sentences below without a change in nuance. Toshite and tsujite do not directly pinpoint the original source of information: regardless of the original source, the information comes through N. Ni yotte, in contrast, clearly indicates the source. Naomi ni yotte, in the third sentence below, would indicate that Naomi is the original source. See also: ni yotte はんしんだいしんさい




News of the Great Kooe EarthquaKe was reported by satellite throughout the world.


I became acquainted with Miura through work.

m m の



を 通 ら さ れ た 。

I was informed of Mr. Hayashi Akira’s marriage by my younger sister, Naomi.

tsuke . . . tsuke



つ け 〜 つ け See ni tsuke ••• ni tsuke

See ni tsuke(te)




つき See ni tsuki



W-ta tsumori I thought I had V-ed, but … Beginning students of Japanese learn that tsumori indicates a writer's intention. However, when V is in the -ta form, tsumori indicates something the writer believes to be the case even when it is not. 消したつもりの &が

ifeえ 上 が っ て 火 事 に な っ て し ま っ た 。

The fire I thought I had doused burst into flames and ended up a blaze.

たばこはやめたつ も $ だったが、 ストレスがたまって我慢しきれ なくなり、 また吸い出した。

I was sure I was through with smoking, but stress built up and I was unable to stand it, so I started smoking again.

t s u r e ( t e ) つ れ (て ) See ni tsure(te)



at the same time; while Similar to: nagara V-stQm-tsutsu X X occurs at the same time as V; X is simultaneous with V.


-tsutsu aru




To work while raising a child is a very difficult thing. スポーツを や り つ つ いい 成績を?呆 つ のは 難 し い 。

It is difficult to maintain good grades while participating in sports.

-tsutsu aru

■つつあ 6

in tne process or Similar to: kakatte iru V-stem-^^^M aru In the process of V-ing. この国の経済は発展しっっぁる。

The economy of this country is m tne process or developing.

米 国 に お い て は &昔 な が ら の i云 統 的 な 美 ^ が 3失 わ れ つ つ あ る と言わ れている。

It is saia that in the United States old-fashioned traditional virtues are in the process of being lost.


ue de

u uchi ni

ue de ( 1)

うちに See nai uchi ni


m terms of; in the rield of; in oraer to; ror the purpose of Similar to: ten de X (no) ue (de), where no is used when X is a noun. About X; in terms of X; in the field of X. See also: jo (1) 個 人 間 の 約 束 を 破 る と い う こ と は 、 法 律 の 上 (で )問 題 に な ら な い か も し れ な い が 、道義上問題になる。

In terms of the law, breaKing a promise between individuals may not be a problem; but from the perspective or ethics, it is problematic.

学問の上 ( で)の 議 論 は す れ ば す る ほ ど 役 に 立 つ も の で あ る 。

The more debate there is in academics, the more userul it is.


を す る 上 ( で ) 尖 S な こ と は £ に日ちのM 劣 が も の を 言 う と


In studying a foreign language, what is important is the everyday effort.


ue (ni)

人 と 上 丰 に #き I

う上 ( で )誠 実 で あ る こ と が 第 一 条 件 と 言 え る か


In getting along well with others, it is perhaps fair to say that sincerity is the most important aspect.

( 2)

after Similar to: ato de X (no) ue (de), where no is used when X is a noun. When X is a verb, the -ta form is used. After X; after X takes place.


そ の 家 を ^ う か ど う か は 、 よ く 調 べ た 上 (で )決 め る つ も り で あ る 。

I plan to decide on whether or not to buy that house after thorough investigation.

その件については家族と相談の上 ( で )返 事 を す る よ う に す る 。

I will respond concerning that matter after talking it over with my family.


u e ( n i ) 上 (に ) on top of; in addition to; beyond Similar to: dake de naku; no m kuwaete X (no) ue [m), where no is used when X is a noun. On top of X; in addition to X. See also: bakari ka 日 本 は が 狭 い 上 (に)、 天 然 資 源 が 少 な い 。

In addition to having limited arable land, Japan has few natural resources.


ue wa

カレーライスは用意するのが簡単な上 ( に )、¥

くi む の で 学 生 が


It seems that students enjoy making curried rice because, on top of being easy to prepare, it can be made cheaoly.

彼は一日中工場で重労働の上( に)、 家 に 帰 っ て も 病 気 の 両 親 の 世話で休むことも出来ない。

In addition to working hard all day long in a factory, he can*t rest even after returning home, because he has to look after ms sick parents.

ue wa 上は as long as; so long as X ue w aY As long as X has happened, Y; as long as one is involved m X, Y. See also: ijo (wa); kagiri (1) みんなの意見がこ う バ ラ バ ラ で ま と ま り が な い 上 は 、投票によつ て決定せざるをえないことになるだろう。

As long as everyone's opinions diverge like this, I tnmk it will probably become necessary to decide by vote.

言 | 輩 を 目 か ら は ず す と い う 考 え に は 賛 成 で は な い が 、 教授け 会で決定された上は、従うよりほか仕方がない。

I don't agree with the idea of removing language study from required coursework, but as long as it has been decided at a faculty meeting, there is nothing to do but go along with the decision.





able to; can do Similar to: koto ga dekiru V-stem-«r« Able to V. The -ta form of -uru is read -eta not -uta. See also: arienai; -enai; -zaru o enai こ れ は 非 常 に 難 し い 問 題 だ 。 こ の 問 題 を &き 得 る の は 彼 以 外 に は いない。

This is a very difncult Droblem. No one can solve it but him. コンコルド で も ニューヨークから パ リ ま で そ ん な に 短 時 間 で 行 き H-



You can't expect to go from New York to Pans m such a short time even by (flying) the Concorde. ピアニストの彼 に とって、カーネギーホールで 演 奏 し 得 た こ と が しようがい



For a pianist like him, being able to perform at Carnegie Hall was the most thrilling experience of his life.


wake de wa nai

w wake d a わ け だ [ 訳 だ ] X wake da That’s why X; that’s the reason why X; it is the case that X. X is a matter of course, something that naturally follows from what is saia earlier or something that one is led to understand. See also: imi suru; koto ni naru (2) 外交官になりたいから国噤政治を専攻しているわけである。

I want to become a diplomat, and so that is why I am majoring in international politics.

日本は土地が狭く、 人 が 冬 い の で が 蓄 ぃ わけだ。

Japan has little land and many people, and so that is why the population density is high.

wake de wa nai

わ け で は な い [訳 で は な い ]

Similar to: toku ni sono yd na koto wa nai X wake de wa nai It does not follow that X is the case; something is not particularly X; the assumption that X is the case is unwarranted.


wake ni wa ikanai

日本文学を教えているからといって日本文学が専門だというわけ で は な い 。 た だ ち ょ っ と 文 学 を か じ っ た と い う 程 度 で あ る に ^ぎ ない。

Even though i am teacning Japanese literature, it doesn’t necessarily roliow that my specialty is Japanese literature. It only means that I know a bit about literature.

兄 は 四 十 才 で 独 身 で あ る が 、 結 婚 し た く な い わ け で は な い 。 適当 な人がいないだけである。

My brother is rortv and single, but that doesn’t mean he doesn’t want to get married. It’s just that tnere’s no suitable person.

wake ni wa ik a n a i わ け に は い か な い [ 訳 に は い か な い ] it won’t do; one can’t very well X wake ni wa ikanai X won’t do; X is not at all the case. While X is a theoretical possibility, there are strong reasons why m practice X is not at all the case, not possible. Contrast with wake de wa nai, where that which is negated is a matter of course, following from the information given. Here the meaning is closer to “should not,” rather than “is not.” The negation derives from strong moral or psychological imperatives rather than from something that is natural or a matter of course. アメリカはいくら自由な国だからといって、子供を学校に行かせ なレ、 わけにはいかない。

No matter how free a country the United States is, one can't very well not send one's chilaren to school.


wa shimai




残業しないで帰りたいのだが、 まだ部長がのこっているので帰る わけにはいかない。

I'd like to go home without staying late at work, but my section head is still here, so I can’t very well go home.

wa shimai


surely not; definitely not V-stem wa shimai V will not be the case. A stronger and more emphatic negative form than a simple W-mai form. In the case of the verb suru, suru mai, shimai, and sumai can all be used without changing the meaning. See also: -mai ka 藤 田 さ ん は 周 り の 人 々 か ら 尊 敬 さ れ て い る 立 派 な 人 で あ る 。 いく ら山本さんのことが気に入らないからと言って、 山本さんの悪口 など言いはしまい。

Fujita is a great person who is respected by those around him/her. No matter how much s/he cannot stomach Yamamoto, s/he will surely not speaK ill of her/him.

ウ オ ー カ ー さ ん は ベ ジ タ リ ア ン だ と い う こ と だ か ら 、 このハムサ ンドイツチも食べはしまい。

I understand that Walker is a vegetarian, so s/he will certainly not eat this ham sandwicn.


wa shinai



absolutely not; definitely not V-stem wa shinai A strong, emphatic negation of V. This pattern is often used in describing unfavorable situations and conveys the speaker’s strong emotions. See also: ari wa shinai; mo shinai; -te i wa shinai 長 谷 川 さ ん は い つも遊びに来ると言っているが、 いくら招いても いちど


Hasegawa is always saying that s/he will come see us, but no matter how often we extend an invitation, s/ne has never come even once.


Shimizu subscribes to rour newspapers, but s/he doesn't even read one of them.

wa su(ru) mai

は す (る)まい See wa shimai



Y y a in a y a や い な や [や 否 や ] as soon as Similar to: suru to sugu ni V ya ina ya X, where V is in the citation form. As soon as V then X, where X occurs immediately after V. See also: ga hayai ka; ka to miru to; nari (1); soba kara; totan


It seems that the employees or that company head for a bar as soon as they finish work.

私 は 大 学 を 卒 業 す る や い な や 、親 の 家 を 出 た 。

As soon as I graduated from college, I movea out of my parents5house.

yamanai や ま な い See -te yamanai


yamu o enai

y a m u o e n a iやむを得ない unavoidable; there is nothing one can do Similar to: hoka ni hoho ga nai; shikata ga nai X wa yamu o enai Yamu o enai X X cannot be stopped; X is an inevitability; there is nothing one can do about X. See also: yamu o ezu 雪のため、


っ た 荔 が 遅 れ 、减 篆 が ? i しされたのは全


On account of the snow the plane in which the speaker was riding was late, and the canceling of the lecture was unavoidable.


Because of unavoidable circumstances, it was decided that I would leave the university.

yamu o e z u や む を 得 ず out of necessity; unavoidably Similar to: shikata naku Yamu o ezu X Although one does not wish to do X, there is no other choice, and so one does it out of necessity. Adverbial form of yamu o enai. See also: yamu o enai



今日は jI J pをひいて気分が悪かd たが、研究発表をすることに なっていたので、やむを得ず、授 業 に た 。

Toaay I had a cold and was feeling bad, but since I was supposed to give a research presentation in class, out of necessity I showed up in class. 同窓会の仕事など全然する気はなかったが、私が大学所在地に住 んでいるという関係上、やむを得ず、発起人にされてしまった。

I haa absolutely no desire to work for the alumni association or anything of the sort, but since I live m the university area, I inevitably ended up being made the founder.

y a r a やら X yara Used m the same way as the question particle ka to indicate uncertainty. Often used in combination with question words. See also: toka 先日西田さんの家を訪問して彼のおばあさんにお I にかかった。 彼女は東北弁で何か私に話しかけてきたが、何のことやら全然分 からなかった。

The other dav I visited Nishida's home and met his grandmotner. She said something to me in Tohoku dialect, but I had no idea what she was saying. 久しぶりに友人と飲みに出かけ、話し込んでいるうちにいつの間 にやら十二時過ぎになってしまった。

I went out drinkine with a friend I hadn't seen in a long time, and while we were talking, before I knew it, it got to be past twelve o’clock.


yara . . . yara








を-いたとやらぃうは f





A story has been handed down saying something to tne efrect that Murasaki Shikibu wrote ine Tale of Genji at Ishiyama Temple.


山 さ ん は パ リ へ す る と や ら



I've heard something to the effect that next year Nakayama will be working alone in Paris, away from his/her family.

yara ••• y a r a や ら 〜 や ら and; and so forth Similar to: ya X yara Y yara, where X and Y are nouns. X, Y, and others. Suggests that there are more items than just X and Y in the list. Used in a manner similar io ya in enumerating things. 今日のS 、 A で は ら 去 掌 の 合 % 全 ^ こ


して K

し签 うことに


At today's meeting we are supposed to discuss next yearns budget and events and things like that.

¥晚 の パ ー テ イ ー に は 、竹 内 さ ん や ら 青 木 さ ん や ら く る と い う こ とである。

It is the case that Takeuchi, Aoki, and others will come to the party tonight.



See -6


yd na

-y5 de wa nai ka

-yo ga . . . -mai ga

-y6 ga •••


-yo koto nara

-よ う で は な い か See

de wa nai ka

- よ う が 〜 -ま い が See -5 ga •. • -mai ga

■よ う が 〜 -よ う が See: -6 ga • • • -5 ga

- ようことなら See -6 koto nara

•yo mono nara •ようものなら See mono nara

yd n a ような like; similar to Similar to: nite iru X (no) yd na Y, where no is used when X is a noun. Y that is similar to X; an X-nke Y. See also: to itta yo na mono; to iu yo na koto V —月だとぃうのに、暖かくて春のような天気だ。 Despite the fact that it is January, the weather is warm and springlike.


Thev say that Maruyama's voice is like Elvis Presley's.


yd ni

人の前で€ を か く ようなことはしたくないものだ。

I do not want to do things that will embarrass me in rront or other people.

y〇n i ように in order to; so that V yd ni X, where no is used when X is a noun. In order for V, X is done; for the purpose of V, X is done. 早 く テ ニ ス が 上 手 に な る ように毎 日 練 習 し て い る 。

Fm practicing tennis every day in order to become eood at it.

み ん な に 見 え る ように大きな字で書いた。

I wrote in large letters so that they could be seen by everyone.

y〇ni i u ように言う tell someone to do something V yd ni iu Tell someone to do V. In place of iu other verbs like chui-suru (warn someone), oshieru (teach someone), and tanomu (ask someone) may be used. 今 日 は 一 日 中 、 家 に い な い の で 、+ 時 過 ぎ に 雷 話 す る ように言っ 工おいた。

Because I won't be at home all day today, I told nim/her (in advance) to call me after ten.


yd ni naru

中 野 さ ん は い つ も た ば こ を n l っ て い る 。¥ な く と も 教 室 で は 吸 わ ちゆうい


な い ように注意した方がいい》

Nakano smokes all the time. We ought to warn him/her to not smoke m the classroom at least.

yo ni n a r u ようになる reach the point where . . . V yd ni naru Reach the point where V is possible. V is often a verb in the potential form. In contrast to both yd ni suru and koto ni suru, in which the speakers intention is at work, in both koto ni naru and yd ni naru, the situation (V) turns out to be the case regardless of the speaker’s intention, as seen in the following two sentences: ⑻うちの七才の息子は学校まで一人で¥ いて行くことになった。

It has been decided that my seven-year-old son will walk to school alone. ( b ) うちの七才の息子は学校まで一人で歩いて行けるようになった。 It has reached the point where my seven-year-old son can walk to school alone. 長 い 間 勉 強 し て や っ と ス ペ イ ン が 自 由 に 話 せ る ようになったか らとてもうれしい。

I am verv happy because, after having studied Spanish for a long time, I have finally gotten to the point where I can speak it fluently.


yd ni natte iru

円 高 ド ル 安 の お か げ で 、蒙 く の 日 本 人 が 世 界 中 い ろ い ろ な 所 へ 出 かけて 行 く ようになった。

Thanks to the high value of the yen and cheap dollars, things have reached the point where a number of Japanese travel to various places tnroughout the world.

yo ni natte i r u ようになっている V yd ni natte iru Something has been done or arranged so that V. V koto ni natte iru is used for something that has become a practice; similarly, Wyo ni natte iru is used for something that has become a practice or a rule. In the former, the practice is emphasized, whereas in the latter, the process by which V became a practice is emphasized. くるままどそと


The windows of cars are made so that they cannot be opened from outside.

この店では、 い ろ い ろ な ク レ ジ ッ ト カ ー ド が 使 え る ようになって いる。

In this shop, (it has been arranged such that) various credit cards can be used.


yd ni shite iru

y6 ni shite iru

ようにし ている

trying to; making an effort to V yd ni shite iru Making an effort to do V. Used for actions that are not habits where the writer is trying to make the action habitual.This contrasts with koto ni shite iru, which indicates actions that have already become habitual. ス ペ イ ン #が 上 手 に な る よ う に 、 毎 日 一 時 間 ず つ テ ー プ を き く 上 うにしている。

In order to become good at Spanish, I am trying to listen to tapes every day for an hour.


Because it is not good for the health, I am making efforts not to drink too much.


yd ni suru

yd ni suru


make an effort to; make sure to V yd ni suru In such a way as to V; make sure to V. V yd ni suru and V koto ni suru are both used when expressing a decision that was made by the speaker. V koto ni suru emphasizes that the decision was made. In contrast, V yd ni suru emphasizes the process or effort to do or not do something. In the two sets of sentences below, the outcome may be the same, but there is a slight difference in nuance: ⑻



I have decided not to eat sweet things so that I will not get fat. (The emphasis is on the speaker’s decision. We don’t know whether s/he actually doesn’t eat sweet things—we only know that s/he made a decision not to.) (b) B巴 ら な い よ う に 甘 い も の は 食 べ な い よ う に し た 。 I acted in such a way as to not eat sweet things so that I wouldn’t get fat. (The speaker still might have wanted to eat sweet things, but s/he did not eat them. The process by which s/he avoided eating them is emphasized.) (c)

毎 週 芝 を か る ことにした。

I decided to mow the lawn every week. (The speaker made the decision, but s/he may not have followed up on it. The decision is what is important.) (d )

毎 週 芝 を か る ようにした。

I acted in such a way as to mow the lawn every week. (The speaker mowed the lawn every week. The action of mowing the lawn is emphasized.)

留 守 中 、 犬 の 散 歩 を 忘 れ な い よ う に し て ください。

Please try not to forget to take the dog for a walk while Fm away.


(yori) hoka (ni) michi ga nai

言 葉 の 勉 強 を す る g は 毎 日 テ ー プ を 晶 く よ う に し た ¥が い い 。

When studying languages, one had better make sure to listen to tapes every day.

yorazu よらず

yori より

See ni yorazu

See ni yotte

(yori) hoka (ni) michi ga nai

( より)ほ か (に)途 が な い

there is no other way Similar to: hoka ni hoho ga nai V (yori) hoka (ni) michi ga nai, where V is in the citation form. Other than V there is no other way; V is the only way to achieve the speaker’s wish. The possibilities are limited to V. V is often followed by yori. See also: (yori) hoka (ni) shikata ga nai 一 日 も 早 く 韓 国 に 行 き た い が 、 ビ ザ が 出 る ま で 4 つ (よ り )ほか (に)途 が な い 。

I want to go to Korea as soon as possible, out i have no choice but to wait for a visa.

ア メ リ カ の 大 統 領はほとんど外国語ができないので、通訳に頼る ほか( に )途 が な い 。

Since for the most part American presidents cannot speak foreign languages, there is no other way but for them to depend on interpreters.


(yori) hoka (ni) shikata ga nai

(yori) hoka (ni) shikata ga nai

( より)ほ か (に)仕 方 が な い

there is no other way V (yori) hoka (ni) shikata ga nai, where V is in the citation form. There is no other way but V. V is often followed by yori. See also: (yori) hoka (ni) michi ga nai ここからシカゴまで行くのには、

機 が 一 番 い い が 、g 空 会 社

が ス ト ラ イ キ 中 だ か ら 、車 で 行 く (より)ほ か ( に )仕 方 が な い 。

ItJs best to go from here to Chicago by plane, but the airline is now on strike, so we have no cnoice but to go dv car.

この 教 室 は ク ー ラ ー が な い が 、 ほ か に 教 室 が な い か ら 、 この教室 を 使 う (よ り )ほ か ( に )仕 方 が な い 。

This classroom has no air conditioning, but there are no other classrooms available, so there is no other option but to use this room.

(yori) hoka (wa) nai

( より)ほ か (は ) ない

Similar to: shika nai V (yori) hoka (wa) nai, where V is in the citation form. V is the only way. There is no other way but V. 両 親 は 彼 女 と の 結 -に は 反 対 だ が 、私 と し て は 、結 婚 す る の は 両 親 で は な く 私 な の だ と い う (よ り )ほ か ( は )な い 。

My parents are against my marrying her. But all I can say is that they are not the ones getting married—I am.



の先生がこんなにやさしい問題ができないのはどうかしている でき

というが、 出 来 な い も の は 出 来 な い > い う (上り)ほ か (は )な い 。

My math teacher says tnere s somethin? wron? with someone who can't do sucn an easy problem. But there’s nothing else for me to say except that I can’t do what I can’t do. 太 る の で 甘 い も の は 食 べ な い こ と に し て い る の だ が 、折 角 私 の た め にI 乍 っ て く れ た 誕 生 日 の ケ ー キ な の で 、食 べ る よ り ほ か (は )な い 。

I make it a rule not to eat sweet things because I'll get fat, but since it's a birthday cake made especially for me, I have no choice but to eat it.

よる See ni voru


yoru to

よると See ni yoru to

y o s h iよし[ 由 ] Similar to: to iu koto; to no koto X (no) yoshi, where no is used when X is a noun. I am told X; I hear that X. Describes something one has heard. Often used in letter writing. In sentence-medial position yoshi alone is correct; in sentence-final position, the copula follows. 高木先生は明日付けであの大学の学長になられる虫である。

I hear that starting tomorrow Professor Takagi will become the president of that university.


yoso m


I am told that Uchida's son graduated as valedictorian of his college. It was an auspicious event.

yoso n i よそに ignoring; without regard to Similar to: kaerimizu ni; kankei naku; mushi shite X o yoso ni Y Regardless of X, Y. 兄 は 両 親 の 心 配 を よそに、 大 学 を や め て し ま っ た 。

ignonng my parents' concerns, my older brother ended up dropping out of college.

患 ^の 不 安 を よそに、


Disregarding the patient's uneasiness, the doctor decided to try using a new drug.

-y6 to •ようと See -6 to

-yo to . . . -mai to - よ う と 〜 - ま い と See -6 ga • • • -mai ga

-yo to shinai

- よ う と し な い See


to shinai

yue (ni)

•yO to suru

- ようとする See -D to suru

-yo to . . . -yo to


- よ う と 〜 - よ う と See -6 ga • • • -6 ga

よつて See ni yotte

yue ( n i ) ゆ え (に)[ 故 (に ) ] because Similar to: kara\ no de X (ga) yue(ni)Y Because of X, Y; X cites reasons tor Y. X may also end a sentence, with the following sentence beginning sono/sore yue, meaning “Because of X A classical expression not used in spoken Japanese. 5 ^ は昔の¥备 くを是けた日本人であった(が)ゆ え ( に)、昭和天皇 の写真を目にする度に、お辞儀をした。

Because my grandmother was a Japanese who received her education long ago, every time she saw a picture of the Showa emperor, she bowed. 日本は小さな島国である( が)故 ( に)、多くのものを外国から輸入 しなくてはいけない。

Because Japan is a small island country, it musいmport many things rrom abroad.


-zaru o enai

こ の と こ ろ 、 日 本 は 不 景 気 で あ る 。 そ れ 故 (に )失 業 者 の 数 が 増 え ている。

Recently the Japanese economy has been bad. Because of that, the number or unemployed has been increasing.

Z •zaru o enai

-ざ る を 得 な い

can’t help but … ; have no choice but to … W-zaru o enai V is the only way. Often means that the speaker must do something against his/her will. 非常に疲れているが社長のパーティーなので、行 か ざるを得ない だろう。

Fm very tired, but since it's the company president's party, I suppose I have no choice but to go.

折 角 私 の た め に 友 達 が 作 っ て く れ た ケ ー キ だ か ら 、 いくらダイ エツト中でも食べざるを得ない。

Because it is a cake that my friend went to the trouble to make for me, no matter now mucn I am dieting, I have no choice but to eat some.


-zu (ni)





Miura is a bnght student but s/he often skips classes, so I had no choice but to give her/him a failing grade.

-zu ( n i ) -ず (に ) without; instead or Similar to: nai de V-zm (ni) Without V-ing; instead of V-ing.

See also: -zu shite 何も食べず ( に )ア ス ピ リ ン を の む と 、 気 分 が 悪 く な る 。

When you take aspinn without eating anytnmg, you reel bad.

このところ、 冒いたいものも買わず ( に)、 お $ を た め て 旅 行 す る ことにしている。

Recently, instead of buying things I want, I have been saving money and traveling. ひ

し /と


こ ん な に 天 気 の い い 日 に は 什 ¥を せ ず ( に )、 海 か 山 に で も 行 き た いものだ。

On a day as nice as this I want to go to the sea or the mountains instead of working.


-zu shite

•zu shite

-ず し て without; instead of Similar to: nai de W-zu shite Without V-ing. A classical form of nai de or zu ni. See also: -zu (ni)

弟 は よ え ず



が あ る の で 、 いつもs



Mv younger brother has a tendency to act without thinking, so I otten have to tell him to be carerul, but that habit or ms does not die easily. と当っ大学!^く备 はヒマラャ山ち y で

& ま ず ^ わ ずして1 3 1


The mountaineering club at this university had an accident in the Himalayas and spent three days and nights witnout eating or drinking.

zutto (1)


Used to descnoe extremes, often in comparisons. の学生のg


The students this year are much more lively than the students last year.


It was a long time ago when I went to Taiwan.




from beginning to end ずっとS

に^ っていた一

During the spring vacation, I was home for the whole time.

今年の初めから休まずにずっと仕事をしているので、少し休暇を とるつもりだ。

I have been working continuously from the beginning or this year, so I plan to take a little Dreak.


Appendix A

気 気がある

ki ga aru

be interested in

離の娘はうちの息子に気があるのか、 よく電話をかけて来る。

I wonder if the girl next door is interestea in my son. She otten calls him. ki ga au

気か合 5

get along with

互いに考えが違っていても気 が 合 う ということもある。

Even if we think about things differently, there are times when we agree. ki ga chigau 気 が 違 う



be mad; be crazy

とはA 齧 の を 1 かえたダビンチを気 が 違 っ た の で は な


People contemporary with da Vinci thought that he must be crazy (because) he thought about human flight.


k i ga ch iisa i

気 が 小 さ い be timid; be cowardly


Siす は ず が な い 。

There is no reason to believe that such a timid person would get involved m something like gambling. ki ga chiru 気 が 散 る be distracted 隣のラジオがうるさくて勉強しようとしても気が散る。

The radio next door is noisv, and even if I try to stuay, I get aistracted. ki ga fureru 気 が 触 れ る become mad; become crazy

ハ ム レ ッ ト の 心 を 測 り 兼 ね て 、 オ フ イ ー リ ア は 気 が 触 れ て しまった。

Unable to ratnom Hamlet s heart, Ophelia went mad. ki ga hareru 気 が 晴 れ る be spirited; feel lighthearted; be cheerful

本 当 に 悲 し い 時 は 、 な ぐ さ め を 言 っ て も ら っ て も 気 が 晴 れ る もの ではない。

When you are truly sad, it won't cheer you up even when someone comforts you. ki ga haru 気 ;^張 る De tense; be anxious; have one’s mind focused


Sれ に 気 が か な い 。

Because your mind is focused on something wnen you are busy, you are not aware of being urea.


ki ga hayai

気 が 早 い be impatient; be hasty; be unable to wait こども


あの気 の 早 い カップルは、 ま だ 子供もいないのに、子供の教育を ろん


That impatient (overeager) couDle is discussing with one another the education of their children even though thev don’t have any yet.

ki ga hayaru 気 が は や る be anxious


When it comes to one?s first battle, one is anxious to perform great deeds. ki ga hazunui 気 が は ず む be excited

久 し ぶ り の 休 暇 を !?に し て 気 が は ず む 。

Fm excitea in anticipation of my long-awaited vacation. ki ga hikeru 気 が 引 け る be ashamed of; be self-conscious; be ill at ease

同僚をf t が家に招きたいが、むさくるしい所で気が引ける。

I’d like to invite my colleagues to mv home, but it’s such a shabby place that I reel uncomfortable about it. ki ga ii 気 が い い be kind; be generous

あの大工さんは気がいいので、ちよつとしたことは只で直してく れる。

That carpenter is generous, so s/ne fixes little problems for rree.

ki ga kawaru 気 が 変 わ る change one’s mind

Ifcみ に ^

に行く計画であったが、気が変わって、 山へ行くことに


I had planned to go to the beach for a vacation, but I changed my mind and decided to go to the mountains. ki ga ki de nai 気 が 気 で な い be very concerned; be quite worried


Although tne bullet train is going to leave in nve minutes, he hasn't shown up yet and I am terribly womed. k ig a k ik u 気 が 利 く ( 1 ) be considerate; attentive


Our new maid is a person with no initiative, ana s/he only does the things s/he is told to do. (2) cmc; fashionable; trendy

隣 の お ば さ ん は 旅 行 の お み や げ に い つ も 気 の 利 い た ものを買って 来てくれる。

On her travels, the lady next door always buys trendy souvenirs for me.




彼女はそんなに高いものを着ているわけではないが、 スカーフの 使い方が気が利いているので表敵にみ旁る„

It's not tnat the things she wears are so expensive, but she wears scarves stviishly ana so she looks great. ki ga magireru 気 ;0ミ紛れる be diverted from; be distracted from; be absorbed in

悲 し い 時 に は 、運 動 を す る と 、気が紛 れ る 。

When you are sad, if you do physical exercise, you will be distracted from vour sadness. ki ga mawaru 気力孓 回る be solicitous; be attentive

この宿の女将はよく気 が 回 る 人なので、初めての客もくつろげる。

The proprietress of this inn is a very solicitous person, so even first-ume customers feel relaxed. ki ea meiru 気 が 滅 入 る become depressed; feel dispirited

今 年 は 長 梅 雨 で 、 く る 日 も く る 日 も 雨 ば か り で 気 が 滅 入 っ て しまう。

This year the rainy season is long. It s been raining day after day and I feel depressed. ki ga mijikai

気 が 短 い be short-tempered

うちの父は気 が 短 く 、 ちょっ と し た こ と に も す ぐ 怒 り & す。

Mv father has a short temper—he gets angry over the slightest thing.


k i ga m o m e r u

気 が 揉 め る be worried; be anxious; be concerned

娘 の 就 職 が な か な か &ま ら ず 、 気 が 揉 め る 。

My daughter hasn’t found a jod, and I am concerned. ki ga muku 気 が 向 く be interested in


I went on a trip where my feet and inclination led me. ki ga nagai 気 が 長 い be patient


It's nothing for him to wait another three years because he's a patient person. ki ga nai

気 が な い have no inclination to; do not feel like なまへんじ

映画に行こうとさそってみたが、彼は気がないのか、生返事しか しない。

I tried inviting him to go to a movie, but he gave only a noncommittal reply, so I guess he’s not interested. ki ga noru 気力>乗 る be interested in

役 者 は 、 気 が 乗 ら な く て も、 気 が 乗 っ て い る よ う な 顔 を し て 演 じ なければならない。

Actors must pretend interest in their performance, even if they are not interested.


ki ga nukeru


feel let down; lose interest in

だ と 思 っ て 準 備 し て 行 っ た の に 、证 期 さ れ て 気 が 抜 け た 。

I thought there was going to be an exam, so I went prepared, but the exam was postponed and I felt let down. ki ga o m o i 気 ; ^ 重 V、 be dispirited; be morose; be depressed


Whenever I think of finals beginning in a week, I get the blues. ki ga 6丨 気 が 多 い be changeable; be fickle; be capricious

あの学生は気 が 多 い のか、 いろい ろ な 言 語 に 手 を つ け る が 、一つ もものにならない。

I wonder whether that student isn?t capricious. S/He tnes her/his hand at many languages but hasn’t mastered any of them. ki ga 6kii 気 が 大 き い be generous; be bighearted


,は 洒 を 飲 む と 気 が 大 き く な っ て 大 盤 振 舞 い を す る 。

When my older brother drinks, he becomes bighearted and treats everyone. ki ga seku 気 が せ く

feel rushed; feel pressed for time

原稿の締切りが近づいているのに、仕事がはかどらず、 気がせく。

Although the deadline is approaching, my work is not progressing, and I feel pressed for time.


k i ga sh ir e n a i

気 が 知 れ な い be incomprehensible

令 ん な に や さ し ぃ 両 親 が あ り な が ら 、 家 出 し て し ま う と は 、 あの ネ•の気 が 知 れ な ぃ 。

I can’t understand that child’s leaving home despite having such kind parents. ki ea shizumu 気 が 沈 む be depressed


When 1 think about my son who died young, I get depressed. ki ga sumu 気 が 済 む be relieved; be satisfied; be at ease; be relaxed


People who like things to be clean can't rest unless they clean every day. ki ga suru 気 が す る have a feeling that

けの色から判断すると、明日は雨が& るような気がする。

Judging rrom the color of the sunset, I have a feeling tnat it will ram tomorrow. ki ga susumanai 気 が 進 ま な い be unwilling to; be reluctant to; hesitate to


You shouldn't marry someone you don't feel like marrying.


ki ga t a t s u 気 が 立 つ

( 1 ) be irritable

入試前夜の学生は気が立っているから、そっとしておいてやるの がよい。

Students are lmtable on the eve of the entrance exams, so it is better just to leave them alone. (2) be nigh strung; be in shock; be jittery: oe tense

明朝六時の飛行機で日本へ発つ。飛行機に遅れまいと気が立って ねむ


I leave for Japan tomorrow on a 〇:00 a .m . flight. I wonder if it's rear of missing the plane, but I simply can t get to sleep.

ki ga togameru 気 が 咎 め る feel guilty 病気で仕事を休んだのに、少し気分がよくなったからと言って、 々方游びに出かけるのは気が咎める。

I took the day off from work because I was sick, but Tm feeling better now. So, I feel guilty about going out this evening.


ki ga t6ku n a r u 気が遠く な る

( 1 ) faint; lose consciousness くら

な か う し


シャーロックホームズは暗やみの中で後ろから頭を殴られ気が遠 くなった。

Sherlock Holmes was nit on the nead from behind m the dark and lost consciousness. (2) be unimaginable; be farfetched 五+ 年前には気の遠く な る ような話に思われたインターネット が、今は現実となっている。

The Internet, considered a farretched idea fifty years ago, has become a reality.

ki ga tsuku 気 が 付 く notice 話が弾んで、気 が 付いたらもう真夜中であった。

We talked and talked, and when I noticed the time, it was already the middle of the night.

ki ga tsumaru 気 が 詰 ま る feel intimidated; be overwhelmed ぎむずか

あの先生は気難しくてそばにいると気が詰まるから、 パーティー に呼ぶのはやめよう。

That teacher is hard to please, and when you're near him/her you feel intimidated, so let's not invite him/her to the party.

ki ga tsuyoi 気 が 強 い be strong-willed; be strong-minded

う ち の チ ビ # は 気 が 強 く て 、笑きな犬にも卩 J え か か る 。

Mv little dog is fearless and even barks at big dogs.

ki ga wakai 気 が 若 い be young at heart うちの祖父は気が 若 く て 、孫の友達と話をするのが好きだ。

My grandfather is voung at heart, and he likes to talk with his grandchildren’s mends.

ki ga yasumaru 気 が 休 ま る be at peace; feel relaxed 外 に 出 て 木 々 の 梢 か ら 聞 こ え て く る 鳥 の 声 を 聞 い て い る と 、 気が 休まる。

When I go out and listen to the birds chirping in the treetops, I feel at peace. kigayoi 気 が よ い S e e k ig a ii

ki ea yowai

気 が 弱 い be spineless; be weak-willed; be timid; be softhearted


That person is softhearted and can't refuse a request.

ki ga yowaru 気 か 弱 る become dispirited

人 は 健 康 を 害 す る と 気 も 弱 る ものである。

People become dispirited when their health suffers.

k i ga y u r u m u

気 が 緩 む be relaxed

大仕_ が終った途端に、気 が 緩 ん で どっと蓋れがゐた。

Tne moment the big job was nnished, I became relaxed and then all of a sudden felt extremely tired.

ki niiru 気 に 入 る like; be satisfied with 彼は違のいい男だが、高慢な話しっぷりが気に入らない。

He is quite intelligent, but I don't like ms arrogant style of speech.

ki ni kakaru 気 に 掛 か る weigh on one’s mind 夕 べ 嫌 な 夢 を 見 た の が 気 に 掛 か っ て 、仕 事 も 手 に つ か な い 。

The nightmare I had last night is weighing on my mind, and I can't work.

ki ni kakeru 気 に 掛 け る worry; weigh on one’s mind うわさ




If you worry about rumors, you won't be able to do anything.

ki ni kanau 気 に 適 う be satisfied with; like 親の気に適う結婚相丰を昆つけるのはそう簡単ではない。

It is not that easy to find a m am age Dartner my parents will like.


ki ni k u w a n a i

気 に 食 わ な い dislike; hate

こ の 靴 は 形 は い い の だ が 、 どうも¥ が 気 に 食 わ な い 。

Pm pleased with the style of this pair of shoes, but somehow I aon't like the color.

ki ni naru 気 fこなる weigh on one’s mind おや


親 は い つ ま で も 子 供 の こ と が 気 に な る ものだ。

Parents will always worry about their cnildren.

ki ni sawaru 気 に 障 る get on (someone’s) nerves あの人は悪い人ではないが、 いつも自分のうちの自慢話をするの が気に障る。

That person is not a bad person, but his/ner constant boasting about his/ her own ramily gets on my nerves.

ki ni somu 気 に 染 む be satisfied with; like 仕事であれば、気に染まないことでもしなければならない。

As long as it's my job, I have to do it, even if it is something that I don't find pleasing.

ki ni suru 気 に す る mind; care; concern oneself with


There’s no need to pay any attention to malicious gossip (about you).


k i ni to m e r u 気 に 留 め る give heed to; take notice of


She doesn’t show any sign of paying attention to her friends’ advice.

ki ni yamu 気 に 病 む worry about; feel bad about; take to heart 受験に€ 敗したからと言って気 に 病 む ことはない。

You don't have to reel bad just because you failed the entrance exam.

ki no okenai 気 の 置 け な い feel at home; feel at ease 気の置けない人達とパーティーをするのは楽しい。

ItJs fun to have a party with people witn whom vou feel at ease.

ki o harasu 気 を 晴 ら す divert oneself; divert one’s mind; relieve one’s mind 一日中読書ばかりしているので気を晴らすために泳ぎにでも行つ ほう


Fve been reading all day, so maybe I should go swimming for a change.

ki o haru 気 を 張 る be tense つか


そんなに気を張 っ て い る とすぐに疲れてしまうから、気を楽にす ほう


If you are so tense, youli tire yourself out, so you ought to relax.

k i o h ik ita te r u


気 を 引 き 立 て る cheer up; lift up one’s spirits

との尧 备 、

しみに日$ け く れ て い る 友 人 の 気 を 引 き 立 て よ う と、



Trying to cneer up my rnend, who has been lost in sadness day in ana day out since her husbana died, I invited her to a concert.

ki o hiku 気 を 5 1 く attract attention; arouse attention 口先だけで相丰の気を引こうとしてもすぐに見破られてしまう。

If you are insincere in trying to attract another's attention, you'll be seen through nght away.

ki o ireru 気 を 入 れ る work hard; be attentive 子供の時に気を入れてピアノの練習をすればよかったと後悔して いる。

I wish that when I was a child I had worked hard at practicing the piano,

ki o kaeru 気 を 変 え る change one’s mind こんばんえいが


今晩は映画に行かないでいようと思っていたが、気を変えて、誘 われるままに、行くことにした。

Fd been thinking that I wouldn't go to the movies tonight, out I changed mv mind and decided to go, just as I had been invited to.


ki o kikaseru 気 を 利 か せ る exercise tact; have good sense 私 の 友 達 が 訪 ね て く る と 、ル ー ム メ ー ト は 気 を 利 か せ て 、すぐに 図書館へ行ってくれる。

When my rnena comes over to visit, my roommate tactrully eoes straight ofr to the library.

ki o kubaru 気 を 配 る be sensitive to

「い じ め 」 が8 客 問 S


币 しは孚铽 の



Nowadays, since bullying has become a societal problem, teachers must be sensitive at all times to (school) children’s psychological states.

ki o mawasu 気 を 回 す be overly concerned 新居に移転するに当り、母は 気を回して余計なものまで買ってく れた。

When 1 moved to a new house, my mother made a russ over it and even bought me things I didn’t need.

ki o momu 気 化 揉 む worry about; be anxious about 株屋は株“ の変動にi




Stockbrokers worry every day over the changes in stock prices.


ki o m o ta su

気 を 持 た す encourage; invite

買 う 気 も な い の に 、 セ ー ル ス マ ン に € 問 を して気 を 持 た す の は 罪 なことである。

It is wrong for you to ask questions and invite expectations on the part of the salesperson when you have no intention of buying anything.

ki o otosu 気 を 落 と す be disheartened; be dispirited 受験に失敗したくらいで、そんなに気を落とすことはない。

If failing the entrance exam is all it is, then it's not something you should be so disheartened about.

ki o raku ni suru 気 を 楽 に す る take a load off one’s mind: feel relieved 深 呼 吸 を し て 気 を 楽 に す る と、 気 持 が 落 ち 着 く 。

When you breathe deeply and relax, you reel at ease.

ki o shizumeru 気 を 静 め る be calm 人 前 で 話 す 時 は 、慌 て な い で 気を静めて話 す に 限 る 。

When speaking in front of a group, all you have to do is stay calm and not get flustered.

ki o sosoru 気 を そ そ る arouse one’s interest in; be invited; be attracted

秋 の 去 、鈴 由 の 咅 に 気 をそそられて、散 歩 に 出 か け た 。

Attracted by the chirpine of crickets, I went out for a stroll one autumn evening.


ki o tsu k a u 気を使う


care about; worry about

の € は 私 に # し て 気 を 使 い ^ ぎ る の で 、U ね る の が 稼 鉍 で あ る 。

My wire's mother is too solicitous, so it is tiresome to go visit her.

ki o tsukeru 気 を 付 け る be careful この辺は夜危ないので気を付けるに越したことはない。

It's dangerous around here at night, so you*d be best advised to take care.

ki o waruku suru 気 を 悪 く す る become displeased 冗談が過ぎると気 を 悪 く す る こともある。

Ir you go too far with vour jokes, there will be times when you maKe people feel bad.

ki o yasumeru 気 を 休 め take it easy; feel relaxed; take a break こ の の


は 、震 か ら 次にほ訪問客くの

SfAこ の っ て や っ て 、 复


Secretaries in this company never get any rest because they are so involved in answering visitors’ questions one after another.

ki o yoku suru 気 を よ く す る feel good about; be pleased 褒 め ら れ て 気 を よ く し て い る と、 お だ て ら れ て い る に 過 ぎ な い こ とがある。

When you are feeling good about being praised, sometimes it turns out to have been nothing but flatterv.


ki o yurumeru

気 を緩める relax one’s attention; take it easy のぼとき

ロッククライマーは、登る時よりも下りる時にこそ気を緩めるな という。

Rock climbers say that, even more than on the way up, it*s on the way down that vou should not relax your attention. ki o yurusu 気 を 許 す trust; relax one’s guard

旅行中は親切そうな人にうっかり気を許してひどい目にあうこと があるかもしれないから気を付けた方がいい。

When you are traveling, you're apt to run into trouble if you let down your guard with someone who looks kind, so you had better be careful.


Appendix B

身 mi ga hairu 身 ;^入 る be interested in; be absorbed in; be engrossed in 彼女は仕事に身が入っていないから、いつも失敗ばかりしている。

She is not interested in her work, so she s always making mistakes.

mi ga iru 身 ; ^人 る

See mi sa hairu

mi ga karui 身 が 軽 い have few responsibilities 父 は 長 年 勤 め て い た 会 定 年 で 退 職 し て か ら 身が軽くなったの か、いつもフラリと旅に出て行く。

My father seems to feel so lioerated after retiring from the company where he worked for so long that he’s always going ofr on trips unexpectedly.


m i ni a m a ru

身に余る be more than one deserves

ネ ¥墓 5く ネ 献 へ の S


き が め 会 :^、吴S 甚 に じ き じ き の ね ぎ ら


My contribution to social welfare services was recognized, and I received words of appreciation directly from His Majesty the bmperor. I felt undeserving of tne honor.

mi ni au 身 に 合 う be suitable; be balanced 身に合わない結婚は不幸のもとである。

An unsuitable mamage is the cause or unhappiness.

mi ni n a r u 身 に な る ( 1 ) become one’s own ながあいだ

長 い 間 中 国 語 を 勉 強 し て い る の に 、 身 に な っ て い な い の か 、 中国 ときじようず


Although I have been studying Chinese for a long time, I guess I haven't acquired it, because I couldn’t say anything clever when l went to China. (2) put oneself m another’s piace/snoes

李 供 の 身になって考 え る と 、厳 し い 親 よ り も 甘 い 親 の 方 が い い の だろう。

If you put yourself in a child's shoes, then it's probably better to have softhearted parents than strict ones.


mi ni o b o e g a aru


k now by personal exp erience

盗みをはたら い た と 責 め ら れ た が 、私には1

く身 に 覚 え の な い こ


I was accused of stealing, but I knew nothing about it. mi ni shimiru 牙 に 染 み な

feel keenly; appreciate fully

落ちぶれて細る人もなく途¥ にくれていた時に、 身ももらぬ隣人 に暴を差し伸べられ、その親切を身に染みて感じた。

Wnen I was down ana out, at a loss with no one to rely on, a neighbor whom i didn’t Know at all gave me a helping hand, and I was deeply toucned by nis/her kindness. mi ni tsuku 身 に 付 く かれ

acquire; become one’s own


彼は子供の頃しつけられたテーブルマナーが身に付いているの で、 どこに出しても恥ずかしくない。

Since he acquired proper table manners as a child, he won’t be an embarrassment no matter where you may take him. mi ni tsumasareru 身 に つ ま さ れ る sympathize deeply with; feel deeply for

戦後住むところも食べるものもなく苦労した人々の話を聞くと皇 につまされる。

When I hear stories about people after the war who had no place to live and nothing to eat, I sympathize deeply with them.


m io a y a m a r u 身 を あ や ま る go astray; succumb to temptation


When 1 was young, I went astray on account of liquor, and (among other things) I ended up being nred from my job. mi o hiku 身ゼ弓 I く resign one’s post; give up





孚供を1丨き A




After the divorce,i wanted to get custoay of my children, but, thinking about their education,i decided to give up. mi o horobosu 身 を ほ ろ ぼ す ruin oneself

彼 は 会 社 を 解 雇 さ れ て か ら 酒 に お ぼ れ る よ う に な り 、 身をほろぼ' してしまった。

After being nred, he reached the point where he drowned himself m sake and went to ruin. m i o i r e n i 身 を 入 れ る devote oneself to; take an active interest in; exert oneself

外国語は身 を 入 れ て しないと上手になるものではない。

A foreign language is something that you won't become good at unless you devote yourself to it.


mi o k a k u s u 身 を 隠 す

hide oneself; con ceal o n e se lf

彼は急に有名になり何処に行ってもレポーターにとりまかれるの で 、 しばらく身 を 隠 す よりほかはない。

h e nas become ramous all of a sudden. No matter where ne goes, ne is surrounded oy reporters, so there's nothing for him to do but to keep out of sight for a while. mi o katam eru 身 を 固 め る ( 1 ) marry and settle down

もう三十を過ぎたので、 そ ろ そ ろ 身を固めてはどう か と 、近くの 人がお見合いの写真をもって来た。

Since Ym already over thirty, people m the neighborhood have brought around photos of potential mantal partners, suggesting that I should get married and settle down one of these days. (2) be attired in; wear

し ^ は


くに身を固めてに又 害 ^きに還んだ。

The new students attended the entrance ceremony dressed in their school uniforms.


m i o k ezu ru


suffer a hardship

い く ら 親 友 だ か ら と 言 っ て 、 自S

の身 を 削 っ て まで面倒をみる



There's no need to look after a rnend to the point of suffering yourself, no matter how close a rnend s/he may be. mi o k ir a re r u 身 を 切 ら れ る ( 1 ) be harrowing, distressing

で を な く し た 人 々 は 、 身 を 切 ら れ る よ う な 思 い で 1^ 夜 を過ごした。

People who lost their houses in the big fire spent the night m great distress. (2) be piercing, chilling, penetrating

で_ 一夜をi

を な く し た !C ? は 、 身 を 切 ら れ る よ う な ^ さ の 中 で


People who lost their houses in the big fire spent the night in the piercing cold. mi o ko ni suru 身 を 粉 に す る work hard; work to the bone

十九世紀にアメリカに終民して来た多くの人々は身を粉にして働 き財産を築き上げた。

Manv people who immigrated to Amenca m the nineteenth century managed to build up some capital by working themselves to the bone.


mi o korosu

身 を 殺 す perform a b en evolen t act; sacrifice o n e se lf

身を殺して不幸な人々のために働くなP 、わがままな私にできる わけがない。

Fm too selnsh to do such a thing as sacrifice myself for people who are less rortunate. mi o makaseru 身 を 任 せ る gi ve oneself up to

おぼれかけている時は、 あがこうとせず救助の人に身を任せる方 がよい。

If you are drowning, don?t struggle, but surrender yourself to the people who are trying to rescue you.

何 事 に お い て も 努 力 は 必 要 で あ る が 、 時 の 運 に 身 を 任 せ る 方がよ い場合もある。

Efrort is essential m everytnmg, but there are times when it's better that you entrust yourselr to fate. m io n a g e r u 身 を 投 げ る throw oneselr into (a river, the ocean, etc.)

不景気を反映してS に身を投 げ て 自殺する人がA えてきている。

In reaction to the weak economy, the number of people who commit suicide by throwing themselves into the sea is increasing.


mi o okosu 身 を 起 こ す rise up; make one’s way up the social ladder


Toyotomi hideyoshi is known to nave nsen from (the position of) a simple root soldier. mi o otosu 身 を 落 と す degrade oneself; demean oneself

彼女はあれほど前途を期待されていた人であったのに、乞食に盘 き


を 落 と し て い る と聞いて我が耳を疑った。

Although great things were expected of her, I heard that she had descended to the level or a beggar, and I didn’t believe my ears. mi o tateru 身 を 立 て る establish oneself; rise in the world えんげき

演劇で身 を 立 て よ う とニューヨークにやって来たが、なかなか思 うようにいかない。

I came to New York to establish myself on the stage, but it isn t going as I’d like it to. mi o yatsusu 身 を や つ す disguise oneself

水戸¥ 門 は # k 居に 身をやつして旅に出たと言われている。

Mito Komon is said to have gone on trips disguised as an elderly gentleman in retirement.


m i o y o se r u

身 を 寄 せ る stay with; find shelter with

阪神大震災で€ をなくし、 しばらく親戚の家に身を寄せていた。

We lost our house in the Great Kobe Earthquake, and we stayed with relatives for a while.