Mughal Rule in India

First paragraph of Chapter 1: "On the eve of Babur's invasion, India was parcelled out among numerous mutually

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Table of contents :
CONTENTS
I. INDIA ON THE EVE OF BABUR'S INVASION . . 1-6
(a) Kingdom of Delhi . . 1-2
(b) Mewar . . 2-3
(c) Vijayanagar . . 3
(d) Khandesh . . 3
(e) Kashmir . . 4
(f) Orissa . . 4
(g) Gujarat . . 4
(h) Malwa . . 4
(i) Bengal . . 4-5
(j) Sind . . 5
(k) Beginning of a New age . . 5-6

II. BABUR (1526-1530) . . 7-20
(a) Early life of Babur . . 7-8
(b) Battle of Panipat (1526) 8-9
(c) Battle of Kanwah . . 9-11
(d) Battle of Chanderi (1528) . . 11
(e) Battle of Ghagra (1529) . . 12
(f) Death of Babur . . 12
(g) Administrative Changes .. 13
(h) Babur's Memoirs . . 13-18
(i) Estimate of Babur . . 18-20

III. HUMAYUN (1530-1556) . . 21-35
(a) Early life of Humayun . . 21
(b) Difficulties of Humayun . . 21-23
(c) Expedition of Kalinjar . . 23
(d) Battle of Dourah . . 23
(e) Siege of Chunar . . 23-24
(f) War with Bahadur Shah . . 24-25
(g) War with Sher Khan . . 25
(h) Battle of Chausa . . 25
(i) Battle of Kanauj . . 26-27
(j) Humayun's efforts to regain throne . . 27-29
(k) Causes of Humayun's failure . . 29-31
Q) Estimate of Humayun 31-35

IV. SHER SHAH SUR AND HIS SUCCESSORS (1540-1556) . . 36-63
(a) Early life of Sher Shah . . 36-37
(b) Sher Khan and Humayun 37-38
(c) Sher Khan and Bengal . . 38-39
(d) Mughal occupation of Bengal . . 39-49
(e) Battle of Kanauj . . 40-43
(f) Conquest of Malwa .. 43
(g) Conquest of Raisin .. 43
(h) Conquest of Multan and Sind .. 43
(i) War with Jodhpur .. 43-44
(j) Sher Shah's Administration .. 44-52
(k) Estimate of Sher Shah .. 52-56
(l) Successors of Sher Shah .. 56-62
- (i) Islam Shah (1545-53) .. 56-60
- (ii) Muhammad Adil (1553-57) .. 60-62
(m) Causes of downfall of Sur Empire .. 62-63

V. AKBAR, THE GREAT (1556-1605) .. 64-124
(a) Condition of India in 1556 .. 64-65
(b) Second Battle of Panipat .. 65-67
(c) Submission of Sikandar Sur .. 67
(d) Bairam Khan .. 67-72
(e) Petticoat Government .. 72
(f) Adham Khan .. 72-73
(g) Uzbeg Rebellion .. 73
(h) Wars and Conquests of Akbar .. 74
(i) Conquest of Gondwana .. 74
(j) Wars against Rajputs .• 74-81
(k) Conquest of Gujarat .. 81-82
(l) Conquest of Bengal .. 82
(m) Annexation of Kabul .. 82
(n) Conquest of Kashmir .. 82-43
(o) Conquest of Sind .. 83
(p) Conquest of Kandhar .. 83
(q) Conquest of Ahmednagar .. 83-84
(r) Fort of Asirgarh .. 84
(s) The Portuguese .. 85
(t) Akbar as founder of Mughal Empire .. 85-88
(u) Rajput Policy of Akbar . • .. 88
(v) Rajput Policy vs. Afghan Policy .. 88-89
(w) Akbar's Policy towards the Hindus .. 89-91
(x) Development of Akbar's Religious views .. 91-92
(y) Infallibility Decree .. 92-95
(z) 'Din-i-Ilahi .. 95-100
(aa) Akbar's religion .. 100-01
(bb) Akbar's Land Revenue System .. 101-05
(cc) The Mansabdari System .. 105-11
(dd) Reforms of Akbar .. 111-12
(ee) Akbar and the Jesuits. .. 112-14
(ff) The Parsees and pins .. 114
(gg) Birbal .. 115
(hh) Todar Mal.. 115-16
(ii) Bhagwan Das .. 116
(jj) Abul Faz1 ' .. 116-17
(kk) Character and Achievements of Akbar .. • 117-124

VI. JAHANGIR (1605-1627) .. 125-138
(a) Early Life Of Jahangir .. 125-26
(b) Early measures of Jahangit .. 126
(c) Revolt of Prince Kitusrau .. 126-27
(d) Nur Jahan .. 127-31
(e) War with Mewar .. 131-33
(f) Conquest of Kangra .. 133
(g) Conquest of Kistwar .. 133
(h) War with Ahmadnagar .. 133-34
(i) Affairs of Kandhar .. 134-35
(j) Bubonic Plague .. 135
(k) Revolt of Shah Jahan .. 135-36
(l) Death of Jahangir .. 136
(m) Visit of Foreigners .. 136-37
(n) Estimate of Jahangir .. 137-138

VII. SHAH JAHAN (1627-1658) .. 139-157
a) Early life of Shah Jahan .. 139
(b) Rebellion of Bundela Rajputs . .. 139-40 ,
(c) Rebellion of Khan Jahan Lodi .. 140
(d) The Nauroz of 1628 .. 140
(e) Famine of 1630 .. 140-141
(f) Death of Mumtaz Mahal .. 141
(g) War with the Portuguese .. 141-142
(h) Shah Jahan's Deccan Policy .. 142
(i) War with Bijapur .. 143-44
(j) Loss of Kandhar .. 144-145
(k) First Siege of Kandhar .. 145
(l) Second Siege of Kandhar .. 145
(m) Third Siege of Kandhar .. 145-46
(n) Balkh and Badakshan .. 146-47
(o) War of Succession 147-51
(p) Causes of Success of Aurangzeb .. 151-52
(q) Art and Architecture under Shah Jahan ... 152-53
(r) Golden Age of Mughal Period .. 153
(s) Foreign Travellers in the Time of Shah Jahan .. 153-54
(t) Estimate of Shah Jahan .. 154-157

VIII. AURANGZEB ALAMGIR (108-1707) .. 158-182
(a) Early Measures of Aurangeb .. 158
(b) Wars on the Eastern Frontier (1661-66) .. 159
(c) North-West Frontier Policy .. 159-60
(d) Aurangzeb and the Muslim World .. 160
(e) Aurangzeb, the Puritan .. 161-66
(f) Effects of Anti-Hindu Policy .. 166-68
(g) Rajput War .. 166-68
(h) Revolt of Satnamis .. 168
(i) Rebellion of Gokal .. 168
(j) The Bundelas .. 168-69
(k) The Sikhs .. 169
(l) Deccan Policy of Aurangzeb .. 169-70
(m) Conquest of Bijapur .. 170
(n) Conquest of Golconda .. 170-72
(o) Aurangzeb and the Marathas .. 172-73
(p) Consequences of the Deccan Policy of Aurangzeb .. 173-75
(q) Causes of Aurangzeb's failure in the Deccan .. 175-76
(r) Aurangzeb and the English .. 176
(s) Aurangzeb and his sons .. 176-77
(t) Character and estimate of Aurangzeb .. 177-182

IX. RISE OF 'THE MARATHAS .. 183-206
(a) Physical Features .. 183-84
(b) Bhakti Movement .. 184
(c) Literature and Language .. 185
(d) Shivaji's Early Life .. 185-86
(e) Conquests of Shivaji .. 186-8.7
(f) Struggle with Bijapur .. 187
(g) Shivaji and Afzal Khan .. 187-88
(h) Shivaji and the Mughals .. 188-89
(i) Attack on Surat .. 189
(j) Jai Singh and Shivaji .. 189-190
(k) Shivaji's administrative system .. 191
(l) Estimate of Shivaji .. 194-97
(m) Shivaji and Hindu Empire .. 197-98
(n) Weakness in Shivaji's System .. 199
(o) Sambhaji (1680-89) .. 199-200
(p) Raja Ram (1689-1700) .. 200-01
(q) Tara Bai (1700-1707) .. 201-03
(r) Sahu (1707-1749) .. 203-05
(s) Ramraja .. 205
(t) Sahu II .. 205
(u) Pratap Sinh .. 205-06
(v) Shahji .. 206

X. RISE AND GROWTH OF SIKH POWER ... 207-227
(a) Guru Nanak .. 207-11
(b) Guru Angad .. 211
(c) Guru Amar Das .. 211-12
(d) Guru Ram Das .. 212
(e) Guru Arjan .. 212-13
(f) Guru Hargobind .. 213-14
(g) Guru Har Rai .. 214
(h) Guru Har Krishan .. 214
(i) Guru Teg Bahadur .. 214
(j) Guru Gobind Singh .. 215-17
(k) Banda Bahadur .. 217-18
(l) The Sikhs after the death of Banda Bahadur .. 218-21
(m) The Sikh Misls .. 221
(n) Gurmatta .. 221-22
(o) Misl Organisation .. 222
(p) Faizalpuria or Singhpuria Misl .. 222
(q) Ahluwalia Misl .. 223
(r) Bhangi Misl .. 223
(s) Ramgarhia Misl .. 223
(t) Kanheyia Misl .. 224-25
(u) Sukarchakya Misl .. 225
(v) Phulkian Misl .. 225-26
(w) Dallewalia Misl .. 226
(x) Nishanwalia Misl .. 226
(y) Kirorsingha Misl .. 226 -
(z) Shahids' Misl or Nihangs' Misl 226
(aa) Nakai Misl .. 226-227

XI. MUGHAL ADMINISTRATION .. 228-253
(a) Sources of Information .. 228
(b) Nature of Mughal Government .. 228-30
(c) Position of Mughal Emperor .. 230-33
(d) The Ghuslkhana .. 233
(e) The Vakil 233
(f) Wazir or Diwan .. 233-34
(g) Mir Bakshi .. 234
(h) Sadar ur-Sadur .. 234
(i) Muhtasib .. 234-35
(j) Qazi-ul-Quzat or Chief Qazi .. 235
(k) Diwan-i-Buyutat .. 235
(l) Superintendent of Artillery .. 235
(m) Darogha-i-Dak Chauki .. 235
(n) Provincial Administration .. 236
(o) Subedar .. 236-37
(p) Diwan .. 237
(q) Faujdar .. 237
(r) Sadar 237-38
(s) Amil .. 238
(t) Bakshi .. 238
(u) Bitikchi .. 238
(v) Potdar or Khizandar .. 238•
(w) Kotwal . 238-40..
(x) Waqai-Navis .. 240
(y) Sarkars or Districts .. 240
(z) Parganas or Mahals .. 240
(aa) Relations between Centre and Provinces 240-41
(bb) Measures to Ensure Integrity of Empire .. 241-42
(cc) Military Organisation .. 242-47
(dd) Finance .. 248-49
(ee) Administration of Justice .. 249-52
(ff) Criticism of Mughal Administrative System .. 252-253

XII. ART AND LITERATURE IN MUGHAL_ INDIA .. 254-74
(a) Architecture under Mughals .. 254
(b) Paintings in Mughal Period .. 261
(c) Music in Mughal, Period .. 265-67
(d) Growth of literature under the Mughak .. 267-273

XIII. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITION IN MUGHAL INDIA .. 275-89
(a) King .. 275
(b) Nobles .. 275-76
(c) Middle Class .. 276-77
(d) Lower Classes .. 277-78
(e) Customs 278-79
(f) Fairs and Festivals 279-80
(g) Outdoor Sports .. 280-82
(h) Dress 282 . .
(i) Food 282 ..
(j) Women . . 282-83
(k) Observations by Foreign Travellers . . 283-84
(l) Economic condition . . 284-289

XIV. LATER MUGHALS . . 290-327
(a) Bahadur Shah (1707-12) 290-91
(b) Jahandar Shah (1712-13) . . 292
(c) Farrukhsiyar (1713-19) . . 292-93
(d) Rafi-ud-Darajat (1719) . . 293
(e) Rafi-ud-Daula alias Shah Jahan II (1719) . . 293
(f) Mohammad Shalt (1719-48) . . 293
(g) Sayyid Brothers . . 293-95
(h) Parties and Politics at the Mughal Court (1707-20) . . 295-304
(i) Nadir Shah's invasion (17391 . . 304-07
(j) Invasions of Ahmad Shah Abdali . . 307-10
(k) Alamgir 11 (1754-59) . . 311
(l) Shah Alam II (1759-1806).. 311-312
(m) Akbar II (1806-37) . . 312
(n) Bahadur Shah II (1837-57)312.
(o) Causes of the downfall of the Mughals . . 312-23
(p) Legacy of the Mughals in India . . 323-327

XV. HISTORY AND HISTORIANS OF MUGHAL INDIA 328-335
(a) Babur-namah . . 329-330
(b) Tazkirat-ul-Waqiat . . 330
(c) Humayun-namah 330 . .
(d) Tarikh-i-Rashidi330-31 . .
(e) Akbarnamah 331-32
(f) Iguntakhib-ut-Twarikh. . 332 —
(g) Tabaqat-i-Akbari . . 332 —
(h) Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri. 333 —
(i) Iqbalnamah-i-Jah .. angir 333 —
(j) Maathir-i-Jahangiri. . 333 —
(k) Padshah Namah . . 333 —
(l) Maasir-i-Alamgiri • • 333 —
(m) Alamgir-namah 333-4
(n) Tarikh-i-Mufazzali . . 334 —
(o) Mirat-i-Alam . . 334 —
(p) Zinat-ut-Tawarikh . . 334 —
(q) Fatuhat-i-Alamgiri . . 334 —. .
(r) Rukaat-i-Alamgiri. . 334-5

Chronological Table • . 336-338
Index .. 339-342

Mughal Rule in India

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