Prairie Liberalism: The Liberal Party in Saskatchewn 1905–71 9781487574888

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PRAIRIE LIBERALISM: THE LIBERAL PARTY IN SASKATCHEWAN 1905-71

CANADIAN GOVERNMENT SERIES

General Editors R. MACG. DAWSON, 1946-58 / J.A . CORRY, C.B . MACPHERSON, 1961-75 / S.J.R. NOEL, l 2

1958-61 1975-

Democratic Government and Politics. J.A. CORRY and J.E . HODGETTS The Government of Canada . R. MACGREGOR DAWSON; revised by NORMAN WARD

3 Constitutional Amendment in Canada. PAUL GERIN·LAJOIE 4 The Canadian House of Commons : Representation. NORMAN WARD 5 The Government of Prince Edward Island. FRANK MACKINNON 6 Canadian Municipal Government. KENNETH GRANT CRAWFORD 7 Pioneer Public Service: An Administrative History of the United Canadas , 1841-1867. J . E.·HODGETTS 8 The Government of Nova Scotia . J. MURRAY BECK 9 The Office of Lieutenant-Governor. JOHN T. SAYWELL IO Politics in New Brunswick. HUGH G. THORBURN 11 The Public Purse. NORMAN WARD 12 Procedure in the Canadian House of Commons. W . F . DAWSON 13 The Canadian General Election of 1957. JOHN MEISEL 14 The Government of Manitoba. M.S. DONNELLY 15 The Modern Senate of Canada. F.A . KUNZ 16 Responsible Government in Ontario. F.F . SCHINDELER 17 Politics in Newfoundland. s.J.R. NOEL 18 Prairie Liberalism: The Liberal Party in Saskatchewan I; antagonism towards Liberal party 214,219,267, 270, 289-90, 292,295, 306-7 ; see also Bradshaw charges, Co-operative government, Elections, Ku Klux Klan Co-operative Commonwealth Federation: Farmer-Labour party 212-23 passim - co-operation with other groups: Communists 225-6, 233; Social Credit 226-7, 235-6; Conservatives 233-5 - party organization 242, 2480, 261, 282-3,329-30 - victory (1944) 246-52 - defeat (1964) 280-1, 297-300 - New Democratic Party 317ff. Co-operative (Anderson) government 141, 142, 143, 196, 198-208 passim, 2170,237,244,249, 328

Co-operatives 46, 47, 55-6, 68, 150-10, 329 - see also Saskatchewan Co-operative Elevator Company Courtney, John C. 3000, 3130 Craig, Lottie 850, 1690, 1720, 1800 Crerar, T.A. 98, 100 Cross, J.A. 95, 174, 175, 186-7 Culliton, E.M. 1890, 2150, 229, 2460, 253,254,263,322 Dafoe,J.W. 85n,910,92n, 134, 1860, 195 Danielson, Herman 349 Davey, Keith 284n, 2930, 2950 Davis, T.C. 185, 1920, 197,206,228, 238 Debt adjustment 1500, 205,208, 224, 237,245 Diefenbaker, John 234,290,307 Direct legislation 70 Donnelly, M .S. 3310 Douglas, T .C. 231 , 240,275,276, 277 - election to House of Commons 227 - co-operation with other groups 225, 226, 2330, 234 - provincial CCF leader 246, 248 - premier, 263, 268, 272 - Douglas government 254, 257, 258, 278 - Mossbank debate 275-6 - view of Thatcher 279 - resignation as leader and premier 281,298 Dunn, C.M. 229,240 Dunning, C.A. 25, 102, 149, 161, 163, 184,186, 228,230,248,254,328,330 - before becoming premier 54, 55, 76, 77, 80, 123, 151 , 157-8

Index 347 - premier and party leader 95--6, 99, 100,109, 129-30, 134-5, 150, 163-7, 176-8, 181 , 334n - party organization 154, 157-8, 166-75 - move to Ottawa 182 Education (religion and language disputes) 16--9, 47, 58--60, 76-7, 111 , 113, 114-24, 155, 191-2, 200, 300, 326 Edwards , George 97, 104, 105, 106, 133, 138, 140, 190,213 Elections (federal) - 1904 326 - 1908 37 - 1911 42, 327 - 1921 73,89--92, 161 - 1925 176, 180-1 - 1930 212 - 1935 225-7 - 1940 249 - 1953 264 - 1957 and 1958 270-1 - 1962and 1963 293-4 - 1965 304 - 1968 315 Elections (Saskatchewan) - 1905 21-4, 55 - 1908 37-8 , 390 - 1912 39,45 , 50 - 1917 41,54, 55, 61-2,74 - 1921 86-9, 157, 178--9 - 1925 97,136, 180-1, 183 - 1929 193-5,200 - 1934 216-20 - 1938 238-41 - 1944 244-52 - 1948 254,258--61

- 1952 263-4 - 1956 269-70 - 196o 278--9,285,289 - 1964 290,298-301 - 1967 310-2 - 1971 316-20,330 Electoralboundaries 21-2, 23,37,240, 311 , 319 Eliason, Frank 215, 226, 245n Equalization grants 302,313 Farm Loan Board 29, 55 Farmers' Educational League 103--6, 213 Farmers' Platform 74, 75 Farmers' Political Association of Saskatchewan 103, 212n Farmers' Union of Canada 66, 103, 105 , 179 - originsandgrowth 93,97, 131-2, 137 - organization 98--9 - Wheat Pool and 100-1 - amalgamation with Saskatchewan Grain Growers' Association 101-2 Farmers' Unity League 213-4, 217n, 223 Foley , F.E. 276 Forget, A .E. 21 Franchise 9, 44 , 62, 257 Gardiner, J.G. 25, 76, 102 , 158, 16o, 2o6,248, 255,322,328,330 - before becoming premier 82, 85, 90, 95,151, 164-75, 176, 181-2 - premier and party leader 110-1, 142-4, 145n, 150,170, 184-7, 191-3, 196-7,202n,207-10,230-1 - party organization 185, 187-8, 190-1, 193,206-7,209-10, 222

348 Index - move to Ottawa 182,228, 231-2 - federal minister of Agriculture 239-40,254,259,264-5,268--9,271 Gardiner, J.W. 265,276, 285n, 309,312 Great War Veterans' Association 83, 124 Green, F. W. 72 Hamilton, Alvin 290 Hamilton, C.M. 85, 158, 163, 184n, 186, 2o6 Haultain, F.W.G. - non-partisanship 6-7, 8, 324 - autonomy and before 4-20 passim, 116, 325 - leaderoftheopposition 23,47,48, 327 Horsman, J.W. 43n Imperial Order, Daughters of the Empire 83, 126, 130 Immigrants 57, 108, 137 - Liberal party and IO-II, 22, 27, 33, 58~0. 109, 134-5, 141,142,170, 194-5,220 - Conservative party and 57, 59, 62, 136 - Farmer-Labour and CCF parties and 215~,220,223,251 - hostility towards 54, 59~0. II 1-14, 124~. 127--9, 130-5, 143-7 Immigration and Settlement (Saskatchewan) Royal Commission on 141-2, 143-4, 180,200 Independent Labour Party of Saskatchewan 211, 212 Independents 80-2,87--9, 178-9,216, 328 - Co-operative government and 195, 196,200,201,207 see also SGGA

Irvine , William 93n, 231,232 Jamieson, H.S. 293n Johnson, C.W. 204n, 245n Johnson, R.M. 177, 203 Kerr, W.F. 7n, 230 Kidd, H.E. 245n, 264n King, W.L.M. 144, 150 - selected federal leader, 79 - Saskatchewan Liberals and 161 , 166, 168, 176 - view of Progressives 181 - advice on party organization 207,259 Kinistino by-election (1933) 205, 207-8 Knowles, W.E. 77, 85, 127n, 177 Korchinski, B.L. 102n, 113n Ku Klux Klan I IO, 126, 187, 199,200 - growth of anti-foreign sentiment 143-8,328 - political influences of 189--93, 195, 298, 322 Lamont, J.H. 14n, 21, 50, 53n Lang, Otto 294, 295n, 303 Langevin, Archbishop 23 Langley, George 49n, 53n, 55, So, 93n, 120,121,123, 162-3, 164 Latta,S.J. 129,158,163, 186,206,3260 Lauri er, Wilfrid - autonomy and 15, 17, 18, 20, 21,325, 326 - elections: 1908 38; 19II 327 - Mackinnon controversy 61 - Union government 76 - death 159 Legislative Assembly 50-1, 162, 191-2,2oon,208,211,282 - statutes enacted 46n, 150n, 155, 224, 303

Index 349 - questions asked 158, 169n, 173,202 - Bradshaw charges and 51-3 - composition 50,172,250,311, 319-20 - defeat of Gardiner government 195-7 - ccF and 223,237 - extension oflife (1943) 246 - recruitment and attitudes of MLA s 286--9

- role perceptions of MLA s 307-8 Leith, George 132 Lieutenantgovemor 19,21,52, 196, 197,229,2620 Liberal party (Canada) - Convention (1919) 78, 79, 159 - see also Elections and individual leaders Liberal party (Saskatchewan) - conventions: 1905 13 ; 1917 54; 1931 209-10; 1946 253-4,255; 1954 265 ; 1959 276-8; 1971 321-3 - council: created (1931) 210; party leadership and 228, 229, 264; meets biennially 255,282; party platform and 266 - executive: created (1946) 255 - membership 277, 283 - principles (1946) 256-7, 273 - nominations: constituency autonomy 37, 170-1; central direction 39-41, 170-2, 285-7; cooperation with Progressive Conservatives 259-60, 290 Liquor control 35-6, 46, 47, 51, 173, 175, 187 Lloyd, Woodrow 298,310 Local Government Board 29 Loptson, A.A. 209n, 264 Lower Inventories for Tomorrow (LIFT) 318

Macauley, A.J. 236, 239 McCallum, Archie 158 McDonald, A .H. 259 - party leader 265,267-9,270,271 - party organization, 266, 271 - resignation as leader 271-2 - member of Thatcher government 304 - senator, 304 MacDonald, Cy 321,322 Macfarlane, J .D. 222n, 245n McIntosh, Charles 189n, 207-8 Mackinnon, Murdock 51n, 61 McLean, Allan G. 245n Maclean, Donald 87, 114, 123, 157 McNab, A.P., 77 120, 158, 163, 185, 186 McNabb, D.C. 31n, 34 McPhail, A.J. g6 McTavish, D.K. 265n Maharg, J .A. 85-6, 90, 91, 92, 93, 96, 97,99n , 132-3, 186 Mahony, C.A. 36, 174 Maloney, J .J. 144-5, 193 Manitoba Liberals 36, 85, 89, 110, 331-2 Martin, W.M. 25,145,149,184,228, 230,254,327-8,330 - MP 71 - premier and party leader 53, 75, 76-7,78,80,85,86,109,115, 117-22, 128,130,143,150, 151-6, 165-6 - party organization 29n, 37, 78--9, 85, 153,154, 157-61, 163,167, 175 - farmers' challenge and 73, 86, 91-2, 176 - retirement from politics 129, 161-3, 166 Medicare - early proposals 223-4, 255-6, 277-8

350 Index - ccF proposal (1959) 296 - ccF and medicare 297--8 - Liberals and medicare 296-7, 314 Meighen, Arthur 64n, 111n Merchant, Sally 289n, 329n Military Service Act 111-2 Mitchell, R.M. 29n, 57n, 162, 174-5 Moose Jaw by-election (1923) 176--8 Motherwell, W.R. 120, 149, 159, 16o, 176,191,231,330 - provincial minister 21, 30n, 31n, 35, 39,50, 53,55,67--8,77 - resignation 117n, 120, 121-2, 126 - Assiniboia by-election (1919) 76--80, 113-4, 152 - election and move to Ottawa 90-2, l00, 164, 176, 177, 182 Musselman, J.B. 67 , 68, 69, 80-4, 86, 89,93,95,96, 131

National Reform Group 241 Natural resources - federal retention of 15-16, 47, 159, 185 - Thatcher government and 314-5, 317 Nominations (Progressives) - constituency autonomy 82, 91, 95-6, 181 - see also Liberal party (Saskatchewan): nominations Non-partisan League 83, 87, 89n, 130, 131,297,324 - origins and growth 41, 54, 61, 64, 73-4, 84 No-Party League of Western Canada 70 North-West Territories: constitutional evolution 3-7 passim, 116

Oliver, Frank 19 Orange Lodge 6o, 1IO,114, 124, 145-6, 147,189 Parker, J.M. 229 Partridge, E.A. 70, 105, 107 Patronage 42, 51,183,262, 274-5, 325, 329 - jobs and contracts IO, 29-34, 125, 129, 167-70,202,203,222 - Martin and 155-9 - Public Service Commission (1930-1934) 201-2,221-2 Patterson, W.J. 185, 206n, 246n - leadership and party organization 228'""9, 230, 231, 237--8, 245-6, 248-9 - retirement, 253, 262n Pearson, Lester 291,292,307 Pederson,Martin 290,295 , 298,312 People's Political Association of Canada 69 Pinder, H.C. 309 Pinder, R.M. (Mrs) 127n Police - Royal North-West Mounted Police (1905-16) 35 - Saskatchewan Provincial Police (1917-28) 35-6, 158-9, 173-4, 175, 186-8 - Royal Canadian Mounted Police (after 1928) 193 Political parties - bases of support 23-4, 61, 188, 194-5, 199,214,219-20,242,248, 251-2,260-1,290,291,292,301-2, 3o6,312,322 - financing 31,248,277,283, 292, 304-5 Porter, S.P. 22n, 31n, 34

Index 351 Primary 91 , 181 Procter, A .T. 229, 249 Progressives (federal) 66, 73, 93, 94, 95, 97-8, 149, 2150 - emergence in Saskatchewan 74-5 , 78-9 - Liberals and 90, 91, 92, 160-1, 176, 180-1 - Farmers' Political Association and 211-2 - see also SGGA Progressives (provincial) 66, 87, 89, 103,171, 188-9, 215n, 216,242 - formation of Provincial Progressive Association 96-8, 178-9 - the non-English and 133, 135--6, 190, 322,328 - co-operation with provincial Conservatives 180-1, 188-9 - Co-operative Government and 195, 196,200,201,203 Progressives (us) 27, 72 Reciprocity 47-8, 56, 227 Relief - legislation 1500 , 224 - administration of 202, 205--6, 208, 240 Ross, J.H . 9n, 42, 50 Saskatchewan Co-operative Elevator Company 68 - origin 46, 47, 55--6 - Conservative policy 56 - J .A . Maharg and 96, 97, 133 - UFCand l02 Saskatchewan Farmers' Political Association 104n, 211-2, 213 Saskatchewan Grain Growers' Association 104, 220

- origins and non-partisan tradition , 55, 64, 66-75 passim - Liberal party and 55--6, 71-2, 80, 86 - partisan politics 75, 80-4, 86, 89-90, 92-7, 164,176, 179, 324 - the non-English and 60, 108-9, 121 , 124, 126, 130-3, 135, 137 - Wheat Pool and 100-1; amalgamation with the Farmers' Union 98-9, 101-2 Saskatchewan Provincial Police: see Police Saskatoon by-election (1964) 305--6 Scott, George 23n, 78n, 85n, 870, 90n, 162 , 174, 1780 Scott , Walter 25 , 68n, 70, 149, 157, 167, 170,185,188,228, 229, 255,280, 330 - autonomy and before 5-17 passim, 19-20, I 16 - premier and party leader 13, 21-2, 29n,30,31,33n,34n,35,36n,37, 38, 43,440, 47, 50, 51, 53, 57, 77, 150, 158 - retirement 51-3, 61 - Motherwell and 77, 79-80, 122n, 162 - Calder and 63 Sapiro, Aaron 101 Sifton, Clifford 7-9 passim , 16, 21 , 230 , 24,99 Social Credit (Saskatchewan) - first appearance ( 1935) 225-7 - CCF and 235--6 - invasion(1938) 238-9, 241 - reappearance (1956) 267-70 - decline 272, 285, 289, 297, 298 Spence, George 186, 206, 229 Stavely,J.H . 2950 Steuart, D.G. 293-4, 312,321 , 322 Stewart, Carl 207 Subsidiarity principle 329

352 Index Sullivan,J.J. 169,222 Sykes, D.J. 41n, 74, 89 Taggart, J.G. 127n, 184n, 202n, 204n, 2o6n,209n,24on,255 Task Force on Agriculture (Canada), report of 3 18 Taylor, Charles 284n Temperance movement 35, 173 Templeton, Charles 284n, 292n Thatcher, W. Ross 280,281,323 - before becoming leader 272-7 - party leader 276-7,279,283-5,287, 291,299-301,303,308,309,312,316, 320,330 - economic policies 310-1, 312~. 317-8 - dispute with federal Liberals 291-5, 300-1,303-7,315,316-7,330 Thrasher, William IOin, w5, w6 Trapp, G.J. 209n, 309 Tran, C.E. 188 Tucker, Walter 184n, 204n, 206n, 268, 272,294n,315n,322 - party leader 253~4 passim Turgeon, W.F.A. - minister 35n, 36n, 43-4, 49, 50, 52, 57-8,61,62,79-80, 112n, 174 - cabinet spokesman for minorities 49, 58, I 18-9, 120, 135, 159 Turner, Harris 98, 133, 135, 173n Uhrich,J .W. 95,135,136,167,185, 1920,323-5,256

Union Government 25, 62-3, 75, 129, 152, 153, 159,327 United Farmers of Canada (Saskatchewan Section) 66,213,214,215,220, 233 - non-partisanship w1-2, 103, I04, !05-7 - partisan politics 211, 212, 223 - the non-English and I09, 137-42 Unity movement 241 Use-lease 205,212,233,246 Voters' lists 42-4 War Measures Act 112 War-time Elections Act 62, 65, 111-2 Wheat Board 94, 100,232,313,315 Wheat Pool wo-1, w5, 138,179,184 Williams, G.H. 281 - Farmers' Educational League and 103~.213 - United Farmers of Canada (Saskatchewan Section) w5-7, 137, 142, 328 - Farmer-Labour house leader 223, 225 - CCF provincial leader 232-8 passim, 241n, 251n Willoughby, W.B. 37,47,87, 157 Wood, Henry Wise 93 Woods worth, J .S. 233, 235 Wright, M.C. 29n