Occupational health and safety: student Training Manual 9786010439238

The manual is intended to teach students the basics of occupational safety, preventive measures against injuries and occ

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AL-FARABI KAZAKH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY Student Training Manual

Almaty «Qazaq University» 2019

UDC 330 (075) LBC 65.24 я 73 O-21

Recommended for publication by the Scientific Council of the Faculty of Physics and Technology and RISO of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University (Protocol №4 dated 16.04.2019)

Reviewer: Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor F.B. Ustimenko Doctor of Physical and Matematical Sciences, Professor M.E. Abishev Authors: A.S. Askarova, S.A. Bolegenova, O.A. Lavrischev, S.A. Bolegenova, V.Yu. Maksimov, A.M. Maksutkhanova, R.K. Manatbaev, Zh.K. Shortanbayeva

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Occupational health and safety: student Training Manual / A.S. Askarova, S.A. Bolegenova, O.A. Lavrischev, [et al.]. ‒ Almaty: Qazaq University, 2019. – 108 p. ISBN 978-601-04-3923-8

The manual is intended to teach students the basics of occupational safety, preventive measures against injuries and occupational diseases, poisoning, fires and explosions. Occupational safety is a system of statutory acts. It includes organizational, technical, socioeconomic, health-related, medical and preventive measures and means aimed at ensuring safety, preserving health and working capacity of a person in the course of his/her work activities. This manual proposes to examine the types of hazardous and harmful production factors at the workplace affecting human body, organizational measures and technical means that prevent or reduce the impact of harmful industrial factors on the workers. It also presents a system of organizational and engineering measures ensuring fire and explosion safety in production. Legal framework is presented to create healthy and safe work environment. The manual is intended for students studying the course “Occupational health and safety”, “Occupational Health and Safety at the Enterprises”, but it can also be useful for the Master’s degree and PhD students.

UDC 330 (075) LBC 65.24 я 73 ISBN 978-601-04-3923-8 © Askarova A.S., Bolegenova S.A., Lavrischev O.A., [et al], 2019 © Al-Farabi KazNU, 2019

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................... 5 Chapter 1. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY ELEMENTS................................ 7 1.1. General concepts, definitions and terms ................................. 7 1.2. Work safety ‒ goals and objectives ........................................ 8 1.3. Factors affecting occupational safety environment................. 9 Chapter 2. LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY SYSTEM............................................... 18 2.1 Basic Occupational Safety Laws ........................................... 18 2.2 Ratified ILO Conventions and other international treaties containing labor protection requirements..................................... 20 Chapter 3. STANDARDS, REGULATIONS AND RULES – NORMS AND SPECIFICATIONS............................................................................ 23 Chapter 4. GOVERNMENT CONTROL IN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY............................................................................. 25 4.1 Main directions of state control.............................................. 25 4.2 State control and supervision in health, safety and labor protection ............................................................................ 27 4.3 State regulations on labor protection ..................................... 32 Chapter 5. PREPARATION FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY TRAINING AND VERIFICATION OF KNOWLEDGE OF LABOR PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR WORKERS.......................................................................................... 33 5.1 Content and purpose of training in labor protection............... 33 5.2 Procedure for training managers and specialists ................... 34 5.3 Instructing and training in first aid treatment of victims ....... 37 Chapter 6. PROTECTION AGAINST MECHANICAL EFFECTS ........ 42 Chapter 7. SAFETY OF PRESSURIZED SYSTEMS............................... 48 Chapter 8. LABOR PROTECTION IN WORKING WITH ELECTRIC CURRENT............................................................................... 53

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Occupational Health and Safety 8.1 Ensuring electrical safety and main causes of electrical injuries...................................................................... 53 8.2 Effect of electric shock on a human body ............................. 58 8.3 Classification of premises by the degree of danger of electric shock and organization of safe operation of electrical facilities ................................................................... 60 Chapter 9. FIRE SAFETY ........................................................................... 63 9.1 Fire safety ‒ General Concepts .............................................. 63 9.2 Conditions entailing occurrence of fire and hazardous factors of fire and explosion ........................................................ 69 9.3 Training in fire safety measures, duties and personnel responsibility for fire safety ......................................................... 71 Chapter 10. SAFE OPERATION ON THE COMPUTER......................... 74 KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENT TEST...................................................... 78 CONCLUSION.......................................................................................... 106 REFERENCES........................................................................................... 107

INTRODUCTION

Implementation of measures under which living conditions of the population are constantly improving is one of the most important tasks of the economic and social development of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The person doing most of the time of his active life purposeful professional work in a working environment, may get an adverse effect on his/her working capacity and health if the accepted regulatory requirements are not fulfilled. Improvement of modern production goes through the development of new plants and machinery, characterized by high productivity, different purpose equipment, intensification of their operation, improvement of process technology and improvement of preventive maintenance and repair. All this poses various and complex tasks before employers related to the study of safety and labor protection issues, as well as ways to solve them. The proposed course covers basic information on the regulatory framework in occupational safety, labor law, fire prevention measures, workplace hygiene and other requirements that provide normal working conditions. After studying the essence of the phenomena, estimation of their probable hazard and learning the legislative base and regulatory documents, the student will be able to find ways to prevent injuries and to eliminate the influence of dangerous and harmful production factors on the worker’s body. Human experience has accumulated certain techniques, means and methods ensuring safe interaction with the environment, especially in the manufacturing sector. The state of worker’s safety, provided with a set of measures aimed at eliminating harmful and dangerous effects on workers in the course of their work, is called occupational health. Occupational safety is a system of organizational measures and technical means protecting against the influence of hazardous and harmful industrial factors on workers. The health and safety rules ex5

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ist for each type of works, and only after studying them a person is allowed to work. The duty of the employer is to ensure safe working conditions [1]. The “labor protection” concept is inseparable from safety standards, it must always be remembered that the effectiveness of labor protection measures can be reduced by an adverse environmental situation in the industrial zone or urban environment. Every day we read in the newspapers, hear on the radio and television about a criminal incident or natural disaster, a road traffic accident, disaster, catastrophe, accidents resulting in death and material damage. Every second 4 people in the world get injured, and every 15 seconds there is a fatal outcome in the production sphere. The statistical data of the World Health Organization (WHO) show that at the present time, death rate from accidents is in third place after cardiovascular and oncological diseases. In case of diseases, older people mostly die, whereas as a result of accidents, ablebodied people in the prime of life are killed. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), 2200000 people die each year as a result of unfortunate incidents in production processes and of occupational diseases. About 270000 accidents and 160000 occupational diseases are reported annually. Knowledge of labor protection basics is necessary for both employees and employers, and society as a whole.

Chapter 1

LABOR PROTECTION ELEMENTS

1.1. General concepts, definitions and terms Labor protection is a system of legal, organizational, socioeconomic, technical, sanitary, hygienic, therapeutic and occupational activities and means that ensure safety, preservation of human health and employability during the process of work. Occupational Safety is a system that includes organizational and engineering measures and means that prevent the effects of hazardous occupational factors on workers. Workplace Hygiene refers to a system containing hygienic and sanitary-engineering organizational measures and means preventing the influence of harmful production factors on workers. Occupational Health is a medical science, which studies the effects of the surrounding production environment on worker’s body and the nature of work activities. The main task of occupational health is the development of sanitary and hygienic standards and practical measures, elimination, prevention or weakening of adverse industrial factors affecting human body. Electrical safety is a system that covers organizational and engineering measures and means that provide people with protection from the effects of electric current, static electricity, electromagnetic field and electric arc. Fire Safety is the state of a facility, which excludes the possibility of fire, and when it arises, prevents the impact of hazardous factors on people and ensures protection of material values. Workplace is a space zone, equipped with the necessary means, where an employee or a group of employees work together performing production tasks. The workplace is established on the basis of labor standards and other applicable standards and is intended to fulfill part of technological process. 7

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A space that has a 2 meter-high boundary above the floor surface, with areas of either permanent or temporary stay of workers, is called the working area. Workplaces are called permanent if an employee works there more than 50% of the work time during shift or continuously for more than two hours. A set of factors of the production environment affecting health and working capacity of a person in the course of work are called working conditions. According to the study of working conditions, the factors of the working environment consist of a sanitary-hygienic situation that determines the external environment in the working area (microclimate, mechanical fluctuations, radiation, temperature, lighting, etc.); psychophysiological elements (working posture, physical load, neuro-psychological stress, etc., due to the labor process itself); aesthetic elements (design of the working tool and workplace, equipment and production facilities); and sociopsychological elements comprising characteristics of the so-called psychological climate [2]. Any disease caused by the influence of harmful working conditions is called occupational disease. Occupational disease can be poisoning with various toxic substances, vibration disease, chronic dust bronchitis, etc. They can be accompanied or not accompanied by a complete loss of working capacity depending on duration and severity of the disease. Severe cases often lead to disability. 1.2. Labor Protection – Goals and Purposes Labor protection is a system consisting of direct, socio-economic, psychophysical, sanitary and hygienic, rehabilitative, therapeutic, prophylactic and other measures, which ensure workers’ health and safety during work. Work hygiene and occupational health studies, implementation of measures reducing the impact of harmful factors in the course of work on the workers’ bodies; study of sanitation and occupational hygiene are functions of labor protection. The main method of labor protection is using occupational safety. Two main tasks are addressed at the same time: the first one is creation of machines and tools resulting in elimination of danger for people, and development of special protective

Chapter 1. Occupational Safety Elements

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gear that will ensure safety of people during their work, the second one is training of safe working methods and use of protective equipment creating conditions for safe work in the organization. The main goal of improving working conditions is to achieve a social effect, which ensures occupational safety, preserves life and health of workers, and reduces the number of accidents and diseases in production [3]. Improvements in working conditions lead to improved economic performance, i.e. increases profit growth (when labor productivity rises); costs associated with compensation for work with harmful and difficult working conditions are compensated; losses are reduced due to the complexity and occupational morbidity; reduced turnover of labor, etc. The regulatory act called the “System of Occupational Safety Standards (SOSS)” refers to one of the main documents included in norms and specifications. SOSS Standards are presented by general requirements and standards for the types of hazardous and harmful industrial factors and methods for assessing occupational safety, general safety requirements regarding production equipment and production processes, special protective means. Regardless of departmental subordination, all enterprises and organizations operate in accordance with inter-industry rules and regulations. Industrial rules and regulations are only used by individual sectors. General instructions, instructions for individual professions, for certain types of works are developed on the basis of regulatory and technical documentation, which includes labor legislation, standards, rules, norms, technical documentation, etc. 1.3. Factors affecting the conditions and safety of labor Human labor activities proceed in the production environment under such conditions that, if health requirements are not observed, result in an adverse effect on the workability and health of a person. A person is affected by a number of different factors that, generally, determine a particular state of the working conditions.

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A factor, the effect of which under certain conditions causes an extraordinary breakdown in health of the worker or results in an injury, is called a hazardous production factor. A factor that, under certain conditions, causes a disease or a decrease in the working capacity of a worker is called a harmful production factor. By the nature of effect, hazardous and harmful factors are physical, chemical, biological and psychophysical. Production factors are also divided into sanitary and hygienic, ergonomic, technical, psychophysiological, organizational, social, natural-climatic, and economic. Technical factors are reflected in the level of automation and mechanization of technological processes; full use of equipment and appropriate workplace arrangement; use of electronic computing and control technology, protection of dangerous zones, presence and correct operation of collective protective devices, etc. Ergonomic factors include introduction of rational work and rest schedules, reduction in the volume of information, reduction in neuroemotional stress and physical stress; establishing of a correspondence of energetic, speed, visual and other physiological abilities of a person in the studied production process; professional selection. These can be high-speed parameters of machinery, convenient location of control and indication units, workplace arrangement, the amount of information received from work agencies, visibility of the work area, design of the operator’s seat, etc. Aesthetic factors are displayed in compliance with the aesthetic needs of a person, the elements that form person’s attitude to the work environment in terms of its artistic perception. These elements include architectural and space planning solutions for the interior and exterior, an aesthetically expressive form and color of work equipment and workwear, the appropriate design of recreation areas, etc. Sanitary and hygienic factors include the state of workplace sanitation, which is characterized by the quality of air environment, the level of harmful substances and radiation, lighting, noise, vibration, etc. All these indicators must comply with the requirements of GOST, SOSS, etc. Organizational factors have to do with the discipline and labor organization form, work and rest schedule at the enterprise; provid-

Chapter 1. Occupational Safety Elements

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ing personal protective equipment (PPE), work wear, safety footwear; quality of professional training of workers; control over the state of the labor process, etc. Psychophysiological factors are determined by intensity and severity of work, moral and psychological climate in the team, mutual relations with colleagues, etc. The general culture of production, landscaping, order and cleanliness in the workplace, the presence of first-aid posts, clinics, canteens, sanitary facilities, kindergartens, etc., are classified as social factors. Natural climatic factors are distinguished by geographic and meteorological characteristics of the terrain (altitude above sea level, frequency and type of sediments, terrain relief, humidity, atmospheric pressure, temperature, ionization and air movement, etc.). Economic factors increasing the technical level of work include full operation of equipment, choice of optimal technology, strict regulation of the pace and rhythm of work, rational workplace arrangement, and reduction and elimination of waste work hours. Physical factors include moving machines and mechanisms, a high position of the working place over the level of the floor or ground, objects falling from a height or flying, sharp edges, high level of harmful aerosols or gases; ionizing and other radiation; strength of magnetic and electromagnetic fields, static electricity; voltage in the electrical circuit; noise, vibration, high or low temperature; mobility, humidity, ionization of air; atmospheric pressure; absence or lack of natural light, pulsation of the luminous flux, increased contrast, direct or reflected glare. Biological factors include various biological objects, such as pathogenic microorganisms (in the form of fungi, viruses, rickettsia, spirochetes and bacteria) and macroorganisms (these are plants and animals). Physical overloads (static, dynamic) and neuropsychic (mental stress, emotional overload, routine work) refer to psychophysiological factors. Chemical factors are toxic substances of various agent states: acetone, xylol, toluene, dichloroethane, benzene and other solvents; carbon dioxide, acetylene, methane and other gases; paints, enamels, varnishes; household chemicals; pharmaceutical preparations and many other various chemicals (Figure 1).

Fig.1. Types of Harmful and Hazardous Production Factors

Fig.1 Types of Dаngerous аnd Hаzаrdous Production Fаctors

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Chapter 1. Occupational Safety Elements

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Clean air of the required composition and optimum temperature, moisture and air movement and speed is of great importance for normal human activity. In many cases, in the process of human activity, harmful substances, that can enter human body through gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and skin, released into the ambient air, and under certain conditions cause reactions and various diseases, are formed. A harmful substance is a substance that, when contacted with a person, causes occupational diseases, occupational injuries, as well as deviations in health status, which are detected during work and in later life. Negative factors affecting people can be divided into anthropogenic factors ‒ associated with human activity (for example, toxic substances released during metal melting, electrolictic coating processes, mechanical plastics treatment, etc.) and natural (for example, dust in the air as a result of volcanic eruptions and soil erosion). The most wide-spread classification of harmful substances (according to Yudin E.Ya. and Belov S.V.) consists of six groups: irritant, sensitizing, general toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic substances affecting human reproductive function. Intoxication of the entire body is caused by general toxic substances (carbon oxide, mercury, lead, etc.). Irritation of respiratory tract and mucous membranes of the body is caused by irritants (chlorine, ammonia, acetone vapor, etc.). Sensitizing substances (formaldehyde, various nitro compounds, etc.) act as allergens. The emergence and development of malignant tumors is caused by carcinogenic substances such as beryllium and its compounds, asbestos, chromium oxides, and others. Radioactivity, manganese, lead, etc., are related to mutagenic substances that cause changes in genetic information. Substances like lead, styrene, and some radioactive substances, affect human reproductive function [4]. One of the harmful substances is dust, which is the finest particles of solid matter. Dust that can be suspended in the air for some time is called aerosol. Dust causes harmful effects, primarily on respiratory tract and lungs (lung disease ‒ pneumoconiosis), and with prolonged exposure can cause serious damage to the entire body. by the degree

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of dispersion (fineness factor), dust is subdivided into coarse, with a particle size of up to 10 microns; average ‒ 10 to 5 microns; and fine ‒ less than 5 microns. The greatest danger comes from fine dust, because it does not stay in the upper respiratory tract and, penetrating into lungs, settles in them. According to GOST 12.1.005-88, for the working zone air, maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) of harmful substances (mg/m3) have been established. Concentrations that permanently affect the human body and during the entire period of work do not cause illnesses or pathological changes in health established using the newest methods of research in the course of work or in subsequent periods of life of different generations are called maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) of harmful substances in the workplace air. Harmful substances, depending on the degree of hazard, can be classified as extremely hazardous, highly hazardous, moderately hazardous and low-toxic. MPCs for harmful substances are given in the relevant regulatory documents. Depending on the nature and duration, poisonings are divided into two main forms ‒ acute and chronic intoxication. Manifestation of acute intoxication is observed unexpectedly with a short-term exposure to relatively high concentrations of poisonous substances and is detected with more or less specific clinical symptoms. Acute intoxication is most often observed after accidents at enterprises whose technological cycles are associated with the use of hazardous and harmful substances. As a rule, chronic intoxication is caused by prolonged exposure (sometimes for several years) of the person’s body to low concentrations of harmful substances. In addition to specific effects, toxic substances can contribute to general weakening of the body, for example, a decrease in resistance to various infections. Development of poisoning and the degree of exposure to a harmful substance are largely associated with the physiological state of human body and, to a certain extent, depend on the gender and age of the worker. The growing body of adolescents has less resistance to harmful industrial factors, and the female body is more sensitive to the influence of a number of harmful substances (benzene, lead or mercury).

Chapter 1. Occupational Safety Elements

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Measures on prevention and protection of workers against harmful chemical factors should be directed on optimization of technological processes associated with mechanization and hermetization of production operations, replacement of toxic substances by harmless or slightly toxic ones. Concentration of harmful substances in the workplace air must be strictly regulated and be under constant control. In particular, ventilation of working premises is one of the sanitarytechnical measures. Operations with the most toxic substances are carried out in closed equipment or in special vent hoods with a powerful exhaust. We should especially note the cause of severe intoxication and even deaths associated with the ignorance of the staff, and sometimes negligence of fulfillment of their official duties. Therefore, it is necessary to provide timely orientation and training of personnel in safe working methods. When providing the first aid, one should not forget to immediately contact a medical institution. Each specific situation when providing first aid includes the following: in case of acid poisoning it is necessary to drink 4-5 glasses of warm water followed by induced vomiting, then drink magnesium oxide suspension in water in the same amount and again induce vomiting. The next step is twice gastric lavage with clean, warm water. The total volume of fluid should be about 6 liters. In case of swallowing concentrated acids and loss of consciousness, the above operation is prohibited. It is necessary to call a doctor. In case of alkali intoxication, it is necessary to drink 4-5 glasses of warm water and induce vomiting, followed by drinking the same amount of acetic acid aqueous solution with a mass fraction of 2% and again inducing vomiting. This is followed by gastric lavage 2 times with warm pure water; in case of phenol intoxication, drink 4-5 glasses of warm water and induce vomiting, followed by drinking the same amount of pink permanganate potassium and also inducing vomiting. Water solution of ethanol with a mass fraction of 5% (volume at least one liter) makes third gastric lavage; in case of gas intoxication it is necessary to ensure the flow of fresh air and rest, in severe cases oxygen supply is needed.

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Using technological processes and equipment in which harmful substances either do not appear or do not get into the workplace air, it is possible to reduce the concentration of harmful substances in the workplace air. This is achieved by using ventilation systems, reliable hermitization of equipment, transfer of technological processes to environmentally friendly raw materials, etc. In turn, if these measures do not allow us to achieve the expected results, it is recommended to automate production or switch to remote control. In some cases, for protection against the effects of harmful substances that are in the workplace air, it is necessary to apply individual protection equipment divided into filters (respirators) and insulators (gas mask). Based on designation, filter respirators can be: antidust (half-mask with filter element, particle respirator), gas-like and universal (such respirators are intended to be used with small contents of harmful gases, vapor and dust). Gas masks can be filtering and insulating (airline and self-contained). The set includes a filtering mask: a filter box, a rubber face mask with a corrugated tube and a bag designed to carry the gas mask. Consider the work of general ventilation intended to change air in the entire room. Air circulation in this system is achieved through the use of special blower machines ‒ fans. Specific characteristic of ventilation in modern buildings is the need to ensure extensive air exchange (40-50 million m3/hour). This is caused by intensification of production, and by higher requirements to the state of the air environment. Therefore, in ventilation arrangement, new tasks were posed, connected with the centralized air intake, which is located in the cleanest areas of the enterprise (earlier implemented along the building perimeter) and the search for areas to accommodate the air supply and aspiration facilities. In the ventilation technology, turbulent flows are used, allowing us to achieve the maximum flow of clean air and to remove the exhaust air. The following methods are used to supply air to a room: 1) air supply directly to the working area; 2) air supply towards the working area from a height of 4-6 meters from the floor; 3) air supply in compact horizontal jets into the upper zone; 4) air supply to the upper zone vertically downwards. For more effective removal of harmful

Chapter 1. Occupational Safety Elements

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substances from the room, the system of general ventilation is usually combined with the local, for example, natural ventilation. In a production area, continuous monitoring is necessary for the content of harmful substances in the workplace air. Sampling for the determination of these substances is usually made at the workplace at the worker’s breathing level. Air pollution in the working area and concentration of harmful substances is controlled by various methods, using appropriate devices and equipment [5]. Above we have already mentioned some individual protection equipment for respiratory organs. In addition, they use protective clothing that protects body from the adverse effects of physical, mechanical and chemical factors of the external environment. Workwear must provide freedom of movement, normal thermoregulation of the body and be well cleaned of contamination. Footwear must be resistant to the materials of the working environment, and soles must provide stability of the worker. Over 28% of the total number of working people is employed and working in harmful and hazardous industrial conditions, 33% of those employed are in industry, 19% in construction. Primary adverse industrial factors in enterprises include the presence of increased neuro-emotional stress; increased noise levels; exceeding the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of harmful chemicals in the workplace air. The maximum permissible level (MPL) of a production factor is a level, the effect of which in the work with certain duration during the entire labor period does not result in injury, illness or pathological changes in health during work or in later life. Labor conditions are subject to different combinations of production factors and, along with this, affect the results and productivity of labor and health of workers. Favorable conditions lead to an improvement in overall well-being, mood, form prerequisites for high productivity, and, conversely, bad conditions lead to a lower intensity and quality of labor, higher occurrence of occupational injuries and diseases [6]. The main task of the enterprise’s administration and employer is to create healthy and safe working conditions.

Chapter 2

LEGAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF THE LABOR PROTECTION SYSTEM

2.1. Basic Labor Protection Laws The main law of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, which was adopted on 30 August 1995 by a republican referendum. The main law states right and duties of every citizen. The main law of the Republic of Kazakhstan establishing the legal foundations in labor protection is the Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan (hereinafter referred to as the Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan) (adopted on May 15, 2007 No. 251-III). The Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated November 23, 2015 No. 414-V ЗРК, which entered into force on January 1, 2016, has lost its force.

Fig. 2. General Provisions

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Chapter 2. Legal and regulatory framework of occupational safety system

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The LC RK consists of 23 chapters, including 204 articles, which describe: ‒ the principles of the labor law; ‒ competences of all government bodies in the area of labor relations regulation; ‒ the basis of labor relations; ‒ main rights and obligations of an employee and an employer; ‒ procedure for execution, termination and cancellation of an employment contract; ‒ protection of personal data of the employee; ‒ working hours and rate setting; ‒ labor remuneration; ‒ professional training, retraining and advanced training; ‒ waranties and compensation payments; ‒ special characteristics of labor regulation of certain categories of workers; ‒ social partnership and collective relations in the field of labor; ‒ investigation and accidents reporting in labor activity; ‒ government and social supervision of compliance with labor laws; ‒ internal control in the field of labor protection and occupational safety. To control public relations arising from mandatory insurance of civil and legal liability of the employer in case of harm to the health of an employee in the performance of their employment duties, as well as establishment of legal, economic and organizational foundations of their work, in February 2005, the Law of RK on “Mandatory Insurance of Civil Liability of the Employer for Harm to Life and Health of an Employee in their Performance of Employment Duties” with a number of subordinate bylaws was adopted. Legislative norms on the issues of protecting health of the ablebodied population and safety of production activities are stated in: ‒ The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated June 4, 2003 No. 430-II “On Health Care System”; ‒ The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated December 4, 2002 No. 361-II “On sanitary-epidemiological welfare of the population”.

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Legal relations ensuring safe operation of hazardous production facilities and prevention of accidents at hazardous production facilities, ensuring readiness of the organizations for localization and liquidation of their consequences, guaranteed compensation for losses caused by accidents to individuals and legal entities, the environment and the state, and direct regulation in the field of fire safety are guaranteed by: ‒ The Law of RK dated April 3, 2002 No. 344 “On Industrial Safety at Hazardous Production Facilities”; ‒ The Law of RK dated November 22, 1996 No. 48 “On Fire Safety”; ‒ The Law of RK dated July 5, 1996 No. 19 “On Natural and Man-Made Emergencies”; ‒ The Law of RK dated November 9, 2004 No. 603 “On Technical Regulation”. Legislation focused on social protection of citizens is represented by such laws as: ‒ The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated July 13, 1999 No.414-I “On Special State Allowance to Persons Working on Underground and Open-Pit Mining, at Works in Especially Harmful and Especially Hard Working Conditions”; ‒ The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated June 16, 1997 No. 126-I “On State Social Allowances on Disability, on the Case of Loss of the Breadwinner and on Age in the Republic of Kazakhstan.” 2.2. Ratified ILO Conventions and other international treaties containing labor protection requirements. The following conventions of the International Labor Organization have been ratified in the Republic of Kazakhstan and include labor protection requirements: ‒ ILO Convention of December 18, 1979 On elimination of all forms of discrimination against women; ‒ ILO Convention No. 135 concerning Protection Of The Rights Of Representatives Of Workers At The Enterprise And Possibilities Given To Them (Geneva, June 23, 1971);

Chapter 2. Legal and regulatory framework of occupational safety system

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‒ ILO Convention No. 129 On Labor Inspection in Agriculture (Geneva, June 25, 1969); ‒ ILO Convention No. 155 concerning Occupational Safety and Health (Geneva, June 3, 1981); ‒ ILO Convention No. 144 concerning Tripartite Consultations to Promote the Implementation of International Labor Standards (Geneva, June 2, 1976); ‒ ILO Convention 182 concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour (Geneva, June 17, 1999); ‒ ILO Convention No. 148 concerning the Protection of Workers against Occupational Hazards in the Working Environment Due to Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration (Geneva, June 20, 1977); ‒ ILO Convention No. 88 concerning the Organization of the Employment Service (San Francisco, June 17, 1948); ‒ ILO Convention No. 167 concerning Occupational Health and Safety in Construction (Geneva, June 20, 1988). Between the Government of the Republics of Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Kyrgyz Republic and Ukraine, by the order of the President of RK dated September 4, 1995 No. 2451, the Agreement on cooperation in the area of protection of labor signed in Moscow was ratified on December 9, 1994 [7]. In accordance with the agreement, the actions of the Parties concerning the formation and implementation of the national labor protection policy are aimed at: ‒ expedient implementation, taking into account generally accepted international rules and the norms of a coherent policy on labor protection; ‒ taking into account requirements of the national legislation of the Parties and the results of cooperation, focused on improvement of the SOSS, recognition of the System of Occupational Safety Standards (SOSS), common rules and standards, as an interstate, revised as necessary;

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‒ approval of agreed or jointly developed occupational safety standards and requirements for manufactured products (machines, mechanisms, equipment, materials, technologies, labor protection means); ‒ application of the approved terms and definitions in the field of labor protection; ‒ creation of a joint information system with a data bank on the protection of labor and organization of publication.

Chapter 3

STANDARDS, RULES AND REGULATIONS – NORMS AND SPECIFICATIONS

In the Republic of Kazakhstan, all activities are carried out with the use of norms and specifications comprised of: ‒ SanPiN ‒ Sanitary Epidemiological Rules and Regulations; ‒ HS ‒ hygienic standards; ‒ SC RK ‒ state classifiers; ‒ SS RK ‒ state standard; ‒ GOST SOSS ‒ interstate standard “System of Occupational Safety Standards”; ‒ OST – industry-specific standard; ‒ SI – Safety Instructions; ‒ PPB, GNPB, PPBS ‒ fire safety rules and standards; ‒ LPR ‒ labor protection rules; ‒ R RK ‒ Rules of the Republic of Kazakhstan; ‒ RRD ‒ Republican Regulatory Document; ‒ GL ‒ Guidelines. Industrial standards, norms, rules, specifications on labor protection developed and approved in the established manner by the relevant government bodies and departments within their powers, refer to the Ministry of Industry and Commerce (Standardization and Certification Committee and the Ministry of Health; Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (Energonadzor); Ministry of Emergency Situations (Fire Fighting Service Committee, the Committee of State Control of Emergency Situations and Industrial Safety); and other sectoral ministries and departments [8]. Standards and Certification Committee of the Ministry of Industry and Trade develops the state standards with the established require23

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ments for protection and safety of products, production processes, equipment and protective means for employees. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan develops hygienic standards, sanitary and epidemiological rules and standards. Provisions and instructions related to the provisions of occupational safety are approved by the Ministry of Emergency Situations.

Chapter 4

STATE CONTROL IN THE FIELD OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

4.1. Basic principles of the labor legislation Labor legislation consists of 11 basic principles: 1) Inadmissibility of restrictions on human and citizen’s rights in the field of labor; 2) Freedom of labor; 3) Prohibition of discrimination in the sphere of labor, forced labor and the worst forms of child labor; 4) Ensuring the right to working conditions that meet safety and hygiene requirements; 5) Priority of the life and health of employee; 6) Ensuring the right to labor remuneration not below the minimum wage; 7) Ensuring the right to rest; 8) Equality of rights and opportunities for employees; 9) Ensuring the right of employees and employers to unite in order to protect their rights and interests; 10) Assistance of the state in strengthening and developing social partnership; 11) State regulation of occupational health and safety. Ensuring the priority of preserving health and life of employees is the most important principle of the state policy in the area of labor ​​ protection. In case of any hazard to life and health due to violation of labor protection requirements, an employee in his rights to labor protection may refuse to perform work. The Labor Protection Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan provides for protection of the legal interests of workers who have suffered from industrial accidents and occupational diseases, including members of their families, with mandatory 25

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insurance of employees against occupational diseases and occupational accidents. There is also a provision made for compensation for hard labor and work under harmful or hazardous working conditions, which cannot be eliminated at the modern technical level of production and work management. According to Article 22 of the Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan each worker has the right: ‒ to have a workplace equipped in compliance with safety requirements and labor protection; ‒ to receive reliable information from the employer about the conditions and occupational safety, about possible health hazards, as well as measures to protect from exposure to harmful or dangerous industrial factors; ‒ to refuse to perform work in case of a hazard arising for their life and health as a result of violation of labor protection requirements, until such a hazard is eliminated; ‒ to provide individual and collective protection equipment of employees in accordance with occupational safety requirements at the expense of the employer; ‒ to provide safe working methods at the expense of the employer; ‒ to provide professional retraining at the expense of the employer in case of liquidation of the workplace due to violation of occupational safety requirements; ‒ to apply to an authorized state labor agency or local labor inspectorate for examination of occupational health and safety at the workplace, and for a preliminary inspection and discussion of issues related to the improvement of occupational health and safety. ‒ to apply to the state authorities of the subjects of the Republic of Kazakhstan and local authorities, to the employer, to the associations of workers, to trade unions, their associations and other representative bodies in occupational safety. ‒ to apply for personal participation or participation through their representatives in consideration of issues related to ensuring safe working conditions at their workplace, and in investigating their ocupaitonal injury or occupational disease;

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‒ to apply to an unscheduled medical examination (check-up) in accordance with medical recommendations, with preserving their job (position) and average salary for the period of the above medical examination (check-up); ‒ to apply for compensation, established in accordance with the Labor Code of RK, collective agreement, contract, local regulatory act, employment contract, if they are engaged in physically hard works, works under harmful and (or) hazardous working conditions. 4.2. State administration, supervision and control in the field of labor protection State control and supervision and occupational safety is provided with participation of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, authorized government labor authority and other authorized government bodies in accordance with their competences. Occupational health and safety requirements are established in accordance with the regulatory laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan comprised of rules, procedures and criteria aimed at maintaining health and life of people in the process of their professional work. Employers and workers must comply with health and safety requirements when carrying out activities in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. State administration is expressed in the practical activities of public authorities in the pursuance of government policies. State control uses various forms and methods of influence (organization) on the production, social and spiritual life of people living in the territory of this state. Administrative and economic (market) leverages are the main forms of impact. State control in the field of labor protection provided by the executive bodies includes adoption of laws and other regulatory legal acts, mandatory on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan, establishing: ‒ The main guidelines of the state policy in the sphere of employment relations and other directly related relations;

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‒ bases of the legal regulation of employment relations and other relations directly related thereto (as well as definition of rules, procedures, criteria and standards aimed at preserving life and health of employees in the course of their work); ‒ level of employment rights, freedoms and guarantees for employees assigned by the state (including additional guarantees for certain categories of employees); ‒ procedure for conclusion, amendment and cancellation of employment contracts; ‒ foundations of social partnership, procedure of collective discussion, conclusion and amendment of collective agreements and contracts; ‒ procedure for resolving individual and collective employment disputes; ‒ principles and procedures for exercising state supervision and control over the observance of labor laws and other regulatory legal acts containing labor standards; ‒ system and procedure for certification of workplaces for labor conditions, state examination of the labor conditions, confirmation of compliance of occupational safety arrangements with the state regulatory requirements for labor protection; ‒ procedure for investigation of occupational diseases and occupational accidents; ‒ types of disciplinary sanctions and their application; ‒ procedure and conditions for material liability of the parties to employment contract, including the procedure for compensation for harm to life and health of employees caused in connection with the performance of their employment duties; ‒ peculiarities of statutory regulation of work of certain categories of workers; ‒ system of state statistical reporting on occupational health and safety. The most important tasks and functional responsibilities of labor protection management are as follows: 1) creation of the legal framework for activities of all authorities and economic entities and rights

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in the field of labor protection and 2) long-term (economic) and operational (administrative) management of all of the activities. The purpose of the state control is to ensure compliance with safety requirements and labor protection. State control is exercised by the state labor inspector checking the performance of occupational health and safety requirements by the employer or employee. Inspections can be scheduled or unscheduled. A scheduled inspection is a planned inspection, which is the responsibility of an authorized state labor body or its territorial division, taking into account the time intervals established by the laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan with respect to previous inspections. It can be integrated, i.e. conducted in conjunction with other regulatory agencies. With respect to one individual or legal entity, a scheduled inspection may be carried out no more than once a year, while for small businesses; it is once every three years. Unscheduled inspections are carried out when individuals or legal entities, or public authorities apply signalling violations of occupational health and safety requirements, and when the state labor inspector establishes facts that are hazardous to the life and health of workers and require immediate elimination of violations of health and safety requirements. In case of an unscheduled inspection, scheduled inspections are postponed to the other time. Duration of the inspection, except some special cases, should not exceed ten calendar days. Before the start of the inspection, the State Labor Inspector provides the employer with the following documents related to the service certificate; a scheduled inspection act registered according to the laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan; permission of the competent authority to visit high-security facilities, where necessary. Persons preventing performance of official duties by the state labor inspector will be subject to liability in accordance with the laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Information about the inspection and its results is entered into the inspections log of the employer. When establishing violations of labor

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legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, depending on the established violations, the state labor inspector issues the following documents: 1) prescriptions: on elimination of health and safety requirements; on preventive works on occupational health and safety at facilities and production equipment, including production processes, in order to prevent the occurrence of trauma and emergency situations; on prohibition or temporary cessation of the use of certain productions, shops, facilities, workplaces, equipment and general activities of the organization itself. The effect of the act prohibiting the activities of the organization is valid until a court decision is issued. In case of elimination of violation by the employer before the expiration of three days, the state labor inspector who issued the act, or the chief state labor inspector of a city or a region, invalidates the act prohibiting activities of the organization. 2) administrative violation report; 3) resolution about termination of works in connection with the administrative violation case; 4) resolution in the case of administrative violation. Legal measures against violation of the HSE requirements by employers are presented in the form of acts of the state labor inspector. These acts must be executed by officials ‒ individuals and legal entities. Regulatory and legal HSE acts must satisfy the following requirements: 1) determine the priority of health and life of workers, related to the results of production activities; 2) grant workers the right to have working conditions that meet safety and health requirements; 3) include the rules, procedures and criteria aimed at preserving health and life of workers in the course of their professional activities; 4) provide formulation of uniform requirements in the field of HSE; 5) divide the rights and obligations between employees, officials and the head of the organization in accordance with the labor legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of occupational safety and health; 6) ensure implementation of the agreed measures of an authorized

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government body on labor, representatives of employers and employees in the field of health and safety; 7) comply with legislative and other higher regulatory legal acts in the field of health and safety, as well as international treaties approved by the Republic of Kazakhstan. The relevant authorized state organizations, in accordance with their authority, develop draft regulatory acts in the field of health and safety. Regulatory legal acts in the field of HSE are subject to state registration with the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan and are effective from the date of official publication. The employer develops health and safety instructions for each profession unit, shop, service, laboratory and organization in general, and for certain types of jobs and workplaces. Instructions can also be developed on a contractual basis by specialists of a scientific institution in the field of occupational safety and labor protection under application of an employer or organization. Such instructions are developed in accordance with the regulatory and legal acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan on occupational safety and labor protection taking into account safety requirements that are set out in the process documentation of employer and manufacturing environment and in the documentation of equipment manufacturers for operation and repair. The instructions should reflect the name of the instruction, which specifies for what type of work and for what profession it is intended and brief characteristics of the technological process [9]. The statement of requirements is influenced by the sequence of technological process and consideration of the conditions in which the work is performed. Instructions should include: 1) General HSE requirements; 2) HSE before starting work; 3) HSE during work; 4) HSE in emergency situations; 5) HSE after work. Instructions must be coordinated by HSE and labor protection service or by a person in charge and other interested structural units, officials and representatives of employees, and they are approved by the employer only after agreement. Instructions on occupations or types of work in case of increased danger should be reviewed at least once every three years. The instructions are revised before the appointed time when statutory acts

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and standards of the Republic of Kazakhstan are amended, when new technology or equipment is introduced, based on the results of investigations of occupational accidents, emergencies and disasters. 4.3. State Regulatory Occupational Safety Requirements With the observance of state regulatory safety requirements, working conditions are provided; the employer carries out labor protection measures; state expertise of labor is estimated; state supervision and control over their observance, etc. Procedures, criteria and rules under which it is possible to preserve life and health of workers in the process of their work are established in accordance with the state health and safety regulatory requirements, which are included in laws and other regulatory legal acts. The component part of the legal system of the Republic of Kazakhstan is represented by generally recognized principles and norms of international law and international treaties of the Republic of Kazakhstan in accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Therefore, in accordance with Article 10 of the Labor Code of RK employment contracts, agreements between parties on social partnership, collective agreements, employer acts in the field of labor, where an international contract of the Republic of Kazakhstan establishes other rules than those provided by labor legislation and acts containing labor law standards, then the rules of the international treaty are used. From this it follows that state regulatory requirements for occupation and safety may also be included in them.

Chapter 5

PREPARATION FOR HSE TRAINING AND TESTING THE KNOWLEDGE OF LABOR PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR WORKERS

5.1. Content and purpose of HSE training Creating a corporate labor safety management system, one should not forget that the employee is the weakest link in the entire safety management system. Each person has different professionally important qualities: activity, dynamism (working capacity, work rhythm, and initiative); vitality (physical condition, endurance, mobility, and optimism); degree of development of the sensory sphere (senses); aggressiveness or suggestibility (a tendency to self-affirmation or a tendency to resort to help and protection); sensitivity, sociability, allocentrism (putting oneself in the place of another person for better understanding of his actions) or egocentrism (accepting others only through one’s own “self”); emotionality; spontaneity or slowness of reactions; level of mental energy (ability to resist, self-control, coordination of various tendencies); a large or small field of consciousness (ability of simultaneous susceptibility of several objects or focusing on one isolated from others); practical mind, logical mind, creative mind, etc. The “competence” of workers is influenced by purely professional requirements, including required physical efforts or mental work, general education and quick wittedness, professional knowledge, previous work experience, special skills, personal discipline and responsibility. The level of professional training of each employee, including HSE training, must be in compliance with their profession, position and the type of work, even if it is temporary. 33

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An employer who has several subdivisions in his enterprise should ensure timely professional training and retraining of workers, their professional development, both on-job or in the classroom, aimed at successful work management. When studying any issues, some part of the time should be spent on reviewing labor protection requirements. Moreover, in all departments the employer must create conditions for teaching and learning labor protection requirements, as well as their testing; for training, including safe working methods and techniques for performance of work; for training, certification and testing of knowledge on the production safety of workers using hazardous facilities, instruction on the performance of safety and health regulations; HSE orientation, training at workplace. Any person who did not undergo HSE training, instruction and testing of knowledge on a timely basis is not allowed to work. Positive results will be achieved through training based on clearly defined needs of a particular workplace, taking into account pedagogical methods of adult training. As far as possible, training in occupational safety and health can be linked to training in the professional skills of safe and productive work. The level of skills and knowledge of workers should also be taken into account. In addition, it is reasonable to create conditions for regular practical consolidation of acquired knowledge and skills in the workplace. Organization of such conditions should be included in the daily duties of managers, specialists, authorized persons and labor protection commissions. It can be implemented through systematic supervision over workplace activities, acceptance of correctly performed works and a daily reminder through notifications and brief meetings. 5.2. Training of Managers and Specialists According to the international and Russian experience, where there is training of workers in occupational safety and health requirements, occupational injuries and occupational morbidity are significantly reduced. One of the most important elements in prevention of

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industrial injuries and occupational morbidity is influenced by continuous multi-level targeted improvement of professional literacy and competence of personnel in the field of labor protection. Training and examination of labor protection knowledge of all workers and managers of the organization is carried out in accordance with GOST 12.0.004-90 “System of occupational safety standards. Organization of occupational safety training. General provisions”; “Rules and terms of training, instructing and assessment of workers’ knowledge on occupational health and safety”, approved by the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan No. 1225 dated October 28, 2011. In addition, the procedure of occupational safety training in special works is established in accordance with safety rules approved in the established manner, or when certain technological processes and types of works are performed in accordance with the national standards of the SOSS system. If a person is working only the first month, special training in labor protection is conducted by managers and specialists of organizations, depending on the scope of official duties, then as often as necessary, as a rule, once every three years. Occupational safety training of managers and specialists is carried out either by the organization itself or by the third-party training institutions licensed to conduct educational activities, having appropriate materials and resources and teaching staff of specialists in occupational health and safety. Training for managers and specialists in the organization is conducted based on the work training programs in labor protection, developed in accordance with the model curricula and programs and approved by the head of the organization. Training of managers and specialists is conducted through lectures, seminars, individual or group consultations, interviews, business games, etc.; use of elements of self-study of occupational safety program, modular and computer programs, as well as distance learning. Theoretical knowledge of occupational safety requirements and practical skills of workers is checked by work managers within the

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required scope of knowledge, requirements, rules and instructions in safety and health. An unscheduled assessment of knowledge of occupational safety requirements by the workers, regardless of the time of the previous inspection, is conducted if: ‒ new statutory acts are introduced or supplements and alterations are made to the existing statutory acts and other regulatory legal acts with labor protection requirements. The assessment of knowledge is carried out only on the basis of such legislative and regulatory acts; ‒ new equipment is put into operation and changes are introduced into technological processes requiring additional knowledge of labor protection from workers. This case involves assessment of knowledge of labor protection requirements associated with the changes made; ‒ employees are assigned or transferred to another job, where new duties require additional occupational safety knowledge before the start of work; ‒ required by labor inspection officials, other state supervision and control bodies, and the employer, or an authorized person, in case of violations of labor protection requirements and insufficient knowledge of safety and health requirements; ‒ accidents have occurred, as well as repeated violations by employees of the requirements of regulatory and legal acts on labor protection; ‒ an interruption for more than one year in working in this position [10]. The party initiating the unscheduled assessment of knowledge of labor protection requirements determines its scope and procedure. In order to assess the knowledge of workers in organizations, the employer (manager) by order or instruction creates a commission consisting of three people who have passed training and assessment of their knowledge of labor protection requirements. The Commission for Assessment of Knowledge of Labor Protection Requirements of the Organization may consist of the head of the organization and its structural subdivisions; labor protection service specialists, chief specialists (technologist, mechanics, power engineer,

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etc.). Assessment of workers’ knowledge of labor protection requirements is carried out in accordance with the statutory legal acts on labor protection, in compliance with the requirements included in their duties, taking into account their duties and the type of production activities. The protocol includes the result of assessment of the knowledge of the occupational safety requirements of the organization’s employees. In case of successful examination an employee is given a certificate signed by the chairman of the commission for assessment of knowledge of labor protection requirements, certified by the stamp of the organization that conducted training and knowledge test. An employee who does not pass the assessment of knowledge of labor protection requirements during training is obliged to retake the exam not later than within one month. The training organization and the employer of the organization are responsible for the quality of training and implementation of the approved occupational safety programs, in the order established by the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The state labor inspectorate supervises timely assessment of the knowledge of the labor protection requirements of workers and managers. 5.3. Instructing and training in the first aid techniques The employer is obliged to provide instructions on labor protection, to organize training in safe working methods and techniques and first aid techniques for all new workers and persons transferred to another job. Persons, who have not undergone occupational safety training and instruction in the prescribed manner, are not admitted to work. In accordance with the established procedure, an introductory instruction is conducted by an occupational safety specialist or an employee who is assigned to fulfill these duties by the employer’s order

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for newly employed persons, as well as for workers from third-party organizations who work in a special area, and also for students of educational institutions of the corresponding levels undergoing internship in the organization, and other persons participating in the production activity of the organization. Based on legislative and other regulatory acts, local acts of the employer, taking into account the specificity of the employer’s production activities, a program is developed and approved by the employer, according to which an introductory instruction on labor protection is provided. In addition to the introductory instruction on occupational safety, there is an initial instruction at the workplace, and repeated, unscheduled and targeted instructions. Initial instruction at the workplace, repeated, unscheduled and targeted instructions are conducted by a direct supervisor (supervisor, foreman, teacher, etc.) trained in labor protection and assessed for the knowledge of occupational safety requirements. Instructions on labor protection are conducted to introduce workers to the existing hazardous or harmful production factors, to study occupational safety requirements, which contain local regulations of the employer, including instructions for labor protection, technical, operational documentation, and safe working methods. Occupational safety instructions with oral assessment of the knowledge and skills acquired by an employee are conducted by the person who conducted the introductory instruction. For registration of any types of instructions, there are corresponding instruction logs (in some cases, it is work permits), which have signatures of the instructor and the trainee, and the date of the instruction. All newly employed workers, including workers who perform work on the terms of an employment contract, for up to two months or for the period of seasonal works, part-timers — who perform work in their spare time, homeworkers who work from home using materials, tools and mechanisms acquired at their own expense or provided by their employer; all newly employed workers; em-

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ployees transferred from another structural division, or employees transferred from another structural unit or employees who have been assigned to perform work that is new for them; workers of third-party employees, students of educational institutions of the appropriate level undergoing professional training, and other persons involved in the production activities of the employer or organization, prior to the commencement of independent work, must undergo initial instruction at the workplace. Initial instruction at the workplace is carried out by the heads of structural units of the organization under the programs developed in accordance with statutory and regulatory requirements on labor protection, local statutory acts of the organization, occupational safety instructions, technical and operational documentation and approved in the prescribed manner. Workers whose work is not related to operation, maintenance, testing, commissioning and repair of equipment, using electrified or other tools, storing and using raw and other materials, are exempted from the first instruction at the workplace. The employer approves the list of occupations and positions of employees that are subject to exemption from attending introductory instruction at the workplace. Repeated instruction is conducted for all workers who have passed the introductory instruction, at least once every six months, in accordance with the programs developed for initial instruction at the workplace. An unscheduled instruction depends on: ‒ introduction of new statutory and other regulatory acts, instructions on labor protection or amendments thereto; ‒ change of technological processes, replacement or modernization of equipment, fixtures, tools, etc.; ‒ violation of labor protection requirements by workers creating a real threat of occurrence of serious consequences (industrial accident, breakdown, etc.); ‒ requirement of officials who are members of state supervision and control bodies;

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‒ interruption in work (more than 30 calendar days for work where the worker is exposed to harmful and hazardous conditions, more than two months for other types of work); ‒ decision of the employer. One-shot works; liquidation of the consequences of accidents and natural disasters; carrying out work with getting a special permit, authorization or other special documents; organization of mass events in the company – in all these cases targeted instruction is needed. The procedure, terms, deadlines and periodicity of all instructions on labor protection for employees of organizations and individual industries are specified in the relevant industry and intersectoral regulatory and legal acts on occupational safety and labor protection. Employer’s duties include the organization of training in safe actions and methods of performing work for those entering workplace and people transferred to another job, within a month after being hired. The procedure, form, frequency and duration of training in occupational safety and examination of knowledge of labor protection requirements for workers are established by the employer in accordance with the regulatory legal acts governing safety of specific types of works. Also, employer’s responsibility includes organization of first aid technique training for applicants for work and transferred to another job [11]. There is a need for first aid to the victims before the arrival of medical services. Providing timely assistance (in the first 30 minutes) leads to a significant reduction in the severity of the consequences of injury, including likelihood of death, a reduction in the level of disability, a reduction in the terms of rehabilitation after injury, and provides earlier return of the victim to work. First aid should be provided by a person who first appeared at the scene near an injured or a sick person. Depending on the degree of qualification, these people can be first aid professionals (doctors or medical assistants); persons with higher or secondary medical education; professional rescuers with special training in first aid, but without medical education; other persons (not having medical education), having or not having passed any first-aid training.

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Training of all workers is repeated every year to consolidate knowledge and skills of the workers and, generally, has an informational character. Experience has shown that workers in working professions with an increased risk of injury (drivers, electrical personnel, etc.), as well as one or two workers per shift in a brigade, etc. should undergo a more advanced practical training in basic first aid techniques. Training of workers in professions should be carried out by qualified, medically-trained and specially trained in first aid, instructors in specially designed programs (adapted to these professions and the needs of the organization), using appropriate training materials approved and recommended in the prescribed manner, and the necessary equipment. In addition, it is necessary to ensure the availability of first-aid equipment at workplaces, place in a visible place instructions for various methods of providing first-aid in the form of brochures, posters, illustrated textbooks and other visual materials, appoint a person responsible for maintaining the first aid facilities (first-aid kits); place in a visible place printed information about workers with first aid skills, explain to the workers actions to be taken in case of an accident at work, the use of aids, and where they can be obtained, and who from and where they should seek first aid. It is also important to provide access to first-aid kits and to have a possibility of providing help on site by a specially trained worker, including the possibility of operative communication with the medical service outside the enterprise, and delivery of an injured or sick worker to a health care institution or home where recommended. Ambulance telephone numbers must be placed in a conspicuous place, and ambulance must be able to have quick access and move through the territory of the enterprise.

Chapter 6

MECHANICAL PROTECTION

Different production equipment, regardless of its purpose, kind and type, must provide safe working conditions, and this is possible with appropriate design, ensuring reliability during operation, usage of modern, inexpensive and safe materials. It must be remembered that in various technological processes there are always so-called hazardous zones, which, if penetrated, may endanger the health and life of a person. Objects falling from a height, moving parts of machinery and equipment, etc.; various types of radiation (thermal electromagnetic, ionizing), the impact of noise and vibration; the electric current, etc. may cause injury. In view of this, collective and individual protective equipment, protecting against harmful production factors, is used as well as the possibility of automation and remote control of processes. Protective devices must exclude: hazardous contact of workers with moving parts of equipment and cutting tools; overhang of a cutting tool, moving and processed materials into a work zone; injury of workers during installation and replacement of cutting tools; moving parts of equipment going beyond the established limits; workers falling in the open manholes, tanks, and fall from a height. Protective equipment includes: fencing, safety valves, limit switches, electrical fuses, relay switches, speed limiters, brakes, shear pins, etc. Equipment should not operate with disconnected protective devices. The operation of protective devices continues until the source of danger is eliminated. We will focus on fencing equipment. Fences can be stationary (nonremovable), movable (removable) and portable. These are various grids, nets, screens, covers and other constructions of such dimensions installed so as to prevent a person’s access to a hazard zone. Along with this, they are subject to a number of require42

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ments. Fences should not: break down when the materials or cutting tools are disintegrated; reduce workplace illumination; increase noise and vibration; complicate control of the cutting tool; cleaning and adjustment of equipment. The inner surface of a fence is painted in bright colors (orange, bright red), so that it is noticeable if the fence is removed. To inform the staff about operation of machinery, equipment, etc., as well as to warn about any direct threat, deviations of technological parameters from the standard, it is extremely important that technological equipment have the necessary signaling devices. By way of presenting information, the alarm can be audible, light, and combined (light and sound). Mixing gas with odorous substances in gas supply facilities is used as a smell alarm signal of gas leak. All alarm systems, depending on their designation, are divided into operative (information about the process), warning (turns on in case of danger) and identifying (intended to identify particularly dangerous components and mechanisms of industrial equipment). Safety of equipment operation is only ensured if it has the necessary controls that meet the following basic requirements: ensuring the reliability of start-up, quick shutdown, convenience and ease of use; exclusion of the possibility of erroneous or accidental activation of the equipment as a whole and its individual mechanisms, as well as simultaneous activation of several mechanisms that can provoke their breakdown [12]. In the development of general safety requirements for industrial equipment, standards have been developed that define specific safety requirements for specific equipment. We will briefly discuss the equipment, which in one way or another is related to the educational process, in particular, experimental studies: 1) Abrasive tools are used for grinding, polishing, finishing surfaces of metal products, plastics, wood, as well as for sharpening cutting tools, cleaning moldings, etc. They are made in the form of circles, bars, segments, etc. by adding abrasive materials and their further pressing using Bakelite, ceramic and volcanized (elastic) bond. There are natural (corundum, emery, diamond) and artificial (electro

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corundum, carborundum, glass dust) abrasive materials. When working with grinding machines, the worker may be injured by breaking off particles of abraser and metal, breaking off details from the magnetic table of plain grinders; a frequent cause of injuries is a contact of worker’s hands with the grinding wheel; at heavy feeding and exceeding the permissible circumferential speed of the grinding wheel, it can break. 2) On metalworking machines, protective devices protecting the treatment area should protect workers from flying off chips and cutting coolant. The design of protective devices should not limit technological capabilities of the machine and cause inconvenience during operation. Fastening of protective devices in all cases must be reliable and not allow self-opening. For operation of a turning and drilling machines, we will consider elementary techniques that protect the worker from injury: serviceability of machine tools (including electrical safety); reliable fastening of machined parts and cutting tools; use of protective shields and personal protective equipment (glasses, masks, visors, etc.); the right choice of the tool, as well as the mode and sequence of processes; use of coolants and timely removal of chips from the machine. A widespread use of electrified and pneumatic working tools does not exclude the need for using hand tools, such as hammers, sledge hammers, screwdrivers, pliers, files, chisels, cores, etc. The main safety requirement when using a hand tool is to keep it in good condition, clean and non-greasy. Operating surface of hammers and sledge hammers should be slightly convex, but not oblique, without cold work hardening and cracks. Their handles are made of hard and viscous types of well-dried wood. Files and hacksaws must have handles with retaining rings. Chisels, notches, cores, etc. cannot be used if they have cracks, burrs and peening. Timeliness and competence of first aid at the occurrence location are of great importance, affecting life and health of the person who suffered any damage. Traumatic injuries, regardless of violation or non-violation of integrity of integument (skin, mucous membrane), can be open (wounds,

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injuries) or closed. Damage to body tissues, where the integrity of the outer integuments of human body throughout their entire depth is destructed, is called a wound. Depending on the type of wounding instrument, wounds can be cut, slashed, stab, lacerated, contused and gunshot. Cut and slashed wounds include wounds, usually with even borders, with slightly damaged tissues, bleeding and quickly healing, leaving a thin scar. Stab wounds have a long and narrow wound tract, often penetrating into the body cavity and internal organs located there. The characteristic of lacerated and contused wounds is insignificant bleeding, a large range of tissue damage, followed by a large number of dying off tissues creating favorable conditions for the development of suppurative process and spreading of infection. The wound healing process is slow. There are single and multiple wounds, and combined wounds where several organs are injured by a wounding tool; combined wounds can have a form of a mechanical injury and a burn. First aid for wounds is provided at the accident location with observance of the following conditions: 1) temporary hemostasis; 2) rapid wound closing with an aseptic dressing that helps stop capillary bleeding and reduces pain to a certain extent. Bandaging is made under strict observance of the following rules: 1) the wound cannot be washed with anything, no foreign bodies are removed, hands do not touch the wound; 2) a non-sterile bandaging is not applied to the wound and is not contaminated by other means; 3) skin around the wound is smeared with tincture of iodine and closed with an aseptic bandage. When standard aseptic bandaging is not available, other previously prepared materials can be used (sheets, pillowcases, clothing). An important factor in wound treatment is creation of the maximum possible immobility for the injured part of the body. In case of bone fractures, with extensive wounds and soft tissue compressions, the part is immobilized. Substantial anti-shock measures include hemostasis and immobilization [13]. Outpouring of blood from a broken blood vessel is called bleeding. Based on the type of the damaged vessel, bleeding can be arte-

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rial, venous, capillary and parenchymal. Arterial bleeding is the most dangerous, since blood in the arteries comes directly from the heart under high pressure. Damaged veins result in venous bleeding. Blood flows in a steady and continuous stream slowly, because blood pressure in veins is much lower than in arteries. Damage to the smallest capillary blood vessels leads to capillary bleeding. With normal blood clotting ability, such bleeding stops on its own. Damage to parenchymal internal organs (liver, spleen, kidney, etc.), which have a very well-developed network of all types of vessels, results in parenchymal hemorrhage, it almost never stops spontaneously. Such bleeding is dangerous due to the closed nature and duration. Bone fractures are complex and severe injuries, resulting in partial or complete disruption of bones caused by fast-acting force. There are closed fractures (without skin damage) and open fractures (skin damage in the area of the fracture). Depending on the fracture plane, they can be cross-sectional, longitudinal, oblique, comminuted, etc. The first thing that arises as a result of a fracture is pain. Because of this, the diagnosis is often facilitated in the absence of other symptoms of fissures and bone fractures. With the displacement of bone fragments in the fracture, the fracture place is subsequently deformed, which is more easily detected during comparative examination of a damaged and a healthy limb. Deformations at different locations of fractures largely determined by the nature of bone fragments displacement may be different. All fractures entail dysfunction of limbs. The appearance of abnormal mobility throughout the bone is a characteristic sign of fracture. As a rule, in fractures, shortening of the damaged limb is observed (determined by comparison with a healthy limb). Bone crepitus is observed in case of displacement of bone fragments in relation to each other. When providing first aid for fractures, the most important thing is timely and proper immobilization, i.e. creation of complete rest and immobility of the affected limb. Then pain is reduced and the probability of traumatic shock decreases; the risk of occurrence and development of wound infections with open fractures also decreases; the risk of additional damage to soft tissues and internal organs is reduced;

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favorable conditions are created for healing of fractures. Transport immobilization is provided by splints. Splints are made of hard, durable and elastic material. Usually, when rendering first aid, splints can be made from available materials (boards, sticks, rods, etc.). In hazardous conditions or extreme situations people often get various burns. A burn is a damage to the body tissues caused by high temperature (flame, hot steam, boiling water) or some chemicals (acids, alkalis). A special form of burns are radiation burns (solar, radiation, X-ray, etc.). There are 4 degrees of burns (depending on the depth of the tissue damage): 1st degree ‒ redness and swelling of the skin at the site of lesion; symptoms disappear within a few days; 2nd degree – in addition to the signs of 1st degree burn, there is also the development of blisters filled with liquid; symptoms disappear within one or one and a half weeks; 3rd degree ‒ necrosis of the entire skin thickness with the development of eschar (coagulation of white tissue) covering the burnt surface; several weeks of treatment are needed; 4th degree ‒ necrosis of skin and soft tissues until bone is charred; treatment is very slow. If a burn injury was sustained in a fire, then a dry aseptic dressing is applied to the burnt surface of the injured person. It is not recommended to clean the burned surface and pierce the blisters. When exposed to low temperatures, individual parts of the body can be frost-bitten (most often, these are legs, fingers, toes, ears, nose and cheeks). Frostbite is damage to the tissues of the body caused by exposure to low temperature. In this case, there are also 4 degrees of frostbite. First aid for frostbite is to restore blood circulation to the affected tissues as quickly as possible, for which purpose rapid warming through rubbing the frost-bitten areas with a dry palm is used. No rubbing with snow is allowed.

Chapter 7

SAFETY OF PRESSURIZED SYSTEMS

In many industrial enterprises, in repair services, in everyday life, in technological processes, etc., various increased pressure systems are used everywhere: cylinders and vessels that store and transport compressed, liquefied and dissolved gases; steam and water boilers; pipelines; gas-holders, etc. The listed equipment is called pressure vessels. A pressure vessel is a hermetically sealed container designed to store and transport compressed, liquefied and dissolved gases, liquids under pressure, and to control chemical and thermal processes. The boundaries of the vessel are the input and output fittings. From this definition it can be seen that the main safety requirement for a vessel is to maintain tightness throughout its use. Leak tightness means that liquids and gases do not penetrate through the walls and joints that limit the internal volumes of the vessels. Vacuum units and equipment also require compliance with tightness conditions. Depressurization of vessels under pressure is often accompanied by the appearance of a number of hazards. One of these dangers is associated with explosion of a vessel or a pressurized unit. An explosion is a fast-flowing process in which a large amount of energy is released in a limited volume, in the surrounding space resulting in the development and spread of a shock wave that creates a threat to life and health of people. An explosion can also lead to the destruction of a building or its parts, where pressure vessels may be located, and personnel may be injured by detonating fragments of equipment in case of explosion. The other hazard is caused by the properties of substances kept in the pressurized equipment. People can get thermal burns if a depressurized facility contained substances with a high or low temperature. Workers may be poisoned or burned if there are aggressive substances 48

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in the container. In case of depressurization of containers with radioactive substances, a radiation hazard arises. There are several main types of pressure vessels and units. Structures designed to transport liquids and gases are pipelines. Cylinders are the vessels for transportation and storage of compressed and dissolved gases. Cryogenic vessels are intended for storage and transportation of various liquefied gases, such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, etc. Gas holders are devices designed to store and release large quantities of compressed gases, separate mechanical impurities from them, and for other purposes. Steam boilers are devices that have a furnace heated by the products of the fuel burned in this furnace. Its purpose is to produce steam above atmospheric pressure, used outside the device itself. In addition to steam boilers, there are water boilers, waste heat boilers as well as autoclaves and compressors [14]. To ensure normal operating conditions all vessels should be equipped with devices measuring pressure and temperature; safety devices; stop valves; liquid level gauges. Manufacturing, installation and repair of vessels and their elements are fulfilled according to the technology developed by the manufacturing plant. Structurally, cylinder is a vessel that has one or two necks with openings for screwing valves or fittings. When calculating the strength, manufacturing and operation of cylinders impose additional requirements. For example, for cylinders made of seamless pipes, the safety factor is taken at least three. All cylinders, with the exception of acetylene cylinders, are subject to certification, which includes: a) an inspection of the internal and external surfaces of the cylinder; b) checking the weight and capacity; c) hydraulic testing. Cylinders with a capacity of 100 liters inclusive do not have safety valves and certificates. Cylinders with such a capacity, in the upper spherical part have stamps with the following data: a) trademark of the manufacturer; b) cylinder numbers; c) real weight of an empty cylinder; d) date (month, year) of manufacturing and the year of the next survey; e) working pressure; e) hydraulic test pressure; g) cylinder capacity; h) stamps of the quality control department of the manufacturer. To prevent improper connections of the

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cylinder, the closing valves are manufactured in various sizes and with different thread hands (right or left), so as not to lead to the development of explosive mixtures. Cylinders also have distinctive colors of coloring and inscriptions (see Table 1). Table 1 Gas Nitrogen Ammonia Pure argon Acetylene Butane Hydrogen Air Helium Nitrogen oxide Oxygen Methane Carbonic acid gas Freon refrigerant 11 (Freon 11) Chloride Ethylene Other combustible gases Other incombustible gas

Cylinder color Black

Inscription

Yellow Gray White Red Green Black Brown Gray Blue Red Black Aluminum

Ammonia Pure argon Acetylene Butane Hydrogen Compressed air Helium Nitrogen oxide Oxygen Methane Carbonic acid gas Freon refrigerant 11 (Freon 11) Ethylene Gas name Gas name

Khaki Purple Red Black

Nitrogen

Color of Inscription Yellow Black Green Red Yellow Red White White Black Black White Yellow Black Red White Yellow

Strip Color Brown Green Blue Green -

Periodicity of testing cylinders for non-corrosive gases is 5 years, and 2 years for gases causing corrosion. The filling rate of cylinders with liquefied gases must imply the presence of a gaseous space in accordance with the relevant standards. Cylinders are supplied with gear units, reducing gas pressure in the cylinder, up to the value of the working pressure under which it should flow into the burner, cutter or lower pressure vessels. The gear unit, reducing the pressure automatically keeps it constant at the out-

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let. It is equipped with two pressure gauges showing the pressure in the cylinder and the working pressure (at the outlet). Storage and transportation of cylinders carried out according to the relevant requirements. Warehouses storing cylinders filled with gases should have one storey with light type covering and no attic. They are made of fireproof materials. Doors and windows should open outwards. The warehouse must have natural or artificial ventilation. Compliance with the standards for premises hazardous to explosions is taken into account when setting up lighting. Cylinders cannot be placed at a distance that is less than 1 m from heaters and stoves or closer than 5 m to the sources of open fire. Cylinders are stored in the upright position in specially equipped sockets, cages and behind barriers that prevent them from falling. In the absence of shoes, cylinders are stored on wooden frames or racks in a horizontal position. Cylinders stored in the open air must be protected from direct sunlight and precipitation. Gas cylinders are transported in horizontal position with gaskets between the cylinders, such as wooden bars with nests cut therein or two rubber or rope rings are put on the cylinders. All cylinder valves are on one side. Manually cylinders are transported on stretchers or on carts. Joint transportation of filled and empty oxygen and acetylene cylinders on any types of transport is prohibited. When using cylinders under pressure, and during their transportation and storage, it is necessary to remember and follow all the safety rules prescribed in regulatory documents. In case of their violation, a cylinder explosion may occur resulting in serious consequences. For example, it is strictly forbidden to operate oxygen cylinders when fatty substances or oils get into the outlet openings of the cylinder valve, as they may ignite when oxygen goes out of the cylinder. It is prohibited to store cylinders of oxygen and combustible gases together. No gas temperature change in the cylinder (a change of 1°C changes pressure by about 0.05 MPa) can be allowed. A significant excess pressure and temperature may cause an explosion. Consider the dangers that may arise during operation of steam and hot water boilers, possible consequences and measures to elim-

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inate them. The greatest danger is an explosion. During explosion, instantaneous evaporation of water located in the boiler under pressure and temperature above 100°C occurs. A huge amount of steam is formed (1 liter of water, turning into steam, increases in volume by about 1700 times), which is the cause of great destruction. Failure of steam boilers may occur due to lack of water, inadequacy of feeding mechanisms, water indicating instruments, poor knowledge of safety rules by operating personnel, or poor production discipline. There is a danger of development and accumulation of scale on individual elements of the boiler, which is observed in case of irregular boiler cleaning. Scale, having a low thermal conductivity coefficient, contributes to the overheating of the boiler elements and metal softening. Therefore, water placed inside the boiler is treated to reduce scale formation. It is also possible to soften water by adding softening agents into the boiler along with water. Regulatory requirements for the safe operation of boiler equipment apply to steam boilers with a furnace; recovery boilers; steamer boilers; water boilers with burners.

Chapter 8

LABOR PROTECTION WHEN WORKING WITH ELECTRIC CURRENT

8.1. Ensuring electrical safety and main causes of electrical injury Electrical units, devices and components are widely used in all industries and in everyday life. Hand-held electric tools are used on a large scale. The majority of workers are working with the electric power. Electric current with improper handling or non-compliance with the established requirements is a serious danger. According to statistics, 75-80% of lethal electric shock occurs in electrical units with voltages up to 1000 V, primarily in installations with voltages from 220 to 380 V [15]. In order to ensure safe working conditions when operating at electrical installations, it is necessary to know how electric current affects the human body, what protection measures against electric shock should be taken in certain conditions, how to provide adequate aid to a person who was affected by the electric current, etc. Any organized motion of charge carriers is called electric current. In metals, electrons serve as charge carriers, which are negatively charged particles with an elementary charge. The current is characterized by the amount of electricity passing through the cross section of a conductor over a short period of time: i = dq / dt. Electric current is called alternating ‒ if its strength or direction, or both, change over time, and direct ‒ if its characteristics do not change. The unit of current strength in the SI system is ampere (A).

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Electric current has a versatile effect on the human body. The impact of electric current passing through the human body and affecting various systems of the body is thermal, electrolytic and biological. This leads to violation of operation of vital organs of a person, such as brain, heart and lungs. It is generally accepted to distinguish two types of electrical injuries: general (electrical shocks) and local. Distinct local body lesions, such as electrical signs, electrical burns, skin metallization, and mechanical damage are local electrical injuries. The effect of electric arc on the human body or passage of the current through it causes electrical burns. Electric arc burns have serious consequences and are the most dangerous (necrosis of the affected area of the skin and charring of tissues), since the temperature of the electric arc reaches several thousand degrees. Burns accompany about 2/3 of all electrical injuries. Electric marks appear on the skin in places where electric current has passed, in the form of clearly outlined spots of gray or pale yellow color, 1-5 mm in diameter. Usually, these spots are cured and later the affected skin becomes normal. Electric signs are found on average in every fifth person who has suffered an electric shock. Due to penetration of tiny metal particles into the upper skin layers, evaporated or melted under the action of an electric arc, skin metallization occurs. This type of damage can also arise as a result of electrolytic effect of the current. The affected skin gradually comes off, painful feelings disappear and the affected area takes on a natural look. Skin metallization occurs approximately in every tenth victim. Abrupt involuntary convulsive muscle contractions under the action of a current passing through a person cause mechanical damage in the form of tears of the skin and various tissues, dislocations, etc. There are various and numerous causes of accidents from electric current, the main of which, when working with electric installations with a voltage of up to 1000 V, are caused by accidental contact with live parts; touching parts of electrical installations that are non-conductive but live due to insulation damage or other malfunction; ground short circuit of the wire and occurrence of step voltage on the ground surface; getting under voltage due to an erroneous switching on of disconnected electrical equipment during repair works.

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The use of various technical and organizational measures, which are regulated by current regulatory documents, ensures safety in operation with electrical installations. The most common means and methods of electrical protection are insulation of conductive parts, their continuous monitoring; warning alarm and blocking; use of safety signs and warning posters; installation of protective devices; protective grounding; potential equalization; neutral wire earthing; use of small voltages; electrical separation of networks; protective disconnection; individual electrical protection. One of the basic electrical safety measures is insulation of conductive parts. According to regulatory documents, the conductive parts of electrical units relative to the ground must have an insulation resistance of at least 0.5-10 Mohm. There are operational, double and reinforced operational insulations. Insulation, which ensures normal operation of electrical installation and protection of personnel from the electric current effect, is called operational. Double insulation consists of operational and supplementary, which provides increased electrical safety (hand-held power tools, household electrical appliances, etc.). Double insulation resistance should be 5 Mohm, which is 10 times the resistance of an ordinary operational insulation. Reinforced operational insulation is an operational insulation made so that the resistance of the insulation is at least 5 Mohm. There are basic and supplementary isolating materials. Main tools, such as insulating rods and clip-on current transformers, electrician gloves, tools with insulated handles, voltage indicators, reliably withstand the operating voltage (up to 1000 V). The insulation of a person is enhanced by additional electrical protective measures, which are insulating overshoes and dielectric rubber mats. Short-circuit on the frame of the electrical equipment causes voltage therein, which can lead to the electric trauma or occurrence of a fire. In this case, protection of people is provided by protective earthing, grounding and safety shutdown. Protective grounding is intentional connection of metal non-current-carrying parts of electrical and production machinery that may be energized to the ground or its equivalent. Grounding terminals can be natural or artificial. Resis-

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tance of grounding terminals at voltages of up to 1000 V should not exceed 4 Ohm. Earthing switches can be natural and artificial. Neutral wire earthing (nulling) is an intentional connection of electrical equipment frames with a repeatedly grounded neutral wire. The main safety requirement for nulling is to ensure reliable and fast protection operation. Neutral wire earthing protection is safety shutdown. It is recommended in addition to or instead of grounding [16]. An important issue of electrical safety is lightning protection. During thunderstorm, discharges of atmospheric electricity with a voltage of up to 150000000 V and a current of up to 200000 A, can not only cause damage to people and animals, but also explosions, ignition and destruction of ground objects. Lightning is a special type of electric current penetration through huge air gaps, the source of which is atmospheric charge accumulated in a thundercloud. In order to ensure people’s safety, preservation of buildings and structures against various impacts associated with a thunderstorm discharge, lightning protection is used. The standards establish three categories of lightning protection devices depending on the explosive and fire hazard, capacity, fire resistance and the purpose of the protected facilities, and taking into account the average thunderstorm activity a year in the geographical area of the facility location. The lightning current acts in three ways: by a direct strike, by secondary effect of the lightning charge, and by transfer of high potentials (voltages) to the buildings. The greatest danger is a direct lightning strike, which can cause mechanical or thermal destruction of a facility. The essence of the secondary impact of a lightning discharge is the potential induced in open metal circuits inside buildings, which causes sparking, heating of metal structures, and even a fire or an explosion. There is also a possibility of high electrical potentials entering the protected building through external metal structures and utilities. To protect against lightning strike, lightning conductors (lightning rods) are arranged, which take in lightning and divert its current to the ground. There are two types of lightning arresters: rod and groundwire. They can stand alone, isolated and non-isolated from the

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57

protected building or structure. It should be taken into account that lightning primarily strikes high and well grounded metal structures. The lightning rod protection zone is part of the space adjacent to the lightning rod, which provides protection of the structure against direct lightning strikes with a degree of reliability (99%). The risk of electric shock largely depends on the environment and the situation. Dampness, heat, caustic vapors and gases, conductive dust destroy the insulation of electrical installations, which significantly reduces their resistance. There is a danger of voltage transition to non-live parts of electrical equipment. In addition, in such conditions, electrical resistance of the human body decreases, which increases the risk of electric shock. Hazard will be exacerbated by the presence of current-carrying floors. According to the electrical installation rules, all premises are classified into 3 classes: 1) premises without an increased risk ‒ dry, at normal air temperature, with non-conductive floors; 2) premises with increased danger ‒ humid, with a relative air humidity of more than 75%, temperature, continuously exceeding 30 °C, floors made of conductive materials, with current-carrying process dust; 3) highly hazardous rooms ‒ with a humidity of approximately 100%, with a chemically active environment, having two or more conditions inherent to class 2 rooms. To ensure electrical safety in rooms of classes 2 and 3 it is necessary to use the reduced voltage current. Examples: Class 1 ‒ offices, laboratories with precision instruments; Class 2 – storage and unheated premises; Class 3 ‒ all workshops of machine-building plants: galvanic and storage batteries, etc. The difference between the danger of electric shock and other various risks is that a person cannot detect current without special devices at a distance and will not be able to take measures to avoid this danger. According to the statistics of electrical injuries, it follows that the death rate from the electric current is 2.7%, which is much more in relation to injuries in general. This indicates that electrical injury is predominantly lethal. In accordance with the Electrical Installation Regulations (EIR), all electrical installations are divided into 2 groups: a group of electri-

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cal installations at voltages of up to 1000 V (1kV); a group of electrical installations with a voltage higher than 1000V (1 kV). It is noted that when working with electrical installations with a voltage of up to 1000V, the number of accidents increases three times than when working with electrical installations with a voltage higher than 1000V. How is this explained? It can be explained by the fact that installations with a voltage of up to 1000V have wider application, and it is also influenced by the fact that more people come into contact with electrical equipment, who usually do not have special knowledge in electrical engineering [17]. Electrical equipment above 1000V is less common, it is only serviced by highly qualified electrical personnel. The most common causes of electrical injuries are determined by: ‒ voltage on the equipment frame, on metal structures, etc., i.e. in those places where under normal conditions there should be no voltage, which most often occurs when insulation is damaged; ‒ the possibility of touching live parts that are not isolated in the absence of appropriate fencing; ‒ the action of an electric arc on a person who is at a close distance to current-carrying parts, which occurs between the current-carrying part and a person in grids at voltages above 1000 V; ‒ other reasons, which include non-coordinated and erroneous actions of personnel, supplying voltage to the installation when people perform work, leaving the electrical installation turned on without proper control, permit to work on the disconnected electrical equipment, without checking the absence of voltage, etc. 8.2. Effect of electric shock on the human body Electric current passing through living tissues has various effects. They are thermal, electrolytic or biological. This provokes various disorders in the body, leading not only to local damage to tissues and organs, but also to general damage to the body.

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Only unpleasant feelings are observed at low currents of up to 5mA. Freezing current (long current action) ‒ the current is greater than 10-15 mA, at which a person himself cannot get released from the current-carrying parts. Prolonged exposure to such a current can result in various kinds of electrical injuries. The most severe electrical shock is an electric shock when the internal organs of a person are affected. Long-term exposure to currents of several tens of milliamperes and duration of 15-20 seconds entail respiratory paralysis and death. At currents of 50–80 mA, heart fibrillation is observed, accompanied by irregular heart contraction and relaxation of the muscle fibers of the heart, as a result of which blood circulation may stop and heart arrest may occur. In case of respiratory paralysis and cardioplegia, functions of the organs are unable to recover on their own, and in this case there is a need for first aid in the form of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. With a short-term exposure to large currents, there is neither respiratory paralysis nor heart fibrillation. However, in this case there is a drastic contraction of the heart muscle and until the current is turned off, it remains in this state, after which it continues to function. A lethal current is a current of 100 mA, and 2-3 second exposure thereto is fatal. The result of thermal effect of the current passing through the human body or when a person touches hot parts of electrical equipment or in the exposure to an electric arc, are burns. Especially severe burns occur in exposure to an electric arc. Electric marks are skin lesions that occur at the points of contact with the electrodes. They are gray or white-yellow in color, have a round or elliptical shape with a diameter of 5-10 mm with clearly defined edges. They are caused by mechanical and chemical effects of the current. They may not appear immediately after passing of an electric current. Marks are actually painless, inflammatory processes around them are not observed. The location of lesion is determined by swelling. Healing of small marks goes well; however, large marks are often accompanied by necrosis of the tissues (usually hands).

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Skin electro metallization is penetration of tiny metal particles into skin due to its spraying and evaporation as a result of exposure to current or when arc is burning. The damaged area of the ​​ skin has a hard, rough surface, and the affected person feels the presence of a foreign body at the site of injury. As with a burn, treatment depends on the affected area of the body. Most often, the metallized skin comes off and no trace remains. In addition to the above, there may also be other injuries, such as eye damage due to exposure to the electric arc; bruises and fractures due to a fall from the electrical shock, and others. 8.3. Classification of premises by the degree of electric shock risk and safe operation of electrical installations Depending on the electric shock hazard level, 3 types of premises are defined in accordance with the EIC. Rooms with current-conducting dust, current-conducting floors (metal, earth, etc.); at high temperatures above 35°C for more than 1 day; with relative humidity above 75% for more than 1 day; with the possibility of simultaneous human contact with the process equipment, metal structures of buildings, attached to the ground on the one side and to metal frames of electrical equipment on the other side, are classified as increased risk premises. Premises with high humidity, with a humidity of about 100%; with a chemically active or organic medium acting on the insulation (vapors of acids, alkalis, mold, fungi, etc.); with a simultaneous presence of two or more conditions for areas of increased risk, in which there is a special danger of electric shock, are classified as particularly hazardous rooms. In premises without increased risk, there are no conditions creating an increased or special hazard. By an order of the manager in the organization, a responsible person is appointed who is in charge of the general condition of all electrical installations, compliance with all requirements of all regula-

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tory documents and ensuring provision of proper and safe operation of electrical installations; organizing and conducting scheduled repairs and preventive tests of electrical equipment and networks; training, instruction and periodical assessment of knowledge of the personnel maintaining the electrical facilities; timely inspection of protective and firefighting equipment; investigation of accidents and violations of the requirements of current rules of operation of electrical installations; maintenance of technical documentation, development of instructions, regulations, etc. Works that are carried out in existing electrical installations regarding safety measures are divided into the following categories: 1) works performed with the removal of voltage; 2) works performed under voltage on current-carrying parts or close thereto. Works under voltage on current-carrying parts include the work that is performed directly on these parts using protective equipment. Maintenance of the existing electrical installations is carried out by persons who have professional training and have undergone medical examination in case of employment. Repeated medical examination of the staff is carried out at least once every 2 years. Electrotechnical personnel providing maintenance of the equipment must observe the current Electrical Installation Code (EIC), the Rules for the Technical Operation of Electrical Installations of Consumers, other labor protection rules in the use of electrical installations, including the methods of releasing of the injured person from the electric current, and rendering first aid. Electrical personnel must pass assessment of knowledge of intersectoral occupational safety rules (safety rules) in operation of electrical installations, rules and instructions for technical operation, fire safety, use of protection equipment, electrical installations within the requirements for the relevant position or profession, and techniques for the relief of a person affected by electric current and rendering first aid, and have an appropriate electrical safety qualification group ‒ II – V. Organization of operation of electrical installations includes keeping of the necessary technical documentation.

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The documentation includes: ‒ an operational log that records acceptance and handing over of shifts, foreman’s orders in case of change in the operating mode, etc.; ‒ operational log on work orders and orders; ‒ electrical equipment defects and malfunctions log; ‒ logs or bulletins, including readings of monitoring and metering instruments and electricity supply meters, as well as a control log on the presence, condition and accounting of protective equipment; ‒ operations log and work orders forms for the repair and commissioning works in electrical installations with a voltage higher than 1000 V; ‒ electrical installations keys issuance log; ‒ knowledge assessment register for standards and rules of electrical installation operation; ‒ group I electrical safety assignment logbook for non-electrical personnel; ‒ logs registering fire safety instructions at workplace; ‒ folders of current and closed work orders, etc. Organizational measures to ensure performance of work at electrical installations include getting a work permit, admission or disposal; registration of admission to work; supervision during work; registration of breaks in work and transfer to another place of work; registration of completion of work. Organizational and technical measures during work with the removal of voltage include disconnection of electrical equipment and taking measures against its erroneous switching or self-switching; hanging warning posters on switch handles: “Do not turn on ‒ people are working”, “Do not turn on ‒ works on the line”, etc.; checking for the absence of voltage on the disconnected electrical installation and on-connection of the portable grounding; fencing workplaces and hanging posters like “Work Here”, “Stop: High Voltage.” It should be recalled that electrical installations are only maintained and operated by those who have undergone medical examination, training, and knowledge assessment, by specially trained electrical personnel.

Chapter 9

FIRE SAFETY

9.1. Fire Safety ‒ General Terms The Law of the RK dated November 22, 1996 No. 48 “On Fire Safety” provides concepts of the general regulatory, economic and social bases for ensuring fire safety in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Regulatory documents in the field of fire safety relate to PPB RK 0897 ‒ fire safety regulations in the RK, SSOSS ‒ state standards of the Occupational Safety Standards System, SNiP ‒ building codes and regulations, etc. One of the main functions of the government is to ensure fire safety. The most important concept in the field of fire safety is the concept of fire. It means burning, not subject to control, causing material damage and damaging health of the citizens, their lives, and endangering interests of the society and the state. Prevention of fire or organization of fire suppression is related to fire safety requirements. The combination of forces and facilities, as well as legal, organizational, economic, social measures and scientific and technical measures, aimed at fighting fires, constitute a fire safety system. Great risk for people and enormous material damage cause fires at industrial enterprises, transport and in households. Fire safety is task of national importance. Fire safety is also represented as a state of the facility, which excludes the occurrence of a fire, and when it occurs, prevents people from being exposed to dangerous fire factors and ensures protection of material values. Modern fire protection system is equipped with rapid-fire detection systems, advanced equipment and effective extinguishing agents, utilization of which makes it possible to promptly and efficiently eliminate a fire at the very beginning of its occurrence. 63

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Without understanding the essence of chemical and physical processes occurring during combustion, it is impossible to properly organize fire-fighting and fire extinguishing measures. This knowledge makes it possible to successfully fight the fire. A fast, complex physical and chemical transformation of substances, accompanied by emitting of a large amount of heat and often luminescence, is called combustion. The burning process is influenced by three factors, the ability of the substance to burn, an oxidizing agent (usually oxygen, but also chlorine, fluorine, bromine, oxides of nitrogen, etc.) and an source of ignition. Reactive substances are combustible substances and oxygen forming a combustible system, where the combustion reaction creates a source of ignition. An example of such an exothermic reaction is carbon combustion C+O2=CO2 + 383.5 kJ/mol. Air contains about 21% of oxygen. When the oxygen concentration drops to 14–18% and as some substances (hydrogen, ethylene, acetylene, and some other substances) can burn to an oxygen concentration of 10%, in most cases burning becomes impossible. Depending on the ratio of fuel and oxidizer, combustible mixtures can be poor or rich. Poor mixtures contain a lot of oxidizing agent, while rich ones contain fuel. If the combustion processes occur with an excess of oxygen, a complete combustion occurs, with the combustion products – water, carbon dioxide, etc., i.e. substances not capable of further oxidation. With a lack of oxygen, incomplete combustion occurs, during which toxic and combustible products are generated (i.e., capable of further oxidation). For example, it can be carbon monoxide, alcohols, aldehydes, etc. There are two types of combustion: homogeneous and heterogeneous, which is influenced by the properties of the combustible mixture. Homogeneous combustion is a type of combustion when a combustible substance and an oxidizer are in the same physical state (as a mixture of combustible gas and air), heterogeneous — when, in burning, substances have an interface (like solid or liquid substances in contact with air). According to the flame propagation speed, there are deflagration (tens of m/s), explosive (hundreds of m/s) and detona-

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tion (thousands of m/s) flames. Fire is characterized by deflagration burning. Processes of combustion are divided into flash, inflammation, ignition, self-ignition, spontaneous inflammation, and explosion. It is necessary to be able to distinguish the processes of ignition (inflammation) and spontaneous ignition (self- inflammation). Ignition will occur when a heat pulse having a temperature higher than the self-ignition temperature of the substance gets into the combustible system. The process of spontaneous ignition (self- inflammation) is the development of combustion at temperatures below the ignition temperature. Flash is a rapid combustion of a combustible mixture, where no compressed gases are developed. Occurrence of combustion under the action of the ignition source is called ignition. Ignition with formation of a flame is called inflammation. Combustibility is the ability to ignite (take fire) under the action of an ignition source. The phenomenon in which the rate of exothermic reactions sharply increases, and combustion of substances (material, mixture) occurs in the absence of a source, is called spontaneous self- ignition. Spontaneous ignition includes self-ignition, accompanied by a flame. Self-ignition may occur only if the amount of heat released in the process of self-oxidation exceeds the heat release to the environment. An explosion is an extremely fast chemical (explosive) transformation of a substance, where energy is released and compressed gases able to perform mechanical work are generated. The lowest temperature of a substance where the rate of exothermic reactions drastically increases, stopping occurrence of flame combustion, is called self-ignition temperature. In addition to self-ignition temperature, combustible substances are characterized by such a concept as the induction period or self-ignition lag time. The time interval at which self-heating occurs resulting in ignition is called the induction period. Some substances are capable of spontaneous ignition at room temperature (sawdust, peat, fossil coal, etc.). In cases where the ambient temperature is lower than the self-ignition temperature of substances, the fire hazard of substances that can ignite spontaneously is very high, as they tend to light up without any heat supply. Howev-

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er, the induction period of spontaneously flammable substances may be several hours, days, or even months. The area of ignition in the air (concentration limits of ignition), the ignition energy, the temperature of combustion and the rate of flame propagation determine the fire and explosion hazard properties of gases. The most hazardous are gases with a wide ignition range, for example, acetylene, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide. All flammable liquids are able to evaporate, and their burning occurs only in the vapor phase above the surface of the liquid. The amount of vapors depends on the composition and temperature of the liquid. Combustion of vapors in the air is only possible at a certain concentration. During production of a number of materials, dust is formed, which is capable of forming explosive mixtures in the air. The main causes of industrial fires are related to electrical equipment malfunction, violation of the technological mode of equipment operation, poor preparation of equipment for repair, spontaneous ignition of various materials. The fire prevention system includes includes such measures as fire prevention and suppression, including measures limiting the spread of fire and ensuring successful evacuation of people and property from burning premises. To prevent fires and explosions, it is necessary to prevent the development of a combustible and explosive atmosphere and the appearance of ignition sources there. Fires in buildings and structures, as well as the spread of fire therein, depend on the materials and structures of which they are made, on their layout and size of buildings. According to the regulatory documents, the probability of fires should be 10-6 (one millionth). The division of a building by fire barriers into fire compartments is an effective measure. There is a classification of all industries based on their fire hazard level (there are six levels ‒ A, B, C, D, D, and E) in order to assess the likelihood of a fire and explosion. The category is defined according to the technological equipment standards or based on special lists of enterprises. The fire hazard level is determined by inflammability of building materials and structures, which, according to this characteristic, are

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divided into three groups: fireproof (metal structures, brick, concrete, gravel, sand, etc.), hardly burning (sand brick, gypsum dry plaster, linoleum and etc.) and combustible (timber, cardboard, felt, asphalt, roofing felt, some insulating materials, etc.). In assessing fire-fighting qualities of buildings and structures, their fire resistance is very important. Fire resistance is the ability of the building structures to perform the protection functions in a fire for a certain period of time. Its distinguishing feature is its fire-resisting rating. In terms of fire resistance, structures and buildings are divided into five degrees (I-V) from fire-retardant building to combustible. There are emergency exits in place for evacuation of people from burning buildings, route diagrams posted in clearly visible places. Evacuation routes should ensure safe exit of people to the outside by the shortest route in the shortest possible time. Emergency exits are the ones leading directly outside the ground floor or through the stairwell, hallway or lobby. Usually there should be two emergency exits. Doors intended for evacuation open to the side indicating the exit from the building. Installation of sliding and lifting doors on the escape routes is prohibited. It is also forbidden to block access to evacuation exits with unnecessary objects (furniture, unused equipment, etc.). Buildings and structures should have devices that remove smoke in case of fire (aeration hatches, special smoke hatches, etc.). Fire extinguishing includes strong cooling of burning materials with high heat capacity; reducing the oxygen content in the air coming to the burning chamber; special chemicals; isolation of burning materials from atmospheric air, etc. To extinguish a fire, you can use water, water vapor, air filled foam, non-combustible gases, solid fire extinguishing powders, special chemicals and compounds. Water is the most affordable, cheap and widespread fire extinguishing agent capable of extinguishing both small and large fires. It is a high quality fire-extinguishing agent because water having a high heat capacity takes a significant amount of heat from the burning substances, thereby reducing the temperature of the center of combustion to a level at which combustion is no longer possible. It is not allowed to extinguish with water substances that react with water (metallic po-

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tassium, sodium), not de-energized electrical equipment and calcium carbide as they may explode releasing acetylene [18]. Firefighting water applications: compact jets, atomized state, finely dispersed state and air-filled foam. Compact water jets directed at the burning center, possessing a large force, act mechanically, knocking down the flame, and at the same time cooling the burning surfaces. Fire extinguishing with such jets can be carried out from a far distance, which is essential with the intense thermal radiation, which makes it difficult to approach the combustion source. Highly flammable liquids cannot be extinguished with compact water jets, because they float on the surface of the water and continue to burn. Petroleum products with a flashpoint of more than 1200C can be extinguished with atomized water. Adding 0.2-2.0% (by weight) of foam inductors to water results in an improvement of its fire-fighting properties, a decrease in water consumption by 2-2.5 times and a reduction in the extinguishing time. If a company has big resources, it can use steam suppression. The extinguishing principle is simple: the burning room is quickly filled with steam (5-10 minutes), bringing the temperature therein to +85oС. However, indoors, all the openings and apertures in walls and ceiling are tightly closed, leaving only the floor for air to escape. A dispersed system in which gas is enclosed in cells separated from each other by liquid walls is called foam. Foam is widely used in extinguishing fires of solids and flammable liquids (lighter than it and not dissolved in water). Foam isolates the burning area because a vapor-proof layer of a certain structure and durability is formed on the surface of the burning liquid. Stationary, mobile, portable devices and hand-held fire extinguishers are used to generate foam. The principle of extinguishing with carbon dioxide, is as follows: when it is released into the source of combustion, carbon dioxide leads to a decrease in its oxygen content (from 21%) to the limit (15.16%), when it becomes impossible to burn for most combustible substances. In particular, carbon dioxide is used to extinguish electrical installations under voltage.

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9.2. Conditions entailing fire and hazardous fire and explosion factors Occurrence of fire requires burning of combustible substances. Combustion is an oxidation reaction where energy is released in the form of heat and light. The reaction itself occurs in gaseous phase. Different substances have different ability to burn: firstly, the ability to oxidize, and secondly, to be in gaseous phase (for example, liquids can evaporate, solids are able to sublimate). Air oxygen is the most common oxidation agent, under normal conditions found everywhere and anywhere where air penetrates. Measures to prevent the development of a combustible medium (contact of combustible substances with air) are among the most important measures of fire safety. Combustion occurs when there is an ignition source with certain energy. Types of ignition sources include an open fire, heat from heating elements and devices, electrical energy, energy of mechanical sparks, discharges of static electricity and lightning, energy of selfignition processes (self-heating of substances and materials), etc. The most common source of ignition is an open flame, observed when faulty electrical wiring is overheated or during welding operations. In addition to ignition, spontaneous self-ignition may occur under the action of external sources. There is thermal, chemical and microbiological spontaneous self-ignition. Thermal self-ignition is a result of accumulation of heat by the material accompanied by spontaneous ignition of materials. Fire hazard index is the self-heating temperature of a substance. Most of combustible materials have the index in the range from 80 to 150°C: paper has a self-heating temperature of 100°C; 80°С ‒ construction felt; 80°С ‒ pine wood. Flame burning appears immediately during spontaneous chemical ignition. Organic substances ignite spontaneously when exposed to acids. Some inorganic substances ignite when they come in contact with water (sodium hydrosulfate, for example).

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Spontaneous microbial combustion refers to self-ignition, in which microorganisms release heat energy during their vital activity in their nutrient medium (such as hay, peat, sawdust, etc.). Fires, dependent on varieties of combustible materials, are divided into the following classes: A ‒ characterized by burning of solid materials and combustible substances; B ‒ burning of flammable liquids and materials or melting solids; C – burning of gases; D ‒ metal burning; E ‒ burning of combustible substances and materials of energized electrical installations; F ‒ burning of radioactive substances and radioactive waste, nuclear materials. Flames and sparks, heat flow, high ambient temperature, low oxygen concentration, high smoke concentration, high concentration of toxic combustion products are dangerous fire factors affecting material objects and people. One of the dangerous fire factors is a decrease in the oxygen content, since combustion occurs with the intensive absorption of oxygen. In case of fire, this can result in oxygen deprivation. Oxygen content in the air, equal to 16-18%, leads to rapid heart palpitations, slight disorder in coordination of movements and slight decrease in thinking ability. Oxygen content of 9% in the breathing zone results in loss of consciousness, 6% ‒ to death in minutes. It must be noted that people do not feel oxygen deprivation and they are not able to take measures to save their lives. In a fire, the MPL of oxygen content is 17%. One of very dangerous fire factors is carbon oxide ‒ CO, called carbon monoxide, which is very toxic to humans. Under normal conditions, CO is a flammable gas with no color or odor. Under its effect, blood loses its ability to absorb oxygen. The MPL content of CO is 0.1%. This results in headache, nausea, general malaise. If you inhale air with 0.5% content of carbon monoxide, it can lead to death within 20-30 minutes; in air with 1% CO content death can occur within 1-2 minutes. Carbon dioxide CO2 is another hazardous gas for humans, which is generated in complete thermal decomposition of combustible materials. It has neither color nor odor, but has a sour taste. When air is inhaled with a content of up to 6–8% CO2, rapid and deeper breathing

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and heartbeat are observed, and tinnitus and headache appear. Inhalation of a mixture of 21% oxygen and 10% CO2 results in faintness. 6% is the norm of the maximum permissible value of carbon dioxide CO2. CO2 carbon dioxide poisoning can also be caused by fire extinguishing of small premises with carbon dioxide fire extinguishers, including at the entrance to the room ‒ carbon dioxide supply by automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing installation [19]. Real threat to human life and health in a fire is high temperature of air and objects. Smoke is an extremely dangerous fire factor, as a person loses direction in smoke. This will simultaneously lead to an increase in the time spent in extreme conditions with increasing air temperature and thermal exposure, and increasing content of CO and CO2. Smokiness is the indicator of attenuation of light per unit length. Normal acceptable value of the indicator is 2.4. Equipment, collapsing structures, utility systems, buildings, structures and their flying parts are classified as hazardous factors of fire and explosion. A blast wave pressure is the most hazardous factor of an explosion that destroys structures and kills people. 9.3. Fire safety training, duties and responsibilities of fire safety personnel Employees are trained in fire safety measures in accordance with the general instructions of labor protection. Depending on the nature and time, instructions can be introductory, primary in the workplace, repeated, unscheduled and targeted. According to the primary instruction program, a full instruction is conducted with the frequency that is established in the sector or at the enterprise. Unscheduled instructions are carried out in cases established by the SOSS standard. Each specific situation determines the scope and content of the instruction taking into account its causes and circumstances. Before performing one-time work that is included in

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direct duties in the specialty, before work requiring a work permit, the target safety training is given. Considering the specific situation, instruction should include the necessary questions regarding fire safety. In addition to instructions, the program includes fire safety basics. Its purpose is to explain its contents to the chief specialists of enterprises and managers, persons responsible for fire safety of the company’s divisions, and employees performing hazardous operations because they have to know additional requirements for labor safety and knowledge assessment, as well as main provisions of current reference documents. Basic training is conducted in accordance with the program and terms agreed with the territorial state fire service management bodies. Workers undergoing fire safety basic training at the enterprise are exempt from introductory and primary fire-fighting instructions. According to the Law on Fire Safety, the duties of the employer include: ‒ compliance with fire safety requirements, including compliance with regulations, resolutions and other requirements of fire safety officials; ‒ development and implementation of fire safety measures; ‒ conducting fire-fighting public awareness campaign and employee training in fire safety measures; ‒ inclusion of fire safety issues in a collective agreement or contract; ‒ maintenance of fire protection systems and equipment consisting of primary fire extinguishing agents in good condition, preventing their use for other than intended use; ‒ assistance to fire brigades in finding causes and conditions for occurrence and development of fires when extinguishing fires; identifying persons violating fire safety requirements and those responsible for the occurrence of fires; ‒ provision of necessary forces and tools in extinguishing fires on the territories of enterprises;

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‒ ensuring access to structures, buildings, on the territory and to other facilities of enterprises by the officials of the fire department in the performance of their duties; ‒ provision, at the request of officials of the state fire supervision authority, of information and documents related to the state of fire safety at the enterprises, fire hazard of their products, fires and their consequences that have arisen on the territories of enterprises; ‒ immediate reporting to the fire brigade about fires that have occurred, about malfunctions of the existing fire protection systems and equipment; ‒ assisting voluntary firefighters in their activities; ‒ ensuring creation and maintenance of fire brigade divisions at the facilities included in the list of facilities approved by the Government of RK; on the objects that are important for the national security of the country; at various important fire hazardous facilities; at cultural heritage sites of the peoples of Kazakhstan, which are of particular value, which necessarily require the establishment of fire protection service (except for the facilities that require the establishment of object, special and military units of fire service). Direct management of the fire safety system at the subordinate entities, within its competence, is exercised by superiors of organizations responsible for compliance with fire safety requirements. In case of violation of the safety requirements, the following persons may be brought to responsibility: the owners of the property; persons authorized to own, use or dispose of property, including heads of organizations; officials within their respective competencies; and fire safety officers. Approval of the grounds and procedure for attracting the heads of organizations to the administrative responsibility for the offense is carried out in accordance with the laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan

C h a p t e r 10

GUIDELINES FOR SAFE WORK ON THE COMPUTER

Requirements for the premises and the levels of chemical and physical factors in the premises where computers are located. Requirements for personal computer workstations for students in higher education institutions. Series of exercises and breaks for physical exercises. Today’s human activity in all areas of science, technology and social life includes mandatory use of computers. Though a great progress has been made as a result of the development of new computer models, improvement of manufacturing technology, use of unique software, people working with computers are still affected by a number of dangerous and harmful factors such as electromagnetic fields (HF, UHF and UHF radio frequencies), noise and vibration, static electricity, infrared and ionizing radiation, etc. Work with a computer causes a significant mental stress and neuro-emotional strain, a rather large load on the hand muscles when working with a PC keyboard and high intensity of the visual stress. Rational design and layout of the workplace elements are of no small importance in maintaining the optimal working regime of the operator. Total illumination of rooms with computers in high precision visual works should be 300 lux, combined ‒ 750 lux, for medium precision works, respectively, it should be 200 and 300 lux. According to Sanitary Regulations and Standards SanPiN No. 1.01.004.01, any violation of requirements may result in a strain on the visual apparatus with complaints, characterized by dissatisfaction with work, headache, irritability, sleep disturbance, fatigue and pain in eyes, hands, and lumbar region and neck. Legal entities and individuals must comply with these requirements [20]. 74

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Requirements for premises designated for operation of computers: 1) a special grounding loop; 2) a ban on the placement of work stations in the basement; 3) only perimeter arrangement of computers in educational institutions; 4) floor area for 1 work station in educational institutions must be at least 5 square meters; 5) natural and artificial illumination of the premises; 6) a significant boundary between classrooms with computing equipment and other premises (workshops, gyms and others), where noise and vibration levels exceed the values ​​specified in regulatory documents; 7) sound insulation of enclosing structures not exceeding the standard values ​​of noise and vibration levels; 8) supply of premises with heating and air conditioning systems; 9) use of diffuse-reflective materials for interior decoration, having a reflection coefficient for the ceiling of 0.7-0.8; for walls equal to 0.5-0.6; for the floor it is 0.3-0.5; 10) prohibition on the use of materials releasing harmful chemicals in the air for decoration in educational institutions; 11) comfortable flat floor surface for dry and wet cleaning. In the premises of educational institutions where computers are placed the optimal microclimate parameters for both cold and warm seasons must be provided: at a temperature of 22-240С/23-250С; in relative humidity 60-50%/60-40%; when the air speed is 0.1/0.1 (m/s) (in offices, in operator rooms, at checkout desks and in other premises where employees work on computers microclimate and other requirements are slightly different). It is recommended to use air humidifiers in the rooms and switch them during classes. Other mandatory requirements for the level of noise, vibration, levels of electric and magnetic fields, electrostatic field strength, exposure dose rate of X-ray radiation must comply with the standards of ​​ SanPiN No 1.01.004.01. The workplace equipment is important for productive and high quality computer work of students. Firstly, the work desk must be designated for one person. Secondly, the height of its working surface should be regulated within 68-80 cm (if there is no regulation, the height should be 72.5 cm). Thirdly, any desk should have legroom, the height of which should be at least 60 cm, and its width at least 50 cm, depth with bent knees – at least 45 cm and with ex-

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tended legs – at least 65 cm. The workplace may have a stand for legs with a width of at least 30 cm. Also, a special keyboard stand, adjustable in height and angle of inclination, must be provided in the desk design in order to maintain the student’s correct posture. The chair must have basic dimensions, corresponding to the student’s height. It is not recommended to use any other furniture without support for the back instead of chairs. Eye level should be focused on the center or 2/3 of the vertical screen. Computer teacher desk must be installed on a pedestal. One of the important points in the working process with a computer is the observance of the adequate work and rest hours. This is described in detail in the regulatory document named Sanitary Rules and Regulations No.1.01.004.01. Sanitary Rules and Regulations is the republican regulatory document, which is to be observed by legal entities and individuals, regardless of their subordination and forms of property. The requirements for the organization of the work of university students in paragraph 6.2.3 indicate mandatory measures that prevent overfatigue: ‒ do exercises for eyes after 20-25 minutes of work with VDT and PC; ‒ ensure through-ventilation of premises with VDT and PC while students are not in the room; ‒ physical exercises during 3-4 minute breaks; ‒ 1-2 minutes of physical exercise to relieve fatigue (individual performance when the initial signs of fatigue occur). For the first-year students, classes with computers must be organized in the morning time. For senior students, «... it is allowed to have classes from 5 to 8 p.m. in exceptional cases...» Here is an example from the Eye Exercise Series: 1. Tense eye muscles strongly and close your eyes on the count 1-4, then open your eyes, relaxing eye muscles, look into the distance on the count 1-6. Repeat 4-5 times. 2. Look at the bridge of the nose and keep eyes on it on the count 1-4. Do not strain the eyes. Then open your eyes, look into the distance on the count 1-6. Repeat 4-5 times.

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3. Look to the right, without turning your head and fix your eyes on the count 1-4, then look straight into the distance on the count 1-6. Repeat 4-5 times. In the same way do the exercises, but with fixation of the eyes on the left, up and down. Repeat 3-4 times. 4. Quickly shift the eyesight diagonally: right up-left down, then far ahead on the count 1-6. Repeat 4-5 times.

KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENT TEST

1. Year of entry into force of the law of the Republic of Kazakhstan”On Labor Protection”? 1. 1991; 2. 1993; 3. 1997; 4. 2001; 5. 2003. 2. The basis of the labor protection legislation of RK? 1. Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan; 2. Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan; 3. Labor Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan; 4. International Convention; 5. Laws of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 3. What does the law state regarding the labor of pregnant women in works related to hand lifting and moving of weights? 1. Limited to 4 hours of work; 2. Forbidden; 3. Can be allowed with the consent of a woman; 4. There are no benefits and it is necessary to work full time; 5. The woman notifies the management of the refusal to work, referring to a medical report. 4. What should an employee do when undergoing the required medical examination? 1. To avoid medical examination; 2. Notify administration of the enterprise about inability to undergo medical examination for family reasons; 3. To undergo a medical examination in a timely manner; 4. To undergo medical check-up and not provide the necessary documents; 5. To refuse to undergo medical examination, as it is not provided for in the contract. 5. What is the code of the form reporting about an accident or other personal injury of an employee? 1. Z-3;

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2. K-1; 3. H-1; 4. НЗ-4; 5. «B». 6. In what cases is it mandatory to use personal protective equipment? 1. During cultural events; 2. At the entrance to the territory of the enterprise; 3. In contact with factors that are hazardous and harmful to life and health; 4. During student’s internship in high school; 5. Along the way of the employee to the accident site. 7. What is the material liability of the company in case of an industrial accident which caused employee’s death? 1. Express condolences to relatives and friends; 2. Take no action; 3. To pay the persons entitled to this, a lump sum allowance in the amount of a monthly salary; 4. To pay the persons entitled to this, a lump-sum allowance in the amount of at least tenfold annual earnings of the employee; 5. To pay the persons entitled to this, a lump sum allowance in the amount of the employee’s annual earnings. 8. What are the rights of trade unions in case of an immediate threat to the health of the worker in the workplace? 1. Trade union makes proposals for the suspension in the prescribed operating procedure until elimination of violations; 2. Organizes a strike; 3. Attempts to eliminate the threat on its own; 4. Goes directly to higher organizations; 5. Takes no action. 9. Labor Protection Instructions: 1. A set of rules governing employer/employee relationship; 2. Regulatory act establishing labor protection requirements in the performance of official duties in works performed in the production premises, on the territory of the enterprise, on construction sites and in other places; 3. Delivery and Acceptance act for putting into operation of the production premises; 4. Description of techniques and methods for production equipment operation; 5. The document regulating time of work, lunch break, holding meetings and sessions.

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10. On the basis of which document is employer obliged to provide safe labor conditions for his employees? 1. Occupational safety instructions; 2. Employment order; 3. Orders from the parent organization for the commissioning of the facility; 4. Collective or individual employment contract; 5. Concepts on the conformity of qualifications of an employee to official functions. 11. What sections are included in the occupational safety instruction for workers? 1. General health and safety requirements during work; 2. At the discretion of administration; 3. At the discretion of the HSE service; 4. General safety requirements, safety requirements before commencement of works, safety measures during operation, safety measures in emergencies and safety conditions at the end of work; 5. At the discretion of the workforce. 12. When is overtime prohibited? 1. In the cold season; 2. At night hours; 3. If the employee has young children; 4. If there is a shortage of transport from the enterprise to the house of the worker; 5. In especially harmful and especially hazardous working conditions. 13. Knowledge of instructions by workers associated with an increased hazard should be checked: 1. Every four months; 2. Periodically; 3. At least once in 3 years; 4. Not necessary; 5. Annually. 14. Instructions for employees are developed by: 1. The head of the company; 2. Consulting lawyer of the organization; 3. Directly by the employee; 4. Heads of workshops, laboratories and other relevant departments of the enterprise; 5. Instructions are developed by a specific company.

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15. Prescriptions issued by the state labor inspectors are: 1. Only recommendations; 2. Mandatory for all organizations, regardless of their form of property; 3. Mandatory only for government institutions; 4. Performed in case of availability of funding; 5. Can be ignored. 16. In case of suspension of the enterprise (facility) due to non-compliance with safety requirements: 1. The employee gets the average wage for the entire period of downtime; 2. The employee gets insurance; 3. The employee does not receive any monetary compensation; 4. Only two weeks of downtime are paid; 5. All documentation on the reasons for the suspension of work is transferred to the trade union organization for decision-making. 17. What is the effect of electric current on human body? 1. The impact of electric current is diverse; 2. Electric current has no effect on the body; 3. The current only affects skin; 4. The impact of current leads to an increase in body temperature; 5. The impact of current disrupts the digestive organs. 18. What types of burns are usually caused by an electric arc? 1. There is a slight reddening of the skin; 2. Sleepiness and loss of appetite; 3. Necrosis of the skin area and charring of tissues; 4. No effects are observed; 5. Dysfunction of movements. 19. What is the value of the threshold (perceptible) current (frequency -50 Hz) that does not result in injury? 1. 1 A; 2. 0.001 мA; 3. 10 A; 4. 0.6 to 1.5 мA; 5. 15 мA. 20. What is the value of the threshold freezing current (frequency 50 Hz) where a person is unable to control his muscular system? 1. 10-15 мA; 2. 1 A;

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21. What is the value of the threshold fibrillation current, at which respiratory paralysis, destruction of heart function and even death occur? 1. 5 A; 2. 10 A; 3. 100 мA; 4. 10 мA; 5. 0.1 мA. 22. The first action in rendering the first aid to a person under the action of an electric current: 1. Inform the management about the accident and ask what to do; 2. Find the nearest phone and start calling the ambulance; 3. Instantly de-energize the part of the electrical installation that touches the victim; 4. Take the victim by hand and pull away from the electrical installation; 5. Call for help from people nearby. 23. What is a two-phase connection? 1. Connection of a person to two different phases of the same grid that is energized; 2. Connection of a person between the phase and earth; 3. Connection of a person to the wires in the socket with a 220 V voltage; 4. Connection of a person between the phase and zero wire; 5. Connection of a person to all the wires of a four-wire three-phase network with a grounded neutral. 24. What is the characteristic of the premises without increased danger? 1. Dry, but with a long-lasting temperature of more than +300 C; 2. Dry, but with a large amount of current-conducting dust; 3. Dry, with normal air temperature and with grounded floors; 4. Dry, with normal air temperature and wooden floors; 5. Dry, with normal air temperature and with reinforced concrete floors. 25. In what cases is it recommended to use safety shutdown? 1. Only in high-voltage electrical installations; 2. When safety cannot be ensured by grounding or when it is difficult to perform; 3. When a four-wire three-phase network is used;

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4. Only in household electrical installations; 5. In the school physics classroom. 26. What are the consequences of the electrolytic effect of current on human body? 1. Decomposition of blood and plasma; 2. Tissue heating; 3. No effects are observed; 4. Irritation and excitation of living tissues of the body; 5. Loss of eyesight. 27. What is a biological effect of the electric current on the human body? 1. No effects are observed; 2. There is irritation and excitation of living tissues of the body, accompanied by involuntary convulsive muscle contractions, including heart and lungs muscles; 3. Decomposition of blood and plasma; 4. Sleepiness; 5. Tissue heating. 28. Skin metallization is: 1. Penetration of the smallest particles of metal, melted as a result of the action of an electric arc in the upper layers of the skin; 2. Redness of skin; 3. Appearance of sunburn; 4. No effects are observed; 5. Necrosis throughout the skin. 29. What is the characteristic of the first degree burn? 1. Skin redness; 2. Development of bristles; 3. Necrosis throughout the thickness of the skin; 4. Charring of tissues; 5. No effects are observed. 30. What characterizes the second degree burn? 1. Skin redness; 2. Development of bristles; 3. Necrosis throughout the thickness of the skin; 4. Charring of tissues; 5. No effects are observed.

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Occupational Health and Safety 31. What characterizes the third degree burn? 1. Skin redness; 2. Development of bristles; 3. Necrosis throughout the thickness of the skin; 4. Charring of tissues; 5. No effects are observed. 32. What characterizes the fourth degree burn? 1. Skin redness; 2. Development of bristles; 3. Necrosis throughout the thickness of the skin; 4. Charring of tissues; 5. No effects are observed. 33. Value not exceeding the noise level at the workplace 1. 120 dB; 2. 50-80 dB; 3. 100 dB; 4. 110 dB; 5. 95 dB. 34. Instrument used to measure air humidity: 1. Anemometer 2. Hygrometer 3. Dynamometer 4. Light meter 5. Shrinkage meter 35. What is “room demercurization”? 1. Airing of the room; 2. Darkening of the room; 3. Heating of the room; 4. Removal of household waste; 5. Removal of mercury from the room. 36. What class of harmful substances is most dangerous for humans? 1. Class 1 substances; 2. Class 2 substances; 3. Class 3 substances; 4. Class 4 substances; 5. The degree of risk to humans does not depend on the class of a substance.

Knowledge Assessment Test 37. What is the hazard class of mercury vapor? 1. First class; 2. Second class; 3. Third class; 4. Fourth class; 5. Not hazardous. 38. What class of danger does chlorine belong to? 1. First class; 2. Second class; 3. Third class; 4. Fourth class; 5. Not hazardous. 39. Mercury vapor MPC in the workplace air: 1. 0.01 mg/m3; 2. 0.1 mg/m3; 3. 1 mg/m3; 4. 10 mg/m3; 5. 100 mg/m3. 40. Chlorine MPC in the workplace air: 1. 0.1 mg/m3; 2. 1 mg/m3; 3. 10 mg/m3; 4. 100 mg/m3; 5. 500 mg/m3. 41. What class does ammonia belong to? 1. First class; 2. Second class; 3. Third class; 4. Fourth class; 5. Not hazardous. 42. Ammonia MPC in the workplace air: 1. 0.02 mg/m3; 2. 0.2 mg/m3; 3. 2 mg/m3; 4. 20 mg/m3; 5. 200 mg/m3.

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43. Into which groups are harmful substances divided based on physiological effects on humans? 1. Irritating, asphyxiate, poisons, volatile drugs, dust; 2. Irritating, asphyxiate, poisons, volatile drugs; 3. Irritating, asphyxiate, poisons; 4. Irritating, asphyxiate; 5. Poisons, volatile drugs, dust. 44. MPC is: 1. Maximum permissible concentration 2. Critical pressure defect 3. Pressure gauge 4. Limit of permissible crystallization 5. Maximum allowable air conditioning 45. Label on carbon dioxide fire extinguishers: 1. ОХП 2. ОВП 3. ОУ 4. ОA 5. ОП 46. In calculations, the resistance of human body should be taken equal to... 1. 1000 Ohm; 2. 100 Ohm; 3. 10 Ohm; 4. 1 Ohm; 5. 10000 Ohm. 47. What device measures insulation resistance? 1. Voltmeter 2. Ampere meter 3. Megohmmeter 4. Light meter 5. Dynamometer 48. The presence of what factors is required for the occurrence of combustion: 1. High temperature; 2. Combustible substances; 3. Combustible substance, ignition source, oxidizer; 4. Open source of fire; 5. Failure to comply with fire safety regulations.

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49. Combustion stops if: 1. You open all windows; 2. There is no access of oxygen; 3. Cold gas is supplied to the room; 4. Firefighters arrive; 5. All flammable substances have burned. 50. Person in charge of fire safety condition of the institution: 1. Shop supervisor; 2. Head of the company; 3. Foreman; 4. Fire safety engineer; 5. Fire engineering commission. 51. What methods are not used to extinguish fires? 1. Cooling the reaction zone or burning of substances by using water and foam; 2. Dilution of reactants by injecting nitrogen or carbon dioxide into the combustion zone; 3. Chemical inhibition of combustion reaction by supplying inhibitors (reaction retarders); 4. Cooling the reaction zone and diluting the reactants by introducing liquid oxygen into combustion zone; 5. Isolation of reactants from ����������������������������������������������� еру�������������������������������������������� combustion zone by disassembling and removing combustible substances from the fire zone. 52. What is combustion? 1. It is a rapid transformation of a substance with the occurrence of a flame; 2. It is a rapid transformation of a substance with the release of energy; 3. It is a rapid transformation of a substance with generation of compressed gases, performing work; 4. It is a rapid endothermic chemical reaction with combination of a substance with atmospheric oxygen; 5. It is a fast exothermic chemical reaction of combining a substance with atmospheric oxygen. 53. Ability of building structures to retain fire-resistant and bearing properties during fire is called: 1. The limit of the blocking ability; 2. Fire resistance limit; 3. The limit of bearing capacity; 4. The limit of fire safety; 5. The limit of fire hazard.

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Occupational Health and Safety 54. Which combustible substances can be extinguished with water: 1. Petroleum products; 2. Conventional solid combustible materials; 3. Flammable liquids that do not mix with water; 4. Electrical installations under voltage; 5. Alkali metals. 55. Labeling of dry powder fire extinguisher: 1. ОХП 2. ОВП 3. ОУ 4. ОA  5. ОП 56. Which organizational measures do not ensure fire safety: 1. Training of employees in fire safety regulations; 2. Development of instructions on how to work with flammable substances; 3. Production of visual means on fire safety; 4. Discussions on dangers of smoking; 5. Posting evacuation maps in case of fire. 57. Your first actions in case of ignition of substances or objects: 1. Immediately start extinguishing a burning object; 2. Run for water; 3. Shout and call for help; 4. Wet a towel, put it around your head and run out of the room; 5. Call 01. 58. What is not the cause of fires in electrical installations: 1. No rubber mats; 2. Overheating of the cable in poor cooling conditions; 3. Careless gas welding; 4. Faulty wiring; 5. Discharge of oil and its vapors from electric pumps in a short circuit. 59. Which exits are not evacuation exits in case of fire: 1. External doors; 2. Elevators and escalators; 3. Exits to the neighboring premises, having fire resistance of at least 3rd degree; 4. Windows on the lower floors; 5. Fire escape stairs.

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Knowledge Assessment Test 60. Noise level is usually measured in relative units: 1. dB; 2. Ohm; 3. Pa; 5. m/s. 4. Hz; 5. m/s. 61. Which formula is used to determine noise level:

61. Which formula is used to determine noise level: I ; 1. L  10 lg 1. Р0 I 2. L  10 lg ; 2. I0 I 3. ; 3. L  lg Р0 P 4. L  10 ln ; 4. I I 5. L  lg 0 . 5. Р0

62. Wave oscillation of an elastic medium is a physical 62. Wave oscillation phenomenon called: of an elastic medium is a physical phenomenon called: 1. 1. Diffusion; Diffusion; 2. 2. Rolling Rollingmotion; motion; 3. 3. Noise; Noise; 4. Molecular decomposition; 4. Energy Molecular decomposition; 5. of activation.

5. Energy of activation.

63. What device is used to measure the noise level 1. 63.Oscillograph; What device is used to measure the noise level 2. Voltage meter; 1. Oscillograph; 3. Gas analyzer; 2. Sound Voltage meter; 4. level meter; 3. Pressure Gas analyzer; 5. indicator.

4. Sound level meter; 5. Pressure indicator.

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64. By the nature of the spectrum, noises with a continuous spectrum and a bandwidth of more than one octave include: 1. Narrow-band; 2. Wide-band; 3. Continuous; 4. Non-continuous; 5. Tonal.

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Occupational Health and Safety

65. The level of non-continuous noise is measured by special integrating sound level meters: 1. Dose-rate meter; 2. Sound generator; 3. Variable resistor; 4. Amperometer; 5. Transformers. 66. Sound damper in cars is designed to: 1. Increase engine efficiency; 2. Increase car mass; 3. Reduce noise; 4. Decrease the resistance coefficient; 5. Increase car speed. 67. Vibration parameters are measured using a device called: 1. Vibration meter; 2. Frequency meter; 3. Tachymeter; 4. Speed meter; 5. Pressure indicator. 68. When it is prohibited to work with cylinders with compressed gases: 1. In bad weather; 2. At night hours; 3. In case of incomplete filling of the cylinder; 4. In the open air; 5. If the test time has expired. 69. What is the optimal distance from the user’s eyes to the video monitor screen: 1. Less than 250 mm; 2. 500-700 mm; 3. 700 mm; 4. 800 mm; 5. 1000 mm. 70. What is HFL? 1. Highly flammable liquid 2. Highly drying liquid 3. Volatile drying liquid

Knowledge Assessment Test

91

4. Easily volatile drying liquid 5. Volatile flammable liquid 71. What color is used to paint oxygen cylinders? 1. Red; 2. Blue; 3. Yellow; 4. White; 5. Purple. 72. What color is used to paint cylinders with flammable gases (methane, propane, butane)? 1. Green; 2. Blue; 3. Black; 4. Gray; 5. Red. 73. One of the physical characteristics of sound is: 1. Mass; 2. Volume; 3. Frequency; 4. Size; 5. Coordinate. 74. Within what frequency are mechanical oscillations perceived by human ear in the form of a sound: 1. 1-10 Hz; 2. 5-20 Hz; 3. 20-20000 Hz; 4. 20000-40000 Hz; 5. 40000-70000 Hz. 75. Mechanical oscillations of an elastic medium with a frequency above 20 000 Hz are called: 1. Megasound; 2. Sound; 3. Infrasound; 4. Ultrasound; 5. Musical tonality.

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Occupational Health and Safety 76. What should not be written on the pressurized vessel, in a visible place: 1. Surname of the refueler; 2. Registration number; 3. Permitted pressure; 4. Date of the next internal examination; 5. Date of hydraulic testing of the vessel.

77. The number and size of safety valves with P