New Structures

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.L.NERVI

NEW STRUCT RE

New Structures

The Architectural Press London

-

Translated by Giuseppe Nicoletti

Published in the U.K. and Commonwealth (except Canada) by the Architectural Press, London, 1963 Second Impression, 1964 © 1963 by Verlag Gerd Hatje, Stuttgart Printed in Germany

Contents

Introduction

6

Pirelli Building, Milan, 1955-56

10

Project for the Meschio Aqueduct, 1954

18

Project for a Sports Hall in Florence, 1955-56

20

Project for the Underground Basilica at Lourdes, 1955-56

22

Galbani Building·, Milan, 1955-56

24

Project for a Swimming Pool in Milan, 1956

26

Stadium, Taormina, 1956

28

Project for the Completion of the Agnelli Exhibition Hall, Turin, 1956-57

30

Small Sports Palace (Palazzetto dello Sport), Rome, 1957

32

Project for Fiumicino Intercontinental Airport, Rome, 1957

40

Project for the Cathedral of New Norcia, Perth, Australia, 1958

48

UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, 1953-58

54

Large Sports Palace (Palazzo dello Sport), Rome, 1958-60

66

Flaminio Stadium, Rome, 1958-59

84

96

Project for an Ice Rink in Rome, 1959 New Railway Station, Savona, 1959-60

100

Corso Francia Viaduct, Rome, 1960

108

Palace of Labour, Turin, 196()-61

118

Project for a Multi-purpose Hall, Kassel, Germany, 1961

136

Project for a Sports and Exhibition Hall for the Genoa Fair, 1961

142

Project for a Grandstand and Club House at the Liberty Bell Park Racecourse, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 1961

148

Project for a Covered Racecourse, 1961

150

54

Field House, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, U.S.A., 1961-62 "Bus Passengers' Facility" at George Washington Bridge, New York City, U.S.A Burgo.Paper Mill, Mantua, 1961-62

451989

1961-62

56 164

"L'architettura

e realta costruttiva concepita

correttamente e realizzata con amore."

This volume is a collection of photographs and drawings of schemes I have worked on during the past five years. It has been a period of particularly Intense activity for me, not only because of what I have been able to accom­ plish, but also, and in particular, because of the contacts with colleagues, the exchange of ideas, and the obser­ vations and reflections I have been able to make on the problem of construction in general and structural archi­ tecture in particular. More than anything else, acting as juror in important International competitions gave me the opportunity, and the need, for reflection. The great number of projects presented in these competitions and the obvious care with which they had been studied showed clearly the architectural concepts of a great number of designers from different countries. Except for some projects which conformed to the most obsolete traditional formalism, alongside others of the most excessive futurism-an obvious demonstration of the radical, yet still incomplete, revolution which within a few decades has upset the very basis of architectural thought-the most obvious cha­ racteristic common to a large majority of the projects presented was the unrestrained search for the new at any price-even at the price of inconstructibility. One cannot help seeing, too, that even the most respected of architectural magazines often publish-without warning of their Incongruity-projects the realization of which would present insurmountable difficulties or a disproportionate waste of materials and labour. It could .almost be said that many-too many-designers have forgotten that the prlmum vivere of any archi­ tectural work Is derived from a solid and durable structural organism, and that an architectural scheme has no value If It does not respect those basic facts which, within the limits of the technology of the moment, enable construction to be correctly carried out. Nor can we neglect the economic and moral repercussions of work which on the one hand involves colossal interests and employs a great mass of workers, and on the other-by its qualities of harmony, balance, function, beauty of planning and layout-can act as a quiet but effective educational influence. It is, therefore, necessary that architecture be properly valued, and that its protagonists and promoters (archi­ tects, builders, students, critics), when planning, executing and judging an architectural work, be aware of the necessity of considering the many abstract and material values that meet In it. A place apart-and a place which is continually growing in importance-is given to that section of architecture that can be defined as "structural architecture". Although a structural organism has always been indispensable to every construction, and examples of the most beautiful structures are to be found in the remote past, it con be said that great structural architecture was born about a century ago, and that we owe it to the simultaneous appearance of three factors. These factors, which are only apparently independent, are: the refinement of theories of structural analysis, and the consequent

possibility of investigating a priori the stability of even complicated static systems; the industrial and low­ cost production of high-quality mechanical materials such as steel and concrete; and the emergence each year of new structures of increasing size, such as railway and air terminals, Industrial buildings, stadia, large theatres and very tall buildings. With the increase in the size of buildings within a few decades the structure has acquired such importance that it has become the fundamental element of much architecture and, therefore, raises unprecedented problems from the technical as well as the aesthetic point of view. It is those architects, engineers, builders and critics who are capable of working in this specialized field of structural architecture, and who are prepared to face the even more complex problems of the future, who will inevitably come to the fore in the next decades. In Italy, and to a great extent in other countries as well, the future technicians and planners in all the vast field of building are trained In two different atmospheres-the schools of architecture and the schools of civil engi­ neering. From personal experience, and from observations made when judging competitions or reading in specialized Journals about schemes from many countries, I must conclude that schools of architecture, and architectural cir­ cles generally, are now all dominated by a formalism which is fundamentally similar to that of fifty years ago­ void of technical preoccupations, but concerned with fanciful superficial decoration. The system of teaching, which necessarily emphasizes the importance of drawing, the custom of studying archi­ tectural criticism of an essentially formal nature, and the Inadequate emphasis by many instructors on the ne­ cessity of a valid structural body for every architectural idea, lead the architectural student, even if almost unconsciously, to see in every architectural work something abstract which he identifies with the graphics that represent it. Confronted by a new structural problem, he first thinks of a form and settles it in perspective sketches. Then, by degrees, he elaborates and develops it without asking himself whether, at the end, all this can be translated into a stable and reasonably economical structure. On the other hand, the student of engineering, owing both to his field of study, and to the habit of mathematical research inculcated by many instructors-the habit of seeing every constructional problem in the abstract light of a complex of formulae and developed theories-is capable of formulating and resolving the relative static problem. From his point of view, the stability of a structure, before it becomes the physical reality which theories do not create but only help to investigate, becomes a problem of the mechanics of the elastic systems. This, if mathe­ mattcally elaborate, acquires a pre-eminent importance and becomes an end in Itself. Thus we can say that confronted by a new structural problem, the mental attitude of the nee-architect is to think of a form, and that of the neo-engineer is to direct himself towards a fine procedure of calculation. Both forget that a structure is nothing but a system of reactions and Internal stresses capable of balancing a system of ex­ ternal forces; and, therefore, it must be conceived as a material organism directed to that precise end. And since the strength of a structure is dependent either on its corresponding to a sound structural system, or on each of its parts being able to withstand the stresses produced in it, it is evident that as the basis of any structural project one requires a valid structural-constructional scheme, as well as the calculation of the internal stresses of its parts. To my mind, the essence of correct structural design lies in finding appropriate solutions to the individual case and in letting oneself be guided by the structural problem alone and solving it without formal preconceptions or cultural reminiscences. Before it is developed further, every solution which is viewed in terms of broad maxims should be subiected to exploratory calculations, to verify its feasibility and its structural efficiency, and to establish its f,rst d,mens ons. It is absurd to carry through an architectural project without checking that it is structurally sound, but it is JUSt as

absurd, et this preliminary stage, to embark on complex calculations that require long mathematical development. After this first exploratory stage, which will be more productive than a more detailed study of the possible so­ lutions would be, one can go on to the choice of the best solution and then to its progressive refinement from the architectural and constructional points of view. In this second phase, subjective elements of an aesthetic-architectural nature are added to the purely economic, structural, and technical factors. In fact, each possible solution will have its own specific architectural expres­ sion, and its own technical, constructional, and economic characteristics; In other words, it will have merits and weaknesses. And It Is precisely the comparative evaluation of all these elements, and the final selection of the solution which presents the most merits, that is the essence and epitome of the difficult "art of design." My various experiences as a designer and the many observations I have made of great structures of the past !9r.d the present, have led me to believe in the existence of an unpredictable and not easily explained rap­ port between technical correctness and aesthetic expression. One could almost say that technical correctness constitutes a sort of grammar of architectural speech, and, just as In spoken or written language, it is Impossible without it to advance to a higher form of literary and artistic expression. However, If one examines the comparison, it Is easy to see that in the field of architecture the contributions of technical correctness are much richer In their effect on the formal expression of a building work than those of grammar in the field of literature. In fact, while the rules of grammar are limited to preventing errors, technical correctness (that is, obedience to structural and constructional requirements, and the use of materials according to their specific nature) can offer today, as in the remote past, an Inexhaustible source of Inspiration. It is superfluous to recall the direct link between the various typical elements of past architecture (-::apitals, co­ lumn bases, frames, cornices, spandrels, rustication of large buildings, Gothic construction plans, etc.) and the

-

various requirements that suggested, if not compelled, them; but it is very interesting to observe that today new materials and structural problems offer us inspirational motives that may justifiably become the characteristic elements of our architecture. Of course, any technical or constructional suggestion is valuable only as a direction-pointer, or inspiration. It always leaves noticeable freedom to the personal sensitivity of the designer, just as the technical pointers that gave rise to many formal and structural elements in the architecture of the past left the most complete freedom for their individual design. I think that a great step towards a new, true, structural architecture will h;we been made as soon as designers are convinced that every part of a structure has-in itself, and in Its relationship to the materials of which it is built and to its specific static functions-a potential, intrinsic, formal richness, and that the essence of a struc­ tural project and the widest tield for the manifestation of personal sensitivity consists in accepting, interpreting and rendering visible these objective requirements. I believe, therefore, that It is necessary for the structural designer to develop a special habit of mind: on the one hand, free from formal preconceptions in the sense of being ready to follow the directions and objective sug­ gestions that will be offered to him by structural or constructional requirements; on the other hand, trusting that in accepting such suggestions and defining them with love and untiring care, he will be able to find the most elo­ quent expression of his own personality. If structural designers are to be capable of facing the impressive problems of the near future, I think it Is neces­ sary to create an independent and specialized university course, which would admit both graduate architects and civil engineers. The courses, which could last two years, should include theoretical studies both of a technical and structural nature, examining them in their practical applications, and courses of a formal nature, with research Into the rapport that has always bound construction to aesthetic expression. They should also consider the

development of methods of basic calculation to follow during the phase of structural conception-calculations that, even more than th� classic ones of structural analysis, require a profound understanding and mastery of the world ·ot structure. In closing, I should like to call to the attention of architects, engineers, critics-and all the followers of the won­ derful field of architecture-to an objective reality too often neglected, and more often denied through a decep­ tive formal and cultural idaalization of the architectural fact: materials, statics, the technology of construction, economic efficiency and functional needs, are the vocabulary of architectural speech. It is impossible to elevate such speech to the level of poetry (architecture) or even to correct prose (good con­ struction) without a perfect understanding of this vocabulary, and of the rules of grammar and syntax (technique) with which they must be composed. P. L. Nervi

Pirelli Building, Milan, 1955-56 Architects: G. Ponti, A. Fornaroli, A. Rosselli, G. Valtolina, E. Dell'Orto Structural design: A. Danusso, P. L. Nervi The height of the building above ground is 415 ft. Below ground it goes down 38 ft. The architects' basic concept consisted in a rigid solid-walled point at each end, with the maximum of clear space, to be divided by mov­ able partitions, between. This suggested completing the structure by a minimum number of large elements comparable in rigidity to the points. From this a structure was developed consisting of four triangular "half­ points" (two at each end) and four massive wall columns. In a design of this type it is most important to make full use of the vertical loads, and carry them on elements shaped to withstand horizontal forces (wind load). Because of the minimum depth of the floor beams and their very long span (80 ft.) it was originally intended to provide for prestressing them as a precaution against undue deflection. However, the excellent result ob­ tained at the first loading test led to the abandonment of this project which would, in any case, have added to the difficulties of construction. Great care was of course taken to obtain a high quality concrete and the mix was subjected to constant checking throughout the whole period of the work. The foundation consists of strata of clay and fine sand to a depth of over 160 ft. and to reduce the possibility of settlement deep injections of cement grout were carried out. The total load on the foundations amounts to approximately 60,000 tons. To prevent possible thermal movement in the floors from giving nse to excessive stresses in the rigid ends, the first nine floors are constructed on sliding bearings. From the ninth floor up­ wards, the points are sufficiently flexible for thermal movement to take place without inducing excessive stresses either in the points or in the floors. In any case, thermal movement on any scale could only take place during construction, or in the unlikely event of a failure of the air con­ ditioning plant. 1 View from above. 2 Plan of the ground floor. 3 Typical floor plan.

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4 Section between the centre supports. Access to the lifts is from three different levels The visitors enter from the Piazza Duca d'Aosta, the square in front of the station, at level + 3,60 (12 ft.) above the car park. (Below are workshops and an auditorium seating 600 people). The staff enters at the rear of the building at level +0,10 (4 in.) crossing the ramp of the access road by a bridge. The access road passes parallel to the building down to level -4,90 (16 ft.) where there is a delivery entrance. With the help of a goods lift, delivery vans or even lorries can be taken down to level -7,55 (25 ft.) to the service rooms. 5 Section through two of the centre supports which branch out and taper off in the upper floors. G End view. 7 View by night.

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8, 9 Structure of the business machine hall and the auditorium. 1 O The auditorium at first basement level, below the forecourt.

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11 Curtain wall at the 31st floor. 12 Plan of the 31st floor. 13 The structure at the 31st floor.

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Project for the Meschio Aqueduct, 1954 Designer: P. L. Nervi This large aqueduct is constructed of precast prestressed concrete units. Each unit is 9 ft. 3 in. deep and 39 ft. long. Elevation and section. 2 Detail of a joint. 3 Section through the channel (1) and stiffening diaphragm (2). 4 Diagram of erection. The method of construction enables the piers and the channel units to be erected without scaffolding (Patent P. L. Nervi). 1 A channel unit arrives from the precasting yard 2 Portal crane used in placing the precast units 3 Mobile transporter for the units 4 Launching beam 5 Transverse section, showing erection equipment.

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Project for a Sports Hall In Florence, 1955-56 Project: Nervi Studio Delligners: P. L. Nervi and A. Nervi The building Is designed for 5,000 spectators. The roof-a corrugated pa­ rabolic vault with a span of approximately 200 ft.-ls made up of "ferro­ cemento"• rib units precast on the Nervl system. The huge infilling walls on either side are of saw-tooth design, to provide natural lighting. The angle of the supporting piers exactly follows the line of thrust of the roof; this is different at each end owing to the asymmetrical conditions of loading, due mainly to the arrangement of the banks of seats. The piers are placed at 20 ft. centres. The ribs forming the roof are 1 ft. 6 in. deep and 3 ft. 6 in. wide; they are designed to act as air conditioning ducts. • By "ferro-cemento" Is meant a smooth concrete mix of cement mortar reinforced by several layers of fine steel mesh and bars of small diameter. 1 Section through •the saw-tooth wall, showing the precast units. 2 Transverse section. 3 Interior.

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Project for the Underground Basilica at Lourdes, 1955-56 (not carried out) Architect: P. Vago Structural design: P. L. Nervi The basilica, on an elliptical plan with a major axis 607 ft. long and a minor axis 230 ft. long, has a capacity of 20,000 people. The height to the crown is 42 ft. 6 in. The roof, and the overlying earth, are carried on a series of three-pinned arches. The spine beam is designed to take up the horizontal stresses resulting from the thrust at the crown along the major axis, and to keep them in equilibrium by virtue of the symmetrical design. 1 Sec\ions o\ a na\\-an::.'n. 2 Section on the min'or axis. 3 Plan of the roof: left, from above; right, from below. 1 Provision for roof openings infllled with pavement lights 2 Provision for an opening to provide daylight round the periphery 3 Small columns, 16 in. X 16 in. in section 4 Ramp with a 1 0 per cent gradient

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Project for the Completion of the Agnelli Exhibition Hall, Turin, 1956-57 Designers: P. L. Nervi,. M. Passantl, P. Perona, L. Ravelli This project, for the completion of the front of the Agnelli hall built In 1949 by Nervi provides for the extension 'of the hall and the construction of a large covered car approach, an administrative building, and a large restaurant. The notable feature of the scheme is the doubly curved thin shell roof of the car approach, which Is stiffened by Internal ribs. 1 Geometric drawing of the curved vault 2 Elevation. 3 Longitudinal section.

Small Sports Palace (Palazzetto de o Sport), Rome, 1957 Designers: A. V1telon, and P. L. Nerv1 Contractors: lngg. Nervl & Bartoli S.p.A. The hall can quickly and easily be adapted for wrestling and boxing dis­ plays (capacity: 5,000 spectators) or netball and gymnastics (capacity: 4,000 spectators). Equipment and services have been reduced to the bare essentials, so as to cut running costs to a minimum; this was fundamen­ tal requirement in the specification. The roof is a circular reinforced con­ crete dome made up of 1620 precast units, similar to those which are to be used for the· Cathedral of New Norcia (see page 53). It has an internal diameter of 197 ft. and a height to the crown of 68 ft. Ancillary accom­ modation (cloakrooms, lavatories, first-aid, offices, etc.), services, stores and a caretaker's flat are all situated in the peripheral area. The total c_ost of .the building, including all the equipment and air conditioning, was Lire 263,000,000 (approximately £ 155,000).

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1 Plan of the seating. The actual dome has a diameter of 197 ft., measured between the tops of the 36 Y-shaped supports. 2 Transverse 1,ection. 3 Plan at ground floor level.

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4 Casting the Y-shaped supports. 5 Placing the precast roof units. The units were precast on the site, ,,. brick moulds lined with cement mortar, on the Nervi system. They are 1 in. thick. They were positioned, with the aid of steel scaffolding, b_, means of a crane working from the centre of the building. Owing to t specific shape and strength of the units, It was possible during erectic­ to support them on the scaffolding at two points only, thus bring,.-. about very considerable savings in the scaffolding required.

6 The small vaults which connect the ends of the supports are made up of three specially designed precast concrete units. 7 Completion of the dome. The construction was completed in approxi­ mately 30 days. The actual dome was calculated as a membrane. The supJlOrts transmit their own weight and the load of the dome direct to the foundation without bending stresses. The foundation cons,sts of a prestressed concrete ring beam 8 ft. thick and 265 ft. 1n diameter.

Pages 36 and 37:

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8 One ,g of the entrances. 9

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. 10 Look.in 9 up into the dome. . 11 The springing of the dome. 12 Interior.

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Project for Fiumicino Intercontinental Airport, Rome, 1957 Designers: C. Ligini, U. Luccichenti, A. Nervi, P. L. Nervi, D. Ortensi, G. Vaccaro Contrary to usual practice, the specification of this invited competition not only gave data and requirements, but specified a complete layout which had to be closely adhered to. The positions of the fingers were laid down, as well as those of the parked aircraft. the reason being that the parking areas were already in an advanced stage of construction when the design and tenders were called for. The plan is based on three equila­ teral triangles (the terminals) each having one side on a common straight line, so that a direct link is provided between them. The control tower is on the same alinement; this building also contains a visitors' restaurant, a roof terrace and a transit hotel. The fingers are protected by large rein­ forced concrete canopies which are structurally independent of one ano­ ther, to enable them to be constructed separately. Eighteen large aircraft can be berthed under cover. The scheme provides for a movement of 600 aircraft and 8,000 passengers per day. 1 The model, in plan. 2 View from parking area for cars. 3 View from the runways.

4 Model (Scheme B). One of the canopies over the fingers, and the con­ trol tower building. S One o\ the tnree teiminals, and the control tower building.

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12 Scheme A. This scheme, on the other hand, has the advantage of sim­ plicity of construction and greater clear space. 13 Perspect ve (Scheme A).

Project for the Cathedral of New Norcia, Perth, Australia, 1955

Designers: P. L. Nervi, A. Nervi, F. Vacchini, C. Vannoni

The body of the cathedral 1s formed by a great parabolic groined vault on a triangular plan. The three great arches are infilled with stained glass. The structure is made up of reinforced concrete units precast on the Nervi system. The three large piers which support the vault change in section as they rise: the circular base is joined, by a series of straight lines, to an irregular hexagon at the top. The equilateral triangle formed by the base of the vault has a side length of 115 ft. The height of the vault at the crown is 100 ft. 1 General view of the model. 2 Model of the vault.

" 3 C�lumn detail-elevations. 4 Column detail-sections. 5 Details of the vault.

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UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, 1953-58

Designers: M. Breuer, P. L. Nervi, B. Zehrfuss The curved north side of the Y-shaped secretariat forms part of the group buildings around the Place Fontenoy. The south side opens towards a new square which is bordered by the projecting Conference Building. The outline of the main building forms an extremely clear-cut shape. Lifts, staircases and vertical services are in the core of this Y-shaped block. The vestibule space diverges into corridors which lead to offices on both sides. Further lifts and secondary stairs are at the end of each wing. The conference block is linked by a "clip" to the office building. This block contains the architecturally interesting Conference Room and several ses­ sion rooms.

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Place Fontenoy entrance (for cars) 2 Pedestrian entrance 3 Information 4 Reference library 5 Foyer 6 "Salle des Pas Perdus" 7 Conference lounge 8 Snack bar and kitchen 9 Congress hall 10 Executive committee room 11, 12 Conference rooms 13 Japanese Garden 14 Print shop 15 Delegates· building • View from above.

3 View from the west.

4 Section. 5 View from the Avenue de Segur.

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6 Pilotis at the ground floor. 7, 8 Study for pilotis supporting the new building planned for the • extension of the UNESCO headquarters. Their shape is dictat considerations of statics. The columns divide on the upper floors

9 The Congress Hall. 10 Front of the Congress Hall.

11 Detail of the Congress Hall. 12 Interior of the Congress Hall.

13 One of the staircases.

14 Sections through the canopy. 15 The canopy facing the Congress Hall.

Large Sports Palace (Palazzo dello Sport), Rome, 1958-60

Design by P. L. Nervi, based on a general plan drawn up by P. L. Nervi and M. Piacentini The "Palazzo dello Sport" is the largest of the sports arenas constructed by Pier Luigi Nerv1 for the 1961 Olympic Games. It was primarily designed for under-cover sporting events, and can easily be adapted, as required, to boxing, fencing, wrestling, tennis, netball, weight-lifting, etc. Owing to its excellent acoustics, it has recently been used for large public perfor­ mances. At the request of the Committee, the seats are arranged in two banks. Twelve large external staircases lead to a peripheral gallery, from which a series of internal stairs give access to the upper bank of seats. Total capacity of the hall: 16,000 spectators. 1 Night viev-,:. 2 Interior.

3 Section. The roof Is a dome of approximately 330 ft. diameter, support­ ed on inclined columns which transmit the load directly to the founda­ tions. 4 Plan at gallery level.

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5 Movable "ferro-cemento" forms used for casting the gallery floor, in which the ribs follow the lines of the principal stresses (P. L. Nervi system) 6 Formwork ready for concreting 7 The finished floor, from below. 8 The hall under construction, showing the three sections of timber form­ work reinforced with steel which were used for casting the 48 inclined columns.

9 The peripheral gallery, on two levels.

10 Close-up of the fan-shaped units which support the dome 11 Original sketch of a section of the roof.

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12 Studies for the formwork of the inclined columns (in "ferro-cement 13 Construction of the moulds, in rendered brick, for casting the units · ming the peripheral gallery. 14 Placing the precast units roofing the peripheral gallery. 15, 16 Timber formwork for the columns. 17 ColtJmn details. The inclination e11actly follows the resultants of · thrust of the dome and of the vertical reaction due to the upper b qf seats and the roof of the peripheral gallery. 18 View of the gallery and the inclined columns.

19 Close-up of a column. 20 One of the internal staircases. 21 Working drawing of the reinforcement of an internal staircase.

22 The prefabricated fan-shaped supports. 23 Timber formwork in position for casting the peripheral roof. 24 The casting yard.

2S 26 Positioning a precast dome unit. The units were positioned by means of a crane moving on three concentric circles of rails, the radius of which is progressively reduced as the work approaches the centre. The crown units are placed with the crane operating from the centre. 2 Isometric drawing and section of a precast rib. The units are V-shaped n section, closed by a 3½ in. thick top slab which is also precast. The whole forms a hyperstatic system in which the dome acts either as a membrane or as a series of arch ribs each able to withstand external forces. The calculations, which took into account the static indeter­

rninacy of the whole structure, showed that the dome acted mainly as

a membrane. The redundant nature of the structure enabled it to resist : e abnormal conditions which occur on removal of centering.

I formed of precast reinforced . actual dome ·s 28 Close-up f the dome. The concrete \s (P. L. Nervi system) . n 29 Original aketch for the roof. 30 Original sketch for the central roof light.

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31 Study for an early scheme, involving a roof with radial ribs. This de­ sign was not adopted, for economic reasons. 32 The interior of the early, flat-roofed, project.

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Flaminio Stadium, Rome, 1958-59

Design: Nervi Studio Designers: P. L. Nervi and A. Nervi Contractors: lngg. Nervi & Bartol, S.p.A. The stadium was built as o result of an invited design-and-tender com­ petition in which Nervi and Bartoli were the successful competitors. The Flaminio Stadium is one of the three large sports structures designed by P. L. Nervi for the 1961 Olympic Games. It occupies the site of the old stadium built in 1911. The specification Included, among others, three very stringent requirements. The first was that the new structure should at no point exceed the perimeter of the old; the second was the inclusion of a number of ancillary sports facilities, among them a swimming pool and five gymnasia, all capable of being used independently or, if required, simul­ taneously with the main sporting events. The total capacity of the stadium 1s 55,000 people. An unusual feature of the design is the means of access to the various categories of seats. by cantilevered external galleries. The main structure consists of a series of in situ reinforced concrete portal frames linked by secondary beams. and of the precast reinforced con­ crete seat units which span between them. The method of precasting (Nervi system) gave all the units a perfectly smooth finish requiring no subsequent treatment. 1 View by night. 2 General view.

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3 Exterior. 4 Plan showing ancillary accommodation below the seating tiers. 5 Plan of the stands.

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6 Placing the concrete of the supporting frames. 7 The frame supports of the covered stand. 8 Reinforcement of a frame support.

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