Optical Devices in Communication and Computation

InTech, 2012, 230 pages, ISBN: 9535107637 9789535107637. This book focuses recent developments of theoretical analysis,

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OPTICAL DEVICES IN COMMUNICATION AND

COMPUTATION

Edited by Peng Xi

OPTICAL DEVICES IN COMMUNICATION AND COMPUTATION Edited by Peng Xi

Optical Devices in Communication and Computation http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/2859 Edited by Peng Xi Contributors Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman, V. Aboites, Y. Barmenkov, A. Kir'yanov, M. Wilson, Wei Li, Xunya Jiang, Po-Chang Wu, Wei Lee, Tetsuzo Yoshimura, Feng Liu, Biqin Dong, Xiaohan Liu, Lin Chen, Xu Guang Huang, Jin Tao, Duc Doan Hong, Fushinobu Kazuyoshi, Kyung M. Choi

Published by InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia Copyright © 2012 InTech All chapters are Open Access distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, which allows users to download, copy and build upon published articles even for commercial purposes, as long as the author and publisher are properly credited, which ensures maximum dissemination and a wider impact of our publications. After this work has been published by InTech, authors have the right to republish it, in whole or part, in any publication of which they are the author, and to make other personal use of the work. Any republication, referencing or personal use of the work must explicitly identify the original source. Notice Statements and opinions expressed in the chapters are these of the individual contributors and not necessarily those of the editors or publisher. No responsibility is accepted for the accuracy of information contained in the published chapters. The publisher assumes no responsibility for any damage or injury to persons or property arising out of the use of any materials, instructions, methods or ideas contained in the book.

Publishing Process Manager Dragana Manestar Typesetting InTech Prepress, Novi Sad Cover InTech Design Team First published September, 2012 Printed in Croatia A free online edition of this book is available at www.intechopen.com Additional hard copies can be obtained from [email protected]

Optical Devices in Communication and Computation, Edited by Peng Xi p. cm. ISBN 978-953-51-0763-7

Contents Preface IX Section 1

Advances in Theoretical Analysis

1

Chapter 1

Zero Loss Condition Analysis on Optical Cross Add and Drop Multiplexer (OXADM) Operational Scheme in Point-to-Point Network Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman

3

Chapter 2

Optical Resonators and Dynamic Maps 17 V. Aboites, Y. Barmenkov, A. Kir'yanov and M. Wilson

Chapter 3

Electrodynamics of Evanescent Wave in Negative Refractive Index Superlens Wei Li and Xunya Jiang

37

Section 2

Novel Structures in Optical Devices

Chapter 4

Tunable and Memorable Optical Devices with One-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal/Liquid-Crystal Hybrid Structures 55 Po-Chang Wu and Wei Lee

Chapter 5

Self-Organized Three-Dimensional Optical Circuits and Molecular Layer Deposition for Optical Interconnects, Solar Cells, and Cancer Therapy 81 Tetsuzo Yoshimura

Chapter 6

Bio-Inspired Photonic Structures: Prototypes, Fabrications and Devices Feng Liu, Biqin Dong and Xiaohan Liu

Chapter 7

53

107

Optical Devices Based on Symmetrical Metal Cladding Waveguides 127 Lin Chen

VI

Contents

Chapter 8

Nano-Plasmonic Filters Based on Tooth-Shaped Waveguide Structures Xu Guang Huang and Jin Tao

153

Section 3

Functional Optical Materials 175

Chapter 9

Fluidic Optical Devices Based on Thermal Lens Effect Duc Doan Hong and Fushinobu Kazuyoshi

Chapter 10

Novel Optical Device Materials – Molecular-Level Hybridization 199 Kyung M. Choi

177

Preface Optical devices in communication and computation have indeed a significant impact on our daily life and will continually be the leading revolutionizing technology in upcoming decades. This book presents a comprehensive account on recent advances in optical devices in communication and computing. The first section, advances in theoretical analysis, gives solid mathematical analysis on zero loss condition for optical communication, dynamic maps in laser resonator, as well as evanescent wave for superlens effect. In the following section a series of novel structures aiming at applications such as solar cells, inter-connections, waveguide, optical memory, nanoplasmonic filtering, etc. are presented. Not only that the novel structural materials are used in biomedical cancer therapy, but also the nature inspires the design of innovative optical structures. In the third section, functional optical materials, such as molecular level hybridization and fluidic optical lens are reported. This book may serve as an invaluable reference for researchers working in optical communications and photonics as well as for engineers who are conceiving new developments based on the advances in this field.

Peng Xi Peking University, Beijing, China

Section 1

Advances in Theoretical Analysis

Chapter 1

Zero Loss Condition Analysis on Optical Cross Add and Drop Multiplexer (OXADM) Operational Scheme in Point-to-Point Network Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman Additional information is available at the end of the chapter http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/51006

1. Introduction OXADMs are element which provide the capabilities of add and drop function and cross connecting traffic in the network, similar to OADM and OXC. OXADM consists of three main subsystem; a wavelength selective demultiplexer, a switching subsystem and a wavelength multiplexer. Each OXADM is expected to handle at least two distinct wavelength channels each with a coarse granularity of 2.5 Gbps of higher (signals with finer granularities are handled by logical switch node such as SDH/SONET digital cross connects or ATM switches). There are eight ports for add and drop functions, which are controlled by four lines of MEMs optical switch. The other four lines of MEMs switches are used to control the wavelength routing function between two different paths. The functions of OXADM include node termination, drop and add, routing, multiplexing and also providing mechanism of restoration for point-to-point, ring and mesh metropolitan and also customer access network in FTTH. The asymmetrical architecture of OXADM consists of 3 parts; selective port, add/drop operation, and path routing. Selective port permits only the interest wavelength pass through and acts as a filter. While add and drop function can be implemented in second part of OXADM architecture. The signals can then be re-routed to any port of output or/and perform an accumulation function which multiplex all signals onto one path and then exit to any interest output port. This will be done by the third part. OXADM can also perform ‘U’ turn to enable the line protection (Ring Protection) in the event of breakdown condition. This will be done by the first and third part. These two features have differed OXADM with the other existing device such as OADM and OXC. The purpose of this study was to obtain the maximum allowed loss for the device OXADM and input power required to maintain the satisfactory performance of the BER (BER