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AL-FARABI KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
Zh. Kiynova G. Orynkhanova
PUSHKINIANA OF KAZAKHSTAN Educational manual
Almaty «Qazaq University» 2018
UDC 8220.127.116.11 LBC 83.3 К 50 Recommended for publication by the decision of the Academic Council of the Faculty of Philology and World Languages, Editorial and Publishing Council of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Protocol №7 dated 05.07.2018); Educational and methodical association on groups of specialties «Natural sciences», «Engineering and technology» of Republican educational-methodical council on basis Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Protocol №2 dated 07.06.2018) Reviewers: doctor of Philology, professor B.U. Dzholdasbekova doctor of Philology, Associate Professor S.V. Ananieva doctor of Philology, Associate Professor I.S. Muratbaeva
Kiynova Zh., Orynkhanova G. Pushkiniana of Kazakhstan: educational manual / Zh. Kiynova, G. Orynkhanova. – Almaty: Qazaq University, 2018. – 96 p. ISBN 978-601-04-3600-8 The present textbook on the elective discipline “Modern Pushkiniana: new research and technologies” is intended for master students and is aimed at studying and comprehending skills of literary translation of Pushkin’s words. The novelty of the book lies in the fact that it consistently traces the history of the Kazakh translation tradition on the material of Pushkin’s work translations to Kazakh language, which is a new research material and it brings a new impetus to the development of the domestic philological science – Pushkiniana of Kazakhstan. Published in authorial release.
UDC 818.104.22.168 LBC 83.3 © Kiynova Zh., Orynkhanova G., 2018 © Al-Farabi KazNU, 2018
The issue of the textbook is characterized by originality and relevance, in it are presented certain conclusions about the development of the Kazakh Pushkiniana in line with current scientific paradigms. In addition, the novelty of the textbook content is that it consistently traces the history of the Kazakh translation tradition on the material of Pushkin’s work translations into Kazakh language, which is a new research material and it brings a new impetus to the development of the domestic philological science – Pushkiniana of Kazakhstan. Particular attention is paid to the research ways of preserving the semantic-stylistic originality of A.S. Pushkin’s language and style, as well as using the most correct method of translation and various translation transformations, which is an important condition for translatability of literary texts in different historical epochs. In the Kazakh translation literature the greatest number of translations are A.S. Pushkin’s word. In connection with this, the author analyzed a large number of Pushkin’s simultaneous translations, which are performed by talented Kazakh poets and writers during the XX century (А. Kunanbaev, I. Zhansugurov, K. Shangitbaev, K. Bekhozhin, G. Ormanov, T. Zharokov, K. Amanzholov, A. Tazhibaev and others). Such a number of translations makes it possible to positively raise the question of the scientific problem of their quality, to compare the existing translations of the Russian literature classics into unrelated languages, to describe translation transformations, contributing to the achievement of stylistic equivalence. The main purpose of the textbook is to give a deep and complete description of the Kazakh Pushkiniana from a position of literary translation. Exactly it was comprehension and popularization of the great Russian poet’s creativity through the traditions of Pushkin’s work translation. In this regard, the main difference between this textbook and other existing literature is that author solves the original problem on a new research material – contextual analysis of Pushkin’s work different time translations into Kazakh language. 3
The material presented in this textbook helps master students as a novice researchers to acquire modern methodology of literary text analysis applying in the process of literary studying poetic and prosaic word, researchers’ (the last quarter of XX and XXI century) scientific word devoted to Pushkin’s creativity. The textbook is based on the analysis of a sufficient amount of factual material, art texts; on the basis of mastering the points of view of modern Kazakh literary criticism, therefore its practical significance is undoubted and relevant. Level of material presentation, nature of tasks and questions are adapted to the requirements of modern educational technologies, all the necessary psychological and pedagogical requirements, which are presented to this kind of educational publications, are met in the work. Results and method of text analysis can be used in university and school practice, during studying of scientific-theoretical and applied character problems of Russian and Kazakh literature, also during studying the creative work of A.S. Pushkin and Kazakh Pushkin's as one of the component parts of the modern world Pushkin.
1.1. Pushkiniana of Kazakhstan as a direction of domestic philological science: historiography and the current state of the issue Formation and development of the Kazakh Pushkiniana as a separate direction in the domestic philological science is connected with the research of Kazakhstani Pushkinists as N. Raevsky, G. Belger, S. Abdrahmanov, O. Vidova, K. Gaivoronskiy, K. Keshin, N. Scherbanov and others. Special merit in the development of this direction belongs to S.V. Ananieva whose research activity is closely connected with the study of the originality of the Kazakhstan contemporary literature. So, the textbook “Pushkiniana of Kazakhstan” provides valuable information of sources, as well as generalization, description and author’s interpretation of Kazakhstan researchers’ word dedicated to A.S. Pushkin’s life and work. The researcher underlines N. Raevsky’s importance in the formation of Pushkiniana of Kazakhstan: “Among the numerous Pushkinists of the world, a special place belongs to Kazakhstani. N. Raevsky spends in our city the latest and the most productive years of his life. Here were published his books “When portraits speaks” and “Portraits began to spoke”, in which were included new materials, results of archival surveys, were taken into account N.B. Izmailov and T.G. Tsavlovsky (Leningrad and Moscow scientists, members of the Pushkin Commission of the USSR Academy of Sciences) also literary scholars N.M. Kauhchishvili (Milan), S. Ostrovskaya (Prague) and A.M. Igumnova (Bratislava)”1.
Ananieva S.V. Kazahstanskaya Pushkiniana. Poslednyaya chetvert' XX veka – pervoe desyatiletie veka XXI. – Almaty: ID «ZHibek zholy», 2009. – P. 12. 1
Pushkiniana of Kazakhstan has a long tradition and dates back to the practice of translation. Kazakh translation literature consists of a large number of Pushkin’s word, which were translated during a whole century (XX century) by well-known and talented Kazakh men of the pen (A. Kunanbayev, I. Zhansugurov, K. Shangitbayev, A. Tazhibayev, T. Zharokov, K. Amanzholov, K. Bekhozhin, G. Ormanov and others). Amount number of translations (there are exist of one work translations by different authors) allows raising a question about scientific problem of its quality, to compare existing translations of Russian literature classics into other languages, to describe translated transformations, which can help to obtain genre-stylistic equivalence. Translation as a type of person's spiritual activity has a great importance in individual peoples’ cultural history and in world culture in general. Translation word in Kazakhstan are derived from Tolmachev’s translations – the period of Kazakhstan's accession to Russia. The development of translation studies in Kazakhstan has a long history which is connected with the translations of different peoples’s word into Kazakh language. Thus, Abay first translated Russian classic literature word, among them are “Tatyana’s letter to Onegin” – an excerpt from the novel in verse “Eugene Onegin”, Lermontov’s selected poems, also Krylov’s fables. I. Altynsarin publishes “Kirghizian anthology” and translates Krylov’s fables. Exactly through translations Kazakh reader got acquainted with W. Shakespeare, D. Byron, I. Goethe, Guy de Maupassant, E. Hemingway, D. London and M. Twain’s word. They were secondary word (translations) in Russian language. Generalization and analysis of translation experience was provided in researchers’ word, which had an analytical-literary character. Observation of scientific word on the issue of translation studies published in the second half of the 20th century is given in the bibliography compiled by A. Kusainov and Sh. Sarybaev2. Bibliographic index compiled by A.T. Kaliaskarova is a modern valuable source, which contains all word on the heritage of A.S. Pushkin in literary criticism of Kazakhstan3. The advantage of Translation issues. Bibliographic index. – Almaty: RIC im. I. Altynsarina, 1999. – 80 p. A study of the Pushkin heritage in literary criticism in Kazakhstan: Bibliographic index / Comp. A.T. Kaliaskarova. – Almaty: Tau-Samal, 2009. – 224 p. 2 3
this publication is the division of all existing Kazakh studies into thematic blocks: dissertations, books and articles. However, the bibliographic description of the theses does not contain a large number of studies protected in the second half of the 20th century – period of intensive study of the literary translation problems, in particular, the translation of word by A.S. Pushkin to the Kazakh language. At the same time, the compiler made a great search work on the systematization of articles in accordance with the year of publication throughout the 20 and beginning of the 21st centuries. Literary translation is the most complex kind of translation activity, because it is not a simple code switching, but also it is a recreating a cultural and national identity of the original by the native language means. Intensive development of literary translation in the Soviet era is associated with the so-called “social order” on translation of national poets’ word into Russian and as well as the Russian literature classics’ word into the national languages of the USSR, what was an integral part of the literary process and a source of mutual enrichment and interconnection of cultural traditions of the USSR peoples. After M. Gorky’s call to begin close contacts with the culture of the fraternal republics at the First All-Union Congress of Soviet Writers (1934), all writers, poets and translators faced with difficult tasks to find new ways. Translation Studies take a wide scope, and word of Kazakh literature, as the literature of the USSR other peoples, started to translate into Russian. At that time interpreters are faced with the fact that during the re-creation of literary word samples of Kazakhstan and Central Asia, it should be taken into account the difference in versification systems, the peculiarities of the reader's perception. Also they have to learn and master other languages, to know the literature, customs and life, ethnic and historical and cultural traditions, to be able to keep the national and historical flavor, and others. As rightly pointed out A. Alimov4, in the first half of the 20th century, Soviet literature, and at the same time with it the Translation Studies developed in line with the system settings, which determined the purposeful character of the literary and artistic process, 4
Alimov A. Problemy hudozhestvennogo processa v Kazahstane v 1920-30-e gody: Avtoref. dis. kand. filol. n., 1993.
conditioned by ideological attitudes of the epoch. Thus, writers and poets as Shota Rustaveli, Alisher Navoi, A.S. Pushkin, M.Yu. Lermontov, T.G. Shevchenko, Kosta Khetagurov, Sholom Aleichem, and others in connection with anniversaries have been translated into Kazakh language. Review of Philological Literature showed that in the Kazakh translation literature the largest number of translations into Kazakh constitutes the word of the Russian literature classic – A.S. Pushkin. Kazakh translation literature consists of a large number of Pushkin’s word, which were translated during a whole century (XX century) by well-known and talented Kazakh men of the pen (A. Kunanbayev, I. Zhansugurov, K. Shangitbayev, A. Tazhibayev, T. Zharokov, K. Amanzholov, K. Bekhozhin, G. Ormanov and others). Although, there is an improvement in the translation skills, based on the great experience of its predecessors, such a number of Kazakh translations allowing naturally raise the question about the scientific quality of the translation problem. Theoretical questions of Russian classics translation into Kazakh were developed in the word of researchers (A. Baitursynov, M. Seralin, Zh. Aimauytov, M. Auezov, M. Karataev, A. Satybaldiev, S. Talzhanov, S. Seitov, S. Kirabaev, K. Muhamedzhanov, G. Belger, K. Kanafieva-Kereeva, G. Kambarbaeva) in the second half of XX century. It should be specially noted Professor KanafievaKereyeva’s scientific school whose supervision allowed to defend large number of theses on the problems of Russian classical literature word’ artistic translation into the Kazakh language. That made its significant contribution to the development of Kazakh Translation Studies. One of the significant events became the publication of Pushkin’s translations into Kazakh in three volumes in 1937, dedicated to the centenary of the great poet's death. The first volume (1936) included translations of romantic poems by A.S. Pushkin. Translation of these poems into the Kazakh language made great difficulties, associated not only with the originality and depth of Pushkin’s language and style, but also with the re-creation of the realities and the cultural and historical background of that era. In the difficult years of mass repression and political persecution these word were translated by representatives of the advanced Kazakh intelligentsia, famous poets and writers: “Ruslan and Ludmila” (translation by A. Tazhibaev); “The Prisoner of the Caucasus” (“Kavkazskiy plennik”) (trans8
lated by T. Zharokov); “The Gabrieliad” (“Gavriliada”) (translation by I. Jansugurov); “The Robber Brothers” (“Bratya razboyniki”) (translated by T. Zharokov); “The Fountain of Bakhchisaray” (“Bakhchisaraysky fontan”) (translated by K. Togyzakov); “The Gypsies” (“Tsygany”) , “Count Nulin” (“Graf Nulin”), “The Little House in Kolomna” (“Domik v Kolomne”) (translations by T. Zharokov); “The Bronze Horseman” (“Medny vsadnik”) (translated by M. Dauletbaev). The second volume (1937) contains the translation of “Eugene Onegin” and 29 poems. They were translated by I. Jansugurov, and also there were collected excerpts in Abay’s translations. The third volume contains translations of Pushkin’s prose: “Dubrovsky”, “The Captain's Daughter” (“Kapitanskaya dochka”) (translated by K. Taishanov); “Stationmaster” (“Stanzionny smotritel”), “The story of the village of Goriukhino” (“Istoriya sela Goryuhin”), “The Queen of Spades” (“Pikovaya dama”) (translated by K. Sagyndykov). In the 90s of the XX century and at the beginning of the XXI century there was a tendency to study translations of word by A.S. Pushkin into the Kazakh language from the point of view of literary analysis. In this regard, it should be noted dissertational research by R.A. Shahanova5, E.Z. Adilgazinov6, R.A. Dosmakhanova7, K.O. Zhekeeva8, S. Abdrakhmanov9 and others. As R.A. Shahanova pointed out, “Pushkiniana of Kazakhstan” originates from the moment of a historically logical meeting of two great giants of national cultures as Pushkin and Kunanbayev. Abai’s appeal to the translation of Pushkin’s creations is the appeal of a genius to a genius, an encyclopedist to an encyclopaedist, a seer to a prophet”6.
Shahanova R.A. Problemy perevoda poehzii A.S. Pushkina na kazahskij yazyk (na materiale poehm): Dis. … kand. filol. nauk. – Almaty, 1990. 6 Adilgazinov E.Z. Voprosy vospriyatiya prozy A.S. Pushkina v kazahskoi sovetskoi literature i kritike): Dis. … kand. filol. nauk. – Almaty, 1992. 7 Dosmahanova R.A. Problemy perevoda romana v stihah A.S. Pushkina «Evgeni Onegin» na kazahskiu yazyk): Dis. … kand. filol. nauk. – Almaty, 1993. 8 Zhekeeva K.O. Korkem audarmadagy ulttyk bolmys pen shygarmashylyk іzdenіster (A.S. Pushkin shgarmalarynyng audarmalary boiynsha): Filol. gyl. kand. diss. 9 Abdrahmanov S. A.S. Pushkinnіng «Evgeni Onegin» romanynyng qazaq adebi zhane fol’klorlyk dasturіndegі orny: Filol. ғyl. kand. diss. – Astana, 1999.
Modern Pushkiniana of Kazakhstan is associated with the names of G. Belger, S. Yeleukenov, S.V. Ananieva, S. Abdrakhmanov, K. Sadykov, N. Scherbanov and others. In their studies are continued exploring the translation traditions, as well as generalization and description Kazakh translated literature. Review of modern word allows to select research studies character (N. Raevsky, S. Abdrakhmanov), historical and local lore content (N. Scherbanov), essays (Guslyarov), a collection of “epistolary heritage” (Kirillov) 10. Great contribution in the development of modern Pushkiniana of Kazakhstan contributed researches of well-known Kazakh Pushkinist – S.V. Ananieva. She generalizes and describes contribution of Kazakh Pushkinists as N. Raevsky, G. Belger, S. Abdrakhmanov, O. Vidova, K. Gayvoronskiy, K. Keshin, N. Scherbanov, E. Guslyarovain in her book “Pushkiniana of Kazakhstan”. Particular attention to the issues of the translation of fiction, especially the transfer of the richness of Pushkin’s verse to the Kazakh language was paid by the well-known Kazakh writer and a subtle connoisseur of the Kazakh language and culture H. Belger. He critically assessed the existing translations: “Translated into Kazakh, Pushkin should sound natural, as in his native language: – It is necessary to refuse the translation-retelling, free and arbitrary presentation of bare content, excessive adaptation to national patterns, what the interpreters of former times did (Abai, Shakarim, as well as poets of the Alash-Orda); – it is necessary to try, as far as possible, to bring to the Kazakh reader the form, imagery, poetic speech, verbal patterns, rhythm, melodic original. – to penetrate deeper into the form and content of translated text, to understand, to comprehend its essence, and not to get carried away with a set of crackling words, layering the eloquent oratorical idle phrases”11. It is known, that A.S. Pushkin’s style and language are characterized by a high expressivity, pathos and richness of artistic images, which presents great difficulties for translation. Modern interpreta10
Isina N.U. Kazahstanskaya pushkiniana: problemy, poiski, perspektivy // Pushkin i pushkinskie tradicii. Materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferencii, posv. godu A.S. Pushkina v Kazahstane. 7-8 December, 2006. – Almaty: KazNPU im. Abaya. 11 Bel'ger G. Yetudy o perevodah Iliyasa Zhansugurova. – Almaty: Galym, 2001. – Pp. 33–34.
tion of translations of word by A.S. Pushkin to the Kazakh language is contained in H. Belger’s word. The great value has his book “Etudes about Ilyas Dzhansugurov’s translations”12, in which he notes “Ilyas Dzhansugurov’s infinitely rich language palette”. He, as a mighty tree in the steppe, has grown on the basis of the Kazakh folklore element, and has absorbed all the colors, shades, motifs, faces of inexhaustible people's recollection”. G. Belger compares translations of poems, also gives the most detailed analysis of the translation of “Eugene Onegin”, noting the advantages and disadvantages of translation: “The translator, as a rule, resorts to the method of “idem per idem”, i.e. “then through that”. Otherwise, without philosophizing slyly, uses the Russian lexicon in the Kazakh text, conceived in a distorted, changed to the Kazakh phonetic mode”13. At the same time, the translation of “Eugene Onegin” by I. Zhansugurov “is a new form of translation, achieved as a result of targeted searches, aspiration to accurately reproduce the size, rhythm, rhyme of the original stanzas, desire to be able to approach the tonic versification as a creative experiment”14. Among modern Kazakhstan researchers of A.S. Pushkin’s creativity it is worth mentioning the word of S. Abdrakhmanov, in which the main ways of studying the phenomenon of Pushkin: “The first way is to view Pushkin as a unique phenomenon of culture. Great poet, standing apart from all the contemporary literary styles, managed to create a special art, which did not fit into any traditional framework. ˂ …˃. The second way – the way of disclosure of the aesthetic world of Pushkin's work by examining the fate of the poet. The concept of “Pushkin’s fate” is much broader than the biographical concept. No to mention the extremely perfect word, based on genius and artistry, the life of the poet rose to the level of a work of art ˂...˃. The third way is to consider Pushkin as a thinkerculturologist, the way of knowing the aesthetic world outlook of the poet through his views, opinions on word of literature and art, on the most diverse branches of history and philosophy”15.
Ibid. – P. 33-34.. Ibid. – P. 50. 14 Ibid. – P. 76. 15 Abdrahmanov S. Koran i Pushkin / Issledovaniya. – Astana: Elorda, 2006. – Pp. 24–29. 12 13
Thus, Pushkiniana of Kazakhstan has a long history, based not only on the research material on the study of the poet’s work, but also on the generalization and analysis of translations of his word into the Kazakh language. 1.2. A.S. Pushkin’s Poetry as an object of literary translation Translation as a kind of spiritual activity of a person dates back to antiquity and has great importance in the history of the culture of individual peoples and world culture in general. From the middle of XX century began to develop and became a special discipline of the theoretical science of translation – the theory of translation or more widely – translation studies. Currently, due to the expansion of international relations and the exchange of information, translation studies enjoy the status of an independent scientific discipline, having a theoretical basis, conceptual apparatus and terminology. In the conditions of modern interlingual communication, in connection with the development of the communicative infrastructure and large amount of information, translation acquires a new social dimension. In recent years, interest in translation has increased, which, being an integral part of the general philological science, inherits all of its modern paradigms – anthropocentrism and cognitivism. For such studies, the desire to analyze the mental activity of a person, consideration of linguistic forms as derivatives in the conceptualization of the world by human consciousness. “The development of linguistic sciences could not but be reflected in the science of translation. Translation was considered not as interlingual, but as intercultural communication. Translation, being a lingua-cultural process, is designed to provide mutual understanding of participants in a communicative act, belonging to different national and independent cultures”16. Literary translation is the most difficult type of translation; it is not a simple code switching, but also to recreate the native language Evteev S.V. Interkul’tura i perevod (lingvokul'turologicheskaya model’ perevoda) // Mental’nost’. Kommunikaciya. Perevod. – M.: Tezaurus, 2008. – Pp. 52. 16
means of cultural and national identity. In the artistic text, as a mirror of the spiritual culture of the people, is concentrated the cultural and figurative potential of the language, so the linguistic and artistic problems of translation remain the most controversial and relevant. For the theory of literary translation considerable interest has comparative study of unrelated languages that allows to reveal their semantic-stylistic features and to determine the ways of adequate transmission of the national-cultural specifics of the original. Materials for analysis of poetic texts translation were the word of classical Russian literature of the XIX century, word by A.S. Pushkin, which has several reasons: firstly, A.S. Pushkin in his word widely has used artistic techniques in various stylistic functions and national-cultural images; secondly, during the Soviet period the translation of artistic word acquires a large-scale nature, which was due to the interaction of national literatures. In the Kazakh translation literature the largest number of translations constitute the word by A.S. Pushkin, which were translated for almost a century (XX century) by known and talented Kazakh writers (A. Kunanbaev, I. Zhansugurov, K. Shangitbayev, A. Tazhibaev, T. Zharokov, K. Amanzholov, K. Bekhozhin, G. Ormanov and others). Such a number of translations Такое (there are several simultaneous translations of the same word, carried out by different authors) allows us to positively raise the question of the scientific problem of their quality, to compare existing translations of classics of Russian literature into other languages, to describe the translation transformations that contribute to the achievement of stylistic equivalence, and also to determine the ways of translating Slavinism into other languages. One of the stylistically marked language units in the literary texts are the Slavonic words – words borrowed from the Church Slavonic language, which are closely connected with the history, culture and spirituality of the Russian people. Part of the Slavonic words, compiled in the literary language the core of high and poetic vocabulary, in modern language represent the stylistic and semantic archaisms. As a rule, translation of Slavonic words into other languages, especially unrelated, causes great difficulties, connected not only with the difference in their lexical-stylistic base, but also the nationally-conditioned cultural differences of peoples, past different historical way. 13
It is noteworthy that A.S. Pushkin does not have a poem, completely free of Slavonic words. Church Slavonic element was the favorite art-visual means and was an important element of Pushkin’s poetic language. Thus, the poem “Ruslan and Lyudmila” is saturated with Slavonic words, according to our calculations; in the poem were used 170 words of 26 Slavonic words and archaisms. Such a quantity of poetic vocabulary indicates that they became already in the days of A.S. Pushkin belonging to the Russian literary language, and not only a feature of word of a certain poetic genus. The poem “Ruslan and Lyudmila” was translated by talented Kazakh poet A. Tazhibaev twice: in 1936 the translation was published in the Latin script, and in 1953 a second translation was made in Cyrillic. A. Tazhibaev as a master of artistic expression and a good connoisseur of the Russian language and Russian culture managed to recreate the meaning of Pushkin’s verse and the depth of his artistic image. A. Tazhibayev in his memoirs about the period of work on the translation of the poem “Ruslan and Lyudmila” in his book “Zhyldar, Oylar” (“Years, Thoughts”) writes: “This is a serious creative examination for me. There were great difficulties in the work on the translation of the poem. How to convey to the Kazakh language Slavonic words and archaisms, which are so many in poem. Despite this, I set myself a task – to give in the Kazakh language of genuine Pushkin, moreover, that “Ruslan and Lyudmila” is tanslating for the first time (translated by ours. – Zh.K)17. In this regard, when translating Slavonic words into other languages, it is necessary to realize, that their functioning is connected with the reproduction of that era, in which the author lived, and hence with the value orientation of the language society – representations and concepts, elements of the “picture of the world”. So, the main difficulties in translating Slavonic words into others languages, especially unrelated, are due to the following: ‒ the absence in the target language of the exact correspondence (equivalent, analog) as a consequence of differences in the stylistic base of Russian and Kazakh languages;
Tazhіbaev A. Zhyldar, oilar. Estelіkter men tolganystar. – Almaty: Zhazushy, 1976. – 471 p.
‒ along with the objective meaning of the Slavonic words it is needed to tanslate such of its “components” as “solemnity”, “sublimity”, “abstractness”, and “speculative”. ‒ the need to “recreate” stylistic functions Slavonic words as an artistic and visual means, as well as means of archaization and historical stylization, etc. ‒ the need to disclose cultural and historical information, enclosed in semantics Slavonic words; ‒ to save when translating of semantic-stylistic originality of poeticisms, describing “aesthetic” (ochi-eyes) and “ethical” (usta-mouth) manifestations of man as a “spiritual whole”. Despite the fact, that the Slavonic words have a stable appraisal and cultural significance, they are translated into other languages. Translation of stylistically marked elements of language is closely related to the idea of translatability – the central problem of translation research in recent years. “Practically solved tasks of translation of culturally-oriented texts are in a known contradiction with the theoretical impossibility of adequate translation without certain language loss one culture into the language of another culture. Translation, in this sense, must be distinguished from the translatability as a set of certain semantic parameters, making possible or, conversely, impossible translation”18. The complexity of the translation of Slavonic words into other languages or their “untranslatability” is due to fact, that they possess a culturally conditioned semantic nature and serve as a means of stylistic expressiveness. In our opinion, most reasonable, when translating archaic words, it represents the principle of relative translatability, proposed by V. Koller, according to which “the dynamism of interdependence of language, thinking and perception of reality generates creativity in the methods of translation, therefore, translatability is not only relative, but also progressive”19. In this connection, the preservation of the semantic-stylistic originality of the Slavonic words with the help of linguistic means of language, into which the text is translated, using the most faithful translation Radbil’ T.B. Perevodimost’ kak fenomen mezh#jazykovogo vzaimodeistviya // Logicheski analiz yazyka. Perevod hudozhestvennyh tekstov v raznye yepohi. – M.: Indrik, – 2012. – P. 7. 19 Koller W. Einführung in die Ubersetzungswissenschaft. – Wiesbaden, – 1997. – Р. 75. 18
method and various translation transformations is an important condition for the translation of literary texts in different historical epochs. Analysis of the simultaneous translations of word by A.S. Pushkin from the point of view of preserving in them the semantic-stylistic and historical-cultural connotations of the Slavonic words presented in our PhD thesis20 , allows to challenge M. Jangalin’s opinion expressed in the middle of the last century concerning the ways of translating Slavonic words and archaisms: “If at some extent, it is possible to keep a stylistic connotation in the word Rossiyane (Russians), translating it like Rossyandyktar (Russian citizens), it is absolutely impossible in words словах dnes’ (now), deyanie (act), sei (this), siya (this), sie (this) etc. Therefore, the only possibility is to convey the logical meaning with the help of neutral vocabulary (our italics – Zh.K), although the original loses its emotional coloring”. M.N. Shmeleva writes about the difficulty of translating Slavonic words (Church Slavonic words) into English: Stylistic Church Slavonic words like noshh’ (night), breg (coast), hlad (cold), zlato (gold), having Russian correspondences, are irrelevant in terms of translation. The equivalent translation very often leads to neutralization of expressive meaning of lexical archaisms and stylistic Church Slavonic words. “The study made an attempt to identify some ways possible preservation of their originality”21. Translation of Slavonic words as stylistically marked archaisms is of great theoretical interest from the point of view of differentiation of semantic and stylistic functions of words with an equivalent subject meaning in different languages. The problem of translating Slavonic words into other languages is determined, first of all, by the preservation of their historical, cultural and semantic-stylistic originality. The translator is not only the interpreter of the semantic part of the translated one, but also becomes an active interpreter of his national-cultural and functional-stylistic specificity. As analysis of translated texts shows, most translators used the method of stylistic transformation: Slavonic words – high and solemn words are 20
Kiynova Zh.K. Semantiko-stilisticheskoe svoeobrazie slavyanizmov v hudozhestvennyh perevodah. Dis. …kand. filol. nauk. – Almaty, 2002. – 127 p. 21 Shmeleva M.N. Arhaizmy i cerkovnoslavyanizmy v proizvedeniyah A.S. Pushkina i problema ih perevoda na angliski yazyk: Dis. … kand. filol. nauk. – M., 2004. – 209 p.
replaced by neutral lexemes: lik – zhas (face), chelo – mandai (forehead), vnimat’ – tyndau (listen), glas – dauys (voice), mladoy – zhas (young) and others. As a rule, these words convey only the objective (material) significance of stylistically marked archaisms. So, the adjective with the incompleteness mladoy in the RussianKazakh dictionary has a dictionary equivalent – it is a stylistically neutral adjective zhas which is semantically adequate to the fullblown and primordially-Russian word molodoi (young). Compare: … Kogda legkoveren i molod ya byl Mladuyu grechanku ja sil’no lyubil A.S. Pushkin. Black shawl
Kezіmde korse kyzar, zhas turlausyz Syigenmіn kumarlanyp zhas grek kyzyn. translation by G. Ormanov
When gullible and young I was I am very fond of a young Greek girl Direct translation into English
Of course, the replacement of the stylistically marked adjective mladaya (young) on the neutral, but equivalent in semantics, the word “zhas” is not a translation error. The well-known founder of the linguistic theory of translation L.S. Barkhudarov considers that it is quite permissible, “when the lexemes of two different languages, diverge in relation to pragmatic meanings, completely coinciding in their reference value. That means they are coinciding by stylistic characteristics, register or emotional coloring (“kist’”– “hand”, “ochi” – “eyes”, “grad” – “city”, “buck” – “dollar”, «quid» – “funt”). The discrepancy between the values of the units of the source language and the language of translation in the process of translation often leads to the fact that these or those of these values turn out to be lost in the translation. Usually this is expressed in replacing stylistically or emotionally “marked” words of the original language with neutral words of the target language”22. However, the analysis of translations shows as translators, realizing the necessity of preserving the semantic-stylistic originality of the Slavonic words try to approach this problem creatively, masterfully using the contextual synonyms of the translating language: bozbala – youth, young man; nauan – young, zhap-zhas – very Barhudarov L.S. Yazyk i perevod. Voprosy obshhei i chastnoi teorii perevoda. 2-e izd. – M.: Izdatel'stvo LKI, 2008. – P. 123. 22
young. The manual contains examples of translations and their description. Quality of translation, especially poetic word, largely depends on are the languages of the original and translation related or unrelated. So, closely related languages allow you to save in translation a significant number of lexemes of the original in their original, or in a phonetically adapted form, therefore translating the poetry of A.S. Pushkin, I would like, on the one hand, not to reduce its solemnity, and on the other – do not clutter up translation by unknown readers of Old Slavonic words. The problem is solved in many ways: lexical transfer, the use of other lexical and syntactic means, functionally adequate to Slavonic words”23. Preservation of semantic-stylistic features of the original language with the help of language means to which the text is translated, as well as the use of the most correct method of translation and various translation transformations is an important condition for translating artistic texts into different historical epochs. With this purpose when translating Slvonic words – the words with the cultural-semantical meaning used descriptive and figurative expressions, synonyms, adjectives and contextual equivalents. The choice of a word as an interlingual correspondence often depends on the contextual environment of the word, since the word in the artistic text is the creative unit of the language and therefore goes beyond the lexicographic interpretation. 1.3. The Bible and the Koran in A.S. Pushkin’s word: translation transformations Religious language as a fragment of the language picture of the world has its conceptosphere the most significant in which for all religions and confessions are the concepts of “faith” and “God” which is reflected in a certain national language. In this regard, the most relevant recently become issues of translatability and interpretation of religious texts as a cultural and historical phenomenon, 23
Ragoysha V.L. Problemy perevoda s blizkorodstvennyh yazykov: Belorussko-russko-ukrainski poeticheski vzaimoperevod. – Minsk, 1980. – P. 74.
the basis of which is the system of spiritual values and confessional world outlook. Sacred texts, being a part of the cultural-worldview system, cause great difficulties when they are translated into other languages. This is written by NB. Mechkovskaya in the well-known book “Language and Religion”: “Religious worldview, ritual practice, religious morals, church establishments deeply penetrate into the everyday life of the people much in it define and themselves are part of the local (ethno-regional) originality. Therefore, even world religions (ie, on essential grounds – religions are supraethnic), due to interaction with the everyday life of the people, in different countries differ in a certain national color. By the way, this can be seen from the church's terminology: it is often not translated, because they feel like an exotic vocabulary, with the imprint of “local color”, compare.: “cerkov' – mechet', kirha – kostel – sinagoga; svyashhennik – pop (batiushka) – mulla – pastor – ksendz – ravvin – lama; obednya – messa; igumen – abbat”24. Interpretation of sacred texts as a cultural and historical phenomenon occupies a special place in the work of A.S. Pushkin. The sacred texts of Christianity served as one of the most important sources of the formation of poetic imagery and the poetic language of A.S. Pushkin, The deep meaning of the word of which it is impossible to comprehend without reference to biblical images. Appeal of A.S. Pushkin to the biblical subjects and images throughout his creative path underwent considerable changes, which was associated with the search and philosophical comprehension of spiritual values and ideals, and was also determined by the peculiarities of the poet's ideological and artistic tasks. At the same time A.S. Pushkin quite freely treated both biblical images and subjects, and with biblical sayings, exposing the generally accepted canonical turns to all possible transformations. You can, for example, note the creation of individual-authorial turns, formed on the basis of the well-known biblical and using their structure and a certain part or individual components: “No kakova nasha cenzura? Priznajus', nikak ne ozhidal ot nee takih bol'shih uspehov v jestetike… konechno, inye skazhut, chto jestetika ne ee delo, chto ona dolzhna vozdavat' Kesareve Kesarju, a Gnedechive Gnedichu, no malo li chto govorjat?” ("But 24
Mechkovskaya N.B. Yazyk i religiya. – M.: Agenstvo «FAIR», 1998. – P. 40.
what is our censorship? I confess I did not expect such great successes in aesthetics from her ... of course, others will say that aesthetics is not her business, that she should pay Caesar to Caesar, and Gnedechiv Gnedich, but what do they say?) (From a letter to N.I. Gnedich June 27, 1822 from Chisinau to St. Petersburg). Compare. with the words of Jesus from the parable of the denarius of Caesar: Vozdadite Kesarevo Kesarevi, a Bozhie Bogovi (Mat., 22:21). It is known that A.S. Pushkin widely uses in his poetry Biblical images, as well as signs of biblical mythology. In the initial period of creativity, being influenced by the ideas of the Great French Revolution, freethinking and Voltairism, fashionable at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century. Pushkin wrote in 1821 in imitation of Voltaire's "Orléans virgin" poem "Gavriliada", in which he uses such biblical stories as the appearance of the Virgin Mary of Archangel Gabriel with the Gospel; the virgin birth; the temptation of Eve with the serpent; the fall of Adam and Eve and their expulsion from paradise. They are especially frequent in the poem "Gavriliada", the theme of which is connected with the Jewish legend. This poem was translated into Kazakh twice: in 1936 the translation was made by I. Zhansugurov, and in 1949 – by K. Bekkhozhin. The similarity of many images of the Bible and the Koran, the presence of adequate lexemes facilitated their reproduction. Let's compare some words of translation: In original
Gospod'-Hristos Erusalim Izrail Arhangel Heruvim Evangelie Gavriiil Moisey Satana
Aisa Kuddys Israil Azіrelі Mehail Іnzhіl Zhebіreyіl Musa Azazіl
Lord Christ Jerusalem Israel Archangel Cherub Gospel Gabriel Moses Satan
The above correspondences show that biblical images have Qur'anic correspondences, although such translation has disadvantages. Thus, I. Zhansugurov does not take into account that the theme 20
of the poem is connected with the Jewish legend and introduces into the canvas of the poem many rituals of the Muslim religion. For example, “sazhdege bas koiu” – “pray” – the ritual of the Muslim religion, so the replacement of the reality of Christianity with Muslims introduces an inocultural color to the text of the translation. In order to preserve the source-study and semantic-stylistic originality of the translation of biblical texts, translators turn to transliteration – the method of translation, the essence of which lies in borrowing a foreign word, which is represented in letters by the letters of the translating language. …Beschislenny letaiut serafimy Strunami arf bryacaiut heruvimy Arhangely v bezmolvii sidyat Glavy zakryv lazurnymi krylami… A.S. Pushkin. Gavriliade
… Sansyz kop esrafіlder kanat kakkan, Arfasyn perіshteler anyratkan, Tunzhyryp azіreyіlder otyr unsіz, Bastaryn kok araily kanat zhapkan trans. by K. Bekkhozhin
Countless flying seraphim Strings harp saber cherubs Archangels in silence sit Heads covered with azure wings ... Direct translation into English
In the translation of the same fragment by I. Zhansugurov we read: …Beschislenny letaiut serafimy Strunami arf bryacaiut heruvimy Arhangely v bezmolvii sidyat Glavy zakryv lazurnymi krylami… A.S. Pushkin. Gavriliade
Sansyz kop Ysrapіlder kanat kagyp, Kiy tartyp Mekayіlder zhyr zhyrlasty, Bastaryn kok kanattyn koinyna alyp, Tyrp etpei Azіreyіlder kiy tyndasty trans. by I. Zhansugurov
Countless flying seraphim Strings harp saber cherubs Archangels in silence sit Heads covered with azure wings ... Direct translation into English
The original interpretation and evaluation of the translation of “Gavriliade” is given by G. Belger in his book “Studies on the translations of I. Zhansugurov”: “I could not wait to find out how I reproduced this poem I. Jansugurov in Kazakh, what could he then, in mid-30s of the XX century to find adequate, worthy figurative 21
expressions, poetic correspondences to this so playful, playful, crafty, defiant to blasphemy, reckless, frankly erotic, full of dangerous revelations and hints of text. Given the many biblical parallels, depressed Christian expressions and concepts, I have nothing to do with the translation of art, still very much doubted the possibility of transcribing “Gavriliada”, despite all the expressive power and wealth of the Kazakh language elements” 25. Showing professional interest, H. Belger deeply analyzed the translation of the poem and concluded: “No, the translator does not give the original in anything. He created a bright, dynamic, equally crafty, fervent, playful, ironic poetic text in the Kazakh language that adequately reflects all the charms of “Gavriliada”. Pushkin’s “Gavriliada” and Dzhansugurov's “Zhebireyilnama” turned out to be equivalent in all parameters of the artistic and aesthetic level”26. In our opinion, the translation of religious literature requires from the translator not only background, encyclopaedic knowledge, formed skills of using language tools to adequately convey the content of the sacred text, but also the ability to interpret cultural codes to recreate an integral religious-Islamic picture of the world. In this regard, we consider the point of view of V.S. Vinogradova, according to which "Translation of religious texts is associated with the established tradition of recreating sacred word, which are characterized by the use of theological terminology, established turnovers and cliches, the archaization of texts, the interpretation of symbols, allusions, the introduction in many cases of literalisms, due to the fear of distorting the sacred text, etc. These factors lead to differences in the texts of the original and the translation and the relative equivalence of the text in the target language"27. With the help of stylization as a translation technique, the era in which the sacral text was created is recreated, its archaic, elevated and elevated nature is reproduced by using language-specific means of expression. Such language means are Slavonic words – words of Old Slavonic, Church Slavonic and Old Russian origin, which in fiction and texts of religious and philosophical content perform Belger G. Yetudy o perevodah Ilyasa Zhansugurova. – Almaty: Galym, 2001. – P. 140. Ibid. – P. 161. 27 Vinogradov V.S. Vvedenie v perevodovedenie (obshhie i leksicheskie voprosy). – M.: Izd-vo RAO, 2001. – P. 7. 25 26
special stylistic functions – an expression of sublime, solemn and poetic content. “In terms of content, religious discourse is extremely rich and diverse, although it should be noted that the main theme is centered around questions of the person's belief in the supernatural beginning, fear of punishment for sinful deeds and hopes of getting rid of the hardships of present life, pleading for a higher start for forgiveness and sending down happiness and prosperity in the future life the sphere of religion is perhaps the only one in modern practice in which elements of modern Russian and Old Slavonic languages are combined: Vladyka, Bozhe nash, istochnik zhizni i bessmertiya, vseya tvari vidimye i nevidimye Sozdatelu…”28. Let’s turn to the program of A.S. Pushkin’s poem “The Prophet” (1826), which has a thematic correlation with the book of the prophet Isaiah and the Koran. It is based on a biblical story related to the vision of the prophet Isaiah, to whom the Lord of hosts appeared surrounded by seraphim (in Hebrew, seraphim means “burning”) – angels expressing God’s holiness. When Isaiah in anguish thought that he was dead, and then one of the seraphim flew to him, touched his lips with burning coal from the altar and announced to him about the grace of reconciliation: “Then one of the seraphim flew to me, and in his hand burning coal, which he took with ticks from the altar. And he touched my mouth and said: behold, it touched your mouth, and your iniquity is removed from you and your sin is purified (Isaiah. 6: 6–7). After this, the Lord sends him to preach. The metaphorical use of the images of this vision (shestikryliy serafim, ugl’, pylajushhich ognem, Boga glas); the saturation of the “Prophet” with Old Slavonic words gives the work a severe, tragic sound. So, in the opinion of Scherba L.V., who conducted an analysis of stylistic Slavonic words in this poem: “…if the Russian literary language did not grow in the atmosphere of Church Slavonic, then it would be inconceivable that Pushkin’s remarkable poem “The Prophet”, we admire still” 29. Indeed, religious and philosophical content of the poem, in the archaic and biblical form of which is vested with the civil content of the appointment of the poet in society, predetermined 28
Bobyreva E.V. Religioznyi diskurs: cennosti, zhanry, strategii (na materiale pravoslavnogo veroucheniya). – Volgograd: Izd-vo VGPU «Peremena», 2007. – P. 15. 29 Shherba L.V. Izbrannye raboty po russkomu yazyku. – M.: Prosveshhenie, 1957. – P. 123.
the use of high words with solemn coloring: persty, zenicy, usta, vizhd', vnemli and others. Old Slavonic words are used for stylization and are characterized by abstract semantics, so their translation into other languages causes certain difficulties. The poem was translated into Kazakh for the first time in 1915 by I. Zhansugurov and published in the magazine “Aykap”, later, in the 1970s – K. Bekhozhin. Comparison of existing translations of the same work, carried out by different poets-translators in different chronological order, allows you to identify functionally equivalent language units and ways to overcome the difficulties of translation, connected with the difference in the lexical-stylistic base of the source and translating languages. Compare: … Kak trup v pustyne ya lezhal I boga glas ko mne vozzval: «Vosstan’, prorok, i vizhd’, i vnemli Ispolnis' voleju moei, I, obhodya morya i zemli,
... Tuzde oliktei zhatkanda
Glagolom zhgi serdca liudei» A.S. Pushkin. Prophet
Zhlyndagan sozingmen Zhandyr adam zhyregin...» trans. by I. Zhansugurov
Uahi sozin katty Alla: «Tur, paigambar, kor, tynda, Omirime moiyn syn, Zherdi, sudy arala
... As a corpse in the desert, I lay And God called to me: Arise, prophet, and vision, and listen Be satisfied by my will, And, bypassing the sea and the earth A verb burn the hearts of people Direct translation into English
In our opinion, the pathos and elated-solemn content of the poem is most adequately translated by K. Bekkhozhin. Compare: … Kak trup v pustyne ya lezhal I boga glas ko mne vozzval: «Vosstan’, prorok, i vizhd’, i vnemli Ispolnis' voleju moei,
... Oliktei bir zhattym zhonda
I, obhodya morya i zemli,
Zherdi, sudy kezip, zyrla
Glagolom zhgi serdca liudei» A.S. Pushkin. Prophet
Zhandyr sozben el zhuregin! ...» trans. by K. Bekhozhin
Kudiret uni zhetti sonda: «Tur, paigambar, basta, tynda, Amireme er de mening ,
... As a corpse in the desert, I lay And God called to me: Arise, prophet, and vision, and listen Be satisfied by my will, And, bypassing the sea and the earth A verb burn the hearts of people Direct translation into English
Analyzing Pushkin’s translations into Tatar, the researcher G. Sadykov puts forward the thesis of aesthetic interference30, under which is meant a deviation, a violation, that the reader most often, and sometimes intentionally, perceives a foreign language work in the light of the traditions of the native language, literature and culture. Accordingly, such people appear known lacunae associated with the peculiarities of mythology or religion. For example, when translating the poem “The Prophet”: … Duhovnoi zhazhdoiu tomim V pustyne mrachnoi ya vlachilsya,
… Bush sahrada yalgyz ingragenda – Uryn tapmyi sayaih zhanyma Урын тапмый сәяйх җаныма I shestikryliy serifim Orfiyadai, Zhabrailfarishta 31. Na pereputye mne yavilsya Paida buldy minem aldymda 32.
... The spiritual thirst In the desert of gloomy I dragged myself, And the six-winged seraph At the crossroads he appeared
The researcher brings parallels between Christian and Muslim images. So, the seraphim is an angelic rank, not the highest in the heavenly hierarchy, but these are not the angels of death. On the contrary, Jebrail is the angel of death in the Muslim religion. Or another example from the poem “Arion”: … Na bereg vybroshen grozoiu, Ya gimny prezhnie poiu I rizu vlazhnuiu moiu Sushu na solnce pod skaloiu
… Min elekke gimnarymny
... Thrown ashore on the shore, I sing the hymns
Zhyrlyim ham tash kiya kyrynda Uieshalangan kiemnaremne And my wet garment Киптерәм ал кояш Dry in the sun under Kipteram al koiyash a rock nurynda 33
Sadykova G.F. Raznovremennye perevody «Podrazhani Koranu» A.S. Pushkina na tatarski yazyk // Sopostavitel'naya filologiya i polilingvizm. Materialy Vserossiyskoj nauchnoprakticheskoi konferencii. – Kazan': KGU, 2002. – Pp. 364-366. 31 Puskin A.S. haterlim min guzal ber mizgelne. A.S. Pushkin tatar shagyrlare tarzhamasenda. – Kazan: Megarif, 1999. – Pp. 100-101. 32 Puskin A.S. haterlim min guzal ber mizgelne. A.S. Pushkin tatar shagyrlare tarzhamasenda. – Kazan: Megarif, 1999. – Pp. 100-101. 33 Ibid. 30
Church Slavonic word Riza means “brocade, woven, gold or silver garment without sleeves upper ecclesiastical vestments of priests”. It is clear that the words chapan, beshmet, etc. can not be its equivalents, so it should be translated synonymously, or use a descriptive translation. Aesthetic interference appears in the case where there is no exact translation of any lexeme. Accordingly, there is a linguistic lacuna, which gives aesthetic interference in translation. The theme of the East has always remained a long tradition in Russian classical literature, which was especially reflected in Pushkin’s word and was closely related to the acquaintance with the Koran, which he met in 1825 in Mikhailovskoye in M.I. Verevkin’s translation. This book, in which he found new ideas, images not only opened the poet a new, interesting and unusual world for the Russian people, but later led him to the Bible. During several years the Koran remained a source of inspiration for the great poet, so it was this holy Muslim book that made Pushkin rethink his mission as a poet and his mission: “Muzhaisya zh, prezirai obman,/ Stezeiu pravdy bodro sledui, /Liubi sirot i moi Koran / Drozhashhei tvari propovedui”, “Be brave, despise deception, / Follow the path of righteousness cheerfully, / Love the orphans and my Koran / Shivering beast preach”. According to contemporaries, it was acquaintance with the Koran that helped Pushkin to survive the crisis of the former romantic moods. In the book “The Koran and Pushkin” Abdrakhmanov S. notes full correspondence “of the main motive of the verses and with the Koran, and hadith …, which are considered as one of the directions of oral literature, as legends propagating the words and deeds of Muhammad. Although the hadiths are the second legal code after the Koran for the Muslim world” 34, According to the researcher, “Pushkin especially appreciated the aesthetic uniqueness of the Koran. Apparently, his words written in Mikhailovsky, say a lot about the difficult period of his life: “V peshhere tainoi, v den’ gonen’ya, / Chital ya sladostniy Koran. / Vnezapno angel uteshen'ya, / Vzletev, prines mne talisman” (“In a secret cave, on the day of the chase, / I read the sweet Koran. / Suddenly an angel of consolation, / After flying up, he brought me a talisman”). Pushkin’s knowledge of 34
Abdrahmanov S. Koran i Pushkin / Issledovaniya. – Astana: Elorda, 2006. – Pp. 14–15.
the content of the Koran is amazing, and in his word are covered the provisions of 33 surah from the existing 114 in the Holy Book”35. The translation of the cycle “Imitations of the Koran” into Kazakh was performed by poet Shangantbaev K. in the 200th anniversary of the birth of Pushkin and published in the newspaper “Kazakh Adebieti”. The deep and sacred meaning of the Holy Book is revealed by Pushkin in the cycle of poems “Imitations of the Koran”, in which he found new ideas, images, feelings became an integral part of his worldview and creativity. Pushkin, imitating the Koran, tried to seize its spirit and used the Church Slavonic words for this (vertograd, drevle, dlan’ and others). In order to preserve the divine halo and the sacred nature of the poems Tatar translators used archaic words borrowed from Arabic and Farsi: zhafetler, garep, haram, kurgazerga, zhumardlyk and others. Ne ya l’ v den’ zhazhdy … Susap iren chatnar napoil konnarenda Tebya pustynnymi vodami? Sugardym bit esse chullarenne
Is it not I on the day of thirst Give you desert waters?
Ne ya l’ yazyk tvoi odaril
Is it not I who gave your tongue Mighty power over the minds?
Moguchei vlastiu nad umami?
Minme oiratmadem kochle suzneng Zirakne da hatta zhingarlegen?!36
According to Sadykova G.F., these translations also have aesthetic interference. “In analyzed translations are not enough saved severity, the known detachment of the deity. In them are clearly traced the elements of sentimentality, is amplified the lyrical subtext, it is felt attachment to earthly values. Strengthening imagery of states of the soul in translation texts reduces instructive pathos”37. Difficulties in translating bibleisms into the Kazakh language notes Karataev M. in the article “Translation of the “Quietly Flows Ibid. – P. 9. Puskin A.S. Haterlim min guzal ber mizgelne. A.S. Pushkin tatar shagyrlare tarzhamasenda. – Kazan: Megarif, 1999. – Pp. 100-101. 37 Sadykova G.F. Raznovremennye perevody «Podrazhani Koranu» A.S. Pushkina na tatarski yazyk // Sopostavitel'naya filologiya i polilingvizm. Materialy Vserossiyskoj nauchno-prakticheskoi konferencii. – Kazan': KGU, 2002. – Pp. 364-366. 35 36
the Don” into the Kazakh language and some questions of artistic translation”, in which he sets out his point of view concerning the recreation of the quotation from the Bible in the speech of Grandfather Grishaki: «… Since it is not important here, what is the meaning of this quote (reader may not understand it), but Grishaki's conversion to the Bible is characteristically emphasizing his image, his world view. It was necessary to highlight this quote from a common text, and make it also incomprehensible, stained with religious archaisms. Suitable for this purpose were Arabic words, distorted once by mullahs and their use has made the desired adequate translation”38. In our opinion, it should not be accepted that the words of the Bible can be transmitted by distorted Arabic archaisms. Undoubtedly, Arabic, being the language of the Koran, had a great influence on the formation of religious and abstract vocabulary of the Kazakh language. Therefore, it is necessary to delve into the essence of the religious text, and to recreate its meaning not by “meaningless Arab distortions”, but understandable for the reader’s words. Almuratova A.N. considers the problem of translating church attributes into Kazakh language in the thesis “G. Musrepov is a translator of Russian dramaturgy”: “G. Musrepov quite rightly found it impossible to translate a prayer, sounding in Church Slavonic, but not to transmit it meant impoverishment. The translator, in our opinion, found a very important decision: in the prayer that Fayunin mumbles, it is important not only for its semantic content, but also the functional load. Therefore, in the Kazakh translation, Fayunin recites a prayer in the Church Slavonic language, which helps the adequacy of the transmission of the image, the national specifics of the original”39. At the same time we consider unlawful to enter Slavonis words into the inocultural text in the Kazakh language. Since this way of recreating the style and content of the original will not improve the quality of translation, but on the contrary, it will complicate the understanding.
Karataev M. Perevod «Tihogo Dona» na kazahski jazyk i nekotorye voprosy hudozhestvennogo perevoda // Materialy regional'nogo soveshhaniya literatury s russkogo na jazyki narodov Srednei Azii, Kazahstana i Azerbaidzhana. – Alma-Ata: Kazgosizdat, 1960. – P. 5. 39 Al'muratova A.N. G. Musrepov – perevodchik russkoi dramaturgii. Dis. … kand.filol.n. – Alma-Ata, 1991. – P. 118. 38
Therefore, it is necessary to transfer the meaning of the translated context by means of the Kazakh language. Abaideldinov E.M. notes about the illegitimacy of using Slavonic words in the Kazakh text and their translation by Arabians: “… in the word by Turgenev are rare Slavonic and Church Slavonic words, but they do exist and therefore the problem of their translation remains. In the story “Chertopkhanov” from the cycle “Notes of the Hunter” Pantolei Chertopkhanov began to show the focus with dog: with one hand he squeezed a young poodle face, and the other held a piece of bread over his very nose. At the command of the owner “there is!” the poodle had to eat this bread: “Az, Buki, Vedi; Come on, fool, “said a bold voice”. Translated into Kazakh: “Az, buki, vedi; aitsangshy kymak-au, – dep zhatty dausy karlykkan bireu”. Indeed, in this case it is not the names of the letters of the Slavic alphabet, but the fact that the dog had to understand the owner and at the right time to eat a piece of bread. Following the advice of Jangalin M., we will try to recreate this situation. In translation Chertopkhanov simply need to name the letters of the alphabet: a, b, c, d, d, e, zhe! – the picture would be restored with minimal loss. After all, the Kazakh word “zhe” means “eat”, “take food”. And now we try to replace the Slavic letters with Arabic ones: alif, ba, ta, sa, zhim, ha, dal’, zal’. And here, after the researcher, we are forced to state: of course, this method presents a double difficulty for the translator, if he does not know either Church Slavonic or Arabic. But the work of an interpreter as a researcher’s work, in this case it pays to itself a hundredfold achieved with this result. In this way, the preservation of the divine nature of sacral texts and the search for linguistic means for the adequate expression of sacred meanings should be recognized as a complex and at the same time urgent problem of modern translation studies, which in the conditions of globalization acquires a new social dimension.
Control questions and tasks: 1. To what period does the birth of Pushkinianaof Kazakhstan, as one of the directions of Russian philological science? 2. Turning to the historiography of the issue, name the most significant studies of Kazakhstan scientists on the study of Pushkin's heritage?
3. How is the modern Kazakh Pushkiniana of the 21st century characterized? Describe the main research areas. 4. What significant event is associated with the publication in 1937 of the translations of A.S. Pushkin in Kazakh in three volumes? 5. Make a bibliographic list of the main word of G. Belger on the problem of translating word by A.S. Pushkin into the Kazakh language. Highlight the Koranic motifs and images in the word by A.S. Pushkin. 6. Compare the versatile translations of the poem “The Prophet” by A.S. Pushkin to the Kazakh language, make an analysis from the point of view of interpreting interpretations. 7. What are the main ways to translate bibleisms into Kazakh language. Give examples of translated texts. 8. Pushkin and Abai: translations, consonances, context. 9. Pushkin in Kazakhstan. To the 210th anniversary of his birth. 10. Compare Pushkin's work and traditions of recreating the history of Oriental culture in contemporary Kazakhstan’s prose. 11. Pushkin and Uralsk: problems for the future (R. Batyrbekova “From the History of Literary Relations”). 12. Pushkin in Memoir Literature: A New View from the 21st Century. 13. Biography of the writer as a genre (N. Raevsky “Portraits began to speak”) 14. The sluggishness of the image of the author and the hero is a distinctive feature of the lyrics by A.S. Pushkin (O. Grigorieva). 15. Open the Pushkin theme in the work of contemporary Kazakhstan’s poets (O. Suleimenov, V. Mikhailov, E. Kurdakov, B. Kanapyanov, etc.). 16. Bibliographic Index “Study of Pushkin's legacy in the literary criticism of Kazakhstan” (compiled by A.T. Kaliaskarova – Almaty, 2010) – the most complete collection of scientific articles, word of art and word on the study of Pushkin’s heritage in Kazakhstan. 17. Berdennikov confident that “it is in Pushkin’s religious feeling, namely, that he made the Gospel his reference book and almost never departed from Christ's predestination, and there is a key to all his creativity”. 18. Analyze the translation of the cycle “Imitation of the Koran” carried out by Shanggatbaev K. and published in the newspaper “Kazakh adebieti” in 1999. 19. Pushkin in the modern lyric poetry of Kazakhstan (N. Chernova, L. Shashkova, R. Artemyeva, E. Zeifert, etc.)
2.1. Historical, cultural and semantic-stylistic originality of A.S. Pushkin’s work translations The concept of translation equivalence as the main problem of the linguistic theory of translation always remained in the field of view of researchers. In the history of translation were formed various concepts and universal models of translational equivalence. I.A. Alekseeva singles out the following basic concepts of equivalence: the concept of formal conformity as one of the most ancient, arisen for the transmission of written text; the concept of cultural and aesthetic conformity, oriented not on the text of the original and not on the specifics of the language of translation, but on ideal cultural values; concept of the full value of the translation, formed during the XIX-XX centuries on the translation of a written artistic text (A.V. Fedorov, Ya.I. Retecker); the concept of dynamic equivalence (Yu. Naida), according to which equivalence is established by comparison of response of the recipient of the source text in the native language, and the recipient's reaction of the same text through an interpreter – in the language of the translation; the concept of functional equivalence (A.D. Schweitzer) oriented to a communicative installation, on which the choice of language means depends 40. In our opinion, when translating Slavonic wods into other languages it is necessary to adhere to the concept of functional equivalence, taking into account the identity of all components of the semanticstylistic volume of the word: denotative, expressive, poetic and other. Alekseeva I.A. Vvedenie v perevodovedenie. 6-e izd., ster. – SPb.: Filol. f-t SPbGU. – M.: Izdatel'ski centr «Akademiya». – 2012. – P. 150–152. 40
To achieve functional equivalence of translating Slavonic words as stylistically marked archaisms are often used contextual equivalents, or “equivalents by situation” (the term by V.G. Gack and Yu.I. Lovin) – functional correspondences in the target language, which recreate all relevant components within a certain context of the meaning of the word. Contextual equivalents of Slavonic words in literary translation – contextual synonyms, figuratively expressive words or combinations of words, mostly not included in bilingual (translated) dictionnaries and are relative equivalents of the linguistic means of the original work of art. Translators, as a rule, rely on data from lexicographic sources, but “... the translation is never confined to the selection of those elements, which are fixed in the dictionaries as a correspondence to a certain word of the original. In the practice of translation work there are many cases, when words are used, not directly provided by the dictionary. Since the dictionary is not able to foresee all specific combinations, in which the word falls and which greatly diversify its content41. Indeed, due to its purpose and its specificity, bilingual (translated) dictionaries can not take into account the speech contextual correspondence. Compilers of dictionaries compare only those language units which relate to the level of language and are perceived as equivalents when comparing two languages outside specific contexts. Bazylev V.N. writes that on the systemic and contextual synonyms as a common lexical means when expressing the communicative intent of the translator: “Choosing an interpreter as one of several possible synonyms often indicates a certain attitude of the translator to the described object, phenomenon, event. In this case, the chosen synonym can be differently related to the word used in the original. The translator can use a synonym, different from the original connotation; a synonym with a different stylistic coloring; a synonym, as a result of which there is a narrowing of the meaning in the text of the translation, or a synonym, as a result of which there is an expansion in the text of the translation” 42. Fedorov A.V. Osnovy obshhei teorii perevoda. Lingvisticheskie problemy. – M.: Vysshaya shkola, 1983. – P. 27. 42 Bazylev V.N. Kommunikaciya i perevod: monografija. – M.: Izd-vo Moskovsk. gumanit. un-ta, 2012. – P. 93. 41
One of the Slavonic words, having a large number of contextual equivalents, is the lexeme chelo (brow). In our opinion, this is due to the fact that Slavonic word chelo is more broad in its meaning than the neutral synonym lob (forehead), because it also refers to the adjacent parts of the face, in general the face. So, if the dictionary equivalent of Slavonic word chelo in the Kazakh language is the word mangday, there are the following contextual equivalents: bet (face), bas (head), zhyz (face), tys (complexion), ong (face), bet pishini,bet kelbeti (facial contours), qabaq (eyelid, lid), appak zhyz (face), kara bet (literally. black face in the meaning of “hateful face, full of anger”) are shown in Figure 1. Bet zhyz tys ong bet pishini, bet kelbeti
qabaq appak zhyz kara bet Figure 1. Contextual equivalents of Slavonic word “chelo”
Particular attention is paid to the last two figurative expressions with opposite epithets of color ak (white) and kara (black), which dominate the color palette of culture of different peoples. The epithet ak (white) has a variety of meanings and is associated with purity and innocence, impeccable beauty, honesty, devotion, as well as an abundance of national products made from milk. In addition, this epithet is found in the names of characters in folklore and art word, national songs and poems, names of localities, etc. 33
… Otkinuv lokony ot milogo ... Appak zhyzin ayaly chela, magan ashcan
... Having thrown back the curls from the sweet forehead, Sama iz svoih ruk svirel’ ona Aldy da kolymdagy She took the pipe from her brala: sybyzgyny, own hands: Trostnik byl ozhivlen Sausakpen syr perdesin Reed was animated by bozhestvennym dyhan’em, basyp otti, divine breath I serdce napolnyal svyatym Keudeme kyi toltyrdy And the heart filled with ocharovan’em kasietti holy charm. A.S. Pushkin, Muza trans. by A. Duysenbiev Direct translation into English
In this case, there is a coincidence of functional dominants: lyrical poem, in which the poet sings the beauty and grace of his muse, determined the choice of the translator expressive language facilities, allowing recreating this image. Compare: an epithet with an amplifying color appak, formed from the adjective ak (white) in combination with the stylistically marked book word zhyz (face) gives emotionality and elevation to the whole utterance. On the contrary, the epithet of Kara is a symbol of sadness, grief, despair and hatred expressed in the oda “Liberty” by A.S. Pushkin: ... Chitaiut na tvoem chele Pechat’ proklyatiya narody, Ty uzhas mira, styd prirody,
... Kara beting kargys tangba basylgan, Khalyk seni kargap koigan zhasyngnan, Bul duniening kubyzhygysyng sumpaiy
Uprek ty bogu na zemle.
Tangirge de keltirgen anturgan trans. by K. Amanzholov
A.S. Pushkin, Liberty
... Read on your forehead The seal of the curse peoples, You are the horror of the world, the shame of nature, You reproach God on earth. Direct translation into English
In this oda are most pronounced the freedom-loving views of the poet and his civic position, and for conveying the full range of feelings experienced by the poet, the pathos and pathetic nature of the work, K. Amanzholov uses the figurative combination of Kara Bet as a contextual equivalent (literal black face in the meaning of “hateful face, full of anger”), having a negative emotional color. According to Golub V.Ya., “High vocabulary is words, stylistic coloring which, traditionally enshrined in certain contexts and situa34
tions, consists in creating elation, pathetic in speech. Pathos is connected not only with the solemn, laudatory tonality of speech, but also with the expression of sorrow, anger, indignation, etc. This understanding of high vocabulary allows us to recognize, that high tokens can include with their semantics as a positive, and a negative evaluation”43. Thus, stylistic equivalence is achieved as a result of replacing the expressive-evaluative means of the language with contextual equivalents. When translating Slavonic words it is necessary to take into account cultural and historical information, concluded in their semantics that requires an interpreter of background knowledge and an appeal to the history of words. The most interesting is the semantic history of the word gaze, the plural form of which in the Russian language of the XVIII – early XIX centuries was synonymous with the noun eye (in modern Russian it is synonymous with only the word look): see the examples in the SAR: “And light-blue eyes,/ Her tears are pouring down all the time” (G.R. Derzhavin); “Blinds the eyes shine of lightning” (I.A. Krylov), as well as in: “… But noticing the virgin trembling impulse, He pouted with disgust, lowering his gaze… (A.S. Pushkin); “With greed I swallow fragrant air and I'm looking into the blue distance” (M.Yi. Lermontov) (SAR 2:). In this sense, the noun vzor etymologically and in its internal form associated with the expression of semantics “that with the help of what they behold, ie. look”. The word “vzlyad”, in contrast to its synonym for “vzor”, means ‘looking tool’, and does not preserve the semantics of materiality the noun eye, which calls the organ of vision. Yu.D. Apresyan distinguishes the following semantic signs, according to which the synonyms “vzlyad / vzor”: 1the obligatory nature of the object, which attracts the subject's attention (the view always assumes an object that the subject is looking at); 2) ability to participate in the description of the situation of not looking, but vision (it has only synonymous vzlyad and vzor:); 3) ability to express certain feelings of the subject (vzor, in contrast to vzglyad, reflects only those feelings and states that cause sympathy for the sub-
Golub V.Ja. Vysokaya leksika s otricatel'noi yemocional'noi ocenkoi // Semanticheskij i funkcional'nyi aspekty izucheniya leksiki russkogo yazyka. – Saratov, 1983. – P. 83.
ject); 4) the presence of the idea of the instrument and its application (most commonly vzglyad)44. A special role in the translation of classical fiction is given to the commentary, since the further the time of their writing, the more incomprehensible words not only for the foreign reader, but also for the carriers of the modern Russian language. The need for a historical and cultural commentary on semantic archaisms is due to the fact that a reader or an interpreter can not be familiar with the realities and names of the objective world of a particular historical epoch, which can lead to an incomplete or distorted understanding of the meaning of the text. For example, the word “vzor” in modern language has only one meaning “vzglyad”, however, as noted above, in the texts written in the XIX century, was used and in the meaning of “eye” as an organ of vision: …Angel krotkiy, bezmjatezhniy Tiho molvi mne: prosti,
…Mylaiyіm, momyn perіshtem, Sybyrla magan: gafu et,
Opechal’sya: vzor svoi Kaigyr: nazіk kozіngdі nezhniy Podymi, il' opusti Ia koter, ia tomendet A. Pushkin: Presentiment Translated by I. Zhansugurov
… Angel gentle, serene Quietly say to me: forgive me, I'm saddened: my gaze is tender Raise or lower Direct translation into English
Slavonic word the eyes are translated by semantically equivalent word “koz” (eye) despite the fact that the definition of the lexeme in the meaning of the “eye” is not given in the Russian-Kazakh dictionaries. Compare: vzor 1. To look; 2. more often in a figurative sense (pay attention)45. Translators, as a rule, guided by the data of lexicographical sources, but in bilingual (translated) dictionaries the main (modern) meaning of the translated word is fixed. Compilers of dictionaries can not foresee all specific combinations, which gets the word, therefore “for a deeper penetration into the semantics of words it is necessary to 44
Apresyan Ju.D. ZNAT'' 1 i VEDAT'' 3 // Novyj obyaasnitel'nyi slovar' sinonimov russkogo yazyka / Pod obshh. ruk. Ju.D. Apresyana. – M.: Jazyki slavyanskoi kul'tury, 2004. – P. 27. 45 Russko-kazahski slovar': V 2 t. / AN Kaz SSR; pod obshh. red. G. Musabaeva. – Alma-Ata: Kaz. sov. encikl., 1978. – T. 1 (A–O). – S. 94.
trace their meaning in real speech use, in the context (e.g., based on literature)”46. In this regard, A.V. Fedorov’s point of view seems fair, according to which “the word is not an independent unit of translation”. The meaning of the word is not autonomous; it depends both in the original and in the translation from the context. There are many infrequent cases when one word of the original is transmitted in another language by a combination of two or more words, or when a combination of several words is transmitted in one word. Thus, every word and even every sentence as in the original, and in translation are correlated with a huge mass of other elements of the text, and therefore, even speaking of the translation of a single word, one always has to take into account the role of the environment, a context that in certain cases may require the search for a new variant”47. Indeed, in lexicographic sources, those lexemes that relate to the level of the language and not to the level of speech are compared and are perceived as equivalents when comparing two languages outside specific contexts. When translating Slavonic words translators often use synonymous language tools that can be contextual equivalents. On v dumu tiho Akyryn batty pogruzilsya. oiga. Smushhenniy Zhanarynan vzor izobrazil baikaldy, Іshkі tolkyn ala urgan A.S. Pushkin. Translated by Poltava K. Amanzholov
Ol akyryn oiga batty Tүsken engse – ote yzgarly
He quietly sank into the thought He painted an embarrassed look
Translated by S. Talzhanov
Direct translation into English
In these contexts, Slavonic word vzor in one case (in K. Amanzholov’s case) is translated as zhanarynan (in the eyes, in their expression), which is semantically equivalent to the original, in another case (in S. Talzhanov’s case) is translated by a combination of tusken engse (literally, hanging his head), which, in our opinion, somewhat broadens the meaning of the word vzor, but adequately describes the situation of speech. It should be noted that Slavonic word “vzglyad” is primarily used in the sense of a look especially in Barhudarov L.S. Yazyk i perevod. Voprosy obshhei i chastnoi teorii perevoda. 2- e izd. – M.: Izdatel'stvo LKI, 2008. – P. 92. 47 Fedorov A.V. Osnovy obshhei teorii perevoda. Lingvisticheskie problemy. – M.: Vysshaya shkola, 1983. – P. 131. 46
portraits of heroes of a work of art, when translating such contexts, the dictionary equivalents of the words “karau, koz karasy”. Ex.: ... Ego kudryavye sediny, ... Onyng buira ak shashtary Ego glubokie morshhiny Kylzhyktap aitkan angimesi Ego blestyashhij, vpaliy Suzile kuikylzhygan koz vzor, karasy Ego lukaviy razgovor. Bettegi aygyzdalgan azhimderi A.S. Pushkin. Poltava Translated by K. Amanzholov
... His curly gray hair, His deep wrinkles His brilliant, hollow gaze, His crafty conversation. Direct translation into English
Traditionally high and poetic vocabulary correlates with a positive evaluation and solemn tone of speech, but there are contexts that describe the negative nature of emotions, for example, anger, resentment, indignation, which can be expressed only in combination with an adjective characterizing a negative attitude towards the described subject, for example, in the symbolic and frightening image of the Bronze Horseman: ... Krugom podnozhiya kumira Bezumec bednyi oboshel
.. Karady, tamasha ettі boidy, syndy, Keskіnіn zharym duniege tutkasynyp, I vzory dikie navel Udіreie karady zhabaiy kozіmen, Na lik derzhavca Zharty dunie polumira. patshasynynh beinesіne Pushkin. Bronze Horseman Translated by M. Dauletbayev
... The foot of an idol Madman walked around And he looked wild To the half-world maters’ face Direct translation into English
The combination dikie vzory is conveyed by the whole expression “udireye karady zabaiy kozimen”, the semantic component of which is the dialect of the mode of action udireye + verb karau (look frightened), expressing hero’s inner feelings in relation to the monument as the source of all his troubles and misfortunes. In the “Kazakh-Russian dictionary” is fixed the use of the combination udireye karau in a figurative sense: udireiu verb. 1. to ruffle, to heave up: shashi jelmen udіreіnіp ketіptі → his hair was ruffled from the wind; 2. The figurative meaning. frightened: udireie karau → look scared48. 48
Kazahsko-russki slovar' / 50000 slov. – Almaty: Dark Press, 2008. – P. 876.
Analyzed translations of Pushkin’s poetic word allowed to identify a lot of contextual equivalents of Slavonic word “vzor”: koz karasy, koz, engse, nazar, zhanar, koz zhanary, zhanarynyng oty, zhanarynyng zhalyny, koz kyryn salyp, nazdy koz, udіreye karau. A large number of contextual synonyms are identified, first, as with the semantic-stylistic processes that occurred in the language, and with the cultural-historical conditioning of the word itself. As mentioned above, Slavonic word vzor in the nineteenth century could be synonymous with vzglyad and glaz/glaza. Secondly, Slavonic word vzor is the most frequent and commonly used in the word of Alexander Pushkin, as confirmed by Iliynskaya I.S. in experimental studies49. Translation of stylistically marked words, which make up not only the richness of the figurative system of language, but also a system of national and cultural stereotypes, requires a complex associative-semantic search for a functionally equivalent word from a synonymic series. Slavonic word lik, in contrast to other stylistically marked archaisms, has a lot of dictionary equivalents, fixed in the Russian-Kazakh dictionary: lik, outdated, poetic. Bet, pishin, zhyz, didar, kelbet50. In this synonymic series, the word bet is stylistically neutral, didar, zhyz, kelbet, pishin are synonyms, which in their stylistic coloring are functionally equivalent to the word “face”. However, this dictionary article does not provide stylistically lowered synonyms which are not included in the task of bilingual dictionaries, the purpose of which is to bring functionally equivalent synonyms. On the contrary, in the Dictionary of Synonyms of the Kazakh Language is built the whole synonymic series, including stylistically reduced synonyms: bqt, zhyz, azhar, didar, kelbet, betalpet, beine, pishin, turpat, uskyn51. As a rule, all these synonymous words, with the exception of the first word bet (face as part of the body), characterize the image of a person and have a certain syntagmatic fixity. Compare: zhyzi zhyly, zhyzi tartymdy (attractive face), azharly beine (beautiful and attractive image); ak dydar (literally, a white face); betalpeti keledi (the facial features are very similar); pishini zhuka Il'inskaja I.S. Leksika stihotvornoi rechi Pushkina («vysokie» i pojeticheskie slavjanizmy). In-t russkogo jazyka AN SSSR. – M.: Nauka, 1970. – 258 p. 50 Russko-kazahski slovar' / Pod red. N.T. Sauranbaeva, G.G. Musabaeva, Sh.Sh. Sarybaeava. – 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. – Almaty: Daik-Press, 2005. – P. 402. 51 Qazaz tіlіnіng sinonimder sozdіgі. – Almaty: Arys, 2005. – 152-153 p. 49
(thin facial features); uskynsyz (unattractive, repulsive), uskyny kursyn (disapproving, disgusting appearance). Somatic Slavonic words are frequent not only in portraits of sublime, deified and lyrical content, but also in the characterization of realistic images built on contrasts, which can be expressed at the level of a syntagma, ie. in combination with words of different connotations: Petr shykty. Zhyltyldap ekі kozі, Siyaiut. Lik ego uzhasen. Tүsі yzgarly, Kyimyly ote shapshang, Dvizhen’ya bystry. On Tamasha turgan boiy bіr prekrasen, galamat, On ves’ kak bozhiya groza. Bіr ozі tangirining kaһaryndai. A.S. Pushkin. Poltava Translated by K. Amanzholov Vyhodit Petr. Ego glaza
Peter comes out. His eyes They shine. His face is terrible. Movements are fast. He is beautiful, It’s all like a thunderstorm of God. Direct translation into English
The nature of the image is based on a stylistic dissonance, on a combination of stylistically heterogeneous vocabulary. In this case, the contextual use of the adjective uzhasniy does not correlate with its main immediate meaning ‘terrible, causing horror, disgusting’, but characterizes Peter’s majestic and severe view, which was conditioned by the choice of the interpreter of the contextual equivalent – adjective “yzgarly”, which in a figurative sense is used in relation to a severe and formidable person. Compare: “yzgarly” – 1. piercing; icy (wind, cold, etc.): yzgarly ayaz → strong frost; yzgarly zhel → piercing wind; yzgarly suyk → harsh climate. 2. Figurative meaning. terrible, severe (about a person): onyng tusi yzgarly eken → he is a formidable and severe; yzgarly unmen soileu → speak in a harsh tone 52. Stylistic expressiveness of citizenship, pathos and recruitment find a vivid expression in the oda “Liberty” by Pushkin: …... Bileushіler! Tazh ben takty zang berdі, Daet Zakon — a ne priroda; Artyk etіr zharatkan zhok senderdі, Vladyki! vam venec i tron
Lord! crown and throne to you Gives the Law – not Nature
Kazahsko-russkii slovar' / 50000 slov. – Almaty: Daik Press, 2008. – P. 924.
Stoite vyshe vy naroda,
Zangnan biіk bola almaisyn kashan da, No vechnyi vyshe vas Zakon. Biіk shygyp bilegenmen elderdі… A. Pushkin “Liberty” Translated by K. Amanzholov
You stand above the people, But above you is the eternal Law Direct translation into English
Negative evaluation is manifested in the character of emotions (anger, indignation), expressed in the circulation of “Lord!”, (an autocratic villain, tyrants of the world), by which is meant the metaphorical image of the ruler. V.S. Efimova refers the word lord to a group of names of persons “ruling and governing”: “These three high-frequency (by the standards of the Old Slavonic language) – vladyka, knyaz’, tsetsar – entered the Old Slavonic lexicon with the meaning of ‘ruler, lord’. The most common name of a person with the general idea of ‘one-man power’ is the “old” Slavonic lexeme vladyka which means “ruler, lord”53. Therefore, this word originally had a generalized meaning and gradually underwent certain transformations of an expressive and semantic character. The word Vladyka has three synonymous equivalents in the Russian-Kazakh dictionary: amirshi, bileushi, kozha54, differing from each other in the shades of meanings, and the traditional use in the context of certain content. K. Amanzholov’s choice as the equivalent of the word bileusheiler (the affix-ler is an exponent of the plural) is due to the generalization of the image, an ironic tinge in the meaning of the translated word and its expressive tone. In the symbolic poem “Anchar” use of Slavonic “vladyka” is associated with the image of the almighty and indestructible master of human destiny: Prines – i oslabel, i leg
.. Sorly sol kul keldі Akeldі – kettі de, alsіrep
Pod svodom shalasha Alі bіtіp, zhygyldy na lyki,
Kүrkesіne zhatty bul
Brought – and weakened and lay down Under the roof of the hut,
Efimova V.S. Naimenovaniya lic v staroslayanskom yazyke. – M.: ISl RAN, 2011. – P. 127-128. 54 Russko-kazahskii slovar' / Pod red. N.T. Sauranbaeva, G.G. Musabaeva, Sh.Sh. Sarybaeava. – 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. – Almaty: Daik-Press, 2005. – P. 253. 53
I umer bedniy rab u nog Nepobedimogo vladyki. A.S. Pushkin. Anchar
Amіrshіsіn kordі de Mangі kөzі zhumyldy. Translated by K. Bekhozhin
Kozha aldynda kүshі kop, Oldі solai sorly kul. Translated by I. Zhansugurov
And the poor slave at his feet died Invincible ruler. Direct translation into English
In the first variant of the translation (in K. Bekkhozhin) the word әmіrshi (basic in the above synonymous series) is given in the sense of ‘the one who commands, disposes’, which is mainly used in describing the situation of “lord-slave” in the stylization of archaic and folkloric coloring. It seems that this translation case clearly demonstrates the translatability of Slavonic words from the point of view of achieving functional equivalence. In our opinion, another synonym for “kozha” chosen by I. Zhansugurov for translating the word vladyka has other, more specific meanings and is suitable for describing ordinary, everyday situations. Compare: kozha 1) the owner (head of the family): uiding kozhasy kim? → Who is the owner of the house? kozhang berse, koinyna tyk! → If the owner gives, hide in the bosom (for he can change his mind). 2) owner: naubaihana kozhasy → owner of the bakery55. The word Vladyka is widely known in ancient Russian monuments and was used as an epithet to the name of God: our Lord, ruler. The use of such a meaning is observed in Pushkin's famous novel “The Captain's Daughter”, which describes the events of the Peasants’ War led by Emelian Pugachev and bright reflects the life and way of life of the Russian people of the XVIII century: « – Lord, master! – moaned my Savelich. – Rabbit coat is almost new! And it would be good to naked drunkard!» – «O, zhsagan, dedi Savelich kungirene soilep. Zhap-zhanga koyan ishik! Kaidagy bir maskunem buzykka berilmei, baska bireuge berilse de bir sira-au!”(translated by A. Tazhibaev). Handling “O, zhasaғan” (the Creator, the Most High) is a call to God, so often found in artistic, journalistic, religious word, as well as monologic, stage speech is considered as the contextual equivalent of Slavonic word Vladyka , the choice of which occurred not only under the influence of the context, but was
Kazahsko-russkii slovar' / 50000 slov. – Almaty: Daik Press, 2008. – P. 423.
conditioned, in our opinion, by the emotional-expressive tone of the entire narrative. Stylization of archaic language and style of word of spiritual and religious content presupposes the use of Slavonic words. High and solemn words reveal the theme of human destiny and spiritual rebirth, happening according to the will of the Creator God, the artistic image of which is created with the help of comparisons, epithets and periphrase: ... Gorevshie tyazhko yazyk i zenicy, I leg, i zasnul on bliz vernoi oslicy –
...Sіmіrdі, boiy zhazylyp, terі shubyrdy, Kok esegіnіng zhanyna zhetіp zhygyldy.
I mnogie gody nad nim protekli Po vole vladyki nebes i zemli. A.S. Pushkin. Imitation of the Koran
Kettі uiyktap, tangіrіnіng kүnі zulady, Kop zhyldar ottі, dauyldar talai shulady. Translated by B. Aldamzharov
... Burned heavily tongue and pupils, And he lay down, and he fell asleep near the faithful donkey – And many years passed over him By the will of the lord of heaven and earth. Direct translation into English
The paraphrase of the lord of heaven and earth is translated by the word tangir (Tengri), which has an ancient Turkic basis and denotes the supreme deity of the sky of the polytheistic pantheon of peoples of Turkic-Mongol origin. In combination kok tangiri (Heavenly God) adjective kok (blue) not only denotes color and serves as a generalized, metaphorical name for the sky, but also expresses the national-cultural and the associative way of thinking in established linguistic formulas and symbols: kok aspan (blue sky), kokte (in the sky), kok tu (the blue flag): in state symbols), etc. In addition, expressive-evaluative expressions with the composition of the verse are often incantatory and assertive, so their use is associated with a special emotional situation. Compare: tangir 1) God; The Creator; The Most High: Ср.: тәңір 1) Бог; Создатель; Всевышний: Tangir alsyn! → May God take you!; Tangir atkyr! → May God slay you; Tangirge ne zhazdym? → how I angered God; Tangir zharylkasyn! → Bless the Lord; Tangir ursyn! → let God punish! 2) the sky: tangirden → from the sky.3) figurative meaning. Tangir isi → fate; tangir zhazsa → if possible; if you're lucky; tangir 43
zharylkap → I was lucky; tangir tuty → to over-esteem, worship; tangir isin tanymai ketu → too conceited56: The choice of systemic and contextual synonyms depends on the meaning of the word, which is determined by the context. “Translating the semantic structure of the text allows a lot of interpretations, depending on the meaning of the word chosen by the translator. After all, in the “meaning-text” model, rules for the implementation of related meanings of words are ordered by explication of the common meaning their positions relative to the keyword”57. Linguistic and cultural specifics of contextual equivalents manifests itself in the addition of the realities of the culture of translation – the replacement of Slavonic words with a pronounced national and cultural connotation, especially when conveying images of folklore characters: ... Kulіmdep kozderі oinap Rusalkanyng Batyrdy kyzyktyryp shaқyrady Un қatpai, shaikap agash butaktaryn Manyat, ne govorya ni Kupiya bіr kudіret keledі slova. saktap. A.S. Pushkin. Ruslan and Translated A. Tazhibayev Ludmila ... Rusalki, tiho na vetvyah Kachayas’, vityazya mladogo S ulybkoi hitroi na ustah
... Mermaids, quietly on the branches Swaying, the Young Knight With a smile on my lips Beckons, without saying a word. Direct translation into English
In the Turkic-speaking peoples batyr is the main hero of the epic narrative, the famous name and exploits of which were sung in folk tales, reflecting folk life, folk philosophy, the most characteristic and saturated paradigms and the phenomena of ethnoculture, which concentrate its spirit. The word batyr acts as an active language element, characterizing a brave dzhigit – a young man. Compare: batyr. 1. The hero; kozsiz batyr → fearless person; batyr kala → hero city; batyrlar zhyry → heroic epic; halyk batyry → The national hero; batyr ana → mother-heroine. 2. brave: batyr zhigit → brave
Kazahsko-russkii slovar' / 50000 slov. – Almaty: Daik Press, 2008. – P. 765. Базылев В.Н. Коммуникация и перевод: монография. – М.: Изд-во Московск. Гуманит. ун-та, 2012. – С. 161. 56 57
dzhigit; koz korkak, kol batyr → eyes are afraid, and hands are doing; batyr bolu → be brave58. The image of the heroes of fairy tales is described with the help of various artistic means, explicating the national and cultural specifics of the language of translation. In our opinion, the use of linguocultural realities in translation generates at the level of emotional perception certain nationally-conditioned associations among readers of foreign languages: ....Blistaya v rize parchevoi, Koldun, koldun'ei obodrennyi, Razveselyas', reshilsya vnov' Nesti k nogam devicy plennnoi Usy, pokornost' i l’ubov'
...Syikyrshy syikyrshydan kuat algan, Ustіnde zarlі kamka zhaltyldagan, Kyzdy oilap, kozdy delebesі,
Barmakshy tutkynyna, turmaқ zhakyn Aldynda tarpak murtyn, mahabbatyn. A.S. Pushkin. Ruslan and Translated A. Tazhibayev Ludmila
…Shining in brocade cope, Sorcerer is encouraged by sorceress Gleefully, decided again To carry to the captive’s feet Mustache, humility and love Direct translation into English
The translation preserves the factual information, according to which the riza in this context does not mean ‘Clothes, vestments of a priest’, but correlates with clothing in general. In this case, the translator takes into account the folklore character of the poem and focuses his attention on the determined word of the brocade what was the choice of the word “Kamka”: brocade (a dense patterned silk fabric woven with gold or silver threads): kamka ton → brocade gown; kamkadan asyl kigeni → folk. in robes from expensive kamka”59. Intercultural analysis of Slavonic world translations as an equivalent vocabulary allowed to detect their contextual equivalents as a result of the creative and exploratory work of a translator of an artistic text, in particular, a poetic language. In general, the archaic layer of the vocabulary of the Russian language creates great obstacles to the adequacy of the translation.
Казахско-русский словарь / 50000 слов. – Алматы: Дайк Пресс, 2008. – С. 234. Kazahsko-russkii slovar' / 50000 slov. – Almaty: Daik Press, 2008. – P. 567.
I.A. Alekseeva assigns an important role to the background knowledge of an interpreter as an expert of linguistic cultural realities: “The translator must actively master the linguistic and cultural specifics of the text, because it is often not given in the text in a concentrated form, but scattered or encrypted in it, and his task is to identify this specificity on the basis of full active knowledge”60. Thus, contextual equivalents, which can not be interchanged in an interlanguage plan, explain historical and cultural information, concluded in the semantics of Slavonic words and disclose the semantic-stylistic features of them in artistic translations. Equivalence is established not just between individual units of texts of the original language and the target language, also between the unit of the original language + context and the unit language of the translation + context. In our opinion, the main sign of the contextual equivalence of Slavonic words in the Kazakh language is the coincidence of the connotative value (functional equivalence). 2.2. Ochi (eyes) and usta (lips) in A.S. Pushkin’s poetry: translatability through the prism of language and culture In modern Russian language poeticisms ochi (eyes) and usta (lips), compared with other stylistically marked archaisms, characterized by the frequency of use not only in poetry, but actively functioning in modern Russian as part of phraseological units, proverbs and sayings. Modern speakers of the language have an idea what these words mean and especially label them, realizing the pairing of these words as figurative means, the tradition of their use is connected with the estimated values and cultural and historical factors. “The stability and universality of these associations, of course, are determined by the activity of using the words in culturally significant texts for the native speakers – philosophical, poetic, religious. The reason for the special position of the ochi (eyes) and usta (lips), in our opinion, is determined by value representations of native speakers. In a number of characteristics of a person’s eyes and tongue, apparently, belong Alekseeva I.A. Vvedenie v perevodovedenie. 6-e izd., ster. – SPb.: Filol. f-t SPbGU; – M.: Izdatel'skii centr «Akademiya», 2012. – P. 179–180. 60
to the main – as two instruments of influence, and as two sources of impressions about a person. Therefore, ochi can be regarded as an aesthetic equivalent of a person, (mood, character ...), and the mouth – as the ethical equivalent of the person (her speech behavior)” 61. Poetisms eyes and mouth remained an affiliation of Russian poetry for several centuries and the change of literary tendencies (classicism, sentimentalism, romanticism, realism), typical for the end of the XVIII and XIX centuries, influenced their semantic-stylistic originality in artistic, especially poetic, word. Tradition of the use of Slavonic words as elements of “high style” in poetic speech goes back to the theory of “three” styles by Lomonosov, according to which a special stylistic “status” was assigned to them – the main style-forming component of the high syllable. “The beginning of the formation of the national Russian literary language and its styles coincided with the development of Russian classicism and its genres in the middle of the XVIII century which led to the linguistic interpretation of “Slavonic words”62. However, Slavonic words in the era of classicism predominantly belonged to a high syllable and their use was motivated by a special “status” as formal indicators of the language of tragedy and epic poetry, so they were not visual means. Stylistic observations of L.L. Kutina over the language and style of the story “Marfa Posadnitsa” by N.M. Karamzin allowed to draw a conclusion, that “Slavonic words – one of the most common types of verbal archaic at that time – the same global characteristic of the story, as well as the rhythm. And it is because of the universality of its use they represent a background phenomenon, creating only a general tonality of “solemn importance”. Slavonic words ornament all the stylistic layers of the story – speech of the author and the speech of the character”63. On the contrary, in the era of Romanticism, especially in A.S. Pushkin’s work, Slavonic words are used as an artistic and visual means and have their distinctly Yakovleva E.S. O ponyatii «kul'turnaya pamyat'» v primenenii k semantike slova // Vya. – 1998. – No 3. – P. 70. 62 Zamkova V.V. «Slavyanizm» kak termin stilistiki // Voprosy istoricheskoi leksikologii i leksikografii vostochnoslavjanskih yazykov. – M.: Nauka, 1974. – P. 162. 63 Kutina L.L. Istoricheskaya povest' N.M. Karamzina «Marfa Posadnica, ili pokorenie Novgoroda»: Stilisticheskie nabljudeniya // Ocherki po stilistike russkih literaturno-hudozhestvennyh nauchnyh proizvedenii XVIII v. – nachala XIX v. – SPb.: Nauka, 1994. – P. 68. 61
expressed traditional features of use in the language of poetry. Slavonic words as a style-forming means in the classical poetry of the XIX century (Pushkin’s era) well studied in the scientific literature”64. "In the work of poets of the XIX century is overcoming the tradition of the formal use of Slavonic words and there is a tendency to differentiate the meanings of neutral and high synonyms. We find many contexts, where Slavonic word ochi is used with a certain stylistic task, when, for example, strictly maintained a syntagmatic series (the neighborhood with words of high stylistic color) or emphasizes the stylistic “potential difference”65. Contradictory opinion developed among researchers of the language of poetry of the XX century66. Some scientists believe, that “in the XX century – with a tendency to bring the poetic vocabulary closer to the colloquial – Old Slavonic words, correlated with the actual Russian words, again are marked, and not only by belonging to a high style, but also by the manifested involvement in the context of classical Russian culture”67. Special activity of somatic Slavonic words ochi and usta is explained by a peculiar expression of the author's world view through verbal portraits, in which the image of a person beholding eyes and expressing his feelings with his mouth, gives expression to the whole context of the work. Thus, in the language of poetry words ochi and usta had their own semantic-stylistic evolution: from the tradition of formal use to stylistically marked archaisms and means of stylization. Most SlaVinogradov V.V. Yazyk Pushkina: Pushkin i istorija russkogo literaturnogo yazyka. – M. – L.: Academia, 1935. – 454 s.; Solosin I.I. K voprosu o cerkovno-slavjanizmah v yazyke A.S. Pushkina: poiema «Ruslan i Ludmila» // Stil' i yazyk A.S. Pushkina. – M.: Uchpedgiz, 1937. – S. 90-98; Vinokur G.O. Nasledstvo XVIII v. v stihotvornom jazyke Pushkina. – V kn. Izbrannye raboty po russkomu yazyku. – M., 1955; Il'inskaja I.S. Iz istorii slavjanizmov v poeticheskoi rechi pervoj poloviny XIX v. // Obrazovanie novoj stilistiki russkogo yazyka v pushkinskuju jepohu. – M., 1964. Il'inskaya I.S. Leksika stihotvornoi rechi Pushkina («vysokie» i poieticheskie slavyanizmy). – M., 1970; Ahmanova O.S. Ocherki po obshhei i russkoi leksikologii. – M., 1957. 65 Shul'skaya O.V. Glaza i ochi v russkoi poezii XX v. // Problemy strukturnoi lingvistiki. – M.: Nauka, 1986. – P. 136. 66 Zubova L.V. Stilistika i semantika nepolnoglasiya v pojezii Mariny Cvetaevoi // yazyk i teksta. / Otv. red. V.V. Kolesov. – SPb.: Izd-vo SPbGU, 1998. – P. 213. 67 Shul'skaya O.V. Glaza i ochi v russkoi poezii XX v. // Problemy strukturnoi lingvistiki. – M.: Nauka, 1986. – P. 136. 64
vonic words in the XIX century formed the core of the traditional poetic vocabulary, the most frequent of which were words ochi and usta generating certain associations due to the figurative-expressive meanings expressed by these words, which is especially characteristic of the language of poetry. Considering different trends in the use of the word ochi in poetry, O.V. Shulskaya describes the connotetions of this word, highlighting in its semantics the following: correlation with natural phenomena, celestial bodies; correlation with the field “flora”; correlation with water bodies, liquid; the correlation of the eyes with the concrete objects of the “material” world 68. It is such a variety of connotations in semantics of Slavonic words has a significant influence on their place in the stylistic system of the Russian literary language, which they occupy in a synonymic series and largely determines the choice of the corresponding linguistic units when translated into other, especially unrelated, languages. According to T.B. Radbil, “cultural” or “textual” component implicitly enters into the semantic structure of the translated expression, representing it as a sort of “associative-semantic aura”. Cultural traditions of the perception of a particular linguistic phenomenon in an artistic text affect his understanding and interpretation69. Poetic tradition of the use of Slavonic words ochi and usta is associated with their particular semantic-stylistic “status”, because “these words are unique in the sense, that they describe their own, special, subject area. The frequency of the use of these poeticisms in various figurative-metaphorical meanings creates certain difficulties in their translation. In the historical style of the Russian language there was a special tradition of using archaisms, therefore the problem of their translation is due to the absence in other languages of functionally equivalent words with a halo of archaic and sublime. However, the semantic-stylistic originality of poeticisms is preserved through the use of figurative paraphrases, comparisons, synonyms, characterized by a wide range of semantic use and a variety of cultural associations. So, the word ochi is translated with such figurative expressions as ademi Там же. Радбиль Т.Б. Переводимость как феномен межъязыкового взаимодействия // Логический анализ языка. Перевод художественных текстов в разные эпохи. – М.: Индрик, 2012. – С. 15. 68 69
koz (beautiful, expressive eyes), narkes koz (beautiful, radiant eyes), kara koz (literal black eyes): ....Kak tyazhko mertvymi ustami Zhivym lobzan’em otvechat’ I ochi, polnye slezami, Ulybkoi hladnoiu vstrechat’ A.S. Pushkin. Prisoner of the Caucasus
...Erkenіng lebіzіnen zhanga tier Kyinalyp zhansyz erіn zhauap berer; Kamykty kara kozі zhaska tolyp, Muz bolgan salkyn denem kalai kuler? Translated by T. Zharokov
.... How gravely dead your mouths are Live kissing to answer And eyes full of tears, Smile with a cold smile Direct translation into English
In the figurative system of the Kazakh language and Kazakh linguoculture the adjective kara is not only an epithet of color, but also expresses the national-cultural way of thinking when describing the beauty of the eyes of a girl with the help of such comparisons, kara koz (eyes like coal), karakat koz (eyes like currants), bota koz (eyes like a camel), etc. As a rule, such stable comparisons have culturally conditioned semantics, a large imaginative potential, as well as a multitude of associative types, that is why they are widely used to convey emotional-expressive meanings in artistic translation: …Ogromny ochi snom ob’yatya; Hrapit, kachaya shlem pernatyh, I per'ya v temnoi vysote, Kak teni, hodyat, razvevayas' A.S. Pushkin. Ruslan and Ludmila
… Zhabylgan uikymenen kөldei kozі Koryldap karangyda zhatyr ozі. Zhyp-zhyly algan demnіng esse lebі, Shaikalady kalpagynyng ukіlerі Translated by A. Tazhibayev
... Huge eyes sleep embraced; Snoring, shaking his feathered hat, And feathers in a dark height, Like shadows, they walk, fluttering Direct translation into English
When translating poeticism ochi used translation compensation reception, that recreates stylistic shades and allows you to talk about how the translator is looking for equivalence not at the level of one isolated element (word), but at the level of the whole system (text)70. Fenenko N.A. «Neperevodimyi» Zoshhenko v perevode na francuzskii yazyk // Sociokul'turnye problemy perevoda. – Voronezh, 2006. – P. 347. 70
His main method is a complex translation of the text, in which are involved various lexico-grammatical transformations and stylistic modulations”. Stylistic coloring of poetry “ochi” is preserved through the use of the translation of the comparison koldei kozi (lit. eyes, like the sea, bottomless). The subjective attitude of native speakers to the word maRKD its evaluation semantics, which determines its pragmatic meanings: stylistic characteristics of words: poetic; word register: sublime; emotional coloring: positive, solemn. It is this diversity of connotations that complicates the translation of Slavonic wods into other languages. About this E.S. Yakovleva writes: “It becomes clear why the words ochi and usta are hard to manipulate, because they do not have exact analogs in other languages: for example, how to translate the combination of the eyes of the soul without losing the meaning?71. Let us present in the semantic plan an adequate transmission of “ochi” with the help of “memory” in the modern English version of the 109th Psalm: – May the Lord always remember their sins”. One of the main ways of translation is stylistically marked and emotionally-appraising words are replaced by neutral words of the translating language, that allows to preserve denotative meanings, that is, the plan for the content of the reproducible language unit: ochi – koz (eyes); usta – auyz, erin (mouth, lips). Let’s look at the examples: … I chuvstvuiu: v ochah rodilis' slezy vnov' Dusha kipit i zamiraet;
…Tagy da kozіmnen zhas tamshylady, Kainady zhanym, tagy tunshygady, Mechta znakomaya vokrug Essіz shak mahabbaty menya letaet; eske tustі, Ya vspomnil prezhnih let Kasymnan tanys kiyal bezumnuiu liubov'… ushty tagy A.S. Pushkin. Daylight lost Translated by K. Bekhozhin
And I feel: tears were born in my eyes again The soul is seething and fading; The dream is flying around me; I remembered the crazy love of the previous years. Direct translation into English
As can be seen from the examples, the lexemes of two different languages, completely coinciding in the nominative sense, do not Yakovleva E.S. O ponjatii «kul'turnaya pamyat'» v primenenii k semantike slova // VJa. – 1998. – №3. – P. 71. 71
correlate in terms of style, resulting in the loss of all connotations stylistically marked poetry word “ochi”. In this case, translatability is achieved at the denotative level. There are many cases of preserving the historical, cultural and semantic-stylistic originality of the poeticisms of the eyes and mouth by applying a descriptive mode of translation using epithets, descriptive and figurative expressions, stylistic synonyms, reflecting the national-cultural specifics of the description of the eyes in a portrait description: myngly koz (sad eyes), kara kyz (black eyes), naRKD koz (beautiful eyes), ademi koz (beautiful eyes). At the same time, these expressions can act as figurative functions in the context of a poetic work, because they transmit the traditional emotional halo of poetic words ochi and usta. The use of this or that epithet, by means of which the figurative, expressive part of the semantics of the Slavs is recreated, depends on the compatibility of the word with other words surrounding it (adjectives and verbs), the metaphorical context, the stable forms of the phrase compound of words. When translating poeticism usta is also used a descriptive, so-called periphrastic mode of translation, in which the word usta is replaced by a combination of ademi auyz (fine lips), which allowed to transmit without loss its stylistic coloring and emotionally expressive appraisal: ... Usta prekrasnoi ishhut rechi; Glaza ispolneny toskoi, I chernoi padaiut volnoi Ee vlasy na grud' i plechi. A.S. Pushkin. Prisoner of the Caucasus
... Angsagan әdemі auzy sozdі sonsha, Kusa bolyp, kozіne zhas togan zhansha, Iygyn keudesі men burym zhauyp, Tolkyp tur kara shashy tolkyndarsha. Translated by T. Zharokov
... The lips of the beloved are looking for speeches; Eyes are filled with longing, They fall in a black wave Her hair is on her chest and shoulders. Direct translation into English
A similar translation is also found in the translation of the poem “Ruslan and Lyudmila”, performed by the talented poet A. Tazhibaev: ... Ego chelo, ego lanity Mgnovennym plamenem goryat;
.... Kei kezde іshtegі ortі betіn sharpyp, Gashygyn shop-shop sүisem dedі me alde,
... His forehead, his cheeks Instant flames burn;
Ego usta poluotkryty Lobzan’e tijnoe manyat.
Ademі auzyn ashyp zhatyr His mouth is half open ane, Uһlep dem alady bayau Kisses secret beckon. gana.
The combination of the neutral in stylistic coloring of the word auzy (mouth) with the adjective ademi (beautiful) characterizes the image of the beautiful hero and recreates the complex semantic-stylistic structure of poetic poetry: subject-conceptual content, connotative and emotionally-valued values, stylistic significance, as well as the aesthetic component of meaning (about the beautiful). Qualitative adjective ademi (beautiful, beautiful), unlike other synonyms: sulu, korikti, korkem, azharly, kelbetti, ongdi, characterizing the beauty and attractiveness of a person as a whole, can describe individual facial features and body parts. Compare: kozderi ademi (beautiful eyes), erinderi ademi (beautiful lips), beti ademi (beautiful face), ayaktary ademi (beautiful legs), sausaktary ademi (beautiful fingers), etc. It should be noted that poetry wod ochi is not only found in the contexts of lyrical word, in which feelings are described and portraits of the beloved are drawn, but at the same time the combination of the eyes with words having contrasting meanings is used for the purpose of interpreting the expression of the image. "The use of the word ochi in the so-called mixed contexts, characteristic of the poetic speech of the twentieth century, where elements of different stylistic series are used, can cause an aesthetic effect of different character. High eyes in context with a stylistically contrasting word in the actualization of the semantic moment can be strengthened, it is emphasized, as in the well-known context of Voznesensky, where are played the stylistic connotations of words: “Bastard raises eyes, Man steps towards the door”72. .... Naprasno vy v teni tailis’ Dlya mirnyh schastlivyh druzei,
... Arnalgan en bakytty dos zharlarga, Olenіm kolenkede kapy kalma,
.... In vain did you hide in the shadows For peaceful happy friends,
Shul'skaya O.V. Glaza i ochi v russkoi poezii XX v. // Problemy strukturnoi lingvistiki. – M.: Nauka, 1986. – P. 136. 72
Stihi moi? Vy ne sokrylis’ Ot gnevnyh zavisti ochei... A.S. Pushkin. Ruslan and Ludmila
Kashsan da, tauyp alyp, tagatyn syn Kyzganashaқ kyzyl kozden kutylmaspyn Translated by A. Tazhibayev
My poems? You did not hide From the angry envy of the eyes ... Direct translation into English
Here, attention is drawn to the fact that the combination of angry eyes is translated by the figurative expression kyzyl (red) koz (eyes). This expression has a pronounced evaluative character: it is in anger that the eyes of a person are “poured with blood”, i.e. become red. In this case, it was important to find a word expressing the whole complex complex of emotions. The application of translation strategies de dicto and de re when solving the problem of achieving adequate translatability on a “cultural” or “textual” level is written by T.B. Radbil: “Following “the de dicto translation strategy” means the consecutive installation of an interpreter, to find such means of the native language and culture, as much as possible comparable with the means of the source language, to use them to achieve the effect of cultural reception of the translated text, commensurate with the characteristics of reception in the cultural environment of the original. In this case, we seem to reconstruct the image of a foreign cultural “prototypical reader” in an authentic cultural environment”73. An example of such an approach can be considered the use of a descriptive method of translation, allowing to explicate the cultural-aesthetic and semantic-stylistic meanings of Slavonic words. However, despite the fact that the unfolded phrases are incompatible with the size of the verse texts, this method of translation is often used in the transmission of poeticisms such as ochi, usta, lanity, persi and others, which are probably connected with the need to convey the cultural and aesthetic component of meaning in their semantics – about the perfect characterization of the characterological functions of Slavonics-somatisms: L’ubi menya; nikto donyne Ne celoval moih ochei;
Sui menі, kuz bolgaly omіrіmde Korgen zhok narkes, kara kozden eshkіm suip,
Love me; no one to this day He did not kiss my eyes;
Radbil' T.B. Perevodimost' kak fenomen mezhyazykovogo vzaimodejstviya // Logicheski analiz yazyka. Perevod hudozhestvennyh tekstov v raznye epohi. – M.: Indrik, 2012. – P. 15–16.
K moei postele odinokoi Cherkes mladoi i chernookoi Ne kralsya v tishine nochnoi. A.S. Pushkin. The Bronze Horseman
Cherkestіn solkyldagan boz balasy Kiylgan narkes kozdі, kara kasty, Zhanyma korpemdі ashyp engen emes. Translated by T. Zharokov
To my lonely bed Circassian young and black-eyed He did not hide in the silence of the night. Direct translation into English
Descriptive expression narkes, kara koz (beautiful and expressive black eyes) has a symbolic character and reflects the linguistic conceptualization of the world picture in a foreign culture. As a rule, in such combinations, one of the components is an adjective (often in the function of an epithet), through which the figurative, expressive part of the semantics of the Slavonic word is recreated. To convey the pragmatic (emotional, expressive, stylistic) values of Slavonic words and preserve their historical, cultural and semantic-stylistic originality of poeticisms ochi and usta were used rich opportunities of the Kazakh language – descriptive and figurative expressions, epithets, synonyms. Translatability of Slavonic word implies cultural-aesthetic equivalence to the translated text due to the use of adaptive linguistic and cultural symbols.
2.3. Historical and cultural information in words without pleophony and ways of recreating it in A.S. Pushkin’s work translations It is known that a significant number of borrowings from the Old Slavonic (Church Slavonic) language were words with incompleteness, which for several centuries coexisted in the Russian language with their native-Russian full-blown doublets: glas – golos, sreda – sereda, breg – bereg, vremya – veremya, zlato – zoloto, plen – polon and etc. Words with incompleteness had a different "fate" in the lexical system of the Russian language: one of them, for example, sreda (Wednesday), vremya (time), strana (country), vlast’ (power), mrak (darkness). The questions of the correlation of doublet words with fullblown and incompleteness have always remained in the field of view 55
of researchers. So, in the second half of XX century, appeared a large number of word devoted to the analysis of the functioning of these parallels in the language of ancient Russian monuments of the 11th14th centuries, folklore word and artistic speech, especially in the poetry of the late XVIII – early XIX centuries. (Zeitlin 1964, Graudina 1963, Kandaurova 1974, Porokhova 1988, etc.). The history of some words with incompleteness in Russian has become the subject of a separate study in the word by M.A. Sokolova, O.I. Smirnova and others. In modern studies, words with full and incomplete roots are considered from the standpoint of their word-building potential (Ulukhanov, 2002, L.M. Ustyugova, 2000). Long-term interaction of book and folk-speaking elements in the Russian language was characterized by various semantic-stylistic processes, which are well described in the book “On the language of Ancient Rus” by I.S. Ulukhanova: “Quite a lot of Slavonic words were fixed in the Russian language, despite the fact that in a living speech there were Russian words that had the same meaning. Words such as grad, zlato, drevo, breg, vrata etc. finally got out of use quite late – in the second half of the XIX century. The roots of these words are often retained in derivatives and complex words: Volgograd, bezbrezniy, obeglavit’, drevesina”74. A special tradition of using Slavonic words as figurative means generates certain difficulties in translating them into other languages, especially unrelated ones, which is explained by the peculiarity of the functional-stylistic arrangement of different languages. Despite the fact that the stylistic marking and the stable evaluation of words with incompleteness cause their "untranslatability" to other, mainly unrelated, languages, the presence of dictionary equivalents that convey the objective, material meaning of these words does not give grounds to attribute them to the category of the equivalent vocabulary: zlato – altyn, glas – dauys, drevo – agash, mladoi – zhas, grad – kala and others. Words with neutral equivalent values in the denotative plan do not convey the functional-stylistic coloring of the Slavonic words, which leads to a stylistic transformation, hence the loss of their figurative-semantic meanings in the translation. On the 74
Uluhanov I.S. O yazyke Drevnei Rusi. – M.: Azbukovnik, 2002. – P. 160.
translatability of Slavs to other languages Radbil writes: “... Let’s take as an illustration such an important translation problem as Russian poeticisms-Church Slavonicism against the backdrop of the presence in the language of a practically complete Russian proper semantic correlate (grad-gorod, vrata-vorota, etc.). From this point of view it is difficult to achieve a high degree of translatability of such an expression as Krasuisya, grad Petrov… Here it is given in the value aspect that a simple nominative correspondence with the meaning “city”. In one of the translations the translator tried to convey the stylistic originality of the lexeme grad through the use of another nominative unit – citadel (stylistically marked “stronghold”, neutralizing in the context of direct and metaphorical values), and the inclusion of the archaic “thou” and the interjection-poetry “O” (in the text transmitted by the capital letter): Stand thou, O Peters citadel! Another possibility is to actualize when translating traditionally biblical texts, where Russian lexeme grad is put in correspondence with English a city of ... (necessarily with an indefinite article) – a city of Peter”75. In this connection, observations on translations of words with incompleteness allow us to determine the translation of the text, which is conditioned by the need to preserve the semantic-stylistic originality of the Slavonic word. So, in the semantics of the archaic word with incompleteness of hail – “fortress, fortification, ancient city”, the meaning of archaism and some majesty is significant, in contrast to its full-blown correlate, the city – “the place where people live, their settlement”. The word with incompleteness hail as stylistically marked archaism is used for the purpose of language stylization of Old Russian speech, therefore it was preserved in the component of the word-names of cities associated with the names of great people and historical figures and covered with a halo of grandeur: Petrograd, Leningrad, Stalingrad, Tselinograd. Consider the variants of translations of the archaism of hail, occurring in the poem of A.S. Pushkin’s “The Bronze Horseman”:
Радбиль Т.Б. Переводимость как феномен межъязыкового взаимодействия // Логический анализ языка. Перевод художественных текстов в разные эпохи. – М.: Индрик, 2012. – С. 9–10. 75
Proshlo sto let, i uiniy grad,
Ottі zhүz zhyl. Balgyn қala
Polnoshhnyh stran Soltүstіktіn sankrasa i divo, sauletі, Iz t'my lesov, iz topi blat Voznessya pyshno, gordelivo A.S. Pushkin’s “The Bronze Horseman”:
Tүnek nuly sol aradan, Boilap shygyp, іrge teptі Translated by G. Ormanova
Zhuz zhyldai uakyt ottі,
A hundred years passed away, and a young city Zhap-zhas «grad» Full-fledged countries of beauty and wonder, Tun zhak eldіn From the darkness erkesі,asem, symbat of the forests, grad – shaһar, kala Ascendably, proudly Translated M. Dauletbaeva
Direct translation into English
Translators used different ways of translating a stylistically marked word: in the first case, the translation, made by G. Ormanov, is used a traditional and very common way of translating Slavonic words – stylistic transformation, ie. change in the stylistic color of the translated word due to the absence in the language of translation of the functional-stylistic correspondence. So, the combination of a young grad is replaced by a dictionary equivalent in the nominative, neutral meaning of balgyn kala (a young city), which does not allow preserving its semantic-stylistic originality and recreating the pomposity and majestic halo of the ancient city. In the second of the translation variant have been used such methods of translation as transliteration and a footnote, in which the meaning of the word hail is revealed through arabism shahar (ancient city) and neutral in stylistic terms, the word “kala” (city). Arabism Shahar refers to the stylistically marked archaic vocabulary and is used in those cases, when it comes to an ancient, historic city, so it can be the stylistic equivalent of archaism hail and be used in the very context of translation. Here is noteworthy that in order to give expression and create a high rhetorical coloring of the whole context, as well as the equivalent transfer of semantics of the adjective young, the translator skillfully uses one of the expressive epithets zhap-zhas (very young), as an adjective adolescent in combination with the word grad. As a rule, this one of the forms of an excellent degree of adjectives is formed by adding to the first syllable of the word the letters n-, for example, zhap-zhasyl, kyp-kyzyl, zhyp-zhyly the so-called amplifying syllable, the use of which gives the utterance emotionality and 58
expression. Epithet zhap-zhas is often used in the translation of the adjective with the incompleteness of the young. …. Pri shume laskovyh rechei On okruzhen; s nego ne svodyat Oni plenitel'nyh ochei; Dve devicy konya uvodyat; V chertogi vhodit han mladoi… A.S. Pushkin. Ruslan i L’udmila
... Іshіp-zhep kozderіmen hanga barі Karaidy zhautan kaga, syikyrlanyp, Supaiy, iba nazy azіlderі Ekі kuz kettі hannyn atyn alyp, Zhap-zhas han sol ordaga kіrdі kelіp... Translated by A. Tazhibayev
.... With the noise of caressing speeches He is surrounded; they do not reduce it to him They are captivating eyes; Two maidens take away the horse; In the hall enters the khan of the young ... Direct translation into English
It seems that it is the contextual analysis that confirms the author's version of the translation and the choice of a word as an interlingual correspondence directly depends on the context in which the word “gets”, since it is a creative unit in the artistic text and therefore goes beyond the lexicographic interpretation. Thus, the dictionary correspondence of the adjective mladoi in the RussianKazakh dictionary is the word jas, which, according to the semantics, is adequately native to the Russian full-blown adjective molodoi: mladoi adj. poetic and outdated zhas. Mladoe plemya – zhas urpak (young tribe); mladye gody – zhastyk kez (young years); i star, i mlad – karі de, zhas ta (both old and young)76. Meanwhile, translators do not replace Slavism with dictionary conformity, but strive to preserve their stylistic originality, using for this contextual synonyms. Let us turn to the translation of another passage from A.S. Pushkin’s poem. Pushkin “The Prisoner of the Caucasus”: … No net cherkeshenki ... Bіrak, zhok zhap-zhas sulu cherkes kyzy mladoi Ni u bregov, ni pod goroi… Tauda da, zhagada da korіnbedі... Pushkin “The Prisoner of Translated by the Caucasus” T. Zharokova
... But there is no Circassian young Neither at the banks, nor under the mountain ... Direct translation into English
Russko-kazahski slovar' / Pod red. N.T. Sauranbaeva, G.G. Musabaeva, Sh.Sh. Sarybaeava. – 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. – Almaty: Daik-Press, 2005. – P. 543.
In this case, the interpreter not only replaces the word with incompleteness mladoi at a superior degree of adjective zhap-zhas, which means ‘very young’, but also enhances the expressiveness of the passage with the help of a combination of the paired word zhapzhas with another qualitative adjective of evaluation sulu i.е. ‘beautiful’. Such translation transformations allow us to convey the historical and cultural originality of Slavs and to recreate the expressivestylistic tonality of the original in the language of translation. For example, in one textbook on translation theory and practice, an example of a transformation is given, due to the need to translate the functionally stylistic coloring of the word: «Пресветлых очей нет» (A.N. Tolstoy) – «Für immer hatten sich die hellen Augen geschlossen». Transformation is caused by the translation of poetry of eyes, which in the translation language does not have a stylistically marked word. “However, in general, the stylistic coloring of the phrase is preserved due to the redistribution of expressive shades between the lexical units of the PO, and also by changing the syntactic structure of the sentence: changes in the structure and order of words, the introduction of additional words, etc.”77. In the poem A.S. Pushkin’s “Prisoner of the Caucasus” often meets an adjective with incompleteness in the root of the word mladoi, which was used as poetry for the figurative characterization of young lovers: L’ubi menya; nikto donyne Ne celoval moih ochei; K moei postele odinokoi Cherkes mladoi i chernookoi Ne kralsya v tishine nochnoi. A.S. Pushkin. The Bronze Horseman
Sui menі, kuz bolgaly omіrіmde Korgen zhok narkes, kara kozden eshkіm suip, Cherkestіn solkyldagan boz balasy Kiylgan narkes kozdі, kara kasty, Zhanyma korpemdі ashyp engen emes. Translated by T. Zharokov
Love me; no one to this day He did not kiss my eyes; To my lonely bed Circassian young and black-eyed He did not hide in the silence of the night. Direct translation into English
Dzens N.I., Perevyshina I.R., Koshkarov V.A. Teoriya i praktika perevoda. – SPb.: Antologiya, 2007. – C. 70. 77
The word mladoi is translated by the word Bozbala: a young man; young guy; unmarried boy. Kyrmyzy kyzyl zhibek bozbalalar – poetic ‘blooming young men’78. In translation is actualized the national tradition of age distinctions, that is why T. Zharokov chose as a functional correspondence the word Bozbala, which according to the age and sex graduation of a person, adopted in Kazakh culture, (there are corresponding words to indicate a certain age and sex of a person, from birth to the most advanced years,) is used in relation to young males from sixteen to nineteen years old and in some contexts can act as a means of artistic expressiveness. Slavonic word glas was one of the most common and is dominated the number of uses over Russism golos which is explained by its widespread use in the values of the portable. The word glas in a figurative meaning used as “command, call” and it was fixed only in such stable combinations, as a voice crying in the desert, the voice of the people, etc. Transfer to the side of an abstract value can be a natural development of the word’s own meaning, whereas the transfer by type of personification is usually reflected in stable formulas, the sources of which are most often known: glas radosti I veselya (the voice of joy,), glas Boga (the voice of God). For example, glas ‘sound of speech’; but in use the word glas creates a figurative meaning of ‘command, call’ (feelings, conscience, etc.). In this sense that this word is used in the well-known, pathos poem by A.S. Pushkin “In the depths of Siberian ore”: …L’ubov’ i druzhestvo do vas // Doidut skvoz’ mrachnye zatvory, // Kak v vashi katorzhnye nory // Dohodit moi svobodniy glas (Pushkin. 1: 160). This verse was translated into Kazakh in different years by I. Zhansugurov (1936), by G. Ormanov (1949), by K. Amanzholov (1953), by K. Shangitbayev (1975). Let’s compare the translation of the word combination svoboniy glas, which expresses the stylistic expression of civic consciousness: ... Kak zharyp azap іndі Siyakty zhetkіzgenіm azat undі
... Tunergen kapas ungirge ... Love and friendship are up to you Shyrkagan dauysym zhol They will reach through the gloomy gates, tabar
Kazahsko-russki slovar' / 50000 slov. – Almaty: Daik Press, 2008. – P. 236.
Dostyk ta Kak zharyp berіk korgan… Translated by I. Zhansugurov (1936) ... Eriksiz engen sonau inderinge, Estiler mening erkin unim baryp Dal solai mahabbat pen dostyk birge Zhetedi tas kamalyn buzyp-zharyp… Translated by K. Amanzholov (1953)
Kamauda zhatkan In your convict burrows senderge Mahabbat, dostyk aparar… My free voice arrives… Translated by G. Ormanov Direct translation into (1949) English ... Zhetkendei mening uranym Zyndannan otken kat-kabat, Kapastyng buzyp bugauyn, Zharq eter dostyk, mahabbat. Translated by K. Shangitbayev (1975).
... Love and friendship are up to you They will reach through the gloomy gates, In your convict burrows My free voice arrives… Direct translation into English
Translators realized that the translation of this poem confronts them with certain tasks, conditioned by its social and political content, and, accordingly, the use of solemnly-elevated words. In our opinion, I. Zhansugurov and K. Amanzholov replaced the combination of svobodniy glas with its functional equivalents azat un and yerkin un, because the noun, especially in combination with the adjective azat, conveys the figurative-metaphorical meaning of the word “glas” in the meaning of ‘call, the command of the heart, the words of support’ and maintains a stylistic context structure in the target language. Adjective yerkin, i.e., ‘free’, in some cases, is used as an adjective, in others – as an adverb, so it can be used to adequately replace such combinations as a free life, sit at ease, freely talk, etc. On the contrary, G. Ormanov when translating stylistically marked Slavonic word, gives a simple nominative correspondence of the word dauys, that means, ‘voice, sound’, which is more often used to denote a natural, physical voice, for example, zhuan dauys – low voice, kongyrau dauysy – ringing of a bell. However, the interpreter fills this gap by means of a combination with the adjective ‘shyrkagan’ (singing loudly, with a high voice), which leads to a violation of the usual combination of words. K. Shangitbayev used the word ‘uran’ to recreate rhetoric and high style, in which a message was written to the Decembrists. 1. The slogan; appeal; motto. Uran tastau 62
– to call; to put forward a slogan. 2. Outdated, battle cry (during the battle). Uran shakyru – click the battle cry79. Apparently, the poettranslator sought in this way to recreate the civil-pathetic halo of the poem, despite the fact that the semantics of Slavonic words as high words with a solemnly-elevated coloring in civil poetry becomes more complicated, acquires additional shades of meaning and acquires a socio-political sound. In our opinion, the use of the method of comparing translations with their originals makes it possible to compare several translations of the same poem by different poets and translators in different chronological order, to reveal functionally equivalent linguistic units and ways to overcome the difficulties of translation associated with the difference in the lexicalstylistic base source and translating languages. It is interesting to translate a polysemantic word with the fullblown chlad which has its own history of semantic development: It is interesting to translate a polysemantic word with a full-blown chlad which has its own history of semantic development: “In Old Russian written language, the word cold, “expressing the concept of cooling, corresponding to the speaker's ideas about the norm, acquires positive values: “pleasant freshness”, “coolness”, while expressing the notion of cooling that does not correspond to the notions of the norm, appears in the relevant contexts in the sense of" strong cold, cold”80. The word with incompleteness chlad, in contrast to the fullblown synonym cholod, had opposite meanings: on the one hand, “a strong cold”, on the other – “cool, pleasant cooling”. In this case, the translation is carried out not by dictionary correspondences (lexical parallels), but by means of contextually synonymous substitutions: … Lozhitsya v pole mrak ... Basady tuned munar nochnoi kara zherdi,
... Lies in the darkness of the night
Ot voln podnyalsya veter Tolkynnan esedi zhel hladniy. kongyr salkyn;
From the waves the wind rose cold.
Kazahsko-russkij slovar' / 50000 slov. – Almaty: Dajk Press, 2008. – S. 673. Smirnova O.I. Ob osobennostjah semantiki slova hlad (k probleme enantiosemii) // Voprosy istoricheskoi leksikologii i leksikografii vostochnoslavjanskih jazykov: K 80-letiju chlen-korr. AN SSSR S.G. Barhudarova. – M.: Nauka, 1974. – P. 186. 79 80
Uzh pozdno, putnik molodoi! Ukroisya v terem nash otradnyi. A. Pushkin Ruslan I Ludmila
Zholtympaz zhas zholbarys, It's too late, young kun keshirdi traveler! Konyp ket bizding mynau Take cover in our lost tent. ordaga altyn. Translated by A. Tazhibaev Direct translation into English
The epithet of color konyr (brown) is one of the most widespread in the cultural tradition of the nomadic people, which is associated with steppe landscapes, with natural phenomena of pleasant, fresh coolness: konyr koz (cool autumn, autumn landscape in the brown-yellow palette of flowers), konyr zhel (cool, fresh breeze), konyr kesh (a cool evening), etc. In our opinion, the expression ‘konyr salkyn’ (coolness) recreates the emotionally expressive values of Slavonic words, which in artistic speech is used primarily for styling speech. Words of Old Slavonic origin glas, grad, vrata, blago, drevo are usually used in figurative meanings in contexts with a sublime rhetorical tonality. So, in the following contexts of the original and read his translation: – Ia, Alla! Rakymshylygyngnyng, meirimingning kakpalaryn ash magan, ishine kirgiz. – O, the Highest Allah! Be merciful, open to me the gates of your virtue and let me in there; – Zharatkan yeimiz! Bizdi bul duneden zhaksylykpen otkiz, o duniede de zhaksylygyndy bere gor! Bizdi tozak otynybg azabynan saktai gor! – Oh, my Creator! Grant good in this life, give us good in the afterlife! Save us from the torment and flame of Hell! (201 ayat surah al-Baqarah)81. As can be seen from the examples cited, the use of the words of the gates, the good, serves as a means of stylization in the transmission of sacral meanings embedded in the dua. In addition, the cultural and historical information contained in the semantics of Slavonic words contributes to the linguistic conceptualization of spiritual values, which generates the difficulties of their translation into other languages. Radbil writes about the axiological aspect of translatability on the semantic level of the conceptualization of the world: “This is the plan adopted in the given language community assessments, norms, tastes etc., assigned to this or that use, model or
Lamasharip K.K. Hadzh – Palomnichestvo. – Almaty: Dauіr, 2010. – P. 36.
way of expression”82. Indeed, the difficulty in translating religious texts is not only in the search for the equivalent of religious terms and words of Arabic origin, but also in conveying the stylistic originality of the original by the means of the Russian language, especially since the spiritual tonality of sacred word is preserved by transferring the spiritual-worldview system to another cultural environment. The use of the Old Slavonic word vrata, unlike its full-correlated gate, is limited by the spiritual realm, therefore, it is combined with words with appropriate church semantics and often functions in “high” contexts with religious content: vrata raya (ada), vrata nebesnye, cerkovnye ili svyatye vrata. The word blago with Old Slavic origin very early ousted from the active use of the ancient Russian word bologo (this root was preserved only in the name of the city of Bologoe). The word ‘blago’ acts as a synonym for good and virtue, from which many derivative words were subsequently formed (abstract nouns and adjectives that describe the qualitative sign of the subject), and actively functioning in modern Russian language: blagorodstvo, blagodetel’, blazhenstvo, blagoverniy and others. Originally used in the ethical sense, the concept blago in the second half of the XIX century began to bind to the notion of value. The modern meaning of this word has become multivalued, since it means not only spiritual, ethical values, but also material values, functioning in modern Russian as one of the terms of economic science. Within the context of the translated context, the benefit was the functional equivalent of the Kazakh word zhaksylyk, which in neutral meaning is translated as good. Despite the fact that Slavonic word ‘blago’ is a synonym for the Russian word good, they diverge not only in meanings, but also in use. In the Dictionary of Old Russian language, the word blago is defined as follows: “Good, every act, but good has two meanings”: 1) “All that is good, decently, honestly, useful, opposed to evil”; 2) “property consisting of dresses and other things”83. These words are synonymous only in the first sense; The second specific meaning of the word dobro does 82
Radbil' T.B. Perevodimost' kak fenomen mezhyazykovogo vzaimodeistviya // Logicheski analiz yazyka. Perevod hudozhestvennyh tekstov v raznye epohi. – M.: Indrik, 2012. – P. 9. 83 Slovar' drevnerusskogo yazyka XI–XIV vv.: V 10 t. / RAN. Institut russkogo jazyka; Gl. red. R.I. Avanesov (T. I–IV); I.S. Uluhanov (T. V–VI); V.B. Krys'ko (T. VII–X). T. I. – M., 1988.
not have a match for the word blago. The word blago is mainly used in “high” contexts, with respect to the deeds of God or the king: For this we wish your mercy from the Lord God of all good” (Letters and papers of Peter the Great). Let us turn to the translation of the following passage: – Biz Sening aldyndakolymyzdy zhaiyp, arturli tilde dauystap soilep turmyz. Senen kazhetimizdi suraudamyz. Kozimiz zhaksy toly, unimizde – mung. Auzymyzda – dugalar. – We stand before You, opening our palms and addressing You in different languages. We ask You for what we need. Our eyes filled with tears, our voice – sad, and on the lips – prayers 84. Using the book stylistically marked words glas and usta as a means of stylization adequately convey the expressive tone of appeal to the Supreme. So, if the word glas is replaced by a neutral synonym golos, and word usta – by the combination “we say prayers”, the text of the translation would remain a “dry” exposition of the main content of prayer. Translation of the combination “auzymda – dugalar” – “on the lips of prayers” is successful, the archaism usta is not only harmonious intertwines in the translated text, but also recreates the archaic nature of the text, while maintaining its sacred content. It is known that the archaisms ochi and usta are “settled” in the language, like other somatic poeticisms perst, persi, lanity, desnicy, shuica, ramena, chrevo, chresla and others. Functional isolation of the “high”, book-like word in comparison with the neutral synonym is due to the fact that the eye can be mental, internal: Before his mental look stood pictures of the past; and it is the gaze attached to the generalized subject: The eyes of the pilgrims performing the Hajj are facing towards the Kybla (the side where Mecca is located, and this direction is looked upon by the person while reading the prayer). Compare: – Ia, Alla! Sening aldynda turmyz, zhanarymyz Sende. -– O Allah! We stand before you and our eyes are turned to you. Functional equivalent of the Kazakh word zhanarymyz (here is used in plural meaning and is literally translated as “the apple of the eye”) performs stylistically marked archaism vzor, which, in contrast to the view, describes the purely external side of the object, a figurative impression of it: the word vzor can be blue, sparkling, heavenly. This word has a special se84
Lamasharip K.K. Hadzh – Palomnichestvo. – Almaty: Dauіr, 2010. – P. 94.
mantic content and in the text of the translation adequately recreates the situation, indicating at the same time not only a look directed towards the Supreme , but eyes filled with entreaty and sincerity of motives. Thus, the translatability of Slavonic word, a significant part of which are words with incompleteness, is determined by the reconstruction of the historical and cultural information contained in their semantics, as well as the preservation of their semantic-stylistic originality. When translating Slavonic words into other languages, it is necessary to realize that their functioning is connected with the reproduction of the era in which the author lived. Therefore, the translator is not only the interpreter of the semantic volume of the translated original work, but also becomes an active interpreter of its national-cultural and functional-stylistic specificity.
2.4. The role of bilingual (translated) dictionaries in the translation process At present, when the number of translations into various languages has increased significantly, a need has arisen to analyze the dictionary entries of bilingual lexicographic sources and to improve their quality. Thus, one of the key problems of bilingual lexicography is the semantization and stylistic marking of Slavonic words, which represent a special body of hard-to-translate linguistic units that are actively used not only in the Russian philological tradition, but also in translations of the classics of Russian literature. At the same time, Slavonic words, as stylistically marked archaisms, broadcast cultural and historical information, the loss of which during translation can significantly affect the meaning of the whole work. Russian-Kazakh dictionaries published in different years (from the middle of the last century to the present) were used as sources for a comparative study of the semantico-stylistic interpretation of Slavonic words: Russian-Kazakh dictionary edited by M. Balakayev (RKD 1946); Russian-Kazakh Dictionary edited by N.T. Sauranbaeva (RKD 1954); Russian-Kazakh Dictionary edited by G.G. Musabaev T.1 (A-O) (RKD 1978); Russian-Kazakh Dictionary edited by G.G. Musabaeva T.2 (O-I) (RKD 1981); Russian-Kazakh Dictionary 67
edited by N.T. Sauranbaeva, G.G. Musabaev, Sh.Sh. Sarybaeva (RKD 2005). The last one-volume dictionary, published on the basis of previous editions (third edition), contains changes and additions concerning the updating of Russian headers and the submission of illustrative material. In these dictionaries, the part of Slavs that are the basis of traditional poetic vocabulary is fixed and functions in Russian classical and modern literature. The semantic-stylistic description of Slavonic word in bilingual (Russian-Kazakh) dictionaries suggests, in our opinion, the following: 1. Stylistic marking of Slavonic words by means of maRKD. 2. Semantisation of Slavonic words by means of various means of translation, through interpretation, as well as the use of illustrative material. The study of the lexicographic description of stylistic information on the material of bilingual dictionaries translated, that stylistic marking in lexicographic sources is a dynamic category, accurately reflecting the basic stylistic potential of the semantic structure of the word. So, stylistic litters marking Slavonic words in Russian-Kazakh dictionaries of different periods can be divided into two groups: – characterizing the historical attribution of Slavonic words to the system of the modern Russian literary language; – evidence of a special area of their application. The first group includes the litter “ustar.” – outdated, now out of use, but also known for literary word, the word. The second group is the litter “poet.” – poetic, poeticisms, which formed the core of the traditional poetic vocabulary, used in artistic texts with a certain stylistic purpose; “cerk.” – church, indicating that the word denotes certain attributes of the Christian religion and objects of church use. Meanwhile, the system of stylistic litter, which allows not only to correctly understand the meaning of the word, but also its emotional and stylistic characteristics, is represented in the Russian-Kazakh dictionaries in different ways. The compilers of the Russian-Kazakh dictionary of 1946 in many cases did not determine the stylistic status of Slavonic words, for example, the lexemes alkat’, vzor, vladyka, deva, ladya, lik, perst, riza, cheln (PK 1946) do not have stylistic maRKD that creates difficulties in understanding the semantics and stylistic diversity of Slavonicwords. Moreover, the stylistic litters in 68
this dictionary in relation to words with incompleteness, are developed indistinctly: the word breg has the mark “Slav.”, i.e. Slavonic word (such a litter occurs only once), glas – “ustar.” – outdated, and zlato has marked as “cerk., poet.”– the church and poetic. Slavonic words-poeticisms, denoting parts of the human body like persi, chelo, chrevo, chresla have a stylistic litter “ustar.” – outdated, while the word perst remains unmarked at all. It seems that this distinction is based not on scientific principles, but rather on intuition or “sense of language”, which may be different in the compilers of dictionaries. E.S. Istrin writes, that noting the need to reflect in the dictionaries the stylistic characteristics of the word: “Litters of this kind, especially stylistic ones, are generally poorly represented in RussianTurkic dictionaries. Meanwhile, additional semantic and stylistic litters, as well as typical examples, are much more important than the Russian reader, since one can not look at a bilingual dictionary as a reference for a general understanding of a word in one's own language: the reader remembers, assimilates a foreign language and has the right to use it, if not warned about the limited use of it”85. The well-known lexicographer V.P. Berkov explains the problem of stylistic labeling with the following two reasons: “First, lexicographers can put a slightly different meaning into the stylistic litters they use, and if the introductory part of the dictionary does not explicitly state what the compiler understands under one or another layer of vocabulary, the reasons for discrepancies in dictionaries in this respect may be to the reader are unclear. Secondly, at the present time, dictionaries use a rigid scale with a relatively small number of steps. Essentially, “coordinates on a stylistic scale” can often be found between the allocated stages: among the “conversational” words spoken, that is, approaching vernacular, and less conversational, that is, close to stylistically neutral words – because among the “pro-sentimental” words there are no less common, approaching conversational, etc.”86. As a rule, bilingual translation dictionaries serve not only as a reference for translations from one language to another language, but Istrina, E.S. Zametki po dvujazychnym slovaryam // Izvestiya AN SSSR OLJa. – 1944. – T. 3. Vyp. 2–3. – S. 80. 86 Berkov V.P. Slovo v dvuyazychnom slovare. – Tallin: Valgus, 1977. – P. 70. 85
also contribute to the assimilation of the vocabulary and phraseological richness of languages. Among the Russian-Kazakh dictionaries, the most complete, voluminous and informative is the dictionary, published in 1954 under the general editorship of Academician N.T. Sauranbaev (RKD 1954)87, it was this dictionary that formed the basis of the modern Russian-Kazakh dictionary (RKD 2005) 88. In the vocabulary of the dictionary includes Slavonic words, formed the basis of traditional poetic vocabulary: vzor, vnimat’, vrata, vladyka, glava, grad, grad, drevo, zenica, zlato, ladiya, lik, mladoi, pastyr’, persi, perst. All of them are stylistically marked with the signs “ustar. poet.” – outdated, poetic, which determines the nature of the stylistic functions of Slavs in the texts culturally significant for the native speakers – artistic, poetic, religious, philosophical. Litter “cerk.” – church word meets less often than other stylistic standards and is reduced to words denoting the concepts of the Christian religion, the rule of God and the realities of church usage. So, in Russian-Kazakh dictionaries of different period Slavonic words riza and pastyr’are labeled as ecclesiastical, since they have a direct relation to the ritual of worship and the subjects associated with it, as well as the ranks and degrees of the church hierarchy. The above material indicates that the cognitive-communicative and functional-pragmatic settings in the interpretation of linguistic phenomena are reflected in stylistic markings in dictionaries. “Information on the stylistic characterization of the word is essential and should not be lost in translation. Therefore, the chosen equivalent should stylistically match the translated word as much as possible. Lexeme of high style is looking for the equivalent of high style, the lexeme of colloquial – colloquial”89. In our opinion, the marking of Slavs with a certain system of litters is necessary, since behind these words there is a whole system of Slavonic worldview and they are able to store in the national memory “traces of distant eras”. In bilingual dictionaries, the semantization of Slavonic word is traditionally represented in two ways: descriptive and synonymous. 87
Russko-kazahski slovar' / A. Iskakov, H. Mahmudov, G.G.. Musabaev; AN Kaz SSR; pod obshh. red. N.T. Sauranbaeva. – M.: GIS, 1954. – 936 p. 88 Russko-kazahski slovar' / Pod red. N.T. Sauranbaeva, G.G. Musabaeva, Sh.Sh. Sarybaeava. 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. – Almaty: Daik-Press, 2005. – 1152 s. 89 Ibid. P. 146–147.
A descriptive method involves describing all the properties of an object or concept with an indication of the purpose, function, origin, etc. If we consider a descriptive interpretation from the point of view of its vocabulary, it clearly distinguishes two parts: a word with a more general semantics than the semantics of the title word, and concretizing words that call qualitative signs of the word being interpreted. For example, ladya – eskekti, zhelkendi, ulken kaiyk90. In this interpretation, the word “kaiyk” (boat) is applied to the first part, and to the second – all other words that call the qualitative features of the word being interpreted: zhelkendi, ulken, eskekti. Slavonic word with the church semantics of the Riza is transmitted through transliteration and expanded interpretation: Riza риза riza poptardyn shirkeude zhamylatyn uzyn, zhengsiz kiyimi (РКС 1946: 602); Riza риза cerk. Riza (poptardyn namaz kiyimi) (РКС 1954: 700). Riza риза cerk. Riza (shirkeude pop kiyetin zhengsiz kiyimi) (РКС 1981: 283). As can be seen from the examples given, the interpretation of Slavonic ‘Riza’ in Russian-Kazakh dictionaries is carried out in a descriptive way, where the first part includes the words kiyim (clothing), and shapan, and the concretizing are the adjective uzyn, zhengsiz, namaz. In the semantization of Slavonic word, the synonymous method is widely used, in which lexical meaning is transmitted through the relation of the interpreted word to other words. Explication of the values of Slavs with the help of a list of possible synonyms allows us to fully reveal the stylistic differentiation and syntagmatic connections of the word. Vladyka m. amirshi, kozha, bileushi (RKD 2005: 103); Perst m. Outdated sausak, barmak (RKD 2005: 637); Usta in plular only, poetic outdated auyz, erin, ezu (RKD 2005: 1063).
Russko-kazahski slovar' / Pod red. M. Balakaeva. – Alma-Ata: Izd-vo AN Kazahskoi SSR, 1946. – P. 256. 90
The use of such methods in the practice of compiling bilingual dictionaries as an equivalent, synonyms, description, transliteration with a concise interpretation mainly reveal the meaning of Slavonic words, however, in some cases, the use of all synonymous row, the members of which are stylistically diverse, can be misleading. For example: Lik m. outdated, poetic bet, pishin, zhyz (RKD 1981: 382). Stylistic differentiation of these synonyms in the Kazakh language as follows: bet – neutral word, pishin – spoken, dialect word. Equivalent in semantics and stylistic coloring is the lexeme zhyz. In our opinion, the synonyms given in the translating part should be semantically and functionally equivalent to the title word, which was found in the following example: Grad m. Outdated kala, shahar (RKD 2005: 183). The word “Kala” in translation means a city, so this neutral synonym can only convey the real (denotative) meaning of the headword. Meanwhile, in the semantics of the word “grad” (“fortress, fortification, ancient city”) contains the meaning of archaism and some majesty in contrast to the city, meaning the place where people live, their settlement. Grad is a word of Old Slavonic origin, used as a stylistically marked archaism – an element of the language stylization of Old Russian speech, therefore its functional equivalent may be arabism shahar, which is used in those cases when it comes to an ancient, historic city. A comparative analysis of bilingual dictionaries made it possible to conclude that in some cases the semantization of Slavonic word needs to be clarified. Thus, Slavonic word in the modern Russian language is synonymous with the word look, and in the language of the nineteenth century it could also be used as a synonym for the word vzor, that is, one could call the organ of human sight. In the Russian-Kazakh words, only one modern meaning of this word is cited: Vzor m. 1. Karau, kozkaras, zhyz audaru; 2. often plural figurative nazar (РКС 1954: 75). As you can see, only the modern semantics of the word vzglyad is transmitted in the dictionary entry. Meanwhile, in the poetry of 72
A.S. Pushkin, there are such contexts in which Slavonic word vzor in the sense of the “organ of vision” that is, the eye. … V alleiu,pryamo pered nei Blistaya vzorami, Evgeniy Stoit podobno groznoi teni... A.S. Pushkin. Eugene Onegin
… Kettі alleige, betіn burdy. Shyga keldі karsy aldynan. Kozі zhanyp Evgeniy tur... Translated by I. Zhansugurov
... In the alley, right in front of her, Shining gaze, Eugene Standing like a formidable shadow ... Direct translation into English
Slavonic word is translated as equivalent to the semantic word koz. Translators, as a rule, are guided by the data of lexicographical sources, but “... the translation is never limited to a choice from the number of those elements that are fixed in dictionaries as a correspondence to a certain word of the original. In the practice of translation work, there are many cases when words that are not directly provided by the dictionary are used, since the dictionary is not able to foresee all the specific combinations in which the word falls and which greatly diversify its content”91. Indeed, due to its purpose and its specificity, bilingual dictionaries can not take into account purely speech contextual correspondences. Compilers of dictionaries compare only those language units that relate to the level of language and are perceived as equivalents when comparing two languages outside specific contexts. The principles of compiling bilingual words in terms of interpreting interlanguage correspondences boil down to the following: first, the equivalence of the two units is established primarily on the basis of a significant coincidence of their denotative (objective) meaning. At the same time, the right-hand side of the dictionary entry contains, as a rule, the most frequent, regularly repeated correspondences of the original unit; secondly, vocabulary equivalence, as a rule, includes the consistency of stylistic colors. In the practice of compiling bilingual (translated) dictionaries, relative stylistic equivalents are used in case the stylistic characteristic of the equivalent is already the stylistic characteristic of the transFedorov A.V. Osnovy obshhei teorii perevoda. Lingvisticheskie problemy. – M.: Vysshaja shkola, 1983. – 303 p. 91
lated word. Therefore, neutral words can be used as dictionary equivalents of stylistically marked archaisms, which convey only real, objective meaning, which are relative equivalents: oko n., pl. ochi outd. koz (RKD 1954: 75). The word koz is translated into Russian as eye. Слово көз переводится на русский язык как глаз(а). Hence, “stylistic equivalents are not always fixed in bilingual dictionaries. For example, when translating Russian words, lodka (the boat) and more (the sea) are not marked with such English poeticisms like bark and brine, and when translating an English boat, such Russian poeticisms like ladya, cheln”92. It is known that no research on artistic speech, let alone its translation into another language, can not do without attracting lexicographic sources, which ultimately leads to the need to evaluate the work of lexicographers, the success or doubtfulness of translating a lexeme at the linguistic level. Thus, the analysis of Slavonic wordss with litters “ustar.” – outdated and “poet.” – poetic in Russian-Kazakh dictionaries showed that along with successful translations, there are inconsistencies in the semantics of translated lexemes and violation of the principle of stylistic equivalence where this could be avoided. Slavonic chado is translated as bala-shaga, ui-ishi (RKD 1981: 510), that means “family”, meanwhile in the Kazakh language there is a word which conveys the semantic-stylistic originality of the word being translated, it is the Arabism perzent (child), marked in the Kazakh-Russian dictionary by the litter “knish.” – book (RKD 1987: 281). The lexicography theorists pay special attention to the problem of the expediency of including illustrations in dictionary articles, because the illustrative material plays an important role in revealing the semantics of the word, and the grammatical development of an active bilingual dictionary also depends on it. This is written by V.G. Gak: “In this case, the discrepancy between the language and speech is especially evident. As you know, the dictionary interprets the words, but people speak not in separate words, but in phrases. Therefore, a bilingual active dictionary should show the ways of including a word in the sentence. When included in the sentence, words can undergo semantic and grammatical transformation, typical manifestations of 92
Sukalenko N.I. Dvuiazychnye slovari i voprosy perevoda. – Har'kov, 1976. – P. 117.
which should be noted in the dictionary. It is useful to include in the dictionary specially selected examples that illustrate the transformation in translation” 93. As analysis of bilingual dictionaries shows, as a short illustrative context, word combinations and stable combinations of words are used. To illustrate the meaning and use of Slavonic word in the speech, phraseological units, proverbs and sayings, as well as sentences (utterances), compiled by the compilers of the word: Oko pl. outdated koz; көз; in the blink of an eye kirpik kakkansha, kozdi ashyp-zhymgansha (RKD 1981: 549). Perst m. outdated., sausak, barmak; one as the finger zhapadan zhalgyz kalu (RKD 1954: 522). Zenica f. outdated, karashyk, to be cherish kozdin karashygyndai saktau (RKD 2005: 301). Here we should pay attention to the meager representation of the illustrative material, as the most commonly used in the speech poslovitsy and sayings and there are no quotes from the works of art, if we take into account the fact that the Slavs were widely used in the works of Russian classical literature as a favorite art- pictorial means. This is probably due to the fact that the translation dictionary is not an explanatory one, therefore, its task does not include the illustration of all meanings, especially since the Russian-Kazakh dictionary is primarily a Russian-speaking user, from the position of which lexicographic parameters should be presented: grammatical, stylistic, pragmatic and semantic. In the article on translating dictionaries of Slavic languages, L.V. Kopetsky identifies two ways of illustrating the units described: “citation” and “instance”94. The citation, that is, the reduction of samples from published (artistic, journalistic, scientific) works is characteristic mainly for large, academic types of dictionaries and has the aim, first of all, to document the belonging and use of the given unit to the original language. An instance suggests the semantization of the original unit by means of examples – “pieces” of coherent text constructed by the lexicographer himself. Most often these are phrases or, more rarely, short 93
Gak V.G. Sopostavitel'naya leksikologiya. Na materiale francuzskogo i russkogo jazykov. – M.: Librokom, 2010. – P. 45. 94 Kopecki L.V. Dvuiazychny slovar' slavyanskih yazykov (na materiale russko-cheshskogo i cheshsko-russkogo slovarei) // VYa. – 1958. – kn. 3. – P. 77.
sentences, in which the lexicographic word is placed in the most characteristic, habitual for him speech environment. It was this method that used the compilers of Russian-Kazakh dictionaries of different periods for the semantification of Slavonic words as headlines. Such brief illustrations are simple, accessible and unambiguous in the interpretation of verbal signs; they lack additional and inessential details. In our opinion, the illustrative material and its translation as one of the ways of explicating the meaning of the word contribute to a deeper understanding and understanding of the functional and stylistic characteristics of the word, therefore, to understand the stylistic potential of the Slavonic words as “bearers” of cultural and historical information, it is necessary to revise the presentation of illustrative material. Thus, S.I. Vlahov identifies three functions of the illustrative material in bilingual (translated) dictionaries: 1) documenting, i.e. Identifying the existence in the source language of the unit; 2) actually illustrating, showing its place in the context, its "life" in coherent speech; 3) semantifying as part of the functions of the semantic system of the dictionary entry 95 . Thus, the study of the system of stylistic dung in bilingual (Russian-Kazakh) dictionaries made it possible to conclude that cognitive-communicative and functional-pragmatic attitudes in the interpretation of linguistic units are reflected in their stylistic markings, which, in relation to Slavs, are determined primarily by their genetic relation to the book-Slavonic type of language and their use. Thus, in modern Russian Slavs as stylistic archaisms are used in artistic speech as a means of stylization, while expressing abstract, sublime and poetic content. Linguistic translation analysis of artistic translations, implemented in this chapter, allowed us to determine the connotative-stylistic semantics of lexical units and use the language tools of the translating language to preserve the historical, cultural and semantic-stylistic originality of the original. For generalization and systematization of poetic translations, we turned to translations of poetic works by A.S. Pushkin, which is due to several reasons: first, it is in his 95
Vlahov S. Uchastie illustrativnogo materiala v semantizacii ishodnoi slovarnoi edinicy // Papers from the Euralex Third International Congress. Budapest, 1988, – P. 76.
work that the use of Slavs is rethought and they become the most “claimed” artistic and visual medium used in various stylistic functions; Secondly, the works by A.S. Pushkin over the past century (especially during the Soviet era, when there was a so-called social order) were translated by many national poets, writers and translators, which allowed to compare and compare several translations of the same work performed at different times; Third, the systematization and analysis of existing translations provides good material for the theory and practice of translation, comparative stylistics and the compilation of bilingual dictionaries, including special dictionaries for translators of fiction. Analysis of the simultaneous translations of poetic works by A.S. Pushkin showed that for the most adequate transfer of the diversity of the stylistic functions of Slavonic words were used the descriptive and synonymous modes of translation. Based on the description and analysis of the methods of semantification, the content of the illustrative material, as well as the stylistic marking of Slavonic words in Russian-Kazakh dictionaries published in different years, practical recommendations are offered for improving the dictionary entries of bilingual (translated) dictionaries. In our opinion, for full and qualitative semantisation of Slavonic words as stylistically marked archaisms, it is necessary to expand the area of illustrations of meanings of words, not limited to examples from the paremiological foundation of the Russian vocabulary. Contextual use of words reveals the semantic-stylistic features of the word translated in the bilingual dictionary, therefore it is necessary to include quotes from Russian classical works of art. Control questions and tasks: 1. Domestic literary critics about Pushkin’s translations into the Kazakh language (M.O. Auezov, Z. Kabdolov, Z. Akhmetov, S. Kyrabayev, Sh. Aleukenov, G. Belger, S. Abdrakhmanov and others). 2. M.O. Auezov’s role in the development of artistic translation in Kazakhstan and the publication of “Pushkin’s works in the Kazakh language” (in 3 volumes) in 1937. 3. List Kazakh poets and writers, who translated works by A.S. Pushkin into the Kazakh language at different times. Make a summary table with the name of the work by A.S. Pushkin, the author of the translation and the time of its implementation.
4. Formulate the main difficulties in translating the stylistically marked vocabulary of the Russian language into the Kazakh language. 5. What are the ways of translating Slavonic words and biblicalisms into the Kazakh language. Give examples. 6. The stylization of the archaic language and style of works of spiritual and religious content involves the use of Slavonic words. High and solemn words reveal the theme of human destiny and spiritual rebirth, occurring at the will of the God, the artistic image of which is created by means of comparisons, epithets and periphrases. Give examples. 7. The application of linguistic cultural realities in translation generates certain nationally-conditioned associations among readers-inophones at the level of emotional perception. Give examples. 8. In the translation practice are found many cases of preservation of historical-cultural and semantic-stylistic originality of poeticisms ochi and usta by applying a descriptive way of translating epithets, descriptive and figurative expressions, stylistic synonyms, which reflect the national-cultural specifics of the description of the eyes in a portrait characteristic. Give examples. 9. Translatability is determined by three basic semantic levels (parameters) corresponding to the three base axes as language – world – text. These levels in the phenomenological plan are thought of as relatively autonomous, but the degree of translatability on one of them affects the translatability on the other. Define a translation strategy of Pushkin’s works into the Kazakh language, which forms translationality at one level or another. 10. When translating Slavonic words into other languages it is necessary to realize that their functioning is connected with the reproduction of the era in which the author lived. Therefore, the translator is not only the interpreter of the semantic volume of translated original work, but also becomes an active interpreter of its national-cultural and functional-stylistic specifics. Argument this thesis. 11. Intercultural analysis of translations of Slavonic words as an equivalent vocabulary allows finding out their contextual equivalents as a result of creative and a search work of an artistic text translator. Contextual equivalents, which can not be interchanged in an interlanguage plan, explain historical and cultural information, concluded in the semantics of Slavonic words and disclose the semantic-stylistic features of Slavonic words in artistic translations. Give examples. 12. When semantizing Slavonic words in bilingual (translated) dictionaries widely used a synonymous way, in which the lexical meaning is conveyed through the ratio of the word being interpreted to other words. Explication of Slavonic words meaning using a list of possible synonyms allows us to fully reveal the stylistic differentiation and syntagmatic connections of the word. Give examples.
1. Author’s element in the structure of the text. The dialogic nature of memoirs and diary entries about Pushkin and the historical epoch (A. Kern, D. Fikelmon) 1. The rich spiritual life of the author of “Memoirs” and letters-diaries. A.P. Kern’s literary predilections 2. “Poetic pleasure”, “charm with poetry”. Trigorskoye, summer 1825. Followup meetings with the poet. 3. A.P. Kern’ uniqueness and identity of the personality – the premise of her sincere and friendly communication with A.S. Pushkin. 4. Real, alive Pushkin in A.P. Kern’s “Memoirs”. Laconic portraits of A. Mickiewich, A. Delvig, M. Glinka. 5. A.P. Kern’s peculiarity of the style. The influence of writers of sentimental direction. 2. The style peculiarity of research books by N.A. Raevsky about Pushkin 1. Orientation to the memoir literature on Pushkin (A.P. Kern, P.A. Annenkov). 2. Difference from the memoirs of A.K. Kern, in which persisted sequence, chronology, proximity to historical prose, scientific biography, documentary-historical essay. 3. The dialogical nature of memoir creativity (N.A. Raevsky). 4. Determining the role of women, which Pushkin admired, in his work and destiny is the distinguishing feature of books by N.A. Raevsky. 5. The multilevel perception of the books by NA Raevsky, due to the cultural context and level of the reader. 3. History of the duel in the records of his contemporaries (A.P. Kern, D. Fikelmon, P. Vyazemsky and others) 1. The value of a true historical document, subjectivism, some idealization of the past and at the same time a reliable, objective picture of the life of the Russian intelligentsia of the 1920s and 1930s, and recognized head was A.S. Pushkin – “Memoirs” by A.P. Kern. 2. The restrained tone, the clear handwriting of D. Fikelmon in the pages of her “Diary” is the characteristic features of the book poetics. 3. Reliability of first-hand information (about the duel and the death of the poet D. Fikelmon wrote from the words of Zhukovsky). 4. A much more hostile attitude of D. Fikelmon to Dantes
4. Author, evolving in time (memoirs, letters, diaries). L. Yeniseev-Varshavskaya, R. Artemyeva, N. Babusenkova about N. Raevsky 1. Biographical data on childhood and youth of N. Raevsky in essays by L. Yeniseev-Varshavskaya “Pushkin, and nothing but Pushkin”, and others. 2. The spiritual connection of N. Raevsky with Pushkin’s time (on the pages of publications L. Yeniseev-Varshavskaya). 3. New in the memoirs of M. Kushnikova about N.A. Raevsky (the almanac “Voices of Siberia”, Kemerovo). 4. The role of N. Babusenkova and her personal contribution to the publication of books by N.A. Rayevsky. 5. Artemyeva R. “Raevsky – Pushkin – Alma-Ata”, etc. 5. The cultural context of S. Abramovich’s books “Prehistory of the last duel of Pushkin” and R. Skrynnikov “Pushkin. The Mystery of Doom” 1. R. Skrynnikov, source-researcher and textualist: three duels of Pushkin. 2. Dark spots of the duel: “None of the poet's friends prevented the approaching duel, many knew about this” (R. Skrynnikov). 3. Scientific, consistent style, the accuracy of the formulation of R. Skrynnikov-researcher. 4. The desire to avoid sensationalism is a distinctive feature of S. Abramovich’s books. 6. N. Rayevsky and Dm. Snegin’s life and fate in retrospectives Vl. Vladimirov (on the pages of Vladimir Vladimirov’s book “Dm. Snegin: His Love, Memory and the Word”) and in the essay by E. Brusilovskaya “Strange convergences of Dm. Sneghin” 1. Lyrical and associative narrative in “Strange convergences, or around Mikhailovskoe” by Dm. Snegin. 2. The unquenchable candle of Pushkinэs words is the leitmotif of the book of Dm. Snegin. 3. Pushkin by Dm. Snegin: love of life in all its manifestations. 4. Kazakhstan and Raevsky (Vladimir Vladimirov “Dm. Snegin: His Love, Memory and the Word”). 5. Koranic motifs in A.S. Pushkin and Dm. Snegin’s life. 7. K. Shangitbayev, I. Dzhansugurov, K. Sadykov and other figures of literature and culture are masters of the artistic translation of Pushkin’s words 1. M.O. Auezov’s role in the development of artistic translation in Kazakhstan and the publication of “AS. Pushkin’s products in the Kazakh language” (in 3 volumes) in 1937. 2. Translations of the novel in verse “Eugene Onegin” by А.С. Pushkin’s in the Kazakh language by K. Shangitbayev (1949, 1985). 3. A.S. Pushkin’s “Gavriliada” translated into Kazakh by I. Jansugurov – “bright, dynamic, crafty, fervent, playful, ironic poetic text” (G. Belger). 4. At the origins of Pushkin’s poetic translation into the Kazakh language (G. Belger about I. Jansugurov).
5. Say about K. Sadykov’s contribution to the translation into Kazakh of the poetic works by A.S. Pushkin (“Eugene Onegin”, etc.). 8. Domestic literary critics of Pushkin’s translations into the Kazakh language (M.O. Auezov, Z. Kabdolov, Z. Akhmetov, S. Kyrabayev, Sh. Aleukenov, G. Belger, S. Abdrakhmanov, etc.) 1. M.O. Auezov “On the experience of translation of Pushkin into the Kazakh language”, “Russian classics and Abai”, “On the Kazakh translation of “Eugene Onegin”. 2. “...The poet himself began to soar on the wings of inspiration, was at the peak of poetry, set in motion the inner creative springs. He rose much higher than the poetic level, which Kazakh literature had reached before him. The poem, which is a unique example of all world literature, introduces its own unique, only inherent sounding in the multi-voiced, magical-lyrical symphony of classical poetry” (Z. Kabdolov). 3. Z. Akhmetov “Abaidy akyndyk alemi” and others. 4. S. Kyrabayev “On the translation of Pushkin’s works”, etc. 5. Sh. Eleukenov “Pushkin and the epistolary novel by Abai”, etc. 6. Belger G. “Studies on the translations by I. Jansugurov”, “The giants of the spirit. Goethe-Pushkin-Abai” and others. 7. Abdrakhmanov S. “Our Pushkin”, “The Koran and Pushkin”, “... I went to Uralsk”, etc. 9. Uralsk literary (N. Scherbanov “I went to Uralsk...” A.S. Pushkin and Priuralye”, S. Abdrakhmanov “...I went to Uralsk”, G. Doronin “On the Pushkin’s road”, etc.) 1. “The Uralsk sources fruitfully nourished the great Russian literature” (N. Scherbanov). 2. “Death prevented the poet from writing anything on the plot of the famous steppe epos. What could it be? Poem? Tragedy? Perhaps the work would stand in a series of creations, which we used to call “Little Tragedies” (N. Scherbanov 3. It is a very important question about Pushkin’s attitude to the history (S. Abdrahmanov). 4. One facet of the main topics is Pushkin’s records about the peasant uprising led by Emelian Pugachev in the study of S. Abdrakhmanov, “...I went to Uralsk”. 5. On Pushkin’s road – “This is not necessarily only in Pushkin’s place. Pushkin’s road wherever his poems are read (G. Doronin). 10. Pushkin and Kazakh literature. The index “Study of the heritage of A.S. Pushkin in literary criticism of Kazakhstan” (compiled by A. Kaliaskarova) 1. The value of the research book “... I went to Uralsk” by S. Abdrakhmanov is that the author not only follows Pushkin in Uralsk, but also restores the chronology of the two September days, held in this city. 2. Interest in the life of the Kazakh people is reflected in the second chapter of “History of Pugachev” by A.S. Pushkin, in quoting Nuraly Khan’s letter to the Orenburg governor about Pugachev’s uprising.
3. Zhaysai Akbai “Kazakh Pushkinianaa”: unknown facts. 4. The index “Study of the heritage of A.S. Pushkin in literary criticism of Kazakhstan” (compiled by A. Kaliaskarova) is the most complete collection of scientific articles, works of art and works on the study of Pushkin’s creativity in Kazakhstan. 11. “Pushkin’s Notebook” by K. Keshin: commented reading 1. A living style of narration, devoid of a touch of academicity and complex literary terms, “Pushkin’s Notebook” by K. Keshin. 2. In “Mozart and Salieri” slips Pushkin’s life and death (K. Keshin). 3. Persecuted exile, in the opinion of K. Keshin, has such merits, as courage, disdain for any dangers, respectful, careful attitude to a beloved woman, a unique talent of love passion and an extraordinary gift of speech. 4. Essay “The Black Sun of the Plague” precedes the statement by V. Bursov: “What a cherished thought of Pushkin invested in “Feast during the plague”, in one of his best creations? It’s not so simple, it's even impossible to formulate it precisely”. 5. For every challenge of fate Dong Guan answers with dignity. Pushkin, in the opinion of N.N. Skatov, “accomplished in his work the whole conceivable human cycle... Wise Pushkin did not rule out for man, for himself any outcome of fate, no its continuations, no its endings. He presented the most diverse: optimistic, tragic, calm, dramatic denouements. But death is not excluded... at once, suddenly, every and every moment – a person should be ready. Wise Pushkin is ready”. 12. The theme of Muse in the poetic heritage of the poet (V. Nepomnyashchiy, M. Kuzin, E. Guslyarov) 1. Documentary composition by E. Guslyarov. “And life, and tears, and love...”. “Anna Kern’s biography” is a reconstruction of the soul” (N. Raevsky). 2. The muse accompanied the poet all his life. Her face could change, but the phenomenon in the poet's work was unique: “Women’s self-portraits”. 3. V. Nepomnyashchiy: the mystery (the creative gift) is the most important for Pushkin. 4. Readers will understand, “That Pushkin lived and did not work BECAUSE, but – DESPITE. Over and over again, he was squeezed by material problems, but they did not break him, they mobilized him to create new masterpieces, gave a good motivation for creativity” (M. Kuzin). 5. The themes of the Muse, home, family, happiness, grace, honor and homeland are inseparable in Pushkin’s heritage (V. Nepomnyashchiy). 13. Poet and Tsar (novel-essays by K. Gaivoronsky “Talk to me about yourself” and “Between Scylla and Charybdis”) 1. K. Gayvoronsky suggests that the 10th chapter of “Eugene Onegin” was not burned on October 19, in 1830, as written by Pushkin in the margin of the manuscript “Blizzard”, but in 1832, perhaps in September. 2. “The duel is just a brief epilogue of the creative drama, raging in his soul” (K. Gayvoronsky). 3. “Genius breaks the time. Therefore, he gets tired before others” (K. Gayvoronsky).
4. K. Gayvoronsky makes an attempt on the basis of evidence of historians (N.K. Schilder and others), themselves participants in those historical events (Benckendorff, A.O. Smirnova-Rosset, etc.), correspondence (Benckendorff with Uvarova et al.), to establish a more accurate picture of what is happening. 5. K. Gayvoronsky calls into question the statements of literary critics (in particular B.S. Meilakh) on the influence of members of secret societies on Pushkin, that he belongs to the authorship of the word “Decembrists”. Among the future Decembrists Pushkin had, in the opinion of K. Gayvoronsky, only two friends: Pushchin and Kiichelbecker, the rest were acquaintances. Referring to Vyazemsky’s opinion, K. Gayvoronsky sums up: consideration and calculation, but not the desire to save Pushkin dominated the relationship of the Decembrists to Pushkin. 14. Modern Pushkin studies as a separate branch of science in Italy (S. Vitale), Georgia (I. Modebadze), Russia (V. Nepomnyashchiy, N. Skatov, P. Palievsky, I. Simacheva, etc.), Kazakhstan (G. Belger, W. Aleukenov, S. Abdrakhmanov, K. Salykov, N. Scherbanov, and others). 1. Italian researcher S. Vitale found a letter from ‘Mari’ (perhaps the name Natalie thought of herself, since she knew that Bulgakov, the director of the postal department, was always on the alert). The letter is dated June 10, 1845. But was not it 1844? 2. I. Modebadze: “What is our life? The game!” A. Pushkin. 3. Russian school of Pushkin studies (XIX – XX centuries). 4. Contemporary Russian literary criticism about Pushkin (V. Nepomnyashchy, N. Skatov, P. Palievsky, I. Simacheva, etc.). 5. Pushkin in Kazakhstan.
1 block 1. Pushkin and his era in the memoirs of Russia and Kazakhstan the turn of the XX-XXI centuries. 2. The mystery of doom and the history of Pushkin’s duel: new documentation. 3. Pushkin and the Decembrists (K. Gayvoronsky “Between Scylla and Charybdis”). 4. Darya Fikelmon and Alexander Pushkin (on pages of diary entries of contemporaries). 5. The problem of artistic time and its embodiment in the development of the plot of “The Queen of Spades” by A.S. Pushkin. 6. “Small tragedies” by A.S. Pushkin: pair combination of incongruous, the expansion of the tragic space of drama, “The space of death, whose face is brighter and brighter” (L. Demchenko). 7. The arrival of the Stone Guest is a punishment “for the past of the hero, for his sudden and belated rebirth, for the absence of fear to perish for the sake of meeting with Donna Anna” (K. Keshin). 8. The richness of the themes of Pushkin’s lyrics and sources of inspiration, a whole range of shades in the field of genres, imagery, style, what “corresponds to the polyphony of harmonies, wafting echoes of a wide variety of beliefs, customs, and religions” (E. Loginovskaya, Bucharest). 9. “The Stone Guest” by A.S. Pushkin is the most autobiographical of the “Little tragedies”. 10. In the history of the literature, letters of A.P. Kern to A.S. Pushkin, “there should be an outstanding place… These letters could explain a special kind of spiritual feat of a woman, which can inspire a man to uniquely high words... In the diaries, which A.P. Kern wrote many years later, left a lot of warmth, almost the initial acuity of feeling. They are also good, that allow to judge about that atmosphere, which were prepared and in which were born great poems about love…” (E. Guslyarov). 11. Documentary composition by E. Guslyarov “And life, and tears, and love…” Anna Kern’s biography is “...a reconstruction of the soul. Fleeting encounter had an outstanding significance for the poet and was a merciful gift of fate, adorned and facilitated the time of exile and painful meditation, associated with it” (N.A. Raevsky).
12. Careful handling A.P. Kern’s letters, notes by A.V. Markov-Vinogradsky is a distinguishing feature of V.Sysoev’s book “Anna Kern. Life in the name of love”. 13. N. Rayevsky refutes the rumors that in the castle Friesengof Natalia Nikolaevna met with Dantes. Thus, he does not agree with A. Akhmatova’s opinion of about the likelihood of such a meeting, because she could not read Alexandra Goncharova’s diary. How these discoveries are reflected in the book by N.A. Raevsky “Portraits began to talk”? 14. Family of Khitrovo-Fikel’mon and the friendship of its representatives with Pushkin: new documents, new horizons of searches, new questions. 15. Tell us about the central essay of N.A. Raevsky in a book “Portraits began to talk” – an essay “D.F. Fikel’mon in Pushkin’s life and works”.
2 block 1. Pushkinianaa of Kazakhstan of the 21st Century: a New and Prospective. 2. Pushkin and Abai: translations, consonances, context. 3. Pushkin in Kazakhstan. To the 210th anniversary of his birth. 4. I. Bocharov, Yu. Glushakova “The Venetian Pushkinianaa”. 5. N.A. Raevsky about D. Fikel’mon’s “Diary”: “The more you read into it, the clearer you feel, that this is not a “Journal intime”, as the French say, but a long series of mostly sincere, but always well-considered records. A wicket in her spiritual garden, Dolly Fikel’mon only lets up”. 6. “Two clever, deep, versatile people were still very different people and did not understand each other until the end... In addition, it seems to me that “love affair”, a kind of “balancing on the verge of love,” by its very nature, can not last for long. Either it turns into love, or becomes just a friendship” (N.A. Raevsky about D. Fikelmon and A.S. Pushkin). 7. The main value of the record in the “Diary” is an excellent analysis “of the relationship between Pushkin, Natalia Nikolaevna and Dantes during the development of the drama – the countess here is an immediate observer” (N.A. Raevsky). 8. “Countess Dolly appreciated the ability to talk in people and, in particular, the ability to speak simply and entertaining. It is felt that Pushkin’s ability, shining his brilliant wit and mind, especially admired the young woman. And in the Countess Dolly, he sees an exceptionally clever, brilliant companion, not to mention her ability to charm and rare beauty” (N. Raevsky’s commentary in the book “Portraits began to talk”). 9. In the second edition of N.A. Raevsky’s book “Portraits began to talk” (1976) N.N. Goncharova’s personality is highlighted in more detail since by this time new materials were discovered, mainly epistolary, which became foreword to N. Raevsky’s book, and not according to the principle of “high lies” but from the desire for true historical truth”. 10. Turkisms in A.S. Pushkin’s works “brighter reveal their amazing property, called the researchers of the great poet's work “universal responsiveness”, the richness of the language, the reality of the depicted environment” (S. Abdrakhmanov).
11. “The white wall of the blizzard took the travelers in their arms also firmly and reliably, as a mother takes her child "(M. Kuzin “Hello, Pushkin”). Uncover the general and special in the reconstruction of the winter steppe snowstorm and blizzards in “Snowstorm” and “Captain’s daughter” by A.S. Pushkin and in the novel “Hello, Pushkin” by M. Kuzin. 12. The alternation of indirect speech and internal monologues of heroes with descriptions is a characteristic feature of M. Kuzin’s style, based on diary entries, letters, and memoirs of contemporaries and the poet himself reconstructing Pushkin’s time in the story “Hello, Pushkin”. 13. G. Belger about Khristin Regin, AS. Pushkin’s great-grandmother. 14. E. Guslyarov about the duel of A.S. Pushkin and Dantes. 15. N.V. Izmailov is a Pushkinist.
3 block 1. The author’s problem and the reception of autobiography in the memoirs on Pushkin. 2. Pushkin and the traditions of recreating the history of Oriental culture in contemporary Kazakhstan’s prose. 3. Pushkin and Uralsk: challenges for the future (R. Batyrbekova “From the History of Literary Relations”). 4. Pushkin in Memoir Literature: A New View from the 21st Century. 5. Biography of the writer as a genre (N. Raevsky “Portraits began to speak”). 6. Slitty image of the author and the hero is a distinctive feature of the lyrics by A.S. Pushkin (O. Grigorieva). 7. Expand the Pushkin’s theme in the work of contemporary Kazakhstan’s poets (O. Suleimenov, V. Mikhailov, E. Kurdakov, B. Kanapyanov, and others). 8. Bibliographic index “Study of Pushkin’s heritage in literary criticism of Kazakhstan” (compiled by A.T. Kaliaskarova – Almaty, 2010) – the most complete collection of scientific articles, works of art and works on the study of Pushkin’s heritage in Kazakhstan. 9. Genre of prose work “The Star of Mary” by N. Chernova defined by the author as a fantasy about Pushkin: “This must be true, because historians, literary critics, philosophers, philosophers,and it is good that it is unsuccessful, leaving each of us to touch the incomprehensible, a space for fantasies”. Justify your agreement with the author or an excellent point of view. 10. How right is V. Berdennikov, confident in that, “it is in Pushkin’s religious feeling, in fact, hat he made the Gospel his reference book and almost never departed from Christ’s predestination, and there is a key to all his creativity. 11. Shakespeare and Pushkin (K. Keshin, O. Jost, etc.). 12. Pushkin in modern lyric of Kazakhstan (N. Chernova, L. Shashkova, R. Artemieva, E. Seifert etc.). 13. “Could it be that the little tragedy “Mozart and Salieri” is written precisely on the “life material” of Pushkin’s relations with Chaadaev? This is all the more likely, that the rest of the “Little Tragedies” are also largely written on a biographi-
cal basis: for example, the conflict with his father was reflected in the “Miserly Knight”, “Feast during the plague” is all the more easy to read – in 1830 the plague hit Russia, and “Stone Guest” is not a secret, that in his list of favorite women Pushkin inscribed, if not 130 names, like Don Juan, then not only the name of Natalia Goncharova...” (L. Kotorcha, Bucharest). Your point of view. 14. Do you agree with O. Vidova: “By” concealed “love is meant the ideal, which was formed in Pushkin under the influence of royally beautiful persons: Empress Elizabeth Alexeevna, Alexandra Feodorovna, Princess Evdokia Ivanovna Golitsyna, maid of honor Catherine Pavlovna Bakunin, who illuminated the heavenly light of the imagination of the young poet. Natalia Nikolaevna appeared in Pushkin’s life as a kind of his materialization” (O.I. Vidova “Souls is an unclear ideal...” The ideal of A.S. Pushkin and the problem of the poet’s “secret” love in Pushkin studies”). 15. In the novel in verse “Eugene Onegin” Alexander Pushkin reveals to the reader, what happens in the inner world of the Poet, if he is afraid of losing himself as a poet, – reveals the conflict, personified in the artistic consciousness of Pushkin with the images of Onegin, Lensky, Tatiana)” Onegin is a prosaic hypostasis. Lensky is the romantic soul of Pushkin. Tatyana personifies Pushkin’s Muse (S. Kolchigin). 16. The muse accompanied the poet all his life. Her face could change, but the phenomenon in the poet’s work was unique: “women’s self-portraits”. Muse – “living, real, not emblematic and not abstract-conceptual. And at all the time is changing. That one woman, then another; when he writes – he is not alone. And “the old man Derzhavin” noticed not “me”, but “we are noticed” / And, in the coffin coming down, he blessed…” In general, it is not always clear who is “more important” – he or she, who manages whom” (V. Nepomnyashchiy). 17. Contemporaries of the poet tried to define the feelings of the poet to A.P. Kern: “Annenkov calls Pushkin’s feeling “an instant impulse”; but this impulse was extremely strong, bright and reached ecstasy, to rabies, shimmering with all shades of feeling – from gentle sentimentality to ebullient passion” (L. Modzalevsky). 18. So, as between A.P. Kern and A.S. Pushkin “nothing can ever happen again-neither Mikhail’s loneliness in a dying autumn village dying with nature, nor the loneliness of the mind and imagination equal to death, nor a passion like the vapors of spring water rending all. It is important this life itself, lived from the first to the last breathe, its fullness, its divine beauty, no matter what colors and tones may be taken by the creator for the accomplished miracle. Exclusiveness, which only great literature can breathe, is what this book is devoted to "(G.N. Vasilevich about V. Sysoev’s book “Anna Kern, Life for the Love”). 19. N. Rayevsky scrupulously counts: “full-time” acquaintance D. Fikelmon and A.S. Pushkin continued... a little over four years, and correspondence (with very large interruptions) – 22 years. Unlike letters, dates in which are accurately and accurately put, scraps contain only an indication of the day of the week, less often – the number and month. The researcher outlines the main topics and extracts the most significant. The countess in the correspondence is sincere, she demonstrates an unusually deep and intimate friendship, from which not far from love. But later only the friendly relations between them remained. Confirm this conclusion with quotations from “Portraits began to speak” by N.A. Raevsky.
20. “A small letter from Pushkin to the Countess Fikel’mon is a wonderful example of his French epistolary prose. It is written in an extremely refined language and hardly without a rough copy – It seems to me that the first-class French stylist would not forge such a phrase. Shades of French speech Pushkin, as usual, is masterful. I will give just one example. Speaking of the courtesy of the Countess, the poet uses the expression “vos graces si simples” instead of the banal word “amabilite” and thus introduces an indescribable Russian touch of gracious courtesy, a kind of indulgence of a high-ranking person...” (From a letter to N.A. Raevsky, director of the Pushkin House). 21. On the close acquaintance and friendship of Pushkin with D. Fikel’mon testifies the following quotation from the letter: “Would you allow me to tell you, Countess, that your reproaches are as unfair as your letter is charming. Believe me, I will always remain the most sincere admirer of your courtesy, your conversation so affable and fascinating, although you have the misfortune of being the most brilliant of our noble ladies. “Very valuable and direct feedback about D. Fikelmon as the most brilliant of the ladies of her circle. Rayevsky believes, and we share his point of view that in letters to contemporaries Pushkin is always extraordinarily gracious (this feature of his style is vividly demonstrated by correspondence with A.P. Kern). But the letter to D. Fikelmon “stands out with a special refinement of expressions”. How much sincerity and how much game is difficult to establish in it. 22. The value of the research book “... I went to Uralsk” by S. Abdrakhmanov is that the author not only follows Pushkin following Uralsk, but also restores the chronology of the two September days, held in this city a great poet. On September 21, the poet leaves the Nizhneozerskaya fortress and arrives in Uralsk by the evening, breaking 165 versts a day, which in itself is not an easy task. The chief of the Cossack army Colonel V.O. Pokatilov meets the poet and arranges in the house nakaznyh atamans. 23. Confirmation of hypotheses made by N.A. Raevsky in modern books. In Serena Vitale’s book “Pushkin in the West” characters of an old drama come to life. Dantes is the old man, “Mentally examining a tangle of distant memories, admitted: “She was so unlike other women!” I possessed all women, except for the one about which the whole world thought that it belonged to me, and which, due to malicious irony, was my only love”. 24. V. Yakhno “Testimony of a secret witness”. 25. E. Guslyarov goes in the book “And life, and tears, and love...”. The life story of Anna Kern “in a peculiar way, suggesting that the reader himself ponder over the huge amount of facts he has collected, skilfully grouped, but" in most cases does not express his judgments and conclusions. The reader, following the author, “will feel with satisfaction that he himself is in some way co-author of the image of Anna Kern recreated here” (N.A. Raevsky). 26. The book by E. Guslyarov “And life, and tears, and love...”. “Biography of Anna Kern “is a chain of documents and testimonies of contemporaries, lined up in a certain sequence, almost without comment. This allows us to restore the spirit of the era with exceptional accuracy, comprehensively and equally accurately reproduce the real relationships, appearance and true life of many people who left a bright mark in the history of Russian culture” (N.A. Raevsky about the genre of the book).
27. “The ability to clearly concretize your goal, the ability to feel responsible for the performance of the task and the ability to dispose of their time” (R. Artemyev about N.A. Raevsky). 28. “The mystery of the geniuses of the two poets does not cease and will never cease to attract the attention of people around the world. Creativity of both Pushkin and Abai develop and move with life. They exist in the present, but belong to the future” (R. Seisenbaev about Pushkin and Abay). 29. Koranic motives in the work by A.S. Pushkin. 30. “We all came from Pushkin, as if someone did not call himself: a realist, romanticist, symbolist, modernist, postmodernist or post-conceptualist. Pushkin is able to reconcile the most irreconcilable poets, divide the most diverse literary trends into one, based on such principles of art as clarity of image, beauty, thought. And in the first place – life” (Yu. Sapozhkov).
№ Themes for SSW 1- Memoir literature about Pushkin 2 (A.P. Kern, P.E. Shchegolev, D. Fikelmon, N.A. Raevsky, etc.) 3 The traveling of the hero-author (N.A. Raevsky) and the author of the diary on Pushkin’s epoch (D. Fikelmon): author’s position, orientation on sincerity, confessional motives, disclosure of historical context, reader-co-author, etc. 4 Multi-level perception of books N.A. Raevsky, the author translated from French documents, letters from Alexander I, the introduction into scientific circulation of new materials that enriched the world Pushkinianaa 5 New about the history of the duel in the works of Kazakhstan and foreign researchers (N.A. Raevsky, A. Tertz, E. Guslyarov, S. Vitale V. Yakhno, etc.). Assumptions and hypotheses. 6 “365 days-pages, filled with light and the image of the poet” Synthesis of Pushkin’s lines and days of the calendar as a distinctive feature of the memorable calendar. 200th Anniversary of the Birth of A.S. Pushkin” (Compiled by T. Frolovskaya). 7 Kazakh poems based on works by A.S. Pushkin (Abai, Shakarim) and artistic translations of poems, novels, novels and poems by A.S. Pushkin to the Kazakh language (Alekkenov Sh.R. “Pushkin and the epistolary novel of Abai”, etc.)
Type and form of control Colloquium
Comparative analysis of concepts and 3 books D. Fikelmon “Diary” and N. Raevsky “Portraits began to speak”
In the process of analyzing texts to 3 reveal the features and uniqueness of N.A. Raevsky “When portraits speak” and “Portraits began to speak”, the author’s contribution to the world Pushkin Conduct literary studies 3 analysis of the works of these authors, to reveal a new in the history of the duel A scientific essay on a Kazakhstan’s 3 publication with a detailed plan and analysis of the structure (diary entries, quotations, letters, etc.)
Oral response with substantiation of originality and distinctive features of the original and the translated work
I. Zhansugurov’s rich language palette, skill, relaxedness, freedom of the translator (on the pages of G. Belger’s research)
Scientific essay and comparative 2 analysis of the text of poems (original and translated) and the book by G. Belger “Etudes on I. Jansugurov’s translations”
“The poet Boldin Autumn has started in Uralsk”. Uralsk pages in the work by A.S. Pushkin (N. Scherbanov, S. Abdrakhmanov, Zhasai Akbai, G. Doronin, M. Kuzin)
A conversation about the peculiarity of revealing Pushkin’s image by Kazakh researchers and writers (M. Kuzin “Hello, Pushkin”)
10 Koran and Pushkin (Dmytro Snegin “Strange convergence or Around Mikhailovsky, by S. Abdrakhmanov, “Koran and Pushkin”)
Abstract of articles on the subject of independent work, a literary analysis of S. Abdrakhmanov’s monograph “Koran and Pushkin”
11 A new reading of “Little Tragedies” by The plan for organizing and A.S. Pushkin was Romanian conducting an on-line seminar (L. Kotorcha, E. Loginovskaya), Russian (M. Kushnikova and others) and Kazakh scientists and writers (E. Dzhilkibaev, O. Iost, K. Keshin, etc.)
12 Domestic poetic Pushkiniana (P. Vasiliev, E. Kurdakov, V. Gundarev, V. Mikhailov, L. Shashkova, N. Chernova) in the context of the Russian (E. Zeifert), Belarusian (Y. Sapozhkov), etc.
Literary analysis of 1-2 works of contemporary poets of Kazakhstan
13 Modern Kazakhstan Pushkinianaa: hypotheses and discoveries. K. Gayvoronsky, O. Iost, O. Vidova (the theme of “secret love”) 14 Modern Pushkin studies as a separate branch of science in Italy (S. Vitale), Georgia (I. Modebadze), Russia (V. Nepomnyashchiy, N. Skatov, P. Palievsky, I. Simacheva, etc.), Kazakhstan (G. Belger, W. Aleukenov, S. Abdrakhmanov, K. Salykov, N. Scherbanov, and others).
Structural and semantic analysis of essays and scientific publications
The essay on the originality of 2 scientific literary schools in the world in the field of Pushkin studies
Module of SSW Module 5
The project component of the training course
Research step 1: selection of an object for a scientific project; substantiation of the topic, definition of the decision algorithm Research step 2: selection of techniques for problem research; work on the algorithm for the interpretation of artistic text Research step 3: development of the presentation of the results of the training project Research Step 4: Protecting the Learning Project Research step 5: interpretation of research results in the form of a scientific essay and a scientific article
2 3 4 5
3 15 5 2 15
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22. Shananova R.A. Problemy perevoda poezii A.S. Pushkina na kazahskiy yazyk (na primere poem): diss. Candidate of Philology. – Alma-Ata, 1989. – 246 p. 23. Abaidel’dinov E.M. Problema vossozdaniya proizvedeniy I.S. Turgeneva na kazahskiy yazyk: diss. Candidate of Philology. – Alma-Ata, 1991. – 158 p. 24. Моdebadze I. A.S. Pushkin // Lomidze G., Megrelishvili T., Modebadze I. Sud’bonosnye biografii, HIH vek. – Tbilisi: Mcignobari, 2011. – Pp. 51–71. 25. Karpukhin O.I. N.A.Raevsky kak pisatel’ russkogo zarubezh’ya // Materialy Mezhdunarodnogo simpoziuma «Russkaya literatura v mirovom kontekste». K 200-letiu so dnya rozhdeniya N.V. Gogolya. – Ust’-Kamenogorsk, 2009. – Pp. 162–169. 26. Paliyevsky P.V. Russkie klassiki. Opyt obshhei harakteristiki. – M.: Hud. literatura, 1987. – 239 p. 27. Sysyoev V.I. Anna Kern. Zhizn’ vo imya lubvi. – M.: Molodaya gvardiya, 2009. – 287 p. 28. Vacuro V.Ye. Pushkin v soznanii sovremennikov // A.S. Pushkin v vospominaniyah sovremennikov: V 2-h t. – T. 1. – M.: Hud. literatura, 1985. – Pp. 5–28. 29. Schegolev P. Ocherki o Pushkine. – M.: Zaharov, 2006. – 430 p. 30. Petrakov N. Cenzurirovanniy pushkinist // Literaturnaya gazeta, 2–8 August 2006. – P. 6. 31. Kurdakov E. Pushkinskiy dvorik. – Prostor, 2003. – №2. 32. Iost O.A. “Evgeniy Onegin” A.S. Pushkina (opyt mirovozzrencheskogo kommentariya). – Pavlodar: PGPI, 2009. – 124 p. 33. Kurpyakova N.P. Sovremennaya kazahstanskaya pushkinistika v sredstvah мassovoi informacii // Pushkin – Abai i kazahskaya literatura. – A.: Unique Service, 2006. – Pp. 349-357. 34. Gayvoronsky K. Pogovori mne o sebe. – A.: Gylym, 1998. 35. Vidova O.I. A.S. Pushkin i russkiy Renessans. – M.: Drofa, 2004. – 208 p. 36. Chernova N. Zvezda Marii (fantazii o Pushkine) // Chernova N. Nebesniy dom. – A., 2006. – Pp. 238-318. 37. Voenniy sud prigovoril Pushkina k povesheniu // Izvestiya. – 4 aprelya 2008. – P. 9. 38. Ananieva S.V. Pushkin: istoriya dueli // Studii de slavistic. Nr.12, ditura Universiteti «Alexandru Ion Cuza», Iasi, 2008. – Pp. 51–60.
FOREWORD ............................................................................................. 3 Section 1. PUSHKINIANA OF KAZAKHSTAN AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE MODERN WORLD PUSHKINIANA ........................................................................................ 5 1.1. Pushkiniana of Kazakhstan as a direction of domestic philological science: historiography and the current state of the issue....... 5 1.2. A.S. Pushkin’s poetry as an object of literary translation ................... 12 1.3. The Bible and the Koran in A.S. Pushkin’s word: translation transformations......................................................................... 18 Section 2. PUSHKINIANA OF KAZAKHSTAN IN THE CONTEXT OF LITERARY TRANSLATION ................................. 31 2.1. Historical, cultural and semantic-stylistic originality of A.S. Pushkin’s work translations .......................................................... 31 2.2. Ochi (eyes) and usta (mouth) in A.S. Pushkin’s poetry: translatability through the prism of language and culture .......................... 46 2.3. Historical and cultural information in words without pleophony and ways of recreating it in A.S. Pushkin’s work translations .................. 55 2.4. The role of bilingual (translated) dictionaries in the translation process ............................................................................ 67 THEMATIC CONTENT OF PRACTICAL EXERCISES ........................ 79 EXAMINATION QUESTIONS FOR THE COURSE “MODERN PUSHKINIANA: NEW RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY” ............................................................................. 84 ASSIGNMENTS FOR SELF STUDY WORK ......................................... 90 REFERENCES .......................................................................................... 93
Kiynova Zhаnar Orynkhanova Gibadat PUSHKINIANA OF KAZAKHSTAN Educational manual
Typesetting and cover design G. Кaliyeva Cover design used photos from sites www.art-2026066_1280.com
IB №12233 Signed for publishing 06.09.2018. Format 60x84 1/16. Offset paper. Digital printing. Volume 6 printer’s sheet. 100 copies. Order №5673. Publishing house «Qazaq University» Al-Farabi Kazakh National University KazNU, 71 Al-Farabi, 050040, Almaty Printed in the printing office of the «Qazaq University» publishing house.