*157*
*25*
*20MB*

*English*
*Pages [303]*
*Year 1984*

Table of contents :

Front Cover

Title page

CONTENTS

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1 THE PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS

1. SETS AND WORDS

Exercises

2. THE LANGUAGEOF THE PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS

Exercises

3. AXIOM SYSTEM AND RULES OF INFERENCE

Exercises

4. THE EQUIVALENCE OF FORMULAS

Exercises

5. NORMAL FORMS

Exercises

6. SEMANTICSOF THE PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS

Exercises

7. CHARACTERIZATION OF PROVABLE FORMULAS

Exercises

8. HILBERTIAN PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS

Exercise

9. CONSERVATIVE EXTENSION OF CALCULI

Exercises

Chapter 2 SET THEORY

10. PREDICATES AND MAPPINGS

Exercises

11. PARTIALLY ORDERED SETS

Exercises

12. FILTERS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

Exercises

13. THE POWER OF A SET

Exercises

14. THE AXIOM OF CHOICE

Exercise

Chapter 3 TRUTH ON ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS

15. ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS

Exercises

16. FORMULAS OF THE SIGNATURE $\Sigma$

Exercises

17. COMPACTNESS THEOREM

Exercises

Chapter 4 THE CALCULUS OF PREDICATES

18. AXIOMS AND RULES OF INFERENCE

Exercises

19. THE EQUIVALENCE OF FORMULAS

Exercises

20. NORMAL FORMS

Exercises

21. THEOREM ON THE EXISTENCE OF A MODEL

Exercises

22. HILBERTIAN CALCULUS OF PREDICATES

Exercises

23. PURE CALCULUS OF PREDICATES

Exercise

Chapter 5 MODEL THEORY

24. ELEMENTARY EQUIVALENCE

Exercises

25. AXIOMATIZABLE CLASSES

Exercises

26. SKOLEM FUNCTIONS

Exercise

27. MECHANISM OF COMPATIBILITY

Exercises

28. COUNTABLE HOMOGENEITY AND UNIVERSALITY

Exercises

29. CATEGORICITY

Exercises

Chapter 6 PROOF THEORY

30. THE GENTZEN SYSTEM G

Exercises

31. THE INVERTIBILITY OF RULES

Exercises

32. COMPARISON OF THE CALCULI CP$\Sigma$ AND G

Exercise

33. HERBRAND THEOREM

Chapter 7 ALGORITHMS AND RECURSIVE FUNCTIONS

35. NORMAL ALGORITHMS AND TURING MACHINES

Exercises

36. RECURSIVE FUNCTIONS

Exercises

37. RECURSIVELY ENUMERABLE PREDICATES

Exercises

38. UNDECIDABILITYOF THE CALCULUS OF PREDICATESAND GODEL'S INCOMPLETENESS THEOREM

Exercises

List of Symbols

Subject Index

Front Cover

Title page

CONTENTS

PREFACE

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1 THE PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS

1. SETS AND WORDS

Exercises

2. THE LANGUAGEOF THE PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS

Exercises

3. AXIOM SYSTEM AND RULES OF INFERENCE

Exercises

4. THE EQUIVALENCE OF FORMULAS

Exercises

5. NORMAL FORMS

Exercises

6. SEMANTICSOF THE PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS

Exercises

7. CHARACTERIZATION OF PROVABLE FORMULAS

Exercises

8. HILBERTIAN PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS

Exercise

9. CONSERVATIVE EXTENSION OF CALCULI

Exercises

Chapter 2 SET THEORY

10. PREDICATES AND MAPPINGS

Exercises

11. PARTIALLY ORDERED SETS

Exercises

12. FILTERS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

Exercises

13. THE POWER OF A SET

Exercises

14. THE AXIOM OF CHOICE

Exercise

Chapter 3 TRUTH ON ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS

15. ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS

Exercises

16. FORMULAS OF THE SIGNATURE $\Sigma$

Exercises

17. COMPACTNESS THEOREM

Exercises

Chapter 4 THE CALCULUS OF PREDICATES

18. AXIOMS AND RULES OF INFERENCE

Exercises

19. THE EQUIVALENCE OF FORMULAS

Exercises

20. NORMAL FORMS

Exercises

21. THEOREM ON THE EXISTENCE OF A MODEL

Exercises

22. HILBERTIAN CALCULUS OF PREDICATES

Exercises

23. PURE CALCULUS OF PREDICATES

Exercise

Chapter 5 MODEL THEORY

24. ELEMENTARY EQUIVALENCE

Exercises

25. AXIOMATIZABLE CLASSES

Exercises

26. SKOLEM FUNCTIONS

Exercise

27. MECHANISM OF COMPATIBILITY

Exercises

28. COUNTABLE HOMOGENEITY AND UNIVERSALITY

Exercises

29. CATEGORICITY

Exercises

Chapter 6 PROOF THEORY

30. THE GENTZEN SYSTEM G

Exercises

31. THE INVERTIBILITY OF RULES

Exercises

32. COMPARISON OF THE CALCULI CP$\Sigma$ AND G

Exercise

33. HERBRAND THEOREM

Chapter 7 ALGORITHMS AND RECURSIVE FUNCTIONS

35. NORMAL ALGORITHMS AND TURING MACHINES

Exercises

36. RECURSIVE FUNCTIONS

Exercises

37. RECURSIVELY ENUMERABLE PREDICATES

Exercises

38. UNDECIDABILITYOF THE CALCULUS OF PREDICATESAND GODEL'S INCOMPLETENESS THEOREM

Exercises

List of Symbols

Subject Index

- Author / Uploaded
- Yu. L. Ershov
- E. A. Palyutin

- Similar Topics
- Mathematics
- Logic

&&& Mir Publishers

10. JI. EpiiiOB, E. A. TiamoTHH

MATEMATJ1qECKAR JIOrYIKA H3.llATEJ1bCfBO «HAYKA» MOCKBA

Yu. L. Ershov, E. A. Palyutin

MATHEMATICAL LOGIC TRANSLATED FROM THE RUSSIAN BY

VLADIMIR SHOKUROV

MIR PUBLISHERS

Moscow

First published 1984 Revised from the 1979 Russian edition

© English translation, Mir Publishers, 1984

CONTENTS

7

Preface INTRODUCTION

9

Chapter I. THE PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Sets and words The language of the propositional calculus Axiom system and rules of inference The equivalence of formulas Normal forms Semantics of the propositional calculus Characterization of provable formulas Hilbertian propositional calculus Conservative extension of calculi

15 15 21 25 32 35 43 48 52 56

65

Chapter 2. SET THEORY

10. Predicates and mappings

65

II. Partially ordered sets

70 78 82 90

12. Filters of Boolean algebra 13. The power of a set 14. The axiom of choice Chapter 3. TRUTH ON ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS 15. Algebraic systems 16. Formulas of the signature I: 17. Compactness theorem

96 96 102 110

Chapter 4. THE CALCULUS OF PREDICATES

117

18. Axioms and rules of inference 19. The equivalence of formulas

117 126

5

6

Contents

20. 21. 22. 23.

Normal forms Theorem on the existence of a model Hilbertian calculus of predicates Pure calculus of predicates

Chapter 5. MODEL THEORY 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

Elementary equivalence Axiomatizable classes Skolem functions Mechanism of compatibility Countable homogeneity and universality Categoricity

Chapter 6. PROOF THEORY 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

The Gentzen system G The invertibility of rules Comparison of the calculi CPE and G Herbrand theorem The calculi of resolvents

Chapter 7. ALGORITHMS AND RECURSIVE FUNCTIONS Normal algorithms and Turing machines Recursive functions Recursively enumerable predicates Undecidability of the calculus of predicates and G6del's incompleteness theorem List of symbols Subject index

35. 36. 37. 38.

130 132 139 144 149 149 157 165 168 181 188 198 198 204 210 217 228 236 23(j 247 264 276 292 295

PREFACE

This book presents in a systematic way a number of topics in modern mathematical logic and the theory of algorithms. It can be used as both a textbook on mathematical logic for university students and a text for specialist courses. The sections corresponding to the obligatory syllabus (Sections I to 9 of Chapter I, without the small type, Sections 10 and II of Chapter 2, Sections 15 and 161of Chapter 3, Sections 18 to 20, 22 and 23 of Chapter 4 and Section 35 of Chapter 7) are written more thoroughly and in more detail than the sections relating to more special questions. The exposition of the propositional calculus and the calculus of predicates is not a conventional one, beginning as it does with a study of sequential variants of the calculi of natural deduction (although the traditional calculi, referred to as Hilbertian, also appear here). The reasons for this are: (I) the possibility of providing a good explanation of the meaning of all the rules of inference; (2) the possibility of acquiring more rapidly the knack of making formal proofs; (3) a practical opportunity of making all the formal proofs necessary in the course for these calculi. Many years' experience of the elder of the authors in reading the course of mathematical logic in the Mathematics Department of Novosibirsk State University, on which Chapters I to 4 are based, shows that the above possibilities are fully realizable. This justifies the use of the adopted method of presentation along with the traditional ones. For more detail the reader is referred to the Contents. Despite the headings Set Theory, Model Theory, Proof Theory and Algorithms and Recursive Functions, the book, being a manual, naturally contains but a small fraction of the contents of these large branches of modern mathematical logic. As is customary in textbooks, most of the results are given in the book without indicating the authors. There is a small number of exercises after virtually each section of the book. The number of exercises, however, is obviously not enough for 7

8

Preface

the purposes of teaching. The reader may find more exercises in Problems in Set Theory, Mathematical Logic and the Theory of Algorithms by I. A. Lavrov and L. L. Maksimova, Moscow: Nauka, 1975. To facilitate the use of the book we indicate the interdependence of the chapters:

Some technical remarks are in order. The theorems are numbered consecutively in each chapter, the propositions and lemmas in each section. The phrase "Proposition 12.2" ("Theorem 12.2", ... ) means "Proposition 2 (Theorem 2, ... )of Section 12". When referring to a proposition or lemma within the same section or, often, to a theorem within the same chapter, the section is not indicated. The symbol => stands for "implies", ~ stands for "is equivalent to". The symbol 0 signals the end of a proof. This book would have been impossible without the staff of the Department of Algebra and Mathematics of Novosibirsk State University. Academician A. I. Maltsev (1909-1967), an outstanding Soviet mathematician, the founder of the Department, has exercised a decisive influence upon the scientific interests and pedagogical views of the authors. At the various stages of our work at the manuscript great help and support came from M. I. Kargapolov, N. V. Belo/akin, I. A. Lavrov, L. L. Maksimova and many others. We express our sincere and deep gratitude to these colleagues and friends of ours. While preparing this book we used the notes of the courses of lectures given by A. I. Maltsev and Yu. L. Ershov, the books: Mathematical Logic by Yu. L. Ershov, E. A. Palyutin and M. A. Taitslin. Novosibirsk: Novosibirsk State University Press, 1973 (in Russian); Set Theory by K. Kuratowski and A. Mostowski. Amsterdam, 1968; Algebraic Systems by A. I. Maltsev. Moscow: Nauka, 1970 (in Russian); The Theory of Algorithms by A. A. Markov. Tr. Mat. lost. Steklov., XLII, Moscow, 1954 (Translation: Office of Technical Services, U. S. Department of Commerce. Washington, D. C., 1962); Mathematical Logic by J. R. Shoenfield. Addison-Wesley, 1967, as well as other monographs and papers.

Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk

Yu. L. Ershov E. A. Palyutin

INTRODUCTION

Mathematical logic as an independent branch of modern mathematics took shape comparatively recently, at the turn of the century. The advent and rapid development of mathematical logic at the beginning of this century was associated with the so-called crisis in the foundations of mathematics. Let us consider this in some detail. Any attempt at a systematic ·presentation of mathematics (or of any other science, for that matter) leads to the problem of choosing basic (primitive) notions and principles to base the entire presentation on. The problem of choosing and justifying the choice of the initial data lies as a rule outside the discipline itself and relates to the philosophy and methodology of science. The systematization of mathematics in the late nineteenth century revealed that very promising is the use of the notion of set as the only primary notion for the whole of mathematics. The work of B. Bolzano, R. Dedekind and G. Cantor led to the creation of a new mathematical discipline, the theory of sets, the beauty and force of whose constructions and the prospects of using it in the foundations of mathematics attracted the attention of many leading mathematicians of that time. Much work was done to give a set-theoretic interpretation to mathematical and even logical notions. Of great interest in this connection are the investigations of G. Frege and B. Russell. However, a high degree of abstraction and the "universality" of the concept of set could not but lead finally to the difficulties that are well and long known in philosophy when working with "universals". This manifested itself in the appearance of the so-called set-theoretic paradoxes. Here is one of the most typical set-theoretic paradoxes, the Russell paradox: quite meaningful for an arbitrary set is the question, "Will that set be an element of itself?" An example of a set

10

lntroJuction

containing itself as an element could be, for instance, the set of all sets. Consider the set M 0 of all sets for which the answer to the question is "no". Now ask if the set is its own element. To our (naive) surprise we discover that if the answer is "yes", then we have M 0 E M 0 , i. e. the ans\ver mmt (should) be "no". But if rhc answer is "no", then by virtue of the definition of the set M 0 the answer must be "yes". This paradox shows that unless we want to come to contradictions it is necessary (in particular) to relinquish the pleasant idea that any meaningful condition on the elements defines some set. Fortunately, paradoxes of this sort may arise only for "large" or "unnatural" sets one may well do without in mathematics *. The appearance of such paradoxes was regarded with apprehension by many mathematicians and therefore attracted to the questions of the foundations of mathematics close attention of practically all leading mathematicians of that time (D. Hilbert, H. Poincare, H. Weyl, to name only a few). Several programmes of "saving" mathematics from the "horrors" of paradoxes were proposed into which we shall not go here. We shall describe in brief below just two of the most effective programmes various modifications of which are still being discussed at present. We only note here that the variety of the approaches to the foundations of mathematics has remained up to the present time. However, the years past and the undeniable achievements of mathematical logic, which are yet to be discussed, made this problem lose its edge to such an extent that most of the mathematicians working in other areas of mathematics give no particular attention to the discussions now taking place among the specialists in the foundations of mathematics. One of the most elaborate programmes of the foundations of mathematics is D. Hilbert's programme of finitary justification of mathematics. The programme is essentially an attempt to construct such a formalization of mathematics that it would be possible to prove a system's own consistency by means of the system. • The formalizations of set theory to be mentioned below, axiomatic 'et theories, while retaining all that is useful, do not allow any of the known "paradoxical" arguments to be conducted.

Introduction

II

Another fundamental requirement of such a formalization is that the primitive and immediately verifiable statements about the natural numbers should be true in that formalization. The work at that programme done by both Hilbert himself and by his disciples and followers turned out to be very fruitful for mathematical logic, in particular in the development of the modern axiomatic method. Although the programme of "finitism" turned out to be impracticable in its original form, as was shown by K. Godel in his famous works, possible·modifications of the programme continue to be usefully discussed up to the present time. Another approach to the foundations of mathematics was due to the criticism of a number of positions that were used in mathematics withoot due justification. This relates, in particular, to the unlimited use of the Jaw of excluded middle and the axiom of choice. The programme of constructing mathematics under rigid restrictions on the use of these principles has been given the name of intuitionism; its creation and development is due in the first place to L. E. J. Brouwer. The constructive approach to the foundations of mathematics which is being developed in the Soviet Union by A. A. Markov and his school is also due to a critical approach to admissible logical means in mathematics and uses in a systematic manner the concept of algorithm for constructive reproduction of mathematical results. Although the foundations of mathematics are traditionally referred to mathematical logic, it is out of place in the present textbook to go into particulars of this area lying on the border of mathematics and philosophy. Therefore we restrict the discussion of the foundations of mathematics to the above remarks that do not pretend to be complete or exhaustively precise but rather serve the purposes of illustration. The main outcome of the activities in the realm of the foundations of mathematics is, it seems, the formation of mathematical logic as an independent mathematical discipline and the fundamental achievement of mathematical logic is the development of the modern axiomatic method which is characterized by the following three features: l. Explicit formulation of the postulates (axioms) of one theory or another.

12

Introduction

2. Explicit formulation of logical means (rules of inference) admitted for a consistent construction (development) of that theory. 3. The use of artificially constructed formal languages for the presentation of all the positions (theorems) of the theory under consideration. The first feature characterizes the classical Rxiomatic method. The next two are further steps in achieving maximum precision and clarity in presenting theories. Introduction and use of suitable notation was throughout the history of mathematics a very important and productive procedure. But mathematical symbols were merely elements of formal languages. In mathematical logic, on the other hand, for the first time in history such rich formal languages were created that allow practically all basic positions of modern mathematics to be formulated. The rich formal languages of mathematical logic and the successful experience of working with them have created one of the objective prerequisites for the creation of universal computing machines employing at present a very diverse spectrum of formal programming languages. The main object of study in mathematical logic are various calculi. The notion of calculus comprises such basic components as: (a) the (formal) language of the calculus; (b) the axioms of the calculus; (c) the rules of inference. The concept of calculus allows us to give a strict mathematical definition of the n6tion of proof and to obtain precise statements about the impossibility of proving one proposition or another of a theory. Another remarkable achievement of mathematical logic is the discovery of a mathematical definition of the notion of algorithm, i. e. effective procedure for solving problems of one (infinite) class or another. Intuitively the concept of algorithm has been used for a very long time. G. W. Leibniz, an outstanding thinker (1646-1716), even dreamt of discovering a universal algorithm for solving all mathematical problems. The precise definition of the notion of algorithm shattered rather quickly this beautiful Utopia; A. Church showed in 1936 that no algorithm is possible which given an arbitrary statement written in a formal language of elementary arithmetic would answer the question, "Will the statement be true for the natural numbers?" It was later found that

lntroduo:tion

I~

even in the system describing "pure logic" (the calculm of predicates) the problem of provability was algorithmically unsolvable. In the sub~equent year' a great many algorithmically unsolvable problem~ were discovered in many branches of mathematics. A great contribution to the development of the theory of algorithms and to the solution of algorithmic problems has been made by E. L. Post, A. M. Turing, S. C. Kleene and the Soviet mathematicians A. I. Maltsev, P. S. Novikov and A. A. Markov. The study of calculi constitutes the syntactical part of mathematical logic. The deepest study of the (syntactical) notion of proof in calculi makes an independent branch of mathematical logic known as proof theory. Along with the syntactical study of calculi, there is also a semantic study of the formal languages of mathematical logic. The basic concept of semantics is the notion of truth for the expressions (formulas, sequents and so on) of a formal language. Semantic notions have also received precise mathematical definitions, which has made possible a systematic and rigorous study of the various concepts of truth. The classical semantics of the language of the calculus of predicates has constituted a very rich branch of mathematical logic, model theory, which is being actively developed, and its methods and results are used to advantage in other branches of mathematics (algebra, analysis). The founders of model theory are A. Tarski and A. I. Maltsev. Calculi allow many parts of mathematics and of other sciences to be formalized. The propositional calculus and the calculus of predicates mentioned above are formalizations of logic, the oldest science about the laws of correct reasoning. The creation and study of these formalizations have been an important stage in the development of logic as a science. The early attempts to formalize logic are due to Aristotle and G. Boole, but it was not until the advent of mathematical logic that an actual (and effective) formalization of logic was brought about. The Italian mathematician G. Peano has done much for the development and popularization of formal languages of logic. It was the possibility of formalizing the theory of sets that proved especially important for mathematics. The calculi for-

14

Introduction

malizing the basic constructions of "naive" set theory turned out to be so rich that any set-theoretic argument occurring in actual mathematical practice could be reconstructed formally in those calculi. The natural "payment" for this richness was Godel's discovery of the effects of incompleteness and even of noncompletability of such calculi. In constructing the semantics of natural or formal languages there are also great difficulties. Thus the simple-minded belief that every declarative sentence in English can be assigned in a plausible (or at least consistent) way:a truth value is refuted by the so-called Liar paradox. A man says, "What I am saying is false". Let us try to find out whether the man told the truth or a lie. If we suppose that he told the truth, then it follows from the meaning of his words that he told a lie. If he told a lie, then from the fact that his words are false it follows that he told the truth. This paradox underlies a number of remarkable theorems of mathematical logic (theorems of incompleteness and indeterminability of truth in a system). The history of mathematical logic is a subject in its own right and it will be given no attention in this book, except for the above, clearly incomplete, listing of some names and facts. In conclusion it should be noted that modern mathematical logic is a large and ramified branch of mathematics whose source of problems, along with its intrinsic problems, is constituted by both philosophical problems of the foundations of mathematics and logic and problems arising in other branches of mathematics (algebra, analysis, mathematical cybernetics, programming and so on).

Chapter I THE PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS

I. SETS AND WORDS

By a letter we mean a sign regarded as a whole, i. e. a sign whose parts we are not interested in. A letter will also be called a symbol *. Two given (for example, written) letters can be said to be the same or distinct. For example, all small letters "a" in this book are considered to be the same. So are all small letters "a" in some hand-written text, although the sameness of two letters is more difficult to ~stablish in this case than in the previous one. It will be assumed that it is always possible to establish the sameness of or distinction between two concrete letters under consideration. If letters a 1 and a 2 are the same, then we shall write a 1 = a 2 • The abstraction of identifying the same letters leads to the notion of abstract letter. In what follows the same two concrete letters a 1 and a2 will be treated as the same (abstract) letter a. Each of these two concrete letters will be called a representative of the abstract letter a **. A collection X of some objects, to be called elements of X, will be called a set ***. If a is an element of X, then we write a eX. If any element of X is an element of a set Y, then X is said to be a subset of Y and this is designated as: X ~ Y. If for the sets X and Y we have X ~ Y and Y ~ X, then we shall say that the sets X and Y are equal and write X = Y. Thus a set is completely determined by its • Sometimes the word "letter" will be used in its usual sense, for example Latin letter, small letter. •• One should distinguish between the abstract letter denoted by the symbol a and the symbol a itself which is a designation or name of the abstract letter. ••• As noted in the Introduction, such a definition may in general lead to a contradiction. This must not frighten the reader, however, since the existence of all the sets considered in this book can be derived within the formal system described in Section II, in which it is impossible to carry out any of the known "paradoxical" arguments about sets.

15

16

The Propositional Calculus

elements. In particular, there is only one set contammg no elements. Such a set will be called empty and designated 0. If a E X fails for X, then we shall write a rl X. The letters i, j, k, I, m, n, p, r, s, possibly with indices, will denote natural numbers. The set of all natural numbers will be denoted by w. If a 1 EX, ... , an EX, then we shall write ap ... , an EX. If X is a set, a" ... , an EX and any element of X is equal to one of the a i' ... , an, then we shall say that X is a finite set and write X = I a 1 , ... , an I *. If n f(4>o, ... , 4>n)

The domain off is indicated unless it coincides with (E (IW. The expressions 0 , ••• , n in the previous notation will be called hypotheses and the expressionf(0 , .•• , n) is the conclusion of a rule f. An n-place rule f of the calculus I will also be called an n-hypothesis rule. The pair (A (I), E (I)) consisting of the alphabet A (I) and the set of expressions E (I) of I will be called the language of I and denoted by L(l). Suppose that two calculi I 1 and I 2 are given. If A(I1) !; A(I2 ) and E(I1) !; E(I2 ), then we shall say that the language L(I2 ) of the calculus I2 is an extension of the language L(I1 ) of the calculus I and write as follows: L(I2 ) !; !; L(II)

*.

If the calculus I is given, then the set T(I) !; E(l) of provable expressions or theorems of I is defined using the following inductive definition: (I) if Sis an axiom of I, then Sis a theorem of I; (2) if sl' ... ' sn are theorems of I, f is an n-hypothesis rule of I and (S 1 , ••• , Sn> is in the domain off, thenf(Sp ... , Sn) is a theorem of I. To define a set X it suffices to indicate for what objects a the relation a e X is true. Therefore the following expressions will be uniquely defined by two sets X and Y new sets X n Y, X U Y, and X '- Y called respectively the intersection, union and difference of the sets X and Y: (a) a e X n Y 0 , ... , cl>n (logically) entails the proposition if". Sequents of the form «1> 0 , ... , cl>n 1- may be understood to be a statement about joint inconsistency of the hypotheses (conditions) «o, ... , «n • The rules of inference of PC to be described in the next section reflect (formalize) some simplest standard logical modes of reasoning which allow one to pass from some true statements (theorems) to other true statements (theorems).

Exercises I. Show that for any word a of the alphabet of PC it is possible to determine in a finite number of steps whether a is a formula of PC or not. (Hint. Use Proposition I). 2. Replace point 2 in the definition of a formula of PC by the following: if 4> and ..Y are formulas, then (4>) 11 (..Y), (4>) v (..Y), (4>) - (..Y') and .., (4>) are formulas. Show that with such a definition we have statements similar to Propositions I and 2.

3. AXIOM SYSTEM AND RULES OF INFERENCE

Below we shall often deal not with concrete formulas and sequents but with the so-called schemata of formulas and sequents. The letters cl>, if, X (f, .ll, 8), possibly with indices from the set of natural numbers, will be called variables for formulas (sequences of formulas). Let an alphabet B contain, besides the symbols of the alphabet of PC, the v-ariables for formulas and sequences of formulas. A schema of sequents (formulas) of PC is a word in B such that any substitutions in that word of concrete formulas and sequences of concrete formulas for variables of formulas and sequences of formulas, respect1vely, yield sequents (formulas of PC. The results of such substitutions will be called instances of the schema. For example, if, r 1- cl> v if and cl> ..... - (X 1 1\ X2 ) aJ;e schemata of sequents and frmulas respectively

26

The Propositional Calculus

and Qo

..., Qo •

A ..., Ql •

..., (Q2 ..... Ql) 1- QJ

V (Qo A ..., Ql ),

((Ql ..... ..., Ql) A Qo) ..... (QJ A ..., (Q2 V ..., Qo))

are instances of the corresponding schemata *. DEFINlTION. A schema of sequents 4>1-4>

is called an axiom schema of PC. An instance of an axiom schema will be called an axiom. The rules of inference of PC are the following: I. r ,_ ; r ,_ "+' •

rt-1\-t 2 rt-A"+'

. r ,_

,

7. r, ,_ "+' , rt--"+' r ,_ ; r ,_ - "+' 8. • rt--t 9

r,.., ,_

. r ,_ • 4.

r ,_

•

JO. r ,_ ; r ,_ .., •

rt-

rt-v"+'

s

II. r, , "+', r 1 ,_ x • r,-t,,r 1 t-X

6 r. ,_ "+'; r, x ,_ "+'; r ,_ v x . r ,_ "+' ,

12.

rt--t ·rt-v-t'

r ,_ r, "+' ,_ "+'

As noted at the end of the preceding section, the rules of inference of PC formalize certain standard logical modes of reasoning. Let us comment at an informal level upon Rules 1 to 12 from this point of view. Rules 1 to 3 are simply rules clarifying the meaning of the word "and" (conjunction). Rules 4, 5 also refer to the clarification of the meaning of the word "or" (disjunction). Rule 6 formalizes the mode of reasoning by "analysis of (two) possible cases". When hypotheses r hold, either 4> or X is true. ir is true either when conditions r and 4> are true or when conditions • When the values of variables for the formulas and sequences of formulas in a schema C of sequents (formulas) are fixed in the text the schema C is called simply a sequent (a formula).

Axiom System and Rules of Inference

27

r and X, are true, thus 'lr is always true when hypotheses r are satisfied. This is established by considering two possible cases (one of them necessarily holding): (I) conditions rand the condition 4> hold; (2) conditions r and the condition X hold. Rule 7 formalizes a device of equivalent restatement of a theorem allowing one of the hypothesis of the theorem to be placed into its conclusion in the form of a hypothesis. Rule 8 is one of the logical rules (the rule of modus ponens or detachment) noted already by Aristotle; it shows how to get rid of a hypothesis in the conclusion. Rule 9 formalizes the rule of "arguing by reductio ad absurdum". Suppose that conditions rand -, 4> can hold simultaneously; coming to a contradiction we conclude that 4> always holds if the conditions r hold. Rule 10 is the rule of "discovering (deriving) a contradiction'' for a sequence of hypotheses r. Rule I1 is of a purely technical formal character: interchange of premises does not affect the truth of the conclusion. Rule 12, sometimes called a "refinement" or the rule of an extra hypothesis, reflects a trivial fact that adding to the hypotheses of a theorem a superfluous hypothesis does not violate the truth of the conclusion of the theorem. If in the rules of inference we take concrete sequences of formulas of PC as rand r 1 and concrete formulas as 4>, 'lr, X, then we obtain instances (or applications) of the rules of inference. Rules I to 10 are called basic and Rules II and I2 are structural. If e is an application of a rule of inference k, then we shall say that the sequent under the line in e is obtained from the sequents above the line with the aid of the rule k. DEFINITION. A linear proof in PC is a finite sequence So, ... , sn of sequents of PC satisfying the following condition: each sequent S;, i ~ n, is either an axiom or obtained from some Sj,j < i, using one of the Rules of inference I to 12. A sequent Sis said to be PC-provable or a theorem of PC if there is a proof S0 , ••• , Sn in PC such that Sn = S. A formula 4> of PC is said to be PCprovable if so is the sequent f- 4>. Notice that if So, ... , Sn is a proof in PC and S0, ... , Sfc is a proof in PC, then So, ... , Sn, S0, ... , Sfc is also a proof in PC. We define inductively the notion of tree: (I) Any sequent is a tree.

28

The Propositional Calculus

(2) If D0 ,

••• ,

Dn are trees and S is a sequent, then

is also a tree. The same sequent may occur in a tree several times. A sequent together with its position in a tree D will be called an occurrence of the sequent in the tree D. An occurrence of a sequent in D which has no horizontal line above it will be called an initial occurrence in D. An occurrence of a sequent in D which has no horizontal line below it will be called final sequent in D. We shall often use the word "sequent" instead of "an occurrence of a sequent" if it is clear from the context what occurrence is meant. It is clear that a tree may have many initial sequents, but there is only one final sequent. The part of a tree consisting of the sequents immediately above the line, below the line and of the line itself is called a passage. DEFINITION. A treeD is said to be a tree form proof in PC if all its initial sequents are axioms of PC and its passages are applications of Rules of inference 1 to 12. If Sis the final sequent of a tree form proof in D, then D is said to be tree form proof of S or a derivation tree of S in PC. Let h be a function defined on the sequents (more precisely, on the occurrences of the sequents) of D and taking as its values natural numbers having the following properties: (1) h(S) = 0 if S is the final sequent of the tree D. (2) If So, ... , Sn

s is a passage in D, then h(S0 ) = ... = h(Sn) = h(S) + 1. It is obvious that conditions (1) and (2) uniquely define the function h. The number h(S) is called the height (of the occurrence) of a sequent Sin the tree D. The maximum height of thesequents occurring in Dis called the height of the tree D. PROPOSITION 1. A sequent S has a tree form proof in PC if and only if S is a theorem of PC. -.PROOF. Let So' ... ' sn - I ' be a linear proof in PC. If is an axiom, then S will be a tree form proof of the sequent S. Let

s

s

Axiom System and Rules of Inference

Do' ... ' Dn If 8i 1 ;

·~·;

I

be tree form proofs of the sequents So' ... ' sn -

8h , i , ••• , ik 1

29 I .

< n, is the application of some rule, then

the tree Di1; ... ;Dik

s will be a tree form proof of the sequent S. Suppose now that a proof of the sequent Sin the form of a tree D is given. We construct a linear proof of S by induction on the height of the sequents in the tree D. The initial sequents in D will be linear proofs. If for all the sequents S0 , ••• , Sm of height k + I linear proofs L 1 , ••• , Lm are already constructed, then it is clear that the sequence will be a linear proof of a sequent S of height k. D A sequent schema His said to be PC-provab/e if adding it to PC as an axiom schema does not extend the set of provable sequents. It is clear that this is equivalent to the fact that all instances of the schema Hare PC-provable. 'I'

I-

Example I. The following tree shows the provability of the schema 4>, 4> " 'I' •: 'I' I- 'I' -::---:-------:- (Rule 12) 4>1--4> '1',4>1--'1' ---(Rule 12) - - - ( R u l e II) , 'I' I- 4> " 'I'

A rule of inference is said to be PC-admissible if adding it to PC does not extend the set of provable sequents. In particular, Rules I to 12 of PC are admissible. PROPOSITioN 2.

The following rules are PC-admissible:

(a) 'I' I • .. · • 'I' n I- 4! , } XI• ... , Xm I- " --, of> ' fl1- '1}1'

'1}1' , '1}1' 1- ...,

r . ...,

U> f,

fl-

, f 2 , 4> 1-

'1}1'

f 1 , of>, f 2 1- o1> -

'1}1'

r,, of>, r 2

r,,

of>, r 2 1-

o1>

1- '1}1'

establishes (a'). It is clear that the admissibility of (a) follows from that of (a') and Rules 11 and 12. The admissibility of (b) follows from that of rules (a), (e) and (f). The admissibility of (c) is demonstrated by the following tree

r. '1}1'

1-

f 1- '1}1' -

x x: f 1- '1}1'

f1-x

In addition we show the admissibility of (f) and (g), leaving the other rules as an exercise to the reader. It is clear that the sequent r 1- can be obtained only by Rule 10. Therefore, if r 1- is provable, then so are the sequents r 1- 0 and r 1- -, 0 for some formula 4>0 • To prove the admissibility of a rule of the form fl-

s

Axiom System and Rules of Inference

31

it suffices to construct a tree whose initial sequents are either provable schemat~ of r 1- cl>o and r 1- -, cl>o whose final sequent is the sequent S and whose passages are Rules 1 to 12. fl-~o

(f)

fl--.~o

_!:_.__2j'_!:.._!q__ r, .., 'i'

1- .., i') if two sequents 1> f- i' and i' f- 1> are PC-provable. Notice that "= " is the symbol of the language in which we prove statements about the calculus but not the symbol of the propositional calculus. This language is sometimes called metalanguage. The concepts of schema and proof are also metalanguage concepts. LEMMA 1. The relation 1> i' is an equivalence relation, i. e. for any formulas 1>, i', X of PC the following statements are true:

=

=

(a) 1> = 1>; (b) if i', then i' = 1>; (c) if 1> i' and i' = X, then 1> = X. PROOF. (a) follows from the fact that 1> f- 1> is an axiom. (b) follows from the symmetry of 1> and i' in the definition of the relation 1> = i'. If 1> f- i' and i' f- X are provable, then by Proposition 3.2 (c) 1> f- X is provable. Similarly, if X f- i', i' ff- 1> are provable, then X f- 1> is provable. 0 LEMMA 2. (a) If 1> = i', then 1> is PC-provable if and only if i'

= =

is PC-provable. (b) If 1> 1 i' 1 , and 1> 2

=

=

=

i' 2, then (1> 1 1\ 1> 2) (i' 1 1\ i' 2), (1>, v 1>2) (i', v i'2), (1>,- 1>2) (i',- i'2) and •, - •i',. PROOF. If f-1> and 1> f- i' are provable, then the tree

=

=

=

1 f- -, i' 1, 1>1 1\ 1>2 f- i'1 1\ i'2 , 1>1 V 1>2 ff- i' 1 v 1>2 and 1> 1 - 1>2 f- i' 1 - i'2 . The following four quasiderivations complete the proof: {J) ,Y I e- 1 V1

I-

V ~2 I-

- by replacing v', some occurrencd ofv by a formula if'. In this case, if'lr then 4> 4>'. . PROOF. If v = 4>, then the theorem is trivial. Further we proceed by induction on the length of 4>. If 4> = Q;, then v = 4>. Four cases are possible for the induction step: (a) 4> = ~~>1 t\ ~~>2; (b) 4> = ~~>1 V ~~>2;

=

=

(c) 4> = ~~>1 - ~~>2; (d) 4> = ..., ~~>1 · By Proposition 2.2 any occurrence of v 4> is contained either in 4>1 or in 4>2 , therefore the equivalence 4> 4>' follows from the induction hypothesis and Lemma 2(b). 0

*

=

Exercises I. Suppose formulas 4> and v of PC contain only one propositional variable, P, and for some substitutions s 1 and s2 we have s 1 ( II 'i') V (4> II X); 4> 1\ ('I' V X), f- "+' V X) 4> II (i' II X)

I-

(4> II 'i') V (4> II X)

. ll'i'f-'i'VX; ll'i'f- IIXf-; IIXf-'i'VX - - - - - - - - - - - ---- ------------~-~~-_!-~! ':'_~~--~~ Xt::_ 11_('1'_~ _'