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COLLINS' HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF KENTUCKY.

HISTORY

KENTUCKY: By

the late

lewis COLLINS,

Judge of the Masou County Court.

EICHARD

PRE-HISTORIC,

ANTIQUITIES

II.

COLLINS, A.M., LL.B.

ANNALS FOR 331 YEARS, OUTLINE, AND BY COUNTIES, STATISTICS, AND NATURAL CURIOSITIES, GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL

DESCRIPTIONS, SKETCHES OF THE COURT OF APPEALS,

THE CHURCHE,S,

FREEMASONRY, ODD FELLOWSHIP, AND INTERNAL lilPROVEMENTS, INCIDENTS OF PIONEER LIFE, AND NEARLY FIVE HUNDRED

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF DISTINGUISHED PIONEERS, SOLDIERS, STATESMEN, JURISTS, LAWYERS, SUR-

GEONS, DIVINES, MERCHANTS, HISTORIANS, EDITORS, ARTISTS, ETC., ETC.

VOL. n. Illustrated

by 84

Portraits,

a

Map

of

Kentucky, and 70 other Engravings,

COVINGTON,

KY.:

PUBLISHED BY COLLINS 1874.

& CO.

'IL'i

^:k -e^A^X A'

ILLUSTRATION'S. . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. .

. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

,

University of Louisville

Portrait of Daniel Boone. Frontispiece. " Portrait of Simon Kenton Portrait of Gen. Geo. Rogers Clark" " Portrait of Gov. Isaac Shelby " Portrait of Henry Clay " Portrait of John J. Crittenden Portrait of Col. Kich'd M.Johnson" Title page Seal of Kentucky Page 17 County M.ap of Kentucky Fac-Simile Letter of Daniel Boone 61 View of Main Street, Paris 66 Wesleyan University, Millersburg. 66 Fortification near Paris 67 Fortification in Bourbon County... 68 Ancient Fortifications in same 68 Gov. Garrard's residence near Paris 68 Ancient Work in Bourbon County. 69 Deaf and Dumb Asylum, Danville. 85

Deaf and

Dumb

of Louisville St. Paul's isville

Chimney Rock, Kentucky

of Bank Lick Fortification in Larue

View

454 County 457 Esculapia Springs, Lewis County ..465 Plat of Boonesborough 515 Boone's Rock, Madison County 525 Names on Stone 525 Old Fort at Boonesborough 529 Court House, Maysville 555 John Kenton's Station, Mason Co. 555 View of Maysville 546 Harrodsburg Springs .....603 Bacon College, Harrodsburg....„...604 Main House at Shaker Village 604 Fortification near Mt. Sterling 633 Georgetown College, Georgetown..644 St. Joseph's College, Bardstown....644 Lower Blue Lick Springs 651 Gov. Metcalfe's Residence 653 Signature of Wm. Oldham 668

Female Collegiate Institute, Georgetown 698 Warren Female Institute 698 Court House, Bowling Green 737 Old Fort, in Warren County 739 Antiquities in Woodford County....765

Ancient Monuments, Greenup Co...302 Portsmouth Group, Greenup County302 303 Fortification, Greenup County Ohio River Bridge, at Louisville. ..356 356 372 372

to .^ct of

RICHARD

River.. .397

Cov. and Cin. Suspension Bridge. ..430 District School House, Covington...430 Signature of Simon Kenton 460

86 87 Augusta College, Augusta 87 Kentucky University, Lexington..l84 Transylvania Medical Hall, Lex. ..184 Henry Clay's Residence, near Lex. 217 Masonic Hall, Lexington 217 Eastern Lunatic Asylum, Lex'ton.223 Ancient Fort, Fayette County 227 Signature of Daniel Boone. 242,498, 661 High School Building, Frankfort. ..245 245 Maj. Love's House, Frankfort 246 First Permanent State House Second Permanent State House 246 House Third (Present) State 247 248 Proposed New State House 272 Clock-faces of Mean Time

Entered according

363

Orr's Female Academy, Cuvington424 St. Elizabeth Hospital, Cuvington.424

Alphabet

City Hall, Louisville

358

Episcopal Church, Lou-

First Presbyterian Church, Louis'e363 View of Main Street, Louisville. ...360 Signature of Col. John Campbell. ...360 PublicLibrary of Kentucky,Louis'e395 View of Smithland 395

Centre College, Danville

Court House, Louisville Old Prisou,at Louisville

358

Medical Department of University

Congress

in the

year 1874, by

H. COLLINS,

In the Ofl&ce of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.

;

To HIS Father,

Judge lewis Collins, WHOSE LAEOES, IN

1846-7, AS

A HISTOKIAN OF KKNTTTCKY, WEEE MOST

APPRECIATED APTER HIS DEATH, IN 1870

;

TO THE

KENTUCKY LEGISLJ.TVBE

of 1S69-71,

WHICH, BY CONTRACTING FOE COPIES OF IT AS A FOUNDATION FOE PUBLIC SCHOOI. LIBRARIES THEOUGHOrT THE STATE, GENEROUSLY AND CONFIDLSGLY

ENCOUEAGED

ITS

PUBLICATION

;

TO THOSE MEMBERS OF THE

KENTXrCKT ZEGISZ^XUItES WHOSE

JUSTICE

of 1811-73

and 1873-7B,

AND LIBEEAlITy SUSTAINED THE ACTION OF THAT OF

1869-71

AND TO THE Bon.

FXAyCJS FOJtD,

of Corington,

and other noble

Erieiias,

WHOSE GENEROUS AND HEARTY APPROVAL AND KIND WOEDS ENCOURAGED HUI, AMID UNWOETHY OPPOSITION AND UNFORESEEN OBSTACLES, DUEJNG THE FOUR YBAES OF ITS PREPARATION ;

THIS IS

WOEE

AFFECTIONATELY LNSCEIEED BY

THE AUTHOK.

"

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION, The late H. now presented

reading community.

to the ;

and had

collected,

Mr. Peers designed

and

partially

arranged

part of the materials, comprising a description of the towns cease, the materials passed into the

it

much

more time, and a

Upon

and counties.

hands of the Author, who determined

was contemplated, some

fuller investigation

may have

errors

would have enabled him

major

his de-

remodel them,

to

to the

labor to this object ; but circumstances having rendered

necessary at an earlier day than

is

to be simply a small

for publication, the

and make such additions as would give permanency and increased value has devoted

work which

P. Peers, of the city of Maysville, laid the foundation for the

Gazetteer of the State

1847.

work.

He

publication

its

escaped,

which

to detect.

Serious obstacles have been encountered, in the preparation of the Biographical Sketches.

Many the

of those which appear in the work, were prepared from the personal recollections of

Author

apply

This

for is

while others have been omitted, because he did not

;

know

to

whom

he could

them, or having applied, and in some instances repeatedly, failed in procuring them.

his apology, for the non-appearance of

entitled to

many names

ui that department,

which are

a distinguished place in the annals of Kentucky.

In the preparation of the work, one design of the Author has been to preserve, in a durable form, those rich fragments of local and personal history,

many

the aged actors in the stirring scenes, the

memory

of which

venerable witnesses from a former age, are rapidly passing

them

will be buried the

of the commonwealth.

knowledge of much that It is

from sources such as

drawn

for the future historian are to be frail

is

;

of which exist, at present,

among

only in the ephemeral form of oral tradition, or ate treasured up is

midst,

These

and with

m^ost interesting in the primitive history

we have

mentioned, that the materials

and, like the scattered leaves of the Sybil, these

mementos of the past should be gathered up and preserved with

If the .\uthor shall

the recollections of

thus perpetuated.

away from our

religious veneration.

have succeeded, in thus redeeming from oblivion any considerable or

important portion of the early history of the State, his design will be fully accomplished, and his labor

Of more

all

amply rewarded. the

members of

this great republican confederacy, there is

rich in the variety, quality,

and

interest of its materials.

The

none whose history poet, the warrior,

is

and

the statesman can each tind subjects, the contemplation of which will instruct

him in his

and

to the general reader,

of more varied

and

attractive interest

It is

it

would, perhaps, be impossible to present a

pens, in the preparation of the work. pages,

field

proper that the Author should state that he has received the assistance of

was

written by

The

many

the writer of the Sketches,

among

others, of the

Clark, Col. Daniel Boone, and Gen. Z. Taylor.

Charles S. Todd, of Shelby county

;

able

« Outline History," embracing about eighty

John A. M'Clung, Esq., of Washington.

William P. Conwell, Esq.,

of Maysville, has rendered important aid, particularly in the biographical department. is

art;

He

Hon. Henry Clay, Gen. George Rogers

The author is

also greatly indebted to Col.

Henry Waller, R. H. Stanton, and William H. Wads-

worth, Esqrs., of the city of Maysville

;

Noble Butler, Esqr. (author of a

Iate«

and excellent

(4)

;

PREFACE. work on English Grammar), of Flemingsburg ; Thomas

W.

the

Bardstown

Riley, Esq., of

College, Dan\ille, for valuable contributions.

biographical sketches

among them,

;

T

of Louisville; Bruce Porter, Esq.. of the town of

citj-

Col.

and Professor 0. Beatty, of Centre

;

Todd

some seven

furnished

those of Gov. Shelby and Judge Innes.

or

eight

Mr. Waller

prepared the whole of the county of Mason, Mr. Butler a large portion of the county of

Mr. Porter a portion of the county of Fleming, Mr. Riley a portion of the county

Jeflerson,

A

of BulUtt, and Mr. Bealty the article on the Geology of Kentucky.

distinguished citizen

of the State contributed the interesting Sketch of the Court of Appeals.

The

Historical Sketches of the several religious denominations, were prepared by the

following gentlemen fort,

Rev. John L. Waller, editor of the Western Baptist Review, Frank-

:

of the Baptist church

W. W.

Rev.

;

of the Presbyterian church

Harrodsburg, of the Christian Church of Kentucky, of the Episcopal church

Hill, editor of the Presbyterian

W.

Rev. George

;

ence, of the Methodist Episcopal church

Rich. Beard, D.D., president of Cumberland

Rev.

;

Roman

Vicar-General of Kentucky, Louisville, of the

He

acknowledges his indebtedness

also

cerning their counties,

for incidents

biographical sketches, &c., viz

W.

James ett,

and

H.

J.

;

connected with the early settlement of the State, or for

W.

;

F. Evans, Esqr., of Allen

B. N. Crump, Esqr., of Barren

;

Hon. Garrett Davis, Dr. Joseph H.

and William C. Lyle, John G. Scrogin, and

W.

Breathitt

;

;

B. J. Burke, and L.

Marcus M. Tyler,

W.

;

;

W.

Crawford, Esqr., of Carter; Daniel H. Harrison, A. G. ;

W.

Charles B. Dallam, and

;

Owen,

Stites,

Bigham, and H. R. D. Coleman,

:

Gen. James

;

Esq., of Carroll; G.

;

Dougherty White, and

R. Maxcy, and E. Long, Esqrs., of Clinton

Esqrs., of Crittenden

ander, Esqrs,, and Dr. David R. Haggard, of

W.

and R. R. Lansden, Esqrs.,

Flanagan, and Willis Collins, Esqrs., of Clarke

William Woodcock, Esqrs., of Clay

J.

and

.^llen,

T. Samuels, and Michael 0. Wade, Esqrs.,

E. H. Curd, Esqr., of Calloway

Taylor, and A. D. Smalley, Esqr., of Campbell; David

of Christian

Rev.

;

General John Payne, of Bracken

;

Moore, Esqrs., of Butler

Esqrs., of Caldwell

Crock-

M. Garrard,

Hon. John Calhoun, Joseph Smith, Joseph

Francis Peyton, Esqrs., of Breckinridge of Bullitt

W.

J.

;

James M. Pres-

;

Holt, Dr. William

G. Talbot, Esqrs., of Uourbon

C. Young, D.D., president of Centre College, of Boyle

John Hargis, Esq., of

Spalding, D.D.,

J.

:

Stovall, Esqrs., of Ballard

Boone

and Rev. M.

;

Catholic church.

to the following gentlemen, for information con-

Carter, Esqr., of Adair county

ton, Esqr., of

Kentucky Confer-

Rt. Rev. B. B. Smith, D.D., bishop of the Diocese

;

Cumberland Presbyterian church

College, Princeton, of the

Herald, Louisville,

Smiley,*" of the Northern

Rev. James Shannon, president of Bacon College,

;

;

R. L.

E. B. Gaither, and Th. T. Alex-

;

Cumberland

;

John P. Devereaux,

Esqr., of

Daviess; A. M. Barrett, Esqr., of Edmonson; Robert Clarke, Esqr., of Estill; Hon. George Robertson, Gen. Leslie Combs, Gen. John

M. M'Calla,

Wicklitfe, Rev. Robert J. Breckinridge, D.D.,and

Hon. Robert

Col. Richard Spurr,

John C. Breckinridge, William S. Waller,

John Bradford, James Logue, Samuel D. M'Cullough, and Fielding R. Bradford, Esqrs., of Fayette

;

W.

C. C. Lane, and

Hager, Esqrs., of Floyd

;

S. Botts, Esqrs, of

Fleming

;

Edwin Trimble, and Daniel

Gov. William Owsley, Hon. Benjamin Monroe, Hon. James

Harlan, Gen. Peter Dudley, Col. James Davidson, Orlando Brown, John liam D. Reed, H.

L Bodley, and A.

S. Mitchell, Esqrs., of Franklin

;

W.

Major

Finnell, Wil-

J.

and R. A. Hatcher, Esqr., of Fulton; Rev. Benjamin Fuller, of Gallatin; A.

W. M'Cann, Esqr., of Grant; Jack Thomas, of Greene W. L. Poage, Esqr., of Greenup

Esqr., of Garrard; John

G.

W.

of

Hancock

Montague, Esqr., ;

;

Dr. Samuel B.

Unthank, Esqr., of Harlan



It is

due

to

Mr. Smiley

;

Young, and Thomas D. Brown, Gen. L. B. Desha, and

to state, that the

by him upon a few days' notice.

;

J.

W.

Gibson,

J.

Brown,

Esqr., of Grayson;

D. L.

Esqr., of

.\dair, Esqr.,

Hardin

;

E. V.

V. Bassett, Esqr., of Harrison

Sketch of the Methodist Episcopal Church,

;

was prepared

;

""'

PREFACE.

Robert D. Murray, and John

and

Bowman,

Hickman

;

Hart

Esqrs., of

E. M'Callister, Esqrs., of Henderson

J.

Esqrs., of

Samuel Woodson,

W.

;

Esqr., of

Shaflner, Esqr., and Dr. Bullitt, of Jefferson

R. E.

;

Owen

Dr.

;

Glass, 0.

H.

Hillyer,

Edmunston, and N. E. Wright,

B.

Hopkins

;

Hon. Henry

Woodson,

Pirtle, Tal.

Esqr., of Jessamine

:

P.

John

Hon. James T. Morehead, and J. W. Menzies, Esqr., of Kenton John Duncan, and William Beelar, Esqrs., of Larue B. H. Ohler, Esqr., of Knox G. F. Hatcher, Esqr., of Lawrence W. B. Hampton, Esqr., of Letcher R. G. Carter, William Gordon, Esqr., of Livingston Esqr., of Lewis J. Campbell, Esqr., of Lincoln House, Esqr., of Johnson

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

M. B. Morton, and

Albert G. Rhea, Esqrs., of

Speed Smith, and Col. David

Edmund

A. Graves, of Marion

Esqr., of

Meade

Adam

Hon.

;

Madison

Irvine, of ;

;

Logan

:

Abner Oldham,

John

Esqr., Col.

Nicholas S. Ray, Esqr., and Captain

;

Henry Hand, Esqr., of Marshall William Fairleigh, James C. Pickett, Dr. J. M. Duke, R. H. Col;

Beatty, Col.

Mason William H. Jones, Esqr., of M'Cracken Gen. Robert B. M'Afee, Captain Samuel Daveiss, Dr. C. Graham, and James M 'Afee, William Butler, Esqr., of Monroe Richard Apperson, Esqr., of MontEsqr., of Mercer gomery James Elliott, Esqr., of Morgan Charles F. Wing, Esqr., of Muhlenburg Hon. Uns, and Joseph B. Boyd, Esqrs., of

;

;

;

;

;

;

Charles A. Wickliffe, G. Clayton Slaughter, and A. G. Botts, Esqrs., of Nelson

Henderson, H. D. Taylor, and Stephen Stateler, Esqrs., of Ohio of

Oldham

;

J.

W.

Thomas Hauser, of Pulaski

T.

;

Owen

Bacon, Esqr., of

Esqr., of Pendleton

;

and Rev. Howard

Stellee, Esqr.,

William Williams, Esqr., of Owsley

;

John D. Mims, Esqr., of Pike

Col. Elisha Smith, of Rockcastle

Charles

j

G. Armstrong, Esqr.,

;

;

;

Malcom, D.D., of Scott; Thomas

J.

Esqr., of

Simpson; Ralph Lancaster, Esqr., of Spencer;

Glenn, Esqrs., of Todd

;

Kain A. M'Caughan, and Robert Baker,

Samuels, Esqr., of Trunble

;

J.

W.

Cromwell, Esqr., of Union

Hon. Joseph R. Underwood, and Loyd Berry, Esqr., of Warren of Washington

;

W.

Esqrs., of Whitley

ion, Esqr., Dr. J.

;

W.

Simpson, Esqr., of

Wayne

;

W.

S.

Major Herman Bowmar, of Woodford

;

;

Jr.hii

;

1.

John

H. Wells, and R. E.

Esqrs., of Trigg

Hon. A.

W.

Also, to

W.

;

W.

Graham,

B. Booker, Esqr.,

Cooke, and



;

Throop,

Shelby Todd, and John H. Todd, Esqrs., and Rev. Abraham Cook, of Shelby

Hoy,

S.

;

E. Kelley, Esqr,

Joseph T. Rowe, Esqr., of Russell

Squire Gatliffe,

Thomas

B. Steven-

R. Buchanan, and Rev. Thornton A_ Mills, of Cincinnati.

LEWIS COLLINS. Maynille, Ky., August, 1847.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND

EDITIO]^, 1874.

Twenty-seven years, 1847 to 1874, have elapsed since " Collins' History of Kentucky " quietly and modestly claimed recognition among the standard local histories That has been an eventful period. Death, too, has in the great American republic. been busy with the names in the Preface above has claimed alike the author and compiler. Judge Lewis Collins, and about one hundred and fifty more of the honored and substantial names who contributed information or other aid towards preserving what was then unwritten of the history of the state. The author of the present edition (now nearly fifty years of age) is the youngest of the forty-two contributors who are still living; while several of them are over eighty, and one is over ninety-two years of age. Time has dealt gently with them ; fame has followed some, and fortune a few have achieved both fame and fortune, while a smaller few lay cl.iim to others



;

neither. It

is

not often, as in this case, that the mantle of duty as a state-historian falls from

the father to the son's shoulders.

how

It has

well and ably, let the disinterested

been faithfully and conscientiously worn

and unprejudiced judge.

;

PREFACE.

vii

The present edition had its origin in this When Judge Collins died, the LegislaAs its testimonial of appreciation of his serviees.and ture of Kentucky was in session. character, this resolution was unanimously adopted, and on March 21, 1870, approved :

by Gov. Stevenson

:

Resolved by the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky

:

\^ith deep regret of the death of Judge Lewis Collins, of MaysKentucky, which has occurred since the meeting of this General Assembly. He was a native Kentuckian of great purity of character and enlarged public spirit; associated for half a century with the press of the State, which he adorned with his He was the author patriotism, his elevated morals, and his enlightened judgment. of a History of Kentucky, evidencing extended research, and which embodies in-a permanent form the history of each county in the State, and the livesof its distinguished citizens, and is an invaluable contribution to the literature and historical knowledge His name being thus perpetually identified with that of his native State, of the State. this General Assembly, from a sense of duty and regard for his memory, expresses this testimonial of its appreciation of his irreproachable character and valued services.

That we have heard

ville,

This touching, and tender, and noble tribute to the departed Author and Editor, was but the culmination of a sympathy broader than the state, for it was echoed and He had lived to some purpose. It was sent back by many citizens from a distance. no small comfort to his family, to know that their bereavement was regarded as a public bereavement; and that his name and works would live on, and be green in the memory of the good people of Kentucky the place of his birth, the home of his manhood, the scene of his life's labors, his grave. In a spontaneous tribute of praise and sympathy, the entire newspaper press of the state, and many in other states, announced his decease. The Lexington Kenlucktj Gazette made this gratifying mention



of

it:

Death of a Veteran.— Judge Lewis Collins, of Mayaville, author of the best history of Kentucky ever published, and a work of intense interest, which we are sorry to say is out of print, died in this city on Saturday last. He was for many years editor of the Maysville Eagle, and a writer of great strength and vigor. He will bo best known hereafter as author of the work spoken of, and for this deserves some mark of respect from the public, and should have a monument raised to his memory at the public expense, and should be interred in the State Cemetery at Frankfort. Few who lie interred in that beautiful spot deserve better of the State than he who has written its history and preserved its traditions in a form that will carry them to the latest posterity. Judge Collins had attained an advanced age (nearly 73 years), and

his death

was not unexpected.

of the state, and those generous outpourings of sympathy and regard, work that iad made him best known " Collins' History OF Kentucky." It had been out of print, for more than twenty years It was known that I had been associated with my Father as an editor, and then his successor, Hence, many applications and inquiries and had assisted him with his " History." always with the suggestion that I ought to prepare a for the book were made to me new edition, enlarged, and bring down to the present the history of the state. It was an important undertaking as delicate as important. I shrank from the great But the urgency continued, for the necessity of a state responsibility, and declined. The great State of Kentucky, the mother of statesmen and heroes, history was felt. the advance guard of civilization west of the great Apalachian chain, had no published "History" of the last twenty-six years; and no " History " at all in book-form, HOW accessible to more than a few thousand of the intelligent minds among her millionand-a-third of inhabitants. The duty of preparing this History sought me, and not It has been a t.ask of tremendous labor, extending through the long weary I it. months of nearly four years. But it has been a sweet and a proud task, and the destiny that seemed driving me on is almost fulfilled. I wish I could know the verdict of the future upon my labors, but that is impossible. The carping and noisy fault-finding of the dissatisfied and ungenerous few are far from being pleasant; but the consciousness of duty done, with an honest heart, and the praise of the liberal ones who will appreciate the work, will be a noble and a proud satisfaction, and a joy

That action



started fresh inquiries for the

!

;



ceasing only with

my

life.

PREFACE.

viii

The Author acknowledges

the following special contrihutions for this work, prepared

Gen. Geo. B. Hodge, of Newport, wrote the last or closing Chapter at his request VII, of the " Outline History ;" Prof. Robert Peter, M.D., of Lexington, the article on the " Geological Formations of Kentucky ;" Thomas E. Pickett, M.D., of MaysKentucky;" the late Tille, in Sept., 1871, that on "The Pro-Historic Inhabitants of Lawrence Young, of Louisville, nearly half of that on " The Climate of Kentucky ;" :

Rev. A. H. Redfurd, D.D., of Nashville, Tenn., more than half of that on " The Methodist Church ;" Rev. James V. Logan, of Harrodsburg, pages 408, 469, 470 and The Presbyterian Church," and Rev. Edward P. Humphrey, D.D., page 473 of the same article; Charles Eginton, of Covington, the sketch of " Free-

" 471, of that on

masonry," and Rev. Howard A. M. Henderson, D.D., of Frankfort, part of the sketch of " Odd-Fellowship ;" the late Maj. Walter B. Overton, of Louisville, prepared the larger part of the biographical sketches of Gen. John C. Breckinridge, the late PresiThe dent Abraham Lincoln, ex-President Jefferson Davis, and several others.



remainder of the work of course, exclusive of that portion of the First Edition incorporated herein, cither bodily or with necessary modifications (in all about 350, out of nearly 1,500, pages) the present Author has prepared almost "unaided and alone," except so far as he gives proper credit In connection with the articles. He has sometimes adopted sentences or expressions of biographical sketches or other information



furnished him in writing. For the information embodied in this work, other than alluded to above, the Author He has spent several months of has searched diligently every attainable source. labor in exploring, in person, the court records, of dates 1784 to 1820, of the counties of Kenton, Campbell, Mason, Fleming, Nicholas, Bourbon, Fayette, Madison, Lincoln, Mercer, Jefferson, Harrison, and Pendleton, besides the record of many cases from

Montgomery, Clark, Jessamine, Bath,

Franklin, Woodford, Logan, and

Nelson,

This opened to several other counties, and the land office of the state at Frankfort. him a rich mine of history never heretofore explored; and in the 9,750 depositions

examined (of which he took notes of over 1,200), he found sworn and indisputable data by which he now makes clear and consistent many statements in the local history of counties heretofore involved in obscurity, or gives the true detailed account of battles and adventures hitherto inaccurately reported or only partially preserved.

He is thus enabled to publish, for the first time, minutely, much of the very earliest to record the dates and localities of many surveys in 1773, 1774, and 1775 the names, in some cases, of the surveying parties the first visitors to, or "improvers" of land in, the first settled counties; and the steps by which and the men through history

;

;

;

whom the most teeming and beautiful wilderness of Colonial America was redeemed to cultivation, and the " dark and bloody ground " of contending savage tribes converted to the

abode of civilization and peace. new and extraordinary source of historic knowledge, and some MS. and

Besides this

and thus made available for the time, in connection with Kentucky history, the Author acknowledges the special Annnh o/Kentucki/, in Volume I, of a large number of bound

fugitive published articles which he gathered up, first

value in preparing the

and unbound newspaper volumes and files, for which he was indebted to the courtesy To the Lexington Library, for access to the flies of the of the following parties Lexington Kentucky Gazelle, 1787 to 1830, and the Lexington Kentucky Reporter, 1808 to 1830, each from its commencement; to Enoch T. Carson, of Cincinnati, for the :

loan of the Cincinnati Centinel of the North- Western Territory, Nov., 1793, to June, 1796; to Harry I. Todd, of Frankfort, for the Frankfort Western World, Aug., 1806, to Jan. 1, 1808, and the Frankfort PaHadinm, June, 1806, to Dec. 17, 1807; to A J. Morey, of Cynthiana, for the Cynthiana Guardian of Liberty, 1817 to 1819 ; to Wm. C.

Lyle, of Paris, for the Paris Western Citizen, 1817 to 1867; to the Maysville Eagle', to I860, and to Thomas M. Green, for the continued files of same, 1860 to 1872, Lexington Observer and Reporter Co., for that paper, 1860 to 1865 to Col. Samuel Davis, of Covington, for the Covington Journal, 1853 to 1874; to Col. John G. Craddock, for the Paris True Kentuckian, 1866 to 1873 to the Kentucky State Library,

1824

to the

;

;

;

:

PREFACE. Frankfort, for partial

Young Men's Mercantile

crat; to the

ix

of the Louisville Daily Journal

files

and Louisville

Dailij

Demo-

Library, of Cincinnati, for the examination of

and to sundry persons for odd numbers or fragments them with valuable passages or articles. To John G. Shea, LL.D., of New York, Wm. M. Darlington, of Pittsburgh, and Robert Clarke, of Cincinnati, three of the most learned men in general Western history, the Author is indebted for dates and collations, or corrections, of some of the earliest puhUshed tours and explorations along the Ohio river; and to Mrs. Wm. C. Rives, of Albemarle Co., Va., and Mrs. L. P. Lewis, of Sweet Springs, Va., for similar information about tours and incidents in Kentucky. From the venerable Christopher Columbus Graham, M.D., of Louisville, formerly of the Harrodsburg Springs, the Author received valuable assistance in correcting the locality of some of the stations, and some of the incidents of pioneer life in central Kentucky; be also furnished much additional matter which it was imprao^ ticable to use. Dr. 6., although born Oct. 10, 1787, and now in his 87th year, is the most indefatigable man in the state, in everything he undertakes a perfect marvel of energy and endurance and bids fair to continue, for twenty years longer, the most prominent living link between ancient and modern Kentucky, or Kentucky before she became a state and Kentucky as a state nearly a hundred years old. [For a handsome portrait of Dr. Graham, and a full and interesting account of his life and remarkable adventures, in detail, see Allen's History of Kentucky, pages 299 to 336.] To his own family his wife, and three elder children, Mrs. Annie M. Craig, Miss Mary Ellen Collins, and Lewis Collins, Jr.— and to his young friend and neighbor, Wm. G. Lord, the Author is indebted for important and patient help in the minutiae of his labors, in systematizing and arranging the great amount of material, and in files

of Cincinnati newspapers

j

of early newspapers, some of







preparing the index of the work.

And

to the

long

list

named below, the Author

of persons

returns his thanks for

information concerning their counties or ancestors, for maps of the counties, for data for biographical sketches and other matters, for incidents connected with the history of the state, etc. etc., viz.

John H. Collins, of Allen county; Wm. F. Bond, John S. Barlow and Richard Lacy and Dr. Henry E. Guerrant, of Bath; Moses S. Rice, Rev. James A. Kirtley, and Sebern P. Brady, of Boone Judge Richard Hawes, Robert T. Davis, Rev. Lindsay H. Blanton, J. E. Paton, J. M. Hughes, and Rev. Aaron A. Hugue, Rev. Lewis G. Barbour, James Eli M. Kennedy, of Bourbon C. McAfee, Col. James L. Allen, Dr. Samuel Ayres, and Dr. John D. Jackson, of Boyle Col. Laban J. Bradford and Adam C. Armstrong, of Bracken Jonas D. Wilson and J. W. Raitt, of Breckinridge J. M. Forgy, of Butler F. W. Darby and W. Col. G. A. C. Holt, of Calloway Gen. George B. Hodge, Col. C. Love, of Caldwell Thomas L. Jones and wife, and Col. D. S. Hounshell, of Campbell Richard P. Butler, AValton Craig, and Judge Hezekiah Cox, of Carroll; E. B. Wilhoit, of Carter; James A. McKenzie, of Christian Judge Wm. M. Beckner, D. J. Pendleton, and James Flanagan, of Clark David Y. Lyttle and John E. White, of Clay J. A. Brents, of Clinton John AY. Blue, of Crittenden Mrs. Jane Allen Stuart, James Weir and wife, and Dr. Archibald Logan Ashby, of Daviess A. D. Hamilton, of Estill Rev. Thomas P. Dudley and wife. Gen. Leslie Combs, the late Rev. Joel K. Lyle, the late Capt. Samuel Davies McCuUough, James M. Yates, Prof. Robert Peter^ M.D., Henry M. Skillman, M.D., Allie G. Hunt, J. B. Rodes, Wm. A. Leavy, John R. Sharpe, Col. John B. Bowman, Joseph H. Bryan, Thomas H. Shelby, Mrs. John B.

James Garnett, of Adair county

of Anderson

;

;

Wilds and H. G. Black, of Ballard

J. D.

;

P. Collins, of Barren; B. D.

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Payne,

Wm.

Jr.,

Joseph B. Cooper, George W. R.anck, Elder Joseph D. Pickett, and Col. Lexington and Fayette county Judge Wm.

C. P. Breckinridge, of the city of

S. Botts,

Thomas L. Given, M. M. Teager, and H.

L. Martin, of Floyd

;

;

B. Dobyns, of Fleming

;

Alexander

Harrison Blanton, E. H. Steadman, Lewis E. Harvie, Col. Samuel

M. Major, Col. J. Stoddard Johnston, Col. D. Howard Smith, Moj. Henry T. Stanton, Mrs. Lysander Hord, David C. Barrett, Gen. George B. Crittenden, James G. I.

PREFACE.

I

Crockett, and Maj. William H. Botts, of Frankfort and Franklin county Judge George R. McKee, of Garrard Rev. Burwell N. Carter and Col. Joseph M. Collins, of Grant; Wm. L. Conklin, of Grayson ; Wm. H. Chelf, of Green ; Samuel Uaycraft, of Hardin ; C. E. Hurst, of Harlan; A. J. Morey, Joseph F. Lebus, Perry Wherritt, AVm. W. Col. Trimble, Wm. T. Wall, Maj. Rodea Wigleeworth and A. J. Beall, of Harrison George T. Wood, Robert S. Munford, and C. H. Higbee, of Hart John B. AUin, of Henderson Zach. F. Smith, of Henry J. M. Wood, of Jackson Thomas W. Bullitt, Gideon Shryook, Col. Wm. P. Boone, Rowan Buchanan, Wm. F. Barret, Rev. Edward P. Humphrey, D.D., Joshua F. Speed, Alfred T. Pope, Rev. James Craik, D.D., J. J. Wright, Col. Robert W. Woolley, John S. Cain, Charles M. Thruston, Wm. A. Meriwether, Col. Reuben T. Durrett, Walter ^^. Haldeman, R. Jouett Menefee, ;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Miss H. S. Vernon, Rev. Burr H. McCown, D.D., Dr. Talbot Owen, Adam Wayland, William Baldwin, Frederick Webber, Wm. White, John M. S. McCorkle, Col. Albert G. Hodges, Eli H. Murray, J. G. Wilson, Gen. I. M. St. John, Col. Theodore L. Burnett, Gen. Basil W. Duke, Judge Horatio W. Bruce, Col. R. K. Boiling, and Judge Melvin T. Charles K. Caron, of the city of Louisville and Jefferson county Lowry, of Jessamine; James Ramey, of Johnson; Carlo B. Brittain, of Josh Bell county Mrs. Wm. W. Southgate, Mrs. Judge James Pryor, Mrs. John D. Brents, Miss Nancy Kennedy, Mrs. Daniel J. Fallis, Mrs. Jefferson Phelps, Mrs. J. B. Marshall, Miss Alice McLean, the late Mrs. Elizabeth Ellis, James G. Arnold and wife, Maj. Robert Richardson, L. C. Baker, Judge James O'Hara, the late James M. Corbin, the late Eli M. Pogue, Francis Ford, the late Gen. Leonard Stephens, Gen. John W. Finnell, Orrin B. Hallam, Col. Mortimer M. Benton, John S. Scott, Alfred Hall Ransom, John N. Furber, Isaac Martin, John L. Sandford, M'm. J. Sanford, John J. MeCollum, Dr. J. M. Biffe, Capt. Smith N. Hawes, Rev. J. M. Frost, Judge Jesse D. Bright, and Dr. Wm. M. Murphy, of the city of Covington and Kenton county; J. M. McDougal, of Larue ; Kenaz F. Hargis, of Lee Mrs. Sallie A. Higgins, Dr. Thomas B. Montgomery, John Blaine, Areh. C, Snow, and Rev. S. S. McRoberts, of Lincoln Judge John W. Caldwell, of Logan J. G. Husbands, of Lyon Maj. Thomas E. Moss, Judge George H. Morrow, Capt. Charles F. Jarrett, John V. Gould, and James R. Martin, of McCracken Col. Joel W. Bickers and John W. Johnson, of McLean; Milton Barlow, Wm. Malcolm Miller, Col. William Rodes, Rev. Robert L. Breck, John Stephens, Wm. Chenault, Capt. Robert B. Terrill, G. D. Shackleford, Dr. A. B. Lyman, Col. James W. Caperton, Wm. M. Irvine, French Tipton, P. P. Ballard, Albert S. Cornelison, Dr. Alexander Miller, F. M. Green, and Jos. S. Bronston, of Richard M. Spalding, of Marion James Madison ; David D. Sublett, of Magoffin Brien and Judge J. W. Dycus, of Marshall ; Elias P. Hudnut, Isaac Thomas, David Hunter, the late Capt. Thomas M. Donovan, George W. Sulser, Thomas A. Respess, Joseph F. Brodrick, Wm. D. Hixson, Strother B. Nicholson, Dr. Thomas E. Pickett, Miss Matilda Green, Mrs. Arthur Berry, Mrs. Andrew Mitchell, John S. Forman and Nathan Mefford, of the city of Maysville and Mason county; Judge Collins Fitch and Samuel Wrather, of Meade ; J, M. Vanarsdell, of Menifee Ben. C. AUin, Richard Board, Mrs. Wm. Daveiss, Thos. C. Bell, Wm. R. Uarvev, B. W. AUin, J. W. Cardwell, John L. Smedley, Dr. J. J. Polk, Rev. James V. Loga"n, Wm. E. Cleland, and exGov. Beriah Magoffin, of Mercer; tho late Gen. Samuel L. Williams, of Montgomery J. Rowan Leslie, of Monroe Joseph Ricketts and J. H. Pearson (who made a most beautiful map), of Muhlenburg county David C. Hardin, of Nelson James H. Chappell, James B. Scudder, John A. Campbell, Joseph Norvell, and Thomas J. Glenn, of Nicholas J. E. Vincent and T. J. Bain, of Oldham John C. Strother, of Owen John B. Applegate, of Pendleton Thoma.^^ C. Judy, of Powell Judge Wm. H. Pettus, of Pulaski Judge Duncan Harding, of Robertson Judge John M. Fish, of Rockcastle; Newton Craig and Capt. James E.Cantrill, of Scott; Mark Hardin and Judge M. T. Carpenter, of Shelby; Judge John C. Adams, of Simpson; David R. Poignand and James H. Beauchamp, of Spencer; D. G. Mitchell, of Taylor; Higgason 6. Boone and Mrs. Nancy Small, of Todd ; J. R. Sanders, of Trimble ; Judge Joseph R. Underwood, Judge Thomas H. Hines, Judge Wm. L. Dnianey, Josiah Pillsbury, and C. R. Edwards, of Warren J. F. Orr, of Webster ; Henry Muss, John Boston, Samuel Sublett, and Samuel S. Darneal, of Woodford county. Also, the following non-residents of Kentucky, all of whom (with four exceptions) were natives and for many years residents J. Sabin and Dr. Norvin Green, of New York city ; Leonard Henderson, of Warrenton, North Carolina; Mrs. Paralee Haskell, Tennessee State Librarian, of Nashville Henry Waller, Levi D. Boone, and Judge Samuel M. Moore, of Chicago; Wm. D. Frazee, of Indianapolis, Ind. Rev. Robert Desha Morris, D.D., of Oxford Female College, Ohio ; Mrs. Dedman, Mrs. Shackleford, and the late Maj. Val. J. Peers, of St. Louis Col. A. A. Anderson, of Missouri Mrs. America Palmer, of Liberty, Mo.; Mrs. Sallie A. McCredie, of Calloway Co., Mo.; Judge John Doniphan, of Weston, Mo. ; Silas L. Craig, of Maryville, Mo. Larz Anderson, Julius Dexter, and Dr. Cyrus W. Farris, of Cincinnati, 0.; Prof. George C. Schseffer, Librarian of Patent Office, AVashington city and M.aj. Charles E. Peers, Warrenton, Mo. ;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

M

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

:

;

;

;

;

;

;

Covington, Kt., Aug.

8, 1874.

EICHAED

H. COLLUSTS.

LIST OF AUTHORITIES REFERRED TO IN THE PREPARATION OF THIS WORK.

ANTIQUITIES. Arohajlogica Americana. Bradford^ Alexander W. American Antiquities. Campbell, Rev. John P., M.D. Antiquities of Kentucky.

New

York, 1841 1815

Chillicotlie,

Albany, 1833 American Antiquities. Squier, E. Georjre, and E. H. Davis. Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley. New York, 1848 " 1851 Squier, E. George. Serpent Symbol, &c. Traditions of Da-Coo-Dah. Sundry Articles in other books and periodicals. Priest, Josiah.

BIOGRAPHY. in reference to Rev. John Lyle. Princeton, Boston, Allen's American Biographical Dictionary. Washington, Address on Abraham "Jjincoln. Bancroft, George. L. Thos, F, Marshall. Cincinnati, W. Speeches and Writings of Barre, Lexington, Bishop, Rev. Robert H. Memoirs of Rev. David Rice, &c. Auburn, Bogart, W. H. Daniel Boone and the Hunters of Kentucky.

Alexander, Archibald, D.D.

Remarks

Boone's Adventures.

New

Caldwell, Charles. Discourse on Rev. Horace Holley. Carrier, A. H. Monument to the Memory of Henry Clay. Davis, Matthew L. Memoirs of Aaron Burr. 2 vols. Dawson, Moses. Life of Gen. Wm. H. Harrison. Downing, Major Jack. Life of Gen. Andrew Jackson. Drake, Beniamin. Life of Black Hawk. "" " Life of Tecumseh. Edwards, Ninian W. Life of Ninian Edwards. Ellet, Mrs. E. P. Pioneer Women of the West. Flint, Timothy. Memoir of Daniel Boone. Gaddis, Maxwell P. Footprints of an Itinerant. Gallagher, Rev. James. Western Sketch Book. Hall, James. Memoir of Gen. Wm. H. Harrison.

Boston, Cincinnati,

Helm, John

New

York,

York,

Cincinnati, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, " Springfield,

New

York,

Cincinnati, "

Boston, Philadelphia,

Biography of Frankfort, Henkle, Rev. M. M. Life of Rev. Henry B. Baseom. Nashville, Humphrey, Rev. E. P., and Rev. T. H. Cleland. Memoir of Rev. Thoa. L.,

1848 1832 1866 1858 1824 1854 1844 1828 1858 1837 1824 1834 1846 1841 1870 1852 1837 1857 1850 1836 186S 1856

Cincinnati, 1859

Cleland.

Jefferson, Thos., Memoirs and Correspondence of 4 vols. Charlottesville, 1829 Johnson, Col. Richard M., Biography of Anonymous. Boston, 1834 Linn, E. A., and A. Sargent. York, 1857 Life of Dr. Lewis F. Linn.

New

Mansfield, E. D. Marshall, John.

Memoir of Dr. Daniel Drake. Life of Washington. 5 vols.

Cincinnati, 1855 Philadelphia, 1804-07 Cincinnati, 1869

McBride, James. Pioneer Biography. 2 vols. " McDonald, John. Sketches of Simon Kenton, &c. 1838 Milburn,Wm. H. Pioneers and Preachers of the Miss.Valley. New York, 1860 Obituary Addresses on Henry Clay. Washinsjton City, 1852 on Chas. Scott, Wm. T. Barry, and Bland Ballard. Frankfort, 1855 Obituary Notices of the Dead of 1857. By Nathan Crosby. Boston, 1858 " Peck, Rev. J. M. Life of Daniel Boone. 1845 Atlanta, 1869 Pollard, Edward A. Life of Jefferson Davis. Powell, Lazarus W., Biography of Frankfort, 1868 Prentice, George D. New York, 1831 Biography of Henry Clay, (11)

;

LIST OF AUTHORITIES

12

REFERRED TO

Philadelphia, 1836 Rafinesque, C. S., Life and Travels of. Cincinnati, 1861 Rockers, John. Biography of Elder John T. Johnson. Smith, Col. James, Remarkable Occurrences in the Life of. Philadelphia, 18.34 " " " Cincinnati, 1870 Captivity with the Indians. Snow, William Parker. Southern Generals their Lives and Cam-



New York, paigns. Louisville, Spalding, Martin J. Life of Bishop Flaget. Life of Brant. 2 vols. New York, Stone, William L. Cincinnati, Todd and Drake's Life of Harrison. Philadelphia, Warner, H. W. Autobiography of Dr. Chas. Caldwell Wilkinson, James, Memoirs of 2 vols. Washington City, " " Memoirs of my Own Times. 3 vols. Philadelphia, " " Report on the Conduct of Feb., " Proofs of the Corruption of. By Daniel Clarke. "

1866 1852 1838 1840 1855 1811 1816 1811

GAZETTEERS AND GEOGRAPHIES. Brown, Samuel R.

Western Gazetteer.

Wm.

Gazetteer of the United States. Darby and Dwight's Gazetteer of the United States. Davenport, Bishop. Gazetteer.

Chapin,

Auburn, 1817 York, 1841

New

"

Baltimore, Philadelphia, Indiana Gazetteer. Indianapolis, 1833 and Boston, Morse, Jedediah. American Gazetteer. Jacksonville, Peck, Rev. J. M. Gazetteer of Illinois. Philadelphia, Melish, John. Geographical Description of the U. S. Elizabethtown, Morse, Jedediah. American Geography. " " Universal Geography. Boston, Philadelphia, Geographical Dictionary of the U. S. Scott, Joseph.

1833 1832 1836 1850 1810 1834 1816 1789 1796 1805

HISTORIES. Annals of the West— 1541-1856. Pittsburgh, 1857 London, 1759 Alienation of the Delaware and Shawanese Indians, &c. Washington City. American Archives. Fourth Series. 5 vols. " " American State Papers. 12 vols. New York, 1840 Armstrong, John. Notices of the War of 1812. 2 vols. Cincinnati, 1838 Atwater, Caleb. History of Ohio. Boston, 1834-60 Bancroft, George. History of the United States. Albach, James R.

Barbour,JohnW., and Henry Howe. Hist, of Western States. Cincinnati, 1867 New York, 1864 Barnard, J. G. Peninsular Campaign. Bishop, John S. Hist, of the War with the Southern States. Indianapolis, 1864 Brackenridge, Henry M. History of the Late War with Great Britain. " " Views of Louisiana. Petersburg, 1804-16 Burk, History of Virginia. 4 vols. .

Notes on the Settlement of the North-west. Cincinnati, MSS., History of the Valley of the Ohio. An Appeal from the Misrepresentations of James Hall respecting the History of Kentucky and the West and a Chronology of the Principal Events in Western Hist, to 1806. 8vo. pamphlet, 82 pp. Frankfort, Philadelphia, Campbell, Charles. History of Virginia. Cincinnati, Chase, Salmon P. Sketch of the History of Ohio.

Burnet, Jacob. Butler, "

Mann.

1847 185?

"

1837 1860 1833 Cincinnati in 1841, 1851, 1859. 3 vols. Cincinnati, 1841-51-59 Cist, Charles. Clark, George Rogers. Campaign in the Illinois in 1778-79. Cincinnati, 1869 The Olden Time. 2 vols. Pittsburgh, 1846 Craig, Neville B. " 1859 History of Pittsburgh. Davis, Paris M. Historv of the Late War. New York, 1836 Wheeling, 1851 DeHass, Wills. History of Western Virginia. Diary in America. Indianapolis, 1843 Dillon, John B. History of Indiana. Doddridge, Rev. Jos. Notes on the Settlement of W. Va., &c. Wellsburg, 1824 Cincinnati, 1867 Duke, Bazil W. History of Morgan's Cavalry.

IN

THE PREPARATION OF THIS WORK.

13

Edwards, Ninian W. History of Illinois from 1778 to 1833. Springfield, St. Louis, Edwards, Richard, and Dr. M. Hopewell. Great West, &c. Philadelphia, Events in Indian History. Geography and History of Western States. Cincinnati, Flint, Timothy. " " " Indian Wars of the West.

1870 1860 1842 1828 1833 Boston, 1826

" " Recollections of Mississippi Valley, &c. Foote, Rev. Wm. Henry. Sketches of Virginia. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1 850, '5.5 Chicago, 1854 Ford, Thomas. History of Illinois, 1818-47. Philadelphia, 1850 French, B. P. Historical Collections of Louisiana. Hartford, 1862 Frost, Mrs. J. B. The Rebellion in the United States. New York, 1852 Gayarr6, Charles. History of Louisiana. Gleig, Rev. Geo. R. British Campaigns at Washington, &c. Philadelphia, 1821 Cincinnati, 1857 Hall, James. Romance of Western History. " " Sketches of Hist., &c., in the West. 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1835 " " Cincinnati, 1836 Statistics of the West. " Harrison, Wm. H. Address, in 1837, in Ohio Hist. Trans. 1839 Hart, Adolphus H. Discovery of the Mississippi Valley. St. Louis, 1852 " " Cincinnati, 1853 Hist, of the Valley of the Mississippi. " Harvey, Hist, of the Shawnee Indians, 1681-1854. 1855

Henry. Heckewelder, Rev. John. Narrative. Hennepin's Louisiana. Hildreth, Dr. S. P. Pioneer History.

Philadelphia, 1820 Paris, 1684

By T. H. Palmer. Historical Register of the U. S. Holmes, Abiel. Annals of America, 1492-1826. 2 vols. Howe, Henry. Historical Collections of Ohio. " " " " Virginia. Indian Narratives, from 1620 to 1794. Treaties, from 1778 to 1837. Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on Virginia. Land Laws of the United States. Library of American History.

Cincinnati, 1848 Philadelphia, 1814

Cambridge, 1829 Cincinnati, 1848 Charleston, 1845 Claremont, N. H., 1854

Washington

City, 1837 London, 1787 City, 1828

Washington

Cincinnati, 1846

Lossing, Benson J. Field-book of the War of 1812. New York, Loskiel, George Henry. History of the Moravian Missions. London, McClung, John A. Sketches of Western Adventure. May sville, Martin's History of Louisiana. 2 vols. New Orleans, Meek, A. B, Passages in South-western History. New York, " Monette, John W. Hist, of the Mississippi Valley. 2 vols. Morris, Robert. History of Freemasonry in Kentucky. Louisville, Pitkin, Timothy. History of the United States. New Haven, Pittman, Philip. European Settlements on the Mississippi, &c. London, Pollard, Edward A. Southern History of the War. New York, " " " Secret History of the Confederacy. Atlanta, Pownall, Thomas. Memorials on Service in North America. London, Putnam, A. W. History of Middle Tennessee, &c. Nashville, Ramsay, David. History of the Revolution in South Carolina. Trenton, Ramsey, J. G. M. Annals of Tennessee. Philadelphia, Redford, Rev. A. H., D.D. Hist, of Methodism in Ky. 3 vols. Nashville, Reynolds, John. History of Illinois from 1673 to 1818. Belleville, 111., Schoolcraft, Henry R. History of the American Indians. Rochester, Shepard, E, H. History of St. Louis and Missouri, 1673-1843. St. Louis, Smith, Col. James. Treatise on Mode of Indian Warfare, &c. Paris, Ky., " Rev. Joseph. Old Redstone or. Sketches of Western Presbyterianism. Philadelphia, " Oliver H. Early Indiana Trials, &c. Cincinnati, " T. Marshall. Legends of the War of Independence. Louisville, Taylor, James W. History of Ohio, 1650-1787. Cincinnati, " Thompson, Ed. Porter. History of the First Ky. Brigade. " Transactions of the Ohio Historical Society. Trumbull, Henry. Indian Wars. Boston, Walker, Chas. J. North-west during the Revolution. Madison, Wis., " Gen. William. War in Nicaragua. Mobile, Wheeler, John H. Historical Sketches of North Carolina. Philadelphia,

1868 1791 1832 1829 1857 1846 1859 1828 1770 1866 1869 1767 1859 1785 1853 1871 1852 1851 1870 1812

;

1854 1858 1855 18.54

1868 1839 1830 1871 1860 1851

LIST OF AUTHORITIES

14 Winterbotham,

REFERRED TO

Wm.

Withers, A. S.

United States and West Indies. Chronicles of Border Warfare, &c.

4 vols. London, 1795 Clarksburg, Va., 1S31

KENTUCKY. Acts of the General Assembly from 1792 to 1871. Cumberland Kiver, U. S. Engineer's Reports on. Debates of Convention for revising Constitution. Documents, Public—or Reports— 1838-1871. 4 vols., 4to. Geological Survev of Kentucky. Journals of the Senate of Kentucky, 1814-71. "

Mammoth

Frankfort, 1792-1871 City, 1871 Frankfort, 1849 Frankfort, 1838-71 " 18.55-61

Washington

"

1814-71

" " 1815-71 House of Representatives of Ky., 1815-71. By Rev. R. Davidson. Philadelphia, 1840 Cave, Excurson to the.

"

"

"

"

Rambles in the. Anonymous. Guide to. By Rev. Horace Martia

1845 York, 1851 1863 Frankfort, 1859 Frankfort, 1839-71 " By William Littell. 5 vols. 1809-19 Statute Laws of Kentucky. Louisville, 1865 State Gazetteer and Shipper's Guide. " " Register for 1847. By Tal. P. Shafifner. 1847 " for 1852. By Thos. B. Monroe, Jr. 1852 Supreme Court and Court of Appeals Reports. By Jas. Hughes. Frankfort, 1806 Military, of Kentucky and Tennessee. Penitentiary of Kentucky, History of School Reports, 1839 to 1871.

Map,

Louisville,

New

"

A Description of Ky., &c. 8vo., map, 124 pp. Filson, John. The Discovery, Settlement, and Present State of Kentucky. 8vo., 118 pp. Wilmington, Del., Imlay, Gilbert. Topographical Description of Ky. 8vo. London, Narrative (of the Settlement of Ky.). 12mo. Frankfort, Littell, " " " Political Transactions in Kv. until 1792. 8vo. Cincinnati, McNemar, Richard. History of the Ky, llevival. 18mo. Marshall, Humphrey. History of Ky. 1 vol., 8vo. Frankfort, " " " " " 2 vols., 8vo. McAfee, Robert B. History of the Late War (1812-15). Lexington, " Metcalf, Samuel L. Narratives of Indian Warfare. 8vo. " History of Cumberland Presbyterians. Cleland, Rev. Thomas. Remonstrance to Congress concerning the Occupying Claimant Laws.

1722

8vo., 54 pp. Frankfort, Bishop, Rev. Robert H. Hist, of the Church in Ky. 12nio. Lexington, Richmond, Va., Kentucky Resolutions of 1798, &c. 8vo., 68 pp. Louisville, Butler, Mann. History of Ky. 12mo., 396 pp. " " " " 2d edit, 12mo., 551 pp. Cincinnati, Morehead, James T. Address at Boonesborough. 8vo. Frankfort, Davidson, Robert. Notices of the Early Settlement of Ky. Philadelphia, Robertson, George. Address at Camp Madison. 8vo., 32 pp. Frankfort, Spalding, Martin J. Louisville, Sketches of Catholic Missions in Ky. Davidson, Robert. Hist, of the Presbyterian Church in Ky. New York, Collins, Lewis. Historical Sketches of Ky. 8vo., 560 pp. Maysville, Smith, Rev. James. History of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Arthur, T. S., and W. H. Carpenter. History of Ky. Philadelphia, Robertson, George. Scrap-book of Men and Times, &c. 8vo. Lexington, Drake, Dr. Daniel. Pioneer Life in Kentucky. 8vo., 263 pp. Cincinnati, Allen, William B. History of Kentucky. MSS.,

1824 1824 1832 1834 1836 1840 1840 1843 1844 1847 1847

Toulmin, Henry.

Wm.

1784 1792 1806 1806 1808 1812 1824 1816 1821 1823

1853 1855 1870 1871

LOUISVILLE. Charter, Acts and Ordinances relating to

New. Directory.

''

"

By Gabriel Collins. By N. Peabody Poor.

By John B. Jegli. By Gabriel Collins. By Charles K. Caroa

Municipal Reports

for 1870.

— 1780-1869.

Louisville, 1869

" " " " "

" "

1870 1838 1844 1845 1848 1871 1871

IN THE

PREPARATION OF THIS WORK.

15

Louisville, 1819 McMurtrie, Henry. Sketches of Louisville. Svo., 249 pp. " 12 mo., 245 pp. 1852 Casseday, Ben. History of Louisville. " 1859 Deering, Kichard. Louisville Her Hist., Advantages, &c. 8vo.



MISCELLANEOUS. Almanac, American, 1835-46.

REFERRED

LIST OF AUTHOPailES

16

TO.

PERIODICALS. Almoner, The.

Lexington, 1814-15

American Pioneer. John S. Williams, Carey's American Museum.

Editor.

2

Cincinnati, 1842—43 Philadelphia, 1789

vols.

Lexington, 1822

Christian Register. Cincinnati Miscellany. Charles Cist, Editor. 2 vols. Evangelical Record and Western Review. 2 vols. Examiner. Condy Raguet, Editor. Monthly Chronicle. Edward D. Mansfield, Editor. Niles'

Weekly

Cincinnati, 1844-45

Lexington, 1812-13 Philadelphia, 1834 •

Register.

North American Review. Patriot The— Weekly.

Cincinnati, 1839 Baltimore. Boston, 1832-52 Frankfort, 1826 Baltimore, 1856

Presbyterial Critic. Stuart Robinson, D.D Editor. Presbyterian E.xpoaitor. Nathan L. Rice, D.D., Editor. Chicago, 1857-58 Spirit'of Seventy-six— Weekly. Frankfort, 1826 The Land We Love. Gen. D. H. Hill, Editor. Charlotte, N. C, 1866-68 The Literary Pamphleteer (in 6 Nos.) By Rev. John McFarland. Paris, 1823. Truth's Advocate. Cincinnati, 1828 Boston, 1825-26 United States Literary Gazette. Weekly Recorder. John Andrews, Editor. 2 vols. Chillicothe, 1814-15 Western Journal and Civilian. M. Tarver, Editor. 15 vols. St. Louis, 1848-56 " Luminary Weekly. Lexington, 1824-36 " Messenger. Jas. Freeman Clarke, Ed. Louisville and Cin 1835-41 " Missionary Magazine. " Monthly Magazine. Cincinnati, 1832 " Review. Wm. Gibbes Hunt, Editor. 4 vols. Lexington, 1819-21 ,



,

POETRY. Bryan, Daniel.

Anna

Mountain Muse;

or.

Adventures of Daniel Boone. Harrisonburg, Va., 1813 Boston, 1856

The

Star of the West. Poets and Poetry of the West. Coggeshall, Wm. T. Buena Vista, and other Poems, Cutter, George William. Griffin, Alice McClure. Poems. Poems. GrifiBth, Mattie. Johnson, Tom. The Kentucky Miscellany. Carroll,

Ella.

Pickett, James C. Poems. Poetical Literature of the West. Stanton, Henry T. Moneyless Man, Welby, Amelia B. Poems.

many

Besides

Columbus, I860 Cincinnati, 1848 Cincinnati, 1864

New

York, 1853

Danville, 1821

Washington and other Poems.

City,

1867

Cincinnati, 1841 Baltimore, 1871 Boston, 1845

Fugitive Pieces in Books and Newspapers,

TRAVELS. London, 1856 Tour in North America, in 1796-7. Liverpool, 1817 Bradbury, John. Travels in America, in 1809-11. London, 1827 Bullock, W. Journey through the Western States. London, 1780 Carver, Jonathan. Travels in North America, 1766-68. Pari.s, 1744, 1774 Charlevoix, Peter F. X. de. History, etc., of New France. etc. Crevecceur, Hector St. J. de. American, Letters from an Pittsburgh, 1823 Cuming, F. A 'Tour in Ohio and Kentucky, 1807-9. Cincinnati, 1871 Espy, Josiah. Tour in Ohio and Kentucky, in 1805. London, 1818 Fearon, Henry Bradshaw. Sketches of America. Boston, 1805 Harris, Thaddeus Mason. Tour in the North-west, in 1803. London, 1778 Hutchins, Thomas. Plan of the Falls of the Ohio, etc. Paris, 1681 Marquette's Journal in Shevenot London, 1818 Melish, John. Travels through the U. S. in 1806 to 1811. London, 1805 Michaux, F. A. Travels in America. 1823 Ogden, Geo. W. Letters from Kentucky, etc. London, 1818 Palmer, John. Travels in the United States in 1817. London, 1784 Smyth, J. F. D. Tour in the United States, etc. 2 vols. Narrative of the expedition of De Soto. Vacca, London, 1799 Weld, Isa.ac. Travels in N. America, in 1795-6-7. 2 vols. Early Recollections. In Amer. Pioneer. Cincinnati, 1842-43 Wilkson, Bailey, Francis.



.



.

LIST OF AUTHORITIES

REFERRED

TO.

PERIODICALS. Lexington, 1814-15

Almoner, The.

American Pioneer. John S. Williams, Carey's American Museum.

Editor.

2

Cincinnati, 1842-43 Philadelphia, 1789

vols.

Lexington, 1822

Christian Register. Charles Cist, Editor. 2 vols. Cincinnati Miscellany. Evangelical Record and Western Review. 2 vols. Examiner. Condy Raguet, Editor, Monthly Chronicle. Edward D. Mansfield, Editor. Niles'

Weekly

Cincinnati, 1844-45

Lexington, 1812-13 Philadelphia, 1834 Cincinnati, 1839 Baltimore. Boston, 1832-52 Krankfort, 1826 Baltimore, 1856

Register.

North American Review. The—Weekly. Patriot.

Stuart Robinson, D.D, Editor. Presbyterial Critic. Presbyterian Expositor. Xathan L. Rice, D.D., Editor. Chicago, 1857-58 Spirit of Seventy-six— Weekly. Frankfort, 1826 Charlotte, N. C, 1866-68 The Land We Love. Gen. D. H. Hill, Editor. The Literary Pamphleteer (in 6 Xos.) By Rev. John McFarland. Paris, 1823. Truth's Advocate. Cincinnati, 1828 Boston, 1825-26 United States Literary Gazette. Weekly Recorder. John Andrews, Editor. 2 vols. Chillicothe, 1814-15 Western Journal and Civilian. M. Tarver, Editor. 15 vols. St. Louis, 1848-56 " Luminary Weekly. Lexington, 1824-36 " Messenger. Jas. Freeman Clarke, Ed. Louisville and Cin 183.5^1 " Missionary Magazine. " Monthly Slagazine. Cincinnati, 1832 " Lexington, 1819-21 Review. Wm. Gibbes Hunt, Editor. 4 vols. •



,

POETRY. Bryan, Daniel. Carroll,

Anna

Mountain Muse;

Ella.

Wm.

or.

Adventures of Daniel Boone.

The Star of the West.

Harrisonburg, Va., 1813 Boston, 1856

Poets and Poetry of the West. Buena Vista, and other Poems. Cutter, George William. Poems. Griffin, Alice McClure. Coggeshall,

Griffith, Mattie.

Johnson, Tom.

T.

New

Poems.

The Kentucky Miscellany.

Pickett, James C. Poems. Poetical Literature of the West. Moneyless Man, Stanton, Henry T. Welby, Amelia B. Poems.

many

Besides

Columbus, 1860 Cincinnati, 1848 Cincinnati, 1864

York, 1853

Danville, 1821

Washington and other Poems.

City,

1867

Cincinnati, 1841 Baltimore, 1871 Boston, 1845

Fugitive Pieces in Books and Newspapers.

TRAVELS. London, 1856 Tour in North America, in 1796-7. Liverpool, 1817 Bradbury, John. Travels in America, in 1809-11. London, 1827 Bullock, W. Journey through the Western States. London, 1780 Travels in North America, 1766-68. Carver, Jonathan. Paris, 1744, 1774 Charlevoix, Peter F. X. de. History, etc., of New France. Crevecoeur, Hector St. J. de. Letters from an American, etc. Pittsburgh, 1823 Cuming, P. A Tour in Ohio and Kentucky, 1807-9. Cincinnati, 1871 Espy, Josiah. Tour in Ohio and Kentucky, in 1805. London, 1818 Fearon, Henry Bradshaw. Sketches of America. Boston, 1805 Tour in the North-west, in 1803. Harris, Thaddeus Mason. London, 1778 Hutchins, Thomas. Plan of the Falls of the Ohio, etc. Paris, 1681 Marquette's Journal in Shevenot London, 1818 Melish, John. Travels through the U. S. in 1806 to 1811. London, 1805 Michaux, F. A. Travels in America. 1823 Ogden, Geo. W. Letters from Kentucky, etc. London, 1818 Palmer, John. Travels in the United S'tates in 1817. London, 1784 Smyth, J. F. D. Tour in the United States, etc. 2 vols. Narrative of the expedition of De Soto. Vacca, London, 1799 Weld, Isaac. Travels in N. America, in 1795-6-7. 2 vols. Wilkson, Early Recollections. In Amer. Pioneer. Cincinnati, 1842-43 Bailey, Francis.



.



.

KENTUCKY ^'W^

.A

-Mo

fr.

^/

/f

A DICTIONARY

STATIONS AND EARLY SETTLEMENTS IN KENTUCKY. Realizing at every step of his studies in Kentucky history the need of a knowledge of the topography of early Kentucky, the author has made the following, for two years, a work of great and patient labor. He has succeeded in making it full and accurate beyond his most sanguine exespecially when it is known that he has been able to avail pectations of the personal information of only one now living, Dr. Christopher C. Graham, of Louisville (who, in November, 1873, at the ripe age of 87, is enthusiastically engaged in building up a great museum in connecIn addition to all usual tion with the Public Library of Kentucky). sources of such knowledge, over nine thousand depositions of the pioneers, of all dates from 1787 to 1827, have been sought out in the various courthouses, and their statements under oath faithfully examined and compared. It will be esteemed a fevor if any one discovering the slightest inaccuracy will promptly notify the author, that it may be corrected in future editions.



Armstrong's Station, on the Indiana shore, in Clark county, Indiana, at the mouth of Bull creek, opposite the Grassy Flats, and 18-mile-Island bar, blockhouse was built here in the Ohio river, 18 miles above Louisville. by Col. John Armstrong, between 1786 and 1790, to prevent the Indians from crossing the river here, where it was fordable, to steal horses from Ky. Ashton's Station; mentioned in Boone's Autobiography, May, 1782; same as Estill's A'Sturgus' Station (1783), on Harrod's trace, in Jefferson county. Bailey's Station, in Mason county, 2J miles south of Maysville, and 1 mile from Washington; settled in 1791. Bardstown, in Nelson county, established 1 788 called Bairdstown. Barnett's Station, 2 miles from Hartford, Ohio county settled by Col. Joseph Barnett, before 1790. Black's vStation; before Dec, 1794; in Fayette county, on waters of Clear Creek. Blue Licks, Lower. [See Lower Blue Licks] Blue Licks, Upper. [See Upper Blue Licks] Boiling Spring, in Mercer county, near or in Harrodsburg; in 1775, one of the four "settlements" which were represented in the Transylvania legislative body at Boonesboro. Boone's Station same as Boonesboro. Boone's Station, on Boone's Creek, in Fayette county, about 10 miles s. B. of Lexington and 5 miles N. w. from Boonesboro settled by and named after Daniel Boone about 1783 or '84, who lived there until he removed to Maysville, before Feb. 3, 1786. Boone's (Squire) Station called Squire Boone's Station, which see. Boonesboro, on the w. bank of Kentucky river in Madison county settled by Daniel Boone, who began the fort on April 1st, and finished it on the 14th of June, 1775. Bosley's Station, J mile above the main fork of Wells' Creek, near Washington, Mason county; before 1793. Bowman's Station, 6 miles e. of Harrodsburg; settled in 1779 by 30 families under Col. Abram Bowman. Col. B. soon after removed to Fayette county. BuASHBARs' Station, at mouth of Floyd's Fork, in Bullitt county, 1779. Bryan's Station, in Fayette county, about 5 miles n. e. of Lexington, on tlie southern bank of the north fork of Elkhorn settled by the Bryans in 1779, but a cabin had been built by Joseph Bryan, a son-in-law of Col. Daniel Boone, in 1776.

A

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

ir...2

W

A DICTIONARY OF THE

18 Buchanan's

Station,

1

mile w. of Germantown, Bracken county, where Geo.

Humlong recently lived. Bdli.itt's Lick, on north side Salt river, 3 miles from Salt river and same distance from Shcpherdsville, in Bullitt county discovered by Capt. Thos. Bullitt in 1773 the only place where salt was made about the Falls in 1780-1, according to Bland Ballard's deposition. Byne's Station, settled by Edmund Byne, on North Fork, in Mason county. Camp Knox, in e. part of Green county, where, in June, 1770, Col. Jas. Knox, with 22 men (called the "Long Hunters"), with i pack-horses, encamped. Cane Run, a Presbyterian meeting-house in 1784, in then Lincoln county. Carpenter's Station, in the knobs of Green river, about 2 miles w. of Hustonville in Lincoln county; about 1780. Casey's (Col. Wm.) Station, in Lincoln county, 3 miles w. of Stanford, and 7 miles e. of Danville, on Hanging Fork of Dick's river. settled by Michael Cassidy. Cassidy's Station, in Fleming county ;

;

;

Clark's Station, in Mason county; settled in 1785. Clarksville, in Indiana, opposite Louisville, laid out by Gen. Geo. Rogers Clark.

Clear's Station, in Bullitt county. Corn Island, in Ohio river, opposite Louisville where Gen. Geo. Rogers Clark built a fort in June, 1778, and raised several crops of corn had several acres of rich land now all washed away. Cox's Station, in Nelson county, near Kincheloe's Station. Crab Orchard, in Lincoln county, 12 miles from Lancaster, and 10 miles from Stanford, on the old pioneer road to Cumberland Gap. Craig's Station, on Gilbert's creek, a few miles e. of Lancaster, Garrard county; settled by Rev. Lewis Craig, in 1780. Craig's Station (another), in Lincoln county, 2 miles E. of Danville. Crow's Station, in then Lincoln count}', near Danville settled by John Crow, before May, 1782. Danville, in Boyle county; laid off as a town by Walker Daniel, 1781. Davis' Station, in southern Kentucky, probably in Logan or Warren co. Dougherty's Station, in Boyle co., on Clark's run, IJ miles below Danville. Dowdall's Station, on Salt river before 1784. Drennon's Lick, in Henry county, near Kentucky river. Dutch Station, in Jefferson county, on Beargrass creek; 1780. Elk Fork op Red River, in Logan county; several settlements on, 1785. Estill's Station, on Muddy creek, 3 miles s. of Richmond, iu Madison county; settled by Capt. James Estill, before 1781. Falls of the Ohio. The first fort was built on Corn island, opposite Louisville, in June, 1778; in the fall of 1778, or spring of 1779, a rude stockade was raised near a ravine where, in 1838, Twelfth street in Louisville terminated at the Ohio river. Feagans' Station, in Mason co., Ij or 2 miles e. of Germantown. Finn's Station, in Jefferson or Spencer co.; settled before 1 780. Finney, Fort original name of Fort where lower end of Jeffersonville,



;

;

;

:



Indiana,

now

stands, at the Fulls of the Ohio.

Fleming's (Col. John) Station, in Fleming co.; 1790. Floyd's Station, first at the mouth of Beargrass, in Louisville, corner 3d St. and Ohio river. Floyd's Station, on the Middle Fork of Beargrass creek, 6 miles from the Falls of the Ohio; settled by Col. John Floyd, in 1775. Floyd's Fork Station, in Oldham co., near Pewee Valley, 18 miles e. of Louisville.

Forks of Dick's River, a Presbyterian preaching place in 1784, in now Lincoln county. Fontainebleau, about 3 miles below Harrodsburg, on the bank of Salt river; a mill was built here at a very early day. Garrard's Station, in Hamilton co., Ohio, on Little Miami; April, 1796. Georgetown, in Scott co., formerly McClelland's Fort, (which see.) Gilmer's Lick, 7 miles from Whitely's Station, in Lincoln co. Gilmore's Station, 12 miles e. of Mountsterling, Montgomery co. Glover's Station, on Green

river,

where Greensburg now stands; 1780.

STATIONS AND EARLY SETTLEMENTS IN KENTUCKY. Goodwin's Station, on tlie Rolling Fork; 1780. Gordon's Station; 1779; in Mercer co. Grant's Lick, in C impbell oo., 5 miles from Alexandria, on road

19

to Fal-

salt made there hefore 1800. rant's Station, settled by Col. John Grant, in 1779, who abandoned it in 1780 and moved back to N. Carolina, but returned and re-settled it in 1784—within 5 miles N. B. of Bryan's station, near where Lowe's is, on Ky. Cen. R. R., near Fayette and Bourbon line. Grubbs' Station, settled by Capt. Higgason Grubbs, on Muddy creek, Madison CO.. before Oct., 1792. Haggin's Station. [See Trigg's Station.] Hardinsburg, county seat of Breckinridge co., originally a station erected by Capt. Hardin laid out as a town in 1782. Hardin's Station, same as Hardinsburg above. Harlan's Station, on Salt river, in Mercer co., 7 miles s. e. from Harrodsburg and .? miles s. w. of Danville; built by Major Silas Harlan, in 1778. Harrison's Station, 2 miles from Higgins' Fort, about 3 miles from Cynthiana, in Harrison co.; before 1786. Harrod's Station, 6 miles east of Harrodsburg, in Mercer co., on the present road to Danville settled by Col. James Harrod. Harrod's Town, or Harrodsburg Station, where Harrodsburg now stands, in Mercer co.; settled by James Harrod, in 1774. The Fort— located on the hill which, in 1834, was occupied by the seminary building, and which included a considerable spring of water at its foot was begun during the winter of 1775-6, but not finished until the ensuing season. Hart s, or White Oak Spring, Station, 1 mile above Boonesboro, in same Ky. river bottom, in Madison co.; settled in 1779, by Nathaniel Hart, and some families from Pennsylvania. Hartford Station, where Hartford, Ohio co., is before 1790. Hazel Patch, on the Cumberland Gap road, in Laurel co. Helm's Station, | Settled by Capt. Thos. Helm, in 1780, on the spot now Haycraft's " occupied by the late Gov. John L. Helm's residence; the " Hynes' j 2d, named after Samuel Haycraft, was on the hill above the cave spring; while Hynes', settled by Col. Andrew Hynes, occupied the other angle of a triangle where Elizabethtown now stands they were one mile apart. Higgins' Blockhouse, on bank of Licking, IJ miles above Cynthiana, Harrison CO., opposite mouth of Sellers' Run; before 1786. Hinkston s Station, in Harrison co., on South Licking, IJ miles above Higgins' Blockhouse, and a short distance below Hinkston creek; was first settled by Isaac Ruddle and others, and called Ruddle's Station until "taken by the Indians" in 1780; when resettled, afterwards, it was oftenest called Hinkston's, after John Hinkson, the most prominent of the re-settlers. Hobson's Choice, the camping ground of Gen. Wayne, in 1793, on the Ohio river, below (now in) the city of Cincinnati the very spot now occupied by the gas works, but reaching above and below that. Hogland's Station, in Jefferson co., on Beargrass; 1780. Hoy s Station, in Madison county. Huston's Station, in 1776, the present site of Paris, Bourbon co. Irish Station, in Nicholas co., 5 or 6 miles s. of Lower Blue Lick, on road to Millersburg. Irvine's Station, near where Richmond now stands, in Madison oo.; established bv Col. Wm. Irvine and his brother Capt. Christopher Irvine, in 1778 or 1779." Jefferson, Fort, in Ballard co., on the Mississippi river, about 5 miles below the mouth of the Ohio; established by Gen. George Rogers Clark, within the Chickasaw country in 1780; abandoned or evacuated in the spring of 1781, because it afforded no security to the Western settlements. Kellar's Station, in Jeft'erson co.; before 1780. Kenton's Station, 3 miles s. w. of Limestone, now Maysville, and 1 mile N, of Washington, in Mason co.; settled by Simon Kenton, in 1784. Kenton's (John) Station, half mile s. E. of Washington, Mason co. Kilgork's Station, in 1782, n. of Cumberland river, on s. side of Red river;

mouth

;

(i

;

;



;

1-

;



;

A DICTIONARY OF THE

20

Probably in southern part attacked by Indians, same year, and broken up. of Logan co., near state line, or may be in Tennessee. Kin'CHEloe's Station, on Simpson's creek, in Spencer co. Knob Lick, in Lincoln co., 5 miles s. of Danville settled in 1776, by Isaac Shelby. Kuykrndall's (Moses) Station, (1782), in Jefferson co., on waters of Bear;

grass. Le.vch's Station, in Bracken co. Lee's Station, in Mason co., between Maysville and 'W'^ashington settled by Gen. Henry Lee, in 1785, and still the home of his descendants. Leestown, on e. bank of Ky. river, 1 mile below Frankfort settled in 1776, by Hancock Lee, Cyrus McCracken (father of Capt. Virgil McCracken, who raised cabins there. after whom McCracken co. was named), and others Lewis' Station, re-settled by Geo. Lewis in 1789, formerly called Geo. Clark's station where Lewisburg now is, in Mason co., 9 miles from ;







Maysville.

Lexington, on the Town fork of Elkhorn, in Fayette co. settled by Col. Robert Patterson, April 1, 1779. Licking Station, in Harrison co., probably near Laii-'s or may be nearer to ;

Cynthiana. Limestone. [See Maysville.] Linn's Station, on Beargrass, in Jefferson

co., about 10 miles from Louisbefore 1780. Littell's Station, in Pendleton co., on Fork Lick, a west branch of South Lickina, into which it empties just below Callensville (or Morgan's, on Ky. Cen. K. K.) Logan's Fort, same as St. Asaph, 1 mile w. of Stanford, in Lincoln co. settled by Col. Benj. Logan, in 1775. Louisville, at the Fails of the Ohio, in Jefferson co. laid off as a town by Capt. Thos. Bullitt, in August, 1773 the first settlement was on Corn Island, near the Ky. shore, in the spring of 1778; in the fall of that year, a blockhouse was built On the main shore, and in 1782 a larger fort called Fort Nelson. Loudon's Station,- 30 miles from mouth of Ky. river, probably in Henry co. Lynoh's Station, near Shelbyville same as Squire Boone's.

ville;

;

;

;

Lower Blue Licks, in Nicholas co., in sight of where the Maysville and Lexington turnpike crosses Licking river discovered in 1773. James McAfee's Station, on the bank of Salt river, 6 or 7 miles below Harrodsburg, and w. N. w. from it; first cabin built in 1774, and more set;

came in 1775. McAfee's Station, in Mercer co., 6 or 7 miles from Harrodsburg, on Salt and about } of a mile above Providence church settled by tlie McAfee

tlers

river,

;

brothers, in 1779.

William McAfee's Station, on Shawnee run, about 1 mile w. from Harrodsburg, at the mouth of the Town branch. Manchester, or Massie's Station, 12 miles above Maysville, on the north bank of the Ohio river. Mann's Lick, a salt station before 1786, on south side of and close to Salt river, in Bullitt co.,

a few miles from Shepherdsville.

Martin's Station, established by John Martin (who built a cabin in 1775), 5 miles from Ruddle's Station, on Stoner, about 3 miles below Paris in Bourbon CO. settled in 1779. ;

Maulding's Station, established in 1780, on Red river, in Logan co. Maysville, on the Ohio river, at the mouth of Limestone creek, in Mason settled in 1784; blockhouse built by Edward Waller, John Waller and George Lewis, of Virginia. MoClelland's Fort or Station, where Georgetown now stands, in Scott co., settled, in 1776, by John, Alex, and Wm. McClelland, and their and other families from Hinckston's Station and Drennon's Lick. McFadden's Station, 4 miles above Bowlinggreen, on Big Barren river, in Warren co. settled by Andrew McFadden, in 1785. McGary's (Maj, Hugh) Station, in Mercer cc, at the head spring on Shawnee run, 5 miles N. n. b. from Harrodsburg. CO.;

;

STATIONS AND EARLY SETTLEMENTS OF KENTUCKY. Cove

21

on Cooper's run, in s. E. part of Fayette CO., on or near Tate's creek roud from Lexington to Richmond; sometimes called " Old Station; " settled before 1780. MoKinney's Station, settled by Archibald McKinney before 1792; in Lincoln CO., on McKinney's branch of Hanging Fork, about 2 miles from Green river, 9 miles s. w. from Stanford, and about 4 miles N. e. of Hustonville. Mefford's (Geo.) Station, 2J miles s. of Maysville, Mason co. 1787.

McGee's

Station, or

Sprinfr,

;

Middle

before 1787.

Station, in Jefferson co.;

Miller's Station, settled in 1784' by John Miller, about 1 mile from Hinkston creek towards Blue Licks, and 1 m^e N. e. of Millersburg. Mills' Station, supposed to be in Greenup or Lewis co. Wm. Thompson, of White Oak, Greenup co., who died May 7, 1867, aged 77, settled there in 1790, with his father. MoNTGO-MERYS Station, in Lincoln co., on the headwaters of Green river, 12 miles s. w. from Logan's Fort, 2} miles from Pettit's Station settled by Wm. Montgomery, (the father-in-law of Gen. Ben. Logan,) and sons, in 1780. Morgan's Station, on Slate creek, 7 miles E. of Mount Sterling, in what is ;

;

now Bath

Mud

co.

;

settled before 1793.

now stands, in Bullitt co., midway and the Falls of Salt river; settled in, or before 1778. Licks, n. of Russellville, in Logan and Butler counties; pettlements between 1780 and 1784. Nelsok, Fort, in Louisville, corner 9th st. and Ohio river. New Holland, in Jeflferson co. before 1784. between

Garrison, where Shepherdsville Bullitt's Licik

Muddy River

;

Nonsense, Fort, in

Bullitt co.

Old Town, a name by which Harrodsburg was known at an early day Old Town, in Greenup co., the sceneof a great battle by Indians. Painted Stone; some doubt as to its locality, but believed to be another for Squire Boone's Station on Clear creek, near Shelbyville, Shelby co.; certainly Squire Boone's military headquarters in June, 1780. [See Vol. I.] Pari.s, formerly Houston's Station, in Bourbon co. established in 1789 under the name of Hopewell, afterwards called Bourbonton, and finally Paris. Pettit's Station, in Lincoln co., 2| miles from Montgomery's Station, on the headwaters of Green River, and 16 miles s. e. from Logan's Fort. Phillips' Fort, in Larue co., on N. side of Nolin creek, IJ miles from Hodgenville; settled by Philip Phillips, 1780-1. Pittman's Station, in Green co., on the right bank of Green river, near the mouth of Pittman's creek, 5 miles w. of Greensburg; settled in fall of 1779 or spring of 1780. Poplar Level, in Jefferson co. before 1784. Port William, now Carrollton, in Carroll CO., at the mouth of Kentucky river; laid out in 1792 a blockhouse built in 1786 or 1787 by Capt. Elliston. Redstone Fort, now Brownsville, in s. w. Pennsylvania, on the Monongahela river; the most frequent point where emigrants from Pennsylvania and the east, and many from Virginia and Maryland, took navigation for Ky. Rogers' Station, in Nelson co., near the Beech Fork; 1780. Ruddle's Station, on e. bank of South Fork of Licking river, 3 miles below the junction of Hinkston and Stoner's branches, about 7 miles from Paris, in Bourbon co. settled in 1777, by Isaac Ruddle; captured by the Indians and destroyed in 1780; re-built by John Hinkson and others, and called Hinkston'a Station. Russellville, in Logan co. settled in 1780. St. Asaph, or Logan's Fort, in Lincoln co., 1 mile Vf. of Stanford ;«in 1775. Sandusky's Station, on Pleasant Run, in Washington co. settled by James Sandusky or Sodowsky in 1776; in 1786 or '87 he removed to Cane Ridge, in Boui-bon co., and settled another station, which was probably known by the name of Cane Ridge. Soott's (John) Station, 5J miles N. B. of Cynthiana, Harrison co. Skaggs' Station, on Brush creek, in Green co. about 1781. Slate Blockhouse, at the old Slate Furnace, in Bath co.; about 1788. Spring Station, in Jeiferson co. in 1784.

name

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

A DICTIONARY OF THE STATIONS.

22

Station Cajip Creek, in Jackson and Estill counties. Sqcirb Booxe's Station, in Shelby co., near where Shelhyville now stands, on Clear creek, a branch of Brashear.s' creek settled in 1780 or before. Stations on Bearjjrass creek; 6, in 1780, with a population of 600 men. Steuben, Fort, at the Falls of the Ohio in 1790 originally called Fort Finney, now Jeffersonville, Indiana. Stockton's (Geo.) Station, in siL'ht of Flemingsburjr, Fleming co. in 1787. Strode's Station, 2 miles from Winchester, in Clark co.; in 1779. Stroud's Station, in Mason co., on the North Fork of Licking, at the mouth of Stroud's run, in 1785. More ccgrrectly written Strode. in or before 1784. Sturgds' Station, in Jefferson co. Sullivan's Station, in Jefferson co., on Beargrass 1780. Sullivan's Old Station, before 1780, in Jefferson co. 5 miles s. E. of Elisha Applegate, still living in Nov., Louisville, on the Bardstown road. 1872, was born there in 1781. Sullivan's New Station, in Jefferson co. before 1784. Sullivan's (Daniel) Station, in Jefferson co. before 1784. Tanner's Station, where Petersburg now is, in Boone co. 1785. Taylor's Creek Station was probably in Campbell co., on Taylor's Creek. The Cincinnati Centinel of the North-West, March 12, 1796, says John ;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Campbell lived there. Thompson's Station, settled by Robert Thompson in 1790; on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn, 3 miles below Lexington, in Fayette eo. Todd's Stiition, in Jessamine co., not fiir from Keene, and about 10 miles settled by Levi Todd in 1779, who afterwards removed s. w. from Lexington ;

Lexington as a place of greater safety. Trigg's Station, 4 miles n. e. of Harrodsburg, in Mercer co., on Cane run, 4 miles from its mouth at Dick's river; settled in 1780 by Col. Stephen Trigg, and called Viney Grove, because of the number of large grape-vineSi John Haggin lived there, and it was sometimes called Haggin's Station, Tyler's Station, named after Capt. Kobert Tyler; on Tick creek, 4 miles to

of Shelby ville. Upper Blue Licks, on Licking river, in Nicholas ingsburg and 18 miles from Carlisle.

e.

co.

12 miles from Flem-

Viney Grove.

[See Trigg's Station.] Waddington's, a mistake for Worth ington's Station, which see. Waring's Station, in Mason co., nearly 2 miles from Maysville, a short distance w. of Lexington turnpike; settled, Feb., 1785, by Col. Thos. Waring. Washington, in Mason co., 3| miles s. w. of Maysville; settled by Simon Kenton in 1784; laid out as a town in 1786, by Rev. Wm. Wood and Arthur Fox, sen. Whippoorwill creek, Logan co. settlement in 1784, by the Mauldings. settled by Capt. Aquilla Whitaker, Whitaker's Station, in Bullitt co. the hero of the fight at the foot of the Falls of tlie Oiiio, on March 1, 1781. White Oak Spring (or Hart's) Station. [See Hart's Station.] Whitley''s Station, in Lincoln co., 2 miles s. w. of Crab Orchard. " In 1779, they found Col. Wm. Whitley's Station at Dick's river, on the Ky. On the spot still stands a two-story brick trace from Cumberland Gap." house claimed to be the first brick house built in Kentucky, the windows are set over six feet above the floor, to prevent the Indians seeing or shooting into the room. Wilderness, the great traveled road from Virginia to Kentucky, through Cumberland Gap, Hazel Patch, Crab Orchard, and Stanford, to Danville and Central Kentucky, Wilson's Station, in Mercer co., on a branch of Salt river, 2 miles n. w. ;

;



of Harrodsburg. Wilson's Station (another), in Lincoln co., at the fork Clark's run 1785. W^orthington's Station or Fort, in Lincoln co., 4 miles s. e. of Danville settled in 1779, by Capt. Edward Worthington, one of the "Long Hunters;" (sometimes improperly called Waddington's). ;

;;;

APPENDIX TO THE DICTION AR? OF THE

STATIONS AND EARLY SETTLEMENTS IN KENTUCKY. The following additional Stations and Settlements in early Kentucky were gathered during my later researches and inquiries among court records and depositions, and R. H.

private paper

Adams' (Geo.) Station, in Garrard co. Arnold's (John) Station, on Little Benson creek, 7 miles above Frankfort 1783.

Areixgton's Station, in southern Kentucky; 1788. Ballard's (Bland) Station, in Shelby co. usually called Tyler's. Bell's Station, in Madison co. (see p. 521). Blockhouse on Big Sandt river, near or above Louisa, Lawrence co. George Boone's Station, 2J miles N. w. of Richmond (see p. 521). Burnt Station, on or near Simpson's creek, in Nelson co. Bush's (Wm.) Station or Settlement, in Clark co., near Boonesborouo'h. Campbell's Station, on the Dry Ridge, in now Grant co., 3 miles N. of WiUiamstown, and 33 miles from the mouth of Licking; settled some time ;

before 1792.

Cartwright's Station; settled in 1779. Clark's Station, on Clark's run, a branch of Dick's river; settled by Geo. Clark before Nov., 1 779. Collins' Station, on Rockcastle river. Cooper's Station, on Cooper's run, in Bourbon co., 2 miles from Riser's. Elijah Craig's Station, 5 miles from Versailles; 1783. Crews' (David) Station, in Madison co. (see p. 521); 1781. Curtis' Station, in Mason co. (see p. 555). Daviess' (James) Station, about 5 miles w. of Whitley's. Dover Station, in Garrard co., on waters of Dick's river. Downing's Station, K. of and near Dick's river, not far from Danville. Ellis' Station, at Ellisville, Nicholas co. English's Station, on s. bank of Dick's river, in Lincoln co., 3 miles B. of

Crab Orchard. Estill's New Station, 5 miles s. e. of Richmond (see p. 521). Fields' (Wm.) Station, IJ miles w. of Danville. Fisher's (Stephen) Garrison, not far from Danville. Floree's Station, on the " middle trace " from Maysville to Lexinston 1792. Porks of Elkhorn Settlement, in Scott co. Fox's (Artlmr) Station same as Washington. GivENs' (Samuel) Station, li miles s. w. of Danville, on a branch of Clark's run; settled before Feb., 1780; afterwards called John Reed's Station. Goar's Station, in Franklin co., on n. side of Elkhorn creek. Great Crossings Station, in Seott co., about 2 miles w. of Georgetown same as Col. Johnson's. Haebe.son's Station, probably in E. part of Washington county, on road ;

from Harrodsburg to Bardstown. Holder's (John) Station, on Ky. river, 2 miles below Boonesborough. Hood's Station, in Clark co. before 1792. Irish Station, between Danville and mouth of Dick's river. Johnson's (Col. Robert) Station, at the Great Bufi'alo Crossings on North Elkhorn, in Scott co. settled in winter of 1783-84. Kenton's (Simon) Station several blockhouses built by Simon Kenton, who brought to them from Pennsylvania his father's family, and remained with them until July, 1784. Kennedy's Station, in Garrard co., between Paint Lick creek and Dick's ;

;

;

river. (23)



24

APPENDIX TO THE DICTIONARY OF STATIONS.

Leitch's Station, about 6 miles above the mouth of Lickino;, on the E. bank, in now Campbell county; Bettled in 1790byjMaj. David Leitch (after

whom

Litchfield, Grayson co., was named). Liberty Fort, on Salt river in Mercer county, fths mile below McAfee's

Station.

Littell's Station,

now

the site of Williamstown, Grant co.

;

settled before

1792.

The Little Fokt; same

as Twetty's (see p. 520); 1775. Lindsay's Station, in Scott co., near Lecompt's run. Locust Thicket Fort, in Madison co. before 1780. Marble Creek Station, 7 miles from Boonesborouopulatiou in 1870, 152, and in Jan., 1873, nearly 300. Olhe Hill is 15 miles w. of Grayson Geigersville, 12 miles E., population about 150. There are four iron furnaces Boone, 17 miles N.W., Mt. Savage, 7 miles s. E., Star, 9 miles E. of Grayson (jiop. about In Carter county are 21 stores, 8 hotels, 5 200), and a fourth. steam and 7 water mills, 1 seminary, '6 lawyers, and 8 doctors. ;

;

When formed

Seepage

Population, from 1840 to 1870 " whites and colored

p. p.

Tobacco, corn, wheat, hay. .pages 266, Horses, mules, cattle, hugs p. Taxable property, 1846 And 1870. ..p. Land— Ko. of acres, .nnd value p.

268 268 270 270 p. 257

Latitude and longitude Distinguished citizens

childr.

Members of the Legislature from Carter County, sikck

see Index.

its formation-.

Senate.— H. K. Weio, 1853-57; Wm. C. Grier, 1861-65. House of Representatives.— knire-n Kitchen, 1842; Walter Osburn, 1844 Geo. W. Crawford, 1846 Geo. Grubb, 1847 John T. Ratclitf, 1849 and 1859-61 John J. Park, 1851-55; Ephraim B. Elliott, 1855-57; Richard B. Whitt, 1857-59; Stephen J. England, 1861-63, but resigned Aug., 1862, and succeeded by Wm. Bowling, 1862-63; Sebastian Eifort, 1863-65; B. F. Shepherd, 1865-67; James Kilgore, 1869-71; Richard D. Davis, 1873-75. ;

;

;

;



The exact period of the first settlement of Carter county is First Settled. not certainly known. It is generally believed to have been in 1808; at the Sandy salines, by persons engaged in the salt business the most prominent of whom was Capt. Thos. Scutt, of Lexington, who died in 1870, aged 93. Salt was once made there in considerable quantities, and shipped by wagon



and flat-boat Natural Bridge. burg, on the Ohio

— About 16 miles from

Grayson, and 25 miles from Vancespanning a small stream of clear

river, is a Natui-.al Bridge,

Caney (formerly called Swingle's branch), which falls Sandy river. The bridge is 219 feet in the span, 196 feet high, 12

water, called Little into Little

feet wide, 5 feet thick in the center of the arch, and 30 feet at the ends From the bottum of the being arched underneath and level on the top.

ravine a spruce pine has grown up to a height of 4 feet above the bridge,

CARTER COUNTY.

123

The

sides of the ravine are so rugged that, were it not for a natural stairway, a person desiring to descend from the top of tlie bridge to the ravine below would have to walk probably two miles. The celebrated Natural Bridge of Virginia, which is said to be less picturesque and attractive in its surroundings than this, is also less in some of its dimensions— being 9U feet in the spun, 220 feet high, 80 feet wide, and 60 feet thick.* Two other natural bridges, much smaller, are in this neighborhood. Cascades. A short distance, 100 feet, below the natural bridge, is a cascade with a fall of 75 feet; and another, 2 miles distant, with a fall of2(i0 feet.

making

its

entire lieight

200

feet.





In the vicinity of the bridge ai-e two streams known as Big yinkcy and Little Sinkey, which emerge from the ground, good-sized streams, flow about two miles, and again disappear. An Artesian Weli, in the same neighborhood, formerly threw up a jet about 4 feet high, of the size of a common barrel; but, having been obstructed by stones and trunks of trees thrown into it by persons curious to ascertain its depth, it now only plays to the height of a loot above the level of the pool. Caecs. The second largest of a series of oaves in the neighborhood of the natural bridge, is Swindle's. 30 yards distant— .still unexplored beyond a dia tance of about 2 miles. 'I'he entrance is very large, then contracting so as to require stooping ibr (50 feet, enlarges to a height of 10 feet or more. This cave was once the rendezvous for a band of counterfeiters and in the early history of the state, gunpowder was manufactured there. Many of the saltpeter troughs can yet be distinctly seen. About a third of a mile distant, is the Sat cave so called from the inIt is the largest of the group. numerable swarms of bats. Near the entrance, the cave descenas perpendicularly about 20 feet to the floor. Four The main avenue is 2 miles long, ditl'erent apartments and roads branch oft! and the whole mountain seems to be hollow. The cave is damp, and the atmosphere at times oppressive. In one of the apartments a spring of pure water issues from a cave in the rock. Twenty-iive years ago, many names and dates were found written on the walls, some as far back as the time of our early pioneers. The cave was then also remarkable for being the place where was tried the first jury case ever tried in that part of Kentucky. The entrance to the " cave is gained by ascending a ladder about 50 feet. It is less extensive than the foregoing, but is said to exceed all the others in grandeur. The Laurel cave, about half a mile from Swingle's, is unlike the others, and has its peculiar attractions. The Kenton Salt Well is situated in the bed of Tygert creek, on the farm of Mr. Jacobs, ajjout (5 miles N. w. of Grayson so named " because Himon Kenton manufactured salt here, on the first settlement of the country." [See Ky. Ueol. Survey, ii, 366.] There are other salt works a short distance s. E. Sink.nt/ Creeks.



;



X"

;

ot

Orayson.



Quarri/ of Indian Arrow-Heads. On the east sid^of Tygert creek, a quarter of a mile from the Kenton salt well, are several caves, which are formed in a local bed of coarse grindstone grit. The bedding faces of this rock in some places are thickly studded with angular fragments of horn-stone or flint. Extensive diggings are observed in this neighborhood, only about 6 or 7 feet deep, and often extending over half an acre or more of ground. Prof. Sidney S. Lyon, of the Kentucky geological survey, was satisfied that " these diggings were made by the aborigines of the country for the purpose of procuring the materiid from which they made their arrow-heads."

CASEY COUNTY. Casey

county, the 46th in order of formation, wa.s organized in 1806, out of part of Lincohi county, and named in memory of * Tho dimensions and part of the description are from the correspondence of the Taylorsville (Ky.; Index.

CASEY COUNXr.

124 Col.

Wm.

Casey.

It

is

middle part of the

situated in the

state,

on the iieadwaters of Green river and of tlie Rolling Fork of tSult river; and is bounded x. by Boyle, E. by Lincoln, S. by Pulaski, and \v. by Adair. The surface is high and broken the principal productions are corn, wheat, oats, and potatoes. Towns. Liberty, tlie county seat, incorporated in 1830, contains a court house and public offices, 4 churches, 8 stores and groceries, 3 taverns, 11 mechanics' shops, 6 lawyers, 4 doctors; population about 250. Iliddleburg, 7 miles n. e. of Liberty, and IG miles from Shelby city. Mintonvillc, 18 miles s. e. of liiberty. diseyvUle, a few miles S. e. of Liberty. ;



Statistics of Casey County.

When

formed See page 26 Populatiun, from 1810 to 1S7U p. 25S " whites and colored p. 2rn frontier called forth the gallantry and patriotism of Kentucky, and among many olher brave men, he volunteered his services to his country, and served one campaign as aid-de-camp to Ceneral Samuel Hopkins. Soon afterwards he was admitted to the bar, and commenced the practice of law in Lexington. He had been but a short time before the public, when he began to attract, in a remarkable degree, its notice and regard. His engaging manners and exalted character, irresistibly drew to him the respect and affection of his fellow men. He was a stranger to deceit in every form no one ever suspected him of duplicity ; he was open, frank, and true ; generous and confiding, perh-^ps to a fault ;

;

FAYETTE COUNTY.

l'.)9

who knew

him. Such qualities naturally fitted him for public life; and, accordingly, at a very early age, he was elected to the legislature from Fayette county, by the largest majority ever given there. His legislative career was highly honorable to himself and useful to the State. The urbanity of his manners, united to his vigorous talents, and high, He filled the chair steady character, gave him uncommon power and influence. of speaker of the house, with an impartiality and dignity that commanded the approbation of all parlies. Though as far as possible removed from the brawling partisan, and without one quality of the demagogue in his character, Mr. Breckinridge always took a deep interest in public affairs, and his hereditary principles were those of the republican party of '98, which brought Mr. Jefferson into power. The national theatre, in his day, presented comparatively a quiet scene; for the greater part of his public life was passed in what was called the "era of good feeling" during the administration of Mr. Monroe that interval of peace between the violent party contests of our earlier and later history. In the politics of his own State, it was the rare good fortune of Mr. Breckinridge to command the confidence of both parties; and when Gen. Adair was elected governor of Kentucky, the voice of the public, and of the governor himself, designated him for the office of secretary of state. He accepted the appointment, and removed to Frankfort with his family in the spring of 18'21, where he continued to reside, attending to his lucrative practice and the duties of his office, until the fall of 18-23, when he was seized with a malignant fever then raging in the town, which baffled the skill of his physicians, and of which he died on the 1st of September. Thus was lost to his family, his friends, and his country, at the early age of thirty-five years, Joseph Cabell Breckinridge a man who, from his first appearance on the theatre of affairs, had been steadily growing in the affection and whose life had given a sure guarantee of true gratitude of his countrymen greatness and whose noble character and genuine talents promised, in any At the bar, his eloquence, which was of a sphere, to reflect honor on his state. high and persuasive order, united to his extensive professional attainments, placed him in the front rank. The few compositions and published speec_hes which the pressure of his other avocations allowed him to throw off, show rbmarkable purity and force of style. Perhaps, in his day, he had no superior as a writer in His mind was of that long maturing kind, which is late in attaining the west. the utmost force and cultivation to which it is susceptible; and at his death, his powers were expanding into greater strength, and he seemed but upon the threshhold of his fame. In social intercourse, his influence on those around him was remarkable. There was a certain individuality about him, not to be forgotten, even by a casual observer which arose, in part, from his extraordinary personal advantages, but chiefly from a lofty tone of character, which impressed itself on all his conduct. At his death, his position was fixed ; no dispute arose concerning it the public sentiment was settled and unanimous. And when his countrymen were called to mourn his loss, all joined their according testimony to the perfect nobility of his nature, and the steadfast uprightness of his life. In person, Mr. Breckinridge was somewhat above the middle height, with a form of remarkable symmetry. His complexion was fair, his eyes and hair dark. His whole appearance was strikingly graceful and manly, and he was esteemed one of the most accomplished gentlemen of his day. For a number of years before his death, he was a professor of religion, and was one of the founders and ruling elders of the second Presbyterian church in Lexington. He carried his religious character wherever he went, and died as he had lived, a christian gentleman. His life is worthy of study, and his example of

and possessed the unbounded confidence of

all













;

imitation.

John

C.

lie

left

a

numerous family.

[See sketch of his only son, Gen.

Breokineidge, on page 202.]

Robert Wickliffe, eldest son of Charles VVickliffe and Lydia Hardin, was born Jan. 16, 1775, at Redstone "Old Fort," in Pennsylvania in removing from the county of Prince William, V.a., to Kentucky. The family came from England about 1748 his ancestor, Elijah Wicklitie, settling near Dumfries. Charles Wickliffe emigrated to Ky., and, with his kindred, the Hardins, settled in Nelson county. His son Robert studied law under the





— FAYETTE COUNTY.

200

celebrated George Nicholas, and soon obtained a larse and lucrative practice He shunned, as far as he well could, political honors; yet was one of the representatives of Fayette county in 1819, 1S23, and 1824, and one of her Durinj; this time, occurred the great state senators for eijrht years, 1825-33, and bitter contest between the Old Court and New Court parties in Kentucky in which Mr. Wickliffe distinguished himself as one of tlie Old Court leaders, in co-operation with such able men as John J. Crittenden, Ben. Mills, and Geo. Robertson, and in antagonism to such powerful adversaries as John Kowan, Geo. M. Hibb, and Wm. T. Barry. The Old Court party finally triumphed. Mr. Wickliffe attained a reputation as one of the very ablest cerreal estate lawyers of his time and in the course tainly the most successful of fifty years practice amassed the largest fortune ever acquired by any lawyer He was a man of lofty stature, noble presence, and courtly manners in Ky. from which circumstances both friends and foes gave him the sobriquet of His temper was frank and ardent, giving him great influthe " Old Duke." ence over his associates and making his friends adhere to him with constancy while it made him, among those he defeated at the bar, some most uneomHe was an earnest member of the Episcopal church. proinising enemies. He died Sept. 1, 1859, in his 85th year. Mr. W. was twice married; when a young man, to Margaret Preston Howard, daughter of John Howard, of Howard's Grove, Fayette co and at her death, to Mrs. MaryO. Russell, only child of Col. John Todd, who fell in command at the battle of the Blue Licks,





;

;

,

Aug.

19,

1782; by her he

left

no

issue.

William Smith Waller was born at Craig's Station, on Gilbert's Creek, a few miles east of where the town of Lancaster is now situated, in Garrard He was the youngest of five sons of Rev. Wm. E. CO., Ky., on April 6th, 1785. Waller, an eminent Baptist preacher, who, in 1781, moved from Spottsylvania county, Va.. to Kentucky, in company with a large party of emigrants, chiefly The family was of English descent, their ancestors having come Baptists. over to this country about the beginning of the reign of ('harles II. In 1797, his father having returned to Virginia, the son was placed in the of Maj. Wm. Trigg, then clerk of the court of quarter sessions, at Franklbrt, At the age of 17, be received a certificate of qualification as from the judges of the court of appeals. Muter, Sebastian, and Wallace. In 1803, he was appointed clerk in the auditor's office, then filled by Maj. Geo. Madison, afterwards governor of the state, whose confidence and "friendHe devoted his leisure hours to study, under ship be retained through life. the direction of James Priestly, one of the most celebrated teachers of his day in Kentucky. At this period, he was distinguished for correct deportment, aptitude and industry, for accuracy in business, and for application to study. His amiable, social, genial nature, the vivacity of his spirits, and the ardor of his friendships, made him a great favorite in society. In 1807, the first Bank of Kentucky was chartered, with a capital of He was chosen first clerk," and Matthew T. Scott, second clerk, $2,000,000. by a board of directors consisting of Robert Alexander, President, and George Madison, John Brown, John Allen, Daniel Weisiger, Achilles Sneed, and These gentlemen ranked amongst the most eminent men others, directors. of the state of that day. In 1.SU9, be was elected cashier, which office he filled with great credit to himself and advantage to the institution during its entire subsequent existence a period of twenty-six years. Such was the ability and integrity of its management, that the bank always stood as one of the soundest and most popular in the country. He was married Jan. 17th, 1810, to Miss Catharine Breckinridge, at the country seat of Nathaniel Hart, near Versailles, Woodford county. The fruits of this marriage were four sons and three daughters all still living, except a daughter who died in infancy. In 1835, he became cashier of the Lexington branch of the present Banlc The Schuylkill Bank, in Philadelphia, had been, for several of Kentucky. years, the agent of the IJank of Kentucky, for the transfer of stock in the eastern states and, in the administration of that important trust, had issued a

office

clerk,





;



FAYETTE COUNTV.

2C1

amount of spurious certificates of stoek. This fraud compromitted tlie Bank of Kentucky to the extent of over §1,000,000; and was a heavy blow at

larse

It had been so ounninjily devised and dexterously its credit and usefulness. executed, that it was not discovered for several years; and then, it was feared that the spurious could not be discriminated fiom the genuine stock, Schuylkill Bank. liability of the so as to fix the At a full meeting of the stockliolders of the Bank of Kentucky, Mr. Waller was unanimously chosen as their airent to proceed to Philadelphia, in 1>!-10, to investigate thoroughly this fraudulent transaction, and aseertain Tliis was accomplished successfully in ten and identify the false stock. months, after most incessant application. The work ran through many heavy registers, and exhibited with perfect accuracy the successive transfers of every It demonstrated the rights and liabilshare of legitimate and spurious stock. ities of all parties, and thus formed the only reliable basis of legal adjudication. The distinguished legal advisers of the Bank, Hons. Horace Binney, Jolin Sergeant, and Jos. R. Ingersoll, united in presenting him, upon his leaving Philadelphia, a testimonial of their appreciation of his services, in which they say " In our opinion the great labor of this performance has been directed by a very high degree of intelligence and the rule you have adopted in separating the genuine from the spurious stock, in those cases in which they became united in the same proprietor, and were afterwards transferred by him, appears to be the true one." Ou the presentation of his report, the board of directors unanimously resolved, "That the thanks of this board and of the stockholders are due to William S. Waller, for the able and successful manner in which he has performed the arduous and difficult task assigned him." The stockliolders subsequently passed a similar resolution. The gradual inroads of a cruel disease cancer in the face compelled him The president and directors to withdraw from all official cares, in July, 1852. of the Lexington Branch Bank, unanimously adopted resolutions that were remarkable for their strong terms of regret, sympathy, and high appreciation. Thus honorably closing an official career of forty-five years, he retired to the more quiet srfenes and occupations of a rural home, with tastes as simple, and a spirit as cheerful, as if he had known no other life, and was suffering from no depressing sorrow. He had been for many years a member of the Presbyterian church and in perfect submission to his great afiiiction, in tones of deep emotion, he said, a short time before his death "It is all right, it is all right, I am ready and willing to die." Thus he passed away, June 15th, 185.5, in his 71st year; a citizen of eminent standing and irreproachable character, a man of faith, hope, and charity. :

;





;

CoNSTANTiNE S. Rafinesque, an American naturalist, was born in Galata, His father, G. F. Rafinesque, was a a suburb of Constantinople, in 1784. merchant in the Levant, and his house a branch of one in Marseilles; his mother, M. Schmaltz, a Grecian born, but of a German family from Saxony. The son was taken when seven years of age to Marseilles, thence to Italy, and after residing in various cities in that country, came to America in 1802. Having collected a large number of botanical specimens, he returned to Europe in 1805, and spent ten years in Sicily. There he employed a part of his time in collecting plants, minerals, and fossils, as well as fishes, molusca, shells, sea-plants, &c. and in writing numerous essays. In 1815 he pub;

French, his " Analysis of Nature." The same year he saile(l for America, but the ship was urecked on Long Island, and he lost all his accumulations except "some scattered funds, and the insurance ordered in England for one-third the value of his goods." Reaching New York, partly by stage and partly on foot, he accepted a position as teacher in a private family, for some months. Even there he projected new travels. While in Philadelphia on business, a friend, John D. Clifibrd, then settled in Kentucky, induced him to visit the western states in the spring of 1818 a trip or tour which extended over two thousand miles. He traveled through Pennsylvania on foot, for the purpose of botanizing. At Pittsburgh, he with others bought an ark or covered flat-boat, and floated down the river, stopping to botanize

lished, in



FAVETTE COUNTY.

202 At

at pleasure.

Louisville

lie

remained two weeks, studyinn, and making

of, the fishes and shells of tlie river. at lleiidor.scin, K}-., spent some days with

dniwinjrx

and

ornit!i(>leries 75. Up to Oct. 1, 1869, the recoveries exceeded the deaths 38 a gain Until 1838 monomania does not in 14 years of 113 recoveries over deaths. appear upon the register a case of dementia is mentioned for the first time in 1844, one of imbecility in 1845, and one of general paralysis not until 1856. Of the whole number admitted to Oct. 1, 1869, 55 were cases of monomania, 310 of dementia, only 10 of imbecility, and only 12 of general paralysis; 2,006 were of mania, acute and chronic, 131 of mania-a-potu, 155 of melancholia, 213 of epilepsy, and 126 of idiocy. During the year ending Oct. 1,.1871, 212 applications for admission to the



;

I

!

Who



:

;



;

a

FAYETTE COUNTY.

225



two asylums of Kentucky were turned away, for lack of accommodation painful fact, and necessitating; their enlargement, or the erection of a third asylum. In January, 1873, the legislature was gravely considering the most practicable course to adopt.



More of the Early History of Lexington. Among the original settlers of Lexington were two brothers, Elijah and Josiah Collins. In August, 1780, Stephen Collins, whose name appears among the earliest lot-holders (page 172), then a resident of Bowman's station, when returning from the successful expedition of Gen. Geo. Rogers Clark against the Indian towns of Old Chillicothe (three miles north of the present city of Xenia, Greene county, Ohio) and Piqua, stopped in Lexington and exchanged the horse he rode for a three-acre lot of growing corn, a cow, a few hogs, and some farming utensils. He also exchanged his cabin at Bowman's station for one in Lexington, into which he removed permanently in a few weeks. His bargain was considered a bad one, and his change of home dangerous ^for the capture on the 22d of June previous, of Ruddle's and Martin's stations on the waters of South Licking, had left Bryan's station and Lexington the most exposed positions in the country. Mr. Collins consoled himself with the remark that it was as well to die by the sword as by famine the latter being threatened, south of the Kentucky river, by the wild game having been hunted out or driven off. Soon after, the young corn and pumpkins were available for food, and as the corn grew hard the mortar and pestle turned it into hominy and meal for bread. The skins of deer and elk, when dressed, furnished clothing stretched in a frame with the woolly side up, the buffalo hides made at once bed and bedstead, and no warmer covering could be desired than the hides reversed with the woolly side down. Shirts were made of the linen manufactured of the lint from the bark of the dead nettle stalks. David Hunter Killed. A small party of Indians, not long after this, killed a young man named David Hunter, as he was passing from MoConnell's station, on the Town fork a mile below Lexington. When near the fort at Lexington, he was shot with several balls and scalped. The men rushed out from the fort with their guns, but the Indians escaped into the cane-





;



brakes.



A

Fight at Odds. Through a crack in the picketing of the fort, some of the inhabitants witnessed the desperate rencounter between John Wymore, Henry McDonald and a third man from the station engaged in woodchopMcDonald killed an Indian, but Wymore was killed. ping, and five Indians.

Bent on revenge, the same party hung around MoConnell's station, and several days after wounded John Brooky while cutting wood.; one of the Indians in turn was shot and wounded by Thomas Stinson. A Water Grist Mill on South Elkhorn creek was erected by Capt. James McBride at an earlier period, it is claimed by some, than that of Higbee's in the fall of 1785, mentioned on page 180; certainly before 1789, in which year McBride was killed, while engaged in surveying on the waters of LickA man named Barton, one of the ing river, 20 miles n. e. of Lexington. surveying party, had his arm broken by a shot from the Indians. McBride, when shot, fell from the horse on which he was riding at the time, but had shoot Indian, an before they reached and tomastrength to rise up and hawked him. He had shot and killed the first Indian who attempted to scale the out-works at the siege of Bryan's station, Aug. 15, 1782; and was long remembered for his bravery at the fatal battle of the Blue Licks, four days after. " Wild-Cat McKinney" was the sobriquet won and worn by the faithful



school-master,

John KcKinney, by the singular incident detailed below.

Early in the spring of 1783, a traveler arrived at Lexington having a newspaper containing the articles of peace agreed upon with Great Britain, but The stranger would take the paper with him, not yet ratified by congress. when he should renew his journey next morning. This was nearly three years aiui a half before the establishment of the Kentucky Gazette, the first newspaper in the district. The sight of one was a rare treat; but one with such important and joyous news could not lightly be given up. Mr. McKinII.. .15

FAYETTE COUNTY.

226 ney was appealed to

a copy of the articles of peace and for this purpose rose before daylight, went into the school house, which stood outside of the fort a few rods and was engaged at this work when the strange visitor appeared. Some years after, he removed to Bourbon county, and was one of the five members from that county in the convention of 1792, at Danville, which formed the first constitution of Kentucky, and on June 4, 1792, took his seat as a representative in the first legislature, at Lexington. In 1820, he removed to Missouri, and lived to a good old age. for

;



** In 1783, Lexington was only a cluster of cabins, one of which, near the spot where the court house now stands, was used as a school house. One morning in May, McKinney, the teacher, was sitting alone at his desk, busily engaged in writing, when hearing a slight noise at the door, he turned his head, and beheld, what do you suppose,

reader?

A

tall

Indian in his warpaint, brandishing his tomahawk or handling his

knife ? No an enormous cat, with her fore-feet upon the step of the door, her tail curled over her back, her bristles erect, and her eyes glancing rapidly through the room, as if in search of a mouse. '* McKinney's position at first completely concealed him, but a slight and involuntary motion of his chair, at the sight of this shaggy inhabitant of the forest, attracted McKinney having heard much of the powers of puss's attention, and their eyes met. the human face divine,' in quelling the audacity of wild animals, attempted to disconcert the intruder by a frown. But puss was not to be bullied. Her eyes flashed fire, her tail waved angrily, and she began to gnash her teeth, evidently bent upon serious hostility. Seeing his danger, McKinney hastily arose and attempted -to snatch a cylindrical rule from a table which stood within reach, but the cat was too quick for him. " Darting upon him with the proverbial activity of her tribe, she fastened upon his McKinney's side with her teeth, and began to rend and tear with her claws like fury. clothes were in an instant torn from his side, and his flesh dreadfully mangled by the enraged animal, whose strength and ferocity filled him with astonishment. Ho in rain attempted to disengage her from his side. Her long sharp teeth were fastened between his ribs, and his efforts served but to enrage her the more. Seeing his blood flow very copiously from the oumerious wounds in his side, he became seriously alarmed, and not knowing what else to do, he threw himself upon the edge of the table, and pressed her against the sharp corner with the whole weight of his body. " The cat now began to utter the most wild and discordant cries, and McKinney, at the s.ame time, lifting up his voice in concert, the two together sent forth notes so doleWomen, who are always the first in hearing or spreadful as to alarm the whole town. ing news, were now the first to come to McKinney's assistance. But so strange and unearthly was the harmony within the school house, that they hesitated long before they ventured to enter. At length the boldest of them rushed in, and seeing McKinney bending over the corner of the table, and writhing his body as if in great pain, she at but quickly perceivfirst supposed that he was laboring under a severe fit of the colic Why, good ing the cat, which was now in the agonies of death, she screamed out, heaven Mr. McKinney, what is the matter?' " I have caught a cat, madam I' replied he, gravely turning round, while the sweat fatigue and agony. streamed from his face, under the mingled operation of fright and Most of the neighbors had now arrived, and attempted to disengage the dead cat from her antagonist ; but, so firmly were her tusks locked between his ribs, that this was a work of no small difficulty. Scarcely had it been effected, when McKinney became very sick, and was compelled to go to bed. In a few days, however, he had entirely recovered, and so late as 1820, was alive, and a resident of Bourbon county, Kentucky, where he has often been heard to afiirm, that he, at any time, had rather fight two Indians than one wild cat." I

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There are several remains in the northern part of Fayette county, which appear to be vestiges of ancient Indian fortifications. Thirty years ago, there was a small and very intricate one on the plantation of the late Col. William Russell; but it was examined in the summer of 1846, and found to be nearly obliterated. There are three, two of them still very distinct, near the dividing line between the old military surveys of Dandridge and Meredith, of which a brief description may be interesting. The most easterly of those is on the estate of C. C. Moore, Esq. It is on the top of a high bluff, on the west side of North Elkhorn, in the midst of a very thick growth, mostly of sugar trees. The area within a deep and broad circular ditch, is about a quarter of an acre of ground. The ditch is still deep enough, in some places, to hide a man on horseback. The dirt taken from the ditch is thrown outward; and there is a gateway where the ditch was never dug, ten feet wide, on the north side of the circle. Trees several

FAYETTE COUNTY.

227

growinoj on the bank and in the bottom of the ditch, and over the area which it encloses, and the whole region about it. A hundred yards, or thereabout, from this work, down a gentle slope, and near a large spring branch, there was, about the commencement of this century, a circular ditch enclosing a very small area, probably not above ten feet wide, within the inner margin of the

hundred

}'ears old, are

.NCIENT FOR'

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A

VETTE

CO.,

KY.

which was broad, flat, and obscure at that time; at present it is hardly visThis is also on Mr. Moore's estate. Going still westward from this spot, you cross a branch, ascend a sharp slope, and come upon an elevated and beautiand at the distance of a ful fofest along the old military line spoken of above quarter of a mile from the work first described, is a work of considerable e.xtent. It commences on the Meredith estate, and runs over on the Cabell's Dale estate ditch, ible.

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(the Breckinridge property), and contains perhaps ten acres of land. The shape of the area is not unlike that of the moon, when about two-thirds full. The dirt

from the ditch enclosing this area, is thrown sometimes out, sometimes in, and sometimes both ways. There is no water within a hundred yards of this work; but there are several very fine springs a few hundred yards off; and North Elkhorn is within that distance in a north-eastern direction. An ash tree was cut down in the summer of 1845, which stood on the bank of this ditch, which, upon being examined, proved to be four hundred years old. The ditch is still perfectly distinct throughout its whole extent, and in some places is so deep and steep as to be dangerous to pass with a carriage. It is difficult, perhaps impossible, to ascertain when, by whom, or for what purpose, these works were made. Many of them seem wholly incapable of military use of any kind; and it is probable they may have been connected with the national religion, or possibly the national shows and sports of the original makers of them. Tn one of the fields of the Cabell Dale estate, an immense mass, perhaps several bushels, of flint arrow heads, have been picked up within the last half century, over an area of an acre or two of ground ; and on the same estate, in a southerly direction from the work first

described, are several ancient tumuli of considerable extent.

FAYETTE COUNTY.

23S

In 1838, these works were resides on the Meredith pUioe.

measured by

Prof.

Robert Peter, who now



The hirger work of which the ditch was yet about six feet deep in some phvces, in which trees, apparently as old as any in the primeval woods of the country, were growins measured, in a direction N. 53° E., sixty-nine poles in diameter, and in a direction S. 72° B., seventy-four poles. Its circumference, taken by carrying the chain around in the middle of the ditch, is 223 poles. The smaller and more easterly work, described above as being on the estate of the late C. C. Moore, had its ditch The circular platform inclosed by still eight feet deep and perfect in form. The raised gateway, which intercepts it measured eight poles in diameter. About a quarter of a mile west of this the ditch, is on the north-west side. smaller work, and the same distance north of the larger one, is a small, low, circular mound, on the farm of Jas. Fisher, rising only about three and a half to four feet above the general level of the pasture field, in which it is located, and being about seventy feet in djjiraeter. It is about fifteen feet above low water of North Elkhoru creek, and 32-5 feet south of that stream. In the year 1871, Mr. Fisher made some interesting discoveries in this hole was dug by him, about three and a half feet deep and little mound. four to five feet across, in the center of the mound, where a bed of ashes was exposed, about two and a half feet thick and four or five feet in diameter, in which very curious relics were found; consisting of copper artimany flint arrowheads and other stone cles and earthenware fragments fragments of bones, all of which seem to hare objects, all fractured by fire been shaped or carved for useful or ornamental purposes, and one of which seemed to have been a portion of the handle of a knife or dagger; fragments The copper articles conof charcoal, all of small twigs or branches, etc. sisted of adze-shaped or axe-formed implements, and of ocuriously shaped The shape of these was objects which were probably used for ornaments. nearly square, or oblong-square, with curled, horn-like projections from the two corners of one end the largest of these measured about four inches long by two and three-quarters and three and three-quarters wide at the two several ends— the curved horn-like appendages being at the wider end. They are about a quarter of an inch thick; and evidently made out of the native copper, found so abundantly in the Lake Superior country. No carving or attempts at inscriptions can be seen on any of them. With these were found polished hemispherical articles, about two inches in diameter, made nf hematitic iron ore, and which were probably used for polishing or burnishing other objects some stone articles, mostly of the native sulphate of baryta found in veins in tlie neighboring limestone rock, shaped like the common wouden door-button, but having two holes bored through each and several pieces of sandstone, brought from some other region, which had evidently been used to grind, shape, or sharpen other objects by rubbing. The great length of time during which these articles have been inhumed This has been is shown by the change which the copper has undergone. converted into red oxide and green carbonate, externally, and, in some of the pieces, to the very center, through a thickness of a quarter of an inch in some parts and the carbonate has been diffused so as to cement stone arrowheads, pieces of charcoal, and the copper articles firmly together. What is singular, there seemed to be no fragment of any human skeleton; the pieces of bone found being apparently of those of the lower animals, which had been shaped more or less artificially. Probably by digging in the outer margin of this mound human remains may be discovered, disposed around this central sepulchral fire, in the ashes of which the above described artiif, indeed, in the very great lapse of time which has cles were obtained occurred, all the bones, except those which have been somewhat preserved by the antiseptic action of the fire or of the copper, have not been dissolved



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and washed away. These curious relics have been forwarded to the Smithsonian Washington city, for preservation and study.

Institution, at

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FAYETTE COUNTY.

229

Judge David R. Atchisov, of Missouri, (see portrait, in group of U. S. Presidents and Vice-Presidents who were Kentuckians), was born Aug. ll, 1807, was educated for the bar, and in April, 18.30, emigrated in Fayette co., Ky. to Liberty, Clay co., Missouri, and engaged in its practice representative in the Missouri legislature, 1834 and 1838; appointed judge of the circuit appointed U. S. senator, by Gov. Reynolds, to fill the court, Feb., 184J vacancy caused by the death of Dr. Lewis F. Linn (also a native of Kentucky), 1841-43, and was elected and re-elected for twelve years longer, 1843-55; was president pro tern, of the U. S. senate, 1842-49, and again, 1853-55; during the latter term was acting vice-peesidbnt of the United States (owing to the death of Vice-President Wm. R. Kin;, of Ala.), and would have succeeded to the presidency in case of the death of President Franklin Pierce. He resides, July, 1874, on a fine farm in Clinton co.. Mo. When he first entered the U. S. senate. Judge A. acted thoroughly in accord with his colleague. Col. Thos. H. Benton; but they afterwards differed in their views of public policy, and in 1850 the legislative friends of Judge A. combined with the Whig members to defeat the re-election of Col. Benton to About 1853, Judge A., in a public speech in Missouri, took the senate. bold ground in favor of the repeal of the Missouri compromise; and afterwards, Mr. Douglas, as chairman of the committee on territories, reported a bill to organize the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, with a clause impliedly repealing that compromise which clause was violently assailed by It was then that the private counsels senators Chase, Sumner, and others. of Judge A. prevailed at his earnest suggestion, although Mr. Douglas hesiclause was substituted which repealed the Missouri compromise tated, a So that while Mr. Douglas, as outright; and in this sliape the bill passed. the head of the committee and the ablest advocate of the repealing clause on the floor of the senate, has usually had the credit of leading off, he only consented to a course in which a bolder man was quietly the leader the clause repealing the Missouri compromise originated with Judge Atchison. ;

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Thomas

Skillman

— one of

the most enterprising publishers, and most earnest and useful men of Kentucky was a native of New Jersey, born near Princeton, in 1786; was educated in the common schools of the day, but received in a printing ofiice in Philadelphia that more practical training, with high and nol)le views of future life, which made him desire to live for the good he might do. He came to Lexington, Ky., about 1811 in 1812, estiiblished the Evangelical Record and Western Review, a monthly magazine devoted to the diii'usion of religious truth, and afterwards the Presbyterian Advocate and the Western Luminary, weekly religious newspapers in the editorial conduct of which he had the association or assistance of Rev. Drs. John Breckinridge, Thos. Cleland, John D. Paxton, John McFarland, and John C. Young, and of elder Joseph Cabell Breckinridge, and other great and honored men. Each periodical was a power for good. Of valuable books, mostly religious, he published between 1812 and 1832, a greater number than any other Kentucky publisher to this day (except the From 1790 continuously great house of John P. Morton &Co., of Louisville). to 1825, Lexington was the great publishing point of the West a fact which combined with a concentration of tine scliools, colleges, and literary men, to " Athens of the West.'' Mr. S. was a five her the proud appellation of the 'resbyterian elder, and often a member of the higher church courts. He died of cholera, June 9, 1833, aged nearly 47. His widow, Mrs. Elizabeth Skill.man, nee Farrar, whom he married in 1813, and who survived him 39 years, to Feb. 18, 1872, aged 86, was brought to Lexington from New Hampshire in 1789, when three years old, and when Lexington was not yet 10 years old. She aided in founding, in 1822-23, the Lexington Female Bible Society and the Lexington Female Benevolent Society, in both of which she was actively useful up to lier death, having been president of the former for over forty years. Only one of four children survived her, Dr. Henry M. Skillman, of Lexington, one of the leading physicians of Kentucky, president in 1870 of the State Medical Society, and for years professor in Transylvania Medical School. T.



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FLEMING COUNTY.

FLEMING COUNTY. Fleming county, erected out of Mason, and named in lionor of Col. John Fleming, was the 26th in order of formation in the state, and the first of a batch of 13 counties established in 1798 a year famous for giving birth to counties, as if that were the chief end of legislation. It is situated in the N. e. middle part of the state, on Licking river ; and is bounded N. by Mason and Lewis counties, e. by Lewis and Carter, s. e. and s. by Rowan and Bath, and w. by Nicholas and Robertson. The face of the country is variegated, and the soil as diversified as that of any county in the state the W. portion rolling or undulating, abounding in limestone, and very productive of grasses, hemp, and corn, and a part well adapted for wheat the e. and N. E. por;

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tions hilly or

mountainous, with

fertile

creek bottoms adapted

and tobacco, and abounding in mineral waters (among them, Phillips' and Fox springs, the latter the most uniformly popular watering place in eastern Kentucky since the civil war). It is well watered by Licking river, Fleming, Fox, and Triplett creeks and their tributaries. Its principal exports are hogs, cattle, mules, horses, hemp, corn, and wheat. Toions, The county and principal town is Flemingsburg, on the Maysville and Mountsterliug turnpike, 17 miles s. of the Ohio river at Maysville, 6 miles E. of the Maysville and Lexinetou railroad, and 79 miles nearly x. e. from Frankfort has a handsome brick court house and clerks' offices, 6 churches, 2 academies, 6 physicians, 13 lawyers, 3 hotels, 1 newspaper [Democrat), 1 bank and 1 banking house, 8 stores, 18 mechanics' shops, and several mills; was incorporated in 1812, and named after the Fleming family ; population in 1870, 425 a falling oif, if the U. 8. census be correct, of 334 since 18oU. Etizaville, 5 miles M'. of Flemingsburg and 1 mile from Elizaville station on the M. and L. railroad, has 2 fine cliurches (Presbyterian, and Reformed or Christian), and several business houses and shops ; incorpor'filton, 6 miles s. ated Feb. 12, 1835 population in 1870, 180. population in of Flemingsburg incorporated March 1, 1854 >'. bank of Licking river, 13 miles 1870, 125. Sherburne, on the s. \v. of Flemingsburg; population 158, in 1870; incorporated Feb. 17, 1847. Foplar Plaiiis, 5 miles s. E. of Flemingsburg incorporated in 1831 ; population about 250; is one of the prettiest towns in the state. Hillsborough, 9 miles s. E. of Flemingsburg; incorporated Feb. 7, 1839 population about 250. Mount Carmel, 7 miles E. of N. of Flemingsburg and 15 miles from Maysville; population about 200; incorporated Dec. 21, 1825. Elizaville and Ewing C'enteruUle and Furmuille are small places. stations, on the M. and L. railroad, are new places, growing

to corn, wheat, clover,



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rapidly.

MeUBEKS of the liKOISLiTURE FROM FlKMINQ CoUNTY. ,

Parks, 1806-10, '10-14, '14-18; Wm. P. 1819, '24-27; Wiu. P. Roper, 1820-24;

FLEMING COUNTY.

231

Daniel Morgun, 1834-43, '50; Wilson P. Boyd, 1843-50; John S. Cavan, 1853-57 ; Landair W. Andrews, 1857-61 Wm. S. Botts, 1863-67 ; Jos. M. Alexander, 1867-71. From Fleming and Nicholas counties— Thos. Throckmorton, 1820-21. Hoiiae of Repreaenlnlivet.—Wm. Kennan, 1799; John Finley, 1800, '01, '02, '03; Robert Andrews, 1800, '01 ; John D. Stockton. 1802, '03, '04, '18 ; Robert Barnes, William G. Lowry, 1805, '13 ; George 1804, '06, '07; William P. Roper, 1805, '11 Stockton, Jr., 1806, '07, '08; Michael Cassidy, 1798, 1808, '09, '17, '20, '22; Daniel Benjamin Plummer, 1813; Mclntire, 1809, '10; Cornelius Gooding, 1810, '11 William P. Fleming, 1814, '16, '17, '19 David Hart, 1814, '15, '16; Leaken D. Stockton, 1815; William B. O'Bannon, 1818, '20, '22; John Taylor, 1820, '21, '24, '28; '28 Richard R. Lee, Martin P. Jas. Crawford, 1821, '22 Jesse Summers, 1824, '26, ; Marshall, 1825; Jus. Secrest, 1826, '27; Edward H. Powers, 1827; Jas. H.Jones, 1829; Wm. Cassidy, 1829, '30 Benedict H. Hobbs, 1830 ; Daniel Morgan, Abraham Megowan, 1831, '32; Dorsey K. Stockton, John Heddleston, 1833; Wm. W. Blair, 1834, '35, '38, '48; Landaff Watson Andrews, 1834, '38, '61-63, resigned Aug. '62; Robert G. Lewis, 1835, '36, '48, '51-53; Franklin W. Andrews, 1836, '37; Abraham Gooding, 1837; John Botts, 1839; Henry D. Burgess, 1839, '42; John H. Botts, Woodson Jlorgan, 1840; Geo. W. Forman, 1841 Wm. S. Botts, 1841, '46, '62-63 ; John W. Vaughan, Thos. Porter, 1844 ; 1842 Leonard Tally, 1843, '44 Leander M. Cox, 1843, '45 Dixon Clack, 1S45 Wm. M. Phillips, 1846; John A. Cavan, AVm. R. Pearce, 1847; Jas. C. Sousley, Ben. Harbeson, 1849: Edward F. Dulin, 1850; Alfred F. Graham, 1850, '55-57; Elisha S. Fitch, 1851-53, '63-55: Harvey T. Wilson, 1853-55; Horatio W. Bruce, 1855-57; George S. Fleming, 1857-59; Henry B. Dobyns, 1857-59, '59-61 Wm. Bell, 1863-65 John M. Gray, 1865-67 ; George M. Cay wood. 1867-69 Francis R. Davis, 1869-71 ; E. Arnold Robertion, 1871-73 ; Stephen R. Campbell, 1873-75. ;

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Statistics of Fleming Countv.

When

See page

formed....;

Population, from 1800 to 1870 whites and colored

" " "

children bet. 6

26

258 260 262 p. 266 and 20 yis. p. 266

towns white males over 21

p.

p. p.

Tobacco, hay, corn, wheat. ..pages 266, 268 p.age 268 Horses, mules, cattle, hogs Taxable property, in 1846 and 1870 p. 270 Land— No. of acres, and value of.. ..p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 see Index. Distinguished citizens

any part of wh;vt is now Fleming county were liis surveying party, from Pennsylvania of whom Perry and Jas. Hamilton were also surveyors, and Joshua Archer an assistant. They were certainly in Fleming county before July 26, 1773, and probably as lale as Nov. (tice under Mason and Nicholas counties.) The

Geii.

First White Visitors to

Wm. Thompson and



Col. Jas.

George Stockton, who,

in his infancy, had been taken prisoner, together with by the Indians in Virginia, and carried to New York, there remained he became so much attached to the Indian manner of living, that the desire to see his friends and family could scarcely overcome his reluctance to part with those whom association had made dear. After he had grown up, he accompanied his tribe on a trading expedition to Pennsylvania, and there determined to visit his friends in Virginia. A fondness for forest life had so entertwined itself with his very nature, that he could ill support the dull uniformity of society, and he soon set out for Kentucky, to enjoy the glorious solitude and freedom of the woods. He settled at Stockton's station, in sight of Flemingsburg, in 1787, and died in 1^18. Rob»rt Stockton and Beacham Rhodes set out from Stockton's station in the wintei ol 1789, for the purpose of hunting on the waters of Fox's creek and its tributaries, then the favorite resorts of the buffalo, deer, bear, &c. Regarding the season of the year, it was not considered any adventure fraught with great danger, as the Indians rarely visited Kentucky except in the seasons when the neces-

a

sister,

until

saries of life were more easily obtained. The hunters pitched their camp upon the bank of Fox's creek, and enjoyed several days of successful hunting and exciting sport. On the night of the 15th February, after a day of unusual excitement and fatigue, the hunters, replenishing their fire, rolled themselves up in their blankets, and stretching themselves (with their two fine dogs) upon the ground, after the manner of the hunters of that day, without other "means and appliances," were soon soundly asleep. About the middle of the night, they were aroused by the simultaneous discharge of two guns. Stockton sprung to his feet only to fall lifeless to the earth. Rhodes, though severely wounded in the hip by two balls from the same gun, succeeded (whilst the dogs made fiercely at the Indians"! in crawling beyond the light of the fire. Stationing himself behind



FLEMING COUNTY.

232

a tree, he calmly awaited the re-appearance of the Indians, resolved to sell hii life at the cost of one of theirs. The Indians, doubtless, suspecting his purpose,

were wise enough to mount the horses of the hunters, and made for the Kentucky where one of them was afterwards killed. The Indians not appearing, Rodps determined, if possible, to conceal himself before day should dawn. With this hope, he crawled into the Creek, and that his trajl might not be discov-

river,

ered, kept in the water until about a half a mile from camp he came to a large pile of brush and logs which the creek had drifted. In this he remained secre«d (in momentary expectation of hearing the Indians) all day. At night he set out on a painful journey towards home, and on the seventh day after his wound, reached Fleming creek, having crawled a distance of fourteen miles. The creek in his wounded and exhausted state, presented an insuperable barrier to his further progress. Fortunately, however, he was found in reaching his home. The friends of Stockton, instantly collecting, started for the camp, where they found

was considerably swollen, and

by another hunter, who aided him " His

faithful do?, in life his firmest friend,

The first to welcome, foremost to Whose honest heart was still his

Who

labor'd, fought, lived

defend,

master's own,

and breathed

for

him

alone,"

guarding his body, though so weak from starvation, as to be unable to walk. A circle of torn earth all around the body of Stockton, marked the rage and disappointment of wolves and panthers, and told how watchful and firm had been the protection of the dog. Stockton was buried where he fell, and his grave, marked with a large slab, is yet to be seen in going from Flemingsburg to Carter courthouse, one mile beyond Phillips' springs. The friends of Stockton carried home the dog, and after several weeks, the other dog, which had followed the horses, also returned.

Zadock Williams, whilst working in a tobacco field, in sight of Stockton's was shot by an Indian in the year 1790. There were no men in the fort and the old settlers, to this day, speak with wonder at the effarts of

station,

at the time

;

an old negro five

woman upon

or six miles distant.

blasts,

made

a horn, with which she alarmed the residents of a fort The Indians, probably terrified at such prodigious

off.

The three forts or stations in the county, (Stockton's, Cassidy's and Flemtwo brothers, named Stuart, whose duty it was (dressed keep a look out, and give timely notice of the presence of hostile Indians. It was understood by all the settlers, that no one was hearing to fire a gun within of either fort, unless at an Indian. In returning at Cassidy's station in the evening, one of the brothers was overcome by the temptation to shoot a large owl. Michael Cassidy and .Tohn Clifford, who were at the fort, supposing the gun to be fired by an Indian, seized their rifles and issued They soon observed the two brothers forth into the woods to reconnoitre. approaching, but owing to the dusk of the evening and their Indian dress, did Old man Cassidy, who was proverbial for his resolution not recognize them. and bravery, pushed on until within gun shot, fired, and one of the brothers fell Clifford, in the mean time, was exerting all his ingenuity and to the ground. stratagem to get a shot at the other brother, until he finally made himself heard. The three then went to the wounded man, and found him with but just enough his death was the result of his own folly in firing his gun life to tell Cassidy within hearing of the fort, forgave him, and expired. The surviving brother afterwards declared, that he was once or twice upon the point of shooting Clifford, to save his own life. Michael Cassidy, the individual mentioned in the foregoing narrative, was a At native of Ireland, whence he emigrated to the United States in his youth. the breaking out of the revolutionary war, he enlisted and served for several years in the ranks of the army. After leaving the army, he came to Kentucky, and attached himself to StroJe's station, in what is now Clark county, and from He was rethence removed to this county, and settled at Cassidy's station. markably small in stature, little if at all exceeding five feet, and there are many •Amusing stories told of his contests with Indians, who looked upon him as a boy. ing's,) had in their service

after the Indian fashion) to

JOHN FLEMING.

233

occasion, while encamped in the woods with two other friends, (Bennett and Spor), three Indians attacked their camp, and killed Bennett and Spor at the first fire. Cassidy sprung to his feet, but was soon overpowered and made prisoner. The Indians, supposing him to be a boy, and proposing to relieve the tedium of the night, selected the smallest of their number to carve him up with a large butcher knife, for their diversion. Cassidy, whose fiery spirit little predisposed him to suffer an unresisting martyrdom, grappled his antagonist, and flung him several times with great violence to the earth, greatly to the

Upon one

amusement of the other Indians, who laughed immoderately at their companion's The two Indians, finddefeat by one seemingly so disproportioned in strength. ing that it was growing a serious matter, came to the rescue of their companion, and with several strokes of their war clubs, felled Cassidy to the ground. Fortunately, Cassidy fell with his hand upon the knife which his competitor had let fall, and rising, brandished it with such fierceness that the Indians gave back, when he, stepping to one side, darted rapidly into the woods. The darkness of the night enabled him to elude his pursuers until he came to a deep pool of water, overhung by a large sycamore. Under the roots of this tree, up to his neck in the water, he remained concealed until the Indians, flashing their torohes around him in every direction, gave up in despair. He carried to his grave the marks of the Indian clubs, to testify with what good will they were given. Colonel Thomas Jones, who was at the burial of the two men, (Bennett and Spor), yet lives near Flemingsburg. Upon another occasion, whilst hunting on Cassidy's creek, in what is now Nicholas county, he very unexpectedly found himself in close proximity to a powerful Indian, in a place quite free from timber. Each observed the other at the same time, and both leveled their guns. But Cassidy, to his consternation, found that his pocket handkerchief was tied round the lock of his gun, so as to prevent its being cocked, and he feared to untie it, lest the Indian perceiving it, should fire. They remained pointing their guns at each other in this manner for some time. The Indian not firing, Cassidy suspected that something was the matter with his gun also, and began to take off" his handkerchief, when the Indian fled to a tree. Cassidy followed in full speed, and taking a circuit so as to bring the Indian in view, fired and wounded him in the shoulder. Drawing his knife, he made towards the wounded Indian, in whose gun he now perceived the ramrod. When Cassidy approached, the Indian (lying on the ground) extended his hand, crying " brother " Cassidy told him he was " a d d mulatto hypocrite, and he shouldn't claim kin with him. Saint Patrick but he would pummel him well." After a desperate conflict with the Indian, who, though deprived of the use of his right arm, proved no contemptible foe, and whose nakedness afforded no tangible hold, Cassidy succeeded in dispatching him. Cassidy was in upwards of thirty Indian fights, and such and so many was his 'hair breadth 'scapes,' that he was commonly said to have a charmed life. He served in the legislature repeatedly, lived respected and died regretted, at his station, in the year I8-29.



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Colonel John Fleming, after whom Fleming county was called, was born in Virginia ; and in company with Major George Stockton, emigrated to Kentucky in the year 1787, descending the Ohio river in a canoe, and settled at Stroud's station. He afterwards removed to Fleming county, and settled Fleming's station in the year 1790, where he remained till his death in the year 1794. The witnesses of his life, like the fabled leaves of the Sybil's prophecy, have been so scattered by the hand of death, that it is impossible to collect the history of any save the following incidents Some twenty Indians having stolen horses, and made prisoners of two children near Strode's station, in Clark county, in the year 1791, were pursued by about fifteen whites, and overtaken on a creek, since called Battle run, in Fleming county. sharp contest ensued, in which the loss was about equal on either side; but the whites, being outnumbered, were forced to give way. Col. John Fleming, the settler of Fleming's station, was severely wounded in the engagement, and in the retreat, being hotly pursued by an Indian, directed one of the men who was flying past him, to point his gun at the Indian and compel him to tree, until he could reload his gun. The man replied that his gun was not loaded. Fleming quickly remarked, "the Indian don't know that;" where:

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FLEMING COUNTY.

234

upon the man did as directed, with the effect that Fleming foresaw. Whilst the Indian was intent upon the manceuvres of the man, Flemini^' succeeded in loading his gun. The pursuit becoming alarming, the man fled. The Indian, supposing Fleming to be too badly wounded to be dangerous, made confidently towards him with uplifted tomahawk. Fleming, supporting his gun upon a log, waited until the Indian came very near, when, firing, he fell headlong almost against the log behind which Fleming was lying. Fleming's mare, which had broken loose during the fight, came galloping by, recognized the voice of her master, went to him, received him on her back, and carried him gallantly off the field. He reached the large pond near Sharpsburg, where, exhausted from the loss of blood, and burning witli thirst, he, with a fellow fugitive, encamped. Such was his fever from his wound, that, to allay his insatiate thirst, he kept his friend constantly engaged throughout the night in bringing water. Next morning, he was sufficiently recovered to resume his way, and arrived safely at the station. In the family of Major George Stockton was a slave named Ben. Ben was a " regular" negro, devoted to his master hated an Indian with an enmity passing Randolph's aversion to sheep loved to moralize over a dead one got into a towering rage, and swore "magnificently" when a horse was missing handled his rifle well, though somewhat foppishly and hopped and danced and showed his teeth with infinite satisfaction, at the prospect of a chase of the '^yalter varmints.'''' His master had every confidence in his resolution and prudence, and in fact Ben was a great favorite with all the hunters, adding much to their stock of fun on





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dull expeditions. party of Indians having stolen horses from

some of the upper stations, were A pursued by a party of whites, who called at Stockton's station for reinforcements. Ben, among others, gladly volunteered. The Indians were overtaken at Kirk's springs, in Lewis county. The whites dismounting, secured their horses, and advanced to the attack. Only eight or ten Indians could be seen, and they retreated rapidly over the mountain. The whites followed, but in descending the mountain, discovered, from an attempt to out-flank them, that the retreating Indians were but a part of the enemy remaining behind to decoy them into an amVarious indications plainly buscade, prepared ;it the base of the mountain. showed that the Indians were greatly superior in number, and the whites were ordered to retreat. Ben was told of the order by a man near him, but was so intently engaged, that he did not hear. The man, in a louder tone, warned him of his danger. Ben turned upon him a reproving look, with indescribable grimaces and ludicrous gesticulations, admonishing silence, and springing forward, set off at a furious rate down the mountain. The man, unwilling to leave him, started after, and reached his side in time to see him level his rifle at a huge Indian down the mountain, tiptoe on a log, peering with outstretched neck into the thick woods. Ben's rifle cracked, and the Indian, bounding high in air, fell heavily to the earth. A fierce yell answered this act of daring, and " the Indians, (said Ben) skipped from tree to tree thick as grass-hoppers." Ben, chuckling with huge self-satisfaction, bawled out, "take dat to 'member Ben de 'black white man;"



and

set off in earnest after his retreating party.

following interesting incidentof a well known and highly esteemed citizen of Fleming (which occurred after St. Clair's defeat in November, 1791), is rela-

The

ted in

M'Clung's Sketches of Western Adventure:

late William Kennan, of Fleming county, at that time a young man of was attached to the corps of rangers who accompanied the regular force. He had long been remarkable for strength and activity. In the course of the march from fort Washington, he had repeated opportunities of testing his astonishing powers in that respect, and was universally admitted to be the swiftest runner of the light corps. On the evening preceding the action, his corps had been advanced, as already observed, a few hundred yards in front of the first Just line of infantry, in order to give seasonable notice of the enemy's approach. as day was dawning, he observed about thirty Indians within one hundred yards of the guard fire, advancing cautiously towards the spot where he stood, together with about twenty rangers, the rest being considerably in the rear.

The

eighteen,

WILLIAM KENNAN. be a mere scouting party, as usual, and not superior in number to the rangers, he sprang forward a few paces in order to shelter himself in a spot of peculiarly rank grass, and firing with a quick aim upon the foremost Indian, he instantly fell flat upon his face, and proceeded with all possible rapidity to reload his gun, not doubting for a moment, but that the rangers would mainThe Indians, however, rushed forward =tain their position, and support him. such overwhelming masses, that the rangers were compelled to fly with precipitaFortunately, tha tion, leaving young Kennan in total ignorance of his danger. captain of his company had observed him when he tlirew himself in the grass, and suddenly shouted aloud, " Run Kennan or you are a dead man !" He instantly sprang to his feet, and beheld Indians within ten feet of him, while his company was already more than one hundred yards in front. Not a moment was to be lost. He darted otf with every muscle strained to its utmost, and was pursued by a dozen of the enemy with loud yells. He at first pressed straight forward to the usual fording place in the creek, which ran between the rangers and the main army, but several Indians who had passed him before he arose from the grass, threw themselves in the way, and couipletely cut him off from the rest. By the most powerful exertions, he had thrown the whole body of pursuers behind him, with the exception of one young chief, (probably Messhawa), who displayed a swiftness and perseverance equal to his own. In the circuit which Kennan was obliged to take, the race continued for more than four hundred yards. The distance between them was about eighteen feet, which Kennan could not increase nor his adversary diminish. Each, for the time, put

Supposing

it

to

!

whole soul into the race. Kennan, as far as he was able, kept his eye upon the motions of his pursuer, he should throw the tomahawk, which he held aloft in a menacing attitude, and at length, finding that no other Indian was immediately at hand, he determined. to try the mettle of his pursuer in a different manner, and felt for his tomhis

lest

ahawk in order to turn at bay. It had escaped from its sheath, however, while he lay in the grass, and his hair had almost lifted the cap from his head, when he saw himself totally disarmed. As he had slackened his pace for a moment the Indian was almost in reach of him, when he recommenced the race, but the idea of being without arms, lent wings to his flight, and for the first time, he saw himself gaining ground. He had watched the motions of his pursuer too closely, however, to pay proper attention to the nature of the ground before him, and he suddenly found himself in front of a large tree which had been blown down, and upon which brush and other impediments lay to the height of eight or nine feet. The Indian (who heretofore had not uttered the slightest sound) now gave a short quick yell, as if sure of his victim. Kennan had not a moment to deliberate. He must clear the impediment at a leap or perish. Putting his whole soul into the effort, he bounded into the air with a power which astonished himself, and clearing limbs, brush, and every thing else, alighted in perfect safety upon the other side. A loud yell of astonishment burst from the band of pursuers, not one of whom had the hardihood to attempt the same feat. Kennan, as may be readily imagined, had no leisure to enjoy his triumph, but dashing into the bed of the creek (upon the banks of which his feat had been performed) where the high banks would shield him from the fire of the enemy, he ran up the stream until a convenient place offered for crossing, and rejoined the rangers in the rear of the encampment, panting from the fatigue of exertions which have seldom been surpassed. No breathing time was allowed him, however. The attack instantly commenced, and as we have already observed, was maintained for three hours, with unabated fury. When the retreat commenced, Kennan was attached to Major Clarke's batThis corps quickly talion, and had the dangerous service of protecting the rear. lost its commander, and was completely disorganized. Kennan was among the hindmost when the flight commenced, but exerting those same powers which had saved dim in the morning, he quickly gained the front, passing several horsemen in the flight. Here he beheld a private in his own company, an intimate acquaintance, lying upon the ground, with his thigh broken, and in tones of the most piercing distress, implored each horseman who hurried by to take him up behind him. As soon as he beheld Kennan coming up on foot, he stretched out his arms and called loud upon him to save him. Notwithstanding the imminent



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FLOVD COUNTY.

236 peril of the

moment,

his friend could not reject so passionate an appeal, but seizing him in his arms, he placed him upon his back, and ran in that manner for several hundred yards. Horseman after horseman passed them, all of whom

refused to relieve him of his burden. At length the enemy was gaining upon him so fast, that Kennan saw their death certain, unless he relinquished his burden. He accordingly told his friend, that he had used every possible exertion to save his life, but in vain; that he must relax his hold around his neck or they would both perish. The unhappy wretch, heedless of every remonstrance, slill clung convulsively to his back, and impeded his exertions until the foremost of the enemy (armed with tomahawks Kennan then drew his knife from alone,) were within twenty yards of them. its sheath and cut the fingers of his companion, thus compelling him to relinquish The unhappy man rolled upon the ground in utter helplessness, and his hold. Kennan beheli him tomahawked before he had gone thirty yards. Relieved from his burden, he darted forward with an activity which once more brought him to the van. The late governor Madison, of Kentucky, who afterwards commanded the corps which defended themselves so honorably at Raisin, a man who united the most amiable temper to the most unconquerable courage, was at that time a subaltern in St. Clair's army, and being a man of infirm constitution, was totally exhausted by the exertions of the morning, and was now sitting down calmly upon a log, awaiting the approach of his enemies. Kennan hastily accosted him, and enquired the cause of his delay. Madison, pointing to a wound which had bled profusely, replied that he was unable to walk further, and had no horse. Kennan instantly ran back to a spot where he had seen an exhausted horse grazing, caught him without difficulty, and having assisted Madison to mount, walked by his side until they were out of danger. Fortunately the pursuit soon ceased, as the plunder of the camp presented irresistible attractions to the enemy. The friendship thus formed between these two young men, endured without interruption through life. Mr. Kennan never entirely recovered from the immense exertions which he was compelled to make during this unfortunate expedition. He settled in Fleming county, and continued for many years a leading member of the Baptist church. He died in 1827.

FLOYD COUXTY the 40th of the counties of Kentucky in order of formation, was erected in 1799 out of parts of Fleming, Montgomery, and Mason counties, and named in honor of Col. John Floyd. Its territory was so extensive that from it has since been formed the whole of Pike county in 1821, and parts of Clay in 1806, Harlan in 1819, Perry in 1820, Lawrence in 1821, Morgan in 1822, Breathitt in 1839, Letcher in 1842, Johnson in 1843, Rowan in 1856, Boyd, Magoffin, and Wolfe in 1860, Elliott in It is situated in fifteen counties in all. 1869, and Lee in 1870 the E. portion of the state, only one county (Pike) intervening between it and the extreme eastern point on the Virginia state line is bounded N. by Johnson,N.E. by Martin, E. by Pike, s. by Letcher, and w. by Magoffin county and embraces about 400 square miles of territory. The surface is mountainous, in some places reaching an elevation of 500 feet; it abounds in rich and inexhaustiThe principal crop is corn, but wheat, oats, ble strata of coal. and flax are cultivated ; the mountains afford excellent range for sheep, hogs, and cattle. Towns. Prestomburg (so called in honor of Col. John Preston,

Floyd,



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FLOYD COUNTY.

237

of Virginia, wlio owned the land) is the county seat it is situated on Big Sandy river, about 71 miles from its mouth, 31 miles s. of Louisa, Lawrence county, and 47 miles E. of S. of Grayson, population in 1870, Carter county incorporated Jan. 2, 1818 Lanesville is 12 miles S. E.,and 3Iartinsdale about an equal 179. distance s. of Prestonsburg ; both very small places. ;

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Statistics of

When formed

Seepage

Populiition, from 1800 to 1870

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26

p. 258 p. 260

whites and colored

Flotd County. Tobacco, corn, wheat, hay.. .pages 266, 268 Horses, mules, cattle, hogs p. 268 Taxable property, 1846 and 1870. ..p. 270 Land— No. of acres, and value p. 270 Latitude and longitude i.....p. 257 see Index. Distinguished citizens

Membkrs of the Leqislatuek

FRO.M

Floyd County.

Senate.— Ben}. South, 1814-19; Alex. Lackey, 1819-2.S; Henry B. Mayo, 182.'!-27; David K. Harris, 1827-34; Henry C. Harris, 1843-47; John P. Martin, 1855-59; Alex. L. Martin, 1871-75. From Floyd and Pike counties— Samuel May, 1834-39. From Floyd and Montgomery counties Richard Manifee, 1814. ffoKse o/ffeprM«i(n(tt)e».— Henry Stratton, 1815; Alex. Lackey, 1816, '17, '18, '25, '26, '30, '31, '40; Henry B. Mayo, 1819; David K. Harris, 1820 Richard R.Lee, Henry C. Harris, 1834, '35, ',38; Thos. Cecil, 1839; 1820, May '22; Jas. Stratton, 1821 John P. Martin, 1841, '43; Jas. H. Lane, 1845; John M. Elliott, 1847, '61-63, expelled Dec. 21, 1861, for being connected with, or giving aid and comfort to the Confederate army; succeeded by Thos. S. Brown, 1862-63; John M. Burns, 1857-59; Alex. L. Martin, 1867-69; Jos. M. Davidson, 1869-71, '71-73. [From Clay and Floyd counties— John Hibbard, 1809; John Bates, 1811. From Floyd and Pike counties— Robert Walker, Peter Amyx, 1822; Jacob Mayo, 1824 Thos. W. Graham, Jacob Heaberlin, 1827; Samuel May, 1832, '33; 6. Lackey, 1836. From Floyd, Pike, and Johnson counties— Bernard H. Garrett, 1850.]



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Coal. Five or six different beds of coal overlie each other, in the hills around Prestonsburg. The main bed which averages about 4 feet, with a clay parting, 10 inches from the top of the coal, which thickens up stream, towards the south, to 8 inches, and thins down stream to half an inch is situated 70 to 80 feet above the bed of Big Sandy river one 60, and one 150 one 40 or 50 feel lower, one at low water, and one below the feet higher bed of the river. bed of coal, supposed to be a distinct bed, crops out just opposite Prestonsburg, 98 feet above the river, which is of a compact, close texture, approaching cannel coal, and is different from the main coal The coal bed of Col. Martin, in appearance, fracture, composition, and roof. two miles above Prestonsburg, on the East branch of Big Sandy, 60 feet above the river, has 3 feet 10 inches to 4 feet of remarkably pure coal is but little changed in form in burning, and has but little bitumen a material which acts injuriously in a coal used for smelting iron. The main bed of coal is one of the best in Kentucky for manufacturing purposes. The Burning Spring, 17 mile.s from Prestonsburg, emits constantly a thick sulphurous vapor, and instantly ignites on the application of fire. The First White Visitors upon the territory of what is now Floyd county were probalily one or more of the parties who came to eastern Kentucky, at different dates before the Revolutionary war, in search of " Swift's silver mine," and worked it (see that title in the Index). In Dec, 1775 (as appears from depositions copied in the court records in 1796 of Mason county, when that county extended over the entire Sandy river region and northeastern Kentucky), Wm. Thornton, James Fowler, and Wm. Pitman left Clinch river, in s. w. V^irginia, on a bear-hunting expedition, and came out through Little Paint Gap, thence on to the head of Shelby creek, and down it some distance, then took an old Indian track along under the dividing ridge on the waters of Sandy then left the trace and camped on a creek called (by Fowler) Beaver creek, now in Floyd county. Fowler discovered a salt lick, which he called Fowler's Lick, about 60 miles from Little Paint Gap. They did not cross the main fork of Sandy at all.





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FLOYD COUNTY.

238

In March, 1796, Wm. Thornton came again to this lick for with Philip Roberts.

salt,

company

in

Ciil. John Flovd, in honor of whom this county was named, was one of His grandfather was one of two brothers the p-eat men of early Kentucky. emifrrated from Wales to Accomac co., Va., and from whom sprang all His father, Wm. Floyd, the Floyds of Virginia, Kentucky, and Georgia. nnd his mother, Abadiah Davis, of Amherst co., Va. (the mother of the latter was of Indian descent, by the marriage of an English fur-trader with an Indian squaw, the daughter of Powhatan's brother who is spoken of in Beverly's History of Virginia as a remarkable man, and his name preserved) and were living as late as eniis:rated to Jefferson co., Ky., at an early day 1800. They were then both, although over 90 years old, erecf and handsome the wife with fine, calm, bright eyes and white teeth, with all the countenance, high bearing, courage, and composure which characterized noble forest ancestry. John Floyd one of five brothers, three of whom and two brcthcrs-in-law were killed by Indians (a remarkable illustration of the danger of those times and of pioneer life) was born in Virginia about 1750. He was considerably educated for those days, and traveled a good deal. At IS years of age he married a lady only 14, Miss Burwell, of Chesterfield county, who died within a year; and ten years after, he married Miss Jane Buckhannon (or Buchanan), granddauffhter of Col. Jas, Patton, the pioneer settler of the vallev of His children who'surVirginia, killed by Indians at Smithfield about 1738. vived him were Mourning (afterwards Mrs. Gen. Chas. Stuart, of Ga.), George K. C. (a colonel in the war of 1812, died in 1821), and John (born near Louisville, Api-il 24, 1783, removed to Virginia when 21 years old, served many years in the legislature of that state, in congress for" 12 years, 1817-29, and as governor for 5 years, 1829-34, and died at the Sweet Springs, Aug. 16, 1837, aged 54). On May 2, 1774, John Floyd as assistant or deputy surveyor under Col. 'Wm. Preston, surveyor of Fincastle co., Va., which then included all of Kentucky made his first survey on the Ohio river, which he was then descending,* in now Lewis county, Ky., opposite the mouth of the Scioto river,/or the great palriot-orator of Virginia and the Revolution, Patrick Henry 200 acres, binding 1^ miles on the Ohio; and other surveys as follows 4 miles below the above, on the same day; May 7th, just below where Dover now is, in Mason county; May llth, in Kenton county, about 9 miles below Covington May 12lh, at and including Big Bone Lick, in Boone county May 16th, May in Carroll county, 3 miles above the mouth of the Kentucky river 24th, about 11 miles below the mouth of that river, in Trimble county; May 27th, in JeH'erson county, 19 miles above the Falls of the Ohio; June 2d, 5 the Falls June mouth B-argrass 6[h, at the of creek thence in miles below the KIkhorn country, in the present counties of Scott, Fayette, and WoodTwo other celebrated surveyors, Hancock Taylor and Jas. Douglass ford. deputies, like himself, of Col. Wm. Prestou, and remarkable men were either They were recalled in his party, or had separate parties a few days behind. July, 1774, by an order from Gov. Dunmore, of Va., who sent out Daniel Boone as a special messenger, accompanied by Michael Stoner on account Indeed, Boone dcposesf that he found them of threatened Indian hostilities. already alarmed, and posted about the danger. Haiicock Taylor was wounded by the Indians, and died soon after, when on his way back to Virginia (see under Madison and Woodford counties, and in Index). Col. Floyd returned to Kentucky in April, 1775, had a camp on Dick's river, wuli 31 men from Virginia, aud was engaged in surveying, during the year, all through central Kentucky. On May 23-26, of that year, he was one of the delegates from the town of St. Asaph (Staulord) to the assembly at

who



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this sketch from the records of the laud office poraries of Col. Floyd, from recent letters of



FLOYD COUNTY.-

239



Bonnesborniich which orsnnized the government of Transylvania, and made some laws for the infant colony (see under Madison county). He united his fortunes with Henderson & Co., so far as to become their principal surveyor. In July, 1776, he accompanied Daniel Boone in the pursuit and rescue of his daughter, Jemima, and of Elizabeth and Fanny Callaway, whom the savages had captured— of which thrilling occurrence his account* does equal credit to his soldiership and pen. In the ensuing month, he was surveying at the

month of the Kentucky

river.

^ Col. Floyd, during the ensuing six years, nearly five of which he spent in Kentucky, was among the foremost in all that was planned and executed for the protection of the settlers and the development of the country. He was with Gen. George Rogers Clark in several of his military expeditions, and like that great commander, became known to and much feared by the Indians. He was offered, by the British commander at Detroit, a considerable sum of money and the promise of the title of duke, if he would join the British interests and induce the Indians to make war upon the white settlements in Kentucky. But like his great friend, Clark, who was also thus tempted, he indignantly spurned the insulting offer. In 1779, he settled a station quite near the Falls but soon after abandoned it and built a station on Beargrass, about 10 miles distant, which was called by his name, and became well known. ;

In 1781, hearing of the disaster to the settlers at Squire Boone's station (near Shelbyville) while removing for safety to the stronger settlements on Keargrass, Col. Floyd collected 25 men, and with noble promptitude hurried to relieve the whites and chastise the Indians. He fell into an ambuscade in spite of the precaution of dividing his force, and marching with great care— and was defeated by a body of 200 Indians, losing half his men, although but 9 or 10 Indians were killed. While himself retreating on foot, closely pursued by Indians, and much exhausted, Capt. Samuel Wells (who had retained his horse) dismounted and gave it to Floyd, and ran by his side to support him. This magnanimity was greatly enhanced because of previous personal hostility between those officers which was thus cancelled, forever; "they lived and died friends." On April 12, 1783, Col. Floyd and his brother Charles, not suspecting any ambush or danger from the Indians for there had recently been serious trouble with them, and they were supposed to have retreated to a safe distance—were riding together, some miles from Floyd's station, when they were fired upon, and the former mortally wounded. He was dressed in his wedding coat, of scarlet cloth, and was thus a prominent mark. His brother,





abandoning his own horse, which was wounded, sprang up behind his saddle, and putting his arms around the colonel, took the reins and rode off with the wounded man to his home, where he died in a few hours. Col. Floyd had a remarkable horse that he usually rode, which had the singular instinct of knowing when Indians were near, and always gave to his rider the sign of their presence. He remarked to his brother, " Charles, if I had been riding Pompey, to-day, this would not have happened." Col. Floyd was a man over six feet high, very military in his bearing, of beautiful personal appearance, exceedingly agreeable, and had a calm, reIn intelligence, tained, and impressive manner that gave him great influence. education, and enterprise he was one of the foremost men in Kentucky. No In the fall of 1776, he went back to Virportrait of him is in existence. ginia, fitted out a privateer, cruised extensively and destroyed much British shipping, but was made prisoner, with his partner (Col. Kadford, of Bedford CO., Va.), taken to Dartmouth, in England, and confined for nearly a year; was assisted to escape by the jailor's wife, who had a rebel brother in America, and favored the cause was sent across the British channel to France, in a little vessel owned by a relative of the jailor's wife thence went to Paris, and was furnished by Dr. Benjamin Franklin with means to ;

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return to Virginia. * Letter to CoL

Wm.

Preston, July 21, 1776.

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a

FRANKLIN COUNTY.

FRANKLIX COUXTY. Feaxklin

county, the 18th in order of formation, was estab1794, out of parts of Woodford, Mercer, and Shelby and named in honor of tlie distinguished patriot and statesman, Benjamin Franklin. Portions of it were taken to form the counties of Gallatin in 1798, Owen in 1819, and AnderIt embraces nearly 200 square miles, lies on both son in 1827. sides of the Kentucky river, and is bounded n. by Henry and Owen counties, E. by Scott, s. E. by Woodford, s. by Anderson, and w. by Shelby. The face of tiie country is diversitied a small portion, next to Scott and Woodford counties, gently undulating; another part, intersected by the small streams which flow into the Kentucky river, rolling and hilly ; while tall cliffs, lished

in

counties,

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many places quite precipitous, rear their heads along the making the stream difficult of access for crossing except at few points. The other streams are North, South and Main Elkhorn, Big and Little Benson, and Flat creeks all which afford good sites for grist and saw mills, and small factories. The Lock and Dam on the Kentucky river, one mile below Frankfort, affords water-power of great extent and durability, but has been but little used. The soil is a clay loam, mixed with small particles of bog iron ore, and underlaid by thinly stratified limestone. The crops raised for export are corn, wheat, rye, barley, hemp, and tobacco. Much attention is paid to the raising of tine blooded stock, and to horses, mules, sheep, cattle, and hogs for market. Toions. Frankfort, the capital of the state of Kentucky since the year after its admission into the Union, and the seat of justice of Franklin county, is situated on both sides ot tlie Kentucky river, 66 miles above its mouth, and on the railroad from Louisville to Lexington, 65 e. of Louisville, and 29 N. of AV. of Lexington ; it stands on a small elevated plain, almost surrounded by high hills and river blutls ; contains besides the capital, state office buildings, governor's mansion, and penitentiary brick court house and clerks' offices, 7 churches (^Presbyterian, Methodist, Reformed or Christian, Baptist, Episcopal, Roman Catholic, and African), 3 banks, 2 steam printing establishments (both of which have done the state printing, one has published the Yeoman since its establishment in 1840, and the other published the Commonwealth during its newspaper life, from April 9, 1833, to April 5, 1872, 39 years), 3 hotels, 20 lawyers, 12 physicians, 2 high schools, and other schools, several of the most extensive and finest flouring mills and saw mills in the state, a number of other manufiactories and mechanic shops, and stores of all kinds. Several important manufactories were erected in 1871-74, and an organization effected and capital subscribed to increase the It is fast growing number and variety of such establishments. in manufacturing importance. in

meandering course of that river through the county











FRANKLIN COUNTY. Statistics of Franklin County.

Hay,

corn, wheat, tobacco...pages 266, 268

Horses, mules, cattle, and hogs p. Taxable property, in 1846 and 1870. p. Land No. of acres, and value p. longitude Latitude and ^....p.

from 1800 to 187 whites and colored towns white males over 2 children bet. 6 and

in,

268 270 270 257 see Index..



Distinguished citizens

Membrrs of the Legislature from Franklin County. Se}wle.— Bennett I'emberton, 1800-03, '03-07; John Allen, 1807-10; Isham Talbot, 1812-14; Richard Taylor, 1814-18; John J. Marshall, 1820-24; Jeptha Dudley, 1824-28 Benj. B. Johnson, 1841^4 John W. Russell, 1846-50 Thos. N. Lindsey, 1851-53 Wm. H. Sneed, 1872-73 Scott Brown, 1873-77. Philip Swigert, 1865-69 Home of Represeiitalivea.—BeuneU Pemberton, 1796, '97, '98 Anthony Crockett, 1796, '99; Thos. Montague, 1797 ; Wm. Murray, 1798 John Smith, 1799, 1801 Othu ;

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David White, 1826 Jas. Downing, 1827 Jamison Samuel, 1834 John Harvie, 1835 Dandridge S. Crockett, 1836; Jas. T. Morehead, 1837; Chas. S. Morehead, 1838, '39, '40, '41, 42, '44, '53-55 Wm. D. Reed, 1846 Jas. Milan, 1843 Jas. Harlan, 1845 Landon A. Thomas, 1847; John A. Holton, 1848; Jas. Monroe, 1849; Lysander Hord, 1850; Andrew Monroe, 1851-53 John M. Hewitt, 1855-57 Thos. N. Lindsey, 1857-59; John Rodman, 1859-61 R.C.Anderson, 1861-63; H. iM. Bedford, 1863-65; Samuel I. M. Major, 1867-69 Daniel M. Bowen, 1869-71 Jas. Harlan, Jr., 1865-67 Dr. Benj. F. Duvall, 1873-75. From Franklin and Owen Harry I. Todd, 1871-73 counties— Wm. Gerard, 1819, '20, '22; John H. Todd, 1820; Edward George, 1822. ;

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Mineral Waters.— SeveTol Bmall streams of chalybeate water show themselves about Frankfort.

Scanlan's spring, at the Kentucky Military Insti-

was long a place of summer resort for invalids valuable medical salts have been made from the water. Faught's old sulphur spring, on Benson A small creek, not far from the railroad, was foriterly much resorted to. but permanent stream of black sulphur water rises from a bottom on Flat creek. Magnesian water, and a reservoir of inflammable gas, were reached by deep boring at Steadman's Mills, on Main Elkhorn the water is used in the manufacture of tine printing paper, and the gas was used for a while for illuminating purposes. All the wells iu the valley at Frankfort have a mineral tute,

;

;

flavor.



Minerals. Small veins of lead, imbedded in limestone, have been found in the bed of Flat creek; also, on the banks of JSorth Elkhorn, near Dr. JJuvall's farm, where a considerable quantity of line lead ore was obtained in operations before 1857, but not in quantities to justify working. Superior potter's clay, and a tolerably good tire clay, are found iu the valley at Frankfort. stnitiiied grey limestone, frost and fire proof, and fine for building purposes, is found on the railroad, 5 miles B. of Frankfort. The Kentucky river marble is a beautiful building material. The capital of the state was built of polished marble, taken from the bed of the river, beneath the limestone formation. It is " a peculiar, smooth-testured, dovecolored limestone, with disseminated specks and veins of white calcariuus spar;" and by some is termed a bird's-eye limestone. The principal beds are 2U feet above low water in the river, where the marble is from 8 to 12 inches thick; and 34 feet higher, where it ranges from 8 to 18 inches. At Clay's ferry, in Fayette county, this marble appears nearly lUO feet higher in the blutl's; among the finest building and monumental stones iu Kentucky are found at Grimes' quarry, a few miles from this ferry, as high as 5 feet thickness. KarlicsL Indian Figlu.—lo the year 1780, Bryan (one of the founders ofJiiyaii'a statiuii), Nicholas Tomlin, KUison E. Williams, Stephen Frank,

A

m

Wm.

and to

otlieis,

were uu their way from Bryan's station and the fort at Lexington, in now Jefferson county, for the purpose of procuring

Mann's Salt Licks, II. ..16



FRANKLIN COUNTY.

212

nnd while encampinj on the bank of the Kentucky river, where the town of Frankfort now stands, were attacked hy a company of Indians. Frank was instantly killed, Tomlin and Bryan both wounded; the rest of the salt

;

company escaped unhurt. From this circumstance

—the

killing of

Frank

called Frankfort. In 1793, a party



is

it

said the place

was

of hunters was pursued by the Indians to within five It was reported at Lexington but was re^'arded as a spiteful joke or taunt, because of the recent removal of the seat of government from there to Frankfort— that the Indians actually penetrated info Frankfort. Leestown, one mile below Frankfort, was the "first spot settled by whites, and as early as 1775 was a kind of stopping-place or resting-place for the explorers and improvers from the Pitt or Monongahela country, who came in canoes down the Ohio and up the Kentucky, to " look out the land." In March, 1789, Kev. Jcdidiah Morse, D. D., the great American geographer, described it as " west of Lexington on the eastern bank of Kentucky river. It is rejiularly laid out and is flourishing. The banks of Kentucky river are remarkably high, in some places 300 and 400 feet, composed generally of stupendous perpendicular rock. The consequence is there are few crossing places the best is at Leestown, which is a circumstance that must contribute much to its increase." And yet it never increased much, and the very location is known only to a few. Dr. Morse does not even name Frankfurt, although it had been " established " by the Virginia legislature in 1786. Daniel Boone as a Road Cbn^racfor.— The first road or trace in Kentucky that from Cumberland Gap to Boonesborough was marked out or opened in March, 1775, by Col. Daniel Boone, under a contract with Col. Richard Henderson .

p.

p.

Tobacco, hay, corn, wheat. ..pages 266, 268 page 268 Horses, mules, cattle, hogs Taxable property, in 1846 and 1870. ..p. 270 Land— No. of acres, and value of.. ..p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 see Index. Distinguished citizens

An Artesian Salt We!l was bored, in 1857, by Col. Burbank to the depth of over 1,600 feet, when a 4 to 6-inch stream of salt water was flowing out at the surface; its strength 80 gallons to the bushel, but much deteriorated by the fact that it passed through a body of fresh water in boring 400 feet further, he hoped to find stronger salt water. At the depth of 160 feet is a rock, 63 feet through, which would afford for the whole country an abundance of the best At 200 feet, he passed through a stratum of porcelain clay of fresh water. pronounced by some experts to be the finest yet discovered in the United States. Lead Mine was opened, about 1857, near McElroy's gap, on the Hen;

A

derson and Nashville railroad. Stdphur and Chalybeate springs are found near McElroy's gap. Coal. A shaft sunk 459 feet, on the bank of the Ohio river by th? Henderson Coal company, prior to 1856, showed several veins of coal of excellent quality. The Holloway boring, about 5 miles from the Ohio river, at an elevation of 155 feet above low water, and to the depth of 1 ,024i feet, developed 10 beds of coal at 60 feet .SJ feet of coal, at 70 feet a vein of 4 feet 5 inches, at 85 feet one of 10 inches, at 136J feet over 3 feet of black shale with some coal, at 160J feet a vein of 4} feet, at 262 feet one of 2J feet, at 447 feet one of 1 J feet, at 467 feet one of 5 J feet, at 672 feet one of 20 inches, and at 861 feet one of 6J feet. The 14ster county,

by Pond river, which separates it from McLean and Muhlens. by Christian, and w. by Caldwell and Webster counties. Green river is navigable for small steamers at all seasons. Pond and Tradewater rivers for small crafts and rafts in the winter and E.

burg,



The county has three classes of land ridge, or hill landj bottom, or black flat land and rolling lands, with soil mainly a upon reddish-yellow clay foundation. Timber abounds, of the finest quality and greatest variety. Madiso7iville, the county seat incorporated Feb., 1810, Towns. and named after President Madison is on the Henderson and miles of Henderson Nashville railroad, 39 s. population in 1870, ; Ashbysbury, on Green river; incorporated in 1829, and 1,022. named after Gen. Stephen Ashby. Nebo, 10 miles N. w. from Madisonville ; Slaughtersville, 3 miles N. e. ; Frostburg, 12 miles Chalklevel, about 18 miles s. W. N. E. ; Swanvilk, 5 miles s. e. Charleston, about 14 miles s. w. Gordonsville, 10 miles s., and Elwood, 7 miles from Madisonville ; and Hanson, on the H. and all small places. railroad, are N. spring.

;

freestone, based







;

;

Statistics op Hopkins County.

When formed

Seepage

ad

26

p. 258

Population, from 1810 to 1870 " whites and colored

p.

260

20.,

Tobacco, corn, wheat, hay. .pages 266, 268 Horses, mules, cattle, hogs p. 268 Ta.\able property, 1846 and 1870. ..p. 270 Land— No. of acres, and value p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 DistinguisVed citizens see Index.

MF.MBERS or THE LeGISLATHRK FROM HOPKINS CODNTY, SINCE 1815. Senate.— Wm.

R. Weir, 1820;

Andrew

Sisk,

1832-36;

Wm.

Bradley,

1845^9,

'51-55; Jas. D. Headley, 1855-59; A. Kendall Bradley, 1867-71. House of Repreienlativi-s.—Wm. R. Weir, 1815, '16, 'l'7 Eleazer Givens, 1818; Wm, Gordon, 1819, '20, '21; Absalom Ashby, 1822; Wm. Wilson, 1824 j John Harvey, 1825; John Ray, 1826; Jas. Bishop, 1827; Alex. M. Henry, 1828; Andrew Sisk. 1829, '30, '31; Francis Jett. 1832; Chas. Bradley. 1833; Iredell Hart, 1834; Wm'. Bradley, 1835, '36, '37, '38, '44, '50; David H. Thomasson, 1839; Hiram H.Smith, 1840; J.abez White, 1841, '42; Bradford L. Porter, 1843, '63-65, resigned Jan. '65; Daniel Head, 1845; Samuel Morton, 1846; Newton Headley, 1847, '48 John E. Arnold, 1849; John B. Laffoon, 1851-53; Wm. B. Clarke, 1853-55; Wra. M. Morrow, 1855-57; Wm. B. Parker, 1857-59 H. H. Smith, 1859-61 John Ray, 1861-63; Richard Gregory, 1865-67, resigned 1866, succeeded by Chas. S. Green, 1366-67; Wm. 0. Hall, 1867-69: Lafnyette Wilson, 1869-71; S. H. Woolfolk, 1871-73; Washington Chandler 1873-75. ;

;

;

;

— HOPKINS COUNTy.

344

U

The Iron Ores, within miles all around Providence, were analyzed by Prof. Robert Peter in 1856, and found to contain some as low as 26.845 and one as high as 64.266 per cent, of iron. Iron ore, of fine quality, is found over a large portion of both Hopkins and Webster counties. Coal. Hopkins county is rich in this mineral beyond computation, her provision of coal (before Webster was taken off) exceeding that of any county



Ten veins of coal, generally well developed, extend in the western basin. over nearly the whole county, in some openings 8 feet thick, and all the outcrops are of easy access. The town of Providence (now in Webster county) at the top of a hill, around which 3 veins of coal, each 5 to 6 feet thick, The Henderson and Nashville are exposed, in scarcely 125 feet of measures. railroad runs between numerous coal banks in the s. e. portion of the county Clear, Lamb, Richland, Stewart, Caney, and Pond, and their all the creeks tributaries seem to run purposely to expose thick coal banks; Dozier's mountain, Buffalo mountain, Wright's ridge, Bear Wallow, from base to top, look like a succession of coal, iron, and limestone strata. The coal from one bank cont.ained as little as .820 and from another as high as 2.796 per cent, of sulphur. Baron FredericWm. Augustus Steuben, the distinguished (Prussian) inspectorgeneral of the Revolutionary army, shortly after the close of the war for independence, visited Kentucky and located some land. Tradition says that he was wounded by the Indians at or near a lick in Hopkins county, called (from that circumstance) Steuben's Lick. He died in Utica, New York, Nov. 28, 1794, and a copy of his will was sent to Kentucky, and on file in the court of appeals, but destroyed by fire when the papers of that office were burned. Among its provisions was a bequest to Capt. Meriwether Lewis, his former aid-de-camp, of one of his swords, and a legacy in money of pei-haps $2,000 for the reason that Lewis' salary of $500, as secretary to President Jefferson, was insufficient to support him in the style his position demanded. There was also a legacy of perhaps $2,000 each to certain of his servants on condition that at his death they should lay him out in his military cloak, and at the expiration of a designated time bury his body in a secret place which he had pointed out to them, and forever keep the place concealed any disclosure of this secret to forfeit the legacy. In attempting to remove his remains, a few years ago, they were found to be petrified. General Samuel Hopkins (whose name this county bears) was a native of Albermarle county, Virginia. He was an officer of the revolutionary army, and bore a conspicuous part in that great struggle for freedom. Few officers of his rank performed more active duty, rendered more essential services, or enjoyed in a higher degree the respect and confidence of the commander-in-chief. He fought in the battles of Princeton, Trenton, Monmouth, Brandywine, and Germanlown in the last of which he commanded a battalion of light infantry, and received a severe wound, after the almost entire loss of those under his command in killed and wounded. He was lieutenant-colonel of the tenth Virginia regiment at the siege of Charleston, and commanded that regiment after Colonel Parker was killed, to the close of the war. The following anecdote is told of him: At the surrender of Charleston, on the 20th of May, 1780, he was made a prisoAfter a short detention on an island, he and his brother officers, his ner of war. companions in misfortune, were conducted in a British vessel round the coast to Virginia. During the voyage, which was a protracted one, the prisoners suffered many privations, and much harsh treatment, being often insulted by the Captain. Hopkins became indignant at the cruelty and insolence of the captain of the vessel, and determined, at all hazards, to resent the harsh treatment to which himself and brother officers had been subjected. On receiving his day's allowance, which consisted of a mouldy biscuit, he deliberately crumbled it up into a wad, and then, presenting it to the captain, demanded of him whether he thought that was sufficient to keep soul and body together. The petty tyrant was taken by surprise, and had no reply. " Sir," continued Hopkins, " the fortune of war has frequently placed British soldiers in my power, and they have never had cause to complain of my unkindness or want of hospitality. That which 1 have extended to others, 1 have a right to demand for my companions and myself in similar circumstances. And now, sir, (he continued with great emphasis), unless we are hereafter is





;

— ;



HOPKINS COUNTS.

345

as gentlemen and officers, I will raise a mutiny and take your ship.' This determined resolution had the desired effect. His companions and himself, during the remainder of the voyage, were treated with kindness and respect. treated

In 1797, General Hopkins removed to Kentucky and settled on Greene river. served several sessions in the legislature of Kentucky, and was a member of Congress for the term commencing in 1813, and ending in 1815. In October, 1813, he led a corps of two thousand mounted volunteers against the Kickapoo villages upon the Illinois; but being misled by the guides, after wandering in the prairies for some days to no purpose, the party returned to the capital of Indiana, notChagrined at withstanding the wishes and commands of their general officers. the result of this attempt, in the succeeding November, General Hopkins led a band of infantry up the Wabash, and succeeded in destroying several deserted His wily enemy declinIndian villages, but lost several men in an ambuscade. ing a combat, and the cold proving severe, he was forced again to retire to Vincennes, where his troops were disbanded. After the close of this campaign, General Hopkins served one term in Congress, and then retired to private life on his farm near the Red banks. About twenty miles from the town of Henderson, at a point just within the line of Hopkins county, where the roads from Henderson, Morganfield and HopkinsThe place ville intersect, there is a wild aid lonely spot called " Harpe's Head." derived its name from a tragical circumstance, which occurred there in the early The bloody legend connected with it, has been made part of the present century. the foundation of a thrilling border romance, by Judge Hall, of Cincinnati, one of The narrative which follows, however, the most pleasing writers of the west. may be relied on for its strict historical truth and accuracy, the facts having been derived from one who was contemporary with the event, and personally cognizant The individual to whom we allude is the venof most of the circumstances. Colonel erable James Davidson, of Frankfort, a recent treasurer of Kentucky. Davidson was a distinguished soldier in the last war with Great Britain, and had His high character for veracity is a filled the office of treasurer for many years. pledge for the truth of any statement he made. In the fall of the year 1801 or 1802, a company consisting of two men and three women arrived in Lincoln county, and encamped about a mile from the present town of Stanford. The appearance of the individuals composing this party was wild and rude in the extreme. The one who seemed to be the leader of the band, was above the ordinary stature of men. His frame was bony and muscular, his His clothing was uncouth and shabby, his breast broad, his limbs gigantic. exterior weatherbeaten and dirty, indicating continual exposure to the elements and designating him as one who dwelt far from the habitations of men, and minHis countenance was bold and ferogled not in the courtesies of civilized life. cious, and exceedingly repulsive, from its strongly marked expression of villainy. His face, which was larger than ordinary, exhibited the lines of ungovernable passion, and the complexion announced that the ordinary feelings of the human Instead of the healthy hue which indicates breast were in him extinguished.

He

was a livid unnatural redness, resembling that of a dried His eye was fearless and steady, but it was also artful and lifeless skin. audacious, glaring upon the beholder with an unpleasant fixedness and brilliancy, like that of a ravenous animal gloating on its prey. He wore no covering on his head, and the natural protection of thick coarse hair, of a fiery redness, uncombed and matted, gave evidence of long exposure to the rudest visitations of the sunbeam and the tempest. He was armed with a rifle, and a broad leathern belt, drawn closely around his waist, supported knife and tomahawk. He seemed, in short, an outlaw, destitute of all the nobler sympathies of human nature, and prepared at all points for assault or defence. The other man was smaller in size than he who led the party, but similarly armed, having the same suspicious exterior, and a countenance equally fierce and sinister. The females were coarse, sunburnt, and wretchedly attired. The men stated in answer to the enquiry of the inhabitants, that their names were Harpe, and that they were emigrants from North Carolina. They remained at their encampment the greater part of two days and a night, spending the time in rioting, drunkenness -and debauchery. When they left they took the road leading to Greene river. The day succeeding their departure, a report reached the

the social emotions, there

and

HARPE'S HEAD.

346

ne'ghhorhood that a young gentleman of wealth from Virginia, named Lankford, had been robbed and murdered on what was then called, and is still known as Suspicion the " Wildern'.ss Rnad" which runs through the Rock-castle hills. immediately fixed upon the Harpes as the perpetrators, and Captain Ballanger, They experienced at the head of a few bold and resolute men, started in pursuit. great difficulty in following their trail, owing to a heavy fall of snow, which had obliterated mojt of the tracks, but finally came upon them while encamped in a bottom on Greene river, near the spot where the town of Liberty now stands. At first they made a show of resistance, but upon being informed that if they did not immediately surrender they would be shot down, they yielded themselves prisoners.

They were brought back to Stanford, and there examined. Among their effects were found some fine linen shirts, marked with the initials of Lankford. One had been pierced by a bullet and was stained with blood. They had also a considIt was afterwards ascertained that this was the erable sum of money, in gold. kind of money Lankford had with him. The evidence against them being thus conclusive, they were confined in the Stanford jail, but were afterwards sent for trial to Danville, where the district court was in session. Here they broke jail, and succeeded in making their escape. They were next heard of in Adair county, near Columbia. In passing through that county, they met a small boy, the son of Colonel Trabue, with a pillow case of meal or flour, an article they probably needed. This boy it is supposed they robbed and then murdered, as he was never afterwards heard of. Many yeara afterwards human bones, answering the size of Colonel Trabue's son at the time of his disappearance, were found in a sink hole near the place where he was said to have been murdered. The Harpes still shaped their course towards the mouth of Greene river, marking their path by murders and robberies of the most horrible and brutal character. The district of country through which they passed was at that time very thinly settled, and from this reason their outrages went unpunished. They seemed inspired with the deadliest hatred against the whole human race, and such was their implacable misanthropy, that they were known to kill where there was no temptation to rob. One of their victims was.a little girl, found at some distance from her home, whose tender age and helplessness would have been protection against any but incarnate fiends. The last dreadful act of barbarity, which led to their punishment and expulsion from the country, exceeded in atrocity all the others.

Assuming

the guise of Methodist preachers, they obtained lodgings one night on the road. Mr. Stigall, the master of the house, was aband a stranger, who, like themselves, had stopped for the night. Here they conversed and made inquiries about the

at a solitary house

sent, but they found his wife and children,

two noted Harpes who were represented as prowling about the country. When they retired to rest, they contrived to secure an axe, which they carried with them into their chamber. In the dead of night they crept softly down stairs, and assassinated the whole family, together with the stranger, in their sleep, and fire to the house, made their escape. When Stigall returned, he found no wife to welcome him; no home to receive him. Distracted with grief and rage, he turned his horse's head from the smouldering ruins, and repaired to the house of Captain John Leeper. Leeper was one of the most powerful men of his day, and fearless as powerful. Collecting four OT five other men well armed, they mounted and started in pursuit of vengeance. It was agreed that Leeper should attack " Big Harpe," leaving "Little Harpe " to be disposed of by Stigall. others were The to hold themselves in readiness to assist Leeper and Stigall, as circumstances might require. This party found the women belonging to the Harpes attending to their little camp by the road side the men having gone aside into the woods to shoot an unfortunate traveler, of the name of Smith, who had fallen into their hands, and whom the women had begged might not be dispatched before their eyes. It was this halt that enabled the pursuers to overtake them. The women immediately gave the alarm, and the miscreants mounting their horses, which were largo, fleet and powerful, fled in separate directions. Leeper singled out the Big Harpe, dnd being better mounted than his companions, soon left them far behind. Little

then setting

;

HOPKINS COUNTY.

347

escaping from Sligall, and he, with the rest of his compan After a ions, turned and followed on the track of Leeper and the Big Harpe. chase of about nine miles, Leeper came within gun shot of the latter and fired. The ball entering his thigh, passed through it and penetrated his horse, and both fell. Harpe's gun escaped from his hand and rolled some eight or ten feet down the bank. Reloading his rifle, Leeper ran up to where the wounded outlaw lay weltering in his blood, and found him with one thigh broken, and the other crushed Leeper rolled the horse away, and set Harpe in an easier pobeneath his horse. The robber begged that he might not be killed. Leeper told him thai he sition. had nothing to fear from him, but that Stigall was coming up, and could not Harpe appeared very much frightened at hearing this, probably be restrained. and implored Leeper to protect him. In a few moments Stigall appeared, and without uttering a word, raised his rifle and shot Harpe through the liead. They then severed the head from the body, and stuck it upon a pole where the road crosses the creek, from which the place was then named and is yet called Harpe's Head. Thus perished one of the boldest and most noted freebooters that has Save courage, he was without one redeeming quality, ever appeared in America. and his death freed the country from a terror which had long paralyzed its bold-

Harpe succeeded

in

est spirits.

The

Little

Harpe, when next heard from, was on the road which runs the Choctaw grant, to Tennessee. Whilst there, and joined the band of outlaws led by the celeHarpe committed many depredations upon the above

from New Orleans, through he became acquainted with Mason. Mason and mentioned road, and upon the brated

Mississippi river.

They continued

this course of life

and accumulated great wealth. Finally, Mason and his band became so notorious and troublesome, that the governor of the Mississippi territory offered a reward of five hundred dollars for his head. Harpe immediately determined to secure the reward for himself. Finding Mason one day in a thick canebreak, counting his money, he shot him, cut off his head, and carried it to the village of Washington, then the capital of Mississippi. A man who had been robbed about a year before by Mason's band, recognized Harpe, and upon his evidence, he was arrested, arraigned, tried, condemned, and executed. Thus perished the "Little Harpe," who, lacking the only good quality his brother possessed, courage, was if any thing, more brutal and ferocious. for several years,



Another Account. During a visit to Bowling Green, Ky., in the summer of 1871, an old citizen inquired the authority for the foregoing sketch, observing that in several particulars it was different from the commonly received version in that region, and omitted some matters of considerable interest. joined with other friends in earnest solicitation that the Hon. Joseph R. Underwood then in his 81st year, but as eloquent and vigorous a practitioner of law as before he took his seat as one of the Judges of the Court of Appeals, nearly forty-three years before would write out a statement of that startling tragedy, as he had learned its details on the very scene of its bloodiest chapter. He did so, and we publish it in his own language, somewhat abridged. give the two accounts, as the details were differently reported in other neighborhoods, where parts of the bloody scenes were enacted. "In October, 1S.38, I called on .Tohn B. Ruby, a surveyor living in Hopkins county, Ky., to engage his services in surveying lands. On the way, and not more than a mile from his residence, I passed the farm on which had lived and died John Leeper, celebrated as the capturer of the famous outlaw, Big Harpe. Wishing to learn all I could of the matter, I inquired of Mr. Ruby how long he and Leeper had lived neighbors, whether they were intimate as friends, and whether Leeper had frequently told him the particulars attending the capture and death of Harpe. " My excitement and anxiety grew out of the following facts When a small boy, my home was with my maternal uncle, Edmund Rogers, near Edmunton in Metcalfe county. When my unele brought me from Virginia, I was informed that a little mill-boy, named Trabue, had been met on his mill path by the

We





We

:

Harpes and murdered, and that a man named Dooley had been murdered by them, a few miles above my uncle's residence, on the creek upon which his residence was situated. These things made a deep impression on my young

348

HARPES HEAD.

mind and heart. Not long after, I was put to school in Danville, Ky., and there was informed of the murder of Lankford on this side of Cumberland Gap, in what was then called the Wilderness, by the Harpes; their arrest their breaking jail and flight through the and imprisonment at Danville Green river country, murdering as they went. I had previously heard of the murder of Love, and Stigall's family, and burning the house over their dead ;

bodies.

"Mr. Ruby informed me that he had lived in the neighborhood forty years, almost in sight of Leeper's residence; that they were intimate friends; that Leeper was as honest as any man that ever lived, brave and truthful, and had often related to him and others the particulars attending the capture and death of Big Uarpe. After dinner we went to the residence of Air. James Armstrong, and there I wrote, as Air. Ruby dictated, the following facts, detailed to him by Leeper and other pioneers: "There were two Harpes, brothers, one a large, athletic man named Micajah, the other small and active, named Wiley. They were scarcely ever called by any other names than Big and Little Harpe. Big Harpe had two wives. Little Harpe but one. These women had children, but how many, I did not learn. Their wives were detained with the children at Danville for some time after their husbands broke jail and fled. When released, they moved and located about eight miles from the present site of the town of Henderson, Ky., where they lived in the winter of 1798-9 and ensuing spring, and passed themselves as widows. In the summer of 1799, Big and Little Harpe traveled through what is now Hopkins county, on their way to join their wives. The country on the south side of Green river was a wilderness, with but few scattered settlers. (The word settler has a technical meaning, in consequence of the Legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky granting lands to those who settled and improved the wilderness.) The Harpes rode good hoi'ses, were well dressed in broad-cloth coats, and armed with rifles and holsters of pistols. The wild, uninhabited condition of the country was their apology for such equipments. They stopped for dinner at the house of a settler, named James Tompkins, who resided near Steuben's lick named after Baron Steuben, of revolutionary memory. (Mr. A. Towns told me of a tradition among the early settlers, that the old Baron had visited Kentucky soon after the close of the war, and had been wounded by the Indians at this lick, hence its name.) While resting themselves and enjoying the hospitality of Mr. Tompkins, the Harpes passed themselves as Methodist preachers, and one of them said a long grace at the dinner table. The conversation related mostly to the general character of the country and the great quantity of game it furnished. One of them asked whether he hunted and killed many deer? Mr. Tompkins replied, he did when he had ammunition, but for some time past he had been without powder; that it was difficult to obtain a supply, and, consequently, abundant as were the Thereupon the Harpes, with affected generdeer, he had no venison to cat. osity, made a liberal division of their stock of powder with Mr. Tompkins. It will be seen in the sequel, that, by a most singular providence, Big Harpe was mortally wounded by his own powder, thus given to Tompkins. "After dinner the Harpes resumed their journey toward the Ohio river. The first cabin passed was that of Moses Stigall, then occupied by his wife and child, he being from home. Stigall's settlement was five miles from that The next settlement was Peter Ruby's, eleven miles from Stiof Tompkins. gall's. My informant, John B. Ruby, was at the house of Peter Ruby, and saw the Harpes as they passed. They were seen no more until after they had joined their wives and children. " There were only two families living between Peter Ruby and the residence of the Harpe women, near the site of the city of Henderson. It may be that the Harpes passed around these two families so as to conceal themselves from observation. It is supposed they had determined to remove from Kentucky and locate somewhere in the South. It is certain, that on joining their wives, they lost no time in packing up and leaving. They camped for the night, a few miles from the residence of Stigall, who owed one of the women a dollar. Stigall met the party in the flats of Deer creek, as he was going to the Robinson lick, north of the Ohio, for salt, and told the woman to call on his wife,



HOPKINS COUNTY.

349

her to pay the dollar. He said his wife did not know where he kept One or all of the wives his money, and, accordingly, sent proper directions. of the Harpes went to the house of Btigall, and told his wife what her husband had said. She found his purse, which contained about $40 in silver, out The wives told their husof which she paid the woman the dollar due her. bands how much money seemed to be in the pile poured out of the purse, and this led to the perpetration, during the following night, of one of the most horrihle tragedies ever witnessed on earth. "Mrs. Stigall was a young woman with only one child. A man named Love was staying that night at the house. The two Ilarpes left their camp and went to the house of 8tigall, got the money, murdered his wife and child and Mr. Love; then set the house on fire, and Ijurnt up the murdered bodies and all that was in it. Two men named Hudgens and Gilmore, were returning from the lick with their packs of salt, and had camped for the night not far from Stigall' s. About daylight the Harpes went to their camp, and arrested them upon pretense that they had committed robbery, murder, and arson at the house of Stigall. They shot Gilmore, who died on the spot. Hudgens broke and ran, but was overtaken by the Harpes and put to death. These things were stated by the women after Big Harpe's death. "News of these murders spread through the scattered population with rapidity. Alarm and excitement pervaded every heart. The men assembled to consult and to act. The conclusion was universal, that these crimes were the deeds of the Harpes. Large rewards for their heads, dead or alive, had been publicly offered. The pioneers of the wilderness resolved to capture them. A company was formed, consisting of John Leeper, James Tompkins, Silaa Magby, Nevill Lindsey, Mathew Christy, Robert Robertson, and the infuriated Moses StigalL If there were any others, Mr. Ruby had forgotten their names. These men, armed with rifles, got on the trail of the Harpes and overtook them at their camp, upon the waters of Pond river; but whether in the present boundary of Hopkins or Muhlenburg county, I have not satisfactorily ascertained. About a quarter of a mile from camp, the pursuing party saw Little Harpe, and a man named Smith, who had been hunting horses in the (This word "range" was used by range, conversing near a branch of water. the early settlers of Kentucky to designate the natural pasturage of cane-

and

tell

grass on which their live stock grazed.) Little Harpe charged Smith with being a horse-thief, and blew in his charger (a small implement with which the hunter measures his povrder in loading his The shrill sound, their usual signal for danger, soon brought Big Harpe gun). The pursuing party and Big Harpe arrived at to see what was the matter. Big Harpe came the branch, in opposite directions, nearly at the same time. mounted on a fine gray mare, the property of the murdered Love, which he brake, wild pea-vine, and



had appropriated. The pursuers, not doubting the guilt of those whom they had overtaken, without warning, fired upon them, badly wounding Smith, but Big Harpe was in the act of shooting Smith not hitting either of the Harpes. He had already cocked his gun as those in front among the pursuers fired. and told Smith he must die. But surprised by the volley, and by the rushing up of the persons, he reserved his fire, whirled Love's marc and galloped off to Little Harpe ran off on foot into a thicket, and was not seen afterhis camp. ward.

"On reaching Smith, the pursuers were detained, listening to his explanaHe was regarded as an accomplice of the Harpes, but soon demonstrated and his life was spared. The pursuers hastened toward the camp, and saw Big Harpe hastily saddling the horses and preparing to take off the women with him. Seeing their rapid approach, he mounted Love's mare, armed with rifle and pistols, and darted off, leaving the women and children They were made prisoners and Magby, a large, to provide for themselves. fat man, unfitted for the chase, and one other, were left to guard them. Love's mare was large and strong, and carried the 2U0 pounds weight of her rider, Big Harpe, with much ease, and he seemed to call on her to expend all her Tompkins, rather a small man, rode a thorough-bred, strength in his behalf.

tion.

his innocence,

;

bay mare of the best Virginia stock, and led in the pursuit. He had chased thieves before, and the only account he gave of one of them was,

full-blooded

HARPE-S HEAD.

350

"that he would never steal another horse. Xance, his mare, exhibited both speed and bottom in this race of life or death. The other horses were nothing like equal to Nance, or to Love's mare, and their riders being large men. Big Harpe might entertain hopes of escape. In the first two or three miles he kept far ahead, no one trailing in sight except Tompkins. There was no difficulty in following, through the rich mellow soil of the wilderness, the tracks made by the horses of Harpe and Tompkins. Leeper was second in the chase, and the rest followed as rapidly as possible. As the race progressed, Big Harpe drove into a thick forest of large trees upon a creek bottom. As he approached the stream to cross it, he encountered a large poplar tree, four or five feet in diameter and one hundred feet in length, which had been blown down, its roots being at the perpendicular bank of the creek and its top extending back 80 as to make an angle between the creek and the tree of about forty degrees. The bank was so high and perpendicular that it was impossible to descend and cross the creek with safety, and alike dangerous to attempt jumping over the "

He retraced his steps to the head of the tree, and there met Tompkins face to face, with some thirty steps between them. Each reined up his foaming steed and stopped. Neither attempted to tire. Tompkins told Harpe that escape was impossible, and he had better surrender. ">^

9K 1% 16

10^ 13K 15^

20% 13^ 11

n% 6K 6J^ 6

9K \i)4

94,670 74,166 81,225 80,962 82,251 78,320 77,310 80,730 84,655 79,815 76,035 69,360 64,235 64,350 56,675 61,465 65,813

The total estimated cost of the improvement to West Liberty was $1,826,481 and it could be completed in four years. In Oct., 1837, the first five locks and dams, reaching to Falmouth, Pendleton county, were put under contract. In 1842, owing to the extraordinary stringency in the money market, the On Licking river the public works of the state were almost entirely stopped. work was never resumed, and the outlay of $372,520 thus proved a total loss. If concentrated upon four of the locks, it would have completed them, and given a permanent navigation of 44 miles. ;

The Oldest Native oi what is now Kenton county— still living (Feb., 1873,) is Isaac Martin, born May its borders, and who never lived out of it 1798, on top of one of the hills immediately back of Covington, about a mile west of the railroad tunnel. Zaccheus Kyle, born in what is now Covington, June 13, 1798, is still living, in Clermont co., Ohio. Among the First Settlers of Kenton county was Edmond Kittenhouse (a relative of the great American mathematician and astronomer, David Kittenhouse, of Pennsylvania) and family, who, in March, 1793, came down the Ohio in a flat-boat to the mouth of Licking, and up that stream to Bank Lick creek, on which he was about to settle, ij miles from Licking; but the hostility of the Indians compelled him to remove immediately to Ruddle's station, between Cynthiana and Paris. He came back in 1795, and located on the west bank of Licking, a quarter of a mile below Three-Mile ripple. A quarter of a mile distant, John Martin settled, with his family, about the same time. He was born on the Atlantic ocean, in 1723, three days after his parents (who were Quakers or Friends from Ireland) started on their voyage to America. He emigrated from Beesontown (afterwards called Uniontown), Pa., by water to Limestone (Maysville), in Feb., 1791, and thence proceeded with other families, guarded by a few soldiers, to Ruddle's station, and remained until 1795; then settled on the road from Cincinnati to Lexington, a short distance from the first toll-gate on the present Bank Lick turnpike. These two were the grandfathers of the Isaac Martin mentioned above. His parents, Wm. Martin and Margaret Kittenhouse, were married in 1797 probably the first couple married within the bounds of Kenton county. In the older-settled part, which is still Campbell county, several marriages and births within

4,



—a

KENTON COUNTY.

424

(Maj. David) Leitch's station was on the opposite or eastern took place earlier. bank of Licking, about 5 miles above its mouth, and near where the above settlers located.

Thos. Residents in 1810, within the present corporate limits of Covington his three sons Samuel, Joseph, and Robert; of those, Joseph Robert Kyle and five sons sons, Thos. D., Alfred, and Davis. (the latter still living in Thomas, Robert, and Zaocheus Feb., Samuel. John, 187S). Jas. Riddle and his son John. Jas. Harris and two sons Nathan and David (the latter still living in 1868). Duncan McVickar and son James. Jacob Fowler and two sons Benj. and Edward. Jacob Hardin and son John. Samuel Swing and six sons David, James, Jeremiah, Samuel, Wm., and Isaac, John, Peter, Adam, Wm., Hiram, another. Wm. Martin and nine sons Enoch, Norton, and another. Joel Craig, Robert Fleming, Neal Johnson, Wm. Cummings, Peter Hardin, Judge Jos. Robertson. John Gamble and four Patrick Leonard and his wife sons John, James, Andrew, and Joseph. Molly always known as Capt. Molly, because of her taking the place and fighting bravely as an artilleryman in one of the battles of the Revolution of her first husband, who was killed in the battle. And in the suburbs or counti-y within a few miles of Covington were: Thos. Sandford and three sons Alexander, Alfred, and Cassius B. (late mayor, and who died in 1872). Stephen Rich and five sons Samuel, Stephen, Allen, Krout and two sons Joseph, and John. Francis Kreilich and son Jacob. Jacob and Henry. Wm. Mackoy and three sons John, Wm., and Robert John Martin and his sons Wm. and John. Joseph Martin and seven sons Blakeston, John, Thomas, Enoch RitJeiferson, General, and Joseph. tenhouse, Eli Freeman Rittenhouse, Humphrey Frier, and son Alex, (drowned in Licking in 1809, and his father and mother drowned in Bank Lick in 1811). John Lucas and son Joel. Abraham Rockenfeld and two sons—John and Pizarro. Wm. Wilson and four sons Wesley, Thomas, William, and another. Jas. Holman and son Wm. Andrew Wason and son Wm. Capt. Geo. Scott Decourcey and and four sons Chasteen, Elmore, Wm., and Obadiah. son Joel. John Donovan. John Vanhook. Eliiston E. Williatos and five sons Nathan, Isaac, Eliiston, John, and Peter. The Western Baptist Theological Institute was formed Nov. 10, 18.34, at Cincinnati, under the patronage of the Western Baptist Education Society. In May, 1835 after fruitless efforts to procure a site at moderate expense property was offered immediately south of the city of Covington, Ky. In the course of two or three weeks, several purchases were made, comprising about 356 acres of land, lying nearly the whole of it in one body, at an expense Sale was soon after made of a portion for $22,5(30 and further of $33,250. sales so as to pay for the whole purchase, and leave over 200 acres clear of incumbrance for the purposes of the institution. After a prosperous career twenty years, the institute was removed to Georgetown, the seat of of over the Baptist college which has proved the greatest feeder of the theological school The large and substantial building (see engraving), was used as a Federal hospital during the civil war, and afterwards purchased by the Roman :



Kennedy and had three









— —







— —



.

Wm,







.







;

Catholics, in whose hands it is an admirably conducted institution, St. Elizabeth's Hospital. Capt. John Cleves Symrnes, a citizen of Newport, in 1824, and for six years previously, was quite persistently endeavoring to make converts to a New This Theory of the Earth, called " The Theory of Concentric Spheres." theory was stated as follows by a scientific gentleman who lectured in opHe maintained that the globe which we inhabit is composed position to it of a number of hollow spheres, having spaces between them occupied by atmospheres that these shells are widely open at both poles the northern opening of the outer shell being about 4,000 miles diameter, and the southern about 6,000 miles that the planes of these openings are inclined to that of the ecliptic at an angle of 12° or 15°; that the axis of the earth being perpendicular to the equator, causes the two poles to approach the upper side of the verges of these openings that the meridians or lines of longitude wind along the edges of either verge, and meet at the highest point of the ridge which he denominates the 90th degree or pole and finally that the concave



:



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KENTON COUNTY.

425

surface of tlie outer shell, and probably of them all, is inhabited by various kinds of inferior animals, and by intelligent beings resembling ourselves. Capt. Symmes' very amiable private character, his reputation as a brave and active army ofiScer, and the almost exclusive devotion of all his time, talents, and property to the propagation of his new doctrines, excited great attention and sympathy, and on the part of many induced a belief in the He contemplated publishing a newspaper, in which to truth of his theory. detail the principles of his theory, in support of which he is said to have adduced many ingenious and plausible proofs. He traveled and lectured upon public meeting at Hamilton, Ohio, resolved that the theorythe subject. was deserving of serious examination, and worthy the attention of the American people. At Frankfort, Ky., at a public meeting, in Dec, 1824, presided over by the lieutenant governor of the state, Col. Robert B. McAfee, a resolution recommended congress to consider the propriety of fitting out an expedition to explore the northwest coast, the North Pacific ocean to the continent of Asia, and the unknown regions beyond the Arctic Circle the principal command to be given to Capt. Symmes. The Thespian Society of Newport crossed over to Cincinnati, and at the Cincinnati theatre performed the tragedy of The Revenge to raise funds to enable Capt. B. to proceed eastward and endeavor to obtain an outfit for his proposed polar expedition. In the latter part of April, 1779, Col. John Col. Bowman^s Expedition. Bowman, county lieutenant of Kentucky county, Va, (which then embraced the entire present state of Ky.), as a means of repressing the Indian incursions, determined upon an expedition against theShawnees and the Chillicothe town, on the Little Miami river (not fiar from Xenia, Ohio). He accordingly notified the people " to plant their corn, and be in readiness to rendezvous in May at the mouth of Licking" where Covington now is. "The men from the Falls (Louisville) were directed to meet us at the mouth of Licking, with " boats to enable us to cross." certain Wm. Harrod who, this deponent conceives, commanded them at the Falls of the Ohio, harangued the people then there showing the necessity of the expedition, and that the settlements from the other parts of Kentucky were desirous of having the expedition carried into effect"* Four companies of militia^Capt. Benj. Logan's, from Logan's, Whitley's, and Clark's stations, Capt. Josiah Harlan's, partly from Harrodsburg, Wilson's, and McAfee's stations, Capt. Levi Todd's, from Harrodsburg, Lexington, and Bryan's stations, and Capt John Holder's, from Boonesborough were joined at the mouth of Licking by about 40 men from Ruddle's and Martin's stations, under Lieut. John Haggin (also under Capt. Harlan), and by Capt. Wm. Harrod's company, about 60 strong, from the Falls, with two batteaux. They " chiefly turned out as volunteers," but would have been drafted if necessary to obtain force enough. " were only entitled to a peck of parched corn apiece," and received some " public beef" at Lexington. were all volunteers, and found ourselves.'' From Lexing' striking on the headwaters ton they kept down the west side of Licking, and of Bank Lick creek, encamped one night on the same, and went down it to the mouth of Licking." Maj. Geo. Michael Bedinger was there appointed " side of the Ohio, the adjutant. men were formed into On the northwest three divisions, and placed in marching order, by an adjutant in the presence The only deposition which speaks of the afi"air at Chilliof Col. Bowman." cothe says, "success in the attack was well known." [The depositions were taken in some land suits, to prove the locality of " Bowman's encampment, They returned down the Little Miami, the second night from Lexington."] and at its mouth crossed to a bottom opposite in Kentucky, and " after dis-

A









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We

"We

posing of the Indian plunder among themselves by way of vendue, the men were discharged and dispersed in different directions, as their courses home-

ward made it expedient. The following brief account of '

the

engagement has been sent us f

— copied

* Depositions of Benj. Berry, James Guthrie, Col. Wm. Whitley, Col. Kobert Patterson, James Sodowsky, Col. Levi Todd, and 26 other soldiers in the eipedition, taken in 1804. t By Vfm. Doniphan Frazee, of Indianopolis, Ind., grandson of Samuel Frazee.

;

KENTON COUNTY.

426 from the papers of the

Samuel Frazee, who settled upon a farm in Mason E. of Germantown, and lived there for more than

late

county, Ky., IJ miles N. Bixty years before his death,

Nov. 12, 1849. It differs materially from the account in McCluns's Sketches of Western Adventure (see sketch of Gen. Benj. Lof;an, under Logan county), and from every other published account. It gives the number of volunteers at 135, vrhereas the sworn statements of other soldiers make it from 241) to 300 men, and the official roll of Capt. John Holder's company (see volume i,) gives 56 and that was but one of five companies. In same volume, are lists of Capt. Benj. Logan's (99 men) and Capt. Wm. Harrod's (9(5 men) companies, copied by us from the official rolls among Col. John Bowman's papers but it does not appear, as in Capt. Holder's case, that these were the rolls of the companies actually in the expedition. The name of Samuel Frazee appears as a private in Capt. Wm. Harrod's company. He went from the mouth of Licking to Harrodsburg to give the alarm of Indian depredations and expeditions, returning with the volunteers He says to that point. Near what is now Cincinnati " we struck the trail of the red men, and followed it to Old Chillicothe [a Shawnee town, on' the Little Miami river, 3 miles N. of Xenia, Greene co., Ohio, and 67 miles N. of Cincinnati], where we found about 500 Indians encamped. Our forces were divided into three companies. Col. Bowman, Capt. Logan, and myself took command of 45 men each. About midnight, we attempted to move on three sides of the Indian camp, and were to remain stationary within good gunshot of the Indians until daylight when we wei'e to make a simultaneous attack upon the camp. Just as we had gotten up within short range, an Indian dog gave the alarm. tall Indian raised up from the center of their camp, and I shot him down, and immediately gave word to my men to fire. The Indians shot from the cracks of their huts, and after we had fired three rounds I gave word to regot into and I saw that we were fighting to a great disadvantage. treat. behind a few of their poorest huts, while they retained possession of their best houses from which I saw it was not possible to drive them without a great and reckless loss of life. Bowman has lately been condemned for ordering Now, if any one was to be his men to fire too early and to retreat too soon. lost 8 men, while the Indians lost censured, it was I, and not Bowman. probably 20 or 30. When we retreated, we took shelter in a pond [or swamp] the Indians passed on each side of us." Lieut. James Patton, of the company from Louisville, said that " in spite of the fiiirest promises, they only burned the town and captured 163 horses and some other spoil with a loss of six or seven men."* Gen. James Kay, of one company from Harrodsburg, thought differently from the current account (as to the inefficiency of Col. Bowman), and believed the attack failed from the vigorous defence by the Indians, which prevented Bowman getting near enough to give Logan the signal agreed upon he gave full credit to Bowman, on this retreat, as well as on other occasions."! Another narrative of the expedition, which gives the number of men at 160, and was written when many of them were living, is from John Bradford's "Notes on Kentucky," as follows: " The party, at the end of the second night from the mouth of Licking, got It was determined to wait until daylight, in sight of the town undiscovered. before they would make the attack but by the imprudence of some of the men, whose curiosity exceeded their judgment, the party was discovered by the Indians before the officers and men had arrived at the several positions assigned them. As soon as the alarm was given, a fire commenced on both sides, and was kept up; while the women and children were seen running from cabin to cabin, in the greatest confusion, and collecting in the most ;

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We



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central and strongest. " At clear daylight, it was discovered that Bowman's men were from 70 to 100 yards from the cabins in which the Indians had collected, and which they appeared determined to defend. Having no other arms than tomahawks and rifles, it was thought imprudent to attempt to storm strong cabins, well

* Butler's Ky., page 109.

f Same, page 110.

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KENTON COUNTY.

427

defended by expert w.arriors. The warriors having collected in a few cabins contijiuous to each other, the remainder of the town was left unprotected; therefore while shootins; was kept up at the port-holes, so as to engage the attention of those within, fire was set to 30 or 40 cabins, which consumed them. A considerable quantity of property, in kettles and blankets, was taken from the burning cabins and in searching the woods near the town, 133 horses ;

were collected. About 10 o'clock.

Bowman and

his party commenced their march homeward, The loss of the Indians was never known, except after having 9 men killed. that their principal chief, Blackfish, was wounded through the knee, and died He proposed to surrender, hoping to find surgeons among the of the wound. whites who could cure his wound and save his life. The retreating party had not marched more than 8 or 10 miles, when the Indians began to press hard upon their rear. Col. Bowman selected hia ground, and formed his men in a square but the Indiana declined a close engagement, and kept up a scattering fire— designing to retard the march until they could procure reinforoementa fi-om the neighboring villages. As soon as a strong position was taken by Col. Bowman, the Indian.« retired; but returned to the attack, whenever he resumed the line of march. He ;

again formed for battle, and again they retired. This scene was acted over several times. At length, John Bulger, James Ilarrod,* and George Michael Bedinger, with about 100 more on horseback, rushed on the Indian ranks and dispersed them; after which the Indians abandoned the pursuit. The first survey of lands on Earliest Oionership and Surveys of Covington. the plat of Covington seems to have been one of 200 acres, in the name of Stephen Trigg who came to Kentucky in the fall of 1779 as a member of the court of land commissioners, and was killed at the battle of the Blue Licks, Aug. 19, 1782. It embraced the Ohio river front from the mouth of patent from the state Licking to near the foot of Philadelphia street. of Virginia, by Beverly Kandolph, lieutenant governor, issued for said land, Feb. 14, 1780 in consideration of military warrant No. 367, under the King of Great Britain's proclamation of 1763, to a soldier of His Majesty, George Not appreciating his landIII., in the war with France, named George Muse. warrant very highly, like some drunken soldiers of a later date, Muse sold it for a keg of whisky to a man who, putting a like small valuation upon it, traded He assigned it to James Taylor, of Virginia, for a few pounds of buffalo beef. the warrant to Stephen Trigg, who located it at the mouth of Licking as above then assianed to John Todd, jr., and he again to James Welch, whose patent bears date Sept. 20, 1787. The next entry south was of 400 acres, made Dec. 12, 1782 in the name of Levi Todd, who assigned to Robert Todd, who, as deputy surveyor of Woodford county, surveyed it, Sept. 16, 1791. Its west line ran, " supposed with the lands of Col. Peachy," [which covered the hills west of Covington,] S. 19° E., 220 poles, to a buckeye and two small sugar trees, about 40 poles west of the path leading from Elkhorn to the mouth of Licking [near the present turnpike to Lexington]. When Covington was first established it embraced only 150 acres, of which 100 acres were platted at once; now (March, 1873,) it includes over 1,350 Then it was on part of the Welch patent; now, it embraces all of acres. that patent of 200 acres, all of John and of Robert Todd's patents of 90 and 400 acres, and parts of John Todd's patent of 300 acres, Samuel Beall's patent of 1,000 acres, Rawleigh Colston's patent of 5,000 acres, and Prettyman Merry's patent of 2,000 acres. The Census, in the winter of 1804-05, of that portion of what is now Kenton county, lying east and north of a line from the mouth of Pleasant Run





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river, southward to the foot of the Dry Ridge on the Independence turnpike, nine miles, thence eastward three miles to the Licking river, was thus singularly obtained: The small-pox was raging in Cincinnati to a fearful extent, crossed the Ohio and was spreading in Kentucky, where there were no physicians.- The Cincinnati physicians wisely concluded to inoculate all who had not had the disease, and appointed to the charge a leading citizen, Capt

on the Ohio

« Probably Capt.

Wm.

Harrod;

it is

not certain that Jas. Harrod was with the party.

KENTON COUNTY.

428

Wm.

Martin. For medicine he used pills, made for him by his father, of butternut bark. Within tliat district, seven persons only were found who had been inoculated or had had the small-pox and these were required to assist in nursinfi the 69 patients inoculated by Capt. Martin— all of whom recovered. Thus, on about 30 square miles binding on the Ohio and Licking; rivers, south and west, and including Covington, there was a total population, white and black, of 76. ;

Kennedy s

Ferry_

was the name by which was known,

farms in the locality now embraced

until 1815, the

few

in the city plat of Covington. The farm included the point. He and his sons before 1815, and after his death' (in 1821) his son, .Samuel, in 1822, purchased, and with his family carried on the ferry by skiffs for foot passengers, at \'2\ cents each, and by flats (propelled by oars, worked by men) for wagons, horses, and stock, at $1 for a four-horse team, and others in proportion. In 1823, under a renting of the Cincinnati landing, a horse-ferry-boat was introduced by the late Pliny Bliss. From }833 until the discontinuance of the Vine street ferry in 1868 because of the suspension bridge, steam ferry-boats were used. The Kennedys always claimed and used the ferry, ferry right, and the wharf; except fur the seven years. 1815-22, the legal ownership of the right was in the proprietors of the new town. This was the principal crossing for the travel down the ridge-road, from Lexington and the interior of Kentucky westward. Covington was established by an act of the legislature approved Feb. 8, 1815, on 150 acres of Thomas Kennedy's farm, purchased of him in 1814 by Gen. John S. Gano, Richard M. Gano, and Thomas Davis Carneal, for the round sum of $50,000. By the act, the title was vested in Alfred Sandford John C. Buckner, Uriel Sebree, John Hudson, and Joseph Kennedy, as trustees who were to make title to purchasers of lots upon the order of tlie proprietors. The first sale of lots was at public auction, March 20, 1815, at prices exceeding what the same lots sold for ten years afterwards indeed, in 1828, some of the lots changed hands for less than half what had been paid

Thomas Kennedy,

of





sen.,

;



;

them in 1815. The Plat of the original town of Covington was recorded Aug. 31, 1815. The city was named in honor of Gen. Covington, and the streets in honor of ex-governors Isaac Shelby, James Garrard, Christopher Greenup, and Cliarles Scott; of Thos. Kennedy, the late owner of the farm; and of Gen. Thomas for

Sandford, the first representative in congress from this part of the state. The west of Scott was left without a name, awaiting the ensuing election for governor, and then named after Gov. George Madison. The plat embraced the ground west only to the east line of what is now Washington street, and south only to the north line of what is now Sixth street. The Kennedy homestead, half-square from Front to Second, east of Garrard, was reserved. The four lots embracing the present court house square were never formally dedicated to the public, but only marked upon the plat " Public." Shelby street extended along the bank of Licking river to Third only, and was 50 Garrard, Greenup, feet wide most of it has been washed away by the current. Kennedy, Sandford, Scott, and Madison streets were laid ofi' 66 feet wide " Such part First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth streets only 50 feet wide. of the town as lies between the lots and the edge of the bank of the Ohio river shall remain for the use and benefit of said town for a common." The market space, from Greenup to Scott, was 100 feet, and the cross space 60 feet wide. The course of the streets running from the Ohio was S. IGJ" and of the cross streets at right angles. Onerias K. Powell surveyed the E. " All the fence rails on the land were reserved." Some 20 acres of plat. the plat were an apple orchard, and some of the trees were preserved for 30 years afterwards. The City Charter of Covington was granted Feb. 24, 1834, and at the first election thereunder, in April, Mortimer M. Benton was chosen the first mayor. On Feb. 22, 1834, a company was incorporated to construct an "artificial" (turnpike) road from Covington, "opposite Cincinnati," through Wi ;etown, to Lexington. Of the 30 original corporators, all were town and Georgetown, ' - Casey, of- Covington, except John B. and dead on Feb. 22, 1873, 39 years after, exce ex-Gov. Jas. F. Robinson, of Georgetown. street next

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KENTON COUNTY.

429

—The

town of Covington hardly be^an to grow until 1828; when Robert Buchanan, of Cincinnati, Charles McCallister, jr., and Wm. Yorke, of Philadelphia, and Wm. Whitehead, of Covington, but recently from Philadelphia, began the erection of the Covington cotton factory, on the west half of the square bounded by Front, Second, Scott, and Greenup steets, adjoining on the west the present entrance to the Covington and Cincinnati suspension bridge. It was very successfully managed by Mr. Whitehead (who was killed by being thrown from the inclined railway which connected the factory with the river), and afterwards by his son-in-law, John The McNickle T. Levis, until the manufacture of cotton became unprofitable. First Extensive Manufactures.

rolling mill, on the opposite square, just across Scott street, was established followed by other factories, and, of course, by a rapid increase about 1831 of the population. ;

The First Bank in Covington was private and temporary, established in 1821, by Benjamin W. Leathers, in connection with his store. It was the reign of fractional currency, nearly fifty years before the exigencies of the civil war invented that handy designation. Instead of 3, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 50 cents currency, Mr. Leathers, like many others at the time, and a thousand imitators in 1837, issued his own ''promises to pay," or shin plasters, of the denomHaving inations of 6}, 12J, 25, and 50 cents, and perhaps of $1 and $2. served to bridge over the hard times, the day of redemption came around, and Mr. Leathers took them in promptly like a true banker. It is said that a« he redeemed them at his counter, he aimed to clear away the rubbish by consigning them to the devouring flames in the broad fire-place in his store; but, unobserved by him, the powerful draft of the chimney carried many of them into the outer and upper air, and rained them in beautiful profusion upon Before he discovered that the ground outside and upon the roof of the store. he had established such a bank of re-issue a sort of " fire in the rear " to consume his capital he had redeemed many handfuls brought in by the " growing stream of panic-stricken citizens, young and old. It was a " run upon his bank not anticipated, and it worried him not a little when he discovered that he had been made the victim of his own want of caution. An old trunk was made the recipient of the after redeemed shin plasters; and the surviving residents of the " Beech Woods farm," four miles out on the old road to Lexington, well remember how patiently the ex-banker watched the actual destruction of his favorite notes as he committed them slowly but lie thus closed the doors of his bank against a second resurely to the fire. demption. To redeem once was honorable, but twice was cruel. As long as he lived he was kept in lively remembrance of his balloon currency.







The band of intrepid heroes under the Serni-Centennial Celebration o/ 1832. of Gen. George Rogers Clark, stationed at the mouth of Licking (Covington), on the 4th day of November, 1782, resolved that all the survivors should on that day fifty years afterward, meet on the same ground. The 4th of November, 1832, was the day thus set for that half-centennial celebration. The day of meeting was ascertained by reference to an old letter of Maj. John Kenton's; and Simon Kenton the most prominent of the survivors at the suggestion of friends, issued from his home at Urbana, Ohio, an " Address to the citizens of the Western Country," inviting all the old soldiers of the Indian wars and of the War of 1812 to join in the celebration, at old Fort Washington, now Cincinnati; proposing "to meet at Covington on the 3d; on the and on Monday, the 5th, meet 4th, being Sabbath, to attend divine service our friends on the ground where the old fort stood and then take a final adieu, to meet no more until we shall all meet in a world of spirits." site old Fort Washington, a monuerect, on the of contemplated to It was ment to the settlement and settlers of the West, the corner-stone to be laid by But the Asiatic cholera was prevailing with the pioneers at that meeting. fearful virulence, and the general gloom only made more gloomy the meeting Simon Kenton was taken of the few pioneers who ventured to assemble. sick, at the house of Mr. Doniphan, in Clermont county, Ohio, while on the way to Covington, and prevented from attending. (See further notice of this meeting, in Kenton's biographical sketch under this county, page 449.)

command





;

;

;

KENTON COUNTT.

430

Newspaper Advertisement from what is now Kenton county we. find in the Cincinnati Centinel of the North West, of date Deo. 12, 1793; from a farmer on Bank Lick creek, named Obediah Scott, proposing to "take a The

First

number

of horses or horned cattle to winter." Petrified Buffalo-head, full size, and perfectly natural in appearance, was discovered, in 1858, in the soft mud in the bottom of Licking river, about a hundred yai'ds above Deadman ripple and a quarter of a mile below the long The eyes, horns, teeth, mouth, tunnel on the Kentucky Central railroad. only somewhat worn by the slow ears, hair, and mane were well developed The petrifaction was tho action of the current and what it carried down.

A



wonder of the neighborhood

for

a few days

;

then taken to Cincinnati and sold,

for the trifle of $1, to Frank's museum. Cat-Fish, it is recorded in Niles' Register, was taken on a trout line, in the Ohio river in front of Covington, in July, 1816, which, by actual measurement was 5 J feet iu length, 4 feet girth, 12 inches between the eyes, 19 inches

A

Such was its power, that the across the breast, and weighed 1 17 pounds. men were obliged to shoot it, in order to get it ashore. The Public Schools of Covington, said to be among the best conducted in During the the country, embrace a high school and five district schools. school year ending July 5, 1872, there were 164 scholars in the former and 2,863 in the latter, under a corps of 47 teachers and a superintendent (since 1867, the venerable Kev. John W. Hall, D.D., for many years president of Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, but formerly of Tennessee). For the support of these schools, a special school tax of 25 cents on the SlOO worth of property is assessed, in addition to the 20 cents collected by the state. The school buildings are the best, or among the best, iu the state, if not in the An elegant high school building is in course of erection on United States. the corner of Twelfth and Russell streets. Licking River Bridge company was incorporated Feb. 22, 1834, to build a permanent bridge between Newport and Covington. Just 20 years after, in Jan., 1854, the first (a wire suspension) bridge was completed, but in two (See weeks after fell with a crash, and was not rebuilt for several months. under Campbell county.) The Great Suspension Bridge between the cities of Covington and Cincinnati was ten years in building; was begun in Sept., 1856, and so far finished as to be opened to the public Dec. 1, 1866 on that and the succeeding day, over 100,000 people crossed on foot. Vehicles were not allowed to cross until Jan. The 1, 1867, when the ferry-boats were laid up because of heavy floating ice. total cost of the work, real estate, interest, taxes, and construction, was nearly $2,000,000, of which three-fourths properly belonged to the construcThe towers (see engraving) rest on heavy oak timbers, hewed tion account. square, laid crossing each other, bolted together, and made solid by cement above the surface, they are built of free-stone, from quarries on the Ohio The foundations of the anchor piers are river, opposite Lewis county, Ky. nearly 30 feet below the grade of Water street, Cincinnati, and Front street, These piers measure 60 by 90 or 100 feet on the ground. The Covington. cast-iron anchor plates underneath them, to which the ends of the cables are attached, are 14J by 17J feet in size, and 2 feet thick, and weigh 11 tons The piers are 86 by 52 feet at the base, 74 by 40 feet at the top, and each. 230 feet high, from the foundation to the top of the brick turrets, each of which The length of the main span of the is surmounted with a cross 12 feet high. bridge, from center of towers in a direct line, is 1,057 feet; and, following The full length overall, from Second street the curve of the floor, 1,079 feet. Covington, to Front street, Cincinnati, is 2,225, feet or over two-fifths of a mile (42-lOOths). Each of the two cables is 1,400 feet long, 12J inches

A

;

of 5,180 wires twisted together, and weighs about 500,000 of the carriage-way is 20 feet, and of each sidewalk, 3J floor 34 feet 600,000 feet of oak and pine flooring were The sustaining power of the bridge is estimated at 16,800 tons, or used. 33,600,000 pounds. 606 wire ropes, of 49 wires in each, are suspended from the cables, to stiffen the bridge. John Augustus Rokbling, the most distinguished if not the first builder of

diameter, pounds. leet

;

full

is

made

The width width of

HI

SI

LI'jlKlel s

1

jC

— KENTON COUNTY.

431

wire suspension bridges in the world, spent several years in Kentucky in 1851, in superintending the towers and preparing to erect a wire suspension bridge with a span of 1,224 feet over the Kentucky river, for the crossing of the Lexington and Danville railroad (never completed); in 1856-58, and again in 1863-67, in superintending the building of the great bridge between CovMr. R. was born ington and Cincinnati, whose dimensions are given above. in'the city of Miilhausen, in Thuringia, Prussia, June 12, 1806, and died in Brooklyn, New York, July 22, 1869, aged 63 years. He received the degree school at Berlin, Royal Polytechnic and emigrated to engineer at the civil of In 1851 he built the railroad suspension bridge over this country in 1831. the Niagara river, 1^ miles below the Falls, and at the time of his death was engaged in the most remarkable engineering feat, in bridge-building, in the world a wire suspension bridge over the East river, from New York to Brooklyn. While making measurements in connection with this, one of his feet was terribly crushed by a Fulton ferry-boat, inducing lockjaw, which terminated fatally. His son, Col. Wm. A. Roebling, assisted his father in his public works in Kentucky, and succeeded him as the engineer of the East river bridge, which is progressing steadily. The Holly Water Works system was introduced into Covington, 1870-71, and When the tunnel proves the must efiicient fire-engine system yet discovered. under the Ohio river for supplying soft water shall be completed, the only serious objection (March, 1873,) to the system will be removed the water hitherto being hard, and on that account less adapted to some of the ordinary purposes of a water supply. By sinking a well, 18 feet in diameter and 71 feet deep, upon the bank of the Ohio river a permanent supply of water, filtered through the substratum of gravel underlying the river, was expected to be obtained, as in other cities but the result was not favorable the water proving hard, and evidently drawn from the springs of this limestone region. After two years constant use the supply began seriously to fail, necessitating a direct resort to the Ohio river. Over 16 miles of iron pipe were laid in the streets, of which one-fifth of a mile of 20-inch main, half a mile of 16-inch main, \\ miles of 10 and 12-inch main, 5 miles of 8-inch, 2 of 6-inch, and nearly 8 miles of 4-inch pipe. The total cost of the works, as per report on April 5, 1871, was $366,072, but somewhat increased afterwards of which for the Holly pumping machinery $68,540, pumping-well §32,210, water works building on level ground |1U,250, and foundation on the river bank $68,350, besides $9,000 for the lot, and for the reservoir for extra supply of water in case of too rapid exhaustion by fire $6,900. The funds were realized from the sale of $400,000 of 20-year city bonds, bearing interest at seven and threetenths per cent, payable semi-annually; to pay which a special tax of 30 cents upon the $100 was authorized, which yielded $29,823 in 1871, and $28,417 in 1872. The river tunnel and connections are not yet completed; the cost is to be added to the above. First Block-House at Cincinnati. In 1780, when Col. George Rogers Clark's expedition against the Indian towns on the Little Miami and Mad rivers, rendezvoused opposite the mouth of Licking, it was found necessary to build a block-house on the spot where Cincinnati now is for the purpose of leaving ;







;







some stores and some wounded men of Capt. HughMcGary's company, wounded by Indians while venturing too much on the Indian (or Indiana) side of the Ohio river, on their way up from the Falls, now Louisville. The late John McCaddon,* of Newark, Ohio, claims that although he did not cut a tree or lift a log, yet he helped to build the first house ever built on that ground for he was at his post in guarding the artificers who did the labor of building. Thomas Vickroy,f a surveyor, and a soldier on the same expedition, says that on the 1st day of August, 1780, Gen. Clark's troops crossed the Ohio river from what is now Covington, and built the two block-houses where Cincinnati now stands. He was at the building of the block-houses and as commissary of the campaign, in charge of the military stores, was left to ;

maintain that post for fourteen days, until the return of the troops. Capt. Johnson, and 2U or 30 men who were sick and wounded, were left with him. »

Am.

Pioneer,

i,

377.

-f

Western Annals, 3d edition, 324.



KENTON COUNTY

432

The Second Settlement near Covington was at what J3 now Cincinnati. Matthias Denrnan, of Springfield, New Jersey, purchased the fractional section of land on the bank of the Ohio, and also the entire section lying immediately north of it, which when Judge John Cleves Symmes' purchase between the Miami rivers should be definitely surveyed according to the established government plan should be found to lie immediately opposite the mouth of Licking river he regarding that river and its branches, which penetrated the richest region of Kentucky, as sure to pour unbounded business and wealth into the lap of a town located at its mouth. The price paid for about 800 acres of land was five shillings per acre (a shilling in New Jersey was 13§ cents, and five shillings 66| cents,) in continental certificates, which were then worth in specie five shillings on the pound so that the specie price per acre was fifteen pence, or 16^ cents, and the cost of the 800 acres only $133. 33J (which is now worth, with its buildings and improvements not less than $200,000,000). Mr. Denman came out to the land of promise in the summer of 1788, down the Ohio to Limestone (Maysville), and thence to Lexington. There he interested with him Col. Robert Patterson, because of his enterprising spirit and general acquaintance, and John Filson, formerly a school teacher, now a surveyor, and already favorably known in the eastern states and in Europe by the publication, at Wilmington, Delaware, in 1784, and the translation into French and publication at Paris in 1785, of his History of Kentucky and wonderful Autobiography of Daniel Boone (written by Filson at the dictation





;



of the sturdy old pioneer). This production of Filson was singularly well adapted to arouse and fix curiosity and inspire enthusiasm about this terra which all accounts hitherto were glowing and exciting but not Denman saw his double power as a surveyor and writer, and enlisted him. The following advertisement, in the Kentucky Gazette of Sept. 6, 1788, announced the near maturity of the plan: incognita of

always convincing.



Notice The subscribers, being proprietors of a tract of land opposite the mouth of Licking river, on the northwest side of the Ohio, have determined The local and natural advanto lay off a town upon that excellent location. tages speak its future prosperity, being equal if not superior to any on the bank of the Ohio between the Miamis. The in-lots to be each half an acre, the out-lots four acres, thirty of each to be given to settlers, upon paying one The 15th day of dollar and fifty cents for the survey and deed of each lot. September is appointed for a large company to meet in Lexington, and mark a road from there to the mouth of Licking, provided Judge Symmes arrives, being daily expected. When the town is laid off, lots will be given to such as become residents before the first day of April next.

Lexington, Ky., Sept.

6,

Matthias Denman, KoBERT Patterson, John Filson.

1788.

By the contract between the proprietors, besides paying one-third of the purchase-money. Col. Patterson was to exert his influence in obtaining settlers while Filson, in the ensuing spring, 17S9, was to survey the town, stake off the lots, and superintend the sale, besides "writing up" the remarkable advantages of the site. His fanciful name for the intended town was adopted Losantiville, which he designed to mean " the village opposite the mouth," Le OS ante ville, but which more nearly signifies " the mouth opposite the Who or what induced the change from such a pedagogical and unvillage." musical name to the euphonious one of Cincinnati is unknown; but in the name of the millions of people who now live in or in reach of it, or visit it and do business with it, we thank the man and the opportunity. The invention of such a name was positively cruel in Mr. Filson we hope it had no conPerhaps that is reason enough why no street nection with his early death. but it is no credit to the liberality in Cincinnati should be named after him or gratitude of the authorities and citizens that they should attempt to perpetuate the names of Denman and Patterson by attaching them to little insignificant short streets or pieces of streets, in the northwest part of the city, near the Brighton House. A great avenue around the city should be laid out ;

«^

1^'^

;

;

— KENTON COUNTY.

433

and called Denman avenue; and McMillan street should be extended to East Walnut Hills and known as Patterson avenue. Cincinnati should perpetuate the names of the founders and of the more recent benefactors of the city, rather than of her small-beer politicians and wire-workers. Before the close of September, 1788, Messrs. Denman, Patterson, and FilBon left Lexington for Limestone (Maysville) at which point they were joined by John Cleves Symmes, Israel Ludlow (who was expected to be Symmes' surveyor), Capt. Benjamin Stitea, and a number of others. They first landed probably just below the mouth of the Little Miami, where Stites soon after made a settlement and station called Columbia; then visited the ground opposite the mouth of the Licking, where Losantiville was to be located from which point, Patterson and Denman with several others went out exploring northward while Symmes and the rest, including Filson, went on to what was afterwards called North Bend, and thence up the Great Miami, Filson surveying its meanders. While thus engaged, and several of the party having deserted and gone off, Filson became alarmed about the Indians, and himself started alone across the country to meet his partners at Losantiville. He was doubtless killed on the way by Indians, as no trace of him was ever obtained.* He had already made his plat of the place (which was changed after his death) in which two entire blocks were set aside for the use of the town and besides there was given up as a common all the ground between Front street and the Ohio river, extending from Eastern Row (Broadway) to Western Row (Central Avenue) which were then the extreme boundaries Front street was laid down nearer the river than on the presof the town plat. Several of the names of streets upon his plan were ent plat of Cincinnati. transferred to the second plan. Filson' s death before he had stretched a chain upon the ground to survey it, thus preventing his personal services, terminated his connection with the town he had paid no money on the contract. Mr. Denman having returned to Limestone, entered into another contract with Col. Patterson and Israel Ludlow^by which Ludlow was to perform On the 24th of December, 1788, a party of 26 Filson's part of the contract. persons, viz. Col. Robert Patterson and Israel Ludlow, two of the proprietors, and Wm. McMillan, Isaac Tuttlc, James Carpenter, John Porter, Robert Caldwell, Capt. Henry, Thomas Gi'ssel, Joseph Thornton, Thaddeus Bruen, Evan Shelby, Luther Kitchell, Scott Traverse, Wm. Cunnell, Noah Badgley, Henry Lindsey, John Vance, Francis Hardesty, Samuel Blackburn, Elijah Martin, Sylvester White, and Matthew Fowler, Matthew Campbell, Samuel Mooney, Joel Williams ;



;



;



;

:



.

of whom the larger portion had come with Col. Patterson from the interior of the Kentucky district of Virginia (Kentucky did not become a state until June, 1792) left Limestone (Maysville) and " formed the settlement of Cincinnati on the 28th day of December, 17SS."f Dec. 26th has been commemorated as the day, but owing to the condition of the river, covered with drift ice from shore to shore, the party in their flat-boat proceeded cautiously and slowly, and did not reach there until Sunday, the 28th. On the 7th of January, 1789, 30 in-lots and 30 out-lots, one of each, were drawn by lottery, at Losantiville, according to the contract with the proprie-



tors,

by the

last 15

Henry Bechtle, James Campbell,



.

Davidson,

Benjamin Dumont,

names above and the following 15 James Dumont, Isaac Freeman, . Fulton,



Ephraim Kibby,

:

David McClever, James McConnell, James Monson, Daniel Shoemaker,

Jesse Stewart, Richard Stewart, Isaac Vanmetre.

The town was called Losantiville until Jan. 2, 1790, when the name was changed to Cincinnati. J But according to Judge Burnet, the plat of Israel « Ensijrn Joseph Buell's journal, kept at Fort Harmar, under date of Oit. 21, 1789, eays: '• Four canoes landed from Kentucky, loaded with ginseng and report that Iha Indians had attacked a party of men with Judge Symmes, and killed one of his surveyors." Depo.«ition Wm. of Mi-Millan, the first lawyer at Cincinnati, and first delegate in t congress from the Territory of the Northwest. J Letter of Dr. Dan'l Drake, Jan. 2, 1841. ;

II. ..28

KENTON COUNTY.

434 Ludlow was

and not of

of Cincinnati,

Losantiville, the project to call it by name having fallen through.* Judge Burnet was wrong, however, Drake right. Judge John Cleves Syrnmes called it Losantiville as June 14, ITSS.f The first cabin (three or four were put up as speedily as possible) was erected upon Front street, east of Main. Before the 7th of January, was completed the survey and laying off of the town, including all between the river and Northern Row (now Seventh street), and between Broadway and Central Avenue. The streets were laid out through the dense forest of sycamore and sugar trees on the first or lower table, and of beech and oak upon the second or upper table the street corners were marked upon the trees. The first family that settled at Losantiville is unknown. Francis Kennedy, with his wife and seven children (one of them, Mrs. Rebecca Keeder, was still living at Pleasant Ridge, in 1859) reached Losantiville on Feb. 8, 1789, and found there three women, Miss Dement, daughter of James Dement, Mrs. Constance Zenes (afterwards married to Wm. McMillan), and Mrs. Pesthal, a German woman, with some small children. There were but three little cabins there, all without floors; in these the surveyors and chain-carriers lived. By the 10th of April, Mr. McHenry had arrived, with two sons and two daughters, all grown and a Mr. Ross with a small family. About June 1, 1789, Maj. Doughty, with 140 U. S. soldiers, arrived at Losantiville from Fort Ilarmar (now Marietta), and built four block-houses nearly opposite the mouth of Licking. As soon as these were finished, they began the erection of Fort Washington, immediately on the line of Third street in Cincinnati, about 100 feet east of Broadway. When Cincinnati was First Settled.— On the 26th of Dec, 1833, about 16C persons, many of them invited guests, met and sat down to the table on the river bank, in Cincinnati, near where the first cabin was erected in 1788. Other celebrations, in other years, of that first settlement have taken place, on the 26th December. The inference that settlers who left Maysville on the 24th reached Cincinnati on the 26th, and began the settlement was reasonable, but was not the fact. They proceeded slowly and cautiously, on account of the ice and other difficulties, and did not reach there until Sunday, the 28th. At least, Wm. McMillan the first lawyer, one of the first three judges of the court of common pleas, and the first delegate in congress deposed that " he was one of those who formed the settlement of Cincinnati on the 28th day of December, 1788." The First Settlement near Covington was on Not. 18, 1788, at Columbia, on the north side of the Ohio, not far below the mouth of the Little Miami river where Capt. Benj. Stites had made a purchase of 10,000 acres of land from John Cleves Symmes. The party left Maysville on Nov. 17th, 26 in number, mostly emigrants who had just reached there from Redstone Old Fort, now Brownsville, Pa on the Jlonongahela river. They were Capt. Benj. Stites, Elijah Stites, Greenbright Bailey, Albert Cook, Jacob Mills, James Bailey, Capt. James Flinn, and two brothers and their father, Robert Hamson, Joseph Cos, and about 18 others, some of whom had families with

the latter

and

Dr.

late as

;

;







,

them. Several of these were surveyors, sent down by John Cleves Symmes from Limestone (Maysville), where he then was, " to traverse the two Jliami rivers Their first act was the erection of a block-house. as high as they could. "J Shortly after, between the 16th and 20th of December, Mr. Symmes persuaded Capt. Kearsey, of the U. S. army who reached Limestone, Dec. 12th, with 45 rank and file— to send a sergeant with 18 men to Cohimbi.i., "to the assistance of Capt. Stites and the surveyors, in order to support the station." On the 15th of December, 1788, just 27 days after its first settlement, Capt. Hugh Dunn (who, in March, 1793, settled Dunn's station, at the mouth of the Great Miami) and his wife, three brothers, and one sister (who afterwards married Isaac Mills), in their family boat, after being fired into by the InA census taken after the dians, and wrecked in a storm, landed at Columbia.



arrival of this

little

company, and before the

arrival of the 19 soldiers,

» Letter of Oct. 6. 1844. f Letter to Capt. Dayton. t Letter to Capt. Dayton, in Cincinnnti in 1841, pp. 193-9.

showed

— KENTON COUNXr.

435



population of 56, men, women, and children being all the American white people then known to be in the now state of Ohio, west of Marietta.* The soldiers erected three other block-houses at the angles of a square with forming a square stockade fort, which the first one, with stockades between they named Fort Miami; the very site of which was washed away many years ago by the encroachments of the Ohio river. Judge Wm. Goforth the first appointed justice of the peace, one of the first three territorial judges commissioned by President Washington, and one of the first electors for president and vice president of the United States arrived at Miami (as his register or journal calls Columbia) on Jan. 18, 1790. Prior to this, during 1789, 'the following persons, many of them with their families, settled there (it is probable some of them were original settlers and should be named above, in Nov., 1788): Capt. John Stites Gano (one of the founders of Covington, in 1815), Daniel Bates, Zephu Ball, Jonas Bowman, Edmund Buxton, Jas. Carpenter, Benj. Davis, David Davis and his son Samuel Davis, Isaac Ferris, John Ferris, Gabriel Foster, Luke Foster, Daniel Griffin, Jos. Grose, John Hardin, Cornelius Hurley, David Jennings and his sons Henry Jennings and Levi Jennings, Luther Kitchell, Ezekiel Larned, Ichabod B. Miller, Elijah Mills, Jas. Matthews, John Manning, John McCuUoch, Aaron Mercer, Patrick Aloore, Wm. Moore, John Morris, Newell, John Phillips, Jonathan Pitman. Benj. F. Randolph, John Reynolds, Jonathan Ross, James Seward, John Webb,

a

total











.

Wickerham, and



.

.

Wickerham.



Provisioning Fort Washingtun. In the fall of 1789, when the 70 soldiers stationed at Fort Washington, in Losantiville or Cincinnati, for the defence of the settlers, were about to abandon their post from a want of supplies, Drennon, went three settlers named John S. Wallace, James Dement, and down in a canoe from six to ten miles into what are now Kenton and Boone counties in Kentucky, secreted their craft in the mouth of a small branch, and by great diligence killed buffalo, deer, and bear enough to provision the soldiers for six weeks, until supplies arrived from Pittsburgh. iSeed Corn and Bread Corn for the first settlers at Losantiville (Cincinnati), in the wiitter and spring of 1788-89, was brought in canoes down the Licking river, from the Kentucky settlements near Cynthiana and as far out as Lexington. Noali Badgley and three others of the original settlers started by that route for Paris, for corn. When they returned, with their supplies in a canoe. Licking river was high and the weather cold. In one of the rough and crooked chutes, their canoe was violently forced among drift-wood and trees, and upset the men saving themselves by climbing a tree. One of them swam out and escaped. Badgley followed, but was carried down by tlie current and drowned. The other two continued on the tree three days and nights, before they were taken off by the people who were following them down the river to Losantiville. Value of Covington Land. Maj. John Bush, residing on the Ohio river, opposite North Bend, Ohio, one of the pioneer settlers of Boone county, and who made his mark in the campaigns against the Indians, told Charles Cist that he could have taken up any quantity of farming land in and adjacent to Covington, at an early day, at £5 ($13^) per hundred acres. He was offered 200 acres, including the point at the intersection of the Licking and the Ohio, as an inducement to settle there.f The First House in the present bounds of Covington was a log cabin, about 20 rods below the point, built in the fall of 1791, by the father of the late



.





Elliston E.

Williams

%

The Oldest House now (March, 1873) standing in Covington, and probably the second ever built within its limits, still stands on the bank of the Licking distance above the foot of 13th street, and exactly one mile and 52 poles from the mouth of that river as shown by measurement in a law-suit in 1818. It is a log house, was built in 1792 by Pressly Peake, who sold it to West Miller, and he in 1804 to Capt. Wm. Martin.

river, a short

* Sketch of Judge Isaac Dunn,

in

Lawrenceburg (Indiana)

t Cist's Miscellany,

i,

16.

%

Same

Press, July, 1870. ii,

36.



KENTON COUNTY.

436



Rendezvous. The mouth of Licking, where Covington now is, was the rendezvous of the Kentucky militia, commanded by Col. Hardin and Maj. Hall,

which

sufTered so terribly in

Harmar's

defeat, in Sept., 1790.

Gen. Charles Scott's expedition against the Bel river Indians in 1792, rendezvoused at the mouth of the Kentucky river. The troops returned by way of Covington, and along the Dry Ridge road, to central Kentucky. The expedition under the same officer, in the fall of 1793, rendezvoused at Newport, which had just been laid out as a town, above the mouth of Licking. After reaching Fort Greenville, Ohio, Gen. Wayne discharged these troops and abandoned the expedition because of the lateness of the season. But in July, 1794, 2,000 mounted Kentuckians under Gen. Scott rendezvoused at Georgetown and Newport, joined Gen. Wayne and participated in the celebratod battle of the Fallen Timbers. When their term expired, they were marched liack and read out of service at Cincinnati, on what is now the public landing, but which was then the ferry opposite Licking. The Price of Farms at an early day was almost as remarkable as that of town lots. Elisha Arnold, father of James Grimsley Arnold (who, in March, 1873. was probably the second oldest person living in Covington), removed in 1796 from Bourbon county to North Bend, in Boone county; in 1797 he sold his farm there, for a negro woman and her child and, for a horse, purchased the place now owned by John Tennis' heirs, 6 miles s. of Covington, near the Lexington pike. Gen. Leonard Stephens (born in Orange CO., Va March 10, 1791, died in Boone co., Ky., March 8, 1873, aged 82,) was for 62 years, from 1807 until a few years before his death, a citizen of what is now Kenton county. He was the senior justice of the peace of Campbell county in 1840-41, at the time Kenton was organized, of which he became the first high sheritf. He represented Campbell co. in the lower house in 1823, '24, '25, and '26, and the two counties of Campbell and Boone in the senate from 1829 to 1833. When he first saw the site of Covington in the fall of 1807, he came from his residence near Bryan's Station, in Fayette co., over the Iron Works road as far as Henry's mill (probably on Elkhorn), then by the mouth of Raven creek in Harrison co., thence past where Arnold kept tavern (now Williamstown, a county seat). There was no town on that route between Bryan's Station and Cincinnati and on the Dry Ridge route no town between Georgetown and Cincinnati where now are the business villages of Williamstown, WalWithin the present boundaries of Covington ton, Crittenden, and Florence. were a few farm houses, the only prominent one of which is still standing the then elegant stone residence of old Thos. Kennedy, with its panelled room Besides the stone residence, he had a stone barn in the style of that day. (on now the s. w. corner of Second and Garrard streets), stone ice house, stone smoke house, stone hen house, and stone spring house (the spring of which, in the war of the elements, has been tra-nsferred from the top of the Thos. Kennedy conducted the river bank to the beach or shore in front.) ferry on the Kentucky side in 1790-94, and Francis Kennedy on the Cincinnati side transferring the soldiers of the Indian expeditions during those years. Emigration of S'juirrels. In Sept., 1801, an astonishing emigration of squirAs many as 500 per rels took place, from Kentucky across the Ohio river. day were killed as they crossed the river. A mild winter was prophesied, from their moving northward. A Hail-Stornt, unprecedented in violence since the country was settled, occurred on May 27, 1800, extending from Covington to Lexington. Near LexNear Covington, alter the heavy ington, the hail fell the size of goose eggs. rain-storm was over, which had much reduced the size of the hail, many lumps of ice weighed over an ounce each. The First Work of Art in Covington, on record, was the drawing and painting by Mr. Lucas, in May, 1823, of a View of Cincinnati, from the Covington It attracted great as a drop curtain for the Globe Theatre, Cincinnati. side attention for its beauty and uniqueness. No Station or Block-House was ever built in what is now Kenton county. shoot out D. Park, 2 miles holes to of— on the land of John A log cabin, with was called a block-house. a. of Covington ;

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KENTON COUNTY.

437

John Sanderson Morgan was born

in Nicholas co., Ky., Jan. 6, 1799, and died of cholera, after 12J hours illness, in Covington, Ky., June 17, 1852, aged 53 years. His father, Garrard (or Jared) Morgan was a native of Goochland co., Va., and his mother, Sarah Sanderson, of South Carolina they emigrated to Kentucky in 1798, or earlier, and settled in Nicholas co. Col.

Left at 15, with a widowed mother and a large family, upon a small and poor farm, he struggled so nobly and faithfully that in 1824, as soon as he was eligible, his neighbors manifested a generous confidence by electing him their representative in the general assembly of the state, in the stormy times of the " old court " and " new court." He sided boldly with the former. He was again elected in 1833 was elected to the senate, 1838-42, and re-elected 1842-46, but resigned in 1844, and in 1845 removed to the city of Covington. Several years after, he took a deep interest in securing the charter of the Covington and Lexington (now Ky. Central) railroad, and was chosen its first He was also the Whig presidenpresident, and held the office when he died. tial elector for the 9th district, and if he had lived, was sure of success. He was anxious to live to complete the great public work of which he was one the railroad; but it was otherwise ordered. lie had been of the founders an extensive and usually successful operator in Western produce. Col. Morgan was a man of mark seldom equalled for native sagacity, sound judgment, energy and decision, and purity of purpose. He was the architect of bis own fortunes ; was brave, generous, and manly, thoroughly honest and thoroughly in earnest, and seldom failed to impress others with his own convictions that he was right, and ought to and would succeed. In 1829, he married Eleanor, daughter of Henry Bruce, Sen., of Fleming county— who, with a large family, still (1873) survives. ;





Ex-Gov. James T. Morehead was born May 24, 1797, near Shepherdsville, Bullitt CO., Ky., and died in Covington, Ky., Dec. 28, 1854 aged 57; when 3 years old, removed with his father to Russellville, Logan co., where he enoyed the advantages of the village schools was at Transylvania University, "13-15 studied law with Judge H. P. Broadnax, and afterwards with John settled at Bowling Green, J. Crittenden, who was then living at Russellville and began the practice of law, in the spring of 1818; was elected to the legwhile attending the convention at Baltimore which islature, 1828, '29, '30 nominated Henry Clay for the presidency and John Sergeant for the vice presidency, was nominated for lieutenant governor, and elected Aug., 1832; upon the death of Gov. John Breathitt, Feb., 1834, was inaugurated governor, serving until Sept., 1836 was made ex-officio president of the board of internal improvement, Feb., 1835, and afterwards, under a change of the law, in 1838, commissioned by Gov. Clark to the same oflice— having already, since March, 1837, been the state agent for the sale of bonds for internal improvement purposes resumed the practice of law at Frankfort, in the fall of 1836, and was elected to the legislature from Franklin county, Aug., 1837; in the winter of 1839^0, he and Col. John Speed Smith were elected by the legislature commissioners to the state of Ohio, to obtain the passage oi' a law for the protection of the property of citizens of Kentucky in their slaves which mission w.as entirely successful; was U. S. senator from Ky., 1841-47, and on his reIn the U. S. senate as tirement resumed the practice of law, at Covington. a debater, few men ranked higher whenever announced to speak, the lobbies and galleries were filled with spectators. As a speaker, he was remarkably fluent and energetic, with a manner eminently graceful and dignified. As a statesman, he was sound and conservative, and his political and general inHis library, embracing the largest colformation was extensive and varied. lection then knonn of works relating to the history of Kentucky, wag purchased by the Young Men's Mercantile Association of Cincinnati. His address at the anniversary of the first settlement of Kentucky at Boonesborough, in 1840, was an invaluable historical summary, and rescued from oblivion a number of documents not elsewhere preserved.



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Gen. John

W. Finnell was

ancestors were from Orange

born in Winchester, Ky., Dec. 24, 1821. His Va. His father, Nimrod L. Finnell, was a

co.,

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KEJJTON COUNTY.

J38

practical printer, nnd was, at various times, either sole or joint editor and proprietor of the Lexington Observer and Reporter, Lexington Intelligencer, Covington Licking Valley Register, and other papers in Kentucky was an ardent Whig, and a bold, vigorous, and fearless writer; he died Dec. 8, 1850. John W. Kinnell graduated at Transylvania University when only 17 years of age learned the art of printing, with his father, and at 19, assisted him in the editorial conduct of the Lexington Daily Intelligencer, 1840; studied law with Richard H. Menefee, and graduated at Transylvania law school, 1841 settled in Carlisle, Nicholas co., and soon obtained a handsome practice; was the Whig candidate for the Ky. house of representatives and elected, 1843, although the county was largely Democratic during the session of the legislature, was induced to assume the editorial control of the Frankfort Commonwealth, then one of the leading Whig organs in the state, and held that position until 1848, when he was appointed secretary of state, by Gov, John J. Crittenden was re-appointed to the same office, by Gov. John L. Helm, July, 1850, when Gov. Crittenden resigned, to accept the office of attorney general in President Fillmore's cabinet; removed to Covington, 185"2, and resumed the practice of law. In 1854, during the great financial crisis which involved the failure of so many banks and bankers, he was appointed special commissioner of the Kenton and Campbell circuit courts, to close up the affairs of the Kentucky Trust This delicate duty was disCo. Bank and the Newport Safety Fund Bank. charged with such tact, judgment, and fidelity that the creditors were paid in full of all their demands, while at the time of their suspension the claims did not command a third of their value. Mr. Finnell was a member of the convention in 1860 that nominated Bell and Everett for president and vice president, and engaged actively in the canvass. In 18t51, he was elected from Kenton county as a " Union " candidate to the legislature, and there took an advanced position in favor of the Union his earnest efforts were then directed He was appointed adjutant towards sustaining that cause in Kentucky. general of the stiite,Oct. 12, 1861, by Gov. Magoffin, and successfully discharged, at the most trying time, the onerous and perplexing duties of the office. On ;

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the accession of Gen. Bramlette to the chair of state, in Sept., 1863, Gen. Finand remained in private life until 1867, register in bankruptcy for the 6th district of Kentucky at Covington. In 1870, he removed to Louisville, where, in 1872, he became and still is (Feb., 1873,) managing editor of the Louisville Daily Commercial. Gen. Finnell is an elegant and genial writer and speaker, a fine lawyer, remarkable for his tact, energy, and suavity, and the very soul of every coterie. Over the nom de plume of " Jeems Giles of Owen," he has established a " Mark Twain" department in the Commercial which is marked for its originality and power, and is growing in popularity. nell declined a continuance in office,

when he was appointed

Ex-Gov. John W. Stevknson was born May 4, 1812, in Richmond, Va., the only son of Andrew Stevenson and Mary Page White. His father was a member of the Virginia legislature for several sessions, and speaker of the house; was a representative in congress from 1821 to 1834, and for tlie last seven years speaker; and minister to England, 1836-41. The son was educated at Hampden Sidney college and at tlie University of Virginia read law with Willoughby Newton, a distinguished Virginia lawyer, agriculturist, and ex-M. C. practiced for several years at Vicksburg, Miss.; lemoved to Covington, Ky., in 1841, and was the partner of Jefferson Phelps, one of the leaders of that bar, until the death of the latter, Nov. 11, 1843; represented Kenton county in the Ky. legislature, 1845, '46, nnd '48, and in the convention which formed the present constitution, 1849 was a member of the Democratic national conventions of 1848, 1852, and 1856; chosen presidential elector in 1856 one of three commissioners to revise the Ky. code of practice, 1850-51; representative in congress for four years, 1857-61; on the Democratic ticket, and elected lieutenant governor, 1867-71, but in consequence of the death, five days after his inauguration, of Gov. Helm, was installed governor, Sept. 13, 1867 was elected governor to fill the vacancy, Aug., 1868, to Sept., 1871, by 88,965 majority over R. Tarvin Baker, the Republican candi;

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KENTON COUNTY.

439

date; Dec. 15, 1869, was elected U. S. senator for six years from March 4, 1871-77 Feb. 13, 1871, resigned the office of governor, and is now (Feb., 1873,) Gov. S. has for many years been a vestryserving his term as U. S. senator. man of the Protestant Episcopal church, and repeatedly a delegate in the Ky. State Convention, and also in the General Conventions of that denominaHe is one of the very ablest and most distinguished of the living lawyers tion. and statesmen of Kentucky, and has worthily earned the high consideration ;

which he has so

liberally received.

bom Jan. 21, 1807, in his ancestral town, Benton, Ontario co., New York, and emigrated in 1816 to Franklin co., Ind., The latter was afterwards a citizen of Ohio with his father, Joseph Benton. for some years, and died at the residence of his son in Covington, Ky., June, 1872, aged 89; his venerable widow still survives (March, 1873,) The son's education, obtained in the schools of the the ripe age of 86. neighborhood, was rather limited. One of his teachers in New York, Simeon H. Goss, became so noted for his severity in punishing his pupils as to give rise to the expression which has become almost a national by-word, " 6ive him Goss." Carefully improving his meager opportunities, young Benton began the study of law in Indiana with that eminent lawyer Andrew Wallace, and continued it in Cincinnati with Caswell and Starr. "Removing to Covington in 1828, he concluded his studies with and in 1831 became the law-partner What Mr. Phelps was then, Mr. Benton for of the late Jefferson Phelps. yeare past has been, the leader of the bar at Covington. Time has dealt gently with Mr. Benton. Of all his early cotemporaries, but one (James M. Preston, of Burlington, Boone county,) still lives. The entire court judges, lawyers, both resident and visiting, clerks, sheriffs, jailers, and their deputies one by one has obeyed the summons of the inevitable sheriff. Death, and in solemn procession is moving on to the presence of the final Judge of all the earth In 1834 Covington became a city, with Mr. Benton as its first mayor. He resigned in 1835. In 1853, having been a director and its attorney from its commencement in 1850, he accepted the presidency of the Covington and Lexington railroad resigning in 1856, after the great work had struggled to a glorious success. He was a representative in the Kentucky legislature, 1863-65, and by the same controlling Union element elected to the senate, 1865-69 but his seat having been contested by John G. Carlisle, now lieutenant governor, the senate declared his election the result of military interference, vacated the seat, and ordered a new election in 1866, at which Mr. Benton was defeated. In 1864 he was the Union candidate in the second district forjudge of the court of appeals an ofBoe he would have adorned by his fine legal mind but the indiscreet zeal of a few friends, backed by the high-handed tyranny of the military in ordering the peremptory withdrawal from the canvass of his opponent. Judge Alvin Duvall, the then incumbent, and attempting his arrest, worked the signal defeat of Mr. Benton. Many Union men revolted at this phase of military interference, and by the free use of the telegraph and horse expresses only a few hours before the election, sprung upon the track a great man, of undoubted Union antecedents, the former chief justice, Geo. Kobertson, and accomplished his election thus sacrificing, " in the house of his friends," their own chosen candidate. It was a painful alternative, but they could not brook the assumptions of military power. Forty-two years constant and lucrative practice have not dimmed the ardor jf Mr. Benton in the noble profession, and he bids fair to practice it a score of years longer, and then to wear out .with the harness on. MoRTiMEK MoERAT Benton was





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Gen. Thomas Sandford may be called the pioneer statesman of what is now Kenton county being its earliest representative in high public positions. He was born in Westmoreland co., Virginia, in 1762; came to Kentucky about 1792, settling on the high lands back of Covington was the only member



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from Campbell county in the convention which framed the second constitu1799 was several times a member of the legislature representative in congress for four years, 1803-07 other and higher honors tion of the state, Aug.,

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KENTON COUNTY.

440

but he was drowned in the Ohio river, Dec. 10, 1808. His appearance was that of a distinguished gentle when only 46 years man of the old school he wore the large ruffled shirt bosoms, and a queue; was 6 feet .S inches high, straight as an arrow, bold, mu.scular, and powerful, of attractive and commanding person, of line practical talents, and popular

were

in store for him,

old. ;

manners — "a native great man.'

His sons Alexander and Alfred were opposing candidates for the legislature 18—. The former, in the excitement of the canvass, vowed that if beaten he would leave the state his brother's majority over him was only 4, yet he kept his vow, removed to Missouri, and although a man of fine talent, abandoned all ambitious views of life. The youngest brather, Cassias B., was mayor of Covington for several years. in

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Lieut. Gov. John Gbtffin Carlisle was born in Kenton county, Ky., Sept. 1835; educated in the best schools of the neighborhood, and himself a teacher at 15 and for five years after studied law in Covington with ex-Gov. John W. Stevenson and Judge Wm. B. Kinkead as the partner of the latter, began the practice in March, 1857, and took rank at once as one of the most analytical and clearest legal minds among the young men of Kentucky was " took a "back seat elected to the lower house of the legislature, 1859-61 during the war of the rebellion, because of certain differences of opinion which were inconsistent with his promotion but in Aug., 1865, again came to the front as the Democratic candidate for the state senate from Kenton county, but was beaten at the polls by Mortimer M. Benton. In Feb., 1S66, the senate declared the seat of the latter vacant, because the election was " neither free nor equal in the sense required in the constitution, being regulated, controlled, and unduly influenced by armed soldiers in the service of Mr. Carlisle was elected the United States, in utter disregard of the law." to fill the vacancy, 1866-69, and triumphantly re-elected for another term, 1869-73, but resigned in 1871, to accept the Democratic nomination for lieutenant governor of the state to which ofiice he was elected, Aug., 1871, for four years, receiving 125,955 votes to 86,148 cast for the Radical nominee. In 1872, for a few months, he was the leading editor of the Louisville Daily Few men, at the age of Mr. Carlisle, have received such continuous Ledger. and marked evidences of popular favor. His views of public policy are liberal, conservative, and statesmanlike as speaker of the senate, he is prompt, as a firm, dignified, and his rulings when appealed from always sustained lawyer, he is clear, forcible, logical, and convincing he is universally regarded as one of the strong young men of the state. 5,

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Jesse D. Bright was born at Norwich, Chenango

co..

New

York, Dec.

18,

His father, David G. Bright, a merchant of Fincastle, Botetourt co., 1814. Virginia, was an intimate friend and earnest political associate of Gov. DeWitt Clinton, of New York, through which partiality he was led to change his residence; he removed to Plattsburg, N. Y., in 1800, and continued business there, turning aside to fill the office of sheriff for 4 years; in 1813, removed to Chenango county, in the same state, of which he was clerk for 4 and thence in years, resigning in 1819 to remove west, to Shelbyville, Ky. 1820 to Madison, Indiana which was his home until his death in 1852, aged 76, except his temporary residence of 4 years at Jeffersonville, Indiana, wliile U. S. receiver of public moneys there, by appointment of President Tyler, His son Jesse, continued under President Polk, until Mr. Bright resigned. removing with his father, received the best education to be obtained in the academies of the neighborhood, studied law, and began the practice, 1834; when in his 22d year, was elected probate judge for 7 years, 1836-43; but resigned in 1838, to become U. S. marshal for the district of Indiana, 1843-47; this office he resigned in 1841, and was elected state senator for 3 years, 1841-44 resigned this, and was elected lieutenant governor, on the Demothis he also resigned, being elected to cratic ticket, for three years, 1843-46 the U. S. senate, and twice re-elected, 1845-51, 1851-57, 1857-63 (18 years in all),* but was expelled in 18G2, under the administration of President ;



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* Lauman's Dictionary of Congress.

KENTON COUNTY.

441

Carroll co., Ky. was chosen elector for the state at large of Kentucky, upon the Seymour and Hlair ticket, Nov., 1868 and for four years represented the counties of Carroll and Trimble in the Ky. legislature, 1867-69 and 1869-71; removing; during the latter term, to Covinjiton, Ky., vrhere (March, 1873) he still resides. During his service in the U. S. senate, he was elected president of tliat body, Dec. 3, iS55 to March 4, 1857— thus lieing acting vice president of the United States, vice Wm. K. King, of Ala., deceased. In case of the death of President Pierce during that time, he would have succeeded to the presidential chair. It is well understood that, during his long service in the senate, Mr. Bright declined both missions abroad and cabinet appointments under the administrations of Presidents Pierce and Buchanan. In the last year of Mr. Bright's third term in the U. S. senate, after the senators from eleven of the Southern states had withdrawn or been expelled, in tlie second year of the war, he was arraigned for declaring that " he would never vote a man nor a dollar to prosecute a war waged in fraud and violation of the Constitution nor would he sanction, in any form, a law to declare paper money a legal tender, or to compel any American citizen to accept it Ills speech delivered on the day of his expulsion, is too long to as money." form a part of this sketch, but ought to be read by all lovers of truth and in-

Lincoln.

In 1864, he removed

to

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dependence. When Mr. Bright left the U. S. senate, he did not leave a senator whom he found there on his entrance into that august body, 17 years before. He was the Nestor, young man as he was having entered the senate in his 31st year. Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, Thomas H. Benton, Lewis the pride of the Cass, John J. Crittenden, Levi Woodbury, Silas Wright senate the great men of the nation were gone; some dead, otliers retired. He had been a part of the senate in the days of its greatest renown and usefulness, when it commanded general admirati(m and veneration as the wisest and the greatest representative body the world had ever seen. Those were, indeed, the "better days of the republic." In politics, Mr. Bright is well known, where he is known at all, to be Democratic states-rights; and it is well understood belongs to the class of statesmen that is always willing to fearlessly give the reason of the faith within happen to him, and to defenl with his hand what bis tongue utters. know that there are few men of his prominent antecedents who now take less interest in political affairs th.an he. True, he accepted a place on the Kentucky electoral ticket for the state at large in 1868; but bis heart was not in the struggle having no confidence in the courage of the candidates, and not believing they had the most remote chance of success. In the last presidential struggle between Grant and Greeley, he took no part and declined to vote. He is possessed of ample means, and is apparently as youthful and as active as at any period of his life. His devotion to friends, and contempt and defiant tone toward enemies, i.^ one of his ruling characteristics. Hon Oliver H Sniitli, in his reminiscences of " Early Indiana Trials, and Sketches," published in 18.57 himself but recently a United States senator from Indiana, a prominent lawyer, and Whig politician, of the opposite political party to Mr. Bright, whose competitor he had repeatedly been— said of him (page 373) "Jesse D. Bright is emphatically a self-made man. By the force of his native powers, he has risen, step by step, to the high position of president of the senate of the United Stales. In person he is large and mus-









We





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cular, a strong physical formation, full breast, large

expanded

chest, full face,

large square forehead, hair and eyes dark, live feet ten inches high, mouth wide, head large He po.sses.ses great energy of character, with good common sense, and an iron will giving a strong impetus to his movements. Nature has done much for him, and he has done much for himself He stands, perhaps, first among the leaders of the Democratic party in the state. It is understood that he was offered and declined a seat in the cabinet of Mr. Buchanan. As a speaker, Mr. Bright is strong, loud, forcible, impulsive, sometimes eloquent his forte., however, is in dealing with facts, and in presenting them in a strong, common-sense point of view to his hearers. He always commands attention, by bis earnest manner and strong array of facts He has been rather a business than a speaking member of the senate." ;

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KKNTON COUNTY.

442

Maj. J. Galloway, Sen. (father of the late eloquent Samuel Galloway, of Columbus, Ohio)—who spent eisjht months in Kentucky in 1775, and in"l780 removed with his family from Pennsylvania into the fort at the Falls of the Ohio— in a letter dated Green county. Ohio, Dec. 23, 1833, says he was in Gen. Clark's expedition against the Piqua and Loramie's towns; and was "within a few feet of the lamented Capt. Virgil McCracken, when he received the wound of which he died on the return, while descending the hill near where Cincinnati now stands, and was buried near a block-house opposite the mouth of Licking. He was a brave man and an accomplished officer. On the morning we left the Ohio river opposite the mouth of Licking, on our outward march, he related a remarkable dream he had, the night previous which he interpreted as a warning that he would be killed before the army returned to that place; and made a request, which was generally agreed to, that all who should then be living would meet upon that ground, on that day fifty years as a mark of respect to his memory, and to witness the changes which should have taken place there by that time. To myself and the few who have survived, it is a matter of deep regret that the cholera prevented our meeting on the 4th of November, 1832."





Maj. Elliston E. Williams, who died about 1859 at a very advanced age, his farm near Covington, was one of the few pioneers of northern Kentucky living in 1845 and as such, one of the pall-bearers, at the re-interment of the remains of Daniel Boone and his wife, in the state cemetery at Frankfort. (See under Franklin and Harrison counties.)

on

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The Lettonian Springs, a weak sulphur, is situated four miles from Covinffton, on the Bank Lick road. The springs are well kept, and being a pleasant ride from Covington, they have become a place of considerable resort in the watering in this county, is remarkable for the fact, that, after a heavy rain, so Hush and high, thjit it cannot be forded, but in a few hours it runs dry, nearly so, that hogs will be seen where it was deepest, turning up the rocks in search of craw-fish.

Dry Creek,

it

is

or so

Captain Cruise encamped with his company (belonging

to

Wayne's army) on

the creek bearing his name, in 1784. He strayed from camp, and was found He was dead, the next day, in the creek, hearing marks of savage violence. buried by his company on this creek, which rises in Boone, and running across Kenton, empties into Licking, about twenty miles above its month. The old The testimony, residents disagree about the spot "where they buried Cruise." as to his grave, is so contradictory, that gentlemen land-jobbers have several times gone there in order to find it, but without success. Their patents called it is thought, may have had for Cruise's grave as a beginning. settlers, The old

some design

in

making

it

uncertain

"where they

buried Cruise."

Kenton county takes its name from one of the most celebrated pioneers of the west. General Simon Kknton was horn of obscure parents, in Fauquier county, Virginia, April 13, ITSri. His father was an Irishman; his mother of Scotch descent. The poverty ot his parents caused his education to be neglected, most unfortunately for his future prosperity. His life, until he was sixteen years of age, appears to have run smoothly enough, distinguished by no uncommon events from that of the neighboring boys. About that age, however, a calamity befell him, which, apart from its irreparable nature, in the opinion of all young gentlemen of sixteen, gave a direction to his whole future life. He lost his sweetheart but by not by death, or anything of that kind for that could have been endured means of a more favored rival. The successful lover's name was William Veach. Kenton, in utter despair and recklessness, having gone uninvited to the wedding, and thrust himself between the happy pair (whom he found seated cosily on a bed), was pounced upon by Veach and his brothers, who gave him. in the language of such affairs, "what he wanted." They, however, had mistaken his wa7%ts for, meeting with William Veach a short time afterwards, in a retired





SIMON KENTON

443

A

severe fight ensued, which, place, he informed him that he was not satisfied. In the after varied success, terminated in the complete discomfiture ofVeach. course of the contest, Kenton succeeded in entangUng his antagonist's long hair

which put him entirely in his power. The desperate young man beat his rival with a severity altogether foreign to his subsequent amiable character. His violence appeared to be fatal ; the unhappy man, bleeding at mouth and nose, Kenton was alarmed; he raised him attempted to rise, and fell back insensible. in a bush,

He up, spoke kindly to him, and receiving no answer, believed him dead dropped his lifeless body and fled to the woods. Now, indeed, he thought himHe had lost the girl he loved, and had killed his self ruined beyond redemption. former friend and companion, and therefore the society of civilized man must-be The Alleghanies, and the wilderness of the not only repulsive, but dangerous. unexplored west offered him a secure asylum, and he plunged at once into the woods. Traveling by night, and lying concealed by day, after many sufferings Here he he arrived at Ise's ford, on Cheat river, some time in April 1771. changed his name to "Simon Butler." Thus, at the age of sixteen, this man, who, in the hands of the Almiijhty, was so instrumental in redeeming tlie great west from the savage, and opening the way for the stream of civilization which has since poured over its fertile plains, desolate in heart, and burdened with crime, was thrown upon his own resources, to struggle with the dangers and I

privations of the wilderness. After some months' stay on Cheat river, Kenton, having earned a good rifle by Here, while his labor, joined a party, with whom he proceeded to Fort Pitt. hunting in the employ of the small garrison at that place, he made the acquaintance and formed a friendship with Simon Girty, afterwards so infamous as a renegade. In the fall of 1771, he fell in with George Yeager and John Strader. Yeager it was who first mentioned to Kenton the "cane land," called by the Indians, Kain-tuck-ee, and fired his imagination with his descriptions of its soil and scenery, and the numbers and extent of the game. In company with Yeager and Strader, Kenton proceeded down the Ohio river as far as the mouth of the Kentucky river, looking for the cane, which, according to Yeager, covered the country. It is a remarkable fact, that cane nowhere grew on the banks of the Ohio, above the mouth of the Kentucky river, although the interior was covered with it. The party, not finding land answering the description of Yeager, returned up the Ohio to the mouth of Big Kanawha; examining the creeks and rivers on the southern shore without success. Abandoning the search, in the winters of 1771-3, they built a camp on a branch of the great Kanawha, and hunted and trapped with considerable success. Here they lived a free and unrestrained life, and a very happy one, engaged in the pursuits of the hunter, until the spring of 1773. The troubles with the mother country beginning to thicken about this time, the Indians were excited against the colonists. One evening in March, while the three hunters were quietly reposing in their rude camp, they were fired upon by the Indians. Yeager was killed, and Kenton and Strader fled to the woods. Night setting in, they effected their escape, though barefooted and naked, having on nothing but their shirts, and without food ; they suffered dreadfully, during the six days they wandered, famished, and torn by the briars through the wilderness. On the sixth day they often laid down to die, so completely were they exhausted. Their feet had become so sore that they were unable to perform but six miles during the day. At last they reached the Ohio, where they found a party of hunters, who fed and clothed them. With this party Kenton returned up to the mouth of Little Kanawha. Here he employed himself with Dr. Briscoe, until he had bought a rifle, and other necessaries. In the summer, he joined a party going down the Ohio in search of Captain Bullitt. The party, not finding Bullitt, and alarmed by the Indians, abandoned their canoes at the Three Islands, and under the guidance of Kenton proceeded by land througn Kentucky to Virginia. Kenton spent the winters of 1773-4, on the Big Sandy, with a hunting-parly, and in the spring, when the war broke out with the Indians, he retreated into Fort Pitt, with the other settlers. When Lord Dunmore raised an army to punish the Indians, Kenton volunteered, and was actively employed as a spy, both under the i.Apedition of Dunmore and that of Colonel Lewis. In the fall, he was discharged from the army, and returned, with Thomas Williams, to his old hunting-ground

i

444

KENTON COUNTY.

on Big Sandy river, where they passed the winter. In the spring of 1776, having disposed of their peltries to a French trader, whom they met on tlie Ohio, for such their mode of life required, they descended the Ohio in search, once more, of the "cane land." Although Yeager was now dead, the impressions left upon the mind of Kenton, by his glowing descriptions of Kain-tuck-ee, which Yeager had visited with the Indians, when a boy nnd a prisoner, were still fresh and strong; and he determined to make another effort to find the country. For this purpose, he and Williams were now descending the Ohio. Accident at last While gliding along down " la belle riviere" (as the French had favored them. christened it), night overtook the young adventurers, and they were compelled to They put in with their canoe, at the mouth of Cabin creek, situated in the land. present county of Mason, and about six miles above Maysville. Next morning, while hunting some miles back in the country, the ardently-sought "cane" burst upon Kenton's view, covering land richer than any he had ever seen before. Overjoyed at this piece of good fortune, he returned, in haste, to communicate the joyful intelligence to Williams. Sinking their canoe, the pioneers, par excellence, of north Kentucky, struck into their new domain. In the month of May, 1775, within a mile of the present town of Washington, in Mason county, having finished built their camp, and a small clearing, they planted about an acre of land, with the remains of the corn bought from the French trader. The spot chosen by them, for their agricultural attempt, was one of the most beautiful and fertile in the State of Kentucky. Here, in due season, they ate the first roasting ears, that ever grew by the care of a white man, on the north side of the Kentucky river.

Before this they had discovered the upper and lower Blue Licks, and the imbuffalo, elk, &c., that frequented those places, covering the hills

mense herds of

and valleys of the Licking. The land was a hunters" paradise, and our adventurers were completely happy in their new and undisputed home. They soon had cause, however, to apprehend that others would contend with them for the mastership of the soil. Happening one day at the lower Blue Licks, they discovered two white men. Approaching them with due caution, they found them friendly, and learned that they had wandered without guns and food thus far into the country, their canoe having been upset in a squall on the Ohio. Fitzpatrick and Hendricks (so these strangers were named) were invited by Kenton to Hendricks acceded to the proposal, but Fitzjoin his station near Washington. Accordingly Kenton and Williams patrick insisted upon returning to Virginia. (having left Hendricks at the Licks) accompanied Fitzpatrick to the Ohio, gave him a gun, and took leave of him on the other side from where Maysville now stands. Returning quickly as possible, they were surprised and not a little alarmed to find the camp where they had left Hendricks abandoned and in disorder. Looking around they observed a smoke in a low ravine, and at once comprehended the whole affair. They were satisfied that a party of Indians had capNext morning cautiously tured their friend, and they at once fled to the woods. approaching the still smoking fire, they discovered that the savages had departed, and with feelings that may be easily imagined, they found, what they did not doubt were the skull and bones of the unfortunate Hendricks. He had been burned to death, while they were so cowardly flying. Filled with shame and remorse that they had so basely abandoned him to his fate without an effort to rescue him, they went back to their camp near Washington. They had the good fortune themselves to escape the notice of the Indians who prowled through the country. In the fall, Kenton, leaving Williams at the camp, took a ramble through his rich domain. Every where he saw abundance of game, and the richest and most beautiful land. At the lower Blue Licks he met with Michael Stoner, who had come to Kentucky with Boone the year before. He now learned that himself and Williams were not the only whites inhabiting the cane land. Taking Sioner to his camp, and gathering up his property, he and Williams accompanied Kenton passed the winter liim to the settlements already formed in the interior. of '75-6at Hinkaon's station, in the present county of Bourbon, about forty miles from his -orn patch. In 1776, the Indians enraged at the encroachments made upon their hunting grounds, and urged on by the British, made frequent incursions into Kentucky, and became so troublesome that the weaker stations were aoandoned. The settlers at Hinkson's station look shelter in McClelland's fort.

SIMON KENTON.

445

where Georgetown now stands, Kenton accompanying tliem. Major Goorge Rogers Clark having prevailed upon the Virginia legislature to afford the pione^ers some assistance, arrived in company with a lawyer named Jones, at the Three Islands, late in the winter, with a considerable quantity of powder and situated

lead.

They concealed

it

on the lower island and proceeded

to

McClelland's sta-

McClelland's tion, in order to obtain a party to bring it off to the settlements. station being too weak to furnish a sufficient escort, Clark, piloted by Kenton, set Unfortunately, during their absence, .lones prevailed on out tor Harrodsburg. ten men They set

to

accompany him

to

the place

where the ammunition was concealed.

and on Christmas day, 1776, they were encountered by the Indian Jones and William Graydon were killed, and two The remainder escaped into the station, where Clark and Kenton soon arrived with some men from Harrodsburg, who immediately On the morning of January 1st, 1777, returned on the news of this disaster. Pluggey and his warriors appeared before the fort. McClelland and his men McClelland himself and two of sallied out and were repulsed by the Indians. The Indians immediately withdrew, and his men being slain and four wounded. in a few days the ammunition was safely brought away from its concealment. McClelland's was immediately afterwards abandoned, and the settlers in great gloom, and amidst the lamentations of the women and children, departed for Harrod's station. Here Kenton also took up his abode. In the spring. Major Clark, who now had command of the settlements, sent Kenton, John Haggin, and four others to Hinkson's to break out some flax and hemp. Haggin was in front, and observed a party of Indians encamped around Hinkson's. He rode Kenton, who was as pruaent as he was back and informed the party of the fact. brave, counseled a retreat. Haggin swore that nobody but a coward would run without one fire. Kenton immediately dismounted from his horse, and all the party followed his example but a young Dutchman, who appeared to have more sense than any of his companions. In the meantime the Indians, always wide awake, had seen Haggin, and following him, now opened a fire on the whites, who quickly took to their heels, Haggin valiantly leading the van. and abandoned their horses to the Indians, all but the sensible Dutchman, who having kept his out,

chief Pluggey and defeated. of ths party taken prisoners.

seat, cantered

Harrodsburg,

off

much

at his

ease.

Kenton directed

his party to retreat into

while he put the garrison at Boone's station on their guard. fort, he determined not to attempt to enter it before dark,

Arriving before the

knowing the custom of the wily savage to amhush the stations, and thus shoot whoever might attempt to enter or depart. Accident befriends many a man, but the due exercise of one's five wits, is a much more safe reliance. When he did fort, he found the men carrying in the bodies of two of their friends, who had been killed two or three hours before, on the very same path by which he His caution had saved his life. The red man was now furious at the occupation of his beloved Kain-tuck-ee by the long knife. The incursions into the country by the exasperated foe were frequent and bloody, and every station was hotly besieged, Boonesborough sustaining three. To watch the Indians and give timely notice of their approach, six spies were appointed, for the payment of whom Major Clark pledged the faith of Virginia. Boone appointed Kenton, and Thos. Brooks Harrod, Samuel Moore and Bates Collier; and Logan, John Conrad and John Martin. These spies performed good service. It was the custom for two each week, by turns, to range up and down the Ohio, and about the deserted stations, looking for Indian signs, &c. By this means the settlers had timely notice during the year of the approach of the enemy, but once. On this occasion, Kenton and two others, early one morning, having loaded their guns for a hunt, were standing in the gate of Boonesborough, when two men in the fields were fired on by the Indians. They immediately fled, not being hurt. The Indians pursued them, and a warrior overtook and tomahawked one of the men within seventy yards of the fort, and proceeded leisurely to scalp him. Kenton shot the daring savage dead and immediately with his hunting companions gave chase tc> the others. Boone, hearing the noise, with ten men hastened out to the assistance of his spies. Kenton turned and observed an Indian taking aim at the party of Boone quick as thought he brought his rifle to his shoulder, pulled the trigger first, and the red man bit the dust. Boone, having advanced some distance,

enter the entered.

;



now

discovered that his small party, consisting of fourteen men,

was

cut ofT

KENTON COUNTY.

446

from the fort by a lar^e body of ihe foe, which had got between him and the ^te Boone gave the word " right-about fireThere was no time to be lost charge " and the intrepid hunters dashed in among their adversaries, in a despeAt the first fire from the Indians, seven of the rate endeavor to reach the fort. fourteen whites were wounded, among the number the gallant Boone, whose leg was broken, which stretched him on the ground. An Indian sprang on him with uplifted tomahawk, but before the blow descended, Kenton, every where present, rushed on the warrior, discharged his gun into his breast, and bore his leader into When the gate was closed and all things secure, Boone sent for Kenthe fort. " Well, Simon," said the old pioneer, "you have behaved yourself like a ton man to-day indeed you are a fine fellow." This was great praise from Boone, who was a silent man, little given to compliment. Kenton had deserved the eulogium: he had saved the life of his captain and killed three Indians, without having lime to scalp any one nf them. There was little time to spare, we may well ;





I

:





when Kenton could not stop to take a scalp. The enemy, after keeping up the siege for three days, retired. Boonesborough sustained two other sieges this year, (1777), in all of which the youthful Kenton bore a gallant and conspicuous part. Kenton continued to range the country as a spy until June, 1778, when Major Clark came down the Ohio from Virginia with a small force, and landed at the Falls. Clark was organizing an expedition against Okaw or Kaskaskia, and in vited as many of the settlers at Boonesborough and Harrodsburg as desired, to join him. The times were so dangerous that the women, especially, in the stations objected to the men going on such a distant expedition. Consequently, to the great mortification of Clark, only Kenton and Haggin left the stations to accompany him. This expedition, so honorable to the enterprise of Virginia and the great captain and soldiers composing it, and so successful and happy in its life of General Clark). results, is elsewhere fully described (see Clark county After the fall of Kaskaskia, Kenton returned to Harrodsburg, by way of Vincennes, an accurate description of which, obtained by three days' secret observation, he sent to Clark, who subsequently took that post. Kenton, finding Boone about to undertake an expedition against a small town on Paint creek, readily joined him. Inaction was irksome to the hardy youth in such stirring times; besides, he had some melancholy reflections that he could only escape from in the excitement of danger and adventure. The party, consisting of nineteen men, and commanded by Boone, arrived in the neighborhood of the Indian village. Kenton, who, as usual, was in advance, was startled by hearing loud peals of laughter from a cane brake just before him. He scarcely had lime to tree, before two Indians, mounted upon a small pony, one facing the animal's tail and the other his head, totally unsuspicious of danger and in excellent spirits, made their appearance. He pulled trigger, and both Indians fell, one killed and the other severely wounded. He hastened up to scalp his adversaries, and was immediately surrounded by about forty Indians. His situation, dodging from tree to tree, was uncomfortable enough, until Boone and his party coming up, furiously attacked and defeated the savages. Boone immediately returned to the succor of his fort, having ascertained that a Kenton and Montgomery, however, resollarge war party had gone against it. ved to proceed to the village to get 'a shot' and steal horses. They lay within good rifle distance of the village for two days and a night without seeing a single warrior; on the second night, they each mounted a fine horse and put off to Kentucky, and the day after the Indians raised the siege of Boonesborough, they canbelieve,



tered into the fort on their stolen property. This little speculation, unfortunately, appears to have whetted the appetite of Kenton and Montgomery for horse flesh. Accordingly, in September of the same year, (1778), in company with George Clark, they proceeded to Chillicothe on

a similar expedition. Arriving in the night, they found a pound of horses, and succeeded in haltering seven, not without much noise. They mounted in haste, hotly pursued by the enraged savages. Riding all night and next day, they struck the Ohio at the mouth of Eagle creek, a few miles below Maysville. The •wind was high and the river exceedingly rough, so that the frightened horses reHere they rashly fused to cross, after several ineffectual efforts to compel them. waited until the next day, hoping that the wind would abate but, although the ;

SIMON KENTON.

447

next day the wind did subside, the horses could by no means be forced into the Satisfied that longer river, owing to the fright they had received the day before. delay would be dangerous, they each mounted a horse, abandoning the remaining But after turning them loose, with an indecision unworthy of the leader at four. They now separated least, it was determined that they would have all or none. Kenton had not ridden far before to hunt up the horses they had just unhaltered. he heard a whoop behind him. Instead of putting spurs to his horse and galloping off like a sensible man, he deliberately dismounted from his horse, tied him, and crept bacli in the direction of the noise. At the top of the bank he saw two It was too late to retreat he raised his Indians and a white man, all mounted. Now, at last, he took to his heels, the Indians it flashed rifle, took aim, and dashing after him with a yell. He gained some fallen limber, and thus was in pursuers, when, upon emerging into the open a fair way to elude his mounted woods, he beheld an Indian galloping around the brush within a few rods of him. The game was up, and for the first time he was a prisoner in the hands of the savages, furious at the attempt to steal their property. While the Indians were yet beating and upbraiding him as a " boss steal," Montgomery very foolishly came to his assistance, fired without effect, and fled. Two of the Indians gave chase, and in a few moments returned with his bleeding scalp. Clark, the only one of the three having his five wits in a healthy condition, laid whip and escaped. It was a crime Bitterly now did Kenton expiate his horse stealing oflTences. not easily to be pardoned by the very virtuous tribe into whose hands he had fallen. After beating him until their arms were too tired to indulge that gratifying recreation any longer, they secured him for the night. This was done by first placing him upon his back on the ground. They next drew his legs apart, and lashed each foot firmly to two saplings or stakes driven in the earth. A pole was then laid across his breast, and his hands tied to each end, and his arme lashed with thongs around it, the thongs passing under his body so as to keep After all this, another thong was tied around his neck, and the pole stationary. the end of it secured to a stake in the ground, his head being stretched back so as not entirely to chokehim. In this original manner he passed the night, unable In the mornto sleep, and filled with the most gloomy forebodings of the future. ing he was driven forward to the village. The plan of this work forbids a particular account of Kenton's adventures during The cruhis long captivity, running through a period of more than eight months. elties he suffered at the hands of the Indians his narrow escapes from death in an hundred forms his alternate good and bad fortune, and his final successful flight, form one of the most romantic adventures anywhere furnished by the incidents of real life, seeming more like an invention of the novelist, than a veracious narrative. He was eight times compelled to run the gauntlet, three times tied to the stake, once brought to the brink of the grave by a blow from an axe and throughout the whole time, with brief intervals, subjected to great hardship and privations. Once his old friend, Simon Girty, the infamous hater of his race, interposed and saved him for a short space from the flames. Being again con-







!



;

demned to the stake (whose wrongs had

in spite of the influence of Girty, Logan the celebrated Mingo, not obliterated the nobility of his nature,) exerted his influence

and prevailed upon a Canadian trader, named Druyer to purchase him from his owners. Druyer succeeded in obtaining him as a prisoner of war, upon a promise of returning him, which he of course never intended to fulfil. Kenton was now taken by his new friend and delivered over to the British commander at Detroit.' Here he remained working for the garrison, on half pay, until the summer of 1779, when he effected his escape, by the assistance of Mrs. Harvey, the wife of an Indian trader. Kenton, at this time but twenty-four years of age, according to one who served with him, "was fine looking, with a dignified and manly deportment, and a soft, pleasing voice, and was wherever he went a favorite among the ladies." This lady had become interested in him, and upon his solicitation, promised to assist him and two other Kentuckians, prisoners with him, to procure rifles, ammunition, &c., without which a journey through the wilderness could not be performed. Engaging in their cause with all the enthusiasm of her sex, she only awaited an opportunity to perform her promise. She had not long to wait. On the 3d of June, 1779, a large concourse of Indians assembled in his behalf,

KENTON COUNTY.

448

"a spree." Preparatory to getting drunk, tliej stacked Ihei; guns near Mrs. Harvey's house, wlio as soon as it was dark stole silently out to the guns, selected three of the best looking, and quickly hid them in her garden in a patch of peas. Avoiding all observation, she hastened to Kenton's lodgings and informed him of her success. She told him, at midnight to come to the back of her garden, where he would find a ladder, by means of which he could climb over and get the guns. She had previously collected such articles of food, clothing, ammunition, &c., as would be necessary in their adventure. These she had hid in a hollow tree well known to Kenton, some distance out of town. No time was now to be lost, and the prisoners at once set about gelling things in order for the appointed hour Kenton with his companions appeared at the detheir flight. At signaled spot, discovered the ladder and climbed into the garden, where he found Mrs. Harvey sitting by the guns awaiting his arrival. 'I"o the eyes of the grateful young hunter, no woman ever looked so beautiful. There was little time however for compliments, for all around could be heard the yells of llie drunken savages, the night was far advanced, and in the morning both guns and prisoners would be mi.ssed. Taking an affectionate leave of him, with many tender wishes for his safety, she now urged him to be gone. Heaping thanks and blessings on her, he left her and re-joined his companions. Kenton never saw her afterwards, but he never forgot her; for, more than half a century afterwards, when the wilderness and the savages who peopled it, were alike exterminated before the civilizing march of the Anglo Saxon, the old pioneer, in words that glowed with gratitude and admiration, delighted to dwell on the kindness, and expatiate on the courage and virtue of his benefactress, the fair trader's wife. In his reveries, ho said he had seen her "a thousand times silting by the guns in the garden." at Detroit to take

After leaving Detroit the fugitives, departing from the usual line of travel, struck out in a western direction towards the prairies of the Wabash. At the end of thirty-three days, having suffered incredible hardships, the three adventurers, Kenton, Bullitt and Cofer, safely arrived at Louisville some time in July '79. Here he stayed but a short time to recruit his strength. He had been long a prisoner and thirsted for action and adventure. Shouldering his rifle he set out through the unbroken wilderness to visit his old companion in arms, Major Clark, then at Vincennes. This post he found entirely quiet, too much so for him. He had been treading the wilderness and fighting the savages since his sixteenth year, and was yet too young and strong to be contented with a life of inaction. no or connection spot in the west, He had family to bind him to a particular here and by a deed utterly repugnant to his generous nature, he was exiled as he yet believed, from his home and friends in the east it was therefore his destiny, as Striking again inlo the pathless wilderness then lying it was his wish, to rove. between Vincennes and the falls of the Ohio, he soon reached the latter place, whence he immediately proceeded to Harrod's station, where he was joyfully wel;

comed by

his old

companions.

The winter of 1779-80 was a peaceful one to the Kentuckians, but in the spring the Indians and British invaded the country, having with them two pieces of cannon, by means of which two stations, Martin's and Ruddle's, fell into their hands; whereupon the allied savages immediately retreated. When General Clark heard of the disaster, he hastened from A'^incennes to concert measures for present retaliation and the future safety of the settlements. Clark was no doubt one of the greatest men ever furnished by the west, of no ordinary military capacity. He believed the best way to prevent the depredations of the Indians, was to carry the war into their own country, burning down their villages and destroying their corn, and thus give them sufficient employment to prevent their incursions among the settlements on the south side of the river. Accordingly an expedition consisting of 1100 of the hardiest and most courageous men that the most adventurous age of our history could furnish, inured to hardships and accustomed to the Indian mode of fighting, assembled at the mouth of the Licking. Kenton commanded a company of volunteers from Harrod's station, and shared in all the dangers and success of this little ariny. Commanded by Clark, and piloted by one of the most expert woodsmen and the greatest spy of the west, Simon Kenton, the Kentuckians assailed the savages in dens with complete success. Chillicothe, Pickaway and many other towns were burnt, and the crops around them destroyed. At Pickaway, the Indians

their

;

SIMON KENTON.

449

stand. Here where he had run the gauntlet and afforded the Indian squaws and warriors so much /«n, two years before, Kenton now at the head of his gallant company, had the satisfaction of dashing into the thickest of Afthe fight and repaying with usury the blows he had received at their hands. ter an obstinate resistance the savages were defeated and fled in all directions,

were brought

to a

(See life of Clark.) leaving tlieir killed and wounded on the field. This was the first invasion of Ohio by the Kentuckians in any force, and the For two years the stations enjoyed comparative red man long remembered it. peace, and Kenton passed away his time as a hunter, or spy, or with surveying parThen for the first time he heard that ties, heavily enough until the fall of 1783. his old father yet lived, and learned the joyful intelligence that he had not killed It is impossible to describe his his old playmate and friend William Veach. For eleven years he wandered in the wilderfeelings upon hearing this news. ness filled with remorse for his rash, though unpremeditated crime, the brand of murder upon his heart if not upon his brow, isolated from his home and friends, about whom he dare not even inquire, and his very name forbidden to him. At length after expiating his crime by these long sufferings, unexpectedly the weight of murder is removed from his mind his banishment from home and family Kenton was Sirnon Butler now revoked, and his long abandoned name restored.



no longer, and he felt like a new man. In the fall of 1782 General Clark, to revenge the disaster of the Blue Licks, led another army 1500 strong against the Indian towns, which spread destruction Kenton again comfar and wide through their country. (See life of Clark.) manded a company on this occasion, and was again the pilot for the army, as his

knowledge of the country was unsurpassed, and his skill in woodcraft unequalled. It was upon the return of this expedition opposite the mouth of the Licking, Nov. 4th, 1782, that the pioneers composing it, entered into the romantic engagement, that fifty years thereafter, the survivors "should meet and talk over the affairs of It was first suggested the campaign," and the dangers and hardships of the past. by Capt. V.M'Cracken of the Kentucky light horse, who was then dying* from the mortification of a slight wound received in the arm while fighting, immediately by the side of Kenton in the attack on Piqua town. To carry out the request of the dying soldier, Colonel Floyd, from the Falls of the Ohio, brought forward a All around resolution, and the semi-centennial meeting was determined upon. was the unbroken wilderness; but as they bore the dying M'Cracken down the hill above Cincinnati, the future stood revealed to his fast closing eyes, the cities and villas peopled with tens of thousands, crowning the valley and the hill tops, building rising the noise of abounding commerce in the streets and on the rivers upon building palace and temple and all the magnificent panorama of fifty years,





passed in review before him. The desire to link one's name with all this greatness was pardonable in him who had shed his blood in the struggle to achieve it. The interesting day that was to witness the re-union of the surviving heroes of '82, fell upon the 4th of November, 1833. At that time many were still surviAs the day drew near, the old hero ving, among the rest General Simon Kenton. was deeply affected at the prospect of meeting his old brothers in arms, as well To encourage a large attendance as solicitous to keep the solemn appointment. he published an interesting and feeling "address to the citizens of the western country." It is a fair type of his kind heart, dictated to a friend who wrote it for him, and signed with his own hand. The following is the only extract the limits of this work will permit us to make. " Fellow citizens !— Being one of the first, after Colonel Daniel Boone, who aided in the conquest of Kentucky, and the west, I am called upon to address you. My heart melts on such an occasion ; I look forward to the contemplated meeting with melancholy pleasure ; it has caused tears to flow in copious showers. I wish to see once more before I die, my few surviving friends. My solemn promise, made fifty years ago, binds me to meet them. I ask not for myself; but you may find in our assemlily some who have never received any pay or pension, who have sustained the cause of their country, equal to any other service who in the decline of life are poor. Then, you prosperous sons of the west, forget not those old and gray-headed veterans on this occasion ; let them return to their families wiih some

• tie died as the troops descended the hill where Cincinnati now stands, and block-house at the month of the Licking, on the Kentucky side.

II. ..29

i

KENTON COUNTY.

450

I adJ my prayer jiay kind manifestation of your kindness to cheer their hearts. heaven grant us a clear sky, fair and pleasant vpeather a safe journey and a happy meeting, and smile upon us and our families, and bless us and our nation on the approaching little



.

i

f.-Yt^'^ Ukbana,

Ohio, 1832.

The day at last came so lon^ looked for by our "old fathers of the west," and the terrible cholera, more barbarous than the savages, who fifty years before battled the pioneers, spread death far and wide over the west, sparing neither age Cincinnati was wrapt in gloom, yet many of the veteran patriots assemnor sex. bled, and the corporation voted them a dinner. General Kenton, in spite of his ardent desire, was unable from sickness and old age, to attend. He met his beloved companions no more until he met them in the spirit land. After the volunteers disbanded at the mouth of Licking, Kenton returned to Harrod's station. He had acquired many valuable tracts of land, now becoming of importance, as population began to flow into the country with a rapid increase, as the sounds of savage warfare grew fainter in the distance. He settled on his lands on vSalt river, and being joined by a few families in 1782-3, he built some rude block-houses, cleared land, and planted corn. His settlement thrived wonderfully. In the fall, having gathered his corn, he determined to visit his father, ascertain his circumstances, and bring him to Kentucky. He had not seen his family for thirteen years, a period to him full of dangers, sufferings and triumphs. can paint the joy of the returning adventurer, young in years, but old in deeds and reputation, on reaching home, to find that his aged father "yet lived." The reunion was joyful to all, especially so to his friends, who had long considered him dead. He visited with delight the friends and the scenes of his early childhood, so different from his boisterous manhood, and the gauntlet, the stake, and the fierce foray, and the wild war-whoop were to him as the confused image of some uneasy dream. V'each and the ungracious fair one, his first love, were still living; he saw them, and each forgot the old feud. He gathered up his father and family and proceeded as far as Redstone Fort, journeying to Kain-tuck-ee, where his old father died, and was buried on the winding banks of the Monongahela, without marble or inscription to mark the last resting place of the father of the great pioneer. Kenton, with the remainder of his father's family, reached his settlement in safety in the winter of 1784. Kentucky was now a flourishing territory, and emigrants came flocking in to Kenton determined to occupy his lands, around his appropriate her fertile lands. This part old camp, near Maysville, remarkable for their beauty and fertility. In July, 1784, of Kentucky was still uninhabited, and infested by the Indians. collecting a small party of adventurers, he went to his old camp, one mile from Washington, in Mason county. The Indians being too troublesome, the party returned to Salt river. In the fall of the same year Kenton returned, built some block-houses, and was speedily joined by a few families. In the spring of '85, many new settlements were made around Kenton's station, and that part of the country soon assumed a thriving appearance, in spite of the incursions of the

Who

savages.

In 1786, Kenton sold (or according to M'Donald), gave Arthur Fox Wood one thousand acres of land, on which they laid out the town settled at Limestone (Maysville) the

and William of

Washington; "Old Ned Waller" had

year before. The Indians were too badly crippled, by Clark's last expedition, to offer any considerable opposition to the settlers nevertheless, they were exceedingly troublesome, during their many small predatory incursions, and plied the fashionable To put a stop to such protrade of horse-stealing with praiseworthy activity. ceedings, on the part of their red neighbors, an expedition, seven hundred strong, composed of volunteers from all the surrounding stations, assembled at WashingFighting, in those days, cost our ton under the command of Colonel Logan. affectionate "Uncle Sam" very little, as every man paid his own war expenses. ;

SIMON KENToN.

451

Kenton commanded a company from his settlement, and, as usual, piloted the way into the enemy's country. The expedition fell upon Mackacheek and Pickaway very suddenly, defeated the Indians with considerable loss, burnt four other towns, without resistance, and returned to Washington with only ten men killed and wounded. Notwithstanding this successful blow, the Indians, all next year, kept the Kenton (1787) called on inhabitants around Kenton's station in perpetual alarm. the stations to rendezvous at Washington, for the puipose of punishing the Indians, by "carrying the war into Africa;" a trick he had learned from his old commander, General Clark. It was essentially to the interest of the interior stations to see Kenton's well sustained, as thereby the savages were kept at a distance from them. They were, consequently, always ready to render their more exposed brethren any assistance required. Several hundred hardy hunters, under Colonel Todd, assembled again at Washington. Kenton again commanded his company, a gallant set of young men, trained by himself, and piloted the expedition. Near Chillicothe a detachment, led by majors Hinkson and Kenton, fell upon a large body of Indians, about day-break, and defeated them before Todd came up. Chillicolhe was burned down, and the expedition returned without losing a man. The pioneers had now become formidable to the Indians, and kept them at bay. Kenton's station was a frontier for the interior settlements, and manfully beat back the foe, in his incursions into the State. The country around Washington was fast filling up, and bid fair soon to be in a condition to set the Indian at defiance. Kenton, universally esteemed and beloved, was acknowledged to be the chief man in the community. His great experience and reputation as a frontier man ; his superior courage and skill in the fight, as well as the extent of his possessions, rendered him conspicuous. In all the incursions made into the country of the enemy, and the many local contests that took place with the Indi ans. Captain Kenton was invariably the leader selected by the settlers. From 1788 to 1793, many small but bloody conflicts came oflf around the settlements in Mason county, in which the Indians were severely punished by Captain Kenton and his volunteers. In 1793 the Indians made the last incursion into this, or perhaps any other part of Kentucky. On that occasion (see Mason county) Kenton ambushed them at the place where they crossed the Ohio, killed six of the party, and dispersed the remainder. They never afterwards invaded the long contested shore of iheir beloved hunting ground. After a desperate and sanguinary struggle of more than twenty years, Kain-tuck-ee, " the dark and

bloody ground," was lost to the red man forever. The Saxon, in his insatiable thirst for land, had felled her forests, driven out her elU and buffalo, ploughed up her virgin sod, polluted her soil with the unfimiliar city and village, and in the blood of the red man written his title to the country, which he held with a grasp of iron. Cornstalk, Blackfish, Logan, Little Turtle, Elinipsico, Meshawah, the young Tecumseh, and the thousand north-western braves, bled in vain. Equal courage, superior intellect, and the destiny of the Saxon, overthrew the heroism, the perseverance, and the despair of the sons' of the forest. In 1793, General Wayne came down the Ohio to prepare for his successful exKenton, at that time a major, joined Wayne with his battalion, and proceeded to Greenville, where he was conspicuous among the hardy hunters composing the army, on account of his superior reputation, courage, skill, and activity. He was not in the battle of the Fallen Timber, having been discharged

pedition.

with his battalion the winter previous. The Indians, being defeated by Wayne, and their power completely broken, sued for peace, which was granted, and the

war was over. Kentucky and the west,

after the peace of Greenville, rushed forward with rapid strides in the career of population and wealth. Emigrants came pouring over the Alleghanies into the fertile valley of the Ohio, to occupy the beautiful " land of the cane." These lands rose rapidly in price and importance, and Kenton was now thought to be one of the wealthiest men in his State, and deserved to

he had purchased his wealth by many a bloody conflict, and by many But behold the gratitude of his countrymen! who slept in the lap of eastern ease and secuwhile this noble pioneer was enduring the hardships of the wilderness, and

be so,

for

incredible hardships.

The rity,

crafty offsprings of peace,

KENTON COUNTY.

452

gauntlet, and stake, and tomahawk of the Indian to redeem the soil of the west, creep in when the fight, and toil, and danger are past, and by dishonorable triclc, miserable technicality, and cunning procedure, wrest the possessions bought at such a terrible price from the gallant, unlettered, simple hearted man, unversed in the rascality of civilization. He lost his lands acre after acre, the superior skill of the speculator prevailing over ihe simplicity and ignorance of the hunter. What a burning, deep disgrace to the west, that the hero who had suffered so much and fought so well to win the soil of his glorious "cane land" from the savage, should, when the contest was ended, be compelled to leave it to those who never struck a blow in its defence Together with Boone and numerous other brave old frontier men, who bore " the heat and burden of tlie day," Kenton, like an old shoe, was kicked aside when he was no longer of any use, or had become too antiquated for the fashion of the times. Kentucky treated her earliest and staunchest defenders scarcely so well as they treated their dogs after running down the game, she denied them the very offal. The fate of General Simon Kenton was still more hard than that of the other simple hearted fathers of the west. His body was taken for debt upon the covenants in deeds to lands, which he had, in effect, given away, and for twelve months he was imprisoned, upon the very spot where he first built his cabin in '75 where he planted the first corn ever planted on the north of the Kentucky river by the hand of any white man where he ranged the pathless forest in freedom and safety where he subsequently erected his foremost station house, and battled the Indians in an hundred encounters, and, nearly alone, endured the hardships of the wilderness, while those who then reaped the fruits of his former sufferings were yet unborn, or dwelt afar in the lap of peace and plenty. In ]7y9, heggared by law-suits and losses, he moved into Ohio, and settled in Urbana. He was no longer young, and the prospect of spending his old age in independence, surrounded by plenty and comfort, which lightened the toils and sufferings of his youth, was now succeeded by cheerless anticipations of poverty and neglect. Thus, after thirty years of the prime of his life, spent faithfully in the cause of Kentucky and the west, all that remained to him was the recollection of his services, and a cabin in the wilderness of Ohio. He himself never repined, and such was his exalted patriotism, that he would not suffer others to upbraid his country in his presence, without expressing a degree of anger altogether foreign from his usual mild and amiable manner. It never occurred to his ingenuous mind that his country could treat any body, much less him, with neglect, and his devotion and patriotism continued to the last unimpaired. In 1805, he was elected a brigadier general in the Ohio militia, and in 1810 he joined the Methodist Flpiscopal church. It is a consoling fact, that nearly all the "old fathers of the west" devoted the evening of their stormy lives to the service of their Maker, and died in the triumphs of the Christian faith. In 1813, the gallant old man joined the Kentucky troops under Governor Shelby, into whose family he was admitted as a privileged member, and was in the battle of the Thames. This was his last battle, and from it the old hero returned to obscurity and poverty in his humble cabin in the woods. He remained in Urbana till 1820, when he moved to the head of Mad river, Logan county, Ohio, in sight of Wapatomika, where he had been tied to the stake by the Indians when a prisoner

braving

tlie

!









Here he was harassed by judgments and executions from Kentucky, and to prevent being driven from his cabin by his white brethren, (as fo;merly by the savages) to the forest for a shelter, he was compelled to have some land entered in the name of his wife and children. He still had many tracts of mountain land in Kentucky of little value, which, however, were forfeited to the State for taxes. In 1824, then seventy years of age, he undertook a journey to Frankfort, in tattered garments and on a sorry horse, to endeavor to get the legislature, then in session, to release the claim of the State on his mountain lands. Here, where he had roved in an unbroken wilderness in the early day, now stood a flourishing city, but he walked up and down its streets, an object of curiosity to the boys, a stranger, recognized by no one. A new generation had arisen to people and possess the land which he had defended, and his old friends and companions were gone. At length General Thomas Fletcher, from Bath county, saw and knew him, and by his means the old pioneer was clothed in a decent suit, »nd entertained in a kind and becoming manner. When it became known thaf in their hands.

SIMON KENTON. Simon Kenton was

453

town, numbers speedily assembled to see the celebraHe was taken to the ted warrior and hunter, and testify their regard for him. capitoi and placed in the speaker's chair, "and then was introduced the second great adventurer of the west, to a crowded assembly of legislators, judges, offiThis the simple hearted old cers of the government, and citizens generally." man was wont to call " the proudest day" of his life. His lands were at once released, and shortly afterwards, by the exertions of Judge Burnet and General Vance of Congress, a pension of two hundred and forty dollars a year was obtained for him, securing his old age from absolute want. Without any further reward from his government, or particular notice from his fellow-citizens and contemporaries. General Kenton lived in his quiet and obscure home to the age of eighty-one, beloved and respected by all who knew hiru; 29fh April, 1836, in sight of the place where the Indians, fifty-eight years before, proposed to torture him to death, he breathed his last, surrounded by his family and neighbors, and supported by the con.solations of the gospel. The following is a description of the appearance and character of this remarkable man, by one who often shared with him in the dangers of the forest and the in the

fight: " General Kenton was of fair complexion, six feet one inch in height. He stood and walked very erect ; and, in the prime of life, weighed about one hundred and ninety pounds. He never was inclined to be corpulent, although of sufficient fullness to form a graceful person. He had a soft, tremulous voice, very pleasing to the hearer. He had laughing, gray eyes, which appeared to fascinate the beholder, and dark auburn hair. He was a pleasant, good-humored, and obliging companion. When excited, or provoked to anger, (wliich was seldom the case), the fiery glance of his eye would almost curdle the blood of those with whom he came in contact. His rage, when roused, was a tornado. In his dealing, he was perfectly honest; his confidence in man, and his credulity, were such, that the same man might cheat him twenty times and if he professed friendship, he might cheat him still." ;

The thing which strikes us most forcibly, in contemplating the lives of the great leading men, who pioneered the march of civilization to the west, is their complete simplicity of character. Some have not hesitated to pronounce this stupidity, hut we can not agree with them. The pioneers of the west, in addition to a plentiful lack of education and mental discipline, were certainly children in their knowledge of the great book of human nature. Still the courage, skill, sagacity, perseverance and endurance exhibited in their life of privation and danger, prove them to have been men of no ordinary mould, and the same intellectual and physical- forces called into action in any other sphere of life, expressed with the same energy, would have rendered their possessors distinguished. can easily see how unfit for civilized life, were Boone and Kenton, suddenly transposed from an almost primitive and savage state of society, unsophisticated and simple-minded as they were. The great questions of property, regulated by law, and liberty, regulated by policy, in their profound mysteries, were to them as sealed books they had not studied them but for irjore than twenty years, battling with the savages, and enduring bitter privations with constant and necessary activity, they lived in the free wilderness, where action was unfettered by law, and where property was not controlled by form and technicality, but rested on the natural and broader foundation of justice and convenience. They knew how to beat back the invader of their soil, or repel the aggression of the private wrong-doer they knew how to bear down a foe in the open field, or circumvent him by stratagem, or destroy him by ambush. But they knew not how to swindle a neighbor out of his acres, by declaration, demurrer, plea and replication, and all they knew not how damages could salve a prithe scientific pomp of chicanery vate injury or personal wrong, or how the verdict of a jury could remove the poison from the tongue of the slanderer, or medicine the incurable wounds inflicted by the seducer. Hence, in the broad and glorious light of civilization, they were stupid. Their confidence in men, their simplicity, their stupidity, by whatever name proper to call it, rendered them an easy prey to selfish and unprincipled speculators. Certain it is, that hundreds arose to prey upon the simple Fathers of the West; and they were driven out in their old age yet farther into the wilderness. Instead of seeing their children possess and people the beautiful land won by their fathers, after so long and terrible a conflict, we see them.

We

:

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KENTON COUNTY.

454

like their sires, on the borders of civilization, beating back the savage, themselves ever driven back by that wave of population which follows on their steps, by a strange decree, the exterminators of the red man, soon thereafter, themselves to be exterminated. It is now perhaps too late, to repair the injustice done to these old heroes by the west; yet one act remains to Kentucky, demanded alike by gratitude and a just sense of honor. It is to gather up the sacred remains of Simon Kenton, from their last, obscure resting place, and placing them in the cemetery of her capital, in the bosom of that beloved soil which he was among the first and stoutest to defend ; to erect a monument over his grave, commemorating throughout all succeeding years the services and virtues of her Great Pioneer. Will it ever

be donel

Bank Lick

is a beautiful stream, emptying into the Licking river, five miles confluence with the Ohio, in Kenton county. This stream received its the early settlers, and its banks have, doubtless, been trodden by Boone and Kenton. The engraving represents a scene on this stream, about 2 mile above its junction with the Licking. The picture is by Frankenstein, i young artist of Cincinnati.

from

its

name from

W OF BANK LICK, KENTON

CO., KY.

;

KNOX COUNTY.

KNOX COUNTY. Knox county, the 41st

erected in the state, was formed in 1799, out of Lincohi county." It is situated in the extreme southeastern part of the state (separated only by Josh Bell county from Cumberhind Gap), and lies on both sides of the Cnmberland river is

bounded

N.

by Laurel and Clay

and

counties, E.

s.

by Josh

The face of the country, Bell, and w. by Whitley and Laurel. except on the river bottoms, is hilly and mountainous; the staple product is corn, while hogs and cattle are raised in large numbers.

Barboursville, the county seat, is situated on the right bank of Cumberland river, about 150 miles from Frankfort, 28 miles of London, Laurel co., and 32 N. e. of Cumberland Gap; established in 1812; population in 1870, 438, nearly doubled in

the

s. E.

ten years. Statistics of

When

See page 26 formed Population, from 1800 to 1870 p. 258 " whites and colored p. 260

children bet. 6 and 20

p. 266

Knox County. Corn, wheat, hay, tobacco..page3 266, 26S Horses, mules, cattle, hogs p. 268 Taxable property, 1846 and 1870.. ..p. 270 of acres, and value p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 Distinguished citizens....* see Index.

Land — No.

Mkmbees of the Legislature feom Knox County, since

1815.

Senate.— Jos. Eve, 1817-21 Richard Ballinger, 1821-26; John P. Bruce, 1848, '50 Eadford M. Cobb, 1851-55. From Knox, Laurel, Rockcastle, and Whitley counties[See Harlan co.] Jos. Gilless, 1842^5. Jos. Parsons, 1817, House of Representatives.— 3 OS. Eve, 1815 Hiram Jones, 1816 '18; Jas. F. Ballinger, 1819; Westley M. Garnett, 1822; Henry Tuggle, 1831, '32; John P. Bruce, 1837; Green Adams, 1839, '40 Jas. Hayes, 1841; Silas Woodson, Wm. D. Miller, 1849 Jas. W. Davis, 1857-59, 1842, '5.'5-55 Radford M. Cobb, 1846 '63-65; John Word, 1859-61; Jas. W. Anderson, 1861-63; Wm. B. Anderson, WilDempsey King, 1867-69. From Knox and Whitley counties— Dr. 1865-67 From Knox nnd Harlan counties— Andrew Craig, [See Harlan co.] son, 1834. From Knox— W. W. Sawyers, 1873-75. 1820, '21. ;

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FortX'a(!on.— Three miles from Barboui-sville, on the N. bank of the Cumberland river, there are the remains of an ancient fortress around which a circular ditch, enclosing about four .acres of ground, was discernible as late as 1840. Prcmineni Men. Barboursville has been the home of a number of distinguished men .Toskph Eve represented Knox county for some ten years in the house of representatives and senate of Kentucky, was circuit .judge for





:

years, and in 1841 appointed by President Harrison Charge d 'Affaires Franklin Ballinger to the republic of Texas, and died in that service. Samuel P. served in the state senate, and was circuit judge for many years. Miller, who married, and for some years practiced law, in Barboursville before

many

his removal to Iowa, is now one of the ablest of the justices of the U. S. supreme court. Green Adams was a representative in consress for four years, 1847-49, 1859-61, and appointed by President Lincoln 6tli auditor of the U.

His nephew, George Madison Aoams enjoys the remarkable popularity and distinction of being one of only 19 members of the lower house of congress (out of the entire number of 183 from Kentucky in 83 years) who were chosen for 8 years James B. Beck, also being chosen, and Garret Davis, Matthew Lyon, Samuel McKee (1809-17), Thos. P. Moore, and Jos. R. Underwood having served for 8 years, Jas. Cl.ark and Henry Grider for 9, John Fowler, Ben. Hardin, Robert P. Letcher, Thos. Metcalfe, David Trimble, and John White for 10, Henry Clay for 11, Chas. A. Wickliffe for 12, Linn Boyd S. treasury.



KNOX COUNTT.

456 for 18,

and Richard M. Johnson

Knox oounly

for 20 years. in the legishiture for some years,

Silas Woodson represented was a delegate to tlie conven-

1849-50 which formed the present Constitution of Kentucky and the only member of that body who was in favor of the gradual emancipation of the slaves; he emigrated to northwest Missouri, was a Southern man in the times of " border ruffianism " in Kansas, circuit judge of an important district, and is now (March, 1873) governor of that great state. tion in

General Henry Knox, in honor of whom this county received its name, was a native of Massachusetts, having been born at Boston, on the 25tli July, 1750. He received a good education, and at an early period of his life was a bookseller. At the age of eighteen, he was chosen one of the officers of a company of grenadiers, and evinced a fondness and ability for the military profession. At the battle of Bunker Hill he served as a volunteer; and soon after undertook the perilous task of procuring from the Canada frontier some pieces of ordnance, greatly needed by the American army, which he successfully accomplished. For this daring feat, he received the most flattering testimonials from the commanderin-chief and congress, and was soon after entrusted with the command of the artillery department, with the rank of a brigadier general. In the battles of Trenton and Princeton, Germantown and Monmouth, he displayed peculiar skill and bravery ; and subsequently contributed greatly to the capture of Cornwallis at Yorktown. Immediately after this event, he was created a major-general. He was subsequently one of the commissioners to adjust the terms of peace was deputed to receive the surrender of New York from the English forces and afterwards appointed commander at West Point, where he executed the delicate and difficult task of disbanding the army, which he executed with extraordinary address. In 1785, he was appointed secretary at war, the duties of which office he discharged with general approbation until the year 1794, when he retired to hisestale, in the then district, but now State of Maine. In 1798, when the state of our affairs with France indicated a rupture, be was again appointed to a command in the army ; but the re-establishment of amicable relations with that power,





enabled him soon to return to his retirement. He died October 25, 1806, at his seat in Thomaston, Maine, at the age of 56. General Knox was as amiable in private, as he was eminent in public life. But few men in the stirring times in which he lived, possessed in a higher degree those traits of character which dignify and ennoble human nature.

LARUE COUNTY. Laeue

county, the 98tli in order of formation, was formed in 1843, out of the .southeastern part of Hardin county, and named It is bounded N. by Hardin and Nelson in honor of John Larue. countie.s, the Rolling fork of Salt river being the dividing line, E. by Marion and Taylor, s. by Hart and Green, and w. by Hardin county, Middle creek forming the dividing line on the N. w. Along the Rolling fork the surface is hilly, being the celebrated Muldrow's Hill; the eastern portion of the county is undulating, and the western is more level the soil of the latter is red clay, with limestone beneath, while the rolling laud is a mulatto clay. The principal products are corn, tobacco, and hogs. Besides the ;

Rolling fork, Nolin (which empties into Green river), its North and South forks, and Otter creek, are the principal .streams. Towns. Hodgenville, the county seat, is on Nolin creek, 90 miles s. w. of Frankfort, 50 miles S. of Louisville, 9 miles from Sonora on the L. & N. railroad, and 9 miles from New Haven on the Lebanon branch railroad ; has 4 churches (Metliodi.st,





— LARUE COUNTY.

457

Baptist, Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic), 8 stores, 2 hotels, 4 doctors, 7 lawyers, 3 blacksmith shops, mill, wagon and carriage

shop, and tanyard ; po[)iilation in 1870, 40-1; named after Robert Hodgen, whose house is still standing. Buffalo, on a branch of Nolin, 6 miles from Hodgeuville and 13 from Sonora; population Magnolia, 10 miles from Hodgenville ; population 30. 50. Statistics of

When

Seepage

formed

ildren bet. 6

and

26

p. »68 p. 260

Population, from ISoO to 1870 " whites and colored

20.,

Mb

Larue County. Tobacco, corn, wheat, hay. ..pages 266, 268 Horses, mules, cattle, hogs p. 268 Taxable property, 1846 and 1870. ..p. 27U Land— No. of acres, and value p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 Distinguished citizens see Index.

Lkgislature from Larue County.

IE

Senate.— \\m. Howell, 1853-57 Wm. B. Read, 1857-65. Houte of Reprenentalhes.—Wm. Cessna, 1844, '45 Wm. Beeler, 1846, '47, '50 Jesse H. Rodman, 1848, '65-67; Wm. Howell, 1849 Jos. A. Nevitt, 1851-53; Henry E. Read, 1863-55 David L. Thurman, 1855-57 Wm. H. Hamilton, 1857-59 Nicholas A. Rapier, 1859-65; Wm. B. Read, 1867-69; John M. Atherton, 1869-71; Samuel W. Sanders, 1871-75. ;

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On the farm of Mr. John Duncan, about five miles from Hodgenville, on the Big South fork of Nolin, there are several mounds. Two of these have been opened, and found to contain human bones, beads of ivory or bone, and a quantity of sea shells. Near the mounds, there appear to be the remains of a town or fortification, and within the area covered by this relic of antiquity, several curious articles nave been fonna, among them the image of a bird, cut out of a rock, with several holes drilled through it. On one of the bluffs of the Rolling Fork, where the creek makes a short elbow, is to be seen a stone wall, now three or four feet high. The wall at the elbow extends across the level land, from cliff to cliff, somewhat in the shape of the annexed drawing, and must have constituted, at the time of its construction, an impregnable fortress. The cliff is about tvvo hundred feet high, and so precipitous that an- invading army could not possibly scale it, where there was any show of resistance.

About one mile above Hodgenville on the south side of Nolin creek, there is a which may be appropriately termed a natural curiosity. It is about thirty feet above the level of the creek, and contains about two acres of ground, the top Benjamin of which is level, and a comfortable house has been erected upon it. Lynn and others, early pioneers of the county, encamped on this knoll. In a hunting excursion, shortly after they made their encampment, Lynn got lost. their companion, The remainder of the company returned to camp, and not finding some one remarked, " Here is the No/e (knoll) but No Lynn, from which circumstance the creek which runs near the knoll took its name Jfolin. They immediately started in search of Lynn, and traveled a south course about fifteen miles, and found where he had encamped on a creek, from which circumstance they [The creek lies within the present county of called the creek Lynn-camp creek. Icnoll

Hart.] Philip Phillips erected a fort about one fourth of a mile from the knoll, on the north side of Nolin, about the year 1780 or '81, where the first settlement Phillips was from Pennsylvania, and a surveyor. of the county was made.

John Lakue, for whom the county was named, emigrated with a considerable company, from Virginia, and settled in Phillips' fort. When they left the fort, Larue bought and settled the land which includes the knoll. Robert Hodgen, his brother-in-law, bought and settled the land on which Hodgenville has been erected. They were both noted for their uprightness and sterling moral worth both of them members of the Baptist church, and beloved for their unobtrusive and devoted piety. Benjamin Lynn was a minister of the same church.

— 458

LAUREL COUNTY.

The

Abi-aham Lincoln was born in what is now Larue county, two miles s. of Hoiifjenville, when Larue was a part of Hardin. The late governor John L. Helm was also born in this part of Hardin county. (For biographical sketches of both, see under Hardin county and for sketch of Gea Henry E. Kead, see Vol. L late president

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LAUREL COUNTY. Laurel

county, established in 1^25 out of

))arts

of Eockcastle,

Clay, Knox, and Whitley counties, was the 80th formed in the It derived its name ffom the river Laurel, -which runs state. partly through the county, and is supposed to have been so named

from the quantity of laurel growing upon its banks. It is bounded K. by Rockcastle and Jackson counties, E. by Clay and Knox, s. by Whitley, and w. by Pulaski and Eockcastle counties. The face of the country is elevated, and generally rolling the staple products are corn and oats cattle and hogs are extensively raised. Towns. London, the county seat, is on the line of the Knoxville branch of the Louisville and Ka.shville railroad, 148 miles from Louisville [the road (March, 1873) is only finished to Livingston, 19 miles N. w.], 102 miles from Frankfort, 24 miles w. of Manchester, and 30 miles n. of Williamsburg or W^hitley C. H. ])opulation in 1870, 165 a falling oif since 1860, according Hazelpatch is a small village, 8 miles to the U. S. cen.sus, of 70. Besides these, there are 7 post-offices in the county, N. of London. some of which have a few houses around. ;



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Stjtistics of Laoekl Cousty.

When

Seepage

formed

Population, from 1830 to 1870 " whites and colored

p.

26 258

p.

2fi0

ildr

Hay,

corn,

wheat

pages 266, 268 p. 268

Horses, mules, cattle, and hogs Taxable property, 1870 Land— No. of acres, and value Latitude and longitude Distinguished citizens see

p. 270 p. 270 p. 257 Index.

Membees op the Legislatcee from Laueel County.



Jarvis Jackson, 1849; Robert Boyd, 1867-75. From Laurel, Lincoln, and Senate. Rockcastle counties— Henry Owsley, 1829-34. [See Knox and Harlan counties.] House of Representatives. Jarvis Jackson, 1830, '31, '35 Thos. J. Buford, 1838, '41, '42, '43 Mark A. Watkins, 1840 Evan Chestnut, 1844 Granville Pearl, 1846 Wm. Jackson, 1848 George P. Brown, 1850 George W. Miller, 1853-55 E. B. Bacheller, From Laurel and 1861-63; Chas. B. Faris, 1865-67; J. Francis Baugh, 1869-71. Whitley counties— John S. Laughlin, 1829. From Laurel and Rockcastle countiesJohn J. Haley, 1851-53.



;

Minerals.

;

;

;

— Coal

is

found

;

;

;

;

in great

abundance, iron ore has been discovered,

and some appearances of lead. Swifts Silver Mine was supposed, in 1846, full description under Josh Bell county.)

to

be in Laurel county.

(See

The water power on the Several Chalybeate Springs are in this county. is unsurpassed. The Remains of Old Indian Towns or towns inhabited by some ante-Indian among them vessels apparently used for cooking, and other race, were found implements. Boone's Old Trace ran through this county, immediately over the spot where the court house is built it was still perceivable a few years ago. streams



;

;

LAWRENCE COUNTY.

LAWRENCE COUNTY. Lawrence

county, establislied in 1821 outof ])arts of Greenup after Capt. James Lawrence of

and Floyd counties, and named

It is situthe U. S. navy, was the 69th established in the state. ated in the extreme eastern part of the state, on the waters of the Big Sandy river and is bounded N. by Carter and Boyd counties, E. by the state of Virginia (from which it is separated by tiie Big Sandy and its east or Tug fork), s. by Martin and Johnson, and w. by Morgan, Elliott, and Carter counties. The surface is hilly and broken, and the soil fertile; corn, hogs, and cattle are The county is well watered, and the timber extensively raised. fine such as beech, poplar, oaks, chestnut, black and white walnut thousands of saw logs are annually sent to market. Coal Steamboats have of the finest quality abounds, and iron ore. ascended the Big Sandy as far as Pikeville, in Pike county. Louisa, the county seat, is located between the Tug- fork and the main river, or as it is oftenest called, the West or Levisa fork of the Big Sandy, 100 miles E. of Frankfort, and 25 miles S. of and up the river from Catlettsburg it was established in 1822; population in 1870, 425, nearly double what it was in 1860. There are 13 other post-offices or small villages in the county, including 2 iron furnaces ; but we have not succeeded in procuring ;

— ;

;

particulars. Statistics of

Lawrknce County. Tobacco, hay, corn, whent Horses, mules, cattle, hogs

pnge 260 262 white males over 21 p. 266 children bet. 6 and 20 yrs. p. 266 p.

towns

p.

Members of Sevale.— Jus. ard, 1869-73.

M.

thf.

pp. 266, 268 p.

268

Taxable property in 1846 and 1870.. ..p. 270 Land—No. of acres, and value of.. ..p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 Distinguished citizens see Index.

Legislature from Lawrence Co

Rice, 1838^2, '46-50;

John L.

Elliott,

1851-53

;

Kenos F. Prich-

Hotue of Representativa.— John L. Elliott, 1836, '37 Green V. Goble, 1838, '40, '43 Walter Osburn, 1844: Wm. F. Moore, 1851-53; John J. Jordan, 185.3-55 Andrew J. Prichard, 1855-57; Sinclair Roberts, 1857-61; Daniel W. Johns, 1861-65, resigned 1864; D. J. Burchett, 1865-67; John. M Rice, 1867-69 George R. Diamond, 1869-71 From Lawrence nnd Carter counties Jas. Rouse, 1841 George Carter. 1871-73. Samuel Short, 1845; Ulysses Garred, 1848; George R. Burgess, 1850. From Lawrence and Morgan counties— Wiley C. Williams, 1824 ; Elisha MoCormas, 1825 Edward Wells, 1826 Rowland T. Burns, 1828, '29, '30; Jos. R. Ward, 1832, '33, '35. From ;

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Lawrence— Ulysses Garred,

1873-75.



Bears. In 1805-6-7, over 8,000 bear-skins were collected by hunters in the reision of the Big Sandy and Kanawha rivers, and forwarded to Europe to iniike grenadiers' hats and otherwise decorate the soldiers of the hostile armies good skins realizing to the hunters $4 to $5 each. This region was the paradise of bears, which fattened upon the chestnuts and acorns, that grew in far greater abundance than now because the original forests were



untouched.



Origin of (he Name of the Tug Fork. " The destruction of the Roanoke settlement in the spring of 1757, by a party of Shawnee Indians, gave rise to a cimpaign into the region of country just east of the Big Sandy river called by the old settlers the Sandy Creek voyage.' This expedition was for the purpose of punishing the Indians, and to establish a military post at the mouth of the Big Sandy, to couuteraot the influence of the French at Gallipolis with '

LAWRENCE COUNTY.

460

was composed of four companies, under the command of CoL Andrew Lewis. The captains were Audley Paul, Wm. Preston (ancestor of the late Gov. Preston), Wm. Hogg, and John Alexander, father of Archibald Alexander, D.D., first president of Princeton Theological Seminary. The party were ordered, by a messenger from (Juv. Fauquier, to return. They had then penetrated nearly to the Ohio river, without accomplishing any of the TnJians.

It

the objects of iheir expedition. When the army on their return arrived at the Burning spring, in the present limits of Logan county, Virginia, they had suffered much from extreme cold as well as hunger; their fear of alarming the Indians having prevented them from either hunting or kindling fires. Some bufiiilo hides which they had left at the spring on their way down, were cut into tugs or long thongs, and eaten by the troops, after having been exposed to the heat from the flame of the spring. Hence they called the stream near by, now dividing Kentucky from Virginia, Tug river, which name it yet bears. Several who detached themselves from the main body, to hunt their way home, perished. The main body, under Col. Lewis, reached home after much suffering the strings of their moccasins, the belts of their hunting-shirts, and the flaps of their shot-pouches, Laving been all the food they had eaten for several days." ;

RiCH.\RD ApPERSON, Esq. of Mount Sterling, had in his possession one of the oldest patents probably now in Kentucky. It was issued by the crown of Great Britain in 1772, to John Fry, for -2084 acres of land, embracing the town of Louisa, Nearly one-third of the land lies on the Virginia side of Big in this county. Sandy river. The survey upon which the patent issued was mide by General Washington between 1767 and 1770, inclusive, and upon the beginning corner he cut the initials of his name. Nearly every corner was found well marked. It has not heretofore been generally known that George Washington was ever in

Another survey was made by him for John Fry, on Little Sandy eleven miles from its mouth, and in the present county of Greenup. The the whole of the lands included in the patent, are held under the title of Fry. In the year 1789, Charles Vancouver settled in the forks of Big Sandy, and employed ten men to build a fort and cultivate some corn. This settlement lasted but a year, as the Indians in a few weeks after Vancouver took possession, stole all the horses, and continued to be troublesome. Kentucky.

river,

town of Louisa, and

James L.^wrence, (in honor of whom this county received its name,) a distinguished American naval commander, was born in New Jersey in 1781. In 1798, he entered the navy as a midshipman. In 1801 he was promoted, and in 1803, during the Tripoli war, was sent out to the Mediterranean as first lieutenant of the schooner Enterprise. While there, he performed a conspicuous part in the destruction of the Philadelphia frigate, which had been captured by the Tripolitans and took an active part in the subsequent bombardment of the city of Tripoli. In 1806, he returned to the United States as first lieutenant of the John Adams. In 181-2, after war was declared between Great Britain and the United



Lawrence was appointed to the command of the sloop of war. Hornet. In February 1813, off the Brazil coast, the Hornet fell in with the fine British sloop Peacock, which she captured after a furious action of fifteen minutes. The Peacock was so much cut up in the short action, that she sunk before all the prisoners could be removed. For this gallant action. Lawrence received the thanks of Congress, with the present of a sword and his return to the United States was welcomed with the applause due to his conduct. Shortly after his return, he was ordered to Boston, to take command of the frigate Chesapeake, confessedly one of the worst ships in the navy. He had been but a short time there, when the British frig-ate Shannon, Captain Brooke, appeared before the harboi and challenged the Chesapeake to combat. Lawrence did not refuse the challenge, although his ship was not in condition for action. On the 1st of June, After the ships had 1813, he sailed out of the harbor and engaged his opponent. exchanged several broadsides, and Lawrence had been wounded in the leg, ha States,

;

LEE COUNTY.

4G1

boarders, when he received a miisltet ball in his body. At tlie same time the enemy boarded, and after a desperate resistance, succeeded Almost all the officers of the Chesapeake in takins possession of the ship. killed or wounded. last of were either The exclamation Lawrence, as they were carrvina: him below, after the fatal wound, was, "Don't sive up the ship." He died on the fourth day after the action, and was buried with naval honors at Halifax. called

Iiis



On Big Blain creek, in Lawrence county, on the night of Feb. strange rumbl-ng sound, resembling distant thunder, was found have originated from an opening in the earth, of a dark color or smoky appearance, and about two feet in diameter, near a ledge of sandstone. Pieces of this stone weighing about 10 pounds were broken off and thrown a consideiv The earth around this opening, for several feet, was thoroughly able distance. cleared, as if swept with a broom, from all accumulations of loose dirt, leaves, and small stone. Three other explosions near the same spot were heard, within three days before.* Phenomenon.

13, 1873, a

to

LEE COUNTY. Lee

county, the 115th in order of formation, was established in 1870, out of parts of Breathitt, Estill, Owsley, and Wolfe, and named in honor of the Virginia patriot, Gen. Robert E. Lee. Its territory is among the smallest, and its population, -with two reaching only exceptions, the smallest of the counties of the state It is bounded n. by Powell and 2,924 by the census of 1870. "Wolfe counties, e. by Breathitt and Owsley, S. by Owsley, and W. by Estill. It is located on both sides of the main Kentucky river, and includes a large part of the valleys of its South and Middle forks, and their tributaries. The face of the country is hilly and mountainous, while the valleys are rich and in a high Corn, wheat, oats, cattle, and hogs are largely state of cultivation. produced, and find a market at home among those engaged in the



coal

and lumber business.



BeaUyvUle, the county seat, is located (j)n the N. side Towns. of the Kentucky river, at tlie junction of the Three forks, about 100 miles from Frankfort, and 25 miles from Irvine. It contains a new brick court house, 3 churches (Methodist, Baptist, and Reformed or Christian), 2 doctors, 4 lawyers, 1 school, 4 taverns, 12 dry goods and other stores, 3 mechanic shops, and 20 mining

companies; population in 1870, 123; named in honor of Samuel Beatty, one of the first settlers of the county, who is still living Procior is situated on the s. side of Kentucky river, op(1872). posite Beattyville, and contains 1 church, 1 lawyer, 3 taverns, 2 dry goods and 3 grocery stores, 1 school, 3 mechanic shops, 1 steam saw mill, and, by the census of 1870, 100 inhabitants; named after Rev. Joseph Proctor (a sketch of whose life will be found under Estill county). Canaan contains 2 chiu-ches, a school, blacksmith shop, and 40 inhabitants. JlESfoKKS OF THE LEGISLATURE FROM

LeE CoUNTT.

Lee county has (March, 1873) had no resident members of the Legislature. ••»

Letter of Daniel Casey, Feb. 22, 1873.

— ;

462 Statistics of

When

Seepage 26

formed

258 p. 260

Popalation, in 1870 " white? and colored

..p.

children bet. 6 and 20

yri

Lee County. Tobacco, bay, corn, wheat pp. 266, 268 Horses, mules, cattle, hogs p. 268 Taxable property in 1870 p. 270 Land— No. of acres, and v.ilue of.. ..p. 270 p. 257 Latitude and longitude see Index. Distinguished citizens

Steamboats reach Beattyville. which is the head of navigation, with some rejularity diirin

1^\4«"IV

""'-i!'.

MASON COUNTY.

547

Mayslick, on same pike, 12 miles w. of s. of Maysville, was named after John May, of Virginia, the former proprietor of the land and of a famous lick near the place (lienee its original name Hay's Lick) has 3 ohurches (Baptist, Reformed or Chrisincortian, and Presbyterian), and a number of stores and shops porated Feb. 1, 1837; population in 1870, 199, whites 128, Dover, in importance the second town in the county, colored 71. in the extreme n. w. corner, on the Ohio river 11 miles below and N. w. of Maysville, and 1 mile from tiie Bracken county line; is the largest tobacco prizing and shipping point, and has a number of business houses; incorporated Jan. 20, 1836; populaMinerva, 4 miles s. w. tion in 1870, 532, whites 465, colored 67. of Dover and 10 miles from Maysville; incorporated Jan. 31, Germanfoion, 11 miles s. of w. 1844; population in 1870, 159. of Maysville, lies partly in Mason and partly iu Bracken county ; population in 1870, 351, of which 160 'in establi'shed in 1795 Mason and 191 in Bracken (33 colored). Sardis, 14 miles s. w. Lewisburg, 7 miles S. of Maysville ; population in 1870, 149. population in of Maysville, on the turnpike to Flemingsburg Helena, 11 miles w. of s. from Maysville, Mount 1870, 151. Gilead, 9 miles K. of s., Murphysville, 9 miles s. w., and Orangeburg, 8 miles s. e., are small villages, with one or two stores and churches each, and a population of 40 to 100 each. Woodville and Chester are growing suburbs of Maysville, recently laid off. Tlie main roads and nearly all the intersecting and neighborhood roads, in Mason county, are macadamized. colored.

;

;

;

;

Statistics of

When

formed Population, from 1790

Mason County. Corn, wheat, hay, tobacco. .pages 266, 26S Horses, mules, cattle, hogs p. 268 Taxable property, 1846 and 1870. ...p. 270 No. of acres, and value p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 Distinguished citizens see Index..

Set to 1870..

Land children bet. 6

i



Members op the Legislature from Mason County. Senate.— Mex. D. Orr, 1792; John Machir, 1796-1800 Philemon Thomas, 1800-03; Gea. Joseph Desha, 1803-07 ; DeVall Payne, 1807-11 Michael Dougherty, 1811-15 ; Jas. Chambers, 1815-19; John Pickett, 1819-22; Winslow Parker, Jr., 1822, "35 ; Jas. Ward, 1823-27; Robert Taylor, 1827-35; Adam Beatty, 1836-39; Thr.s. Y. Payne, 1839-13 ; Marshall Key, 1843-47 ; John D. Taylor, 1851-53 ; Wm. H. WadsHarrison Taylor, 1857-61 ; Martin P. Marshall, 1861-65 Lucien B. worth, 1853-57 Gogo-in, 1865-69, scat declared vacant Dec. 14th, 1865. succeeded by Wm. C. Halbert, Emery Whitaker, 1869-73. of Lewis CO. Home of Jiepreaeniativea.— John Wilson, 1792 Wm. Ward, 1792, '93, '94, '95 John Machir, 1792, '93, '94, '95, '98, '99, 1800 ; John How, Winslow Parker, George Lewis, 1796; Philemon Thomas, 1796, '97, '98, '99; John Pickett, 1796, 1801, '02 ; Thos. Fovm^r, 1797 Michael Cassidy, 1797, '98 Alex. K. Marshall, 1797, '98, '99, 1800 ; DeVall Payne, Gen, Joseph Desha, 1797, '99, 1800, '01, '02 ; John Graham, 1800 Michael Dougherty, 1801, '06, '06 John Kercheval, 1802. '03, 1801, '02, '05, '17, '28 '04, '05, '06; John Lamb, 1803; Alfred Wm. Grayson, Lewis Bullock, 1803, '04 ; Wm. Jas. Chambers, 1808, '09, '11 ; Adam Beatty, Holton, 1806; John Shotwell, ISOS 1809; Walker Reid, 1810, '11, '13, '17; Jas. W.^rd, 1810, '16, '18 Jas. Morris, 1812 John Chambers, 1812, '15, '30, '31; John McKee, 1813, '14; Jas. W. Coburn, 1814, '16, '18; Septimus D. Clarke, 1815, '19, '20. '21 ; Wm. Worlhington, 1819 Walter Lacy,Wm. B. Phillips, 1820 Benj. Desha, 1821, '22 Col. Jacob A. Slack, 1821, '22, '24 Jas. W. Waddell, 1825, '26, Jas. C. Pickett, 1822 ; Robert Taylor, 1824, '25 '37, '38; Dr. Thos. W. Nelson, 1826 ; Adam Beatty, 1827, '28 David Morris, 1827, Winslow Parker, Jr., 1829, '33 Jas. G. Marshall, '32, '33 Jas. G. Bailey, 1829 1830; Jasper S. Morris, 1831; Richard H.Lee, Thos. J. Pickett, 1832 ; Jas. Byers, ;

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1 548

.

MASON COUNTT.

1833; Wm. G. Bullock, John Trinlett, 1834; Gen. Richard Collins, 1834, '44, '47Alex. Hunter, Chas. Mitchell, 183a; Peter I,ashbrooke, 1835, '50; James W. Anderson, 1836 Harrison Taylor, 1836, '61-65, '65-67 (speaker); John A. McClung, 1837 '38; Henry R. Recder, 1839; Gen. Thos. Morgan Forman, 1839, '40; Col. Chas ;

A

Marshall, 1840, '55-69

Perry Jefferson, 1841 Francis T. Chambers, 1841, '43, '44 Wm. D. Coryell, 1842; Robert Humphreys, 1843; Henry Waller,; ]845, '46 John M. Breeden, 1845 ; Jas. B. Hord, 1846 D. Rice Bullock, 1847 Wra. Bickley, John N. Jefferson, 1848 John McCarthey, Emery Whilaker, 1849 Thos. T. Payne, 1850; Henry S. Johnson, John A. Keith, 1851-53 Lucien B. Goggin, John G. Hickman, 185.3-55 ; AVm. B. A. Baker, 1855-57 Gen. Samuel Worthington, 1857-59; Geo. L. Forman, 1859-61 ; Lacien S. Luttrell, 1859-61, '63-65; M. Smith, 1861-63 ; Col. James W. Gault, 1865-67 Dr. Henry L. Parry, 1867-69 Elijah C. Phister, 1867-71; Dr. Robert L. Cooper, 1869-73; Wiliiam W. Bald 1871-73; Geo. L. Forman, W. \V. Browning, 1873-75. ;

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Marshall Key, ;

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Antiquities. On the plantation owned by Samuel Henderson, two miles M. of Majslick, there were, in August, 1827, distinct traces of ancient fortifications. The principal fort contained about one acre of ground the others were not more than half so large. The walls of these entrenchments were quite filain as were the marks of trenches or subterranean passages leading to Lee's creek, 300 yards distant apparently tunneled to provide a supply of water, secure from danger of a blockading enemy. On about 100 acres of land around, the soil to the depth of one to three feet was mixed with shells, flints, potter's ware, and bones of various descriptions among the batter several entire human skeletons, besides fragments of others, lying without regularity as if they had fallen in battle and been hastily and carelessly buried. The potter's ware, in shape somewhat resembling articles now in common use, was made of muscle shells and stones, pulverized and thoroughly mixed the vessels were carved on the outside, and remarkably strong, notwithstanding the exposure to the elements for centuries. All is conjecture as to the age of these fortifications— the trees in the several forts and upon the walls being quite as large as in the surrounding forest.* A Council Chamber of the aborigines but who or what they were will always remain a se.aled book was plainly visible as late as 1823, on the east side of the farm of Samuel Frazee, \\ miles N. E. of Germantown, Mason co., Ky. It was sunk or excavated about eight feet beneath the surrounding ;

;





;





surface. Around the sides of this large room were recesses in the walls, forming seats for the council. Here the chieftains of a hundred battles held their councils of war. Mounds and fortifications surrounded, but not ini diately, this council chamber. Stone axes, trinkets, and implements v found in and around these ancient works. But the Indians had no knowledge by whom or for what purpose these were made although they could go hack with accuracy for many years, perhaps centuries, by their w pums which was the Indian's book of history.f The celebrated antiquarian, Ratinesque, in his enumeration in the year 1824, of the sites of ancient towns and monuments in Kentucky, has two sites and two monuments in this county, and a small teocalli near Washingr ;



ton.

The First White Persons upon the soil of Mason county (omitting those passed down the river in canoes or periogues without landing) were Christopher Gist (see his signature, page 000) and a boy, each on horseback, and leading two pack-horses laden with provisions, surveying instruments, etc. Gist having been sent out by the Ohio Company (of England) " to search out and discover the lands upon the river Oliio, take an exact account of the soil, quality, and product of the land, the width and depth of rivers, the courses and bearings of the rivers and mountains," with a view to find "a large quantity of good level land, such as will suit the company; then "measure the breadth of it in several places, and fix the beginning and bounds in such a manner that they may be easily found again by the description." His Journal records that on Wednesday, March 13, 175J, having crossed the Ohio river the evening before from the Shaw

who



"

* Communication in Maysville Engte, Aug. 8, 1827. to the author from Wm. D. Frazee, grandson of Samuel Frazee, Aug., 1372,

t Letter

f

MASON COUNTY.

549

Portsmouth, Ohio), they set out through Lewis county s. 45° w. down the river Smiles, then s. 10 miles; next day, s. 15 miles; next day, " to a creek so high they could not get over that s. 5 miles, s. w. 10 miles, Next day, night" probably Cabin creek, in the E. edge of Mason county about 35 miles on that Saturday, March 16, 1751, they traveled s. 45° day passing entirely through the N. border of Mason and nearly through They reIt says nothing of the country passed over. Bracken county. /y turned to s, E. Virginia, up the valley of the Cuttawa (Kentucky) river. ( The Second While Visitors and First White Females upon the soil of Mason / county, were Mrs. Mary Inglis and an elderly Dutch woman, name unknown, / (See detailed account of same under Boone county, an/c, page 000.) in 1756. Jn 1773, A^eyera/ Companwi of adventurers and explorei-s visited what is / now Mason oo. Gen. Wm. Thompson, of Pennsylvania, at the head of a com^^ pany (whose names we have not ascertained with certainty) landed at tho / mouth of Cabin creek, and made a survey, on July 23, 1773, on Mill creek, I which they divided into fifty-three parts; and on Nov. 20, 1773, made another survey on Lee's creek, a mile or two north of Mayslick. Their course of j surveys was quite extensive, and embraced the rich lands on the North fork / of Licking and its tributaries. Capt. Thos. Bullitt, and his company of surveyors and assistants, sent out to the Falls by Gov. Dunmore, of Virginia, and also the McAfee company, going together down the Ohio, reached the mouth of Limestone creek, where Maysville now is, on June 22, 1773, and remained two days. In the former company were Abraham Haptonstall, John Fitzpatrick, Jacob Drennon, Ebenezer Severns, John Smith, Isaac Hite, and several others in the latter, James McAfee, Geo. McAfee, Robert McAfee, James MoCown, Jr., Samuel Adams, Matthew Bracken, Peter Shoemaker, and Hancock Taylor, the surRobert McAfee left the party temporarily, went alone up Limestone veyor.J creek to the waters of the North fork, and down that stream (see Collins' Annals, page 17, vol. i.) Still earlier in this same year, a company often among them Capt. Thos. Young, Capt. John Hedges, and Lawrence Darnall cauie down the Ohio river from Pittsburgh one of the company leaving, near Sandy river. The' other nine encamped for several days at the mouth of a creek, where Maysville now is, to which Capt. Hedges then gave the name of Limestone, which it has borne ever since. A few days after, Darnall' s first name (Lawrence) was given by the same company to the first large creek below, and that name also soon became notorious.]] In July, 1773, John Finley was doubtless in the eastern part of Mason county, as he passed from the Ohio river out to the Upper Blue Lick spring, and some of the same party discovered the Lower Blue Lick spring. They were probably a portion of Gen, Thompson's party as both were from Peun-

Town (now



._

w*



^

;









sylvania.i

year 1774, Wm. MoConnell explored the land on Lawrence creek, and " was desirous of improving for himself at the lick near where the town of Washington now stands." So say several depositions of Alex. McClelland, in 1803 and 1804. It is not known that any ottier explorers were out in the county during that year, although Harrod's and Hite's two companies of 42 men passed down the Ohio, and up the Kentucky, into what are now Mercer and Boyle counties so thoroughly was the spirit of adventure checked, that season, by the Indian hostilities, which culminated in the great battle at Point Pleasant, at the mouth of the Kanawha river, Oct. 10, 1774. Several Companies of Improvers, in 1775, visited Mason county, selecting, and in some cases surveying the rich cane lands. In April, Chas. Lecomple,

In

the



* While Mr. Gist's distances are not very far wrong, his courses are in great error. Bradford's Notes on Kentucky ; and t Withers' Border Warfare ; Marshall, i, 11 Depositions. % Journals of the McAfee Brothers ; also, Depositions of James McAfee and Samuel Adams, May, 1797. Depositions of Capt. Thos. Young, Nov. 21, 1804, Aug. 13, 1810, etc., aniof Simon Kenton, Aug. 15, 1814. J Depositions of John Fiuley, June 29, 1802, etc. ;

II

— .

MASON COUNTY.

550

Wm.

McConnell, Alex. McClelland, Andrew McConnell, Fnuicis McConnell, John McCIellivnd, and David Peirj, came from tlie Monongahela country to Kentucky to improve lands first, up the Kentucky river to the Elkhorn country. In June, they set out to return the last five across the country to the mouth of Lawrence creek, which they reached in advance of the others, who came hy canoe to the same point. They went up that creek, and, near Washington, and on other forks of the creek, made improvements two of the cabins of split ash and logs, some of the logs quartered, the roof or ribs of round pules. Their appointed place of meeting was " the Indian camp," near where Kenton's station was afterwards built.* In May, 1775, a company of 10 young men Samuel Wells, Haydon Wells, Thos Tebbs, John Tebbs, John Rust, Matthew Rust, Thos. Young, Wm. Tripleit, Richard Masterson, and Jonathan Higg.s came from Virginia to Mason county, to survey and improve lands. They went on below to Bracken county, then leturned to thtir camp at Limestone creek, whence in June they explored, and then S'.irveyed between 12,000 and 20,000 acres lying between the Ohio river hills and the North fork, from the mouth of Wells' creek to above Mill creek. Thiy built for each of the party a cabin, covered with bark, and deadened trees around them; Higgs' cabin wiis near tlie east end of York street, in Washington. John Rust and Haydon Wells had a fight so desperate and prolon;a;ed that Matthew Rust, in his deposition, spoke of it as a '' damnation light.'' From that circumstance, the creek on which it occurred was for some years known as " Battle creek," but since as Wells' creek.f It appears from depositions that James Gilmure, Ignatius Mitchell, Col. Calamore's company, and several others, were in Mason county in 1775. /ji the year 1'776, what is now Mason county fairly swarmed with visitors and " improvers " from Virginia and Pennsylvania in most cases, of the lat-







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many of whom came to select their future homes, while others " improved " for friends or for speculation. As already stated, th-jse improvements varied greatly from deadening a few trees and marking initials upon them, up to a log cabin, sometimes covered with bark, but generally uncovered, clearing a patch of ground and planting corn. The men remained generally from two to four weeks. Two of these companies came in the latter part of January. One— composed of David Perry, John LalTerty, Hugh Shannon [one of the company who, in June, 1775, had given the name of Lexington to the spot where that beautiful city was founded in 1779], Joseph Blackford, and Jidin Warfield improved on Lawrence creek, where Joseph Wilson found them. Another company Wm. Watkins, Jas. Thomas, Andrew Zane, Wui. White, and Blair had preceded them a few days, landing at Limestone. J In February, came a 3d company, of 10 Samuel Wells, Haydon Wells, Thos. Tebbs, John Tebbs, Matthew Rust, John Rust [it is thus observable how the early adventurers came in families, often brothers-in-hiw and luusins, as well as sons or brothers], Thos. Young, Wm. Bartlett, Richard Masterson, and John Heggs (or Higgs) who improved mainly on the North (then called the East) fork of Licking, between the mouths of Lee and 31ill rr.-iks building 10 cabins, one for each of the company, on as many improvements, usually half to three quarters of a mile apart. J Other companies in 1776, were: One of 7 Samuel Bo,it, and selected a site where he afterwards built a mill-dam, well know n in T'.ir. ;is his Fitz.gerald's company— John Simrall, John McUrcw, J; our part of the country ; but if they are placed under the direction of Gen. George Rogers Clark, they The Falls lie one hundred will be of little or no service to our settlement. miles west of usf.and the Indians northeast; while our men are frequently I have encouraged the people in this county all that called to protect Jhem. 1 could; but I can no longer justify them or myself to risk our lives here under such extraordinary hazards. The inhabitants of this county are very much alarmed at the thoufjhts of the Indians bringing another campaign into our country this fall. If this should be the case, it will break up these settlements. I hope, therefore, your Excellency will take the matter into your consideration, and send us some relief as quick as possible. These are my sentiments without consulting any person. Col. Logan will, I expect, immediately send you an express, by whom I humbly request your

Excellency's answer.

In the meanwhile

1

remain,

As a Fourth Account of this appalling disaster, we extract a portion of the description given by Gov. James T. Morehead, in his celebrated address at Boonesborough, May 25, 1840, in commemoration of the first settlement of Kentucky " Before any judgment was pronounced by the council upon the expediency of the two alternative movements urged by Col. Boone, all further proceedings were arrested by the indiscreet zeal of Maj. Hugh McGary, who raised the war-whoop,' and spurring his horse into the river, called vehemently upon all who were not cowards to follow him, and he would show them the enemy. Presently the .army was in motion. The greater part suffered themselves to be led by McGary the remainder, perhaps a third of the whole number, All at length passed over. lingered awhile with Todd and Boone in council. At Boone's suggestion, the commanding officer ordered another halt. The pioneer then proposed, a second time, that the army should remain where it was, until an opportunity was afforded to reconnoiter the suspected region. So reasonable a proposal was acceded to; and two bold but experienced men were selected, to proceed from the lick along the buffalo trace to a point half a mile beyond the ravines, where the road branched off in different directions. They were instructed to examine the country with the utmost care on each side of the road, especially the spot where it passed between the ravines, and upon the first appearance of the enemy to repair in haste to the army. The spies discharged the dangerous and responsible task. They crossed over the ridge proceeded to the place designated beyond it, and returned in safety without having made any discovery. No trace of the enemy was to be seen. " The little army of one hundred and eighty-two men now marched forward Col. Trigg was in command of the right wing, Boone of the left, McGary in the center, and Major Harlan with the party in front. Such is Boone's account of the positions of the several officers. He does not define Col. Todd's. The historians have assigned him to the right with Col. Trigg. The better opinion seems to be that he commanded the center. "As they approached the ravines it became apparent that Boone's anticipations were well founded, and that the vigilance of the spies had been completely eluded. The enemy lay concealed in both ravines in great numbers. The columns marched up within forty yards of the Indian line before a gun was fired. The battle immediately commenced with great fury and most destructive effect on both sides. The advantage of position and overwhelmiug numbers soon determined it in favor of the savages. The fire was pecu'











662

NICHOLAS COUNTY.

upon tlie right. Col. Trijif; fell, and with him nearly the wholfl Boone manfully sustained himself on the left. of the HarrndslmrK troops. Major ITarlan defended the front until only three of his men remained. He The Indians now ruslied upon them also fell, covered with Tvonnds. with their tomahawks, spreadinj; confusion and dismay throujih their broken and disabled ranks. The whole ri/rht, left, and center cave way, and a mingled and precipitate retreat commenced. tSome regained their horses Col. Todd was shot through the body, and when he was others fled on foot. last seen, he was reeling in his saddle, while the blood gushed in profusion from his wound. The Indians were then in close pursuit. " There was but one convenient way of escape, and that was in the direction To that point, the larger to the lick where the army had crossed the river. number of the fugitives hurried with tumultuous rapidity, down the naked No sooner had they reached it, than the Indians were upon slope of the hill. terror and of blood that of ensued was dreadful. Many them. The scene brave men perished on that fatal day. Of the one hundred and eighty-two who went into the battle, one-third were killed and seven were made prisoners. The extent of the Indian lo^s is not certainly known. It is represented to have been equally severe." liarly severe



Col. Daniel Boone, in his autobiography, is authority for the report preserved in other ways, also— that the Indians upon numbering their dead found 4 more than they counted of the whites killed on the field and in the " of the prisoners [whose therefore, 4 itames and, are unknown] retreat; were, by general consent, ordered to be kilfed, in a most barbarous manner, by the young warriors in order to train them up to cruelty and then they proceeded to their towns." After the fortune of the day was determined, and the only safety was in flight, the noble old pioneer who first counseled delay, and then a caution which proved unavailing because not faithfully followed, devoted himself He avoided the with true fatherly solicitude to his wounded son Israel. road taken by the" mass of the fugitives, and crossed the Licking at the mouth But the wound of the young of Indian creek, a mile or two below the Lick. and the father, noting where soldier was mortal; death soon claimed him his body lay that he might return and bury it, eluded the pursuit of the savages, and reached Bryan's station. Of the 7 prisoners, 4 were killed by the Indians, as above, and the other 3 Jesse Yocum, Lewis Rose, and Capt. John McMurtry were packed to the With their captors, they extent of their strength with the spoils of the day. were hurried next day across the Ohio river, at the mouth of Eagle creek, 7 miles below Limestone creek (Maysville) thence passed Upper and Lower Sandusky, and the foot of the Miami rapids (afterwards Fort Meigs), to Detroit-^where they arrived on Sept. 4th, and were delivered into the hands of the British. On the route, they were several times compelled to run the At one of them, Capt. gauntlet, in Indian towns through which they passed. McMurtry was knocked down and fell senseless the Indians jumped upon and stamped him, breaking several of his ribs. Jesse Yocuni, hy his skill in running close to the line of Indians, so avoided their clubs as to come out almost unhurt; and running up to a young Indian, by adroitness and great strength, picked him up and hurled him to the ground; then going up to another, all in a moment of time, he thrust his head between the Indian's and jumping up, knocked his feet legs and threw him over his head rapidly together in a manner novel to the Indians, crowed like a cock, and 'i'his singular exhibition of dexrallied them for being a pack of cowards, terity and spirit delighted the Indians, and an old chief promptly claimed Yocum as his man. But the gauntlet failed to satisly the savage craving the prisoners fiendish cruelty, and were condemned to be burned. Just as for they were tied to the stake, and the torch was already applied to the fagot* The piled around, a storm of remarkable violence burst over their heads. flashes of lightning increased in vividness, and louder and deeper rolled When the storm cloud broke, and the torrent from above exthe thunder. tinguished the fires, the savages were struck with awe and reverence, and dared not re-light them. The Great .Spirit bad interfered to save them, and ;

;



;

;



NICHOLAS COUNTY.

663

would not permit them thus to die. Thereafter they were treated with far more kimlness and consideration. On Sept, 18th, the prisoners were forwarded to Montreal, and rigorously confined for a month thence to Mont du Luc island, and imprisoned until when they were exchanged and sent to Ticonderoga, reaching July, 1783 They were received almost their homes near Harrodsburg, Ky., Aug. 28th. Capt. Rose shot two Indians in the battle, the last as men from the dead. when in the very act of scalping Capt. Wm. McBride he was in the expedition with Gen. Ben. Logan against the Shawnees on the Miami in 1786, and ;



;

Gen. Chas. Scott against the towns of the Wea Indians on the Wabash in which 32 warriors were slain and 58 prisoners taken he died Capt. McMurtry was in several engagements Feb. 20, 1829, in his 80th year. His name heads the list afterwards, and fell in Harmar's defeat, in 1790. of the honored dead of Kentucky, engraved upon the Battle monument.* Of the 60 noble men who fell in the battle of the Blue Licks, the following 15 are all the names ascertained by the author: Col. John Todd, Lieut. Col. Stephen Trigg, Maj. Silas Harlan, Maj. Edward Bulger, Capt. Wm. McBride, Capt. John Gordon, John Bulger, Joseph Lindsay (the commissary of Gen. Geo. Rogers Clark, in several expeditions, conductor of the expedition which first took Vincennes, and one of the ablest and most remarkable men of early Kentucky), Clough Overton, John Kennedy, (little) James Graham, Wm. Stewart, John Wilson, Israel Boone, Andrew McConnell. in 1791 with



;

Of the 109 who survived the battle, in addition to the 3 returned prisoners above, the author has ascertained only the following 16 n.ames Col. Daniel Boone, Maj. Hugh McGary, Col. Robert Patter.son, Col. John Smith, Maj. Geo. Michael Bedinger, Maj. Levi Todd, Maj. Benj. Netherland, Capt. Samuel Twyman, Jas. McCulIough, Benj. Hayden, Johnson, Aaron Reynolds, Judge Henry Wilson, Peter Harget, Jas. Morgan, Wm. Field. Thus 34 names out of 176 engaged, are preserved— of which 176, over one-fourth were com[Any other reliable names of soldiers in the battle, if missioned officers. Bent to the author, will be inserted in future editions of this work.] Nicholas Hart and several others of the prisoners taken at the capture of Ruddle's and Martin's stations in now Harrison and Bourbon counties, on June 22, 1780 more than two yeans before— had been brought along with They were the Indians on this expedition; for what purpose is not known. the unwilling witnesses of the siege of Bryan's station, and of the terrible diswhere many of their personal friends fought their aster at the Blue Licks :



.





last battle

and

slept their last sleep.

Maj. George Michael Bedinger was born near Shepherdstown, Va., in the year 1755; and early in 1779, when 24 years old, emigrated to Kentucky He was one of a company of 10, nearly all from She{)at Boonesborough. herdstown (among them the late Jos. Doniphan, of Mason co., Capt. John Holder, and Thos. Swearingen), engaged in "improving" lands for themselves, on Muddy creek, in now Madison county, and " over on the waters lu May, 1779, he acted as adjutant in the unfortunate expediof Licking." tion of Col. John Bowman against the Indian town of old Chillicothe, and was a major at the fivtal battle of the Blue Licks, Aug. 19, 1782 each occaIn 1792 he was sion proving him a brave, prompt, and efficient officer. chosen from Bourbon county which then included his new home near the Lower Blue Licks, now in Nicholas county a member of the house of reHe was a presentatives of the first legislature of Kentucky, at Lexington. He died Dec. 7, 1843. representative in congress for four years, 1803-07.









in honor of whom Nicholas county was named on Col. George Nicholas was born about 1743, in WilliamsDec. 18, 1799, five months after his death burg, Va. where his father, Robert Carter Nicholas, was a distinguished lawver, a member of the house of burgesses, a member of the colonial



;

The author has gathered these particulars from a lottcr to him from Rev. Aaron Hogue, Sept., 1S71, and from a biographical sketch of Capt. Ro?e in the Harrodsrg Central Walchtower, of Feb. 28, 1829, written by Gen. Robert B. McAfee, author the History of the War of 1812, published in 181C.

*

— NICHOLAS COUNTV.

664

The son was a captain !n council, and treasurer of the colony of Virginia. and after the war, the war of the Revolution, in the Virginia state line practiced law at Charlottesville, Albemarle county, was elected to the lefiisiature from that county, and was a prominent and influential member of the* ;

consider the new Federal Constitution, the adoption of which he advocated very ably and zealously. Shortly after, in 178.roducing fine tobacco, corn, it hilly, and the soil generally good oats, buckwheat, and barley ; cattle, sheep, and hogs are raised





and stock-growing is rapidly increasing the county being well adapted to grazing and one of the best watered Besides the Kentucky river and Big Eagle creek, in the state. are Big Twin, Little Twin, Cedar, Big Indian, Caney, Clay Lick, and Severn creeks. The Cincinnati branch of the L., C. & L. railroad (the " Short Line ") runs near the northern boundary of Owen county, giving it, in conjunction with the Kentucky river, remarkable access to the best markets. in large quantities,

— ;

OWEN COUNTY.

670



Owenton, the county seat, and near the center of the Towns. county, is 30 miles N. of Frankfort; 9 from the Kentucky river and 12 from the Short Line railroad at two points, by Gratz, at turnpike; it has a substantial brick court house, 2 churches, 9 lawyers, 3 doctors, 1 bank, 3 hotels, 8 stores, 12 mechanics' shops, and 1 large tobacco drying house, which handles over half a incorporated Dec. 18, 1828; million pounds of tobacco yearly New Liberty, 5 population in 1870, 297, and growing rapidly. miles from the railroad and 8 N. w. of Owenton, has 7 stores, 13 mechanics' shops, and 2 churches; incorporated Jan. 24, 1827; population in 1870, 304, a decrease of 81 since 1850 ; the Owen county agricultural fair is held near this place. Tkdlasburg is a handsome little village in the N. w. part, the " garden spot" of 3Ionterey (formerly Wilthe county, 4 miles from the railroad. liamsburg) is a thriving village, in the S. w. part of the county, fths of a mile from the Kentucky river, and near the famous Pond Branch (see below) ; incorporated March 1, 1847. Lusby (better known as Lusby's Mills) is situated in a romantic region incorporated Feb. 13, 1869. Gratz, on the on Big Eagle creek Kentucky river, a few miles below Lock and Dam No. 2, was New Columbus and Poplar Grove are incorporated Feb. 6, 1861. small places. Statistics of Owen Codntt. ;

;

When

See page

formed

" "

26

258 260 262 white males over 21 p. 266 children bet. 6 and 20 yrs. p. 266

Population, from 1820 to 1870 " whites and colored

p. p.

towns

p.

Tobacco, hay, corn, wheat pp. 266, 268 Horses, mules, cattle, hogs p. 268 Tax.able property in 1846 and 1870. ..p. 270 Land— No. of acres, and value of....p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 Distinguished citizens see Index.

Membeks of the Legislature from Owen County. J.

,9„„a/e._Cyrus Wingate, 1828-tl Harvey Dorman, 1869-73.

;

Jas. P. Orr, 1851-53

;

Asa

P. Grover, 1857-61

Wingate, 1824, '25, '26, '27; Benj. Haydon, 1828, Thos. Woolfolk, 1829, '31 ; John Brown, 1830 Thos. B. Dillon, Henry B. 1833 ; Jas. S. Brown, 1835, '41 Jos. W. Rowlett, 1838, '39. '40, '42, '50 1845 Wm. W. Alnutt, 1846 Jas. F. Blanton, 1847, '53-55 ; Gale, 1841 ; Jas. P. Orr, ; John W. Leonard, 1848 j John C. Glass, 1849; John Calvert, 1851-55 Henry Giles, 1855-57; Hiram Kelsey, 1867-69; Robert H. Gale, 1859-61; E. F. Burns, 1861-63, Jeremiah resigned, succeeded by Wm. Roberts, Jan., 1863 ; J. B. English, 1863-65 D. Lillard, 1865-69, resigned 1868, succeeded by Wm. Lusby John Duvall, 1869-71 From Owen and Scott counties— Alex. Bradford, 1819. C. W. Threlkeld, 1871-73. [See Franklin Co.] From Owen— Cyrus W. Threlkeld, 1873-75. Ilmise of RepreiieiUalivea.— Cyras

'32, '34, '36, '37, '43

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Churches. In 1 847, there were in Owen county 14 B;\ptist, 1 Presbyterian, 6 Methodist, and 5 Keformed or Christian churches. In 1873, the number was hvrgely increased, but the relative proportion nearly the same. Many Mineral Spriyigs are found in Owen county, the waters of some of which have valuable medicinal properties. Limestone, from which good hydraulic cement could probably be made, is found one mile N. e. of Lagrange, and also on Curry's Fork of Floyd's creek. Analyses, in connection with the geological survey, of the soils, both from old fields and from woods, in the southern edge of Owen county, and of virgin soil from the neighborhood of New Liberty, indicate a much poorer quality of land than where based on the blue limestone of the Lower Silurian formation. These lands would be benefited by top-dressings of lime or marl such marl as is found on the waters of Dickey's creek, IJ miles from where Uenj.

Haydon

lived in 1856.



OWEN COUNTY.

671

Owen

county has been noted for many years fur its remarkable For U. S. presidevotion to the principles and men of the Democratic party. dent in 1868, the vote cast was 2,198 for the Democratic and only 82 for the Republican candidate; while the corresponding vote for governor in 1871 was 2,389 to 288— the increase in the latter being all or nearly all negroes. The county was, at three several apportionments, changed to different conthe first time, gressional districts, and each time made them Democratic causing the election of Maj. John C. Breckinridge in the Ashland district, in Ever 1851; and his re-election in 1853 over ex-Gov. Robert P. Letcher. since, Gen. Breckinridge has been the idol of the county; and has shown his appreciation of such remarkable devotion by naming one of his sons Owen County Breckinridge. Two Confederate Camps were established in Owen county, during the war Camp Marshall (named after, and established by. Gen. of the Rebellion Humphrey Marshall), in the summer of 1861, near Lusby's Mills, on a high hill which commanded a view of the county for miles around. On the side next the village, the hill is very steep and in places precipitous to this day the " rebel " boys laugh and joke about their tumbles, in hurrying down to the village after Owen county whiskey. Hundreds of men congregated there, " many of whom went through to enlist in what is now called the "Lost Cause the lines and fought bravely, while others returned to their homes. The second camp or place of rendezvous was Vallandiy ham's Barn, about IJ The sentiments and sympathies of the people of Owen miles from Owenton. county were almost unanimous in favor of the South and Confederate soldiers were nearly always in the county, for concealment, for recruiting purposes, Many persecuted Southern sympathisers or for a dash upon their enemies. and Southern soldiei's escaping from northern prisons or cut off from their commands, found a temporary hiding-place in the thick undergrowth in several portions of the count}'. Mose Webster's most daring operations were, some of them, planned and carried out from or in Owen county. Few, if any, counties in the state furnished so many soldiers to the Confederate army, P^ederal soldiers made frequent dashes into the in proportion to population. tovins or country, rudely quartering upon the people, or arresting some of

In

Politics,

;

;



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the best citizens and incarcerating them in military prisons some by their violence and injustice driving many into the Southern army who would have remained at home. Several citizens were shot by Federal soldiers, by order of bogus courts-martial and several men killed by bushwhackers. Many depredations were committed, by soldiers and pretended soldiers, of both parties. And yet, very much of what Owen county saw, and I'elt, and suffered, was repeated, over and over again, in nearly every county in the state. It was part of the Federal policy to make Kentucky /fa^ the humiliation, and bitterness, and personal suffering of a relentless civil war and those who sought by an honorable, and gentle, and kindly course to keep the masses of the people at home and quiet, were soon hurled from authority, if not disgraced or practically " retired " from the army. ;

;

There are several remarkable places in Owen, which merit a description. The " Jump Off," on the Kentucky river, is a perpendicular precipice, at least one hundred feet high, with a hollow passing through its centre about wide enough for a wagon road. The " Point of Rocks," on Cedar creek, just above its mouth, and near Williamsburg, is a beautiful and highly romantic spot, where an immense rock, about seventy-five feet high, overhangs a place in the creek called " the Deep Hole," to which no bottom has ever been found, and which abounds with fish of a fine quality. " Pond Branch " is a stream of water which flows from a large pond in a rich, alluvial valley, which, from its general appearance, is supposed to have been at one time the bed of the Kentucky river. It is about a mile and a half distant from Lock and Dam number 3. The water flows from the pond and empties into the river, by two outlets, and thus forms a complete mountain island, two and a half miles long and a mile and a half wide in its broadest part.

;

672

OWEN COUNTY.

Colonel Abraham Owkn, in honor of whom this county received its name, was born in Prince Edward county, Virginia, in the year 1769, and emigrated to Shelby county, Kentucky, in 1785. The particulars of his early life are not known, and his first appearance on the public theatre and in the service of the country, was upon Wilkinson's campaign, in the summer of 1791, on the While and Wabash rivers. He was a lieutenant in Captain Lemon's company in St. Clair's defeat, November 4th, 1791, and received two wounds in that engagement He was in the expedition led by one on the chin, and the other in the arm. Colonel Hardin to White river, and participated in the action which routed the His brother John, James Ballard and others of Indians in their hunting camps. Shelby county, were his associates on this occasion. It is not known that he was in Wayne's campaign; but in 1796, he was surveyor of Shelby county, and He commanded the first militia company raised in the afterwards a magistrate. venerable Singleton Wilson, of Shelhyville, brother of late county, and the They had been assothe late Dr. Wilson of Cincinnati, was the lieutenant. ciates in Wilkinson's campaign, and the humane efforts of Colonel Owen to provide for the wants and promote the comforts of his companion, were illustrative of his general good character. Owen was soon promoted to be a major, and then colonelof the regiment. Lieutenant Wilson was promoted to the rank of captain, having served with distinction as a spy in the campaign led by General Wayne. CoU Owen was, soon after, elected to the legislature, by the largest vote ever before polled in the county; and, in 1799, was chosen a member of the convenShortly before his death, he was a tion which framed our present constitution. member of the senate of Kentucky. No man in the county had a stronger hold en the affections of the people, whom he was always ready to serve in peace or in war. In 1811, he was the first to join Gov. Harrison at Vincennes, for the purpose of aiding in the effort to resist the hostile movements of the Indian bands collected by the energy and influence of Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet. He was chosen by Gen. Harrison to be one of his aids-de-camp and, at the memorable battle of Tippecanoe, fell at the side of his heroic chief, bravely fighting for his country, deeply regretted by the whole army and by his numerous friends in Kentucky. In battle he was fearless as a citizen, mild and gentlemanly. He was esteemed an excellent officer on parade, and possessed a high



;



order of military talent. In the following December, the legislature of Kentucky went into mourning for the loss of colonels Daveiss and Owen, and others who had fallen at Tippecanoe and, in 1819-20, the memory of Col. Owen was perpetuated by a county hearing his name. McAfee, in his history of the late war, says: " His character was that of a good citizen and a brave soldier;" which Butler, in his history of Kentucky, speaking of him, pronounces to be " no little praise in a republic and in a

warlike State."

He left a large family to unite with his country in deploring his premature fall. His daughters intermarried with the most respectable citizens of Henry county, and his son Clark is a distinguished citizen of Texas, having won a high rank His brothers, Robert and William, survive him, in her civil and military annals. and are highly respectable citizens of Shelby county. His father was an early His fort, near Shelhyville, was settler, of high standing and marked character. the resort of intrepid families of that day, and may be said to have been the founThe chivalric patriotdation of the capital of the flourishing county of Shelby. ism of Col. Owen, in leaving a position of ease and civil distinction at home, to volunteer his services against the north-western savages, is truly illustrative of the Kentucky character; and after ages will look back upon the deeds of heroism at Tippecanoe, with the same veneration with which the present generation regards the memory of those who fought and fell at Thermopylte.

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OWSLEY COUNTY.

;

673

OWSLEY COUNTY. —

Owsley

county was established Jan. 23, 1843 the 96th in and named in honor of Judge Wni. Owsley, afterwards the state governor of Kentucky. It is situated in the eastern middle portion, on the waters of the Kentucky river is bounded N. by Lee county, E. by Breathitt, s. by Clay, AV. by Jackson, and N. w. by Estill. The South Fork of Kentucky river runs quite centrally through the county from s. to n., the main Kentucky forms part of the N. boundary line ; and its Middle Fork crosses the N. E. part. The soil along the river valleys is rich and productive but the face of the country generally is broken and the soil not



;

sufficiently strong for profitable cultivation. Corn is the staple production ; rye, wheat, and oats, cattle and hogs are raised. Towns. Booneville, the county seat, is situated on the south side of the South Fork of Kentucky river, 34J miles s. E. of Irvine, Estill co., 35 s. of w. of Jackson, Breathitt co., and 32J N. of E. of McKee, Jackson county ; incorporated March 1, 1847 ; population in 1870, 111, a falling off of 10 in 10 years. South, Fork, 4 miles. Traveler's Best, 5 miles, and Island City, 10 miles, from Booneville, are post offices and small places.



Statistics op

When

formed See page 26 Population, from 1850 to 1870 p. 258 " whites and colored p. 260 white males over 21 children bet. 6 and 20

p. p.

Owsley County. Tobacco, corn, wheat, hay. ..pages 266, 268 Horses, mules, cattle, hogs p. 268 Taxable property, 1846 and 1870. ..p. 27U Land No. of acres, and value p. 270 Latitude and longitude v. p. 257 Distinguished citizens see Index.



Members op the Lksislaturk from Owsley County. &iia(e.— Abijah Gilbert, 1850 Jas. Ewing Gibson, 1859-63. House of Repreaentalivo.— KiiTvey S. Hensley, 1857-59; Abijah Gilbert, 1859-61; ~ ndrew Herd, 1863-65 Andrew J. Herd, 1867-69 Howell Brewer, 1869-71 Jos. Hampton, 1871-73. From Owsley and Clay counties— Jos. N. Eve, 1853-55. From Owsley and Estill counties— Elisha L. Cockrell, 1847 Morton P. Moore, 1850. From ;

;

;

;

;

Owsley— John

S.'Herd, 1873-75.



Owsley county is included in the eastern coal field except the lower portion of the valley of Sturgeon creek, and the valley of the Kentucky river from The coal measures the mouth of Sturgeon creek to the Estill county line. which were in Owsley county in the vicinity of Proctor and Beattyville



the state geological survey, in 1859, but are now in Lee The " main coal," which county contain four, if not five, veins of coal. has leceived most attention from the miners, measures from 42 to 50 inches and had then been opened and mined at some 9 banks, on the Kentucky river, the South fork, the Duck fork, Sturgeon, Upper and Lower Stufflebean The general dip of the country is three- fourths creeks, and Mike's branch. " The coal is bright, and breaks of a degree (f°) in a S. 52° E. direction. with a square butt into fine large blocks, which bear transhipment." The coal veins vary from 6 inches to 1 foot, 3 feet 10 inches, 4 feet, and the "main coal " 5 feet thick. Analyses of the coal from different banks showed the percentage of sulphur to be 0,645, 0.796, and 4.074. Iron Ore from the North Fork of the Kentucky river, one mile above Proctor, in now Lee county, and some from Proctor, yielded, upon analysis, 35.400 and 34.304 percentage of metallic iron " rich enough to be profitably smelted into iron, but containing rather more phosphoric acid than is desir

when examined by





able in iron ore."

II. ..43

674

OWSLEY COUNTr.

Iron and Lead Ores and Lithographic Stone, some rich specimens were discovered, in the summer of 1866, in Owsley and Wolfe counties. The lithographic stone was of superior quality, bore a fine polish, and the quarry was said to be inexhaustible.

OJ

William Owsley, the 14th governor of Kentucky, was born in 1782 in Virginia. His father, Wm. Owsley, emigrated, the next year, to the county of Lincoln in the then " district of Kentucky," settling on the waters of Drake's creek, near the present town of Crab Orchard. The son, William, succeeded in getting a better education than was common for boys at that day, tanght school awhile, became deputy surveyor, and afterwards deputy sheriff, his father being high sheriff of the county. It was whilst William Owsley was engaged in his early official pursuits aa deputy sheriff, &c., that he attracted the attention of John Boyle, afterwards Judge Boyle, perceiving the promise that was in chief justice of Kentucky. young Owsley, offered him the use of his library, and the advantage of his instructions in the study of law. The offer was accepted, and by perseverance and close application, Owsley soon obtained license and commenced the practice of law in Garrard county. His success was immediate. He ranked high at the He afterwards bar, and became the intimate and firm friend of Judge Boyle. represented Garrard county several years in the legislature, and became so favorably known to the public as a legislator and lawyer, that, in 181-2, when he was only thirty-one years of age, and had been but few years at the bar. Governor Scott appointed him to the supreme bench of the State, as the colleague of Judge Boyle, who had been honored by a seat on the appellate bench three years previously. Judge Owsley resigned this office in a short time, in consequence of But a the passage of a law reducing the number of judges of the court to three. vacancy occurring in 1813, he was immediately re-appointed by Governor Shelby. During the service of Boyle, Owsley and Mills, on the supreme bench, that ever memorable controversy between the old and new court parties was waged. The annals of Kentucky's history will attest the momentous character of that struggle, and duly commemorate the virtues of the men that were then made conspicuous. Never before did the fires of discord burn more fiercely in any civil community. Never before was a State so near anarchy, revolution and ruin. Firmness, wisdom and coolness alone could save the country in that time of dread and peril. All these qualities were pre-eminent in the judges who then sat upon the bench. They were equal to the crisis. They withstood the storm of popular tumult, careless of the rage of disappointed partisans, flushed with temporary triumph, but crossed in the enjoyment of victory. It seems Providential that such men were on the bench to save the Stale in that stormy trial. Having seen the constitution of his country safe through the dangers that beset it, Judge Owsley remained at his high and honorable post till the year 1828, when, after having served upon the bench longer than any man in the State, except Judge Boyle, he resigned his office, and retired to private life on his farm in Garrard county, which he had held and cultivated as a successful practical farmer, for about twenty-five years. Sometime after this, he again represented his old county, Garrard, in the legislature. But finding it inconvenient to attend to his circuit court practice and his growing practice in the court of appeals, he gave up the former, and having parcelled out his farm among his children, (of whom he had five,) he removed to Franktort. Here he resided until 1843, when, out of the gains of his practice, he purchased himself a splendid farm in Boyle county, to which he removed, giving up his practice altogether. In 1844, after one of the most exciting and hard fought contests ever witnessed in the State, William Owsley was elected governor of Kentucky over Colonel William O. Butler, by far the most popular and formidable candidate the democratic party had ever run in the State. The vote received by Governor Owsley was 59,680, which is larger by 1,191 than the great vote received by General Harrison in 1840. As governor, he was distinguished for devotion to the duties of his office, liis laborious and faithful examination into the affairs of the state, particularly its public debt, and his clear and concise statements thereof in his annua'l messages. It was the chief glory of his administration, that he checked the iearful increase of the state debt; and for the first time since it was created, began to pay it oJ)\ and continued its steady reduotiou to the eud of his term.

PENDLETON COUNTY.

675

He

then settled on his farm near Danville, and in honorable retirement closed a long and useful public life. He died Dec. 9, 1862, aged 80 years. In person. Gov. Owsley was tall (about 6 feet 2 inches high) and slender. His disposition was reserved, and he talked but little. In times of greatest excitement, there was seldom any perceptible change in his spirits or demeanor. He was proverbial for honesty, firmness, and impartiality and made the principle of right the ground of every action. His manners were As a public speaker he was staid, plain, simple, and purely republican. seldom enthusiastic; but occasionally, when roused sensible, and practical or stung by something pointed or unfair in his adversary, he was quick, spirited, and powerful. ;



PENDLETON COUNTY. Pendleton county was of Edmund Pendleton, of

erected in 1798, and named in honor Virginia. It was the 28th county in the state, and formed out of portions of Bracken and Campbell counties; but in 1820, gave the w. half of its territory to form It is bounded N. by Kenton and Camj)bell Grant county. counties, N. E. for 5 miles by the Ohio river (where it projects between Campbell and Bracken), E. by Bracken, s. by Harrison, and w. by Grant; is situated in the northern section of the state; is nearly square in shape, and embraces about 300 square miles; which flow is drained by the Licking and South Licking rivers into the county on the S. E. and S. borders, form a junction at the county seat near its center, and pass out near the middle of its northern border ; having, as tributaries, Fork Lick, Kincaid, Flower, Blanket, Willow, Crooked, Richland, and Grassy creeks. South Licking runs centrally, from s. to N., over 30 miles ; or South Licking 12 miles, and main Licking over 40 miles through Along the streams are many thousand acres of rich the county. bottom lands; elsewhere, the surface is undulating and hilly, and the soil, based upon limestone, yields excellent crops of toThe land has risen quite rapidly in bacco, wheat, oats, rye, etc. value since tlie completion of the Kentucky Central railroad, in 1852, from Covington to Lexington, passing up main Licking to Falmouth, and theuce up the valley of South Licking. In the summer of 1873, the Covington, Flemingsburg, and Pound Gap railroad company was organized, the road designed to follow up mnin Licking from Falmouth, diverging nortliward to Flemingsburg, and thence to Pound Gap in the Cumberland mountains in Letcher county, on the Virginia state line, about 225 miles. Falmouth, the seat of justice, situated on an elevated Towns. bottom at the confluence of main Licking and its principal .southern branch, South Licking, is 51J miles from the mouth of main Licking opposite Cincinnati by water, and 40 miles by railroad, 59 from Lexington, and about 60 from Frankfoit; contains the usual county buildings, five churches (Baptist, Reformed or Christian, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic), and a rapidly growing trade population in 1870, 614, and on July 1, 1873, probably 1,000. Falmouth was established in 1793, and being





;

676

PENDLETON COUNTY.

by Virginians, was named after Falmouth, Virginia. In 1846 it was the only town in Pendleton county, and its population about 250 since then the population of the county has trebled, and the following villages and stations on the Kentucky Central railroad sprung up: Boston, Butler (incorporated Feb. 1, 1868, and population in 1870, 144), Catawba, DeMossville (incorporated March 3, 1860), Levingood, 3Ieridian, and Morgan. Besides these, settled

;

are the following villages or post offices: Bachelor's Best, 6 miles from Falmouth, Elizabethville, 5 miles, Knoxville, 9 miles, GardDividing Ridge, lb miles, Moiier, on tlie Ohio river, Ash Run, Hunlsville, and Salem.

nersville, 11 miles,

Statistics of Pendleton Countt.

When

formed See page 26 Population, from 1800 to 1870 p. 258 '* trhites and colored p. 260 towns p. 262 " white males over 21 p. 266 " children bet, 6 and 20 p. 266

Hay,

corn, wheat, tobacco. ..pages 266, 268 Horses, mules, cuttle, and bogs p. 268 Taxable property, in 1846 and 1870. p. 270 Land— No. of acres, and value p. 270 Latitude and longitude 257 i.. Distinguished citizens see Index.

Members op the Legislature from Pendleton County. Smnle.—V/m. Mountjoy, 1820-23 ; John Forsythe, 1823-26 Samuel F. Swope, 1844-48. Hotise of Represmtatives.—J . J. Flournoy, 1800 Wm. Mountjoy, 1809; Elijah MeClanaban, 1815 Wm. Clarke, 1816, '17 Stephen Mullins, 1818, '20, '21, '24, '25, '26, •28; Wm. Littell, 1819; Stephen Thrasher, 1822 John H. Barker, 1827; Wm. C. Wilson, 1829; Thos. G. Hall, 1830; John Wheeler, 1831, '42. '43, '46 Samuel T. Drake, 1834 ; Samuel F. Swope, 1837, '38, '39, '41 Thos. W. Hart, Hauser, 1832; 1840 Henry W. Cleaveland, 1844, '45 Jos. Dougherty, 1847, '50 John E. Records, 1848: John T. Dover, 1849; Benj. F. Hume, 1851-53; Wm. A. Brann, 1853-55, '57-59, '61-63 Chas. Duncan, 1855-57; Jas. Mann, 1859-61; Dr. Jas. Wilson, 1863-65, '65-87, seat declared vacant Jan. 15th, 1866, and succeeded by Wm. A. Brann, 1866-67; Chas. H. Lee, 1867-69; Francis M. Lowe, '69-71, '73-75; Wm. W. Deaderick, 1871-73. ;

;

;

;

;



;

.

;

;

;

;

;

There are several Salt and Sulphur SprinffS in Pendleton county. Iron and coal are found, but not in workable beds or veins. One of the earliest merchant Saw Mills on the Licking river was established at "Fallsmouih " (Falmouth), as appears by the following advertisement in The Centinel of the North-Western Territory, a newspaper established at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1793. [It is probable the advertiser's name was John Wallace, and not Wallere.] ore

Plank and scantling of every kind, delivered at the mill or in Cincinnati, on the shortest notice. Orders will be thankfully received and pointedly attended to, JOHK Wallebb. JoHK " Fallsmouth, Forks of Lickin; Dec. 15, 1794. " N. B. The subscriber will b wn with a quantity of planks as i

the water of Licking will admit.'

Within a few hundred yards of tlie boundaries of Falmouth, the remains of an ancient fortification are yet distinctly visible. It is situated upon elevated and commandinfr ground, near midway between the two rivers, and commanding the junction, and some distance up both streams. In form, it is a regular circle, with four apertures or openings, opposite to each other, and corresponding very nearly to the four cardinal points of the compass. Seventy years ago,* trees, from two and a half to three feet in diameter, were standing upon the circular embankment of earth which formed the fortification ; while the enclosure, covering probably upwards of a quarter of an acre of ground, was grown up in trees, bearing the same

of three

feel high.

;

EDMUND PENDLETON.

677

marks as to age, size, &c. The timber of the surrounding forest was about the same size of that growing within and upon the embankment, and must have grown up many years after this fortification had been abandoned by its ancient builders. This fortification, combined with the fact, that every height and hill surrounding the junction of the two rivers and overlooking the fort, as well as for miles around, are crowned with one or more Indian graves, or small mounds, present strong and abiding evidence that a warfare, of a bloody and desolating character, once prevailed here, between a people possessing and occupying the ground, and an inva-

ding and aggressive enemy. Pendleton is not the scene of any Indian battle or bloody rencounter, within the recollection of its " oldest inhabitant." But her territory has been desecrated by the feet of hostile Britons, as well as of the blood-thirsty savages. In June, 1779, Col. Byrd, with his Canadian and Indian force of six hundred men, in his route to attack Ruddle's station, ascended the Licking river to its junction with the south branch, where Falmouth now stands. Here he landed his cannon, concentrated his forces, and took up his line of march for that station. The track he pursued was distinctly marked by blazing the forest trees, and may still be traced where the trees are left standing. After capturing Ruddle's and Martin's stations, he returned by the same route, took water at Falmouth, and descended the Licking to its mouth. The traces of his march, south of Falmouth, served to give notoriety, in the surveyors' books, to the entries of land subsequently made.

Edmund Pendleton, in honor of whom this county was named, was born in Caroline county, Virginia, in 1741, and died in Richmond in 1803. He was president of the Virginia court of appeals, and of the Virginia convention of I775^was twice elected a member of Congress in 1778, was chosen president of the Virginia convention which met to consider the federal constitution, and when the federal government was organized, he was selected by Congress to be district Judge of Virginia, but declined the appointment. Wirt says, " he had in a great measure overcome the disadvantages of an extremely defective education, and by the force of good company, and the study of correct authors, had attained a great accuracy and perspicuity of style. His manners were elevated, graceful, and insinuating. His person was spare, but well proportioned, and his countenance one of the finest in the world ; serene, contemplative, benignant with that expression of unclouded intelligence and extensive reach, which seemed to denote him capable of any thing that could be effected by the power of the human mind. His mind itself was of a very fine order. It was clear, comprehensive, sagacious and correct; with a most acute and subtle faculty of discrimination ; a fertility of expedient which never could be exhausted ; a dexterity of address which never lost an advantage and never gave one, and a capacity for a continued and unremitting application which was perfectly invincible. As a lawyer and a statesman, he had few equals and no superiors. For parliamentary management, he was without a rival. With all these advantages of person, manners, address, and intellect, he was also a speaker of distinguished eminence. He had that silver voice of which Cicero makes such frequent and honorable mention; an articulation uncommonly distinct; a perennial stream of transparent, cool and sweet elocution, and the power of presenting his arguments with great simplicity and striking effect. He was always graceful, argumentative, persuasive; never vehement, rapid or abrupt. He could instruct and delight; but he had no preten Bions to those high powers which are calculated to " shake the human soul."



PERRY COUNTY Perry

county, the 68th in order of formation, was established in 1820, out of portions of Clay and Floyd, and named in honor of Com. Oliver Hazard Perry, the hero of the battle of Lake Erie, in which a number of Kentucky volunteers froQi the army Breathitt county in 1889, and Letcher in 1842, assisted bravely. It is situated in the were partly formed from Perry county.

PERRY COUNTY.

678

sontlieastern section of the state, on the head waters of the Kentucky river ; is bounded N. by Breathitt, E. by Floyd and Letcher, s.

by Letcher and Harlan, and w. by Clay and Owsley.

It

is

drained by the North and Middle forks of Kentucky river, which are navigable for descending boats a considerable portion of the year among their tributaries are Laurel and Lost forks, and Hell-for-Certain, Cutshin, Squabble, Leatherwood, Williams", and Macy's creeks. The surface of the county is hilly and mountainous, and a large portion unsuitable for cultivation, but well adapted for sheep and wool-growing. The valleys are fertile and productive, with a sandstone foundation. The principal articles of ejcport are horses, cattle, hogs, salt, coal, ginseng, and wool. Towns. Hazard, the county seat, is a small village, on the North fork of the Kentucky river, about 150 miles s. E. of Fi-ankfort, 71 w. of s. of Grayson, Carter county, 36 N. w. of Whitesburg, Letcher county, 63 s. of ^y. of Manchester, Clay county. Brashearsville, 14 miles, and Salt Creek, 12 miles, from Hazard, are post offices and stores. ;





Statistics of

When

formed

See page

Population, from 1830 to 1870 " whites and colored

" " "

26

258 p. 260 towns p. 262 white males over 21 p. 266 children bet. 6 and 20 yrs. p. 266 p.

Peeet County. Tobacco, hay, corn, wheat. ..pages 266, 268 Horses, mule?, cattle, hogs page 268 Ta.xable property, in 1816 and 1870 p. 270 Land— No. of acres, and value of.. ..p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 Distinguished citizens see Index.

Members of the Legislatuee from Perry County. Senate. senators.

— Perry county has always been in

a large district, and has had no resident

Home of Bepresenlnlives.—'Eevry Duff, 18.33 John Haddix, 1835 ; Elijah Combs, 1840; Jos. Eversole, 1848; Zachariah Morgan, 1867-69; Josiah H. Combs, 1871-73. From Perry and Clay counties— .\lex. Patrick, 1827, '28, '30. '31 Klnathan W. Murphy, 1829; Robert S. Brashears, 1837; John C. Wilson, 1839. [Sec Letcher cc] ;

;

Commodore Oliver H.^zard Perry, in honor of whom this county received name, was a distinguished officer in the United States' navy, and was born at Newport, Rhode Island, in August, 1785. He was entered as a iflidshipman on the sloop of war General Greene, in 179S. He served in the Tripolit.in war, and In secured the affection and respect of all the officers and men in the squadron. 1810 he was a lieutenant commandant in the schooner Revenge. In this vessel, He demanded in the spring of 1811, he was wrecked in a fog near Stonington. In 1812 he a court of inquiry, which acquitted him of all blame in the affair. was promoted to the rank of master and commander, and appointed to the command of the gun boats in the harbor of New York. Disliking his situation here, he solicited to be transferred to the lakes, and the greater portion of his men went its

On his arrival at Sackett's Harbor, he was ordered by Commodore Chauncey to Lake Erie, to superintend the building of vessels in order to meet the British force on those waters. On the 4th of August, he got his squadron over the bar, and on the 10th of September met the British squadron under Commodore Barclay. This fight resulted in a complete victory to the Americans, and Perry was promoted to the rank of Captain. In the battle of the Thames, on the 5th of October, he served as aid to General Harrison, and rendered important assistance. At the conclusion of the war, he was appointed to the command of

with him.

the Java, a frigate of the first class. In this frigate lie attended Commodcre Decatur, to chastise the Dey of Algiers, who had committed depredations on our commerce. In 1819 he was sent to the West India station, where he died of the yellow fever on the 23d of August, 1820.

— PIKE COUNTY.

679

—The main coal of the center of Perry county,

s. of the North Fork, with a clay parting of one or two inches, 10 inches from 4} the bottom. On the N. side of the same stream, 1 mile above Hazard, and 60 feet above the road, a bed of coal is exposed, 3 feet 5 inches thick, but not of very good quality. Argillaceous Oxide of Iron, in considerable quantities, is found near the top of the ridge dividing the waters of the Elisha fork of Big Creek and the Coal branch. •Saft was made some years ago from the water of a well near Hazard, bored 400 feet below the bed of the river; a bushel of salt was produced from 85 gallons. At the mouth of Leatherwood creek, in the Bvashears well, 410 feet deep, was found a fine brine of which 6.5 to 70 gallons yielded a bushel of salt. In these borings several beds of coal were passed through. Freestone, of good quality for buildings, is found on Macy's creek.

Coal.

to 5 feet thick,

is



PIKE COUNTY. Pike county was

established in the year 1821, out of part of was the 70th in order of formation, and named in honor ; of Gen. Zebulon ]\I. Pike. small portion of its territory was taken in 1870, towards forming the county of Martin. It is the easternmost county in the state; and is bounded N. by Martin, N. E., E., s. E., and s. by the state of Virginia, s. W. by Letcher, and w. by Floyd county. It is drained by the waters of the Big Sandy river ; its Tug Fork forming the N. e. boundary line, and the Levisa (or Louisa) and West Forks running through the county, almost from E. to W. The surface presents quite a variegated appearance; along the water courses, the lands are of excellent quality and very productive ; while the uplands are broken and mountainous, and the soil comparatively poor. iCorn, cattle, and hogs are the staple products, but oats, wheat, rye, buckwheat, and some tobacco are raised. Towns. Pikeville (often called and written Fikcfon, in mistake), the county seat, is situated on the s. W. side of the West (or main or Loui.sa) Fork of Big Sandy river, near the center of the county, about 200 miles nearly s. E. of Frankfort, 50 s. w. of Logan C. H., West Virginia, and 73 s. of Louisa, Lawrence co., Ky.; incorporated Dec. 30, 1824; population in 1870, 140. The other post otfices in the county are Coal Eun, 6 miles, Robinson

Floyd

A



Creek, 7 miles, Bent Branch, 12, Pond, 25 miles from Pikeville.

Little Creek, 15,

and Mouth of

Statistics of Pikk ConsTT.

When formed

See page

Population, from 1830 1870 " whites and colored

" "

towns white males over 21

"

children bet, 6 and 20

p.

26 258

p.

2fi0

262 p. 266 p. 266 p.

Hay,

corn, wheat, tobaeco...pages 266, 268 Horses, mulea, catUe, and hogs p. 263 Taxable property, in 1846 and 1870. p. 270 Land No. of acres, and value p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 see Index. Distinguished citizens



Mkmbkes op THE Lkgislature fhou Pike County.



Senate. [See Floyd Co.] George Colbert Cecil, 1842, '65-57 Hoiu^e of Representatives.— J s.a. M. Rice, 1829 Rice, 1859-61 ; David May, 1861-63, expelled for joining John H. Reynolds, 1865-67 Orlando or aiding the Confederate army, Aug. 29, 1862 [See Floyd and Letcher counties.] Nelson Hamilton, 1873-75. C. Bowles, 1867-71. ;

;

N. Brown, 1849; John M.

;

;

POWELL COUNTY.

680

Coal abounds in Pike county, 1 to 2 feet thick; a workable vein, of fair in the bed of quality, crops out on Chloe creek, nearly opposite Pikeville Big Sandy, 7 miles above Pikeville, lies a bed of coal; a 4-foot vein is reported at the forks of the river; and 7 miles below Pikeville, in the hills 96 feet above the river, are 5| feet of coal, with two thin partinf^s of clay. Iron is found, in several forms in blocks of impure ore, in thin layers of carbonate of iron, and in a body of rusty ferruginous shale. It has not been ;



worked. There

made

is

a number of Sail Wells in the county, at two of which salt was

before 1846.

Sidney S. Lyon's Base Line, in the geological survey of Kentucky, began at Uniontown, on the Ohio river, longitude 10° 55' w. of Washington, and in latitude 37° 46'; and in its extension eastwardly cut the Virginia state line near the northern corner of Pike county at a point probably now in Martin Col.



county. The Court House of Pike county was erected, in 1823, upon a public square which, together with a large portion of the town in the town of Pikeville itself, was in such a disputed situation, and claimed by so many persons holding adversely to each other, that the legislature was appealed to for a remedy and by law vested the title to the town in trustees, directing to sell the lots, and return the proceeds of sale in secured bonds to the circuit clerk's office, for the benefit of those whom the court should decree to be the This secured to the lot buyers a good title, to the real rightful owners. owners full pay for their property, and to the town the measnre of prosperity incident to a new county seat.



;

This county was named in honor of General Zebulon M. Pike, born in New Jersey, Jan. 5, 1779. He entered the army while yet a boy, and served as a cadet in his father's company, afterwards as ensign and lieutenant. In 1805 he was sent by the government to explore the Mississippi river to its sources. After his return, he was sent by Gen. Wilkinson on an excursion into the interior of Louisiana, to fix the boundary line between Is'^ew Mexico and the United States. This expedition proved a partial failure. Upon his return he was appointed a captain, subsequently a major, and in 1810 a colonel of infantryi In 1812 he was stationed on the northern frontier, and in 1813 appointed a brigadier general. He was selected to command the land forces in an expedition against York, the capital of Upper Canada, and April 25th sailed from Sackett's Harbor in the squadron commanded by Commodore Chauncey. On the 27th he arrived at York with seventeen hundred chosen men. A landing having been etfected under a heavy fire from the enemy, Gen. Pike assaulted the works; in the course of the atcack, the British magazine exploded, throwing large stones in every direction, one of which Btruck Pike on the breast, inflicting a mortal wound.

POWELL COUNTY. Powell

county, the 101st formed in Kentucky, was established in 1852, out of parts of Montgomery, Clark, and Estill, and named in honor of Lazarus W. Powell, then governor of the state. Portions of its territory have been taken to help form Wolfe county in 1860, Menifee in 1869, and Lee in 1870. Before the latter \vas formed, Powell county was about 32 miles long and 12 It is situated in the eastern middle portion of the state, wide. and is bounded N. by Montgomery, n. e. by Menifee, E. by Wolfe, The Red river runs quite s. by Lee, and s. W. and w. by Estill. furnishing valuable centrally, from E. to w., through the county water-power throughout its length ; already there are 2 large



POWELL COUNTY.

081

steam saw mills, 1 steam shingle-machine, and 4 water grist-mills upon its banks in high water, flat-boats and rafts pass down it Its tributaries, on the N., are Indian, Cane, Hatchto a market. er, Morris, Paint, Beech Fork, Black, Brush, Snow, and Lulbegrud creeks and ou the s., the Middle fork and South fork of Red river. Cow, Cat and Owl, Picks, Moppen, Hatton, and ;

;

Raccoon creeks.

Ou the bottoms of the Red river and tributaries are some fine farms, the soil good, and producing tobacco and all kinds of grain well ; some mountain farms produce well. Both bottom and uplands are heavily and finely timbered. All the crops usual in mountain counties are raised to advantage. Town. The county seat and only town is Stanton, so named after Hon. Richard H. Stanton, of Maysville, an able representative in congress, 1849-55, circuit judge, 1868-74, and author of Stanton's "Revised Statutes" and other valuable works on Kentucky law. Population and business small. In Powell county are 6 doctors, 3 blacksmiths' shops, and 2 churches. The prevailing religious denominations are Methodist and Reformed or Christian, and they use the court house and school houses as places of



worship. Statistics of

When

formed

See page

Population, in 1860 and 1870 " whites and colored

p. p.

"

towns

"

white males over 21 p. childrenbet. 6and20yrs. p.

"

p.

Powell County.

26 258 260 2B2 266 266

Tobacco, hay, corn, wheat pp. 266, 268 Horses, mules, cattle, hogs p. 268 Taxable property in 1870 p. 270 Land— No. of acres, and value ol'....p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 Distinguished citizens see Index.

Members op the Lkgislaturk Senate.

— None

fkoji

Powell Coontt.

resident in the county. C. Daniel, 1857-59

House of Representatives.— DWHti. Henderson Conlee, 1873-75.

Lazarus W. Powell, in honor of in Henderson County, Ky., October

whom

;

John T. Clark, 1803-65;

county was named, was born He graduated at St. .Joseph's 6, 1812. College, Bardstown, in 1833; studied law with Hon. John Rowan, and subsequently attended a course of law lectures at Transylvania Universitjf. Accumulated a fortune by his profession. Was elected to the State Legislature in 1836; Democratic district elector in the Presidential canvass of 1844; defeated for Governor of Kentucky by Hon. .Jno. J. Crittenden, the Whig candidate, in 1848. Elected Governor in 1851, and inaugurated September 5th of that year. Served as one of the Commissioners to Utah in 1858, when a collision with the Mormons was averted by President Buchanan issuing a proclamation of pardon to those who would submit to the Federal authority, and which was accepted by that people. In 1859 he was elected U. S. Senator for the full term of six years, and participated in the most important discussions originating in the progress of the late civil war between the North and South. He was particuhirly noted for opposition to the purpose of the Northern leaders prosecuting the war for the subjugation of the Southern States, but he also condemned secession. Hon. Garret Davis, his colleague, who doubted the loyalty of Senator Powell, in 1862 had presented to the Senate the famous resolution for the expulsion of the Kentucky Senator from that body. The Judiciary Committee reported against its passage, which was strenuously advocated by Mr. Davis. The resolution was defeated. Mr. Davis afterward retracted the charges. Mr. Powell failed to secure a reelection to the Senate. He died, at his home in his native county, on July 3, 1867. .

this

PULASKI COUNTY.

682 The

records of Powell county and the public buildinus were destroyed by fire in the spring of 1863. The buildings have since been rebuilt. During the civil war, Powell county suffered greatly from the incursions of lawless bands, who plundered the citizens almost indiscriminately, and compelled them frequently to take refuge in the woods and mountains. Life and property were often threatened and sometimes visited with destruction.

PULASKI COUNTY. Kentucky, 1798 — answer the

Pulaski county was second of

til

tlie

27tli

fnn,ih, was .still living in 1872, in the adjoining county, Caldwell, at the ripe nixe of 85. Late in the f:ill of 1769, Squire Boone and another adventurer (name unknown) left the Yadkin in search of his brother Daniel, who with five others had aone to the wilds of Kentucky on the 1st of May precedini;. They stumbled upon Daniel's camp— the locality of which is unknown, but wa'* probably on Station Camp creek in now Estill county shortly after his and S milps

friiiu



John Stewart's seven days' captivity among the Indians; during which time John Findlay, Joseph Holden, James Monay, and Wm. their companions Cool— had abandoned the camp and tjone home. The joy of that meetins;; can not be described. Soon after, John Stewart was killed by Indians, and Squire's companion went home by himself leaving the brothers alone in the They " prepared a little cottage to defend them from the winter wilderness. storms." On May 1, 1770, Squire " returned home to the settlement by himself— for a new recruit of horses and ammunition, leaving Daniel by himself,





without bread, salt, or sugar, without company of his fellow-creatures, or even a horse or dog."* On July 27, 1770, Squire met him, "according to appointment, at the old camp."f They soon abandoned this camp, for fear of Indians, and "proceeded to Cumberland river, reconnoitering that part of the country until March, 1771, and giving names to the different waters." About April, 1771, they returned to North Carolina, to make preparations for removing to Kentucky. On Sept. 25, 1773, with their families, they started for their new home; and in Powell's valley were joined by 5 families and 40 men. On Oct. 10th, when still a few miles east of Cumberland Gap, the rear of their company was attacked by Indians; who killed 6 men amons; them James Boone, They retreated 40 miles, Daniel's eldest son, aged 18— and wounded 1 man. and did not again venture with their to the settlement on Clinch river They reached Boonesborough on March 31st families until March, 1775. or April 1st, of that year, and immediately began to erect the fort; and there made their home for several years. On the 25th of May ensuing, Squire Boone had his first legislative experience taking his seat as one of the delegates from Boonesborough in the Transylvania Convention at that place. (See full report of it, under Madison county.) It appears fnun his and other depositions, taken in 1795, 1797, 1804, 1806, and 1808, and from other sources, that Squire Boone continued generally a resident of Boonesborough until early in 1779, when he removed to Clear creek in Shelby county, and erected near where Shelbyviile now stands a Here he station known as Squire Boone's station, or the " Painted Stone." made his home until 1806, except when compelled to abandon it for a short time in consequence of the exterminating Indian raids on Lon^ Run in 1781, and to move to the station at the Falls (Louisville). He had been shot in his left shoulder at the siege of Boonesborough, was shot in his breast and in one arm in defence of his station, and again shot while removing the people



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to Louisville, as just stated. While thus disabled and suffering from wounds, he was elected a representand in his own person bore to that body ative to the Virginia legislature an appeal more eloquent and touching than his mouth could utter, for assistance to the brave defenders of the frontier. To the day of his death he cher;

ished a proud remembrance of the handsome reception and generous attentions of his brother legislators and the people of Kiclunond. His plain hunter's garb, backwoods manners, and unhealed wounds seemed to be the key to their hearts and sense of justice; his appeal was not urged in vain. In his old days he was deprived of every vestige of his property, mainly through the land sharks who hunted up a better title to his land while he rested iu fancied security, believing that what he had redeemed from the wilderness and shed his Ijlood to defend from the savages, was assuredly his



^" Daniel Boone's autobiography, dictated to John Filson, in 1784. See under Madidun couuLy, the engraving of the stone on which Squire Buone." "I"

is

carved " 1770,

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SHELBY COUNTY.

712

In n, deposition at his own house in Shelby countv, M:iv IS, T?04, he said 'he was principled against fcoin; into the town of Shelbyville upon any business whatsouver"— the cause of which doep-seated feelinir the author has not learned. It may have been because of what seemed to him he perShortly after, he was in prison bounds in Louisville secution of the courts. Kind friends obtained his release. In for debts which he could not pay. 1806— with his sons Isaiah, Enoch, Moses, and Jonathan, and the five sons of his nephew Samuel Boone— he, like his ereat precedent and ehler brother, heart; and forming a new settlement (called left Kentucky with a sad "Boone settlement"), in the then Territory of Indiana, in what is now Harrison county, about 25 miles n. w. of Louisville, erected a small mill, and laid the foundation of a flourishins and populous township, called also "Boone township," which is now the happy home of many worthy Kentuckians and One of them John Boone, a native of Shelby co., Ky., their descendants. was a prominent member of the convention which formed the constitution of Indiana, and afterwards of the state les;islature. Squire Boone died there, in 1815, and at his special request was buried in a cave near the summit of a lofty eminence that commanded a beautiful He was a man of stronj;; and earnest feelings and conand extended view. victions, simple hearted, patriotic, and religious.

own.

I

Col. Ch.ieles S. Todd, a soldier and diplomatist, son of Judire Thos. Todd, of the U. S. supreme court, was born near Danville, Ky., Jan. 22, 1791, and Ue was edudied at Baton Rouge, La., May 14, ISTl, aged over 80 years. cated in the best schools of Kentucky graduated at William and JIary studied law with his fether, and attended the law lectures college, Va., 1809 at Litchfield, Conn., under the celebrated Judges Gould and Keeves, 1810 practiced law at Lexington, 1811-12; volunteered, June, 1812, and was m.ade was on Gen. acting quartermaster of the advance of the northwestern army Wm. H. Harrison's staff, as division judge advocate of the Kentucky troops, Dec, 1812; bearer of instructions to Gen. Winchester, previous to the disasupon the recommendation of Gen. Harrison, trous affair of the river Raisin was appointed captain in the 17th U. S. infantry, and soon after appointed whose official report highly commended his imporaid to that commander tant services in the campaign and particularly in the battle of the Thames; he subsequently acted as deputy inspector general of the 8th military district, then as adjutant general, and in March, 1815, was promoted inspector general, with rank of brevet colonel of cavalry. Gen. Harrison, in a letter subsequent to the war, to a member of President Madison's cabinet, expressed the opinion that " Col. Todd was equal in bravery and superior in intelligence to any officer of his rank in the army." Upon the disbandment of the army in 1815, Col. Todd resumed the practice of law at Frankfort, and in 181 tj married the youngest daughter of Gov. (Shelby; was secretary of state under Gov. Madison, 1816; representative in the legislature from Franklin county, 1817 and 1818; charge d'affaires to Colombia, in South America, 1818-23; on his return, settled in Shelby county, as a farmer; was a commissioner to the Presbyterian General Assembly in Philadelphia, 1837 andl839, when the separation was effected, he sustaining the Old School; was vice president of the Ky. state agricultural society for several years, and delivered the annual address, 1839 in connection with Ben. Drake, prepared sketches of Gen. Harrison, 1840, and became editor of the Cincinnati Republican, a Whig newspaper; accompanied Gen. Harrison Washington, Feb., having been selected him to 1841, by as U. S. minister to Vienna, but this appointment was prevented by the death of the president; in the summer of 1841, President Tyler appointed him to the mission of St. Petersburg, which he held until displaced by President Polk in the fall of 1845. At St. Petersburg, and during his visits to the interior of Russia, and to the king of Sweden (Bernadotte, the only marshal of the great Napoleon who retained his crown), he was treated with most marked consideration. After his return to Kentucky, Col. Todd was not again prominently in public life but was active with his pen upon the subjects of religion, agriculture, and politics, and often presided or was the leader at public meetings. ;

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SHELBY COUNTY.

713

Shelby county has not kept pace in the increase of population with the rest of the state. Indeed, it appeai-s by comparin;; tlie census returns (see pai;e 259), that the population was largest in 1820, and has been steadily decreasing at every decade since. The decrease from 1820 to 1830 vras largest for the reason that parts of the territory were taken in 1823 and 182-1 to help form Oldham and Spencer counties. But without such extraordinary cause since, the population has fallen off 17J per cent., in 40 years.



For biographical sketches of Col. John Allen, see under Allen co. Gen. Benj. Logan, under Logan co. Col. John Simpson, under Simpson co. Rev. Archibald Cameron, a distinguished Presbyterian preacher, under the sketch of the Presbyterian Church, in volume 1. of this work; Uapt. Bland W. Ballard, under Ballard co. Gov. John Pope, under Washington co. Col. Abraham Owen, under Owen co. Peroival Butler, under Carroll co. ;

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William Logan was

the eldest son of General Benjamin Logan, and was born at Harrodsburgr on the 8th of December, 1776. He was, probably, the first white child born in Kentucky. In 1799 he was a member of the convention

which formed the present constitution of the slate, being then only twenty-three years of age. His selection to this responsible office, so early in life, evinced the high opinion entertained of his character and talents, by his fellow-citizens. About the same time he commenced the practice of the law, and soon attained considerable eminence in his profession. He was frequently elected to represent his county in the legislature, and on several occasions was made speaker of the house of representatives. He was twice appointed a judge of the court of appeals, in which station he was noted for the propriety witli which he discharged its various duties. In 1820, he was elected a Senator in tlie Congress of the United States. He resigned his seat in this body in 1820, for tlie purpose of becoming a candidate for governor of the State, but was not elected. He died at his residence in Shelby county, on the 8th of August, 1822, in the 46th year of his age. At the time of his decease he was generally looked to by the people of the State, as the candidate for Governor in 1824, and had he lived would no doubt have succeeded General Adair in that office. When he was not prevented from mingling in politics by his duties as a judge, he was an active and influential member of the republican party, and was warmly engaged in the controversy which arose on the question of a new election upon the death of Governor Madison. On this occasion he took the ground which was finally settled as the true construction of the constitution, that upon the death of the governor, the lieutenant-governor should succeed to his place, and serve out the term. He was also an active partizan on the new and old court questions, having espoused the cause of the old court. In his private and social relations he was a gentleman of great moral worth, courteous in his manners, and of inflexible integrity. His early death was a loss to the State, and was very generally deplored. Isaac Shelby, the subject of this memoir, was born on the 11th day of December, 1750, near to the North Mountain, a few miles from Hagerstown, in Maryland, where his father and grandfather settled after their arrival in America from Wales. In that early settlement of the country, which was annoyed during the period of his youth by Indian wars, he obtained only the elements of a plain English education; but like his father. General Evan Shelby, born with a strong constitution, capable of hearing great privation and fatigue, he was brought up to the use of arms and the pursuit of game. At the age of twenty-one, he took up his residence in Western Virginia, beyond the Alleghany mountains, having previously acquired a knowledge of surveying and of the duties of sheriff at Fredericktown. He was engaged, in his new residence, in the business of feeding and attending to herds of cattle in the extensive range which distinguished that section of country. He was a lieutenant in the company of his father, the late General Evan Shelby, in the memorable battle fought 10th of October, 1774, at the mouth of the Kanawha, at the close of which his father was the commanding oflicer, Colonels Lewis, Fleming and Field being killed or disabled. The result of this battle gave peace to the frontier, at the critical period of the colonies venturing into the eventful contest of the revolution, and deterred the Indians from uniting with the British until 1776. This

SHELBY COUNTY.

714

was, probably, the most severely contested conflict ever maintained with the north-western Indians the action continued from sunrise to sunset, and the ground for half a mile along the bank of the Ohio, was alternately occupied by each of So sanguinary was the contest, that blood the parties in the course of the day. was found on each of the trees behind which the parties were posted. The Indians, under the celebrated chief Cornstalk, abandoned the ground under cover according to the official report, exceeded that of the of the night. Their loss, Americans, the latter amounting to sixty-three killed and eighty wounded. This report was drawn up by Captain Russell, reputed to be the best scholar in camp, and the father of the late Colonel William Russell, of Kentucky. The fortune of the day, as staled in Doddridge's Notes of Border War, was decided by a bold movement, to the rear of the left wing of the Indians, led by Captain Evan Shelby, in which the subject of this memoir bore a conspicuous part. The garrison atKanawlia was commanded by Captain Russell, and Lieutenant Shelby continued in it until the troops were disbanded, in July, 1775, by order of Governor Dunmore, who was apprehensive that the post might be held for the He proceedi>d immediately to Kentucky, and was benefit of the rebel authorities. employed as a surveyor under Henderson & Co.; who styled themselves proprietors of the country, and who had established a regular land office under their purchase from the ('herokees. He resided in the then wilderness of Kentucky, for nearly twelve months, and being without bread or salt, his health was impaired, and he returned home. In July, 17761 during his absence from home, he was appointed captain of a minute company by the committee of safety of Virginia. In the year 1777, he was appointed, by Governor Henry, a commissary of supplies for an extensive body of militia, posted at different garrisons to guard the frontier settlements, and for a treaty to be held at the Long Island of Holston river, with the Cherokee tribe of Indians. These supplies could not have been obtained nearer than Staunton, Va., a distance of three hundred miles ; but by the most indefatigable perseverance, (one of the most conspicuous traits of his character,) he accom;

plished it to the satisfaction of his country. In 177fi, he was engaged in the commissary department, providing supplies for the continental army, and for an expedition, by the way of Pittsburg, against the north-western Indians. In the early part of 1779, he was appointed by Governor Henry to furnish supplies for the campaign against the Chicamauga Indians, which he effected upon his own individual credit. In the spring of that year, he was elected a member of the Virginia legislature from Washington county, and in the fall of that year was commissioned a major, by Governor Jeflerson, in the escort of guards to the commissioners for extending the boundary line between that Slate and the State of North Carolina. By the extension of that line, his residence was found to be within the limits of the latter State, and shortly after wards, he was appointed by Governor Caswell a colonel of the new county of Sullivan, established in consequence of the additional territory acquired by the running of that line. In the summer of 1780, Colonel Shelby was in Kentucky, locating and securing those lands, which he had five years previously marked out and improved for himself, when the intelligence of the surrender of Charleston, and the loss of the army, reached that country. He returned home in July of that year, determined to enter the service of his country and remain in it until her independence should be secured. He could not continue to be a cool spectator of a contest in which the dearest rights and interests of his country were involved. On his arrival in Sullivan, he found a requisition from General Charles McDowell, requesting him to furnish all the aid in his power to check the enemy, who had overrun the two southern States, and were on the borders of North Carolina. Colonel Shelby assembled the militia of his county, called upon them to volunteer their services for a short time on that interesting occasion, and marched, in a few days, with three hundred mounted riflemen, across the Alleghany mountains. In a short time after his arrival at McDowell's camp, near the Cherokee ford of Broad river. Col. Shelby, and Lieutenant-colonels Sevier and Clarke, the latter a refugee officer from Georgia, were detached with six hundred men, to surprise a post of the enemy in front, on the waters of Pacolet river. It was a strong fort, built Kurrounded by abbatis, in the Cherokee war, and commanded by that dislin-





ISAAC SHELBY.

.7]

5

guished loyalist, Capt. Patrick Moore ; who surrendered the garrison, with one British sergeant-major, ninety-three loyalists, and two hundred and fifty stand of arms. .Major Ferguson, of the British army, though a brigadier general in the royal militia, and the most distinguished partisan officer in the British army, made many inefTeclual efforts to surprise Col. Shelhy. His advance, about six or seven hundred strong, came up with the American commander, at Cedar Spring, and before Ferguson approached with his whole force, the Americans took two officers

and

fifty

men

prisoners, and safely effected their retreat.

It

was

in the severest

part of this action, that Col. Shelby's attention was arrested by the heroic conduct of Col. Clarke. He often mentioned the circumstance of his ceasing in the midst of the battle, to look with astonishment and admiration at Clarke fighting. The next important event was the battle fought at Musgrove's mill, on the south side of the Enoree river, distant forty miles, with seven hundred men, led by Cols. Shelby, Clarke, and Williams, of South Carolina. This affair took place on the 19th of August, and is more particularly described in the sketch of Col. Shelby, inserted in the first volume of the " National Portrait Gallery," published in 1834, under the direction of the American Academy of Fine Arts. It has been introduced into the historical romance called " Horse-Shoe Robinson," and noticed, also, in McCall's History of Georgia, where the British loss is stated to be sixty-three killed, and one hundred and sixty wounded and taken; the American loss, four killed and nine wounded: amongst the former, Capt. Inman; and amongst the latter. Col. Clarke and Capt. Clarke. Col. Innes, the British commander of the " Queen's American Regiment," from New York, was wounded ; and all the British officers, except a subaltern, were killed or wounded; and Capt. Hawsey, a noted leader among the tories, was killed. The Americans intended to be that evening before Ninety-Six but at that moment an express from Gen. McDowell came up, in great haste, with a short note from Gov. Caswell, dated on the battle-ground, apprising McDowell of the defeat of the American grand army under Gen. Gates, on the 16th, near Camden. Fortunately, Col. Shelby knew Caswell's handwriting, and by distributing the prisoners among the companies, so as to make one to every three men, who carried them, alternately, on horseback, the detachment moved directly towards the mountains. The Americans were saved by a long and rapid march that day and Col, night, and until the evening of the next day, without halting to refresh. Shelby, after seeing the party and prisoners out of danger, retreated to the western waters, and left the prisoners in the charge of Clarke and Williams, to convey them to a place of safety in Virginia; for at that moment there was no corps of Americans south of that State. The brilliancy of this aflTair was obscured, as indeed were all the minor events of the previous war, by the deep gloom which overspread the public mind after the disastrous defeat of Gen. Gates. Ferguson was so solicitous to recapture the prisoners, and to check these daring adventures of the mountaineers, that he made a strenuous effort, with his main body, to intercept them ; but failing of his object, he took post at a place called Gilbert-town, from whence he sent the most threatening messages, by paroled prisoners, to the officers west of the mountains, proclaiming devastation to their Country, if they did not cease their opposition to the British government. This was the most disastrous and critical period of the revolutionary war, to the south. No one could see whence a force could be raised to check the enemy in their progress to subjugate this portion of the continent. Cornwallis, with the main army, was posted at Charlotte-town, in North Carolina, and Ferguson, with three thousand, at Gilbert-town ; while many of the best friends of the American government, despairing of the freedom and independence At this gloomy moment. of America, took protection under the British standard. Col. Shelby proposed to Cols. Sevier and Campbell to raise a force from their several counties, march hastily through the mountains, and attack and surprise Ferguson in the night. Accordingly, they collected with their followers, about one thousand strong, on Doe run, in the spurs of the Alleghany, on the 25th of September, 1780, and the next day commenced their march, when it was discovThis disconered that three of Col. Sevier's men had deserted to the enemy. certed their first design, and induced them to turn to the left, gain his front, and They traveled through mountains almost inaccesact as events might suggest. sible to horsemen. As soon as they entered the level country, they met with Col



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SHELBY COUiNTY.

716

Cleveland with three hundred men, and with Cols. Williams and Lacy, and other refugee officers, who had heard of Cleveland's advance, by which three hundred more were added to the force of the mountaineers. They now considered themselves to be sufficiently strong to encounter Ferguson; but being rather a confused mass, without any head, it was proposed by Col. Shelby, in a council of an officer officers, and agreed to, that Col. Campbell, of the Virginia regiment, of enterprise, patriotism, and good sense, should be appointed to the command. And having determined to pursue Ferguson with all practicable dispatch, two nights before the antion they selected the best horses and rifles, and at the dawn of day commenced their march with nine hundred and ten expert marksmen. As Ferguson was their object, they would not be diverted from the main point by any They pursued him for the last collection of tories in the vicinity of their route. thirty-six hours without alighting from their horses to refresh but once, at the Cowpens, for an hour, although the day of the action was so extremely wet, that the men could only keep their guns dry by wrapping their bags, blankets, and hunting shirts around the locks, which exposed their bodies to a heavy and incessant rain during the pursuit. By the order of march and of battle. Col. Campbell's regiment formed the the right wing right, and Col. Shelby's regiment the left column, in the centre was composed of Sevier's regiment, and Maj. Winston's and McDowell's battalions, commanded by Sevier himself; the left wing was composed of Col. Cleveland's regiment, the followers of Cols. Williams, Lacy, Hawthorn, and Hill, headed by Col. Cleveland in person. In this order the mountaineers pursued, until they found Ferguson, securely encamped on King's Mountain, which was about half a mile long, and from which, he declared the evening before, that "God Almighty could not drive him." On approaching the mountain, the two centre columns deployed to the right and left, formed a front, and attacked the enemy, while In a few minutes the the right and left wings were marching to surround him. continuing furiously for three-fourths of an action became general and severe hour when the enemy, being driven from the east to the west end of the mounFerguson was killed, with three hundred and setain, surrendered at discretion. venty-five of his officers and men, and seven hundred and thirty captured. The Americans had sixty killed and wounded ; of the former. Col. Williams. This glorious achievement occurred at the most gloomy period of the revolution, and was the first link in the great chain of events to the south, which estabHistory has, heretofore, though lished the independence of the United States. improperly, ascribed this merit to the battle of the Cowpens, in January, 1781 but it belongs, justly, to the victory on King's Mountain, which turned the tide of war to the south, as the victory of Trenton, under Washington, and of BenIt was achieved by raw, undisciplined nington, under Stark, did to the north. rifle'men, without any authority from the government under which they lived, without pay, rations, ammunition, or even the expectance of reward, other than that which results from the noble ambition of advancing the liberty and welfare It completely dispirited the tories, and so alarmed of their beloved country. Cornwallis, who then lay only thirty miles north of King's Mountain with the main British army, that, on receiving information of Ferguson's total defeat and overthrow by the riflemen from the west, under Cols. Campbell, Shelby, Cleveland and Sevier, and that they were bearing down upon him, he ordered an immediate retreat marched all night, in the utmost confusion and retrograded as far back as Winnsborough, sixty or eighty miles, whence he did not attempt to advance until reinforced, three months after, by Gen. Leslie, with two thousand men from the Chesapeake. In the meantime, the militia of North Carolina assembled in considerable force at New Providence, on the border of South Carolina, under Gen. Davidson; and Gen. Smallwood, with Morgan's light corps, and Gen. Gates, with the shattered the Maryland line, advanced to the same point. remains of his army, collected at Hillsborough, also came up, as well as the new This force enlevies from Virginia, of one thousand men, under Gen. Stevens. abled Gen. Greene, who assumed the command early in December, to hold Corn-





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wallis in check. The legislature of North Carolina passed a vote of thanks to Colonel Shelby officers, and directed each to be presented with an elegant sword, conduct in the attack and defeat of the enemy on King's moun-

and several other

for their patriotic

ISAAC SHELBY.

717

on the memorable 7th of October, 1780. This resolution was carried int« to Colonel Shelby, in the sunmier of 1813, just at the moment when, in the language of Secretary Monroe, " disclaiming all metaphysical distinctions tending to enfeeble the government," he was about to lead his troops lar beyond The presentation at that parthe limits of the State of which he was governor. ticular time, afforded a presage of the new glory he was to acquire for himself and country in that eventful campaign. If any were entitled to special commendation in this band of heroic spirits on King's mountain, the claim of Colonel Shelby would be well founded. He originated the expedition, and his valor and unshaken resolution, contributed to rally the right of the front line, when driven down the mountain by a tremendous charge from the enemy, at the onset of the battle. Nor have the histories of the war at the south done justice to the sagacity and judgment of Colonel Shelby npon another interesting occasion, just following the atlair on King's mountain. 4.S soon as he had placed the prisoners beyond the reach of the enemy, he repaired to the head quarters of General Gates, and suggested to him the plan of detaching General Morgan towards the mountains. The details of this arrangement were submitted by him, and approved by Gates, and Greene had the good The result of his advice jense to adopt them, after he assumed the command. was exhibited in the splendid affair at the Cowpens, which added fresh laurels 'o the veteran brows of Morgan, Huward and Washington. In the campaign of the fall of 1781, Colonel Shelby served under General He was called Marion, a distinguished partizan officer, of the boldest enterprise. Jown by General Greene to that lower country, with five hundred mounted rifleTien from the western waters, in September, 1781, to aid the general in intercept^•ng Cornwallis, at that time blockaded by the French fleet in the Chesapeake, and who, it was suspected, would endeavor to make good his retreat through North Carolina to Charleston; but, upon his lordship's surrender in Virginia, Colonel Shelby was attached to General Marion's command below, on the Santee, and was second in command of a strong detachment of dragoons, under Colonel Mayhem, ordered to carry a British post at Fairlawn, near Monk's Corner, eight Information or ten miles below the enemy's main army, under General Stuart. had been received by General Marion that five hundred Hessians at that post were in a state of mutiny, and would surrender to any considerable force that might appear before it. But the officer commanding the post having some apprehensions of their fidelity, had marched them off to Charleston, the day before The post, however, was surrendered, with Colonel Mayhem appeared before it. The British general at Ferguson's one hundred and fifty British prisoners. Swamp, nine miles in the rear, made great, though unavailing efforts to intercept Mayhem's party on their return with the prisoners to General Marion's excursion, the British commander retreated Immediately after this encampment. with his whole force to Charleston. As the period for which the mounted volunteers had engaged to serve was about to expire, and no further active operations being contemplated, after the retreat of the enemy towards Charleston, Colonel Shelby obtained leave of absence from General Marion, to attend the assembly of North Carolina, of which he was a member, which would sit two hundred miles distant, about the Marion addressed a letter on the subject to General Greene, first of December. which Colonel Shelby was permitted to see, speaking in high terms of the conduct of the mountaineers, and assigning particular credit to Colonel Shelby for his conduct in the capture of the British post, as it surrendered to him after an ineffectual attempt by an officer of the dragoons. In 1782, Colonel Shelby was elected a member of the North Carolina assembly, and was appointed one of the commissioners to settle the pre-emption claims upon the Cumberland river, and to lay off the lands allotted to the officers and Ho soldiers of the North Carolina line, south of where Nashville now stands. performed this service in the winter of 1782-3, and returned to Boonshorough, Kentucky, in April following, where he married Susanna, second dauffhter of Captain Nathaniel Hart, one of the first settlers of Kentucky, and one of the proprietors styled Henderson & Co., by their purchase of the courvtry from the CherHe established himself on the first settlement and pre-emption granted okees. in Kentucky, for the purpose of pursuing his favorite occupation, the cultivation tain,

effect as

718

SHELBY COUNTY.

of the soil ; and it is a remarkable fact, pregnant with many curious reflections, that at the period of his death, forty-three years after, he was the only individual in the Stale residing upon his own settlement and pre-emption. He was a member of the .early conventions held at Danville for the purpose of obtaining a separation from the State of Virginia; and was a member of that convention which formed the first constitution of Kentucky, in April, 1792. In May following, he was elected the first chief magistrate, and discharged its arduous duties wilh signal advantage to the State. The history of his administration of an infant republic in the remote wilderness, would fill a volume with deeply interesting incidents, exhibiting him advantageously in the character of a soldier, of a lawgiver, and a diplomatist ; but the limits prescribed to this sketch will not permit a detail of them. After completing the organization of the government under the provisions of the constitution, by filling the various offices created by it, the earnest attention of the governor was directed to the defence of the State against the Indian incursions, and the border war to which the people were exposed by thfeir remote and Gen. Washington's paternal regard to unprotected position in the wilderness. the same high object was manifested in the cautious and extensive arrangements which were made under the direction of Gen. Wayne for a strong expedition against the north-western Indians, who were stimulated and aided by the British and provincial forces occupying posts within our boundary. The confidence of Washington, as well as of the people of Kentucky, was reposed in the energy and patriotism of Gov. Shelby. This was evinced in his almost unanimous elevation to the chief magistracy, as well as in the answer of the first legislature to his message, and in a letter from Gen. Knox, secretary of war, of July 10, 1792. In the subsequent letter from the war department, the defensive operations for the protection of Kentucky were committed exclusively to his judgment and discretion, and whenever there was a prospect of acting offensively against the Indians of the north-west, the president made an appeal to his patriotism and that of the State, in furnishing mounted volunteers in aid of the regular force. His energy and the gallantry of Kentucky was signally displayed in the valuable succour rendered to Gen. Wayne on the memorable 20th of August, 1794. His enlightened forecast, and the valor of Kentucky, presented on this occasion, as on the equally glorious 5th of October, 1813, the means of victory both in men and transportation, at a critical moment to the scene of action to victories the most decisive in their results to any heretofore known in Indian warfare. Whilst the people of Kentucky were interrupted in their business and prosperity by the attention necessary to the progress of the Indian war, they were annoyed by continued apprehensions of losing the navigation of the Mississippi, on which their commercial existence depended. In the midst of these difficulties, a new and unexpected occasion presented itself for the display of Gov. Shelby's diplomatic sagacity. The complaints and remonstrances of the Spanish minister induced the general government to open a correspondence with Gov. Shelby, for the purpose of suppressing an expedition, which was represented to be in contemplation, by La Chaise and other French agents, against the possessions of Spain on the Mississippi. Gov. Shelby had no apprehensions that they would succeed in organizing the necessary force, and under this impression his reply to the department of state, October 5th, 1793, was forwarded, without considering that he had not authority under existing laws to interfere in preventing it. But the granting of commissions to Gen. Clark and other influential individuals, and the actual attempt to carry the plans of French emissaries into effect, induced the governor to examine the subject more thoroughly, and conceiving that he had no legal authority to interfere, he addressed a letter, January 13th, 1794, to the secretary of state, expressing these doubts, and assuming an attitude, which, though professing the most devoted regard to the Union, had the eflfect of drawing from the general government a full development of the measures w^hich had been pursued for securing the navigation of the Mississippi. These explanations by the department of state, and by the special commissioner, the eloquent Col. James Innes, attorney general of Virginia, who was deputed by Gen. Washington to proceed to Kentucky to communicate with the governor and legislature, removed all ground of uneasiness, and created a tranquillity in the public mind which had not existed iiince the first settlement of the State.



ISAAC SHELBY.

71'J

The whole suhject wascominiinicated by Gov. Shelby to the legislature on the 15th of November, IW4, and the part he took in it was approved by that body. Tlie act of Congress on the subject, passed after the receipt of Gov. Shelby's letter, shows conclusively that the legislature of the United States did not conceive that previously he had authority to interfere in the mode recommended by the department of state. This measure on the part of Gov. Shelby, though it might seem to conflict with the opinions and policy of Gen. Washington, did not produce in the mind of the father of his country any diminution of the respect and confidence he had theretofore reposed in him; for in May following. Gen. Knox, secretary of war, in a letter detailing the plans of the general government, in relation to Wayne's proposed campaign, takes occasion to say, that "the president, confiding in the patriotism and good disposition of your excellency, requests that you will afford all the facilities, countenance and aid in your power, to the proposed expedition, from which, if successful, the State of Kentucky will reap the most abundant advantages." In the next paragraph, he is appointed president of the board for selecting the field and company officers, and concludes with the assurance that " Gen. Wayne has been written to, not to interfere in the defensive protection of Kentucky, which is hereby, in the name of the president of the United States, confided to your excellency, under the following general paragraph,"

etc.

At the close of his gubernatorial term, he returned to his farm in Lincoln, with renewed relish for the cares and enjoyments which its management necessarily created. He was as distinguished for the method and judgment and industry, which he displayed in agricultural pursuits, as he had exemplified in the more conspicuous duties of the general and the statesman. He was the model of an elevated citizen, whether at the plow, in the field, or in the cabinet. He was repeatedly chosen an elector of president, and voted for Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Madison. He could not yield to the repeated solicitations of influential individuals in different parts of the State, requesting him to consent to be a candidate for the chief magistracy, until the exigencies of our national affairs had brought about a crisis which demanded the services of every patriot. In this contingency, he was elected, upon terms very gratifying to his feelings, a second time to the chief magistracy, at the commencement of the war, in 1812, with Great Britain. • Of his career at that eventful period, it would be impracticable, in the limits of this sketch, to present even an outline. His energy, associated with a recollection of his revolutionary fame, aroused the patriotism of the State. In every direction he developed her resources, and aided in sending men and supplies to the support of the north-western army under Gen. Harrison. The legislature of Kentucky, in the winter of 1812-13, contemplating the necessity of some vigorous effort, in the course of that year, to regain the ground lost by the disasters at Detroit and at the river Raisin, passed a resolution authorising and requesting the governor to assume the personal direction of the troops of the State, whenever, in his judgment, such a step would be necessary. Under this authority, and at the solicitation of Gen. Harrison, he invited his countrymen to meet him at Newport, and to accompany him to the scene of active, and, as he predicted, of decisive operations. Upon his own responsibility he authorized the troops to meet him with their horses. Four thousand men rallied to his standard in less than thirty days ; and this volunteer force reached the shore of Lake Erie just in time to enable the commander-in-chief to profit by the splendid victory, achieved by the genius and heroism of Perry and his associates. It was a most interesting incident, which augured favorably of the issue of the campaign, that Gov. Shelby should arrive at the camp of Gen. Harrison precisely at the moment when Commodore Perry was disembarking his prisoners. The feelings of congratulation which were exchanged by the three heroes, at the tent of the general on the shore of Lake Erie, may be more readily conceived than described. The writer of this article had been previously dispatched by Gen. Harrison to Commodore Perry, to ascertain the result of the naval battle, and, returning vi'ith Perry, was present at this interview. In the organization which Governor Shelby made of his forces, he availed himself of the character and respectability of the materials at his command. Generals Henry and Desha were assigned to the command of the two divisions,

720

SHELBY COUNTY.

and General Calmea, Caldwell, King, Chiles and Callaway to the brigades. His confidential staff was composed, among other respectable citizens, of the names of Adair, Crittenden and Barry, so well known in the history of the State and As governor of Kentucky, his authority ceased as soon as he of the nation. passed the limits of the State; but the confidence of General Harrison and of all the troops, in his judgment and patriotism was so exalted, that he was regarded as the Mentor of the campaign, and recognized as the senior major-general of the Kentucky troops. In the general order of march and of battUs, the post assigned to him was the most important, and the subsequent battle evinced that the arrangement was as creditable to the sagacity of General Harrison as it was complimentary to the valor of Governor Shelby. In all the movements of the campaign, whether in council or execution, monuments of his valor and of his energetic character were erected by the gratitude of the commander-in-chief, of all his troops, and of the president of the nation, who spoke olficially of his services with the veneration which belongs only to public benefactors. The legislature of Kentucky and the Congress of the United States expressed their sense of his gallant conduct in resolutions which will transmit his name to posterity, 'as a patriot without reproach and a soldier without ambition.' The vole of Congress assigning to him and to General Harrison each a gold medal, commemorative of the decisive victory on the Thames, was delayed one session in consequence of some prejudice prevailing in the public mind in relation to General Harrison. As soon as Governor Shelby was advised of this fact, he solicited his friends in Congress, through Mr. Clay, to permit no expresxion of thanks to him, unless associated uith Ike name of General Harrison. This magnanimous conduct and the unqualified commendation which he gave of the career of General Harrison on that campaign, connected with a favorable report of a committee at the next session of Congress, instituted at the request of the general, of which Colonel R. M. Johnson was chairman, led to the immediate adoption of the original resolution. Governor Shelby was unremitting in the aid which he extended to the operations of the general government during the war. He furnished troops to defend the country around Detroit, and dispatched an important reinforcement to General Jackson for the defence of New Orleans. His sagacity led him to send General Adair as adjutant-general, with the rank of brigadier-general, to mee\ the precise contingency, which actually occurred, of General Thomas being sick or disabled. The result of this measure was exhibited in the critical succor afforded by General Adair on the memorable 8th of January. In the civil administration of the State, Governor Shelby's policy continued to establish and confirm the sound principles of his predecessors. Integrity, fidelity to the constitution, and capacity, were the qualifications which he required in public officers: and his recommendations to the legislature enforced a strict regard to public economy and to the claims of public faith. In the fall of 1816, his term expired, and he retired again to the sweets of domestic life, in the prosecution of his favorite pursuit. In March, 1817, he was selected by President Monroe to fill the department of war; but his advanced age, the details of the office, and his desire, in a period of peace, to remain in private life, induced him to decline an acceptance of it. In 1818, he was commissioned by the president to act in conjunction with General Jackson in holding a treaty with the Chickasaw tribe of Indians, for the purchase of their lands west of the Tennessee river within the limits of Kentucky and Tennessee, and they obtained a cession of the territory to the United States, which unites the western population, and adds greatly to the defence of the country, in the event of future wars with the savages, or with any European power. This was his last public act. In February, 18'30, he was attacked with a paralytic affisction, which disabled his right arm, and which was the occasion of his walking lame on the right leg. His mind continued unimpaired until his death, by apoplexy, on the 18th July,

Ue had been for many years a member 1826, in the 76tb year of his age. of the Presbyterian church; and in his latter days, was the chief instrument in erecting a house of worship upon his own land.

SIMPSON COUNTY.

SIMPSON COUNTY. in 1819, out of parts of Logan, Warren, and Allen countie?, and named after Capt. Jolin Simpit was the 63d county formed, and retains its original boundson is It is situated in the extreme southern part of the state aries. bounded N. by "Warren, e. by Allen, s. by the Tennessee state line (which separates it from Sumner and Robertson counties, Tenn.), and w. by Logan county and is drained by Big Barren river and its tributaries, on the N. and E., and on the s. by Red

Simpson county was formed ;

;

;

The

generally level, or slightly undulating. The soil, based on limestone, with red clay foundation, is very The staple products are wheat, corn, oats, and toproductive. bacco a large portion of the county is fine grazing laud. Towns. Franklin, on the Louisville and Nashville railroad, and on the turnpike between the two places, 134 miles s. of Louisville, 51 N. of Nashville, Tenn., 6 miles n. of the Tennessee state line, and about 150 miles from Frankfort ; contains a fine brick court house and other county buildings, 13 lawyers, 11 physicians, 6 churches (1 used by Baptist and Reformed or Christian, 1 Methodist E. South, 1 Cumberland Presbyterian, 1 Roman Catholic, and 2 for colored people), 24 stores (14 dry goods, 2 hardware, 1 jewelry, 7 grocery), 3 hotels, 31 mechanics' shops and factories, 4 mills (1 wool carding, 1 saw, and 2 flouring), 1 National bank, 1 male and 1 female seminary of high grade, 1 newspaper (Franklin Sentinel, commenced Dec. 14, 1867), and several other business establishments; population iu 1870, 1,808, an increase of nearly 1,000 since 1860, and growing steadily ; incorporated Nov. 2, 1820, and named after Dr. Benjamin Franklin. Middleton, 9 miles W. of Franklin, on the Russellville road, has a hotel, 2 stores, 2 physicians, 3 mechanics' shops, a tannery, and about 60 inhabitants. Palmyra, on the upper Scottsville road, 8 miles e. of Franklin, has about 40 inhabitants, a store, anil several shops. river.

;

surface

is



Statistics of Simpson County.

When

Seepage

formed

Population, from 1820 to 1870 " whites and colored

"

26

p. 258 p. 260

"

towns white males over 21

"

children bet, 6 and 20

262 p. 266 p. 266 p.

Hay,

corn, wheat, tobacco... pages 266, 263 Horses, mules, cattle, and hogs p. 268 Taxable property, in 1846 and 1870. p. 270 Land No. of acres, and value p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 Distinguished citizens see Index.



Mkubees of the Lkgislatuek from Simpson County. Senate.— Dt. A.

C. Vallandigham, 1867-71. of Jiepreienlulivea.—V/m. Lynch, 1820, '21 John A. Robertson, 1822 Wm. Hodge, 1824 Jas. Miller, 1825; Wm. Harris, 1826; Henry B. Montam(e.— Isaac Burnett, 1836^3 Geo. W. Barbour, 1848-50 Ira Ellis, 1851-55; [See Todd and Marshall counties.] T. W. Hammond, 1863-67. i^ou«eo/'iJepre»cii(n(ii)es.—Chas. Caldwell, 1824; George Street, 1825, '26; Abraham Boyd, 1827, '28; George Venable, 1829; Lipscomb Norvell, 1830 Lynn Boyd, 1831; ;

;

;

Jas. E. Thompson, 1832; Isaac Burnett, 1833, '34, '51-53; Sinco A. G. Noel, 1835 ; Lisenby Nance, 1836, '40 ; Geo. W. Barbour, J837 ; Thos. B. Redd, 1838, '39; Allen T. Noe, 1841, "42, '43, '48; Chas. Humphreys, 1844, '53-55 John C. Whitloek, 1845 ; Gordon B. Grasty, W^ra. Soer, 1846, '47; Stanly Thomas, 1849 ; Daniel Landes, 1850 1855-57; John I. Roach, 1857-59: Young A. Linn, 1859-61; John W. Gaines, 1861-63, resigned Jan. 20th, 1862, succeeded by John Humphries, Jan., 1863; Samuel Larkins, 1863-65 ; Fenton Sims, 1865-69; George W. Quick, 1869-71 M. E. MoKenzie. 1871-73. From Trigg and Christian— Jas. Ruffin, Jas. C. Cravens, 1820 ; Thos. Barnet, 1822. From Trigg— Matt. McKiuuey, 1873-75. ;

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;

The Cerulean Spring, in the N. corner of the county, on the waters of Little The temperature of the water of the river, is popular as a watering place. The water issues at the spring was 56° F., while that of the air was 80°. The spring is strongly impregnated with 1 to \\ gallons per minute. both sulphate and chloride of magnesia, with soda, bicarbonate of lime, and free sulphuretted hydrogen. Another Mineral Spring is in Little river, near the residence of S. S. Lindsey— said to be of stronger qualities than the water from the Cerulean spring.The Water Power of Trigg county is well distributed, abundant, and reliable a number of mills being established upon Muddy Fork, Sinking Fork, Little river has been declared, by legislative enactand Donaldson creek. ment, a navigable stream up to Cadiz, 17 miles and a regular survey in 1857 ascertained that the erection of two locks and dams would make permanent slack-water navigation to that point. Hydraulic Limestone is found 4 miles above the mouth of Little river. Lead Ore has been discovered, but not in workable lodes. Iron Ore of fine quality abounds, along the Tennessee, Cumberland, and lower part of Little rivers. Three blast furnaces, and several others for th» manufacture of pig metal, were in operation before the war. Analyses by the state geological survey showed the percentage of metallic iron in the pot ore from Kmpire and Center furnaces to be 60.605 and 47.230, respectively and the brown ore from the same, 48.009 and 51.511; while in tlie pot and brown ores from the Fulton furnace, it was 53.973 and 51.599. Other ores showed 39.28 and 55.60 per cent, of iron. The limestone in their neighborhoods, used as a flux, contained 52.210, 53.276, and 38.764 percentage of rate of



;

;

pure lime. Timber is

still abundant, except near the furnaces, where it has been to some extent exhausted. The First White Visitors to Trigg county except occasional canoe trips, up or down the Cumberland and Tennessee, of French and American adventurwere Ur. Thomas Walker and Daniel Smith, the Virginia ers or explorers





TRIMBLE COUNTY.

732

commissioners appointed to eslablish the boundary line between the western portions of Virj^iuia and North Carolina (now Kentucky and Tennessee), and their surveying party. On the 23d of March, 1780, having run tlie line entirely across Trigg county westward, and across Tennessee river, they closed They made a tolerably their survey, according to directions from Richmond. One of them went down the first ever made. (jood map oi" Cumberland river the river with the baggage, while the other proceeded through the woods with the survey. Their report speaks of the Cumberland as " a fine river, navigable at least 700 miles from its mouth."



Col.

Stephen Trigg, after who first came to

Virginia



whom

this

county was named, was a native of

Kentucky

the district of

in the fall of 1779, as

a member of the court of land commissioners; and after tliat body had concluded its labors, in the spring of 1780, determined to make the new country his permanent home. In that year he settled a station called Trigg's station, or Viney tJrove (and sometimes called Haggin's station after Trigg's death, because John Haggin lived there)— 4 miles^N. E. of Harrodsburgh, on Cane run, 4 miles from "its mouth at Dick's river. He soon became noted for his activity against the Indians; and fell, Aug. 19, 1782, in the fatal and bloody battle of the Blue Licks, while bravely leading his men to the charge. He was greatly beloved and very popular and if he had lived, would have taken rank aiuong the most distinguished men of his time.



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TRIMBLE COUNTY. county, the 86th formed in the state, \va.s established in 1836, out of parts of Gallatin, Henry, and Oldham It is counties, and named iu honor of Judge Robert Trimble. situated in the northern part of the state, immediately on the Ohio river; is bounded w. and N. by the Oliio river for 21 miles, u. E. by Carroll, and s. e. and s. by Henry and Oldham counaud contains about 145 square miles, being one of the smallest ties Ijittle Kentucky river flows counties (there are but siv smaller). uorthward entirely across or through the E. part of the county, and empties into the Ohio, in Carroll county, one mile below the mouth of the Kentucky river; among the other streams are The valSpring, Corn, Barebone, Middle, and Patton creeks. leys on the Ohio river are unsurpassed in fertility; and the upThe lands, though hilly and broken, art! quite productive. principal productions and exports are tobacco, blackberries, corn, wheat, oats, hogs, and cattle. Towns. The county seat, Bedford, near the center of the county, about 50 miles from Frankfort, and 14 miles from the Ohio river at Milton besides the usual public buikling.s, has 3 churches (Methodist, Baptist, and Reformed or Christian), 3 hotels, 4 lawyers, 4 physicians, 3 stores, 4 mechanics' shops, a wool carding factory, and a steam grist mill population in 1870, 200 a falling off of one-fifth since 1860 ; incorporated Feb. 6, Milton, on the Ohio river, opposite Madison, Indiana, 46 1816. miles above Louisville and 96 below Cincinnati, is one of the oldest towns in the state, having been established by law of Virginia in 1789, three years before Kentucky became a state; it has 2 stores; population iu 1870, 223, a falling off since 1860

Trimble

;



;



;

TRIMBLE COUNTY.

733

Kingston, on the Oliio river, liacl 59 inhabitants in 1870, of 36. and 3 stores. Palmi/ra, 6 miles from Bedford and 8 from Milton, is a small village ; its post office name is Winona. Statistics of Thimble Cohntt.

When

formed

Seepage 26

Population, from 1840 to 1870 " white? and colored

" " "

258 260 towns p. 262 white males over 21 p. 266 children bet. 6 and 20 yrs. p. 266

I

,..p.

p.

|

I

|

Tobacco, hay, corn, wheat pp. 266, 268 Horses, mules, cattle, hogs p. 268 in 1846 and 1870. ..p. 270 Land— No. of acres, and value of.. ..p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 Distinguished citizens see Index.

Taxable property

Mkmbers of the Legislature from Trimble County. [See Henrv co.] Seuat,.—-Ev:,n M. Garriott, 186.5-69. Home 0/ Rfprnenlnlivet.— Dame] B. Johnson, 1841, '42, '4.3, '45, '53-55 ; Robert B. Gray, 1844; Samuel S. English, 1846 John B. Flnyd, 1847; Benj. H. Logan, 1848 ; Benj. P. McConnell, 1849 ; Ambrose H. Talbott, 1850, '57-59 ; E'van M. Garriott, 1861-65; George W. Lemon, 1865-67, resigned 1866, succeeded by Richard Bell; From Trimble and Carroll counties— Benj. Gullion, 1855-57. J. R. Sanders, 1871-73. From Trimble— John Preston, 1873-75. ;

The Conchitic Marble, from a quarry on Corn creek, near or at the Ohio Trimble county, is of a drab-i;ray color, and contains niany fragments of shells, and very small portions of coral cemented by pure minute crystals " '" It receives a very good' polish, of calcareous spar. and nd has indications of great durability. Part of it is quite variegated in color with pink, pinkish brown, or fle.sh colored spots or patches. The corresponding vein in Indiana was worked to some extent in 1853, and then pi'onounced by an able geologist " the best and most beautiful material for constructions and ornamental purposes that had come within his notice from any western locality." The following is from the autobiography of Battle of the Fire-Brands. Rev. Jacob Young, a Methodist minister: "The costume oif the Kentuckians was a hunting shirt, buckskin pantaloons, a leathern belt around their middle, a scabbard, and a big knife fastened to Their feet were covered their belt; some of them wore hats and some caps. with moccasins, made of dressed deer-skins. Tiiey did not think themselves dressed without their powder-horn and shot-pouch, or the gun and tomahawk. They were ready, then, for all alarms. They knew but little. They could clear ground, raise corn, and kill turkeys, deer, bears, and buffalo and, when it became necessary, they understood the art of iigliting the Indians as well as any men in the United States. " Shortly after we had taken up our residence, I was called upon to assist in opening a road from the place where Newcastle now stands, to the mouth 'J'hat country, then, was an unbroken forest; there was of Kentucky river. nothing but an Indian trail passing the wilderness. I met the company early in the morning, with my axe, three days' provisions, and my knapsack. Here 1 found a captain, with about 100 men, all prepared to labor; about as jovial a company as I ever saw, all good-natured and civil. This was The day was cold and clear. about the last of Koveinber, 1797. The country through which the company passed was delightful; it was not a flat country, but, wliat the Kentuckians called, rolling ground was quite well stored with lofty timber, and the undergrowth was very pretty. The beautiful canebrakes gave it a peculiar charm. What rendered it most interesting was the great abundance of wild turkeys, deer, bears, and other wild animals. 'J'he company worked hard all d;iy, in quiet, and every man obeyed the captain's orders punctually. " About sundown, the captain, after a short address, told us the night was going to be very cold, and we must make very large fires. felled the hickory trees in great abundance; made great log-heaps, mixing the dry wood with the green hickory; and, laying down a kind of sleepers under the pile, elevated the heap and caused it to burn rapidly. Every man had a water-vessel in his knapsack we searched for and found a stream of water. Hv this lime, the lires were showing to great advantage; so we warmed our cold victuals, ate our sujipers, and spent the evening in hearing the hunter's river, in





;



We

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TRIMBLE COCNTT.

734

We then beard bloody scenes of the Indian war. Bome pretty fine sinfjing, considering the circumstances. "Thus far, well; but a change began to take place. They became very Their shrill shrieks made me tremble. rude, and raiced the war-whoop. They chose two captains, divided the men into two companies, and commenced fighting with the fire-brands— the log-heaps having burned down. The only law for their government was, that no man should throw a brand without fire on it so that they might know how to dodge. They fought, for two or three hours, in perfect good nature till brands became scarce, and they began to violate the law. .Some were severely wounded, blood began to flow freely, and they were in a fair way of commencing a fight in earnest. At this moment, the loud voice of the captain rang out above the din, orderThey dropped their weapons of warfare, ing every man to retire to rest. We finished our road according rekindled the fires, and laid down to sleep. to directions, and returned home in health and peace." Btories relative

to

the



;

The Hon. Robert Trimble, in honor of whom this county received its name, was born in Berkeley county, Virginia, and when three years old, his father emigrated to Kentucky. His parents were not affluent, but occupied a respectable position in the agricultural population of ihe country. He received but the imperfect rudiments of an education, such only as could be had in a new settlement, so distant from the seats of learning in the older States. He, however, improved himself, by teaching for a few years, and reading carefully the scanty libraries afforded by his neighborhood. After so imperfect a probation, he commenced the study of the law, under George Nicholas. That eminent man dying before he had completed his studies, he continued them under James Brown ; and, He comin 1803, was licensed by the court of appeals to practice his profession. menced his career in Paris, and in the same year was elected a member of the But the stormy life of a politician not legislature from the county of Bourbon. being congenial to his disposition or taste, he ever afterwards refused to he a candidate for political office even to be nominated, on two occasions, for the United States' senate, when his assent only was necessary to secure his election. He devoted himself exclusively to his profession, and rapidly rose to the first class of jurists. In 1808, he was commissioned second judge of the court of appeals. He retained this place but a short time, but long enough to greatly distinguish himself in it by his rectitude, learning and ability. He was appointed chief justice of Kentucky in 1810, but, in consequence of his limited circumstances, declined the first judicial station in the commonwealth. After retiring from the bench, he resumed, with great assiduity, the practice of his profession and, in 1813, was appointed a district attorney for the State. He continued at the bar, with eminent and profitable success, until 1816, when he was appointed by President Madison judge of the Kentucky district. He filled this office until 1826, when he was promoted by .John Quincy Adams to the supreme court of the United States. He died the 25th day of August, 1828, in the fifty-second year of hia age, and in the full vigor of his powers. It is not often that the august tribunal to which he belonged, has sustained a greater loss. His mind was characterized by deliberation, clearness, e.xpansion





;

and

force.

As a

argumentation.

Such was

forensic debater, he combined flowing eloquence and powerful studied law upon principle, and comprehended it as a science. though early proficiency, that, in the year 1818, the sole profor Transylvania University was tendered to him by the boa-d

He

his ripe

fessorship of law necesof trustees, and his acceptance earnestly urged upon him by Mr. Clay. sary change of residence induced him to decline a place so honorable and respon-

A

sible.

As a judge of the highest State court, he had no superior in diligence, learning, ability and uprightness; and on being transferred to the supreme tribunal of the nation, both Chief Justice Marshall and Judge Story pronounced him to be not only a lawyer of the first order, but also one of the most improvable men they had ever known. Had Providence spared his life to ordinary old age, he would have fully vindicated his title to rank with those great jurists. But his private virtues, and his simple, noble nature, shed a lustre upon his name above all that which was derived from great

intellect, ripe attainments,

and high

station.

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UNION COUNTY.

UNION COUNTY. Union county, the 55tli formed in the state, was taken entirely from the w. part of Henderson county, in 1811, and thus described Beginning at the upper point of the Eigliteen-miie island (formerly called Elk island, and in 1840 known to boatmen as Slim island), on the Ohio river; thence a straight line to Highland creek, one mile above Higgins' mill (measured along the meanders of the creek) thence up the said creek to the Wiiite-lick fork tliereof thence a direct and straight Hue, by ^'Harpe's Head,"* to the line of Hopkins county thence, with that line, to Tradewater river ; thence down the same to the Ohio river, and up the Ohio to the beginning. The origin of the name is in doubt; but the generally received ofjinion is that it was so named because of the hearty unanimity with which the people assented to the proposed division of the old county. Thus, it is bounded N., n. w., and w. by the Ohio river, for 41 miles N. E. by Henderson county; s. E. by Webster; and s. w. by Crittenden county and embraces about 316 square miles of territory. Shawneetown, Illinois, and the mouths of the Wabash and Saline rivers, are all opposite this county. The face of the country is level, undulating, and in some parts hilly. The soil Corn and tobacco are the staple products, but all other is good. crops usual in the state are cultivated, and horses, mules, cattle, sheep, and hogs exported. Towns. Morganjield, the seat of justice, is 7 miles w. of S. of the Ohio river at Uniontown has a new court house which cost $60,000 its population, by the U. S. census, was 219 in 1830, 460 in 1860, and only 300 in 1870 it was laid off in 1812, and named after Gen. Morgan of the llevolutionary army incorpoUniontoion, on the Ohio river, 234 miles rated Feb. 22, 1860. below Louisville and 135 above Cairo, is a place of considerable business; population 1,046 in 1860, and 896 in 1870; derived incorporated Feb. its name from the Miiiori of two small villages CaseyviUe, on the Ohio river, 1^ miles above the 12, 1840. mouth of Tradewater (the extreme s. w. corner of the county), 262 miles below Louisville and 60 above Paducah incorporated Dec, 1837 population 623 in 1860, and 520 in 1870. Raleigh, on the Oiiio river, 11 miles below Uniontown and 17 above CaseyviUe incorporated March 22, 1851. Clayville was incorporated Feb. 25, 1860 ; Francisburg, Jan. 17, 1839 Locust Fort, Feb. 22, 1839. :

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Statistics of Union County.

When

formed

Populution, from 1820

..See

1

1870 lored

towDS white males over 21 children bet. 6 and 20 yrs.

p.

258

p. 260

262 p. 266 p. 266

p.

Tobacco, hay, corn, wheat. ..pages 266, 268 Horses, mules, cattle, hogs page 268 Taxable property, in 1846 and 1870 p. 270 Land— No. of acres, and value of.. ..p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 Distinguished citizens see Index.

* See under Hopkins county, for the origin of

thii

ad locality.

WAKREN COUNTY.

736

Members of the LEOisLATrsK from Union County. Smate.— Jus. Townsend, 1828-30; Samuol Casoy, 1830-32; Hirnm McEIroy, 1841^5; Wni. Spalding, 1849 Samuel Davciss Delany. 1850 Ben. P. Cisscll, 1839-63, resigned 1862, succeeded by Willis W. Gardner, 1862-67 Ignatius A. Spalding, 1867-71. House of Representatives.— Jas. Townsend, 1820 ; Hugh McElroy, 1821, '22; Wm. Spalding, 1824, '25, '26, '27; John S. Lewright, 1829, '34; Jos. R. Delany, 1832; Wm. Grundy, 1833; Hiram McElroy, 1835, '36, '37, '38, '50, '55-67, '59-61 ; John Imboden, 1839, '40, '44 Gibson B. Taylor, 1841; Abner Davis, 1842; Chas. C. P. Ignatius A. Spalding, 1846 JefferGilchrist, 1843 Willis G. Hughes, 1845, '47, '48 son Brown, 1849; Thos. R. Giveus, 1851-53; Thos. Conway, 1853-55; Benj. M. Winston, 1857-59 Robert A. Spalding, 1861-63 Jas. T. Pierson, ]86:i-65 Jas. W. George W. Riddle, 1869-71, '73-75 Finnic, 1865-67; Peter Abell, 1867-69 John W. Dyer, 1871-73. [See Henderson county.] :

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Springs and Curiosities.— The county of Union abounds in mineral springs. One of tliese a fine white sulphur spring five miles from Morjranfield, has been a popular and fashionable watering place. The other springs which possess any notoriety, contain chalybeiite water of fine quality. A few miles iVom Uniontown, on Highland creek, there is a tar or American oil spring, from which tar or oil constantly flows, in considerable quantities. About eifrht miles from Morganfield, there is a large, flat roch, with a number of deeply indented and perfectly distinct impressions of the naked feet of human beings, of all sizes, together with very plain footprints of the About three miles from Caseyville, there is a rock, called the "Anvil dog. Rock" which closely resembles a blacksmith's anvil. It is about fifty feet high, twenty feet in width, and two feet thick, with a projection or spur like the horn of an anvil. This rock stands upion level bottom land, entirely isolated and by what process it was placed there, in an erect position, "must There is also a hitl, in the center of an extended forever remain a mystery. river bottom or plain, which is about three-fourths of a mile long, half a mile wide, and from eighty to one hundred feet in height. 'J'here is, likewise, a cave in the county, which is believed to be of great extent, but heretofore very partially explored, lu this cave a number of human bones have been found.





J

Gen. OrmSbt M.iCKNiGHT Mitchell, a distinguished American astronomer, was born in Union co., Ky., Aug. 28, 181U, and died of yellow fever at

South Carolina, Oct. 30, 1862, aged 52. He received his early education in Lebanon, Ohio; was appointed to a cadetship at West Point in 1825; graduated in 1829, fifteenth in a class of 46 among whom were those distinguished Confederate chieftains, Uobert E. Lee and Joseph E. Johnston. He tilled the position of professor of mathematics in that institution for two years; subsequently studied law and practiced in Cincinnati until 1834 when lie was elected professor of mathematics, philosophy, and astronomy in the Cincinnati College. In 1845, he succeeded in the establishment of an observatory in Ciuciunati, raising the requisite amount of money therefor by his own exertions. In 1859, he was chosen director of the Albany (N. Y.; observatory, and also retained his connection with that in Ciuciunati. He was a popular lecturer on astronomy, and liis contributions to science, oral and written, were valuable. Among his published works are " I'lanetary and tjtellar Worlds," " Popular Astronomy, and a treatise on algebra. He was commissioned a brigadier general in the Union army, Aug., 1861, and afterBeaufort,



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'

wards promoted

to

major general.

He was commander

of the

"

Department

of the tiouth " at the time of his death.

WARREN COUNTY. Warrex

county, the 24th formed in the .state, was established in 179(J out of part of Logan, and uanied in honor of Gen. Jos. Warren, the hero of Bunker Hill. It embraces about 5(30 square

VJ1W

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WARREN COUNTY.

737

and is bounded N. by Butler and Edmonson counties, E. miles by Barren, s. by Allen and Simpson, and w. by Logan and Big Barren river, which heads near the Cumberland Butler. its tributaries in the county are river, runs through this county Bay's fork, Drake's and Jennings' creeks, and Gaspar river. There are several mineral springs in the county, one of which, ;

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3 miles from Bowlinggreen, in the character of its water is much like the Ijower Blue Lick, in Nicholas county. The face of the country is gently undulating; the soil fertile and productive, based mostly on red clay and limestone foundation. The principal articles of export are tobacco, wheat, corn, and pork. Bowlinggreen, Towns. the county seat, is at the head of steamboat slackwater navigation on the Big Barren river, 189 miles by that and Green river from the Ohio river also, on the Louisville and Nashville railroad, 114 miles from the former and 71 from the latter city, and is the point of junction of the Memphis and Louisville branch railroad, 263 miles from Memphis, 64 from Clarksville, Tenn., and 39 from Russellville, Ky. it is 145 It has, next to that at Louisville, the miles S. w. of Frankfort. most elegant court house in Kentucky, built in 1868-9, at a cost of $125,000, 2 banks, 2 newspapers {Democrat and Pantagraph), 10 churches, several seminaries of a high grade, 25 lawyers, a including in large number of business houses and manufactories the latter one of the finest factories of woolen goods in the state, and the extensive railroad machine shops. No small city in the Union has so handsome a public park and fountain, nor such superior water works (the reservoir at a height of 235 feet, ren-



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dering fire-engines unnecessary) ; it has also excellent gasworks; population in 1870, 4,574, and in 1873, about 6,000; first incorThe other railroad stations are: Bristow, porated Feb. 12, 1810. Smith's Grove, Oakland, Rich Pond, Woodburn, Memphis Junction, and Moclcfield, at several of which are thriving villages. Other Claypool, Elk Spring, Green Hill, post offices or villages are Hadley, Honaker's Ferry. Martinsville is on Barren river, 13 Woodburn was incorporated Feb. miles s. E. of Bowlinggreen. 5, 1866, Rich Pond Feb. 7, 1871, and Smith's Grove March 21, 1871. Statistics of Wareen County. :

When formed

Seepage

26

p. 258 p. 260

Population, from 1800 to 1870 " whites and colored

Tobacco, corn, wheat, hay...page5 266, 268 Horses, mules, cattle, hogs p. 268 Taxable property, 1846 and 1870. ..p. 270 Land No. of acres, and value p. 270 Latitude and longitude p. 257 see index. Distinguished citizens



Members of the Legislature from Warren County. Senntc— John Williams, 1803-13 John Ray, 1813-16; John B. Smith, 1816-17 Wm. C. Payne, 1829-33; Henry Francis Johnson, 1817-20; Cornelius Turner, 1820 Warner L. Underwood, 1849; Thos. J. Grider, 1833-37; Wm. V. Loving, 1841-44 Smith, 1850, '51-55; George Wright, 1855-59, '63-67; Wm. H. Payne, 1867-71. [From Warren and Barren counties— John Curd, 1800; Simeon Buford, 1801-03.] flou.6 of Reprcentatives.—'Da.yii Hodgpeth, 1799; H. Baily Anderson, 1800, '01, •02 John Ray, 1803 James Ray, 1806 Solomon P. Sharp, 1809, '10, '11, '17, '18; Francis Johnson, 1812, '15 ; Thos. A. Covington, 1809, '10 Willis Mitchell, 1811 ;

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II. ..47

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WARREN COUNTY.

738 Graham, — W.

1812; Wm. B. Payne, E. Johnson, 18U John B. Smith, 1815 Juhn Cooke, 1816 ; Cornelius Turner, 1816, '17, '18, '19 Jas. Thomas, 1819 Robert F. Slaughter, 1820, '21; Jas. M. Blakey, 1820, '22 ; Leander J.Sharp, 1822; Thos. Jos. R. Underwood, 1825, '26, '45, Middleton, 1824; Wm. C. Payne, 1824, '28, '37 Henry Grider, 1827, '31; Jas. T. '60, '61-63; Jas. R. Skiles, 1825, '26, '27, '40, '41 Morebead, 1828, '29, '30 George Shanks, 1829, '30 ; Isaac Smith, 1831, '39 George W. Lucas, 1832, '35; Euclid M. Covington, 1832, '34, '46 Jacob Vanmetre, 1833 ; John F. Todd, 1833, '36, '33; Jas. Hines, 1834, '36, '39; Garland J. Blewitt, 1835; Isaac Smith, 1838 ; Wm. V. Loving, 1810 Houston Coombs, 1841 ; . Mitchell, 1837; Hezekiah P. Murrell, 1842 Jeremiah C. M'ilkins, 1842, '47 Jonathan Hobson, Chns. W.Jenkins, 1843; John Burnam, 1844 Warner L. Unilerwood, 1848; Elijah Clavpool, 1849; Pierce B. Hawkins, 1850, '63-65 ; Chas. M. Briggs, 1851-53; Robert Rodes, 1853-55; George C. Rogers, 1855-57; Pleasant Hines, 1857-59, '59-61, but resigned 1860, and succeeded by Jos. R. Underwood; Pleasant J. Potter, 1865-67 ; Hezekiah K. Thomas, 1867-69 Henry H. Skiles, 1869-71 Lewis Potter, 1871-73 ; D. W. Wright, [Joseph R. Underwood was Speaker, 1845.] 1873-75. ;

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Jacob Shiles was a pioneer of Warren county. (t?ee, under Mason county, page 569, an account of liis capture by Indians.) Ancient Marks on Trees. On the north side of Barren river, about a quarter of a mile above the old Vanmeter ferry and three miles from Bowlin^green, some beech trees are still standing which indicate the campini; ground, in iJune, 1775, of an exploring party of thirteen, from the new settlements at Ilarrodstown (now Harrodsbuig) and Ilarrod's station (both in now Mercer Of these, eight became prominent in the settlement and wars of county). One, H. Skaggs, had been with central Kentucky, and one as a surveyor. 'riiese were probably the " Long Hunters," in 1770, to the south-east of this, the Jirst white visitors to this county who remained as long as ten days. One tree has engraven on its bark, on the north side, the names of the th'irteen persons. The letters were handsomely cut with some instrument adapted to the purpose. The highest name is about nine feet from the ground, the lowest four feet. They stand in the following order, beginning with the uppermost and descending to the lowest, to wit: J. Newell or Neaville,* E. Bulger. I. Hite, V. Harman, J. Jackman, VV. Buchannon, A. Bowman, J. Drake, N. Nail, H. Skaggs, J. Bowman, Tho. Slaughter, J. Todd. The date is thus given " 1775, June Th 13." The apparent age of the marks corresponds with the date. About five steps south of the above named tree, and near the verge of the river bank, stands a beech, marked on the north side with the name of " Wm. Buchanan," and dated "June 14th, 1775." On the south side of the same tree, there is the name of " J. Todd," dated " June 17, 1775." About twenty steps north of the first tree, there stands a third beech, with the names of I. Drake, and Isaac Hite engraved, and each with the date " 15 June, 1775." Above the names the date " June 23, 1775." The names and dates on this tree seem to be as old as any, but made with a different instrument from that which cut tlie names on the first tree, and they are not so well executed. These dates from the 13th to the 23d, prove that the party encamped at that place ten days. About fifty yards up the river from the first named tree, there stands a beech with a name now illegible, cut in the bark over the date 1779. On the same tree, the name of H. Lynch is carved over the date 1796. Where are now those pioneers 1 They have ceased to follow the deer, the elk, the bear, the buffalo and beaver, which were then abundant in this region; and their children are hunters no more. The animals which their fathers pursued, have become extinct. The wilderness they traversed, now blooms with the arts and refinements of civilized life. Caves are very numerous in this county. Some of them would be regarded as considerable curiosities, if there were no mammoth cave. About six miles northeast of Bowling-Green, there is a cave with a perpendicular descent from the north of about thirty or forty feet. At the bottom are vast quantities of human bones. How and when they were put there, can of course only be conjectured. About three miles south of Bowling-Green, and on the turnpike to Nashville, is the Cave Mill, in level barrens, A creek breaks up from the ground, runs about two hundred yards, then disappears in the cave; and, after a course under ground of a mile and a half, again appears, and runs into Barren river. Immediately under the roof of the cave, Mr. Shanks has a water grist mill and wool-carding ma-





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Warren county.

739

with no covering but the roclty arch above. Directly over the mill, and within 3 few feet of the precipice, runs the turnpike over which thousands pass, many of them unconscious of the deep chasm beneath. fehine,



are very many in this county, mostly near watercourses large. They all contain human bones. In one of them was found a smooth, circular, well polished flint, near two inches broad, three-fourths of an inch thick, and weighing one-fourth of a pound, apparently made as a fourounce weight. On the north bank of the river, near Bowling-Green, are a great many ancient graves, some of them with a row of stones set on edge around them. These graves, with a large mound on which large trees are growing, are included within the remains of an old fort, built of earth. Some ancient relics were found here in 1838, and are now in the possession of Loyd Berry, Esq. One of these is in the shape of a bowl, hollow, and composed of earth and pounand seems to have been burnt or dried in the sun. Its color is dark. ded shells The other two are composed of the same materials, but of lighter color, and in the the shape of flat-bottomed candlesticks, the stem being shorter and solid upper surface of the bottom slightly concave ; the under surface convex, and about half an inch in thickness. On the south bank of Green river, about twelve miles from Bowling-Green, is an old fort, situated on a hill or bluff, inaccessible save on the south-west corner. The remainder of the hill is level on top, with perpendicular, or, rather, overhanging cliff or bluff, about thirty feet high. Near the centre, lengthwise, of this hill, The walls is an old fort, which seems to have been erected with stone and earth. are now about one foot high. The annexed is a rough sketch of the hill and fort. One of the projections from the fort is twenty feet, the other thirty feet in length each fifteen The area of the fort sefeet wide. ven acres. There is nothing to indicate who were its tenants, nor

Mounds. There some of them quite



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when

it

was

erected.

From

it,

to

the distance of more than a mile, there is a line of mounds, diminishing in size as they recede from the fort,

fort.

perhaps showing a running

fight,

There are other ancient works

and the most bloody contest nearest the which have not been exam-

in the county,

ined.

Eight miles east of Bowling-Green, there is in the level open barrens, a large deep sink, about fifty yards wide, and a hundred yards in length. On the south on the north, it is one hundred and fifty feet side, the descent is near twenty feet Large river trees are growing in it. Shortly after the first settlement deep. here, a blind horse fell in this sink. A hungry wolf had the folly to jump in after its prey, and being unable to get out, was found and shot. Since that time it has been known by the name of the " Wolf Sink.'''' Four miles above Bowling-Green, on the river, is McFadin's old station. Some anecdotes are connected with it, one of which we relate: A dashing young Virginian came to the station, and began his brag that he could outrun any man "in all Kaintuck." McFadin, who was a quizzical old genius, inquired whether he would run barefooted or shod, and was promptly answered " barefoot." Let me fix time and place, said McFadin, and I will risk a gallon of whisky I find a man to beat you. The bet was made and the day fixed. The old hunter Ray;

mer was sent for. The parties repaired to the track selected by McFadin. It was probably the most flinty bed in all the country. At the word the racers started. They had gone but a few yards when the Virginian was compelled to hold up. But as Raymer's feet were hard as a buffalo's, he kept ahead like a quarter horse, amusement of old McFadin and his friends. That ground has since been called " Raymer''s Race Track.''''

to the great

Joseph Rogers Underwood was born in Goochland county, Virginia, on the 24th of October, 1791. He was the eldest child of John Underwood, who for many years represented that county in the legislature, during those periods in the history of that State when political honors were rarely bestowed but as the

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JOSEPH ROGERS tINDERWOOD.

740

reward of personal merit. His mother, Frances Rogers, was a daughter of George Rogers, of Caroline county, Va., a gentleman eminently distinguished for tht purity of his life and the integrity of his ch»-acter. The parents of young Underwood being in humble circumstances, and havmg 8 large family of other children to provide for, were induced to commit him to his maternal uncle, Mr. Edmund Rogers, a soldier of the revolution, who had emigrated to Kentucky as early as 1783. He brought his youthful charge to Barren county in the spring of 1803, and nobly did he fulfil the promises made to the parents of the little boy, " to be unto him as a father." The Green river country was then a wilderness, and contained but few schools, and those not of the best class. Joseph was placed at school with the Rev. John Howe, near Glasgow. About a year thereafter he was placed under the tuition of the Rev. Samuel Findley at Danville, and afterwards at Lancaster, and after that with McMurrel, who taught a French and Latin school at Glasgow. Having under these several teachers acquired the rudiments of his education, he was sent by his parental uncle to the Transylvania University, at which, in 1811, he finished

it.

On leaving the university he commenced the study of the law in Lexington, with Robert Wickliffe, Esq., and under the instructions of this learned and accomplished lawyer, he completed his course of elementary reading. About this time Kentucky was thrown into great excitement by the war with Great Britain, then raging with violence on the Canada border. The melancholy affair of the river Raisin had deprived the state of some of its best citizens, and plunged the commonwealth in mourning. The impulse to arms was universal, and pervaded all classes. In March, 1813, a company of volunteers being about to be raised in Lexington, to be commanded hy Captain John C. Morrison, and attached to the regiment of Colonel William Dudley, young Underwood was the first to volunteer on that occasion, and seizing the colors, marched alone with the musicians down the ranks of the assembled citizens. This little incident caused him to be elected lieutenant. He proceeded with the regiment to which he belonged to join the northern army, commanded by General Harrison. He was in Dudley's defeat on the 5th of May, 1813, when the captain of his company being killed, the command devolved on Lieutenant Underwood. The remnant of Dudley's regiment were compelled to surrender as prisoners of war. Lieutenant Underwood after being badly wounded, and the ball still remaining in the wound, was stripped of his clothing and compelled to run the gauntlet. He and his comrades were thrown into the old fort built by General Wayne on the left bank of the river, and forced to sit down in the mud and water, and whilst thus confined, the infuriated savages stalked round upon the embankment that overlooked them, and singled out and shot down their victims. In the meantime, an angry controversy arose among the Indians themselves, whether they should make one general slaughter of all the prisoners or not. It was a moment of intense and terrible interest to the poor soldiers who were within hearing of it, helplessly awaiting the issue. Mercy, however, prevailed, and their lives were spared. Lieutenant Underwood was finally released on his parol, and returned home

to his

In the tled in

fall

uncle in the summer of 1813. of 1813, Mr. Unnerwood obtained license to practice law, and setHe rose rapiaiy, and soon stood in the first rank of his profes-

Glasgow.

sion.

In 1816 he was elected to represent Barren county in the legislature; and continued to represent that county in the same body, for four successive years. In March, 1817, he married Miss Eliza M. Trotter, daughter of Mr. John Trotter, of Glasgow ; and grand-daughter, on her mother's side, of the Rev. David Rice. This lady died in July. 1835. Mr. Underwood having removed, in the year 1823, to Bowling-Green, was He served elected, in 1825, to represent the county of Warren in the legislature. two years in that body with great distinction and eminent usefulness, and then retired to private life and the practice of his profession. In 1828 he was a candidate for lieutenant-governor, but the vote resulted in the election of Mr. Breathitt. In the same year he was commissionea as a judge of the court of appeals which office he held until February, 1835, when he resigned, and was elected to Congress. He continued, with high reputation, to serve as a member of Con-

WARREN COUNTY.

741

In August, 1845, he press until 1843, when he again retired to private life. was elected a member of the legislature from Warren county and was made speaker of the house. At the next session, he was cnoser. V. S. senator for In 1847-53, to 1860, he was again six years succeed James T. Morehead. and reelected a representative in the state legislature, to fill a vacancy elected for two years longer, 1861-63— serving during the latter term, as chairman of the committee on military affairs, and as a member of the committee on Federal relations. He declined to become a candidate for speaker, Hi.s last vote as a believing he could be more useful as a working member. ;

member was

recorded March 2, 1863; the house adjourned next day; and retired finally from public life. He is still living (Aug., 1873,) at the ripe age of 81, in active practice as a lawyer, honored and

Judge Undei-wood beloved by

all.

In Feb., 1839, Judge Underwood married Elizabeth Cox, daughter of Col. John Cox, then mayor of Georgetown, D. C. She is still living, as are two of their sons and two daughters; of the first marriage, a son and two daughters are living.

Judge Underwood's first speech at the bar as an attorney was made at Bowlinggreen, in Feb., 1814 in a log court house standing between the new court house and the public square or park. Upon tlie opening of court for fhe first time in the magnificent new court house, on Thursday, July 30, \.S68—Ji/ti/-/our years afterward— \ie was present as an attomey, made the first motion, and by the courtesy of the bar was given choice of desks as the oldest member, then nearly 77 years old. In his politics, Judge Underwood was a firm and consistent Whig, during the life of that great party; and since the civil war, we believe, has been a During the war, he was a decided conservative or moderate Democrat. Upion man. In 1824, and again in 1844, he was one of the presidential As a electors for the state, and each time cast his vote for Henry Clay. lawyer. Judge Underwood has few superiors in the state; his decisions, while on the bench of the court of appeals being noted for their soundness and general equity. Learned as a jurist, of large experience as a statesman, an ardent patriot, he adorned every station to which his countrymen elevated him, and stands deservedly conspicuous among the distinguished men of Kentucky.



The Battle of "Dudley s Defeat" between Kentuckians and Indians, -wag fought May 5th, 1813, on the left bank of the Maumee river, opposite to Fort Meigs, a few miles s. of tlie city of Toledo, in now Wood county, Ohio, and near the s. w. point of Lake Erie. The following particulars are condensed chiefly from two accounts of it, written by Judge Joseph K. Underwood, lieutenant of Capt. John C. Morrison's company from Lexington, who is still living (Aijg., 1873,) in Bowlinggreen at the ripe age of 82; one account was published in a newspaper about 1830, or earlier, the other written (at the request of the U. S. war department) as part of his application lor a pension, in March, 1871. They present a remarkable illustratiou of the power of the

human memory. Gen. Green Clay's brigade of Kentucky volunteers, of which Col. Wm. Dudley's regiment (which included Capt. Morrison's company) was a part, after a fatiguing march of more than a month, found itself, on the night of May 4th, 1813, on board of open boats, lashed to the left bank of the Maumee river, near the head of the rapids and within hearing of the cannon at Fort Meigs, where Gen. Harrison was then besieged by tlie British and Indians. Early on the morning of the 5th, while floating down the rapids, Capt. Hamilton, of an Ohio regiment, with orders from Gen. Harrison, hailed, and was taken to Gen. Clay's boat in the rear, and thence to Col. Dudley's which was in the advance of the whole line to whom the orders were repeated. All that U. learned of the orders was that they were to land ou tlie left bank and storm the batteries. The fort stood upon about 10 acres of high ground, on the margin of a bank some 60 feet above the river, and ou the s. or s. k. side of it. On the opposite (N. or N. w.) side, a short distance below, were four British batteries.









WAllREX COUNTT.

742

The English commiinder, Gen.

Proctor, with

his

all

disposable force

about 600 British regulars, 800 Canadian militia, and 1,800 Indians under the celebrated chief Tecuniseh (whose rank was that of a brij;adier general in the British army) had been besieging Fort Meigs since April 26th a part of the British and Canadians being at or in the rear of the batteries they erected, on the eminence nearly opposite, and less than one-seventh of a mile from the fort which was defended by Maj. Gen. Wm. H. Harrison, with not over 500 regulars and militia the Indians and remainder of the British were around the fort, on the east bank. At 12 o'clock on tiie night of May 4th, when a messenger reached Gen. Harrison advising him of Gen. Clay's approach, the former determined on a general sally, and directed Clay to land 700 men on the west bank, take possession of the British batteries, spike their cannon, immediately return to their boats, and cross over to the American fort. The remainder of Clay's troops were to land on the east bank, and fight their way to the fort, aided by sorties from the garrison. The latter succeeded the former was successful at first, but by the impetuous valor of the Kentuckians who were drawn into an ambuscade, and cut off and surrounded by overwhelming numbers, was turned into one of the most painlul disasters in United States war Judge Underwood says history. " When the troops landed (about 700 men in all, including less than a company of U. S. regulars under Capt. Price), we were formed in three parallel lines, about lUO yards apart, Capt. John C. Morrison's company being at the head of the right line. We were marched towards the battery, with the understanding that the right line should charge the battery from above, the middle line from the rear, while the left was to hasten on and get below the battery, and there form at right angles to the river. Thus we were to surround it, and to capture the officers and men working the guns. But when still distant from the battery near half a mile, our approach was discovered by some straggling Indians, who ran towards the battery. The soldiers in front commenced a shout which passed through the whole regiment, and was heard by the British at the battery who, thus surprised and alarmed, retreated down the river towards their encampment, two miles below. The battery fell into our hands without a struggle. "The retreating enemy was speedily reinforced; and getting in our rear, opened at first a very weak fire upon us. I was not present when Col. Dudley gave his orders but was informed that he directed two companies to remain at the battery, and the rest to face about and charge the Indians in our rear. By successive charges we drove them and the British back from the river about two miles. Many of our men were killed or wounded, the enemy firing from behind trees and logs, as we advanced, and then falling back to secrete themselves and reload their resistance becoming stronger and stronger the further we went, in consequence of the accession of Indians from the camp below. At length orders were passed along the lines, that we should fall During the first quarter back to the battery, and keep up a retreating fire. of a mile of the retreat, the oUicers succeeded in securing a few stands of small bodies of men who fired upon the advancing enemy. But the men of the difi'erent companies soon became so mingled and confused, that the officers A tumultuous rush for the battery ensued the strongest lost all control.



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ahead, and leaving the weaker and wounded behind, many were overtaken and tomahawked by the Indians. " The battery was no longer in possession of our two companies left in A British force had marched up from their encampment and attacked charge. them; they made little resistance, retreated to the boats, crossed the river, and reached i-'ort Meigs. Around the battery was a small opening or clearing in which the British forces were posted and as our men emerged from the dense forest, pursued by Indians, tliey came directly upon the British, Thus arriving instead of upon ilieir own fellow-soldiers as they expected. without the least order, and taken completely by surprise, nothing remained Our meu threw down their but immediate surrender or to be shoi down. arms as they were ordered, and the swords of the officers were seized. " There was but little detention of the prisoners at the battery. I was

and of

fleetest getting

whom

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WARREN CODNTy

743

badly wounded in the retreat. Time was not allowed to have the wound probed and the ball extracted, although our surgeon, Dr. Drane, made preparation to do it. I had stripped myself for the purpose, but was told by x British soldier that the Indians were then coming in, and would tomahawk me if they found me in that condition, and that I had better dress up and march along. The prisoners were marched about two miles down the river, to the old fort (the same, I believe, which was erect.ed by Gen. Wayne about the year 1795). In this march, and before and after it, the prisoners passed through and wituessed scenes disgraceful to the age in which they occurred. As we marched, the Indians robbed us of our clothing, and inflicted blows at their pleasure. I and many others were stripped of all clothes, except

and pantaloons, socks and shoes, before getting into the old fort. We told by the British soldiers, that the Indians intended to make us "run we entered the earth embankment of the fort, and that while running, they would whip, and bruise, and kill us, as they pleased but when we hadgotten in, we would be molested no more. " There were several acres of open land around the old fort. The gateway was in the side up the river. A line of Indians was formed, about 150 yards long, on the left side of the track leading to the gateway, the lower end of the line terminating just on the outside of the ditch which once surrounded the fort. Between this line of Indians and the river bank was an open space 20 or 30 steps wide. The prisoners were required to run through this space to the fort; and while thus running, the Indians employed themselves throwing their war-clubs and tomahawks at them, and shooting them down with their guns. I perceived that those who ran nighest to the river bank and There was a curve in their line, furthest from the Indian line, suffered most^ and those in that curve could not use their guns without danger of shooting each other which determined me to run as near to them as I could well get; in consequence, 1 was flogged over the head and shoulders with wiping flicks (ram-rods), but escaped injury from their war-clubs, tomahawks, and From what 1 saw and learned, I suppose between 30 and 40 prisoners guns. It was here that the were killed or wounded in " running this gauntlet." brave Capt. Lewis lost his life. " When all who could had gotten inside the old fort, we were directed to Some of us, suffering from wounds, were kindly requested by our sit down. companions to lie and rest in their laps. Thus situated, a sense of quiet and hope apparently came over us. I began to entertain the conviction that our promised safety would be realized; but not so. An Indian painted black, accoutred with tomahawk, butcher knife, and rifle, mounted the dilapidated earth-embankment (which was 3 or 4 feet higher than the ground on which the prisoners were sitting and lying), and by his infuriated look, manner, and His gesticulation seemed determined to commence a general massacre. Indian dialect we did not understand; but from the excited conduct of both No one present the British and Indians, something horrible was impending. which the British and importunate exclamation Canadian can forget the Oh, nic/iee, wahl' was repeated by them soldiers addressed to the Indian: again and again. I was afterwards informed that these words in the Potowatamie dialect meant, 'Oh, brother, desist, don't do so.' Their entreaties Indian raised his rifle and shot the man at the pit of The avail. were of no He tlien loaded the embankment through the body, killing him on the spot. his gun and shot another prisoner, who died immediately— the ball passing through his body into the hip of a third, who died a few days after. He then laid his gun down, and drawing his tomahawk, jumped down from the embankment among the prisoners, and began to drive it in the skulls of those iSome of them sprang up and endeavored to get away from the next him. Indian by climbing over those who remained in a reclining or sitting posture. In this scramble tor life, 1 was trampled in my own blood, as 1 I.iy in the lap of a fellow-suldier named Gilpin, from Anderson county, Ky. (who returned and lived there until his death, about ISby). I did not see tlie blows given with [lie tomahawk, but I distinctly heard the cracking of the skulls of the two men who were thus killed. The whole four were scalped, for after 1 got The sceue, during tlie up, 1 saw their bodies after they had been scalped. shirt

were

the gauntlet" just before



'

WARREN COUNTY.

744

massacre of these unarmed prisoners, in its conflicting passions of sarage rage and human mercy, was indescribable. " Not long after the savage demoniac retired with his scalps. Col. Elliott and Tecumseh rode into the old fort. As Elliott rode near, 'Ihomaa Moore (a prisoner, from Clark county, Ky.), addressed him and asked: '.Sir, is it incompatible with the honor of a civilized nation to allow defenceless prisonDepressing as were the ers to be butchered in this manner by savages ?" circumstances in which 1 was placed, I felt a sentiment of exultation on hearing that question and protest. Col. Elliott turned and looked at him as though ho was a man of some rank, and asked, Who are you, sir ? Moore I am nothing but a private, in Cupt. John C. Morrison's company.' replied, '

'

'

"

The celebrated chief Tecumseh was a noble, dignified personage.* He wore an elegant broadsword, and was dressed in Indian costume. His face was finely proportioned, his nose inclined to the aquiline, while his eye displayed none of that savage and ferocious triumph common to the other Indians on that occasion, lie seemed to regard us with unmoved composure; and 1 thought a beam of mercy shone in his countenance, tempering the spirit of vengeance inherent in his race against the American people. 1 saw him only on horseback. "After this visit, we were ordered. to stand up and be counted. A new scene presented itself. Several Indians, how many 1 can not say, selected young men to take to their towns and adopt into their families. One of these was Thomas Webb, a private in Capt. Morrison's company, who had a remarkably large pair ot whiskers. Ue was initiated into an Indian family by having his whiskers pulled out by the roots^ with tweezers, he sitting on Indian girls exulting in the performance. Tom said he a, log, and young almost sutiered death under the torture ; and when 1 saw him several years afterwards, in Lexington, Ky., his beard had never grown out again. " On the evening of May 5th, 1813, the prisoners were placed on open barges and taken down the river to the British shipping, about nine miles. Those who were able to perform the fatiguing march, were paroled and sent home by land the officers, for themselves and men, signing the instrument



of parole, which stipulated that we were not to tight against the King of Great Britain or his .d/to, during the continuance of the war, unless regularly exchanged. The British officer who presented it for our signatures, was asked His answer was if the term " Allies " in the parole included the Indians. 'His Majesty's Allies are known, and you must take notice and act accordingly.' On the next day, May Otli, while still upon the shipping, the Indians visited us in their bark canoes, to make a display of t/ie scaljjs lluy had taken. They had strung or fastened them near the tups of poles, some two inches in diameter and eight feet high, set up perpendicularly in tiie bows of their canoes on some poles were lour or five scalps each scalp stretched closely or tighily over a huup about four inches iu diameter, and the flesh sides :



;

* It is repurted of this great chieftain (and many incidents in his life add to its probable truth), that after the surrender on the field of battle, he most sternly forbade the work of massacre which the savage fiends had begun, and enforced his order by burying his tomahawk in the head ot one of his chieis who refused obedience. But upon the authority of a letter from Wm. G. Ewing to the venerable John 11. James, 01 Urbana, Ohio, Mr. Drake in his life of Tecumseh says ' While the blood-thirsty carnage was raging, a thundering voice was heard iu the Turning around, he saw Tecumseh coming with all the rear, in the Indian tongue. rapidity his horse could carry him, until he drew near to where two Indians had an American, and were in the act of killing him. He sprang from his horse, caught one by the throat and the other by the breast, and threw them to the ground then, drawing his tomahawk and scalping knife, Ue ran in between the Americans and Indians, and brandished them with the fury of a madman, daring any one of the hundreds around him to attempt to murder another American. They all appeared confounded, and immediately desisted. His mind appeared rent with passion, and he e.\claimed, almost with tears in his eyes, Oh, what will become of my Indians 1' lie then demanded, in an authoritative tone, where Proctor was; but casting his eye upon him at a small distance, sternly inquired why he did not put a stop to the inhuman massacre. retorted Begone •Sir,' said Proctor, 'your Indians can not be commanded,' Tecumseh, with the greatest disdain, 'you are unfit to command go and put on :

;

'

'

fttticoata.'

"

I

;

'

WARREN COUNTY.

745

painted red, or seemed to be. Thus each canoe was decorated with a flagbearing human scalps, the horrid enBtaff of a most appropriate character sign of their savage warfare. " After six days the wounded and sick were taken down the Maumee river into Lake Erie, and thence down the Lake until we reached the newly settled country at the mouth of Vermillion river, where we were billeted among the settlers according to their ability and means to take care of us. It was my good fcrtune, and that of James E. Davis (afterwards a practicing lawyer, and mayor of the city of Lexington, Ky.), to find quarters with a kind and obliging femily named Charrot. Mr. Davis, who was very sick with camp fever, was one of the sei-geants of our company, an estimable man, a soldier, and patriot. Towards the latter part of June, a small vessel was sent up from Cleveland to collect the convalescent soldiers and take them to that place, then a military post under command of Col. (afterwards Gen.) Thos. S. Jesup. Here we were supplied with rations, and permitted to make our way home as best we could. William Worthington, of Mason co., Ky., and who was orderly sergeant of our company, on taking leave, on shipboard, placed twenty dollars in gold in my hands (part of what he had saved in a With this, and the probelt around his body, overlooked by the Indians). ceeds of the sale of my watch (which I had saved from the Indians, by pushing the chain out of sight down in the fob), I purchased a skiff, on the Cuyahoga river, near the portage between that and the Muskingum, had it hauled in a wagon from the former river to the latter, purchased provisions, and brought six of my comrades by water to Maysville, Ky. I learned there that my uncle, Thomas Rogers, had passed through in search of me, expecting to meet me in Cleveland. My friend Worthington entertained me most hospitably, at his mother's (a widow) near Maysville, until my uncle returned who accompanied me to his home near Edmunton, in Barren (now in Metcalfe) county, where we arrived early in July."*



;

Gen. John H. Morgans Escape from imprisonment as a Confederate officer in the penitentiary of Ohio, at Columbus, is already detailed in part, in Collins' Annals, vol. i, page 129. Those details were gathered from a pamphlet

account of his capture and escape (written by a Kentuckian, Samuel C. Keid, and published at Atlanta, Georgia, in 1864), and from other sources, printed

and

written.

Gen. Morgan himself, in a very graceful letter to the father of Capt. Thos. H. Hines, now (1873) Judge of Warren county court, thanked him for the son's great ingenuity in devising and coolness in directing the escape of himself and six of his captains, from that ignominious place of confinement, Nov. Capt. Hines was a very young man, not over 23 at that time, of 27, 1863. great nerve, tact, energy, and endurance. Merion, the spiteful warden, magnifying the importance of his " little brief authority," on the morning of Nov. 3, 1863, so grossly insulted Capt. Hines that he determined he would neither eat nor drink until he had planned means of escape. Prison life had become intolerable, and the thought of breathing once more the free air of heaven was inexpressibly sweet. He was engaged in reading Victor Hugo's graphic description, in Les Mis^rables, of the subterranean passages of Paris, and of the wonderful escapes of Jean Valjean. He argued in his mind that the dryness of the cells must be owing to air passages or ventilators beneath, to prevent the moisture from rising and that by removing the cement and brick in the cells, they might strike the air chamber, and thence escape by undermining the foundation walls. ;

* Judge Underwood, in a letter to the author, Sept., 1871, details the marked kindness to hun, while in the old fort and in danger of being tomahawked because of his wounded condition, of James Boston, a fellow-soldier (but a stranger) from Clark co., Ky., in Capt. Clark's company who took off his hunting-shirt and urgently pressed its acceptance upon him— an act which, by hiding the bloody wounds from savage eyes, was one of the special providences which saved a since greatly honored and useful life. Judge U. has never been able to hear of or from his kind benefactor; it would gratify him to kno\r that Mr. Boston's descendants have seen this acknowledgment. He has also sent us some interesting reminiscences of another benefactor, Wm. Worthington which we are compelled to omit for want of room. K.H.C. ;



WARREN COUNTY.

746

to Capt. Sam. B. Taylor (a grandnephew of tlie late president, Zacliary Tayloi-), who was as agile, ingenious, and daring as Capt. Hines. There were difficulties to overcome from the arrangement of the cells five tiers or stories high, of solid stone masonry, 6 feet long, 6 high, and 3 wide. Gen, Morgan's cell was in the second story, and Hines' With two case-knives, which had been sent from the immediately beneath. hospital with food for some of the sick men, the work was begun, Nov. 4th, in Hines' cell he assuming the responsibility, and alone taking the risk of discovery, and its consequent punishment by incarceration in the dungeon. With these, two men could work at a time relieving each other every hour, and spending four to five hours per day in labor. It was a work of Inve, and progressed steadily— Hines keeping strict guard, and by a system of knocks or raps upon the cell door, indicating when to begin and when to cease work, and when to stop work and come out. The cement and bricks removed were hidden by the men in their beds. The prison guards were always suspicious and watchful, and some privileged convicts were sometimes set as spies to watch the Confederate oflicers. After digging in each of seven cells, for 18 inches square, through 6 Inches of cement and 6 layers of brick, the air chamber was reached, 60 feet long, Thenceforward the rubbish was removed to the air 3 wide, and 3 high. chamber, while the holes were carefully concealed by their beds. But their patieut work was scarcely begun. They worked thence through 12 feet of solid ma.sonry, 14 i'eet of "grouting" (tine stone and liquid cement), and 5 feet of graveled earth and on Nov. 26th, reached the yard of the fienitentiary. For the first time, (Jen. Morgan was now made acquainted with the mysterious underground avenues, and was greatly surprised and delighted, upon examining the work. consultation in Morgan's cell, on the evening of the 27th, determined them to attempt escape that night. The weather for some two weeks before had been perfectly clear; and for several nights succeeding their escape, the ground and the penitentiary walls were covered by a heavy sleet, which would have made it impossible to scale the latter. Late in the evening of the 27th, light fleecy clouds gathered iu the west, which, with the feeling of the atmosphere, betokened a cloudy sky and rain; at 9 P. ii.. a steady rain Thus far, well but how scale the outside set in, lasting through the night. wall, 35 feet high ? Besides, several sentinels were on post in the yard, and two or three vicious dogs were unchained at night. Again, Gen. Morgan wsxs to be gotten out of his cell in the second story before the turnkey locked all " Love laughs at locksmiths," and so did the cell doors at 5 o'clock, p. M. Morgan's men. Calvin Morgan, the general's brother, made out of his bedticking a rope 70 feet long, and out of a small iron puker a hook for the end At 5 p. Ji., when the prisoners were ordered to their cells, of the rope. Col. Dick Morgan went to his brother's cell, while the general was locked up Gen. Morgan was allowed in Dick's, one of the seven on the ground floor. the exceptional privilege of a candle to read by, after y p. M. and the turnkey, on going his rounds, finding Col. Dick with a book before his face reading, mistrusted nothing, but locked in the wrong prisoner. In the stillness of midnight, at 12:25 a. m., when even a whisper or the falling of a pin could be heard, Capt. Sam. Taylor dropped noiselessly into the air chamber, passed under the otiier six cells and touched the occupants, each first so shaping his bed-clothes as to resemble as a signal to come forth the sleeping form of a man, and prevent the guards' suspicions, oii their When they emerged from the hole two-hourly rounds, until alter daylight. under the foundation, three sentinels stood within ten feet; but the steady A few paces toward the rain-fall drowned any noise from their footsteps. wall were gone over, when one of the huge herce dogs, with a low growl, came running to within tea feet of them, barked once, and then went off. Did the dog mistake them for sentinels? or was it not a special providence which made him sympathize with escaping rebels? They reached in safety the east gate of the wall, a double gate, 30 feet high, of iron outside, and inWi-iipping a stone iu side of heavy wooden cross-timbers witli open spaces. tying to it one end of the rope, Taylor threw a, cloth to prevent noise, and

This plan was

first

communicated







'

;

A

;

;



WARREN COUNTY.

747

over the top of the inside gate, the we!(J

Cox;HjzekiiX.V.'.'i'x,'-73

Cox, James Cox, Jeremiah

645 292

Crockett, Dandridge

Cox! Lea''iidei"'MV.'."'.V2.-!l 74S Cox, Leonard B 193, 245, 729, 776 416 Dallam, Frs. H.. Cox, Mr 46.5, 77t (Jrockett, Joseph B...773 Dallam, Nath. S Cox, Samuel Crockett, John \V..v,594 Dallasburg, Ky., 1.S, 36s Cox's Station Crockett, Robert 417 Dalsem, \\m. J.. Crab Orchard Stat'n 95 Crockettsville.Ky IS, 468 J25 Crab Orchard, Ky....46S, Orofton.Ky Croghan, Col. Geo. ...53, 30«, 301, 422

W

vi Cromwell, J. 665 Cromwell, Ky Crookshanks, Aaron. 56U Crooksbanks, Basil

Craddock, Jesse.307,

D

561),

661

Daniel, Dillard Daniel, Harrisi Daniel, Henry.. Daniel, Henry...

Crosby, Nathan. CO.,

Cr..s3

Ky

43

Roads, Breckin-

Craig, Kev. Elija e Station.

191, 70fl

Ky

ind Dwieht's teerofU. S..

CraisICai-'t. Eli' 766"

Crai?, Jam.

-

•y, I.

l^raig, 183

Rev. Lewis..

(;raig, Silas

I

Wm.S..,

Lawrenc

& Scuddei

:on.

Ky

Deaderirk,

Deaf nod

Craig, NewtoD Craig, Neville B

s

:^;srj

L

Craia, Toliver

3

W m. V

Dumb

1

GENERAL INDEX. De Hasa, Wills

Dorton,.

DeHiivtn.Siiin.E.. rejainctt JU8....493

Donlher

Easterday, Lewis... Easthani, John H. E.astin, Rev. Aug...

ugherty, .loseph..

Eastwood, John.... Eastwood, Joseph..

Dugansville, Ky.

DuKgan, Daniel.. Duke, Dr. Basil,;

Doughei'ty, Kobt.

Eaves, Charles Kaves,John S

Duko, John B Duke, Ilr. John M..

Doughty, Maj Douglas. Stephen A Douglass, James. .52

Dukedom, Ky

337, 33S, 69S, 764

422,

Ky

:,

cv.

John

481

T..56:

,

70,71,176, 183, 23.S

Edmonson Ben.

5(11,

B...132

Edmonton, Ky 626 Kdmunston, W.B vi Edmunds, Wm. H....I08

Douglass, Jessamin) Dover, Ky Dover Station Dowdall's Station.

Edriugton, Price

332

I,'

Dowden,

Johu....5C.3

Dowler, Edward Downing, Dauiel E,

Edwards, Geo. T., Edwards, Geo Edwards, Gustav

Downing, Fraiiris... Downing, M^vj. Jacli Downing, James

Diamond, Geo.

K..

Duncan, John Duncan, Lewis.... Duncan, Wm. H.. Duncan, Capt Dickerson, Liicien B.697 Dickprson, Thos..327,'J51 Dickinson, Aich 178 Dickinson, Clias X>3 Dickinson, Martin....l73 Dickinson, Samuel...359 Dickinson, Val 173 Dickey, Levi 721 771 Dickey, Thos. Dickson, half-breed.767

Draffin,

Drake, Drake, Drake, Drake,

Join

;

Abraham.. Benjamin. Cornelius..

Dr. Daniel.

15, 562, 5.S0

Drake, Isaac Drake, J Drake, Joe

M

ilinilap,

Dillman, David Dillon, Dillon,

670

Nehemiah C John B

ofKy

29

Dnnkiug,reasou8

for.539

Drip, the

'RobeM! Doak,

I

298

[Drye, George .Drye, George 1

Duraide, Martin Dnrbiu, Rev. John

Durrett, Reuben

Dry goods

367 124 124

W

store,

first

Dutch Dodds, francis Dodge, Mr Dohoney, Chap

!

I

"

I

,Oharl Dollerhide, Thos Dollins,

-

i

Wood '

Dry

Kidge,"Ky.'"!'.!'.!!!2'9ii

Statin,

Duvall.Judgi'

Dudley ,Col.AmbroBe.Hiy Dudley, Ambrose W.248 Dudley, Benj.G Dudley, Dr. Benj.W..21s .•i.32

I

Donalson, Israel Donaldson, Israel Donaldson, John •

217 P..77

'J

Druyer, a Canadian. .447

Dryden,Nat

Itobert..

367 607

Capt. Hugh... .434

;fr^::::::^2 Durbin, Napoleon B.323

Dress,

Dobyn Dobyn

fii

EliZifbeMlt" ,

Drennon, Hugh Drennon's Lick... 15, Dren

Dixun, Mrs. Eliza-

1711

Election,

Drake, Mr Drake, Mr Drake's Pond and

12

Thomas B

John R

Duiilap, Lafayette. ..2S.-^

Dunlap, Mrs., escape. 19!;

Drake, Joseph....41 323 Drake, O. L 640 Drake, Walter I!...

Dille,

;

B.^ '



Dudley, Edward A....171 245 Duvall, Samuel Dudley, James G Dudley, Jeptha.. Duvall, Wra.P..Ji97,

i

Dy.al, John Dycus.Judge J. W.... Dycnsburg, Ky Dye family, the J Dye, of Hardin CO ;

..John.'

Don W..

;

Dyer, Dillis Dyer, John Dysart, Jas

W

Dudley's defeat, battle

a,

Ky

on, John..

i

'

i

Emmons,

Wm

408

Empire IrouWorks.731 ..351

ClayandKandolph.5,-;6 Eades, Thos. J..

England, Stephen J. .122

Engleman, Chris ton and

Dornian,

.T.

Harvey. .671

Dorman, Peter Dorsey, Chas. G

2S; 35;

II. ..50

Hu

Early, Jas. H..

^EFl'MarhuuaUeof ,

North

1

EuElisli, Robei Englisli, Itober English, S.S...2

468



GENERAL INDEX.

Evviiis,

EwiiiJ',

Expeil

Exploj

,

Rev. Saml...*,

Flouruoy, Johu J. ...676,

Hteumboat at Lou-

I

GENERAL INDEX. ,.,r 77

1

1

.

-

7u

....'),

7

480,4

Gooch, John G 6 Good, iorenzo D 4 Goode, 1 Goode, Mr 3 Gooding, Abraham...2 Gooding, Cornclius..2 (Jooding, David 4

Wm

'17

',

I

Goodloe, John K 7 Goodloe, W. Cassius.l

GENERAL INDEX.

ion, ii. H.. 1.6 131,772

on, Koger

\V....130,

lluniou, Sam'l....I30,13I, 313

I'lison.Kv

iptoliStiill,AliraliiJ67,

Harbeson,

Uaggin. ili3..!;7,lil3,27 3f.li

Keats, >h-8. L.

Kwie, Ky

,

Keen, Robert... Keith, John A..

Kelle:

David J

m:i

Kellev, Kelley, Kelly, pi Kelly, I!

1

]

first ]]]ill by wa first rac-e traili

last

Indian inc

a"!

511

GENERAL IXDEX.

792

Little

lackey,

Obion

river..

Little yoikl'Ky'.'.Z

Lacy,

l!;.

Lacyiw.! Iiafferl

Laffoo Lafon,,..IWall

772

GENERAL INDEX.

White, Syi, White, TlK

apt.Juo..i;i i-Jiitely,.

Lan.be

Haj.

John Winfrey, Tho. Winlock, Geii.,

W

nona,

Ky

733

Winston, Benj.

M....736

Tbotham,VV.H,55S iiBDiilh, Charles 153,307 lanlovvu, Ky...l67 .rs.

Thomas

mns, 4i:'.,

6.'>i,ri52,

mis, Wiley

Wells,

Havdon

.niB,

f>,vi

Wells.Johu

inis,

imis, ;mis,

4(io, 55(1, 711), 77i>

Wells, IJaut. VVm...32,309 Wells, vi

W.H

Wolls.Col Wells' Station Wells' Station,

42 2t

S.. 24, 71IJ 17s

Wernock, James Wesley Ky

Win

mis, Waj.

7(W

Wells, Micajah...(H0,(i41 Wells, Uapt. Sanri...23a,

Whittington, JoshUii36; Whittingtun, \Vui....76i Whitaker, Aa 22, 7I( Whitaker, Edni. A....2S-

V

14

1

Zadock.

Woll river WolfSink. Woi.FE foi

Mls.D.

legislate

Wm. J..

anisl'lirg, Ky..'.V7a< amstowu, Ky...2