Holy Grail of Writing? [1]

This book is for and about amazing you. It contains three main parts beyond this section. The next, ‘Creatives’ and ‘Con

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Table of contents :
Prologue p. 1
Premise p. 2
Purposes p. 9
Part I p. 12
Playbook p. 13
Part II p. 18
Creatives p. 19
Control p. 26
Part III p. 35
Grail p. 36
Grails p. 39
Part IV p. 45
Genres p. 46
Rants (48), Recognitions (50), Recollections (54), Records (55), Regulations (57), Releases
(59), Religious (61), Reports (63), Reporters (65), Research (67), Résumés (69), Reviews
(72), Rhymes (75), Roles (77), Romances (79), Rubrics (81), Recitals (83).
Part V p. 90
Spelling p. 92
Scripts p. 101
Styles p. 105
Solo p. 111
Champions p. 115
Circulation p. 118
Part VI p. 126
Conclusion p. 127
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Citation preview

HOLY GRAIL OF WRITING

J Jericho

The Free School Press © J. Jericho. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

This publication is registered as copyright at the Copyright office, United States of America. Subject to legislative exceptions and provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part of this book may take place without the written permission of the copyright owner or his delegated agents.

US Copyright Office Case #: 1-9108493971 Copyright is waived for bona fide student use. Colleges and institutions must negotiate commercial copyright use with the author.

Publishers’ exposure draft edition: November 2020.

Holy Grail of Writing?/J. Jericho ISBN-13 Forthcoming

The copyright owners, publishers and distributors bear no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URL addresses for external or third-party internet websites cited in this publication. They do not guarantee that any content on such websites is or shall remain accurate or relevant to this book’s objective, content, and promotion.

This book’s web references are updated twice per year at www.penpro.org Inquiries and feedback: [email protected]

Cover sketch image by Efengai, c/- Deposit Photos. Cover page question mark image c/- Microsoft Images © CC BY-NC Other images are royalty free sourced from pickpik.com

For Micah

ii

Acronyms AAP

Australian Associated Press

AARP

American Association of Retired Persons

ASEAN

Association of Southeast Asian Nations

BBC

British Broadcasting Corporation

CARES Act

Coronavirus Aid Relief Economic Security Act (2020)

COVID19

Coronavirus Disease 2019

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

EdD

Doctor of Education

MD

Doctor of Medicine

MB BCh

Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of Surgery

NAFTA

North American Free Trade Agreement

PhD

Doctor of Philosophy

US

United States

Appendices

Publishers

p. 133

ISBN

p. 147

Author

p. 149

Forthcoming

p. 150

Book review

p. 151

Glossary

p. 153

Index

p. 154 iii

p.

1

Premise

p.

2

Purposes

p.

9

Prologue

p. 12

Part I Playbook

p. 13 p. 18

Part II Creatives

p. 19

Control

p. 26 p. 35

Part III Grail

p. 36

Grails

p. 39 p. 45

Part IV Genres

p. 46

Rants (48), Recognitions (50), Recollections (54), Records (55), Regulations (57), Releases (59), Religious (61), Reports (63), Reporters (65), Research (67), Résumés (69), Reviews (72), Rhymes (75), Roles (77), Romances (79), Rubrics (81), Recitals (83). p. 90

Part V Spelling

p. 92

Scripts

p. 101

Styles

p. 105

Solo

p. 111

Champions

p. 115

Circulation

p. 118 p. 126

Part VI Conclusion

p. 127 iv

Prologue

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

PROLOGUE

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PREMISE The first thing that I ask my understudies at our initial meeting is this – What exactly do you want to get from your writing? For most, this simple question is too difficult. LUKE APPLEBEE Pseudonym Bestselling fiction novelist

KEY TERMS

Bestsellers, ethics, fiction, freelance, ghostwriter, inspiration, manuscript, novelists, paper print format, publishing, social media, writing objectives.

Prologue

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

Premise

Every once in a blue moon, we may be lucky to engage a person who shares a simple, memorable idea that guides us positively for life. A June afternoon in Sydney, Australia 2008 is a stellar exemplar of such rare encounters. “Got the day off from work today have ya?” I said to our building’s newest resident with a warm smile in the underground garbage depot. It was the first time that we had crossed paths within speaking distance since he moved in a few weeks prior. I rarely accost unknown people for casual banter nowadays. Maybe it’s me, but I often receive a subtle frown, silence, a stony-faced vague reply, or a combination thereof. “Nah, buddy” the stranger replied with a more generous grin. “I work-from-home and write bestsellers” he said. It was refreshing to receive a positive energy reply, even a showoff one like this. I could tell from his instant mega smile that this neighbor is a people lover – an extrovert. Mister mid-40s in flannelette pajamas proudly produced a check out of his shabby once white bathrobe pocket and flashed it before my face. “I just got this $25,000 advance today from my publisher for my next bestseller” he boasted shamelessly. A modest man I thought. I intuitively liked him less than I did five seconds prior. “Cool” I replied. “What sort of books do you write?” I asked as we walked in synch towards the elevator. “Detective crime stories and that sorta stuff” he said. “I admire fiction book writers” I replied earnestly as we entered the elevator. Must be a lot harder than just writing short academic articles like I do” I said. “Academic hey”, he said, eyebrows raised as he made intimate eye-to-eye contact for the first time. “I’m studying English Lit at Sydney and would love to pick your brains for ideas sometime soon” he said. “Yeh, let’s meet up over drinks and swap notes” I said. “Definitely. How about the Bank Bar?” he answered. “Great choice” I said as my neighbor fumbled his keys in apartment 501’s keyhole. “How about today after lunch at 3?” he asked. “Sure, see you in the garden bar at three” I said as I walked towards my door, 506.

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Bestsellers my ass, I thought as I Googled his name within moments of entering my loft. My 34 years on Earth had taught me a long list of handy near-universal life lessons. The biggest boasters are usually lying losers was one of those philosophies. The new Dymo label on his mailbox reads ‘L. Applebee’. It just occurred to me that we had not exchanged names and I didn’t memorize the payee name on the check. That might not help. I recalled that it seemed to be payable to his private company. My natural researcher instincts kicked in. I Googled “L Applebee fiction novel bestseller crime detective thrillers” and tried my luck. Applebee is a somewhat uncommon surname. There’s a half chance he will come up with this search string if he’s legit, I thought. To my cynical surprise, Luke Applebee was a best-selling crime fiction writer. An extract of his 2007 novel was available on Google Scholar. A second listed Google response for my seasoned pro inquiry. Damn I’m getting too good at this Google query stuff I smugly joked with myself – yet again. I clicked the link, half expecting to find no proof that the author of Cincinnati Clown Killer was the curly haired ginger dude from 501. Wrong again. His memorable freckly face showcased clear as day on the inside cover. Smiley as a comic. Bantam Books Publishing. Not bad, buddy I thought as I proceeded to read the opening chapter online. Not exactly my cup of tea for this great genre, my favorite, I surmised. A bit forced and formulaic. Having read and loved everything penned by the late Jack Higgins and all fiction book covers that credit ‘Jeffrey Archer’ as author had probably set this amateur critic’s benchmark a bit on the high side – to put it mildly. For sure, it’s better than any fiction novel that I could probably ever write I thought as I polished off the all-important teaser chapter. Our three o’clock catchup over beverages was keenly anticipated. I would later learn that Cincinnati was the only book that this neighbor received credit for writing. Nonetheless, I was mighty impressed. To this day I believe his immodest use of the plural noun bestsellers in our basement by the dumpster.

Prologue

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

Proudly clock conscious me arrived at the Bank Bar, a block from home, at 2:55. A little early, just in case I got distracted along the way and had to make up lost time. Habitual punctuality is paramount. Respecting other people’s time says a lot about character. I like this Applebee dude I thought as I saw his ginger locks bounce up the stairs, wearing his semi-permanent sunshine face, arriving at 3:02. We’re off to a good start. As I found out that afternoon, Luke was married with two kids. His family lived around the corner. He rented the studio, 501, as his office with a mattress on the floor. I frequently forget how naïve I am with so many common knowledge topics that my friends take for granted. I gave myself away when I asked Luke “What’s a ghostwriter?” the moment after he described his writing career this way. “It means that I get paid to write books and others get the credit on the cover” Luke said. “That sounds like fraud”, I replied without pause, shooting from the hip. “Well, not really” Luke argued, showing no signs of being offended. He explained that ghostwriting is the industry norm, especially at the big end of town.

Like reunited best buddies, we chatted for two hours. Six empty Budweiser cans and no awkward silences were suggestive of good friendship chemistry potential. “And most wannabe authors don’t know exactly what they want to achieve from their writing” Luke casually added to our chat an hour after we hooked up. Bingo!

“I also freelance as a consultant for publishers and wealthy individuals who fancy themselves as future novelists” Luke said. He explained that most corporations assume that his workshops will automatically improve their workers’ writing skills. “Does it pay good?”, I asked enthusiastically to show that I was a keen audience. “It does, but I rarely do it nowadays and try to avoid it” Luke said. “Why’s that?” I asked. Luke explained that most people he tutors can’t answer the elementary question that he feels must be answered at the start of the initial meeting to progress further. “The first thing that I ask my understudies at our initial meeting is this – What exactly do you want to get from your writing?” Luke said.

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“I tell them that I will come back when they can answer that question in a sentence or two, and they can bill me from that point” Luke said. He claimed that most of these clients never contacted him again after the fruitless inaugural meeting. “Really?” I responded enthusiastically like a prodigy, sponging from the master. “Sure” Luke said. “For most, this simple question is too difficult.” “That seems crazy” I replied incredulously.

Luke informed me that he knew exactly what he wanted from his writing and that’s why he succeeds according to his own standards. “I just want two things from my writing career” Luke said. The primary thing that he wanted was to earn a decent living so that he could support his wife and kids. The second outcome he desired was to work from his studio office, in his pajamas, out of the way from office gossip, petty office politics and incessant distractions. “And you’re getting this right now?” I asked. “Absolutely” Luke said.

As intrigued as a cat with a bowl of wool, I rattled off a barrage of overlapping monothemed questions. I received near-identical responses every time, sometimes verbatim. “How would you feel if some imposter won the Nobel Prize for Literature for your work?” I queried. I was sure I would score a knockout punch with that one. “So long as I got paid for the work, I don’t give a crap” Luke replied poker pout style. “What if a phony author earned a bigger fortune than you get paid for writing their books, based on the celebrity status they gained from your books?” I asked. “So long as I got paid well for writing them, I’m happy” Luke said.

I sensed that Luke was gloating internally from the self-reinforcement gained from this line of interrogation. His expressionless face and auto-parrot retorts mirrored more confidence and self-reassurance than his trademark puppy-face grins. “That’s deceptive and unethical” I said in defeat. I was sure that I wouldn’t offend Luke with my mildly irate sincerity as we were getting on famously.

Prologue

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

Pushing the issue of ghostwriting ethics to the side, Luke’s simple message about clearly identifying our writing objectives deeply inspired this author since we met over beers twelve years ago. This mono-focused principle fiercely energizes this writer to sustain his momentum after he publishes each new modest manuscript.

Half of my open-access writings attract just a handful of shares and likes on Twitter and Facebook. Sometimes this observation makes me feel downbeat for a few seconds at most. Whenever this happens, I instantly think of Luke’s wisdom.

I do not write and share this content to receive validation from social media cyborgs. Traditional paper print format is the market that I am working towards. There is no desperate sense of urgency to realize this objective. I am patiently building a brand that cares little for Facebook, Twitter, and the likes, and their meaningless thumbs up stats.

May this book likewise provide you with a source of inspiration to soldier on through the many trials and tribulations that we face in the world of authorship excellence.

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END OF SECTION ACTIVITIES

1.

How many words do you count in this verbatim quotation from this chapter?

The primary thing that he wanted was to earn a decent living so that he could support his wife and kids. The second outcome he desired was to work from his studio office, in his pajamas, out of the way from office gossip, petty office politics and incessant distractions. (p. 6)

2.

What objective/s, if any, do you currently aim to achieve from your writing?

Write these goals down. Date your notes and store them in a safe place such as your diary. You may scribe these in any format such as sentences or bullet points.

To sharpen your focus, try to limit your notes to 150 words or less.

You may review these ideas as you progress through this book and thereafter.

Further reading

Dawn, H. (2019), Using dreams for inspiration to write, www.authormagazine.org/articles/2019-04-dawn

Kruse, K. (2015), 365 best inspirational quotes, California: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, www.e4thai.com/e4e/images/pdf2/365bestinspirationalquotes.pdf

Prologue

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

PURPOSES

Efforts and courage are not enough without purpose and direction. JOHN FITZGERALD KENNEDY

KEY TERMS

Arch career objective, career purposes, description, exposition, narrative, persuasion, purposes.

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Most texts pursue one of four purposes. These are: narrative, description, persuasion, end exposition. These general categories are not always mutually exclusive in writing contexts. These objectives are taught in elementary Creative Writing 101 type courses.

I urge readers to not confuse the authorship goals of professionals such as Luke Applebee with the objectives that a writer may pursue from each composition. These objectives may align partially, always, or never. In most cases, these objectives are not identical.

Most career writers create a body of text for specific purposes. Text includes work such as novels and poems. Career purposes include factors such as earning income and building a brand that opens doors in other fields such as teaching and consulting.

A Welsh-speaking religious minister may write a series of high-quality free handbooks about Welsh grammar during their leisure time. Their writing career objective and the pursuit of each handbook is expository. Their sole objective aims to preserve the Welsh language. Their writing career and books exclusively pursue instructional goals.

Many career fiction novelists pursue renumeration that pays them a living wage or higher as their primary or sole objective. Their adapted fiction works pursue narrative writing as a tool to arouse their readers’ imaginations. Their art creates a commercial market.

Prologue

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

END OF SECTION ACTIVITIES

Prepare a written answer of at least 100 words for each question.

1.

Discuss a theoretical or real-life example where an author’s arch career objective mostly or exclusively overlaps with the core purpose of their writing portfolio.

2.

Discuss a theoretical or real-life example where an author’s arch career objective contains zero to negligible overlap with the core purpose of their writing portfolio.

3.

Discuss a real-life example where a textual composition pursues multiple objectives, i.e., two or more of: narrative, description, persuasion, end exposition.

Are these objectives intertwined, separately identifiable in distinct parts of the written composition, or a combination of these two? Identify these parts.

Further reading

Bazerman, C. (2010), Analyzing the author’s purpose and technique (Chapter 7), https://writing.colostate.edu/textbooks/informedwriter/ Radcliffe, B. (2012), ‘Narrative as a springboard for expository and persuasive writing: James Moffett revisited’, Voices from the Middle, 19(3), pp. 18–24. https://secure.ncte.org/library/NCTEFiles/Resources/Journals/VM/0193mar2012/VM0193Narrative.pdf

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PART I

Part I

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

PLAYBOOK We don’t see things as they are, we see them as we are. ANAIS NIN

KEY TERMS

Control, core goal, core goals, creatives, grail, grails, holy grail, writers’ workshops, writing genres.

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This book is for and about amazing you. It contains three main parts beyond this section. The next, ‘Creatives’ and ‘Control’ explores each notion separately. Part three examines the all-important G-forces: Grail and Grails. Discussions in this chapter underpin the thematic title and core pursuit of this book – aiding writers to identify and tightly define the core goal or goals that they desire to realize from their textual quests and conquests.

Part four explores 17 popular writing genres and provides an original example of each. Four of these illustrations are first-time attempts by this writer to compose a script in a foreign discipline that is outside his comfort zone and areas of interest. May these modest, raw offerings embolden you to likewise experiment at becoming a complete writer.

The penultimate chapter, Part five, explores six topics that may aid writers to answer the holy grail writer’s question, as defined by this author. These topics in order are: Spelling, scripts, styles, solo writing, champions (i.e., role models) and circulation.

This book does not aim to teach readers how to develop most technical skills required of competent writers. Open-access and commercial literature available on these topics are mature. Engaging these topics are best served by a medley of resources such as handbooks, video presentations, college curricula and years of dedicated writing practice.

Part I

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

The concluding part of most sections and each chapter is titled ‘Further reading’. These parts offer one or two open-access resources that explore material discussed in that section/chapter in further detail. The principal pursuit of this book aims to help you to identify the core goal/s that may motivate you to be the best writer possible in your chosen fields. There is a dearth of literature that unravels this all-important journey.

This book is suitable for informal educational settings and structured teaching environments. It may support writers of all skill levels who thrive from learning solo, in groups or a mixture thereof. It may also guide Creative Writing Professors who teach applied education courses at all levels – from certificate to Graduate-level coursework.

The exercises at the end of each section seek to reinforce this text’s applied writing focus. This book is about abandoning handicaps that hold writers back such as fear and procrastination. ‘But I just need to learn a little more theory before I start writing’ may fall into this realm. Many elite writers are self-taught prodigies who put pen to paper.

I urge readers to collate a portfolio of writing that is partially derived from this text’s discussions and end of section/chapter exercises. This material may offer you a vehicle to reflect on your progress over the years and showcase your terrific talents to others.

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Chapter case study

Gotham Writer’s Workshop is a famous creative writing school based in New York City. Gotham is an example of a hands-on scholastic institution that offers practical, short courses taught exclusively by industry insiders who possess publications portfolios.

Budding writers may accelerate their skills economically by engaging such applied short courses. In-depth diploma conferring courses usually take a year or longer to complete.

The advertisement above lists genres that typically require a visible degree of original creativity from writers. The topic ‘creatives’ is the central theme of the next chapter.

Part I

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

END OF CHAPTER ACTIVITIES

1.

Many writing coaches claim that authors tend to produce their best work when they write about topics that they know the most about. To what extent do you agree with this statement? Provide a written answer of circa 200-500 words. Cite evidence to defend your opinion.

2.

What writer workshops are offered in proximity to where you live/work? How did you locate these facilities? Does your public library offer such courses?

Reference

Time Out (2011), Write of spring (Gotham writers’ workshop), www.timeout.com/newyork/things-to-do/write-of-spring

Further reading

Magalas, L., & Ryan, T. (2016), ‘A new rendition of an old classic: The young writers [sic] program as a writing workshop’, International Journal of Progressive Education, 12(2), pp. 7–22.

https://ijpe.penpublishing.net/files/2/manuscript/manuscript_1/ijpe-1-

manuscript-224339.pdf

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PART II

Part II

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

CREATIVES Creativity takes courage. HENRY MATISSE

KEY TERMS

Aesthetic, applied art, art, artistic creativity, creative, creative writing, creativity, fine art, high art, hobby, objective, originality, professions, signature-style, subjective.

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I

“ ’m a writer”. Have you met a person who introduced themself this way?

Most of us probably have. Who is a writer? Who isn’t a writer? This chapter argues that this is a fiercely contested question set. The notion of creativity is central to this enigma.

Many of us may automatically conjure up idyllic images of popular commercial novelists and syndicated columnists when we meet a person who introduces themself with these sexy words – “I’m a writer”. This description arguably conveys positive connotations. These may include notions such as creative, original, clever, and desirable. We can only sustain a living as a writer if we have an audience that engages our material.

Please take a moment to read the paragraph above again. It is probably not a controversial piece of text for most readers. What assumptions do you see in this short paragraph? Adjectives may be the best guide to answer such questions. These may include:



Idyllic

● Creative

● Clever

● Engaging



Sexy

● Original

● Desirable

● Positivity

These bullet points are merely a suggested starting point. They may aid you to further develop your understanding of who and what is creative. Please expand, abbreviate, and weight this offering as you see fit. This book is all about fabulous you.

Part II

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

For most, ‘originality’ is a, or the core benchmark used to assess whether a piece of work is creative. If I merely transcribe a printed version of a Shakespearean Sonnet onto a piece of paper, I have achieved zero literary originality. I may achieve a degree of visual art originality if I do so by using a type of calligraphy that is signature-style.

The realization of creative originality merely means that a person has constructed something new that can be detected by at least one of the five senses. This may include a fragrance (smell), poem (sight), fabric texture (touch), recipe (taste) and song (sound).

Fiction books, screenplays, theatre scripts and poetry are classic examples of creative writing. Some argue that people who author original technical manuals are not creative writers. They may display evidence of skilled authorship, but they are not creative writers, i.e. they are not artists. Please freely form your own opinion on this contested standpoint.

Art

In the minds of some, the notion of ‘artistic creativity’ is an extension of ‘creativity’. Devising an original diet is a science. It is not art per se. ‘Art’, by definition, is aesthetic. It is visually pleasing to some people. It is a subjective concept. Objective is the opposite of subjective. The famous formula E=MC2 is an example of an objective formula. It is factual, universal, and informative. Most who cite this formula do not seek to arouse audiences.

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The classification of any matter as ‘art’ is subjective. Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968) is credited as the inventor of Readymade Art. His public display of a porcelain urinal in 1917 supposedly belongs to this category. This category of installation art may illustrate the ways in which millions of mundane human-made objects portray subtle beauty by design, due to factors such as their unique shape, universal symmetry, and texture.

It is generally accepted that most original literature falls within the realm of art. Shakespeare’s signature-style enriching prose is widely classified as art.

Sometimes there is scope for authors to pursue colorful creative writing ventures in fields not associated with the arts. Finance commentators such as Gerald Celente use satire and parody to convey key matters of fact. Savvy audiences may root out such content and take it seriously. Such styles mostly exist on the fringe in business-oriented professions.

A popular art classification is the distinction between fine art and applied (i.e. decorative) art. The prime/core goal of fine art seeks to display aesthetic beauty. The latter cited classification serves a functional purpose. Silkscreen printers who design bedding patterns may create fine art and applied art. If the creation is intended for display in a museum, this falls in the realm of fine art. This creation is classifiable as decorative art if the design aims primarily to lull a person into a comfortable deep sleep.

Part II

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

Traditionally, the four non-textual classes of fine art include music, sculpture, painting, and architecture. Poetry is the only textual art form that belongs to this exclusive club.

The degree of excellence of literary fine art is contestable. Some respected literature critics consider Shakespearean poetry to be inferior, as his message is apparently not clear to the majority. This is because they are encrypted in language not used by the masses. Other critics laud the brilliance of Shakespeare’s poems because of this subjective factor.

Hobbies

What is art and what is ‘merely’ a hobby? Like most things, it may depend who you ask.

Note my deliberate use and emphasis of the adjective ‘merely’. Distinguishing the difference between these sometimes overlapping, contested terms may guide writers to focus on this author’s holy grail question – identifying a writer’s core objective/s.

Some authors claim that understanding the difference between so-called ‘hobby writers’ and ‘professional writers’ is a useful way to understand the skills required to be taken seriously as a masterful author. Others argue that this distinction is the defining factor.

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Hobby writers typically harbor no intention to publish their work in commercial domains on a grand scale. They may pursue their private interest at a leisurely pace. As such, they do not possess an immediate desire to develop their skillset to the level required of a full -time professional writers such as corporate journalists. Those who write a ‘Dear Diary’ private journal may fall in this category. There is no need to impress an external audience with their mastery of advanced spelling, grammar, structure, and argumentative prose.

Professional writers tend to display the opposite traits. They may pursue one or more recognized paid professions such as screenwriters. They are expected to display elite command over spelling, grammar, text structure and other features to succeed as career operatives in broad genres or niche fields, such as romantic poetry authored in Latin.

This distinction is not watertight. Some casual Dear Diary writers harbor expectations that a commercial market may exist for their interesting memoirs that deliberately uses colloquial English and phonetic text message type spelling. Many professional writers do not charge for their publications. Some renowned religious scholars who publish free theological research are professional writers whose work has no commercial aspiration.

Part II

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

END OF SECTION ACTIVITIES

Provide a written answer of circa 300 to 500 words for each question set.

1.

Do most creative writers tend to boycott or minimalize the use of bullet points? Is this tendency more common in certain professions or publication types? What evidence, if any, do you draw from to support your conclusion?

2.

Concerning these traits that may aid us to identify bona fide writers: ●

Idyllic

● Creative

● Clever

● Engaging



Sexy

● Original

● Desirable

● Positivity

Do you accept the validity of this list shown above? What traits would you add to and/or subtract from this offering? Does the weight of these factors vary by context, such as the medium (e.g. poetry versus video documentary scripts) and the intended audience? Can you identify other influential context factors?

3.

Do you surmise that none, some, most or all types of writing are artistic? Please justify your choice by citing rationale and relevant examples. This question contains a premise – that you will select one of four options: none, some, most or all. You may select another option beyond these choices. Arguing that there is no data available to aid your analysis is an example of another option.

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CONTROL Control yourself or someone else will control you. ANONYMOUS

KEY TERMS

Context, control, copyright, creative control, editors, external publication, fluid control, full control, niche publications, partial control, peer review, plagiarism, proofreader, selfpublish, social media, traditional professions, zero control.

Part II

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

Creative control – the mother of all artistry goals? Maybe, baby. Realizing this objective may be just as difficult as identifying the core outcome/s that you aim to gain from your writing. For many, creative control is their grail goal. Period.

Most people instinctively understand the meaning of the word ‘control’. This word maybe used as a verb or adjective, depending on context. She lost control of her bicycle handlebars and landed in a ditch. This is a straightforward sentence to understand.

English language thesauruses such as Philip Lief (2013) offer words such as “jurisdiction, management, oversight, regulation, restraint, restriction, rule, supervision” as close synonym substitutes. “Weakness” and “powerlessness” are close substitute antonyms.

In the writing context, notions of ‘creative control’ generally refers to the degree to which an author can govern each aspect of each writing project, from cradle to grave, or their career at-large. Broadly speaking there are three levels of control: zero, partial and full.

Zero creative control, which is almost unheard of, technically exists in the art world. Certain big screen thespians are labelled as ‘powerless puppets’ among famous film critics. According to the legend, these people sold their soul for big bucks. They are happy

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to do exactly as instructed before the camera by film directors and their manager. Their acting contract is cancelled if they are unwilling or unable to perform as required in front of the camera. This level of nano-control extends to instructions about how the film star may dress, behave, and speak in public domains such as television interviews.

This level of extreme control is difficult to translate into the world or writing. A person who merely jots down words dictated to them verbally, verbatim, is not a writer. They may be working in a different capacity such as a notetaking scribe or dictation typist.

Full creative control in the authorship context refers to 100% authority over the production, marketing, distribution, and all other aspects of written work. This scenario is relatively rare at the big end of town, i.e., mainstream commercial content published by corporate multinationals such as Random House and Fox News. Competing interests of numerous parties need to be balanced. These may include major shareholders, senior executives, government regulating agencies, media consumers, and content creators.

According to historical narratives, English writer Virginia Woolf self-published much of her authorships during the first half of the last century. Virginia and her husband Leonard Woolf owned Hogarth Press. The minimum number of parties who may have exerted control over Woolf’s work published by Hogarth Press was one – her husband.

Part II

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

Authors who self-publish on open-access blogsites and social media are a common example of writers who may exert exclusive control over their work. Censorship is rare in jurisdictions such as America which protects free speech. Certain critics classify much of this work as ‘rants’. They argue that editorial peer review and external publication acts as gatekeepers. Those who do not volunteer for this process, and those rejected by it, rarely produce high art. The same mindset may apply in other art domains such as oil painting. Any person can mount their painting on their sitting room wall. It is a different experience to have your work displayed by a top private art gallery or a state museum.

Partial creative control is the norm for writers who sell or license their work to an independent publisher. Certain influential elite persons who are adept at pleasing their audiences, such as editors and consumers, may exert a high degree of creative control over their work. Most of their publications may be near-identical to the draft submitted to their editor. A proofreader may only correct spelling typos and grammar errors.

At the other extreme, publisher control over a manuscript may exist at all levels throughout the production and distribution process. In 2015, this writer authored a healthcare research methods handbook and an accompanying study guide for a major global university as a freelance author. Per the employment contract, this university exerted full control over all aspects of this project. This included factors such as chapter submission deadlines, content, book price, copyright ownership, and distribution chains.

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To this writer’s surprise, he was afforded a high degree of creative control over his choice of applied healthcare examples. Only one offering was questioned among 60 illustrations. He suspects that this university was desperate to distribute this customized book prior to the commencement of the forthcoming semester. This case study shows how influential publishers may be less inclined to micro-manage urgent production schedules.

The nature and degree of creative control imposed by publishers on writers, and vice versa, may vary by other contexts. Some novelists do not care how much of their work is adapted by editors, so long the book’s author blurb showcases their photograph, full name, and a relevant prior publication. This position may change over time as the author builds their brand. Some seasoned authors may refuse to rent their name to any publisher who alters their draft manuscript by more than circa 5%. Fluid control scenarios may be the defining factor that keeps your writing flame alight as the decades pass.

Readers who create original work that has high artistic merit and/or commercial prospects should carefully consider copyrighting their work with a recognized authority prior to disseminating their writings in the public domain or among private audiences. Plagiarism and other types of intellectual property theft are common. Two open-access copyright guides are listed in this section’s references. Copyrighting your work is fast, simple, and affordable. In America, this protocol requires you to upload a digital PDF file online with the Copyright Office. You pay the fee of circa USD50 during this process.

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Chapter summary

Mastery of some writing fields is near-impossible to realize from armchair study. An apprenticeship may be necessary for niche publications such as industry trade journals.

Creative writing in traditional professions is relatively rare. The concept ‘creativity’ shares a positive association with the notion of ‘control’. Professional bodies and other political power structures exert strong influence over the professions. They rarely relinquish such authority to those who seek to exist in arty domains such as poetry.

Creative control is an issue that novice authors should carefully consider during their writing career. In the eyes of the masses, maybe the majority, the degree to which you exert creative control over your craft defines your standing in your fields of endeavor.

The following chapter set ‘Grail’ and ‘Grails’ extends discussion about creativity and control by placing key issues in the context of the arch objective of this book. For many authors, the desire to maintain authority over their creative writing art is the crux objective that motivates them to constantly fine-tune their portfolio of accomplishments.

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Chapter case study

Some editors use Microsoft Word’s New Comment feature to communicate manuscript changes to their writers. This digital intervention is a switch from the last century when most edits were communicated via a red pen or equivalent on the original paper copy.

This image below is a fictitious though realistic example of an editor’s intervention.

In the digital age, knowing how to interpret editor’s comments in computerized documents is a must have skill for some jobs. Most elite PDF reader software provides an editor’s comments function. It is important to distinguish an editor’s: instruction, suggestion, and research point. The illustration above contains an example of each.

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END OF CHAPTER ACTIVITIES

Provide a written answer of circa 300 to 500 words for each question set.

1.

Can you name a renowned artist/writer who publicly claims that they exert exclusive or near-exclusive creative control over their work and/or public identity? Conduct an online search if you cannot name one or more persons via memory recall.

2.



Over what aspects of their work/identity do they claim to exert high control?



To what extent do you believe this claim? Why do you draw this conclusion?



Has the nature and/or degree of this control varied over the course of their career?



What source/s did you consult to answer the question above?

What degree of importance do you place on your ability to exert exclusive or nearexclusive control over your public persona and future publications?

Reflecting on your ability to earn lucrative financial rewards may be a constructive way to shape your answer. For example, consider how much of your identity and/or creative control you would relinquish if it earned you millions of dollars.

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References

Copyright, US Government (2020), More information on fair use, www.copyright.gov/fair-use/more-info.html

Heyes, D. (2016), The Hogarth Press, www.bl.uk/20th-century-literature/articles/the-hogarth-press

Indeed (2020), Remote freelance news writers, www.indeed.com/jobs?q=Freelance%20writer%20work%20from%20home&l&advn=34 73922891769407&vjk=08952a3cbeeab185

Philip Lief Group (2013), Control, www.thesaurus.com/browse/control?s=t

Further reading

Picon, A. (2016), ‘From authorship to ownership: A historical perspective’, Architectural Design, 86(5), 36–41. www.academia.edu/download/63201766/From_Authorship_to_Ownership2020050555657-17i2a1g.pdf

Rodriguez, M., & Mills, C. (2020). How to negotiate with publishers and keep your copyright, https://opencommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1056&context=libr_pres

Part III

PART III

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GRAIL The Holy Grail is to spend less time making the picture than it takes people to look at it. BANKSY

KEY TERMS

Accolades, arch endeavor/s, artistic integrity, fame, goals, holy grail, metaphor, pyramidic structures, rank, writer’s holy grail.

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According to Arthurian Legend, the holy grail is a cup such as a goblet. This sacred object may bestow magical powers. These gifts may maximize apex level prosperity on recipients. Examples are everlasting wisdom, professional success, health, and happiness.

In broader contexts, references to the holy grail may be a metaphor for an elusive quest that is pure fantasy or achievable by a select few. Notions of the holy grail may vary by context. Romance and professional careers are examples. Typically, the holy grail is a singular arch conquest for each setting. Marrying your ‘soulmate’ as your first spouse and staying happily married until your synchronized deaths may be the holy grail of romance fiction and real life. Synthesizing a medicine that cures all diseases may be the holy grail of the medical world. Some people believe that Alchemy is fact not fiction.

This book’s title uses the holy grail metaphor to entice readers beyond its cover. The Premise chapter is this author’s first public attempt at adapted fiction writing. The essence of this story is about genuine encounter between this writer and a fiction novelist. All details about this fiction writer have been modified to respect his/her privacy.

Luke’s gift to this writer was the identification of the holy grail of professional writing. Perhaps Luke’s story, as interpreted by this writer, resonates with others. May you freely decide if you believe a writer’s holy grail exists, and if so, identify your arch endeavor/s.

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There is no expectation that readers will agree with the notion of a writer’s holy grail. The diagram below, and discussion underneath, may lead you to determine or reaffirm whether this concept aids you to focus on the goal or goals that you pursue as a writer.

Jill Shill Rank 1: Money (50% weight) Rank 1: Fame (50% weight)

The diagram above, left, shows that Jack aims to be the best sports book writer in all languages in a narrow niche. He believes that his books are so good that they will eventually be translated into dozens of major languages. Like many, Jill Shill universally rejects all pyramidic structures that place a ‘Mother of All’ something at the top and rank her subordinates below. Her pursuit focuses exclusively and equally on becoming rich and famous from selling copyright lyrics to pop singers. She does not care whether her work achieves accolades based on artistic integrity. She has focus. Good luck to her.

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GRAILS Chaos: It has no plural. CARLOS FLUENTES

KEY TERMS

Brand, combinations, financial rewards, freelance writer, holy grails, intended audiences, negotiate, over-planning, permutations, self-satisfaction, work-from-home writers.

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This writer emphasizes the singular ‘the holy grail’ and its plural – ‘the holy grails’. Creating a separate sub-section for each concept is the main way that I highlight this allimportant difference. Her cat befriended two cats. The plural distinction is this simple.

The two examples in the prior chapter – Jack Slack and Jill Shill are not mutually exhaustive examples of how writers may chase the notion of a holy grail. Billions of permutations and combinations may exist beyond this Jack and Jill simple illustration.

An exhaustive list of reasons that motivates all writers, living and deceased, is probably longer than the famous Route 66. Some authors may write to share knowledge, encourage positive social change, or impress their parents by becoming a published author.

Some experienced authors don’t believe in a holy grail concept. They may deliberately chase no specific objective. Many artists publicly make claims such as ‘my work just comes to me naturally – I don’t think about it or plan it’. They may believe that overthinking and over-planning creative projects is an oxymoron – the antithesis of creativity.

Furthermore, they may feel that pursuing no contrived purpose is the major factor that causes them to enjoy creating art. Che sarà, sarà as the famous Italian saying goes.

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Writers may pursue various holy grail objectives over time. Jill Shill’s arch objective may be two-fold. She plans to write religious poetry books, sold by top publishers for a dollar or so per copy after she achieves fortune and fame. She is convinced that few elite printers will reject her proposals. It will be their privilege to associate with her brilliant brand.

Core objectives may vary by project. An Assistant Professor may publish journal articles only to maximize citations, as required for promotion. He also publishes commercial selfhelp books to maximize his income and expand his public profile in the broader public domain. Income is the core objective in this context. Recognition is the subordinate.

Rizzon (2020)

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Chapter summary

This chapter probably identifies the most common objectives that motivates most authors who are serious about developing their craft to its full potential. These include financial rewards, fame, self-satisfaction, and recognition of artistic credibility among peers.

Not all writers afford equal weight to their objectives. Authors like Jack Slack write partially because they enjoy the process. For Jack, there is also an expectation that he will pursue a career that forces him to leave home during the day so that he is out of the way of his stay-at-home partner. This objective refers to “Pass the time” (p. 38).

May this chapter provide you with a template to sharpen your arch writing objectives. In the wise words of Luke Applebee, “For most, this simple question is too difficult.”

The following chapter is this book’s feast. It aims to decrypt this ‘simple question’ enigma by shifting from writing theory to authorship practice. It explores 17 popular writing genres such as rhymes and research. An original illustration example is offered for each.

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Chapter case study

This job description is from an advertisement for a remote freelance writer. Such work-from-home jobs are becoming increasingly common in the post COVID19 world.

I invite readers to reflect on remote writing opportunities as they read the remainder of this book. Recall Luke Applebee’ story. His holy grail quest aims to work-from-home in his pajamas. He may now exist in a fiercely competitive so-called ‘new normal’ world.

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END OF CHAPTER ACTIVITIES

Provide a written answer of circa 300 to 500 words for each numbered question set. 1.

What is your main objective/s that you aim to pursue from your future writings? Do they vary by contexts such as the intended audiences and the passing of time?

2.

What ideas in this chapter, if any, do you reject? Please justify your reasoning.

3.

Is it possible for an author to earn acclaim as an elite writer if they rarely or never negotiate editorial changes imposed by their publishers? Cite evidence to support your view. Consider at least two different scenarios to defend your opinion.

4.

Have you researched the pay rates earned by novice and intermediate work-fromhome writers? Reflect on authoring roles that align with your core objective/s.

Reference

Indeed (2020), Remote freelance news writers (Alternative Press Magazine), www.indeed.com/q-Freelance-Magazine-Writerjobs.html?advn=3473922891769407&vjk=08952a3cbeeab185

Rizzon, N. (2020), Décor object, https://unsplash.com/photos/sW5kSwaZyfU

Further reading

Bachel, B. (2016), What do you really want? (Chapter One), Free Spirit Publishing. www.freespirit.com/files/original/What-Do-You-Really-Want-update-preview-1.pdf * This reading is suitable for all ages.

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GENRES I don’t think writers choose the genre; the genre chooses us. PHYLLIS DOROTHY JAMES

KEY TERMS

Genres: Rants, recitals, recognitions, recollections, records, regulations, releases, religious, reports, reporters, research, résumés, reviews, rhymes, roles, romances, rubrics.

Other key terms: Abstract, academic, executive summary, fiction, non-fiction, letters to the editor, open-access, professions, playwrights, public relations, synopsis, theatre.

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Hip, hip hooray. A break from theory. This chapter is about the writer’s coal face. This part provides an illustration for 17 widely recognized writing genres. These types are: Rants, recognitions, recollections, records, regulations, releases, religious, reports, reporters, research, résumés, reviews, rhymes, roles, romances, rubrics, and recitals.

Discussions in this chapter about non-fiction genres such as reports cite principles, events and data that are factual. Any errors of fact in these sections are accidental. Mea culpa.

Résumés, role plays, releases, and romances are the only sections that purposefully contain fictional data. Résumés is a non-fiction genre in most professional contexts. Some professional résumé writers deliberately ‘spice-up’ covering letters and curriculum vitae documents to maximize employment offers. This section creates a fabricated résumé for one purpose – to avoid violating the privacy of any real person of the past or present.

I invite readers to reflect on this list of 17 genres as they read this chapter. A favorite or essential genre may be missing from this list. Please select the closest match in this section and mentally adapt this discussion to your unique needs. There is no creation of a ‘recitals’ copy in this chapter. This author has close to zero knowledge of this great genre.

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Rants

For the purposes of this section, the word ‘rant’ refers to any written publication that is opinionated. Views are not supported by serious analysis that cites relevant facts and other authorities. Peer-reviewed theses authored by Graduate Degree qualified scholars is an example of writings that are recognized in academic domains and beyond.

Letters to the editor about public policy and controversial social issues may be examples of rants, as defined above. Many newspaper editors only publish miniature opinion pieces in certain sections of their newspaper. Articles of less than 175 words, or about ten sentences or less are commonplace. The brevity of the word limit imposed does not permit contributors to engage in-depth with evidence and logic to argue their point.

This opinion piece overleaf was penned by this writer in July 2020. I urge readers to evaluate aspects beyond spelling, grammar and writing style. For example, to what degree, if any, do you agree with the opinions put forward by this writer to the Times? What factor/s cause you to draw this conclusion?

The references section of this chapter contains a web link to the submission guidelines of The New York Times. This link relates to the Letters to the Editor section.

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The New York Times

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

July 11, 2020

Dean Baquet Executive Editor

Dear Dean,

As a lifelong ardent supporter of The Times, it disappoints me that your paper persistently dumbs down journalistic comment by deploying disingenuous bipolar political ideology to frame debates. Your writers frequently define public policies as conservative or liberal. Defining voters as supporters of the left or the right is the norm in your publication.

Our nation and world are far more complex than these false dichotomies. Around a quarter of Americans are major party swinging voters. Around five percent vote for alternatives such as Libertarian and Green candidates. The replication of false binaries in the mainstream media is a prime factor that creates division in our nation and beyond.

It disappoints me that an ever-growing number of Americans are starting to associate mainstream newspapers with the noun ‘fake news’. The Times is the public record of America’s social, cultural, political, and economic history. Please show more respect to the richness of our great nation by explicitly engaging with multiple modernity realities.

Sincerely, Miss Di Virc Body content: 161 words

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Recognitions

The lives and accomplishments of individuals and entities can be acknowledged and celebrated in public domains in several ways. Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) is an example of a famed institution that no longer exists since 1991. RIP Pan Am.

Obituaries and eulogies are popular written formats that celebrate the lives of people who have passed. The 407 words article overleaf titled ‘Motown chic’ is a tribute to the late Nina Simone. The word ‘tribute’ may convey a less morbid connotation than alternatives such as In Memoriam. Public tributes may honor the living and those who have passed.

1.

Identify a person or collective who has been overlooked for a lifetime honor such as admission into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame or the World Golf Hall of Fame.

Write a tribute of circa 400 to 800 words that argues for their deserved inclusion in an honor hall of fame. Explicitly identify at least one unique achievement that distinguishes this person’s contribution to their field as exemplary or original.

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Motown chic

Nina Simone’s brazen biography begs a prickly question that muso critics galore ponder decades after her death. How can music historians rate the standing of top selling ‘artists’ who forge their name belting out covers and first edition numbers composed by others? A divisive debate indeed.

Artists who have shifted millions of units singing other’s tunes are a penny a pound. Britney, Elton, and Celine are household name members of this lucrative clique.

Some of Simon’s trademark tunes are from bygone eras. I Put A Spell on You (1965) was composed by Jay Hawkins a decade prior. Nina’s immortal interpretation of Feeling Good released in 1965 boasts her ability to own a tune that few realize was originally sung by another artist. Cy Grant’s debut version is excruciatingly cheesy.

Simone is credited as the original singer of the classic Don’t Let Me Be Misunderstood (1965) penned by Benjamin, Cauldwell & Marcus. Covers by acts such as The Animals and Elvis Costello are generally regarded as interpretations of Simone’s stellar vocals.

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Nina’s iconic fame may stem from her image, intellect, and intimacy. Few Motown mommas’ wardrobes are worthy of comparison to the trend-setting Jackson 5 posse. Simone is a lifelong member of this super-elite club. Her bouffant afros, chic head scarves, glam accessories and low-cut crocheted frocks epitomize feminine images of Motown’s magnificent heyday.

Nina’s candid, camera-loving interviews showcase a deep-thinking, smarty arty soul. She openly criticizes social injustices such as racism, sexism and classism and fearbased self-censorship. ‘Me’, ‘myself’ and ‘I’ feature prominently in some rants that may relegate her high art as secondary.

Nina’s ability to command the undivided attention of savvy close-up crowds in swanky piano bars may crystallize her musical legacy. Her velvety, baritone vocals are unmistakably signature-style. Simone’s analog originals are worthy of Smithsonian archival.

Nina’s tormented incarnation may ultimately define her narrative. Showbusiness in her prime was a treacherous cesspit for self-made wannabes from the hood. Being a single black female was a handicap that she triumphed with legendary grace.

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According to folklore, Simone confronted a music executive at gunpoint and demanded payment of a stack of swindled royalties. To be a fly on the wall. What did the Queen of Gorgeous lip to this married white daddy?

Perhaps this sanguine songbird borrowed again from Bessie’s depression days ditty. “I need a little sugar in my bowl” © Williams et al. (1931).

Best performance: Mississippi Goddam at Carnegie Hall – composed by Simone. Body count: 407 words

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Recollections

Autobiographies are a popular non-fiction genre. Detailed memoirs that are published as novel lengths books are an example. Some celebrities share their life story, or notable extracts thereof in shorter formats such as feature articles published by newspapers. The paragraphs below commence the opening page of a private chronicle of this this author’s life in England from 1996 to 1999. Details in this brief account are exclusively factual.

Latter Day Londinium, by J. Jericho

Most narratives about young Aussie working holidaymakers who move to London are as original as origami. This author’s day-to-day life as an antipodean resident worker based in London during the mid-late 1990s fits firmly in this realm. The insights of outsiders living in Britain during this period is a different kettle of fish and chips.

This diary offers a fresh way to spin a tired old traveler’s tale. The passing of two decades, and then some, makes clear to historians that a renaissance of British culture, ‘cool Britannica’, occurred on a global scale during the mid-late 1990s. The installation of Blair, Britain’s youngest Prime Minister since 1812, was one catalyst that drove a major shift in Britain’s national psyche. Princess Diana died less than four months after Blair was sworn into office. Marker 1997 is a watershed annos singulos in Britain’s 20th Century history.

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Records

In the literary context, a ‘record’ refers to textual content that captures historical facts. Every act that occurs on this planet is a part of history. An event that transpired merely minutes ago is a part of recent history.

Broadly speaking, authors of historical records tend to create a piece of written work that is either factual and dry or rich in description if intended for entertainment. The former format may chronicle facts in summary or detailed form. The latter tends to offer analytical insight. It may support discussion with personalized opinionated commentary.

Medical examination reports are an example of factual, dry material that is written in a professional context. Art history books that explore famous painters’ lives and their creations in cultural context are an example of written material that tends to use rich descriptions. Art lovers tend to be avid readers who demand intellectual stimulation.

There are numerous examples of written records that employ factually dry and enriched analysis styles. Many novel style biographies open with a scene setting chapter that merely summarizes the facts. Later chapters employ rich analysis techniques such as the creation of suspense. The chapter extracts overleaf aim to illustrate this binary formula.

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Prelude Extract: None of the seven tributes to Jane and John Doe in the Weddings Notices section of The Montana Mercury on January 10, 2016 were identified as worthy of citation by any journalist prior to 2020. “Congratulations Jane and John on your wedding – Love you both – Mom and Dad” was as non-descript as five other messages to the Does in that column. The other contribution read “All my love to John Doe – Poppy Anonymous”.

Chapter 1: Montana Moguls Extract: Prior to 2020, Jane’s and John’s steady as she goes marriage was barely distinguishable from millions of Americans of current and bygone eras. Boy meets girl in high school. Boy falls in love with girl. Boy takes princess to the prom. They marry three years later. The Does move to picket fence suburbia. Jane gives birth to a son a year later. But will they live happily ever after? On July 7, 2020 John Doe discovered that he was adopted at birth by a couple not related to his bloodline. As confirmed by DNA testing, his grandmother was the late Jill Bates, founder of Fellow-Rocks business empire. For many, maybe most, discovering that you had become a billionaire baron overnight is a high blessing. Maybe not for Jane. According to her publicist, appointed yesterday, Montanan farm girl Jane Doe is a strictly private gal who shuns the limelight.

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Regulations

In the context of this chapter, ‘regulations’ refers to documents that administer or narratively explain laws and rules that are enforceable by authorities such as committees and governments. A sports club’s constitution is an example of a text document that is overseen by a committee. Congress, parliaments, and equivalents are the only bodies who have authority to enact laws such as legislation and statutory executive orders. With rare exception, legislation is authored by attorneys or part-qualified paralegals.

Many thousands of people who author text content are employed as specialists who write regulatory publications. In contrast to genres such as reports, there is usually far less scope for these ‘writers’ to boast creative literary flair when they author regulations. This opinion is contestable. The legal profession boasts its own jargon that few outsiders understand. There is no template that dictates exactly what or how attorneys must write.

Scholars, journalists, and others who analyze legal text in their own words in public spaces invariably enjoy more creative scope than writers who pen official documents. The text overleaf is an abstract that aims to support the body of a journal article that is not yet written. This abstract is a bona fide attempt at scholarship. The slant is analytically critical as opposed to pedestrian narrative. Self-reflexive discussion explicitly personalizes the colorful opinions as belonging to the writer as opposed to an impersonal entity.

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Abstract

‘Damned if you do, damned if you don’t’ is a tired old clique that regains fresh currency when one reviews criticism published by mainstream news of the Coronavirus Aid Relief Economic Security Act (CARES) Act enacted by America’s Congress on March 26, 2020. Around half of these detractors argue that the financial provisions of this act are ridiculously wasteful and far too generous. Most of the remainder who ridicule this act state that this so-called stimulus package offers too little, too late to stave off an imminent recession or worse.

The Direct Payments handouts component attracts the most criticism from both sides of the spectrum. One the one hand, one side protests that payments of $1200 for singles and $2400 for marrieds are not means-tested. In less subtle terms, they are a taxpayer-funded tooth fairy gift for cashed up Americans who aren’t under financial stress. On the other hand, the opposing side argue that these payments are pitiful and insulting. Around half of couples living in America rent. Average monthly rental in capital cities is circa $1600 per family residence. This one-off payment barely covers a month’s rent and the cost of basic staples like food.

This paper uses qualitative content analysis to scrutinize the ten most cited critical themes that appear in print media articles. Most public discourses are likely shaped in part by laziness and/or ignorance. All feature articles published by leading news agencies contain at least one error that does not align with facts in the legislation. This finding suggests that staff journalists and editors partially or exclusively consult flawed secondary sources to form their conclusions.

269 words.

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Releases

Press releases are public announcements that are known by a range of names. These may include ‘press statements’ and ‘media communiqués’. In a similar vein to those who author regulatory documents, it is debatable whether public relations personnel who draft media communiqués are writers, as this noun is understood by the layperson.

For many, PR professionals are not journalists or pseudo journalists. Their work may be classifiable as marketing or ‘institutional propaganda’. PR professionals are rarely permitted to admit that their institution is culpable, even when their entities’ gross culpability is obvious. PR press statements often ‘spin’ facts. They tend to highlight and exaggerate institutional achievements. They may ignore or trivialize facts that embarrass the organization, expose legal liability, or reduce its revenue-generating capacity.

May readers freely decide whether they consider public relations officers to be bona fide writers. Perhaps your answer varies by context. The nature of their core work – their job description and daily functions may guide your answer.

The press statement overleaf is an example of text content and a style template that is common in corporate environments. The information is fictional for illustration purposes.

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Tampa’s Tasty Tarts™

LLC

PRESS RELEASE: CORRECTION/APOLOGY July 5, 2020

A promotional offer advertised in Canada’s capital city newspapers on July 4, 2020 incorrectly states that readers could redeem the attached voucher to obtain a 3 for the price of 1 special offer at all participating Canada-based retailers during 2020.

This advertisement should have stated that vouchers are redeemable for a 2 for the price of 1 offer. Per this revised public announcement, you may redeem your coupon at the 3 for 1 offer during July and August 2020 only. Alternatively, you may redeem your voucher as a 2 for 1 offer on any other dates in Canada until December 31, 2020.

T T T Management apologize for this misprint and for any inconveniences caused.

Executive Director – Media Relations Miss Candy De Lish Tel. +1-813-555-5577

www.tampastastytarts.com/July2020correction3for1.html

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Religious

Religious writings are a diverse, globally popular niche. More than half of all people living on planet Earth subscribe to one of these four major religions: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism.

Religious ministers who write a weekly sermon for their congregation are a common example of authors who cite direct links to primary source data such as scripture. A Christian Minister ordinarily refers to the Christian Bible as their authority.

Many mainstream newspapers assign staff journalists to cover stories about religion, faith, and spirituality. These journalists are required to have a good general knowledge of this area. Some may be areligious. Others may write articles about religions that they do not follow in their private sphere.

The article overleaf is an extract from a set of lecture notes that a religious studies scholar may deliver to students in a subject such as Abrahamic Religions 101. The ‘Queen of Sheba’ is named in the holy texts of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

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Queen of Sheba

The Queen of Sheba is one of just a few dozen figures whose name explicitly appears in the Jewish Torah, Christian Bible, and the Islamic Koran. The proper noun ‘Sheba’ initially appears in the Jewish Tanakh in 1 Kings, Chapter 10, Verse 1.

“When the Queen of Sheba heard of Solomon's fame, because of the name of the Lord, and she came to test him with riddles.” (Chabad, 2020).

The proper noun title ‘Queen of Sheba’ does not appear in the Christian New Testament. Her inclusion in the Christian Bible arises from the merger of the Hebrew Bible with the New Testament. Novice Bible scholars may confuse the Queen of Sheba with the male figure ‘Sheba’. According to Genesis, Chapter 10, Verse 7, Sheba was the son of Raamah:

The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah and Sabteka. The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.

The full named title “Queen of Sheba” appears in the Islamic Koran once: “The Queen of Sheba said, ‘Counsellors, a gracious letter has been delivered to me.” (27:29)

The Koran references Sheba in 27:22 and 34:15. The former mention likely refers to ‘Sheba’ as a historical place. The latter may reference ‘Sheba’ as a tribe.

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Reports

Most written reports aim to share information on a timely basis. Company auditor reports and annual medical checkup reports are examples that may communicate professional opinions in a template format that is easy to navigate for lay and professional audiences.

A defining feature of most reports is that the person/s who signs the report holds professional credentials in their field. Certified accountants must sign the auditor report for a publicly listed company in most jurisdictions. Some signatories must also hold a specific rank. Being a member of the executive board is an example in some contexts.

In a similar vein to those who author media releases as a profession, it is dubious whether most career report writers exert significant creative literary scope over their writings. For example, most architects who specialize exclusively in writing appraisals of the integrity of built structures do not introduce themselves as ‘writers’ when strangers ask them what they do for a living in social settings. They are more likely to identify with proper nouns such as ‘architects’ or ‘chartered building inspectors’.

Most written reports quantify subjective adjectives such as ‘large’. The fictitious school report overleaf shows how quantitative analysis may clarify descriptive discussion.

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Tennyson Heights High School, Fort Knox KY Student Report Card: Gary T. Gregory

Term 2, 2020

Subject

Grade: Score

Comments

English

A: 90%

Math

B: 80%

Science

A: 85%

Art

D: 45%

History

A: 88%

Gary’s essay writing skills have displayed excellent spelling, grammar, and creative thinking this semester. Teacher: O. Wiled. Gary scored 80% for the Algebra and Inequalities tests this term. A solid effort. Teacher: P. Thagoras This excellent result is attributed to Gary attending all extra tuition workshops after hours. Teacher: E. Stein Gary lacks confidence preparing abstract work such as oil paintings. He has briefly displayed potential to do better. Teacher: P. Ikaso This outstanding result reflects Gary’s hard work and passion for this subject. Teacher J. Ark

Home Class Teacher’s Report (Class 812) This is a solid report overall. The school counsellor has interviewed Gary to ascertain the reasons for his marginal failure in Art. Gary has agreed to attend the weekly afterschool Art Tutor Workshop next term as a pathway to passing this subject by the end of the year. Gary’s attitude towards his schoolwork and peers is exemplary.

Teacher: Mark T Wayne Authorized: School Principal Flo Knight-Gall EdD

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Reporters

The noun ‘journalist’ is the most popular synonym for the job description ‘news reporter’. Journalists are supposed to report facts in community domains that are in the public interest. They may do this via the print press, radio, tele-cinema media and public forums.

Journalists’ may serve two audiences: mainstream and niche. BBC News is an example of an agency that disseminates mainstream reports to the masses on diverse topics such as sports, weather, politics, arts, education, religion, lifestyle, finance, and entertainment.

Niche news publications may report a small number of related topics such as entertainment. Rolling Stone magazine is an example. It centers on popular culture. Articles about pop and rock music – a subfield of entertainment, account for most content.

Some niche media report mainstream news for a target audience. AARP The Magazine is a famous example. Its articles cover diverse topics such as politics, arts, travel, lifestyle, food, health, and entertainment. AARP aims to serve narrow demographics: retirees, age pensioners and senior citizens. These three groups are not always mutually exclusive.

The article overleaf reports mainstream news for a niche audience – tennis fans.

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Tennis Tour World Weekly

JULY 31, 2020

12

Aussie tennis star Ashleigh Barty announced on July 29 th that she is not attending the US Open and Cincinnati Masters this year. Barty, 24, cites concerns about the Coronavirus as her reason for this decision. In a statement issued to AAP on Thursday, she said: “My team and I have decided that we won’t be travelling to the US and Western and Southern Open and the US Open this year … I love both events so it was a difficult decision but there are still significant risks involved due to COVID-19 and I don’t feel comfortable putting my team and I in that position.” Barty’s withdrawal is a major blow to the US Open. She is currently the number one ranked player on the women’s tour and is a crowd favorite at the Open.

As of July 31, the top three ranked male players, ‘the big 3’, Novak Djokovic, Rafael Nadal, and Roger Federer have indicated that they will attend the Open, which starts on August 31st. The absence of two of these players could reduce event attendances by 50%. 180 words

ACTIVITIES

1.

How many objective historical facts do you count in the article above?

2.

How many subjective facts do you count in the article above?

3.

The reference to “50%” above does not cite a source and it does not explain how this forecast figure is derived. Is this figure a subjective or objective offering?

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Research

Those who coordinate research projects deploy a person or team to collect data that can be analyzed to gain insight into a problem or question that requires an answer. Most research projects partially overlap with report writing assignments. This is largely because most researchers write a report to summarize and disseminate findings.

Research writing is a niche profession. It is not automatically synonymous with report writing. The school report card example in this chapter is not a research assignment. It is a collection of data sharing, comparable to an online data upload repository. Each teacher deposits their data, i.e., Gary’s performance in Term 2, 2020 in a central location.

A defining feature of research reports is that the lead researcher/s justifies their methodological framework. This includes their selection of qualitative, quantitative, or mixed (qualitative-quantitative) data to answer a defined research problem. Data analysis methods are chosen. This choice is also justified to a critical audience. Linear Regression Data Analysis (quantitative) and Speech Analysis (qualitative) are examples.

Business reports customarily open with an executive summary. Most scholarly research embed a synopsis or abstract on the opening page. The example overleaf is a synopsis.

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Synopsis

This forthcoming mixed methods research project aims to analyze customer attitudes towards shoe retailers that trade exclusively online in the NAFTA block during 2020. This study seeks to identify the main reasons/s for shrinking profits in this sector which have sustained year-on-year since 2012.

This study draws on literature that exposes the pros and cons of purchasing apparel online, as perceived by consumers (e.g. Kim & Damhorst, 2013). The lead researcher hypothesizes that concerns about the reliability of product label sizes is the core issue that undermines consumer confidence in purchasing apparel, including footwear, that cannot be fitted prior finalizing the purchase.

The methodological design seeks to interview 15 stakeholders each, from four groups: consumers, manufacturers, product marketers and retailers. Data shall be obtained from an email survey that is complemented with a follow-up phone interview. An even number of stakeholders from Canada, America and Mexico shall be consulted. Determining the average costs borne by consumers for twoway postage, i.e. for returned goods, is a co-equal core objective of this project.

172 Words

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Résumés

Writing résumés and job application covering letters pro bono for friends is a favorite pasttime of this writer. His strong interest, and relative success, modestly said, arises from the enjoyable benefits that people may realize from this type of writing. Receiving a job offer for a role that pays well and offers superb experience is a realistic example.

It is easy to locate contact details of those who draft résumés and covering letters for others as their profession via online searches. Around half of these workers include the word ‘Writer’ in their job title. ‘CV Writer’ and ‘Résumé Writer’ are common titles.

This type of writing concerns high-stakes outcomes. Internal promotion is another obvious example. Many professional résumé writers explicitly market their brand as unique. They boast of their ability to craft a fresh, commanding writing style and presentation format that instantly distinguishes their client from masses of applicants.

The illustration overleaf is a covering letter and résumé that applies for a surgeon role at an upmarket private clinic. The minimalist avant-garde style is bold and risky. It may discreetly inform a discerning employer that the applicant’s savvy nature aligns with the client demographic. Others may view the applicant as arrogant, crude, and clueless.

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July 7, 2020

Prof. Eva Yönge MB BCh Executive Director Fountain of Youth Clinic London, W1Q 7QQ

Beau T. Yifil MD 777 Peaches Street Ion Complex 90210

Re: Job Vacancy PL/137 (The Times; July 4, 2020)

PROFESSOR YONGE

The brevity of this letter reflects the astute listening skills that I bring to every encounter with my esteemed clients at all stages of the patient–surgeon relationship. As a clinician with 19 yearsexperience in Plastic Surgery, I understand that discretion and confidentiality are paramount.

You may concur that my credentials, experience, and references speak for themselves.

I look forward to our forthcoming interview.

Sincerely, Beau T. Yifil

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Beau T. Yifil Jr. IV 109.555.2891 [email protected]

University of Texas, Austin

BSc 1991-1994

University of Utah

MD 1995-1998

Designations

PhD Anesthesia 2010-2016

American Board of Plastic Surgery: Full Certification, 2006 The British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons: Full Certification, 2009

Specialties

Rhinoplasty, Cosmetic Surgery, Cranio-facial Reconstruction.

Rotation Residency

Mount Sinai Hospital, 1999-2000

Specialization, Plastic Surgery

Mount Sinai Hospital, 2001-2006

Senior Registrar, Guy’s Hospital Plastic Surgery

2007-2009

Reconstructive Fellowship

2010-2011

Private Practice, California

2012-2019

References

Clients (three), Professional (three), Personal(two). Please see attachments, overleaf.

Portfolio of Surgeries

btyifil-surgery.com/testimonials

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Reviews

Writers may author self-reflexive critiques about content that they analyze. This writer prefers the adjective ‘review’ over synonyms such as ‘critique’. Nouns such as ‘film critic’ may convey negative connotations of a harsh one-person audience. This is not always the case. Most professional critics who write for publications such as Film Review Magazine Online aim to offer an impartial and balanced assessment of merits and flaws.

Reviewers may analyze aesthetic content such as cuisine, music, and sculptured art. Rotten Tomatoes is a famous database that collates film critic assessments. Reviewers may examine commercial products such as software technology and corporate share performances. The Northwestern Business Review is a famous magazine that markets its image as a review forum. Its publication name makes prominent this purpose.

Reviewers may examine any material, including goods that have dated origins. There is high demand for classic art and literature such as Jane Eyre that can be reprinted. A professional reviewer should consider the legitimacy of a creation in context. Norms and expectations of consumers at the time that a good/service was invented is an example.

The book review overleaf examines an adapted fiction novel that was originally published in 2005. This stellar novel has been reprinted multiple times since after 2005.

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Class Act

The Glass Castle by Jeanette Walls (2005) is set in the late 1950s to the 1980s. It is reminiscent of a marriage of The Grapes of Wrath and To Kill a Mockingbird. Wall’s text is half as heartening as these classics. Yup – it’s a good one.

This novel is a diplomatically adapted chronicle of the life of Jeanette Walls. It’s recounted through her wise voice from age three, a child prodigy, to a twenty something twice married self-made Manhattan-based elite journalist. This memoir’s magic may appeal to those who romanticize nomadic clan lifestyles.

This gifted storyteller spins tales of the ten plus townships that eschew and spew the misfit Walls wagon – Rose, Rex and their four siblings, as they drift semi-aimlessly around America’s western desert states. Unbeknown to Jeannette the minor, her eccentric mother was secretly and knowingly a landowning millionaire for the bulk of Jeanette’s impoverished, dirt-faced, frequently famished childhood.

The lion’s share of this work centers around Wall’s life in Welch County. It is debatable whether Jeanette replicates or renounces stereotypes about so-called Appalachian hillbilly communities of West Virginia and southern states. Most likely the latter. Compassion and logic are staples throughout her rocky road adventure.

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The bond between Jeannette, daddy’s favorite, and her father, is the dominant relationship that Walls deploys to deconstruct a rich narrative of life’s lessons: fortitude, fortune, and failure. Jeanette is most tolerant of the patriarch’s incessant drunkenness, walkout disappearances, violence, self-entitled, self-destructive cycles. She forgives him almost immediately for renting her 13-years old body to a mature-aged would-be rapist, who pins her down as two pals cheer on the sidelines. Daddy Rex callously ignores her cries of attempted rape as he lounges like a lizard in a dive bar downstairs (pp. 212-213).

This plot’s subtext covertly promotes unconditional understanding and forbearance that glues many, maybe most dysfunctional families from cradle to grave. This mini masterpiece may force you to assess where you truly stand on one of the most complex hypotheticals that haunts those from broken families, long after their folks’ funerals.

If mom and dad were just our nasty neighbors, would we give them the time of day?

Jeanette Walls is a commanding protagonist in more ways than ten. According to her scripture, permanent divorce of family aren’t options.

You may experience profound loss as you speed read the last leaf. Like mourning a mentor. And a buck-toothed best buddy. Highly recommended.

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Rhymes

Roses are red, violets are blue

(A)

I won’t complete this poem

(B)

As it may bore you.

(A)

The beyond awful rhyme penned by this writer above illustrates a point. Most of us know what a rhyme is. We normally recognize one as soon as we see it or hear it. Nursery rhymes created for children such as Little Miss Muffet (and her tuffet) are globally famous.

Rhymes may be known by other names such as poems. These terms are not always synonymous. The ‘Roses are red’ illustration exhibits an A-B-A pattern. The last word on the first (blue) and third line (you) exhibit rhythmic tune. Phonetically this sound is ‘oo’.

Many songwriters use the noun ‘poems’ as synonyms for their lyrics. In theory, any poem can be sung in billions of ways by selecting a unique melody. In the minds of many, a distinguishing feature between a poem and a lyrical composition is that millions of published songs incorporate a chorus. This logic is understandable. However, some works labelled by authors as poems have a repeat chorus and not all songs have a chorus.

The poem overleaf is based on an ongoing daily encounter in this author’s life. For writers like this one, inspiration is only found in authentic experiences that touch the heart.

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One-way alley

Naughty neighbor, Tammy-Sue Rub my hands each night on you What would Nan say If she knew?

Sneaky, cheeky Hops the gate First stop Tom To fornicate

Next stop here Around midnight Back porch floor The moon for light

Per the pattern Eat and run Somewhat sinful Still, it’s fun

Ginger binger Glutton you Tonight sardines And milk for two.

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Roles

Scriptwriters who write role plays may serve diverse audiences. In the world of theatre, writing plays for Broadway, Chicago and London’s West End are pinnacles of success that many ambitious writers aim to conquer. In America, most of the biggest budget TV programs and movies are recorded around the Hollywood precinct of Los Angeles.

The work of playwrights is suitable for solitary and group reading scenarios away from the stage. Readers may recall engaging the works of classic playwrights such as Oscar Wilde, William Shakespeare, and Tennessee Williams in high school English classes.

These mentions above are obvious examples. Role playwriters may earn a comfortable living writing scripts for actors who promote goods and services in commercials for radio, television, the big screen, and live audiences in public domains.

Playwriters’ scripts may partially resemble live speech dialogue seen in novels. The example overleaf shows how playwriters insert notes that set the scene. They may activate a reader’s imagination by explaining dynamic factors such as the actor’s tone, body language, background sound effects, setting changes, and the use of props. This script is based on a true experience. Key details have been altered to protect the guilty.

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Torn to shop Act One Scene 1 Macy’s Downtown Phoenix, Arizona Jay and his Aunt Lana are shopping. Lana, a cashed-up widow, took a day off from her Children’s Foundation. She aims to splurge a few thousand bucks for the fun of it. Lana Look JJ. We’re passing the Ladies who Lunch frocks section. Jay Cool. Let’s check it out. Lana Ooh-la-la, baby. This frock is identical to the one that Heather wore to Helga’s wedding. I’ve always wondered what I would look like mincing about in this nifty ruby number. Jay The tag says size 10. I don’t mean to be rude, but aren’t you at least a size 16? Lana I don’t care. I’m going to try it on in this fitting room – just to see how fabulous I look. Jay facepalms. Fabric trauma sounds are heard from coming the fitting room. Zzzzzzzzzzzip. Ssssppliiiiiit.

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Romances

Romance novels are among the most famous and popular genre of fiction writing. Other well-known fiction genres include horror, detective crime thrillers, historical (also known as period novels), comedy, coming of age, science fiction, family, fantasy, and war.

These categories are not mutually exclusive or mutually exhaustive. A thriller may explore the coming of age of a man in his late teens who enlists in the army during the Vietnam War. Understanding the importance of genre may guide writers to conquer their holy grail question – What exactly do I want to achieve from my writing? Many elite writers believe that some of the best authors can only master a narrow genre set.

For some, genre is everything in writing. A genre may dictate the author’s stewardship over key factors such as plot, tone, character selection and character development throughout the entire novel. It may also shape the length. Most children’s books are brief. Adapting the same set of facts for a romance novel may create a project that is vastly different to an author who employs the same facts to write a science fiction thriller.

This attempt overleaf is a parody of the famous Mills & Boon romance series. Who hasn’t fantasized about writing a spicy Mills & Boon bestseller? In my case – keep dreaming.

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Salt Lake Kitty J. Jericho Extract p. 12

For the first time on that memorable late midday meeting, I gazed intimately into her saintly blue eyes as we indulged in discourse about classic Victorian poetry and prose. We had unconsciously inched closer as we satiated our rampant intellectual desires.

It was at that nano split-second that I realized she was the one. Time and space were obsolete. As if we were the only conscious entities existing in the galaxy and beyond. I had heard accounts by others that ‘Earth moved’ and dismissed such tripe as hyperbole. Alas, it’s true. In my heart I just knew. The soulmate phenomenon. It’s me and you.

My carnal desire took over, albeit with an air of geek chic innocence. I was hypnotized by my classmate’s tender pink lips and thick rim sixties style specs as she discussed novel ways to assess crypted subtexts of The Lady of Shallot. The only thing that my grey matter could care to examine was this lady’s silky blonde tresses that followed her delicate jaw.

And then it happened. Wham bam, I surrender mam. Like a marathon runner collapsing on the finish line. Defeated. Breathless. Jell-O knees. Physically paralyzed from the intensity of my raw emotions fueled by deep sensual desire. Yet another clique that I had long believed existed only in the realm of fairy fiction like Austen and the Brontës.

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Rubrics

Okay folks, back to the real world – the professions. Devising templates such as matrixes and rubrics is a specialist writing role in certain professions such as statistics.

In the writing context, nouns such as ‘templates’, ‘proformas’, and ‘matrixes’ are close substitutes for the word ‘rubrics’. These words name/describe blank data collection tables that aim to guide the writer to fill in the blanks. Rubrics serve to gather useful information that is presented in a logically ordered manner for those who complete the table and for end-users who analyze, interpret, and report the details provided.

Boutique research consultancies that create surveys for clients are an example of a party that specializes in writing templates. Other types of data collection matrixes include customer registration forms and school report cards (e.g. p. 64). Job descriptions that require workers to spend most or all their work time constructing templates are rare. It is dubious whether most people who engage in such activities as a job or registered profession identify with the single word ‘writer’. Their job description may label them by other more appropriate nouns such as ‘Research Officer’ and ‘Administration Officer’.

The template illustration overleaf contains at least one sentence in each section. It is an example that requires the rubric author to possess adequate sentence construction skills.

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Lay & Zee Meal Delivery Service LLC

Confidential survey – November 2020

Please provide a written answer of circa 20 to 200 words for each question in the table below. You may answer overleaf on the allocated numbered spaces provided.

Topic Q1.

Question Are you satisfied with the Platinum Loyalty Card benefits

Loyalty

provided to long-term customers? Please explain your answer.

Q2.

What aspects of our services do you rate highest in terms of

Services

satisfaction? Please explain why.

Q3.

What aspects of our food products do you rate highest in terms of

Products

satisfaction? Please explain why.

Q4. Service & Product Development Q5. Other

Please discuss factors about our service development that you would like to see improved. Please offer specific suggestions.

Please offer any other feedback in the last section on page 5.

Thank you for completing this survey. Your assistance in developing our business is appreciated. Respondents will receive a 10% discount on their next monthly invoice. Survey authored and administered by Elite Writers, Copywriters & Research Inc.

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Recitals

This chapter does not provide an illustration for the Recitals genre. A mass of open-access (i.e., free) books are available to support writers who have a hunger to read widely and consult niche genre books aimed at up-and-coming authors. The table below provides a web address for databases that stores thousands of quality free books.

Database Book Boon Open Library PDF Books World PDF Drive Project Gutenberg

Address www.bookboon.com www.openlibrary.org www.pdfbooksworld.com/books www.pdfdrive.com www.gutenberg.org

PDF Drive is among the best sources. This database exclusively stores free published volumes such as handbooks and textbooks disseminated by famous publishers such as Penguin Random House and Simon & Schuster. Those who are keen to learn more about writing music can access these books shown below and others on PDF Drive. Enjoy.

Images sourced from PDF Drive.

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Chapter summary

The illustration of 17 popular genres offers a framework for writers to ask pertinent questions. What type of writer am I? Have I demonstrated competence or mastery of some of these 17 genres? Reflecting deeply on these questions over time may aid us to maximize our writing potential. This may lead us to realize our primary writing goals.

The core objective of this chapter inextricably relates to the notion of a writer’s holy grail, as defined in this book. Recall the spirit of this question that may guide us in this quest:

What exactly do I want to achieve from my writing?

When drafting this chapter, this writer was initially discouraged that he could not compose a basic instrumental composition example, such as a short song with two repeat notes. Reflecting on the so-called holy grail question shown in italics above immediately alleviated this down feeling. This writer harbors no desire to engage in the music industry as a composer. His primary interest centers around current events news reporting.

The following chapter explores six new issues that may guide writers to sharply define their core authorship objectives. These topics, explored in this order, are: Spelling, Scripts Styles, Solo, Champions and Circulation.

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Chapter case study

Literary critics identify authors who supposedly mastered all genres, or at least all major genres such as poetry, fiction novels, short stories and play scripts. This book promotes the idea of multiple genre engagement primarily to encourage writers to exit their comfort zone and explore new disciplines. Sometimes the best way to find out what we want to do and can do is by trial-and-error. Experimental failures can lead to greatness.

According to Sanderson, Elmore Leonard “mastered every genre” that he attempted.

Image source: Google search (google.com) (2020).

Elmore was innovative with his grammar. This style was well received by critics. His essay titled “Elmore Leonard’s Ten Rules of Writing” states “My most important rule is one that sums up the 10: If it sounds like writing, I rewrite it.” This description sounds like the ‘phonetic’ writing style that purposely violates spelling and grammar to recording speech exactly as it is spoken. “Gimme a chockie” is a phonetic way of capturing a person’s request, exactly as it was spoken, to ‘Give me a piece of chocolate’.

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END OF CHAPTER ACTIVITIES

Rants, recognitions, recollections, records, regulations, releases, religious, reports, reporters, research, résumés, reviews, rhymes, roles, romances, rubrics, and recitals.

Please refer to the 17 genres listed in the paragraph above. Which genres:

1a.

Appeal to you the most as a leisure reader?

1b.

Do you find easiest to write?

1c.

Have you engaged with the most as a writer in private or professional contexts?

1d.

That you care for are missing from this list shown above?

2.

Author a polished piece of writing for four or more genres. For each genre, construct an extract or a complete piece of work that fills at least one A4 sized page, using an 11 or 12 sized popular publishing font such as Times or Arial. Use single, 1.5 or double lined spacing only.

3.

Has this chapter aided you to focus more sharply on the core objective/s that you plan to pursue in the future? Justify your answer in writing, composing a piece of at least 300 words.

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References

Chabad (2020), Melachim I - I Kings - Chapter 10, www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/15894/jewish/Chapter-10.htm

Film Review Online (2020), Review, https://filmreviewonline.com/category/review/

Kim, H., & Damhorst, M. (2013), ‘Gauging concerns with fit and size of garments among young consumers in online shopping’, Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management, 8(3), pp. 1–14. https://ojs.cnr.ncsu.edu/index.php/JTATM/article/download/4566/2538

New York Times (2020), How to submit a letter to the editor, https://help.nytimes.com/hc/en-us/articles/115014925288-How-to-submit-a-letter-tothe-editor

Nine Simone (2020), Studio albums, www.ninasimone.com/studio-albums/

Northwestern Business Review (2020), NBR, https://northwesternbusinessreview.org/

Quran (2020), Sheba, https://quran.com/search?q=sheba

Unsplash (2020), Royalty free picture Etty Fidele, Christy the Model, https://unsplash.com/photos/VNYCIbZju0o

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Walls, Jeanette (2005), The glass castle, www.barnesandnoble.com/w/glass-castle-jeannette-walls/1100321217

Writo Pia Lab (2020), Standard playwrighting format, www.writopialab.org/programs/specialty-programs/worldwide-plays-festival/thecompetition/standard-playwriting-format

Further reading

These two suggested readings reinforce the fact that this book is not a complete writers’ guide. This text’s core goal aims to assist you to identify your core writing objectives.

Table 1 on page 8 of this chapter by Rose (2008, p. 8) offers a way to summarize writing genres. This useful one-page summary is not the authority for summarizing writing genres at-large. It is merely one useful version among many hundreds published.

Rose, D. (2009), ‘Writing as linguistic mastery: The development of genre-based literacy’, Handbook of writing development, London: Sage, pp. 151–166. www.researchgate.net/profile/David_Rose38/publication/292655008_Writing_as_ling uistic_mastery_The_development_of_genrebased_literacy_pedagogy/links/5a0e73a2a6fdcc2b5b5dfcc5/Writing-as-linguisticmastery-The-development-of-genre-based-literacy-pedagogy.pdf

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This article names and classifies five genres and 42 sub-genres in the fiction writing discipline. Patterson (2016) constructs an attractive color-coded diagram to guide her readers. These interesting categories are Amanda Patterson’s opinion.

Her 42 sub-genres are:

Mystery: General, Hard-boiled, Cozy, Historical, Police procedural, Hobby, Paranormal.

Thriller: Environments, Supernatural, Historical, Medical, Psychological, Legal, Espionage, Political, Technological, Military.

Romance: Paranormal, Contemporary, Historical, Western, Gothic, Regency, Suspense.

Fantasy: Urban, Contemporary, Traditional, Horror, Historical, Weird, Comic, Slipstream, Epic.

Science fiction: Dystopian/Utopian, Space Opera, Alternate, Cyberpunk, Steampunk, Military, Romantic, Hard, Soft.

Patterson, A. (2016), The 17 [sic 42] most popular genres in fiction and why they matter, www.writerswrite.co.za/the-17-most-popular-genres-in-fiction-and-why-they-matter/

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PART V

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This is the penultimate chapter of this book. Discussion centers around six all-important topics that may aid writers to obtain a sharper focus to define their arch objective/s.

The preliminary section aids readers to question their current and desired English language spelling and grammar competencies. Discussion in the next section leads you to consider the types of scripts that you aim to compose. Part three guides us to consider the types of writing styles that we aim to impart on our audiences. I explore the intriguing issue of solo projects and co-authorship options in the next section.

Part five leads you to reflect on whether one or more role-models inspires aspects of your writing such as style. These role-models may be writers or non-writers. The final topic considers the issue of circulation. Where and how do you plan to distribute your work?

As with most topics explored in this book, there may be multiple answers for each question. You may not currently know the answers to some questions, or you may not care to consider them. For some, answers may be plural and overlapping. Furthermore, they may change over time and by other contexts such as a project’s audience and scope.

Such fluidity, to some degree, is the norm among career authors. For example, many niche writers become more flexible when times are tough, and opportunities are scarce.

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SPELLING Let’s eat, Grandma. Let’s eat Grandma. Punctuation saves lives. ANONYMOUS

KEY TERMS

Colloquial language, content editing, grammar, language, on-the-job training, research, spelling, sub-editor.

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Is it possible to realize your arch writing ambitions with your current language skillset? Please consider the unique writing contexts and the language/s that you currently employ and those that you plan to use in the future to derive your creative work.

It is exceptionally difficult to become a masterful author if your spelling, grammar, and writing structure skills are average or worse. Examples of successful, respected authors who possess weak spelling, grammar and structure skills are rare. They mostly relate to eccentric extremes. Elite scientists and other professionals who hold specialist qualifications and work experience in narrow subfields may fall into this category.

In 2016, this writer shared his apartment with a roommate who was a college-qualified bioscience technician. She was offered employment in a role that bestowed the title ‘Subeditor: Biology’. This unusual job required her to ghostwrite academic articles authored by PhD-qualified elite scientists based on handwritten notes provided via her manager.

These notes may have been presented to her in multiple formats such as handwritten scribbles jotted down in abstract form on scrap pieces of paper. Her potential employer provided her with samples of laboratory research notes to read and edit at home prior to her interview for this role. One piece of paper loaned to her contained disordered information that seemed to relate to laboratory data analysis and clinical findings.

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The core duty of this occupation required her to convert such raw notes into logically ordered paragraphs, under appropriate headers, using discipline-specific jargon. This ‘Sub-editor: Bio-Science’ role did not award the incumbent credit as a proofreader or coauthor on the paper or via a footnote in other public spaces such as a corporate website.

My roommate rejected this job offer primarily on two grounds. She thought that this role was severely underpaid, given the intense tedium involved. Second, she objected to receiving no credit for ghostwriting bioscience reports for a life-and-death domain.

Those who author literature using colloquial language, such as ghetto street talk, may be expected to violate spelling and grammar rules by key stakeholders such as their readers. This situation is the inverse imposition for those who author political theory handbooks that aim to support graduate students who study international diplomacy subjects.

There are thousands of settings that impose unique demands on authors, manuscript proofreaders, and content editors. There is no central resource that may guide writers to master all language skills required of career authors. Ongoing research and on-the-job training are the best ways to master unique skillsets required by your stakeholders. Please constantly consider this critical topic with reference to your arch writing objective/s.

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END OF SECTION ACTIVITIES

What grammar error or errors, if any, can you identify in these sentences? Answers to these ten questions commence on page 96, overleaf.

1.

Sharons’ dog gave birth to three puppies this morning.

2.

My son cannot name the Capital of canada.

3.

I will enroll in Economics 101 & History 101 tomorrow.

4.

This television show is ridiculous!!!

5.

My boyfriend shouted out the bus window “C U tomorrow”.

6.

This study examines the East-West axis from a political theory perspective.

7.

I agree with you - there is no evidence to support your standpoint.

8.

I do agree with your opinion.

9.

I cannot stand television … it tires my eyes.

10.

Some scanners do not recognise tags that use red and pink colored fonts.

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Answers: Grammar exercise

1.

Sharon’s dog gave birth to three puppies this morning. Placement of apostrophe goes before the letter s for single ownership.

2.

My son cannot name the capital of Canada. Capitalize proper nouns. Nouns that are not proper nouns are not capitalized.

3.

I will enroll in Economics 101 and History 101 tomorrow. Do not use the ampersand to construct sentences. The ampersand symbol is mostly used to name or quote proper noun partnerships names. ‘Smith & Brown Attorneys and Tax Advisors’ is an example of a proper noun partnership name.

4.

This television show is ridiculous! One exclamation mark is used to complete a sentence. The use of multiple exclamation marks for extra emphasis is a colloquial English language style.

5.

My boyfriend shouted out the bus window “See you tomorrow”. C (see) U (you) is colloquial abbreviated English language. This grammar violation style is popular in informal contexts such as text messages sent to friends.

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This study examines the East–West axis from a Political Theory perspective. The wide dash is used for opposite poles such as North–South and On–Off.

7.

I agree with you – there is no evidence to support your standpoint. Use the wide dash to separate parts of a sentence.

8.

I agree with your opinion. The inclusion of the word ‘do’ is tautology. It duplicates the adjective ‘agree’.

9.

I cannot stand television. It tires my eyes. This is an incorrect use of the ellipse. An ellipse is used to abbreviate a citation. The ellipse substitutes the words that have been extracted from the original. The use of inverted commas (“ and ”) and/or italics is normally used to denote quotes.

10.

Some scanners do not recognize tags that use red and pink colored fonts. Or, Some scanners do not recognise tags that use red and pink coloured fonts.

The original text mixes American English and British English. Writers should consistently use one language style unless their editors/stakeholders explicitly request departure from this language consistency convention.

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Answers to the questions below appear on the following page, overleaf.

Grammar enhancement

How may these sentences be improved to reflect advanced English grammar skills?

1.

My day to day work duties are interesting.

2.

This book is about Tennyson’s glorious poetry. His glorious writing style is a quintessential example from the Victorian era.

3.

The goal of this project is twofold – The prime objective aims to analyze the efficacy of Canada’s federal health care policies between 1980 and 2010; The second objective seeks to identify political ideologies that influence healthcare policies at the provincial level during the same timeframe.

Content editing

What errors, if any, can you detect in these sentences?

1.

Tokyo is the capital of Russia.

2.

The Summer Olympic Games were held in London in 2002.

3.

Nelson Vandela is probably the most famous President of South Africa.

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Answers: Grammar enhancement

1.

Day to day can be converted to a compound word, i.e., ‘day-to-day’. Use the narrow dash to create compound words such as single-handedly.

2.

Advanced writers avoid using distinctive words such as ‘glorious’ in the same sentence or within consecutive sentences. Such repetition may bore readers. You may use a close or perfect substitute words such as ‘magnificent’. Prepositions and popular short words such as ‘cat’ and ‘yes’ are the opposite of distinctive words.

3.

Sentences longer than the equivalent of three complete lines and/or exceed circa 20 to 22 words could be converted into multiple sentences. A second sentence may be constructed that starts with “The second objective … same timeframe.”

Answers: Content editing

Text shown in bold underline font denotes the edited correction.

1.

Moscow is the capital of Russia. Or, Tokyo is the capital of Japan.

2.

The Summer Olympic Games were held in London in 2012.

3.

Nelson Mandela is probably the most famous President of South Africa.

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Further reading

Garner, B. (2016), The Chicago guide to grammar, usage, and punctuation, Chicago: Chicago University Press, 612 pages. www.pdfdrive.com/the-chicago-guide-to-grammar-usage-and-punctuatione176433965.html

Woods, G. (2010), English grammar for dummies (2nd edition), 387 pages, www.pdfdrive.com/english-grammar-for-dummies-2nd-edition-e184685635.html

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SCRIPTS A good film script should be able to do completely without dialogue. DAVID MAMET

KEY TERMS

Commercial, fiction, length, non-fiction, scripts, truth, volunteer contributors.

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This section briefly explores different types of scripts that authors may pen beyond the classification of genres discussed in the prior chapter. The three classifications explored in this chapter – length, truth, and commerce, partially and implicitly overlap with other topics discussed in this book. I invite readers to proactively root out these connections.

Length

Do you aspire to write short, medium, or extended pieces? How long is a piece of string? There is no definition of short, medium, or long. Meanings may vary in the minds of each individual and this may vary by context. It is generally accepted that fiction novels, which average around 250 pages, are extended pieces of writing. On the flipside, it is widely agreed that letters to the editor articles, which average around 160 words, are short pieces of writing. Medium length written works fall somewhere between these two magnitudes.

Reflecting on length may help you to better understand your goals. Neither extreme – short and long, is automatically superior or easier than the other. Some successful novelists may struggle to write news articles as they are unable to write in summary form. They may instinctively surmise that brief articles deceive audiences. Many print news journalists do not have the focus or desire to compose one written piece of work that may take weeks, months, or years to produce after being subjected to several intense edits.

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Truth

Do you prefer to write fiction or non-fiction? Perhaps you have no preference. Adapted fiction is inspired by truth. Fact and fiction are generally considered to be different kettles of fish. Some writers only excel authoring fiction. They may thrive on the challenge of creating a fable out of thin air. Some non-fiction composers such as geoscience researchers are only inspired writers when they share knowledge about their versions of reality.

Commerce

How important is it to you that you earn an income for your publications? It is usually more difficult to author and promote work that commands a price. The higher the price tag that is placed on your work, the more difficult it is to sell. Many career writers require payment at competitive commercial rates for their work as it is their main or sole income source. For many, the ability to earn sufficient income from their work is a prime benchmark to measure success of individual pieces of work and their career at-large.

Staff writers who engage as volunteer contributors tend to enjoy more creative freedom and less stress than those who expect payment. Editors usually find that it is more difficult to threaten dismissal to bend the will of staff writers who donate their labor.

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1.

Did this chapter aid you to focus on the core objective/s that you aim to achieve from your writing in the future? Justify your answer in circa 200 to 300 words.

2.

Do you have a preference to write short, medium, or extended pieces? Does your answer to the question above vary by context, such as project type? Explain your answer in writing, in circa 300 words.

3.

Do you excel at authoring fiction, adapted fiction or non-fiction? How much would it bother you if you were introduced to new people as a ‘fiction writer’ or a ‘non-fiction writer’ at social gatherings?

4.

Do you plan to earn most or all future income from your authorships?

Further reading

Colby College (2012), Writing creative non-fiction, Virginia: The Great Courses, 172 pages, www.fcusd.org/cms/lib03/CA01001934/Centricity/Domain/3762/Writing%20Creati ve%20Non%20Fiction.pdf

Colby College (2016), Writing creative fiction, Virginia: The Great Courses, 186 pages, www.fcusd.org/cms/lib03/CA01001934/Centricity/Domain/3762/Writing%20Great %20Fiction.pdf

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STYLES Every human harbors signature-style stellar stardom in one or more métiers that is as distinguishable as their divine DNA. J. JERICHO

KEY TERMS

Abstract, diplomatic, direct, first voice, flowery, indirect, no voice, second voice, third voice, voice.

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Most discussions about style and writing styles are interesting. Do you agree? For many, the connotations of the word ‘style’ are powerful. To be told that your wardrobe or hairstyle is ‘stylish’ is widely regarded as high flattery.

Of course, not all explicit references to style are positive. A job applicant may receive a constructive response from the hiring manager stating: “your abstract style of writing displayed in your portfolio of works is not appropriate for our publication”.

A comprehensive discussion about writing styles is worthy of a handbook. This section briefly explores a few popular writing styles. May this offer an avenue for you to consult a wider body of discussions and reflect on your past and planned writing expeditions. A self-reflexive appreciation of your natural, potential, and expected writing styles is normally essential for authors to realize their future goals, especially ones that are lofty.

Diplomatic

Diplomats choose their written and spoken words carefully. Their language tends to be indirect. The saying ‘read between the lines’, may refer to a diplomatically coded message. The intent of thinly-veiled encrypted messages is usually understood by the

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author’s target audience. This is normally because they are aware of the historical contexts that instigate a speaker or writer to convey their message in a subtle manner.

It is rare for diplomat to convey messages such as this, even if this claim was accurate. Our nation is cutting all foreign aid to your country. We do not support puppet regimes that are controlled by bloodthirsty, murderous dictators.

A diplomatic message may communicate the message above using this style of voice. Our nation is cutting all foreign aid to your country. We harbor concerns that your congress no longer exercises national sovereignty over its domestic affairs.

Current affairs journalists are an example of writers who may use diplomatic language.

Flowery

Flowery language refers to colorful text that has poetical character. This term tends to be used to describe written work that is not intended to be classifiable as poetry by the author. A great deal of poetry uses flowery language. This explains why the use of ‘flowery’ is mostly used to distinguish poetical writing styles that exist in other genres.

This sentence is an example of non-flowery text when used in a romance novel context. I finally summonsed the courage to ask Diana for a dinner date.

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This sentence is an example of flowery text when used in a romance novel context. Alas, my breast beating wildly, beyond words too intense, as I serenaded the starlet of my dreams, and pleaded for the pleasure of her company on one knee.

Direct

Direct writing styles make key details about an event or fact immediately obvious to their audience. This is an example of a direct writing style. Tracy’s grades for this semester are high distinctions for all courses.

This is an example of an indirect writing style.

Tracy’s report card does not contain any fails. All grades shown in her report card this semester are above average. This place her achievement in the top 2%

Direct writing styles are more word economical than indirect approaches. Direct styles tend to frame things in the positive where possible. The indirect statement above unnecessarily uses a negative word – ‘fails. Indirect styles may contain extra non-essential information. The reference to ‘top 2%’ does not exist in the direct statement.

Dense

Dense writing styles use run-on sentences and heavy punctuation. ‘Dense’ has a negative connotation. This style was more popular during the Modernism era, circa 1890-1945.

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Voice

It is difficult to overstate the importance of reflecting on your preferred choice of voice. Some writers will not or cannot work using certain voices such as the first-person.

This is an example of a sentence that uses the first-person voice. In this thesis I argue that Modernism is a vague concept.

This is an example of a sentence that uses the second-person voice. This thesis asks readers to decide if you concur that Modernism is a vague concept.

This is an example of a sentence that uses the third-person voice. The critics named in the third footnote argue that Modernism is a vague concept.

This is an example of an impersonal sentence that employs no voice. This thesis argues that Modernism is a vague concept.

Many publishers impose mandatory voice policies on certain writers. Most mainstream print newspapers do not permit junior staff journalists to write in the first voice. An undiplomatic editor may directly explain the logic of this policy to a junior writer in this colloquial style – “No one cares what journalists think – this article is not about you.”

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1.

To what degree do you surmise that diplomatic and indirect styles overlap? Consider this question above in general terms, and in specific writing contexts. Justify your answer in circa 300 words. Cite an example to defend your position.

2.

What writing styles can you identify beyond those named in this section?

3.

Which writing style/s do you prefer to use as a career writer?

Consider the styles named in this section, e.g. direct c.f. indirect, and others that you can draw upon from existing knowledge and/or additional research. Explain in writing, in circa 300 to 500 words, why mastery of one or more styles is or is not important to your core writing aspirations.

Further reading

Siegal, A. & Connolly, W. (2015), The New York Times manual of style and usage, 496 pages, www.pdfdrive.com/the-new-york-times-manual-of-style-and-usage-2015-edition-theofficial-style-guide-used-by-the-writers-and-editors-of-the-worlds-most-authoritativenews-organization-e175910365.html

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SOLO I was always totally amazed that the people I would meet while I was doing them were really, really concerned with what they meant. The first thing anyone asked me, no matter how old, no matter who they were, was, ‘What does it mean?’ KEITH HARING

KEY TERMS

Collaborative

workspaces, cooperation, employment

history, leisure,

minority

contributor, multiple author credits, primary author, productivity gains, solo writers, teams, team dynamics.

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Most people prefer to fly solo or with a crew. So, this author says. Do you agree? This choice is a big one for serious writers. Please reflect carefully on these two options.

The opening statement above is a generalization. Preferences may vary by context. Millions of people who prefer to work in teams may not harbor this preference when composing romantic poetry. For many, all forms of poetry are private, solitude affairs.

There are pros and cons of writing alone or with a team. Solo writers are awarded 100% of the authorship credit. For many, this is paramount. It is difficult to know who wrote what passages if there are multiple author credits. It is customary to list the primary author first for collaborations. In such cases, an author who devotes just 5% to a project may be recognized equally alongside a fellow minority contributor who penned 45%.

Multiple authors can carve up duties. It is usually much faster to author a comprehensive handbook of 1,000 plus pages with a team of five authors than it is with one author. Such productivity gains are also a generalization. Infighting and other group dynamics complexities can significantly undermine teamwork progress. Several team meetings may be postponed at the last moment if one or more members cannot synchronize their availability. Authors may bicker over core issues about content and editing. Some writers may quit late in the project if their favorite idea or chapter are axed via a team consensus.

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Collaborative workspaces may offer an excellent facility to meet others who strive to develop their writing skills or other creative pursuits. Shared commercial workspaces are available for rent in most towns and cities. Many specialist art colleges offer similar facilities 24/7. This shared space below is an example extracted from Google Images.

Working alongside likeminded motivated people who are passionate about their craft can impart positive energy that is mutually beneficial. Dedicated individuals who pursue excellence can learn a great deal from others who create in different disciplines. Consider these illustration examples of a core career objective – a career holy grail perhaps.

I aim to develop a hybrid, signature-style chronicle writing format that enmeshes classic Victorian prose styles with social media formats.

I aim to develop a hybrid, original style of music composition for cellists that draws from an inventory of low pitch animal noises such as cow moos.

Upstarts in most fields can benefit from numerous types of cooperation. A writer and a sculptor could lease a work studio and share access times and rental costs 50/50. Living in shared houses occupied by active artists may offer similar benefits. The Tacheles Building in Berlin is a famous example worth researching (Drake, 2016).

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END OF SECTION ACTIVITIES

Provide a written answer of circa 300 to 600 words for each question set.

1.

Reflect on your employment history if you have one to draw from. Have most of your roles required you to work primarily alone or alongside team members? Which of these two options, if any, do you prefer? Does this preference vary by context? If the answer is yes, discuss these factors.

2.

Reflect on the type of projects that you write for work, leisure, or other pursuits. What is the industry norm for these projects? Are such works invariably penned by one or more writers? What is your preference generally – to compose work as sole author or as a member of a team? Does this preference vary by context? If they vary, what are the issues that cause this preference to change?

Reference

Toolbox LA (2020), Home, https://toolbox.la/

Further reading

Drake, M. (2016), Art squats, artistic critique and resistance: Between recuperation and obliteration, http://wuwr.pl/pkult/article/download/5541/5219/

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CHAMPIONS A true champion will fight through anything. FLOYD MAYWEATHER JR.

KEY TERMS

Ancient times, classics, contemporaries, inspiration, researching, role models, self-taught.

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Most famous writers cite classics and contemporaries as sources of inspiration. I base this argument on a sample of interviews and memoirs of around 100 published authors.

Role models, as opposed to idols, may inspire us in healthy ways. Role models can keep us humble. Of course, not all people care to pursue this character trait. This writer is confident that he will never be a superb novelist like Steinbeck or a classy poet like Yeates. He has no plans to specialize in their main genres. It normally takes decades to achieve excellence in a field. Role models can serve as free tutors. If you are inspired by Roseanne Barr’s standup comedy, you may scribe verbatim her open-access work available on YouTube. This self-taught comedy writer is among the all-time greats in this field.

Identifying your favorite writers may be a savvy, self-reflective way to learn more about the type of writer you are and desire to be. If most of your favorite authors pen fiction novels in the mythology genre, this may be the type of writer that you aim to become. The famous fiction novel The Lord of the Rings by John Tolkien fits into this colorful genre.

Researching your favorite writers’ genres can offer a fruitful avenue to explore new ideas and styles. Neil Gaiman and Margaret Atwood are famed contemporaries who author fiction in the mythology genre. Robert Graves was one of Tolkien’s contemporaries. Geoffrey Chaucer’s classic mythological writings are dated from England’s Late Middle Ages. Homer and Pindar penned mythology classics in ancient times.

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END OF SECTION ACTIVITIES

1.

Compose a list of three to ten writers who you like and list their best publications. What genres do these works belong to? What degree of interest do you have in these genres personally and professionally? Do you aspire to follow in the footsteps of these inspirational writers? Why or why not?

2.

Write a dear diary entry of circa 400 words that explains the reasons why you admire the career achievements of an author or a team of collaborating authors.

Reference

Tolkien, J. (1954), The lord of the rings, Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin. www.pdfdrive.com/lord-of-the-rings-jrr-tolkien-published-by-harper-collins-in-2010e136110647.html

Further reading

Millman, D. et al. (2013), The creative compass: Writing your way from inspiration to publication, California, USA: New World Library, 207 pages. www.pdfdrive.com/the-creative-compass-writing-your-way-from-inspiration-topublication-d176153650.html

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CIRCULATION It is the mark of a truly intelligent person to be moved by statistics. George Bernard Shaw

KEY TERMS

Alternative media, circulation, fake news, digital, geography, geographical reach, global, glossy magazines, local, mainstream, multinational, national, online, niche publications, paper editions, presstitutes, prestige, publisher, regional, state, springboard.

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For many authors, and maybe most, the ways that their writings are distributed is the be-all and end-all of their aspirations. Some authors who write in the Nature and Environment non-fiction genre may aspire to have their first three or so articles published by global powerhouses such National Geographic magazine and Smithsonian magazine. They do not care whether these early career publications earn them much income or recognition among their peers. They may be convinced that the mere crediting of their name as an author three or so times in these magazines is their springboard. These elite citations will propel them to realize their holy grail conquest in the world of writing.

Print paper editions versus online publishing is a popular classification of circulation type. Some business-oriented periodicals such as Trends Journal only print an online edition. Publications that do not offer a full or partial (i.e. adapted hybrid) version online are becoming rarer each year. The Australasian Canadian Studies journal is an example of a niche publication that has been available only in hard copy format during its existence.

Many public commentators openly claim that online edition only formats are more common among amateur publishers such as student managed newspapers. It is more expensive and complex to collate paper editions. Nowadays, anyone with access to a simple website that they maintain editing control over can label themselves a publisher.

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A publication’s geographical reach is a key consideration for masses of authors. These six levels of geographical distribution are this author’s suggestion: local, state, regional, national, multinational, and global. The definitions of the first four named distribution types depends on the perspective of the author or stakeholders such as their audience.

John Ibbitson is a prolific print news journalist who works for The Globe & Mail. His publisher’s office is based in Toronto, Canada. From John’s perspective, anything published only in Greater Toronto is a local publication. Anything circulated throughout Ontario only is a state-wide publication. Canada is Ibbitson’s national geography.

The word ‘regional’ is vague in the absence of context. Many political correspondents talk about ASEAN and the Southeast Asia region. ASEAN includes members nations such as Vietnam and Thailand. From Ibbitson’s perspective, ‘regional’ may refer to any states, including American states, that share a border with Ontario such as Minnesota.

‘Multinational’ refers to two or more nations. Laos and Mexico are examples of sovereign nations. ‘Global’ reach publications generally refer to written work that is disseminated across planet Earth. This definition does not require inclusion of most sovereign nations or continents. It is probably fair to say that a commercial publication enjoyed ‘global success’ if it sold more than one million copies each in multiple continents.

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Nowadays, most superior quality publications command an audience beyond narrow contexts that they aim to serve such as a county or province. The ability to share and acquire material via digital means such as the Internet is a core reason for this reality. Using online searches, readers should be able to find examples of Scottish poets who wrote poems in the English language during the 19th Century. John Veitch is an example.

Mainstream versus niche publications is another type of distribution classification among many hundreds of others. Some fringe writers may always automatically reject offers from mainstream press to publish their work. Others may likewise always ignore such offers from alternative publishers such as the Green Left Weekly in Australia.

Diverse reasons explain these mindsets. Some writers surmise that alternative media has no credibility. This is obvious as the masses do not engage them, and most don’t pay writers a living wage. Others may reject certain mainstream corporate news media if they are convinced that their journalists are ‘presstitutes’. So-called ‘presstitutes’ are those who will author virtually anything that is requested by their news editor. This includes content that they know is fake news – so long as their employer pays them the right price.

Some freelancers only submit to glossy magazines such as Vogue. They believe that these pretty magazines bestow prestige on their writers. Other authors avoid such publications. They feel that glossies embed large attractive images to entertain simple audiences.

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END OF SECTION ACTIVITIES

Provide a written answer of circa 300 to 500 words for each question set. Discuss your answer with reference to core objectives that you plan to realize from your publications.

1.

This chapter discusses three topics that relate to distribution. Which relevant topics are missing from the three discussed in this chapter? How critical are these absent domains to the goals that you aim to achieve?

2.

Did you find this author’s six geographic classifications useful to visualize the dissemination of your authorships? Explain why you draw this conclusion. Can you devise a more useful classification of geographical distribution?

Reference Australasian Canadian Studies (2020), Home, www.acsanz.org.au/?page_id=42 Trends Journal (2020), Home, https://trendsresearch.com/

Further reading

Flahive, G. (2017), Digital self-promotion for the underdog author: Creative opportunities and experimentation, https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1556308/1/Flahive%20Article.pdf

Poets & Writers (2020), Publishing your book, www.pw.org/content/publishing_book

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Chapter summary

Chapter five threads core technical skills required of diligent writers and choices galore available to us. These broad factors, outlined in the table below, may also impact the ways that others categorize our work. This matrix summarizes this writer’s opinion of fiction books authored by two of his favorite writers: John Steinbeck and Jeffrey Archer.

Criteria

John Steinbeck

Jeffrey Archer

Spelling,

Both authors’ work display evidence of superior proofreading, as one

Grammar

would expect of famous texts published by global powerhouses.

Scripts

Both authors wrote popular short stories and extended fiction novels.

Styles

Flowery,

rich

description

historical events and suffering. Solo

of Mostly employs direct language about agents to builds suspense.

Both writers earned acclaim as solo writers.

Champions Tutors: Cupp, Hawkins, Bailey and Drew Mirrielees (Rumsby, 2016). Circulation

inspiration

from

real

historical events (Archer, 2020).

Both writers’ works were mostly disseminated by global commercial publishers in print format. Both have sold more than 100 million copies.

Preparing this template aided this writer to discover that his favorite authors share more core similarities than differences. This is an intriguing finding. These men did not write at the same time. They are from different countries are wrote mostly for different genres.

This books’ conclusion, the next chapter, analyzes a Jack of all Trades case study. Most scholars learn more from real writer’s works than they can from armchair theory books.

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END OF CHAPTER ACTIVITIES

1.

Did this chapter aid you to narrowly define the arch objective/s that you aim to pursue as a writer? If the answer is ‘no’, explain why. If you answered ‘yes’ to the question above, discuss what you learned using the terminologies mentioned in this chapter. Write down your answer using 300 to 600 words as a guideline for length.

2.

This chapter reviewed four distribution criteria: Digital c.f. paper, geography, mainstream versus alternative, and glossy magazines c.f. non-glossy formats. Using your own words, attach a brief description (e.g. “highly important”) of one to five words for these four criteria. This description should summarize the influence that this format option exerts over your current writing objectives.

3.

Prepare a template that compares two or more writers from any genres. You may compare any common facet related to these authors such as: a book authored by each writer, their brand image, or their complete corpus of works. Use four or more comparison criteria outlined in this book and/or other sources. Does your rubric aid you to clarify the arch objectives that you aim to achieve as an author? Why or why not? Compose a written answer of 150 to 400 words.

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References

Archer, J. (2020), Face to face with death, www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8321733/Our-final-short-story-takes-inspirationtrue-poignant-tale.html

Rumbsby, J. (2016), Steinbeck’s influences, https://sits.sjsu.edu/context/influencers/

Further reading

Freelance Writing (2020), Free eBooks for writers and authors, www.freelancewriting.com/ebooks/

Writer’s Toolbox (2020), Tips from the masters, www.writingclasses.com/toolbox/tips-masters/elmore-leonard-10-rules-for-goodwriting#:~:text=My%20most%20important%20rule%20is,Exclamation%20Points%20an d%20Especially%20Hooptedoodle.%22

This article above is highly recommended. It succinctly summarizes several practical ideas that promote sharp writing styles for commercial audiences. This author incorporated some ideas from this article into his opening chapter about Luke Applebee.

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CONCLUSION The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched - they must be felt with the heart. HELEN KELLER

KEY TERMS

Champions, circulation, control, creative, genres, grail, grails, grammar, scripts, solo, styles.

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Core

This book argues that some novice authors may struggle to identify one or two arch goals that they aim to achieve from their writing. Kudos to ‘Luke Applebee’ for this inspiration. May discussions in this text aid you to sharpen your focus on this all-important quest.

You don’t need to believe in the existence of any holy grail, literally, or metaphorically, to appreciate the importance of sustaining a focused mind when you pursue beloved endeavors. These includes projects that you engage as a professional and for leisure.

Most people’s desires vary, to some degree, by context such as time lapses and audience. Seasoned writers who are wealthy may have the luxury to write to please themselves.

This author can only complete publicly disseminated writing projects when he has full or near-exclusive creative control over his work and writes from the heart about realities that interest him personally or professionally. May this anecdote inspire you to identify key factors that may lead you to become an author who realizes their wildest dreams.

Each of us is a unique brand. We have potential to impart signature-style excellence in multiple fields that we engage. There is no expectation that this mindset will resonate with you. May you freely question everything put before you in this book and beyond.

Part VI

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

The table below is a summary of this author’s self-reflection of core topics. The writing style is abstract. I urge readers to complete the mirror-image blank template overleaf within a day or so of reading this page. You may revise this template over time. Please date and file each copy and reflect on your views and desires as you mature as a writer.

(August, 2020)

Reflective topic

This author’s self-reflective comment

Creative

Identifies with writing primarily as a profession and not a hobby. Has little interest in pursuing high art such as poetry. Enjoys writing quatrains on occasion for fun. Inspired by Nostradamus.

Control

Recognition of authorship is not important for dry facts news reporting. I would never contribute to any project that knowingly reports false, biased, or misleading information.

Grail

Aim to work primarily in news reporting domains.

Grails

May occasionally publish some creative writing as a side project.

Genres

News reporting, reviews and research are favorite fields. Working as a data analyst in the past may have influenced my tendency to use rubrics such as this table to summarize ideas.

Grammar

Generally satisfied. There is much room for improvement.

Scripts

Write short, non-fiction articles that have commercial potential.

Styles

Direct. Prefer to write with no voice for most assignments.

Solo

Solo unless directed by an editor to work on collaborations.

Champions

Catherine Austin Fitts and Lynette Zang are inspirational independent news reporters. Both professionals explain complex economic ideas in ways that are accessible to lay readers.

Circulation

Prefer medium or large circulation for career roles. Audience size is not important for creative writing side projects.

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This template is about you and your many exciting writing endeavors.

Reflective topic

Your self-reflective comment

Creative

Control

Grail

Grails

Genres

Grammar

Scripts

Styles

Solo

Champions

Circulation

Date ___________

Place _____________

Mood ____________

♥ etc.

Part VI

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

END OF CHAPTER ACTIVITY

This template may aid you to clarify your arch writing objectives. Make a note in each box of qualifying factors. Ways that a goal may vary by context is a factor example.

What do I want to achieve from my authorships?

1. = Arch priority etc.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Date _______________

Place _____________

Mood ____________

♥ etc.

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Reference

Leonard, Elmore (July 16, 2001), ‘Writers on writing; Easy on the adverbs, Exclamation points and especially hooptedoodle’. www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/10255072/Elmore-Leonard-the-writers-thrillerwriter.html#:~:text=Elmore%20Leonard%2C%20the%20great%20US,hand%20to%2C%2 0says%20Mark%20Sanderson.&text=Elmore%20Leonard's%20later%20novels,as%20wh at%20he%20put%20in.

Woolf, V. (1929), A room of one’s own, https://premiumglobalmagazine.files.wordpress.com/2019/06/virginia_woolf__a_room_of_ones_own.pdf

Further reading

Rosenfeld, J. (2015), A writer's guide to persistence: how to create a lasting and productive writing practice, London: Penguin, 253 pages book. www.pdfdrive.com/a-writers-guide-to-persistence-how-to-create-a-lasting-andproductive-writing-practice-e199766932.html

Ross, M. & Collier, S. (2010), The complete guide to self-publishing: Everything you need to know to write, publish, promote and sell your own book, Writer’s Digest Publishing (Online), 555 pages book. www.pdfdrive.com/the-complete-guide-to-self-publishing-everythingyou-need-to-know-to-write-publish-promote-and-sell-your-own-book-d157053520.html

Appendices

PUBLISHERS

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

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CASH

People get more freedom and less money, which is always good for an artist.

ROSEANNE BARR

KEY TERMS

Acquisition editor, ISBN Publisher of Record, literary agent, Lulu, unsolicited manuscripts, vanity publisher.

Appendices

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

This section chronicles my attempts to disseminate this book via a commercial publisher of any size and standing. During mid-late 2020, this author sent a manuscript of this book to approximately 60 commercial publishers. An extract from the contact list that I referenced comprises the final page of this section. Notes in this section may aid novice writers to appreciate the profound challenges of promoting a manuscript that seasoned, global, for-profit publishers recognize as being of publishable quality.

By November 11, 2020, most publishers have responded. All but one responder declined to publish this book. The sample email by Kent State University overleaf is typical of the response received from most publishers. The thrust of this message is that this manuscript has publication potential, however, it does not match their 2020/21 catalog.

This author received an offer from Adelaide Books. He suspects that this written opportunity is a hollow vanity publishing offer. Their email overleaf begs the question whether this publisher earns most of its income from checks paid by their authors.

This author is content to self-publish this book on Lulu and disseminate free samples to colleges that teach Creative Writing 101 courses. Publishing this book has negligible connection to this author’s holy grail authorship quest. There are numerous more worthy projects in the pipeline to dwell too long on this one. Writing this was a joyous journey.

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This email is an example of a cold call approach to an acquisition editor. This general email was used as a template. A dozen or so recipients received a near-identical message.

Authors may need to customize their submissions to meet a publisher’s needs. Around one in three publishers insist that authors upload their manuscript as a PDF or .doc file.

Appendices

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

This email is an example of a customized approach sent to an acquisition editor. Some publishers request information and evidence about the ability of the author to selfpromote their publication.

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The thrust of this generous response from Edinburgh University Press is indicative of most responses received from publishers.

Publishing books may become more difficult in the post COVID19 global economic collapse era. This author suspects that publishers have become more selective and more risk averse during the months that this writer had contacted potential publishers.

Further reading Grove, J. (2020), Open-access publishing and the Coronavirus, www.insidehighered.com/news/2020/05/15/coronavirus-may-be-encouragingpublishers-pursue-open-access

Appendices

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

This is an example of a response that offers encouragement about the integrity of the manuscript. Thank you, Kat. Of course, it may have been better to receive a review that demands editorial changes and an offer for publication in the same memo. Che sarà, sarà.

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A few publishers, such as Writer’s Digest Conference, generously provided feedback that pointed this writer towards a group of publishers who were more likely to consider my manuscript. Thank you, Taylor!

Appendices

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

Do you consider this offer to fall in the realm of a vanity publishing opportunity? Please freely decide. This author has no opinion on this topic with reference to Adelaide Books.

Further reading Castillo, M. (2011), ‘Vanity press and other scams that make you feel cool’, American Journal of Neuroradiology, March 2011, 423–429. http://www.ajnr.org/content/ajnr/32/3/423.full.pdf

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Around one in three publishers claim that they do not accept unsolicited manuscripts. This writer sent his manuscript to circa 20 publishers who broadcast this claim online. Most responded to confirm that they had perused enough of the book to provide specific feedback. There should be no harm in writing to a publisher who prints such claims. If a manuscript arrived in their inbox that was on par with a novel such as To Kill a Mockingbird, you would most likely receive a generous, speedy, pleading reply.

Be conscious of the true value of your work. Publishers may water down their interest in publishing a masterpiece, so that they may undercut the royalties payable to the author. This novella below imparts a literary manner to illustrate this deceitful practice. Further reading Steinbeck, J. (1956), The Pearl, London: Penguin. https://archive.org/stream/ThePearlJohnSteinbeck/The-Pearl-John-Steinbeck_djvu.txt

Appendices

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

Penguin Random House claim that they only accept manuscripts vetted and forwarded by recognized literary agents. This writer submitted his manuscript to Penguin Random House direct and received customized feedback from an acquisitions editor.

This writer made a conscious decision to bypass middle agents. Middle agents may slow down the process by several months. Some may steal intellectual property. They may also charge a fee to skim read your work and command an excessive commission on sales.

Further reading Brewer, R. (2020), Do literary agents steal ideas? What about editors and publishers?, www.writersdigest.com/publishing-insights/do-literary-agents-steal-ideas-whatabout-editors-and-publishers

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This Acquisition Editor, David, generously informed me about Lulu self-publishing. This author would rather die than spend a cent on toxic Amazon. As a self-publishing author, he has freedom to cheekily express his opinions about Amazon without self-censoring.

Readers may access Lulu via this website, as shown in this image below.

Appendices

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

This Acquisition Editor, Margaret, generously informed this writer about two databases that may assist me to locate suitable editors. Thank you, Margaret.

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Appendices

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

ISBN

Acquiring a unique International Standard Book Number (ISBN) may aid professional publishers and self-publishers in two ways. The primary advantage is identification. Those who act to obtain a copy of your book should be able to locate your text from booksellers, repositories and librarians, without confusion, when they know the ISBN.

Purchasing an ISBN and placing this number on your work may enhance the professionalism of your publication in the minds of naïve persons. Anyone may publish an excellent book, and sell it online, or in a store, without an ISBN. It is also possible to purchase an ISBN and attach it to a book whose content and editing is so sloppy that no one would pay a cent to purchase it in hard copy format or read it online for free.

This writer intends to purchase an ISBN for this document when the manuscript is ready for publishing via a platform such as Lulu and external publishers. The issue of ‘Publisher of Record’ came to the attention of this writer during the finalization of this draft manuscript. Some vendors who sell ISBNs, under license, purposefully insert their business name as the ‘Publisher of Record’ on the ISBN database. In most cases, this description is misleading. Please always act to ensure that no ISBN vendor can claim partial or full copyright of your work unless this commercial situation is your intention.

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This writer suggests that authors and publishers be wary of ISBN vendors who list themselves as ‘Publisher of Record’ of your copyright work by default, or via a take-itor-leave it option. The latter scenario may be more likely among those who merely sell ISBN numbers and ISBN bar codes at the cheapest price. Naming an ISBN vendor as the ‘Publisher of Record’ may confuse readers about who published the book and who has an intimate business relationship with the author. There should be no need for a book buyer to contact an ISBN vendor to obtain a copy of that text in virtually all cases.

This author is skeptical about the title of the e-mail message below. I refer to the one flagged with a check mark in a green box. My ability to publish this book has nothing to do with ISBN Services or any ISBN registration vendor. Furthermore, it is possible that I published this book and did not inform ISBN Services. It is none of their business.

ISBN Services are one of the cheapest ISBN vendors. As far as this author can gauge, ISBN Services list themselves as the ‘Publisher of Record’ for ISBN numbers provided by their firm. If you are happy to have a firm like ISBN Services list themselves as your Publisher of Record, then you may be attracted to their dirt-cheap prices. Buyer beware. Some ISBN vendors upload fake positive reviews on websites such as Verified Reviews dot com.

Appendices

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

Author

Jay holds a Doctor of Social Sciences Degree from the University of Sydney. His work has been published by global universities and free press news media. His two-part openaccess book series NESARA: The Facts has been downloaded circa 330,000 times during the past 15 months. He mostly self-publishes, with no price tag attached, to maximize public-access options and to retain creative control over content and his evolving brand.

Please contact this author via the web address shown below if any link in this book’s reference sections are dead. A replacement for dead web links is available at the website address shown right. This website is updated twice a year. www.penpro.org

My current writing is about K2 consumption. I am keen to hear from persons who wish to share their stories about synthetic cannabinoids in confidence.

www.drugabuse.gov/drugtopics/trendsstatistics/infographics/synthe tic-cannabinoids-k2spiceunpredictable-danger

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Forthcoming This mini memoire aims to gift fellow artists a hoard of hints that may guide us to identify the arch objectives that we pursue from our portfolio of passion. In this vein, it is about building belief in beautiful brains. Per Luke Applebee, this is rarely an easy task.

This author’s forthcoming adapted fiction novel, tentatively titled Nancy’s Prophecy is about the physical realm of authoring. It critically examines rank non-mental barriers that help and hinder writers from realizing their holy grail quest or their equivalent concept.

This author had his Tacheles Building experience for a few glorious years, residing in a transient halfway home complex in the Big Apple. During this time, he engaged an army of artists from dozens of disciplines and destinations who were pursuing the welltrodden Made in Manhattan mold. A few were reminiscing their post dream pinnacle.

The thrust of this novel may center around one of Woolf’s most pristine passages: Women, then, have not had a dog’s chance of writing poetry. That is why I have laid so much stress on money and a room of one’s own. (p. 90)

Interruptions are a main barrier that impedes authors from capturing their crystal-clear holy grail. A room of one’s own and a bit a kitty may antidote of this noxious ‘I’ noun.

Opinion 2

I am not yet convinced by the Holy Grail premise of this book.

Alternative argument 2:

Opinion 5

Opinion 4

Side 2 is a polemic viewpoint

Side 2

No. I work in the music and entertainment business and these industries are largely absent in this book.

I am not yet sure. I need time to reflect on this question.

Middle Ground

I obtained many useful ideas from this book. Some of the illustrations are inspiring but they are too short.

Opinion 3

Alternative argument 1:

Side 1 is a polemic viewpoint

Side 1

Yes. The list of topics is comprehensive and a realistic example is given for every principle discussed.

Opinion 1

Non-dichotomy analysis model

Suggested question: Does this book aid you to identify your core writing objectives?

End of book review. Please use this template to analyze one or more issues raised in this book.

Appendices Publishers’ edition © Jericho 151

Side 2

Opinion 5

Alternative argument 2:

Side 2 is a polemic viewpoint

Opinion 2

Opinion 4

Middle Ground

Opinion 3

Alternative argument 1:

Side 1 is a polemic viewpoint

Side 1

Opinion 1

Non-dichotomy analysis model

Suggested question: Does this book aid you to identify your core writing objectives?

End of book review. Please use this template to analyze one or more issues raised in this book.

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Appendices

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

Glossary This section outlines key terms that relate to the world of authoring and publishing. Most of these terms appear in this book’s index section.

Advance – Some publishers pay writers an allowance that assists the artist to cover their living and writing expenses while they author a text. It may be a single upfront payment or sent via instalments, such as renumeration for completion of a chapter (e.g. p. 3). Copy – Refers to any written material. Examples include a draft poem or a completed manuscript such as a novel. It may exist in paper or digital format. It may embed other content that supports text, such as photographic images and sketches (e.g. p. 60). Freelancer – An independent writer. Most freelancers work from their own office at least some of the time. Clients such as publishers may purchase their work and they may control the writers’ output. The opposite of a freelancer is a staff writer (e.g. p. 121). Manuscript – Written work that is a work-in-progress piece or a final draft (e.g. p. 7). Pen name – A fictitious name used by a writer to conceal their identity. A pen name is synonymous with the noun ‘pseudonym’ (e.g. p. 2). Plagiarism – Claiming credit for text or principles created by another writer. Innocently forgetting to cite the original source is known as unintentional plagiarism (e.g. p. 30). Staff writer – An author employed by another party such as a publisher. In contrast to freelancers, staff writers mostly work in a location managed their employer (e.g. p. 103).

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Guidebook

Academia

pp. 3, 14, 29-30, 46, 48, 93, 113

Advance payments

pp. 3, 153

Art,

Artistic

pp. 19, 21, 25, 30, 36, 42, 114

Decorative

p. 22

Fine

pp. 19, 22-23

High

pp. 19, 29-30, 52, 129

Originality

pp. 16, 19-22, 25, 30, 50-52, 54, 59, 113, 153

Champions, inspiration

pp. 14, 84, 115-117, 123

Circulation

pp. 14, 84, 91, 118-119, 123, 127

Digital/online

pp. 72, 87, 118-119, 121-122

Geography

pp. 118, 120, 124

Paper editions

pp. 2, 7, 93, 119, 153

Collaborations

pp. 111-113, 117, 129

Control

pp. 13-14, 26-31, 33-34, 127-129, 149, 153

Copyright

pp. 26, 29, 34, 38, 147

COVID19

pp. 43, 58, 66, 138

Creative, Creativity

pp. 10, 13-16, 19-22, 25-31, 33, 40, 57, 64, 93, 103-104, 113, 117, 122, 127-130, 135, 149

Critics , reviewers

pp. 4, 23, 27, 29, 51-52, 57-58, 67, 72, 85, 94, 109, 122, 131

Demographics

pp. 65, 69

Editors

pp. 26, 29-30, 32, 44, 46, 48-49, 58, 87, 92-94, 97, 102-103, 109110, 121, 129

Appendices

Acquisitions

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

pp. 133-146

Ethics

pp. 2, 6-7, 121, 129

Fiction

pp. 2-4, 10, 21, 37, 46-47, 54, 59, 72, 79-80, 85, 89, 101-104, 116, 119, 123, 129, 131

Free stuff (open-access)

pp. 7, 10, 14-15, 24, 29-30, 46, 83, 116, 149

Freelancers

pp. 2, 5, 29, 34, 39, 43-44, 121, 125, 153

Genres

pp. 4, 13-14, 16, 24, 42, 46-47, 54, 57, 79, 83-86, 88-89, 102, 107, 116-117, 119, 123-124, 127, 129-130

Rants

pp. 29, 46-48, 52, 86

Recitals

pp. 46-47, 83, 86

Recognitions

pp. 46-47, 50-53, 86

Recollections

pp. 46-47, 50, 54, 86

Records

pp. 46-47, 55-56, 86

Regulations

pp. 46-47, 57-58, 86

Releases

pp. 46-47, 59-60, 86

Religious

pp. 10, 24, 41, 46-47, 61-62, 65, 86

Reporters

pp. 24, 46-47, 49, 56-57, 59, 61, 65-66, 73, 86, 102, 107, 109, 120-121, 129

Reports

pp. 46-47, 55, 63-64, 86, 94

Research

pp. 4, 24, 29, 32, 42, 44, 46-48, 67-68, 81, 86, 93

Résumés

pp. 46-49, 69-71, 81, 86

Reviews

pp. 26, 29, 46-48, 58, 72-74, 86

Rhymes

pp. 42, 46-47, 75-76, 86

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Role Plays

pp. 46-47, 77-78, 86, 88

Romances

pp. 37, 46-47, 79-80, 86, 89, 107-108

Rubrics

pp. 46-47, 81-82, 86, 124, 129

Ghostwriters

pp. 2, 5, 7, 93-94

Grammar

pp. 10, 24, 29, 48, 64, 85, 91-96, 98-100, 123, 127, 129-130

Hobby writing

pp. 19, 23-24, 89, 129

Holy grail

pp. 13-14, 23, 27, 31, 36-43, 79, 84, 113, 119, 127-131

Inspiration

pp. 2, 7-8, 75, 91, 103, 115-117, 123, 125, 128-129

ISBN

pp. 134, 147-148

Manuscripts

pp. 2, 7, 17, 29-30, 32, 94, 134, 136, 139-140, 142-143, 147, 153

Motivation

pp. 15, 31, 40, 42, 113, 118

Niche fields

pp. 24, 26, 31, 38, 61, 65, 67, 83, 91, 118-119, 121

Non-fiction

pp. 46-47, 54, 101, 103-104, 119, 129

Plagiarism

pp. 26, 30, 153

Presstitutes

pp. 118, 121

Pseudonym, pen name

pp. 2, 153

Publishers

pp. 3, 5, 29-30, 34, 41, 44, 83, 109, 118-121, 123, 133-146, 153

Scripts

pp. 14, 21, 25, 77, 84-85, 91, 101-104

Commerciality

pp. 10, 14, 20, 24, 28, 30, 41, 77, 101, 103

Length

pp. 54, 79, 101-102

Truth

pp. 101-103

Solo

pp. 14-15, 84, 91, 111-114, 123, 127, 129-130

Spelling

pp. 14, 24, 29, 48, 64, 84-85, 91-100, 123

Appendices

Publishers’ edition © Jericho

Staff writers

pp. 58, 61, 103, 109, 153

Styles

pp. 14, 22, 48, 55, 59, 69, 84, 96-98, 105-110, 113, 116, 123, 129 Colloquial

pp. 24, 92, 94, 96, 109

Dense

p. 108

Diplomatic

pp. 73, 94, 105-107, 109-110

Direct

pp. 105, 108, 110, 123, 129

Dry

pp. 55, 129

Flowery

pp. 105, 107-108, 123

Phonetic

pp. 24, 75, 85

Signature-style

pp. 19, 21-22, 52, 105, 113, 128

Street talk

pp. 94, 96

Synopses

pp. 46, 67-68

Voice (First, second etc.)

pp. 73, 105, 107, 109, 129

Work from home

pp. 3, 39, 43-44

Writers, four purposes

pp. 9-11

This work is © copyright registered in the USA by the author. To discuss commercial copyright usage and/or publication opportunities, please email the author Dr J Jericho at [email protected]

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