Making Better Readers


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Making

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MAKING

BETTER

READERS

MAKING

by RUTH

STRANG

Professor of Education Teachers College, Columbia University

AND

DOROTHY

KENDALL

BRACKEN

Noy 13 1967

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number

57-8434

COPYRIGHT,

1957, By D. C. HEATH

AND

COMPANY

No part of the material covered by this copyright may be

reproduced in any form without written permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America.

5c 7

Ph

PREFACE THIS BOOK was designed to help prospective teachers and teachers-inservice to understand reading development and ways of furthering it, _ and to help every member of the school staff to see more clearly his responsibility as part of the total reading program. The book should be useful not only in introducing the field of reading to teachers, administrators, and guidance workers, but also in giving them concrete, practical suggestions to apply in their own classrooms and schools. It will also serve as an orientation, introduction, and supplement to the more com-

prehensive and technical books on reading already available.

To meet these needs, the book has been planned as follows:

First,

to describe the development of reading and major methods of teaching reading in the elementary school. This is valuable to persons in junior and senior high school, not only in giving a genetic approach to the reading development and problems during adolescent years, but also to acquaint them with procedures that may be used in modified form with high school students having difficulty with reading. Since, under present school conditions, there is a wide range of reading

ability represented in our junior and senior high schools, a description of this diversity of reading interest and ability and how to deal with it is given in Chapter 2. Here the special reading problems of the gifted, the student who

can read better, and the slow learner are considered.

Despite the diversity of reading ability, there are certain common reading abilities which should be taught. How to provide for reading development and personal development through reading during high school years is treated in Chapter 3. In this chapter basic reading skills and methods of teaching them are described. Since reading is everybody’s business, it is necessary to describe some of the common opportunities and responsibilities of the whole school staff. These responsibilities have been translated in Chapter 4 into concrete procedures for understanding the individual student, giving instruction in reading while teaching any subject, and providing other language arts experiences. There are, however, special approaches, a special vocabulary, and special procedures for teaching reading in each subject. Although the English teacher has usually assumed major responsibility for the language arts, there is much that the teacher of every subject can do. In Chapter 5 this is described with many illustrations of classroom procedure. v

r of reading of his Even though every teacher has become a teache cannot read well subject, there are still some individual students who For these individuals, enough to profit by regular classroom instruction. be made available. special reading groups and clinical facilities should training value of These are described in Chapter 6, which emphasizes the duals, as well as the teachers to clinic work with small groups and indivi clinic. benefit to the limited number of clients served in the ctional materials, instru and ds metho to nces refere the To supplement rs and students, given in each chapter, additional lists of books for teache in the Appendix. audio-visual aids, and standardized tests are given d to emA special feature of this book is the illustrations, each selecte be likely to phasize a point of major importance. The busy teacher will from thoughtful read the book selectively, getting a general impression meet his imskimming and coming back again and again to parts that mediate needs. ed their The authors wish to thank the teachers who so kindly describ them. They procedures of improving reading and permitted our use of Teacher, also wish to thank Miss Hettie Dougherty, Reading Clinic Dallas

Independent

School

District, Dallas, Texas, for checking refer-

ted with ences and expertly handling some other routine matters connec preparation of the manuscript. School Acknowledgment is gratefully made to the staff of the High ity — Univers ia Columb College, s Teacher Center, and College Reading Mr. Frank Dr. Helen Carey, Dr. Beulah Ephron, Miss Amelia Melnik, Withrow, y Doroth Dr. Wray, Russell Mr. , Schliech Perry, Mrs. Meriam

and Dr. Nancy Young — for their insight and supervising skill in working High with Reading Center cases; to the graduate students working in the Miss School and College Reading Center, especially Mrs. Frank Cyr, d in some Jean Rennolds, and Mr. John McInness, whose cases are reporte

course, detail in Chapter 6; and to the graduate students taking the basic “The Improvement of Reading in High School and College,” who contributed concrete descriptions of procedures and suggestions for games and other materials of instruction.

vi

CONTENTS

Overview of Reading Development

3

Preschool Prelude to Success in Reading

4

Prereading Development of the Language Arts Five Periods of Reading Development Readiness for Reading

5

6

First Reading Experiences

9

Methods of Teaching Beginning Reading Conditions Conducive to Learning A Word to the Wise— Parent

12 19

20

Beginning Reading Practices Today

20

Teaching Word Recognition Skills

28

Teaching Word Meaning Skills

36

The Language Arts Core Class

38

Oral Reading

4

39

An Example of Reading Instruction in the Fifth Grade Reading in the Content Fields Concluding Questions

vii

50

42

40

2 59

Diversity of Reading Ability and Interest Retarded Reader Defined

59

Range of Reading Ability

60 61

Recognition of Diversity by Teachers

Reading Interests

64

High School Students’ Need for Reading Kinds of Readers in Any Class

Reading of Gifted Students

75

76 82

Others Reading below Their Potential Slow-Learning Students

93

Ways to Individualize Instruction Concluding Statement

vill

71

100

99

3 105

Essential Reading Abilities

Reading Development in High School

105

Personal Development through Reading in High School 107

Types of Reading Programs How to Begin

110

Overview of Reading Skills

111

Learning to Get Information Needed 117

Approaches to Reading Comprehension Skills Critical Reading

122 146

Application of Reading

152

Planning a Balanced Reading Program Concluding Statement

xX

112

155

154

106

a Responsibilities of the Whole School Staff Everyone Contributes

157

157

Teachers’ Opportunities and Responsibilities Understanding the Individual Student

159

162

Giving Instruction in Reading While Teaching Any Subject Providing Language Arts Experiences Forming Subgroups within a Class

174 187

Providing Sufficient Variety and Quantity of Materials of Instruction

194

Concluding Statement

198

170

5 How to Teach Reading in the Content Fields 204

Reading in English Classes

220

Reading in the Social Studies

242

Reading in the Core Curriculum Reading in Science

203

243 252

Reading in Mathematics

Reading of a Foreign Language

256

Reading in Business Education

262

Reading in Music Education

267

Reading in Home Economics

271

Reading in Industrial Arts and School Shops

Reading in Physical and Health Education

276

278

Improvement of Reading through Student Activities Concluding Statement

xi

280

280

© Special Reading Groups and Reading Clinics Individual Help Given by Teachers

The Special Reading Class

289

291

Intensive Work with Individual Cases

296

Procedures in a Summer Reading Center A Public School Reading Clinic

A University Reading Clinic Concluding Statement

Appendix

289

305

315

320

338

345

Tests, 345 Films, Slides, and Records, 347 Texts, Workbooks, Readers, Games, and Devices for Retarded Readers, 348 Book Lists for Retarded Readers and Slow Learners, 350 Series of Books for Retarded and

Reluctant Readers of High School Age, 352

and Superior Reader, 354

sonality and Social Relations, 355 tions for Spelling File, 357

Book Lists for the Average

Stories, Plays, and Books for Study of Per-

Diagnostic Spelling Test, 356

Spelling Rules, 357

Index

xii

361

Direc-

Mechanical Aids, 358.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors are indebted for help with photographs: To Dr. Frank Williams, Assistant Superintendent of Schools in Charge of Instruction, and to Don Mathews, Assistant Superintendent in Charge of Special Services, Dallas Independent School District, Dallas, Texas, for the pictures on pages 23 (top), 37, 45 (bottom), 66 (top), 79 (top), 83 (bottom), 119 (bottom),

147, 249, 268 (bottom), 275 (bottom), and 316 (center). To Dr. J. Ernest Kuehner, Director of Education, and to Dr. William Kottmeyer, Assistant Superintendent, The Board of Education of the City of St. Louis, for the pictures on pages 134 (top), 207, 289 (bottom), 297 (bottom), 303,

317 (top and bottom), 321, 325 (center and bottom), and 339. To Z. T. Fortescue, Superintendent, to Paul Hensarling, formerly Director of School-Community Relations, and to E. S. Spradley, Director of Administrative Research, Port Arthur Independent School District, Port Arthur, Texas, for the pictures on pages 31, 108 (center) 161 (bottom), 167 (bottom), 184, 196, and 215 To Harry A. Becker, Superintendent, and to Benjamin Isenberg, Director of Audio Visual Workshop, Norwalk High School, Norwalk, Connecticut, for the pictures on pages 108 (top), 119 (top), 161 (top), and 167 (top).

To Martin Innett, Student Photographer, to David Shepherd, Consultant in Reading, and to John Mack, Sponsor of Photography Club, Dobbs Ferry Junior-Senior High School, Irvington, N.Y., for the pictures on pages 83 (top). 89 (bottom), 108 (bottom), 254 (top), and 275 (top).

The authors are especially indebted to George Patton, Photographer, to the staff of the Southern Methodist University Reading Clinic, to the children enrolled in the Clinic, and to the children’s parents — all of whom gave up a holiday in order that the activities of the Clinic might be photographed — for the pictures on pages 66 (bottom), 289 (top), 297 (top), 316 (top and bottom), 317 (center), 325 (top), 330, 331 (top and bottom), and 340.

Acknowledgment is also made to the following sources for their kind permission to reproduce photographs: PAGE

PAGE

11

(top) Louise Van Der Meid (center) Eva Luoma Photo (bottom) Three Lions

23

(bottom) Eastern

41

(top) Courtesy of Illinois Education ; Belleville News-Democrat Photo (center) Denver Public Schools;

Washington

79

Col-

89

lege of Education

45

(center) Plandome Road School Library, Manhasset, N.Y.

(bottom) Chicago Public Schools (top) Royal C. Crooks Photo (center) Chicago Tribune Photo

97

(top) Ewing Galloway (bottom) A. Devaney; Corson Photo

David

W.

J. G. Bruce Photo

101

Marie Fraser, The Indiana Teacher

(bottom) Chicago Public Schools (top) Audio-Visual Aid Department,

102 131

Frederick Lewis (top) Courtesy of Stephen F. Austin

Milwaukee Board of School Direc-

State College, Nacogdoches, Texas

tors

(bottom) Monkmeyer;

(center)

The

Los

Angeles

Public

Max Tharpe

Photo

Schools

134

(bottom) Ewing Galloway

53

Associated Press Photo

153

Don Knight

54

Louise Van Der Meid

175

Monkmeyer;

xiii

Merrim Photo

PAGE 259 Commonwealth

PAGE

195 199 200 239

254

(top) Three Lions

of Pennsylvania, Department of Public Instruction

H. Armstrong Roberts 260

Monkmeyer; Hays Photo (top) Peru High School, Peru, Indiana (bottom) Lincoln Junior High School, Santa Monica, California

Commonwealth

of

Pennsylvania,

Department of Public Instruction

268 281

¥2R3 331

(bottom) Keystone View Company of N.Y.

xiv

(top) European Photo H. Armstrong Roberts Suzanne Szasz Photo

(center) American Optical Company

MAKING

BETTER

READERS



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INDEX Ability, providing for diversity of, 59-104;

Books, and reading readiness, 7; transition from words to, 28; increase in, 68; adolescents’ comments on, 70; finding information in, 117; for reading program, 197-198; science, 248-251 Brown, Spencer, 234, 248

as criterion for grouping, 189-190 Administrator, role in reading program, 157 Adolescence, diverse interests of, 64-71 Adult reading service, 338 Advertisements, study of, 145-146, 149; project in home economics, 272 Age, as factor in reading readiness, 6-7 Algebra. See Mathematics Alphabet method, 12, 17 American Adventure Series, 88 American Council on Education Psychological Examination for High School Students, 164 American Heritage Series, 88 Anthony, Camilla, 48, 333-335 Appreciation, literary, 218-220 Arithmetic, reading instruction, 43-44; see also Mathematics

Bullock, Harrison, 82-85, 86-88, 91-93, 98 Business education, reading in, 262-267

California Test of Mental Maturity, 164 Carboni, Jane A., 258

Card catalogue, learning use of, 112-114 Carlyon, Ann Carroll, Hazel Carter, Homer Center, Stella, Chase, Stuart,

Kerr, 25, 35 Horn, 34-35, 135 L. J., 244-245 128 145

Assignments, differentiated social studies, 240

Child, first reading experiences, 9-10 Choral reading, 185-186, 270 Clubs, reading in, 280 Coburn, Doris, 88 Cohen, Matilda S., 256

Audio-visual aids, for beginners, 10; for

Comics, popularity and criticism of, 168—

retarded readers, 90; in language arts activities, 186-187;

169

in foreign language,

Comprehension, as reading for meaning, 122; example of instruction in, 123-

teaching, 261 Auditory discrimination, 24-28 A V R Rateometer, 141

instruction

_ 125;

in

paragraph,

writing,

132-133;

128-132;

through

125-128;

study of

study of outlining,

word

study,

139; through skimming, 139-140;

Basic skills, in high school reading, 111112, 122-146 Basic Word Cards, 96 Bender-Gestalt Visual Motor Test, 165

133me-

chanical devices to aid, 140-144; semantics an aid to, 144-146 Consonants, learning, 17-18; phonetic instruction, 24-28, 32 Content fields, reading in, 42-50, 203-285 Context, word recognition through, 30; word meaning through, 36, 133-135 Controlled Reader, 142-143 Conversation, instruction through, 160 Cooperative Reading Test, 205 Core curriculum, reading in, 242-243 Coronet Films, 208-209, 212, 214

Better Reading Books (Simpson), 189 Betts, E. A., 56

Binet Intelligence Test, Terman-Merrill Revision, 19 Bissex, Henry S., 126-127 Book fairs, 167-168

Bookkeeping, 266 Book reports, 153

361

362

INDEX

Counselor, role in reading program, 158 Creative reading, of literature, 218-220

Films,

117;

186-187,

212;

on library usage,

to improve reading speed, 142;

Critical reading, development of, 146-152

in special English classes, 208-209;

Cross references, learning to use, 115

literature instruction, 214-215; language, 261

Current Biography, 235 Dale, Edgar, 50-51 D’Amico, Louis A., 198 Delinquency, and reading failure, 106; and comics, 169 Development, of individual, sought in

high school, 105-107 Dewey Decimal Classification, 112 Diagnostic procedures. See Testing Diagnostic Reading Tests, 144, 206, 293

First Book Series, 88 First grade, reading procedures, 20-24 Flashmeter, 142, 319

Foreign language, reading in, 256-262 Free reading, in high school reading program, 100

Gainsberg, Joseph C., 218

Games, listening, 7; language arts, 177182

Dictionary, word study in, 34-35, 38 Discussion, instruction through, 170-172; of free reading, 183 Documentary approach, to social studies,

Gates Diagnostic Reading Test, 326

234-235 Dolch, E. W., 29, 96

80; reading difficulty among, 81-82 Graves, Frank Pierrepont, 106

Dougherty, Hettie, 49

Gray, William S., 24

Drama, reading, 212-213 Dramatization, as instruction 176-177, 183-185

technique,

Elementary school. See Intermediate grades and Primary grades Encyclopedia, finding information in, 114— 116 English as a Second Language Readers, 88 English class, procedures, 204-220; for retarded readers, 208-210 English Practice Exercises, 96

English teacher, role in reading program, 157-158

in

foreign

Gifted students, interests of, 70-71;

need

for early identification of, 76-77; group projects for, 78-80; suggestions from,

Grouping, according to reading level, 99; according to reading needs, 188-189; according to interests, 190; for work on projects, 190-191; friendship, 191-192; principles of, 193; in special classes,

295 Group tests, versus single IQ, 164

Guidance, and reading program, 47-50, 107, 158

Harvard Films for the Improvement

of

Reading, 142

Health education, reading in, 279-280 Hearing, attention to defects, 163

Erath, Douglas J., 255

Heavey, Regina, 138

Essays, reading instruction, 214 Excursions. See Trips Eye examination, 163

Heavy Is a Hippopotamus (Schlein), 88, 90 High School and College Reading Center, Teachers College, procedures, 305-315 High School Reading Training Films (Iowa), 142 Hinds, Lillian, 21-24, 234-235 History. See Social studies Hogan, Thomas F., 146 Holman, St. Clair, 238

Fact, versus opinion, 148-149 Failure, implications of reading, 106; see also Retarded readers Fattu, Nicholas A., 198 Fenner, Amy Dahlgren, 71-72 Ferguson, Martha, 136 Fernald, Grace, 15, 319 Figures of speech, study of, 148, 216

Film-Story Books, 88

Home economics, reading in, 271-276 House-Tree-Person drawings, 165 Housman, A. E., 107

‘How Effective Is Your Reading?” 140

INDEX How High Is Big? (Schneider), 90 How to Read Novels (film), 214 Humphreville, Frances, 186

Kinesthetic method, 15-16, 319

If I Were Going (O’Donnell), 235 Individual, aids to teacher’s understanding of, 162-170; intensive work with, 296-305

Landmark Books, 70 Language. See Foreign language

Kirk, Samuel and Winifred, 14

Kottmeyer Interest Inventory, 327-328

Individual differences, in reading ability, 60-61;

in critical reading, 152; teacher

recognition of, 159-160; grouping for, 187-194 Individualization, of instruction in small high school, 210-211 Industrial arts, reading in, 276-278 Information, learning to find, 112-117,

237-238

Language arts activities, 174-187;

choral reading, 185-186;

Learning Methods Test, 19

336-337 Institute of International

Leisure reading, 248-251

Af-

fairs, 261 Instruction, reading, individualization of,

160;

progression

ences, 160; 174, 204ff.;

172;

of reading experi-

in content subjects, through discussion,

in English

class,

170170-

204-220;

in

special English class, 208-210; individualizing in smail high school, 210— 211;

in social studies, 221-222

Intelligence tests, use and interpretation of, 163-165; see also Testing

audio-visual

aids in, 186-187 Larrick, Nancy, 68 Lawrence, A. J., 263

In-service education of teachers, 107, 320,

American

pre-

school, 4-5; core class, 38-39; initiated by students, 174-176; sociodrama, 176177; trips, 176; games, 177-182; newspaper reading, 177; spelling drill, 182— 183; discussion of free reading, 183; dramatization, 184-185; songs and

277-278;

in science,

Librarian, role in reading program, 158; responsibility for instruction materials, 197 Library, learning use of, 112-114

Listening, games, 7; experiences in, 8-9; critical, 149 Literature, sectioning English classes in,

205-206; special English class in, 208— 210; reading different forms of, 211216;

vocabulary

difficulties

in, 216;

procedures, 216-220 Little Golden Books, 68

Inter-American Magazine, 261

Interests, providing for diversity of, 59104; as basis for grouping, 190 Intermediate grades, reading experiences and interests of, 6ff.; word recognition

Mallinson, G. G., 247

Maney, Ethel, 25-28 Maps, reading of, 221

skill in, 28-35; example of reading instruction in, 40-42; reading in content fields in, 42-50; guidance in recre-

Marryat, Frederick, 12 Massachusetts Vision Test, 163 “Massacre and a Monster, A,” 123

ational reading in, 47-50;

reading for

Materials, need for interesting, 42, 107, 194-198; for retarded readers, 88-90;

Advanced

for slow-learning students, 96-98; read-

gifted children in, 77-78

Iowa

Silent

Reading

Test,

Form, 144

Johnson, Wendell, 148

Junior high school.

See High school

Kay, Sylvia C., 150

Keystone Telebinocular, 324 Keystone Test of Visual Efficiency, 163

ing rate for different, 117-121; mechanical, 140-144; related to students’ experience, 172-173; simplified, 220;

foreign language, 261;

see also Pro-

cedures Mathematics, reading in, 252-256

Meaning,

teaching, 36-38;

sion through, 133-139;

comprehen-

contribution of

363

364 INDEX Meaning (cont.) semantics, 144-145; study of distortions in, 145-146; see also Comprehen-

sion and Word study Mechanical devices, use of, 140-144; special classes, 295

in

Mental ability, interpreting tests for, 163165; see also Testing Methods, teaching, 12-19; alphabet, 12, 17; phonic, 12-15, 17-18; kinesthetic, 15-16; sentence-story, 15, 16; word-

phrase, 15, 16-17; used in combination, 16-18; to fit individual, 18-19; recalled by gifted students, 78; see also Procedures Modern Literature, 238 Monroe, Marion, 8 Morse, Gladys D., 264 Motivation, in reading readiness, 7; in first reading experience, 10; of retarded

readers, 91-93; through application of ideas from reading, 152-154; through social studies projects, 238-240 Music, reading in, 267-271 My Reading Design, 71-73, 154, 168

My Weekly Reader, 197, 295 My Word Book; Standard Test Lessons in Reading, 96

National Society for the Study of Education, 5-6 Needs, for variety of reading experiences,

55-56; in high school reading program, 72-82; as criterion for grouping, 188189; in reading social studies, 221

Newspapers,

developing critical reading

of, 149, 233-234;

Non-readers.

projects, 177, 238

See Retarded readers

Novel, reading instruction in, 212 Opinion, versus fact, 148-149 Oral reading, 29-40; first-grade, 20-24 Orth-Rator, 163 Outlining, as aid to comprehension, 132133

Penty, Ruth C., 61, 75

Perceptascope, 143 Personality development, school reading, 106-107

through

high

Peterson, Eleanor, 233 Phelps, Margaret E., 208 Phonetics, defined, 12; as clew to word recognition, 32-34 Phonics, defined, 12; method, 12-15, 17-18; and comprehension, 13-14;

and spelling, 15; first-grade instruction in, 20-24;

teaching auditory and visual

discrimination through, 24-28;

word

recognition through, 32-34; games, 178-179 Phonics We Use, 96 Physical defects, as handicap to reading, 5, 163 Physical education, reading in, 278-279 Picture Reading Game, 96 Picture Word Cards, 96

Poetry, reading instruction in, 213 Preschool, preparation for reading, 4-5 Primary grades, reading experiences, 6ff.; teaching methods, 12-19;

sample read-

ing instruction, 20-24; developing word recognition in, 28-35; language arts core class, 38-39 Problems in the Improvement of Reading,

244 Problems, mathematics, reading skills required, 43-44, 253-256

Procedures, for slow learners, 95; in social studies, 233-242; in science, 247-248; in home economics, 272-273; in special class, 291-296; in individual case work, 296-305; in summer reading center, 305-315; in public school clinic, 315-321; in university clinic, 320338 Programs, high school reading, 107-110; how to begin, 110-111 Projective Composition, 166

Projects, in high school reading instruc-

study in busi-

tion, 99; student-initiated, 174-176; grouping for, 190-191; in social studies,

Parents, contribution to reading readiness, 7-8; warned against overemphasis on

Propaganda, learning devices of, 150-151

Paragraphs, games, 181; ness education, 265

phonics, 20

238-240

Pupil-teacher relation, in reading development, 19-20

INDEX Quinn, Thomas J., 85, 96, 98, 165 Radio, activities,

186, 238;

science pro-

grams, 251 Rates,

reading,

for

different

materials,

117-121 Reader’s Digest, 138 Reader's Digest Skill Builders, 84, 88 Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature,

112 See Reading readiness

Reading, as lifelong process, 3-4;

pre-

school preparation for, 4-5; oral, 3940; defined, 50-51; approaches to,

117-121;

responsibility of school staff

for, 157-202; in content fields, 203-285 Reading clinic, summer, 305-315; public school, 315-320; university, 320-338

Reading

school program needed for, 74-75, 109; among gifted students, 80-82; discovering proficiency of, 82-85; need for understanding, 85-88; suitable materials for, 88-90; need for skillful teacher,

91-93; discussion technique with, 170—

Readers, kinds of, 75-76

Readiness to read.

Remedial reading, a misleading term, 93; versus special English class, 208; see also Retarded readers Rennolds, Jean, 90 Retarded readers, defined, 59-60; high

comprehension:

Cooperative

172; special English class for, 208-210;

science books for, 248, 251; individual work with, 289-291, 296-305; special

groups and clinics, 289-342;

initial in-

terview, 291-292 Rhyme, exercises in, 26-27 Robinson, Helen M., 65 Rorschach test, 164 Russvold, Margaret I., 117

English Test, 200

Reading

development,

in high schools,

71-75, 105-106

procedures, 315-321

Reading-Ease Calculator, 276

Reading Expectancy Chart, 165 Reading Improvement Skill Test (Johnson), 189 Reading instruction, fifth-grade, 40-42;

42-50,

203-285;

school, 99-100;

first-grade, 20-24; in content fields,

individualizing

St. Louis Public School Journal, 315 St. Louis Public Schools Reading Clinic,

high

in special classes and

clinics, 289-342

School

nurse,

role in reading program,

158; visual tests by, 163 Science fiction, 250 Science, reading instruction in, 44-46, 74, 243-251; difficulty of textbooks in, 247;

leisure reading in, 248-251 Scrabble, 138 Secondary school.

See High school

Reading lists, social studies, 240-241 Reading methods. See Methods

Semantics, and comprehension, 144-146

Reading Pacer, 141 Reading programs,

Shadowscope Reading Pacer, 141 types of, 107-110;

initiating, 110-111 Reading Rate Controller, 141 Reading readiness, factors in, 6-7; parents’ help in, 7-8; role of teacher in, 8-9

Reading specialist, in reading program, 158; in special class, 291-296; intensive individual work, 296-305 Recipe, reading, 273-274

Recordings, in reading program, 186; in literature class, 214-215

Recreational reading, guidance in, 47-50, 277-278;

in science, 248-251

References, finding and using, 113-117 Reflective reading, 118, 120

Sentence-story method, 15, 16 Shepherd, David, 221, 235-237, 240

Shops.

See Industrial arts

Short story, reading, 211-212 Sight reading, of music, 267-269 Sight vocabulary, 10, 18 Silent reading, first-grade, 20-24 Sizemore, Robert A., 169 Skimming, 118, 120; instruction in, 139-

140; in preparation for independent study, 174 Slow-learning students, needs of, 93-94; role of teacher with, 94-95; effective procedures for, 95-99; see also Retarded readers Snellen Chart Test, 163

365

366 INDEX Social studies, reading in, 46-47, 71, 221242; skills, 221-222; testing, 222-233;

procedures, 233-242

186;

and

reading,

67-68;

science programs, 251

Sociodrama, 176-177 Songs, 185-186, 270

Southern Methodist University Reading Clinic, 320-338 Special classes, for retarded readers, 208210, 291-296 Specialist, in high school reading program, 107, 110-111 Speech, preschool development in, 5 Speed, reading, 118, 120; vices to aid, 140-144

Teen-Age Tales, 162, 183 Television,

mechanical de-

Spelling, relation to phonic instruction, 15; drill, 182-183; procedures, 217; improvement in, 263-264

216-

Spelling Today, 96 Spinelli, Emily, 238 SRA Primary Mental Abilities, 164 SRA Reading Accelerator, 141

Terman, Lewis, 76 Terman-Merrill Revision, Binet Intelligence Test, 19 Testing, to determine correct reading methods, 18-19; reading ability, 6064, 165-166; retarded readers, 82-85,

293-294;

mechanical devices for, 140-

144; critical reading, 150; interpreting intelligence, 163-165; value to subject teacher, 206; informal social studies, 222-233; in public school clinic, 316-

319

Thematic Apperception Tests, 164 Thinking, and critical reading, 148

Thorndike, E. L., 50 Timex, 142, 319 Trips, value of, 160;

as background for

reading, 176

Standless, Lloyd S., 198

Stanford Revision of the Binet Intelligence Test, 164

Stanford Spellers, 182 Stories, writing and reading child’s own, 9-10;

reading short, 211-212

Structural analysis, word meaning through, 30, 32, 36-38, 135 Study reading, 118, 120 Subgrouping, criteria for, 187-194; see also Grouping Subject-matter, reading in, 203-285; see also Content fields

Vision, observing and testing, 163 Visual discrimination, 28 Vocabulary, of preschool child, 5; basic to beginning reading, 8; special study in, 135-139, 216-218; development in content subjects, 173; games, 179;

difficulties in study of literature, 216; in social studies, 236; technical, 245246; foreign language, 257; in business education, 263-265; in home economics, 272; in industrial arts, 276 Vowels, phonetic instruction in, 32-34

Summer reading center, procedures, 305-

315 Syllabication, teaching, 35-36

Tachistoscope, 142 Tale of Two Cities, A (Dickens), project,

209 Tape recorder, use in reading program, 187 Teacher,

guidance

in reading

readiness,

8-9; relationship with beginning pupil, 19-20; opportunities and responsibilities in reading program, 159-162; aids to understanding students, 162-170; role with groups, 192-194; relationship with individual reader, 289-291

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 164 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 19, 164 What’s in a Line? (Kessler), 90 What’s Inside ? (Garelick), 90 Withrow, Dorothy, 166, 182, 208 Witty, Paul A., 117, 169 _ Word Bingo, 179

Word meaning, teaching, 36-38; through context, 133-135; through structural

analysis, 135; through study of origins, 135-136

Word-phrase method, 15, 16-17 Word recognition, sight vocabulary, 10; alphabet method, 12, 17; phonic

INDEX method, 12-15, 17-18; sentence-story method, 15, 16; kinesthetic method, 15-16; word-phrase method, 15, 1617; developing skill in, 28-35; syllab-

ication,

35-36; and reading, 51-52; and meaning in high school reading, 112

Word study, interest of gifted students in, 77-18; comprehension through, 123124, 133-139; in content subjects, 173;

games, 178-179; procedures, 217-218; in social studies, 236; in science, 245246; in business education, 263-265; in industrial arts, 276 World Almanac, 112 Writing, reading child’s own, 9-10; com-

prehension through study of, 128-132

Young, Nancy, 25, 248

Young Scott Books, 88

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