Mistakes in writing English, and how to avoid them ... [6. ed.]


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Table of contents :
Front Cover
Title Page (Page i)
Table of Contents (Page vii)
Section 1 (Page 7)
Section 2 (Page 8)
Section 3 (Page 11)
Section 4 (Page 21)
Section 5 (Page 24)
Section 6 (Page 25)
Section 7 (Page 30)
Section 8 (Page 31)
Section 9 (Page 34)
Section 10 (Page 36)
Section 11 (Page 42)
Section 12 (Page 45)
Section 13 (Page 48)
Section 14 (Page 55)
Section 15 (Page 60)
Section 16 (Page 64)
Section 17 (Page 66)
Section 18 (Page 72)
Section 19 (Page 89)
Section 20 (Page 100)
Index (Page 107)
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MISTAKES IN

WRITING ENGLISH , AND HOW TO AVOID THEM

FOR THE USE OF

ALL WHO TEACH , WRITE

.

, OR SPEAK

THE LANGUAGE .

BY

MARSHALL

BIGELOW

T.

,

AUTHOR OF “ PUNCTUATION, AND OTHER TYPOGRAPHICAL MATTERS ."

SIXTH

EDITION .

BOSTON

:

LEE AND SHEPARD , PUBLISHERS 10

MILK

STREET .

1898

.

,

THE NEW YORK

PUBLIC LIBRARY

3465271

ASTOR , LENOX AND TILDEN FOUNDATIONS

R

1927

Copyright , 1886,

BY MARSHALL

T. BIGELOW .

PREFACE

А.

WRITER in

of this day who has written

author

consecutively

without some flagrant

in the grammar . "

ety

once said that , “ with

the exception of Wordsworth , there is not one

celebrated pages

Blackwood

.

aggerated

two

impropri

This may have been an

ex

it is very near the

statement , nevertheless

truth in reference to the present time .

other work

on be be a a

should

written

say

excused

,

writer

of

however

grammatical

for

their

errors

which

an

much has been

which have appeared

most

works

,

within recent years which

seem

is

that the object

of it

subject

so

reason for publishing

sufficient

to

ent from that

.

avoided

of

may

to

It

that might

that

on

brilliant

have peculiarities

admitted

no

all

must

elegant English ,

constitute

great writers be

,

, it

necessarily

not

and while own

slavish following of the rules of gram

mere

does

be

While mar

entirely

differ

have been written

PREFACE .

iv

mainly for the purpose of picking every flaw possible in the author criticised . is hoped that this work

may be of use to the

teacher or scholar , by pointing

to which the best

rangement , the errors

to to

,

be

.

in

served ,

that

in

-r

,

in

mind

been

and

the sentence may often cases

should

merely correcting left inelegant

,

,

in

and

many

they

which

erroneous sentences the main object

show the error

the grammar

have

whenever

cor

were

Others

borne

;

to

clearly

and

the works

published

must

sentences

,

.

the correction

eading

before

any source

from

my purpose

common

attention

in

appropriated

were

proof

.

occurred

writers

of It

they

their

be

by

given were observed rected

but such

ungrammatical

the

in

A

of

authors have received particular number

on

all

know and avoid

my experience has shown

large

wasted

has been

every one with any claim

which

supposed

is

space

treated may

,

errors all

No

so brief

is

the points

undoubtedly

be

as

education

is

of

.

vulgarisms

mere

be found , and

to

be

that a full knowledge easily acquired

writers

is so arranged that any partic

may readily

subject

ular

It

are liable .

to

English

ar of

out , in an orderly

be

It

entirely

tautological

in

printed

words

or

either ungrammatical

the

,

all

,

cited

,

Italics

the examples are

In

.

reconstructed

super

V

PREFACE .

words inserted in brackets are to take

The

of the preceding

sarily added

Italic words , or are neces

to make the sentence correct .

it is done

the

writers

authorities

the language

are

in

not

,

but

writing modern English

the Bible

out with any idea

corrected we

to

that they ought

to to

errors

Shakespeare are not pointed

of

matters

.

to

standard

that

even those

grammar

The grammatical and

,

considered

are

relating

be

who

showing

not

not infallible

are

in

best

for an erroneous

the purpose

of

sentence ,

for

Where an author's name is given

in

the place

of

fluous .

show that

follow archaic

it

to

treatment .

volume

I

,

much

and

approved

,

generally .

propose

a

to

very

reform

is



a

be

will

which

have also

compound words together with ,

to

for a

to

of

is

no

as

true spelling

some

authors ought

this matter

doubt

Sen

there

the formation

have ventured

typographical acquainted

.

remarks

I

in

which

some rules

thorough

are given rules

be

the line

itself require

of

I

have

though

simplifies

to

given

which

the matter

,

so

as

is

it

,

in

which

on

of

the plural

Construction

expect more than

precisely

entitled

the Appendix

change

as

that

the subject would

In

of

,

relates

entitled

might lead one

but

;

given



The short chapter tences

of

.

forms

matters with which

vi

PREFACE .

of Murray, Goold

Whitney and Tweed

and

,

greatly

Professor

Abuse

",

and

1886

.

5,

,

October

and

Mathews's these

indebted

M. CAMBRIDGE

“ Conversation ,

the various publications

Grant White

their Use am



,

Graces

have

.

,

Words

works

I



Mr. Richard

its

its

Faults and

I

“ Principles

use of Prof. A. S. Hill's

of Rhetoric , ” Prof. A. P. Peabody's

Brown ,

others ,

and

of

made frequent

,

T. BIGELOW

.

Professors

all

the Grammars

to

Besides

, 1 е S 1

f

CONTENTS

3

.

)

1

1 PAGE

CHAPTER 1. USE OF THE ARTICLE

II .

THE NOMINATIVE

III .

THE POSSESSIVE CASE

IV .

THE OBJECTIVE

V.

VI . VII . VIII .

13

CASE AND THE VERB

CASE

21 .

24

PRONOUN AND ANTECEDENT

25

MOOD .

30

THE SUBJUNCTIVE THE INFINITIVE

MOOD .

31

TENSE , OR TIME

34

IX . SHALL AND WILL , SHOULD AND WOULD X. LIE AND LAY .

XI .

ADJECTIVES

XIII.

ADVERBS .

42

RELATIVE

45

AND ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS

48 55

PRONOUNS .

XV . DOUBLE NEGATIVES

XVI .

36

SET AND SIT

USE OF THE PARTICIPLE

XII . XIV .

-

CORRELATIVES

.

.

60 64 66

viii

CONTENTS .

CHAPTER

PAGE

XVII. XVIII . XIX . XX . XXI .

CONJUNCTIONS

69 .

PREPOSITIONS

.

72

CONSTRUCTION OF SENTENCES

76

TAUTOLOGICAL AND SUPERFLUOUS WORDS

78

MISCELLANEOUS

81

WORDS AND PHRASES

APPENDIX 1.

II . III .

FORMATION OF THE PLURAL

.

COMPOUND WORDS SOME TYPOGRAPHICAL

INDEX

.

. 89 93

MATTERS

. 100

107

AGE 69

MISTAKES

72 76 'S

IN WRITING ENGLISH

11

.

CHAPTER I. USES OF THE ARTICLE . , or an is the indefinite article and cannot be It can be used , however , plural used with a noun . a hun an army ,” before a noun of multitude ; as , significa plural .; , and also with a dred ," " a fleet " etc flower

,

a

"

a man , " "many

etc.

all

”,

many

A a

66

“ many

like

tion in phrases

gem

A

§ 1.

a

hypo

",

,

", "

an

" a

",

hour

an

;

h

a

The words unit

Indian European

, , ” "

as , “ a a

", " a

;

unit

harangue

" a

",

an ",

angel

,

."

honest

youth harpoon

,

" ;

critical

European

or

a

a

one

a

a

, an " " "

,

" a "

woman

such

an ,

is

or a

,

2.

§

words beginning with used before before all words consonant sound consonant beginning with man silent true vowel

really begin with

of a

of ,

h

to

for

the use words beginning with

to

an

consonant

as

before

a

is

.

beginning with similar combinations exception the rule There

is

an ,

a,

of w ;

,y

of

the consonant sound and one begins with the sound they therefore require which and not often erroneously used before these and other words

MISTAKES IN WRITING ENGLISH

which

,

images

,

the ]

,

,

.

the

, [

to

the

.”

]

in by

of [

in

."

are

is

]

."

]

[

,

;

the ]

, [



[

]



[

The

“ “

The president and the secretary were elected indebtedness the English and the Greek French Latin disclosed almost every sentence These terms uttered artist the the husbandman mechanic and Nouns the English language have three cases the native nomi possessive and the objective

;

a

;

"

1

.



,

'

a

-

'



.

A

'

"

'

"

"

The treasurer and secretary means one person who holds two offices the treasurer and tary means the secre two officers black and white dog means one parti colored animal black and white dog means two dogs one black and one white The as

.

”, is “ a

on

" ", a

,

" a

.

be

h

.

it

,

,

,

"

to

,

h

is

of

;

all

an

of

be

.

h

all

on

an

;

as

Worcester's rule for the use before Webster's and each defective well them violates his own says that rnle Worcester should used before words beginning with are accented which the second syllable Webster that before should words beginning with used which are accented but the first any syllable Yet both write very properly poon har and Worcester even gives hotel harpooner according which either rule wrong

IM

kn

blue star may produce photographic

[

the Greek and

the ]

both

01

.” ]

[a



of

A

red and equal intensity

be

it

of

]

from

."

Latin

Ti

.

of

;

as ,

[

words should

.

literal meaning





But the French pilfered

li

the

an

,

,

or

,

of

or

,

or

§ is 4.

be



the

IN ! H

may

used before any noun whether singular plural except abstract terms names virtues vices sciences The omission the article where should used very common The metaphorical and distinguished

an

historiog

.” 1

hypothesis

primary

a

,

the

The definite article



,

"

, "

harpooner

historian an

as , “

the second syllable

an

;

is

which have either

be

§ 3.

rapher

used an

", an

case

"

a

or

on ,

more than two syllables secondary accent

.

in

10

of

un

a

.'

,

]

of

,

also often inserted erroneously examples we ? ”

1

:

,

are

as

.

these

do

."

?”

an

of

.”

.

,

of a

law

linguist

.”

than

be

. a ”

He



better mathematician

a



is

is

to

.”

Ayres Verbalist 192 generally have active minds gentleman the appellation He entitled the ministers the head The one styled the Mufti

of

a

is

of

of a

to

“ “

— of

, .p

of a

is

“ “

of

are speaking whom man the kind That they possess charm What sort reptile this What species organization has been given whom this kind Men

and religion was

;

104

.

Rhetoric

, .p

of

Hill's Principles

as ,

it

used between the posses The article should not governs case and the noun which

sive

1

1

.”

to

he

of

Articles

the following

1 3

.'

he

[

in

he

,

of

the ] . the )

are both omitted the article and the equally correct will

be

But

if

(





In [



by

persisted the writing Prompted extreme vanity 1 bad verses >> framing was very exact his sentences proceeded blows calling names From

sentences

4

by

is

be

it

of ,

of

which was before

conclusion

.”

]

[

should

as ,

;

It or is



participle followed preceded the

present

the

the drawing dark

knowu of

the

."

by

$

5.

article

definite

in

1

1

The

consciousness was one body

the

council

the

»1

another

synod



le te e d h ºr 11

;

.

:

shows that

context

in

any unity

implied not

§ 6.

mi . on

of

is

,

the )

(

d be

[ the ] zages

re

'

'

,

:

one

of

the

E ang

other

Whenever pould immediately

and

are those who are both honest are the honest and the intelligent

composed those who are honest The follow those who are intelligent The council and ing sentence therefore defective synod maintained that the unity the person

Dringe two classes

,

;

,

whit and intelligent

Erms

11

intelligent

honest and

"

Emart

USES OF THE ARTICLE .



.'

",



,

in

all

are omitted

The

and the Italicizeil this the examples

all

articles should

his the book

wrong

in

be

examples

foregoing

saying

to

is

'

in

.'

Chance Acquaintance Spain

Year Cushing's equivalent This

'

. '"

'

AA

of

Peru

Howells's

"

of Mexico ,' and his ' The

' The Conquest

“ Prescott's quest

. Com

MISTAKES IN WRITING ENGLISH

12

two vowels

one

. "

combination

in

of ;

some

as ,

of

is

the

[ a ]

is

]

diphthong

A

“ “

An [

$

7.

The definite and the indefinite article times improperly used together the United States the emblem the eagle

are

section

;

the the

if if

.

, as , as

. "

;

either case used understood after each adjective the fifth

,

the fourth

,

, do ,

sonnet the first ,



plural verb must

In is a a to

But noun

and the objective case and objective cases

in

The nominative

be

The nominative

as ,

,

in

made plural

be

66 "

noun noun

is is

,

noun

or

more adjectives qualify the same precede each adjective must the article put the singular but only the first

Where two

8.

§

.”

syllable

the

and the eighth

."

be

to



,

.”

twelfth and fourteenth lines The Old and the New Testament inspired Christians generally

are both

believed

by

,

,

,

,

,

;

,

,

so

the second third sixth and seventh line usually rhyme and thirteenth lines and the tenth eleventh ninth lines the

THE NOMINATIVE CASE AND THE VERB .

II

CHAPTER alicia

.

THE NOMINATIVE CASE AND THE VERB $ 9.

SOL

13

.

The noun or pronoun which is the subject of a governs the verb ,

sentence , or the nominative , always

Very common violations in conversation are the use of “ You was , " for He does n't He don't and You were writing although rule often carelessly violated

both in number and person .

.”



are

the actual

determine examples

of

to

is

difficult

The following

,

in



”,

of

",

nominative

cases .

many

in

e

The sam

it

is

for “

of this rule

incorrect

:

usage

was

]

were

[

,

,



The steamer with the crew and passengers

]

(

.”

]

(

of

of

,

]

is “ “ “ for A In bad ?” us

man prepares

em .

,

[

.”

of

of

]

.”

]

or

]

]

(

.”

,

. >

of be

of

[

,

(

]

.”

."

,

The

the“

"

friendship Day after day pass passes away Legislature with the Governor decide decides how expended State taxes shall these provisions show shows what the The whole scope oluject the Legislature was Nothing less than murders rapine and conflagrations séparemploys their thoughts One economist after another have has protested against the old Ricardian creed the articles other someone “

of

.”

[

]

is

by

(

is

of ]

of

The second book the Æneid one the greatest master any hand pieces that ever was were executed the best that has have been written one This letter abort Lord Byron .”

-ed by

when our practice

good opinions

"

:

eight seventh tenth

signify

piety and virtue consist consists the happiness opinions and qualities prepare conformity

"

9

as the

What signifies

(

."

lost

:

MISTAKES IN WRITING ENGLISH

14

“ To these precepts rules and maxims ."

[is ] subjoined

are

.

a copious selectionof

1

,

,

of

,

."

[ is ]

,

.

,

of Addison in

— his

, matters of grammar , of Bentley study Bolingbroke who never made the English grammar nothing Pope and others are Harrison The English Language " The authority

the Colo)

was warmly

(

were

,

towards

Boston

,

at

of

Administration

the

the Commissioners

perhaps Better wards the Colonies

as

of

,

,

of

at

, “

of

,

.”

,

, , “ as

of

the Administration The conduct well 22that the Commissioners Boston was warmly attacked towards the Colo. the Administration Or The conduct nies and that the Commissioners Boston were warmly its

."

attacked

,

. in "

its

,

its

. "

,

as

: " its



,

false standards and prizes That moment the world and place recedes and falls into false That moment the world with follows Correct place standards and prizes recedes and falls into

or

.”

to

,

,

."

-



,

Virtue

,

,

Reason virtue

the measure

As ,

or , .

aim ".

,

to

change are doomed earth itself answer one great recommend honor even self interest conspire

empire

,

“ "

,

Art

or

or

,

a

,

,

in or

§

pronouns the sin more nouns 10. Two more gular number two the nominative case without any con clauses whether connected by and plural verb necting particle require

ted

is , " --

,

.

. "

]

,

)

is ( ]

(

]

(

,

(

all

By

of

be

to

.

)

."

believed not are defeated the statute is (

show that the witness The letter and the spirit

of is

[

are

examples are therefore erroneous

Tranquillity and peace dwells dwell there good and evil are distributed whose power Ha For woman's fear and love holds hold quantity action Man woman too craves erave life and life variety the evidenc The purpose and the only direct effect

."

ing

."

,



" “ "

The following

every public and private consideratin lawful government by

to ,

Patriotism morality

demand our submission

“ ] " , “ to ,

!

. at to

. "

,

of



The conduct

nies and attacked

21

11.

THE NOMINATIVE CASE AND THE VERB .

in

be

or

us .

" .”

his

.

on

is

,

.

but keeps due

ebb

,

,

,

,

of

icy

a



Ne'er feels retiring

re

at

."

of

." .”

,

whether con

by

or

,

of

to

,

, a

an

in

, to is of

,

a -

,

or . ”

more pominatives

Where two

by

12.

$

IT r Cor

in

he sit

"

, of a a

A

3

,

its fil



This self command this exertion reason the midst passion has wonderful effect both please and persuade purpose design everything intention evident craving for the ideal which You create fastidiousness compelsmany the sons rank and fortune become weary mok wanderers foreign lands

. "

,

shrub

was

."

. . ”

be

to

]

(

(

]

of

of

are

,

of

as ,

any

the

or

,

;

or

as ,

as

in the

a

not of be

well

thought whatever outcome grass were was blade seen Ticknor make makes this statement

as

aborPrescott

,

or ,

]

(

a

weed nor as

"

,

piec s

were

Not

was

by

or

Where two more singular nominatives nor well other disjunctive verb must the singular some Mécanique Céleste The Principia Newton separated

La

" Ng

13.



.

,

not a

,

no

tree and

Thbeseen Inject

"

,

to ; be as , so . "

be

beast

not a

bird and

,

,

not a

Not

no ,

,

,

or

no ,

,

“ " Stato“ No ) a it .” , ,

the

utfaces

i

hy

atin

and

,

every unconnected are qualified singular each not the verb must Every man woman and child knows this umend Each soldier seaman and officer receives his allotted share glaring chalk grim sandstone rugged flint outface nected

1

in to

.”

we

is a

, In

,

, is

, its a

”,

,

try" of

is

in

the regis now recorded The said deed and conveyance deeds and the time said deed anıl conveyance was corded etc. own sake worth seeking for Truth and truth only this mutual influence there wisdom wonderful cannot fathom wisdom which " "

li

the

,

or

;

as of ,

the

"

learning this scholar critic and antiquary This prodigy breeding and civility was entirely destitute country The philosopher and poet was banished from actually provided for Such Saviour and Redeemer Whose current and compulsive course “ "

Face alla linger

§

When two more nominatives stand for the subject the verb governed must singular

same person

Eation . Siones

ad prie

15

MISTAKES IN WRITING ENGLISH

16

,

- Nor eye, nor listening ear , an object find (finds ]." “ Neither character nor dialogue were [was) yet understood ." “ No monstrous height, or breadth , or length appear ( appears ).” ** Either one or the other of them are [ is] in the wrong. "

3

§ 14. But where either of two or more nominatives separated by a disjunctive, as in the foregoing section, is plural, the verb should also be plural. The follow ing sentences are incorrect : “Neither riches nor poverty 9 ness .

affects [affect ] a man's happi

be

to

.”

or

are ]

" It is not his exceptional beauty , or gifts , or culture , that gives ( give ] him this distinction .” “ In case of the death of any such children , the share or shares of such deceased children is ( divided among his her brothers and sisters the.

,

to

to

(C

]

is [

."



. or )

is

."

or



or

They fawn upon every one whose faults negligence inter rupts hange faults retards their lessons fault and sentence correct An example two are sufficient illustrate the gen eral observation 1

it .”

)

to byin it; a

a

,

called

number indicating collective noun

or

the things say ,

(

,

of

singular

in

word

many persons

or

A

15.

§

A

,

or



,

The entire mass remains undisturbed except where erosion earthquakes the hand man has have mutilated

a

, a

as , "

,

" "

';

by

is

on

A :

,

) ; "

,

all or

,

,

I

. ."

,

of

it " (

or

",



,

,

is

,

, “

. "

is in

is

1

singular and Some grammarians that cases where plural nominative are separated disjunctive the verb must agree with the nominative nearest Neither the servants respected nor the master Neither the writings nor the author existence Goold Brown says further But where the remoter nomiyative expressed parentheti ralls the principal word and the nearer implic the verb agrees literally with the former and only One exal with the latter and cites the following examples Leigh Hunt parenthesi ten says nothing against brackets consists two angular strokes hooks enclosing more words think however that such sentences are grammatical

1

CASE AND THE VERB .

THE NOMINATIVE

indicating a portion of plural verb or pronoun where

.

.”

of

the

1

."

of

.”

of

"

“ A

.”

:

)

its (

in

opposed

were

)

was

[

assembly

the

the

By



of

)

(

" " $ 6 A

are therefore incorrect The assembly was were divided their sentiments to

an's ha

The following sentences

t,

as a

,

of

,



the noblesse was

were also )

." a .



potent fraction

[

XX Yet

Rule

of

to

is (

are . ] ”

to

of

"

not attending this rule many errors have been com subjoined mitted number which further Murray's Grammar caution and direction the learner , a

the

new faith

. ”

,

vol

.

was made

up

As ,

Crastinus

singular of

followed

is

of

the collective noun used

."



The troop which unteers

in

,

of

the idea

verb must

.

a

But where singular

of

a

,

“ [

in

mentions the fact that there was his History large number persons that name the town

Butler

were)

be

lede az ands in

of

a

“ “

.”

philosophers have acknowledged The greater part excellence this government number men and women were present

portion share measure.

7. "? the icatie : crosic ga

conveyed

iferous

ulture

ence

is

idea

The troop which followed Crastinus were volunteers part Dana believes that the Achæan rocks are fossil

ominar

Theng fol sect

plurality

of

the

fapok

ur

As ,

noun of multitude , or a word

1

undertsuch a noun , requires a

t,

17

by .”

be

1

."

)

the nomi

,

or

it ,

or

,

or

,

is

before

,

2 to

it,

,

or

of

well

these

where singular and the other plural consists two more singular nouns two more following the verb clauses the nominative preceding may govern according the more natural meaning one nominative

or is

native case after the verb

having

as

verb as

The intransitive

to

[

)

(

)

(

of

1 )

of



§

16. An



"

of

The court Rome were was not without solicitude and's The House Lords were was much influenced mos errant reasons. many thousands were was assembled army zuthu

MISTAKES IN WRITING ENGLISH

16

.

" Nor eye , nor listening ear , an object find ( finds ] . " “ Neither character nor dialogue were ( was) yet understood." “ No monstrous height, or breadth , or length appearſappears ]." “ Either one or the other of them are [ is] in the wrong ." § 14. But where either of two or more nominatives separated by a disjunctive , as in the foregoing section,

is plural, the verb should also be plural. ing sentences are incorrect : nor poverty

“ Neither riches ness .

The follow

affects [ affect] a man's happi

“ It is not his exceptional beauty , or gifts , or culture , that gives ( give ] him this distinction ." “ In case of the death of any such children , the share or be divided among shares of such deceased children is [are]

his or her brothers and sisters . ”

to

are ]

",



An

is [

. or )

is

the

“ They fawn upon every one whose faults or negligence inter rupts or retards their lessons . " ( Change faults to fault , and sentence correct example two sufficient illustrate the gen eral observation ” 1

number indicating collective noun

or

a

called

it .

)

(

,

of

the things

,

or

word

many persons

singular

in

A

15.

$

,

or



,

The entire mass remains undisturbed except where erosion earthquakes the hand man has have mutilated

a

as , “

it; a

, a

, in

"; “

the

."

is in

is

to

,

1

singular and Some grammarians say that cases where disjunctive the verb must plural nominative are separated by agree with the nominative nearest Neither the servants respected nor the master Neither the writings nor the author existence

,

A : "

,

) ; “

all or

.

mid

)

by

is

,

,

,

I

."

,

of

it ” (

or

",

,

is

, ,



,

Goold Brown says further But where remoter nomiyative expressed parentheti call the principal word and the nearer implic the verb agrees literally with the former and only with the latter One exa and cites the following examples Leigh Hunt parenthesis ten says nothing against brackets consists two angular strokes hooks enclosing on more words think however that such sentencesare grammatical

of

a

or

conveyed

As

,

is a

plurality

plural verb .

,

idea

17

portion word indicating pronoun where

a

or

of a

multitude

noung requires

of

".long

the

)

noun iderstasuch

CASE AND THE VERB .

NOMINATIVE

THE

.”

of

the

.”

The

The following sentences

:

are therefore incorrect its [

“ A

of

.”

of

"

of

philosophers have acknowledged The greater part excellence this government number men and women were present

ture ,

i's har

je

fol

"

a

“ “

The troop which followed Crastinus were volunteers minat part Dana believes that the Achæan rocks are fossil iferous.

."

to

]

]

in

(

of

,

a

,

as

)

were also

(



(

of

the noblesse was

the

.”

,

is

by .”

these

.”

before

the nomi

it ,

was ]

(

be

assembled

having

as

to

well

of

up

,

)

verb

vol

solicitude

]

many thousands were

where or

or

,

the more natural meaning

,

according

2 to

or

or

,

is

singular

,

or is

plural and the other two more singular nouns two more following the verb nominative preceding it,

the of

,

may govern

singular

Lords were was much influenced

The intransitive

one nominative consists

was made

Rome were was not without

native case after the verb

clauses

in

of

be

.

Crastinus

as

of

"

16 An . .

$

army

followed

(

The court

The House reasons

the collective noun As used

[

of

troop which

of

” The

" "

unteers.

the idea verb must

of

of

,

in

,



a

[ a

singular



and 3 atire

Murray's Grammar

Butler his History mentions the fact that there was large number persons that name the town

But where

must tants thor

learner

.”

potent fraction

Erosion were]

nor

is

the

." a .



Yet

are ]

to

new faith

to

Ce 1 init

caution and direction Rule XX

eating

)

(

of

of

and

Ehe get

, a

"

By



d ame

A

$ 6“

assembly was were divided their sentiments portion the assembly was were opposed the share measure. not attending this rule many errors have been com subjoined mitted number which further

MISTAKES IN WRITING

18

ENGLISH .

of the

or to the more immediate proximity follows 9

:

verb , as

66The wages of sin is death . " , the level of 5. Whatever we have , and whatever we are above growth . ” of , is a matter barbarism , proceed temperately in " To be moderate in our views and to way to insure success. , best the [ is ] are pursuit them of the humbly with God, , " To do justly , to love mercy and to walk obligation . ” universal of is a duty ſare duties ] .” An offer to sell and actually selling is but one offence present halls is [are] the cross “ The only objection to the ." lights which fall upon some of the wall cases it is the property “ This dwelling -house and the land under sought to be divided ." ." “ His illness was pleurisy and rheumatism $ 17.

plural form sum of money , in the , ; as by a singular verb

A

, is

usually

followed by him ." " Twenty dollars was subscribed this speculation . ” “ Fifty thousand pounds was lost in constitute the capital “Three hundred thousand dollars is to company " . of the be of a book in the plural number should

The title

As, followed by a singular verb . published at Cam. “ Dr. Holmes's ' American Annals ' was

bridge , in 1805. ” Early Italian Painters ' “ Mrs. Jameson’s ‘ Memoirs of the comprises upwards of thirty biographies .'

plural in Several words in English which are , a with and singular number form are used in the sciences ending Such are the names gular verb also hydraulics optics etc

.;

which

the sense

of to

in

or

49 .

page

by ,

,

,

,

See infra

,

end attain toilsome effort

object instrument purpose and pains severe labor.1

i

as

mathematics

or or an

,

ethics

means

an

,

news

as

ics ,

.

of

in sin

$ 18.

often erroneously him

.”

to

;

was unknown

(

the child were

19

as ,

is

as

plural verb

.

.

is

ii .

44 .

;

-

"

Luke

"

ance.

As ,

better form the plural than acquaintances better than folks and folk And they sought him among their kinsfolk and acquaint Acquaintance

."

,

the words cherubim and seraphim are plurals expressing the cherubims and seraphims

disagreeable

Mussulmen

as ,

;

singular

.”

if

is

often used

efluvia often used

is

sually

a

The plural efluvia

as

.'

,

coperty plural are quite improper

" 1

,

the terms

as

As

to

,

of

at

Behold two thirds our company safe home telling their strangeadventures relatives and acquaintance "

e ."

noun

THE VERB

for )

"

is a of

The whereabouts

a

newspapers with



h S. itely Gub .

evel

used

a

The word whereabouts

in

Ib ,

THE NOMINATIVE CASE AND

for the proper plural

Mus

,

,

in

titles Mr. Mrs. and Miss

The

the plural are

re

?.

sulmans

;

,

19.

a

as

,

as ,

,

is

it

or

,

of .

.38

;

it

to

is

A

in

writing very common error decimal number use the plural after .0048 grains yards wrong any decimal .025 miles This number matter how many how few figures

,

all

and consequently the three cases

used

.

I.

,

of

Rhetoric Dr. Campbell's Philosophy For the formation the plural see Appendix of

a

of

25

;

yard

.

,

2 1

,

grain

number should mile yard

in

singular

;

a

hundredths

be

38

-

;

mile

of . of a

be

,

consists less than the whole number one and there fore cannot plural The above expressions mean ten thousandths grain thousandths 48

> al ng in SII in ; je h of to

also

,

title

.

a

after

, is no ,

nters

be

.

plural $

Cam

ld be

,

,

as ,

Mes Mesdames and Misses Messieurs sieurs Rothschild Mesdames Barrett and Thompson Misses Smith The surname should never made

capital spectively

MISTAKES IN WRITING ENGLISH .

20

in their The words alternative and dilemma , each of as singular number correct use must be in the of two one position which in a these words indicates happen . can or , done only be can things , and of two use of alternative The following examples of the signification the true contrary

.

."

Lou

or

an

17h

."

he

,

is

, ,



An

to

,

we



is

as

."

]

native supper pre inconsistent with the credited Unless the reference alternative only other the are driven ceding statement antagonist with two argument which presents against him which equally conclusive more alternatives but Dictionary under —Webster's chooses ever alternative

a for

-

no

(

alter

or

,

food was left and the alternatives twelve mile paddle was

were

) a '

now before

[

mouthful

us of



Not

a

to

are

§ 20.

by

,

,

is

00

fre

. "

London

).

of

(

14 ,

,

namely

~

is

of

be

It

that another alternative made clear that there must local affairs her control give Ireland local 1886 cable despatch Tines June to

23

,

as a a

to

,

it

,

.

to

is

to



a

.

Dileinma single argument Mr. Gladstone's manifesto does not offer home rule only alternative policy the prove that coercion other than gave alternative one Mr. Chamberlain for Ireland admitting Morley suggested fourth coercion and Mr. John Crown colony govern Ireland was possible

.

of

desperate case

Swift

1

.

.”

quit the place



,

in or a

act

A

strong dilemma with infamy

To

"

:

,



either horn

"

the dilemma the word signification true quently seen showing the usage correct The following example shows the

The expression

CHAPTER

III

x ,

or

,

s

se ,

ce ,

.

,

is ,

It

in

' s

,

,

in as

,

or

in

es

.

,

,

,

or

to

,

as ,

; ,

, to

as

therefore just

Charleses countesses the omit the any proper nanie

or ;

Je as

after

.

.”

room

."

the witness questions '

These answers were made

to

'

. ” . ".

'

'

“ “ "

Moses minister Phinehas wife Festus came into Felix

"

",

'

”, “

'

" "

addition

the

s

. ,

and require

of

",

'

erroneous apostrophe

,



idioms



sake for goodness sake for have become from long usage established The following examples are consequently

conscience sake

of

, be

s

a

for

sus

in

to

.

of

s

or

any other either with the letters mentioned poetry The only exceptions this rule are that may the additional elided for the sake the meter and that few phrases like for righteousness sake

digraphs

!

makes

countess's Mackintosh's

horse's fox's omit the plural churches horses boxes justices possessive cases above given proper

ending

scord

James's

justice's

church's

,

amels venda

,

of

another syllable

,

,

aitting

ch

s,

sh ,

in

,

,

,

,

the

le rake

umet

,

of

,

s

;

8,

the addition the apos man's men's child's chil Hastings's witness's duchess's

Felix's When the singular noun ends soft addition the possessive apostrophe and dren's Charles's

all

.

,

form the possessive case trophe and the letter

in

2001

by

§

and the singular number ending with any other letter than

ne pas

nouns the plural

nouns

as ,

All

CASE

in

or

THE POSSESSIVE 21.

21

.

CASE .

,

. PJE ft ich

THE POSSESSIVE

the

IN WRITING ENGLISH

large company attended the countess The administratrix sale

'

the

s

form

pos

apostrophe after foxes

',

countesses

',

',

',

',

of

plural nouns ending the addition simply boys horses Jameses

an in .”

of

'

;

2

Philip Augustus

23.

s

novel

All

.' as , by

§

22.

'



Mr. James

sessive the churches

party

.”

Burns Poems

.

. "

'

A

“ “ “

MISTAKES

."

22

,

,

as ,

V

.”

Your little hands were never made To tear each other's eyes Shine with such lustre the tear that '

Down Virtue's manly cheek for others

byor

Where

flows

woes

19

."

as

“ 24.

lose one's self

.”

to

apt

**



is

One

;

in

,

,

.

,

its ,

in

,

§

Personal pronouns the possessive case never take the apostrophe but are written hers ours yours theirs The indefinite pronouns one and other however form the possessive the same way with nouns

John

to

the

to

in

is

as ,

;

,

of

are

,

§

two more nouns the possessive connected and and refer the same noun the sign the possessive annexed last one only case

,

.”

. "

,

.”

of

as

as

well

,

the apoth

his

or

',

,

his

”.

.”

They relieve neither the boy's nor the girl's distress Without any impediment but own his parents guardian's will “ *

the

as ,

;

,

the surgeon's

".

,



She had the physician's ecary's assistance

used

".



or

to

be

or

a

But where disjunctive word words sign must annexed each word They are John's Eliza's books

are

. "

or

is a

'

'

."

,

,

“ “ “



and Eliza's books This was my father mother and uncle's advice Men women and children's shoes for sale here The Farmers and Mechanics Bank Henry and William's teacher man more learning than James's Andrew's

23

THE POSSESSIVE CASE .

peculiar signification

used after the objective case 17

of

.” .”

of

.'

of

."

a

Dr. Franklin's was discovery my friend's This picture subject the emperor's General Grant's friend

“ “ “ A A It

a

,

a

,

having

as , be

In

and the possessive

."

is

the possessive

often omitted

of :

The sign

cases like the following

in

." .”

of of

.”

to

It

of

Dr. Franklin's discoveries was one my friend This picture belonging One the emperor's subjects General Grant's friends One of

$

“ "



"

,

Meaning

these

cases

,

in

used put

to

as

or

so

Either the apostrophe should the expression varied

be

a

.”

.”

“ A

photographic lens seven inches aperture and thirty seveninches focus was procured 66 They arrived weary and fatigued after twenty miles walk

the Italicized

it

, “

”,

. "

46 .

pages

before the participle

is

12 .

,

,

infra

pages

the possessive 45 ,

The use shown

see ante

of

,

sessive case

11 ,

of



”,

;

27.

as

is

in

.

in

the objective case print should Anybody else's often seen any We might anybody's else well say boy any etc. hat else's nest bird else's the article before the pos For the incorrect use

words be $ "

Jetz

cases

some

possessive sign may

of of ;

the

$

26 .

OTO

25.

Where two nouns are in apposition , or constitute title, the possessive sign is annexed to the last ; as , “For David my servant's sake.” “ Give me John the Baptist's head . " “ It is the Queen of England's prerogative . “The Mayor of Boston's address . "

24

IN WRITING ENGLISH

MISTAKES

.

IV .

CHAPTER

.

the

the

28.

THE OBJECTIVE CASE . are

of

Through

no

P

matter who



at ,

,

,

,

spoke

. or



the ensuing dialogue those two whom who was addressed looked

|

.

in

.g

:

E.

,

in

in

§ Errors case pronoun often made which cannot occur the noun the nominative and objective cases pronouns having different forms

.

!”

O

”. —



].

[

." .



)

.”



[ ]he

I

[

him ]

it .

.

I

am to ? ? ” ” be

(

he

Burns

.

he

arraign

]. " me [ I] . "

you think

a

(

It “

his

[

as

. ]he to



,

. ; 7 .

[

]

,

,

I

[

] ] [ do do .he ] ”

I

I

], )

[ ['

(

were

you take me for whom lady whom saw supposed she her might have been him who did Let who made thee answer that Byron Let they them who raise the spell beware the fiend

“ “ “ It I



see

".

It

was him Whom who

thought

but my old friend

Thou Thee Nature partial Nature Between you and me He can read better than

'



“ “ “ “

Who whom should

who

(

those whom

friends

Who

.” ),

I

-

an

of

was imputed

For the benefit

of ”.

it



It



whom 6-6

so

"

. for '

)

(

,



]

(

each other Dickens Let the sea roar and the fulness thereof the world and they them that dwell therein Psalm xcviii This life has joys you and me And joys that riches ne'er could buy Burns was not the work eminent author him

.it

it ,

as

must be remembered that the neuter verb has the case after before and that the imperative mood requires the objective case after same

PRONOUN AND ANTECEDENT .

CHAPTER

25

V.

in

a

.

,

,

:

or

]

of

the

Put the

of

the New

]

of

[

by



The Council suggest that the action Society imitated those the Societies Baltimore ." be

. "

[ of its ]

English writers

(

) of

contemporary Jesuit and those narratives for those.

."

is



)

of

never unite here between the narrative

."

sufficient the Colonies would There flat contradiction

we

, if

of ,

so

it

is ]

are , [



[ he

*

;

(

I

if

were their his friend com panion 66 Everybody nowadays publishes memoirs everybody has recording recollectionswhich they think thinks worthy Every Colony has such peculiarities their own that they fond that had numbers and wealth “

one will answer

.

a

, as are

examples

a

'

pronoun

.” No

following

singular antecedent nor The plural antecedent accordingly incorrect

with with

agree

cannot

singular

a

pronoun must agree with antecedent Consequently plural and person

number

,

pronoun

its

A

29.

§

gender

Boston

York and

,

, [ , ]it de or

]

[

his ]

.”

[

a

it, an

be

to

are

it, a

in



to



if

But disfigure

to

injure their his foot customer wishes you Ruskin you pleasure refuse their inscription She studied his countenance like and ciphered each rapt expression that crossed and stored them her memory

to

-

a

:

"

,

So

.'

' :

of

.

in

'

you

as

So ,

There should not



30.

'

§

mixture thou Thus Thackeray the same passage thy sun rises over the humble house tops round day duty about your home shall you wake many Cooper and labor Thou hast both master and

and '

ho

OS ire ten

PRONOUN AND ANTECEDENT .

,

but

Who

.

thywe

the latter

former

is

the

.

? '

have told something

of

you

Mya

31.

? ”

the the

,

and statesman continued

in

philosopher his eightieth year

public

not ,

or of

,

,

,

man "

to

.

no ,

or

by

,

[

]

]

. ”

which they were ſhe was entitled 66 Every plant and every tree produces others after their

riol

."

kind

[ its ]

in

,

of

a

in

,

if

or

§

A

plural antecedent 32. one consisting two more nouns qualified each every requires pronoun the singular Each them their his turn received the reward “

Sid

the regis

”,

it

at

,

of

is

The said deed and conveyance now recorded deeds and the time was recorded etc.

in

.”



This great

know

thin

,

be

or

to

or

But where the two more nouns constituting antecedent refer the same person subject pronoun must singular As

"

at the

in findits

)

we

,

.”

]

(

it (

)

to

[



Such uncommon generosity and goodness was were their nature liable accordingly misconstruction and hos they have been misconstrued

try

.be

to

.”

)

(

)

(

are

.”

,

,

“ "

,

so

as ,

,

,



Did ever Proteus Merlin any witch Transform themselves strangely the rich Faith justice heaven itself now quit their hold Both minister and magistrate compelled choose tween his their duty and his their reputation

mane

.

As ,

by

or

of

in

be ,

,

or

in

§

Where the antecedent consists two more nouns the singular number whether connected and not the pronoun must the plural

life till

$3. min

In

would know " 1 master

us

mistress

IN WRITING ENGLISH

of

MISTAKES :

26

Both

,

to

lift

no

]. ”

es

camp follower

-

a

cro

health

Bain's Composition Grammar

.

1

of

his ]

and not

".

soldier their

[ ,

to a

,

Not officer not caped permanent injury “

,

no

.”

]

an

[

,



[

of

;

sisters were uncomfortable each felt for the other course for themselves herself No policeman employee and citizen dared their his hand and

as ,

.

,

As

[

it

they answer

clock

a

or

more any other

.”

,

or

"

a

pull When you press watch answers] your question with precision

,

must

two

well singular

be

,

,

or ,

nor

the pronoun

disjunctive

as

antecedent consists

by

Where

27

or

an

33.

$

nouns separated

of

AND ANTECEDENT .

PRONOUN

[ it ]

]

or

the happiness

consult

II of .

while

to

(

his ]

I.

no

worth their subjects do

their

".

[ his ) it

deemed

we



is

.”

(

"

Neither Venice nor Genoa retain retains the rank they onceheld There evidence that either Charles Charles

to it

[

of

of

)

by a

[

un ]

or

-

a

if ?

;

the

having proceeded ,

]? "

.

or

,

or

.

:

E. is

.g

.

a

, is

]

[ it

,

to

[ is ]

if

to

for ,

of

in

to

”,

vestments

make

in

,

an

the authority

to in

duty imposed upon them etc.

[ ]it ,

of

“ theIf

to

."

)

,

its ( “

."

,

[ its ]

" A

of

keep records board selectmen are not required they appoint appoints and their clerk one not certifying officer The Council desire express the name the Institute their gratitude the individual subscribers their gen erous gifts the investing committee leaves officer violation

11

. be

be

or

to ,

,

violation

but both cannot properly used together hardly ever made without committee this rule

of of

,

A

2

report

a

In

many cases

employed

be

to be

is

a

antecedent collective noun plural the pronoun must sin conveyed the sense intended plural may either the singular

multitude gular according noun

,

of

(

an

Where

his )

[

of

;

is a

he . is a ]

[

areof

of 34.

§

or

them

at

idea knowing

by

one all , of of

number rules without being conscious that they had heart any rule philosophical amusement this but who ever learning the grammar thinks their own tongue before they very good grammarians grammarian Sydney Smith

at

lebis ib oli

an

by



When ever find well educated Englishman French ignorance man embarrassed the grammar their his They first learn respective languages practically and erringly and then they chose choose look back and smile

IN WRITING

antecedent

pronoun without any very common error

.

properly

;

as ,

The use

expressed

ENGLISH .

a

35.

§

of is a

MISTAKES

28

till

of a

,

",

.

I



;

I

the preparations have meets which before Parliament January For Parliament meets

upon

of

resolved

,

be



Nor will anything further than

mentioned

", is

read niy return

.

,

I

to to

“ I

to

postpone the formality resignation desired him America which was then and has beenever should return For should return since expected take place very soon



.”

.

,

the

of

etc. ",

in

Ger .

it .” .

the

to

" in

to

to

"

;

no

,

he



,

a

as

? ),

so

,

that

the

that the

constructed

doubtful

or

so

are often

pronoun

is

Sentences a

36.

of

§

."

(



us of

.

",

a

demand read with visiting Agawam and spend Governor Winthrop tells ing the Sabbath with them whom they were without minister

antecedent

oliy til

Bizija

it

,

be

.”

,

be ,

a to

"

in

of

it

,



to

subjugate When Germanicus proposed Tiberius many opposing was right and the Emperor was wrong subjugate subju Here has antecedent change gation The purchaser filled the blank the certificate and sent recorded and the corporation demanding that the transfer For demand issued which was refused new certificate

Inga



,

they

.”

.

for

no

whatever Read news was successively received successively received news

ing

BER

in

;

;

he

in

to



In

Waverley the this quotation from Scott's Waverley the first sentence correctly refers preceding sentence the last clause stands the antecedent correctly for the Chevalier but they has

"

the his

"

,

frontiers

they successively received news the retreat had abandoned then that GO

into Scotland

he

the Chevalier

,

of

,

little practicable

a

.

to

of

.'

,

Be

A

“ “ “

of

.”

now fixed for the 4th Parliament read the meeting The man opposed me which was anticipated attentive without which you will learn nothing tremendous fall snow rendered his departure impossible 20 become When the roads began for more than ten days

artic that

29

an

refers ,

.

his [

,

of

]

to

philosopher wrote that distinguished begging terms polite and flattering him

.

of

(

.]" ) -

his (i . e .

,

to

of

)

,

comeand undertake Alexander's education and bestow magnanimity and virtue which him those useful lessons Philip's nu every man ought possess and which merous associations rendered impossible for him Philip Goldsmith History Greece ,

ent

not

antecedent

As

Philip in

e .

.

Aristotle

]

[ on to .i e . “

ons le

signatut

to

pronoun grammatically intended by the writer He [i

; y uld as as ret there pre

PRONOUN AND ANTECEDENT .

.

a

,

though

it

to

,

of

,

he in

)

At

.

grammatically refers Johnstone intended stand for Montcalm

.

evidently

to

he

”, no

all

he [

.

by

-

in

,

the“

Here is

in the t I

i

i the 11 brape impeat retai

Troops lined Montcalm had passed troubled night intrenchments till day while the General walked the field that adjoined his head quarters till one the morning accom panied the Chevalier Johnstone and Colonel Poulariez great agitation and Johnstone says that Montcalm was night daybreak took rest heard the sound doned cannon etc.

!

per

of he

,

by

for

Mr.

reader

the whole is

so

,

.

it

;

to

to

to

,

for

. he ” be by

,

its

-

refers the

understood

the sentence itself but from which the sentence appears meant refer Mr. Smith is

article

mand that

the the

]

,

taking

grammatically

in

ed as

senti

Here the Italicized Ingalls and would

he

s

singi

he

aate subjC 64

[

,

he

,

or

all

,



y

Mr. Smith consulted the spirits and they rapped out the answerthat he must make the best settlement he could with not Mr. Ingalls would infallibly lose his fine estate cecede only that which Mr. Ingalls had originally held and which Mr. Smith had obtained almost nothing from the heirs Benjamin Parsons but also the adjoining parcel which had paid full value stark

evident

MISTAKES IN WRITING

30

ENGLISH .

CHAPTER VI . THE SUBJUNCTIVE

MOOD .

$ 37. Where a future contingency , or doubt or in decision , or a wish , is expressed , the verb should be in the subjunctive mood ; as ,

I

that he comes (come) , will consent to stay." “ We may live happily , though our possessions are [ be] small." " And so would I , if I was (were ] he . " A certain lady whom I could name if it was (were] necessary. " “ He will not be pardoned , unless he repents [ repent ].” 6.On condition

** The word ' heirs ' appears to have been used by the testa tor as if it was (were) a general word .” 6. wish that he were here ."

I

If

[knows ] the way , he does not need a guide . ” disgusts the reader become becomes apparent Whether the translation were was ever published wholly ignorant

. ” am

,

I

be

]be

no

is

should not

as ,

clauses

his .”

,

]

(

,

a

house the house

connected

different moods

;

in

built

be

If in

The verb

has )

."

If a

man have

[

“ §

38.

put

it

]

[

art

he know

"

If

is [

,

,

it

of

are [ be ]

;

.

18 bring

.

. "

in

,

,

,

it

if

."

if

a

a



legislators but one body will tyranny only two there will better than there casting voice want 66 But climh with your assisting hands The Trojan walls and the city stands Dryden's Virgil there

mo

K and 1 STIVE like

But where a conditional circumstance which is not future is expressed , the verb should be in the indica tive ; as , “

"

"

"

" Would that it might be so ! ”



M

USU

THE INFINITIVE

VII .

CHAPTER

make sense

obscure rather than

elucidate the

[ to ]

( . to ) ”

to

as

so

,

to

[ to to ]

subdue them

. "

of

a

forto

be

ſto ] to

in

is

,

,

properly omitted

Of

the

however

following

sentences

I

,

,

".

,

to

,

me the Roman people have many pledges which must preserve defend confirm strive with my utmost endeavors and redeem “

I r." all

,

of for

( to ]

or

the" It is

The sign

like

:

ndic

.”

is not

."

him



neither embarrass nor weaken the sentence was made believe that neither the king's death nor imprisonment would help necessary the lawyer have clear conception governing rules present decisive law and able authority give satisfactory reasons establishing the rules "

testa

with greater mod

,

He So .” as it

would tend

essary subject

e

insert points to

( to ]



Please

the infinitive

.

omitted

;

the sign

necessary act with more vigor . eration conciliate them completely 3Star altogether

But

of

MOOD .

or or as , ( to )

mood

as

The particle often improperly to ,

§

“ , It , is is .” — to

d bei

39.

THE INFINITIVE

i ori

31

MOOD .

Many authors expect the printer

,

.”

is ,

? ” .

,

he

If



1 .

bade thee depart how darest thou stay

as , ,

and some others

usually take the infinitive after them without the

to ;

see ,

,

dare feel ,

The active verbs

bid ,

”.

,

,

– of

at

,

.”

to

,

to

be

do

,

as

of

,

it

so

,

To The



to

= ) willno



t

be



point spell and digest intelligible may the reader that shake the head relent and sigh and yield using books present most accomplished way serve them some lords learn their titles and then brag their acquaintance

their copy

MISTAKES IN WRITING ENGLISH

32

,

The to is erroneously used in the following wherever it is Italicized :

examples

I

see a

should give offence." “ I dare not to proceed so hastily , lest “ I dare to say he has not got home yet .” “ I felt a chilling sensation to creep over me . "

be as

be .

separated

from

the following

:

,

to

should not any intervening word

in

The particle

40.

the verb examples

by

$

of

”? '

6

. ”

to

to

on

by

person * It cannot but be a delightful spectacle , to acquit himself gloriously, every side sieged temptations hold out against the most violent assaults and resolutely Who bade the mud from Dives wheel To spurn the rays Lazarus

to

the

)

.”

illustrate the rule

an

."

to

it

to ) ]

to ]

[

To

But

wagging

211 ,

),

,

,

(

,

Boston 1886

.np

'

Jean Ingelow John Jerome

212.

my

11

to

an

'

to

ably Do

.'

'

You

?

drink

.

to

';

to

-

reason

? " 1

,

'

-

'

us

to

should think incessantly suppose that bow wow means Let you ever hear your dog say Bow tail WOW 1

ill

of

, by ' to

to

'

' ;

' ;

' to

';

energetically walk stout incessantly think ably

Where was this dog English whelped

say , “

.'

.

its

,

to

this dog

writers have taken lately ramming and compact verb They will say apprecia midst

adverb into tively drink bottled Paddington reason

example

our

point out only one

English some using our neat

of

to

",

"



”,

[

to

(

to

the

It A

to





seems probable that this portion was filled with some adapt substance better adapt better the hand exclusively right exclusively make and sell article rests etc. thoroughly Thoroughly cleanse and purify garments without injury etc.

" TI ja "T

"I "]

to

of

A

fully

to

[



.”

(

to

always find always find] The student must not expect study agreeable fully illustrate sufficient number and variety cases

leiding

THE INFINITIVE

to

Who dared

33

sometimes changed

poetry

as ,

,

is

however rhythm

;

the sake

of

jne G

for

,

This order

MOOD .

in

1

nobly

.

. ” –

to a

be

do it

an ). to

” [ do so ]? ”



).

(

to

desire write

is

do

do ,

I

can properly

no

to .g [

:

E.

,

a

of

.

is

he

, is

be

used with ellipsis care should taken that used with the form the verb

it

, at it ,

the verb



).

[

he

as

he

has

,

3

ab De?

do

to

,

etc.

, (

Cam

.

,

. "

it,

do



to

Private School

Try Say

"

"

;

.' is

"

to

) is



it ", as

”,

Manual prepared for

a

,

17 .

Try and think

etc. are erroneous Try make

ahl

), .p

to do

”, “

”, “

to

1 L. R.

.

a

so

Try and Try think

Williston preces bridge 1865 mal

,

to

( of

]

do so

to

42.

§

Such expressions

and make

Try

.

be

"

to

(so

leave things

These relations cannot pictured All attempts picture them rest upon false foundation The reduction unrelated phenomena order pleasing inability reduce them displeasing



is ng to a il de

as ?

,

them

the"

sell".,

hand

said

so

(

dore

did not say some have done surprised that should .”]

" I

illustra

leftam

" I

.”

elsewhere given

likely

of

as

{ TS tpil

such

auxiliary

,

When

instead

nor

excellence who has and not intend

be ,

or

follor

of an



:

“ I

ated

a

'

has not done 56 Can man arrive have not written

or

to

in at

asaulis

He

'

a

by $

41.



stem tyrannic pride Burns The infinitive cannot properly understood person the sign the end sentence referring gloris foregoing verb the sentence

MISTAKES IN WRITING

34

ENGLISH .

VIII

CHAPTER

.

TENSE , OR TIME .

Ha tense , or time ,

in the

§ 43. Errors are very common of the verb . E. g . : “ I drunk (drank ] his health .”

“ I begun ( began ] to feel sleepy ." Say , “ You did well ,” or “ You have “ You done well .” done well .” “ I saw him when he done [did ) it . ” " I intended to have written (write ) to him on the subject . " arrived at “ I feared that I should have lost [ lose] it before

I

,

he

. ”

an



By

all

the city .” “Remember that you might [ may ] fail .” “ I will not speak of it, even if I should [ shall] be asked ." proper “ To have prevented ( prevent ] their depreciation , the ) a course, it is affirmed, would have been to have made (make the confiscated property valuation of has annuity upon the specific property charging it

of

)

]

the

are

,

]

of

.]”

[

of

[

he

[

we

of

the

we

;

,

for

a

)

it

we

[





The

,

in

to

[

of

,

.”

a



]

.”

be

]

(



it

[

an

shall receive intent that the annuitant should shown realized therefrom could can whenever the Wars No sooner had the nobility met their doom royalty were had been untied the Roses and the hands uproot every national determined effort was made than liberty would give the English public been writing Had quotation from paragraph the and given but should have Macaulay given below would constitute have constituted said should have said what substance was had been chairman The witness testified that the selectmen since 1880.” correct and the judge general conclusions

4

Ta

A

5 gQ

=

E

TENSE , OR TIME .

35

only error therein consisted ( consists) in the improper use of the term ' trade-mark . ' ”

act

“ One who should make [had made ] a study of him at that timewould predict [ have predicted ) a steady , not swift growth .” " It would have been worth your while to have heard [hear ] them.”

or

in

)

off

broken

[

broke

the

)

of

."

to

[

)

[

.

.”

I

.

]

off

to

one day what

. ”

)

(

contradict

the other

ars old

ive ne it hali

I

would become necessary

had wrote written

on

And

it

."

]

(

by)

(

(

He is

“ "

" I

on

]

[

“ I

follow the common arrangement glass now forsook forsaken every one have shook shaken the regal thoughts wherewith reigned

"

to

".

have chose chosen

They were verses wrote written



d ." propei

story

hath bore bome witness his faithful servants Philosophers have often mistook mistaken the source true happiness “

u

Fect ." diseda

interesting

He ”.



When middle

is

.

ticiple

har

, in

The imperfect tense preterite irregular often erroneously used for the perfect par

is

,

verbs

As an ,

§

44.

."

[

granting the pension was not passed “ The until long after the war was over and the service rendered had been rendered]

ntied tional

the

the

an of

|

from

3

dgin

36

IN WRITING ENGLISH

MISTAKES

.

home

72

.

"T

IX

CHAPTER

.

,

SHALL AND WILL SHOULD AND WOULD

of

In

,

or

or

is

,

is

hea

.

,

§

is

The fundamental distinction between shall and that shall indicates what involuntary com pulsory voluntary and will what the result the will 45.

will

’; on , to ,

,

I

'

MO

" 2

16

,

a

or

.

K

in

is

by

of

is as ,

;

if

.)

.)

00 English Grammar

,

Whitney's Essentials Ibid page 121

of

go

"

(

(



it

in

promise

asked me whatever may oppose

.

? 1

will will go

.,

or a “

the first person expresses assent

determination

I I



,

as

in

are

"

The difference between should and gen would eral the same that between shall and will and they like manner confused inaccurate speakers Will

4

, to

one

the

”. 1

in

in , To

.

,

is on

on

in

a

the words has grown difference between the form the future expression the first person hand and the second and third persons the other hand denote simply something that going take place we ordinarily use shall the first person and will the others

K

in

of

of of

or .'

,

and intend am determined this difference the original meaning

';

giving

Out

.'

the act giving

of

'

,

,

,

'

I ,

,

be

"

Shall means originally owe under obligation and will means wish resolve determine The phrases really signify then owe am bound obligated

page 119.

37

SHALL AND WILL , SHOULD AND WOULD .

Will in the second person foretells ; as , , you will find me at “ If you come at twelve o'clock home .”

You will soon be twenty



it

Sometimes

.”

a command ; as ,

expresses

to -morrow .”

will learn the next lesson

“ You

report at

“ On receipt of this , you will immediately head -quarters ."

In questions in the second person , will expresses a of the speaker ; as , “Will you go to -morrow ?” = “ I wish you to go to you can come

it

;

as ,

. "

morrow day

.”

home

will rain

to to at - -

be at

by

or in

think

We will

”, i. e . “ as ,

? ” ? "

,

as ,

a

determination

morrow out early and shall try

to

. ”

,

town

to -

set to

;

in

“ “

shall go

shall We 93

the

or ;

be at

the

end

first person expresses Shall merely announces future action

I

or

receive

us

When will our troubles

will inquires con asks what

knowing

to

Will they

an

of

,

of

willing

be

no

means



has

,

.”

at

in

to

be

the third person purpose another



cerning speaker

the

In

it



six o'clock We will have dinner ready six o'clock order questions

what

is

know

arrive

by

me

the third person simply foretells thought the speaker

He will

" I



Will known

let

Will

? ”

morrow . " 66 you “

if

wish or desire on the part

.”

six

at

be

Dinner

i

”, . e . “

at

six o'clock We shall have dinner ready o'clock

to

is



."

noon

IN WRITING ENGLISH

or

to

as

=

"I sh

"I w

Do you wish me

? ”

with you When shall we see you again When shall get there Shall the second third person

go

?”



;

go with you

I



Shall

the first person the intention

as ,

of

,

or

Shall interrogative sentences asks permission inquires opinion another

W

.

in

in

MISTAKES

to

38

? ”

or

"I E

" T

"

.

"

.

NI

go

not

."

punished for this

sometimes also used condi well for him

cou

,

is

,

ac :

I

go

,

and would

if

town

persuade another

know

be



hoped that



.”

go

like

should

could

an

to

,

myself

as

it

do .g

:

to

E.

.

as

readily to



I

do

would it .”

,

I



or ,

will

tion to

the present forms would referring exercise and should implying contingent dependent obligation ;

in

of as

of

$

The difference between should and would which are the past forms shall and will mainly the same 46.

S.

will

.”

be

,

shall obey

it

he



If

;

as ,

the third person tionally

it is

shall

In

"

You

be

”.

to

he

go or ". .

he

shall promise that shall He shall whether wishes Thou shalt not steal

, ,

as , a

;

to -

,

go go ” " .i = .e “

prom

"

,

a

threat morrow

I

“ “ “

He

expresses

or a

determination command You shall have these books

a

ise ,

in



we

? ”



Mo

a

to

.”

as ,

;

if

express

B

.

had the means

."

,

if

I

could get away he

,go



should He would give

I



.”

I

I

I I

should not left alone should dislike the country Should and would are both often used conditional assertion

, SHOULD SHALL AND WILL DENT

AND WOULD

39

.

, you would see him . ” “ If he should come place . " , were in your so do not “ I should place your ” , in were “ I would not do so , what proposals the agree to “ Should they not to do ?"

if I

if I

.

express a Would is often used to were home again ! ” “Would

I

wish ;

am

I

as .

things .” I would have you think of these , O Absalom ! ” thee for died had “Would God my words !” hadst hearkened to



I

all

I

2

;

as ,

of

in .”

his

go ,

in

,

,

of

ought and expresses ”

.

the correct use

:

examples

.”

in

of

47. The following

he

,

by

all

will not means but school not allow such conduct

go

You should

these words

pleas

the

be

him

. he

;

do

to

6, 7 .

iii .

I

."

.

go

for

-

of

it

.”

a

,

my

as

,

see

of

.

a

I

If

his

be a

is He

a

16 .

.

ii .

;

ing*

.'

He



is

well will seek that which They that fear the Lord filled with shall him love and they that unto law Ecclus long life and father shall have that honoreth his his mother comfort Lord shall the into ser obedient that his father and will honor will Lord that feareth the Ecclus his masters parents hard but vice unto should house you you might tobacco pipe wine and bottle would have Fletcher and Beaumont

"

SS a

spite

".

as , should

are





He

;

duty

§

t ac !

Othe

would

meaning Should often has the

of

same ercise

could not stop him course persist

would

say

could -hich

expresses determination

I

“ “

condi

He He

Would also sometimes

.”

all

, Also to express a custom ; as these things .” about talk often would “ He day “She would weep

at to

not

“ Would thou

IN WRITING ENGLISH

she love me then believe die ere she shall grieve

SHA

George Wither .

.

If

I

will

,

she hate me then believe She shall die ere will grieve

.

Penc

I

,

:

I be

She shall

Ben Jonson

myself will take mine and will make to



This child

”.

I



.

,



If

MISTAKES

.”

40

But

*

,

",

in

The words Italicized

are erroneous

X.

,

Imagination

this lease shall and will Modern Lease etc. .

of

,

the premises unto the lessor

of

.”

or an

or

Poems

determination

the following examples

:

48.

§

at

up



deliver

the end

glade and bower

overseeing power restrain Wordsworth

And

I"

,

,

earth and heaven

Shall feel To kindle

in

,

In

in

;

be

to

.

of

A

lady my own Myself will my darling Both law and impulse and with me The girl rock and plain

will will

We

as

of

.

we

. "

”.

all

to

.”

,

of

the

be

for

”.

to

of be

we

the

.

to

to

its

An

in

of

we

of ".

in

it

to

be





all



Were

.

in

. ,

be

of

a

we



If

on

,

be

be



issue this paper occasion demands The next issued early the spring The size sheet very will much enlarged and will circulate between fifteen and twenty thousand copies We will have considerable adver tising space which will allotted the business men this vicinity very reasonable terms Newspaper Prospectus found such system writing history would pro nounce the division labor unnatural We will soon able answer this pertinent question Unless they can intervene preserve credit the mark faith integrity shall soon destroyed order was made that supplemental mails European steamers will despatched the steamer from the main office after the close regular the mail edition

it

we

,

I I

;

in

I

;

I

of ; all

,

in

in

be

". me

to

up

*

a



writing the English public would give paragraph Compel retire and shall fallen indeed would feel myself blighted the eyes my acquaintance would nevermore lift my face society would bury myself the but

sorge

of

.



.”

as

as

be

we

the palm

Henry

2 .

my hand

IV ., i. of



.”

a his

beard grow cheek

on

get

will sooner have shall one

we“ " " with I If . he ” the this — [ if

than

2 on

, iv . 1 .

I



'.

-

.

;

the

my

of

the

oblivionof shameand solitude ; I would hide me from the world ; feelings I wouldbe overpowered by own disgrace Chalmers torments self reflection would pursue me you Perchance will there soon Com Errors of

er .

41

AND WILL , SHOULD AND WOULD .

SHALL

we

.

]

a

,

look into the English comedies above mentioned But contrary would should think they were formed upon quite maxim Addison

)

[

,

all

be

he

informed

.

sufficiently

are

an we

,

a

,

,

utterly lost

our in

we

.



.”

us ,

slip possess should make and not bewail ourselves that English idiom must For

then

patience

to

souls

in Let



,

I.

a

passion were simply painful should shun would persons and places that could excite greatest care such passion Burke

, to

-

of

,

not

use lish

ple

English literature who critic thorough bred Eng most the even that know does writers themselves have not always been able nest shall and will and particularly should and would

3 . Lark ,

11

pro

ffice

bean

reit

che

ald ild

.

,

.pp

,

-

,

this

-

.” 1

sheet some shilly shallying between them Efteen without drer Day English 357 358 Richard Grant White Every

42

IN WRITING

MISTAKES

ENGLISH .

Ilid

CHAPTER X.

first

"Ih

: .

.

PERF

Lying Laying

PART

"

.

Lain Laid

lay

in

a

).

or is

(

is

in

an

.

lie

is

of

is

.

to ,

lie is be

it to

in

or

be

The main thing borne mind that every sense which can misunderstood tran sitive active verb and intransitive neuter verb What adds the confusion between the words that the imperfect lay

" T

Lay Laid

.

PRES . PART .

.

IMPERFECT

Lie Lay

follows viz

.

PRESENT .

as

.

thoroughly learned and lay these are

these of

use

proper

of

the

to

understand

,

,

AND SIT .

SET

-

their principal parts should

lie

all

In be

order the form

of

§

verbs

In

49.

LIE AND LAY .



The sea

.

The

the

upon

-

.”

lay

A

.

the two countries

book

his mind





.”

table Guilt lay heavy lay between

on “

sleep

”.

to

lay



I

Imperfect down

sea

Se



book upon The rain lays

PR

a

I





.

.”

to

lay

"

"

a

.”

I



.

"

lies between the two countries lay myself down sleep the table We lay foundation the dust

05

upon

lies

the

book

his mind

."

lies heavy

A

sleep

.”

to

down

Guilt

on “

.”

table



I



.

Present

lie

LIE AND LAY .

-

43

SET AND SIT .

.

sleep ” “ I laid a book upon “ I laid myself down to 6. The rain .” foundation the table .” the laid “ We laid the dust ."

Present Participle .

is

The rain



laying the foundation

."

are

ing

“ We

Guilt is lying

6

“ A book is lying upon the table .” heavy on his mind . "

lay

."

the dust

.

Perfect Participle

I



A

.” to

I

.”

down



."

myself

had laid

,

un to . we a

we

as ,

to as

;

compounds

are

to ,

,

; lies

it

A

applies

and

:

lows

fol

sit

of

parts

50. The principal

set

.”

1

to

,

The same distinction overlay derlie $

,

.

-n

have laid aside

to

to

down

night

we

lain

to , in -



book

lay down yesterday our lay but certain directions yesterday down ight laid ship not lays our studies

down

studies have

we

.”

book upon the table

We

there

sleep

countries

had laid

lie

the "

the two

book had lain once lain between



.”

I



to

sleep had lain down The sea had upon the table

.

.

PART

Set Sat

.

55 .

54 ,

,

Rhetoric

.pp

,

in

,

.

. "

;

an

set



,

Hill's Principles

of

1

on , a

set set

set ”

,

in

is

active verb but most siguifications sets tide The and The sun sets anything apart aside about We writing journey set down out We

we

Sitting

.

Setting

Sat

.

Set

.

Set Sit

.

PERF

PART

IMPERFECT

say , “ Set

OD

PRES

PRESENT

44

MISTAKES IN WRITING ENGLISH

Sit is in , in

senses a neuter verb. It is active, the expression , “ A man sits a horse .” down chair night late at

.

.

we

sit

up

,

A

coat sits well

."

.

setting

Fin " To By

" "

Bet

There

UD

" " " Th In IN

and not

.

" a

We should setting hen “ a

room

eggs

in

sitting

, , " "

" a

but hen sits sitting hen not a

,

hen

on

.

court sits

-

a

.

portrait

,

sit

.' 27

in

,

therefore

We room

a

We set

a

in

or a

for

Congress

say

most

" a

We We

sit sit

however

,

Jithe

USE OF THE PARTICIPLE .

45

CHAPTER XI .

E.

;

it

in

a

of

of :

g .

An

better regulating government Massachusetts government the better regulation etc.

in

. "

of

, ”

. "

of )

.” things

.”

we of

order

.”

,

be

",

.”

we

,

of

It

it .

:

be

,

should not used after the participle not used before should there omitted the following examples

53.

it

where

be the

used

."

. ”

.”

to

of

.”

is a

of

$ fore

."

he

of

of

of

set

forming breaking

to

names they proceeded blows his sentences was very exact house bread from house They about repairing the walls Teaching pleasant employment children

, is

is

.

E. a

The participle requires the possessive case be the noun itself the active agent but passive subject noun the possessive should

g.:

;

In In

“ “ "

things

things

good laws

of

But

if

" "

Massa

secure our peace establishing good laws secure our peace good laws the establishment etc.

From calling

not

(

of

establishing

where the article fore

government

order

in is

$

" "



"

the introduction

such order such

of an

introducing introducing such

[ ( of an of ] of )

" "

An

an

chusetts. 66

in

the better regulating

"

An

for

.

,

,

better

both article and prep equivalent noun

for for

is

or

the substitution

signification To 52. ByBy By To To " the actact act the

of

many cases either the omission osition

.

present par used before necessary after but a

,

of

the

Where the article preposition

ticiple

is is

51.

USE OF THE PARTICIPLE

an

inci.

composing

fre

.

her sleep

depend

pupil

the

pupil's

. "

will

on

.

in

(

of

walking

]

Much

quently

Macbeth Macbeth's tragic horror

(

Lady full

)

dent “

MISTAKES IN WRITING ENGLISH

is

46

by

]

."

us . ”

.”

of

)

publishing

is ”,

etc.

is

is

Many writers have

that

contended

one . be

is

no

,

-

.

. "

in

,

one who

In

it .”

.

.”

uncouth English

,

It It



“ “

is

signifies properly though Whately beaten The foundation was being laid

".

:

]

I

,

[

as

]

,

to to

answer

I

by

.

[

“ I

be

be

the following passage must admitted that the passive form would infinitely preferable saw one dragging being dragged into light passed by the ruins Whether she was taking being taken account some disappointed votary will not pretend

to cart

the

in

."

our seminaries

.



For those who are being educated Southey Coleridge was being uttered

in

:

;

as

in

is

is

many cases the passive But there doubt that decidedly better than the active form following examples

being

Cor "

as

;

be

,

erroneous and that the passive form should used instead while others have strenu ously maintained that the passive form should never used and that the active form the only correct

this form always

Co

be

in a

in

,



",

is

: “

“ in

”, as

,

is

$

English 54. The use the active participle passive sense ques well established and cannot tioned the following examples The house building The work now Wheat selling

Carre

(

of

or

as )

*

mono

[

a



of

monosyllable's monosyllable When they speak syllable having the grave the acute accent 66 The daily instances men's men dying around

or

. "

[



]

on

of his”.

]

(

(

of

“ "

of

The event Maria Maria's loving her brother The fact James James's placing himself side The paper then discusses the probable result England England's following the policy indicated Mr. Chamberlain's speeches

47

,

,

its

on

the active being made

the contrary

the very

of

:

annulled

in

law

is

"

form

following example

certainly better

Theis

nese

In

the

USE OF THE PARTICIPLE .

act

As

,

a

is

to

is

,

an

”,

be

charge

etc.

to

his visit great quantities

. ”

." in

to

,

to "

it

to

attempted

alleged under

which previous

procured beendifficult obtained obtain Correct had been difficult

of

a

a

for

,

.”

by

, “

in

.'

,

by

The storm was unfortunate

in

selecting district poorly rep being resented observers and thus lost the opportunity carefully observed district occurred The storm unfortunately Correct poorly represented observers and thus the opportunity careful observation was lost its

ries ." one B . en end ] the

passa

be

to

is

as

is

he

,

the umbrella pine to be

of

, "

The

had“

The offence which

seeds

charged should

it

." to be

of

The

”,

etc. offence attempted anothersection the statute



72 ded streshoh if ecto

as

carvethe whole body

Correct

nerer

, . “ "

so as to to

its



as

as

attempted carved the whole body But soon most disproportion between various parts results which disagreeable the eye attempt made soon read But Correct “

be a glish hous

or

of

sometimes improperly impersonal

the active

,

form

is

participle

The passive

and awkwardly used instead

.

manier

55.

$

(

] ”.

making

MISTAKES IN WRITING ENGLISH

48

,

CHAPTER XII . PRONOUNS. plurality

must

:

). ”

[

the nineteenth

centuries

cen

(

up . ” to 1

the fifteenth

Between

).

” 1

From

days

Or , "

.)





Between the fourth and ninth duy the fourth and the ninth day

12 .

See ante page ,

i

etc.

",

;

,

, a

"

, "

", "

as , “

in

the plural however may properly associated with singular noun your intention our desire their resignation be

An adjective pronoun sometimes

the col

" " MI N

after

this

tury

11

) is .” .

(

city

"

Insert

"

our large cities

(

this and most

)

,

of

, “

In

(



." , ”



."

. )

"

"

.

I

." ,

,

,

is

on

myself now and that which By reflecting that which discern that they are not two was myself twenty years ago but one and the same self Analogy Butler's Insert selves after two For this among other reasons the contract was executed Correct For this reason among others etc.

ach" L

"

."

it . of

(

-

]

or

more ruling elder elders that long suffering

riches and

[

]

(

those

."

to

of

I

. . " "

of

of

of

the churches had one

nature that repentance

i

greatness

."

lead

of

Most

to The

to

" “ " “ “ “ “

These sort fellows are very numerous This twenty years have been with thee He thought these kind excesses indicative The standard being more than two foot above gold went one shekel Three pound

OT

tros

" Tha TH fo

in

number with the nouns which they qualify The following examples are therefore erroneous

agree

..

or

Adjectives implying unity

56.

$

AND ADJECTIVE

un edif

ADJECTIVES

AND ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS .

plural the two

or

either singular means may following examples are correct

: by

this means preserved his to

and

,



” He

temperately

lived

health.

49

,

As

be

ADJECTIVES

,

,

of

if

be

.

erroneous use

:

57 .

By



only used more than two

if

of ,

one another

The following are examples

one means

other

.” 1

By



, or "

or

".

by

By ,

or



put

The expression each other must

,

,

or

of

,

almost

writers differ from

of

,

each other with

any adjective

in

or

else

As ,

than

,

,

otherwise

degree

usually required

.

comparative

is

After other

,

58.

."

" an

up

is a

“ ", A

Prayers, masses and confessions followed edifying regularity

,

cuted

scales which overlie each

no

"

otta

the $

whid

t

"



In

the classification words elders eachother. pericarp made Fering strobile other

. "

to

all to

. "

,

an

to



. in ”

English destroy one another Two negatives are equiva Murray's Grammar Rule XVI lent affirmative Both orators take great liberties with one another Teachers each other see their pupils polite “ “

'

tness

another

some means

two subjects are spoken

"

9

,

quali

some means

another

”,

or

For

$

UNS



The scholars were attentive industrious and obedient their teachers and these means acquired knowledge

it

]

(

." .' .

it

to

of a

]

,

,

. "

of

I

short comparison

.”

(

than

] a

]

is (

nothing else but

or

by

]

(

but

,

See ante page

18 .

.”

1

]

(

an

other reference

to

The policy contained except than the following

no

."

ings “

cion , oun ;

mat

(

No

to

"

no

" A

metaphor

Architecture and gardening cannot otherwise entertain the raising certain agreeable emotions mind than feel “

[ cet

“ "

" alta

The mind sooner entertains any proposition but than presently hastens upon some hypothesis bottom other resource but than this was allowed him My behavior has fear been the death man who had etween loving me too much other fault but than that

assignment

addition

of

is

God and this ,

the house

of

than

]

none other but

heaven

. ”



This

the gate

(

.”

]

(

.

in

was selling tickets for two other railroads those before mentioned

than

is



He

MISTAKES IN WRITING ENGLISH

to

50

After

of

is

"

:

E.

in

" ".

" “

Pain must here signify something

."

other

,

of

omission metals

. "

other

]

the

or

in

all other follies the most ridicu

.

is

is

more useful than fondness for show

[

Iron

by all As ,

,

the use

.

or

“ ** an A

is

cisely what intended equivalent word

prebe

Where comparisons are made care must exclude from and include both terms

of

taken

else besides warning

,

59.

to

$

preceding may begin with capitals Other words besides Other materials besides lead are used the house service.



.

the .g

,

those mentioned

is

...



;

....

of is

else and other the preposition besides some 12 66 other those than exclusive used mentioned whereas other besides inclusive

times

so

ani .

."

lous

)

any.”

]

."

we

by

of

as

."

of

as

so

so

]

the

of

]

[

]

"

us .

,

)

(

He

others churches

]. ”

(

all

tion

of

“ “

."

(



.”

to

(

of . " it all

is

“ I



It



all

(

Of ) in

"

of



[

."

as

(



abound with bold and No other writings whatever tr the sacred books mated figures This was less his case than any other man's that everwrote Cholula was deemed more holy than The temple New Spain other other beings man has certainly the greatest reason sh gratitude for su others things that which most moves any superior that nature other work think have yet had much beloved No other sovereign was ever D people nature the works much Nothing else delights me England the nearest perfec celebrates the Church

the

to

,

or

or

to

.

Either

to

$

These words were for and neither apply properly only merly considered two persons signify one things taken separately and 60.

AND ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS .

ADJECTIVES

other, and that is strictly

51

their true usage . But good of both words in rela

authority has established the use

five simple

. "

of

to

no

Our

As, tion to any indefinite number . 27 “ Either of several provinces .” alphabet has represent either " letter consonantsounds

. a " .”

a

. "

be

— me is ,

to

: “

of

One ought many

has been contended wrong and contrary

to

English right both logi ,

,

be

,

however

to

seems

his

by

.”

to

It

.

idiom



.”

of of

.

the antecedent

own mind that this construction

know

It

61.

One

his

§

the ten was there as

-





Neither

is

,

by by

is

;

to , is

it

cally and grammatically more euphonious than using one's for his good usage and sanctioned is

at

,

."





if

."

A

of

.

19 .

-

."

ap

.”

-

-

to

. . ii . .

--

.” 9.” .”

of

go

Milton

in

,

all

;

The adjectives whole and less are properly quantity and fewer relation

relation

to

in

of of

“ “ “ * “ In 63. at

this gate none pass the vigilance here placed 66 peace were none vouchsafed Ibid Terms None that unto her return again Prov Blair None their productions are extant express the gender None them are varied

plied

,

no

,

As

,

multitude

.

of

noun

be

it ,

,

None

used with

person

although literally meaning one may plural verb having the signification

a

$ be a

62.

his

for

substituted

do

;

gender variance with

others like

person can never anything own nature This sentence and equally correct would One were as , “ A

as to

is

correct according the principle which the mascu line pronoun used where the antecedent indefinite

$

T.

P.

,

"

,

to

of



to

Words not reducible either the three preceding heads Dryden, Pope and Wordsworth lay have not scrupled mightier genius than either profanehand upon Chaucer George Marsh Neither these five verbs can neuter

16 .

are examples

AD

of

.

ENGLISH . erroneous

Sed [ all

. the ] "

]

the

steps

opetel "I can.

the

diphthongs

in

than twenty

fewer

}

less

."



There English language

(

no

are

.”

“ “

Almost whole the inhabitants were present The Redcross Knight runs through whole the Christian life

" He ai

( all

the

:

to

The following

number

usage

of

IN WRITING

MISTAKES

52

fewer

fifty

than

sixty persons

or

less

]

-

not

(

There were

used

The disease spread over Cynthia and Mary were parents

the whole country only children

,

whole

In lilk is

tuin

of

.'

]

" The

]

the

thethe ( (

all all

their first

for "

,

,

" found deficient

are

be ,

)

(

sex

As

chapters will not

.”

six

last etc.

three

incorrect

.

",

last two

,

. "", "

etc.

The two last this respect

“ in

first

two

,

use

last three

two

is

The

64.

of

$

.”



"

;

as ,

is

All sometimes incorrectly sometimes for only

and

for

the

."

present

."

are

of

of

Cambridge

."

A.

M.

,

the Rev. Wm Randolph .

of

in

"

to

or

as

be

good authors

to

of

accepted final author The ordinal adjectives first second next last may qualify the cardinal numbers qualified they cannot very properly them authority overwhelmingly support the weight this statement ",

andbut ,

used

by

in

is

should not

.;

,

and first

an

etc.

,

,

,

third

.

,

adverb

second

for secondly thirdly etc firstly preferable to ,

adverbs

is ,

as

The ordinals

as

.

of

of

be

,

,

,

, “

be

Goold Brown says

,

.ity

slips

are

if .

by

be

,

It ",

has been attempted defend the usage two authority grammar first etc. But every error might frequent usage established the occasional

ili

.

Prophets

on

By



."

of

of

“ 6.

exceedingly beautiful The first books the Æneid highly The nine first chapters the Book Proverbs poetical Analytical Notes the Minor the First and Three Last

AND ADJECTIVE

Adjectives

53 are

adverbs

."

,

I

now write boldly than was ]

more

."

bolder

(

)

my promise

this business

in

acted expected

to

as ,

He

(



PRONOUNS .

used where

are often

Agreeable Agreeably

"

like

required

;

$

CH

65.

ADJECTIVES

."

to

at

]

[

harmless

the

[

]. "

harsh

otherwise

,

official

or

,

of

the election

are now

an

a

to

question whether sometimes The adverb after certain verbs

or is

ex

adjective

use

.

an 66. “

".

There

§

is ,

or

,

an

of of

a

or

seems

be

if

,

” 2

,

be

,

the adverb should qualified the to

,

,

,

,

to

is be

intended

.g

:

E.

. if

;

.”

."

it . « "

. "

.

by

is

,

it

,

1

of

Although this use previous previously objected grammarians yet many good writers has been used page Tweed'sGrammar for Common Schools 111.

to

by for

. "



."

“ “ “ "

qualified

The flower smells sweet The berry tastes sour The man felt bad about The woman looked beautiful She looks cold He feels warm

'

De

Is

284

intended the noun

lised adjective

2

supp

is

verb

.

m ", 11bers

V

auth

,

be ,

.

presses

be ,

that when the limiting word quality state the subject the object adjective rather than the manner the action proper This construction takes place with the verbs Briefly the look taste smell feel seem etc.

principle

to

are

]

(

,

of

fall harmlessly

.”

calumny



all “

The returns

in

!

.

to

to

.”

in

;

The

of

arrows virtue

This construction sounds rather harshly

the bridge

ad

as ,

In

jectives feet

life

like manner adverbs are sometimes used for

"

renOtrs ." alt

station

."

is ] ! ” of

it

(m

]

]

1 to

on

(

“ " I

(

“ " I

so

very mean eanly can never think him How remarkable remarkably heavy He was exceeding exceedingly kind me my leaving England called his lordship previous Endeavor suitably live hereafter suitable your

on

ADI to

Why

to

. ”

as ,

;

him

sometimes improperly made

(

,

at

in

the then rigorous climate and other hard condi Europe that time after Omit then and insert

."

of

and now are adjectives

."

In

as

Even

"

" the Ini Ani e sal

as ,

;

“ “

Then

tions

correctly

mert

him She looks coldly He feels warmly the insult offered

serve

is

.

ENGLISH

the following examples the adverb

used

Stos

of

The then King

France was engaged

in

." )

Europe 6.

'

IN WRITING

MISTAKES

54

the original text

are

copies

of

present

]

or

xisting

67.

as ,

are

§

,

."



The now entire

(e

."

England

waging war with

if

;

. "

three

,

and last

more different subjects the

as ,

;

a

of

specification after or persons

the

com

of

,

or be

parative degree

thic

). ”

)

.”

(

[

Of

the two

Former and latter being adjectives should not used for first

68.

" He

,

in

.g of :

)

(

is

This the best better the two Her mother seemed the youngest younger two evils choose the least lesser

,

$

“ “ “

.

E.

included tive must be used

Tasc

the comparison the superla

,

than two

of

in in

are

,

is

be

or

subjects Where only two persons com pared the adjective must the comparative degree not often the case the superlative but more

is a the

of

)

[

,

by

]

,

a

is

of la -

]

,

.

(

.

,

,

to hy

,

J.



,

,

,

or

69. When the adjective pronouns this and that contrasted antecedent terms this

these and those refer

to

$

",

,



.

,

of

-y



of

. [ "

"

The two latter last two localities are much older than pueblos Cholula The court ard formed two decayed mounds worship and mound hill the latter last which regular terrace Our road lay Louvain Thirlemont Liège Aix Cha pelle and Juliers the Rhine The former first these towns etc. Fenimore Cooper

ADJECTIVE

or

,

.

!

.

neces

as ,

it

is

;

term

its

antecedent on

an

show reference

Burns

!"

, !

is

often omitted where to

The pronoun that

Pope

-

.'

man

farewell my foes Farewell my friends My peace with these my love with those

sary

those the

you can is

as

that

t

,

in

is

God directs

t

'

this

'

;

"

In

"

And reason raise o'er instinct

" the“ and“ [ If to He ” 70. . of the ] " of a ,

ELTE

latter and that

as ,

or

these should represent the former term

55

PRONOUNS .

,

AND

ADJECTIVES

.”

primary

sig ,

",

,

universal SO perfect

"

,

,

,

nearer perfection but we can say less extreme less perfect etc.

"

in

for compari them

right so

,

,

of of

of

of

of

of

,

" "

to

It .;

”,

etc

nearer right

extreme perfect say incorrect ", "

as

,

,

ad las

han the this

universal

which are superlative

chief

is ,

,

to

son

adjectives

nification supreme etc.

ubject

]

as [

,

as

Other errors are the vulgar use degrees also the application

those and

heavy

be

of

,

of

]

or [

strong fixed acid when both are equally dilute that certainly preceded the coming the tribes that formed valley confederacy the later tribes well that Tlascala $

t

if me

are 03

corporation was carrying operations under the charter 1792 that 1794 the argument would con clusive. Notice the difference between the effect this volatile acid

MISTAKES IN WRITING ENGLISH .

56

But

Th 1 "

XIII

wrong position Adverbs are frequently given No absolute rule can laid down They should generally for their proper position

.

be

" For

be

a

the sentence

.

in

$

71.

"

ADVERBS

.

.

CHAPTER

the

or

be

The

.

misplaced

:

position

.

up

to

.)

of

set be .

]

[

called

partic

For

only the genitive

the

m

]

be

improperly

is ]

only

(

is

the

."

In

to be [ to

.

6



a

The positive seems improperly degree genitive some phrases

.”

used



to

as

bethe

thankfully look

.

;



,

lookin corrected first clause the secondone followed in

of



”,

I



40 .

, $

hoj

look up thankfully

but think the order down contemptuously should

;

an

there

fore us

up ” 2 1

Ente

nie

[

only

."

of

]

on



,

on

.

) a

"

very bad style acquire one point only The comparisons are short touching resemblance one point Having had once once had some prominent object

See ante Murray corrects

duce

(

By

we

(

.”

on

or

us

at by

,

to



be



. , ” is 2 we

[

of

in

on



)

the crooked

*

].

looking contemptuously down down contemptu body thank should look mind better fully God who has made good usage that account Everything favored not the sentence the beginning retained Place not hasty composition shall acquire certainly certainly Instead

ously

TO

lways

"

find study agreeable always

It

of

to

wrong



We must not expect

agreeable

apt

to

especially

examples

.

to

is

are

following

(a

,

,

,

orily

adverb “

,

;

placed before the words they qualify sometimes how between the auxiliary and after verbs The and the infinitive but never between

ever verb

garish

57

ADVERBS .

oc

)

[ to

to

.”

all ]

do

.” )



(

,

is



."



is

This blunder said actually have have actually curred Butevery man not called James nor every woman Mary But Placenot after

.”

."

be ]

as

to

to .”

sinners

can

receive

be

[

when the expression

from con

much again

he

go

on ,

eyeHe

]. ”

as



{

in

, “

. "

a

;

of

as ,

,

,

at

Dce

but should

intro placed

),

to

(

.”

be

. ”

of a

.

very frequent

gross Western

'. a " 1

did

',

is

.

Some

of

§

,

.

of

)

40

and Southern vul

Jokin their Use and Abuse

. "

Words

,

Mathews's



1

Put

the adverb between the

see ante

is

adverbs

did

I

I

consequent

cases are the following

as



of

,

to

73.

$

"

Like

garism for

invariably

.”

phenomenon

For the erroneous placing and the infinitive particle Misuse the more common

,

[

,

,

is

,

which

it

“ on , is , to

,

It

antecedent therefore after "

"

the “

of



.) le

tset

= ) cale

i

tire

the beginning

remains then undecided undecided then whether the effect heredity transmit these characteristics We may define therefore the cause phenomenon

alyſsnail

y

unnecessarily

of

sentence thus multiplying pauses the end the clause

clause

a

ccount

the middle

be

duced

at be

of

not

ntent

lond

(

,

a

he is

The adverb should

in

of

to

is

he 72. , is ) a



as

$

-3 ( alre

2.1

he is

)

."

(S

.

,



to

perceived from her quiver was about when and pallid cheek that nothing less than imposture was ay intended nothing was less Scott Old Mortality tendedthan imposture brought Meister realize that not only not only that social and moral being and capable development religious being such but that also

.”

1

2. !

(

]

only

)

so ( so

is

only

vertedinto the regular form For sinners also lend again much ing“

and :

rally



But

it . "



be

(

Te

"

,

Most men dream but all not not time speak have often often have occasion generally generally separated The words must the context

MISTAKES IN WRITING ENGLISH .

58

the South

of like for as is by no means a peculiarity of and West . bave known Englishmen who

constantly

used the expression , and the following ex

use

I

are

This

Con .

. ”

he



Eve

So

It is

.

to

be

It

“ “

, “

:

amples , which might be multiplied indefinitely, taken from recent English works very jolly Hugh must travel like does way Living and Dead

it

to

.

.'

to ., be a be a so .'

be

I

,

few are placed like was that my audience who would understand and enter into my feelings must too limited passim trouble about Ibid and king when men struggled among like was , ,

.” . - -

,

used

so .

is

often improperly

the adverb



( so

]an

.”

a [ a ]

authority Dean's

Moon

,

]

[a

matter

beautiful

[a ]

Such

a ( so ]



,

[a ]

.woman

entirele

'

the sense

of

used

very

in

Quite should

never for rather

. '” 1

",

"

lovely

etc.

or be



Such

flower

a ( so )

.

a

on

such English

region high high

mild and fruitful due deference such very important to

In

such

With

."

( all a so ] ( so ]

g.:

“ “

E.

Such

for

.

he

see



,

.

king Anthony Trollope themselves who should And sometimes passing through the ground floor passage Vernon Lee would her ironing like that first time Miss Brown

.”

he

)

(

'

."

all

in

is

of

58 .

, .p

of

Rhetoric

or

equally well

”,



often used

for

Hill's Principles

is

well

.”

Equally as well

as

.”

quite recent occurrence

1

a



of

a

of

a .”

, “ a

.

" “

nly Wounded quite very severely quite gentle Mr. John Redman flattered himself was the man Say perfect gentleman